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CHRISTIAN MISSIONS. 



CHRISTIAN MISSIONS.: 



THEIR AGENTS, AND THEIR RESULTS. 



BY 

T. W. M. MARSHALL 



A FRUCTIBUS EORUM COGNOSCETIS EOS. S. MATT. 711. 16. 



VOL II. 



NEW YORK: 
I) & J. SADLIER & CO., 31 BARCLAY STREET. 

MONTREAL : COR. NOTRE-DAME AND ST. FRANCIS XAVIER STS. 

MRS. HICKET, 123 FEDEHAL STUEUT, BOSTOK. 

18G5. 



RENNIR, SHKA ft LINDSAY, 

BTBKOTYPRS AND ELKCTHOTYPEKS, QEO. W. WOOD, PRiMTEft, 

81, 83 A 85 CKNTRE-STUEET, No- 2 Dutch-st., N. Y. 

NEW YORK. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME II. 



Missions in the Levant, Syria and Armenia 1 

" Mediterranean 2 

" Greece 6 

" European Turkey 15 

Catholic Missions in Turkey 20 

Missions in Asiatic Turkey 29 

Missions in Jerusalem ; 43 

Kussian Missions and Sclavonic Unity 60 

The Maronites 87 

The Druses -. 96 

Missions in Armenia 99 

Protestant Missions in the Levant 110 

Georgia and Persia 119 

Missions in South America 123 

" in Brazil 131 

" in Guyana 164 

" in Carthegena and the Blessed Peter Claver 169 

" in Peru and Chili 172 

Present State of the South American Provinces 176 

Modern Missionaries in South America 189 

Missions in Paraguay ." 193 

" in North America 221 

" in Guatemala 223 

" in Central America 227 

" in Mexico 229 

" in Texas 244 

" in California 250 

" in Oregon 262 

" in Rocky Mountains 268 

" in British Columbia 276 

" in Canada 283 

" in Newfoundland, Greenland, and Lapland 333 

" in United States 339 

The Pilgrim Fathers .. 342 



yi CONTENTS OF VOL. II. 

Anglican Missions in the United States 351 

The American Negroes 373 

The American Indians 387 

Conclusion 396 

Summary 401 

General Contrast 406 

The City of God and the City of Confusion 420 

Results of Catholic and Protestant Education 427 

Celibacy and Marriage 435 

Contrast in Social Results 439 

The Church and the Sects 446 

The End of the Conflict 451 

Germany 452 

Switzerland 456 

France 458 

Holland 458 

England 459 

Sweden Norway and Denmark 4G5 

The Reformation Hypothesis 469 

Conclusion 473 

Index of Contents. . . 481 



CHRISTIAN MISSIONS. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, SYRIA, AND ARMENIA. 



MANY lands have now been passed in review, and each has 
proclaimed in turn the same unvarying tale. We have visited 
the Chinese and the Hindoo, the Cingalese and the Maori, the 
Philippine and the many tribes who people the island world of 
the Pacific. We have interrogated the Moor and the Copt, the 
JS"egro and the Abyssinian ; and now at length the Kaffir and 
the Hottentot have added their voice, and have told us that 
they too, in spite of the mists which cloud both heart and 
brain, are learning to discriminate between the apostles of 
Jesus and the emissaries of man. All have bowed in turn be 
fore the meek but fearless pastors who went amongst them bear 
ing the Cross, and have confessed, in love or in hate, that they 
indeed came from God ; while all have agreed to spurn, as 
only men like themselves, the crowd of rival teachers having 
neither the gifts nor the calling of apostles, and to utter the tes 
timony which the evil spirits have so often been forced to pro 
claim by the mouth of the heathen, " Jesus I know, and Paul 
I know, but who are you ?"* 

And now we approach the regions where the mightiest races 
of the human family have in turn reigned or served, and the 
lands, immortal both in sacred and profane story, where Chris 
tianity yielded its first martyrs, and won its earliest triumphs. 
They have changed since then, yet not as other lands have 
changed ; for in this mysterious East, which still silently rebukes 
by its grave and solemn mien the fickle and clamorous races of 
the West, even error knows how to simulate the prerogatives 
of truth, and still wears the same outward form, after the lapse 

* Acts xix. 32. 

YOL. H. 2 



2 CHAPTER VIIT. 

of centuries, in which it defied the sentence of God at Ephesus 
and Chalcedon. The lessons of a thousand years, and the 
abject misery of the last four hundred, have failed to admonish 
the disciples of Photius and Eutyches and Kestorius ; until in 
these last days a new call to repentance and conversion has 
been heard amongst them, of which we are about to trace the 
noble results. We are going to speak of the Greek and the 
Syrian, of the Moslem who rules over both, and of the Kussian 
who is planning in secret how he may set his heel on them all. 



THE MEDITERRANEAN. 

We have come from Africa, and must therefore enter the 
Mediterranean through that famous strait at whose mouth 
England keeps watch from her strongest fortress. Let us be 
gin our new voyage from this spot ; for even in Gibraltar, 
where but a few thousand men are crowded together, we shall 
find one more example, worthy of a moment s attention, of the 
eternal contrast between the children of the Church and the 
children of the world. 

An Episcopalian clergyman, who had left his flock in America, 
hut addressed to them from every place which he visited pastoral 
letters, of which the main object seems to have been to keep 
alive during his absence their aversion to the Catholic Church, 
found materials for an animated discourse even in Gibraltar. 
He visited both the Catholic and Protestant church in that 
place, and then dispatched to his remote congregation a de 
scription of what even he was constrained to call "the striking 
contrast." In the Protestant church, he tells them, he never 
saw " one of the attending soldiers on his knees ;" and then he 
exclaims, " to what advantage do the Catholics appenr in this 
striking contrast !" " The hundreds that stood there" he adds, 
when he had passed from the worship to the preaching, u were 
all eye and ear ; but here (in the Protestant church) nothing 
could be seen but yawning, and drowsiness, and inattention."* 

This unfavorable report of an American minister is more 
than confirmed by an Anglican writer, who observes : " The 

* Glimpses of the Old World, by the Rev. Jolm A. Clark, D.D , Rector of St. 
Andrew s Church, Philadelphia, vol. i., ch. ii., pp. 56, 68. An Anglican min 
ister gives the same account of a church of the Waldenses, who are repre 
sented on English platforms as the most devout Christians of Italy. There 
did not appear to be much external reverence among the congregation, who 
went in and out incessantly, nor was the attendance at all proportioned to the 
size of the church." The Italian Valleys of the Pennine Alps, by Rev. S. W. 
King, M.A, ch. x., p. 226. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 3 

state of religion when I was at Gibraltar was most dishearten 
ing. . . . There is literally no Church feeling in Gibraltar."* 

It is perhaps worthy of remark, that a Russo-Greek traveller, 
the amiable Count Schouvaloff, seems to have owed the grace 
of conversion to his continual observation of the same u striking 
contrast" which produced only a transient impression on Dr. 
Clark. " What struck and edified me in the Catholic churches," 
he says, " was the profound recollection of the faithful in the 
act of prayer. I compared their modest and humble attitude 
with the often unbecoming movements, the deep ennui, and the 
distracted looks, of a great number of my co-religionists during 
the divine office; and I was obliged to confess, in spite of 
myself, that there was more piety among the Catholics than 
among the Greeks."f 

Let us stay also for a moment at another fortress, also a 
symbol of Anglo-Saxon might, which we shall pass on our way 
to the isles of Greece. Malta has been for more than a quarter 
of a century the headquarters of Protestantism in the Levant. 
Nearly forty years ago Mr. Jowett recommended it to English 
missionary societies as a centre for their operations, because, as 
he said, " it is verj far from unhealthy, British protection is 
here fully enjoyed, together with a degree of comfort seldom to 
be attained in foreign countries; rendering it a peculiarly 
eligible residence for a missionary family."^: These character 
istic considerations prevailed, and for thirty years an eruption 
of tracts and Bibles has flowed out of Malta, and covered both 
shores of the Mediterranean. In the single year 1831, they 
boast to have issued from this eligible residence "four millions 
seven hundred and sixty thousand pages, all in modern Greek. 
By the same year the Americans alone had dispersed " about 
three hundred and fifty thousand volumes, containing twenty- 
one million pages." | Both English and Americans have been 
dispersing them at an increased rate ever since. How many 
converts have been made by this abundant literature, and of 
what sort, we shall learn presently. 

It is here also that the " Malta Protestant College" has 
been established, with the object of providing suitable instruc 
tion, as well as food and lodging, for any orientals who could 
be induced to enter it. Of the actual results obtained in this 
institution, which appears to have been hitherto a kind or 

* The Canary Isles, &c., by the Rev. Thomas Debary, M.A., cli. xviii., pp. 
213, 225. 

f Schouvaloff, Ma Conversion et ma Vocation, ch. iii., p. 209. 
\. Christian Researches in the Mediterranean, p. 876, 3d edition. 
History of American Missions, by the Rev. Joseph Tracy, p. 213. 



4 CHAPTER VIII. 

hospital for astute adventurers of every class, we shall have a 
sufficiently accurate notion when we have completed our 
review of missions in the Levant. It was here that Achilli 
found refuge ; and it may be doubted whether any four walls 
in Christendom have contained within them, at a given 
moment, so singular an assemblage of adroit comedians as the 
Malta Protestant College. Even Achilli is not, as we shall 
see, an exaggerated specimen of its inmates. The gentleman 
who bears the title of " Bishop of Gibraltar," we are told, " said 
he was not pleased with Achilli, as he expected, after the 
friendly intercourse they had had, knowing the favorable 
opinion he had of the Church of England, that he would have 
joined himself to our Church, rather than have laid the founda 
tion of another."* 

ISTo doubt Achilli, who is said to have become ultimately a 
Swedenborgian, had encouraged this expectation, and found his 
profit in affecting esteem for the Church of England. A person 
so fertile in resources would find little difficulty in outwitting 
the amiable gentleman of whom a well-known traveller gives 
this irreverent description : " Dr. Tomlinson acted like an Epis 
copalian tight-rope dancer, always balancing himself between 
Puseyism and Evangelicalism, and so distracted the few Prot 
estants at Malta. He is eminently a man of no decision of 
character."! Achilli and his companions appear to have 
detected this infirmity. But the Malta College wanted recruits, 
and was willing to accept them on their own terms; and this 
fact becoming known throughout the Levant, the revenues of 
the College were constantly dilapidated by ingenious orientals, 
who adapted the new drama of "Achilli and the Bishop of 
Gibraltar," through every possible modification of comedy and 
burlesque, but always to their own advantage. A few exam 
ples, recorded by Protestant writers, deserve attention. 

The first is the case of Dr. Naudi, reported at length by 
Dr. Clark. Professing to be a Protestant convert, Naudi was 
long supported by the Church Missionary Society, to whom he 
forwarded welcome periodical reports, setting forth the rapid 
increase of oriental Protestants, and the inconveniently crowded 
btate of his own chapel in consequence. The " spread of Prot 
estantism in the Levant" became the theme of many a glowing 
oration, till Dr. Joseph Wolff, always active and inquisitive, 
resolved to visit " Naudi s place of worship," in order to be an 
eye-witness of his evangelical triumphs ; and then was revealed 
an unexpected fact. "He ascertained," says Dr. Clark, "that 

* Dr. Achilli, and the Malta Protestant College, p. 9 (1851). 

f Richardson, Travels in the Great Desert of Sahara, vol. i., ch. viii., p. 235. 



ETC. 5 

Dr. Kaudi had never held service here, although lie had for 
years made his reports in relation to what he was doing, and 
received funds from England to enable him to carry on his 
operations !"* 

The next case is related by Dr. Wolff himself. "Antonio 
Fabri, the Cancelliere of the British Consul, told us he was 
convinced of the truth of the Protestant religion." But An 
tonio was a very inferior performer to Dr. Naudi, and betrayed 
his secret too soon. "We found out," says Dr. Wolff, " that he 
said this in order to induce us to give our consent to his 
marrying our English maid-servant. "f 

Stephanos Carapiet was another of the same class of converts. 
" He arrived from Beyrout, and asked me to give him money 
to go to Malta, to join the American missionaries there, by 
whom he said he had been converted. He was a Greek priest." 
Apparently Dr. Wolff was generous enough to comply with the 
request, for he adds, " after he had stayed a few days lie got 
extremely drunk, so we sent him away.":f 

Dr. Game also tells us, amongst other examples, of " two 
brothers," who came from Mount Lebanon. the fame of the 
Protestant missionaries having evidently spread in all directions, 
" clever and designing fellows both of them, who agreed to 
be baptized and become useful agents, on the promise of some 
hundred pounds, to be paid them by a zealous and wealthy 
supporter of the cause." We shall hear of many similar cases 
when we get into Syria, and these may suffice for the present. 
It is curious that these playful orientals never even attempt to 
practise their frauds upon Catholic missionaries, perhaps bp- 
cause they have detected that the latter do not pay for conver 
sions ; and that it is the English, who deem themselves the 
most discerning, and the Americans, who claim to be the keen 
est people in the universe, who are their only victims. 

Let us leave Malta and its college, the value of which we 
shall learn to appreciate still more exactly hereafter, but not 
without noticing words which it seems to have chosen as its 
motto and device. "Here we are," says one of its officials, and 
the college printed and circulated the announcement, " safe 
from the withering influence of Puseyism, Romanism, and all 
the rest of Satan s isms."|| 

* Glimpses, &c., di. viii., p. 165. 

f Journal, p. 161. 

\ P. 148. 

Letters from the East, by John Came, Esq., vol. ii., p. 115, 3d edition. 

I The Fifth Annual Report of the Malta Protestant College, p. 13 (1853). 



CHAPTER VIII. 



GREECE. 

And now we come to Greece, famous for great actions which 
she has long ceased to imitate, more fruitful in words than in 
works, abounding rather in poets than in prophets, and as 
careless in the nineteenth century as she was in the fifteenth of 
the miseries which her errors have provoked, and the blessings 
which her crimes have forfeited. If there be a people in the 
world whose history may be compared to that of the Jews, and 
who seem, by the singularity of their fate, to have been struck 
by the heavy hand of God before the face of all nations, the 
Greeks are that people. From the hour in which the Photian 
schism was accomplished, and Michael Cerularius first uttered 
a curse, in 1053, against the Vicar of Christ, they have never 
ceased to endure such affliction and ignominy as no other 
Christian people ever knew.* Again and again reconciled to 
the Church, it was only to relapse into schism. Vainly they 
were warned by prelates of their own nation, perpetually af 
firming their allegiance to the Holy See, or admonished by 
chastisements which their pride refused to comprehend. But 
the Greeks were fast filling up the measure of their crimes, and 
judgment was at hand. Already, as Pachy meres, Gregoras, 
and other Greek historians relate, " there was scarcely a city in 
the empire which had not been twice or thrice in the presence 
of an enemy." Already they had this in common with that 
fated race to whom their prodigious calamities have caused 
them to be compared, that every fresh act of faithlessness was 
promptly followed by some signal judgment.-)- The West had 
sent forth the avenging hosts which scourged the one, and now 
the East was arraying the more terrible armies which were to 
crush the other. The fearful power which was destined to 
trample them under foot was gathering strength day by day. 
The Ottomans were knocking at their gates, and, like raging 
lions, " demanding their prey from God." 

At this moment, fear and dismay, false and hypocritical even 
in their deep abjection, urged them once more to seek recon 
ciliation with the chair of Peter; and at the Council of Florence, 
in 1439, all the prelates of the Greek and Oriental Churches 
again confessed, with one voice, that " the Koman Pontiff is 
the true Vicar of Christ and head of the whole Church," and 

* A few lines are inserted here from a paper, written some years ago, on the 
" Russo-Greek and Oriental Churches," and printed by the author in the Dub 
lin Review, Dec., 1847. 

f Leo Allatius, De Eccles. Occident, et Orient. Perpet. Consens.; Maimbourg, 
Histoire da fichisme des Grecs. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 7 

Joseph, tlie Patriarch of Constantinople, bequeathed from his 
death-bed, as his last legacy to his nation and people, that 
famous exhortation to obedience and unity of which he had 
himself given an immortal example, and in uttering which he 
yielded up his soul to God.* 

But Greek perfidy was still to provoke another and a final 
judgment. Gregory, the successor of Joseph, after struggling 
in vain against the new schism, retired to Rome in 1451, pre 
dicting the coming fall of Constantinople. Isidore, the met 
ropolitan of Russia, and delegate of the Patriarch of Antioch; 
and Bessarion, once the ablest champion of the Greeks, followed 
his example. In vain the Sovereign Pontiff, Nicholas the Fifth, 
warned the twelfth and last Constantine, in the spirit of 
prophecy, that " if before three years they did not repent and 
return to holy unity, they would be dealt with as the fig-tree 
in the Gospel, which was cut down to the roots because of its 
sterility. "f The prophecy was spoken in 1451, the Moslem 

fathered round the devoted city, and, in 1453, " struck by the 
and of God," in the words of the Patriarch of Constantinople, 
the schismatical metropolis fell. Two hundred thousand bar 
barians, more merciless than the legions of Titus, ceased not to 
strike till their weary arms could no longer hold the sword. 
Here fell the last Byzantine emperor. Here the most gorgeous 
temple of the Christian faith, polluted by incurable schism, 
became a temple of the Arabian impostor. * " Weep, oh, w r eep," 
said a Greek bishop, one of the captives of that sorrowful clay, 
" weep for your miseries, and condemn yourselves rather than 
others ; for like the Jews carried away captive to Babylon, you 
have despised the prophet Jeremy, foretelling the destruction 
and the captivity of Jerusalem.";); 

The judgment so long provoked was now consummated. From 
that houivnisery, contempt, and oppression have been the bitter 
portion of the erring communities of the East. " Confounded 
with barbarians," says an eminent philosopher, "they bear the 
penalty of their schism, and remain significant judgment ! 
the only Christian people subject to masters who are not so." 
The destruction of Constantinople by Mahomet II., and the 
subsequent fate of the Greek people, present, as Montesquieu 
observed, all the marks of a Divine judgment.! And to this 
hour, with the exception of those who have been reconciled to 
unity, and have recovered by a noble submission the freedom 

* Maimbourg, liv. vi., ann. 1439. 

f Gennadius, Adv. Gracos : Theolog. Curs. Complet., torn, v., p. 480. 

j Leonard! Echiensis, Episc. Mitylen, Lib. de Captuitate Comtantinopotia. 

M. De Bonald, Legislation Primitive, tome iv., sec. v., p. 175. 

I Grandeur et Decadence des Komains, ch. xxii. 



8 CHAPTER VIII. 

and dignity which they had lost, the Photian sects are still the 
most degraded of all Christian races. " Since they fell away 
from the centre of unity," says one who has long dwelt among 
them, " they have been completely isolated from the movement 
of civilization and of science which is ever stimulating the 
onward march of the other people of Europe. All intellectual 
activity has died away among them In losing the ele 
vated sense of Christianity, they have transformed it into a 
religion of purely pharisaieal ceremonies. The priests have no 
longer the virtue of the celibate ; all the bishoprics, including 
the patriarchate of Constantinople, have become the object and 
the prize of base intrigue, upon which the temporal pow r er 
eagerly speculates, while it openly exposes to auction these sa 
cred dignities. Simony has spread itself like a leprosy over the 
whole hierarchy, and they make merchandise of holy things."* 

" The sport which they make of the miserable dignities of 
the Greek Church," said Edmund Burke, " the little factions of 
the harem to which they make them subservient, the continual 
sale to which they expose and re-expose the same dignity, . . . 
is nearly equal to all the other oppressions together, exercised 
by Mussulmen over the unhappy members of the Oriental 
Church." " The secular clergy," he added, " by being married 

are universally fallen into such contempt, that they are 

never permitted to aspire to the dignities of their own Church. "f 

But enough upon the well-known abasement of the Greek 
and other schismatical communities of the East. We shall visit 
them, one by one, in the course of this chapter. " Notre plume 
se refuse," says one who had traced their earlier history, " a 
tracer des tableaux qui ne sont que trop humiliants pour notre 
triste condition humaine."J 

The very Turks themselves, detecting the immense distinction 
between the Latin and Byzantine Christians, denote by certain 
habitual and emphatic designations their respect for the one 
and their contempt for the other ; and as two centuries ago they 
sjtyled Catholics Beysadez, or u the noble," and the Greeks 
Taif, or " the populace," so they still call the former Francs, 
the term of respect and honor, and the latter Kaffirs, the Mus 
sulman synonym for "a man without any religion." 

The Moslem, we are told by a modern traveller, " is astonished 
when he hears them classed among the great family of the Chris 
tians of the West." " They have preserved," he adds, "nothing 
of Christianity but the name. The clergy do not even compre- 

* M. Eugene Bore, Correspondance et Memoires d un Voyageur en Orient, 
tome i., p. 152. 

f On the Penal Laws against Irish Catholics, Works, vol. vi., pp. 285, 290. 
\ Grece, par M. Pouqueville, Membre de 1 Institut, p. 447. 



MISSIONS IN THE LKVANT, ETC. 9 

hend the prayers of the liturgy. We have seen them selling 
prayers to Turkish women, who came secretly to drink the waters 
of some miraculous fountain. We have seen them selling 
"brandy at the door of their church, and converting, so to speak, 
the sanctuary into a tavern, before the eyes of the Mussulmen, 
justly disgusted by the profanation." Even woman, who owes 
all her dignity and influence to the Christian religion, has re 
lapsed, throughout the schismatical communities of the East, 
into a kind of barbarism ; and while modern Protestants, who 
shall be quoted hereafter, notice the nobility and freedom of 
the Catholic women among the same races, sole exceptions to 
the general humiliation because they alone have kept, or re 
covered, the faith, "the schismatical Greeks and Armenians 
have caused their social system and their families to retrograde 
towards the Mussulman level. Their women fly from the sight 
of a Franc with a barbarism even more wild and senseless than 
that of the Turkish females."* 

The facts here indicated are all confirmed, with ample details, 
by English and American Protestants of our own day, who 
have been eye-witnesses of them. " The utter desolation of the 
unhappy Greeks," says Dr. Game, "forces itself on one s 
notice every day."f "The gross ignorance of the inferior 
clergy," observes Mr. Spencer, " not only in theology, but in 
the common rudiments of education, the dissolute habits of too 
many of the higher ecclesiastics, and the infamous practices 
carried on in the monasteries, have become household words 
throughout all Greece." And this applies to Greece Proper, 
of which, he adds, " the inhabitants are more demoralized than 
they were under the rule of the Turk."J " To the Greek," 
says Mr. Warrington Smyth, in 1854, " a large proportion of 
the crimes of the country is to be traced," even within the 
Ottoman dominions. " The Patriarchate," an American 
writer reports, in 1861, "is a seat of barefaced corruptions. 
Nine-tenths of the Greek clergy are ignorant, vulgar, drunken 

debauchees They are, therefore, detested by a large 

majority of the hi embers of that religion. <J [ " Divorce is 
nearly, if not quite, as easy," says Sir Adolphus Slade, " in 
the Greek religion as in the Mussulman," and as it is now in 
the Anglican or Prussian. " The license is much abused, and 
the bishops, each of whom has the power, grant it on the 
slightest pretext." And then he adds, by way of contrast, of 

* M. Bore. Cf. Ubicini, Letters on Turkey, vol. ii., Letter ii. 

f Letters from the East, vol. i., p. 87. 

^ Travels in European Turkey, vol. ii., ch. xv., pp. 280, 289. 

A Year with the Turks, ch. xiii., p. 295. 

1 Constantinople Correspondent of the New York Herald, April 16, 1861. 



10 CHAPTER VIII. 

the Catholic population, "Divorce is not permitted among 
them."* But we reserve the full exhibition of this contrast to 
a later period. 

Yet there are not wanting men in our own country, who have 
agreed, for party purposes, to exalt the Greek as a convenient 
ally of Protestants against the Catholic Church. It is true 
that the Greeks, and all the oriental communities, have again 
and again anathematized the Anglican religion, and vehemently 
declined, in spite of their own miseries, even the semblance of 
intercourse with any of its professors. Not long ago, as an 
English writer lamented in 1854, the schismatical Greek 
Patriarch bluntly described its emissaries in the Levant, in 
an official document addressed to his co-religionists, as " satan- 
ical heresiarchs from the caverns of hell."t But this does not 
deter Anglican writers, always soliciting a recognition which 
they everywhere implore in vain, from an affectation of sym 
pathy with communities which display such repugnance towards 
their own ; and whose chiefs, after reciting on a solemn occasion 
the deposition of Cyril Lucar the tenets of Anglicanism as 
set forth in the " Thirty-nine Articles," declared all who hold 
them to be " heretics who vomit forth blasphemies against 
God," and then promulgated their decree, by the hands of 
Jeremy of Constantinople, as " A reply to the inhabitants of 
Great Britain," to whom its anathemas principally referred. 

It is a notable feature in the oriental communities, that they 
spurn the modern errors which they have never accepted, as 
obstinately as they reject the ancient truth which they once 
held. When the advocates of Protestantism, vexed rather than 
convinced by the terrible array of evidence in JS T icole s cele 
brated work, La Perpetuite de la Foi, appealed in despair to 
the oriental sectaries in support of their profane denial of the 
Sacrament of the Altar, they did not gain much by the appeal. 
Instructions were sent, as Prince Galitzin notices, to all the 
ambassadors and consuls throughout the Levant, and " profes 
sions of faith were received from the patriarchs, archbishops, 
and bishops of all the various Churches of the East, affirming 
in the most positive terms the doctrine of the Keal Presence, 
and bitterly complaining of the calumny" which they thus 
effectually refuted.g Let us see how they have replied in our 
own day to the same overtures which in earlier times they re 
jected with such vehement disdain. 

* Records of Travel, &c., cli. xxiii., p. 444 (1854). 

f Journal of a Deputation to the East, vol. ii., p. 816 (1854). 

J Theiner, Pieces Justijicatives, p. 363. 

Un Missionaire Itusse, par le Prince Augustin Galitzin, p. 83. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 11 

We are going to trace briefly the efforts which have recently 
been made by Frotestanta to introduce their opinions in the 
Levant. It is from Protestants exclusively that we shall, as 
usual, derive all our information. For more than a quarter of 
a century they have conducted their operations, distributing on 
every side, according to their wont, Bibles and gold, tracts and 
dollars. The Americans boast that by them alone "the annual 
sum spent for several years" is fifteen thousand pounds.* The 
English, as usual, have been still more profuse ; and Dr. Wilson 
exults in the fact, that "the whole sum expended by Protest 
ants in missionary efforts is annually double of that expended 
by Rome,"t though the former have neither churches nor 
flocks, while the latter numbers its converts alone by hundreds 
of thousands. Thirty years ago, the active emissaries of the 
United States were circulating, not only Bibles and tracts which 
nobody looked at, but " geographies and arithmetics, apparatus 
for lectures, and compendious histories," which received a much 
heartier welcome.;): Indeed, for many years the education of 
the various sectaries of these regions was mainly in their hands. 
We should not perhaps exaggerate in supposing that the Prot 
estant missionaries in the Levant have consumed already more 
than a million s terling. If we ask them what has been the 
actual result of efforts prolonged through so many years, they 
are willing to tell us. 

Let us begin at Athens. The English, as usual, have em 
ployed only agents who could persuade no one to listen to them. 
An emissary of the British and Foreign School Society, as Dr. 
Wolff relates, "was sent for the purpose of establishing schools, 
but he soon gave up that project, and delivered lectures on polit 
ical economy." The Americans have been more successful. 
" Our country," says an ardent American, " has reason to be 
proud of its missionaries here."|| In the following year, another 
citizen of the United States, still writing from Athens, exclaims, 
"The cause of education and Christianity is making rapid prog- 
ress."T It was not quite true, as we shall see, but it was hoped 
that it might be verified later. "In Greece," says a third trans 
atlantic writer, with equal complacency, "the only schools of 
instruction are those established by American missionaries, and 
supported by the liberality of American citizens."** Nearly 

* Journal of a Deputation, &c., p. 826. 

\ Lands of the Bible, by John Wilson, D.D., F.R.S., vol. ii., p. 599. 
I Excursions to Cairo, &c., by the Rev. George Jones, ch. xxi., p. 321 (1836). 
Journal, p. 97. 

j Wanderings in Europe and the Orient, by Samuel S. Cox, ch. xiv., p. 197 
11852). 

I Yusef, by J. Ross Browne, ch. xi., p. 100. 
** Incidents of Travel, by J. L. Stephens, Esq., ch. xxviii., p. 212. 



12 CHAPTER VIII. 

twenty years earlier, an English writer had noticed, that five 
hundred Greek children already attended the American schools 
in Athens; and that in those which were taught by Mrs. Hill, 
the wife of a missionary, " the daughters of many of the first 
Greek families of Constantinople, as well as of the most dis 
tinguished of Greece Proper," received their education.* Dr. 
King also rivalled Mr. and Mrs. Hill in influence and in the 
number of his pupils. 

If, however, from these facts we infer that these gentlemen 
and their companions were making progress as missionaries^ 
the real aim to which all their efforts tended, later events will 
dispel the illusion. Like their brethren in all parts of the 
world, they were tolerated for such benefits as couM be derived 
from them, but the moment they began to mistake their position, 
and to venture upon the subject of religion, grave incidents 
occurred to admonish them of their error. In spite of the influ 
ence which they had acquired by their relations with the higher 
classes, in spite of the services which they had unquestionably 
rendered as secular teachers, and of the active sympathy of the 
Queen of Greece, no sooner did they attempt to emerge from 
the humble function of schoolmaster to assume that of mission 
ary, than a menacing murmur, which soon became a loud and 
universal outcry, revealed to them their real position. For 
twenty-four years Mr. and Mrs. Hill had conducted their schools 
in peace, and might well consider their permanence secured ; 
but at the first hint they understood what was coming, "and 
thought it best to discontinue their school for boys.";): Dr. King 
attempted to brave the storm, " in spite of episcopal and patri 
archal anathemas," but the resistance was more energetic than 
effectual. The Greeks, though enfeebled by schism, were at 
least resolved to fall no lower; and so intense was their indigna 
tion at the attempt to introduce Protestantism among them, 
that, as Mr. Irenseus Prime relates, "there were serious and 
deeply concerted schemes for Dr. King s assassination, " whose 
life was only saved by transferring the consular flag to his resi 
dence, " a flag," as a sympathizing fellow-countryman observes, 
"containing quite a number of stripes, and more stars."|| 

Finally, an English traveller informs us, in 1854, that "last 
year at Athens, an American missionary, the Rev. Dr. King, 
was tried by the civil courts, and condemned to fifteen days 

* Greece Revisited, by Edgar Garston, vol. i., ch. v., p. 101. 

f An English traveller speaks of one of them who " has named his four sons 
Leonidas, Miltiades, Themistocles, and Epaminondas !" Narrative of a Yaiuht 
Voyage in, the Mediterranean, vol. ii., ch. vii., p. 100 (1842). 

Notes of Travel in the East,l>y Benjamim Dorr, D.D., ch. xv., p. 353 (1856). 

S Travels in Europe and the East, vol. ii., ch. xiv., p. 188 (1855). 

| Cox, ch. xiv. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 13 

imprisonment, and to ~be banished the country , for preaching the 
Gospel to the natives in his own house, and publishing a 
pamphlet opposed to some of the doctrines of the Greek 
Church."* It seems that in his pamphlet he spoke against 
devotion to our Blessed Lady, a crime which even Greeks are 
not prepared to tolerate, nor able to witness with composure. 

At the same time, a Mr. Buell, also a missionary, who refused 
to allow a crucifix to be suspended in his school at the Piraeus, 
was summoned before the tribunals, his school closed by order 
of the government, and a fine of fifty drachmas imposed upon 
the profane schoolmaster, f 

Such was the termination of the educational labors of a 
quarter of a century. The Greek conscience, though not fas 
tidiously delicate, was outraged by the first accents of Protest 
antism, and while its agents were branded by the Patriarch as 
" heresiarchs from the caverns of hell," the people answered 
its invitations by a shout, which came from the heart of the 
nation, of " anathema" and " banishment." 

It is not uninteresting to notice the effect of this popular out 
burst upon the Protestant missionaries and their supporters. 
Hitherto they had spoken, always with respect, often with a 
kind of reverence, of this " ancient" and " venerable" Church, 
in the hope that it might be induced to countenance their own 
more recent institutions. The language of praise was now to 
be heard no more. We have seen that in India, as soon as the 
Nestorians, upon whom so much courtesy had been lavished, 
declined the respectful overtures of the Anglican authorities, 
these disdainful heretics were consigned to ignominy by Prot 
estant prelates, whose precarious " orders" they had refused to 
recognize, and even stigmatized as " worse than Romanists." 
The same thing happened in Greece. "The Greek Church," 
said Dr. Wilson, recording the discomfiture of his co-religion 
ists, " agrees with the Church of Rome in most matters of the 
greatest moment. It has the essential characteristic of Anti 
christ."^: 

It was thus that these gentlemen revenged themselves upon 
the Greeks, once objects of almost timid eulogy. " I would 
say," adds Dr. Wilson, confessing at length the futility of past 
missionary schemes, " that at present it seems a very difficult 
matter to impregnate the Greek Church with evangelical truth 
and influence ; and that its circumstances are much less en 
couraging than those of the other oriental churches." So they 



* Journal of a Deputation, &c., p. 590. 

f Journal d un Voyage au Levant, pp. 281, 311. 

j Lands of the Bible, vol. ii., p. 466. 



14 CHAPTER VIII. 

turned to these more promising fields, with what success, we 
shall see in the course of this chapter. 

" In regard to the Greeks," says Dr. Hawes, an American 
Protestant minister, "the success of efforts made in their behalf 
has been less than was reasonably anticipated ;" and then, as if 
he felt that this was hardly an adequate account of the matter, 
he adds, " The missionaries have felt themselves obliged, for 
the present, to withdraw, in a great measure, from this 
field."* 

Messrs. Eli Smith and Dwight, more emphatic in their re- 
Bentment, confound the Catholics with the Greeks, and even 
seem to attribute their misadventures to the influence of the 
former. "A missionary," they observe, " can hardly set his 
foot upon any spot in that field, the Mediterranean, without 
encountering some sentinel of the Mother of Harlots, ready 
to challenge him and shout the alarm. "f Yet the Greeks do 
not appear to have needed any suggestions from that quarter, 
and would certainly have received them with surprise if they 
had been offered. 

Lastly, a representative of English Protestantism swells the 
gloomy chorus, and discovers, a quarter of a century too late, 
that " the Greek Church is opposed to the general circulation 
of the Bible ;" and that " the priests have always strenuously 
opposed the distribution of the Bible in modern Greek. "; Yet 
the Bible Society used to assure its subscribers, as we have 
seen, that they had no more promising sphere of action, and 
that even the Greek soldiery fortified themselves with the 
Protestant version during the intervals of combat, " while en 
camped, and in expectation of the enemy." It was, no doubt, 
to gratify this pious habit of the Greeks, that the English 
missionaries issued in a single year from their fortress at Malta 
" four million seven hundred and sixty thousand pages, all in 
modern Greek ;" and that the Americans had already dis 
persed, thirty years ago, "about three hundred and fifty 
thousand volumes containing twenty-one million pages." And 
of this enormous but perfectly useless distribution, since in 
creased fifty-fold, the Protestants of these two enlightened 
nations have cheerfully, but not wisely, defrayed the whole 
cost. 

We must admit, however, before we pass from Greece to 
Turkey, that Protestant teaching has not been absolutely 
without effect in the former kingdom. Let us notice a single 



* Travels in the East, by J. Hawes, D.D., p. 168. 

f Missionary Researches in Armenia, Letter xi., p. 210. 

i Journal of a Deputation, p. 594. 






MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 15 

example of its influence. An accomplished Greek lady, of 
rare intelligence and attainments, the eloquent advocate of her 
race and nation, had the misfortune to lose her parents, and 
was brought up by a Protestant pastor. The result of his in 
structions, if we may judge by her own writings, has been to 
substitute for faith a cold and arrogant skepticism, to engender 
a fierce hatred of the Catholic religion, which this lady calls 
u Christian Mahometanisin," and to give her courage to assert 
that divorce, which has become a kind of national institution 
in Greek and Protestant lands, is not an evil, but an engine of 
morality !* There is a good deal more of the same kind in 
the writings of this distinguished lady, which it would be both 
painful and unprofitable to notice, but which may at least con 
firm our conviction that Greece did well in crying "anathema" 
to Protestant missionaries. 

What the Catholic apostles have done for the Greeks, by 
their own confession, we shall see a little later, but will first 
follow their rivals to Turkey, that we may complete the his 
tory of their operations in the Levant. 



EUROPEAN TURKEY. 

In European Turkey, the English do not appear to have or 
ganized any systematic missionary efforts ; and throughout the 
Levant the Anglican Establishment has been represented, al 
most exclusively, as in India and elsewhere, by members of 
other communities. Mr. Perkins, an American missionary, to 
whom we shall have to refer presently, remarks that the em 
ployment of "so many men of a different religious communion 
reveals a painful deficiency in the missionary spirit of the 
Church of England, that men of devotion to the cause cannot 
be found in sufficient numbers within her pale to go in person 
and apply her missionary funds."f " At present," adds a Prot 
estant historian of American missions, with quiet contempt, 
" she has more means than men."J 

Perhaps, however, the Church of England has no reason to 
regret this fact, considering the impression which her rare 
representatives usually produce upon the oriental mind. When 
Mr. Jowett, one of her clergy, was asked by a schismatical 
Greek bishop, what was the doctrine of his Church about the 
" Double Procession" of the Holy Spirit, his answer must have 

* Les Femmes en Orient, par Mme. la Csse. Dora D Istria, pp. 71, 84 (1860). 
f Residence in Persia among the Nestorian Christians, by liev. Justin Per- 
kins, ch. iii. p. 52. 

J Tracy, History of American Missions, p. 594. 



16 CHAPTER VIII. 

astonished even such an inquirer. " It is a point, I replied, 
which, in the present day, has not been much controverted, 
being considered as somewhat indifferent !"* 

But several years have elapsed since Mr. Jowett s visit, and 
the Greek prelates have had time to forget both him and his 
Church. So complete has been the oblivion, that when Mr. 
Curzon not long ago presented a letter of introduction from the 
Queen s Archbishop of Canterbury to the Sultan s Archbishop 
of Constantinople, the following curious conversation occurred. 

" And who, quoth the Patriarch of Constantinople, the su 
preme head and primate of the Greek Church in Asia who 
is l the Archbishop of Canterbury ? 

" What ? said I, a little astonished at the question. 

" Who, said he, is this Archbishop ? 

" Why, the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

" Archbishop of what f said the Patriarch. 

" Canterbury, said I. 

" Oh ! said the Patriarch. Ah ! yes ! and who is he ?"f 

The Church Missionary Society, in their sixty-third report, 
1862,^: give this quotation from their principal agent in Tur 
key. u Dr. Pfander takes this sober view of the mission at the 
close of the year 1861 : Though there is no particular move 
ment going on among the Mohammedans, yet there is the fact 
that they continue to visit the missionaries. . . . Our work is 
indeed but small as yet ; still I am thankful that some progress 
has been made during the year, and, above all, that the trans 
lation and printing of the Mit tah and the Mizan, through God s 
help, has been accomplished. " Perhaps some may think that 
the only " help" in such proceedings came from the money of 
the Church Missionary Society. 

The Americans have acquired more notoriety in these regions. 
Their operations in Turkey commenced in 1826, and by 1844 
they had already thirty-one missionaries in that country. Not 
that they have "attempted any conversion except of tlie Chris 
tians" as Mr. Walpole remarks ; the Turks, he adds, they are 
"afraid" of provoking.|| But they are active enough amongst 
the Armenian sectaries, both here and in Armenia, as we shall 
see when we enter the latter country. Meanwhile, it seems to 
be a tranquil and jocund life which these thirty -one mission 
aries lead in Turkey. u Personal trials are very few," says the 
candid wife of one of them; "many are the comforts and 

* Christian Researches, &c., p. 17. 

f Monaster-ies of the Levant, ch. xxii., p. 336. 

i P. 59. 

| Baird, Religion in the U. 8. of America, book viii., ch. iii., p. 691. 

\ The Ansavrii. &c., ch. xvi., p. 366. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 17 

pleasant things about this life in the East."* And she was 
evidently not singular in her keen appreciation of them. The 
Rev. Justin Perkins tells us of a missionary wedding at Constan 
tinople in these terms: "Mr. Schauffler was married to Miss 
Reynolds, February 25th. I could not help feeling that there 
was a moral sublimity in the scene presented. "f Perhaps 
there was; but another witness, Sir Adolphus Slade, who 
knows these regions even better than Mr. Perkins, and is 
evidently much less impressed by the moral sublimity of mis 
sionary nuptials, gives the following candid account of the 
Protestant missionaries in Turkey and the Levant. 

" To what purpose do the missionaries on the shores of the 
Turkish empire frequent them? to convert those who are already 
Christiana. The utter unprofitableness of these gentlemen 
cannot be sufficiently pointed out. One comes to Malta, and 
settles there with his lady. Another comes to Tino, and while 
learning Greek, to be enabled to labor on the continent, falls 
in love, and marries an amiable Tiniote his spiritual ardor 
takes another course. Another fixes himself at Smyrna, finding 
that demi-Frank city pleasanter than the interior of Turkey, 
whither he was destined. Another takes a disorder, and dies of 
it on the shores of the Persian Gulf. Another quietly pursues 
his own studies at Alexandria, regardless of others souls, to 
qualify himself for a situation in one of the London colleges. 
All are living on the stipends granted by the missionary 
societies, and occupied in forwarding their particular views. 
Far be it from me to say that human weakness does not merit 
indulgence ; but they who embark in a holy cause should quit 
it when they find that the flesh overpowers the spirit. Religion 
is the last asylum where hypocrisy should find shelter.";): 

Admiral Slade adds, " It will scarcely be credited that mis 
sionaries arrive in the Levant, to preach, to convert, knowing 
absolutely no other than their mother tongue!" Yet we shall 
presently hear one of their number asserting, with perfect 
indifference to the more veracious testimony of a crowd of 
Protestant writers, that he and his friends had done more for 
education in Syria in twenty years than "all the Catholic 
missionaries * in two centuries ; though the former have had 
neither scholars nor disciples, and were for the most part per 
fectly incapable of teaching them if they had. 

A few words will suffice on the final results of Protestant 
missions in Turkey. The American Episcopalians sent Dr. 
Southgate, one of their bishops, to recommend their form of 

* Memoir of Mrs. Van Lennep, ch. xi., p. 267 (1851). 
f Residence, &c., ch. iii., p. 76. 
t Ch. xxvii., p. 517. 
VOL. ii a 



18 CHAPTER VIII. 

religion to the inhabitants. He seems to have had some vague 
idea of ecclesiastical principles, and is even charged by his own 
countrymen, of other sects, with supporting the schismatical 
oriental bishops in their resistance to the proselyting schemes of 
the Protestant missionaries, whom he openly taxed with intro 
ducing amongst the Armenians "the revolutionary sentiments 
of European radicalism." He had, too, sufficient courage and 
honesty to confess, after ample experience, that the Protestant 
converts are "infidels and radicals, who deserve no sympathy 
from the Christian public."* 

Dr. Southgate recommends also the employment of mission 
aries "unrestrained by family ties," though he does not suggest 
where they are to be found, and after deploring the activity of 
" our brethren of other denominations," predicts this as the 
only fruit of their labors : " Horrid schism will lift itself up 
from beneath, and rend and scatter the quivering members of 
the body of Christ."f Yet this gentleman, who had so much 
distaste for horrid schism in others, actually intrigued to get a 
firman issued against the Catholics, whom he could only oppose 
by physical force, in favor of the Jacobite heretics, whose 
" numerous points of affinity" with his own sect he had detected 
with satisfaction.^; 

We are not surprised to hear that Dr. Southgate failed. For 
a long time, he confesses, his mission at Constantinople received 
from a single congregation in Philadelphia one thousand dollars 
annually. But money could not save it. "The mission," we 
are told in 1852, " has been abandoned, at least for the present, 
after a heavy expenditure. Bishop Southgate has returned to the 
United States,and resigned the appointment of Missionary Bishop 
to Turkey." ^ wo .T ears l ater another Protestant authority 
says, " the bishop had to acknowledge the complete failure of 
his mission, and was recalled by his society. "[ It is exactly the 
tale which we have heard in so many other lands. Not one of 
the customary incidents is wanting, and they follow one another 
in their usual and invariable order: first, "horrid schism;" 
then, "heavy expenditure;" and finally, "complete failure." 

Of the operations of the other American sects at Constan 
tinople, there is no need to speak. We shall presently survey 
them on a larger scale in Syria and Armenia. Mr. Dwight, in 
a work which reveals the real designs of his co-religionists in 



* Christianity in Turkey, by Rev. H. G. 0. Dwight, ch. x., p. 244 (1854). 
f Narrative of a Tour in Turkey and Persia, by Rev. Horatio Southgate, 
vol. i., ch. xxiii., p. 805. 

i Mr. Southgate and the Missionaries at Constantinople, p. 27 (Boston, 1844). 
Colonial Church Chronicle, p. 896 (1852). 
j Journal of a Deputation to the East, vol. ii., p. 806. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 19 

the East, declares in 1850, that "at the capital the number 
of Armenians who declared themselves Protestants rapidly 
increased."* Their number is, in fact, perfectly insignificant ; 
and many Protestant writers will tell us, before we conclude 
this chapter, as Dr. Southgate has already told us, what an 
Armenian really becomes when lie professes to embrace Prot 
estant tenets. They will also assist us to comprehend what 
even they consider the work of " corruption and demoraliza 
tion" in which the American missionaries are engaged, though 
happily, up to the present date, within a narrow sphere. It is 
true, however, that they have succeeded, by lavish expenditure 
we have been told that they consume thirty thousand pounds 
per annum in Turkey in collecting together a few Jews and 
Armenians, who have more admiration for their dollars than 
their doctrines, and who abandon their old religion without 
adopting a new one ; and that these form what they call the 
" Protestant Church," or, as Mr. Dwight styles them, "the people 
of God," in Constantinople. Such are the " wild grapes " of 
which they make sour wine, to set their own teeth on edge. 
" The Protestant Church of Turkey," says Mr. Cuthbert Young, 
" is now recognized by the government," owing to the ener 
getic action peculiar to this branch of the Anglo-Saxon family, 
" with an officer of the Porte, a Turk, as its temporal head. 
This last circumstance cannot be regarded as auguring well for 
the interests of vital Christianity, "f 

A few years later, we learn from a competent witness, the 
prediction of Mr. Young was unpleasantly verified, and the 
Porte, though probably quite as capable of promoting " vital 
Christianity " as the Hebrew and Armenian Protestants to whom 
it lent a temporal head, proved to be only a Moslem Pharaoh, 
from whose ungentle sway Mr. Dwight s " people of God" are 
already desirous to escape. The Mahometan gentleman who 
consented to become the Caliph of Turkish Protestants has evi 
dently formed a serious estimate of his own office. " All the 
Protestants in the country," we are told by a missionary in 1860, 
"must be enrolled in his books." And the enrolment is by no 
means a mere matter of form. From that moment, a marriage, 
an interment, or any other of the various ceremonies of joyful 
or sorrowing humanity, " can only be done through him? And 
this is not all. " For the support of this officer," whose ap 
pointment, the Protestant missionaries hailed with such lively 
satisfaction, " the Protestants all over the country have been 
called upon to contribute," apparently on a very liberal scale; 
and as this special tax does not exempt them from the burdens 

* Cliristianity Revived in the East, p. 32 (1850). 
t Ihe Levant and the Nile, ch. iii., p. 76. 



20 CHAPTER VIII. 

common to the rest of the population, " the Protestants are 
deeply in debt," says the same missionary, " and it has become 
a serious question with them, whether they should not dissolve 
their civil establishment entirely. This would doubtless open 
the way for a general persecution of the Protestants through 
out the empire, the result of which none can foresee,"* but 
which, considering the motives of Jews and Armenians in pro 
fessing Protestantism, would certainly involve the final disap 
pearance of all the unstable disciples who have been the costly 
stipendiaries of English or American missionary societies, but 
who, as Dr. Southgate ascertained, " are infidels and radicals, 
who deserve no sympathy from the Christian public." 

CATHOLIC MISSIONS IN TURKEY. 

And now let us speak briefly, before we enter Asia, of Catho 
lic missions in the regions which we are about to quit. Not 
that we can hope to give, within the limits at our disposal, even 
a sketch of labors as distinguished by supernatural patience 
and charity as any which we have hitherto narrated. A few 
examples must suffice, but they will abundantly illustrate the 
familiar contrast which we have proposed to trace in all lands. 
We are going to speak, though unworthy even to record their 
names, of a band of apostles whom even a Protestant minister 
calls, with honest enthusiasm, " the best instructed and most 
devoted missionaries that the world has seen since primitive 
times.^ We have heard what sort of agents the Sects employ ; 
let us contemplate for a moment another order of workmen, 
and see what the munificent bounty of God can do for men 
whom His own decree has called to the apostolic life. Too 
long we have listened to the mean sounds of earth it is time 
to open our ears to voices from Heaven. 

As early as 1610, the son of St. Ignatius had begun to convert 
both Jews and schismatics at Constantinople. So irresistible was 
the influence, here as elsewhere, of men in whom religion dis 
played its most fascinating form, and self was all but annihilated, 
that, as Yon Hammer notices, the Grand Vizir told de Solignac, 
the French ambassador, that " he would rather see ten ordinary 
ecclesiastics at Pera than one Jesuit.";); A century later, for 
these men do not change, a schismatical Armenian patriarch 
thus addressed a Catholic who had abandoned the schism, and 

* Three Years in Turkey, the Journal of a Medical Missionary to the Jews, 
by John Masen, L.R.C.S.E., app., p. 373 (I860). 

f Williams, The Holy City, vol. ii., ch. vi., p. 570. 

i Histoire de I Empire Ottoman, par J. Von Hammer, tome viii., liv. iii, 
p. 166, ed. Hellert, 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 21 

was about to be martyred : " Your blood be upon the Jesuits 
who have converted you and so many members of our Church."* 

In the single year 1712, for we must not attempt to trace the 
whole history, fere Jacques Cachod, to whom was given the 
noble title of " Father of the Slaves," reconciled three hundred 
schismatics to the Church. f Five years earlier, nearly one- 
third of the population of Constantinople died of the plague ; 
and it was at that date that Pere Cachod, compelled by holy 
obedience to give an account of actions which he would have 
preferred to hide, wrote as follows to his superior, Pere Tarillon: 

" I have just quitted the Bagnio, where I have given the last 
Sacraments to, and closed the eyes of, eighty-six persons. . . . 
The greatest danger which I have encountered, or to which I 
shall perhaps ever be exposed in my life, was at the bottom of 
the hold of a ship-of-war of eighty-two guns. The slaves, by 
the consent of their guards, had obtained my admission into 
this place in the evening, in order that I might spend the whole 
night in hearing their confessions, and say Mass for them very 
early in the morning. We were shut in with double locks, ac 
cording to custom. Of fifty-two slaves whom I confessed and 
communicated, twelve were already plague-stricken, and three 
died before I quitted them. You may judge what sort of an 
atmosphere I breathed in this inclosed space, to which there 
was not the slightest opening. God, who by His goodness has 
preserved me in this danger, will save me also from many 
others." Twelve years later he perished, struck down by the 
pestilence which he thought he might henceforth defy. And 
the only reflection which such a narrative, and such a fate, 
suggested to the other Fathers was this : " If we were more 
numerous, how much more good we could do !"J 

But if these generous apostles displayed a zeal which knew 
not fear, it was regulated always by prudence and forethought. 
" During the seasons of the plague," says one of them, " as it is 
necessary to be close at hand in order to succor those who are 
seized by it, our custom is that only one Father should enter 
the Bagnio, and that he should remain there during the whole 
time that the pest rages. The one who obtains the permission 
of the Superior prepares himself for his duty by a retreat of some 
days, and bids farewell to his brethren, as one about to die. 
Sometimes his sacrifice is consummated, at others he survives 
the danger. The last Jesuit who died in this exercise of 
charity was Father Yandermans .... Since his death, the 



* Histovre de V Empire Ottoman, tome xiii., liv. Ixii., p. 186. 
f Lettres Edifiantes, tome i., p. 14. 
% Ibid., p. 23. 



22 CHAPTER VIII. 

only victim has been Father Peter Besnier, so well known for 
his genius and rare gifts." 

It is impossible to trace here the details of the apostolic 
history of which this is only a characteristic episode. The 
public cemetery of Constantinople, filled with the bodies of 
Jesuits who died between 1585 and 1756, is their only monu 
ment. Smyrna, Aleppo, Trebizonde, and many other oriental 
cities, gave a tomb to missionaries of the same class. At 
Smyrna, where ten thousand perished by plague in the same 
year, a Jesuit bishop became a martyr of charity at- eighty 
years of age. In Aleppo, Father Besson, "who united to his 
immense labors perpetual mortification, allowed himself but 
scanty repose at night, and rose long before the dawn in order 
to spend many hours in prayer," " after having procured a 
holy death to a large number of persons, found the crown 
which he sought." He was followed, both in his life and 
death, by Father Deschamps ; and almost at the same moment, 
Father de Clermont, of the illustrious family of that name, was 
added to the company of martyrs. It was at this time, and by 
the labors of such men, that the schismatical Patriarchs of 
Armenia (Erivan), of Aleppo, Alexandria, and Damascus, were 
all reconciled to the Church. 

In 1709, Michael Paleologus becomes the disciple of Father 
Braconnier. Father Bernard Couder is the next in this band 
of Christian heroes. More than nine hundred families in the 
city of Aleppo were formed by him to a life of piety. Six 
times he solicited and obtained the coveted permission to de 
vote himself to the plague-stricken; and so perfect was his 
obedience, that when ordered by his superior to quit a city in 
which he had attracted a veneration which might prove dan 
gerous to his humility, " he began on the instant to make his 
preparations for departure." 

In 1719, when the plague raged in Aleppo from March to 
September, "I was often obliged, says the celebrated Father 
Nacehi, u to bend down between two victims of the pestilence, 
to confess them by turns, keeping my ear glued as it were to 
their lips, in order to catch their dying sounds." And when 
death had done its work, these apostles, nurtured themselves in 
delicacy and refinement, often the most accomplished scholars 
of their age, and not unfrequently members of illustrious 
houses, would wash the bodies and clothes of the dead, u reek 
ing with a horrible infection," and having borne them with 
their own hands to the common cemetery, hasten back to re 
peat the same oftice of charity for others. 

Such deeds, which Catholics have learned to consider natural 
in their clergy, of whatever rank, would hardly deserve mention, 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 23 

but that we are tracing a contrast. There is probably not one 
of the thousand priests in our own England who would not imi 
tate them to-morrow, and few of their number who have not 
already exposed their lives, many a time, with the same tranquil 
composure. It is not many years since an English bishop, and 
fifty priests, died within ten months, ministering to the victims 
of typhus. " The good shepherd giveth his life for the sheep." 
But let us complete the narrative which we have begun. 

" Father Emanuel died in my arms," says the learned Nac- 
chi, " after devoting himself incessantly for four months to the 
victims of the plague. After him I assisted Father Arnoudie, 
and Brother John Martha, both destroyed by the same disease." 
Father Clisson, after an apostolate of thirty years in Syria, met 
the same death ; and was followed by Father Nau, of whom his 
companions used to say, "he has received from heaven all the 
gifts necessary for the apostolic life." Then came the noble 
brothers de la Thuillerie, Joseph and James, the elder dying 
on the bosom of the younger. The next was Father Rene 
Pillon, for the.7 fell fast, whose only form of recreation was to 
visit and console the sick, and whose daily prayer it was "that 
he might die in the service of the dying." To him succeeded 
Father Blein, whose humility so touched the hearts of the 
Greeks that they flocked to see his dead body, and though he 
died of the plague, carried away fragments of his clothes as 
relics. Beyrout saw the last combat of Father John Amieu, 
" who predicted his own death to one who lay ill by his side, 
but assured the latter of his recovery."* And these are only a 
few names out of a multitude known to God, and written in 
the book of life. Of them it may be truly said that they re 
sembled one another so exactly, that they were like brothers of 
one family. And even the most malignant spirit of heresy 
could not resist them. " You seek only our conversion," was a 
common saying of the sectaries, "the others ask for our money." 
And they often contrasted their manner of life with that of the 
Protestants who had already begun to dwell amongst them. 
" The English and Dutch in Aleppo," one of the missionaries 
remarks, "observe neither fast nor abstinence, to the scandal of 
everybody. The people of the country say that they cannot be 
Christians, and even the Turks regard them as void of religion/ 
And the results of a contrast which even pagans have noticed, 
in every region of the world, were such as these. In .Damascus, 
where there were only three Catholic families when the Jesuits 
arrived, there were in 1750 nearly nine thousand converts. In 
Smyrna and Aleppo, almost the whole schisrnatical population 

* Ibid., p. 200. Cf. Missions du Levant, tome iv., p. 39. 



24: CHAPTER VIII. 

has been converted; the work being continued in our own day, 
as Protestant travellers will presently assure us, by men in 
whom even they recognize the apostolic virtues of their prede 
cessors. Throughout all Syria, as we shall learn from the same 
witnesses, the heirs of the martyrs are now laboring with such 
fruit, that from the banks of the Orontes to those of the 
Tigris and the Euphrates, the wanderers are flocking to the 
true fold, and even Chaldea, as we shall be told by men 
who vainly strove to mar the work, has become a Catholic 
nation. 

When the Society of Jesus was suppressed, the enemy tri 
umphed for a moment in Turkey and the Levant, as in so 
many other lands. But the Fathers of the Order of St. Lazarus 
w r ere chosen by Providence to supply their place, at least for a 
time, and we must now say a word of their labors in the East. 

In 1840, there were already in Greece Proper four bishops, 
one hundred priests, and twenty- three thousand Catholics. At 
the same date, in the three principalities of Moldavia, Wallachia, 
and Servia, there were three bishops, and seventy-one thousand 
Catholics. In the kingdom of Turkey there were eleven arch 
bishops, four hundred and twenty-three priests, and two hun 
dred arid eighty-one thousand Catholics.* This total of three 
hundred and seventy-five thousand has probably trebled dur 
ing the last twenty years, so that Ubicini reckons the whole 
number of Latin Christians in European Turkey alone, in 1856, 
at six hundred and forty thousand, of whom five hundred and 
five thousand were natives ;f while the total number of Greeks 
under the sceptre of the Sultan had dwindled twenty years ago 
to one million. ; It is even said that there is hope of the early 
reconciliation of the entire Bulgarian nation, though the influ 
ence of Russia will no doubt be employed to prevent it. 
^ At the close of the year 1840, the celebrated Lazarist Fathei 
Etienne gave this report to the heads of his Order : " The chief 
obstacle opposed by error to the progress of the Gospel is pro 
found ignorance, the common basis both of heresy and Islarnism. 
The first means, therefore, of favoring the triumph of the Gos 
pel is the education of youth. The Koran has still its disci 
ples, but only because it proscribes all education. At present, 
however, this prohibition is no longer regarded by the great, 
whose contempt for the law of Mahomet is only imperfectly 
concealed under a few exterior practices." An English Prot 
estant traveller confirms this account, when he says, that 

* Annals, vol. i., p. 406. 

f See Ubicini s Letters on Turkey. 

\ La Turquie & Europe, par A. Boue, tome ii., ch. i.,p. 21. 



MISSION S IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 25 

the present religion of the Turks " is a kind of gross epicurean 
skepticism."* 

Father Etienne, however, gives interesting proofs of the 
respect which they begin to manifest for the Catholic religion, 
and the remarkable acquaintance which some of them display 
with its doctrines ; and he adds, that " once permitted to fre 
quent our schools, the Gospel and science will find them 
equally docile to their instructions. From the moment the Turks 
are allowed to enjoy liberty of conscience and the blessings 01 
education, the Church will be on the eve of counting them 
amongst the number of her children. "f 

Let it be permitted, at this point, to offer, under correction, 
a consideration suggested by the present aspect of Islamism. 
Perhaps there is nothing so marvellous in the annals of man 
kind as the history of the Mahometan religion, its triumphant 
progress through the three continents of the Old World, checked 
only by the union of the Catholic nations under the inspiration 
of the Holy See, and its puissant dominion of a thousand 
years. What providential scheme was this mystery, strange 
and unique in the annals of our race, designed to serve? The 
present condition of Islamism seems to suggest the explanation. 

When the East was enslaved by heresy and schism, then the 
legions of the false prophet came out of Arabia. For centuries 
they have been permitted to scourge the oriental Christians, 
treading them under foot as vermin. In human history there 
are no such oppressors, no such victims. "Crushed and de 
graded below the level of humanity," in the words of Mr. 
Spencer, " generation .after generation of the unhappy Christians 
have passed away like the leaves of the forest." Nor is this 
the darkest feature in their history. It was from apostate Greeks 
and moriophysites that the legions of Antichrist were perpet 
ually recruited by tens of thousands. "Mahomrnedanisrn, as 
Von Ilaxthausen forcibly observes, "represents the pure mon 
otheistic direction which the Eastern Church^ especially in its 
sects, had already indicated and followed, one-sided and dog 
matical." Even in our own day it continues to enlist the same 
class of fallen Christians, helpless because severed from unity 
Copts, Greeks, and Abyssinians. At Trebizonde, in 1838, 
we are told, " the Greeks professed Islamism abroad, but lived 
as Christians in the interior of their houses." "Apostasy is, 
in fact, so obvious a sin in these countries," says an English 
Protestant minister, " that even little children, as I was in 
formed by the Bishop of Smyrna, will sometimes, when in a 

* Two Years Residence in a Levantine Family, by Bayle St. John : cli. xxiii.. 
p. 267. 
f Annals, vol. ii., p. 71. 



26 CHAPTER VIII. 

violent passion, threaten their mothers that they will turn 
Turk."* Damascus, once wholly Christian, became almost en 
tirely Mahometan ; and the same fact occurred in most of the 
cities of the East. " Issuing from Arabia, and absorbing in its 
passage the Christianity of the East, the Mussulman torrent 
traversed the Bosphorus, and carried forward the crescent to 
the European provinces of the Greek Cresars ; for it was no 
longer with the degenerate Christianity of the East as with that 
which flowed, full of life and strength, from the apostolic 
Koman fount. The latter had quickly absorbed into itself all 
the conquerors of the empire ; the former bowed down with 
out resistance under the code of the Caliphs, and the Christian 
populations of Asia, deserting the faith of Christ, adopted, in 
vast numbers, that of the false prophet, and recruited the 
armies of his vicars."f 

Such is the contrast between the Christianity of Home and 
Byzantium ; and such, for centuries, has been the influence of 
the Mahometan over the corrupt and schismatical communities 
of the East. But Islamism has done its work, and may now 
disappear. It came to chastise, by an unparalleled judgment, 
an unexampled offence. And now, when the oriental churches 
are visibly returning to unity, and the voice of the Supreme 
Pastor is once more heard amongst them, Islamism as if con 
scious that it may* no longer play the part of the Avenger ia 
hastening to decay. We seem to touch already that great epoch 
of Catholic unity, of which the recent definition of the Im 
maculate Conception of the Mother of God is the surest pledge 
and precursor, that consolidation of all believers into one 
household and family which Her love will obtain for the Church 
before the world is abandoned to its final judgment, and even 
the Church shall plead for it no more. 

Let us return for a moment to Father Etienne, and to the 
account which he gives of religion in Turkey. "At Constan 
tinople," he says, " the clergy of our congregation are at the head 
of a college, in which the children of the first families of the city 
are educated ; they have also a school which is frequented by one 
hundred and fifty scholars." This refers to the state of things 
twenty years ago. " Three other schools are directed by the 
Sisters of Charity. The two hundred and thirty pupils whom 
they receive are not all Catholics ; Russians, Arabs, Armenian 
and Greek schismatics come to the same source to obtain 
knowledge and wisdom." The Sisters had also under their care 
a hospital, towards the expenses of which the Sultan contributed 

* Jowett, p. 23. 

f Persecution et Souffrances, &c., p. 240. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 27 

one hundred pounds. Even the Mussulmen, he adds, filled 
with admiration for the charity of the Sisters, "who neither 
will nor can receive any recompense," are accustomed to ask, 
" Whether they came down thus from heaven f" " May we 
not presume," says M. Etienne, " that the Sisters of Charity 
are destined by Providence to effect the long wished-for union 
between Turks and Christians ?" 

An English Protestant writer, in spite of customary prejudice, 
thus confirms the account of Father Etienne : " Short as the 
time has been since these zealous Christians have entered upon 
this new field of labor, it must be owned in all justice that the 
progress they have made, and the beneficial eifects of their 
judicious efforts, are most surprising. . . . The admiration, as 
well as confidence, with which both they and the Lazarists have 
inspired the Turks is unbounded."* And this is confirmed 
once more, in 1859, by another English Protestant, who 
considers " a visit to the convent of the Sisters of Charity 
interesting and instructive, as showing how human beings 
possessed of education and personal attractions can leave 
every thing which makes life dear for the sake of God. Here, 
as everywhere else, these ladies do a great deal of good, par 
ticularly in education of the Arab children." Of their hospital 
" for the special use of strangers," of all creeds, " who -may 
chance to fall ill here" Bey rout he adds, that the sufferers, 
" when tended by the devoted Sisters, scarcely miss the absence 
of their friends."t 

When we have shown that the missionaries have not degen 
erated from their fathers, but still resemble a Cachod, a Besnier, 
and a Yandermans, we may pass to other scenes. " M. Eiluin," 
says Father Etienne, " catechizes the poor in Greek, and with 
the most consoling success; his instructions are frequented 
every Sunday by three hundred persons, children and adults. 
M. Bonnieux, another missionary, whose indefatigable zeal 1 
could not but admire, spends his life in hearing the confessions 
of the Catholics, scattered throughout the city and the environs. 
Every morning he sets out, taking in his course both sides of 
the Bosphorus, penetrating into the interior of families, dis 
tributing consolation and advice, and often returning without 
having tasted food, except the morsel of bread he had taken 
with him. Often, too, surprised by the night far from his 
home, he passes it in some miserable hut, offers there the Holy 
Sacrifice in the morning before he leaves, and continuing his 
route of the previous day, returns at length to his brethren full 

* Wayfaring Sketches among the Greeks and Turks, cli. ix., p. 184. 
f Two Years in Syria, cli. xxvii., p. 285. 



28 CHAPTER VIII. 

of joy. This laborious ministry is never interrupted, either 
by the rigor of the season or the ravages of the plague." 

Such are "the comforts and pleasant things" which these 
men choose for their portion. And the results of their patient 
charity are such as the following : M. Bonnieux alone, in the 
course* of a few months, reconciled to the Church one hundred 
and twenty-two heretics. The most conspicuous among his 
converts was Mgr. Artin, schismatical Archbishop of Van, in 
Armenia. An immense crowd of the former disciples of the 
converted prelate assisted at the ceremony of his abjuration ; 
and after listening 1 to the fervent exhortation which, from a 
heart newly kindled witli Divine charity, he addressed to them, 
" more than twelve hundred persons were found to imitate this 
memorable conversion."* 

The impulse given to education by the toils of the same 
workmen, is the only additional fact which we need notice. "It 
is very certain," says Ubicini in 1858, " that the number of the 
schools founded by the Lazarists, with the assistance of the 
Sisters of Charity and of the Christian Brothers, increases yearly 
in a remarkable degree." And then he observes, that already, 
in 1849, " the latter had six hundred children in their schools of 
Pera and Galata," while the former had, at the same date, 
eight hundred and sixty pupils.f Other writers will inform us 
that they are diffusing the same benefits in the principal cities 
of Asiatic Turkey. 

We have no space for further details. For twenty years the 
work has progressed, everywhere by the same agents, and 
always with the same results. Even Protestants attest its 
power. "The Catholic religion in the East," says Admiral 
JSlade, in 1854, appreciating these events from his own point of 
view, " has ever offered a secure asylum for wavering minds 
of the Greek and Armenian sects." He declares, also, from 
actual observation, " that it has made men live in peace among 
each other, and under their government, whatever that gov 
ernment be."J 

Dr. Wilson, who has, perhaps, employed more intemperate 
language than any living writer, and has been more abundant 
in those vehement invectives which sound like imprecations, 
and remind one of the text, "Whoso hateth his brother is a 
murderer," is constrained by a Power which uses such men to 
proclaim the very truths which they abhor, to make the fol 
lowing confession. The Greeks, he says, when they become 

* Annals, ii., 76. 

Letters on Turkey, vol. ii., Letter iii, 
Records of Travels, cli. xxvii., p. 511. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 29 

Catholics, " are amongst the most liberal and intelligent native 
Christians in the East."* 

Dr. Kobinson, an American writer of the same class, who 
laments that the movement of conversion among the Greeks, 
after spreading through Syria, "has now extended itself into 
Egypt," admits with evident reluctance, that " the result is a 
certain elevation of their sect."f Dr. Durbin also, another 
American Protestant, declares without reserve of all the orien 
tal communities, "It is not to be denied that their intercourse 
with the Roman Catholic Church tends to elevate them in the 
scale of civilization."^: "We shall hear many similar testimonies 
when we enter Syria. 



ASIATIC TURKEY. 

We may now cross the Bosphorus, and continue in Asiatic 
Turkey the investigations which we have hitherto confined to 
her European provinces. Let us begin at Smyrna. If we 
would lind Protestant missionaries in pagan or nioslem lands, 
much experience has taught us to look for them on the coast. 
They abound in Smyrna. "The number of missionaries who 
have been sent to Turkey? says an English Protestant, "and 
are established at Smyrna, is very considerable. " "They find 
that demi-Frank city pleasanter," we have been told, "than 
the interior of Turkey ;" and, as a matter of taste, they are 
probably right. M. do Tchihatcheff, a Russian traveller, found 
some of the American missionaries, in 1856, occupied in me 
teorological observations ; a useful and honorable pursuit, for 
which he seems to think they had abundant leisure. [ What 
else they have done, we may easily learn, either from them 
selves or their friends. 

Two of the earliest missionaries from America were the 
Rev. Pliny Fisk and the Rev. Levi Parsons. Both have found 
admiring biographers. The Rev. Dr. Bond informs us that Mr. 
Fisk was dispatched to Syria by " the Prudential Committee of 
the American Board," and also that " his religious exercises 
were marked for pungency of conviction." He tarried at 
Malta on his way to Palestine, and "was for a season occupied 
iii exploring the moral desolations which there prevailed," but 
to which it is not suggested that Mr. Fisk applied any remedy. 

* lidnds of the Bible, vol. ii., p. 581. 

| BflMcal Researches, vol. iii., sec. xvii., p. 456. 

Observations iti the East, vol. ii., ch. xxxiv., p. 287. 

Wayfanng Sketches, &c., ch. vi., p. 118. 

Asie Mineure, par P. de Tchihatcheff; ch. i., p. 5 (1856), 



30 CHAPTER VIII. 

At length lie reached Beyrut, and there "his spirit^ was much 
refreshed," apparently by the society of his countrymen. That 
he ever made a convert, from any class whatever, his biogra 
pher does not venture to insinuate ; but his final retreat from 
these regions, after a residence which had been without a soli 
tary incident for the pen of the historian, is thus described and 
accounted for : " Having sounded from the hill of Zion the 
trumpet-note of preparation," says Dr. Bond, " to awaken the 
Church to the glorious enterprise in which he had led the way, 
he retired, amid the commotion which his own efforts had 
excited, until the indignation was overpast."* The indigna 
tion, however, was so permanent, that Mr. Fisk was never again 
seen near the hill of Zion.f 

The Rev. Levi Parsons, his companion, is thus sketched by 
the eloquent ardor of the Rev. Dr. Squier. " He was more 
like the good Samaritan than the Apostle Paul. If you classed 
him with the eleven disciples, it would be with John rather 
than Peter." The portrait is perhaps deficient in distinctness, 
but Mr. Parsons has added some touches with his own hand. 
"I was often," he says, "in Jerusalem, preaching with great 
success, and once I reasoned before the governor of Smyrna, 
as Paul did before Felix." Like Mr. Fisk, he never converted 
anybody, Greek, Jew, or Armenian, and least of all the gov 
ernor of Smyrna ; but his biographer adds, as if he owed this 
consolation to his readers, " he was among modern missionaries 
what Melancthon was among the Reformers. ^ 

The "eminent female missionary," Mrs. Sarah Smith, also 
visited Syria. Dr. Hooker, who celebrates her rare merits, 
appears to think that he has sufficiently indicated their charac 
ter, when he adds, that "the Rev. Eli Smith, D.D., invited her 
to the relationship of a missionary wife." As this is the only 
fact in their joint career which he records, the rest of the bi 
ography, consisting of scripture texts interspersed with moral 
reflections, it is to be presumed that Dr. Hooker found nothing 
else to communicate. 

The Rev. Daniel Temple was a more remarkable person. He 
took a printing-press, which did a great deal of work, and two 
wives, the latter at different dates, to the Holy Land. His life 
lias been written by the Rev. William Goodell, himself a mis- 



* Biographical Sketches of Distinguished American Missionaries, p. 188. 

f The blunt and honest Dr. Wolff, who often stumbles on truth when his 
vanity does not lead him astray, relates, "without any invidious spirit," that 
while he travelled with Fisk and King, "they occupied themselves chiefly in 
examining ruins, and in collecting antiquities and mummies." Travels and 
Adventures of Dr. Wolff, oh. ix., p. 170, 

{ IHograph ical Sketches, &c., p. 198. 



31 

sionary. "Whoever saw him," observes Mr. Goodell, " would 
be likely to think at once of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Peter, or 
Paul." In spite of this advantageous personal appearance, Mr. 
Temple was as unsuccessful as his predecessors, and the close 
of his history, which exactly coincides with theirs, obliges us 
to conclude that his resemblance to the Patriarchs and Apos 
tles was purely physical. Mr. Goodell, however, of whose own 
qualities we shall have a more accurate knowledge before we 
complete this chapter, assures his readers, that " Jews, Turks, 
and infidels," upon whom Mr. Temple produced only a faint 
impression while dwelling among them, " will some of them 
pronounce his name with something of the same reverence with 
which we should ever pronounce the name of Our Father in 
heaven!" 1 Mr. Goodell seems to have felt that he wronged 
his friend in only ranking him with " Abraham, Peter, and 
Paul." Yet in spite of the remarkable similitude by which he 
at length did justice to his merits, Mr. Goodell relates at last, 
and it is the only historical fact in the narrative, that " he left 
the mission in 1814 :" and lest the world should misinterpret 
so unexpected a climax, evidently unworthy of a being who 
ranks above the Patriarchs and only a little below their Creator, 
Mr. Goodell adds disapprovingly, " The Lord so remarkably 
hedged up his way among the (j-reeks"* 

The English, who have had representatives at Smyrna for a 
long course of years, do not even claim any success, either with 
the Greeks, or with any other race. A gentleman who is apt 
to exaggerate their influence candidly admits, in 1854, that 
"although Smyrna has long had the advantage of resident 
missionaries, and of the faithful ministry of a devoted clergy 
man, in the Rev. W. B. Lewis, the British chaplain, there are 
few signs of religious life among the native population. "f 
There are, in fact, ample signs of life, but not such as this 
writer could detect or appreciate, because they were all exter 
nal to his own communion. Within its narrow limits his de 
scription is apparently accurate. " It is in the spirit of enter 
prise," says Mr. Jowett, " most especially that the Church of 
Christ," he means the Church of England, "appears defective.";): 
" There is little of a practical and active missionary spirit to 
be found among the members of the Church of England," said 
the late Mr. Warburton. " When I was in Syria, there was 
not an English missionary who had taken a university degree ; 
nor, with one exception, was there a Christian-born minister of 



* Pp. 214-218. 

f Journal of a Deputation to the East, vol. ii., p. 570. 

\ P. 392. 



32 CHAPTER VIII. 

our Church."* Admiral Slade mentions a single Anglican 
clergyman, whom he considers an exception by character to 
his companions, and adds, " Where did his labors lie ? Among 
the Greeks, and without effect !"f 

The Americans, as usual, have been, not more successful, but 
more ambitious and aggressive. Dr. Durbin, their fellow- 
citizen, informs us, in 1845, that they had printed in Smyrna 
up to that date thirty-two million two hundred and forty-seven 
thousand seven hundred and sixty pages. Dr. Wilson records, 
in his account, an increase of some twenty millions. What 
the inhabitants of Asia Minor have done with all this printed 
paper, amounting to about one hundred and fifty thousand 
octavo volumes, does not appear. Indeed, the only effect of 
the presence of the various Protestant sects, in Smyrna, who 
distribute pensions which are much esteemed, and books which 
nobody reads, has been to afford amusement to these languid 
Asiatics, though only for a brief space. The excitement lasted 
a few months, and then both Turks and Greeks decided, as 
Protestant travellers assure us, that the missionaries had ceased 
to be entertaining. " Even the Armenians themselves," says 
Dr. Valentine Mott, with unfeigned astonishment, " though 
professing Christianity, joined with the deluded Turks in sup 
pressing the Protestant schools!";): And Dr. Durbin, also, an 
American preacher, relates that his co-religionists, of various 
denominations, were too much occupied in their accustomed 
pastime of fighting with one another, to allow a combination 
of {heir efforts against the oriental sects. " It is to be re 
gretted," he observes, "that they have come into collision with 
each other in the midst of these ancient churches, and in the 
presence of the Turk. The chief ground of collision is the va 
lidity and authority of their respective ministries," a question 
which, he seems to think, they might have discussed more ad 
vantageously at home. 

Another sympathizing writer, who laments the trivial super 
stition which makes " keeping the Sabbath" the chief article of 
the missionary creed, says, " We draw down contempt on that 
which we seek to further, when we make it seem as though 
our religion consisted in the observance of the Sabbath."] 

* Ch. viii., pp. 117-18. 

f P. 518. 

Travels in Europe and the East, by Valentine Mott, M.D., p. 404. 

Vol. ii., ch. xxxv., p. 298. The incessant wranglings of these gentlemen 
have become so notorious, that when they wrote a complimentary letter to Earl 
Cowley, who foolishly encouraged them, according to the deplorable traditions 
of English diplomacy, that ambassador advised them " to prevent further quar 
rels," and " to respect the religious creed of others, as they desire to have 
their own respected." Mason, Three Years in Turkey, p. 241. 

|j Wayfaring Sketches, ch. viii., p. 170. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 33 

Yet the Protestant missionary always begins and ends with 
this precept. 

Both the English and Americans have been especially un 
successful with the Greeks, the very class to which they have 
mainly directed their attention. Mr. Arundell, a man of 
learning and intelligence, who was for some years British 
chaplain at Smyrna, expresses much dissatisfaction with their 
" ingratitude," as w r eli as with the levities which they practised 
in their conduct towards himself. He sent a young Greek, 
after due instruction, and an expenditure from which he hoped 
better results, as schoolmaster to Kirkinge. Unfortunately he 
paid him in advance. "He went to Kirkinge, looked at it, 
said it was an askemos topos, a horrible place, and settled 
himself in Syria, without deigning to write me a word," a 
discourtesy which Mr. Arundell resented the more keenly, 
because he had " for some time assisted in keeping him and 
his mother from starving."* 

But these Greeks are incorrigible until they are brought 
within the influence of the Church. Anglicanism and Method 
ism are too weak to hold them, and only succeed in inspiring 
their ingenious malice. Nothing less mighty than the Church 
can baffle their intrigues, or rouse them from their petulant 
indifference. " Are yon acquainted with Ephesus?" said the 
Count D Estourmel to a Greek, whom he wished to employ as 
a guide to the antiquities of the apostolic city. " Yes," replied 
the luxurious Demetrius; "I have eaten larks there with M. 
de Stackelberg, and drank Chian wine with Mr. Dodwell."f 
These were his recollections of Ephesus. 

But there is a power in Smyrna which can stir the hearts 
even of such men as these. "The success which attended the 
Romish missionaries," says Mr. Jowett, "evidence of which 
exists in their numerous converts throughout every part of this 
region, should be an encouragement to Protestants."^ He did 
not consider that if Protestants would emulate that success, 
they must first become Catholics. Thirty years later, another 
English writer, though he is unable to re-cord any Protestant 
progress during that long interval, observes, that " the Roman 
ists comprise probably Jive-sixths of the Frank population at 
Smyrna. In ten years from 1830 to 1840 they more than 
doubled their numbers, though they have not been able to 
purchase a single convert, or bestow a single pension, and are 



* Discoveries in Asia Minor, vol. ii., ch. xi , p. 271. 
f Journal d un Voyage en Orient, tome i.. p. 213. 
\ P. 368. 

Young, The Levant and the Nile, ch. iii., p. 74. 
VOL. ii. 4 



34: CHAPTER VIII. 

not only poor, bat have sworn before the altar to remain pooi* 
to the end of their lives. 

" My greatest hope," said the Archbishop of Smyrna some 
years ago, " is in our schools, in which the population of 
Smyrna, by the religious education imparted to them, are com 
pletely regenerated."" Already the Lazarist Fathers had two 
hundred and fifty pupils in their male schools, and the priests of 
the Missions Etrangercs one hundred and twenty students in 
their college. Twenty native priests, added to an equal number 
of European missionaries, attested the influence of the education 
which they had received. Noble institutions have since then 
been created, and Smyrna now rejoices in possessing those 
Sisters of St. Yincent who teach, by their presence and 
example, the charity which only the true faith can inspire. 
" In seasons of sickness," says Mr. Wortabet, whose profession 
of Protestantism does not prevent his admiring the Sisters of 
Charity, " whilst others flee to the mountains for a better 
atmosphere, they have been seen going from house to house, 
heedless of contagion from cholera, fever, or holes steaming 
with heat and stench, enough to make any one sick. One by 
one falls down by the bedside of the dying sufferer. They die, 
but their memory lives, and no wonder many rise up to call 
them blessed."* 

If any further proof of the influence of the Catholic religion 
in Smyrna, and of the virtues displayed by its teachers, be 
required, it is impressively conveyed in the angry confession of 
a Protestant missionary, the Rev. I. Calhoun, a confession 
appropriately recorded by the pen of Dr. Wilson, that even 
" among the Protestants there are few who are decidedly anti- 
Roman Catholic."f 

"The Eev. Messrs. Wolters, father and son," of Smyrna, 
thus report to the Church Missionary Society, in 1862 : ;f " The 
number of native Christians connected with our mission has not 
increased." Their congregation, they say, " is mixed, consist 
ing of native, English, and Dutch Protestants, and Greeks, the 
latter sometimes entering the chapel, but mostly standing at the 
open door." It was probably this disrespectful attitude which 
impelled the "father and son" to observe, with suitable 
emphasis, "the Greek Church is dead, dead in trespasses 
and sins. A missionary living long among them cannot but 
feel deeply for their spiritual welfare." " Mr. Wolters, junior," 
adds, "in conversing with Mussulmans it is impossible to avoid 



* Syria and the Syrians, ch. xv., p. 104 (1856). 
f Lands of the Bible, vol. ii., p. 577 
j Report, p. 61. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 35 

controversy. But I feel that this is not productive^ much 
good." Yet these gentlemen, who are German- Anglican min 
isters, still remain, and will probably long remain, in the city 
of Smyrna, though the native disciples "have not increased, 7 
the Greeks amuse themselves at the open door, and the Mus 
sulmans provoke a controversy in which the victory appears to 
be always on their side. 

In Jaffa, Mr. Gruhler, another German exponent of Angli 
canism, informs the same missionary society that he has " six 
or seven boys" in his Protestant school. He does not say how 
these Syrian students were attracted, nor what progress they 
have made in abandoning their own religion, or in adopting his; 
but he adds, "I think we could have a nice school there, if the 
schoolmaster was as zealous as he is avaricious." This intelli 
gent schoolmaster was apparently one of those who had not 
advanced beyond " the open door." 

Bey rout is a more important place, but not more consoling to 
the supporters of Protestant missions. " There are ten thousand 
Christians in Beyrout," says the Rev. Dr. Durbin, " the great 
majority of whom are Roman Catholics." Yet a few years ago 
they were only a handful; and moreover, "Beyrout is the centre 
of the American missions in Syria," and ki the missionaries have 
several presses here," which consume a good deal of paper, but 
do nothing else. Mr. Neale notices " the superb nunnery in 
course of erection here for the Sisters of Charity, whose advent 
has given great satisfaction to the Catholics of Beyrout ;" as 
well as their "boarding-school for young ladies, day-school for 
poor girls and Arabs, and hospital for sailors."* Mr. Cuthbert 
Young observes, in 1848, that "the Jesuit establishment at 
Beyrout is said to be one of the most efficient, and many 
Maronite and Greek children are educated in their school." 
Lastly, the candid Mr. Warburton says : " I was much struck 
by the zeal, talent, and tact exhibited by the monks." 

Sidon is no exception to the usual rule. It contains, we learn 
from a Protestant missionary in 1862, one thousand seven hun 
dred and lifty Christians, of whom one thousand six hundred are 
Catholics, and one hundred and fifty separated Greeks.f Prot 
estantism is wholly unfruitful. 

Aleppo is still more worthy of our attention. Even Dr.- Wil 
son tells us that the Jesuits here " applied themselves to tin 
study of the Eastern languages with a devotion seldom sur 
passed." And then he adds : " They brought a considerable 
number of persons within the pale of the Romish Church, and 

* Syria, Palestine, &c., vol. i., ch. xiii., p. 241. 

\ The Land and the Book, by W. M. Thomson, D.D., ch. ix., p. 108. 



36 CHAPTER VIII. 

they paved the way for the ultimate establishment of the papal- 
Greek, papal-Armenian, and papal-Syrian sects." But if this 
gentleman finds nothing to say against the earlier missionaries, 
he seeks relief by informing his readers, without the least hesi 
tation, that as to the present Jesuits in this region, " their 
morality is of the loosest kind."* Probably he never saw one 
of them, and knows nothing whatever about them ; but it was 
a safe assertion, and was sure to be welcomed by his readers. 

We need not reply seriously to such an assailant ; but here is 
an example of these modern Jesuits, whose loose morality Dr. 
Wilson deplores. Father Riccadonna wrote a few years ago to 
his superior in these terms, in obedience to directions which 
required an exact account of his position : "I will tell you in 
confidence that we are living in destitution, without clothes, 
without shelter, without provisions. What others cast aside 
would be precious to us. A little thread, some buttons, and a 
packet of needles would be a most acceptable gift. For want 
of these we go for months together with our clothes in rags. 
Praise be to God ! It is necessary to have tasted these precious 
sufferings to know their value and their sweetness. May it be 
my lot to suffer them always. "f 

Let us return to Aleppo. In 1818, the British Consul-Gen 
eral reported that "Aleppo is gradually drawing, and nearly 
drawn over to the Roman Catholics. 5 :}: In 1854, a zealous 
Protestant relates, that of twenty thousand Christians, seven 
teen thousand five hundred are already Catholics. 

Monseigneur Brunoni, Archbishop of Taron, and Apostolic 
Legate in Syria, gave this account of them in October, 1855 : 
"The Catholic community in Aleppo, governed by pious and 
zealous pastors, appear docile to their teaching, and animated 
with religious sentiments in a manner very consoling to witness. 
I speak of what I have seen, having been invited to celebrate 
the Holy Sacrifice in the churches of the different liturgies, on 
which occasions the evident devotion and fervor observable in 
all was very edifying. The day on which I officiated for the 
Armenians, the pious and learned Paul Balit delivered an ex 
cellent discourse in reference to the conversions of the previous 
year, and on the majesty and superiority of the Catholic religion. 
His words made the truth so evident that an inhabitant of the 
neighborhood, who was a schismatic, and happened to be 
present, was convinced of his errors, and renounced them on 
the spot."[ 

* P. 573. 

f Annales, tome vii., p. 241. 

t Asiatic Journal, vol. vi., p. 503. 

S Journal of a Deputation, vol. ii., p. 822. 

| Annals, vol. xvii., p. 137. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 37 

" In Aleppo," says a Protestant minister, the Rev. G. Badger, 
in 1852, "where they once numbered several hundred families, 
not more than ten Jacobite families now exist, the rest having 
joined the Church of Rome." This unwilling witness adds, 
that " the same secession has left them only a name at Damascus. 
The Jacobite community of Bagdad has followed the example 
set them by their brethren at Aleppo and Damascus." And 
then he performs the usual task for which Protestant travellers 
seem to be employed by Providence in all parts of the world. 
" If the truth is to be told, it must be confessed that, however 
much to be deplored this secession may be, the Syrian prose 
lytes to Rome are decidedly superior in many respects to their 
Jacobite brethren."* Yet this gentleman " deplores" that they 
should cease to be heretics, sunk in corruption and ignorance, 
though they become " decidedly superior" as members of the 
Catholic Church. He does more ; he rails at the Catholic 
missionaries for "forming a schism," and then proposes to the 
Anglican Establishment to re-convert these neophytes from 
their " Romish" errors ! It seems that if we desire to find 
unequalled examples of this kind, we must now look for them 
in the Anglican clergy of the High Church school. But we 
shall hear of Mr. Badger again. 

The Turks appear to discriminate more exactly than Mr. 
Badger between heretics and Christians. Bishop Bonamie 
reports, that at the Catholic funerals in Aleppo, " Janissaries, 
who are themselves Mahometans, precede the Cross, and oblige 
all whom they meet on the way, without excepting the Turks, 
to behave with respect and reverence before this sign of our 

salvation."! 

Of the Protestants in Aleppo for they have there also their 
usual printing press, which works night and day with the usual 
results an eager advocate tells us, " On more than one occa 
sion have the ecclesiastical authorities ordered all Protestant 
books, all Bibles from Protestant presses, &c., to be burned, 
destroyed, or delivered into their hands.";}: Of one school of 
missionaries in that city, Mr. Walpole says, "The Presbyterian 
mission here bides its time, and perhaps I may say nothing has 
yet been done by them." He remarks also that the mission 
aries do not even " kneel at prayers ; which," he observes, 
" seems a cold form of adoration. " Their Moslem neighbors 
are probably of the same opinion. 

* The Nestor ians and their Rituals, by the Rev. G. P. Badger, vol. i., 
pp. 63, 180. 

f Annales, tome viii., p. 553. 

j: Journal of a Deputation, p. 822. 

The Antayrii, vol. i., cli. xiii., p. 205. 



38 CHAPTER VIII. 

Returning towards the south, let ns visit Damascus. Here 
also we meet the usual facts. " The Christians," says Mr. 
Warburton, " for the most part belong to the Latin Church." 
Times are changed since, in 1351, twenty-two Catholics were 
crucified in Damascus on the same day.* " I believe about 




It was in 1832 that the Syrian Bishop of Damascus was recon 
ciled to the Church, together with his numerous household and 
relatives. At the present day, Dr. Wilson informs us, the 
Catholics have " the most splendid church which Damascus 
contains;"! and then he adds, as if to counterbalance these 
unwelcome proofs of their progress, " In its services it is diffi 
cult to recognize the simplicity of Christian worship." 



The " simplicity" of his Presbyterian co-religionists, at 
o and elsewm 



here, who refuse to kneel in the presence of 
that God before whom the archangels hide their faces, and even 
their Immaculate Queen worships with awful fear, is more 
agreeable to Dr. Wilson. To insult the Most High, even while 
they imagine they are adoring Him, is commendable " simpli 
city," though Daniel "fainted away and retained no strength. * 
even before the presence of an angel. T If Dr. Wilson had seen 
that other angel, " having, a golden censer," to whom " was 
given much incense," that he might oifer it " before the altar 
in heaven ;"** he would perhaps have suggested to St. John, 
who did see it, that it was a very " unscriptural" ceremony, and 
extremely deficient in simplicity. If he had entered that 
temple, in which even the " nails of gold," and the " wings of 
the cherubim," and " the curtain rods" were all prescribed and 
fashioned by Divine inspiration, and where priests, arrayed in 
jewelled robes offered a mystical sacrifice by Divine command, 
he would perhaps have ventured on the same criticism. It 
would have been imprudent, for the Hebrews made short work 
of blasphemers. Yet Calvin, the author of the Presbyterian 
religion, pushed the claims of " simplicity" still further, and 
marvelled that the Son of God did not rebuke the " supersti 
tion" of the woman in the Gospel, who was healed by touching 
" the hem of His garment !" It was intolerable that God should 



* Henrion, tome i., ch. xviii., p. 195. 
f The Land of the Morning, ch. xv., p. 271. 
i Biblical Researches in Palestine, p. 462: 
Annales, tome vi., p. 291. 
J_ Lands of the Bible, p. 581. 
1 Dan. x. 8. 
** Apoc. viii. 3. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 39 

thus sanction the principle of relic worship, and the Genevan 
bade his disciples take note of the error."" Surely the Prus 
sian philosopher had reason to exclaim. " The Calvinists treat 
the Saviour as their inferior, the Lutherans as their equal, and 
Catholics as their God."f 

Let us return to Damascus. Another English writer, of the 
same school as Dr. Wilson, notices in 1854. that " there are in 
Damascus three Latin monasteries ; the buildings are good, and 
have libraries attached to them, containing good collections of 
books in the oriental and other languages ; there are also large 
day-schools under the direction of the priesthood :":{: and then 
he scoffs at them as " concealed Jesuits." The Jesuits have 
not the habit of concealing themselves, and the objects of his 
dislike, were, in fact, Franciscans and Lazarists. That their 
schools are more accurately appreciated by the Damascenes 
than by this Protestant tourist, we learn from Dr. Frankl, who 
says, " It is worthy of notice that the Jews and Mohammedans 
sometimes send their children to the schools taught by the 
French missionaries of the order of St. Lazare." Ubicini also 
relates, that "their two schools were frequented, in 1856, by 
four hundred and fifty children," which perhaps accounts for 
the irritation of their English visitors, and that at Beyrout, 
Salonica, Aleppo, and wherever the Lazarist missions extend, 
" hundreds of children of all creeds receive elementary instruc 
tion freely and gratuitously." 

A well-known German Protestant, who visited the Francis 
can schools at Damascus, expresses surprise and admiration at 
the patient charity of men who had abandoned all they have 
since been massacred by Turks to labor in this field, and ex 
claims, "The natural and primitive simplicity with which they 
follow their calling delighted me much." Yet an Anglican 
missionary, who, during a long residence in Syria, had only 
learned to defame the works which he knew not how to imi 
tate; who spent his time in sneering at Franciscans and Lazar 
ists, and even at those Sisters of Charity of whom the more 
discerning Moslem speaks with affection and reverence ; affects 
to deplore the miserably defective education which attracted 
scholars of every class and creed, and of which other Protes 
tants will presently describe to us the real character. || It is 

* " Scimus quam proterve ludat superstitio. . . . Quod a veste hcesit potius, 
forte zelo inconsiderate paululum a via deflexit." Comment, in Nov. Test., 
tome i., p. 220 ; ed. Tholuck. 

f Dictionnaire des Apologistes Involontaires, introd., p. 31 ; Migne. 

J Journal of a Deputation to the East, vol. ii., p. 488. 

Countess Halm-Halm, Letters, &c., vol. ii., Letter xxi., p. 55. 

I Five Years in Damascus, by tlie Rev. J. L. Porter, M.A. ; vol. i., ch. ML, 
p. 145. 



4:0 CHAPTER VIII. 

creditable to English arid American travellers, that almost 

the only individuals of either nation Avho use such laniruajre 


are the missionaries themselves. 

We should perhaps not err* in attributing the exasperation 
which betrays itself in such expressions to the mortification of 
personal failure. After many years of lavish expenditure, 
they had so utterly wasted their time and money, that Mr. 
Wortabet unwillingly confesses, in 1856, that the five Protes 
tant missionaries in Damascus had only secured sixteen pre 
carious pensioners, who were probably all their servants and 
dependents ;* and Dr. Frankl pleasantly adds, " The mission 
ary society has as yet thrown out its golden net at Damascus 
in vain. 7 ^ 

On the other hand, English and American travellers attest 
in chorus the contrast to which they could not close their eyes, 
and the continual triumphs of the Catholic faith, throughout 
all Syria, in spite of the poverty of its apostles. " At Diarbe- 
kir, some years ago," says Mr. Badger, " the whole Greek com 
munity in the town became Romanists.":}: The Nestorians in 
the neighborhood quickly followed their example. " At Ain- 
tab, an American missionary,* who had been distributing Bibles, 
" was driven out of the town by the Armenians," says Mr. 
Walpole ; " not, I believe, without insults and some violence." 
4nd so uniform are these facts, as we shall see more fully 
hereafter, that a Protestant witness observes, that even in, 
places " whereafew years ago there were no Roman Catholics, 
we now find a fair share of the population belonging to that 
faith."| Mr. Jowett had reason to say, " All Syria is com 
paratively occupied by the Roman Catholics." 

Before we quit Syria to enter Palestine, it seems impossible 
to omit one or two reflections upon what we have already 
heard. It is proved, by Protestant testimony, that throughout 
these regions the Church is constantly attracting to herself 
great numbers from the various dissident communities. " Men 
of virtue and piety," says a learned English writer, familiar 
with many of the forms of oriental society, " are often found 
to pass from the Eastern to the Roman Catholic communion, 
while no instance, perhaps, or scarcely an instance, can be ad 
duced even of an individual of acknowledged piety and learn 
ing passing over to the Eastern Church."Tf 

* Syria and the Syrians, ch. vii.. p. 203. 
f The Jews in the East, vol. i., ch. viii., pp. 292, 7, 9. 
J Badger, vol. i., p. 3. 
Walpole, ch. xvi., p. 255. 
Wortabet, vol. ii., ch. xiv., p. 86. 
Palmer, Dissertations on the Orthodox Communion, p. 13. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 41 

Some Protestant writers are still more emphatic, and we must 
not conclude this portion of our subject without noticing their 
remarkable language. "Not one of the ancient Churches," 
says the Rev. George Williams, formerly a chaplain at Jerusalem, 
" but was visited by missionaries of the Propaganda, or the 
enterprising members of the Society of Jesus. . . . When we 
consider the zeal, ability, and persevering practice of the best 
instructed and most devoted missionaries that the world has 
seen since primitive times, it is no matter of surprise that their 
self-denying labors were crowned with abundant success."* 

" It is difficult," says another English Protestant, familiar by 
long experience and observation with the East and its various 
races, "to meet and converse with the zealous and talented 
missionaries of the Propaganda in the East, and not feel warmly 
for their situation. They are exposed to no ordinary trial of 
patience. Educated at Rome, accustomed to Italian refinement 
and conversation, then sent to some remote spot remote from 
causes of association rather than from distance destined to pass 
their lives with a people as far beneath them in mental culture 
as separated by habits, they may be truly said to be banished 
men in the sharpest sense of the term. Still we might at times 
rather envy than pity them. Commiseration is lost sight of in 
our admiration at the disinterestedness and perseverance which 
they ever display in the performance of their duties a good 
conscience their reward, heaven their guide. No shadow of 
preferment looms in the distance, no hope of distinction cheers 
them on, not one of the ordinary inducements to exertion 
prompts them. Courteous with the gentleman, confiding with 
the peasant, caressing with the distressed, they are, as St. Paul 
expressed himself to be, All things to all men. Multiply the 
generations since the Osmanleys conquered the country, and it 
will appear that millions of souls have been saved by these 
advanced sentinels of Christianity, ever at their post to reclaim 
the wavering and confirm the steadfast."f 

Dr. Durbin, an American Protestant minister, who visited 
the same lands, contents himself with admitting the facts, " It 
is not possible," he says, "to estimate the success of the Romish 
missions to the Oriental Churches, but the general fact is clear, 
that they have divided them all ; so that there is in Asia a 
Papal-Greek Church, a Papal-Armenian Church, a Papal 
Church among the JSTestorians, a Papal Church among the 
Syrians, and also many of the Copts in Egypt. "J 



* The Holy City, vol. ii., ch. vi., p. 570. 

f Slade, Turkey, Greece, and Malta, vol. ii., ch. xx., p. 425. 

| Vol. ii., p. 287. 



42 CHAPTER VIII. 

Other Protestant writers, deeply impressed, in spite of 
incurable and fatal prejudices, with the grave lessons which 
they have brought away from the East, and especially with the 
demoralizing influence of Protestant missions, do not hesitate 
to avow their condemnation of efforts which lead only to evil. 

"I frankly avow my opinion," says the Rev. Mr. Spencer, 
who seems to be a Scotch Episcopalian minister, " that missions 
from the various religious bodies who contribute to the support 
of the gentlemen laboring in Syria can never l>e productive of 
permanent results. I was astonished to learn how little had, 
after all, been done." And again: "It deserves to be well 
weighed by Protestants at home, that no mission of theirs to the 
Oriental Christians has succeeded to any extent commensurate 
with the means, the men, the time devoted to their conversion : 
may it not properly be asked, Are we ever likely to succeed any 
letter?"* 

Dr. Wolff says, "I cannot help thinking that the Church 
Missionary Society, though they might send their Lutheran 
missionaries to the heathen, ought never to send them to the 
Eastern Churches. It is a gross insult to them,"f and ap 
parently a very unprofitable one. lie adds, with characteristic 
frankness, that he "is sorry to make the declaration, that the 
worst people among the Eastern natives are those who know 
English, and have been converted to Protestantism! 1 ^: 

Mr. Williams also observes, though probably without much 
hope of obtaining a hearing, "There is surely an ample field in 
the East for the European and American missionaries, without 
encroaching on other Churches." Jews, Druses, Mahometans, 
Arabs, and others, are the avowed enemies of Christianity, as 
lie remarks, yet the luxurious emissaries of Protestantism 
hardly even attempt to make any impression on them, and 
invariably fail when they do. " They are merely playing at 
mission*" adds Mr. Williams and with this frank confession 
we may conclude "while they limit themselves to a task in 
volving no risk, and requiring no sacritices." 

It is impossible not to be struck by such unexpected language 
as has now been quoted, from Protestant writers of various and 
conflicting schools, in illustration of the eternal contrast which 
even they discern between Catholic and Protestant missionaries 
and the fruits of their labor. But there is yet another 
emotion, more painful than surprise, which such testimonies 

* Travels in the Holy Land, by the Rev. J. A. Spencer, M.A., Letter xxii., 
pp. 483-4 (1850). 
f P. 232. 

Travels and Adventures, cli. xv., p. 269 (1861). 
The Holy City, vol. ii., ch. vi., p. 597. 






MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 43 

awaken. The witnesses record their evidence, in spite of 
natural prejudice, and careless of the resentment of their less 
candid co-religionists ; and this courage none will refuse to 
applaud. But we may be permitted to deplore that such men, 
so truthful and generous, should have been equally successful 
in banishing another kind of fear, more noble and legitimate 
the fear of Him who has said, "Out of thine own mouth will 
I judge thee" 



JERUSALEM. 

And now let us go to Jerusalem. The project of the King 
of Prussia, the chief of the Lutheran communities, was eagerly 
adopted by a Church always striving to make alliance with 
other heretical bodies, and always unsuccessfully. At last she 
has succeeded. The Church of England in spite of the un 
meaning protests of a class who seem to think, like Pilate, that 
it suffices to wash their hands in order to secure immunity for 
acts which they invariably make their own by acquiescence 
consented to exercise, alternately with a Lutheran, the right of 
nominating a Protestant bishop at Jerusalem. The present 
holder of the office is Dr. Gobat, of whom we heard in Abys 
sinia. An English biographer, of similar religious opinions, 
tells us, that " Gobat, far from recognizing the Church of 
England as the sole, or even the most Scriptural Church upon 
earth, long declined receiving her ordination."* This writer 
plainly intimates that he would never have received it at all, 
but it was the turn of the Establishment to nominate, and he 
was obliged to submit. The accounts of the Protestant mission 
at Jerusalem, and of its results, are so absolutely uniform, with 
the exception of one or two writers who shall be noticed, that 
we may call our witnesses at random. The more serious class 
of Anglicans are ashamed of the whole proceeding, and would 
be glad to bury it in oblivion ; we, however, have no motive 
for declining to discuss it. 

Dr. Gobat s biographer, who is almost indiscreet in his frank 
ness, reveals the secret aim of his party, when he says, " The 
Jerusalem episcopate ought to be a Protestant patriarchate." 
Let us inquire how far this project has been realized. 

If we take the evidence in chronological order, it will run as 
follows. In 1841, an English visitor to Jerusalem says, "We 
went to church at the Consul s, and our congregation amount 
ed to only ten, including an American missionary," and the 

* Evangelical Christendom, vol. i., p. 79. 



44 CHAPTER VIII. 

traveller s own party. "As to the advance of proselytism," 
adds the writer, "Mr. Nicholaison does not consider more than 
five converts have been made during the last period of his 
residence, nine years." 45 

In 1842, an Anglican clergyman still reports the congrega 
tion to consist of " the architect, the bishop s family, with a 
portion of his household, and two missionaries." But, on the 
other hand, this gentleman found about eight hundred Catholics 
at Nazareth, " particularly \vell conducted and habited for the 
country ; indeed, the children who attend the school of the 
monastery were quite cleanly, and spoke Italian with fluency."! 
And one of the most distinguished of the Anglican clergy re 
marks of the same mission, where he heard Arab converts sing 
the chants of the Latin Church, " There is no church in Pales 
tine where the religious services seem so worthy of the sacred- 
ness of the place ;"J while another observes that the Catholic 
women of Bethlehem are " as noted for their independence and 
moral character as for their beauty. " 

In the same year, an American traveller, who omits even to 
allude to the " Protestant patriarchate," as if he had failed to 
discover it, writes as follows: "Every traveller who has visited 
Jerusalem must have been struck with the contrast between the 
intelligence, wit, and learning of the friars of the Latin con 
vent, and the besotted and gross ignorance of the Greek monks, 
whose superstitious fanaticism is but little removed above that 
of the Mussulmen."|| And this is confirmed, with characteristic 
felicity of language, by the author of Eothen^ when he says of 
the " Padre Superiore," and the " Padre Mission ario" of the 
Jerusalem monastery, " By the natives of the country, as well 
as by the rest of the brethren, they are looked upon as superior 
beings; and rightly too, for nature seems to have crowned them 
in her own true way. The chief of the Jerusalem convent was 
a noble creature ; his worldly and spiritual authority seemed to 
have surrounded him, as it were, with a kind of Court, and 
the manly gracefulness of his bearing did honor to the throne 

which he filled If he went out, the Catholics of the place 

that hovered about the convent would crowd around him with 



* Mrs. Dawson Darner, vol. i., p. 309 ; vol. ii., p. 33. 

f Egypt and the Holy Lund, by W. Drew Stent, vol. ii., ch. ii., p. 44 ; ch. vi., 
p. 148. 

i Sinai and Palestine, by Artlitir Penrhyn Stanley, M.A., p. 437. 

The Pilgrim in the Holy Land, by the Rev. Henry B. Osborn, M.A., ch. 
xvi., p. 200. 

| Tour through Turkey, Greece, &c., by E. Joy Morris, vol. i., ch. vi., p. 116. 
Dr. Thomson also contra sts the " decorum and solemnity of deportment of the 
Latin monks" with the grossness of " the Greeks and Armenians." The Land 
and the Book, ch. xlii., p. 650. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 45 

devout affection, and almost scramble for the blessing which 
his touch could give."* 

In 1843, Mr. Millard arrives at the gloomy conviction, "that 
Jerusalem is of almost all other places the least accessible by 
Protestant missionary labors. "f 

In 1844, a witness of a different class appears. The reader 
may possibly remember the Rev. I.Tomlin, an Anglican minis 
ter, who visited China and so many other places, always in 
submission to " calls" which he had not courage to disobey. 
Mr. Tomlin says, "The labors of the Protestant Bishop of 
Jerusalem have been remarkably blessed of the Lord." He 
says it quite seriously, and evidently without forecasting what 
later witnesses might possibly record on the same subject. Mr. 
Tomlin adds, "The Roman legions are gone forth, and are 
fast preoccupying the ground ;" and then he exclaims, as if 
resenting a personal wrong, " They covertly creep in by the 
way which Protestant Britain has opened !": The observation 
betrays some defect of historical accuracy. There was once a 
Christian " kingdom of Jerusalem," as Mr. Tomlin might have 
remembered, which lasted nearly two hundred years ; and as 
Catholic missionaries have now been there for a good many 
centuries, we may perhaps say, without too much severity, that 
the notion of their recent and covert arrival under British pro 
tection is altogether worthy of Mr. Tomlin. Protestant Britain 
has not often been very generous to " the Roman legions," and 
has certainly not hitherto afforded them much assistance at 
Jerusalem. 

In 1847, Dr. Rae Wilson, who had perhaps not read Mr. 
Tomlin, and was evidently unconscious of being " remarkably 
blessed" in his solitude, says, "At this time I was the only 
Protestant in Jerusalem. " 

In the same year, Tischendorff gives this account of the 
operations of the " patriarchate" which Dr. Rae Wilson and 
Mr. Joy Morris failed to discern : " With respect to the 
baptism of converts in Jerusalem, it is, as far as I know, 
framed to an accommodation with the most modern Judaism. 
Six thousand piastres (about tit ty pounds) are offered to the 
convert as a premium; other advantages are said likewise to 
be considerable."! 

In spite of these attractions, the results could hardly be 
deemed satisfactory ; for in the same year Lord Castlereagh 

* Ch. x. 

f Journal of Travels in Egypt, by D. Millard, ch. xvl, p. 262. 

| Missionary Journals, &c., introd., pp. 13, 15. 

Travels in the Holy Land, &c., ch. xviii., p. 385. 

f Travels in the East, by Constantine Tischendorff, p. 159. 



46 CHAPTER VIII. 

expressed this opinion, founded on personal examination : 
"The progress of conversion, and the interests of Christianity, 
do not at present seem to require or warrant so large a church 
establishment as is here maintained. I inquired in vain for 
any number of converts that could be properly authenticated." 
And then he describes once more the scanty official audience 
with which we are already familiar, " The bishop has scarcely 
a congregation, besides his chaplains, his doctor, and their 
families."* 

Dr. Gobat, however, did sometimes make a convert, as we 
saw in Abyssinia, in the case of the " noble Abyssinian" 
Girgis, who abandoned the Anglican tenets for Mahometanism. 
Here is one more specimen of Dr. Gobat s success. A certain 
" Joseph" was " acknowledged by the missionaries Gobat and 
Mueller as a sincere convert."f Indeed Admiral Slade says, 
and it is perfectly true, that he "figured more than once in the 
reports of the Bible Society, and has been cited as an instance 
of the success attending the missionaries labor." He was 
even "strongly recommended as one admirably qualified to 
preach the Gospel among the Arabs." The qualifications of 
this favorite of the Bible Society were these. Dr. Wolff, to 
whom he gave lessons in Arabic, says that he was " the most 
infamous hypocrite and impostor I ever met with ;" and he had 

food reason to say it, for this "admirably qualified" missionary 
roke open Dr. Wolffs trunk, stole all he possessed, and then 
ran away.:): Dr. Gobat is evidently not happy in his converts, 
nor the Bible Society in its heroes. 

In 1848, we have an official account by Dr. Gobat himself. 
"Our little congregation," he says, "goes its quiet way. I 
regret that we have not more spiritual life. ... I believe there 
is growth in grace with some, and there is less division" $ 
Yet Miss Brerner, an intimate friend of all the parties, laments 
several years later the " bitter schism between Christians who 
attend the same church," which was a jest among the English 
in Jerusalem, and particularly that Mrs. Gobat and Mrs. Finn, 
the Consul s wife, "do not speak to each other, because their 
husbands have become enemies!"] 

In 1852, an English clergyman, who describes the singular 
use made of " the Bibles and tracts so profusely spread among 
the Eastern nations," gives this grave account of the converts 
who had been obtained up to that date: "Their belief is a 

* A Journey to Damascus, &c.. vol. ii., ch. xix., p. 3. 

f Wolff, p. 285. 

J Slade, p. 521. 

^ Margoliouth, vol. ii., p. 295. 

| Travels in the Holy Land, vol. ii., ch. xi., p. 104. 



I 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC, 47 

blank, and their principles distinctly Antinomian. I maintain, 
from observation, that to one class or other of these all the 
proselytes made to Protestantism in the East belong. They 
are either worthless persons, or skeptics and infidels. The 
reports of the missionary societies themselves exhibit the truth 

of these allegations The work of the Protestant missions 

is simply destructive / they first make a tabula rasa of minds, 
on which they never afterwards succeed in inscribing the laws 
of a sincere faith or consistent practice."* 

Two years later, in 1854, the representative of an English 
missionary society still confesses of these ambiguous " converts," 
that " they have not unfrequently some hidden motive of 
worldly advantage."f We shall hear them presently discuss 
ing the real motive among themselves. 

Admiral Slade, in the same year, prepares us for future 
revelations by this statement : " I will not say that any of 
them are gained by actual bribery, but they certainly are by 
promises of employment in the missionary line, promises often 
not fulfilled, in consequence of which the converts are reduced 
to distress."^ The Rev. Moses Margoliouth, now an Anglican 
clergyman, incidentally confirms this unfavorable statement. 
This gentleman, an associate of Dr. Gobat, while he deplores 
the exceeding frailty of Hebrew Protestants, does not on that 
account permit himself to be discouraged. He even derives 
consolation from an unexpected source. " I do not affirm," 
he says, " that baptized Jews do not afford instances of 
consummate rascality. So do the clergy of our beloved 
Church." 

In 1855, Mr. Bayard Taylor, an intelligent American, relates 
that as they could not make converts at Jerusalem, Protestant 
Jews " were brought hither at the expense of English missionary 
societies, for the purpose of forming a Protestant community." 
The process was costly, for he adds, that "it is estimated that 
each member of the community has cost the mission about four 
thousand five hundred pounds ; a sum which would have 
christianized tenfold the number of English heathen. The 
mission, however, is kept up by its patrons as a sort of religious 
luxury/ On the other hand, this gentleman observes, " Many 
others besides ourselves have had reason to be thankful for the 
good offices of the Latin monks in Palestine. I have never 
met with a class more kind, cordial, and genial. "[ 

* Patterson, Journal of a Tour in Egypt, p. 455. 

f Journal of a Deputation, vol. ii.. p. 351. 

J P. 519. 

A Pilgrimage to the Land of my Fathers, vol. ii., p. 334 

f The Lands of the Saracen, ch. v., p. 78 ; cli. vi., p. 100. 



48 CHAPTER VIII. 

% 

"The Latins, says a German Protestant for all the inde- 




hospitality of the Catholic monks, if they could, for they see 
with displeasure their co-religionists dwelling as guests within 
the Latin monasteries ; but " a Protestant establishment is quite 
out of the question," for the following reason : "The several 
parties would not easily agree to whom it should belong, 
whether to the Calvinists or to the Lutherans, to the Presby 
terians or to the Anglican Church."* A little later, however, 
they escaped from their embarrassment ; they could not unite 
in erecting a monastery or a church, but they combined their 
resources and built an hotel. 

In 1857, Mr. Gibson repeats a tale which has now become 
somewhat monotonous. " As yet, few Hebrews have been 
induced here to profess Christianity. Some even of these have 
gone lacJc to Judaism. "f 

The failure, after twenty years of prodigious expenditure, had 
now become so evident, and people at home were beginning to 
talk of it so loudly, that the missionaries seem to have resolved 
that they must make a diversion amongst the Christian sects 
rather than continue to do nothing. But there was this difficulty, 
that they were pledged not to attempt to proselyte the oriental 
sectaries. Relief came to Dr. Gobat in this perplexity from an 
unexpected quarter. The narrator of the incident is the Rev. 
Dr. Stewart, who tells us, that " Lord Palmerston has authori 
tatively stated that the bishop has a right to receive those from 
other communions who apply to him for instructions." This 
pontifical decision of the eminent statesman removed, as might 
be expected, all difficulty except that of procuring the appli 
cants for instructions. In this Lord Palmerston could not offer 
them any assistance. They were left, therefore, to their usual 
methods; and Dr. Stewart sufficiently indicates what they were, 
when he expresses his regret that "there is no way of making 
trial of a convert s sincerity before his admission into the insti 
tution ;" and then frankly allows, that "the principle of giving 
support to every convert I deern faulty.":): 

VVe have perhaps heard enough of the Jerusalem Protestant 
mission and its results, but we must not quit the subject without 
a brief notice of five important witnesses Dr. Frankl, Dr. 
"Wolff, Dr. Robinson, Mr. Williams, and Dr. Thomson, a Jew, a 

* Countess Halm-Halm, Letter xxix. 

+ Recollections of other Lands, by William Gibson, B.A., ch. xxxviii., p. 404. 
; A Journey to Syria and Palestine, by Robert Walter Stewart, D.D. 
(Leghorn), ch. viii., pp. 294, iI03. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 49 

proselyte, and three Protestants, who have all dwelt in Jerusalem, 
and who confirm each other s testimony in an unexpected way. 

The first of these writers, whose work has been introduced 
to English readers by Mr. Beaton, gives this account: " The 
Protestants give earnest-money, and demoralize families. When 
a father sternly rebukes his children, it is not unusual for them 
to reply with the insolent threat, I will go to the mission. " 
He mentions an example of a Jew who had got into difficulties 
by stealing two thousand five hundred piastres, and who, when 
his co-religionists " refused to intercede for him, out of revenge 
went to the mission ;" but as the thief still had some religious 
prepossessions, he implored Dr. Frankl to lend him the sum 
abstracted, " to save him, his wife, and six children from being 
baptized !" Dr. Frankl adds, that this case " may serve as an 
example of the morals and principles of those who are con 
verted ;" and that so little importance is attached to the mo 
mentary profession of Protestantism by a Jew, that his family 
content themselves with observing, " He will soon come back 
after he has helped himself." Indeed, we are told by a friend 
and countryman of Dr. Gobat, that the Hebrew proselyte, when 
he has exhausted Protestant benevolence at Jerusalem, " has 
become more than ever a Jew by the time he has reached Jaffa, 
Hebron, or Tiberias."* 

Dr. Frankl relates also the curious fact that " converts" from 
the Jews " receive baptism in different cities before they reach 
Jerusalem," where they are finally re-baptized, with a fresh 
payment for the operation ; an account which is confirmed by 
the amusing authoress of Travels in Barbary, who is much de 
famed by Mr. Margoliouth for presuming to say of one of his 
Jewish converts, " This is at least the twentieth time he has 
been baptized." And even this was so far from a solitary case, 
that a Polish Jew remarked to some of his friends, " Baptism 
was the only good business we had, and who has spoiled it? 
The Jews themselves, by underselling one another"^ 

Dr. Wolff, who is a still better witness than Dr. Frankl, 
gives a sorrowful account of the London Society for the Con 
version of the Jews. In fifty-two years, he says, not without 
reproaching himself for his own pleasantry, "they had spent 
eight hundred thousand pounds, and only converted two Jews 

* Mislin. Les Lieux Saints, tome iii., ch. xxviii., p. 65. 

f The Jews in the East, vol. ii., ch. ii., pp. 53, 54. Yet the Protestant mis 
sionaries, knowing what their employers expect from them, are never weary 
of supplying the materials for perpetuating the delusion of the home subscri 
bers. Thus one of their number gravely assures his readers, on the authority 
of a Jew, that "in six years all the Jews would become Christians !" Mason, 
Three Years in Turkey, p. 137. 

VOL. ii. 5 



50 CHAPTER VIII. 

and a half I"* Nearly half a century ago, the Rev. Lewis 
Way, ai Anglican minister, generously discharged all their 
liabilities, " took sixteen Jews into his own house, and baptized 
several of them ; but, soon after their baptism, they stolehis silver 
spoons, and one of them was transported to Australia, having 
forged Mr. Way s signature." 

The history which began so inauspiciously never varied. 
A little later, " a young man of extraordinary talents, Nehe- 
miah Solomon, was ordained by Bishop Burgess, .... and 
seemed to be going on well, when he suddenly ran away, after 
having drawn three hundred pounds from the society, and was 
never heard of afterwards." Other examples of the same kind 
so deeply affected Mr. Way, that " at last the dear man died 
at Leamington, broken-hearted." 

Dr. Wollf himself was hardly less impressed by a similar 
series of disasters. "The Jews Society for Promoting Chris 
tianity," he wrote to his friend, Mr. Henry Drumrnond, "has 
been disappointed by every Jew they took up. One became a 
Muhammedan, another a thief, a third a pickpocket," &c. At 
Cairo, " a Jew of high talent" visited Dr. Wolff, and confessed 
" that he had three times professed himself a Muhainmedan, in 
order to make his fortune, and had divorced a dozen wives," 
&c. Upon which he adds, " Wolff preached to him the Gospel 
of Christ, and exhorted him to repentance." It does not appear 
that the exhortation was effectual. 

At Damascus, Aleppo, Jerusalem, wherever lie went, He 
brew " converts" were uniformly of the same type, so that his 
abundant experience constrained him to observe, " Jews who 
are converted by societies are like Eastern fruits cultivated in 
green-houses in Europe, and have not the flavor of those which 
are naturally grown." Yet he never seems to have suspected 
the true cause of so many failures, though he confesses that 
many Jews who had become Catholics have been Christians 
indeed. " Emanuel Yeit, in Yienna," he says; "the two 
Yeits, step-sons to Friederich Schlegel ; Monsieur Ratisbon, of 
Strasbourg ; are all true lights in the Church of Christ." lie 
admits too, with his usual candor, that Ratisbon was converted 
like St. Paul, " suddenly, by miracle," an apparition of the 
Mother of God ; and he adds, " Only those Jews who are con 
verted in such an extraordinary way are worth any thing. r f 

Dr. Robinson, the author of a well-known work on the to 
pography of Jerusalem, confirms all the other witnesses. a The 
efforts of the English mission" he seems to think unworthy of 

* Travels and Adventures of Dr. Wolff, ch. xxiv., p. 417 (1861). 
f Ch. v., pp. 80, 85 ; ch. vi., p. 181. 






MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 51 

serious notice ; while of his own countrymen, the Americans, 

he gives the following account : " The house of ," one of the 

missionaries, "was large, with marble floors, and had on one 
side an extensive and pleasant garden, with orange and other 
fruit trees and many flowers. It furnished indeed one of the 
most desirable and beautiful residences in the city." We have 
been told by the wife of another American missionary, that 
"many are the comforts and pleasant things about this life in 
the East," and her countrymen evidently agree with her. Sur 
rounded by so many enjoyments, to which they would probably 
have aspired in vain in Boston or Philadelphia, we are not 
surprised to learn from Dr. Robinson, that " the plague and other 
circumstances" soon scattered these opulent missionaries, and 
even " conspired to suspend wholly, for a time, the labors of 
the American mission in Jerusalem." 

There is another class of missionaries whom the plague some 
times kills, but never puts to flight. The Protestant agents, 
who would undertake at any moment to teach a St. Francis, a 
Bonnieux, or a Riccadonna, a more "scriptural" and enlight 
ened piety, prefer to run away when danger knocks at their 
doors; and so Dr. Robinson relates, as if the precaution of his 
missionary friends was too natural to require any comment, 
that though on this occasion the plague only acted " mildly," 
" the missionaries broke off their sittings, and those from abroad 
hastened to depart with their families !"* 

It was almost at this moment that the author of a celebrated 
English book published the following narrative: "It was 
about three months after the time of my leaving Jerusalem 
that the plague set his spotted foqt on the Holy City. The 
monks felt great alarm ; they did not shrink from their duty. 
... A single monk was chosen, either by lot, or by some other 
fair appeal to destiny ; being thus singled out, he was to go 
forth into the plague-stricken city, and to perform with exact 
ness his priestly duties. . . . He was provided with a bell, and 
at a certain hour in the morning he was ordered to ring it, if 
h# could ; but if no sound was heard at the appointed time, 
then his brethren knew that he w r as either delirious or dead, 
and another martyr was sent forth to take his place. In this 
way tioenty-one of the monks were carried off"^ 

Dr. Robinson, who does not love Catholics, is fain to confess 
that they do not much resemble his own friends. Of their 
inflexible constancy, although surrounded by every evil ex 
ample, he gives this instance : " The Christians of the Latin 
rite (native Arabs) are said to be descended from Catholic con- 

* Pages 327, 368. 
f Eothen, ch. x. 



52 CHAPTER VIII. 

verts in the times of the Crusades." Centuries have left them un 
changed. The Catholic college in Kesrawan, in which they 
teach Arahic, Syriac, Latin, and Italian, " takes a higher stand," 
he says, " than any other similar establishment in Syria." 
"What he relates of the Maronites we shall learn hereafter. 
The Protestants, he superfluously observes, u do not exist in 
Syria as a native sect." 

Lastly, Mr. Williams, a highly respectable Anglican clergy 
man, and once a chaplain in Jerusalem, who, like most of his 
order, remains wholly unimpressed even by the lamentable facts 
which he discloses, gives us the following information : " It 
was an unfortunate circumstance for our Church that it was 
first introduced to the Christians of Jerusalem, in later times, 
by a Danish Lutheran minister." The Church of Mr. Williams 
has usually been introduced by persons of the same class. This 
one, he says, w T as admitted u to orders in the English Church, 
on grounds of convenience rather than of conviction." But the 
Church of England, if she cannot produce missionaries of her 
own, is wealthy enough to pay for the services of others. " A 
church capable of accommodating four or five hundred persons 
was commenced," Mr. Williams remarks, " while as yet there 
were but eight or ten individuals for whom it would be avail 
able, and even they were there simply with a view to its con 
struction !" They were, he adds, " the clergyman, the architect, 
and his clerk, the foreman of the works, the carpenter, an apoth 
ecary, and one other."* For this professional congregation a 
church was commenced, which, Dr. Durbin says, " will cost 
about one hundred and fifty thousand dollars." 

Mr. Williams next describes the operations of the gentlemen 
who minister in this church : " The missionary operations of the 
society s agents have not been such as to exhibit to the natives 
an example of earnest zeal for the conversion of the Jews, nor 
the treatment of the converts such as to impress them with a 
favorable idea of their discretion." He laments the " serious 
errors and defects in the faith, scandalous irregularities and 
excesses in the practice, of the ill-instructed members of this 
small congregation." Finally, he observes, that "self-sacrifices 
and simple trust were not taught either by precept or example 
by the missionaries at Jerusalem. "f Yet Mr. Williams has 
probably no doubt whatever that the system will continue, at 

* The Ildij City, pp. 579, 587. 

f P. 593. "Mr. Salt complained that the London Society for promoting 
Christianity among the Jews had sent a most unfit missionary to Jerusalem. . . 
who was evidently a mere speculator. He sold medicine to the ladies, in order 
that they might be blessed with children, and pretended to know witchcraft." 
I>r. Wolff, Travels and Adventures, ch. vi., p. 107. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 53 

the same enormous cost, under the direction of the same class 
of men, and with precisely the same results. 

This amiable wrfter, who records facts but seems never to 
draw conclusions, describes also " the very unsatisfactory native 
Protestants" made by the Americans, during the intervals of 
" the plague and other circumstances," and gives examples of 
the class generally. One, an unfortunate Greek apostate, " the 
most favorable specimen by far," after being first an Inde 
pendent, then an Anglican, " had fallen into a state of listless 
indifference and unconcern which it was most grievous to wit 
ness." A second, a Greek monk, "offered himself to Bishop 
Gobat as a Protestant convert." His sole motive was, " that 
the Patriarch had imposed upon him some discipline to which 
he did not choose to submit." Another, " a monk from Mount 
Lebanon, told me he wished to become a Protestant. Why? 
4 1 want to marry. c No other reason ? None. "* 

Lastly, in 1862, Dr. Thomson thus records his candid im 
pressions, after an experience of twenty-five years as a mission 
ary in Syria and Palestine : " Our missionary experience in 
this matter is most painful, and I hope somewhat peculiar. It 
would not be charitable possibly not just to say to every 
applicant, You seek us, not because you have examined our 
doctrines and believe them, but for the loaves and fishes of 
some worldly advantage which you hope to obtain ; and yet it is 
difficult for me at this moment to recall a single instance in 
which this was not the first moving motive." Then relating an 
anecdote of a pretended disciple of Dr. Chalmers, who " almost 
kicked the mercenary wretch out of his house" when he found 
that he wanted to borrow money of him, he adds, that if 
Chalmers "had adopted the same summary mode in Palestine, 
he might just as well have remained at home in his mother s 
nursery for all the good he would have effected here."f 

Such, by the testimony of her own clergy, as well as of 
strangers, is the history of the Church of England in Jerusalem. 
It resembles her history everywhere else., but in the Holy City 
wicli facts seem to acquire additional gravity. Nor is this all. 
Not only do Protestants fail, in Jerusalem as elsewhere, to 
propagate their own religious opinions, they appear even to 
lose in no small number of cases, whatever sentiment of re 
ligion they originally possessed. None but a Catholic can 
safely visit holy places, much less the scenes where th,e Spn of 
God passed the years of His human life. ^ It is useless to 
deny," says Mr. Stanley, " that there is a sliock to the religious 

* Pages 578, 595. 

f The Land an$ the Book, ch. xxvii., p. 408. 



54: CHAPTER Vlir. 

sentiment in finding ourselves on the actual ground of events 
which we have been accustomed to regard as transacted in 
heaven rather than on earth."* In other words, only the be 
liever, whose religion \9> faith and not sentiment, and who is 
able to penetrate with unerring glance all symbolical and sacra 
mental veils, and quick to recognize the footsteps which the 
instinct of love alone can detect, may venture to put himself 
in contact with Hebron, Gethsemane, and Calvary. They, are 
death to others. So like do they look to other places, so little 
do they reveal to the natural eye their stupendous secrets, that 
many who come to gaze cease even to believe. " The com 
mander of an English man-of-war told me," says a writer of 
our own country, " that he once accompanied a party of twenty 
from his own ship to Jerusalem, and that, out of that number, 
seven returned unbelievers, not merely in the authenticity of 
localities, but in Christianity itself? f Such is the value of 
" religious sentiment." 

And even when the results of their visit are less fatal than 
this, they are in a vast number of cases sufficiently serious. It 
is hardly possible to find a Protestant writer of any country 
who does not apply to the Holy Places precisely the same tone 
of criticism in which he would discuss the ruins of Pompeii or 
the fossils of Maine and New Jersey. Indeed he displays, not 
unfrequently, a far deeper interest in relics of the latter class 
than of the former, as well as a more intelligent submission to 
the testimonies of history and science. In Jerusalem he is 
"scandalized" at every step. "The American," says a mis 
sionary of that nation, " who has been pointed to (sic) Plymouth 
Rock, Bunker Hill, or Mount Yernon, and yielded to the hal 
lowed impressions of certainty, must beware how he carries 
the same reverential feelings into the East.":): What, he seems 
to say, are the true sites of the Scourging or the Anointing, 
compared with Bunker Hill and Plymouth Rock ? 

But Mr. Perkins is rivalled by English and German writers. 
" The one spot," says Mr. Dawson Borrer, " which arrested 
more especially my attention," in that city which was to him 
only " a horrid atmosphere of mockery," was not Calvary, nor 
the Ccenaculum, nor the Hall of Judgment ; but a certain 
" spot," on which it was "probable that a bridge of Jewish con 
struction once existed !" 

" I went without the slightest faith," says Miss Brerner, in a 
book which is nevertheless full of false sentiment and artificial 

* Stanley, Sinai and Palestine, p. 426. 

f Mrs. Duwson Darner, ch. iv., p. 92. 

| Residence in Persia, &c., by Rev. Justin Perkins, p. 275. 

Journey from Naples to Jerusalem, by Dawson Borrer, Esq., ch. xxiv., p. 404. 



55 

patlios, " to the sepulchre of Christ the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre." She confesses, indeed, that she was somewhat 
moved by " the evidently deep devotion of the pilgrims," 
though she considered the whole scene " a childish spectacle," 
and "thinks that " our rational Protestant Church" may be 
excused for protesting against, "custom and superstition, by 
standing rigid and stiff, where the Catholic and Greek Churches 
bend their knees and apply their ardent adoring lips."* 

Another English traveller of great repute, the learned Dr. 
Clarke, tells his readers that St. Helena was " the old lady to 
whose charitable donations these repositories of superstition 
were principally indebted ;" while of one tradition, referring to 
the dwelling-place of the Holy Family, a subject which only 
excited his merriment, he briefly remarks, " A disbelief of the 
whole mummery seems best suited to the feelings of Prot 
estants. ^ Perhaps he was right. 

It is certain, at least, that most of his co-religionists agree 
with him. " To Protestant Christians," says an Anglican 
bishop, as if resolved to show that men of his order could sur 
pass all others in fanatical impiety, " it almost seems as if there 
were more need for a crusade to deliver the sacred scenes of 
Palestine from Christian idolaters, than there ever was to 
rescue it from the followers of the False Prophet."^: A Mus 
sulman, in this gentleman s opinion, is far less obnoxious than 
a Catholic. Another highly respectable Anglican minister 
considers the Turkish occupation quite a providential fact, 
expressly designed to check the growth of " idolatry," and 
quotes, apparently with approval, the saying of Mahomet in 
the Koran, "The Christians have forgotten what they re 
ceived from God." 

And while some are content to revile the Christians, others 
avow their misgivings about Christianity itself. " As I toiled 
up the Mount of Olives," says a Protestant writer in 1855, 
"in the very footsteps of Christ, I found it utterly impossible 
to conceive that the Deity, in human form, had walked there 



* Travels in the Holy Land, by Fredricka Bremer, vol. i., ch. iv., pp. 112-16. 
This writer, who is too much absorbed in self- worship to be able to worship 
any thing else, denies the site of Calvary altogether, doubts " the miracle of 
the re-awakening of Lazarus to life," and a good many other things " related 
in the Bible ;" but on the other hand she admires Dr. and Mrs. Gobat, though 
she regrets that not many of their converts " have been considered as remark 
ably good Christians." 

f Travels in Various Countries, by E. D. Clarke, LL.D., vol. iv., ch. iv., p. 174. 

\. Palestine, or the Holy Land, by the llight liev. M. Russell, of St. John s 
College, Oxford, ch. ix., p. 380 (I860). 

Scripture Lands in connection with their History, by G. S. Drew, M.A., 
Incumbent of St. Barnabas, South Kennington, ch. x., p. 357 (1862). 



56 



CHAPTER VIII. 



before me." And so, he adds, " I preferred doubting the tra 
dition."* 

Yet there is perhaps nothing in which all races of men, save 
only Protestants, are so absolutely of one mind, as in the tra 
ditions which relate to the holy sites. " Even the Mussulmans 
themselves," as a learned archaeologist observes, " have always 
been of one mind with the Christians as to the authenticity of 
our sanctuaries. "f " The voice of tradition at Jerusalem," says 
the author of Eothen, "is quite unanimous, and Romans, 
Greeks, Armenians, and Jews, all hating each other sincerely, 
concur in assigning the same localities to the events told in 
the Gospel." "The Biblical traditions," adds M. de Saulcy, 
" are imperishable. Here nothing alters connected with the 
Bible ; nothing is changed, not even a name ; the memory of 
human transactions alone has been lost." 

But there is no admonition in these facts for men who would 
trace with a puerile enthusiasm the path of some favorite hero 
or national idol, and even strew it with costly monuments ; but 
who, when it is a question of One who is to them little more 
than an historical phantom, or at best an object of "religious 
sentiment," prefer "doubting the tradition." "Many Prot 
estants," says a well-known writer already quoted, " look 
upon all the traditions by which it is attempted to ascertain 
the Holy Places of Palestine as utterly fabulous.";): The house 
of Shakespeare, the birthplace of Newton, or the coat of 
Nelson, are relics which they defend against all comers, for 
in these they avow a personal interest ; but the house of Joseph, 
the birthplace of Mary, or the robe of Jesus, these are only 
the theme of a jest, or scouted as " utterly fabulous." It is 
worthy of men and philosophers to guard in sumptuous shrines 
the mementoes of fellow-men, who no longer afford nourish 
ment even to worms ; but it is only a feeble superstition which 
is careful about the despised relics which the God-Man, or His 
Immaculate Mother, have left on earth. Protestants prefer 
" doubting the tradition" which relates only to such memorials. 
This method of obliterating importunate traditions which 

* Bayard Taylor, cli. v., pp. 74, 84. 

f La Terre Sainte, par M. 1 Abbe BourassiS, ch. iv., p. 65. 

J Eothen, ch. ix. 

A learned English traveller observes, without so much as the thought of 
criticism in this case, that the " well authenticated relic" of Mahomet s beard 
"constitutes the sanctity which Moslems attach to the city of Cairwaan." Davis 
Ruined Cities, &c., p. 273. Of the supposed Tomb of Hiram, near Tyre, for which 
there is not a single authority " except native tradition," a Protestant missionary 
says, " As there is nothing in the monument itself inconsistent with the idea, 1 
am inclined to allow the claim to pass unquestioned." Thomson, The Land and 
the Book, ch. xiv., p. 19U. It is only the Christian traditions which are denied, 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 57 

they desire only to discredit, " meets with much approbation," 
we are told, " in speculative Germany ;" where, however, 
they venerate Luther s inkstand, and other relics of the same 
value. "I have undertaken," says a German writer, "to 
convey to the American missionaries at Jerusalem the pamph 
let of a Protestant clergyman, who disputes the locality of the 
Holy Sepulchre, without ever having been at the place!"* If 
he had been there, he would perhaps have disputed the Cruci 
fixion. 

Indeed, these gentlemen are prepared to dispute any thing. 
"Even the Via Dolorosa" Dr. Robinson gayly remarks, "seems 
to have been first got up during or after the times of the 
crusades;" although, as Tischendorft observes, "the real road 
along which Christ walked must have taken this direction." 
Dr. Robinson appears in this case to have been guilty at least 
of an anachronism. Half a century ago, people used to accept 
language of this kind in place of wit, and many reputations 
were cheaply gained by such means. The world has grown 
more exacting, and no longer regards a bad jest as a substitute 
for modesty, wisdom, and learning, f 

"Alas ! for the pilgrim," said the lamented Mr. "Warburton, 
to whose soul may God grant rest " who can scoff within the 
walls of Jerusalem !" But there are men who can do worse 
than scoff, not only in Jerusalem, but within the precincts of 
the Holy Sepulchre. In that spot where Angels tread with 
fear and awe, but where schismatics jest and harangue, the 
writer was lately informed by a relative, an Anglican clergy 
man, that "the only visitors who were not prostrate on their 
faces were Turks and English Protestants, but that the former 
were much the more reverent of the two." And this very rev 
erence at the tomb of Christ, before which the holy women once 
watched with heavy hearts, only moves the disdain of the dis 
ciples of Luther and Calvin and Cranmer. "I have never seen 

and this very writer scoffs at the Holy Sepulchre, finds the tomb of Lazarus 
"every way unsatisfactory, and almost disgusting," and "came out of the 
Church of the Ascension with feelings of utter disgust." Ch. xliv., pp. 675, 697. 
Yet he is one of the most temperate of his class. 

* Countess Hahn-Hahn, Letter xxvii. 

f How different is the temper of Christian faith ! " The faithful have a 
special light, over and above tradition," says one who appears to have been 
taught by the Holy Ghost, "to keep them right about the sites of the Holy 
Places." The same writer observes, "that devotion to the Holy Land is a 
hidden support to Catholic kingdoms, that our Lady prayed that Catholics 
might always have the sanctuary of Bethlehem in their hands, that heathen 
and misbelievers gain temporal blessings from living in the vicinity of the 
Holy Places," and finally, "that the sins of men have forfeited the peculiar 
custody of the Holy Places which our Lady established." Maria Agreda, 
quoted by F. Faber, Bethlehem, ch. vii., p. 382. 



58 CHAPTER VIII. 

any thing so abject" says one of them, "as the conduct of the 
pilgrims before the altar in the Calvary chapel. You can 
scarcely recognize them as men."* To lie prostrate, and to 
weep, at the tomb of the Saviour, this gentleman deems abject 
degradation. " I plead guilty," says a distinguished British 
officer, " to having neither wept, pulled off my boots, nor per 
formed any other antics" in the Holy Sepulchre ; such is his 
rebuke to "pilgrims of another order, who advanced with bare 
feet and many tears. "f And this exactly agrees with the 
equally cynical remarks of an Anglican missionary in Ceylon, 
who once witnessed certain ceremonies in a Catholic church 
which provoked a similar comment: "The great events of onr 
Lord s conception, birth, and life ; His last agony, trial, death, 
&c.; are all acted as upon a theatre. The poor enthusiasts are 
pleased and affected at these scenes.":): He seems to marvel 
that they did not share his own indifference. 

One effect of the temper displayed, with rare exceptions, by 
Anglican and American missionaries in the East, is to be traced 
in the intense scorn and indignation which they have excited 
amongst the oriental races. Thus the Maronites, we are told, 
"now confound under the common name of biblicals all who 
belong to the British nation, and the English tourist can hardly 
traverse the Libanus without peril." 

Mr. Farley, however, while he patriotically declares that, 
without compromising his personal opinions, he enjoyed, in 
every part of Syria, the most courteous and cordial reception 
both from priests and people, and that it is the fault of every 
English traveller if he does not experience the same hospitality, 
allows that the Americans, whom it was not his business to 
defend, are universally detested. "This, I think, is to be attrib 
uted to the manner in which they speak of every thing. Sterne 
says, I hate the man who can travel from Dan to Beersheba, 
and say, "Tis all barren; but such is the usual mode of ex 
pression with American travellers. The traditions of ages are 
overturned, and the local prejudices of the people are shocked 
by the bold and free manner in which they express their 
thoughts. Kefr Kenna is not the Cana of Galilee; the Grotto 
of the Annunciation is not the veritable grotto ; Mount Tabor 
is not the Mount of Transfiguration ; the Workshop of Joseph 
is a myth ; and so on. They would even deny that the Fountain 
of the Virgin is the true fountain ; but, unfortunately, there is 

* The Wanderer in Syria, by G. W. Curtis, ch. xi., p. 211. 
j- Colonel Napier, Reminiscences, &c., vol. ii., ch. ix., p. 137. 
t Rev. Mr. Clough, quoted in Asiatic Journal, vol. i., p. 582. 
| Gorrespondance d Orient, par M. Michaud de 1 Academic Fransaise, et M. 
Poujoulat, tome viii., p. 89. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 59 

not another fountain in the place. What a pity there is not a 
fountain at the other end of the town, so as to afford some 
reason for doubt !"* 

It is creditable to the more enlightened class of Protestants, 
that the excesses of the missionaries are generally corrected by 
the spontaneous testimony, sometimes by the indignant rebukes, 
of lay travellers. The readers of Mr. Farley s work on Syria 
will remember the case of " the Eev. John Baillie, minister of 
the Free Church of Scotland," whose "vulgar and brutal 
bigotry" in the monastery of Mount Carmel was repudiated, 
with such eloquent disgust, by a multitude of English and 
Scotch tourists. But to return to Jerusalem. 

It is true that the Holy City is the scene of almost daily 
scandals, which dishonor Christianity in the sight of the 
unbeliever; but this is only another of the bitter fruits of 
schism. "II s y passait des choses bien plus convenables a 
des salles de spectacles et a des bacchantes qu a des temples et 
a des coeurs contrits."f Yet even these horrors are as nothing 
to those which were enacted on the same spot eighteen centu 
ries ago, before the same two classes of spectators ; of whom, 
then as now, the one " wagged their tongues and shook their 
heads," the other "smote their breasts," and went home to 
weep and pray. 

It is no doubt with regret that France, Austria, and Spain, 
once the guardians of the Sepulchre of Jesus, look on in silence, 
and suffer the Russian to pollute that holy place. " The Greek 
Easter," says Mr. Stanley, and here we may agree with him, 
" is the greatest moral argument against the identity of the spot 
which it professes to honor; considering the place, the time, 
and the intention of the professed miracle, it is probably the 
most offensive imposture to be found in the world. "^ Yet it is 
patronized by Russia, and adopted by the whole Greek com 
munion, although, as Dr. Wilson forcibly observes, "compared 
with the annual miracle of the Greek Church in the crypt of 
the Holy Sepulchre, the great festival of the Aztecs, 1 the 

* Tnco Years in Syria, ch. xxxiv. It is impossible to omit here the impres 
sive admonition suggested in a recent work of the learned De Saul;y, whose 
cautious proceedings may serve as a lesson to jaunty tourists and supercilious 
" missionaries." When the " Arcade of the Ecce Homo" was first pointed out 
to this sagacious observer, its character and general appearance induced him 
to "reject the Christian tradition." Some time after, a tempest, which over 
threw nearly forty houses in Jerusalem, disengaged the modern coating which 
had previously masked the House of Pilate, and revealed the circular arched 
gate behind it. " From that moment," adds M. de Saulcy, " I ceased to enter 
tain the slightest doubt." Narrative of a Journey round the Dead Sea, ch. 
vii., p. 290, English edition. 

f Palestine, &c., par S. Hunk, p. 646. 

J P. 404. 



60 CHAPTER VIII. 

" rekindling of the holy fire," " was replete with significance 
and solemn grandeur, though stained with the blood of their 
hideous sacrifices."* But the nations are no longer one, and 
with division has come scandal, reproach, and dishonor. Hence 
the presence of the Muscovite, the Anglican, and the Calvinist 
in the Holy City hence the scorn of the Moslem. " It is 
much to be deplored," says Mr. Curzon, " that the Emperor of 
Russia, by his want of principle, has brought the Christian 
religion into disrepute." But he is only fulfilling his mission 
as the head and pontiff of a " national" Church ; nor does it 
concern him to purify this defiled temple. His spiritual sub 
jects are only political agents, and both he and they know it. 
He knows, too, that the rrotestants are his sure allies ; that 
they, like him, would rather see the Turk ruling in Jerusalem 
than the Frank ; and that even the " abomination of desola 
tion" is less offensive in their sight than the Cross w^ould be, 
if it were planted again on Mount Sion. 

We have alluded to the influence of Russia in the East, and 
the selfishness of its aims. It will not be out of place to notice 
briefly her pretensions as a missionary church. 



RUSSIAN MISSIONS AND SLAVONIC UNITY. 

A certain school of English religionists, now more inveter- 
ately Protestant, in spite of their frequent use of Catholic words 
and names, than any other section of their community, profess 
a reverence for the Russian Church which the latter is far 
from reciprocating. The motive of this unrequited homage is 
transparent. The Divine unity of the Church, which is the 
glory of her children and the despair of her enemies, which no 
assault can weaken and no art counterfeit, but which the school 
in question have long ceased to contemplate either with admira 
tion or desire, now only provokes them to anger. Unable to 
derive comfort from the dreary spectacle of their own confusion 
and disorder, and unwilling to receive the admonition which it 
suggests, their instincts impel them to seek in other communi 
ties the consolation which their own refuses to supply. Hence 
the affected admiration which the organs of this party now 
display for what they take pleasure in calling " Slavonic Unity." 

Again: the fertility of the missions of the Catholic Church, 
the noble army of her martyrs, and the ever-increasing multi 
tude of her neophytes, contrasted with the sterility of the Sects, 

* Prehistoric Man, vol. i., ch. v., p. 126. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 61 

and the incurable earthliness of their salaried agents, inspires 
in the same men no higher feeling than fretful jealousy or 
impatient malice. Virtues which even the savage has con 
fessed to be Divine leave them cold and indifferent ; and sacri 
fices which have converted nations on earth, and have been 
greeted with hosannas in heaven, only kindle in their hearts 
new resentment and redoubled hate. They have fought so long 
against the Church, that even her most beneficent triumphs 
have become odious to them, and they have resisted with such 
fatal success the invitations of her Founder, that they have 
lost at last the power to recognize either His work or His pres 
ence. Hence the querulous zeal which they have lately man 
ifested in exalting what they delight to call the efficacy of 
" Russian Missions." 

Let us inquire, then, and chiefly from Protestant sources, 
what is the nature of Slavonic unity, and what are the preten 
sions of the Russian Church to be the mother of apostles. 

In many countries, and notably in our own, political does 
not imply religious unity. In Russia, where so many races 
exist side by side, and over whose illimitable steppes Tartar, 
Slavonic, Mongol, and Hindoo tribes are scattered without 
being amalgamated, the one is only valued as an instrument to 
obtain the other. " We must gather around Russia," said 
Peter the Great, who was as incapable of a religious motive as 
of a political mistake, " all the Greeks scattered by discords, 
who are spread in Hungary, in Turkey, and in the south of 
Poland, make ourselves their centre, their support, and thus 
found by anticipation, and ~by a sort of sacerdotal supremacy, a 
universal hegemony."* Consistently with this first principle 
of Muscovite policy, thus crudely announced by the astute bar 
barian, the Church and the priesthood, as well as every secular 
influence, are employed with a tenacity of purpose which 
success does not relax and failure does not discourage, " simply 
to aid and cover the ever active ambition of the house of 
Romanoff, "f Yet in spite of the efforts of a ruler as nearly 
omnipotent as a human agent can be, and of measures as nearly 
unscrupulous as human conscience will permit, both the polit 
ical and religious unity of the Slavonic races have still no ex 
istence, save in the mortified hopes of the Russian Czar. 

As respects the latter, in spite of ceaseless efforts to obtain 
even an apparent uniformity, there were already, thirty years 
ago, " sixteen millions, or about one-fourth of the entire popula- 

* Leonard Choderko, quoted by Colonel Chesney, The Russo- Turkish Cam 
paigns, app., p. 462. 

f The Baltic, the Black Sea, and the Crimea, by Charles Henry Scott ; ch. 
xv., p. 245, 2d edition. 



62 CHAPTER VIII. 

tion, who did not profess the Greek faith ;"* and as to those who 
do, while the educated orders, with hardly an exception, neither 
care nor affect to care for the state religion, so that " with 
many of the mercantile classes, with most of the employes, and 
with the greater part of the landed aristocracy, all faith and 
confidence in their creed has long departed, "f the peasants are 
divided into about fifty sects, and " the hatred and contempt of 
these sects for one another, and the enmity between all of them 
and the orthodox church, are excessive.";): And the evil as 
sumes every year wider dimensions. Since 1840, as Golowine 
reports, the number of Raskolniks, or seceders, has swelled 
"from nine to thirteen millions" being an increase of four 
million dissenters from the national church in twenty years, 
or two hundred thousand per annum ! "It is by religious di 
visions," observes a well-known writer, " that the Russian em 
pire will perish."] 

" There is not at this day," says Schouvaloff, " a single indi 
vidual, priest or layman, who believes in the unity of his church." 
It is not possible that any Russian, conversant with its actual 
condition, should do so. " There are," as Mr. Kohl observes, 
"jive independent heads of the Greek Church in Europe" alone ;*|[ 
viz., the Archbishop of Karlowitz in Hungary, now an inde 
pendent Patriarch, with eleven suffragan bishops ; the Greek 
Synod ; the Bishop of Montenegro, an " hereditary metropoli 
tan ;"** the Patriarch of Constantinople ; and the Emperor of 
Russia. And within the empire, where no two of the Russian 
bishops have any spiritual dependence upon or connection with 
each other, but are simply the paid officials of a common master, 
who appoints, degrades, or discards them at his pleasure, the fic 
titious harmony of the ecclesiastical fabric, in which such for 
midable breaches have already been made, is sustained by 
exactly the same machinery which controls its civil and mili 
tary institutions. So utterly unknown in Russia is that re 
ligious unity which binds by a closer tie than that of blood or 
lineage Catholics of every tongue and race " a oneness not to 
be brought about by human powers, oneness in believing, 
thought, and will."ft 

Many delusions have prevailed in England, and the supposed 

* The Russian Shores of the Black Sea, by Laurence Oliphant, ch. xxvii., 
p. 373 (1853). 

Revelations of Russia, ch. xi., p. 334 (1844). 
Russia, by J. GK Kohl, p. 272 (1842). 

Quoted by Dollinger, The ChurcJi and the Churches, p. 141, ed. MacCabe. 
La Russie en 1839, par le Marquis de Custine, Lettre xxii., p. 134. 
Montenegro and the Slavonians of Turkey, by Count Valerian Krasinski, 
p. 10 (1853). 

** Austria, by J. G. Kohl, p. 259 (1843). 
\\ Moehler. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. C3 

concord of the Russian, Greek, and Oriental Churches, is not the 
least notable among them. There is, in fact, no longer any such 
institution as the " Greek Church," or the " Oriental Church," 
in the sense in which those terms are employed by certain 
Anglican writers. "When De Maistre remarked that " the words 
Oriental Church, or Greek Church, have no kind of meaning 
whatever,"* he stated a fact which no Greek or tiussian would 
think of disputing. Indeed, a Russian writer of our own day, 
in proposing to the world what he considers the only defence 
which candor can offer or reason accept of his own ecclesias 
tical position, begins by affirming, with great energy, that the 
Russian Church has never had any part or lot with the so-called 
Greek Church, " in whose frightful aridity," he adds, " no one 
can fail to recognize the terrible effects of Divine justice."f 
"We shall presently apply the same test to his own communion. 

Long ago, Dr. Wolff expressed surprise and sorrow on discov 
ering that the " Greek Church," like that of Russia, " is no 
longer under the Patriarch of Constantinople." It was Russia 
which suggested, from political motives, the final separation. 
u The new kingdom of Greece," we are told, " in imitation and by 
the counsels of Russia, has withdrawn itself from obedience to 
the Patriarch of Constantinople;" and this ^secession "was 
accomplished in Greece without a shock, and even without a 
rumor ! :(: So utterly extinct is the conception, or even the 
desire of ecclesiastical unity in all the Photian communities. 

And Greece is not the only country which Russia has suc 
ceeded in detaching from the pretended chief of the Oriental 
Church, after abandoning him herself. " The clergy of Georgia" 
observes General Monteith, long ago negotiated with the Archi 
mandrite of Moscow, expressly " to separate them from the 
Patriarch of Constantinople, under whom they had previously 
been." Bulgaria, now inclining towards Catholic unity, is 
nearly lost to the same chief; and the movement of repulsion 
is so general in the Danubian Principalities, that already there 
is a project of a national and perfectly independent " Moldavo- 
Wallachian Synod." Roumelia and the Herzegovina are said 
to be both ripe for a similar movement, which has actually been 
accomplished in the Churches of Cyprus and Montenegro. | 

The dethroned prelate of Byzantium, who would no more 
dare to make his voice heard in Greece or Russia than in France 



* Lettre d une Dame Eusse sur le Schisme et sur I Unite Catholique. 
\ La Mussie, Est-Elle Schismatiqae? par uri Russe Ortliodoxe, p. 21 (Paris, 
1859). 

\ Persecutions et Souffrances de VEylise Catholique en Russie, p. 386. 
Kars and Erzeroum, by General Monteith, cli. i., p. 17. 
J DSllinger, p. 123. 



64 CHAPTER VIII. 

or Spain, and who borrows from his dependants, or from Greek 
and Armenian merchants, the price of the See for which he is 
obliged to outbid his rivals, and which lie is to repay by the 
spoliation of his own flock, has become at length a jest and a 
puppet. " His whole administration," as the learned Dollinger 
observes, " has now been for hundreds of years connected with 
an unexampled system of extortion, corruption, and simony. 
Every patriarch attains by these means to his dignity," and "is 
usually changed every two or three years, being deposed by 
the Synod for bad administration, or compelled to resign. The 
cases in which a patriarch dies in possession of his dignity are 
extremely rare, for those who make a profit by bargains for the 
patriarchate take care that they shall be transacted as often as 
possible."* " The patriarchate at Constantinople," says Leo 
pold Kanke, " forms a commercial institution or bank, in which 
capitalists are well disposed to invest their money. f Such is 
the last end of the so-called Greek Church. 

And not only have both Greece and Russia, after falling 
away from the Chair of Peter, abandoned at length the fallen 
usurper who has converted the sanctuary of St. Chrysostom into 
a deri of thieves, and the throne of St. Gregory into a charnel- 
house of simony, but the solution at ecclesiastical affinity has 
become universal in Asia and Africa, as well as in Europe. 
There is now no other connection or bond of union between 
Athens and Constantinople, between Antioch and Jerusalem, or 
between Moscow and any of them, than the wages which they re 
ceive in common from the Czar, when it suits his purpose to em 
ploy their bishops and clergy as subaltern agents of his polic} 7 . 
" The most insignificant priest," we are told, not only in the 
great centres of Kussian propagandist!!, but " in Albania, Corfu, 
Zante, and Cephalonia, receives a little yearly income from the 
ecclesiastical treasury at Nischnei-Novgorod."^: And the 
nominal rulers of these clerical stipendaries accept without re 
pugnance a similar lot. The three patriarchates which are 
supposed to share the jurisdiction of the Byzantine prelate, and 
of which the holders do not even reside in their shrunken 
dioceses, are now "scarcely more than titular dignitaries, for 
the patriarchate of Alexandria has but five thousand, that of 
Antioch fifty thousand, and that of Jerusalem twenty-five thou 
sand souls," the entire population of the once famous " Oriental 

* Ibid. 

f History of Servia, by Leopold Von Ranke, ch. ii., p. 30 (ed. Kerr). They 
are all alike. " The simoniacal manner in which every preferment is obtained 
in the Bulgarian Church" is described by Krasinski : Montenegro, &c., p. 143. 

\ Dollinger, p. 138- 

Ibid., p. 126. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 65 

Church" being less than the number of Catholics in either of 
the modern dioceses of Westminster, Salford, Liverpool, or 
Glasgow ! 

And even this significant fact does not fairly represent the 
almost incredible humiliation of these Eastern patriarchs. In 
1848, when Pins IX. reproached them with their " want of 
religious unity," and the shameful dissolution of ecclesiastical 
authority, these successors of St. James, St. Mark, and St. John 
replied that, "in disputed or difficult questions" they took 
counsel with each other, and " when they could not agree, re 
ferred the matter for decision to the head of the Turkish 
government!" And this singular pontiff of a Christian Church 
did not refuse the appeal. When some of the Armenian clergy 
had a quarrel not long ago with the Greek priests about the 
custom of mixing water with the sacramental wine, " the dis 
pute was finally brought before the Turkish Reis-Effendi, who 
accordingly gave his decision. Wine is an impure drink, he 
said, condemned by the Koran; pure water only, therefore, 
should be made use of. * 

The ecclesiastical unity of the Russian, Greek, and Oriental 
Churches, which the Czar has so effectually destroyed, is hardly 
more fictitious than the pretended political unity of the Slavonic 
races, which he has vainly attempted to promote. Like other 
" scourges of God," he has found it easier to pull down than to 
build up. Indeed, the whole scheme of Panslavism is only a 
transparent artifice, subtly adopted for the consolidation of the 
heterogeneous elements of the Russian empire. At a very re 
cent period, as Krasinski, an ardent Protestant advocate of 
Panslavism, clearly shows, it proposed " only a literary con 
nection between all the Slavonic nations," and had no political 
element.f The Russians themselves, who wish to profit by it, 
have very little title to be considered a Slavonic nation. 
" Much has been written," says a competent authority, " about 
the Slavonism of the Russians. In blood, however, it is only a 
few that are purely Slavonic.":): And if we examine the for 
tunes of the Panslavist movement, a multitude of facts will 
convince us how little progress it has made. Even nations 
long incorporated with the Russian empire are more than ever 
bitterly hostile to it. Poland, peopled by a Slavonic race, 
sinks on her knees, faint and exhausted by an unequal struggle, 
but still calls in her agony upon Europe for the recovery of her 
lost liberty, and upon the Holy See for the blessing of which 

* Ibid. 

f Panslavism and Germanism, ch. ii., p. 111. 

JThe Nationalities of Europe, by R. G. Latham, M.A., M.D., F.R.S., &c., 
. i., ch. xxxvi., p. 363. 

VOL. II. 6 



C6 CHAPTER VIII. 

she was never more worthy. Finland was united to Russia in 
1808, yet an English writer tells us, in 1854, "We had some 
conversation with educated Fins, and never did we listen to 
more stirring words of burning hatred towards the oppressors 
of their country."* The Slavonic movement in Turkey, we are 
informed, "is anti-Russian in its tendency," though of the 
Turkish population more than seven millions are Slavonians. f 
" The struggle of the Montenegrins" again, though nominally 
of the same religion, " was beheld with indifference by their 
kindred race the Servians. ."J Far from converging to unity, 
religious or political, the populations whom Russia desires to 
amalgamate for her own purposes, and of whom she wishes to 
become the common centre, appear only to regard each other 
with increasing aversion. It is thus that Providence confounds 
a policy the success of which would be fatal to religion, and 
perhaps to civilization. "The Slavonic nations," we are told, 
" entertain as great a dislike to the Greeks as the Turks do." 
The celebrated Servian chief Kara George rejected a Russian 
agent at Belgrade, says Ranke, "because he was a Greek, and 
the Greeks had ever been suspected, nay even hated, by the 
Servians, who were at that very time on bad terms with the 
metropolitan, also a Greek. "|| The Moravians, again, though 
partly of Slavonic origin, have no more sympathy with Russia 
than with Brazil,^ The Armenians also, who hate the Rus 
sians even while accepting their pensions, u are closely allied 
with, and much attached to, their Turkish masters."** In the 
Damibian Principalities generally, as well as in Georgia, while 
the Greeks are detested, connection with Russia has only gen 
erated a more profound aversion, except in the case of ecclesi 
astical and other agents, paid to extend Russian influence. 
" The Christians both of Wallachia and Georgia have been 
converted, by their contact with the Muscovites, from warm 
friends into sullen and suspicious foes."ff Lastly, of the 
Greeks themselves we are told, on the one hand, the singular 
fact that " the greater part of the Christians of European 
Turkey have no affinity with, and no sympathy for, the 
Greeks," though nominally of the same religion ;^ and, on the 

* Scott, ch. i., p. 12. 

f The Frontier Lands of the Christian and the Turk, by a British Resident 
of Twenty Years in the East, vol. i., ch. iii., p. Go (2d edition, 1853). 
| Anadol, by the same author, ch. xxviii., p. 356. 
Frontier Lands, vol. i., ch. v., p. 100. 
I JIhtory of Scrna, ch. x., p. 127. 
*[ See Spencer, Travels in the Western Caucasus. 
** Chesney, ubi supra. 

\\ Revelations of Itussia, vol. ii., ch. xii., p. 340. 
ft A Year itith the Turks, by Warrington Smith, ch. xii., p. 275. 



MISSIONS IN" THE LEVANT, ETC. 67 

other, that " if the Greeks were once more in a tenable position 
as a free nation, they would undoubtedly become the most 
violent and active of Russia s enemies." So that this experi 
enced observer might well resume the facts at which we have 
now glanced in this emphatic summary, " Russian Panslavism 
was outweighed in all the scales."* 

It would be idle to offer any further evidence of an incon 
testable truth, disputed only by a few English writers of a par 
ticular school, who seem to think that they can dispense with 
unity in their own Church, by affecting to find it in another 
where it is quite as little known, and that the admitted disorder 
of one sect can be happily repaired by the suppositions har 
mony of another. It is no longer possible to deny in good faith 
that while, in the words of Dr. Dollinger, " the Greek patriarch 
ate is in the most shameful and perishing condition to which 
an ancient and venerable Church has ever yet been reduced," 
the Greek, Russian, and Oriental communities have long since 
been dissolved into a number of perfectly independent Church 
es, often deeply hostile to one another, constantly engaged in 
conflicting aims and intrigues, and not even cemented together 
by the precarious tie of a common hostility to the Holy See. 
The next point to be noticed, and it is one which belongs more 
immediately to the general subject of these volumes, is the 
character of the Russian Church as a missionary power. 

We have seen that a Russian advocate, while he denies that 
his own has any thing in common with the Greek and Oriental 
communities, appeals to the "frightful aridity" of the latter, as 
affording sufficient evidence of "the terrible effects of Divine 
justice." He admits, therefore, the efficacy of the test which 
we are about to apply to the Russian Church, after employing 
it to determine the character of the Protestant Sects. 

" It is quite^ impossible," observes a spiritual writer of our 
own land, " for true love to coexist with an umnissionary 
spirit."f ^ Yet Russia, as Schouvaloff remarks, " has never pro 
duced, since her schism, either a single missionary, or one 
Sister of Charity who deserves the name."$ "In the Greek- 
Russian Church," says Mr. Kohl, "no such useful auxiliaries 
have ever been formed." And not only does she neither 
possess, nor affect to possess, any missionary organization, so 
supremely indifferent is she to all which does not concern her 
political interests ; but even within her own territories, if the 



* Anadol, ch. xxviii., p. 358. 
f Dr. Faber, The Creator and the Creature, p. 242. 
| Schouvaloff, Ma Conversion et ma Vocation, p. 361. 
Austria, p. 476. 



68 CHAPTER VIII. 

consolidation of national power can be more effectually pro 
moted by the agency of pagan tribes, she condemns them to 
perpetual heathenism, and peremptorily forbids all attempts to 
convert them, even to the official religion. During a long 
series of years, this detestable policy has been adopted towards 
the captives from the Caucasus. " If these young mountain 
eers," we are told, "were converted to Christianity, they would 
be all the worse received by parents, who, once half Christian, 
Lave learned, thanks to Russian aggression, to view that faith 
with detestation."* 

" Not only do the Russian government, and its slave the 
Synod," says a higher authority, " remain perfectly indifferent 
to the sad destiny of so many souls perishing in ignorance; the 
former even opposes itself systematically and by policy to 
their conversion to Christianity. The emperor has formed and 
taken into his pay several squadrons of cavalry, drawn from the 
populations of the Caucasus. All these men are Mahometans ; 
they live in the midst of a Christian capital, where they have 
mosques constructed and ornamented at the expense of the 
treasury. Many children also from the countries of the 
Caucasus are brought to St. Petersburg, and there receive a 
gratuitous education. But it is most rigorously forbidden to 
admit them to Christian instruction with their companions, 
or to attendance at their church." In vain they sometimes 
" weep and lament" at this forced separation. The motive is 
imperious. " These children are destined to return one day to 
their native country, where their office will be to preach to 
their compatriots the advantages which they may derive from 
absolute and irrevocable submission to Russia." This they 
will do more effectually if they profess the religion of their 
parents, and therefore an infernal policy forbids their conver 
sion. "And the most Holy and most Orthodox Synod has 
no remonstrance to offer against measures so barbarous ! Dom- 
inus horum mndex est"\ 

it is difficult to conceive the profound degradation to which 
the national Russian Church must have fallen, when such crimes 
fail to elicit a solitary protest from one end of the empire to the 
other. But when we have read the testimonies of men of all 
sects and orders, to the actual condition of the Russian clergy, 
there is no longer room for surprise. " Nothing," says De Hell, 
an authority recognized even by the late emperor, "can be 
compared to the demoralization of the Russian clergy, whose 
ignorance is only equalled by their vice. The greater part of 

* Revelations of Russia, pref, p. xxvi. 
f Persecutions et Souffrances, &c., p. 519. 



69 

the monks and priests spent their lives in shameful inebriety, 
which renders them incapable of fulfilling decently their reli 
gious duties." They have lost all idea, he adds, of a " sacred 
mission," he is speaking, riot of rare and exceptional instances, 
but of the whole body of the rural clergy, and " the very aspect 
of the popes, or parish priests, excites equal disgust and astonish 
ment. To see these men, whose uncombed beards, wine-bloated 
faces, and filthy dress, reveal a total absence of human respect, 
one cannot conceive that they are apostles of Divine truth."* 
" Not possessed of even the slightest shadow of influence or 
power in the empire," says an English writer, who is neverthe 
less a warm advocate of the Czar, " in ignorance, vulgarity, I may 
almost say degradation, they are perfectly without parallel in any 
religion throughout the world, not even excepting Greece, the 
natives of which country themselves admit the minor orders of 
their clergy to be the most abandoned miscreants in the world. "f 
"In all street ballads and popular ribaldry," says a Russian 
author in 1850, " the priest, the deacon, and their wives, are al 
ways brought in as examples of the absurd and the despicable. ":f 
In "four years, from 1836 to 1830, as the so-called "Holy 
Synod" reported to its president, a cavalry officer, and aid-de 
camp of the emperor, thirteen thousand four hundred and 
forty-three ecclesiastics, or one-sixth of the whole Russian 
clergy, were under sentence of the public tribunals, and that, 
as the Supreme Procurator informed his master, " for infamous 
crimes." The " Synod" itself, which is supposed by a verbal 
fiction to rule over this clergy, is so avowedly a mere depart 
ment of the state police, that, as Dr. Dollinger notices, " it can 
not even appoint its own secretary and subordinate officials, 
who are all nominated and displaced by the Czar." 

It is impossible to quote, without repugnance, such descrip 
tions of a national clergy, who are, nevertheless, the spiritual 
teachers of some fifty millions of souls. But we are going to 
speak of the missionary operations of these very men, and we 
shall find them to be worthy, in every case, of ecclesiastics 
whom even Russians treat with scorn and outrage, and of whom 
they speak in exactly the same terms as the German, French, 
or English writers. Haxthausen, though a Russian advocate, 
confesses that they have no qualification "for the duties of a 
missionary," and even admits that the " sterility" of which we 

* Les Steppes de la Mer Caspienne, &c., par Xavier Hommaire de Hell, 
Chevalier de 1 Ordre de S. Wladimir de Russie, tome i., cli. viii., p. 120 (1843;. 

f Personal Adventures in Georgia, Circassia, and Russia, by Lieut.-colonel 
Poulett Cameron, C.B., vol. ii., ch. v., p. 205 (1845). 

% Quoted by Dollinger, p. 137. 

Theiner, L Eglise Schismatique Russe, cli. vi., p 138. 



70 CHAPTER VIII. 

are about to furnish conclusive evidence, "is undoubtedly at 
tributable to their separation from Rome."* Tourgeneif, who 
describes their fallen condition, and the " haughty disdain"f 
with which they are treated by all above the class of peasants, 
is confirmed by De Hell, who relates that the upper classes 
often strike them, and that they " bow their heads humbly to re 
ceive the correction." If a wealthy proprietor, we are told by 
M. Golovine, himself a Russian priest, " ask an archbishop to 
make a sacristan a priest, a priest he will be, even though he 
know not how to write.":): And this is the case also in the 
churches subject to the Patriarch of Constantinople. " It might 
happen to any one," says a Greek writer, in letters addressed 
in 1856 to the Archbishop of Cephalonia, " to dismiss a servant 
one day for misconduct, and meet him on the morrow as a priest ; 
people whom you have known as petty chandlers, day-laborers, 
or boatmen, you may see in a few days appear at the altar or 
in the pulpit." What marvel, if under such teachers " the 
Russians," as M. de Bonald observes, "have a religion entirely 
composed of words, ceremonies, legends, and abstinences, which 
is to genuine Christianity nearly what the Judaism of the Rabbis, 
followed by modern Jews, is to the Mosaic worship ?" [ What 
marvel if a Church of which such men are the ministers, should 
be described by Schnitzler as "stationary, withered by the spirit 
of formalism, and deprived of every principle of liberty ?"T 

It would be endless to multiply such testimonies. They 
abound in the writings of men of every nation and every creed. 
And the higher classes of the laity, exercising an influence which 
the fallen prelates of Russia dare not dispute, are said to be 
themselves perfectly indifferent to the religion which has so little 
title to their respect, and in whose ministers they recognize only 
an inferior order of police. " Noblesse legere," says a French 
writer in 1860, " superficielle, egoiste, corruptrice, et corrom- 
pue."** " They show a strong tendency," says one who has 
lived among them, "to add infidelity to their immorality ,"ff 
though they still affect the outward observance of religion, 
because, as Madame d Istria observes, "la religion est une 
partie de la consigne militaire" and under the rule of the Czar 
even unbelief submits to discipline. Yet, as Golovine remarks, 



* Haxthausen, Etudes sur la JRussie, tome i., cli. xiv., p. 441. 

f La Russie et les Masses, par M. A. Tourgeneff, tome iii., p. 103. 

i Memoircs d un Pretre Russe, par M. Ivan Golovine, ch. x., p. 202. 

| Dollinger, p. 125. 

\ Legislation Primitive, par M. de Bonald, tome iv., p. 176. 

Tf Histoire Intime de la llassie, par M. J. H. Schnitzler ; Notes, p. 472. 

** La Russie, son Peuple et son Armee, par M. Leon Deluzy, p. 45 (1860) 

ft Dissertations on the Orthodox Church, by W. Palmer, p. 293. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 71 

every one knows that the number of unbelievers in Russia 
continually increases." M. de Gerebtzoff also admits "the 
general tendency entrainement to religious incredulity, and 
the unbridled gratification of brutal passions,"* which began to 
manifest itself in Russia during the last century, and of which 
every capital in Europe records proverbial examples in the 
present. The Russian Church has killed religion, by making it 
impossible to respect it. And yet, while corruption spreads like 
a gangrene through all ranks, and only a thin varnish of decency 
covers the universal license, while even " in the public educa 
tional establishments," as the most competent witnesses report, 
"ignorance and immorality" prevail to such an extent, that, in 
the words of one of them, " respect for my readers prevents me 
from giving any detailed account of them,"f because a true 
account of Russian society would be a picture upon which no 
one could look ; the worst crimes of all are still committed in the 
name of religion, and the titles of " Holy, Orthodox Russia," are 
invoked with solemn hypocrisy by men who have ceased even to 
believe in holiness, and who might boast more truly than the 
worst class of French sophists, "J^ous sommes les enfants de 
Yoltaire." 

It is true that some believe, in spite of the facts which have 
now been noticed, that Russia, convinced at last that her schism 
has only defeated, instead of promoting, the political objects 
dearest to her ambition, will again be reconciled to the Holy 
See. There are even writers, still members of her national 
church, who avow, with such freedom of speech as a Russian 
may venture to use, that to this end all their hopes are directed. 
They know that Russia, once Catholic, was torn from unity 
mainly by the influence of princes who made themselves pontiffs 
in order to reign as kings, and whose ecclesiastical supremacy, 
sacred in the eyes of their subjects, is only an instrument of 
policy in their own. " I recognize," said Peter the Great, with 
a kind of savage candor, when solicited to restore the Russian 
Patriarchate, "no other legitimate patriarch but the Bishop of 
Rome. Since you will not obey him, you shall obey me alone. 
Behold your Patriarch /"f 

Perhaps also the hope to which we have referred is partly 
founded on the growth of a new sentiment in the highest class 
of Russian minds, created by increasing intercourse with the 
Latin world, and sometimes expressed in such language as the 

* Histoire de la, Civilisation en Russie, par Nicolas de Gerebtzoff, tome ii., 
ch. xii., p. 519. 

f Recollections of Russia during Thirty-three Years Residence, by a German 
Nobleman, ch. ix., p. 321 ; ed. Wraxall. 

J Theiner, p. 46. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

following. "The Russian Church," says one of her latest 
apologists, "is not, and never has been, schismatical of her own 
free will de son gre like the Oriental Church." " Catholic," 
he adds, "from her first entrance into the Christian family," 
she is still Catholic, " without knowing it a son insu" Her 
clergy, and all but a few of her bishops, are what they are, he 
says, solely through ignorance. And then this Russian advocate 
after remarking that " the Greeks," with whom he disclaims 
the remotest sympathy, " were fourteen times reconciled to the 
Latins since the time of Photius," and always upon conditions 
prescribed by the latter continues thus: "But what must 
sensibly afflict the friends of truth is to see that the Russian 
clergy are ignorant, or appear to be ignorant, that the liturgical 
books of the Russian Church contain the pure Catholic, one 
may indeed say Ultramontane doctrine, on the primacy of the 
Pope, and the authority of the See of St. Peter." This doctrine, 
he observes, which Russia received from her first apostles, is 
retained even in the liturgical books as reformed by Nikon, 
and as they still exist in every parish church in Russia, though 
the clergy are too ignorant or too careless to reflect upon the 
fact. Nay more, even the doctrine of the Immaculate Concep 
tion, regarded by Anglicans as peculiar to the Roman obedience, 
has always been held by the Russian Church, and is still 
proclaimed at this day in her public offices. On the feast of 
the Nativity of our Lady, the Church of Russia, living only to 
bear witness against herself, sings this canticle : "We pro 
claim and celebrate your Nativity, and we honor your Imma 
culate Conception." Finally, this writer deploring as a 
mournful calamity what Anglicans affect to consider a privilege, 
repudiating as worthy only of the fallen " Greek Church" the 
pleas which they urge in behalf of their own, and seeing only 
grounds for self-accusation where they find motives of com 
placency appeals earnestly ad misericordiam, and only 
ventures to suggest that Russia, since she confesses Catholic 
truth in her liturgical books, should be absolved from schism 
on the ground of " invincible ignorance."* 

But it is time to approach, without further introduction, the 
subject of Russian missions, and to examine, as usual by the 
aid of Protestant witnesses, the actual condition of the various 
provinces of the Russian empire which have so long solicited 
missionary zeal, but which the national clergy have abandoned 
to heathenism, or only converted after the same fashion in which 
Anglican missionaries have converted the pagans of China, 
India, and Ceylon. 

* L Efflise Russe, Est Ette Schismatiquef pp. 21-46. 



73 

" It is to the Russian Church," says Theiner, ". that we must 
attribute the disgrace which attaches to Christian Europe, in 
seeing still in the nineteenth century so many pagans within 
her bosom. Whole provinces, united during many ages to the 
linssian empire, are still filled with gentiles." This is the fact 
which we are going to illustrate. 

One observation is necessary by way of preface. It will be 
understood that neither the Church nor the government of 
Russia have any objection that pagan tribes should embrace 
the state religion, except when political interests may be better 
promoted by their continuance in heathenism. To the purely 
religious side of the question both are perfectly indifferent. In 
Russia a man may be a Mahometan, a worshipper of the Grand 
Lama, a Lutheran, a pagan, every thing but a Catholic, without 
giving umbrage to the civil or religious authorities. " The 
Greek Church has shown toleration," we are told, " because 
indifferent to the conversion of those of other creeds ;" and 
reserves the lash and the dungeon chiefly for " those within the 
pale of its own fold who seem disposed to wander from the 
flock." "Two-thirds of the cabinet ministers," says the same 
writer, " a large proportion of the generals of the Russian 
army, and of the immediate courtiers of the emperor, pro 
fess the Lutheran religion."* But these are all devoted to 
Russian policy, and therefore their religious belief is a matter 
of indifference. "Religious toleration/ as Krasinski observes, 
" had been a principle of Russian policy since Peter the 
Great," and was first renounced by the Emperor Nicholas, who 
strove to attain by violence the unity which his predecessors 
had failed to. establish. Two exceptions were made in his reign 
to the universal toleration, and both from the same political 
motive. " Many hundreds of venerable men," says an English 
writer in 1844, "lor years beloved and respected in their parishes, 
are now with irons on their legs, half-shaven heads, and in 
coarse party-colored garments, chained two and two, pursuing 
their weary journey to Siberia, some everyday expiring on the 
road."f These were Catholic priests, as the Protestant Krasinski 
notices,^; " whom an imperial ukase had united to the Russian 
Church," and who were torn from their flocks, lest the latter 
should imitate their example in refusing to deny their faith. 

The ^ other exception to Russian tolerance consists in the 
prohibition of conversion to any community but the National 
Church, and the punishment of all who attempt to do the work 

* Revelations of Russia, cli. xi., p. 301. 

f Ibid, p. 308. 

\ Panslamsm and Germanism, p. 90. 



74 CHAPTER VIII. 

which the Russian clergy leave undone. " Proselytism in 
Russia," says an Anglican writer in 1855, " whether from 
Mohammedanism or Lamaism, is not allowed, unless it be in 
favor of the Russo-Greek Church. r * And now let us hear 
the witnesses who will tell us, from actual observation, what 
are the claims of that Church to the apostolic character, and 
what it has attempted towards the conversion of the heathen 
nations within the bounds of the empire. 

From every province of the vast dominions of the Czar, 
from Courland and Livonia, and all the eastern shores of the 
Baltic Sea ; from Finland and Laponia ; from both banks of the 
Volga, throughout its whole course, to where it flows into the 
Caspian Sea; from the sources of the Don to the plains which 
border the Sea of Azov ; from Tobolsk to the Gulf of Obi ; from 
Perm, Orenburg, and Astrakhan; from the White Sea to the 
banks of the Amur, and from the Ural to the Aleutian Isles; 
from Georgia and Circassia, and all the distant valleys of the 
Caucasus ; from Archangel to Odessa, and from Kamshatka to 
the Tauric Chersonese, we have exactly the same reports. From 
the Kalmuks and Tchouwasses of the Yolga, and the Lapes 
of the White Sea ; from Ostiaks and Samoieds ; from the 
Tschuktschi of the north, and the Ossets of the south ; from 
the Tatars of Kazan, and those of Simferopol ; from Georgians 
and Irneritians, and all the tribes of the Caucasus ; the same 
cry is heard, proclaiming in a hundred dialects, that no sect of 
earth, though it wield the power of an empire and lavish the 
wealth of a continent, may hope to snatch a single soul from 
the powers of evil, nor do aught but reveal its own incurable 
impotence. To the emissaries of the all-powerful autocrat and 
his imperial Church, the barbarians of a hundred tribes, who 
bow their heads before the humblest messenger of the Vicar of 
God, reply with one voice, as they do to the baffled agents of 
English, German, and American sects, " Jesus I know, and 
Paul 1 know, but who are you ?" 

Let us begin with the provinces of the Baltic. The Lcttes, 
who inhabit Courland and the southern half of Livonia, though 
long nominally Christian, and surrounded by Lutherans and 
Russo-G reeks, " sacrifice to household spirits," we learn from 
Mr. Kohl, " by setting out food for them in their gardens or 
houses, or under old oak-trees. "f 

Of the Esthoniana the same Protestant writer says, after 
dwelling among them, u The old practices and ceremonies of 

* The Crimea, its Ancient and Modern History, by the Rev. Thomas Milner, 
M.A., F.K.A.S., ch. viii., p. 281. 
f Russia, p. 374. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 75 

heathenism have been preserved more completely among them 
than among any other Lutheran people. . . . There are many 
spots where the peasants yet offer up sacrifices."* Schnitzler 
adds of the Lithuanians generally, who are nominally Luther 
ans, " Us sont ignorans, superstitieux, routiniers, et ivrognes ;"f 
and Dr. Latham informs us that "so low is the present Con 
dition of the small peasantry which now represents the Lithu 
ania name and language," that no trace remains of their ancient 
character, and that "no small amount of heathendom underlies 
the imperfect Christianity of the Lithuanians," so that " with 
the single exception of the Esthonians, the Lithuanians are the 
most pagan of all the nations of civilized Europe. ^ Such has 
been the religious influence of the Russian national creed in 
the three Baltic provinces. 

If now we cross the Gulf of Finland, continuing our journey 
through the northwestern provinces of the empire, we come to 
the home of the Fins, numbering about two millions, and 
already subject for more than half a century to the dominion of 
the Czar. "The Russians," says the great English ethnologist, 
"claim the credit of having converted them A. D. 1227. They 
may have done this, and yet have done it ineffectually; for the 
special charge that lay against the Fins was, that there was 
nothing real in their numerous conversions." It is a significant 
fact that at the present day, in spite of the threats or cajoleries 
of Russia, very few Fins profess the national religion, the great 
majority being nominally Lutherans, owing to their former 
connection with Sweden, "with a vast mass of the original 
paganism underlying their present Christianity ." 

Passing out of Finland into Laponia, we have this account 
of the Russian Laps, who, unlike those of Sweden and Norway, 
profess the Greek religion. "They are indifferent to the 
Christianity which they have within a few years affected to 
embrace. . . . Instructed by a few drunken priests, and yield 
ing from fear and complaisance, they mingle and confound tho 
superstitions of the Russian Church with tho old incantations 
of witchcraft."| 

The White Sea separates the province of Laponia from the 
government of Archangel, through which we enter those of 
Perm, Viatka, and Orenburg. In all we meet the same facts. 
The Permians, the Zirianians of Vologda, who "retain much 
of their original paganism," and in the south, where they have 

* Russia, p. 388. 

f La Rmsie, la Pologne, et la Finlande, lib. ii., ch. i., p. 546. 

^ The Nationalities of Europe, vol. i., ch. iii., p. 23. 

^ Latham, vol. i., ch. xviii., p. 209. 

\ Revelations of Russia, vol. i., ch. xii., p. 350. 



76 CHAPTER VIII. 

come in contact with the Bashkirs, have even in some instances 
become Mahometans ;* the Yotiaks of Yiatka, who are hardly 
distinguishable from pagans, the Tsherimis, Tshuvash, and 
other tribes, who are Christians in name and pagans in belief, 
all bear witness to the indifference or incapacity of the Russian 
Church. The Tsherimis, who number nearly one hundred and 
seventy thousand, and abound chiefly in the governments of 
Kazan and Yiatka, are thus described : " Some of them are 
pure pagans, the majority being but imperfect and approximate 
Christians, retaining, under the surface of their later creed, 
most of the essentials of their original heathendom. "f The 
Tshuvash, numbering about four hundred and thirty thousand, 
are devil-worshippers, in spite of their outward profession of 
the Greek religion. "Their Christianity is nominal, and dashed 
not only with pagan but with Mahometan elements. "f The 
Bisermans of Yiatka are avowedly Mahometans, and Dr. 
Latham thinks they are "neither more nor less than Yotiak 
converts of some standing." Yet the Yotiaks themselves are 
supposed to be disciples of the Kussian Church ! 

But there is nothing in this fact to surprise us. The Russians 
themselves, as many examples will convince us, often adopt the 
worst pagan superstitions, and practise them with a zeal pro 
portioned to their religious earnestness. M. Pietrowski relates, 
and it is only one instance out of many, that during a voyage 
on the Dwina," which flows through the governments of Vologda 
and Archangel, his companions being all religious pilgrims of 
the National Church, visiting sacred places, "every soul on 
board, from the master to the poorest of the lohomolets, threw 
a piece of copper money into the stream, to render the Dwina 
propitious to their course along its breast."] 

Let us now accompany Mr. Laurence Oliphant on his journey 
to Kazan, and thence down the Yolga to the Caspian Sea, 
Everywhere his experience is uniform. The Kalmuks whom 
he encountered were all still Buddhists. "The Tartar popula 
tion," he ays, " is precisely the same as it ever was." Near 
the mouth of the Yolga he visits "a large and populous village 
in a state of utter heathenism, and apparently destined to remain 
so," because the Russian Church neither knows how to convert 
them herself, nor will suffer others to make the attempt. At 
Sarepta, near Astrakhan, where, out of a population of eleven 
hundred, eight hundred are Lutherans or Moravians, a new fact 

* Latham, vol. i., cli. xix., p. 216. 
f P. 218. 
\ P. 221. 
" P 225 
Story of a Siberian Exile, by M. Rufin Pietrowski, ch. viii., p. 160 (1863). 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 77 

comes under his observation. The Moravians had begun to 
convert, after their mode, some of the neighboring heathen, 
for whom the National Church had no care. " The Greek clergy 
interposed, and insisted that the converts should be admitted 
into tlieir Church." An appeal was made to the government, 
which supported the priests, and the Moravians gave up the 
contest. " No effort is made," observes Mr. Oliphant, " to 
atone for this wanton bigotry, by the establishment of missions 
by the Greek Church among these wandering tribes. * 

Mr. Scott traversed in part the same ground, and thus con 
firms in 1854: what Mr. Oliphant had reported in 1853. Of 
one tribe he says, " Pagans in religion, they make a pretended 
adhesion to the Russian Greek Church ;" of another, " They 
are followers of the Grand Lama ;" of a third, " They are all 
Mahometans." The latter give no trouble to the State, and 
therefore nothing would be gained, according to Russian ideas 
of gain, by making them Christians. At Sarepta, Mr. Scott 
paid a visit to Mr. Louser, the Moravian minister. "The 
emperor stopped at once," he writes after the interview, 
" those noble efforts to rescue a people from the withering 
blast of paganism. "f 

It is, of course, impossible to defend either the emperor or hia 
ecclesiastical agents, who were bound at least to attempt the 
work which they would not permit others to undertake ; but it 
is some satisfaction to know that in prohibiting Protestant 
missions to the Tatars, they inflicted no injury on the latter. It 
appears that the Protestant missionaries in Russia, like so many 
of their brethren in other lands, are simply traders. Henderson, 
who confesses that "the Sarepta mission was the most unpro 
ductive of any they have established," discovered that at Karas 
also " little real progress has been made by the mission," and 
was shocked to n nd that its members were chiefly busy u iu 
the temporal concerns of the colony."^ Tlieir later history is 
instructive. " It is to be feared," said Julius Yon Ivlapruth, 
who also visited them, " that it will soon be nothing but a linen 
manufactory, for it is known that all the establishments of tho 
Moravian Brothers in Russia have n.Q other motive than tho 
love of gain." Finally, the last phase of their career is de 
scribed by Hommaire de E[eU, who, found that " at the present 

* Russian Shores of the Blade Sea, ch. iii., p. 52 ; ch. v., p. 70 ; cli. viii., p. 
119 ; ch. xx., p. 272. Of. Oriental and Western Siberia, by T. W. Atkinson, 
ch. xxii., p. 383. 

t The Baltic,^., ch. viii., p. 114 ; ch. x., p. 158 ; ch. xii., p, 194. 

t BiblicaJ, Researches in Itussia, by E. Henderson, ch. xvii., p. 413 ; ch. xx., 
p. 447. 

Voyage au Mont Caucase et en Georgie, par M. Jules Kkproth, ch, x.> p. 



78 CHAPTER VIII. 

day the original object of the establishment is liardly remem- 
"bered;" and that "the colon} 7 , at Karas, essentially agricul 
tural, no longer thinks of any thing but enriching itself at the 
expense of the strangers whom the mineral waters attract to 
the Caucasus !"* If the Russians have not even a conception 
of the character of an apostle missionary, their Protestant rivals 
can hardly reproach them with the fact. 

It is true that in the neighborhood of Astrakhan Protestant 
ism tried once more to do what Panslavism had failed to effect, 
but with no other result than to show that one form of human 
religion is as impotent as another. " The reception the Scotch 
missionaries met with from the Tatars," says Henderson, " was 
far from encouraging. . . . Sometimes they treated their mes 
sage with mockery and scorn, hooted them with the utmost 
rudeness, and ordered them away."f It is also a curious ex 
ample of the pretended religious unity of Russia, that in 1835 
Astrakhan already contained, besides Russo-Greek churches, 
fifteen mosques, two Armenian churches, a Catholic church 
and convent, a Protestant temple, and a Hindoo pagoda.;}: 

We have now reached the mouth of the Yolga, but must re 
turn for a moment to Kazan, once the capital of a powerful 
nation, before we continue our journey towards the East. Kazan, 
as Dr. Latham observes, is " the great seminary for missionaries 
and for agitators in behalf of religious and political designs of 
Russia in the direction of the East." Yet in this government, 
and throughout the whole course of the Yolga, Russian mis 
sionary projects have been at least as fruitless as in every other 
region of the empire. Mr. Turnerelli confirms the statements 
of Latham, Scott, and Oliphant as to the paganism of the 
Tsherimis, Tshuvash, and other nominal converts, and adds 
that the great majority of these tribes do not even affect to 
profess the religion of their masters, in spite of the powerful 
inducements proposed to them. In the city of Kazan itself 
there are nearly twenty thousand Mahometans, and the immense 
Tartar population of the entire region, ranging as far as 
Astrakhan, remains either wholly uninfluenced by Russian 
teaching, or has adopted, as in the case of the Tshulim Tartars, 
to the number of fifteen thousand, and a few of the Nogays, a 
horrible compound of Christianity, Islamisrn, and Shamanism. [ 
But the vast majority, as all the witnesses agree, are just what 

* JheQ Steppes fie Iq, Mer Caspienne, tome ii., cli. vii., p. 206. 
f Biblical Researches, cli. xviii., p. 431. 
\ Schi)it/ler, Lq, Ru^ie, &c., lib. ii., ch. Hi., p. 699. 

Kazan, the Ancient Capital of the Tartar Khans, by G. T. Turnerelli, vol. 
ii., cli. iv., p. 155. 

J Latham, cli. xxiii., p. 258, 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 79 

their forefathers were before the Khanat of Kazan was annexed 
to the Muscovite empire. 

If we now advance eastwards, and cross the range which 
separates European from Asiatic Russia, we shall still encounter 
invariably the same facts. The Voguls, numbering about six 
thousand, in the two governments of Perm and Tobolsk, inhabit 
the district along the ridge of the Uralian chain. They invoke 
in all their expeditions the carved images of wild beasts.* The 
Ostiaks, who number nearly twenty thousand, and are found 
chiefly on the Obi and the gulf into which it flows, are thus 
described, in 1852, by Colonel Szyrma, whose work was 
published under the supervision of the Russian censorship: 
" Up to the present day, although a considerable number of the 
Ostiaks have been converted to Christianity, the neophytes have 
not discontinued the worship of ancient larch-trees, remnant of 
a sacred grove, which prevailed among their forefathers." On 
one occasion, the traveller whose notes he edited surprised a 
number of Ostiaks in a forest, who, " having accepted, or rather 
been compelled to accept Christianity, were performing the 
rites of their idolatrous worship in secret. "f 

The Samoyeds, the next great tribe of this part of eastern 
Siberia, are in much the same condition. No attempt was even 
nrade to convert them before 1830. "They are to this day," 
says Szyrma, and Latham gives the same account of them, 
" idolaters, following the tenets of their ancient Shamanic 
religion." "The Russians themselves, 5 he adds, notwith 
standing their profession of Christianity, "do not refuse belief 
in the prognostications of the Shamans ; and " Russians of all 
religious sects frequently consult them about what is to happen 
to them in the most important proceedings of life, and never 
doubt the truth of the revelations made to them." In this case, 
instead of pagans becoming Christians, we see Christians con 
verted into pagans. Perhaps the Russian censor thought this 
too insignificant a fact to require suppression. 

The same writer speaks of a couple of Ostiaks who came to 
the Greek church at Berezov on the river of Obi to be married, 
upon whom the ceremony of baptism had made so little im 
pression, that " they had actually forgotten their Christian 
names." All these tribes, he observes, after their nominal 
conversion, display a brass cross on their breasts, to indicate 
their adhesion to Panslavism, " and carry the Shaitan in their 
pockets." And the Russian Church, which is only the instru- 

* Id, p. 231. 

f Revelations of Siberia, edited by Colonel Lacli Szyrma, vol. i., ch. ix., 
P. 147 ; cli. xvii., p. 2u2 ; ch. xviii., p. 283; vol. ii., ch. ii., pp. 20-27. 



80 CHAPTER VIII. 

raent of the policy of its lay pontiff, is satisfied with converts 
of this class, because they satisfy its master. 

We have still to speak of the remoter governments of 
Yakutsk and Urkutsk, the newly-acquired region of the Amur, 
and the far eastern peninsula of Kamshatka. They have all the 
same tale to tell. The Koridks, whether still nomads, or settled 
in villages, " are either Shamanists or imperfect Christians." 
The Parenzi and Kamenzi, of the Gulf of Pendzinsk, are 
Shamanists. The Pallanzi are partly heathen, partly Chris 
tians, if such a name can be applied to them, of the Ostiak and 
Samoyed type. The Olutorians are still more un disguised ly 
pagan. The Oronchons of the Upper Amur, as Ravenstein 
relates in 1861, " are nominally Christians, but they resort to 
the practices of Shamanism almost every night," and, though 
ostensibly members of the Russo-Greek Church, keep " idols 
made of wood and fur" in their dwellings.* The Russian 
Tungus, composed of various tribes, " as a rule are Shamanists, 
and imperfect converts to Christianity, rather than Buddhists," 
as the Chinese Tungus are.f The Goldi are Shamanists, as are 
the GiliakS) by whom the Abbe de la Bruniere, who had gone 
to evangelize the region of the Amur, was lately martyred. 
The Russian Church has no martyrs, and its so-called mis 
sionaries undertake the work of which we have now seen the 
results from the same motive as the soldiers who accompany 
them, and in obedience to the same authority. 

How willingly true missionaries would preach to these un 
happy tribes, " without money and without price," the pure 
and holy doctrine which millions of men once equally degraded 
have accepted, in many a land, from teachers of the same order, 
we may infer from the heroic self-devotion of the four Polish 
priests, who, with the reluctant consent of the Russian Czar, 
carry to their exiled brethren in Siberia the consolations of 
religion. " No Christian mind," says one who profited by their 
charity, "can fail to appreciate the devotion of these poor 
priests. It cannot be too much admired, for it carries them 
along their ceaseless travels, and supports them as, in their 
sledges, they journey through the intense cold of Siberia, from 
Tobolsk to Kamshatka. and from Nertchinsk to the Polar 



We have reached the extreme eastern frontier of the Russian 
empire, but only to find exactly the same proofs of spiritual 
impotence which we have seen in the provinces of the west, and 
in all the wide regions which lie between the Gulf of Finland 

* The Russians on the Amur, ch. xx., p. 351. 
f Latham, ch. xxii., p. 243 ; ch. xxv., p. 268. 
\ Pietrowski, ch. v., p. 102 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 81 

and Bliering Straits, between the Polar Circle and the Caspian 
Sea. Everywhere the imperial church of Russia is equally 
sterile. Either she abandons to paganism whole nations, with 
out an effort to kindle among them the light of the Gospel, or 
converts them into such " Christians" as the Tshuvash and 
Voguls, the OstiaJcs and Tsherimis, the Koriaks and Samoyeds. 
Of the Tschuktshi, who had all received baptism, and were 
reckoned as converts by the Russian Church as the devil-wor 
shippers of Ceylon are by the Anglican, Admiral Wrangell 
says, " It must be admitted that they are as complete heathens 
as ever, and have not the slightest idea of the doctrines or the 
spirit of Christianity."* Finally, the Aleutians, a race " much 
more powerful, bodily and mentally," than their congeners of 
Labrador or Greenland, and whose " blood is mixed largely 
with that of the Russians," " have been converted to an im 
perfect Christianity," faintly differing from pagan ism.f 

If now we turn to the south, we receive from the banks of 
the Don and the Dneiper, from Georgia, Circassia, the Crimea, 
and all the Transcaucasian provinces, as well as from Russian 
Armenia, the same reports as from all the western, northern, 
and eastern governments of the empire. The Cossacks of the 
Don, among whom De Hell found evidence of strong religious 
feeling, call themselves " true believers," in opposition to the 
members of the State Church, " because a slight difference in 
the text of their Bible has occasioned a very great one in their 
religious sentiments." So difficult is it in Russia to conciliate 
religious zeal with attachment to the national creed. 

The KalmuTcs, on the banks of the Kouma, are thus described 
by the same witness. "Russian missionaries endeavored to 
convert them about the end of last century, but these attempts 
at proselytism, based upon force, had no result, and only created 
rebels." A few consented to be officially baptized, but " these 
pretended Christians are, with the Turcomans, the most formi 
dable inhabitants of the steppes.":): 

The Douckoboren, he adds, and the Molokaner the latter 
already amounting to one million " only abandoned the religion 
of their ancestors about sixty years ago," and were violently 
transported from their homes by the government, " alarmed at 
the propagation of their tenets," to New Russia. They now 
profess the fanatical tenets of the Mennonites, and belong to 
that dangerous class whose rapid increase suggested the pre- 

* Expedition to the Polar Sea, by Admiral Wrangell ch vi p 121 
f Latham, ch. xxvi., p. 280. 

tXi Steppes, &c., tome i., ch. xiii., p. 260 ; ch. xviii., p. 343 ; tome ii., ch. iv., 
p. Uo. 

VOL. II. 7 



82 CHAPTER VIII. 

diction of De Custine, "It is by religions divisions the Russian 
empire will perish." 

The Ossets of the eastern slope of the Caucasus, numbering 
about fifty thousand, and subject to Russian authority, "have a 
strange mixture of Judaism, Christianity, Mahometanism, and 
Paganism for a creed. "* The Ossets of Georgia " have been 
subject to Russia since the time Georgia was annexed to that 
empire. A portion of the tribe is said to have adopted a sort 
of nominal Christianity. It appears that, conversion being at 
tended with certain advantages, the same proselytes had been 
repeatedly registered under different appellations."f The Rev. 
Mr. Percival gave us exactly the same account of the Anglican 
baptisms in Ceylon. "The majority of the Ossets are nominal 
ly Christians, and belong to the Greek Church," observes 
Haxthausen ; " they are, in fact, semi-pagans ; indeed some are 
wholly and avowedly heathens. They oifer sacrifices of bread 
and flesh upon altars in sacred groves."^ Yet the Ossets, whose 
connection with the Russian Church has only aggravated their 
misfortunes, were once, as Klaproth remarks, wholly Christian. 

Of the Georgians generally, Bodenstedt speaks as follows, in 
a work commended by Humboldt. " It is incredible how 
ruinous and demoralizing Russian influence is. The manners 
and the customs peculiar to the country, which have occupied 
for centuries the place of laws, vanish before the foreign in 
truders, without being supplanted by any thing better 

The Russians can only multiply the primordial ills and burdens 
of the people, without giving them a moral counterbalance. 
The only things they bring with them into the conquered lands 
are new coercive measures, new forms of deceit, of falsehood, 
and of abuse of the Church for objects of police." In Girca&sia, 
the same writer remarks, " Christianity has become hateful to 
them through the Russians." 

In the Caucasus, Mr. Spencer observes, " the Russians com 
menced their intercourse under the mask of proffered protec 
tion, friendly commerce, and a desire to instruct them in the 
civilizing truths of Christianity ;" and the only result of their 
presence has been to "reduce their once fertile meadows to a 
desert," and to excite their "deadly hatred" against the religion 
which Russia has taught them to despise and abhor. | The fatal 

* Latham, ch. xxix., p. 301. 

f Life and Manners in Persia, by Lady SI iel, p. 51. 

\ Trans-Caucasia, p. 395. 

Life in the Caucasus and the East, by Friedrich Bodenstedt, vol. i., p. 57 ; 
vol. ii., pp. 163, 175 ; ed. Waddington. 

| Travels in the Western Caucasus, by Edmund Spencer, Esq., vol. i., cli. 
viii., p. 103 ; ch. xxix., p. 354. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 83 

effects of Russian influence upon all the Caucasian tribes sub 
ject to it are attested with impressive unanimity by various 
witnesses. The hioushes acknowledge their power but detest 
their religion. " Every attempt," says Mr. Spencer, " of the 
Russian government to win them over to embrace the tenets 
of the Greek Church failed." " The Kabardan Circassians," 
we are told, " who had hitherto been Christians (of the Russian 
Church), abandoned their religion to escape her control, and 
became Mohammedans."* These men are believed by Klap- 
roth to be descendants of the Greek colonies of the Lower 
Empire, and Latham remarks, that "ruins of Christian churches 
and monasteries in even the non-Christian parts of Caucasus 
are numerous; yet so utterly has every Christian tradition died 
away among them, that when Colonel Poulett Cameron in 
quired of them the meaning of the crosses still found in many 
of their highways, " their only answer was a careless and in 
different Allah bilker / God knows ! "f 

When " some of the Lesgians are called Christians," says 
Latham, " little more is meant by the term than the suggestion 
that they are indifferent Mahometans." The Abazes, as Klap- 
roth relates, professed also in earlier times the Greek religion, 
but became Mahometans in 18104 The Karatchai had al 
ready deserted Fhotius for Mahomet in 17S2. Finally, Hen 
derson gives the following summary of the results of Russian 
missionary influence in all the Caucasian provinces; "The 
Tcherkesses, most of the Lesyians, the principal Abkhaeion 
tribes, the Tchetchenzi, the Nogais, the Kumaks, and the 
Karatchais? numbering more than half a million, " are Mo- 
hammedans ;" while the rest of the Caucasian tribes, with the 
exception of the Georgians, Armenians, and Jews, " are in a 
state of heathenism "\ 

But even these facts, disgraceful as they are to the Russian 
Church, do not reveal the whole truth. Here, as elsewhere, 
not content with driving whole races into apostacy, by exhibit 
ing to them only immorality, cruelty, and fraud, she has driven 
away the only missionaries who could have won them to re 
ligion and civilization. As early as 1612, Father Szgoda, of 
the Society of Jesus, allowed himself to be captured by the 
Tatars, and carried away as a prisoner to the Crimea, in the 
hope that he would find as a captive " the opportunity of preach- 

* The Progress and Present Position of Russia in the East, ch. ii., p. 20 
3d edition (1854). 

f Personal Adventures, &c., vol. i., ch. vi., p. 332. 
i Voyage an Mont Caucase, ch. ix., pp. 202-225. 
8 Ibid., ch. xi., p. 282. 
| Piiblical Researches, app., p. 538. 



84: CHAPTER VIII. 

ing the Gospel to them."* Nearly two centuries later, Klap- 
roth found a community of Jesuits at Mozdok, prepared to do 
what they had done in every other land, and already occupied 
in evangelizing the tribes of the Caucasus. One of them, the 
Pere Henri, won the admiration of the great linguist by his 
zeal and talent, of which he gave a proof by preaching fluently 
in Armenian when he had been only nine months in the country. 
" The government," Klaproth observes, " ought to have afforded 
every possible facility to these religious, and would thus have 
spared itself a painful and costly task." But the authorities at 
St. Petersburg, who desired only to make Russians and not 
Christians, adhered to their usual policy, and have reaped the 
usual reward. The dishonor of religion, the waste of blood and 
treasure, and the ruin of whole provinces which might have 
become the fertile homes of a peaceful and Christian population, 
such have been the fruits of their unprofitable impiety. Had 
Russia continued Catholic, she would perhaps long since have 
attained both the religious and the political unity which she 
has hitherto vainly sought, and might have seen her flag float 
at this day on the castles of the Bosphorus, and been hailed by 
all Christian nations as the benefactor of Europe, instead of 
the baffled conspirator whose selfish intrigues have made her 
the common enemy of mankind. 

Of the state of Armenia, now held in vassalage by Russia, 
we shall have occasion to supply ample evidence in a later 
section of this chapter. Tens of thousands of Armenians, we 
shall see presently, have been converted in our own day by 
Catholic missionaries, but it is in Russia that they have found 
their most implacable enemy. Pursuing everywhere a policy 
as profitless as it is criminal, and as fatal to the true interests 
of the empire as to those of religion, Russia, says M. Eugene 
Bore, " forbids the Catholic priests to give instructions to the 
Armenians who have passed into its territories, and interdicts 
the approach of every foreign ecclesiastic. "f " The Catholic 
priests in Trans-Caucasia," adds Dr. Moritz Wagner, " are 
strictly forbidden to make any proselytes. One of the Cap 
uchins informed me, that it they were allowed free scope, they 
could convert many hundreds of the Pagan and Mohammedan 
mountaineers." He added, that " multitudes of Suanetians and 
Abkhasians, most of whom were genuine heathens, had 
announced their wish to receive baptism in the convent of" 
Kutais, but they were ordered away / for every priest who 

* Histoire du Royaume de la Chersonese Taurique, par Mgr. de Bohusz, 
Archeveque de Moliilew, liv. xvi., p. 377. 
f Correspondance et Memoires d un Voyageur en Orient, tome i., p. 401. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 85 

endeavors to convert an idolater into a Roman Catholic is 
threatened with transportation to Siberia, a specimen of op 
pression and compulsion that, as far as I know, has never been 
devised by any potentate before."* 

We have reached the shores of the Black Sea, having started 
from those of the Baltic, but only to receive in the southern 
most province of the empire the same reports which we have 
gathered in every other. Even " the Tatars of the Crimea," 
says Mr. Milner, although educated, as M. De Dernidoff asserts, 
by their masters, f " have suffered in manners and morals by 
contact with the knavish and notoriously sottish Russian 
peasantry.":): Their contact wtth the Russian clergy can 
hardly have been more advantageous to them. Mr. Milner 
fully confirms the account which De Hell gives of their 
"ignorance and moral degradation," and mentions, as an 
illustration of their abject servility, that the chaplains of the 
Sebastopol fleet " are even directed respecting the points to be 
treated in their religious instructions to the seamen and marines, 
and an officer attends their services to ascertain if the orders 
of the commander are obeyed !" But, as De Hell observes, 
" religion has no influence upon them," and they accept their 
degradation without even being conscious of it. " Laziness, 
intoxication, and fanaticism, replace with them faith, kind 
liness, and charity." Meanwhile, as might be expected, the 
inhabitants of the Crimea cleave to the religion of their fore 
fathers, and have only ceased, under Russian tuition, to practise 
their forgotten virtues. 

One more fact will complete the tale of Russian missionary 
influence in the Crimea. Dr. Wolff, who preached in vain to 
the Caraite Jews at Jufut-Kaleh, observes in 1861, "It is most 
remarkable that though proselytism is prohibited in Russia, 
these Caraites have converted, not by their preaching, but by 
the integrity, uprightness, and honesty of their conduct, many 
of the Russians to the Jewish religion."] 

Such, by various and impartial testimony, has been the 
influence of the Russian Church even among tribes and races 
immediately subject to it. and such the gifts which she has 
imparted to populations which had so urgent a claim upon her 
charity, if she could have felt its Divine inspirations, and to 
regions which presented the most attractive field for the apos 
tolic ministry, if she had possessed any apostles to bear her 

* Travels in Persia, &c., vol. ii., cli. iii., p. 204. 

| Travels in 8. Russia, by M. Anatole de Demidoff, vol. ii., p. 41. 

\ The Crimea, &c,, cli. ix., p. 309 ; cli. x., p. 367. 

Lea Steppes, &c., tome ii., ch. xii., p. 377. 

| Travels and Adventures of Dr. Wolff, cli. xii., p. 228. 



86 CHAPTER VIII. 

message to them. There is perhaps no darker page in the 
religious annals of mankind than that which records the indif 
ference of the official Church towards the gentile populations 
of Russia, as there is nothing more shameful than the sterility, 
which would be monstrous and incredible if we did not know 
what befalls communities deserted by the Spirit of God, and 
which, as Haxthausen has candidly told us, "is undoubtedly 
attributable to its separation from Rome." 

There are only two regions in the world, China and Syria, in 
which Russia maintains even the semblance of a foreign mis 
sion, and with a few words on each of them we may pass to 
other themes. In China, in spite of her long residence and 
advantageous position, we have seen that Russia has never even 
attempted, in a solitary case, to win a soul to Christ. "The 
members of the Russian mission in Pekin," we are told by 
Ravenstein in 1861, "have never engaged in missionary work," 
though established in that city since 1698 !* Once, indeed, her 
agents converted a tribe, not in China, but on their way thither, 
and here is their own account of the event. Laurent Lange, 
who was sent in 1715 to Pekin, relates that the tribe in ques 
tion were summarily baptized by the order of Prince Gargarin, 
and then frankly adds, " but they have not the slightest con 
ception of the difference between Christianity and paganism."f 

Lastly, in Syria, we have heard already from Protestant 
writers something of the character of Russo-Greek Monks, and 
of the contrast which even such travellers could detect, between 
their " besotted and gross ignorance," and the zeal, learning, 
and piety of the Latin clergy. It is on the sacred summit of 
Mount Sinai, where " not one of the fraternity," we are told, 
" can carry on a conversation in any other than his native 
tongue,";); that the former have planted, during many cen 
turies, the centre of Russian propagandism. Yet even here, 
where earthly projects seem out of place, the selfish schemes 
are rebuked by the sanctity of undying traditions ; even here, 
w r here every motive conspires to stimulate them to religious 
fervor, or at least to the affectation of it, the representatives of 
the Russian Church still remain speechless and insensible, when 
it is only the glory of God and the salvation of souls which 
invite their sympathy. "The Convent of Mount Sinai," 
observes Dr. Stanley, "is a colony of Christian pastors planted 
amongst heathens, and hardly a spark of civilization, or of 

* The Itusxians on the Amur, by E. G. Kavcnstein, F.R.G.S., eh. ix., p. 72. 

f Journal du Voyage d la Chine, par Laurent Lange, p. 93. Cf. Nouveaux 
Memoires de la Moscovie, tome L, p. 193. 

\ The Golden Horn, &c., by Charles James Monk, M.A., vol. i., p. 103, 
(1851). 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 87 

Christianity, so far as history records, has been imparted to a 
single tribe or family in that wide wilderness. It is a colony 
of Greeks, of Europeans, of ecclesiastics, in one of the most 
interesting and the most sacred regions of the earth, and hardly 
a fact, from the time of their first foundation to the present 
time, has been contributed by them to the geography, the 
geology, or the history of a country, which in all its aspects has 
been ^submitted to their investigation for thirteen centuries."* 
On the other hand, an ardent Protestant traveller, who had 
noted the same facts, remarks with admiration, that " for the 
care which is bestowed upon the remains of antiquity in Pal 
estine, the whole of Christendom has to thank the Pope and 
the propaganda of Rome."f 

Enough, then, of Russia and her National Church as a mis 
sionary power. Additional information with respect to both 
might have been obtained in abundance from Catholic sources, 
but we have decided in these volumes to limit our appeal to 
Protestant witnesses. We have seen, moreover, that we can 
dispense with any other testimony. If there be in the world a 
community which, while involuntarily testifying to Catholic 
truth, illustrates by its past history and actual condition the 
dismal penalties of separation from the Holy See, it is surely 
that fallen Church, which, even among its nominal members has 
bred only, with rare exceptions, superstition or incredulity, faith 
without virtue, or profession without belief; which loses every 
year tens of thousands, whose sincere but unenlightened zeal it 
cannot instruct, and whose distrust and aversion it cannot 
conciliate ; and which, far from seeking to spread the light of 
the Gospel in foreign lands, regards with stupid indifference 
the perishing heathen nations in its own. 



THE MAKONITES. 

If, now, after this long digression, we resume our journey in 
Palestine, and leaving the Holy City behind set our faces 
towards the north, we shall come to the forests and mountains 
of Lebanon. Here consolation awaits us and refreshment. 
Here we shall find a nation profoundly Catholic both in its 
social and religious life, contrasting in every feature with the 
less privileged tribes of the East, constant in the faith, steadfast 
in filial devotion to the Holy See, and recompensed by a generous 
Providence with gifts and qualities which have not only merited 

* Sinai and Palestine, by Arthur Penrliyn Stanley, M.A., p. 56. 
f F. Bremer, Travels in the Holy Land, vol. ii., p. 166. 



88 CHAPTER VIII. 

the benedictions of the Church, but extorted the admiration of 
her enemies. 

When we consider the position of the Maronites, surrounded 
on all sides by Mahometans, idolaters, or heretics ; exposed to 
every evil influence which has gradually corrupted the other 
Christian natives of this land ; weak, except by the nature of 
their country ; owing all their security to their own valor, all 
their prosperity to their patient and cheerful industry ; we are 
tempted to ask in surprise, by what mystery have they alone 
preserved through ages the dignity of character, the purity and 
simplicity of life, which even the most prejudiced travellers 
agree in ascribing to this favored race? The answer, which 
we need not anticipate, will be sufficiently revealed in the evi 
dence which we are about to produce. 

We have not hitherto had recourse to Catholic testimony in 
proving the contrast which it is the main object of these volumes 
to trace, both because the controversial value of such testimony 
would be insignificant, and because Providence, as we have 
several times observed, has forced Protestants to collect every 
where, and to publish to the world, all the facts which illustrate 
that contrast. We shall adhere to our rule in this case also, 
though it would be pleasant to quote some few at least of the 
magnificent eulogies which eminent writers have pronounced 
on the Maronite nation, the nobility of their character, and the 
unswerving constancy of their faith. Let us claim, for the first 
timfe, this indulgence. 

" In spite of their great numbers," says M. Achille Laurent, 
they are estimated by the French consular agents at five hundred 
and twelve thousand five hundred in the Libanus, and thirty 
thousand in the plain, * " and though surrounded on every side 
by infidels, heretics, and schismatics, never, in relation to the 
faith, has the least difference been known amongst them ; never 
has any schism disturbed their unity ; never has one individual 
amongst them corrupted the purity of the Catholic doctrine."f 
" This Catholic colony," says M. Jules David, " seems to recall 
by its charity, by the simplicity of its manners, by its smiling 
industry and community of labor, the primitive Christian 
society ; a society of united and active brothers, a society of 
equality before God, a veritable communion of which the Church 
is the sublime centre.";): Lastly, for we may not linger even 
over testimonies which are like music to the ear, an apostolic 
missionary, one of that noble band of discalced Carmelites who 



* Do Baudicour, ch. vi., p. 246. 

f Relation Historique des Affaires de Syrie, tome i., p. 403. 

i Syrie Moderne, p. 21. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 89 

havt dared to imitate their Lord in His utter poverty, gives this 
account of them in 1858. After describing their various neigh 
bors, the barbarous Moslem, the pastoral Turcomans, the 
reckless Ansayrii, the false and hypocritical Druses, the haughty 
Metualis, disciples of the anti-caliph Ali, " of whom it would 
be difficult to say whether they hate a Christian or a Turk the 
most," and lastly, the schismatical Greeks, " the ignorance of 
whose priests is only equalled by the moral degradation of the 
people," he continues as follows : " We come now to the 
Maronites. The heart has been dried up and the soul saddened 
by the confused disorder of idolatry and schism. It is now our 
turn to rejoice. The ardent faith of primitive Christianity, its 
sweet piety, innocence, and simplicity of manners, is found re- 

Eroduced amongst the Maronites. They appear like a people 
:*esh from the hand of the Creator, or from the regenerating 
bath of the Baptism of Jesus. Oh, blessed people ! how great 
are you in your oppression ! how rich in your poverty !"* 

It is not thus, of course, that Protestants speak of them, for 
they have attempted to creep into this paradise and have been 
somewhat rudely ejected ; but their language, though tinged 
with resentment and mortification, abundantly confirms the 
reports of more impartial witnesses. 

"The Maronites," says Colonel Churchill, who does not 
share the petty passions of the Protestant missionaries, " are 
still the i fideles who welcomed Godfrey de Bouillon and his 
associates. "f While all has changed around them, centuries 
have left them unchanged. They are "the stanchest Romanists 
in the world," says the Rev. Mr. Williams ; which only means 
that they resemble true Catholics everywhere. " So bigoted is 
this Romanist sect," says Mr. Drew Stent, " that very little 
can be effected ;" that is, they spurned the heresies of Anglican 
and Calvinist teachers, and stoned the false prophets who tried 
to find an entrance amongst them. " The missionaries," says 
Mr. Wortabet, alluding to the Protestant emissaries, " had to 
retire before pelting stones and an angry mob." " They were 
driven out," says Mr. Walpole, " by the fanatic population, and 
I do not believe they ever procured the satisfaction they ought. 
The Maronites are very proud of the victory." Pie confesses, 
however, in spite of wounded sympathies, that " the attempt 
was worse than folly." And so purely spontaneous was the 
popular movement which expelled the foreign teachers, because 
they came, with money in their hands, blaspheming the Mother 
of God, the Sacrament of the Altar, and the Communion of 

* Annals, vol. xix., p. 271. 

f Mount Lebanon, by Colonel Churchill, vol. iii., ch. vi., p. 66. 



90 CHAPTER VIII. 

Saints, so wholly independent of any political or ecclesiastical 
influence, that a Protestant Association confesses, in 1854-, that 
" a strong proclamation came out from the Maronite and Greek 
Catholic Bishops at Beirut to all their people, requiring them 
to guard carefully and protect all the members of the American 
mission."* 

Let us hear other witnesses. " They are most bigoted adhe 
rents of the Papacy," observes one-writer, " allowing not merely 
the claims of his Holiness as Head of their Church, to dictate 
.their creed, but submitting also to his paternal government in 
matters of discipline."f " The Maronites," says Dr. Robinson, 
and all Protestant writers use the same language, " are charac 
terized by an almost unequalled devotion to the See of Rome." 
They have lately converted, he adds, two Emirs of the Druses, 
together with their families, "so that now almost all the 
highest nobility of the mountain are Maronites."J 

This may suffice. No one will deny, in the face of such 
testimony, that the Maronites are devoted Catholics. But per 
haps they are servile, ignorant, and priest-ridden ? The Eev. 
J. L. Porter, of whom we heard at Damascus, and who had 
tb avenge both his personal misadventures and those of his 
colleagues, says with emphasis, "They are as ignorant a set of 
priest-ridden bigots as ever polluted a country, and no stranger," 
he means no Protestant missionary, " can pass through their 
streets without meeting insult and often abuse ; they are as 
tyrannical, as unjust, and almost as bloodthirsty, as the haughty 
Moslems." We have said that it is only English and American 
missionaries, but chiefly the former, who soothe their mortiii- 
cation by outbursts of this kind ; and as it is quite true that 
the Maronite nation owes its character, habits, and institutions 
Solely to the influence of the Catholic religion, it may be well 
to compare Mr. Porter s account of them with that of other 
Protestants, not less prejudiced, but having more respect for 
truth, for themselves, and for their readers. 

"They are," says Colonel Churchill in 1853, " a community 
of Christians who are virtually as free and independent as any 
state in Christendom. "| 

"They are," exclaims Mr. Bayard Taylor, in 1855, "the 
most thrifty, industrious, honest, arid happy people in Syria." 
"The women," he adds, "are beautiful, with sprightly, intelli 
gent faces, quite different from the stupid Mahometan females;" 

* American Board for Foreign Mistdom, Reports, p. 110 (1854). 

f North American Review, vol. Ixxxi., p. 78. 

\ Biblical Researches, &c., p. 460. 

^ Fire Years in Damascus, vol. i., cli. xvi., p. 279. 

\ Mount Lebanon. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 91 

% 

and their home "is a mountain paradise, inhabited by a peo 
ple so kind and simple-hearted, that assuredly no vengeful 
angel will ever drive them out with his flaming sword."* 

"They are," writes the Countess Hahn-Hahn, " that indus 
trious band of Christians who have adorned these mountains 
with cornfields and vineyards, with villages and convents."f 

" Health and industry," says Colonel Napier, " appeared to 
be the chief characteristics of this hardy race. The men were a 
robust and fine-looking set of fellows, and their wives and 
daughters, availing themselves of the privileges of Christianity, 
were not ashamed to show countenances invariably beaming 
with smiles, and often possessing no inconsiderable share of 
beauty ;" while the Greek schismatical women " lead nearly 
as secluded a life as the Osmanli ladies of Constantinople or 
Smyrna.":): 

Mr. Farley has told us, in flat contradiction to Mr. Porter, 
that their kindness and hospitality, even to Protestant travel 
lers were so universal, until they were irritated by the selfish 
intrigues and impertinent bigotry of missionaries whom they 
would have been content to despise if they had not been con 
strained to abhor them, that any Englishman was sure of a 
cordial welcome amongst them, and that he could never forget 
the "extreme courtesy" of the Maronite clergy towards himself. 

Mr. Monro, an intelligent Anglican clergyman, who had the 
good sense not to insult his hosts, and had no personal motive 
for libelling them, not only contrasts their frank hospitality with 
the suspicious exclusiveness of other Syrian races, but adds, 
"The kind manners and energetic carriage of these people 
afforded a striking instance that, where industry prevails, the 
flowers of happiness will blossom, and abundance ever be the 
fruit." 

Colonel Napier, in 1847, and Mr. Monk, in 1851, rebuke 
with no less emphasis the peevish calumnies of the angry mis 
sionary ; the latter reporting that he was " received in the most 
hospitable manner,"! and the former recording his experience 
in tiiese words : " Nothing could exceed the kindness of our 
reception by the hospitable mountaineers, whose cottages were 
all thrown open to the strangers. ... In every cottage on 
whose threshold we set foot, the welcome i Faddal > was pro 
nounced." T 

* The Lands of the Saracen, ch. xii., p. 174. 
f Countess Hahn-Hahn, Letter xxi. 

j Reminiscences of Syria and the Holy Land, by Lieut.-Colonel E. Napier, 
vol. i., ch. v., p. 204. 

Travels in Syria, by the Rev. Vere Monro. vol. ii., ch. xxiv., p. 107. 
f The Golden Horn, &c., by Charles James Monk, M A., ch. xx., p. 303. 
1[ Reminiscences, ch. v., 201. 



92 CHAPTER VIII. 

Mr. Walpole, in spite of strong religious antipathies, declares 
that their valor is as conspicuous as their industry and kind 
liness. "The Maronites rose against their oppressors, the 
Metuali, and drove them fairly out of the district. . . . The 
Metuali have a high character for warriors and courage. This 
shows what the Catholic population might become if united." 
The general prosperity, he says, was so remarkable, that " it 
exhibited a scene which made one feel proud that at last the 
Christian dared improve." He observes also, that the family 
of Sheebal, descended from Mahomet, had just been converted, 
and adopted into the Maronite nation.* 

Mr. Keating Kelly cannot speak of them without enthusiasm. 
" The condition of this people is essentially happy. Its religion 
is free and respected ; its churches and its convents crown the 
summits of its hills ; its bells, that sound in its ears as a welcome 
token of liberty and independence, peal their summons to pray 
night and day ; it is governed by its own hereditary chieftains, 
and by the clergy it loves ; a strict but equitable system of 
police preserves order and security in the villages ; property is 
respected and transmitted from father to son ; commerce is ac 
tive; the manners of the people perfectly simple and pure. 
Rarely is there seen a population whose appearance more be 
speaks health, native nobility, and civilization, than that of 
these men of Lebanon. "f 

Lastly, even a Syrian Greek, who cordially hates both their 
religion and their nation, and who seems by converse with 
English Protestants to have become indifferent to his own 
religion without adopting theirs, makes the following confession. 
u They are a most industrious, contented, happy people .... 
and so manly and courageous that, until the year 1843, they 
had never been conquered by the Mahometans ;" and then he 
adds the most magnificent eulogy which it was possible to pro 
nounce upon a Christian people, that, " owing to the influence 
of the bishops, crime is in a great measure unknown amongst 
the Maronites"^. 

In reading these impressive testimonies, from writers of 
various creeds and nations, to the virtues of a Catholic people, 
we have almost forgotten Mr. Porter. Let us quote him once 
more, for the sake of adding a new example of the language 
in which passion finds vent while reason is mute, and of the 
class of agents whom Protestantism sends forth into every 

* The Ansayrii, icitJi Travels in the Further East, vol. iii., ch. i., p. 7 ; ch. 
xviii., p. 434. 

f Syria, and the Holy Land, by Walter Keating Kelly, ch. viii., p. 97. 

; The Thistle and the Cedar of Lebanon, by Risk Allah Effendi. ch. xvi., pp. 
269, 273. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 93 

land, but only to augment everywhere the repugnance which 
is entertained, by all races of men, towards England and her 
representatives. 

The Maronite clergy, Mr. Porter says, " are ignorant, 
bigoted, and overbearing," and their religion " senseless 
mummery." It is of the Syrian clergy, professors of the 
same faith, that a more enlightened English Protestant says, 
" It is a sublime spectacle to contemplate these men devoting 
themselves to deeds of charity and mercy, and welcoming a 
long martyrdom for conviction s sake."* " I can imagine St. 
Basil the Great," says another educated Englishman, " or the 
Gregories, just such persons in appearance."f "If Titian 
were about to paint a Doge of Venice," says an accomplished 
French traveller, speaking of the Maronite Patriarch of Cilicia, 
" he would ask for no other model. "^ Even Mr. Porter, in an 
access of involuntary admiration, confesses " their staid dignity 
and noble bearing ; while the more candid Dr. Wolff declares 
that " the monks of the Maronite nation," though they " tried 
to convert him to the Church of Rome," " are usually men of 
great vigor and power." 

But Mr. Porter speedily resumes his usual tone. "The 
education of the people," he observes, " they never think of;" 
and as if even this statement admitted of improvement, he adds, 
"the idea of imparting religious instruction is quite out of the 
question." Presently, as if the accounts of other Protestant 
travellers suddenly occurred to him, and suggested the necessity 
of caution, he says, " It is true a few schools have been estab 
lished, but these are got up by the people," who, although 
"ignorant, bigoted, bloodthirsty, and polluters of the soil," 
lie now represents as going beyond their pastors, to whom he 
declares they are slavishly subject, in promoting education ! 

Yet Mr. Ubicini has told us, that in every province of Asiatic 
Turkey, Catholic schools are multiplying in all directions, and 
are eagerly frequented by children of all sects. Dr. Robinson 
declares of the Maronite College of Kesrawan, in which the 
Jesuits teach Arabic, Syriac, Latin, and Italian, " that it takes 
a higher stand than any other similar establishment in Syria." 
Mr. Farley speaks in the same terms of the Lazarist College at 
Antoura, " where some hundreds of students who come from 
Beyrout, Aleppo, Damascus, and other towns in Syria, as also 
from Persia, Egypt, and even from Nubia and Abyssinia, are 
taught," in addition to " the usual branches of education," 

* Farley, Two Years in Syria, ch. xxxiv., p. 291. 

f Patterson, p. 322. 

La Syrie avant 1860, par Georges do Salverte, ch. viii., p. 100. 

Vol. ii., ch. xvi., p. 296. 



94: CHAPTER VIII. 

" tlie Arabic, French, Italian, and Latin languages." M. de 
Salverte reports, in 1861, that the ecclesiastical seminary at 
Ghazir, in which he found ninety students, is so efficient, that 
its excellence dispenses them from seeking education in the 
colleges of Rome.* Mr. Wellsted relates, that even in Aleppo, 
" most of the children can read and write at an early age. "7 
And even Risk Allah, though he affects, in order to please his 
English readers, to deplore what he has learned to call the 
" Romish tendencies" of the Maronites, honestly confesses that 
" their schools are really excellent ;" and whereas the Protesfc- 
ant missionary affirms that the Maronite clergy " never think of 
education," this Syrian Greek avows, in spite of national and 
religious antipathies, that " one great advantage which the 
Maronites possess, and which must eventually prove very bene 
ficial to them, is the fact, that education is spreading univer 
sally amongst them" %. 

Lastly, the accomplished M. de Sauly furnishes the following 
example of the nature of the education imparted to all comers 
in the college at Antoura. A native pupil, who had only 
attained the modest position of assistant dragoman at Beyrout, 
is thus described by this competent judge: "He speaks and 
writes French very correctly, he is perfectly well read in all our 
first-rate authors, and altogether his education may vie with 
that of the lest French universities. As to Arabic, his native 
tongue, he is complete master of it, and could, if required, fill 
the chair of the ablest professor. " 

But in all this there is no lesson for Mr. Porter. He had a 
defeat to avenge, and after five years of unprofitable labor had 
convinced even himself that it was time to quit Syria. Arid 
BO in his anger he forgot prudence as well as truth. Education 
is so literally universal among the Maronites, though their 
clergy " never think of it," that whereas, in the words of the 
late Mr. Warburton, " there is not an Egyptian woman who 
can read and write, except a daughter of Mehemet Ali and the 
few who have been educated in the school of Mr. Lieder, the 
Maronite women of the Lebanon, though of the same Arab 
race, are generally instructed "\ " Education," says Mr. 
Kelly, " though limited to reading, writing, arithmetic, and 
the catechism," we have seen that for the class above the 
peasants the course includes Arabic, Syriac, Latin, French, 

* La Syrie, &c., ch. viii., p. 96. 

f Travels, &c., by J. It. Wellsted, Esq., F.R.S., vol. ii., ch. v., p. 91. 
f Ch. xvi. p., 270. 

Narrative of a Journey Round the Dead Sea, by F. de Saulsy, vol. L, 
ch. i., p. 5. 
| The Crescent and the Cross, vol. i., ch. xi., p. 100. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 95 

and Italian, "is universal among them, and gives them a 
deserved superiority over the other tribes of Syria."* Whether 
such an amount of education can be said to be " universal" in 
England we need not stay to inquire. 

But Mr. Porter had still something to add. It was possible 
to clothe his enmity in still more impressive language. The 
Maronites, like all the oriental tribes, severely exacting in 
their estimate of a Christian apostle, had rejected him and his 
companions, with an energy proportioned to the ardor of their 
faith, as ministers of the Evil one. Mr. Porter repays the 
indignity with the following announcement, in which he 
appears to have uttered his last farewell to Syria and the 
Syrian mission : " The Protestant missionaries have done more 
for the advancement of education within the short period of 
twenty years, than the combined priesthood of all Lebanon and 
all Syria has done during centuries." It is our turn to bid 
farewell to Mr. Porter, to whom we have perhaps given an 
undue share of attention, and we cannot do so more litly than 
in the words of his co-religionists. 

From Mr. Williams, himself a Protestant minister, we have 
learned, on the one hand, that the Protestant missionaries in 
Syria " are merely playing at missions," and that " self-sacrifice 
and simple trust" are not to be learned from their example ; 
and on the other, that the Catholic Church has sent to this 
land "the best instructed and most devoted missionaries that 
the world has seen since primitive times." Dr. Southgate, a 
Protestant bishop, has assured us that the rare disciples of Mr. 
Porter and his colleagues " are infidels and radicals unworthy 
of the sympathy of the Christian public ;" while Dr. Wolff has 
lately announced, after an experience of many years, that " the 
worst people among the Eastern natives are those who know 
English, and have been converted to Protestantism." To these 
emphatic statements Sir Adolphus Slade has added, that many 
of the missionaries themselves, who have " done more for 
education," though they have neither schools nor scholars, than 
all the Catholic clergy for centuries, " know absolutely no other 
than their mother tongue." 

Finally, the same Protestant writer, long resident in Syria, 
conversant during many years with all which has occurred in 
that land, and full of admiration of the apostolic men by whom, 
as he observes, " millions of souls have been saved ^ in these 
regions, lends us the following appropriate words with which 
to take leave of Mr. Porter: "Protestant missionaryism is 
much extolled ; it certainly costs a great deal ; but the good it 

* Ubi supra. 



96 CHAPTER VIII. 

may effect is as a drop of water, compared with the sea of ben 
efits spread by the Roman Catholic Church, silently and unos 
tentatiously, all over Turkey.""* 



THE DRUSES. 

It is time to quit the mountains and valleys of Lebanon, 
where we have found, in the heart of a land long abandoned to 
every error and impiety, a picture which a Christian may well 
love to contemplate: on the one hand, deep religious convic 
tion, unshaken through ages, and that instinctive horror of her 
esy which is one of the surest signs of election ; on the other, 
as even enemies allow, valor, dignity, purity, gentleness, in 
dustry, prosperity, and peace. Such, by Protestant testimony, 
is the influence of the Catholic religion upon generous natures, 
penetrated by its healing power, and such its results even 
among a people of Arab origin, though surrounded by races 
and tribes with whom faitli is a dream, and virtue a jest. 

It is characteristic of that singular form of religion which 
seems instinctively to prefer crime and ignorance in union with 
heresy to virtue and enlightenment in connection with the 
Church, that the only reflection suggested to another Epis 
copalian clergyman, of the same class as Mr. Porter, by the 
contrast which we have just delineated, found expression in 
these words: "How sad," exclaims the Rev. George Fisk, 
" that Popery should taint even the remains of the glory of 
Lebanon !" Greeks and Armenians, sunk in mental and moral 
decrepitude, Mr. Fisk would embrace with love, because, as he 
seriously observes, they hold " the great leading truths of the 
Gospel ;" and though " in many respects superstitious, and 
manifestly corrupt," they have this merit, which amply supplies 
the want of every other, that " they have never merged in the 
apostasy of Rome."f Mr. Fisk has apparently not read, or 
perhaps forgotten, the testimonies of Protestant writers, who 
declare as we have already heard and shall hear again pres 
ently that the only Greeks and Armenians who deserve the 
name of intelligent or consistent Christians are precisely those 
who have derived new life from reconciliation with the Catho 
lic Church. 

Allusion has been made to the Druses, the implacable and 
hereditary foes of the Maronites. If we add a few words with 
respect to the former, it is only for the sake of noticing the 

* Turkey, Greece, and Malta, vol. ii., ch. xx., p. 423. 
\ A Pastor s Memorial, ch. ix., pp 398, 400, 410. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 97 

characteristic relations of the Protestant missionaries with them. 
Banished by the Maronites with every mark of contempt and 
disgust, they took refuge among their hostile neighbors, and 
endeavored to make alliance with them. The infamy of their 
character, and their indifference to any form of religion, was no 
impediment to the negotiations which now ensued. To prot 
estantize the Druses, and to vex the Maronites, would be a 
double triumph ; but it was one which they were not destined 
to enjoy. " The Druses," said Dr. Yates, with great confidence, 
" will unite with the Protestant Christians, and the power of 
the Osmanlis will cease."* Mr. Fremantle, an Anglican clergy 
man, was of opinion that they would become " independent 
Episcopalians;" and as if this were not enough to stimulate 
the hopes of his co-religionists at home, he gravely added in 
a report which was actually published by the " Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge" that "they desire to be 
united to the English Church. "f Whether Mr. Fremantle 
really believed this, we need not question. The Druses, as Mr. 
Chasseaud observed in 1855, are unscrupulous hypocrites, and 
will affect to be of the religion of any society in which they 
happen to find themselves.^ They pretend, says Mr. Paton, 
to be Mahometans when it suits them. All European writers 
agree in describing them as impious, false, and bloodthirsty. 
Dr. Clarke says, "Some among them certainly offer their high 
est adoration to a calf. r \ Kisk Allah declares, apparently 
from his own observation, that while they profess to be Ma- 
hommedans, they have no hesitation whatever in denouncing 
Mahommed as a false prophet ;" and he adds, that the Druses, 
like the Kurds, have formed such an estimate of the creed of 
" English Protestants" as to assert, " that their religion is a 
species of free masonry, which very much resembles their 
own ;" and one of their leaders assured him that " a tall 
English emir" had told him so.^f 

How surely these atheists of Syria reckoned upon the sym 
pathy of " English Protestants," and how much reason they 
had for doing so, is sufficiently revealed in the comments mado 
by the latter upon the Turco-Druse insurrection of I860. All 
their apologies are for the Druses, all their sarcasms for the 
Maronites. u The Maronites are mere savages," says one of the 
ablest organs of intellectual Protestantism ; and as if this were 



* Modern History of Egypt, vol. ii., ch. iv., p. 158. 

t The Eastern Churches, pp. 44, 49. 

j The Druses of the Lebanon, by George Washington Chasseaud. 

Modern Syrians, p. 309. 

I Clarke s Travels, vol. iv., p. 136. 

1 UU Supra, p. 292. 

VOL. ti. 8 



98 CHAPTER VIII. 

not venturesome enough, he gravely adds, that until " the hour 
of their triumph the conduct of the Druses had been unim 
peachable !"* It is but a new version of the old cry, Non hunc 
seel Baral)bain. The worshippers of a calf are preferred before 
the disciples of the Cross ; and the latter, though travellers of 
all sects confess with enthusiasm their nobility and virtue, are 
peremptorily described, by that instinct of hate which can cor 
rupt even genius into imbecility, as "mere savages." 

An equally eminent authority observes, that "the great Druse 
chief Mohamed En-Nasar, the instigator of these butcheries, 
counted on English support, and therefore it need not be added 
on an English reward. "f His calculation has been abundantly 
justified. "The Druses," observes a traveller who has lived 
amongst them, " seek refuge in the arms of England, because 
they know that every other nation of Europe has judged and 
condemned them j"J while another relates that he heard an 
[Englishman say to a Maronite shiek, that England gave her 
support to the Druses solely in order to counterbalance the 
influence of France with the Christians. " You admit, then," 
replied the Maronite chief, " that as soon as France begins to 
labor for God, England takes up arms for the devil. " 

Lord Carnarvon, who represents the official mind of England, 
and has composed, with much ability, an almost enthusiastic 
apology for the Druses, insists that the u strong connection of 
gratitude on the one hand, and of good offices on the other, 
which has existed between the Druses and England, ought 
neither on moral nor political grounds to be lightly severed. ! 
In other words, it is worthy of England to become the patron 
of impiety, and an adversary of the Christian religion, if by 
accepting this mission she can counterbalance French influence 
in the East. 

It appears, however, that in spite of the avowed sympathy 
and alliance between the Druses and the English, the former 
only amused themselves at Mr. Fremantle s expense when they 
encouraged his cheerful expectations ; for Mr. Walpole tells us, 
eleven years after that gentleman s sanguine prediction, " With 
the Druses the Protestant missionaries have made, I believe, no 
progress." They are not yet affiliated to the " English Church," 
nor is there any immediate promise of that event. " Many 
professed themselves converts," says Mr. Walpole, "but directly 
the minister refused them some request, turned round and said, 

* Saturday Review, April 20, 1861. 

f The Times, September 1, 1860. 

\ La Virite sur la Syrie, par Baptistin Ponjoulat, Lettre xliii., p. 489. 

Mislin, Les Lieux Saints, tome i., ch. vi., p. 156. 

Recollections of the Druses, by the Earl of Carnarvon, ch. viii., p. 119. 






MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 99 

We will listen to you as long as you pay us."* This was their 
view of the value of Protestantism. 

In 1862, the agent of the Church Missionary Society reports 
thus of the Druses : " There does not as yet appear an opening 
for the reception of the Gospel among them ; on the contrary, 
their hatred of Christians and Christianity seems, if possible, 
to increase: and direct missionary work is highly irritating to 
them, and excites their fanaticism. "f Mr. Fremantle was ap 
parently too sanguine. 

These are not the only operations of Protestants in the 
Lebanon, though precisely the same result has attended all 
their efforts. We have heard of the two " designing brothers 
w r ho went to Malta, and " agreed to be baptized" on condition 
of receiving some hundred pounds. Others have imitated these 
neophytes of the Lebanon with still greater success. Dr. Carno 
relates the story of " the noted Eusebius, Bishop of Mount 
Lebanon," who far surpassed, as became his more elevated rank, 
the performances of his ingenuous flock. This Greek prelate 
" was chaperoned through many of the colleges at Oxford by 
one of the Masters." In such society his anti-Roman views 
made him a welcome guest ; but the crafty oriental was only 
speculating on the inexhaustible credulity of his sympathizing 
hosts, by which he and his class have so often profited. Eusebius 
obtained, says Dr. Carne, " a capital printing press, and about 
eight hundred pounds in money. When we were at Sidon,we 
found that this eastern dignitary was living in a style of 
excessive comfort, and to his heart s content, at a few hours 
distance. With this money, which was a fortune in the East, 
he has purchased a good house and garden ; not one farthing 
has ever gone to renovate the condition of the Christians of 
the East, and the printing-press, or some fragments of it, were 
known to have found their way to Alexandria."^: Oxford 
should have learned by this time to mistrust pseudo-converts, 
especially when they come from the East. 



ARMENIA. 



We may now take our departure from Syria, in order to 
pursue in Armenia the investigations which we have almost 
completed. It is in the latter province that the Protestant 
emissaries from America boast to have obtained the greatest 

* The Ansayrii, cli. xvi., p. 356. 

f Sixty-third Report, p. G6. 

j Letters from the East, vol. ii., p. 115. 



100 CHAPTER VIII. 

numerical results, and are at this moment engaged in operations 
which deserve particular attention. But we must first say a few 
words on Catholic missions to the Armenians. 

Nearly twenty years ago, Dr. Joseph Wolff announced to 
Europe, that " about sixty thousand Armenians have joined 
the Church of Rome.""* Since that date, the great movement 
of reconciliation among the Armenian nation has steadily 
progressed ; and it may be said without exaggeration that, at 
the present time, hardly a week elapses without a fresh instance 
of conversions, often on a large scale, and all attesting the won 
derful restoration of this people to unity. 

And this remarkable fact is perpetually recurring, in spite 
of that "strong national bond" which, as liaxthausen notices, 
assimilates the Armenians to the Jews, " whose nationality no 
human power can destroy, and which knits them all into one 
tribe and family, from China to Morocco. So powerful is this 
ineradicable instinct of nationality, a sentiment always more 
or less fatal to Christianity, that Armenians, when converted 
to the Church, are obliged, like converts from certain European 
races, to repudiate that false and exaggerated patriotism which 
has rent Christendom into twenty jealous, selfish, and hostile 
bodies, " and proudly renounce the name of Armenians, to call 
themselves Catholics."f 

During the last two centuries this consoling movement has 
received a constant impulse from the labors of European mis 
sionaries. In 1711,PereRicard reconciled one bishop, twenty- 
two priests, and eight hundred and seventy-five lay persons.^ 
Three years later, in 1714, Pere Monier received the abjuration 
of more than seven hundred, and shortly afterwards, in com 
pany with Ricard, penetrated into Kurdistan. They were both 
chained and imprisoned by the Pacha of Kars, at the instigation 
of the Armenian schismatics, whose vengeance followed them to 
their new field of labor. By such men, and witli similar re 
sults, the combat has ever since been maintained, the heretics 
always invoking Moslem aid, and seldom in vain. And these 
incidents have marked the conflict up to the present hour. 
u Recently," says M. Eugene Bore, "the schismatical patriarch 
purchased from the vizir for two thousand purses the right to 
prevent a member of his Church from becoming a Catholic. v 




* Narrative of a Mission to Bokhara, cli. iii., p. 114. 
T Haxtliausen, cli. vii , p. 224. 
\ JVouveaux Memoires du Levant, tome iii., p. 290. 
Armenie, p. 138. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 101 

the American missionaries from the neighborhood of Etch- 
miadzin. 

Even Protestant travellers are almost unanimous in affirming 
two facts, the worthlessness of the schismatical and the 
superiority of the converted Armenian. " The Armenians," says 
the Rev. Mr. Dwight, " appear to hold a lower place in the 
scale than either the Greeks or the Latins,"* after which he 
evidently felt that he had nothing more to say. He confesses, 
however, that even they are witnesses for the Church, since they 
hold all the Catholic doctrines controverted by Protestants, a 
fact confirmed by a Prussian writer, who lived in intimacy with 
the heads of the sect, and was led to make the following 
important reflections : "The Armenian Church bears a marked 
testimony to the antiquity of the Catholic Church. All the 
dogmas attacked at and since the Reformation are held by it, 
the Saints, the Seven Sacraments, Transubstantiation, the 
Sacrifice of the Mass, and Purgatory. The dogmas which the 
Armenians hold in common with the Catholic Church must be 
of high antiquity, for as early as the Council of Chalcedon, in 
451, the Armenian Church possessed an organization of its own, 
and jealously guarded itself from foreign influence."! This 
learned writer also observes, and proves by well-known ex 
amples, that the " Armenian Church not only acknowledges 
that its founder, St. Gregory the Illuminator, received the 
Armenian Patriarchate from Rome, but it has several times 
submitted to the Pope, as the centre of Unity and the Supreme 
Patriarch." He had reason to. speak with confidence of the 
sentiments of the highest class of Armenian prelates, since 
JSTarses, the Patriarch of the separated Armenians, gave him 
the following explicit assurance with his own lips, when he 
met him at St. Petersburg in 1843 : " On the whole we are in 
harmony with Rome; the Armenian Patriarch usually sends 
a notice to the Pope of his elevation to the Patriarchate. . . . 
There is no essential difference in doctrine between the Arme 
nian and Latin Churches ; indeed, perfect agreement has been 
repeatedly attained. Jealousies and disputes have been much 
more frequent with the Greek Church." It was impossible to 
omit testimony so interesting, though it probably reveals more 
accurately the convictions and wishes of N arses himself than of 
the corrupt and ignorant colleagues whom he nominally governs, 
and of whom Haxthausen declares with regret, K Avarice, envy, 
hypocrisy, and even gross sensuality are common amongst 
them." 

Such are the penalties of separation from the Holy See, even 

* Christianity in Turkey t p. 7. 
\ Haxthausen, cli. ix., p. 313 



102 CHAPTER VIII. 

where the apostolic doctrine is nominally retained. Captain 
AVilbraham observed at Etclimiadzin itself, the head-quarters 
of the schism, and in the cathedral, the " want of attention, 
and even of decorum," which was displayed by the congrega 
tion ; and added, u There was none of that apparently sincere, 
though perhaps blind devotion, which I have so often remarked 
in Roman Catholic chapels." "The Catholicos," he says, or 
Patriarch, " nominally presides over the synod, but a Moderator 
has been appointed by the Russian government, without whose 
approval nothing can be done, which makes the emperor 
virtually the head of the Armenian Church throughout the 
world ;"* a fact of which Parses bitterly complained to Baron 
Yon Ilaxthausen, in these expressive words : " How undignified 
is the position of the Patriarch ! Every letter must pass through 
the hands of the Governor-general of Caucasia, and is opened 
in his office, where every clerk may read it !" Narses, a man 
superior to most of his race and order, might have reflected, that 
this is the usual fate of those who consent to preside over 
"National" Churches, f 

Mr. Walpole declares, from his own observation, that " the 
falsehood of the Armenian monks was dreadful, as they asserted 
that so and so was the belief of such and such a church." 

Dr. Moritz Wagner, also a Protestant, confirms these dismal 
statements. "Gross ignorance, stupidity, covetousness, and 
immorality, are the predominant characteristics of these eccle- 
biastics. They readily assume an external show of virtue and 
self-denial, whilst, in secret, they indulge freely in vice. Envy 
and jealousy reign supreme among them. They do not appear 
to have a shadow of brotherly or neighborly love, or of kindli 
ness and courtesy, in the Christian acceptation of those terms.":): 
The whole community, including the Patriarch and "his bishops 
and monks," are described by Dr. Bodenstedt, who lived with 
them, as " a society blunted for all noble purposes, and wasted 
by unnatural lusts." And these are the men who perpetuate 
the schism. 

Dr. Friedrich Parrot notices also the moral corruption in 

* Travels in the Trans-Caucasian Provinces of Russia, ch. ix., pp. 95-98. 

Dr. D5llinger observes in his latest work, that all pagan religions were 
national, and that while it is the special glory of the Christian Church to have 
united all the tribes of the earth in one family, the Sects have always tended 
to restore the pagan element of nationality. It was thus with the Donatists, 
who speedily cast out the idea of a universal communion. " The whole course 
of the Reformation century," he adds, was in the same fatal direction, and 
"we find everywhere the victorious (pagan) principle of national distinct 
churches. 7 he Church and the Churches, p. 81. In this, as in many other 
respects. Protestantism was a return towards Paganism. 

| Truccls in Persia, &c., vol. iii., p. 51 (1850). 

Lijc in the Caucasus and the East, vol. i., p. 231. 






103 

which their priesthood is sunk," and gives this explanation of 
their profound and universal ignorance. " Every laic, provided 
only he be chosen by the congregation, and have passed four 
teen days in the prescribed fastings and ritual observances in 
a church, may get ordination from the bishop, without either 
preparation or subsequent education." He agrees with Colonel 
Drouville, that " their priests and bishops are all as ignorant 
as it is possible to be;" and notices the usual phenomenon 
in all heretical bodies, that they have split into three sects. 
"There is an independent Catholicos at Sis, in Cicilia, and 
another, who has maintained himself in this dignity for seven 
hundred years, in the island of Akhthamar, in the lake of 
Van."* 

Lastly, Dr. Wilson observes though he would probably have 
said nothing about it if they would have welcomed his friends 
" the Armenians partake in the monothelite as well as the 
monophysite heresy," a statement which is not true of the 
whole nation, especially in Western Asia. 

Such, by Protestant testimony, are the unfortunate commu 
nities who are paying the penalty of heresy and schism, and 
whom the Church, with the patience and zeal of a mother, has 
resolved to restore to truth, charity, and obedience. How far 
she has succeeded in this aim we may now briefly state. 

We have already heard from Dr. Wolff that sixty thousand 
had been reconciled when he visited them. Captain Wilbraham 
admits that " a considerable proportion have returned to the 
Catholic Church, from which this nation seceded, when, in the 
year 491, they rejected the authority of the Council of Chalce- 
don."f Dr. Parrot, though a Kussian Imperial Councillor of 
State, allows that no small portion of the clergy and laity 
also have attached themselves to the Koman Catholic Church.":): 
" Komanism," says the Rev. Justin Perkins, of whom we shall 
hear more presently, "is taking root and extending," which he 
considers " the conversion of the Armenians from bad to worse." 
" Very few of the Nestorians now remain," he adds, " on the 
western side of the Koordish mountains, who have not yielded 
to the intrigues and usurpations of Papal domination. " This 
gentleman is apparently of opinion that the operations of the 
Americans, which shall be described immediately, involve 
neither intrigue nor usurpation. 

But the conversions effected by Catholic missionaries have 
not been confined to Armenia Proper. "At Constantinople," 

* Journey to Ararat, ch. iv., p. 92; cli. v., pp. 105-110. 
f Ch. xxxi., p. 352. 
% P. 110. 

Residence en Persia, p. 4. 



104: CHAPTER VIII. 

says Mr. Curzon, " a great number of the higher and wealthier 
Armenians give their adherence to the Kornan Catholic creed. 7 
Of the Chaldean Catholics, Dr. Wilson observes, " They form, 
I am sorry to say, a great portion of the Nestorians west of the 
mountains of Kurdistan." Bagdad and Mosul have yielded to 
the same beneficent power. "Emissaries from Rome," says 
Mr. Perkins, "have been laboring, with a zeal and perse 
verance worthy of a better cause, to effect the conversion of 
the entire Nestorian Church. Mrs. Perkins received^ a letter 
from a pious English lady, who resides in Bagdad, in which 
the writer says, " the religious state of this city is very unsatis 
factory ; the Kornan Catholics carry the day in every way. . . 
A large body of bishops and priests are going to Mosul in a 
day or two, to form a convention to endeavor to bring over all 
the Chaldeans to the Papal faith." Fortunately, we can trace 
the results of this expedition ; for a little later Mr. Walpole 
tells us, with an angry commentary hardly worthy of so intel 
ligent a traveller, that of the fourteen Christian churches at 
Mosul belonging to the different sects, several are now in the 
hands of Roman Catholics ; . . . . whether by right or other 
wise," how could a few poor missionaries gain them except 
by persuasion? "the Catholics have gathered to themselves 
many congregations." 

The expedition from Bagdad was evidently successful ; indeed 
Dr. Southgate was able to report, with unfeigned regret, that 
" the whole body of the Nestorian Church is now a branch of 
the Church of Rome, and with a sad propriety may the Papal 
Nestorians assume the national name of Chaldeans."* " The 
Nestorians who once inhabited the Mosul district," says Dr. 
Asahel Grant, "have all embraced the Romish faith."f "The 
whole Chaldean nation," adds an English traveller, "may now 
be esteemed Catholics.":); 

Finally, the Patriarch of the Chaldeans, writing from Mosul 
in 1853, could already report that thirty-five thousand wanderers 
from that nation alone had beon restored to the true fold, 
and that the " opposition of the Methodists" he means the 
Anglican and other missionaries was the chief impediment to 
the conversion of the few who were still in schism, but whose 
imperfect faith was in danger from contact with Protestant 
neology, as their morals were from the lavish distribution of 
Protestant gold. The mission of Protestantism seems to be 
everywhere the same. Its agents cannot make Christians 

* Vol. ii., ch. xvi., p. 183. 

f The Nestorians, ch. iii., p. 27. 

j Patterson, app., p. 401. 

Revue Orientate et Algerienne, tome iv., p. 357. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 105 

themselves, but they can prevent others doing so. By the 
banks of the Tigris, as by those of the Nile and the Jordan ; 
in the cities of China, as in the villages of Hindostan ; in the 
islands of the Pacific, as in those of the Mediterranean ; their 
aim is to rend unity, to mar the work which they can neither 
understand nor imitate, to confirm the heathen in his unbe 
lief and the heretic in his corruption ; and the only triumph 
to which they aspire is to keep back a few, when all around 
are waking to a new life of truth and virtue, from sharing the 
blessings which, but for their presence, would perhaps regen 
erate the world. 

Let us return for a moment, before we conclude this part of 
our subject, to Armenia Proper. The movement of Catholic 
regeneration of which Western Asia is now one of the most 
conspicuous theatres, has at last penetrated to the very heart 
and centre of the Armenian schism. Rumors had reached 
Europe towards the close of 1859 of extraordinary and almost 
unprecedented conversions in the regions which surround 
Etchmiadzin. An Armenian gentleman, who arrived in Eng 
land in the month of September of that year, brought 
intelligence of the almost simultaneous conversion of ten 
thousand Armenians in the neighborhood of Erzeroum. Ap 
plication was made to the proper authorities for authentic 
information with respect to so remarkable an event, and 
through the intervention of a venerable prelate a letter has 
been obtained from the Catholic Armenian Primate, dated 
Constantinople, October 26, 1859, which contains the follow 



ing statement : 



" I willingly communicate to you the details of the conver 
sions which take place almost every week from the schismati- 
cal Armenian Church to the centre of unity in these latter 
times, and especially during the last two years, in which so 
great a religious movement has been manifested in various 
parts of Asia, that it might more fitly be called a religious 
revolution eke potrei meglio intitolare una ri-volusione reli- 
yiosa. In Karput and Arabghir, cities in the neighborhood 
of Erzeroum, more than five hundred families with some of 
their priests have been converted to Catholicism. In Tadem, 
Sartorici, and Garrnir, regions adjacent to Karput, about one 
hundred families. In Malatia and Adjaman, also contiguous 
districts, one hundred and fifty families with their priest. Last 
week I received letters from Palo, also in the territory of 
Karput, and containing more than two hundred villages, wliich 
inform me that fifty families have expressed their desire to be 
admitted to Catholic unity. In Marasci, near Diarbeker, more 
than six hundred families, with some of their clergy, have 



106 CHAPTER VIII. 

become Catholics, and other families in the neighboring dis 
tricts. At Rodosto, near Adrianople, and again at Bandyrma, 
in the diocese of Byrsa in Bithynia, seventy families, besides 
others similarly disposed, have addressed petitions to me to 
be received into Catholic unity." The illustrious prelate does 
not state the exact numerical total of the converts, which was 
probably unknown to him ; but as they amount already to 
about fifteen hundred/amities, besides others similarly disposed, 
we may easily form an approximate estimate. But even this is 
not all, for the Archbishop immediately adds : " J omit to speak 
of other districts in the like condition, and especially of one 
vast province, with respect to which I am also conducting ne 
gotiations, in favor of more than ten thousand families." 

Such is the work of God, in these last times, among the 
schismatical communities of the East. Worn out by the 
exactions of simoniacal priests and bishops, scandalized by the 
ignorance and immorality of their fallen pastors, conversant in 
many cases with the superior virtue and dignity of their country 
men who have been reconciled to the Church, and above all 
touched by the compassionate grace of God, and the purity, 
wisdom, and goodness of the apostles whom He has sent 
amongst them, they begin, in this eleventh hour of their his 
tory, to turn wistful eyes towards the source of unity and 
peace, and to marvel that they have so long despised the bless 
ings which they knew not to be within their reach. 

It only remains to show, once more by Protestant testimony, 
that as soon as they enter the Church, they begin to acquire 
the freedom, virtue, and enlightenment to which they had so 
long been strangers. This also, thanks to the copiousness and 
exuberance of Protestant literature, we shall be able to prove. 

"The Roman Catholics," said an Anglican clergyman some 
years ago, " have compassed sea and land, have made and still 
retain proselytes to the Papal Supremacy from every Christian 
community and nation, Abyssinia excepted." If Mr. Jowett 
had written a little later, he would have been obliged to omit 
the exception. Other writers, who share Mr. Jowett s prej udices, 
will now tell us, in language more emphatic than could be ex 
pected from such witnesses, though far below the truth, what 
influence these conversions have produced upon the life and 
character of their fortunate subjects. 

Let us begin with the Greeks. Of the converts from this 
nation we have been told, by men who can hardly speak 
with composure of the Catholic Church, such truths as the 
following: "They are," says Dr. Wilson, in words already 
quoted, "amongst the most liberal and intelligent native 
Uhnstians in the East." They exhibit, since their conversion, 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 107 

says Dr. Robinson more cautiously, "a certain elevation." 
their intercourse with the Roman Catholic Church," adds 
Dr. Durbin, " tends to elevate them in the scale of civilization." 
And these are all vehement Protestants. 

Of the Armenian converts, equally hostile witnesses give 
exactly the same account, though we may be sure they speak 
with reluctance and constraint. "~ "Like the Christians in other 
parts of Turkey," says Messrs. Smith and Dwight, eager parti 
sans of Protestant missions, " they who have embraced the faith 
of Rome are more respectable for wealth and intelligence than 
their countrymen." They add, that " most of the native Chris 
tians employed by Protestants in the Levant are of the Romish 
persuasion," a fact which they consider discreditable to the 
officials, merchants, and others, who employ them solely on 
account of their superior trustworthiness, because it encourages 
" the Pope s anti-Christian power."* 

"The Catholic Armenians," says Captain Wilbraham, "are 
generally superior in education and intelligence to their coun 
trymen, which this gentleman attributes, " in some measure, 
to the circulation of knowledge occasioned by the literary la 
bors of the Catholic Armenian convent in Venice."f In other 
words, they are brought by their conversion into contact with 
Catholic intelligence and learning. 

"The Roman Catholic branch of the Armenian Church," 
says Mr. Curzon, " has done much more for literature and 
civilization than the original body." Of the converts he says, 
"Their minds are more enlarged, they are less Oriental in their 
ideas," &c. ;J an emphatic testimony, by a capable witness, to 
the civilizing influence of the Catholic religion. Mr. Curzon 
also observes, that " the Armenian monks at Venice printed 
the Armenian Bible in 1805 ; and entirely by their energy, the 
small spark which alone glimmered in the darkness of Arme 
nian ignorance in the East has gradually increased its lighj:." 
"The Mechitarists," says Haxthausen, " have printed Armenian 
translations from all the languages of Europe, and in every 
department of literature." 

" It is a remarkable fact," says Dr. Joseph Wolff in his latest 
publication, "and it must not be concealed, that .... the 
native Christians of the Turkish empire in general, where 
Roman Catholic missionaries have not penetrated, are ignorant, 
rude, and uncouth, like buifaloes ! Roman Catholic mission 
aries have carried everywhere the light of civilization. " 

* Missionary Researches in Armenia, Letter i., p. 20. 

f Ch. xxxi., 352. 

i Armenia and Erzeroum, ch. xv., p. 230. 

Travels and Adventures of Dr. Wolff, ch. xv., p. 274. 



108 CHAPTER VIII. 

Of the Syrians, even Dr. Southgate notices the pregnant 
fact, that " the adherents of the Church of Korne have all been 
themselves converted individually," and that "they are zeal 
ously and intelligently attached to their new faith."* 

Of the Chaldeans, we have heard that they have become a 
Catholic nation ; and of the Maronites, who owe all the " de 
served superiority" which even Protestants recognize in them 
to the influence of their religion, we need say nothing more 
than has been already related by English and American 
writers. 

Of the converted Jacobites, Mr. Badger confesses, in spite 01 
that uneasy dislike and jealousy of the Catholic Church which 
is now perhaps more intense in Anglicans than in any other 
class, " If the truth must be told, they are decidedly superior, 
in many respects, to their Jacobite brethren. "f 

Lastly, the eventual triumph of the Faith in all the long 
separated communities of the East appears so certain to a 
German philosopher who had watched, with cold but intelli 
gent impartiality, its irresistible progress, that he does not 
hesitate to announce in these emphatic terms the inevitable 
issue : " There is no doubt that the theology of the West will in 
time penetrate the Eastern Church, with all its divisions, Greek, 
Armenian, Nestorian, and Coptic. "J 

And now we have heard enough of Catholic missions in the 
Levant, Syria, and Armenia, of their uninterrupted success, and 
of the character both of the missionaries and their disciples. 
The history exactly agrees with what we have heard in every 
other land. On one side we have found God and his gifts, on 
the other only man and his frailties. The few Protestant con 
verts, attracted only by offers of payment, and spurning the 
hand from which they receive it, are, as Dr. Southgate admits, 
" infidels and radicals ;" or, as Mr. Williams, Mr. Patterson, 
and others report, notorious for " scandalous irregularities arid 
excesses either worthless persons, or skeptics and infidels;" 
while even a Protestant minister not only confesses the uni 
versal failure of his co-religionists in Syria, but candidly asks, 
" Are we ever likely to succeed any better ?" Such is one more 
example of the momentous contrast which has not hitherto 
been revealed to the world, because neither genius nor learning 
could have anticipated, much less dispensed with, the facts 
which living writers have collected for our instruction. 

And what explanation do Protestants offer, in this case, of tho 

* Narrative, &c, vol. ii., ch. xxiii., p. 284. 
1 Vol. i., p. 63. 
Trans-Caucasia, by Baron Von Haxthausen, ch. iii., p. 67. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 109 

success of Catholic missions and the failure of their own ? In 
China, they assure us that, " in becoming Papists," and subse 
quently martyrs, " they give up nothing"* In India, " Popery 
is better adapted" to the illogical Hindoo. In Ceylon, and in 
other lands, it is " ceremonial" which accounts for the contrast. 
And what is it in Syria? In this province, the explanation is 
still more unexpected, and the very hypothesis which unites in 
itself the largest measure of extravagance and impossibility is 
precisely that which has been selected for the occasion. Who 
would have anticipated that, in the land of the Moslem, 
" where, 1 as Mr. Walpole observes, " the Christian exists only 
on sufferance," it is by " cruelty and violence" that a few 
Lazarists, Franciscans, and Sisters of Charity win their way ? 
" Romish tyranny," says the Rev. Mr. Fremantle, for the special 
instruction of the Anglican Church, " has been insulting and 
persecuting, and assisting the Mahommedans to oppress the 
fallen churches." And this account, which would be received 
with a shout of laughter by a Druse or a Mussulman audience, 
is repeated by other English writers, with various modifications, 
as the true history of Catholic victories in Syria. 

Yet as late as 1845, we find a competent authority making 
this declaration, in the form of an appeal to Europe : " I know 
for a positive fact, that at this moment all classes, sects, and 
denominations, are crying aloud for European protection."! 
Fourteen years later, Mr. Wingfield still reports, that " the 
assassination of Christians, even of the richer class, is unhappily 
of no very rare occurrence."^: Mr. Warrington Smyth relates, 
about the same time, that he himself saw a new church in 
Bulgaria wantonly destroyed, "crushing in an hour the hopes 
of years." "Never," adds a Protestant minister in 1862, 
" were the Christians throughout Turkey exposed to more 
atrocious cruelty than at the present day, when the Mahometan 
power is kept alive merely by the mutual distrust of the great 
powers of Europe."! " The various Christian sects who occupy 
the plains of Syria," says Colonel Churchill, " live in perpetual 
dread of some outbreak of Mohammedan fanaticism. "T How 
reasonable that dread was, the dismal tragedy of 1860 once- 
more proved. Even the Maronites, whose numbers and valor, 
as well as their geographical position, appeared to give them 



* The Land of Sinim, ch. iv., p. 132. 

\ Memoir on Syria, by Charles Fiott Barker, formerly Secretary to Mr. Consul- 
general Barker, p. 50. 

$ A Tour in Dalmatia, &c., by W. F. Wingfield, M.A., ch. vi., p. 158. 
A Year with the Turks, ch. ix., p. 289. 

f Serma and the Servians, by the Rev. W. Denton, M.A., ch. i., p. 15. 
1 Mount Lebanon, vol. iii., ch. xxvii., p. 387. 



HO CHAPTER VIII. 

an exceptional security, fell, betrayed and ensnared, in that 
cruel conspiracy of Druse, and Turk, and Metuali ; and were 
at all times so exposed, in spite of the nominal protectorate of 
France, whose generous designs were thwarted by the policy of 
a jealous and non-Catholic nation, that as one of their bishops 
observed to Mr. David, " Dieu seul est Ion pour la Syrie" In 
Antioch itself, though it is, as Mr. Paton remarks, u nominally 
the metropolis of the orthodox Greeks," " the Moslems are so 
fanatical, that they do not allow the Christians to have a church 
in the town."* And it is in such a state of society as this, in 
which the Catholics exist, like the sectaries, " only on suffer 
ance," and in daily peril of destruction, that helpless missionaries 
and religious women, who attract tens of thousands by the 
sweet odor of their virtues, from all ranks and sects, are said 
to do so by " insults and tyranny," and by " persecuting the 
fallen churches !" Such is the Protestant explanation of their 
euccess, and it is, as usual, an Anglican clergyman who sug 
gests it. 

PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 

Before we close this chapter, let us add a few words, in further 
illustration of the contrast, on Protestant missions in Armenia. 
Hitherto we have encountered grave and earnest men, fit 
preachers of the evangelical truths of which their own apos 
tolic lives were the most impressive illustration ; having the 
counsels of Holy Writ in their hearts rather than on their 
tongues, and still more eloquent by example than in speech. 
Hence their peaceful triumphs, hence their acceptance among 
all the oriental races. We have now, in conclusion, to notice 
briefly a class of men towards whom we need not affect an 
esteem which even their co-religionists have refused : men to 
whom Holy Scripture appears to be every thing except a teacher ; 
men whose mouths are full of imprecations against the pure 
and the just, while they do not even attempt to imitate their 
least merits ; whose whole life is one unbroken course of 
littleness and self-indulgence, united with irrational contempt 
for the manly virtues which they hate without understanding ; 
whose mission seems to consist in marring the Unity for which 
Jesus prayed, and in beguiling others to reject the blessings 
which they have forfeited themselves ; and whose own friends 
confess, with one voice, that the few hearers whom they entice 
are only ten times more immoral and unbelieving than they 
were before. 

The principal historian of Protestant missions in Armenia is 

* Modem Syrians, cli. xix., p. 220. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. Ill 

the Eev. Justin Perkins. Let us hear his account of himself 
and his work. 

Mr. Perkins quotes the following passage from the " Instruc 
tions" to the American missionaries by the society which em 
ployed them : " You are not sent among these Churches to 
proselyte. Let the Armenian remain an Armenian, if he 
will; the Greek a Greek, and the Nestorian a Nestorian." 
" The object of the American missions to Syria, and other parts of 
the Levant," says Dr. Robinson, " is not to draw off members 
of the Oriental Churches to Protestantism." Such was perhaps 
the original programme, and for a time caution restrained the 
American agents. They offered only secular education, the use 
of books, medical treatment, and other harmless boons. When 
they thought their position assured, they assumed their real 
character, and boasted, as we have seen, of the very operations 
which their nominal instructions forbade them to attempt. 

They even claimed to have the field all to themselves, and 
warmly resented the intrusion of other Protestant sects, and 
especially of Anglicans. The report of the American Board for 
] 8 Jrl protests energetically against the English for entering into 
communication with the Nestorians, because such a proceeding 
may "tend to awaken the thought among the Nestorian 
ecclesiastics that there are rival Protestant sects and interests, 
upon which they may practice for the private gratification of 
avaricious desires." As a financial precaution, in order to keep 
down the price of converts by having only one bidder, there 
was much wisdom in this view; but the Anglicans answered, 
by the mouth of Mr. Badger, an Episcopalian minister, that the 
prudent suggestion was "as presumptuous as it is ludicrous." 
Mr. Badger even observed that his American rivals " seemed to 
lay claim to inspiration, and decided what was truth and what 
was error with the assurance of apostles." Meanwhile, the Nes- 
torians looked on, and began to entertain " avaricious desires." 

We have seen that Mr. Badger was no less indignant with 
the Catholic missionaries for their endeavor to draw the E"es- 
torians out of the pit of heresy, ignorance, and corruption, 
which even Protestant writers of the most advanced school 
have described to us. This Anglican clergyman, attracted by 
their sounding titles, and rejoicing in their separation from 
unity, evidently thought them a far more privileged class than 
either Catholics or Protestants. It is true they deny the Incar 
nation, but they are outside the Church, and were therefore- 
welcome allies for Mr. Badger. "The Nestorian Church," he 
says, "abounds in noble gifts and rightful titles!"* 

* The Nestorians, &c., vol. ii., ch. xlvi., p. 351. 



112 CHAPTER VIII. 

There was a time when even the most advanced Protestants, 
while Catholic traditions still lingered faintly amongst them, 
professed to reverence the Council of Ephesus, and to anathe 
matize the Nestorian heresy. Now, it seems, they anathema 
tize nothing; and in this new Pyrrhonism they see only a sign 
of their own progress and improvement. Geneva itself once 
taught its students to say, " I abhor all the heresies which were 
condemned by the first Council of Nice, the first of Ephesus 
and that of Cnalcedon."* " We detest &\\ sects and heresies, 
said the French Protestant communities, at what they called 
<; the Synod of Paris," in 1559, condemned by the same Coun- 
cils.f At the present day, even Anglican clergymen, especially 
those of the High Church school, celebrate the " noble gifts 
and rightful titles" of Nestorianism ! The Rev. Webb Le Bas 
calls the title OeoroKog a blasphemy ,"$ though even La Croze 
was ashamed to say less than that " the title has nothing con 
trary to sound theology ;" and the celebrated Calvinist Bal- 
dseus flatly asserted, that the Nestorians " teach points con 
trary to salvation. r \ But an Anglican clergyman, when he 
once begins to speak against the Catholic faith, is pretty 
sure to surpass both Cafvinists and Lutherans. The Rev. 
Dr. Kerr, also an Anglican, called the monophysites of Mala 
bar " a precious remnant of & pure and valuable people."^ 
Dr. Southgate, a Protestant bishop, speaks of the Nestorian 
heresy, if such it must he reputed"** implying that the Fathers 
of Ephesus were the real heretics. The "Rev. Henry Townly 
considers the principal tenet of Nestorianism " a point of 
orthodoxy on which we are agreed. "ff Mr. Layard says of 
the Chaldean Nestorians, "there are no sects in the East, and 
few in the West, who can boast of such purity in their 




enumerating 

tized by the Council of Ephesus, confidently asks, " In all this 
where is there any heresy ?"||[ Evidently Mr. Badger is not 
alone in his admiration of the Kestorians, an admiration which, 
however, he would perhaps have concealed, if he had read the 

* Ruchat, Histoire de la Reformation de la Suisse, tome viL, p. 291. 

t Quick s History of the Reformed Churches in France, vol. i., p. 7 (1692). 

t Life of Bishop Middleton, vol. i., ch. xi., p. 319. 

8 Histoire du Ghristianisme des Indes, tome i., livre i., p. 16. 

| Ap. Churchill, vol. iii., p. 576. 

I Report on the State of the Christians of Cochin and Travancore, p. 8. 

"* Aamritw, vol. ii., ch. xix., p. 224. 

\\ Answer to the Abbe Dubo-is, p. 230. 

ft Nineveh and its Remains, vol. i., p. 268. 

fT/ie Aimtyrii, vol. ii., ch. i., p. 10. 
Travels in Asia Minor, vol. ii., ch. xli., p. 272. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 113 

historian Evagrius, who relates that the founder of their 
religion, the heresiarch IsTestorius, was not only anathematized 
by an (Ecumenical Council, but that he died, like Herod, by 
the judgment of God, his tongue being gnawed by worms.* 

Let us leave Mr. Badger to accompany Mr. Perkins and his 
American colleagues. Here is a description, by Dr. Asahel 
Grant, of the country which they selected for their residence. 
" A plain of exuberant fertility is inclosed between the moun 
tains and the lake, comprising an area of about five hundred 
square miles, and bearing upon its bosom no less than three 
hundred hamlets and villages. It is clothed with luxuriant 
verdure, fruitful fields, gardens and vineyards, and irrigated by 
considerable streams of pure water from the adjacent mountains. 
The landscape is one of the most lovely in the East." Some 
writers have suggested that it was the site of the terrestrial 
paradise. 

Here the Americans established their dwelling, and here 
commenced the operations which Mr. Perkins has described. 
A few extracts from his narrative, supplemented by other 
witnesses, will explain their nature, and the character of the 
missionaries. 

They hear that the Nestorian Patriarch at Julamerk is about 
to embrace the Catholic faith. In a few hours a messenger is 
bearing across the plain an urgent remonstrance, in which they 
address to him, amongst other inquiries, this question : " Is 
there Paul, or Peter, or the Pope at Rome, crucified for us ?"f 
It does not appear how far he was affected by this interrogation. 

Mr. Perkins professes much disdain for his Nestorian friends. 
" They are very degraded," he says, and their religion is " a 
revolting form of Christianity." On the other hand, they 
feasted with him, and jested with him, and by his advice took 
wives and begat children ; and, above all, they accepted his 
Bibles and tracts, which, as he observes, "gives us a glorious 
field of common ground." 

Here are some examples of his dealings with the Nestorian 
bishops who became his pensioners. Of one of them, he says, 
" Under the influence of the mission, he has got so much the 
better of his canonical scruples on the virtue of episcopal celi 
bacy, that he has married a young wife, and is rearing a fam 
ily." Mr. Perkins was much encouraged by this easy triumph, 
and his companions resolved to rival his success. " The 
American missionaries, Messrs. Goodell and Bird," says Dr. 
Wolff, " have succeeded in converting two Armenian bishops 

* Hist. Ecclesiast., lib. i., cap. vii. 
f Residence in Persia, p. 163. 

VOL. TT. 9 



CHAPTER VIII. 

from the established Armenian symbols and ancient liturgy to 
the vague and uncertain creed of the Congregation alists of 
America; from their attachment to their Patriarch of Etchmi- 
adzin to the half neological writings of Professor Moses Stuart, 
of Andover."* He adds that they did this " merely for the 
sake of a wife," that both of them married immediately, and 
that in order to quiet the troubled conscience of their wives, 
they frequently expounded to them " 1 Tim. iii. 2," with the 
interpretation which their American friends had suggested. 

And when they have pulled down these unfortunate men to 
their own level, they call it " bringing them under Zion s 
king ;" and having collected together a few such as these, by 
exciting lust, or avarice, or both, having sapped all faith and 
religion in them, and taught them to sing their shame in texts 
of Scripture, they call them " God s infant Church !"f " Woe 
to you," said our Lord to such as these, " because you shut the 
kingdom of heaven against men, for you yourselves do not enter 

in, and those that are going in you suffer not to enter For 

this you shall receive the greater judgment. Woe to you, be 
cause you go round about the sea and the land to make one 
proselyte, and when he is made, you make him the child of 
hell twofold more than yourselves."^: 

Mr. Perkins took Mar Yohannan, an ex-JSTestorian bishop, to 
the United States, just as Tzatzoe and Africaner were con 
veyed to England, and when he arrived there, the Episco 
palian Protestants claimed him as an ally. "You belong to 
us? they said, in a formal address, and they protested against 
the indecency of his herding with Methodists, Presbyterians, 
Anabaptists, and other children of the "Reformation," from 
which they derived their own origin. Under the tuition of his 
American guides, this poor man, once a bishop, made the fol 
lowing official reply : u I do not wish tq hear you say. You 
belong to us ; I have not come here to make difference among 
Christians." And then he expounded his new ecclesiastical 
love Episcopalians, and Congregation alists, and 
Presbyterians, and Dutchmen, and Methodists, and Baptists. 
.... There is no difference in them with me." 

Such was the general result of the influence of Mr. Perkins. 

What the complexion of his theology was, we may infer from 

the following facts. Of Nestorins, and his denial of the BBOTOKO^ 

he says, Protestant Christians would certainly never have 

ght the worse of him ;" and then, forgetting the description 

* Journal, pp. 148-9. 

f Christianity in Turkey, ch. v., p. 180. 

\ Matt, xxiii., 15. 

Residence in Persia, p. 3G7. 









MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 115 

which he had himself given elsewhere, of " the revolting form 
of Christianity" professed by Nestorians, he exclaims, "Their 
belief is orthodox and scriptural !" With respect to the sacra 
ment of Baptism, he derides the oriental Christians because 
they " appeared to suppose that this rite possessed some mys 
terious charm that involved the agency of the Holy Spirit."* 
Such are the teachers whom America sends to promote the 
fortunes of Protestantism in the East. 

Mr. Perkins would perhaps have remained in Armenia till 
the present hour, but the care of his wife and family, as usual, 
put an end to his labors. Armenia was a pleasant residence, 
but did not offer any career to his offspring. "The children of 
missionaries," he says, "should be to the Churches objects of 
deep interest, as well as of tender sympathy ;" and for this 
reason, because the promise of our Lord to all who should leave 
" father or mother, or wife or children, for His sake," applies in 
a special manner "to the children of His missionary servants !"f 
It appears, therefore, that the Divine promise of special bene 
diction to all who abandon these worldly ties means, in the 
opinion of Mr. Perkins, that " they shall have a double blessing 
who retain them." Finally, " Mrs. Perkins health" suggested 
a return to America ; and as he seems to have suspected that 
his retirement from Armenia might possibly suggest malevolent 
interpretations, he complains apologetically, and by way of pre 
caution, that " there is a sensitiveness in the Christian com 
munity on the subject of the return of missionaries." It is 
probable, in spite of the protest of Mr. Perkins, that this sensi 
tiveness will continue. 

Perhaps we have now sufficient knowledge of the character 
of American missionaries ; but here is one more, and it shall 
be the last illustration. In a series of volumes, bearing a grave 
title, and recommended to public attention by one of the scien 
tific societies of America, the reader will encounter the follow 
ing passage. " K. is on her prancing pony ; Mrs. T. is on the 
lank, thin-chested, but deep-chested mountain horse ; Mr. T. 
has mounted kicking Sada; and I m aloft on tibn-devouring 
Mahjub." This is not, as might have been supposed, a sport 
ive account of a pic-nic party, addressed by some Syrian As- 
pasia to a sympathizing friend, but the official narrative of " a 
missionary tourf extracted from "Notes of a Tour in Mouni 
Lebanon, by a Missionary of the American Board in Syria," 
and solemnly read before the American Oriental Society!;): 



* P. 247. 
t P. 344. 
\ Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. ii., p. 237 



116 CHAPTER VIII. 

Here we might have terminated our notice of Protestant 
missions in Armenia, but that Providence has provided a witness 
to their real character and results whose remarkable evidence it 
would be wasteful to neglect. In every country we have found 
Protestant writers to tell us, from personal observation, what 
the emissaries of England and America are really doing among 
the heathen, and what are their relations with other sects. 
Armenia is no exception to this rule. If there is a country 
in the world in which the agents of Protestantism have been 
more boastful and self-complacent than in any other, it is the 
province in which we are now going to resume their operations. 
Catholic travellers could have told us how fruitless, except in 
corruption and unbelief, those operations have been but we 
have resolved not to hear Catholics on this point. It is from 
Protestants alone that we can receive such facts, since only by 
their unsuspicious evidence could they be adequately proved. 

Dr. Moritz Wagner, who seems to profess some form or 
modification of Anglicanism, who was the intimate friend and 
constant guest of Mr. Perkins and his colleagues, who warmly 
professes " esteem and love" for his hosts, and considers " their 
devotion entitled to all praise," is exactly the witness whom 
we should desire to interrogate. Fortunately that intelligent 
naturalist has anticipated our wish, and here is his account of 
the Protestant missionaries and of their work in the fertile 
plains of Armenia. 

Let us hear first what he relates of the manner of life of his 
opulent hosts. ^ The institution at Urmia," he says, " costs 
the North American missionary societies about fifty thousand 
dollars annually ;" and he will tell us immediately how that 
substantial revenue is spent. A writer of his own nation, also 
a guest at Urmia, had already informed the world that 
the mansion of the missionaries " is furnished with so many 
conveniences and comforts, that it seemed to me as if I 
were not under the roof of simple followers of Christ and 
teachers of the Gospel, but in that of some wealthy private 
gentleman. Here were four ladies, a whole troop of children, 
&c."* Dr. Wagner modestly laments that he has not sufficient 
power " to depict the charms and features of this missionary 
residence," of which he declares with emotion that " the whole 
idyllic scenery" will never be effaced from his recollection. But 
this was only a portion of the missionary delights. They had 
also a summer residence at Seir, scarcely four miles from 
Urmia, inclosed by a wall flanked with four towers, and covering 
the upper terrace of a hill, from which the eye commands a 

* Voyage Round the World, by Ida Pfeiffer,p. 221. 



MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 117 

wonderful prospect of the vast blooming plain of Urmia, with 
its three hundred and sixty villages." And these palatial 
mansions, with a suitable income of more than ten thousand 
pounds per annum, were the selected abodes of Jive missionaries, 
and of what Dr. Wagner calls, no doubt justly, " their amiable 
housewives." We are not surprised to learn from their privi 
leged guest that " the missionaries not only live comfortably, 
but even luxuriously, as was testified by their stables, which 
were almost tilled with horses of all oriental breeds." Dr. 
Wagner adds, however, without the least intention of jesting, 
that bis friends had generously quitted America, where both 
their dwellings and their stables were probably on a smaller 
scale, " for the propagation of Christianity." 

It was in these well-furnished halls that Mr. Justin Perkins 
held his court. "All the gentlemen," says Dr. Wagner, " were 
capitally mounted," but Mr. Perkins was distinguished even 
among his peers. " I have never seen throughout the East a 
finer horse than the snow-white mare of Mr. Perkins. Each 
movement of the beautiful animal, which had cost a considerable 
sum, was full of grace. It looked to the greatest advantage 
when kneeling down to drink." 

But Mr. Perkins and his friends had one trial, in the midst 
of these fabulous enjoyments ; they were obliged to share their 
wealth with the needy Armenians, who positively refused their 
proffered alliance on any other terms. The "Patriarch" led 
the band. "He had good reasons," our German informant 
observes, " for showing civility to Mr. Perkins, and allowing 
him to preach without interference the Gospel according to 
Presbyterian views, for he received a considerable subsidy from 
the mission, exceeding, by twice the amount, the income he 
received from his congregations. The same motive applied to 
the priests of lower degree, whose cringing politeness to the 
missionaries was sufficiently explained by their poverty, their 
love of lucre, and their monthly salaries." 

And these were not the only classes who dilapidated the fifty 
thousand dollars which annually flowed into the missionary 
treasury from enthusiastic subscribers at home, who were 
perhaps not fully acquainted with the mode in which their con 
tributions were consumed. "The missionaries showered their 
gold," says their favored guest, " with a liberal hand, and not 
only taught the youth gratis, l)ut gave them a weekly gratuity. 

Each bishop receives from the Americans a monthly 

allowance of three hundred Turkish piastres, and ordinary 
ecclesiastics from a hundred and fifty to two hundred piastres. 
On the condition of this allowance being continued, the 
Kestorian clergy permit the missionaries to preach in their 



118 CHAPTER VIII. 

villages, to keep schools, &c. Without this payment, or 
bribery, of the priests for a good end, the missionaries could 
not maintain their footing in this country. Even the peasant 
is only carrying on a pecuniary speculation, in sending his 
child to school. Each scholar receives weekly, a sahefgeran ; 
and though this gift is small, the schools would become directly 
empty if it were to cease." 

Finally, if we ask Dr. Wagner to tell us frankly how many 
converts were really gained by this enormous expenditure 
amounting, in thirty years, to one million and a half dollars, 
or more than three hundred thousand pounds sterling he is 
willing to gratify our curiosity, and honestly confesses that it 
has converted nobody. Even Nestorians, though willing to 
accept any amount of American money, do not cease to despise 
American doctrine.- Amongst the domestic servants in the 
palace of Mr. Perkins were two, the one a Jew, the other an 
Armenian, who professed to be disciples. Dr. Wagner, a very 
amiable man, was charitably disposed to think well of the 
Armenian, who constantly expressed an earnest desire to visit 
Europe and America ; but the " other missionary servant, a 
converted Jew, who had been my guide to Seir, hinted slyly 
that it was not so much the devout impulse of a pilgrim which 
prompted his friend John to visit Europe and Christendom, as 
selfishness and ambitious aspirations. He implied that the 
shrewd Nestorian fancied that, if he knew the English tongue 
better, he could play the part of Messrs. Perkins and Starking 
among his countrymen." These intelligent "converts" evidently 
appreciated each other, and the acute Dr. Wagner seems at last 
to have appreciated them all. "As a missionary servant," he 
says, "John was a very unimportant personage in the land ; but 
as missionary, and supported by the mission fund, even the 
higher clergy would have paid court to him, which was enough 
to excite the ambition of the Nestorian youth." And then follow 
these grave words, in which the true character of these costly 
missions, always appealing to the meanest sentiments of the 
human heart, and openly conducted on the worst principles of 
human cunning, is exposed by this friendly and capable 
witness. " If we except a few Jews, won over from motives of 
&BAK, these expensive establishments have made no converts" 
This is all that has been accomplished, he says, by "America s 
evangelical apostles, who are so splendidly remunerated, and 
the wealthy members of the societies, who have never yet raised 
their voices against negro-slavery, and the hunting down of the 
poor red-skins by rifle-shots and bloodhounds, but who pay 
many hundred thousand dollars to support their useless ?nissions 
in the East." "The American mission," he declares, and with 






MISSIONS IN THE LEVANT, ETC. 119 

this final testimony we may close our Armenian narrative, 
"cannot boast of splendid results in relation to the improvement 
of morality, stimulus by virtuous examples, or the advancement 
of culture. Even Mr. Perkins admitted this." Yet in his 
official reports that gentleman only spoke of his continual 
triumphs, and even relates in his book such tales as the follow 
ing: "The Rev. William Goodell dropped a copy of the tract 
entitled the Dairymaids Daughter in Nicomedia;" and this, he 
affirms, knowing what the home subscribers could bear, created, 
without the aid of any missionary, " a considerable number oi 
enlightened, spiritual Christians !" And the man who could 
thus inock the well-meaning contributors to his own luxury, 
privately confessed to Dr. Wagner, who fortunately made a 
note of the words, that "he thought almost all hope must be 
given up in the case of the present generation. "* Thus, by 
the aid of a little patience and industry, we have arrived at last, 
by exclusively Protestant testimony, at a full knowledge of the 
character and results of all the Protestant missions in Armenia, 
Syria, and Turkey. 



GEORGIA AND PERSIA. 

We need not pause to offer any reflections upon the history 
which we have now completed. Once more we have traced a 
contrast, and one which solicits no comment. Once more we 
have advanced a step in that controversy which, as we have 
said, God has already taken out of the hands of men, to decide 
it Himself. He knows how to distribute His own gifts, and 
we have seen upon whom He confers, to whom He refuses them. 
And the facts which we have now observed in so many regions, 
and which contain so momentous a lesson, are equally uniform 
in every part of Western Asia. 

We might pursue our researches, at the risk of wearying the 
reader, in Georgia, and even in Persia, and everywhere we 
should find the same impressive phenomena, everywhere trace 
the same unvarying contrast. In Georgia, where, as early as 
the thirteenth century, Catholics were detected by being ordered 
"to trample on the crucifix," and multitudes gained the crown 
of martyrdom,! there are now German, American, and Scotch 
missionaries. Here is one example of each class. An English 
traveller, who visited the German colony near Tiflis, under the 
Lutheran missionary Dittrich, says, "I was sorry to learn from 

* Travels, &c., vol. iii., ch. viii., pp. 234-258. 

t Histoire de la Georgie, par M. Brosset, tome i., p. 504. 



120 CHAPTER viir 

Mr. Dittricli that the German colonies had not flourished. . . . 
He* told me that great disunion prevailed amongst the colonists, 
principally from differences of religious opinion."* Of those at 
Abbas Tiiman, whom he also found in great misery, Dr. 
Bodenstedt says, " What silences compassion is the deplorable 
disharmony in which they live with each other."f Yet they 
thought themselves qualified to convert the Armenians to one 
or other of their own shifting creeds, or to all of them at once. 

To the Americans at Shoosha, in Georgia, the Russian 
Emperor sent the following admonition: "Learning by the 
real state of things that you, since the time of your settlement 
at Shoosha, have not yet converted anybody, and, deviating 
from the proper limits," the conversion of the heathen, "have 
directed your views to the Armenian youth, which, on the part 
of the Armenian clergy, has produced complaints, the conse 
quences of which may be very disagreeable; his Majesty s 
ministers have concluded to prohibit you all missionary labors, 
and for the future to leave it to your own choice to employ 
yourselves with agriculture, manufactures, or mechanical trades. 
It has pleased his Majesty the Emperor to confirm this de 
cree."} 

It is true that the emperor tried to silence the Catholics also, 
not because they had failed, like the Americans, to convert the 
heathen, but because they would have converted the whole 
country if he had not prevented them. Yet Dr. Wagner found 
eight hundred Catholics " at or near Kutais," who all spoke 
the Imeritian dialect ; while the pupils of the convent, to the 
number of thirty or forty, " could read and write Georgian, 
and read Italian with tolerable facility." He notices too kt the 
respect and esteem which the Superior (of the Franciscans) 
had obtained in the town and country," and observes, " I 
frequently witnessed the child-like veneration in which he was 
held by the Armenian boys." Baron Von Haxthausen also 
mentions an Italian missionary, who " died thirty years ago, 
and the Georgians number him among their saints." Such 
men were opposed by the Czar, as the Americans were, but for 
very different reasons. 

It is a curious illustration of the different policy of England, 
and of the deplorable influence which she everywhere exerts in 
support of seditious fanaticism or meddlesome unbelief, that 
when Mr. Perkins, whose operations we can now appreciate, 
solicited the sympathy of the Eight Hon. Henry Ellis, British 

* Wilbraham, Travels in the Trans-Caiaasian Provinces, ch. xvii., p. 182. 
f The Caucasus, &c., vol. ii., p. 27. 
\ Quoted by Perkins, p. 221. 
Travels, vol. ii., ch. in., p. 202. 






121 

Ambassador in Persia, in 1835, he received the following 
characteristic reply : " The proposed introduction of the pure 
doctrines of the Reformed Church among the Nestorian 
Christians in this country cannot fail to be a matter of deep 
and serious interest to his Majesty s government."* Russia, 
with more discretion, promptly dismissed the friends of Mr. 
Ellis as likely to prove " very disagreeable," and suggested to 
them the more congenial pursuit of manufactures or median 
ical trades. 

Lastly, for we need not stay to multiply testimonies of which 
we have learned by this time to appreciate the universality, 
Sir Robert Porter gives this account of the emissaries from 
Scotland. " A Scotch colony of missionaries have established 
themselves in the neighborhood of Konstantinogorsk ; but it 
may be regarded as an agricultural society, rather than a theo 
logical college."f 

In Persia, where Jesuits once received honors, even in the 
tent of Nadir Schah, as their brethren did in that of Akbar ;: 
and where in our own day Napoleon, comprehending with his 
infallible sagacity all that such men could effect, stipulated, 
by the treaty of 1808, for protection in favor of all Jesuits 
whom France might send to that land, Catholic missionaries, 
having the apostolic graces of chastity and holy poverty, have 
won the respect even of the disciples of the false prophet, while 
a crowd of American missionaries dispense on every side the 
enormous funds intrusted to them. " The money they lavish," 
says the Prefect of the Armenian missions in Persia, " presents 
a strong temptation to certain Armenians, who follow them 
for a while, in order to profit by their profusion, but invaria 
bly adhere to the tenets of their own religion. " The Armenian 
clergy, we are told by the wife of a British ambassador, " re 
ceive salaries" from them, like their fellows in the neighbor 
hood of Urmia. Of the French Lazarists, the same lady says, 
" These gentlemen abounded in zeal and activity, but they 
were poor, and wholly unable to contend against the treasures 
of Boston. "J Such is everywhere the influence, when they 
have any, of Protestant missionaries. To generate corruption 
and immorality, without producing even the semblance of re 
ligious conviction ; to destroy faith, but never to inspire it ; 
and to hinder those who, in spite of their poverty, know how 
to kindle the light of truth and charity in all hearts such is 

* Residence in Persia, &c., p. 219. 

f Trawls in Georgia, vol. i., p. 47. 

I Cretineau Joly, tome vi., ch. i., p. 51. 

Annals, vol. i., p. 95. 

\ Life and Manners in Persia, by Lady Sliiel, p. 356. 



122 CHAPTER VIII. 

their deplorable work. And their partisans at home are never 
weary of sending them money to be employed in such aims. 

They do not even attempt, as might be anticipated, to con 
vert the Persians, who suppose, like all orientals, that they are 
atheists. Indeed, Mr. Perkins incautiously relates an anecdote 
which shows that the Persians are quite as likely to convert 
the Protestants as to be converted by them. " A pious English 
family in Persia," he says, " were surprised and shocked on one 
day finding their little girl, then four years old, kneeling with 
her face towards Mecca, and lisping the devotions of the false 
prophet."* 

But it is time to close this chapter, already extended to un 
due limits, and we may conclude it with an anecdote not less 
curious than that which we have just heard. Not long ago, a 
French traveller, journeying from Ispahan to Bagdad, came 
upon a small Catholic colony towards the close of a sultry day. 
They were assembled together in the house of one of them, 
and having recited vespers, were engaged, when the traveller 
joined them, not in asking gifts for themselves, but in praying 
for the conversion of England ! They seem to have under 
stood, even in their far home beyond the Tigris, that, in spite 
of the zeal of some, and the good intentions of many, England 
is still, by her relentless warfare against Unity, the great im 
pediment to the conversion of the heathen ; and that the surest 
way to obtain for them admission into the family of God, was 
to solicit for her the recovery of the gifts which she has lost, 
and of the faith which she has denied. And these Persian 
Christians were right. If England had remained Catholic, it 
is probable that at this hour there would not have been a 
pagan altar in the world. 

* P. 343. 



CHAPTEE IX. 



MISSIONS IN AMEEICA. 
PART I. 

SOUTH AMERICA. 

THE gifts and promises of God, it lias been said, have travelled 
from East to West, from the rising to the setting sun. To each 
tribe of the human family in turn the Angel of the Covenant 
has delivered the message of peace, then passed on his way. 
In the appointed hour he crossed the great sea, with his face 
westwards. Then, for the first time, the name of Jesus was 
proclaimed in that mighty continent which stretches almost 
from pole to pole, and within whose boundless plains a new 
chapter of man s history has found its scenes and its actors. 
Here, among many tribes, and nations of various tongues, the 
ministers of light and darkness have long contended together 
for the mastery. When we have read the story of their conflict, 
we may close our book. Earth has nothing more to offer us. 
We shall have visited in turn all her provinces ; and having 
started from the remote eastern sea which beats against the 
long coasts of China, we shall stand at length on the opposite 
frontier of man s narrow home, the western limits of his wan 
derings, and may once more look across the ocean to the land 
from which we commenced our journey. 

No portion of the earth presents on a larger scale, none in 
more vivid colors, the contrast which it has been the business 
of these volumes to trace, than that whose religious history 
we are about to review. When Nature divided the great 
American continent into two parts, she seems to have prepared 
by anticipation a separate theatre for the events of which each 
was to be the scene, and for the actors who were destined to 
perform in either a part so widely dissimilar. The one was to 
be the exclusive domain of the Church, the other the battle 
field of all the Sects. 

A thousand writers have related, with sympathy or regret, 
but otherwise with unvarying uniformity, the historical results 
of a distribution which all seemed to have noticed, and in which 



124: CHAPTER IX. 

may be traced, on the broadest scale, and with a clearness and 
precision which exclude even the risk of error, all the charac 
teristic marks which have distinguished in every age the City 
of God from the City of Confusion. The races of the South, 
we shall see, have derived both their religion and their civili 
zation from the missionaries of the Cross ; the tribes of the 
North, doomed to swift destruction, have been abandoned to 
teachers of another school, and to prophets of another faith. 
And these have been the results of the unequal partition. In 
the South, the Church has united all, of whatever race, in spite 
of the ignorance or the ferocity of the barbarians, in spite 01 
the follies or the crimes of some of her own children, into one 
household and family. In the North, the original heirs have 
been banished or exterminated, without pity, and without re 
morse, that the sects might build up in the desert which they 
had created a pandemonium of tumult and disorder, so full of 
division and discord, that the evil spirits might well congregate 
here from all the " dry places" of the earth, and deem that they 
had found at last their true home. Let us introduce at once a 
few of the witnesses whom we are hereafter to hear, that we 
may understand what is the history upon which we are about 
to enter, and what are the facts which it will disclose to us. 

The contrast which we are going to trace is thus indicated, 
with frank, outspoken candor, by men who had analyzed all its 
features. u More than a million and a half of the pure aborigi 
nal races," says the author of the Natural History of Man, 
" live in South America in the profession of Christianity."* 
" The history of the attempts to convert the Indians of North 
America," says the annalist of Protestant missions, " is a record 
of a series of failures."f This is the first great fact, in its 
broad outlines, which will be presented to our notice ; and it is 
one, as an eminent English ethnologist observes, " which must 
be allowed to reflect honor on the Roman Catholic Church, 
and to cast a deep shade on the history of Protestantism."^: 

A second and equally impressive fact, which has excited the 
attention of a multitude of writers of all nations, is thus 
expressed by a prejudiced traveller, who had lived among the 
tribes of the equinoctial regions. " Far from being diminished, 
their number has considerably increased. A similar increase 
has taken place generally among the Indian population in that 
part of America which is within the tropics .... the Indian 
population in the missions is constantly augmenting." On the 

* Prichard, sec. xliv., p. 427. 

f Quoted in Monthly llevicw, vol. Ixxxiv., p. 143. 

\ Prichard, ubi supra. 






MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 125 

other hand, " In the neighborhood of the United States, on the 

contrary, the Indians are fast diminishing in numbers 

In the United States, as civilization advances, the Indians are 
constantly driven beyond its pale." * We shall trace this con 
trast hereafter in all its details. 

Finally, a third feature of the prodigious contrast which we 
are about to examine is this that while the innumerable 
native tribes who have been converted to Christianity between 
the thirtieth parallel of north and the thirty-fifth of south 
latitude, through a tract of more than four thousand miles in 
length and nearly three thousand in breadth, have never 
departed from the Catholic faith, and, as Protestant writers 
will assure us, cleave to it at this day as obstinately as ever : 
within the wide territories of the United States, where the 
Indian has only been corrupted or destroyed, nominal Christians 
of the Anglo-Saxon race have themselves become divided and 
subdivided into such a chaos of jarring sects, that, as their own 
leaders declare, with a sorrow which comes too late, there is 
nothing like it in the history of the w T orld. " In the Western 
world," says a Protestant minister, " religion is made to appear 
too often as a source of contention rather than as a bond of 
union and peace."f Already, at the close of the seventeenth 
century, the English governor of New York reported of that 
province, that it swarmed with men of " all sorts of opinions, 
and the most part of none at all ;" and a hundred years later, 
an English clergyman could still describe the inhabitants of 
his own district as " people of almost all religions and sects, 
but the greatest part of no religion."^ In our own day, it has 
even become necessary to adopt a new nomenclature, in order 
to classify divisions and subdivisions which had elsewhere 
neither a form nor a name. " Two grand divisions of the 
Baptists," one of the innumerable offshoots from the Anglican 
Establishment, who already possess more than five thousand 
churches, are known, Mr. Olmsted says, " as the Hard Shells 
and the Soft Shells ;" and even such titles are perhaps no 
greater outrage upon the religion of the Gospel than many 
which are daily uttered, with quiet complacency, in our own 
land. The relations of these cognate tribes to one another, Mr. 
Olmsted adds, are marked by "an intense rivalry and jealousy," 
as "persistent" as that which subsists between Druses and 
Maronites, between the followers of Ali and the disciples of 

* Journal of a Residence in Colombia, by Captain Charles Stuart Coclirane, 
vol. i., ch. iii., pp. 218, 233. 

f The Western World Revisited, by the Rev. Henry Caswall, ch. i.. p. 9 ; ch. 
xii., p. 316. 

\ Documentary History of New York, vol. i., p. 186 ; vol. iii., p. 1113. 



126 CHAPTER IX. 

Omar.* " The dearest and warmest friends of the Bepublic," 
we are told, " look with fear and trembling on her sectional 
divisions, her party jealousies, the strange and anomalous 
divisions, subdivisions, and minor subdivisions of her inter 
minable and contending religious denominations."-) "Churches 
are divided," observes another Protestant writer, "Presbyteries 
are divided, Synods are divided, the General Assembly is 
divided ;" and this is due, he considers, to u extreme looseness 
in doctrine and practice on the one hand, and a violent attempt 
to coerce it into orthodoxy on the other.":f " The continual 
splitting of the numerous sections of Protestantism," Dr. Schedel 
remarks, in 1858, still recording the unwelcome phenomena to 
which the disciples of the Reformation feel that they can apply 
no remedy, and using them as an argument in favor of 
rationalism, " has had the effect of producing a deep impression 
of its danger for religion." " The clergy complain," says an 
English traveller of the same school, " of the enormous spread 
of bold books, from the infidel tract to the latest handling of 
the miracle question. There are schisms among all the more 
strict of the religious bodies, and large secessions and new 
formations among those which are bound together by slight 
forms."|| Lastly, for there is no need to multiply testimonies 
to a fact which no one disputes, or to. the real nature of a reli 
gion of which these are so invariably the fruits, that its own 
professors now regard all unity as chimerical, except the 
diabolical unity of evil, Dr. Stephen Olin, a respectable Wes- 
leyan preacher, exclaims once more, " Twenty years of obser 
vation have produced in my mind a deliberate conviction that 
the sorest evil which presses upon the American Churches, the 
chiefest obstacle to their real progress in holiness and useful 
ness, is the spirit of sectarianism. "T 

But even these three facts do not illustrate the whole contrast 
which we are about to trace in America, after proving it for 
every other land, between the work of the Church and the work 
of the Sects. The first has won a thousand tribes to the Cross ; 
has seen them increase and multiply on every side under her 
gentle rule, and has preserved them for two hundred years, in 
spite of many calamities, in unbroken unity of faith. The 
second have not gained so much as a single tribe, have destroyed 

* Olmsted, Our Slave States. 
f Statesmen of America, by S. Maury, p. 483. 
J Colton s Thoughts on the Religious State of the Country, p. 66 
The Emancipation of Faith, by H. E. Scliedel, M.D., vol. ii., p. 410 (Ne\V 
York, 1858). 

[Society in America, by Harriet Martineau, vol. iii., p. 257. 
TF Works, vol. ii., p. 451. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 12T 

without mercy the races which they could not convert, and 
have themselves become a proverb to the whole earth of re 
ligious division and discord. Yet this also does not exhaust 
all the facts of the contrast. 

It would have been something if the sects could have pleaded 
that at least they had done their best, and only failed after 
earnest and courageous effort. Even this is a praise which 
they have not cared to earn, and which their own advocates 
refuse to allow them. We shall see presently what Protestant 
writers say of the dauntless courage and sublime virtue of the 
men who converted South America ; of their own friends they 
speak as follows : " The pious men of America," says Moll- 
hausen, with pardonable irony, " look with indifference on the 
heathen before their own doors, but send out missionaries to 
preach Christianity in the remotest parts of the world ! When, 
through the covetousness of the white civilized races, the free 
inhabitants of the steppes shall have been ruined and extermi 
nated, Christian love will find its way to their empty wigwams, 
and churches and meeting-houses rise over the graves of the 
poor victimized owners of the green prairies."* They leave 
them to perish with indifference, says another German Prot 
estant, who, like Mollhausen, had lived among them, because 
" there are no territories to be won, there are no natives to be 
enticed into building comfortable houses for the Christian 
teachers, they would have to lead a wild life with them, no 
further profit in view as is the case with the South Sea Islands, 
but only the prospect of being driven with their pupils from 
one place to another, living on grubs, acorns, and other indi 
gestible things ; while, on the other hand, a comfortable life 
and a good income look far more inviting."f Such language 
need not surprise us, for we have seen many examples in the 
course of these pages both of the contempt which the more 
enlightened Protestants feel for their own missionaries, and the 
indifference with which they avow it. 

Dr. Moritz Wagner, another German Protestant, who also 
had lived among American missionaries, has already told us, in 
the same tone of honest reprobation, that " America s evangeli 
cal apostles, who have never yet raised their voices against the 
hunting down the poor redskins, pay many hundred thousand 
dollars to support their useless missions in the East" not be 
cause they love the orientals more, but simply, as Dr. Living 
stone intimates with respect to South Africa, because they 

* Journey from the Mississippi to the Coasts of the Pacific, vol. i., ch. xi., 
p. 220, ed. Sinnett. 
j- Gerstaecker, Journey Round the World, vol. i., ch. vi., p. 350. 



128 CHAPTER IX. 

cannot bear to be anticipated or excluded by the restless 
activity of rival sects. Mr. Buckingham, also, an English 
writer, who had dwelt among them, notices the characteristic 
fact, that while an American religious society ^ voted by accla 
mation thousands of dollars at once to Persia, Siam, or the 
Sandwich Islands, which demanded nothing from them, and 
only asked to be left alone, they allotted, as if in derision, "for 
North American Indians," perishing at their own doors, the 
modest sum of two hundred !* And even when their cautious 
emissaries, moved by the attractions which alone prevail with 
such men, venture to follow the native to his forest home, it is 
only, as we shall see, to abandon after a brief space the 
unprofitable labor ; so that Humboldt did not scruple to say. 
that the relics of the aboriginal races of North America, who 
have come into contact with the agents of English or American 
religions, are "sinking into a lower moral state. than they oc 
cupied before."f 

And this heavy reproach is repeated, in still more emphatic 
language, even by American Protestants. " While the Pequods 
and other northern tribes," says Judge Hall, of Cincinnati, 
" were being exterminated, or sold into slavery, the^more for 
tunate savage of the Mississippi was listening to the pious coun 
sels of the Catholic missionaries. They exercised, of choice, an 
expansive benevolence, at a period when Protestants, similarly 
situated, were bloodthirsty and rapacious.":): " The Jesuit 
mission-farms," says Mr. Law Olmsted, in 1857, " are an ex 
ample for us. Our neighborly responsibilities for the Lipans" 
a tribe on the Texan frontier " is certainly more close than 
for the Feejees, and if the glory of converting them to decency 
be less, the expense would certainly be in proportion. " Last 
ly, Mr. Melville, also one of their own countrymen, noticing 
the vaunt that paganism is almost extinct in the United States, 
thus rebukes the hollow and impious boast : "The Anglo-Saxon 
hive have extirpated paganism from the greater part of the 
North American continent, Imt with it they have likewise extir 
pated tJie greater portion erf the Red race."\ 

Such, by German, English, and American testimony, has 
been the work of Protestantism. On the other hand, a modern 
French naturalist, who visited in person thirty -nine existing 
nations of pure American race in the Southern continent, and 

America, by J. S. Buckingham, Esq., vol. i., cli. x. 
f Preface to Mollhausen s Journey, p. xiii. 

i History of the lleliyious Denominations of the United States, by J. D. Rupp, 
p. 163. 

S Journey through Texas, p. 298. 

ii The Marquesas Inlands, ch. xxvi., p. 217. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 129 

collected statistics from which we shall borrow hereafter, de 
clares, that he found indeed, scattered through the regions 
which he so painfully explored, ninety -four thousand one 
hundred and ninety-seven pagans ; but that he counted also, 
within the same district, one million five hundred and ninety 
thousand nine hundred and thirty native Christians. And 
then he relates, speaking rather as a man of science than as a 
Christian, that these poor Indians, often robbed of their pastors 
and almost always wronged by their rulers, exhibit the same 
astonishing inflexibility of faith, even in cases where they have 
been enfeebled by ignorance or superstition, of which we have 
already seen so many examples ; so that, as M. d Orbigny 
observes, " they push their profession of the Catholic religion 
even to fanaticism."* Mendoza could say, at an earlier date, 
and in language more worthy of the subject, that " the natural 
people of South America, never since they were converted, 
have been found in any heresy, nor in any thing contrary to 
the Koman faith ;"f and living Protestants will presently 
assure us, not only that all attempts to shake their faith are 
equally vain at the present day, but that in many parts of 
South America, and notably in Chili, where the emissaries of 
the English Bible Society have made their appearance, " the 
life of an Englishman is in danger among the peasantry," so 
vehement is their dislike of heresy, and of those who recom 
mend it to them.;); Finally, for we must not anticipate evi 
dence which will claim our attention later, Sir James Mackin 
tosh thus attests the memorable contrast which had not escaped 
his philosophical review, and of which the fact noticed by 
Mendoza is not the least instructive portion. " The natives of 
America, who generally felt the comparative superiority of the 
European race only in a more rapid or a more gradual destruc 
tion, and to whom even the excellent Quakers dealt out little 
more than penurious justice, were, under the paternal rule of 
the Jesuits," he might have added, under that of the Fran 
ciscans, the Dominicans, and many more, " reclaimed from 
savage manners, and instructed in the arts and duties of civil 
ized life." Such, in its leading features, is the history of^ 
which we are now going to trace the outlines. 

In attempting to follow the course of events of which the 
details have filled hundreds of volumes, and which had for their 
theatre the whole extent of the vast American continent, in 

* Voyage dans I Amerique Meridionale, par Alcide d Orbigny, tome iv., 
p. 252. 

f Historic of the Kingdome of China, vol. ii., p. 224, ed. Hakluyt Society. 

t Travels in Chili, by John Miers, vol. ii., ch. xix., p. 223. 

Review of the Causes of the Revolution, Works, vol. ii., p. 251 (1846). 

VOL. II. 10 



130 CHAPTER IX. 

the North, from California to the Gulf of Florida, and from 
the banks of the St. Lawrence to those of the Gila and the Co 
lorado ; in the South, from Carthagena to Buenos Ayres, and 
from the Andes to the mouths of the Amazon, the Orinoco, 
and the Plata ; it is not a history which the reader will expect 
to find, hardly even a sketch, of a warfare which has filled the 
world with envy or admiration, which lasted more than two 
centuries, and in which the Church poured out like water the 
sweat and the blood of her children ; while even her enemies 
have celebrated its final issue with an enthusiasm which the 
most inveterate prejudice could not silence, as one of the most 
astonishing of her many triumphs. The story of American 
missions includes names as venerable as any in the long cata 
logue of apostles, and tells of the deeds of a whole army of 
martyrs and confessors, of Anchieta and Rodriguez, of Vieyra 
and d Almeida, of D Aguilar and Venegas, of Herrera and 
Ugarte, of Betanzos and Las Casas, of Bracamante and Portillo, 
of Lopez and Barzana, of the Blessed Peter Claver and St. 
Francis Solano ; of the martyrs Suarez and Figuerroa, Baraza 
and Lizardi, Richler and Lucas Cavellero; of Aranda and 
Montalban, of Azevedo, whom the Huguenots cut in pieces, 
and Henri de la Borde, whom the English ensnared and then 
cruelly murdered ; of Jogues and de Brebeuf, of Lamberville 
and Lallemand, and a thousand more for, as M. Cretineau 
Joly observes, " the number of missionaries who fell is really 
incalculable ;" of that multitude of apostolic warriors of whom 
even American Protestants of our own day have said, that their 
monuments will yet be raised by the free people to whom they 
bequeathed examples of heroism which Americans know how 
to admire ; who labored, as Mr. Washington Irving confessed, 
" with a power which no other Christians have exhibited;"* 
who excelled all others, as Mr. Schoolcraft admits, " in bold 
ness, zeal, and indomitable efficacy ;"f and who more than jus 
tified, as Professor Walters of Philadelphia remarks, whatever 
applause the admiration of mankind has lavished "upon their 
dauntless courage and their more than human charity and zeal.":): 
It is of such men, and of their work, that we are now to 
speak not fitly, but according to the measure of our capacity. 
It is a comparison of their life and death, of their labors, 
Bufferings, and conquests, with the sterile career of men of 
another order, but ostensibly busy in the same calling, which 
will furnish the last but not the least instructive example of the 

* Knickerbocker, June, 1838. 

\ Notes on thelroquois, by Henry R. Schoolcraft, ch. xii., p. 403 (1847). 

f Rupp, Hist, of Religious Denominations, &c., p. 119. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 131 

contrast of which we have already produced so many illustra 
tions ; and to which the Prophet pointed when he proposed 
this very contrast as the infallible test by which men should 
be able to distinguish, throughout the whole Christian era, 
between true and false apostles, between the work of the Church 
and the work of the Sects. 

Let us begin with South America, and the world-famed mis 
sions of Brazil and Peru, of Chili and Paraguay. A little later 
we shall traverse Mexico in our way to the north, enter Cali 
fornia and Oregon, visit the lakes of the northern continent 
and the plains of Canada, and trace the decay of the unhappy 
races whom the Saxon, unable to convert them to God, has 
pushed from their homes, or violently swept from the earth, 
that he might people after his own fashion the regions from 
which they have been banished forever. 

We shall use, according to our custom, and as far as it is 
available, the testimony of Protestant writers. They have 
served us in all our former journeys, and will not refuse to aid 
us in this. Let us begin with their account of Catholic mis 
sions in Brazil. Mr. Southey of whose sentiments towards 
the Catholic Church we shall presently see abundant tokens, 
and who did not hesitate to tell his countrymen, " I deprecate 
what is called Catholic emancipation" has diligently compiled 
whatever relates to the history of Brazil. He will be our 
principal guide. 

BRAZIL. 

It was in 1549 that John III. of Portugal, solicitous, as Mr. 
Southey observes, " for the souls of his Brazilian subjects," re 
solved to dispatch to their aid missionaries of the Society of 
Jesus. Brazil was not the only land which owed eternal 
gratitude to the Christian zeal of that vigorous and enlightened 
monarch, who received from his contemporaries more honor 
than Mr. Southey is willing to allow him. "He was super 
stitious to the lowest depth of degradation," says this English 
historian, with that quiet composure which his countrymen 
usually display in judging such men. In spite of this defect, 
"he was truly and righteously anxious to spread his religion, 
such at it was, among the heathen."* So he sent Father 
Emanuel de Nobrega, and five others, chosen by St. Ignatius 
himself for this difficult mission ; and it was under their auspices 
that the new city of St. Salvador, hitherto only a fortified camp, 
began to assume the dimensions which made it afterwards the 

* History of Brazil, by Kobert Southey, vol. i., ch. viii., p. 214 (1817). 



132 CHAPTER IX. 

capital of northern Brazil. " The Jesuits, ] says Mr. Son they, 
for Providence employs such men to proclaim the truths which 
they wish to hide, " immediately hegan that system of benefi 
cence towards the natives from which they never deviated till 
their extinction as an order." From that hour the native of 
South America was to find, in every forest where he had made 
his home, and by the banks of every river on which his frail 
bark could float, a friend, a father, and a guide ; who would 
save him from himself and from his oppressors, and teach him 
to love a religion which could move such as them to abandon 
home, country, and kinsfolk, in order to make such as him a 
partaker in its promises, its joys, and its rewards. 

The attempt was bold, but not too bold. The missionaries, 
says Mr. Southey, had to encounter " obstacles great and nu 
merous," and of these the almost universal practice 6f canni 
balism was not the least formidable. But the children of St. 
Ignatius, like those of St. Francis and St. Dominic, who shared 
this field with them, knew how to combat the enemy, whatever 
form he might assume. They succeeded, therefore, in rooting 
out cannibalism. It was their first victory ; but Mr. Southey, 
who will presently tell iis how they did it, was so displeased 
with their proceedings, that he could only find relief by ex 
claiming, " Nothing is too impudent for the audacity of such a 
priesthood, nothing too gross for the credulity of their besotted 
believers."* Mr. Southey, however, will inform us hereafter, 
that when missionaries of another faith attempted to instruct 
the same savage disciples, it was contempt, and not credulity, 
which they excited among them. 

Happily, like the rest of his .class, this historian is not 
rigorously consistent. " These missionaries," hp says, only a 
few pages later, " were every way qualified for their office. 
They were zealous for the salvation of souls ; they had dis 
engaged themselves from all the ties which attach us to life, and 
Were therefore not merely fearless of martyrdom, but ambitious 
of it."f How such a temper, and such self-annihilation, were 
consistent with the grave demerits imputed to them by Mr. 
Southey, he does not explain. " They believed the idolatry 
which they taught," he says, as if he wished to excuse them 
as far as possible, " and were themselves persuaded that by 
sprinkling a dying savage, and repeating over him a form of 
words which he did not understand," it is Mr. Southey who 
say s so "they redeemed him from everlasting torments. . . Nor 
can it be doubted that they sometimes worked miracles upon 

* History of Brazil, cli. viii., p. 230. 
i ". 252, 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 133 

the sick ; for when they believed that the patient might be 
miraculously cured, and he himself expected that he should be 
so, faith would supply the virtue in which it trusted."* 

This singular explanation of their supernatural power, which 
seems to have satisfied Mr. Southey, has one inconvenience ; 
it leaves the missionaries under the reproach of idolatry, but it 
makes God their accomplice. Yoltaire once said, with more 
than his usual wit and not more than his usual profaneness, 
" Si Dieu a fait 1 homme a son image, 1 homme le lui a bien ren- 
du." The ductile divinity imagined by Mr. Southey, who was 
so easily persuaded to work miracles even at the risk of propa 
gating "idolatry," had suffered not a little from that process, 
and was evidently fashioned after a human type. The infirmi 
ties of such a god disqualify him for ruling over Christians. 
But perhaps we may accept Mr. Southey s admission that the 
Catholic missionaries " worked miracles upon the sick," with 
out adopting his explanation of the fact. Let us inquire of him, 
in the next place, how they extirpated cannibalism. 

"All efforts at abolishing this accursed custom," he says, 
" were in vain. One day Nobrega and his companions heard 
the uproar and rejoicing of the savages at one of these sacrifices ; 
they made their way into the area, just when the prisoner had 
been felled, and the old women were dragging his body to the 
fire ; they forced the body from them, and in the presence of 
the whole clan, who stood astonished at their courage, carried 
it off. The women soon roused the warriors to revenge this 
insult. By the time the Fathers had secretly interred the corpse, 
the savages were in search of them." The barbarians were 
swift and eager in pursuit, but by the aid of the Portuguese 
authorities, the missionaries escaped their fury ; and such was 
the impression which their intrepidity produced upon them, 
that " it was not long," says our historian, " before these very 
savages came to solicit their forgiveness, and promised not to 
repeat these feasts." 

But Mr. Southey has more to tell us. " One of the Jesuits," 
he says, "succeeded in effectually abolishing cannibalism among 
some clans by going through them and flogging himself before 
their doors till he was covered with blood, telling them he thus 
tormented ^himself to avert the punishment which God would 
otherwise inflict upon them for this crying sin. They could not 
bear this, confessed what they had done was wrong, and enacted 



heavy punishments against any person who should again be 
guilty."f It was thus that the missionary 



missionaries rooted out canni- 



* History of Brazil, p. 258. 
P. 254; 



134: CHAPTER IX. 

balism. It is true that the process involved pain and suffering, 
and that they encountered every day the risk of death in its most 
intolerable forms ; but, as Mr. Southey has remarked, " they 
were not merely fearless of martyrdom, but ambitious of it." 

With more remote tribes, over whom they had not as yet 
acquired the personal influence which they were afterwards to 
exert throughout the whole country, the Fathers, we are told, 
"thought themselves fortunate in obtaining permission to visit 
the prisoners and instruct them in the saving faith, before they 
were put to death." It was a perilous ministry, which only 
such men would have accepted; and on these occasions, in 
order to escape the observation of the savages, while they 
complied with the Divine precept which makes Baptism a 
condition of salvation, " they carried with them wet handker 
chiefs, or contrived to wet the skirt of their sleeve or habit, 
that out of it they might squeeze water enough upon the 
victim s head" to administer the Sacrament of Baptism. In 
recounting this proceeding, which excites his vehement disap 
probation, Mr. Southey adds : " What will not man believe, if 
he can believe this of his Maker !" As it was his Maker who 
taught him the lesson, why should man be blamed for believ 
ing it? 

When at length, by inexhaustible patience and intrepid 
valor, living the while on the roots of the earth and sharing 
the rude cabin of the savage, these men of gentle birth and 
cultivated tastes had laboriously won some ferocious tribe from 
its foul superstitions, taught them to pronounce with reverence 
the sweet names of Jesus and Mary, and planted in them the 
first rudiments both of faith and civilization, " they made the 
converts erect a church in the village, w r hich, however rude, 
fixed them to the spot ; and they established a school for the 
children, whom they catechised in their own language. .... 
They taught them also to read and write, using, says Nobrega, 
the same persuasion as that wherewith the enemy overcame 
man, Ye shall be as gods, knowing good .and evil ; for this 
knowledge appeared wonderful to them, and they eagerly 
desired to attain it." And then Mr. Southey, unmoved "even 



by the touching picture which he himself had drawn, haughtily 
exclaims, "Good proof how easily such a race might have 
been civilized!" More humane and candid writers will 



presently tell us, indeed he will tell us himself, in a later 
volume, when he had forgotten these hasty words, that they 




o , they 

to assist at Mass," that is, to do an act which in itself is no 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 135 

mean education, " and to sing the Church service." Here was 
a beginning at least of "civilization ;" and it was so complete 
in its later effects, so abiding in its influence, that three hun 
dred years after we shall find even English writers not only 
celebrating the agricultural and economical results still visible 
in the Christian missions, but contrasting the courtesy and dig 
nity, as \vell as the spiritual fervor of these children of the 
forest, with the boorish coarseness and animal instincts of their 
own countrymen. 

Mr. Southey, however, was not satisfied, in this early portion 
of his work, with the efforts of the missionaries to civilize the 
natives of Brazil. Yet even he could understand, and he ex 
presses the conviction in eloquent words, that " a ritual worship 
creates arts for its embellishment and support ; habits of settled 
life take root as soon as a temple is founded, and the city grows 
round the altar." The Brazilians anticipated Mr. Southey in 
appreciating this important fact, and he will trace for us here 
after, in spite of himself, the prodigious work of civilization 
accomplished among races even more barbarous than these by 
the apostles of the Church ; while others will tell us, that if to 
" assist at Mass," and to " sing the Church service," were the 
chief, they were not the only lessons which they taught, though 
they taught these so well, that, exactly three centuries after 
Emauuel de Nobrega landed in Brazil, M. d Orbigny, who had 
listened with admiration to the ecclesiastical music sung by the 
Indians in the mission of San Xavier, confesses, " I could not 
but admire the labors of the Jesuits, when I reflected that pre 
vious to their arrival the Chiquitos, still in the savage state, 
were scattered through the recesses of the forest !" During 
twelve generations they have handed down, from father to son, 
the lessons which the Jesuits taught them ; and d Orbigny 
adds, that though they martyred the earlier missionaries, 
u once Christian, they have persevered, and at this day nothing 
would induce them to return to the life of the woods."* To 
what extent they were really civilized we shall learn hereafter, 
by the testimony of Protestant writers, including Mr. Southey 
himself. 

The first missionaries in Brazil, to whom we must now re 
turn, had to contend not only with the ignorance and ferocity 
of its native tribes, but with the profound immorality of the 
reckless adventurers who had deserted Portugal to try their 
fortunes in the New World. In Brazil, as in Mexico, it was 
from men of this stamp, self-banished, and stained with many a 
crime, yet retaining even in their fall the faith which Catholics 

, &c., tome iv., p. 250. 



136 CHAPTER IX. 

BO larely lose, that the missionaries experienced the most ob 
stinate and formidable opposition. Seeking only the goods of 
this world, they resented the admonitions of men who valued 
only those of the next. "As the Jesuits steadfastly opposed 
their cruelties," we are told by two Protestant ministers, " the 
Portuguese resorted to every means of annoyance against them. 
As the Indians were driven back into the wilds of the 
interior, through fear of the slave-hunters, the Jesuits sought 
them out, and carried to them the opportunities of Christian 
worship and instruction."* Hence the implacable warfare 
which the Portuguese merchants waged against the mission 
aries. But this was only an additional motive with the latter 
for deeds of charity towards their enemies. With uncompro 
mising firmness, but with gentle speech, they admonished them 
of their errors, refusing the Sacraments to all who maltreated 
their slaves or set them an unchristian example. " Many were 
reclaimed," says Mr. Southey, " by this resolute and Christian 
conduct." The immorality of professing Christians was van 
quished, then, by the same fervent apostles before whose pres 
ence idolatry had already begun to flee away. 

In 1553, a reinforcement of seven Fathers arrived in Brazil, 
the number already in the field being wholly unequal to a work 
which was destined to assume such vast proportions, and to re 
quire the co-operation of so great a multitude of laborers, that 
the day arrived when the Jesuits alone in South America num 
bered seventeen hundred, out of the thirteen thousand who, at 
the same moment, were preaching the Faith to the heathen in 
every part of the globe. Amongst the new-comers was one of 
that privileged order in whom the effects of the first transgres 
sion seemed to be almost effaced, and who are admitted, while 
still in the flesh, to that intimate union with God which the 
rest of the elect only attain in another life. Joseph Anchieta 
was in his twentieth year when he arrived in Brazil. Here, 
during forty-four years, he was to display before the eyes of 
Christians and Pagans a new example of those astonishing 
virtues which confirm the one in the obedience of the faith, and 
attract the other, by the force of their irresistible fascination, to 
put on its easy yoke. But as we have now to enter a region in 
which such guides will decline to follow us, we must separate 
for a while from Mr. Southey, and take for our companions men 
who do not start aside with instinctive repugnance from the 
presence of a saint, nor strive to reduce all the creatures of God 
to their own level, nor believe that the supernatural and the 
impossible are one and the same thing. We shall hear indeed 

* Brazil and the Brazilians, by Kidder and Fletcher, h. xx., p. 368. 




MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 



137 



what such men say of Anchieta, as we have already heard what 
they say of St. Francis, and de Nobili, and their kinsmen in 
grace ; but we must leave them for a moment, lest they disturb 
us in our contemplation of one to whom even nature, it is said, 
was sometimes obedient ; whom the beasts of the forest attended 
as companions, forgetting their instincts of carnage ; in whose 
presence the very heathen held their breath, amazed at the 
works which God wrought by his hand ; and who renewed on 
the other side of the Atlantic the triumphs of that Divine 
ministry which had so often united heaven and earth in many 
a province of the old world. * 

It was to a people among whom the graces of man s original 
state were so completely obliterated that they were hardly 
raised above the brute creation, " utterly devoid of modesty, 
without any clothing, and so gross and inhuman as actually to 
devour one another," that Anchieta, confiding only in the 
omnipotence of the weapons with which the Church arms her 
apostles, announced the law of Christ. A Saint was needed 
for such a task, and a Saint was at hand. 

Employed at first in teaching Latin in the school which 
de Nobrega had founded at Piratininga, Anchieta spent his 
earlier years in patience, humility, and obedience ; yearning for 
the hour when he might proclaim the Holy Name to the tribes 
of Brazil, but waiting in silence for the permission which he 
was too meek to anticipate. Meanwhile he composed a Brazilian 
Grammar, which became afterwards a text-book in Portugal for 
all who were destined for the American mission. A little later, 
lie produced a Dictionary of the same dialect ; then an Expo 
sition of the whole body of Christian doctrine ; and soon after, 
a multitude of Canticles and devout Songs, in four different 
languages, in order to replace the profane or indecent songs 
which were in use among the people. His compositions u were 
continually sung, day and night," says his biographer, "in the 
streets and thoroughfares, so that the praises of the Christian 
doctrine everywhere resounded." 

At length, having been admitted to the priesthood, he com 
menced the special work of a missionary. Alone, and with 
naked feet, fearing neither the pangs of hunger, nor the viper s 
sting, nor the jaw of the wild beast, he would penetrate the vast 
forests of this tropical land. On one occasion, having entered 
a wood, " without any conscious motive, and as if guided by 
another," he found an aged Indian supported against a tree, who 
greeted him with the assurance that he had for some time been 
expecting his arrival. He had journeyed from a remote 

* The Life quoted is the Oratorian edition of 1849. 



138 CHAPTER IX. 

province on the borders of the distant Plata, and could only 
explain that he had been guided by an impulse which he could 
not resist to that spot, where, he was told, " he should be taught 
the right path." When Anchieta, who comprehended that a 
special grace had brought to him this unexpected neophyte, 
had unfolded the chief mysteries of the Catholic faith, he 
replied, "It is thus that I already received, but I knew not 
how to express them." A little rain-water, lodged in the 
leaves of some wild thistles, sufficed to baptize him; and when 
Anchieta returned to his companions, and related what had 
passed, he added, that he had just buried him, with his own 
hands, according to the rites of the Church. 

But it was not always with such Indians as this that his 
apostolic journeys brought him in contact. The tribe of the 
Tamuyas, one of the fiercest and most warlike in Brazil, 
resenting the gradual advance of the Portuguese, and perhaps 
dreading the new power of which they might one day become 
the victims, fell suddenly on the colony of St. Vincent, massacred 
the white population, and ravaged the whole district with the 
blind and sanguinary fury of barbarians. Father de Nobrega, 
touched with compassion for the misery of these Christians, 
who were already preparing to abandon the country, conceived 
a project which only the heart of a true missionary could have 
entertained. Taking with him Anchieta, fitting companion for 
so perilous a mission, he boldly entered the territory of the 
Tamuyas. Received at first with unexpected reverence, the 
ambassadors hastened to propose terms of peace. Two months 
elapsed in fruitless negotiations, when de Nobrega was suffered 
to depart, in order to concert new measures at St. Vincent, 
leaving Anchieta as a hostage in the hands of the savages. As 
they parted at this critical moment, " Anchieta manifested to 
Father Nobrega three different circumstances which had been 
revealed to him in the same night, God then beginning to treat 
him as His familiar friend, and disclosing to him the hidden 
secrets of His Divine Providence." The first was, that the town 
of Biritioca, at the entrance of St. Vincent, from which they 
were distant at that moment about seventy miles, was already in 
possession of the savages ; the second, that a person well known 
to Nobrega had been crushed to death ; the third, that a Por 
tuguese vessel, laden with supplies, was on the point of entering 
the port of St. Vincent. On the arrival of Nobrega, the two 
first statements were immediately confirmed ; a little later, the 
third received its welcome fulfilment. 

Meanwhile, Anchieta was alone with the savages, as calm and 
unmoved as if he had been in the company of little children. 
Outraged by their intolerable indecency, and his life perpetually 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 139 

menaced by their capricious fury, he had recourse to the usual 
weapons of apostles, prayer and mortification. "The continence 
of these Fathers," says Mr. Southey, to whom we may return for 
a moment, "had occasioned great admiration in their hosts, and 
they asked Nobrega how it was that he seemed to abhor what 
other men so ardently desired. He took a scourge out of his 
pocket, and said that by tormenting the flesh he kept it in 
subjection." Anchieta, he adds, " who was in the prime of man 
hood, made a vow to the Virgin that he would compose a poem 
upon her life, trusting to preserve his own purity by thus 
fixing his thoughts upon the Most Pure." Yet Mr. Southey, 
true to his instincts, conld elsewhere call the prudent austerities 
of Catholic missionaries, " the frantic folly of Catholicism." 

In spite of the difficulties of his position, Anchieta ceased not 
to preach the Gospel to his hosts, till "many of them were so 
well instructed, that he would have admitted them to the Sacra 
ment of Baptism, if he had not feared their want of constancy, 
and deemed it prudent to leave the gathering of this harvest 
to his companions." But the more violent members of the 
tribe, irritated by the failure of the negotiations, and disap 
pointed in their hope of plunder, resolved to put him to death 
without further delay. They announced to him, therefore, that 
he was to die at a certain hour, and that afterwards they should 
feast on his body. "With perfect composure of soul and coun 
tenance he replied that they would certainly not kill him at 
the time appointed ; and when they asked him in amazement 
how he could display such assurance, he answered, that he 
had learned from the Mother of that God whom he had 
preached to them that he was not yet to die. His confidence 
was justified, and after a captivity of three months, a treaty of 
peace was established, and Anchieta was once more embraced 
by his fellow-missionaries at St. Vincent. 

A few words will indicate his and their mode of life. They 
had not often a house to live in, and when they had, it was such 
as Anchieta describes in a letter to St. Ignatius, written from 
Piratininga, while he acted as professor under Manuel de Paiva. 
" Our house is composed of a number of long poles, of which the 
interstices are filled up with clay. The principal apartment, 
which is fourteen feet in length by ten in width, is at once our 
school, infirmary, dormitory, refectory, kitchen, and store-room." 
In fact, it was a cabin w r ith one room, in which twenty-six 
inmates were lodged. " Yet all our brothers are delighted with 
it, nor would they exchange this hut for the most magnificent 
palace. They remember that the Son of God was born in a 
stable, where there was but little space, and died on a cross, 
where there was still less." Even Mr, Southey acknowledges 



14:0 CHAPTER IX. 

that the only food they had was " what the Indians gave them," 
which was chiefly mandioc flour; and Anchieta liimself, a man 
of noble birth, alluding to their rude manner of life, says 
jestingly, " We may be pardoned for not using napkins at a 
table on which there is nothing to eat." 

It was in the midst of privations which they hardly deemed 
worthy of notice that these first apostles of Brazil prosecuted 
their work. Anchieta was one of them, and here is a descrip 
tion of his life. " Barefooted, with no other garment than his 
cassock, his crucifix and rosary round his neck, the pilgrim s 
staff and his breviary in his hand, and his shoulders laden with 
the furniture requisite for an altar, Anchieta advanced into the 
interior of the country. He penetrated virgin forests, swam 
across streams, climbed the roughest mountains, plunged into 
the solitude of the plains, confronted savage beasts, and 
abandoned himself entirely to the care of Providence. All these 
fatigues, and all these dangers, had God alone for witness ; he 
braved them for no other motive than to conquer souls. As soon 
as he caught sight of a man, Anchieta quickened his pace ; his 
bleeding feet stain the rocks and sands of the desert, but he still 
walks onwards. As he approached the savage, he stretched out 
his arms towards him, and with words of gentleness strove to 
retain him beneath the shadow of the cross, which to him was 
the standard of peace. Sometimes, when the savages rejected 
his first overtures, he threw himself at their knees, bathing them 
with his tears, pressing them to his heart, and striving to gain 
their confidence by every demonstration of love. At first the 
savages made small account of this abnegation, but the Jesuit 
was not discouraged. He made himself their servant, and 
studied their caprices like a slave; he accompanied them in their 
wanderings, entered into their familiarity, shared their suffer 
ings, their labors, their pleasures." And the result of such a 
ministry, in which thousands were engaged at the same moment, 
from Lake Huron to Paraguay, and from Brazil to California, 
was this: " By degrees he taught them to know God, revealed 
to them the laws of universal morality, and prepared them for 
civilization after he had formed them to Christianity. The 
whole country of Brazil was the theatre of Father Anchieta s 
ardent zeal ; but amidst those vast solitudes, that of Itannia, the 
land of stones, was his spot of predilection. It was so unculti 
vated, so rocky, that the very animals seemed to shun it; yet it 
was here that Anchieta, while toiling for the salvation of this 
ill-fortuned country, sought repose from the other dangers of his 
apostleship."* We might refuse to believe that a man like our- 

* Life of Anchieta, p. 175. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 14:1 

selves could sustain such a life, and such labors during more 
than forty years, but that every other land presents to us, 
during the last three centuries, a thousand examples of the same 
virtues and the same victories. 

In 1597 Anchieta died. The six Jesuits who landed with 
Nobrega had already increased to one hundred and twenty in 
Brazil alone, and a hundred more now hastened to fill the 
place of Anchieta, and to continue the work which he had 
begun. Before we pursue the history of their labors, let us 
notice briefly, as we have done in former cases, what Protest 
ant writers relate of the men who had now departed. 

Of Emanuel de Nobrega, even Mr. Southey says, that he 
died, " worn out with a life of incessant fatigue. The day be 
fore his death, he went abroad, and took leave of all his friends, 
as if about to undertake a journey. They asked him whither 
he was going, and his reply was, Home to my own country? 
No life could be -more actively, more piously, or more usefully 
employed :"* and then Mr. Southey, who, like all his class, 
would undertake to pronounce judgment at any moment on 
saints and angels, on principalities and powers, adds conde 
scendingly, " the triumphant hope with which it terminated 
was not the less sure and certain, because of the errors of his 
belief." Singular belief, to which alone God imparts the vir 
tues and the victories of the apostolic life, while he unaccount 
ably forgets to purify it from its " errors ;" singular con 
tradiction, which makes God, in every age, the unintelligible 
ally of a " corrupt" religion, so corrupt, in the judgments of 
its adversaries, that if, as an American Protestant ingenuously 
observes, their estimate of it were true, " decomposition and 
the last stages of decay had long ago been passed. "f 

Yet this Anglican historian adds, under an impulse which 
even he could not resist, u So well had JSTobrega s system been 
followed by Anchieta and his disciples, that, in the course of 
half a century, all the nations along the coast of Brazil, as far 
as the Portuguese settlements extended," that is, through a 
range of more than two thousand miles, " were collected in 
villages under their superintendence."^: Never in the history 
of missions had so marvellous a triumph been obtained, except 
by the same class of men in the other provinces of America 
which we are still to visit. It is from Protestant writers alone 
that we can receive the evidence of that unparalleled triumph, 
since only by their testimony will it appear credible to their 



* Ch. x, p. 310. 

f North American Renew, July, 1858, p. 283. 
xiii , p. 389. 



142 CHAPTER IX. 

co-religionists. Nobrega died at the close of the sixteenth 
century, and "in the beginning of the seventeenth," as Ranke 
observes, " we find the proud edifice of the Catholic Church 
completely reared in South America. There were five arch 
bishoprics, twenty-seven bishoprics, four hundred monasteries, 
and innumerable parish churches." And even this does not 
represent the whole work accomplished in a land which had 
been tenanted, only a century earlier, by savages who had little 
more of the nature of man than his external form. " Mag 
nificent cathedrals had sprung up, of which the most splendid 
of all was, perhaps, that of Los Angeles. The Jesuits taught 
grammar and the liberal arts ; a complete system of theologi 
cal discipline was taught in the universities of Mexico and 

Lima, Conquests gave place to missions, and missions 

gave birth to civilization. The monks, who taught the natives 
to read and to sing, taught them also how to sow and to reap, 
to plant trees and to build houses ; and, of course, inspired the 
protbundest veneration and attachment." So that Ranke might 
well exclaim, " Catholicism produced a mighty effect in these 
countries."* 

It was the contemplation of the same almost unexampled 
work, of which we shall better appreciate the character and 
extent when we have traced it in many provinces, which led 
Lord Macaulay to observe, in more emphatic phraseology, 
" The acquisitions of the Catholic Church in the New World 
have more than compensated her for what she has lost in the 

Old."t 

Of Anchieta, the companion of Nobrega, and partner of his 
apostolic toils, whose supernatural life has occasioned still 
greater perplexity to Protestant historians, they speak in such 
words as the following : " His self-denial as a missionary," we 
are told by two American preachers, who vainly endeavored to 
persuade even a solitary Brazilian to exchange a Divine religion 
for a human one, "his labor in acquiring and methodizing a 
barbarous language, and his services to the State, were sufficient 
to secure to him an honest fame and a precious memory." And 
then they exhaust all the resources of invective upon his biog 
raphers, by whom, they are not ashamed to say, " his real vir 
tues were made to pass for little," that they might magnify 
" his pretended miracles."} If they had really read any history 
of the Saint, they would have found that his miracles are 
noticed simply as incidents in the life of one whose virtues were 



* Book vii., vol. ii., p. 91. 

\ Essay on Ranke s History of the Popt 

% Kidder and Fletcher, ch. vii., p. 115. 






MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 143 

more wonderful than his miracles, and perhaps more difficult 
to imitate. 

Mr. Southey, as might be expected, uses similar language. 
" That Anchieta could work miracles," he says, " was undoubt 
edly believed both by the Portuguese and by the natives, each 
according to their own superstition. The former sent volumes 

of attestations to Rome after his death the Tarnuyas 

said there was a power in him which withheld the hands of 
men, and this opinion saved his life" In other words, both 
Pagans and Christians were constrained to acknowledge a 
power of which they continually witnessed the exercise, and 
which multitudes, of all ranks and classes, solemnly attested on 
oath. It is Protestants alone, of all mankind, who deride the 
supernatural as the dream of superstition or the trick of the 
impostor ; because they alone refuse to believe in the sanctity 
which they know to be unattainable by themselves, and believe 
to be impossible to others. When Dr. Horsley, a Protestant 
bishop of no mean repute, exhorted the English House of Lords 
to discourage all attempts to convert the Hindoos, because "the 
religion of a country is connected with its government," this 
Anglican prelate consistently added, that the apostolic power 
of working miracles having ceased, " he .doubted whether the 
commission had not ceased also." And most of his co-religionists 
appear to agree with him. " One circumstance," say their re 
presentatives, " which must make all sensible and unprejudiced 
persons suspect very much the veracity of the Jesuits in general, 
is the account they give of miracles pretended to be wrought 
in the scenes of their several missions."* Yet these men pro 
fess to worship Him who said to the first missionaries, " Ye 
shall do greater things than these /" When did He who gave 
that promise recall it, or when did He first begin to send forth 
apostles without the gifts of apostles ? And what new God 
is this, who has neither the will nor the power to interfere in 
human affairs, and who is as hopelessly fettered by the " laws 
of nature" as a plant or an insect? Is He, like the God of 
Baal, " asleep," or is he " on a journey," that he should forget 
to take note of man and his works? Or have Protestants 
agreed to accept the definition of the Creator which Kolbcn 
says was current among the Hottentots, who considered Him 
" an excellent man, who dwells far beyond the moon, and does 
no harm to any one ?" 

One thing is worthy of remark, that a religion which pro 
fesses to be founded on reason should despise all the laws of 
evidence ; and that students of the Bible should scoff at miracles 

* Lockman s Travels of the Jesuits, preface, p. xiv. 



144 CHAPTER IX. 

of which the sacred pages contain, according to human belief, 
some of the least credible examples. If Elias, " a man passible 
like unto us," forbid dew or rain to descend on the earth save 
at his word, in order to admonish a guilty king, the tale is 
venerable and true; if St. Francis Solano bring forth water in 
the deserts of Chili to save a perishing multitude, and to this 
hour the miraculous stream is called "the fountain of St. 
Solano," it is an execrable imposture. If the Eternal " stopped 
the mouths of lions" lest they should harm his prophet, let us 
marvel and adore ; if the panther crouched by the side of His 
servant Anchieta as he prayed at midnight in the forest, or 
the viper dared not sting his naked foot when he trod upon it 
in the noonday, it is an impudent invention. If iron float at 
the bidding of Eliseus, though only to save a woodman s axe, 
let us fall down and magnify the Lord ; if Anchieta is upheld 
on the waters of the San Francisco, that an apostle might 
not perish out of the earth, we should scorn the superstition 
which believes the fact, and the impostor who relates it. If 
a dead man spring to life again, as the Scripture affirms, be 
cause his corpse touched the bones of a Saint whom it was the 
will of God to honor,* who will refuse to praise and admire ? 
If St. Augustine record the same fact of the bones of St. 
Stephen, in his own church, and before the very congregation 
who witnessed it, let us smile at the despicable fraud. If 
Agabus foretell a famine over the whole earth, " which came 
to pass in the days of Claudius,"f we should honor the 
prophet, though only a man like ourselves; if the Blessed 
Anchieta predict a coming storm when the sky had been cloud 
less for six months, and a vast multitude witness the miraculous 
rain-fall which ensued, let us be sure it was only the crafty 
jugglery of a priest, or the gross credulity of a besotted crowd. 
If Divine wisdom employ the voice of an ass to convey a warn 
ing to the rebellious prophet, let us accept without surprise 
both the messenger and his message ; if Divine power command 
the jaguar to stop in full career at the feet of St. Francis Solano, 
and humbly kneel before the servant of the Most High, let 
us welcome the improbable tale with a shout of derision. If 
Elias raise the dead from corruption, though only to comfort a 
sorrowing widow, it shall be the text of our songs and our 
meditations ; if St. Francis Xavier open a grave, in the presence 
of thousands, to show a whole nation what the God of 
Chris! ians can do, it is a pitiable fiction. If Elias is fed by 
ravens or by angels, and then fast forty days and nights, let no 

* 4 Kings xiii. 21. 
f Acts xi. 28. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 145 

man donbt either his eating or his abstinence ; if de ISTobili or 
de Britto instruct thousands unto righteousness by a whole life 
of austerity and mortification, it is only " the frantic folly of 
Catholicism." If the face of St. Stephen shone with glory, so 
that all who stood by " saw his face as it had been the face of 
an angel," let us acknowledge that grace can illuminate even 
this mortal body ; if the blessed Peter Claver was transfigured 
before the eyes of a hundred witnesses, who saw the light play 
round his head, and covered their eyes with their hands, let us 
pity the degrading superstition which can accept the wretched 
tale. If a " handkerchief" or an " apron," which had only 
touched the body of St. Paul, could heal diseases and put 
demons to flight,* what more natural than that the Most High 
should thus sanction, before men and angels, the Catholic use 
of relics ? If the same thing be told of St. Bernard or St. 
Philip Neri, of Anchieta, or St. Francis Regis, let us rend the 
heavens with our cry of anger, or stop our ears in indignant 
scorn. 

Perhaps the true explanation of the inconsistency which ac 
cepts the one class of miracles without question, and rejects the 
other without inquiry, is found in the fact that very few Prot 
estants have any more real faith in the one than in the other. 
They would deal in precisely the same manner with both, but 
that they have no pressing reason to reject the first, while they 
have an urgent personal motive for denying the last. Yet even 
the Hindoo and the Mahometan, witnesses against the credu 
lous incredulity of modern sects, have manifested, with all their 
faults, a deeper insight than they into the mystery of holiness, 
and have confessed, in every age, that a god who ceased to 
display the power which he had once exerted, or to bestow the 
gifts which he had once conferred, would be only an impotent 
divinity, unworthy to reign over immortal men, and from whose 
palsied hand it would be lawful to pluck the feeble and useless 
sceptre. The instincts of the human heart, of the Pagan as well 
as of the Christian, reject such a god as Protestantism has in 
vented ; and the only race of men on earth who deny the won 
der-working might of the True and Holy One in His saints and 
apostles, are they who acknowledge in their inmost soul, with 
out shame arid without regret, tlxat it never has been and never 
can be manifested in themselves. Who dreams of an Anglican 
miracle, or a Wesleyan prophet, or a Presbyterian saint? Who 
can imagine Middleton bidding a stream spring forth in the 
plains of Bengal? or Buchanan respected by panthers? or Jud- 
son transfigured? or Heber raising the dead? 

* Acts xix. 12. 
VOL. n 11 , 



146 CHAPTER IX. 

This is no place to discuss at large the credibility of miracles. 
To the Christian, who is wisely familiar with Holy Scripture, 
and comprehends that the miracles of the New Testament are 
not isolated and abnormal, but typical and characteristic facts, 
proper to the whole dispensation which they ^ adorn and illus 
trate, their cessation would be more inexplicable than their 
continuance. If they are rejected, it is by men who know 
neither God nor themselves; who, in spite of their profession 
of religion, have an instinctive fear and hatred of the super 
natural, and who would rather believe that God is eternally 
silent than confess that it is in the Church alone that He 
deigns to speak. They would not, indeed, believe a miracle, 
even if they saw one; but what they fear in them is their ex 
hibition of Divine power, what they hate is their testimony to 
the Catholic faith.* 

Yet modern science, not always hostile to revealed truth, has 
lately protested, by the voice of one of its greatest adepts, 
against this irrational skepticism. A well-known English 
mathematician, refuting by a scientific process the infidel for 
mula of Hume, has declared, and elaborately proved, that 
however that formula be applied, it will always be false. Hume 
had said that no amount of evidence can prove the truth of a 
miracle. Mr. Babbage, testing the proposition by a purely 
analytical method, arrives at exactly the opposite conclusion. 
4% If independent witnesses can be found," he says, " who speak 
truth more frequently than falsehood," surely no intolerable 
postulate, " it is always possible to assign a number of inde 
pendent witnesses, the improbability of the falsehood of whose 
concurring testimony shall be greater than that of the miracle 
itself."f Yet the shallow incredulity of the Sects, though it 
^annuls all the laws of evidence, and sets aside the most rigorous 
conclusions of science, affects to be a protest on behalf of the 
human intellect against the thraldom of superstition ! \ 

" Image parfaite de Notre Seigneur Jesus-Christ, TEglise est en butte aux 
]>ersecutions du monde, non pas parce que le monde oublie les prodiges qu elle 
opyre, . . mais tout au contraire parce que le monde a en ho-rreur ces temoignages, 
. . . ces miracles qui le condamnent." Donoso Cortes, (Enures, tome iii., p. 128 ; 
ed. Veuillot. " The Church owes her very existence to miracles, and without 
them cannot at all conceive herself. . . . Our idealists and spiritualists have no 
need of miracles for the confirmation of their faith. No, truly, for their faith is 
one of their own making, and not the faith in Christ ; and it would indeed be 
HI ngular if God were to confirm a faith fabricated by man." Moehler, Symbolism, 

\ Ninth Bridgewater Treatise, app., p. 202, note E. 

; " Miracles are evidently not only not impossibilities, but even not improba 
bilities. . . . Whatever is possible may occur, and whatever occurs ought, on the 
proper evidence, to be believed." Hugh Miller, Footprint* of the Creator, 
p. 242. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 

If now we continue the history of missions in Brazil, and take 
Mr. Southey once more as our guide, we shall come to a new 
order of events. Hitherto we have seen men gradually con 
verting the savages of half a continent by the display of super 
natural virtues ; and, except in a few instances which we have 
not stayed to notice, as in the case of the martyrs Soza and 
Correa, who fell in the very beginning of this apostolic warfare, 
accomplishing their work without even the customary tribute 
of blood. But that sacred debt was sure to be paid sooner or 
later, and we are about to witness the martyrdom of sixty-eight 
missionaries at once, massacred, not by pagan savages, but by 
more merciless heretics, whose fury 110 virtues could disarm, 
and who, in many a land, have made a compact with the 
heathen to slay the missionaries of the Cross. 

In 1570, Father Ignatius Azevedo, by the nomination of St. 
Francis Borgia, conducted thirty-nine Fathers of the Society 
of Jesus from Madeira to Brazil. Thirty more started at the 
same moment from Lisbon, in two other vessels, as well as a 
number of postulants who had still to prove the strength of 
their vocation. The day after the ship which carried Azevedo 
sailed from Madeira, four French vessels, under the command 
of the Huguenot Jacques Sourie, bore down upon it. Sourie, 
says Mr. Southey, " was a man as little disposed to show mercy 
to any Catholic priests, as they would have been to show it 
towards him. . . . and he did by the Jesuits as they would 
have done by him and all of his sect put them to death. One 
of the novices escaped, being in a lay habit, the rest were 
thrown overboard, some living, some dying, some dead." So 
smoothly does this English historian relate a tale which does 
not even provoke from him any other comment than this, that 
" when the tidings reached Madeira, the remaining missionaries 
celebrated the triumph of their comrades, a triumph which 
many of them were yet to partake." But this singular festival 
only inspired the mirth of Mr. Southey, who considers that the 
Te Deum chanted in honor of martyrs by men who in a few 
days were to be martyrs themselves, " was as much the lan 
guage of policy as of fanaticism." St. Philip Neri would 
rather have said, as he was wont to say to the priests depart 
ing from Rome for the English mission, " Salvete florcs mar- 
tyrum /" St. Paul would have added, in his solemn accents, 
ik Quibus dignus nan erat mundus /" 

A few days later, " one English and four French cruisers," 
according to the tranquil narrative of Mr, Southey, who does 
not mention that this time it was the Calvinist Capdeville who 
commanded, fell upon the remainder of the missionary fleet, and 
did their work so effectually, that " of sixty-nine missionaries 



148 CHAPTER IX. 

whom Azevedo took out from Lisbon, only one, who was left 
behind at one of the ports where they touched, arrived at 
Brazil." 

The blood of sixty-eight martyrs could hardly fail to win 
new graces for Brazil, and from that hour the work of conver 
sion advanced with tenfold success. It was said, as Mr. 
Southey records with indignation, that supernatural incidents 
accompanied this holocaust of martyrs, whose fires the waves 
of the deep sea could not extinguish. " After Azevedo was 
killed, the heretics,* Mr. Southey merrily observes, " could not 
force out of his hand a picture of the Virgin, " which the mar 
tyr held in his dying grasp, and which, the English historian 
adds, with an appropriate and well-timed jest, " was a copy 
more miraculous than its miraculous original." This picture, 
found still in his embrace by the crew of another ship which 
sailed over the spot where the body had been flung into the 
ocean, " was shown," adds Mr. Southey, " by the Jesuits at St. 
Salvador, with heroic impudence, with the print of Azevedo s 
bloody fingers upon it ;" but " ecclesiastical historians," he re 
marks, " enlarge as they go on, because every one adds his lie 
to the heap." If a martyrology were composed by demons, it 
is perhaps thus that they would write it. 

Sixty years after the martyrdom of Azevedo and his com 
panions, when their successors had reaped the full harvest of 
which the early seeds had been fertilized by their blood, a second 
drama of the same kind was enacted, and once more the knife 
and the axe were wielded by Protestants. This time it was the 
Dutch Calvinists who made war on defenceless missionaries, 
and here is Mr. Southey s narrative of their operations. 

The unconverted natives of the district of Rio Grande had 
carried devastation into the territory of Pernambuco, and though 
chastised by the troops under the command of Manuel Masca- 
renhas, were still planning in their forests new expeditions. 
Soldiers could riot reach these swift-footed marauders, but there 
were men in Brazil of the school of de Nobrega and Azevedo 
who could. Mr. Southey will tell us who they were. With no 
armor but prayer, and no weapon but the cross which they 
bore on their bosom, they advanced without fear into the 
retreats of the barbarians. " The Jesuits pacified them," says 
the Protestant annalist, "and brought a hundred and fifty- 
hordes into alliance with the Portuguese." So true is that 
saying of Sir Woodbine Parish, who lived long in South 
America, that " the labors of the Jesuits were eventually 
more successful than all the military forces," and that, in 
every province of the land, on both sides of the Andes, and by 
the banks of all the rivers which flow from them, " these inde- 



MISSION S IN AMERICA. 149 

fatigable missionaries reduced one tribe after another to a state 
of comparative civilization." 

But the savage of the northeastern provinces was now to find 
an ally more tierce and cruel than himself, and by whose 
example he was to learn, that if there were Christians who 
were valiant only to suffer, to labor, and to bless, there were 
others who made religion itself the pretext of crimes from which 
even the savages would have shrunk. It was on Good Friday, 
in the year 1633, that the Dutch Protestants, passing at 
midnight through the smoking ruins of Olinda, attacked 
Garassu in the early morn, while the inhabitants were assem 
bled at the celebration, proper to that sorrowful day, of the 
Mass of the Presanctified. The moment was skilfully chosen. 
No ignorant Tamuya or Chiquito, no blundering Mohawk or 
Oneida, could have matched the Calvinist in his craft; no 
bloodhound could have torn his prey with more pitiless cruelty, 
when once he had fastened his fangs upon it. " The men who 
came in their way," says Mr. Southey, " were slaughtered ; the 
women were stripped, and the plunderers with brutal cruelty 
tore away ear-rings through the ear-flap, and cut off fingers for 
the sake of the rings which were upon them. Having plun 
dered and burnt the town, they set out on their return, taking 
with them as prisoners some Franciscans, whom for their pro 
fession they especially hated, and driving in mockery before 
them the priest in his vestments, just as they had forced him 
from the altar."* It was thus they celebrated Good Friday. 

The next year they attacked Paraiba, apparently because 
"it contained a Misericordia, a Benedictine Convent, a Carme 
lite, and a Capuchin." The inhabitants had capitulated, after 
a gallant defence, on the promise of "free exercise of the Cath 
olic religion and the peaceable enjoyment of their property." 
"The most atrocious cruelties," says Mr. Southey, for once 
taking part with the victims, " were exercised upon these 
brave people by the conquerors, and they who possessed any 
property were tortured till they paid the full sum which was 
demanded as a life-ransom. By these means the Dutch raised 
twenty-eight thousand crowns, and it is by such means that 
they have rendered their history as infamous, and their names 
as detestable, in the East arid in the West, as in their own 
country their deeds have been glorious."f 

Yet these men professed to be exponents of the " reformed 
religion," and missionaries of the Gospel. It is true that even 
Mr. Southey admits, that it was only " for the sake of raising 

* Vol. i., ch. xv., p. 486. 
f P. 509. 



150 CHAPTER IX. 

sugar and tobacco" that they invaded Brazil ; but they carried 
their religions ideas with them, and so, in the words of another 
historian, "from assassins they transformed themselves into 
missionaries." They were more successful in the first character 
than in the last. " They sent out preachers, and controversial 
books in the Spanish language were circulated;" but Mr. 
South ey shrewdly adds, " if the Brazilians hated their conquerors 
as heretics, they hated heresy still more because it was the 
religion of their oppressors. The Dutch have always been a 
cruel people, .... and there is no nation whose colonial history 
is so inexcusable and inexpiably disgraceful to human nature." 
lie had perhaps read their history in Japan and Ceylon. 

The Dutch were not destined to triumph in Brazil, either as 
soldiers or missionaries, but they were not finally ejected till a 
later period. Meanwhile, they continued to exhibit a new 
example of the nature and influence of Protestant missions, a 
new proof that they are everywhere, as we have said, the worst 
impediment to the conversion of the heathen, not only because 
they obstruct the ministry of the true apostles, but because their 
agents teach the barbarian to despise a religion of which they 
are the professors. In 1637, in all the districts under their 
rule, " the Catholics were ordered to confine their processions 
within the walls of the churches ; no new church was to be built 
without permission from the senate ; no marriages celebrated 
until the banns had been published after the Dutch manner," &c. 
There was even a certain refinement of ingenuity in some 
of their cruelties. Taking advantage of well-known customs 
which piety had consecrated in Brazil, they ordered, " that 
those persons who, when they created new sugar-works, chose 
to have them blessed, were to have the office performed" by 
a Protestant minister ! The Count of Nassau, who was their 
supreme ruler, " received orders to restrict toleration within the 
narrowest bounds, and the reformed clergy were calling upon 
him to enforce these imprudent orders." 

In 1639, "Dutch missionaries labored," we are still quoting 
Mr. Southey, " to teach a Lutheran instead of a Popish creed." 
They failed indeed, but this was only, Mr. Southey considers, 
because "implements of conversion were wanting;" that is, 
"Lutheran theology had nothing wherewith to supply the 
deficiency of saints, images, beads, crosses, &c." The expla 
nation seems to fall below the gravity of history. Lutheran 
theology, which the Brazilians rejected so decisively, does not 
appear to produce happy results even among those who profess 
to admire it. In Lutheran Prussia, where there is no deficiency 
of crosses and other symbols, it has all but extirpated Chris 
tianity ; in Brazil, as we learn from two Protestant ministers in 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 151 

185T, its results have been of the same unpleasant character. 
In " the Lutheran community at Nova Fribourgo," a colony of 
German settlers, they report that " there was but little Chris 
tian vitality ; Lutherans of the old Church and State school 
are among the very last men to propagate the Gospel."* We 
need not wonder, then, that the Dutch failed to propagate such 
a gospel in Brazil. 

But if they could not convert, they could destroy. In spite 
of every menace, and of unceasing cruelty and exactions, the 
people still clung to their old pastors. There was only one 
remedy for this obstinacy, and the Dutch adopted it. " The 
members of every monastic order were commanded within the 
space of a month to quit the Dutch possessions on the continent. 
The needful measure," it is Mr. Southey who speaks, " was 
carried into effect with brutal cruelty. The Dutch stripped 
them of their habits, and turned them ashore in their shirts and 
drawers, in such remote situations that most of them perished."f 

When, in 1642, the Portuguese rose at last against the assas 
sins, and recaptured Maranham, " those who were spared owed 
their lives," says our historian, " to the interference of a priest." 
He had asserted not long before that any priest " would have 
put all the sect to death," but now he relates that " he had 
borne the crucifix before his comrades as a standard beneath 
whicli they were to march to victory, and he stretched out that 
crucifix to protect his enemies now when the victory was won." 
But with all his efforts he could only save the other foreigners, 
because " a Catholic feeling incensed the conquerors against 
the Dutch, more hated for their heretical opinions than for 
their cruelty and perfidiousness." But we have heard enough 
of the Dutch, and it is time to return to the labors of a differ 
ent order of missionaries. 

In the middle of the seventeenth century, when the triumph 
of Christianity was already assured in Brazil, Portugal gave to 
this favored mission another of those apostolic workmen of 
whom in that age she produced so many. Father Antonio 
Vieyra, the friend of kings and the counsellor of statesmen, 
who had rejected all the honors of the world, and had told his 
admiring sovereign, when he entreated him to accept a bishopric 
in Europe, that he would not exchange the lowly habit of a 
missionary "for all the mitres in the Portuguese monarchy," 
had now entered Brazil. During many years this accomplished 
gentleman "ministered among the Indians and Negroes, for 
which purpose he made himself master, not only of the Tupi, 

* Kiddcr and Fletcher, ch. xv., p. 29. 
t Vol. ii., ch. xx., p. Go. 



152 CHAPTER IX. 

but also of the Angolan tongue." He was one, as Mr. Southey 
confesses, who "must ever hold a place, not only amongst the 
greatest writers, but amongst the greatest statesmen of his 
country." It is nothing new in the history of apostles that 
such a man should choose to devote his life to Indians and 
Negroes. The Catholic religion, in every age, has been able 
both to inspire and to reward such sacrifices. Once he wrote 
to the young prince of Portugal, who loved and honored him 
as a father, to send fresh laborers to Brazil ; and he added, " I 
ask no provision for those who come, God will provide ; what 
I ask is, that they may come, and that they may be many, and 
filled with zeal." 

It is curious to see what the malice of heresy could force 
even a scholar and a poet to say of such a man as this who 
was not only scholar and poet, but philosopher, orator, and 
statesman. " His devotion," says Mr. Southey, " had its root in 
superstition and madness." Festus estimated in the same man 
ner the devotion of St. Paul, because he, like the English 
writer, could not understand an apostle. Yet he adds imme 
diately, contradicting himself at every page, "Yieyra proceeded 
diligently with projects worthy of his order and of himself." 
Fifty Indian villages were organized by his labors to the north 
of Maranham, " along an extent of four hundred leagues of 
coast." So wonderful was the success of his labors, that on the 
15th of August, 1658, he celebrated a solemn Mass of thanks 
giving in commemoration of a treaty then concluded, " in the 
name of Jesus Christ," with the chiefs and representatives of 
more than one hundred thousand natives* 

Such a victory might have contented even apostolic ambition, 
but for Yieyra it was only a motive for fresh exertions. He 
now resolved, therefore, says our historian, " to pursue the same 
system of civilization up the great rivers, and in the islands in 
the mouth of the Orellana." Two Jesuits were sent up the 
river of the Tocantins, a perilous journey of nine hundred miles, 
" to reduce a tribe of Topinambazes," famous for their courage 
and ferocity. " They were old enemies of the Para settlers," 
which increased tenfold the perils of the mission, but this did 
not daunt the companions of Yieyra, animated with his own 
spirit ; and the Protestant historian is obliged to confess, that 
" these very enemies followed the missionaries, and agreed to 
send deputies back with them, who should treat concerning 
peace, and arrange measures for their conversion." More than a 
thousand of these hitherto irreclaimable barbarians, "of whom 
three hundred were warriors," returned with the Fathers to the 

* Cr6tineau Joly, tome v., p. 114. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 153 

camp of their hated foes ; and when the governor, Yidal a 
man of such qualities that Vieyra wrote to the king, " if he 
had been in India, it would never have been lost to Portugal," 
saw this multitude of neophytes approaching, " stern and 
inexorable as he was in war, he is said to have wept for joy at 
beholding this wild flock brought within the fold of Christ." 
Vieyra himself, though he might have been sitting in the 
courts of princes, started immediately to bring in the remainder 
of the tribe. 

In every direction similar expeditions were undertaken, and 
always with the same results. No river was so broad or swift 
as to check their rapid march, no forest so dark or impenetra 
ble as to bar their way. Whatever man, aided by the might 
of God, could do, they did. And the Indians, dazzled by their 
fortitude and valor, could resist neither the heroic courage 
which far surpassed their own, nor the patience which sub 
dued and wore out their frowardness, nor the charity which 
they admired before they understood it. Everywhere and al 
ways, even by Protestant testimony, these apostles were the 
same. Take a few examples out of thousands. When the 
military expedition of Coelho against the people of the Sierra 
do Ibiapaba had completely failed, " and led to his own dis 
grace," the missionaries, says Mr. Southey, " prepared a peace 
able expedition in the hope of reducing and civilizing its in 
habitants. These mountains extended about eighty leagues in 
length, and twenty in breadth ; they rise in waves, one tower 
ing above another. . . . To ascend them is the hard labor of 
four hours, in which hands and knees, as well as feet, must 
frequently be exerted." And when the missionaries, often men 
delicately nurtured, and of gentle lineage^ had surmounted these 
first difficulties, they found themselves in presence of the Ta- 
puyas, " the oldest race in Brazil," and so inconceivably barba 
rous, that * they ate their own dead as the last demonstration 
of love."* They had repulsed the soldiers of Portugal, but 
were vanquished by a few unarmed Jesuits. 

In 1603, Father Rodriguez conducted another apostolic band 
to the territory of the cannibal Aymores. " The people ridi 
culed his project," says the Protestant historian, "thinking it 
impossible that the Aymores, fleshed as they were with human 
meat, could be reclaimed from their habits of cannibalism." 
Yet the savages themselves said of him arid his companions, 
when they afterwards recounted their own submission, "The 
Fathers were good men who had neither bows nor arrows, nor 
ever did wrong to any one, and nothing which they requested 



Southey, ch. xiii., p. 377. 



CHAPTER IX. 

was to be denied." And so " two villages were soon formed, 
the one containing twelve hundred Aymores, the other four ; 
and the captaincy, which had hitherto with difficulty been 
preserved from utter destruction by the help of frequent suc 
cors from Bahia, was effectually delivered from its enemies."* 

In 1657, Fathers Emanuel Fires and Francis Gonsalvez were 
the first to ascend the Rio Negro, as Father Samuel Fritz was 
the first to trace the course of the Orellana, converting the 
Omaguas on the way " a people," as Southey observes, "so 
famous in the age of adventure, and still, in his day, the most 
numerous of all the river tribes: thirty of their villages are 
marked upon his map." Before him, Fathers Christoval d Acuna 
and Andres de Artieda, the one rector of a college, the other 
professor of theology at Quito, had accomplished an equally 
perilous mission at the request of the viceroy ; for even the 
military adventurers of that age dared not accept, and refused 
to attempt, undertakings which the missionaries alone, in the 
interests of religion and science, could be persuaded to embrace, 
since they " were not merely fearless of martyrdom, but am 
bitious of it." We shall see hereafter how many found the 
crown which they sought. After a voyage of fifteen months, 
amid privations which we need not attempt to describe, Pires 
and Gonsalvez returned, bringing with them between six and 
seven hundred disciples ; but Gonsalvez died of his fatigues. 
A little later, two others, who had taken another route, came back 
in their turn, "followed by more than two thousand Indians," 
who had consented to accept Christianity and civilization.f 

In every province, and in each successive year, the same 
arduous apostolate continued. In 1662, Father Raymond de 
Santa Cruz perished by violence in the waters of the Pastaza. 
" His was truly a noble and well-spent life," says an English 
Protestant. " His usual dress consisted of an old battered hat, 
a coarse cotton shirt, and a pair of sandals ;" this was the 
" gorgeous ceremonial" by which Catholic missionaries, we are 
told, gain their converts ! " and his mode of life was more 
simple than that of the Indians who surrounded him . . . but 
it should be remembered that there were many other intrepid 
and devoted men on the banks of these rivers, at the same time, 
who were equally zealous in preaching to the Indians, and who 
generally, like Father Raymond, met with a violent death, as 
the welcome reward of their exertions.";): 

As early as 1663, the fruits of these patient toils were so 

* P. 388. 

f Southey, p. 517. 

Expeditions into the VcMey of the Amazons, by Clements R. Markham, 
F.R.U.S., introd., p. xxx. 






MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 155 

abundant, that, as Mr. Markham notices, even on the banks of 
the upper Maranon " there were fifty-six thousand baptized 
Indians;" and from 1640 to 1682, no less than thirty-three 
different Christian settlements had been established in that 
region by this company of martyrs and apostles.* 

In 1695, Henry Richler obtained the crown of martyrdom. 
"The most heroic devotion," says Mr. Markham, " could alone 
have enabled him to face the difficulties which surrounded him. 
During twelve years, lie performed forty difficult journeys, 
through dense forests, or in canoes on rapid and dangerous 
rivers. He never took any provisions with him, but wandered 
bare-footed and half-naked through the tangled underwood, 
trusting wholly to Providence for support. His efforts were 
rewarded with success, and having learnt some of the Indian 
languages, he at last surrounded himself with followers." 

Such were the men and such the toils which won all South 
America to the Cross. If sometimes they failed, or seemed to 
fail, it was only for a brief space. When Soto Mayor, one of 
the most valiant of this band of heroes, was rejected by a tribe 
which refused to be converted, he left with them his crucifix, 
assuring them with accents of patient love, that the God whom 
it represented would yet incline their hearts to truth. And when 
he was gone, their souls were stirred within them by the memory 
of his apostolic words ; and one day they arrived in solemn 
procession, asking to be admitted to baptism, and bringing back 
with all reverence the crucifix, of which Mr. Southey, true to 
his instincts, observes, "This idol was deposited in the church 
of the Jesuits college, where it was long venerated with es 
pecial devotion." 

In 1661, the corrupt Portuguese traders, whose traffic in 
slaves had been well-nigh ruined by Yieyra and his companions, 
stirred up an insurrection, and cast the Fathers into prison. 
Yieyra himself, says the Protestant historian, " though treated 
more cruelly than any of his companions, betrayed not the 

slightest mark of irritation or impatience An heroic 

mind, a clear conscience, and an enthusiastic sense of duty, 
produced in him that peace which passeth all understanding." 
They were dragged on board ship, and dispatched to Portugal, 
with a memorial to the king, setting forth their misdemeanors, 
and charging them with having ruined the prosperity of the 
colony. They were reinstated by a royal edict in the following 
year, with a sharp admonition to their accusers, but from that 
hour their enemies took counsel together to accomplish their 
destruction. 

* Expeditions, &c., introd, p. xxx. 



156 CHAPTER IX. 

In 1676, Brazil being now divided into the three dioceses of 
Bahia, Pernambnco, and Rio de Janeiro, the first colony of 
Franciscan nuns arrived. " Such institutions," observes Mr. 
Southey, who records the arrival of these ladies and the estab 
lishment of their convent, "are better receptacles than Bedlam 
for the largest class of maniacs." 41 Presently, as if the ex 
pression pleased his taste, he calls even Anchieta, D Almeida, 
and Yieyra men adorned with every highest gift, both of 
nature and grace, which the Creator bestows on His creature 
" harmless maniacs." If we quote such language, it is only 
to show how educated Protestants judge the men whom they 
cannot comprehend, and the works which they dare not 
imitate. 

In reading words now almost habitual with Protestant critics, 
and of which we have seen too many examples in these pages, 
we are involuntarily reminded of the formidable sentence of 
Holy Writ, which announces the final lot both of the accused 
and their accusers. When the former, we are told, shall have 
received their crown, the latter, " seeing it, shall be troubled 
with terrible fear, and shall say within themselves, repenting, 
and groaning for anguish of spirit, These are they whom we 
had sometime in derision, and for a parable of reproach. We 
fools esteemed their life madness, and their end without honor. 
Behold, how they are numbered with the children of God, and 
their lot is among the saints."f 

In 1696, Yieyra died, at the age of ninety. He had been 
seventy-five years a Jesuit, and Mr. Southey remarks, with real 
or affected surprise, that "his vows were never repented." He 
adds also, that " he had outlived the vexations as well as the 
joys of life; his enemies were gone before him to their account, 
and his virtues and talents were acknowledged and respected as 
they deserved.":}: 

We must hasten to an end. Twenty provinces still claim 
our attention, and we have barely glanced at the history of one. 
A hundred names might be added to those of Nobrega and 
Anchieta, of D Almeida and Yieyra, but we have no space to 
recount them. They will pardon our silence. They are our 
fathers and kinsmen, but who can number all the links in such 
a genealogy? We have spoken only of the Fathers of the 
Society of Jesus, yet the children of St. Francis and St. Dominic, 
to whom America owes so much, might well have claimed the 
tribute of our respectful homage. "The Franciscans," says Mr. 



* Vol. ii., ch. xxviii., p. 571. 

f Wisdom v., 2-5. 

J Vol. iii., ch. xxxi., p. 34. 



MISSIONS IN AMEKICA. 157 

Clements Markham, thongli he appreciates their courage rather 
than the religion which inspired it, "continued during a century 
and a half to send devoted men into the forests, who preached 
fearlessly, explored vast tracts of previously unknown land, and 
usually ended their days by being murdered by the very savages 
whom they had come to humanize."* In 1701, two Franciscan 
Fathers were martyred by the Aruans. Mr. Sou they relates 
what befell their mutilated bodies. " They found them in a 
state of perfect preservation, although they had lain six months 
upon the ground, exposed to animals, insects, and all accidents 
of weather, and although their habits were rotten." It was no 
miracle, he adds, for he did not believe in miracles, " but fraud 
cannot be suspected." The evidence was so conclusive, that 
even he could not venture to reject it. "The whole city of 
Belem," he says, saw the bodies, which were ultimately interred 
in the Franciscan church in that town. 

Finally, if we ask what signs there are at this hour in Brazil 
of the presence of the apostolic workmen of whose toils we may 
not offer here a more minute account ; if we inquire how far, 
in this case, the promise has been fulfilled which declared of 
old, " They shall know their seed among the Gentiles, and their 
offspring in the midst of peoples ;" it is an American Protestant 
who informs us, in 1856, that there are still, after all the calam 
ities which have befallen that empire, "eight hundred thousand 
domesticated Indians" who call upon the name of Jesus, and 
invoke the protection of His Mother.f 

Before we add a few words, in order to complete the narrative, 
upon the present state of Brazil, the fate of her earlier apostles 
claims a moment s attention. For two centuries they had 
toiled, with results which perhaps none but the Franciscans 
had ever rivalled, and having won the approval of God were 
now to receive their usual reward from man. St. Ignatius had 
dared to ask, it was his latest prayer, that his children " might 
be always persecuted." The petition, we know, has been 
heard. In 1753, the brother of the Marquis de Pombal was 
made Captain-general of Para and Maranham, and from that 
hour the fate of the Jesuits was sealed. By this man the 
requisite pleadings were prepared, and they were accepted with 
eagerness by the conspirators at Lisbon, as even Mr. Southey 
observes, " notwithstanding their falsehood and palpable incon 
sistency ."J "A true statesman," says the same writer, singular 
witness in such a cause, " would assuredly have thought that 

y 

* Valley of the Amazons, introd., p. xxi. 
f Life in Brazil, by Thomas Ewbank, ch. xxxviii., p. 432. 
i Vol. iii., ch. xl., p. 510. 



158 CHAPTER IX. 

the Jesuits in America were worthy of his especial favor, 
protection, and encouragement." But Pombal, envious of a 
greatness which lie could not share, had resolved to crush 
them. lie knew that the Brazilian merchants would approve 
his design, for the Jesuits, as Mr. Sonthey remarks, " were the 
only unpopular order, because they were the only missionaries 
who uniformly opposed the tyranny of the Portuguese." Of 
the charges brought against them, the same unsuspicious 
witness says, "All that are not absolutely false, are merely 
frivolous."* But Pombal was willing to suborn false witnesses, 
and if these had not been forthcoming, would have done without 
them. And so the decree went forth that the Jesuits should be 
banished. 

Twice already they had been expelled from Brazil, and twice 
they had been restored amid the acclamations of the people. 
This time their exile was to last nearly a century. From Para 
one hundred and fifteen Fathers were deported, from Bahia one 
hundred and sixty-eight, from Rio Janeiro one hundred and 
forty-five ; in all five hundred and twenty-eight, from this 
province alone. "The number expelled from all the Spanish 
Indies amounted to five thousand six hundred and seventy- 
seven. ^ We shall see hereafter what befell the Fathers in the 
other provinces. And this was the manner of their deportation : 
"They were stowed as closely as negro slaves," says Mr. Southey, 
whom we will quote to the last, " and confined below decks on 
the voyage to S. Luiz." Yet, as even he observes, " they were 
men whose innocence and virtue must most certainly have been 
known." And then he adds, his better nature triumphing for 
once over the instincts of heresy and unbelief, " They were 
treated with extreme cruelty upon the voyage ; when they w T ere 
suffering the most painful thirst, the captain would not allow, 
even to the dying, an additional drop of water, to moisten their 
lips, nor would he permit them the consolation of receiving the 
last sacrament in death. Five of them died (in one ship) under 
this unhuman usage." 

And when at last this company of apostles reached Europe, 
followed by the sighs and tears of a whole continent, for 
eighteen weary years they languished in prison, till M. cu 
Pombal passed to his account, with the horrible jest on his 
lips, " that the Jesuits were the longest lived body of men 
he ever knew." But they followed him to the judgment 
for, as the historian relates, "in a few years thev were almo?( 
extinguished." 

* P. 518. 

f Southey, vol. iii., di. xlii., p. 614. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 159 

Pombal had disappeared forever, but not so the Society of 
Jesus. In 1817, the revolted Spanish colonies of South Amer- 
ica, justifying their separation, reproached their former mis 
tress, in these earnest words : " You arbitrarily deprived us of 
the Jesuits, to whom we owe our social state, our civilization, 
all our instruction, and services with which we can never dis 
pense." In 1834, the Argentine Republic recalled them with 
acclamation; in 1842, Columbia solicited their return ; in 1843, 
they were re-established in Mexico ; in Chili, they are once 
more the model and the admiration of their brethren. And 
where are their persecutors ? When the Jesuits returned to 
the province of Coimbra, in 1832, more than one of them 
hastened to the town of Pombal, in order to offer in secret the 
suffrages of charity over the grave of the Marquis. To their 
amazement they found "that the once imperious statesman had 
been so completely forgotten by all but them, that his body, 
covered with a ragged cloth, had remained without sepulture 
from 1782 ! But there is nothing in this fact to surprise us. 
The world, which pursues them with its heartless applause, 
abandons its heroes when the sword or the staff falls from their 
nerveless hands; and the Church alone, more tender than 
friends, more compassionate than kinsfolk, is found weeping 
over the tombs of her enemies, and praying for the pardon of 
their sins.* 

And now let us see what were the results of their expulsion. 
Only twenty-five years after their departure, the noblest colony 
which Portugal had ever possessed was in ruins. " Decay and 
desolation," as Mr. Southey confesses, had succeeded " the 
prosperity which had prevailed in the time of the missionaries; 
houses falling to pieces; fields overgrown with wood; grass in 
the market-places ; the lime-kilns, the potteries, the manufac 
tories of calico 5 for the Jesuits had introduced all these "in 
ruins." 

Pombal, says the same writer whom we have so often quoted, 
while affecting to care for the welfare of the Indians, "removed 
the only persons who could have co-operated with him for this 
end ; the only persons who would have exerted themselves dis 
interestedly to promote the improvement and happiness of the 
Indians ; the only persons who for the love of God would 
have devoted themselves dutifully, cheerfully, and zealously to 
the service of their fellow-creatures. In their place such men 
as would undertake the office for the love of gain, were substi- 

* A modern traveller relates of Joseph. II., the Julian of Austria, " Nowhere 
is his name breathed ; it is as if he had never existed, or as if a curse lay on 
his memory." Austria, by J. GK Kohl, p. 233 (1843). 



160 CHAPTER IX. 

tuted, and the immediate consequences were injurious in every 
way. The laws in favor of the Indians" the missionaries had 
procured the abolition of slavery " were infringed more 
daringly ; the directors themselves had an interest in oppressing 
them, because their profits were in proportion to the work per 
formed; they had the power of compelling them to work, and 
they had neither authority, influence, nor inclination to check 
those vices which certainly were not practised under the moral 
discipline of the Aldeas" the Jesuit Reductions. " That pro 
cess of civilization which had been going on so rapidly and 
with such excellent effect" in an earlier volume Mr. Southey 
had scoifed at this civilization " was stopped at once and for 
ever ; and a rapid depopulation began, because free scope was 
now given to drunkenness and to every, other vice, and because 
many of the Indians fled into the wilderness, when they found 
that their state of filial subjection was exchanged for a servitude 
which had nothing either to sanctify or to soften it."* And it 
is Mr. Southey who writes this undesigned panegyric of Catholic 
missionaries ! 

But Mr. Southey is not the only writer of his class who makes 
these confessions. Dr. Kidder and Mr. Fletcher, two Prot 
estant ministers, whose eager libels on the Catholic religion 
would perhaps excite our indignation if it were possible to treat 
them seriously, admit that the virtues of the Jesuits proved 
their ruin. " Their benevolence and their philanthropic devoted- 
ness to the Indians brought down upon them the hatred of 
their countrymen, the Portuguese."f " Centuries will not 
repair the evil done by their sudden expulsion," says a candid 
English traveller. . . . "They had been the protectors of a 
persecuted race, the advocates of mercy, the founders of civiliza 
tion, and their patience under their unmerited sufferings forms 
not the least honorable trait in their character. "J Prince 
Adalbert of Prussia, though apparently insensible to apostolic 
virtues, which he seems to have only contemplated with dull 
apathy or peevish dislike, confesses that " decay commenced 
with the expulsion of the Jesuits." Prince Maximilian of 
Wied-Nenwied, another modern traveller in Brazil, who observes 
that at Villa Nova, which he visited, "the Jesuits had collected 
six thousand Indians," adds "but most of them were driven 
away by the hard service exacted by the crown, and by the 



* P. 534. 
f Ch. xx., p. 368. 

\ Journal of a Voyage to Brazil, by Lady Calcott, pp. 13, 36 (1824). 
Travels in Brazil, &c., by H. R. H. Prince Adalbert of Prussia, vol. ii., p. 
149, ed. Schomburgh. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 161 

slavish manner in which they were treated."* Mr. Gardner 
also, who speaks, like these German princes, from actual ob 
servation, says : " It is handed down from father to son, par 
ticularly among the middle and lower classes of Brazil, that 
the destruction of the Jesuitical power was a severe loss to the 
well-being of the country. There are of course but few alive 
now (1846) who have personal recollection of the excellent men 
who formed the Company of Jesus, but the memory of them 
will long remain ; I have always heard them spoken of with 
respect and with regret."f Lastly, for we need not multiply 
testimonies which we shall find to be identical for every province 
of America, another vehement Protestant goes a step further, 
and contrasts the Jesuits, as Lord Macaulay was wont to do, 
with the worldly and covetous missionaries of his own creed. 
" The early missionaries who ventured into the prairies and 
savannahs of America gave many indications of being animated 
by an apostolic spirit. . . . Destitute themselves, they had no 
lucrative employments to offer in the shape of subaltern offices 
in a richly endowed missionary establishment, to tempt the 
natives to enlist as retainers in the household of Christianity. 
They did not practise the simony of buying converts."^: " They," 
says another English traveller, " have brought nearly the whole 
of the Indian population of South America into the bosom of 
their Church. Notwithstanding the numerous Church and 
Sectarian missionaries sent from England, I never met with one 
Indian converted by them." Thus, according to the words of 
our Lord, when He noticed the judgments of men upon Him 
self and His disciples, " is wisdom justified of all her children." 

Before we finally quit Brazil, to pursue elsewhere the same 
inquiry, let us add, according to our custom, a brief account 
of the character and fortunes of Protestantism in that empire. 
The Huguenots of France, the Calvinists of Holland, and the 
Episcopalians of England, have all made attempts to acquire 
influence in Brazil. It would be impossible to say which class 
has failed most signally. It has often been observed, that 
heresy always presents itself under one of two aspects ; when 
it does not act a tragedy, it performs a comedy ; when it is 
not ferocious, it is ludicrous. The Dutch made the Brazilians 
groan ; the English only made them smile. 

Of the Dutch Protestants, " whose colonial history is so 

* Travels in Brazil, by Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied, cb. vi., p. 150 
(1820). 

f Travels in the Interior of Brazil, by George Gardner, F.L.S., ch. iii., p. 81 
(1846). 

\ Asiatic Journal, vol. ix., p. 3. 

Nine Months Residence in New Zealand, by Augustus Earle, p. 171. 

VOL. II. 12 



162 CHAPTER IX. 

inexpiably disgraceful to human nature." we have heard more 
than enough. They were driven out, and went home to re 
ceive the condolence of their friends. The French Huguenots 
had scarcely a more brilliant destiny. Here is, their sorrowful 
history, narrated by Protestant writers. 

" Rio Janeiro," we are told by Messrs. Kidder and Fletcher, 
who always affect this florid style, " is fraught with interest to 
the Protestant Christian, as that portion of the New World 
where the banner of the reformed religion was first unfurled." 
As it was torn from its staff as soon as it was unfurled, these 
gentlemen were hardly prudent in calling public attention to 
this ill-starred banner. It was in 1556 that Villegagnon, him 
self an apostate, and who had once conducted Mary Stuart 
in safety through the English cruisers from Leith to France, 
landed at Rio with an avant corps of fourteen Calvinists, who 
seem to have been too much compromised in their own country 
to regret their forced emigration to another. It was their ob 
ject, as Prince Adalbert sympathizingly observes, to form " the 
establishment of an asylum for Huguenots beyond the seas." 
This " interesting band," as the English historian of the Lon 
don Missionary Society calls them, tried to introduce Calvinism 
among " the benighted savages ;" but " it does not appear," 
Dr. Morrison adds, " that any of them were savingly wrought 
upon by the truth ;"* indeed he presently confesses that they 
were bent chiefly on finding an " asylum," and that " the con 
version of the heathen was a secondary object." Attacked by 
the Portuguese, who wisely objected to the presence of these 
seditious adventurers, their " banner" was speedily lowered. 
Villegagnon, recanting his errors, was reconciled to the Church, 
and left his companions to their fate. It was not likely that 
thirteen Protestant preachers would long " dwell together in 
unity;" and accordingly, as the Rev. Dr. Walsh relates, 
" weakened by their intestine dissensions,"f they became an 
easy prey. " Their squabbles," says Mr. Ewbank, " and the 
bitterness of spirit accompanying them, ruined all."^ And so 
they came to a bad end ; French Protestantism finally col 
lapsed, and Brazil declined, once for all, to become "an asylum 
for Huguenots beyond the seas." 

The English have hardly been more successful. Dr. Walsh, 
a minister of their Established Church, a gentleman whose 
integrity and kindly temper it is impossible not to admire, was 
honored by the friendship of the Bishop of Rio, " the excellent 

i 

The Fathers of tlie London Missionary Society, vol. i., p. 60. 
t Notices of Brazil, by Rev. R. Walsh, LL.D., vol. i., p. 153 (1830). 
\ Life in Brazil, ch. viii., p. 83. 



MISSIONS IN" AMERICA. 163 

Jose Caetano da Silva-Coutinho, than whom a more learned or, 
I believe, a more amiable man does not exist." This prelate, 
Dr. Walsh says, " fasts all the year on one meal a day ;" and 
he adds, perhaps with unintentional exaggeration, " he studies 
all night." In 1810, this excellent bishop was consulted by 
the civil authorities about a demand which the English res 
idents in Rio had made for a public chapel in that city. He 
advised that it should be conceded, and for this reason : " The 
English have really no religion, but they are a proud and 
obstinate people ; if you oppose them, they will persist, and 
make it an affair of infinite importance ; but if you concede to 
their wishes, the chapel will be built and nobody will ever go 
near it." "The Brazilians say he was right," adds Dr. Walsh, 
1830, " for the event has verified the prediction." The chapel, 
whose history the bishop had so sagaciously predicted, " had an 
air of dirt and neglect," says this clergyman, "quite painful to 
contemplate, and the congregation seemed to take no interest 
in it when it was built, notwithstanding their zeal to have it 
established."* Twenty-six years later, in 1856, to bring the 
history down to the present hour, Mr. Ewbank relates, that 
"the British chapel never received a native convert, while 
monks have drawn members from it."f 

One more anecdote may close the history of Anglicanism in 
Brazil. Dr. Walsh had observed during his residence "the 
deep impression of rational piety" among the Brazilians, and 
that " the great body of the people are zealously attached to 
their religion ;" and then he attests, with surprising candor, 
the supreme but good-humored contempt which they mani 
fested for Protestantism. "An English merchant and his 
wife," he says, " had incurred the wrath of the Brazilians" by 
sneering at their processions in Passion Week, which these 
fervent islanders loudly condemned as " Popish idolatry." The 
people of Eio only replied, says Dr. Walsh, by adding to the 
images of Pilate, Judas Iscariot, and other malefactors, " two 
figures that exactly resembled the merchant and his wife 
nothing could be more correct than the likeness." J 

Finally, in 1S56, an American Protestant evidently an 
amiable man, though he calls St. Francis of Assisi "an Italian 
devotee of the twelfth century," and looks upon the Catholic 
religion only as an incomprehensible mystery which defies 
analysis and baffles criticism thus announces his view of the 
actual prospects of Protestantism in Brazil: "The more I see 



* Vol. i., p. 328. 
f Cli. xx., p. 238. 
; Vol. ii., p. 398. 



164: CHAPTER IX. 

of this people," whom he lauds as "hospitable, affectionate, 
intelligent, and aspiring," "the more distant appears the 
success of any Protestant missions among them. . . . . The 
people avoid a missionary as one with whom association is 
disreputable, and they entertain a feeling towards him border 
ing on contempt, arising from a rooted belief in his ignorance 
and presumption."* 



GUYANA. 

If we now quit for a time the empire of Brazil at its northern 
frontier, we shall find, between the Amazon and the Oronoco, 
on the eastern coast, three narrow territories, which acknowledge 
respectively the dominion of England, France, and Holland. Of 
the Dutch proceedings we have already heard more than 
enough, but a few words may be allowed with respect to the 
English and French. 

British Guyana has found a capable historian in Dr. Dalton. 
Two or three sentences from that candid writer will suffice to 
prove the contrast which we might have confidently anticipated, 
and which is not less conspicuous in this obscure region than 
in the wider fields which we have already visited. Of the 
negroes under the patronage of English missionary societies, 
he says, "Puritans in profession, they are liberals in practice," 
that is, as he explains, " they appeared to think that faith 
alone was necessary, and that good works were superfluous." 
And then he gives one more example of the real influence of 
Protestant Bibles. "The lazy, the dissolute, and the disaf 
fected met every rebuke and remonstrance by some scriptural 
phrase or religious expression." Of the natives, he says, 
"After all," that is, after the usual enormous and perfectly 
useless expenditure, " the native Indian afforded but poor en 
couragement in the arduous task of Christianization."t 

The negro appears to have profited as little by the presence of 
the English emissaries. His teachers have been aided during 
many years by the power and wealth of England, but with so 
little fruit, as an English writer notices in 1860, that though he 
considers the Guyana Protestant negro " somewhat superior to 
his brother in Jamaica," he thus describes the final influence of 
the teaching which he has received : " It seems to me that he 

* Ewbank, ubi supra. 

\ History of British Guiana, by Henry G. Dalton, M.D., vol. ii., ch. iv , 
pp. 146-8. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 165 

never connects his religion with his life, never reflects that his 
religion should bear upon his conduct." Mr. Trollope adds, 
that his information was mainly derived " from clergymen of 
the Church of England," whose unusual candor is perhaps due 
to the fact that most of these singular "converts" had rejected 
their more tranquil ceremonies for the exciting harangues of 
the Baptist or Wesleyan preacher whose sects have, as usual, 
accompanied the Church of England to Guyana. "They sing 
and halloa, and scream, and have revivals. They talk of their 
i dear brothers and dear sisters, and in their ecstatic howl- 
ings get some fun for their money."* And this is all which 
the English have done in Guyana. 

"The implements of conversion," as Mr. Southey speaks, 
appear to have been wanting ; and Dr. Dalton does not conceal 
that all the English efforts were only cost.y failures. On the 
other hand, this Protestant writer generously observes of the 
Catholic missionaries in British Guyana, who do not receive 
much aid from patrons of any sort, and least of all from the 
government, " All are respected for their piety and zeal. The 
number of Eoman Catholics in the colony is about ten thousand." 

In speaking of the French mission in Guyana, we are obliged, 
for the first time, to use Catholic evidence, in default of any 
other. In 1560, the Spanish missionary, Sala, in company 
with another Dominican Father, entered this province, but both 
were immediately martyred. In 1643, the French Capuchins 
repeated the attempt, with the same result. Four years earlier, 
the Jesuits entered the country at another point, under Fathers 
Meland and Pelleprat, and evangelized the savage tribe of the 
Galibis, whose ferocity they appear to have disarmed by their 
contempt of suffering and danger, and whose obedience they 
won by patient wisdom and charity. In 1653, Father Pelleprat 
published a Grammar and Dictionary of their language. In. 
1654, Fathers Aubergeon and Gueimu, after converting many 
pagans, were martyred, the one after twenty, the other after 
fifteen years of religious life. At this time the Dutch seized 
Cayenne, and when they were cast out it was found that " Jews 
and Protestants had everywhere thrown down the crosses, the 
emblem of our salvation. "f This was the only effect of their 
presence. At length, after the due proportions of martyrdoms, 
the work of conversion in French Guyana was so effectually 
accomplished, in spite of the peculiar difficulties of such a mis 
sion, and the impracticable character of the natives, that in 

* The West Indies and the Spanish Main, by Anthony Trollope, ch. xii., 
p. 199. 

f Mission de Cayenne et de la Guyane Frangaise, par M. F. de Montezou, do 
la Compagnie de Jesus, introd., p. x. (1857). 



166 CHAPTER IX. 

1674, Fathers Grillet and Bechamel started from Cayenne for 
the interior, with the intention of renewing in its distant soli 
tudes the same patient apostolate. Here, after fifteen years of 
prodigious toil, surmounting a thousand disgusts and disap 
pointments occasioned by the inconstancy or the brutality of the 
savages, the celebrated Father Aime Lombard was able to erect 
the first Christian Church at the mouth of the river Kourou. 
For twenty-three years he had labored among these barbarians, 
and at last could report to his friend de la Iseuville, in 1733, in 
these words : " Acquainted as you are with the levity of our 
Indians, you will no doubt have been surprised that their 
natural inconstancy should at length have been overcome. It is 
religion which has effected this prodigy, and which every day 
fixes its roots deeper in their hearts. The horror with which 
they now regard their former superstitions, their regularity in 
frequently approaching the sacraments, their assiduity in assist 
ing at the Divine office, the profound sentiments of piety which 
they manifest at the hour of death, these are indeed effectual 
proofs of a sincere and lasting conversion."* 

Such were the fruits of the blood and the toil of men in whom 
even the most degraded races of the earth, hitherto unconscious 
of either truth or virtue, detected the presence of God. And 
this was only a part of their work. Along both banks of the 
Oyapoch, throughout its course, missions were established by 
apostles who seemed to have been almost exempt from human 
infirmity ; and who, as a French historian relates, " formed the 
gigantic project, which had no terrors for the courage of these 
intrepid missionaries, of uniting by a chain of evangelical 
posts, both extremities of Guyana." 

Already, in 1711, M. de la Motte-Aigron, lieutenant of the 
king, could report : " It has at length pleased God to reward by 
a success almost incredible the constancy of His servants." 
Fourteen years later, Father Arnaud d Ayma, conspicuous for 
dauntless valor even among the one hundred and eleven 
Jesuits who labored in this difficult field, had fought his way 
to the remotest of all the known tribes ; and in that distant 
spot, amongst the nation of the Pirioux, "lodged in a 
miserable cabin, living like the savages, spending his day in 
prayer, in the study of their language, or the instruction of 
their children," he so won the hearts of the barbarians, that at 
length " they resolved to follow him whithersoever he wished to 
lead them." And then he founded the mission of St. Paul, on 
the Oyapoch, where he collected the Pirioux and the whole 
nation of the Caranes ; as a little later Fathet d Ausillac gathered 

* P. 328. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 167 

by the banks of the Ouanari the tribes of the Tocoyenes, the 
Maourioux, and the Maraones; and Father Creulli performed 
those miracles of apostolic wisdom and charity which made 
Chateaubriand exclaim, " What he accomplished seems to 
surpass the powers of human nature." 

In 1762, the evil day arrived for Guyana, as for every other 
land, and the madness of an hour put back the conversion of 
the heathen world to a future and unknown period. Once more 
the enemy triumphed ; and there was a sound of mourning by 
the banks of the Oyapoch and the Ouanari, as by those of the 
Parana and the Paraguay. 

In 1763, the Due de Choisenl, imitating his compeer the 
Marquis de Pombal, formed the project of a grand scheme of 
colonization in Guyana, perhaps in order to show that he also 
could do without the missionaries of the Cross. Fourteen 
thousand persons were persuaded by magnificent promises to 
emigrate to this province, where Choiseul bade them surpass, 
by the aid of a sounder political economy, the triumphs of the 
Jesuits. They began by expelling the venerable Father 
O Reilly, the last survivor and sole representative of the Com 
pany of Jesus, and the Christian Indians fled before them. 
Two years later, the Chevalier de Balzac could report to 
Europe, occupied in admiring its own wisdom and enlighten 
ment, that only nine hundred and eighteen of the colonists 
remained alive. More than thirteen thousand dupes of M. de 
Choiseul, who proposed to eclipse the Jesuits in their own 
triumphs had perished in two years ! In the following year, 
1766, M. de Fiedrnond, governor of Cayenne, wrote thus to the 
Due de Praslin, who was probably as indifferent to this catas 
trophe as to the acts of which it was a natural sequel : " I have 
already informed the Due de Choiseul how necessary it is to 
send priests to this colony." And then he describes the 
destruction of the once flourishing missions, the flight of the 
Indians, the growth of crime amongst the negroes deprived of 
their pastors, and the rapid ruin of the colony. Finally, this 
officer adds, "Heligion is dying out among the whites, as well 
as amongst the colored races."* 

For ten years he reiterated the complaint, but always in vain. 
How should "philosophers" condescend to entreat hum bio 
missionaries to repair the evils of which they had been them 
selves the authors? How should men in whom the light of 
faith had gone out, and whose intelligence w T as enfeebled by 
arrogant self-love, confess that the wide-spread ruin was the 
work of their own hands ? At length the good King Louis XVI., 

* P. 335. 



168 CHAPTER IX. 

himself destined to be a sacrifice to the impiety which had 
already devoured so many victims, sent three Jesuits Fathers 
Padilla, Mathos, and Ferreira who had been banished with the 
others from Brazil; and then was seen a touching spectacle, 
which has been described in the Journal of Christophe de 
Murr. "The poor savages, beholding once again men clothed 
in the habit which they had learned to venerate, and hearing 
them speak their own language, fell at their feet, bathing them 
with tears, and promised to live once more as good Christians, 
since they had restored to them the Fathers who had begotten 
them to Jesus Christ." 

In 1852, the Jesuits were once more in Cayenne. It was not 
the first time that a member of the family of Napoleon had 
understood that if the impossible was to be accomplished, it 
was the Fathers of the Society of Jesus who must be asked to 
attempt it. Between June, 1853, and September, 1856, eleven 
Jesuits died in the swamps of Cayenne of yellow fever. " Oh ! 
how many souls has he delivered from hell !" was the exclama 
tion of a poor French outcast over the body of one of them. 
But they have cheerfully accepted this " crucifying mission," as 
Father D Abbadie called it; there were broken hearts to be 
comforted, and they asked no more. " Why do you weep ?" said 
D Abbadie to his brethren as they stood round his death-bed, in 
1856 ; " I am going to heaven !" And it was always by the aid 
of the glorious and all-powerful mother of God that he and his 
companions recovered the unhappy souls committed to their 
care. "What led you," said one of the Fathers to an aged 
criminal who had obtained the grace of a happy death, u to 
seek at last the succors of religion?" "I have done nothing 
but evil during my whole life," he replied ; " one thing only I 
have never failed to do, and that I owe to the councils of my 
mother: every day I have said the Salve Regina, in honor of 
the Holy Yirgin." And that Blessed One, by her mighty 
protection, had saved him at last. 

It is time to leave Guyana, where the same works are in 
progress at this hour, and where missionaries who have sacrificed 
all for the love of God, and do not repent the sacrifice, still 
display the apostolic virtues which forced not long ago from 
the French governor of Cayenne this cry of admiration, " You 
are happier than we ; death itself has no terrors for such as 
you."* 

* P. 460. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 169 



CAKTHAGENA AND THE BLESSED PETEK CLAVER. 

If now we continue onr hasty journey through the provinces 
of South America, and traverse Venezuela, without halting 
by the banks of the Cayuni or the Apure, so often trodden by 
the messengers of peace, we shall enter New Grenada, and at 
Garth ageria we shall lind the traces of one whom the Church 
has already presented to the homage of the faithful, under the 
title of the Blessed Peter Claver. 

Born towards the close of the sixteenth century, an age in 
which the most prodigious graces of heaven were poured out on 
every side, as if to counterpoise the irreparable calamities to 
which it also gave birth, this offspring of an illustrious Catalonian 
race displayed even in infancy the gifts with which he was to be 
more abundantly favored in his after career. In 1602, he was 
admitted as a postulant into the Society of Jesus, at Tarragona. 
In 1610, he left Seville, at the bidding of Claude Aquaviva, for 
the land in which he was to spend thirty-nine years of what 
has been truly called "a perpetual martyrdom." In 1615, he 
celebrated his first Mass at Carthagena, of which it was the 
will of God that he should become the apostle. 

" Do every thing for the greater glory of God," was one of the 
rules found in a book containing his secret thoughts ; and a 
second was this, "Seek nothing in this world but what Jesus 
Himself sought to sanctify souls, to labor, to suffer, and if 
necessary to die for their salvation, and all for the sake of 
Jesus !" In these two rules, as Fleuriau observes, " his whole 
life was comprised." 

At his solemn profession, he added to the customary engage 
ments the special vow, " to be until death the slave of the 
negroes." How well he kept it, they know who have read the 
story of his life. As soon as a ship-load of negroes arrived 
from the coast of Africa, from Congo, Guinea, or Angola, 
" his pale emaciated face assumed a hue of health quite unusual 
to it." It was he who first hurried to the shore to greet the 
captives, astonished to receive such a welcome ; who consoled 
them with loving words of peace, and poured into their seared 
hearts the balm of hope. It was he who followed them with a 
father s love to their wretched homes, that by sharing their 
sufferings he might teach them how to bear them, how to unite 
them with the sufferings of Christ. And then, in w r ords of 
more than human wisdom, he spoke to them of Him whose 
name he could rarely mention without shedding tears. But 
who can describe that angelic ministry, unless filled with his 
own spirit ? Who can bear to contemplate the terrible austerities 



170 CHAPTER IX. 

with which it was accompanied, and of which, in an age like 
this, one can hardly venture even to speak? 

Clothed in a hair shirt from his neck to his feet, and present 
ing such an aspect as St. John the Baptist when he came out 
of the desert to preach by his own example the doctrine of 
mortification, the man of God would sit during the long hours 
of the tropical day in the tribunal of penance, fainting with 
heat and with the fetid stench of the poor Africans who 
thronged round this physician of souls ; and when evening 
came "at last, and, nature having given way, they were obliged 
to carry him home in their arms, his only refreshment, we are 
told, was to spend hours in mental prayer. Even some of his 
companions, though members of that Society which has faced 
all trials and braved all dangers, sometimes lost their conscious 
ness in the presence of sights upon which he calmly looked, 
both in the huts of the negroes, and in the hospitals of St. 
Sebastian and St. Lazarus. It was he who ministered to the 
most loathsome diseases, and even kissed the hideous wounds 
which they had traced in bodies half-devoured by scrofula or 
gangrene. . . * And in the midst of such scenes, at which 
angels are daily present in their invisible ministry, the spirit of 
God within him would sometimes break forth, so that the 
reflected glory of his Master shone around him. Once, at St. 
Sebastian s, the Archdeacon of Carthagena, who had gone to 
the hospital to distribute alms, " found him in the midst of the 
sick, wih the look of a Seraph, his face shining like the sun, 
and a circle of light round his head." More than once, a 
company returning home in the darkness of the night thought 
the house of the Saint was on fire, but discovered on approach 
ing, as they afterwards attested on oath, that it was tilled, like 
the temple of old, " with the glory of the Lord," and saw him 
suspended in the air, and as it were transfigured before them. 
Maralnlis est Deus in sanctis ejus! \ 

There is no need to describe at length the works of this 
apostle, nor their marvellous fruits. Row should such a mis 
sionary not succeed ? It was the Mahometan negroes from 
Guinea who gave him the greatest trouble. Yet he never ceased 
to pursue them with his cheerful pleasant speech, or sometimes 
with terrible menaces; as once when he held up his crucifix 
before a dying and obstinate unbeliever, and exclaimed in accents 
which reached even that obdurate soul, " Behold the God who 

"Malattia ordinaria e una certa specie di lebbra, clie loro impiaga 
ornbilmento la bocca e le gingive ; indisi stcnde a comprendere tutte le mem 
bra e fame una sola piaga putrida e verminosa." Compendia delta Vita del 
B. Pit-tro Claver, p. 25. 
f Fleuriau, livre iii. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 171 

is about to judge you !" Multitudes of Turks and Moors owed 
their salvation to his ministry, for there was in him a power 
which few could resist. Once a ship containing more than six 
hundred English prisoners was captured in the bay of Carthagena. 
Among the captives was an Anglican dignitary, with his wife 
and family. Fleuriau calls him an " archdeacon," and Boero a 
" bishop." Touched, as the latter relates, by the " squisita 
affabilita e amorevolezza" of Claver, and rejecting the Catholic 
faith, like many of his sect, rather through ignorance and 
prejudice than from the malice of a disobedient heart, he strove 
in vain to resist the Saint ; then he would promise to abandon 
his errors at some future period, declare " that he was in heart 
a Catholic," that there was no need for precipitation, " that if 
he were reconciled to the Roman Church he would be deprived 
of his revenues and his numerous family of their subsistence." 
But grace was too strong for him, and he died not long after in 
Father Claver s arms, rejoicing that he had escaped from 
delusions which still darken in our own day many a generous 
heart, and exulting in the light of that truth which had first 
dawned upon him in captivity. Almost all the other prisoners 
were converted in their turn, including one who had been 
accustomed to revile the Saint, and had called him to his face 
" a hypocrite and an impostor." 

Such was the servant of God, and such his work. It was 
especially among the negroes that he labored, and with results 
which have disposed forever of the popular notion that this race 
is incapable of true conversion. " The authority he had gained 
over their minds," says one of his autobiographers, " and their 
affection for him, made them obey without reply or hesitation ; 
the mere sight of him would check the most unruly, and even 
the vicious, when they met him, knelt down to ask his blessing." 
Finally, the number whom he gathered into the fold of Christ, 
either from Paganism or Mahometanism, was so great as to bo 
incredible, if it were not certified by competent witnesses. "A 
religious questioned him on this subject shortly before he died, 
to whom he answered, that he thought he had baptized more 
than three hundred thousand ; but as humility always led him 
to diminish the number of his good works, it has been asserted 
by persons likely to be well informed, that he had baptized at 
least four hundred thousand." 

In his last mission, Father Claver penetrated for the first 
time to the dangerous country between the Magdalena and the 
Cordilleras, " where the ferocity of the Indians had hitherto 
prevented the entrance of Christianity." In 1654, he died. 
Three years later, his tornb was reopened; when Dr. Barthol 
omew Torrez, an experienced physician, affirmed on oath 



172 CHAPTER IX. 

that although the very coffin, and every thing in it^was com 
pletely rotten and decayed, " the body, with all its skin, nerves, 
and other parts, was sound and healthy, notwithstanding the 
quantity of lime which had covered it." 



PEEU AND CHILI. 

It is not a formal history of missions which we are writing, 
and for this reason we have not attempted to exhaust the facts 
which illustrate that history, even in a single ^province of the 
earth. Our purpose has been only to trace, in all lands, the 
contrast between the work of the Church and the work of the 
Sects ; to show that God and His gifts have been ever with the 
first, never with the last ; and to prove by testimony so various, 
impartial, and harmonious, that neither pride nor anger shall 
be able to gainsay it, that Catholic and Protestant missions have 
differed so enormously, both in their agents and their results, 
as to exclude all doubt in the mind of even the least thoughtful 
observer, of every man in whom the instincts of a Christian 
still survive, which were Divine and which human. We are 
not obliged, therefore, to trace with minute detail the missions 
of Peru and Chili, which exactly resemble, in every feature, 
those which have been already reviewed. 

A few words will suffice with reference to the two famous 
provinces which lie between the Andes and the Ocean. In 
1590, fifty-seven years after the last Inca perished in the city 
of Cassamarca, by the order of Pizarro, Fathers Antony Lopez 
and Michael IJrrea were martyred in Peru. In 1593, eight 
Jesuits entered Chili. Aranda and Yaldiva won to the faith 
the fierce and cruel Araucanians, but a little later, continuing 
their intrepid apostolate, Yecchi, Aranda, and Montalban were 
martyred ; and when the Spaniards proposed to revenge their 
death, it was Yaldiva who dissuaded them from this act of 
human justice, and afterwards established, by his own unaided 
ministry, four new missions in Chili. Yainly the trained soldiers 
of Spain tried to penetrate into the interior, where every forest 
concealed a hostile army, and every river must be forded in the 
tnidst of a storm of darts and arrows. And then these men of 
war had recourse to another order of warriors, bolder than them 
selves, because fighting in a nobler cause, and " missionaries 
were employed," as an English writer observes, " to penetrate 
into the retreats of the Indians, in order to civilize them by 
converting them to Christianity. In these attempts, rendered 
doubly hazardous by the exasperation of the Indians, many of 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 173 

the ministers of religion fell victims to their zeal." * But the 
work was never suspended. In 1598, de Medrano and de 
Figueroa had already penetrated the recesses of the Cordilleras. 
In 1604, a college had been founded at Santa Fe. Imperial i, 
D Ossat, de Gregorio, and others carried the faith to one tribe 
after another, sometimes falling under the clubs or the arrows of 
the savages, but never crying in vain for new apostles to complete 
the work which they had left unfinished. In the single year 
1614, fifty-six Fathers of the Society of Jesus arrived in Peru, 
to replace those who had fallen. At a still later date, Father 
Stanislas Arlet had traversed the most inaccessible forests and 
mountains of Western America, and gathered six nations into 
one family. Tucurnan had become a Catholic province. The 
Dominicans were spread chiefly through the northern districts, 
the Franciscans were scattered at one time from Bogota to 
Buenos Ayres. The Jesuits were everywhere. 

" From a corner of this department of Peru," says Dr. 
Archibald Smith, candid and generous in spite of the preju 
dices of country and education, " the voice of Christianity has 
penetrated into vast regions of heathen and savage tribes, and 
reached the unsettled wanderers among the thickest entangle 
ments of the woods, which occupy a great portion of the widely 
extended missionary territory of Peru. From Ocopa issued 
forth those zealous, persevering, self denying and enduring men, 
the great object of whose lives it has been, in the midst of danger, 
and in the name of the Saviour, to add to the faith of the Church, 
and to civilized society, beings whose spirits were as dark as 
the woods they occupied." f "All South America," observes Mr. 
Walpole, recording the same facts, " was explored under their 
direction. Overcoming every difficulty, surmounting toils, 
braving unheard-of and unknown dangers, smiling at and 
glorying in wounds, hardships, death itself, these zealous men 
spoke of Jesus and His love and mercy in the remotest nook of 
this vast continent." J Yet neither of these Protestant travel 
lers, nor any of their class, differing in this respect from the 
more discerning savages, who were converted by such apostles, 
because even they could recognize the presence of God in them, 
appear to have been in any degree impressed by the truths 
which they eloquently narrate, or to have derived the slightest 
admonition from them. 

We may not stay to notice one by one the men who evan 
gelized the Peruvian races, redeeming the violence and cupidity 

* Stuart Cochrane, vol. i., ch. iii., p. 219. 

j Peru as it is, by Archibald Smith, M. D., vol. ii., ch. iv., p. 114. 

; Four Years in Jie Pacific, by the Hon. F. Walpole, vol. ii., ch. i., p. 25. 



174: CHAPTER IX. 

of the soldiers of Spain, and winning the love and reverence 
of the native tribes m spite of the injuries which they had 
received from Europeans ; but there is one of their number 
whom it is impossible not to mention, because to him was given, 
in a special manner, the title of Apostle of Peru. It was in 
1589 that Francis de Solano sailed for America, designing to 
labor in the province of Tucuman, which lies between the 
Cordilleras and Paraguay, " because there he might hope to 
find the greatest dangers, and to suffer most for the glory of 
God." Father Louis Bolanos, also a Franciscan, had preceded 
him, and having set out from Lima had travelled many a 
weary league on both banks of the Plata ; but a greater than 
he was now to enter the same regions. 

Perfectly conversant, like most of his order, with the dialects 
of the barbarous tribes whom he resolved to win, St. Francis 
Solano threw himself into the combat with all the ardor of an 
apostle. Already he had gathered thousands into the fold of 
Christ, when the remoter eastern tribes, who wandered through 
the country between the Dulce and the St. Tome, came down 
in vast numbers, breathing fury and slaughter against their 
converted brethren, and threatening the most cruel torments 
to all who had become Christians. The neophytes began ^to 
fly in terror, and the new mission seemed to be menaced with 
swift and hopeless destruction. Then Solano went forth alone, 
confiding in the protection of the Mother of God, to meet the 
advancing multitude. He was a servant of Him who had said, 
" The good shepherd giveth his life for the sheep." The hour 
was come to die, and he would die as becomes an apostle. But 
he was only to be a martyr in desire ; and " having by super 
natural power arrested the advance of the barbarians, he 
addressed to them so moving a discourse on the Passion of 
our Divine Lord, and exhorted them with such burning words 
to embrace His holy religion, that in that single day more than 
nine thousand were converted."* 

After this he went through the land, preaching everywhere 
" Jesus Christ crucified ;" and everywhere he was accompanied, 
like the primitive missionaries, by " signs following." Even 
the wild beasts, as multitudes were able to testify, rendered him 
homage after their kind. And no marvel, for as one of his 
biographers observes, "It is a principle of theology, that the 
revolt of irrational creatures against man is only a consequence 
of man s rebellion against his Maker." " The pre-eminence of 
the Blessed Lord over inanimate matter, and much more over 
the animal creation," says a living authority, is the true cause 

* Seo his Life l>y Courtot, cli- viii. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 175 

that " as His Saints advance in holiness and in likeness to 
Himself, the animals obey their words, revere their sanctity, 
and minister to their wants." * 

In 1610, St. Francis Solano died. Three hundred and four 
witnesses, of all ranks and classes, were examined on oath, and 
attested the prodigies which they had witnessed, and the 
heroicity of the virtues which had transformed a desert into 
a garden. Through a tract of two thousand miles he was 
numbered among the patrons and defenders of the faithful, and 
a hundred tribes burned lamps day and night in his honor, 
and called upon him to advocate their cause in heaven. Then 
Urban YIIL, by his famous decree of 1631, peremptorily for 
bade all public devotion till the claims of the Saint had been 
further examined, and refused even to allow the process to 
continue until the apostolic edict was obeyed. For twenty 
years, the grateful Indians, who had loved their Father with all 
their hearts, refused to submit; till they comprehended at 
length that it was not by disobeying the Vicar of Christ that 
they could honor one of His apostles. And so, with heavy 
hearts, they brought in all the lamps which they had kindled 
in his honor ; and in 1656, his body was removed from its 
shrine, and carefully hidden from their sight. Nineteen years 
later, the decree of Beatification was pronounced, and in 1726 
he was canonized. 

The faith which St. Francis Solano preached is still, in spite 
of many disasters, and of the crimes and follies of successive 
rulers, the light and the glory of Peru. Here, as in every other 
province evangelized by the sons of St. Ignatius, St. Francis, 
and St. Dominic, neither neglect nor oppression have been able 
to undo that mighty work, unparalleled since the first ages of 
Christianity, by which it was the will of God to replace the 
apostate millions of Sweden, Germany, and Britain by a mul 
titude of new believers in China, India, and America. We 
have seen that in the two former countries persecution and 
suffering have only confirmed the faith planted in other days 
by the missionaries of the Cross ; and it is time to show, once 
more by Protestant testimony, that in Brazil and Colombia, in 
Chili and Peru, in the valley of the Amazon and the plains of 
La Plata, the same astonishing stability attests at this hour by 
Whose power these nations were won to the service of Christ, 
by Whose protection they have been maintained in it. 

* F. Faber, The Blessed Sacrament, book iv., sec. ii., p. 483. 



176 CHAPTER IX. 



PRESENT STATE OF THE SOUTH: AMERICAN PROVINCES. 

In Brazil, where de Nobrega and Anchieta once labored, 
eight hundred thousand domesticated Indians, as we have said, 
represent, even at this day, the fruits of their toil. Deprived 
during sixty years of their Fathers and guides, and too often 
scandalized by the example of men who were Christians only in 
name, the native races have not only preserved the faith through 
all their sorrows and trials, but have everywhere rejected the 
bribes and the caresses of heresy. Even Protestant writers, in 
spite of violent and incurable prejudices, do justice to the 
generous virtues of this people. Dr. Walsh, an Anglican min 
ister, frankly confesses, as we have seen, the " deep impression 
of rational piety," and " zealous attachment to their religion," 
which he noticed during his long residence among them. 
Drunkenness and blasphemy, he says, were unknown ; though 
once he heard, " on Sunday evening, at Rio, a desperate riot of 
drunken blasphemers, but they all swore in English"* Mr. 
Gardner also observes, in 1846, after pursuing during some 
years his scientific researches in these tropical climes, " It was 
on a Sunday morning that I arrived in Liverpool from Brazil, 
and during the course of that day I saw in the streets a greater 
number of cases of intoxication than, I believe, I observed 
altogether among Brazilians, whether black or white, during 
the whole period of my residence in the country."f 

Before England had begun to educate her heathen masses, 
Brazil had inaugurated an elaborate system of public instruc 
tion. Dr. Walsh notices, not only the universality of primary 
education in Brazil, but the still more remarkable fact, that 
many of the colored races have been conspicuous for their 
success in various branches of knowledge. Speaking of the 
great public library at Rio, and the affluence of students of all 
ranks, he asks, "Is it not most unjust to accuse the Catholics 
as enemies to knowledge? Here is a noble and public literary 
institution, filled with books on all subjects," and with Bible s 
in almost every language, " founded by a rigid Catholic mon 
arch, and superintended and conducted by Catholic ecclesiastics, 
on a plan even more liberal, and less exclusive, than any similar 
establishment in our own Protestant country.":): 

It would be too long to quote his interesting account of the 
irmandadeSj or religious brotherhoods ; which " consist entirely 

* Notices of Brazil, vol. i., p. 381. 

f Travels in the Interior of Brazil, di. i., p. 18. 

t Vol. i, p. 438. 






MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 

of the laity," and whose objects are to build and repair 
churches, found and maintain hospitals, bury the deceased 
poor, and to do, cheerfully and well, whatsoever else Christian 
charity can suggest. "It is quite inconceivable," he says, 
" to an Englishman, what immense sums of money these lay 
brothers annually expend in what they conceive to be pious 
and charitable uses." Even Messrs. Kidder and Fletcher, 
though less capable than most of their countrymen of appre 
ciating such works, and despising the Brazilians because they 
refused to exchange the doctrine of St. Paul for the crude 
inventions of New England Protestantism, speak with reluctant 
admiration, in 1857, of "the philanthropy and practical Chris 
tianity embodied in the hospitals of Rio and Janeiro ;" while 
they are obliged to confess that the devoted Italian Capuchins 
seem to be ever on errands of mercy, through tropic heats 
and rains." * And then they console themselves with coarse 
abuse of the " greasy friars." Yet Dr. Walsh, a man of purer 
instincts, commends the virtues even of the native clergy, some 
of whom, owing to the want of ecclesiastical training, and the 
mistaken policy of the government towards the seminaries, are 
the least edifying of their class. " I really cannot find," he 
says, " that the Brazilian clergy deserve the character imputed 
to them. From what I have seen myself and heard from 
others, they are, generally speaking, temperate in their diet, 
observant of the rules of their Church, assiduous in attending 
the sick, and charitable as far as their limited means permit. "f 

"The clergy," says another English Protestant, speaking 
of the order generally in South America, " are everywhere 
respected as friends worthy of double honor. Friendly, indeed, 
I have ever found them, in this and every other country where 
I have travelled ; and Englishmen of every denomination 
must in gratitude acknowledge as much. They must own also, 
that our own prejudices, whether as a nation or a sect, soon 
appear to us as unworthy, inveterate, and unjust, as those of 
any other under the sun. They will admit that no set of men 
in their private character have been so injuriously aspersed 
by the cankered tongue of slander as the Roman Catholic 
priesthood." $ 

Lastly, in spite of the gold of England and America, not a 
solitary Brazilian, white or black, has ever been induced to 
profess Protestantism ; and Mr. Ewbank has informed us, no 
doubt with regret, that " the people avoid a missionary as one 

* Ch. vii., p. ill. 
f P. 374. 

; Travels in various parts of Peru, &c., by Edmond Temple, vol. L, ch. xix., 
p. 418. 

YOL. II. 13 



ITS CHAPTER IX. 

with whom association is disreputable," and regard him with 
sovereign contempt u from a rooted belief in his ignorance and 
presumption." 

In that vast region which stretches from the month of the 
San Francisco to the Isthmus of Panama, watered by the 
mightiest rivers of our globe, arid including the district of the 
Amazon with its u forty-live thousand miles of navigable water 
communication," the natives, who still find shelter in its forests 
or ^uide their barks over its myriad streams, " push their pro 
fession of the Catholic religion," we have been told, " even to 
fanaticism." Yet it is a kind of marvel, considering their past 
history, that they should have any religion at all. A less 
grievous trial sufficed utterly to destroy the apostolic churches 
of Asia ; but it seems to have been the special privilege of those 
founded in the sixteenth century, that no power should prevail 
against them. Of the modern Indian population and the exist 
ing missions among them, many Protestant writers speak with 
admiration, though evidently perplexed by their obstinate 
adherence to the faith, in spite of their long calamities. Prince 
Maximilian notices the new mission at Belrnonte, where he 
found " a race of civilized Indians converted to Christianity," 
who "have abandoned entirely their ancient mode of life, and 
are now quite reclaimed/ * Prince Adalbert, though he writes 
in a more worldly and frivolous tone, speaks of meeting canoes 
on the river Xingu, all adorned with flags "bearing an image 
of the Virgin Mary," sufficient evidence of the Christian 
instincts of this people. Where She is honored, how should 
religion perish? What marvel if piety still linger in tribes 
who rejoice to be Mary s children, and confide in her protec 
tion whom highest angels honor with lowly reverence, as at 
once, by a prodigy of election and grace, the Mother, the 
Daughter, and the Spouse, of the Everlasting God ? 

From other Protestant travellers in these regions we learn 
that respect for the ministers of religion, as well as for the 
mysteries which they dispense, is also a characteristic of the 
same race. 

Messrs. Smyth and Lowe, two British officers, w r ho travelled 
by water from Lima to Para, from the Pacific to the Atlantic, 
repeatedly attest the powerful influence of the Franciscans of 
the present day. Thus, at Saposoa, on the river Huallaga, 
u the priest is treated by the people with great respect." On 
the banks of " the magnificent Ucayali," the only Europeans 
they met were "those excellent persons whose aim had been 
to rescue its inhabitants from the most miserable and horrid 

* Trends in Brazil, cli. x., p. 277. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 179 

state of barbarism," in spite of the criminal indifference of 
" what is pleased to call itself a liberal government." At 
Sarayacu they are hospitably entertained by a Spanish mis 
sionary, and remark "the great influence his paternal care, 
during the long space of thirty-four years, gave him over the 
minds of all the civilized Indians, and his knowledge of their 
various languages." They add that, " during the long interval 
of nine years," through the incuria of the government, "he 
had not received any salary."* 

Mr. Wallace, another English traveller, notices, in 1853, 
similar facts. Thus, at Javita, on the Rio Negro, "the girls 
and boys assemble morning and evening at the church to sing 
a hymn or psalm," a practice which is not usual in English 
villages. On the Amazon he meets negroes, who all join in 
the responses with much fervor," but, unfortunately, according 
to Mr. Wallace, " without understanding a word." He does 
not say how he ascertained the fact, but he relates immediately 
that some of them had just returned from a three days journey 
to have a child baptized, which encourages us to believe that 
he was mistaken. Elsewhere he shows how religion enters into 
and colors the daily life of the Indians, so that at their frequent 
festas, " which are always on a Saint s day of the Roman 
Catholic Church," they will make a long tour to the various 
Indian villages, " carrying the image of the saint." Like the 
natives of China and Ceylon, they willingly spend their sub 
stance also in token of their piety. "The live animals are 
frequently promised beforehand for a particular saint ; and 
often, when I have wanted to buy some provisions, I have been 
assured that this is St. John s pig, or that is, &c."f It is 
evident that, in spite of their misfortunes, their religion is still 
a reality. The English peasant does not refuse to sell his pig 
because it is promised to St. John, and would probably feel 
little respect for such self-denial, even if he knew who St. John 
was. 

Mr. Campbell Scarlett relates the same characteristic anec 
dotes, and displays the same incapacity to appreciate them. "At 
least four nights out of seven," he says, speaking of the Indians 
of Panama, for they are every where the same, " I am indulged 
with a superstitious if not idolatrous ceremony." It was one 
which he might have witnessed in many a hamlet of Austria, 
Bavaria, or Spain, and even of France or Belgium, with the 
approval of men not much addicted to idolatry, and as rernark- 



* Narrative of a Journey .from Lima to Para, ch. iv., p. 194. 
f Travels on the Amazon and Bio Negro, by Alfred R. Wallace, ch. iv., p. 93 
ch. ix., p. 270 (1853). 



180 CHAPTER IX. 

able for intellectual vigor as any in Europe ; for it was simply 
a harmless procession^which disturbed Mr. Scarlett s repose, 
wherein Christian Indians marched, "having on their heads a 
gorgeous image of the Virgin, under a canopy." ^ But the same 
obnoxious spectacle, in which simple hearts displayed their 
filial affection towards the Mother of Jesus, met him every 
where. " Mummeries, disgraceful to Christianity," he angrily 
observes, " occur in these countries so frequently, that they 
appear to occupy the greater part of everybody s time and 
attention,"* good proof of their being interested in Christian 
ity, though it might perhaps be offensive to an English gentle 
man only anxious to sleep in peace. 

In every region of the continent, the same spontaneous piety 
seems to manifest itself. Mr. Markham goes to Canote, in 
Peru, and in that tranquil valley meets this phenomenon : 
"Early in the morning one is roused by the voices of the 
young girls and women, when they all repair to the door of the 
chapel before going to work, and chant a hymn of praise upon 
their knees. This is repeated at sunset, when the day s work 
is concluded." Presently he is at Cuzco, where he finds the 
devout population " showering scarlet salvias" over a crucifix 
which was being borne in procession. Like Mr. Scarlett, he is 
offended, and gravely remarks, with the self-possession of a 
learned Englishman, that " such exhibitions supply the place 
of the worship of the Sun. It is a question which is the most; 
idolatrons."f We shall not do justice to him without adding, 
that he is indignant with the Spaniards for having, as he says, 
"polluted the altars of the Sun ! " In another work he repeats 
the sentiment with greater emphasis. " The Dominican friars," 
he observes, " succeeded in introducing far grosser and more 
degrading superstitions amongst the Indians than they had ever 
practised," and were particularly culpable in having set up " a 
picture of the Virgin," "which was to replace their former 
simple worship of the Sun and Moon !"J 

When Mr. Mansfield, also an English traveller, sees " the 
Peons and Chinas (the Guarani women) all fall on their knees 
in the street" at Corrientes, as Mr. Markham saw others do at 
Yanaoca, he exclaims with solemn complacency, " It is sad tn 
see such a power of devotion thrown away ! " It is true that 
he had detected, with the unerring sagacity of his countrymen, 

* South America and ilie Pacific, by the Hon. P. Campbell Scarlett, vol. ii., 
cli. ix., p. 204. 

f Cuzco and Lima, by Clements R. Markham, F.R.G.S., cli. ii., p. 27 ; ch. v., 
p. 155. 

$ Travels in Peru and India, cli. vii., p. 115. 

Paraguay, Brazil, &c., by C. B. Mansfield, Esq., M.A., ch. ix., p. 265. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 181 

that these apparently devout people were in the habit of 
" worshipping a doll." When educated Englishmen undertake 
to criticize Christian devotion, they not unfrequently attain, as 
in these cases, the uttermost limits of unreason. Yet there 
are many of them who seriously marvel, when they are told 
that, in all which relates to religion, they are a proverb and a 
jest among all races of men ; and this, as Mr. Ewbank has 
candidly informed us, "from a rooted belief in their ignorance 
and presumption." 

Yet they seem all eager to prove that this estimate of them 
is perfectly just. Dr. Hartwig, a Protestant naturalist, goes to 
Pern, and having to speak, of the vicuna, breaks out after this 
manner : " The Church manages to get the best part of the 
animal, for the priest generally appropriates the skin." In the 
next page, as if to enable his readers to appreciate his truth 
fulness and charity, he relates that, after a great chase in which 
one hundred and twenty-two vicunas were caught, " the produce 
of their skins served for the building of a new altar in the 
village church."* 

Another English traveller, this time a Protestant mission 
ary, far surpasses even Mr. Scarlett, Mr. Markham, and Mr. 
Mansfield, in his repugnance to such manifestations of religious 
feeling. After observing that " the name of God is seldom long 
out of the mouth of any Central American," and sternly rebuking 
. " a profane imitation of the Saviour riding upon an ass," he 
reveals unconsciously in these curious words the temper which 
makes Protestants shrink from such exhibitions. " Who can 
compute the amount of positive evil which must result from 
familiarizing the eye of a whole people with such objects as 
these ?"f That persons whose religion is not Divine faith, but 
simply emotion, and who, like the Protestant visitors at Jeru 
salem, are only " scandalized" by familiarity with holy places 
and things, should dread any shock to their capricious and 
sentimental belief, is perhaps natural; but Catholics can bear 
to approach, and even to represent by sensible signs, the Divine 
mysteries which God has taught them both to know and to 
love. 

Another Protestant Christian, also a witness to the devotion 
which he could not comprehend, after noticing the fervor 
displayed at a similar religious ceremony in Mexico, relates 
that he quitted the scene in disgust, and relieved his intelligent 
piety by an immediate visit to some Aztec ruins. "I contem 
plated the old Aztec god," he says, " and could not but regret 

* The Tropical World, by Dr. G. Hartwig, ch. iii., p. 31. 
f The Gospel in Central America, by liev. F. Crowe, p. 278. 



182 CHAPTER IX. 

the change that had been imposed upon these imbecile Indians."* 
This gentleman is at least perfectly candid in the exhibition of 
his sympathies. 

A learned Protestant professor, who would no doubt be 
shocked if any one doubted that he was a Christian, openly 
laments the conversion both of Mexico and Peru, but for other 
reasons. It was " not of such value," he says, " as to reconcile the 
student of that strange old native civilization of the votaries of 
Quetzalcoatl to its abrupt arrestment, at a^stage which can only 
be paralleled by the earliest centuries of Egyptian progress." 
And he repeats the sentiment with great deliberation. " It is 
difficult to realize the conviction that either Mexico or Peru 
has gained any equivalent for the irreparable loss which thus 
debarred us from the solution of some of the most profoundly 
interesting problems connected with the progress of the human 
race."f It is impossible to conceive a display of impiety more 
bold or more unconscious. If a single act of supernatural faith 
or charity does more to promote the glory of God than the 
solution of many scientific problems, and tens of thousands of 
such acts are now daily made in Mexico and Peru, thanks to 
their conversion, Christians may venture to think that this is 
some " equivalent" for that " old native civilization," which 
was marked, as Dr. Wilson himself observes, by " cruel rites," 
and abominable demon-worship, involving the immolation of 
human victims, " in some cases even to the number of thou 
sands." 

On the river Magdalena, whose banks were once trodden 
by the Blessed Peter Claver, Captain Stuart Cochrane, who 
never mentions the Catholic religion without a jest or a curse, 
discovers the same offensive piety which his co-religionists deem 
an imperfect substitute for Aztec and Peruvian civilization. 
"Every time (the native crew) stopped to take their meals, 
one of them uttered a prayer, and invoked riot only the Virgin 
and all the Saints in the calendar," which must have singularly 
protracted the repast, but some, he is quite sure, " of their own 
invention." "This is a practice," Captain Cochrane naively 
adds, " which they would think it wrong to omit, and 
which, no doubt, originated in piety." When the meal was 
over, before they resumed their journey, they always " recited 
a prayer for the prosperity of our voyage," a habit which 
might have taught this English gentleman a useful lesson, 
but which he only found "highly diverting. ^ He confesses, 

* Mexico and Us Religion, by Robert A. Wilson, ch. xxi , p. 231. 
f Prehistoric Man, by Daniel Wilson, LL.D., vol. i., ch. ix., pp. 302, 313. 
ch. xi., p. 3(>2. 
J Journal of a Residence in Colombia, vol. i., ch. iii., pp. 143, 150. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 183 

however, that education was spreading universally in Colom 
bia, "not only in the capital, but in the most remote villages 
of the Republic."* 

This, however, it must be confessed, in justice ^ to the 
Spaniards, is only the perpetuation of fruitful traditions be 
queathed by them. "The prudence of the clergy," said an 
earlier traveller, "and the education which the people have 
received from the Spaniards, have inspired all the Colombians 
with a profound respect for the exercises of religion, . . . the 
authority of the parish priests is absolute, .... the greatest 
decorum prevails in the churches, and the devotion of the 
faithful is no less striking."f 

Everywhere the same facts, illustrating impressively the un 
dying ministry of the first apostles of America, are recorded 
by Protestant travellers, though usually without any compre 
hension of their significance. On the Lake of Nicaragua and 
in the quicksilver mines of southern California, two of the 
most unpromising places in the world, Mr. Julius Froebel finds 
American Indians displaying the same generous and trustful 
piety. "I shall never forget," he says, "the impressions of 
one night and morning on the San Juan river. Our boat had 
anchored in the midst of the stream. ... In the morning, a 
sonir of our boatmen addressed to the Virgin roused me from 
my^sleep. It was a strain of plaintive notes in a few simple 
but most expressive modulations. The sun was just rising, 
and as the first rays, gilding the glossy leaves of the forest, 
fell upon the bronze-colored bodies of our men, letting the 
naked forms of their athletic frame appear in all the contrast 
of light and shade, while accents, plaintive and imploring, 
strained forth from their lips, I thought to hear the sacred spell, 
by which, unconscious of its power, these men were subduing 
their own half-savage nature. At once the same song was 
repeated from behind a projecting corner of the bank, and 
other voices joined those of our crew in the sacred notes. Two 
canoes, covered from our view, had anchored near us during 
the night. The song at last died away in the wilderness. A 
silent prayer, our anchor was raised, and with a wild shout 
of the crew, twelve oars simultaneously struck the water.":f 
Can any one imagine such a scene on the Thames or the 
Clyde ? 

At another time, it is in the mines of New Almaden that he 
finds "fifteen or twenty men calling down the blessing of 

* Vol. ii., cli. ix., p. 15. 

f Travels in the Republic of Colombia, by GK Mollien, ch. xix., p. 354. 
\ Seven Years Travel in Central America, by Julius Froebel, ch. ii., p. 20 ; 
cli. x., p. 585. 



184 CHAPTER IX. 

Heaven on their day s work in the interior of the mountain, 
before a little altar cut out of the natural rock ;" and singing 
the same hymn to the Mother of Jesus, to the same air, at a 
distance of nearly two thousand miles. In both cases the only 
"spell" was that mysterious gift of faith which can illumine 
the darkness even of the Negro and the Indian, and both fur 
nished an illustration of the truth imperfectly avouched by a 
travelled Protestant, when he exclaimed, " Catholicism has 
certainly a much stronger hold over the human mind than 
Protestantism. The fact is visible and undeniable.""* 

It is the universality of this fact which gives to it its deep 
significance. ]S T o race of men to whom the incomparable gift 
has once been imparted, however lowly their social or intel 
lectual position, fail to bear witness to its marvellous power.f 
Millions of Englishmen, Swedes, and Germans, who have lost 
or never received it, have sunk almost to the level of animals, 
have less apprehension of Divine things than the very pagan, 
and neither know nor care " whether there be any Holy 
Ghost ;"f yet the whole life of the untutored Indian is an un 
ceasing manifestation of the supernatural principle within 
him. Peru is no exception to this rule. "The devotion of 
the population to Catholicism," says a well-meaning Protestant 
missionary after he had abandoned his hopeless undertaking, 
" is manifested in almost daily processions." So vehement is 
the repugnance of the Peruvians to heresy, a sentiment which 
could have no existence without deep religious conviction, that 
Dr. Archibald Smith mildly complains, " these good people 
believed we were but Jews." And then he relates that at 
Lima, on the death of a certain Englishman, " the good-natured 
bishop yielded his sanction to let the corpse have Christian 
burial; but subsequently to this permission, a mob was collected 
in the night, and the body was cast out from the church into 
the middle of the street."! Such facts, even if they be deemed 

* Laing, Notes of a Traveller, ch. xxi., p. 430. 

f A striking illustration is found in a well-known work. " If tlie London 
COBtennongers," who have not even the piety of heathens, " had to profess 
themselves of some religion to-morrow," says a competent witness, " they would 
all become Roman Catholics, every one of them." Even such men as these 
have noted the familiar contrast between the two religions, and that while " tho 
Irish in the courts will die for the priest," the English of the same class treat 
their ministers and their message with equal derision. " It is strange," adds 
this writer, " that the regular costermongers, who are nearly all Londoners, 
should have such a respect for the Roman Catholics, when they have such a 
hatred for the Irish, whom they look upon as intruders and underminers." 
London Labor and the London Poor, by Henry Mayhew, p. 21. Cf. p. 107. 

\ Acts xix. 2. 

A Visit to the South Seas in the U. S. Ship Vincennes, by S. Stewart, A.M., 
vol. i., p. 197. 

H Peru, as it is, vol. i., ch. vii., p. 165. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 185 

to indicate excessive zeal, are at least incontrovertible evidence 
of the power which religion exerts over the hearts of these 
various races, and afford an instructive contrast to the dull 
apathy, or cheerless unbelief, of the same class in our own 
country. And though we have been told that " the life of an 
Englishman is in danger among the peasantry," because he 
has made himself odious by his shallow and presumptuous 
bigotry ; yet even Protestant writers confess " the kindness and 
hospitality"* of these races to all who know how to conduct 
themselves with modesty and good sense. Even Captain 
Cochrane says, u John Bull may certainly improve his manners 
by imitating those of the peasants of South America ;"f Mr. 
Kendall and Mr. Olmsted repeatedly attest the universal 
charity and kindliness of the Indians of Mexico ; Mr. Mark- 
ham celebrates the unbounded hospitality of the Peruvians, 
and not only acknowledges that the upper classes are " highly 
educated," but that "many Indians, too, have distinguished 
themselves as men of literary attainments ;" while Mr. Iroebel, 
contrasting " the unaffected kindness, good breeding, and polite 
ness of the Mexican country people" with the manners of his 
own nation, declares, u ln almost every respect they are su 
perior to our German peasants." 

An accomplished English writer, who would think it no re 
proach to be called a vehement Protestant, thus describes, in 
1862, the effects of conversion upon this once heathen race : " I 
was thrown a great deal amongst the Indians, and had the 
most excellent opportunities of judging their character, and I 

was certainly most favorably impressed Crimes of any 

magnitude are hardly ever heard of amongst them" Their 
courtesy was equally remarkable, and that it was inspired by 
religious feeling was proved by the fact that they "always 
saluted with an fc Ave JHfariaJ and a touch of the hat in 
passing." Travellers ignorant of their language may accuse 
them of want of intelligence, but " never was there a greater 
mistake; their skill in carving, and all carpenter s work, in 
painting and embroidery, the exquisite fabrics they weave from 
vicuna wool, the really touching poetry of their love-songs and 
yaraviS) the traditional histories of their ayllus, which they 
preserve with religious care, surely disprove so false a charge/^ 

Such, by Protestant testimony, have been the lasting frui.vs 
of conversion in the case of the Peruvians. And even this 
account, which contrasts so forcibly with that which a thousand 

* Gerstaecker, vol. i., cli. x., p. 188. 
f Vol. ii., cli. xii., p. 150. 

i Travels in Peru and India, by C. R. Markham, F.S.A., F.R.G.S., ch. vi., 
p. 103 ; ch. ix., p. 178 ; cli. xiii., p. 221 ; ch. xviii., p. 811. 



186 CHAPTER IX. 

pens have given of the sottish peasantry of England, Holland, 
or Prussia, steeped in vice, and often as ignorant of religion, 
in spite of myriads of Protestant preachers, as the brutes of the 
field, does not reveal all that St. Francis Solano and his 
successors have done for this nation. " Many Indians," says 
the same authority, " are wealthy enterprising men, while 
others have held the highest offices in the State." General 
Oastilla, a native Peruvian, a man "of great military talent 
ind extraordinary energy and intrepidity," became President 
}f the Eepublic in 1858, and still held the office in 1862. 
Greneral San Roman, also "a pure Indian," commanded at the 
same date the Army of the South. And wonderful as these 
facts must appear to men acquainted only with specimens of 
Protestant colonization, always attended by the degradation 
and destruction of the aboriginal races, they are found in every 
part of the continent. " Peru is far from being the best 
specimen of the South American republics, and the Chilians 
have displayed tenfold the ability, in governing, in commer 
cial and agricultural pursuits, and in literature." 

The only additional fact, in illustration of the enduring 
influence of religion over the Peruvian Indian, which we need 
notice here, has been recorded by Mr. Clements Markham. 
Beyond the lofty range of the Yquicha mountains lies the 
almost inaccessible home of the tribe of Yquichanos. "Dis 
tinguished by their upright gait, independent air, and hand 
some features," "true lovers of liberty," "an honor to the 
Indian races of South America," in the words of Mr. Markham, 
they have twice vanquished the military forces of the Peruvian 
Kepublic, and, persisting in their loyalty to the Spanish crown, 
have defied every effort to subdue their independence. "No 
tax-gatherer," he says, " dares to enter their country." But 
while this " most interesting people," in the words of the same 
Protestant writer, " refuse to submit to the capitation or any 
other tax, they punctually pay their tithes to the priests who 
come amongst them, and treat a single stranger with courteous 
hospitality."* 

Perhaps the reader may be disposed to ask himself at this 
point, in the presence of facts at once so uniform and so 
incapable of a purely human explanation, what that Power can 
be, everywhere exerted by one class of teachers, and by one 
only, which even in the souls of negroes and savages has pro 
duced results so deep and so enduring? By what mysterious 
influence have they, in so many lands, subdued such natures to 
the law of Christ ( By what spell have they engrafted on them 

* Cuzco, &c., ch. iii., p. 71. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 187 

that supernatural faith which sixty years of utter abandonment 
could not weaken, nor evil example obliterate, nor bribes 
seduce, nor even ignorance corrupt, and which is as full of life 
and power in the rugged mountains of Peru and the far- 
spreading forests of Brazil, as in the mines of ISTew Almaden 
and California, or by the banks of the Plata and the Maranon, 
of the San Juan, the Xingu, and the Ucayali ? 

In Chili, as in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru, a hostile wit 
ness reports, in 1840, that " education is certainly advancing; 1 * 
and he fully explains the progress when he adds, in 1847, "the 
influence of the Jesuits is gradually increasing."f Two years 
later, Mr. "Walpole praises the " many excellent schools," and 
notices that those u attached to the various convents teach free 
of expense." There is even, he adds, at Santiago a normal 
school for the training of teachers, "who are afterwards sent 
into the provinces." " The priests," he says, " mostly taken 
from the higher classes, are educated at the university, and are 
a well-informed order of 



Of the people we are told, by various Protestant writers, 
that, both by their industry and piety, they are worthy of their 
teachers. Dr. Smith declares that "the Christianized Indians 
of the Inca dynasty are truly hard laborers." Major Sutclifie 
relates that spiritual retreats for this class " are held yearly on 
many of the large haciendas," at which they practise severe 
mortifications, using the discipline with such vigor that this 
gentleman, who judged the operation with the feelings of an 
Englishman and a Protestant, observes, " I frequently heard 
them, and wondered how they could stand such a self-flogging. " 
They must at all events have been in earnest. 

Of their invincible dislike of heresy Mr. Miers offers an ex 
planation, when he relates the answer of the principal author 
of the modern constitution of Chili to the objection, apparently 
urged by an Englishman, that religious toleration was unknown 
in Chili. "Toleration cannot exist in Chili," he replied, in 
accounting for the absence of that word from the civil code, 
" because this presupposes a necessity for permitting it ; but 
here we neither have any other, nor know any other religion 
than the Catholic."! Finally, a French traveller, busy only 
with economical and financial questions, but filled with admi 
ration of the resources and the prosperity of this profoundly 
Catholic people, exclaims, "What an immense future is in store 

* A Visit to the Indians of Chili, by Captain Allen F. Gardiner, ch. vi.,p. 172. 

f A Voice from South America, ch. i., p. 14. 

| t Four Tears in the Pacific, vol. i., ch. viii., p. 165 ; ch. x., p. 349. 

Sixteen Years in Chili and Peru, ch. ix., p. 820 (1841). 

|| Travels in Chili and La Plata, vol. ii., p. 219. 



183 CHAPTER IX. 

for this nation, which, to wise institutions and a prudent liberty, 
adds all the resources of an incomparable soil !"* 

Yet Protestant missionaries, chiefly English or Scotch, careless 
of the fact, which their own experience has so often attested, 
that they only succeed in provoking the repugnance of these 
people towards themselves, their employers, and their opinions, 
continue to waste, year after year, the enormous sums impru 
dently intrusted to them, in efforts which always terminate in 
failure, and in operations which only excite ridicule. We have 
seen that, owing to such proceedings, the life of an Englishman 
is precarious in these regions, while his dead body is flung into 
the highway. It is certainly a grave question for the inhab 
itants of the British Isles, whether the annual expenditure of 
vast revenues in all parts of the world, with no other result 
than to kindle the contempt of every pagan, the disgust and 
indignation of every Christian nation, is a course of action 
likely to promote their own interests, or worthy of their pro 
verbial sagacity. If England is abhorred, as is unhappily the 
case, by all races of men, from the White Sea to the Indian 
Ocean, and is even at this moment in considerable peril from 
the gradual accumulation of that universal hatred which may 
one day crush her, it is in no small degree to her foolish and 
offensive " missions," and especially to the complacent vanity 



and ignorance of which they are only one of the manifestations, 
that the evil is due. 

The Argentine Republic, in spite of the crimes of its rulers, 
and the perpetual disorders of its social state, still remains so 
immutably Catholic, that all the overtures of opulent mission 
aries, whether English or American, have only been greeted 
with derision. Dr. Olin has told us, that the mission to Buenos 
Ayres was such a signal failure, that it suggested even to his 
ardent mind only motives of despair. The experiment, he 
says, "was formally given up in 1841-2, after an unsuccessful 
attempt to make some impression on the native Catholic popu 
lation of that country." "No Protestant missions," he re 
marks, " have hitherto yielded so little fruit as those set on foot 
for the conversion of Roman Catholics ;" and then this Wes- 
leyan minister adds the suggestion already quoted, "We will 
trust that it will inspire the Board with great caution in enter- 
taming new projects for missions among Catholics." 

The same discouraging conclusion is adopted by a well- 
meaning English traveller, who endeavored to introduce 
Protestantism in the wide plains which stretch from the 
shores of the Plata and the Uruguay to the foot of the 

* Notice sur le Chili, p, 42 (1844). 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 189 

Cordilleras, but with such disastrous results, that he also was 
constrained to recognize the hopelessness of the attempt. " The 
Protestant missionary under the present arbitrary system," 
this is his way of describing the good-humored contempt of 
the people, " appears to have little prospect of extending his 
ministerial labors beyond the members of his own Church, 
either American or English."* Yet Mr. Elwes reports in 1854-, 
that " there is one English, one Scotch, and an American church, 
all in good situations in the main streets of Buenos Ayres, an 
instance of liberality towards the Protestant religion that I 
never before saw in a Catholic country ."f 

Such are the testimonies Protestants, of different nations 
and sects, still more astonished than mortified at the peremptory 
rejection of their various religions by all the South American 
races and tribes. Even the Carib and the Araucanian, the 
Peruvian and the Chilian, the vigorous Guacho who spurs his 
wild horse over the Pampas, and the milder Indian who urges 
his canoe over the swift waters of the Guaviare or the Ucayali, 
only laughs at the pretensions of a doctrine which outrages all 
his instincts of the holy and the true; which has banished 
every mystery, and, as far as the exuberance of Divine mercy 
will permit, suspended every grace; which displays itself only 
in words which awaken no echo, and in emotions which die 
away with the words; arid whose salaried and effeminate 
preachers, all contradicting themselves and one another, so 
little resemble the saints and martyrs from whom his fathers 
received the faith which he still prizes more than life itself, that 
far from recognizing them as teachers of a Divine religion, he is 
accustomed to ask in surprise, like his fellows in other lands, 
" Whether they profess any religion whatever?" 



MODERN MISSIONARIES IN SOUTH AMERICA. 



Ill 



Before we enter the last province which remains to be visited 
South America, let us notice a few additional examples, not 

unworthy of a moment s attention, of the language in which 

Protestant travellers speak of modern missionaries in this land. 

It is well to learn from such witnesses that they have not 

degenerated from their fathers. 

A British officer, who effected a few years ago the descent of 

the Amazon, had for a companion during a part of his voyage a 

* Captain Gardiner, Visit, &c., p. 24. 

f Tour Hound the World, by Robert Elwes, Esq., cli. viii., p. 107. 



190 CHAPTER IX. 

Spanish Franciscan, who, by the toils of thirty-four years, had 
" founded 1 many new missions," without aid from ^any human 
bein<r, and whose career included the following incident: 

A little to the northeast of Sarayacu, on the river Ucayali, 
dwelt the Sencis, a fierce and warlike tribe, still unconverted, 
whose solitary virtue was dauntless courage. With a courage 
greater than their own, Father Plaza, the Franciscan to whom 
our tale refers, resolved to enter their territory. He was seized 
at the frontier, as he had anticipated and desired, and then was 
enacted the following drama. "They asked him," says the 
English traveller, " whether he was brave, and subjected him to 
the" following trial: Eight or ten men, armed with bows and 
arrows, placed themselves a few yards in front of him, with 
their bows drawn and their arrows directed to his breast; they 
then, with a shout, let go the strings, but retained the arrows in 
their left hands, which he at iirst did not perceive, but took it 
for granted that it was all over with him, and was astonished 
at finding himself unhurt." The savages had taken a captive 
who could give even them a lesson in fortitude ; but they had 
another trial in store for him. " They resumed their former po 
sition, and approaching somewhat nearer, they aimed their ar 
rows at his body, but discharged them close to his feet." The 
narrator adds, and perhaps no other comment could be reason 
ably expected from a Protestant, that "if he had shown any 
signs of fear, he would probably have been dispatched ;" but 
that " having, in his capacity of missionary, been a long time 
subjected to the caprices of the Indians, he had made up his 
mind for the worst, and stood quite motionless during the 
proof." Finally, " they surrounded him, and received him as a 
welcome guest."* We can hardly be surprised that such a 
missionary whom even Mr. Markham calls "a great and good 
man," whose " deeds of heroism and endurance throw the hard- 
earned glories of the soldier far into the shade" should be 
able to u found many new missions," even in this nineteenth 
century. 

But there are at this hour many such as Padre Plaza in the 
South American missions, as even the most prejudiced travellers 
attest, lie himself, having recently finished his apostolic career 
as Bishop of Ouenca, was succeeded at Sarayacu by Father 
Cimini and three other missionaries, who ruled " about one 
thousand three hundred and fifty souls, consisting chiefly of 
Panos Indians."t " The brave and indefatigable Father Girbal" 
was a hero of the same order ; and through every Catholic 

* Lieut. Smyth, ch. xii., p. 227. 
f Markham, ch. viii., p. 257. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 191 

pi evince of America, English and American travellers have 
discovered apostles who are ready to do in the nineteenth 
century what their predecessors did in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth. In Colombia, even Captain Cochrane applauds 
" the excellent Bishop of Merida." Mr. Gilliam, a consular 
agent of the United States, names "the celebrated and beloved 
Bishop of Durango."* Dr. Walsh has assured us that "a more 
learned or a more amiable man than the Bishop of Rio does not 
exist." Mr. Temple mentions "the Archbishop of La Plata, 
whose pious and benevolent character has caused him to be 
remembered throughout his vast diocese with every sentiment 
of veneration. "f Mr. Markham celebrates, in 1859, " Don Pedro 
Ruiz, the excellent Bishop of Chachapoyas," in Peru. Sir 
George Simpson visits Monterey, and says, " Father Gonzalez is 
a truly worthy representative of the early missionaries."^ Mr. 
Stewart is at Lima, and meets Padre Arrieta, "in extensive 
repute for piety and learning. " Mr. Forbes is at San Luis 
Rey, where he sees Father Antonio Peyri, who, "after thirty- 
four years of incessant labor," had finished his career by " vol 
untary retirement in poverty to spend his remaining days in 
pious exercises. "|| M. de Mofras is on the Pacific shore, and 
finds Father Estenega "teaching his neophytes how to make 
bricks;" and Father Abella, at sixty years of a;e, sleeping on 
a buffalo skin, and drinking out of a horn, refusing to retire, and 
declaring that "he will die at his post."!" Mr. Walpole is in 
Chili, and meets one of whom he says, "If amenity of manners, 
great power of conversation, infinite knowledge of men and 
countries, could have won, his must have been a successful 
ministry. There was a soft persuasion, a seeming deep serenity 
in his words, very difficult to withstand."** Mr. Stephens is at 
Esquipnlas, on the borders of Honduras, and says of the Cura, 
Jesus Maria Guttierez, already worn out at thirty years of age, 
" His face beamed with intelligence and refinement of thought 
arid feeling," and "the whole tone of his thoughts and conver 
sation was so good and pure that, when he retired to his room, 
I felt as if a good spirit had flitted away. "ft Mr. Markham 
hears at Andahuaylas " the famous Chilian preacher, Don 

* Travels in Mexico, by Albert M. Gilliam, ch. xvi., p. 288 (1846). 

f Travels in various parts of Peru, &c., by Edmond Temple, vol. ii., ch. xii., 

\ Narrative of a Journey Round the World, vol. i., ch. vii., p. 334. 
Vol. i., p. 190. Letter v. 
I California, ch. v., p. 229. 

*[ Exploration du territoire de I Oregon, par M. Duflot de Mofras, tome i., 
ch. vii., pp. 352, 380. 
** Ch. x., p. 218. 
ft Incidents of Travel in Central America, ch. viii., p. 184. 



CHAPTER IX. 

Francisco de Paula Taforo," and finds ^him escorted by "one 
continued triumphal procession;" while at Lima-tambo he 
makes the acquaintance of the Franciscan Father Esquibias, 
" whose good deeds it was refreshing to hear from his parish 
ioners ;" and at San Miguel that of "the excellent Father 
Eevello, the true-hearted and devoted missionary of the Purus," 
the body of whose companion, a young monk from Cuzco, 
Eevello found pierced with nine arrows, one of them passing 
right through his chest."* At El Paso, many a league to the 
north of Pern, Mr. Kendall, an American Protestant, encounters 
"the incomparable Kamon Ortiz," whose "charity and manly 
virtues adorn the faith which he professes and illustrates by his 
life. r f At Ures, in Mexico, Mr. Bartlett commends "the 
learned and venerable Padre Encinas," the apostle of the 
Yaquis, and at Parras, " the courteous and intelligent Juan 
Bobadilla."^: Lieut. Ilerndon is on the upper course of the 
Amazon, and finds in that remote solitude a Franciscan whom 
he thus describes : " Father Calvo, meek and humble in personal 
concerns, yet full of zeal and spirit for his office, was my beau 
ideal of a missionary monk." Mr. Wallace is on the Rio 
Negro, and meets Padre Torquato, "a very well educated 
and gentlemanly man, who well deserves all the encomiums 
Prince Adalbert has bestowed on him."[ Lieut. Smyth is at 
Chasuta, where he finds Padre Mariana de Jesus, and notes in 
his journal not only "the devotion of the Indians," but that 
"their submissive obedience to the Padre, and the attention 
they show to the worship of the Church to which they have 
been converted, reflect great credit on their worthy pastor. "T 
And this docility, he says, is the more remarkable, because 
"they seem to consider themselves on a perfect equality with 
everybody, showing no deference to any one but the Padre." 
Lastly, Mr. Cleveland is at Guadaloupe, in the Pacific, and 
observes, " The more intimately we become acquainted with 
Padre Mariano, the more we are convinced that his was a 
character to love and respect. He appeared to us of that rare 
class, who, for piety and love of their fellow-men, might justly 
rank with a Fenelon or a Cheverus."** We shall hear a little 
later exactly the same language applied, by the same class of 



* Cli. iv., p. 92 ; ch. viii., p. 275. 

f Narrative of the Texan Santa Fe Expedition, vol. ii., ch. ii., p. 41. 
$ Personal Narrative of Explorations, &c., by John Russell Bartlett, U. S. 
Commissioner, vol. i., ch. xix., p. 444; vol. ii., ch. xxxix., p. 488. 
Valley of the Amazon, ch. x., p. 205. 
f Ubi supra, ch. vi., p. 1GO. 
II llbi supra, ch. xi., p. 213. 
e * A Narrative of Voyages, by Richard J. Cleveland, ch. xiv., p. 57 (1842). 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 193 

writers, to living missionaries in North America ; let us close 
the list for the present with this reflection, that everywhere 
Catholic missionaries are found having the graces and virtues 
of their calling, and everywhere Providence employs Protest 
ant travellers to bear witness to both. 



PARAGUAY. 

One province only remains to be visited, before we complete 
our rapid survey, and tumour faces towards the North. Between 
the Parana and the Colorado, and stretching from Santa Cruz 
de la Sierra in Upper Peru to the Straits of Magellan, and from 
the frontier of Brazil to Chili, lies the vast region which gave 
a name to perhaps the noblest mission which the Christian 
religion ever formed since the days of the Apostles. Here was 
accomplished, amidst races so barbarous and cruel that even 
the fearless warriors of Spain considered them " irreclaimable," 
one of those rare triumphs of grace which constitute an epoch 
in the history of religion. Here one tribe after another, each 
more brutal than its neighbor, was gathered into the fold 
of Christ, and fashioned to the habits of civilized life. Here 
lived and died an army of apostles, who seem to have been 
raised up at that special moment, when whole nations were 
lapsing into apostasy, as if to show that the very hour which 
they chose for departing from the Church was marked in heaven 
as a season for pouring out upon her a flood of new graces. 
Here, as Muratori could say without exaggeration, amid a 
people so lately the sport of demons, " the sublimest virtues of 
Christians are become, if the expression may be used, common 
virtues."* Here, as even Voltaire confessed, was perfected a 
work which " seemed to be in some respects the triumph of 
humanity. "f Here, as Sir AVoodbine Parish declares in our 
own day, in spite of the prejudices of his class, "If we look 
at the good which (the Catholic missionaries) did, rather than 
for the evil which they did not, we shall find that, in the course 
of about a century and a half, upwards of a million of Indians 
were converted to Christianity by them, and taught to be happy 
and contented under the mild and peaceful rule of their 
enlightened and paternal pastors a blessed lot when contrasted 
with the savage condition of the unreclaimed tribes around 
^: Such was the mission of Paraguay, of which we are 



* Relat. delle Mmioni, p. 3. 
f Ap. Cretineau Joly. 
\. Buenos Ay res, &c., ch. xvii., p. 260. 
VOL ir. 14 



194: CHAPTER IX. 

now to attempt to speak, though when we have said all which 
we know how to say, not the hundredth part will be told. 

It was in 1586, as Charlevoix relates, that Don Francisco 
Victoria, the first Bishop of Tucuinan, who had long labored 
like the humblest missionary, but hitherto almost alone in the 
formidable diocese committed to his oversight, implored the 
Society of Jesus to come to his aid.* He was himself a 
Dominican, " and this shows," observes Mr. Southey, whose 
evidence we shall once more use, " how highly the Jesuits were 
at that time esteemed." From the province of Peru, Barsena 
and Angulo were dispatched; from- Brazil, of which Anchieta 
was at that moment the provincial, five Fathers were sent to 
Tucuman by way of Buenos Ayres, of whom the most celebrated, 
Manuel de Ortega, was to be associated with Barsena in that 
famous apostolate with which the names of these two heroes of 
the Cross are inseparably connected. The ship which carried 
Ortega and his companions was attacked in the Bay of Rio by 
the English, at that time rivals of the Dutch in the war 
against "Catholic missionaries, and the Fathers, after being 
treated with the usual indignities, were carried out to sea, and 
finally flung into a boat, without either oars or provisions, and 
abandoned to the mercy of the waves. The boat, drifted to 
Buenos Ayres, a distance of more than seven hundred miles, 
and when her passengers had returned thanks to Him who had 
saved them by so wonderful a providence, they crossed the 
Pampas to Tucuman, where they met the Fathers from Peru.f 

It was Barsena and Ortega who commenced the celebrated 
Guarani mission, and afterwards that of the Chiquitos, a nation 
composed of about thirty tribes, speaking more than twenty 
different languages, all radically different from the primitive 
Guarani dialect. M. d Orbigny observes that, at the present 
day, the Guarani has become the almost universal language of 
the natives inhabiting these regions ; arid an English historian of 
Brazil notices " the perfection with which the Jesuits spoke the 
Guaranitic idiom,";): of which they published Grammars and 
Dictionaries, and which perhaps owes its prevalence to their 
influence. Barsena spoke also the Tupi, a cognate dialect of 
the Guarani, and the Toconote, of which he composed a Gram 
mar. Among the innumerable works, of which M. Cretineau 
Joly says it would be impossible to number even the titles," 
which the Jesuits produced in the department of philology, was 
a Dictionary of the language of the Chiquitos, in three volumes ; 

* Charlevoix, Histoire du Paraguay, tome i., liv. iv., p. 278. 

t Ibid., p. 287. 

\ Henderson s History of Brazil, ch. vi., p. 135. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 195 

of which M. d Orbigny, " the chief authority," as Dr. Latham 
allows, has lately declared, " nothing more complete exists in 
any American language." But such works were hardly more 
than relaxations amid their other toils. 

We do not propose to follow Barsena, Ortega, and their 
companions through all the incidents of their apostolic career, 
which a few examples will sufficiently illustrate. They find a 
pestilence raging in the country around Asumpcion, and fling 
themselves at once, according to their custom, into the midst of 
the danger. Six thousand Indians are baptized, and even Mr. 
Southey pauses to acknowledge " the zeal and the intrepid 
charity with which they sought out the infected, and ministered 
to the dying." Barsena, worn out by labor as much as by 
age, died at Cuzco in 1596, his last missionary work being to 
convert the sole remaining prince of the family of the Incas of 
Peru, with whom he shortly after departed to his true home. 

For Ortega, many a year of toil, many an hour of danger and 
Buffering, were still in store. Some of the incidents of his 
laborious life may be compared with any thing which history 
records, or romance has invented, in the field of perilous adven 
ture. On one occasion, travelling in a plain between the 
Parana and the Paraguay, with a company of neophytes, they 
were overtaken by one of those sudden floods with which the 
lowlands of South America are sometimes devastated. They 
climbed into trees, but the flood rose higher and higher. They 
were without food ; wild beasts and monstrous serpents, sur 
prised by the deluge, disputed with them their retreat. For two 
days they remained between life and death. In the middle of 
the second night, Ortega perceived an Indian swimming towards 
him. He had volunteered to carry tidings to the Father that 
three of his catechumens and three Christians, lodged in the 
branches of a neighboring tree, were at their last gasp ; the 
first implored baptism, the others absolution. Binding his 
catechist, who shared his own refuge, more tightly to the branch 
which he had no longer strength to embrace, and having 
received his confession, Ortega leaped into the flood. A branch 
pierced through his thigh, inflicting a wound from which he 
never recovered, and which remained open for twenty-two 
years ; but he swam on, baptized the three Indians, and saw 
them fall one after another into the gulf. Their struggle was 
over, but the three Christians still remained. Exhorting them, 
amidst the darkness of the night and the rushing of the waters, 
to fervent acts of contrition, which he recited with them, he 
saw two of them devoured in their turn by the flood. He had 
done all that charity could inspire or heroism perform, and 
returned to his own tree, in time to find his catechist with the 



196 CHATTER IX. 

water up to his neck. Hoisting him up by a final effort to a 
higher branch, he watched with him during the remaining hours 
of the night. On the morrow the flood abated, and the sur 
vivors pursued their way. 

Ortega was now lamed for life, yet so little did he regard 
this additional obstacle, that on one occasion he performed a 
missionary journey of nine hundred miles at once. Every trial 
which could test his virtue befell him, and in all he was 
victorious. At Lima, the Holy Office of the Inquisition, to the 
amazement, of the whole country, condemned him to prison. 
Ortega did not even ask what was his crime. He had been 
slanderously charged, though he knew it not, with revealing a 
confession. As he never opened his lips, his silence was 
accepted as an evidence of guilt. When he had been five 
months incarcerated, without a murmur or a question, his 
accuser died ; and on his death-bed confessed, that it was 
Ortega s refusal to give him absolution which tempted him to 
invent the hateful calumny. Released from prison, with every 
mark of admiration and reverence, he resumed his apostolic 
career; and having brought multitudes into the Church, he 
died in 1622, surviving his companion Barsena by thirty years. 

But he was only one in an army of soldiers as valiant as 
himself. We cannot even name the half of them ; let it suffice 
to attempt a brief record of a few, and of their works. So like 
were they in their fortitude, their boundless zeal, and inex 
haustible charity, that in describing one, we describe all. 

Gaspare! de Monroy, baffled in one of his journeys by the 
obstinate ferocity of an Ornagua chief, who not only rejected 
the Gospel himself, but threatened the most horrible death to 
the missionaries and to all who should embrace their doctrine, 
formed one of those sublime resolutions of which the world 
applauds with enthusiasm the feeble imitation in its own selfish 
heroes, but refuses to praise the execution in warriors of a 
nobler class. Ho set out alone, and alone he entered the hut of 
the savage. "You may kill me," said the Father with a 
tranquil air, as soon as he stood in the presence of the bar 
barian, "but you will gain little honor by slaying an unarmed 
man. If, contrary to my expectation, you give me a hearing, 
all the advantage will be for yourself; if I die by your hand, 
an immortal crown awaits me in heaven."* Astonishment 
disarmed the ^savage, and admiration kept him silent. Then, 
witl^a kind of reluctant awe, he offered to his unmoved visitor 
a drink from his own cup. A little later, he and his whole 
tribe were converted. 

* Charlevoix, liv. iv., p. 323. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 197 

In 1604, Marcel Lorengana, a friend of Monroy, and Joseph 
Cataldino, are wrecked in the Paraguay, and only saved by the 
daring of the Christian Indians. It was Lorencana, "who 
was rightly considered," says Mr. Southey, "an accomplished 
missionary," who obtained permission to go to the Guaranis, 
when their caciques had publicly announced, "that they 
would never be satisfied till they had drunk the blood of the 
last Mahoma," a recently converted tribe, " out of the skull of 
the oldest missionary." The Guaranis became afterwards, as 
we shall see, a proverb for their Christian virtues. 

But who shall estimate the toils by which these ferocious 
savages were converted into men and Christians? "The 
Guarani race," says a prejudiced English traveller in 1852, 
two hundred and fifty years after Lorencana had dwelt amongst 
them, " are a noble set of fellows Roman Catholic the creed."* 
It was no human power which wrought a change so marvellous 
and so enduring. "I was informed at Quito," says the cele 
brated navigator Ulloa, " that the number of towns of the 
Guarani Indians in the year 1734, amounted to thirty-two, 
supposed to contain between thirty and forty thousand families, 
and that from the increasing prosperity of the Christian religion, 
they were then deliberating on building three other towns."f 
From 1610 to 1768, seven hundred and two thousand and 
eighty-six Guaranis were baptized by the Jesuits alone, besides 
those who were admitted into the Church by the Franciscans.^ 

It was Lorencana, for they were the same in all trials, who 
threatened the judgments of heaven against the Spaniards for 
their cruelty and avarice; and when commanded by an official 
of the church in which he was preaching to be silent and leave 
the pulpit, "immediately obeyed, without the slightest emotion 
of anger." " It is said," observes Southey, " that this modera 
tion affected the Treasurer so much, that he went into the 
pulpit, and with a loud voice confessed his fault, for having 
insulted a good man in the discharge of his duty." A few 
days after, the Treasurer carne to a miserable end. 

In 1605, Diego de Torrez arrived in Peru as Provincial of 
Chili and Paraguay, bringing with him seven Fathers. In 
1615, when his term of office expired, his successor de Onate 
found that the ssven had become one hundred and nineteen. 
In 1617, thirty-seven more entered the field under the conduct 
of Viana. In 1628, forty-two arrived under Mastrilli. In 
1639, thirty came with Diaz Tano. And so to the las,t hour 



* Paraguay, Brazil, &c., by C. B. Mansfield, Esq., M.A., preface, p. 9. 
f Ulloa, Voyage to 8. America ; Pinkerton. vol. xiv., p. 036. 
i Dobrizhoffer, Accoitnt of the Abypone*, vql. iii., p. 417 (18.22). 



198 CHAPTER IX. 

they were recruited, more than five thousand Jesuits from Spain 
alone finding here their cross and their crown. 

In 1623, Juan Romero, superior of the mission of Asumpcion, 
accepted a task which the viceroy had vainly proposed to his 
soldiers, that of tracing the Uruguay to its source. " None but 
a Jesuit," says Mr. Southey, " could make the attempt with 
any hope of safety," because they alone were not solicitous 
about safety. Escorted by a few Indians, he had already 
advanced a hundred leagues, when he was forced back to 
Buenos Ayres, unable to communicate his own intrepidity 
to his followers. It was Romero who replied to some Chris 
tians who wished to punish the murderers of Father Gonzal- 
vez, " The blood of martyrs is not to be avenged by blood." 
In 1654, after a long life of apostolic toil, he was himself 
martyred. 

Almost every year, from the beginning of this mission to its 
close, was consecrated by a martyrdom. Let us notice at least 
a few of these glorious dates. Gonzalvez, a man of illustrious 
birth, was one of the first. Often he had presented himself 
alone to the fiercest tribes, and when they lifted the bow or 
the club, he would say, " This cross which you see me carry 
is more powerful than the arms of the Spaniards, and it is my 
only defence ;" and the club would fall harmless to the ground, 
the arrow would be withdrawn from the bow. In 1615, he 
was ascending the Parana without any companion. " No 
European," said an Indian cacique, who met him on his way, 
" has ever trodden this shore without dyeing it with his blood." 
" Think not," answered Gonzalvez, " to alarm me with your 
threats. I am a servant of the only true God, whose ministers 
count it the greatest happiness which can befall them to shed 
their blood for Him." A hundred times he encountered, and 
survived, the same perils, but his hour came at last. In 1628, 
on the 15th of November, just as he had finished the Holy 
Sacrifice, and had quitted the church, the savages rushed upon 
him : " One blow from a macana laid him lifeless upon the 
ground, and a second beat out his brains."* Father Rodriguez, 
running out of the church at the cry of the savages, found the 
same end ; and two days later, Del Castillo, the companion of 
both, was also martyred. 

Mr. Southey, who recounts these events after Charlevoix and 
other historians, admits that the barbarians were " impressed 
with astonishment," not only by the miracles which are said 
to have followed the triple sacrifice, but especially by " the 
public rejoicings in which all classes of men partook," in 

* Southey, ii., 294. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 199 

celebration of the triumph of the martyrs. " ISTor could they 
contemplate," says the English writer, "without astonishment 
the conduct of the Jesuits, their disinterested enthusiasm, their 
indefatigable perseverance, and the privations and dangers 
which they endured for no earthly reward." They became 
anxious, he adds, "to see these wonderful men," as of old 
the people of Lystra and Derbe thronged round Paul and 
Barnabas, " saying in the Lycaonian tongue, the gods are 
come down to us in the likeness of men ;"* and when they 
" once came within the influence of such superior minds," 
even they discerned Whose messengers they were, and from 
murderers became disciples. 

Montoya, whom Southey calls one of the most learned men 
of his age, and who was the author of a Grammar of the 
Guarani language, was a missionary of the same class as 
Gonzalvez and Rodriguez. A Guarani chief, Tayaoba, " who 
had long been the dread of the Spaniards," and whose tribe 
were some of the fiercest of their race, had resolved to kill him. 
The nation of which this man was the leader was so ferocious 
in its habirs, that "their arrows were headed with the bones of 
those whom they had slain, and in weaning their children the 
first food which was substituted for the mother s milk, was the 
ilesh of an enemy." To this tribe, with the more than human 
intrepidity which marked his order, Montoya presented himself; 
and when he told them that he had come to teach them how 
they might be saved from eternal torments, " they replied that 
lie was a liar if he said they were to be eternally tormented, 
and then let fly a volley of arrows upon him and his attendants." 
Seven of the latter were killed, but Montoya, who seems to 
have been on this occasion miraculously preserved, retired with 
the rest ; and when the savages had devoured the seven, " they 
expressed their sorrow that they had not tasted priest s flesh at 
the feast, and had the Jesuit s skull for a cup." Another chief, 
Pindobe, "laid in wait for Montoya, for the purpose of eating 
him." Yet even Tayaoba and his horrible crew were so im 
pressed, as Mr. Southey relates, with the astonishing valor and 
dignity of the missionaries, that "this fierce warrior sent two 
of his sons secretly to the Reduction of St. Francis Xavier, to 
see whether what he had heard of these establishments was 
true." A little later, Tayaoba was instructed and baptized by 
Montoya, "with twenty-eight of his infant children. "f 

We have mentioned Cataldino, the companion of Lorencana, 
and the friend of Montoya. In 1623, he was one day super- 

v 

* Acts xiv. 10. 
t Southey, p. 290. 



200 CHAPTER IX. 

intending the erection of a forest church, when Montoja sud 
denly appeared before him with the announcement, that a 
tribe of hostile savages were at his heels. " The will of God 
be done, my dear Father," said Cataldino, and then quietly 
resumed his work, without even turning his head towards 
the yelling crowd, who were rushing upon him. Amazed at 
his calm indifference, or restrained by an unseen power, they 
gazed upon him for a while, and then disappeared in the 
forest. 

In 1632, Christoval de Mendoza, the grandson of one of the 
conquerors of Peru, was martyred by a tribe to whom he had 
been preaching. " It was his hope and faith," we are told by 
Mr. Southey, "that his life and death might atone for the 
offences of his ancestors against those Indians for whose salva 
tion he devoted himself." " He is said," observes Dobrizhoffer, 
" to have baptized ninety-five thousand Indians." In 1634, 
Espinosa, who had been the companion of Montoya, Suarez, 
and Contreras, in all their toils, and whose own life had been 
a long series of dangers and sufferings, was martyred by the 
Guapalaches. He was on his road to Santa Fe, whither he 
was going to beg food and to buy cotton for his neophytes, 
suffering from the barbarity of the unconverted Indians. He 
knew his danger, but the famine was urgent, and he hurried 
on to fall into the snare which the savages had laid for him. 

In 1636, Osorio and Ripario, who had founded a new Re 
duction in the country of the Ocloias, were tortured to death 
by the Chiriguanes. the former appears to have received a 
revelation of the death by which he was to glorify God, since 
lie had himself announced it beforehand in a letter to the cele 
brated Cardinal de Lugo.* 

In 1639, Alfaro gained in his turn the crown of martyrdom ; 
and the death of so many victims had already been so prolific, 
according to the law of Christian missions, in graces to the 
heathen, that even at this early date there were already twenty- 
nine separate Reductions in the two provinces of Parana and 
Uruguay, in which more than three hundred thousand Indians 
had learned to practice all the virtues of the Christian life. 

Let us pass at once to the close of the seventeenth century, 
and take up the narrative from the year 1683, in which Ruiz 
and Solinas, accompanied by a secular priest, Don Ortiz de 
Zarate, who aspired to the crown of martyrdom, entered the 
mountain region of Chaco. Already they had formed a new 
Reduction, under the title of St. Raphael, in which four hundred 
families were assembled, and Ruiz had departed for Tucuman, 

* Charlevoix, liv. ix., p. 377. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 201 

when Solinas and Zarate were attacked by the Tobas and 
Macobis, and on the 17th of March, 1686, fell, under their 
arrows and clubs. 

In 1690, Mascardi and Quilelmo, who had penetrated almost 
to the southern extremity of the continent, were martyred by 
the Patagonians, that so the blood of apostles might sanctify 
the land throughout its length and breadth ; while Father 
Joseph Cardiel "was reduced to such straits as to be obliged to 
feed on grass, unless he preferred dying of emptiness."* 

In 1694, some of the best and bravest of this company 01 
preachers, de Arce, Centeno, Hervas, de Zea, d Avila, and 
others, formed new Reductions on every side, amid perils 
which bad no terrors for such men, though most of them were 
destined to lose their lives in the work. Twice de Arce attempt 
ed in vain to subdue the lierce Chiriguanes, " one of the most 
numerous and formidable of all the South American nations." 
They are supposed, Mr. Southey relates, to have killed in the 
course of two centuries " more than one hundred and tifty 
thousand Indians." When the missionary sought to arrest 
their attention by warning them of the fire of hell, they replied 
disdainfully, "that they should find means of putting it out." 
So his superiors removed him for a time, and sent him with 
Ignatius Chome, "one of the most intelligent and most merito 
rious of the Jesuits," to the Chiquitos. Chome had composed 
a Grammar and a Dictionary of both the Zamuco and Chiquito 
tongues; had translated Thomas a Kempis into the latter, and 
written a history of their nation. It is a circumstance worthy 
of remark, that of the seven companions who accompanied 
de Arce in this attempt, not two were of the same race. They 
were a Sardinian, a Neapolitan, a Belgian, an Austrian, a 
Bohemian, a Biscayan, and a Spaniard of La Mancha. " So 
curiously," says Mr. Southey, " was this extraordinary society 
composed of men of all nations. And what a pre-eminent 
knowledge of mankind must the Jesuits have possessed from 
this circumstance alone ; this knowledge, of all others the most 
difficult of acquisition, was thus acquired by them as a mother 
tongue, and they were fitted for missionaries and statesmen 
almost without study." Yet this gentleman, intoxicated with 
self-love, thought himself qualified to pass sentence upon them 
all, and to rebuke their " superstition" and "idolatry!" 

De Arce was now amongst the Chiquitos. Abandoned to 
the most extraordinary and eccentric superstitions, which it 
would be unprofitable to describe in detail, and brutalized by 
almost perpetual intoxication, they had killed the first mission- 

* Dobrizhoffer, p. 150. 



202 CHAPTER IX. 

aries who went amongst them, and flattered themselves that 
they were now delivered forever from their importunate pres 
ence. But they were saved by the very blood which they had 
shed, as Saul owed his conversion to the martyrdom of St. 
Stephen. "From their first establishment," says the English 
historian, " the Chiquito missions were uniformly prosperous in 
all things. Here, as in other parts of America, the Jesuits were 
usefully, meritoriously, and piously employed ; ready, at all 
times, to encounter sufferings, perils, and death itself, with 
heroic and Christian fortitude." And so they converted the 
whole nation ; and with such lasting results, that as M. d Or- 
bigny observes, the Chiquitos, "happier than other tribes, all 
live to this day in the missions, under the old form of govern 
ment established by the Jesuit Fathers."* It was amongst the 
Chiquitos that this traveller heard the ecclesiastical music 
which filled even his fastidious ear with admiration. 

De Arce, to whom we must return for a moment, aspiring 
after new dangers and more arduous toils, now entered for the 
third time the territory of the Chiriguanes. It was almost 
certain death, but he was one of those missionaries who can 
say with St. Paul, who finished his career by martyrdom as 
they did, "The charity of Christ constraineth me." We have 
no space to relate his labors and tribulations, which were so 
fruitful, that when, at a later period, the enemies of these 
apostolic warriors caine to count the final results of their war 
fare, they found forty thousand Chiriguanes, now fervent and 
docile Christians, collected together in a single mission. De 
Arce died as he had lived, and as it was fitting that such a man 
should die, martyred by the Payaguas, in 1717, together with 
his fellow-missionaries, Maco, Sylva, and de Blende. 

Lucas Cavallero, also destined for martyrdom, was laboring 
at the same time amongst the Puraxis. Unable to resist his 
fearless charity, and captivated by his preaching and example, 
they also are won to Christianity and civilization. It would 
have been reasonable that he should have reposed, at least for 
a ^time, amongst these now peaceful neophytes ; but he was 
willing to postpone thoughts of ease to another life, and once 
inure plunged into the thick of the battle. In vain the Puraxis 
implore him not to expose himself to the fury of the barbarians. 
He leaves them his blessing, and confiding them to other 
pastors, hastens to the Manacicas. They also are subdued by 
his word, and he is next among the Sibacas. Everywhere he 
is victorious ; and as the Quiriquicas had now become the most 
implacable enemies of his neophytes, and were thirsting for 

* Voyage dans VAmtrique Meridionale, tome iv., p. 260. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 20!$ 

his own blood, he presents himself among them. Such were 
the simple tactics of these soldiers of the Cross. They ask 
where danger is to be found, only to confront it. Four other 
tribes in succession are evangelized by the same indomitable 
missionary, and still he survives. But such a career could not 
last forever. His brethren, who knew how to judge apostolic 
gifts, were accustomed to say of him, " that St. Francis Xavier 
had no more perfect imitator than Lucas Cavallero." On one 
occasion he was saluted by a shower of arrows, but they in 
flicted no wound, though they rained on him from every side. 
At length his hour arrived, and he found amongst the Puy- 
zocas, in 1711, the crown of martyrdom for which he had so 
long and so patiently labored. 

Let us notice also Father Falconer, an English Jesuit, " of 
great skill in medicine," who succeeded in founding a mission 
in the Pampas, which he called Kuestra Senora del Pilar, and 
whose manner of life is thus described by the writer from 
whom Maria Theresa of Austria used to delight to hear such 
narratives, when he had been banished from America. "Wan 
dering over the plains with his Indians to kill horseflesh, 
] laving no plate, either of pewter or wood, he always, in place 
thereof, made use of his hat, which grew at length so greasy, 
that it was devoured, while he slept, by the wild dogs with 
which the plains are overrun."* 

Cyprian Baraza, says Mr. Southey, " was perhaps the most 
enlightened Jesuit that ever labored in South America."f He 
had set out from Lima with the martyr del Castillo, and 
ascended in a canoe the river Guapay. For twelve days they 
urged on their frail boat, till they reached the camp of the tribe 
whom they sought. It was among the Moxos, in the country 
to the south of the Portuguese territory of Mato Grosso, that 
Baraza was destined to toil for twenty-seven years. Recalled 
lor a moment to Santa Cruz by his superiors, in consequence of 
a fever which had reduced h im to what appeared incurable 
debility, he spent the long days of his convalescence in learning 
the art of weaving, that he might introduce it among his future 
disciples. At length he was able to resume the apostolate 
which had been interrupted, and found himself amongst a 
people so ignorant and barbarous that they had not even any 
chiefs, lived only for rapine and murder, and hunted men 
instead of beasts for food. Among these degraded savages 
this man of profound learning and elegant tastes consented to 
spend his life; sharing their filthy lodgings; studying all 

* Dobrizhoffer, p. 145. 

f Vol. iii., ch. xxxiv., p. 198. 



204: CHAPTER IX. 

their caprices ; imitating their habits ; and descending himself 
almost to the condition of a savage, in order to raise them to 
the dignity of Christians. And this life, for the love of God, 
he led for more than a quarter of a century ; till on the 16th of 
September, 1702, being then in his sixty-first ^ year, he was 
martyred by the Baures, whom he had visited in the hope of 
converting them, and who by his death were won to Christ. 

Like all his fellows, he had not only planted but reaped, 
even in this rugged soil. At his death, fifteen colonies of 
Christian Moxos had been formed, from twenty to thirty miles 
apart from each other. " With his own hand," observes Mr. 
Markliain, " he baptized one hundred and ten thousand hea 
thens. He found the Moxos an ignorant people, more savage 
and cruel than the wild beasts, and he left them a civilized 
community, established in villages, and converted to Chris 
tianity."* The churches, of which he was often himself the 
architect, " were large, well built, and richly ornamented," 
says Mr. Southey. The Moxos, once so barbarous, had become, 
as the same writer relates, not only excellent workmen, but even 
skilful artists. " Cotton was raised in all the settlements," an 
active commerce created, and habits of intelligent industry 
formed. " More comforts," says Mr. Southey, " were found in 
the missions of the Moxos and Baures than in the Spanish 
capital of Santa Cruz de la Sierra."f And the apostle who had 
accomplished this amazing work, and who, during many years, 
had permitted himself no other couch than the bare ground or 
the steps of his church, was deemed happy and glorious by all 
his companions, because in his old age he attained to martyr 
dom, and after devoting all his faculties for forty years to the ser 
vice of his Master, was beaten to death by the clubs of savages. 

A century after his martyrdom, they were still, says Mr, 
Markham, "a thriving, industrious people, famous as carpeii 
ters, weavers, and agriculturists ;" and an Anglo-Indian writer, 
alluding in 1857 to this prodigious and lasting work of civiliza 
tion throughout the whole southern continent, asks how it can 
be explained that even " the slaves and mestijos of South 
America should be able to purchase of one single class of 
English manufactures, twenty-four times as much as the free, 
enlightened, and happily guided Hindus ?"^ 

Such as Baraza, and Cavallero, and Espinosa, they continued 
to the end. Dobrizhotfer, the apostle of the Abipones, " was 
contented," says Mr. Southey, though he hated and reviled the 



* Introd., p. xli. 

f Vol. iii., ch. xlii., p. 606. 

\ Mead, The Sepoy Revolt, ch. xxvii., p. 347. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 205 

very men whom he was forced to applaud, "to .employ, in 
laboring among these savages, under every imaginable circum 
stance of discomfort and discouragement, talents which would 
have raised him to distinction in the most enlightened parts of 
Europe." Henart, once a page of honor in the court of Henri 
IY., was a man of the same school, and chose the "riches of 
Christ" before the favor of the most popular of earthly kings ; 
and Herrera, in whom the most learned men of Europe would 
have recognized a master, but whom the Abipones slew ; and 
Hervas, who died of fatigue, after all his immense labors, by 
the banks of an obscure stream ; and d Aguilar, who governed 
the Reductions of the Parana, and at the head of seven thou 
sand Christian Indians saved Peru to the crown of Spain ; and 
Martin Xavier, a kinsman of St. Francis, who, with Father 
Balthazer Sena, was cruelly starved to death ; and Sylva and 
]S r iebla, both martyred by the Payaguas ; and Arias and de 
Arenas, who -won the same crown; and Ugalde, whom the 
Mataguyos killed. Not inferior to these were Machoni and 
Montijo, the apostles of the Lulles ; and Julian di Lizardi, who 
was martyred by the Chiriguanes, his body being found pierced 
with arrows, and his breviary lying open by his side at the 
office for the dead, as if he had chanted his own requiem ; and 
Castanarez, who converted the Zamucos, when they had mar 
tyred Albert Romero, and was slaughtered himself, in 1TM, by 
the Mataguyos, after forty years of toil ; and Joseph de Quiroga, 
one of the most famous seamen of Spain before he put on the 
habit of St. Ignatius ; and Juan Pastor, who at seventy-three 
years of age presented himself alone in the camp of the Mata 
guyos ; and Juan Yaz, perhaps a kinsman of that other Yaz, 
of whom we heard in Ceylon, who died in old age of pestilence 
while ministering to the sick ; and Alvarez, who dwelt alone 
among the fierce Caai quas, w T hom the Spaniards could never 
reduce, and dared not provoke ; and Philip Suarez, the mar 
tyr ; and Altamirano, and Bartholomew Diaz, and a thousand 
more, whom we can neither name nor praise whom God 
made what they were, who did all their works for His sake 
alone, and who found in Him their eternal reward. 

We have still to show, in conclusion, and we shall be able to 
do so by the testimony of enemies, what were the actual and 
final results accomplished in Paraguay by the labors at which 
we have now glanced. But first let it be permitted to add a 
word upon the men themselves, of whom we have noticed only 
an inconsiderable number, because their lives sufficiently repre 
sent and illustrate those of their companions, and because thou 
sands in that age left no other memorial on earth by which 
their passage may now be traced than the multitude of disci 



206 CHAPTER IX. 

pies from Canada to China, and from Paraguay to Abyssinia, 
who by their ministry were " renewed in the spirit of their 
minds, " and gathered into the fold of Christ. 

It would be a mere indiscretion to suggest reflections which 
the deeds of this great company of apostles, who will be imitated 
by Catholic missionaries to the end of time, will awaken in every 
Christian soul, and which they kindled even in the breast of 
the cannibal savage, half beast and half idiot, who wandered 
by the banks of the Parana and the Uruguay, guided only, till 
these men stood before him, by the instincts of an animal, and 
the passions of a demon. But it is well to observe, in contem 
plating the supernatural virtues of which we have witnessed 
the action, that they were the natural fruit of gifts and graces 
which were not only fair to look upon, and mighty to subdue 
the arts of the wicked one, and to unbind in every land the 
fetters of his victims, but which had a yet deeper and more 
awful significance, as even the barbarians of Asia and America 
understood, inasmuch as they revealed the immediate and in 
timate presence of God, as surely as the golden-fringed cloud 
tells of the great orb behind, w T hose rays it obscures but cannot 
hide. These men were mighty, but evidently not by their own 
strength ; valiant, because they feared nothing but sin ; patient, 
for they walked in the steps of the Crucified ; and wise, beyond 
the wisdom of the children of Adam, because to them it had 
been said, by Him who once gave the same assurance to earlier 
missionaries, " It is not you mat speak, but the Spirit of your 
Father that speaketh in you"* 

Yet it was at the very moment in which the loving providence 
of God was sending forth into all lands, from the crowded cities 
of the furthest East to the solitudes of the unknown West, such 
a multitude of apostles as the world had never before seen ; arid 
that His Spirit, with a mighty inspiration, was filling thousands 
at once with such graces, and leading them to such victories, as 
men had almost begun to reckon among the impossible glories of 
an earlier age ; that a people of Saxon origin, newly separated 
from the Church to which they owed all their past happiness, all 
their noblest institutions, all their knowledge, and all their civili 
zation, were filling the air with imprecations against the very 
religion upon which the Almighty was once more impressing, 
before the face of the gentiles now entering into their forfeited 
inheritance, the seal of His august sanction. It was at this time, 
when every pagan land was being newly fertilized with the blood 
of apostles, who died for the name of Jesus, and would have 
died, as More and Fisher, Campion and Parsons, and many 

* S. Matt. x. 20. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 207 

more, died in England, as joyously and exultingly, for the 
Church which He illumined with His presence, or for the least 
of her doctrines ; that the founders and promoters of the 
Anglican schism, less discerning than the pagans of India or 
China, more blind and perverse than the savages of Brazil and 
Paraguay, were blaspheming the faith which the Hindoo and 
the Omagua could no longer resist, when they had once heard 
the more than human wisdom which proclaimed it to them. It 
was in the very age in which St. Francis began that immortal 
apostolate, and those stupendous labors, which were to be con 
tinued during two centuries, and in which his brethren and 
kinsmen -w ere to win to the Church more souls than all the 
powers of hell were about to snatch from her; that Cranmer, in 
language which none but an apostate could use, was stirring up 
the English against the Church which he called " the cursed 
synagogue of Antichrist ;""* that Kidley was reviling her, with 
the accents of an energumen, as " the Beast of Babylon, that 
devilish drab, whore, and beast ;"f that Bacon, the intimate of 
Cranmer, was shrieking like a maniac against " the pestiferous 
and damnable sect of the papists ;" and declaring, in hideous 
words, that " the Sacrifice of the Mass came from hell ;": that 
Jewel, as if the powers of darkness used his mouth for a 
trumpet, was calling the Vicar of Christ, "the Man of Per 
dition; ^ that Grindal, who was called "Archbishop of Can 
terbury," was commanding all the altars in England, upon 
which the adorable Sacrifice of the New Law had once been 
offered, " to be utterly taken down, broken, defaced, and be 
stowed to some common use ;"\ that Sandys, who was styled 
"Archbishop of York," was raving like one possessed against 
" that synagogue of Satan, that man of sin, that triple-crowned 
beast, that double-sworded tyrant, that thief and murderer, that 
adversary unto Christ ;" ^[ and lastly, that the Anglican Church, 
the creation of these very rnen, was exhorting all her ministers 
diligently to teach the people of England, whether they would 
hear or no, that, till Cranmer and Beza arose, " the whole world 
had been sunk in the pit of damnable idolatry, by the space of 
nine hundred years and odd,"** or, in other words, that Satan 
had dethroned the Author of Christianity, and brought to 
naught, in the early dawn of its strength and beauty, the 

* Against Transubstantiation, book ii., p. 238 ; ed. Parker Society, 
f Piteous Lamentation, p. 50 ; Letters, p. 409. 
% The Jewel of Joy, p. 449 ; Cf. pp. 264, 380. 
| Zurich Letters, pp. 33, 47. 
\ Remains, p. 134 ; App., p. 480. 
1 Sermon xx., p. 389. 
** Homily on Peril of Idolatry. 



208 CHAPTER IX. 

dearest, the most costly, and the most perfect work of His 
baffled love and unstable power ! 

We have heard the blasphemy, and have seen how God 
rebuked it. It was at this moment, long expected by the 
heathen world, but which England had chosen for the hour of 
her apostasy, that He resolved to create twice ten thousand 
apostles, who should gather from East and West, from lands 
hitherto unknown, a new company of guests to that Divine 
banquet which "they who were invited"* might never more 
taste, and preach in His name to nations lying in the shadow 
of death the mystery of salvation which England was now 
rejecting, and build up among them the very Church which 
England was vainly striving to uproot. And that all men 
might surely know whose messengers they were, He clothed 
them in armor brought out of the innermost sanctuary of 
heaven, and endowed them with gifts which the Seraphim 
might have consented to share. Once again the world saw an 
army of apostles, filled with the zeal of St. Paul, the tenderness 
of St. Peter, and the charity of St. John ; austere as the Baptist, 
who fed on locusts and wild honey, yet merciful to the weak 
and infirm ; ready to die, like St. Stephen, at the word of their 
Master, and rewarded in death with the same beatific vision 
which consoled his agony and theirs. England had begun, for 
the first time in her history, to invoke maledictions on the 
Church, and this was God s answer. The missions of the six 
teenth century were God s Protest against Protestantism. 

It is time to bring our account of the missions of Paraguay to 
a close. In estimating the actual fruits of those missions, it is 
not the evidence of Catholic writers which we shall interrogate. 
Protestant authorities, many of whom would read with sympa 
thy, even if they hesitated to repeat, the horrible language of 
the authors of the Anglican religion, will tell us what the mis 
sionaries really effected in South America, and even, as far as 
such men could understand them, by what means they obtained 
their success. Mr. Southey, who uses such " intemperate lan 
guage," as an English Protestant remarks, that "the general 
circulation of his book is rendered impossible ;"f who declares 
that Vieyra, and Baraza, and Cavallero, and the rest, " never 
scrupled at falsehood when it was to serve a pious purpose ;" 
who relates that Paraguay exhibited " the naked monstrosity 
of Romish superstition ;" and who describes the sacred mysteries 
of the Christian Altar in terms which it would be profanation 
to repeat, and which the evil spirits would not dare to employ, 

* S. Luke xiv. 24. 

f Voyage to Brazil, by Lady Calcott, p 13. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 209 

because they " believe and tremble ; will be our most appro 
priate witness. Here is his summary of the labors of the mis 
sionaries, as respects their geographical limits. 

" A chain of missions has now been established in all parts 
of this great continent. Those of the Spaniards from Quito 
met those of the Portuguese from Para," thus connecting the 
Pacific with the Atlantic. " The missions on the Orinoco com 
municated with those of the Negro and the Orellana. The Moxo 
missions communicated with the Chiquito, the Chiquito with 
the Reductions in Paraguay, and from Paraguay the indefati 
gable Jesuits sent their laborers into the Chaco, and among 
the tribes who possessed the wide plains to the south and 
west of Buenos Ayres. Had they not been interrupted in 
their exemplary career, by measures equally impolitic and in 
iquitous, it is possible that ere this they might have completed 
the conversion and civilization of all the native tribes; and 
probably that they would have saved the Spanish colonies from 
the immediate horrors and barbarizing consequences of a civil 
war/ * 

Let us hear next what he says of their converts, who once 
wandered naked through the woods, fed on human flesh, and 
had almost lost the instincts of humanity. " At the close of 
the eighteenth century, the Indians of these Reductions were 
a brave, an industrious, and comparatively a polished people. 
They were good carvers, good workers in metal, good handi 
crafts in general, and the women manufactured calico of the 
finest quality, &c. &c."f 

Again : " Considerable progress had been made both in the 
useful and ornamental arts. Besides carpenters, masons, and 
blacksmiths, they had turners, carvers, printers, and gilders ; 

they cast bells and built organs They were taught enough 

of mechanics to construct horse-mills, enough of hydraulics to 
raise water for irrigating the lands and supplying their public 
cisterns. A Guarani," we know what he had been in his un 
converted state, " however nice the mechanism, could imitate 
any thing which was set before him.";); 

Once more. So universal was the industry of these populous 
communities, once disdainful of all toil but that of the chase, 
that the commerce of South America received a development 
under the prudent direction of their paternal guides, which 

* Vol. iii., p. 372. " In fatto non v ha in tutta 1 America meridionale terra 
alcuna, dove non sieno penetrati i missionarii, e quasi nessuna tribu, a cui non 
sia stato bandito il Vangelo." Storia Uhiversale delle Cattoliche Missioni, voL 
i., chap, iv., p. 162. 

f P. 842. 

\ Vol. ii., ch. xxiv., p. 350. 

VOL. II. 

15 



210 CHAPTER IX. 

even the political economists of our own day might contemplate 
with admiration if such philosophers could applaud a state of 
society in which none were poor and none rich ; in which each 
worked for all ; where there was labor without hardship and 
obedience without oppression ; and in which was exhibited 
on a vast scale that wonderful spectacle which made even 
Mr. Southey exclaim, "Never has there existed any other 
society in which the welfare of the subjects, temporal and 
eternal, has been the sole object of the government !" and 
which forced from such a man the confession that " the in 
habitants, for many generations, enjoyed a greater exemption 
from physical and moral evil than any other inhabitants of 
the globe."* 

We might stop here, dismissing all further details as super 
fluous, at least in such a sketch as this ; but the educational and 
religious aspects of these communities claim also a moment s 
attention. "In every Reduction," says Mr. Southey, "not 
only was the knowledge of reading, writing, and arithmetic 
literally universal, but there were some Indians who were able 
to read Spanish and Latin as well as their own tongue." And, 
as at Carthagena at the other extremity of the "continent, a 
university was founded under the immediate sanction of the 
Sovereign Pontiff, so at Cordoba, as Mr. Southey observes, " the 
university became famous in South America." 

Lastly, the influence of religion among this vast population 
of converted savages was so powerful and all-prevailing, so 
utterly was vice in all its forms banished from among them, 
that, in 1721, the Bishop of Buenos Ayres, Don Pedro Faxardo, 
could report to Philip V. of Spain, "Their innocence is so uni 
versal, that I do not believe a mortal sin is committed in these 
Reductions in the course of a year."f 

Mr. Southey offers an explanation, after his manner, of this 
almost fabulous innocence. " Few vices," says this gentleman 
with apparent seriousness, " could exist in such communities. 
Avarice and ambition were excluded; there was little room 
for envy, and little to excite hatred and malice." He forgets 
that there was human nature, with all its frailties; and that 
the enemy of man, who found an entrance even into Paradise, 
had probably free access to Paraguay. " Drunkenness," he 
continues, in order to prove that" even the virtues of these 
Catholic Indians were not merits, " was effectually prevented 
by the prohibition of fermented liquors." Yet he relates in his 
next volume, forgetting, as such witnesses are apt to do, what 



* Vol. ii., ch. xxiv., p. 300. 
f Charlcvoix, liv. v., p. 94. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 211 

he had previously said, that " the Indians of these Eeductions 
cultivated the cane, both for sugar and rum ; and distilleries, 
which in most places produce little but evil, may be regarded 
with complacency there, because the moderate use of ardent 
spirits appears to counteract the ill effects of marshy situa 
tions."* 

Finally, as the absence of avarice, ambition, envy, and 
drunkenness, were perfectly natural in vast communities of 
many thousand persons, recently recruited from utter barba 
rism, and cannot reasonably be deemed Christian virtues ; so 
the crowning grace of purity was also, according to this Prot 
estant authority, a mere result of "precaution," and of "the 
spirit of monachism." Besides, as he gravely observes, "their 
idolatry came in aid of this precautionary system ;" which 
means, it appears, that " no person who had in the slightest 
degree trespassed against the laws of modesty could be deemed 
worthy to be accounted among the servants of the Queen of 
Virgins." And so, in all these great communities, thanks to 
" monachism" and " idolatry," the law of chastity was kept 
inviolate. 

And now we have heard enough. For two hundred years 
this work had been in progress, and these were its fruits. Once 
more the promise had been fulfilled which said of the apostles 
of the Church, " They shall build the places that have been 
waste from of old. And they shall know their seed among the 
gentiles, and their offspring in the midst of peoples." Once 
more the missionaries of the Cross had glorified their Master by 
orue of those victories, of which the philosophers and the phi 
lanthropists of this world are always dreaming, always an 
nouncing the future promise to their credulous disciples, but 
always abandoning in impotent despair. Once more the 
Church had perfected one of those seemingly impossible tri 
umphs which man may never compass or achieve by his own 
power ; and of which all the stages the first conception, the 
gradual progress, and the final execution are traversed only 
by the succor and the inspiration of the Most High. But even 
the Church does not always triumph, or how would she imi 
tate the life of her Lord ? Like Him, to-day she is saluted with 
Hosannahs, to-morrow she puts on the Crown of Thorns. It 
was now the enemy s turn to triumph. Here, as in other lands, 
he understood, that if he would scatter the sheep, he must first 
smite the shepherds. While they watched the fold, no irrep 
arable evil could befall the flock. Often, during those two 
hundred years, the Evil One had tried to force an entrance. 

* Ch. xliv., p. 843. 



212 CHAPTER IX. 

At one time, his agents massacred the pastors who kept such 
careful watch, but a moment after their place was supplied by 
others as vigilant and undaunted. At another, he employed 
corrupt Europeans filled with jealousy and malice, furious 
because the Indian had found a refuge from ^ their oppression, 
or smarting with the shame of baffled cupidity to plot their 
destruction. In the single year 1630, the infamous Paulistas 
Portuguese and other slave-traders, of various nations 
carried off by force fifteen hundred Indians from the Reduc 
tions. Fathers Mansilla and Manceta, as Mr. Southey relates, 
" had the courage to follow them as close as they could, trust 
ing to what they might find in the woods for subsistence, and 
administering such consolation as they could to the dying, with 
whom the road was tracked." But these ravages, formidable 
as they were, could not mar the work of the missionaries, who 
during two centuries were affectionately supported in all their 
conflicts by the sovereigns of Spain and Portugal, and often 
led their Indian soldiers to victory against the enemies of religion 
and monarchy, when no other power in America could have 
saved either. The day was now at hand when the same troops 
would have fought with equal valor to save their Fathers from 
outrage, if the latter had not refused to use in their own de 
fence the forces which they had constantly employed with suc 
cess in that of others. " Upwards of a hundred thousand 
civilized Indians," says a Protestant author, " were ready to 
take arms in defence of their spiritual leaders, and it was only 
by their own earnest entreaties to their flocks that tranquillity 
was preserved."* 

We have seen in the earlier chapters of this history how the 
Christian missions, just when they seemed about to embrace the 
whole heathen world, were suddenly overthrown in every land ; 
not by the failure of apostolic laborers, who were never so 
numerous as at that hour, but by a conspiracy which had its 
agents in every court of Europe, and which enlisted the eager 
sympathies of statesmen, philosophers, and infidels, who attack 
ed the Church through the Society of Jesus, and who despaired 
of executing the selfish or criminal projects which they had 
formed, so long as they were confronted on all sides by an army 
of indomitable warriors more sagacious than the statesman, 
more subtle than the philosophers, more courageous than the 
infidels whom they could neither divide by policy, nor bribe 
by favor, nor terrify by threats. And so these puritans of a pan 
theistic civilization, invoking with cynical hypocrisy the names 
of liberty, justice, and progress, and despairing of victory by any 

* Mansfield, p. 443. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 213 

other means over their patient and accomplished adversaries, 
had recourse at last to vulgar and ignoble violence, the strategy 
of the bandit, and the craft of the highwayman. It was 
the only weapon in their armory, and they used it without 
remorse. 

"The Jesuits were hurried into exile," says Mr. Southey, 
" with circumstances of great barbarity ;" and then he shows, 
that even aged men, who had grown infirm in the work of the 
missions, actually died in the arms of the soldiers, as they were 
dragged along the road. And the same scenes occurred in 
overy part of America. "Throughout Chili," says another 
English Protestant, "in deep midnight, the military governor 
of every town, attended by a military guard, took possession of 
every convent. The manner of performing the act was dis 
graceful to those who ordered its execution ; it bore the ap 
pearance of performing an act of which they were ashamed."* 
Out of thirty, who were dispatched in one vessel from Buenos 
Ayres, " only five," says Dobrizhoifer, " reached Cadiz half 
alive."f 

Let us add, in conclusion, a few additional testimonies 
from Protestant writers, who have honestly confessed not 
only the virtues of the missionaries, but the iniquity of 
the charges brought against them, the malignity of the 
treatment which they received, and the woeful results of their 
exile. 

They were charged with amassing riches, and even Southey 
says, " that the Jesuits accumulated nothing from Paraguay is 
most certain." They were libelled for excluding the Spanish 
language from the missions, though, as Chateaubriand notices, 
" all the converts could read and write Spanish correctly," and 
Southey observes, " malice has seldom been more stupid in its 
calumnies." They were taunted with making converts "by 
violence," though they were every hour at the mercy of their 
own disciples, and the same unfriendly writer replies, " per 
suasion was their only weapon." They were accused of 
seeking to form a " principality," and of governing it inde 
pendently of Spain, and of their own Order in Europe, and 
even Mr. Southey answers, " The charge will in itself appear 
incredible to those who reflect upon the character and con 
stitution of the Company." They were all linked together, 
he observes, by "perfect unity of views and feelings;" whereas 
the very design imputed to them, " if successful, would in its 
inevitable consequences have separated the province from the 

* Miers, vol. ii., ch. xviii., p. 208. 
t Vol. ill, p. 415. 



214: CHAPTER IX. 

general system, and deprived the Jesuits there of those supplies 
without which their Order in that country would in one 
generation have been extinct. They had their root in Europe ; 
and had the communication been cut off, it would have been 
barking the tree."* 

Yet a respectable Anglican clergyman, reviving the very 
calumnies which even a Southey despised, and which the 
remorse of their original authors long since retracted and 
disavowed, was not ashamed to say a few years ago before 
the University of Oxford, as if sure of the sympathetic applause 
of such an audience, that " it was not the Church that was 
planted among the natives of Paraguay," though that mission 
was governed by Bishops and constituted by an Ecclesiastical 
Council, " but a principality of Jesuits !"f So true it is that, 
in our days, the clergy of this particular school, living only for 
their own theories and loving only their own inventions, 
abandoning even the pretence of reverence which they once 
affected for the Mother of Saints, and surpassing in intemper 
ance the most thoughtless of their sect, have been willing, 
out of hatred to the Church which has only compassion for 
them, to catch up the abandoned weapons of the infidels of 
the eighteenth century, of the very men upon whose malignant 
fables the contempt of civilized Europe has long ago done 
justice. 

Let us continue the chain of testimony which this digression 
has interrupted. "The King of Spain," says Mr. Prichard, 
"yielding to the advice of the enemies of religion and of 
monarchy, ordered their expulsion from Paraguay, and left 
one hundred and twenty thousand converts from one single 
aboriginal nation destitute of the advice and guidance of their 
spiritual and temporal instructors."^: 

Sir Woodbine Parish, who ridicules, like Mr. Southey, the 
hollow pretexts of their enemies, and eloquently describes the 
true aim and character of the missions, says : " This was that 
imperium in im.perw which once excited the astonishment of the 
world, and the jealousy of princes. How little cause they had 
to be alarmed by it was best proved by the whole fabric falling 
to pieces on the removal of a few poor old priests. A more 
inoffensive community never existed." And then he generously 
adds, " It was an experiment on a vast scale, originating in 
the purest spirit of Christianity, to civilize and render useful 
hordes of savages who otherwise would, like the rest of the 

* Vol. iii., ch. xx., p. 501. 

f Grant s Bampton Lectures, v., 152. 

\ Section xlvii., p. 466. 






MISSIONS IN" AMERICA. 215 

aborigines, have been miserably exterminated in war or 
slavery." He even confesses, that " its remarkable success 
excited envy and jealousy, and caused a thousand idle stories 
to be circulated as to the political views of the Jesuits in 
founding .such establishments ;" and that these very rumors, 
invented by malice and propagated by selfish cupidity, 
" contributed, there is no doubt, to hasten the downfall of their 
Order."* 

"It is not easy," is the confession of a more prejudiced 
writer, " to find a parallel in history to the act of gigantic self- 
abnegation, so to speak, by which the Order renounced with 
out a blow a dominion so vast, and seemingly so firmly founded, 
as that which they exercised in Paraguay."f 

Even Robertson, though incapable of appreciating such men 
or their works, vindicates them from the calumnies of their 
implacable persecutors. "It is," he observes, "in the new 
world that the Jesuits have exhibited the most wonderful dis 
play of their abilities, and have contributed most effectually to 
the benefit of the human species. . . . The Jesuits alone made 
humanity the object of their settling there. "^ 

Sir James Mackintosh, a man who better deserved the title 
of philosopher, and who was able to admire "the heroic con 
stancy with which they suffered martyrdom," declares, in his 
turn, that " the Jesuits alone, the great missionaries of that 
age, either repaired or atoned for the evils caused by the 
misguided zeal of their countrymen ;" and, after quoting the 
well-known eulogy of Lord Bacon, he adds, " Such is the 
disinterested testimony of the wisest of men to the merits of 
the Jesuits." 

A multitude of American writers of our own day have 
delivered the same verdict ; let the testimony of one suffice. 
"Their missionary zeal among the Indians in the remotest 
provinces," says a Secretary of Legation in Mexico, " was 
unequalled. The winning manners of the cultivated gentle 
men who composed this powerful Order in the Catholic Church 
gave them a proper and natural influence with the children of 
the forest, whom they had withdrawn from idolatry and par 
tially civilized." And then, denying "that there was just 
cause" for the affected " alarm" of the King of Spain, and 
hinting that "he and his council were willing to embrace any 
pretext to rid his colonial possessions of the Jesuits;" this 



* Buenos Ay res, ch. xxii., p. 256. 

f Mansfield, ubi supra. 

Charles V., book vi., vol. vi., p. 203 (1817). 

Works, vol. ii., pp. 250, 1. 



216 CHAPTER IX. 

gentleman notices, with just indignation, that " all expression of 
public sentiment, as well as amiable feeling, at this daring act 
against the worthiest and most benevolent clergymen of Mex 
ico was effectually stifled."* Sir Woodbine Parish, an English 
diplomatic agent, repeats the same reproach, when he quotes 
the touching protest addressed by the Christian Indians of San 
Luis to the Governor of Buenos Ayres, in 1768. " Our children, 
who are in the country and in the towns, when they return and 
find not the sons of St. Ignatius, will flee away to the deserts 
and to the forests to do evil." The only reply of the sycophant 
Bucarelli was to send troops against them, but, adds Sir Wood 
bine, " he found them not in arms, but in tears."f 

Lastly, another English writer of our own day, retracting 
with a noble candor earlier language, thus estimates the Society 
whose labors he had once misjudged. " I have formerly ranked 
its operations in Paraguay and Brazil amongst those of its 
worst ambition ; but more extended inquiry has convinced me 
that, in this instance, I, in common with others, did them 
grievous wrong. . . Their conduct in these countries is one of 
the most illustrious examples of Christian devotion Christian 
patience Christian benevolence and disinterested virtue upon 
record." And then he adds, in words which he seems to have 
adopted from another, and which may fltly conclude these 
impressive confessions : " No men ever behaved with greater 
equanimity, under undeserved disgrace, than the last of the 
Jesuits ; and the extinction of the Order was a heavy loss to 
literature, a great evil to the Catholic world, and an irreparable 
injury to the tribes of South America." J 

The evil was consummated, and, as Sir Woodbine Parish 
observes, " upwards of a million of Indians" were now deprived 
of the pastors and guides by whom they had been, as it were, 
created anew ; and whose gentle rule they obeyed with such 
docile and loving confidence, that, as Ulloa relates, "even if 
they had been punished unjustly, they would have believed that 
they deserved it." We have seen, by the unsuspicious testimony 
of Protestant writers, to what degree of civilization they had 
attained. No longer dwelling in huts composed of branches, or 
lying naked on the untilled earth, from which they gathered 
only the fruits which it spontaneously offered, the Fathers had 
taught them to build stone houses, and to roof them with tiles ; 
agriculture, directed by science and aided by an effective system 
of irrigation, gave birth to new products of" which they had not 

* Mexico, Aztec, Spanish, and Republican, by Brantz Mayer, vol. i., ch. xiii.. 
p. 243 (1852). 
f Ubi supra. 
$ Howitt, Colonization and Christianity, ch. x., pp. 121, 141. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 217 

suspected the existence; their wide pastures nourished vast 
herds of cattle ; public magazines afforded a safeguard against 
famine, and carefully organized hospitals a refuge against dis 
ease or accident ; noble churches, decorated with no mean skill 
by their own art, displayed treasures of silk and jewels and 
gold which only their own intelligent industry, and the profits 
of a well-regulated commerce, had enabled them to procure ; 
they had troops and arsenals, ever at the service of the king, 
never employed against him ; they had become, by the pru 
dent cultivation of their own resources, almost independent of 
foreign productions ; they grew their own sugar, and their own 
tea, and distilled enough alcohol for the wise uses to which 
they applied it ; they were artists and manufacturers, as well 
as soldiers and herdsmen ; they made all kinds of musical in 
struments, even the organs, whose tones filled their vast 
churches, and sung with a sweetness and precision which 
modern travellers still attest with admiration ; and lastly, 
though the ecclesiastical Council of Lima mindful, perhaps, 
that they had but lately been hunters of men, and eaters of 
human flesh prescribed the most rigorous precautions in ad 
mitting the Indians to the Sacraments, even refusing Holy 
Communion till after seven years of blameless life, so great 
was their purity and devotion that these injunctions had be 
come well-nigh superfluous, and the Bishop of Buenos Ayres, 
who had minutely examined them by virtue of his office as 
" apostolic visitor, " could report to astonished Europe, " They 
form, perhaps, the most precious portion of the flock of Jesus 
Christ." 

And now the apostles, who out of such rude materials had 
built up so fair an edifice, were taken from them. " Here 
ended," says Mr. Southey, whom we quote for the last time, 
" the prosperity of these celebrated communities. The admin 
istrators " who now supplanted the missionaries " hungry 
ruffians from the Plata, or fresh from Spain, neither knew the 
native language, nor had patience to acquire it." 

Before these " rapacious and brutal" agents, emissaries of 
rapine, fraud, and obscenity, the Indian sunk down in despair, 
or fled away in dismay. The administrators were appointed, 
as the new authorities apt representatives of Pombal,Choiseul, 
and Aranda* gravely announced, " to purify the Deductions 

* Even English Protestants have sometimes appreciated these men and their 
fellows. " Well read in Voltaire, D Alembert, and Helvetius," says the late Lord 
Holland, speaking of Aranda, "jealous of the Church, inveterate against the 
Jesuits, who had been suppressed during his first ministry, and not insensible 
to the somewhat exaggerated praises lavished upon him for that measure by 
those who had rendered infidelity fashionable in Paris." And the school has 
continued the same to the present day. The "ignorant, rash, and presumptu- 



218 CHAPTER IX. 

from tyranny ;" and the immediate result of their presence 
was, that " the arts which the Jesuits had introduced were 
neglected and forgotten ; their gardens lay waste, their looms 
fell to pieces ; and in these communities, where the inhabitants, 
for many generations, had enjoyed a greater exemption from 
physical and moral evil than any other inhabitants of the 
globe, the people were now made vicious and miserable. Their 
only alternative was, to remain to be treated like slaves, or 
fly to the woods, and take their chance as savages." 

Such is the last chapter of a history more full of sadness than 
any in the modern annals of our race. Out of " a population 
of one hundred thousand persons, inhabiting thirty towns under 
the control of the Jesuits," by the borders of the Parana and 
the Uruguay, which were more exposed than remoter districts to 
the arts of the " hungry ruffians" who now devastated them, 
" not a thousand souls," observes Sir Woodbine Parish, " re 
mained in 1825!" "Upwards of four hundred towns ," says 
DobrizhofFer, " which formerly stood around Guadalcazar, a 
city of Tucuman now destroyed, utterly perished." Other 
tribes, it is true, suffered less, because the agents of European 
infidelity could not reach them ; but these also were deprived of 
their Fathers and teachers, and left to find their way in darkness. 
And yet they have kept the faith, by that special privilege which 
""distinguishes every church founded in the sixteenth century, and 
have survived a trial hardly paralleled in ecclesiastical story ; 
nay more, their number is again steadily increasing, and " many 
of the missions at this day," as M. d Orbigny has told us, "push 
the Catholic religion even to fanaticism," which probably 
means no more, in the mouth of such a witness, than that they 
are fervent Christians. The same writer, who seems to belong 
to that class, of which France unhappily produces so many, who 
classify the phenomena of religious life with the same frigid 
composure with which they arrange the statistics of the animal 
or vegetable world, furnishes in his elaborate work many 
deeply interesting proofs of that marvellous inflexibility of faith 
of which the history of Catholic missions supplies examples in 
every land, and which, to a Christian reader, are the most 
valuable portion of his remarkable volumes. All the Chiquitos, 
he has already told us, " have persevered, and at this day 
nothing would induce them to return to the life of the woods." 

ous" Urquijo is thus described by the same critic. " So fanatically hostile was he 
to the Church of Rome, that when, being Charge d Affaires in London, he first 
heard that General Bonaparte, by the peace of Tolentino, had spared the Papal 
Government, he ran like a maniac from his house for more than a mile, on the 
Uxbridge roa,d, and threw himself in despair into a pond." Foreign Remi 
niscences, by Henry Richard Lord Holland, pp. 75, 100 (1851). 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 219 

Amongst other nations, he observes, the customs introduced by 
the missionaries " are still maintained ;" and he relates that 
whenever an old sermon of one of the Jesuit Fathers is read to 
them, they eagerly assemble, and listen with profound attention. 
" The old men still remember with sorrow the expulsion of the 
Fathers in 1767, and all repeat, By them we were made 
Christians; by them we were brought to the knowledge of 
God, and the possession of happiness. " 

"Wherever he goes, and he went everywhere, M. d Orbigny 
says : " I am never weary of admiring the unparalleled results 
which the Jesuits obtained in so short a time amongst men who 
had so lately quitted the savage state." And then he contrasts 
their social and religious condition before and after the sup 
pression of the Society. " Under the Jesuits a severe morality 
was observed ; their present rulers are themselves examples to 
the Indians of misconduct." "The epidemics which now afflict 
them were unknown," he says, " in the time of the Jesuits," 
being kept at a distance by rigorous sanitary arrangements. 
Besides, the Jesuits nursed them in all their sickness, and now 
they are left to die like the beasts of the field. Finally, con 
trasting the economical and agricultural statistics under the 
Religious and under the Civil administration, he declares, in 
eloquent words, that " Nature herself seems to have resumed 
her original aspect."f 

Sir Woodbine Parish also, who speaks, like M. d .Orbigny, 
after personal experience, gives examples, which would be 
surprising if the fruits of such apostolic toils could excite 
astonishment, of the abiding power and influence of the mis 
sionaries. Thus at Cordoba, which was a sort of metropolis of 
the missions, " the effects of the preponderating influence of 
the monastic establishments are still visible in the habits of the 
generality of the people "\ 

Lastly, for it is time to bring this sketch to a close, an official 
French writer, who was attached to the diplomatic mission to 
the Plata, confirms, in 1850, all the other witnesses. M. de 
Brossard is not wholly exempt from the vulgar prejudices of his 
day, and has not shaken off the superstition, which makes the 
Jesuits a bugbear and a scarecrow in the eyes of so many 
shallow and half -educated Frenchmen ; but he was capable of 
expressing with energy the generous impressions which actual 
observation produced in his mind. " One thing is certain, and 
ought to be declared to the praise of the Fathers, that since their 

* Tome ii., p. 606. 
Tome i., p. 281. 
Part iii., ch. xviii., p. 281. 



220 CHAPTER IX. 

expulsion the material prosperity of Paraguay has diminished ; 
that many lands formerly cultivated have ceased to be so; that 
many localities formerly inhabited present at this day only 
ruins. What ought to be confessed is this, that they knew 
how to engrave with such power on their hearts reverence for 
authority, that even to this very hour, the tribes of Paraguay, 
beyond all those who inhabit this portion of America, are the 
most gentle, and the most submissive to the empire of duty."* 

* Les Repiibliquea de la Plata, par M. Alfred de Brossard, ch. iv., p. 31. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 221 



PAKT II. 



NOETH AMERICA. 



IT is time to quit South America, that we may search in the 
northern continent for the last and most notable example which 
the world offers of the contrast between the work of the Church 
and the work of the Sects. In tracing this final chapter of a 
history which we have now almost completed, we shall once 
more use, as we have done throughout these volumes, the 
testimony of Protestant authorities ; and if we have had reason 
to feel surprise at the vigor with which they have denounced 
the operations of their co-religionists in all other lands, the 
astonishing candor and truthfulness which, with rare excep 
tions, are the honorable characteristic of American writers, 
including the eminent names of Washington and Franklin, of 
Irving and Channing, will be found to supply evidence at least 
as valuable as any hitherto produced, and perhaps still more 
remarkable than any for copiousness, precision, and emphasis. 
It is impossible not to be struck by the fact, that while, on the 
one hand, the inhabitants of the United States have pushed the 
right of religious division, and the sovereign independence of 
the individual, to results which have appalled even the boldest 
thinkers among them, and have generated at last that chaos 
of spiritual confusion which their own writers have partly 
described to us ; on the other, a large portion of their literature, 
since they became a distinct nation, is a protest against the 
unappeasable jealousies, the eager malice, and fierce resent 
ments, which breathe in every line of the polemical writings of 
British Protestants. In refusing to transplant to her free 
shores the effete feudalism of England, America has declined 
also to become the heir of her arrogant and superstitious 



222 CHAPTER IX. 

bigotry.* Almost the only, certainly the most conspicuous, 
exceptions to this rule are found, as we might have anticipated, 
among the members of the American Episcopalian sect; as 
enamored at this hour of their dull and frigid forms, as inca 
pable of generous and expansive life, as when they first pro 
voked the disgust of the Virginians by their petty tyranny, 
ignoble greed, and querulous self-love. Imitating the model 
which they had left behind, they have attempted to restore it 
in their new home, but without success ; and while the majority 
of American sects, wisely allowing the echoes of sectarian fury 
to die away, and refusing the heritage of cruel traditions and 
implacable hatred which have given a special tone both to the 
literature and the legislation of England, have frankly acknow 
ledged that the Church wears as noble a front in a Republic as 
in an Empire, and have even been willing to draw their own 
ranks closer together, not to oppose, but to make room for her ; 
the Episcopalians, affecting to be neither wholly Catholic nor 
frankly Protestant, but doomed in all lands to restless jealousy 
and the pangs of that unfruitful labor in which " there is not 
strength to bring forth," still repeat the fretful maledictions 
which seem, with them as with others, to be the sole positive 
element of their religion. 

In the United States, whose religious phenomena, as far as 
they relate to the history of missions, we shall presently review, 
there is hardly room, except in one sect, for that peculiar form 
of the passion of hate which is begotten by the memory of 
wrongs inflicted but not repented. The Americans never 
decapitated, in the interests of a new religion, a More or a 
Fisher, nor tortured a Campion, nor tore out the bowels of a 
Lacy ; and being guiltless of the blood of the righteous, have 
no motive for cherishing hatred against them. Hence the 
marked contrast between their controversial writirtgs and 
those of British Protestants. What the English can say of the 
Church of God, and of her works, we have seen; the Americans 
will tell us, in their turn, how they have learned to estimate 
both. 

* A single example will serve to illustrate effectively the absence of mean 
and fretful passions which distinguishes the American people from their 
English co-religionists. In 1862, the authorities of Harvard University, who 
are Protestants of an advanced school, spontaneously offered their highest 
academical degree to the Catholic Bishop of Boston, and being trustees of a 
plot of land in that city which the Prelate desired to purchase, afforded him 
every facility in completing his design, which included the conversion of a 
Protestant into a Catholic church. Boston Pilot, October 25, 1862. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 223 



GUATEMALA. 

The first province which we must traverse in our way 
towards the North after passing the Isthmus of Panama, is 
Guatemala. If we stay here for a moment, we have at least 
a sufficient apology to offer for what might otherwise be 
deemed a needless delay. The history of the early missions in 
this comparatively obscure province has been recently sketch 
ed, by an English Protestant writer, with such rare fidelity of 
research and humanity of temper, that it would be unpardon 
able to neglect altogether his interesting record. " It will be 
a pleasure," he says, and his readers will confirm the declara 
tion, " to recount the proceedings of the Dominican monks 
of Guatemala, instinct with the wisdom of the serpent, as well 
as the harailessness of the dove." 

It was by Pedro de Alvarado, one of the most famous of the 
conquistadores of the New World, that this province had been 
annexed to the crown of Spain, in 1523. Animated, like all 
the warriors of his age and class, by a burning religious zeal 
which even their many faults never quenched, he had an 
nounced to the natives of Guatemala that he " came to show 
the Indians the way to immortality." The promise was to be 
abundantly fulfilled, though not by himself. In 1529, the cele 
brated Dominican, Domingo de Betanzos, of whose life and 
character Mr. Helps gives an account almost as remarkable for 
elevation of sentiment as for purity of style, set outfrom Mexico 
for the scene of Alvarado s conquest. It was a weary journey of 
four hundred leagues, but he went on foot, "eating little, and 
that only of wild fruits, and sleeping in the open air." He 
had scarcely reached the new city of Santiago, when he was 
summoned back to Mexico to attend a Council of his Order. 
In the spirit of patient obedience he retraced his steps, though 
not till he had commenced the building of a humble monastery, 
which was to be governed a little later by a disciple of his own, 
who became, as often happens, more illustrious than his master. 

It was in 1532 that Las Casas, also a Dominican, arrived in 
Nicaragua, on his return from Peru. Four years later he 
entered Guatemala, and " took up his abode in the convent 
which Domingo de Betanzos had built." With him went Luis 
Cancer, Pedro de Angulo, and Rodrigo de Ladrada, " all of 
whom," observes the English historian, " afterwards became 
celebrated men." "These grave and reverend monks," he 
continues, "might any time in the year 1537 have been found 
sitting in a little class round the Bishop of Guatemala (Francisco 
de Marroquin), an elegant scholar, but whose scholarship was 



224: CHAPTER IX. 

now solely employed to express Christian doctrines in the 
Utlatecan language, commonly called Quiche. As the chroni 
cler says, It was a delight to see the bishop, as a master of 
declensions and conjugations in the Indian tongue, teaching 
the good Fathers of St. Dominic. This prelate afterwards 
published a work in Utlatecan, in the prologue of which he 
justly says, l It may, perchance, appear to some people a con 
temptible thing that prelates should be thus engaged in trifling 
things solely fitted for the teaching of children ; but, if the 
matter be well looked into, it is a baser thing not to abase 
one s self to these apparent trifles, for such teaching is the 
marrow of our Holy Faith. The bishop was quite right. It 
will soon be seen what an important end this study of the 
language led to ; and, I doubt not indeed it might almost be 
proved that there are territories, neighboring to Guatemala, 
which would have been desert and barren as the sands of the 
sea but for the knowledge of the Utlatecan language acquired 
by these good Fathers an acquisition, too, it must be recollect 
ed, not easy or welcome to men of their age and their habits."* 

In the neighborhood of Guatemala, on its northeastern 
frontier, was the province of Tuzulutlan, called by the Span 
iards, " The Land of War," because they had thrice invaded 
and been thrice repulsed from it. Las Casas, whose whole 
life was a struggle in favor of the Indian against his oppres 
sors, engaged on behalf of the Dominican Fathers to attempt 
the conversion of this formidable people, " whom no Spaniard 
dared to go near," but only on a condition that the battle 
should be waged with spiritual weapons alone, and that no 
Spaniard should be suffered to enter the province for the space 
of five years. The Governor of Guatemala accepted the "com 
pact," and then they made their missionary preparations, 
u using," says Mr. Helps, " all the skill that the most accom 
plished statesmen, or men of the world, could have brought 
to bear upon it." It is probable that the Fathers themselves 
relied still more, as St. raul was wont to do, upon " the most 
fervent prayers, severe fasts, and other mortifications," which, 
as he relates, preceded their perilous attempt. 

It would be pleasant to transcribe the whole narrative of Mr. 
Helps, in which he traces, with rare refinement of language 
and feeling, the gradual progress of the Fathers and the means 
by which it was effected. One of the points, he says, to which 
"the cautious Cacique of the province directed the most 
careful attention, in order to test the real character of the new 
teachers, was " to observe whether they had gold and silver 
* 

* Helps, book xv., vol. iii., ch. v., p. 331. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 225 

like the other Christians, and whether there were women in 
their houses." The Dominicans, as we might have anticipated, 
endured with success an investigation which would have been 
fatal to certain " missionaries" of whom we have read in these 
pages ; and so, when this point was sufficiently cleared, the 
prudent Cacique " was the first to pull down and burn his 
idols ; and many of his chiefs, in imitation of their master, 
likewise became iconoclasts."* 

"The mission was extremely successful," says Mr. Helps, 
as such missions are apt to be ; and Las Casas, who was always 
looking ahead, and providing with all his might against possi 
ble dangers, was gladdened by the arrival of a brief from Paul 
III., pronouncing " a sentence of excommunication of the most 
absolute kind against all who should reduce the Indians to 
slavery, or deprive them of their goods." And then " the 
great Protector of the Indians," as Mr. Helps justly styles Las 
Casas, passed through Tuzulutlan, and penetrated to Coban. 
Being well received, he hastened to inform the other Fathers, 
" and they all commenced with great vigor studying the lan 
guage of Coban. Each success was with these brave monks a 
step gained for continued exertion." 

After a while the converted Cacique of Tuzulutlan came on 
a visit to the monastery at Santiago, and was presented by the 
learned bishop to the governor Alvarado. " Now Alvarado," 
says our eloquent historian, " though a fierce and cruel per 
sonage, knew (which seems to have been a gift of former days) 
when he saw a man. When the bold Adelantado met the 
Cacique, the Indian chieftain s air and manner, his repose, 
the gravity and modesty of his countenance, lils severe look 
and weighty speech, won so instantaneously upon the Spaniard, 
that, having nothing else at hand, he took off his own plumed 
hat, and put it on the head of the Cacique." The soldiers 
who stood round murmured when they saw the great captain 
pay honor to an Indian ; but Alvarado was a better judge 
than they of the qualities of the new Christian, and continued 
to treat him with the same distinction during his stay in 
Guatemala. By this specimen also he understood what sort of 
converts the Fathers had won in that " Land of War," which 
his own troops once dared not enter, " but which now," as Mr. 
Helps observes, " deserved that name less than any part of the 
Indies."f 

Indeed, the once dreaded province had already received from 
Charles Y. the significant name which it bears to this day of 

* Ch. vii., p. 350. 
t P. 369. 
VOL. n 16 



226 CHAPTER IX. 

Yera Paz and Mr. Helps remarks that it is a notable instance 
" of an aboriginal tribe being civilized and enlightened by 
their conquerors, and not being diminished in numbers nor re 
stricted in territory." Its prosperity has lasted during nearly 
three hundred years ; and the English historian, alluding to 
the final success of the great undertaking of Las Casas, ob 
serves, in words worthy of himself and of the subject, " It seems 
something wondrous when any project by one man really does 
succeed in the way and at the time that he meant it to succeed. 
We feel as if the hostile Powers, always lurking in the rear of 
great and good designs, must have been asleep, or, in the mul 
tiplicity of their evil work, have, by some oversight, let pass a 
great occasion for the hindrance of the world. "* 

Of the four great and good men who accomplished this 
noble work, and by their wisdom and fortitude added provinces 
to the kingdom of Christ, two will meet us again in Mexico ; 
let us add a word upon the other two, Luis Cancer and Pedro 
de Angulo. The latter was appointed Bishop of Vera Paz, in 
155&, but " did not live to enter his diocese." His memory 
long survived, says Mr. Helps, who has carefully studied all 
the original records, and never begins to write till he has 
examined every thing relating to his subject, and "the Indians 
forty years afterwards were wont to quote things which, they 
had heard him say in the pulpit. He gained their love, it is 
said, so much, that 4 they did not know where they were 
without him. One of them, " giving an account of the 
effect which his preaching produced, used an expressive meta 
phor especially expressive in that country comparing the 
excitement in the hearts of his Indian audience to that of ants 
in an ant-heap when some one comes to disturb it with a 
stick." 

Luis Cancer, the first of the four to enter the province of 
Yera Paz, was the only one honored with the crown of mar 
tyrdom. He was put to death by the Indians of Florida, who 
knew not how to distinguish him from the violent and unjust 
Spaniards whom they feared and hated. " How seldom," says 
Mr. Helps, in allusion to this martyrdom, " do men recognize 
their true friends !" 

It is time to pursue our journey. Three provinces more had 
been won to religion and civilization, and this time the work 
was done by Dominicans. But if they succeeded, and the fruits 
of their apostolic toils remain to this day, for paganism is 
almost unknown in these regions, it was not because they were 
Dominicans, not because they were learned, patient, and wise, 

* Ch. ix., p. 398. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 227 

but because they had received from God a special vocation to 
this work, and had been sent forth by the Church to accomplish 
a task which none but her chosen apostles have ever under 
taken, and in which none but they may ever hope to triumph. 
This is the only reflection which we rniss, and which we could 
hardly expect to find, in the graceful and learned pages of 
Mr. Helps. 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 

It would detain us too long to speak in detail of the various 
provinces of Central America. If we refer to them for a 
moment, it is with the object of recording the experience of an 
English Protestant missionary, who was not indeed of the school 
of Angulo or Las Casas, but should not on that account be 
passed over in silence. It is our business to trace a contrast. 
This gentleman announces, then, in 1850, after a somewhat 
disastrous career in these regions, and in language which his 
English friends would perhaps applaud, that " Romanism is the 
putrescent heart of Central America." The rest of his book is 
in the same style. He observes with displeasure that even " the 
Carif women," who are not, socially speaking, a high class, 
" have been seen joining in the prostrate adoration of an image 
of the Virgin, " and that he and his companions tried in vain 
" to preserve them from these calamities." 

From his own account, the state of the Protestant mission 
was not consoling. All its members were fighting together, 
within hearing of "the Carif women," and with the uWtal % 
lavish expenditure of Scripture texts. One of them retired 
" for want of a congregation," a trial which the rest endured 
with greater fortitude. The narrator himself got into jail, and 
seems to have stayed there a good while. Finally, the " mission 
house" was sold, and converted into a lunatic asylum. Such 
was the issue of Protestant efforts in this region. 

But this is not the most important information which we derive 
from this gentleman, whose " violent extramission" from Guate 
mala was related in an earlier chapter, and may perhaps account 
for his lively resentment. The people of Brazil, Mr. Ewbank has 
told us, despise a Protestant missionary, " from a rooted belief 
in his ignorance and presumption ;" in Guatemala, as Mr. Crowe 
relates with indignation, " a Jew is something akin to a demon, 
and a Protestant is something lower and more dangerous than a 
Jew." He adds, however, as if to excuse this misconception on 
the part of the Guatemalans, that " the general deportment of 
the Anglo-Saxon visitors, or residents, has not been such as to 



223 CHAPTER IX. 

raise the respect of the inhabitants for the Protestantism which 
they profess," and that his own attempts to apply a remedy 
" have signally failed." And so lie returned to England, and 
the people of Central America still rank him and his co-relig 
ionists below the Jew.* 

It was apparently, as we have said, the memory of his own 
discomfiture which inspired Mr. Crowe s volume. Other Prot 
estant travellers, who had a much more extensive knowledge ot 
Central America, thus correct his unfavorable report. Mr. 
Stephens, unconsciously reproving, like so many of his candid 
and intelligent countrymen, the ignoble malice of mortified mis 
sionaries, gives a very different account, in his well-known work, 
both of the inhabitants of these tropical regions and of their 
pastors. Of a large tribe of Carib Indians, dwelling within the 
British territory, on the Gulf of Honduras, he says, " Though 
living apart, as a tribe of Caribs, they were completely civilized. 

In every house was a figure of the Virgin, or of some 

tutelary saint ; and we were exceedingly struck with the great 
progress made in civilization by these descendants of cannibals, 
the fiercest of all the Indian tribes whom the Spaniards en 
countered." 

A little later, he assists at a religions service in the same 
tribe, conducted by a strange priest, an Irishman, whose total 
ignorance of their language " led to confusion ; but all were so 
devout and respectful, that, in spite of these tribulations, the 
ceremony was solemn." 

"From the moment of my arrival," says the same writer, "I 
was struck with the devout character of the city of Guatemala," 
gfyfahich Mr. Crowe retained such unpleasant recollections. 
*** Every house had its figure of the Virgin, the Saviour, or 
some tutelary saint, and on the doors were billets of paper with 
prayers." One of these, which Mr. Crowe perhaps failed to 
notice, was as follows : " May the true blood of Christ our 
Redeemer deliver us from pestilence, war, and sudden death. 
Amen." 

Mr. Stephens visited every part of Central America, and was 
constantly the guest of the clergy in every province. Speaking of 
44 the whole Spanish-American priesthood," he says, in spite of 
Protestant sympathies, exactly what Mr. Temple and others have 
already told us of the same class. " They were all intelligent 
and good men, who would rather do benefits than an injury ; in 
matters connected with religion they were most reverential, 
labored diligently in their vocations, and were without reproach 

* The Gospel in Central America, by Rev. F. Crowe, ch. xii., p. 242 : ch. xiv., 
pp. 294, 306, 457. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 229 

among their people." He remarks that he "had an oppor 
tunity of seeing throughout all Central America the life of 
labor and responsibility passed by the cura in an Indian village 

looked up to by every Indian as a counsellor, friend, 

and father," and declares, after coming out on one occasion 
from a church in which all the Indians had assisted at Vespers, 
" I could but think, what subsequently impressed itself upon 
me more and more in every step of my journey in that country, 
Blessed is the village that has a padre."* 

Perhaps we may now cease to wonder that Mr. Crowe and 
his companions only succeeded in getting into jail, and that 
their mission-house was converted into a lunatic asylum. 



MEXICO. 

And now let us enter Mexico. The conquest of Mexico by 
Spain has been compared by Lord Macaulay with that of 
Hindostan by the English. Only one point of contrast between 
the two events was left unnoticed, perhaps because unheeded, 
by the great Essayist. Pie nowhere reminds either himself or 
his readers that Mexico became a Christian nation, while India 
has only been confirmed in her worship of demons. Such is 
the familiar contrast which history records, for the admonition 
of mankind, between the fruits of a Catholic and a Protestant 
conquest. 

Mexico is Christian. Count up all the misdeeds of the vio 
lent men who subdued the Aztec race, exaggerate, if it be 
possible, all their faults, and add a darker shade to their 
crimes, still, when all is told, the fact remains, which you will 
never be able to obliterate, that paganism is extinct in Mexico, 
and triumphant in India. 

And how was this conversion of a whole people, hitherto 
abandoned to a dark and bloody superstition, brought to a pros 
perous issue ? How was this mighty work of renovation accom 
plished, the contemplation of which forced an eminent American 
writer of our own day to exclaim, " How easily has the Indian 
element in Mexican nationality been developed into civilized 
and productive co-operation !"f By what mysterious and per 
suasive arts was this new triumph of Christianity effected, of 
which a French writer epitomizes the whole history in a few 
emphatic w r ords, w r hen he says, "The progress of religion in 



* Incidents of Travel in Central America, by John Lloyd Stephens, ch. ii., 
pp. 13, 15 ; ch. viii., pp. 104, 108 ; ch. xxxv., p. 443 (1854). 
\ Texas, by F. Law Olmsted, p. 297. 



230 CHAPTER IX. 

America, by the preaching of a few poor religious, notably of 
the order of St. Francis, was so universal, that in the space of 
forty years, six thousand monasteries and six hundred bishoprics 
were founded in that land ?"* 

It is only a brief answer which we can give to this question. 
No doubt it was to the labors of apostolic men, such as 
Betanzos and Motolinia; Martin de Valencia and Peter of 
Ghent ; Francisco de Soto, Las Casas, and Zumarraga ; such, 
in a word, as that great company of valiant and gifted men who 
at the same hour were toiling for God s glory in every land, from 
Lake Huron to the Gulf of Siam that this magnificent conquest 
was chiefly due. But justice claims even for the mailed war 
riors of Spain, who fought, like Cortez, with the sword in one 
hand and the cross in the other, some share in the noble work to 
which it is their glory, and almost their justification, to have 
contributed. It has been the fashion, with all but a few cautious 
and patient students of history, to load with undiscriminating 
obloquy the men who overthrew, by a prodigy of valor and 
policy, the throne of Montezuma. Yet something may be said 
in their behalf. It is not, indeed, to such red-handed warriors, 
impetuous as Jehu and resolute as Joab, that we can point as 
types of the Christian character. Yet even these imperious 
soldiers, who shouted from morning till night their war-cry of 
Santiago," Cortez and Alvarado, Sandoval and Pizarro, 
will be monuments to the end of time of the power and majesty 
of that Faith from which, in spite of their errors, they derived 
all their strength, and without whose inspirations they would 
neither have attempted nor accomplished the immortal enter 
prise with which their names are forever associated. 

A tardy justice has begun to recognize in our own day the 
truth of this allegation. Even Protestant writers will tell us, 
that it was not a thirst for gold which was, or could be, the sole 
spring of action with a man so truly great as Cortez. "There 
is much to blame," says one of the most elegant and discerning 
historians of this memorable epoch, " in the conduct of the first 
discoverers in Africa and America; it is, however, but just to 
acknowledge that the love of gold was not by any means the 
only motive which urged them, or which could have urged them, 
to such endeavors as theirs. "f They were penetrated, he adds, 
with the most profound conviction of " the fatal consequences 
of not being within the communion of the Church." He does 
not, of course, share their belief, but he is keen enough to see 
that it affords the only rational explanation of their conduct. 

* Migne, Dictionnaire des Conversions, introd., p. 18 (1852). 
\ Helps, vol. i., ch. i., p. 28. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 231 

A French writer, equally devoid of partial sympathies, detects 
also the same motive in all their actions. " They redeemed," 
says M. de Brossard, in words which we cannot accept without 
modification, " the disorders of their private life by deeds of 
charity and an ardent faith." And this was especially true of 
Cortez. "An object which Cortez never lost sight of," says 
Mr. Helps, "was the conversion of the natives." It was Cortez 
who first requested that religious might be sent from Spain. 
"I supplicate your Imperial Majesty," he says in one of his 
letters, alluding to the possibility of converting the natives, 
"that you would have the goodness to provide religious persons, 
of good life and example, for that end." And when the Fran 
ciscans arrived, it was in the following words that he presented 
them to the people of Mexico. "These are men sent from God, 
and ardently desiring the salvation of your souls. They ask 
neither your gold nor your lands, for despising all the goods 
of this world, they aspire only after those of the next."* 

It is an error to suppose that Cortez, a man filled with tender 
and generous thoughts, was cruel by nature, or that he \vas as 
careless of the blood of others as he was of his own. He never 
slew for the sake of slaying, and was as calm in victory as he 
was terrible in battle. He deplored, with perfect sincerity, the 
very actions in which he took part, and only inflicted death 
upon those who refused mercy. It must be remembered too, 
that he had entered with Montezuma that infernal shrine in 
which the hearts of men smoked in golden platters before the 
idols of the nation, and that he quitted it trembling with 
religious horror and indignation, and became thenceforward as 
truly the minister of the Most High in chastising the demon- 
worship of this guilty race, as Joshua was when he led the 
armies of Israel across the Jordan. Nor let it be forgotten 
that to him is due, at least in part, the significant and atoning 
fact that the noblest temple which has ever been reared in the 
New World stands on the very site of that foul and impious 
den, from which Cortez hurled with his own hand both the 
blood-stained priests who were lodged within it, ayd the idols 
which, but for him, might perchance have been worshipped at 
this hour.f 

Lastly, it is evident that Cortez was otherwise appreciated, 
both by the Mexicans themselves and by the prelates and mis- 

* Henrion, tome i., ch. xxxvi., p. 390. 

f " On the same lofty platform, where Cortez converted the half-burned tem 
ple of the great teocalli to the purposes of a Christian church, now stands a 
more modern ecclesiastical structure, dedicated to Our Lady de los Remedios, 
whose shrine is tended ly an Indian priest of the blood of the ancient Choi u- 
lans." Prehistoric Man, vol. i., ch. xiv., p. 483. 



232 CHAPTER IX. 

sionaries who were their most courageous and devoted pro 
tectors, than by the crowd of careless or half-informed critics 
who have neither done justice to the merits nor rightly dis 
criminated the faults of this illustrious man. When he re 
turned from his first visit to Spain, "he was received," we are 
told, " with vivid demonstrations of delight by great numbers 
of the people in "New Spain, both Spaniards and Indians."* 
Zumarraga, the first bishop of Mexico, and Domingo de Be- 
tanzos, men as valiant as himself though in another cause, and 
always strenuous protectors of the Indians, were not only his 
personal friends, but the chosen executors of his will ; while 
another prelate of the same class, Sebastian de Fuenleal, who 
would have refused homage to any mortal potentate, unless he 
could offer it with a good conscience, chose him for his coun 
sellor. "Far from looking upon Cortez as an enemy," says 
Mr. Helps, " the wise bishop acted entirely in concert with the 
Captain-General. It was Don Sebastian s practice to take 
counsel with many persons as to what ought to be done, but 
with the Marquis alone, or, at least, with very few persons, as 
to the mode of executing what had been resolved npon."f 

Cortez was a warrior who had something of the temper of St. 
Louis, and more of Kichard Coeur de Lion. Like the last, he 
turned aside neither to right nor left, but clove a straight path 
through all that barred his way ; like the first, every blow he 
dealt was, a defiance to the pagan, a victory for the Cross. He 
was inconsistent, as men of war are wont to be ; but he was no 
vulgar swordsman, battling only for wealth and honors. His 
great heart was filled to the brim with that faith which meaner 
men call " fanaticism," but which alone made him what he 
was, which gave lustre to all his actions, and which he assisted 
to plant so deeply in the soil of Mexico, that, in after days, it 
overshadowed all the land. 

Even Alvarado and Pizarro, men far inferior to Cortez, were 
no such graceless ruffians as modern critics, possessing neither 
their heroic valor nor their religious instincts, would have us 
believe. It, is no small praise to the first, that, with all his 
faults, he was honored with the friendship of the learned and 
saintly Bishop of Guatemala. His last will remains to prove 
that he knew at least how to deplore his injustice and violence, 
and desired to atone for them ; and when he lay on his death 
bed, mangled by that avenging rock which had crushed his 
stalwart limbs, and was asked where his pain was sorest, the 
spirit within him broke forth in the sorrowing cry, " My soul ! 
mv Ronl f" 



my 



* Helps, vol. in., ch. vi., p. 198. 
f Ch. viii., p. 218. 



MISSIONS IN" AMERICA. 233 

Pizarro, too, an adventurer and an outcast from his youth, 
whether he was starving in the island of Gorgona, with his 
fourteen dauntless followers, or leading on his handful of com 
rades to battles in which they were one against a thousand, or 
plucking the Inca with his own hand from his litter in the great 
square of Cassamarca, was ever, after his kind, a soldier of the 
Cross. " In the midst of all their misery," says a Protestant 
historian, " they did not forget their piety." In Gorgona, where 
they spent three heavy months of doubt and suffering, while 
" subsisting upon shell-fish, and whatever things, in any way 
eatable, they could collect upon the shore ;" " every morning, 
they gave thanks to God : at evening-time they said the Salve 
and other prayers appointed for different hours. They took 
heed of the feasts of the Church, and kept account of their 
Fridays and Sundays."* And when the decisive hour arrived, 
and Pizarro stood face to face with Atahuallpa, it was Father 
Vicente de Valverde who, at the conqueror s request, " advanced 
towards the Inca, bearing a cross in one hand, and holding a 
breviary in the other," and explained to the Peruvian prince, 
still at the desire of Pizarro, the mysteries of " the true Catholic 
Faith," and " the history of Jesus Christ." Finally, when this 
intrepid warrior came to his end, and the violent man fell under 
the swords of assassins, he drew the sign of the cross on the 
floor with his own blood, kissed with his dying lips the emblem 
of salvation, and with that supreme act of love and contrition 
Pizarro passed to his account. 

Compare these men, who in every case won kingdoms for 
their Divine Master, and who banished paganism from every 
land which they entered, with the English captains who scattered 
the hosts of the Mogul or the Mahratta. Little recked they of 
the glory of God, or of the progress of the Faith. Fanaticism, 
as they would have called the sublime enthusiasm of a St. Paul 
or a Las Casas, was riot their line. ~No word did their tongues 
ever utter in honor of the Cross, no hymn did they chant in 
praise of the Crucified. " JSTot a temple has been thrown down 
by the English" says a Protestant writer, " not a single deity 
removed by proclamation from the calendar."f To live as the 
heathen blushed to live, and sometimes to die as even the 
heathen would have been ashamed to die ; to smile compla 
cently on the foul superstitions which they neither rebuked them 
selves, nor would suffer others to rebuke ; to " discountenance 
Christianity as a most dangerous innovation" while they at 
tended banquets in honor of Ganesa, fired royal salutes to do 

* Helps, vol. iii., p. 447. 

t Mead, The Sepoy liewlt, cli. xix., p. 245. 



234 CHAPTER IX. 

homage to Sivah, or gathered wealth from the worship of Jug 
gernaut ; such, as their own historians have told us, were the 
tactics of the English conquerors of Hindostari. And they 
were the same from first to last. The hero of Plassy, almost as 
great a soldier as Cortez, found an exit from life through the 
shameful gate of suicide ; the victor of Assaye and Seringapatam 
died as his own war-horse died, and with scarcely more thought 
of the Unseen. No province did they, or such as they, ever 
win to Christ. They found India pagan, and they left it pagan. 
One lesson only they imparted to Hindoo or Mahometan, which 
he learned but too well. They taught him, by their own ex 
ample, to hate and despise the religion of which they were pro 
fessors, and to deride a doctrine the very preachers of which, 
when at last they arrived in India, were so manifestly types of 
woiidliness and self-indulgence, that, far from producing any 
impression upon the mocking pagans who doubted " whether 
they believed their own Scriptures," a conspicuous member of 
their order ingenuously confessed, " Your profession of religion 
is a proverbial jest throughout the world. 

There is no need, even if we had space, to recount the toils 
by which men of another faith, and other gifts, won Mexico 
to the cross of Christ. Here, as in every other land in which 
they encountered only such impediments as were common to 
St. Paul or St. James, they did the work for which God raised 
them up, and for which He endowed them with adequate gifts. 
They failed only, where St. Paul or St. James would perhaps 
have equally failed, in countries where the heathen have been 
fatally prejudiced against Christianity, by the divisions and 
contradictions, the irrational precepts or the effeminate habits, 
of Protestant teachers. Against such obstacles even apostles 
contend in vain, or only at a fearful disadvantage. 

In Mexico they had a fair field, and had to fight only against 
the corruptions of the human heart, and the devices of the Evil 
One. They overcame both. All South America, from the 
Isthmus of Panama to the frontiers of Patagonia, and from the 
valleys of Peru to where the floods of the Amazon and the 
Orinoco mingle with those of the Atlantic, was converted by 
them ; and then they spread their conquests in the North, 
through Guatemala, Nicaragua, Mexico, Texas, and California. 
They had done all that apostles could do. Canada and the 
United States, which would have shared the same privilege, 
were snatched from them ; because t/iere, as we shall see, a 
hundred spurious forms of Christianity, stripped of every Divine 
element, and each battling against every other, had inspired 
only the disdain of the barbarian, who formed such an estimate 
of the doctrine and its teachers, that he not unfrequently went 






MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 235 

down to his untimely grave, imprecating with his latest breath 
a malediction upon both. 

One special trial beset the apostles of Mexico, and it should 
be noticed, because there is perhaps nothing in their career 
more admirable than the struggle by which they overcame it. 
It was not from such men as Cortez or Pizarro that they ever 
encountered opposition in their holy work, but from a later 
generation of ignoble adventurers, vulgar soldiers or greedy 
lawyers, who soon swarmed in the fair regions which the great 
Marquis had added to the crown of Spain. Against these 
men, whose crimes were often unredeemed by a single virtue, 
Las Casas and Zumarraga, and all their brethren, fought with 
a patient but unyielding courage which even the most pre 
judiced writers have celebrated with applause. "The Roman 
Catholic clergy in America," says the unbelieving Robertson, 
" uniformly exerted their influence to protect the Indians, and 
to moderate the ferocity of their countrymen-."* " We must 
express our admiration," says an English naturalist, " for the 
exalted piety of the Roman Catholic missionaries, who, in these 
countries, inhabited by human beings in the lowest state of 
degradation, endured poverty and misery in all forms, to win 
the Indians to better habits and a purer faith. "f " The learned 
and thoughtful men," says Mr. Helps " for such the monks 
and ecclesiastics must be held to be, looking before and after, 
knowing many of the issues of history, and often appealing to 
great and general principles, are steadily arrayed against the 
mere conquering soldier, the good Bishop Zumarraga and his 
confraternity, against Nuno de Guzman and his followers.":): 

Sometimes the civil authorities, who wished to employ the 
Indian only as a beast of burden, cunningly affected in their 
appeals to Spain to defend "the prerogatives of the State" 
against " the encroachments of the Church ;" but Charles Y. 
was too sagacious a monarch to be much moved by arguments 
of which he appreciated the real character, but which the same 
class of statesmen use in our own day to frighten feebler po 
tentates. 

On the other hand, notable examples are found of active and 
generous co-operation with the clergy on the part of the lay 
Auditors of Mexico. In 1531, when there were only a hundred 
Dominicans and Franciscans in the whole country, the Auditors 
" sent to the Emperor, beseeching him to send out more monks, 
being, doubtless, of the same mind with a subsequent Yiceroy 

* Charles V., notes, vol. x., p. 400. 

f Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Herald, by Bertliold Seemann, F.L.S., 
vol. ii., ch. ix., p. 153 (1853). 
t Book xiv., ch. v., p. 186. 



236 CHAPTER IX. 

of Mexico, who, when there was much question about building 
forts throughout the country (a suggestion urged upon him by 
the authorities at home), replied, that towers with soldiers were 
dens of thieves, but that convents with monks were as good as 
walls and castles for keeping the Indians in subjection."* 

Again : when a new generation of Auditors " made the noble 
endeavor to provide homes and instruction for the numerous 
orphans who had lost their parents by reason of the cruel work 
imposed upon them in the mines," Quiroga, one of their num 
ber, " who, it must be remembered, was a lawyer, and there 
fore less likely to be led away by a love for monastic institu 
tions," urgently recommended the Council of the Indies " to 
make a settlement of the young Indians in each district, at a 
distance from other pueblos, and in each settlement to place a 
monastery with three or four religiosos^ who may incessantly 
cultivate these young plants to the service of God." And so 
perfectly did these shrewd men of the world of that age com 
prehend, what the same class affect to doubt in our own, that 
monasteries are both cheaper and more potential institutions 
than prisons or workhouses, that Quiroga, filled with admira 
tion at what the monks had already done, exclaims, " I offer 
myself, with the assistance of God, to undertake to plant a 
kind of Christians such as those were of the primitive Church ; 
for God is as powerful now as then. I beseech that this 
thought may be favored. "f 

Nor was this the language of mere enthusiasm. What the 
Religious could do had been already sufficiently proved in many 
a province of America, and Mexico was not destined to be an 
exception. Already the Indian, refusing to see in them the 
emissaries of a foreign power, had learned to regard the Fathers 
first with astonishment, and then with veneration. "Their 
poverty, their temperance, their simplicity of life," says a 
Protestant writer, " recommended them at once to the Indian." J 
And as time went on, and fresh colonies of Dominicans and 
Franciscans arrived, all filled with the same charity, and 
displaying the Christian religion in its noblest and most 
attractive form, the Mexican understood that these men came 
to him with hands filled only with gifts and blessings. It 
was they who obtained from the Holy See the menace of 
excommunication against his selfish oppressors, and from the 
royal authority such decrees as the following: "That no Indian 
should carry any burdens against his will, whether he was paid 
for it or not ;" that " when they were sent to the mines they 

* Helps, book xiv., ch. vi., p. 200. 

f Id., p. 208. 

; Id., ch. xv., p. 313. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 237 

were to be provided with clergy there ;" that the " Protectors," 
of whom the noble and generous Las Casas was one, should 
" cause that the Indians be well treated, and taught in secular 
things, and instructed in the Articles of the Holy Catholic 
Faith."* 

What marvel if the Indian abandoned himself with love and 
confidence to such teachers as a bountiful Providence had now 
provided for him? How should men who are thus described 
even by Protestant writers fail to win his heart ? Of the 
Bishop-President of Mexico, Don Sebastian Ramirez de Fuen- 
leal, who arrived in 1531, Mr. Helps gives the following por 
trait: "JSTo single subject of government occupied his attention 
to the exclusion of others. He founded churches ; he divided 
Mexico into parishes ; he established a college, and was the 
first man to propose that a learned education should be given to 
the Indians. His efforts in this matter were successful ; and 
it is curious that one of the best chroniclers of the bishop s 
proceedings (Torquemada) was instructed in the Mexican 
language by a most accomplished Indian, who had been 
educated at this college."f 

" The clergy," says the same careful and conscientious his 
torian, " not only taught spiritual things, but temporal also. 
They converted, they civilized, they governed ; they were 
priests, missionaries, schoolmasters, kings. A considerable 
share in the credit of this good work must be given to the un 
wearied labors of the Franciscan and Dominican monks. That 
the missionary spirit in that age was so potent and so success 
ful as it was must in some measure be attributed to the intense 
belief which the missionaries entertained of the advantage to 
be derived from outward communion of the most ordinary 
kind." 

St. Paul seems to have shared the same " intense belief," if 
we may judge from his summary exhortation to Titus how to 
deal with " a man that is a heretic""^ or his equally emphatic 
warning to the Philippians, "Beware of dogs." u Earth has 
no privilege," is in every age the confession of loving faith, 
" equal to that of being a member of His Church ; and they 
dishonor both it and Him who extenuate the dismal horrors of 
that outer darkness in which souls lie that are aliens from the 
Church." Only they who have received this " royal grace" can 
understand their unutterable calamity who possess it not, or the 
" appalling difficulties of salvation outside the Church. This 

* Helps, book xiv., ch. xiv., pp. 175-177. 
f Id., p. 219. 
i Tit. iii. 10. 
Philip, iii. 2. 



238 CHAPTER IX. 

is the reason why the saints have ever been so strong in the 
instincts of their sanctity, as to the wide, weltering, almost 
hopeless deluge which covers the ruined earth outside the ark. 
Harsh, to unintelligent uncharitable kindness intolerably harsh, 
as are the judgments of stern theology, the saints have even 
felt and spoken more strongly and more peremptorily than the 
theologians. The more dear to the soul the full light and sac 
ramental life of Jesus, the more utter the darkness, the more 
dismal the death, of those who are without that light and life, 
in their fulness and their sacramentality. The eternal posses 
sion of Mary s Immaculate Heart, together with all the intel 
ligences of the countless angels, would not suffice to make one 
act of thanksgiving for the single comprehensive mercy of 
being Catholics, and of acknowledging St. Peter s paternal 
supremacy."* 

But this ardent conviction, of the " advantage to be derived 
from communion" with the Catholic Church, w r hich alone has 
inspired all apostolic works, and which St. Peter and St. Paul, 
St. James and St. Jude, expressed in such startling words, 
" would not alone have caused the rapid progress of these 
missionaries," Mr. Helps truly observes, " had there not been 
to back it the utmost self-devotion, supreme self-negation, 
and also considerable skill in their modes of procedure." 
Was not the " supreme self-negation" a result of the " intense 
belief," and were not both the fruit of Divine grace, which 
during some twenty centuries has always lavished these noblest 
gifts upon one class of men, and always refused them to every 
other ? 

Sometimes the same English historian whom we have so often 
quoted, and always with pleasure, gives individual examples of 
that great company of preachers by whom Mexico was evan 
gelized. Of the Franciscan Martin de Valencia, head of the 
Order in Mexico, he speaks thus : " When he arrived in Mex 
ico, he maintained the most rigid mode of life. He went bare 
foot, with a poor and torn robe, bearing his wallet and his 
cloak on his own shoulders, without permitting even an Indian 
to assist in carrying them. In this fashion he used to visit the 
convents under his jurisdiction. Being already an old man 
when he arrived in Mexico, he could not learn the language 
with the same facility as his companions; so that what he most 
devoted himself to was teaching the little Indian boys to read 

Spanish He sang hymns with the little children, and, 

as we are told, did great good in the Indian villages where he 
resided." Like Moses, he would sometimes go apart from the 

* Father Faber, The Blessed Sacrament, book iv., sec. 5, p. 502. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 239 

world to draw nearer to God, for whose sake lie lived this life, 
and was accustomed to "retire to an oratory on a mountain, 
where he might enjoy the most profound contemplation." 

Francisco de Soto, " a man of singular piety, who afterwards 
refused the bishopric of Mexico," was a missionary of the same 
class ; and Toribio Motolinia, who wore out his life in " teaching, 
catechizing, and baptizing the Indians ;" and of whom it is said, 
that " he baptized no less than four hundred thousand of them." 

But it was Peter of Ghent, Mr Helps assures us, " who 
perhaps did most service." He was a Flemish lay brother, 
" who, in his humility, never would be any thing but a lay 
brother." From him the Mexicans learned " to read, to write, 
to sing, and to play upon musical instruments. He contrived 
to get a large school built," in which, besides more elementary 
matters, he taught them painting, carving, and other arts. 
" Many idols and temples owed their destruction to him, and 
many churches their building. He spent a long life no less 
than fifty years in such labors, and was greatly beloved by 
the Indians, amongst whom he must have had thousands of 
pupils. The successor of Zumarraga one day generously 
exclaimed, 4 I am not the Archbishop of Mexico, but brother 
Peter of Ghent is!" 

Of Domingo de Betanzos, who became "the principal Do 
minican in New Spain," we have already heard in Guatemala. 
It was a sharp life which he and his brethren led, following the 
strictest rule of their ascetic Order, and " so versed in self- 
denial," as our historian observes, that " the sternest duties of 
a missionary were easy to them." They were men thoroughly 
penetrated with the maxim of St. Paul, "No man being a 
soldier of God entangleth himself with secular business."* 
They could be merciful to the poor, for none were so poor as 
they. They could rebuke the rich, for they had often resigned 
wealth and honors in order to have the right to do so. The 
very sight of them suggested thoughts of penance, hope, and 
manly effort. Of Betanzos, to whom "his brethren were 
attached beyond measure," for monks have more loving hearts 
than the egotistical votaries of pleasure, who are too feeble even 
to love in earnest, we read as follows : " The principal men in 
New Spain held him in high estimation ; the Indians were 
delighted with his disinterestedness ; and the whole country 
reverenced him, and looked up to him as a father."f When he 
had done his work in Mexico, the brave old man, " moved by 
a desire for martyrdom," wanted to go to China, and so kindled 

* 2 Tim. ii. 4. 
f Helps, ix. 407. 



24:0 CHAPTER IX. 

the heart of the noble Bishop Zumarraga, says Mr. Helps 
though he only considers it a proof of " high-souled fanaticism," 
that he was ready to resign his bishopric to go with him. 
The Pope, however, refused permission, and they both died in 
the land for which they had done so much. 

Ortiz, afterwards Bishop of Santa Martha, was of the same 
school, and Julian Garces, " a very learned man and an elegant 
Latin writer," who was the first Bishop of Los Angelos in 
Tlascala; and Antonio de Montesino, subsequently martyred in 
India, and Lorenzo de Bienvenida, who boldly admonished 
Philip II. not to peril his own soul by tolerating the injustice of 
the Spaniards ;* and a hundred more, who displayed in Mexico 
the same virtues, waged the same battles, and gained the same 
victories, as their fellow-laborers in other lands. 

And now if we inquire, without attempting to enter into 
impossible details, what was the final result of all this apostolic 
toil, the kindly and accomplished historian whom we have fol 
lowed will tell us. " Two important letters," he observes, the 
one addressed by Bishop Zumarraga, in 1551, to a General 
Chapter of the Franciscan Order, held at Toulouse ; the other 
by Bishop Garces a } r ear or two later to Pope Paul III., 
afford information from which " we are able to form something 
like a complete picture of the state of this early Church in 
relation to the Indians." 

The Bishop of Mexico relates, that already more than a 
million Indians had been baptized by the Franciscans alone ; 
" five hundred temples have been thrown down, and twenty 
thousand idols broken in pieces, or burnt. In place of these 
temples have arisen churches, oratories, and hermitages. But, 
as the good bishop says, that which causes more admiration is, 
that whereas they were accustomed each year in this city of 
Mexico to sacrifice to idols more than twenty thousand hearts of 
young men and young women, now all those hearts are oifered 
up, with innumerable sacrifices of praise, not to the Devil, but 
to the Most High God."f 

Both the venerable writers speak with enthusiasm of the piety 
and docility of the Indian children, and the Bishop of Tlascala 
says of those in his own diocese, " they not only imbibe but 
exhaust the Christian doctrines non hauriunt modo, sed ex- 
hauriunt, ac veluti ebibunt. " Of their exactness in frequenting 
the Divine office, and in the practice of confession, as well as of 
" the dove-like simplicity" with which they accused themselves 

* Voyages, &c., pour sermr d I histoire de la Decouverte de VAmerique, par H. 
Ternaux Company tome ii., p. 307. See also the letter of Juan de Zumarraga 
in tome v. 

f Helps, iii., 300. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 

of their faults, they speak with equal admiration ; while " the 
Bishop of Mexico mentions that the children steal away the 
idols from their fathers, for which, he says, some of them have 
been inhumanly put to death by their fathers; but they live 
crowned in glory with Christ." 

Lastly, the English writer whom we have so often quoted, 
referring to that linal victory of the Faith which was accom 
plished in Mexico by "the. untiring efforts of such men as Las 
Casas, Betanzos, Zumarraga . . . and the various prelates and 
monks who labored with or after these good men," not only 
declares with a noble frankness that " it is a result which Chris 
tians of all denominations may be proud of and rejoice in," 
an excessive statement, since only one "denomination" has ever 
had the smallest share in producing such results, but is led to 
make the following weighty reflection upon the whole history : 
" We are told that in the sixteenth century there was a revi 
val throughout Europe in favor of the Papacy, which set the 
limits to Protestantism those limits which exist even in the 
present day ; but we cannot say that any such revival appears 
to have been greatly needed, or to have taken place in Spain. 
The fervent and holy men, whose deeds have been enumerated, 
were in the flower of their youth or their manhood before the 
Reformation had been much noised abroad ; and it is evident, 
from the whole current of the story, that the spirit of these 
men was not a thing developed by any revival, but was in con 
tinuance of the spirit with which they had been imbued in 
their respective monasteries. All honor to their names !" 

Let us conclude, according to our custom, with a few Prot 
estant testimonies to the fact, which we have noticed in every 
other land, that neither suffering, nor neglect, nor lapse of 
years, have been able to shake the faith of the converted Mex 
ican. Las Casas and Zumarraga, Betanzos and Peter of Ghent, 
are no longer among them ; the disorders of Europe have 
reached, arid sometimes convulsed, even their remote dwellings; 
profligate rulers, whom their want of political education obliges 
them to accept, have involved their nation in shameful disor 
der; but the Mexican people, innocent of the crimes which 
scandalize without corrupting them, are still Catholic in their 
inmost heart, still preserved by the Mother of God, who always 
guards her own, from the taint of heresy. 

A few witnesses will suffice ; and that we may take extreme 
oases, they shall include an agent of the Bible Society, an 
English lawyer, two American Protestants, and a Scotch Pres 
byterian. u Every man," says the Rev. Mr. ."Norris, whose 
Bibles and discourses the Mexicans seern to have rejected with 
amused contempt, " professes himself a Catholic, and is very 
VOL. n. 17 



242 CHAPTER IX. 

devout and religious in his way ; in some respects they are 
worthy of imitation by enlightened Christians."* It is true 
that elsewhere Mr. Korris calls their religion "idolatry;" but 
men whose own " worship" hardly equals the decent courtesy 
which one civilized man offers to another, and who have still 
to learn in what the union of the creature with his Creator 
consists, may well deem that homage idolatrous which is so far 
deeper and more tender than their own, even when the objects 
of it are only the Saints in heaven. Of worship in its true 
sense, that which is due to God alone, such men would speak 
with more profit if they had any personal experience of it. 

Of one Mexican province, Mr. Brantz Mayer speaks as fol 
lows, in 1852. "The aborigines of Jalisco, formerly warlike 
and devoted to a bloody religion, are most generally tillers of 
the ground, adhering to the doctrine of the Catholic Church"\ 

Even the most frivolous writers suspend the jibe or the jest 
to notice the deep religious feeling of the Mexicans, in spite of 
neglect or scanty instruction. An American traveller of this 
class, who confesses that he drew his knife on a priest, and 
scoffs at the "ridiculous mummeries" of processions and 
prayers, notices with a sneer that " the Mexicans are jealous of 
their churches, and do not, willingly, allow a heretic to enter 
alone;" and then he sums up his impressions in these words: 
u The religious feeling which pervades all classes, young and 
old, is remarkable. STever do you see any of them pass a 
church without uncovering their heads, and turning their faces 
thitherwards ; while, at the sound of the bell, every hat is re 
moved and all stand uncovered where they are, until the sound 



is over.";); 



Dr. Lempriere relates that "funciones solemnes, or other re 
ligious performances, may be witnessed in the principal towns 
and cities almost daily" in which fact his legal education 
might have taught him to see at least a proof of the influence 
of religion ; but it suggests to him quite another comment. 
Superbly ignorant of religion in general, and of the Christian 
religion in particular, this ornament of the Inner Temple goes 
on thus : " You enter a church and invariably encounter a 
motley crowd, exhaling unseemly odors, and dispensing small 
vermin on every side." A few "well dressed, well-appearing 
individuals" he encountered, but not enough to leaven the 
mass, and so he adds, "It is impossible for an individual ot 
respectable education and ordinary delicacy of feeling to join a 

* Strickland, Hist, of American Bible Society, cli. xx., p. 175. 

f Mexico, &c., vol. ii., ch. vni., p. 295. 

j A Campaign in New Mexico, by Frank S. Edwards, ch. vi , p. 93. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 243 

crowd in one of these pagodas or jos temples, called churches , 
without feeling ineffable disgust."* Witnesses of this class 
should always be allowed to speak for themselves. Alas ! for 
Lazarus, if *he should venture to display his sores at Dr. 
Lempriere s gate. 

A more humane writer, Madame Calderon de la Barca, 
speaks thus of modern Mexico: "There exists no country in 
the world where charities, both public and private, are practised 
on so noble a scale ; generally speaking, charity is a distinguish 
ing attribute of a Catholic country." And this is confirmed by 
an American Protestant, who visited Mexico as a prisoner, and 
had some reason to speak of its rulers with resentment. " It is 
not in Mexico alone," says Mr. Kendall, after describing " the 
institutions for relieving the distresses of the unfortunate, and 
the different orders of Sisters of Charity, those meek hand 
maidens of benevolence, whose eyes are ever seeking the 
couch of sickness," " that this holy feeling of charity exists ; 
but wherever the religion of v Rome is known, there do we find 
the same active benevolence exerted, the same attention to the 
wants of the suffering."f 

Of the existing race of monks, usually the butt at which 
every witless traveller aims his shafts, Madame de la Barca, in 
spite of the prejudices of her Scotch training, candidly observes: 
" I firmly believe that by far the greater number lead a life of 
privation and virtue." " Throughout the whole country," 
this lady adds, " at every step you see a white cross gleaming 
among the trees . . . here every thing reminds us of the triumph 
of Catholicism" Of the Indians themselves, their " super 
stitions," and perpetual "religious processions," she gives 
much the same account, though with less bitterness of lan 
guage, as we received from Mr. Scarlett, Mr. Mansfield, and 
others, with respect to their brethren in the south ; she adds, 
however, while vehemently disapproving such external mani 
festations, which are usually dramatic representations of facts 
in the life of our Lord or of the Saints : " It is singular, that, 
after all, there is nothing ridiculous in these exhibitions ; on 
the contrary, something rather terrible.";): 

If it be true that " out of the abundance of the heart the 
mouth speaketh," and that national customs represent national 
feelings, we may perhaps conclude, that a people who spend a 
large part of their lives in devout processions and religious 

* Mexico in 1861 and 1862, by Charles Lempriere, D.C.L., of the Inner Tem 
ple, and Law Fellow of St. John s College, Oxford, ch. iii., p. 103 ; ch. v., p. 175. 

f Narrative of the Texan Santa Fe Expedition, by George Wilkins Kendall, 
vol. ii., ch. xvii., p. 340. 

$ Life in Mexico, by Madame C. de la Barca, Letter xxiii., pp. 177, 288. 



2:14 CHAPTER IX. 

exhibitions, can hardly be indifferent to religion. Such, 
spectacles are not indeed witnessed in England or Holland, 
and no man expects to see- them. The Mexicans, who have 
received the gift of Faith, may fitly represent the scenes of 
the Nativity, the Passion, or the Resurrection, for these events 
are to them realities. Such sights are familiar to the eye and 
heart, and kindle the sad or joyous sympathies of every 
inhabitant of the land. If any one should attempt to introduce 
them in any village of England, the incongruous spectacle 
would be speedily suppressed, and perhaps with reason ; for 
every one would feel that it awakened only uneasiness and 
repugnance, by forcing them out of their habitual train of 
thought, and rudely disturbing the ordinary current of their 
life.* 



TEXAS. 

If now we once more pursue our journey northwards, we 
shall find two provinces, one on the eastern, the other on the 
western frontier of Mexico, which deserve a moment s atten 
tion. Texas and California, both lately absorbed by that 
energetic and all-devouring race which is perhaps destined one 
day to overrun the whole continent, will introduce us, not only 
to that order of missionaries with whose labors and successes 
we are now sufficiently familiar, but also, for the first time in 
America, to the agents of another religion, who have already 
nearly completed the work of ruin, violence, and demoraliza 
tion which has marked their presence in every other land. A 
few words must suffice for each province. 

A well-known American writer, who published in 1857 an 
account of the present state of Texas, will give us, in two or 
three pregnant sentences, all the information we need in 
illustration of the contrast which we have so often traced. 
Speaking of the work of the Catholic missionaries, he says, 
"The missions bear solid testimony to the strangely patient 
courage and zeal of the old Spanish Fathers."f Yet one hun- 

* Dr. Lempriere scoffs, as becomes " an individual of respectable education," 
because " the people take off their hats," not only to every ecclesiastic, but 
" whenever they pass an image, and also, whenever the bells indicate that 
Borne performance is going on inside any one of the churches they happen to 
be passing." Mexico, ch. ii., p. 04. English Protestants, he rejoices to think, 
do nothing of the kind. Why should they ? To them, a clergyman is only 
a gentleman witli a fair income, while the " performance" in their churches is 
more apt to create drowsiness than reverence. 

f Olinsted, Texas, p. 154. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 245 

dred and thirty years have passed away since the latest mission 
of San Antonio was founded by the Franciscans, in which, 
after so long an interval, such evident traces of their wisdom 
and goodness are still apparent even to Protestant eyes. 

It is certainly a notable fact, which even the political economist 
may contemplate with interest, that the very ruins of Catholic 
missions present tokens of the mighty civilizing power which 
created them, such as no Protestant effort of the same kind has 
ever exhibited, though sustained by the co-operation of civil 
and military officials, and aided by temporal resources which 
Catholic missionaries neither desire nor enjoy. " A noble 
monument of the skill of the Fathers," says an American writer, 
" and of the improvement of their neophytes, remains in the 
many churches, aqueducts, and other public works, built ~by 
Indian hands, which still remain on Texan soil."* 

Of the Indians themselves, Mr. Olmsted says, " We were in 
variably received with the most gracious and beaming polite 
ness and dignity. Their manner towards one another is enga 
ging, and that of children and parents most affectionate." And 
then follows the usual account of the woful results of their un 
willing contact with a Protestant people. "Since 1853 the 
diminution has been rapid. . . . At aM points of contact with 
the white race they melt gradually away"\ There is, then, no 
exception to the universal law. Wherever the Anglo-Saxon 
sets his foot, bringing in his train selfishness, arrogance, and 
insatiable cupidity, the aboriginal races disappear; and if he is 
accompanied, as sometimes happens, by the ministers of his 
religion, they disappear so much the quicker. A little later we 
shall find the Indians themselves noticing this invariable fact. 

Nor can this doom surprise us, as respects Texas, when we 
learn from Protestant evidence how the natives are treated by 
their new masters. "It is," says Mr. Olmsted, in expressive 
language, " the mingled puritanism and brigandism" of his 
fervid countrymen which make it impossible for them " to 
associate harmoniously" with the mild and courteous Mexican. 
" Inevitably they are "dealt with insolently and unjustly. They 
fear and hate the ascendant race." Mr. Froebel also notices 
" the injustice and overbearing with which the Anglo-Americans 
everywhere treat the Hispano-American and Indian popula 
tion ;" and Mr. Russell Bartlett, one of their countrymen, not 
only describes " their shameful and brutal conduct," but de 
plores their participation in " outrages which make one who 
has any national pride blush to hear recited.";]: 

* Shea, Missions among the Indian Tribes, &c., cli. v., p. 87. 

f P. 296. 

\ Personal Narrative, &c., vol. i., ch. xviii., p. 423, 



216 CHAPTER IX. 

Yet the Mexicans, of all ranks, could teach their rude guests 
a lesson of charity and courtesy, if the latter were capable of 
profiting by it. When the Americans who invaded Mexico 
from Texas, most of whom were brigands of the vilest class, 
were happily captured, and marched as prisoners through the 
whole country to the capital, Mr. Kendall, who shared their 
fate without deserving it, gives this account of " the Mexican 
population generally," through whom the lawless adventurers 
were conducted. "They seldom manifested any feelings of 
exultation in our presence. On the contrary, the mild and 
subdued eyes of the poor Indians were turned upon us invaria 
bly in pity, while the crowds through which we passed, in all 
the large cities, appeared rather to be actuated by commisera 
tion than triumph or hatred, Jews and heretics though they 
thought and termed us."* 

The lesson appears to have been unfruitful. At Bexar, Mr. 
Olmsted relates how the Mexican householders, using a right 
which American institutions are supposed to guarantee, voted 
at a certain election against " the American ticket," and 
apparently against the introduction of slavery, which Catholic 
Mexico has suppressed. For this act of citizenship they were 
publicly assailed, in terms which may suffice to warn us that 
we are once more coming into the presence of Protestantism, 
as " political lepers, voting at the bidding of a rotten priest 
hood. ^ We may easily anticipate the fate of the Mexican in 
Texas. 

But he will not perish without an effort to save him. There 
are missionaries at this hour in Texas whom the best and 
bravest of other days would have welcomed as brothers. . Even 
Zumarraga and Las Casas might have rejoiced to claim for a 
colleague Bishop Odin, the Vicar Apostolic of Texas ; even 
Betanzos and Peter of Ghent would have recognized as fellow- 
laborers such men as Timon and Domenech, Dubuis and 
Chazelle, Calvo and Estany, Clark and Chanrion, Fitzgerald 
and llennessy ; who now toil, or have recently finished their 
course, in that arduous field. The Abbe Domenech has lately 
described their labors, their sufferings, and their patience. If 
we refer for a moment to his well-known pages, it is for the 
sake of adding one more proof that the Church still produces 
the same class of missionaries Spanish, French, English, or 
-Irish as have borne her message to all lands from the time 
of St. Paul to our own. 

When Bishop Odin visited Europe in 1815, and appealed in 

* Narrative, &c., ch. vi., p. 131. 
t P. 499. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 247 

the city of Lyons to the Levites of France to follow him, for 
the love of Christ, to the banks of the Brazos, the Kueces, and 
the Rio Grande, these were the attractions which he offered 
to their zeal. " You will not always find any thing to eat or 
drink ; you will be without ceasing in travels through un 
known regions, where the distances are immense, the plains 
boundless, and the forests of vast extent. You will pass your 
nights on the moist earth, your days under a burning sun. 
You will encounter perils of every kind, and will have need of 
all your courage and all your energy."* 

The invitation was accepted as frankly as it was given. 
Amongst those who embraced the proposed career was the 
Abbe Emanuel Domenech, who arrived in Texas in 1846. 
From the window of his humble dwelling in Castroville he 
looked out upon the tomb of his predecessor the Abbe Chazelle. 
Excessive labor, and the want of all nourishing food, had re 
duced the latter, as well as his companion the Abbe Dubuis, 
to that mortal languor and exhaustion for which in their 
utter poverty they could find no remedy. The one lay on the 
ground, the other on a table, both stricken with typhus 
fever. They had none to succor them, and water, of which 
a neighbor placed every morning a pailful at their door, 
was their only medicine. On the tenth day of their illness, 
it was the great Feast of the Assumption, the Abbe Dubuis 
resolved to make an attempt to offer once more the Holy 
Sacrifice. " Let us confess for the last time," he said to his 
dying companion ; " the strongest of the two shall then say 
Mass, and give Holy Communion to the other." With diffi 
culty Dubuis accomplished the pious design, and then Chazello 
fell to rise no more. He was in his last agony, when his com 
panion staggered to his side, and in a feeble whisper pronounced 
over him the final blessing of the Church. A little later, he 
bore him with tottering steps to a grave in the garden, and there 
" the dying interred the dead."f 

The Abbe Dubuis recovered. You think, perhaps, that he 
now abandoned a scene so full of sorrowful memories in the 
past, of formidable anticipations in the future? But men who 
have received the apostolic vocation accept all that it imposes. 
At the close of the year 1847, we find the Abbe Dubuis writing 
from Castroville to his friend the Cure of Fontaines, near 
Lyons, a letter which concludes with these words : " To this 
hour I have never known one moment of disgust or regret ; 



Journal d un Missionaire au Texas et au Mexique, par 1 Abbe E. Domenech. 
eh. i., p. 2. 
f Ch. ii., p. 50. 



248 CHAPTER IX. 

and if I were still in France, I would quit it immediately for 
the mission of Texas, which I shall only abandon when strength 
and life are taken from me."* 

Yet it was a hard life which these brave missionaries led in 
Texas. Salary they had none, not even the traditional twenty 
pounds a year which their brethren receive in India and 
China. They lived on alms, when alms were offered, and 
dispensed with them when they were not. Sometimes they 
dined on a rattle-snake, sometimes on a cat, and oftener still 
they did not dine at all. Once the Abbe Dnbuis failed to say 
Mass, though the congregation were assembled ; he could not 
speak, not having tasted food for forty-eight hours. He and 
the Abbe Domenech were joint proprietors of a single cassock, 
for as they sometimes galloped eighty miles to administer a 
sick person, their vestments were subject to dilapidation, so 
that while one said Mass, the other stayed at home in his shirt 
sleeves. 

Nor does their bishop, whom the Holy See subsequently 
raised to the dignity of Archbishop of New Orleans, seem to 
have fared much better than his clergy. The Abbe Hennessy 
relates to a friend in Paris the manner of living in the Episcopal 
Palace. u To give you an idea of the comfort and luxury of 
our life, let it suffice to say, that here, in Galveston, the whole 
amount of our weekly expenditure, for the Vicar Apostolic and 
the three priests who live with him, is four dollars, or about 
sixteen shillings. Monseigneur Odin, choosing poverty and 
straitness for himself, is only rich and lavish towards the poor."f 
In a letter which this apostolic bishop, who lived upon four 
shillings a week, addressed to his parents, he says, " Sometimes 
discouragement almost seizes me, when I know not what means 
to adopt to procure even the most indispensable provisions ; 
but God is so good a Father that He always comes to our 
help."} 

We are not surprised to learn from the Abbe Domenech that 
the Protestant clergy in Texas had no sympathy with such a 
mode of existence. Each of them, he says, had five hundred 
pounds a year, besides what he could earn by the ingenious 
operations in which such men are skilled. One of them, who 
had three marriageable daughters, announced to his flock, 
he had chosen for his text the appropriate words, " Increase 
and multiply," that he would give three thousand piastres 
with each of the young ladies to any eligible suitor ; and his 

* App., p. 471. 

f P. 465. 

i Annales de la Propagation de la Foi, tome iii., p. 533. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 249 

congregation probably saw nothing unusual or incongruous 
in this form of paternal solicitude.* 

But if the Protestant ministers lived in Texas as they are 
wont to live everywhere else, carefully limiting their prudent 
operations to the principal cities, and diligently avoiding 
even the remote possibility of unwelcome perils ; the Catholic 
missionaries would have taught them, if they could have com 
prehended the lesson, what men can do who have forsaken all 
for Christ s sake. The Abbe Domenech, amongst others, was 
familiar with startling scenes. He is on one of his ordinary 
errands of mercy, journeying from Dhanis to La Leona, and 
comes suddenly upon the bodies of seven Mexicans, pierced 
with arrows, scalped and mutilated. The still smouldering 
embers of their camp-fire showed how recent the massacre 
had been. A few miles beyond La Leona, for he had boldly 
continued his way where charity called him, he finds a 
woman suspended to a tree, still living, though her scalp had 
been torn off; and at her feet three Mexicans, just slaughtered 
by a party of marauding Indians. The missionary pursued 
his course unhurt. 

At another time the house of the Abbe Estany is attacked 
by the Comanches. He makes his way through a storm of 
arrows, and receives no wound ; but all he possesses, clothes, 
books, and church vessels, are carried oif or destroyed. 

The Abbe Dubuis, who had braved a hundred deaths, is 
surprised in his turn by a party of savages. There is no 
escape, and he quietly advances to meet them. " Do me no 
harm," he says, with a calm voice: "I am a captain of the 
Great Spirit, and a chief of prayer." They leave him in 
peace. 

But death had no terrors for such men as these ; it was 
but the passage to eternal life. Once the Abbe Domenech 
received an express, bidding him hasten to the assistance of 
Father Fitzgerald, dying at Victoria. He sets out at a gallop, 
almost leaps over a panther lying in his path, and at length 
stands by the bedside of his friend. " I spoke to him," he says, 
" but he did not answer. I wished to embrace him ; -his lips 
were rigid. He was just dead. At twenty-six years of age, 
far from his family, his country, and his friends, without even 
the succors of religion at his departure out of the world, he had 
breathed his last. In beholding this youthful victim of Chris 
tian charity, my heart was oppressed ; I fell on my knees, and 
being unable to pray, I wept. . . . But in spite of the sad end 
of my poor friend, 1 envied his lot ; for him no doubt any 

* Domenecli, ch. iii., p. 281 ; 3d voyage. 



050 CHAPTER IX. 

longer existed about the future ; he had died in the midst of 
his work."* 

But it is time to leave Texas, where missionaries of the same 
class continue at this hour the same valiant and patient apos- 
tolate, calmly expecting, amid all their toils, sufferings, and 
dangers, the hour when they shall be joined to their brethren 
who have gone before, and receive the recompense to which St. 
Paul looked forward during all the vicissitudes of his ministry, 
the bonds and scourging, the hunger and thirst, the perils 
and contradictions, and which such as they have earned a 
right to share with him. 



CALIFORNIA. 

The history of California, a land which effectively illustrates 
the peculiar civilization of the nineteenth century, has been 
written by Yenegas and others. Here the same facts meet us, 
which we have noticed in every other region of the earth. Not 
one of the usual phenomena is wanting. The zeal and devo 
tion of the Catholic missionaries ; their unbounded success ; 
the love and veneration which the converted natives displayed 
towards them ; the commercial and agricultural prosperity 
which existed, as Humboldt observes, under " the strict though 
peaceful rule of the monks ;" and finally, the swift havoc and 
ruin introduced by men of the Saxon race ; all recur in their 
accustomed order, and all are eagerly attested, as usual, by 
Protestant writers. 

" The name of California," says Mr. Berthold Seemann, in 
1853, "is forever united with the unselfish, devotion of the 
Franciscan friars."f Yet the children of St. Francis had been 
preceded by men of whom another Protestant traveller thus 
speaks : " The Jesuits, before they were supplanted by the 
Franciscans," observes Sir George Simpson, " had covered the 
sterile rocks of Lo\ver California with the monuments, agricul 
tural, architectural, and economical, of their patience and 
aptitude ; not only leaving to their successors apposite models 
and tolerable workmen, but also bequeathing to them the 
invaluable lesson, that nothing was impossible to energy and 
perseverance. * We shall presently hear what the same im 
partial writer says of the Protestant missionaries in the same 
regions, and the results of their apparition. 

* Ch. vi., p. 176. 

f Voyage of H.M.8. Herald, vol. ii., ch. ix., p. 153. 

; Journey Hound the World, vol. i., ch. vii., p. 334. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 251 

Mr. Forbes, who celebrates with frank admiration " the 
pure and disinterested motives of the Jesuits," whom he gen 
erously lauds as " true soldiers of the Cross," and contrasts in 
snergetic terms with the " illiterate fanatics" whom the Sects 
have sent to take their place, records also, like Sir George 
Simpson, " the minute but not uninteresting warfare which 
they maintained for so many years against the rude natives 
of California and its still ruder soil, until at length they tri 
umphed over the former, and as much over the latter as was 
possible."* 

He describes, too, the work of their successors, after careful 
observation of it. "The best and most unequivocal proof of the 
good conduct of the Franciscan Fathers is to be found in the 
unbounded affection and devotion invariably shown towards 
them by their Indian subjects. They venerate them not 
merely as friends and fathers, but with a degree of devoted- 
ness approaching to adoration." And then he exclaims, as if 
he found it impossible to restrain the unwelcome confession, 
" Experience has shown how infinitely more successful the 
Catholic missionaries have been than the Protestant." He 
even becomes enthusiastic in tracing the contrast, and adds, 
"Nor can there be agents more fitting than the persevering and 
well-disciplined friar, whose whole life and studies have been 
directed to this end; whose angry passions no injury can rouse, 
whose humility and patience no insult or obstacle can overcome. 
With him our missionaries can hear no comparison"^ 

Sir George Simpson is more cautious, for he was a British 
official, yet he also relates how the Protestant missionaries 
abandoned in despair their attempts on the natives of Colombia, 
because " they soon ascertained that they could gain converts 
only by buying them ;" and he adds, almost resentfully, " The 
Church of Rome is peculiarly successful with ignorant savages." 
Yet so intelligent a person can hardly suppose that these were 
the easiest class of disciples to win much less, that they wero 
the easiest to retain. 

Let us hear other eye-witnesses, but all Protestants. " We 
visited the missions," says Dr. Coulter, in 1847, "making a few 
days stay at each, enjoying the lively, humane, and agreeable 
conversation of the padres, who were, without an exception, a 
pleasant set of men The padres now have perfect con 
trol over the Indians of the missions.";}: 

Captain Beechey had made exactly the same observation a 
few years earlier. " The converts are so much attached to the 

* California, ch. i., p. 17. 

f Ch. v., pp. 230, 242. 

\ Western Coast of South America, vol. i., ch. xv., p. 154 ; ch. xvi., p. 1 70. 



252 CHAPTER IX. 

padres, that I have heard them declare they would go with 
them if they were obliged to leave the country."* 

Mr. Walpole, writing two years after Dr. Coulter, and with 
scant sympathy for Catholics, says, " To me the Catholic mis 
sionaries of America always appeared far superior to all other 
Catholics ; under their fostering rule the rude savage ceased 
his wars, settled down and tilled the land in peace, witness 
Paraguay and California l"f 

These witnesses are all English Protestants; let us hear what 
Americans say on the same subject. Captain Benjamin Morrell 
visits the mission of St. Antony of Padua, near Monterey, and 
this is his report : " The Indians are very industrious in their 
labors, and obedient to their teachers and directors, to whom 
they look up as to a father and protector, and who in return 
discharge their duty towards these poor Indians with a great 
deal of feeling and humanity. They are generally well clothed 
and fed, have houses of their own, and are made as comfortable 
as they wish to be. The greatest care is taken of all who are 
affected with any disease, and every attention is paid to their 
wants.":): Such testimonies are instructive, yet every one must 
feel that they deal only with the surface of things, and do not 
lay bare the hidden sources from which all these blessings 
spring. 

Captain Morrell finds one thousand two hundred Christian 
Indians in the mission of St. Clara. " ~No person of unprejudiced 
mind," he exclaims, "could witness the labors of these Catholic 
missionaries, and contemplate the happy results of their philan 
thropic exertions, without confessing that they are unwearied 
in well-doing." And then he adds, that although "the Mex 
icans and Spaniards are very indolent, and consequently very 
filthy," " the converted Indians are generally a very industri 
ous, ingenious, and cleanly people." 

Mr. Russell Bartlett, who notices in 1854 that at the mission 
of Cocopera, in Sonora, " the increase of cattle in a single year 
amounted to ten thousand head," adds that in that of San 
Ignacio, founded in 1687, "though abandoned for many years, 
the results of Jesuit industry are still apparent." "The mission 
of San Gabriel," he says, " at one time branded fifty thousand 
calves, manufactured three thousand barrels of wine, and 
harvested one hundred thousand fanegas (two hundred and 
sixty-two thousand bushels) of grain a year. The timber for 
a biigantine was cut, sawed, and fitted at the mission, and then 

* Voyage to the Pacific, vol. ii., ch. i., p. 21. 

t Four Years in the Pacific, vol. ii., ch. i., p. 25. 

% A Narrative of Four Voyages, ch. vi., p. 208 (1832). 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. * 253 

transported to and launched at San Pedro. Five thousand In 
dians were at one time collected and attached to the mission. 
They are represented to have been sober and industrious, well- 
clothed and fed They constituted a large family, of which 

the padres were the social, religious, and, we might almost say, 
political heads." Then noticing the ruin which other men and 
other principles have wrought among thorn, this candid Protest 
ant adds : " Humanity cannot refrain from wishing that the 
dilapidated mission of San Gabriel should be renovated, and its 
broken walls be rebuilt, its roofless houses be covered, and its 
deserted halls be again filled with its ancient industrious, 
happy, and contented population." 

But Mr. Bartlett appears to have understood, from his own 
observations, and from converse with the unhappy survivors of 
these tribes, that the Power which made them what they were 
is withdrawn, and that his co-religionists, incapable of emu 
lating such triumphs, will infallibly complete the work of 
destruction which they have commenced. At the great mission 
of Los Angeles, once a proverb throughout the whole region, 
" the Indians have now no means of obtaining a living, as their 
lands are all taken from them. . . . No care seems to be taken 
of them by the Americans ; on the contrary, the effort seems to 
be, to exterminate them as soon as possible !" Such is the 
contrast between Catholic and Protestant colonization. At the 
modern mission of San Luis Hey he converses with an aged 
chief. " On inquiring as to the state of things when the padres 
were here, the old man heaved a deep sigh. He said his tribe 
was large, and his people all happy, when the good Fathers were 
here to protect them. That they cultivated the soil, assisted in 
rearing large herds of cattle, were taught to be blacksmiths and 
carpenters, as well as other trades, and were happy. . . . He 
spoke with much affection of Father Peyri, its original founder, 
who had resided here for thirty-four years." Now his tribe 
were scattered, " without a home or protectors, and were in a 
miserable starving condition." 

In a few places, not yet overwhelmed by the Anglo-Saxon 
flood, the Fathers still linger, and here is the result of their 
presence, attested by the same official witness: The Yaqm 
Indians of Sonora, he says, are "invariably honest, faith 
ful, and industrious. They are also the fishermen and the 
famous pearl-divers of the Gulf of California." They were 
" among the first to be converted by the Jesuits." Originally 
" extremely warlike, on being converted to Christianity, their 
savage nature was completely subdued, and they became the 
most docile and tractable of people. They are now very pop 
ulous in the southern part of Sonora." 



254: CHAPTER IX. 

Finally, the Opate Indians, whom he also visited, though 
" noted for their bravery, being the only ones who have success 
fully contended with the savage Apaches," " have ever remained 
faithful to their religion. Of their attachment to law, order, 
and peace, they have given the most unequivocal proofs." 34 

One exception there is to these candid testimonies, and it is 
found, as might be anticipated, in the writings of a Protestant 
minister. The Rev. Joseph Tracy gravely informs his readers, 
in the face of all the evidence which Protestant travellers of 
various classes have offered on this subject, that the Jesuits and 
Franciscans in California taught only the " forms of religion," 
" without improving their intellects, their morals, or their habits 
of life /"f Perhaps there are no two works, in the whole range 
of Protestant literature, at once so trivial and so profane, so 
full of false and idle words, childish vaunts, and iravrok/wp 
a/uadia, as Mr. Tracy s history of American missions, and 
the " Reports of the American Board for Foreign Missions." 

Once more we have noticed one of those peaceful triumphs, 
rich in blessings to suffering humanity, and which have extorted 
the admiration even of men whose unhappy prejudices they fail 
to correct, and whose conscience they leave unawakened. The 
poor Indians were wiser. They could discern Whose ministers 
such workmen were, and that it was only by the communica 
tion of His Spirit that they found strength to lead such lives, 
or accomplish such victories. 

But the history of California does not end here. The 
Catholic missionaries had done, in this land as in every 
other, all that men having the gifts and the calling of apostles 
could do. They had forced the rugged soil to yield ample 
harvests, they had fertilized the yet more barren heart of the 
eavage with the dew of heavenly graces. Two other classes 
were now to enter these regions, Mexicans who had forfeited 
their birthright as Catholics, and Protestants who had never 
possessed it. Both have inflicted irreparable injury upon the 
tribes of the Northwest. 

Let us speak of the Mexicans lirst. Affecting to follow the 
precedents of modern European policy, of which the chief 
maxim seems to be the exclusion of all ecclesiastical influence in 
the government of human society, the civil authorities resolved 
to secularize all the missions. The result has been, as in every 
land where the same experiment has been tried, a swift relapse 
into the barbarism from which the Church alone has saved the 



* Personal Narrative of Explorations in, Texas, New Mexico, California, &c. 
vol. i., cli. iix., pp. 442-4; vol. ii., ch. xxv., pp. 82, 92. 
f History of American Missions, p. 197. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 255 

world, the immediate decay of material prosperity, and a vast 
augmentation of human suffering. History might have taught 
the Mexicans to anticipate these inevitable fruits.* When 
England laid her hand on the possessions of the Church, which 
had been for centuries the patrimony of the poor, she took her 
first step towards her present social condition. Prisons and work 
houses became the dismal substitutes for monasteries, and jailers 
supplanted monks. England has not profited much by the 
change. The new institutions are at least ten times more costly 
than the old, and the benefits derived from them have been in 
inverse proportion. They now receive only prisoners, and dis- 

forge only criminals, while a whole nation of heathen poor, a 
urden on the present resources of the country and a menace 
for her future destiny, have sunk down, as even English writers 
will tell us, to the level of the most degraded tribes of Africa or 
America, and are as utterly void of religion or of the knowledge 
of God, as the Sioux, the Carib, or the Dahoman. 

Here is the history of the same proceedings in California. 
"In 1833," says Mollhausen, "the government of Mexico, 
jealous of the great influence of the clergy, secularized the 
missions, and confiscated their property to the State." It was 
Gomez Farias who devised the felony, and, as Mr. Brantz 
Mayer relates, ruined in a single province twenty-four missions, 
inhabited by twenty-three thousand and twenty-five Christian 
Indians. We will quote immediately the exact statistics of the 
operation and of its results. 

It was not long before the spoilers were ejected in their turn 
by the Americans, a more energetic race, who, not content 
with destroying the missions, have proceeded to destroy the 
Indians also. They would have been ashamed not to surpass 
so pusillanimous a criminal as Gomez Farias, who contented 
himself, like a mean robber, with appropriating the property 
of others. " When California became attached to the United 
States," says Mollhausen, " the former property of the missions 
of course passed into the hands of the American government, 
arid their dwellings are now lonely and desolate, and falling 
rapidly to decay ; the roofs have fallen in, the stables are 
empty, the once blooming gardens and orchards are choked by 
a wild growth of Aveeds, and it will probably not be long 
before the waves of commercial activity will sweep over them 
and obliterate the last traces of their existence."! 

" I asked what they thought of the abolition of tithes, and confiscation of 
Church property ? (in Spain.) The answer was, The poor man pays more, 
and the rich less. " The Pillars of Hercules, by David Urquhart, Esq., M.P., 
vol. i., ch. v., p. 77. 
f Journey from the Mississippi to the Coasts of the Pacific, ch. xv., p. 334. 



256 CHAPTER IX. 

A few merchants may perhaps improve their fortunes by the 
change, but it will be at the expense of the whole Indian 
population, whom they are now busy in exterminating, and 
who, at no remote day, will have ceased to exist. Already, 
except in a few of the missions, where the Franciscans still 
linger, starving amid ruins, but protecting the Indian to the 
last, they begin to be " brandy-drinking, wretched creatures," 
says Mollhausen ; and then lie adds, " It is impossible not to 
wish that the missions were flourishing once more, or to see 
without regret the fallen roofs and crumbling walls of their 
abode, a mere corner of which now serves as a shelter for a few 

Catholic priests The energetic and heroic sacrifices of 

such missionaries as the Padres Kino, Salvatierra, and Ugarte, 
obtained their reward; and, up to 1833, when three new 
missions had been founded, they enjoyed the fruits of their 
labors." 

"The spoliation of the missions," says Sir George Simpson, 
" excepting that it opened the province to general enterprise, 
has directly tended to nip civilization in the bud." And even 
the new " enterprise" to which it has furnished a field is so 
unfruitful, as he admits, except in unprincipled speculations, 
which enrich a few and ruin many, that whereas in the time of 
the missions the province exported wool, leather, soap, wheat, 
beef, and wine, the policy of its actual possessors has annihi 
lated almost all these branches of commerce. 

Before we notice, in conclusion, the effect of the American 
conquest upon the Indians, and the characteristic operations of 
American missionaries, let us show what have been the admit 
ted results, up to the present date, of the suppression of the 
missions. In 1844, M. Duflot de Mofras published his work 
on Oregon and the Northwestern provinces of Mexico. Here 
is the evidence of this intelligent and impartial writer. 

It was not till 1842 that Santa Anna robbed the Bishop of 
California of all the religious funds which still remained from 
former spoliations, and committed their administration to a 
coarse and greedy soldier of his own class. " You see," said 
an Indian Alcalde to M. de Mofras, " to what misery we are 
brought ; the Fathers can no longer protect us, and the author 
ities themselves despoil us."* The Indians have learned once 
more to regard the white man as their natural enemy, and, as 
M. de Mofras observes, " since the destruction of the missions" 
it has become dangerous to travel from. Sonora to California. 
A few Fathers still linger in the scene of their once happy 
labors ; the rest have been driven from the country, carrying 

* Exploration du Territoire de I Oregon, tome i., ch. vii., p. 345. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 257 

with them for all their wealth the humble robe of their order. 
In 1838, Father Sarria died of exhaustion at the foot of the 
altar, at the mission of St. Soledad, when about to say Mass, 
after an apostolate of thirty years. Father Guttierrez received 
a daily but insufficient ration, dispensed by a man who had 
formerly been a domestic servant, but who was now civil 
administrator of the mission ! The Father President Sanchez 
died of grief, when he beheld the havoc and ruin to which he 
could apply no remedy. 

The mission of San Francisco Solano was only founded in 
1823 by Father Amoros. It increased so rapidly, that at the 
time of the suppression it contained one thousand three hundred 
Christian Indians, and possessed eight thousand oxen, seven 
hundred horses, and other property in proportion. Don Mariano 
Yallejo, the new civil administrator, seized every thing which 
it was possible to carry away or sell, and pulled down the 
mission house to build himself a dwelling out of the materials.* 

Yet some of the missions still remain, perhaps because neither 
Mexicans nor Americans have yet found time to destroy them, 
and still present something of their former aspect. " We cannot 
express the surprise, says M. de Mofras, "with which the 
traveller is struck, on seeing, in the neighborhood of Indian 
villages, where the land is cultivated with extreme care, and 
there exists a perfect system of irrigation, the pueblos of the 
whites in a state of profound misery, under the free government 
of most of the so-called Republics !" The common salutation, 
he says, of a Dominican or a Franciscan to an Indian is still 
" Arnar a Dios, hijo !" and the answer, " Amar a Dios, padre !" 
The Americans will probably introduce another language. 

Perhaps it would be impossible to indicate more briefly or 
more impressively the historical results of the secularization of 
the missions, after their long career of peace and prosperity, 
than M. de Mofras has done in his interesting pages. Even 
men who are careful only about financial success can appreciate 
such statistics as are exhibited in the following table. It has 
sometimes been said in jest that there is nothing so eloquent as 
figures ; let the reader consider, in sober earnest, what lesson he 
may derive from these. 

UPPER CALIFORNIA. 

UNDER THE ADMINISTRATION OP THE RELIGIOUS, IN 1834. 

Christian Indians, 30,650 

Horned Cattle 424,000 

Horses and Mules 62,000 

Sheep 321,500 

Cereal Crops 70,000 hectares. 

*P.445. 

VOL. II 18 



258 CHAPTER IX. 



UNDER THE CIVIL ADMINISTRATION, IN 1842. 

Christian Indians 4,450 

Horned Cattle 28,220 

Horses and Mules 3,800 

Sheep 31,600 

Cereal Crops* 4,000 hectares. 

It appears, then, that in the brief space of eight years, the 
secular administration, which aifected to be a protest against 
the inefficiency of the ecclesiastical, had not only destroyed 
innumerable lives, replunged a whole province into barbarism, 
and almost annihilated religion and civilization, but had so 
utterly failed even in that special aim which it professed to 
have most at heart, the development of material prosperity, 
that it had already reduced the wealth of a single district in 
the following notable proportions : Of horned cattle there 
remained about one-fifteenth of the number possessed under 
the religious administration ; of horses and mules less than one- 
sixteenth ; of sheep about one-tenth ; and of cultivated land 
producing cereal crops less than one-seventeenth. It is not to 
the Christian, who will mourn rather over the moral ruin 
which accompanied the change, that such facts chiefly appeal ; 
but the merchant and the civil magistrate, however indifferent 
to the interests of religion and morality, will keenly appreciate 
the cruel and blundering policy of which these are the admitted 
results, and will perhaps be inclined to exclaim with Mr. 
Mollhausen, " It is impossible not to wish that the missions 
were flourishing once more !" 

And these facts, which even worldly craft may teach men 
to deplore, are everywhere the same. Far away to the South, 
in the plain where the Lake of Encinillas lies, on the borders 
of Chihuahua, is " one of the richest and most valuable localities 
in the world for cattle-grazing, in times past supporting innu 
merable herds. Noiv it is almost a desert /"f It is the history 
of Paraguay on a smaller scale. 

Yet there are American writers, whom no official rebuke 
has ever disavowed, who appear almost to exult in this universal 
ruin. Lieutenant Whipple, a highly respectable officer of the 
United States, from whom Mr. Schoolcraft derived some of 
the materials for his great work on the Indian nations, after 
noticing, in 1849, that the Lligunos, converted by the Fran 
ciscans, still number eight thousand, continues as follows : 
" They profess the greatest reverence for the Church of Home, 

* P. 821. 

f Froebel, ch. ix., p. 840. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 259 

and, glorying in a Christian name, look with disdain upon their 
Indian neighbors of the desert and the Rio Colorado, calling 
them miserable gentiles." He confesses, too, speaking of the 
single mission of San Diego, that " for many miles around, the 
valleys and plains were covered with cattle and horses belong 
ing to this mission ; yet the only reflection which the Christian 
zeal of the Indians and the skilful administration of their 
pastors suggested to him is expressed in the silly taunt, that 
they were " slaves of the priests," and the worse than silly 
boast, that " now they are freed from bondage to the Francis 
cans," his countrymen will teach them " their duties as Chris 
tians and men !"* We shall see immediately what they have 
really taught them. 

The Americans, whom Mr. Whipple dishonors by such indis 
creet advocacy, are in fact completing the work of destruction 
with characteristic energy ; arid here is an account of their 
proceedings. After emptying every other province of the 
United States, they are now rapidly effecting the same process 
in California. On the 15th of March, 1860, the Times news 
paper contained the following extract from the San Francisco 
Overland and Ocean Mail Letter: "Never, as journalists, 
have we been called upon to comment on so flagrant and 
inexcusable an act of brutality as is involved in General 
Kibbe s last Indian war a scheme of murder conceived in 
speculation and executed in most inhuman and cowardly 
atrocity. If the account of Mr. George Lount, a resident of 
Pitt river, be true, General Kibbe and all the cowardly band 
of cut- throats who accompanied him should be hung by the 
law for murder; for murder it is, most foul and inexcusable. 
Sixty defenceless Indian women and children killed in their 
own r.jncheria at night, by an armed band of white ruffians ! 
The massacre of Glencoe does not aiford its parallel for atrocity. 
This band of Indians were friendly, had committed no outrage, 
were on their own lands, in their own homes." But this was 
only a beginning ; later operations are thus narrated by the 
same witness. 

u The Indians have been driven from their hunting-ground 
by the white man s stock. Their fishing racks have been de 
stroyed by the caprice or for the convenience of the white man. 
Their acorns are exhausted by the white man s hog, and, driven 
to desperation by actual want and starvation, they have stolen 
the white man s ox." This was the pretext for another onslaught. 
" When Governor Weller authorized W. J. Jarboe to organize a 



* Historical and Statistical Information respecting the Indian Tribes of the 
U. 8., by H. R. Schoolcraft, LL.D., part ii., p. 100 (1851). 



260 CHAPTER IX. 

company to make war on the Indians ... in seventy days they 
had fifteen battles (?) with the Indians ; killed more than four 
hundred of them ; took six hundred of them prisoners, and had 
only three of their own number wounded, and one killed. . . . 
Under the licence of the law ; under the cover of night ; in the 
security of your arms ; in the safety of your ambush ; you have 
murdered in cold blood more than four hundred sleeping, 
unarmed, unoffending Indians men, women, and children. 
Mothers and infants shared the common fate. Little children 
in baskets, and even babes, had their heads smashed to pieces 
or cut open. It will scarcely be credited that this horrible scene 
occurred in Christian California, within a few days travel from 
the State capital." And not only were the actors, or promoters, 
of this enormous crime a General of the United States army 
and a Governor of a province, but " a bill of nearly seventy 
thousand dollars is now before the Legislature awaiting payment, 
to be distributed, in part, among these crimsoned murderers !" 

More than forty years ago, an American Protestant clergy 
man, alluding to the early atrocities of his Protestant country 
men against the Indian race, exclaimed, "Alas! what has not 
our nation to answer for at the bar of retributive justice !"* If 
this writer had lived to hear of the scenes just described, he 
would perhaps have felt that his nation has done little as yet to 
propitiate the justice of God, and that it would have been well 
for California to have been left, as of old, to the Jesuits, the 
Franciscans, and the Dominicans. 

We have been told that, at least in one case, the victims were 
" friendly and unoffending." In the early history of North 
America, as we shall see when we come to speak of the Atlantic 
States, this was almost invariably the case. The Catholic 
colonists on both banks of the St. Lawrence, as well as those in 
Maryland under Lord Baltimore, were always on the best terms 
witli the natives. Even Penn, who was admonished by the 
religious maxims of his society to eschew rapine and war, had 
no difficulty in making amicable treaties with the Indians in his 
neighborhood, though he appears to have always made them 
to his own advantage. It was not till Protestants had robbed 
and murdered them, and had repaid their good offices, as the 
Indians afterwards reminded them, with horrible outrage and 
ingratitude, that the latter swore eternal enmity against them. 
They became cruel and vindictive, because the white man had 
set them the example. If North America had been colonized 
by Catholics alone, there would have been at this day, as in the 
Southern continent, whole nations of native Christians. 

* A Star in me West, by Ellas Boudinot, LL.D., ch. viii., p. 255 (1816). 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 261 

But it was the doom of the red man to perish before the face 
of the Anglo-Saxon. He might be friendly and unoffending, 
but this could not save him. " I never found," says Mr. Ger- 
staecker, speaking of the Wynoot Indians of California, " a 
more quiet and peaceable people in any country than they 
were." "While of the tribes of this region generally he adds, 
"They are really the most harmless nations on the American 
continent, let white people, who have driven them to desper 
ation, say what they please against them." And then he 
quotes Mr. Wozencraft, United States Indian agent, who made 
this official report. " A population perfectly strange to them 
has taken possession of their former homes, destroyed their 
hunting-grounds and fisheries, and cut them off from all those 
means of subsistence a kind Providence had created for their 
maintenance, and taken away from them the possibility of ex 
isting. But not satisfied with that, these men deny them even 
the right we have granted to paupers and convicts the right 
of working and existing."* "Goaded by hunger," says a 
Wesleyan writer, " and stimulated by revenge, they have begun 
to trespass on the lands of the colonists,"f because they can no 
longer find subsistence on their own. Yet Mr. Kirkpatrick re 
ported, in 1848, of the Oregon Indians, "Long before a mis 
sionary went into that country, these people were as honest, 
kind, and inoffensive as any I have ever met with, either civil 
ized or savage." Mr. Townshend declared the same thing of 
the Chinook and Walla-Walla tribes, whose "honesty and up 
rightness," as well as friendly and cordial hospitality, he satir 
ically compares with " the habits and conduct of our Christian 
communities ;"J and Dr. Rattray reports, in 1862, of those in 
British Columbia, " the natives are quiet and inoffensive to a 
degree, unless provoked or made victims of intemperance." 

And now a word, in conclusion, on the Protestant mission 
aries. There are not many of them here, because, as Mr. Ger- 
staecker has told us, " there is no profit in view ;" but there are 
a few, and of the usual class. The same writer tells us that he 
encountered two of them, of rival sects, " but as we find in the 
present age only very few men who really teach the gospel for 
Christ s sake" he means among his co-religionists " the 
two pious brethren had long given up preaching to the heathen. 
With the natives they would have nothing at all to do. Should 
they live upon acorns and young wasps, and sleep in the wet 

* Journey Round the World, vol. i., ch. vi., pp. 343-7. 
f Colonization, by Kev. John Beecham, p. 7. 
j: Rocky Mountains, ch. xi., p. 272. 

Vancouver Island and British Columbia, by Alexander Rattray. M.D. 
B. N., ch. x., p. 172. 



262 CHAPTER IX. 

woods all for nothing ? They did not find sufficient encourage- 
ment."* Yet some of them appear to have remained there, 
for Mr. Chandless observes, in 185T, " Religious freedom, I 
suppose, exists ; there seemed to be a sort of Protestant Church 
there (in South California), with a bishop, self-ordained, and 
pretending to some direct revelation from heaven, "f 

Few men, we may believe, are so undiscerning as to need 
any assistance in reflecting upon the contrast between the 
Catholic and Protestant history of California."^: Yet it is im 
possible to omit the following observations of a distinguished 
American official, who presided over the commission for the 
settlement of the Mexican boundary, and who sums up the facts 
of that history in terms scarcely less honorable to himself than 
to the subjects of his candid and generous eulogy. 

" Christian sects may cavil about their success among the 
Indian tribes, but it is an undeniable fact, that the Jesuits 
during their sway," he probably counts the Franciscans with 
them " accomplished more than all other religious denomina 
tions. They brought the tribes of Mexico and California under 
the most complete subjection, and kept them so until their 
order was suppressed. And how was this done ? Not by the 
sword, nor by treaty, nor by presents, nor by Indian agents, 
who would sacrifice the poor creatures without scruple or re 
morse for their own vile gains. The Indian was taught Chris 
tianity, with many of the arts of civilized life, and how to sus 
tain himself by his labor. By these simple means the Society 
of Jesus accomplished more towards ameliorating the condition 
of the Indians than the United States have done since the set 
tlement of the country. The Jesuits did all this from a heart 
felt desire to improve the moral and social as well as the 
spiritual condition of this people, and at an expense infinitely 
less than we now pay to agents alone, setting aside the millions 
annually appropriated for indemnities, presents, &c." 



OREGON. 

Let us pass from California to Oregon. We will speak of 
the Protestant missionaries first, and all our information will be 

* Vol. ii., p. 10. 

f A Visit to Salt Lake, by William Chandless, ch. x., p. 316. 

| It is an instructive fact, that when the Fathers of the Society of Jesus were 
banished from Piedmont, the exiles immediately resumed their apostolic 
labors in California ! In 1857, they had already one hundred and fifty-one stu 
dents in their college at San Francisco, under the direction of thirteen Fathers 
and five lay professors. Prospectus of Santa Clara College, San Francisco, 1858. 

Bartlett, Personal Narrative, vol. ii., ch. xxxix., p. 432. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 263 

derived, as in other cases, from themselves or their friends. 
When Oregon was annexed to the United States, the various 
sects endeavored, according to their wonted policy, to get the 
start of each other in appropriating the promising field. The 
very first missionaries, however, who arrived, and whose instruc 
tions were to labor amongst the Flatheads, positively declined, 
after a brief trial, to execute their mission. Mr. Townshend, 
who travelled with them, discovered that they had " arrayed 
themselves under the missionary banner, chiefly for the grati 
fication of seeing a new country, and participating in strange 
adventures."* The motive of their retreat was characteristic. 
" The means of subsistence," we are told by two of their num 
ber, for as they see no dishonor in the confession, they are not 
ashamed to make it, " in a region so remote and so difficult 
of access, were, to say the least, very doubtful."! The doubt 
was enough to put them to flight. Yet these gentlemen were 
probably familiar with certain words of St. Paul, in which he 
thus describes the life of a true missionary : " Even unto this 
hour we both hunger and thirst, and are naked, and are buf 
feted, and have no fixed abode.":): We shall presently meet 
with missionaries of the school of St. Paul who did stay with 
the Flatheads, in spite of " the doubtful means of subsistence," 
and who will tell us what was the result of their residence 
among them. 

One of the most influential of the American sects is the 
Methodist Episcopal body. Here is an account, by an eminent 
Methodist preacher, of their proceedings in Oregon. It exactly 
resembles their proceedings everywhere else. 

" No missionary undertaking has been prosecuted by the 
Methodist Episcopal Church with higher hopes and a more 
ardent zeal. That the results have fallen greatly below the 
usual average of missionary successes, and inflicted painful 
disappointment upon the society and its supporters, none, we 
presume, any longer hesitate to confess." This particular mis 
sion, he adds, "involved an expenditure of forty-two thousand 
dollars in a single year /" nor can we be surprised even at such 
enormous prodigality, when we learn how it was composed. 
"At the end of six years, there were sixty-eight persons con 
nected with this mission, men, women, and children, all sup 
ported by this society! How such a number of missionaries 
found employment in such a field, it is not easy to conjecture, 
especially as the great body of the Indians never came under 

* Townshend s Rocky Mountains, vol. i., ch. i., p. 29 (1848). 

f Ten Tears in Oregon, by D. Lee and J. H. Frost, missionaries, ch. xii., p. 127. 

\ \ Cor. iv. 11. 



264: CHAPTER IX. 

the influence of their labor." And then follows this curious 
narrative : " They were, in fact, mostly engaged in secular 
affairs concerned in claims to large tracts of land, claims to 
city lots, farming, merchandizing, blacksmithing, grazing, horse- 
keeping, lumbering, and flouring. We do not believe that the 
history of Christian missions exhibits another such spectacle." 
We have seen that it exhibits a good many such, and in every 
land. " The mission," he continues, " "became odious to the 
growing population . . . irreconcilable differences arose among 
the missionaries, which led to the return of several individuals 
to the United States, and to a disclosure of the real state 01 
the mission." Finally, he adds, that of all the Indians who 
had ever held relations of any kind with these men, "none now 
remain"* 

Another American writer gives the same account of the Wes- 
leyan operations, especially at the Great Dalles of Columbia. 
After describing a murder of a very atrocious kind, committed 
in the very presence of the preacher, while surrounded by his 
nominal flock, and by one of his own congregation, he adds, 
44 The occurrence is but a type of a thousand atrocities daily 
occurring among these supposed converts to the merciful pre 
cepts of Christianity Yet these men had been, and still 

are, represented as evangelized in an eminent degree !"f 

Another Wesleyan mission was established in the Wallamette. 
Here an English Protestant traveller found one hundred fami 
lies, " by far the greater part Catholics, a very regular congre 
gation, ministered to by M. Blanchette, a most estimable and 
indefatigable priest of the Roman Catholic faith." The Wes 
ley ans, he adds, consisted of four families, " a clergyman, a 
surgeon, a school-master, and an agricultural overseer !* J But 
if they had no disciples, they had their salaries, an arrange 
ment which they probably considered quite satisfactory. 

The Rev. C. J. Nicolay, apparently an English Episcop alian 
minister, gives exactly the same account of the other sects in 
Oregon. "It has ever," he says, " been thought a just ground 
of complaint against men whose lives are devoted to the service 
of God," if they try to make u a gain of godliness." But this 
reproach, he remarks, u will appear, by their own showing, to lie 
at the door of the American missionaries who have established 
themselves in Oregon. In their settlements at Okanagan, &c., 
<fec., this charge is so far true, that their principal attention ia 
devoted to agriculture, but in the Wallamette they sink into 



* The Works of Stephen Olin, LL.D., vol. ii., pp. 427-8. 
f Traits of American Indian Life, ch. x., p. 174 (1853). 
\ The Oregon Territory, by Alex. Simpson, Esq., p. 38. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 265 

political agents and would-be legislators." Presently lie adds, 
after quoting the statement of the American navigator Wilkes, 
that " their missionary intentions have merged in a grea"t 
measure in others more closely connected with ease and com 
fort ;" that " the missionaries had made individual selections 
of lands to the amount of a thousand acres each." Finally, this 
gentleman cautiously observes, " It appears that the Roman 
Catholic missionaries were placed in advantageous contrast to 
their Protestant brethren."* 

The same familiar contrast is thus indicated by another 
Protestant traveller, at the same date, with more emphasis 
than could be fairly expected from an Anglican clergyman : 
" There are at this time between thirty and forty semi-religious 
semi-political pioneers. The religious mission of too many has 
been adopted merely as the means of securing snug locations 
for themselves and families in this western paradise . . Several 
French priests are also laboring in this wilderness, and putting 
to shame their efforts after self-aggrandizement by a singleness 
of purpose, which purpose is propagandisrn, and entire devo 
tion thereto."f The heathen make the same observation, but 
comprehend, unlike Protestants, the lessons which such facts 
inculcate. God, they argue, must be witli those upon whom 
alone He confers His gifts. And they hasten to seek com 
munion with Him and them. 

But if the candid narratives of Messrs. Lee and Frost, Olin 
and Nicolay, Wilkes and Simpson, reveal the true character 
and results of all the Protestant missions in this region, we must 
not suppose that the missionaries themselves admitted, as long 
as they had any hope of concealing them. Their commercial 
and agricultural pursuits ; their dealings in " city lots ;" their 
"horsekeeping, lumbering, and flouring ;" were too importantly 
aided by their ample salaries to permit them to indulge in 
such imprudent candor. They sent home, therefore, exactly 
the same periodical reports which missionaries of the same 
class were constantly forwarding from every other land, and 
which the societies at home expected and required, as the only- 
means of obtaining a fresh stream of subscriptions. Their 
employers were willing to forgive them any thing, even the 
cupidity which had made them " odious to the growing popu 
lation," so long as they abstained from the additional and un 
pardonable crime of confessing their failure. And so, in 1814, 
these well-instructed agents wrote home thus : " A gradual ad 
vance in Christian knowledge is perceptible !"J They knew 

* The Oregon Territory, by Rev. C. J. Nicolay, ch. vii., pp. 155, 177, 183, 184 
(1846). 

f The Oregon Territory, by Alexander Simpson, Esq., p. 31 (1816). 
\ U. S, American Board for Foreign Missions, Reports, p. 212 (1844). 



266 CHAPTER IX. 

it was untrue, and when they had nothing more to gain, they 
crudely confessed it. " It is acknowledged on all hands," we 
are told in this very year, by two of their number, who were 
candid because they were abandoning the hopeless work, 
u that the present prospects in respect to civilizing and chris 
tianizing these natives are exceedingly gloomy."* But this 
lid not prevent the missionary societies from publishing re 
ports which they knew to be false, in order to raise fresh means 
for perpetuating the same lamentable schemes, in which the 
agents, as they had already ascertained, were only sordid 
speculators, merchants, and horse-dealers, who had adopted for 
a season the title of missionaries. Let us notice a few examples 
of their inexhaustible ingenuity. 

In 1843, only a few months before their own agents confessed 
the whole truth, it is by a careful collation of dates that we 
learn to appreciate the fidelity of Protestant missionary reports, 
the bait held out to languid subscribers at home was contained 
m the published statement, that " Mr. Spalding," one of the 
Oregon missionaries, " believes a considerable number have 
experienced the renewing grace of God."f Mr. Spalding be 
lieved nothing of the kind, as they very well knew, and had 
such excellent reasons, as we learn from American writers, for 
repudiating the opinion imputed to him, that he was himself 
only saved by tae influence of a Catholic missionary, at the 
risk of his own life, from being slaughtered by the homicidal 
fury of these " renewed" savages." " For this," we are told, 
" he was indebted to the timely aid and advice of the Rev. 
Mr. Brouillet, of the Roman Catholic mission. . . his Catholic 
friend assisting him from his own small stock of provisions. "J 
For two days the Indians appear to have pursued him, but 
without success, Father Brouillet having nobly exposed his own 
life by putting them on a wrong scent, a trick which only their 
respect for him induced them to pardon. But he was too late 
to prevent the massacre of Dr. Whitman and his wife, by the 
Cayoux Indians, and "the entire destruction of Wai-let-pu 
mission," consisting of fourteen members, over which that 
unfortunate gentleman presided. AIL he could effect was to 
rescue their bodies from further dishonor ; and Mr. Paul 
Kane, who had been the guest of Dr. Whitman just before thia 
lamentable event, relates that " the Catholic priest requested 
permission to bury the mangled corpses, which he did," here 
Air. Kane is certainly mistaken, u with the rites of his own 



* Lee and Frost, ch. xxiii., pp. 215, 311. 

\ Reports, p. 171 (1843). 

J Traits of American Indian Life, ch. vi., p. 121. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 267 

Church. The permission was granted the more readily, as 
these Indians are friendly towards the Catholic missionaries."* 
"This terminated the mission," says the Rev. Dr. Brown, 
" among the Indians west of the Rocky Mountains, "f Such 
is the instructive history from which we may appreciate, not 
only the relative influence of Catholic and Protestant mission 
aries, but the immoral fictions by which the revenues of Prot 
estant " societies" are annually recruited. 

Eighty miles from the Dalles, by the banks of the A tin am, 
another mission is thus described by a Protestant traveller 
from Boston, who had learned to despise what he calls " the 
crude and cruel Hebraism" of his Puritan forefathers. " The 
sun was just setting as we came over against it on the hill 
side. We dashed down into the valley, that moment aban 
doned by sunlight. My Indians launched forward to pay their 
friendly greeting to the priests. But I observed them quickly 
pause, walk their horses, and noiselessly dismount. 

"As I drew near, a sound of reverent voices met me, ves 
pers at this station in the wilderness! Three souls were wor 
shipping in the rude chapel attached to the house. It was 
rude, indeed, a cell of clay, but a sense of the Divine pres 
ence was there, not less than in many dim old cathedrals, far 
away, where earlier sunset had called worshippers of other 
race and tongue to breathe the same thanksgiving and the 

same heartfelt prayer Never in any temple of that 

ancient faith, where prayer has made its home for centuries, 
has prayer seemed so mighty, worship so near the ear of God, 
as vespers here, at this rough shrine in the lonely valley of 
Atinam." 

A friendly welcome greeted the Protestant traveller, who 
thus sums up his reflections on this church in the wilderness : 
"A strange and unlovely spot for religion to have chosen for 
its home of influence. It needed all the transfiguring power 
of sunset to make this desolate scene endurable. The mission 
was a hut-like structure of adobe clay, plastered upon a frame 
of sticks. It stood near the stony bed of the Atinam." Here 
dwelt two Fathers of the Society of Jesus, " cultivated and 
intellectual missionaries," who had forsaken all to labor among 
the Yakimah Indians. "The good Fathers were lodged with 
more than conventual simplicity. Discomfort, and often pri 
vation, were the laws of missionary life in this lonely spot. 
Drearily monotonous were the days of these pioneers. There 

* Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America, cli. xxi., 
p. 320. 
f Hist. Prop. Christianity, vol. iii., p. 155. 



268 CHAPTER IX. 

was little intellectual exercise to be had, except to construct 
a vocabulary of the Yakimah dialect." . . . And the traveller, 
familiar with missionaries of another order, marvelled greatly 
that such men could accept such an existence.* 

But there were many other missions in these distant regions, 
conducted like that on the Atinam, by men who were not 
anxious about " means of subsistence," knew nothing of "lum 
bering" or " city lots," and who have succeeded, after long 
and patient toil, in converting multitudes of the very tribes 
with whom the Protestant agents, as their own friends have 
told us, would have .nothing at^all to do." We have seen, by 
their own confession, how speedily the latter abandoned the 
Flatheads ; let us inquire how the Catholic missionaries fared 
amongst them. 



KOOKY MOUNTAINS. 



The Fathers of the Society of Jesus entered twenty years ago 
the territories which lie to the west of the Rocky Mountains 
Here such men as de Smet and Hoecken, Dufour and Ver- 
haegen, have emulated the courage and fortitude which for 
more than three centuries have been a tradition in their 
Society. When Father de Smet, a name honored throughout 
Christendom, presented himself to the Flatheads, they had 
already acquired some knowledge of Christian truth from a 
band of Catholic Cherokees, who had been driven from their 
own hunting-grounds, and found a refuge with the Flatheads. 
The hospitality of the latter was to be nobly recompensed. 
" During twenty years," says Father de Smet, " according to 
the counsel of the poor Cherokees^ who had established them 
selves amongst them, they had approached, as much as possible, 
towards our "articles of belief, ojnr morals, and even our religious 
practices. In the course of ten years, three deputations had 
the courage to travel as far as St. Louis, that is to say, to cross 
more than three thousand miles of valleys and mountains, 
infested with Black-Feet and other enemies. At length their 
prayers were heard, and beyond their hopes."f 

The Christian Cherokee s, solicitous to impart their own 
blessings to others, had done what they could, and their work 
was now to be completed. In October, 1841, Father de Smet 

* Advejitures among the NortJi-Weste Rivers and Forests, by Theodore 
Winthrop ; ch. xi., pp. 225, 232 (Boston, 1803). 
\ Annals, vol. iv., p. 231. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 269 

could already give the following report : " All that is passing 
before our eyes in the Rocky Mountains strengthens us in the 
hope, which we have long since conceived, of seeing once more 
a new Paraguay, flourishing under the shadow of the Cross, 

with all its marvels and affecting recollections What 

proves to me that this pleasing imagination is not merely a 
dream, is, that at the moment while I write these lines, the 
noisy voices of our carpenters, and the smith whose hammer 
is ringing on the anvil, announces to me that we are no longer 
projecting the foundations, but fixing the roof, of the house of 
prayer. This very day, the representatives of twenty-four dif 
ferent tribes assisted at our instructions ; while three savages, 
of the tribe of the Occurs-d"* Alene, who had heard of the hap 
piness of the Flatheads, came to entreat us to have compas 
sion upon them also." In spite of these successes, and of still 
greater ones to be noticed presently, there will be no new 
Paraguay in Oregon, for a reason which the course of this nar 
rative will sufficiently indicate. 

Of the converted Flatheads, the same missionary gives an 
account, full of interest and importance, but which we are 
compelled to abbreviate, and which shall be confirmed imme 
diately by Protestant evidence. " They never attack any one," 
he says, "but woe to him who unjustly provokes them." In 
other words, in becoming good Catholics they have not ceased 
to be valiant warriors. On one occasion they were assaulted 
by a band of a thousand Black-Feet. " Already the enemy 
poured down upon them, while they were on their knees, 
offering to the Great Spirit all the prayers they knew, for the 
chief had said, Let us not rise until we have well prayed." 1 
The fight lasted five successive days, when the Black-Feet 
retired, leaving the ground strewed with their dead and 
wounded. 

And these brave Flatheads, whose chief, says Father de 
Srnet, "considered as a warrior and a Christian, might be 
compared with the noblest characters of ancient chivalry," 
are as remarkable, in his judgment, for their virtues as for their 
valor. "I have spoken of the simplicity and courage of 
the F lathe ads ; what more shall I say? that their disinter 
estedness, generosity, and rare devotedness towards their 
brethren and friends, their probity and morality, are irre 
proachable and exemplary ; that quarrels, injuries, divisions, 
enmities, are unknown amongst them. I will add, that all 
these qualities are already naturalized in them through mo 
tives of faith. What exactness do they show in frequenting 
the offices of religion ! What recollection in tto house of 
prayer ! What attention to the catechism ! What fervor 



270 CHAPTER IX. 

in prayer! What humility, especially when they relate actions 
which may do them honor!"* The Protestant governor of 
the State will presently give us his testimony on the same 
subject. 

Elsewhere he says : "Often we remark old men, even chiefs, 
seated beside a child ten or twelve years old, paying for hours 
the attention of a docile scholar to these precocious instructors, 
who teach them the prayers, and explain to them the principal 
events of the Old and New Testament." And once more. On 
Christmas Eve, 1843, "Fathers Mengarini and Zertinati had 
the happiness of seeing, at the midnight Mass, almost the whole 
nation of the Flatheads approach the Holy Table. Twelve 
little musicians, trained by Father Mengarini, performed with 
admirable precision several pieces of the best German and 
Italian composers. The history of this tribe is known to you ; 
its conversion is certainly well calculated to show forth the 
inexhaustible riches of the Divine mercy.* f Such was the 
work of Catholic missionaries among a tribe whom the Prot 
estants had abandoned, because " the means of subsistence were, 
to say the least, very doubtful." 

It is not uninteresting to learn how the apostles who had 
once more accomplished such a triumph as this were content to 
live, in the earlier years of the mission, among their wild flock. 
The " means of subsistence," about which our Lord enjoined 
His disciples, and principally such as were to teach others, to 
" take no thought," were meagre and precarious. The Prot 
estant ministers, who loved not this distasteful precept, had 
promptly made the discovery, and fled away to more genial 
regions. Father de Smet, who might have been taking his 
ease in his own fair land, gayly describes what he calls " a sup 
per," which he ate with his disciples, and which " consisted 
of a little flour, a few roots of camash" a species of wild 
onion, " and a bit of buffalo grease. The whole was flung 
together into the cauldron, to form a single ragout. A long 
pole, for the heat kept us at a respectful distance, was trans 
formed into a ladle, which it was necessary to turn continually, 
until the contents of the kettle had acquired the proper thick 
ness. We considered the dish delicious! We had but one 
porringer for six guests. But necessity makes man industrious. 
in the twinkling of an eye my Indians were ready for the 
attack on the cauldron. Two of them provided with bits of 
bark, two others with bits of leather, the fifth armed with a 
tortoise-shell, plunged again and again into the cauldron with 

* IV., 353. 
f VII, 360. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 271 

the skill and regularity of a smith beating on his anvil. It was 
soon drained." 

At another time, by way of varying their delicacies, it was 
" wild roots and moss-cakes, as hard as dried glne," which 
furnished their table, and of which a broth was composed 
" which has the appearance and taste of soap." But enough of 
these trivial hardships, to which the missionaries rarely refer, 
and then only by way of jest. 

The Flatheads were not the only tribe won to Christianity 
by the Jesuits in this remote western world. When they had 
been gathered into the fold, Father de Smet started for 
Columbia ; where, as Sir George Simpson has told us, the 
Protestant missionaries "soon ascertained that they could gain 
converts only by buying them." The Jesuits, like St. Peter, 
had " neither silver nor gold ;" but they worked, as he did, " in 
the name of Jesus of Nazareth," and with similar fruits. 
"During the journey," says Father de Smet, "which lasted 
forty-two days, I baptized one hundred and ninety persons, 
twenty-six of whom had arrived at extreme old age. I announced 
the word of God to more than two thousand Indians, who will 
not delay, I hope, to place themselves under the standard of 
Jesus Christ." And then he relates an anecdote of a certain 
Protestant, a Mr. Parkers, one of that class who have inflicted 
so much injury upon the heathen in every land. This gentleman 
had wilfully broken a cross, erected over the grave of an Indian 
child, and had announced that he did it "because lie did not 
wish to leave in this country a monument of idolatry, set up in 
passing l>y some Catholic C/ierokees" " Poor man !" says 
Father de Smet, " if he now returned to these mountains, he 
would hear the praises of the Holy Name of Jesus resounding 
on the banks of the rivers and lakes ; in the prairies as well as 
in the bosom of the forests ; he would see the Cross planted 
from shore to shore, over a space of three hundred leagues, 
commanding the loftiest summits of the Cceurs-cVAlene, and 
the principal chain which separates the waters of the Missouri 
from those of the Columbia ; and saluted with respect in the 
valleys of Wallamette, of Cowlitz, and of the Bitter-Root. At 
the moment that I write, Father Demers has gone to carry it 
to the different nations of Caledonia ; everywhere the word of 
Him who has said that this glorious sign would attract men to 
Him begins to be verified in favor of the poor sheep so long 
wandering over the vast American continent. Would that this 
cross-breaker might pass again through these same places. He 
would see the image of Jesus suspended from the necks of 
more than four thousand Indians; and the youngest child, 
who is but learning the catechism, would tell him, Mr. 



272 CHAPTER IX. 

Parkers, it is God alone whom we adore, and not the cross; do not 
break it, for it reminds us that a God has died to save us. "* 

Father de Srriet, whom we must now quit, has been joined 
since that date by many fellow-laborers of his own school. 
In 1852, lie could already report, speaking only of his per 
sonal toils amongst the Indians west of the Rocky Mount 
ains, " The total number of baptisms administered by me in 
the different tribes amounts to one thousand five hundred 
and eighty-six." And he was then contemplating a still 
more perilous ministry. " The account which I receive of 
the dispositions of the Black-Feet" he says in one of his 
letters, " is frightful. ... I place all my confidence in the 
Lord, who can change, at His good pleasure, and soften these 
implacable hearts. My business is to carry the Gospel to the 
very places where the excursions of these marauders are most 
frequent. No consideration can turn me aside from this 
project."f It appears to have been at least partially executed, 
as we learn incidentally from the following statement in an 
English journal : " An interesting marriage ceremony has been 
recently performed at Illinois. The parties were Major Culbert- 
son, the well-known Indian trader and agent of the American 
Fur Company, and Natowista, daughter of the chief of the 
Blackfoot Indians. . . . They were married a few days since 
by Father Scanden, of St. Joseph s, Missouri, according to the 
ritual of the Catholic Church. Mrs. Culbertson is said to be a 
person of fine native talent, and has been at times a very 
successful mediator between the American government and the 
nation to which she belongs."^ 

The Potawattomies are another tribe who have accepted in 
great numbers the teaching of the Catholic missionaries. At 
the request of their chiefs, Father Yerhaegen did not hesitate to 
present in person to the government at Washington the petition 
which they had intrusted to him. Fortified by the generous 
co-operation of General Clark, agent for Indian affairs in the 
district west of the Mississippi, this missionary commenced his 
labors among them, accompanied by Father lioecken. They 
had peremptorily rejected, like the Omahas, and many other 
tribes, th,e Protestant teachers offered to them by the govern 
ment. They had detected, as Father de Smet observes, that 
" the chief solicitude of the ministers is reserved for their com 
mercial speculations, and when they have amassed large profits, 
they return to their native country, under pretence that there is 
nothing to be done among the savages." 

* IV., 367. 

f An. vii., 382 ; xiii., 319. 

% Weekly Register, October 15, 1850. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 273 

Twelve months after Father Hoecken had entered the ter 
ritory of the Potawattomies lie could give this description of 
them : " They are sincerely attached to the practices of reli 
gion, respectful towards the missionaries, assiduous in approach 
ing, at least every three weeks, the sacred tribunal (of penance) 
arid the Holy Table. Scarcely a day passes that some one of 
them is not seen approaching one of those sacraments. On 
festivals, the number of those who receive Holy Communion 
varies from twenty to thirty." Already more than a thousand 
Potawattomies professed the Catholic faith ; and the same mis 
sionary adds, that they manifest " an entire obedience, not 
only to the commands of the priest, but to the slightest intima 
tion of his wishes.""* 

Yet these missionaries were, if possible, poorer than the 
savages themselves, willingly accepted their humble food and 
lodging, and abased themselves to share their daily life. " For 
myself," says Father Hoecken, in one of his letters to a member 
of the same society, " I have no other wish than to live among 
the Indians, and to find on the other side of the Rocky Mount 
ains the spot from which I am to rise at the last day." 

The same apostolic missionary, though he would have dis 
played only charity and courtesy towards the men who had 
abandoned in disgust the work to which he had devoted his life, 
gives this account of the reception which they experience from 
the Indians: "The Protestant ministers have endeavored to 
obtain followers among these savages, but their efforts have 
not been attended with success. Instead of listening to them, 
they are questioned, and put to a severe examination. Where 
is your wife? said an Indian to one of them; a gesture was 
the only answer of the minister, who pointed with a finger to 
his residence where his wife was. Your dress, no doubt, 
continued the savage, is a black robe? jSTo, replied the 
minister, I do not wear one. Do you say Mass? Oh, 
never, answered the minister eagerly. * Do you wear the ton 
sure? No. Then, they all exclaimed together, you may 
go back from whence you came. " ) 

The Winnebagoes display the same dispositions. Father 
Cretin relates that they have repeatedly petitioned the govern 
ment authorities to send them Catholic priests, but that their 
prayer was always answered by an embassy of Protestant 
ministers. When a treaty was negotiated in 1845 between 

* An English gentleman who lately visited a large Potawattomie village, 
several days journey beyond the Missouri, found that " they were all of them 
educated in the Roman Catholic faith." The English Sportsman in the West 
ern Prairies, by the Hon. Grantley F. Berkeley, ch. xix., p. 320 (1861). 

f II, 40. 

VOL. II 19 



274: CHAPTER IX. 

this tribe and the United Spates, a solemn assembly was con 
vened, and the Governor of Wisconsin unfolded the terms 
which he was commissioned to offer them. Their territory 
consisted of two million three hundred thousand acres of ex 
cellent land,. watered by six considerable rivers. This magnifi 
cent tract they were asked to abandon, the invitation being 
equivalent to a command, for a recompense which they neither 
wished to accept nor dared to refuse. After a day s delibera 
tion, the Indians again met the governor, prepared to give a 
reply to his proposals. Wdkoo^ an aged chief, the most cele 
brated orator of the tribe, rose to speak in the name of his 
nation, " a large crucifix glistening on his breast." From his 
noble address we extract the following words : 

" If I alone speak to-day, far be it from you to suppose that 
I am the only one able to express the feelings of my tribe. 
All the chiefs here present know how to make known their 
thoughts, but being accustomed from my youth to speak in the 
councils of my nation, I have been chosen as the eldest to 
defend, in the name of all, our common interests. Thou comest 
on the part of our great father (the President) to demand the 
cession of our territory. But can he have forgotten the mag 
nificent promises which, on two different occasions, he gave 
me at Washington ? I remember them, for my part, as if they 
had been spoken only to-day. . . . Depend upon me, said 
our great father, I will always defend you. You shall be my 
children. If any wrong be done to you, address yourselves 
always to me. Your causes of complaint shall cease so soon 
as they shall be known to me, and I will defend you. And I, 
a child of nature, who have but one tongue, believed in the 
sincerity of these promises. Yet, m spite of our remonstrance, 
all our affairs have been arranged without our being even con 
sulted. They have sent away agents whom we loved, to give 
us others, without asking our opinion. We have forwarded 
petitions, to which no attention has been paid. They promised 
us that they would leave us always the lands which we occupy, 
and already they wish to send us I know not where. My 
brother, thou art our friend. Tell our great father, that his 
children require a longer halt here, before they enter on the 
path of a new exile. The tree which is continually trans 
planted must quickly perish" 

Here the orator interrupted himself, to notice the charges 
brought against his tribe as a pretext for "dispensing with 
justice towards them," and for palliating the tyranny of which 
they were to be victims. "Why," said he, "reproach us with 
vices which you have yourselves encouraged ? Why come to 
the very door of our tents to tempt us with your fire-water ?" 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 275 

And then he went on thus : " Our great father has said to us, 
4 1 will send to you men who will teach you how to live well. 
These men have come, but though they are tolerably good, our 
young men do not listen to them any better than to ourselves ; 
we wish for Catholic priests. They will make themselves 
heard, be assured of it. I take God to witness that what I say 
expresses the wishes of my nation." And then he sat down amid 
the applause of the assembled chiefs.* 

We have seen, in every chapter of this work, the triumphs 
of Catholic missionaries attested by the unsuspicious evidence 
of Protestant witnesses. Here is their testimony to the same 
order of facts in the valleys of the Rocky Mountains. In 1855, 
Governor Stephens forwarded to the President of the United 
States an official report on the territory committed to his 
charge, to which the President himself referred in his annual 
" Message to Congress." Of the Flatheads he speaks as fol 
lows : " They are the best Indians in the territory, honest, 
brave, and docile. They profess the Christian religion, and I 
am assured that they live according to the precepts of the 
Gospel." After describing their manner of life, the same 
authority adds, that they are "sincere and faithful," and 
"strongly attached to their religious convictions"-^ 

Of the tribe called Pend-(T Oreilles, Governor Stephens 
observes, that the mission established among them has been 
in existence nine years, and that for a long time the mission 
aries lived in huts, and fed on roots. "They have now a 
church," he says, "of which all the ornaments are so well 
executed, that one is tempted to suppose they must have been 
imported ;" yet they are entirely the work of the missionaries 
and their neophytes. " When the missionaries arrived," he 
adds, " these Indians were impoverished, wretched, and almost 
destitute of clothes. They were in the habit of burying alive 
both the aged and infant children. At this day almost the 
entire tribe belongs to the Saviour s fold. I have seen them 
assembled at prayer, and it appears to me that these savages 
are, in every respect, in the way of true progress. These 
Indians have a great veneration for their Fathers, the Blabk 
Kobes. They say if the missionaries were to leave them, it 
would certainly cause their death." He then praises their 
habits of industry, and adds, that while the Fathers have 
brought one hundred and sixty acres under cultivation, "the 
produce of the harvest belongs to the Indians, because very 

* VI., 364. 

f Quoted in the work entitled, Oinquante Nouvettes Lettres du J?. P. de 8met t 
i-p 293 ct seq. (Paris, 1858). 



276 CHAPTER IX. 

little suffices for the wants of the missionaries." Finally, after 
noticing their "pious fervor," the Governor remarks, that "re 
ligion has destroyed the state of slavery in which woman 
groans in all the unbelieving tribes." 

Of the Cmurs-cPAUtie, of whom there are five hundred 
Christians, the same official reports thus: "Thanks to the 
labors of these good Fathers, they have made great progress 
in agriculture. Instructed in the Christian religion, they have 
abandoned polygamy ; their morals have become pure, and 
their conduct edifying. The work effected l>y the missionaries 
is really prodigious. There is a magnificent church, almost 
finished, entirely built by the Fathers, the Brothers, and the 
Indians." 

Lastly, he declares of the Potawattomies, among whom 
Father Iloecken desired to live and die, and who are one 
of the latest conquests of the children of St. Ignatius, " they 
are hardly Indians now /" Such, by Protestant testimony, are 
the works of men by whom the Most High delights to display 
His power, and whom He fills with the abundant graces by 
which alone apostolic victories are gained. And as this 
favored tribe has found in the Fathers of the Society of 
Jesus masters and doctors, from whom they have received 
" the promise of the life that now is, as well as of that which is 
to come ;" so their daughters, once half-naked savages, doomed 
to bondage and degradation, have become the pupils of those 
Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, who have not feared to 
traverse an ocean and a continent, that they might carry 
religion and civilization to the most hidden recesses of the 
Rocky Mountains, and dispense in their obscure valleys the 
same instruction which the noblest of other races receive at 
their hands in all the capitals of Europe. 



BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

In the year 1862, two British officers, whose frank but inof 
fensive Protestantism colors every chapter of their works, 
assist us to trace, in Vancouver s Island and British Columbia, 
the contrast which witnesses of the same class have detected in 
the other provinces of Western America. It is right to add 
that nothing was further from their intention than to do what 
they have unwittingly done. 

"The close contiguity of the Songhies Indians to Victoria," 
says Commander Mayne, " is seriously inconvenient ;" and the 
sentiment was so universal among the English authorities, that 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 277 

the colonial legislature, he adds, has already devised " various 
plans for removing them to a distance." To get the natives out 
of their way was, therefore, the first thought of these British 
colonists. 

" In consequence of their intercourse with the whites," con 
tinues the same authority, " this tribe has become the most 
degraded in the whole island," or, as he observes in another 
place, " the most debased and demoralized of all the Indians." 
In these two reports he unconsciously records the prompt and 
invariable results of Protestant colonization.*" 

" The Cowichens," we learn from this gentleman, " are rather 
a fine and somewhat powerful tribe, numbering between three 
thousand and four thousand souls;" but " the Nanaimo Indians, 
who at one time were just as favorably spoken of, have fallen 
off much since the white settlement at that place has increased." 
Now the Nanaimos have sunk morally by contact with Prot 
estants, while the superiority of the Cowichens, we are told by 
Captain Barrett Lennard, is owing to their conversion to the 
Catholic faith. " The missionaries of the Romish Church," 
says that officer, "have long labored assiduously among these 
different Indian tribes, and with considerable apparent success, 
in some instances, especially among the Cowichens, a good 
many of whom attend Mass in the little chapel of the mission." 
lie adds, indeed, that u there is now a very effective staff of 
Protestant missionaries in Vancouver," but his sympathy with 
their projects does not impel him to say a word about their 
disciples, nor even to inform us if they have any.f 

At the mouth of the Harrison River, Captain Lennard found 
the tribe of the Skaholets. "These Indians," he observes, in 
reluctant and somewhat ungenerous phrase, "make a great 
profession of their adherence to the Roman Catholic faith," a 
sufficient proof that at least they are not indifferent to it. 
They were very exact, he confesses, in the due observance of 
Sunday, earnest in rejecting "any kind of intoxicating drink," 
and both brave and industrious, as his own account of their 
habits sufficiently indicates. J 

Near Fort Hope he visits the Turn-Sioux Indians, and, 
though no missionary was then with them, he finds " a party 
of Indians, to the number of thirty or forty, engaged in bowing 
and crossing themselves in the intervals of chanting." Most 
Protestants would probably give much the same account of a 

* Four Tears in British Columbia and Vancouver Island, by Commander 
R. C. Mayne, R.N., F.R.G.S., ch. ii., p. 30 (1862). 

f Travels in British Columbia, by Capt. C. E. Barrett Lennard, ch. iv., p. 57 
(1862). 

\ Ch. x., p. 143. 



278 CHAPTER IX. 

Catholic congregation in Paris or London. " I doubt," he 
adds, " whether these poor savages attached any particular 
meaning or significance to any of the rites and ceremonies in 
the performance of which they were engaged."* It was per 
haps only to pass away the time that they were secretly occu 
pied in chanting hymns, and in what Captain Lennard calls 
" bowing and crossing themselves," though it was certainly an 
unusual mode of recreation for savages. Protestant witnesses of 
this school are invaluable. Their utter inability to comprehend 
the most impressive phenomena, and their diligent perversion of 
the simplest facts, only lend additional force to their testimony. 

Commander Mayne, who is more copious in details, gives us 
the following information. "While in Henry Bay we witnessed 
the arrival of some Roman Catholic priests, which caused the 
greatest excitement among the natives. They were scattered 
in all directions, fishing, &c., many on board and around the 
ship" that is, the ship of Commander Mayne "when a canoe 
with two large banners flying appeared in sight." Both profit 
and curiosity, the strongest passions of the uncivilized man, 
were overpowered in a moment by a deeper sentiment. " Im 
mediately a shout was raised of Le Pretre! Le Pretre! and 
they all paddled on shore as fast as they could to meet them. 
There were two priests in the canoe, and in this way they trav 
elled, visiting in turn every village on the coast. A fortnight 
afterwards, when I was in Johnstone Strait with a boat-party, 
I met them again. It was a pouring wet day, cold, and blow 
ing hard, and they were apparently very lightly clothed, hud 
dling in the bottom of their canoe, the Indians paddling 
laboriously against wind and tide to reach a village by night, 
and the sea washing over them, drenching them to the skin. 
I never saw men look in a more pitiable plight. . *. . Certainly 
if misery on this earth will be compensated hereafter, those 
two priests were laying in a plentiful stock of happiness."f We 
cannot be surprised when this officer goes on to observe that 
these missionaries, who, he says, are " thorough masters" of the 
native language, " undoubtedly possess considerable influence 
over the Indians." 

" I remember one Sunday in Port Harvey," says the same 
gentleman, " when we were all standing on deck, looking at 
six or eight large canoes which hung about the ship, they 
suddenly struck up a chant, which they continued for about 
ten minutes, singing in beautiful time, their voices sounding 
over the perfectly still water and dying away among the trees 

* P. 149. 

t Ch. xiii., p. 175. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 270 

with a sweet cadence that I shall never forget." And the 
singers were Vancouver Indians ! " I have no idea," he adds, 
" what the words were, but they told us they had been taught 
them by the priests. The Roman Catholic priest has indeed 
little cause to complain of his reception by the Indians."* 

Once more. " At Esquimalt all the Indians attend the Romish 
mission on Sunday morning, and at eight o clock the whole 
village may be seen paddling across the harbor to the mission- 
house, singing at the top of their voices." For a moment the 
contemplation of these scenes puts to flight national and religious 
prejudices, and he goes on thus. " Certainly the self-denying 
zeal and energy with which the priests labor among them 
merit all the success they meet with. To come upon them, as 
I have done, going from village to village, alon.e among the 
natives, in a dirty little canoe, drenched to the skin, forces 
comparisons between them and the generality of the laborers of 
other creeds that are by no means flattering to the latter."f 

We have seen so many examples in these volumes of inveterate 
prepossessions conquered by the same irresistible influence, and 
have read so many similar confessions of unwilling sympathy 
and admiration, that this particular instance claims no special 
comment. But we must not conclude without a few details in 
further illustration of the contrast which this officer attests. 

Before 1857," he observes, " no Protestant missionary had 
ever traversed the wilds of British Columbia, nor had any 
attempts been made to instruct the Indians." The statement is 
not quite exact, as he seems to have felt, for he adds immedi 
ately, " I must except the exertions of the Roman Catholic 
priests." They had not waited till forts were built, commerce 
established, and a military police organized. Before even the 
trapper or the hunter, they had tracked the streams and pene 
trated the forests of Columbia, without protection, and without 
salary, except from Him who " rewardeth in secret." They 
were now to be jostled on every side by men of another order. 
By 1859, u eleven missionaries of different denominations," 
of whom four were Wesleyans, each receiving the annual stipend 

* Ch. xi., p. 274. 

f P. 275. Commander Mayne makes an exception in favor of " Mr. W illiam 
Duncan," a Protestant missionary, of whose energy and perseverance he speaks 
in terms which the conduct of that gentleman appears to merit. Mr. Duncan 
has judiciously labored for their " temporal welfare," and endeavored to estab 
lish schools for their instruction ; but we can see little more in Commander 
Mayne s account of his work than the skilful adaptation of natural means to a 
natural end. We are so far, however, from questioning Mr. Duncan s merits, 
that we should be glad to be forced to recognize them in all his co-religionists. 
When Protestants can be found, who, from supernatural motives, are willing 
to devote themselves without reserve, and without salary, to the service of 
God, they will soon cease to be Protestants. 



280 CHAPTER IX. 

which was deemed an appropriate recompense of his labors, 
had entered this region ; but their mission," says Commander 
Mayne, " like that of our own Church, has ~been more to the 
whites than the Indians"* The Anglican bishop " reached 
Esquimalt in 1860," bringing " an iron church which had been 
sent from England," but which had cost so much money that 
" the edifice was not free from debt when I left the island." 
What this Protestant functionary will do for the natives in 
general we may judge from the operations of his colleagues in 
other lands ; what he will accomplish at Esquimalt in partic 
ular, may be inferred from the fact already recorded, that " at 
Esquimalt all the Indians attend the Romish mission." 

But we are not without information as to the proceedings of 
this gentleman. Mr. Macdonald, who speaks of him with 
warm friendship, relates in 1862 such facts as the following. 
" Although the magnificent gift of twenty-five thousand pounds 
by that most estimable Christian lady, Miss Burdett Coutts, is a 
fit foundation, nevertheless more money is urgently required. 1 
Yet the immensre sums already expended seem to have been 
utterly fruitless as far as the heathen are concerned " It is 
well known," says Mr. Macdonald, " that the Rev. Mr. Cridge 
has labored zealously amongst these Indians for years, without 
even the shadow of a hope of success. The Rev. W. Clark and 
family also failed, and have left the country ; and another highly 
esteemed clergyman has likewise left." These facts, he adds, 
are so notorious, that " it does seem rather marvellous that Dr. 
Hill," the Anglican bishop, " should, in a few days after his 
arrival in the colony, produce the following effect upon some 
Indian children." The words quoted are from an official report 
by Dr. Hill himself. " We sang heartily, . . . and when we 
finished, we found a remarkable impression to be produced. 
All were reverently hushed in a fixed and thoughtful manner /" 
It is probably the fatal necessity of producing a sensation at 
home, and the fact that " more money is urgently required," 
which alone compel a man of education thus to expose himself 
to the satire of his own friends and adherents.f 

Mr. Macdonald, differing in this particular from Captain 
Lennard and Commander Mayne, insinuates that the Catholic 
missionaries have had only feeble success. But in this case his 
testimony is no longer founded on personal observation. Pere 
Cheroux, he observes, " is said to have exclaimed, He who 
would sow the seed of instruction in the heart of these savages 
has selected a soil truly sterile ; " while Pere Lamfrett is 

* Cli. xii., p. 341. 

\ British Columbia and Vancouver s Island, by Duncan G. F. Macdonald, 
C.E., ch. v., pp. 162-9 (1862). 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 281 

reported to have remarked, that " they were spoiled by their 
intercourse with the white man." If it be so, it is only a fresh 
example of the fact which we have encountered in every land, 
that Protestants not only fail to convert the heathen them 
selves, but make it almost impossible, by their presence, for 
Catholics to remedy the evil. 

Yet we have reason to hope that the remarkable instances 
cited by Captain Lennard and Commander Mayne, in spite of 
their religious prepossessions, are found throughout a wider 
region than they were able to explore. Father Demers, we 
have been told by Father de Smet, quitted him a few years 
ago, to preach the Gospel in these very provinces. He does 
not seem to have preached in vain. " On the 15th of October 
(1861)," says a Californian Protestant journal, " the Right Rev. 
Bishop Demers left here (San Francisco) for British Columbia, 
to attend a muster meeting of Indians in that colony. The 
bishop is known by all the Indians, and has great influence 
over the tribes. When the news reached the camp that the 
bishop had arrived, one hundred Indians in forty canoes were 
sent to escort him. . . . The Indians know a great deal about 
religion. It must have been grand and solemn to hear in the 
wilderness of the far North one thousand five hundred Indians 
praying and singing together."* 

It is not expedient to pursue with further detail the history 
of missionary labors in these remote western regions, nor to 
multiply the illustrations which it affords both of the character 
of the missionaries and the results of their toil. We have suf 
ficiently traced, here as elsewhere, the contrast which it is the 
main object of these volumes to exhibit. One remark, how 
ever, may be added, before we enter those more famous prov 
inces of the East which lie between the frozen wastes of 
Hudson s Bay and the sun-lit waters of the Gulf of Mexico. 

We have read the words in which Father de Smet avows the 
noble ambition, worthy of himself and his order, of reviving on 
the other side of the Rocky Mountains the glories of Paraguay. 
Would that it were possible for us to share his generous hopes. 
If such a triumph could indeed be accomplished in Oregon or 
Columbia, Father de Smet and his colleagues sufficiently re 
semble their illustrious predecessors of the Society of Jesus 
both to attempt and to effect it. Even Protestant writers have 
recognized this fact. "There is an unseen element at work," 
says one of those candid witnesses of whom we have quoted so 
many, "in the remote wilderness of the Oregon, whose success 
is guaranteed by all the precedents of history ; it is the agency 

* San Francisco Monitor, quoted in Weekly Register, January 4, 1862. 



282 CHAPTER IX. 

of the Catholic Churc/i."* But the conditions of her warfare 
are no longer the same. In Paraguay, the enemy whom the 
missionaries of the Cross fought and vanquished, rescuing more 
than a million victims from his grasp, had no such army of 
auxiliaries as are now doing his fatal work on the shores of the 
Pacific. The apostles who converted, one after another, the 
ferocious hordes of South America, and built up whole nations 
of peaceful, civilized, and Christian men, where before their 
coming only bloodthirsty savages dwelt, owed their astonishing 
success, not only to their own patient valor and invincible 
charity, but to the oneness of the faith and the unalterable 
harmony of the doctrine which they carried with them. Never 
during two centuries was the half-awakened pagan of the 
Southern continent embarrassed by the divisions, the contradic 
tions, or the worldly lives of another order of teachers, who 
have made Christianity hateful to his brethren in so many 
other lands, both in the east and west. And thus it came to 
pass, as we have seen, that even the brutal Omagua or the can 
nibal Chiri guana confessed, at first with reluctant admiration, 
a little later with loving reverence, that men who were always 
pure, meek, and just, came forth from God, and that the mes 
sage which they brought, since it never varied, must have 
come from Him also. This is an advantage which the less for 
tunate tribes on the other side of the Rocky Mountains are now 
losing forever. Twenty sects will soon be fighting together 
before their eyes. The Anglicans have recently entered Co 
lumbia, carrying with them the two weapons which they have 
used in other lands, unlimited pecuniary resources, and un 
dying hatred of the Church. They cannot convert the heathen 
themselves, but they can prevent others doing so. This is 
their mission. And therefore there will be no new Paraguay 
to the west of the Rocky Mountains. "I am fully impressed 
with the belief," is the official report of Mr. Nathaniel Wyefth, 
" that these Indians must become extinct under the operation 
of existing causes."f There are indeed laborers in that distant 
field who, if they had fair play, could convert, as their fathers 
did, the inhabitants of a whole continent ; but even hope hides 
her face in the presence of the deadly evils which Protestant 
ism generates in every pagan land. The inevitable fate of the 
Indian, when once lie comes in contact with its emissaries, is 
to perish from the face of the earth. We are about to consider 
the last and most afflicting proof of this fact in the sorrowful 
history of Canada and the United States. 



* The Statesmen of America in 1846, by S. Mytton Maury, p. 309. 
f Schoolcraft, part i., p. 226. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 283 



CANADA. 

The first European settlements in Canada, as in India, were 
made by a company of merchants ; in the former country by 
French Catholics, in the latter by English Protestants. The 
usual significant contrast marked the proceedings of the two 
classes. " "The stockholders and directors of the East India 
Company," says an English writer, " never gave education or 
religion a thought in their earliest enterprises ; and when they 
had attained to sovereign power in the East, the use they made 
of it was to prohibit both the one and the other for a long 
period. . . . The French Company for trading to Canada were, 
on the contrary, so impressed with the duty of providing 
instruction and religion for the Indians among whom they 
were going to place settlers, that they undertook" and then 
he describes at length the noble efforts which they made, and 
of which we are going to examine the results.* 

The Canadian Company established under the auspices of 
Cardinal Richelieu, who wisely prohibited the admission of 
Protestant colonists as sure to be fatal to the welfare of the 
heathen, bound themselves by a solemn compact, "to maintain 
missionaries for the conversion of the savages. "f The pledge 
was faithfully observed, in the same religious spirit which made 
Cham plain exclaim, " The salvation of one soul is of more value 
than the conquest of an empire." "The principal design of 
French settlements in Canada," says Mr. Alfred Hawkins, 
we shall quote, as usual, only Protestant authorities, " was 
evidently to propagate the Christian religion." With this 
object, they sent the agents whom the Catholic Church always 
provides for such labors, and it is in the following words that 
Mr. Hawkins attempts to describe them. 

"The early history of Canada teems with instances of the 
purest religious fortitude, zeal, and heroism ; of young and 
delicate females relinquishing the comforts of civilization to 
perform the most menial offices towards the sick, to dispense 
at once the blessings of medical aid to the body, and of religions 
instruction to the soul, of the benighted and wondering savage." 
He alludes, no doubt, though he does not name them, to such 
ministers of consolation as Marguerite Bourgeoys, Marie Barbier, 
Marguerite Le Moine, Marie Louise Dorval, and a hundred 
more, " renowned for their piety," as the Swedish traveller 

* J. S. Buckingham, Canada, ch. xv., p. 203 

f Histoire du Canada et de ses Missions, par M. 1 Abbe Brasseur de Bour- 
bourg, tome i., ch. ii., p. 33 (1852). 



284: CHAPTER IX. 

Kalm observed in the last century,* and of whose labors Mi- 
Hawkins thus speaks: "They must have been upheld by a 
strong sense of duty. But for such impressions, it would have 
been beyond human nature to make such sacrifices as the 
Ilospitalieres made, in taking up their residence in New 
France. Without detracting from the calm philosophic de 
meanor of religion at the present day," it is a Protestant who 
speaks, " it is doubtful whether any pious persons could be 
found willing to undergo the fatigues, uncertainty, and per 
sonal danger, experienced by the first missionaries of both 
sexes in New France. Regardless of a climate to whose horrors 
they were entirely unaccustomed, of penury and famine, of 
danger, of death, of martyrdom itself; sustained by something 
more than human fortitude, by Divine patience, they succeeded 
at length in establishing, on a firm foundation, the altars and 
the faith of their country and their God."f 

We shall see them presently at their work, but a preliminary 
consideration claims a moment s attention. Before we examine 
their labors, it is necessary to show, by a few examples, what 
kind of reception the new teachers met with from the Indians, 
before the latter were finally estranged by actions which would 
have embittered a more forgiving temper than theirs. In the 
South, we know what greeting awaited the missionaries of the 
Cross ; let us see how they were welcomed in the North. 

" The untutored Indians," says Mr. Hawkins, " treated the 
first Europeans with true Christian charity. The eiforts of the 
Jesuits for the conversion and instruction of the savages, the 
universal kindness and benevolence of the missionaries wherever 
they ..succeeded in establishing themselves, perpetuated this 
friendly spirit towards the French "$ 

When the Ursulines arrived at Quebec in 1639, "as the 
youthful heroines stepped on shore," observes Mr. Bancroft, 
" they stooped to kiss the earth which they adopted as their 
country, and were ready, in case of need, to tinge with their 
blood. The governor, with the little garrison, received them 
at the water s edge. Hurons and Algonquins, joining in the 
shouts, filled the air with yells of joy. Is it wonderful that 
the natives were touched by a benevolence which their poverty 
and squalid misery could not appal ?" 

A little later Mr. Bancroft will tell us, that the sympathy of 
the Indians towards the French never waned, and that as the 

* Travels in North America, Pinkerton, vol. xiii., p. 658. 
f Picture of Quebec, with Historical Recollections, ch. x., p. 177. 
i Ibid., ch. i., p. 5. 

History of the United States, by George Bancroft, vol. ii., p. 787 ; ed. 
Routledge. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 285 

latter " made their last journey" down the valley of the Missis 
sippi, after the English conquest, "they received on every side 
the expressions of passionate attachment from the many tribes 
of red men." In the last years of the eighteenth century, when 
Chateaubriand visited them, they still remembered the flag of 
France, and " a white handkerchief," says theillustrious traveller, 
" is sufficient to insure you a safe passage through hostile tribes, 
and to procure you everywhere lodging and hospitality."* 
Familiarity, therefore, had only confirmed the love which they 
had inspired on their first arrival, and which had been deepened 
by an intercourse of more than a century. It is not easy to 
exaggerate the importance of this fact, from which impartial 
writers have justly concluded, that if the French alone had 
colonized America, conversion, and not extermination, would 
have been the lot of its native tribes. 

But a welcome as sincere, though less enthusiastic, had 
greeted the Protestant emissaries from England and Holland. 
They confessed it themselves. "To us," said the Rev. Mr. 
Cushman, one of the early Protestant missionaries, " the 
Indians have been like lambs; so kind, so submissive and 
trusty, as a man may truly say, many Christians are not so 
kind or sincere. ? f 

From every part of the Eastern States came the same reports. 
"The Virginia tribes," destined to be repaid with merciless 
cruelty and ingratitude, "literally sustained the colony planted 
at Jamestown with supplies of Indian corn from their own 
fields.";}: Of those in New England an Anglican minister 
gave this account : " The Indians doe generally professe to 
like well of our comming and planting here." When the 
English first arrived at Pokanoket, where they afterwards 
massacred men, women, and helpless children, leaving not a soul 
alive, u the native inhabitants received them with joy, and 
entertained them in their best manner."! Even the so-called 
" Pilgrim Fathers," though they made not so much as an 
attempt to convert them, reported soon after their arrival, "We 
have found the Indians very faithful in their covenant of peace 
with us, very loving, and ready to pleasure us."lf 

In the Carolinas, the same tacts occurred, though we learn 
from a public petition presented to " the Lords Proprietors of 

* Genius of Christianity, p. 561 ; ed. White. 
f Schoolcraft, part i., p. 25. 
\ Id., part ii., p. 29. 

New England s Plantations, by a Reverend Divine now there resident, p. 
13 (1630). 

I History of the Town of Plymouth, by James Thacher, M.D., p. 39 (1835). 
t The Pilgrim Fathers, by George B. Cheever, D.D., p. 73. 



286 CHAPTER IX. 

Carolina," that " the Indian nations in the neighborhood of 
the said province had been so inhumanly treated, that they 
were in great danger of revolting to the French."* Lastly, in 
that region which was more than any other exclusively English 
in its character, laws, and traditions, but of which the injured 
natives learned to cherish a more deadly hostility towards their 
guests than in any other part of America, Mr. Howison relates, 
that on their first arrival, " a friendly interchange of courtesies 
took place." In the Isle of Roanoke, where the English 
landed, " the wife of the chief ran, brought them into her 
dwelling, caused their clothes to be dried, and their feet to 
be bathed in warm water ; and provided all that her humble 
store could afford of venison, fish, fruits, and hominy for their 
comfort." And when " the English, in unworthy distrust, 
seized their arms, this noble Indian woman obliged her fol 
lowers to break their arrows, in proof of their harmless 
designs" so that the colonists themselves described them, in 
letters to England, as " gentle and confiding beings."t 

We shall see hereafter more ample and affecting illustrations 
of the same truth, and these may suffice for the present. 
Enough has been said to indicate the contrast which we shall 
presently exhibit in all its details, and to prepare us for the 
future consideration of these two impressive facts, that while 
in the South^ where the preachers of the Gospel were every 
where received with clubs and arrows, and everywhere dyed 
the soil with their blood, they converted the whole continent ; 
in the North, where a simple and confiding hospitality greeted 
the emissaries of Protestantism, they have only created a desert. 
This is the lesson which we shall learn from the history upon 
which we are about to enter. 

It was not at the same date, nor in the same spot, that the 
English and Dutch began to arrive in America, but they 
brought with them the same religious ideas, as well as the 
same motives and aims ; and as their sole object was to acquire 
territory and amass wealth, they began by deliberately bribing 
the unconverted tribes, after stimulating them with strong 
liquors, to make war on the Christian Indians in alliance with 
France. Even Gookin, a fierce adversary of the Catholic 
religion, who vehemently deplored the rapid success of the 
early missionaries among the natives, confessed, that " this 
besetting sin of drunkenness could not be charged upon the 
Indians before the English and other Christian nations came 

* An Histoi*ical Account of the Protestant Episcopal Church in South Caro* 
Una, by Frederick Ualcho, M.D., p. 83. 

f History of Virginia, by Robert K. Howison, ch. i., p. 53. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 287 

to dwell in America."* He had reason to say it. When lien 
drick Hudson was received by the Indian tribe with whom ho 
came in contact on landing, his first act was to intoxicate them 
all with whiskey, which they drank with repugnance, and only 
to show, by an admirable courtesy, their confidence in their 
new visitors.f Monseigneur de Laval, Bishop of Quebec, who 
anticipated the terrible effects which intemperance would pro 
duce among the inhabitants of North America, denounced the 
penalties of mortal sin upon all who should give spirits to the 
Indians ;;{: and Mr. Bancroft will tell us hereafter that the admo 
nition was entirely successful ; but the English and Dutch were 
not subject to his authority, and would have laughed at his 
censures. And the natives quickly distinguished the different 
policy of their Catholic and Protestant guests. "You your 
selves," they said to the Dutch, " are the cause of this evil ; 
you ought not to craze the young Indians with brandy. Your 
own people, when drunk, light with knives, and do foolish 
things ; you cannot prevent mischief, till you cease to sell strong 
drink to the Indian. " To the English they addressed, again 
and again, still more earnest reproaches. "It is the English," 
they were accustomed to say, " who corrupt us."|| When their 
chiefs implored that the traders might not be permitted to 
bring rum into their villages, the English officials, incapable 
of any higher ambition than commercial success, haughtily 
replied, " that the traders could not be prevented from going 
where they might best dispose of their goods."*[ And the 
natives appreciated the brutality which did not even affect any 
disguise. When the English governor of Boston, striving to 
alienate the natives from the French, made them enticing offers, 
on condition that they should consent to admit" an English 
minister," the answer which he received from their representa 
tives is perhaps as worthy of record as any which the Indian 
annalists have preserved. 

" Your speech astonishes me," said the orator whom they 
deputed to speak on their behalf. " I am amazed at your 
proposal ; you saw me long before the French did ; yet neither 
you nor your ministers ever spoke to me of prayer, or of the 
Great Spirit. They saw my furs, and my beaver-skins, and 
they thought of them only. These were what they sought. 

* Gookin s Historical Collections, sec. 3, p. 7 (1772). 

f Schoolcraft, part ii., p. 24. 

\ Brasseur de Bourbourg, tome i., ch. vii., p. 140. Cf. Relations des Jesuites 
dans la Nowcelle France, Annee 1671. 

Bancroft, vol. ii., p. 563. 

I Henrion, tome ii., 2de partie, p. 609. 

1 An Inquiry into the Causes of the Alienation of the Delaware and Shawanese 
Indians from the British Interest, p. 32. 



288 CHAPTER IX. 

When I brought them many, I was their great friend. That 
was all.* 

"On the contrary, one day I lost my way in my canoe, and 
arrived at last at an Algonquin village near Quebec, where the 
Black Robes taught, t had hardly arrived when a Black Robe 
came to see me. I was loaded with peltries. The French 
Black Robe disdained even to look at them. He spoke to me 
at once of the Great Spirit, of Paradise, of Hell, and of the 
Prayer which is the only path to heaven. I heard him with 
pleasure. I stayed long in the village to listen to him. At 
length prayer was pleasing to me. I begged him to instruct 
me. I asked for baptism, and I received it. Then I returned 
to my own country and told what had happened to me. They 
envied my happiness, and wished to share it. They set out to 
find the Black Robe, and asked him to baptize them. This is 
how the French behaved to us. If when you first saw me, you 
had spoken to me of prayer, I should have had the misfortune 
to learn to pray like you, for I was not then able to find out if 
your prayer was good. But I have learned the prayer of the 
French. I love it, and will follow it till the earth is consumed 
and comes to an end. Keep, then, your money and your min 
ister. I speak to you no more."f 

The Swedish traveller Ivalm appears to allude to this, or to 
some similar oration, when he says, to the great displeasure of 
his editor, Pinkerton, -The English do not pay so much atten 
tion to a work of so much consequence as the French do, and do 
not send such able men to instruct the Indians as they ought 
to do.":J: Mr. Talvi, also, an American author, but contrasting 
unpleasantly with the candid and generous writers of that 
country, his solitary allusion to the Catholic missionaries 
being a vulgar and heartless jest, confesses, that " the Indians 
themselves, now that the Christianity was to be enforced upon 
them which the whites," he means the English, " had not 
taught them to love, asked, why the latter had been silent about 
it twenty-six years, when the matter was so weighty that their 
salvation depended upon it?" And lastly, Mr. Halkett forcibly 
observes, " It cannot be doubted that the Indians, for successive 
generations, have looked upon the whites as a fraudulent, 
unjust, and immoral race, preaching what they did not practice. 

* In one of the earliest excursions of the so-called Pilgrim Fathers" into 
the interior of Massachusetts, the same sordid temper was displayed. "Some 
few skins we got there," is the characteristic entry in the Puritan journal, 
" but not many." Of any attempt to convert the natives, they make no men 
tion. The Pilgrim Fathers, by George B. Cheever, D.D., p. 60. 

f Lcttres Edifiantcs et Curieuses, tome vi., p. 211. 

\ Pinkerton, vol. xiii., p. 588. 

Talvi s History of America, vol. ii., cli. xix., p. 78. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 289 

We need not, therefore, be surprised to find that the Indians do 
not scruple, even at the present day, to express, through their 
chiefs, their decided reluctance to receive the instructions of 
the missionaries."* 

We shall see presently further examples, both of the con 
trast and of the native comments upon it ; meanwhile, let us 
endeavor, by the aid of Protestant writers, to sketch the out 
lines of the history of missions in Canada, and of the fortunes 
of its aboriginal tribes. 

The first mission to the Hurons was commenced in 1615, by 
one whom Mr. Bancroft calls " the unambitious Franciscan, Le 
Caron," who, "years before the Pilgrims anchored within Cape 
Cod, had penetrated the land of the Mohawks, had passed to 
the north into the hunting-grounds of the Wyandots, and, bound 
by his vows to the life of a beggar, had, on foot, or paddling a 
bark canoe, gone onward and still onward, taking alms of the 
savages, till he reached the rivers of Lake Huron." "It was 
neither commercial enterprise," says the same distinguished 
writer, " nor royal ambition which carried the power of France 
into the heart of our continent ; the motive was .Religion ;" 
and he adds, the only "policy" which inspired the French 
conquests in America " was congenial to a Church which 
cherishes every member of the human race without regard to 
lineage or skin."f 

By the year 1636, fifteen Fathers of the Society of Jesus 
had entered Canada, and commenced that astonishing warfare, 
celebrated with honest enthusiasm by American writers, of 
which the fruits were long ago described by Father Bressany, 
who had himself no mean share in producing them. " Whereas 
at the date of our arrival," he says, writing with the hand 
which the savages had cruelly mutilated, after tormenting him 
for a whole month, " we found not a single soul possessing 
a knowledge of the true God; at the present day, in spite of 
persecution, want, famine, war, and pestilence, there is not a 
single family which does not count some Christians, even where 
all the members have not yet professed the faith. Such has 
been the work of twenty years.";): A little later, as is well 
known, the whole Huron nation was Christian. 

It was in June, 1611, that Fathers Biart and Masse arrived 
in Canada ; and it is a notable fact that the first Jesuit slain in 
America, in 1613, fell by the hands, riot of the savages, but of 

* Notes on North American Indians, by John Halkett, Esq., cli. xiii., 
p. 305. 

f Vol. ii., p. 783. 

i Missicns dans la Nomelle France, par le R. P. F. G. Bressany, S.J., p. 109 ; 
ed. Martin (1852). 

VOL. ir. 

20 



290 CHAPTER IX. 

the English.* American Protestants have described the labors 
of these first missionaries and of their successors. A few exam 
ples of the language which they employ will fitly introduce 
the history which we are briefly to trace. 

" Long before the consecration of Plymouth Rock," observes 
Mr. Bartlett, an official of the United States government, "the 
religion of Christ had been made known to the Indians of New 
Mexico ; the Rocky Mountains were scaled ; and the Gila and 
Colorado rivers, which in our day are attracting so much in 
terest as novelties, were passed again and again. The broad 
continent, too, to cross which, with all the advantages we 
possess, requires a whole season, was traversed from ocean to 
ocean, before Raleigh, or Smith, or the Pilgrim Fathers, had 
touched our shores."* 

" Within thirteen years," says professor Walters, " the wil 
derness of the Htirons was visited by sixty missionaries, 
chiefly Jesuits." One of them, Claude Allouez, discovered 
Lake Superior. Marquette, of whom Mr. Bancroft says, " the 
people of the West will yet build his monument," "embarks 
with his beloved companion and fellow-missionary, Joliet, upon 
the Mississippi, and discovers the mouth of that king of rivers, 
the Missouri. A third member of this devoted band," continues 
Mr. Walters, " the fearless Menan, settles in the very heart of 
the dreaded Mohawk country, on the banks of the river which 
still bears that name. The Onondagas welcome the missionaries 
of the same illustrious society. The Oneidas and Senecas 
likewise lend an attentive ear to the sweet tidings of the Gospel 
of peace. When we consider that these missionaries were 
established in the midst of continual dangers and life-wasting 
hardships, that many of the Jesuits sealed with their blood the 
truth of the doctrines they preached, and the sincerity of their 
love for these indomitable sons of the American forest, we 
are not surprised at the eloquent encomiums which have been 
passed upon their dauntless courage and their more than human 
charity and zeal." And then he adds, with that singular 
freedom from peevish bigotry and irrational prejudice which is 
the characteristic of so many American Protestants, " We have 
sufficient data to prove, that there is not a State of our Union 
wherein Catholicity has obtained a footing, whose history does 
not exhibit many interesting traits of heroic self-denial, of 
dangers overcome, of opposition meekly borne, of adversaries 
won to our faith by the Catholic missionaries."^: 



* Charlevoix, Hixtoire de la Nouxelle France, tome i., liv. iii., p. 211 (1744). 
f Personal Narrative of Explorations in Texas, New Mexico, &c., by John 
Russell Bartlett, U. S. Commissioner, vol. i., ch. viii., p. 183 (1854). 
% Rupp, Rst. of lid. Denominations of U. S., pp. 119-20. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 291 

Mr. "Washington Irving is not less emphatic in his generous 
admiration of the same great company of apostles. " All per 
sons," he observes, " who are in the least familiar with the 
early history of the West, know with what pure and untiring 
zeal the Catholic missionaries pursued the work of conversion 
among the savages. Before a Virginian had crossed the Blue 
Ridge, and while the Connecticut was still the extreme frontier 
of New England, more than one man whose youth had been 
passed among the warm valleys of Languedoc, had explored 
the wilds of Wisconsin, and caused the hymn of Catholic 
praise to rise from the prairies of Illinois. The Catholic priest 
went even before the soldier and the trader ; from lake to lake, 
from river to river, the Jesuits pressed on unresting, and, 
with a power which no other Christians have exhibited, won 
to their faith the warlike Miamis and the luxurious Illinois."* 

Even Protestant ministers, forgetting, in presence of so much 
heroism and virtue, their conventional phraseology, which they 
seem to have agreed to suspend over the graves of martyrs, 
have caught up the strain. " How few of their number," ex 
claims the Rev. Mr. Kip, " died the common death of all men !" 
And then, after enumerating the various kinds of death by 
which they finished their course, he continues thus : " But did 
these things stop the progress of the Jesuits? The sons of 
Loyola never retreated. The mission they founded in a tribe 
ended only with the extinction of the tribe itself. Their lives 
were made up of fearless devotedness and heroic self-sacrifice. 
Though sorrowing for the dead, they pressed forward at once 
to occupy their places, and, if needs be, share their fate. 
Nothing, wrote Father Le Petit, after describing the mar 
tyrdom of two of his brethren, nothing has happened to those 
two excellent missionaries for which they were not prepared 
when they devoted themselves to the Indian missions. If the 
flesh trembled, the spirit seemed never to falter. Each one 
indeed felt that he was baptized for the dead, and that his 
own blood, poured out in the mighty forests of the West, woiild 
bring down perhaps greater blessings on those for whom he 
died, than he would win for them by the labors of a life. He 
realized that he was appointed unto death. Ibo, et non 
redibo? were the prophetic words of Father Jogues, when for 
the last time he departed for the Mohawks. When Lallemand 
was^ bound to the stake, and for seventeen hours his excru 
ciating agonies were prolonged, his words of encouragement to 
his brother were, Brother ! we are made a spectacle unto the 
world, and to angels, and to men. When Marquette was 

* Ibid., Knickerbocker, June, 1838. 



292 CHAPTER IX. 

setting out for the sources of the Mississippi, and the friendly 
Indians who had known him wished to turn him from his pur 
pose, by declaring Those distant nations never spare the 
stranger, the calm reply of the missionary was, I shall gladly 
lay down my life for the salvation of souls. " * 

Yet these candid men, who could thus applaud in all sincerity 
the gifts and graces which they recognize in the missionaries of 
the Cross, and sometimes confess in glowing words the super 
natural "constancy and patience which," as Mr. Hawkins 
observes, " must always command the wonder of the historian 
and the admiration of posterity," were content to utter barren 
applause ! Less impressed by actions which they often attrib 
ute only to enthusiasm, or peculiarity of temperament, than 
the more discerning Huron or Oneida, who knew how to trace 
them to their true source, and who quickly comprehended that 
only the " Master of Life" could form such men or inspire such 
actions, these Protestant historians derive no lessons from deeds 
which they record without comprehending, and of which their 
own annals contain not even a solitary example, and deem 
their task fully accomplished when they have elaborated the 
unprofitable panegyric which they would apply, with hardly 
the variation of a phrase, to the prowess of a Hannibal or the 
constancy of a Regulus. 

One advantage, however, we derive from their unsuspicious 
testimony, that it renders all Catholic evidence superfluous; 
one inference we draw from the facts which they proclaim, that 
the missionaries would have done in the Northern what they did 
in the Southern continent, if they had not been hindered in the 
former by a fatal impediment, from which they were delivered 
in the latter. If Canada and the United States had belonged 
to France or Spain, instead of to England or Holland, no one 
can doubt, with the history of Brazil and Paraguay in his 
hands, that the inhabitants of both would have remained to 
this day ; and that the triumphs of Anchieta and Vieyra, of 
Solano and Baraza, would have been renewed by the banks 
of the St. Lawrence and the Ohio, in the forests of Michigan, 
the prairies of Illinois, and the savannahs of Florida and 
Alabama. 

In both fields of apostolic warfare, the agents were exactly 
the.>same. " Every tradition," says the most laborious historian 
of the United States, "bears testimony to their worth. They 
had the faults of ascetic superstition," they shared them with 
St. Paul and St. Francis Xavier, " but the horrors of a 

* The Early Jesuit Missions in North America, by the Rev. Wm. Ingraham 
Kip, M.A. ; preface, p. 8. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 293 

Canadian life in the wilderness were resisted by an invincible 
passive courage, and a deep internal tranquillity. Away from 
the amenities of life, away from the opportunities of vain-glory, 
they became dead to the world, and possessed their souls in 
unalterable peace. The history of their labors is connected 
with the origin of every celebrated town in the annals of 
French America ; not a cape was turned, not a river entered, 
but a Jesuit led the way."* Let us see through what perils 
and sufferings it conducted them. 

In 1641, a bark canoe left the Bay of Penetangushene, for 
the Sault Ste. Marie, at the invitation of the Chippewas, who 
had heard of the messengers of the Great Spirit. " There, at 
the falls, after a navigation of seventeen days, they found an 

assembly of two thousand souls Thus did the religious 

zeal of the French bear the Cross to the banks of the St. Mary 
and the confines of Lake Superior, and look wistfully towards 
the homes of the Sioux in the valley of the Mississippi, five 
years before the New England Eliot had addressed the tribe of 
Indians that dwelt within six miles of Boston harbor!" Raym- 
bault and Jogues travelled in that canoe. The former perished 
by the rigor of the climate, the latter was destined to a more 
tragical fate. Returning by the Ottawa and the St. Lawrence 
to Quebec, with " the great warrior Ahasistari" and a party of 
Christian Hurons, he was attacked by a band of Mohawks. 
The llurons leaped ashore, to hide in the thick forest. "Jogues 
might have escaped also ; but there were with him converts 
who had not yet been baptized ; and when did a Jesuit mis 
sionary seek to save his own life, at what he believed the risk 
of a soul? Ahasistari had gained a hiding-place; observing 
Jogues to be a captive, he returned to him, saying, My 
brother, I made oath to thee that I would share thy fortune, 
whether death or life: I am here to keep my vow. "f 

Ahasistari was burned alive. He had been baptized, after 
due trial of his sincerity, Mr. Bancroft relates, " and enlisting 
a troop of converts, savages like himself, Let us strive, he ex 
claimed, i to make the whdle world embrace the faith in 
Jesus! " The noble barbarian accepted martyrdom with ex 
ultation, and sang at the stake, not his own warlike deeds, but 
the praises of Jesus and Mary. Rene Goupil, a novice, in the 
act of reciting the rosary with Father Jogues, was killed by 
the blow of a tomahawk, " lest he should destroy the village by 
his charms." Jogues was not yet to die. They allowed him, 
because of his infirmities, to wander about, and often "he wrote 

* Bancroft, ? ., 783. 
1 Ibid, 791. 



294: CHAPTER ix. 

the name of Jesns on the bark of trees, as if taking possession 
of these countries in the name of God." His torments were 
long and horrible, but his martyrdom was to be postponed for 
four years. They tore out his hair and nails by the roots, cut 
off his lingers by one joint at a time, and only suspended his 
tortures when they seemed likely to deprive him of life. Yet 
he never wavered! Uansomed at length by the Dutch, he was 
released, and having visited Rome to obtain a dispensation to 
say Mass in spite of his mutilated hands, the Sovereign Pontiff 
replied, " Indignum esset Christi martyrem Christi non bibere 
sangiiincm" Having obtained the permission which he so 
licited,, instead of seeking the repose which his sufferings 
seemed to have earned, he returned immediately to America, 
and being recaptured by the Iroquois in 1646, was again 
cruelly tortured, and finally obtained, on the 18th of October, 
the crown of martyrdom.* His actual murderer was burned 
to death in the following year by the Algonquins, " but the 
holy martyr seems not to have abandoned him in his last hour," 
says Charlevoix, " for he died a Christian." 

On the 4th of July, 1648, Father Antoine Daniel, while 
laboring in a Huron village, was surprised in his turn by the 
Mohawks. His flock was cut down on every side, while he 
moved amongst them, calm and fearless, baptizing the cate 
chumens and absolving the Christians, and when his task was 
done, quietly advanced to meet his murderers. "Astonishment 
seized the barbarians," says Mr. Bancroft, who thus describes 
the closing scene: "At length, drawing near, they discharge 
at him a flight of arrows. All gashed and rent by wounds, he 
still continued to speak with surprising energy, now inspiring 
fear of the Divine anger, and again, in gentle tones, yet of more 
piercing power than the whoops of the savages, breathing the 
affectionate messages of mercy and grace." At last they slew 
him, " the name of Jesus on his lips." The whole Huron na 
tion mourned him, and some of them related, as Mr. Bancroft 
notices, " that he appeared twice after his death, youthfully 
radiant in the sweetest form of celestial glory."f 

On the 16th and 17th of March, 1649, Fathers Jean de 
Brebeuf and Gabriel Lallemand, both apostles of the Hurons, 
passed to their eternal reward through one of the most appalling 
trials which man ever inflicted or endured. The first had been 
twenty years in the mission, and had converted more than 
seven thousand Indians ; the last was weak and delicate, and 
had only just commenced the apostolic career. Among his 

* Charlevoix, tome i., liv. vi., p. 390. " Verissimum patientiae et in proximuin 
cliaritatis portentum." Tanuer, Vita et Mon. Martyr. Soc. Jesu, p. 510. 
f Bancroft, ii., 790. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 295 

private papers was found, after his death, a writing in which 
he devoted himself to martyrdom. " Oh, my Jpsus, sole object 
of my love," he had written, " it is necessary that Thy blood, 
shed for the savages as well as for us, should be efficaciously 
applied to their salvation. It is on this account that I desire 
to co-operate with Thy grace, and to immolate myself for 
Thee."* 

They were both captured by the Iroquois, allies of the 
English, and implacable enemies of the Hurons, after a battle 
in which every combatant of the latter tribe was either killed 
or taken. Occupied during the conflict in baptizing the dying, 
and in exhorting all u to have God alone in view," they only 
ceased to teach and console when there was no longer a Huron 
left to need their ministry. De Brebeuf was first led to the 
stake, and as he continued to proclaim with a loud voice the 
faith for which he was about to die, " the savages, unable to 
silence him, cut off his lower lip and his nose, applied burning 
torches to all parts of his body, burned his gums, and at 
length, for he still continued to admonish them, "plunged a 
red hot iron into his throat." And then they brought forth 
his young companion, stripped him naked, and covered him 
with sheets of bark that he might be slowly roasted. It was 
at this moment, when he saw the horrible condition of his 
venerable friend, that he cried out, " We are made a spectacle 
to the world, to angels, and to men !" De Brebeuf replied to 
him by a gentle inclination of the head, when Lallemand, 
whose fetters had been consumed by the h re, ran to him, cast 
himself at his feet, and respectfully kissed his wounds. Shortly 
after De Brebeuf was scalped, while still living, and then 
Lallemand s agony began. They poured boiling water on his 
head, in mockery of baptism ; they plucked out one of his eyes, 
and placed a burning coal in the empty socket ; the smoke from 
the burning sheets of bark filled his mouth so that he could no 
longer speak, but as the flame had again burst his bonds, he 
lifted up his hands to heaven. Finally, after an agony which 
was skilfully protracted during seventeen hours, the victim was 
immolated, and the sacrifice complete. " The lives of both," 
says Mr. Bancroft, "had been a continual heroism; their 
deaths were the astonishment of their executioners." The 
Protestant historian omits to add the impressive fact, that 
many of their murderers were afterwards converted, and that 
it was from their voluntary account that the details of their 
martyrdom were collected. f 

* Bressany, p. 258. 

f Charlevoix, tome ii., liv. vii., p. 18 ; Bressany, eh. v., p. 251. 



296 CHAPTER IX. 

" It may be asked," adds Mr. Bancroft, " if these massacres 
quenched enthusiasm ? I answer, that the Jesuits never 
receded one foot." Father Bressany, who wrote his own 
history with his mutilated hand, has described, as if speaking 
of another, the tortures which made him say, " I did not think 
it possible for man to survive such an ordeal." Yet he 
lived to return to Europe, where he had professed literature, 
philosophy, and mathematics, before he devoted himself to the 
conversion of the heathen ; and it was a common remark of 
those who heard him preach in the churches of Italy, " lie 
has no need to say, I bear in my body the marks of the Lord 
Jesus. " Even the Indians used to say to him, " Show us 
your wounds, they speak to us of Him for whom you received 
them." 

In the same year which saw the death of De Brebeuf and 
Lallemand, Father Gamier was also martyred. He had already 
been pierced through the breast and stomach, and was dragging 
himself along the ground in order to give absolution to a dying 
Huron, when he was cut in two by a hatchet. On the 18th of 
December, still in the same year, Father Noel Chabanel met a 
similar fate. Leonard Garreau, Nicolas Viel, and " the fearless 
Rene Mesnard ;" Buteux and Poncet ; Le Maistre and Vignal ; 
Souel and Constantine ; Du Poisson and Doutreleau ; all gave 
their lives for the faith, after toils which only Divine charity 
could inspire or support. Besides these, the historian of the 
United States, as if a moment of transient enthusiasm made him 
almost a partaker in their faith, celebrates Pinet, " who became 
the founder of Cahokia, preaching with such success that his 
chapel could not contain the multitude that thronged to him ;" 
and Binrietau, " who left his mission among the Abenakis to 
die on the upland plains of the Mississippi ;" and Gabriel 
Marest, " who, after chanting an ave to the cross among the 
icebergs of Hudson s Bay," was captured by the English, but 
found his way back to America ; and Mermet, " whose gentle 
virtues and fervid eloquence made him the soul of the mission 
at Kaskaskia," far away in the valley of the Mississippi ; and 
Marquette, "still honored in the West;" and Guignes, who 
had travelled six hundred leagues from Quebec to the territory 
of the Sioux, and when on the point of being burned alive by 
the Kickapoos, was saved by an aged chief who adopted him as 
his son ;* and Pierron, of whom the Mohawks said, " this French 
man has changed our hearts and souls, his desires and thoughts 
are ours:" and Du Jan nay, whose memory is still preserved at 
Detroit, and his name dear to the Ottawa s ; and Milet, whom 

* Lettrt* Edif antes, tome vii., p. 67. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 297 

the Onondagas called " the one who looks up to heaven ;" and 
Etienne de Carheil, " revered for his genius as well as for his 
zeal," and " who spoke the dialects of the Huron-Iroquois 
tribes with as much facility and elegance as though they had 
been his mother tongue ;" and Dmillettes, whom even the 
English, after plotting his death, extolled for his incomparable 
charity ;* and Ficquet, who for more than thirty years labored 
amongst the savages, and in three years gathered round him 
three hundred and ninety-six heads of families, of whom the 
Marquis du Quesne used to say, "The Abbe Ficquet is worth 
more than ten regiments," whom de Bougainville eulogized 
as " theologian, orator, and poet," and whom Amherst tried 
to conciliate, after the conquest of Quebec, though the English 
had often set a price on his head.f 

To these let us add one whom Mr. Bancroft calls "the faithful 
Senat," who, " when D Artaguette lay weltering in his blood, 
might have fled," but " remained to receive the last sigh of the 
wounded, regardless of danger, mindful only of duty ;" and 
Lamberville, who, as an English writer observes, captivated 
even the hereditary enemies of the Christian Huron s, and " so 
won the confidence of the Iroquois by his unaffected piety, his 
constant kindness, and his skill in healing their differences and 
their bodily ailments," that even these irreclaimable savages, 
hired by the English to fight against their Christian brothers, 
" looked upon him as a father and a friend ;"; and Marest, 
who, after travelling many weeks to the distant home of the 
Potawattomies, " carrying with him only a crucifix and a 
breviary," found himself clasped in the arms of a brother whom 
he had not seen for fifteen years, but who, in the interval, had 
become a Jesuit like himself, and whom he was destined to 
meet for the first time in an Indian cabin more than two thou 
sand miles from the sea. 

Lastly, let us allude to, though we cannot name them, that 
multitude of generous apostles who, like Anne de JSToue, tasted 
the martyrium sine sanguine, drowned, starved, or frozen to 
death, and "whose fate," as Mr. Ilalkett observes, "was not 
ascertained, and who were never afterwards heard of." 

Yet their labor was not in vain, and its fruits survive even 
to this hour, in spite of the multiplied disasters of every kind 
which have concurred to blight them. " If any Indians still 
remain in Canada," says M. Brasseur de Bourbourg, " it is to 

* Relations des Jesuites dans la Nouxelle France, Annee 1652 ; ch. viii., tomo 
li., p. 29. 

f Bancroft, ii., 838, 916, 964 ; Lettres Edifiantes, tomo xxvi., pp. 18-63. 
\ Howitt, Colonization and Christianity, ch. xx., p. 821. 
^ Notes on N. American Indians, ch. ii., p. 43. 



298 CHAPTER IX. 

the Catholic Church alone that their preservation is due." 
We shall see presently how much reason he had to say it. 
The whole Huron nation was converted, and Protestant 
writers will tell us that its survivors still do honor to their 
apostolic teachers. Abenakis and Algonquins, Ottawas arid 
Onondagas, received the message of peace, " and in the heart 
of the State of New York the solemn services of the Roman 
Church were chanted as securely as in any part of Christen 
dom."* The Cayugas and Oneidas, the Senecas and Miamis, 
welcomed the preachers of the Gospel ; and a single missionary, 
Claude Allouez, u lighted the torch of faith for more than 
twenty different nations."f " To what inclemencies, from 
nature and from man," says the Protestant historian, " was 
each missionary among the barbarians exposed ! He defies 
the severity of climate, wading through water, or through 
snows, without the comfort of fire ; having no bread but 
pounded maize, and often no food but the unwholesome moss 
from the rocks ; laboring incessantly ; exposed to live, as it 
w r ere, without nourishment, to sleep without a resting-place, 
to carry his life in his hand, or rather daily, and oftener than 
every day, to hold it up as a target, expecting captivity, death 
from the tomahawk, tortures, fire." And yet, as he judiciously 
adds, these heroes had abundant consolation. " How often 
was the pillow of stones like that where Jacob felt the presence 
of God ! How often did the ancient oak seem like the tree 
of Mamre, beneath which Abraham broke bread with angels! :): 
One reflection only he fails to make, that the doctrine which 
such men delivered in every land was the same which St. Paul 
or St. Philip preached, by the same method, and which they 
also illustrated by the same actions, and sealed by the same 
death. 

The men who preached the faith in Canada continued to 
the end such as its first apostles had been. One after another 
they displayed the same supernatural character, and even their 
enemies acknowledged in them the marks of the same apostolic 
vocation. But they were now to encounter that peculiar 
obstacle, unknown, as we have several times observed, in the 
age of St. Peter and St. Paul, and which has proved fatal in 
so many lands to the salvation of the heathen. They were 
rapidly converting one tribe after another, as their brethren had 
done in the South, and would not have rested from their labor 
till they had converted them all ; but a price was now to be 
set on their heads, by men calling themselves Christians, and 

* Bancroft, ii., 799. 
f Id., 804. 
\ Id, 806. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 299 

representing the government and the religion of England ! 
"In 1700, the legislature of New York made a law for hang 
ing every Popish priest that should come voluntarily into the 
province;"* and Lord Bellamont, the English governor, de 
clared his intention to execute the law immediately upon 
every Jesuit whom he could seize. f They had tried every 
other plan ; they had surpassed even the Mohawk, whom they 
made their ally in hunting down the missionaries of the Cross ; 
and now they announced to the world, by a solemn legislative 
enactment, that they were prepared to murder every Catholic 
priest, upon whom they could lay hands. Their success, it 
must be admitted, was complete ; but in accomplishing it, they 
not only destroyed Christianity and those who alone could 
propagate it, but extirpated by the same fatal policy the nations 
whom they could neither convert themselves, nor would suffer 
others to convert. 

The conduct of Lord Bellamont, who only executed faith 
fully the instructions of his masters, was thus noticed by Mr. 
Talbot, an Anglican missionary in America, in 1702. After 
expressing generally his reluctant admiration of the "zealous 
and diligent papists," the Protestant preacher continued as 
follows. " Tis wonderfully acted, ventured, and suffered upon 
that design ; they have indeed become all things, and even 
turned Indians, as it were, to gain them. One of their priests 
lived half a year in their wigwams without a shirt; and when 
he petitioned my Lord Bellamont for a couple, he was not only 
denied hut banished; whereas one of ours, in discourse with 
my Lord of London, said, Who did his Lordship think would 
come hither that had a dozen shirts?":): 

The Dutch, though they twice humanely ransomed a Catholic 
missionary, were not in other respects superior to their co 
religionists of England. As early as 1657, they were established 
at Orange, now the city of Albany, where they lived after a 
fashion which provoked such comments as the following. Of 
one preacher, who was sent out by the " Lutheran Consistory 
at Amsterdam," his Dutch Calvinist colleagues gave the follow 
ing graphic account. " This Lutheran parson is a man of a 
godless and scandalous life, a rolling, rollicking, unseemly carl, 
who is more inclined to look into the wine-can, than to pore 
over the Bible, and would rather drink a can of brandy for two 
hours than preach one." He and his flock were accustomed, 
" when full of brandy, to beat each other s heads black and 

* Bancroft, ii., 835. 

f Brasseur de Bourbourg, tome i., ch. xii., p. 216. 

j Missions of the Church of England in the JV. American Colonies, by Earnest 
Hawkins, B.D., ch. ii., p. 33 (1845). 



300 CHAPTER IX. 

blue," their pastor being " excessively inclined to fight whom 
soever he meets."* The disciples of the Dutch clergy generally 
are thus described, in 1710, by the Rev. Thomas Barclay, an 
Episcopalian minister, in an official report on the " State of the 
Church in Albany." " There are about thirty communicants 
of the Dutch Church, but so ignorant and scandalous, that they 
can scarce be reputed Christians."f It is fair, however, to 
add, that we shall hear exactly the same account, by their own 
friends, of the Episcopalian clergy and their flocks. It was 
probably their experience of such teachers and such congrega 
tions which made the neighboring Indian tribes reason as 
follows. " What a difference between the Christians and the 
Dutch ! They say that they all acknowledge the same God, 
but how unlike are they in their conduct ! When we go to 
visit the French, we always come back with a desire to pray. 
At Albany they never say any thing to us about prayer. We 
do not even know whether they pray there at all.";]: 

Yet at this very date, the Indians collected in the island of 
Montreal had been so effectually converted to God, and in 
many of the fixed missions, notably at the Sault Ste. Marie, 
the same thing was true, that European visitors could report, 
" The whole island of Montreal resembles a religious com 
munity;"! or ? as ti ie Bishop of Quebec observed in 1688, 
" You would take this village for a monastery, so extraordinary 
is their daily life."|| At Kaskaskia, far away in the valle}^ of 
the Mississippi, Mr. Bancroft says, " the success of the mission 
\vas such, that marriages of the French emigrants were some 
times solemnized with the daughters of the Illinois according to 
the rites of the Catholic Church ;" while the Indians, he allows, 
were so thoroughly converted, that not only did they all assemble 
" at early dawn" to assist at Mass, and again " at evening for 
instruction, for prayer, and to chant the hymns of the Church," 
but, as the Protestant historian adds, "every convert confessed 
once in a fortnight," and " at the close of the day, parties w T ould 
meet in the cabins to recite the rosary, in alternate choirs, and 
sing psalms into the night. "T By the end of the seventeenth 
century, as Mr. Owen observes, "the total of the Confederacy 
(Six Nations) who professed the Roman Catholic religion was 
computed to exceed eight thousand. *** And this was only one 

* Documentary History of New York, vol iii.. p. 105. 

f Ibid., p. 898 

i Charlevoix, tome ii., liv. viii., p. 80. 

Ibid., liv. ix., p. 163. 

I Lett res Edifiantes, tome vi., p, 126. 

1 Bancroft, ii., 839. 

** History of the Bible Society, vol. i., p. 128. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 301 

example of their success. " The whole Abenakis nation," the 
martyr Rasles could say in 172-2, " is Christian, and full of zeal 
for their religion." " Among the Five Nations," as a bitter 
Puritan lamented, " there is a great number of French Jesuits, 
and the chief of the poor silly Indians do entirely confide in 
them."* As early as 1670, Roger Williams, a famous Prot 
estant preacher, confessed to Mason, in the frightful language 
of his class, that " the French and Romish Jesuits, the fire 
brands of the world for their god-belly sake, are kindling at 
our back in this country their hellish fires, with all the natives 
of this country T\ So that Judge Hall could truly observe, 
" The French Catholics, at a very early period, were remark 
ably successful in gaining converts, and conciliating the confi 
dence and aifection of the tribes ;" while, as he adds, with singu 
lar candor, " Protestants, similarly situated, were bloodthirsty 
and rapacious.":); 

In truth, as respects the fruits of their labors, it was the his 
tory of Brazil and Peru in another clime. In many a mission, 
from the Mohawk to the Genesee, and from the Hudson to the 
Mississippi, were gathered Christian Indians, who, as one 
whom Mr. Bancroft styles " the honest Charlevoix" has re 
corded, " would have done honor to the first ages of Chris 
tianity." "I give my life willingly," said Tegananokoa, a 
native martyr, " for a God who shed all His blood for me." 
When his fingers had been cut off by the heathen, because he 
lifted them up in prayer, and he was scoffingly bidden to con 
tinue his* supplications, " Yes," he replied, u I will pray," and 
then made the sign of the cross with his mutilated hand. But 
men who could defy all the arts of the pagan, and who were 
once more converting a continent, w r ere vanquished by the 
more subtle wickedness of so-called Christians. The Iroquois, 
a nation remarkable for their natural gifts, so that even Dr. 
Timothy Dwight compares them with " the Greeks and Ro 
mans," appear to have become perfectly demoniacal after inter 
course with their white allies, by whom they were paid to 
fight against the French. They were, says a Protestant ethnol 
ogist, a people advancing in many ways towards the full" 
initiation of a self-originated civilization, when the intrusion of 
Europeans abruptly arrested its progress, and brought them in 
contact with the elements of a foreign civilization pregnant 
only with the sources of their degradation and final destruc 
tion. ^ " I have often," says Charlevoix, " asked some of our 

* Discoveries of the English in America, Pinkerton, vol. xii., p. 410. 
f Massachusetts Historical Collections, 1st series, vol. i., p. 283. 
J Rupp, Hist. Eel. Denom., p. 163. 
Dr. Wilson, Prehistoric Man, vol. i., ch. vii., p. 235. 



302 CHAPTER IX. 

Fathers, with many of whom who labored longest in this part 
of the Lord s vineyard I had the happiness of living, what had 
hindered the seed of the Word from taking root amongst a 
people whose intelligence, good sense, and noble feelings they 
so much praised. All gave me the same reply, that the chief 
cause of this evil was the neighbor hood of the English and 
Dutch, whose want of piety, though professing to be Christians, 
had induced these savages to regard Christianity as a mere re 
ligion of caprice comme une religion arbitraire" 

But we have not been accustomed in these volumes to rely 
upon Catholic evidence, however weighty, and the testimony 
of Charlevoix, as we shall see immediately, is amply confirmed 
from other sources. On the 10th of August, 1654, at a general 
council of all the Iroquois nations, as we read in the Documen 
tary History of New York they solemnly invited the Catholic 
missionaries, in a moment of freedom from English influence, 
to take up their abode amongst them. " It is you" they said, 
" who ought to possess our hearts." And it was from Chris 
tian Huron captives, the very race whom they had most hated 
and injured, that they had learned "the great value of the 
Faith, and to prize without being acquainted with it." They 
had seen the Catholic Indian suffer, and they had seen him 
die, and the lesson had not been lost upon them. ISTor can it 
be reasonably doubted that, but for the counsels and example 
of the English, these noble tribes would all have been won to 
Christianity and civilization. It was not till they had learned 
to despise the religion of their Saxon allies, and to inritate their 
vices, that they closed their hearts forever against the message 
of peace. It has been the mission of the English, in all lands, 
to make the conversion of the heathen impossible. Here are 
fresh examples, recorded by themselves, of their mode of pro 
ceeding in the Atlantic provinces of America. * 

In 1687, Governor Dongan of New York, after reporting 
officially to the Lords of the Committee of Trade, that the 
Iroquois were "a bulwark between us and the French," added 
these characteristic words, "/ suffer no Christians to converse 
with them anywhere but at Albany, and that not without my 
licence." It was more advantageous to English interests that 
they should continue pagans, because if they embraced Chris 
tianity they were sure to be Catholics. He even avowed, with 
crude brutality, the odious treachery which he knew the English 
government would approve and reward. " The French Fathers 
have converted many of them, Mohawks, Senecas, Cayugas, 
Oneidas, and Onondagas, to the Christian Faith, and doe their 
utmost to draw them to Canada, to which place there are 
already six or seven hundred retired, and more like to doe, to 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 303 

the great prejudice of this government, if not prevented;" and 
then he tells his masters how he had induced some to return 
by fraud, promising "to furnish them with priests," a promise 
kept, thirteen years later, by enacting a law " to hang every 
Popish priest that should come into the province. v * It was 
against such deadly influences that the apostles of North 
America contended, till both they and their flocks were anni 
hilated. 

Yet not a few even of the Iroquois had proved how powerfully 
grace could work in them, when they were suffered to come 
within its reach. All the early Canadian records speak, 
amongst others, of the Iroquois Saint, Catherine Teguhkouita. 
Born "in 1656, and converted in early youth by the missionaries 
from Montreal, she led until her death, in 1680, a hidden life 
of prayer, seeking by her austerities to make atonement for the 
errors of her tribe. " She had placed a cross in the trunk of a 
tree, by the side of a stream, and this solitary spot served her 
for an oratory. There in spirit she placed herself at the foot of 
the altar, united her intention to that of the priest, and implored 
her angel guardian to assist at the sacrifice of the Mass in her 
place, and to apply to her the fruit of it." Accustomed to 
practise in secret the most painful mortifications, and making 
her bed of rough thorns, a Christian companion suggested to 
her that this was an error in the sight of God, who does not 
approve austerities performed without the sanction of author 
ity, and not consecrated by obedience. " Catherine, who 
dreaded even the appearance of sin," says Father Cholenec, 
"came immediately to search for me, to acknowledge her fault, 
and ask pardon of God. I blamed her indiscretion, and directed 
her to throw the thorns into the fire. This she instantly did." 
When she died, at the age of twenty-four, the same missionary 
relates that the very sight of her corpse filled the spectators 
with surprise and edification : " It might be said that a ray of 
glory illuminated even her body."f 

Margaret, another of these Indian virgins, was martyred by 
the pagan members of her own tribe, and, amidst the greatest 
tortures which savage cruelty could inflict, " continued to in 
voke the holy names of Jesus, Mary, and Joseph." The agony 
of thirst made her crave for water, yet when they offered it to 
her, she refused, saying, " My Saviour thirsted for me on the 
cross; it is just that I should suffer the same torment." She 
survived so long under her tortures, that her murderers ex 
claimed with surprise, u Is this dog of a Christian unable to 
die ?" 

* Documentary History of New York, vol. i., pp. 41, 154. 
f Lettres Edifiantes, tome vi., pp. 67, 97. 



304 CHAPTER IX. 

The apostles who had raised up to God, in many an Indian 
tribe, such worshippers as these, would not have failed in due 
time to renew the triumphs which their brethren had effected in 
Brazil, Peru, and Paraguay. They had begun, and would have 
completed, the same work. The Indian of the North, until 
brutalized by drink and maddened by cruelty, was at least as 
capable of appreciating Christian heroism and sanctity as his 
fellow-barbarian of the South ; and when he saw both displayed 
before his eyes, did homage after his kind. " The North 
American Indian," says an eminent English writer, " is of a 
disposition peculiarly religious,"* though the emissaries of 
Protestantism could riot turn the disposition to account. 
When the tribes of Kentucky had declared implacable war 
against the seed of the oppressor, they still respected, even in 
the paroxysm of their rage, one class, and one alone. The 
French Trappists, far from all human succor, dwelt without 
fear in the midst of them ; and u the monks themselves," 
though blood was flowing all around them, "were never 
molested in their own establishment. The savages seemed 
even to be awed into reverence for their sanctity; and often 
did they pause in the vicinity of the rude Trappist chapel, to 
listen to the praises of God chanted amidst the bones of their 
own fathers."f 

Such is the spell, as we have seen in many lands, which 
Catholic holiness exerts even over the rudest natures.- "So 
wide," says Mr. Bancroft, with his usual candor, " was the in 
fluence of the missionaries in the West," that when Da Buisson, 
defending Fort Detroit with only twenty Frenchmen against 
the forces of the English, " summoned his Indian allies from 
the chase; Ottawas, and Hurons, and Potawattomies, with one 
branch of the Sacs, Illinois, Menomonies, and even Osages and 
Missouris, each nation with its own ensign came to his relief. 
Father, said they, behold! thy children compass thee round. 
We will, if need be, gladly die for our father. "if Multitudes, 
no doubt, would have shared the fate of Jogues and Lallemand 
and De Brebeuf, before the victory was finally accomplished ; 
but others would immediately have taken their place, until 
Mohawk and Sioux, Shawnee and Delaware, subdued by 
their invincible courage, and won by their surpassing 
charity, would have imitated the Moxos and Chiquitos of 
the southern continent, and, like them, would have survived 

* Lectures on Colonization, by Herman Merivale, A.M., Professor of Political 
Economy ; lect. xix., p. 526. 

f Sketches of the Early Catholic Missions of Kentucky, by M. J. Spalding, D.D., 
ch. x., p, 173. 

\ II., 858. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 305 

to tins day, dwelling in the land of their fathers, and praising 
the God of Christians. But an enemy had now entered the 
field, before whom both the missionary and his flock disap 
peared, and whose operations it is time to notice. Two or 
three examples, out of many, will sufficiently indicate their 
scope and character. 

<k On the banks of the Kennebec," says the historian whom 
we have so often quoted, " the venerable Sebastian Easles, for 
more than a quarter of a century the companion and instructor 
of savages, had gathered a flourishing village round a church 
which, rising in the desert, made some pretensions to magnifi 
cence. Severely ascetic, using no wine, and little food except 
pounded maize, he built his own cabin, tilled his own garden, 
drew for himself wood and water, prepared his own hominy 
and, distributing all that he received, gave an example of re 
ligious poverty. . . . Following his pupils to their wigwam, 
he tempered the spirit of devotion with familiar conversation 
and innocent gayety, winning the mastery of their souls by his 
powers of persuasion. He had trained a little band of forty 
young savages, arrayed in cassock and surplice, to assist in the 
service and chant the hymns of the Church, and their public 
processions attracted a great concourse of red men." 51 

The apostolic labors of Father Rasles, and their success, 
made him odious to the English. They tried two plans for his 
destruction, of which Mr. Bancroft mentions only one. u The 
government of Massachusetts," he says, " attempted, in turn, 
to establish a mission ; and its minister made a mocking of 
purgatory and the invocation of saints, of the cross and the 
rosary. . . . Thus Calvin and Loyola met in the woods of 
Maine. But the Protestant minister, unable to compete with 
the Jesuit for the affections of the Indians, returned to 

Boston."f 

Their first project having failed, they adopted a second ; and 
the English authorities now offered by proclamation one thousand 
pounds sterling for the head of the too successful missionary ! 
u The English regard me," said the venerable man who was 
soon to be their victim, " as an invincible obstacle to the design 
which they have formed of acquiring all the lands of the Abena- 
kis.";f His crime was unpardonable, but it will be well to learn by 
Protestant testimony how it was avenged. " After vainly 
soliciting the savages," says Mr. Bancroft, " to surrender Rasles, 
in midwinter, Westbrooke led a strong force to Norridgewock, 
to take him by surprise." They had often hunted him before, 

* Bancroft, ii., 938. 

f Ibid., p. 939. 

J Lettres Edifiantes, tome vi., p. 148. 

VOL. II 21 



306 CHAPTER IX. 

but tliis time they were to be successful. In vain his flock had 
implored him to fly betimes. "The aged man, foreseeing the 
impending ruin of Norridgewock, replied, I count not my life 
dear unto myself, so I may finish with joy the ministry which 
I have received. : When the English arrived, " Rasles went 
forward to save his flock, by drawing down upon himself the 
attention of the assailants ; and his hope w r as not vain." Many 
of them escaped, " while the English pillaged the cabins and 
the church, and then, heedless of sacrilege, set them on fire."* 
Mr. Bancroft omits to add, what we learn from another source, 
that they " horribly profaned the sacred vessels, and the adora 
ble Body of Jesus Christ."f 

And what was the fate of one who for thirty-seven years had 
devoted himself, in poverty and suffering, to the welfare of the 
natives ? Mr. Bancroft has recorded it. " After the retreat of 
the invaders, the Abenakis," to whom the generosity of the 
missionary had given time to save their women and children, 
" returned to nurse their wounded and bury their dead. They 
found Kasles mangled by many blows, scalped, his skull broken 
in several places, his mouth and eyes filled with dirt ; and they 
buried him beneath the spot where he used to stand before the 
altar." Such was the work of a British military force con 
ducted by three British officers. 

The vengeance of England w r as complete, and from that hour 
the fate of the red man in all the Eastern States was sealed. It 
is Mr. Bancroft who draws the conclusion. " Thus died Sebas 
tian Rasles," he says, " the last of the Catholic missionaries in 
New England ; thus perished the Jesuit missions and their 
fruits, the villages of the semi-civilized Abenakis and their 
priests.":): Is it wonderful that there has been no new Para 
guay in Canada or the United States ? 

One hundred and eight years after the martyrdom of Sebastian 
Rasles, Dr. Fenwick, Bishop of Boston, purchased the land 
which had been dyed with his blood, to build a church on the 
spot consecrated by his death.] In the following year, 1833, 

* II., 859. 

f Charlevoix, tome iv., p. 12. 

i II., 941. 

Let it be observed, too, that the English never faltered in their crusade 
against religion and its ministers Thirty-five years later, Amherst led a force 
against the Indian village of St. Francis. The inhabitants were all Catholics. 
" These Indians," we are told, " had a handsome Catholic chapel, with plato 
and ornaments." Taken by surprise, they were almost all slain. " The vil 
lage, as had happened so often in New England, was first plundered, and then 
burned." Hildreth, vol. ii., ch. xxvii., p. 487. If the natives of North America 
have remained unconverted, it is to English Protestants alone that this result 
is due. 

1 Annales de la Propagation de la Foi, tome vi., p. 274. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 807 

the same bishop met the grandson of one of the English who 
had slain him, by whom the prelate was informed, that to the 
hour of his death his grandfather ceased not to shed tears at 
the thought of that sorrowful day ; and often called to mind 
that, having been wounded, he had been charitably nursed by 
one of Father Kasles disciples, though her own husband had 
been killed by his English companions. It is worthy of notice, 
too, that a century after his death, a deputation of the Abenakis 
brought to Dr. Carroll, Archbishop of Baltimore, the crucifix of 
the martyr, a relic which they only agreed to transfer to his 
custody, " on condition that he would send them a priest. -* 
So well had they kept the faith, during that long interval, that 
when Sir Guy Carleton sent to them Protestant ministers in 
1785, " they drove them out of their village ;" and the governor, 
generously appreciating their constancy, not only dispatched 
to them a Catholic priest, but offered him a stipend of fifty 
pounds a year.f 

The action of the Indian woman noticed above, whose charity 
would perhaps be rarely imitated by European Christians, 
affords an interesting example of the influence of religion 
among the disciples of the martyred missionary ; a still more 
striking case, in which the hand of the Indian warrior was 
restrained in the very heat of battle by the power of Catholic 
sympathy deserves notice. Nearly a century after the death 
of Father Kasles, in the war of 1812-13, an Irish Catholic, 
fighting with a body of American troops against a native tribe, 
was about to be overtaken by a chief. Falling on his knees, 
"he made the sign of the cross, and endeavored as well as 
he could to prepare himself for death. The warrior suddenly 
stopped, dropped his tomahawk, and falling likewise on his 
knees, embraced the white man, exclaiming, "You are my 
brother!" It is Bishop Fenwick who records this touching 
anecdote, which he received from the very man who owed his 
life to the forbearance suggested to a savage by a religious 
sentiment, which taught him to recognize a brother even in an 
enemy, whose hand had just been raised against him. J 

The fate of the venerable Sebastian Rasles overtook many an 
apostle in the midst of his toils, and would have been shared 
by all if the English could have laid hands on them. The 
celebrated Abbe ricquet, who united rare energy and ability to 
the higher virtues of his calling, was also tracked by the English 



* Brasseur de Bourbourg, Histoire du Canada, &c., tome i., ch. xxi., 
p. 85. 

f Id., ch. xxii., p. 88. 
j: Spaldfoig, cli. ii., p. 30. 



308 CHAPTER IX. 

as a wild beast, and a price set on his head.* Yet he was one 
who could have converted half the tribes of the North. In 
1749, he commenced his mission at Ogdensburgh with six 
heads of families; in 1750, he had eighty-seven round him; 
in 1751, three hundred and ninety-six. " People saw with 
astonishment several villages start up almost at once ; a con 
venient, habitable, and pleasantly situated fort ; vast clearances 
covered almost at the same time with the finest maize." This 
was the system by which the Jesuits and Franciscans had con 
quered South America, but it was only a small part of his work. 
At the mission of la Presentation, " the most distinguished of 
the Iroquois families were distributed in three villages." The 
Bishop of Quebec, " wishing to witness and assure himself 
personally of the wonders related to him," visited la Presenta 
tion, " and spent ten days examining and causing the catechu 
mens to be examined. He himself baptized one hundred and 
thirty-two, and did notcease during his sojourn blessing Heaven 
for the progress of religion among these infidels." Yet Picquet 
was hunted by the English, after gaining the illustrious title of 
" Apostle of the Iroquois," and finally, in 1760, was obliged to 
quit Canada forever, in consequence of the death of Montcalm 
and the capture of Quebec.f 

But he has not been, as we shall see more fully hereafter, 
without successors of his own school. Thirty-two years after 
Picquet was driven from Canada, an illustrious traveller 
described the following incident. " I myself met one of these 
apostles of religion amid the solitudes of America. One morning, 
as we were slowly pursuing our course through the forests, 
we perceived a tall, venerable old man, with a white beard, 
approaching us. He proved to be a missionary of Louisiana, 
on his way from New Orleans, returning to the country of the 
Illinois. He accompanied us for several days, and however 
early we were up in the morning, we always found the aged 
traveller risen before us and reading his breviary while walking 

in the forest. This holy man had suffered much He 

seemed to possess great attainments of many kinds, which he 
scarcely suffered to appear under his evangelical simplicity. 
Like his predecessors, the Apostles, though knowing every 
thing, he seemed to know nothing.":]: 

* We are not surprised to learn that lie revenged himself in a manner wor 
thy of an Apostle. When an English officer, who was actually in search of 
him, was captured by the Indians, and their clubs were already raised to beat 
him to death, Picquet forbade them to harm the baffled assassin. Memoir e 
sur la Vie de M. Picquet, par M. do Lalande, del Academie des Sciences ; Pan 
theon Litteraire, tome i., p. 742 (1838). 

j- Documentary History of New York, vol. i., p. 432. 

| Chateaubriand, Genius of Christianity, p. 592 ; ed. White. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 309 

We have now perhaps sufficient knowledge of the men who 
announced the Gospel in Canada, and of the policy by which 
their work was frustrated. The English became masters of all 
the lands which lie between Cape Gaspe and the western shores 
of Lake Superior, and the same fate awaited the doomed native 
which has crushed, under the same masters, the aborigines of 
South Africa, of Australia, of Tahiti, and New Zealand. It- 
only remains to show, by a few characteristic examples, how 
complete the ruin has been. 

It may be allowed, however, in noticing the condition to 
which Protestantism has reduced the natives of British America, 
to indicate, as usual by the aid of Protestant witnesses alone, 
the traces which still exist of the Catholic missions, and the 
character of those who conduct them. In spite of murder, 
fraud, and oppression, English writers will assure us, both that 
the Catholic Indians of Canada are the only Christians who 
deserve the name, and that their teachers at this hour exactly 
resemble those who died to save their fathers. 

The evidence is copious, but shall be confined within narrow 
limits. Exactly a century ago, the Rev. John Ogilvie, an 
Anglican missionary agent in America, thus addressed his em 
ployers : " Of every nation, I find some who have been instructed 
by the priests of Canada, and appear zealous Roman Catholics, 
extremely tenacious of the ceremonies and peculiarities of that 

Church How ought we to blush at our coldness 

and shameful indifference in the propagation of our most 
excellent religion. The Indians themselves are not wanting in 
making very pertinent reflections upon our inattention to these 
points. * 

Other witnesses notice the same invariable facts at the pres 
ent day. The Chippeways, Sir George Simpson relates, met 
him at Fort William, and represented to him that, "being all 
Catholics, they should like to have a priest among them."f 
Like the Christian natives of Hindostan, of China, and of 
Paraguay, they had preserved their faith, though separated 
for more than half a century from those who had declared it to 
them. 

It is related of Cardinal Cheverus, whose character excited so 
much admiration in America, to whom the State of Massa 
chusetts voted a subsidy, and the first subscriber to whose 
church at Boston was John Adams, President of the United 
States, that when he visited the Penobscot, he found an Indian 
tribe, who had not even seen a priest for half a century, but 

* Ernest Hawkins, Missions, &c., ch. xii., p. 289. 
t Journey Round the World, vol. i., ch. L, p. 35. 



810 CHAPTER IX. 

were still zealous Catholics, carefully observed the Sunday, and 
" had not forgotten the catechism !"* 

In 1831, Bishop Fenwick found a whole tribe of Passama- 
quoddies, constant in the faith, and, as he observed, " a living 
monument of the apostolic labors of the Jesuits."*)* 

Of the Hurons, the beloved disciples of the early mission 
aries, Mr. Buckingham, an English traveller, speaks as follows : 
" They are faithful Catholics, and are said to fulfil their religious 
duties in the most exemplary manner, being much more im 
proved by their commerce with the whites than the Indian 
tribes who have first come into contact with Protestants usually 
are." Of the Indians in the neighborhood of Montreal, the 
same Protestant writer says, " They are always sober, a rare 
occurrence with Indians of either sex." "This difference," he 
candidly observes, "is occasioned by the influence of Chris 
tianity, as the Caghnawaga Indians are Catholics""^ 

Of the Abenakis, whose fathers listened one hundred and 
fifty years ago to the voice of Sebastian Rasles, Protestant 
missionaries angrily relate, in 1841, after vainly attempting to 
subvert them, that they could do nothing against the " con 
trolling influence of the Romish priesthood. " 

Of the Indians at VArbre Croche, on the east shore of Lake 
Michigan, "for sixty years or more the seat of a Jesuit mission," 
Dr. Morse, a Protestant minister, reported thus to the United 
States government : u These Indians are much in advance, in 
point of improvement, in appearance, and in manners, of all 
the Indians whom I visited."] Do we not say with reason that 
in Catholic missions, we see everywhere the power of God 
rather than of man ? 

Of the Wyandots, the same official witness reported, " nearly 
all the aged people still wear crucifixes." 

Of the Onondagas, Mr. Schoolcraft observes, " They were 
ever strongly opposed to all missionaries after the expulsion of 
the Jesuits."!" 

"The Ottawa- Chippewa mission," in Upper Michigan, we 
are told, " is greater than it ever was in the most flourishing 
time of the old Jesuit Fathers."** 

Of the Micmacs, in Prince Edward s Island, Colonel Bou- 
chette says, " They are all still Catholics ;" of the tribes in 

* Vie du Cardinal de Cheverus, liv. ii., p. 68 (4me edition), 
f Annales, tome v., p. 449. 
Canada, &c., ch. xi., p. 151 ; ch. xvii., p. 251. 

History of American Missions, by Rev. Joseph Tracy, ch. xxxiii., p. 331. 
1 A Report to the Secretary of War of the United States on Indian Affairs, 
b;r the Rev. Jedidiah Morse, D.D., app., pp. 24, 91, 327. 
*f Notes on the Iroquois, ch. xii., p. 443. 
** Shea, ch. xxi., p. 392. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 311 

New Brunswick, " the greater part of the Indians profess the 
Romish religion ;" of those at Cape Breton, "All the Acadians 
are Roman Catholics;" and of the Indians generally, who are 
in communion with the Church, " they are a quiet, temperate 



" The Micmacs of Restigouche," says a Protestant professor 
at Toronto, " are a highly civilized band of the Micmac nation 
..... industriously engaged in the manufacture of staves, 
barrel-hoops, axe-handles," &c.f 

Of the great mission in the Manitouline islands, the gentle 
man who is Protestant bishop at Toronto cautiously says, in 
1842, " A considerable portion consists of half-breeds, of 
French and Indian extraction, and these being all Romanists, 
possess a good deal of influence among the natives.":): 

More ingenuous witnesses give a less meagre account of 
them. "There are upwards of two thousand natives in the 
island," says Mr. Kingston in 1856, "the greater proportion 
of whom profess the Romish faith. At a settlement on the 
other side, a considerable number reside under four Jesuit 
Fathers" the Jesuits re-entered Canada in 1842, " and they 
are said to be a very obedient, industrious, and intelligent set, 
and superior to the Protestants ; but of the truth of the 
assertion I have no means of judging. v Yet in a later portion 
of his work, when he had perhaps acquired ampler experience, 
Mr. Kingston frankly describes the so-called Protestant Indians 
as " a very inferior race," and observes that the only effect of 
their pretended conversion is, "that now they wear blanket 
coats, weave mats, receive alms from the white man, and get 
drunk whenever they can."|| 

Let these details be pardoned, for the sake of the lesson 
w T hich they teach, and which is certainly of sufficient im 
portance to merit ample illustration. We have seen in every 
other land the same contrast between the work of God and the 
work of man, and it is our business to trace it here also. For 
this reason, at the risk of repetition, we will continue the 
subject. 

" The whole body of these Indians," said a respectable 
American Puritan, some years ago, speaking of the Pequods, 
" are a poor, degraded, miserable race of beings. The former 

* British Dominions in North America, vol. ii., ch. vii., p. 85 ; ch. x., p. 148 ; 
ch. xi., p. 178. 

f Wilson, Prehistoric Man, vol. ii., ch. xxii., p. 373. 

\ The Church in Canada; Journal of a Visitation by the Lord Bishop of 
Toronto in 1842, p. 10. 

Western Wanderings, by W. H. G. Kingston, vol. i., ch. viii., p. 180. 

(I Western Wanderings, vol. i., ch. xvii., p. 314. 



312 CHAPTER IX. 

proud heroic spirit of the Pequod is shrunk into the torpor of 
reasoning brntism. All the vice of the original is left : all its 

energy has vanished Their children, when young, they 

place in English families as servants. In the earlier parts of 
life these children frequently behave well, but, when grown up, 
throw off all that is respectable in their character, and sink to 
the level of their relatives,"* a proof of the impotence of Prot 
estantism which we have seen in every other land. 

Sometimes we are told, not of tribes or nations, bat of 
selected individuals, who had enjoyed every advantage, in 
cluding a liberal education, which Protestantism could offer 
them ; but the result was always the same. Dr. Timothy 
D wight admits that even Indians who had taken academical 
degrees in the Protestant colleges of New England " returned 
to the grossnoss of savage life !"f Mr. Kingston tells us of one 
Indian, brought up "in the house of a clergyman," married 
to an American woman, and finally employed as an assistant 
missionary. " He saved a good deal of money, built himself a 

house, and furnished it nicely but he was not content. 

He was ambitious of becoming a chief, and of forming a settle 
ment of his own." The spiritual influence of Protestantism 
never seems to go beyond this point. 

Mr. Buckingham also notices the case of " Peter Jones," 
another Indian Protestant, who has been exhibited in England 
as a preacher, and married an English woman. In spite of 
much acuteness, and a superior education, he not only "met 
with no success," but even flatly denied " that any who had 
passed the middle period of life would ever be prevailed upon 
to change their religion. *;{: 

Jones was a Methodist, and one of the leaders of that denomi 
nation thought it expedient to write his life. " He ever sought 
to promote the glory of God," says Dr. Osborn, who seems to 
have made the same use of him as others made of Tzatzoe and 
Macomo, and pretended converts of the same class. Thus he 
quotes from him a statement that the " River Credit Indians" 
were devout Protestants, and bright ornaments of the Wesley an 
body. Fortunately, a well-known English writer, who actually 
visited his flock, has published her impressions of them. " The 
Indians whom I saw wandering and lounging about," says 
Mrs. Jameson, "filled me with compassion" Three or four 
half-caste women, she observes, and some of the young children, 
showed signs of intelligence, " but these are exceptions, and 
dirt, indolence, and drunkenness were but too prevalent." 

* Dr. Dwight, Travels in New England, vol. iii., p. 20. 

f Vol. ii, p. 99. 

j Canada, ch. iv., p. 46. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 313 

Then contrasting them with the sober and prosperous Catholic 
Indians, of whom she candidly says, "I heard them sing Mass 
with every demonstration of decency and piety," this accom 
plished writer adds, that the very different behavior 4 of the 
Methodist Indians, as they lie grovelling on the ground in their 
religious services, struck me painfully."* Yet Dr. Osborn, nine 
years later, deliberately asserts, and quotes Jones in proof of 
the assertion, that "the Wesleyan missionaries have never yet 
failed to introduce Christianity among a body of Indians !"f 

And these cases, bad as they are, represent, not the average 
results of Protestant teaching, but its choicest examples. The 
mass of the fallen and degraded Indians who have come, rather 
as pensioners than as " converts," under its fatal influence, are 
described by travellers of all classes in the same terms. The 
Catholic Indians invariably refuse to associate with them, and 
consider them the most abject of mankind. And Protestant 
witnesses freely confess that their estimate is perfectly just. 
Thus Mr. Kane, one of the latest writers on the western 
continent, while he lauds "the agricultural skill and industry " 
of the Catholic Indians near Manitouline, candidly describes 
the Protestant mission at Norway House in these words : " It 
is supported by the Hudson s Bay Company with the hope of 
improving the Indians, but, to judge from appearances, with 
but small success, as they are decidedly the dirtiest Indians I 
have met with, and the less that is said about their morality 
the better. ^ 

Miss Harriet Martineau, who is both a capable and an 
impartial witness, and who speaks, like all the rest, from actual 
observation, indicates the same contrast with her usual candor 
and emphasis. The most vaunted of the Protestant establish 
ments is at Mackinaw, and here is Miss Martineau s account of 
it : " There is reason to think that the mission is the least 
satisfactory part of the establishment. A groat latitude of 
imagination or representation is usually admitted on the subject 
of missions to the heathen. The reporters of this one appear to 
be peculiarly imaginative." And then follows the usual con 
trast : " The Indians have been proved, by the success of the 
French among them, to be capable of civilization. Near Little 
Traverse, in the northwest part of Michigan, within easy reach 
of Mackinaw," as if to make the invariable contrast more 
impressive, " there is an Indian village, full of orderly and 
industrious inhabitants, employ* ed chiefly in agriculture. The 



* Sketches in Canada, by Mrs. Jameson, part i., p. 40 ; part ii., p. 
f History of the Qbjfoway Indians, by the Rev. E. Osborn, D. D., 



seq. (1861). 

f Wanderings of an Artist, cli. viii., p. 105. 



i. 287 (1852). 
pp. 228 eft 



314: CHAPTER IX. 

English and Americans have never succeeded with the aborigi 
nes so well as the French ; and it may be doubted whether the 
clergy have been a much greater blessing to them than the 
traders."* Mrs. Jameson also*, in spite of religions prejudices, 
uses the same frank expressions. The Ottawas, she says, under 
the care of Father Crue, "have large plantations of corn and 
potatoes, and have built a chapel for their religious services, 
and a house for their priest." And then, although the relative 
and associate of Protestant ministers, she thus announces the 
tinal result of all her observations : " One thing is most visible, 
certain, and undeniable, that the Roman Catholic converts are 
in appearance, dress, intelligence^ industry, and general civili 
sation, superior to all the others"^ 

Other Protestant writers go still further, and do not hesitate 
to avow that, like all other barbarians under Protestant masters, 
the natives are doomed to inevitable destruction. Where 
Divine charity is absent, and the sacraments of the Precious 
Blood, mere human benevolence, however active, only reveals 
its own impotence. " Our system of trade and intercourse 
with the Indian tribes," says Governor Chambers in an official 
report, "is in this r egion of country rapidly destroying them" \ 
" They hardly dare cultivate the soil," observes Mr. Beecham, 
even on the nominally "reserved" lands, "lest some reason 
should be found for dispossessing them !" Dr. Shaw declares, 
in 1856, that " the authorities frequently swindled the poor 
Indians."! "I am satisfied," adds Mr. Bradford, "that at 
least one quarter of the annuity paid to the Menominis is 
collected by traders, at the annuity payment, for whiskey. "^f 
"Many an Indian," says Mr. Kane, from actual observation, 
" returns to his wigwam poorer than he left it ;" and he relates 
that, at a distribution of the government bounty which he 
personally witnessed, " there was scarcely a man, woman, or 
child old enough to lift the vessel to its mouth, that was not 
wallowing in beastly drunkenness."** Yet the Protestant 
clergy, incapable of dealing with evils which can only be 
alleviated by another ministry than theirs, do nothing what 
ever, either here or in the United States, to mitigate these 
disasters; so that Mr. Bradford, with a candor not unusual 
in Americans, contrasts them with " the pious, peaceful, and 

* Society in America, by Harriet Martinean, vol. ii., cli. i., p. 18. 
f Sketches in Canada, part ii., p. 287. 

t Notes on the North, West, by Wm. J. A. Bradford, part ii., p. 195 (1846). 
Colonization, p. 9. 

I A RamUe through the United States, &c., by John Shaw, M.D., F.G.S., 
F.L.S.. ch. iii., p. 67 (1856). 
^f Ubi supra. 
** Ch. ii., p. 41. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 315 

zealous disciples of the Cross," as he styles the Catholic mis 
sionaries, surmounting " with comparative ease" the compli 
cated evils to which their rivals, with all the aid of opulence 
and of government support, despair of applying a remedy. 
" The Frenchman," says this American writer, "forgets not that 
the uncivilized, as well as civilized man. is his brother, and 
he deports himself as man to man. The sturdy Saxon treats 
the Indian like a dog. The American thinks every thing is to 
be accommodated to him."* 

It would he idle to attempt to exhaust the Protestant wit 
nesses, who record, from actual observation, the contrast which 
these passages illustrate between the influence of Catholic and 
Protestant agency upon the life and fortunes of the Indian. 
Let us close the series with these statements by two venerable 
prelates, whose testimony we may well accept, after what we 
have already heard, as conclusive : " These Indians," says 
Monseigneur Gaulein, Bishop of Kingston, in 1838, " are all 
excellent Catholics, and seem to me industrious and fond of 
labor ; a large number of savages have been recently baptized." 
" I had often been told," observes Monseigneur Loras, Bishop 
of Dubuque, in 1839, " that the savages when converted make 
excellent Catholics, and having become acquainted with them, 
have had occasion to admire their fervor. "f 

Such are the disciples, by the testimony both of friends and 
enemies, and such the inflexible constancy of their faith, even 
where every influence has combined to destroy it. And now a 
word on the missionaries*. " They are not inferior," says Mr. 
Buckingham, " in zeal and devotion to the first founders and 
propagators of the Faith on this continent;" while of their 
efforts to convert the pagan savages, in spite of the cruel dis 
advantages which attend them in a country under Protestant 
domination, he observes, " Of late years they are more than 
usually successful." And then he contrasts the dignity of 
these apostolic teachers with the "inferiority" of the Epis 
copalian ministers, and laments to notice in that opulent 
body "more than the usual portion of formality in the 
ministers, and coldness in the congregations. "J A more dis 
tinguished Anglican writer, after quoting the observation of 
"one of our most intelligent Indian agents," that "the Eng 
lish Church either cannot or will riot, certainly does not, sow, 
and therefore cannot expect to reap," asks, " what she is 
about?" and gives this reply: "Here, as in the old country, 

* Notes on the North West, part ii., p. 89. 

t Annals, vol. i., pp. 470-79 ; English edition. 

j Ch. xv., p. 220. 



316 CHAPTER IX. 

quarrelling about the tenets to be inculcated, the means to be 
used!"* 

Mr. Sullivan, another British traveller, of no mean capacity, 
frankly declares of the Catholic missionaries, " They exercise 
extraordinary influence amongst their proselytes, and also 
amongst several tribes of Indians. "f 

Mr. Halkett, also an eye-witness, observes as follows. " There 
is one point which cannot be disputed, that the Indians of 
British North America are treated by their present Roman 
Catholic instructors with great kindness and consideration. So 
far as benevolence, charity, and paternal care can afford comfort 
to the Indian, he receives it at their hands.":); In other words, 
they still display the same patient, unwearied charity by which, 
two centuries ago, their predecessors first subdued the froward- 
ness and captivated the aifections of their wild flock ; when, as 
Nicolini allows, " they visited daily every house in which lay 
a sick person, whom they served as the kindest nurse, and to 
whom they seemed to be ministering genii. By such conduct 
they brought this primitive population to idolize them." 

The Honorable Charles Murray, after noticing, in the gener 
ous language which might be expected from him, " the zeal 
and enterprise with which the Roman Catholic religion inspires 
its priests to toil, travel, and endure every kind of hardship," 
continues thus : " In this labor, especially among the Negroes 
and Indians, they put to shame the zeal and exertions of all 
other Christian sects ; nor do they labor without effect. 
During my stay in Missouri, I observed that the Romish faith 
was gaining ground with a rapidity that outstripped all com 
petition."! 

It would be easy to multiply these confessions of Protestant 
travellers, but surely we have heard enough. One witness 
only shall be cited in addition, because a peculiar interest 
attaches to his evidence, with which we may fitly terminate 
this series. 

In 1860, Mr. Kohl published his journal of travels on the 
shores of Lake Superior. " I may take it on myself," says this 
gentleman, in eulogizing "those excellent men, the learned 
pastors of the Canadian mission," " to speak on this subject, 
for I have read all the old journeys of the early messengers of 

* Jameson, Sketches in Canada, part i., p. 116 ; part ii., p. 287. 

| Rambles in North and South America, ch. iii., p. GO. 

\ Notes on North American Indians, ch. x., p. 232. 

History of the Jesuits, by G. B. Nicolini, ch. xiii., p. 302 (Bohn). 

| Travels in North America, by the Hon. C. A. Murray, vol. ii., ch. xiii., p. 309. 

In 1851, the " Vicariate of the Indian territory" was established, and the bish 
op, aided by such men as Father Van Quickenborne, counted in a few years 
more than five thousand Catholic Indians in his Vicariate. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 317 

the Church, and followed them with sympathizing zeal. In 
our day, when religious martyrdom no longer nourishes, it is 
especially refreshing to travel in a country where this epoch 
has not entirely died out, and to associate with men who en 
dure the greatest privations for lofty purposes, and who would 
be well inclined even to lay down their lives for their Church. 
In fact, every thing I heard here daily of the pious courage, 
patience, and self-devoting zeal of these missionaries on Lake 
Superior, caused me to feel intense admiration. They are well 
educated and learned men, many better educated, indeed, than 
the majority, and yet they resign not only all enjoyments and 
comforts, but also all the mental inspiration and excitement of 
polished society. They live isolated and scattered in little log 
huts round the lake, often no better off than the natives. They 
must draw their inspirations entirely from their own breast, and 
prayer. Only the thought of the great universal Church to 
which they belong keeps them connected with society and the 
world. It is true, however, that they find in this an incitement 
to exertion which our Protestant missionaries lack. The latter, 
broken up into sects, labor only for this or that congregation, 
while the former are animated by a feeling that, as soldiers of 
the Church, they are taking part in a mighty work, which in 
cludes all humanity, and encircles the entire globe."* 

Mr. Kohl lived much, during his wanderings, with the men 
whom he thus describes, and whose labors appear to have 
excited his astonishment. Even a baptism, a wedding, or a 
funeral, he observes, involves in such a climate almost the 
privations and sufferings " of an Arctic expedition." He is 
lodging on one occasion in the hut of a Jesuit Father, who had 
retired after the toils of the day. It was " the blessed cold 
Christmas season," and the missionary was sitting over the 
evening fire with his guest. " All at once there was a knock 
at the door, and a breathless stranger, covered with snow and 
icicles, walked in." His message was soon told. Forty miles 
away, through swamps and forests, his mother lay ill, and 
implored the succors of religion. On the instant the Father 
rose and left the hut, " the missionary and the Indian walking 
side by side in their snow-shoes." They cross a frozen river, 
the ice parts asunder, and they fall through " up to their 
waists." " At the end of the third day," adds Mr. Kohl, " the 
missionary was enabled to give the poor dying Indian woman 
extreme unction, and to see her eyes gently close in death, 
Would an Oxford gentleman reioice at being presented to such 
a living?" 

* Wanderings Round Lake Superior, by J. G. Kohl, ch. xix., p. 306. 



318 CHAPTER IX. 

And these* missionaries, he says, are all of the same class.* 
Of one, whom he calls his " honored friend," and who was 
the author of an Ojibbeway Lexicon, Mr. Kohl remarks, 
" There is hardly a locality on Lake Superior which is not 
connected with the history of his life, either because he built 
a chapel there, or wrote a pious book, or founded an Indian 
parish, or else underwent dangers and adventures there, in 
which he felt that Heaven was protecting him." And then he 
relates a tale, which he received from a Canadian voyageur, 
and which he did well to communicate to his readers. A mes 
sage had been brought from the other side of Lake Superior to 
one of these martyrs of charity with whom Mr. Kohl dwelt. 
It was night, a tempest was raging, and seventy miles of water 
must be crossed, for to go round the lake would occupy many 
days ; but the case was urgent, and the missionary did not 
hesitate. In an open canoe, paddled by a Canadian, who only 
consented to brave the perilous voyage on the Father s reiter 
ated assurance that God would protect them, the darkness ot 
night resting on the waters which the storm had lashed into 
fury, the missionary encouraged his faithful companion to 
strain every nerve. The weary hours of the night were passed 
in prayer and toil, and when the Canadian approached the 
long line of foaming breakers which beat against the opposite 
shore, with a cry of anguish he exclaimed, " Your Reverence, 
we are lost!" " Paddle on, dear Dubois," said the calm voice 
of the missionary, " straight on. We must get through, and a 
way will offer itself." " My cousin shrugged his shoulders," 
said the narrator to Mr. Kohl, " made his last prayers, and 
paddled straight on he hardly knew how. . . . All at once a 
dark spot opened out in the white edge of the surf, which soon 
widened," and they were saved. " Did I not say, Dubois," 
was the only remark of the missionary, " that I was called, 
that I must go, and that thou wouldst be saved with me ? Let 
us pray." And then they knelt down by the shore of the lake, 
and gave thanks to God. 

On the very spot where they landed, Mr. Kohl adds, a large 
cross has since been erected by a rich merchant, " which can 
be seen a long distance on the lake," and is known throughout 

* They never change, of whatever nation they may be. In 1840, the American 
mission lost one of whom we have this account. " In 1799, a young priest took 
up his abode among the most rugged summits of the Alleghanies." For forty 
years lie labored alone, and " after expending one hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars of his fortune in this admirable work, he died, leaving ten thousand 
Catholics in the mountains, where he had found only twelve families." He was 
known in life as the " Rev. Mr. Smith," but when his humility could no longer be 
wounded, the world learned that this solitary apostle was the Prince Demetrius 
Gallitzin, a convert from the llusso-Groek Church. De Courcy, ch. xviii., p. 12*3. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 310 

the region as " the Cross of s Traverse." "When Mr. 

Kohl had heard the tale, he says, " I laid myself down on the 
knotted flooring, by the side of this excellent, gently slumber- 

. ,. w T 

ing man. H 

"Such are the missionaries who still labor, as Lallemand and 
De Brebeuf once labored, among the North American Indians. 
Two centuries have passed away since the first martyrs of this 
land entered into their reward, and not a single grace has been 
withdrawn, not a single gift diminished, which Divine bounty 
once lavished upon them, and still confers upon their successors. 
It is no grateful task to compare them with their Protestant 
rivals, but we are tracing a contrast, and must needs go on with 
it. An amiable Anglican minister, very superior to many of 
his colleagues, has published to the world in what manner he 
set out upon his mission in Canada, and with what appliances. 
" Our own carriage," he says, " a sort of double denuet, drawn 
by my own horses, brought up the rear," the van being formed 
by wagons of furniture and provisions. " This contained 
myself, my wife, and our eldest son, every corner being filled 
up with trunks, bandboxes, and endless et ceteras." After this 
description of his going forth, the writer, who had evidently 
good feelings and intentions, gravely observes, " I may not 
presume to class myself with those heroic and warlike church 
men of old," but the disclaimer appears to betray a lurking 
hope that, in spite of his equipage and his bandboxes, his 
readers might be of a different opinion. f 

The same clergyman informs us that his missionary colleagues 
in Canada "absolutely ridiculed the idea" of baptism conferring 
grace ; while from higher authorities of the same sect we learn, 
that all the other religious phenomena which characterize the 
present state of England are being successfully reproduced in 
Canada. " We remark, far arid wide," says the gentleman who 
is Protestant bishop at Toronto, "the prevalence of religious 
division, and its attendant is too frequently in this diocese a 
feeling of hostility to the Church of England, "J a statement 
confirmed, with ample details, by his colleague at Quebec, and 
by the Itev. J. P. llincks, who also laments " a general coldness 
towards the Church." Another Protestant bishop, in Huron, 
reports in 1862, that "many of the emigrants are almost as 
destitute of religious knowledge as if they came from a heathen 
country." In the so-called diocese of Ontario, only one-fifth of 
the population even profess to belong to the Establishment, the 

* Pages 182, 183, 307, 309. 

f Memoirs of a Church of England Missionary in the North American Colo 
nies, ch. xii., p. 73 ; cli. xxii., p. 141. 
J The Church in Canada, p. 37. 



320 CHAPTER IX. 

rest being divided into a multitude of jarring sects, or "having 
relapsed into a state which may well be called infidelity."* It 
is to be observed also, as an example of the influence of Prot 
estantism which we have found in all the British colonies, that 
in the census of 1861, eighteen thousand five hundred of its 
nominal disciples were returned as of " no religion."! 

On the other hand, the episcopal officer of the Anglican 
community at Montreal sorrowfully recognizes, amongst the 
Catholics of Canada, amounting to nine hundred and forty-two 
thousand seven hundred and twenty-four in the lower province 
alone, "the order, unity, discipline, habitual and unquestioning 
conformity to rule, common and fraternal feeling of identity 
with the religious institutions of the whole race," which, as he 
had detected, " attaches to the system of the Eoman Catholic 
Church," and which, he considers, "carries with it a great 
lesson to the Protestant world. "^ And this statement is more 
than confirmed by Lord Durham, when he says, "In the general 
absence of any permanent institutions of civil government, the 
Catholic Church has presented almost the only semblance of 
stability and organization, and furnished the only effectual 
support for civilization and order." 

On the whole, when w r e combine the facts which have now 
been hastily reviewed, when we compare the admissions of 
Mr. Buckingham and others, that the Catholic Indians "fulfil 
their religious duties in the most exemplary manner" and "are 
always sober," with the confessions of Mr. Kingston and Mr. 
Kane, that the Protestant natives are " a very inferior race," 
and " get drunk whenever they can ;" when we find English 
writers admitting that the Catholic missionaries are, even at this 
day, "more than usually successful" in converting the heathen, 
while the most competent Protestant agents freely confess that 
adult Indians "can never be prevailed upon to change their 
religion ;" when we note, on the one hand, the peaceful and 
industrious progress of the natives under their Catholic guides, 
in spite of the coldness of the civil authorities, and on the other, 
the squalid misery of the pensioners under an official patronage 
which, as Mr. Bradford laments, " is rapidly destroying them ;" 
when we consider the frank declaration of such witnesses as Miss 
Martineau and Mrs. Jameson, that the "superiority" of the 
Catholic Indians is " most visible, certain, and undeniable ;" 
and lastly, when we compare " the order, unity, and fraternal 
feeling" which cements the one, with "the prevalence of 

* Report of 8.P.G.F.P., pp. 77, 83, 88 (1862). 

\ The Times, February 12, 1862. 

\ Church in the Colonies, No. ix., p. 12. 

Report and Despatches of the Earl of Durham in Canada, p. 97 (1839). 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 321 

religious division" which dissolves and scatters the other, and 
contrast, by the aid of Protestant witnesses, the character and 
mode of life of the two orders of missionaries, of whom the 
one are destitute strangers, scowled upon by the rulers of the 
land, the others opulent representatives of British power and 
influence ; we may surely accept without surprise the conclusion 
announced by an English traveller, whose scrutiny of all these 
facts compelled the reluctant avowal, " It appears to me that 
Roman Catholicism is best adapted for civilizing the Indians."* 

We might now quit Canada, to examine in the wide terri 
tories of the American Union the final example of the contrast 
which we have traced in every other region, but a special 
motive compels us to linger for a moment among the people 
who have found a home by the banks of the St. Lawrence. 
The religious history of the French Canadians is perhaps only 
indirectly connected with the immediate subject of this work, 
yet there are sufficient reasons for a brief allusion to it. Like 
some other races of whom we have read in these volumes, 
like the Maronites in Syria, the Chinese in Corea and Annam, 
and the Indians in Paraguay, the Canadians are what they 
are solely by the power of the Catholic religion. By it they 
have been created and sustained. To its penetrating influence 
their whole social and individual life bears witness. Take 
away the faith which has been the light of their homes and 
hearts, and the Canadians would have no place on earth. 
They would be absorbed in the dull, inert mass of semi-pagan 
life by which they are surrounded. 

The resistance which the Catholics of British America, and 
especially the Canadians, have opposed to the deadly influences 
which threatened for more than a century to destroy their 
peaceful communities, and to dry up the fountains of their life, 
forms one of those chapters of modern history at which the 
statesman glances with indifference or disgust, but in which 
the Christian loves to trace the providence of God. Subject 
to masters of an alien race and creed, who could neither appre 
ciate their virtues nor respect their independence, every tiling 
has been tried which eager malice could invent, or unscrupu 
lous fraud devise, or shameless violence execute, to exhaust 
their constancy. In a single year, as Haliburton relates, 
nearly fifteen thousand Catholics were forcibly deported from 
the province of Nova Scotia, and their goods confiscated, by 
the authority of the British government.-)* And the policy 

* Letters from the United States, Cuba, and Canada, by the Hon. Amelia M. 
Murray, letter ix., p. 127. 

f History of Nova Scotia, quoted by Brasseur de Bourbourg, tome i., 
cli. xvi., p. 290. 

VOL. ii. 22 



322 CHAPTER IX. 

which suggested this crime prevailed in Canada, as Burke in 
dignantly reminded his nation, until the fear of rebellion pro 
voked a tardy and calculating justice. "All the laws, customs, 
and forms of judicature," says Mr. Bancroft, "of a populous 
and long-established colony were in one hour overturned, by 
the ordinance of the 17th of September, 1764; and English 
laws, even the penal statutes against Catholics, all unknown 
to the Canadians, and unpublished, were introduced in their 

stead In the one hundred and ten rural parishes 

there were but nineteen Protestant families ! The meek 
and unresisting province was given over to hopeless oppres 
sion. The history of the world furnishes no instance of so 
rash injustice."* Mr. Bancroft appears to have forgotten 
Ireland. 

The same acts occurred throughout all the regions then ac 
quired by England on the American continent. " The council 
at Halifax voted all the poor Red Men that dwelt in the penin 
sula to be so many banditti, ruffians, or rebels ; and by its 
authority, Cornwallis, to bring the rascals to reason, offered 
for every one of them i taken or killed, ten guineas, to be paid 
on producing the savage or his scalp? The Catholic inhabit 
ants of Acadia were treated even worse than those of Canada. 
Under the French, says the Protestant historian, "they formed, 
as it were, one great family. Their morals were of unaffected 
purity." But this did not save them. The possession of virtue 
and innocence was a slender title to the esteem of the English ; 
and so, continues our authority, u the Acadians were despised 
because they were helpless. Their papers and records, the 
titles to their estates and inheritances, were taken away from 

them When they delayed in fetching fire-wood for 

their oppressors, it was told them from the governor, ; if they 
do not do it in proper time, the soldiers shall take their houses 
for fuel." 

Finally, as these too lenient measures failed to destroy their 
faith, or to exhaust their patience, all their remaining property 
was seized by the crown officers, and they were banished en 
masse. " Some were charitably sheltered from the English," 
says Mr. Bancroft, "in the wigwams of the savages!"" But 
even this did not satisfy their new masters. "To prevent 
their return, their villages, from Annapolis to the isthmus, 
were laid waste. The live-stock was seized as spoils, and dis 
posed of ~by the English officials The Lords of Trade, 

more merciless than the savages, wished that every one of the 
Acadians should be driven out ; and when it seemed that the 

* IV., 151. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 323 

work was done, congratulated the king that { the zealous 
endeavors of Governor Lawrence had been crowned with an 
entire success. I know not if the annals of the human race 
keep the record* of sorrows so wantonly inflicted, so bitter and 
so perennial, as fell upon the French inhabitants of Acaclia."* 

Long years after, the successors of Cornwallis, and Lawrence, 
and the Earl of Loudoun, still resembled their predecessors, still 
imitated their example as closely as they dared ; and Lord 
Durham, whose fretful but honest temper was soothed by the 
simple virtues of a people whom he learned to love, and strove 
to defend, could tell his government, with a warmth which he 
did not care to subdue, that " they had done nothing to promote 
education, though they had applied the revenues of the Jesuits, 
destined for educational purposes," and whose college the Eng 
lish converted into a barrack, to the miserable schemes of 
official patronage ; and reminded them, that with cynical 
contempt of truth and honor, they gave a large annual stipend, 
out of these very revenues, to an Anglican preacher, as " chap 
lain of the Jesuits!" 

The fate of the once famous college of the Jesuits at Quebec, 
now tenanted by the military police of the province, will be 
regretted by all who appreciate the objects which it was 
destined to promote. " From this seat of piety and learning," 
says a Protestant writer, "issued those dauntless missionaries 
who made the Gospel known over a space of six hundred 
leagues, and preached the Christian faith from the St. Lawrence 
to the Mississippi. "f 

Yet the Canadians, who received from England, until the 
time of Lord Durham, only coarse insult or heartless oppression, 
have steadfastly maintained, by the counsels of their spiritual 
guides, a sincere and manly loyalty to their foreign rulers. In 
1755, Canada would have been lost to England, but for the 
vigilant action of the Catholic clergy. Half a century later, as 
Colonel Sleigh remarks, " the Canadian population" once more 
displayed a " chivalrous devotion and faith which find not in 
the records of the past a more noble example. In 1812, the 
defence of the country mainly depended upon the French 
Canadians. A second time they proved their loyalty ; the 
Americans were repulsed on all sides, and Canada was saved. "J 
"England holds the Canadas," observes another Protestant 
writer, "by the influence of the Roman Catholic hierarchy 



* III., 138, 146. 

f Hawkins, Quebec, &c., ch. x., p. 193. 

\. Pine Forests and Hacmatack Clearings, by Lieut.-Col. Sleigh, ch. xi., p. 275 
2d edition (1853). 



324: CHAPTER IX. 

alone. The Sulpicians of Montreal are her vicegerents."* "A 
large part of the Catholic clergy," said Lord Durham, " support 
the government against revolutionary violence."f But if the 
Catholic people of Canada have hitherto refused, though often 
urged by agents from the United States, to rebel against their 
hard and unsympathizing rulers, they have rejected with inex 
pressible repugnance both their religion and their habits, while 
they have jealously preserved their own distinctive life, their 
language, their faith, and their traditions. Let us see what 
Protestants say, in spite of religious and national prejudices, of 
a people whom they have so deeply wronged, but whom they 
are constrained to praise, even when they wish to revile. 

" The French Canadians," says Sir Francis Head, " retain all 
the social virtues of the French, without their propensity to 
war.";f "They are mild and kindly," observes Lord Durham, 
" frugal, industrious, and honest, very sociable, cheerful, and 
hospitable, and distinguished for a courtesy and real politeness 
which pervades every class of society. " " They vastly surpass," 
observes Dr. Shaw, in 1856, "the people of England in the 
same rank of life ;" and then, alluding to the religion which has 
made them what they are, he adds, " I have seen them flocking 
in great numbers, as early as five o clock in the morning, and 
have been informed that they frequently assemble as early as 
four A.M., proving one thing at least, that they are not indo 
lently religious."} " I confess," says Mr. Godley, an Anglican 
Protestant, "I have a strong sympathy for the French Cana 
dians ; they are si bons enfants contentment, gaitie de eo&ur, 
politeness springing from benevolence of heart, respect to their 
superiors, confidence in their friends, attachment to their re 
ligion," these are among the qualities which he detected in 
them.^f " Every thing we saw of the French Canadians," writes 
Mr. Buckingham, " induced us to believe that they are amongst 
the happiest peasantry in the world. ... I think the Cana 
dian more sober, more virtuous, and more happy than the 
American."** 

Such are the Canadians, in the judgment of upright Prot 
estants, willing to acknowledge, even when slow to imitate, the 
virtues of the simple and winning race whom they describe. 
But these frank and cordial eulogies of amiable and discerning 

* The Statesmen of America, p. 305. 
Despatches, p. 11. 

Sir Francis Head s Narrative, p. 194. 
Despatches, p. 17. 

Ramble through the United States, &c., ch. iii., p. 90. 
Godley s Letters from America, vol. i., letter v., p. 89. 
** Canada, &c., pp. 211-18-20, 264, 270. Cf. Lieut.-Col. Cunynghame s Glimpse 
at the Great Western Republic, ch. xx., p. 252. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 

witnesses have not been allowed to pass, and the fact is worthy 
of notice, without the protests of that uneasy rancor which 
heresy inspires, and which could a\vaken even in a woman s 
heart the thoughts expressed in the following words : " The 
enslaving, enervating, and retarding effects of Koman Catho 
licism are nowhere better seen than in Lower Canada, where the 
priests exercise despotic authority." And as if this were too 
weak to do justice to her feelings, this English lady presently 
adds, that all the evils of that country, whatever they may be, 
are dne to the "ignorance and terrorism caused by the success 
ful efforts of the priests."* Her book was intended for English 
readers, and she appears to have anticipated that they would 
welcome such statements. Yet in the next page she confesses, 
that " there are in Lower Canada upwards of eleven hundred 
schools" of which, it may be added, nearly one hundred are at 
this moment under the direction of Christian Brothers ;f and 
Mr. Buckingham informs us, speaking of the religious schools 
in Quebec, " So highly is the tuition given here prized by all 
classes, that Protestant families send their daughters quite as 
freely to the Ursuline convent for education as Catholics." 

Elsewhere, the lady whom we quote, forgetting her own 
gloomy picture of the " enslaved" Canadians, gives the follow 
ing account of these victims of a " despotic priesthood." "The 
peasants of Lower Canada are among the most harmless people 
under the sun ; they are moral, sober, and contented, and zeal 
ous in the observance of their erroneous creed. They strive 
after happiness rather than advancement, and who shall say 
that they are unsuccessful in their aim ? On Sundays and 
Saints days they assemble in crowds in their churches. Their 
wants and wishes are few, their manners are courteous and 
unsuspicious, they hold their faith with a blind and implicit 
credulity," she neither knows what their faith is, nor how 
they hold it, " and on summer evenings sing the songs of 
France as their fathers sang them in bygone days on the smi 
ling banks of the rushing Rhone.";): Yet after this description 
of a charming people, whom she calls, in various places, 
" moral, sober, contented, amiable, courteous, not ambitious, 
sincere, and devout," she scoffs complacently at the Divine 
religion which has generated these very virtues as " the great 
antidote to social progress." All her own ideas of an unexcep 
tionable religion appear to be connected with railroads, steam 
boats, much commerce, and a diligent police. Unfortunate 
Canadians, who refuse to say to such objects of worship, "These 



* The Englishwoman in America, ch. xiv., p. 312. 
The Metropolita 
Ch. xiii., p. 284. 



f The Metropolitan Catholic Almanac, Baltimore, 1860, p. 278. 



326 CHAPTER IX. 

are thy gods !" " With them" says an English Protestant of a 
higher class, "churches come first, railroads afterwards, which 
appears to us a very paradoxical arrangement. They make the 
church the first object, and we the last"* And for this reason 
it is, because their souls are penetrated with the Divine admo 
nition, " Unum necessarium" and Christian faith counsels 
them not to be "troubled about many things "\ that the Cana 
dians have found grace to remain what they are ; for this reason 
their life contrasts so visibly, in purity and dignity, in true 
wisdom and enlightenment, in familiar knowledge of God and 
of holy religion, with the feverish " progress" and restless 
greed of the American, or the dismal sottishness of the English 
boor. 

Yet it is simply untrue that the material progress of this 
Catholic province is unworthy to be compared with that of its 
non-Catholic neighbors. On the 26th of September, 1862, the 
Hon. A. T. Gait, late Finance Minister of Canada, announced 
the following facts in the Town Hall of Manchester : In 1852, 
the population of Lower Canada was eight hundred and ninety 
thousand ; in 1861, it was one million one hundred and eleven 
thousand, being an increment of 25 per cent, in nine years. 

In 1852, the quantity of land held by lease or freehold was 
eight million one hundred and thirteen thousand acres ; in 1861, 
ten million two hundred and twenty-three thousand, or 27| per 
cent. more. 

In 1852, the number of bushels of grain other than wheat, 
for the cultivation of which the climate and soil of the Lower 
are less favorable than those of the Upper province, was twelve 
million one hundred and forty-seven thousand; and in 1861, 
twenty-three million five hundred and thirty-four thousand 
an increase of 93| per cent., "or very nearly as much as was 
shown by the whole British population of Upper Canada." 
And these facts have a tenfold significance, as Mr. Gait re 
marked, inasmuch as " the French Canadians had not had the 
advantages of a fresh influx by emigration, and all their advances 
had proceeded from themselves." 

Mr. Gait did not add, though this fact was also revealed by 
the census of 1861, that, in spite of the constant influx of 
Protestant emigrants, the proportion of the Catholic inhabit 
ants of Canada to the Protestants was higher than in 1852. 
He did, however, observe that, " as there was a school in every 
parish, where every child received a free education, they were, 
or ought to be, beyond the reach of any stigma.";): 

* Godley, letter iv., p. 71. 

f S. Luke x. 42. 

\ The Times, September 27, 1862. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 327 

Colonel Bouchette, who knows more of the Canadians than 
the English tourist whom we have quoted, and who observes 
that neither the crimes nor the social misery of England exist 
among them, declares with energy, that " the Catholic religion 
is in Canada no more the instrument of the people s degradation 
than is the Quaker religion in Pennsylvania ;" and he not only 
confesses that English destitution is as little known in Canada 
as English unbelief, but that " a bold spirit of independence 
reigns throughout the conduct of the whole population," and 
that "its priesthood use only the influence of the understanding, 
are merely the advisers, and not the rulers of their flocks."* 

As Canada is often referred to by English writers as an 
example of the social stagnation of a Catholic people, it may 
be permitted to add a few words on this familiar theme. 
Catholic States, we are told, rarely emulate the material prog 
ress of their Protestant rivals. Yet nothing is more incontest 
able than this, that in Canada, as in every other Catholic land, 
neither social misery nor social crime have ever attained the 
proportions which distinguish England, Prussia, and other 
non-Catholic nations. As respects Great Britain, a Protestant 
authority affirms the notorious fact, that " in no country is so 
large a proportion of the inhabitants sunk in pauperism and 
wretchedness."! In Prussia, the same experienced writer, 
honestly comparing the Catholic and Protestant districts to 
gether, affirms as follows with respect to the Rhine provinces : 
" The people are Roman Catholic ; and in manufactures, trade, 
capital, and industry, are very far in advance of any other 
portion or people of the Prussian dominions.":): Belgium, the 
most Catholic province of Northern Europe, is also the most 
prosperous. In France, where the products of the so-called 
Reformation are held in lower esteem than in almost any 
country of the world, successive revolutions, which would have 
utterly destroyed the financial equilibrium of England or 
Holland, have scarcely inflicted a shock either on the national 
credit or the public welfare, so solid is the basis of her 
prosperity. And, lastly, whereas it is usual to point to Spain 
and Portugal as notable instances of the decay of Catholic 
States, they are, in fact, pregnant examples of exactly the 

* British Dominions, &c., ch. xvii., p. 414. 

f Laing, Residence in Norway, ch. iv., p. 156. 

J Laing, Observations on Europe, ch. xiii., p. 316 (1850). A vehement German 
Protestant, consenting to refute one of the popular libels of his co-religionists, 
says of the Neapolitans between the gulfs of Naples and Salerno, " the diligence 
of our vine-growing peasants on the Rhine, whose laborious cultivation has 
become proverbial, is nothing compared to that of the Neapolitans on theso 
mountains ; and yet they have become proverbial for indolence !" Wanderings 
through the Cities of Italy, by A. L. Von Rochau, ch. xvii., p. 222 ; ed. Sinnett. 



328 CHAPTER IX. 

opposite truth. It is history which teaches us, that hoth 
those kingdoms attained the summit of their opulence and 
might precisely at the moment when Catholic principles and 
traditions most powerfully influenced their rulers and people, 
and that they began to decay only when their degenerate 
statesmen first adopted the political maxims which. Protestant 
ism introduced into the world, and broke that intimate alliance 
with the Catholic Church to which they owed all their glory 
and renown. If Portugal, once so illustrious in arms and in 
commerce, has become contemptible in Europe, it is because 
she has suffered her religious life to ebb away, and though of 
old she filled the world with her apostles, has now hardly 
vigor enough to produce even a domestic clergy ; while the 
great Spanish nation, after a temporary eclipse, is resuming 
at the same moment, amid the applause of Christendom, both 
the Catholic instincts which made her in other days the 
mightiest empire in the universe, and the material prosperity 
which she knew how to create under Ferdinand and Isabella, 
to develop under Charles the Fifth, to preserve under Philip 
the Second, and to restore once again under the daughter of 
Ferdinand the Seventh.* 

Let us return for a moment to Canada, and to the English 
lady, who, as a specimen of the singular pertinacity of British 
prejudice, deserves additional notice. The Canadian clergy, 
whose despotic influence, she informs us, creates " ignorance 
and terrorism," but who " only use the influence of the under 
standing," as Colonel Bouchette observes, and number among 
them, as Mr. Kohl has told us, the most learned men on the 
western continent, and " are a most gentlemanly and enlight 
ened class," as Colonel Sleigh observes, are thus described by 
Lord Durham : " The Catholic priesthood of this province have 
to a very remarkable degree conciliated the good-will of persons 
of all creeds ; and I know of no parochial clergy in the world 

* It is not, of course, denied that the influence of religion, in proportion to its 
energy, will generate indifference to the material progress which the world 
esteems so highly. It was the doctrine of St. Paul, and the world has always 
resented it, that Christians should use this world " as if they used it not." " The 
world," says an eminent writer, " is a counterfeit of the Church of God, and in 
the most implacable antagonism to it. . . The view which the Church takes 
of the world is distinct and clear, and far from flattering to its pride. It con 
siders the friendship of the world as enmity with God. It puts all the world s 
affairs under its feet, either as of no consequence, or at least of very secondary 
importance. . . It provokes the world by looking on progress doubtingly, and 
with what appears a very inadequate interest, and there is a quiet faith in its 
contempt for the world extremely irritating to this latter power." Dr. Faber, 
The Creator and the Creature, ch. iii., p. 378. It is perhaps only an incidental 
and subordinate, but still a startling illustration of the mortal apathy of our 
countrymen, that this wonderful book should exist in their own language, 
and remain utterly unknown to them. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 329 

whose practice of all the Christian virtues is more universally 
admitted, and has been productive of more beneficial conse 
quences."* And if this be not a sufficient rebuke to the lady 
whom we are quoting, perhaps her own words will supply 
whatever is wanting. She is noticing the ravages of the cholera 
at Toronto, and these are the reflections which she makes : 
"The priests of Koine then gained a double influence. Armed 
with what appeared in the eyes of the people supernatural 
powers, they knew no rest either by day or night ; they held 
the Cross before many a darkening eye, and spoke to the be 
reaved of a world where sorrow and separation are alike un 
known, "f But no virtues could soothe her enmity, instruct 
her prejudice, nor inspire the thought of imitating, however 
feebly, the charity which these priests could have taught her ; 
and so, after exhausting the vocabulary of disdain and reproof, 
she finishes, as she began, by a general defiance to all Catholic 
people and nations, and by the peremptory declaration, ad 
dressed to humanity at large, that " America and Scotland are 
the two most religious countries in the world !" 

If we accept the imprudent challenge conveyed in these 
w r ords, we shall hardly be led into a digression, for we shall 
still be illustrating one of the facts proper to our subject. 
" Scotland," says Dr. Shaw, contrasting her expressly with 
Canada, " claims the honor of standing pretty near first in 
the catalogue of crime. "$ "Nearly every tenth Scotsman," 
says another local witness, " is a bastard ;" and, speaking of 
the country districts, it is the exception and not the rule if a 
master has not been chargeable, some time or other, with 
corrupting those under him."[ The latest Report of the 
Scottish .Registrar- General (1860) reveals once more, with 
almost unofficial candor, " the excessive incontinence" of this 
Presbyterian nation, and deplores that " the immorality is 
not confined to the humbler classes."^ A well-known Pres 
byterian writer attests with equal frankness the enormous ine 
briety of the same people, and records the characteristic fact, 
indicating, as he observes, " the moral and religious condition 
of Edinburgh," that the sum of two thousand one hundred 
and seventy pounds is spent every Sunday in that metropolis 
of Calvinism " in drinking whiskey or other spirits."** Dr. 
Barclay registers the popular proverb, " As besotted and as 

* Despatches, p. 97. 

f Ch. xii., p. 203. 

\ The United States, &c., cli. iv., p. 106. 

Quoted in The Times, July 17, 1858. 

| Banffshire Journal, quoted in the Times, February 24, 1859. 

f The Times, November 26, 1860. 

** Laing, Observations on Europe, ch. ii., p. 37. 



330 CHAPTER IX. 

Pharisaical as Glasgow ;" and another authority adds, " If 
Scotland is the most Sabbatarian and Calvinistic country upon 
earth, its town populations at least are the most drunken of 
drunkards."* " Drunken," says one of her own children, " in 
a greater measure than other countries, fiercer in crime, surely 
Scotland can scarcely point to the success of her theories in. 
the evidence of her training, "f 

Lastly, the decaying influence of religion, in spite of the 
fierce and peremptory tone of its self-confident teachers, is thus 
attested by two eminent Scotchmen, w T ho were perhaps better 
qualified than most of their countrymen to speak with authority. 
" If we are to believe one-half of what some religious persons 
themselves assure us," says Lord Cockburn, " religion is now 
almost extinct," and this in spite of the fact, which he notices 
in the same sentence, that " it is certainly more the fashion 
than it used to be. r j "A people sunk into an abyss of degra 
dation and misery," says Mr. Hugh Miller, " and in which it 
is the whole tendency of external circumstances to sink them 
yet deeper, constitute the weakness and shame of a country ;" 
and this fact, he adds, is being more and more plainly revealed 
by " the ominous increase which is taking place among us in 
the worse class. " " It is not fashionable," says the same 
writer in another work, " in the present age openly to avow 
infidelity, save in some modified rationalistic or pantheistic 
form, but in no age did the thing itself exist more extensively. ! 

America, where the disintegrating power of Protestantism 
has never been resisted, as in England, by lingering Catholic 
traditions, is thus described by a competent witness, Dr. 
Onderdonck, a Protestant bishop. " A spirit of misrule, of 
impiety, of infidelity, of licentiousness, is stalking through the 
length and breadth of our land, threatening ruin to every 
interest connected with individual, domestic, social, and civil 
welfare. It must be resisted, it must be kept at bay, it must 
be crushed, or we are a ruined people. ,"T "I greatly fear," says 
another American preacher, at a still later date, " that we are 
advancing by certain, and by no means slow steps, in the direc 
tion of complete absence of religion, and moral ruin."** This is 
not a cheerful description of "the most religious country in the 
world ;" in which, we are further informed, " nearly four-fifths 

* Saturday Review, April 20, 1861. 
The Times, November 5, 1862. 

Memorials of his Time, by Henry Cockburn, ch. i., p. 44 (1856). 

liambles of a Geologist, by Hugh Miller, ch. viii., p. 135 (1858). 

The Testimony of the Hocks, lecture ix., p. 345 (1862). 

Sermon preached at the Consecration of Ghristchurch. 
** Quoted by Dollinger, p. 248. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 331 

of the children, and two-thirds of the male population, are un- 
baptized !"* " There is not a country," adds Mr. Francis 
Wyse, " where infidelity is more generally diffused amidst the 
bulk of the population ;"f and this infidelity, an American 
writer will presently assure us, "is the usual recoil" of his 
countrymen " from the Puritanism of their childhood :" another 
proof that atheism is the logical result of a religion which, in 
its best form, can only appeal to emotion and sentiment, and 
when these are exhausted, dies away in apathy and gloom. 
" A great portion of our country," observes an Episcopalian 
minister, in 1858, " is witness to the most alarming theological 
progress towards the Rationalism of Germany."} In other 
words, the mass have no religion at all, and the few have a 
religion which is either a profitless rehearsal of dead forms, or 
an explicit denial of the principal truths of revelation. Again : 
the total absence of any moral result from Protestant educa 
tion in America, the universality of which has been so much 
vaunted, is so notorious, as to force from candid and experi 
enced observers the following avowals : " It trains up men," 
says an American theological periodical, " to make them cold, 
calculating scoundrels."! " Many well-judging persons, of dif 
ferent religious persuasions, have assured me," says another, 
u that the only really useful and corrective education is that of 
the Catholic schools and colleges. So far as I have known, 
these seminaries are crowded, not only with pupils of their own 
creed, but with those of other sects. And I have high official 
authority for saying, that the ministers and missionaries of the 
Roman Catholic Church are at this moment doing more good 
for the cause of virtue and morality throughout the whole con 
tinent of America, than those of any other religious denomina 
tion whatever. *]" 

And if we ask, in conclusion, what have been the fruits of 
that peculiar system which America has borrowed from Scot 
land, for reawakening religious emotion where it has ebbed 
away or become extinct, every witness, of whatever creed, ex 
cept those who trade in that form of hysterical mania, will 

* Godley, Letters from America, vol. ii., p. 102. 

f America, Its Realities and Resources, vol. i., cli. ix., p. 270. 

\. Rev. A. C. Coxe, Statements and Documents concerning the Board of Man 
agers of the American Bible Society, p. 28 (New York, 1858). 

A recent traveller observes that " to such an extent does oblivion of the 
Sabbath day go, that for want of one day of rest to distinguish from the other 
six days, not one man in ten of the Far West settlers can tell you, if you ask 
him, the day of the week. All days are alike, and not one of them is set apart 
for rest and worship." The English Sportsman in the Western Prairies, by 
the Hon. Grantley Berkeley, ch. xxii., p. 373. 

I Quoted by Dollinger, The Church and the Churches, p. 223. 

11 The Statesmen of America in 1846, p. 491. 



332 CHAPTER IX. 

give us the same reply. " If a victorious army," says a con 
spicuous American preacher, " should overflow and lay us 
waste, or if a fire should pass over and lay every dwelling in 
our land in ashes, it would be a blessing to be coveted with 
thanksgiving, in comparison to the moral desolation of one 
ungoverned revival of religion."* " Had the inhabitants of 
Bedlam been let loose," observes Mr. Fearon, in describing one 
of these orgies, " they could not have exceeded it."f Yet this 
is the mode by which Protestant ministers, of many sects, en 
deavor to acquire a transient influence over souls from which 
Divine faith is absent, and which can therefore only be reached 
through the medium of disorderly sentiment and fluctuating 
emotion. This is their remedy for evils which their unblessed 
ministry can only aggravate. The physical excitement of an 
hour is followed by furious impiety or cold despair ; and 
" neither. revivals, nor cholera, nor any thing,":): can again stim 
ulate even the spasmodic life which the rude experiments of an 
unhallowed art have quenched forever. 

It does not appear, then, that Canada, to which we will now 
return, has much reason to envy the condition of Scotland or 
America. Even the writer, whose idle words have suggested 
these remarks, and who does not seem to affect consistency, 
deplores " the obliquity of moral vision which is allowed to exist 
among a large class of Americans," declares that " Mammon is 
the idol which the people worship ;" and confesses that " the 
most nefarious trickery and bold dishonesty are invested with a 
spurious dignity if they act as aids to the attainment of that 
object. Children from their earliest years imbibe the idea, that 
sin is sin only when found out." And this is " the most 
religious country in the world !" Perhaps we may conclude, 
either that this writer attaches no meaning whatever to her own 
words, and neither believes them herself nor wishes others to 
believe them ; or that the energy of her religious tastes induces 
her to prefer the immoral and impure Scotchman, or the " ne 
farious and Mammon worshipping American," to the " sober, 
moral, courteous, and devout Canadian," so long as the former 
consents to revile what the latter reverently esteems the Faith 
which was preached in America by Vieyra and Monroy, by 
Lallemand and De Brebeuf, and of whose influence the Cana 
dian nation is one of the noblest monuments. 

* Quoted in Visit to the American Churches, by Andrew Reed, D.D., vol. ii.. 
pp. 41, 49. 

f Sketches of Amei^ica, by Henry Bradshaw Fearon, p. 164. 
Dr. Reed, vol. ii., p. 187. 
Ch. xv., pp. 326, 433. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 333 



NEWFOUNDLAND, GREENLAND, AND LAPLAND. 

The events of which -we have thus far attempted to trace the 
outlines, but which it would have been beside our purpose to 
review with the minute precision of historical detail, have con 
ducted us over a wide field, and have demanded, even in so 
rapid a survey, a large and conspicuous place in this too meagre 
and crowded narrative. Yet we have suppressed at every page 
illustrations which our limits warned us to exclude, and have 
altogether omitted several provinces, of which the religious 
history would have furnished exactly the same facts which we 
have gathered elsewhere. 

Thus in Newfoundland, where the Faith was once proscribed, 
and the Catholic population harassed by every torment and 
vexation which the agents of Anglicanism could inflict upon 
them, the result has been the same as in every other land. Far 
from persuading the Catholics to apostatize, it is their own 
disciples, as the Anglican clergy sorrowfully report, who have 
deserted them by hundreds. " It is a lamentable fact," says the 
Rev. G. M. Johnson, in 1862, " that the whole shore between 
Petty Harbor and Cape Race, originally settled by numerous 
English colonists, has fallen to the Church of Rome, and that of 
all the large population, most of whom once were members of our 
Church, scattered along that fifty miles of coast, the small 
remnant kept together by the presence of your missionary at 
Ferryland are all who remain steadfast to the Church and reli 
gion of their country/ * 

Everywhere there is the same conflict between the apostles of 
Divine truth and the agents of human systems, and everywhere 
the issue is the same. From Rupert s Land and the Red River 
district the reports of Anglican misadventures, faintly qualified 
by vague predictions of possible future success, are identical 
with those from every other region. " In reviewing the past 
year," say the Rev. "W". Stagg and the Rev. J. Settee, " there 
has been very little done." And then they explain their failure. 
" We could have done more for the instruction of the Indians 
than what has been done, had they come forward to obtain 
Christian knowledge: but they stand away from the truth." 
This means, it appears, that they prefer to become Catholics. 
" A Chipewyan chief," the Rev. R. Hunt reports, informed him 
that his tribe "had been given over to ministers (the Romanists) 

* Report of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 
p. 45 (1862). 



334: CHAPTER IX. 

who, we told them, were not ministers of the Lord Jesus Christ."* 
Apparently they told them in vain. 

But it is not only the ministers of the Church of England who 
record these incidents. The Rev. S. Maudsley, a W esleyan 
missionary, reports thus from his sphere of labor: "In some 
localities the Romanist majorities tell with an unhappy influence 
on isolated Protestants, inasmuch as several families have been 
drawn within the coils of the Man of Sin."f And this was not 
his greatest trial, for he adds, " the past ecclesiastical year has 
been one of unexampled scarcity of cash." 

Of another place the Methodists say, " This mission might 
well be compared to an island in the sea, with this difference, 
instead of cooling water, it is surrounded with Romanism." Of 
a third the missionary despondingly observes, " The battle is a 
hard one ; Romanism on one side, and Dippers on the other." 
The Dippers, or Baptists, are in all lands particularly odious 
to Wesley ans. 

From St. Armand another missionary writes, " The past 
year has not been a year of so much prosperity as I had desired, 
owing to the great exertions of the Roman priests." But he 
assures his society that there is not the smallest doubt of his 
ultimate victory. From Pierreville, a name of evil augury for 
Protestantism, another reports that " some persons have ceased 
to have confidence in Popish ceremonies," which would prob 
ably have been much more consoling to his employers if he 
had not added, " but the ceaseless efforts of the Romish priests 
to destroy Protestantism retard the work of evangelization." 

From the Mackenzie River district, the Rev. W. Kirby, a 
Church of England missionary, writes as follows : " You will 
gather from my journal that the Romanists are endeavoring to 
concentrate their efforts for the conversion of the Indians of this 
district. When I came they were just establishing their first 
mission in it ; now they have Fort Resolution, Fort Rae, Good 
Hope, and, I fear, will have Liard also !"J He had seen them 

* Church Missionary Society s Report, p. 222. Such is everywhere the action 
of Anglican Missionaries. Incapable of imitating the apostolic works of the 
Catholic evangelists, they are content to revile them. Thus a person who calls 
himself " Bishop of Mauritius," and who represents the Church of England 
in that island, claims additional " contributions" from his co-religionists, be 
cause he is " bearing the witness of the Church of England against Roman 
assumption and error." Report ofS.P. G.F.P., p. 135. One should have thought 
the Church of England might be sufficiently occupied just now in bearing 
witness againsi her own members. 

f Report of Wesleyan Missionary Society, 1862, pp. 174 et seq. 

| Captain Palliser, who commanded the British-America exploring expedi 
tion in 1859, speaks also of Fort Edmonton, on the Saskatchewan, where " two 
French priests" had acquired their usual influence, so that the natives, to 
whom they have taught agriculture, " sometimes realize very fair crops of 
barley and potatoes." Journal of Royal Geographical Society, vol xxx., p. 309 



MISSIONS IN AMEKICA. 335 

at their Work, had ascertained " their perfect knowledge of the 
language," sometimes travelled with them, and received from 
them only compassionate courtesy. For a moment he is con 
strained to confess the truth. " They possess in a great degree 
the sympathy of the Indians .... They are really heart and 
soul in their work, and would verily compass sea and land to 
make one proselyte." And then, untouched by virtues which 
even savages learn to admire and strive to imitate, the poor 
sectary, knowing nothing of Christianity but a few names and 
words, throws his cap into the air, and shouts, " Great is Diana 
of the Ephesians !" " The worst is," he cries, " their zeal so 
completely overleaps all sense of truth and justice, that the 
most unscrupulous means are used to accomplish their purposes. 
The most extravagant falsehoods and frauds are freely laid 
under tribute, but of this the poor Indians are at present too 
ignorant. . . . Little else is to be heard but the praises of Mary. 
Oh, my country, what a rebuke is this to thee ! . . . Britain, 
why is this?" &c., &c.* 

It is a curious commentary upon this gentleman s observation, 
that in the next page of the same report, his colleague, the Rev. 
J. Horden, thus describes his disciples at Rupert s House, where 
he was located with " his wife and four children." "Two pro 
fessedly Christian Indians, forgetting all the instructions they 
had received on the matter, strangled their poor infirm mother 
during last winter." By this summary process these Indian 
Protestants, fruits of Anglican missionary skill, economized the 
cost of her food. "This," adds Mr. Horden, " hurt me^Jeeply." 

In the frozen regions which lie between the St. Lawrence and 
the Arctic Circle, we find, by the testimony of Protestant writers, 
missionaries of the same class as we have encountered in the 
valley of the Amazon and the mountains of Peru, in the forests 
of Michigan and by the shores of the Canadian lakes. We 
learn also, by the same evidence, what manner of men the Sects 
have dispatched to these gloomy wastes, and what has been the 
fruit of their unwilling sojourn in the tents of Greenland and 
the huts of Labrador. 

Every Protestant traveller seems unconsciously to attest the 
same truth, and to lend his aid in tracing the same contrast. 
Mr. Loring Brace visits Norway in 1857, and meets Father 
Etienne, a missionary in Iceland. " I heard him speak five 
languages," he says, and then he gives his history. In the 
world he had been the Baron Djunkowsky, a Russian iioble- 
man, deprived of his estates for becoming a Catholic. And now, 
possessing nothing but the robe of his order, and being, accord- 

* Church M. S. Report, pp. 226-8. 



336 CHAPTER IX. 

ing to this American Protestant, "such a man as- the holy 
Xavier was," he had devoted his life to the conversion of the 
Icelanders. Nor does he appear to have labored in vain. A 
young Icelander accompanied the missionary, of whom Mr. 
Brace says, " He spoke German and French as well as he did 
English ;" and that he had learned better things also was 
proved by the fact that he had forsaken all to follow Christ in 
the same religious order as his master.* 

The facts are everywhere and always the same. A learned 
Protestant ethnologist observes, in 1862, that the ecclesiastical 
ruins in the Arctic regions, " are memorials alike of the pious 
zeal and the architectural skill of the first Norse colonists." 
But these zealous and devout sea-rovers were Catholics. The 
mortuary tablet, bearing a Runic inscription, which was found 
at Igalikko in 1829, " indicates the recognition of the Christian 
faith, and the presence of Christian worshippers in Greenland, 
certainly not later than the twelfth century."f And the mis 
sionaries, even at that early date, appear to have shared the 
zeal for science as well as for religion which their successors 
have so often displayed. "In 1266," says Professor Rain, 
" some priests at Gardar, in Greenland, set on foot a voyage of 
discovery to the Arctic regions of America. An astronomical 
observation proves that this took place through Lancaster Sound 
and Barrow s Strait to the latitude of .Wellington s Channel." J 
Six centuries have made no change in the character of Catholic 
missionaries, either in Greenland or elsewhere. Let us inquire 
what the Protestant emissaries, to whom these northern regions 
have been abandoned for eighty years, have done for their in 
habitants. 

In a recent work by Dr. Rink, Danish Superintendent of 
South Greenland, which is said to have excited much attention 
in Stockholm, and throughout the Scandinavian peninsula, the 
results of Protestant teaching amongst Finns, Greenlanders, 
and other northern races, appear to be revealed with unusual 
candor. Dr. Morrison had admitted, at an earlier date, the 
futility of all the Lutheran projects in these regions, and had 
confessed, in guarded phrase, that "the moral and spiritual 
results of this mission were not such as to warrant any glowing 
picture of its successful issue." The Danish Superintendent 
seems to have spoken with less reserve. In a letter from Stock 
holm, dated the 5th of September, 1858, and published in 
English Protestant journals, Dr. Rink s unwelcome revelations 
are thus noticed. 

* Home Life in Norway and Sweden, by Charles Loring Brace, ch. vii., p. 57. 

f Quoted by Wilson, Prehistoric Man. 

Jld. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 337 

" During tlie last few years, religious movements have taken 
place amongst the half-civilized Lappanian and Finnish tribes, 
which excited their minds to so great a degree, and animated 
them to such tumultuous excesses, that the Swedish-Norwegian 
government found it necessary to send troops to that distant 

region in order to restore peace The excitement of the 

public mind is still so great, that measures have been taken to 
suppress any possible new outbreak at its very birth." 

The source of these " tumultuous excesses," it appears, was a 
monstrous kind of religious fanaticism, generated by the rival 
schemes of Lutheran missionaries. " There can be no doubt," 
says the Swedish narrative, "that these commotions have arisen 
from a gross misunderstanding between the Christian teachers. . . 
So far has been proved from the most minute investigations, that 
Christianity, as yet, is by no means deeply rooted amongst these 
tribes," although the missionaries, we are told, have been at 
work "more than a century!" "Remains of heathenism, 
gross superstition, credulity, as well as inclination to religious 
fanaticism and enthusiasm, have, on the contrary, shown them 
selves as fully developed. Here is ground, the working of which 
would yield a rich harvest to different religious sects. The 
Roman Catholic missionaries who are settled at Quananberfjore, 
and amongst whom are several Jesuits, were doubtless aware 
of this state of affairs before their arrival, and will assuredly 
not fail to draw from it every possible advantage." 

The account then proceeds to furnish examples of the effects 
of Protestant religious instruction upon the Greenlanders, con 
stantly exhibiting the same phenomena during the last seventy 
years. " Disturbances have in former times repeatedly broken 
out amongst the Greenlanders, the origin of which is alone to 
be found in their misconceived religious views. In 1790, and 
in 1803, several women gave themselves out as holy; and one 
who was called Mary Magdalene declared herself to be a 
prophetess, spoke of the visions and revelations she had had, 
and gained a considerable number of followers. She took ad 
vantage of the activity of her disciples to bring about a blind 
obedience to her commands, and had two of her enemies killed. 
Some bad deeds of her husband, to whom she had given the 
name -of Jesus, brought her after a few months so glaringly 
into notice, that the missionaries endeavored to bring the lost 
sheep back into the bosom of the Church." Whether they 
succeeded, does not appear; but these events induced them 
" to carry out the plan of training the most able and intelligent 
among the natives as catechists," a project which led to un 
pleasant results. "It is from one of these Greenland pupils 
that the last excitement has proceeded In the summer 

VOL. n. 23 



338 CHAPTER IX. 

of 1854, a young man of Frederikstal, who had been selected 
as catechist, became unusually still, and sought retirement. 
Shortly afterwards, unusual meetings were held by the Green- 
landers of this place and its neighborhood, and soon the usual 
religious services were obliged to be discontinued for want of 
worshippers" The next event was that " the catechist declared 
himself to be a prophet, and that it was his intention to form a 
new company entirely distinct from the Europeans. He pre 
tended to have had revelations and interviews with the Saviour; 
assumed, in consequence, the name of Gabriel, and gathered 
together many followers, all of whom promised him implicit 
obedience. The falling away was so universal, that but few 
Greenlanders remained true to the missionaries." 

But this was not the end. " The new Gabriel performed 
religious ceremonies, married several couples amongst the new 
believers, and sent people to the next mission station in order 
to gather followers thence. Then other Greenlanders pretended 
to have had visions, and a feverish madness possessed the whole 
population. Some pricked their hands, and allowed others to 
suck out the flowing blood in order to taste the sweetness of 
the Saviour s blood ! Some were commanded to open their 
mouths, when Gabriel breathed into them the Holy Ghost." 
The madness lasted a year, and then seems to have died out. 
u But who," says the Scandinavian writer, " can answer for 
it that no mishap will arise in future from the same religious 
delusions ? It is by no means impossible that the safety of the 
Europeans may be by such cases endangered," this is what 
they seem to have felt most acutely in Sweden, " and the 
usefulness of the missionaries brought into question." 

The same facts are related both of Norway and Lapland. 
Professor Kooslef informed Mr. Bayard Taylor, in 1858, that 
u through the preaching of Lestadius and other fanatical mis 
sionaries, a spiritual epidemic, manifesting itself in the form 
of visions, trances, and angelic possessions, broke out among 
the Lapps." They committed murder and other crimes to 
force their countrymen " to acknowledge their Divine mission." 
u Those missionaries have much to answer for," adds Mr. 
Taylor, " who have planted the seeds of spiritual disease among 
this ignorant and impressible race."* 

The peculiarity in the Protestant missions of Greenland 
and Lapland appears, then, to consist in this ; that while in 
every other land they have encountered only apathy, indiffer 
ence, or aversion, here they have engendered h erce religious 

* Northern Travel; Sweden, Lapland, and Norway, by Bayard Taylor, en 
xl, pp. 115-122 (1858). 



MISSIONS IN" AMERICA. 339 

mania. In the torrid climes of Asia, or of Central and 
Southern America, they hardly attract attention, or at most 
provoke a smile ; in the icy wastes of the North they breed 
"religious delusions," "feverish madness," and "tumultuous 
excesses." The Chinese may rob or the Hindoo revile them ; 
the wily Armenian may become their pensioner and the Red 
Indian sink under their patronage to a lower depth of shame ; 
but the Greenlander, refusing to imitate such examples, takes 
a line of his own, and learns from them just enough of Chris 
tianity to burlesque its doctrines and profane its mysteries, to 
usurp the titles of the Saviour, and to parody the functions of 
His archangels. It is satisfactory to know that a better day 
has dawned for him, and that the Jesuits have arrived in 
Greenland. 



UNITED STATES. 

And now we approach the final scene of that long series 
which we have contemplated in so many lands, from where the 
sun rises in the furthest East to where it sinks in the distant 
West, and in which we have recognized everywhere the same 
unvarying forms, and have read the same eternal truth how 
great man becomes when upheld by the might of God, how 
little when abandoned to his own. 

In that famous Republic, now as conspicuous for social as for 
religious schism, and whose almost unrivalled prosperity only a 
political and moral corruption still more unexampled could have 
so grievously menaced, we find the last and saddest example 
of the contrast which we have reviewed in other lands. Yet 
here dwells a people from whom we might have hoped better 
things. Capable, in the natural order, of the most arduous efforts 
which man can conceive or sustain, it is only in that which touch 
es the life of the soul that they are feeble, uncertain, and per 
plexed. Vigorous beyond all other races in the pursuit of 
material goods, they are blind and impotent only in spiritual 
things. The gift of Divine faith, without which man is only an 
intellectual animal, they have lost, or never possessed. Hence 
the weakness of the supernatural element in all classes of 
Americans : whose religion oscillates between a pretentious but 
shallow infidelity and a coarse and sensual fanaticism, between 
the impiety of the mass, to whom religion is only a name, and 
the degrading man-worship of the few, who have put away 
Christian liberty to become the serfs of smooth-tongued preach 
ers, or the captives of mercenary zealots. "In the United 
States," said a Protestant bishop, in September, 1862, before a 



340 CHAPTER IX. 

" General Convention" of his community in New York, " there 
is less religion, with more pretence, than in any other country 
in the world professedly Christian."* 

The story of Protestant missions in the United States is told 
in a single sentence by an American writer, from whom we 
have already learned that paganism is nearly extinct, because 
the pagans are nearly annihilated. That is the history of 
religion in North America, as far as the natives are concerned. 
But the reproach of this unexampled catastrophe does not rest 
with Americans. The causes which produced it were already 
in operation a century before the Union existed. The destruc 
tion of the red man, like the institution of slavery, was a legacy 
bequeathed by England. It was by British colonists, and 
British officials, that the Indian was first provoked to deeds of 
blood, and then hunted to death* like a wild beast when he had 
yielded to the temptation. It would have been easy to make 
him a friend, as was proved by Lord Baltimore in Maryland, 
by Penn in Virginia, and by the French everywhere. But the 
friendship of the credulous savage would only have been impor 
tunate to men who coveted his lands and not his alliance. The 
Indian soon discovered that he was doomed, and resolved, since 
he was tracked as a beast of prey, to die like one. And there 
fore he fell, rending and tearing, with teeth and claws, the 
hunter who had brought him to bay. This was the explanation 
which he often gave, with an energy of language peculiar to 
himself, of the atrocities which the white man had taught him 
to commit. "When you iirst arrived on our shores," said an 
Indian sachem of Long Island to the masters of New York, 
"you were destitute of food; we gave you our beans and our 
corn ; we fed you with oysters and fish ; and now, for our 
recompense, you murder our people. The traders whom your 
first ships left on our shore to traffic till their return, were 
cherished by us as the apple of our eye ; we gave them our 
daughters for their wives; among those whom you have mur 
dered were children of your own hlood"\ And the greatest 
historian of the United States justifies the argument of the 
Indian, when he shows that from all classes, from Puritans, 
from Dutch Calvinists, and from English Episcopalians, they 
received the same treatment. "New England," he says, and 
we shall see presently how true it was, " waged a disastrous 
war of extermination ; the Dutch were scarcely ever at peace 
with the Algonquins; the laws of Maryland refer to Indian 
hostilities and massacres which extended as far as Richmond. 



* Dr. M Croskey, quoted in the Times, October 16, 1862. 
f Bancroft, ii., 564. 



MISSIONS IN AMEKICA. 341 

Perm came without arms ; he declared his purpose to abstain 
from violence ; he had no message but peace ; and not a drop 
of Quaker blood was ever shed by an Indian? Elsewhere the 
same writer notices, in words already quoted, the impressive 
fact, that the French authorities, who had treated the native as 
a brother, " as they made their last journey through Canada, 
and down the valley of the Mississippi, on every side received 
the expressions of passionate attachment from the many tribes 
of red men." 

Such was the influence of Catholic colonists, here as in othei 
lands. " To this day" says General Cass, " the period ot 
French domination is the era of all that is happy in Indian 
reminiscences." " When the Frenchmen arrived at these Falls," 
said a Chippewa chief, in 1826, to the American agent at the 
Sanlt Ste. Marie, " they came and kissed us. They called us 
children, and we found them fathers. "We lived like brethren 
in the same lodge. They never mocked at our ceremonies, 
and they never molested the jjjaces of our dead. Seven 
generations of men have passed away, but we have not forgotten 
it. Just, very just, were they towards us."* "The French," Mr. 
Bancroft observes, " had won the affection of the savages, . . . 
and retained it by religious influence. They seemed to be no 
more masters, but rather companions and friends. More 
formidable enemies now appeared, arrogant in their pretensions, 
scoffing insolently at those whom they superseded, driviny away 
their Catholic priests, and introducing the traffic in rum, which 
till then had been effectually prohibited. "f Surely we had 
reason to say, that if the French had retained possession of 
America, her aboriginal tribes would have survived to this day 
to worship the God of Christians ; and we may add, that if they 
had not lost India, Buddhism, as Hanke and others more than 
insinuate, would have been vanquished by the religion of the 
Cross. 

The present condition of the Indians of North America is, 
then, the direct and inevitable result of the proceedings in 
augurated nearly two centuries ago, and constantly renewed, 
by the Protestants of England and Holland. They have 
perished because the English could make more profit by their 
death than by their life ; and they have perished without leaving 
a trace behind. " All the Indian tribes," says M. de Tocqueville, 
" which formerly inhabited the territory of New England, the 
ISTarragansets, the Mohicans, the Pequods, no longer exist but in 
memory ; the Lenape, who received Penn one hundred and fifty 

* Jameson, part ii., p. 148. 
f Bancroft, iv., 79. 



342 CHAPTER IX. 

years ago on the banks of the Delaware, have at this day dis 
appeared. I myself saw the last of the Iroquois ; they were 
begging alms ! .... These savages have not simply retreated; 
they have been destroyed"* It was in allusion to such facts 
that a Protestant minister already quoted, and who had dwelt 
amongst the Delawares, was led to exclaim, "Alas! what has 
not our nation to answer for at the bar of retributive justice !" 
The three classes, as we have said, who made war on the 
Indian, were the Dutch, the Puritans of New England, and the 
English Royalists. The operations of the first we need not stay 
to notice, but a few words may be allowed with respect to the 
other two. 



PILGEIM FATHERS. 

The "Pilgrim Fathers" of New England have been the 
heroes of many a romance^which has been accepted by the 
world as history. Even Mr. Bancroft, though he reveals some 
thing of their real character, avows the customary sympathy 
with their supposed "love of freedom," maintenance of " indi 
vidual rights," and defence of * intellectual liberty." Yet the 
annals of mankind contain, perhaps, no such example of 
unrelenting tryanny on the one hand, of abject bondage to 
human traditions on the other, as that which is displayed in 
the acts, the laws, and the literature of the Puritans of New 
England. Professing to frame their daily life by the maxims of 
the New Testament, it may be affirmed without exaggeration, 
that no race of men, since the Gospel was first preached on 
earth, have ever violated its spirit with such remorseless con 
sistency. They were not, perhaps, conscious hypocrites, for 
most of them had deceived themselves before they deceived 
others ; but this, if we judge them by the narratives of their 
own historians, is nearly the only crime of which these Arabs 
of the Reformation were guiltless. It would be difficult to find 
in them so much as one lineament of the true Christian 
character. Humility, modesty, meekness, patience, forbear 
ance, obedience, charity against these, and all the kindred 
graces of the disciples of the Cross, every word and deed of their 
life was an unvarying protest. Never were they so utterly 
unchristian, in every thought, feeling, and desire, as when they 
were preaching what they called " the Gospel ;" never were 
they so full of cruel arrogance, haughty defiance, bitter menace, 
and incurable self-righteousness, as when they vehemently 

* De la Democratic en Amerique, tome iii., ch. v., p. 115. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 343 

called God to witness that they were His peculiar people. 
They had fled from England to enjoy " liberty of conscience," 
and they proved their love of liberty by refusing it to all who 
dared to interpret a text otherwise than themselves. " I came 
from England," said Blackstone, an ex- Anglican minister, "be 
cause I did not like the Lord Bishops ; and I cannot join with 
you, because I would not be under the Lord Brethren."* But 
they quickly punished his temerity. " To say that men ought 
to have liberty of conscience," exclaimed one of their oracles, 
" is impious ignorance"-\ And they proceeded forthwith to 
chastise what they called, in their singular jargon, " the pro- 
f an en ess of poly piety? It would almost seem as if they had 
bound their souls by a vow to abhor and revile all creatures of 
God, save only themselves. At one moment they rejoiced to 
have placed an ocean between themselves and " the iron yoke 
of wolvish bishops ;" at another to have broken asunder u the 
chains of Presbyterian tyrants." Baptists were mulcted in 
heavy fines, and when they failed to pay, " were unmercifully 
whipped." Quakers they branded with a hot iron, or lopped 
off their ears, or hung up by the neck. Every male Quaker 
" was to lose one ear on the first conviction, and on a second 
the other ; and both males and females, on the third conviction, 
were to have their tongues bored through with a red-hot iron.":]: 
u Witches," a title which included all their opponents for 
whom they could find no other, and especially rival ministers 
of religion, were executed in troops. " There hang eight fire 
brands of hell, 5 said Noyes, the minister of Salem, pointing to 
the bodies swinging on the gallows." When Burroughs, an 
obnoxious preacher, was hanging from the gibbet, and the 
spectators showed symptoms of tardy regret, " Cotton Mather, 
on horseback among the crowd, addressed the people, cavilling 
at the ordination of Burroughs, as though he had been no 

true minister ! and the hanging proceeded." " By 

what law," said Wenlock Christison, a Quaker, " will ye put 
me to death ?" " We have a law," it was answered, " and by 
it you are to die." " So said the Jews to Christ." " But who 
empowered you to make that law ? We have a patent, and 
may make our own laws." " I appeal then," said their victim, 
to the laws of England." It was a luckless appeal, and only 
provoked the prompt reply, " The English banish Jesuits on 
pain of death, and with equal justice we may banish Quakers. 
The jury returned a verdict of guilty; the vote was put a 

* Cheever, The Pilgrim Fathers, ch. xvii., p. 243. 

f Bancroft, i., 336. 

\ Hildreth, vol. i., ch. xii , p. 405. 

Bancroft, ii., 762. 



CHAPTER IX. 

second time, and there appeared a majority for the doom of 
death.] * 

It is worthy of remark, that seventy-seven of the !N"ew 
England Puritans "were in orders in the Church of England, "f 
and that, as Burke notices, "several who had received episcopal 
ordination" joined them ; yet, as he adds, " The truth is, they 
had no idea at all of freedom. The very doctrine of any sort of 
toleration was so odious to the greater part, that one of the first 
persecutions set up was against a small party which arose 
amongst themselves. . . . The persecution which drove the 
Puritans out of England might be considered as great lenity 
and indulgence in the comparison." Then describing some of 
their unrelenting atrocities, he adds, " Things of this nature 
form the greater part of the history of New England for a long 
time. In short, this people, who in England could not bear 
being chastised with rods, had no sooner got free from their 
fetters than they scourged their fellow refugees with scorpions, 
though the absurdity, as well as the injustice, of such a proceed 
ing in them might stare them in the face." Lastly, referring 
to the charges of "witchcraft" which these ex-Anglican 
ministers brought against their rivals, Burke says, " A uni 
versal terror and consternation seized upon all. The prisons 
were crowded ; people were executed daily ; yet the rage of the 
accusers was as fresh as ever/ A magistrate, he adds, who has 
just committed forty persons for sorcery, and then refused to 
go on with his disgusting task, " was himself immediately 
accused of sorcery, and thought himself happy in leaving his 
family and fortune, and escaping with his life out of the 
province." " Several of the most popular ministers, after 
twenty executions had been made, addressed Sir William 
Phips," the Anglican governor, " with thanks for what he 
had done, and with exhortations to proceed in so laudable a 
work. :); The exhortation was hardly needed. " To such a 
degree did the frenzy prevail," says one who deliberately defends 
all their acts, " that in a single month the grand jury indicted 
almost fifty persons for witchcraft." A child under five years 
was imprisoned on such a charge. An Indian woman, " after 
lying some time in prison, escaped without any further punish 
ment," says Dr. Dwight, 4i except being sold to defray the ex 
pense of her prosecution !" " At Andover, a dog was accused 
of bewitching several human beings, and put to death." Giles 

* Bancroft, i., 342. 

f Rupp, Hist. Bel. Denominations, p. 271. 

i An Account of the European Settlements in America, pp. 151, 159, 160, 
(1758). 

Dwiglit, Travels in New England, vol. i., p. 417. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 3-15 

Corey " was pressed to death for refusing to plead." " Neither 
age nor sex . . . furnished the least security. Multitudes 
appear to have accused others merely to save themselves." 
Yet this writer, two hundred years after these events, could 
formally defend the Puritans, on the ground that "the exist 
ence and power of witches has been the universal belief of 
man," and was not afraid of avowing that their spirit still 
lingers among their New England descendants by declaring, 
with reference to their most arbitrary enactments against 
" Quakers, Ranters, and such like notorious heretics*," "lean 
find no justification either for the Anabaptists or for the 
Quakers. "* 

Even Mr. Bancroft, beguiled by that bastard philosophy 
which puts words in the place of things, could commend in 
swelling phrase the attachment to freedom, to intellectual 
vigor, and to the great principles of human progress and 
enlightenment, displayed by the New England Puritans! 

This is not the place to examine the whole history of the 
" Pilgrim Fathers," with which indeed we are not immediately 
concerned ; yet something we may learn from it incidentally, 
in considering the fortunes of the unhappy Indian tribes who 
dwelt within their reach. It was not likely that zealots who 
spared neither man nor woman in their cruel vanity, and who, 
as Mr. Bancroft observes, " would not bow at the name of 
Jesus, nor bend the knee to the King of kings," would learn 
mercy in dealing with Indians, much less that they would 
sacrifice themselves in order to labor for their salvation. " No 
one," says Dr. Wilberforce, "had so much as a thought of 
attempting to convey to the unhappy tribes around them the 
blessed message of salvation. "f So easily does fanaticism 
coexist with utter godlessness ; so wide is the gulf between 
Sectarian zeal and Christian charity. " It is requisite to rec 
ollect," says a recent Protestant writer, "that the Puritans, 
although burning with religious zeal, did little for the con 
version of the American Indians.";): Little in truth ! But, on 
the other hand, they did more than any of their contemporaries, 
perhaps more than all of them put together, to kindle the fires 
of that inextinguishable hate which made the Eastern States 
a field of blood, and which only the utter annihilation of their 
primitive inhabitants could appease. "The Puritans," says 
Mr. Howitt, " gave at length as much as one thousand pounds 



* Vol. iv., p. 243. 

j- A History of the Protestant Episcopal Church in America, by Samuel 
Wilberforce, cli. iii.j-p. 82. 
\ Dr. Thomson, New Zealand, vol. L, part ii., ch. iii., p. 303. 



346 CHAPTER IX. 

for every Indian scalp that could be brought to them !"* The 
very first "Pilgrims" who landed rifled the Indian graves, 
stole their corn, which might have been excused on the plea 
of necessity, and when they resented the indignity, massacred 
them ; and then, with their hands still red with blood, they 
gravely recorded in their journal, " Thus it pleased God to 
vanquish our enemies. "f " O how happy a thing had it 
been," said Robinson, with reference to this slaughter, " that 
you had converted some before you killed any !" Yet he him 
self had preached to them at the moment of their departure, as 
Dr. Cheever approvingly observes, " from the appropriate text, 
I will deliver the Philistines into thine hand. "J 

" They seized without scruple," says the Protestant bishop 
of Oxford, " the lands possessed of old times by the Indians, 
and it is calculated that upwards of one hundred and eighty 
thousand of the aboriginal inhabitants were slaughtered l>y 
them in Massachusetts Bay and Connecticut alone. " This 
was their mode of effecting conversions ; and these men were 
not Spanish soldiers, nor Portuguese slave-dealers, but " Min 
isters of the Gospel," and champions of the " Reformation !" 
These were the Vieyras, the Clavers, and the Las Casas of 
Protestantism. " As long as slavery was profitable," says a 
living American writer, the Puritans not only enslaved both 
the Indians and the Negroes, making them taxable property, 
but carried on a brisk traffic in their flesh, selling them in the 
best markets to the highest bidder."! As late as 1810, there 
were more than fifteen thousand slaves in the State of New 
York.! 

Cotton Mather, who ruled among them as prophet and 
pontiff, and who was ready at any moment to prove or dis 
prove any thing which any other man could affirm or deny by 
a torrent of Scripture texts, not only hounded on his fierce 
sectaries to thirst for their blood, but publicly offered thanks 
to the God of heaven when it covered the land as with an 
inundation. In a book which he entitled Prepotency of 
Prayer, exulting, like some Mexican hierophant, as he counted 
with gleaming eyes and dripping hands the reeking hearts 
which he had piled around him, the Puritan leader exclaims, 
without pity and without remorse, "God do so to all the 
implacable enemies of Christ, and of his people in New 

* Colonization and Christianity, ch. xx., p. 317. 

1 The Pilgrim Fathers, by George B. Cheever, D.D., pp. 23-81. 

Ibid., ch. vii., p. 140. 

Ubi supra. 

New York Herald, January 20, 1861. 

Dwight, Travels in New England, pref., p. xvii. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 34:7 

England !"* " The efficacy of prayer for the destruction of the 
Indians," we learn from Dr. Thacher, was a favorite topic also 
with Dr. Increase Mather, who told his hearers not to " cease 
crying to the Lord against Philip," the chief of the New Eng 
land Indians, " until they had prayed the bullet into his heart." 
Yet, as Thacher admits, " Philip possessed virtues which ought 
to have inspired his enemies with respect, "f But this could 
not save him. Apostles have shed their own blood, during 
eighteen centuries, that by dying they might purchase life for 
their enemies ; but it was reserved for Protestant ministers to 
shed the blood of the heathen, and then claim the approval of 
heaven for doing it. 

It would be only too easy to multiply illustrations of the de 
moniacal spirit of the New England ministers. Their only 
thought towards the heathen was to slay them. " Many 
heathens have been slain," cries one of them ; and then he adds 
with exultation, " Another expedition is about to set out !" The 
letter, addressed to sympathizing colleagues, which announces 
this view of the relations of Puritans to the Indian nations, con 
cludes with these words : " May we see each other hereafter in 
our bridegroom s chamber, securely sheltered behind the blue 
curtains of the heavens, in the third heaven of Abraham s 
bosom. "J 

One of the many tribes annihilated by men, who, in spite of 
their profession of Christianity, were far more cruel and im 
placable than the ill-fated barbarians whom they massacred, 
was the Pequods. In a single battle against these naked and 
half-armed Indians, who might easily have been won to religion 
and civilization, as the fiercer Chiquitos and Ornaguas of the 
South had been won, between eight and nine hundred were 
killed or taken, while the colonists lost only two men. Such 
of the Indians as were spared were immediately sold as slaves. 
"When Underbill, one of the leaders of this expedition, was 
taxed with cruelty, he answered, " We had sufficient light 
from the "Word of God for our proceedings." Others com 
pared themselves to David, and claimed the approval of the 
Most High in language which would make one blush for 
Christianity, if it were possible to admit that such men were 
Christians.| 

* History of the Indians of North America, by Samuel G. Drake, book ii., 
ch. vii. 

f Thacher, Hint, of Plymouth, p. 391. 

i Documentary History of New York, vol. iii., p. 964. 

Hildreth, vol. i., ch. ix., p. 252. 

i It deserves to be noticed, as an illustration of the mental as well as moral 
obliquity of these men, that when some fossil bones, probably of the mastodon, 
*^re found in New England in ^.712, Dr. Increase Mather K ported to the Royal 



348 CHAPTER IX. 

There is no need to examine more minutely the dealings of 
the Puritans with the natives, nor to trace the history of the 
furious dissensions which raged amongst themselves. In spite of 
banishment, tortures, and death, in spite of enactments only 
matched in the penal code of Great Britain, new sects con 
tinually sprang into being, equally confident and imperious, by 
whom the peculiar and exclusive religious polity of the New 
England pulpit oligarchy was finally stifled and quenched. It 
was a marvel that it lasted so long. Every innocent joy, the fruit 
and blossom of true religion, was suppressed by the founders of 
Salem, " because their followers regarded gayety as sinful."* 
"All those that weare long locks," was one of their judicious 
rules for their Indian victims, "shall pay five shillings. "f And 
this hideous burlesque of Christianity, which substituted for 
grace and virtue fierce animal excitement or hysterical delusions, 
and that blasphemous arrogance to which the Prussian monarch 
alluded when he said, "The Calvinists treat the Saviour as their 
inferior," perished at last, devoured, like a putrid corpse, by the 
worms which it had bred. " If the account given by Dr. Mather 
of the colony of Rhode Island be correct," says Mr. Ilalkett, 
" its red aborigines must have been somewhat bewildered with 
the variety of Protestant sectaries who had planted themselves 
among them." It was truly a singular exhibition of Chris 
tianity, by Mather s own account. " It has been," he confessed, 
when his reign was over, "a collumes of Antinomians, Familists, 
Anabaptists, Antisabbatarians, Arminians, Socinians, Quakers, 
Ranters, every thing in the world except Roman Catholics and 
real Christians," by which latter phrase he designated himself 
arid his diminished flock, " so that if a man had lost his religion, 
he might find it at that general muster of Opinionists."^: Well 
might Mnigret, a celebrated Indian sachem, reject Mayhew s 
offer to preach to his tribe, with the scornful reply, " If my 
people should have a mind to turn Christians, they could not tell 
what religion to ~be of." And even Mather himself, after his long 
career of pride and cruelty, " an example," as Mr. Bancroft 
admits, " how far selfishness, under the form of vanity and 
ambition, can stupify the judgment, and dupe consciousness 

Society of London, that they were remains of extinct giants, " particularly a 
tooth, weighing five pounds and three quarters, with a thigh-bone seventeen 
feet long ! To have doubted the New England, philosopher s conclusions might 
have been even more dangerous then, than to believe them now." Dr. Wilson, 
P e listoric Man, vol. i., ch. iv., p. 113. 

* Chalmers, History of the Revolt oftlie American Colonies, vol. i., p. 40. 

\ The Day-Breaking of the Gospel with the Indians in New England, Mass. 
Hist. Coll., 3d series, vol. iv., p. 20. Of. Hutchison Papers, vol. i. 



i Halkett, ch. xii., p. 281. 

Drake, book ii., ch. iv., p. 82. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 349 

itself," betrayed at last the hollowness of the earth-born creed 
which he had once imposed with such terrible penalties, fell 
headlong into the abyss prepared for those who mistake blind self- 
confidence for Christian faith, and " had temptations to atheism, 
and to the abandonment of all religion as a mere delusion."* 

Such was the beginning and end of one of the most hateful 
sects to which the Church of England, the cradle of almost 
every modern heresy, ever gave birth. And its fruits were 
confessed, even by the cruel sectaries who had watched their 
growth. A general decay of all religious sentiment followed 
the fierce animal excitement which they had mistaken for the 
meek spirit of holiness, until Cotton Mather, repeating language 
which was then universal in New England, could say, in 1706, 
" It is confessed by all who know any thing of the matter, that 
t\iQre*is a general and,horrible decay of Christianity^ among the 
professors of it."f The monstrous delusion revealed itself at last. 
The h rst Anglican church in Boston became the first Socinian 
temple,:): and this was only a presage of what was to come. 
" Latitudinarianism continued to spread," says an historian of 
the United States ; " some approached even towards Socinianism, 
carefully concealing, however, from themselves their advance to 
that abyss." Concealment has long ceased to be necessary. 
" The university of Boston," we are told in 1853, " is attended 
by about five hundred students yearly. It is wholly a Unitarian 
establishment, and belongs to the Unitarian Church."] "Infi 
delity," says an American Protestant, " has made rapid strides 
in New England ; and at present,, not one-half of the adult pop 
ulation are in the habit of attending any religious worship, 
or even belong to any Christian sect. *f And even they who 
profess some corruption of Christianity, some human doctrine 
which has its roots deep in the earth, and shoots upwards with 
rank luxuriance only to shut out the pure light of heaven, are 
for the most part avowed or concealed Unitarians, blaspheming 
the Incarnate God, and enemies of the Cross of Christ. " They 
are introducing themselves," we are told, "into every village ;"** 
so that, "of all the Congregational ministers in New England, 
there are not probably, at this day, twenty-five who believe the 

* Bancroft, ii., 766. 

f Gillies, Hist. Collections, vol. ii., cli. ii., p. 19. 

j Wilberforce, ch. xii., p. 446. 

Hildreth, vol. ii., ch. xxiii., p. 309. 

Ii F. Bremer, Homes of the New World, vol. i., letter vii., p. 144. 
1 New York Churchman, vol. ix., No. 25. 

** First Annual Report of the Executive Committee of the American Unitarian 
Association, 1827. Cf! Church ^Advocate, vol. i., p. 90 ; Colton s Church and 
State in America, p. 39 ; Remarks on the Moral and Religious Character of th6 
United States, p. 51. 



350 CHAPTER IX. 

doctrines of the Nicene Creed ! " Boston," says a capable 
witness, " is the headquarters of cant There is an extra 
ordinary and most pernicious union, in more than a few scat 
tered instances, of profligacy and the worst kind of infidelity 
with a strict religious profession, and an outward demeanor of 
remarkable propriety."* "Infidelity," says another witness, 
in 1858, " has been cultivated. Young America s usual poor 
recoil from the Puritanism of its childhood. "f Yet there are 
men who believe that New England theology was one of the 
most auspicious products of Anglicanism, and that the " Pil 
grim Fathers" were benefactors of mankind.^ 

That the Puritans should have exterminated, instead of con 
verting, the Indian tribes of the northeastern States, can hardly 
surprise us. The savage had sufficient intelligence to comprehend, 
and sufficient wit to express his conviction, that the professors 
of a religion which formed such characters and produced such 
fruits, must be as hateful in the eyes of the " Great Spirit" as 
they were mean and odious in his own. " It is very remark 
able," says Hubbard, speaking of Massasoit, the famous sachem 
of the Narragansetts, who for forty -five years was the constant 
associate and firm ally of the English, " that how much soever 
he affected the English, he was never in the least degree well 
affected to their religion. " The unhappy barbarian, whose 
whole nation was afterwards to be destroyed by them, knew it 
too well by its fruits. He knew also, by a sorrowful experience, 
that in spite of their grim affectation of integrity and contempt 
for earthly goods, none were so greedy and insatiable as they. 
Winthrop was one of the most famous among them, and Gorton 
hardly of lower repute ; yet both these preachers, to say nothing 
of others, had learned the profitable art which Anglican mis 
sionaries were to practise elsewhere, at a later date and on a 
larger scale. "In the records of the United Colonies for the 
year 1647," observes an American writer, " it is mentioned 
that Mr. John Winthrop making claim to a great quantity of 
land at Niantic by purchase from the Indians, " have we not 
reason to say that these men are always and everywhere the 
same ? " although he was a famous 4 saint among his party, 

* H. Martineau, Society in America, vol. iii., ch. i., p. 31. 

\ The Life and Times of Aaron Burr, by J. Parton, ch. iv., p. 63. 

| It is worthy of observation, that America owes to Great Britain Mormonism 
as well as Puritanism. " It is to Protestantism that we must look for the origin 
of the New Faith," says Mr. Burton, " which we find to be in its origin English, 
Protestant, anti-Catholic." Great Britain supplies to this newest form of 
Protestantism " five times more than all the rest of the world, except Denmark." 
The City of the Saints, by Richard F. Burton, ch. vi., p. 359 ; ch. ix., p. 440 
(1861). 

Indian Biography, by B. B. Thatcher, Esq., vol. i., ch. vi., p. 139. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 351 

* the commissioners set aside his claim, with considerable 
appearance of independence. r Four years earlier, the Rev. 
Samuel Gorton obtained lands in the same manner from Mian- 
tunnomoh, "which was grievous to the Puritan Fathers of 
Massachusetts," not because they condemned a proceeding 
which they would gladly have imitated, but because Gorton 
had collected disciples of his own, and presumed to set them at 
noughtf And this acquisitiveness, which clung like a garment 
to their limbs, marked their proceedings to the end. As late 
as 1 768, we still find Sir William Johnson indignantly com 
plaining to General Gage of certain "New England ministers" 
in these expressive words : " I was not ignorant that their old 
pretensions to the Susquehanna lands was their real, though 
religion was their assumed, object.";}: And once more, in 1746, 
the Council of New York informed Governor Clinton that 
"Whitfield, the celebrated preacher, "had purchased several 
thousand acres of land at the forks of the river Delaware," and 
requested his attention to the transaction. "This scheme," 
the council added, " was carried on by Whitfield till he had 
gulled a sufficient sum out of the deluded people, under color 
of charity for the orphan house at Georgia and this Negro 
Academy, but as most rational to suppose, with real design 
under both pretexts to till his own pockets ; and when he had 
carried on the farce so far as he could well expect to profit by, 
he sells this estate at Delaware to Count Zinzendorf." But 
we have heard enough of the "Pilgrim Fathers" and of their 
kindred, and it is time to speak of the operations of the Church 
of England in the same land, and of the agents by whom they 
were conducted. 



ANGLICAN MISSIONS. 

The history of Anglican missions in the American colonies 
has been written by the Rev. Ernest Hawkins, a highly respect 
able minister of the Establishment. It does not take a wide 
range, is somewhat barren of incident, and will not detain us 
long. "The Church of England is not rich in missionary 
annals," says this gentleman, just three centuries after she had 
come into existence ; and his own account does not permit us 
to believe that change of climate has removed her sterility, or 

* Drake, book ii., ch. vi., p. 108. 
f Id., book iii., ch. v., p. 73. 
i Doc. Hist. N. York, vol. iv., p. 398. 
Ibid., vol. iii., p. 1024. 



352 CHAPTER IX. 

that she has enjoyed a more fruitful career in the New world 
than in the Old. There is indeed some reason for surprise 
that Mr. Hawkins should have thought it necessary to write 
a history which has neither a plot nor a hero, and which con 
tains absolutely nothing, from the first page to the last, except 
the continual repetition of the same statement, that the Angli 
can missionaries had no success in America, and sincerely re 
gretted the fact. Here is a list of some of them, whom we 
reasonably infer to have been the most conspicuous of their 
number, since they occupy the most prominent place in the 
pages of Mr. Hawkins. 

The reader will observe how exactly they resemble one 
another in this particular, that they all visited America and al] 
ran away again. Mr. Urrnston, he says, after "vainly demand 
ing the payment of his dues," returned to England. Mr. 
Rainsford "abandoned his mission," "being unable," says Mr. 
Hawkins, whose dramatis personce are constantly escaping 
from him, " to undergo the fatigues of an itinerant mission." 
Mr. Gordon only stayed a year, being driven away " by the 
distractions of the people, and the other inconveniences in that 
colony." Mr. Adams was just going to " set out for Europe," 
but died before he could start. Mr. Wesley stayed one year 
and nine months, and then " shook off the dust of his feet, and 
left Georgia." Mr. Neil complained, as late as 1766, " Few 
Englishmen that can live at home will undertake the mission." 
Mr. Moor, however, stayed three years before he ran away. 
Mr. Barton announced his opinion about the same time, that 
" in the conversion of Indians many difficulties and impedi 
ments will occur which European missionaries" he meant to 
say English " will never be able to remove ;" and then he re 
counts the "hardships" which such a work entailed, and which 
always put his Anglican friends to flight. Mr. Talbot wrote a 
little earlier to the " Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
in Foreign Parts" this characteristic tale : " All your mission 
aries hereabouts are going to Maryland, for the sake of them 
selves, their wives, and their children." We shall see presently 
what they did in Maryland. Lastly, Mr. Hawkins adds, " Nor 
must it be concealed that cases occurred of clergymen dishon 
oring their holy calling by immorality, or neglect of their 
cures."* And this is about the sum of the information which 
we derive from his book. 

In reading such a narrative, two conclusions appear to sug 
gest themselves ; the first, that the Anglican clergy would hardly 

* Missions of tJie Ch. of Eng. in the N. A. Colonies, ch. iv., pp. 72, 86 ; ch. v., 
p. 97 ; ch. vi., pp. 125, 131 ; ch. vii., p. 146 ; ch. xi., p. 265. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 

condemn their colleague who candidly observed to " my Lord of 
London," " Who did his lordship think would come hither that 
had a dozen shirts?" and the second, that if Mr. Hawkins has 
not succeeded in producing a " history," it was only for want T>f 
materials. 

Yet he might have indefinitely swelled the catalogue of 
fugitive ministers, if he had not deemed his own sufficiently 
ample. He might even have assisted his readers to form a more 
exact estimate of their real character, if that had been his object. 
Colonel Heathcote, an ardent Protestant, informed the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel, in 1705, that Mr. Talbot, 
whom Mr. Hawkins would fain represent as a true missionary, 
ran away, " having not thought it worth the while to stay at 
Albany." The Rev. Thomas Barclay deserved also a conspicuous 
place in the same series of missionary portraits. This gentleman 
informed the English society in 1710, that his Dutch colleague 
at Albany was " a hot man, and an enemy to our Church, but a 
friend to his purse, for he has large contributions from this 
place." And then he added, with that admirable self-possession 
with which most English people are familiar, " As for myself, 
/ take no money, and have no kind of perquisite." Yet two 
years later, this ascetical Anglican minister, to whom money was 
an offence, was publicly tried before the commissioners at Albany, 
for employing a person " to get fifty pounds for him upon interest 
to pay his debts, which his wife was to know nothing of," and 
then sorely libelling his agent because he failed to get the loan.* 
Mr. Hawkins might have filled his volume with equally dramatic 
incidents. He might also, if that had been his design, have 
informed his readers that the congregations of these Anglican 
ministers were worthy of such pastors. As late as the eighteenth 
century, Colonel Morris, another sympathizing correspondent of 
what is called the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, 
gave this description of the English in America: "Whereas 
nine parts in ten of ours will add no credit to whatsoever Church 
they are of, nor can it be well expected otherwise ; for as New 
England, excepting some families, was the scum of the Old,"- 
though the teaching class was mainly composed of ex-Anglican 
ministers, " so the greatest part of the English in this province 
was the scum of the New, who brought as many opinions almost 
as persons, but neither religion nor virtue, and have acquired 
very little since."f 

Another Anglican writer, deservedly esteemed, like Mr. 
Hawkins, for character and ability, has applied himself to the 

* Doc. Hist. N. York, vol. iii., pp. 125, 898, 904. 
f Ibid., p. 247. 
VOL. ii. 24 



354: CHAPTER IX. 

production of a much larger work on the same subject. He 
also tells us of Mr. Morrell, who, after spending a year in New 
England, "was compelled to retire baffled and discomfited."* 
Mr. Bancroft has described to us another class of missionaries, 
" who never receded one foot;" and Mr. Washington Irving has 
added, that " they pressed on unresisting, with a power which no 
other Christians have exhibited." Mr. Hawkins, having other 
matters to discuss, dismisses this class briefly as "French 
Romanists /" This is what an educated Anglican clergyman 
deems a suitable description of men whom St. Paul would have 
greeted with the kiss of charity, and whom the God of St. Paul 
endowed with gifts and graces which American Protestants have 
celebrated with respectful enthusiasm, and of which even the 
American savage recognized the supernatural beauty. Mr. 
Hawkins, however, reserving his sympathy for the hirelings 
whose career- he has described, appears to approve the verdict of 
Dr. Selwyn who, as we have seen, is so little impressed by the 
ministry of apostles such as Lallemand and De Brebeuf, St. 
Francis and De Britto, Schaal and Yerbiest, that he cannot 
endure even the sound of their names, forgets even self-respect 
in his eagerness to defame them, and deems their very existence 
" a blot on the mission system !"f 

Mr. Anderson concludes from his researches, that in the 
seventeenth century, "the vital energies of the whole body of 
the Church throughout the colony were rapidly sinking beneath 
the baneful influences which oppressed her." He relates also, 
from original records, that the worst influence of all was that of 
the clergy, of whom he quotes this animated description. 
" Many came, such as wore black coats, and could babble in 
a pulpit, roar in a tavern, exact from their parishioners, and 
rather by their dissoluteness destroy than feed their flocks.":): 
If Mr. Anderson and Mr. Hawkins could have found more 
cheerful topics, we may assume that they would have selected 
them. 

When so distinguished a person as Mr. Anderson undertakes 
to write a " History of the Colonial Church," we may be sure 

* History of the Colonial Church, by the Rev. J. S. M. Anderson, vol. i., ch. 
xii., p. 457. 

f " There are many," says a spiritual writer, whose words are not without 
application in this case, " to whom the perfections of God are not so much ter 
rible as they are odious. When they come in sight of some manifestation of 
His sovereignty, or even some beautiful disclosure of His tenderness," as in 
the supernatural lives of Catholic missionaries, " they are like possessed per 
sons. They are so exasperated as to forget themselves, until their passion 
hurries them on to transgress, not only the proprieties of language, but even 
the decorum of outward behavior." F. Faber, The Creator and the Creature, 
ch. iv., p. 231. 

J Vol ii, ch. xiv, p. 132. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 355 

that nothing will be omitted which industry could detect, or 
art embellish, to adorn and illustrate the theme. It is probable, 
however, that in spite of the attraction of his name, few persons 
would attempt, without a special motive, the continuous perusal 
of volumes of such dimensions, and that fewer still would 
succeed in the attempt. The impossibility of accomplishing 
such a task is due, not to the incapacity of the writer, but to 
the weariness and aridity of the subject. Never, perhaps, was 
so vast a collection of pages illumined by so slender an array of 
facts. In reading Mr. Anderson s immense volumes, which 
profess to trace the fortunes of Anglicanism in the colonies, we 
seem to be invited to examine a history in which there are 
neither scenes nor actors, neither agents nor events ; wherein 
much is said, but nothing is done; and in which the solitary 
truth which straggles to the surface, but which might have 
found adequate expression in fewer words, consists in the 
patient iteration of one fact that the Church of England was 
always going to do something worthy of record, and never did 
it. So absolutely void are these endless pages, not only of any 
semblance of incident or vestige of action, but even of any 
definite character by which one chapter may be distinguished 
from another ; so fall of words which reveal nothing and 
suggest nothing, of sentences which incessantly resolve them 
selves into mist ; that the reader can only ascertain by diligent 
reference to notes and index where he is, whither he is going, 
and to what point of the narrative he is supposed to be giving 
his attention. 

There are certain regions, described by American writers, 
the interminable prairies which stretch many a league along 
the northern frontier of Mexico, in which, as they relate, the 
eye discovers neither tree, nor shrub, nor hillock, to serve as 
guide or landmark, but only one dead level, which has every 
where the sky for its boundary, and in which any living 
form, though it were the meanest of God s creatures, would 
be welcomed with enthusiasm. Here the hapless traveller 
wanders, without aim and almost without hope, tracing again 
to-day the path which he vainly followed yesterday, and ever 
returning to the spot from which he set out ; moving in a fatal 
circle, which grows less and less, as strength fails and courage 
ebbs away; till he falls in despair on the earth which refuses 
to aid his baffled sense, or to give him so much as a hint which 
way lies the road that leads to the haunts of men. In reading 
Mr. Anderson s illimitable volumes we seem, about to share 
the fate of this doomed traveller ; but a movement breaks the 
spell, and closing his book, we find that we have already 
quitted the desert into which he had beguiled us, and which, 



356 CHAPTER IX. 

by the prescriptive rights of prior discovery, he has chosen to 
call, "The History of the Colonial Church. 5 

What the Anglican Church really did in America, and what 
sort of agents she employed, there as elsewhere, we learn only 
imperfectly from Mr. Anderson and Mr. Hawkins ; but other 
writers, of similar religious persuasions, will supply the in 
formation which they thought it prudent to withhold. 

Berkeley, a Protestant bishop, filled with generous but 
unfruitful designs for the welfare of the American colonies, 
detected, by actual observation, that the clergy who possessed 
" a dozen shirts," and the position which such an estate 
implies, rarely crossed the Atlantic. "The clergy sent over 
to America," says this celebrated person, "have proved, too 
many of them, very meanly qualified, both in learning and 
morals, for the discharge of their office. And, indeed, little 
can be expected from the example or instruction of those who 
quit their country on no other motive than that they are not 
able to procure a livelihood in it, which is known to be often 
the case."* The Church of England, however, sent such 
representatives, in default of others, and continued to send 
them, during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 
Berkeley, who seems to have understood that the character 
of the missionaries " hath hitherto given the Church of Rome 
great advantage over the Reformed Churches,"not only deplored 
the fact, but indicated its probable results. " In Europe, the 
Protestant religion hath of late years considerably lost ground," 
he says ; and then, looking across the sea, he anticipates still 
more unwelcome events. " The Spanish missionaries in the 
South, and the French in the North, are making such a 
progress as may one day spread the religion of Rome through 
out all the savage nations in America, "f We have seen that 
in the South the work which he dreaded is done ; and if in the 
North they failed to convert all the savage tribes, it was only 
because England massacred both them and their flocks, till 
she left them none to convert. 

The principal scene, as is well known, of the operations of 
Anglicanism in America lay between Cape Cod and the 
Chesapeake Bay ; though the great majority of its agents con 
fined their wanderings to the still narrower tract between the 
mouth of the Hudson and the mouth of the Potomac. English 
soldiers and traders carried their arms and their strong liquors 
to the foot of the Alleghanies and the shores of Lake Erie and 

* A Proposal for the better supplying of Churches in our Foreign Plantations, 
Works, vol. ii., p. 422 (1784). 
P. 432. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 357 

Lake Michigan ; but English missionaries preferred to spend 
their stipends in the cities of the coast, and left the wilderness 
to the savage and the apostles of France. Massachusetts, Mary 
land, and Virginia were the chief fields of English enterprise ; 
and with a few words upon each of them, upon Boston, 
Baltimore, and Richmond, we may sufficiently indicate both 
the method of their operations and their effect upon the abo 
riginal tribes. 

There is not a State of the Union which has not found, and 
merited, at least one historian, and there is not a difference of 
opinion among them all as to the character of the English pro 
ceedings. But it would be a mere ostentation of research to 
affect to quote the original records, when all have been collected 
in one work, and all cited by the same author. Mr. Bancroft s 
voluminous history, supplemented by English witnesses, will 
furnish all the facts which in such a sketch as this demand our 
attention, or which our limits will permit us to notice. 

Beginning at the extreme northern point of the country 
which we are now to visit, and selecting the least dishonorable 
epoch of the English sway, when Eliot, an exile from England 
and a fugitive from her National Church, by whose officers he 
had been " deprived," had gathered together a certain number 
of " praying Indians," soon to be dispersed and annihilated, 
we find this account of the actual and final result of all which 
had been accomplished at that date among the Indians. 
" Christianity hardly spread beyond the Indians of Cape Cod, 
Martha s Vineyard, and Nantucket, and the seven feeble 
villages round Boston. The Narragansetts, a powerful tribe, 
counting at least a thousand warriors, retained their old belief; 
and Philip of Pokanoket, at the head of seven hundred warriors, 
professed with pride the faith of his fathers."* While the few 
scattered villages, scanty in number and exhausted in strength 
and vigor, which nominally accepted the religion of their mas 
ters, are thus described by the same historian. "The clans 
within the limits of the denser settlements of the English, 
especially the Indian villages round Boston, were broken- 
spirited, from the overwhelming force of the English. In their 
rude blending of new instructions with their ancient super 
stitions in their feeble imitations of the manners of civilization 
in their appeals to the charities of Europeans, they had 
quenched the fierce spirit of savage independence. They loved 
the crumbs from the white man s table." 

So well was the character of these unwilling "converts," 
sorrowful pensioners of a niggard bounty, understood even on 

* Bancroft, i., 431. 



358 CHAPTER IX. 

this side of the Atlantic, that a distinguished English writer 
did not scruple thus to describe them and their pastors. "The 
missionaries always quarrelled with their flocks, and made but 
few converts ; nor among them produced any real improve 
ment." And again : " The instruction of the Indians in schools, 
among the Europeans settled in great towns, was another 

method which was adopted, and with no better success 

These pupils returned to their naked and hunting brethren the 
vnost profligate and the most idle members of the Indian com 
munity"* 

But their end was at hand. A little later, Pokanoket, who 
asked only permission to live, and " who is reported to have 
wept when he heard that a white man s blood had been shed," 
consented at length to a war which might relieve, but could 
hardly augment, the sufferings of the Indians, and the last 
remains of the New England tribes hurried to their doom. 
" The Indian cabins were soon set on fire. Thus were swept 
away the humble glories of the Narragansetts ; the winter s 
stores of the tribe, their curiously wrought baskets, full of corn, 
their famous strings of wampum, their wigwams nicely lined 
with mats, all the little comforts of savage life were consumed. 
And more their old men, their women, their lobes, perished by 
hundreds in the fire. Then, indeed was the cup of misery full 
for these red men."f " Sad to them," adds the historian, "had 
been their acquaintance with civilization. The first ship that 
came on their coast kidnapped men of their kindred, and now 
the harmless boy," the only son of Philip, that had been cher 
ished as the future sachem, of their tribes, the last of the family 
of Massasoit, was sold into bondage to toil as a slave under the 
sun of Bermuda !"J Such were the deeds of Englishmen in 
America. When the inevitable hour of England s reckoning 
arrives, the cry of the American native will surely mount up 
to heaven, and add a heavier burden to the maledictions already 
registered against her. 

But we have as yet no adequate conception of the patient 
cruelty with which England uprooted Christianity in every 
part of America where Tier power was felt. In Florida, as a 
French writer observes, " the ardent zeal of several generations 
of martyrs," Jesuits, Dominicans, and Franciscans, " received 

* Edinburgh Review, vol. viii., p. 444. 

t Bancroft, i., 427. 

j P. 430. Dr. Wilson notices the characteristic fact, that " after a discussion 
as to his fate, in which Increase Mather pleaded against mercy, the boy s life 
was spared. The New England divine urged the case of Hadad, of the king s 
seed in Edom," and insisted upon the death of the unoffending child. Prehis 
toric Man, vol. ii., ch. xix., p. 152. 



MISSION S IN AMERICA. 359 

its recompense, and the natives embraced Christianity. Villages 
and neophytes gathered round the Spanish posts." At length 
the English arrived from Carolina. "In 1703, the valley of 
the Appalachicola was ravaged by an armed body of covetous 
fanatics; the Indian towns were destroyed, the missionaries 
slaughtered, and their forest children hurried away, and sold 
as slaves in the English West Indies."* But the work of de 
struction was not yet complete. Sixty years later, by the 
treaty of Paris, 1763, Florida was ceded by Spain to England. 
" This was the death-blow of the missions. The Indians were 
expelled from the grounds cultivated by their toil for years, 
and deprived of their church, which they had themselves erected. 
All was given by the governor to the newly established English 
church. In ten years riot one was left near the city." From 
that hour the natives of Florida took the name of Seminoles, 
or Wanderers, and being deprived of all guidance and instruc 
tion, gradually lost the faith, but retained an implacable hatred 
against the race which had robbed them both of their lands 
and their religion. When General Jackson tried to deport 
them beyond the Mississippi, " the Seminoles, so gentle under 
the paternal care of the Franciscans, had become ungovern 
able." The " Florida war" cost the United States twenty 
thousand men, and forty million dollars, lasted for seven years, 
and " produced no result." " The Seminoles are a striking 
monument of the different results obtained by the Catholic 
government of Spain, and the Protestant government of 
England. The one converted the savages into Christians, a 
quiet, orderly, industrious race, living side by side with the 
Spaniards themselves, in peace and comfort ; the other re- 
plunged the same tribes into barbarism and paganism, and 
converted them into a fearful scourge of her own colonies. "f 

Let us turn again to the North, and come to Maryland. 
Here dwelt a Catholic colony, under a Catholic lawgiver, and 
Protestants will tell us how the one governed and the other 
throve. "Within six months," says Mr. Bancroft, " the colony 
of Maryland had advanced more than Virginia had done in as 
many years. . . . But far more memorable was the character 
of the Maryland institutions. Every other country in the 
world had persecuting laws : I will not, such was the oath 
of the governor of Maryland, I will not, by myself or any 
other, directly or indirectly, molest any person professing to 

* The Catholic Church in the United States, by H. de Courcy de Laroche 
Heron, ch. i., p. 15. 

f Catholic Missions among the Indian Tribes of the United States, by Jolm 
Gilmary Shea, ch. iii., p. 75. A multitude of similar examples will be found 
in this valuable work. 



360 CHAPTER IX. 

believe in Jesus Christ, for or in respect of religion. Under 
the mild institutions and munificence of Baltimore, the dreary 
wilderness soon bloomed with the swarming life and activity 
of prosperous settlements ; the Roman Catholics, who were 
oppressed by the laws of England, \vere sure to find a peace 
ful asylum in the quiet harbors of the Chesapeake ; and there, 
too, Protestants were sheltered against Protestant intolerance. 
Such were the beautiful auspices under which the province of 

Maryland started into being Its history is the history 

of benevolence, gratitude, and toleration."* 

Fenimore Cooper, and a multitude of eminent American 
writers, have noticed the relations which were quickly formed 
between the Catholics of Maryland and the Indian tribes. 
They, as an English Protestant observes, " fairly paid" the 
natives for their land, and " their generosity won the hearts of 
their new Indian friends."f But let us continue Mr. Ban 
croft s account. 

" The happiness of the colony was enviable. The persecuted 
and the unhappy thronged to the domains of the benevolent 
prince. If Baltimore was, in one sense, a monarch, his mon 
archy was tolerable to the exile who sought for freedom and 
repose. Numerous ships found employment in his harbors. 
.... Emigrants arrived from every clime ; and the colonial 
legislature extended its sympathies to many nations, as well 
as to many sects. From France came Huguenots ; from Ger 
many, from Holland, from Sweden, from Finland, the children 
of misfortune sought protection under the tolerant sceptre of 
the Roman Catholic. Bohemia itself, the country of Jerome 
and of Huas, sent forth its sons, who at once were made citizens 
of Maryland with equal franchises."^: 

Such was Catholic Maryland, the solitary oasis of the 
northern desert, and the refuge for all who found elsewhere 
only cruelty and oppression. Lord Baltimore died, and " im 
mediately on the death of the first feudal sovereign of Mary 
land, the powerful influence of the Archbishop of Canterbury 
had been solicited to secure an establishment of the Anglican 
Church, which clamored for favor in the province where it 
already enjoyed equality. The prelates demanded, not free 
dom, but privilege ; an establishment to be maintained at the 

common expense of the province The English ministry 

soon issued an order, that offices of government in Mary 
land should be intrusted exclusively to Protestants. Roman 



* Bancroft, i., 188. 

f Buckingham, America, vol. i., ch. xx., p. 388. 

\ Bancroft, i., 523. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 361 

Catholics were disfranchised in the province which they had 
planted !"* 

"It is a striking and instructive spectacle to behold, at this 
period," says Professor Walters of Philadelphia, " the" Puritans 
persecuting their Protestant brethren in New England, the 
Episcopalians retorting the same severity on the Puritans in 
Virginia, and the Catholics, against whom all others were 
combined, forming in Maryland a sanctuary where all might, 
worship, and none might oppress, and where even Protestants 
might find refuge from Protestant intolerance." Yet these 
very men, he adds, " with ingratitude still more odious than 
their injustice, projected the abrogation not only of the Catholic 
worship, but of every part of that system of toleration under 
whose shelter they were enabled to conspire its downfall !"f 

If any thing be wanting to complete the picture, it is supplied 
in the fact, noticed by Mr. Baird, an American minister, that 
the character of many of the Anglican clergy who were now 
dispatched to Maryland to supersede the Catholic missionaries, 
was notorious for " shocking delinquency and open sin.":): "A 
great part of them" was the confession of the Protestant 
Bishop of London to the celebrated Dr. Doddridge, " can get 
no employment at home, and enter into the service more out 
of necessity than choice. Some others are willing to go abroad 
to retrieve either lost fortunes or lost character."^ " Ruffians, 
fugitives from justice," adds Mr. Bancroft, " men stained by 
intemperance and lust (I write with caution, the distinct 
allegations being before me), nestled themselves in the parishes 
of Maryland. "|| And it was to procure an " Establishment," 
on the Anglican model, for men who are thus described by 
those who knew them best, but who sent them in spite of this 
knowledge, that religious liberty was suppressed, and Catholics 
disfranchised, in the English colony of Maryland. " In the 
land which Catholics had opened to Protestants," says Mr. 
Bancroft, " the Catholic inhabitant was the sole victim to 
Anglican intolerance."^ 

Not that this was an exceptional incident in the history of 
Anglicanism, for, as the historian observes, it displayed exactly 
the same character in Ireland. Here also, in the words of 
Edmund Spenser, the Anglican ministers who supplanted the 
pastors of the ancient faith, " were generally bad, licentious, 

* Bancroft, p. 528. 

f Rupp, p. 115. 

\ Baird, Religion in the U. 8. of America, book ii., ch. xx., p. 210. 

Ibid., ch. xx., p. 211. 

1 III., 98. 

1 n., 717 



362 CHAPTER IX. 

and most disordered ;" " men of no parts or condition," as Mr. 
Bancroft adds, " and as immoral as they were illiterate. * 

Let us hear a single witness from our own country, and then 
pass on to Virginia. " While the Catholics of Maryland," says 
Mr. Buckingham, who visited America twenty years ago, "acted 
with so much liberality to their Protestant brethren, these last, 
who had many of them come to seek refuge from Protestant 
persecution in the north, returned this liberality with the basest 
ingratitude, and sought by every means to crush those by whom 
they had been so hospitably received." And finally, when "the 
Church of England was declared, by law, to be the constitution 
of the State of Maryland, Catholics were prohibited under the 
severest penalties from all acts of public worship, and even 
from exercising the profession of teachers in education. "f 

It is satisfactory to learn from the same witness the ultimate 
result of this conflict between cruel bigotry, workirigby profligate 
agents and distrustful of its own power, and the unquenchable 
life of faith, surviving injustice and barbarism, and accomplishing 
in weakness what all its combined enemies could not effect in 
their pride of strength. We shall see that, in the words of Mr. 
Bancroft, " persecution never crushed the faith of the colonists." 
Of all the religious bodies who inhabit Baltimore at this day, 
"first come the Roman Catholics," says Mr. Buckingham, " who 
far outstrip any other separate sect, in numbers and in zeal. 
.... The Catholic Archbishop, and all the subordinate priest 
hood," who now serve nineteen churches within the city itself, 
" are learned, pious, and clever men ; the Sisters of Charity 
have amongst their number many intelligent and devoted 
women ; and these, with the seminary for the education of 
Catholic youth," there are now seven seminaries and six 
colleges, " secure not merely the permanence of the present 
supremacy of Catholic numbers and Catholic influence, but its 
still further steady and progressive increase."^: 

It only remains to speak of Virginia, the special domain of 
Anglicanism as long as Virginia was English, and whose his 
tory is, perhaps on that account, more full of reproach to its 
former masters than that of any other State in the Union. 

The accounts of the Anglican clergy in Virginia, even as late 
as the second half of the eighteenth century, appear to sur 
pass every thing in the annals of Church of England missions, 
and throw even New Zealand into the shade. Sir William 
Berkeley, Governor of Virginia, used to ask, with a not 
unreasonable curiosity, " Why the worst are sent to us ?" 

* Bancroft, iv., 45. 
f America, oh. xx., p. 387. 
Ibid. 



MISSIONS IN" AMERICA. 363 

" In Yirginia," says Mr. Bancroft, who had examined all the 
original records, u some of the missionaries, of feeble minds and 
uncertain morals, prodigious zealots, from covetousness, sought, 
by appeals to England, to clutch at a monopoly of ecclesiastical 
gains. . . . The "crown incorporated and favored the Society 
for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts."* Under the 
patronage of that society, as the Protestant historian relates, 
44 the benefices were filled by priests ordained in England, and 
for the most part of English birth, too often ill-educated and 
licentious men, whose crimes quickened Yirginia to assume the 
advowson of its churches."f Yet the people of Yirginia could 
have endured a good deal in this way, if the crimes of their 
clergy had not exceeded what prescription permitted ; but it 
was one effect of their enormity that the Episcopalian Sect 
finally sunk into contempt in Yirginia. " The Episcopal Church 
in Yirginia," says Dr. Reed, u became slothful and impure 
under its exclusive privileges, so as to have made itself despised 
by the people."^: " For want of able and eonscionable min 
isters," was the joint confession of a multitude of Anglican 
witnesses, " they of the Reformed religion themselves are be 
coming exceeding rude, more like to turne heathen, than to turne 
others to the Christian faith." And it is admitted that this 
state of things, characteristic of Anglican missionary operations, 
continued for two centuries. Between 1722 and the beginning 
of the nineteenth century, observes Dr. Samuel Wilberforce, 
" instead of any growth throughout an extent of country one 
hundred miles long and fifteen broad, every church and chapel 
had been forsaken. . . . Such was the deadly trance which had 
fallen on the Church." And then this English prelate, unwil 
ling, perhaps, to avow the real causes of the decay, and the 
mingled avarice and sensuality which had made episcopalian 
ministers hateful throughout the colony, refers it all to "the 
absence of endowment," of which he had learned to appreciate 
the importance in his own community, but the want of which 
in America, he adds, with a naivete remarkable in so acute a 
person, " impairs its character and moral weight."! Yet it was 



* II., 769. 

t HI., 95. 

i Visit to the American Churches, by Reed and Matheson, vol. ii., p. 100. 

^ A Petition exhibited to the High Court of Parliament, by William Castell, 
Parson of Courtenhall, which Petition is approved by seventy able English 
Divines (16-il ; ed. Force). 

| Ch. viii., p. 276; ch. xii., p. 436. Dr. Wilberforce no doubt agrees with 
the following announcement of a great authority. " The Church of England 
deprived of its estates would become merely an episcopal sect in this country, 
and it is not impossible in time might become an insignificant one." The 
Times, October 81, 1862. 



364 CHAPTER IX. 

at this very time that men of another faith, already apostles, 
and soon to be martyrs, were traversing in hunger and poverty, 
utterly unmindful of "the absence of endowment," the shores 
of Lake Superior, the banks of the Mohawk, and the valley of 
the Mississippi, and showing the wondering savage what was 
the religion of St. Paul, and how men trained in his school 
could live and die. 

The Anglican missionaries in America appear to have taught 
them a different lesson, and sometimes by a method which 
does not seem to have been ever adopted by any other class of 
religious teachers but themselves. On the 18th of May, 1725, 
as an American annalist relates, a British officer shot a poor 
unoffending Indian, who was actually scalped on the spot by 
the Rev. Jonathan Frye, a military chaplain, whose prowess is 
appropriately celebrated by another missionary, the Rev. Mr. 
Symmes. We learn, without excessive regret, that Frye was 
killed the same day by the tribe of the murdered man, after a 
battle which was one of the great events of the epoch, and 
which was recorded in a popular song described by Mr. Drake 
as "for several years afterwards the most beloved song in all 
New England. 1 The following verse, as an illustration of the 
character of English missionaries in America, deserves particu 
lar notice. We may hope, for the honor of humanity, that no 
such action was ever celebrated in similar language. Here is 
the triumphal dirge : 

" Our worthy Captain Lovewell among them there did die ; 
They killed Lieutenant Robins, and wounded good young Frye, 
Who was our English Chaplain ; he many Indians slew, 
And some oft/iem he scalped, when bullets round him flew."* 

American Protestants have observed, and the fact is worthy 
of note, how strangely the history of the Anglican colony of 
Virginia contrasts, from its earliest origin and in every par 
ticular, with that which was formed by Lord Baltimore. Even 
at the first moment of their arrival, "the emigrants themselves 
were weakened by divisions and degraded by jealousy." A 
large proportion of them perished by sickness or famine, and 
" disunion completed the scene of misery. "f Unlike the Catho 
lics of Maryland, they soon made the Indians their enemies, 
and reaped, during many years, till they had created a desert 
around them, the fruits of their own want of charity. 

Towards the close of the seventeenth century, an English 
colonist, explaining how the " Virginians, Susquehaniaiis, and 

* Drake, book iii., ch. is , p. 130. 
f Bancroft, i., 95. 



MISSIONS IN AMERICA. 365 

Maryjanders, of friends became engaged enimyes," relates, that 
u the English had (contrarie to the law of arms) beate out the 
braines of six grate men sent out to treate a peace / an. action of 
ill consequence, as it proved after."* " It has been to many a 
source of wonder," says another writer, more than half a century 
later, who gives innumerable examples of the savage cruelty of 
his countrymen, " how it comes to pass that riie English have 
so few Indians in their interest, while the French have so many 
at command ;" and that u those neighboring tribes in particu 
lar, who, at the first arrival of the English, showed every mark 
of affection and kindness, should become our most bitter ene 
mies." And then he explains the mystery from his own point 
of view, omitting altogether the question of religious influence. 
" The English, in order to get their lands, drive them as far 
from them as possible, nor seem to care what becomes of them, 
provided they can get them removed out of the way of their 
present settlements; whereas the French use all the means in 
their power to draw as many into their alliance as possible, and, 
to secure their affections, invite as many as can to come and live 
near them, and to make their towns as near the French settle 
ments as they can."f 

Mr. Howison, the historian of Virginia, who records touching 
examples of the generous confidence and hospitality with which 
the Indians welcomed the English settlers, notices, that a poor 
native having stolen a silver cup, of which he probably did not 
know the value, " for this enormous offence the English burned 
the town, and barbarously destroyed the growing corn. Had 
the unhappy savage stolen the only child of the boldest settler, 
a more furious vengeance could not have followed ! To such 
conduct does America owe the undying hatred of the aboriginal 
tenants of her land, and the burden of infamy that she must 
bear when weighed in the scales of immaculate justice." J The 
whole history, he says, "is a dark record of injuries sustained, 
and of insult unavenged. " 

But no misfortunes could instruct either the insatiable avarice 
or the cruel bigotry of the Anglican colonists. The fee of their 
clergy for a funeral sermon, we are told by Mr. Hildreth, was 
" four hundred pounds of tobacco ;" and for a marriage by 

* An Account of our late Troubles in Virginia, by Mrs. Ann Colton (1676). 

f An Inquiry into the Causes of the Alienation of the Delaware and Shawanese 
Indians, written in Pennsylvania, p. 48 (1759). 

| History of Virginia, ch. i., p. 57. 

^ Ch. v., p. 260. As late as 1763, "a company of Presbyterians" murdered 
a band of Conestoga Indians, though they were descendants of the very men 
who had welcomed Penn with so much hospitality, and this without the 
slightest provocation. Events in Indian History, ch. xxi., p. 492 (1842). Cf. 
Hekewelder s Narrative, 



366 CHAPTER IX. 

licence, half that amount of the same weed. It was natural 
that such men should light for what Mr. Ernest Hawkins calls 
" the payment of their dues." And so in 1643, " it was specially 
ordered, that no minister should preach or teach, publicly or 
privately, except in conformity to the constitutions of the 
Church of England, and non-conformists were banished from the 
colony." "The government of Virginia," says Mr. Bancroft, 
feared Dissenters more than Spaniards;"* and yet so incapable 
was the Anglican Church of performing the functions which she 
had violently usurped, and which she sent u ill-educated and 
licentious men" to perform, that " there were so few ministers 
that a bounty was offered for their importation !" St. Paul had 
said, "The charity of Christ constraineth me;" but the Angli 
can clergy could only be attracted by a " bounty." And they 
never varied, either in their character or in their operations, till 
the day of their downfall. "The English Episcopal Church 
became the religion of the State ; and though there were not 
ministers in above a fifth part of the parishes, yet the laws de 
manded strict conformity, and required of every one to contrib 
ute to the support of the Established Church ... no non-conform 
ist might teach, even in private, under pain of banishment ; 
no reader might expound the catechism or the Scriptures. The 
obsolete severity of the laws of Queen Elizabeth was revived 
against the Quakers. Absence from church was for them an 
offence punishable by a fine of twenty pounds sterling."")* " So 
late as the year 1748, the Rev. Dr. Rogers, of New York, was 
sent out of Virginia by the General Court of that province, for 
preaching to some Presbyterians who had invited him into the 
country for that purpose. ^ " Virginia," says Mr. Howison, "is 
the proper field for those who wish to study one of the closing 
pages of American intolerance." 

Yet England pursues exactly the same policy at the present 
day, wherever she can do so with safety. Thus in Prince Ed 
ward s Island, the Established religion is that of the Church of 
England, though it has perhaps fewer professors than any denomi 
nation known there !"| We are not surprised to learn that the 
religious condition of this colony is worthy of the " Church of 
England." The population, says a British official in 1853, 
" are generally a very ignorant race," immorality is almost 
universal, and u the sight of a book or a newspaper in the house 
of a yeoman is a rare and exceptiona