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THE 



CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

IN TPIE 

JAPANESE EMPIRE 

INCLUDING 

KOREA AND FORMOSA 



A YEAR BOOK FOR 1919 



SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL ISSUE 



EDITOR 

Edwin Taylor Iglehart 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

Gerald Bonwick, Korea J. M. Davis 

K. Matsuno W. G. Seiple 

C. P. Garman, Statistician A. W. Stanford 



Published for the 

Conference of Federated Missions 

JAPAN 

1919 



92^06 1 



THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT IN THE 
JAPANESE EMPIRE 

Is on sale as follows ;• — 
In Japan by 

Kyo Bun Kwan, Ginza, Tokyo. 

In Korea by 

Mr. Gerald Bonwick, 

Korean Religious Book and Tract Society, Seoul. 

In China by 

The Mission Book Company, 

1 8 Peking Road, Shanghai. 

In Great Britain by 

The Religious Tract Society. 

St. Paul's Churchyard, London, England. 

In America by 

The Missionary Education Movement, 
1 60 Fifth Ave., New York. 

In India by 

The Christian Lieterature Society for India, 
Post Box 501, Madras. 



Printed by the Eibun TsusbinV a, ^Tokyo, Japau 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



JAPAN 

PART I. INTRODUCTORY SURVEY 

Chapter I. — General Review of the Year, The Editor ... 3 

Chapter II. — Six Decades of Christian Progress in Japan, S. 

H, Wainright 20 

PART II. EVANGELISTIC WORK 

Chapter III.— The Field 

I. — The Hokkaido, G. P. Pierson 34 

II.— The Tohoku, C. Noss 38 

III. — West Central District, D. Norman 45 

IV. — Tokyo and its Environs, C. P. Garman 49 

V. — The Gifu, Aichi and Shizuoka Provinces, D. S. Spencer 55 

VI. — The Kwansai Region, H. Brokaw 59 

VII.— Shikoku, S. M. Erickson 65 

VIIL— The San-in-do and the San-yo-do. W. H. M. Walton 69 

IX. — Kyushu, S. Painter 75 

Chapter IV.— The Institutional Church as a Method of City 

Evangelism, W. Axling 80 

Chapter V. — Rural Evangelism in Japan, G. Binford 88 

PART III. EDUCATION 

Chapter VI. — A Survey of Christian Education, A. K. Reis- 

chauer 97 

Chapter VII. — Schools for Foreign Children 

I. — Tokyo Foreign School, G. M. Fisher 

II. — The Canadian Academy, Kobe, W. C. M. Cragg 
Chapter VIIL — Missionaries and Language Study, H. V. S. 

Peeke ... ... I18 



::; \\l 



PART IV. LITERATURE 

Chapter IX. — Review of Literature, S. H. Wainright 125 

Chapter ' X.— Bible Societies 

I. — American Bible Society, K. E. Aurell 132 

II. — British and Foreign Bible Society. National Bible 

Society of Scotland, F. Parrott 136 



IV 



CONTENTS 



PART V. YOUNG PEOPLE'S WORK 

Chapter XI. — National Sunday School Association of Japan, 

H. Kawasumi 

Chapter XII. — The World's Sunday School Convention in 

Japan, H. E. Coleman 

Chapter XIII. — The Young Men's Christian Association in Japan, 

A. Jorgensen 

Chapter XIV. — Chinese Young Men's Christian Association, 

Tokyo, L. C. Wilson 

Chapter XV. — The Japan Union of Christian Endeavor, T. 

Sawaya 

Chapter XVI. — The Young Women's Association of Japan, 

Miss M. E. Gunter 



143 

145 
148 

153 

15s 
157 



PART VI. SOCIAL SERVICE 

Chapter. XVII. — A Survey of Social Conditions in Japan, W, 

Axling 165 

Chapter XVIII.— Eleemosynary Work, Miss S. M. Bauernfeind... 175 
Chapter XIX. — Temperance 

I. — The National Temperance league of Japan, J. Cosand 175 
II. — Woman's Christian Temperance Union of Japan, Miss 

I. S. Blackmore 17S 

Chapter XX. — The White Cross Society of Japan, R. D. McCoy 182 

Chapter XXL- — The Red Triangle in Siberia, G. Gleason ... 185 
Chapter XXIL — The American Red Cross. Japan Chapter ... 196 
Chapter XXIII. — Recent Labor Movements" in Japan, G. M. 

Fisher 198^ 

Chapter XXI V. — Christian Movements outside of the Christian 

Church, T. Kagawa and J. M. Davis 211 

Chapter XXV. — The Individual in the Social Problem, Miss A. 

C. Macdonald 220 

PART VII. UNION AND COOPERATIVE MOVEMENTS 

Chapter XXVI. — Aspects of Union and Cooperation in Japan, 

G. M. Fisher 233 

Chapter XXVII. — The Federated Missions, A. Oltmans 242 

Chapter XXVIII. — Federation of Christian Churches of Japan, K. 

Matsuno 246 

Chaptee XXIX. — The Japan Continualion Committee, G. M, 

Fisher 248 

Chapter XXX. — The Christian Literature Society of Japan, A. 

D. Berry 251 

Chapter XXXL— Union English Speaking Churches, W. Martin. 255 



PART VIII. OBITUARIES 

Chapter XXXIL— I.— Clara Alward, Miss A. B, Slate... 

II.— Helen Andrews, D. M. Lang ... 

III. — Julia Neilson Crosby ... ... ... 

IV. — Kate V. Johnson, P. A. Davey ... 



263 
264 
265, 
266 



CONTENTS 



V. — Archdeacon King 

VI.— Thomas AlcCloy, C. H. D. Fisher ..'.' 
VII.— George M. Meacham, D. D., B. Chappell... 
VIII.— Mary Ellen Wainwright, J. H. Pettee 

IX.— John Tefft Ward 

X.— Willis Norton Whitney, :\I. D., G. Braith- 

waite „. 

XI. — Calder True heart William 



267 
269 

271 
273 
274 

275 
278 



FORMOSA 

Chapter. " I.— Canadian Presbyterian Mission, North Formosa. 281 

Chapter II. — English Presbyterian Mission 284 

Chapter. III. — Formosan Education, E. Band ... ..- 287 



KOREA 



Introduction — Gerald Bonwick 



■293 



PART I. EVANGELISTIC WORK OF FEDERATED xMISSI02n\' 



Chapter 
Chap per 
Chapt ;r 
Chapter 

Chapter 
Chapter 



I. — Presbyterian Church of Australia, D. M. Lyall. 

II. — Presbyterian Church of Canada, E. J. O. Eraser 

III. — The Church in Kando, Manchuria, Wm. Scott. 

IV. — Methodist Episcopal Church, South, C. N. 

Weems ^ 



297 
300 
306 

309 



V. — Presbyterian Church in U. S. A., Edwin Kagin 314 
VL— Presbyterian Church in U. S., W. M. Clark ... 320 



PART II. EDUCATIONAL WORK OF FEDERATED MISSIONS 

Chapter VII. — Chosen Christian College, Seoul, H. A. Rhodes 327 

Chapter VIII. — Presbyterian Church of Australia, Miss M. S: 

Davies i^yi 

Cfiapter IX. — Presbyterian Church of Canada, L. L. Young.. 332 

Chapter X. — Higher Education for Women, Miss Alice R. 

Appenzeller 334 

Chapter XL — Methodist Episcopal Church, South, A. W. 

Wasson 339 

Chapter XIL— Presbyterian Church in U. S. A, E. W. Koons 342 
Chapter XIIL — Presbyterian Church in U. S., W. M. Clark ... 346 



PART III. MEDICAL WORK OF FEDERATED MISSIONS 
Chapter 

Chap ter 



Chapter 
Chapter 



XIV. — Severance Union Medical College, O. R. Avison, 

M. D 351 

XV.— Presbyterian Church of Australia, JMlss F. L. 

Gierke ..... .... . ... 356 

XVI. — Fusanehin Leper Asylum, A. C. Wright... ... 358 

XVIL— Presbyterian Church in U. S., W. M. Clark ... 360 



VI CONTENTS 

PART IV. OTHER MISSIONS AND CHURCHES 

CiiAPiEK XVIIL— English Church Mission, H. J. Drake 365 

Chapter XIX. — Oriental Missionary Society, W. Heslop 368 

Chapter XX. — Salvation Army, W. J. Richards 370 

Chapter XXI. — Seventh Day Adventist Mission, C. L. Butter- 
field 374 

PART V. CHRISTIAN LITERATURE 

Chapter XXII. — British & Foreign Bible Society, Hugh Miller,. 379 
Chapter XXIII — Korean Religious Book & Tract Society, G. 

Bonwick 383 

PART VI. WORK AMONG JAPANESE IN KOREA 

Chapter XXIV. — Christian Work among the Japanese, F. PI. 

Smith 389 

PART VII. OBITUARIES 

Chapter XXV.— L— Miss Millie M. Alberison 395 

11. — Miss Fanny Fisher Clelland 397 

III.— William H. Forsythe, M. I) 399 

IV.— Mrs. B. S. Luckett 401 

v.— ;Mrs. Elizabeth F. Whiting 403 

APPENDICES 

Appendix I. — Conference of Federated Missions in Japan 407 

Appendlx: II. — Christian Schools in Japan 415 

Appendix III. — Federal Council, Korea 436 

Appendix IV. — List of Christian Periodicals, Korea 442 

A.PPENDEX V. — Christian Schools in Korea 444 

Appendix A'^I. — Christian Medical Institutions in Korea 449 



DIRECTORIES 

Japan Missionary Directory, 

List of Mission Boards and Churches iii 

Alphabetical List ... .- ... ' vi 

List by Mission-; ... ... .- xxxv 

List by Towns ... xlix 

Korean Missionary Directory, 

List of Missions and Kindred Societies Ixv 

Alphabetical List -... ... ... IxY 

List by Missions Ixxv 

List by Towns ... Ixxxiii 

Index xc 

Statistical Table and Charts, Japan and Korea In Pocket 



JAPAN 



PART I 
INTRODUCTORY SURVEY 



CHAPTER I 

GENERAL REVIEW OF THE YEAR 



By the Editor 

The Japan that bade farewell to the 
A New Japan year 191 8 was a vastly different Japan 

from that which had bidden it welcome. 
A similar assertion might be .made regarding every na- 
tion having any vital contract with the titanic European 
struggle and its sudden end and all its bewildering con- 
sequences. A stranger to Japan, judging that her distance 
from the center of the whirlpool might keep her free 
from its mighty movement, could hardly realize how 
Japan has been passing through an evolutionary stage 
which has affected the very texture of her economic and 
social life. By the end of the year the spring campaigns 
in France and Flanders seemed to us all to have sunk 
back into the distant past. In Japan, too, the events of 
a decade seem to be crowded into this twelvemonth. 

Such subjects as the business boom that attended the 
progress of the war, the soaring cost of living, the rice 
riots throughout the country, the Siberian campaign with 
its international implications, the replacing of the bureau- 
cracy with a party ministry, headed by a commoner, 
the cessation of hostilities, plunging Japan into the new 
problems of internationalism, the utter triumph of demo- 
cracy over militarism, to the surprise and delight of the 
masses of the people, renewed demands of labor, the 
general agitation for a wider suffrage ; these suggest some 
of the living issues that the year has produced. 

It is not necessary to dwell exhaust- 
Shipping ively upon any of these subjects, but 

to outline their salient features, in order 



4 JAPAN 

that a background may be had for the fullest under- 
standing of the Christian movement, whose record is 
given in succeeding chapters. When the year opened 
Japan was still enjoying the business prosperity brought 
on hy the war. Shipping values continued to soar, and 
banking and a large variety of other companies were 
enjoying unprecedented success. The American and 
British embargo on many imports, however, brought 
considerable disaffection and served as a check on many 
forms of trade. The withdrawal from the Pacific of 
most foreign shipping gave Japan a golden opportunity, 
and shipyards sprang up throughout the country like 
mushrooms. The ephemoral nature of this boom is in- 
dicated by the fact that by the end of the year 40 of 
the 145 slips for shipbuilding had been closed. 23 
ships, aggregating 150,000 tons were chartered to the 
American government for war work, and 17 to other 
governments. The war period has given Japan an op- 
portunity to strengthen her maritime power, which, 
because of her geographical and economic position, is 
quite necessary. The government has encouraged ship 
building by a direct bounty, the amount of over 5,000,000 
yen having been given, during the last fiscal year, to 
some ten companies. At the end of the year Japan had 
a merchant marine ot 2,805 steamers aggregating 2,482,- 
325 tons, and 12,431 sailing vessels of 857,556 tons. 
Japan will not stop building ships. She is becoming 
more and more a manufacturing nation, and her life will 
depend upon commerce. The shipping industry is 
symptomatic of business growth generally. The govern- 
ment collected in war profits during the year the sum 
of 22,863,000 yen from individuals and 60,528,000 yen 
from corporations. But the best evidence of war pro- 
fits can be seen on every hand in Japan, in the form of 
automobiles, jewelry, expensive dinners, reckless spending 
of money, and numerous exhibitions of the frailties of 
the newly rich. 

Changed standards of living have 

High Prices appeared throughout > wide strata of 

society. The feverish efforts to build 



GENERAL REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5 

ships and fill war contracts sent wages sky high, and labor 
has come to recognize its power and to make demands, 
enforced by strikes. The general result seems to be that 
among large groups of people those at the top and the 
bottom have been benefitting' by war conditions, while 
the masses of salaried people, teachers, preachers, gov- 
ernment officials, police and postal employees, and others 
less favored, have been ground between the upper and 
nether millstone. Prices have gone up and salaries have 
not followed. The government has expressed its in- 
tention of making an average increase of 50^0 in its 
140,000,000 yen salary list. It is easy to imagine what 
difficulties have had to be met by Missions, both in 
their educational institutions and in their evangelistic 
forces, for salaries that a few years ago were generous 
are now a mere fraction of a living wage. The Bank 
of Japan issues a monthly report of the prices of general 
commodities. These had risen month by month from 
the beginning of the war, until the index number in 
October was 227.07, as compared with 100 four years 
previously. This rise has been steady. In November 
prices went down the fraction of one per cent. Con- 
sumers are still waiting for prices to go down, while 
producers and speculators are fearful lest a break should 
come. 

The most serious economic problem 

The Rice has*been the high price of rice. There 

Problem has been a bewildering list of reasons 

given for this, as well as a considerable 

variety of panaceas suggested. The clear fact is that it 

is the basis of the subsistence of the people, and that 

the price has gone up in two years from 14 sen a sho 

(about 1.6 quarts) to 48 sen. Doubtless there has been 

some profiteering ; there is an increased demand for rice 

on the part of poorer classes who have heretofore been 

content with inferior grain ; the normal increase in 

population is over 600,000 annually ; the crops of 19 17 

and 1918 were considerably lower than those of recent 

years. The 191 8 yield was 54,699,168 koku (5.13 

bushels). In addition to this 4,200,000 koku were im 



6 JAPAN 

ported from Rangoon, Saigon and other rice-producing 
regions. Tlie government encouraged this importation, 
and has remitted the customs duties on foreign rice for 
a year from October last, although the governments of 
the countries concerned have enforced some export pro- 
hibitions. The Japanese are not fond of foreign grown 
rice, but doubtless will need to depend more and more 
upon it. About 4,000,000 koku are used annually for 
the brewing of sake. It has been pointed out that here 
is opportunity to cut the high cost of living as well as. 
the cost of high living. The government was rather 
complacent about the rising cost of living until mid- 
summer, when food riots began to break out in various 
parts of the country. In some places they were instigated 
by women. While the primary object of attack was 
the rice dealer, and some warehouses were burned down, 
irresponsible mobs broke plate glass windows and 
threatened the rich generally. There was no very pro- 
longed or blatant lawlessness, but some few casualties 
and several thousand arrests were recorded. Mob 
violence is of such extremely rare occurrence in Japan 
that even this mild outburst was regarded as a symptom 
of ..social unrest which might not go unheeded. It was 
after this that the government undertook to control the 
price of rice and to open public markets where cheaper 
rice might be had. A number of wealthy men made 
large contributions toward poor relief, and the nankm 
endeavored to escape the lime light. On the day after 
the worst riots the Emperor gave 3,000,000 yen, and a 
special cabinet meeting voted 10,000,000 yen for the 
puchase of rice to aid the poor. Relief associations 
were organized, the Rice Exchange was suspended, 
public markets for the sale of cheap rice were established. 
Within about two weeks things were normal again and 
the press was unmuzzled, the riots were mostly for- 
gotten, and the high prices remained where they had 
been. At any rate the riots indicated that when the 
people were aroused they could compel the government 
to pay some attention to their wants. Some economists 
pointed out that the high prices might be largely due to 



GENERAL REVIEW OF THE YEAR / 

the inflated currency. There was strict prohibition of 
the export of gold and silver in any form without speci- 
al permit. Some strongly urged the contraction of the 
currency. But evidently for fear of hampering economic 
development no steps were taken along this line. 
Doubtless the post bellum increase in imports will read- 
just the currency and bring foreign exchange back to 
normal. 

It should be remembered in every discussion regard- 
ing the high pricq of rice, that these high prices favor- 
ably affect sixty per cent of the population. The farm- 
ers and rice dealers have had no hand in the food riots, 
but the city folks have been the sufferers. 

It was expected by many that the 
Terauchi Goes food riots would be followed by the fall 

of the Terauchi cabinet, to whose mal- 
administration they were attributed by a large section of 
the press. Viscount Motono had in April resigned his 
portfolio as Minister of Foreign Affairs because of illness, 
from which he succumbed in September. Baron Goto 
was transferred from the Home to the Foreign Office, 
and the government held on until the end of September, 
when in response to popular clamor, it resigned. The 
average life of a ministry in Japan is about eighteen 
months, and the Terauchi government had reached the 
hoary age of two years, so that its death from natural 
causes was to be expected. As usual the Elder States- 
micn were called into consultation. Marquis Saionji was 
regarded as the probable appointee, but it is understood 
that he begged to be excused because of frail health. 
As an ex-Premier and one of the small group of Elder 
Statesmen he had no new honors to gain, though he 
has since crow^ned his career by leading the Japanese 
delegation at the Peace Conference. He is regarded as 
an aristocrat and somewhat of a bureaucrat, but is 
trusted and highly esteemed by his countrymen. 

On September the Emperor summon- 
The New ed Mr. Kei Hara, head of the Sei- 

Ministry yukwai, the strongest political party in 

Japan, of which Marquis Saionji is 



5 JAPAN 

patron. On the following day Mr. Hara's acceptance 
and the personnel of his ministry were announced. The 
new ministry forms a landmark in the political history 
of Japan. Mr. Hara is the first commoner to form a 
government. He is neither a peer nor a military man. 
Although by birth he is higher than any former 
Premier excepting Saionji, his father having been chief 
minister of the Prince of Nambu, whereas Ito, Okuma, 
Yamagata and others sprang from lower ranks of samu- 
rai, he is still a member of the lower house of Parlia- 
ment, where he has' since regularly cast his vote. He is 
the first Prime Minister outside of court or clan circles. 
There is now a simplicity and democratic spirit not 
hitherto noted in the governments of Japan. The mem- 
bers of the cabinet have declined the traditional police 
protection, and in other ways have emphasized the new 
spirit that is abroad. The formation of the ministry 
was a forward step. For the first time every member 
of the cabinet belongs to the largest political party. 
This of course excepts the Ministers of War and Navy. 
According to the law of the land these posts must be 
held respectively by a full General and full Admiral. 
They hold themselves aloof from party politics, and 
represent the old clan system. There have been indica- 
tions that the War Minister has acted independently of 
his democratic chief, but all signs point to the fact the 
old regime has gone, and that the people of Japan have 
come into their own. 

In the new Diet which assembled in December the 
Seiyukwai party returned 165 members out of 381, the 
Kenseikwai, Viscount Kato's party having 118 members. 
Among the smaller groups there are enough supporters 
of Mr. Hara to ensure him a good working majori- 
ty, and even the political '' outs " are robbed of the old 
opposition cry of tyranny and irresponsibility to which 
clan ministries have become accustomed. 

It is difficult to give a fair revdew of 
Ch/Ba Japan's relations with China during the 

year. There have been so many re- 
criminations and misunderstandings. The appointment of 



GENERAL REVIEW OF THE YEAR 9 

Mr. T. Obata as minister to Pekin in succession to 
Baron Hayashi Avas made the occasion of a fresh out- 
burst against Japan because Mr. Obata had been in the 
Embassy at Pekin when the objectionable demands of a 
few years ago were made. Doubtless this was taken 
into account when he was appointed but it was felt that 
his exceptional knowledge and ability would in time 
offset his present unpopularity in China. Japanese capi|^l 
has been going into China in large quantities, and con- 
siderable loans have been made. Japan has material 
interests in China. It is not necessary to try to justify 
Japan for having exploited China for her ow^n benefit. 
The same charge may be the shame of several other 
great powers. The charge that the Japanese government 
is in some way concerned in the resaddling of a drug 
curse on China has been categorically denied by Premier 
Hara. If we believed that Japan's future action toward 
China were not to be an improvement over her past we 
should fear for the future peace of the Far East. But 
we believe that Japan has entered upon a new diploma- 
tic career, in line with the international justice and 
brotherhood for which great and small nations are 
uniting. A frank and open diplomacy will do much to 
dispel the cloud of mistrust that has for long existed in 
Sino-Japanese relations. 

The Siberian campaign engaged the 
Siberia attention of the country for a good part 

of the year, not mainly because of the 
sizable army that Avas engaged, but because it raised the 
whole question of Japan's rights of commercial and 
possibly territorial expansion in regions adjacent to 
Manchuria. The spread of Bolshevism from Russia 
across Siberia was recognized as an opportunity for 
Japan to fullfil her duty toward her Allies [in the war. 
But when the subject of a Japanese campaign was first 
mooted it was feared by many that such action might 
drive Russia into the arms of Germany, as it would be 
interpreted as Japanese aggression. As early as March 
Foreign Minister Motono, a thorough student of Russian 
affairs, had proposed intervention in Siberia, but the 



I O JAPAN 

Diplomatic Council had vetoed it. It was stated that 
this was the cause of Motono's resignation. In April 
Vladivostok was in such an unsettled state that British 
and Japanese blue jackets were landed to help to pre- 
serve order. Japanese warships were also sent to guard 
the coast of the northern Siberian maritime provinces, 
since a considerable number of German and Austrian 
prisoners were in the neighborhood. For months there 
was agitation for and against an aggressive campaign in 
Siberia. The government was evidently in favor of 
sending an army, regardless of the wishes of other 
nations, whose caution was felt in Japan to be due to 
jealousy or mistrust of Japan. Independent action by 
the government was so vigorously opposed by Hara, 
who later became Premier, and Makino, who later went 
to Paris as Peace Commissioner, that the plan was not 
put through, and instead Japan limited her activities to 
cooperation with America and the Allies. Pearly in 
August the first troops were despatched. Altogether 
Japan had 73,400 men engaged in the campaign. Other 
allied troops were in considerably smaller numbers. 
General Otani was appointed as supreme commander, 
and in consulation with allied leaders 
The Campaign the campaign was successfully carried 
through. The whole of Siberia was 
quickly cleared of the enemy, whose activities had been 
-carried on almost solely along the great railway and its 
■branches. The Japanese troops did the largest share of 
the fighting, if we except the Czechs, who were from the 
first nearest to the enemy, and the primary object of their 
attack. It was not a very sanguinary campaign. By January 
the Japanese army had lost J J killed and 226 dead of ill- 
ness, and had 183 wounded. By the middle of February 
1919 nearly two thirds of the troops had been recalled 
to Japan, leaving about 25,000 men to be associated 
with American, British, French, Italian, Czech and other 
troops in guarding the vast territory against uprising. 
An economic commission under Baron Megata was ap- 
pointed to visit Siberia, but its activities were postponed 
till the heavy winter should be over. The Siberian 



GENERAL REVIEW OF THE YEAR II 

campaign gave Japan an opportunity for effective Y. M. 
C. A. work, patterned after the work done on the 
western front. 

Japan was hardly prepared for the 

The Great triumphant news which was picked up 

Victory by wireless on November eleventh. For 

some inexplicable reason the Police 
Office forbade the publication of the terms of the 
armistice. The ban was lifted on the following day. 
Such gagging of the press finds general protest in Japan. 
The people in general took the news of Germany's sur- 
render very philosophically, though many of them must 
have realized that it sounded the knell of militarism in 
Japan. But Japan does not express her feelings sponta- 
neously. The great victories of the Russo-Japanese war 
were not celebrated till the government fixed the time 
and method. This was true also in November, and in 
due time full preparations were made and enthusiastically 
sincere festivities were held throughout the country. At 
first the people hardly knew how to adjust themselves 
to the world triumph of democracy. Even those who 
were delighted at the outcome hardly knew how far to 
go in the use of the word Democracy. Though Japan 
has had a constitution and the land has been well 
governed, the very limited suffrage, the clan control, 
the ascendancy of the military party, the general respect 
for law, the muzzling of the press, and check upon free 
speech, and notably the fear on the part of Christians 
that they should be regarded as lacking in patriotism, 
have superinduced an undue caution in respect to 
liberalism. But the old day has gone. It can never be 
brought back. Newspapers will not always have to 
engage prison editors whose business it is' to meekly 
bear incarceration for the publication of the liberal views 
of the real editor. The English word Democracy, before 
November eleventh, was spoken softly. It has now 
become a highly respected and extremely popular 

Japanese term, being given a cordial 
Democracy welcome into the language without 

translation. All the great papers pointed 



12 JAPAN 

out that the slogans of the new day must be justice and 
international cooperation. A side-light is thrown upon 
German influence upon Japan by ex-Minister Ozaki^ 
when he says, '* I wish that you, young men of Japan, 
as well as all foreigners, would fairly understand the fact 
that Japan was originally a democratic nation. Every- 
thing that makes her appear despotic or militaristic is 
transplanted from Germany. In fact, Japan has been 
practically Germanized in the last few decades, and all 
that has been spoken or done by the militarists in this 
country, like Count Terauchi, ex-Premier, are as the 
Germans would have often spoken and done." Mr. Oza- 
ki is the most progressive leader in Japan, and has a 
large following. 

The more conservative naturally eye the 
Conservatism new spirit of democracy somewhat a- 
skance. At the end of February 19 19 
the special government commission on Education issued 
a Memorandum urging the people of Japan to return to 
their original principles. We quote some of the sen- 
tences, without distorting the context. '' For strengthen- 
ing the people's veneration and adoration for our national 
polity, the beautiful habit of piety toward Deities and 
ancestors is necessary to be preserved and its general 
diffusion encouraged. There may be several measures for 
encouraging and extending the custom of worshipping the 
Deities and ancestors, but above all it would be most ne- 
cessary to direct the attention to adequately preserving the 
dignity and solemnity of the Temples commensurate with 
their sacred associations, and to universally educating the 
people on the true meaning of religious ceremonies, and 
also to elevating the status of the Shinto priesthood." 
Evidently this is not incompatible with the propagating 
of other religions, for later on we read, *' It would also 
be one of the most essential measures to make the 
teachers of religions of all sects and denominations to 
contribute to the work of promoting national morality 
by their efforts for exerting influence on the popular 
mind by propagating the doctrines characteristic of their 
respective creeds." This may suggest the evident fact 



GiiNERAL REVIEW OF THE YEAR 1 3 

that officially Shintoism is not classed as a religion. 
Precaution is enjoined upon those who study new ideas 
that they shall be careful in publishing the results of 
their study, or in lecturing on them before young stu- 
dents. Altogether the recommendations, while they urge 
morality and self control, are reactionary, and seem not 
to touch the vital issues that the people of Japan are 
facing. It may be mentioned in passing that the De- 
partment of Education is generally regarded as the most 
reactionary branch of the government, if we except 
the military and naval groups. 

As over against the above declaration we would place 
one made by the meeting of the Federation of Japanese 
Churches early in 19 19 on the occasion of the thirtieth 
anniversary of the granting of the national constitution. 
We quote it in full because it indicates the ability of 
our Japanese Christians to understand the world situa- 
tion, and to be true interpreters and leaders of their 
people. 

DECLARATION 

" When the great W^orld War broke out the throne of 
the God of the universe was for the time covered " with 
clouds and darkness," and many came to doubt the 
authority of Christianity. But the war situation having 
changed, and the powerful enemies having been forced 
to plead for an armistice **' the throne of God established 
upon righteousness and justice " appears again through 
the war clouds, high in the sky, for the adoration of 
all ; and the once doubted authority of Christianity is 
now recognized by thoughtful people everywhere. This 
is primarily due to the fact that the great emphasis upon 
international righteousness and justice, which was the 
chief cause of victory is none other than the principle 
which our Religion has always upheld. Moreover the 
victory of tlie Allies may be regarded as the victory of 
democracy based upon righteousness and justice, and 
therefore this war is to have such significance in human 
history.,, 



14 JAPAN 

'* Today a new situation lies before us. The idea of 
democracy is spreading like a swelling flood, with irre- 
sistible force, humanity is to be revolutionized and society 
reconstructed from its very foundation. This is indeed 
a world force, and nothing can halt it. This tendency, 
however, if left to itself, may be attended with danger. 
At such a time as this shall not we, who have under- 
taken the task of saving and training humanity, take a 
firm stand and help our fellow citizens to adjust them- 
selves to this new environment, while at the same time 
warning them against going to extremes in this new 
emphasis, thus helping our people toward the highest 
development ? This surely is our great mission today. 

** With this in view the Federation of Christian Churches 
in Japan in the following five points gives expression to 
the fundamentals of democracy that need special emphasis 
at this time, and desires, with all churches and believers, 
to fulfill, in this new age, the task of spiritual reclama- 
tion. 

1. The Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of 
man. 

2. The authoritiy of conscience and respect for free- 
dom of belief. 

3. Planning for enduring peace throughout the world 
by respect for humanity and a striving to establish, 
international morality. 

4. The recognition of our national mission, and the 
endeavor to fulfill it. 

5. Recognizing the true position of woman, preserv- 
ing the sanctity of the home, and elevating the 
standards of our national life. 

" This declaration is made in the hope that Churches 
and believers throughout the country will do their ut- 
most to proclaim and realize these principles, that they 
may diffuse " public morality like water and righteous- 
ness like an ever flowing river." " 

An advance step toward real demo- 
Suffrage cracy will be the enlarging of the 
franchise. Under the election law which 
has been in force for ten years the franchise has been 



GENERAL KEVIEW OF THE YEAR 15 

limited to about 1,460,000, or 2,60/0 of the population. 
There have been peaceful demonstrations in favor of 
greatly increasing this, and many progressive leaders 
would favor universal manhood suffrage. The Premier 
has advocated a measure that would practically double 
the electorate, as well as increase the membership of the 
Diet from 381 to 464. 

In glancing over the outstanding social problems of 
the year, perhaps the most striking is the factory pro- 
blem. We are glad to note that this question is en- 
gaging more and more the attention of those interested 
in human welfare. The Federated Missions are facing 
it as never before, and people in general are recognizing 
that Japan is passing through an industrial revolution 
that will mean immensely to her in all its social and 
moral implications. The war has brought an inrush of 
factories, and a whole new set of industrial problems. 
During the four years of the war 14,000 new factories 
were established, and 5000 others largely extended their 
scope. There was a net increase of 280,000 operatives, 
drafted from the ranks of labor and agriculture. This is 
perhaps a fifty per cent, increase over the former figure. 
This whole subject is so well covered in later chapters 
that it seems hardly necessary to undertake a survey of 
it. It may be well, however to point out two phases of 
the situation. One is the increasing self-counciousness of 
labor. There is not yet in Japan a distinct labor party. 
There is an organization known as the Yuaikwai, whose 
leader, Mr. Bunji Suzuki, went to Paris to represent 
Japanese labor. There is some thought that Mr. Yukio 
Ozaki, ex-Minister of Justice, might form a labor party,, 
but though he expresses great sympathy with the aims 
of labor, he advises laboring men to get a better educa- 
tion so that they may be able to acquire a wholesome 
influence in the nation. The number of strikes has 
greatly increased during the year. ' During 19 16 there 
were 118 strikes, affecting 8,400 indivuals. During the 
first eight months of 191 8 there were 308 strikes affect- 
ing over 45,000 men. The other phase of the situation 
is the entrance of woman into industrial life, and the 



l6 JAPAN 

changing social condition. Among the 800,000 workmen 
in the private factories of Japan, 500,000 are women, 
and of these 300,000 are under twenty. Their long 
hours of work and unhealthy living conditions under- 
mine them both physically and morally. According to 
one investigation of 1000 factory girls 266 were actually 
consumptive and 217 doubtful. An enormous number 
die annually or return to their homes as physical wrecks. 
And worse than this, the moral surroundings are so bad 
that the amount of moral wreckage due to the present 
factory system is enormous. A few years ago a factory 
law was passed undertaking to protect the workers, but 
it has not been very effective, as it has so many excep- 
tions. In November the government announced more 
protective measures. The social conscience is working. 
In June the government promulgated an Imperial Ordi- 
nance providing for the creation in the Home Office of 
an advisory council to investigate measures for social bet- 
terment. It is inevitable that in Japan women should 
enter more of the pursuits that have hitherto been closed 
to them. In June the first woman station agent was 
appointed, at Chadokoro. During the year, at an ex- 
amination given in Tokyo for medical Jicences, 54 students 
won the coveted privilege, and of these 34 were women. 
The eta or pariah class has been engaging the atten- 
tion of public spirited people, and an organization is 
undertaking to ameliorate their hard condition. Japan's 
strong stand for the abolition of race discrimination 
throughout the world has reacted toward the eradicating 
of the class distinctions that she herself has preserved for 
ages past. 

. The question of education is of per^ 
Education renial interest. The people of Japan 

are educated. There is almost universal 
literacy, at least of a simple kind. The Department of 
Education of the .Imperial Government has minute 
supervision over all forms of education, but the two-fold 
criticism has often been made that the government system 
is too rigid, and that while not giving full recognition to 
private schools,, it does not, provide nearly enough schools 



GENERAL REVIEW OF THE YEAR 1/ 

under its own charge to accommodate the students demand- 
ing admission. The department, whether rightly or wrong- 
ly, has been regarded as an unprogressive branch of the 
government. The present Minister of Education, Mr. 
Nakahashi, has been a very successful business man, and 
it is to be hoped that he will see educational needs in 
a large way. In December a very far-reaching ordinance 
was promulgated, making drastic changes in the charac- 
ter of certain parts of the educational system, and no 
doubt seriously affecting the policies of some Mission 
schools. We have no doubt that the new regulations 
will largely benefit the youth of Japan. Dr. Reischauer, 
in his Educational Survey, goes deeply and authoritatively 
into this subject. The expenditure of forty four million 
yen within the next few years in the construction of a 
large number of government schools of a high grade, is 
also a welcome step. An example of the difference be- 
tween demand and supply as related to a commercial 
education is shown by the fact that applicants for admis- 
sion into the Tokyo Higher Commercial School number- 
ed over 3,200, of whom but ten per cent, could be ad- 
mitted, and there were iioo applications from business 
houses for the services of the 280 graduates. The busi- 
ness departments of the Mission schools seem to meet 
with the largest success. In the Imperial Library in 
Tokyo commercial subjects stand second to Literature 
among the books read, whereas a few years ago they 
were far down on the list. 

There have been large gifts made for educational pur- 
poses. The Emperor made a donation of ten million 
yen to be paid in five annual instalments. During the 
month of October alone announcements were made of 
gifts from various individuals, of a million yen to aid 
scientific research, half a million for a domestic science 
school for girls in Tokyo, a million for a high school 
in Mito, chairs in Kyoto Imperial University for Chris- 
tianity and for the promotion of science. It is interest- 
ing to note that the germ of democracy has gotten into 
the Imperial Univesity in Tokyo. The professors made 
a request that the President be elected by all the col- 



1 8 ■ JAPAN- 

leges, the Deans by the repective college faculties, and 
that the age limit of professors be fixed at sixty. These 
reforms were almost all adopted, but somewhat neutraliz- 
ed when practically all the old officers were elected. 

A more protracted review would give 
Lmhis and opportunity for fuller reference to such 
Shadows .matters as the happy visit of Prince Arthur 
of Connaught, who arrived on June i8th 
bearing a Field Marshall's baton for the Japanese Em- 
peror, duly presented the following day ; the dreadful 
explosion on the Kawachi, one of Japan's greatest micn- 
of-war, with a. loss of 600 lives, on July 12th; the 
proposed union of princely Japanese and Korean families 
by the betrothal of Prince Yi, the youngest of the three 
sons of the former Korean P^mperor to the daughter of 
Prince Nashimoto, the nuptials having been set for Jan. 
15, 19 19, but postponed at the last, moment' by the 
sudden death of ex-Emperor Yi ; revelations of large 
dishonest dealings among government officials in Kyushu, 
followed by the suicide of Mr. Oshikavv^a, the president 
of the Government Iron Works there ; these among the 
lights and shadows of the year. 

The work among the Christian forces has progressed 
normally. The evangelistic emphasis has been more on 
the line of conservation than of general compaign. Mr: 
Buchman held conferences in various places, and as in 
China and Korea, he seemed to place a wholesome em- 
phasis upon personal evangelism, and rouse both Japa^ 
nese Christians and missionaries to a new consecration. 
Some of the evangelists have held successful campaigns, 
among which that of Mr. Kanamori seems most note- 
worthy. The horrors of the world war directed the 
minds of many toward a belief in the early coming of 
Christ, and the matter wsis given much attention in 
public meetings and in the religious press. As a rule 
the prominent Church leaders advised against giving 
undue importance to this doctrine. The Sunday School 
forces have been making preparations for the World's 
Sunday School convention which is to be held in Tokyo 
in 1 920. A strong comniittee . has been thoroughly 



GENERAL REVIEW OF THE YEAR TQ 

organized for the work, and it ought to bring large 
results to the whole Christian movement. Several de- 
putations from home Mission Boards came to Japan 
during the year. The American Board visitors made 
a careful study of the field, and their findings are - 
reported in the Japan Evangelist for January 19 19. 
The Methodist Episcopal Board also sent a large de- 
putation to the Far East, some of whom made special 
and thorough study of Japan. Tiie Mission field is the 
gainer when it is represented at home by those who 
have made a sympathetic investigation at first hand. 

The war gave wide opportunity for the expression of 
Christian sympathy. The missionaries have given them- 
selves unsparingly to Red Cross and relief service. In 
the fall the ^M.C.A. entered Siberia for work among 
the troops. A large number of Japan missionaries were 
summoned for this emergency work, and responded 
promptly, with the consent and in some cases under the 
support of their missions. And when later on, in spite 
of the rigors of the Siberian , winter, and the untoward 
conditions to be faced, the call came for a number of 
young women to go out under the Red Cross for relief 
work, more of our missionaries responded than could 
be used, though a considerable number were sent. 

In November the new College Building of Aoyama 
Gakuin was dedicated. The building cost almost three 
hundred thousand yen, and as the gift of G. Katsuta, 
an alumnus of the school, constituted by far the largest 
gift ever made by an alumnus to a Mission school, and 
should inspire other gifts on the part of successful busi- 
ness men who are friendly to the work of the GospeL 
The fine Middle School plant of the Tohoku Gakuin in 
Sendai was destroyed by fire early in March 19 19. 
This catastrophe called out wide sympathy, and it is 
expected that an equally admirable building will soon 
replace it. 



CHAPTER II 

SIX DECADES OF CHRISTIAN PROGRESS 
IN JAPAN 



By S. H. Wainright 



As events cast their shadows before 
The them, changes in Japan, at the begin- 

Beginning ning of the period we are about to des- 
cribe, traceable to internal movements 
in the United States, were prophetic of the growing 
intimacy of relations the two countries on the opposite 
shores of the Pacific Ocean were to have to each other. 
The war with Mexico facilitated the opening of Japan, 
through the cession of California to the United States, 
and this in turn gave rise to the Perry mission. After 
the opening of Japan to foreign residence (1859), ^^^ 
the coming of the first foreign missionaries the same 
year, the Civil War in the United States interfered with 
the progress of the missions which had been founded 
and prevented the entrance of other societies planning 
to send representatives to this field. At the end of the 
first decade (i 859-1 869), the period of the American 
Civil War, there were only eight missionaries in Japan, 
while at the end of the second decade (1869- 1879), the 
number had increased to one hundred and fifteen. We 
are of course referring to American missionaries, and 
not to the British, who early entered Japan, though the 
former were predominant in number at that tine as they 
have been since. 



SIX DECADES OF CHRISTIAN PROGRESS IN JAPAN 21 

But the affairs within Japan itself were 
Christianity and significant of coming changes. Events 
Other Religions were ripening for the overthrow of the 
Tokugawa dynasty and the downfall ot 
feudalism, events which rendered more easy the rise of 
a new order of things. For example, there was a close 
relation between politics and religion under the Toku- 
gawas. This relation explains the expulsion of the 
Christian missionaries and the suppression of Christianity 
in the sixteenth Century, on the one hand, and the 
utilization by the State of Shintoism, Buddhism and 
Confucianism during the Tokugawa reign, on the other 
hand, in the interest of ** national unity." It explains 
the intense feeling of hostility to Christianity and to 
foreigners, fostered for two hundred and fifty years under 
the Tokugawa rule, which asserted itself when the 
country Avas opened. The significance therefore may be 
easily seen of the separation, early in Meiji, of religion 
and politics and the disestablishment of Shintoism, 
Buddhism and Confucianism. In no respect has the 
contrast between Christianity and these traditional sys- 
tems been more marked than in the courage and 
vigor with which Christianity has accepted the offer 
of a fair field with no favor, and the halting dif- 
fidence shown by the traditional religions in their 
efforts to maintain themselves without State aid. Their 
difficulties were similar to those of a person who is 
seeking to provide for himself when suddenly deprived 
of a pension from wdiich he had been drawing support. 
Confucianism has disappeared not only as a State, 
but also, as a private establishment. It finds a place 
in the national schools in the course in Chinese litera- 
ture. Buddhism has been compelled to shift for itself 
and its numerous temples, built in Tokugawa days, 
show signs of needed repairs. Shintoism has been 
more fortunate. The State has required its ceremonies 
and its shrines in the cultivation of patriotism, the 
effect of which is to bring support to Shinto priests 
and shrines out of State funds, owing to their double 
function. 



22 JAPAN 

The first contact with the outside 
Period of Stress world was productive Avithin Japan of a 
condition of stress and strain, accom- 
panied by numerous acts of violence. This state of 
things, of unfriendliness on the part of the government 
and the people, led the few missionaries, who had come, 
to utilize what opportunities they had for the study of the 
Japanese language, for the preparation of books needed 
in missionary work, for the teaching of the English 
language and for establishing points of contact with the 
people and overcoming their distrust of foreigners and 
especially of Christians. One avenue of approach to the 
national mind was through the Japanese acquaintance 
with the Chinese written language and literature. Not a 
few of the pioneer missionaries were transferred from 
China to Japan on this account. The Chinese language 
at this time was the vehicle of Oriental civilization to 
the Japanese. One of the curious turns of history may 
be seen in the fact that in recent years the tables have 
been turned round about and a knowledge of the Japan- 
ese language in China has become an advantage to 
workers in that country. The Japanese language has 
become a vehicle of Western civilization to the countries 
in the Far East. 



11 

The feudal government was overthrown 
Changes in 1868 and the capital of Japan moved 

to Yedo, the nam.e of which was changed 
to Tokyo. The second decade (i 86g — 1 879) was a period 
of toleration and friendliness on the part of the Japanese 
government as the following decade became on the part 
-of the Japanese people. Feudal institutions passed rapid- 
ly away and the country was reorganized on modern 
lines. The Iwakura Embassy was sent abroad early in this 
decade. The varying attitudes of mind assumed by the 
nation, during the course of the sixty years, in the 
mutual action of Japan and the outside world on each 
other, would be an interesting study, though the influence 



SIX DECADES OF CHRISTIAN PROGRESS IN JAPAN 23 

of these changing attitudes of mind upon the progress of 
the Gospel easily may receive undue and mistaken 
emphasis. But the first great popular response of a 
friendly nature undoubtedly was occasioned by the visit 
of General Grant in 1879. His coming was a notable 
event and the reception accorded to him had all the 
warmth of cordiality Avith which Japan has shown her- 
self to be capable. The third decade (1879 — 1889), im- 
petus to the spirit of which was given by this event was 
a time when westernism in Japan was a rising and 
swelling tide. On the one hand, political activity gave 
evidence of this, and on the other hand the stir among 
the Buddhists showed with what alarm they observed 
the national trend toward Christianity. As for the 
political changes, it was at this time (1881) that the 
constitution was promised and political parties first came 
into the field. As for Buddhist activity, *' they were 
awakened," says a native writer '' from the dreams of a 
long night by the advance of Christianity." They began 
to organize and to adopt western culture in order to 
antagonize the Christian movement, using the platform 
and press to this end and translating into Japanese such 
books as Tom Paine's "Age of Reason" and Draper's 
" Conflict between Religion and Science." They declared 
that the Christian m.issionaries were a foil to western 
political ambitions and that fheir conrlng was a first step 
to the seizure of Japan. As evidence of the dread 
disaster threatening Japan the savage cruelty of Christian 
methods was pointed to, instances of ^vhich were the 
Crusades, the disturbances accompaning the Reformation 
of Luther and the slaughter of Protestants by Catholics 
in the sixteenth Century, in which struggles " more 
people perished by fifteen millions than the whole 
population of Japan." 

The opposition encountered had the 

Revival effect of consolidating the Christians. It 

was their custom to hold fellowship 

meetings. At one of these social gatherings, the third 

held in Tokyo (i 883),^ attended by many from different 

parts of the country, the nature of the meeting under- 



24 JAPAN 

went an unexpected change. The spirit of devotion 
flamed up and the social gathering was turned into a 
prayer meeting. Zeal for evangelism burned in many 
souls. " They had known Christianity from books,'* 
says a Japanese writer, " but now they experienced it as 
a living power, manifesting itself in penitential tears, in 
prayer for the realization of the impossible, according to 
the Scripture promises, and in the enthusiasm of a new 
outlook and in the energy of a new sense of power. 
It was thought that Japan would become a Christian 
country within the short space of fifteen years. For two 
or three years the revival spirit burned in many parts 
of the country. With oneness of mind, and unity of 
spirit, the Christians sought every thing in prayer, hold- 
ing the faith that infinite power would supplement 
their weaknesses and make all things possible to them. 
Leading statesmen went out of their way to show friend- 
liness to the missionaries. The general trend was in 
favor of all things European." 

The popularity of Westernism at this 
Other Fjrais time gave rise to optimistic hopes out- 
side the pale of the churches ; hopes 
prompted by the traditions of the past, in which religion 
and politics were combined, and influenced by the 
monotheistic teachings of Christianity. Mr. Yano Fumio 
proposed about this. time that a Christianity, in the form 
of Unitarianism, be made the religion of the State, with 
the worship of one true God, the Father, combined with 
the worship of ancestors and heroes and with the wor- 
ship at the great temple of Ise, and in which religion, 
*' temples for the fox god and other animal deities or 
female goddesses should have no right to exist." It 
was suggestions like this one that brought Rev. Arthur 
May Knapp to Japan in 1887 as a representative of the 
American Unitarian Association who made it clear that 
the aim of his mission was different in character from 
other mission organizations of Christendom and was to 
*' express the sympathy of the Unitarians of America 
for progressive religious movements in Japan and give 
all necessary information to the leaders of religious 



SIX DECADES OF CHRISTIAN PROGRESS IN JAPAN 2$ 

thought and action in that country. A h'ttle earh'er than 
this, namely in 1885, the German Evangelical Protestant 
Missionary Society began work in this country, with an 
aim similar to that of Unitarians and distinct from that 
of other missionary societies. Japan, it was said, " stands 
in the very midst of the struggling and striving so 
characteristic of our time." This Mission did not bring 
to the Japanese ** old fashioned forms of thought and 
views of the world, but the easy yoke of Christ, the 
simple religious and moral doctrine of primitive Christ- 
ianity." Seeking to bring together the ** latest " in 
western religious thought and the '* best " in the oriental 
systems, these heralds of liberalism gave public utterance 
to the prevailing optimism as to the rapid transformation 
of Japan. 



Ill 

On the day the constitution was 
Changing Fortunes promulgated, in February 1889, Vis- 
count Mori the progressive Minister of 
Education was assassinated by a Shinto fanatic and the 
same year Count Okuma lost a limb in an attempt made 
upon his life. These acts of violence gave expression to 
hidden forces, beginning to assert themselves in favor of 
nationalism and marked the turn of the tide which for 
a decade (1889 — 1899) now swept in the opposite direc- 
tion. The fortunes of Christianity took on a less rosy 
aspect. The wheels of the Christian chariot dragged 
heavily as in sand. The Christian community was about 
to be subjected to the acid test of faith, tried by 
scepticism on the one hand and by the forces of nation- 
alism on the other hand. Statistical results are sufficient 
to show the change. At the end of the first two 
decades (1859 — 1879), the number of full members was 
only 2,701. But ten years later, at the end of the third 
decade (1879—1889), by an astonishing increase, the 
number had become 28,977. ^^^ the tide now moved 
in the opposite direction, for, at the end of the fourth 
decade (1899), the number of members was 37,068. In 



2-6 ;; : JAPAN . 

other words, while the net gain in the third decade was 
26,276, the net gain in the next decade, the period of 
reaction, was only 8,091. 

We have shown that sanguine ex- 
Uofounded pectations were entertained in Japan as 
Crftlcisni regards the speedy triumph of Christiani- 

ty. Similar hopes found expression 
abroad, and, indeed, the missions have been criticized 
for failing to seize an opportunity to convert Japan 
as a whole during the third decade (1879 — 1889). 
The world might have seeii, it is said, a nation born in 
a day. But this censure is not vvcll founded. It dis- 
regards, first of all, the strength of the nationalistic 
spirit expressed in Shinto fanaticism and even unconsci- 
ously in the thoughts of the Christians. For instance, 
the move for church union was in part a desire for 
native church independence, and the proclivity, which 
became manifest, to pursue the *' new theology," was 
different from the accepted theology that it might 
possess the quality of independence. The nnfavourable 
judgement is not well founded, in the secpnd place, be- 
cause no account is taken of the nation-wide activity of 
Buddhism, aroused at that time, in its effort to prejudice 
the popular mind against Christianity. Nor does it 
account national customs and habits, compacted by 
centuries of social tradition and the source of petty 
persecutions throughout the country. Those who bet 
came Christians suffered, much affliction as the resul- 
of family and neighborhood opposition even at the time 
Westernism was in greatest favor. Nor does the 
criticism in question, th'rdly, take account of the 
spirit of worldliness which swept over Japan, of the 
visions of wealth, awakened through contact with 
the West, undreamed of in the history of the nation. 
And, finally, that the criticism was not just may 
be shown by a consideration of the nature of the 
general trend at that time. While Christianity was in 
popular favor, there was at no time a mass movement 
toward the churches. There was no solidarity in the 
movement ; no villages or cities or provinces as a whole 



SIX DECADES OF CHRISTIAN PROGRESS IN JAPAN 2J 

turned to Christianity. Wliile tlije responses were many 
they were individual. But at no time were the Christian 
forces for lack of numbers unable to manage the move- 
ment. The most that can be said is that a greater 
number of churches might have been founded, if a 
great number of stations had been established throughout 
the nation. Christ in His public ministry seemed to 
avoid popular movements in His favor. '* When they 
would come to take Him by force and make Him 
King, He departed again into a mountain himself alone." 
It would be nearer the truth to affirm 
Fruitful Reaction that japan was, won to Christianity in 
the decade of reaction (1889— 1899), 
than to say that the nation was lost to Christianity in 
the decade of popular favor (1879 — 1889). Greater 
victories were won by Christian faith in the later than 
in the former decade. During the time of reaction, the 
churches endured and survived the acid test. Whatever 
fruits may have been produced since, through the 
preaching of the Gospel, Christianity in that decade was 
its ow^n chief consequence. Neither nationalism nor 
scepticism could shake the confidence of the faithful 
ones who had received the Kingdom, which cannot be 
moved. In that decade, the Japanese Christians were 
made aware of the intrinsic values of the religion of 
Christ. Hence, the distinction became clear to them 
between religion and between Christianity and western 
civilization. The, reaction gave to the churches a better 
knowledge of the recalcitrant forces of human nature 
and human society by the victorious resistance they 
offered to these forces. The churches -were also led to 
concentrate more upon those elements which constituted 
their true strength. Those who passed through the 
years of reaction will remember how it was claimed 
that the Japanese Christian leaders vvere without faith in 
the divinity of Christ and how a more outspoken 
testimony on their part was at times felt to be desirable. 
Yet at that very time, their faith in Him was like a 
Verdun, the symbol of the impregnable soul of 
France. The decade will be looked back upon as the 



:28 JAPAN 

period of temptation through which the church passed, 
a sort of forty days trial in the wilderness, following 
upon the high moods experienced in such meetings as 
the Tokyo gatherings to which we have referred. 



IV 

The conservative rebound was of 
Steady Advance temporary duration. Treaties were re- 
vised at the close of that decade (1899) 
and extra-territoriality was abolished. The expansion of 
the national mind began, with renewed interest in the 
west. The intellectual appreciation of our civilization 
deepened, while national energy was increasingly directed 
to the enterprises of education, art, literature, politics, 
commerce and industry after the models pursued in 
Europe and America. A general conference of mission- 
aries was held in Tokyo in 1900 which was followed 
by a national evangelistic campaign. From that time 
till the present, extending across two decades, the annual 
gains in membership have varied but slightly from year 
to year, though the average increase for the fifth decade 
(1899 — 1909) is lower than that for the sixth decade (1909 
— 19 19). The net gain in membership during the fifth 
decade (1899 — 1909) was 23,567 and the net gain 
during the sixth decade (1909 — 1919), for the eight 
years covered by published reports, is 34,076. For the 
last twenty years the increase has, been gradual and 
regular. Of course it cannot be asserted that this is 
normal and will therefore continue. The present may 
be a time of preparation as well as of achievement. If 
so, a decided change may not unreasonably be looked 
for in the future, when the gains will show a marked 
increase. 

But an examination of the statistical 

Lessons from results during the past sixty years will 

Statistics justify the following conclusions. The 

progress of Christianity in Japan (i) 

during the past sixty years has been very similar 

(though somewhat slower) to the progress in Ind"a, 



SIX DECADES OF CHRISTIAN PROGRESS IN JAPAN 29 

China and Korea, as exhibited by the statistical re- 
ports of work in those countries. The progress 
of Christianity in Japan of late (2), while showing 
a gradual increase in membership, has not been as rapid 
as one would expect, if consideration be taken of the 
increase of the Christian forces, which implies that with 
the quantitative growth of the Christian community there 
has not been a corresponding development of qualitative 
effectiveness, that is to say, the effectiveness of faith. 
The statistics will show (3), that certain methods ardent- 
ly commended have not been justified, if their effeciency 
is to be measured by the perceptible results. It is 
evident (4) that those churches which have maintained 
the greatest force of foreign missionaries and Japanese 
vv^orkers have been rewarded with the greatest increase. 
It appears (5) that the National Evangelistic Campaign, 
launched in 19 14, imparted a new impetus to the work, 
resulting in raising the average annual increase in mem- 
bership. No basis can be found (6) in the results ex- 
hihibited for a lessening of missionary interest in Japan 
or for a slackening of effort in this field. If our con- 
ception of Christian progress in Japan is to be determined 
by growth during the past sixty years in this field and 
in other Asiatic mission fields, the decades lying before 
us will require that patient devotion necessary to all 
enterprises of great moment, especially if our chief 
concern be a spiritual advance along with the increase 
in members. The spiritual attainment of the Christian 
community will be a measure of the churches' power to 
assimulate the numbers added from year to year to the 
Christian type of living. 

These conclusions will serve to correct 
The Christian an excessive optimism. They will afford 
Movement ground for encouragement concerning 
the future as well. If Christian growth 
be slow, it is sure. Those who have responded to the 
Christian appeal, in greater number than others, are 
Japanese schooled in Confucianism. Under Christianity, 
they have gained a larger and more adequate concep- 
tion of God and a truer conception of man. Their 



30 JAPAN 

approach to God has been through a more living faith 
and a purer spiritual aspiration. Jesus has lifted the 
community coming under His influence out of the 
prevailing fatalism into a life of joy, freedom and 
purpose. Those influenced by Him are not less con- 
cerned for the promotion of social order than the 
Confuciani'sts were, but they exhibit a spontaneity of 
living, a moral initiative and an enthusiasm for humanity 
never experienced during the past. The Christian^ 
movement, in other words, has brought about very real 
changes in the life of Japan. But the movement is in 
need of guidance. Nationalism is still a factor, utilizing 
as it does the Shinto shrines and the national system of 
schools in order to maintain " national unity." But the 
greatest danger to the Christian cause does not lie in 
the conservative instincts of the nation, but in the pre- 
vailing temper of worldliness and the corrupt practices 
of which this worldliness is a fruitful source. The 
effectiveness of foreign mission activity might be increased 
if greater emphasis were placed upon the work of the 
ministry. That is to say, upon the direct preaching of 
the Gospel to the masses of population and upon the 
organizing of neighborhood groups into churches. There 
is a strong tendency, at present, toward lay agency, 
now already preponderant, and toward the pursuit of 
auxiliary aims rather than the conversion of souls and 
the creating and maintaining of churches. The popular 
awakening in Japan occasioned by the European War 
has brought about a situation very similar to the time 
of the third decade (1879 — 1889). The door of op- 
portunity seems to be swinging wide open once more. 
Rev. Paul Kanamori, who knows conditions through- 
out Japan better than anyone else, says the time is ripe 
for a great harvest. If this be true, let the advantage 
be seized through a vigorous evangelism on the part of 
the Christian forces. 



JAPAN 



PART II 
EVANGELISTIC WORK 



CHAPTER III 

THE FIELD 



I. -THE HOKKAIDO 

By G. p. Piers(jn 

The Hokkaido is an island of bold 
Physical headlands, picturesque volcanoes, placid 

lakes, and wide alluvial plains. It is 
about as big as New York State or Southern Michigan 
or Ireland. It is Japan's treasure island, containing 
7,250,000 acres of arable land of which about one fifth 
only is cultivated. It could support at least 8,000,000 
more than its present population of 2,000,000, Its 
climate is like the climate of New York state and favors 
the production of rice, millet, wheat, beans, potatoes, 
hemp, apples, grapes. It is perhaps the largest pepper- 
mint field in the world. Its forests of pine and hard 
woods are primeval and extensive, yielding even before 
the war the earnings of an annual profit of over ten 
million yen ; to which must be added several more millions 
representing wood pulp and paper industries. The Is- 
land is reckoned one of the three greatest fishing stations 
in the world ; the yearly catch of herring, salmon, cod, 
trout, seals, together with edible seaweed, was valued 
even several years ago at at least 26,000,000 yen. The 
chief market is China. Six hundred million tons of coal 
are estimated as available. Sulphur is abundant, gold, 
silver and manganese are mined, also iron in ore and 
in magnetic sand. 

Fisheries attracted the first settlers to 
Colonization the accessible shores, despite the sum- 
mer bogs of the N. E. and the winter 



34- JAPAN 

ice fields of the Kitami coast. Rivers became the high- 
ways to the wide plains extending inland ; surveyors 
guided by the Ainu, the original inhabitants, explored 
the valleys. Mines were opened up. Railroads followed — 
a thousand miles of them^ now. (We have the privilege 
of addressing the station staffs at stated seasons.) Lands 
were granted large holders who sublet to tenants. Ham- 
lets form —a blacksmith shop, a restaurant — soon becoming 
a place of ill repute, a general store with sake in large 
evidence, other smaller shack stores displaying on rough 
shelves their entire stock of matches, canned goods and 
bottles. 

Early in the history of colonization the government 
constructed twelve huge camps ; instead of tents, build- 
ing substantial farm houses each set in the midst of 
several acres of good land, and offering the farms to 
soldiers in the reserves. These tonden, soldier colonies, 
have now become the property of the former reserves. 
Here and there a group of Christians 
Christian from the South with high ideals of 

Settlements civic righteousness relieve the social 
wilderness, but tenant farmers with other 
ideals encroach ; small tradesmen gradually assemble and 
the Christian settlement is assailed from within and 
without ; not that the original Christians have weakened," 
but the world has massed in its forces about therru 
There are isolated Christians, standing true for years in 
the midst of a crooked and perverse generation, winning 
its respect and making its comradship some day easy. 
Meanwhile the Buddhist priest has come in, building for 
himself first a little farmer's shack. About him the 
farmers are from various parts of old Japan and of 
various sects. He visits them. "■ You belong to a dif- 
ferent sect but as I am the only priest here, let me 
serve when you have need of me." Death comes to a 
family. The priest is called on to conduct the funeral. 
A new temple tie thus comes about ; gradually the com- 
munity's thought centers on the little temple he has 
begun to build. In the large farms or ranches, in 
order to satisfy the religious cravings of the tenants a 



THE FIELD 35 

tutelary shrine is set up. Or to quicken the business 
of a town a shrine to the fox god, patron of fields is 
erected and festivals organized. 

With the beginning of colonization 

Christian Work along the coast on the plains and in 
the mines, Christian work began. The 
Church Missionary Society early worked among the 
larger coast towns ; Bishop Andrews, lately resigned, 
being conspicuous in that pioneer work. Methodists 
work in the South with a girls school in Hakodate ; 
Presbyterians rather in the interior, with a girls' school 
in Sapporo and Kindergarten in Otaru ; Congregationa lists 
East and North, all three in the four great cities of the 
Island, Hakodate, Otaru, Sapporo, Asahigawa, as well 
as up through the rich Ishikari plains. Until recently 
the Baptists had work in the Island. They have with- 
drawn except from the city of Nemuro in the N.E. pro- 
vince. Lately the Lutheran Church represented by the 
Finnish Mission, and the Seventh Day Adventists have 
added each an Hokkaido station to their general work. 
Practically all the Protestant work done for the Ainu 
people, who number about 16,000 here, is conducted by 
Dr. Batchelor. With Dr. and Mrs. Batchelor is associat- 
ed in this work Miss Edith M. Bryant who lives in 
Piratori, the old capital of the Ainu in that region. 

As new believers from the South or from our own 
large cities settled here and there, the earlier missionaries 
endeavored to follow them up. Eventually this neces- 
sitated travelling over one anothers' trails. Some years 
ago Bishop Andrews called a conference of Japanese 
workers and missionaries of all churches for counsel in 
country as well as for devotional purposes. A few years 
later the missionaries made an informal agreement, while 
continuing old work, to open up new only within the 
territory to be alloted each Mission and for the entire 
evangelization of which each Mission should hold itself 
responsible. This agreement has been substantially fol- 
lowed. The independent Japanese church bodies, how- 
ever, are not in the arrangement and feel free to begin 
work wherever the need seems greatest. 



36 JAPAN 

In C.M.S. work tliere are 1 5 1 3 Christians 
Some Results and in the Diocesan work 1288 Christi- 
ans; total, 2801. This total includes the 
1000 or more Ainu Christians. There is i self support- 
ing Diocesan church. The Congregationalist has seven 
and the Methodist and Presbyterian bodies have four self- 
sustaining Churches each, beside the aided work. 

Busy-ness. It used to be said that 
Difficulties the long cold winters gave men the op- 
portunity for study, but the stress of 
the war years has delayed the threshing and sorting, 
called for increased output of timber, and drawn the 
near farmers during the snow mouths into the labor 
market. A preoccupied man with a Sabbathless past 
and remunerative present has, or thinks he has, little 
time for religion. 

The chance to get rich quick in our present economic 
conditions invites the speculator, who has come north to 
attain wealth rapidly, by methods moral or otherwise, to 
be spent ultimately in the south. 

Lawless vice — presumably not confined to this Island, 
but vicious institutions forbidden by law are tolerated by 
the police, especially in the new towns. Some of mar- 
riage customs are of the most irresponsible sort. 
Geisha are to be seen brazenly every where in public places. 
A freed spirit exists here. Whatever 
Opportunities of temples and customs Buddhism has 
introduced all is visibly new. As a rule 
the old people are in Old Japan near the ancestral graves 
and temple. Tradition and heritage are immense forces 
in Japan but in the Hokkaido they are weakened forces. 
Needs : —We assume of course spiritual equipment, 
(a) prayer ; a man will get more guidance out of thirty 
minutes waiting on God, than out of a whole morning 
of head scratching, book fingering or wdan, (b) the 
Bible ; of course the main thing is by all means, at all 
times, to get the essence of the Revealed truth into the 
mind and will of all men. (c) the Spirit ; of course our 
work is either spiritually successful or humanly futile 
assuming this. 



THE FIELD 37 

1. We need to carefully nourish and use the isolated 
believer, by correspondence, visitation, companion 
dendo ; so that such a one will gladly — as he does 
— praise the Lord — consent to use his house as a 
preaching place. 

2. There are at least five cities in the Hokkaido 
where it seems missionaries should be located. 
One province too, Teshio, which contains none of 
the five cities referred to, should have a missionary 
family. We believe, apart from the depressing 
environment of the appalling numbers of the south 
such a family would have the inspiration of— so 
to speak— a possible task. 

3. Newspaper dendo and Post Office tract distribu- 
tion, especially from the end of harvest .till plow- 
ing time, are advertising and educational schemes 
of the first order. 

4. Radiation : The great idea of the Japanese pastor 
is to draw men out of society into the Church — 
an intensive ideal : the great idea of the missionary 
is to get the gospel to every creature — an exten- 
sive ideal. Radiators are sorely needed every 
where, but especially in our Island where the popula- 
tion of 2,000,000 is so widely scattered. We 
need a group of Bible men, with or without much 
education, who will go out two and two because 
they want to tell the people about Jesus Christ. 
If such men are to be had we could well afford 
to support them. 

5. But a better plan, the ideal, the best plan, would 
be to have the Christians from the churches set 
apart their Sunday afternoons and as volunteers 
go out two and two for such work. It is easy 
to prophesy that a universal movement of this 
sort would speedily evangelize Japan and save the 
church. It is Biblical, practical, imperative, quicken- 
ing and blessed. 



3cS JAPAN 



IL— THE TOHOKU 

By Christopher Noss 

The six prefectures at the northern end of the main 
island (Tohoku Rokken) comprise nearly one-fourth of 
the area of Japan proper and a little more than one- 
tenth of the population. Compared with other parts of 
old Japan the North is less densely inhabited. It 
follows that locomotion is more of a factor in evangelism 
here than elsewhere. 

The increase of population, though 
The Country not inconsiderable, is less rapid than in 
the other three-fourths of the nation. 
The enterprising people are apt to drift toward the 
South. There is no inherent reason why this should be 
so. Unutilized agricultural and mineral resources are 
abundant ; and to an American, the climate is preferable 
to that of the South. Probably the fundamental difficul- 
ty is conservatism. It was excessive conservatism that 
put the North on the losing side and in the position of 
defeated rebels at the time of the Revolution (1867), 
and the result was, of course, to retard its development 
a full generation, economically as in other respects. 
Exploitation of natural resources has been so far almost 
altogether in the hands of southern capitalists. The 
economic currents therefore have not been favorable to 
those who would establish churches and push them on 
to independence. A relatively successful pastor has just 
told me that though he often sends one or more of his 
choicest members to another church, he almost never 
receives any by letter, and his experience is typical. 

The comparative remoteness of this region and lack 
of modern enterprise may explain why it is that white 
folks are so rarely seen here. Twenty years ago, when 
the new treaties, abolishing extraterritorial privileges and 
permitting foreigners to travel and reside where they 
pleased, went into operation, many of the North ex- 
pected a considerable influx. I remember that on the 



THE FIELD 39 

eve of that change a caller asked me whether many 
foreigners would arrive on the following day. I replied 
that there was no reason why any white people should 
want to move into Tohoku, but my guest was im- 
pervious to so unconventional an opinion, and alter I 
had done my best to persuade him that no one would 
come, inquired naively whether the new comers would 
rush in by the first train the next morning or drop in 
gradually one by one. The increase has been about 
one adult white person a year. There are not more 
that one hundred in Tohoku to-day. There were in 
1899 62 missionaries, of whom 43 lived in Sendai ; to- 
day there are 82 missionaries of whom 36 live in Sendai, 
There are a very few teachers, but no businessmen. 
Missionaries elsewhere who have to struggle with pro- 
blems created by the presence of dissolute specimens of 
their nation may well envy the workers in North 
Japan. 

Most of Tohoku is steeped in alcohol. 
Intemperance The largest city, Sendai, has a popula- 
tion of 115,113 in 19,890 households. 
It is the seat of a Government University and all sorts 
of educational institutions, public and private. Education 
and religion overshadow all other interests. Christian 
establishments are very prominent and are scattered all 
over the city. There are nine different Christian 
educational plants, fourteen churches and twenty mis- 
sionary residences, not to speak of the great orphanage, 
and other enterprises. The assertion that Sendai is the 
most nearly Christian city in Japan is amply justifiable. 
But the city still reeks with liquor. The Kwahoku 
Shimpo is authority for the statement that in Sendai 
last year of refined sake (liquor distilled from rice), not 
to speak of other soils, the consumption amounted to 
629,361 gallons, valued at over one million yen, which 
was an increase of 51,653 gallons over the previous 
year. That makes an average of nearly 32 gallons for 
each household. Such being the state of the intellectual 
center of Tohoku, the condition of its less enlightened 
districts may well be imagined. We wish godspeed to 



40 JAPAN 

Mrs. Root in her campaign to make Japan dry. In 
our north country alcoholism is a far more serious 
obstacle to Christian evangelism than any opposition 
from the old religions. 

Conservatism prevails also in the 
. Conservatism Buddhism of Tohoku. The ancient 
sects, Tendai and Shingon, are stronger 
than those that worship Amida. Nichiren rarely appears. 
The variety of Zen called Sodo predominates. About 
every other priest belongs to this sect, which has a 
large educational plant at Sendai. The newer Buddhism 
seems to be relatively stronger, and the opposition to 
Christianity more vigorous, in Yamagata and Akita 
Prefectures, on the west side, than along the east coast, 
where a great deal of the country is practically mu-butsu 
(without Buddha). At any rate the missionary in Tohoku 
is not required to engage much in religious controversy ; 
the issues are mainly practical. 

In regard to the Christian forces, the writer made a 
careful survey twenty years ago, and has been watching 
developments closely since. In these twenty years there 
has been no marked change in the dispositions. In the 
main the same bodies are continuing the same lines of 
work. The salient fact is that there is a wider distribu- 
tion, as is indicated by the fact that there are now fewer 
missionaries in Sendai than there were then. The Missions 
concerned may be divided into four classes : 

I. Those that have curtailed their 
Backward operations. The Greek Orthodox bbdy 
was formerly very strong in the country 
between Sendai and Morioka, having at least one worker 
in every gun (county), but since the death of Bishop 
Nocolai, and on account of the failure of support from' 
Russia, there has been a lamentable retrenchment. 
There is a rumor that the fine property of the Orthodox 
Church in Sendai, which occupies an ideal location, is 
to be sold, the proceeds to be turned into endowment. 

The Congregationalists lost their great leader when 
Dr. De Forest died, and no one has come to we^r his 
mantle. The American Christian Convention, which Was 



THE FIELD 4I 

very active and efficient in Sendai, Ishinomaki and 
Ichinoseki, and in the intervening country, with character- 
istic regard for comity and cooperation, has diverted 
much of its energy to Tochigi Prefecture, lying just 
south of Tohoku, hitherto a sadly neglected field. 

2. Those that have done little more 
Standing Still than maintain their old work. The 

Roman Catholic organization still has 
its faithful French missionaries well distributed over the 
field, though the younger and more vigorous men have 
been for some time with the colors in France. 

The Methodist work in Hirosaki, Bishop Honda's 
home-city, in Aomori Prefecture generally, and in other 
parts of Tohoku, is well maintained ; but the authorities 
of this great body have not been pushing forward so 
far as their northern churches are concerned. The 
Methodist women, however, are rendering excellent social 
and educational service at Sendai and Hirosaki, and are 
the mandatory power in charge of the Sendai Christian 
Orphanage. The Evangelical Association has placed 
two women in its field in Fukushima Prefecture ; but 
has not increased its work extensively. 

The Baptists from their centers at Taira, Sendai and 
Morioka have continued their faithful work on the east 
side, while the Churches of Christ have held their own 
with Akita and Fukushima as bases. 

3. Those that have expanded. The 
Forward Tohoku Mission of the Reformed Church 

in the United States, (Nippon Kirisuto 
Kyokwai) is active in all parts of the southern half of 
this region, and is rapidly advancing in the northern 
half, having early last year taken ever the interests of 
the Reformed Church in America (Dutch Reformed) in 
order to enable the latter body to concentrate its forces 
in Kyushu. 

The American Episcopal Church, under Bishop McKim 
of Tokyo, has been doing intensive work at prominent, 
strategic points all over the North. Establishing a 
training school for women workers at Sendai, they 
maintain efficient kindergartens at a number of places. 



42 JAPAN 

They employ relatively a large number of missionaries, 
very many of whom are single women. 

4. The new organizations are the Oriental Missionary 
Society, the Salvation Army, the Young Men's Christian 
Association and the Seventh Day Adventists. The first- 
named has done a great deal in the way of distributing 
tracts fjomr house to house, planning to cover the whole 
country. The Salvation Army also engages the services 
of many Japanese workers ; but has not yet begun in- 
stitutional work. The Y. M. C. A. and the Adventists 
have each placed a missionary family in the field. 

Experience has shown that those who would evange- 
lize North Japan will have to depend largely on men of 
the North trained in the North. Workers brought from 
the South usually find the environment, both physical 
and psychical, too chilly for them, though there have 
been some admirable exceptions. At the same time, if 
the workers trained in the North are not to be pro- 
vincial and behind the times, it is important that they 
should have opportunity for some postgraduate work 
with the more advanced churches of the South. 

The great problem to be solved here is one of per- 
sonnel, not of method. To be sure, a faulty method may 
ruin a worker, failure breaking his spirit. But our most 
capable evangelists see clearly that in the long run all 
methods must be strictly subordinated to the aim of 
bringing the people into vital personal touch with in- 
spiring personalities. 

Mr. Kanamori conducted a strenuous campaign last 
autumn in twenty-two cities and towns, reaching all parts 
of Tohoku. His hearers totalled 35,700, of whom 6,009 
were enrolled as " deciders." It was a fine piece of 
work, but no one knows better than Mr. Kanamori him- 
self that the net result will depend on the warmth of the 
spiritual atmosphere maintained in the churches to which 
these deciders are directed. 

The kindergaten is a favorite method 

Kindergartens of social approach to the non-Christian 

community. Care must, however, be 

taken to maintain a high educational standard. There is 



THE FIELD " 45 

now a great deal of complaint that the numerous so- 
called kindergartens conducted by persons who have 
slight competence for this difficult work, really spoil the 
children and unfit them for serious work when they go 
up to the common school. Where this prejudice exists 
the clientele may be reduced to the families that send 
the children to the kindergarten to get rid , of them. It 
is good to care for such children, but a sound evange- 
listic policy must aim higher. 

Most of the workers proceed upon the principle that 
our first business is to establish churches. A few be- 
lieve that the time has not yet come to attempt this ; 
the soil must be well prepared before churches are 
planted. Barons Shibusawa and Morimura are said to be 
giving aid to a small movement, of semi-Christian 
character, to engraft upon the rural young men's associa- 
tions a new organization called Shuyodaii (spiritual culture 
band). 

Considerable literary work, on a small scale, is being 
done, and it is probable that Mr. Pieters' recommenda- 
tions will be tried out in the North. 

The opportunities and the plans are very promising ; 
only workers are needed to take advantage of them. 
The immediate need of Tohoku is that the number of 
evangelistic missionaries be doubled and distributed over 
the field in. twenty groups, each responsible for a popula- 
tion of about 300,000, in a district averaging 30 miles 
by 40. Then we could begin to see daylight. 



44 JAPAN 

III.— WEST CENTRAL DISTRICT 

By D. Norman 

For the sake of this purview we rest a while and take 
stock. A feeling of relief and more, of great gratitude 
moves our souls as we realize that the dire disasters 
predicted of Christian work when the war began five 
years ago have not come nigh us. We were then told 
by those who do not believe in Christ that one effect 
of the European war would be that the work of 
Christian missions in the Far East would be at an end 
for a long time to come. The war has come to an 
end and we are here finding more open doors, a heartier 
welcome, more enquirers, a greater demand for Christian 
literature, more people wanting to buy Bibles than we 
ever found before, more opportunities than we can meet, 
and a feeling that if our staff were doubled all round 
we would still be far too few for the demands made 
upon us. 

Let us take the train at Ueno station 
Our Field and go around the great belt line 

Central Japan which will give us a chance to see 
Central Japan. From Takasaki we soon 
go through the tunnels into Shinshu passing Karuizawa, 
the world-noted Summer resort and Asama the active 
volcano on our right. Through Nagano city better 
known still to millions of Japanese by the name of the 
great Buddhist temple, Zenkoji, we go into Echigo and 
at Naoetsu we turn westward along the sea coast to and 
through Toyama, Ishikawa, and Fukui kens. At Mai- 
bara junction we change for Nagoya the great rising 
commercial center. Here we will change cars again and 
go up the Kiso valley to Shiojiri and thence past Lake 
Suwa and the swarming silk-producing population through 
a village that is jumping into cityhood without passing 
through the intermediate stage of being a town. Soon 
we are in Kofu the capital of Yamanashi and on down 
to the plains again into Tokyo. But we must go back 



THE FIELD 45 

again so as to see something of Shizuoka province and 
city and then we will have seen nine provinces occupy- 
ing a section from Pacific Ocean to the sea of Japan 
across the heart of Japan with mission work that is of 
the oldest and newest, churches in all stages of develop- 
ment, scenery and sights varied and beautiful beyond 
the limits of our space or powers of description and 
containing people equally varied in temperament and 
aspiration. Some eight missionary societies are operating 
in this region that we have thus hurriedly passed through 
and as results of their work we find a number of self- 
supporting churches in some cities and towns, and a still 
larger number steadily going on to self support and 
autonomy. 

Speaking of difficulties encountered in 

Difficulties and the work we have the following from 
Conditions those with whom we have consulted — not 
only foreign missionaries but also Japan- 
ese, some of them native to the locality or province for 
which they have spoken. " The great hindrance to the 
work here is the commercial spirit and we have felt it more 

during the past year than ever before Our co-workers 

have often spoken about the money-making spirit and they 
are sometimes discouraged by it." Another writes 
" Buddhism is strong but commercialism is stronger and 

is a greater hindrance W. San who has lived in this 

province over twenty years says that materialism is 
stronger than ever before." In some parts of southern 
Shinshu where the Buddhist temples were burnt at the 
time of the Restoration, atheism prevails and the people 
are still averse to Buddhism, with morals at a very low 
ebb. This is said to be a much worse condition than 
that prevailing in Echigo and Etchu where the people 
are devoted followers of-, the teachers and priests of 
Buddhism. 

In Fukui ken peculiar and deeply rooted prejudice 
against Christianity still prevails. This is in many cases 
encouraged and fostered by teachers and officials. 
Children and youths who attend Sunday schools and 
preaching services have frequently expressed a desire to 



46 JAPAN 

become Christians but say that their parents have 
forbidden them. " Officials and educationalists are in- 
fluenced by what they think is public opinion in the con- 
stituencies that they serve." Hoary customs and traditions 
from the dim and misty past prevail and in many places 
not only in Fukui Ken but in Etchu and Echigo also, 
localities are under the thrall of these things to such an 
extent that for one to become a Christian means social 
ostracism ; or at least the majority fear that it means 
this. This fear is kept alive by the influence of active 
priests in some places and by the general conservativism, 
religious conservativism being the most Extreme of 
all varieties and types. The more progressive and 
advanced among the people of the West Coast say that 
it requires much moral courage to avow oneself a 
Christian in the face of the opposition from relatives and 
priests that will surely be encountered. They also say 
that one form of immorality so prevails that young girls 
have no sense of shame in discussing among themselves 
their chances of becoming concubines, prostitutes, geisha, 
or of marrying in a legal manner. This from a resident 
of Echigo was given as an illustration of the low moral 
level to which the people had fallen and also as ex- 
plaining the spiritual deadness. In Shinshu a somewhat 
different condition prevails, The people are fond of 
argument and discussion, are more independent in spirit, 
given to the clan spirit and will keep alive old feuds 
for generations. Criminal statistics show a bad record 
for Shinshu but the crimes that figure most largely are 
not of the violent and sensual varieties but of the 
intellectual, if fraud, trickery and cunning are to be 
classified as intellectual. One says that one of 
the greatest hindrances to progress at present is the 
type of Christians already produced. One writes 
that Christian life is not high enough, not sufficiently 
different from the lives of unbelievers to influence the 
community. Church members do not observe the 
Sabbath, have not courage to attack existing forms 
of intemperance and legalized vice. They are too self- 
•centered." 



THE FIELD 47 

One experienced missionary writes ; 
Improvement *' a change is passing over Japan since 
the defeat of Germany. Christians say 
that during the war it was practically useless to talk 
with people about Christianity so confident were they 
that Germany would win as the result of her thorough 
preparation; that the Christian claim that a nation's 
strength was in its spiritual defences was weak and use- 
less talk, that Japan needed more military power of 
Germany's kind. But as they have seen Germany's 
military machine broken and laid low such ideas have 
been dispelled and there is a new readiness to listen to 
a spiritual message." In one town which is fast becom- 
ing a great industrial center thirteen have been baptized 
during the year and the members have shown remark- 
able activity in working with the preacher in street 
preaching, tract distribution, visiting, and all lines of 
church work. They have held special meetings for all 
classes of society, such as merchants, factory hands, 
women, children etc. and are making preparations to 
erect a church building. In some places there are signs 
-of an awaking that means a more aggressive type of 
Christianity. In one town where as yet the number of 
Christians is less than a score, and the work has en- 
countered peculiar opposition and difficulty, several young 
people have been baptized during the past year and the 
young Christians have set to work to buy a site that 
they may have a church of their own and not be re- 
ceiving rent from the missionary society. They soon 
succeeded in securing a lot in the most desirable part 
of the town. In another town, lida in Shinshu, the 
members seven years ago bought a splendid site of 
nearly three hundred tsubo with two buildings which 
have served as church and parsonage very well up to 
the present. Now however they are beginning to find that 
they must plan for greater things and after much 
.deliberation they are starting on a campaign to raise in 
five years the sum of yen fifteen thousand for a new 
.church and parsonage. Some of the members say that 
;they pray and work that their town a:id county may be 



4^ JAPAN 

evangelized thoroughly and they must prepare for it. 

One missionary tells of some very encouraging features 
in the spiritual life of the local church where he lives. 
At the beginning of the Lenten season the churcl^ com- 
mittee decided upon morning daily services at 6.30 to 
7.00 a.m., Sundays excepted. These were to be con- 
ducted by the lay members, not the missionary or his 
workers. He did not expect to see many besides the 
workers in attendance but with thankfulness he said that 
there had been an average of twenty or more and they 
had discovered some Christians who had moved into the 
place and had not made themselves known. These new 
comers had been led to come to the Lenten services 
and had continued to attend regularly. The members 
also undertook to do street preaching and had been 
very effective in this and had been blest in doing it. 

Were all the missions and Japanese Churches work- 
ing in these territories fully manned they would still be 
very inadequate to the tasks before them but they are 
greatly undermanned owing to the fact that the war 
has taken away at least four missionaries and kept at 
home others under appointment. Abnormal conditions 
created by the war have made it impossible for pastors 
and evangelists to live on salaries that five years ago 
were not what they should have been and some have 
been compelled to enter other callings. Missions and 
church boards have tried to meet the needs by specials 
varying from ten to forty per cent increase over the 
ordinary salary. But in spite of all these difficulties we 
find a general feeling of thankfulness and optimism among 
both Japanese and foreign workers and their faith and 
optimism are justified by what they see of growth in 
grace and increased activity on the part of the churches 
under their care. 



THE FIELD 49 

IV.— TOKYO AND ITS ENVIRONS— THE 
KWANTO DISTRICT 

(Including Kanagawa, Chiba, Saitama, Ibaraki, Tochigi and 
Gumma Prefecture- and 'I'okyo Fu j 

By C. p. Garman 

A characterization of this section as a unit is made 
impossible by its great diversity. Some of its diversifica- 
tions are shown in the numerous fishing villages of its 
long shore line ; in its coal, copper and silver mines in 
the mountains of Ibaraki and Tochigi ; in its large 
agricultural districts in the plains and river valleys ; in 
its scenic and rest resorts in the Nikko mountains and 
at the seacoast in the Hayama and Kamakura districts ; 
in the great port city of Yokohama with its foreign 
settlement, and in Tokyo, the capital and metropolis of 
the Empire, with its complex life and variety of interests 
about which hundreds of pages have been written and 
hundreds more are destined to be written. 

Data are not available for a careful 

The Rural Sections study of the rural sections. Perhaps 
the following brief summaries may suffice, 
and may be considered representative of the country 
districts as a whole. 

Ibaraki Ken has a population of 1,381,893. It 
furnishes much of Tokyo's coal, and some copper. One 
copper mine ordinarily employing less than 10,000 men 
is said to have employed between 50 and 60 thousand 
part of the time during the war. Fishery and marine 
interests give employment to thousands. There are 2835 
Shinto shrines under the ministration of 348 priests, 1356 
Buddhist temples and 507 smaller places of worship under 
the ministration of 904 priests. Christians report 134/ 
resident members with 32 pastors and evangelists, and 

16 Bible Women. The Roman Catholic, the Russian 
Orthodox and twelve Prostestant societies are represented. 
Two families and three single workers, representing the 
American Protestant Episcopal Church, the Baptist 



50 JAPAN 

Church and the Society of Friends are the only mis- 
sionaries in the ken, and are all located in the city of 
Mito. Six kindergartens enrolling 169 pupils are the only 
Christian educational or social welfare institutions main- 
tained. 

Tochigi Ken has a population of 1,087,019. Social 
problems are furnished by the congestion of laborers at 
the rich copper mines and at smelters, and by the crowds 
of visitors attracted to the beautiful mausolea and stately 
cryptomeria trees at Nlkko and catered to by the 
institutions of organized vice at that place and at Utsuno- 
miya. Official statistics give the ken 2454 Shinto 
government-supervised shrines under 281 priests, 178 
non-government shrines, and 969 Buddhist temples with 
632 resident priests. There are 9 Buddhist sects, 1 1 non- 
Gov't. Shinto sects and 10 Christian denominations in the 
field. One family, 2 single women and three Roman 
priests are the only missionaries. The Japanese force 
has 19 pastors and evangelists and 3 Bible Woman. 
A year ago the Russian Church had 5 workers, but 
at least a part of these have left Christian service since 
the Russian revolution stopped the funds from that 
country. A Girls School enrolling 38 pupils and 3 
kindergartens with 175 in attendance are the only Chris- 
tian educational institutions, while no other social service 
is reported. The Russian Church reports a constituency 
of 700, the Romanists 352, while the Protestant bodies 
report a resident membership of 543. The dearth of 
Christian work in this ken is well shown by the fact that 
this total resident membership is less by almost one 
hundred than the number of Buddhist priests alone, and 
only about twice the number of the Shinto priests. 

Saitama ken with a population of 1,432,856 is scarcely 
less needy. Two missionary families, 44 evangelists and 20 
Bible Women consitute the working force supplemented 
only by 631 resident members of 26 churches and 10 
preaching places. Four kindergartens and i small sewing 
school completes . the effort that Christians are making 
for the betterment and salvation of this province of almost 
a million and a half souls. 



THE FIELD - 51 

Chiba Ken, (population 1,493,791) and the rural dis- 
tricts of Kanagawa Ken (total population, including 
Yokohama, 1,079,871) and the rural parts of Tokyo Fu 
are likewise almost untouched by the gospel. Nowhere 
has Christianity begun to form the warp and woof of 
society. Here and there is a small group where it may 
be said that the mustard seed has sprouted and shows 
life, but nowhere in these rural districts and towns has 
the tree produced branches on which the fowls of the 
air may alight. 

In the districts mentioned above are 
City Districts a number of cities varying in population 
from forty to sixty thousand. It remains 
for us to describe briefly some of the conditions in the 
metropolitan district of Tokyo-Yokohama which more 
and more are being bound together in educational, com- 
mercial, industrial and social relations as well as by 
increased traffic facilities. The public road, electric and 
steam railways and water connection between the cities 
are lined with various industries, the largest of Avhich 
are shipbuilding, steel mills, and electrical supply com- 
panies. This section between- the two cities is almost 
untouched so far as Christian work is concerned. 

Yokohama (estimated population, 
Yokohama 460,310) with its European and Chinese 
settlements, its fine harbour and busy 
wharves, its foreign consulates, and hotels, its stores with 
silks, embroideries, porcelain and curios arranged to 
catch the eye of the foreign visitor — is the gateway to 
Japan best known throughout the world, and a repre- 
sentative cosmopolitan commercial city. 

The Roman Catholic Cathedral, an Anglican Church 
and a Union Church minister to the European population, 
and there is one church maintained for Chinese. The 
latest available report gives 12. churches and 14 other 
preaching places for Japanese. Christian schools and 
departments are maintained with enrolment as follows ; 
six Girls Schools, 1073; two Girls Higher, 81; two 
Bible Women Training, 60 ; three Primary, 542, one Boys 
■SchcK^l, 210; English School (one day, two night) 450; 



52 JAPAN 

one School for Blind, i6; four kindergartens, 403. Of 
these 22 schools, i each of Boys, Girls, Primary and 
Kindergarten are maintained by the Roman Catholic 
Mission, while the remainder are divided among the 
Methodist, Episcopal, Methodist Protestant, Baptist, and 
Reformed Societies and the Y.M.C.A. In addition to 
these, the Anglican Church maintains a school for 
Chinese. The great need for a Boys Middle School is 
to be supplied by the Baptist Mission, the first year 
class to open April, 1 9 19 in temporary quarters, awaiting 
the erection of a fine plant in the near future. In this 
venture they have the backing of the city, which would 
otherwise have been under the necessity of increasing its 
own schools. 

Tokyo, with its court and diplomatic 
Tokyo circles, its thousands of Government 

departmental employees, with its banking 
and wholesale district forming in itself a fair-sized city, 
with its educational institutions enrolling tens of thousands 
of young men and women (among whom may. be found 
Koreans, Chinese, Philipinos and Hindus) creating pro- 
bably the greatest student center in the world ; with its 
ever enlarging resident suburbs ; with its rapidly grow- 
ing industrial belt lined Vvith festering slums ; with its 
body and soul-destroying vice districts scattered here and 
there, — this giant of the east which has absorbed so much 
of the good and the bad of the west, forms the greatest 
problem that confronts those seeking the salvation of 
souls and society in Japan. 

19 16 statistics give the city proper a population of 
2,281,421 (in an area of 30 square miles), and Tokyo Fu 
a population of 3,500,830. What may be called the 
Greater Tokyo, a section containing 90 square miles, has 
at the present time easily 3,300,000 inhabitants. The 
density of population varies from 18,574 per sq. mi. in the 
resident ward of Kojimachi to 138,232 in Asakusa, with 
an average for the city of 72,867. 

Christian activity in Japan, like most everything else, 
centers in Tokyo. Reference to the Missionary Directory 
appended to this volume will give evidence to this fact. 



THE FIELD 53 

In truth, it will over-emphasize it, for that list carries 
the names of retired missionaries, missionaries just leaving 
on furlough and those taking their places in their absence, 
anci missionaries who make Tokyo their headquarters 
but whose work is all over the Empire. Last year's 
list reported So families and 104 single men and women, 
but this also includes some 40 or 50 language students. 
Probably 150 (including wives) are largely engaged in 
Tokyo. The interdenominational and undenominational 
societies, ^Christian Literature Society, Tract Societv, 
S.S. Ass'n, W. C. T. U., Y. M. C. A., Y. VV. C. A, Bible 
Society, Antituberculosis Society, etc., are all working 
here. Of the 42 denominational Mission Societies listed 
in the Directory as operating in Japan (proper), 26 have 
work in Tokyo and suburbs. Counting the Roman 
Catholic, Russian Orthodox, Salvation Army, etc., and 
all Protestant bodies, just 21 denominations are being 
established in Tokyo by the missionaries of American 
and European chuches. As large as the number is, it 
is often overstated. (Six additional denominations are 
being established in other parts of Japan.) These 21 
groups have 183 pastors and evangelists, 93 Bible 
Women ; have an adult enrolment of 21,500, only about 
half being resident members, and 192 Sunday Schools 
enrolling 16,500 pupils. 

Christian schools are maintained with departments and 
enrolment as follows ; Four Boys Middle Schools, 2,094 ; 
three Boys College departments, 512; five theological, 
130; six girls schools, 745; five girls Higher, 722; 
Special departments, 79 ; industrial, 1 72 ; Bible Training, 
men, 50 ; women 81 ; 4 primary (coeducational) 749 ; 
32 kindergartens, 1,665. Methodist, Presbyterian and 
Reformed, Anglican and American Episcopal, Churches of 
Christ, Baptist^and Y. M. C. A. & Y.^ W. C. A. are maintain- 
' ing these schools. The Salvation Army, Oriental Missionary 
Society and Evangelical Association have the training 
schools. The Baptists, a Kindergarten training College 
(not listed above) and numerous societies and churches 
maintain the Kindergartens. In addition to the above, the 
Romanists maintain 2 boys schools enrolling 540 Middle, 80 



54 JAPAN 

College, and 420 primary school pupils ; four girls schools 
enrolling 496 primary, 439 regular and 720 Higher 
School pupils; also, 3 kindergartens enrolling 183. The 
Russian Orthodox Church has 58 boys in theological 
school, and 81 girls in training. One Girls School and 
one l^rge Boys School conducted by Japanese have no 
denominational affiliation but are Christian in spirit and 
purpose. A union Womans Christian College is opening 
its second year in April and its temporary quarters bids 
fair to be filled to its entire capacity. Of the 230 social 
service institutions recognized by the government of 
Tokyo Fu, i is under Shinto supervision, 25 under 
Buddhist, 46 under Christian, and the remaining 148 are 
not reported as having religious affiliation. Orphanages, 
Homes for Aged, School for Blind, School for Dumb, 
School for Feeble Minded, Apprentices School, Employ- 
ment Bureau, School for Poor, Hospitals, Poor Relief, 
Aid for ex-convicts. Day Nurseries, Night Shelters, Girls 
Rescue Homes, etc., are some of the forms of work 
undertaken. 

In listing some needs of this section, 
Seme Needs I shall simply repeat statements that 
have been made again and again, making 
no attempt to arrange them according to the imperative- 
ness of the need. 

1. The rural districts need large reenforcements. 

2. The neglected industrial sections in Tokyo and 
between Tokyo and Yokohama should be cared 
for in the near future. Since Mr. J. M. Davis's 
clarion calls to this need some two years ago, 
several societies have become interested and are 
planning to undertake work in certain districts. 
While there should be cooperation and coordina- 
tion on the part of those undertaking new work, 
it will be a long time before there is danger of 
overcrowding. 

3. Special effort should be made to serve the 
multitudes of small shopkeepers, and to win them 
to the church and to Christ. 

4. Preaching and propaganda should be much more 



THE FIELD 55 

largely supplemented by practical demonstration of 
the Christian spirit. The church equipment and 
the church membership should be put to work 
more in different forms of work for social better- 
ment, thus forming points of contact that will give 
opportunity for soul saving and society saving. 

5. Cooperation in training ministerial candidates, thus 
reducing expenses and freeing workers for other 
needy work. 

6. Funds for plant and endowment of the Womans 
Christian College so well started under union 
administration. 

J. The Christian University about which we have 
been talking so long. 

8. A plant for the Tokyo Union Church which will 
adequately serve the growing constituency, and 
adequately represent Christianity in this non-Christian 
capital. 

9. Equipment and endowment for the Tokyo School 
for Foreign Children. The conditions set forth 
in these last two statements illustrate the truth of 
that old saying about the blacksmith's horse and 
the shoemaker's child. 



56 JAPAN 

v.— THE GIFU, AICHI AND SHIZUOKA 
PROVINCES 

By D. S. Spencer 

These three provinces occupy a central 
Physically position in the Japanese empire and are 
shut off from sections to the east and 
west by natural mountain barriers. These barriers have 
tended in the past to produce a people somewhat pro- 
vincial, and with peculiarities which are to some extent 
the natural product of the physical and other limitations. 
Modern methods of communication, of education and of 
industrial life are gradually working a profound chansc^ 
in the people, some 5,900,000 of whom crowd this sec- 
tion till large areas are now populated to the number of 
1,100 per sq. mile. 

All the northern two-thirds of Gifu is mountainous ; 
Aichi is mainly a vast open plain facing the sea ; 
Shizuoka is mountainous in the north, but all its south- 
ern and sheltered area is a congenial and rich seacoast. 
All these lowlands furnish rich agricultural sections, 
while the forests of the Kiso River valley and watershed 
speedily supply timber for the homes, factories and 
temples of the people. 

The chief cities of the section are Nagoya, 500,000 ; 
Shizuoka, 71,500; Gifu, 54,000; and Toyohashi, 50,000; 
while villages and towns of from 1000 to 30,000 are 
recorded by the hundred. 

This whole section is advancing rapidly on industrial 
lines. Nagoya city alone reports 15,000 factories and 
75,000 operatives. Cotton thread, cotton fabrics and 
porcelain ware lead her productions, while a large busi- 
ness is done in silks, lacquer, clocks, cars, etc. Shizuoka 
is a center for the growth of tea and oranges. Gifu 
attracts by its manufacture of umbrellas, lanterns, nap- 
kins, and other articles composed chiefly of paper. 

Along educational lines the conditions average well 
with other sections, but are excelled in centers like Tokyo 



THE FIELD 57 

and Kyoto. Nagoya city has i8 secondary schools, 
with nearly 10,000 students, and educational interests are 
growing. There are more than 50,000 children in her 
55 primary schools, and the education of the people has 
a strong and intelligent advocate in Governor Matsuf, 
who is decidedly friendly to private schools. 

Of the moral situation it is difficult 
Morally to write calmly. The moral standards 

seem to be higher in Shizuoka prefecture 
than in the others ; but even here they are bad enough. 
Nagoya city has 17 breweries, and 66j licensed sakava, 
while intoxicants are freely sold at all restaurants, tea 
Tiouses, and groceries, and in fact by anyone having a license 
to sell goods of any kind. These license fees bring the 
city a large income, and hence are well fortified. But 
the mightiest force for evil is the system ot licensed 
prostitution which casts a blight upon the whole region. 
It has its segregated section in each of the large cities. 
The Nagoya main section numbers 196 houses, and 
1,589 women. They have an average of 290,111 guests 
per month, and the revenues to the city from this source 
run into the millions annually. Instead of this being a 
preventive of widespread traffic in evil it is now certain 
that the unlicensed element is even larger and more 
dangerous. The Geisha element is another section of 
social rottenness which brings a danger even more 
insidious than the licensed and more public sort. It is 
believed that the moral sentiment of the community is 
beginning to awaken. A new and strong Kyofiikwcn has 
recently been formed, and another organization to include 
a wider range of the public is under contemplation. 

The religious forces of these provinces are not to be 
forgotten. Both Nagoya and Gifu are exceedingly strong 
Buddhist centers. Shizuoka is far more liberal in spirit. 
Much of the financial support of the great temples comes 
from this section. The real estate investments of the 
Buddhist temples in Nagoya make a city map of surpris- 
ing interest. A single one of them has property in the 
city of more than twenty-one times the value of all the 
Christian property thus invested. 



58 JAPAN 

The attitude of the official classes 
The Work toward Christian work is usually one of 
indifference. Occasionally an officer ts 
found who is frankly friendly ; some are slightly patronizing ; 
but with the exception of an occasional school teacher, the 
bitterness of past opposition is over. There is of late a 
spirit of real inquiry manifest among the young people, 
especially the student classes, and this of both sexes. 
Genuine conversions are taking place, and solid building 
of foundations is now manifest. Dr. Coates at Hama- 
matsu is witnessing unusual advance in his work. 
Christianity has affected Shizuoka prefecture as a whole 
more deeply than either of the others under review. In 
Aichi province, The Methodist Protestant Church seems 
to lead, followed closely by the Episcopal and the Pres- 
byterian and the Methodist .in this order. In Gifu 
province the Presbyterians lead on the whole, the Episcopal 
closely following. In Shizuoka prefecture the Methodists 
are decidedly in the lead, the Methodist Protestants 
follow, while the Episcopal stands third in order. The 
following figures will represent the three sections statistical- 
ly, no mention being specially made of the individual 
denominations. 

Oreanized Cha- ,. , Sunday S. S. Kinder Child- ^ ' Scbol- 
Churches pels bchools bchoi. gartens ren c . ,i ars 

Aichi 20 54 2295 91 5761 II 475 4 777 

Gifu 4 12 373 21 813 3 116 I 50 

Shizuoka 17 81 2926 122 6690 3 147 4 31a 



Totals 41 147 5594 234 13264 17 738 9 1 146 

Besides the Missions above working, the Lutherans in 
Nagoya, the United Brethren in Aichi and Shizuoka, 
The Salvation Army in all three sections, and the 
Universalists in Shizuoka should be noted. This whole 
section is one w^hich will ultimately affect very strongly 
the future of this people. 



THE FIELD 59 



VL— THE KWANSAI REGION 

(Not the historic Kwansai, but the portion included in Shiga, Mie^ 

Nara, Wakayama and Hyogo Prefectures and Kyoto 

and Osaka Fu) 

By Harvey Brokaw . 

Generalities in regard to a region so 
The Field diverse are almost impossible. The 
diversity is indicated by one of the 
greatest industrial centers in the Japanese empire, in 
the three cities of Kobe, Osaka and Kyoto ; by the 
agricultural communities in Shiba, Nara, Mie and 
Wakayama prefectures, and the districts around the 
three great- cities ; by the fishing villages all the way 
from Yokkaichi to Maiko no Hama ; by the national 
and international sight-seeing and pleasure resorts in 
Kyoto and vicinity, at the imperial shrines of Ise, at 
Nara with its statue of Buddha and deer park, and at 
Kobe with its sea-shore west ; and by the great shrines 
and temple regions, attracting hundreds of thousands of 
pilgrims to Ishiyama, Kyoto, Ise and elsewhere. 

Kyoto is noted for its silk, embroidery and curio 
interests. Nearly every house in some districts has a 
loom. Several immense s'lk and cotton-spinning mills 
employ thousands of operatives. And it is the second 
great educational centre of Japan. 

Osaka, with its thousands of factories, their 
chimneys pouring out smoke, is well called the Man- 
chester or Pittsburg of Japan. Nearly everything under 
the sun is manufactured here — a teeming hive of industry 
and commerce, with tremendous social, industrial and 
religious problems. 

Kobe, '* the gateway of the gods," specializes on 
foreign commerce and ship-building, and has its contrast- 
ing populations from nankin, thro heads of great bank- 
ing, commercial and industrial houses, a large clerical 
force, hosts of workmen, to one of the worst slum dis- 
tricts in the land. 



■6o JAPAN 

The agricultural regions await solutions for all the 
problems connected with a rural, town and small city- 
life, with all the ramifying and lethargy-stirring ideas 
produced by a net-work of railroad and steamer con- 
nections. 

In this region, according to statistics, there is a total 
population of 8,361,580, of which 2,738,542 are in the 
three great cities. There are about 15 cities, 125 towns, 
55 villages over and 191 o villages 7inde7^ 5000 inhabitants. 
In this large and diverse region, 159 
The Christian Effort independent or aided churches are 
operating. , There are 50 other preaching- 
places. The Christians number 24,600. The Japanese 
evangelistic force is 220. The missionaries number 204, 
of Vv4iom 187 are in the three great cities, leaving only 
17 for all the other cities, towns and villages — a striking 
inequality. Missionaries, however, visit the rural regions 
more or less regularly from the cities. 

The Christian educational effort is represented by one 
university, 6 theological schools, 5 colleges or high 
schools for boys, 1 1 colleges or high schools for girls, 
35 kindergartens, 2 kindergarten teacher training schools, 
one primary school, 10 English night schools and 4 
industrial or art schools. As with the missionary 
force, these institutions are chiefly in the three great 
cities. 

A study of the statistics presents some interesting 
averages : 

a. There is one Christian to 340 inhabitants. That 
is, about three tenths of one percent. 

b. There is one Japanese worker for each 38,000 of 
the population. 

N,B. Mission organizations working in tliis region are the Amer- 
ican Board Mission, Omi Mission, Japan Evangelistic Baiid, Methodist 
Church < f Canada, Presbyterian Churcli South, Presbyterian Church 
Nortli, Society Propagating the Gospel, Roman Catholic, Methodist 
Episcopal South, Assembly of G)d, Baptist Church, American Episco- 
pal Church, Nazarene Church, United Brethren Church, German Evangel- 
ical Protestant Mission, Churches of Christ, Evangelical Association, 
Lutheran, Free Methodi t Church, Church Missionary Society, Y.M.C.A., 
Y.W.C.A., Bible Societies and possibly others. ' 



THE FIELD 6l 

c. There is one missionary for each 41,000 of the 
population. 

d. In the three large cities, there is an average of 
one missionary for each 14,700 of the population. 

e. In the rest of the region, excepting the visitation 
from the three centres, there is one missionary to 
338,000 of the population. 

Data seems unavailable to indicate fully the social, 
community-welfare and eleemosynar}^ efforts of the 
Christians in this region. Increasingly these problems 
are being studied and the field entered. The Omi 
Mission has " the first up-to-date Tuberculosis Sanitarism 
in Japan," a community-centre at the railway settlement 
of Baba on Lake Biwa, and has a site in West Omi for 
another social-service effort. The Disciples Mission in 
Osaka has day nurseries and a typewriting department 
in connection with its day and night schools. The 
Society for Propagating the Gospel runs a sailors' home 
and does special work in an iron foundry. The Amer- 
ican Episcopal Mission has its St. Barnabas Hospital in 
Osaka and industrial departments in several institutions. 
The Rev. T. Kagawa, connected with the Southern 
Presbyterian Mission in Kobe, is doing in the Shinkawa 
.slums perhaps the most ambitions work along this line. 
Mr. Kagawa is Counsellor of the Yuai Kwai (Laborers' 
Friendly Society), editor and proprietor of the " La- 
borers' News," author of the *' Psychology of Poverty," 
and lives and works right among the slum dwellers. 

A number of missionaries and Japanese Christians are 
working in factories, industrial concerns and caring for 
discharged prisoners, fallen w^omen and aged people 
without support. 

Here there is room for difference of 

^'^"^^Worlf ^^^ opinion. An optimistic expression comes 

from Omi : '* Response has never been 

better in our district from all classes. Attendance at 

meetings, personal interviews, conversions in fact 

everything about the work is in the most promising 
condition." The Omi Mission disbanded last October 
and reorganized within three days, and still stands for 



62 JAPAN 

its policy of self-support, intensified effort in a limited 
field, non-sectarian basis, democratic control, social ser- 
vice and clearly defined standards. 

An average opinion comes from a Southern Pres- 
byterian in Kobe : '' The attitude of the people has 
undergone a great change for the better. Buddhist at- 
tacks upon Christianity and anti-Christian meetings are 

un-heard of now. It would not be correct to say 

that as yet there is any large movement of the people 

toward the Gospel Additions to the churches have 

kept well up to the average of past years, and con- 
tributions show a substantial increase on every hand. 
But, on the other hand, attendance at the church ser- 
vices has been practically at a stand-still and in some 
instances has fallen off a little." 

Only one source indicated a pessimistic feeling : "In 
general, the past year has been very difficult, discourag- 
ing to all. Lack of workers and lack of funds has 
prevented advance, and general economic and spiritual 
factors of the present time have made the work of 
shepherding the flocks difficult." 

But there have been difficulties. '* It has been com- 
paratively easier," says one, " to bring new people into 
the Church than to maintain and develop the faith of 
those already Christians. The comparatively large number 
of people who after a few years become lukewarm, and the 
tendency to move from place to place, has made it very 
difficult to build up large congregations, especially in the 
smaller towns." And another says, *' The people are 
not so much opposed • to Christianity as they are 
indifferent and preoccupied. One evangelist complains 
that even the little children are engaged in manufacturing 
small articles in the homes, and the parents count every 
hour as worth so many sen." 

Two hindrances to the work will be recognized in 
these contrasting sentences : *' The narikin proclaim 
their presence by dotting the hills and suburbs with 
residences suggestive of anything from a Moorish palace 
or a Turkish mosque to a mediaeval castle or an Egyp- 
tian mausoleum Among the very poor, there is real 



THE FIELD 63 

distress ; for whereas wages have arisen 50 <^ since the 
beginning of the war, the cost of living has gone up 
200 0/0, The congestion of the slums is inconceivable." 
Perhaps the greatest need is for effort 
Needs and Prospects along the lines of social service and 
community welfare. Altho Mr. J. Merle 
Davis has pointed out the difficulties of combining 
such efforts with old line evangelism, yet a majority will 
agree with him that it is time to prepare carefully and 
to undertake enthusiastically such work. Bishop Tucker 
rightly points out that '' social effort is the direction in 
which Christianity in the future will find its best points 
of contact with the people and its best means in bring- 
ing home the spirit of Christianity to the race as a 
whole." Or as another puts it, ** The Christianization 
of the great industrial centres thro social service will 
test the full power of Christianity." 

Social service should not be undertaken, however, with 
the intention of dropping rural evangelization. A revived 
campaign for rural evangelization, intensified efforts by 
missions and churches in a given region, is essential to 
the future of the church and to the securing of workers, 
as well as to the permeation of the whole land with the 
spirit of Jesus. As one says, " The district in one sense 
is fairly well covered ; in another sense, it is only touched 
here and there." Another says, " In some of the 
smaller places, there has been no improvement in num- 
bers and self-support for the last ten years." This may 
mean more missionaries, or more Japanese workers only. 
The question should be studied impartially. Probably a 
democratic cooperation between the two forces would 
produce the best results. 

There can be no doubt whatever as to the need of 
more fully qualified Japanese workers and of the need 
of funds to support them. This is true in city and 
-country. The workers for the towns and villages, at 
least, should be trained in this general region, men and 
women who understand the district and are willing to 
.stay here. The Congregational Mission and Methodist 
^Missions have suitable institutions to turn out this class 



64 JAPAN 

of men. The Presbyterians, together with the Reformed 
Mission (Dutch), are endeavoring to effect a union that 
will provide the need for these missions. Forward-looking 
men will query whether the efforts of these training- 
schools could not be coordinated, with special denomi- 
national teaching as desired. 

The Central Missionary Conference discussed a real 
need of this region — an up-to-date hospital to which 
missionaries could afford to go, and which would also 
minister, of course to the Japanese. 

Finally, there is no real reason for discouragement 
and many reasons for encouragement. Those really in 
touch with the people will know that a great longing 
for what Christ only can give exists everywhere. One 
missionary says that he has ** recently heard of a sur- 
prising number of cordial, friendly references to Christ 
and His teachings in public addresses by non-Christians." 
Considering that we have been passing thro war-times, 
and that *' Jeshuriyi has waxed fat and kicked " a bit, 
and when we remember also the bearing of the victory 
of the allies and the effects of the Peace Conference, we 
have every reason to believe that all barriers are breaking 
down and that a great longing for the peace, purity and 
sacrificial-living of Christianity will soon be manifested on 
every hand. 



THE FIELD 65 

VII.— SHIKOKU 

By S. M. Lrickson 

The Island of Shikoku, just south of Kobe has four 
prefectures, Tokushima, Kochi, Ehime and Kagawa. 
The last named province is the most thickly populated 
district of its size in Japan. Altogether there are about 
3,000,000 people in Shikoku. Most of them are farmers. 
Only here and there are there any large factories. 
There are not many cities, so we may say that this is 
a rural evangelistic field. 

Kochi Province 

The Southern Presbyterian Mission is the only body 
having missionaries located in the province, but there is 
one Kumiai church and one Seikokwai church in the 
city of Kochi. This province, or rather the city of 
Kochi, may be considered one of the more progressive 
places in Japan. Temples and shrines are not very 
numerous, and the people listen gladly to the Gospel 
message. 

There are two facts worthy of special 
Live Church mention. First, the great independent 
church of Kochi belonging to the Church 
of Christ in Japan, under the leadership of the Rev. S. 
Tada. It has over a thousand members on the roll. 
This church claims some of the leading people as its 
members and has a real place in the, life of the city. 
Kataoka Kenkichi, Sakamoto Chokan and others who 
were great factors in the early history of modern Japan 
worshipped here. The church has " an evangelistic spirit 
and is working in various places in the province. The 
Rev. Paul Kanamori held a meeting here last spring, 
when during five days seventeen hundred decision cards 
were signed. The other fact of interest is the work 
being carried on by one of the missionaries on the 
Nevius Plan. One fine group of Christians has been 



66 JAPAN 

gathered in Kochi City. They have bought their own 
church building and carry on their own meetings when 
the missionary cannot attend. These Christians are 
earnest and prayerful and try to keep the Sabbath. The 
group has been self supporting from the start. Kochi 
Shi is one of the best evangelized cities in Japan, one 
person in fifty being a Christian. 

There are also churches which are not yet independent 
at Susaki, Sukumo, Nakamura and Aki. 

ToKUSHiMA Province 

The Church Missionary Society and the Southern 
Presbyterians occupy this province. Nearly all Middle 
School towns are under the care of the C. M. S., and 
the Presbyterians are working in the smaller places. 

There is a self-supporting church in the city of Toku- 
shima with a membership of about a hundred and fifty. 
Dr. Logan has a successful Gospel Hall in the central 
part of the city, which is open every night. There are 
fourteen regular preaching places in the country. 

This mission, (Southern Presbyterian), reported yS 
baptisms last year. 

The Seikokwai, (Episcopal), has four preaching places 
in which resident evangelists are located. There is one 
independent church in the city of Tokushima. Fifteen 
baptisms were reported for the last year. The missionary 
in charge does not think that the atti|:ude of the people 
toward Christianity has changed because of the Allied 
victory. 

Ehime Provice 

Three missions have work in Ehime Province, the 
American board, the Northern Presbyterians, and the 
Southern Methodists. The work of the American Board, 
is the oldest and perhaps the farthest advanced, having 
three strong independent churches. One of these churches 
is at Imahara and has a m- mbership of over three 
hundred ; another is in Matsuyama and has a membership 



THE FIELD 6/ 

of over two hundred and the third is at Uwajima with 
a membership of one hundred and fifty. These three 
churches have an attendance of over twelve hundred at 
their Sunday Schools. The one missionary family in 
the field has charge of five churches and one chapel in 
Ehime Province and two churches and one chapel in 
Kagawa Province with a total membership of three 
hundred and fifty. 

Thirty-four were added by baptism during the past 
year. The Southern Methodists also have a very ex- 
tensive work. Three of their churches, located at 
Matsuyama, Yoshida and Uwajima, are independent. 
Besides these churches there are four evangelists under 
the missionary who visit twelve places regularly. This 
mission has plans for the further development of the field. 

There were eighteen baptisms for the mission force 
and twenty-three for the independent churches. 

The Northern Presbyterians have one missionary family 
located in Matsuyama. There is one rather strong, but 
not independent, church in this place. The field is 
divided into four sections each having a resident evange- 
list. These men have charge of some fifteen out stations. 
The Christians seem to be interested and are giving of 
their means and time to the evangelistic work. 

Twenty-nine baptisms are reported. 

KagavvA Province 

The Southern Presbyterians have the 
Kanamori greater responsibility for the evangelistic 
work in Kagawa Province. One family 
and one lady are located in Takamatsu, and one family 
in Marugame where a new home has been built. One 
church in Takamatsu is independent and another in 
Marugame is making progress toward self support. 
Church buildings have been erected in five place". These 
buildings give a permanency to the work which was 
not possible when chapels were rented and moves were 
frequent. The mission has nine evangelists at work and 
nearly all the places of any size are visited regularly. 



68 JAPAN 

Mr. Kananiori carried on a fine evangelistic campaign 
here in spite of great opposition by the Buddhists. 
He had a congregation of thirteen hundred people in 
the home town of the leading Buddhist priest who was 
giving so much trouble. This priest held an opposition 
meeting with only two hundred and fifty people out. 
Mr. Kanamori's book was sent out to over two thousand 
of the voters in the province. All the teachers in 
Takamatsu got a copy each and this spring the book 
is being sent to every teacher in Okawa Gun. As a 
result of this *' preaching by mail " we are getting a lot 
of isolated enquirers all over the province. 

There were forty-nine baptisms last year. 

The Kumiai Church has a group in Takamatsu, 
another in Sakaide and one in Marugame. The 
Methodists have work in Takamatsu and Tadotsu. 

There is a call for miore missionaries 

Conclusion to man Shikoku adequately. The 

Southern Presbyterians have a definite 

plan for this advance before their church in America. 

One of their Executive Secretaries is now on the ground 

investigating conditions. 

It is felt that greater stress should be laid on self 
support. Several missionaries are experimenting along 
the Nevius Plan with some success. 

On the whole the work is hopeful, considering that 
Shikoku is a stronghold of Buddhism. The famous 
Eighty-eight Shrines which Kobo Daishi is supposed to 
have erected have a hold on the people. The Kompira 
Shrine with its thousands and thousands of pilgrims casts 
its dark shadow over the whole island. It is interesting 
to note that Prince Saionji carried a Kompira charm to 
Paris to guard him on his voyage. 

In spite of all adverse influences there are eleven self 
supporting independent churches and many little groups 
which are earnestly praying and working for the evangeli- 
zation of Shikoku. 



THE FIELD 69 

VIIL— THE SAN-IN-DO AND THE SAN-YO-DO 

By W. H. Murray Walton 

" The man who lifts his face to God in heaven is he 
whose eyes sweep simultaneously the fathest prospect of 
the earth and bring to him a sense of the proportion of 
things." Sir George Adam Smith. 

'* Commentary on Isaiah." 

It is the year 1925 and the London- 
An Aerial View Tokyo aerial express is drawing to the 
close of its long journey. It is due in 
Tokyo by noon and the passengers are already awake 
as the first rays of the morning sun light up its white 
Avings. As we look below the land is still wrapped in 
night, though dark masses of varying intensity in con- 
trast to the even glimmer of the sea around suggest the 
cliffs and plains which mark the end of a great island. 
From the right-hand corner the flicker of lights on land 
aud sea tell of a large port : we learn it is Shimonoseki. 
Half an hour later the landscape lies open before us. It 
looks like some gigantic promontory, formed by a con- 
fused mass of mountains torn into a hundred shapes by 
valley and stream. Long shadows, every minute 
decreasing, are cast by these mountains across the land 
to our left and give it its name — * mountain-shade-road ' 
(San-in-do). On the right hill and valley, village and 
town, akakening to the call of morn have answered to 
their name — San-yo-do (Mountain-light-road). The little 
town immediately below us is Yamaguchi, capital of the 
Ken of the same name, scene of Xavier's greatest triumphs, 
now an important educational centre. A few miles to 
the north on the coast is Hagi, still unmolested by the 
ubiquitous rail-road, whose even lines can now be seen 
skirting the north and south coasts. That mountainous 
land to the north, holding in its grasp one aqueous 
sapphire — Lake Shinji — ^and sharing another with Tottori 
Ken beyond, is Shimane Ken. There on the lake side 
stands its capital, Matsue. Those peaks on the horizon' 



/O JAPAN 

40 miles out, are the Oki Isles. We look southwards 
again. That huge tract of mountain with many a broad 
valley, swept by that island-dotted bay is Hiroshima 
Ken, while Okayama Ken lies wrapped in the haze be- 
yond. There is the sacred island of Miyajima, and there 
beyond flung across that broad estuary is Hiroshima, 
eighth biggest city in the Empire. Away to the right, 
almost locked in by the mountains, is Kure, the largest 
naval arsenal in Japan. And then beyond, village and 
port and island pass in rapid succession. The whole 
land seems to be one vast home. That white wall there 
is the castle at Fukuyama, busy centre of the straw-mat 
industry. And now we are over Okayama Ken with 
its deep steep valleys and mighty rivers from the inland 
plateaux with their teeming multitudes. The capital, of 
the same name, lies below us standing back from an 
inland bay. We look northwards again. That little 
town 60 miles away nestling at the base of that rampart 
of mountains is Tottori, capital of the Ken. 

It is all one big dream. We have been looking for 
scarcely tw^o hours, yet we are 200 miles nearer our 
destination : we have passed over five provinces covering 
an area of 12,000 square miles: we have seen nearly 
1600 cities and towns and villages, the home of 5 }4 
millions of people. Most of them are country folk, for 
the cities claim but one ninth, and the towns of over 
5000 but one third more. Though in the different pro- 
vinces no less than in individuals characteristics differ, 
yet perhaps it would not be inaccurate to say that on 
the whole the country people are conservative, religious 
and honest, while those in the city are increasingly 
liberal, materialistic and dishonest, the product of a 
godless civilization. 

Let us look at the Provinces, or Ken, one by one, in 
greater detail in the same order as they first greeted our 
mental vision. 

I. Yamaguchi. Area 2,240 sq. miles. Popula- 
tion 1,107,993. The people on the whole may be 
described as conservative though not bigoted, with no 
special like, or dislike either, for the foreigner and his 



THE FIELD J\ 

religion. Both Buddhism and Shintoism are strong. The 
Ken is the home of the Choshu Clan, from which have 
sprung some of Japan's leading statesmen, Ito, Yamagata, 
Katsura and Terauchi. The largest city, Shimonoseki 
(72,000), the terminus of the main line from Tokyo, is 
the scene of the labours of several churches and societies, 
notably the Episcopal, Presbyterian, Methodist and 
Baptist. The Baiko Girls' School, run by the first named 
in conjunction with the Reformed Church of the U.S.A. 
is perhaps the most conspicuous piece of work. There 
is also a useful Christian literature depot kept by the 
Baptist Mission. In Yamaguchi (27,000) with its two 
Higher Schools and many others, containing nearly 4000 
students, there are Methodist and Presbyterian Churches 
and one lady missionary, who has a Kindergarten. 
Mitajiri (26,000), Hagi (18,000), Tokuyama (17,000), 
Yanai and other small towns are shared by the Pres- 
byterians, Methodists and Baptists. The Methodists have 
also got work on one of the big islands. 

2. Shimane. Aiea 2,600 sq. m. approx. Popu- 
lation 761,967. This Ken lies to the North-east of 
Yamaguchi. In it is situated the great Izumo Shrine, 
associated forever with Japan's earliest legends and 
drawing every year upwards of a quarter of a million 
worshippers from all over the country. It is no small 
wonder then that one missionary writes \ ** Humanly 
speaking there is little prospect of progress under its 
shadow." Buddhism also is strong, notably the Zen and 
Shin Sects. Of the five Ken considered in this survey 
Shimane is unquestionably the most unevangelised. The 
missionary staff is four and the Japanese workers are less 
than ten. Work is done in Matsue (40,000), Hamada 
(13,000), and Imaichi (10,000), the only towns of any 
size, as well as in one or two other places. 

The Oki Islands are also visited regularly. In Matsue 
there is a Christian orphanage. The Sei-ko-kwai 
(Episcopalian) are in almost sole occupation. 
■ 3. ToTTORi. Area 1374 sq. m. Population 473,027. 
This Ken skirts the North coast to the east of Shimane 
for a distance of nearly 70 miles and has an average 



JZ JAPA^ 

width of 20 miles. The railway runs through the entire 
length. In Tottori (58,000) the capital, in the extreme 
east the Congregationalists have a strong work, notable 
for the number of workers (30) sent out from the neigh- 
bourhood. In the west in the only other large town, 
Yonago, (28,000) the Episcopalians have a good work 
with a kindergarten. In addition three other places have 
resident workers and seven are visited, making a total 
of 12 out of 220 cities, towns, and villages. Buddhism 
and Tenrikyo are strong, though the influence of the 
former seems to wane as one goes east. The people are 
honest and conservative and for that reason are all the 
more worth the winning. 

4. Heroshima. Area 3250 sq. m. approx. Popu- 
lation 1,895,844. This Ken lies between Shimane Ken 
and the Inland sea and is traversed its whole length by 
the main line. The three cities of Hiroshima (155,000), 
Fukuyama (33,000), and Onomichi (32,000) are on it, 
while Kure (135,000) is connected by a branch line 
from Hiroshima. In addition there are 40 towns of 
over 5000 inhabitants and 388 villages. In one way this 
Ken is more influenced by the west than any of the- other 
Ken, namely by the large number of emigrants it sends 
to and receives back from America. In addition Hiro 
shima City is the headquarters of an army division and 
the point of embarkation in time of war. It is also an 
educational centre of growing importance. The neigh- 
bouring naval port of Kure is growing at an amazing 
rate. Yet despite these facts no Ken is more bigoted 
and hostile to Christianity. It is one of the head- 
quarters of the Shin sect, whose temples are flourishing 
and whose speakers can always be sure of a good 
audience. In addition several of the newer reformed 
sects of Shinto have a large following among the country 
farmer class. Several Societies and churches are at work, 
the most conspicuous being the Episcopalian, the Method- 
ist and the Presbyterian. The places occupied are almost 
without exception along the railway or the stretch of 
coast between Kure and Onomichi. The sacred island 
of Miyajima draws over 300,000 visitors yea I'ly but 



THE FIELD y^ 

nothing is being done for them. The Methodist Girl's 
School at Hiroshima, one of the best equipped in the 
country, is unquestionably the strongest Christian influence 
in the Ken. 

5. Okayama. Area 2,631 sq. m. Population 
1,287,168. This Ken lies along the shores of the Inland 
Sea to the east of Hiroshima, and has one big (100,000) 
city, which gives the Ken its name. There are besides 
40 towns and 350 villages and about 60 Christian 
workers, all told. The Congregational Church is the 
strongest, followed by the Episcopalian and the Methodist. 
In the capital the first named and also the Roman 
Catholics have girls schools. There is also a social 
settlement on a small scale and an orphanage. Compared 
with the other Ken a more serious yet totally inadequate 
attempt is being made to reach the country population, 
work being carried on at Kurashiki and Kasaoka on 
the main line and Tsuyama, Takahashi, Ochiai and Kuse 
off it. The people on the whole are enterprising in 
trade and indifferent in religion, despite the fact that 
Nichiren is the prevailing Buddhist sect. Kongokyd 
and other new sects have their headquarters in this 
Ken. 

In seeking to sum up and discover 
Summary the lessons of the survey it is necessary 
to remember two things, the character 
of the people and the present occupation. 

As has been said above most classes may be included 
under one or other of the heads, conservative or in- 
different. The educated classes are increasingly ready to 
give an unexperimental approval of Christianity. This 
suggests two principles which must govern any work to 
be done : it must be continuous and it must be social 
as well as individual. 

When it comes to the consideration of the present 
occupation, three things stand out. (i) The almost 
untouched nature of the country districts. There is an 
area of roughly 150 miles by 40 with one lady missionary 
and one catechist in two towns 12 miles apart, (ii) 
The almost entire absence of Christian social work or 



74 JAPAN 

Christian civic influence, (iii) The four regular schools 
are for girls only. 

With these facts before us the following seem the 
most urgest needs. 

(i). Regular ministry in the country 
Needs by life and voice and writing. The first 

named, a simple resident country ministry,, 
is the greatest need. For the second a motor is almost a 
necessity if anything but the fringe is to be touched by 
the present staff. Lastly the secular press offers scope 
for newspaper evangelism and the reaching of a yet wider 
field. 

(ii). A Christian Boys School of middle or higher 
grade, and in addition hostels for boys in important 
educational centres. The educational authorities shew no 
opposition to Christian work, whatever may be the 
opinion of individual teachers. 

(iii). Social work. This is primarily the duty of the 
Church, but it lies with the missionary societies to give 
the lead and inspiration. In this district there are no 
Christian Hospitals, no Rescue Homes, and no factory 
workers. At Kure with its thousands in fleet and arsenal 
there is one Sailor's Rest accomodating twenty. 

We have swept the furthest prospect of this part of 
God's earth and have sought to gain a sense of the 
proportion of things. With this vision before us let us 
once again lift our face to God and seek His will for 
this land and for us, for if '' God be our ally we must 
make our plans large." 



THE FIELD 75 

IX.— KIUSHIU 

By S. Painter 

The problem of Kiushiu divides 
Land and People naturally into two parts. A line drawn 
from Nagasaki through Tosu to Moji 
would mark this divisional most exactly. Above the 
line would be found the teeming population of the group 
of cities from Moji to Yaw^ata, the flourishing commerc- 
ial centre of Fukuoka, wdiere also is situated the Univer- 
sity, the important naval port of Sasebo, the old centre 
of Saga where one of the recently planned High Schools 
is to be established, and the historical city of Nagasaki. 
Coal mines, iron and steel w^orks and porcelain factories 
abound, manufacturers from the Main Island are establish- 
ing branches in the northern part round Kokura and 
in this neighbourhood there is hardly a foot of land for 
sale. 

Below^ the line comes the mountainous centre of the 
Island and the extensive agricultural districts, where the 
population is much more widely distributed and the 
means of communication far more limited. The railway 
having conquered the natural mountain barrier that kept 
Satsuma so long separated from Hige is now pushing 
on to link up Hiuga wnth Bunge and complete the tour 
of the Island, while the line across the centre has reached 
the far side of Mt. Aso from the West side and runs 
some miles inland from Oita on the East. 

In the North the missionary body is confronted with 
the question of how to interest the thousands herded 
together in the industrial centres while in the other parts 
the scattered population, the few^ large centres, and the 
distances to be covered offer a problem quite as interesting 
but of a totally different nature. The crow^ds of the 
northern parts are occupied with their daily toil and 
have little time or thought for anything beyond material 
things. The country people are among the most con- 
servative in Japan, often w^anting nothing that is new^ in 



^6 JAPAN 

• 

the way of religion and yet with very limited concep- 
tions of what religion really means. In some parts there 
is a great deal of latent and sometimes open opposition, 
in others the people give the workers a very friendly 
reception. The opposition is largely due to ignorant 
bigotry, but there is no doubt that just at present a set 
is being made against Christianity especially in the 
Primary Schools. 

The foreign missionaries with but two 
Workers or three exceptions are to be found 

residing in the cities of the Island and 
the exceptions are in the next largest towns. This is 
almost unavoidable on account of directing work and 
being accessible to fellow workers in the outposts. The 
churches most largely represented are the American 
Board, Baptist, Lutheran, Methodist, Presbyterian or 
Dutch Reformed, Roman Catholic, and Sei Ko Kai. 
The workers of the last belong almost entirely to the 
Church Missionary Society. The Narazenes and the 
Seventh Day Adventists are also represented but the 
work done by the Salvation Army and the Greek Church 
is in the hands of Japanese only. The Y.M.C.A. has 
a Foreign Secretary in Nagasaki. 

Taking the prefectures seriatim 

Nagasaki has still a large number of the descendants 
of the old believers of the first Romanist work. In the 
city of Nagasaki itself they have several large institutions, 
a hospital with nunnery, a Boys' Middle School and a 
Convent school for Girls. In the country near by are 
several Churches and thousands of believers are reported. 
The Methodists have successful schools for both boys 
and girls and the Dutch Reformed a large Boys' school, 
all in Nagasaki city. The work in this city however is 
always overshadowed by the influence of the famous O 
Suwa temple and its great Festivals, which make the 
people hard to reach. In Sasebo good work is being 
done and the churches are holding their own, though 
the movement of men and their families through the 
connection with the Navy make permanent work difficult. 
At Omura there is a small Methodist orphanage. 



THE FIELD // 

In Saga Prefecture the Lutherans and Presbyterians 
are at work and are reaching out to places along the 
railway as far as the seaside town of Karatsu. There is 
a Kindergarten in Saga and small ones in other centres. 
The establishment by the Government of one of the new 
High Schools at Saga may cause more effort to be put 
into work in this Prefecture. 

FuKUOKA Prefecture has gradually become the centre 
of things in Kiushiu. In education this is on account 
of the University at Fukuoka ; in commerce, from the 
position of the immense coal fields within its borders. 
These coal fields and facility for export are causing all 
kinds of factories to be set up and consequently large 
increase of population. The Methodists have a flourishing 
Girls' School and the Baptists a Large Boys' School in 
Fukuoka city, the former of which is moving to newly 
erected premises during the year. The Church Missionary 
Society has a Bible School for training men here. The 
churches in this prefecture are growing and doing good 
work at Fukuoka, Kurume, Omuta, Kokura, Wakamatsu, 
Yawata, and Moji, and several self supporting churches 
are in existence. At Moji is the only Union Church in 
the country. At Kurume the Lutherans opened a fine 
church building, which may show that some influence is 
affecting that old daimyo centre. Increasing trade and 
successful commerce do not tend to turn the minds of 
the people of this district tovv^ards things spiritual, but 
the position of Fukuoka leads to its taking a leading 
influence in Kiushiu aflairs in all departments. 

The people of Kumamoto Prefecture are perhaps the 
hardest and mofet conservative of the people in Japan. They 
adhere to old ways and customs and are very slow to 
take up anything that is new. There is only one city 
in tliis large Prefecture and the population is grouped in 
villages and small towns. In Kumamoto city the 
Lutherans have their Middle School for Boys and there 
are t^vo Hospitals for Lepers, a Home for Aged and 
Orphans and two Girls' Schools, one of the last-named 
beng in Japanese hands. The Roman Catholics have 
also a Girls' School at Yatsushiro. One of the great 



78 JAPAN 

needs of this and the following prefectures is evangelising 
of the country districts. Most of the towns of any size 
are being more or less worked but the farmer class 
presents a field which is hardly touched as yet. Kuma- 
moto City was for a long time the educational centre of 
Kiushiu and still has a good reputation in its High 
School but its influence has of late years passed to 
Fukuoka. 

Kagoshima Prefecture has come more into touch with 
the other parts of the island through the advent of the 
railway. The people differ from the Kumamoto people 
but have a pride, of their own in their old feudal system 
and family traditions. The /th High School is situated 
in Kagoshima city but it has not a good reputation. 
Kindergatens represent the only Christian Institutions, but 
the churches in the city and at Sendai are doing good 
work and progress is being made at several country centres. 

Mission work in Miyazaki Prefecture is almost entire- 
ly in the hands of the Congregational body though the 
Presbyterians and Sei Ko kwai have one or two churches. 
The people of this prefecture are more accessible and 
favourable to Christian teaching. Already four self- 
supporting churches have been formed and there are 
clubs for both youths and girls and a Hostel for girls 
in Miyazaki town. For evangelizing a motor-car is much 
used and brings the w^orkers into touch with many 
places. The Ishii orphanage has a large farm in this 
prefecture. 

OiTA Prefecture again has few large centres and a 
scattered population in wide mountain districts. Work 
is being carried on in several of the towns on the 
seacoast, and to reach the people in the country the 
newspaper evangelism is being successfully used. This is 
bringing in enquirers from out of the way places and is 
helping to break down the prejudice against Christianity 
prevalent in this prefecture. 

In conclusion Kiushiu is the most 

Conclusion conservative part of the P^mpire, it has 

not had the intercourse with other 

nations that the Central Island has, nor the immigrant 



THE FIELD p^9 

population of Hokkaido. Its people retain their old 
prejudices to a marked degree and are long in yielding 
to the influence of anything new. The faithful work of 
years is showing results which may be more rapid and 
more marked in the near future as the present generation 
passes. But what has so far been done is but a fraction 
of what remains to be attempted. As before stated, forces 
are needed to grapple with the social problems of the 
crowded cities to try and inclucate thoughts of a life 
higher than the monotonous round of existence to which 
most of the workers are but too accustomed. Bands of 
evangelists are wanted to spend their time in patient 
work, breaking down prejudice, enlightening the darkness 
of ignorance, and gradually leading on to the rural 
farmers and labourors. To know their Creator and 
Heavenly Father the best men that have been produced 
and have received the highest education among the 
Japanese workers are settled in the cities as the; pastors 
of the churches. This generally leaves the weaker men 
for the important country work. Kiushiu was the first 
part of Japan to hear the Gospel, it has produced some 
of the finest men of Japan, in all departments ; its people 
though hard and conservative, often prove of most stead- 
fast character and sterling worth. May it in the near 
future move forward energetically and prove once again 
that what appears the hardest part of the vineyard can 
in the Master's Hands produce some of the choicest 
fruit to the praise and honour of His Holy Name. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE INSTITUTIONAL CHURCH AS A 
METHOD OF CITY EVANGELISM 



By William Axling 

The church, the same as any other 
The Church that institution, must make good in the life 
Counts of the community. It must make a 

place for itself, a place so real and far- 
reaching th^t the community, as a community, shall 
come to keenly feel that the church and what it stands 
for is an indispensable asset to its life. The church 
must show in a manner that everyone can understand, 
that it is not a parasite on the life of the community, 
but rather a real formative factor in the life that sur- 
rounds it. In order to accomplish this the church must 
make itself a community center ; it must so organise its 
work that all the tides of the community life shall run 
into and center around the church, its work, and its life. 
However, the church whose doors and windows are closed 
six days out of seven, and whose program of work only 
calls for Sunday activity can never realise this place in 
the community's life. In this rushing, hurrying age of 
ours, the population of any city knows of no program 
other than a program that runs through seven long days 
of each week. And if the church^ is going to fit her 
cog into the life of the modern city community she, 
too, must adopt a seven-day-in-the-week program and be 
on the job with as much purpose and passion as any 
other institution, not only on Sundays but every day in 
the week, 52 weeks in the year. In this consists the reason 
and the call for the church of any city to institutionalise 
-ts life and work. Granted then, that the church, any 



CITY EVANGELISM 8 1 

church, every church, ought to become a rallying center 
for the life of the . community, a home, a haven, a help, 
and an inspiration, an incentive to a higher life, to all 
the members of its environment, how can she organize 
her work so as to realize this ideal ? 

One thing, it seems to me, is absolutely necessary, 
and that is that evangelism and service must go. hand in 
hand. The church must conceive its mission to be that 
©f preaching the Gospel in a language that every one 
can understand. It must give the Gospel hands and 
feet and heart, and let it go forth into homes, and shops, 
and factories, in terms of service and of actual life. This 
calls for such organization of the church's work that it 
will be able to directly minister to the various needs of 
its community. 

Drawing on experience which we have had for the 
past four years at the Tokyo Misaki Tabernacle, I am 
clearly convinced that the following lines of work are 
possible. Not only are they possible, but through these 
lines of work the church can dig itself deep down into 
the life of the community and carry on a far reaching, 
aggressive, evangelistic program. 

The kindergarten is a boon to the 
The Kindergarten people of any neighborhood. The child- 
less hr)me is a rarity in Japan, and the 
kindergarten is one of the most popular institutions in 
this nation. At the tabernacle we make it a point to 
make the kindergarten minister to the middle and lower 
classes. Around us are multitudes of homes where the 
mothers have to take in work in order to help meet 
the family budget. The difficult time for these mothers 
is from 9 A. M. until 3 P. M., because then under 
the compulsory school law the older children must be 
in school. During these hours, therefore, the mother's 
hands are full caring for the wee ones, and household 
duties and work must be side-tracked. Here comes the 
Kindergarten's opportunity to serve these mothers and 
homes. By charging only a nominal fee we place the 
advantage of the Kindergarten within the reach of these 
working homes. And by keeping the children from 



82 JAPAN 

9 : oo A. M. until 2 : oo P. M.^-two hours longer than 
ordinary kindergartens — or until about the time the older 
children come home from school, we help them solve 
the question as to what is to be done about the wee 
members of the household. Do these people take 
advantage of the privileges we offer ? If you were here 
some morning and could see them coming in, eighty 
strong, some brought by their older sisters or brothers, 
some brought by their mothers, all laughing and eager 
for the day's program, you would need no further answer 
to your question. Eighty is our limit and there is 
usually a waiting list. Here in the Kindergarten these 
little once are taught about the true God, they are 
taught Christian songs, they are, through games and 
work, kept contented and happy and before they realize 
it the day is gone. These eighty little ones give us an 
entrance into eighty homes. The teachers visit these 
homes, get next to the parents and older children and 
endeavor to project the influence of the Kindergarten 
into the lives of all the members. Moreover monthly 
meetings are held for the mothers and here the Grospel 
message is pressed home to their hearts, and suggestions 
are made as to home-making, training and care of 
children, and in many other practical ways efforts are 
made to build these homes on the Christian plan. 

The Day Nursery is even a greater 
Day Nursery boon for working mothers and for tot- 
hood. Many a mother in Japan has to 
do the heaviest kind of manual labour with her babe on 
her back. To relieve mothers of this double burden 
the Tabernacle has organized a Day Nursery. Here 
working mothers can bring their wee ones and leave 
them in the care of trained care-takers who mother them 
through the long hours — from 7 : 00 o'clock in the 
morning until 5 : 00 or 6 : 00 in the evening — while 
their mothers are toiling and helping to support the 
family. The mother's work may be heavy but she has 
no worry about the little one. In a very direct way 
the Day Nursery ministers to both the mother and her 
babe. The mother's work goes easier because her mind 



CITY EVANGELISM 83 

is at ease, and the babe is given better care than it 
could get even at home. Here again the contact with 
the home is most intimate. In fact, these mothers make 
us their confidants and open their hearts and lives to us 
in a remarkable manner. The result is that sometimes 
we have to go and plead with a drinking husband, or 
help reunite a family broken up because of a quarrel, 
or help to readjust the family budget, etc., etc. And 
all the while there is great opportunity to point these 
toiling, tired, sinning folk to Christ as the great burden- 
bearer. A Monthly Parents' Meeting gives us an ad- 
ditional touch with these parents and here we endeavor 
to instruct and inspire them to healthier and higher and 
nobler living. 

The working man's lot is peculiarly 
The Working Men's hard. He literally works from dawn to 
Meeting setting sun and often longer. His rest 

days are few. His wages are meagre. 
His scale of living is low. There is no place for recrea- 
tion in the unbroken toil of his daily existence. With 
the lonely-hearted man of old he might well cry out, 
*' no man careth for my soul." Moreover no one cares 
for his physical or social or mental needs either. The 
1 5th of each month is the Working Men's Holiday. On 
that day we have a special meeting for working men. 
Here we endeavor to minister to their mental and social 
and spiritual needs. There is a hopeful helpful message 
for their hearts. Then this is followed by special music 
or a moving picture or entertainment of some sort. In 
this way we endeavor to break up the galling monotony 
of their lives, bring some color into their color-less ex- 
istence and above all to point them to Him who alone 
can comfort and make their lives great with meaning. 
There has been a varying response to this effort. These 
working men have become so accustomed to being 
neglected by institutions and by society that they cannot 
understand the meaning of our endeavours. They feel 
that there must be some ulterior motive, that we must 
have something up our sleeve. They are therefore slow 
to trust themselves to us. We hope however eventually 



84 JAPAN 



to win our way into their hearts and to win their hearts 
to the Master. 

With awful suddenness and in alarm- 
Tlie Working Girl's ing numbers the young women of Japan 
Night School are being thrust forth out of their 
sheltered home-life into the struggles of 
industrial and commercial life. Here are experiences 
and temptations which they are ill prepared to meet. 
Many of them, in fact, all of them, are looking forward 
to the time when they shall become home-makers and 
mothers — this is the Japanese woman's highest goal and 
her most ardent hope. In order to prepare them for the 
present fight of life and to fit them for home-making 
and mother-hood we have established a night school for 
this special class of young women. Here they are 
taught sewing, care of the sick — especially children — , 
reading, writing and the other necessary elementary 
branches. However, their greatest need is Christ and 
character. In a nightly chapel service Christ and His 
Gospel are brought home to their heart-lives and they 
are given the clue to true character building. The 
response on the part of the working girls of our 
neighborhood has been most gratifying. We feel that 
this school is making a real contribution toward making 
life safer and easier and nobler for many of Japan's 
daughters of toil. 

Paralleling the above school for girls 
The Apprentice's is a night school for young lads who 
Night School have been apprenticed out by their 
parents to learn a trade. The lot of 
these lads is often very trying. Probably no one in 
Japan w^orks such long hours as they do. They are the 
first ones up in the morning and often they have to work 
until ten o'clock or later at night. Their only remune- 
ration is the food they get and the clothing they wear, 
and a small sum of money given them when their term 
of service is up. Their work is the master's gain and 
they are kept at it early and late, day in and day out. 
Naturally there is no opportunity for mental or spiritual 
culture and little or no recreation in their program of 



CITY EVANGELISM 85 

life. This night school aims to provide these things, 
which are so essential to a growing boy. As these lads 
are absolutely at the mercy of their masters, attandance 
in this night school flourishes or falls as the masters 
decree. Some masters recognize the great need which 
this school is meeting and gratefully send their apprentices. 
However it takes a large mind and a real heart to incur 
the financial loss attendant on these lads stopping work 
for two hours and a half, five evenings in the week. 
Especially is this true when times are hard and living 
is high. Constant urging and agitation is therefore 
necessary to make the masters see the better way and 
induce them to give the lads the time. It is thus up 
to us to see that we make these lads better and more 
useful apprentices as well as nobler and truer boys. 

English has been the magnet that has 
Engligh Schools turned the steps of thousands of Japan's 
brightest and best young people toward 
the church, and it would seem to be negligence on the 
part of the church if it failed to make the most of this 
golden opportunity. The Tabernacle is in the center of 
a great student population. It is claimed that there are 
40,000 students in Kanda ward alone. Here is an op- 
portunity for us to get next to and to mold for Christ 
some of the future leaders of Japan. In order to do 
this we have organized three diflerent English schools. 
A men's English night school for students and young 
business men. This school brings under its influence 
every year from 250 to 350 of the most ambitious and 
forward looking students and young business men in our 
community. Also an English school for young women 
in the afternoon. This school caters to students and 
teachers. Into this school come teachers who want to 
specialize in English, and girl students who want to get 
more English than they can in the school which they 
are attending. We also have an English night school 
for young women. This school caters to that growing 
class of girls who have been compelled by the conditions 
of modern life in Japan to leave the shelter of their 
home and throw themselves into the cruel competitive 



86 JAPAN 

life of modern commercialism. Probably no one in 
Japan today faces such fierce temptations and needs so 
much the helping and sympathetic atmosphere of a 
Christian institution as the girls. They work through 
the day, but they are keen after English and this night 
school is the open door to their heart's desires. 

In all of these three schools our constant aim is to 
make the atmosphere out and out Christian. Our 
teachers are all Christians, and every night there is a 
20 minute Chapel service for each school. Here the 
Gospel message is brought home to the hearts of those 
who attend, and the claims of Christ on their lives is 
tenderly, but earnestly pressed. During the past years 
over and over we have been told that this 20 minute 
Chapel service was the the place in their lives where 
they really got a vision of the heights of life and were 
spurred on in their effort to climb these heights.. This 
Chapel service is put at the middle of the session so 
that those who cannot come at the beginning, as well as 
those who cannot remain through until the end, will 
both be able to avail themselves of its privileges. 
Moreover, special Bible classes are organized for those 
in attendance upon these schools so that those whose 
interest in Christianity is aroused can be definitely nourish- 
ed and lead out into the Christian life. The number of 
these students that have definitely given themselves to 
Christ and been baptized has been most encouraging. 

As has been indicated in what has 
Direct Evangelism been written, everywhere and all the 
time we strike the evangelistic note in 
all the work that we are doing. Yet there are sortie 
who are too busy, or for other reasons do not care to 
link themselves up with any of the phases of work which 
I have mentioned. Their chief and only interest in the 
church is the message which it can give to their heart. 
P'or these we have three evenings each week an out and 
out public evangelistic meeting. Into these meetings 
come those who are heart hungry ; also those who 
desire to be lead into the deeper life as revealed through 
Christ and His teachings. Moreover, those who in other 



CITY EVANGELISM 8/ 

features of our work have been given a taste of the 
Gospel, come here for further teaching, and of course, 
there are always those who drop in and hear for the 
first time. 

We also put great emphasis on Bible study. Wherever 
we can we organize a Bible class, and these classes are 
so organized that groups of men and women who would 
naturally have things in common are brought together 
with the Bible as the center of interest. At the present 
time we have nine adult Bible classes, with an enrollment 
of over 125. 

At times of emergencies, great or small, the Tabenacle 
is at the service of the community. Thus two years 
ago when the plague was raging in Tokyo our building 
was used as a center for inoculation. Again last spring 
when the small pox scourge was sweeping across Tokyo 
almost 2000 people — many of whom were working folk 
— ^were vaccinated in our building. In this case the city 
furnished the vaccine, the physicians of our community 
volunteered their services, and the Tabernacle furnished 
the rooms and conveniences. 

'Like the Master whose we are and whom we serve 
we are here not to be ministered unto but to minister 
and to project our lives and the Gospel into the homes 
and hearts and needs around us. 



CHAPTER V 

RURAL EVANGELISM IN JAPAN 



By GURNEY JBlNFORD 

Rural Evangelism in Japan is a subject which has been 
much and variously discussed, and each discussion has 
added new light and inspiration. The experiences of 
those who have actually done work have been suggestive 
to those who wish to engage in it. After all, the way 
to' do a thing is to do it. Mere enthusiasm and dogged 
stick-to-it-iveness often move people more than any skill 
in method, or grasp of the situation. No matter how 
well a man understands a situation, if he does not take 
off his coat and pitch into it with all his might there. is 
not likely to be much accomplished. 

The writer has been asked to present a ** picture " of 
rural evangelism. As a background I would like to 
call attention to the Survey of the Evangelistic Work 
given in the Christian Movement for 191 8. A more 
comprehensive view of present conditions of evangelism 
and of the Church in Japan could hardly be made. 
Since that has so recently appeared I need not repeat 
much which otherwise would be of value here. But to 
the picture, (a) the purpose ; (b) the field ; (c) the pro- 
cedure, may be as good a classification of the material 
for the picture as we can choose. 

As for the purpose I take it for 
Object granted that our project in rural or any 

other evangelism is to so present the 
truths of the gospel of Jesus that faith shall be inspired 
in the hearts of the hearers, and then to fan that inspira- 
tion till it breaks into a blaze of light to light the way, 
which is the way of light, in which God intends that 



RURAL EVANGELISM 89 

men should walk. This limitation is too narrow for the 
full realization of the ultimate purpose of evangelism, 
but for the present paper I wish to make a distinction 
between the work of the evangelist and that of pastor. 
The work of the evangelist has to do with the begin- 
nings of the Christian way of living. I wish also to 
emphasize the fact that my definition includes more than 
simply a presentation of the facts of the Gospel. It 
includes their presentation in a persuasive way which 
does not stop without effective exhortation to decision 
for action. Beyond this point is the pastoral responsibility. 
The distinction in practice, however, is not so marked, 
and generelly the evangelist, so-called, in Japan, carries 
both sides of the work. 

Rural Japan, with 759^ of the popu- 
The Field lation of the whole country, is the field. 
Just for the picture, take one prefecture 
which is a fair average of the whole of Japan. Popu- 
lation, one and one third million. One city, forty six 
towns {inachi) and about two thousand, villages and 
hamlets (azd). Nine or ten Christian denominations 
working in the province, but only four having resident 
missionaries, ten being located in two different centers. 
About twenty to thirty Japanese evangelist pastors located 
in ten to fifteen centers. These evangelists and mission- 
aries hold services three times a week for organized or 
semi-organized Church work and also have Sunday 
Schools for children. Besides the one main church or 
group of believers each one regularly each week visits 
from one to five other places or groups of believers. 
Thus about fifty, more or less, of the more than two 
thousand places in the province, have regular weekly 
services. The six largest centers have from two to five 
denominations holding regular weekly services in them. 
Then there are about fifty other places which are visited 
and a public meeting held once, twice or three times 
a year. Isolated believers are occasionally visited. But 
not more than one in twenty of the villages has anything 
of the living touch of Christianity. The other nineteen 
are left, year in and year out, without a living witness. 



go JAPAN 

unless, as may happen in from 50 to 60 villages once 
or' twice a year, a missionary rushing through on a 
motorcycle to an appointment, or his work, or Japanese 
worker from a side-car, sends flying tracts— which by the 
way, are always gathered up by the people who rush 
out to catch a glimpse of the passing thing that makes 
such an awful noise. These, scattered tracts have not 
infrequently led to the beginning of " evangelistic cor- 
respondence." 

Through Bible Classes in his home 

The Start in and in the church, and through English 

Procedure classes for the insistent few, and through 

teaching an hour or more of English in 
some Boys Middle Schools or Normal or other higher 
grade school, and through the Japanese co-worker who 
has been located in some important center or in a small 
village where there has been a providential opening, the 
missionary is already acquainted with a goodly number 
of people throughout the prefecture. Points of contact 
are made in other ways. Here is a famous temple or 
shrine visited by thousands at the annual festival time. 
A stand with Bibles for sale and tracts for distribution,, 
or a tent put up by the side of the road with a few 
co-workers, and the day is spent in street or tent preach- 
ing, and a few names and addresses of those who 
wish to become inquirers are gotten. These may be 
persons who are near enough to be followed up from 
some meeting place, but more likely will have to be 
put on the correspondence list. Or there may be a 
local or general Industrial Exhibition, where the crowds 
<^ather, and the same process is gone through with, and 
hundreds hear a very little of the Gospel. But such 
times are not suitable for really reaching the hearts of 
the hearers. They have come for other attractions, and 
the time spent in listening is only a small part of the 
day spent in satisfying curiosity. 

After several years of these hit-or-miss 
Gospel Tent efforts a new idea gets possession of us. 

Some of our co-workers had already 
suggested a Gospel tent. We know thirty or forty men. 



RURAL EVANGELISM ' 9 1 

in as many different villages who are interested in the 
Gospel, and are anxious to have their villages become 
Christian villages. Why not take a force of workers and 
go to those villages, and stay a week or longer, suffer 
a few privations and live in the tent, get a near touch 
to the people, to understand their difficulties and heart 
longings, and daily teach them the principles of 
Christianity. Thus enough can be given them con- 
secutively for them to grasp the fundamentals of Christian 
truth and life. Objection is made by our co-workers 
that people will not come for more than two or three 
nights in succession, but our conviction grows that it 
can and ought to be done this way. A little more than 
three years ago we finally persuaded enough of our 
co-workers to start the plan. Contrary to the prophecy 
the interest grew day by day to the end of the six 
days, and the people wanted us to continue longer. The 
three years' experience since then has developed a some- 
what definite plan. The village or someone in it must 
take responsibility for providing a site for the tent, as 
well as a lodging place for a part of the corps of 
workers. This consists of the missionary and his wife 
(also a missionary), their personal co-workers, the local 
Japanese evangelist from the nearest station, and a 
special travelling evangelist or one of our own located 
workers from another place who is specially qualified 
for that kind of work. Sometimes a children's specialist 
is also invited to increase the force. And last but not 
least the cook and tent-man. 

An average day's work is as follows : 

1. Workers' prayer together before breakfast. 

2. Morning worship with Christians of the village 
invited in. 

3. A lesson on personal work, particularly for the 
leading Christian or Christians in the village, if there are 
any whom we think worthy to be trained as leaders in 
their village. 

4. Visiting in homes. 

5. Workers' short preparatory prayer for the child- 
ren's afternoon meeting. 



92 JAPAN 

6. Children's meeting at the time to catch them on 
the way home from school. Hymn practice and an 
Old Testament Bible story. (During the week the 
children learn from three to five songs, so they can sing 
them from memory.) 

7. Preparatory prayer for evening meeting. 

8. Magic lantern meeting, with pictures on the Life 
of Christ, and parables. 

9. Children sent home, and a Gospel sermon for 
grown people. 

10. After meeting for inquirers in groups. 

11. Workers' thanksgiving prayer meeting. 

In this work care is taken to have direct Bible and 
Christian teaching rather then talks about the importance 
of religion and the fact that Christianity is not unsuitable 
for Japan. Our experience has been that the simple 
direct presentation of the Biblical Gospel is the most 
effective way of getting and holding attendance at the 
meetings. Some misgiving was felt upon going to a 
village the second time, lest the new having worn off, 
attendance might not be so good, but such was not the 
case. We have visited four different villages the second 
time, and in no case has the interest fallen off. 
The encouragement and cooperation with the local 
evangelist to whom we look to visit these places for 
regular follow-up work is a matter that we stress much. 
However, our vision goes beyond this to finding 
individuals and groups whom we can develop and train 
to tal^e the responsibility for the salvation and Christian- 
ization of their own villages and towns. 

I have gone somewhat into detail in 

Principles the tent work because it is the result 

of twenty years' personal experience, 

and I believe exemplifies some principles which are 

vital. Some of these are : — - 

. I. The creating of personal contacts in as many vil- 
lages as possible. 2. Prayer. 3. Direct Gospel Preaching. 
4. An intensified group contact for a sufficient number 
of days in succession to create a lasting impression. 5. 
Putting upon the village group the responsibility for their 



RURAL EVANGELISM 93 

own development, and providing for visits to the village 
only often enough to keep " them reminded of their own 
responsibility, and to suggest to them lines of self- 
development. 6. Correspondence and newspaper evangeli- 
zation to multiply the touch and provide for its con- 
tinuance. 7. One more, to which our experience has 
not reached, and that is, provision for local leaders for 
short term winter courses in Bible study and Social 
Service work, and methods of rural Church work 
which will enable them to be successful in their own 
localities. 

Last year the writer had a letter from 
Examples an interior town away from the railway, 
from a young man, saying that he had 
become a Christian a year ago, and had been trying to 
lead some of the people of his town to Christ, but as 
he had no experience and no knowledge of how to do 
the work, he wished me to go and help him. I have 
visited him, and found him a faithful young farmer who 
was led to study the Bible, read the " War Cry," 
" Guide from Death to Life," and '* The Christian 
Faith " by Kanamori, and a few other such. The 
reading of the last, he said, was what led him to the 
decision to become a Christian. He had never been to 
a Christian meeting or met a Christian worker. In 
January of this year a young Normal School student 
came to me to be taught Christianity. He is from an 
interior town, never to his knowledge visited by any 
Christian worker. But a young man had gone to a 
school in Mito, become a Christian, and gone back to 
his native town and taken up his father's business, and 
is carrying on a Sunday School in his home. The 
•Normal School student had gotten his first lessons there, 
and wanted to know more. 

These are only two examples of many who, like 
ApoUos, need to have expounded to them the way of 
God more perfectly, and to be brought into the fellow- 
ship of the saints. 



JAPAN 



PART III 
EDUCATION 



CHAPTER VI 

A SURVEY OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION 



By a. K. Reischauer 

This year a large portion of the space alloted to this 
survey on Education must be given not so much to the 
work of the Christian schools as to the new environment 
in which the schools find themselves. And first of all 
we must present the new ordinances for Higher Educa- 
tion promulgated by the Government in December, 191 8 ; 
for there is perhaps nothing that has transpired in the 
field of Education which has such great bearing upon 
the problems of the Christian schools in Japan as the 
promulgation of the University and High School (Koto 
Gakko) Ordinances. 

New Ordinances for Higher Education 

It will be remembered that in 191 5 a Special Educa- 
tional Commission was appointed and that this Commis- 
sion, after two years of study and discussion, was unable 
to reach any definite solution of the problems which 
they had set for themselves. Therefore in 191 7 the 
Terauchi Ministry appointed a new Special Educational 
Congress responsible directly to the Premier rather than 
to the Department of Education, as was the case with 
the Commission of 1 9 1 5 . This Congress appointed a 
Committee on Investigation which has now completed 
that part of its work which refers to Universities and 
Higher Schools (Koto Gakko). The results of this work 
are the new Ordinances promulgated Dec. 5th 191 8 and 
published in the Official Gazette the following day. The, 
following is a translation of these ordinances taken from 
the Japan Evangelist of January 19 19. 



9^ JAPA\ 

A. University Ordinance 

1. A University is an institution which teaches the 
theory and application of the arts and sciences important 
to the State ; it has as its avowed purpose deep investiga- 
tion ; at the same time it pays attention to the education 
of personalities and the fostering- of national thought. 

2. Commonly in a University there are several 
departments ; however, in cases of special necessity there 
may be Universities with only one department. 

The departments are those of law, medicine, engineer- 
ing, literature, science, agriculture, economics, and com- 
merce. 

In special circumstances, when conditions are suitable 
in regard to essence and scale to form a department, it 
will be possible to unite or divide the departments men- 
tioned above in forming a department. 

3. In the departments there shall be post-graduate 
schools for investigation. Where there are several 
departments in a University, a post-graduate school 
(Daigaku-in) may be established for the purpose of 
harmonizing and coordinating the various departments. 

4. Universities shall be the Imperial University and 
other Government Universities ; also public or private 
Universities established according to the provisions of 
this ordinance. 

5. Public Universities under special circumstances 
may be established only by the Hokkaido, Fu,* and 
prefectural governments. 

5. It is necessary for private Universities to be 
foundational juridical persons. However, according to 
special circumstances, this does not apply to foundational 
juridical persons which make the main object of their 
existence the management of schools. 

7. The foundational juridical person mentioned in the 
previous paragraph shall be required to possess sufficient 
capital and funds for the necessary equipment of the 
University and receipts enough for its support. 

* Tokyo, Osaka, and Kyoto are located in iv/, not AVm (Prefectures), 



A SURVEY OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION 99 

These capital funds shall be in cash or in national 
loan bonds, or such bonds as are approved by the 
Minister of Education. These shall be deposited. 

8. The establishment and the dissolution of both 
public and private Universities must be ■ with the 
official sanction of the Minister of Education. The same 
applies to the establishment or abolition of departments. 

The Minister of Education acts in this matter accord- 
ing to the Imperial decision. 

9. Those eligible for admission into the departments 
shall be such as have finished the preparatory course of 
the said University, such as have finished the higher 
course of the high schools, or such as are recognized 
by rulings of the Minister of Education as being of equal 
or higher grade than these. 

Regulations concerning the order of entrants shall be 
in the hands of the Minister of Education. 

10. Those who have been in a department for three 
years or more and have passed a prescribed examination 
shall receive the degree of bachelor (gakushi). 

The period of required residence in the case of medical 
students shall be four years. 

1 1 . Entrants to the post graduate courses shall be 
those who have been four years or. more in residence 
in the medical department or three years or more in 
the other respective departments, and such as are con- 
sidered as of suitable attainments by the respective 
department. 

12. In special cases there may be a preparatory 
course in the University. 

In the preparatory course of a University, higher 
common education shall be given corresponding in grade 
to the higher course of the high schools. 

13. The course of study of the University preparatory 
school shall be three years or two years in length. 

Where the course of the University preparatory school 
is three years in length, those who have finished the 
fourth year of the middle school may enter, also such as 
are recognized by the Minister of Education as having 
equal or superior grade education. 



lOO JAPAN 

Where the course of the University preparatory school 
is two years in length, those who have graduated from 
the middle school may enter, also such as are recognized 
by the Minister of Education as having education of 
equal or superior grade. 

14. Regulations in regard to equipment, system, 
teachers, and text books of the University preparatory 
course shall be those of the higher course of the high 
schools. 

15. The numbei: of students permitted in the pre- 
paratory course of a University shall be fixed so that 
the number finishing the preparatory course shall not 
exceed the number that can be accommodated in said 
University that year. 

15. The rules and regulations of a University and 
the preparatory course of a University shall be formulated 
by the University vv^ithin the sphere of the provisions of 
the ordinance ; these shall receive the approval of the 
Minister of PMucation. 

17. In public and private Universities there shall be 
a proper number of teachers having full duty at the 
school. 

18. The appointment of teachars in private Univer- 
sities shall receive the sanction of the Minister of Educa- 
tion ; the same applies to teachers in public Universities 
who do not receive the treatment that is accorded to 
jDublic officials. 

19. Both public and private Universities come under 
the supervison of the Minister of Education. 

20. The Minister of Education has a right to demand 
reports from public and private Universities, and to make 
any regulations necessary for supervision. 

21. Schools not coming under this ordinance, ex- 
cepting such as have special Imperial sanction and 
regulations, may not call themselves Universities, nor 
may they use the ideographs in their designations which 
have the meaning *' University," 

B. High School (Koto Gakko) Ordinance 

I. Hiq-h Schools are such as have for their aim the 



A SURVEY OF CHKISTIAN EDUCATION lOI 

completion of high common education for boys and 
strive especially to perfect the national morality. 

2. There are government, public, and private High 
Schools. 

3. The public bodies which may establish High 
Schools are the Hokkaido, Fu and prefectural govern- 
ments. 

4. It is necessary for private High Schools to be 
foundational juridical persons ; however, according to 
special circumstances, this does not apply to foundation- 
al juridical persons which have as the main object of 
their existence the management of schools. 

5. The foundational juridical persons mentioned in 
the previous paragraph shall be required to possess 
sufficient capital and funds for the necessary equipment 
of the High School, and receipts enough for their sup- 
port. However, the funds shall not be less than Yen 
Five Hundred Thousand. These capital funds shall be 
in cash or in national loan bonds, or such bonds as are 
approved b}^ the minister of Education. These shall be 
deposited. 

6. For the establishment or the abolishment of High 
Schools the permission of the Minister of Education 
shall be obtained. 

7. The course of study in a High School shall be 
seven years in length ; the higher course shall be three 
years ; the ordinary course, four years. 

Permission is granted to establish High Schools with 
only the higher course. 

8. The higher course of the High School shall be 
divided into the literary course and the scientific course. 

9. It shall be permitted to establish a post-graduate 
course for those who have finished the High School. 
The length of study shall be one year. 

Those who finish this post-graduate course shall be 
permitted to call themselves licentiates (tokugyoshi). 

The Minister of Education shall determine the regula- 
tions for the post graduate course. 

10. In special cases the High School shall be per- 
mitted to have a preparatory course ; ho\\'ever, this 



I02 JAPAN 

provision does not apply to High Schools mentioned in 
Art. 7, par. 2. 

The Minister of Education shall determine the re- 
gulations for the preparatory course. 

11. Those permitted to enter the ordinary course of 
the High School shall be those who have finished the 
preparatory course of the said school, those who have 
graduated from the ordinary primary schools, and those 
who, according to the determination of the Minister of 
Education, are considered of equal or greater attain- 
ments. 

12. Those permitted to enter the higher course of 
the High School shall be those who have finished the 
ordinary course of the said High School, those who 
have finished the fourth year of the middle school, and 
those who, according to the determination of the Minister 
of Education, are considered of equal or greater attain- 
ments. . 

13. The fixed number of students in a High School 
shall not. exceed four hundred and eighty for the 
higher course and three hundred and twenty for the 
ordinary course ; for such High Schools as are mention- 
ed in Art. 7, par. 2, excepting the post-graduate course, 
the number shall not exceed six hundred. 

14. In High Schools, classes shall be formed for 
students of the same course and the same year. 

Each class shall be limited to forty. 

15. In High Schools, where the branches of study 
determined by the Minister of Education are taught, it 
shall be permitted to teach at the same time students of 
different sections. 

16. Teachers of High Schools must have certificates 
from the Minister of Education to teach in High 
Schools ; however, under conditions named by the 
Minister of Education, it will be possible to fill in with 
teachers not holding such licenses. 

The Minister of Education determines the rules and 
regulations concerning the certification of High School 
teachers. 

1 7. The Minister of Education fixes the rules and 



A SURVEY OF CHRISTJAN EDUCATION I03 

regulations of High Schools in regard to equipment, 
organization, courses and their standard, the text books, 
together with the entrance and dismissal of students, also 
the discipline, tuition fees, entrance fees, etc. 

18. Public and private High Schools come under 
the supervision of the Minister of Education. 

19. The Minister of Education has the right to 
demand reports from public and private High Schools, 
to inspect and to make any regulations necessary for 
supervision. 

20. Schools not coming under this ordinance, ex- 
cepting such as have special Imperial sanction and 
regulations, may not call themselves High Schools, nor 
may they use the ideographs in their designations which 
have the meaning " High School." 

Appendix 

This ordinance goes into effect April i, 19 19. 

The Imperial ordinance of 1894, No. 75, the Imperial 
Ordinance on High Schools and Higher Middle Schools 
is hereby made null and void. 

The High Schools under the old ordinance become 
High Schools under this ordinance. 

The regulations of Art. 13 do not apply for the 
present to the High Schools mentioned in the preceding 
paragraph. 

The High Schools, preparatory to the University, 
shall exist until August 31, 1921. 

Comments on University Ordinance 

While there are a -number of Private universities in 
existence now it is nevertheless true that none of these 
institutions have ever been recognized by the Govern- 
ment as real universities nor are they so regarded by 
the general public. Private universities thus far have 
been lower in grade than the Imperial universities and 
therefore have not enjoyed the prestige of the latter. 
But this is not the only reason that has worked against 
them ; they h.kve never been permitted to confer any 



I04 JAPAN 

degrees recognized by the Government, and consequent- 
ly the graduates from such institutions have always felt 
themselves seriously handicapped in securing positions 
which were open to those coming from the Imperial 
Universities. But now under the new Ordinance private 
institutions may become real universities and their 
graduates may go forth into the world with the much 
coveted degrees, though of course in future a degree as 
such will mean less in Japan, and its value will after ail 
depend somewhat upon the character of the institution 
that confers it. It will probably be some time before 
any private university, no matter how excellent its work 
may be, will enjoy the same prestige as that of the 
Government schools. 

As may be seen from section 2, a 
Scope of Work university may have one or more o( 
eight Departments. Probably few of 
even the Imperial Universities will have all eight De- 
partments and it is certain that for years to come no 
private university will be able to become what is called 
a Sogo Daigaku, i. e., an All-Round-University. But 
even with one Department properly equipped and stand- 
ardized an institution may be recognized as a University, 
namely as a One-Department or Mono-Faculty Universi- 
ty (Tanka Daigaku). This therefore puts university 
grade work within the reach of private enterprise and 
in this lies a great opportunity for Christian effort. For 
example, a One-Department-University of Literature (em- 
bracing Literature, History, Philosophy and Religion) 
would be quite within the realm of the possible for 
Christians, and such an institution could be made a real 
factor in building up the life of modern Japan. With 
such a university located in Tokyo, it ought to be pos- 
sible to affiliate with it the various denominational Theo- 
logical Seminaries, and in fact turn over to such an in- 
stitution a large portion of the work done by these 
Seminaries.^ This would not only be in the interest 
of real economy in Mission funds, but it would also 
be a powerful force working for Christian unity in 
Japan. 



a survey of christian education io5 

Comments on Koto Gakko Ordinance 

Under the old system students were admitted to the 
Koto Gakko after finishing the Middle School. This 
meant that they had eleven years of training before they 
entered, namely six years in the Primary School and 
five years in the Middle School. The new Ordinance 
provides for two kinds of Koto Gakko. One kind has 
a seven years course and admits students directly from 
the Primary School. The other kind has a three years 
course like the old type of Koto Gakko but admits 
students after they have finished the fourth year of the 
Middle School. The Koto Gakko with a seven years 
course has a lower section of four years corresponding 
to the Middle School and a higher section of three years 
corresponding to the Koto Gakko with a three years 
course. In any case the course of study for students 
preparing to enter the university is shortened by one 
year, which was one of the things which the reformers 
had set themselves to accomplish. 

As is well known, the old type of 
Koto Gakko as Higher Koto Gakko was purely a preparatory 
General Education school for entrance to an Imperial Univer- 
sity. No student entered such a school 
who did not intend to enter, after graduation, an Imperial 
University. It is true that when Koto Gakko were first 
established they were intended primarily as schools for 
a higher general education and only secondarily as 
schools preparing for the university. The new ordinance 
seeks to revive this old ideal in a measure and to this 
end it provides for an extra year, a sort of graduate 
course (section 9), for students who do not intend to 
enter the University. 

The following diagram may illustrate the new Koto 
Gakko scheme as related to the Primary Schools, Middle 
Schools and Universities. 



io6 



Primary 



JAPAN 

7 yrs. Koto Gakko 
Lower Higher Grad. 

-^_— . Yr. 




University 



2\?> 



(4) Grad. Work 



One of the recognized evils in educa- 

Limit Number of tional institutions in Japan is the large 

Students ^{2,^ of the classes. This is especially 

true in the university preparatory courses 
connected with some of the private universities. The 
new Ordinance according to section 14 limits the number 
in any one class to 40, and the total number of students- 
in a seven years Koto Gakko is limited to 800, while 
a Koto Gakko with a three years course is limited to 
600 students. This regulation can not but be welcomed 
by all who really have the interests of the students at 
heart, though it may be rather hard for some of the 
private schools in future to meet their financial obligations 
when classes are limited to 40 students. 

Under the old system only the 
Private Koto Gakko Department of Education could establish 

Koto Gakko, but the new Ordinance 
allows local or municipal governments and private cor- 
porations to enter this field of education. This opens a 
large and promising field to Christian and Missionary 
enterprise. As is well known, educational efforts above 
the Middle School grade under Christian auspices have 
not been marked with great success thus far, except 
perhaps the recent development of Higher Commercial 
Schools. While the graduates from Christian Middle 



A SURVEY OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION lO/ 

Schools had an outlet into the Government Koto Gakko, 
and through these into the Imperial Universities, and 
also into the Higher Special Schools of the Koto Gakko 
grade, the graduates from the Higher or Koto Depart- 
ments of Christian Schools had practically no outlet 
excepting into Theological Seminaries. For this reason 
Christian Schools of the Koto grade have never had 
much of a success. But under the new Ordinance it is 
now possible for a Christian School to enter the field 
of regular Koto Gakko grade work, which leads directlv 
to the Imperial and other universities. 

One of the great problems, however, 
Financial Difficulty which a private Koto Gakko will have 
to solve is a financial one. Not only 
must such an institution be well provided with general 
equipment and a qualified faculty, but it must also have 
an endowment of at least yen 500,000.00 in the form 
of cash, national bonds or such bonds as are approved 
by the Minister of Education. Inquiry has been made 
as to whether the Department of Education would regard 
the annual appropriations from Mission Boards as 
equivalent to such endowment funds and the answer was 
in the negative. This means, then, that if Christian 
Schools, which are dependent upon an appropriation 
from abroad, wish to enter this promising field of educa- 
tion, they will have to secure the amount of endowment 
funds required. Perhaps few Mission schools can meet 
these requirements at once, but after all it ought not 
be an insuperable obstacle. To enter the field of full 
Koto Gakko work an institution ought to have in addi- 
tion to the fees received from the students some- 
thing like 25,000 yen annually. Would it not be 
better in the long run for a Mission Board to secure an' 
endowment fund of yen 500,000 outright rather than make 
an annual appropriation indefinitely ? And would it not be 
easier to - raise a part of such an endowment on the field 
than raise annually something for the running expenses of 
the institution ? At any rate Christian schools ought to 
make every effort possible to take up Koto Gakko education 
under the opportunities granted by the new Ordinance. 



ig8 TAPan 



Expansion Program of the Government 

Almost simultaneous with the promulgation of the new 
ordinances for higher education came the announcement 
of a great Expansion Program for higher educational 
institutions. During the next five or six years the 
Central Government intends to spend something like 
44,000,000 yen in establishing new higher schools and 
improving others. The program calls for sixteen new 
Koto Gakko, seventeen new Higher Special Schools 
(Semmon Gakko), six existing Semmon Gakko are to be 
converted into One-Department Universities (Tanka 
Daigaku), and one new College is to be added to each 
of four Imperial Universities. It is expected that in the 
regions where these new schools are to be established 
considerable sums of money will be raised locally, so 
that much more than the yen 44,000,000 appropriated 
by the Central Government will be expended upon this 
great educational program. 

In order to carry out successfully the 

Students Seit above program the Government plans to 

Abroad send abroad over four hundred students 

for further study. A liberal allowance of 
yen 250 per month and travelling expenses is given to each 
such student. Beyond this the Government is creating 
400 scholarships of yen 30 per month each in connection 
with the Imperial universities in order to secure enough 
young men to take up the work of teaching in the 
higher grade institutions. 

To encourage the work of higher 
Imperial Olft education the Emperor has given during 

the past year yen 10,000,000. This is 
in addition to the sum of 44,000,000 yen appropriated by 
the Central Government. In fact it may be said that 
the Imperial Gift had a great deal to do with stimulating 
the Government to take up the big expansion program. 



Private Enterprises 
The Government is not alone in its zeal for promoting 



A SURVEY OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IO9 

higher education. Not only are Provincial and Municipal 
governments augmenting the funds appropriated by the 
Central Government for the Expansion Program, but in 
many places private enterprise is coming to the front. 
Men who have suddenly become wealthy through the war 
are turning their attention to the educational problems and 
are giving liberally. The new Ordinances for Universities 
and Koto Gakko serve as a challenge to the existing private 
schools and one after another is trying now^ to improve 
itself and obtain full recognition from the Government. 

Interest in the establishment of a high 
Christian UrJversity grade university for men under Christian 
auspices is reviving again. This is due 
partially to the feeling that the new ordinances for higher 
education have cleared the atmosphere and partially to 
the fact that the Mission Boards in America seem now^ 
ready to take up such an enterprise. At a meeting held 
in New York last December representatives from a 
number of Boards agreed to ask their respective Boards 
to contribute pro rata towards an annual appropriation of 
about ^70,000 for establishing and maintaining a Christian 
University in Tokyo. The amount each Board will 
contribute depends upon how many Boards Avill enter 
the movement, but a definite beginning has been made 
by the Methodist Episcopal Board and the Presbyterian 
Board (North), each of which pledges from fifteen to 
twenty thousand dollars annually. 

The ^70,000 which the Boards in America are ex- 
pected to assure the institution annually is conditioned, 
however, upon other gifts to be secured in Japan and 
America by the Promoting Committee independently of 
the Mission Boards. It is really an answer to the pro- 
position made by the Promoting Committee, namely, 
that the Committee will try to raise one half the cost of 
establishing and maintaining the University independently 
of the Mission Boards, provided the Boards as such raise 
the other half. The sum suggested for the first five 
years was something over $700,000 plus the cost of the 
land, which latter item the Committee will seek to obtain 
from Japanese donors. 



no JAPAN 

This new institution has completed 

Woman's Christian the first year of its work, and it is not 

College too much to say that in many respects 

the College has met with a success 

which surpasses the expectations of its founders. This 

is shown in part by the fact that the temporary quarters 

in which the institution is housed and which were 

thought to be adequate for ^ the first three years are 

already becoming too small, and the big problem facing 

the promoters is the providing as speedily as possible a 

larger plant. 

The first class admitted in April 191 8 had 84 girls 
enrolled coming from all parts of the Japanese empire. 
Of these 37 came from Mission schools, 14 from other 
private schools and 33 from Government schools. "This 
number does not include, however, those who attend 
only the Special Popular Lectures given once a week. 
The number of such students fluctuated somewhat but 
at one time there were over 50 enrolled. This then 
brings the total enrollment for the first year up to nearly 
150 students. 

But it is not in numbers of students that we rejoice 
so much as in the general tone and atmosphere of the 
institution, which is decidedly Christian. Over half of- 
the girls are professing Christians. It is true that it 
seems impossible at this time to have an all-Christian 
faculty but no one is connected with the teaching staff 
who is not friendly to the Christian ideals for which the 
institution stands. The great thing is that in the person 
of the Dean and in a number of the regular professors 
the College has a personnel actuated by a warm, vital 
Christian life. 

The new University Ordinance promulgated by the 
Government in December last does not apparently apply 
to Woman's Colleges, but even so it is the intention of 
the school authorities to make this College equal in 
grade to the standard set by the Government for Men's 
Universities. But as stated above, the first big problem 
is the securing a plant which will be adequate for the 
rapidly growing needs of the institution. It is expected 



A SURVEY OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION III 

that the land for this purpose^ — approximately 20 acres — 
will be given by Japanese friends. Several gifts have 
already been received, the largest' being yen 10,000, and 
several large donations are in sigiit ; so that the pro- 
moters of this new institution have every reason to face 
ihe future with hope and confidence. 

Another institution which is now re- 
Kobe College cognized by the Government as a Wo- 
man's College is Kobe College, conducted 
by the American Board Mission. Kobe College has for 
many years had a higher department of a collegiate 
grade, but this higher department is now recognized as 
a full College. As Kobe College is located in one of 
the two largest centers of population — Osaka and Kyoto 
being so near by — it ought to have a great future and 
make a real contribution in that part of the empire. 

Space does not permit us to go into 
Higher ^sSs ^^y details in reviewing the condition of 
the various Christian schools, but it is safe 
to say that practically every one of them has made real 
progress during the year. The high cost ot living has 
made it necessary to raise salaries, but this extra expense 
has been met in most cases by a raise in tuition fees. 
A number of schools have gone on with building opera- 
tions in spite of the high cost of materials and labor. 
The most outstanding case is the completion of the large 
College building at Aoyama Gakuin given by an alumnus 
of the institution. We must, however, record one item 
^on the loss side, viz., the loss by fire of the large Middle 
School Building, Chapel, and Science Building of Tohoku 
Gakuin, Sendai, the institution conducted by the Mission 
^of the Reformed Church in the U.S.A. This is a serious 
blow to an old and worthy institution, but there is reason 
to believe that the many friends which Tohoku Gakuin 
has made for itself in that part of the Empire will do 
,their part in rebuilding on even greater lines. 

Memorandum on Education 
The chairman of the Special Educational Commission 



112 JAPAN 

appointed by the Government in 19 17 has addressed a 
memorandum to Premier Hara on the serious situation 
in the educational world. There has been entirely too 
much emphasis in the past upon the material side of life 
which has led the present generation to lose its proper 
balance. The borrowing from western nations has been 
without any real discrimination between the good and 
the bad elements in Western civilization and there is a 
real danger, the memorandum states, of things being 
upset. " Above all, the influence of the various phases 
of the new world tendencies on our national throughts 
can not be overestimated. The situation is very grave 
and calls for serious consideration. To remove the evil 
tendencies of the times, nothing can be of greater 
importance than to give to national thoughts and ideas 
a trend along a unified course leading to the realization 
of a national ideal. Such an ideal should be no other 
than the development and perfection of the principle of 
civilization proper to this country which has been 
nurtured and developed since the birth of our organic 
national life." 

In a rather lengthy appendix the author of the 
memorandum has a good deal to say about the funda- 
mental principles underlying the organization of the 
Japanese Empire. Two paragraphs deal with the place 
of religion (Shintoism) in "the work of ''strengthening 
the people's veneration and adoration " for the national 
polity. '* The beautiful habit of piety towards deities 
and ancestors is necessary to be preserved, and its 
general diffusion encouraged. The sense of obligation 
for requiting favours received constitutes the foremost 
principle in Oriental morality, while piety toward Deities 
and ancestors holds specially close relation with our'^ 
national policy established from time immemorial. The 
successive Rulers of the country faithfully observed this 
pious tradition and the power and glory of the Throne 
has come to be as immutable as the Heaven and the 
Earth. Herein is constituted the augustness of our 
national polity. The Deities and ancestors are piously 
worshipped by the Imperial Rulers as well as by the 



A SURVEY OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION II 3 

people, it naturally follows that the obligations of 
requiting favors have come to be scrupulously observed. 
Irrespective of the difference of the creed, it is clear 
that the people of this country cannot act contrary to 
that principle. The worship of Deities and ancestors is 
inseparably connected with the Family System of this 
country which constitutes an immutable and permanent 
national custom. There may be several measures for 
encouraging and extending the custom of worshipping 
the Deities and ancestors, but above all it would be most 
necessary to direct the attention to adequately preserving 
the dignity and solemnity of the Temples commensurate 
with their sacred associations, and to universally educating 
the people on the true meaning of religious ceremonies and 
also to elevating the status of the Shinto Priesthood. 

*' For effecting a clear and definite understanding con- 
cerning the fundamental principle underlying our national 
organization, it is most essential to have a course of 
study established on that subject in the Imperial Univer- 
sities or some other suitable Institutions of Learning by 
following the lines of instruction positively determined for 
teaching the history of our national organization and the 
basic essentials constituting our national polity." 

Chair of Christianitv 

The recommendation of the Government's Special 
Commission on Education to establish in connection with 
the Tokyo Imperial Universities and other schools courses 
of study in Shinto and its connection with the fundamental 
principles of the Empire, lends special interest to a gift 
made to the Tokyo Imperial University for the study of 
Christian Philosophy. The gift was made by Mr. 
Watanabe, a member of the Fujimicho Nihon Kirisuto 
Kyokwai, and it is a handsome sum of yen 50,000. It 
has not yet been decided whether the university will 
accept the gift or not, though it is difficult to see on 
what grounds it can be declined, seeing that for many 
years the university has given courses on Buddhist 
philosophy and other similar courses. 



114 JAPAN 



Conclusion 



That we are facing a new era in 
A New Era education in Japan goes without saying. 
On all hands there is a new interest and 
a feeling that the future of the nation depends very much 
upon its educational system. There is also a tace, 
agreement among an ever growing number that in somit 
way religion must have a place in the training of the 
youth of the land. To be sure the old regulation still 
stands which practically debars religion from the schools, 
and some of the officials would still insist that it must 
be observed, but after all the day can not be far when 
at least in schools supported by private funds religion 
will have a recognized place in the life of the institution. 
The new ordinances for higher education are a real 
challenge to Christianity. *They invite private schools to 
take up Koto Gakko and university education. To be 
sure they lay down requirements rather hard to meet 
but still they do open a field which thus far has been 
practically closed. It may be that the great Expansion 
Program of the Government will practically pre-empt 
the field of higher education for men. If this should 
prove to be the case let it be remembered that the 
Government can not pre-empt the Christian element, and 
even though our schools may continue to have an uphill 
fight, as has been the case in the past, it is preeminently 
worth while to make this fight and to give to Japan 
what Christianity alone can give. 

And one more thing to be remembered is the fact 
that the Government has left to private enterprise 
practically one half of the higher educational work of 
the nation, namely, that for young women. Of the 
44,000,000 yen to be devoted to establishing new higher 
schools not one sen, apparently, is to be used for educat- 
ing young women. Christianity has in this field a unique 
opportunity and it is to be hoped that Christian educators 
will not lose one day in making the greatest use of it 
possible. 



CHAPTER VII 

SCHOOLS FOR FOREIGN CHILDREN 



I.^TOKYO FOREIGN SCHOOL 
By G. M. Fisher 

The Tokyo School for Foreign Children faces the 
coming year with bright prospects. Last summer the 
staff had to be completely changed on account of the 
departure of old teachers, and the lack of transportation 
prevented the new teachers from arriving on time, but 
as usual local residents generously volunteered to fill the 
gap. Mrs. Benninghoff fortunately consented to serve as 
head teacher for the grades. Beginning with March, 
1919', Professor John Bovingdon, until recently at Keio 
University, accepted the call to become full-time principal 
and has entered enthusiastically into the work. 

The most substantial grounds of hope 

Better Support for the future are found in the fact that 
local American business men have raised 
a guarantee fund of Yen 10,000 in order to make it 
certain that the engaging of a full-time principal would 
not involve the school in debt, and also to avoid the 
necessity of an excessive increase in the rate of tuition. 
The same group of friends in company with others in 
Japan and America is energetically pressing the campaign 
for an adequate building fund, and already such sub- 
stantial pledges have been secured that the prospects are 
bright for the realization within a few years of the long 
cherished vision of an adequate school for foreign children 
in Tokyo. 

The American Episcopal Mission kindly granted the 
use of the Parish House and three adjacent rooms from 
last September, thus making it unnecessary to resort to 



Il6 JAPAN 

the somewhat expensive plan of erecting a temporary 
building. Although it will doubtless require considerable 
time yet to complete the fund and erect the buildings, 
the trustees have full confidence that within a few years 
the vision of a well-equipped, fully-manned school will 
be completely realized. 

The enrolment during the year has varied from seventy 
io eighty, which is about as large as can be expected 
until proper buildings and dormitories for outside pupils 
have been provided. During the winter term Dr. 
Katherine Porter kindly gave the pupils a careful physical 
examination and made separate reports and recommenda- 
tions to the parents of each child. The general health 
was found to be above the average among school children 
in home lands. 

The most significant undertaking carried out entirely 
by the pupils has been the publication of The Lotus 
Quarterly, a creditable journal for such young editors to 
maintain. 



11.— THE CANADIAN ACADEMY, KOBE 
W. G. M. Cragg, Chairman of Board 

Notwithstanding severe epidemics of 
Sickness measles and the "flu " in our dormitories,, 

the authorities feel thankful that all the 
children recovered, and that although the studies were 
interrupted, the prospects are bright that a good year's 
work will have been done. The strain of nursing and 
mothering so many sick patients has been a very severe 
one on both the teachers and matrons, and great credit 
is due them for the heroic mannei- in Avhich they 
stepped into the breach and tided tfie school over a 
very critical time. 

The number of dormitory students is about forty five 
and as there are over fifty day pupils, the total enrol- 
ment for the year has been more than one hundred. 

Mrs. Misener returned from furlough last Xmas, and 



SCHOOLS FOR FOREIGN CHILDREN II7 

invigorated by the year's rest, is entering upon her 
duties with courage and enthusiasm. During her ab- 
sence Miss Gordon carried on her duties as principal 
in the most efficient manner. 

Five teachers are giving their full time to the public 
and High school departments, and in addition the time 
and strength of the music teacher is taxed in giving 
piano lessons to those in the dormitory. 

Steps are now being taken to provide for the building 
in the near future of a new and adequate dormitory 
building, and it is the hope of the Committee that this 
will be ready for occupancy next year. 

We are thankful that there are so many evidences to 
show that the school is filling a real need in the life of 
the missionary w^orkers and of the foreign community 
generally, and as from the first, it continues to be the 
fixed purpose of the Board of management as also of 
the teaching staff to make it a centre not only of in- 
struction but of character building- as well. 



CHAPTER VIII 

MISSIONARIES AND LANGUAGE STUDY 



By H. V. S. Peeke 

In this day of invention, discovery- 
More Fortunate and rapid advance in knowledge, it is 
a distinct advantage to have been born 
late. This is eminently true of preparation for mis- 
sionary service in Japan. The early comers were ob- 
liged to discover the language before they could set to 
work to learn it. Search for pasts, futures and con- 
ditionals, was like hunting game in a forest. To-day 
the ground has been thoroughly gone over by foreign- 
ers and Japanese, and almost everything that can be 
found out about the language has been printed and 
published. 

We have the larger works of Aston, Chamiberlain, 
Gubbins, Hepburn, Verbeck and Brinkley, not to 
mention several other names that are almost in this 
class ; and smaller, but really very helpful essays on 
special phases of the language have been published by 
De Forest and others. In addition a number of Japa- 
nese authors have busied themselves, principally in the 
compilation of dictionaries. In fact, the dictionaries 
most used by foreign students are those thus compiled. 
The outstanding contribution of the past year to the 
paraphernalia of language study has been the Japanese- 
English dictionary by Takenobu. 

Thirty years ago it was not uncommon to find 
missionary students carrying on thsir studies according 
to no specified course, with the help of a Japanese 
teacher quite innocent of special qualifications. That, at 
least, is past. Probably without a single exception, 
each newcomer is pursuing his own mission's course. 



MISSIONARIES AND LANGUAGE STUDY II 9 

* 

under the direction of a Mission Committee, or is 
entrusting the direction of his studies and the testing of 
his advance to the Examining Committee of the Con- 
ference of Federated Missions, or is spending his first or 
second year at the Language school, of which the above 
Conference is one of the sponsors. 

The language School .las now re- 
Language School ceived well-nigh universal approval, if 
not as the best possible solution of the 
language problem, at least as the best under all the 
circumstances. The school has had a course of steady 
development, especially since the day Prof. Muller took 
charge. After his death it faced very serious problems, 
and as late as last summer, its friends were very anxious 
in regard to its future. However, plans for its continuance 
were made and put in operation that have practically 
removed all doubt. The undertaking has been put on 
a stronger basis than ever, and under efficient leadership 
it bids fair to exceed its past record for efficiency. 

During the past year Baron Sakatani has acted as 
Hon. Principal, with Dr. Murakami, formerly of the 
Japanese Language School, as Dean. Dr. W. Axling, 
at considerable sacrifice, has acted as Principal, and Mr. 
Y. Matsumiya has acted as a very efficient head-teacher. 
The First Year Class has found rooms for its various 
sections in the Y.M.C.A. Headquarters, and the Second 
Year Class has been accommodated in the near-by 
Baptist Tacemacle. The annual fee has stood at Yen 
200. 

The rolls show twenty-nine in attendance in the First 
Year, and thirteen in the Second Year. It is most 
essential that new pupils reach Japan before Sept. 15th, 
and while there is improvement, this ideal has not been 
reached. Will the Home Boards make note? 

Since the beginning of the year the three men and 
five v/omen teachers have all been made whole-time 
teachers, altho this has entailed considerable expense. 
Whatever work they do outside of school hours is under 
the direction of the Principal, at rates set by the school, 
and is limited to the pupils of the school or wives of 



I20 JAPAN 

pupils. A weekly faculty meeting is held at which one 
hour is devoted to the consideration of school problems, 
and another hour to listening to a lecture by Prof. 
Hoshina, a specialist from the Department of Education. 

There has been no radical change from the methods 
inaugurated by the previous Principal. However, the 
conversation cards are being revised with the Japan 
Readers, rather than the Japanese readers used in the 
Korean schools, for models. Somewhat more stress is 
laid upon reading, and chirography is now receiving 
attention as a branch by itself. It is an ideal of the 
school that at the end of two years the pupil shall be 
able to. compose and write simple postal-card cor- 
respondence. Grammar is not studied as a branch by 
itself, but is still taught largely orally in connection with 
the cards and reading. 

The present management has sought to make a good 
deal of a lecture every other Friday by some outsider 
of prominence in some particular branch. Each alternate 
lecture has as its object the deepening of the spiritual life 
and instruction in regard to missionary and religious 
problems. Among the speakers have been Messrs. 
Wilkes, Buchman, Reischauer, Ebina, Anezaki, Ibuka 
and Mrs. Tenney. 

An effort is made by correspondence 

Correspondence to assist those who have studied one or 
two years at the school, and then gone 
to occupy interior stations. There are at present eleven 
being aided in the 3rd year work, eight on their 2nd 
year work. Seven or eight whose work is rather un- 
classified are also being directed in their studies. This 
branch of the work presents considerable difficulties. 
The interruptions are many for those who have begun 
direct mission work, and it is reasonable to suppose 
that the correspondence method does not readily lend 
itself to the continuance of the instruction of those 
whose previous training has been with a rather extreme 
oral method. 

It would probably be within bounds to say that the 
school has never been in as good shape as now, has 



MISSIONARIES AND LANGUAGE STUDY 121 

never had brig-hter promise. The principal, with hands 
already full with other duties, pleads for a man who can 
make the conduct of the school his principal work, and 
for such housing of the classes and pupils that the long, 
tedious travel to and from school can be avoided. 

The other of the principal aids to 
Board of Examiners linguistic preparation for missionary work 
is the Board of Examiners of the Con- 
ference of Federated Missions. The Chairman of the 
Committee acts as a sort of Executive Secretary, and 
is assisted in his work by a considerable committee of 
experienced missionaries, of whom those advantageously 
situated out over the country, aid him by acting as 
local examiners. At present the writer is Chairman, and 
Drs. Walne, Myers, Rowlands and Coates are the 
principal examiners. There is a carefully worked out 
course of three years which the pupils follow with the 
aid of such teachers as their locality aflbrds, and the 
local examiner is expected to act as something of a 
guide and a good deal of a sympathetic friend. 

The work of the Board of Examiners is not in com- 
petition with' the work of the Language School, its 
purpose is to assist those who, for a variety of reasons, 
find it undesirable or impossible to reside in Tokyo, or 
•give their time unreservedly to the language. It is by 
no means easy for those living in isolation to keep up 
their enthusiasm for study, and the work of the Board 
of Examiners is expected to assist. There are at pre- 
sent seventeen men and women taking the examinations 
ot this course. 

The ideals of linguistic attainment among the mis- 
sionaries are higher than ever before, and the demands 
are more severe. The missionaries, younger and older, 
are striving earnestly to attain, and they are to be con- 
gratulated that whether we think of the many published 
helps of the Language School or of the work of the 
Board of examiners, the machinery exists to carry them 
on to a high degree of success. 



JAPAN 



PART IV 
LITERATURE 



CHAPTER IX 

REVIEW OF LITERATURE 



■ By S. H. Wainright 

The book trade in Japan in 191 8, as in other count- 
ries, was affected by the rise in manufacturing costs. 
All supplies, and wages as well, advanced in price during 
the year. The war expenditure in Japan was not great, 
but on the other hand the sale of supplies to the allied 
nations brought money into the country. Over against 
the increase in the cost of production, therefore, was the 
increased amount of spending money put in circulation. 
This tended to keep up the sales to the usual level. 

The mark of economy was to be 
Economies seen upon all publications. It was visible 
in the inferior quality of paper used and 
in the" character of the binding. Certain materials became 
exhausted or were put under embargo. Books in cloth 
bindings, for example, were issued in very limited 
numbers. The year gave illustration to what can be 
done in the use of board in the production of neat and 
durable covers. 

Toward the close of the year, the problem of skilled 
labor in the printing industry became increasingly difficult 
owing to the absorption of labor by other industries. 
The linotype machine cannot be used in Japanese printing 
on account of the great number of types required in 
ordinary composition. The industry is dependent upon 
labor to a far greater degree than in countries where 
machinery has been brought into use. The abolition of 
the Chinese ideograph, and the substitution of the Eng- 
lish alphabet or the Japanese kana, is a step that must 
be taken before the printing industry in Japan, now 



I 26 JAPAN 

highly organized in other respects, can be set free for 
adequate production. 

A curious aspect of the problem of 
Evils literature in Japan is disclosed by the 

use made of the censorship. Books are 
condemned on two grounds ; either that they are against 
the public order or prejudicial to public morals. The 
following statistics (The Japan Year Book) are interesting 
in this connection. Books forbidden, 





JAPANESE 




FOREIGN 




Year 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 


Public order Morals 

3 ^67 

17 1096 

37 673 

34 519 


Year 
1912 

1913 
1914 

1915 


Public order 
I 
I 

5 
5 


Morals 
31 

as 

19 
19 



An evil of a different description has given rise to 
legislation for the protection of the public. Publication 
by subscription has been used as a means of defrauding 
the people from whom advance payments were collected. 
In order to check this evil a law was enacted by the 
Diet requiring publishers to deposit with the authorities 
as security a sum of ¥500 if the price of the book is 
¥10, and of ¥1000, if the price is above that sum. 
Security against fraud and disorder is required with 
reference to other enterprises as well. Any periodical, 
for example, desiring to discuss political affairs is re- 
quired to deposit with the authorities a sum of not less 
than ¥1000. 

The last paragraph gives point to the quesLou of 
supplying wholesome literature on the subject of religion 
and morals. Before mentioning the titles of leading 
Christian publications issued during the year, it may be 
well to refer briefly ^o publications included under the 
general subject of religion. 

Publications classified under this head- 
Religion ing include books on " Shrines and 
Shinto." The subjects treated of include 
accounts of shrines, the Shinto cultus and Shinto teach- 
ings. The number of books published on this subject 
is small. One volume issued during the year is on 



REVIEW OF LITERATURE 12/ 

ancestor worship, the title of which is So^enkyo Kyosho, 
by R. Nagasawa. Noteworthy also, as regards Shin- 
toism, is the Genko Jinsha Hoki Yoran or outline studies 
of laws relating to shrines. One volume discusses Ryubo 
Shinto, the blend between Buddhism and Shintoism, the 
title of which is Honjisuijaku no Genri or Principles of 
Reincarnation. Shintoism is not productive Gf literature. 

Buddhists have continued to issue volumes under the 
series mentioned last year. The Dai Nippon Bunkyo 
Zensho added volumes 7, 8, and 9 to the series under 
that title, while volumes 29 to 36 were added to the 
series called Nippon Taizokyo. The Kokuyaku Taizokyo 
is also continued. The Shinshu Taikei, is a new series 
fifteen numbers of which were published during the 
year. Another series, which might be mentioned in 
connection with these, is the Dai Nippon Fukyo SosJw, 

As we have already remarked, present day Buddhism 
is not producing literature. Its output is scrappy on 
the w^hole. Its principle work is in the republication, 
with modern type and in a more readable form, of books 
belonging to the past. 

The Christian books published during 
Christian the year include among the more note- 

worthy volumes the following published 
l)y the Christian Literature Society* : 

New lestament Theology^ by Prof. George Parker 
Stevens, translated by Rev. D. Yoshimura (724 pp) ; 
System of Theology, by Prof Olin Curtis, translated by 
Prof K. Obata {6^6 pp) ; Life of Bishop Honda, edited 
.by the Faculty of the Aoyama Gakuin (811 pp) ; King- 
dom of God, by Prof. A. B. Bruce, translated by Prof 
K. Nakagawa (380 pp). Also by other publishers. Out- 
lines of Systematic Theology, {Soshiki Shingaku Gairori) 
by J. C. McKim ; New Discussio?is of Christiajiity 
{Kristokyo Shinron), by Rev. D. Ebina published by 
the Keiseisha ; History of Christianity in Japan, by Prof. 
H. Yamamoto {Nippon Kirisutokyoshi), in two volumes, 
published by the Rakuyodo. 

* A report of the Christian Literature Society will be given in a 
later section. (Ed.) 



128 JAPAN 

Like Christ, by Andr^iv Murray, 
Devotional Books translated by T. Hirota, was published 
by the Japan Book and Tract Society ; 
Christian Perfection {Kiristosha no Kwanzen^^ by John 
Wesley, translated by M. Akazawa, was published by 
the Christian Literature Society. The lectures given by 
Dr. John Paul were published in English by Revell & 
Co., under the title The Way of Power, and in Japanese, 
by the Christian Literature Society, under the title 
Chikara Ye no Michi. They were translated by Prof, 
Matsumoto. The Christian Literature Society published 
the Essentials of the Kingdom o' God, by Rev. T. 
Kugimiya {Kami no Kvni no Shinzui). 

Children of tife Catholic Church (R.C.) 
Children's Books was published in Osaka ; New Testament 
Stories {Shinyaku Monogatari^, by S. 
Nobechi, was published by the Teibi Shuppansha. The 
Nippon Seikokai Shuppansha published a book on Re- 
ligion in the I'Cijtdergarten {Yochien Shitkyoka Katei) 
by Miss Ethel Correll. The Keiseisha published a 
Children's Old Testament {Kyuyaku Kodomo Seisho) by 
S. Ashiya. The Trumpet Calls (Tsn no Bne), is a book 
of sermonettes for children translated by S. Nobechi 
and published by the Christian Literature Society. An 
Outline Study of Children {fidogaku Gairon) by H. 
Seki was published by the Rakuyodo. 

View of Post- War Conditions {Sengo 
War Books Eiken^, by T. Miyaga\\*a, was published 
by the Keiseisha. The Keiseisha pub- 
lished a book on Religioji and the Prevailing Popular 
Trend, written by S. Imai, the title of which in Japa- 
nese is Shukyo to Minshu Shii>d. 

My F.xperie7ice of Religion {yo ga 
Comparative fikken no Shukyo) by K. Imai, was 
Religion published by the Christian Literature 

Society. 

The following may be mentioned : 

Denominational What I Believe, by R. Minami ( Ware 

Teachings ^^ Kakushinzu), published by the Toi-- 

tsu Publishing Co., (Liberal) ; History 



REVIEW OF LITERATURE 1 29 

of the Catholic Chtirch in Nagato, by Kako Yama- 
guchi ; Doctrine and Rides of the Free MetJiodist Church 
{/iyu Methodist Kyokai Kyogi Oyobi Jorei), by August 
Youngren (published in Osaka) ; Activities of the Saha- 
tion Army {Kyusetgnn no Kwatsudo), CoL. G. Yama- 
muro ; Minutes of the fapan Protestant Church, (27th 
Session.) ; Minutes of the Japan Methodist Church, East 
Conference ; History of the Kumiai Church (^Nippon 
Kuniiai Kyokaishi), by K. Nishio, (published at Osaka) ; 
Year Book of the Chu?Th of Christ {Nippon Kirisuto 
Kvokai Nenrokii). The Meiji Seifoku Kinenkwai pub- 
lished Christian Dainiyos, by M. Steichen {Kiristokyb 
Shinja no Nippon Daimyo). The Salvation Army pub- 
lished Lessons front the World Conference of the Salva- 
tion A.'-niv, by Col. Gumpei Yamamuro. A book on 
the Doshisha (Doshisha Romansu), written by S. Matsu- 
ura, was published by the Keiseisha. 

An interesting book on cooperation is 
Cooperation Report of the Three Years National 
Evangelistic Campaign {Sannen Keizokn 
Zenkoku Kyodo Dendo), published by the Committee. 

Among volumes on this subject are 
Christian Sabbath Observance {Mamorubeki Nichi- 

Institutions yobi), three prize essays published by 
the Christian Literature Society ; Sunday 
School Problems {Nichiyo Gakko Shomondai), by S. 
Ebisawa, published by the Sunday School Association. 
The Seikokai Shuppansha issued a book by an anony- 
mous writer entitled The Preacher {Dendosha). K. 
Azegami is the author of a book on the Experience of 
a Preacher in a Japanese Comitry Village^ {Ayuiniskt 
Ato) which was published by the Keiseisha. 

Text of the Old Testament (Soseiki), by 
Commentaries K. Yamaguchi, was published by the 
Keiseisha. 

The doctrine of the Second Coming 
Second Coming of Christ was the subject of live dis- 
cussion in current periodical literature. 
In the Seisho no Keiikyu, edited by K. Uchimura, an(* 
the Shinjin, edited b)y D. Ebina, numerous articles ap- 



I 30 JAPAN 

peared, the former magazine defending the premillennial 
view and the latter magazine the liberal view of Christ's 
Return. A volume of lectures on the subject^ by K. 
Uchimura {Kirisiito Sairin Mondai Koenshu), was pub^ 
lished by the Iwanami Shoten. 

A volume entitled Jsshu Is shin by 
Women's Problems Madame Hirooka was published by the 

Fujin Shuhosha. The Fukuin Shoten 
published the life of Ann Judson under the title of Ann 
of Aba. The Christian Literature Society published a 
Mother''s Gtdde {Tkiiji no SJnyori), by Mrs. B. N. 
Miles. The Seikokai Shuppansha published a volume 
by Bishop H. J. Foss on the subject Christianity and 
Womanhood {Kirisutokyo to Fujiii no Michi). 

The Y.M.C.A. published M. Kuri- 
Social Problems hara's translation of Walter Rauschen- 

busch's Social Teachings of Jesus. The 
Hakubunkwan published addresses given at the Con- 
cordia Association on Social and Educatio7ial Problems 
{Sh'akai Mondai to Kyoiku Mofidai), by Messrs. Axling, 
Honda, Anesaki, Kanegi, Banks, and others. 

Rev. T. Kuranaga was the author of 
Literature a book on Tennyson's ** In Memoriam." 

Charlotte Young's ** Little Duke " was 
translated by Miss M. Morita. Morrice Gerard's " Dawn 
of Hope " was translated by S. Kobayashi. The above 
were published by the Christian Literature Society. 
Works on Tolstoi continue to be issued in translations, 
A volume was published by the Genkosha containing 
translations of John Ruskin's works. Dante's '' Inferno," 
translated by S. Nakayama, was published in Tokyo. 
The Rakuyodo issued a translation of Browning's poems 
under the title ''Browning the Poet of LifeP The author 
is R. Hoashi. The Fukuin Shoten published Prof. 
Yamamoto's translations of the '* Sky Pilot," by Ralph 
Connor. 

The Christian Literature Society pub- 
Church Music lished a book of Anthems, prepared by 

Miss Hansen, of the Miyagi Girl's 
School. These were set up in lead* type by the Fukuin 



REVIEW OF LITERATURE 131 

Printing- Co. The musical compositions in Japan are- 
photographic reproductions. 

Owing to the great increase in the 

Evangelistic cost of paper very little was done during 

Booklets the year in the publication of Christian 

and Tracts booklets and tracts. The Christian 

Literature Society issued a booklet on 

Capt. Hardy and one by Rev. W. P. Buncombe, entitled, 

"Evangelise your Church Neighbors." 

The Keiseisha published a book on 

Biography Luther, in addition to those mentioned 

in our report last year, the author of 

which is S. Sato, under the titlo Wakaki R?iteru. The 

life of the late Juji Ishii written by T. Nishiuchi, under 

the titl€ of Shin Tenkiy was published by the Keiseisha. 



CHAPTER X 

BIBLE SOCIETIES 



L— AMERICAN BIBLE SOCIETY 

By K. E. Aurell (Acting ) Secretary 

Another year of war, entailing advance in production 
and circulation costs of Scriptures, with practically no 
increase of funds, grieviously affected our activities. 
Opportunities could not be improved because the Agency 
would be financially involved thereby. In the beginning 
of the year we did Bible work in a number of spinning 
factories, and sold thousands of testaments. We could 
have gone from factory to factory and enjoyed similar 
privileges, but did not dare for lack of resources. 

The high cost of living, and no discounts on the 
purchase of Scriptures, also lessened the number of vol- 
untary workers. Our total number of workers (including 
correspondents) was 29 less than the preceding year. 

Circulation fell considerably short of 
Circulation the previous year. The number of 
Bibles circulated was 5,052 ; Testaments, 
40,494; Portions, 46,988; grand total, 92,535 copies. 

Owing to the war prosperity that 

Removal of the struck Yokohama, the rental on the 

Bible House property (No. 53) in w^hich the Agency 

had been located for 12 years, was 

raised to an unreasonable figure, and we were obliged 

to move to a smaller place. This was regrettable, but 

we have made the best of it, hoping that eventually we 

might transfer the Bible House to Tokyo. We need a 

respectable, attractive, well-located building, with several 

well-stocked departments. This would be much ap- 



BIBLE SOCIETIES 1-33 

predated among this book-loving people who are feeling 
the need of moral fortification. Here is an opportunit}^ 
for someone to erect a worthy monument and thereby 
serve Japan largely. 

Our branch at the National Y.M.C.A. 

' Tokyo Branch having become widely known, has done 

• fine work. Mr. Otake has been kept 

very busy. The demand for well-bound whole Bibles 

has been greater than we could supply, an encouraging 

evidence of the progress of Christianity. 

As in past years, Testaments were 

Bible and Cherry supplied for selling at special tent services 

Blossoms during cherry season in Tokyo. Large 

numbers of people, tired from walking 

and admiring the blossoms, are glad to find a place to 

rest. Earnest Christian workers quite easily get one 

group after another into the tent. Practically everyone 

carries spending money and after an earnest Gospel 

message many are w'Uing to buy a Testament. We are 

glad for our share in the occasion. 

The oldest son of one colporteur 

A Barber and runs a barber shop, and his sincerity as 

the Bible a Christian is becoming knoAvn in his 

ward. Many of his customers have 

become Christians through his testimony. Every month he 

buys a few Bibles to sell, and keeps them in the window 

so passers-by as vvell as customers may see them. He 

always exalts God's book and sells a number of copies 

weekly. On the barber's holiday (i/th of each month) 

he takes his brother and an assistant to hold open-air 

meetings and sell Scriptures. The Lord has prospered 

him and other barbers watching him are profoundly 

impressed. 

Mr. Maekawa has faithfully taken 
In the Schools Scriptures to the .schools, and despite 
the effect of the high cost of living on 
students discouraging purchases, it has been a real joy 
to hand them out. In nearly all schools are students 
who urge their fellows to buy, and the need of the 
moral power of this Book is being acknowledged. 



134 JAPAN 

As Japan Y.M.C.A. workers accom- 

Japaaese Troops panied the troops sent to Siberia, we 

in Siberia could not refuse a grant of 10,000 

portions for distribution. The British 
Society also made a grant. The Christians in Nagoya 
city bought from us 3200 portions to enclose in comfort* 
bags. Though these are not enough, we are happy that 
we did what we could. As a result soldiers have already 
asked for more Christian literature. 

All our workers, the last two years, 
Workers' Meeting have come together for a few days of 

fellowship in prayer and conference. 
This year we delayed till the balmy days of cherry 
blossoms, believing it would add to the pleasure of 
coming together. Our simple program chiefly consisted 
of addresses by leading Christian workers, and reports of 
colporteurs. 

Mr. Sato, our earnest Bible-seller in Nagoya, has been 
instrumental in leading fifty one souls to Christ ; ten 
received baptism, joining different churches. Two strik- 
ing instances from^ his report are the story of a despairing 
young woman, disappointed in love and physically suf- 
fering, who heard Mr. Sato witnessing while on her 
way to commit suicide. She was saved, her unhappiness 
and physical complaint departed, she has joined the church 
and lived happily since. Then the story of Mr. Ozawa, 
an insurance agent, whose heart was touched during an 
open air service and who was led to confess his sins 
and wicked life which were distracting his wife : saved, 
he joined the church, and his subsequent life has been a 
joy to the workers. Mr. Sato sold 161 Bibles, 1447 
Testaments and 4245 Portions, a total of 5854 copies, 
in money Yen 888.98. 

The few workers in our service are 
Ex=Convict all proofs of the power o the Bible, 

and among them Mr. Kamiyama is 
most striking. When he was 19 years old, in a fit of 
anger he killed a man, and as a result spent 19 years 
in prison at hard labor. He had not been regarded as 
bad previous to the crime, but on entering prison be- 



BIBLE SOCIETIES 135 

came most unruly, disobedient, a center of disturbance 
in the prison, repeatedly a victim of severe punishment 
in consequence. He hated both Buddhism and Chris- 
tianity* A cell-mate read a Bible and urged him to join 
him, but this made Kamiyama furious and he challenged 
him repeatedly to fight. He regarded the Bible as de- 
filing, and kept himself and his possessions as far from 
it as possible. After ten years an incident occurred that 
made him terribly angry at a fellow prisoner, and as he 
sought ways of vengeance that night the thought came 
** Human beings certainly are pitiful things. If there is 
a God, He, of course, knows whether it is I or my 
opponent who is bad. If so, there is no use getting 
infuriated ; some day this will become clear." This 
brought peace and he fell asleep. He awoke with new 
feelings in his heart, bitterness having changed to pity — 
and realised the necessity of religion. Securing a Bible, 
he read to Matt. 11:28, and was overpowered, lamenting 
his sins and exclaiming ** This is what my heart has 
been crying for all my life ! " He writes, " In the past 
I had attended the Buddhist chapel service but the 
priests' ineffectual prattle went in at one ear and out 
at the other. This one verse from the New Testament 
was imbued with a power that effected an instantaneous 
and complete change in me." Christ became the center 
of his life, he became trusted in the prison and was 
placed over other prisoners. Three years ago he was 
liberated, and thanking God, prayed that henceforth he 
might spread God's word among his countrymen. For 
two years he has been with us, and there have been 
numerous thrilling experiences as a result of his work. 



136 JAPAN 

II.—BRITISH AND FOREIGM BIBLE SOCIETY 

NATIONAL BIBLE SOCIETY OF 

SCOTLAND 

By'F. Parrott, Agent 

In the islands of the Far East, the workers of the 
Bible Society unite with their brethren in Christ the 
world over in thanksgiving and praise to God that the 
past year of terror and grief has at last ended in rejoicing 
and renewed gain of freedom. He has given us deliver- 
ance and victory over evil immeasurable that for so long 
threatened disaster and accomplished devastation in so 
many countries. During the past four years, Japan has 
been peculiarly free from the terror that has been the 
lot of so many lands. Commercial prosperity has been 
hers in no unstinted measure and now, like other coun- 
tries, she faces many difficulties ; but her freedom is 
guaranteed, the future is hers in which to make or mar 
her destiny. 

More and more, Japan is influencing the whole of the 
Far East. Recently a Chinese university student speak- 
ing in America said, " If you really want to help China, 
you must Christianize Japan." The Orient can best be 
evangelized by orientals. The Christian worker of the 
Occident will ever be to those of the Orient, a foreigner. 
The Gospel of Love will more quickly and readily break 
down distrust, if lived and preached by compatriots who 
can prove through humble service among their own 
countrymen, that they really love their neighbour as 
they love themselves, as a consequence of their fervent 
love to the Lo^d their God. 

New editions printed in 191 8 include : 

Bibles. New Testaments. Psalais. Portions. 

1,000 16,000 4,000 135,000 

The year's issues amounted to 193, 975 copies in 
eighteen languages. Of the total copies issued, 10,374 
were sent to other Agencies. 





BIBLE SOCIETIES 


' 


137 


Issues. 


Bibles. New Testaments. 


Portions. 


Totnl. 


916 ... 

917 ... 

918 ... , 


... 4,012 37,659 
.. 4,780 42.388 
- 3,654 35,530 


206,258 
286,329 
154,791 


247,929 

333,497 
193,975 



The total number of Bibles, Testaments, and Portions 
circulated during 191 8 was 201,490. The following table 
shows the method of circulation. 

Table of Circulation. 

Medium. Bibles. N. Portions. Total. Total. Total. 

Tests. I918. 1917. 1916. 

Sales by Colporteurs ... 407 11,093 134,285 145,785 230,410 180,763 
Sales at Depot 3,255 24,339 15,423 43,017 70,168 52,154 

Total Sales 3,662 35,432 149,708 188,802 300,578 232,916 

Free Grants 21 95 12.572 12,688 1,412 7,833 

Total Circulation ...3,683 35,527 162,380 201,490 301,990 240,739 

During 19 18, 21 Bibles, 95 New 
Free Grants Testaments, 12,5/2 Portions, were sent 
to Prisoners of War, to Y.M.C.A. work 
in Siberia, to Women's Rescue Home, a Japanese Gun- 
boat, to Churches, and Preaching Stations, a Town 
Library, to the Salvation Army, also to British troops 
in Siberia. 

The sales by colporteurs of the 
Colportage British Bible Societies subsequent to the 
establishment of the Bible Flouse in 
Kobe in 1904, are 21,059 Bibles, 298,076 New Testa- 
ments, 2,181,245 Portions, a total of 2,500,380 copies. 

During 1918, colporteurs sold 407 Bibles, 11,093 New 
Testaments, 134,285 Portions, a total of 145,785 copies. 
While these totals are lower than those of 19 17, they 
represent over J20/0 of the total circulation of the yean 
Thirty-one men worked during the year ; and of this 
number eleven continued throughout the twelve months. 
Mr. Hattori obtained the highest sales. To his credit it 
should be recorded that his faithful labours resulted in 
the following Books being sold : 1 1 Bibles, 3 1 7 New 
Testaments, 11,814 Portions, a total of 12,142. The 
scene of his labours was in southwestern Kyushu. 



138 " JAPAN 

Colportage is still the method of effecting the major 
portion of the circulation. The past year has seen 
many changes in our ranks. In all districts, it has been 
a time of difficulty. Higher prices of the Books have 
hindered sales in some cases. Where the colporteur 
visited territory over which he had travelled before, time 
had to be spent in explaining why he could not sell at 
old prices and even .then sometimes sales were not 
effected. The prosperity that has come to the farmer 
and the artisan has rendered more than usually difficult 
the colporteur's task of inducing these classes to con- 
sider the needs of the spirit. That our returns are not 
lower is a matter for thankfulness. Months and years 
pass and yet this labour of love goes on. Unpaid by 
mere money is this service of seeming drudgery, when 
in utter weariness of mind and body they sow for others 
to reap. The thought of the blessed Redeemer's sacrifice 
and the knowledge that teeming thousands, in ignorance 
of what that sacrifice means to them, are passing to their 
graves, these are the strong incentives that impel these 
men to persevere. 

Mr. Lawrence, our Sub-agent, reports as follows. 

** The principal work of the year was an extended tour 
to Loochoo and Formosa. One of our colporteurs, Mr. 
Adki, accompanied me for a part of the time. Com- 
mencing work in Naha, the principal town, we visited 
schools and business houses and obtained good sales. 
At Shuri and Katena, good returns were also secured. 

** Taihoku is the educational centre of Formosa and 
contains a number ot schools and colleges. To visit all 
schools and to offer the Scriptures for sale among the 
students was a work not easy of accomplishment. 

" Medical, Technical, and other schools were visited 
with satisfactory results. At Tamsui Mission School, 163^ 
Bibles and Testaments were sold. 

'* On concluding our work among students, we had 
the satisfaction of knowing we had effected sales at every 
High School in the towns visited. 

** Booksellers purchased considerably larger supplies than 
in previous years. The growing demand for the Scrip- 



BIBLE SOCIETIES 1 39 

tures thoughout Formosa is very heartening and is a 
matter for thanksgiving. 

The Pastors of the various churches were much in- 
terested in our work and rendered us valuable assistance. 
They gave full publicity to our visit, requested us to 
place the Scriptures on sale in their churches, and they 
urged the Christians to obtain copies of the Revised 
Japanese New Testament." 

Mr. Eiichi Idei visits every house in the neighbour- 
hood in which he works. He has much evangelistic 
fervour. On Feb. 25, 1918, he wrote as follows. *' I 
met an old man who saluted me very politely and said : 
* Some time ago, my son bought from you a copy of 
the New Testament. Since then, he has been reading 
it diligently morning and evening. To my great surprise, 
he has given up his dissolute habits and is a changed 
man. Your Book has worked a miracle in my family.' 
The old man's testimony enabled me in that little town 
to sell nearly fifty Books that day." 

The silver and the gold are His, the 
Conclusion circulation of Whose Word is a sign of 
obedience to the command to preach 
the Glad Tidings of great joy. The great divine who 
uttered the dictum : ** The Church to teach and the 
Bible to prove," would rejoice to see how in lands far 
distant from his own the Church is teaching, because it 
has the Bible provided for it, whereby it can prove " all 
things," even the truth of the ringing words, " The 
entrance of thy words giveth light." 



JAPAN 



PART V 
YOUNG PEOPLE'S WORK 



CHAPTER XI 

NATIONAL SUNDAY SCHOOL ASSOCIA- 
TION OF JAPAN 



By H. Kawasumi, Secretary 

Sunday School work in Japan to-day 
Progress compared to what it was a year ago 

shows progress. The Branch Associa- 
tions number 52, and the schools with them number 
759, an increase of 2 associations and of 159 schools. 

In the Tokyo Teacher Training School 17 took ex- 
aminations. During the year 3363 scholars attended 
•every Sunday and 49 of these had not missed a Sunday 
for five years. The numbers of teachers who attended 
every Sunday for five years is 51, 19 have not missed 
.a Sunday for ten years. 

This year the offering for the work of the Association 
which is made annually on the second Sunday in October 
was Yen 162.69. Last year the offering was Yen 151.28. 
The offering for children in Bible Lands was Yen 
1652.00. Last year the oftering for this purpose was 
Yen 1000.00. 

The first year of each grade of the Graded Lessons 
lias been put on the market with the exception of the 
Primary grade which will be revised and published later 
on. 

Mr. Torn Koizumi (Osaka) made a gift to the As- 
sociation of Yen 270.00 for a circulating library. For 
this purpose books both in English and in Japanese 
have been secured and are being read by the Japanese 
workers. 

From April 2-4 a local convention was held in Osaka 
attended by 131 delegates. 



144 



JAPAN 



As secretary of the Association, from April 5 — June 
4, I visited China, going to Shanghai, Nankin, Tsingtau, 
Tientsin, Pekin and returning through South Manchuria 
and Korea. July i-io was spent in conducting Institutes 
in Gifu, Aichi and Shizuoka provinces. Nov. 3-13 was 
spent in Institute work in Kyushu at Omuda, Kurume 
and Nagasaki. 

In December a cable came from the 

World's World's Association in New York asking 

Convention the Association here what would be a 

suitable time for the World's Sunday 

School Convention. A reply was sent suggesting May 

20, 1920, but at the time of writing this report it is 

not yet certain whether the date will be May o^ October 

of next year. 

On Feb. 4, a general committee to make plans for 
the Convention was held in Tokyo to which about 50 
missionaries and 50 leading Japanese workers had been 
invited. The Hon. S. Ebara was chosen as chairman 
and Bishop Hiraiwa, Dr. Ibuka, Dr. C. B. Tenny and 
Rev. R. D. McCoy were chosen as vice-chairmen of 
the General Committee and also of the Executive Com- 
mittee which consists of the officers of the National 
Sunday School- Association, and the heads and secretaries 
of six departments. The following heads of departments 
were subsequently chosen by the Executive Committee. 



Departmea't 

General Business 
Meeting Hall... 
Entertainment 

Exhibit 

Lecture Tour... 
Music 



Heal 

Rev. H. Kawasumi 
Mr, K. Yamamoto 
Rev. T. Ukii 
Mr. H. E. Coleman 
Dr. T. Yamamoto 
Dr. C. S. Reifsnider 



Secretary 
Mr. K. Yamamoto 
Kev. K. Mat sun o 
Rev. Y. Okazaki 
Rev. K. Mito 
Dr. A. Oltmans 
Mr. H. Aoki 



Mr. H. Nagao was appointed Treasurer and chairman 
of Finance. 



CHAPTER XII 

THE NEXT WORLD'S SUNDAY SCHOOL 
CONVENTION IN JAPAN 



By H. E. Coleman 

The coming of the next World's 
Great Opportunity Sunday School Convention to Japan 
next year will undoubtedly be an event 
of great significance to the Christian movement in general. 
It is important that we stop and consider what the 
possibilities may be. The fact that some of the most 
prominent and influential Japanese in the country are 
constituting the Patrons' Association means that religious 
education and the Sunday School movement will be 
brought before the people of the Empire in a favorable 
light as never before. In three ways there will be an 
opportunity to reach the country with the influence ot 
the gathering. In the first place there will be the press, 
secular as well as religious, and there is every reason to 
expect that they will generally be favorable, and co- 
operate. In the second place delegates will be brought 
from all parts of the country to return with the inspira- 
tion and definite help in the conduct of their own 
schools. In the third place an effort will be made to 
have the delegates from abroad visit as many cities and 
towns in the country as possible. There is to be a 
*'Junkai lin " which committee will have charge of the 
country visits of the delegates with money to pay the 
expenses of interpreters. It is evident that this will be 
a very important committee, and as soon as the work 
on schedules begins they will need the cooperation of 
every missionary. As soon as people know of friends 
who are coming, and of the fact that they will want to 



146 JAPAN 

visit certain places it would be well to make the same 
known to the chairman or secretary. 

The time of the convention being so 
Peace soon after the close of the war will make 

it especially significant from the stand- 
point of international relations and peace. Our World's 
Executive committee will have this especially in mind 
and will plan program features in harmony with the 
desire to , promote a permanent peace. We all believe 
that no peace will endure that is not founded on the 
principles of Christianity, and this will be an opportunity 
for the Christian people of the world to get together 
and to make a beginning in the practice of love and 
brotherliness. Special effort will be made to get pro- 
minent leaders from the different countries who will not 
only represent truthfully the attitude of the best people 
but who will have influence in creating public opinion 
on Christian lines when they return. Most of the Japa- 
nese constituting the Patrons' Association are not Christi- 
ans, and their chief interest is from the standpoint of 
their interest in promoting international relations, and 
the fact that that interest is great is proven from the 
fact that they are now undertaking to raise from one to 
two hundred thousand yen to entertain the delegates. 
It is a fact too, however, that they are interested in the 
moral value of the religious training that is given thru 
the Sunday School. Marquis Okuma and Baron Shibu- 
sawa have frankly said that they believe the convention 
will be of distinct value in promoting the religious and 
moral training of the children and youth. The Mayor, 
Viscount Tajiri, said in his letter of invitation that I am 
taking to Mr. Heinz, Chairman of our Executive Com- 
mittee, " I hope that the enthusiasm and inspiration of 
your World's Convention will give a great stimulus to 
the moral and religious education of the children of 
Japan." 

There are some things that we as Christian workers 
should do to make the best use of the convention for 
promoting our movement. I think we should seek to 
make wide use of it and of the opinions of prominent men 



WORLD S SUNDAY SCHOOL CONVENTION 1 4/ 

regarding it, for the purpose of breaking down prejudice 
against the Sunday School and other Christian enterprises. 
At the same time we can use it to stir up interest 
among our own workers in this line of work for the 
children, and the modern movement toward organized 
activities for young people and adults in the Sunday 
Schools. 

The convention will afford too an 
Forward opportunity for launching a forward 

Movement movement for greatly extending the 
Sunday School work and allied activities 
in the way of religious education. We have a definite 
plan under consideration and it will be presented to the 
home constituency, and T bespeak the sympathetic co- 
operation and prayers of our co-workers when it shall 
be finally decided upon and made public. I believe we 
shall have the greatest opportunity in the history of 
Christian missions, in the next decade, to show the 
world what can be done toward winning a nation to 
Christianity by using proper and scientific methods in 
reaching the children and young people. The doors 
are now swinging open to us, and we must be prepared 
to enter in, and think in terms of millions rather than 
150,000, — our present enrolment in the Sunday Schools. 
It will be important to begin soon to talk with our 
Sunday School and church groups about sending de- 
legates. The basis of representation has been decided 
on, and is based very properly on the Sunday school 
work being done, and we are anxious that every part of 
the country be represented. It will surely bring the best 
results too for the church group to pay the expenses of 
their own delegates. All Sunday School workers are 
requested to begin at once to collect interesting materials 
for the exhibit, for this will be a very important feature 
of the convention. IVe shall want, not ordinary groups 
of pictures, but special features, and especially pictures 
illustrating Japanese child life, whether city or country. 
This will be of special interest to the delegates from abroad. 
Lastly, it is not too early to begin to pray for the 
best success of the convention in every way. 



CHAPTER XIII 

THE YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIA- 
TION IN JAPAN 



By Arthur Jorgensen 

Aside from the interruptions brought 
Siberia on by the task in Siberia, the work of 

the Associations in Japan has gone for- 
ward quite normally. That undertaking, however, has 
absorbed the energies of several of the leading secretaries 
and has called for a group of over twenty men to 
''carry on" in Siberia, more than half of whom were 
taken from the secretarial staffs of our local Associations. 
It is necessary only to mention such men as Messrs. 
Sajima, Murakami, and Fujita, general secretaries re- 
spectively in Osaka, Kyoto, and the Tokyo Imperial 
University, and Mr. Saito of the national stafti^ all of 
whom have given months of their time to this war work, 
to demonstrate that the regular enterprise in Japan has 
suffered. In addition, Messrs. Phelps, Gleason, Trueman, 
and Stier of the foreign secretarial staff have given from 
three to nine months to various phases of the Red 
Triangle work in Siberia. The manner in which this 
work has been carried on and its influence upon soldiers 
and civilians are covered by Mr. Gleason in his article 
which appears elsewhere in this volume. 

Another event somewhat off the re- 
War Work gular beat of Association work was the 
cooperation of Japan in the American 
United War Work Campaign. Being requested by Dr. 
Mott to cooperate to the extent of Yen 140,000, those 
interested fell to and raised about Yen 550,000, and 
secured in addition through the Government the special 



THE YOUNG MEN S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 1 49 

sympathy fund of about Yen 430,000, making a total 
of almost Yen 1,000,000. Without the cooperation of 
such men as Baron Shibusawa, Prince Tokugawa, and 
Viscount Uchida, the Minister of Foreigii Affairs, this 
achievement would have been impossible. As evidence 
of their appreciation not only of this effort, but likewise 
of the great opportunity before the Japanese Association 
in Siberia, the' American War .Work Council contributed 
one-half of the total to the National Committee of Japan 
to be used in Association and relief w^ork in Siberia. 

In connection with the regular enter- 
Growth prise there have been many facts of 
encouragement. Speaking in general 
there has been most satisfactory progress in the utiliza- 
tion of' the present equipm.ent. Several Associations 
which have occupied their buildings only a comparatively 
short time are already pushing through the walls and 
clamoring for more adequate buildings. Kobe has out- 
grown its equipment and is making an effort to secure 
additional land for expansion. The basement of its 
building has during the year been entirely renovated and 
will henceforth be used for the development of boys 
work. The 250 boys in their middle-school offer a 
splendid excuse for this new undertaking. Nagasaki is 
planning a new dormitory and hostel for the medical 
Association. Seoul has made splendid use of its new 
gymnasium and has refinished entirely its spacious lobby. 
Osaka has erected a special building for its educational 
departm.ent and in addition has remodelled its old audi- 
torium. The Yokohama building after a little more 
than two years of service is already too small for the 
men actually demanding service of that Association. 
The Tokyo Imperial University has not only made 
splendid use of the building opened a little more than 
two years ago, but out of resources which the directors 
themselves secured has completed, on a building lot 
immediately to the rear, a splendid new dormitory ac- 
commodating fifteen men. This means a total of forty 
men living under the roof, to say nothing of the healthful 
moral guidance of this Association. The headquarters 



I50 JAPAN 

of the National Committee, which is largely an office 
building, has been crowded throughout the year from 
cellar to garret with about ten different Christian or- 
ganizations. 

Further encouragement is to be found 
Good Finance in the financial status of nearly all the 
local Associations. Several of the As- 
sociations which in years past were handicapped with 
the deficit habit have this year placed themselves upon 
the basis of pay as you go. This is true, for example, 
of Kobe. In Nagasaki, the new general secretary, Mr. 
Kakehi, has also done some courageous struggling with 
the financial problem. Tokyo closed the year with a 
clean record after a difficult but most encouraging effort 
in December to clean up the impending deficit. A single 
gift of Yen i,ooo, from one who has been observing 
the progress of the Association in Tokyo indicates the 
favor with which its work is meeting. Kyoto carried 
the largest current budget in its history without a deficit. 
The National Committee has also borne the weight of 
an increasing financial burden which has been offset by 
the growing suppoit of friends and local Associations. 
Osaka Association met the challenge of the International 
Committee that it raise Yen 100,000 in order to secure 
twice that amount from America for a new building. 
Already Yen 1 30,000 has been secured and present 
plans involve the raising of Yen 250,000. At Nagoya 
steps have been taken to organize a modern Association 
for the first time. Interested citizens of that city have 
underwritten the current budget for three years even 
before the secretaries for the city were on the ground. 

In educational work Osaka has usually been the out- 
standing example of really meritorious achievement. 
Within the last year or two Kobe and Tokyo have 
entered the race and in point of actual service rendered 
through this department as well as numbers enrolled 
are moving up close to Osaka. In these three cities 
alone, over 3,800 diftferent men and boys were enrolled 
during the year. In the educational work of the As- 
sociations in Japan there is a marked tendency to break 



THE YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 151 

away from the exclusive emphasis upon English schools. 
In Osaka, the science department and in Kobe, the 
middle-schools are evidences of this tendency. 

The first full year with a really 
-Athletics modern gymnasium and athletic equip- 

ment has been completed by the Tokyo 
Association. In addition to the regular program of 
physical work carried on in that city a splendid work 
has also been done in other cities of the Empire, especially 
Yokohama, Kyoto, Kobe, and Seoul. The equipment 
of the latter city is next to Tokyo the best in the 
Empire. Enough has already been done to demonstrate 
that the young men of Japan take readily to this type 
of exercise. In Tokyo, several large firms have re- 
cognized the needs of their men and the ability of the 
Association to meet those needs by paying the member- 
ship fees of large numbers of their employees. Messrs. 
Brown and Ryan have been bearing the main brunt of 
the work in Tokyo and Yokohama and in addition have 
been giving special training to three prospective physical 
directors, two Japanese and one Korean. In Kyoto large 
classes in Judo have made constant use of the gymnasium. 
Such games as basketball, volley ball, and other indoor 
sports bid fare to gradually win the support and en- 
thusiasm of young Japan in a wa}^ akin to the record 
made by baseball. 

The dormitories occupied by student 
Dormitories Associations throughout the country 
continue to be fruitful sources of Christi- 
an character. In Tokyo alone, approximately one 
hundred students are accommodated in the Association 
dormitories. Every year several men in each dormitory 
are led to open and firm decisions for the Christian life 
due to the influence of the Christian students who live 
with them. The best work of the student Associations 
is quite naturally being done in those places where 
there is careful supervision, as for example in 
Tokyo, Kyoto, and Osaka. The work of such men as 
Messrs. Fujita, Ishida, Takiura, and Maeda can scarcely 
be over-estimated. In addition to their work in the 



•152 JAFAW.. 

various local fields these men are able to give a little 
time to visitation of other student Associations in their 
vicinity. Mr. Takiura of Kyoto, for example, has done 
splendid work among some of the Associations in the 
western country. The inspiration which these small and 
sometimes isolated groups of students gain from the visit 
of a travelling secretary is difficult to overstate. During 
^the year about eight or ten of the student Associations 
have sent evangelistic bands to neighboring villages ac- 
complishing great good not only in the districts visited, 
but also in the reaction which such service has upon 
the students themselves. 

At the present writing there are gathered in Tokyo 
approximately one hundred delegates from the Associa- 
tions of the country. The large majority of these are 
from the student Associations. One of the most hopeful 
evidences of the genuine Christian spirit of this group 
of young men is their evident desire to serve to the 
utmost in these critical times. The growing interest of 
these Christian young men in the vast and complex 
problems growing out of social conditions is such as to 
give ground for hopefulness with reference to the future. 
At present there are in Japan proper 
Figures 80 Associations ; 59 student and 21 city. 

Of these j6 are wholly self-supporting. 
The estimated value of Association buildings and hostels 
including land is Yen 1,200,000. The total membership 
is 11,486. During the year the total amount raised by 
Japanese Associations far all purposes was about Yen 
400,000. The total enrolment in educational departments 
was 9,500. In 21 dormitories connected with non-mission 
schools there were 392 boarders. The dispensary of the 
Im.perial University treated 6,148 individuals. The 
secretarial staff includes 38 regular Japanese secretaries, 
40 assistants and clerks, and 16 foreign secret;xries. 



CHAPTER XIV 

CHINESE YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN 
ASSOCIATION. TOKYO 



By L. C. Wilson 

During the past year there have been many influences 
at work among the Chinese students in Japan. Wiien 
the now famous military agreement between the two 
countries was first announced the students became greatly 
excited and probably as many as 3,000 returned to 
China. Last fall, however, a few of the old students 
and large numbers of new ones came to Tokyo for 
study. The total number has remained about 5,000 for 
a number of months. 

There w^ere thirty-one young men received into the 
two Chinese churches in Tokyo during the past twelve 
months. They represented practically every province 
of China. These additions resulted very largely from 
their personal, friendly contact with pastors, secretaries, 
and earnest Christian students. Mr. S. S. Day and Mr. 
Frank Buchman rendered a very great service in getting 
a number of students to face their own personal problems 
and to be willing to discuss them with Christian friends. 
Another factor which had an influence 

Sherwood Eddy in bringing about these results was the 
three visits during the year of Dr. 
Sherwood Eddy who passed through Japan on his way 
to and from China and later on a special trip to India. 
His talk on " The Greatest Battle of the War " brought 
the students face to face with Christianity and personal 
purity. His address was translated into Chinese and 
has been put into the hands of thousands of students. 
Surely no group of young men were ev-er exposed to 



1 j4 japan 

greater temptations than are our friends from China, 
Th? moral conditions in the dormitories iind boarding^ 
houses are appalling. Our Association dormitory is 
always filled. At one time five men lived" in a room 
large enough to accommodate two. Fourteen of the 
fifty-four students living in our dormitory are Christians 
and they meet once a week for united prayer and dis- 
cussion as to how they can win their fellow-students to- 
Chri-t. 

As a result of our membership campaign last fall we 
secured the largest number of members in the history 
of the Association. 

An interesting phase of our work has 
Friendly been the occasional excursions to fact- 

Intercourse ories, educational institutions and other 

places of interest in and around TokyOy 
led by Mr. Maruyama, a gentleman who is giving his 
time chiefly to promoting friendly relations between 
foreign students and Christian Japanese. He has secured 
entree into a number of Japanese homes for small groups 
of Chinese students. Of course it is not possible to do- 
a great deal along this line, but surely such friendly 
intercourse will bear some good fruit. 

It may not be generally known that 
Strategic Work the Chinese who study in Japan almost 

invariably occupy positions of respon- 
sibility and influence upon their return to the home 
country. The parliaments in Peking and Canton are 
composed very largely of returned students from here, 
A short time ago there were 522 returned students 
from this country in Peking, 85 per cent of whom were 
in government service. Former president Li of China 
was at one time a student of military science in Tolcyo. 
It will be evident to all that the Chinese Young Men's 
Christian Association and the two Chinese churches are 
laboring among a very strategic and potentially influential 
group of students. There is a great need therefore for 
the united prayers of all Christians in Japan for increas- 
ingly larger and more genuine religious results from 
this work. 



CHAPTER KV 

THE JAPAN UNION OF CHRISTIAN 
ENDEAVOR 



By Tatsujiro Sawaya, General Secretary 

The officers of the Japanese Union of Christian 
Endeavor are Rev. James H. Pettee, D. D., President, 
(American Board Missionary) ; Rev. Kameji Ishizaka, 
Rev. Toraji Makino, Rev. Kanji Mori, Vice-presidents ; 
Mr. Tatsujiro Sawaya, General Secretary ; Mr. Eijiro 
Yotsuya, Treasurer. All presidents of the local C. E. 
Unions which now number twelve throughout the 
Em.pire are the councillors of the Japan Union. Besides 
these councillors, there are a few more councillors ap- 
pointed specially from the Japan Union. 

The Union has held a Convention 
Conventions once every year. But at the last Con- 
vention held in Sendai in May 191 8, 
the constitution of the Union was changed, and it w^as 
decided to have a national Convention once in three 
years. But during the two years between the national 
convention years, at least two local conventions are to 
be held. Two local conventions to be held during 
1919 are one at Moji which has already been held in 
P'ebruary, and the other is expected to be held at 
Sapporo next September. At the local convention in 
Moji, the three vice-presidents of the Union attended and 
carried out several successful gatherings and conferences 
for two days. They also made addresses at the churches 
and other places in several towns near Moji during and 
after the convention. 

There are 280 C. E. societies now existing in Japan 
of which about 220 are senior and about 60 are junior 



156 JAPAN 

societies. Total membership now amounts to about 7,000 
and thirty new societies were reported last year. The 
Union has in its list the C. E. societies organized in 
fourteen different denominations, of which Methodist 
leads, then comes Kumiai, then Nippon Kirisuto, then 
Baptist and so forth. 

The Union publishes its organ, a monthly magazine 
called '* Kassekai " (Endeavor World). Several hundred 
copies are sent out every month to subscribers and 
friends. It also publishes every year ** C. E. Prayer 
Meeting Topics and Daily Readings " both for senior 
and junior use, which is used not only by Endea- 
vorers but also very widely among Christians in many 
denominations. 

Its officers make wide trips every 
Visits year in visiting C. E. societies and 

giving help to church work wherever 
they travel. Last year Mr. Ishizaka traveled through 
Hokuriku, Hokkaido, Shikoku and a part of Kyushu, 
Mr. Makino early this year in Kyushu, Chugoku and 
Shikoku. General Secretary Sawaya made trips to 
Tohoku, Hokkaido and Hokuriku. Such large cities as 
Tokyo, Osaka, Kyoto and Kobe and the cities lying 
between Kyoto and Tokyo quite often welcome our 
C. E. officers. 

The Union is supported by a grant of one thousand 
dollars annually which comes from the Worlds Union, 
Boston Mass., and some four hundred and fifty yen 
raised every year in Japan amoung its Sustaining Mem- 
bers and the subscribers to its magazine and tracts. 

Its President Rev. James H. Pettee, D. D. is in 
America at present on furlough, and Mr. Makino one 
of the vice-presidents was absent last year traveling in 
the United States. During the absence of President 
Pettee, Rev. Ishizaka is acting in his place, presiding at 
sessions and directing the work. 



CHAPTER XVI 

THE YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN 
ASSOCIATION OF JAPAN 



By Miss M. E. Gunter 



The thirteenth annual summer con- 
National ferences of the Y.W.C.A. were held in 
July 191 8 at Kobe College, Kobe and 
Shokei Jo Gakko, Sendai ; and in addition a small con- 
ference for high school girls was held at Koroen, a 
suburb of Osaka. The statistics of attendance for the 
three conferences are as follows : 



Enrollment 

Speakers and Bible teachers. 

Bible women 

Teachers 

Business women 

Kurses 

Kindergarten teachers 
Girls living at homo 
Students 



Koroen conference 



459— Kobe 263—: 



ienc'ai 196 

24 
12 

35 
9 
I 

4 
iS 

356 

459 
476 



Kumber of schools represented, 68 — Kobe 34, Sendai 34. 
Isumber of churches represented, 7 at each conference. 

During the summer the National Committee was asked 
to loan Miss Matthew, National General Secretary, and 
Miss Fonda, Physical Director, for Siberian relief work. 
Their work is much appreciated by the American Red 
Cross and at the expiration of the term for which they 
were loaned the Committee was asked to extend this 
time further. In October, Miss Michi Kawai, National 
General, and Miss Kato, Tokyo General, went to Siberia- 



158 JAPAN 

to see if the Japanese association could be of any service 
there. After their return in November the association 
made an appeal with the result that sufficient toys were 
gathered for more than 1500 children for Christmas, 27 
boxes of clothing and bedding, and about ¥1,000 in 
cash. In December Miss Gunter, and Miss Ai Kunii, 
a graduate of an American College and now a teacher 
in Hokusei Jo Gakko, Sapporo, went to Vladivostok to 
prepare for the work. In January Miss Kawai and 
Miss Tomo Sakamoto, a graduate of Shoshin Jo Gakko, 
Kanazawa followed them. These workers made further 
investigation of conditions and gave their services wherever 
needed. They felt that the international, social, and 
economic conditions were not favorable for beginning 
permanent work and returned to Japan in March. 

In the fall of 191 8 three new secretaries arrived from 
America, Miss Verry, Miss Chambers and Miss Dunning. 
During the past year Miss Mary Page has been home 
on furlough, but she is expected back April 26th. We 
are also looking forward with great pleasure to the return 
of Miss Hanayo Sakamoto, Miss Tsuji Yokozaw^a and 
Miss Hisa Onomi, who have been studying for the past 
three years in Canada and the United States, and will 
have completed the course offered at the National 
Training School of the Y.W.C.A. in New York, t 

The Tokyo association now has a 
Tokyo membership of 745, and the last annual 

budget amounted to ¥7741.26. There 
are 7 English, 3 Cooking and 13 Bible classes. Since 
fall 16 girls have been taught typewriting and seven of 
this number have already been placed in positions. There 
are 93 pupils in the three dormitories, representing 30 
different schools. During the past year thirteen girls 
from the dormitories have been baptized. Miss Suzuki 
has been added to the staff of secretaries for work among 
girls in offices. She has visited several departments of 
the Department of Communications and the officials were 
very anxious to have the Y.W.C.A. get in touch with 
the girls. As a result of this visitation several girls have 
come for English and Bible classes. One noon day 



THE YOUNG VvOMEN S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 1 59 

meeting has been held at the Central Station. The as- 
sociation also has a visiting nurse in Oji, who has gained 
-entrance into many of the homes, Recently a Christian 
teachers organization has been formed. 

The Yokohama association is now 
Yokohama planning for its building campaign. 
During the year the association has lost 
its Japanese General Secretary, Miss Kuroda, but not- 
withstanding the fact that Yokohama is very much 
understaffed the work is growing. Miss Toshi Ueno, a 
graduate of Miss Tsuda's school, • has been added to the 
staff as educational secretary. As soon as a Japanese 
General is secured Miss Baker, and Mrs. Nitobe, the 
present office secretary, will devote their time to emigra- 
tion work. There are more calls for music lessons than 
Miss Allchin is able to give. The Bible work has been 
greatly strengthened through Miss Ueno's efforts. Mrs. 
Forrester, a member of the committee had a three days 
conference for business and non-Christian girls with a 
\aew that they might definitely decide to become Chris- 
tians. The Yokohama association is constantly facing 
difficult situations because Christian work is not well 
supported in that city, but this coming year marks a 
new era in its development. 

The growth of the Osaka association 
Osaka is very gratifying. Miss Clara Hard is 

foreign general, and Miss Koto Yama- 
moto, Japanese general. The difficulty of securing suit- 
able quarters has greatly handicapped the work from the 
very beginning. However, the association is comfortably 
housed now at 99 Itchome Tenmabashi-suji, Kitaku. 
During the past year the association was entirely 
:Supported by membership fees with an average 
balance of Yen 40. a month. Bible and educational 
classes are growing rapidly and the house just 
vacated was filled to overflowing with girls of different 
classes. The Committee has decided to raise Yen 300,000 
for buildings and endowment fund. The- association 
feels a great loss in the death of Madame Asa Hirooka 
-who passed away on the fourteenth of January. Mrs. 



l6o JAPAN 

Vasu Asai has been elected president. Miss Aki Yama- 
guchi, a graduate of the Kyoritsu Girls' School, Yol^o- 
hama, and Miss Kiyomi Yoshikawa, a graduate of the 
Women's University, Tokyo have been added to the 
secretarial staff for educational and oflice work. A 
Rainbow club was organized during the year, which is 
doing the Junior branch work. The Koroen club was 
formed after the small conference held at Koroen, and 
both Government and Mission High School girls are 
members. This club will be the nucleus for strong 
Christian work for the student class of the city. 

The Kobe association has its office at 
Kobe 43 Nishimachi (in the Adachi Building). 

The business girls' club already has 5a 
members, and there is no place for them to meet except 
in the room of a nearby cafe run by a Christian man.. 
A Christian physician Avho has his office next door to 
the association is most generous in allowing his recep- 
tion room to be used for Bible classes and other meet- 
ings. The Congregational Women's Bible School under 
Miss Cozad is also ready to open its buildings and 
grounds for the association members for any kind of big 
gathering. Kobe College is another great friend of the 
association and the secretaries receive much aid, en- 
couragement and hospitality from both teachers and 
students. The association has two foreign and four 
Japanese secretaries. Miss Helen Topping and Miss 
Toki Fujita are the General secretaries, and Mrs. Otsuka 
has come to do emigration work. Both Mrs. Otsuka 
and Miss Topping often go to meet the women before 
they sail and give them instructions at the place of ex- 
amination, taking dolls, and pictures, and books to give 
demonstrations in things foreign. It is the great desire 
of the association to publish pamphlets on Religion, 
Morals, Hygiene, Educational and Household subjects 
and to distribute these as freely as possible to women 
leaving Japan. The association has been very wise in 
securing the co-operation of the hotel keepers in its 
emigration work, and this work alone would warrant 
the opening of an association in Kobe. 



THE YOUNG WOMEN's CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION l6l 

Miss Inez Crawford, Miss Lillian 
Kyoto Chambers and Miss Aki Hayashi are 

settled at Mushakanoji, Sagaru. They 
are quietly paving the way for organization. There are 
several Bible, English and hymn singing classes being 
conducted for high school girls and for married women. 
Miss Chambers goes several times a week to Dr. Saiki's 
hospital to give English and Bible instruction to the 
nurses and Miss Crawford helps with the Doshisha day 
pupils in any way that she can. Our secretaries consider 
Kyoto a most suitable place for studying the language 
and history of Japan. While these secretaries have not 
done any actve work as yet they have been spending a 
great deal of time in making a survey of the city, and 
in calls on institutions and individuals. 

We now have twenty nine student 
Student associations throug^hout Japan with a 

Association n,embership of 3,500. 

While Mrs. Eddy was visiting Japan 
New Plans last summer the National Committee 
made a six year program which has 
been presented to the World's Committee for approval. 
This program included a budget of Yen 1,000,000 
which is to be raised two-thirds in Amencni and one- 
third in Japan. This sum is to be used for buildings 
and for an endowment fund for National work. 

During the past year many requests have come to 
the association to supply workers of different kinds, such 
as matrons, typists, pharmacists, teachers, governesses, 
clerks, companions, guides and maids; also many girls 
have registered with us that they might secure suitable 
work. Many calls have come from America for us to 
recommend suitable wives to the Christian Japanese men 
who are now in America. We feel that it is very im- 
portant that the association should become more and 
more a Christian agency to help Japanese women and 
girls in finding just the positions and help they need. 



JAPAN 



PART VI 
SOCIAL SERVICE 



CHAPTER XVII 

A SURVEY OF SOCIAL CONDITIONS 
IN JAPAN 



By William Axling 

A survey of the social side of Japanese life today 
reveals conditions to which no well-wishers of the nation 
can remain indifferent. Not only are these conditions 
of vital interest to the student of social matters but here 
are conditions that call for constructive measures of 
relief if the nation's future is to be safeguarded. 

From time immemorial Japan has been 

The lG=rush of an agricultural nation. Its people were 
Industrialism grouped in little villages scattered across 
the Empire and industriously tilled the 
soil. However during the last fifty years a \vave of 
industrialism has swept across the nation carrying literally 
hundreds of thousands of Japan's population out of this 
quiet and free agricultural village life into the congested 
confined life of modern industrialism, centered in large 
cities. 

In thirty five years Tokyo's population leaped from 
858,000 to 3,000,000. In the same time Osaka's popu- 
lation increased just a round million. This, in both 
cases, has been largely industrial growth. This is 
clearly shown by comparing the growth of the city as 
such, and the growth of her industrial suburbs. During 
the past ten years the population of Tokyo city increased 
29^. During the same ten years the population of 
her industrial suburbs increased 425^^. Some weeks 
ago I walked for hours through Kameido. It was like 
walking through a forest of smoke stacks. This suburb 
has grown in 13 years from a town of 5,000 to a great 



I 66 JAPAN 

industrial city ^ 35,000. Oji another industrial suburb 
has in the same time grown from 12,000 to 40,000. 
Of these 40,000 people 20,000 are factory workers, and 
the remaining 20,000 are their families. The Tsurumi- 
Kawasaki-Kanagawa district is being transformed into a 
great industrial center linking up the two cities of 
Tokyo-Yokohama. Last year 2,000 new factories were 
started in this district alone. The cities of Osaka-Kobe 
are being linked up in the same way. 

In the past two years the factories of 
Factories Tokyo have doubled in number. Last 

year in Tokyo alone there were three 
hundred applications for new factories or extensions 
every month, making up a total of 3,600 for the year. 
In Tokyo in 19 14 there were 9,828 factories, in 191 5 
there were 10,740, in 1916 there were 13,403, and in 
191 7 there was a further increase of 3,600. At pre- 
sent 230,000 people are employed in the factories of 
Tokyo, In other words every one person in ten in this 
city is a factory employee. In Yokohama last year 
factories increased at the rate of Sy%. The increase in 
Osaka has been even more startling. 35 years ago 
there were only 200 factories in all Japan and only 
15,000 people employed in them. Today Japan has 
25,000 factories and a host of 2,000,000 factory- 
employees. 

These factories have sprung up like 
The Worker's Lot mushrooms. The result is that from the 

stand-points of sanitation, ventilation and 
every thing that concerns the welfare of the employees 
the conditions are most vicious in the majority of cases. 
In the building of these factories seemingly no thought 
has been paid to the welfare of those who were to toil. 
Often there is absolutely no ventilation. There are no 
sufficient sanitary arrangements. The employees are 
treated as so many machines in common with the other 
machinery that goes to fit up the factory for its work. 
Last year there were 271,000 cases of disease and 
accidents in the large factories that come under the 
jurisdiction of the Factory Law. Of these 110,000 caseS 



I 



A SURVEY OF SOCIAL CONDITIONS 1 6/ 

were caused by imperfuct conditions of factory accomm- 
odations or the lack of accident prevention devices. And 
conditions in these factories far surpass the multitude of 
smaller factories that do not come under the jurisdiction 
of the Factory Law. 

The dormitory system prevails for the young female 
operatives. I will deal with this phase later on. The 
men and women employees live in the districts around 
these factories. In visiting these sections one is appalled 
at the crowded living conditions under which these 
working people live. According to the statistics on file 
at the city office, Kojimachi ward has go square feet 
for each person. The Honjo and Fukawaga wards taken 
as a whole have only 36 ^square feet for each person. 
And among, the working people of these wards 33.9 o/^ 
of the families live in 3 x 6 to 6 x 9 foot rooms, and 
66.4.0/0 of the families live in 9X9 foot rooms. In 
Shitaya ward seven to eight persons 
Slums live in 6 x 9 foot rooms. Some weeks 

ago I visited the .slum districts of Honjo 
and Fukagawa wards. The conditions I saw beggar 
description. The houses of these districts are one-stoned 
tenement houses with tunnels three feet wide, running 
through the center for entrance and exit. On each side 
of this tunnel are ranged 6x9 and 9x9 foot rooms and 
in these rooms are crowded families of four to eight 
people. Not only are these tunnels the only means of 
entrance and exit but in many cases the only light and 
air that comes into the rooms must come through these 
tunnels which are sometimes fifty to sixty feet in length. 
The result is that the air is stifling and the rooms are 
as dark as a dungeon. Sanitary conditions are wretched. 
The gutters and drains are stagnant and overflow into 
the narrow ways. The city scavengers find it so difficult 
to get through the narrow passages that furnish the 
only approach to these houses that they pass by these 
districts. The only way to get the filth and rubbish 
removed is for the men to carry it away when they go 
to work in the morning. Even the night soil remains 
uncollected. These crowded living conditions, the lack 



I 68 JAPAN 

of sunshine and air, and the filthy surroundings furnish 
unparalleled opportunity for the spread of disease and 
the propagation of vice. Mr. Hara, who is giving his 
life to saving ex-convicts and wayward children, found 
that out of 2,000 wayward children that came under his 
care 1,000 went wrong because of the housing conditions 
of their parents. 

Thus far I have been dealing only with the living 
conditions of the families of the factory operatives. We 
must consider for a moment the living conditions of 
another large class, namely the single male workers. 
These herd together in the cheap lodging and public 
eating houses that abound in these wards. In Fukagawa. 
there are whole blocks covered with these institutions 
that cater only to single male workers. Hundreds are 
crowded into these buildings. Drinking, gambling and 
immorality are the only recreation these young men get, 
and their weary, colorless life drives them head-over- 
heels into these things. Vice is cheap. Women are 
always on hand ready to sell themselves for a paltry 
sum. There is no clean diversion. No helpful influence 
is thrown around these young men. There is absolutely 
nothing that appeals to their nobler nature, nothing that 
ministers to their higher lives. The pull of every 
influence is downward and Hell-ward. 

There are 8,000,000, people living in 

The Very Poor the 2/ large cities of Japan. Of this 
number 800,000 are listed by the 
government as '' poor people." All casdfe where the 
monthly income for a family of five persons is less than 
20.00 yen come into this class. Of these Tokyo has 
200,000, Osaka has 140,000, Kobe has 77,000, and 
Yokohama has 50,000, The remaining 333,000 are scat- 
tered throughout the other 23 large cities of the Empire. 
As in every land so in Japan the birth rate among the 
poor is exceedingly high. The average is nine 
children to a family. However the infant mortality is 
very high. Dr. Teruoka carried out some investigations 
in the Yokokawa cho district of Honjo in Tokyo and 
found that out of 571 births 181 died in infancy, about 



A SURVEY OF SOCIAL CONDITIONS 1 69 

one in three. 143 did not survive until five years of 
age. In southern Japan the eta class make up a large 
percentage of the poor. 609^ of Kobe's slum population 
is eta. In all Japan there are 1,300,000 of this un^ 
fortunate out-caste class. Hyogo prefecture has 1 2 1 ,000. 
Hiroshima has 90,000. Osaka-fu has 50,000, and Kyoto- 
fu has an equal number. 

The slum is a modern institution in Japan. It is a 
by-product of western civilization. In olden times each 
feudal lord made provisions for his poor retainer, and 
each family looked after its poor connection. Now that 
these relationships have broken down the poor have to 
shift as best they can. Unless a remedy is found the 
Honjo, Fuka.gawa and Shitaya slums are but the begin- 
ning of worse conditions. Christianity w^as the force that 
introduced w^estern civilization into Japan and thus upon 
her falls heavily the responsibility of renovating these 
slums and healing these running sores that have appeared 
on the body politic of modern Japan. 

The next thing that impresses the 
Women and the student of present social conditions is 
Social Upheaval the mad rush of Japan's young woman- 
hood into industrial and commercial life. 
Of the almost numberless factories In the suburb of Oji 
I had investigations carried out in twelve different 
factories. I found that in these twelve industrial plants 
there are a total of 5,672 workers. Of these 3,185 are 
young women. Their ages run as follows : 



Under 20 years of age 
10 „ ,. „ 



1,065 
1,042 

393 

679 

6 



In addition I found that in the Government Arsenal at 
Oji there are 5,000 men and 5,000 women employed. 
In the Government printing establishment there are i,ooo 
men and 2,000 women. The Toyo Spring Factory of 
Oji is Employing 2,600 w^omen, most of whom are 
merely girls. This one company has taken in over 
1,000 new girls in the last six months. During the last 



lyO JAPAN 

few months I have at four diflerent times been invited 
to speak to the operatives of the Fuji Spinning Factories. 
Everywhere I have been impressed by the large pro- 
portion of female workers and their extreme youth. 
This one company employs 20,000 workers and there 
are three female workers to one male. And many of 
them are mere children who ought to be romping and 
playing in the back yard of their homes under a loving 
mother's care. At the most critical time of their lives 
they are thrust out into the cruel fight for bread — an un- 
even fight, in which every odd is against them. The 
Government Tobacco Monopoly employs 28,600 people 
in its various works throughout the land and of this 
number 22,000 are women and girls. 

Throughout Japan there are 850,000 female workers ; 
of this host 300,000 are under 20 years of age. There 
are day and night shifts and the hours are heart-break-- 
ingly long. These factories have the dormitory system 
for their female operatives. In some cases, like the 
Fuji Spinning Company and other first class companies 
the conditions in these dormitories are very commend- 
able. But too often the conditions are most vicious. 
In some factories half of the girls go wrong morally 
before the first year of their employment is ended. Ac- 
cording to investigations, every year 80,000 of the 
female workers in the industrial plants of Japan have to 
leave the factories on account of illness. 14,000 are 
annually victims of consumption. In fact the govern- 
ment reports say that '' in villages and provincial towns 
tuberculosis is mostly brought in through operatives 
from factories." This loss is made up by recruiting 
200,000 new women and girls every year. Of these 
120,000 never again return to their homes, Of those 
who do return one in six is ill. 

The alarming increase of female operatives in the 
factories is only one phase of this question. The 
tremendous increase of young women who are being 
forced out of the sheltered life of the home and thrust Into 
the soulless competitive life of modern commercialism 
demands our careful consideration. In Tokyo alone there 



A SURVEY OF SOCIAL CONDITIONS I /I 

are 5,000 young women employed in the Department 
of Commerce as clerks and book-keepers. Moreover 
they are taking in new girls at the rate of 2,000 a year. 
The Telephone Exchange and the Post Office Depart- 
ment are gradually substituting women for men on their 
forces. In addition thousands of girls are taking posi- 
tions in commercial institutions. We can't stem this 
stream. What we must do is to cleanse it and direct 
it along right channels. On every hand the home is 
being bled. In Tokyo there are 3,000 Red Cross 
nurses. Last year there were 2,000 applicants in 
Tokyo to be accepted as nurses. Thirteen only were 
entered. The majority of these rest went into commercial 
positions. In the whole nation there are 18,754 nurses. 
To each graduate nurse there is an average of five 
*' minarai " (nurses in training). Thus in the nursing 
profession there are 112,524 enrolled. 

The darkest phase of this subject is 
The Darkest Aspect that of prostitution. In all Japan there 

are 49,000 geisha, and 53,000 " imbai " 
or unlicensed prostitutes. In the struggle with sky-soaring 
prices and low wages multitudes of wives in the Honjo and 
Fukagawa wards of Tokyo have been forced to open their 
homes to this vice and to sell their own souls. The 
business boon brought on by the war caused a great 
increase in prostitution. For instance in the last four 
years the attendance at prostitute houses in Kobe in- 
creased 509^. Mr. Kagawa of Kobe who has made a 
careful study of this whole question is authority for the 
statement that one out of every 15 girls in Japan be- 
tween the ages of 17 and 25 is a prostitute. 

There are 55,000 prisoners in Japan. 
Crlnimology 100,000 persons are convicted of crime 

each year. So great is the increase of 
crime that the government has recommended the est- 
ablishing of 700 ex-convicts homes. The most alarming 
phase of this problem is the growth of juvenile crime. 
There are in Japan 65,000 criminal boys. Of these 
only 7,000 can be accommodated in the Industrial 
Homes. In order to cope - with this serious tendency 



1/2 JAPAN 

the government has decided to open a Juvenile Court in 
the near future. 

What is being done to solve this 
^^"'Se*"" *^' problem? A social awakening is slowly 
sweeping across the land. Osaka Pre- 
f*ecture has organized a Social Service Department with a 
force of 40 workers. Tokyo Prefecture has an aggres- 
sive Social Service Department. Non-Christian organiza- 
tions are being formed and Non-Christian movements 
are being launched to cope with this situation. The 
Church alone seems to be asleep. An investigation 
carried out by the government disclosed the alarming 
fact that in Tokyo 809^ of the working people disclaim 
any religious connection. And in Osaka 90% of the 
laboring folk make no pretension whatever of having a 
religion. Who can blame him for abandoning religion ? 
It abandoned him first. Religious leaders have paid no 
attention to him. Even Christianity has acted the part 
of the Levite and looked the other way. Christian 
Missions began their work in Japan before this industrial 
era was inaugurated and they have never sensed the 
change that was going on and the situation that was 
developing. 

We must adapt our work to present day needs. We 
must save not only individuals but renew and lift the life of 
communities. Especially must we get hold of the children 
and the young people by means of day-nurseries, kinder- 
gartens, play-grounds, Sunday schools, classes of various 
kinds and meetings of every description and throw their 
young lives into the Christian mould. By institutional 
churches, social settlements, home-centers and open 
seven-days-in-the-week churches we must attempt work 
commensurate with the needs, and give Christianity a 
chance to dig itself deep down into the community life 
of the districts where these folk live. This whole situa- 
tion is both a problem and an opportunity. May God 
help us to keep step with Him and enable us to fit 
ourselves and our work fully into His plans. 



CHAPTER XVIII 

ELEEMOSYNARY WORK 



By Miss S. M. Bauernfeind 

Perhaps there never was a year when 
General Scope ihe need for help was so great as in 
191 8. The reason was the exorbitant 
price of rice, the staple food of the Empire. It is worthy 
of note that during the most trying time, known as the 
" Rice-riot " there were many moneyed men who pur- 
chased rice at the market price and sold it at a much 
lower figure so as to help those who found it impossible 
to pay the regular price. Upon investigation we find 
that charitable institutions are steadily on the increase,, 
and that large numbers of Japanese, both Christian and 
non-Christian realize the opportunity of helping worthy 
people throughout the Empire. It is most interesting to 
note that while the very poor, the blind, the leper, and 
feeble-minded folks are being cared for by various 
institutions and willing contributions, special interest is 
being taken in caring for the children of these unfor- 
tunate ones, and many Day Nurseries are springing up 
especially in the city of Tokyo. Special schools for the 
children of the poor, among which are an increasing 
number of Industrial schools, are found all over the 
Empire. These are supported by the Government which 
furnislies clothing and schooling free of charge. 

While many moneyed men purchased rice and sold it 

at a low price H. I. M. the Emperor very graciously 

contributed the sum of ¥300,000 to be used for the 

purpose of providing rice to those unable to purchase it. 

The total amount contributed by the 

Flood and Fire Imperial Household for the unfortunates 

Sufferers because of Floods, Storms, or Fire ia 



1/4 JAPAN 

difterent parts of the Empire is ¥1,730,000. 

All Charity Hospitals were specially 
Hospitals remembered with both money and cloth- 

ing by H. M. the Empress. A special 
sum of ¥5,000.00 was given by their Majesties for the 
erection of a Charitable Hospital for Japanese living in 
Hawaii. 

H. M. the Emperor gave the follow- 

Education ing gifts for Education : ¥1,000,000.00 

for the increase of High Schools for 

boys. ¥5,000.00 for an endowment for the Mishima 

school where poor young men are being educated. 

H. M. the Empress made the following donations : 
¥10,000.00 to the Woman's University, ¥8,700.00 to 
the different poor schools throughout the Empire, 
¥5,000.00 for the establishment of a Day Nursery in 
Nippori to be carried on by graduates of the Woman's 
University. Also a special contribution of ¥10,000.00 
for the improvement of the present Poor House. 

The largest sum contributed by their 
Special Gifts I.M. for Christian Charitable work was 
that of ¥10,000.00 to the Salvation 
Army for its many institutions in this line. 

In examining the records concerning 
Charity Bureau this source of eleemosynary service we 
find that moneys donated to charitable 
institutions varied little from those given in previous 
years. That there is a steady increase in the number 
of these institutions, both Christian and non-Christian, 
who receive more or less from the Charity Bureau yearly 
is most gratiying. So far as we could learn the Fujin 
Home under the W.C.T.U. received the largest amount 
from this Bureau during the year 191 8. 



CHAPTER XIX 

TEMPERANCE 



I.— THE NATIONAL TEMPERANCE 
LEAGUE OF JAPAN 

By Joseph Cos and 

During the year 191 8 there was no 
Gains phenonenal progress in any department 

of the national Temperance League. 
The reports showed a gain of ¥500 in the annual re- 
ceipts, and in the circulation of the Kuni no Hikari an 
increase of 4,100 copies over the previous year. The 
total issue of the Kuni no Hikari last year was 87,500 
copies. Ten Affiliating Societies were organized, but 
this was partly neutralized by a loss of nine Societies 
through disbandment and withdrawal. Temperance 
badges were sold to the number of 1739 and monsatsu 
— temperance name-plates — to the number of 738. 

The purpose and influence of the 
Christian League is distinctly Christian. In the 

beginning most of the members of the 
Affiliating Societies were members of Christian Churches 
and until the present the officers of the League and most 
of its Branches have been Christians, but now a consider- 
able number of persons belong to the League who are 
adherents or nominal Christians only. The meetings are 
opened and closed with Christian exercises — Hymn 
singirg, Bible reading, Prayer and the Benediction. The 
work of the League is therefore regarded as a part of 
the Christian Religion. 

In recent years there had been a growing dissatisfac- 
tion on the part of some of the members with the 



176 JAPAN 

Christian character of the League, an especially objec 
tionable feature being the religious devotions above 
referred to. Consequently, at the annual convention 
held last fall, in Yokohama, the delegates of the Osaka 
Society proposed a resolution providing for the cancella-^ 
tion of the Christian rules of the League. A heated 
discussion ensued and the resolution was lost by a 
majority of nine votes, whereupon the Osaka Society 
withdrew from the League. Later, being joined by two- 
or three other small Societies it set up an independent 
Society, but since then they appear to have accomplished 
nothing. The Christian members of the League rightly 
maintain, we think, that the Christian principles upon 
which it is founded are the true basis of its success 
and that if these be abandoned the cause will fail. 

Since the beginning of this year there 
Activity has been much more temperance activi- 

ty all over the country. This is especial- 
ly true of the Societies in Kyoto and Kobe. The 
former has a membership of about four hundred and 
subscribes for three hundred and fifty copies of the 
Kuni no Hikari while the latter has some two hundred 
members and subscribes for one hundred and fifty copies. 
Latterly the headquarters of the League has received about 
ninety new applications for membership monthly, coming 
from persons all over Japan who live in districts where 
there is no Affiliating Society. Each of these involves 
a membership fee of ¥1.80 a year, including the Kuni 
no Hikari. 

Thd' outlook seems good, there being 
Agitation numerous indications that the govern- 

ment officials are more cognizant of the 
evil effects of sake drinking than they previously were. 
The fact of the present government being more nearly a 
government of the people than its predecessors and Hon. 
Sho Nemoto, the champion temperance reformer, being 
a member of the Party in power, made his efforts to 
secure the enactment of a Juvenile Temperance Law this 
year more successful than hitherto. At first it was 
intended to present the bill as a government measure^. 



I 



TEMPERANCE IJJ 

but Premier Hara finally concluded that it would be 
better for Mr. Nemoto to present it himself, as in 
previous years. It passed the Lower House by a good 
majority and went to the House of Peers. When it 
was Y^oted on the President, Prince Tokugawa, declared 
that he could not decide whether the yeas or the nays 
were in the majority and ordered a Kimei-tohyo, or 
closed ballot. There were seventy seven votes for and 
one hundred and thirty against it. It was thought ^hat 
the President, by his act, showed that he had sympathy 
with the bill ; and though it failed the support it re- 
ceived was so much greater than ever before that it 
seemed almost like a victory. 

The present activity in Japan is 

Mrs. Root largely a reflex influence from the 
National Prohibition Constitutional 
Amendment in the U. S. of America. This has force- 
fully impressed the thinking public of Japan. The 
favourable impression thus created has been still miOre 
emphasized by the herculean plan of the Anti-Saloon 
League of America for the form.ation of a World 
P'ederation to carry the prohibition campaign into all 
civilized countries and n^ake the world dry in from one 
to two decades. The temperance forces in Japan have 
joined this " World Dry Federation " and steps have 
already been taken looking towards better organization 
for vigorous campaign work. Mrs. Kara S. Root (formerly 
Miss Smart, well known in Japan for her splendid work as 
representative of the World's W. C. T. U.) is expected 
soon to arrive in Japan to assist in leading the temperance 
armies on to final victory. 

The government is to hold an exhibi- 

Exhibition tion from May 3rd to June 21st at 
Ocha no Mizu, Tokyo, in the Kyoiku 
Hakubutsu Kwan. It is to be called the Saigai Boshi 
Tenran Kwai, which m.eans Educational Exposition for 
prevention of Accidents. This building was formerly 
the Bakufu no Dai Ichi Gakko, hence the place is one 
of special historical interest. The government has felt 
enough interest in temperance reform to request Hon. 



178 JAPAN 

Taro Ando, President of the National Temperance 
League to send an exhibit. He has consented and is 
preparing a frame seven by eleven feet to be placed on 
the wall where all who enter the building will view it. 
It will contain several representations. The larger one 
will be a pictorial temperance procession. Another will 
represent the unfortunate young man who, a few years 
ago, returned to Aoyama late one night intoxicated, 
entered the Zenkoji temple grounds and fell into the open 
well while endeavouring to draw water. Several other 
representations will show the evils arising from drink to 
the individual, to the family and to posterity. 



IL— WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE 
UNION OF JAPAN 



By Miss I. S. Blackmore 

The past year has been one of much earnest and 
faithful effort on the part of the officers and members of 
the W. C. T. U. in Japan. One marked feature has been 
the promptness and zeal with which every new demand 
has been met, and the ability with which each opportunity 
has been turned to account. No sooner was it known 
that a movement was on foot to have the age of girls 
becoming inmates of licensed quarters lowered from 
eighteen to sixteen, than the W. C. T. U. in co-operation 
with the Purity Association and the Foreign Auxiliary 
had petitions to the Home Minister prepared, asking that 
such a downward step should not be permitted. 

The aged president, Mrs. Yajima, 
Mrs. Yajima undeterred by her eighty-seven years, 
set out in May with Miss Moriya and 
for forty days toured Kyushu and the districts of the 
Inland Sea. Eighty-two meetings in all were held, the 
audiences aggregating 20,000. Many private interviews 
added greatly to the value of the public work, but must 



TEMPERANCE lyg 

have taxed to the utmost the strength of the workers. 

Three new local societies have been organized. The 
five sen envelopes are still successful. Thirteen hundred 
yen has been raised in this, the third year of the 
enterprise. 

The Woman's Home — P'ujin Home — ■ 
Home has done good work. It serves to give 

protection to young girls coming into 
Tokyo from the country without any definite plans or 
any proper place to go, and who are thus in great 
danger of being led into sin. The Home is recognized 
by the police of the city and the greater number of 
cases handled have been brought or sent by them. One 
hundred and twenty girls have been helped during the 
year, each staying in the Home a longer or shorter 
time. Some who had been away from home, after com- 
munication with parents or guardians, have been induced 
to return. Others have been helped to find suitable work, 
and still others have been sent to the Rescue Home — -Ji 
Ai Kwan — for that teaching and training necessary to 
enable them to find an honorable means of earning a 
living. Tokyo Fu gives a yearly grant of ¥1000 towards 
the support of the Home, which is controlled by a 
Board of Directors consisting of twelve Japanese ladies, 
members of the W. C. T. U., each pledged to be respon- 
sible for five yen monthly. The directors hope in the 
near future to buy a lot of land and put up a larger 
and more suitable building. 

No adequate account of the work of 
Rescue Home the Rescue Home can be given in this 
brief paper. The devoted labor of 
Miss Penrod and her associates. Misses Smith and Sole, 
is known to Him in whose name and by whose grace 
they toil on. (Miss Coles was obliged to resign trom 
the work on account of ill health and the Japan 
Evangelistic Band have kindly given Miss Sole in her 
stead.) From sixty-five to seventy-eight girls and women 
have been in daily residence and one hundred and thirty- 
five have shared the life of the Home during the year. 
Six times in the twelve months other duties have been 



I 80 JAPAN 

laid aside to minister to the dying, and five little children 
have first met the light of day within the Avails of the 
Home. The new bakery is a great success. The girls 
who work in this department may look with honest 
satisfaction on the 1200 lbs. of delicious bread and rolls 
put out monthly — no better can be bought in any city. 
Urgent need is felt for a well on the premises, for 
thorough repairs on one of the older buildings, and for an 
infirmary. Friends in Australia and in England have 
taken an interest in the Home and its needs, and gifts 
from them have made some improvements possible. It 
is hoped that many will hear the call to help in this 
work — most necessary, yet most \difificulL under any cir- 
cumstances, much more so when fettered by lack of 
funds with which to meet the pressing daily needs. 

The Florence Crittendon Union of the 
Educational W.C.T.U. of Japan has made progress. 
Campaign Investigation work has been carried on 
and plans laid for an educative Campaign 
in Kyushu where it is found the greatest numiber of 
girls are procured for sending abroad for immoral pur- 
poses. The aim is to warn girls and their parents 
against those who by ofl'ers of easy and lucrative pos-i 
tions to be had for young women abroad, decoy them 
from their homes and country, and when, too late, they 
find the nature of their employment they are beyond 
reach of help. A further purpose is to stir up public 
opinion against this traffic which has so debased the 
womanhood of Japan and lowered the reputation of the 
country among the nations of the earth. It is also pro- 
posed to build a Shelter in Vladivostok where girls 
desiring to escape may be received and helped. 

The Misawa Chiyono case which has been before the 
public about two years, is still pending, having been 
removed from the Mito Courts to Tokyo. 

This year the W.C.T.U. united with the Y.W.C.A. 
and other Woman's Societies, both Christian and non- 
Christian, to raise money to be used in some form of 
" comfort " for the soldiers of the Allied armies, by the 
sale of special post cards. ¥13,000 was the outcome of 



TEMPERANCE l8l 

the effort. This was handed over to the Y.M.C.A. to 
be forwardede 

In ever}^ department of the work the great need is 
for more workers and more funds with which to carry 
on the work. To m.eet the financial side of the ques- 
tion the Union has decided on a three year's Campaign, 
aiming to raise ¥100,000 as an endoAvment fund. 

The Foreign Auxiliary continues its 

Foreign Auxiliary supplementary w^ork. Strong local circles 
are established in Yokohama and Tokyo. 
These have definite lines of work to meet local needs. 
The Mother's meeting department, under Mrs. Draper 
is doing aggressive work, linking up the scattered groups 
of mothers with the Union. A tract on some phase of 
home life is published every month and sent to each 
group — one copy for each member w^ho has paid her 
five sen yearly fee. A special effort has been made to 
provide Purity literature suitable for distribution in Girls* 
Schools and the Purity Association has undertaken to 
supply similar books for Boys' Schools. 

Missionaries may further the v/ork of the Union by 
placing its claims frequently before Japanese Christian 
women and girls whom they have the opportunity to 
influence, urging them to become members of the 
Society, to read its literature, to contribute to its 
financial support and to enter whole-heartedly into its 
work. 



CHAPTER XX 
THE WHITE CROSS SOCIETY OF JAPAN 



By R. D. McCoy 

The object of the Society is the 
Object eradication of tuberculosis, the most 

prevalent of infectious diseases, which 
takes away an aunual toll of more than one hundred 
thousand citizens of the Empire of Japan. As will be 
seen from the following- review of the activities of the 
Society special emphasis is placed upon preventive 
measures, particularly in the care of children who have 
contracted this dread disease. 

Deeply moved by the Imperial edict 
Organization given to Prince Katsura, Premier at that 

time, directing that measures be taken 
to prevent the spread of tuberculosis among the common 
people, eighteen Christian directors resident in the 
Capital City promoted the organization of the White 
Cross Society on Feb. ii, 19 lo. These men and those 
who have been associated with them in the work of the 
Society have labored earnestly and unselfishly to attain 
the object of the organization and thus make some small 
return for the gracious favour of the F^mperor. While 
it is not stated specifically in its regulations that this 
Society is a Christian organization yet its work is all 
carried on in the spirit of Christ and for His sake. 
The Hon. Soroku Ebara is. President of the Society, and 
the seven Directors and twenty nine Counsellors con- 
stituting the present Board of Control are all likewise 
earnest Christian men, many of them standing at the 
forefront among Japanese Christian leaders. 

During the past year there has been 
Membership a gain of approximately 6 per cent in 

the total membership of the Society. 



THE WHITE CROSS SOCIETY OF JAPAN 183 

The present membership is 905. About 100 foreigners 
are included in this number. In addion to the regular 
members, that is, those paying the annual dues, there is 
a large number of friends or Supporters of the Society 
who contribute more or less regularly towards the main- 
tenance of the work. During the past year the number 
of Supporters has been nearly doubled. In 191 8, 2005 
persons aided the Society in this way. 

The income from all sources in 19 18 
Income was ¥15,451.00. This entire am.ount, 

with the exception of about ¥350.00, 
balance on hand, was expended in carrying on the 
regular work of the Society and in enlarging the Open 
Air School. The budget for the new year, 19 19, calls 
for ¥18,310. Every effort will be put forth to raise 
this amount in order to maintain all phases of the work 
of the Society and carry out certain lines of expansion. 
The Open Air School is proving 
Open Air School itself a great blessing to tubercular 

children. It is located in the pine woods 
along the sea shore near Chigasaki, about an hour and 
a half by train from Tokyo. The location is ideal and 
the children thrive on good food, fragrant air and warm 
sunshine. During the past year one new building has 
been added to the equipment of this institution, making 
six buildings in all. The school was opened on Aug. 
1st, 19 1 7 with 13 pupils enrolled. The enrollment for 
19 1 8 was 31. These pupils ranged from six to twelve 
years of age. At present only children from the first to 
the sixth grade in primary school are accepted. The 
plans for this year call for a large expansion of the 
Open Air School. To accomplish this task a special 
budget of ¥50,000.00 is to be raised. This sum will 
enable the Society to increase the accommodations of 
the school to 120, six grades with 20 pupils in each 
grade, thus providing educational and medical advantages 
to a large number of children who are too weak 
physically to attend the ordinary primary schools. 

Consultation Offices, where medical 
er c ivi es examination and advice may be secured 



184 JAPAN 

by tubei'cukir patients, are niaintained at Motomachi, 
Kongo Ku, Tokyo, and at Yodobashi, in the suburbs. 
The number of patients examined in 19 18 was 733. The 
total number of consultations was 1630. 

The Sanatorium, a rest home designed particularly for 
teachers and Christian workers, located at Shichirigahama, 
Kamakura, accommodated 6S in-patients during the past 
year, the total number of days spent in the institution 
being 6713. The Sanatorium is provided with 30 beds, 
and curable cases are provided with medical care at 
moderate rates. 

The Society has arranged with a number of doctors 
in Tokyo and vicinity to provide free treatment and 
medical advice especially to the laboring classes among 
whom tuberculosis is so prevalent. During 1918 the 
nuinber of out patients treated was 836. 

The Hakujyuji, the White Cross monthly paper has 
been issued regularly during the year. This paper is 
sent free to all members of the Society. Several 
pamphlets have been printed and widely circulated. Some 
of the titles are as follows : — Warning to Tubercular 
Patients; Comsumption Can be Cured; The Warning 
Bell ; The Whip of Cords ; On Capillary Bronchitis ; 
Questions and Answers on Tuberculosis for Grammar 
School Children. 

Lectures and Exhibitions on the prevention of tuber- 
culosis are held from time to time in factories, schools 
and churches. Advice and sympathy are gladly given 
by the officers and medical advisers of the Society to 
any who are in need. 

The White Cross Society gladly 
Foreign Members welcomes foreigners into its membership. 
The co-operation of all who are inter- 
ested in stamping out this dread disease is earnestly 
desired. The annual membership fee is Three Yen. 
This may be sent to the head office of the society at 
Motomachi, Kongo Ku, Tokyo, or to Rev. R. D. 
McCoy, Takinogawa, Tokyo-Fu, the Treasurer of the 
Foreign Department. 



CHAPTER XXI - 
THE RED TRIANGLE IN SIBERIA 



By George Gleason 

Ninety-seven American, twenty-fivg 
Extent Japanese, several Canadian, and a few 

Chinese Y.M.C.A. secretaries in Siberia, 
besides five hundred assistants on the pay rolls, give a 
little idea of the extent of the friendly work being done 
under the sign of the Red Triangle in northern Asia. 
The sending to Omsk and the west of five freight trains 
each with goods valued at half a million roubles sug- 
gests what miaterial comforts have been supplied to the 
Czech and Russian soldiers on the barren west Siberian 
front. The Lecture Department is now working out in 
both English and Russian two hundred educational 
lectures illustrated by stereoptican slides and cinema- 
tograph films to bring modern information on a large 
scale to the common people. 

The international color of the work 
57 Varieties is the most striking element in it. la 

January I rode to Harbin on " Safford's 
Train " made up of four big club cars and twenty smaller 
box freight cars.. The train carried 1,025,000 boxes of 
matches, 21,688 bars of soap, 23,240 tins of milk, 
39,840 packages of biscuits, 35 tons of sugar and half 
a million roubles v/orth of chocolate and candy. The 
crew was made up of five Czechs, two Americans, one 
Armenian, an Esthonian, a Lithuanian, and a Japanese. 
And if we had looked into the locomotive cab we should 
have found a Russian engineer and a Chinese fireman. 
Among the assistants in Vladivostok are Poles, Cossacks, 
Danes, Greeks, Koreans, and Sikhs. The old prison camps 



i86 JAPAN 

were made up of Turkish, Austrian, and German prisoners- 
The Red Triangle has surely become a fusing fire. 

The Y.M.C.A. first began work in Russia in 1900 
when James Stokes of New York presented St. Petersburg 
with the Mayak (Light House) probably the nearest 
Association building to the north pole. Later a city 
Association was also established in Moscow. 

In the fall of 191 5, American secret- 
Begianiogs aries were sent to serve the German 
and Austrian prisoners of war. At one 
time eleven men were on the field scattered from Tashkend 
and Turkestan to Tobolsk, which is 600 m.iles from the 
railroad, and as far east as Habarovsk. To these distant 
cities the Russians sent their captives, hoping that they 
might later become settlers on the land. Some of them 
have settled right into the husbandless homes of the 
long absent Russian soldiers. In a few cases an Enoch 
Arden problem has arisen. 

Mr. Reitzel, one of the secretaries now at Vladivostok, 
began in Austria among the Russian prisoners. When 
America went into the war he moved over into Russia 
to cheer the prisoners of the Central Powers. Later he 
worked for the Russians and the Czechs, and now he is 
heading the big Lecture Bureau, with plans to cover 
eastern Russia with popular visual education. The 
prisoner of war work secretaries did everything possible 
to keep their men amused. They organized athletic 
contests, brought in parts of musical instruments and 
helped the handy Germans and Austrians to form 
orchestras and bands. I saw a photo of some stringed 
instruments of which the soldiers had made everything 
except the gut. All sorts of entertainments and lectures 
were arranged, and educational classes conducted. la 
his book " White Nights " Arthur Ruhl describes the 
work of George Day, one of the old Mayak secretaries 
in Petrograd, who in the early confusion of the war just 
back of the front exchanged money for the anxious 
German prisoners, and pleaded with the telegraph offices 
to wire their families. Lost little children were often helped. 
At Chita one evening last October Secretary Francis rushed 



THE RED TRIANGLE IN SIBERIA 1 8/ 

into our Japanese club car saying that he was on his 
way east on the passenger express. I went over to his 
car and found among his crew a little Russian orphan 
whom he had found running around nearly naked among 
the cold tracks at Irkutsk station. 

After the Revolution in the spring of 

Ups and Downs 1917 the Russian Army opened up to 
tlhe Red Triangle. On all the fronts 
from Riga to Lake Van huts were planned. Kerensky 
gave his approva ; five hundred secretaries were to be 
brought over and located ; the movement was in full 
swing. Then came the Bolshevik uprising. The fine 
club Heald had just opened among 20,ooo« soldiers at 
Kiev in one day lost 19,000 of its constituency, and in 
a few weeks the melting away of the armies on the 
western Russian front left nothing but the Czech army 
and the large training camps in the interior. Driven out 
of their posts often after being exposed in cities like 
Petrograd and Moscow for days to gun fire, and suffer- 
ing for lack of food, our secretaries made their way out 
through eastern Siberia and Japan, and the discouraged 
ones gave up all hope for the Y in Russia. 

But a {e\v held on ; Dr. Story of the University 
of Illinois, Heald, big Atherton, Simmons (Harvard 
1905), Goodsell, a former missionary in Turkey, and a 
few others. Some of the men stayed by that wonderful 
Czech army of 80,000 men in its railroad trek across 
northern Asia. 

After I had been here a week last September I was 
introduced one evening to Mayer. I thought he was 
one of the contingent coming in from China, and when 
he asked for his mail, I said : " You seem in a hurry 
for letters." " Well," he replied, " I haven't had a letter 
for 'seven months." He had stuck by his Czech regi- 
ment ever since they started from the southwestern front 
and had just come out where he could communicate 
with home. Duncan who was standing by spoke up ; 
*' I didn't get a letter for eight months." Recently I 
met a Red Cross man who jumped the record up to 
nearly a year. Other men who did not waver and are 



I 88 JAPAN 

still in Siberia are Banton, E. C. Peters, Hollinger, and 
Reitzel. I tell you these fellows are real men and it is 
the privilege of a lifetime to be associated with them. 

Some, as I said, waited in patience believing that a 
new opportunity would open up. It came with the 
capture of Vladivostok by the Czechs on June 29th, 
19 1 8, and the coming in of the Allied Expedition. The 
landing of the first Japanese marines was caused by the 
attempt on the life of Mr. Ishido, a Christian who was 
the founder of the little Japanese church in this city. 

The arrival of the foreign troops gave 
New Opportunity a new opportunity to the Y. The 

closed parts of Siberia were opened by 
the Japanese army in the north, and suddenly by the 
Czechs in August to and beyond Omsk. Our 
men with their club and canteen cars were soon right 
out at the front serving the soldiers night and day. 
How prompt these men have been to meet the need ! 
A long wire from a secretary near the Urals was 
received at headquarters asking for supplies. The tele- 
gram received on the 23rd had been despatched on the 
18th, but already on the 14th a trainioad of supplies 
had left Vladivostok. That's the way tJiese fellows were 
on the job. 

At present the American work is 
Activities divided into four departments. The 

Army Department is operating eighteen 
huts, canteens, or soldier clubs in and around Vladivostok. 
The hut de luxe is the international Y down on the 
wharf near the American warship Brooklyn, the British 
Kent and the Japanese Mikasa. Walk with any soldier 
along Svetlanskaya, the main street, and when he reaches 
the steps leading down to this soldiers' Mecca he will 
remark : " I guess I'll leave you here, I'm going to 
the hut." Besides the attractive tea room with ladies 
present every afternoon serving doughnuts, frosted cakes, 
ham buns and things to drink, there are billiards, piano, 
library, quiet reading room, money exchange shop, a 
canteen, and a big blazing open fire. There are rooms 
for educatioral classes and dressing and toilet quarters. 



THE RED TRIANGLE IN SIBERIA 1 89 

Adjoining these club rooms is the big hall accommodat' 
ing 1,500 men. Night after night rainbow crowds of 
men and a few women jam in here to listen to high 
class music and to watch middle class vaudeville and 
any class of boxing and moving pictures. Boxing is 
most popular. Last night I v/as late in arriving, and 
all I could see was Canadian boots and American 'put- 
tees, as every available chair, table, and packing case 
had been piled into the entrances and was occupied by 
eager spectators. A grand concert was repeated in 
January five times to various audiences. The band was 
a triple combination of Filipinos from the Brooklyn, 
British from the Suffolk, apd Czechs. Each conductor 
led in turn. On Sunday afternoon moving pictures are 
interspersed with semi-religious lectures, and on Sunday 
evening there is a service for worship. In the barracks 
scattered about the hills four or five miles away Bible 
classes are conducted. A special religious work secretary 
for American troops is looking after these. 

Outside of Vladivostok American troops have been 
located at Rasdolny, Spaskoe, Suchun Mines, Habarovsk, 
and Harbin. The most active club was at Habarovsk 
opened and managed by Trueman of Nagasaki. In this 
snowy, northern city his doughnut factory, coffee counter 
and entertainments made life endurable. The best 
religious work in Siberia was done there. From the 
first Sunday a straight religious service was held in the 
morning and a popular sing and lecture in the evening. 
An attei^dance of 150 in the morning and 500 in the 
evening was not unusual. The club at Harbin has been 
a homelike place of meeting for the American railroad 
engineers and the small group of consulate guards. 

Adjoining the Vladivostok hut, in the .same old cor- 
rugated iron storehouse are the stacks of canteen goods 
and club equipments of the Supply Department. On 
the shelves can be found everything from pens and 
writing paper to jam, soap, mattresses and harmonicas ; 
and in the big halt acre room are piles of sugar bags, 
cracker and biscuit boxes, chocolate, hot water heaters, 
and several bic: auto trucks. An inventorv ot the con- 



190 JAPAN 

tents would fill a book. In another room are the photo 
and movie shops where slides and films for the Lecture 
Department are being produced. Here also the moving 
picture machines are tested and the automobiles repaired. 
One of the most used pieces of mechanism is the auto 
truck cinema outfit. A movie machine is carried to a 
distant barracks by a truck on which there is a gas 
engine and electric motor. Outside the window of a 
hall the generator is started chugging, a cable laid to 
the movie machine, a curtain hung in front and in a few 
minutes an entertainment is in full swing. The gasoline 
pup-pup-pup does the advertising. In the warm m^onths 
such entertainments are given out-of-doors. Thirty-five 
moving picture outfits have been ordered. 

For the reconstruction of Russia the 
Lectures Lecture Department seems to me most 

important. Two hundred loan libraries 
of fifty books each are being collected. With these and 
with lantern slides, high class films and trained lecturers, 
into all the principal centers of Siberia can be brought 
the leaven of true democracy and education. Due to 
the oppression and slaughter of the past decades the 
rise of a middle class has been prevented and the leaders 
have been killed off. A new generation must be raised 
up. By popular lectures friends of Russia can rouse the 
hunger for knowledg#^ and the hint as to the way to get 
it. The Russians themselves can do the rest. 

Finally, the City Department comes in to conserve 
the results of the temporary work and embody the 
Association idea and program in the permanent form of 
civilian organizations in the larger centers. The Mayak 
at Vladivostok has rapidly attracted 600 men members, 
250 boys, and over-crowded its quarters in a few weeks. 
Similar Associations will be developed in Harbin, Irkutsk, 
Tomsk, and Omsk. In §even other lesser cities a non- 
equipment, in some cases combination soldier and civilian, 
work is planned. 

The story oi the work in the interior 
In the Interior of Siberia is like a novel by itself. In 

Omsk since the revolution the population 



THE FED TRIANGLE IN SIBERIA I9I 

lias jumped from 150,000 to 600,000 and the railroad 
yards are among the largest in the world. From this 
center the Y men, sometimes with little more equipment 
than a warm heart and two ingenious hands, have all 
winter served a poorly equipped, poorly fed and poorly 
clad army of mixed fighters. At Ekaterinburg, where 
there are 50,000 or more soldiers, a large hall seating 
over 2,500 was secured for moving pictures, entertain- 
ments and Sunday afternoon religious meetings. Con- 
nected Vv'ith this was a game room and a buffet. Away 
from the railroad, to keep with the men at the front, 
the secretaries have pushed out their moving picture 
outfits and canteen supplies on sleds drawn by horses, 
-mules, and dogs, and even on the backs of camels. 
The farther they went the more they were appreciated. 
As often as possible they opened their entertainments to 
working men and railroad employees. 

The missionaries summoned from Japan 
Missionaries have in a remarkable way risen to posi- 
tions of large leadership. Phelps, " The 
Chief" of the whole Siberian work, Charlie Iglehart, 
the head of the large Army Department, Trueman, the 
district head at Habarovsk, Tom Jones, the Mayak 
chief in Vladivostok, Shively, the head of the big Inter- 
national Hut, and Moran, the twenty-four hour a day 
personnel secretary or helper of everybody on the staff, 
— all these have occupied posts of prominence. Meredith 
did good work in a difficult situation at Spascoe, 
Heckelman at Vlagoveschensk, Young at Habarovsk, 
Smythe at Chita, and Stewart, Murray, Ankeney, 
Wheeler, and Stier have done their part. Sneyd at the 
Yokohama transfer station has been a quiet sine qua non. 
The Japanese secretaries, as Christian gentlemen and 
.as evidences of the fruits of Christianity in the Orient, 
have made a deep impression upon their American col- 
leagues. That the Japanese Church has produced such 
men as Nagao of the Railway Board and secretaries 
Saito, Murakami, Hatanaka, Masuda, Naito, Yasumura, 
and Horiuchi, to pick out the English-speaking members 
.of the delegation, has surprised people from the West. 



I 92 JAPAN 

The work of the Japanese has been 
Japanese Work delayed because of belated financial sup- 
port. But under the circumstances, and 
tvith the meager fund of Yen 50,000 available up to the 
end of February, they have done an excellent piece of 
work. One of the promptest jobs I have seen put across 
here was the preparation of 3,000 Christmas bags of 
candy, post cards and other articles for the Japanese 
soldiers in and near Vladivostok. The little squad of 
secretaries, finding Christmas rapidly approaching just as 
they were leaving Japan, bought in Kyoto 100 '* kori " 
full of supplies, and cleverly appealed to the railroad to 
send them on express trains to the transport at Moji. 
Among the purchases were twenty gramophones, one 
thousand records, sweet beai>s and candy, and 660 games 
and musical instruments. At Osaka, 4,000 boxes of 
caramels were added to the pile, and the railroad took 
them all. Mr. Murakami with his band of eight as- 
sociates arrived in Moji at eleven o'clock the morning 
their transport w^as to sail. Dividing their forces they 
bought, packed and loaded on the boat 46 kori in Moji 
and 60 kori in Shimonoseki, all full of goods for the 
soldiers' Christmas and New Years. Besides these they 
cleaned Moji out of caramels, 4,000 packages in all, and 
told a candy man that they would buy all the caramels 
he could find in Shimonoseki and load on the transport 
by three that afternoon, the hour of sailing. A few 
minutes before three a little tug pulled alongside and 
produced 10,000 packages more, which were bought at 
eight sen per. The two hundred and forty cases of 
goods and the secretaries were transported to Vladivostok 
free of charge. There the men got busy with the result 
that on Christmas morning I photographed four army 
carts v/hich had come to the Y hotel for the comfort 
bags. On December 30th a car full of these supplies 
started on its long New Years' trip carrying gifts to 
Japanese soldiers. ^ 

The Japanese Association is operating in four local 
centers and two club cars. The first car left Vladivostok 
on September 28th, remained for three weeks at 



THE RED TRIANGLE IN SIBERIA 1 93 

Habarovsk, and a few days after the road was open, 
proceeded over the Amur Line to Chita and returned 
early in November to Vladivostok. Mr. Masuda of 
Osaka was in charge. At one station in the early 
evening he saw the surrounding country ablaze with 
light, and discovered that a detachment of the Japanese 
army was bivouacing there and had lighted the fires to 
keep their horses and themselves from freezing. The 
thermometer was four above zero Fahrenheit. Some of 
the men who came to make purchases were almost as 
black as negroes, their campaign had been so strenuous 
and cold. - Mr. Masuda and Mr. Matsuo made a second 
round in this same car going in January and February 
as far as Irkutsk. This time they took thousands of 
boxes of candy for the Russian children, some of whom 
for weeks had not tasted sweets. The second club car, 
with a moving picture outfit, visited Habarovsk in 
January, and at the end of February started with the 
movie machine and loads of supplies for Chita, planning 
to work back by Harbin, giving exhibits wherever 
Japanese soldiers are stationed. The other car was to 
leave Vladivostok early in March for the Amur Line, 
equipped with a movie outfit and plenty of gramophones 
to lend to the soldiers in the lonely outstations. 

Four clubs are being operated — at Habarovsk, Chita, 
Manchuli, and Vladivostok, the largest being at Habarovsk. 
At the dock in Vladivostok a club car was opened for 
the benefit of the returning soldiers in January and 
February. At the Habarovsk Club Dr. Horiuchi has 
opened a free dentist clinic which is a popular resort for 
men in pain. ,# 

At Chita the Japanese Y in cooperation with Russian 
relief societies has undertaken to supply clothing, food 
and implements to the Russian prisoners of war returning 
from Austria and Germany. The reports of the painful 
sickness, hunger and nakedness of these returning men 
appeal to one's sympathy. 

The Japanese Work may be fairly said 

Finan^al to be financed by contributions raised 

in Japan, It came about in this way. 



194 JAPAN 

At the time of the American United War Work Cam- 
paign last November, a group of eminent Japanese 
business men, supported by the Foreign Minister, dis- 
cerning an opportunity of showing international sympathy, 
raised a fund of nearly Yen 930,000. In addition to this 
Americans in Japan and Korea gave Yen 55,000. This 
fund was divided between the Y.M.C.A. and the six 
other participating organizations in America. When Dr. 
Mott and other leaders of the American Y.M.C.A. 
realized that the Japanese had practically exhausted their 
resources in making this surprisingly large contribution, 
the American Y.M.C.A. out of its own treasury generously 
offered Yen 490,000, to make possible an adequate pro- 
gram of work in Siberia by the Japanese Y.M.C.A. 

The international character of the Red Triangle is 
illustrated by an order which was sent out from General 
Otani's office after one of the members of his staff had 
investigated the Y work in Vladivostok. 

** Vladivostok, September 28, 191 8. 
*' To the Chief Adjutant, 

American (and each of the other) Expeditionary 
Forces. 
Sir : 

The American and Japanese Y.M.C.A's 
have recently despatched their secretaries to Siberia 
for the purpose of paying their visits and giving 
comfort to the Allied soldiers here. 

I beg to request you therefore to take steps so 
that the officers commanding your troops stationed 
or operating in various places may be instructed to 
render facilities as much as possible to those secret- 
aries upon their visits. 

I have the honor to be, Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

(Signed) Col. Amano 
Chief Adjutant 
"Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Forces." 
Just a word about the Canadians. 
Canadians Their secretaries are regular army- 
officers and have come in with every 



THE RED TRIANGLE IN SIBERIA 195 

shipload of troops, several already having gone to the 
interior. But their big, much appreciated work is the 
fine restaurant and moving picture theater on the main 
street of Vladivostok. Soldiers of all nationalities simply 
crowd the place. I can testify from personal experience 
to the merits of their baked beans, sausages, buns and 
coffee. They also provide ham and eggs and real 
shredded wheat, the only place in Siberia, I suppose, 
where this can be obtained. 

Three Japanese Blue Triangle workers spent a few 
weeks in Vladivostok in January and February. We 
were all sorry to see Misses Kawai, Kunii, and Sakamoto 
return after so short a visit. All who met them received 
a new impression of the fineness of Japanese womanhood. 
The importance of putting strong 
Vladivostok Christian influences in Vladivostok can 
never be overestimated. With all the 
wildness of the life, the mad rush of autos of all nation- 
alities, the wide open immorality and the terrible suffering 
of the refugees continually streaming in, this is still to 
me a ntystery city. From the Occident come pouring 
in people and influences which from here filter out over 
the longest railroad and into the vastest country in the 
world. And out of this great, still undeveloped; land, 
rich in natural resources and in human emotion, come 
rushing to this port men and women asking : " What 
has the West to give us now?" On the Red Triangle 
rests a large part of the responsibility to give to these 
hungry questioners a right answer. 



CHAPTER XXII 

THE AMERICAN RED CROSS 
JAPAN CHAPPER 

Contributed* 



The activities of this chapter have 
Work and Workers been unique in its contributions of men 
and women of executive and administra- 
tive skill, that have been chiefly exerted in the develop- 
ment of the Siberian Commission. Its contribution of 
medical skill, headed by Dr. R. B. Teusler of St. Luke's 
Hospital, Tokyo, consisted of volunteering nurses, of 
hospital supplies, of willing givers and indefatigable 
workers in the preparation of supplies, the supply and 
equipment of hospital beds etc, all of which were hurried 
on tq Vladivostok at a time of great distress. Men 
willir^gly left their usual business, like Mr. E. W. Frazar, 
Mr, G. S. Phelps, Rev. Doremus Scudder, Mr. M. E, 
Hall, Rev. G. AUchin, and proceeded to Siberia to ad- 
minister and distribute the supplies. 

The excellent work of Mr. H. H. Campbell of Sale 
& Frazar, in cooperation with Mr. G. S. Phelps and 
Rev. D. Scudder, as secretary, did much to bring the 
organization to efficiency. 

Mrs. W. T. Payne's intelligent and energetic personal 
investigation of the needs, deserves great praise, and 
the several branches responded to the needs as pre- 
sented by her with a ready response, and the supplies 

* Efforts were made to obtain a full report of Red Cross activities 
during the past year trom the officers of the Chapter ; but because of 
instructions from Headquarters to compile a complete history of the 
work it was deemed best to provide only the general report as given 
here. Editov. 



THE AMERICAN RED CROSS 1 9/ 

were always forthcoming, so far as money and personal 
effort could secure them. ^ 

The importance and value of the Red Cross organiza- 
tion was locally demonstrated at the time of the disaster 
on the U. S. S/S " Brooklyn " in Yokohama Habour, 
when more than thirty men were seriously injured, some 
of them fatally, by an explosion of coal gas while taking 
in coal. The injured men were taken to the American 
Hospital ; trained nurses were insufficient, and six or 
eight ladies of Yokohama volunteered, and placed them- 
selves under the training of Dr. Fauntleroy, and for 
weeks gave their services day and night to nursing the 
injured men. 

At Christmas time comfort bags were sent to American 
seamen and soldiers. 

The local Red Cross has also been active in Refugee 
Relief work among the Czecks, Armenians and Syrians, 
and has been the means of discovering the whereabouts 
of relatives of these poor refugees, and in many cases 
has brought about the reunion of husbands and wives, 
parents and children. 

War relief work in Japan was formally discontinued 
about the end of March, but the American Red Cross 
has plans in Siberia that cover most of the present year. 



CHAPTER XXIII 

RECENT LABOR MOVEMENTS IN JAPAN 



Bv Galen M. Fisher 

The upheaval in the labor world of Europe and 
America has aroused a sympathetic movement even in 
Japan, Societies representing or pretending to represent 
labor, or for the protection of capital from labor unrest, 
have sprung up like mushrooms during the past few 
months. An indication of the anxiety felt by employers 
of labor was the gathering on Marcli 21, 1919, of some 
250 factory owners of Tokyo to confer with the pre- 
fectural authorities regarding labor problems. The 
meeting was attended also by representatives of the 
Departments of the Interior and of Agriculture and 
Commerce. If one can credit a published statement by 
Dr. Kawada of Kyoto Imperial University, the Govern- 
ment authorities are as much at sea about what to do 
as the factory managers. The laborers themselves are 
still comparatively unintelligent and insensible even to 
the grinding conditions under which many of them 
work. Gradually, however, the reports of labor agita- 
tion in western countries, together with public discussions 
and newspaper articles, are arousing them to self-con- 
sciousness and a constantly growing desire to organize 
for mutual protection and improvement. 

The spirit of Bolshevism among Japa- 
Bolshevism nese Avorking men was dramatically 
shown at an indignation meeting held 
on April ist in Tokyo when an iron worker, Mr. Mori- 
yama, gave vent to the following as reported in the 
Japan Advertiser: "The Yen 1,000. in wages which 
I earn in five years a director of our firm spends in 



J 



RECENT LABOR MOVEMENTS IN JAPAN I95 

orle night's revelry. Engineers worry when machines 
are damaged, but who over got into trouble with the 
management for working a laborer to death ? The 
wealth which the directors amass year by year is the 
result of the hard labor furnished by us workingmen." 
After unburdening his grievances Mr. Moriyama doffed 
his oily working coat, threw it on the platform, and 
stamped on it. Others followed his example, and even 
coolies in their character-marked working clothes broke 
all precedents by speaking from the platform. 

Convincing evidence of the new spirit 

Strikes of self-assertion which now animates 

laborers in Japan is furnished by the 

statistics regarding strikes during the past five years. 

These statistics were kindly supplied by the Home 

Department. 

Year 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 

Number of vStrikes ... 50 64 108 398 417 

Men participatino ... 7,904 7,852 8,813 57j309 66,457 
Average number of 

men in each strike.. 158 123 78 144 159 

It is stated that about 600/0 of recent strikes have 
been successful. The detailed statistics showing the dis- 
tribution of strikes by months reveals the fact that the 
striking fever rises to its height parallel with the rise in 
temperature, being at its maximum in midsummer. For 
example, the statistics for the past two years show that 
in February there were fourteen strikes and 1,603 strikers 
in 19 1 7 and twenty-five strikes with 10,889 strikers in. 
19 1 8, whereas in August there were eighty-two strikes 
with 9,068 strikers in 19 17 and 108 strikes with 26,458 
strikers in 191 8. 

For the past year labor leaders have been bold in 
demanding the unrestricted right to organize labor unions 
including the right to declare strikes. In mass meetings 
and in magazine articles they have demanded that Article 
17 of the Police Ordinances should be amended so as 
to make it clear beyond question that thc^e rights can be 
exercised. There is no published translation of Article 
17, but I believe the following translation is accurate: 



:J?00 JAPAN 

** It is forbidden to use threats, violence, or public 
libel for the purposes specified in the following three 
sections and it is forbidden to tempt or provoke others 
for the purposes stated in Section Two. 

" Section One : For the purpose of compelling any 
person to join, or restraining any person from joining, 
an association formed to take cooperative action regard- 
ing wages or conditions of labor. 

" Section Two : For the purpose of bringing about 
a lockout or a strike, causing laborers to drive away 
laborers, or to refuse an application for employment, 
or to cause laborers to stop work, or to refuse an 
employer's offer of labor. 

The penalties for the violation of Article 17 are given 
in Article 30 as follows : 

"Persons violating Article 17 shall suffer close con- 
finement for a period of from one to six months. The 
same penalties shall be inflicted on persons who use 
violence, threats, or public libel against employers who 
do not join in a united lockout, or against laborers who 
do not join in a united strike." 

Professor Makino of Tokyo Imperial University in a 
series of articles published in Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shim- 
bun between March 28th and April 8th, 19 19, maintains 
that if the courts interpret Article 17 as liberally as 
western courts interpret similar laws, the article in ques- 
tion will work no special hardship on laborers, but up 
until now the courts have interpreted Article 17 so 
strictly as to turn it into a weapon against the just 
demands of labor. The article therefore may be said 
to be a practical prohibition of the activities of labor 
unions. Professor Makino furthermore holds that adequate 
provision for the control of both laborers and employers 
is already made in ' the Criminal Code and that Article 
17 in the Police Code is therefore superfluous and should 
either be abolished or revised so as to prevent its abuse. 
Furthermore, the present fairly liberal Cabinet has let 
it be known that it will not interfere at least with the 
formation of labor unions, thus granting that they are 
not in violation of the law. The uniform practice of the 



RECENT LABOR MOVEMENTS IN JAPAN 20I 

Government in repressing unions and strikes for many 
years past shows how much the rights of individuals 
and the common people still depend upon the attitude 
of the powers that be. Now, however, a new clay has 
finally dawned, for on April 6th at Osaka a real labor 
union Was organized as an outgrowth of the Yuaikai, or 
Laborers Friendly Society. 

The Yuaikwai was formed in August, 
Yuaikwai 1912, by Mr. B. Suzuki, a graduate of 

the Law College of Tokyo Imperial 
University, who is still president. (For details see The 
Christian Movement, 191 7, page 319.) Although the 
Yuaikai is not strictly speaking a labor union in the 
accepted sense, Mr. Suzuki was admitted as a delegate 
to the International Labor Conference which was recently 
held in Paris parallel to the Peace Conference. He went 
with the approval and support of the Government. But 
judging by the telegraphic reports, the Japanese repre- 
sentatives at this conference hesitated to declare their 
attitude on certain crucial points, either because their 
credentials were indefinite or more likely because it was 
feared that assent to radical proposals would create 
havoc in Japanese industry. The conference, however, 
has, as it Avere, forced the hand of the conservatives. 
It has stirred up vs^idespread discussion and has made 
employers, laborers, and officials alike realize that sweep- 
ing changes must be made in the conditions of Japanese 
industry and labor if Japan is to hold her place in the 
procession of the nations. 

A summary of the chief labor societies recently formed 
Avill give a picture of the seething and conflicting forces 
at work in Japan's economic world. 

Political Labor Parties 

There are two labor organizations which are primarily 
political, and are consequently closely watched and 
hampered by the police. The first is the Dai Nihon 
Rikken Rodo Domeikai (Constitutional Labor Party)' 
/whose headquarters are at Fukuoka. At its head is 



202 JAPAN 

Mr. Seiken Yamaguchi, a man in his early thirties 
without much more than an elementary education and 
with a rather doubtful reputation. The party was first 
organized four years ago, but broke up because of 
Government opposition and unprincipled leadership. It 
was revived only in March, 19 19. The second is the 
Teikoku Minshuto (Imperial Peoples Party) whose leader 
is Gaikotsu Miyatake who is probably the only eta 
(former outcast) at the head of a popular organization. 
He is said to be a man of selfish character with a bad 
record. His chief lieutenant, however, is a genuine laborer, 
S. Atsuta, a printer by trade. The monthly organ of 
the party is the Minpon Shugi. 

Societies Promoted by Employers and Officials 

The fear of employers and conservatives generally of 
what may happen if the laborers take the bit into their 
own teeth has led to a phenomenon which it would be 
hard to match in any other country, the formation of 
so-called labor associations by officials, employers and 
capitalists, most of which have been formed since the 
beginning of this year. Tliey are as follows : 

The Gikeikai (Benevolent Association) is looked upon 
as a direct agent of capitalism in opposition to the 
Yuaikai. Among its promoters are priests of the Nichi- 
ren sect, army officers, and prosecuting attorneys con- 
nected with the courts in Tokyo. It was formed in 
August, 191 8. Its keynote is the attempt to keep alive 
the old feudal relations between labor and capital and 
thus v/ork out a paternal solution of labor problems. 
Its representatives are sent to factories to stimulate welfare 
work by employers and to encourage the workers to be 
docile, industrious, and thrifty. Among the lecturers is 
the well-known Abbot, Nissei Honda. 

The Rodo Hogo Kyokai (Laborers Protective Asso- 
ciation) was formed in February, 1919, under the pre- 
sidency of Mr. Kawamura, chief of the Criminal Affairs 
Bureau. The association has an endowment fund of 
Yen 400,000. and has begun practical efforts to better 
the conditions of laborers by opening a bath-house., an 



RECENT LABOR MOVEMENTS IN JAPAN 203 

employment bureau and a cheap lodging house in To- 
mikawa Cho, Tokyo. They propose to extend similar 
activities to other cities, in conjunction with the police 
departments. Mr. Miyamoto, of Tokyo Prefectural 
Government, states that only lOO out of the 3,000 larger 
factories in greater Tokyo are conducting welfare work. 
An association without direct govern- 
Imperial Labor mental affiliations is the Teikoku Rodo 
Society Kyokai (Imperial Labor Society). The 

honorary president is Baron Goto and the 
president Mr. U. Suzuki, a prominent member of the 
Kokuminto in the Lower House. Mr. S. Yokoyama is 
general secretary. The society numbers among its pro- 
moters eminent peers and business men. Its purpose is to 
elevate the moral and living standards of workers and to 
place the country's industries on a solid foundation. Hos- 
pitals will be established for the free treatment of workers 
and schools for the training of apprentices. At first it 
was proposed that the society should strive to abolish 
the stringent police regulations covering labor agitation 
and to foster labor unions, the society itself acting as a 
mediator between employers and workers. Apparently, 
however, these progressive points in the program have 
been dropped for the present, in deference to the op- 
position of conservative employers. By virtue of charg- 
ing no fees to ordinary members it is said to have 
enrolled six hundred laborers. Its funds are derived 
from a fee of Yen 200 a month levied on capitalists and 
managers of labor-employing companies. Among the 
laboring members are some serious men, and although 
the society appears to be paternalistic in tendency it may 
yet amount to something. Its inaugural meeting was 
held on April 3, 19 19, in the Osaka Public Hall. Judg- 
ing by the report of this meeting in the press, a troubled 
future awaits it. Proceedings were opened by a religious 
ceremony conducted by several Shinto priests, but after 
the president, and secretary had made reports, a young 
man who described himself as a member sprang to the 
platform and made an impassioned attack on the directors^ 
charging that the report of the membership was inflated 



204 JAPAN 

and that the management was truckling to the plutocracy. 
This harangue was following by several other condemna- 
tory speeches and finally a vote of lack of confidence 
was adopted v/ith cheers. Order could not be restored 
until it had been arranged that a deputation of workmen 
should be given an interview with the president. It is 
supposed by some that Baron Goto plans to make this 
society the starting point of a labor party upon his 
return from Europe. The general secretary conducts a 
daily paper, Dai Osaka Shimbun, which may be called 
the organ of the society. It may be more than a coin- 
cidence that this paper was established soon after the 
rice riots last summer when the property of the Suzuki 
firm, with whom Baron Goto has close affiliations, was 
damaged to the extent of a million yen. 

In Kyoto police officials have formed 
Police Officials an industrial society (K6gy5 Kai) in 
each precinct of the city, which all 
heads of factories are pressed to join. It might be 
called a manufacturers' protective association. It was 
formed only in March of this year and its program is 
yet unknown. In Osaka, an organization independent of 
the police has been formed under the name of Osaka 
Kogyo Club whose purpose is to study and solve labor 
problems. 

Genuine Laborers* Organizations 
It will be evident that none of the above organizations 
can be called a genuine movement of labor, by labor, 
and for labor. The first . considerable effort in that 
•direction is now taking shape as an outgrowth of the 
Yuaikai in Kobe district under the name of the Yuaikai 
Kansai Rodo Domei Kai (Yuaikai Labor Union of 
Kansai). The movement was started several months 
ago, but is only now coming to a head. Ultimately the 
movement will be extended to include all parts of the 
Empire, but the first union includes only Kobe, Osaka, 
and Kyoto. It is important to remember, however, that 
In these three cities alone there are approximately 500,000 
laborers, of whom 150,000 are in Kobe, 280,000 in 



I 



RECENT LABOR MOVEMENTS IN JAPAN 20$ 

Osaka, and 160,000 in Kyoto. Even Tokyo with its 
expanding industries has only 260,000 laborers. 

Following the best western precedents 
T. Kagawa this union proposes to utilize brain 
workers by having the central committee 
composed half of laborers and half of brain workers, but 
the president and vice-president must be manual laborers. 
The brains of this movement are found in Rev. T. Ka- 
gawa and Mr. H. Hisatomi. The former is a social 
worker who has lived with his wife for several years in 
the heart of the worst slum in Kobe and from that 
laboratory has sent out brilliant papers and books on 
sociological themes. His hold upon the laborers is 
shown by the fact that some time ago they unexpectedly 
brought him a sum of Yen 500 and begged him to 
found a newspaper which might be their organ. Ac- 
cordingly he and Mr. Hisatomi .started the Rddosha 
Shimbun (I.abor News), a monthly organ which now 
has a circulation of 10,000 at five sen a copy. 

In the constitution of the union are articles providing 
for the inauguration, control, and ending of strikes and 
the fixing of wages much like the corresponding articles 
in the rules of occidental trade unions. If this union is 
allowed to operate, one of its first endeavors will be to 
secure an increase of wages to equal the rates paid 
during the war. Kansai Union will comprise fourteen 
branches in Osaka, six in Kobe, and four in Kyoto. 
The chief foreman of the Kawasaki Dockyards, Jokichi 
Kimura, is the prospective president of the Kansai Union. : 
He is a man of ability, inventor of an air compressor 
and several other appliances, and receives a salary of 
¥7,000. Within the Yuaikai Kansai Union will be 
included sectional trades unions of steel workers, printers, 
molders, sailors, and coal miners. 

Another trade union which has been in existence for 
some time is the Obun Kappan Kumiai or Foreign 
Script Printing Association. It tends toward syndicalism 
and is closely watched by the Government. Several of 
its members were arrested at the time of the rice riots 
last August. 



206 JAPAN 

Socialist Tendencies 

Socialism and kindred schools of 
Wide=Spread thought have a far wider hold than is 
supposed upon thinking Japanese. Un- 
fortunately, ever since the anarchist plot against the 
Emperor's life in 1910 the authorities have been ex- 
tremely suspicious of anything approaching socialism and 
at that time a police inspector went so far as to raise 
a laugh by confiscating a copy of " The Social Instincts 
of Animals " which he come across in a foreign book- 
store in Tokyo. Under the pressure of the democratic 
impulse from abroad and the djjownfall of the Terauchi 
Cabinet, men are becoming bolder in discussing and 
avowing belief in socialistic ideas. Groups of Marxian 
socialists have gathered around Kosen Sakai and Hitoshi 
Yamakawa. They issue a periodical named Shin Shakai 
(New Society) which expounds orthodox Marxism and 
other ** dangerous ideas " which have led to its repeated 
suppression by the police. The financial support of the 
leaders of this group appears to be derived from a 
literary bureau called Baibunsha, which writes books 
and essays to order. 

Not long ago a division in this socialist group was 
precipitated by Chio Sato, an advocate of what he calls 
imperial socialism, which combines a high degree of 
devotion to the Imperial House with state socialism. 
Still another offshoot of the Baibunsha group is led by 
Sakae Osugi whose teachings smack strongly of anar- 
chism. His publications like those of Kanson Arahata 
have been repeatedly suppressed. Fortunately these ex- 
temists are more notorious than influential. A more sober 
champion of socialism is Professor Hajime Kawakami of 
Kyoto University, who came out in 191 3 as a thorough- 
going Marxian. His monthly organ, Shakai Mondai Ken- 
kyu, enjoys a considerable circulation among students. 

One of the most picturesque social 

A Communistic enterprises in Japan is entitled Atarashii 

Experiment Mura, or New Villages, which recalls 

Brook Farm, and similar Utopian ex- 



RECENT LABOR MOVEMENTS IN JAPAN 20/ 

periments in the west. This community comprises 
twenty or thirty comrades under the leadership of 
Seneatsu Mushakoji, a brother of the dramatist. Since 
191 8 they have been living in the beautiful country 
region not far from the town of Miyazaki in Kyushu. 
They have branches in Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe, and Kyoto 
and disseminate their views through a monthly magazine. 
They have had to face an embarrassing surveillance by 
the police, as well as vehement criticism from the 
scientific socialists, who accuse them of being impractical 
and anti-social. 

One of the most successful labor 
Magazines magazines is Roryoku Shimbun (Labor 
Power News) edited by G. Masaoka. 
Because of its gospel of industry and docility ^this peri- 
odical has been widely utilized by employers for free 
distribution among their operatives. Some factories 
distribute as many as 10,000 copies and the total 
-edition runs into the hundred thousands each month. 
The most prolific and industrious editor of material 
bearing on labor is Riyemon Una of Osaka. He has 
organized a subscription library association, which for 
fees of three yen, five yen, or seven yen a month sup- 
plies to subscribers varying quantities of material, either 
translated or original, touching upon all phases of labor 
.and industry. His work has genuine value, although it 
is limited to the supplying of information to employers. 

It is therefore a profi-table undertaking, but does not 
go far in the positive solution of labor problems. 

Rodo Sekai (The Labor World) is the organ of the 
young men's branch of the Constitututional Party 
(Kenseikai) whose chief is Viscount Kato. It con- 
tains some live articles but lacks thoroughness and 
impartiality. 

Among the recent books in Japanese on 

Books labor questions may be mentioned the 

following. Dr. S. Kitazawa's *' Labor 

Problems " (Kddosha Mondai) treats mainly of the history 

and organization of labor in the West. Rev. T. Ka- 

^awa's " Psychological Movements and Social Problems " 



208 JAPAN 

is a work of 700 pages which includes a unique study 
on the psychology of rioting in Japan. Mr. Kagawa 
has been specializing of late on psychological questions. 
An article by him in the March Nihon Hydron treating 
of the psychology of the laborer, maintains that "scienti- 
fic management " is too impersonal and should be sup- 
planted by "psychological management." Again in the 
April, 19 19, number of NiJion Oyobi Nihonjin^ he pre- 
sents a philosophy of the labor movement, which attempts 
to unite the economic, moral and religious points 
of view in an idealistic philosophy of economics. Mr. 
U. Suzuki, M.P. in " A New Policy as to the Imperial' 
Household " (Koshitsu Shinsei) expounds his theory of 
state socialism for Japan. The well-known engineer, U, 
Masumoto, has just published a somewhat pretentious 
volume entitled "The Life of the Japanese Laborer" 
(Nihon no Rodo Seikatsu) as derived chiefly from a study 
of conditions among his own operatives. Dr. Hajime Ka- 
wakami's " Views on Social Problems " (Shakai Mondai 
Kanken) has run through several editions in six months. 
It treats most fully of women in industry. A timely 
text-book on industrial insurance is " Rodo Hoken Ron,'^ 
translated from the German of Professor Alfred Manes. 
An examination of the literature on social problem.s 
in the Japanese language reveals the fact that it is 
surprisingly limited. Thus far university lecturers on 
sociology have generally been content to reproduce the 
conclusions of occidental scholars and have failed to 
drive their pupils out to do field work and undertake 
original research. At the present time the most active 
and original study of social problems is being carried 
on by the excellent corps of foreign trained specialists 
in the Local Affairs Bureau, several of whom are 
Christians, and by the staff of the Social Institute, 
recently established in Osaka by Mr. M. Ohara, who 
was deeply influenced by that Christian social pioneer, 
Ishii Juji of Okayama Orphanage. 

A study of rural labor would take us 

Rural Laborers too far afield, since there is no organized 

movement among rural laborers for the^ 



RECENT LABOR MOVEMENTS IN JAPAN 20g 

betterment of their lot. It is pertinent to observe, how- 
ever, that there is a steady influx of farm laborers 
to the city factories. Among the underlying causes 
of this breaking away from the land are the failure 
of farming methods to keep pace with the increase in 
rural population, and the crushing load of debt which 
hangs like a millistone around the neck of the small 
farmers. There are in the Empire 7,500,000 small tenant 
farmers, counting men only. Between 19 12 and 19 16, 
150,000 farming households moved to the cities and the 
number of small holdings rapidly decreased, whereas the 
number of large land-holders steadily increased. A 
report for Kyoto Prefecture shows that tenant farmers, 
despite the risks and hard labor which they undergo, 
make on the average no profit beyond the ordinary 
laborer's wage. The national statistics for 191 2 show 
that tenant farmers w^ere in debt to the huge total of 
¥770,000,000. of which ¥400,000,000, has been bor- 
rowed from the landlords at high rates of interest, run- 
ning generally from 23 to 30 per cent. Even the 
farmers, loan banks charge 8 j4 per cent. Most of the 
farmers have small hope of ever getting out of debt. It 
is small wonder that every year witnesses a large number 
of evictions and arrests for debt, and also a steady stream 
away from the land to the cities. 

This fragmentary survey of some 
Conclusion aspects of the labor movement- in Japan 
is sufficient at least to emphasize the 
need of a more vigorous, broad-minded policy by both 
employers and Government officials, and of a systematic 
effort to educate the laborers themselves in the respon- 
sibilities of freedom. The startlingly prompt surrender 
of capitalists and employers in response to the rice riots 
has shown the poor and the laboring people their 
power. They see that at the psychological moment at 
least they can extort heavy penalties and largesses from 
the propertied class. When one remembers that the 
demands of the laborers are being strongly reinforced 
by the non-propertied intellectual class in the form of 
the movement for universal suffrage and for freedom of 



2IO JAPAN 

speech and assembly, the whole situation is seen to be 
loaded with dynamite. The solution of these grave 
problems cannot be left to the law or to the self-interest 
of employers alone. It calls in Japan as in western 
lands for the infusion of the antiseptic and harmonizing 
power of the Gospel of Christ, applied to the lives of 
individuals and of organized groups. Thus far the 
Church and other Christian agencies in Japan have 
practically ignored the mass of laborers in the large 
cities and have given scant thought to the serious moral 
and economic problems which industrialism has brought 
in its train. In western lands the Church has also been 
lamentably late in awakening to its social duty, but it 
is significant to note that the preliminary pronouncement 
of the Labor Party in England is from first to last a 
Christian document. In the United States the Federal 
Council of Churches some years ago issued a splendid 
declaration of social principles, showing that the Church 
is determined not to become the tool of any one class, 
and only a few months ago the General Conference of 
the Methodist Church of Canada approved a social 
program, which in the words of T/ie Nezv Republic is 
** leagues ahead of any religious organization of the 
United States in its conceptions of social policy." Has 
not the time fully come for the Church in Japan to set 
itself on record on these vital issues and to adapt its 
working program toward their solution ? 



Note : In the writer's article on " The Labor Movement in Japan " 
in the 1917 CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT on page 316, line 4, for 
" 1888"- read " 1894;" l"^es 13 and 14 for "within a few years of" 
read " a few years before." 



I 



CHAPTER XXIV 

CHRISTIAN MOVEMENTS OUTSIDE OF 
THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH 



By T. Kagawa and J. Merle Davis 

One cannot come into contact with the educated cir- 
cles of Japanese society without being impressed by the 
extent to which the ethics of Christianity and the 
fundamental elements of Christian truth have made their 
way. There are scores of thousands in Japan who 
understand and are guided by the spirit of Jesus in their 
daily life, but who for various reasons are not connect- 
ed with any Church. Some leaders in this country state 
that the number of real Christians outside of Church 
membership in Japan today, equals, if not exceeds the 
number of Church communicants. The reaction from 
the theology taught in the Churches during the nineties 
is responsible for the alienation of many who still follow 
Christ outside of the Church. A far more prolific source 
of this phenomenon of unchurched Christians, however, 
is the failure, on removal of Church members, to ally 
themselves with organizations in the new environment. 

The western form of organization, the 
Factors that Repel unattractive Church service and architec- 
ture, the dominance of foreign leadership, 
and the heavy burden of financial support of the Church 
are other factors which make it easy for members to 
drop away from the Church. Other influences no less 
powerful, are less tangible and are more spiritual in 
nature. The modern Church in Japan is not appealing 
to the deep religious mysticism, the craving for the ex- 
perience of God that many choice souls have. The 
interpretation of Christ and the fatherhood of God on 



212 JAPAN 

the part of not a few thoughtful Japanese who have 
deeply studied their Bibles is of a truer insight and calls 
for a closer approximation to Christ's spirit of sacrifice 
than that shown by some pastors and missionaries, with 
the result of an independent religious development outside 
of the Church. The preaching in not a few churches 
is of a kind to fail to hold the interest or to edify some 
types of minds. The lack of a practical social program, 
the helplessness or indifference of the Christian Church 
when faced with many of the greatest social e\ils in 
Japan is another factor which is responsible for the loss 
of not a few choice and idealistic spirits who leave the 
Church and attempt independent or unorganized efforts. 

There has been a wide-spread approximation among 
the upper middle classes to an understanding of the 
spirit and teachings of Christ which can be traced to 
several most interesting currents in literature. 

Naturalism came in with the new century on the heels 
of the scepticism of the nineties as a formidable foe to 
Christianity. Many young men left the Church, dis- 
satisfied with its traditionalism. Church attendance 
decreased ; membership rolls shrunk. 

The development of religious and 
Current Literature philosophical thought among Japanese 
has been well illustrated in the current 
literature. Several distinct phases may be traced. 

One of the first wa-iters to stem the current of 
naturalism was Prof. Tsunajima Ryoshen of Waseda 
University. 

Originally a member of a Kobe Church, after a long 
period during w^hich his faith was dimmed, Mr. Tsuna- 
jima experienced a severe and protracted illness. Brought 
face to face with God during these days of suffering, on 
recovery he wrote the essay, " Kenshin no Jikken," — 
*' Experience of Seeing God." First published in the 
magazine, " Shinjin," and later in book form, this 
forceful, simple statement of the recovery of faith marked 
an epoch in the development of religious thought in the 
Empire. The '* Kenshin no Jikken " was followed by 
*' Byokanroku," ^* Memoirs in Bed " and " Kaikoroku," 



CHRISTIAN MOVEMENTS OUTSIDE 213 

" Looking back to the Light." In all three works the 
ethics of Jesus are very prominent and the process of 
recovering a lost faith clearly depicted. The vital ex- 
perience of God and the meaning of faith were contribut- 
ed to multitudes, including many earnest Buddhists, 
through these books. 

The Russian literary movement in 
Russian Influence Japan formed another of the sources 
from which the thinking classes derived 
spiritual inspiration and which contributed to the growth 
of idealism and the counteracting of the naturalistic 
tendencies. Although defeated by Japan in arms, 
Russia has attained a striking ascendency over the 
Island Empire in the realm of the spirit. Especially 
has Tolstoi been studied and admired. Clubs for the 
study of Tolstoi sprung up wherever students con- 
gregated. *' Tolstoi Kenkyu " a magazine devoted to the 
interpretation and promulgation of the ethics and spirit 
of the great Russian thinker has been published for a 
number of years and enjoys a very wide circulation and 
influence. The complete works of Tolstoi are now pub- 
lished in a popular edition and are among the best 
sellers in the bookstores. Tolstoi's great drama, " The 
Resurrection," as staged and widely portrayed by the 
cinematograph, has exerted an unquestioned influence 
for good among wide classes of society. The Prayer to 
God of the heroine Katuscha, sung on the lips of 
thousands as a popular air, is part of the story which 
tells how Nebdorf repented and experienced the re- 
surrection of Christ. Every movie house in Japan has, 
at one time or another, staged Katuscha. 

" Quo Vadis," likewise, had a remarkable run in 
popular reading and on the stage, and vied with " Ben 
Hur " for popularity. Other works of Tolstoi, "Power 
in Darkness " and " The Living Corpse," (" Yami no 
Chikara " and " Ikeru Shikabane ") were also possessed 
of powerful themes which appealed to the highest ethical 
and religious motives. 

Other Russian writers, especially Dostoijevsky, also 
strongly Christian in character and in themes had a 



214 JAPAN 

very wide reading and influence during this period. 
Especially in dealing with sin and its necessary punish- 
ment, these dramas had a wholesome influence. Many 
boys, even in the slums, were not a little impressed with 
such sections as, '* The Sermon on the Mount," in 
Tolstoi's '' Resurrection." 

Many Japanese writers began to take their cues from 
the trend of this Russian literature, using Biblical 
phrases and key words or phrases of Christ as the 
names or themes of their books. Soon there rose a 
cross-current discernible in the literature of the late ^ 
years of the first decade of the 20th century, embodied 
in the " Bokensekaisha " and "■ Bukyosekai " or '' Worlds 
of Fortitude." This reflected the human need for finding 
strength through Divine aid, and the insufficiency of 
human effort alone. The experience of one writer, 
Kawano Chofu, is typical of the unrest and religious 
longing of the period. When a boy in 

Kawano Chofu the third year of the Middle School, he 
bought a five sen New Testament, but 
did not read it until entering Waseda University, two 
years later. He was deeply impressed by The Sermon 
on the Mount and by the personality of Chiist. He 
carried the New Testament constantly with him and 
studied it daily, though he never identified himself with 
the Christian Church. 

Kawano died in his 25th year, but not before several 
of his writings, notably ** Go Go no Haru," ** The 
Spring of Five times Five," had been read by tens of 
thousands, and had deeply moved the student world of 
Japan wdth their Christian idealism. In " Go Go no 
Haru," Mr. Kawano tells how the five sen Testament 
had been a blessing all through his student life and 
eulogizes its power, at the sam.e time confessing that he 
had never been inside of a Church. 

The coming in of the philosophy of Eucken and 
Bergson and the idealism of Tagore about 191 2, hastened 
the decline of the naturalistic movement in Japan. These 
three writers completely turned the tide in the thoughts 
of the educated classes of the country. 



CHRISTIAN MOVEMENTS OUTSIDE 215 

Nietsche's absolute egoism struggled 
Nietsche aad Ibsen for a time for the ascendency, but this 
influence was greatly modified by the 
idealism of Ibsen which appeared almost simultaneously, 
finally mastering the German materialistic philosophy 
and lending powerful aid to the parallel movement of 
idealism, represented by Bergson, Eucken and Tagore. 
Ibsen was eagerly read and widely staged. Saito, the 
young brother of Takayama Chogyu, the great advocate 
of Nietsche's philosophy, who called himself *^ No no 
Hito," the ** Man in the Wilderness," directed the 
Nietsche and Ibsen movement nearer to Christianity, in- 
troducing the idea of the Fatherhood of God, and the 
perfecting of Christ's life and example. Saito was 
greatly influenced by Prof, von Koebel, of the Imperial 
University, (chair of philosophy), himself a disciple of 
Edward von Hartmann. 

With the failure of Naturalism, as a 
Suicides w^orking theory of life, came a wide- 

spread epidemic of suicide among 
university students. Despondency and gloom, even 
moral despair, prevailed among thousands of the 
brightest thinkers in the colleges. Led by a w^ell-known 
young philosopher, Fujimura Misao, who leaped to his 
death over the Kegon Waterfall, in the next half decade 
370 young men, nearly all students, committed suicide 
over the same terrible cliff, as the only solution of the 
riddle of life. The new idealism of Ibsen as interpreted 
by Saito, " the Man in the Wilderness," brought a new 
hope and greatly checked th's spirit of self-destruction 
among the student class. 

An outgrowth of Ibsen, next came the movement 
called ''The Third Empire," '* Dai San Teikoku," 
taking its theme from Ibsen's drama, '* The Galilean." 
The first empire is portrayed as that of the flesh ; the 
second, that of the spirit, and the third constitutes a 
union of the tw^o. 

Kayahara Kazan the chief exponent of this movement 
injected a strong theistic element which developed along 
purely spiritual lines and went far toward counteracting 



2l6 JAPAN 

and finally discrediting the waning naturalism. 

About six years ago, this victory of theistic idealism 
may be said to have been complete and the way was 
fully prepared for Christianity. 

The near approach of Buddhism to 

Buddhist Leanings Christian thought and theology is another 
of the marked spiritual tendencies with- 
out the Church in Japan today. While it is apparent 
that there is going on in the ranks of Buddhism a 
wilful appropriation of many of the terms, methods, and 
fundamental religious conceptions of Christianity and tlie 
Christian Church, there is no question but that Buddhist 
scholars and leaders are being profoundly influenced by 
the spirit and the teaching, and the practical social ap- 
plications of Christianity. The phenomenon amounts to 
no less than the rebirth of Buddhism and the development 
of a new Buddhist psychology. 

A leading exponent of the new faith is Akigarasu, 
who came forward eight years ago with the teaching 
of salvation by faith as opposed to works. Here the 
approach to the Christian doctrine is so close that the 
name and concept of Buddha alone has been changed 
for that of Christ. Another leader of this Neo-Buddhism, 
Ito Choshin, strongly influenced by Tolstoi as well as 
by Christ, taught non-resistance, love of enemies, and 
salvation by faith, with a frank approach to Christianity. 
Although still pantheistic in essence no idols are worship- 
ped. This movement of modern Buddhism is in no 
sense antagonistic to Christianity. It frankly learns from 
Christ and the Christian Church. It involves a close 
approach on the part of hundreds of Buddhist scholars to 
the sources of the Christian movement. Out of such an 
open-minded attitude and circle came Ryoun Kamegae, 
a scion of a noted Buddist family, himself preparing for 
the priesthood. His own investigation of Christianity 
brought him clearly out from the old faith to a full 
acceptance of Christ and a life work in the Christian 
ministry. His is by no means an isolated case. 

Not a few Buddhists are living lives, the indubitable 
source of whose inspiration is Christ and not Buddha. 



CHRISTIAN MOVEMENTS OUTSIDE 21/ 

One prominent Christian worker who travels widely says 
that he can meet followers of this modern Buddhism 
upon common ground, for they look at life and duty 
from a common point of view, while it is almost hopeless 
to find a mutual standpoint with the materialist. He has 
been not infrequently told by such Buddhist leaders, '' We 
don't like Christianity, but your interpretation of Christ 
is full of power and charm." 

Many dramas are being written today with Biblical 
and Christian subjects and themes. 

During the last years of Meiji, 
Biblical Dramas Mushakoji Saneatsu and his friends, a 
group of writers from the Peer's School 
of Tokyo, through a magazine called *' Shirakaba," 
^' White Oak," greatly advanced the idealistic movement 
and interpreted the spirit of Christ to the reading public. 
Their dramas and novels have almost exclusively 
Biblical subjects. One typical example is- the drama, 
" The Temptation of Christ," which portrays the strug- 
gle and victory of Christ in a modern setting. Con- 
stantly is Christ here shown as in prayer to God, his 
Father in heaven. 

The New Humanitarian Movement called *' Jindo 
Shugi," an expression of which is the Village Movement 
of Kyushiu, is another phase of the general idealistic 
and theistic trend of the times. Here in Miyazaki Ken, 
a group of idealists, composed of artists, musicians, 
writers, philosophers and religionists have settled apart 
from the world, and are trying to live the ideal life of 
the spirit. Through their new village they are trying 
to change society. It is significant of the sources of 
this movement that this group of idealists have taken 
the Lord's Prayer as their motto. 

Coming still closer to Christianity is 

Christian Novels the work and influence of Takeo Ari- 

shima. Though not entirely orthodox 

in theology and inclined toward socialism, he is a 

thorough-going Christian and treats all of his work from 

the Christian point of view. His novels have attained a 



2 1 8 JAPAN 

great popularity and are widely read at present. His 
*' Cain and his Descent " is a good example of one of 
his popular stories with a purely Christian theme which 
has exerted a wide influence. Some of Arishima's 
novels have run to the 23 rd edition. 

Another writer strongly embued with Christianity is 
Tokutomi Rokwa, who gives sketches of realism based 
on life around his farm and upon his own deep heart 
experiences. This man is interpreting the spirit of 
Christ to the Japanese public in a very remarkable way. 
His "Shin Shun," ''New Spring" ran to the 104th 
edition in less than a year. 

The two prize novels in a recent contest offered by 
the Osaka Asahi Shimbun, were both won by Christian 
writers, with prizes of ¥1,500 and ¥/50. The winning 
story, '' The Way of Dawn," by Nomura Aisei, utilized 
the theme of the power of Christian love, while Rev. 
Okino Iwasaburo in his, " Destiny," dealt with the 
victory of a life of prayer over temptation. These 
stories appearing in many consecutive issues of this great 
paper were read by large numbers from almost every 
class of the population. 

Probably the main current of Japanese literature of 
the serious type, today, is represented by Mushakoji and 
Arishima. This current is not interested in theology, 
nor is it concerned with dogmatism, but is pressing 
forward toward the realization of the inward experience 
of God. 

It is the duty of Christian leaders to clearly under- 
stand the significance of these wide-spread spiritual trends 
which unmistakably derive their inspiration from the 
same sources as the Church of Christ, but which for 
various reasons are not in touch with that Church. 

Moreover, it is the duty of Christians in Japan to 
study these spiritual phenomena surging in the unsatisfied 
hearts of so many serious-minded men and women in 
Japan. How can the Christian message and life be made 
attractive, sympathetic and sensitive to these deeper 
longings that it now fails to satisfy. 



CHRISTIAN MOVEMENTS OUTSIDE 2lg 

Far from being a source of danger to 
Not a Danger but the Church of Christ, these rapidly 
a Challenge eddying currents of Christian thought 
are bearing great multitudes of earnest 
souls nearer and nearer to an understanding and accept- 
ance of Christ as Lord and Saviour. They form a 
challenge to the members of Christ's Church in Japan 
'to be more truly worthy to interpret the life and meaning 
of Him whose name we bear, who alone can supply 
humanity with the adequate experience of God which it 
craves. The words, " They that be not against us be 
for us," may well be repeated by modern followers of 
Christ, and in the repetition should prove a source of 
encouragement and strength. / 



CHAPTER XXV 

THE INDIVIDUAL IN THE SOCIAL 
PROBLEM 



By a. Caroline Macdonaid 

When all has been said and done, the 
The Individual objective of the social problem, as well 
as the instrument, is the individual. 
Social conditions react on no two people alike, because 
unfortunately for our peace of mind, every one has an 
individuality of his own which in the long run can 
neither be suppressed nor moulded apart from the 
individual will. We can neither investigate nor solve 
social problems by statistics nor a general panacea, nor 
by pressing people into types and tabulated forms. 
There are as many types of so-called criminals as of 
ordinary sinners, as we shall readily discover if we go 
about reforming either, and there are as many social 
problems as there are people in the Cosmos. A man's 
relation to his environment and to his fellowmen con- 
stitutes his own particular social problem, and no man's 
touch on life is the same as any other. If we are to 
get at the real bottom of what is concerning all of us, 
namely, the enervating and devastating environment in 
which we live, we must get our material from personal 
contact with the individual. We must get him into the 
laboratory and there see the reaction of the environment 
on him, and from endless experiment with actual life, 
get at the causes, and then destroy them at the source. 
Of course it is true that all social probjCms have their 
origin in the fact that we all live for the most part out- 
side the sphere in which the Living God can work. 
While we continue to tolerate, and by our indifference, 



THE INDIVIDUAL IN THE SOCIAL PROBLEM 221 

aid and abet certain social conditions where it is impos- 
sible for those who live in them to believe in the care 
of a loving God, by so much is our own faith atrophied. 
It is easier to believe in the love of God at the top of 
Kudan Hill than in the neighborhood of the Yoshiwara, 
and it will ever be so, snatch an occasional brand from 
the burning here and there as we can, until the whole 
system for which the Yoshiwara and all its ilk stands, 
is destroyed root and branch, hoof and hide, from off 
the face of the earth. 

We are largely playing at life, content 
Piaying at Life for the most part to work in a vicious 
circle, provided we keep ourselves oc- 
cupied and busy. Not long ago I went to prison to 
see a man who wished to tell me of his family troubles. 
He was being compelled, he said, to sell his eight year 
old daughter to be a geisha in order to eke out the 
family fortunes while he was in involuntary retirement. 
One need not go into the details of how the child was 
kept from being sold, but I do not suppose the geisha 
trade was interrupted for an instant by the rescue of 
this particular infant. There are lots of eight year old 
girls and plenty of parents willing to sell them for a few 
yen ; and even if one happened to be saved what dif- 
ference did it make to the geisha traffic ? 

Tw^o or three years ago police efforts 
No Cheap Reform were made, and with considerable local 
success, to put out of commission some 
of the unlicensed prostitute districts in Tokyo. A good 
deal of foolish talk was passed along about getting hold 
of these girls when they came out, taking them into 
homes as servants and thereby automatically converting 
them into respectable members of society. A few of 
these girls may thus have been got hold of, although as 
a matter of fact, most of them soon made their way into 
licensed prostitution ; but for any body of serious mind- 
ed people to suppose that girls brought up to the sort 
of life represented by their occupation, diseased in body 
and soul, could be redeemed by such superficial methods 
is to trifle with the grim facts of life-. Girls brought up- 



222 JAPAN 

from childhood in a brothel cannot be so easily- 
redeemed. No such meaning has the Cross of Christ. 
Not so easily are men and women redeemed from the 
environment of childhood. Not so lightly does God let 
us hold and value life that we may spoil it for a lifetime 
and save it in an hour. Not thus easily do minds 
polluted from childhood respond to higher ideals. We 
shall have to pay a heavier price than this before society 
is redeemed. Not thus lightly does God let us spoil 
the good world he has made and then mend it by a bit 
of gratuitous kindness after the mischief is done. Not 
so does God cheapen I'fe. 

A man was paroled to me the other 
Strike at the Root day who had been in prison eight times. 
He hunted for work, hut because he 
was quite naturally asked for a record of his career he 
was not able to find anything. He came to me very 
much disappointed. He had come out of prison with 
high hopes, determined to go straight. Why should not 
other people believe him ? And I had to tell him that 
when we have lightly thrown away so precious a thing 
as trust, we must w^alk a long rough road before we 
regain it, no matter how bitterly we repent. It is ever 
so. If we tolerate unspeakable moral and social con- 
ditions in our midst, it is by no surface work, however 
earnest, that lost opportunities can be redeemed. It is 
not the kindness of Christ, but the Cross that represents 
our task. As fundamentally and as radically as he struck 
at the root of evil, so must we if life is to be made 
possible for men. " And when he had made a scourge 
of small cords, he drove them all out of the temple ; 
and he poured out the changers' money and overthrew 
the tables ; and he said unto them that sold doves. Take 
these things hence, make not my Father's house a house 
of merchandise." And then it is written that the chief 
priests and the scribes were sore displeased. Of course 
they were ! He expected they would be ! He was 
striking at the root of the whole wretched business of 
making religion a trade and he intended they should be 
displeased. They were so displeased that they did him 



THE INDIVIDUAL IN THE SOCIAL PROBLEM 223 

to death in the end. Christ understood right well that 
unless he struck at the root of things his life was worse 
than useless. But he also knew full well that if he did 
strike at the root of evil the end would be the Cross. 
And he chose the Cross. 

A man was hanged in Tokyo prison 
Cr m2's Beginnings on the seventeenth of last August, and 
before he died he wrote down the story 
of his life. When a small child his mother used to send 
him to the saloons to bring his father home. By the 
time he was fourteen he had himself succumbed to his 
environment, and his record was as follows : no educa- 
tion, no trade, gambling, wine, theft, women, embezzle- 
ment, burglary, murder, not once or twice, but over and 
over again, until he was finally caught and hanged. An 
extreme case ! Perhaps so, but mark the beginning of 
his career ! It is said that 100,000 children pass through 
the hands of the law every year in Japan. Most of 
them are let go for the first offence, for there is no 
adequate way to deal Vv^ith them. When they are let 
go what happens? Many of them learn their lesson, no 
doubt, but if we trace the history of those who live lives 
of crime, we shall find almost invariably the same 
sequence as that quoted above. 

I listened recently to the examination of a lad at what 
is really although not actually by law, a Juvenile Court 
in Tokyo. The judge was a Christian and he Avas 
talking to the child like a father. The boy had stolen 
four hundred yen from his employer and had apparently 
lived a swift and merry life while the fun lasted. He 
had gone to restaurants and bought foreign food, he had 
fitted himself out with new clothes; and had spent his 
time at moving picture shows and theatres, mainly 
theatres. " Do you like comedy or tragedy best ? ", 
asked the judge. 'Tm not particular," was the naive 
reply, '' so long as it's a show." If you have ever 
been at a moving picture show or cheap theatre 
at Asakusa, you will get the boys' standpoint. 
Rapid movement, intense excitement, horror after horror, 
explosion after explosion, thrill after thrill, and it is no 



224 JAPAN 

wonder the average boy with little education and no- 
future, worked by his employer from early dawn till 
midnight, lights out occasionally with his employer's 
money and has his fling. It is not in human nature to 
toil unremittingly, uninterestingly, day in and day out, 
with no hope of future reward, without revolting against 
the whole scheme of things, and finding recreation in 
excess. Those who are interested in the evangelization 
of Japan would do well to study the psychology of 
recreation in its reaction on the seething mass of 50,000 
people who nightly throng Asakusa Park. 

It is by no accident on the part of 
Yoshiwara the people who are wiser in their day 
and generation than the children of light, 
that within twenty minutes' walk of the Park, is the 
infamous Yoshiwara, which begins to tune up about the 
time the theatres close. Its magnificent houses, the like 
of which are not to be found in any other part of Japan, 
are in striking contrast to the squalor which exists 
within shouting distance of the place. One sees little 
girls wandering about on the streets, gazing longingly 
on all the beauty they see in the windows. No wonder 
if these little mites, brought up in the surrounding 
squalor, are fired Avith ambition to live in these beautiful 
houses, and wear elegant clothes, and be as they think, 
grand ladies. It is not difficult, they say, to keep these 
places recruited. Why should it be, under existing 
social conditions ? 

What is being done to counteract the influences of 
such a place ? Nothing can be done to counteract this 
influence which is sapping the lifeblood of the nation. 
We must destroy the system, body and soul, and that 
right quickly. The whole system of prostitution, both 
legal and illegal, drink, disease, exploited labor, must 
be fought against with weapons worthy of the fight 
and destroyed. In the meantime, let us save one by 
one if we can and as we can, but we trifle with our 
God-given business while we are content with any- 
thing less than the extermination of the whole ghastly 
business. 



THE INDIVIDUAL IN THE SOCIAL PROBLEM 22$ 

Japan has suffered from a kind of 
The Novel novel that many of her so-called friends 

have written about her. These novels 
first of all introduce us into all the beauty and weirdness 
that life holds for the casual stranger. Beautiful gardens, 
noiseless sliding doors that prepare us for any mystery, 
and then presto change, and the inevitable geisha enters, 
coy and lovely, young and unsophisicated, innocent prey 
of the monster man. And the story closes at last as 
the silent screens do, upon the beautiful frail little geisha, 
none the less fascinating because frail. And, behold, 
every one who visits Japan must go to see the geisha ! 
What is the truth ? We shall leave 
The Truth the novel to do all the harm it can to 

the multitudes of decent women in Japan, 
who know better than we do who' the geisha are. The 
geisha is no frail innocent child who falls oftentimes 
through her own innocence. Why do men gamble and 
embezzle and steal? How do they use their ill-gotten 
gain ? Let us read the daily newspapers if we wish to 
know. The women are trained from childhood for this 
very life. Men in high life and in low life succumb 
to them. Men embezzling money from the highest 
sources in the land to buy diamond necklaces for 
their favorite geisha ! Young lads dogged by geisha 

ten years older than themselves, and 
The Geisha Evil given presents to put them under an 

obligation. I know a lad with a beautiful 
voice who sings ' in an opera in Asakusa. Four or five 
years ago he had a face like a cherub and sang like 
one. I lost track of him for a year or two, but he 
turned up at my house on Christmas night, a blase man 
of the world, and all at twenty one. I afterwards heard 
the story from a friend of the lad, a lad of about the 
same age. As I heard the tale, I said, " Poor boy, to 
have got into the clutches of one of those women ! " 
** But," naively replied the boy who was telling me the 
story," *' it's not the poor boy at all, it's the poor 
woman. She is so fond to him, and she gives him 
presents and he doesn't even thank her for them." Poor 



226 JAPAN 

laddies ! As a matter of fact that boy is getting more 
than a hundred yen a month on account of his voice, 
and is said to have a future. He would be loved less 
I take it if he were less popular on the stage. The 
woman is ten years his senior and knows a bit of life. 
It is not her first love affair, although it may be his, 
but she'll get him in the end, and his money and his 
voice and his soul, and then what will happen ? 

The thing is going on all the time. A flirtation with 
one of them, a rival, a quarrel, knives and the gallows. 
The empty tale repeats itself. Ask any one that knows 
the record of crime and they will confirm the statement. 
And yet perfectly respectable people will help to per- 
petuate the system by going to see the charming geisha 
dances ! We may be sure of this, that whatever they 
are they are not just innocent little entertainers. They 
are sophisticated women of the world, trained from 
childhood for their nefarious trade. I have heard more 
than one Japanese man, men in touch with the problems 
of life and knowing the tragedies thereof, say that the 
geisha system is more pernicious even than licensed 
prostitution. 

While such systems obtain, can we 
Loose Family Life expect true ideals about women and 
about the founding of pure and decent 
homes ? There are well nigh twice as many licensed 
prostitutes, geisha and restaurant girls as there are girls 
in high schools, and the government provides for 
practically no higher education for girls. Even private 
enterprises for women's higher education are only a 
very few in number, and they are greatly hampered for 
lack of funds. Go where we will we shall find that the 
Japanese woman is not represented by her best type but 
by the kind that brings dishonor upon the nation. 
No one can touch the life of Japan at all deeply without 
being greatly concerned about the life of the individual 
home. We have the unregistered wife, the prevalence of 
divorce and home tragedies, the unregistered child, and the 
consequent disabilities regarding education, for no unregister- 
ed child can enter school ; the delinquent child, who is 



THE INDIVIDUAL IN THE SOCIAL PROBLEM 22/ 

a logical result of the looseness of the home life ; the 
uneducated youth, Avho in a land of so-called compulsory 
education, is a little difficult to square with government 
statistics ; the carelessness about registering marriages, 
which is largely due, it is said, to the reluctance of the 
ordinary person to be bothered with the red tape of 
officialdom. The law regarding the registration of a 
marriage reads simply enough, but there are many com- 
plications for the ordinary person who does not know 
the procedure. And so the registration often goes by 
default, with the result that the marriage tie is held 
very lightly. And marriages lightly made are lightly 
dissolved. 

- I am no expert on the labor problem. 
Industrial Menace but one does not need to be to view 

with alarm the utter waste of life that 
is going on in the attempt ■ to build up an industrial 
Japan. As a laboring man said to me the other day, 
with fine scorn, ''Why should Japan be concerned with 
protecting the life of the ordinary man and woman. 
There are so many of us now that we are a nuisance. 
What are a few lives more or less anyway ! " and his 
eyes glinted a bit. Some cheap rice thrown down to 
the people when riots occur, generous donations by way 
of a sop, capitalists discanting on the fatherly relation 
between capital and labor, are all a bit of camouflage 
which will not long deceive the ordinary man and woman, 
for whom I have a large measure of respect. While 
children in the factory districts are born with handicaps 
incident to the long hours of labor on the part of the 
mother ; with weaknesses inherent where the family tie 
is loose ; with little opportunities for education, in spite 
of the so-called compulsory school law ; while children 
are brought up in the moral cesspools of our cities, 
where prostitution is dressed up in attractive form for 
girls, and moving picture shows instruct boys in crime ; 
capitalists may save themselves the trouble of meeting to 
discuss the labor problem unless they are willing to get 
underneath the symptoms and strike a death-blow at the 
causes underneath, even to their own hurt. Industrial 



228 JAPAN 

and social conditions must be discussed in the honest 
light of day. The League of Nations has decreed that 
there are to be no more secret treaties because secrecy 
breeds still worse evil in the body politic. The attempt 
to blink facts is more than wicked, it is arrant foolish- 
ness. Truth is truth, and will bring forth fruit after its 
kind. We have infinitely more respect for the publican 
than for the Pharisee, although both are equally sinners. 
Japan will never be saved from the 

What is the Cure conditions that are sapping the energies 
of her young life at the present rate at 
which the Christian Church is taking up her task. 
While evils are intrenched in the warp and woof of 
society, we trifle with our task to be content with our 
present methods of work. The people are destroyed for 
lack of knowledge. The youth of the nation must be 
educated, forcibly if necessary, to know the devastating 
effects of venereal disease and kindred ills ; they must 
be taught that no nation can become great that does 
not respect its women and make adequate provision for 
their education and protection ; that every man is loyal 
to his nation only in so far as he is living a life of 
purity himself and is fighting for the purity of society. 
And the Christian Church must come to understand 
that if we are ever to Christianize society, we must, along 
with our direct evangel, tackie the social evils and 
destroy them, before we can get dny adequate foothold 
from which to preach the gospel of the grace of God. 
The only form of forcible education 

Why Not Advertise I know is the daily newspaper. People 
read the newspapers whether or no. 
Liquor interests are advertised, quack medicines are 
placarded at every street corner. The Yoshiwara is 
ablaze with light and grandeur every night. It would 
seern that advertisement were in inverse ratio to the 
value of the article advertised ! But we do not advertise 
the dangers that beset every boy and girl in their 
adolescent days, we do not advertise the pernicious 
results of prostitution and careless living, and the ravages 
made by venereal disease and tuberculosis. If every 



THE INDIVIDUAL IN THE SOCIAL PROBLEM 229 

person, young and old, rich and poor, high and low, 
were faced, da}^ in and day. out, for say a ydar, in 
every newspaper in the realm, with half a page of har- 
rowing details about the results of venereal disease on 
the life of nations and of individuals, how the stamina 
of women and the vitality of men are being sapped 
because of the pernicious systems that are publicly and 
officially recognized, how alcohol works havoc with the 
unborn child, and is one of the direct causes of imbecility, 
poverty and crime, think you we would not scare some- 
thing like public sentiment into the thinking part of the 
nation at least, and compel people to reflect ? 

Is not this the secret of effective advertisement, just 
to keep a thing in front of a man's eyes, day in and 
day out, until he begins to think that the thing he sees 
is true and that it will do for him what it says ? Of 
course we might just as well face ourselves with the 
fact that the backbone of these social evils will not be 
broken until we spend thousands upon thousands of 
dollars upon the enterprise. The Yoshiwara takes in 
from its patrons, it is said. 350,000 yen a month. Think 
you therefore that we can stop the traffic by an ocas- 
sional committee meeting and a few hundred yen ? 

We have reached a new era in our 
A New Era work if we could but see it. Hole in 
the corner methods are no longer in 
order. To *' muddle through " is no longer considered 
good form, except it would seem, in Christian work in 
non-Christian lands. Life is being wasted and damned, 
because the power of the Living God cannot work until 
we ourselves begin to see the magnitude of the task that 
confronts us. When we become intolerant of intolerant 
conditions, enraged at the systems that surround us, 
determined to fight the devil and all his emissaries as we 
see them intrenched in the very fibre of society, then 
shall the day of salvation dawn, and not until then. 



JAPAN 



PART VII 

UNION AND COOPERATIVE 
MOVEMENTS 



CHAPTER XXVI 

ASPECTS OF COOPERATION AND UNION 
IN JAPAN 



By Galen M. Fisher 

Cooperation and union have been given a tremendous 
push forward in Great Britain and America both in 
religious and in industrial realms by the very necessities 
of the war. The governments cut down competition 
and waste motion by controlling manufacturing, mining 
and transportation to a degree that must have made the 
individualistic laissez-faire partizans of a generation ago 
turn in their graves. The religious agencies likewise 
found that the vastness and urgency of the work for 
the soldiers and munitions laborers and the general 
demand for economy compelled them to pool their 
resources and efforts. Even if some folks at home 
wanted to repeat the old divisive slogans, the boys at 
the front would have nothing of them. They craved 
friendliness, good cheer, creature comforts, and religion 
regardless of the ecclesiastical credentials or theological 
shibboleths of the workers who purveyed them. The 
doughboys wanted the '* goods " themselves, not the 
labels on them. It is true that the combination of the 
Knights of Columbus with the Salvation Army, the 
Y. M. C. A. and the Y. VV. C. A. in a united finan- 
cial campaign for war work was only a temporary 
and artificial union, but it shows the strong drift of the 
time. 

A more permanent outcome of war-time methods is 
the proposal now under discussion to raise the budgets 
of all the mission boards in North America by one 
great inter-church financial campaign. 



234 JAPAN 

Turning to religious unity in other 
In England lands, let me draw attention to one of 
the noblest utterances on corporate 
union which has yet appeared. It is the second inter- 
im report of a subcommittee appointed by the Arch- 
bishops of Canterbury and York in preparation for , the 
World Conference on Faith and Order, which includes 
representatives of both the Established and Free Chur- 
ches in England under the chairmanship of the Bishop 
of Bath and Wells. Among the other members are 
A. E. Garvie, Scott Lidgett, W. B. Selbie, J. H. Shakes- 
peare, Eugene Stock, and Tissington Tatlow. The full 
report appeared in The Guardian for April ii, 191 8. 
It is so significant that we quote some important pas- 
sages. 

" The first fact which we agree to acknowledge is 
that the position of Episcopacy in the greater part of 
Christendom as the recognised organ of the unity and 
continuity of the Church is such that the members of 
the Episcopal Churches ought not to be expected to 
abandon it in assenting to any basis of reunion. The 
second fact which we agree to acknowledge is that there 
are a number of Christian Churches not accepting 
the Episcopal Order which have been used by the 
Holy Spirit in His work of enlightening the world, con- 
verting sinners, and perfecting Saints. They came into 
being through reaction from grave abuses in the Church 
at the time of their origin, and were led in response to 
fresh apprehensions of Divine truth to give expression 
to certain types of Christian experience, aspiration, and 
fellowship, and to secure rights of the Christian people 
which had been neglected or denied. 

" In view of these two facts, if the visible unity so 
much desired within the Church, and so necessary for 
the testimony and influence of the Church in the world 
is^ ever to be realised, it is imperative that the Episcopal 
and non-Episcopal Communions shall approach one 
another, not by the method of human compromise, but 
in correspondence with God's own 'way of reconciling 
differences in Christ Jesus. What we desire to see is 



ASPECTS OF COOPERATION AND UNION 235 

not grudging concession, but a willing acceptance fof 
the common enrichment of the united Church of the 
wealth distinctive of each." 

** Acceptance of the fact of Episcopacy and not any 
theory as to its character should be all that is asked 

fon The acceptance of Episcopacy on these terms 

should not involve any Christian community in the 
necessity of disowning its past, but should enable all to 
maintain the continuity of their witness and influence as 
heirs and trustees of types of Christian thought, life, 
and order, not only of value to themselves, but of value 
to the Church as a whole. Accordingly, we hope and 
desire that each of these Communions will bring its 
own distinctive contribution not only to the common 
life of the Church, but also to its methods of organisa- 
tion, and that all that is true in the experience and 
testimony of the uniting Communions will be conserved 
to the Church. Within such a recovered unity we 
should agree in claiming that the legitimate freedom of 
prophetic ministry should be carefully preserved, and in 
anticipating that many customs and institutions which 
have been developed in separate communities may be 
preserved within the larger unity of which they have 
come to form a part." 

In Canada the union of the Presbyterian, Methodist, 
Congregational, and Anglican churches is said to be 
ready for the finishing touches. The United Church of 
South India, composed bf several denominations founded 
by American and British missionaries, has moved steadily 
forward. 

In China the Continuation Committee 
In China Conference of 191 3 recommended that 

all the churches should adopt a uniform 
name and reduce to a minimum the other obstacles to 
ultimate union. Furthermore, a number of union educational 
enterprises in China, such as those in Nanking, Chengtu, 
and Peking, have gone from strength to strength. A 
significant movement is now on foot for the organic 
union of the churches founded by the London Mission, 
the A. B.C. P.M. and the American Presbyterian Mission. 



236 JAPAN 

But the outstanding embodiment of the spirit of coopera- 
tion in China is the Continuation Committee itself. 
Under its leadership evangelistic movements have been 
conducted, Christian statistics have been standardized, 
mission and church comity has been advanced, nation- 
wide Christian sentiment on social evils has been given 
a mouthpiece, and the various literature agencies are in 
a fair way to be coordinated. 

; But how fares Christian cooperation 

In Japan and union in Japan ? It must be con- ' 

fessed that little progress has been made 
toward organic church union since the amalgamation of 
the three branches of Methodism in 1 9 1 1 . On the 
other hand, cooperation and federation have made definite 
gains. 

Considering first the missions, we find that although 
some of them have been eager to unite their forces, they 
have been held back by their home churches. But in 
the direction of general cooperation, the missions in Japan 
have in the Conference of Federated Missions built up 
an organization both effective and comprehensive, em- 
bracing as it does practically all but the S. P. G., the 
American Episcopal Missions, the Roman Catholic and 
the Russian Orthodox Missions. Some of its most 
notable achievements have been the creation of the 
Christian Literature Society, the survey of the field, the 
publication of the CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT and the 
Japan P^vangelist, and the annual survey of social condi- 
tions. The Federated Missions has indeed tilled its field 
well and it should have a long and useful future provided 
only that it resists the temptation to cling too long to 
activities which should either be passed over to the 
Japanese churches, or at least be shared with them. 

Two union educational enterprises 
Education under mission auspices have been effected 

during the past few years : the one 
under the Southern and Canadian Methodist boards in 
Kwansei Gakuin ; the other the combination of six 
mission boards to establish the Tokyo Union Christian 
College for Women. The prolonged effort to found a 



ASPECTS OF COOPERATION AND UNION 237 

central Christian university of the highest grade in 
Tokyo has met with almost insuperable difficulties, but 
at leneth has secured assurances from several of the 
leading boards that they will make generous annual 
donations provided an equal sum can be raised by the 
promoting committee in Japan. 

Turning now to the Japanese churches. 
Churches let us consider in turn the four forms 

which the movement toward cooperation 
and union has taken, namely, amalgamation of kindred 
denominations, organic church union, temporary coopera- 
tive enterprises, and the Federation of Churches. 

Despite earnest efforts toward the amalgamation of 
kindred denominations, no success has been won since 
the union of the three Methodist churches. Attempts to 
unite the United Brethren with the Kumiai or the Methodist, 
or the Methodist Protestant with the Methodist, or the 
Disciples with the Baptist, have all fallen through. It 
should be noted that the obstacles in every case have 
sprung more from the Japanese than from the missions. 
When one inquires the reasons for these failures, he 
discovers that they fall under the following heads. 
First, denominational loyalty has already developed un- 
expected strength in Japan, especially among the clergy. 
It would be wrong to say that this loyalty springs 
mainly from selfish considerations. It arises from the 
differences of conviction regarding doctrine and church 
government. At the National Laymen's Conference of 
August, 19 1 8, when the spokesman of the Church of 
Christ in Japan (Presbyterian and Reformed) declared 
that two-thirds of the members of the Kumiai Church 
and his own were prepared to unite, the prospects for 
union looked bright ; but in a short time it appeared 
that certain sharp differences of emphasis, if not of 
fundamental faith, would keep them apart some time 
longer. Another half defined reason against union is 
the belief, partly true, that legitimate denominational 
rivalry will promote the conquest of the field better than 
a combination which might induce stagnation. Again 
the leaders of the various denominations would rather be 



238 JAPAN 

big frogs in a small pond than small frogs in a big pond. 
This is human nature the world around and can only 
be overcome by profound conviction of the spiritual 
necessity of church union and marked growth in the 
grace of humility. The last reason to be mentioned 
is the natural fear of the leaders that a union even of 
kindred denominations would result in excessive complexity 
of ecclesiastical machinery. Already they are weighed 
down by committee meetings and intricate negotiations. 
The obstacles in the way of general 
Obstacles church union are similar to those which 

block the uniting of kindred denomina- 
tions, but it may be worth while t^ dwell more fully 
on some of them. It seems to me there are two under- 
lying obstacles. One is the genuine fear of some of the 
most intellrgent leaders that the amalgamation of diverse 
denominations would result in a colorless undenomina- 
tionalism, a least common denominator of faith and 
polity which would flatten down the present rich variety 
into one monotonous level. It is true that the rank and 
file think and care little about theories of the sacraments, 
about refinements of church government, or about 
credal statements. They are Episcopalians, Baptists, or 
Methodists more by chance than by choice. The 
clergy, however, and a few of the laymen are able to 
give a reason for the faith that is in them on all these 
points. They are divided into conservative and liberal 
as a result of fairly mature study and experience. They 
turn a cold shoulder to church union because they think 
It involves a sacrifice of conviction on essentials, and an 
impoverishment of the many-membered Body of Christ. 
One cannot help feeling that their conception of the 
church is too rigid and narrow. The same of course 
is true of most occidental Christians. They fail yet to 
conceive of a church catholic enough to embrace liberal 
and conservative theologies, local autonomy with some 
form of episcopacy, free and formal liturgies. It has 
taken centuries for a considerable number of western 
Christians to approximate such a conception. Is it strange 
that so few Japanese Christians have yet grasped it ? 



ASPECTS OF COOPERATION AND UNION 239 

The second underlying obstacle is a lack of that deep 
yearning for a visible union of all believers, which our 
Lord seems to have prayed for. Doubtless such a 
yearning can only be widely and deeply felt after men 
have struck their roots deep into those partial truths 
which each denomination possesses, just as a great 
orchestra is possible only when each artist has mastered 
his part separately and then learned to blend it into the 
full ensemble. The limitations of mere cooperation or 
federation need to be brought home to the conscience 
of the whole Christian body. It is so well expressed 
in the report of the English Committee already referred 
to that we quote again. " Thus the visible unity of 
the Body of Christ is not adequately expressed in the 
cooperation of the Christian Churches for moral influence 
and social service, though such cooperation might with 
great advantage be carried much further than it is at 
present ; it could only be fully realised through com- 
munity of w^orship, faith, and Order, including common 
participation in the Lord's Supper. This would be 
quite compatible with a rich diversity in life and worship." 
In the line of cooperaitive activity. 
Evangelism however, we find that the various 
churches have succeeded splendidly in 
carrying forward such complex undertakings as the 
evangelistic compaign of 1901 and the nation-wide three 
year evangelistic campaign begun in 19 14. The latter 
campaign especially was dominated by the Japanese from 
first to last. It was suggested by Pastor Miyagawa, the 
leader in the west, and seconded by Pastor Uemura, 
the leader in the east. While it Avas started and sup- 
ported by the Continuation Committee and the mission- 
ary body, yet the main burden of the organization, the 
finances and the speaking was shoulded by the Japanese 
pastors and their trusty laymen. The ability, team-work, 
and self-sacrifice which the hundreds of workers showed 
have rarely been excelled, and the mutual confidence 
thus engendered between men of widely contrasted 
theological and ecclesiastical convictions undoubtedly 
suggested that after all organic church union was not an 



240 JAPAN 

iridescent dream. As ■ one Japanese leader said: '* If 
ever in Japan a union church should develop, historians 
will trace it to a natural, unpremeditated outi^rowth of 
this campaign." 

These evangelistic campaigns have 
Federation of been intermittent and short-termed. When 
Churches it comes to maintaining the permanent 
cooperative activities of the Federation 
of Japanese Churches, the results are disappointing. It 
is true that the Federation has issued some ringing pro- 
clamations and has held some inspiring mass meetings 
to express Christian sentiment on large issues. With the 
aid of the Continuation Committee it has published a 
Christian Yearbook since 19 1/ and it has promoted the 
observance of the annual week of prayer, but after all 
the substantial results have been slight, and it has never 
secured a firm hold upon the confidence of the churches. 
The result is that its income is pitiably small and even 
that is raised with difficulty by levies upon already 
burdened denominational treasuries. One way of helping 
to put backbone into the Federation would be to secure 
for it substantial gifts on condition that an equal amount 
were raised by the churches themselves. This would 
enable the Federation to have a full-time secretary and 
to absorb some of the activities which are carried on in 
a one-sided fashion by the Conference of Federated 
Missions. 

The above discussion suggests that progress should be 
sought along two lines ; first, endeavor to make the: 
Federation of Churches more inclusive and powerful ;; 
second, take persistent and positive steps to bring about- 
general church unity. So far as one can discover, 
neither of these plans is absorbing the thought and at- 
tention of the Japanese leaders. Thus far they have 
taken no interest in the World Conference on Faith and 
Order, for which preparations have been on foot for 
several years. An index of the hold it has taken upon 
representative men in England is the report quoted above. 
While the war has retarded the movement, it is sljeadily 
gathering momentum among churchmen of the most 



ASPECTS OF COOPERATION AND UNION 24I 

varied traditions. It is to be feared that the churches 
in Japan may drift into a side eddy, instead of launching 
out into the main current of the world's corporate 
religious life. Manifestly the situation calls for deliberate 
reflections and for earnest prayer and frank conference 
on the part of those who are deeply concerned. 

It has been the hope of some that the 
Continuation Japan Continuation Committee, which 
Committee so happily blends the interests of Japan- 
ese and foreign Christian workers, might 
be one means of galvanizing the Federation of Churches 
into more active life and also of promoting such fellow- 
ship between members of all the churches and missions 
as would prepare the way for genuine church union. 
Without doubt the gatherings and the necessarily limited 
activities of the Continuation Committee have tended in 
this direction. The very fact that it relies chiefly on 
moral and spiritual authority should enable it to accom- 
plish more in the future. It is certain that both the 
Federated Missions and the Continuation Committee 
should make the upbuilding of the Federation of Churches 
and the clearing of the way for an inclusive church 
union two of their guiding principles. Neither the Con- 
tinuation Committee nor the Federated Missions is an 
end in itself. Their ** euthanasia " in favor of the 
Japanese Church will be their apotheosis. 



CHAPTER XXVII 

THE FEDERATED MISSIONS 



By a. Oltmans, Secretary 

The Annual Meeting held at Karui- 
Conference zawa, in the Auditorium of the Union 
Church, August 4 — 9, 191 8, was the 
Seventeenth of the Conference of Federated Missions. In 
response to the change in the basis of representation 
adopted by the constituent Missions, by which the 
membership of the Conference could be increased from 
fifty to eighty, there Avere present sixty-one full members 
and one corresponding member. This was an increase 
of ten over the number of full members present at the 
previous Annual Meeting. It is hoped that all the 
Missions will henceforth avail themselves fully of the 
privilege of increased representation. 

Arrangements had beeti made to have 
Reports all the Reports of Standing Committees 

prepared beforehand, and these were 
presented together, in printed form and in one binding, 
at the opening of the Annual Meeting. This, except in 
the case of the Report on Necrology, limited the read- 
ing of these Reports to the Recommendations embodied 
in them. The purpose of this departure was to comply 
with a request, repeatedly made, to have more time of 
the Meetings devoted to discussion of the questions 
brought before the Conference. This purpose was fully 
and satisfactorily attained. 

The Conference sermon was preached 

Conference Sermon by the Chairman, Rev. A. D. Berry, 

D. D., on Sunday afternoon, August 

4th, at the Union Church Auditorium. It was an able, 



THE FEDERATED MISSIONS 243 

clear and forceful p»:-esentation of the subject : '* Tlie 
Message of the Chtstian Religion to the Orient,'' and 
was listened to by a large and appreciative audience. 

The regular sessions began on Monday, 
Meetings August 5th, and continued for five days. 

Under the efficient leadership of Dr. 
Berry, the Chairman, assisted by a live Business Com- 
mittee, the work of the Conference was characterized by 
promptness, practicality and patience that brought 
unusually good results.' One new feature introduced into 
the Conference was that of permitting members of con- 
stituent Missions and Societies, tho not delegates to the 
Conference, to participate in the discussions. For these 
discussions sessions were held separate from the business 
sessions of the Conference. It was felt by all that this 
nev\^ feature was a distinct gain, bringing much additional 
light to bear upon the various problems discussed that 
otherwise could not have been obtained, 

Another feature of marked value prominent in the 
meetings was the judicious blending of the devotional 
element with the discussions and the transaction of busi- 
ness at frequent points. To the marked success of this, 
a male quartette consisting of Messrs. C. W. Iglehart, 
E. T. Iglehart, B. F. Shively and F. H. Smith, con- 
tributed to no small degree. It can truly be said that 
there was not a dull moment throughout all the sessions. 
The '' Devotional Periods " of the 
Devotional Periods Conference were placed in the middle 
of the forenoon sessions. The first of 
these was connected with the reading for the Report on 
Necrology, in which brief and appropriate tributes were 
paid to the memory of the eight men and fourteen 
women who had departed from us since the previous 
Conference Meeting, and had gone to their eternal 
rewards with their Savior. 

The leaders of the subsequent Devotional Periods 
were, Bishop Herbert Welch of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, who spoke on the topic, '' In the Midst of the 
Throne a Lamb," Rev. W. E. Parsons, Pastor of the 
Kobe Union Church, whose theme was, ** From Touch 



244 JAPAN 

to Vision " ; and Rev. C. L. Ogilvie of Pekin, China, 
who chose for his subject, " The Great Transition in the 
Mind of the Christian Church." All these addresses 
were greatly helpful in maintaining at a high level the 
devotional tone of the entire Conference. 

The Conference was favored with the 
Fraternal Delegates presence of three fraternal delegates. 
The Rev. Danjo Ebina brought to the 
Conference, in a fervent and appropriate address, the 
greetings from the Federation of Churches in Japan, 
dwelling specially upon the present great need of united 
effort for the spiritual elevation of Japan and the creation 
of a Christian consciousness as the spirit of a new Inter- 
national Japan. 

Greetings from the Federal Council of Protestant 
Evangelical Missions in Korea were conveyed to the 
Conference by the Rev. G. Engel, who spoke of the 
growing intimacy between the Korean and Japanese 
Christian bodies, and emphasized the need of united 
prayer for the accomplishment of the great task yet 
before the churches. 

The Rev. C. L. Ogilvie conveyed greetings from the 
China Continuation Committee, and spoke of the nature 
of the work of that Committee, of the difficulties to be 
overcome, and of the great need of some responsible 
body to voice Christian sentiment on international ques- 
tions in the Far East. 

The main problems discussed in the 
Problems Discussed Conference were divided under the fol- 
lowing heads : (i) Evangelistic Work; 
(2) Christian Schools ; (3) Christian Literature ; (4) 
Sunday Schools ; (5) Social Welfare ; (6) Mission Pro- 
blemis. These subjects were introduced by different 
persons chosen beforehand, and after that general dis- 
cussions followed. Shorthand reports of the discussions 
were taken, which were afterwards placed at the disposal 
of the Conference. The material of these reports may 
be made very helpful for the further study and elucida- 
tion of the several problems with which they deal. 



THE FEDERATED MISSIONS 245 

These sessions were devoted to the 
Business Sessions necessary official routine business of the 

Conference and the consideration of the 
recommendations proposed by the various Standing 
Committees in connection with their printed reports. 

The Resolutions adopted by the Conference upon the 
basis of these recommendations, as well as all the other 
resolutfons relating to the business transacted by the 
Seventeenth Annual' Meeting of the Conference, appear 
in full in the "Japan Evangelist" of September 191 8. 
They are also separately published together with a list 
of the Officers and Standing Committees for the year 
19 1 9, a general Report of the Conference and a resume 
of the work of the Executive Committee between the 
Conference Meeting of 19 17 and that of 191 8. 

A number of testimonies have been 
Conclusion given to the effect that the Annual 

Meeting of 19 18 was decidedly the best 
held thus far by the Conference of Federated Missions. 
The writer ventures to suggest, however, that it was by 
no means the best Meeting that can be had, and express- 
es the hope that each succeeding year it may be better 
than the preceding ones. An additional feature of 
attraction in the Meeting for 19 19 will be the celebration 
of the Sixtieth Anniversary of the beginning of Modern 
Missions in Japan. Preparations are already under way 
to carry out this part of the program at the Meeting 
in Karuizawa next August (3 — 7). 



CHAPTER XXVIII 

FEDERATION OF CHRISTIAN CHURCHES 
OF JAPAN 



By Kikutaro Matsuno, Secretary 

The seventh annual meeting of the 
Annual Meeting Federation of Christian Churches was 
held at the Tokyo Y.M.C.A., April 9, 
191 8. There were eighty three delegates present. Rev. 
H. Kozaki presided. Reports were received from officers 
and committees, and in most cases the incunibents were 
reelected for another year. Dr. A. D. Berry and Rev. 
H.K. Miller, representatives of the Conference of Federat- 
ed Missions, were also present, and gave addresses of 
greeting. The meeting continued into the evening, ad- 
journing for supper, and during the supper hour a 
number of the members made addresses. Among the 
sentiments expressed were the following ;■ — 

Bishop Hiraiwa, " After the world war is over I look 
for a movement toward union of Churches." 

Dr. Ibuka, '* We must do away with our conservatism, 
especially in depending upon the so-called seniors. Old 
and young must supplement one another." 

Rev. Honda, '' It is necessary to exclude congratulations 
from the Official Gazette, and must make clear to all the 
fact that the government has declared that shrine worship 
is not religion." 

Rev. Yoshida, '* Shrine worship offers us a fertile 
field for evangelistic work, and therefore it is proper to 
tolerate it." 

A service of thanksgiving for the 

Armistice signing of the armistice was held at the 

Thanksgiving Tokyo Y.M.C.A. on November 23. 

Rev. K. Ibuka preached the sermon, 



FEDERATION OF CHRISTIAN CHURCHES 24/ 

and in addition addresses were delivered by Messrs. 
Ebara, Tagawa and Ebina. The congratulatory address 
of Foreign Minister, Viscount Uchida, was also read. 
The meeting unanimously decided to send telegrams of 
gratitude and encouragement to President Wilson, Premier 
Lloyd George and General Foch. 

The 1 9 1 8 issue of the Christian Annual 
Christian Annual appeared early in the new year. It 
contains more than 330 pages, giving 
sketches of the general situation in the various fields of 
evangelism in Japan. It provides lists and directories 
of ministers, missionaries, educational and charitable in- 
stitutions, magazines, etc. It also contains the names 
and addresses of 400 prominent Christian laymen, and 
a quantity of valuable statistics. 

On Feb. 11, 19 19, a declaration in regard to present 
conditions was published. (This will be found on page 1 3). 
The officers for the year were elected as follows : — 
President, K. Kozaki. 

Vice-Presidents, K. Hoshino, Y. Hiraiwa. 
Secretaries, K. Yamamoto, K. Matsuno. 
Treasurers, M. Nishijima, J. Yuasa. 
Editors of Christian Annual, K. Kozaki, K. Matsuno. 
Directors of Japan S.S. Association, K. Hoshino, 
C. Inuma. 



CHAPTER XXIX 

THE JAPAN CONTINUATION COMMITTEE 



By Galen M. Fisher 

The Japan Continuation Committee is composed of 
fifteen representatives elected by the Conference of 
Federated Missions, fifteen elected by the Federation of 
Churches, and fifteen more cooptated by the above- 
mentioned members. One notable event of the past 
year was the Conference of Christian Laymen held at 
Gotemba in August, which marked the conclusion of 
the year of conservation evangelism. This conference 
issued in the formation of a society of Christian laymen, 
which purposes to bring about closer cooperation be- 
tween the various denominations and to fan the flame 
of evangelism. 

In harmony with the spirit of the 

Buchman Meetings Laymen's Conference and with the 
sentiment of the leaders of the Three 
Year Evangelistic Campaign, the Continuation Committee 
invited Rev. F. N. D. Buchman and three associates to 
carry on a series of meetings and conferences for the 
promotion of personal evangelism. For this purpose 
Yen i,ooo was appropriated and a sub-committee re- 
presenting the Federation of Churches, the Federated 
Missions, and the Sunday School Association was ap- 
pointed to make arrangements. The meetings were held 
in ten cities during a period of fifteen weeks and reports 
from every place told of excellent results. 

The Annual Meeting of the Committee 

Annual Meeting was held in October and following the 

precedent of 19 17 the afternoon sessions 

were given to the discussion of important topics. Those 



THE JAPAN CONTINUATION COMMITTEE 249 

treated were : ** The Attitude of Christians Toward 
Japanese Religious Forms and Customs" and '*The 
Finding, Training, and Retaining of Japanese Christian 
Workers." A summary of the discussion may be found 
in the Annual Report. 

The report of the Committee on Social Conditions 
aroused special interest, showing that Christian workers 
are increasingly alive to the need of more energetic 
efforts to apply Christianity to social problems. This 
committee made an appropriation for the investigation of 
the conditions of women workers in the Kyushu coal 
mines, the reports of which were published in the daily 
and monthly press, although some of the most startling 
sections of the report were not allowed to be published. 
The demand for a fresh discussion of missionary policy 
and methods in face of the changed conditions following 
the war has led the Committee to plan a General Con- 
ference of Christian Workers to be held in November, 
19 19. In scope and methods it will be similar to the 
conference summoned by Dr. Mott in 191 3. There is 
a strong sentiment, however, in favor of calling a special 
conference to deal exclusively with social problems, but 
adequate investigations cannot be completed in time to 
hold such a conference before the autumn of 1920. 

At the Annual Meeting of the Committee the following 
resolution was adopted : 

*' Resolved, that the Executive Committee be instruct- 
ed to confer with the Federation of Churches and the 
Federated Missions with reference to converting the 
Continuation Committee into a body with limited execu- 
tive as well as advisory powers, the results of such 
conference to be laid before the National Conference of 
Christian Workers to aid that Conference in deciding 
whether or not to make such a change." 

The need for such a change in the 
Need for Chaage constitution of the Committee was made 
clear in connection with the Three Year 
Evangelistic Campaign which was inaugurated by the Con- 
tinuation Committee, but on account of the constitutional 
limitation of the committee to advisory and investigative 



250 JAPAN 

functions, the campaign was as a matter of form trans- 
ferred to the control of a semi-independent committee, , 
although the personnel remained the same. Further- 
more, the Committee should be enabled to combine the 
energies of both the Japanese and the missionary bodies 
in enterprises which vitally touch the Japanese people 
and which cannot be as Avell attended to by either the 
Federation of Churches or the Federated Missions, 
Among such enterprises are the promotion of Christian 
social service, the making of a survey and the promo- 
tion of the effective occupation of the country ; and in 
the course of time, some of the other enterprises which 
at present are lamely cared for by the Federated 
Missions. The ultimate purpose of all such undertakings 
by the Continuation Committee will be to pave the way 
for their being entirely taken over by the Japanese 
churches. 

There has been for some time a growing feeling that 
the Committee ought to be given slightly enlarged 
powers. At present the Constitution provides that it 
may '* confer, investigate, give counsel, and take other 
action regarding matters of common concern to the 
Federation of Churches, the Conference of Federated 
Missions in Japan, and such other bodies as may be 
represented in the membership of the Committee ; but 
no action shall be taken touching upon the independence 
of the bodies represented, or upon ecclesiastical prin- 
ciples or questions of Christian doctrine." An amend- 
ment which has been approved by the Executive of 
the Continuation Committee gives the Continuation 
CommHtee limited executive powers by adding to its 
specific functions the following : ''To promote coopera- 
tion among the various Christian agencies in Japan and 
to conduct special cooperative undertakings which cannot 
equally well be conducted by some other agency, such 
as evangelistic campaigns and the employment of special 
field evangelists." If this amendment is adopted at the 
annual m.eeting it should make it possible for the Com- 
mittee to serve the whole Christian movement more 
freely and effectively than at present. 



CHAPTER XXX 

THE CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY 
OF JAPAN 



By a. D^ Berry 

The seventh Annual Meeting of the Christian Literature 
Society was held at the headquarters of the Society in 
Tsukiji, April 9, 19 19. Reports showing constant activity 
and growth were made by the Executive Secretary, 
Dr. S. H. Wainright and the Secretary for Women and 
Children, Miss A. C. Bosanquet. 

During its five or six years of actual work the Society 
has built up a list of publications consisting of 125 
titles of books and 50 titles of tracts. In 191 8 nearly 
20,000 yen worth of the Society's own publications 
was sold. 

It is an interesting fact that the annual 
Business contributions from the Missions have 

just about covered the running expenses 
of the Society. The total contributions from the begin- 
ning being 53,000 yen and the total current expenses 
being 55,000 yen. Besides these contributions from the 
Missions a total of 9,700 yen has been received from 
individual contributions. The Society has done a business 
during the past five years of 66,300 yen and has stock 
in hand valued at 24,000 yen at the present time. 

All this will show that the Society 

Publishing Plan has done bravely with small funds and 
that the great need is a very much 
larger income. This is shown from another standpoint 
in the list of the publications of the Society. While all 
the books published have been approved unanimously 
by the Society, still the list of books published does not 



252 JAPAN 

wholly represent the best judgement of the Society in 
the order of importance and need in their publication. 
Many of the books have been published because their 
publication has been made possible by gifts received for 
the special purpose by the Society. A well worked 
out program of publication was made at the beginning 
but it has not been possible to follow this program 
because of the lack of funds for publication. Important 
manuscripts are held in the safe of the Society because 
there is no money available for their printing. This 
will answer many of the criticisms made against the list 
of books published. The Society is not ashamed of its 
list of publications. Knowing the difficulties that have 
hindered the work it is very proud of that list. But the 
friends of the Society should understand that it is not 
the list that the Society would have built up in its first 
five years of publication had there been ample means at 
its command. 

During the past year several important books were 
published. Among them were The Life of Bishop 
Honda, and translations of Stevens' The Theology of 
the New Testament, Curtis' The Christian Faith, Bruce's 
Kingdom of God, and Wesley's Christian Perfection. 
Also several new books for young people — one of the 
finest things the Society is doing is the publications of 
good fiction for Japanese young people. 

Two especially important matters were 
Property before the Annual Meeting. One was 

the aquisition of the property now rented 
by the Society at No. 8, Tsukiji, Tokyo. This property 
has become widely known as the headquarters of the 
Society and it was felt that it must be secured by all 
means as the permanent site for the offices of the Society 
and the residence of the Executive Secretary. The pro- 
perty had been offered at a moderate price and on 
convenient terms, the total amount to be paid during a 
period of five years. The Executive Secretary reported 
that his own Board, that of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, would provide the option money and 
also the first annual payment in connection with the 



THE CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY OF JAPAN 253 

Board of the Methodist Episcopal Church through their 
Centenary Movements. This made it possible for the 
Society to resolve to purchase the property. The uniting 
Missions will be asked to provide the amount needed in 
shares of 500 yen each. A total amount of 100,000 
yen is to be raised in this way which will purchase the 
property, the house and nearly 500 tsubo of land, and 
also make it possible to put up additional office rooms 
which are desperately needed. 

The other important matter was the 
Japanese Members cooptation of five Japanese members of 
the Society. The plan for the Christian 
Literature Society at the beginning was that the Federa- 
tion of Japanese Churches should unite with the 
Federated Missions in the organization of the Society. 
But the Federation of Churches was not financially able 
to join in the support of the Society and therefore did 
not feel it proper to join in the organization otherwise. 
In order to secure the vitally necessary help of Japanese 
Christian scholars in the work of the Society an attempt 
was made to have Japanese advisory members. But the 
Japanese scholars chosen as advisory members naturally 
did not find it interesting to attend the meetings of the 
Society simply to give advice when it was asked by the 
missionary members with no right or responsibility of 
their own in the work. Therefore at the last meeting 
of the Federated Missions the Christian Literature Society 
was given the power to coopt five Japanese members 
who should have in the Society the same rights and 
privileges as the missionary members. In the office work 
of the Society there has been Japanese co-operation from 
the beginning. Now there will be full Japanese co-operation 
in the deliberations and actions of the Society itself. 

The following Japanese members were elected : Dr. 
Takagi, President of Aoyama Gakuin ; Dr. Kozaki, ex- 
President of Doshisha and a theological writer and suc- 
cessful pastor ; Professor Kashiwai, the well-known 
theological teacher and writer ; Miss Hasegawa, head of 
the Episcopal Girl's School in Tokyo ; and Professor 
Saito of the Imperial University, translator of The Hound 



254 JAPAN 

of Heaven, St. Paul, and other English poems and a 
modest poet in his own right. These new Japanese 
members will greatly strengthen the work of the Society. 

The Christian Missions in Japan owe a constantly 
increasing debt of appreciation to the two invaluable 
Secretaries of the Christian Literature Society, Dr. 
Wainright and Miss Bosanquet. And it should be 
remembered that the two Missions with which these two 
Secretaries are connected furnish their entire support as 
their contributions to the Society. 

During the year substantial publica- 

New Books 1918 tions were published as follows : — 

Steyen's " New Testament Theology " 
{724 pp) ; Curtis's ''The Christian Faith " (636 pp) ; 
** Life of Bishop Honda" (811 pp); Bruce's ''The 
Kingdom of God " (380 pp). Besides these the following 
were published : — 

T. Kuranaga's translation of Tennyson's " In Memo- 
riam " (66 pp) ; M. Akazawa's translation of Wesley's 
*■' Christian Perfection " (220 pp) ; M. Nakayama, K. 
Inazawa and S. Kihara's " Sabath Observance " (107 pp) ; 
Miss M. Morita's translation of Yonge's " Little Duke " 
(240 pp) ; F. Koizumi and H. Minamioka's translation ot 
Mrs. Miles' " A Mother's Guide " (222 pp) ; S. Nobechi's 
translation of " Trumpet Calls " (100 pp) ; S. Kobayashi's 
translation of M. Gerard's " Dawn of Hope " (228 pp) ; 
Miss K. Hansen's " Antherns " (52 pp) ; Prof. M. 
Matsumoto's translation of Dr. J. Paul's " The Way of 
Power " (204 pp) ; T. Kugimiya's " Essentials * of the 
Kingdom of God " (118 pp) : 

Books reprinted during the year were Fosdick's 
'* Manhood of the Master " (337 pp) ; and " Meaning of 
Prayer" (466 pp) ; J. R. Miller's "Story of Joseph." 

Evangelistic booklets printed were " Captain Hardy 
and his Message " and W. P. Buncombe's " Evangelise 
your Church Neighbor." 

The " Myojo" was sent to over 1500 schools and the 
circulations averaged 67,000 copies a month. 



CHAPTER XXXI 

UNION ENGLISH SPEAKING CHURCHES 



By William Martin 

The year 1918 has been a prosperous one for the 
three Union Churches, Kobe, Tokyo, and Yokohama, 
as the appended reports testify. In all three churches 
there is one feature of service that can not be tabulated 
either numerically or financially ; it is that of ministering 
to the stream of tourists and travelling missionaries that 
is continually flowing through them but never halting 
in its passage. Messages from these pulpits every 
Sunday are carried almost to the ends of the earth, and 
scores of persons who have been unable for months to 
participate in an English service find in those of the Union 
Churches great refreshment of spirit and new strength 
for the way. Besides these there are very many residents 
who, while unwilling to come into permanent relation 
with the churches, yet are frequent worshippers in them, 
and are thus kept in touch with the things of the 
kingdom. 

The following separate reports speak for themselves. 

Kobe 

That a live-energetic-spiritual Church organization is 
needed in Kobe is growingly apparent from the history 
of Union Church. The increasing company of foreigners 
resident here need it ; the large number of tourists 
spending some time in the city need it ; and the Japa- 
nese themselves need it. The building stands as a 
silent witness for God in the midst of the mammon-mad 
throngs. Its membership is moral and spiritual salt for 



256 JAPAN 

the entire city. Its worshipping- congregations gather 
cheer and inspiration from its weekly ministry. 

The year has witnessed growth and 
Growth progress along substantial lines. Sab- 

bath services well attended ; the Bible 
School flourishing ; the membership increasing — forty two 
were added during the year, nineteen on confession of 
faith ; the finances well cared for and sufficient for the 
needs. 

The cosmopolitan character of the congregation is 
seen as each week there assemble people from all parts 
of the earth, many of them visiting strangers who carry 
away the blessing which may have come to them. . 
Surely the Pastor of a Union Church in any port city 
has an opportunity which angels might covet. 

The Pastor's Aid Society — the Women's organization 
of the Church — is doing much to unite the social and 
devotional life of the Church in their monthly meetings. 
During the year they have been enlisting the interest of 
strangers and others in the various Mission enterprises 
of the city by acting as guides to parties in visiting 
these. 

The '* Thursday Evening Club," an organization of 
the young people of the Church, meets every other 
week at the Manse. This has proved to be an interest- 
ing and helpful means of bringing together this active 
portion of the community for fellowship and construc- 
tive work. 

One of the very finest pieces of ser- 
Chinese Work vice which Union Church has ever done 
has been in connection with the Chinese 
of the city. Three years ago a Chinese young man who 
had just become a member of the Church started a 
night school for the young men of his nation. Helpers 
from Union Church and some others were enlisted and 
the work was started. It was a success from the be- 
ginning and soon a day school was opened, then a 
Sunday School. In December 191 7 a Young People's 
Society of Christian Endeavor was begun, the young 
men became much interested and one year from the 



\ 



UNION ENGLISH SPEAKING CHURCHES 25/ 

date of organizing the Christian Endeavor, the Kobe 
Union Chinese Church was organized with seventeen 
members, and a pastor is on his way from China to 
lead them. 

Many of the members of Kobe Union Church feel 
that its best days are before it, and they are looking 
forward to an enlarging usefulness in the years to come. 

The services of the Rev. Willis E. Parsons, D.D. the 
energetic and faithful pastor of this church for the past 
two years will come to an end this summer to the 
great regret of the congregation and of the entire com- 
munity, and a new pastor will be needed. 

Tokyo 
Tokyo Union Church is in the midst of its third year 
since its reorganization in 191 6. The reorganization of 
the church and the calling of a regular pastor have 
been more than justified by the growth of the church, 
both in numbers and influence. In spite of war condi- 
tions which have made serious inroads on our plans the 
work has moved steadily on. Our membership now 
numbers 232. 

Last summer our pastor, Dr. Doremus 

Acting Pastor Scudder, was called to serve the Red 
Cross in Siberia, and the work of the 
church has been no little hindered during the year by 
his absence. From New Years, 19 19, H. B. Benning- 
hoff has been serving as acting pastor, with the assist- 
ance of other members of the community who kindly 
volunteer their services. The absence of the pastor, to- 
gether with general war conditions has made it 
impossible to carry forward the plans for larger equip- 
ment and extension of the work. But with the return 
to normal conditions it is expected that the movement 
for a new Church Home will be again taken up. 

The foreign community of Tokyo is steadily growing 
in numbers and importance. Large business houses now 
have their offices in the metropolis, and the number of 
business men is increasing. One of our great problems 
is how to care for the social and religious interests o^ 



2S8 JAPAN 

this growing though scattered community* Our greatest 
need is for a Church Home that will also be a Com- 
munity Center, with equipment for meeting the demands 
of English speaking men and women and children who 
have few opportunities apart from the church for getting 
together. 

During the last two years young 

Building Needed people coming out to enter business or 
professional life have experienced great 
difficulty in getting homes or lodgings, and there has 
been practically no opportunity for them to meet to- 
gether socially with all the members of the English- 
speaking community. The fact that we are still com- 
pelled to use the auditorium of the Ginza Methodist 
Church for our worship makes it impossible for us to 
have a morning service, or to have other meetings or 
gatherings than the one Sunday afternoon meeting for 
worship. A Church Home of our own would provide 
a place of worship, opportunities for social fellowship, 
and if ideally constructed, ought to be able to offer 
dormitory features for friends unable to secure more 
permanent homes or lodgings. 

The attendance at the services averages more than a 
hundred. The Sunday School has steadily kept up its 
interest, and the Women's Society has as always been 
of great assistance in carrying on the work of the 
church. It is hoped that in the near future the men of 
the church will emulate the ladies' example and organize 
for aggressive work. 

The Tokyo Union Church at the 
Membership time of its reorganization in 19 1 6 had 
193 charter members. From that time 
to May, 191 8, there were added 27 members and in 
19 19 up to April 1st, 24 members were added. During 
191 8 there were 12 withdrawals due to leaving Tokyo — 
so that at the present time we have an enrollment of 
232. Some of these members have gone to homelands 
on furloughs, and some have been transferred to other 
cities in japan — however, all retaining their membership 
in our Church. 



i 



UNION ENGLISH SPEAKING CHURCHES 259 

The ordinary budget of the Church is 
Financial Position about ¥4200 annually Avhich is covered 
by a grant of $1000 from the Anglo- 
American Communities Committee and by annual pledges 
from members and friends in Tokyo. The Site and 
Buildings Fund now amounts to practically ¥30,000 
having increased from ¥3500 in 19 17 by donations 
and a legacy. Now that the war is over it is anticipat- 
ed that this Fund will receive further accretions when a 
new campaign is instituted. 

Yokohama 

The work of this church during the year has 
gone forward steadily and the services have been 
well maintained. One of the most gratifying features of 
the work has been the attendances at the services on 
Sundays, especially at the morning service, which averages 
more than twenty per cent above the total of its mem- 
bership. Some of these are tourists and other transients 
who are stopping over Sunday in the port, and who 
find their way to us for at least one service. They 
represent almost every nationality, and their presence 
furnishes an augury of the day for which we pray when 
we shall all be one in Christ Jesus. 

The work of the Sunday School has 

Sunday School always been one of the most encourag- 
ing features of our activities. The 
enrolment is well over the century mark, and the attend- 
ance and enthusiasm at each session of the school is 
highly gratifying. A large number of these scholars 
are children of parents who have no connection with 
this or with any church but who are anxious that their 
children should know what they neglect, and it is a joy 
to us to be able to do something to sow the seeds of 
the truth in the gardens of these young lives. 

During the year much valuable war-work was done 
both by the Women's Auxiliary and by an organisation 
of men and women which met for one evening each 
week to roll bandages for the wounded. 

One of the interesting features of the winiter's work has 



26o JAPAN 

been a Study Circle which has met on alternate Thurs- 
days to study various questions in Social Christianity. 
The attendance, while not as large as we could have 
wished, has been good, and the interest shown has been 
keen. 

The financial position of the church 
Flaances at the close of the year was most 

satisfactory, there remaining a consider- 
able balance on hand after paying all expenses. As 
against this, however, we have had to face a very heavy 
outlay for repairs upon the church building which were 
imperative and could not be postponed. To meet this 
the congregation has made contributions, or given pledges, 
amounting to several Thousand yen, and the repair work 
has already begun. 

Like other churches, we are facing the hardest year 
in our recent history. The close of the war has made 
it possible for many to leave for furloughs that have been 
long postponed, and while some of these will, we hope, 
return to us there are others, and these some of our most 
helpful men and women, who are leaving for good. We 
can only hope that others will speedily step in to fill 
their places. 



JAPAN 



PART VIII 
OBITUARIES 



CHAPTER XXXII 

I.— CLARA ALWARD 



By Anna B. Slate 

Clara Alward was born in Postville, Ind., on July 30, 
1 87 1. Her father died when she was very young, but 
her mother and four sisters are still living. She studied 
for two years at Cornell College, Iowa, and later graduated 
at the Deaconess Training School at Washington. 

For seven years she then served as deaconess in a 
church in Newark, N. J., and this practical experience 
was of great benefit to her in her later work in Japan. 
After leaving Newark, Miss Alward went to Dr. White's 
School, in New York city, where she spent two years. 

In August, 1907, she arrived in Yokohama, to become 
a teacher in the Woman's Union Bible Training School, 
at 212 Bluff. This position, with that of country 
evangelistic worker, she had acceptably filled for nearly 
eleven years. In addition to her constant work among 
the Japanese her interests centered in Union Church, of 
which she was an active member. She was also busily 
engaged in temperance and Sunday School work, and 
in service for her country, through the Red Cross. 

Taken to the Yokohama Hospital on Wednesday, July 
10, suffering with peritonitis, she quietly slept away five 
days later, surrounded by the members of her mission 
family and her nearest friends. 

In her going, both Japanese and foreign communities 
have sustained a severe loss. But Clara Alward herself 
still lives in the hearts and lives of her friends, and her 
influence, so nobly exerted for the cause of Christ in 
this land, will go on widening and deepening as the 
years go by. 



264 JAPAN 

II.— HELEN ANDREWS 



By D. M. Lang 

Helen Paterson was married to the Rev. Walter 
Andrews the month before he set sail for Japan in the 
autumn of 1878 and was a true helpmeet in all the 
years he worked as a Missionary of the Church Mis- 
sionary Society (England). First at Nagasaki till his 
health broke down, and then at Hakodate where the 
first few years were ones of specially trying circumstances 
in the work, she was always a valuable partner both by 
counsel and active co-operation. When the Girls School 
was started she was its head and gave a lot of time 
and thought to it, with great success. She was indeed 
** A Mother in Isreal " to many of the Japanese, as well 
as the later Missionaries as they joined the Mission. In 
1902 family reasons compelled her husband to resign his 
work in Japan, but, in his work in an English parish 
she was equally at home and given to good works. 
When, on the resignation of Bishop Fyson, he was in 
1909 consecrated as the second Bishop in Hokkaido, 
she returned with him and again ably helped him in all 
his work. But her health began to fail, until in October 
19 1 6 the Bishop was obliged to take her home, and, 
although he came out alone for part of the next year, 
her health got so much worse that he felt compelled to 
resign in 191 8. She passed away at Tonb ridge, Eng- 
land, on IVEarch 7th. 191 8, but her works do follow her. 



JULIA NEILSON CROSBY 265 

III.— JULIA NEILSON CROSBY 

Miss Julia Neilson Crosby was born in New York 
City on July 30, 1833, and died July 4th, 19 18 in 
Yokohama, having nearly completed her eighty-fifth year. 
She came to Japan in June 1871 in company with Mrs. 
Louise Pearson and Mrs. Pruyn, these three ladies being 
the pioneers of the Woman's Union Missionary Society. 

With the exception of brief furloughs in America, 
Miss Crosby spent forty seven years in Japan, devoting 
her time and talents to educational work among Japanese 
women, chiefly in connection with the Kyoritsu Jo Gakko, 
now known as the Doremus School, at 212 Bluff, 
Yokohama. 

In recognition of her work in the cause of education 
among Japanese Miss Crosby received from the Imperial 
Government the Order of the Blue Ribbon, this being 
presented By Governor Ariyoshi at the Kencho in the 
presence of many friends on October 8th, 191 7. In 
reply to the Governor's address Miss Crosby said, in 
part : — 

" As I look back to the time when I arrived in Japan, 
forty six years ago, I see wonderful progress in every 
department of the government, especially in the depart- 
ment of education, but I hope that many more institu- 
tions of learning for women may be promoted in the 
near future, because a nation cannot be strong without 
well educated and high principled wives and mothers. 
When I think of my past work in the Kyoritsu Jo 
Gakko I feel I have done very little, and I wish that I 
were more worthy of the great honor which has been 
conferred upon me. The only points of which I can 
speak are, firstly, the fact that I was one of the first 
women to come to Japan, afid secondly, that God has 
permitted me to remain so long in the work which I 
love in this dear land of my adoption." 

Miss Crosby leaves a record ot nearly half a century 
of devoted work in Japan, where she has striven to hold 
up before the women the highest ideals of Christian 
womanhood. 



266 JAPAN 

IV.:- KATE V. JOHNSON 



' Bv p. A. Davey 

Miss Kate V. Johnson was born in St. Louis, Mo.^ 
November 5,1860. When fifteen years of age she went 
with her family to live in Madison, Indiana, where later 
she became a teacher in the public schools after having 
completed the teachers' course in the Normal School at 
Lebahon. She arrived in Akita, Japan, on July 1 7, 1 886, 
as a Missionary of the Foreign Christian Missionary 
Society of Cincinnati. After spending four years in 
language study and in evangelistic work in the provinces 
of Akita and Yamagata, she was transferred to Hohgo, 
Tokyo, where she resided until her retirement from the' 
field in 191 7, having spent over thirty years in active 
Christian service. Miss Johnson's work was mainly in 
behalf of women and children. She was a friend of the 
6rphans, sixty of whom were cared for in her home 
until they could care for themselves. Some of these 
are now teachers in Kindergartens and other schools. 
Japanese friends who probably knew her longest and 
best, testify that strong traits of character, high principles, 
and endearing Christian qualities are the things that now 
stand out prominently in the background of her life. 
On the occasion of her death in Madison on January^ 
29,1919, one of the daily papers of that city stated that 
Miss Johnson had planned to leave Madison in the spring 
and go to California, to continue her work among the 
people for whom she had given her life. The following 
comment in the same daily indicates the favorable 
impression she made on the people in her old home 
city : — " Deeply religious, highly cultured and possessing 
a charming personality, Miss Johnson was indeed richly 
endowed for the life work she undertook and carried 
out so successfully. True Christianity in its highest 
and noblest form was exemplified in her life, and she 
goes to a reward of riches such as few deserve." 



ARCHDEACON KING 26/ 

v.— ARCHDEACON KING 

Aniline Francis King was the son of an English 
clergyman and was born on May i6, 1856. He was 
educated at Ipswich Grammar School, and at Keble 
College, Oxford. 

After his ordination to the ministry in 1881 he became 
a curate in a large parish near London. But his naturally 
splendid physique had been damaged by overrowing in 
his College boat at Oxford. After a few years work he 
broke down, and though much better after a world tour 
with a friend in 1885-6 yet serious heart trouble remained, 
and he was told that his life must be lived under strict 
limitations and would probably be short. 

It was with this knowledge that he offered, and was 
accepted, for missionary service in Japan. He travelled 
out with Bishop Bickersteth in 1888, and thus were laid 
the foundations of a close friendship. Mr. King and Mr. 
Cholmondeley (who had come to Japan in 1887) were 
the first members of St. Andrew's University Mission and 
the headquarters of that Mission in Shiba, Tokyo have 
been Mr. King's home during the thirty years ministry 
which, contrary to all human expectation, have been 
granted him in this land of his adoption. 

After preliminary study of the language he had much 
to do with the Divinity students who came to the Mission 
to be trained for service, and for some years he Avas in 
pastoral charge of a Church and Mission in the district 
of Kyobashi. 

In later years he had no definite charge beyond the 
office of Archdeacon bestowed on him by the present 
Bishop in 1910 and (for some years) the care of the 
English congregation worshipping at St. Andrews. He 
lived on at St. Andrews House as its honoured Head, 
always quietly busy with matters concerning the Nippon 
Sei-ko-kwai or the spiritual welfare of the many who 
looked to him for counsel. 

In 191 2 he had a paralytic seizure, and though there 
was partial recovery for a time, from the spring of 19 16 
his health gradually failed till in September 191 7 came a 



268 JAPAN 

second seizure. After this there were many weary months 
of complete invalidism and gradually increasing weakness, 
till at least the call to rest came, and he entered into IJfe 
on June 5th, 191 8. 

An uneventful life truly — as far as outward things go— 
and yet one of a deep and far-reaching influence, seldom 
met with, and scarcely suspected outside its own circle. 

Many factors went to form that influence, and to call 
out the affectionate reverence with which he is regarded 
far beyond the limits of his own Mission and diocese. A 
transparent sincerity and simplicity of life and manner : a 
recollectedness and dignity of bearing, untouched by any 
hint of officialism, and reflecting a dutiful and disciplined 
and devotional life : a deliberate repudiation of all working 
for effect and of all forms of exaggeration : a personal 
humility which went very deep : a robustness of common 
sense and power of judgment : a real sympathy with all 
healthy human life and interests : a sound fund of Biblical 
and theological knowledge : an exceptional refinement of 
thought : a considerate courtesy and quiet sense of hum- 
our which graced and lightened ordinary intercourse : a 
tenderness and thoughtfulness which in times of sickness 
and suffering made him a true ** Son of Consolation " : 
an unusual capacity for close friendship with other men 
(often strikingly different from himself) — 

Never very fluent in Japanese, conscientious care and 
study had given him a correctness of pronunciation and 
of utterance which rendered his ministrations acceptable. 
The people of the land also felt instinctively his never- 
failing sympathy, understanding and affection. 

Peculiarly clear and definite in his own convictions, and 
also by temperament and training essentially conservative. 
Archdeacon King was neither ready to welcome nor 
specially anxious to examine modern movements in thought 
and polity. But he was never slow to detect and respond 
to any inner spiritual sympathy which underlay differences 
of conviction and practice, and no one was more ready 
to echo in word and to show forth in act St. Paul's 
" Peace be with all those who love our Lord Jesus Christ 
inf sincerity." 



THOMAS McCLOY 269 

VI.— THOMAS McCLOY 



By C. H, D. Fisher 

Some one has said that the most decisive test of a man's 
character is what those who know him best think of him,, 
and this is especially true in regard to Dr. McCloy, for 
he was so retiring in disposition that many who thought 
they knew him did not know him well. I am sure I 
voice the opinion of those who knew him best when I 
say that those who knew him best loved him most. He 
began his missionary work in Southern China thirty three 
years ago so that for a full generation he has done the 
work of a missionary doctor, the grandest work, the 
grandest calling, I think, in all the world. 

After eighteen years of that work, on the way w^ith 
his family to America he called in Japan, but so loth 
was he to leave his work for even a little time that he 
sent his family on to America and stayed himself in Tokyo 
to begin medical practice there. Without his family and 
entirely unacquainted it was slow work at first, an un- 
known bachelor's hall not being the place to which people 
usually go for treatment. Gradually however he won his 
way into practice and later united with Dr. Whitney ia 
caring also for Whitney Memorial Hospital in Akasaka. 
He could not forget however his work for Chinese, and 
learning of a little self-supporting Chinese Baptist Church 
in Yokohama without pastor or Mission oversight he 
soon became acquainted with them and for years came 
twice or three times a month to preach for them on 
Sundays, so far as I know entirely without remuneration 
and then doing for them medically also as he could, he 
returned to Tokyo to be as ready as he could for his 
regular work on Monday rriornings. Entirely without 
ostentation he went about his work making friends and being 
a friend to everybody and building up an excellent practice 
both there and at Karuizawa. Later finding an excellent 
opening in Yokohama he decided to remove there and has 
done excellent work there for many years. When I think 



270 JAPAN 

of Dr. McCloy three words always come to my mind, 
modesty, loving-kindness and faithfulness. Plucky and 
decisive in his work and yet always a modest, sometimes 
overly modest retiring Christian gentleman, in every way 
possible, as doctor and teacher making himself helpful 
wherever he saw an opening. Often his medical work 
for his loved Chinese and for the Japanese and for others 
was too entirely unrewarded but none the less on that ac- 
count gladly given. Often he made one think of that Other 
One who went about doing good. His kindness in the 
5ick room exceeded all description, as he did everything 
with so much care and skill, his shining face always bring- 
ing sunshine and good cheer no matter how great his 
anxiety. Dr. McCloy was born in Scotland in 1861, was 
Missionary in China of the American Missionary Society 
and died in Yokohama March 25 th, 19 19. 



GEORGE M. MEACHAM, D. D. 2/1 

VII.—GEORGE M. MEACHAM. D. D. 



By Benjamin Chappell 

When our ascended Lord sent his first messengers 
irom Canadian Methodism to Japan, he gave rich gifts : 
Dr. Eby, man of vision, the Tokyo Central Tabernacle 
his abiding memorial ; Dr. MacDonald, beloved physician, 
evangelist, administrator ; Dr. Cochran, of whom, by 
coming from its most influential pastorate, the home 
church said ** we send our best " ; and the subject of 
these lines who had the distinction of being spoken of 
as, of even this apostolic band, the Saint John. 

George M. Meacham was born in Belleville, Canada, 
and died in Toronto, February 20th, 19 19, in the 86th 
year of his age. When in his nineteenth year, he was 
converted to God during a rivival, but in the quiet of 
his own room. Graduating from Victoria University, in 
1856 he was ordained, and, after serving leading charges 
for twenty years, was sent to Numadzu as teacher of 
English in the government school, with the glorious 
privilege of sowing the seed of the Kingdom in virgin 
soil. 

His missionary career may be summarised thus : 
Numadzu, 1876 — 1878 ; Tokyo, 1878 — 1883 ; Yokohama, 
1888 — 1898 ; Tokyo, 1899 — 1902. 

There is space to write of but two of these fields of 
labor. 

I. Accompanied from Tokyo by the principal and 
three teachers of the school, the Doctor, with Mrs. 
Meacham and her sister. Miss Moulton, reached 
Numadzu. Their first home was in a Buddhist temple, 
yet not because they were welcome ; for before their 
arrival, the people of the town had been solicited to 
sign with their own blood a pledge to have nothing to 
do with the new religion. 

One Sunday it was announced that after Bible class 
there would be a class-meeting. The leader told of his 
own conviction of sin, repentance, and trust in the 



2/2 JAPAN 

Savior, and Mrs. Meacham and her sister, from full 
hearts, of their love for the Lord Jesus. Then, to their 
surprise and joy a student arose and said, *' I love my 
Savior, too ! " The Doctor has said, that for some 
time, it was as if he were walking on air. The first to 
receive baptism was the principal of the school, Soroku 
Ebara. It were well worth crossing the Pacific to lead 
to the Savior that young man, now the venerable 
Founder of the Azabu Middle School, President of the 
Tokyo Y. M. C. A. and Member of the House of Peers. 
2. Yokohama. The writer easily recalls the Union 
Church for the foreign community thirty years ago : the 
pastor's shepherd heart : — his longing to help the 
representatives of the many races and religions at that 
cross-roads of the world ; his tender solicitude for his 
own people, over whom he watched as one who must 
give account ; the minister and the choice company of 
people who worshipped in the Kaigan church : 

" I hear once more the solemn-urging words. 
That tell the things of God in simple phrase ; 

Again the reverent prayer ascends. 
Bringing to the still Sabbath hour 

A sense of the Eternal." 

1 asked a long-time friend of Dr. Meacham's to give 
a brief estimate. He answered instantly : " The Doctor 
always was the cultured, scholarly, thoroughly Christian 
gentleman. There was an all roundness and finish that 
made him almost ideal. For fineness of fibre, beauty of 
character, I do not know where you would find a higher 
type." It was natural that such an one towards life's 
close should have written, ** The best in the Christian 
life is at the last. Blessed be his Name ! The best here 
and still better, vastly better, in the life above ! " 



MARY ELLEN WAINWRlGHT 2/3 

VIII. —MARY ELLEN WAINWRlGHT 



By James H. Pettee 

Miss Wainwright was born in Dundee 111., Mar. 2,1862, 
but her later home was in Blair, Nebraska. Her father 
was a home missionary in the states of the Middle West. 
During the civil war he was chaplain of the regiment 
of which Dr. J. D. Davis became colonel. The two 
men were close friends and as a result of this attach- 
ment the daughter of one came to Japan in June 1887 
to be associated with the other in school work in 
Kyoto. Her speciality was music. After her first furlo 
in 1896 — 7 she moved to Okayama and made that city 
her home, except during one more year's furlo in 
America, until she was brought to Kobe a fortnight or 
so before the end came. 

More than most people she loved the outdoor life, 
the flowers, the trees, the birds, dogs, cats and all living 
things and made them her pets. Her favorite summer 
resort was at Takayama (Sendai Beach) where she 
engaged in a special study of sea mosses, persistently 
hunting for rare specimens which she mounted most 
artistically and sold for the benefit of the North End 
Church in Okayama to the organizing and building up 
of which she devoted her every talent. 

So accurate and extensive became her knowledge of 
sea mosses that she received high praise from the pro- 
fessors of Botany in the Imperial University. 

She converted a dirty old Japanese building into a 
wonderfully attractive home, where she mothered many 
students. 

She gave thirty-one years of devoted service to tlie 
land of her adoption, became very skilfuU in the use of 
the colloquial, speaking in Japanese rather than English 
during the delirium of her last days and proved the truth 
of the teaching that the vision and peace of God are 
for those who climb the hill of duty and make it a 
highway of ministering service. 



2/4 JAPAN 

IX.— JOHN TEFFT WARD 

On the afternoon of December 9, 191 8, Dr. John T. 
Ward passed away in Yokohama at the home of his 
daughter, Mrs. G. S. Phelps. Although Dr. Ward spent 
almost his entire life in America, his few years of ex- 
emplary service in Japan bound him to many by the 
links of friendship, respect, and mutual interest in the 
task of extending the Kingdom of God. 

Dr. Ward was born in New York in 1847. He took 
undergraduate work at Hillsdale College, Michigan, and 
his seminary training at Andover, from which he graduated 
in 1873. It was during his study at Andover that he 
came into touch with Joseph Hardy Neesima, the founder 
of Doshisha University. In 1876 he married Mary 
Tewksbury Cowell at Somersworth, New Hampshire. 
He spent sixteen years as pastor of Free Baptist churches 
in Michigan, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island. Dr. 
Ward was for many years editor of the official organ 
of his own denomination and following this service 
became professor of systematic theology and missions at 
Hillsdale College. 

One of the outstanding characteristics of Dr. Ward's 
life from a very early day was his deep interest in 
missions in general and more particularly in the work 
in India. In 1905 he and Mrs. Ward came to Japan 
to visit with Mr. and Mrs. Phelps who were then located 
in Kyoto. After the death of Mrs. Ward, he came 
again to Japan to spend the last few years of his life. 

During his years here he taught English in the Iwakuni 
Middle School and in Osaka. Another contribution to 
our Christian movement in Japan was his extremely 
thoughtful discussion of the question of the atonement, 
a small volume published a few years ago by the Christian 
Literature Society. 

Those who knew Dr. Ward best can never recall him 
without being reminded of Paul's words, *' Steadfast, 
immovable, always abounding in the work of the Lord." 



WILLIS NORTON WHITNEY 2/5 

X.— WILLIS NORTON WHITNEY, M. D. 



By George Braithwaite 

Dr. Willis Norton Whitney was born at Newark, New 
Jersey, October i8th, 1855. He had two sisters, both of 
whom spent many years in Japan. The younger one, who 
was instrumental in founding the Japanese Branch of the 
Scripture Union, lies buried at Hakodate. She was the 
wife of the Rev. David M. Lang of the C. M. S. 

Dr. Whitney's parents were earnest. God-fearing people 
with no thought of going abroad until one day they met 
two or three Japanese and very soon felt that their Master 
would have them give up their happy home at Newark 
and go and live for Him in what was then, forty-four 
years ago, the far-off land of Japan, not in connection 
with any Missionary Society but as self-supporting 
Avorkers, so that some at least of the Japanese people 
might hav^e the opportunity of seeing what a Christian 
home was like. Obedient to this divine call, the family 
reached Tokyo in 1875. The father became a teacher in 
what is now the Higher Commercial School. The son. 
Dr. Whitney, who was then about twenty, studied medi- 
cine at what has since become the Tokyo Imperial Uni- 
versity, and was one of the first foreigners to enrol in 
that institution. For some time too he was teacher of 
English, Chemistry and Physiology at the Middle Normal 
School at Kanazawa. The late Count and Countess 
Katsu rendered much kind help to the whole family, not 
only at this time but also during the whole period of 
their stay in Japan. 

After some years Dr. Whitney returned, to America 
with his parents for a visit. While there he resumed his 
medical studies at the University of Pennsylvania, these 
having been broken off when he went to Japan. He 
graduated from there in 188 1. He afterwards took British 
medical degrees. The family left America about 1881 on 
their return journey to Japan, going by way of London, 
where the father died, leaving his son, the subject of this 



2/6 JAPAM 

little sketch, responsible for the whole support of the 
family. They continued their journey to Tokyo, but the 
mother's health soon failed and she passed away in Aka- 
saka, Tokyo, in the spring of 1883. Dr. Whitney's devo- 
tion to his mother during this period deeply impressed 
the Japanese and did much to remove the mistaken idea 
that Christianity did not teach due respect to parents. 

In 1883 Dr. Whitney became interpreter at the Amer- 
ican Legation in Tokyo. This position which he held 
for more than twelve years brought him into touch with 
many of the Japanese statesmen of the middle Meiji 
period. 

On December 29th, 1885, Dr. Whitney was married to 
Mary C, daughter of Joseph Bevan and Martha Braithwaite 
of London. To them were born seven children, five of 
whom are still living. One son is in Mesopotamia, one 
in New York, and two in France. The only daughter is 
married and lives in Ireland. 

Dr. Whitney was an indefatigable worker and one who 
seemed to be always thinking of new and larger plans for 
the spread of the Gospel of Christ. He founded the Aka- 
saka Hospital in Tokyo in 1889 in memory of his mother 
and continued as its Foreign Director until he left Japan 
in 191 1. In 1895 he resigned his position at the American 
Legation so that he might give his mornings to the 
Hospital and be free to devote his whole life to Christian 
work. In addition to his Hospital responsibilities and his 
private medical practice, he devoted much time and 
thought to the Scripture Union Work, the Police Mission, 
the Railway Mission and the Post and Telegraph Mission, 
all of which he greatly assisted in founding. 

His service to the cause of medicine in Japan is 
indicated by the fact that from 1896 to 1906 he was Vice- 
President of the Society for the Advancement of Medical 
Science in Japan. His large interests outside of his 
medical profession is evidenced by some of the following 
publications: ''Blood Changes in Erysipelas," 1881 ; 
*' Dictionary of Roads and Chief Towns in Japan," 1885 ; 
" Notes on the Medical History of Japan," Asiatic Society 
Transactions, 1885 ; Index of Chinese Characters in 



I 



WILLIS NORTON WHITNEY, M. D. 2// 

Hepburn's Dictionary, 1888 ; Editorials in the English 
Department of the Japanese Se-i Kwai Medical Journal ; 
Correspondence and Contributions to the Philadelphia 
Medical Times and the New York Medical Record. 

Dr. and Mrs. Whitney left Japan in April 19 11, hoping- 
to be back before the end of the year, but he had a 
serious breakdown soon after reaching London, followed 
about two years ago by a slight apoplectic stroke, from 
which he never fully recovered. The last eighteen months 
were spent at Mrs. Whitney's mother's old home at 
Banbury and were a time of much quiet enjoyment. 

His was a cheery Christianity. By the grace of God 
he was wonderfully enabled to overcome his natural 
tendency to despondency and to carry the sunshine of the 
Lord's presence wherever he went. He was a devoted 
member of the Society of Friends and a recorded mini- 
ster, and it was not at all unusual for Dr. Whitney and 
his family throughout their long residence in Tokyo, to 
walk over from their home in Akasaka to the Friends' 
meeting in Mita. He was remarkably faithful in passing on 
to others any fresh blessings which he himself had received. 



278 JAPAN 

XL— CALDER TRUHEART WILLINGHAM 

Calder Truheart Willingham was born at Talbotton, 
Ga., March 3, 1879. He was baptized when eight years 
of age. He took his Bachelor's degree at Richmond 
College in 1 899, and graduated from the Southern Baptist 
Seminary in 1902. His first sermon was preached when 
he was eighteen years old, from the text : *' This is a 
faithful saying and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ 
Jesus came into the world to save sinners." 

Mr. Willingham was married to Miss Bessie Bell Hardy 
in 1902 and sailed for Japan in September of that year. 
His wife's failing health compelled him to return to America 
in 1905, where shortly afterwards she died. 

In 191 1 he returned to Japan with his second wife, 
Miss Elizabeth Foy Johnson, locating in Kokura where 
he and his devoted wife labored successfully for seven 
years, their itinerary covering the whole of the great 
industrial area of Northern Kyushu. 

In July 19 1 8, he and his wife returned to the States 
for a furlough. In the following autumn, when he was 
just on the eve of beginning a campaign to raise funds 
for the better equipment of his work, he was stricken 
with influenza while attending his brother, who also fell 
a victim to the plague, and passed to his rest after a 
week of intense suffering. 

In the delerium which accompanied his illness he 
poured out his soul in the Japanese tongue for the 
Japanese people. His mind, no longer under his con- 
scious direction, wandered back to his field across the 
seas, and he preached and prayed fluently in Japanese. 
He was a loyal and sympathetic friend, a man of strong 
convictions yet tolerant of and courteous to those from 
whom he differed. If the members of his Mission had 
been asked whom they could least afford to spare, they 
would have replied, '* Calder Willingham," 



FORMOSA 



CHAPTER I 

CANADIAN PRESBYTERIAN MISSION 
NORTH FORMOSA 



Communicants on Roll 1st Jan. 1 91 8 ... 
Additions : — 

Adults baptized .• 

Baptized in infancy, rec'd to Communion 

Restored from suspension 

Come from elsewhere 

Total additions 

Deductions : — 

Deaths 

Suspensions 

Gone elsewhere 

Removed from roll • 

Total deductions 

Net loss 



2133 

120 

31 

2 
40 

193 

74 
6 

31 

254 

365 
172 

1962 

59 

1 186 

106 

1247 

3268 



Communicants on Roll Dec. 31st. 1918... 

Members under suspension 

Children on roll Jan. ist. 1918 

Baptized during year 

Total baptized children Dec. 31st 1918 

Total Church Membership Dec. 31st. 19 18 

Native church givings during 1918. ¥14029.74 

These statistics are not trustworthy. In the census 
taken at the end of the year 191 8, the number of adult 
communicants on the roll, as reported by the churches, 
was less by 220 than the number printed in last year's 
" Christian Movement." Time has not permitted us to 
look into this discrepancy, so we have entered the 220 
in the *' Removed from Roll " column, in order to make 
our communicants at the end of 19 18 agree with the 
census. The fact that 120 adults were baptized during 



282 FORMOSA 

the year, as opposed to 93 in 191 7, shows that real 
progress has been made. 

** Understaffed as usual " would be a suitable preface 
to all our annual reports. We look to the closing of 
the war to end our shortage of missionaries, and bring 
an adequate number of men and women to the Field. 

A new pastor was ordained during 
General Evangelism the year in the town of Taiko. Here 
the gospel was preached for the first 
time only ten years ago, and the cause has prospered 
so rapidly that today it is self supporting. Special 
evangelistic meetings have been held as in former years, 
and with good results, in the majority of places. We 
are much impressed with the possibilities of newspaper 
evangelism in Japan proper, but here in Formosa it can 
never be so effective until we have overcome the barrier 
of illiteracy. Needless to say, only the Formosans with 
the best education are able to read Japanese. Even the 
number of those who are conversant with written Chinese 
is not large, and each year sees the government and 
people pay less and less attention to " kanbun," so that 
in the future, perhaps not too distant, we shall probably 
do our best work in newspaper evangelism in Formosa 
in the Japanese language — But that time has not come 
yet. A wealthy non-Christian in mid-Formosa is so 
impressed with this avenue of work that he has offered 
to pay the cost of inserting a weekly article on some 
Christian topic in the Taichii daily newspaper. 

Attendance at the Girls' School has 

Educational been maintained. There are seventy 

Evangelism three pupils. One girl who entered the 

school as a non-Christian, became in four 

years a most earnest believer, organized Bible study 

among her fellow-students upon going to the Taihoku 

hospital for a course of study, and has broken down 

much opposition to Christianity. In the Girls' School 

seven pupils have united with the church during the 

year. 

The Middle School shows as much growth as. our, 
present cramped quarters will allow us. In order to 



CANADIAN PRESBYTERIAN MISSION 



283 



stimulate athletics, inter-school sports have been arranged 

to take place annually between our School and the 

mission school in Taiwan. We look on these athletic 

meets as an important factor not only in building up 

the boys physically, but in strengthening the feeling of 

co-operation and good will between North and South. 

In the spring the school received a permit from the 

Government to collect money for the building of a new 

school. Already sixteen thousand yen has been promised. 

It is not known yet how our educational work will be 

affected by the new educational laws soon to be published. 

The Mackay Memorial Hospital had 

Medical Evangelism to be closed in the end of June, when 

Dr. Ferguson went to Japan for a rest. 

He had not recovered sufficiently to undertake the work 

on his return in October, so that the opening of the 

hospital has had to be postponed till 1920 or 192 1. 

Dr. Gray is still in Canada, not entirely recovered. 

Statistics of the hospital for six months are as follows : 



In patients 

Out patients 

No. of treatments 

Operations under Anaesthesia.. 

Intravenous injections 

Fees, & medicines sold 



781 

2580 

9123 

284 

185 

$4902.24 



CHAPTER II 

ENGLISH PRESBYTERIAN MISSION 



South Formosa 




The statistics for the past year are as 


follows : 


Communicants on the Roll at 31st Oct. 1917 
Additions : — 


4726 


Adults baptised 

Baptised in infancy, received to Communion 

Restored from suspension 

Come from elsewhere 


248 

61 

23 

2 


Total Additions 


•■• - 334 


Deductions : — 




Deaths 


... ... 141 


Suspensions 

Gone elsewhere ... 


23 

13 


Total Deductions 


177 


Net increase in number of Communicants ... 


157 


Communicants on the Roll at 31st Oct. 1918 


4883 



The work during the past year was seriously hampered 
by the reduced numbers of missionaries ; two of our 
medical missionaries were absent the whole year and one 
for 6 months. Of ordained missionaries two were in 
France, in charge of Chinese labour battalions. 

The work in the various institutions and throughout 
the country has been carried on very much as in formei" 
years. The openings have been favourable for Evangelistic 
work, so far as we have been able to carry it on ; but 
there have been no marked movements in response. 

The quadrennial investigation into the 

Investigation growth of the church was taken last 

year ; showing attendance at forenoon 

worship at about 100 places of meeting 9826, at after- 



ENGLISH PRESBYTERIAN MISSION 285 

noon worship 8988, a Christian community of 22,847, 
old and young, resident in 857 villages. These figures 
do not show a very marked growth during four years. 
They show (for the whole Island) about one worshipper 
for every 1 1 8 non-worshippers, as compared with one 
among 124 four years ago. Some progress has been 
made in consolidation ; we had one pastor ordained, 
making nine in all, entirely supported by their people. 
The number of those who know Romanised sufficiently 
to read the Bible rose during the four years from 5382 
to 6513. There are probably few families in the Church 
in w^hich there is not at least one person able to read 
the Bible. 

The steady rise in the cost of living 

Cost of Living has caused our workers serious dif- 
ficulty ; it is difficult to bring up a 
family on the average salary of a preacher. Last year 
the Church raised the salaries of preachers by two yen 
a month ; but this was found quite insufficient. This 
year a rise of 30^ all round has been rated. Some 8 
or 9 of our preachers have resigned, generally giving 
as a reason the insufficiency of their salary, though, 
in some cases, it may be doubted if this was the main 
reason. We are asking the Home Church to bear one 
half of the increased amount rendered necessary by the 
rise of the Preachers' salaries. The rise in the Pastors' 
salaries, the people bear themselves. 

The Mission of the Church to the Pescadores has been 
carried on during the year. A step forward was taken 
by sending an ordained minister to work there, instead 
of simply a preacher. There are worshippers meeting 
at five places in the islands, but the gatherings are small. 
We hope for more growth under the new arrangement. 
There are two Girl's Elementary 

Women's Work Boarding Schools — a short course one 
in Shoka and a longer course one in 
Taiwan. The latter has been established about thirty 
years and has now 140 pupils. We hope that before 
long a Christian High School for girls will be begun in 
South Formosa. One of our greatest difficulties in the 



286 FORMOSA 

work of education is the securing of suitable Japanese 
Christian teachers. 

In our work a special point is made of teaching the 
Formosans the Romanized colloquial, by means of which 
even the most ignorant are soon able to read the Bible 
for themselves. So wherever workers can be spared, 
they visit the country churches and hold classes, some- 
time for a month or more at a time. 

In Taiwan there is also a Bible Training School which 
has the same aim. There is a crying need in the church 
today for trained Bible women, and the number of those 
that are coming to us for training is quite insufficient. 
An interesting sign of progress in women's work is the 
sending of a Bible woman to the Pescadores, the foreign 
mission of the native church in South Formosa. She is 
supported entirely by the Formosan women. 



CHAPTER III 

FORMOSAN EDUCATION 



By Edward Band 

The year 19 19 marks a new epoch in 
General Survey the history of Eduction in Formosa. 
Since the Japanese occupation in 1 896 a 
large number of elementary schools have been opened for 
the Formosans with a view to spread the Japanese lan- 
guage, but many Formosans have donbted whether their 
children were ever intended to learn anything more than 
Japanese. Apart from two necessary institutions, a lan- 
guage Normal School, chiefly to provide elementary 
teachers, and a medical College (of Middle School Grade) 
to train Formosan doctors, no other government School 
offered an adequate secondary education for the three 
million Formosans. It was believed that the Government 
did not wish them to be anything more than hewers of 
wood and drawers of water. The few private Christian 
schools that existed, in spite of poor equipment and or- 
ganization were regarded very favourably because they 
offered a higher standard of education than the government 
provided. Many Formosans even sent their sons abroad 
to Hong Kong and Shanghai to be properly educated. 
For some time past the Government has felt the need 
of some educational reform, but two opposite opinions 
seem to have been held and only lately has it become clear 
which opinion holds sway. Some critics pointing to 
disturbances in India hastily concluded that if you educate 
the Formosan he too will become seditious. Others 
recalled previous riots of ignorant misguided Formosans 
and maintained if you don't educate the Formosan, he will 
remain superstitious and more easily fall a prey to seditious 



288 FORMOSA 

ring leaders. Education will guarantee enligtenment and 
peace for the future. Fortunately the more liberal view 
has prevailed and it has been decided to begin secondary- 
education for the Foimosans on a large scale, but to avoid 
all dangerous unsettling tendencies by making it intensely 
practical and '* vocational " in its nature. So it has come to 
pass in the 8th year of Taisho that all the Formosans are 
to be educated industrially, commercially, agriculturally 
according as they please. In addition to the elementary 
schools technical Schools of middle school grade — 4 years 
Course, and Koto Semmon Gakko with 4 years pre- 
paratory to 4 years High School Course are now being 
established as quickly as possible in different parts of the 
island. Therefore from now all dissatisfaction should 
cease. The Formosans should be profoundly grateful to 
the Government for this generous educational policy, and 
on all sides there are signs of great rejoicing. A new 
educational era has begun. April ist, the day on which 
the new edict came into force, was a day of loud thanks- 
giving. 

In this brief report it is unnecessary to 
Christian Schools examine closely the details of the new 
educational edict, for the main point of 
interest to most of our readers, namely the future of private, 
in particular Christian Schools, has not yet been made 
clear. The new regulations re private schools have not 
yet been published but an additional clause to the main 
edict promises that no sudden change will be made in 
their arrangements. Naturally the two Missions with 
educational institutions, the Canadian Presbyterian in the 
North and the English Presbyterian in the South of the 
island, are anxious about the future. But their schools 
are so few in number that it is thought that the Govern- 
ment may allow them to continue*. as in the past. We are 
willing to work as far as possible . in harmony with the 
Government educational policy in fostering the national 
spirit of Japan among the Formosans, in spreading the 
Japanese language and promoting a type of education that 
will be suitable to the spirit of the present age, but we 
still hope to be able to maintain our schools on a definitely 



FORMOSAN EDUCATION 289 

Christian basis, for in the past, through the generous 
treatment of the Government in allowing religious teaching 
in our schools without any restrictions, a wide spiritual 
influence has been exerted throughout the island. 

With the opening of so many Govern- 
Needed ment Schools for Formosans it is thought 

by some that private Christian schools 
will become unnecessary. Rather will it become more 
necessary to have one or two strong Christian institutions 
to train Christian leaders who will take a foremost place 
in the new and better educated race of Formosans about 
to arise. 

One important question still to be settled is whether 
pupils of private Christian Schools of middle grade will 
be eligible for the entrance exams of the Government 
higher technical schools to be opened. 

It is hoped that these new regulations will be published 
shortly, so that the two Missions may make suitable plans 
without further delay. During the past year the various 
schools at Tamsui and Tainan, both boys' and girls,' have 
succeeded as evangelising agencies but not until their 
future propects become more certain by connections being 
established with higher schools either in Formosa or 
Japan proper will their success be assured as educational 
institutions. 



KOREA 



EDITED BY GERALD BONWICK. 



INTRODUCTION 



By Gerald Bonwick 

This is not the place to discuss the pros and cons of 
the Independence movement in Korea, further than to 
say that since early in 19 19 the minds of people and 
missionaries alike have been so disturbed and preoccupied 
by the speedy development of events that it has been 
found impossible to secure a number of articles that 
would otherwise have been found in the succeeding 
pages of the Korea section. All the more, therefore, do 
we appreciate the efforts of those who have contributed 
articles in response to the requests made. 

The efforts of the authorities to suppress the agitation 
in Korea have resulted in the burning down by the 
soldiers of a number of our largest church buildings, 
valued from ¥5,000 to ¥10,000 each, as well as a 
considerable number of smaller churches all over the 
country. No-one knows at present how many villages 
have been burnt. I myself saw seven in one afternoon 
in April, that had not been reported before, where a 
thousand people were homeless and scattered on the 
hills, though most of the men were in prison. x\t the 
time of writing several thousands of men and women 
are in prison, including a large percentage of Christians, 
and many have been condemned to long sentences of 
hard labor. 

All the Mission schools of higher grade are closed 
because of the unwillingness of the students to attend 
under present conditions. Itineration is at a standstill, 
while colportage is very difficult, as those moving about 
the country are liable to serious molestation on the part 
of the soldiers and gendarmes. 

The majority of the Korean pastors are in prison and 
missionaries cannot visit the country churches as their 



294 INTRODUCTION 

movements excite the apprehensions of the gendarmerie, 
and the Korean Christians become more than ever the 
objects of their suspicion. 

The position of the Christian Church in Korea at the 
present time is a serious one, calling for all the states- 
manship of the Church Universal as well as of the 
Government. The prayers and aid of the Home Chur- 
ches are needed by our Korean follow-Christians, for 
they are passing through fiery trials and know not what 
fresh troubles a day or an hour may bring upon them. 



Seoul, Korea. 
May, 1 9 19. 



nOREA 



PART I 

EVANGELISTIC WORK 
OF FEDERATED MISSIONS 



CHAPTER I 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF AUSTRALIA 



, . By D. M. I.YALL 

The work of our Mission has suffered this year from 
the ill-health of the staff' and from the fact that one of 
our two medical men has been absent on war service. 
Nevertheless the reports of the stations, three of which 
hav^e been one-man stations during part of the year, show 
a gratifying measure of progress. It is true that the 
check to extensive progress, which we suffered seven or 
eight years ago, has not yet been overcome, although 
one station reports a growth of twenty per cent in the 
number of its adherents. But positions previously won 
have been consolidated, and a force is being prepared 
which we believe will, under God's grace, win great 
victories, for the Kingdom in the very near future. 

Although growth in the spiritual life 
Revivals is hardly capable of tabulation various 

reports speak of this all important kind 
of progress, l^evival services were held in many places. 
While not many can report large permanent gains of new 
believers all testify that the effect was a quickening of 
the spiritual life of the church people. This will surely 
lead to the other desired result in the days to come. 
Again this year has seen a decided growth in the matter 
of Bible study. The annual classes and other smaller 
classes were well attended and' the people seem to have 
a greater desire to study the Bible than ever before. 
There is a greater desire to hear and .study the Word 
of God, . a deeper (dpsire for. constant communion with 
Hirn,* and a keener interest in the 5>alyation of the non- . 
Christians. , In some of the, Churches the members have 



290 KOREA 

each selected an unbeliever for whom they daily pray 
and for whose salvation they have promised to 
work. 

Sunday School work in this province 

Sunday Schools has improved out of. all recognition 
during recent years, and this fact has 
certainly had its effect in the deepening of the spiritual life 
of the people. The study of the Corinthian letters this 
year has been very close and the people have been 
delighted to observe the resemblances between the life of 
the Church of long ago and that of their own to-day. 
It is a glad experience for a missionary to go to a 
Church where a few years ago Sunday School meant 
the plain reading of the lesson helps, often without any 
reference to Scripture itself, and to find a well organized 
Sunday School carefully graded and taught along lines 
that are pedagogically sound. This is not altogether an 
unusual experience. Sunday Schools for non-Christian 
children are still carried on wherever there are mis- 
sionaries to lead them, though it should be said that in 
one Church at least the Session has taken these schools 
under its care. This work, more than some other kinds, 
is bread cast upon the waters, but those who are doing 
it are content to sow in faith expecting to see the increase 
in due course. 

The new spirit that is in the Churches shows itself in 
a greater desire for reading matter. This is very 
noticeable in almost every direction. Any that is well got 
up will command attention. Where missionary agencies 
provide the desired literature the people will joyfully buy 
it. If not they will get it elsewhere. The ** Christian 
Messenger " has a fair circulation, but not what it might 
obtain were it more attractively got up and differently 
edited. The new '* Theological Review " which has met 
with such instantaneous success is edited by a member 
of our mission and we therefore feel that we have made 
no mean contribution to the supply of reading matter 
for the Christian public. As yet however the supply is 
by no means equal tp the demand and this fact must 
call for the careful consideration of all interested. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF AUSTRALIA 299 

It is pretty generally understood that 
Self Support the problem of self-support in South 
Korea is not what it is in other parts. 
The rich here are richer and the poor poorer than in the 
North and as the Christian constituency almost entirely 
belongs to the latter class it is a difficult task to get the 
young Church to stand on its own financial legs. The 
Mission has had a man at work in its territory for part 
of the year organizing co-operative societies and teaching 
various industrial methods. One of the stations describes 
this work as follows : " Tak Imjo's work in connection 
with our station had its centre in Kosung. Previous to 
our engaging his services he had been the rneans of 
forming a * Help ' society there, so we decided that his 
time allotted to us should be spent in developing this 
scheme. We are glad to report that the effort has been 
very successful. A small capital has been gathered toge- 
ther in the form of shares and this was disposed of in 
buying machines of various kinds, rope making, bag 
making, etc. These were lent out to 13 or 14 of our 
needy Christian people in various place. Having learnt 
the method of working them they were soon able to 
make not only enough to keep themselves in food, but 
also to pay back money to the Society towards the 
purchase of the machines and a little for rent. Some 
time ago the financial meeting of the Society was held 
and it had the satisfaction of reporting that the cost of 
the machines had been realised. This means that each 
worker had become the owner of his machine and that 
he now has the means of a livelihood." By these methods 
other Churches have pulled themselves together, paid off 
debts and acquired a new ability and willingness to con- 
tribute to Church collections. Unfortunately the industrial 
teache^ has had to resign for health reasons and the 
scheme has not yet gone into full operation, but enough 
has been done to encourage us to persevere with it. 

The wise policy of the Presbyterian Church of Korea 
has brought it to pass that from the first the Church has 
supported its own ordained ministry entirely. In the first 
instance owing to the poverty of our people this meant 



300 KOREA 

that Korean pastors were very few and far between, but 
in the last year or two the number of pastorates has 
doubled and the present difficulty is not so much to get 
the stipends as to get the men. The Churches have 
shown their appreciation of the work of the men they 
have by raising the salaries of several of them about 
fifty per cent owing to the present economic stringency. 
The position of the unordained ministry is less satisfactory, 
but in several of the stations a measure of progress in 
the matter of their support by the Korean Church is 
reported. 

In one important respect every one of 
N3W B'iiildings our stations reports good progress. In 
the past the appearance of nearly all our 
Church buildings has been very little in keeping with 
their dignified title of " Houses of God." Poorly built, 
small and dirty, there was nothing about them to call 
forth reverential feeling in the minds of the worshippers. 
But during the past year in many widely separated places 
new, larger buildings of more beautiful appearance and 
permanent construction have been built. This shows that 
there is an adyance in ideals of public worship in the 
minds of the people and also a new realization of the 
fact that the Church is a permanent and important part 
of their lives. Some of the giving for this object re- 
presents a real measure of self-sacrifice. One fine new 
church which was built at a cost of one thousand yen 
was paid for almost entirely by gifts of less than ten yen. 
In another place a women's sewing guild was conducted 
by a missionary's wife with the object of raising money 
for a buildincr fund for a new church. If the women 
had been asked for cash they could have contributed 
very little, but as a result of their joint efforts with their 
needles the fund will be enriched lo the extent of one 
hundred yen. These worthier buildings make an •evan- 
gelistic appeal that is not to be despised and we are glad 
to hear of an increase in their numbers since the reports 
of the various stations were presented. 



CHAPTER 11 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF CANADA 



By E, J. O. Fraser , 

The members of the Canadian Mission 
Centres of Work are situated in five centres along the 
Eastern side of Northern Korea, the 
centres being Yongjung, in Manchuria ; Hoiryung, just 
on the northern frontier of Korea ; Songjin, an important 
port of call for nearly all steamers oh the route from 
Wonsan to Vladivostok ; Hamheung, the capital of 
South Hamkyung Province and an old Korean town ; 
and Wonsan, the largest port of Eastern Korea and 
now an important railway centre. In all these five 
places Evangelistic and Educational work are carried on, 
and in all except Hoiryung there is a hospital and 
dispensary. , Recently, too, this Mission has had workers 
in Seoul, where they are engaged in interdenominational 
work in the Chosen Christian College and Severance 
Union Hospital. 

The Canadian Mission in 191 8 celebrated the twentieth 
anniversary of its foundation, and rejoiced to be able ta 
say that during all those years not one break had been 
made in its ranks by death among adults. Since the 
close of the year, however, Mrs. E. L. Young, after 
fourteen years of service in Korea was called to her 
reward. An account of her work will be found on 
another page. 

A notable feature of the work of the 

Visit cf Secretary year, the more so that it was the tw^en- 

tieth anniversary, was the visit to the 

Mission of Rev. A. E. Armstrong, M. A., Assistant 

Secretary of the Foreign Missions Board, and of Mrs. 



302 KOREA 

J. A. Macdonald, who, with her husband, Dr. J. A. 
Macdonald, and their daughter, were able to be 
present through all the sessions of the Annual Council 
Meeting. Mrs. Macdonald. is the first member of tho 
Women's Missionary Society of the Canadian Church to 
visit the Mission. Mr. Armstrong was able to visit 
all the stations of the Mission and was also present at 
most of the interdenominational Councils and Boards, 
that met in the fall. 

Two Presbyteries of the Presbyterian 
Presbyteries Church in Korea are found within the 
borders of the territory worked by this 
Mission. Until a year ago there was but one Presby- 
tery, but the distances are so great, and the organized 
churches increasing so rapidly that Assembly's permission 
was asked and secured for the division. Two meetings 
of each of the new Presbyteries were held during 191 8. 
There have been some changes in the location of pastors 
within the bounds of the Mission territory, and one 
man was called to Songjin town from another Presbytery. 
Each year sees a slight increase in the number ol new 
groups and churches, especially in the Yongjung field, 
but an occasional one is reported from even the oldest 
part of the work. In spite of the large emigration from 
the southern part of the Mission's field of labor there 
has been a noticeable increase in the number of ad- 
herents and of communicants, while in the Yongjung 
section the increase by immigration from Korea is very 
large and marked. There is also a steady growth in 
the number of churches that receive permission to elect 
elders, and a praiseworthy tendency is shown to elect 
as elders those men who are best fitted for the office 
by spirituality and education, even in opposition to the 
Oriental desire to honor the aged and first believers, 
who are not always the best suited for such a post as 
that of elder. 

During the past year a goodly number of new church- 
^ have been built, the most noticeable of which is 
the fine new building in Wonsan, built entirely by the 
Koreans, in a modified Korean style, beautifully light. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF CANADA 3O3 

high and commodious. This building was formally- 
opened and dedicated at the time of meeting of the 
South Hamkyung Presbytery, in August. 

The two Presbyteries unite in the support of a Korean 

pastor , in Vladivostok, who=e work covers a large 

district about that city, where there are many Koreans. 

The aim of the Mission is to have a 

Bible Glasses & Bible Class in each church or group, 
Institutes however small, at least once a year. 

The missionary, of course, cannot get 
to . all of these, but Korean pastors and helpers are 
becoming more and more able to conduct such classes. 
Eor the purpose of training them, and of giving a more 
thorough training to church leaders there is held in 
each station a Bible Institute, of a month's duration 
usually, though on the smaller stations it is as yet dif- 
ficult to have it for more than a fortnight or ten days. 
A notable feature of the Institute held in Hamheung 
is a work department. In this department the men 
work half a day and study half a day, and so are able 
to earn a part of their expenses and also learn a bit of 
a trade, for the work done so far has been carpentry. 
It has the further effect of aiding in rubbing off the idea 
that it is beneath a scholar's dignity to work with his 
hands. 

Usually the Bible Classes, of a few days' duration, 
combine Bible instruction and revival services, and quite 
frequently as a result new believers are secured and the 
faith of former attendants strengthened. At Songjin a 
Y.M.C.A. was started during the year, and gives promise 
of being a great factor in getting a hold on some of 
the young men. A similar work has been going on at 
Hamheung for a year, and its reading rooms and 
meetings are well attended. 

The aim of self-support of native 

Self Support workers has been before the Mission 

for many years, but never before has it 

had such a good year of advance. Each station reports 

that its churches are realizing more and more their 

responsibility for the support of their own workers, and 



304 ' KOREA 

in some places gifts have greatly increased, while others 

are giving who have never given for this purpose before. 

The ideal of every church attendant 

Sunday Schools an attendant of the Sunday School is, 
as always, the aim of the churches in 
this field, and practically it is the case everywhere. In 
fact so much is this recognized that in some churches 
the Korean leaders make no break between the Sunday 
School session and the regular service of worship. The 
roll is called in the Sunday School hour and attendance 
at that session alone counted, so that a glance at the 
roll book of any of these churches would not show the 
name of any one who was not a regular attendant .at 
the Shnday School. 

More emphasis is being laid constantly on the Sunday 
Schools, and the new books that are being issued on 
matters of Sunday Schools are of great help in creating 
a greater interest among the leaders, in training them 
for leadership and in raising the standard of the Schools. 

In each of the centres and now in a number of the 
larger country places there are afternoon Sunday Schools 
for children from heathen homes. These are really 
what so many in the hcfmelands call Sunday Schools, 
for they are purely for children. The attendance is 
erratic, but these Schools give great hope for the future 
of the Church. Especially is this the case where there 
are no church day schools, as in that case there is no 
other way of reaching the children from non-Christian 
homes. 

« The work among women in the 

Work Among churches is carried on in much the 

Women same ' way as is that among the men. 

Bible women, either alone or with the 

lady missionary, visit from church to church and preach 

among the heathen, hdld Bible Classes and distribute 

tracts. A Bible Institute for the whole Mission is held 

for three months each year at Wonsan, conducted by 

the Misses McCully. It is conducted in federation with 

a similar institution of the Southern Methodists at 

Wonsan, and the union brings the women of the tw^o 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF CANADA 305 

Churches together and helps to weld the two branches 
of the Church that unite their forces in Wonsan, the 
border station. 

The most northerly station of the 
Work in Canadian Mission is in Chinese territory, 

Manchuria in Manchuria. The country is settled 
by Chinese and Koreans. The mission- 
ary work among the -Chinese is superintended by the 
Irish Presbyterian Church from their station in Kirin, 
but that among the Koreans in the part of Manchuria 
known as North Kando is under the charge of the 
Canadian Presbyterian Mission in Korea, whose territory 
immediately adjoins in Korea. 

The most remarkable feature of the work in this 
station is the rapid growth of the churches, both in 
size and in numbers. This is promoted to a large 
extent by immigration, but there is also a fair share of 
actual conversions on the field. Each day sees many 
Koreans going from Korea across the Tumen River at 
Hoiryung, carrying their all with them, and most of 
them go to stay. They find the soil good, the land 
cheap and though the winters are cold they usually 
make a fair living. The fact that among those who 
thus migrate are many Christians gives the churches 
there an immediate growth of the pick of the church 
members from Korea and gives a body of people 
already instructed in Christian truth. A project is under 
consideration for the erection of an immigration shed 
for the care of these immigrants from Korea and for 
the purpose of providing a follow-up of those who are 
Christians or are going to places where there is a 
church. Under the present circumstances many are lost 
as there is no way of keeping trace of them if they do 
not report to the missionary. 



CHAPTER III 

THE CHURCH IN KANDO, MANCHURIA 



By W. Scott 

** Kando " means to the Korean what 
"The West." "The West" means to the American, 
and as happened in the history of " The 
West " so here also stories of the cold and hardships to 
be encountered, and a certain indefinite mysteriousness 
as to the nature of the country and life here have barred 
the way of many who have not lacked the desire to 
migrate. But the call of Kando is being heard. Eight 
years ago there were only some 90,000 Koreans in 
North Kando ; to-day statistics — which must necessarily 
fall far short, record a Korean population of 233,000. 
Last year over fifteen thousand came across the border, 
and during the first four months of 19 18, 8,355 persons 
cleared their household goods at the Yong Jung customs 
alone. This Spring some seventy building permits were 
issued in Yong Jung to Koreans, and the process is 
being repeated in all the villages around. 

Trade statistics tell the same tale. The total export 
trade from North Kando in 19 16 amounted to ¥411,- 
175 ; in 19 1 7 this had increased to ¥1,103,961. Of 
this a big proportion falls to be divided among the 
Korean settlers. Last year their chief paying crop was 
the white bean. In 191 5 only 563 piculs were ex- 
ported, last year 45,555 piculs. 19 18 bids fair to 
exceed all previous records. Between January and April 
60,296 piculs of white beans were exported, valued at 
¥180,000, in the transport of which over 20,000 carts 
cleared from Yong Jung customs. 

The economic situation must be considered if we wish 



THE CHURCH IN KANDO, MANCHURIA 307 

to form an estimate of the Church life, either from the 
point of view of actual present conditions or of future 
possible attainment. There are perhaps four chief reasons 
for the present tide of immigration, (i) The hard times 
in Korea in 191 /, and (2) the corresponding prosperity 
in Kando, as reflected in the above statistics ; (3) the 
cheaper cost of living there, and (4) a secret hope, the 
lure of the West, that life in Kando will offer a man 
more freedom and satisfaction than can be got in over- 
crowded Korea. 

With all these facts in mind let us 
Opea Doors try' to estimate the opportunity that 
opens to the Church in North Kando, 
and the corresponding difficulties she has to face. 

Her opportunities arise from three facts: — (i) Not 
only is our Christian population in Kando greater pro- 
portionately to the heathen than is the case in Korea, 
the proportions being respectively i in 62 and i in 46, 
but the same is true of the present ever increasing im- 
migration. There are to-day many churches in Korea 
empty because the village migrated into Kando. Only 
two weeks ago over twenty certificates came in from 
one church in Korea. Yong Jung church alone has 
gained over twenty families during the past half-year, 
and last year's record attendance of 369 has been capped 
this year by an attendance of 470. Here then is our 
first opportunity. The Church in Korea is losing and 
the Kando Church gaining. And the relative strength 
of the Christian community should make it easier to 
leaven the non-Christian. 

(2) The non-Christian Koreans in Kando are more 
responsive to new truth and new ideas than those in 
old Korea. They listen well to the gospel and envy 
the brotherly spirit of the Christian community. The 
incoming unbeliever, too, naturally cautious and suspici- 
ous of his new surroundings, particularly en route, not 
infrequently prefers Christian inns and a Christian com- 
munity to live in. 

(3) The Kando Christians are better off to-day than 
ever before, and better off than most of their brethren 



308 KOREA 

in Korea. Recently Y. 30,000 was invested in rice 
land at Yorig Jung, almost entirely by Christians. 
The farmers have shared in the high prices caused by 
the war, and have added no small penny of income 
h-om cartage during the winter months. 

In the Church this prosperity has shown itself in 
increased givings for helpers and pastors. Our last 
year's quota of one Korean pastor will be augmented 
this year by at least three, and possibly four others. 
Greater activity in school work is also noticeable, and 
this year we report 35 schools and 3 academies with a 
total of 1300 scholars, and an expenditure of ¥7,300. 
Of difficulties we have not a few : — 
Difficulties (i) The Christian population is drawn 

from all parts of Korea, and from every 
denomination, and a missionary or Korean worker must 
exercise a great deal of tact to keep a united frbnt in 
the Church. 

(2) The prosperous times and the opportunity for 
making a fortune in the bean trade are not without 
their temptation to the weaker brethren, and Sabbath 
observance is a subject of much discussion and exhorta- 
tion. 

(3) While the increased activity in school work has 
often quickened the Church life and been a decided 
factor in evangelisation, there is not lacking the danger 
of Church energy being turned into this channel to the 
detriment of a more active spiritual work. 

(4) How to keep track of the in-coming Christians 
so that the years of effort expended on them in Korea 
will not be lost is no small difficulty. Of the 15,000 
odd Koreans who entered Kando last year a conserva- 
tive estimate would put the Christians at from 500 to 
700, but where the majority of them came from or 
where they have gone is unknown to us. At present 
most of them are naturally suspicious of the large towns 
and pass through Yong Jung without stopping. In this 
w^ay a serious leakage may easily occur. 



CHAPTER IV 

METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, SOUTH 



By C. N. Weems 

The most significant step taken this 
Resident year, affecting the general development 

Superintendency of the Southern Methodist mission work 
in Korea, was the assigning of a re- 
sident superintendent to the field for four years. We 
were particularly fortunate in the fact that Bishop W. 
F. McMurry was selected for this task, who has a re- 
putation for doing things, a leader of great power and 
vision. For twelve years he had been in charge of the 
Church Extension work of the Church, and while so 
engaged, besides putting the work of that board on a 
thorough business basis, had raised five million dollars 
for the cause. 

Another very important step taken 
Annual Cooference during the year was the establishment of an 
annual conference. The General Confer- 
ence, which met in May in Atlanta, Ga., had authorized this 
step. The first official act of Bishop McMurry in the East 
was the organizing of this conference. The first session 
met in Songdo, October 31 to November 4. The 
membership was constituted by the transfer of thirteen 
ordained missionaries from the home conferences where 
their official relations had been formerly held. Two 
missionaries and eleven native brethren were admitted on 
trial. 

The organization of this conference is 
Historical the culmination of twenty-two years of 
mission history. The first annual meet- 
ing of the Korea Mission was held in 1897. The first 



3IO KOREA 

native local preacher was licensed in 1905, and is still 
in active service as an ordained preacher, the Rev. 
Kim Hong Soon. The first native ordination occurred in 
191 1, when Bishop Murrah ordained Rev. Kim Hong 
Soon, Chung Choon Soo, and Chu Han Myung as 
local deacons. Up to that time, the local preachers 
read their reports to the Annual Meeting but were , not 
considered members. All the proceedings were conduct- 
ed in English. But from 19 14, by reason of special 
legislation of the General Conference of that year, our 
Annual Meeting was constituted a district conference in 
function and all native local preachers together with 
all lady missionaries became members. There were 
thirty-six Korean preachers who were thus admitted to 
a participation in the business of the Annual Meeting. 
The proceedings were from this time conducted jointly 
in Korean and English. T.he ordained missionaries still 
held their conference relations at home. A limited 
number of laymen were admitted from the following 
year, being elected by districts. 

With the organization of the Korea Conference, even 
the most advanced and experienced native preachers are 
required by the law of the Church to submit to a two 
years' probation. In spite of this inconvenience, the 
organization of the Conference has been welcomed by 
the Korean brethren and has heartened them as perhaps 
nothing else could have done. 

Another important development in the 
Centenary course of the year was the considera- 

tion, first by the entire mission body, 
and later by a selected committee of missionaries and 
Koreans, of the plans for taking part, in conjunction 
with the home Church, in the celebration of the Cea- 
tenary of Methodist Missions. Early in the year, at the 
request of the Board Secretaries, a survey of the field 
had been macje, touching every department of work. 
This survey had been sent to the Board, and it was the 
tentative plan formed upon a basis of this survey that 
was sent out by them to be considered by the mission 
body. 



METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, SOUTH 3II 

At the Annual Conference session, Centenary ad- 
dresses were heard daily, and further consideration was 
given to the plans for the celebration on the field, 
resulting in the appointment of a permanent " Committee 
of Ten '' and the appointment of Mr. J. S. Ryang to 
prepare a Centenary literature. 

The Southern Methodist people in 
The Evangelistic Korea are responsible for about a mil- 
Problera Jion and a quarter of the seventeen 

millions of population. The territory 
consists of a triangular block near the center of the 
peninsula. The field is worked from four centres : 
Seoul, Songdo, Wonsan and Choon Chun. There are 
10,500 adherents, and a baptized membership of 5765. 
To attack this problem, we have the 
The Forces thirteen members of the Conference, the 
thirteen admitted on trial, nineteen lady 
missionaries, forty local preachers, forty-four Bible wo- 
men, and twenty-three colporteurs. In addition, many 
of the 1 5 5 exhorters are employed as supplies on cir- 
cuits, and others do much volunteer service. The list 
given above, however, does not comprise all the Chris- 
tian army in this territory. These may be considered 
the ''officers" — the ''rank and file" consist of the 
nearly 6000 members, among ^\'hom there are few 
" slackers." 

Since the presentation of the Centen- 
Sell Support ary plans and the establishment of the 
Annual Conference, there has been a 
great advance in self support. For several years the 
larger churches in the stations where missionaries 
reside, had paid their preachers' salaries in full, and in 
country circuits where a part only of the salary was 
paid by the native church, the proportion so paid had 
steadily increased. But the latter part of 191 8 saw a 
new spirit in evidence. Whereas there had been four 
stations and two country circuits that were entirely self 
supporting, there suddenly came into being a self 
supporting station in the country, and three more 
country circuits assumed the support of their pastors at 



312 KOREA 

an advanced salary over that formerly paid. In one 
district, out of fourteen charges, seven (just half) are 
self supporting. One of the Centenary goals is to put 
the other half over during the next five years. The 
laymen have taken this task in hand and it v^ill be 
done. 

Another development of the year, 
Ministerial Training far-reaching in its importance, was an 
increased interest in the training of a 
native ministry. There were in all 32 Southern Metho- 
dist students pursuing studies in either Bible or theolo- 
gical school. About half of these were young men of 
the student class, the entering of whom upon this course 
of training meant a real sacrifice to the parents of the 
young men as well as to the students themselves. One 
must understand the economic condition and the social 
customs of Korea to appreciate the meaning of this 
statement. From the day of the birth of a son there is 
continually in the mind of a parent the expectation that 
the son will some day be the main stay and support of 
the family. With this thought all the sacrifices incident 
to the education of the son are heroically borne, and 
now at the culmination of all this self-denial and wait- 
ing, when the boy finishes his literary studies and 
would be ready to enter some lucrative profession, it 
requires no little consecration on the part of the parents 
to give up these long-cherished hopes and face an old 
age of poverty, and <3n the part of the student to choose 
a life work that he knows will mean meager support, 
hardship, and persecution. That there are a goodly 
number of young men that are ready to undertake this, 
from a human standpoint, uninviting task is a distinct 
evidence of the strength of the Christian m.ovement in 
Korea. As further proof of the interest in ministerial 
training, it may be stated that the native church raised 
a fund of ¥500.00 for this purpose. 

An outstanding feature of the year's 

Bible Institutes work was an increased interest in Bible 

study. Separate and entirely distinct 

from the work of the Sunday school, more than one 



METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, SOUTH 313 

hundred Bible classes and institutes were held in vari- 
ous plac€s, lasting from four to ten days each. In these 
classes the Bible was taught by books ; in many the 
Sunday school lessons. for the year were given in out- 
line ; revival services were held each day ; and lectures 
on Christian doctrines and evidences were given. The 
great value and importance of such meetings can be 
understood when it is remembered that a service is held 
in every church and meeting place each Sabbath and 
each Wednesday evening, and that these services are 
conducted usually by the local class leaders or local 
exhorters. The constant toning up of the faith of these 
men as well as their further instruction in the Scriptures 
and in the great fundamental doctrines of the Church, 
becomes one of our most important duties. 

During the year, 293 adult baptisms, 
Statistics and 957 new believers (seekers) were 
enrolled. The membership just about 
held its own. The amount raised for the support of the 
ministry was ¥3,898.33 an increase of 25 ^'o over last 
year and for all purposes, ¥15,995.54, an average of 
¥2.80 per baptized member. 



CHAPTER V 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN THE U. S. A. 



By Edwin Kagin 

Out of a total population of about 
The Task seventeen millions of Koreans the Pres- 
byterian Church in the U. S. A. has 
assumed the obligation of giving the Gospel to about five 
millions. It's foreign force consists of 130 adults. Of 
these 30 men with their wives and 1 1 single women are 
assigned to direct evangelistic work. These workers arc 
distributed in a chain of eight stations, stretching from 
the southern part of the peninsula to the Yalu. 

In addition to the work in Korea the Mission has 
determined to follow up the large numbers of Koreans 
who have been pouring over the border into Manchuria. 
Two missionaries with their families have been set apart 
to open up a joint station at Shinbupoo in conjunction 
with the Scottish Mission. 

One seldom meets with violent op- 
Attitude of the position here in presenting the claims of 
Koreans the Gospel. The Koreans' reverence for 

God — their belief that He (Hananim). 
controls all nature and human life, gives the evangelist 
an immediate point of contact which easily kads to a 
discussion of sin — its penalty and its remedy through the 
propitiation made by the Only begotten sent by God 
Himself. As a rule all Koreans will admit the truth of 
the Gospel and they will agree that all men should become 
Christians, but the difficulty is to bring them to that 
decision, which involves a separation from the past of 
hallowed tradition, and a venture into an unknown future, 
with the possibility of parental disapproval, social ostracism 
and real persecution. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN THE U. S. A. 315 

There is a vast difference in the manner in which the 
work has developed in the North and in the South. 
The reason for this difference may be found, humanly 
speaking, in the character of the inhabitants of the two 
sections. The Northerner is more independent in thought 
and action, more self-reliant, self-assertive and progressive. 
He brushes aside the objections of parents, relatives and 
friends and boldly takes his stand for the truth of the 
Gospel and urges it upon others with the force of con- 
viction. On the other hand the people in the South are 
conservative, more bound by tradition and custom, less 
self-assertive, and while freely admitting the truth of the 
Gospel yet they appear to lack the grit necessary to steer 
them ahead in the teeth of opposition. 

Presbyterians feel that, by the grace 
Progress of God, they have been enabled to 

establish a Church in Korea, a Church 
Avhich would live and thrive, even though the foreign 
missionaries' influence and counsel should be withdrawn. 
This church is absolutely independent and self-determin- 
ing. It was organized by the. Christians in connection 
with the four Presbyterian Missions at work in the 
country. 

Its organization consists of a General Assembly, twelve 
Presbyteries, 351 organized churches, 169 ordained 
Korean pastors, 617 elders, a baptized membership of 
68,000 with an adherentage of 1 77,000. Of this number 
there are in the bounds of the Northern Presbyterian 
Mission 6 Presbyteries, 316 organized churches, 141 
ordained Korean pastors, 577 elders, 53,000 baptized 
members and 143,000 adherents. 

In the days of the Church's infancy 

A Self=Governmg the Koreans leaned hard on the foreign 

Church missionaries for advice and leadership. 

Missionaries were put into the most 

important offices and elected chairmen of committees, but 

of late years Koreans have filled the highest and most 

responsible offices in the General Assembly and other 

church courts with dignity and to profit. Indeed, at the 

last meeting of the Presbyterian Council, the question of 



3l6 KOREA 

missionaries withdrawing from the General Assembly as 
voting members was seriously discussed. In the event 
of such a withdrawal taking place the relationship of the 
missionaries to the Korean Assembly would have to be 
determined by the Assembly. 

From the beginning of the work in 

A Self Supporting Korea the believers have been led to see 
Church the duty and honor of paying their own 

church bills rather than depending upon 
outside help. With a few rare exceptions the salaries of 
all Korean pastors are paid by the Korean people. The 
Mission has ever discouraged the employment of Korean 
pastors on foreign pay or the subsidizing of ordained 
men. No church or group of churches is permitted to 
call a pastor unless it can provide his financial support. 
The same can be said in a large measure for the Korean 
Helpers, who assist the foreign missionary in the care of 
undeveloped churches. In weak circuits help is some- 
times given financially until the churches develop to the 
point where they can assume the whole of the Helper's 
salary. 

The grace of tithing has been held up before the 
Christians in many places during the past year and 
gratifying results are reported. In one station, where 
there were twelve Helpers during the past year, the num- 
ber was increased to twenty, in spite of the fact that on 
account of the high cost of living all Helpers' salaries 
were increased 50^. 

Church buildings for the most part are erected after 
Korean style and with Korean money. In station centers 
where a larger building is required for special occasions 
the Mission has at times sanctioned the use of foreign 
funds up to one third of the total cost. 

The contributions of the Korean Christians within the 
bounds of the Northern Presbyterian Mission during the 
past year were ¥118,000. 

The Korean has learned from the 

A Self= beginning that he must not dam up the 

Propagation stream of grace in his own little heart 

but that he must make of himself a 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN THE U. S. A. 317 

channel to bear the healing stream to others. Individual 
work for individuals has always been regarded as a safe 
test of living faith and baptism is withheld from those 
who cannot say that they have tried to win others to 
Christ. For a time it seemed as if undue emphasis 
was being put upon revival meetings, valuable though 
they be, but during the past year we have been return- 
ing again to the former quiet, persistent, fruitful method 
of dealing with men one by one. This tendency was 
given a new impetus by the Buchman meetings held in 
various centers throughout the country. 

Not only are individuals at work for 
Korean Home individuals in their immediate communi- 
Missions ties but many pledge a certain number 

of days a year to be given in taking 
the Gospel to unevangelized sections. Nearly every 
church of any size has a Men's, a Women's and in 
many places a Young Men's and a Young Women's 
Missionary Society organized for the purpose of doing 
personal work and for raising funds to send an evange- 
list to churchless districts. At the large General Bible 
Classes Missionary Societies are also organized and in 
this way many evangelists have been sent forth. The 
two Presbyteries in N. Pyung An Province alone have 
sent out more than 30 such workers. 

In addition to the zeal for the exten- 

Forelgn Mission ^^^^ ^^ ^he Kingdom here at home the 

Work by the *' Macedonian Call has also reacned 

Korean Church the ears of the Korean church and 

General Assembly is conducting an ever 

widening work in foreign lands through its Board of 

Foreign Missions. Three Korean Missionaries with their 

families have been sent to work among the Chinese in 

Shantung Province. They have met with remarkable 

success, using the same methods which the Spirit has 

blessed here in Korea, Last year it was decided to 

send a Korean pastor to look after the shepherdless 

flock of Koreans in Shanghai and another was sent to 

work among the Koreans in Vladivostok. 



3l8 KOREA 

The new era upon which Korea has 
Problems entered is producing changes and with 

surprising rapidity. 

Hills hitherto barren are now clad in the green robes 
of young pine forests ; narrow foot-paths are giving way 
to broad highways, stretching far into the distance be- 
tween avenues of Lombardy Poplar and Acacia trees ; 
the slow plodding pack-ox is yielding to the dray pulled 
by the quicker stepping horse ; the covered chair and 
the saddle-pony are fast losing their popularity as means 
of travel in favor of the rubber tired ricksha and the 
rattling Ford ; telephone, telegraph and electric light 
wires ramify out to the ends of the country. 

There was a time when the Korean could work 
leisurely and rest often and yet live in comfort. Those 
days have gone. The world war has boosted the price 
of all commodities from 509^ to 4.00 0/0 . There has 
been an influx of all manner of new articles for wear 
and for the home. Many of these new things are now 
regarded as necessities but in order to buy them the 
Korean must earn more money, which rneans the devo- 
tion of more time and energy to work. There was a 
day when time seemed to be the cheapest thing the 
Korean possessed but he is learning that time is money. 

In the olden days when time was plentiful it was a 
comparatively easy thing for the Korean to keep the 
Sabbath and spend two weeks in the winter and two 
weeks in the summer at a Bible Class. Under present 
conditions it means a greater sacrifice although there is 
no disposition on the part of the church to weaken its 
standards. 

Old evils are in many ways assuming a more malig- 
nant form. The old fashioned home-brewed '' Sool " is 
too weak and common for the progressives of today 
and is giving way to the stronger, more civilized stimul- 
ants such as lager beer, " sake," Old Scotch Rye, and 
worse. The long stemmed Korean pipe, too, is a back 
number, giving the day to the more deadly cigarette. 
The social evil, indulged in clandestinely in the olden 
days, is now given official sanction and patronage in 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN THE U. S. A. 319 

this enlightened age and by the authority of the govern- 
ment licensed brothels are spreading throughout the 
country to debauch the character, wreck the physique, 
disrupt the home and damn the souls of the rising 
generation. 

The thought life of the Korean, too, is undergoing a 
change. Year by year government schools and private 
schools are turning out thousands of graduates who are 
beginning to impress their modern ideas upon the affairs 
of life. Books, magazines and newspapers are linking 
the Koreans with the thoughts and aspirations of other 
peoples. Along with the intellectual advance of the 
masses comes the responsibility to fit the church leaders 
for their task. 

One of the grave causes of apprehension is the in- 
troduction of forces, calling themselves progressive and 
enlightened, which tend to undermine the faith of the 
simple in the Bible as the inspired Word of God. 
Recently a Christian pastor of the so-called progressive 
school, charged the Presbyterians, in a newspaper article, 
with interpreting the New Testament as it was written 
two thousand years ago. Needless to say we glory in 
the charge. 

While the forces of evil arrayed 
Conclusion against the Church seem to be gather- 
ing strength and subtlety yet we face 
the future with the calm assurance that the past thirty 
years' study of the Word in peace and leisure has so 
grounded the Church in the fundamentals that it will 
be able to preserve its faith in purity ; we believe it 
also will continue to grow and carry on an aggressive 
and determined warfare against the enemies of the Son 
of God and His Kingdom. 



CHAPTER VI 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH JN THE U. S. 



BY W. M. Clark 

Under the comity agreement with the 
Work other Missions, the Mission of the 

** Presbyterian Church in the United 
States," occupies the south-western part of the peninsula, 
comprising in its sphere of labor the provinces of North 
and South Chulla and six counties adjacent to Kunsan, 
in Chung province. So far as the missionaries are 
concerned, the work is carried on from five stations 
located conveniently at the two provincial capitals, 
Chunju and Kwanju ; at the sea-ports Kunsan and Mokpo 
and at Soonchun, an important magistracy in the extreme 
south. A great deal of the evangelistic work, however, 
is being undertaken by the two native Presbyteries and 
this will be increasingly true until the time comes for the 
complete withdrawal of foreign workers. That time, 
how^ever, appears to be many years in the future if one 
may judge from the present rate of progress. 

During the past year owing to absence 
Workers through regular furlough, through sick- 

ness or through withdrawal from the 
work, there have been at work in the five stations only 
three single ladies and thirteen men who have been able 
to give their time entirely to evangelistic work, tho' it 
goes without saying that much valuable assistance has 
been given by the married ladies and the men occupied 
in educational and medical work. This Mission is 
credited with 74 workers, including wives. 

There have been no radical changes in evangelistic 
methods or policies during the past year. Several new 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN U. S. 321 

features have been further emphasized : among them being 
the use of tents in evangelistic service. At times native 
awnings have been rented and used to advantage ; at 
other times a tent brought from America has been used. 
No attempt is made to have ' Tent Meetings ' such as 
are popular in certain sections of the West, but the tent 
has a certain advertising value and many will come and 
listen to the Gospel who would not go near a church. 

For several years campaigns have been carried on at 
important centers in the effort-to establish churches, and 
through the use of the Tent Services it was found 
possible to arouse sufficient interest to secure a place of 
meeting and to make the beginnings of what will probably 
grow into organized churches in the near future. For 
example, at one place, a County Seat of about 2,500 
inhabitants, three campaigns had been made within the 
past five years in the effort to get organization. The 
first time the hostility of the people was such that we 
were told later that if we had not gone when we did an 
effort would have been made to drive out the Christian 
workers who were disturbing the peace of the community I 
Each year saw a dimunition of this feeling of hostility 
until finally a Tent Meeting was planned. The attendance 
was very good, the attitude of the people friendly, and 
finally a building was secured for a church and a 
beginning was made by locating a Colporteur there and 
arranging for some one to lead the services each Sunday 
for a time. About twenty were found who had professed 
Christ else-where and who were there engaged in business. 
With regard to the progress made in 
Progress the work of the Mission along several 

important lines it may be interesting to 
quote from the Report of the Evangelistic Committee to 
the Annual Meeting at Soonchun, June 191 8 : — 

" That in answer to the letter of Dr. Egbert Smith, 
Secy., in regard to the progress of the plans for 
the advancement of self-support, self-government and self- 
propagation in the native church, we reply by handing 
him a copy of the following outline regarding the present 
situation. 



322 KOREA 

A. Our Present Program : 
(i) In self-Support : — 

1. No ordained native preacher has t^ius far been 
employed on Mission pay, in whole or in part. 

2. The Mission has not and does not build any 
country church building. It has helped to a 
limited extent in station church building. 

3. The Mission pays no current expenses for any 
congregation. 

4. The Mission is gradually turning over, to the 
native church the management of such work 
as it is able to finance. 

5. The Mission alone controls the use of all 
foreign funds. 

(2) In self-Government :— 

I. There are, within our bounds, two native 
presbyteries which are entirely self-governing, 
under a native General Assembly, and which 
control the entire territory, even granting 
sessional powers to missionaries in districts 
suggested by the Mission in its regular assign- 
ment of work. The ordained missionaries are 
full members of the native courts, \'m their 
capacity of teachers of the native church. 
This may be changed at any time by the 
General Assembly. 

(3) In Self-Propagation : — 

1. Home Mission work is conducted by the native 
bodies, including Sunday School work, tent 
meetings and various compaigns undertaken by 
congregations or by the church courts. Helpers 
and evangelists in addition to pastors are being 
supported by the native church, in addition to 
colporteurs, evangelists and helpers on foreign 

2. Foreign Mission work is done by the two 
Presbyteries through a joint Committee in 
Cheiju and through the Assembly, in China. 

The progress of this work has been fairly satisfactory 
and we have no changes to recommend at present." 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN U. S. 323 

The most distinctive feature of the 
Bible Classes work all over Korea, and to many, its 
crowning glory, is the system of Bible 
Classes in which an effort is made to give instruction to 
ajl — high and low — in the Word of God. This feature of 
the work is so familiar to most students of the missionary 
problem that it need not be described at length. Suffice 
it to say that the Southern Presbyterian missionaries have 
realized the importance of grounding the people well in 
the study of the Bible and the full system of classes has 
been carried on as usual. For the women this means 
first of all classes taught in the country districts throughout 
the year at convenient places. These classes may last 
from five to ten days and are usually in two grades, 
taught by the foreign missionary and her native assistants 
or, it may be, entirely by the native workers. Next 
come the ten days' Station Classes, enrolling several 
hundred women from the territory surrounding a given 
station. These classes are in four grades and the fourth 
grade changes each year so that women rriay study 
indefinitely, year 1%^ year. In the First Grade the fol- 
lowing subjects are taught :-Life of Christ, Genesis, Bible 
Catechism, Hygiene and Singing. Next comes the Bible 
Institute Course in five grades. Here the women study 
for a month and upon graduation are presented with 
Diplomas. Finally, we have the Bible School, lasting 
for two months and covering three grades. All of these 
classes except the last named are found in each of the 
five stations and every year so that several thousand 
women study the Bible systematically a part of each year. 
The courses for the men are similar to the above with 
a few minor changes : the General Class has five grades 
besides one for helpers ; the Bible Institute course covers 
ten years' work during which time the whole Bible is 
covered ; there is no Bible School for the men, the 
place of this being taken by the Theological Seminary 
at Pyeng Yang in which this Mission co-operates. 

Colportage work is carried on throughout the terri- 
tory, this work being financed by the British and 
Foreign Bible Society. During the past year much 



324 KOREA 

valuable seed-sowing has been done by these colporteurs 
whose work, if it be well done, is doubtless the most 
trying and the most self-denying of all forms of regular 
evangelistic effort. 

The number of baptized communicants in the territory 
of this Mission is about 8,000 and in the past few years 
the rate of growth has been very small. The period of 
rapid expansion seems to have ceased and a period of 
consolidation and of intensive training to have taken its 
place. This change has some good features, doubtless, 
but all the missionaries long for a greater evangelistic 
spirit both among foreigners and natives. 

At the present writing the evangelistic efforts of the 
missionaries are largely blocked by the political situation. 



KOREA 



PART II 

EDUCATIONAL WORK 
OF FEDERATED MISSIONS 



CHAPTER VII 

CHOSEN CHRISTIAN COLLEGE 



By Harry A. Rhodes 

The Chosen Christian College expected to graduate 
its first class in March, 19 19, but the political disturb- 
ances resulted in the cessation from studies by the 
student body of this as well as other schools of the 
same standing. 

The school year opened in April, 191 8, with a re- 
gistration of 94 students distributed as follows : 



Arts 

Commerce 
Engineering ... 
Agriculture . . . 
Bible 



25 
34 
14 
10 



The entrance class numbered 40, of whom 17 were 
Methodists and 18 Presbyterians. 

During the year the Rev. E. H. 
Faculty Miller and the Rev. H. A. Rhodes, 

both members of the Chosen Mission 
of the Northern Presbyterian ChOrch, were appointed 
to the Faculty. Mr. O. A. Weller, teacher of electrical 
engineering, resigned, and Prof. N. Takai lost his life 
in a tragic accident. 

The members of the Faculty are as follows : 

O. R. Avison, M. D., President 

B. W. Billings, M. A., Vice President, Department of English 

A. L. Becker, M. A., Department of Mathematics and Physics 

H. H. Underwood, B. A., Department of Psychology 

S. K, Pack, Ph. B., Department of Commerce 

K. Ichijima, Department of Agriculture 

E. H. Miller, A. B., Department of Chemistry 

H. A. Rhodes, A. M,, -Biblical Department 



328 KOREA 

Milton Jack, M. A., B. D. Department of English 

Root Lee, B. A. Associate Professor of Chemistry 

T. Yamagata Assoc. Prof., Japanese History and 

Language 
T. Tsuda Associate Professor of Law 

Y. W. Kim Associate Professor of Music 

S. Samura Associate Professor of Japanese and 

Drillmaster 

The Southern Methodist Mission has assigned Mr. 
Ernest Fisher to the College, to take up his duties in 
the fall of 1 9 19. . Four Mission Boards are cooperating 
in the College at the present time. 

During the year under review, addi- 
Site and tional land was bought and the site now 

Buildings consists of about 200 acres, comprising 

wooded and cleared land, hills and 
valleys. The temporary recitation building was ready 
for occupancy at the opening of the school year in 
April, 191 8. President O. R. Avison spent the first 
seven months of 19 18 in America, and returned in 
August with plans well matured for the development of 
the institution. The contract for the construction of 
the first permanent structure, the Charles M. Stimson 
Building, was let, and the cornerstone laid on April 
19, 19 19. Plans of the layout of the site had been 
prepared in America by the firm of Murphy & Dana, 
who have contracts for several large colleges in the 
Orient, and the initial scheme calls for the erection of a 
main group of five buildings. The central building of 
the group will be known as Underwood Hall, a memorial 
to the founder and first President of the College, Rev. 
H. G. Underwood, LL.D.. This will be the Liberal 
Arts building. It and the Stimson Building, w^here the 
administrative staff will be housed, will be constructed 
with funds supplied from Northen Presbyterian sources. 
The Auditorium Building, where the College Y.M.C.A. 
and students' activities headquarters will be, is being 
provided by the Northern Methodist Board, and this 
Board may also finance the Science Building. The 
Library and Museum building will complete the main 
group. One building will probably be undertaken by 



CHOSEN CHRISTIAN COLLEGE 329 

the Sduthern Methodists. The development of the site 
is being proceeded with ; two residences for foreign 
teachers are now being built, and before long dormitory 
accommodation for students and more residences for 
teachers will be erected. 

A unique feature of the scheme is a 
Model Village model village for the wives and families 
of married students. Hitherto, no 
special provision has been made in mission institutions 
of this kind for the needs of married students who after 
several years of College life have often returned to 
ignorant wives with resultant misery to all concerned. 
In this village, it is proposed to have a church, a school 
for the wives of the students, a primary school for 
children, playgrounds and other accessories of a modern 
town. Town planning, sanitation, adaptation of Korean 
architecture, road construction, municipal market, etc., 
are features of the design. Municipal government will 
also be carried on. In addition to his studies, the 
student will get a practical grounding in all the affairs 
of Korean life, which should be of great value when he 
and his family go out from the College to take up 
their lifework. 



CHAPTER VIII 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF AUSTRALIA 



By Miss M. S. Davies 

Owing to the stringent regulations of the Japanese 
educational authorities our Mission npt only had to 
relinquish the project of establishing one Middle School 
for boys and another for girls in the province of South 
Kyeng Sang, but has been unable to carry out its plan 
of having a Primary School for girls in each of our 
five mission stations. Three of these, with the four 
upper primary grades were already registered and have 
been allowed to continue, but on the other two stations 
where the schools were more recently established the 
application for registration was not granted. 

It has never been the policy of our 

Boys' Schools Mission to undertake primary education 
for boys. In the past this was done 
by the Korean church ; now though Church schools in 
most cases have had to be discontinued through inability 
to compete with Government schools, we have adhered 
to the same policy as before, knowing that secular 
education is available to all in the Government institu- 
tions. There are still eight Primary Schools for boys 
conducted by the Korean church and also one that has 
iji addition two upper primary grades. 

In the case of the Boys' School at Kyumasan the 
Mission has departed slightly from its usual policy, 
having undertaken the full financial support of the Upper 
Primary department. The four grades in this depart- 
ment are partly to take the place of the Middle School 
which was to have been at Kyumasan ; a clerical 
missionary is in charge and gives a good deal of his 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF AUSTRALIA 33 1 

time to the school. The total number of boys under 
instruction in our schools is 455. 

The Girls' Schools in the three larger 
Girls' Schools stations each have the four grades of 
the Upper Primary as well as the four 
grades of the Lower Primary Department. Each is 
supervised by a woman missionary, and, though not 
adopting the full curriculum of a Government School, 
lays great stress on the teaching of the Japanese language 
and employs one, or in the case of one school, two 
Japanese teachers. 

In the two mission stations where we have not been 
able to establish Primary Schools the need for Christian 
education is to some extent being met by Preparatory 
and Night Schools. Kindergarten work is another very 
important department that we hope to develop more 
fully as time goes on. Already two are being success- 
fully carried on by women missionaries with the help 
of Korean trainers. These Kindergartens seem to be as 
popular with the parents as with the little Kindergart- 
ners themselves, which is saying a great deal. The total 
number of girls in our schools is 445. 

The chief aim of our educational 
Aim work is to give the children of Christian 

parents such training as will fit them 
to render efficient service to our Master, Jesus Christ 
in the work of extending His Kingdom. We also 
seek however to make the schools an evangelistic agency 
and there are not lacking signs of success in this 
direction. Through the pupils access is gained into 
many heathen homes and friendly relations established. 
By the pupils themselves the Bible lessons and Christian 
teaching are not easily forgotten, some of the seed 
sown seeins to be lost, but we kjiow of some that has 
taken root and is bearing fruit even now to the glory 
of the Lord of the Harvest. Ours it is to ' sow ' and 
* water ' praying that He * may give the increase.' 



CHAPTER IX 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF CANADA 



By L. L. Young 

The Mission maintains a girls' primary 
Girls' Education school on each of its five stations, at 
Wonsan, Hamhung, Sungjin, and Hoiry- 
ung in Korea, and at Yong Jung in Kando, Manchuria. 
Some middle school work is being done at four of these, 
but only at Hamhung, where a lady missionary has 
been able to give all her time to the task, has the status 
of a middle school been reached. We hope in time to 
have a fully equipped middle school on at least two of 
the above mentioned stations. About four hundred girls 
are in attendance at the primary schools. In addition 
to these which are supported by the mission there are 
a few small unregistered schools supported by the native 
church, but owing to lack of funds and adequate 
supervision, the outlook for these is not promising. 

It is the purpose of the mission to 
Boys' Education fully equip middle schools for boys on 
two stations. At present we have a 
partially equipped work of this kind at Wonsan and 
Hamhung, and we are looking forward to beginning a 
first class school at Yong Jung in the near future. 
Already funds for building and equipment have been 
provided. Nineteen pupils were graduated from the 
Hamhung school, and a new class of about forty enrolled. 
The students pay an entrance fee of one yen, and 
monthly dues of forty sen. There are no manual train- 
ing or self help departments, and no financial assistance 
is given by the school to students. Each is required to 
provide for himself. The regular staff consists of four 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF CANADA 333 

Korean and one Japanese teacher. The student body 
has organized a branch of the Y. M. C. A. and regular 
association meetings are held. The reading room in 
connection with this gives an opportunity for self-improve- 
ment which all the students enjoy in common. Owing 
to the high cost of living, and the influenza scourge a 
considerable number of the students in these schools were 
compelled to drop out during the year. The course 
of study followed is that laid down in the government 
regulations with the exception of Bible study, which 
is still in the course in both schools. In Korea we 
have twenty-eight primary boys* schools with an enroll- 
ment of one thousand one hundred and sixteen scholars. 
These are mostly supported by the native churches, a 
few only getting assistance from mission funds. With 
the exception of Bible study, the course of study followed 
is that provided by the government. In Kando at Chong 
Dong we have one high school. This developed from a 
small primary school. Now there are fifty boys in pre- 
paratory grades, and fifty-five taking the high school work. 
Six of the seven teachers are high school graduates, and 
one in addition had a year in a university in Tokyo. 
All are Christians, and the religious enthusiasm of both 
teachers and taught is of a high order. The institution 
is entirely supported by the native church. This year 
a new recitation building was erected at a cost of two 
thousand dollars. The thirty-eight primary schools in 
this district are also supported by the local churches. 

The Mission aids the movement for 
General Educational higher education in Korea by supporting 
Work one professor in the Union Christian 

College at Seoul, and one in the 
Severance Medical College at the same place. Active 
cooperation is also had with the Union Theological 
Seminary at Pyeng Yang by sending a lecturer for a 
term of months each year. 



CHAPTER X 

HIGHER EDUCATION FOR WOMEN 



Bv Miss Alice R. Appenzeller 

I am not aware of any other schools for girls which 
offer work higher than the second year above Kodung 
except Ewha Haktang, which since 1908 has given a 
four years' high school and since 1910 a four years* 
college course. Last year the high school changed its 
name to College preparatory, and I shall refer to it 
thus in this paper. Since 191 5 Ewha has also offered 
a two years' training course for Kindergarten teachers, 
the students of which must have a Kodung education.' 
The preparatory and college courses, 

Lower Grades which naturally fit into each other, are 
more general than one usually finds at 
home in this age of specialization. But special educa- 
tion must be built on a foundation of general knowledge 
if it is to produce educated persons. Who among us 
can remember a time when our minds were not fed 
with stories of the heroes of old ; when we were not 
taught by pictures and various object lessons something 
of the wonders of the world about us, and of life in 
other lands ? But it is the exceptional Korean girl 
who has any background of general information with 
which to start her school life. What she is able to 
learn in the lower grades is so meager in comparison 
to what there is for her to know, that it has seemed 
wise to open for her as many of the doors of know- 
ledge as possible, even though she may get only a 
glimpse into them. But the subjects for study have 
always been chosen with reference to their usefulness to 
the student, either in practical life, or because of their 



HIGHER EDUCATION FOR VvOMEN 335 

value in developing her mind. The course has been 
altered with changing times, and there has been a pro- 
cession of text books all through the years, for Ewha 
has tried to get the best available equipment for her 
students. The preparatory course has always been 
given in Korean, though now some of the teaching is 
done in Japanese. The Japanese and English languages 
have been studied as subjects. The college course has 
been given in English because of the difficulty of finding 
teachers for college work and especially Korean text- 
books which had not already been used in the prepara- 
tory school. Appreciating the benefits that Christianity 
has brought them, the girls long to study that language 
which opens to them the whole world of Christian life 
and thought. Eager to explore for themselves, they 
are unwilling to wait for the time when there shall be 
translations of all the English literature that they wish 
to read. Now that that the Japanese language has so 
prominent a place in education, doubtless much that 
has been taught in English will in the future be taught 
in Japanese. 

It is not necessary to catalogue all 
Higher Grades the subjects taught in the preparatory 
and college departments. Taking for 
granted the study of the Bible, Japanese, Chinese, 
English and history I shall name only some of the 
subjects that are less usual in Korean schools. Mathe- 
matics is taught thoroughly and the girls have begged 
for higher mathematics, which they seem to like better 
than most American girls do. In the preparatory there 
is a review of arithmetic, to prepare teachers, and a 
course in bookkeeping is also offered. Child study, 
pedagogy and practice teaching are given a prominent 
place in the curriculum. Chorus singing is a part of 
the regular work, and the college girls have private 
vocal lessons also. Most of the girls take organ lessons, 
which they pay for extra. Only six of them, some of 
whom are teachers, receive piano lessons, so ten of the 
most advanced students pay for their own lessons by 
teaching five or six other students a week. Though 



33^ KOREA 

there are about sixty girls in this department there is a 
long waiting list, and many have to be disappointed 
every year. 

Music seems to us to be one of the 
Music finest things we can give the Korean 

girl. Denied, as she is, so many of 
the pleasures and means of self-expression open to us, 
she finds that God has given to music the golden key 
that unlocks her pent-up heart. He has given this 
people a great love of music, and to many of them 
sweet voices, and it is a joy to see the gift unfolding 
as the girls learn the beauty that music may add to 
life. We read in Chronicles that the fourteen sons and 
three daughters of Heman '' were under the hands of 
their father for song in the house of Jehovah, with 
cymbals, psalteries, and harp, for the service of the 
house of God." May it not be that there are some 
whom He has willed should serve Him in a similar 
way in this land ? We are glad to have a strong music 
department because this subject receives little attention 
in most Mission schools. 

. Korean cooking has not been taught 
Dietetics directly in school, because the girls 

cook their own food every day under 
the direction of a matron famous for her culinary ac- 
complishments. They also prepare elaborate feasts for 
us from time to time, thus getting ample practice in 
their own cookery. But we feel that it is extremely 
important that girls should learn the principles of food 
values, and how to vary the too simple Korean diet by 
the use of the vegetables, cereals, and fruits available 
here. We expect out girls to make far better homes 
than those from which they have come, and we are 
seeking to give them very practical help along these 
lines. Sewing is also taught in the preparatory, but 
here again the aim is not to teach what they already 
know, lor most of the girls make their own clothes, but 
to give them something useful that they cannot get 
outside of school. 

The kindergarten teachers' training school must, by 



HIGHER EDUCATION FOR WOMEN 337 

our definition, be included under higher education. All 
except the special kindergarten subjects are studied in 
the college preparatory classes. 

It is no less true in Korea than in 
Liberal America that student life is one of the 

chief means of the development of the 
college girl. We try to make the life of the school as 
varied as possible, so as to develop every side of the 
girls' natures. The strongest emphasis of all is laid on 
the religious life, which, through the different organiza- 
tions and meetings is kept very strong and wholesome. 
The girls are real workers for the Master, and it is 
beautiful to see them grow. They learn something of 
social responsibility in the government of the dormitory, 
where the older girls are largely held responsible for 
the younger. The intellectual life, and especially train- 
ing in public speaking is fostered by the literary society. 
Seoul affords good opportunities for students to hear 
the best speakers that come to Chosen, and there are 
occasionally instructive moving picture shows which the 
college girls are allowed to attend. Social life and 
plenty of play is afforded by an ample playground, 
which is well filled during recreation hours. Ewha 
tries to give its students an example of the abundant 
life, with the emphasis in the right place. 

We consider ourselves rich in having a college of 54 
girls, including 15 in the kindergarten, 32 in the pre- 
paratory, and 7 in the college proper. The numbers 
do not sound large but any one who has lived in 
Korea will appreciate what they mean. We realize the 
several handicaps that sometimes try our faith and make 
us wonder whether we are on the right track ; the 
delicate health of the Korean girl, which makes it 
necessary to watch her very closely, even though she 
is in more healthful surroundings than she would ordi- 
narily be in her own home ; the financial problem, only 
too well known to us all, the constant pressure from 
home, urging her to stop study and be married. But 
the girls show remarkable spirit in overcoming these 
hindrances, and 97 of them in ten years' time have 



338 KOREA 

been graduated from the preparatory, and in four years 
10 girls have received college diplomas. 

One of the greatest justifications of 
Character our college course is the marked develop- 
ment that we note in the characters of 
the girls. While a little knowledge is a very dangerous 
thing, we have watched girls sail safely past the perilous 
rocks of pride of attainment, not, perhaps, without 
scraping their keels a bit, into the safe waters of humility 
and sincere desire to serve. The girls have an almost 
insatiable thirst for learning and the temptation to wish 
to stay forever in school and not to go down the steep 
valley of service is more severe even than with us, for 
service here is very hard and the college girl is often 
branded as ** proud " by people who do not know her, 
but infer that she must be because of all the advantages 
she has enjoyed. But one sees less pride in the girls 
as they advance in school. The ordinary kodung 
graduate will usually feel much more important than 
the college girl. 



CHAPTER XI 

METHODIST EPISCOPAt. CHURCH, SOUTH 



By Alfred W. Wasson 



The present status of the work can 
Extect be seen in a general way from the fol- 

lowing summary of the educational 
statistics which were reported to the Annual meeting in 
October 191 8. 



Kind of School No. 


Enrollment 


High Schools: 




Boys I 


139 


Girls 2 


140 


Industrial School for Girls... 2 


63 


Primary : 




Boys 26 


1,247 


Girls 19 


1^336 


Kindergartens 3 


136 


Keul Pange (Old fashioned schools 




teaching chiefly Chinese charac- 




ters) 10 


229 



Total 63 3,290 

The mission also has a part in the work of the Chosen 
Christian College and in the Severance Union Medical 
School. Two men and seven women missionaries are 
appointed to give all or a part of their time to edu- 
cational work. The largest schools of the mission are 
the Holston Institute for girls with an enrollment of 498 
and the Songdo School (Formerly Anglo-Korean School) 
for boys with an enrollment of 542. 

About three-fourths of all the students 

Religious Work in the church schools are from non- 
Christian homes. All of them receive 
regular religious instruction. In schools which have 



340 KOREA 

conformed to the Revised Educational Regulation of 
the Government General this instruction is given outside 
of curriculum hours but all of the students attend. 
The majority attend church on . Sunday. Surely these 
conditions are favorable for seeing a happy fulfillment of 
the words, *' A little child shall lead them ". In. the 
larger schools special revival services were held with 
splendid results. 

In 19 1 4 the Industrial Department of 
A Unique Industri= the Songdo School began weaving and* 

al Department selling by mail a superior quality of 
cotton cloth guaranteed '* Never to fade 
and seldom wear out". As a result of the large demand 
which immediately arose for the cloth a number of 
students have from that time been enabled to earn their 
school expenses. The work is entirely self-supporting. 
During the year ending Sept. 25, 191 8 Yen 2,013.13 
was paid to students for labor and the circulating capital 
of the department was increased by a profit of Yen 
2,388.18. . 

In order that the students may have more time for 
this practical and remunerative work the regular Higher 
Common School course is lengthened by two years. 
Six years are taken to do four years of academic work. 
But the time is well spent. As the student actually 
earns his school expenses he is filled with a sense of 
growing power. Self reliance, so essential to integrity 
of character, is developed and the temptation to lead a 
selfish parasitic life is' lessened. 

As both the demand for the cloth and the number of 
students who want to enter the school seem to be 
practically unlimited the opportunity for expansion is 
inviting and conditioned only by the capacity of the 
plant. 

As a part of the world-wide plan to 

Centenary Plans celebrate the completion in 19 19 of a 

century of missionary work by the 

Methodist Church a special commission on the field, was 

appointed by the Mission Board in the fall of 19 17 to 

outline a five year program of advance. The findings of 



METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, SOUTH 34I 

this commission were reported to the Centenary Com- 
mission in America in January 191 8 and later approved 
by that body. The program thus outlined and approv- 
ed provides for a large advance in the educational work 
and calls for an increase in funds for this purpose during 
the next five years of ^571,250.00. 

The judgment of the Commission as to the importance 
and opportunity for mission schools in Korea is indicat- 
ed by this program and also by the following quotation 
from its report; 

'* The value of our schools to the missionary enter- 
prise is unquestioned. They save to the church the 
children of Christian homes, they bring the missionary 
and native helper into effective contact with many who 
would otherwise be difficult tO' reach, they provide an 
opportunity for intense consecutive work which is so 
desirable in establishing the faith of those who are 
without Christian traditions or heredity, they exercise 
a salutary influence upon the non-Christian schools and 
they are indispensable in the work of training Christian 
leaders for the future. 

The Koreans in common with other Orientals are an 
intellectual people. The Korean ideal is the scholar. 
The rising generation especially demands that every 
man give a reason for his faith. By right of truth 
intellectual leadership belongs to Christianity and it is 
fitting and right that Korean Christians should be enabled 
to claim this heritage." 



CHAPTER XII 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN U. S. A. 



By E. W. Koons 

The Mission does not maintain any 

Primary Schools schools of Primary Grade. Two * or 
three Kindergartens are connected with 
Mission schools for girls, and in some of the smaller 
Stations the Mission pays a third of the running expense 
of the Church Primary School. In most of the Stations 
members of the Mission help in the expenses of the local - 
schools. 

But the Korean Church within the bounds of this 
Mission (which includes about a third of the population 
of the country, and nearly two thirds of the Christian 
constituency) conducts its own Primary Schools. The 
statistics for the year ending May 31, 191 8, show 346 
such Church Schools, with 9,637 boys and 3,054 girls 
attending, an average of 37 students to a school. 

These schools vary from the smallest, which are not 
much in advance of the best '' Soh Dangs " or old-style 
schools for studying the Chinese Classics, to those in 
the cities, which have modern brick buildings, well- 
chosen apparatus and equipment, and qualified teachers, 
both Koreans and Japanese. These teach all the sub- 
jects in the Government's curriculum, and turn out 
students we compare favorably with those from the best 
Primary Schools in the country. 

The expenditure on these schools for the year totalled 
¥42,659, about ¥3.50 per pupil. This is small when 
compared with the Government's average of ¥20.00 per 
pupil in the Public Common Schools (Report of 
Reforms and Progress for 191 5 — 16, the most recent 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN U. S. A. 343 

figures available). But many of the teachers receive only 
a nominal salary, and in other ways these Church 
Schools can be run more economically than can the 
Government Schools, The school expenditure is the 
second item in the Church's budget, and more than a 
fourth of the whole amount. Approximately 2/3 of the 
children of the church are in these schools, while taking 
the country as a whole, the proportion of children in any 
kind of modern schools cannot be more than half of that. 

A fact worth noting is that while the number of 
schools shrunk in a year from 359 to 346, the number of 
students increased 'm the same time from 12,044 to I2,6gi. 
There are four of these, at Syenchun, 
Mission Boarding Pyengyang, Seoul, and Taiku, -with a 
Schools for Girls total of 398 students and 28 teachers, 
including 6 missionary ladies. The 
Pyengyang School has been for years a Union institution, 
conducted by the Women's Foreign Missionary Society 
of the M. E. Church (North) jointly with our Mission. 
It covers the full Higher Common School course, and 
adds two years of special work to that. Special atten- 
tion is given to sewing and Domestic Science. 

The Syenchun School has a special curriculum, and 
gives a great part of the time to needle-work and 
embroidery. Out of the 85 students, 70 earned part or 
all of their expenses by this work. 

The School in Seoul has the same course as the one 
in Pyengyang, but gives Korean and foreign sewing, 
and the making of artificial flowers in the Japanese style. 

In Taiku the course is only the four years of the 
Government Higher Common Schools. All these schools 
have dormitories, and two-thirds of the students in them 
are boarders. Practically all are from Christian homes.' 
Many of the graduates become teachers, some go on to 
higher schools, many are married as soon as ^ they 
graduate. 

These are located in the four centers 
Mission Boarding mentioned above. They report about 

Schools for Boys ^00 students, with 49 teachers, and 6 
missionaries who give their whole time 



344 KOREA 

to the schools, either as Principals, or in charge of 
Manual Training or Industrial plants. 

The Syenchun School, formerly called the " Hugh 
O'Neill " has a large farm, where dairying and stock- 
raising, in addition to ordinary farming, is carried on by 
the students. Their meat and milk products are famous 
all over the country, and the boys get needed practical 
experience, while they are earning, in many cases, part 
of their expenses at school. There is also a carpenter 
shop. * 

The Pyeng Yang Academy has extensive and fully- 
equipped carpenter and blacksmith shops, with a printing 
office, and also a farm and dairy. Here too self-help 
and practical experience are combined. 

In Seoul, the John D. Wells School has turned its 
Self Help Department into a Trade School, following 
the curriculum set by the Government for such teaching, 
the special subject being weaving, with dyeing and stock- 
ing making added. The course is open to graduates of 
Primary Schools, and takes two years. In addition to 
the practical work mentioned, the student gets Morals, 
Bible, Japanese, Chinese, Mathematics, and such Science 
as he particularly needs for his work. The experiment 
is in its first year, but it meets a need in the life of the 
Korean people, and such teaching, in some form, is 
bound to be welcomed by the far-sighted ones who 
realize that technical skill is the one product of which 
the world never can get an over-supply. 

Each of these schools gives the full Government cur- 
riculum for the Higher Common Schools, and adds to 
it 2 years of special work. Graduates in most cases go 
on for further study, many of them in Japan Proper. 
Some go directly into the Colleges of Law, Medicine, 
or Technology, in Seoul, or into other Colleges in 
Chosen. Some go into business, and some become 
teachers. Not all the students are Christian when they 
enter, but all attend cnurch services during their entire 
course, as well as chapel in the school each day, and 
many have an active part in the Y. M. C. A. or other 
religious student activities. No graduate of the Mission 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN U. S. A. 345 

schools would class himself other than as a Christian, 
though not all are church members. 

This is maintained by the Presbyterian 

Union Christian Col= Missions North and South, and the 

lege at Pyeng Yang Australian Presbyterian Mission, but the 

most of the Faculty and of the students 

come from this Mission. It has 70 students, 40 of them 

boarders, and gives a course modelled after the ordinary 

College course in the U." S. A., making changes to fit 

the conditions in Chosen. 

This is also at Pyeng Yang, and is 

Union Theological the largest Presbyterian Seminary in the 

Seminary world. It has 174 students in its five 

classes. This school is supported by 

the four Presbyterian Missions. The conditions of 

entrance are being made stiffer year by year. The norm 

is* now a graduate of College or Academy, and special 

cases who by reason of age are unable to take these 

courses, are required to show their proficiency in modern 

studies, as well as in either Chinese, Japanese, or English 

composition. 



CHAPTER XIII 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN U. S. 



By W. M. Clark 

At the present time the Mission is conducting schools 
for boys and schools for girls at each of the stations 
except at Soonchun. The reason the station schools at 
Soonchun were closed is that the Government educational 
regulations prohibit the teaching of the Bible as a regular 
part of the curriculum and when the Mission refused 
to take the Bible out of the regular curriculum, the 
Government ordered the schools closed. The other 
Mission schools, having been registered under a former 
law, are being given a period of ten years of grace and 
are still teaching the Bible in the course as a required 
subject. 

An interesting fact in connection with 
Chrkitian the educational work of the Mission, a 

Constituency fact probably true all over Korea, is the 
fact that the schools conducted by the 
Missions are not conducted as evangelistic agencies to 
reach unbelievers, in the first instance, but are founded 
and conducted for the purpose of giving a sound edu- 
cation to the children of Christian parents. It must 
be added, however, that many heathen children attend 
the Mission schools and many are led to Christ each 
year, but the prevailing tone of the schools is Christian ; 
the majority of students are Christians and all of the 
faculty are Christians. 

All the schools are required to be registered by the 
Government ; to teach according to the Government 
Curriculum, and are forbidden to use text-books other 
than those that have been officially approved by the 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN U. S. 34/ 

Government. Most of the subjects are ordered to be 
taught in the Japanese language and the teachers must 
be examined and approved by the Government. 

In this Mission a considerable amount 
Self Help of experiment and investigation has been 
carried on along the line of providing a 
means by which worthy pupils may help themselves 
through school. In the Girls' Schools considerable 
success has been had in teaching the pupils to make 
tatting, laces, embroidery and ornamental buttons, and a 
great many girls have been enabled to secure an educa- 
tion in this way. In the Boys' Schools, too, various 
lines of work have been offered, but so far no settled 
policy of teaching trades has been agreed upon. 

Country Schools have been maintained and encouraged 
so far as possible, but the new Government regulations 
bearing upon the registration and the curriculum have 
worked many hardships in the country districts. The 
whole educational situation seems to bristle with dif- 
ficulties. May time, patience, courage and God's 
Providence bring happy solutions to all these difficulties ! 
The Mission has recently asked the Home Board for 
many thousands of dollars for additional buildings, 
equipment and educational workers. The following re- 
solutions are among some adopted recently : — • 

" That it be the policy of the Mission to give all 
full time educational workers as much as one year 
leave of absence in Japan for the study of the Japa- 
nese language." 

*' That it be our policy to have two Higher Common 
schools (for boys) for the Mission with two mission- 
aries in each." 

This latter resolution means planning for the consolida- 
tion and better equipment of existing schools. Another 
section of interest is the following : — '' That for the 
general direction of the Boys' Schools there shall be in 
each province an Educational Sub-committee. The 
Sub-committees shall consist of the members of the 
Educational Committee residing in the province, together 
with the other school men." 



348 KOREA 

The following resolution adopted at the same time 
looks forward to a kind of educational work that seems 
to have been more used in Japan than in Korea, but 
which may also develop rapidly here with a little 
enthusiastic pushing : — 

'' We approve the establishing of kindergarten work 

at Soonchun or any other station that can arrange 

for it." 

The Mission also furnishes a Professor for the College 
at Pyeng Yang and has its representative on the Board 
of that College. In all about 2,000 children were 
taught in Mission lower schools according to statistics 
for 1918. 



KOREA 



PART III 

MEDICAL WORK OF FEDERATED 
MISSIONS 



CHAPTER XIV 

SEVERANCE UNION MEDICAL COLLEGE 



By O. R. Avison, M. D._, President 

An important advance step has been taken in con- 
nection with medical missions during the past year, 
which affects Korea not alone, but the whole missionary- 
enterprise. This was the fruition of a movement which 
had its beginning in January, 191 5, when the writer 
took up with Mr. William Henry Grant, Secretary of 
the Foreign Missions Conference of North America, and 
others, the backward condition of mission hospitals in 
foreign fields. 

The question was transferred to the 

Committee of Foreign Missions Conference, and was 

Medical Experts discussed in its sessions in 19 16 and 

19 1 7. In the Conference of 191 8 the 

matter was again brought forward, and in June of that 

year the Committee of Reference and Counsel of the 

Foreign Missions Conference took definite action 

unanimously authorizing the co-opting of eight medical 

experts to sit with it and advise as to the best methods 

of conducting medical work. These experts are to be 

chosen from amongst the best Christian medical men in 

the United States and Canada, and amongst them one is 

to be a lady physician, one a nursing superintendent 

and one a hospital superintendent. 

A second suggestion which was 

Board Medical favorably received was that each large 

Secretaries Board should appoint a medical secretary 

to supervise the medical work of his 

Board, to seek out candidates, interest medical associations 

and possibly to develop separate contributions for medical 

work, as is done successfully by some of the large 



352 KOREA 

Missionary Societies in Britain. A request to the Board 
of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the 
United States for the appointment of a special medical 
secretary had been made by the Chosen Mission at its 
annual meeting in 191 6, and that Board accepted this 
policy in: the middle of 191 8. At the time of writing 
the medical secretary has not yet been appointed. About 
the same time the Methodist Episcopal Church in the 
United States took similar action, and appointed Dr. 
J. G. Vaughan as its medical secretary These pro- 
gressive actions will strengthen the work of the home 
base as well as that on the fields. 

The first steps to standardize medical 

The Korea Medical work in Korea were taken in 1917, 

™Ll°7ni&ati«o'^hen a questionnaire was circulated with 

Program the object of getting a general view of 

the present status of our work, the 

opportunities presented, and the future needs, so that a 

complete budget for all Korea might be compiled, the 

whole work standardized, and the needs of all the 

hospitals adequately set forth. 

At the meeting of the K. M. M. A. in Seoul, February 
4 — 5> 1919^ the following action was passed : 

*' That a permanent committee, to be styled the 
Committee of Survey, Policy and Standardization, to 
consist for the coming year of Drs. Reid, (Convener), 
Cutler, Van Buskirk, Wilson, Davies, Avison, Russell, 
Laws and Mansfield, representing each of the Mission 
Boards represented in the K. M. M. A., be appointed, 
with the purpose of evolving a scheme of cooperation 
which will plan the whole medical mission work of 
Korea as a unit. Dr. Avison was unanimously voted 
corresponding secretary of this committee." 
This committee is making provision for a still more 
complete canvass of the whole situation upon which to 
base subsequent action. 

The statistics show the work of the 
Work of the Sever- hospital and dispensary to be the greatest 
ance Hospital jn the history of the institution. Out- 
patient treatments numbered 41,055, an 



SEVERANCE UNION MEDICAL COLLEGE 353 

increase of 1,519 over the previous year, of which 
11,902 were new patients and 29,153 return treatments. 
Of these, 15,536 were given free treatment. The in- 
patients numbered 2,473, an increase of 622 over the 
year before. Of these, 2,348 were Koreans, 38 Japanese, 
13 Chinese and 74 Westerners. In-patients in free wards 
numbered 956. The outcalls were 1431, of which 1036 
were made by the missionary doctors and 395 by the 
Korean and Japanese members of the staff. Dispensary 
receipts were Yen 13,157, and the hospital income Yen 
11,532, representing an increase of Yen 3,830 over the 
previous fiscal year. 

The surgical department of the hospital and dispensary, 
which is under the direction of Dr. A. I. Ludlow, 
performed 575 major and 1975 minor operations during 
the year. 

To get an idea of" the work done by native assistants, 
it may be stated that out of 41,055 dispensary treatments 
the one Japanese and three Korean doctors who are at 
the head of special departments have to their credit 
28,812 treatments, and the receipts of these four depart- 
ments yielded Yen 9,248 out of a total of Yen 12,157. 

The medical w^ards and foreign practice are in charge 
of Dr. J. W. Hirst. Miss E. L. Shields and Miss K. M. 
Esteb superintend the hospital nursing. 

The Bacteriological Department makes diagnoses and 
bacteriological tests in connection with all kinds of 
infectious m.aterial, and vaccines for treatment are made 
when possible. Investigations have also been made into 
syphilis, diphtheria, typhus and sprue. The investigations 
made into the recent epidemic of influenza upheld the 
findings of the Pasteur institute scientists in France. This 
department is in charge of Dr. F. W. Schofield. 

Two features of special note occurred 

Special Features during the year. One was the treat- 
ment of casualty cases in connection 
with the independence movement disturbances : the other 
an epidemic of typhus and relapsing fever. The capacity 
of the hospital was taxed to the limit. Seventy-two 
casualty cases were treated, of which 38 were gunshot 



354 KOREA 

wounds. Forty extra beds were secured from the 
dormitory of the Presbyterian ^ Girls School, and the 
Chosen Chapter of the American Red Cross furnished 
supplies for them. 

Dr. W. J. Scheifley has secured as 
Dental Department an assistant Dr. K. Mishina, a graduate 
of the Dental Department of Western 
Reserve University, Cleveland, O. Private patients 
treated numbered 241, of whom 21 were Koreans and 
Japanese. Out of 1384 dispensary patients, 197 only 
were treated without charge. Receipts were Yen 3,422. 
Dr. Scheifley is advocating the adoption by the Mission 
Boards of the policy that dental treatment for mission- 
aries, being of primary importance to the maintenance 
of health, should be put on the same plane as ordinary 
medical care. 

Three members of Severance per- 
Service with Anie= sonnel. Dr. and Mrs. A. I. Ludlow and 
rican Red Cross Miss K. M. Esteb responded to the 
emergency call of the Red Cross to 
render aid to the Czecho-Slovaks in Siberia, leaving in 
August, 191 8, for that service. They were stationed for 
a time in Harbin, and later went to Omsk. Their 
activities embraced investigation work. Red Cross supply 
shopping, service in the Omsk hospital, caring for Rus- 
sian refugees, and professional service with the Russian 
Railway Service Corps American Engineers. . After 
serving for five months, they returned to Severance in 
January. Drs. T. Mansfield and S. P. Tipton, and 
Nurses D. M. Battles, E. M. Reiner and E. Roberts 
were also members of the Red Cross unit from Chosen. 

Sixty students were registered in the 
Medical School medical school on April i, 19 18. Dr. 
J. D. Van Buskirk, Dean of the School, 
expected to graduate the senior class as usual, but with 
the outbreak of the political disturbances on March i, 
19 19, the students ceased their studies and the year 
closed with the teaching department at a standstill. The 
same state of affairs exists at the Government Medical 
School. 



SEVERANCE UNION MEDICAL COLLEGE 355 

Seventeen new pupils were admitted to the Nurses 
Training School, making the total registration 3 1 . Four 
nurses graduated last October, and five more received 
diplomas in March. This department is in charge of 
Miss E. J. Shepping. 

Dr. Ralph G. Mills, who established 
Personnel the Research Department of the College, 
resigned during the year to accept an 
appointment with the Rockefeller Foundation in Peking 
University. Dr. F. M. Stites was recalled to America 
by the military draft, but is just returning. Miss Jessie 
Whitelaw has arrived to be the representative of the 
Canadian Presbyterian Mission on the Nursing Staff. 
The following have been appointed members of the 
Faculty : Dr. Y. Tokumitsu, professor of Pathology ; 
Dr. K. Mishina, associate professor of Dentistry ; Dr. 
K. S. No, associate professor of Pathology ; Mr. J. B. 
Kishima, associate professor of Materia Medica and 
Pharmacy. Drs. H. S. .Shim and P. H. Shin were 
also elected associate professors. Dr. S.Y. Pak, associate 
professor of surgery, resigned. 

The construction of a 200-bed hospit- 

Future Expansion al, a new wing to the medical college, 
and other extensions are projected. 
Mr. J. L. Severance and his sister, Mrs. F. F. Prentiss, 
donated during the year $32,550 for the purchase of 
land and equipment, in addition to covering the deficit. 
Through the generosity of Mr. C. E. Graham, the 
Southern Presbyterian Mission has largely increased its 
annual grant to current budget. The Northern and 
Southern Methodists have included generous amounts in 
their Centenary Campaign budgets for Severance. 

Early in 191 8 the Co-operating Board for Christian 
Education in Chosen was organized, being composed of 
representatives of the Boards in North America who 
participated in union institutions in Korea. This Board 
deals with the affairs of Severance, among other institu- 
tions, in connection with the various home Boards. 



CHAPTER XV 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF AUSTRALIA 



By Miss F. L. Clhrke 

The medical work of this Mission is confined mainly 
to two stations, namely Chinju and Tong Yeng. We have 
only one hospital which is situated in Chinju and has 
accommodation for between 50 and 60 inpatients. In Tong 
Yeng there is a dispensary under the charge of Dr. 
Taylor with a large attendance of out-patients. 

The departure of Dr. McLaren, our 
Personnel only foreign doctor in Chinju, for war 
survice in Europe at the end of 1917 
has crippled our hospital work a good deal and we have 
not seen the expansion we had hoped for in earlier days. 
Still, with the loyal and efficient help of Korean Christian 
doctors we have been able to keep on and make progress 
in spite of difficulties. During 191 8 we were re-inforced 
by the arrival from Australia of Dr. Davies, and his 
presence together with the expected return of Dr. 
McLaren should ensure much progress in the near future. 

We find that in this southern province of Korea there is 
still a great deal of ignorance and prejudice to be overcome 
before w^e can obtain the confidence of many of the 
people. In many cases they still prefer to commit 
their diseases into the hands of quack doctors of their 
own rather than submit to the incomprehensible methods 
of modern medical science ! Such prejudice however is 
being slowly broken down and every year the influences 
of medical mission work are being carried farther and 
farther afield. 

For various reasons this is not a very 

Native Dcctcrs favorable time 'to outline the policy of 
our medical work. During the war all 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF AUSTRALIA 35/ 

we could do was to hold to what we had already 
begun and prepare for greater opportunities later on. 
These we believe will soon be ours with the dawning of 
better times throughout the world. Meanwhile it has 
seemed to us that the best contribution we could make 
to the cause of medical work in general in this land 
would be gained by donating much time and effort to the 
building up of Christian character in those to whose care 
the sick are committed, so that in this way the best 
kind of efficiency in their treatment might be secured. 
We are glad to report excellent results in the loyal and 
Christlike service which our assistants have given us in 
hospital wards and dispensaries and we are sure that 
through them men have come to have a new appreciation 
of the place and trust which is in Jesus Christ. 

Our outpatient dept. in Tong Yeng holds 
Out Patent Depart- an important position in the work of our 
meat church. Though it is a strong evangeli- 

zing agent its chief influence is towards the 
removal of prejudice and the bringing of the Korean into 
connection with the missionary and the church. The daily 
address delivered in the dispensary reaches the furthest 
corners of our district, for there are gathered people 
not only from the mainland but from the neighbouring 
isles and these carry away the message and tell it to their 
neighbours. The seed thus sown has in many instances 
helped to increase the numbers in our churches, and has 
been the means of the conversion of people who w^ere 
not reached otherwise. Houses that were barred against 
Christianity have been opened to the medical missionary 
and his message, and good relationships established. Near 
and remote villages where the Gospel had not found an 
entrance by the ordinary means have given a sympathetic 
hearing to the preaching of the \Vord after a little 
medical treatm.ent. 



CHAPTER XVI 

FUSANCHIN LEPER ASYLUM 



By a. C. Wright 

Since Mr. Mackenzie's departure on furlough the 
Leper Asylum has had very insufficient oversight. Mr. 
Wright has been in charge of that work, but the work 
among the country churches necessitated his absence 
from home f9r such a large part of his time that he 
was unable to visit the Asylum regularly. Even when 
he was in Fusanchin there were other matters that 
demanded his time so that the working of the Asylum 
was largely left to the Korean in charge. In so far as 
tirjie permitted plans for the work have been discussed 
and decided upon with the Korean superintendent, and 
When at home on Sundays Mr. Wright has always 
visited and w^orshipped with the people ; and as op- 
portunity presented itself he has visited the Asylum 
during the week to attend to general matters. 

During the year it has been extreme- 
A Remedy ly difficult to admit even a few of the 
most pitiable cases that applied for 
entrance. Since the beginning of 191 7 a mixture of 
Chaulmoogra oil has been used among the inmates and, 
though it has not been given a fair trial on which 
judgement may be given, it has certainly made a dis- 
tinct improvement on those w^ho have used it. In many 
cases the disease appears to have been stayed, the 
patients look much cleaner about the face and hands, 
and are much more active than, formerly. In con- 
sequence of the benefits derived from this medicine 
deaths have been fewer — a total of 25 for the year — 
these have mostly occurred among those who were not 



FUSANCHIN LEPER ASYLUM 359 

permitted to have the medicine because their disease 
was in a hopeless condition. As a result there has been 
no room to admit any but the worst cases that applied 
for entrance ; in all only 1 5 were admitted during the 
twelve months. Another reason that has prevented our 
admitting others has been the shortage of funds ; not- 
withstanding the fact that, in spite of the extra claims 
made upon the supporters at home these days, con- 
siderably more money has been received from them each 
month than formerly. 

Owing to the great increase in the 
Economies cost of living the monthly expenditure 
now averages about Yen 930.00, and 
indeed in order to keep the expenses even so low as 
this only the bare necessities are purchased, while the 
inmates have generally only two meals per day, and 
they use a large proportion of barley because it is 
cheaper than rice. For the last six months, owing to 
the high cost of living, we have been unable to use the 
mixture of Ghaulmoogra oil, which has also increased 
greatly in price. Thus practically no medicine has 
been given to the lepers, which is a great pity seeing 
that it was doing so much to relieve their pitiable con- 
dition. 

Regarding, the spiritual side of the work, it is to be 
regretted that time has not permitted the one in charge to 
do njore for them. They are practically all deeply in- 
terested in spiritual things. Of the 150 inmates 85 are 
full Church members, of whom 24 were baptised during 
the past year, while 30 are catechumens. Of the re- 
maining 35 a number are almost ready to be admitted 
to the catechumenate, and the balance of them will 
probably be admitted later on. Apart from any who 
may be too ill to attend, all are regularly present at all 
Sunday services and daily prayers. The Asylum has, 
of course, its own leader and deacons chosen from 
among the lepers, and when the missionary is unable to 
be present the services of the Church are faithfully 
conducted by them. 



CHAPTER XVII 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN U. S. 



By W. M. Clark 

The Medical work of the Mission is important and 
promising in many ways. At each of the five stations 
one finds well equipped hospitals and dispensaries where 
in 191 8 nearly 100,000 cases were treated and Yen 
17,500, collected from the patients. The number of 
chanty patients is very great, but the rule is that none 
shall be turned away, tho' an effort is made to collect 
a part at least of the cost of the medicines and supplies 
furnished. Only where the patient is well-to-do can he 
be said to pay anything toward the services of the 
physician or toward the general up-keep of the hospital. 
During the past year the Mission grant to each hospital 
has been Yen 2500, plus the support of the physician 
and the foreign trained nurse, if there be one. The 
majority of the patients are Koreans, but a large 
number of Japanese, especially those of the middle and 
higher classes, and a few Chinese are treated each year. 
Evangelists, both men and women, are present each day 
to preach to those who wait at the dispensaries and to 
visit the sick in the wards. 

Owing to furloughs, ill-health and 
Difficulties resignations it is difficult to keep the 
hospitals supplied with one doctor 
(foreign) and one foreign nurse. At present the Mission 
is looking forward ^ to putting two foreign physicians 
and two foreign nurses in at least some of our plants 
if the workers can be secured. In the Medical work 
also, Governmental regulations play their part. All 
physicians coming out from Amerxa must go to Tokyo 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN U. S. 361 

and stand Government examinations and the examinations 
are spread over such a long time as to make it very 
expensive. All nurses likewise must stand Government 
examinations. Fortunately for the residents of England 
a doctor's examination is not required of one with a 
license to practice in England as there is a reciprocity 
arrangement. One hopes that some such solution may 
some day be found to get rid of the expensive trips to 
Tokyo ! 

Recently a long list of new regulations have been 
announced by the Government for the regulation of 
medical work in Chosen. 

This Mission takes its part in supporting the Union 
Medical College in Seoul at an annual cost of about 
Yen 1 1,000., furnishing a foreign doctor (or the money), 
a native doctor trained in America, a foreign trained 
nurse and Yen 4,000, toward the running expenses. 
Medical students are also aided to some extent and 
gradually a native Christian supply of doctors trained 
in western medicine is being provided altho' the demand 
at present far exceeds the supply. 

Occupying as we do some of the 
Lepers southern part of the peninsula one finds 

a great many lepers. For a number 
of years a Leper Hospital has been maintained about 
three miles from Kwangju and splendid work has been 
done to care for these poor unfortunates. The report 
for 19 1 8 gives 242 as the number of inmates, 23 were 
baptized and 40 entered the catechumen class. The 
church is organized with one elder, 8 acting deacons 
and 93 baptized members. Both men and women are 
admitted and the monthly expense per patient for that 
year was only Yen 5.40 each in spite of war prices. 

One very encouraging feature of the medical treatment 
of leprosy is the fact that by the present treatment 
marked improvement is made by the patient. The 
physician says: — ''In the large numbers of our cases 
the disease is arrested and they are practically well 
except for a few anaesthetic spots which do not seem 
to be restored even under prolonged treatment." 



362 KOREA 

One encouraging feature of the medical work in the 
station hospitals is found in the fact that the wealthy 
Koreans are beginning — a mere beginning, it is true — to 
realize the fact of their eventual responsibility toward 
the medical work, and some contributions have been 
made toward the work after the patient had paid all of 
his bill. 

To take up all of the union work in 

Union Work which the Mission engages would be to 

lead to some repetition so that there 

will be mentioned here especially those forms of union 

activity not included in the above resume. 

The Mission co-operates not only in the College at 
Pyeng-Yang, but in the Theological Seminary. It 
unites to support the Korean Religious Book and Tract 
Society, supplying its share of the General Secretary's 
salary and promising a man for the work of the newly 
planned Editorial Board. It unites in support of work 
among Korean students in Tokyo and as has been said, 
in the support of the Union ^Medical College in Seoul. 
It also takes its part in the work of the Federal Coun- 
cil of Protestant Missions in Korea and as a Mission is 
profoundly grateful to God at being allowed to take its 
part, tho' a modest one, in carrying the knowledge of 
Christ to the people of this peninsula. 



KOREA 



PART IV 
OTHER MISSIONS AND CHURCHES 



CHAPTER XVIII 

ENGLISH CHURCH MISSION 



By Father H. J. Drake 

During the year 191 8 seven priests of the staff work- 
ing in the English Church mission to Korea have been 
absent ; two had undertaken chaplains' duty to the forces 
in France and five had ofiered their services as officers 
in the labour battalions raised by the Entente in China. 
Members of the staff remaining in 
The Staff Korea included the Bishop and his 
chaplain with ten priests and a deacon, 
since raised to the Priesthood. The Rev. A. R. 
Ossihiki, lent to the English Church Mission to Korea 
by the Bishop of South Tokyo, to take temporary 
charge of the Japanese congregation in Seoul, has since 
returned, leaving the Mission with one Japanese Priest on 
its staff ; the number of Korean Priests was three with a 
Deacon, and the remaining members of the Staff, 
European. 

For the time being the ^vork of the Mission was 
organised by giving to the Rev. A. N. Shiozaki charge 
of the Japanese congregations in places south of Seoul 
with his headquarters at Fusan. A Japanese speaking 
European priest was detailed to take charge of the 
Japanese congregation in Seoul and places north of Seoul. 

Before the seven priests, as mentioned above, had 
left upon war work the work of the mission amongst 
Koreans had been organised by grouping congregations 
into seven Deaneries each under the direction of a 
European priest, and lying adjacent to one another in 
the Provinces of Ryung-Rein, Whang Hai, and Choong 
Chong. When the work of the mission had been left in 



366 KOREA 

the hands of a staff reduced to half its normal strength 
a fresh arrangement was necessary. Two Deaneries were 
united and placed in charge of a European priest helped 
by a Korean in Priest's orders. One Deanery was put 
in charge of a Korean priest helped by a Korean in 
Deacons' orders, and under the general supervision of 
the Bishop. The other Deaneries remained as before, each 
under the direction of a European priest. 

Whilst the work of the Mission has been carried on 
with fewer Directors in chief of Deaneries, the number 
of Evangelists, or Catechists as they are called in this 
Mission, in charge of small congregations within the 
Deanery has been increased. 

The work of training Clergy, on 

Training Catechists regular lines, has been discontinued 

during the war in Europe. The Institute 

for training Clergy was closed and classes for the 

better instruction of Catechists were organised. 

From each of the Deaneries one Catechist was called 
to reside with a priest for three months and devote him- 
self entirely to prayer and study. This meant that the 
Seminary system of training, usually followed in Catholic 
and Protestant Missions, in one or other of its forms, was 
discarded. The idea underlying this closing of the 
Institute and opening of classes for men engaged in 
active evangelistic work, was, that the best preparation 
for ordination and the surest method of probation is 
simply evangelistic work itself. The more usual plan 
is to accept as candidates for ordination men who have 
passed a high educational test and have been specially 
prepared for their future work in training institutions. 
The two systems stand sharply opposed and each has 
evident weak points. The seminary system with its high 
educational tests seems to disqualify those who have 
evangelistic rather than educational qualifications from 
seeking ordination to the ministry ; ^ the other seems to 
put an unduly low value upon educational qualifications. 
Possibly a solution might be found in retaining some 
form of seminary and at the same time paying special 
attention to the training of the whole body of Evangelists 



ilNGLISH CHURCH MISSION 36/ 

not in orders. In this case whereas a high educational 
qualification would be usually required, though they 
were wanting, possession of extraordinary powers as 
Evangelist might constitute qualification for ordination 
to the ministry. 

Limited financial means at the disposal 
Educational Work of the English Church Mission has 

prevented any but the smallest and simplest 
educational work in Korea. No attempt has been made 
to found or maintain primary schools where there is a 
Government school already available. Small preparatory 
schools have been opened wherever and whenever pos- 
sible and hostels in the neighbourhood of some good 
Government school into which scholars from the pre- 
paratory schools are admitted, provided they have passed 
the entrance examination into the Government School. 
Boys from these hostels may pass into the central 
hostel in Seoul, provided they have passed the entrance 
examination into a higher Government School. Care is 
taken to require from boys entering the hostels some 
considerable contribution towards the expenses of their 
board and lodging. Hostels are not founded unless adequate 
means of oversight and means of providing regular 
religious instruction for the boys can be provided. 

On the principle that Christ's Mission 
Medical Work to His Church includes commands to 

heal and to teach the English Church 
Mission to Korea has always tried to maintain some 
medical work in the country. Before the war broke out 
in Europe there were hospitals opened in Chemulpo and 
Chin Chun ; since the war the Chemulpo hospital has 
been closed. It is doubtful whether, unless very large 
sums of money were available for the purpose, the 
Mission will open large hospitals in the future. Hospitals 
and medical attendance provided by the Government and 
private enterprise do not yet satisfy the demands made 
by the country, but it is to the Government and to private 
practitioners that chief help must be looked for in the 
future. 



CHAPTER XIX 

ORIENTAL MISSIONARY SOGIETY 



By Rev. Willam Heslop 

Under the continued supervision of Rev. John Thomas, 
our Superintendent in Korea, the prospects for the work 
of our Society are very bright for the future. We 
believe we are in the beginning of a new day in the 
work in Korea. God has wonderfully blessed in the 
past but the promises and the outlook are for mightier 
things in the future. 

Land has been bought and money is 
Prospect already in hand and plans formulated 

for an enlarged Bible Training Institute 
in Seoul which we expect to build this year. We 
seek to accommodate sixty men and twenty to thirty 
women and give them three years of- thorough training 
before sending them out to reach their own people. We 
believe that if Korea is ever to be fully and scriptural- 
ly evangelized, occupied, and the work conserved it must 
be done by the natives themselves. 

During the year 3676 meetings have 
1918 been held in our various Mission Sta- 

tions. This includes 846 prayer meet- 
ings, 372 specific meetings for unsaved, 645 Sunday 
School services, 404 open air meetings. We also make 
special mention of our Holiness meetings which are a 
regular feature of our work both in Korea and Japan. 
All our workers and Bible women must enjoy the ex- 
perience of entire sanctification and give a clear testi- 
mony to it, before they are sent out. They are in- 
structed to teach and preach it constantly, explicitly 
and lovingly. During 191 8 no less than 160 Holiness 



ORIENTAL MISSIONARY SOCIETY 369 

meetings were held. Beside this our records show 548 
itinerant meetings, the distribution of 46,545 tracts which 
constitute other special features of our work in the 
Orient. 1528 seekers knelt at our altars, 414 were 
definitely converted and 328 professed to receiving the 
blessing of Perfect Love. Our workers paid 5,388 
pastoral visits. 

Another special feature of our work 
Tent Work in Korea during 19 18 was the launch- 
ing of a great village campaign and 
our special preaching in tents. This will be a regular 
feature of our work in the future. We can only speak 
very briefly of this tent work because of lack of space 
but more and more we value the tent as an effective 
evangelizing agency. It would take columns to tell of 
the battles fought and victories won in the village work 
and tent meetings. 

As I was with the tent myself I can speak from 
experience and personal observation. We had eight days 
special meetings in the tent at Torai. 

Over thirty seekers came to the altar and one of them 
told me himself that right there kneeling on the straw 
mat Jesus had saved him. We saw it in his face, which 
was radiant with a new light and new joy. 

And so we continued night after night giving forth 
the glad news of salvation to eager, yearning dying men 
and women. Salvation from all Sin was our great 
theme. God honoured His own Word every time 
and over one hundred and fifty hands went up for 
prayer, about ninety came forward and were personally 
dealt with by our workers, their names and addresses 
taken and registered in our books to be further visited 
and helped. 

We wish to mention the kindness and assistance ot 
the of^ciais in obtaining a stand for our tent which 
occupies quite a large space, seating over two hundred 
people comfortably. We have nothing but praise for 
the way in which they have received us and assisted 
and we wish to place on record our appreciation and 
thanks. 



CHAPTER XX 

THE SALVATION ARMY 



By W. J. Richards 

The Salvation Army's work corn- 
Tenth Anniversary menced in the East End of London by 

its late founder General William Booth 
in the year 1865 did not open its operations in Korea 
until October 1908, since when it has been steady and 
systematic. 

All European, Japanese and Korean officers at work 
in Korea celebrated the tenth anniversary at a special 
congress in Seoul conducted by the present Territorial 
Commander, Colonel George French. The public 
gathering held in the Seoul Korean Y.M.C.A. Audi- 
torium, giving representations of various phases of Salva- 
tion Army work in this country was an overwhelming 
success. The various scenes were greeted with enthusi- 
astic applause by the audience who were fortunate 
enough to have got in seeing that hundreds were turned 
away at the time scheduled for the demonstration to 
begin ; thus the public were agreeably surprised to 
realise something of the diversity of the Salvation Army's 
operations in their midst after only ten short years of 
labour in this part of the Master's Vineyard. 

General Booth issued farewell instruc- 
Chief Secretary tions to the General Secretary, Major 

William B. Home, during the year 
under review and appointed the Major to the Dutch 
East Indies and in the meantime raised the status of 
the Salvation Army's Work in the territory by creating 
a Chief Secretaryship (The position occupied by the 
second in command of all large territories of Salvation 



THE SALVATION ARMY 3/1 

Army work) to which position Brigadier William J. 
Richards was appointed. 

One of the Salvation Army's prin- 
Women's Work ciples has always been that women 
have equal chances with men of useful- 
ness and service in its ranks as officers. 

In connection with the congress already mentioned a 
new session of Cadets entering training for ofHcership 
included eleven women, all of whom are giving every 
evidence of making useful Salvation Army Officers in 
the days to come. 

As the severe weather of the first 
Emergency Relief months of 19 1 8 revealed the wretched 
^ork condition of many of the poorest ot 

Seoul, Colonel French commenced re- 
lief operations assisted by his staff as follows : — 



No. of days operating 

No. of families visited 

No. of persons in Families ... 
No. of hot meals supplied ... 

(a) to men for work 

(b) to women and children gr 
Total No. of meals (Rice & Beans) supplied for 

home cooking 9,221 

Total No. of bundles of fuel supplied to families... 4,614 



43 
1,186 

2,536 

1,562 

1,106 

456 



At the close of 191 8 much had been 
Beggar Boys written in the newspapers, and much 
more had been said, about the need of 
helping the beggar boys in Seoul. True this cause 
was one that called for serious thought and a helping 
hand, and for some considerable time Colonel French 
had been greatly exercised on their behalf, when by 
the generosity of a Japanese gentlemen, his plans for 
their relief were at last matured. 

As the old year drew to a close, some Salvation 
Army Officers went out upon the streets between the 
hours of 10 and 12 p.m. in search of these poor 
unfortunates. One of the party reported, *' At first we 
succeeded in finding two or three ; we were at some 
disadvantage not knowing their places of abode for the 
night, but our difficulty was soon overcome by our 



3/2 KOREA 

asking one of the boys we had captured, to take us to 
the places where the boys where tucked in for the 
night, and he was most happy to do so. What 
places we visited, what sights we saw. Could we 
have taken some outside friends with us their hearts 
would have bled as we gazed upon the forms of those 
young lives, some not even in their teens. Some were 
sleeping in small holes with old rice bags thrown over 
them, some in dustbins, (out of one dustbin we pulled 
as many as four young lads) some in fish boxes on the 
fish market, some under rubbish heaps on the provision 
Market. Going along in one of the stalls of the Market, 
in the dense darkness, feeling our way with our feet, 
w^e suddenly came across a peculiar bundle, so were 
inclined to pass it by as a heap of rubbish, but as it 
felt rather soft we investigated thoroughly this suspicious 
bundle, and found it contained a little boy of eight 
years old. We had a terrible job to awaken him but 
at last succeeding, added him to the number already 
captured, and so we went on till twenty-two were 
found. 

While we were hunting for these boys we thought it 
was a big job, but soon found it very insignificant to 
what was to follow. 

Each boy was given a haircut, then was taken to the 
bathroom, made to undress, his filthy rags were all burned, 
a good hot disinfectant bath was all ready, into which the 
boys were made to get and soak for a time. One could 
make no impression on their bodies by trying to wash 
them straight away by the usual process. After a good 
soaking the boys were each given a good scrape and 
rub down by our officers. (The boys themselves could 
make no impression upon the filth on their bodies, 
so other hands had to take the task in hand). 
We did not even recognise the boys ourselves 
after their bath, what a transformation ! During the 
afternoon we had begged some clothes for the boys to 
put on after their old rags had been consumed by the 
flames, and it was quite a high time while sorting these 
things out to see the happy flashing eyes of the boys 



THE SALVATION ARMY 3/3 

as they eyed one another from top to toe in their new 
clean garb. 

Well, we finished about 2-30 a.m. by marching these 
twenty-two lads into a large, well lighted, and delight- 
fully warm room, and almost as soon as they laid 
themselves down, they fell into a peaceful sleep. Some 
of us could not help but shed a tear as we gazed upon 
these young lives, so full of glorious possibilities if 
given a chance." 

The general work of the Salvation 
Spiritual Army in Korea during 191 8 has largely 

Operations partaken of the nature of enlarging and 
broadening the foundations, as well as 
strengthening the walls of the structure with a view to 
further adv^ancement rather than the attainment of im- 
mediate success. Nevertheless there are substantial 
evidences of progress having been made during the year 
under review. 

The following Statistics will be of interest as indicat- 
ing the position at the end of 191 8. 

Officers, Cadets, and Employees 148 

Corps, Societies, and Outposts 102 

Senior and Young People's Local Officers 317 

Corps Cadets 164 

Monthly attendance Sundays ... 16,302 

„ „ Weekdays 195234 

„ „ Young Peoples' Meetings ... 11,459 

„ Circulation Korean War Cry 4,6cx) 



CHAPTER XXI 

SEVENTH DAY ADVENTIST MISSION 



By C. L. Butterfield 

The work of this mission for the year under review 
has been one of progress in all lines. Our shortage of 
workers both native and foreign was greatly felt and 
made it impossible to give as much attention to each 
of the churches and companies as should have been 
given. Still there was a gain in membership, more than 
one hundred being added by baptism. 

The receipts in tithes and offerings for evangelistic 
work paid to the mission treasurer by Koreans alone, 
were 200/0 more than during the year 191 7, making an 
average of Yen 5.66 per member. This amount, how- 
ever, does not include such items as donations for 
church building, local expense of churches^ — such as 
fuel, light, and repairs, or money raised for local mis- 
sionary work. 

Tithing is taught and enjoined upon 

TitMag all of our people throughout the world 

and we are pleased to see the members 

of the Korean church faithfully doing their part, with 

those of other lands, to give the gospel to all the 

world. 

The printed page is recognized as 

Literature Work one of God's agencies for giving the 
"gospel of the kingdom" to "all the 
world ". We first began to print in the Korean langu- 
age in 1909. Sabbath school lessons for senior and 
primary classes, tracts and pamphlets in about forty 
titles, four books, a missionary paper the ** Signs of 
the Times ", a church paper, and a song book both with 



SEVENTH DAY ADVENTIST MISSION 375 

notes and without of 200 songs, constitute the matter 
published. The' papers are both monthly, the " Signs 
of the Times a 32 page and the other a 16 page paper. 
During 191 8 the average monthly subscription list for 
the " Signs of the Times " was 4470 and an average of 
600 monthly out-put at 5070. The subscription price 
of this paper is Yen 1.50 a year. 

It was estimated that tully 200 yearly subscriptions 
for the Signs had been taken by Buddhist priests. So 
the gospel of Jesus Christ was being preached in about 
200 monasteries each month to the large number who 
visit those places. 

The total literature sales for the year amounted to 
Yen 6,834.21. The largest part of these sales were 
made by the colporteurs w4io pay for their books and 
papers and make their living from their percentage. 

One Ministerial class, one Higher 
Educational Work Common School, four Primary schools, 
and the same number of " Kul Pongs " 
cover our full number of schools. The " Kul Pongs " 
and Primary schools averaged about 25 students each, 
the Higher Common School 60, and the Ministerial 
Class 6. In the Higher Common School eleven were 
in the fourth year class preparing to graduate in the 
spring of 1919. 

At least one half of the students in the Higher 
Common school have made their way by industrial 
work given to them in the various lines offered. The 
experience thus gained will greatly help them as they 
pass out of school to meet the stern realities of life. 
Work is given in the following lines : dairying, horticul- 
ture, sericulture, poultry, and the raising of small fruit. 
During the winter rope and bag making are given for a time 
to fill in when there is no other work to do. So far 
this line — rope and bag making — has been at a loss to 
the school but the other lines are fully self-supporting 
industries. 

The Ministerial Class has only been organized two 
years. Only such men are accepted into this class, as 
are. in the judgment of the Mission committee, men 



3/6 KOREA 

who will develop into efficient gospel workers. They 
must have been members of one of our churches, in 
good standing, for some length of time and must also 
have a fair degree of education. Graduates of the 
Higher Common School are required to spend at least 
a year in the colporteur work before being admitted to 
this Class. Those attending pay all their expense of 
board etc., but all who satisfactorily finish the two- 
year course prescribed will then be sent out and given 
an opportunity to prove their ability and their call to 
the ministry. Eight were received into the class when 
it was organized but only five of the number did ac- 
ceptable work. 

The Dispensary-Hospitaf at Soonan 

Medical Work has had a good year. Doctor Russell 
was able to devote most of his time to 
the work and an average of more than fifty patients 
visited the place for every day in the year. The work 
of the institution was almost self-supporting, and as the 
Doctor ministered to sick bodies he was also able to 
minister to many sin-sick souls and point them to the 
One who '* heals all our diseases and forgives all our 
sins." 

We rejoice and give praise to God for the advancement 
that has been made in the various lines of work during 
the year. We believe that our great need as missionaries, 
and the need of our native evangelists and pastors, is 
the infilling of the Holy Spirit which brings power to 
win souls to God. 



KOREA 



PART V 
CHRISTIAN LITERATURE 



CHAPTER XXII 

BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY 



By FIugh Miller 

The year just closed, although it will ever be memor, 
able in the world's history as the one in which the 
" Great War " was brought to a close, has not been 
marked by any great events in Korea. While her ad- 
joining neighbors have been seething with internal strife 
she has been free to develop her economic resources. 
The Korean landlords have been *' coining money " 
while the poorer tenant farmers "and wage earners have 
been hard hit by the high cost of living. This has 
affected Bible work. Besides this, paper and other 
materials used in making books have reached a very 
high figure and paper suitable for our work has been 
very scarce. In spite of unusual difficulties our stocks 
have been maintained and the work as a whole has 
been prosecuted much as in pre-war days although at 
a greatly increased cost. 

Work on the revision of the Old 
Revision Testament continues and progress is 

being made although to waiting eyes it 
seems so slov/. The Chairman of the Board of Revi- 
sers, Dr. James S. Gale, read the following report at 
the last meeting of the Bible Committee. 

'' The Board of Revisers met formally December 4th 
and reorganized. Officers appointed were Chairman, J. 
S. Gale, Secretary, E. M. Cable, the other two mem- 
bers being Dr. W. D. Reynolds and Rev. M. S. Stokes. 
For about two weeks the Board worked daily, uncon- 
sciously coming to complete accord in regard to its 
^^sk, the different members seeing perfectly eye to eye. 



SSO KOREA 

The general aim might be summed up in the expression, 
* All the thought, no more, no less, in the language of 
the common people.' 

Dr. Reynolds and Mr. Stokes being obliged to leave 
at the close of this period, delegated to Messrs. Gale 
and Cable the task of carrying on the work along the 
lines already agreed upon. With the exception of the 
interval of teaching one month and a half in the Theo- 
logical Seminary in Pyengyang, the work was kept up 
till June 15th. 

As to the nature of the work, I will repeat a remark 
made by Dr. Cable as we struggled over difficult 
passages, * I wish we might have the whole Committee 
here till they could see just what is involved in a care- 
ful revision.' 

I think I speak for the Board when I say that we 
do not desire in any way to call a halt in getting out 
new editions of the older translation if it seems necessary 
to the Committee, nor do we say just in what form we 
would like to see the Revised Version printed when 
finally completed. Time will decide as to just what is 
best. All that concerns the Board at present is to get 
out an Eunmun version that will speak the thought in 
the language pf those who represent the intelligent com- 
mon people." 

The total circulation for the year is 
Circulation 604,841 volumes which is a decrease of 
147,000 volumes compared with the 
previous year. This circulation includes Scriptures for 
the Koreans, Japanese and Chinese ; for the blind and 
seeing ; for those who could pay and for those who 
could not. 

Our staff has been maintained as 
Colportage usual. We had an average of 144 men 
at work throughout the year. 

The work among the Japanese has been more satis- 
factory than for some years. Early in the year we were 
able to secure the services of a Japanese student from 
Tokyo who has done good faithful work among his own 
people. We are hoping to see the results of his labours 



'BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY 38 1 

in additions to the churches and a better' understanding 
of the work of the Society. 

We have not had a Chinese colporteur during the 
year but Scriptures are being circulated among the 
Chinese by the Chinese pastors. 

Much faithful work is being done among the Koreans 
by the colporteurs and not until time is no more will 
we know the influence for Christianity that these men 
exert or the power of the book they circulate. To 
illustrate the work that is being done I append a graphic 
word picture from the pen of the Rev. F. G. Vesey of 
the Southern Methodist Mission. 

" About five yeai's ago two of my colporteurs working 
under the Bible Society were on a planned itinerary, 
visiting non-Christian villages, staying in wayside inns or 
farmers' houses, wherever they could find hospitality, a 
meal and a place to lie down. This latter always meant 
an opportunity to preach and distribute the Word. In 
the village of Unmooruni, late in the evening, they 
stopped at the house of one, a Mr. Yi Kai O, to whom 
they preached and eventually sold four Gospels. He 
was in no way infatuated with his visitors, their Message, 
their Books, but eventide was now upon them, so he 
asked them to stay the night, the nearest village being 
some distance off. They left next morning and their 
host was in no way cordial as they departed, not even 
asking them to return as is the custom in Korea. 

*' For four years those books were in that house, read 
very occasionally but last year somehow, secretly and 
marvellously the Seed took root. The desire to study and 
know them became a passion. Mr. Yi's hunger grew and 
grew, his longing increased, and his soul agony intensi- 
fied until he got to the place where something had to 
be done. Not able to leave his home he despatched his 
son to the nearest magistrate's town where he heard a 
Jesus preacher lived. Mind you, during those four years 
no preacher or colporteur had visited his village. This 
ought not to have been so but the harvest is great and 
the laborers are few. At the town his son found the 
preacher's house and with the colporteur he returned 



382 KO:iEA 

home. Here the Bibleman was treated with the greatest 
respect, received the hospitality of the home as if he 
were a relative, and stayed several days teaching the 
Way of Life more perfectly. The colporteur found that 
the man had not only sought the Savior for himself, 
but he had also read the Scriptures to his family, 
friends and neighbors, with the result that many were 
impressed and about fifteen were really converted to 
God. What an illustration of the truth of our Lord's 
parable. 

*' The Bibleman faithfully taught the family and friends, 
holding services, with the singing of hymns, all of which 
was greatly enjoyed by new believers, and the whole 
male population of the village came to the * ceremony.* 
The people requested that their leader should return 
each Sabbath and conduct the service. They feared 
that they would commit some error if they attempted 
so serious a task, for they said they were infants and 
knew so little of Divine things. But the colporteur's 
time was too limited and demands on his services too 
heavy to undertake this, for the village was 13 miles 
distant from his home. He therefore made arrangements 
for several months that the circuit preacher and he 
should take alternate Sundays in. visiting the new group 
of earnest seekers. 

" Today we have a thriving church of fifteen members 
with a congregation of twenty or more each Sunday. 
This has all come about within the last year. When 
the misionary goes to the village the congregation in- 
creases to fifty or more. We are therefore hoping for 
greater developments in this place where we have found 
a gold mine of spiritual worth. 

The fruit of Bible work in Korea is seen in the ex- 
tension of God's Kingdom everywhere, and especially in 
the dark neglected villages where the low straw roof huts 
are becoming the homes of blessing, peace, and praise." 



CHAPTER XXIII 

THE KOREAN RELIGIOUS BOOK & 
TRACT SOCIETY 



By Gerald Bonwick 

Chairman — Rev. J. L. Gerdine, Recording Secretary — Miss L. E. Frey, 

Treasurer— Mr. Hugh Miller, General Secretary— Mr. Gerald Bonwick. 

Offices — The Tract House, Seoul, Korea. 

The Korean Religious Book & Tract 
Ccnstitution Society is the only institution in Korea 
engaged in the publication and distribu- 
tion of Christian Literature, apart from the Bible Society. 
Its object is to promote the production and circulation 
of religious books and tracts and healthy literature 
throughout Korea. The Board of Trustees is elected in 
part by the contributing Missions and in part by the 
Membership of the Society which consists of 253 members 
for the current year. This is almost all the missionaries 
on the field. The Trustees have the sole control of the 
affairs of the Society, most of the actual work being 
done through an Executive Committee elected from its 
number and including the officers of the Society. 

The year under review has been one 
Circulation of steady progress and organization on 
the part of the Society. In spite of the 
growing cost of production our publications, and sales 
have increased very satisfactorily. Almost two million 
copies have been distributed (309^ increase) and copies 
published numbered 1,293,000 (259^ increase). Other 
items in our vital statistics show similar progress. 

These are published and distributed 

Sunday Scliool by the Society on behalf of the Federal 

Literature Council and constitute an important part 

of the annual circulation of Christian 



Printed 


Sold 


5,000 


2,300 


5,000 


2,500 


25,000 


24,500 


4,000 


3.450 



384 KOREA 

literature. Our S. S. Lessons for 19 19 follow the 
International Uniform Course in America for 191 7 and 
are issued in three grades. For the first time a Teacher's 
Supplement has been issued as an additional volume and 
has been so much appreciated that we expect to make 
it a regular part of the^ yearly output. Sales effected 
are as follows : — 

Primary Grade lo sen 

Junior Grade lo sen 

Senior Grade 1 6 sen 

Teacher's Supplement 8 sen... 

The Christian Messenger has seen a 

Newspaper and steady year of work, with a subscrip- 
Magazines tion list almost stationary. This now 
stands at 3,370 as compared with 3,000 
last year. Considerable eflbrts have been made to create 
interest in the paper but the bad postal arrangements in 
many parts of the country cause the delivery to be 
irregular and therefore discourage the subscribers. 

The Presbyterian Theological Review, of which the 
Society is the publishing agent, is a quarterly magazine 
recently established by the Theological Seminary of the 
Presbyterian Church of Korea. It has met with very 
gratifying success, very largely due to the untiring efforts 
of Dr. C. A. Clark. We have received over 2,400 
annual subscriptions during the first year. 

The Bible Magazine is a new bi-monthly published 
by the Society for the use of preachers and teachers, 
Bible-women, colporteurs, and Bible students in general. 
The Rev. J. A. Jaffray of Wuchow, China, has pub- 
lished a similar magazine in China for some years and 
he is giving general support to the Korean edition, of 
which Dr. J. S. Gale is the editor. The first number 
was issued in F'ebruary and about 1,400 subscriptions 
were obtained for the first year. 

The Sunday School Magazine is the latest publica- 
tion of the Society in the way of magazines. It is 
issued quarterly and deals with such matters as Sunday 
School organization, child psychology and methods of 



BOOK AND TRACT SOCIETY 385 

lesson study. About 500 annual subscriptions have 
already been secured. 

This is another important publication. 
The Union Hymnal the annual sales running to over 40,000 

copies per annum. Hitherto the Federal 
Council has published this book by means of a special 
fund but at the last Annual Meeting of the Council it 
was decided that while retaining the copyright it would 
best serve the interests of Christian literature to hand 
over the publishing rights of the Union Hymnal to this 
Society. This was done, the stock in hand also being 
included in the transfer on condition that the Society 
pays to the Council Yen 2776 from future sales, which 
amount will practically cover the original sums invested 
by the different missions for this purpose. It is hoped 
that this arrangement will result in considerable advantage 
to this Society in years to come and the Board of 
Trustees is grateful for the concession thus made by the 
Federal Council. 

The house erected for the use of the 
Property General Secretary was com.pleted in June 

191 8 and is a distinct boon as foreign 
houses are very scarce in Seoul. Its situation and 
design are greatly admired and it is a valuable asset 
from every point of view. The present Tract House 
stands on land that is the property of the Society but 
it is too small and too temporary a building to serve the 
purposes of the Society much longer. An opportunity 
oflered of obtaining an additional piece of land next to our 
present property and the Society felt that it was im- 
portant not to let this pass. Accordingly this additional 
site was purchased for Yen 5,000 and as soon as funds 
can be obtained it is the intention of the Board of 
Trustees to replace the present premises by a com- 
modious, fireproof building of three stories covering the 
whole site as enlarged. 

The plans for the proposed Editorial 

Editorial Depart= Department are gradually developing. 

ment A deputation from the Society visited 

each of the Annual Meetings of the 



386 KOREA 

Missions to explain the scheme, ,the main outline of 
which was approved by the Board of Trustees and the 
Annual Meeting of the Society in September 191 8. 
This provides for three Editors in the Department 
working under the direction of the Executive Committee 
of the Society, and three of the Missions are asked to 
assign men for this work and furnish their maintenance. 

The Editorial Department will be expected to produce 
or edit the manuscripts of new books to be published 
by the Society, as well as to revise manuscripts accepted 
from outside authors or translators when necessary. 
Further, in order to attain uniformity and completeness 
of literature work on the field it is hoped that this 
Department will also be able to undertake responsibility 
for the Sunday School Lessons, " Christian Messenger," 
** Sunday School Magazine " and other periodicals that 
may be published by the Society in the future. 

It is estimated that the annual expenditure for this 
Department will be Yen 6,500 — apart from the Editors' 
allowances — and the six Missions directly interested 
in this Society are asked to agree to an assessment of 
Yen 24.00 per missionary to meet this outlay. 

Statistics for The Year EndiiNG 





December 




December 




1918 


Increase 


19 1 7 




¥ 


% 


¥ 


Copies distributed 


1,959.112 


29 


1,515,730 


Copies published 


1,293,650 


52 


851,800 


Pages published 


13,861,000 


390 


2,805,900 


New Titles & Editions ... 


64 


2-5 


51 


Income from Sales 


37^5^9 


56 


23'995 


Net Value of Stock 


13,671 


40 


9,790 


Total Income 


48,963 


26 


3^,763 


Total Expenditure 


52,158 


46 


35,666 


Total Asse s 


52^305 


26 


41,263 


To^al Lis bli ties ... ... 


23,736 


56 


15,161 


Reserve & Cash in Hand... 


10,050 


9 


9,246 


Capital 


28,568 


10 


26,101 



KOREA 



PART VI 
WORK AMONG JAPANESE IN KOREA 



CHAPTER XXIV 

CHRISTIAN WORK AMONG THE JAPANESE 
IN KOREA 



By F. Herron Smith 

In spite of many untoward conditions, 
General the year 191 8 witnessed the continued 

and steady growth of the work among 
the Japanese in Chosen. The dearth of workers is felt 
everywhere throughout the Japanese Empire, but it is 
felt especially over here where living conditions are not 
so pleasant as in Japan and where at all times it is 
difficult to secure and keep evangelists to man our 
churches. At present the Pfesbyterian churches at 
Fusan, Ryuzan and Kunsan, the Congregational church 
at Chinnampo, the Anglican church at Seoul and the 
Methodist church at Koshu are without pastors. The 
great prosperity of the country has drawn many of the 
young men who should enter the ministry into business, 
so that when the older men drop out, there is no one to 
take their places. During the year under review there has 
been no special campaign of any kind, but the total gain 
in membership, 464, is the largest ever registered. One 
of the most hopeful things that has occurred was the 
action of the Federal Council of Korea, asking that the 
Southern Methodist and the Northern and Southern 
Presbyterian Boards each place a family in Korea for 
missionary work among the Japanese. It is reported that 
the Northern Presbyterian Board has already taken action 
and that the Rev. and Mrs. Wm. C. Kerr have been 
designated for this work. They are now in Japan 
studying the language and preparing for their task. We 
assure them a most hearty welcome. 



390 KOREA 

The Kumiai Church has opened work 

Congregational in two new cities during the year, Taiden 

Church and Mukden. At Taiden a Government 

Middle School has been lately established 
and as in addition it is a railroad center, it is sure to 
become an important Japanese city. The Rev. T. 
Miyagawa has charge of the newly formed group and 
of Kokei where land has recently been purchased for a 
church at the price of ¥1650. At Mukden in Manchuria, 
an interesting experiment is being tried. The Rev. S. 
Kimura, well known as the Billy Sunday of Japan has 
gone there for a four months campaign. The group 
was organized in December by the Rev. T. Yamamoto, 
but no pastor was then available. It is thought that the 
Rev. Kimura can secure a great number of seekers as 
well as arouse any Christians who may be in Mukden, 
and in this way a new pastor may start from the first 
with a strong congregation. The Rev. T. Yamamoto, 
who has given many years to both Japanese and Korean 
work in Chosen, has been transferred to Tokyo and 
will serve as the assistant of Dr. Ebina, the great 
preacher and editor. 

In spite of the loss of several pastors 
Presbyterian Church the Presbyterian Church continues its 

steady growth, The most interesting 
development of the year was the organization of a second 
church in Seoul by the Rev. Y. Inoguchi, who was 
formerly the pastor of the strong central church. The 
new congregation has rented a house on the broad 
street in front of the Gendarme Headquarters and 
begins its life as an independent church financially. 
There is surely room in Seoul for several more Japanese 
churches. 

The work of the Seikokwai is still 
Anglican Church greatly hindered because of the lack of 

workers. Now that the, war is over it 
is expected that the missionaries who have been in 
war service will soon return. The Rev. J. B. Simpson, 
who spent some years working for the Japanese in 
Chosen is expected back in August. 



CHRISTIAN WORK AMONG THE JAPANESE IN KOR]^ 39I 

For several years past the great need 
Methodist Church of the Methodist Church in many places 
has been for permanent property. Rented 
quarters are never very satisfactory, especially when 
likely to be sold at any time. During the past year 
great progress has been made along this line, the native 
churches furnishing nearly all the money. At Chinnampo 
a very good property just in front of the Post Office 
was purchased. This provides both a church and a 
parsonage. At both Haiju and Kanko good plots of 
land with roomy Korean buildings have been purchased. 
The buildings have been adapted for use and are proving 
very satisfactory. At Fusan a large, two-story, foreign 
style building, formerly used as a hospital was purchased. 
The -doctor's house serves admirably for a parsonage 
and the lot is exceedingly well located. The purchase 
price was ¥6700. Building projects are under way at 
Koshu and Chemulpo. There are many Methodist 
Christians in Dairen, and we have long wished to begin 
work there, but were never able to do so till this spring. 
The Rev. H. Kihara, the pioneer who founded the work 
in Chosen has been sent to begin work in South 
Manchuria and at the time of writing is busily engaged 
in making a beginning at Dairen. 

Statistics For The Japanese Work In Chosen 

Nihon Nihon 

Kirisuto Kumiai Mesojisuto Sei 
Kyokai. Kyokai. Kyokai. Kokwai. 
(Pres- Congrega-) (Method- (Anglican.) Total 
byterian.) tion alist) ist.) 



Japanese Preachers 


6 


4 


10 


3 


23 


Foreign Missionaries 







2 


4 


6 


Church Organizations 


9 


5 


9 


4 


27 


Church Buildings 


7 


3 


7 


4 


21 


Full Members 


1277 


587 


669 


286 


2819 


Catechumens 




38 


161 


160 


359 


Total Membership 


1277 


625 


830 


446 


3178 


Gain for One Year 


373 


45 


26 


20 


464 


Contributions ¥ : 


13047-37 


¥7027 ¥8729.55 ¥: 


1203.57 


¥30007.50 


Number of Sunday 












Schools 


12 


7 


17 


2 


38 


Number of Teachers 


49 


21 


67 


5 


142 


Number of Pupils 


573 


618 


107 1 


80 


2342 



392 



KOREA 



List of Christian Workers Among the 
Japanese in Chosen 



Akizuki Itasu ] 


iSTihon 


Kirisuto Kyokai 


Keijyo 


Inoguchi Yasuo 




„ 


„ 


Takenouchi Konari 




j> 


Mokpo 


Sato Shigehiko 




j> 


Shingishu 


Yoshitake Gou 






Heijyo 


Kobayashi Makoto 




J, 


Taikyu 


J. B. Simpson 


Se 


;i Kokwai 


On Furlough 


E. H. Arnold 




}i 


Keijyo 


Shiozaki Nobuyoshi 




» 


Fusan 


Miss Elrington 




>J 


On Furlough 


Miss Kurose Fumi 




J) 


Fusan 


Miss Grosjean 




5J 


Keijyo 


Miss Inaba 




J5 


Taikyu 


Koki Keikichi 


Kumiai Kyokai 


Keijyo 


Miyagawa Tomonosuke 




5) 


Taiden 


Watanabe Morishige 




5J 


Heijyo 


Yonemoto Jutaro 




55 


Taikyu 


Watanabe Tsuneyoshi 




„ (Korean Work) 


Keijyo 


Takahaslii Takazo 




J> ?5 


Fleijyo 


Nakamura Kinji Nihon 


Mesojisuto Kyokai 


Keijyo 


F. Herron Smith and 








Wife 




j> 


» 


Nakayama Chujo 




}» 


Fusan 


Watanabe Suian 




jj 


Taikyu 


Mori Sakuichi 




jj 


Jinsen 


Okayasu Keisuke 




3> 


Kaishu 


Norisue Yutaka 




5) 


Heijyo 


Sekita Toranosuke 






Chinnampo 


Enomoto Taiji 






Genzan 


Yonekura Jikichi 






Kanko 


Okumura Chutaro 




'] 


Ranan 


Niwa Seijiro 


Y 


. M.'c. A. 


Keijyo 


Miyata Morie 


R. R 


. Y. M. C. A. 


Ryuzan 


Ensign Ishijima 


Salvation Army 


Keijyo 



KOREA 



PART VII 
OBITUARIES 



-X' 



CHAPTER XXV 

OBITUARIES 



L— MISS MILLIE M. ALBERTSON 

The Woman's Bible Training School in Seoul suffered 
a severe shock when the news came on February ist 
that the beloved principal and founder of the school had 
gone Home on December 24th. Those who bade her 
farewell last June little dreamed that would be the last 
farewell. She was apparently in normal health through 
the summer months and had been resting in the home 
of her parents until sometime in October, when she was 
called to Pennsylvania to help care for her mother who 
was seriously ill. About the middle of November as 
her mother began to gain she herself was taken sud- 
denly, and violently ill. She gradually grew weaker and 
weaker until she passed on to the Great Beyond to meet 
Him who was to her *' All in all." Through years of 
toil and labor she had brought the school from seven 
up until she had seventy students ; from the starting of 
the school in a small Korean mud hut until she had 
completed the lovely building which stands on the hill 
that shall send out its light throughout all Korea. 

She had a deep religious experience, a strength of 
character which comes only through contact with the 
Christ. How she loved Him and longed for those for 
whom she was working to have that same love in their 
hearts for Him. 

It seemed so fitting since she had requested that Bi- 
shop Welch preach the funeral service, thinking he was 
in America, that he should be present to conduct the 
memorial service for her here. He spoke of the sun- 
shine in her life, how that one was impressed upon first 



,396 KOREA 

acquaintance with her sunshine. Also of the fact that 
no matter how hard the task, or how seriotis a problem 
with which she was grappling he had never seen her 
gloomy, but through it all she had shown out that 
sunny disposition which was so characteristic of her. 

He spoke of her work and said that the students and 
Koreans whom she had taught for the past ten years 
were a memorial to her. In this service a Korean 
pastor spoke. He said there were many qualities in her 
to be admired. He told of her love and devotion to 
the Korean people. When once she had become ac- 
quainted with and interested in a student, she labored 
with her to bring out the very best that was there and 
after graduation she sent once a month a letter of ex- 
hortation and encouragement to her. He said he was 
also impressed by her love for her Saviour, many times 
she had told him of her call to Korea, and had spoken 
words of encouragement and cheer to him. 

She was a born leader, always so helpful to those 
with whom she was working, ready to solve their 
■difficulties and help them on to a higher plane. The 
spirit of comradeship among the teachers was beautiful. 
It came through that unselfish spirit that never once 
thought of seeking her own advancement, but like her 
Saviour she, went about doing good to others. She 
has gone, but her influence will remain throughout the 
years, not only moulding the future of the Bible School, 
but of a large portion of the womanhood of Korea. 
We can only say *' Our loss is her gain." 



OBITUARIES 397 

IL— MISS FANNY FISHER CLELLAND 

Another of Korea's Missionaries has passed beyond 
the veil that hides from us, for a while, the glory and 
blessedness of the eternal. Less than two years ago 
Miss Fanny Fisher Clelland came to join the Chosen 
Mission of the Presbyterian Church, U. S. A, Sooh 
after her arrival she entered upon her duties as Princi- 
pal and Matron of the School for Missionaries' Children 
located in Pyeng Yang, and gave uninterrupted service 
until the last of February when she was attacked by 
the illness that terminated in her death on March i ith, 
19 1 8. Miss Clelland was a woman of mature years, and 
had given to the Church in America, of which she w^as 
a member, a life-time of service before she heard and 
responded to the call from Korea. She was a true 
Missionary long before the way opened up for her ta 
come to the foreign field. As a member of Broadway 
Presbyterian Church, Rock Island, Illinois, she was 
particularly interested in the Young Women's Mission- 
ary Society and was for years its leader. She also took 
an active and leading part in the philanthropic and 
missionary organizations of her Church. 

Always deeply interested in missions the year and a 
half spent here, on the foreign field seemed to be the 
perfect completion and crowning of her life of Christian 
activity. It was given her to accomplish more in a 
short time than is given to most. Miss Clelland's loving, 
generous heart took in everyone. She was interested in 
all work for the Master. She carried good cheer and 
fellowship wherever she went, making the days brighter 
for many. Her merry laugh was contagious. She was 
full of fun and good humor, and enjoyed a joke 
thoroughly, especially one at her own expense. She 
was also very sympathetic and anyone's trouble touched 
her deeply, yet she was always very wise in her giving 
of help. She never seemed so happy as when doing 
something for some one else. 

Her activities were unusually varied as the great 
throng at the funeral service indicated. In her cheery 



39? KOREA 

way she mothered the children in the dormitory, also 
taught English in the College and lace-making at the 
girl's school. On Saturday afternoon, she had a class 
in English for Japanese children, thus forming a very 
strong link of friehdship with them and their parents. 
Not the least conspicuous among her friends at the 
funeral, was the ragged, dirty delegation of little waifs 
from her Pigville Sunday School, (known as ** heathen ") 
the wicked little village where pigs predominate. One 
could always count on Miss Clelland's readiness to help 
wherever needed, whether it were a community or a 
personal call. She had time for all who came. As 
mother in the Dormitory one would think her time 
would be too full for other things but making it a point 
to be home when the children were there, she planned 
her other work so that it came while the children were 
at school. As a sample of the extra things she did, 
she catalogued the College Library and taught the boys 
a simple system of library methods and also helped 
to arrange the reading room more attractively. She 
carried on a very extended correspondence, thus keeping 
many at home in touch with the work in Korea. 

The thronging crowd at the funeral service was an 
eloquent testimony to Miss .Clelland's life of devoted 
service to Christ. Not only was the Dormitory, where 
the service was held, crowded with American, Korean 
and Japanese friends, both adults and children, but 
there was a large company in the yard that could riot 
crowd in. All were eager to pay their last respects to 
one whom they loved, — one who had loved thehi with 
whole hearted devotion. 

Our deepest sympathy goes out to her relatives and 
many friends at home in their bereavement. We only 
pray that they may take comfort and courage through 
the knowledge that the life- long ambition of her heart 
to serve as a missionary of the Cross was at last granted 
and that this service, though extremely short in point 
of time, has proved an inestimable blessing, to scores of 
Koreans and Japanese as well as to missionaries and their 
children. 



OBITUARIES 399 

III.— WILLIAM H. FORSYTHE, M. D. 

Resolutions adopted by the Korea Mission 

The Korea Mission of the Southern Presbyterian 
Church in session at Soonchun, has just learned through 
the papers and home letters of the death of the beloved 
physician and missionary co-worker. Dr. W. H. Forsythe. 

Although spending but a few years in actual service 
on the foreign field, few workers, if any, made so deep 
an impression on the minds of both native and foreign, 
nor was this peculiar to the foreign field, for wherever 
he went at home, those who were privileged to meet 
him or hear him, think of him as Christ said of John, 
"A burning and a shining light." 

Possessing a strong personality and great strength of 
will, he was with it all a Christian knight whose every 
thought was for the weak and helpless. The sick, in- 
firm, aged, helpless children, outcasts, lepers, — these were 
the ones to whom his great heart went out constantly, 
but most of all, for those who did not know the saving 
power of Christ he literally burned out for God. Un- 
tiring, unceasing, always agonizing in prayer, he bore 
the sins and sorrows of the world on his heart, in such 
a way that the Koreans who knew him speak of him 
to this day as " The Jesus man," or " Jesus again 
among us." 

No-one was ever allowed to leave his presence with- 
out a word of prayer and no-one who ever heard him 
pray can forget how he poured out his soul to God, 
nor can they forget his broad sympathies and how his 
great heart took in literally the whole world, as he 
prayed for all parts, all causes, and did so with an 
intelligent knowledge of their needs, praying for in- 
dividuals by name at home and abroad. 

Few had learned in the School of Prayer as he had, 
hence few wielded as large a power in so short a time. 
,He literally loved not his life unto the death. With 
Paul he could say ** For me to depart and be with 
Christ is far better." 



400 KOREA 

Knowing the great bodily weakness and extreme 
hunger and thirst he was called upon to endure for the 
past few years, we cannot but rejoice that his spirit has 
found release and that free from the sick body, he has 
been crowned in the presence of the Lord. 

As those who are left to carry on the work, we shall 
endeavour to give ourselves anew to prayer and the 
ministry of the Word and learn anew the ministry of 
intercession as the essential pre-requisite to a life of 
power and fulness. 

Be it therefore resolved : that we thank God for his 
years of consecrated labor in work and intercession ; 

That we extend to his mother and sister, whom he 
loved with a rare and beautiful devotion, our earnest 
prayers on their behalf; 

That a page of our minute book be dedicated to his 
memory ; 

That a copy of these resolution be sent his mother 
and home papers. 



OBlTUAKfES 401 

IV.— MRS. B. S; LUCKETT 

For many of us the last diys of the summer were 
saddened by the news that Mrs. B. S. I.uckett had been 
called away from us to her new Home. We knew that 
she had looked forward to this call for years and that 
it was with great joy she went to be with her loved 
ones, but those who loved her will feel that there is a 
lack which cannot be met until we meet her again. 
Few of us can claim the love of such a circle of friends 
as hers. Far beyond her own home friends were the 
girls of the Florence Crittenden Homes, the Mountain 
Whites, Negroes, Koreans, Japanese, and many mission- 
aries and their children. She gave herself for all of 
these. The beautiful Luckett home in Pyengyang stands 
as a memorial but there are other beautiful memorials 
which shall testify of her through all eternity and of one 
of these I want to tell you. 

Who has not heard of Pigville, that vile little village 
just without the city of Pyengyang? A village to which 
the pigs of the city had been banished and the vileness 
of the swine seemicd to have entered into the owners 
of them. At any rate there could scarcely be found a 
more Avicked village. 

At some time during Mrs. Luckett's life in the school 
for missionaries' children in Pyengyang Dr. McCune 
held revival services there. He asked each person to 
bring an unbeliever to a certain service. Mrs. Luckett 
with her cook as interpreter went down to Pigville to 
find some one who would go. You know that was not 
easy ! But after many doors had been shut in their 
faces they found one old woman who would go. That 
little old woman was converted that night. She moved 
away from the village to better surroundings. Mrs. 
Luckett had had two visions, one of the awfulness of 
the sin in that village and another of the transformation 
Jesus Christ could work there. From that time on her 
time and thought were given to Pigville. With the 
foreign children to talk for her and a Korean college 
student as evangelist she organized a heathen Sunday 



402 KOREA 

School. Mrs. Luckett would seize upon missionaries in 
their spare minutes and persuade them to go on a pre- 
aching tour in Pigville. One house she never allowed 
them to miss was the wine house. For that home she 
and the missionary children continued in prayer. The 
old woman of the house railed and stormed at them 
furiously and spurred hor small son on to make trouble. 
He always came to Sunday School and always made his 
presence known. The old father considered Christianity 
beneath his notice and refused to listen to it. Strange 
to say, however, they allowed their attractive young 
daughter to do as she pleased and she pleased to come 
to Sunday school. She was a lovely girl of about 
sixteen, a lily in that sluggish mine. She wanted a hymn 
book and a Bible. Her brother also wanted a hymn 
book and got it so that he could tear it up in our pre- 
sence. I do not know that she was the first convert 
but there was none over whom Mrs. Luckett rejoiced 
more, for it seemed as though her sweet soul and body 
had just been snatched back from the brink of evil. 
Pobai soon went to live with her grandmother in the city 
and every Sunday they two were seen together in the 
learners' class'. Before long the old father told us that 
he was going to sell out his business and " believe " but 
for some time his old tartar of a wife would not let him. 
Now, however, that house is a wine house no longer. 

The pigs have been moved from Pigville but that is not 
the only reason why the village deserves a better name. 
A chapel is being built there as a result of the work Miss 
Clelland carried on after Mrs. Luckett went to America. 

I met Pobai on the road just a feW days ago. I had 
not seen her for months for she had married and was 
attending another church. Her tiny son was tied to her 
back and he was a sweet, clean little fellow, too. Is 
there a greater reward that any of us could wish than 
the knowledge that we had been the instrument used of 
God to save that soul which has become so sweet and 
may be so useful in the kingdom of heaven ? '' They 
that turn many to righteousnesss shall shine as the stars 
for ever and ever. 



OBITUARIES 403 

v.— MRS. ELIZABETH F. WHITING 

For the first time Chairyung Station was called upon 
to part with one of its workers in the person of Mrs. 
Whiting, who was called to her rest on October tenth, 
1918. 

For many years she had been suffering from heart 
disease, which made her a semi-invalid. But throughout 
all that time she was anxious to work for the Master, 
not only as much as her strength would allow, but often 
beyond her strength. A weekly class for the women 
Sunday-School teachers, calling regularly on the members 
of the church, and superintending one or two Bible 
women were some of her regular tasks. She also 
organized a Women's Missionary Society in the Chairy- 
ung church, of which she was the President to the last, 
And for several years she carried on a Bible Cor- 
respondence Course, sending out lessons to more than a 
thousand women annually. 

Two years ago her sickness took a sudden turn for 
the worse. Serious complications seemed to indicate 
almost certainly that her earthly career was to end soon. 
But once more what medical science could not do God 
did. The prayers of her family and friends, as well as 
her own faith, were rewarded by a miraculous recovery. 
After that, while not as well as formerly, she still was 
able to take up all her home duties, entertain guests, 
travel, and take a share in the social life of our small 
community. Though obliged to give up the work that 
required leaving the house, she continued her cor- 
respondence course and the preparation of programs for 
missionary meetings. 

Toward the end of this summer she began to grow 
worse and her life began rapidly to ebb. For two 
months it was a struggle bravely borne but painful to 
behold. As the weakness of her heart became such that 
it was necessary for her to be supported in a sitting 
position day and night, while some one had to constantly 
fan her to ease the breathing, she began to wish that 
the end would come soon so that she might cease to be a 



404 -In O -IE A 

burden. But throughout the long weeks of extreme 
suffering never was a complaining or murmuring word 
heard to escape her lips. On the contrary, in the midst 
of terrible, struggles for breath and intense pain in her 
dying limbs, she kept repeating verses of Scripture and 
asking for hymns. Those most often requested were) 
" All the way my Saviour leads me," ''Christ my All," 
and the '' Glory Song." She longed to go home and be 
be with the Lord she loved, but her great regret was 
that she would leave her husband alone. Their sweet 
fellowship both in their home life and in their spiritual 
life had always been beautiful to behold, aud one of the 
last things she was heard to say to him was, " You've 
always been my spiritual guide." 

She had previously expressed her hope that when 
God called her it would be a sudden call, so that her 
loved ones would not have to look back upon a long 
sickness and suffering. But God, in His providence, 
did not permit that — possibly in order that she might 
teach us the lesson, of sweet and ungrudging resignation 
in tlie midst of great pain. Those who attended her 
could not help feeling that God's own presence was 
very near in the sick room.. 

At the noon hour of a glorious autumn day she- 
entered into the rest she had seen by the eye of faith. 
It was sad to lose her, but it was a great blessing to 
have had her Vv^ith us, for her life touched the hearts 
and deepened the faith of all who knew her. And her 
work has not stopped. She is doing the Master's 
bidding in a service higher and purer. 

*' She being dead yet speaketh." 



JAPAN AND nOREA 



APPENDICES 



APPENDIX I 

TPIE CONFERENCE OF FEDERATED 
MISSIONS IN JAPAN 



L— CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS 

Article I. — Name 

This Conference shall be called the Conference ot 
Federated Missions in Japan. 

Article II. — Functions 

1. This Conference shall serve as a general medium 
of reference, communication and effort for the co-operat- 
ing missions in matters of common interest and in co- 
operative enterprises. On application of interested 
parties, and in cases of urgent importance of its own 
initiative, the Conference may give counsel : 

(a) With regard to the distribution of forces for 
evangelistic, educational and eleemosynary work, especi- 
ally where enlargement is contemplated ; 

(b) With regard to plans for union or co-operation 
on the part of two or more missions for any or all of 
the above forms of missionary work, and in general. 

(c) With a view to the prevention of misunderstand- 
ings and the promotion of harmony of spirit and uni- 
formity of method among the co-operating missions. 

2. The work of this Conference may include : 

(a) The formation of plans calculated to stimulate 
the production and circulation of Christian literature ; 

(b) The arranging for special evangelistic campaigns, 
for the services of visitors from abroad as preachers or 
lecturers, and for other forms of co-operative evangelistic 
effort, and 



406 JAPAN 

(c) In securing joint action to meet emergencies affect- 
ing the common interests of the co-operating missions. 

3. In serving as a means of communication between 
the co-operating missions the Conference shall be au- 
thorized to publish at least once a year a record of 
social and religious conditions and progress. 

Article III. — Basis of Representation 

1. This Conference shall be composed of representa- 
tives of as many of the evangelical* Christian missions 
in Japan as may choose to co-operate with it on the 
basis set forth below : 

(a) Missions having from five to nine members (in- 
cluding wives) shall be entitled to one representative. 

(b) Missions having from ten to nineteen members 
shall be entitled to two representatives. 

(c) Missions having from twenty to twenty-nine 
members shall be entitled to three representatives. 

(d) Missions having from thirty to forty-nine members 
shall be entitled to four representatives. 

(e) Missions having fifty members or more shall be 
entitled to five representives. 

(f) Missions having less than five members may be 
represented by one corresponding member who shall, 
possess all the rights of a full member except that of 
voting. 

(g) Unless a vote by missions is called for by at 
least two representatives, voting shall be by the ordinary 
method. 

(h) When a vote by missions is called for by two 
or more representatives the votes , of each representative 
shall count in ratio to the number of representatives 
sent by his, or her, mission. 

2. Two or more missions without regard to their 

* The term " evangelical " as used in this article includes, by 
common consent, those outstanding doctrines of the Christian faith that 
are held by the churches to which the bodies holding membership in 
this Conference severally belong — the doctrines comprehsnded in St. 
Paul's words found in Titus 2: 13 (R. V.) "Our great God and Saviour > 
Jesus Christ." 



APPENDIX I 409 

size may at their discretion combine to form a. group. 
In such cases each group shall, so far as the purposes 
of this Committee are concerned, be counted as a 
mission, and shall be entitled to representation accordingly. 

3. The full members and the corresponding members 
shall be the media of communication between the Con- 
ference and the missions, or groups of missions, which 
they respectively represent. 

4. The members of this Conference shall be chosen 
by the missions, or groups of missions, which they re- 
spectively represent, or shall be appointed .by the proper 
authorities in their respective missions or groups, to 
serve for such terms as said missions or groups may 
individually determine. 

5. Each of the Bible Societies and the Book and 
Tract Society shall be entitled to representation in the 
Conference, irrespective of the number of their repre- 
sentatives on the field. 

Article IV.^ — ^Withdkawal 

A mission may at any time withdraw from co-opera- 
tion with the Conference by notifying the secretary in 
writing of its decision to do so. 

Article V. — Officers 

The officers of this Conference shall be a chairman, 
a vice-chairman, a secretary and a treasurer, who shall 
hold office for one year, or until their successors are 
elected. They shall be chosen by ballot. 

Article VI.— Meetings 

1. Regular meetings of the Conference shall be held 
annually at such times and places as the Conference 
shall determine. Special meetings may be held at any 
time at the call of the chairman, or, if he be unable to 
act, the vice-chairman, in case five or more full members, 
representing at least three missions or groups of, missions, 
shall so desire. 

2. A quorum for the transaction of business shall 



4TO JAPAN 

include representatives from at least two-thirds of the 
co-operating missions, or groups of missions, having full 
members. 

Article VII. — Expenses 

1. The ordinary expenses of this Conference, includ- 
ing the cost of attendance of full members at its meetings 
shall be met by an annual levy upon the several co- 
operating missions of ¥30 for each full member of the 
Committee.* 

2. Extraordinary expense shall be incurred only as 
special provision may be made by the missions or 
otherwise for meeting them. 

Article VIII.— Amendments 

Amendments to this Consitution may be proposed at 
any time either by the Conference or by any one of 
the co-operating missions, and said amendments shall take 
effect when the missions, represented by not less than 
three fourths of the full members of the Conference 
shall have given notice to the secretary of their cc)nsent. 



BY-LAWS 

1. All meetings shall be opened and closed with 
devotional exercises. 

2. All resolutions shall be submitted in writing. 

3. Questions of parliamentary procedure shall be 
decided in accordance wath Roberts' Rules of Order. 

4. The following Committees shall constitute the 
Standing Committees of the Conference. 

1. Executive Committee. 

2. Continuation Committee. 



* It is understood that traveling expenses to the annual meeting 
shall be interpreted as including second class rail fare with sleeper when 
necessary. In the case of sub-comm.ittees the chairman or whoever may 
be appointed to report for the committee at the annual meeting shall, 
if not a member of (he Conference, be eligible to receive travel expenses. 



APPENDIX I 41 J 



9 
10, 
II 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16, 
17 



Christian Literature Society. 



Eoard of the Evangelist. 

Christian Movkment. 

Social Welfare Committee. 

Christian Education Committee. 

Survey and Occupation Committee. 

Sunday School Committee. 

Sunday School Specialist. 

International Peace Committee. 

Statistician. 

Publicity Committee. 

Board of Examiners Japanese Language. 

Representative Board of Directors Japanese 
Language School. 

School for Foreign Children. 

Necrologist. 
It shall be the duty of the first named committee to 
authorize the disbursement of funds, to provide for the 
next annual meeting, to appoint a special business 
committee for each annual meeting, and attend to all 
other od interim business not otherwise provided for. 

5. A call for a special meeting shall be issued at 
least one month in advance of the meeting, and except 
by the unanimous consent of those present, the business 
shall be limited to that stated in the call. 

6. The secretary shall furnish each member of the 
Conference with copies of the proceedings of each meeting 
of the Conference. 

7. These by-laws may be amended by a two-thirds 
vote at any regular meeting. 



412 



JAPAN I I 



OFFICERS AND GQMMITTEES; 1918-1919 

Officers 



Chirm an 
Vice Chairman 
Secretary- 
Treasurer 



William Axling 
A. K. Reischaier 
A. Oltmans 
W. P. Buncombe 



Executive Commiitee 



Wm. Axling 
A. K. Reischauer 
A. Oltmans (ex off.) 
W. P. Buncombe 
Miss M. L. Matthew 



A. D. Berry 
S. H. Waiiiright 
P. A. Davey 
J. Merle Davis 



Continuation Committee 



Term Expires igjg 

Wm. Axling 

G. M. Fisher 

Bishop H.. J. Hamilton 
Term Expires ig20 

G. W. Fulton 

J. G. Mann 

Bishop H. Welch 
Te?'m Expires igsi 

H. W. Myers 

J. G. Barclay 

Miss O. I. Hodges 



R. D. McCoy 
G. M. Rowland 



D. R. McKenzie 
Miss M. A. Robertson'' 



Wm. Imbrie 
C. K. Lippard" 



Education Committee 



R. C. Armstrong 
H. B. Benninghoff 
A. .K. Reischauer 
Miss C. B. DeForest 
Miss N. P. Gaines 



A. Walvoord 
A. D. Berry 
D. B. Schneder 
Miss Iv. L. Shaw 
Miss M. A. Robertson 



Sunday S<;hool Committee 



B. T. Schwab 
Mrs. G. P. Pierson 
Miss R. D. Howard 
H. W. Myers 

W. T. Callahan 
D. Van Strien 

C. B. Tenny 



S. II. Wainright 
H. Brokaw 
j'. E. Knipp 



(H. E. Coleman) 
Miss Bosanquet 
E. F. Zaugg 
B. F. Shively 
D. S. Spencer 
D. Norman 
Miss I.. Mead 



Publicity Committee 



E. N. Walne 
R. M. Mil] man 
Miss Pattersop 



APPENDIX I >- 415: 

- International Relations 

G. Bowles ;. Bishop Welch 

K. E. Aurell ' K. S. Beam- - 

Miss O. I. Hodges D. vScudder 

Miss Bosanquet . . . W. M. Vories 

A.. K. Reischauer C. J. L. Bates 

B. F. Shively J. M. T. Winther 

D. B. Schneder W. E. Parsons 
A. Oltmans • C. W. Rawlings 

F. Parrott 

Christian Literature Society 

Term Expires igig 

Wm. Imbrie J. G. Barclay 

G. M. Fisher Miss Bosanquet 
Term Expires ig20 

E. N. Walne " " J.' H. Pettee 
Bishop Hamilton Miss E. Campbell 

Term Empires ig2i 

A. D. Berry C. Noss 

J. C. C. Newton Miss C. A. Converse 

Executive Secretary 
S. H. Wainright 

Editors of "Japan Evangelist" 

H. B. Bennin'ghoff E. T. Iglehart 

A. K. Reischauer Miss Bosanquest 

T.~ D. Walser 'A. Jorgensen 
Miss E. Campbell 

Committee on Evangelism 

H. V. S. Peeke D. Norman 

F. W. Heckelman C. W. Iglehart 

C. K. Lippard S. M. Ericksou 
W. P. Buncombe ' F. H. Smith 

G. P. Pierson G. W. Bouldin 
T. A. Young 

Editors of "Christian Movement'* 

E. T. Iglehart J. M. Davis 

W. A. Stanford W. C. Seiple 

(Representative from Korea) 

Social Welfare Committee 

George Gleason W. H. Erskine 

T. M. Davis Wm. Axling 

W. M. Vories Mrs. Pierson 



414 JAPAN 

T. E. Jones Miss Archer 

Miss M. L. Matthew Miss Adams 

Miss Bauernfeind Miss Blackmore 

D. S. Spencer 

Statistician 
C. P. Garman 

Tokyo Grammar School 

E. T. Iglehart H. B. Benninghoff 
W. E. Hoffsommer 

KoBK School-Visitors 

Mrs. E. S. Cobb . D. A. Murray 

Examiners Japanese Language 

H. V. S. Peeke E. N. Walne 

H. H. Coates G. M. Rowland 

Miss Bosanquet H. W. Myers 

W. G. Seiple P. A. Smith 
H. Lindstrom 

Directors of Language School 

19 1 9 Miss O. C. Lindsay 

1920 L. D. Oliphant W. P, Buncombe 

1921 H. H. Coates Wm. Axling 

Necrologist 
H. Topping 

Delegate to Federal Council, Korea 
A. Oltmans E. N. Walne (Alternate) 



APPENDIX II 

CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS IN JAPAN 



Prepared By C. P. Garman 

N. B. — The order followed is— Name of city or town: — Name of 
School; — Denominational Affiliation, indicated by abbreviations cor- 
responding to those of the Missionary Directory ; — Location of the 
School (within the given city or town) ; — Name of the person to 
whom application for information may be made (in the case of 
names of missionaries reference should be made to the Missionary 
Directory for the address which is generally quite different hz^m 
the address of the school itself.) ; — Date of founding of the 
school ; — Enrolment of the school. Superior figure " i " means that 
no report was received and last year's enrolment is given. 

KINDERGARTENS 

Hokkaido 

Hakodate Ku, Charity Yochien (A/. ^. J^. B.) Kaigan Cho, 

Miss Lora C. Goodwin 1916 39I 

Hakodate Ku, lai Yochien (M. E. F. B.) 53 Moto Machi, 

Miss Lora C. Goodwin 1913 Q3I 

Ofaru Ku, Rose Yochien {P. N.) Miss C. H. McCrory ... 1897 60 

Hondo 

Akita Shi, Akita Yochien {F.C.M.S.) 16 Nakanaga Machi, 

Miss Rose Armbruster 1906 68 

Akita Shi, Gaylord tiart Mitchell Memorial Yochien [P. 

E.) 60 Hondo, Atago Cho, Miss Kinsley 1904 46 

Akita Shi, Narayama Yochien, [R.C.) Narayama, Sister Pia 1908 • — 

(closed temporarily) 
Aomori Shi, (/-'. E.) 127 Ura Machi s Hashimoto, St. 

Mary's Yugikwai Deconess Newbold 1 908 20 

Ashikaga Machi, Tochigi Ken, Yuai Yochien [K.) Mr. 

Teisuke Harada 

Atsuta Machi Aichi Ken Shinsei Yochien [M. P.) 

Edosaki Machi, Ibaraki Ken, Edosaki Y<x-.hien [E. A.) 

Miss N. Berner 

Fukui Shi, Fukui Eikwan Yochien {M. C. C. Mrs. C. P. 

Holmes 

CJifu Shi, Meido Yochien (^M. S. C. C.) Miss Archer... ... 



1902 

I9I8 


661 
44 


I9I6 


36 


I9I0 
I9I5 


38 
19 



4A^ JAPAN 

Gifn, Misono Yochien [F. S.) Miss E. O. Buchanan 

Gunge Machi, (Af. E. S.) Gunge Yoch!en, Rev. W. K. 

Matthews 

Ilachinohe Machi, Aomori Ken Hachinohe Yochien {P-E.) 

Shimo Bancho, Miss Michi Okano 

Hamamatsu Machi, Shizuoka Ken, Tokiwa Yochien [M.P.) 

Miss Olive Hodges ... 

Harada, Hyogo Ken, Shojin Yochien [M. E. S.) Rev. W. 

K. Mathews ... ... ... ... ,., 

Haraichi Machi, Gumma Ken, Sekishm Yochien [K.) 2429 

Haraichi, Mrs. Sute Ota 

Hirosaki Shi, Aiko Yochien {M.E.F.B.) Miss Winifred 

F. Draper ... 

Hirosaki Shi, Alexander Memorial Yochien [M. E. F. B.).. 

Hiroshima Shi, Hiroshima Girls' ^c\\oo\' (M. E. S.) Miss 
■ M. M. Cook, 

Fuzoku Yochien, No. i 

Frazer Yochien, Fuzoku, No. 2 

Mattoba Yochien, Fuzoku No. 3 

Koi Cho Yochien, Fuzoku No. 4 ... 

Grace Whitney Hoff Free Yochien, Fuzoku No. 5.. 

lida Machi, Nagano Ken, lida Yochien (Z. E. F.) Higa- 

shino. Miss J. Nylund 

Isohama, Ibaraki Ken [A. F\ F.) Yochien, Alice Gifford... 
Iwatsuki Machi, Saitama Ken, Iwatsuki Yochien (A^. C. U. 

6'.) Miss Katsu Suzuki ... 

Kaniakura Machi, Kanagawa Ken, Kamakura Yochien 

{M. E. F. B.) (Flora Best Harris Memorial) Miss R. J. 

Walson 

Kanazawa Shi, Baba Yochien (J/.CC) Miss I. Govenlock., 
Kanazav/a Shi, Futaba Yochien Miss M. Humphreys (^F.E.) 

7 Shimo Ishibiki Cho 

Kanazawa Shi, Hokuriku Jo Gakko [P. N.) Fuzoku Yo- 
chien, No. I, Honda Machi, Miss J. M. Johns' one 

Kanazawa Shi, Kawakami Yochien [M. C. C.) Miss I. 

Govenlock 

Kanazav/a Shi, Shirokane Cho Yocliien (71/. C. C.) Miss I. 

Govenlock ... 

Kawagoe Machi, Saitama Ken, Hatsukari Yochien (/^, E.) 

Rev. S. Tai , ... ■ 

Kobe Shi, Lambuth Memorial Yochien (M E. S.) 23 Kita 

Nagasa Dori, 4 chome, Miss A. B. Williams 

Kobs Shi, Ninomiya Yochien (P. S.) Ninomiya Clio, Mrs. 

S. P. Fulton ' ... .... ... 

Kobe vShi, Nunobiki Yochien {P. S.) Kano Cho, Mrs. W. 

H. Myers 

Kobe Shi, Sei Kazoku Yochien [R. C.) Shimoyamate Dori, 

8 Chome 

Kobe Shi, Shoei Yochien (Glory Kindergarten) [A. B. C. 

F. M.) Nakayamate Dori, Miss A. L. Howe 

Kobe Slii, Shoten Yochien [S.P.G.) 456 Shimo Gioa Cho, 
Mi.ss J. E, Voules 



19 1 8 


36 


J913 


55 


1910 


45 


1906 


43 


1904 


80 


1903 


281 


1908 
1898 


59^ 


1891 
1896 
1910 


781 
48^ 
201 


1907 

5912 


4ot 
30I 


1913 

1918 


60 
35 



1909 
1904 


42 

74 


1912 


37 


1885 


100 


1900 


41' 


1913 


61 1 


1901 


50 


1912 


49 


1911 


60 


1910 


3ot 


1963 


1571 


1889 


64 


1910 


45 



APPENDIX 11 41; 

Kobe Shi, Zenria Yochien {A. B. F.) ii Azuma Dori, 5 

chome, Ono, Mrs. R. A. Thompson... I^>94 118 

Fuzoku Yochien (Free) Ijii 45 

Kofu Shi, Yamanashi Eiwa Jo Gakko, Fuzoku Yochien 

{M. C. C.) 324 Hyakkoku Machi, Miss Staples 191 1 65 

Koriyama Machi, Nara Ken, St. John's Yochien [P. E.) 

Miss C. J. Tracy ... I913 24 

Kumagaya Machi, Saitama Ken, Kumagaya Yochien {^P. 

E.) Rev. Tatsuo Nagoya , — 4^ 

Kusatsu Machi, Gumma Ken, Seiaien [P. E.) Miss Corn- 

wall-Legh ... — 13 

Kyoto Shi, Holy Trinity Yochien [P. E.) Shimo Tachi 

Uriagaru, Miss G. Suthon 

Kyoto Shi, Imadegawa Yochien (^A. B. C. F. AI.) Imadegawa 

Oori, Tera Machi, Nishi Iru, Mrs. D. W. Learned 
Kvoto -^hi, Muromachi (Margeurite Ayres) Yochien [P.N.) 

Mrs. H. D. Flannaford 

Kyoto Shi, Nishijin Yochien [P.N.) Mrs. Harvey Brokaw. 
Kyoto Shi, Soai Yochien [A. B. C. F. M.) Shin Sakae 

Machi, Nyomon Sagaru, Mrs. N. F. Gordon 

Kyoto Shi, St. John's Yochien [P. E.) Gojo, Shin Tera 

Machi, Miss Etta Ambler 

Kyoto Shi, St. Mary's Yochien [P. E:) Maruta Machi, 

Hiromichi Kado, Miss Etta Ambler 

Kyoto Fu, Maizuru Machi, Maizuru Yochien {P. E.) Shin 

Maizuru Shijo Kaigan, Rev. W. Murata. 

Vlaebashi Shi, Seishin Yochien [A. B. C. F. M.) Miss F. E. 

Griswold ... 

Vlatsumoto Shi, Floly Cross Yochien [M. S. C. C.) Daimyo 

Cho, Miss F. Hamilton 

Vliharu Machi, Fukushima Ken, Miharu Yochien [N.fC.K.) 

Rev. C. Noss ... 

vlikage, Hyogo Ken, Gunge Yochien [M. E. S.) Rev. W. 

K. Matthews 

^linato Machi, Ibaraki Ken, — Yochien [A. F. P.) 

V'lito Shi, Yochien, [A. F. P.) Alice Gifiord 

vlito Shi, St. Stephen's Yochien {P. E.) Miss F. M. 

Bristowe ... .c* 

vlorioka Shi, Morioka Yochien [A.B.F.) Mrs. H. Topping, 
viorioka Shi, Nio Yochien [P. E.) Yotsuya Machi, Miss 

Wright 

•Nagano Slii, Asahi Yochien {Af.C.C.) Miss Mary C. Scott., 
Magano Shi, Serila Yochien [M.C.C.) Miss Mary C. Scott.. 
M^agoya Shi, Kakiwa Yochien [M.P.C.) 10 Minami Kajiya 

Cho. Miss O. I. Hodges 

S\agoya Slii, Myojo Yochien [P. S.) Miss L. G. Kirtland.. 
N'.Tigoya Shi, Shimizu Yochien [P. S.) R. E. McAlpine ... 
'^^ag<)ya Shi, Ryujo Yochien [M.S.C.C.) Miss M. M. Young. 

Habashila Branch 

Oike Cho Branch ... 

'Cafjoy.'x Slii, Sciryu Yochien, [M. E. F. B.) Chikusa, Miss 
L. K, Court ice ... .. '9^5 . 57 



I9I5 


25 


1797 


48 


1892 

I89I 


40 

53 


1892 


50I 


I9I0 


261 


I9II 


38^ 


— 


60' 


1895 


501 


I9I3 


25. 


I9I5 


27 


I9I3 
I9I7 


55^ 

^28 


1907 


9I 


I9II 
1890 
I9I5 


8^6 
19 


1898 

I9I3 
I9I7 

1899 


84 
85 
23' 
50 


1909 
I9I4 


45 
32 



4t8 japan 

Nanao Machi, Ishikawa Ken, Nanao Yochien (M. C. C.) 

Rev. P. G. Price 1916 411 

Nikko Machi, Tochigi Ken, Iren Gakuin (P. E.) Miss I. 

P. Mann ,. I9I3 30 

Odawara, Yochien [IC. S. K.)..- I917 - 25 

Okayama Shi, Seishin Koto Jo Gakko, Fuzoku Yochien 

(J?. C.) ...' 1895 6oi 

Okazaki Shi, Airin Yochien (P. C. S.) Miss F. D. Patton.. I914 63 
Omiya Machi, Saitama Ken, Aishi Yochien [P. E.) Miss 

E. F. Upton 1 1916 45 

n. ... I918 35 

III I919 30 

Osaka Shi, Chikko Fukuin Kyokwai Yochien {E. A.) Miss 

F, E. Erffmeyer 1913 54 

Osaka Shi, Momoyama (P. E.) Tennoji, Saikudani Machi, 

Miss Leila Bull 1916 36 

Osaka Shi, Namba Yochika, Namba {P. N.) Rev. A. D. 

Hail 1911 36 

Osaka Shi, Osaka Baptist Kyokwai Yochien (A. B. F.) 

Mrs. J. A. Foote I916 30 

Osaka Shi, Shinon Yochien [E. A.) Miss E. L, Erffmeyer. 1915 54 
Osaka Shi, Tamatsukiri Yochien (i?. C.) Kinokuni Cho, 

Higashiku I909 85I 

Osaka Shi, Tennoji Yochien [F.C.M.S.) Minami Kawahori 

Cho, Mrs. W. H. Erskine I913 60 

Osaka Fu, Kaikwa, Yochien {P. N.) Tamade, Mrs. J. E. 

Hail 1914 45 

Osaka Fu, Kizugawa Yochika (A C. M. S.) Sakuragawa, 

Namba, Mrs. C. E. Robinson 1914 50 

Osaka Fu, Osaka Bible Woman's Training School, Yochien 

Fuzoku {A.B.F.M.S.) Imasato, Kamitsu Mura, Nishinari 

Gun, Miss L. Mead I916 cjo 

Otsu Shi, Aiko Yochien {U. B.) Rev, J. Edgar Knipp ... 1918 *8' 
'^tsu Shi, Seishin Yochien [P. E. C.) Kami Kyo Machi, 

Miss Etta Ambler I912 35! 

Sakurai, Nara Ken, Ikusei Yochien (P. E.) Miss Etta 

Ambler I915 40^ 

Sendai Shi, Shokei Jo Gakko Kindergarten [A. B. F.) 

Annie S. Buzzell I918 20 

Sendai Shi, Aoba Jo Gakuin Yochien {P. E.) ii Higashi 

Ichiban Cho, Miss E. H. Correll -I909 4I 

Yochien Fuzoku, No. i 1912 28 

Yochien Fuzaku, No. 2 I916 20 

Shimodate Machi, Ibaraki Ken, Slilmodalc Yoner-en (^V. 

^S". IC) 774 Higaslii Kudari, Miss F. M. Brisiowe 1912 46 

Shizuoka hi, Fuji Koto Jo Gakko, Miternal Branch [R. 

C.) Dames de St. Maur ... — 76 

Shizuoka Slii, Futal)a Yochien (yi/.C.C.) Mr. A. M. Pinsent. I912 90^ 
Sliizuoka Slii, Shizuliata Yochien, {A/. C. C.) Mrs. A. M. 

Pinscnt I912 45I 

Shizuoka Slii, Shi/Atoka Eiwa Jo (iakKo, Vochien Fuzoku 

{M.C.C.) Mrs. A. M. Pinscni I903 35I 

Shiojiri Machi, Slnojiri Yoclucn (i1/./';..9.) W. K. Mauhcws. 1904 80 



APPENDIX II 



435 



SUMMARY OF FOREGOING LIST 



Kindergartens 

Kindg. Teacher Training Schools... 
Primary Schools.... ... ... 

Industrial and Art Schools ... ... 

English and Night Schools 

Sundry Unclassified ... ... 

Girls' Schools (includes colleges) ... 
Boys Schools (Middle and Col.) 
Bible Woman's Training. School ... 
Theological and Bible School (Men's) 





Number of 


Enroll 


Schools 


(a) 


ment. 




. 200 




9635 




8 




153 




28 




3001 




22 




1 1 62 




. 35 




8810 




• 13 




748 




. 56 




II 146 




20 




1 1432 




. 17 




334 




22 




498 



APPENDIX III 

THE FEDERAL COUNCIL OF PROTESTAMT 
EVANGELICAL MISSIONS IN KOREA 



I. —CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS 

Art, I. Name : — The name of this body shall be the Federal Council 
of Protestant Evangelical Missions in Korea. 

Art. 2. Object; — The Object of this Federal Council shall be: 

Sec. I. — The prosecution of work which can better be done in 
union than in separation. 

Sec. 2. — To express followship and catholic unity of the Christian 
Church in Korea. 

Sec. 3. — To bring the constituent bodies into united service for 
Christ. 

Sec. 4. — To secure large combined influence in all matters affect- 
ing the moral and social conditions of the people. 

Art. 3. Powers: — Sec. i. — The Federal Council shall have advisory 
powers and such powers as may be delegated to it by the various 
Missions. 

Sec. 2. — With regard to such matters as may be referred to it 
by the various Missions in proper form, no decision of the Council shall 
be binding upon, or interfere with the autonomy of the Missions as 
regards the standing of individual missionaries, their Mission methods, 
the application of Mission funds, and the instructions and regulations of 
the Home Boards, or Home Assemblies and Conferences under whose 
direction the various Missions work. 

Sec. 3. — It has no authority to draw up a common creed or form 
of government or worship or in any way to limit the full autonomy of 
the Christian bodies adhering to it. 

Art. 4. Membership: — Sec. i. The bodies constituting the General 
Council, viz. Missions of the Presbyterian Church U. S. A., Presbyterian 
Chui\ii U. S., Methodist Episcopal Church, Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, Australian Presbyterian Church, Canadian Presbyterian Church, 
and each Bible Society working in Korea, shall be entitled to represen- 
tation on the Federal Council. 

Sec. 2. — Other Protestant Evangelical bodies may be admitted 
into m.embership of the Federal Council on their request if approved by 
two-thirds vote of the members voting c,t a session of this Federal 
Council. 

Sec. 3. — The Council shall have power, if it think fit, to elect, 
from outside its membarship its Treasurer, Business Manager, Statisticianf 
and Editors of Papers, and those thus elected shall have the right o 
membership ex officio in the Council. 



APPENDIX III 437 

Sec. 4. — All bodies belonging to the Federal Council shall be 
entitled to a representation not exceeding one-fifth of its total missionary 
body, including wives of missionaries, providing that each body shall be 
intitled to at least one delegate. 

Art. 5. — This Federal Council shall meet annually at place and 
time agreed upon. The members present shall constitute a quorum. 

Art. 6. — Its officers shall be chairman, vice-chairman, secretary^ 
treasurer and statistician, who shall be elected for a term of one year 
excepting the secretary who shall be elected for a term of three years. 

Art. 7. — ^The expenses of the Council shall be met by a pro rata 
assessment on the bodies composing the Council according to the mem- 
bership of each. 

Art. 8. — Sec. i. — There shall be an Excutive Committee consist- 
ing of one member from each of the various Missions entitled to at least 
two delegates to the Council, and the Chairman of the Council, who 
shall be a member ex-officio and Chairman of the Executive Committee. 
Those serving on the Committee shall be appointed by the' various 
Missions except the ex-officio member, who is elected by the Council. 

Sec. 2.^This. Executive Committee shall have power to arrange 
for all meetings and to execute plans agreed upon by the Council; and 
also to recommend ad interim conceruiug any question of comity or other 
matters pertaining to the work of the Federal Council which shall be 
submitted to it by any Mission. Such recommendations shall be com- 
municated to the Mission concerned for their consideration. 

Art. 9. — Amendments : — Notice of amendment or amendtnents to 
this constitution shall be given in writing at an Annual Meeting and the 
Federal Council shall not consider the proposed amendment or amend- 
ments bq/bre the following Annual Meeting. A two-thirds vote of the 
members present at an Annual Meeting shall be necessary to amend the 
constitution. 



RULES AND BY-LAWS 



1. The Annual Meeting shall be held on the Wednesday and Thursday 
preceding the first Sunday in September ; and the first afternoon shall 
be devoted to committee meetings. 

2. Each Committee shall elect its own Chairman and report to the 
Secretary of the Council before adjournment in order that the names 
may be printed in the Minutes. 

3. Each Committee shall submit its report type-written in duplicate. 

4. Officers and Committee-men not returned as delegates by the 
paribus bodies shall be ex-officio members of the Council without vote 
until their term expires or their successors tire elected. 

5. Vacancies ad interim on standing committees shall be filled tern. - 
porarily by the Chairman of the Council. 

6. The following standing Committees shall be constitued as herein 
provided, Executive, Rules and By-laws, Publications, Union Hymn Book, 



438 



KOREA 



Legal Arrangaments, Audit, and Sunday School; other Committees may- 
be formed from time to time. 

A'. The committee on Rules and By-laws shall' composed of six 
members, two of whom shall be elected each year for a term of three 
years. It shall perform the usual duties of such a committee. 

B. The Committee on Publications shall be composed of six members 
two of whom shall be elected each year for a term of three years. 
Thi$ committee shall have charge of the publication of all the publica- 
tions, of the Federal Council except the union hymn book ; it shall also 
nominate the editors of the same and also the associate editor of ■ The 
Christian Movement; and shall be custodian of the Federal CouncvA 
publication funds. The Business Manager shall be ex-officio member of 
the committee and shall be nominated by the committee; the editors 
and business manager shall submit reports to the Publications Committee 
before reporting to the Federal Council. 

C. The Union Hymn Book Committee shall bs composed of four 
members from the Presbyterian Council, two members from the Metl;iodist 
Episcopal Mission, and one member from the Southern Methodist Mis- 
sion. It shall have charge of the preparation, revision and publication 
of the union hymn book, and shall be custodian of the union hymn 
book fund. 

Di The Legal Committee shall be composed of six members, two 
of whom shall be elected each year for a term of three years. It shall 
represent the Federal Council and — upon request — the constituent bodies 
in legal matters and in dealings with the otficials of the Government. 

E. The Committee on Arrangements shall be composed of three 
members elected annually, and shall attend to all details of arrangements 
for meetings, and for entertainment of out-of-town delegates and their 
reception at the railway stations; it shall arrange a docket for the 
meetings and send the same to the delegates one month in advance. 

F. The Audit Committee shall be composed of two members elected 
annually and its duties shall be the usual duties of such committee. 



II.— ROLL OF DELEGATES, 19 18. 

MISSION OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN U. &. A. 



Rev. S. A. Moffett, D. D. 

Rev. W. L. Swallen, D. D. 

Rev. G. S. McCune, D. D. 

Re;f. T. S. Soltau. 

Rev. E. W. Koons. 
* Rev. Clarence Hofiinan. 

Rev. A. A. Pieters. 

Rev, S. L. Roberts. 

A. M. Sharrocks, M. D. 

Rev. W. B. Hunt. 

Rev. J. U. S. Toms. 

Rev. Edwin Kagin. 
■ Rev. LI. A. Rhodes. 

Rev. F. S. Miller. 



Rev. C. A. Sliarp, D. D. 
Mrs. H. G. Underwood. 
Miss Margaret Best. 
Rev. W. T. Cook, 
Rev. N. C. Whittemore. 
Rev C. L. Philips. 
Rev. H. E. Blair. 
* J. W. Llirst, M. D. 
Rev. C. A. Clarl D. D. 
Mr. H. PI. Underwood. 
Miss Lillian Dean. 
O. R. Avison, M. D. 
Mr. J. F. Genso. 



* Not present. 



APPENDIX III 439 

MISSION OF THE SOUTHERN PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

Rev. S. K. Dodson. * Rev. W. M. Clark. 

Rev. J. F. Preston. Rev. H. D. McCallie. 

Miss Mary Dodson. Rev. W. B. Harrison. 

Rev. Robert Knox. Mr. W. A. Linton. 

Rev. Eugene Bell, D. D. . . Miss Julia Dvsart. 

Rev- L. B. Tate. ^ . Rev. D.. J. Gumming. 

MISSION OF THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

Rev. W. A. Noble, Pli. D. Rev. B. W. Billings. 

Rev. -E. M. Cable, D. D. Rev. J. D. Van Buskirk, M, D 

Rev. C. S. Deming, S. T. D. Miss Lulu E. Frey. 

Rev. D. A. Bunker. Miss Alice Appenzeller. 

Rev. C. D. Morris. - Miss O. M. Tuttle. 

* Rev. A. L. Becker. ' Miss E. ISI. Estey. 
Rev. Corwin Taylor. Mrs. Anna Chaffin. 
Rev. F. E. C. Williams. 

MISSION OF THE METHOEIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, SOUTH. 

Rev. J. W. Hitch. Miss Laura Edwards. 

* Rev. A. W. Wasson. Rev. C. T. Collyer. 

* E. W. Anderson, M. D. * Miss M. D. Myers. 

* Miss Kate Cooper. Rev. C. N. Weems. 

Rev. J. L. Gerdine. Rev. R. A. Hardie, M. D. 

Rev. M. B. Stokes. Rev. F. G. Vesey, 

MISSION OF THE CANADIAN PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, . 

Rev. W. R. Foote. Rev. Milton Jack. 

Rev. Wm. Scott. Rev. S. J. Proctor. " 

Rev. D. W. McDonald. Rev. A. R. Ross. 

Rev. Robert Grierson, M. D. Rev. E. J. O. Eraser. 
F. W. Scofield, M. D. 

MISSION OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AUSTRALIA. . 

Rev, G. Engel. Rev. F. -W. Cunninghartt. 

Rev, D. M. Lyall. Miss F. L. Gierke. 

Rev. A. C. Wright. Miss D. Hocking. 
» Rev, A, W. Allen. 

BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY. 
NATIONAL BIBLE SOQETY OF SCOTLAND. 

Mr, Hugh Miller. 

AMERICAN BIBLE SOCIETY. 

Rev. S. A. Beck. 



EX-OFFICIO. 



Rev. A. F. DeCamp. 
Mr. Gerald Bonwick. 



440 



KOREA 

Y. M. C. A. 



Mr. Brockman. 



ITI.^OFFICERS OF THE COUNCIL 1918-1919. 



Chairman, 
Vice -Chairman, 
Secretary, 
Treasurer, 
Statistician, . . 



E. J. O. Eraser. 
M. B. Stokes. 
B. W. Billings. 

F. M. Brockman, 
J. U. S. Toms. 



COMMITTEES. 

Executive :—E. J. O. Eraser, W. R. Foote, G. Engel, R. Knox, 
W. A. Noble, R. A. Hardie, N. C. Whittemore. 
Arrangements :— F. G. Vesey, J. U. S. Toms, Hugh MilJer. 
Rules and By-Laws: — 

1919. J. S. Nisbet, G. Engel. 

1920. W. R. Foote, F. E. C. Williams. 

1921. H. E. Blair, J. W. Hitch. 
Publications : — 

1 91 9. J. S. Gale, W. D. Reynolds. 

1920. R. A. Hardie, S. A. Beck. 

1921. -R. Grierson, A. W. Allen. 
Union Hymn Book : — 

G. Engel. 
J. F. Preston. 
Ai A. Pieters. 
W. R. Foote. 

C. Taylor. 

D. A. Bunker. 
M. B. Stokes. 

Legal : — 

1919. O. R. Avison, S. A. Mofifett. 

1920. B. W. Billings, W. M. Clark. 

1 92 1. J. L. Gerdine, S. J. Proctor. 
Audit: — S. A. Beck, Hugh Miller. 

Council's Representative on Excutive Committee of Sunday 
School Association : — G. Bonwick. 
Ediiorial Board of Union Newspaper : 

1 91 9. G. Grierson, M. L. Swinehart. 

1920. H. A. Rhodes, M. B. Stokes. 

1 92 1. D. M. Lyall, B. W. Billings. 

Editorial Board of " The Korka Mission Field '* 

A. F. DeCamp, Editor-in-Chief, 

B. W. Billaigs, J. W. Hitch, 
G. Bonwick, D. M. Lyall, 
F. M. Brockman, Hugh Miller, 
Miss F. L. Clerlce, G. S. McCune, 

Fratkrnal Delegate to Federated 
Japan :W. R. Foote, alternate J. W. Hitch. 

Bu3iNass Manager of Publication . — G. Bonwick 



C. L. Phillips, 
H. A. Rhodes, 
W. Scott, 
Mrs. M. L. Swinehart. 
Missions Council in 



i 



APPENDIX III 44 J 

Editor of the Prayer Calendar : — G. Eonwick. 
Associate Editor of the " Christian Movement in the Japanese 
Empire": — S. A. Beck, G. Bonwick, associate. 
Committee on Survey: — 

S. A. Moffett, L. L- Young, D. M. Lyall. 
Committee on Christian Literature : — 

J. L. Gerdine, J. S. JSale, Hugh Miller. 

COMMI'I TEE on SoCIAI- SERVICE : — 

E. Bell, F. S. Brockman, J. D. Van Buskirk. 
Committee on Missionary Efficiency. 

G. S. McCune. 

W. A. Noble. 

R. A. Hardie. 

W. F. Bull. 
Committee on Language School. 

G. S. McCune. 

M. B, Stokes. 

R. Grierson, 

B. W. Billings. 

D. M. Lyall. 

W. M. Clark. 
Committee on Necrology. 

D. A. Bunker. 

Miss Margaret Best. 

W. F. Bull. 



APPENDIX IV 

CHRISTIAN PERiODIGALS IN KOREA 



Prepared by Gerald Bonwick 

Note — When an English title in the periodical that title is marked 
in this list with quotation marks. In other cases a more or less literal 
translation is given. The date of the establishment of the periodical is 
given at the end of each entry. 

KOREAN LANGUAGE 

Weekly 

*» The Christian Messenger " Kie Dok Sin Po. The official union 
paper of the Evangelical Churches of Korea, replacing denomi- 
national papers of many years' standing. K. R. B. T. S. 
Seoul 1916 

Semi=Month!y 

'* The National Magazine " Kyeng Hyeung Chap Chi. R. C. Seoul. 1907 

Monthly 

•* Association Notes " Choong Ang Chung Yun Hoipo. Y.M.C.A. 

Seoul 1912 

** Christian Monthly " Kie Dok Kyo Walpo. Congregational. 

vSeoul I915 

"Church Compass" Kyo Hoi Chinan. S. D. A. Seoul I916 

•* Gospel News" Pok Eum Sinto. Plymouth' Brethren. Suwon, T917 

« Signs of the Times " Si Cho Walpo. S. D. A. Seoul 1912 

'<War Cry" Koo Sai Sin Mun. S. A. Seoul 1909 

Bi=Monthly 

» Bible Magazine " Seung Kyung Chap Chi. K. R. B. T. S. Seoul. 1918 
"Theological World" Sin Hak Sai Kai. Methodist. Seoul ... 1916 

Quarterly 

<* Sunday School Magazine" K. R. B. T. S. Seoul 1919 

*' Theological Review" Sin Hak Chinam. Presbyterian. Seoul... 1918 

Annua! 

»* Sniiday School Lessons " published by the K. R. B. T. S. for the 
Federal Council. 



APPENDIX IV 443 

Senior Grade. Manual. 6 years. Annual volumes. 
Junior Grade. Lesson Leaves. 6 years. Annual volumes. 
Primary Grade. Lesson Leaves. New series. Annual volumes. 

JAPANESE LANGUAGE 

Monthly 

* Timely Report of the Christian Church in Chosen " Kirisuto- 

kyo Geppo. Congregational. Seoul I916 

** Young Men of the Railways of Chosen " Chosen Tetsudo Seinen. 

Y. M. C. A. Seoul igij 

•* Young Men of Chosen" Chosen Seinen. Y. M. C. A. Seoul... 1914 

ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

Monthly 

"The Korea Mission Field" Official organ of the Federal Council. 
K. R. B. T. S. Seoul 1302 



APPENDIX V 

CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS IN KOREA 



Prepared by Gerald B(inwick 



N. B. — ■The order followed is — Name of city or town ; — Name of 
School ; — Denominational affiliation indicated by abbreviations cor- 
responding to those of the Missionary Directory ; — Name of person 
to whom application for information may be made ; — Date of 
foundation of the school ;— Enrolhuent of the school. An asterisk 
indicates previous year's figures. 



Kindergartens 

Chemulpo ... Kindergarten (M, E.) Miss Miller 

Chinju Kindergarten (Au. P.) Mrs. McKenzie ... 

Chinnampo ... Kindergarten (M. E.) Miss E. I. Haynes... 

Pyengyang ... Kindergarten (M. E.) 

Seoul Ching Sin Hakyo (P. N.) Miss M. L. Lewis. 

Seoul Ewha Haktang (M. E.) Miss Van Fleet ... 

Seoul Paiwha Plaktang (M. E. S.) Miss S. Smith. 

Songdo Holston Institute (M. E. S.) Miss E. Wagner. 

Tongyeng ... Kindergarten (Au. P.) Miss Alexander ... 



[914 50 





130 


I9I5 


50^ 




90* 


I9I6 


65* 




136 


I9I7 


66 



Boy's Common Schools 

Total number supervised by Six Missions 378 

Giris' Common Schools 

Total number supervised by Six Missions 157 

Boys' Higher Schools 

Chunju Boys' Academy (P. S.) Rev. F. M. Eversole. 

Hamheung ... Christian Academy (P. C. C.) Rev. L. L. 

Young 

Kongju ... Higher Common School (M. E.) Rev. F. E. 

C. Williams 

Kwangju ... Boys' Academy (P. S.) Rev. S. K. Dodson. 
Kunsan ... Boys' Academy (P. S.) Mr. B. Reynolds... 
Kwang Sung.. Higher Common School (M. E.) Rev. J. Z. 

Moore, D. D 

Kyumasan ... Changsin Higher School (Au. P.^ Rev. D. 

M. Lyall , \ 



12,478 



7.275 





79 


906 


90 


902 


30 
121 

84 


914 


130 


1907 


6o« 



APPENDIX V 



445 



Kyumasan ... Hap Sung Higher School (Au. P.) Rev. 

D. M. Lyall ... ... 1902 40** 

Mokpo John Watkins Academy (P. S.) Rev. J. S. 

Nisbet, D. D 53 

Myung Dong.. Christian Academy (P. C. C.) Rev. W. R. 

Foote 

Pyengyang ... Boys' Academy (P.N.) Mr. R. O. Reiner. 302 

Pyengyang ... Kwang Sung Higher Common School 

(M. E.) Kim Tuk Su. 209 

Seoal John D. Wells Training School (P. N.) 

Rev. E. W. Koons 84 

Seoul Paichai Higher Common School (M. E.) 

Rev. D. A. Bunker 1887 400 

Songdo Higher Common School (formerly Anglo- 
Korean School) (M. E. S.) Rev. A. W. 

Wasson I18 

Songjin Christan Academy (P. C. C.) Rev. A. R. 

Ross 

Soonan Higher Common School (S. D. A.) Prof. 

H. M. Kee 1907 

Syenchun . . . Hugh O'Neill Jr Academy (P. N.) Rev. G. 

S. McCune, D. D 

Wonsan ... Union Boys' Academy (P. C. C, M. E. S.) 

Rev. E. J. O. Eraser ... I908 41 

Yeng Byen ... Higher Common School (M. E.) Rev. G. 

M. Eurdick 1915 35' 



25 
60 



281 



Giris' Higher Schools 

Chinju ... ... Kwang Nim Higher School (Au. P.) Miss 

Campbell ... , 

Chunju Junkin Memorial (P. S.) Miss S. A. Colton. 1907 

Fusanchin ... Higher School (Au. P.) Miss M.S. Davies. 
Plaiju Lucy J. Scott Day School (M. E.) Mrs. 

Norton 1913 

Hamheung ... Girls' School (P. C. C.) Miss McEachern . . . 

Kongju Girls' School (M. E.) Mrs. Sharp 1914 

Kwangju ... Jennie Speer INIemorial (P. S.) Mrs. G. W. 

Owen M. D 1908 

Kunsan Mary Baldwin Academy (P. S.) 

Kyumasan ... Higher School (Au. P.) Miss A. Skinner... I9I3 

Mokpo Girls' School (P. S.) Mrs. Nisbet 

Pyengyang ... Union Woman's Academy (P. N., M. E.) 

Miss V. Snook 

Seoul Carolina Institute (M. E. S.) Miss B. Smith. 

Seoul Ewha Haktang (M. E.) Miss L. E. Frey... 

Seoul Woman's Academy (P. N.) Miss M. L. 

Lewis 

Songdo Holston Institute (M. E. S.) Miss E. 

Wagner 104 

Taiku Girls' Academy (P. N.) Miss H. E. Pollard. 54 

Wonsan ... Chin Song Higher School (P. C. C.) Mrs. 

Fraser I909 6 



4 

74 
2 

85* 

85* 

61 
40 

17 
117 



IQIO 194 

36 
1885 300 

65 



44^ KOREA 

Wonsan ... Lucy Cunnino;gim Institute (M. E. S.) Miss 
H. Buie -\ 



[05^ 



Boys' Industrial and Self-help Departments 

Chunju Industrial School (P. S.) Rev. F. M. Eversole. 1911 

Kunsan ... Boys' Academy (P. S.) Mr. B. Reynolds... I9I2 
Kwangju ... Industrial School (P. S.) Rev. J. V. N. T. 

almage , ...... ... ... ... loii 

Pyengyang ... Anna Davis Memorial (P. N.) Mr. R. Mc 

Murtrie . • ... ... ... .. ... 

Seoul Industrial Department (Y. M. C. A.) Mr. 

G. A. Gregg 

Seoul John D. AVells Academy (P. N.) Mr. H. 

H. Underwood... ... 

Songdo Anglo-Korean School (M. E. S.) Rev. W. A. 

Wasson ... ...' 

Soonan Industrial Department (S.D.A.) R. Russell, 

M. D 1910 

Syenchun ... Hugh CNeill Jr Academy (P. N.) Mr. 

E. L. Campbell 



15 
42* 

60 



21 

45 
90* 



Girls' Industrial and SelMielp Departments 

Ghunju Junkin Memorial (P. S.) Miss S. A. Colton. 

Kunsan ... Mary Baldwin School (P. S.) Miss J. 

Dysart.. 

Kwangju ... Industrial School (P. S.) Mrs. G. W. Owen, 

M. D 

Mokpo Industrial School (P. S.) Mr.s. McCallie ... 

Pyengyang ... Union Woman's Academy (P. N., M. E.) 

Miss V. L. vSnook • ... 

Seoul Carolina Institute (M. E. S.) Miss B. Smith. 

Seoul .... ... Industrial School (S. A.) Ensign (Miss) 

M. Sailing... ... 

Songdo... ... Holston Institute (M. E. S.) Miss L. E. 

Nichols 

Syenchun ... Lovisa Stevens Institute (P. N.) Miss B. 

Stevens 

Wonsan ... Lucy Cunninggim Institute (M. E. S.) Miss 

H. Buie 



911 


40 


915 


22* 


912 
913 


^1 
26 




60* 




20 



[916 25 

24* 

20 



Chinju ... 
Fusanchin 
Kuchang 
Kyumasan 
Seoul ... 

Tong Nai 
Tongyeng 



Night Schools 

Night School (Au. P.) Dr. Davies 

do. (Au. P.) Miss Menzies 
do. (Au. P.) Mrs. F. J- Thomas, 
do. (Au. P.) Miss Skinner 
do. (Y.M. C.A.) Mr. F. M. Brock- 
man 

do. (Au. P.) Miss Davies 

do. (Au. P.) Miss Alexander 



1913 
1917 



[914 



109 

50 
70 

45 



50 
60 



APPENDIX V 



44; 



Pyengyaus 
Syenchun 
Songdo 
Seoul ;.o 

oeoul . . . 
Suwon ... 
Wonsan 



Unclassified 

School for Blind, Deaf and Dumb. (M. E.) 

Miss M. Trissel... ... 1908 24 

Louise Chase Institute for Women (P. N.) 

Miss B. I. Stevens 104 

Mary Helm School for Widows and Young 

Women, (M. E. S.) Miss L. E- Nichols. 
Home for Christian Widows and W^omen 

of Good Character, (E. C. M.) Sister 

Isabel, C. S. P 1913 

Home for Little Girls (S. A.) Ensign (Miss) 

M. Sailing I916 

St. Peter's Oi-phanage (E. C. M.) Sister 

Nora, C. S. P 1893 

School for Young Married Women (P. C. 

C.) Miss E. A. McCully 



42« 



25 



Colleges 

Pyengyang ... Union Christian College (P. N., P. S., A. 

P.) President, Rev. S. A. Moffett, D. D. 
Seoul Chosen Christian College (M. E., M, E. S., 

P. N„ P. C. C.) President, O. R. Avison, 

M. D 

Seoul Severance Union Medical College (Seven 

Missions) President, O. R. Avison, M. D. 
Seoul Women's College of Korea (M. E.) Miss 

L. E. Frev 



70 



1916 94 

60 

1910 51* 



Kanghwa 

Pyengyang 

Seoul ...' 
Seoul ... 

Seoul ... 

Seoul . . . 
Soonan... 



Theological and Bible Schools 

St. Michael's Training School for Clergy 
& Catechists (E. C. M.) (closed since the 
war) 

Union Presbyterian Theological Seminary 
(P. N., P. S., Au. P., P. C. C.) Principal 
Rev. S. A. Moffett D. D 

Bible Institute for Men & Women (O. M. 
S.) Rev. J. Thomas , 

Pierson Memorial Bible School for Men 
(P. N., M. E., M. E. S.) Rev. R. A. 
Hardie, M. D 

Union Methodist Theological Seminary 



(M. E., M. E. 

Cable, D. D. 
Women's Bible 

Miss Beiler 
Ministerial Class 

Xvee 



S.) Principal Rev. E. M. 
Training School (M. E.) 
(S. D. A.) Prof. H. M. 



1912 



174 

[910 32 



2955 35' 



1910 92 
IQ08 60 



1917 



448 



Chrachan 
Kangwha 
Paikchun 
Seoul ... 
Seoul ... 



KOREA 

Students' Hostels 

For Boys (E. C. M.) Rev. G. E. Hewlett... 

For Boys (E. C. M.) Rev. F. Wilson 

For Boys (E. C. M.) Rev. F. Wilson 

For Boys (E. C. M.) Rev. C. Huiit 

St. Mary's Hostel for Girls (E. , C. M.) 
Sister Cecil, C. S. P. 



I913 



10 
II 

9 

22 



APPENDIX VI 

CHRISTIAN MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS 
IN KOREA 



Andong . . , Cornelius Baker Memorial Hospital & Dis- 
pensary (P. N.) R. K. Smith, M. D.... 

Chairyung ... Hospital Sc Dispensary (P. N.) H. G. 
Wliiting, M. D 

Chemulpo ... St. Luke's Hospital & Dispensary (E. C. 
M.) (closed since the war) 

Chinchun ... Ay-in Hospital & Dispensary (E. C. M.) 
A. F. Laws, D. D 

Chinju Margaret Whitecross Paton Memorial 

Hospital & Dispensary (Au. P.) Miss 
F. L. Gierke 

Choonchun ... Hospital & Dispensary (M. E. S.) H.J. 
Hill, M. D 

Chungju ... Hospital & Dispensary (P. N.) S. P. 
Tipton, M. D 

Chunju Hospital & Dispensary (P. S.) M. O. 

Robertson, M. D ... 

Haiju Louisa Holmes Norton Memorial Hospital 

& Dispensary (M. E.) A. H. Norton, 
M. D 

Hamheung ... Hospital & Dispensary (P. C. G.) Miss 
K. McMillan, M. D 

Kangkei ... Hospital & Dispensary (P. N.) J. D. 
J. D. Bigger M. D 

Kongju ... Dispensary (M. E.) closed 

Kunsan ... Hospital & Dispensary (P. S.) J. D. 
Patterson, M. D .' 

Kwangju ... Ellen Lavin Graham Hospital & Dis- 
pensary (P. S.) R. M. Wilson, M. D.... 

Mokpo French Memorial Hospital & Dispensary 

(P. S.) R. S. Leadingham, M. D. ... 

Pyenp-yang ... Hall Memorial Hospital & Dispensary 
(M. E.) E. D. Follwell, M. D 

Pyengyang ... Woman's Hospital of Extended Grace, 
& Dispensary (M. E.) Miss M. M. 
Gultler, M. D 

Seoul Lillian E. Harris Memorial Hospital & 

Dispensary (M. E.) Mrs. M. S. Stewart, 
M. D 



1903 


27,279 


1890 




I9I0 


12,172 


I9I3 


6,896 




5,080 




4,186 


1907 


i3'40i 


1908 


14,203 




7>i85 




18,303 


1900 


29,910 


1908 


17.655 


1905 


20,120 


1896 


20,665 


1895 


5.'993* 


1886 


11,201^ 



450 KOREA 

Seoul ... ... Severance Union Hospital & Dispensary 

(7 Missions) O. R. Avison, M. D. ... 

Songdo Ivy Hospital & Dispensary (M. E. S.) 

W. T. Reid, M. D 

Songjin ... Hospital & Dispensary (P. C. C.) R. 
Grierson, M. D 

Soonan Dispensary (S. D. A.) R. Russell, M. D. 

Soonchup ... Alexander Memorial Hospital & Dis- 
pensary (P. S.) J. M. Rogers, M. D.... 

Syenchun ... Hospital & Dispensary (P. N.) A. M. 
Sharrocks, M. D 

Taiku Hospital & Dispensary (P. N.) A. G. 

Fletcher M. D. ... , 

Tongyeng ... Dispensary (Au. P.) W. Taylor, M. D. 

Wonju Swedish Hospital & Dispensary (M. E.) 

A. G. Anderson, M. D 

Wonsan .,.. Union Hospital & Dispensary (M. E. S., 
P. C. C.) J. B. Ross, M. D. ... ... 

Yengbyen ..:. Hospital & Dispensary (M. E.) closed... 

Yongjung ... Plospital & Dispensary (P. C. C.) S. H. 
Martin, M. D 



1896 


41,372 


1907 


7,487 


I90I 


■4,353 
11,500 


I9I3 


10,882 




44,095 


I9I4 


15^653 
6,407 


I9I4 


3,005^ 


I9I5 


17,512 


I9I6 


IO,2CO 



Leper Homes 

Fusan Leper Home (Au. P.) Rev., J. N. 

McKenzie I902 

Kwangju ... Leper Home (P. S.) R. M.Wilson, M. D. 1911 
Taiku Lepro.sarium (P. N.) A. G. Fletcher, 

M. D ... ... „.. 1917 



169 
246 



Training School for Nurses 

Haiju ... ... Nurses' Training School (M. E.) Mi.ss 

Battles ,. 1915 4 

Seoul Severance Nurses' Training School 

(Union) Miss Esteb 28 

Seoul Nurses' Training School (M. E.) Miss 

E. Roberts ... 1903 9 



JAPAN MISSIONARY DIRECTORY 
June igig 

Compiled by C. P. Garman, Tokyo 



All communications concerning the Directory should be addressed to the 
Editor of Directory, Kyo Bun Kwan, Ginza, Tokyo, Japan. 



LIST OF MISSION BOARDS AND 
CHURCHES 



F. Parrott. 



With name of secretaries and statisticians on the fizld. 

(On request of the Director of the Statistical Bureau of the American 
Foreign Missions Conference, initialling has been modified so as to secure 
uniformity of use in America, India, China and Japan), 

— ^American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 

Missions. D. I. Grover. 
— American Baptist Foreign Mission Society. C. B. 

Tenny. 
— Allgemeiner Evangelisch-Protestantischer Missions- 

verein. E. Schroeder. 
— Foreign Missionary Association of Friends of 

Philadelphia. H. V. Nicholson. 
— Australian Board of Missions. (Anglican.) 
— Assembly of God. 
— Bible Societies. 

— ^American Bible Society, K. E. Aurell. 
— British and Foreign Bible Society. ) 
— National Bible Society of Scotland.} 
Mission Board of the Christian Church. (American 

Christian Convention). E. C. Fry. 
— Church of England (No Mission Board). 
— Church of God. 

—Christian Missionary Alliance. A. Lindstrom. 
— Church Missionary Society. 

Hokkaido, D. M. Lang. 

Central Japan, W. P. Buncombe. 

Kiushiu, J. Hind. 
- — Evangelical Association. P. S. Mayer. 
—Foreign Christian Missionary Society. (Churches of 

Christ) T. A. Young. Statistician, P. A. Davey. 
— General Missionary Board of the Free Methodist 

Church of North America. Miss M. K. Hessler. 
— Hepzibah Faith Missionary Association. 
— Independent of any Board or Society. 
— ^Japan Evangelistic Band. C. S. Wilkinson. 
— ^Japan Book and Tract Society. Geo. Braithw^aite. 
— Foreign Mission Board of the United Lutheran 

Church of America. 
— Lutherska Evangeliforenigen i Finland. V. Savolainen. 
— Methodist Church of Canada. 

— Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist- 
Episcopal Church. G. F. Draper. 



I. — 


ABCFM. 


2. — 


ABF. 


3— 


AEPM. 


4— 


AFP. 


5— 


AuBM. 


6.- 


AG. 


7-— 


BS. 




ABS. 




BFBS. 




NBSS. 


8.— 


cc. 


9 — 


CE. 


lO. — 


CG. 


II.— 


CMA. 


12.— 


CMS. 


13— 

14— 


EA. 

FCMS. 


15— 


FMA. 


16.— 


HFMA. 


19.— 

20. — 


Ind. 

JEB. 

JBTS. 

(a) LCA. 


21.— 


a^?^- 


22. 


MEFB. 



IV 




23-— 


MES. 


24— 


(a) MP. 




(b)MPW. 


25 — 


MSCC. 


26— 
2Q.— 


OMJ. 
OMS. 
PBW. 
PCN. 



SO- 
3f 
32 



33- 
34- 

35- 



38.. 
£7. 
38- 

39- 
40. 
41. 



42. 



PE. 



.— PN. 



PS. 



RC. 
RCA. 

RCUS. 



ROC. 

SA. 

SAM. 

SBC. 
SDA. 
SPG. 



UB. 



43- 
44- 


- UGC. 

WU. 

- YMJ. 

- YMCAA. 


47- 


- YMCAT. 


48.- 


-(a)YWCAUS. 


49- 
50- 


-(b)YWCAC. 
- WSSA. 



JAPAN 

— Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist 

Episcopal Church, South. J. Grover Sims. 
— Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist 

Protestapt Church. E. I. Obee. 
-—Woman's Foreign Missionai-y Society of the Methodist 

Protestant Church. Miss Olive Hodges. 
— Missionary Society of thfe Church of England in 

Canada. Bishop H, J. Plamilton, (also Statistician 

Anglican Societies). 
— Omi Mission. E. V. Yoshida. 
— Oriental Missionary Society. E. E. Kilbourne. 
— Pentecostal Bands of the World. 
— General Missionary Board of the Pentecostal Church 

of the Nazarene. Miss Ethel McPherson. 
— Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the 

Protestant Episcopal Church in the ■ United States 

of America. 
— Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian 

Church in the United States of America. Harvey 

Brokaw. 
— Executive Committee of Foreign Missions of the 

Presbyterian Church in the United States. (South). 

S. M. Erickson. 
^— Roman Catholic. 
— Reformed Churches of America (Dutch). L. J. 

Shafer. Statistician, S. W. Rider. 
-^Board of Foreign Missions of the Reformed Church 

in the United States. (German). E. H. Guinther. 

Statistician, E. H, Zaugg. 
— Russian Orthodox. Bishop Sergie. 
— Salvation Army. J. W. Beaumont. 
— Scandinavian Alliance Missions of North America. 

Joel Anderson. 
-^Southern Baptist Convention. W. H. Clarke. 
— Seventh Day Adventist. A. B. Cole. 
— Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. 

South Tokyo Diocese. A. E. Webb. 

Osaka Diocese. Bishop H. J. Foss. 
^ — Foreign Missionary Society of the United Brethren 

in Christ. B. F. Shively. 
— Universalist General Convention. N. L. Lobdell. 
— Woman's Union Missionary Society of America. 
— Yotsuya Mission. 
— Young Men's Christian Association. (American 

International Committee). G. M. Fisher. 
• — Government School English Teachers, affiliated with 

Y. M. C. A. 
. — Foreign Department of the National Board of 

the Young Women's Christian Association of 

the United States of America. Miss Margaret 

Matthew. 
— Young Women's Christian Association of Canada. 
— ^World's Sunday School Association. 



51 — 

52— 


K. 
NKK. 


53— 


NMK. 


34— 


NSK. 


Formosa. 
55- PCC. 


56.- 


EPM. 



LIST OF MISSIONS V 

— Kumiai Kyokwai. 

— Nihon Kirisuto Kyokwai ; (P. N., P. S., R. C. A., 

R. C. U. S., W. U.). 

Somu Kyoku, Int. Y. M. C. A. Bldg., Omote 
Sarugaku Cho, Kanda, Tokyo. 
—Nihon Methodist Kyokwai/ (M, G, C, M. E. F. B., 

M. E. vS.). Bisliop Hiraiwa. 
—Nippon Sei Kokwai (P. E., S. P. G., C. E., Au. 

B. M.). 

— Board of Foreign Missions, Presbyterian Church in 

Canada. D. MacLeod. 
— Foreign Missions Committee of the Presbyterian 

Church of England. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



Order is as follows : Name : year of arrival in Japan : 
initial of Missionary Society : address : — Postal Transfer 
No. and Telephone No. are added when known. 
(A)=Absent. (W.S.)=War Service. 



Abel, Mr. Fred, & W., 19 13, P. B. W., Fulcaya Machi, Saitama Ken (A). 

Acock, Miss Amy A., 1905, A. B. F., 38 Uchimaru, Morioka. 

Adair, Miss Lily, 1913, P. C. C, Taihoku, Formosa. 

Adams, Miss Alice P., 1891, A. B. C. F. M., 95 Kadota yashiki, Okayama. 

Adams, Mr. Roy P., & W. 19 16, H. F. M. A., Choshi, Shimosa. 

Ainslee, Miss K. E., 1918, Mitajiri, Yamaguchi Ken. 

Ainsworth, Rev. Fred & W. 191 5, M. C. C, 216 Sengoku Machi, To- 

yama, Toyama Ken. 
Akard, Miss Martha B., 1914, L. C. A., Fukuoka (A). 
Alexander, Miss Bessie, 1899, M. E. F. B., Sapporo. 
Alexamder, Miss S., 1894, P. N., Kawanishi mura, Kawabe Gun, Hyogo 

Ken. 
Alexander, Rev. R. P., & W., 1893, M- E. F. B., 2 Aoyama Gakuia 

Tokyo. (F. C. Tokyo 1,381). 
Alexander, Rev. W. G., & W., 1909, C. G., Sakai Eki, Kitatama Gun, 

T§kyo Fu. 
AUchin, Miss Agnes M., Y. W. C. A. U. S., 84 Rokuchome, Honmoku 

Dori, Yokohama. 
Allchin, Rev. Geo., & W. 1882, A. B. C. F. M., c/o A. B. C. F. M., 14 

Beacon St. Boston, Mass., U. S. A. 
Allen, Miss A. W., 1905, M. C. C., Shiritarizaka, Kanazawa, Ishikawa Ken. 
Allen, Miss Thomasine, 1915, A. B. F., 2 Nakajima Cho, Sendai. 
Alvares, Prefect Apostolique, R. C., Tokushima. 
Ambler, Miss Marrietta, 1916, P. E., Okazaki Cho, Murata Machi, Hiro- 

michi Kado, Kyoto. 
Anchen, Rev., P., 1903, R. C., Hakodate. 
Anderson, Mr. A. N., & W., S. D. A., 171 Amanuma, Suginami mura, 

Toyotama Gun, Tokyo Fu. 
Anderson, Rev. Joel, & W., 1900, S. A. M., 920 Nakano, Tokyo Fu. 
Anderson, Miss Ruby, A. B. F., 10 Rokuchome, Fujimachi, Kojimachi, 

Tokyo, (Phone. Honkyoku, 3971). 
Andrews, Rev. E. L., 19 13, C. E. (A). 

Andrews, Rev. R. W., & W., 1899, P. E., 32 Kita Kuruwa cho, Maebashi. 
Andrews, Miss Sarah, 191 6, Ind.. 17 Naka Tomizaka, Koishikawa, Tokyo. 
Andrieu, Rev., 1911, R. C, 12 Sekiguchi Dai Machi, Koishikawa Tokyo. 
Ankeney, Rev. Alfred, 1914, R. C. U. S., c/o H. S. Sneyd, Yokohama, 

(F. C., Tokyo 39583). 
Appenzeller, Miss Ida, 1917, M. E. F. B., lai Jo Gakko, Hakodate. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST VII 

Arbury, Miss Katherine, 1916, P. N. Wilmina Jo Gakko, Tamatsukuri, 

Higashi Ku, Osaka. 
Archer, Miss A. L., 1899, M. S. C. C, Kyo Machi, Gifu. 
Argall, Mrs. C. B. K., J. E. B., Mikage, Hyogo Ken. 
Armbruster, Miss Rose T., 1903, F. C. M. S. Akita. 
Armstrong, Miss M. E., 1903, M. C. C, Sogawa Machi, Toyama, To- 

yama Ken, 
Armstrong, Rev. R. C, Ph. D., & W., 1903, M. C. C, Kwansei Gakuin^ 

Kobe, (from July 1919 A.). 
Arther, Miss M. C., E. P. M., Formosa. 

Ashbaugh, Miss A. M., 1908, M. E. F. B., Kwassui Jo Gakko, Naga- 
saki. 
Asbury, Miss Jessie J., 1901, F. C. M. S., 2002 Kita Tokiwa Dori, 

Tennoji, Osaka. 
Atchinson, Rev. R., >& W. 1905, Ind., 10 Itchome, Wakinohamacha, 

Kobe. 
Atkinson, Miss Anna P., 1882, M. E. F. B., Eiwa Jo Gakko, Fukuoka. 
Atkinson, Miss M. J., 1899, P. S., Shichiban Cho, Takamatsu. 
Aureil, Rev. K. E., & W., 1899, A. B. S., 15-a Akashicho Tsukiji, 

Tokyo. 
Aurientis, Rev. P., Vicar Gen., 1878, R. C., Kyoto. 
Austen, Rev. W. T., & W., 1873, C. E., 60-c Bluff, Yokohama. 
Axling, Rev, William, D. D., & W., 1901, A. B. F., 10 Rokuchome 

Fujimi Cho, Kojimachi, Tokyo. (Phone Honkyoku 3971. F. C. Tokyo 

• 38653)- 
Ayres, Rev. J. B., D. D., 1888, P. N., 33 Kawaguchi Cho, Nishi Ku, 

.'Osaka. (F. C. Osaka 21,950). 
Ayres, Rev. Samuel G., D. D., & W., 1919, U. G. C, 6 Ura Sarugaku 
cho, Kanda, Tokyo. 

B 

IBabcock, Miss B. R., 1897, P. E., 21 Yamamichi Cho, Hirosaki. 
Bach, Rev. D, G, M., cSc W., L. C. A., 1916, 4830 Dairi Machi, Moji 

Shigai, 
Baker, Miss Mary, 1913, Y. W. C. A. U. S., 84 Rokuchome, Honcho- 

dori, Yokohama. 
Baldwin, Rev. J. M. & W,, 1889, M, S, C. C, Shirakabe Cho, Nagoya, 
Ballagh, Mr. J. C, 1875, P. N., Meiji Gakuin, Tokyo. 
Ballagh, Rev. J. H., D. D., 1861, R. C. A., Ichome, Shirakaba Cho, 

Nagoya. (from June 19 19, A). 
Band, Rev, E., 1912, E. P. M, Tainan, Formosa. 
Bangs, Miss Louise, 191 1, M. E. F. B,, Kwassui Jo Gakko, Nagasaki 

(A). 
Barclay, Mr, J. Gurney, & W,, 1907, C, M. S., Akayama, Matsue. 
Barclay, Rev. T., 1874, E. P, M., Tainan, Formosa (A). 
Barnett, Miss Margaret, 1888, E. P. M., Tainan, Formosa. 
Barrows, Miss M. L., 1876, A. B, C. F. M., 59 Rokuchome, NaJcayamate 

Dori, Kobe. 
Batchelor, Yen. Archdeacon J., D. D., F. R. G. "S., & VV., 1879, C. M. 

S., I Kita San jo, Nishi Shichichome, Sapporo. 
Bates, Rev, C. J. L., D. D., & W., 1902, M. C. C, 23 Kamitomizaka 

cho, Koishikawa, Tokyo. 



Vlll 



JAPAN 



37 Bluff, Yokohama. 
4 Sasugayacho, Koishikawa, 



B^uCus, Miss Georgiana, 1890, M. E. F. B. 
Bauernfeind, Miss Susan M., igoo, E. A., 

Tokyo. 
Beam, Rev. Kemieth S., & W., 1917, A. B. C. F. M., 12 Homnura 

Cho^ Azabu, Tokyo, 
Beaumont, Lieut. Colonel John AV 

Tsukiji, Tokyo. 

Bennett, Rev. H. J. & W., 1901, A. B. C. F, M., Higashi Cho, Tottori. 
Bennett, Miss Nellie, 1910, M. E. S., (A.) Blackstone, Va., U. S. A. 
Benninghoff, Rev. H. B., D. D., & W., 1907, A. B. F., 91 Benten Cho, 

Ushigome, Tokyo- (Phone Bancho 5395) ^ ' 

[506 S. D. A., 75 Sengoku Machi, Waka- 



& W., 1909, S, A., 32 Akashicho, 



Benson, Rev. H. F., & \\ 

matsu, Fukushima Ken. 
Berlioz, Rt. Rev. Bishop, 
Bernauer, Mrs, Estella A 

Tokyo Fu. 
Berner, Miss Natalie, 1912, E. A., 93 Sanchome, Kobinata Daimachi, 

Koishikavi'a, Tokyo. 
Berry, Rev. Arthur D., D. D., 1902 

Tokyo; 
Bertrand, Rev. Fr., 
'Biannic, Rev. Jean., 
Bickel, Mr. Rhilip L., 191 7, A. B. F., (Navigator) 50 Shimo Tera 

Machi, Himeji. 
Bickers, Miss A. E. 



[875, R 
A. G.. 



1890, R. C, 
1897, R. C, 



C, Sendai. 

232 Suwa, Totsuka, Toyotaixia Gun, 



M. E. F. B., 8 Aoyama Gakui 

Kokura. 
Sambongi Machi, Aoniori Ken. 



S. P. 



Bickersteth, Mrs. Edw, 

Shiba, Tokyo. 
Bigelow, Miss' G. S. 
Billing, Rev. L., i8< 
Binford, Mr. Gurney 
Binsted, Rev. N. S., 



G., 

893. 



15 Rokuchome Naka Yamate Dori, Kobe. 
S. P. G., 358 Sanko Cho, Shirokane, 



1 886, P. N., Baiko Jo Gakko, Shimonoseki. 
5, R. C, Numazu (A). 
& W., 1899, A. F. P., 26 Bizen Machi, Mito. 
& W., 1 91 5, p. E., Hodono Naka Cho, Akita, 



Bird, Miss E., M. C. C, Eiwa Jo Gakko, Nishi Kusabuka Cho, Shizuoka. 
Birraux, Rev. J., 1890, R. C, Tsu, Ise. 

Bishop, Rev. Charles, & W., 1879, M.E.F.B., 9 Aoyama Gakuin, Tokyo, 
A. B. F., 47 Shimo Tera Machi, Himeji, 
1889, M. C. C, 8 Torii Zaka, Azabu, Tokyo. 
., C. M. S., Ikebukuro, Tokyo, 
M. E. F. B., 2 Sanban cho, Sendai. 
C, Fukuoka. 
C, Nagasaki. • 

R. C, Hibosashi Mura, Hirado, Nagasaki Ken. 
R. C, Oshima, Kagoshima Ken (W. S.). 
, R. C. A., 178 Bluff, Yokohama. 
1892, C. M. S., 89 Harajuku, Aoyama, Tokyo. 



Bixby, Miss Alice, I914 
Blackmore, Miss I. S., ] 
Bleby, rtev. H.L. & W. 
Bodley, Miss E., 1915, 
Boehrer, Rev, J. F., R 
Bois, Rev. F. L. J,, R. 
Bois, Rev. J. F., 1900, 
Bonnet, Rev. F., 1893, 
Booth Rev. E. S., i87( 
Bosanquet, Miss A. C, 

(A.) 
Bosanquet, Miss N. M., 1908, 

London. 
Bouldin, Rev. G. W., & W., 
Bouige, Rev. L. H., 1894, R. 
Boulton, Miss E, B,, 1883, C 
Bousequet, Rev. M. 
Boulflower, Rt. Rev 



S, P, G., c/o S, P, G. House, Westminster, 



Sakae Cho, Shiba, Tokyo 



906, S. B. C, 141 Koya Machi, Kokura. 
C., Oshima, Kagoshima (W. S,), 
M. S., 6 Chome Uehon Machi, Osaka. 
J., R^ C, Osaka (A.) (W, S.) 
C. Hr, D. D., (Bishop Cecil), S. P. G., 1909, 8 



ALPHABETICAL LIST IX 

Boutflower, Miss M. M., 1909, C. E., 8 Sakae Cho, Shiba, Tokyo. 
Bowers, Miss Mary Lou, 1913., L. C. A., 34 Gokuraku Cho, Fukuoka. 
Bowles, Mr. Gilbert, 1901, & W., 1893, A. F, P., 30 Koun Machi, Mita, 

Shiba Tokyo. (Phone Shiba 3743)^ 
Bowman, Miss N. F. H., 1907, M. S. C, C, Toyohashi, Shizuoka Ken. 
Boyd, Miss H., 1912, S. P. G., 16 Rokuchome, Hirakawa Cho, Kojimachi, 

Tokyo. (A). 
Boyd, Miss L. H., I902, P. E., 21 lidamachi Rokuchome, Kojimachi, Tokyo. 
Bradshaw, Miss A. H., 1889, A. B. C. F. M., 6 Minami Rokkeix Cho, Sendai. 
Brady, Rev. J. PL, & W., P. S., Susaki, Kochi Ken. 
Braithwaite, Mr. Geo., 1886, J. B. T. S,, 5 Hikawa Cho, Akasaka, 

Tokyo. (A). ... 

Braithwaite, Mrs. Geo., 1886, J- E. B., 5 Hikawa Cho, Akasaka, Tokyo. 

(A). ■ • 

Brand, Mr. Herbert G., & A\., Ind., 22 Naka Rokuban Cho, Kojimachi, 

Tokyo (A). 
Brand, Rev. J. C, 1 890, A. B. F., 46 Wakamatsu Cho, Ushigome, 

Tokyo (Retired). 
Brenguir, Rev. L., 1894, R. C, Plitoyoshi, Kumamoto Ken. 
Breton, Rev. M. J., 1899, R. C, Kuroshima, Nagasaki Ken. 
Brick, Miss Ollie A., I911, R. C. U. S. 168 Higashi Sambancho, Sendai. 
Bridgman, Mr. R. P., 1917, Y. M. C. A. T. Kawaguchi Cho, Osaka. 
Briggs, Mrs. F. C, 1895, A. B. F., 47 Shimo Tera Machi, Himeji. 
Bristowe, Miss L. M., 1899, P. E., Mito. 
Brokaw, Rev. Harvey, D. D., & W., 1896, P. N., Muro Machi, Nishi 

Ichijo Dori, Kyoto. 
Brown, Rev. C. L., D. D., & W., 1898, L. C. A., (A). 
Brown, Mr. F. H., & W., I913 Y. M. C. A. A., 347 Madison Ave., New 

York City. U. S. A. 
Brown, Miss Winnifred, 1913, F. C. M. S. 354 Nakazato, Takinogawa 

Mura, Tokyo Fu. (A). 
Bryan, Rev. J. I., Ind., Tokyo. 

Bryant, Miss E. M., C. M. S., Piratori, Hidaka, Hokkaido. 
Buchanan, Miss Elizabeth O., P. S., Gifu. 
Buchanan, Rev. W. C, & W., 1 89 1, P. S., Gifu. 

Buchanan, Rev. W. McS., D. D., & W., 1895, ^-'S- Ikuta Cho, Kobe. 
Bull, Rev. Earl R. & W., 1911, M. E. F. B., 70 Ike no Ue Cho, Kago- 

shima, (A). 
Bull, Miss Leila, 1888, P. E., 27 Kawaguchi Cho, Osaka. 
Bullis, Miss Edith M., Ind., Yamamoto Dori, Kobe. 
Bullock, Miss, E. A., J. E. B., 6085 Tennoii, Tennoji mura Osaka Fu. 
Buncombe, Rev. W.P., (& W. A.,) 1888, C. M. S., 15 Dote Sanbancho, 

Kojimachi, Tokyo. 
Burden, Rev. W. D., & W., 1898, S. D. A. 1 69-171 Amanuma, Sugi- 

nami Mura, Toyotama Gun, Tok3'o Fu. (A). 
Burnet, Miss E., J. E. B., 123 Kashiwagi, Yodobashi, Tokyo. 
Burwall, Miss Augusta, A. B. C. F. M., Doshisha Jo Gakko, Kyoto. 
Butler, Miss A. E., 1885, E. P. M., Shoka, Formosa (A). 
Buxton, Rev. B. F., & W., J. E. B., 112 Shichome, Yamamoto Dori, 

Kobe (A). 
Buzzell, Miss A. S., 1892, A. B. F., c/o Woman's American Baptist 

Foreign Mission Society, Box 4,1, Boston, Mass, U. S. A. 



JAPAN 



Cadilhac, Rev, H. Vicar Gen'l, 1882, R. C, 13 Matsugamine, Utsunomiya. 
Callahan, Rev. W. J., & W.,' 1893, M. E. S., Uwajima, lyo. 
Caloin, Rev. E., 1897, ^- C., Kofu, Yamanashi Ken (W. S.,). 
Camp, Miss Evalyn, 1916, A. B. ¥., Imasato, Kamitsu Mura, Nishinari 

Gun, Osaka Fu. 
Campbell, Miss Edith, 1909, M. C. C, Women's Christian College, Tsu- 

nohazu, Tokyo. 
Carlsen, Deaconess V. D., 1909, P. E., 32 Kuruwa Cho, Maebashi. 
Carlson, Rev. C. E., & W., S. A. M., Ito, Isu. 
Carlyle, Miss E. A., C. M. S., Tokyo. 
Carpenter, Miss M. M., 1895, ^- ^- ^-f i° Fukuro Machi, Surugadai, 

Kanda, Tokyo. 
Cary, Miss Alice E., 1915, A. B. C. F. M., Baikwa Jo Gakko, Osaka. 
Gary, Rev. Otis, D. D., & W., 1878, A. B. C. F. M., c/o A. B. C. F. M., 

14 Beacon St., Boston, Mass., U. S. A. 
Cary, Rev. Frank, & W., 1916, A. B. C. F. M., Higashi 6 chome, Kita 

Ichijo, Sapporo. 
Case, Miss D., 1916, S. P. G., 15 Nakayamate Dori, 6 Chome, Kobe. 
Castanier, Rt. Rev. B., 1899, R. C, Osaka. 
Cesca, Rev. Father, R. C, Niigata, 

Cesselin, Rev. C, 1907, R. C, Kesennuma Machi, Miyagi Ken (W. S.,). 
Cesselin, Rev. G., 1894, R. C., 8 Kita Fukashi, Matsumoto, Shinshu 
^ (W. S.). 

Cettour, Rev. J., 1885, R. C, Yamaguchi. 

Chabagno, Rev. J., 1906, R, C, 9 Wakaba Cho, Yokohama (A). 
Chambers, Miss Lillian, Y. W. C. A. U. S., Muromachi, Mushanokoji 

Sagaru, Kyoto. 
Chambers, Miss Zuda Lee, 1917, C. G., Sakai Eki, Kitatama Gun, Tokyo 

Fu. 
Chambon, Rev. J. A., 1900, R. C, Hakodate. 

Chandler, Miss A. B., 1899, Ind., Go jo Dori, 10 chome, Asahigawa. 
Chapdelaine, Rev. R. C, (A). 

Chapman, Rev. E. N., 19 17, P. N., Meiji Gakuin, Shiba, Tokyo. 
Chapman, Rev. G., & W., 1884, C. M. S. (A). 
Chapman, Rev. J. J., & W., 1899, P. E., Karasumaru Dori, Shimo 

Tachiiri, Kyoto (F. C. Osaka 27734). 
Chappell, Rev. J., & W. 1895, P. E., 40 Tsukiji, Tokyo. 
Chappell, Rev. B., D~. D., 1890^ M. E. F. B., Aoyama Gakuin, Tokyo. 
Chappell, Miss Constance S., 19 12, M. C. C, Eiwa Jo Gakko, Atago 

Machi, Kofu, Yamanashi Ken. 
Chappell, Miss Mary H., 1912, M. E. F. B., Aoyama Jo Gakuin, Aoyama, 

Tokyo (A). 
Charron, Rev. T., 1891, R. C, Himeji. 

Chase, Miss Laura, 1915, M. E. F. B., Aoyama Jo Gakuin, Tokyo, (A). 
Cheney, Miss Alice, 1915, M. E. F. B., Aoyama Jo Gakuin, Tokyo. 
Cherel, Rev. J. M., i8q2, R. C, Sarugaku Cho, Kanda, Tokyo. . 

Cholmondeley, Rev. L.' B., 1887, S. P. G., 25 Iwato Cho, Ushigome, 

Tokyo. 
Chope, Miss D. M., 1917, S. P. G., 108 Zoshigaya Machi, Koishikawa, 

Tokyo. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST XI 

Clagett, Miss M. A., 1887, A. B. F., lo Fukuro Machi, Surugadai, Kanda, 

Tokyo. 
Clapp, Miss Frances B., A. B. C. F. M., Doshisha Jo Gakko, Kyoto. 
Clark, Rev. C. A., & W., 1887, A. B. C. F. M., Miyazaki. 
Clarke, Mr. Chas., 1912, O. M. S., 1810 Young St., Cincinnati, Ohio, 

U. S. A. 
Clarke, Miss Sarah F., I915, P. N., Hokuriku Jo Gakko, Kanazawa. 
Clarke, Rev. W. H., & W., 1899, S. B. C, 135 Kyomachi, Kumamoto, 
Clawson, Miss Bertha, 1898, F. C. M. S., Joshi Sei Gakuin, Takinogawa, 

Tokyo Fu. 
Clazie, Miss Mabel G., P. C. C, Taihoku, Formosa. 
Coates, Rev. H. H., D. D., & W., 1890, M. C. C, Takamachi, Hama- 

matsu. 
Coates, Miss A. L., 1895, M. P. W., 10 Motoshiro Cho, Hamamatsu (A). 
Cobb, Rev. E. S., & W., 1904, A. B. C. F. M., Karasumaru Dori, 

Imadegawa Agaru, Kyoto. 
Cobb, Mr. J. B.,' & W., 1918, M. E. S., Palmore Institute, 23 Shichome 

Kita Nagasa Dori, Kobe. 
Cockram, Miss S. H., 1893, C. M. S., Sojima, Kurume (A). 
Coe, Miss Estelle, 1911, A. B. C. F. M., Tottori. 
Colborne, Mrs., 1897, C. E., Hojo, Boshu. 
Cole, Mr. A. B., & W., S. D. A., 171 Amanuma, Suginami Mura, Tokyo 

P^u. 
Coleman, Mr. H. E., & W., 1907, W. S. S. A., ii Hinoki Cho, Akasaka, 

Tokyo (A). 
Coles, Miss A. M., 1910, J. E. B., Bishop Poole Girls School, Tsuru- 

hashi Cho, Higashi Nari Gun, Osaka Fu. 
Collins, Mr. H. H. 1912, Y. M. C. A. T., 58 Teppo Cho, Hiroshima. 
Combaz, Rt. Rev. J. C, 1889, R. C, Nagasaki. 
Connell, Miss Hannah, 1905, P. C. C, Tamsui, Formosa. 
Converse, Miss C. A., 1889, A. B. F., 3131 Aoki Cho, Kanagawa Machi, 

Yokohama (Phone Honkyoku 2176). 
Converse, Mr. G. C, & W., 1915 Y. M. C. A. A., 10 Omote Sarugaku 

Cho, Kanda, Tokyo. 
Cook, Miss M. M., 1904, M. E. S., Hiroshima Girls' School, Hiroshima. 
Cooke, Rev. A. W., Ph. D., 1899, P. E. (& W., U. S. A.) 12 Rue 

d'Agnesseaus, Paris, France (W. S.). 
Cooke, Miss M. S., 1913, M. S. C. C, Gokiso, Nagoya. 
Cooper, Rev. S. E., & W., 1906, F. M. A., Belvidere 111., U. S. A. 
Coot, Mr. Leonard, A. G., 1035 Honmoku, Yokohama. 
Copp, Mr. W. C, 191 5, Y. M. C. A. T., Commercial School, Hakodate. 
Cornier, Rev. A., 1900, R. C, Koriyama (W. S.). 
Corgier, Rev. E., 1897, R. C, Wakamatsu (W. S.). 
Cornwall-Legh, Miss M. H., P. E., Kusatsu, Joshu. 

CorreD, Rev. I. H., D. D., & W., 1873, P. E., 2 Kasumi Cho, Azabu, Tokyo. 
Correll, Miss Ethel, 1908, P. E., 11 Higashi Ichiban Cho, Sendai. 
Cosand, Rev. Joseph, 1885, U. B., 1929 Shimo Shibuya, Tokyo Fu. 
Cotrel, Rev., I902, R. C, Nakatsu, Oita Ken. 

Couch, Miss Helen, 1916, M. E. F. B., 53 Moto Machi, Hakodate. 
Couch, Miss S. M., 1892, R. C. A., 47 Moto Fukuro Machi, Nagasaki. 
Courtice, Miss Lois K., 1914, M. E. F. B., Nagbya CA). 
Cowl, Mr. John, & W., C. M. S., 15 Dote Sanbancho, Kojimachi, 

Tokyo (A). 



Xii JAPAN 

Cowman, Rev, C. E., &■ W., 1901, O. M. S., loi So. Oxford Ave., Los 

Angeles, Calif., U. S. A. 
Cox, Miss A. M., 190a, CM. S., Ashiya Mura, Muko Gun, Hyogo 

Ken (A). 
Cozad, Miss Gertrude, 1888, A. B. C. F. M., 59 Rokuchome, Naka 

Yamate Dori, Kobe, 
Cragg, Rev. W. J. M., & W., 1911, M, C. C, Kwansei Gakuin, Kobe. 
Craig, Mr. E, B., & W., Ind., Katase, Kanagawa Ken. 
Craig, Miss M., 1903, M. C. C, 8 Torii Zaka, Azabu, Tokyo. 
Crawford, Miss Inez, 1917, Y. W. C. A. U. S., Mushanokoji Sagaru, 

Muromacbi, Kyoto, 
Cribb, Miss E. R., J. E. B., 37 Kita Nichome, Denbo Cho, Nishinari 

Gun, Osaka Fu. 
Cronise, Miss Florence, 1913, M. P, W., Shirakabe Cho, Nagoya. 
Crosby, Miss Amy R., 1913, A. B, F., c/o, W, A, B. F, M, S., Box 41 

Boston, Mass., U. S. A. ' ' 

Cummings, Rev. C, K., & W., 1889, P. S., Asahi Maehi, Toyohashi. 
Cunningham, Rev, W. D,, & W., Y, M. J., 6 Naka Cho, Yotsuya, Tokyo, 
Curd, Miss Lillian, 19I2, P, S,, Tera Maehi, Tokushima (A). 
Curtis, Miss Edith, 1912, A. B., C. F. M., Baikwa Jo Gakko, Osaka. 
Curtis, Rev. F. S., & W-, 1887, P. N, 1854, Maruyama Cho, Shimonoseki, 
Curtis, Rev, W. L., & W,, A. B. C. F. M,, Ichijo Sagaru. Karasumaru 

IDori, Kyoto. 
Cuthbertson, Mr. James, & W., 1905, J. E. B., 9 Fukuro Maehi, Suruga 

Dai, Kanda, Tokyo. 
Cypert, Miss Lilian, 1917, Ind., 17 Naka Tomizaka, Koishikawa, Tokyo. 



Dalidert, Rev. Desire, 1884 R, C, Shirakawa. 

Daniel, Miss N, Margaret, 1898, M, E, F. B., Aoyama Jo Gakuin, 

Tokyo. 
Danielson, Miss Mary, 1 902, A. B. F., c/o W. A. B. F, M. S., Box 41 

Boston, Mass., U, S. A. 
Daridon, Rev. H., 1886, R. C, Tottori. 
Daughaday, Miss M. A., 1883, A, B. C, F, M,, Kita Sanjo, Nishi 15 

chome, Sapporo. 
Daugherty, Miss Lena G., 1915, P. N,,~Joshi Gakuin, 33 Kami Niban 

Cho, Kojimachi, Tokyo. 
Davey, Rev. P. A., & W., 1899, F. C. M. S., 72 Myogadani Maehi, 

Koishikawa, Tokyo. 
Davidson, Miss F, E., 1914, P, N., c/o Pres. Bd. For, Msns., 156 5th 

Ave., N. Y., U, S. A. 
Davis, Mrs. J. D., 1883, A. B. C, F, M., Kobe College, Kobe. 
Davis, Mr. J. Merle, & W., 1 905, Y. M. C, A. A., 547 Madison Ave., 

New York City, U. S. A, 
Davis, Rev. W, A., «& (W, absent) 1891, M, E. S., Kwansei Gakuin, 

Kobe. 
Davison, Rev. C. S., & W., 1903, M. E. F. B., (A.) 
Davison, Rev. J, C, D, D., 1873, M. E. F. B., 435 Furushinyashiki, 

Kumamoto. ^ 

Dawson, Miss Elizabeth, M. P. W. (A.) 
Deffrenes, Rev. Jos. 1892. R, C, Fukushima. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST XIU 

DeForest, Miss C. B., 1903, A. B. C. F. M.^ Kobe College, Kobe. 

de Groot, Commissioner J. W., &. W., 19L6, S. A., 23-a Akashi Cho, 

Tsukiji, Tokyo. 
Delahave, Rev., 1906, R. C. Shizuoka. 
Demangelle, Rev. A. H., 1892, R. C.^ 19 Sekiguchi Daimachi, Koishi- 

kawa, Tokyo (A). 
Demaree, Rev. T. W. B., & W., 1889, M. E. S,, ^3 Niage Machi, Oita, 

Oita Ken. 
Demarest, Miss May B., 1912, R. C. A., Meiji Gakuin, Shiba, Tokyo, 
Denton, Miss Mary F., 1888, A. B. C. F. M., Doshisha Jo Gakko, Kyoto. 
Deruy, Rev., 1909, R. C, Matsuye (W. S.). 
Detweiler, Rev. J. E., & W., 1910, P. N., c/o Pres. Bd. For. Msns.;, 

156 Fifth Ave., New York, U. S. A. 
De Wolfe, Miss H. E., 1904, M. C. C, 14 Shintari zaka, Kanazawa (A). 
Dickerson, Miss Augusta, 1888, M. E. F. B., Tai Jo Gakko, Hakodate. 
Dickinson, Miss Emma E., 1897, M. E. F. B'., 37 Bluff, Yokohama. {¥, 

C. Tokyo 15,403). 
Dithridge, Miss H. L., 1910, A. B. F. loi Hara Machi, Koishikawa, 

Tokyo. 
Dixon, xMiss E. M., I906, P. E., Morioka (A). 

Doane, Miss Marion S., 1918, P. E., St. Luke's Hospital, Tsukiji, Tokyo. 
Dooman, Rev. Isaac, & W., 1887, P. E;, 211 Atagoshita Cho, Tsu, Ise. 
Dosker, Rev. R. J., 19 16, P. N., 42 Tokiwa Machi, Matsuyama, lyo. 
Dossier, Rev. R., 1901, R. C. Morioka. 
Dowd, Miss Annie, 1888, P. S., 180 Takajo Machi, Kothi. 
Dowie, Mr. Kenneth W., & W., 1913, P. C. C. Taihoku, Formosa. 
Dozier, Rev. C. K., & W,, 1906, S. B. C, 47 Yoha no Cho, Fukuoka. 
Drake, Miss Katherine I., 1 909, M. C. C, Ueda, Shinshu. 
Draper, Rev. G. F., S. T. D., & W., 1880, M. E. F. B., 222-B Bluff, 

Yokohama. 
Draper, Miss Marion R., 1913, M. E. F. B., Yokohama. 
Draper, Miss Winifred F., 1912, M. E. F. B., 9 Nakakawarage Cho, 

Hirosaki. 
Drouart de Lezey, Rev. F. L., 1873, R. C, Gotemba, Shizuoka Ken. 
Drouet, Rev., 19 10, R. C. Nagasaki. 

Duke, Rev., M. O. M., & W., C. M. S., Nishi Kamiichi Machi, Oita (A). 
Dunlop, Rev. J. G., D. D., 1887, & W., 1894, P. N., Baiko Jogakuin, 

Shimonoseki (in France till summer 19I9). 
Dunning, Miss Elizabeth, 1918. Y. W. C. A. U. S., 2 Sanchome, Sado- 

wara Cho, Ushigome, Tokyo. 
Dunning, Rev. M. D., & W., 1902, A. B. C. F. M., 12 Shichome, Yama- 

moto dori, Kobe. 
Durand, Rev. J. E., 1885, R. C, Iwojima, Nagasaki Ken. 
Durgin, Mr. R. L., & W., 1919, Y. M. C. A. A. 10 Omote Sarugaku 

Cho, Kanda, Tokyo. 
Duthu, Rev. J. B., 1885, R. C, Okayama. 
Dyer, Mr. A. L., & W., 1905, J. E. B., 120 Goken Yashiki, Himeji. 



Eaton, Miss A. G., 1918, P. N., Hokuriku Jo Gakko, Kanazawa, Ishi- 

kawa Ken. 
Eckel, Rev. W. A., & W., P. N. C, 2 of 78 Nobori Cho, Hiroshima, 



XIV JAPAN 

Elliott, Miss Isabel, 1913, P. C. C, Taihoku, Formosa (A). 

Elwin, Rev. W. H., & W., I907. C. M. S., 7 Sasugaya Cho, Koishikawa, 

Tokyo. 
Emery, Mr. Lloyd B., 1916, Y. M. C. A. T., Commercial School, Nagasaki, 
Erffmeyer, Miss Edna, 1906, E. A., 14 Nichome, Yojo Dori, Nishiku, 

Osaka. 
Erffmeyer, Miss Florence, 1911, E. A., 14 Nichome, Yojo Dori, Nishiku, 

Osaka. 
Erickson, Rev. S. M., & W., 1905, P S., 127 Hamano Cho, Takamatsu. 
Erskine, Rev. W. H., & W., 1904, F. C. M. S., 2395 Minami Kawahori 

Cho, Minami Ku, Osaka. 
Evans, Miss A., 1901, C. M. S., Hokkaido. 
Evans, Rev. Chas. H., & W., 1894, P. E., Naka Machi, Mito. 
Evans, Miss Elizabeth Margaret, I911, P. N., Hokusei Jo Gakko, 

Sapporo. 
Evans, Miss Sarah, 1893, I'^d., Kobe. 
Ewing, Miss A. M., I915, Ind., 3 of 82 Kogai Cho, Azabu, Tokyo, 



Fage, Rev. F., 1883, R. C, Kobe. 

Fanning, Miss K. F., I9I4, A. B. C. F. M., 22 Nakayamate Dori, 
Rokuchome, Kobe. 

Faust, Rev. A. K., Ph. D., & W., 1 900, R. C. U. S., 162 Higashi San- 
ban Cho, Sendai. 

Ferguson, Rev. D., & W., 1889, E. P. M., Tainan, Formosa. 

Ferguson, Rev. J. Y., M. D.,, & W., I905 P. C. C, Taihoku, Formosa 
(A). 

Field, Miss Sarah M., 1917, A. B. C. F. M., 12 Honmura Cho, Azabu, 
Tokyo, 

Finlay, Miss L. Alice, 1905, M. E. F. B., 143 Kajiya Cho, Kagoshima 
(A). 

Fisher, Rev. C. H. D., & W., 1882, A. B. F, 5g Bluff, Yokohama 
(Retired). 

Fisher, Mr. Galen M., & W., 1898, Y. M. C. A. A., 22 Gochome, Fujimi 
Cho, Kojimachi Ku, Tokyo (A). 

Fisher, Mr. R. H., & W., 1914, A. B, F-, 23-A Bluff, Yokohama , (F. 
C. Tokyo 32699). 

Flaujac, Rev., 1909, R. C, Tsukiji Cathedral, Tokyo. 

Fleming, Miss Anna M., 1918, R. C. A., 47 Moto Fukuro Machi, Nagasaki. 

Foote, Rev. J. A., & W., 191 2, A. B. F,, 951 Rokumantai Cho, Ten- 
noji, Osaka.. 

Forester, Rev. and Hon. O. St. M., & W., C. E., 21 12 Negishi, Yoko- 
hama. 

Pbss, Rt. Rev. H. J., D. D., & W., 1876, S. P. G., Shinomiya, Kobe, 

Foxley, Rev. C, & W., 1909, S. P. G., 37 Goken Yashiki, Himeji. 

France, Miss B., S. P. G., 15 Rokuchome, Nakayamate Dori, Kobe,"* 

France, Rev. W. F., 1909, S. P. G., 11 Sakae Cho, Shiba, Tokyo (A). 

Francis, Miss R. M., C, M. A., Fukuyama. 

Francis, Rev. T, R., & W., 1913, C.'M, A., Matsuyama. 

Frank, Rev. J, W., & W,, 1912, M, E. S., Nakatsu, Oita Ken (from 
June 1919 A). 



ALPHABETICAL LIST XV 

Freeth, Miss F. M., 1896., C. M. S., Kusunoki Cho, Kumamoto. 
French, Miss R. D., 1910, A. B. F., 1102 E. Spruce St., Seattle, Wash., 

U. S. A. 
Fressenon, Rev. M., 1903, R- C, Oshima, Kagoshima Kea. 
Fry, Rev. E. C, & W., 1894, C. C, 7 Nijo Machi, Utsanomiya. 
Fryer, Rev. W. O., & W., I9II, M. C. C, 319 Hyakkoku Machi, Kofu, 

Yamanashi Ken. 
Fugill, Miss E. M., 1893, C. M. S., Hamada (A). 
Fulghum, Miss S. F., 1918, S. B. C. loi Hara Machi, Koishikawa, 

Tokyo. 
Fulton, Rev. G. W., D. D., & W., 1889, P. N. 32 Kawaguchi Cho, 

Nishi Ku, Osaka (F. C. Osaka 13,828). 
Fulton, Rev. C. D., & W., P. S., Okazaki, Aichi Ken. 
Fulton, Rev. S. P., D. D., & W., 1888, P. S., 2135 Nakao Mura, 

Kumochi, Kobe. 



Gaines, Miss N. B., 1887, M. E. S., Hiroshima Girls' School, Hiroshima. 

Gaines, Miss Rachel, 1914, M. E. S., Hiroshima Girls' School,. Hiroshima. 

Gale, Rev. W. H., 1912, M. S. C. C, Shinta Cho, Matsumoto. 

Gal gey. Miss L. A., 1 899, C. M. S., Nishinomiya no Shita, Fukuyama 

Hiroshima, Ken. 

Gardener, Miss F., 1907, C. M. S., 145 Kokutaiji Mura, Hiroshima. 

Gardiner, Mr. J. M., & W., 1880, P. E., (retired) 32 Dote Samban Cho, 

Kojimachi, Tokyo. 
Gardiner, Miss Ernestine W., 1916, P. E., St. Faith's Training School, 

New York City, U. S. A. 
Gamier, Rev. L. F., 1885, R. C, Sakitsu, Amakusa, Nagasaki Ken. 
Garman, Rev. C. P.j & W., 1906, C. C, 26 Kasumi Cho, Azabu Tokyo. 

(F. C. Tokyo 10598). 
Garst, Miss Gretchen, 191 2, F. C. M. S., Akita (A). 
Garvin, Miss A. E., 1882, P. N., 3 of 4 Inari Cho, Kure. 
Gates, Rev. Paul J., & W., 19 18, A. B. F. 6 Ura Sarugaku Cho, 

Kanda, Tokyo. 
Gauld, Rev. William, & W., P. C. C, Taihoku, Formosa. 
Geley, Rev. J. B., 1895, R. C, Wakayama. ■ 

Gemmill, Rev. W. C, 1895, S.- P. G., 1 1 Sakae Cho, Shiba, Tokyo. 
Gerhard, Miss Mary A., R. C. U. S. 41 Karahori Cho, Sendai. 
Gerhard, Prof. Paul L., & W., 1897, R. C. U. S., 6 Rokken Cho, Sendai. 
Gettleman, Rev. Victor, S. J., R. C., 7 Kioi Cho, Kojimachi, Tokyo. 
GifFord, Miss Alice C, 191 1, A. F. P., 30 Koun Cho, Mita, Shiba, Tokyo. 

(Phone Shiba 3743). 
Gillespy, Miss J- C., 1902, J. E. B., 6 Nichome, Ish'iicho, Kobe. 
Gillett, MissE.R., 1896, Ind., lac Kashiwagi, Yodobashi Machi, Tokyo 

Fu. 
Giraudias, Rev., 1903, R. C, Odawara, Kanagawa Ken (W. S.) 
Gist, Miss Anette, 1915, M. E. S., 55 Niage Machi, Oita, Oita Ken. 
Gleason, Mr. Geo., & W., 1901, Y. M. C. A. A., 347 Madison Ave., New- 
York City (A). 
Glenn, Miss Agnes, 1901, H. F., 105 Take Cho, Koya, Choshi, Shimosa 

(A). 
Goodwin, Miss Lora C, 1914, M. E. F. B., Sapporo. 



XVI JAPAN 

Gonzales, Rev. Joseph, & W., St P. G., Ogasawara Giinto (Bonin Is.), 
Gorbold, Mrs. R. P., 1892, P. N.,. Wilitiina Jo Gakko, Tamatsukuri, 

Higashi Ku, Osaka. 
Gordon, Mrs. Mi L., 1872, A. B. C. F. M., Tera Machi Dori, Nashinoki 

Cho, Kyoto i 
Govenlock, Miss Isabel, M. C. C, London, Ont. ' 

Gracy, Rev. I.., 1897, ^- ^-j Nagasaki. 
Grafton, Mr. H. H., & W., 1916, Y. M.'C. A. A., Muromachi, Demizu 

Agaru, Kyoto. 
Grant, Mr. J. P., 1902, Y. M. C. A. T., Uenoyama, Kaniitomaka 

Machi, Shimonoseki. ■ 

Gray, Dr. A. A., M. D., & W., 1913, P. C. C, Gilan, Formosa (A). 
Gray, Mr. F. H., & W., A. G., (A). . 
Green, Rev. C. P., & W-, C. M. A., Hiroshima. 
Greene, Miss Elsie, 1916, Y. W. C. A. U. S., 14 Kita Jimbo Cho, Kanda 

Tokyo (A). 
Gregson, Miss D., S. P. G., 27 Nibancho, Okayama (A). 
Gressitt, Mr. J. F., & W., 1907, A. B. F. 75 Bluff, Yokohama, (F. C. 

Tokyo 40944). 
Grey, Rev. Wm. T., & W., 1905, S. P. G., (A) c/o S.P. G. House, 

Westminster, I^ondon. 
Grinand, Rev. A., 1902, R. C.^ Kyoto. 

Griswold, Miss Fannie E.,1889, A. B. C. F. M., 132 Iwagami, Maebashi. 
Grover, Mr. Dana I., & W., 1904, A. B. C. F. M., Karasumaru Dori, 

Imadegawa Sagaru, Kyoto. . 

Guinther, Rev. E. H., & W., 1913, R. C. U. S., ioi6 Muika Machi, 

Yamagata. ■ 

Gulick, Rev. Sidney L., D. D., & W., 1888, A. B. C. F. M., (A). 
Gundert, Rev» W., 1906, Ind., Daigo Koto 'Gakko, Kumamoto. 
Gunter, Miss Mamie E., Y. W. C. A. U. S,, 12 Sanchome, Tamachi, 

Ushigome, Tokyo. 
Gushue-Taylor, Dr. G., & W., 191 ij E. P. M., Tainan, Formosa (A). 

H 

Haden, Rev. T. H., D. D., 1895, M. E. S., Kwansei Gakuin, Kobe. 
Hager, Rev. S. E., D. D., (& W. A.,) 1893, M. E. S., 2 of 135 Shichome, 

Kitano Cho, Kobe. Fayette, Mo.^ U. S. A. 
Hagin, Rev. F. E., & W., 1900, F. C. M. S. 65 Miyashita Cho, Sugamo, 

Koishikawa, Tokyo (A). 
Hail, Rev. A. ,D., D. D., 1878^ P. N., ^^ Kawaguchi Cho, Higashi Ku, 

Osaka. , 

Hail, Rev. T. B., D. D., & W., 1887, P. N., Wakayama. 
Hail, Mrs. J. E., 1898, P. N., Tezuka Yama, Sumiyoshi Mura, Osaka. 
Halbout, Rev. A., 1888, R. C, Akaogi Mura, Oshima, Kagoshima Ken, 
Hall, Rev. Marion E., & W., 1915, A. B. C. F. M., 132 Iwagami Cho. 

Maebashi. 
Halsey, Miss L. S., 1904, P. N., Joshi Gakuin, 33 Kaminiban Cho, 

Kojimachi, Tokyo. 
Hamilton, Miss F., M. S. C. C, Arigasaki, Matsumoto. 
Hamilton, Miss F. G., M. C. C, 8 Toriizaka, Azabu, Tokyo. 
Hamilton, Rt. Rev. H. J., D. D., & W., 1892, M. S. C. C, Higashi 

Katacho, Nagoya. 



ALPHABETICAL LiSl XVU 

Hamilton, Miss L. C, C. "E. (A). ' 

Hannaford, Rev, Howard D., & W., 'I9I5- P- N., 54I Rokuchome 

Gojohashi, Pligashi Kyoto; 
Hansee, Miss Martha L., 1907, Ind., Aoyama Gakuin, Tokyo. 
Hansell, Miss Sarah G., P. S., Kinjo Jo Gakko, Shichoine, Shirakabecho. 

Nagoya. . 

Hansen, Miss Kate I., IC07, R. C. U. S., 168 Higashi Sanban. Cho. 

Sendai. 
Hard, Miss Clara Taylor, Y. \Y. C. A. U. S., 280 Higashi Umeda Cho 

Kiiaku, Osaka. 
Harper, Miss R. A., M. C. C, 8 Toriizaka, Azabu, Tokyo. 
Haring, Rev. D. G., 8 W., 1917, A. B. F., 946 Kashiwagi, Yodobashi 

Tokyo Fu. 
Harrington, Rev. C. K., D. D., & W., 1886, A. B. F., c/o A. B. F 

M. S., Box 41, Boston, Mass., U. S. A. 
Flarris, Rt. Rev. Bishop M. C, D. D., L L. D., 1873, M. E. F. B., 12 

Aoyama Gakuuin, Tokyo (A) Retired. ' .; 

Harris, Mr. Richard W., & W., 1909, J. E. B., 23 Nichome, Kita Nagasa 

Dori, Kobe (A). " . ' 

Harrison, Miss Ida W., 1916, A. B. C. F. M., Kobe College, Kobe. 
Harrison, Rev. E. R., & W., 1914, Au. B. M., Chiba, Chiba Ken. 
Hart, Miss C. E., 1889, M. C. C, Atago Machi, Nagano, Nagano Ken. 
Hartshorne, Miss A. C, 1893, Ind., Gobancho, Kojimachi, Tokyo. 
Haslam, Rev. O. R., 1918, F. M., Akashi, Hyogo Ken. 
Hassell, Rev. A. P., & W., P. S., Tokushima. 

Hassell, Rev. J. Woodrow, & W., P. S., Marugame, Kagawa Ken. 
Hatcher, Miss A. K., 1917, M. E. S., Hiroshima Girls' Sckool, Hiroshima. 
Hathaway, Miss M. R. A., 1905, U. G. C, 50 Takata Oimatsu Cho, 

Koishikawa, Tokyo. 
Haven, Hiss Marguerite, 1910, A.. B. F., 3131 Aoki Cho, Kanagawa 

Machi, Yokohama (Phone Honkyoku 2176). 
Hayes, Rev. W. H., & W., 1916, U. B., 1912 Shimo Shibuya, Tokyo 

Fu. 
Heaslett, Rev. S., & W., 1900, C. M. S., Shin Gakuin, Ikebukuro, Tokyo 

(A). 
Heaton, Miss C. A., 1893, M. E. F. B., 2 Samban Cho, Sendai (A). 
Heckelman, Rev. F. W., & W., 1906, M. E. F. B., 2 Naebo Cho, 

Sapporo. 
Hennigar, Rev. E. C, & AY., 1905, M. C. C, Kanazawa, Ishikawa Ken,' 

(after July 1919). 
Henty, Miss A. M., '1905, C. M. S., Tomida Ura Machi, Nakano Cho, 

Tokushima (A). 
Hepner, Rev. C/W., & W., 1912, L. C. A. 813-2 Wakigaoka, Tennoji, 

Osaka. 
Hereford, Rev. W. F., & W., 1902, P. N., c/o Bd. For. Msns., 156 Fifth 

Ave., N. Y., U. S. A. • 
Hermann, Rev. Father, R. C, Toyama. 
Hertzler, Miss Yerna S., 1912, 6. M. S., 391 Kashiwagi, Yodobashi 

Machi, Tokyo Fu. 
Herve, Rev., 1897, R. C, Ichinoseki, Iwate Ken (W. S.). 
Hess, Rev. James M., & W., 1916, A. B. C. F. M., Tera Machi, Nashi- 

nokiCho, Kyoto. 
Hessler, Miss Minnie K., I907, F. M. A., Sumoto, Awaji. 



XVlll JAPAN 

Heuzet, Rev. A. E., 1895. -^^- ^-j Kirinoura, Goto, Nagasaki Ken. 
Heywood, Miss C. G., 1904, P. E., Rikkyo Jo Gakko, 26 Tsukiji, Tokyo. 
Hewett, Miss E. J., 1884, M. E. C, 2 Samban Cho, Sendai (A). 
Hewlett. Rev. A. S., C. E., 11 Sakae Cho, Shiba, Tokyo. 
Hind, Rev. J., & W., 1890, C. M. S., 107 Higashi Kajimachi, Kokura, 

(F. C. Fukuoka, 5,899) (from July IQI9 A). 
Hitch, Miss A. E., 1918, M. E. F. B., Aoyama Jo Gakuin, Tokyo. 
Hodges, Miss Olive I., 1902, M. P. W., Eiwa Jo Gakko, Yokohama. 
Hoekje, Rev. W. G., & W., 1907, R. C. A., 71 Osawa Kawara Koji, 

Morioka. 
Hoffman, Rev. B. P., & W., S. D. A., 171 Amanuma, Suginami Mura, 

Toyotama-gun, Tokyo Fu. 
Hoffsommer, Mr. W. E., & W., 1907, R. C. A., Meiji Gakuin, Shirokane, 

Shiba, I'okyo. 
Hogan, Miss F. M. F., 1892, S. P. G., 358 Sanko Cho, Shirokane, Shiba, 

Tokyo. 
Holland, Miss J. M., 1888, C. E., Ind., Chikko, Osakk. 
Holland, Miss Charlie, 1915, M. E. S., 35 Nichome, Naka Yamate Dori, 

Kobe. 
Holliday, Mr. George A., 1916, M. E. F. B., Aoyama Gakuin, Tokyo. 
Holmes, Rev. C. P., & W., 1906, M. C. C, Hoekami Cho, Fukui. 
Holmes, Rev. Jerome C, & W., 1 9 13, A. B. C. F. M., Toyosaki Cho, 

Minami Hama, Kitano, Osaka. 
Holmes, Miss M., 1916, S. P. G., 456 Shimo Gion Cho, Kobe. 
Holtom, Rev. D. C, & W., 19 10, A. B. F., 30 Akashi Cho, Kyobashi, 

Tokyo. 
Horn, Rev. E. T., & W., 191 1, L. C. A., 59 Yaba-Cho, Naka Ku, 

Nagoya (A). 
Home, Miss A. C. J., 1906, C. M. S., Kokura (A). 
Hospers, Miss Hendrine E., 191 3, R. C. A., Nishi Horibata, Srga (from 

July 19 1 9 A.) 
Hotson, Miss J. L., P. C. C, Taihoku, Formosa. 

Howard, Miss R. D., 1891, C. M. S., Nichome, Shinonome Cho, Osaika. 
Howe, Miss Annie L., 1887, A. B. C. F. M., 22 Rokuchome, Nakayamate 

Dori, Kobe. 
Howey, Miss Harriet, 1916, M. E. F. B., Kajiya Cho, Kagoshima. 
Hoyt, Miss O. S., 1902, A. B. C. F. M., Niban Cho, Matsuyama. 
Hughes, Miss A. M., 1897, C. M. S., Hokkaido. 

Hughes, Miss F. M., S. P. G., 15 Rokuchome, Nakayamate Dori, Kobe. 
Humphreys, Miss Marian 1915, P. E., 11 Higashi Ichiban Cho, Sendai. 
Hunziker, Pfarrer Jakob, & W., A. E. P. M., 23 Kamitomi-zaka, Koishi- 

kawa, Tokyo. 
Hurd, Miss Helen R., 191 1, M. C. C, Ueda, Shinshu. 
Husted, Miss Edith E., 1917, A. B. C. F. M., 12 Hommira Cho, Aza'Du, 

Tokyo. 
Hutchings, Miss A. M., 1908, Ind., Nikko, Tochigi Ken. 
Hutchinson, Ven. Archdeacon A. B., & W„ 1881, CM. S., 9 Deshima, 

Nagasaki. 
Hutchinson, Rev. A. C, & W., 1909, C. M. S., Fukuoka. 
Hutchinson, Rev. E. G., 1916, C. M. S., 15 Dote Samban Cho, Kojimachij 

Tokyo, 
Hutt, Rev. Alfred, 1898, R. C, Hakodate (W. S.). 
Hytonerj, Miss R., 191 1 L. E. F., lida Machi, Shinshu (A). 



ALPHABETICAL LIST XIX 



Tglehart, Rev. C. W., & W., 1909, M. E. F. B., Sendai. 

Iglehart, Rev. E. T., & W., 1904, M. E. F. B., 6 Aoyama Gakuin, 

Tokyo. 
Imbrie, Rev. Wm., D. D., & W., 1875, ^- ^-^ ^eiji Gakuin, Shirokane, 

Shiba, Tokyo. 
Imhof, Miss Louisa, 1889, M. E. F. B., Ikuji-In, 160 Kita Yoban Cho, 

Sendai. 
Isaac, Miss I., 1918, M. S. C. C, 89 Harajuku, Ao^ a na, Tokyo. 



Jacques, S. G., & W., 1916, S. D. A., 2183 Yamaliana Cho, Sapporo. 

Jacquet, Rev. Vicar Gen'l., R. C., 1887, Shimizu Koji, Sendai. 

Jesse, Miss M. D., 191 1, A. E. F., 2 Nakajima Cho, Sendai. 

jex-Blake, Miss M. B. R., 1898, C. M. S., Hokkaido. 

Johan, Rev. Father, R. C, Matsuyama. 

Johanson, Mr. J. M., & W., 1918, S. D. A., 171 Amanuina, Suginami 

Mura, Tokyo Fu. 
Johns, Mr. H. W., & W., M. E. F. B., Aoyama Gakuin, Tokyo. 
Johnstone, Miss J. M., 1905, P. N., 126 Abura Cho, Takaoka, Toyama 

Ken. 
Joly, Rev. E. C, 1885, R. C, Miyazaki, Miyazaki Ken. 
Jones, Rev. E. H., & W., 1884, A. B. F., 462 Minami Machi, Mito. 
Jones, Rev. H. P., & W., 1908, M. E. S., 53 Kami Nagarekav/a Cho, 

Hiroshima. 
Jones, Mr. Thomas E., & W., 1917, A. F. P., 30 Koun Cho, Mita, 

Shiba, Tokyo. 
Jones, Rev. D. P., 191 6, E. P. M., Formosa (W. S.). 
Jones, Rev. J. I., & W., 1909, M. E. F. B., (A). 
Jorgensen, Mr, Arthur, & W., 1912, Y. M. C. A. A., 22 Gochome 

Fujimi Cho, Kojimachi, Tokyo. 
Jost, Miss H. J., 1908, M. C. C, 14 Shiritari Zaka, Kanazawa (A). 

(Return September). 
Judson, Miss Cornelia, 1887, A. B. C. F. M., Niban Cho, Matsuyama. 
Jucrgcnscn, Mr. C. F., & W., A. G., 5 of 10 Akebono Cho, Sugamo, Tokyo. 
Julius, MissO., C. E., Ind., Bishop Poole Girls' School, Tsuruhashi Cho, 

Fligashi Nari Gun, Osaka (A). 

Kaufman, Miss Emma R., 1913, Y. W. C. A. C, 2 Sanchome, Sadcw^ara 

Cho, Ushigome, Tokyo. 
Keagey, Miss M. D., 1908, M. C. C, 8 Torii Zaka, Azabu, Tokyo. 
Keen, Miss E. M., 1896, C. M. S., 7, Shindaiku Machi, Nagasaki. 
Kelly, Rev. H., 1913, S. S. M., C. E., Sliingakuin, Ikebukuro, Tokyo. 
Kcnnion, Miss O, 1917, C. E., 2081 Minami Ola Machi, Yokohama. 
Ketchum, Miss Edith L., 191 1, M. E. F. B., (A). 
Ketllewell, Rev. F., & W., 1905, S. P. G., 52 of 1721 Fukiai Cho, 

Kolje. 
Kidwell, Hiss L. M., 1894, M. E. F. B., Nagasaki (A). 



XK:'- " ': JAPAN ■■.■..":. 

Kilbournf, Rev. E. A., & W., 1902, O. M. S.,, ici So. Oxford Ave/ 

Los /mgels, Calif., U. S. A. 
Kilbourne, Rev..E. I;., I9.12,. O. M. S., 391 KashiNvagi, Yodobashi 

Mach'i, Toityo Fu. ' •■ 

Killam, Miss Ada, 191 8, M. C. C, Sogawa Machi, Toyama, Toyama Ken. 
Kingsbury, Rev. W. de L., & W., 1907, Ind., Tsukimi Zaka, Akalsuka- 

Kyoku, Nagoya. 
Kinney, Miss J. M., 1905, P. C. C, Tamsui, Formosa, 
Kinsley, Miss Amy W., 1917, P- E., 26 Alago Cho, Flodono, Akila. 
Kinsley, Miss Kathleen M., 1917 P. E., 26- Atago Cho, Hodono, Akita. 
Kipps, Rev. M. M., & W. 1916, L. C. A., 180 Uchitsuboi Machi 

Kumamoto. 
Kirk, Miss Flazel I., 1918., U. G. C, 50 Takata Oimatsu Cho, Koishi- 

kawa Tokyo. • 

Kirlland, Miss Leila G., 1910, P. S., Kinjo Jo Gakko, Shichome, Shira- 

kabe Cho, Nagoya. 
Knapp, Deaconess Susan T., 191 7, P. E!, i6Gobaricho, Kojimachi, Tokyo. 
Kniglv, Rev. O. H., & W., 1899, C. M. S., (A). 
Knipp, Rev. J. Edgar, & W., U. B., 18 Miyano Waki, Okazaki Cho, 

Kyoto. 
Kramer, Miss Lois F., 1917, E. A., 93 Sanchome, Kobinata Daimachi. 

Koishikawa, Tokyo. 
Kramer, Miss Sarah, 1918, E. A., 93 Sanchome, Kobinata Daimachi, 

Koishikawa, Tokyo. • . ' 

Kriete, Rev. G. D., & W., 191 1, R. C. U. S., 171 Webster St. Tiffm. 

Ohio, U. S. A. (F. C. Tokyo 29312). 
Kuyper, Rev. Hubert, 191 1, R. C. A., 1697 Nishi Shinmachi, Oita. 

(from fall, 1919)- 
Kuyper, Miss Jennie M., 1905, R. C. A., 178 Bluff, Yokohama (from 

July 1919, 25 East 22nd St., N. Y.). 



Lackner, Miss E. A., 1917, M. C. C, 8 Toriizaka Machi, Azabu, 

Tokyo. 
Lafon, Rev. H., 1881, R. C, Fukushima. 
Laisne, Rev. T., R. C, (A). 
Lake, Rev. L. C, & W., 1916, P. N., 2 Nishi Rokuchome, Kita Shichijo 

Sapporo. 
Landis, Rev. IT. M., & W., 1888, P. N., c/o Pres. Bd. For. Msns., 156 

Fifth Ave., N. Y., U. S. A. 
Landsborough, Dr. D., & W., 1895, E. P. M. Shoka, Formosa, (A). 
Lane, Miss E. A., I912, C. M. S., 45 Yamanokuchi Cha, Kagoshima (A), 
Lang, Rev. D. M., & W., 1880, C. M. S., 55 Moto Machi, Hakod?>t€. ' 
Langlais, Rev. J., R. C, (A). 
Laning, Miss Mary E., 1908, 'A. E. C, Nara. 
Lansing, Miss IL M., 1893, R. C. A., 448 I\okukenya, Sumiyoshi Mach?^ 

Fukuoka Shigwai. 
I-a\vrence, Mr. A., & W., B. B. S., 14 Minami Yamate, Nagasaki. 
Layman, Rev. L., D. D., & W., 1895, M. P., 83 IlinodeCho, Yokolinnn.:. 
Lea, Rt. Rev. A., D. D., & W., 1897, C. M. S., 96 Daimyo Maclii. 

Fukuoka. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST XXi 

Learned, Rev, D. W., D. D., & W., 1875, A. B. C. F. M., Imadegawa 

Dori, Kyoto. 
Leavitt, Miss Julia, 1881, P. N., (F. C. Osaka. 11,054). c/o Pres. Bd. 

For, Msns. 156 5th Ave., N. Y., U. S. A. 
I^barbey, Rev., R. C, (W. vS.). _ 

Lebel, Rev. E., 1892, R. C, Shiinazaki Mura, Kumaixuoto Shi-gv/ai (A). 
Lediard, Miss Mary F., 1906. F. C. M. S., 16 Naka Naga Machi, 

Akifa (A). 
Lediard, Miss E., 191 6, M. C. C, Shirilari Zaka, K:-,na?,av>^a, Tshikawa 

Ken. 
Lee, Miss Bessie M., 1914, M. E. F. B., Eiwa Jo Gakko, Fukuoku 
Lee, Miss Edna, 1913, M. E. F. B., 221 Bkiff, Yokohama (A) 
Lee, Rev. F. E., Pli. D., & W., 1917, F. C. M. S., 65 Miyjisliit:^ Chb, 

Koishikawa, Tokyo (A). 
Lee, Miss Mabel, 1903, M. E. F. B., (A). 

Lemarie, Rev. F. I*. M., 1898, R. C, Yatsushiro, Kumamoto Ken. 
l>emoine. Rev. J. C, 1894, R. C, Yokohaina. 
Lenox, Miss E. G., 1909 M. S. C. C, Asahi Machi, Niigata. 
Lewis, Miss Alice G., 1905, A. F. P., 30 Koun Cho, Mita Shiba, Tokyo 

(after September 1919). 
Lindgren, Rev. R., & W., 1917, L, E. F., 20 Shichome Yushima, Hongo, 

Tokyo. 
Lindsay, Miss O. C., M. C. C., Eiwa Jo Gakko, Shizuoka. 
Lindsey, Miss Lola E., 1916, R. C. U. S., 16S Higashi Samban Cho, 

Sendai. 
Lindsey, Miss Lydia A., 1907, R. C. U. S. 168 Higashi Samban Cho, 

Sendai. 
Lindstrom, Rev. H., & W., 1891, C. M. A., 24 Shimonaka Machi, Hiro- 
shima. 
Linn, Rev. J. K., & ^V., 1915 L. C. A., Nishi Hatcho, To)'ohashi. 
Lippard, Rev. C. K., D. D., & W., 1900, L. C. A., Furushin Yashiki, 

Kumamoto. 
Lissarrague, Rev., 1901, R. C, (W. S.). 
Livingston, Miss A. A., 1913, E. P. M., Shoka, Formosa. 
Lloyd, Miss J., 1913, E. P. M., Tainan, P^ormosa (A). 
Lloyd, Rev. J. PL, & W., 1908, P. E., 21 Irchome, Shimbori, Wakayama. 
Lobdell, Rev. N. L., & W., 1905, U. G. C, 32 Nichoine, Pligashi Kusa- 

buka Cho, Shizuoka. 
Logan, Rev. C. A., U. D., & W., 1902, P. S., Tokushima. (F. C. Osaka 

22,937) (A). 
Lombard, Rev. F. A., & W ., 1900, A. B. C. F. M., Muro Machi Dori, 

Imadegawa Agaru, Kyoto. 
London, Miss M. H., 1907, P. N., Joshi Gakuin, ^t, Kami Niban Cho, 

Kojimachi, Tokyo. 
Long, Mr. Edward R., & W., 1918, P. B. W., Fukaya, Saitama Ken, 
Loomis, Miss Clara D., 1901, W. U,, 223 Bluff, Yokohama. 
Loomis, Rev. PL, D. D., & W. 1872. A. B. S., (retired), 223 Bluif," 

Yokohama. 
Lumpkin, Miss Estelle, 191 1, P. S., Tokushima. 
Luscombe, Miss M. E., P. C. C, Tamsui,. P^ormosa. 
Luther, Miss I. R., 1898, P. N., Hokuriku Jo Gakko, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 

K(en= • 



Xxii TAPAN 

M 

Macdonald, MisS A. C, 1904, Ind., 32 Itchome, Fujimi Cho, Kojimaclii, 

Tokyo. 
Maclntire, Miss Frances W., 1916, M. E. F. B., lai Jo Gakko, Hakodate. 
MacKay, Mr. G. W., & W., P. C. C, Tamsui, Formosa. 
Mackintosh, Miss Sabine E., I916, E. P. M., Formosa. 
MacLeod, Rev. D., & W., 1507, P. C. C, Taihoku, Formosa. 
MacNair, Mrs. T. M., 1880, P. N., 2 Nishi Machi, Nihon-enoki, Shiba, ' 

Tokyo. 
Madeley. Rev. W. F., & W., 1889, P. E., 9 Motokaji Cho, Sendai (A). 
Makeham, Miss S. E., 1902, M. S. C. C, Kitsmie Ike, Nagoya. 
Mann, Miss Irene P-, 1895, P. E., Utsunomiya. 
Mann, Rev. J. C, & W., C. M. S., Yonago, Tottori Ken. 
Marie, Rev. L. C, 1888, R. C, Hiroshima. 
Marion, Rev. P., R. C, 1895, Fukushima. 
Marmonier, Rev. P. C. H., 1900, R. C, Tamaisukuri, Os^ka. 
Martin, Prof. J. V., & W., 1914, M. E. F. B., 10 Aoyama Gakuin, Tokyo. 
Martin, Rev. Wm., & W., 1914, Union Church, 67 Bluff, Yokohama. 
Martin, Rev., 1910, R. C, Miyazaki. 

Matheson, Miss Margaret L., 1915, M. E. F. B., Nagasaki. 
Mathon, Rev. Remy, R. C, (W. S.) 

Matrat, Rev. J. Fr., 1881, R. C, Hirosashi, Hirado, Nagasaki Ken. 
Matthew, Miss Margaret L., 1908, Y. W. C. A. U. S., 12 Sanchome» 

Tamachi, Ushigome Tokyo. 
Matthews, Rev. W. K., & W., 1902, M. E. S., Franklin, Tenn., U. S. A. 
Mauk, Miss Laura, 1914, E. A., 84 Sasugaya Cho, Koishikawa, Tokyo. 
Maxwell, Dr. J. L., M. D., & W., 1901, E. P. M., Formosa (A). 
Mayer, Rev. P. S., & W., 1909, E. A., 500 Shimo Ochiai Mura, Tokya 

Fu. 
Mayrand, Rev: P. A., 1889, R. C, Hachioji. 
McAlpine, Rev. R. E., D. D., & W., 1885, P. S., 64 Shirakabe Cho,. 

Itchome, Nagoya (A). 
McCaleb, J. M., & W., 1892, Ind., 68 Zoshigaya Mura, Koishikawa, 

Tokyo (A). - 
McCall, Rev. C. F., & W., 1908, F. C. M. S., 8 Shimo Honcho, Tsukiji, 

Akiia. 
McCauley, Mrs. J. K., 1880, P. N., 102 Tsunohazu, Yodobashi, Tokyo 

Fu. 
McCord, Rev. E. K., & W., 1900, C. C, 85 Barne'.t St., Dayton, Ohio, 

U. S. A., (F. C. Tokyo 18,007). 
McCoy, Rev. R. D., & W., 1904, F. C. M. S., Sei Gakuin, Takinogawa, 

Tokyo Fu. 
McCrory, Miss Carrie H., I912, P. N., c/o Pres. Bd. For Msns., 156^ 

Fifth Ave., New York City, U. S. A. 
McDonald, Miss M. D., 191 1, P. N., c/o Pres. Bd. For. Msns., 156 Fifth. 

Ave., N. Y., U. S. A. 
McGrath, Miss Etta S., 191 7, P. E., Muro Machi dori, Shimo Tachiuri"^ 

Sagaru, Kyoto. 
Mcllwaine, Rev. Vv. B., & W., 1889, P. S., i88 Sanchome, Tori Cho,. 

Kochi. 
McKenzie, Rev. D. R., D. D., (& W. ab.) 1891, M. C. C, 23 Kami 

tomizaka, Koishikawa, Tokyo, (F. C, 24,908). 



ALPHABETICAL LiST XXlll 

McKim. Miss Bessie, 1905, P. E., 472 Nishi Okubo, Tokyo Fu. 
McKim', Rt. Rev. John, D. D., 1S80, P. E., 38 Tsukiji, Tokyo. 
McKim, Miss Nellie, 1914, P. E. 38 Tsukiji, Tokyo. 
McKim, Rev. J. Cole, & W., 1912, P. E., Gyonin Cho, Wakamatsu, 

Fukushima Ken. 
McKinnon, Mr. D. Brooke, & W., 191 7, Y. M. C. A. T., Otaru. 
McKowan, Miss Amy E., 191 1, A. B. C. F. M., Baikwa Jo Gakko, Osaka. 
McLennan, Mr. D., 1 91 7, Y. M. C. A. A., 10 Omote Sarugaku Cho^ 

Kanda, Tokyo. 
McEeod, Miss Anna, 19 10, M. C. C, Shirilari Zaka, Kanazawa. 
McNeal., Rev. M. J., S. J., R. C, 7 Kioi Cho, Kojimachi, Tokyo. 
McPherson, Miss F. Ethel, P. C. N., Higashi Rokuchome, Gojohashi„ 

Shimo Kyoku, Kyoto. 
McSparran, Jos. L., M. D., & W., I917. P. E., 27 Tsukiji, Kyobashi, 

Tokyo. 
McWilliams, Rev. W. R., & W., 1916, M. C. C, Atago Machi, Nagano, 

Nagano Ken. 
Mead, Miss Bessie, 1904, P. E., Yamagata. 
Mead, Miss Lavinia, 1887, A. B. F., Imasato, Kamitsu Mura, Nishinari 

Gun, Osaka Fu. 
Medling, Rev. P. P., & W., 1907, S. B. C, 79 Yamashita Cho, Kago- 

shima. 
Meredith, Rev. F. C, 1912, P. E., 46 Tera Machi, Aomori. 
Merriman, Miss Faith, 1917. W. U., 212 Bluff, Yokohama. 
Messenger, Rev. J. F., & W., 1916, Y. M. J., 1766 Nakano, Tokyo Fu. 
,Mi]an, Rev. Father, R. C, Uwajima. 
Miller, Miss Alice, 1896, Ind., 789 Sendagaya, Tokyo. 
Miller, Miss Etta, 1918. M. E. F. B., Aoyama Jo Gakuin, Tokyo. 
Miller, Rev H. K., & W., 1892, R. C. U. S., 9-B, Akashi Cho, Tsukiji, 

Tokyo. (F. C, Tokyo 8089). 
Miller, Miss Janet, 1918, M. E, S., Hiroshima Girl's School, Hiroshima. 
Miller, Rev. L. S. G., & W., 1907, E. C. A. 15 Gokurakuji Cho, Fukuoka. 

(F. C. Fukuoka 10338). 
Millican, Rev. R. W., 191 1, F. M., Sumoto, Awaji (A). 
Milliken, Miss E. P,, 1884, P. N., Joshi Gakuin, 33 Kami Niban Cho, 

Koiimachi, Tokyo. 
Millman, Rev. R. M., & W., 1909, M. S. C. C, Nakaha Cho, Toyohashi, 

Shizuoka Ken. 
Mills, Mr. E. O., 1908, & W., 1900, S. B. C, 137 Sakura Baba, Nagasaki. 
Minkkinen, Rev. T., & W., I905, L. E. F., Kami Suwa, Shinshu. 
Misener, Mrs. E. W., M. C. C, Canadian Academy, Kobe. 
Mohr, Rev. Father, R. C, Yamagata. 
Monk, Miss Alice M., 1904, P. N. c/o Pres. Bd. For. Msns., 156 Fifth 

Ave., New York City, U. S. A. 
Montagu, Rev. L., 1902, R. C, Sendai. 

Montgomery, Rev. W. E., & W., 1909. E. P. M-, Formosa. 
Moody, Rev. Campbell N-, E. P. M., Formosa. 
Moon, Miss Mira B., Ind., Aoyama Gakuin, Tokyo. 
Moore, Rev. B. ,S., & W., 1915, A. G. Motomachi, Yokohama (A). 
Moore, Rev. D. H., & W., 1914'', C. E., 1833 Shimo Shibuya, Tokyo Fu. 
Moore, Rev. J. P., D. D., 1883, & W., 1887, R. C. U. S., 112 Kita 

Nibancho, Sendai. 
Moore, Rev. J. W., & W., 1890, P. S., Susaki Machi, Kochi Ken. 



:J<:xiv JAPAN 

Moraii, Rev. S. F., & W., 1916, A. B. C. F. M., 195 Kadoda v'ashiki, 

Okayama. 
Morgan, Miss A. E., 1889, P. N., Yokkaichi, Ise. 
Moss, Miss A., 1918, M. S. C. C, 89 Harajuku, Aoyama, Tokyo. 
Moulton, Miss Julia, 1891, R. C. A., 178 Bluff, Yokohama. 
Moyer, Miss Pauline, O. M. S., 391 Kashiwagi, Yodobaslii Machi, Tokya 

Fu. 
Mozley, Miss G., 1916, J. E. B., 6085 Tennoji, Tennoji Mura, Osaka Fu. 
Munroe, Rev. II. H., & W., 1906, P. S., 602 Eikokuji Machi, Kochi. 
Munroe, Miss Helen W., 1916, A- B. F., 3 131 Aoki Cho, Kanagawar 

Machi, Yokohama (Phone Honkyoku 2176). 
Murray, Rev. D. A., D. D., & W., 1902, P. N., 1236 Shimo Bezai Cho^ 

Tsu, Ise. 
Myers, Rev. H. W., D. D., & W., 1897, P. S., 112 Yamamoto Dori, 

Kobe. 
Myers, Rev. J. T., & W., .1893, M. E. S., 810 Broadway, Nashville,- 

Tenn. U. S. A. 
Mylander, Miss Ruth, 1 9 10, F. M. A., 1 921 Hidein Cho, Tennoji, Osaka 

N 

Nash, Miss E., 1891, C. M. S., Malsuye (A). 

Neely, Miss Clara J., 1899, P. E., Portsmouth, Va., U. S. A. 

Nelson, Mr. A. N., & W., 1918, S. D. A., 171 Amanuma, Suginami 

Mura, Toyotama Gum, Tokyo Fu. 
Nevile, Miss C. G. L., 1905, S. P. G., S. P. G. Flouse, Westminster, 

London. 
Newbold, Deaconess E. G., 1907, P. E., 46 Tera Machi, Aomori. 
Newcomb, Miss Ethel, 191^.; M. E. S., 810 Broadway, Nashville, Tenn., 

U. S. A. 
Newell, Rev. H. B., D. D., & W., 1887, A. B. C. F. M., Niban Cho^ 

Matsuyama. 
Newlin, Miss Edith, A. F. P., 30 Koun Cho, Mita Shiba, Tokyo. 
Newton, Rev. J. C. C, D. D., & W., 1888, M. E. S., Kwansei Gakuin, 

Kobe. 
Nichols, Rev. S. H., & W., 191 1, P. E., 21 Yamamichi Cho, Hirosald! 
Nicholson, Mr. Herbert V., I915, A. F. P., 30 Koun Machi, Mita, Shiba, 

Tokyo. 
JN^icodemus, Prof. F. B., & W., 1916, R. C. U. S., 60 Kozenji Dori, Sendai. 
Nielson, Rev. A. B., 1895, E. P. M., Tainan, Formosa, 
Nielsen, Rev. J. P., & W., 1 909, L. C. A., 53 Nichome, Hiyoshi Cho, 

Kurume. 
Nixon, Miss Emily, Ind., 59 Goshonouchi, Kyoto. 
Nixon, Miss Esther, 1917, 'Y. W. C. A. U. S., 43 Nishimachi, Adachi 

Building, Kobe. 
Noailles, Rev. Olivier de, 1883, R. C, 80 Flonmura, Yamashiia Cho, 

Yokohama. 
Noordhoff, Miss jeane M., 191 1, R. C. A., Baiko Jo Gakuin, Shimonoseki, 

(afters fall igig). 
Norman, Rev. C. E., & W., igij, L. C. A., 144 Hara Machi, Koishi- 

kawa, Tokyo. 
Norman, Rev. D., & W., 1897, ^^- C. C, 12 Agata Machi, Nagano. 
Norman, Miss T.., 1913, M. C. C, Canadian Academy, Kobe. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST XXV 

Norton, Miss E. I . B., 1900, C. M. S., Kita Sanjo, Nishi Shiclilchome, 

Sapporo. 
Noss, Rev. Christopher, D. D., 1895, & W., 19 10, R. C. U. S., 28 Torii 

Machi, Wakamatsu, Fukushima Ken. 
Nott, F. L., I916, C. M. S., Kagoshima. 
Nylund, Miss J., L. E. F., lida, Shinshu. 

o 

Obee, Rev. E. I., & W., 1904, M. P., Tamanoi Cho, Atsuta, Nagoya. 
Ogburn, Rev. N. S. Jr-, 1912, M. E. S., 810 Broadwav, Nashville, Tenn. 

U. S. A. 
Oldham, Miss Lavinia, 1892, F. C. M. S. (retired from field). 
Olds, Rev. C. B., & W., 1903, A. B. C. F. M., Nichome (iakko Cho, 

Niigata (A). 
Oliphant, Rev. L. D., & W., 1914, F. C. M. S., 65 Miyashila Cho, 

Sugamo, Koishikawa, Tokyo. 
Oltmans, Rev. A., D. D., & W., 18S6, R. C. A., Meiji Gakuin, Shirokane, 

Shiba, Tokyo. (F. C. Tokyo 29625). 
Oltmans, Miss C. ]., 1914, R. C. A., 178 Bluff,. Yokohama. 
Oltmans, Miss E. F., 1914, R. C. A., Baiko Jo Gakuin, Shimonoseki. 
Osborn, Miss Catherine M., 1893, U. G. C. 50 Taka'a Oimatsu Cho, 

Koishikawa, Tokyo. 
Ostrom, Rev. IT. C, & W. 191 1, P. S., Tokushima. 

Outerbridge, Rev. H. W., & W,, 1910, M. C. C, Kwansei Gakuin, Kobe. 
Oxford, Mr. J. S., & W., 1910, M. E. S., Palmore Institute, 23 Shichome 

Kita Nagasa Dori, Kobe. 



Painter, Rev. S., & W., 1896, C. M. S., Omuta, Fukuoka Ken. 
Palmer, Miss Jewel, 1918, F. C. M. S., 357 Nakazato, Takinogawa, 

Tokyo Fu. 
Parker, Miss A., 1901, S. P. G., 436 Shimo Gion Cho, Hirano, Kobe. 
Parker, Miss Edith, 1909, F. C. M. S., 354 Nakazato, Takinogawa, Tokyo 

Fu (A). ^ -: 

Parker, Miss Mary M., 1916, M. C. C, Eiwa Jo Gakko, Shizuoku. 
Parmelee, Miss H. F., 1877, A. B. C. F. M., 15 Teppo Cho, Matsuyaina. 
Parrott, Mr. Fred, & W. 1890. B. B. S., 95 Yedo Machi, Kobe. 
Pasley, Miss M. L., 1903, C. M. S., Flamada (A). 
Patterson, Rev. G. S., & W., 191 2, M. C. C, Toronto (A). 
Patton, Miss A. V., 1900, P. S., Okazaki, Aichi Ken. 
Patton, Miss F. D., 1895, P. S., Okazaki, Aichi Ken. 
Pawley, Miss Annabelle, 1915, A. B. ¥., 47 Shimo Tera Machi, Himeji. 
Peck, Miss Sally P., 1901, P. E., Shukokuji, Bishamon Cho, Kyoto. 
Peckham, Miss Carrie, 1915, M. E. F. B., Kwassui Jo Gakko, Nagasaki. 
Pedley, Rev. Hilton, D. D., & W., 1889, A. B. C. F. M., Ichijo Sagaru, 

Karasumaru Dori, Kyoto. 
Peeke, Rev. H. V. S., D. D., & W., 1893, ^■'- ^- A., 10 Shimo Osaki 

Machi, Tokyo Fu. 
Peet, Miss Azalia, 1916, M. S. F. B., Kajiya Cho^ Kagoshima. 



XXVI JAPAN 

Pennick, Ensign Henry R., & W., 1913, S. A., 32-A Akashi Cho, Tsakiji, 

Tokyo. 
Penrod, Miss C. T., 1892, J. E. B., 356 Naka Hyakunin Machi, Okubo,. 

Tokyo Fu. 
Perrin, Rev. H. O., 1884, R. C, Kobe. 
Peterson, Miss A. J., 1891, S. A. M., Chiba, Ghiba Ken. 
Peto, Mr. PI., C. M. S., Higashi Cho, Yonago (A). 
Pettee, Rev. J. H., D. D., & W., 1878, A. B.'C. F. M., 12 Honmura 

Cho, Azabu, Tokyo (F. C, Tokyo, 32418). 
Phelps, Mr. G. S., & W., 1902, Y. M. C. A. A., 179 Bluff, Yokohama. 
Philipps, Miss E. G., 1901, S. P. G., 108 Zoshigaya Machi, Koishikawa, 

Tokyo. 
Fickard-Carabridge, Rev. C. O., & W., C. M. S., i Tonoo Cho, Saseho. 
Pickens, Miss L. O., 191 8., F. M. A., Sumoto, Awaji. 
Pider, Miss Mvrtle Z., -1911, M. E. F. B., Sapporo (A). 
Piersoi), Rev. G. P., D. D., 1888, & W., 1891, P. N., Nokkeuchi, 

Kitami, Hokkaido. 
Pieters, Rev. Albertus, & W., 1891, R. C. A., 1697 Nishi Shinmachi, 

Oita, (F. C, Fukuoka 3322) (From July 1919, 25 East 22nd St^ 

Pieters, Miss Johanna A., 1904, R. C. A., Baiko Jo Gakko, Shimonoseki. 
Pifer, Miss B. Catherine, 1901, R. C. U. S., 356 Naka Hyakunin Machi, 

Okubo, Tokyo Fu. 
Pinsent, Mrs. A. M., 1905, M. C. C, Shidzuoka (A). (Return September). 
Piper, Miss Margaret F., 191 4, Ind., 195 Itchome, Uneon Machi, Kobe. 
Place, Miss Pauline, 1916, M. E. F. B., Kumamoto. 
Plimpton, Miss Margaret, 19 16, M. E. F. B., Kwassui Jo Gakko, Naga- 
saki. 
Pollock, Mr. Chauncy, 1916, Y. M. C. A. T., 2 of 135 Shichome, 

Kitano Cho, Kobe. 
Porfer, Miss F. E., 1882, P. N., Muro Machi Nishi, Ichijo Dori, Kyoto. 
Pouget, Rev. A., 1893, R. C, Morioka. 
Powlas, Miss Maude O., 19 18, L. C. A., 144 Hara Machi, Koishikawa, 

Tokyo. 
Powlas, Rev. P. S. C, & W., 19 1 6, M. S.. C. C, San no Tsuji, Takata, 

Niigata Ken. 
Pratt, Miss Susan A., 1892, W. U., 212 Bluff, Yokohama. 
Preston, Miss E. A., 1 91 7, M. C. C, 8 Toriizaka Machi, Azabu, Tokyo. 
Preston, Miss E. D., 1908, C. M. S., Tomida Ura Machi, Nakano Cho, 

Tokushima. 
Price, Rev. P. G., & W., 1912, M. C. C, Naka Takajo Machi, Kana- 

zawa, Ishikawa Ken. 
Pringle, Miss F. C, I900, S. P. G., Zushi, Kanagawa Ken (A). 
Puissant, Rev. M., 1888, R. C, Kishiwada, Osaka Fu. 

R 

Ragan, Miss Ruth, Y. W. C. A. U. S., (A). 

Raguert, ■ Rev. E., R. C, Urakami, Nagasaki Ken. 

Kanck, Miss Elmina, 1906, E. A., Naperville, 111., U. S. A. 

Ransom, Miss Mary H., 1 901, P. N., Wakayama. 

Ranson, Deaconess A. L., 1904, P. E., 11 Higashi Ichibancho, Sendai. 

Raoult, Rev. G. E., 1896, R. C, Hitoyoshi, Kumamoto Ken. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST XXVlt 

Rawlings, Rev. G. W., & W., 1900, C. M. S., Kitabatake, Sumiyoshi^ 

Osaka. 
Ray, Rev. J. F., & W., 1904, S. B. C, Kure. 
Read, Dr. Rachel, (Ind) 23 Reinanzaka, Akasaka, Tokyo. (Phone, Shiba 

6904.) 
Rees, Miss Sarah S., P. E., Heian Jo Gakko, Kyoto. 
Reifsnider, Rev. C. S., L. H. D., & W., 190I, P. E., 56 Tsukiji, Tokyo. 
Reifsnider, Mr. John, & W., 1 902, P. E., 281 4(h Ave., New York City, 

U. S. A. 
Reiners, Prefet Apostlique, R. C, Kanazawa. 
Reischauer, Rev. A. K., D. D., & W., 1905, P. N., Meiji Gakuin,. 

vShirokane, Shiba, Tokyo. 
Reive, Miss A. D., 19I3, E. :P. M., Tainan, Formosa. 
Relave, Rev. T. L., 1885, R. G., Miyazu, Tango. 

Rey, Rt. Rev. Archbishop J. P., 1882, R. C., Tsukiji Cathedral, Tokyo. 
Rey, Rev. A., 1889, R. C, Tamashima, Okayama Ken. 
Reynand, Rev. Jules, 1896, R. C, Sendai. 
Richards, Rev. W. A., & W., S. P. G., Moto Uwo Cho, Hamamatsu,, 

Shizuoka Ken. 
Richardson, Rev. C. F., 13 Higashi Yamate, Nagasaki. 
Richardson, Miss C. M., 1911, C. M. S., (A). 

Riddeil, Miss PI., 1890, C. E., 436 Futu Shin Yashiki, Kumamoto. 
Ridley, Miss A. C, Ind., 3 of 20 Shichome, Yamamoto Dori, Kobe. 
Riker, Miss Jessie, 1904, P. N., Yamada, Jse. 
Rix, Miss Carol M., 191 7, P. E., 40 Tsukiji, Tokyo. 
Roberts, Miss A., 1897, C. M. S., 89 Plarajuku, Tokyo. 
Robertson, Miss M. A., 1891, M. C. C, Atago Madii, Kofu. ' 
Robinson, Rev. C. E., & W., 1907, F. C. M. S-. Sumiyoshi, Kotsuma 

Mura, Osaka Fu. 
Robinson, Rev. J. C, & W., 1SS8, M. S. C. C, 6 Shirakabe Cho, 

Nagoya (A). . 

Robinson, Miss Hilda M., 1913, M. S. C. C, Gifu (A). 
Rollstin, Mr. W. P., Ind., Okayama. 

Ross, Rev. C. PL, & W., 1910, A. B. F., "2 Nakajima Cho, Sendai. 
Rowe, Rev. J. H., & W., 1906, S. B. C., 298 Jigyo, Higashi Machi,. 

P'ukuoka. 
Rowland, Rev. George M., D. D., & W., A. B. C. F. M., c/o A. B. 

C. F. M., 14 Beacon St., Boston, Mass., U. S. A. 
Rowland, Miss E. M., 1906, S. P. G., 5 of 53 Sanchome, Miyamoto 

Dori, Kobe. 
Rowland, Miss Pauline, 191 7, A. B. C. F. M., Doshisha Girls' School 

Kyoto. 
Rowlands, Rev. F. W., & W., C. E., 2 Yohano Cho, Fukuoka. 
Ruigh, Rev. D. C, & W., 1901, R. C. A., 301 1 Beachwood Drive, 

tlollywdod, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Rupert, Miss N. L., 1913, A. B. C. F. M., Kobe College, Kobe. 
Russell, Miss E., 1878, M. E. F. B., Kwassui Jo Gakko. Nagasaki (A). 
Russell, Miss Helen, M., 1895, M. E. F. B., 9 Naka Kawarage Cho,. 

Hirosaki. 
Russell, Miss May, 191 1, M. E. F. B., Kwassui Jo Gakko, Nagasaki (A). 
Ryan, Miss Esther, 19 13, M. C. C, Kofu (A). 
Ryan, Mr. W. Scott, & W.. 1917, Y. M. C. A. A., 12 Shinryudo Cho, 

Azabu, Tokyo. 



XXVlll . JAPAN . . 

Ryder, Rev. Stephen W., & W., 1913, R. C. A., 45 Shimo Tatsuo Cho, 

Kagoshima. (F. C. Fukuoka 7771). 
Ryder, Miss G. E. 1908, A. B. F., 51 Itchome, Tenma Cho, Yotsuya, 

Tokyo. ■ 

Ryerson, Rev, G. E., & W., 1 905, S. P. G., 12 Yamamoto Dori, 

Shichome, Kobe (A). 



Salonen, Rev. K., & W., 191 i,L. E. F., lida, , Shinshu (A). 
Sandberg, Miss Minnie V., 1918, A. B. F., loi Ilara Machi, Koishikawa, 

Tokyo. 
Sander, Miss M., 1890, C. M. S.,. 89 Harajuku, Aoyama, Tokyo. 
Sanders, Mr. T. H., I912, Ind., yamaguchi (A). 
Santee, Miss Helen C., . Ind., Higashi, Rokuchome, Gojobashi, Shimo 

Kyoku, Kyoto. 
Saunby, Rev. J. W., & W., 19 10, M. C C;, 23 Kami Tomizaka Cho, 

Koishikawa, Tokvo. 
Savolainen, Rev. V., & W., 1907, L. E. F., Kita 13 Jo, Nishi Sanchome, 

Sapporo. 
Schafther, Rev. P. F., & W.,. 1915, R. C. U. S., 61 Kozenji Dori, 

Sendai, (F. C. Tokyo, 33822). 
Schereschewsky, Miss C. E., 1910, P. E., 36 Kami Rokuban Cho, 

Kojimachi, Tokyo. 
Schiller, Supt. Di. Emil, & W., 1S95, A. E. P. M., 10 Shogoin Cho, 

Noboribala, Kyoto. 
Schirmer, Miss Kathryn F., I917, E. A., Koriyama, Fukushima Ken. 
Schlegelmilch, Miss Donna, 1909, M. P. W., Eiwa Jo Gakko, Malta Cho, 

Yokohama, 
Schneder, Rev. ,D. B., D. D., & W.,: 1887, R. C. U. S., 164 Higashi 

Samban Cho, Sendai. 
Schneder, Miss Mary, 1918, R. C. U. S., 8 Akashi Cho, Tsukiji, Tokyo; 
Schroeder, Pfarrer E., & W., 1908, A. E. P. M., 33 Kami Tomi Zaka 

Machi, Koishikawa, Tokyo. 
Schwab, Rev. B. T., & W., 1914, E. A., 500 Shimo Ochiai Mm-a, Tokyo 

Fu. 
Schweitzer, Miss Edna, I912, E. A., 84 Sasugaya Cho, Koishikawa, 

Tokyo (Absent). 
■Scott, Miss Ada, F. C. M. S., 354 Nalcazato, Takinogawa, Tokyo Fu. 
Scott, Rev. F. N., cS^ W., 1904, M. E. F. B., 6 Higashi Yamate, 

Nagasaki, (F. C, Fukuoka, ^^060) (A). 
•Scott, Rev. J. H., 1892, & W., 1915, A. B. F., c/o Prof. Wiley, Granville, 

Ohio, U. S. A. 
Scott, Rev. J, J., & W., 191 1, C. M. S., Kure (A). 
Scott, Miss Mary, 191 1, M. C. C, Atago Machi, Nagano. , 
Scudder, Rev. Doremus, M. D., D. D., & W., Ind., '^Fokyo. 
•Seads, Miss Leonora M., M. E. F. B., Seiryu Jo Gakko, Chikusa Machi, 

Nagoya. 
■Searle, Miss S. A., 1883, A. B. C. F. M., Kobs College, 60 Shichome, 

Yamamoto Dori, Kobe. 
Seiple, Rev. W. G., Ph. D., & W., 1905, R. C. U. S., 125 Tsuchidoi, 

Sendai. (F. .C. Tokyo 7295), 
Sells, Miss E. A. P., 1893, C. M. S., 45 Yamanokuchi Cho, Kagoshima. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST XXIX 

Sergie, Archbishop, igo8, R. O. C, 6 Iligashi Kobai Cho, Suruga Dai, 

' Tokyo. ' • 

Seymour, Miss Elsie J., 1916, R. C. U. S., 12;^ Tsuchidoi, Sendai. 
Shafer, Rev. L. J., & W., 1912, R, C. A., 17 Minami Yamate, Nagasaki. 
Shannon,. Miss I. L., 1904, M. E. S., Hiroshima Girls' School, Hiroshima. 
Shannon, Miss Katherine, 1908, M. E. S., Hiroshima Girls' "School, 

Hiroshima. ... , , 

Sharpe,'Rev. A. L., & W., S. P. G., Jonai, Numazu, Shizaoka K«n. 
Sharpless,. Miss Edith F., 1910, A. F. P., 888 Tenno Gho, Mito. ' 
Shav*>-, Mrs. A. C., S. P. G., Kasumi Cho, Azabu, Tokyo.' 
Shaw, Mr. Glenn, & W., 1916, Y. M. C. A. T.,' Yamaguchi'. -. " 
Shaw, Miss L., M. S. C. C., Poole Jo Gakko, Osaka. - 

Shaw, Rev. R. D. M., & W., 1901, S. P. G„ Shid?uoka. 
Shepherd, Miss K. M., 1910, S. P. G., Arata Cho, Chiba". 
vSheppard, Miss E., Ind., 3 of 20 Shichome, Yamamoto Doti, Kob^. 
Shively, Rev. B. F., & W., 1907, U. B., 466 Tonodan, Blshamon Cho,, 

Kyol'o. (F. C, Osaka, 34,076). 
Sifton, Miss I. A-, 1897, Ind., (A). • ' ' ' 

Siler, Miss Annice, 1916, M. E. S.,*Hiroshima Girls' School, Hiro.sbima. 
Silhol, Rev. L. J., R. C, Osaka. ' . 

Simeon, Miss R. B., 1915, S. P. G., Jonai, Numazu, Shizuoka Keni 
Sims, Mr. J. G., & W., 1914, M. E. S., Kwansei Gakuin, Koba. 
Singley, Rev. Dewees F., 1918, R. C. U. S., c/o Dr. Cosand, 1929 
. vShimoshibuya, Tokyo. 

Slare, Miss Anna B., 1902, M. E. F. B., 221 Bluff, Yokohama. 
Smelser, Mr. F. I.., & W. 1895, H. F. M. A., Yokohama (A). 
Smith, Miss A., S.- P. G., Niban Cho, Okayama. 

Smith, Rev. Frisby D., & \V., 1 908, L. C. A., 139 Higashi Rata Machi,. 
■ Hongo Ku, Tokyo. 

Smith,^Rev. F. FI., & W., I905, M. E. F. B., Nandaimon, Seoul, Chosen. 
Smith, Miss T. W., 1917, J. E. B., 356 Naka Hyakunin Machi, Okubo, 
' Tokyo. 

Smith, Mr. Lloyd M., & W., 1915, P. E., Nara. 

Smith, Rev. P. A., & W., 1903, P. E., 7 Shimo Ishibiki Cho, Kanazawa. 
Smith, Mr. Roy, & W., 1917, M. E. S., i of 49 Kumochi, Kobe. 
Smith, Miss Ruth E., 1918, A. B. F., 10 Fukuro Machi, Kanda, Tokyo, 
Smith, Miss S. C, 1880, P. N., c/o Pros. Bd. For. Msns., 156 Fifth Ave., 

New York City, U. S. A. 
Smyser, Rev. M. M., & W., 1903, Ind., Yokote, Akita Ken. 
Smyth, xAdjutant Annie I., 1906, S. A., 31-A Akashi Cho, Tsukiji, Tokyo. 
Smythe, Rev-. L. C. M., 1913, P.^S., 64 Itchome, Shirakabe Cho, 

Nagova. 
Sneyd, Mr. H. S., & W., 19 13, Y. M. C. A. A., 22-A Bluff, Yokohama. 
Soal, Miss A., 1916, J. E. B., 356 Naka Hyakunin Machi, Okubo, Tokyo. 
Somervell, Miss M. Geldard, S. P. G., Jonai, Numazu, Shizuoka Ken. 
Spackman, Rev. FI. C, & W., C. E., Shingakuin, Ikebukuro, Tokyo. 
Spencer, Rev. D. S., D. D., & W., 1883, M. E. F. B., ' 6 Hatchome, 

Hisaya Cho, Nagoya (A). 
Spencer, Miss Florence M., 1913, M. S. C. .C. Niigata (A). 
Spencer, Miss M. A., 1S78, M. E. F. B., Aoyama Jo Gakuin, Tokyo. 
Spencer, Miss M. Dorothy, I917, P. E., Fliromichi, Okazaki Cho, Kyoto. 
Spencer, Rev. R. S., & W., 1917,^. E. F.' B., Chiilzei Gakuin, Naga- 

saki. 



XXX JAPAN 

Spencer, Rev. V. C, 1913, M. S. C. C, Matsuraoto (A). 

Sprowles, Miss Alberta B., 1905, M. E. F. B., Aoyama Jo Gakuin, 

Tokyo (A). 
Stacey, Mr. H., & W., S. D. A., 169-171 Amanuma, Suginami Mura, 

Toyotama Gun, Tokyo (A). 
Stanford, Rev. A. W., & W., 1886, A. B. C. F. M., 53 Gochome, 

Yamamoto Dori, Kobe. 
Staples, Mr. I. B., & W., 1915, P. C N., Koraimon, Kum^.?noto. 
Staples, Miss Marie W., M. C. C., Kofu, (from July 1919 (A).} 
Starkey, Miss Bertha, 19 10, M. E. F. B., Eiwa Jo Gakko, Fukuoka. 
Steadman, Rev. F. W.. & W., 1901, A. B. F., Kubo Machi, Onomichi. 
Steele, Rev. H. T., & W., 1906, S. P. G., 6 Goban Cho, Okayama. ■ 
Steele, Miss Harriett, I914, M. P. W., 10 Motoshiro Cho, Hamamatsu. 
Stegernan Rev. H. V. E., & W., I917, R. C. A., 114 Sasaya Machi, 

Kurume, Fukuoka Ken. 
Steichen, Rev. Michel, 1886, R. C., 35 Tsukiji, Tokyo. 
Stevenson, Miss G. S., 1898, C. M. S., Hanaxono Cho, Otaru (A). 
-Stewart, Miss M., Ind., 3 of 182 Kogai Cho, Azabu, Tokyo. 
Stewart, Rev. R. S., & W., 1915, M. E. S., 810 Broadway, Nashville, 

Tenn., U. S. A., c/o Board of Missions. 
Stewart, Rev. S. A., & W., 1906, M. E. S., Niomon Dori, Hiromichi, 

Nishi, Kyoto. 
Stewart, Mr. W. R., & W., 1919, (Chinese Student Y. M. C. A.) 10 

Kita Jimbo Cho, Kanda, Tokyo. 
Stier, Mr. W. R. F., & W., 1917, Y. M. C. A. A., 22 Gochome, Fujimi 

Cho, Kojimachi, Tokyo. 
Stirewalt, Rev. A. J.,'& W., I906, L. C. A., 388 Furu-Shinyashiki, 

Kumamoto. 
St. John, Mrs. David, 1918, P. E., St. Euke's Hospital, Tsukiji, Tokyo. 
Stoudt, Prof. Oscar M., & W., 1917, R. C. U. S., 35 Nakano Cho, 

Ushigome, Tokyo. 
Stowe, Miss Grace H., 1908, A. B. C. F. M., Kobe College, 60 Shichome, 

Yamamoto Dori, Kobe. 
Stowe, Miss Mary E., 1908, A. B. C. F. M., Kobe College, 60 Shichome, 

Yamamoto Dori, Kobe. 
Strothard, Miss Alice, 1914, M. C. C, Eiwa Jo Gakko, Kofu. (from 

July 1 919 (A.) Picton N. S.) 
Stuart-Menteth, Miss L. F., S. P. G., Chiba. 
Swan, Mr. G. D., & W., I913, Y. M. C. A. A., 7 of 97 Shichome, 

Yamamoto Dori, Kobe. 
Sweet, Rev. C. F., & W., 1898, P. E., 54 Tsukiji, Tokyo. 



Tait, Miss S. O., M. C. C, 8 Toriizaka, Azabu, Tokyo. 

Tammio, Rev. K., & W., 1913, L, E. F., lida, Shinshu. 

Tanner, Miss L. K., S. P. G., 358 Sanko Cho, Shirokane, Shiba, 

Tokyo. 
Tapson, Miss A. M., 1888, C. M. S., Odawara. (A.) 
Tate, Miss Lillian, P. C. C, Taihoku, Formosa. 

Taylor, Miss Erma M., 1913, M. E. F. B., Hirosaki, Aomori Ken. (A.) 
Taylor, Miss Minnie, 1909, R. C. A., 16 Minami Yamate, Nagasaki. 

(from July 1919, 25 East 22nd St., N. Y.) 



ALPHABETICAL LIST XXXI 

Taylor, Mr. Wm, J., & W., 1905, A. G., 10 of 24 Yamamoto Dori, Shi- 

chome, Kobe. 
Teague, Miss Carolyn, I912, M. E. F. B., 596 Kulionji, Oe Mura, Ku- 

mamoto. 
Tenny, Rev. C. B., D. D., 1900, & W., 19 13, A. B. F., 29 Sanai Machi, 

Ichigaya, Ushigome Ku, Tokyo. (Phone Ban Cho, 1134; F.C.Tokyo 

34114-) 
Tetlow, Miss H. L., 1908, P. E., 19 Edoshita Machi, Fukui. 
Teusler, R. B., M. D., & W., 1900, P. E., 27 Tsukiji, Tokyo, 
Tharp, Miss Elma R., 1918, A. B. F., 10 Fukuro Machi, Surugadai, 

Tokyo. 
Thatcher, Mr. P. C, & W., P. C. N., 55 Wakaizushi Machi, Okayama. 
Thiry, Rev. F. T., R. C, Nagasaki. 
Thomas, Rev. Father, R. C, Kochi. 

Thomas, Miss Hettie A., I904, M. E. F. B., Kwassui Jo Gakko, Naga- 
saki. 
Thompson, Rev. E. T. & W., 1 91 8, A. B. F., 40 Kami Niban Cho, 

Kojimachi, Tokyo. 
Thompson, Mrs. David, 1867, P. N., 10 Hinoki Cho, Akasaka, Tokyo. 
Thompson, Miss F. L., I906, C. M. S., 45 Yamanokuchi Cho, Kago- 

shima. 
Thompson, Rev. J. W., & W., 1913, Y. M. C. A. T., 249 Naka San- 

chome, Kami Fukushima, Osaka. 
Thomson, Rev. R. A., D. D., F. R. G. S., 1884 & W., 1889, A. B. F., 

39 Nichome, Kitano Cho, Kobe. 
Thorlaksson, Rev. S. O., & W., 1916, L. C. A., 7 Itchome, Dike Cho, 

Naka Ku, Nagoya. 
Topping; Rev. Henry, & W., 1895, A. B. F., 38 Uchimaru, Morioka. 
Topping, Miss Helen, Y. W. C. A. U. S., 45 Nishi Machi, Adachi 

Building, Kobe. 
Towson, Miss Manie, 1917, M. E. S., Hiroshima Girls' School, Hiroshima. 
Tracy, Miss Mary E., 1903, W. U., 212 Bluff, Yokohama. 
Trent, Miss E. M., 1894, M. S. C. C, Kiia Takajo Machi, Nagoya. 
Tristram, Miss K., 1888, C. M. S., Tsuruhashi Cho, Higashi Nari Gun, 

Osaka Fu, (A.) 
Trott, Miss D., 1910, S. P. G., Sei Mariya Kwan, HirakaAva Cho, 

Kojimachi, Tokyo. 
Trueman, Mr. G. E., & W., 1910, Y. M. C. A. A., Gokiso Mura, Hyogo 

Ken. 
Tucker, Rt. Rev. H.-St. G., D. D., & W., 1899, P. E., Karasumaru 

Dori, Okakuen Machi, Kyoto. 
Tucker, Rev. W. L., I917, M. E. S, 1912 Shimo Shibuya, Tokvo, 

(A.) 
Tulpin, Rev. E. A., 1877, R. C, 21 Kasumi Cho, Azabu, Tokyo. 
Tweedie, Miss E. G., 1903, M. C. C, Hyakkoku Machi, Kofu, Yamana- 

shi Ken. 

u 

Umbreit, Rev. S. J., D. D., & W., 1905, E. A., 33-B., Tsukiji, Tokyo. 
Unsitalo, Miss S., 1903, L. E. F., 438 Sendagi Machi, Akasaka. Tokyo, 
, (A.) 
Upton, Miss E. F., P. E., (Ind.) Omiya, Saitama Ken 



XXxii JAPAXSf 

- - V . , • ■ 

Vanger, Rev. A., 1890, R. C, Nara. • 

Van Bronkhorst, Rev. A , & W., 1916, R. C. A., Nishi Horibata, Saga. 

Van Horn, Rev. G. W., 1888, -P. N.,.-> (F. C, Osaka 11,072), 1015 N. 

Hudson A/e., Pasadena, Cal., U. S. A. , 

Van Strien, Rev. D., & W., 1912, R. C. A., 157 Sasaya Maclii, 

Kurume,. Fukuoka Ken. 
Veillon, Rev., 1908, R. C, Miyazaki. 
Verbeck, Miss Eleanor, 1913, P. E., St. John's School, Manlius, N. Y., 

U. S. A. 
Villion, Rev. A., 187 1, R. C, Hagi, Yamaguchr Ken, 
Vornhoh, Miss Mary A., I918, R. C. U. S., 8 Akashi Cho, Tsukiji, 

Tokyo. 
Vories, Mr. John, & W., 1914, O. M. J., Hachiman, Omi. 
Vories, Mr. W. M., & W., 1905, O. M. J., Hachiman, Omi, (F. C, Osaka 

■I7158). 
Voules, Miss J. E, Agi7, S. P. G., 456 Shimo Gion Cho, Hirano Mura, 
Kobe, (A.) ■ 

w 

Wagner, Miss D. M., 1913, M. E. F. B., Hakodate, (A.) ' 

Wagner, Mr. FI. H., & W., Tnd., Higashi Rokuchome, Gojohashi, Shimo 

Kyoku, Kyoio. 
Wainright, Rev. S. H., D. D., & W. 1888, M. E. S., 8 Tsukiji, Tokyo. 
Walker, Mr. Owen, & W., 1917, Y. M. C. A. T., Koto Gakko, Kana- 

zawa, Ishikavv'a Ken. 
Walker, Mr. F, B., & W., 1903, S. P. G., 5 Sanchome, Naka Yamate 

Dori, Kobe. 
Waller, Rev, J. G., & W., 1890, M. S. C. €., Nishi Nagano, Nagano. 
Walne, Rev. E. N., D. D., & W., 1892, S. B. C., Tanaka Machi, Shi- 

monoseki, 
Walser, Rev. T.-D., & W., 1916, P. N., 6-B Akashi Cho, Tsukiji, 

Tokyo. 
Walsh; Rev. G. J., M. A., & W., C. M. S., 97 Dekijima Machi, Tokushima. 
Walter, Mr., R. C, Gyosei Gakko, 32 lidamachi, Sanchome, Kojimachi. 
Walton, Rev. M. H. W., & W., C. M. S., 324 Hiratsuka Cho, Hiroshima. 
Walvoord, Mr. Anthony, & W., 1905, R. C. A., 16 Oura Fligashiyamate, 

Nagasaki. 
Ward"^, Miss Elizabeth, 1005, A. B. C. F. M., Baikwa Jo Gakko, Osaka 

Fu, (A.) 
^Varren, Rev. C. M., & W., 1899, A. B. C. F. M., c/o A. B. C. F. M., 

14 Beacon St., Boston Mass., U. S. A. 
\¥arton, Mrs, R. G., Ind., 19 Ippon Matsu Machi, Azabu, Tokyo. 
Wassereau, Rev., 191 1, R. C, Tokyo. 
Wa'erhouse, Miss M. C, 1915, A, B. C. F. M., Doshisha Girls' School, 

Kyoio. 
Waterhouse, Rev. Paul B., & W., 1912, O. M. J., Hachiman, Omi, (A.) 
Watson, Rev. B. E., & W.,- 1918, F. C. M. S.," 354 Nakazato, Takino- 

gawa, Tokyo Fu. 
Waf-son, Dr. Wm. R., & W., 1913, Ind., Akasaka Hospital, 17 Hikawa 

Cho, Akasaka, Tokyo, (A). , ■ 



ALPHABETICAL LIST XXXIU 

Watson, Miss Rebecca J., 1S83, M. E. F. B., 221 Bluff, Yokohama. 
Weakley, Rev. W. R., & W., 1S95, M. E. S., 14 Kawaguchi Cho, Osaka. 

(F. C, Osaka, 12,122). 
Webb, Rev: A. E., 1894, S. P. G., St. Peter's Church, Zushi, Kanagawa 

Ken. 
Webber, Mr. P. A., & W., 1913, S. D. A., 2 of 198 Makura Cho, 

Jigyo, Higashi Machi, Fukuoka. 
Welbourn, Rev. J- A., & W., 1899, P. E., 3 Yayoi Cho, Kongo, Tokyo. 
Wells, Miss Lillian A., I900, P. N., Shimo Tatekoji, Yamaguchi. 
West, Miss A. B., 1883, P. N., 2 Nishi Machi, Nihon-enoki, Shiba, 

Tokyo. - 

Weston, Rev. F,, & W., 1895, S. P. G., 14 Nichome, Nosaki Dori, 

Kobe. 
Wheeler, Prof. H. A., & W., 1910, M. E. F. B., 3 Aoyama Gakuin, 

Tokyo. 
White, Miss Anna L., I9I1, M. E. F. B., Aoyama Jo Gakuin, Tokyo. 
White, Rev. S. S., 1890, (& W. absent) A. B. C. F. M., 28 Awazato 

Machi, Tsuyama, Towada Gun, Okayama Ken. 
Whitehead, Miss Mabel, 1917, M. E. S., Niomon Dori, Hiromichi, Nishi, 

Kyoto, c/o Rev. S. A. Stewart. 
Whitener, Rev. H. C, 1912, & W., 1914, P. N., Shijo Hatchome, Asahi- 

gawa, Hokkaido. 
Whiting, Rev. M. M., & W., I912, M. C. C, Kobe, (A.) 
Whitney, Mr. J. P., Ind., 107 Yamashita Cho, Yokohama. 
Wiberg, Lieut. Colonel, Sven., & W., 1914, S. A., ii Honmura Cho, 

Ushigome, Tokyo. 
Wilcox, Miss E. F., 1904, A. B. F., c/o W. A. B. F. M. S., Box 41 Boston, 

Mass, U. S. A. 
Wilkes, Mr. Paget, & W., J. E. B., 178 Hirano Yabe Cho, Kobe. 
Wilkinson, Mr. Cecil S., & W., J. E. B., 6 Nichome, Ishii Cho, Kobe. 
Wilkinson, Rev. A. T., & W., 1905, M. C. C, Nishi Kusabuka Cho, 

Shizuoka. 
Williams, Miss A. B., I910, M. E. S., 35 Nichome, Naka Yamate Dori, 

Kobe, c/o Larabuth Memorial Bible Womens Training School. 
Williams, Miss A. C, 1917, C. M. S., Bishop Poole Girls' School, 

Tsuruhashi Cho, Higashi Nari Gun, Osaka. 
Williams, Miss Hallie R., 1916, P. E., 40 Tsukiji, Tokyo. 
Williams, Miss Lula A., 1911, P. C. N., Higashi Rokuchome, Gojohashi, 

Shimo Kyoku, Kyoto. 
Williams, Miss Mary E., 1880, M. P. W., 33 Ura Monzen Cho, Nagoya. 
Williams, Miss T. C, S. P. G., 369 Sanko Cho, Shirokane, Shiba, 

Tokyo, (A.) 
Williamson, Rev. N. F., 1918, S. B. C, 91 Benten Cho, Ushigome, 

Tokyo. 
Willingham, Rev. C. T., 1902, & W., S. B. C, I9I1, c/o Bapt. For. 

Miss. Bd., Richmond, Va., U. S. A. 
Wilson, Mr. L. C, & W. 1917, (Chinese) Y. M. C. A., 12 Shinryudo 

Cho, Azabu, Tokyo, (A.) 
Wilson, Major Thomas, & W., I906, S. A., 31 Fujimi Cho, Azabu, 

Tokyo. 
Wilson, Rev. W. A., & (W. A.) 1880, M. E. S., Okayama. 
Winn, Rev. Merle C, & W., 1916, P. N., 34 Tobiume Cho, Kodatsuno. 

Kana:^awa, Ishikawa Ken. 



XXXI V JAPAN 

Winn, Miss M. L., 1882, R. C. A., Daiku Machi, Aotnori. 

Winn, Rev. T. C, D. D., & W., 1878, P. N., Port Arthur, Manchuria. 

Winther, Rev. J. M. T., & W., 1898, L. C. A., 412 Furushin Yashiki, 

Kumamoto. 
Woodsworth, Rev. H, F,, & W., 1911, M. C. C, 102 Convent Ave., 

New York. 
Woodworth, Rev. A. D., D. D., & W., 1892, C. C, Merom, Indiana, 

U. S. A. 
Woolley, Miss K,, S. P. G., Sei Mariya Kwan, Hirakawa Cho, Kojima- 

chi, Tokyo. 
Worth, Miss Ida M., 1895, ^- ^- ^-j ^^^ Broadway, Nashville, Tenn., 

U. S. A., c/o Board of Missions. 
Worthington, Miss H. J., 1898, C. M. S., Ashiya Mura, Muko Gun, 

Hyogo Ken. 
Wright, Miss Ada H., 1897, P. E., Morioka. 
Wright, Rev. A. S., S. P. G., ii Sakae Cho, Shiba, Tokyo. 
Wyckoff, Mrs. M. N,, 1881, R. C. A., 804 Kami Osaki, Tokyo Fu. 
Wylie, Miss M. L., 1905, C. M. A., Onomichi. 
Wynd, Rev. William, 1891, & W., 1894, A. B. F., 30 Akashi Cho, 

Kyobashi, Tokyo. 
Wythe, Miss K. Grace, 1909, M. E. C, Nagoya. 



Yates, Rev. N. P., Ind.; Tainan, Formosa. 

Young, Miss Helen, O. M. S., 391 Kashiwa^, Yodobashi Machi, Tokyo. 
Young, Miss Mariana, 1907, M. E. F. B., Kwassui Jo Gakko, Nagasaki. 
Young, Miss M. M., 1895, M. S. C. C, 5 Itchome, Shirakabe Cho, 

Nagoya. 
Young, Rev. T. A., & W., I912, F. C. M. S., 24 Onkura Machi, 

Fukushima. 
Youngren, Rev. August, & W., 1903, F. M. A, 1912 Hidein Cho, Tennoji, 

Osaka. 



Zaugg, Rev. E. H., Ph. D., & W., 1906, R. C. U. S., 69 Katahira 
Cho, Sendai. 



LIST BY MISSIONS 



1. American Board of Comniis° 
sioaers for Foreign Missions 

Adams, Miss Alice P., Okayama. 

Allchin, Rev. Geo., & W., (A). 

Barrows, Miss M. L., Kobe. 

Beam, Rev. Kenneth S., & W,, 
Tokyo. 

Bennett, Rev. H. J., & W., Tottori. 

Bradshaw, Miss A. H., Sendai. 

Burwell, Miss Augusta, Kyoto. 

Cary, Miss Alice E., Osaka. 

Gary, Rev. Frank, & W., Sapporo. 

Carv, Rev. Otis, D. D., & W., (A). 

Clark, Rev. C. ^ ., & W., Miyazaki. 

Clapp, Miss Frances B., Kyoto. 

Cobb, Rev. E. S., & W., Kyoto. 

Coe, Miss Estelle, Tottori. 

Cozad, Miss Gertruke, Kobe. 

Curtis, Miss Edith, Osaka. 

Curtis, Rev. W. L., & W., Kyoto. 

Daughaday, Miss M. A., Sapporo. 

Davis, Mrs. J- !>-, Kobe. 

De Forest, Miss C. B., Kobe. 

Denton, Miss Mary F., Kyoto. 

Dunnmg, Rev. M. D., & W., Kobe. 

Fanning, Miss K. F., Kobe. 

Field, Miss Sarah M., Tokyo. 

Gordon, Mrs. M., Kyoto. 

Griswold, Miss Fannie E., Maebashi. 

Grover, Mr. Dana I., & W., Kyoto. 

Gulick, Rev. Sidney L., D. D., & 
W., (A). 

Hall, Rev. Marion E., & W., Mae- 
bashi. 

Harrison, Miss Ida W., Kobe. 

Hess, Rev. James M., & W., Kyoto. 

Holmes, Rev. Jerome C, & W., 
Osaka. 

Howe, Miss Annie L., Kobe. 

Hoyt, Miss Olive S., Matsuyama. 

Husted, Miss Edith E., Tokyo. 



Judson, Miss Cornelia, Matsuyama. 
Learned, Rev. D. W., D. D., & 

W., Kyoto. 
Lombard, Rev. F. A., & W., Kyoto. 
McKowan, Miss Amy E., Osaka. 
Moran, Rev. S. F., & W., Okayama. 
Newell, Rev. H. B., D. D., & W., 

Matsuyama. 
Olds, Rev. C. B., & W., (A). 
Parmelee, Miss H. F., Matsuyama. 
Pedley, Rev. Hilton, D. D., & W., 

Kyoto. 
Pettee, Rev. J. H., D. D., & W., 

(A). 
Rowland, Rev. George M., D. D„ 

& W., (A). 
Rowland, Miss Pauline, Kyoto. 
Rupert, Miss N. L., Kobe. 
Searle, Miss S. A., Kobe. 
Stanford, Rev. A. W., & W., Kobe. 
Stowe, Miss Grace H., Kobe. 
Stowe, Miss Mary E., Kobe. 
Wainwright, Miss M. E., Okayama. 
Ward, Miss Elizabeth, Osaka (A). 
Warren, Rev. Cliarles M., & W., 

(A). 
Waterhouse, Miss M. C, Kyoto. 
White, Rev. S. S., & (W. absent), 

Tsuyama. 

2. American Baptist Foreign 
Mission Society 

Acock, Miss Amy A., Morioka. 
Allen, Miss Thomasine, Sendai. 
Anderson, Miss Ruby L., Tokyo. 
Axling, Rev. Wm., D. D., & W., 

Tokyo. 
Benninghoff, Rev. H. B., D. D., 

& W., Tokyo. 
Bickel, Mr. Philip L., Himeji. 
Bixby, Miss Alice, Himeji. 



xxxvi 



JAPAN 



Brand, Rev.. J. C, (retired) Tokyo. 

Briggs, Mrs. F. C, Himeji. 

Buzzeli, Miss A. S., (A). 

Camp, Miss Evalyn, Osaka, 

Carpenter, Miss M. M., Tokyo. 

Clagett, Miss M. A., Tokyo. 

Converse, Miss C. A., Yokohama. 

Crosby, Miss A. R., (A). 

Danielson, Miss Mary, (A). 

Dithridge, Miss H. L., Tokyo. 

Fisher, Rev. C. H. D., & W., 
(retired), Yokohama. 

Fisher, Mr. Royal H., & W., 
Yokohama. 

Foote, Rev. J. A., & W-, Osaka. 

French, Miss R. D., (A). 

Gates, Rev. Paul J., & W., Tokyo. 

Gressitt, Mr. J. F. & W., Yokohama. 

Haring, Rev. D. G., & W., Tokyo. 

Harrington, Rev. C. K., D., D., & 
W., (A). 

Haven, Miss Marguerite, Yokohama. 

Ploltom, Rev. D. C, & W., Tokyo. 

Jesse, Miss M. D., Morioka. 

Jones, Rev. E. H., & W., Mito. 

Mead, Miss Lavinia, Osaka. 

Munroe, Miss Hehen W., Yoko- 
hama. 

Pawley, Miss Annabelle, Himeji. 

Ross, Rev. C. H., & W., Sendai. 

Ryder, Miss G. E., Tokyo. 

Sandberg, Miss Minnie V., Tokyo. 

Scott, Rev. J. H., & W., (A). 

wSmith, Miss Ruth E. Tokyo. 

Steadman, Rev. F. W.. & W., 
Onomichi. 

Tenny, Rev. C. B., D. D., & W., 
Tokyo. 

Tharp, Miss Elma R., Tokyo. 

Thompson, Rev. E. T.,& W., Tokyo. 

Thomson, Rev. R. A., D. D., 
F. R. G. S., & W., Kobe. 

Topping, Rev. Henry, & W. Mori- 
oka. 

Wilcox, Miss E. F., (A). 

VVynd, Rev. Wm., & W., Tokyo. 

3- Allgemeiner evacgelisch=pro= 
testantische Missioaverein 

Hunziker, Pfarrer Jacob, & W., 
Tokyo. 



Schiller, Supt, Dr. Emil, & W., 

Kyoto. 
Schroeder, Pfarrer E., & W., Tokyo. 

4. Foreign Missionary As= 

sociation of Friends of 

Philadelphia 

Binford, Mr. Gurney, & W., Mito. 
Bowles, Mr. Gilbert, & W., Tokyo. 
Gififord, Miss Alice C, Tokyo. 
Jones, Mr. Thomas E., & W., Tokyo. 
Lewis, Miss Alice G., (A). 
Newlin, Miss Edith, Tokyo. 
Nicholson, Mr. Herbert V., Tokyo. 
Sharpless, Miss Edith F., Mito. 

5. Australian Board of Missions 
(Anglican) 

Harrison, Rev. E. R,, Sankawa, 
Chiba. 

6. Assembly of God 

Bernauer, Miss Beatrice, Tokyo. 
Bernauer, Mrs. E. A., Tokyo. 
Coot, Mr. Leonard, Yokohama. 
Gray, Mr. Frank PL, & W., (A). 
Juer'gensen, Mr. C. F., & W., 

Tokyo. 
Juergensen, Miss Marie, Tokyo. 
Moore, Mr. B. S., & W., (A). 
Taylor, Mr. W. J., & W., Kobe. 



7. Bible Societies 

Aurell, Mr. K. E., & W., Tokyo. 
Lawrence, M^. A., & W., Nagasaki, 
Loomis, Rev. H., D. D., & W,, 

(retired), Yokohama. 
Parrott, Mr. Frederick, & W., 

Kobe. 

8. Mission Board of the Christian 

Church, (American Christian 

Convention) 

Fry, Rev. E. C, & W. Utsunomiya. 
Garman, Rev. C. P., & W., Tokvo. 
McCord, Rev. E. K., & W., (A). 



LIST BY MISSIONS 



XXXVll 



Woodworth, Rev. A. D., D. D., & 
W., (A). 

9. Church of England 

Andrews, Rev. E. L. (A). 
Austen, Rev. W. T. & W., Yoko- 
hama. 
Colborne, Mrs. Hojo, Boshu. 
Rowlands, Rev. F. & W. Fukuoka. 

10. Church of God 

Alexander, Rev. W. G., & W., 

Tokyo, 
Chambers, Miss Zuda Lee, Tokyo. 



11. Christian Missionary 
Alliance 

Francis, Miss R. M., Fukuyama. 

Francis, Rev. T. R., & W., Matsu- 
yama. 

Green, Rev. C. P., & W., Hiro- 
shima. 

Lindstrom, Rev. IL, & W., Hiro- 
shima. 

Wylie, Miss M. L., Shobara, Bingo. 



12. Church Missionary Society 

A. Hokkaido Mission 

Batchelor, Ven. Archdeacon, D. D., 

& W., Sapporo. 
Bryant, Miss E. A., Piratori. 
Evans, Miss A. 
Hughe, Miss A. M. 
Jex-Blake, Miss M. R. 
Lang, Rev. D. M. & W., Hakodate. 
Norton, Miss E. L. B., Sapporo. 
Stevenson, Miss G. S., (A). 

B. Central Japan Mission 

Barclay, Mr. J. Gurney, & W., 

Matsue. 
Bleby, Rev. H.L., & W., Tokyo. 
Bosanquet, Miss A. C, (A). 
Boullon, Miss E. B., Osaka. 
Buncombe, Rev. W. P., & W., 

Tokyo. 



Carlyle, Miss E. A. 

Chapman, Rev. E., & W., (A). 

Cowl, Mr. J., cS: W., (A). 

Cox, Miss A. M., (A). 

Elwin, Rev. W. H., & W., Tokyo. 

Forester, Hon. Rev. O. St. M., & 
W., Yokohama. 

Fugill, Miss E. M., (A). 

Galgey, Miss L. A., Fukuyama. 

Gardener, Miss F., Hiroshima. 

Heaslett, Rev. S., & \V., (A). 

Henty, Miss A. M., (A). 

Howard, Miss R. D., Osaka. 

Hutchinson, Rev. E. G., Tokyo. 

Knight, Rev. O. H., & W., (A). 

Mann, Rev. J. C, & W., Yonago. 

Nash, Miss E., (A). 

Pasley, Miss M., (A).. 

Preston, Miss E. D., Tokushima. 

Peto, Mr. H., (A). 

Rawlings, Rev. G. W., & W., 
Osaka. 

Roberts, Miss A. Tokyo. 

Sander, Miss M., Tokyo. 

Scott, Rev. J. J., & W., (A). 

Tristram, Miss K., (A). 

Walsh, Rev. G. J., & W., Toku- 
shima. 

Walton, Rev. W. H. M., & W., 
Hiroshima. 

Williams, Miss A. G., Osaka. 

Worthington, Miss H. J., Ashiya, 
Hyogo Ken. 

C. KiusHiu Mission 

Cockram, Miss H. S., (A). 
Duke, Rev. M. O. M., & W., (A). 
Freeth, Miss F. M., Kumamoto. 
Hind, Rev. J., & W., Kokura., (A). 
Home, Miss A. C. J. 
Hutchinson, Rev. A. C, & AV., 

Fukuoka. 
Hutchinson, Ven. Archdeacon, & 

W., Nagasaki. 
Keen, Miss E. M., Nagasaki. 
Lane, Miss E. A., (A). 
Lea, Rt. Rev. A., D. D., & W., 

Fukuoka. 
Nott, Miss L. F., Kagoshima. 
Painter, Rev. S., & W., Kokura. 
Pickard-Cambridge, Rev. C. D., & 

W., Saseho. 



XXXVlll 



JAPAN 



Sells, Miss E. A. P., Kagoshima. 
Thompson, Miss F. L., Kagoshima. 

13. Evangelical Association 

Bauernfeind, Miss Susan M., Tokyo. 
Berner, Miss Natalie, Tokyo. 
Erffmeyer, Miss Edna, Osaka. 
Erffmeyer, Miss- Florence, Osaka. 
Kramer, Miss Lois, Tokyo. 
Kramer, Miss Sarah, Tokyo. 
Mank, Miss Laura, Tokyo. 
Mayer, Rev. P. S., & W., Tokyo. 
Ranck, Miss Elmina, (A). 
Schirmer, Miss Kathryn, Koriyama. 
Schwab, Rev. B. T., & W., Tokyo. 
Schweitzer, Miss Edna, (A). 
Umbreit, Rev. S. J., D. D., & W., 
Tokyo. 

14. Foreign Christian Missionary 
Society 

Armbruster, Miss Rose T., Akita. 
Asbury, Miss Jessie J., Osaka. 
Brown, Miss Winifred, (A). 
Clawson, Miss Bertha F., Tokyo. 
Davey, Rev. P. A., & W., Tokyo. 
Erskine, Rev. Wm. H., & W., 

Osaka. 
Garst, Miss Gretchen, (A). 
Hagin, Rev. F. E., & W., (A). 
Lediard, Miss Mary F., Akita. 
Lee, Rev. F. E., Ph. D., & W., 

(A). 
McCall, Rev. C. F., & W., Akita. 
McCoy, Rev. R. D., & W., Tokyo. 
Oliphant, Rev. L. D., & W., 

Tokyo. 
Palmer, Miss Jewel, Tokyo. 
Parker, Miss Edith, (A).' 
Robinson, Rev. C. E., & W., Osaka. 
Scott, Miss Ada, Tokyo. 
Watson, Rev. B. E., & W., Tokyo. 
Young, Rev. T. A., & W., Fuku- 

.shima. 

11. General Missionary Board of 

the Free Methodist Church of 

North America 

Cooper, Rev. S. E., & W., (A). 



Haslan, Rev. O. R., Akashi. 
Hessler, Miss Minnie K., Sumoto, 

Awaji. 
Millican, Rev. R. W., & W^, (A). 
Mylander, Miss Ruth, Osaka. 
Pickens, Miss Lillian O., Sumoto, 

Awaji. 
Youngren, Rev. August, & W., 

Osaka. 

16. Hepzibath Faith Missionary 
Association 

Adams, Mr. R. P., & W., Choshi, 

Chiba Ken. 
Glenn, Miss Agnes, (A). 
Mintle, Miss Rosa, Yokohama. 
Smelser, Mr. F. L., & (W. absent), 

Yokohama. 



17. Independent of any Board 
or Society 

Andrews, Miss Sarah, Tokyo. 
Atchinson, Rev. R., & W., Kobe. 
Brand, Mr. Herbert G., & W., 

Tokyo, (A). 
Chandler, Miss Ada B., Asahigawa. 
Cypert, Miss Lilian, Tokyo. 
Evans, Miss Sarah, Kobe. 
Ewing, Miss A. M., Tokyo. 
Gillet, Miss E. T., Tokyo. 
Gundert, Rev. W., & W., Kuma- 

moto. 
Ilansee, Miss Martha L., Tokyo. 
Harlshorne, Miss A. C, Tokyo. 
Hutchings, Miss A. M., Nikko. 
Kingsbury, Rev. W. de L., & W., 

Nagoya. 
McCaleb, Mr. J. M., & (W. A.), 

Tokyo. 
MacDonald, Miss A. C, Tokyo. 
Martin, Rev. Wm. 8c W. Yokohama. 
Miller, Miss Alice, Tokyo. 
Moon, Miss Myra B., Tokyo. 
Nixon, Miss Emily, Kyoto. 
Piper, Miss Margaret F., Osaka. 
Read, Dr* Rachel, Tokyo. 
RoUstin, Mr. W. P., Okayama. 
Scudder, Rev. Doremus, & W. 

Tokyo, (A). . 
Sheppard, Miss E., Kobe. 



LIST BY MI iS IONS 



XXXIX 



Smyser, Rev. M., & W., Yokote. 
Stewart, Miss M., Tokyo. 
Warton, Mrs. R. G., Tokyo. 
Watson, Wm. R., M. D., &, W., 

Tokyo, (A). 
Whitney, Mr. J. P., Yokohama. 

18. Japaa Evangelistic Band 

Argall. Mrs. G. B. K., Mikage, 

Hyogo. 
Braithwaite, Mrs. G., Tokyo. 
Bullock, Miss E. A., Osaka. 
Burnet, Miss E., Tokyo. 
Buxton, Rev. Barclay E., (A). 
Coles, Miss A. M., Osaka. 
Cuthbertson, Mr. James, & W., 

Tokyo. 
Dyer, Mr. A. L., & W., Himeji. 
Gillespy, Miss J. €., Kobe. 
Harris, Mr. R. W., & W., (A). 
Mozley, Miss G,, Osaka. 
Penrod, Miss C. T., Tokyo. 
Smith, Miss I. W., Tokyo. 
Soal, Miss A., Tokyo. 
Wilkes, Mr. Paget, & W., Kobe. 
Wilkinson, Mr. C. S., & W., Kobe. 

19- Japan Book and Tract Society 

Braithwaite, Mr. Geo., & W., Tokyo. 

20. (A) Foreign Mission Board of 

the United Lutheran Church 

of America 

Akard, Miss Martha B., (A). 

Bach, Rev. D. G. M., & W. Moji. 

Bowers, Miss Mary Lou, Fukuoka. 

Brown Rev. C. L. W., D. D., & 
"W., (A). 

Hepner, Rev. C. W., & W. Osaka. 

Horn, Rev. Edward T., & W„ (A). 

Kipps, Rev. M. M., & W., Kuma- 
moLo. 

Linn, Rev. John K., & W., Toyo- 
hashi. 

Lippard, Rev. C. K., D. D., & W., 
Kumamoto. 

Miller, Rev. L. S. G., & W., Fuku- 
oka. 

Nielsen, Rev. J. P., & W., Kurume. 
Korman, Rev. Clarence E., Tokyo. 



Powlas, Miss Maude O., Tokyo. 

Smith, -Rev. Frisby D., & W. To- 
kyo. 

Stirewalt, Rev. A. J., & W., Kuma- 
moto. 

Thorlaksson, Rev. S. O., & W., 
Nagoya. 

Winther, Rev. J. M. T., & W., 
Kumamoto. 

(B) Luthersica Evangeliforenigen 
i Finland 

Hytonen, Miss R., (A). 

Lindgren, Rev. R., & W., Tokvo. 

Minkkinen, Rev. T., & W., Kami- 
suwa, Shinshu, 

Nylund, Miss J., lida, Shinshu. 

Salonen, Rev. K., & W., (A). 

Savolainen, Rev. V., & W., Sap- 
poro. 

Tammio, Rev. K., & W., lida, 
Shinshu. 

Umsitalo, Miss S., (A). 

20. Methodist Church of Canada 

Ainsworth, Rev. Fred, & W., To- 

yama. 
Allen, Miss A. W., Kanazawa. 
Armstrong, Miss M. E., Toyama. 
Armstrong, Rev. R. C, Ph. D., & 

W., (A). 
Bates, Rev. C. J. L., D. D., & W., 

Tokyo. 
Bird, Miss E., Shizuoka. 
Blackmore, Miss I. S., Tokyo. 
Campbell, Miss Edith, Tokyo. 
Chappell, Miss Constance, Kofu. 
Coates, Rev. H. H., D. D., & W., 

Hamamatsu. 
Cragg, Rev. W. U. M., & W., Kobe. 
Courtice, Miss Sybil, Shizuoka. 
Craig, Miss M., Tokyo. 
De Wolfe, Miss H. E., (A.) 
Drake, Miss K. I., Ueda, Shinshu. 
Fryer, Rev. W. D., & W., Kofu. 
Govenlock, Miss I., (A). 
Hamilton, Miss F. B., Tokyo. 
Harper, Miss R. A., Tokyo. 
Hart, Miss C. E., Nagano. 
Hennigar, Rev. E. C, & W., Ka- 

nazawa. 



xl 



JAPAN 



Holmes, Rev. C. P., & W., Fukui. 
Hurd, Miss H. R., U«da, Shinshu. 
Jost, Miss H. J., (A). 
Keagey, Miss M. D., (A). 
Killam, Miss Ada, Toyama. 
Lackner, Miss E. A., Tokyo. 
Lediard, Miss E., Kanazawa, Kaga. 
Lindsay, Miss O. C, Shizuoka. 
McKenzie, R^v. D. R., D. D., & 

(W. absent), Tokyo. 
McLeod, Miss Anna, Kanazawa, 

Kaga. 
McWilliams, Rev. W. R., & W., 

Nagano. 
Misener, Mrs. E. W., Kobe. 
Norman, Rev. D., D. D., & W., 

Nagano. 
Norman, Miss L.. Kobe. 
Outerbridge, Rev. H. W., & W., 

Kobe. 
Patterson, Rev. G. S., & W. (A). 
Parker, Miss Mary M. 'Shizuoka. 
Pinsent, Mrs. A. M., (A). 
Price. Rev. P. G., & W., Kanazawa, 

Kaga. 
Preston, Miss E. A., Tokyo. 
Robertson, Miss M. A., Kofu. 
Ryan, Miss Esther, (A). 
Saunby, Rev. J. W., D. D., & W., 

Tokyo. 
Scott, Miss Mary, Nagano. 
Staples, Miss M. W., Kofu, (A). 
Stroihard, Miss Alice, Kofu, (A). 
Tait, Miss S. D., Tokyo. . 
Tweedie, Miss E. G., Kofu. 
Whiting, Rev. M. M., & W., (A). 
Wilkinson, Rev. A. T., & W^, Shi- 
zuoka. 
Woodsworth, Rev. H. F., & W., 

(A). 



22. Board of Foreign Amissions of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church 

(A) Japan Mission Council 

Alexander, Rev. R. P., & W., 

Tokyo. 
Berry, Rev. A. D., D. D., Tokyo. 
Bishop, Rev. C, & W., Tokyo. 
Bull, Rev. E. R., & W., (A). 
Chappell, Rev. B., D. D., Tokyo. 



Davison, Rev. C. S., D. D., & W., 

(A). 
Davison, Rev. J. C, D. D., Kuma- 

moto. 
Draper, Rev. G. F., S. T. D., & 

W., Yokohama. 
Harris, Bishop M. C., D. D., Tokyo. 
Heckelman, Rev. F. W., &. W., 

Sapporo., (A). 
Holliday, Mr. G. A., (A). 
Iglehart, Rev. C. W., & W., Sen- 

dai. 
Iglehart, Rev. E. T., & W., Tokyo. 
Johns, Mr. H. W., & W., Tokyo. 
Jones, Rev. J. I., & W., (A). 
Martin, Mr. J. V., & W., Tokyo. 
Scott, Rev. F. N., & W., Nagasaki. 
Smith, Rev. F. H., & W., Seoul. 
Spencer, Rev. D. S., D. D., & W., 

(A). 
Spencer, Rev. R. S,, & W., Naga- 
saki. 
Wheeler, Mr. H. A., & W., Tokyo. 

(B) East Japan Mission Women's 
Foreign Missionary Society 

Alexander, Miss Bessie, Sapporo. 

Appenzeller, Miss Ida, Hakodate. 

Baucus, Miss Georgiana, Yokohama. 

Bodley, Miss E., Sendai. 

Chappell, Miss Mary H,, (A). 

Chase, Miss Laura, Sendai. 

Cheney, Miss Alice, Tokyo. 

Couch', Miss Helen, (A). 

Courtice, Miss Lois, (A). 

Daniel, Miss Margaret, Tokyo. 

Dickerson, Miss Augusta, Hakodate. 

Dickinson, Miss Emma E. Yoko- 
hama. 

Draper, Miss Winifred F. Hirosaki. 

Draper, Miss Marion R. Yokohama. 

Goodwin, Miss Lora C, Plakodate. 

Pleaton, Miss C. A., (A). 

Hitch, Miss A. E., Nagasaki. 

Imhof, Miss Louise, Sendai. 

Lee, Miss Edna, (A). 

Lee, Miss Mabel, (A). 

Maclntire, Miss Frances W., Hako- 
date. 

Miller, Miss Etta, Tokyo. 

Pider, Miss Myrtle Z., (A). 

Russell, Miss Helen M., Hiroyaki, 



LIST BY MISSIONS 



xli 



Seeds, Mi?s Leonora M., Nagoya. 
Slate, Miss Anna B., Yokohama. 
Spencer, Miss M. A., Tokyo. 
Sprowles, Miss Alberta 15., Tokyo. 
Taylor, Miss Ernna M., (A). 
Wagner, Miss Dora M., (A). 
Watson, Miss Rebecca J., Yoko- 
hama. 
White, Miss Anna L., Tokyo. 
Wythe, Miss K. Grace, Nagoya. 

(C) West Japan Mission, Women's 
Foreign Missionary Society 

Ashbaugh, Miss A. M., Nagasaki. 

Atkinson, Miss Anna P., Fukuoka. 

Bangs, Miss Louise, (A). 

Finlay, Miss L, Alice, (A). 

Howey, Miss Harriet, Nagasaki. 

Ketchum, Miss Edith L.,'(A). 

Kidwell, Miss L. M., (A). 

Lee, Miss Bessie M., Fukuoka. 

Matheson, Miss Margaret L., Naga- 
saki. 

Peckham, Miss Caroline S., Naga- 
saki. 

Peet, Miss Azalia, Kagoshima. 

Place, Miss Pauline, Kumamoto. 

Plimpton, Miss Marg.iret, Nagasaki. 

Russell, Miss E., (A). 

Russell, Miss May, (A). 

Starkey, Miss Bertha, Fukuoka. 

Teague, Miss Carolyn, Kumamoto. 

Thomas, Miss Hettie A., Nagasaki. 

Young, Miss Mariana, Nagasaki. 

23. Board of Foreign Missions 

of the Methodist Episcopal 

Church, South 

Bennett, Miss Nellie, (A). 
Callahan, Rev. W. J., & W., Uwa- 

jima, Shikoku. 
Cobb, Mr. J. B., & W., Kobe. 
Cook, Miss M. M., Hiroshima. 
Davis, Rev. W. A., & (W. absent), 

Kobe. 
Demaree, Rev. T. W. B., & W., 

Oita. 
Frank, Rev. W. J., & W., (A). 
Gaines, Miss N. B., Hiroshima. 
Gaines, Miss Rachel, Hiroshima. 



Gist, Miss Anette, Oita. 

Haden, Rev. T. FL, D. D., Kobe. 

Hager, Rev. S. E., D. D., & (W. 
absent), Kobe. 

FTatcher, Miss Annie A., Hiroshima. 

Flolland, Miss Charlie, Kobe. 

Jones, Rev. H. P., & V/., Hiro- 
shima. 

Matthews, Rev. W. K., & W., (A). 

Myers, Rev. J. T., & W., (A). 

Miller, Miss Janet, Hiroshima. 

Moscley, Mrs. C. B., (A). 

Newcomb, Miss Ethel, (A). 

Newton, Rev. J. C. C, D. D., & 
W., Kobe. 

Ogburn, Rev. N. S., (A). 

Oxford, Mr. J. S., & W., Kobe. 

Shannon, Miss I. L., Hiroshima. 

Sliannon, Miss K., Hiroshima. 

Silcr, Miss Annice, Hiroshima. 

Sims, Mr. J. Grover, Kobe. 

Smith, Mr. Roy, & W., Kobe. 

Stewart, Rev. R. S., & W., (A). 

Stewart, Rev. S. A., & W., Kyoto. 

Towson, Miss Manie, Hiroshima. 

Turner, Mrs. (A). 

Wainright, Rev. S. H., D. D,, & 
W., Tokyo. 

Weakley, Rev. W. R., & W., Osaka. 

Whitehead, Miss Mabel, Kyoto. 

Williams, Miss A. B., Kobe. 

Wilson, Rev. W. A., & (W. absent). 
Okayama. 

Worth, Miss I. M., (A). 

1 24. (A) Board of Foreign Missions 

of the Methodist Protestant 

Church 

Layman, Rev. L., D. D., & W., 

Yokohama. 
Obee, Rev. E. I., & W., Nagoya. 

(B) A^omen's Foreign Missionary 

Society of the Methodist 

Protestant Church 

Coates, Miss A. L., (A). 
Cronise, Miss Florence, Nagoya. 
Dawson, Miss Elizabeth, (A). 
Hodges Miss Olive I., Yokohama. 



xlii 



JAPAN 



Schlegei milch, Miss Donna, Yoko- 
hama. 
Steele, Miss Harriet^, Hamamatsu. 
Williams, Miss Mary E., Nagoya. 

25. Missionary Society of the 
Church of England in Canada 

Archer, Miss A. I.. Gifu. 

Baldwin, Rev. J. M., & W., Nagoya. 

Bowman, Miss N. F. H., Toyohashi. 

Cooke, Miss M. S., Nagoya. 

Hamilton, Miss F., Matsumoto. 

Isaac, Miss I., Tokyo. 

Lenox, Miss E. G., Niigata. 

Makeham, Miss S. E., Nagoya. 

Millman, Rev. R. M. & W., Toyo- 
hashi . 

Moss, Miss A., Tokyo. 

Bowles, Rev. P. S. C-, & W., 
Takata. 

Robinson, Miss Plilda, (A). 

Robinson, Rev. J. C, & W., (A). 

Shaw, Miss L., Osaka. 

Spencer, Miss F. M., (A). 

Spencer, Rev. V. C, (A). 

Trent, Miss E. M., Nagoya. 

Waller, Rev. J. G., & W., Nagoya. 

Young, Miss M. M., Nagoya. 

26. Omi Mission 

Vories, Mr. John, & W., Hachiman, 

Omi. 
Vories, Mr. W. M., & W., Hachiman, 

Omi. 
Waterhouse, Rev. Paul B., & W., 

Hachiman, Omi. 

27. Oriental Misionary Society 

Clarke, Mr. Chas., (A). 
Cowman, Rev. C. E.. & W., (A). 
Hertzler, Miss Verna, Tokyo. 
Kilbourne, Rev. E. A., & W., (A). 
Kilbourne, Rev. E. L. & W., Tokyo. 
Moyer, Miss Pauline, Tokyo. 
Young, Miss Helen,- Tokyo. 

28. Pentecostal Bands of the 

World 

Abel, Mr. Fred, & W., Fukaya, 
Saitama, (A). 



Long, Mr. Edward R., & W.^ 
Fukaya, Saitama. 

29. General Missionary Board of 
the Pentecostal Church of the 

Nazarene 

Ecke], Rev. W. A., & W., Hiro- 
shima 

McPherson, Miss Ethel, Kyoto. 

Santee, Miss Helen C, Kyoto. 

Staples, Rev. I. B., & W., Kuma- 
moto. 

Thatcher, Rev. P. C, & W., Oka-^ 
yama. 

Wagner, Rev. H. H., & W., Kyoto.- 

Williams, Miss Lulu A., Kyoto. 

30. Domestic and Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society of the Protestant 

Episcopal Church in the United 
States of America 

Ambler, Miss Marietta, Kyoto. 
Andrews, Rev. R. W., & W.;,, 

Maebashi. 
Babcock, Miss B. R., Hirosaki. 
Binsted, Rev. N. S., & W., Akita. 
Boyd, Miss L. H. Tokyo. 
Bull, Miss Leila, Osaka. 
Bristowe, Miss L. M., Mito. 
Carlsen, Deaconess V. D., Maebashi. 
Chapman, Rev. J. J., & W., Kyoto. 
Chappell, Rev. ]., & W., Tokyo. 
Cooke, Rev. A. "W., & W., (A). 
Cornwall-Legh, Miss M. H., Kusatsu. 
Correll, Miss Ethel, Sendai. 
Correll, Rev. L H., D. D., 8c W.,, 

Tokyo. 
Dixon, Miss E. M., (A). 
Doane, Miss Marion S., Tokyo. 
Dooman, Rev. Isaac, & W., Tsu,. 

Ise. 
Evans, Rev. Chas. H., & W., 

Yamada. 
Gardiner, Miss Ernestine, (A). 
Gardiner, Rev. J. McD., & W.^ 

Tokyo. 
Heywood, Miss G., Tokyo. 
Humphreys, Miss Marian, Sendai. 
Kinsley, Miss Amy W., Akita. 



LIST BY MISSIONS 



xliit 



Kinsley, Miss Kathleen M., Akita. 
Knapp, Deaconess S. T., Tokyo. 
Laning, Miss Mary, Nara. 
Lloyd, Rev. J. H., & W., Waka- 

yama. 
Madeley, Rev. W. F., & W., (A). 
Mann, Miss Irene P., Utsunomiya. 
McGill, Miss Mary B., Kyoto. 
McGrath, Miss E. S., Kyoto. 
McKim, Miss Bessie, Tokyo. 
McKim, Rev. J. Cole, & W., 

Wakamatsu. 
McKim, Rt. Rev. John, D. D., 

Tokyo. 
McMim, Miss Nellie, Tokyo. 
McSparran, Rev. J. L., M. D., & 

W., Tokyo, (after Oct. 1919 

Kyoto). 
Mead, Miss Bessie, Yamagata. 
Meredith. Rev. F. C, Aomori. 
Neely, Miss C. J., (A). 
Newbold, Deaconess E. G., Aomori. 
Nichols, Rev. S. H., & W., Hiro- 

saki. 
Peck, Miss S. P., Kyoto. 
Ransome, Deaconess A. L., Sendai. 
Rees, Miss Sarah S., Kyoto. 
Reifsnider, Rev. C. S., L. H. D., 

& W., Tokyo. 
Reifsnider, Mr. John & W., (A). 
Rix, Miss C. M., Tokyo. 
Scherschewsky, Miss C. E., Tokyo. 
Smith, Mr. Lloyd M., & W., Nara. 
Smith, Rev. P. A., & W., Kanazawa. 
St. John, Mrs. David, Tokyo. 
Spencer, Miss M. D., Kyoto. 
Sweet, Rev. C. F., & W., Tokyo. 
Tetlow, Miss H. L., Fukui. 
Tucker, Rt. Rev. H. St. G., D. D. 

& W., Kyoto. 
Upton, Miss E. F., Omiya. 
Verbeck, Miss Eleanor, (A). 
Welbourn, Rev. J. A., & W., Tokyo. 
Williams, Miss Hallie R., Tokyo. 
Wright, Miss Ada H., Morioka. 

31. Board of Foreign Missions of 

the Presbyterian Church in the 

United States of America 

Alexander, Miss Sallie, Kohana, 
Hyogo. 



Arbury, Miss Katherine, Osaka. 
Ayres, Rev. J. B., D. D., Osaka. 
Ballagh, Mr. J. C., Tokyo. 
Bigelow, Miss G. S., Shimonoseki. 
Brokaw, Rev. Harvey, D. D., & 

W., Kyoto. 
Chapman, Rev. E. N., Tokyo. 
Clarke, Miss S. F., Kanazawa. 
Curtis, Rev. F. S., & W., Shimono- 
seki. 
Daugherty, Miss L. G., Tokyo. 
Davidson, Miss E. E., (A). 
Detweiler, Rev. J. E., & W., (A). 
Dosker, Rev. R. J., & W., Matsu- 

yama. 
Dunlop, Rev. J. G., D. D., (A), & 

W., Shimonoseki. 
Eaton, Miss A. G., Kanazawa. 
Evans, Miss Elizabeth, Sapporo. 
Evans, Miss Lillian, Sapporo. 
Fuhon, Rev. G. W., D. D., & W.,. 

Osaka. 
Garvin, Miss A.~E., Kure. 
Gorbold, Mrs. R. P., Osaka. 
Hail, Rev. A. D., D. D., Osaka. 
Hail, Rev. J. B., D. D., & W., 

Wakayama. 
Hail, Mrs. J. E., Osaka. 
Halsev, Miss L. S., Tokyo. 
Hannaford, Rev. H. D., & W., 

Kyoto. 
Hereford, Rev. W. F., & W., (A). 
Imbrie, Rev. Wm., D. D., & W., 

. Tokyo. 
Johnstone, Miss J. M., Takaoka. 
Lake, Rev. L. C, & W., Sapporo. 
Landis, Rev. H. M., & W., (A). 
Leavitt, Miss Julia, (A). 
London, Miss M. H., Tokyo. 
Luther, Miss I. R., Kanazawa. 
McCauley, Mrs. J. K. Tokyo. 
McCrory, Miss C. H., (A). 
McDonald, Miss M. D., (A). 
MacNair, Mrs. T. M., Tokyo. 
Milliken, Miss-E. P., Tokyo. 
Monk, Miss A. M., (A). 
Morgan, Miss A. E., Yokkaichi, 

Ise. 
Murray^ Rev. D. A., D. D., Tsu, 

Ise. 
Pierson, Rev. G. P., D. D., Nok- 

keushi, Hokkaido. 
Porter, Miss F. E., Kyoto. 



xliv 



JAPAN 



Ransom, Miss W. H., Wakayama. 
Reischauer, Rev. A. K., D. D., & 

W., Tokyo. 
Riker, Miss Jessie, Yamada, Ise, 
Smith, Miss S. C, (A). 
Thompson, Mrs. David, Tokyo. 
Van Horn, Rev. G. W., & W., 

(A). 
Walser, Rev. T, D., & W., Tokyo. 
Wells, Miss I. A., Yamaguchi. 
West, Miss A. B., Tokyo. 
Whitener, Rev. H. G., & W., 

Asahigawa, (A\ 
Winn, Rev. M. G., & W., Kana- 

zawa. 
Winn, Rev. T. C, D. D., Port 

Arthur. 



32. Executive Comniittee of Foreign 

Missions of the Presbyterian 

Church in the United 

States, (South) 

Atkinson, Miss M. J., Takamatsu. 

Brady, Rev. J. H., & W., Suzuki. 

Buchanan, Miss Elizabeth O., Gifu. 

Buchanan, Rev. Wm. C, & W., 
Gifu. 

Buchanan, Rev. W. Mc S,, & W., 
Kobe. 

Cummings, Rev. C. K., & W., 
Toyohashi. 

Curd, Miss Lillian W., Tokushima. 

Dowd, Miss Annie H., Kochi. 

Erickson, Rev. S. K., & W., Taka- 
matsu. 

Fulton, Rev. C. Darby & W., 
Okazaki. 

Fulton, Rev. S. P., & W., Kobe. 

Hansell, Miss Sarah G., Nagoya. 

Hassell, Rev. A. P., & W., Toku- 
shima. 

Hassell, Rev. J. W., & W., Maru- 
game. 

Kirtland, Miss Leila G., Nagoya. 

Logan, Rev. C. A., & W., (A). 

Lumpkin, Miss Estelle, Tokushima. 

McAlpine, Rev. R. E., & W., (A). 

JMcIllwaine, Rev. W. B., & W., 
Kochi. 

Moore, Rev. J. W., & W., Susaki. 

Munroe, Rev. H. H., & W., Kochi. 

Myers, Rev. H. W., & W., Kobe. 



Ostrom, Rev. H. G., & W., Toku- 
shima. 
Patton, Miss Annie V., Okazaki. 
Patton, Miss Florence, Okazaki. 
Smythe, Rev. L. C. & W., Nagoya. 

30. Roman Catholic Church 

Alvares, Prefet Apostolique, Toku- 
shima. 

Anchen, Rev. P., Hakodate. 

Andrieu, Rev., Tokyo. 

Aurientis, Rev. P., Vicar Gen., 
Kyoto. 

Berlioz, Rt. Rev., Sendai. 

Bertland, Rev. Fr., Kokura. 

Biannic, Rev. Jean, Aom.ori. 

Billing, Rev. L., (A). 

Birraux, Rev. J., Ise. 

Boehrer, Rev. J. F., Fukuoka. 

Bois, Rev. J. F., Nagasaki. 

Bois, Rev. F. L. J., Nagasaki. 

Bonnet, Rev. F., (A). 

Brenguir, Rev. L., Kumamoto. 

Bouige, Rev. L. H., Kagoshima. 

Bousequet, Rev. M. J., (A). 

Breton, Rev. M. J., Nagasaki. 

Cadilhac, Rev. H., Vicar Gen., Utsu- 
nomiva. 

Caloin,'Rev. E., (A). 

Castanier, Rt. Rev. E., Osaka. 

Cesca, Rev. Father, Niigata, (A). 

Cesselin, Rev. C., Miyagi, (A). 

Cesselin, Rev. G., (A). 

Cettour, Rev. J., Yamaguchi. 

Chabagne, Rev. J., (A). 

Chambon, Rev. J. A., Hakodate. 

Chapdelain, Rev. (A). 

Charron, Rev. T., Himeji. 

Cherel, Rev. J. M., Tokyo. 

Cornier, Rev. A., (A). 

Combaz, Rt. Rev. J- C., Nagasaki. 

Corgier, Rev. F., (A). 

Cotrel, Rev., Oita. 

Dalidert, Rev., Shirakawa. 

Daridon, Rev. H., Tottori. 

Deflrenes, Rev. Jos., Fukushima. 

Delahave, Rev., Shizuoka. 

Demangelle, Rev. A. H., (A). 

Deruy, Rev., (A). 

Dossier, Rev. R., Morioka. 

Drouart, d^ Fezey, Rev. F. L. 
Gotenba. 



LIST BY MISSIONS 



xlv 



Drouet, Rev., Nagasaki. 

Durand, Rev. J- E., Nagasaki. 

Duthu, Rev. J. B., Okayama. 

Evrard, Rev. F., Vicar Gen., Yoko- 
hama. 

Fage, Rev. F., Kobe. 

Flaujac, Rev., Tokyo. 

Fressenon, Rev. M., Kagoshima. 

Gamier, Rev. L. F., Nagasaki. 

Geley, Rev., J. B., Wakayama. 

Gettlemen Rev. U., Tokyo. 

Giraudias, Rev., (A). 

Gracy, L., Nagasaki. 

Grinand, Rev. A., Kyoto. 

Halbout, Rev. A., Kagoshima, 

Hermann, Rev. Father, Toyama. 

Herve, Rev., (A.). 

Heuzet, Rev. A. E., Nagasaki. 

Hutt, Rev. Alfred, Hakodate, (A). 

Jacquet, Rev. C, Vicar Gen., Sendai. 

John, Rev. Father, Matsuyama. 

Joly, Rev. E. C, Miyazaki. 

Lafon, Rev. H., Fukushima. 

Laisne, Rev. T., (A). 

Langlais, Rev. J., (A). 

Lebarbey, Rev., (A). 

Lebel, Rev. E., Kumamoto, (A). 

Lemarie, Rev. F. P. M., Kumamoto. 

Lemoine, Rev. J. C., Yokohama. 

Lissarrague, Rev., (A). 

MacNeal Rev. M. J., S. J., Tokyo. 

Marie, Rev. L. C., Hiroshima. 

Marion, Rev. P. Fukushima. 

Marmonier, Rev. P. C. H., Osaka. 

Martin, Rev. R. C., Miyazaki. 

Mathon, Rev. Remy, (A). 

Matrat, Rev. J. F., Nagasaki. 

Mayrand, Rev. P. A., Hachioji. 

Milan, Rev. Father, Uwajima. 

Mohr, Rev. Father, Yamagata. 

Montagu, Rev. L. Sendai. 

Noailles, Rev. Oliver, de., Yoko- 
hama. 

Perrin, Rev. H., Kobe. 

Pouget, Rev. A., Morioka. 

Puissant, Rev. M., Osaka. 

Raguet, Rev. E., Nagasaki, 

Raoult, Rev. G. E., Kumamoto. 

Reiners, Prefet Apostolique, Kana- 
zawa. 

Relave, Rev. T, L., Miyazu, Tango. 

Rey, Rt, Rev, Archbishop, J, P., 
Tokyo. 



Rey, Rev. A., Okayoma. 
Reynaud, Rev. Jules, Sendai, (A). 
Silhot, Reu. L. J., Osaka, 
Steichen, Rev, Michel, Tokyo, 
Thiry, Rev, F, T., Nagasaki. 
Thomas, Rev. Father, Kochi, 
Tulpin, Rev. E. A., Tokyo. 
Vagner, Rev. A., Nara. 
Veillon, Rev., Miyazaki. 
Villion, Rev. A., Yamaguchi. 
Walter, Mr. Tokyo, 
Wassereau, Rev., Tokyo. 

34. Reformed Churches of Am:r"c.fr 

Ballagh, Rev, J. H., D. D,, Nago- 
ya, (A). 

Booth, Rev, E, S., D. D,, Yoko- 
hama. 

Couch, Miss Sara M., Nagasaki. 

Demarest, Miss May B., Tokyo. 

Fleming, Miss Anna M., Naga- 
saki. 

Hoekje, Rev. W. G., & W., Morioka. 

Hoffsommer, Prof. W. E., Ph. D.,, 
& W., Tokyo. 

Hospers, Miss Hendrine, E., Saga.- 
(A). 

Kuyper, Miss Jeijnie M., Yokohama. 
(A). 

Kuyper, Rev. Hubert, Oita, (after 
fall 1 91 9). 

Lansing, Miss Harriett M., Fukuoka. 

Moulton, Miss Julia, Yokohama. 

Noordhoff, Miss Jeane, Shimonoseki,. 
(after fall 1919). 

Oltmans, Rev, A., D, D,, & W.,. 
Tokyo, 

Oltmans, Miss C. Janet, Yokohama. 

Oltmans, Miss F. Evelyn, Shimo- 
noseki, 

Peeke, Rev. H. V. S., D. D,, & 
W,, Tokyo. 

Pieters, Rev. Albertus, D, D., & 
W,, Oita, (A), 

Pieters, Miss Johana A,, Shimono- 
seki, 

Ruigh, Rev. D, C., & W,, (A). 

Ryder, Rev. S. W,, & W,, Kago- 
shima, 

Shafer, Rev. L. J., & W., Nagasaki. 

Stegeman, Rev. H. V. E., & W.,- 
Kurume. 



XlV! 



JAPAN 
Minnie, Nagasaki, 



Taylor, Miss 

(A.). 

Van Bronkliorst, Rev. A., Saga. 
Van Strien, Rev. David, & W., 

Kurume. 
Walvoord, Mr. Anthony, & W., 

Nagasaki. 
Winn, Miss M. Leila, Aomori. 
'Wyckoff, Mrs. M. N., Tokyo. 



35. Board of Foreign Missions of 

the Reformed Church in the 

United States 

Ankeney, Rev. Alfred, Yamagata. 
Brick, Miss Ollie A., Sendai. 
Faust, Rev. Allen K., Ph. D., & 

W., Sendai. 
•Gerhard, Miss Mary E., Sendai. 
■Gerhard, Mr. Paul L., & W., 

Sendai. 
Guinther, Rev. Ezra H., & W., 

Yamagata. 
Kriete, Rev. Carl D., & W., (A). 
Lindsey, Miss Lola E., Sendai. 
Lindsey, Miss I^ydia A., Sendai. 
Miller, Rev. Henry K. & W., Tokyo. 
3Ioore, Rev. J. P., D. D., & W., 

Sendai. 
Nicodemus, Mr. F. B., & W., 

Sendai. 
Noss, Rev. Christopher, D. D., & 

W., Wakamatsu, Aizu. 
Pifer, Miss B. Catherine, Tokyo. 
Schaffner, Rev. Paul F. & W. 

Sendai. 
Schneder, Rev. D. B., D. D., & 

W., Sendai. 
Schneder, Miss Mary, Tokyo. 
Seiple, Rev. Wm. G., Ph. D., & 

W., Sendai, 
Seymour, Miss Elsie J., Sendai. 
Singley, Rev. Dewees F., & W., 

Tokyo; 
Stoudt, Mr. Oscar M., & W., Tokyo. 
Vornholt, Miss Mary A., Tokyo. 
Zaugg, Rev. Elmer H., Ph. D., & 

W., Sendai. 

36. Russian Orthodox 

Sergie, Archbishop, Tokyo. 



37. Salvation Army 



Beaumont, Lieut. Colonel John W. 

& W., Tokyo. 
De Groot, Commissioner J. W., & 

W., Tokyo. 
Pennick, Ensign Henry R., & W., 

Tokyo. 
Smyth, Adjuiant Annie L, Tokyo. 
Wiberg, Lieut. Colonel S., & W., 

Tokyo. 
Wilson, Major Thomas, & W., 

Tokyo. 

38- Scandinavian Alliance Missions 
of North America 

Anderson, Rev. Joel, & W., Tokyo, 
Carlson, Rev. C. E., & W., Ito, 

Izu. 
Peterson, Miss Albertina J., Chiba. 

39. Southern Baptist Convention 

Bouldin, Rev. G. W., & W., Ko- 

kura, 
Clarke, Rev. W. H., & W., Kuma- 

moto. 
Dozier, Rev. C. K., & W^, Fuku- 

oka. 
Fulghum, Miss S. F. Tokyo. 
Medling, Rev. P. P., & W., Kago- 

shima. 
Mills, Mr. E. O., & W., Nagasaki. 
Ray, Rev. J. F., & W., Kure. 
Rowe, Rev. J. H., & W., Fuku- 

oka. 
Williamson, Rev. N. F. Tokyo. 
Willingham Mrs. C. T., (A). 

40. Seventh Day Adventists 

Anderson, Mr. A. N., & W., Tokyo. 

Benson, Mr. H. F., & W,, Waka- 
matsu, Aizu. 

Burden, Mr. W. D., & W., (A). 

Cole, Mr. A. B., & W., Tokyo. 

Herboltzheimer, Mr. J. N., & W., 
(A). 

Hoffman, Mr. B. P., & W., Tokyo. 

Jacques, Mr. S. P., & W., Sapporo. 

Johanson, Mr. J., & W., Tokyo. 



LIST BY MISSIONS 



xlvii 



Johanson, Mr. A. N., & W., Tokyo. 
Stacey, Mr. H., & W., (A). 
Webber, Mr. P. A., & W., Fukuoka. 

41. Society of the Propagation of 
the Gospel 

(A) South Tokyo Diocese 

Bickersteth, Mrs^ Edward, Tokyo. 
Boutflower, Rt. Rev. C. H., D. D., 

(Bishop Cecil), Tokyo. 
Boutflower, Miss M. M., Tokyo. 
Boyd, Miss Helen, Tokyo (A). 
Cholmondeley, Rev. L. B,, Tokyo. 
Chope, Miss D. M., Tokyo. 
France, Rev. W. F., (A). 
Gemmill, Rev. W. C., Tokyo. 
Gonzales, Rev. Joseph, & W., Oga- 

sawara (Bonin) Gunto. 
Hogan, Miss F. M. F., Tokyo. 
Kennion, Miss O., Yokohama. 
Nevile, Miss C. G. L., (A). 
Philipos, Miss E. G., Tokyo. 
Pringle, Miss F. C, Zushi, Kana- 

gawa Ken, (A). 
Richards, Rev. W. A., & W., 

Hamamatsu. 
Sharpe, Rev. A. L., & W., Nu- 

mazu. 
Shaw, Mrs. A. C, Tokyo. 
Shaw, Rev. R. D. M., & W., Shi- 

zuoka. 
Shepherd, Miss K. M., Chiba. 
Simeon, Miss R. S., Numazu. 
Somervell, Miss M. G., Numazu. 
Stuart-Menteth, Miss I.. F. Chiba. 
Tanner, Miss L.-K., Tokyo. 
Trott, Miss D. E., Tokyo. 
Webb, Rev. A. E., Zushi, Kana- 

gawa Ken. 
Williams, Miss T. C, Tokyo, (A). 
Woolley, Miss A. K., Tokyo. 
Wright, Rev. A. S,, Tokyo. 

(B) Osaka Diocese 

Bickers, Miss A. E., Kobe. 

Case, Miss D. Kobe. 

Foss, Rt. Rev. Hugh James, & W., 

Kobe. 
Foxley, Rev. C, & W., llimeji. 
France, Miss B., Kobe. 



Gregson, Miss D., (A). 
Holmes, Miss M., Kobe. 
Hughes, Miss E. M., Kobe. 
Kettlewell, Rev. F., & W., Kobe. 
Parker, Miss A., Kobe. 
Rowland, Miss E. M., Kobe. 
Smith, Miss Agnes, Okayama. 
Steele, Rev. H. T., & W., Oka- 

yama. 
Voules, Miss J. E., (A). 
Walker, Mr. F. B., & W., Kobe. 
Weston, Rev. F., & W., Kobe. 



42. Foreign Missionary Society of 
the United Brethren in Christ 

Cosand, Rev. Joseph, Tokyo. 
Hayes, Rev. W. H., & W., Tokyo. 
Knipp, Rev. J. Edgar, & W., Kyoto. 
Shiveley, Rev. B.>,, & \V., Kyoto. 

43. Unlversaiist General Convention 

Ayres, Rev. Samuel G., D. D., & 

W., Tokyo. 
Hathaway, Miss M. Agnes, (A). 
Kirk, Miss Hazel I., Tokyo. 
Lobdell, Rev. N. L., & VV., Shizu- 

oka. . 
Osborn, Miss Catharine M., Tokyo. 

44. Woman's Union Missionary 
Society of America 

Loomis, Miss Clara D., Yokohama. 
Merriman, Miss Faith, Yokohama. 
Pratt, Miss Susan A., Yokohama. 
Tracy, Miss Mary E., Yokohama. 

45. Yotsuya Mission 

Cunningham, Rev. W. D., &; W., 

Tokyo. 
Messenger, Rev. J. F., & W., Tokyo. 

46. Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion 

American International- 
Committee 

Brown, Mr. F. H., & W., (A). 



xlviii 



JAPAN 



Converse, Mr. G. C, & W., Tokyo. 

Davis, Mr. J. M., & W., (A). 

Durgin, Mr. Tl. L., & W., Tokyo. 

Fisher, Mr. G. M., & W., Tokyo, 
(A). 

Gleason, Mr. George, & W., (A). 

Grafton, Mr. H. H., & W., Kyoto. 

Jorgensen, Mr. A., & W., Tokyo. 

McLennan, Mr. D., Tokyo. 

Phelps, Mr. G. S., & W., Yoko- 
hama. 

Ryan, Mr. W. S., & W., Tokyo. 

Sneyd, Mr. H. S., & W., Yoko- 
hama. 

Stewart, Mr. W. R., & W. Tokyo. 

Stier, Mr. W. R. F., & W. Tokyo. 

Swan, Mr. G. D., & W., Kobe. 

Trueman, Mr. G. E., & W., Nagoya. 

47. Government School English 

Teachers Affiliated with 

Y. M. C. A. 

Bridgman, Mr. R. P., Osaka. 
Collins, Mr. H., Hiroshima. 
Copp, Mr. C. W., Hakodate. 
Emery, Mr. L. B., Nagasaki. 
Grant, Mr. J. P., Shimonoseki. 
McKinnon, Mr. D. B., & W., O- 

taru. 
Pollock, Mr. C. Kobe. 
Shaw, Mr. Glenn, & W., Yama- 

guchi. 
Thompson, Mr. J. W., & W., Osaka. 
Walker, Mr. Owen, & W-, Kana- 

zawa. 

48. (A) Foreign Department of the 
National Board of the Young 
Women's Christian Association 
of the United States of America 

Allchin, Miss Agnes, Yokohair^a. 
Baker, Miss Mary, Yokohama.' 
Chambers, Miss Lillian, Kyoto. 
Crawford, Miss Inez, Kyoto. 
Dunning, Miss Elizabeth, Tokyo. 
Gunter, Miss Mamie E., Tnkyo. 
Hard, Miss Clara Taylor, Osaka. 
Matthew, Miss Margaret L. Tokyo, 
Nixon, Miss Esther L., Kobe, (Mrs. 
Dixon). 



Topping, Miss Helen, Kobe. 

(B) Young Women's Christian As- 
sociation of Canada 

Kaufman, Miss Emma R., Tokyo. 

49. World's Sunday School As= 

scciatlon 

Coleman, Rev. H. E., & W., (A). 

50. Board of Foreign Missions, 
Presbyterian Church in 

Canada (Formosa) 

Adair, Miss Lily, Taihoku, 
Clazie, Miss M. G., Taihoku. 
Connell, Miss Hannah, Tamsui. 
Dowie, Mr. K. W., & W. Taihoku. 
Hotson, Miss J. L., Taihoku. 
Kinney, Miss J. M., Tamsui, 
Luscombe, Miss M. E., Tamsui. 
MacKay, Mr. G. W., & W., Tam- 
sui. 
MacLeod, Rev. D., & W., Taihoku. 

51. Foreign Missions Committee of 

the Presbyterian Church of 

England (Formosa) 

Archer, Miss M. C, Tainan. 
Band, Rev. E., Tainan. 
Barclay, Rev. T., (A). 
Barnett, Miss M., Tainan. 
Butler, Miss A. E., Shoka. 
Ferguson, Rev. D., & W., Tainan, 
Gushue-Taylor, Dr. G., & W., 

(A). 
Jones, Rev. D. P., (A). 
Landsborough, Rev. Dr. D., & W., 

Shoka. 
Livingston, Miss A. A., Shoka. 
Lloyd, Miss J., (A). 
Mackintosh, Miss S. E., 
Maxwell, Dr. J. L., & W., (A). 
Montgomery, Rev. W, E., & W. 
Moody, Rev. Campbell, N. 
Nieison, Rev. A. B., Tainan. 
Reive, Miss A. D., Tainan. 



LIST BY TOWNS 



Akashi, Hyogo Ken. 
Ilaslam, Rev. O. R., F. M. 

Akita, Akita Ken. 

Armbruster, Miss Rose, T., F. C. 

M. S. 
Binstead, Rev. N. S., & W., P. E. 
Kinsley, Miss Amy W., P. E. 
Kinsle)^, Miss Kathleen M., P. E. 
Lediard, Miss Marv F., F. C. M. S. 
McCall, Rev. C. F.,'& W., F.C.M.S. 

Asabigawa, Hokkaido. 

Chandler, Miss A. B., Ind. 
Whitener, Rev. H. C, & W., P. N. 

(A). 

Ashiya, Hyogo Ken. 
Worthington, Miss H. J., C. M. S. 

Aomorf, Aomori Ken. 

Biannic, Rev. Jean, R. C. 
Meredith, Rev. F. C, P. E. 
Newbold, Deaconess E. G., P. E. 
Winn, Miss M. L., R. C. A. 

Chiba, Chiba Ken. 

Harrison, Rev. E. L., Au. B. M. 
Peterson, Miss A. J., S. A. M. 
Shepherd, Miss K. M., S. P. G. 
Sluart-Menleth, Miss L. F., S. P. G. 

Choshl, Chiba Ken. 

Adams, Mr. Roy, & W., H. F. M. 

Dairi, Fukuoka Ken. 

Bach, Rev. D. G. M., & W., L. 
C. A. 



Zusbi, Kanagawa Ken. 
Webb, Rev. A. E., S. P. G. 

Fukaya, Saitama Ken. 

Abel, ^Ir. Fred, & W., F. B. W. 

(A). 
Long, Mr. Edward R., & W., 

P. B. W. 

Fukui, Fukui Ken. 

Holmes, Rev. C. P. & W., M. C. C 
Tetlow, Miss H. L., F. E. 

Fukuoka, Fukuoka Ken. 

Atkinson, Miss Anna P., M. E. 

F. B. 
Boehrer, Rev. J. F., R. C. 
Bowers, Miss Mary Lou, L. C. A. 
Dozier, Rev. C. K., & W., S. B.^C. 
Hutchinson, R.ev, A. C, & W., 

C. M. S. 
Lansing, Miss Plarriet M., R. C. A. 
Lea, Rt. Rev. A., D. D. & W., 

C. M. S. 
Lee, Miss Bessie M., M. E. F. B. 
Miller, Rev. L. S; G., & W., 

L. C. A. 
Rowe, Rev. J. H., & W., S. B. C. 
Rowlands, Rev. F. W., & W., 

C. E. 

Starkey, Miss Bertha, M. E. F. B. 
Webber, Mr. P. A., & W., S. 

D. A. 

Fukusblma, Fukushima Ken. 

Deffrenes, Rev. Jos., R. C. 
Lafon, Rev. H., R. C. 
Marion, Rev. P., R. C. 
Young, Rev. T. A., & W., F. 
C. M. S. 



1 



Pukuyama, Hiroshima Ken. 

Francis, Miss R. M., C. M. A. 
Galgey, Miss L. A., C. M. S. 



(jifu, Gifu Ken. 

Archer Miss A. L., M. S. C. C. 
Buchanan, Miss E. O., P. S. 
Buchanan, Rev. W. C, & W., 
P. S. 

Ookiso, Hyogo Ken. 

Trueman, Mr. G. E., & W., Y. 
M. C. A. A. 

Ootemba, Shizuoka Ken. 

Drouart de Lezev, Rev. F. L., 
R. C. 

Hachiman, Shiga Ken. 

Vories, Mr. John, & W., O. M. 
Vories, Mr. W. M„ & W., O. M. 
Waterhouse, Rev. Paul B., & W., 
O. M. 

Hachioji, Tokyo Fu. 

Mayrand, Rev. P. A., R. C. 

Hagi, Yamaguchi Ken. 
A'^illion, Rev. A., R. C. 

Hakodate, Hokkaido, 

Anchen, Rev. P., R. C. 
Andrews, Rt. Rev. W., D. D. (A) 

& W., C. M. S. 
Appenzeller, Miss Ida, M. E. F. B. 
Chambon, Rev. J. A., R. C. 
Copp, Mr. W. C, Y. M. C. A. T. 
Couch, Miss Helen, M. E. C. 
Dickerson, Miss' Augusta, M. E. 

F. B. 
Goodwin, Miss Lora C. M. E. F. B. 
Hutt, Rev. Alfred, R. C. (W. S.). 
Lang, Rev. D. M., & W., C. M. S. 
Maclntire, Miss Frances W., 

M. E. F. B. 
Wagner, Miss D. M., M. E. F. B. 

(A). 



JAPAN 

Hamada, Shimane Ken. 

Fugill, Miss E. M., C. M. S. (A). 
Paslay, Miss M. L., C. M. S. (A). 

[famamatsu, Shizuoka Ken. 

Coates, Rev. H. H., D. D., & W., 

M. C. C. 
Richards, Rev. W. A., & W., 

S. P. G. 
Steele, Miss Harriet, M. P. W. 



Hiniej?, Hyogo Ken. 

Bickel, Mr. P. L., A. B. F. 
Bixby, Miss A., A. B. F. 
Briggs, Mrs. F. €., A. B. F. 
Charron, Rev. T., R. C. 
Dyer, Mr. A. L., & W., J. E. B. 
Foxley, Rev. C., & W., S. P. G. 
Pawley, Miss Annabelle, A. B. F. 
Wilcox, Miss E. F., A. B. F. (A). 

Hirada, Nagasaki Ken. 
Matrat, Rev. J. F., R. C. 

HIrosaki, Aomori Ken. 

Babcock, Miss Bertha R., P. E. 
Draper, Miss Winifred F„, M. E. 

F B 
Nichols, Rev. S. H. & W., P. E. 
Russell, Miss Helen M., M. E. F. B. 
Taylor, Miss Erma M., M. E. F. B. 

(A). 

tiiroshlma, Hiroshima Ken. 

Collins, Mr. H., Y. M. C. A. T. 
Cook, Miss M. M., M. E. S. 
Eckel, Rev. W. A., & W., P. C. N. 
Gaines, Miss N. B., M. E. S. 
Gaines, Miss Rachel, M. E. S. 
Gardener, Miss F., C. M. S. 
Green, Rev. C. P. & W., C. M. A. 
Hatcher, Miss A. K., M. E. S. 
Hereford, Rev. W. F., & W., 

P. N. (A). 
Jones, Rev. H. P., & W., M. E. S. 
Lindstrom, Rev. H., & W., C. M. 

A. 
Marie, Rev. L. C, R. C. 



LIST BY TOWNS 



Meyers, Rev. J. T., & W., M. E. S. 

Miller, Miss Janet, M. E. S. 
Shannon, Miss Ida, M. E. S. 
Shannon, Miss Katherine, M. E. S. 
Siler, Miss Annice, M. E. S. 
Towson, Miss Manie, M. E. S. 
Walton, Rev. M. H. W., & ^^'., 
C. *M. S. 

Hitoyoshi, Kumamoto Ken. 

Brenguir, Rev. S., R. C. 
Raoult, Rev. Gustave E., R. C. 

Ho jo, Chiba Ken. 
Colborne, Mrs., C. E. 

lida, Nagano Ken. 

Nylund, Miss F., L. E. F. 
Tammio, Rev. K., & W., L. E. F. 

Ito, Shizuoka Ken. 

Carlson, Rev. C. E., & W., S. A. 
M. 

Iwajima, Nagasaki Ken. 
Durand, Rev. J. E., R. C. 

KagOShlma, Kagoshima Ken. 

Bull, Rev. Earl R., & W., M. E. 

F. B. (A). 
Finlay, Miss L. Alice, M. E. F. B. 
Howey, Miss Harriet, M. E. F.B. 
Lane, Miss E. A., C. M. S. (A). 
Medling, Rev. P. P., & W., S. B. C. 
Nott, Miss F. L., C. M. S. 
Peet, Miss Azalia, M. E. F. B. 
Ryder, Rev. Stephen W., & W., 

R. C. A. 
Sells, Miss E. A. P., C. M. S. . 
Thompson Miss F. L., C. M. S. 

Kamisuwa, Nagano Ken. 

Minkkinen, Rev. T., & W., L. E. 
F. 



Kanagawa, Kanagawa Ken. 
Craig. Mr. E. B., & W. 

Kanazawa, Ishikawa Ken. 

Allen, Miss A. W., M. C. C. 
Clarke, Miss Sarah F., P. N. 
Coff, Mr. J. B., & W., M. E. S. 
Eaton, Miss A. G., P. N. 
Jost, Miss H. J., M. C. C. (A). 
Lediard, Miss E., M. C. C. 
Luther, Miss I. R., P. N. 
McLeod, Miss Anna, M. C. C. 
Price, Rev. P. S., M. C. C. 
Reiners, Prefet Apostolique, R. C. 
Smith, Rev. P. A., & W., P. E. 
Walker, Mr. Owen, & \\., Y. M. 
C. A. T. 

Kawanishi, Hyogo Ken. 
Alexander, Miss S., P. N. 

Kobe, Hyogo Ken. 

Armstrong, Rev. R. C, Ph. D., & 

W., M. C. C. 
Atchinson. Rev. R. & W., Ind. 
Barrows, Miss M. L., A. B. C. F. M. 
Bickers, Miss A. E., S. P. G. 
Buchanan, Rev. W. Mc. S., D. D. 

& W. P. S. 
Case, Miss D., S. P. G. 
Cozad, Miss Gertrude, A.B.C.F.M. 
Cragg, Rev. W. J. M., & W., 

M. C. C. 
Davis, Mrs. J. D., A. B. C. F. M. 
Davis, Rev. W. A., & (W. A.) 

M. E. S. 
DeForest, Miss C. B., A.B.C.F.M. 
Dunning, Rev. M. D., & W., A. 

B. C. F. M. (A). 
Evans, Miss Sarah, Ind. 
Fage, Rev. F., R. C. 
Fanning, Miss K. F., A. B. C. F. M. 
Fo.ss, Rt. Rev. H. J., D. D., & 

W., S. P. G. 
France, Miss B., S. P. G. 
Fulton, Rev. S. P., D. D., & W., 

P. S. 
Gillespv, Miss J. C, J. E. B. 
Haden, Rev. T. H., D. D., M. E. 



lii 



JAPAN 



Hager, Rev. S. E., D. D.. & W., 

M. E. S. (A). 
Harris, Mr. Richard W., & W., 

J. E. B. (A). 
Harrison, Miss Ida W., A.B.C.F.M. 
Holland, Miss Charlie, M. E. S. 
Holmes, Miss M., S. P. G. 
Howe, Miss Annie L., A.B.C.F.M. 
Hughes, Miss E., wS. P. G. 
Kettlewell, Rev. F., & W., S. P. 

G. 
Matthews, Rev. W. K., & W., 

M. E. S. (A). 
Misener, Mrs. E. W., M. C. C. 
Myers, Rev. H. W., D. D., & 

W., P. S. 
Nixon. Miss Esther, Y. W. C. A. 

U. S. 
Norman, Miss L., M. C. C. 
Outerbridge, Rev. H. W., & W., 

M. C. C. 
Oxford Mr. J. S., & W., M. E. S. 
Parker, Miss, A., S. P. G. 
Parrott, Mr. Fred, & W., B. S. 
Perrin, Rev. H. O., R. C. 
Piper, Miss Margaret F. Ind. 
Pollock, Mr. Channcy, Y.M.C.A.T. 
Rowland, Miss E. M., S. P. G. 
Rupert, Miss N. L., A. B. F. 
Ryerson, Rev. G. E., & W., S. 

P. G. (A). 
Searle, Miss S. A., A. B. C. F. M. 
Sheppard, Miss E., Ind. 
Sims, Mr. J. G. & W., M. E. S. 
Smith, Mr. Roy & W., M. E. S. 
Standford, Rev. A. W., & W., 

A. B. C. F. M. 
Stowe, Miss Grace H., A. B. C.F.M. 
Stowe, Miss Mary E., A. B. C. F.M. 
Swan, Mr. G. D., & W., Y. M. 

C. A. A. 
Taylor, Mr. Wm. I., & W., A. G. 
Thomson, Rev. R. A., D. D., F. R. 

G. S., & W., A. B. F. 
Topping, Miss Helen, Y. W. C. 

A. U. S. 
Voules, Miss J. E., S. P. G. (A). 
Walker, Mr. B. F., & W., S. P. G. 
Weston, Rev. F., & W., S. P. G. 
Whiting, Rev. M. M., & W., 

M. C. C. (A). 
Wilkes, Mr. Paget & W., J. E. 

B. 



Wilkinson, Mr. C. S., J. E. B. 
Willi ms. Miss A. B., M. E. S. 
Woodsworth, Rev. H. F. & W., 
M. C. C. (A). 

KochJ, Kochi Ken. 

l^owd, Miss Annie, P. S. 
Ellis, Mrs. Charles, P. C. S. 
Mcllwaine, Rev. W. B., & W., 

P. S. 
Munroe, Rev. H. H., & W., P. S. 
Thomas, Rev. Father, R. C. 

Kofu, Yamanashi Ken. 

Chappell, Miss C. S., M. C. C. 
Fryer, Rev. W.O., & W., M. C. C. 
Robertson, Miss M. A., M. C. C. 
Ryan, Miss Esther, M. C. C. 
Staples, Miss Marie W., M. C. C. 
Strothard, Miss Alice, M. C. C. 
Twedie, Miss E. G., M. C. C. 

Kokura, Fukuoka Ken. 

Betrand, Rev. Fr., R. C. 
Bouldin, Rev. G. W., & W., S. 

Hind, Rev. J., & W., C. M. S. 
Home, Miss A. C. J., C. M. S. 

(A). 

Koriyama, Fukushima Ken. 

Ranck, Miss Elmina., E. A. (A). 
Schirmer, Miss Kathryn, F., E. A. 

Kumamnto, Kumamoto Ken. 

Clarke, Rev. W. H., & W., S. B.C. 
Davison, Rev. J. C, D. D., 

M. E. F. B. 
Freeth, Miss F. M., C. M. S. 
Gundert, Rev. W., & W., Ind. 
Kipps, Rev. M. M., & W., L. C. A. 
Lebel, Rev. E., R. C. (A). 
Lippard, Rev. C. K., D. D., & 

W., L. C. A. 
Place, Miss Pauline, M. E. F. B. 
Riddel], Miss PL, C. E. 
Staples, Mr, I. B., & W., P. C. N. 



LIST BY TOWNS 



Hi 



Slirewalt, Rev. A. J., & W., 

L. C. A. 
Teague, Miss Carolyn, M. E. F. B, 
Winther, Rev. J. M. T., & W., 

L. C. A. 



Kure, Hirosliima Ken. 

Garvin, Miss A. F., P. N. 

Ray, Rev. J. F., & W., S. B. C. 



Kurume 

Cockram, Miss S. H., C. M. S. 

(A). 
Nielson, Rev. J. P., & W., L. C. A. 
Stegeman, Rev, H., & W., R. C. A. 
Van Strien, Rev. D. V., & W., 

R. C. A. 



Kusatsu, Gunma Ken. 
Cornwall-Legh, Miss M. H., P. E. 

Kyoto, Kyoto Fu. 

Aldrich, Miss Marine, A. E. C. 
Ambler, Miss Marietta, P. E. 
Aurientis, Rev. P., Vicar Gen., 

R. C. 
Brokaw, Rev. Harvev, D. D., & 

W., P. N. 
Burwell, Miss Augusta, A. B. C. 

F. M. 
Chambers, Miss Lillian, Y. W. C. 

A. U. S. 
Chapman, Rev. J. J., & W., P. E. 
Clapp, Miss F. B., A. B. C. F. M. 
Cobb, Rev. E. S., & W., A. B. 

C. F. M. 
Crawford, Miss Inez., Y. W. C. 

A. U. S. 

Curtis, Rev. W. L., & W., A. B. 

C. F. M. 
Gardiner, Miss Earnestine W., 

P. E. (A). 
Gordon, Mrs. M. L., A. B. C. F. M. 
Grafton, Mr. H. H., & W., Y. 

M. C. A. A. 
Grinand, Rev. A., R. C. 
Grover, Mr. Dana I., & W., A. 

B. C. F. M. 



Hannaford, Rev. Howard D., 

P. N. 
Hess, Rev. James M., & W., A. 

B. C. F. M. 

Hicks, Mr. C. R., Y. M. C. A. T. 
Knipp, Rev. J. P^dgar, & W., 

U. B. 
Learned, Rev. D. W., D. D., & 

W., A. B. C. F. M. 
Lombard, Rev. F. A. & W,, 

A. B. C. F. M. 
McGill, Miss Mary B., P. E. 
McGratli Miss E. S., P. E. 
McPherson, Miss F. Edel., P. C. N. 
Peck, Miss Sally P., P. E. 
Pedley, Rev. Hilton, D. D., & 

W., A. B. C. F. M. 
Porter, Miss F. E., P. N. 
Rees, Miss Sarah S., P. E. 
Rowland, Miss Pauline, A. B. C^F. 

M. 
Santee, Miss Helen C, P. C. N. 
Schiller, Snpt. Dr. Emil, & W. 

G. F. M. P. 
Shively, Rev. B. F., & W., U. B. 
Spencer, Miss M. D., P. E. 
Stewart, Rev. S. A., & W., M. E. 

S. 
Tucker, Rt. Rev. H. St. G., D. 

D., & W., P. E. 
Wagner, Mr. IL H., & W., P. C. N. 
Waterhouse, Miss M. C, A. B. C. 

F. M. 
Whitehead, Miss Mabel, M. E. S. 
Williams, Miss Lulu A., P. C. N. 

Maebashi, Gumma Ken. 

Andrews, Rev. R. W., P. E. 
Carlsen, Deaconess V. D., P. E. 
Griswold, Miss Fannie E., A. B. 

C. F. M. 

Hall, Rev. Marion E., A.B.C.F.M. 

Marugame, Kagawa Ken. 
Hassell, Rev. J. W., & W., P. S. 

Matsue, Shimane Ken. 

Barclay, Mr. J. Gurney, & W., 

C. M. S. 
Nash, Miss E., C. M. S. (A). 



liv 



JAPAN 



Matsiltnoto, Nagano Ken. 

Gale, Rev. W. H., M. S. C. C. 
Hamilton, Miss F., M. S. C. G. 

Matsuyama, Chime Ken. 

Dosker, Rev. R. J., P. N. 
Francis, Rev. T. R., & W., C. M. 

A. 
Hoyt, Miss O. S., A. B. C. F. M. 
Johan, Rev. Father, R. C. 
Judson, Miss Cornelia, A. B. C. F. 

M. 
Newell, Rev. H. B., D. D., & 

W., A. B. C. F. M. 
Parmelee, Miss H. F., A. B. C. F. 

M. 

Mikage, Hyogo Ken. 

Argall, Mrs. C. B. K., J. E. B. 
Thornton, Rev. Jesse, B., & W., 
J. E. B. 

Mitajlr/, Yamaguchi Ken. 

Ogburn, Rev. N. S. Jr., M. E. S. 

(A). 

IVlito, Ibaraki Ken. 

Binford, Mr. Gurney, & W., A. 

F. P. 
Bristowe, Miss L. M., P. E. 
Evans, Rev. Chas. H , & W., P. E. 
Jones, Rev. E. H. & W., A. F. P. 
Sharpless, Miss E, F., A. F. P. 

Miyazakl, Miyazaki Ken. 

Clark, Rev. C. A., & W., A. B. 

C. F. M. 
Joly, Rev. E. C, R. C. 
Martin, Rev., R. C. 
Veillon, Rev. A., R. C. 
Warren, Rev. C. M., & W., A. B. 

C. F. M. 

Mlyazu, Kyoto Fu. 
Relave, Rev. T. L., R. C. 



Moji, Fukuoka Ken. 

Morioka, Iwate Ken. 

Acock, Miss Amy A., A. B. F» 
Dixon, Miss E. M., P. E. (A). 
Dossier, Rev. R., R. C. 
Hoekje, Rev. W. G., & W., R. 

C. A. 
Pouget, Rev. A., R. C. 
Topping, Rev. Henry & W., A. 

B. F. 

Wright, Miss Ada, H., P. E. 

Nagano, Nagano Ken. 

Hart, Miss C. E., M. C. C. 

Mc Williams, Rev. W. R., & W., 

M. C. C. 
Norman, Rev. D., & W., M. C. C. 
Scott, Miss Mary, M. C. C. 
Waller, Rev. J. G., & W., M. S, 

C. C. 

Nagasaki, Nagasaki Ken. 

Ashbaugh, Miss A. M., M. E. F, B, 
Bois, Rev. F. L. J., R. C. 
Bois, Rev. J. F., R. C. 
Breton, Rev. M. J., R. C. 
Combaz, Rt. Rev. J. C, R. C. 
Couch, Miss S. M., R. C. A. 
Drouet, Rev. R. C. 
Emery, Mr. Lloyd B., Y. M. C. A. 

T. 
Fleming, Miss Anna M., R. C. A. 
Gamier, Rev. L. F., R. C. 
Gracy, Rev., L., R. C. 
Hutchinson, Ven. Archdeacon A, 

B., & W., C. M. S. 
Keen, Miss E. M., C. M. S. 
Lawrence, Mr. A., & W., B. B. S. 
Matheson, Miss Margaret L., M. 

E. F. B. 
Mills, Mr. E. O., & W., S. B. C. 
Peckham, Miss Carrie S., M.E.F.B, 
Plimpton, Miss Margaret, M. E. F. 

B. 
Richardson, Rev. C. F. 
Russell, Miss E., M. E. F. B. 

(A). 
Russell, Miss May, M. E. F. B, 

(A). 



I 



LIST BY TOWNS 



Iv 



Shafer, Rev. E. J., & M., R. C. A. 
Spencer, Rev. R. S., & W., M. 

E. F, B. 
Taylor, Miss Minnie, R. C, A. 
Thirty, Rev. F. T., R. C. 
Thomas, Miss Hettie A., M.E.F.B. 
Walvoord, Mr. Anthony & W., 
. R. C. A. 
Young, Miss Mariana, M. E. F. B. 

Nagoya, Aichi Ken. 

Baldwin, Rev. J. M., & W., M. 

S. C. C. 
Ballagh, Rev. J. H., D. D., R. 

C. A. 
Cooke, Miss M. S., M. S. C. C. 
Courtice. Miss Lois K., M. E. F. 

B. (A). 
Cronise, Miss Florence, M. P. W. 
Hamilton, Rt. Rev. H. J., D. D., 

& W., M. S. C. C. 
Hansen, Miss Sarah G., P. S. 
Horn, Rev. E. T., & W., L. C. A. 

(A). 
Kingsbury, Rev. W. de L., & 

W., Ind. . 
Kirtland, Miss Eeila G., P. S. 
Makeham, Miss S. E., M. S. C. C. 
McAlpine, Rev. R. E., D. D., & 

W., P. S. (A). 
Obee, Rev. E. I., & W., M. P. 
Seeds, Miss Leonora M., M.E.F.B. 
Smythe, Rev. L. G. M., & W., 

P. S. 
Spencer, Rev. D. S., D. D., & 

W., M. E. F. B. (A). 
Thorlaksson, Rev. S. O., & W., 

L. C. A. 
Trent, Miss E. M., M. S. C. C. 
Williams, Miss. Mary E., M. P. W. 
Wythe, Miss K. Grace, M. E. F. B. 
Young, Miss M. M., M. S. C. C. 

Nakatsu, Oita Ken. 

Cotrel, Rev., R. C. 

Frank, Rev. J. W., & W., M. E. 

S. 

Nara, Nara Ken. 
Lansing, Miss Mary, E., P. E. 



Smith, Mr. Lloyd M., & W., P. E. 
Vanger, Rev. A., R. C. 

Niigata 

Cesca, Rev. Father, R. C. 
Curtis, Miss Edith, A. B. C. F. M. 
Lenox, Miss E. G., M. S. C. C. 
Spencer, Miss Florence M., M. S. 
C. C. 



Nikko, Tochigi Ken. 
Hutchings, Miss A. M., Ind. 

Nokkeushi, Hokkaido. 

Pierson, Rev. G. P., D. D., & 
W., P. N. 

Numazu, Shizuoka Ken. 

Sharpe, Rev. A. L., & W., S. P. G. 
Simeon, Miss J. R-, S. P. G. 
Somervell, Miss M. G., S. P. G. 

Odawara, Kanagawa Ken. 

Pringle, Miss F. C., S. P. G. (A). 
Tapson, Miss A. M., C. M. S. 

Ogasawara (Bonin) Gunto. 

Gonzales, Rev. Joseph, & W., S. 
P. G. 



Oita, Oita Ken. 

Demaree, Rev. T. W. B., & W., 

M. E. S. 
Duke, Rev. M. O. M., C. M. S. 

(A). 
Gist, Miss Anette, M. E. S. 
Pieters, Rev. Albertus, & W., 

R. C. A. (A). 
Worth, Miss Ida M., M. E. S. 

(A). 

Okazak;, Aichi Ken. 

Fulton, Rev. C. D., & W., P. S. 
Patton, Miss A. V., P. S. 
Patten, Miss F. D., P. S. 



Ivi 



JAPAN 



Okayama, Okayama Ken. 

Adams, Miss Alice P., A. B. C. 

F. M. 
Duthu, Rev. J. B., R. C. 
Gregson, Miss D.. S. P. G. (A). 
Moran, Rev. S. F., & W., A. B. 

C. F. M. 
Rollstin, Mr. W. P., Ind. 
Smith, Miss A., S. P. G. 
Steele, Rev. H. T., & W., S.P.G. 
Thatcher, Mr. P. C., & W., P.O. 

N. ' 
Wainwright, Miss M. E., A. B. C. 

F. M. 
Wilson, Rev. W. A., & (W. A.), 

M. E. S. 

Ouiiya, Saitama Ken. 
Upton, Miss E. F., P. E. 

Omuta, P'ukuoka Ken. 
Painter, Rev. S., & W., C. M. S. 

Onomlchi, Hiroshima Ken. 

Steadman, Rev. F. W., & W., 

A. B. F. 
Wylie, Miss M. L., C. M. A. 

Osaka, 

Arbury, Miss Katherine, P. N. 
Ayres, Rev. J. B., D. D., P. N. 
Asbury, Miss Jessie J., F. C. M. S. 
Boulton, Miss E. B., C. M. S. 
Bridgman, Mr. R. P., Y. M. C. A. 

T. 
Bull, Miss Leila, P. E. 
Bullock, Miss E. A., J. E. B. 
Camp, Miss E., A. B. F. 
Gary, Miss Alice E., A. B. C. F. M. 
Castanier, Rt. Rev. B., R. C. 
Coles, Miss A. M., J. E. B. 
Cribb, Miss E. R., J. E. B. 
Danielson, Miss Mary, A.B.F. (A). 
Erffmeyer, Miss Edna, E. A. 
Erffmeyer, Miss Florence, E. A. 
Erskine, Rev. W. H. & W., F. 

C. M. S. 
Foote, Rev. J. A. & V., A. B. F. 



Fulton, Rev. G. W., D. D., & W., P. 

N. 
Gorbold, Mrs. R. P., P. N. 
Hail, Rev. A. D., D. D., P. N. 
Hail, Mrs. J. E., P. N. 
Hard, Miss Clara T., Y. W. C. A. 

U. S. 
Hepner, Rev. C. W.. & W., L.C.A. 
Holland, Miss J. M., C. E. 
Holmes, Rev. Jerome C, & W., 

A. B. C. F. M. 
Howard, Miss R. D., C. M. S. 
Julius, Miss O., C. E. (A). 
Marmonier, Rev. P. C. H., R. C. 
McKowan, Miss Amy E., A. B. 

C. F. M. 
Mead, Miss Lavinia, A. B. F. 
Mozley, Miss G., J. E. B. 
Mylander, Miss Ruth, F. M. 
Piper, Miss Margaret F., Ind, 
Puissant, Rev. M., R. C. 
Rawlings, Rev. G. W., & W., 

C. M. S. 
Robinson, Rev. C. E., & W., F. C. 

M. S. 
Scott, Rev. J. H., & W., A. B. F. 

(A). 
Shaw, Miss L., M. S. C. C. 
Silhol, Rev. L. J., R. C. 
Thompson, Rev. J. W., & W., 

Y. M. C. A. T. ^ 
Tristram, Miss K., C. M. S. (A), 
Weakley, Rev. W. R., & W., M. E. 

S. 
W^illiams, Miss A. C, C. M. S. 
Youngren, Rev. August, & W., F« 

M. 

Oshitna, Kagoshima Ken, 

Fressenon, Rev. M., R. C. 
Halbout, Rev. A,, R. C, 

Otaru, Hokkaid®. 

McCrory, Miss Carrie H., P. N. 

(A). 
McKinnon, Mr. Brooke & W., Y. 

M. C. A. T. 
Stevenson, Miss G. S., C. M. S. 

Plratori, Hidaka Hokkaido. 
Bryant, Miss E. M., C. M. S. 



LIST BY TOWNS 



Ivil 



Saga, Saga Ken. 

Hospers, Miss Hendrine E., R. 

C. A. 
Van Broukhorst, Rev. A., & W., 

R. C. A. 



Sapporo, Hokkaido. 

Alexander, Miss Bessie, M. E. F. B. 
Batchelor, Ven Archdeacon, D. 

D., & W., C. M. S. 
-Gary, Rev. Frank & W., A. B. 

C. F. M. 
Daughaday, Miss M. A., A. B. C. 
. F. M. 

Evans, Miss Elizabeth M., P. N. 
Heckelman, Rev. F. W., & W., 

M. E. F. B. (A). 
Jacques, Mr. S. A., & W., S.D.A. 
Eake, Rev. L. C, & W., P. N. 
Monk, Miss Alice M., P. N. 
Norton, Miss E. L. B., C. M. S. 
Rov.'land, Rev. George M., D.D., 

& W., A. B. C. F. M. (A). 
Savolainen, Mr. V. & W., L. E. 

F. 
Smith, Miss S. C, P. N. (A). 

Saselio, Nagasaki Ken. 

Pickard Cambridge, Rev, C. O., 
M. D., & W., C. M. S. 



Sendai, Miyagi Ken, 

Allen, Miss J., A. B. F. 
Berlioz, Rt. Rev., R. C. 
Bodley, Miss E., M. E. F. B. 
Bradshaw, Miss A. H., A. B, C. 

F. M. 
Brick, Miss Ollie A., R. C. U. S. 
Buzzell, Miss A. S., A. B. F. (A). 
•Correll, Miss Ethel, P. E. 
Faust, Rev. A. K., Ph. D., & W. 

R. C. U. S. 
•Gerhard, Miss Mary A., R.C.U.S. 
Gerhard, Mr. Paul F. 8z W., R. 

C. U. S. 
Hansen, Miss Kate I., R. C. U. S. 
Heaton, Miss C. A., M. E. F. B. 

- (A). 
Humphreys, Miss Marian, P. E. 



Iglehart, Rev. C. W., & W., M. 

E. F. B. 
Imhof, iSIiss Louisa, M. E. F. B. 
Jacquet, Rev. Vicar Gen'l., R. C. 
Jesse, Miss M. D., A. B. C. F. M. 
Lindsey, Miss Lydia A., R. C. U. S, 
Lindsey, Miss L. E., R. C. U. S. 
McCord, Rev. E. K., C. C. (A). 
Montagu, Rev. L., R, C. 
Moore, Rev. J. P., D. D,, & W., 

R. C. U. S. 
Nicodemus, Mr. F. B. & W., R. 

C. U. S. 
Ranson, Deaconess A. L,, P. E. 
Reynaud, Rev. Jules, R. C. 
Ross, Rev. C. H., & W., A. B, V". 
Schaffner, Rev. P, F., & W., R, 

C. U, S. 
Schneder, Rev. D. B., D. D., & 

W., R. C. U. S. 
Seiple, Rev. W. G., Ph. D., & W., 

R. C. U. S. 
Seymour, Miss Elsie J., R. C. U. S, 
Zaugg, Rev. E. H., Ph. D., & W., 

R. C. U. S. 

Shizuoka, Shizuoka Ken. 

Bird, Miss E., M. C, C. 
Delahave, Rev., R. C. 
Lindsay, Mrss A. C., M. C. C. 
Lodbell, Rev. N. L., & W., U. 

G. C. 
Parker, Miss Mary M., M. C. C, 
Pinsen^, Mrs. A. M., M.C.C. (A). 
Shaw, Rev. R. D. M., & W., S. 

P. G. 
Wilkinson, Rev. E., T., & W., 

M. C. C, 

Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi Ken. 

Bigelow, Miss G. S., P. N. 
Curtis, Rev. F. S., & W., P. N. 
Dunlop, Mrs. J. G., P. N. 
Grant, Mr. J. P., Y. M. C. A. T. 
Ohmans, Miss E. ¥., R. C. A. 
Pieters, Miss J. A., R. C. A. 
Walne, Rev. E, N,, D. D., & 
W., S. B. C, 

Shirakawa, Fukushima Ken. 
Dalidert, Rev. Desire R, C. 



'ViH 



JAPAN 



Shoka, Formosa. 

Butler, Miss A. E., E. P. M. 
Landsborough, Rev. Dr. D., & 

W., E. P. M. 
Livingston, Miss A. A., E. P. M. 

Sutnoto, Awaji. 

Millican, Rev. R. W., & W., F. 

M. (A). 
Pickens, Miss L. O., F. M. 

Susaki, Kochi Ken. 

Brady, Rev. J. H., & W., P. S. 
Moore, Rev. J. W., & W., P. S. 

Taihoku, Formosa. 

Adair, Miss Lily, P. C. C. 
Claize, Miss Mabel G. P. C. C. 
Dowie, Mj. K. W., & W., P.C.C. 
Hotson, Miss J. L., P. C. C. 
MacLeod, Rev. D., & W., P.C.C. 

Tainan, Formosa. 

Band, Rev. E., E. P. M. 
Barnett, Miss Margaret, E. P. M. 
Ferguson, Rev. D., & W., E.P.M. 

(A). 
Gushue-Taylor, Dr. G., & W., E. 

P. M. (A). 
Lloyd, Miss J., E. P. M. 
Mackintosh, Miss Sabine E.. E.P.M. 
Nielson, Rev. A. B., E. P. M. 
Reive, Miss A. D., E. P. M. 

Takamatsu, Kanagawa Ken. 

Atkinson, Miss M. J., P. S. 
Erickson, Rev. S. M., & W., P. S. 

Takaoka, Toyama Ken. 
Johnstone, Miss J. M., P. N. 

Takata, Niigata Ken. 

Powles, Rev. P. S. C, & W., M. 
S. C. C. 

Tatnashima, Okayama Ken. 
Rey, Rev. A., R. C. 



Tafflsui, Formosa. 

Council, Miss Hannah, P. C. C. 
Kinney, Miss J. M., P. C. C. 
Luscombe, Miss M. E., P. C. C. 
MacKay. Mr. G. W., & W., P.C.C 



Tokushima, Tokushima Ken. 

Alvares, Prefet Apostolique, R. C, 
Curd, Miss Lillian, P. S. 
Hassell, Rev. A. P., & W., P. S, 
Henty, Miss A. M., C. M. S. (A). 
Logan, Rev. C. A., D. D., & W.,. 

P. S. (A). 
Lumpkin, Miss Estelle, P. S. 
Ostrom, Rev. H. C, & W., P. S. 
Preston, Miss E. D., C. M. S. 
Walsh, Rev. G. J., & W., C.M.S. 

Tokyo 

Alexander, Rev. R. P., & W.,. 

M. E. F. B. 
Alexander, Rev. W. G., & W.,. 

C. G. 

Anderson, Mr. A. N., & W., S. 

D. A. 

Anderson, Rev. Joel, & W., S, 

A. M. 
Anderson, Miss Ruby, A. B. F. 
Andrews, Miss vSarah, Ind. 
Andrien, Rev., R. C. 
Aurell, Rev. K. E., & W., B. S.. 
Axling, Rev. William, D. D., & 

W., A. B. M. 
Ayrc^, Rev. Samuel G., D. D., & 

W., U. G. C. 
Ballagh, Mr. J. C._, & W., P. N. 
Bates, Rev. C. J. L., D. D., & 

W., M. C. C. 
Bauernfeind, Miss Susan M., E. A. 
Beam, Rev. Kenneth S. & W., 

A. B. C. F. M. 
Beaumont, Lieut. Colonel John 

W., & W., S. A. ■ 

Benninghoff, Rev. H. B., D. D., & 

W., A. B. F. 
Bernauer, Miss Beatrice, A. G. 
Bernauer, Mrs. E. A., A, G. 
Berner, Miss Natalie, E. A. 
Berry, Rev. Arthur D., D. D.^ 

M. E. F. B. 



LIST BY TOWNS 



lix 



Eickersteth, Mrs. Edw., S. P. G. 
Bishop, Rev. Charles, & W., M. 

E. F. B. 

Blackmore, Miss I. S., M. C. C. 
Bleby, Rev. H. C, & W., C.M.S. 
Bosanquet, Miss A. C, C.M.S. (A). 
Boutflower, Rt. Rev. C. H., D. 

D., C. E. 
Boutflower, Miss M. M., C. E. (A). 
Bowles, Mr. Gilbert & W., A. 

F. P. 

Boyd, Miss L. H., P. E. 
Boyd, Miss H., S. P. G. (A). 
Braithwaite, Mr. Geo., J. B. T. S. 
Braithwaite, Mrs. Geo., J. E. B. 
Brown, Mr. F. K., & W., Y. M. 

C. A. A. (A). 
Brown, Miss Winifred, F. C. H. S. 

(A). 
Buncombe, Rev. W. P., (& W. A.) 

C. M. S. 
Burnett Miss E., J. E. B. 
Campell, Miss Edith, M. C. C. 
Carlyle, Miss E. A., C. M. S. 
Carp'enter, Miss M. M., A. B. F. 
Chambers, Miss Zudal., C. G. 
Chapman, Rev. E. N.. P. N. 
Chappell, Rev. B., D. D., M. E. 

F. B. 
Chappell, Rev. J., & (W. A.) P. 

E. 
Chase, Miss Laura, M. E. F. B. 
Chenev, Miss Alice, M. E. F. B. 
Cherel, Rev. J. M., R. C. 
Cholmondely, Rev. L. B., S. P. G. 
Chope, Miss D. M., S. P. G. 
Clagett, Miss M. A., A. B. F. 
Clarke, Mr. Chas., O. M. S. (A). 
Clawson, Miss Bertha, F. C. M. S. 
Cole, Mr. A. B. & W., S. D. A. 
Coleman, Mr. H. E., & W., W. 

S. S. A., (A) 
Converse, Mr. G. C. & W., Y. 

M. C. A. A. 
Correll, Rev. j. H., D. D., & W., 

P. E. 
Cosand, Rev. Joseph, U. B. 
Cowl, Mr. John, & W., C. M. S. 

(A). 
Cowman, Rev. E. C, & W., O. 

M. S. (A). 
Craig, Miss M., M. C. C. 
Crosby, Miss Amy R., A. B. F. (A). 



Cunningham, Rev. W. D., & W. Ind- 
Cypest. Miss Lilian. Ind. 
Daniel, Miss N. Margaret, M. E. 

F. B. 
Daugherty, Miss Lena G., P. N. 
Davev, Rev. P. A., & W., F. C. 
. M. S. 
Davis, Mr. J. Merle, & W., Y. 

M. C. A. A. (A). 
Davison, Rev. C. S., & W., M. 

E. F. B. (A).- 
de Groot, Commissioner J. W., & 

W., S. A. 
Demarest, Miss May B., R. C. A. 
Dithridge, Miss H. L., A. B. F. 
Doane, Miss Marion S., P. E. 
Dunning, Miss E., Y.W.C.A.U.S. 
Durgin, Mr. R. L., & W., Y. M, 

C. A. A. 
Elwin, Rev. W. H., & W., C.M.S. 
Ewing, Miss A. M., Ind. 
Field, Miss Sarah M., A.B.C^F.M. 
Fisher, Mr. Galen M., & W., Y. 

M. C. A. A. (A). 
Flaujac, Rev. R. C. 
France, Rev. W. F., S. P. G. (A). 
Fulghum, Miss S. F., S. B. C. 
Gardiner, Mr. J . M., & W., P. E. 
Garman, Rev. C. P. & W., C. C. 
Gates, Rev. Paul J., & W., A.B.F. 
Gemill, Rev. W. C, S. P. G. 
Gettlemen, Rev. V. S. J., R. C. 
Gifford, Miss Alice C, A. F. P. 
Gillett, Miss E. R., Ind. 
Gunter, Miss Mamie E., Y. W. 

C. A. U. S. 

Halsey, Miss L. S., P. N. 
Hamilton, Miss F. G., M. C. C. 
Hansee, Miss Martha L., Ind., 
Haring, Rev. D. G., A. B. F. 
Harper, Miss R. A., M. C. C. 
Harris, Rt. Rev. M. C, D. D.^ 

L. L. D., M. E. F. B. 
Hartshorne, Miss A. C, Ind. 
Hathaway, Miss M. R. A., U. G. C. 
Hayes, Rev. W. H., & W., U. B. 
Heaslett, Rev. S., & W., C. M. S. 

(A). 
Hertzler, Miss \ erna S., O. M. S. 
Heywood, Miss C. G., P. E. 
Hitch, Miss A. E., M. E. F. B. 
Hoffman, Rev. B. P., & W., S, 

D. A. 



Ix 



JAPAN 



Koffsommer, Mr. W. E. & W., 
R. C. A. 

Hogan, Miss F. M. F., S. P. G. 
HoUidaj^ Mr. George A., M. E. 
^ F. B. (A). 
Iloltom, Rev. D. C, & W., A. 

B. F. 

Hunziker, Pfarrer Jakob, & W., 

A. E. M. P. 
Ilusted, Miss Edith E., A.B.C.F.M. 
Hutchinson, Rev. E. G., C. M. S. 
Iglehart, Rev. E. T., & W., M. 

V V B 
Imbrie, Rev. Wm., D. D., & W., 

P. N. 
Johanson, Mr. J. M., & W., S.D.A. 
Johns. Mr. H. W., & W., M.E.F.B. 
Isaac, Miss J., M. S. C. C. 
Jones, Mr. Thomas E., & W., A. 

F. P. 
Jorgensen, Mr. Arthur, & W., Y. 

M. C. A. A. 
Juergenson, Mr. C, & W., A. G. 
Kaufman, Miss Emma T., Y. W. 

C. A. A. C. 

Keagey, Miss M. D., M. C. C. (A). 
Kelly, Rev. H., S. S. M., C. E. (A). 
Kennion, Miss O., C. E. 
Kilbourne, Rev. E. A., & W., 

O. M. S. (A). 
Kilbourne, Rev. E. L., O.M. S. 
Kirk, Miss Hazel I., U. G. C. 
Knapp, Deaconess S. T., P. E. 
Kramer, Miss Lois, F., E. A. 
Kramer, Miss Sarah, E. A. 
Lackner, Miss E. A., M. C. C. 
Landis, Rev. H. M., & W., P. N. 

(A). 
Lindgren, Rev. R., & W., L.E.F. 
London, Miss M. H., P. N. 
JVlacdonald, Miss A. C, Ind. 
.MacNair, Mrs. T. M., P. N. 
MacReal, Rev. M. J., S. J., R. C. 
Martin, Mr. J. V., & W., M. E. 

F. B. 
Matthew, Miss Margaret L., Y. 

W. C. A. U. S. 
Mauk, Miss Laura, E. A. 
Mayer, Rev. P. S. & W., E. A. 
McCaleb, Mr. J. M., (& W. A.) Lad. 
McCauley, Mrs. J. K., P. N. 
McCey, Rev. R. D., & W., F. C. 

M. S 



McKenzie, Rev. D. R., D- D., & 

(W. A.) M. C. C. 
McKim, Miss Bessie, P. E. 
McKim, Miss Nellie, P. E. 
McKim, Rt. Rev. John, D. D., 

P. E. 
Mclennan, Mr. D., Y. M. C. A. A, 
McSparran, Jos. L., M. D., & \V., 

P. E. 
Messenger, Rev. J. F., & W., 

Lid. 
Miller, Rev. H. K., & W., R. C. 

U. S. 
Miller, Miss Alice, Ind. 
Milliken, Miss E. P., P. N. 
l^Toon, Miss M. B., Ind. 
Moore, Rev. D. H., & W., C. E. 
Moss, Miss A., M. S. C. C. 
Mover, Miss Pauline, O. M. S. 
Nelson, Mr. A. N. & W., S. D. A. 
Newlin, Miss Edith, A. F. P. 
Nicholson, Mr. Herbert V., A.F.P. 
Norman, Rev. C. E., & W., L. 

C. A. 
Oliphant, Rev. L. D., & W., F. 

C. M. S. 
Oltmans, Rev. A., D. D., & W., 

R. C. A. 
Osborn, Miss C. M., U. G. C. 
Palmer, Miss Jewel, F. C. M. S. 
Parker, Miss Edith, F. C. M. S. 

(A). 
Peeke, Rev. H. V. S., D. D., & 

W., R. C. A. 
Pennick, Ensign Henry R., & W., 

S. A. 
Penrod, Miss C. T., J. E. B. 
Pettee, Rev. J. IL, D. D., & W., 

A. B. C. F. M. 
Philipps, Miss E. G., S. P. G. 
Pifer, Miss B. C., R. C. U. S. 
Powlas, Miss Mande B., L. C. A. 
Preston, Miss E., M. C. C. 
Reifsnider, Rev. C. S., L. H. D., 

& W., P. E. 
Reifsnider,. Mr. John, & W., 

P. E. (A). 
Reischauer, Rev. A. K., D. D., & 

W., P. N. 
Rey, Rt. Bev. Archbishop, J. P., 

R. C. 
Rix, Miss C. M., P. E. 
Roberts, Miss A., C. M. S. 



I.IST BY TOWNS 



Ixr 



Ruigh, Rev. D. C, & W., R. C. 

A. (A.) 
Ryan, Mr. W. Scott, & W., Y. 

M. C. A. A. 
Ryder, Miss G. E., A. B. F, 
Sandbery, Miss Minnie, V., A.B.F. 
Sander, Miss M., C. M. S. 
Saunby, Rev. J. W., & VV., M. 

C. C. 

vSchereschewsky, Miss C. E., P. E. 
Schneder, Miss Mary, R. C. U. S. 
Schroeder, Pfarrer E., & W., A. 

F. M. P. 
Schwab, Rev. B. T., & W., E. A. 
Schweitzer, Miss Edna, E. A. (A). 
Scott, Miss Ada, F. C. M. S. 
Scudder, Rev. Doremus, M. D., D. 

D. & W., Ind., (A). 
Sergie, Archbishop, R. O. C. 
Shaw, Mrs. A. C, S. P. G. 
Singley, Rev. D. F., R. C. U. S. 
Smith, Rev. Frisby D., & W., 

L. C. A. 
Smith, Miss I. V/., J. E. B. 
Smith, Miss Ruth E., A. B. F. 
Smyth, Adjutant Annie I., S. A. 
Soal, Miss A., J. E. B. 
Spencer, Miss M. A., M. E. F. B. 
Spackman, Rev. H. C, & W., C. 

E. 
Sprowles, Miss Alberta B., M. E. 

F. B. (A). 
Stacey, Mr. H., & W., S. O. A. 

(A). 
Steiehen, Rev. Michel, R. C. 
Stewart, Miss M., Ind. 
Stewart, Mr. W. R., & W., Y. M. 

C. A. A. 
Stier, Mr. W. R. F., & W., Y. M. 

C. A. A. 
St. Tohn. Mrs D.,. P. E. 
Stoudt, Mr. O. M., & W., R. 

C. U. S. 
Tait, Miss S. O., M. C. C. 
Tanner, Miss L. K., S. P. G. 
Tenny, Rev. C. B., D. D., & W., 

A. B. F. 
Teusler, R. B., M. D., & W., P. E. 
Thompson, Rev. E. T., & W., 

A. B. F. 
Thompson, Mrs. David, P. N. 
Thorp, Miss Elma R., A. B. F. 
Tulpin, Rev. E. A., R. C. 



Trott, Miss D., S. P. G. 
Umbreit, Rev. S. J., D. D., Sc W., 

E. A. 
Vornliolt, Miss Mary A., R.C.U.S. 
Wainright, Rev. S. H., D. D., & 

W., M. E. S. 
Walser, Rev. T. D., & W., P. N. 
Walter, Mr. R. C. 
Ward, Miss I. M., P. N. 
Wart on, Mrs. R. G., Bid. 
Wassereau, Rev., R. C. 
Watson, Rev. B. E., & W., F. C.- 

M. S. 
Watson, Dr. Wm. R. & W. Ind. 
Welbourn, Rev. J. A., & W., P. E. 
West, Miss A. B., P. N. 
Wheeler, Mr. H. A., & W., M.- 

E. F. B. 
White, Miss Anna L., M. E. F. B. 
Wiberg, Lieut. Colonel Sven, & 

W., S. A. 
Williams, Miss Hallie R., P. E. 
Williams, Miss T., S. P. G. (A). 
Williamson, Rev. N. F., S. B. C.. 
Wilson, Major T., Sc W., S. A. 
Woodworth, Rev. A. D., D. D.,. 

& W., C. C. (A). 
Woolley, Miss K., S. P. G. 
Wright, Rev. A. S., S. P. G. 
WyckofiF, Mrs. M. N., R. C. A. 
Wynd, Rev. William, & W., A. 

B. F. 

Young, Miss Helen, O. M. S. 

Tottori, Tottori Ken. 

Bennett, Rev. FI. J., & W., A. B. 

C. F. M. 

Coe, Miss Estelle, A. B. C F. M.. 
Daridon, Rev. PL, R. C. 



Toyama, Toyama Ken. 



fe 



Ainsworth, Rev. Fred & W., M 

C. C. 
Armstrong, Miss M. E., M. C. C 
Herman, Rev. Father, R. C. 
Killam, Miss Ada., M. C. C. 

Toyohashi, Shizuoka Ken. 

Gumming, Rev. C. K. & W., P. S. 
Linn. Rev. J. K., & W., L. C. A. 



Jxii 



JA 



Millman, Rev. R. M., & W., M. 
S. C. C. 

Tsu, Mie Ken. 

Birraux, Rev. J., R. C. 
Dooman, Rev. Isaac & W., P. E. 
Murray, Rev. D. A., D. D., & 
W., P. N. 

Tsuyama, Qkayama Ken. 

White, Rev. S. S. (& W. A.) A. 
B. C. F. M. 



iJeda, Nagano Ken. 

Drake, Miss Katherine I., M, C. 

C. 
Hurd, Miss Plelen R., M. C. C. 

Urakanii, Nagasaki Ken. 
Raguet, Rev. E., R. C. 

iJtsunomlya, Tochigi Ken. 

Cadilhac, Rev. H., Vicar Gen'l., 

R. C. 
Fry, Rev. E. C, & W., C. C. 
Mann, Miss Irene P., P. E. 

Uwajima, Ehime Ken. 

Callahan, Rev. W. J., & W* 

M. E. S. 
Milan, Rev. Father, R. C. 

Wakamatsu, Fukushima Ken. 

Benson, Mr. H. F. & W., S. D. A. 
McKim, Rev. J. Cole, & W., P. E. 
Noss, Rev. C, D. D., & W., R. 

c. u. s, 

Wakayama, Wakayama Ken. 

Geley, Rev. J. B., R. C. 

Hail, Rev. J. B., D. D., & W., 

P. N. 
Lloyd, Rev. J. H., & W., P. E. 
Ransom, Miss Mary H., P. N. 
Winn, Rev. Merle' C, & W., P. 

N. 



PAN 

Yamada, Mie Ken. 

Riker, Miss Jessie, P. N. 

Yamagata, Yamagata Ken. 

Guinther Rev. E. H., & W., R. 

C U. S. 
Mead, Miss Bessie, P. E. 
Mohr, Rev. Father, R. C. 

Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi Ken. 

Cettour, Rev. J., R. C. 
Mount, Mr. Lloyd, Y. M. C. A. T. 
Sanders, Mr. T. H. & W. Ind. 
Shaw Mr. Glenn, & W., Y. M. C. 

A. T. 

Wells, Miss Lillian A., P. N. 

Yatsushiro, Kumamoto Ken. 
Lemarie, Rev. F. P. M., R. C. 

Yokkaichi, Mie Ken. 
Morgan, Miss A. E., P. N. 

Yokohama, Kanagawa Ken. 

Allchin, Miss Agnes, Y. W. C. A. 

U. S., 
Ankeney, Rev. Alfred, R. C. U. S. 
Austen, Rev. W. T., & W., C. E. 
Baker, Miss Mary, Y. W. C. A. 

U. S. 
Baucus, Miss Georgiana, M.E.F.B. 
Booth, Rev. E. S., R. C. A. 
Converse, Miss C. A., A. B. F. 
Coot, Mr. Leonard, A. G. 
Dickinson, Miss Emma E., M. E. 

F. B. 
Draper, Rev. G. F., S. T. D., & 

W., M. E. F. B. 
Draper, Miss Marion R., M. E. F. 

B. 
Evrard, Rev. F., Vicar Gen., R. C. 
Fisher, Mr. R. FI. & W., A. B. F. 
Fisher, Rev. C. FI. D., & W., A. 

B. F. (retired). 

Forester, Rev. and Hon. O. St. 

M., & W., C. E. 
Gressitt, Mr. ]. F., & W., A. B. F. 



LIST BV TOWNS 



Ixiii 



JIaven, Miss Marguerite, A. B. F. 
Herboltzheimer, Mr. J. N. & W., 

S. D. A. (A). 
Hodges, Miss Olive I., M. P. W. 
Kuvper, Miss Jennie M., R. C. A. 
Layman, Rev. L. D. D., & W., 

M. P. 
Lee, Miss Edna, M. E. F. B. (A). 
Lemoine, Rev. J. C, R. C, 
Lcomis, Miss Clara D., W. U. 
Loomis, Rev. H., D. D., & W., 

B. S. 

Martin, Rev. Wm., & W., Ind. 
Merriman, Miss Fairh, W. U. 
Moor.^ Rev. B. S., & W., A. G., 

(A). 
Moulton, Miss Julia, R. C A. 
Munroe, Miss Helen, A. B. F. 
Noailles, Rev. Olivier de, R. C. 
Oltmans, Miss C. J., R. C. A. 
Phelps, Mr. G. S. & W., Y. ^L 

C. A. A. 



Pratt, Miss S. A., W. U. 
Schlegelmilch, Miss Donna, M. 

P. W. 
Slate, Miss Anna B., M. E. F. B. 
Smelser, Mr. F. L., & W., H. F. 

M. (A). 
Sneyd, Mr. H. S., & W., Y. M. 

C. A. A. 
Tracy, Miss Mary E., W. U. 
Watson, Miss Rebecca J., M. E. 

F. B. 
Whitney, Mr. J. P. 

Yokote, Akita Ken. 
Smyser, Rev. M. M., & W., Ind. 

Yonago, Tottori Ken. 

Mann. Rev. J. C., & W., C. M. S. 
Peto, Mr. H., C. M. S. (A). 



KOREA MISSIONARY DIRECTORY 
June igig 

Compiled by GERALD BONWICK, Seoul 



LIST OF MISSIONS AND KINDRED 
SOCIETIES 

WUh names of Secretaries on Field 

Au. P.— Presbyterian Church in Australia (Victoria) Rev. D. M. 

LyalL 
B. F. B. S.— British & Foreign Bible Society, Mr. Hugh Miller. 
f^. P. — Canadian Presbyterian Church, P-ev. W. Scott. 

E- C. M.— English Church Mission (S. P. G.), Rev. H. J. Drake. 
K.R.B.T.S.- — Korean Religious Book & Tract Society, Mr. G. Bonwick. 
M- E. F. B. — Methodist Episcopal Church, Rev. D. A. Bunker. 
M. E. S.— Methodist Episcopal Church, South, Rev. J. W. Hitch. 
O. M. S. — Oriental Missionary Society, Rev- J. Thomas. 
P. N.— Presbyterian Church in U. S. A., Rev. N. C. Whittemore. 

P. S. — Presbyterian Church in U. S., (South) Rev. D. J. Cumming 

S. A. — Salvation Army, Brigadier W, J. Richards. 

S. D. A- — Seventh Day Adventist, Mr. L. I. Bowers. 
Y.M.C.A.A. — Young Men's Christian Association, Mr, F. M, Breet^'man, 

ABBREVIATIONS, 

(A) Absent from the Field. 

(W. S.) On War Service. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



Adams, Rev. J. E., D. D., & W., 1894, P. N.. Taiku. (A) 
Akerholm, Ensign E., & W., 19 14,, S. A., Songdo. 
Alexander, Miss M. L., 191 1, Au. P., Tongyeng. 
Allen, Rev. A. W., 1913, An. P., Chinju. 
Amendt, Rev. C. C, & W., 1919, M. E. F. B., Kongju. 
Anderson, A. G., M. D., & W., 1911, M. E. F. B., Wonju. 
Anderson, Rev. E. W., M. D., & W., 1914, M. E. S., Seoul. 
Anderson, Miss H. W., 1918, P. N., Pyeng Yang. 
Anderson, Rev. L. P., & W., 1914, M. E. S., Songdo. 
Anderson, Miss N., 191 2, M. E. F. B., Seoul. (A) 
Anderson, Rev. W. J., & W., I917, P. N., Andong. 
Appenzeller, Miss A. R., 1915, M. E. F. B., Seoul. 
Appenzeller, Rev. H. D., & W., 191 7, M. E. F. B., Chemulpo. 
Appenzeller, Miss M. E., 19 17, M. E. F. B., Seoul. 
Arnold, Rev. E. H., 191 5, E. C. M., Seoul. 
Austin,, Miss L., 1912, P. S., Chunju. (A) 
Avison, O. R., M. D., & W., 1893, P. N., Seoul. 

B 

Bair, Miss B. R., 1913, M. E.- F. B., Haiju. (A) 

Baird, Rev. W. M., D. D., & W., 1890, P. N., Pyongyang. 

Barbara, Lay Sister, I911, E. C. M., Suwon. 

Bajker, Rev. A. H., & W., 191 1, C. P., Hoiryung. 

Barlow, Miss J., 1912, M. E. F. B., Haiju. 

Barnhart, Mr. B. P., & W., 1916, Y. M. C. A. A., Seoul. 

Battles, Miss D. M., 1915, M. E. F. B., Haiiu. 

Becker, Rev. A. L., & WJ, 1903, M. E. F. B., Seoul. (A) . 

Beiler, Miss M., 1910, M. E. F. B., Seoul. 

Bekins, Miss E. B., 191 5, P. N., Taiku. (A) 

Bell, Rev. E., D. D., 1896, P. S., Kwangju. (A) 

Bergman, Miss G. O., 191 5, P. N., Taiku. 

Bernheisel, Rev. C. F., & W., 1900, P. N., Pyengyang. . . 

Bernstein, Captain A. & W., 1915, S. A. Taiku. 

Best, Miss M., 1897, P. N., Pyengyang. 

Biggar, Miss M. L., 1910, Soonchun, (A) 

Bigger, J. D., M. D., & W., 191 1, P. N., Kangkei. 

Billings, Rev. B. W., & W., 1908, M. E. F. B., Seoul. 

Blair, Rev. H. E., & W., 1904, P. N., Taiku. 

Blair, Rev. W. N., & W., 190 1, P. N., Pyengyaog; : (A) 

Bligh, Miss H. A., 1917, C P., Seoul. (A) 

Bonwick, Mr. G., «& W., 1908, K. R. B. T. S., Seoul. 

Bowers, Mr. L. L, & W., 1917, S. D. A., Seoul. 

Brannan, Rev. L. C, & W., 1910, M. E. S., Wonsan. ,- .-. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST Ixvit 

Bridle, Bev. G. A., 1897, E. C. M., Suwon. 
Brockman, Mr. F. M., & W., 1905, Y. M. C. A. A., Seoul. 
Brownlee, Miss C, 1913, M. E. F, B., Seoul. (A) 
Bruen, Rev. H. M., & W., 1899, Taiku. . , 

Buckland, Miss S., 1908, P. S.. Chunju. ,. 

Buie, Miss H., 1909. M. E. S., Wonsan. 
Bull, Rev. W. F., & W., 1899, P. S., Kunsan. 
Bunker, Rev. D. A., & W., 1885, M. E. F. B., Seoul. 
Burdick, Rev. G. M., 1903, M. E. F. B., Yengbyen. 
Butterfield, Pastor C. L., & W., 1908, S. D. A., Seoul. 
Butts. Miss A. M., 1907, P. N., Pyengyang. 



Cable, Rev. E. M., D.,D., & W., 1899, M. E. F. B., Seoul. 

Campbell, Rev. A., & W„ 1916, P. N., Kangkei. 

Campbell, Miss A. M., 1911,, Au. P., Chinju. 

Campbell, Mr. E. L., & W., 1913, P. N. Syenchun. 

Campbell, Mrs. J. P., 1897, M. E. S., Seoul. (A) f 

Cass, Miss G. A., 1916, C. P., Yongjung. 

Cecil, Sister, 1907, E. C- M., Seoul. 

Chaffin, Mrs. A., 1913, M. E. F. B., Seoul. (A) 

Chambers, Rev. C, 191 2, E. C. M., Seoul. (A) 

Church, Miss M. E., 1915, M. E. F. B., Seoul. 

Clark, Rev. C. A., D. D., & W., 1902, P. N., Seoul. 

Clark, Rev. W. M., & W., 1909, P. S., Chunju. 

Clerke, Miss F. L,, 1910, Au. P., Chinju. 

Coen, Rev. R. C, & W., 1918, P. N.,'Seoul. 

Coit, Rev. R. T., & Vv., 1909, P. S., Soonchun. 

Collyer, Rev. C. T., & W., 1897, M, E. S., Wonsan, (W. S.). 

Colton, Miss S. A., 191 1, P. S., Chunju. 

Constance Irene, Sister, 1908, E. C. M. Seoul. (A) 

Cook, Rev. W. T., & W., 1908, P. N., Mukden. 

Cooper, Rev. A. C, 1908, E. C. M., Chonan, (W. S.) 

Cooper, Miss K., 1908, M. E. S., Wonsan. 

Covington, Miss H., 1917, P. N., Syenchun. 

Cram, Rev. W. G., & W., 1902, M. E. S., Songdo. (A) 

Crane, Rev. J. C, & W-, 1913, P. S., Soonchun. (A) 

Crothers, Rev. J. Y., & W., 1909, P. N., Andong. (A) 

Cumming, Rev. D. J., I918, P. S., Kvi^angju. 

Cunningham, Rev. F. W., & W., 1913, Au. P., Chinju. (A) 

Cutler, Miss M. M., M. D., 1892, M. E. F. B., Pyengyang. 



Davies, Miss E. J., M. D., 1918, Au. P., Chinju. 

Davies, Miss M. S., 1910, Au. P., Fusanchin. 

Deal, Rev. C. H., & W., 1910, M. E. S., Songdo. (A) 

Dean, Miss L., 1916, P. N., Seoul, 

De Camp, Rev. A. F., & W., 19 10, P. N., Seoul. 

Deming, Rev. C. S., S. T. D., & W., 1905, M. E. F. B., Seoul. (A) 

Dillingham, Miss G, L., 191 1, M. E. S., Pyengyang. 

Dodson, Miss M. L., 1912, P. S., Kwangju. (A) 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



Adams, Rev. J. E., D. D., & W., 1894, P. N.. Taiku. (A) 
Akerholm, Ensign E., & W., 1 91 4,, S. A., Songdo. 
Alexander, Miss M. I>., 19I1, Au. P., Tongyeng. 
Allen, Rev. A. W., 1913, An. P., Chinju. 
Amendt, Rev. C. C, & W., 1919, M. E, F. B., Kongju. 
Anderson, A. G., M. D., & W., 191 1, M. E. F. B,, Wonju. 
Anderson, Rev. E. W., M. D., & W., 19 14, M. E. S., Seoul. 
Anderson, Miss H. W., 1918, P. N., Pyeng Yang. 
Anderson, Rev. L. P., & W., 1914, M. E. S., Songdo. 
Anderson, Miss N., 191 2, M. E. F. B., Seoul. (A) 
Anderson, Rev. W. J., & W., 1917, P. N., Andong. 
Appenzeller, Miss A. R., 191 5, M. E. F. B., Seoul. 
Appenzeller, Rev. H. D., & W., 191 7, M. E. F. B., Chemulpo, 
Appenzeller, Miss M. E., 191 7, M. E. F. B., Seoul. 
Arnold, Rev. E. H., 1915, E. C. M., Seoul. 
Austin,, Miss L., 1912, P. S., Chunju. (A) 
Avison, O. R., M. D., & W., 1893, P. N., Seoul. 

B 

Pair, Miss B. R., 1913, M. E.. F. B., Haiju. (A) 

Baird, Rev. W. M., D. D., & W., 1890, P. N., Pyengyang. 

Barbara, Lay Sister, I911, E. C. M., Suwon. 

Bajker, Rev. A. H., & W., 191 1, C. P., Hoiryung. 

Barlow, Miss J., 1912, M. E. F. B., Haiju. 

Barnhart, Mr. B. P., & W., 1916, Y. M. C. A. A., Seoul. 

Battles, Miss D. M., 1915, M. E. F. B., Haiiu. 

Becker, Rev. A. L., & WJ, 1903, M. E. F. B., Seoul. (A) . 

Beiler, Miss M., 1910, M. E. F. B., Seoul. 

Bekins, Miss E. B., 191 5, P. N., Taiku. (A) 

Bell, Rev. E., D. D., 1896, P. S., Kwangju. (A) 

Bergman, Miss G. O., 191 5, P. N., Taiku. 

Bernheisel, Rev. C. F., & W., 1900, P. N., Pyengyang. 

Bernstein, Captain A. & W., 19 15, S. A. Taiku. 

Best, Miss M., 1897, P. N., Pyengyang. 

Biggar, Miss M. L., 1910, Soonchun, (A) 

Bigger, J. D., M. D., & W., 191 1, P. N., Kangkei. 

Billings, Rev. B. W., & W., I908, M. E. F. B., Seoul. 

Blair, Rev. H. E., & W., 1904, P. N., Taiku. 

Blair, Rev. W. N., & W., 1901, P. -N., Pyengyang; : (A) 

Bligh, Miss H. A., 1917, C. P., Seoul. (A) 

Bonwick, Mr. G., & W., 1908, K. R. B. T. S., Seoul. 

Bowers, Mr. L. L, & W., 1917, S. D. A., Seoul. 

Brannan, Rev. L. C, & W., 1910, M. E. S., Wonsan. - . -. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST Ixvll 

Bridle, Bev. G. A., 1897, E. C. M., Suwon. 

Brockman, Mr. F. M., & W., 1905, Y. M. C. A. A., Seoul. 

Brownlee, Miss C, 1913, M. E. F, B., Seoul. (A) 

Bruen, Rev. H. M., & W., 1899, Taiku. 

Buckland, Miss S., 1908, P. S.. Chunju. ,, 

Buie, Miss H., 1909. M. E. S., Wonsan. 

Bull, Rev. W. F., & W., 1899, P. S., Kunsan. 

Bunker, Rev. D. A., & W., 1885, M. E. F. B., Seoul. 

Burdick, Rev. G. M., 1903, M. E. F. B., Yengbyen. 

Butterfield, Pastor C. L., & W., 1908, S. D. A., Seoul. 

Butts, Miss A. M., 1907, P. N., Pyengyang. 



Cable, Rev. E. M., D. ,p., & W., 1899, M. E. F. B., Seoul. 

Campbell, Rev. A., & W„ 1916, P. N., Kangkei. 

Campbell, Miss A. M., 1911., Au. P., Chinju. 

Campbell, Mr. E. L., & W., 1913, P. N. Syenchun. 

Campbell, Mrs. J. P., 1897, M. E. S., Seoul. (A) s 

Cass, Miss G. A., 191 6, C. P., Yongjung. 

Cecil, Sister, 1907, E. C- M., Seoul. 

Chaffin, Mrs. A., 1913, M. E. F. B., Seoul. (A) 

Chambers, Rev. C, 1912, E. C. M., Seoul. (A) 

Church, Miss M. E., 1915, M. E. F. B., Seoul. 

Clark, Rev. C. A., D. D., & W., 1902, P. N., Seoul. 

Clark, Rev. W. M., & W., 1909, P. S., Chunju. 

Gierke, Miss F. L,, I9I0, Au. P., Chinju. 

Coen, Rev. R. C, & W., 1918, P. N.,'Seoul. 

Coit, Rev. R. T., & Vv., 1909, P. S., Soonchun. 

Collyer, Rev. C. T., & W., 1897, M. E. S., Wonsan, (W. S.). 

Colton, Miss S. A., 19 1 1, P. S., Chunju. 

Constance Irene, Sister, 1908, E. C. M. Seoul. (A) 

Cook, Rev. W. T., & W., 1908, P. N., Mukden. 

Cooper, Rev. A. C, 1908, E. C. M., Chonan, (W. S.) 

Cooper, Miss K., 1908, M. E. S., Wonsan. 

Covington, Miss H., I917, P. N., Syenchun. 

Cram, Rev. W. G., & W., 1902, M. E. S., Songdo. (A) 

Crane, Rev. J. C, & W-, 19 13, P. S., Soonchun. (A) 

Crothers, Rev. J. Y., & W., 1909, P. N., Andong. (A) 

Gumming, Rev. D. J., 1918, P. S., Kwangju. 

Cunningham, Rev. F. W., & W., 1913, Au. P., Chinju. (A) 

Cutler, Miss M. M., M. D., 1892, M. E. F. B., Pyengyang. 



Davies, Miss E. J., M. D., 1918, Au. P., Chinju. 

Davies, Miss M. S., 1910, Au. P., Fusanchin. 

Deal, Rev. C. H., & W., 1910, M. E. S., Songdo. (A) 

Dean, Miss L., 1916, P. N., Seoul. . . 

De Camp, Rev. A. F., & W., 19 10, P. N., Seoul. 

Deming, Rev. C. S., S. T. D., & W., 1905, M. E. F. B., Seoul. (A) 

Dillingham, Miss G. L., 191 1, M. E. S., Pyengyang. 

Dodson, Miss M. L., 1912, P. S., Kwangju. (A) 



Ixvii KOREA 

Dodson, Rev. S. K., 191 2, P. S., Kwangju. (A) 
Doriss, Miss A. S., 1908, P. N., Pyengyang, 
Drake, Rev. H. J., 1897, E. C. M., Seoul. 
Dupuy, Miss L., 191 2, P. S., Kunsan. (A) 
Dysart, Miss J., 1907, P. S., Kunsan. 



Ebery, Miss E. M., 1914, Au. P., Kuchang. (A) 
Edgerton, Miss F., I918, P. N., Chungju. 
Edith Helena, Sister, 1907, E. C. M., Seoul. 
Edwards, Miss L., 1909, M. E. S., Songdo. 
Engel, Rev. G., & W., 1900, Au. P., Fusanchin. 
English, Miss M., I918, Pyengyang. 
Erdman, Rev. W. C, & W., 1906, P. N., Taiku. 
Eriksson, Captain (Miss) I., 19 14, S. A., Seoul. 
Erwin, Miss C, 1905, M. E. S., Choonchun. (A) 
Esteb, Miss K. M., 1915, P. N., Seoul. 
Estey, Miss E. M., 1900, M. E. F. B., Yengbyen. 
Eversole, Rev. F. M., & W., 1912, P. S., Chunju. 



Few, Miss C. L., 1914, P. N., Kangkei. (A) 

Fingland, Miss M., 1918, C. P., Hoiryung. 

Fletcher, A. G., M. D., & W., 1909, P. N., Taiku. (A) 

Follwell, E. D., M. D., & W., 1895, M. E. F. B., Pyengyang. (A) 

Foote, Rev. W. R., & W., 1898, C. P., Yongjung. 

Fraser, Rev. E. J. O., & W., 1914, C. P., Wonsan. 

French, Colonel G., & W., 191 6, S. A., Seoul. 

Frey, Miss L. E.. 1893, M. E. F. B., Seoul. (A) 



Gale, Rev. J. S., D. D., & W., 1892, P. N., Seoul. (A) 

Gay, Adjutant H. J-, & W., 19 10, S. A., Yoo Koo. 

Genso, Mr. J. F., & W., 1908, P. N., Seoul. 

Gerdine, Rev. J. L., & W., 1902, M. E. S., Seoul. 

Gillis, Mr. A. W., & W., 1914, P. N., Pyengyang. 

Gittins, Miss A., 19-17, Pyengyang. 

Graham, Miss A., 1913, M. E. S., Songdo. (A) 

Graham, Miss E. I., 1907, P. S., Kwangju. 

Gray, Miss E., 191 6, M. E. S., Seoul. 

Gregg, Mr. G. A., 1906, Y. M. C. A., Seoul. 

Greer, Miss A. L., 1912, P. S., Soonchun. (A) 

Grierson, Rev. R., M. D., & W., 1898, C. P., Songjin. (A) 

Grimes, Miss E. B., 1919, P. N., Taiku. 

Grosjean, Miss V. C, 1907, E. C. M., Taiku. 

Grove, Rev. P. E., & W., 1911, M. E. F. B., Haiju. £A) 

H 

Haenig, Miss H. A., 1910, M. E. F. B., Seoul. (A) 



ALPHABETICAL LIST IxiX 

Hall, Mis. R. S.; M. D., 1890, M. E. F. B., Seoul. (A) 

Hankin?, Miss I., 1911, M. E. vS., Songdo. 

Hanson, Miss M. I-., 19 18, P. N., Andong. 

Hardie, Miss E., 1913, M. E. S., Seoul. (A) 

Hardie, Rev. R. A., M. D., & W., M. E. S., Seoul. (A) 

Harrington, Miss S. R., 1918, M. E. F. B., Seoul. 

Harris, Miss G., I910, M. E. S., Songdo. (A) 

Harrison, Rev. W. B., & W., 1896, P. S. Kunsan. 

Hartness, Miss M., 1918, P. N., Seoul. 

Harvey, Mrs. A. S., 191 7, vSyenchun. 

Havenstein, Ensign (Miss) H., 1914, S. A., Yoo Koo. 

Haynes, Miss E. I., 1906, M. E. F. B., Pyengyang. (A) 

Hayes, Miss L. B., 1918, wSyenchun. 

Helstrom, Miss H., 1909, P. N., Syenchun. 

Henderson, Rev. H. H., & W., 1918, P. N., Taiku. 

Heslop, Rev. W., & W., 191 6, O. M. S., Seoul. (A) 

Hess, Miss M., 1913, M. E. F. B., Chemulpo. (A) 

Hewlett, Rev. G. E., IQ09, E. C. M., Kanghwa. 

Hill, Adjutant A. W., & W., 1910, S. A., Seoul. 

Hill, Rev. H. J., & W., 1917, P. N., Seoul. 

Hill, L. P., M. D., & W., 19 1 7, M. E. S., Choonchun. 

Hillman, Miss M. R., 1900, M. E. F. B., Chemulpo. (A) 

Hirst, J. W., M. D., & W., 1904, P. N., Seoul. 

Hitch, 'Rev. J. W., & W., 1907, M. E. S. Seoul. 

Hobbs, Mr. T., & W., 1910, B. F. B. S., Seoul. 

Hocking, Miss D., 1916, Au. P., Fusanchin. 

Hodges, Rev. C. H. N., 1911, E. C. M., Kanghwa. (W. S.) 

HofiFman, Rev. C. S., Sc W., 1910, P. N., Kangkei. (A) 

Iloldcroft, Rev. J. G., & W., 1909, P. N., Pyengyang. 

Hulbert, Miss J. C, 1 9 14, M. E. F. B., Seoul. 

Hopkins, Miss S., 1 91 6, Hamheung. 

Hunt, Rev. C, 1915, E. C. M., Seoul. 

Hunt, Rev. W. B., & W., 1897, P. N., Chairyung. 

I 

Ingerson, Miss V. F., 1916, P. N., Syenchun. 
Isabel, Sister, 1901, E. C. M., Seoul. 



Jack, Rev. M., & W., 1917, C. P., Seoul. 
Jackson, Miss C. U., 191 1, M. E. S., Choonchun. 

Kagin, Rev. Edwin, & W., 1907, P. N., Chungju. 
Kelly, Rev. J. T.< & W., 191 2, Au. P., Kuchang. (A) 
Kerr, Rev. W. C, & W., P. N., Chairyung. 
Kestler, Miss E. E., 1905, P. S., Chunju. (A) 
Kirk, Miss J. H., 191 3, C. P., Hamheung. (A) 
Klose, Mr. J. C, & W., 1918, S. D. A., Kyengsan. 
Xnox, Rev. R., & W., 1907, P. S., Kwangju. 



]XX KOREA 

Koons, Rev. E. W., & W., 1903, P. N., Seoul. 



Laing, Miss C. J., 1915, Au. P., Chinju. (A) 

Lampe, Rev. H. W.,, D. D., & W., 1908, P. N., Syenchun. 

Lassen, Mr. L., 1913, O. M. ,S., Seoul. 

Lathrop, Miss L. O., I912, P. S., Kunsan. 

Laurence, Rev. G., 1915, E. C. M., Paikchun. (W. S.) 

Laws, A. F., M. D., & W., 1897, E. C. M., Chinchun. 

Leadingham, R. S., M. D., & W., 1912, P. S., Mokpo. (A) 

Lee, Pastor H. M., & W., 1917, S. D. A., Soonan. 

Lewis, Miss E. A., 1891, Seoul. , 

Lewis, Miss M. L., 1910, P. N., Seoul. (A) 

Lindquist, Captain (Miss) E., 1914, S. A., Seoul. 

Linton, Mr. W. A., 1912, P. S., Kunsan. 

Logan, Mrs J. V., 1 909, P. N., Chungju. 

Lord, Ensign H. A., & W., 1910, S. A., Chunju. 

Lowder, Miss R., 1916, M. E. S., Songdo. 

Lucas, Rev. A. E., & W., 1915, Y. M. C. A. A., Seoul. 

Ludlow, A. I., M. D., &■ W., 191 1, P. N., Seoul. 

Lyall, Rev. D. M., & W., 1909, Au. P., Kyumasan. 

M 

Maas, Miss L., 1918, Taiku. 

Macrae, Rev. F. J. L., & W., 19 10, Au. P., Kyumasan. (A) 

Mansfield, T. D., M. D., & W., 1910,0.. P., Wonsan. (W. S.) 

Marker, Miss J., 1905, M. E. F. B., Seoul. 

Martin, S. H., M. D., & W., 1915, C. P., Yongjung. 

Martin, Miss J- A., 1908, P. S., Mokpo. (A) , - 

Matthews, Miss E. B., 1915, P. S., Kwangiu. 

McCague, Miss J. E., 1918, Au. P., Fusanchin. 

McCallie, Rev. H. D., & W., 1907, P. S., Mokpo. 

McCune, Rev. G. S., D. D., & W., 1905, P. N., Syenchun. 

McCune, Miss K., 1908, P. N., Chairyung. 

McCuUy, Miss E. A., 1909, C. P., Wonsan. 

McCully, Miss L. H., 1900, C. P., Wonsan. 

McCutchen, Rev. L. O., & W., 1902, P. S., Chunju. 

McDonald, Rev. D. A., & W., 1912, C. P., Hoiryung, (A) 

McDonald, Rev. D. W., & W., 1914, C. P., Hamheung. 

McEachern, Miss E., 1913, C. P., Flamheung. 

McEachern, Rev. J., 1912, P. S., Kunsati. (A). 

McFariand, Rev. E. F., & W., 1904, P. N., Taiku. 

McKee, Miss A. M., 1909, P. N., Chairyung. 

McKenzie, Rev. J. N., & W., 1910, Au.' P., P\i,sanchin. 

McKinnop, Miss M. J., I915, C. P., Yongjung. 

McLaren, R^v. C\ I., M. D., 1911, Au. P., Chinju. (W. S.) 

Mcl^llan, xvJiss E. A., 1913, C. P., Hoiryung. 

McMillan, Miss K., M. D.,\i90i, C. P., Hamhoang. 

McMurphy, Miss A., 191 2, P. S., Mokpo. (A) 

McMuilrie, Mr. R., 1907, P. N., Pyongyang. 

McPhee, Miss I., 19I1, Au.. P., Kyumasan. (A) 



ALPHABETICAL LIST IxXl 

McRae, Rev. D. M., & W., 1898 C. P., Hamheung. 

Menzies, Miss B., 1891, Au. P., Fusanchin. 

Miller, Miss E., 1918, M. E. F. B., Chemulpo. 

Miller, Rev. E. H., & W., 1901, P. N., Seoul. 

Miller, Rev. F. S., & W., 1892, P. N. Chungju. 

Miller, Mr. H., & W., 1899, B. F. B. S., Seoul. 

Miller, Miss L. A., 1901, M. E. F. B., Chemulpo. 

Mingledorff, Rev. O. C, & W., 1919, M. E. S., Choonchun. 

Moffett, Rev. S. A., D. D., & W., 1889, P. N., Pyengyang. 

Moore, Miss E. S., 1892, Au. P., Tongyeng. (A) 

Moore Rev. J. Z., D. D., & W., 1903, M. E. F. B. Pyengyang. 

Morris, Rev. C. D., & W., 1900, M. E. F. B., Wonju. 

Mowry, Rev. E. M., & W., 1909, P. N., Pyengyang. 

Myers, Miss M. D., 1906, M. E. S., Seoul. (A) 

N : 

>Japier, Miss G., I912, Au. P., Kyumasan. 

Newland, Rev. L. T., & W., 191 1, P. S., Kwangjn. (A) 

Nichols, Miss L. E., 1906, M. E. S., Songdo.. 

Nisbet, Rev. J- S., D. D., & W., P. S., Mokpo. 

Noble, Rev. W. A., Ph. D., & ^'•,•'1892, M. E. F. B., Seoul. 

Nora, Sister, 1892, E. C. M., Suwon. 

Norton, Rev. A. H., M. D., & W;, M. E. F. B., Haiju. 

Noyes, Miss A. D., 1909, M. E.- S., Wonsan. (A) 

o 

Oberg, Pastor H. A., & W., 1910^ S. D. A., Kyengsan. (A) 
Oliver, Miss B., 1912, M. E. S., Choonchun. 
Olsson, Ensign (Miss) V., 1911, S. A., Seoul. 
Overman, Miss L. B.. 1917, M. E. F. B., Chemulpo. 
Owen, Mrs. G. W., M. D., 1900, P. S., Kwangju. (A) 
Owens, Mr. H. T., & W., 1918, P. N., Seoul. 



Palethorpe, Miss E. M., 1916, C. P., Yongjung. 
Palmer, Adjutant G., & W., I913, S. A., Seoul. 
Parker, Mr. W. P., & W., 1912, P. S., Pyengyang. 
Patterson, J. B., M. D., & W., 1910, P. S., Kunsan. 
Pearce, Miss A., 1914, M. E. S., Songdo. (A) 
Phillips, Rev. C. L., & W., 1910, Pyengyang. 
Pieters, Rev. A. A., & W., 1895, -P- N., Chairyung, 
Pollard, Miss H. E., 1911, P. N., Taiku. (A) 
Preston, Rev. J. F.^ & W., 1903, P. S., Soonchun. (A) 
Proctor, Rev. S. J., & W.,- 1913, C. P., Songjin. 
Pye, Miss O. F., 1911, M. E. F. B., Seoul- 

Randall, Miss P. G;, 1918, M. E. S., Seoul. ■ 
Rehrer, Miss J. M., 1917, P. N., Kangkei. 



Ixxii KOREA 

Reid, W. T., M. D., & W., M. E. S., Songdo. 

Reiner, Miss E. M., 1916, P. N., Chungju. 

Reiner, Mr. O. R., & W., 1908, P. N., Pyengyang. 

Reynolds, Mr. B., 1918, P. S., Kunsan. 

Reynolds, Rev. W. D., D. D., & W., 1892, P. S., Chunju. 

Rhodes, Rev. H. A., & W., 1908, P. N., Seoul. 

Richards, Brigadier W. J., & W., 1918, S. A., Seoul. 

Robb, Rev. A. F., & W., 1901, G. P., Wonsan. 

Robb, Miss J. B., 1903, C. P., Plamheung. (A) 

Robbing, Miss H. P., 1902, M. E. F. B., Pyengyang. 

Roberts, Miss E., 1917, M. E. F. B., Seoul. (A) 

Roberts, Rev. S. L., & W., 1907, P. N., Syenchun. 

Robertson, M. O., D. D., & W., I915, P. S., Chunju. 

Rogers, J. M., M. D., & W., 1917, P. S., Soonchun. 

Rt)gers, Miss M. M., 1909, C. P., Songjin. 

Rosalie, Sister, 1892, E. C. M., Seoul. 

Ross, Rev. A. R., & W., 1907, C. P., Songjin. 

Ross, Rev. Cyril, Ph. D., & W., 1897, P. N., Syenchun. 

Ross, J. B., M. D„ & W., 1901, M. E. S., Wonsan. 

Russell, R., M., & W., 1908, S. D. A., Soonan. 



Salisbury, Ensign H. J., & W., 1913, S. A. Yung Dong. 

Sailing, 'Ensign, (Miss) M., 1914, S. A., Seoul. 

Salmon, Miss B. C, 191 5, M. E. F. B., Pyengyang. 

Samuel, Miss J., 1902, P. N., Syenchun. (A) 

Scharffenberg, Miss M. T., 1906, S. D. A. Seoul (A) 

Scheifley, W. J., D. D. S., & W., 1915, P. N., Seoul. 

Schofield, F. W., M. D., & W., 1916, C. P., Seoul. 

Scholes, Miss N. R., 1907, Au. P., Chinju. (A) 

Scott, Miss H. M., 1908, S. D. A., Seoul. (A) 

Scott, Miss S. M., 19 1 6, Au. P-, Kyumasan. 

Scott, Rev. W., & W., 1914, C. P., Yongjung. 

Shajp, Rev. C. E., D. D., & W., 19000, P. N., Chairyung 

Sharp, Mrs. R. A., 1900, M. E. F. B., Kongju. 

Sharrocks, A. M., M. D., & W., 1899, P. N., Syenchun. 

Shepping, Miss E. J., 1912, P. S., Seoul. 

Shields, Miss E. L., 1899, P. N., Seoul. 

Simpson, Rev. J. B., 1914, E. C. M., Seoul. (W. S.). 

Skinner, Miss A. G. M., 1914, Au. P., Kyumasan. 

Smith, Miss B. A., 1910, M. E. S., Seoul' 

Smith, Rev. F. H., & W., 1905, M. E. F. B., Seoul. 

Smith, R. K., M. D., & W., 1911, P. N., Andong. 

Smith, Rev. S. T., 1912, E. C. M., Kanghwa. 

Smith Pastor, W. R. & W., 1905, S. D. A., Soonan. 

Snavely, Miss G., 1906, M. E. F. B., Wonju. 

Snook, Miss V. L., 19O0, P. N., Pyengyang. 

Soltau, Rev. T. S., & W., 1914, P. N., Mukden. 

Stevens, Miss B. I., 1911, P. N., Syenchun. 

Stewart, Mrs. M. S, M. D., 191 1, M. E. F. B., Seoul. 

Stokes, Rev. M. B., & W., 1907, M. E. S., Choonchun. 

Swallen, Miss G. E., 1918, P, N., Pyengyang. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST Ixxiu 

Swallen, Rev. W., I>., D. D., & W., 1892, P. N., Pyengyaag. 

Swearer, jNIrs. M., 1906, M. E. F. B., Kongju. 

Swinehart, Mr. M. L., & W., 191 1, P. S., Kwangju. (A) 

Switzer, Miss M., 19I1, P. N., Taiku. (A) 

Sylvester, Ensign, C, &: W., 1910, S. A., Seoul. 

Talmage, Rev. J- V. N., & W., 1910, P. S., Kwangju. 

Tate, Rev. L. B., & W., & W., 1892, P. S.. Chunju. 

Tate, Miss M. S., 1892, P. S., Chunju. 

Taylor, Rev. C, & W., 1907, M. E. F. B., Kongju. 

Taylor, Rev. J. O. J., & W., 1918, M. E. S., Choonchun. 

Taylor, Rev. W., M. D., & W., 19 1 3, Au. P., Tongyeng. 

Thomas, Rev. F. J., & W., I915, Au. P., Kuchang. 

Thomas, Rev. J., & W., 19 10, O. M. S., Seoul. 

Thomas, Mrs. J. C, 191 8, P. N., Pyongyang. 

Thomas, Miss M., 1916, C. P., Wonsan. 

Tinsley, Miss H., 19I1, M. E. S., Seoul. 

Tipton, S. P., M. D., & W., 1914, P- N., Chungju. 

Toms, Rev. J. U. S., & W., K^oS, Seoul. 

Trissel, Miss M. V., 1914, M. E. F. B., Pyengyang. 

Trollope, Rt. Rev. Bishop M. N., D. D., 1891, E. C. M., Seoul. (A> 

Tucker, Miss B., 191 1, M. E. S., Seoul. 

Turner, Rev. V. R., & W., 1912, M. E. S., Songdo. (A) 

luttie. Miss O. M., 1908, M. E. F. B., Seoul. 

u 

Underwood, Mrs. H. G., M. D., 1887, P. N., Seoul. 
Underwood, Mr. FI. H., & W., 1912, P. N., Seoul. 
Urquhart, Pastor E. J., & W., 191 6, S. D. A., Seoul. 



Van Buskirk, Rev. J. D., M. D., & W., 1908, M. E. F. B., Seoul. 
Van Fleet, Miss E. M., 1918, M. E. F. B., Seoul. 
Vesey, Rev. F. G., & W., 1908, M. E. S., Seoul. 

w 

Wachs, Rev. V. FI., & W., 191 1, M. E. F. B., Yengbyen. (A) 

Wagner, Miss E., 1904, M. E. S., Songdo. 

Walter, Miss A. J., 191 1, M. E. F. B., Seoul. 

Wangerin, Mrs. T., 1913, S. D. A., Seoul. 

Ward, Commandant (Miss) E., 1908, S. A., Seoul. 

Wasson, Rev. A. W., & W., 1905, M. E. S., Songdo. 

Watson, Rev. R. D., & W., 1910, Au. P., Tongyeng. 

Weems, Rev. C. N., & W., 1909, M. E. S., Songdo. 

Welbon, Rev. A. G., & W., 1900, P. N., Pyengyang. (A) 

Welch, Rev. Bishop H., D. D., L. L. D., & W., 1916. M. E. F. B., 

Seoul. 
Westling, Ensign F., & W., 1914, S. A., Haiju. 
Whitelaw, Miss J., 1919, C. P., Seoul. 
Whiti.'ig, Rev. PL C, M. D., 1913, P. N., Chairyung. 
Whittemore, Rev. N. C, & W., 1896, P. N., .Syenchun. 



^Xxiv KOKEV 

Williams, Rev. F. E. C, & W., & W., ic>o6, M. E. F. B., Kongju, 

Wilson, Rev. F., 1905, E. C. M., Paikchun. 

Wilson, R. M., M. D., & W., 1908, Kwangju. 

Winn, Miss E. A., 1 91 2, P. S., Chunju. (A) 

Winn, Rev. G. H., & W., 1908, P. N., Taiku. 

Winn. Rev. R. E., & W., 1909, P. N., Andong. 

Winn'. Rev. S. D., & W., 1912, P. S., Chunju. 

Withers, Miss M., 191 8, Au. P., Kuchang. 

Wood, Miss L., 1914, M. E. F. B., Seoul. (A) 

Woods, Mr. H., 19 18, O. M. S., Seoul. 

Wright, Rev. A. C, & W., 1912, Fusanchin. (A) 



Young, Ps-ev. L. L., 1906, C. P.,- Hamheung. (A) 



LIST BY MISSIONS 



British & Foreign Bible Society 

Hobbs, Mr. T., & W., Seoul, Sub- 
agent. 

Miller, Mr. H., & W., Seoul, Se- 
cretary. 

Mission of the Canadian Presby= 
terian Church 

Barker, Rev. A. H., & W., Hoiry- 

ung. Evan. 
Bligh, Miss H. A-, Seoul. Educ. (A) 
Cass, Miss G. A., Yongjung. Educ. 
Fingland, Miss M., Hoiryung- Educ. 
Foote, Rev. W. R., & W., Yong- 
jung. Evan. 
Eraser, Rev. E. J. O., & W.,, 

Wonsan. Evan. 
Grierson, Rev. R., M. D., & W., 

Songjin. Med. (A) 
Jack, Rev. M., & W., Seoul. Educ. 
Kirk, Miss J. H., Hamheung, 

Nurse. (A) 
Mansfield, T. D., M. D., & W., 

Wonsan. (W. S.) 
Martin, S. H., M. D., & W., 

Yongjung. Med. 
McCully, Miss E. A., \^'onsan. 

Evang. 
McCully, Miss L. B.., Wonsan. 

Evan. 
McDonald, Rev. D. A., & W., 

Hoiryung. Evan, (A) 
McDonald, Rev. D. W., & W., 

Hamheung. 
McEachern, Miss E., Hamheung. 

Educ. 
McKinnon, Miss M. J., Yongjung. 

Nurse. 
McLellan, Miss E. A., Hoiryung. 
Evan. 



McMillan, Miss K., M. D., Ham- 
heung. Med. 

McRae, Rev. D. M., & W., Ham- 
heung. Evan. 

Palethorpe, Miss E. M., Yongjung. 
Evan. 

Proctor, Rev. S. J., & W., Songjin. 
Evan. 

Robb, Rev. A. F., & W., Wonsan. 
Evan. (A) 

Robb, Miss J. B., Hamheung. 
Evan. (A) 

Rogers, Miss M. M., Songjin. Evan. 

Ross, Rev. A. R., & W., Songjin. 
Evan. 

Schofield, F. W., M. D., & W., 
Seoul. Med. 

Scott, Rev. W., & W., Yongjung. 
Evan. 

Thomas, Miss M. W"onsan. Evan. 

Whitelaw, Miss J., Seoul. Nurse. 

Young, Rev, L. L,, Hamheung. 
Evan. (A) 

English Church Mission 

Arnold, Rev. E. H., Seoul. 
Barbara, Lay-Sister, Suwon. 
Bridle, Rev. G. A., Suwon. 
Cecil, Sister, Seoul. 
Chambers, Rev. C, Seoul. (A) 
Constance Irene, Sister, Seoul. (A) 
Cooper, Rev. A. C. Chonan. (W. 

S.) 
Drake, Rev. H. J., Seoul. 
Edith Helena, Sister, Seoul. 
Grosjean, Miss V. C, Taiku. 
Hewlett, Rev. G. E., Kanghwa. 
Hodges, Rev. C. H. N., Kanghwa. 

(W. S.) 
Hunt, Rev. C. Seoul. 
Isabel, Sister. Seoul. 



Ixxvi 



KOREA 



Laurence, Rev, G. raikchuii. (W. 

S.) 
Laws, A. F., M. D., & W. Chin- 

chun, 
Nora, Sister, Suwon, 
Rosalie, Sister. Seoul, 
Simpson, Rev. J- B. Seoul. (W. 

S,) 
Smith, Rev, S, T., Kangliwa. (W . 

S,) 
Trollope, Rt. Rev, Bishop M. N., 

D. D, Seoul, (A) 
Wilson, Rev, F, Paichun. 

Korean Rellgioirs Book & Tract 
Society 

Bonwick, Mr, G,, & W., Seoul. 
Genl Secty, 

Alission of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church 



Amendt, Rev. C. C, & W,, Kongju, 

Evan, 
Anderson, A. G., M. D., & W,, 

Wonju, Med, 
Anderson, Miss N., Seoul. Nurse. 

(A) 
Appenzeller, Miss A. R., Seoul. 

Educ, 
Appenzeller, Rev, LL D., & W,, 

Chemulpo, Evan, 
Appenzeller, Miss M, E,, Seoul, 

Educ, 
]3air. Miss B, R,, Haiju. Evan. (A) 
Barlow Miss J., Haiju, Evan, 
Battles, Miss D, M., Haiju, Nurse. 
Backer, Rev, A. L., & W., Seoul. 

Educ. (A) 
Beiler, Miss M., Seoul. Educ. 
Billings, Rev. B. W., & W., Seoul, i 

Educ, 
Brownlee, Miss C, Seoul. Educ. 

(A) 
Bunker, Rev. D. A., & W., Seoul. 

Evan. 
Burdick, Rev. G. M., Yengbyen, 

Evan. 
Cable, Rev. E. M., D. D., & W., 

Seoul. Lit. 
Chaffin, Mrs. A., Seoul. Evan. (A) 



Church, Miss M. E., Seoul. Educ. 
Cutler, Miss M. M., M. D., Pyeng- 

yang. Med. 
Deming, Rev. C. S., S. T, D., & 

W,, Seoul, Educ. (A) 
Dillingham, Miss G. L., Pyeng- 

yang. Educ. 
Estey, Miss E. M., Yengbyen. 

Evan. 
Follwell, E, D., M. D., & W., 

Pyengyang. Med. (A) 
Frey, Miss L. E., Seoul. Educ. 

(A) . 
Grove, Rev. P. L., & W., Haiju. 

Evan. (A) 
Haenig, Miss H. A., Seoul. Educ. 

(A) 
Hall, Mrs. R. S., M. D., Seoul. 

Med, (A) 
Harrington, Miss S. R., Seoul. 

Evan. 
Haynes, Miss E. L, Pyengyang. 

Educ. 
Hess, Miss M., Chemulpo. (A) 
Hillman. Miss M. R., Chemulpo. 

Evan.' (A) 
Hulbert, Miss J. C, Seoul. Educ. 
Marker, Miss J., Seoul. Evan. 
Miller, Miss E., Chemulpo. Evan. 
Miller, Miss L. A., Chemulpo, 

Evan. 
Moore, Rev. J. Z., D. D., & W., 

Pyengyang, Evan. 
Morris, Rev. C. D., & W., Wonju, 

Evan. 
Noble, Rev. W. A., Ph. D., & W., 

Seoul, Evan. 
Norton, Rev. A. H., M. D., & W., 

Haiju. JNIed. 
Overman, Miss L. B., Chemulpo, 

Educ. 
Pye, Miss O. F., Seoul. Educ. 
Robbins, Miss H. P., Pyengyang. 
I Evan. 
Roberts, Miss E., Seoul. Nurse. (A) 
Salmon, Miss B. C, Pyengyang. 

Evan. 
Sharp, Mrs. R. A., Kongju. Evan. 
Smith, Rev. F. H., & W., Seoul. 

Japanese. 
Snavely, Miss G., Wonju. Evan. 
Stewart, Mrs, M, S., M. D., Seoul. 

Med. 



LIST BY MISSIONS 



XXVll 



Swearer, Mrs. M,, Kongju. Evan. 
Taylor, Rev. C, & W., Kongju. 

Evan. 
Trissel, Miss M. V., Pyengyang. 

Educ. 
Tuttle, Miss O. M., Seoul. Educ. 
Van Buskirk, Rev. J. D., M. D., 

& W., Seoul. Med. 
Van Fleet, Miss E. M., Seoul. 

Educ. 
Wachs, Rev. V. H., & W., Veng- 

byen. (A) 
Walter, Miss A. J., Seoul, Educ. 
Welch, Rev. Bishop H., D. D., 

L. L. D., & W., Seoul. 
W^illiams, Rev. F. E. C, & \Y., 

Kongju. Educ. 
Wood, Miss L., Seoul. Educ. (A) 

Mission of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South 

Anderson, Rev. E. W., M. D., & 

W., Seoul. Evan. 
Anderson, Rev. L. P., & W., Songdo. 

Evan. 
Brannan, Rev. L. C, & W., Won- 

san, Evan. 
Buie, Miss H., Wonsan. Educ. 
Campbell^ Mrs. J. P., Seoul. Med. 

(A) 
Collyer, Rev. C. T., & W., W^on- 

san. (W. S.) • 
Cooper, Miss K., Wonsan. Evan. 
Cram, Kev. W. G., & W., Songdo. 

(A) 
Deal, Rev. C. H., & W., Songdo. 

Educ. (A) 
Edwards, Miss L., Songdo, Evan. . 
Erwin, Miss C, Choonchun. (A) 
Gerdine, Rev. J. E,, & W., Seoul. 

Evan. 
Graham, Miss A., Songdo. Evan. (A) 
Gray, Miss E., Seoul. Educ. 
Hankins, Miss I., Songdo. Educ. 
Plardie, Miss E., Seoul. Evan. (A) 
Hardie, Rev. R. A., M. D., & W., 

Seoul. Evan. (A) 
Harris, Miss G., Songdo. Nurse. 

' (A) 

HiU, L. P., M. D., & W., Choon- 
chun. Med. 
Hitch, Rev. J. W., & W., Seoul. Evan. 



Jackson, Miss C. U., Clioonchun. 
Evan. 

Lowder, ]Miss R., Songdo. Nurse, 

Mingledorff, Rev. O. C, & W., 

Choonchun. Evan. 

IMyers, Miss M. D., Seoul. Evan. 
(A) 

Nichols, Miss L. E., Songdo. Educ. 

Noyes, Miss A. D., Wonsan. (A) 

Oliver, Miss B., Choonchun. Evan. 

Pearce, Miss A., Songdo. Evan. 
(A) 

Randall, Miss P. G., Seoul. Evan. 

Reid, W. T., M. D., & W., Song- 
do, Med. 

Ross, J. B., M. D., & W., Wonsan, 
Med. 

Smith, Miss B. A., Seoul. Educ. 

Stokes, Rev. M. B., & ^V., Choon- 
chun. Evan. 

Taylor, Rev. J. O. J., & W,, 
Choonchun. Evan. 

Tinsley, Miss H., Stoul. Evan. 

Tucker, Miss B., Seoul, Evan. 

Turner, Rev. V. R., & W., Song- 
do. Evan, (A) 

Vesey, Rev. F. G., & W., Seoul. 
Evan. 

Wagner, Miss E., Songdo. Educ. 

W'asson, Rev. A. W., & W., Song- 
do. Educ. 

Weems, Rev. C. N., & W., Song- 
do. Evan. 



Oriental Missionary Society 

Heslop, Rev. W., & W., Seoul. 

Evan. (A) 
Lassen, Mr. L., Seoul. Evan. 
Thomas, Rev. J., & W., Seoul. 

Evan. 
Woods, Mr. H., Seoul. Evan. 



Mission of the Presbyterian Chnrch 
of Australia 

Alexander, Miss M. L., Tong3^eng. 

Evan. 
Allen, Rev. A. W., Chinju. Evan. 
Campbell, Miss A. M., Chinju. 

Educ. 
Clerke, Miss F. L., Chinju. Nurse. 



Ixxvii i 



KOREA 



Cunningham, Rev. F. W., & W., 

Chinju, Evan, (A) 
Davies, Miss E. J-, M. D., Chinju. 

Med. 
Davies, Miss M. S., Fusanchin, 

Edue. 
Ebery, Miss E. M., Kuchang. (A.) 
Engel, Rev. G., Fusanchin. Evan. 
Hocking, Miss D., Fusacnhin, Evan. 
Kelly, Rev. J. T., & ^^'., Kuchang. 

(A) 
Laing, Miss C. J., Chinju. (A) 
Lyall, Rev. D. M., & W., Kyuma- 

san, Evan. 
Macrae, Kev. F. J. L., & W., 

Kyumasan. Evan. (A) 
McCague, Miss J. E., Fusanchin. 

Evan. 
McKenzie, Rev. J. N., & W., Fu- 
sanchin. Evan. 
McLaren, Rev. C. I., & W., 

Chinju. Med. (W. S.) 
McPhee, Miss I., Kyumasan. Educ. 
Menzies, Miss B., Fusanchin. Evan. 
Moore, Miss E. S., Tongyeng. 

Evan. (A) 
Napier, Miss G., Kyumasan. Nurse. 
Scholes, Miss N. R ., Chinju. Educ. 

c ^^) 

bcott. Miss S. M., Kyumasan. Evan. 

Skinner, Miss A. G. M., Kyuma- 
san. Educ. 

Taylor, Rev. W., M. D., Tong- 
yeng. Med. 

Thomas, Rev. F. J., Kuchang, 
Evan. 

Watson, Rev. R. D., & W., Tong- 
yeng. Evan. (A) 

Withers, Miss.M., Kuchang. Educ. 

Wright, Rev. A. C, Fusanchin.. 
Evan. (A) 

Mission of the Presbyterfau 
Church, North 

Adams, Rev. T. E., D. D., & W., 

Taiku. Educ. (A) 
Anderson, Miss H. W,, Pyeng- 

yang, Evan. 
Anderson, Rev. \Y. J., Andong. 

Evan. 
Avison, O. R., M. D., & W., 

Seoul. Med. 



Baird, Rev. ^^^ M., & W., Pyeng- 

yang. Lit. 
Bekins, Miss E. B., Taiku. Nurse. 

(A) 
Bergman, Miss G. O., Taiku. Evan. 
Bernheisel, Rev. C. F., Pyengyang. 

Educ. 
Best, Miss M., Pyengyang. Evan. 
Bigger, J. D., M. D., & W., 

Kangkei. Med. 
Blair, Rev. H. E., & W., Taiku. 

Evan. 
Blair, Rev. W. N., & W., Pyeng- 
yang. Evan. (A) 
Bruen, Rev. H. M,, Taiku, Evan. 
Butts, Miss A. M., Pyengyang. 

Evan. 
Campbell, Rev. A., & W., Kangkei. 

Evan. 
Campbell, Mr. E. L., & W.. Syen- 

chun. 
Clark, Rev. C. A., D. D., cSc W., 

Seoul, Evan. 
Coen, Rev. R. C, & W., Seoul. 

Evan. 
Cook, Rev. W. T., & W., Mukden. 

Evan. 
Covington, Miss H., Syenchun. 

Evan. 
Crothers, Rev. J. Y., & W., 

Andong. Evan. (A) 
Dean, Miss L,, Seoul. Educ, 
De Camp, Rev. A. F., & W., 

Seoul. Evan. 
Doriss, Miss A. S., Pyengyang. 

Evan. 
Edgerton, Miss F., Chungjti. Evan. 
Erdman, Rev. W. C, & W., Taiku. 

Evan. 
Esteb, Miss K. M., Seoul. Nurse. 
Few, Miss C. L., Kangkei. Evan. 

(A). 
Fletcher, A. G., M. D., & W., 

Taiku. Med. (A) 
Gale, Rev. J. S., D. D., & W., 

Seoul. Evan. (A) 
Genso, Mr. J. F., & W., Seoul. 

Treas. 
Gillis, Mr. A. W., & W., Pyeng- 
yang. Educ. 
Grimes, Miss E. B., Taiku. Evan. 
Hanson, Miss M. L., Andong. 

Evan. 



LIST BY MISSIONS 



Ixxix 



Hartness, Miss M., Seoul. Evan. 
Helstrom, Miss H., Syenchun. 

Evan. 
Henderson, Rev. H. H., & W., 

Taikii. Evan. 
Hill, Rev. H. J., & W., Seoul. 

Evan. 
Hirst, J. W., M. D., & W., Seoul. 

Med. 
Hoffman, Rev. C. S., & W., Kang- 

kei. Evan. (A) 
Holdcroft, Rev. J. G., & W., 

Pvengyang. Evan. 
Hunt, Rev. W. B., & W., Chair- 

yung. Evan. 
Ingerson,' Miss V. F., vSyenchun. 

. Nurse. 
Kagin, Rev. Edwin & W., Chung- 

ju. Evan. 
Kerr, Rev. AV. C, & W., Chair- 

yung. Evan. 
Koons, Rev. E. W., & W., Seoul. 

Educ. 
Lampe, Rev. H. \\., D. D., & W., 

Syenchun. Evan. 
Lewis, Miss M. L., Seoul. Educ. (A) 
Logan, Mrs. J. V., Chungju. Evan. 
Ludlow, A. L, M. D., & \V., Seoul. 

Med. 
McCune, Rev. G. S., & W., Syen- 
chun. Educ. 
McCune, Miss K., Chairyung, 

Evan. 
McFarland, Rev. E. F., & W., 

Taiku. Evan. 
McKee, Miss A. M., Chairyung. 

Evan. 
McMurtrie, Mr. R., Pyengyang. 

Indus. 
Miller, Rev. E. H., & W., Seoul. 

Educ. 
Miller, Rev. F. S., & W., Chungju. 

Evan. 
Moffett, Rev. S. A., D. D., & W., 

Pyengyang. Evan. 
Mowry, Rev. E. AL, & W., 

Pyengyang. Evan. 
Owens, Mr. H. T., & W., Seoul. 

Secretary. 
Phillips, Rev. C. L., & W., Pyeng- 

yung. Evan. 
Pieters, Rev. A. A., & W., Chair- 
yung: Evan. 



Pollard, ^liss H. E., Taiku. Educ. 

(A) 
Rehrer, Miss J. jNL, Kangkei. 

Nurse. 
Reiner, Miss E. M., Chungju. 

Nurse. 
Reiner, Mr. R. O., & W., Pyeng- 
yang. Educ. 
I Rhodes, Rev. H. A., & W., Seoul. 
j Educ. 

I Roberts, Rev. S. L., & W., Syen- 
I chun. Evan. 

; Ross, Rev. Cyril, Ph. D., & W., 
' Syenchun. Evan. 
I Samuel, Miss J., Syenchun. Evan. 

(A) 
! Schifley, W. L., D. D. S., & W., 
I Seoul. Medical. 
; Sharp, Rev. C. E., D. D., & W., 
i Chairyung. Evan. 
I Sharrocks, A. M., M. D., & W., 
j Syenchun. Med- 
i Shields, Miss E. L., Seoul. Nurse. 
Smith, R. K., M. D., & W.„ 

Andong. Med. 
Snook, Miss V. L., Pyengyang. 

Educ. 
Soltau, Rev. T. S., & W., ^Mukden. 

Evan. 
Stevens, Miss B. L, Syenchun. 
I Educ. 

! Swallen, G. E., Pyengyang. Indus. 
; Swallen, Rev. W. L., D. D., & 
' W., Pyengyang. Evan. 
! Switzer, Miss M., Taiku. Evan. 
i (A) 

i Thomas, Mrs. J. C, Pyengyang.' 
Educ. 
Tipton, S. P., M. D., & W., 
Chungju. Med. 
; Toms, Rev. J. U. S., & W., Seoul. 
■: Evan. 

I Underwood, Mrs. H. G., M. D., 
I Seoul, Evan. 

I Underwood, Mr. PI. H., & W., 
Seoul. Educ. 
Wambold, Miss K., Seoul. Evan. 
Welbon, Rev. A. G., & W., 

Pyengyang. Evan. (A) 
Whiting, Rev. H. C, M. D., 
Chairyung. Med. 
j Whittemore, Rev. N. C, & W., 
I Syenchun. Evan. 



Ixxx 



KOREA 



Winn, Rev. G. H., & W., Taiku. 

Evan. 
Winn, Rev. R. E., & W., Andong. 
Evan- 
Mission of the Presbyterian 
Church, South 

Austin, Miss L. Chunju. Evan, (A) 
Bell, Rev. E., D. D., Kwangju. 

Evan. (A) 
Biggar, Miss M. L., Soonchun. 

Evan. (A) 
Buckland, Miss S., Chunjun. Educ. 
Bull, Rev. W. F., & W., Kunsan. 

Evan. 
Clark, Rev. W. M., & W., Chunju. 

Evan. 
Coit, Rev R. T., & W., Soonchun. 

Evan. 
Colton, Miss S. A., Chunju. Educ. 
Crane, Rev. J. C, Soonchun. Evan. 

(A) 
Cumming, Rev. D. J., & W., 

Kwangju. Evan. 
Dodson, Miss M. L., Kwangju. 

Evan. (A) 
Dodson, Rev. S. K., Kwangju. 

Evan. (A) 
Dupuy, Miss L., Kunsan. Educ. 

Dysart, Miss J., Kunsan. Evan. 

Eversole, Rev. F. M., & W., Chun- 
ju. Educ. 

Graham, Miss E. I., Kwangju. 
Evan. 

Greer, Miss A. L., Soonchun. 
Nurse. (A) 

Harrison, Rev. W. B., & W., 
Kunsan. Evan. 

Kestler, Miss E. E.. Chunju. Nurse. 

(A) 
Knox, Kev. R.. & \\ ., Kwangju. 

Evan. 
Lathrop, Miss I^. O., Kunsan. 

Nurse. 
Leadingham, R. S., M. I)., & W., 

Mokpo. Med. (A) 
Linton, Mr. W. A , Kunsan. Educ. 
Martin, Miss J. A., Mokpo. Evan. 

(A) 
Matthews, Miss E. B., Kwangju. 
Nurse. 



McCallie, Rev. Fl. D., & W., 

Mokpo. Evan. 
McCutchen, Rev. L. O., & W., 

Chunju. Evan. 
McFa:hern, Rev. J., Kunsan. Evan. 

(A; 
McMurphy, Miss A., Mokpo. Evan. 

(A) 
McQueen, Miss A., Kwangjun. 

Educ. (A) 
Newland, Rev. F. T., & W., 

Kwangju. Evan. (A) 
Nisbet, Rev. J- S., D. D., & W.; 

Mokpo. Evan. 
Owens, Mrs. G. W., M. D., Kwang- 
ju. Educ. (A) 
Parker, Mr. W. P., & W., Pyengy- 

ang. Educ. 
Patterson, J. B., M. D., & W., 

Kunsan. Med. 
Preston, Rev. J. F., & W., Soon- 
chun. Evan. (A) 
Reynolds, Mr. B., Kunsan. Educ. 
Reynolds, Rev. W. D., D. D., & 

\Y., Chunju. Evan. (A) 
Robertson, M. O., M. D., & W., 

Chunju. Med. 
Rogers, J- McL., M. D., & W., 

Soonchun. Med. 
Shepping, Miss E. J., Seoul. Nurse. 
Swinehart, Mr. M. L., & W., 

Kwangju. Treas. (A) 
Tahnage, Rev. J. V. N., & W., 

Kwangju. Evan. 
Tate, Rev. L. B., & W., Chunju. 

Evan. 
Tate, Miss M. S., Chunju. Evan. 
Wilson, R. M., M. D., & W., 

Kwangju. Med. 
Winn, Miss E. A., Chunju. Evan. 

(A) 
Winn, Rev. vS. D., Chunju. Evan. (A) 

Roman Catholic Church 

French Mission. (La Societe des 
Missions Esi'rangeres) 

Bermond, I'ere J. M., Masanpo, 

South Kyeung Sang. 
Bodin, Pere J., Pyeng Won, South 
Pyeng An. "(W. S.) 
Bouillon, Pere C, Eum Chook, 

Kyeung Keui. 



LIST BY MISSIONS 



Ixx: 



Cadars, Pere J. F., Najn, South 

Challa. (W. S.) 
Chabot, Pere J. F. G., Anak, ^^■llang 

Hai (W. S.) 
Chargeboeuf, Pere E., Taiku, North 

Kyeung Sang. 
Chizallet, Pere P., Wonju, Kang 

Won. 
Curlier, Pere J. J. L., Young Lung, 

Kan do. 
Demange, Rt. Rev. Bishop F., 

Taiku, North Kyeung Sang. 
Deneux, Pere S. A. J., Chemulpo, 

Kyeung Reui. 
Devered, Pere E. J., Yongsan, 

Keui. (W. S.) 
Ferrand, Pere P. C, Fusau, North 

Kyeung Sang. 
Gombert, Pere A. D., Ansung, 

Kyeung Keui. 
Goml3ert, Pei-e J. M. E., Hongsang, 

South Choong Coong, (\Y. S.) 
Guinand, Pere P. J., Yongsan, 

Kyeung Keui. 
Jaugey, Pere J. M, A., Wonju, 

Kang Won, (W. S.) 
Julien, Pere M. C, Choryung, 

Fusan, North Nyung Sang. 
Kleinpeter, Pere J., Seoul. 
Krempff, Pere H. J. M., Tangchin, 

Souih Choong Chong. (^^^ S.) 
Lacrouts, Pere M., Chaju, South 

Chulla. 
Larribeau, Pere A. J., Yong J^ng, 

Kando. 
Le Gendre, Pere I^. G., Songdo, 

Kyeung Keui. 
Le Merre, Pere L. B., Pyeng Yang. 
Lucas, Pere F. M. A., An Byen, 

South Ham Kyeung. 
Lucas, Pere L. M, B., Chunju, 

North Chulla. 
Melizan, Pere P. M- D., Chairy- 

ung, \Yhanghai. 
Mialon, Pere J. L., Chung Eup, 

North Chulla. 
Mousset, Pere J. F. G., Taiku, 

North Kyeung Sang. 
Mutel, Rt. Rev. Bishop G. C., 

Seoul. 
Perrin, Pere P. F. L., Kwa Chun, 

Kyeung Keui. (W. S.) 
Pesciiel, Pere, R. F. G., Taiku, 



North Kyeung Sang. 
Peynet, Pere J. C, Kimcha, North 

Chulla (W. S.) 
Poisnel, Pere V. L., Seoul. 
Polly, Pere D. J. B. M., Kyul 

Sung, South Choong Chong. 

(W. S.) 
Poyaud, Pere G. C-, \\onsan, 

South Ham Kyung. 
Robert, Pere A. P., Tsicu, North 

Kyeung Sang. 
Rouvelet, Pere H. P., Kongju, 

South Choong Chong. (\Y. S.) 
Saucet, Pere H. J., Taiku, North 

Kyeung Sang. 
Taquet, Pere E. J., Mokpo, South 

Chulla. 
Tourneux, Pere V. L,, Chilkok, 

North Kyeung Sang. 
Vermorel, Pere J., Kang Kyeung 

Yi, South Choong Chong. 
Villemot, Pere M. P. P., Seoul. 

German MissiuN (Benedictines) 

Auer, Bro. G. (A) Seoul 

Bauer, Bro. C. do 

D'Avernas, Rev. L. do 

Eckhard, Rev. A. (Sub-prior) do 

Fangauer, Bro. P. B. (A) do 

Flotzinger, Bro. I. do 

Genert, Bro. P. do 

Grahamer, Bro. J. do 

Hartmann, Bro. G. do 

Hauser, Bro. B. do 

Heimer, Rev. C. do 

Hoiss, Bro. H. ' do 

Kugelgen, Rev. C. do 

Metzger, Bro. M. do 

Niebauer, Rev. C. (Prior) do 

Ostermeier, Pro. E. do 

Romer, Rev. A. do 

Sauer, Rt. Rev. B. (Abbot) do 

Schnell, Rev. S. do 

Schrotter, Bro. J. (A) do 

Vierhaus, Rev. C. do 

Th2 Salvation Army 

Akerholm, Ensign E-, & W., 

Songdo. 
Bernstern, Captain A., & W., 

Taiku. 



Ixxxii 



KOREA 



Eriksson, Captain (Miss) I. Seoul. 
French, Colonel G., & W. Seoul. 
Gay, Adjutant H. J., & W., Yoo 

Koo. 
Havenslein, Ensign (Miss) H. Yoo 

Koo. 
Hill, Adjutant A. W., & W. Seoul. 
Lindquist, Captain (Miss) E., Seoul. 
Lord, Ensign H. A., & W. Chunju. 
Olsson Ensign (Miss) V., Seoul. 
Palmer, Adjutant, G., & W., Seoul. 
Richards, Brigadier W. J., & W., 

Seoul. 
Salisbury, Ensign H. J., & W., 

Yung Dong. 
Sailing, Ensign (Miss) INI., Seoul. 
Sylvester, Ensign C, '& W., Seoul. 
Ward, Commandant (Miss) E., 

Seoul. 
Westling, Ensign F., Haiju. 

Seventh Day Adventist Mission 

Bowers, Mr. L. I., & W., Seoul. 
Butterfield, Pastor C. L., & W., 

Seoul. 
Klose, Mrs. J.C., & W., Kyengsan. 



Lee, Pastor, H. M.,^ & W., Soonan. 
Oberg, Pastor, PI. A., & W. 

Kyengsan. (A) 
Russell, R., M. D., & W., Soonan. 
Scharifenberg, Miss M.T,, Seoul. (A) 
Scott, Miss H. M., Seoul. (A) 
Smith, Pastor W. R., & W. Soonan. 
Urquhart, Pastor E. J., & W., 

Seoul. 
Wangerin, Mrs. T., Seoul. 

Young Men's Christian Association 

Barnhart, Mr. B. P., & W., Seoul. 
Brockman, Mr. F. M., & W., Seoul, 
(rregg, Mn G. A., Seoul. 
I.ucas, Rev. A. ,E., & W., Seoul. 

Unattached 

English, Miss M., Pyengyang. 
Gittins, Miss A:, Pyengyang. 
Harvey, Mrs. A. S., Syenchun. 
Hayes, Miss L. B., Syenchun. 
Hopkins, Miss S., Hamheung. 
Lewis, Miss E. A.,' Seoul. . 
Maas, Miss L., Taiku. 



LIST BY STATIONS 



Andong 

Anderson, Rev. W. J., & W., P. N. 
Crothers, Rev. J. Y., & W., P. 

N. (A) 
Hanson. Miss M. L., P. N. 
Smith, R. K., M. D., & W., P. 

N. 
Winn, Rev. R. E., & W., P. N. 



Chairyung 

Hunt, Rev. W. B., & W., P. N. 
Kerr, Rev. W. C, & W., P. N. 
McCune, Miss K., P. N. 
McKee, Miss A. M., P. N. 
Pieters, Rev. A. A., & W., P. N. 
Sharp, Rev. E. E., D. D., & W., 

P. N. 
Whiting, Rev. EI. C, M. D., P. N. 

Chemulpo 

Appenzeller, Rev. H. D., & W., 

M. E. F. B. 
Hess, Miss M., M. E. F. B. (A) 
Hillman, Miss M. R., M. E. F. 

B. (A) 
Miller, Miss E., M. E. F. B. 
Miller, Miss L. A., M. E. F. B. 
Overman, Miss L. B., M. E. F. B. 

Chinchun 

Laws, A. F., M. D., & W., E. C. ^I. 

Chinju 

Allen, Rev. A. W., Au. P. 
Campbell, Miss A. M., Au. P. 
Gierke, Miss F. L., Au. P. 
Cunningham, Rev. F. W., & W., 
Au. P. (A) 



Davies, Miss E. J., M. D., Au. P. 
Laing, Miss C. J., Au. P. (A) 
McLaren, Rev. C. I., & W., Au. 

P. (W. S.) 
Scholes, Miss N. R., Au. P. (A) 

Chonan 

Cooper, Rev. A. C, E. C. M. 

Choonchun 

Erwin, Miss C, M. E. S. 

Hill, L. P., M. D., & W., \L 

E. S. 
Jackson, Miss C. U., M. E. S. 
Mingledorff, Rev. O. C, & W., 

M. E. S. 
Oliver, Miss B., M. E. S. 
Stokes, Rev. M. B., & W., M. 

E S 
Taylor,' Rev. J. O. J., & W., M. 

E. S. 

Chunju 

Austin, Miss L., P. S. (A) ' 
Buck] and. Miss S., P. S. 
Clark, Rev. W. M., & W., P. S. 
Colton, Miss S. A., P. S. 
Eversole, Rev. F. M., & W., P. S. 
Kestler, Miss E. E., P. S. 
Lx)rd, Ensign H. A., & W., S. A. 
McCutchen, Rev. L. O., & W., 

P. S. 
Reynolds, Rev. W. D., D. D., 

& W., P. S. (A) • 
Robertoson, M. O., M. D., & W., 

P. S. 
Tate, Rev. L. B., & W., P. S. 
Tate, Miss M. S., P. S. 
Winn, Miss E. A., P. S. (A) 
Winn, Rev. S. D., P. S. (A) 



Ixxxiv 



KOREA 



Chungju 

Edgerton, Miss F., l\ N. 
Kagin, Rev. Edwin & W., P. N. 
Logan, Mrs. T- V., P. N. 
Miller, Rev. F. S., & W., P. N. 
Reiner, Miss E. M., P. N. 
Tipton, S. P., M. D., & W., P. N. 

Fusanchin 

Davies, Miss M. S., Au. P. 
Engel, Rev. G., & W., Au. P. 
Hocking, Miss D., Au. P. 
McCague, Miss J. E., Au. P. 
McKenzie, Rev. J. N., & W., 

Au. P. 
Menzies, Miss B., Au. P. 
Wright, Rev. A. C, & W., Au. P. 

(A) 

Haiju 

Pair, Miss B. R., M. E. F. B. (A) 
Barlow, Miss J., M. E. F. B. 
Battles, Miss D. M., M. E. F. B. 
Grove, Rev. P. L., & W., M. E. 

E. B. 
Norton, Rev. A. H., M. D., & 

W.,-M. E. F. B. 
Westling, Ensign F., S. A. 

Hamheuog 

Hopkins, Miss S. 

Kirk, Miss J. H., C. P. (A) 

McDonald, Rev. D. W., & W., 

C. P. 
McEachern, Miss E., C. P 
McMillan, Miss K., M. D., C. P. 
McRae, Rev. D. M., & W., C. P„ 
Robb, Miss J. B., C. P. (A) 
Young, Rev. L. L., C. P. 

Hoiryung 

Barker, Rev. A. H., & W., C. P. 
Fingland, Miss M., C. P. 
McDonald, Rev. D. A., & W., C. 

P. (A) 
McLellan, Miss E. A., C. P. 

Kanghwa 

Hewlett, Rev. G. E., E. C. M. 



Hodges, Rev. C. H. N., E. C. M' 

(W. S.) 
Smith, Rev. S. T., E. C. M. (W. S.). 

Kangkei 

Bigger, J. D., M. D., & W., P. N. 
Campbell, Rev. A., & W., P. N. 
Few, Miss C. L., P. N. (A) 
Hoffiiian, Rev. C. S., & W., P. N.. 
Rehrer, Miss J. M., P. N. 

Kongju 

AiTiendt, Rev. C. €., & W., M. E. 

F. B. 
Sharp, Mrs. R. A., M. E. F. B. 
Swearer, Mrs. M., M. E. F. B. 
Taylor, Rev. C., & W., M. E. F. B. 
Williams, Rev. F, E. C., & W.,. 

M. E. F. B. 

Kuchang 

Ebery, Miss E. M., Au. P. (A) 
Kelly, Rev. J. T., & W., Au. P. 

(A) 
Thomas, Rev. F. J., & W., Au. P. 
Withers, Miss M., Au. P. 

Kunsan 

Bull, Rev. W. F., & W., P. S. 
Dupuy, Miss L., P. S. (A) ' 
Dvsart, Miss J., P. S. 
Harrison, Rev. W. B., & W., P. S. 
Lathrop, Miss L. O., P. S. 
Linton, Mr. W. A., P. S. 
McEachern, Rev. J., P. S. (A) 
Patterson, J. B.,iM. D., & W., P. S.- 
Reynolds, Mrs. B., P. S. 

Kwangju 

Bell, Rev. E., D. D., P. S. (A) 
Gumming, Rev. D. J., P. S. 
Dodson, Miss M. L., P. S. (A) 
Dodson, Rev. S. K., P. S. (A) 
Graham, Miss E. I., P. S. 
Knox, Rev. R., & W., P. S. 
McQueen, Miss A., P. S. (A) 
Matthews, Miss E. B., P. S. 
Newland, Rev. L. T., & W., P. 
S. (A) 



LIST OF STATIONS 



Ixxxv 



Owen, Mrs. G. W., M. D., P. S. 

(A) 
Swinehart, Mr.M. L., & W., P. 

S. (A) 
Talmage, Rev. T- V. N., & W., 

P. S. 
Wilson, R. M., M. D., & W., P. 

S. 

Kyengsan 

Klose, Mr. J. C, & W., S. D. A. 
Oberg, Pastor II. A., & W., S. D. 
A. (A) 

Kyumasan 

Lyall, Rev. D. M.. & W., Au. P. 
McPhee, Miss I., Au. P. (A) 
Macrae, Rev. F. J- L., & W., Au. 

P. (A) 
Napier, Miss G., Au. P. 
Scott, Miss S. M., Au. P. 
Skinner, Miss A. (r. M., Au. P. 

Mokpo 

Leadingham, R. S., M. D., & W., 

P. S. (A) 
McCallie, Rev. II. D., & W., P. S. 
McMurphy, Miss A., P. S. (A) 
Martin, Miss T. A., P. S. (A) 
Nisbet, Rev. J. S., D. D., & W., 

P. S. 

Mukden 

Cook, Rev. \^'. T., & W., P. N. 
Soltau, Rev. T. S., & W., P. N. 

Paikcbun 

Laurence, Rev. G., E. C. M. (W. S.) 
Wilson, Rev. P., E. C. M. 

Pyengyang 

Anderson, Mis- H. W., P. N. 
Baird, Rev. W. M., D. D., & W., 

P. N. 
Best, Miss M., P. N. 
Bernheisel, Rev. C. F., & W., P. 



Blair, Rev. W. N., & W., P. N. 

(A) 
Butts, Miss A. M., P. N. 
Culter, Miss M. M., M. D., M. E, 

F. B. 
Dillingham, Miss G. L., M. E. F.B. 
Doriss, Miss A. S., P. N. 
English. Miss M. 
Follwell, E. D., M. D., & W., 

M. E. F. B. (A) 
Gillies. Mr. A. W. & W., P. N. 
Gittins, Miss A. 

Haynes, Miss E.T., M. E. F. B. (A) 
Holdcroft, Rev. J- C., & W., P. N, 
McMurtrie, Mr. R., P. N. 
Moffett, Rev. S. A., D.D., & W., 

P. N. 
Moore, Rev. J. Z., D. D., & W.^ 

M. E. F. B. 
Mowry, Rev. E. M., & W., P. N. 
Parker, Mr. W. P., & W. P. N. 
Phillips, Rev. C. L., & W., P. N, 
Reiner, Mr. R. O., & W., P. N. 
Robbins, Miss H. P., M. E F. B. 
Salmon, Miss B. C., M. E. F. B. 
Snook, Miss V. L., P. N. 
Swallen, Miss C. E.. P. N. 
Swallen, Rev. W) L., D. D., & 

W., P. N. 
Thomas, Mrs. T- C , P. N. 
Trissel, Miss M. V., M. E. F. B. 
Welbon, Rev. A. G., & W., P. N: 

(A) 

Seoul 

Anderson, Rev. E. W., M. D. & 

W., M. E. S. 
Anderson, Miss N., M. E. F. B. (A) 
i^ppenzeller. Miss A., M. E. F. B. 
Appenzeller, Miss M. E., M. E. 

F. B. 
Arnold, Rev. E. H., E. C. M. 
Avison, O. R., M. D., & W., P. 

N. 
Barnhart, Mrs. B. P. & W., Y. 

M. G A. A. 
Beckej, Rev. A. L., & W., M. E, 

F. B. (A) 
Beiler, Miss M., M. E. F. B. 
Billings, Rev. B. W., & W., M. E. 

F. B. 
Bligh, Miss H. A., C. P. (A) 



Ixxxvi 



KOREA 



Bonwick, Mr. G., & W., K. R. B. 

T. S. 
Bowers, Mr. L. I., & W., S. D. A. 
Brockman, Mr. F. M., & W., Y. 

M. C. A. A. 
Brownlee, Miss C, M. E. F. B. (A) 
Bunker, Rev. D. A., .'t W., M. E. 

F. B. 
Butterfield, Pastor C. L., & W., 

S. D. A. 
Cable, Rev. E. M., D. D., & W., 

M. E. F. B. 
Campbell, Mrs. J. P., M. E. S. (A) 
Cecil, Sister, E. C. M. 
Chaffin, Mrs. A-, M. E. F. B. (A) 
Chambers, Rev. C, E. G. M. (A) 
Clark, Rev. C. A., D. D., & W., 

P. N. 
Coen, Rev. R. C, & W., P. N. 
Constance Irene, Sister, E. G. M. 
Chm-ch, Miss M. E., M. E, F. B. 
Dean, Miss L., P. N. 
DeCamp, Rev. A. F., & \^'., P. N. 
Deming, Rev. G. S., S. T. D., & 

W., M. E. F. B. (A) 
Drake, Rev. H. J., E. CM. 
Edith Helena, Sister, E. G. M. 
Eriksson, Captain Miss "I., S. A. 
Esteb, Miss K. M., P. N. 
French, Colonel G., & W., S. A. 
Frey, Miss L. E., M. E. F. B. (A) 
Gale, Rev. J. S., D. D., & W., 

P. N. (A) 
Genso, Rev. J. F., .'^ W., P. N. 
Gerdine, Rev. J. I-, & W., M. 

E. S.' 
Gray, Miss E., M. E. S. 
Gregg, Mr. G. A., Y. M. C. A. A. 
Haening, Miss H. A., M.E.F.B. (A) 
Hall, Mrs. R. S., M. D., M. E. F. 

B. (A) 
Ilardie, Miss E., M. E. S. (A) 
Hardie, Rev. R. A., M. D., & 
. W., M. E. S. (A) 
Harrington, Miss S. R., M. E. F. B. 
Hartnesp, Miss M., P. N. 
Heslop, Rev. W., & W., O.M.S. (A) 
Hil], Adjutant A. W., & W., S. A. 
Hill, Rev. U. J., & W., P. N. 
Hirst, J. W., M. D., & VV., P. N. 
Ptitch, Rev. J. W., & W., M. E. S. 
Hobbs, Mr. t., & W., B. F. B. S. 
Hulbert, Miss J. C, M. E. F. B. 



Hunt, Rev. C, E. C. M. 
Isabel, Sister, E. C. M. 
Jack. Rev. M., & V/., C. P. 
Koons, Rev. E. W., & W., P. N. 
Lassen, Mr. L., O, M. S. 
Lewis, Miss E. A. 
Lewis, Miss M. L., P. N. (A) 
IJndquist, Captain (Miss) E., S. A. 
Lucas, Rev. A. E., & W., Y. M. 

C. A. A. (W. S.) 
Ludlow, A. I., M. D., & W., P. N. 
Marker, Miss J-, M. E. F. B. 
Miller, Rev. E. H., & W., P. N. 
Miller, Mr. H„ & W., B. F. B. S. 
Myers, Miss M. D., M. E. S. 
Noble, Rev. W. A., Ph. D., & W., 

M. E. F. B. 
Olsson, Ensign (Miss) V., S. A. 
Owens, Mr. H. T., & W., P. N. 
Palmer, Adjutant G., & :W., S. A. 
Pye, xMiss O. F., M. E. F. B. 
Randall, Miss P. G., M. E. S. 
Rhodes, Rev. H. A., & W., P. N. 
Richards, Brigadier W. J„ & W., 

S. A. 
Roberts, Miss E., M. E. F. B. 
Rosalie, Sister, E. C. M. 
Sailing, Ensign, (Miss).M., S. A. 
Scharffenberg^ Miss M. T., S.-D. 

A. (A) 
Scheifley, W. J., D. D.. S., & W. 

P. N. 
Schofield, F. W., M. D., & W., 

C. P. 
Scott, Miss H. M., S. D. A. (A) 
Shepping, Miss E. J., P. S. 
Shields, Miss E. L., P. N. 
Simpson, Rev. J. S., E. C. M. (A) 
Smith, Miss B. "a., M. E. S. 
Smith, Rev. F. H., & W., M. E. 

F. B. 
Stewart, Mrs. M. S., M. D., M. 

E. F. B. 
Sylvester, Ensign C, & W-, S. A. 
Thomas, Rev. J-, <-^ W., O. M. S. 
Tinsley, Miss H., M. E. S. 
Toms, Rev. J. U. S., & W. P. N. 
TroUope, Rt. Rev., M. N., D. D. 

E. C. M. 
Tucker, Miss B., M. E. S. 
Tuttle, Miss O. M.,,M. E. F. B. 
Underwood, Mrs. li. G., M. D., 

P. N. 



INDEX 



Underwood, Mr. H. H., & W., 

P. N. . 
Urqubart, Pastor E. J., & W., S. 

D. A. ' 

Van Buskirk, Rev. J. D., M. D., 

& W., M. E. F. B. 
Van Fleet, Miss E. M., M. E. F. B. 
Vesey, Rev. F. G., & W., M. E. S. 
Walter, Miss A. T-, M. E. F. B. 
WamboM, Miss K., P. N. 
Wangerin, Mrs. T., S. D. A. 
Ward, Commandant (Miss) E., S. 

A. 
Welch, Rev. Bishop H., D. D., 

& W., M. E. F. B. 
Whitelaw, Miss T-, C. P. 
Wood, Miss L., M. E. F. B. (A) 
Woods, Mr. H., O. M. S. 

Songdo 

Akerholm, Ensign E., S. A. 
Anderson, Rev. L. P., & W., M. 

E. S. 

Cram, Rev. W. G., & W., M. E. 

S. (A) ■ 
Deal, Rev. C H., & W., M.E.S. (A) 
Edwards, Miss L., M. E. S. 
Graham, Miss A., M. E. S. (A) 
Hankins, Miss I., M. E. S. 
Harris, Miss G., M. E. S. (A) 
Lowder, Miss L. R., M. E. S. 
Nichols, Miss L. E., M. E. S. 
Pearce, Miss A., M. E. S. (A) 
Reid, W. T., M. D., & W., M. 

E. S. 
Turner, Rev. V. R., & W., M. E. 

S. (A) 
Wagner, Miss E., M. E. S. 
Wasson, Rev. A. W., & W., M. 

F S 
^^-eems, Rev. C. N., & W., M. E. S 

Songjin 

Grierson, Rev. R., M. D., & W., 

C. P. 
Proctor, Rev. S. J., & W., C. P. 
Rogers, Miss M. M., C P. 
Ross, Rev. A. R., &. W., C. P. 

Soonan 

Lee, Pastor H. M., & W., S. D. A- 



Ixxxvij 



Russell, R., M. D., & W., S. D. A. 
Smith, Pastor W. R., & W., S. 
D. A. 

Soonchun 

Biggar, Miss M. L., P. S. (A) 
Coit, Rev. R. T., & W., P. S. 
Craine, Rev. J. C, & W., P. S. (A) 
Greer, Miss A. L., P.S. (A) 
Preston, Rev. J. F., P. S. (A) 
Rogers, Rev. J. M., M. D., & W. 
P. S. 



Suwon 

Barbara, Sister, E. C. M. 
Bridle, Rev. G. A., E. C. M. 
Nora, Sister, E. C. M. 



Syenchun 

Campbell, Mr. E. L., & W., P. N 
Covington, Miss H., P. N. 
Harvey, Mrs. A. S. 
Hayes, Miss L. B. 
Helstrom, Miss H., P. N. 
Ingerson, Miss V. F., P. N. 
Lampe, Rev. H. W., D. D., & 

W., P. N. 
McCune, Rev. G. S., D. D., & 

W., P. N. 
Roberts, Rev. S. L., & W., P. N. 
Ross, Rev. Cyril, Ph. D., & W., 

P. N. 
Samuel, Miss J., P. N. (A) 
Sharrocks, A. M., M. D., & W., 

P.N. 
Stevens, Miss B. I., P. N. 
Whittemore, Rev. N. C, & W., 

P. N. 



Taiku 

Adams, Rev. J. E., D. D., & W., 

P. N. (A) 
Bekins, Miss E. B., P. N. (A) 
Bergman, Miss G. O., P. N. 
Bernsten, Captain A., & W., S. A. 
Blair, Rev. H. E., & W., P. N. 
Bruen, Rev. H. M., & W., P. N 
Erdman, Rev. W. C, & W., P. N. 



Ixxxviii 



KOREA 



Fletcher, A. G., M. D., & W., P. 

N. (A)- 
Grimes, Miss E. B., P. N. 
Grosjean, Miss V. €., E. C. M. 
Henderson, Rev. H. H., & W., 

P. N. 
McFarland, Rev. E. F., & W., P. 

N. 
Maas, Miss L. 

Polland, Miss 11. E., P. N. (A) 
Switzer, Miss M., P. N. (A) 
Winn, Rev. G. H., & W., P. N. 

Tongyeng 

Alexander, Miss M. L., Au. P. 
Moore, Miss E. S., Au. P. (A) 
Taylor Rev W., M. D., & W., Au. 

P. 
Waston, Rev. R. D., & W., Au. 

P. 

AVonju 

Anderson, A. G,, M. D., & W., 

M. E. F. B. 
Morris, Rev. C. D., & W., M. E. 

F. B. 
Snavely, Miss G., M. E. F. B. 

Wonsan 

Brannan, Rev. L. C., & W., M. 

E. S. 
Buie, Miss H., M. E. S. 
Cooper, Miss K., M. E. S. 
Collyer, Rev. C. T., & W., M. E. 

S. (W.S.) 



Fraser, Rev. E. J. O., & W., C. P. 
McCully, Miss E. A., C. P. 
McCully, Miss E. H., C. P. . 
Mansfield, T. D., M. D., & W., 

C.P. 
Noyes, Miss A. D., C. P. (A) 
Robb, Rev. A. F., & W., C. P. (A) 
Ross, J. B., M. D., & W., M. E. 

S. (A) 
Thomas, Miss M., C. P. 

Yeogbyen 

Burdick, Rev. G. M., M. E. F. B. 
Estey, Miss E. M., M. E. F. B. 
Wachs, Rev. V. H., & W., M. E. 
F. B. 



Yoo Koo 

Gay, Adjutant, H. J., & W., S. A. 
Havenstein, Ensign (Miss) H., S. 
A. 



Yongjung (Manchuria) 

Cass, Miss G. A., C. P. 
Foote, Rev. W. R., & W., C. P. 
McKinnon, Miss M. J., C. P. 
Martin, S. H., M. D., & W., C. P. 
Palethorpe, Miss E. M., C. P. 
Scott, Rev. W., & W., C. P. 

Yucgdong 

Salisbury, Ensign H. J., & W., S. 
A. 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Advance, Steady Christian 28 

Agitation in Korea 293 

„ Temperance 176 

Albertson, Miss M. M 395 

Alward, Miss C 263 

American Army Work in Sibe- 
ria 188 

„ Bible Society 132 

„ Red Cross 196 

Andrews, Mrs 264 

Armistice, Thanksgiving for... 246 

Arthur, Visit of Prince 18 

Athletics in YMCA 151 

Attitude toward the (jospel... 314 

Baptist Tabernacle, Tokyo ... 81 

Barber and the Bible 133 

Beggar Boys of Seoul 371 

Berry, A. D 242 

Bible Classes 303, 3 12, 323 

„ Revision 379 

„ Societies 132,379 

Biblical Dramas 217 

Boarding Schools 343 

Bolshevism in Japan 198 

Bonwick, Gerald 292 

Book Trade, The 125 

Books, on Labor Questions ... 207 

„ Religious 126 

Boys' Schools 97, 330, 332, 343 

British and Foreign Bible So- 
ciety 136, 379 

Buchman, F. D 18, 248 

Buddhism 21, 23 

Buddhist Approach 216 

Canadian Academy, Kobe 116 

„ Presbyterian Mission, 

No. Formosa 281 

„ Soldiers in Siberia... 194 

Catechists, Training 366 

Centenary, Methodist 310, 340 



PAGE 
Central Japan, Evangelistic 

Work in 44 

Changes in Korea 318 

Charities, Imperial 173 

Caullmoogra Oil 358 

Chiba Ken 51 

China, Cooperative Movement 

ill : 235 

„ Relations with 8 

Chinese Work in Kobe 256 

„ YMCA, Tokyo 152 

Chosen Christian College 327 

Christian College, Women's ... no 

„ Endeavor 155 

„ Literature Society... 251 
,, Education ...97, 287, 325 
,, Settlements in Flok- 

kaido 35 

„ University , . , . 109 

Chjistianity, Chair of 113 

Church, Christian Movements 

outside the 211 

„ Work, Cooperation in 237 
Churches, Institutional ......... 80 

City Evangelism... 80 

Clelland, Miss F. F 397 

College, Chosen Christian 327 

,, W'omen's Christian, 

Japan no 

Colportage 137, 380 

Communistic Experiment .. 206 

Conference of Federated Mis. 

sions, Japan 242, 407 

Conservatism 40 

Continuation Committee of 

Japan 241, 248 

Convention, C. E 155 

„ World's S. S...144, 145 

Cooperation 233, 239 

Cooldng 336 

Cost of Living 4 

Crime, Beginnings of 223 



xc 



KOREA 



FACE 

Criminology 171 

Crosby, Miss J. N 265 

Cure for Leprosy 358 

Day Nursery .,S2 

Declaration by Christian Church 1 3 

Democracy in Japan n 

Dental College 3^4 

Directories i 

Drama, Biblical 217 

Eddy, Sherwood 153 

Education for Women, Higher 

iiOj 334 

„ Formosan .287 

„ in Japan 16 

„ Survey of Christian. 97 
Educational Campaign, Tem- 

peranc 180 

„ Commission Report 12 

„ Ordinances, New .. 97 

„ Work, Union in. ..236 

„ „ in Korea... 321;, 

' - 367. 375 

Ehmie Provmce 66 

Eleemosynary Work 173 

Endeavor, Christian i^c 

England, Cooperation in 234 

English Church Mission 365 

„ Presbyterian Mission, 

Formosa 284 

Ev^angelism, Cooperative 239 

„ Rural 88 

Evangelistic Work in Japan... 33 

„ „ „ Korea... 295 

Evil, The Geisha 225 

Ex-Convict and the Bible 134 

Exhibition, Temperance 177 

Factory Conditions 16, 166 

Family Life, Loose .. 226 

Federal Council of Korea 436 

Federated Missions of Japan, 

Conference of ..242,407 

Federation of Churches, Japan 

240, 246 

Female Workers 169 

Foreign Relations 8 

„ Schools 115 

Formosan Section 399 

Forsythe, Dr. W. H 399 



PAGE 

Fukui Evangelistic Work 45 

Fukuoka 77 

Geisha Evil, The 225 

Gifts for P^ducation 17 

„ Lnperial 174 

Girls' Schools ...no, 331, 332, 334, 

343 
Government Educational Re- 
gulations 97 

Greek Church... : 40 

Hara, Premier 7 

High School Ordinances, New 

100, 105 

Hiroshima 72 

Hokkaido Evangelistic Work ... 33 
Hospital, Severance 352 

Ibaraki Ken . ; 49 

Imperial Charities 173 

„ Labor Society 203 

,, University Chair of 

Christianity 113, 

Individual in the Social Pro- 
blem, The 220 

Industrial Menace 227 

„ School 340 

Industrialism 165 

Institutional Church So 

Intemperance 39 

Japan and Democracy ii 

Japanese in Korea, Work among 387 
„ Language School, The 118 
„ Soldiers in Siberia ... 192 

Kagawa Province 67 

„ Rev. T... 61, 205 

Kagoshima 78 

Kanamori, Paul 42, 54, 68 

Kando, Manchuria 306 

Kawano, C 214 

Kindergartens ... 42, 81 

King, Archdeacon 267 

Kiushu, Evangelistic Work in.. 75 

Kobe 59 

„ Canadian Academy 116 

„ Union Church 255 

„ YWCA 160 

Kochi 65 

Korea, Work among Japanese 
in • 3*^9 



JNDEX 



XCI 



PAGE 

Korean Religious Book and 

Tract Society ^S^ 

,, Section. 291 

., Troubles 293 

Kumamoto 77 

Kwansai Evangelistic Work... 59 
Kyoto 59, 161 

Labor Movements, Recent 198 

Laborers, Rural 208 

Language Study, Missionaries 

and 118 

Laws against Labor Unions... 199 
Leper Work ..................358, 361 

Literature, Christian ..-251, 374 

„ Current 212 

„ Review of. 125 

„ Society of Japan, 

Christian 251 

Living High Cost of 4,285 

Luckett, Mrs. B. S 401 

Magazines, Labor 207 

Manchuria, W^ork in 305, 306 

McCloy, Thomas............. 269 

Meacham, G. M 271 

Medical College, Severance 

Union 351 

■ ,, Missionaries' Associa- 
tion, Korea 352 

„ Work 349, 367, 376 

M. E. Church, South 309, 339 

Ministerial Training 312 

Missionaries • and Language 

Study 118 

„ to China^ Korean... 317 

Model Village 329 

Moral Conditions 56 

Movements, Recent Labor 198 

Music. 336 

Nagasaki 76 

Nagoya ,,, 56 

National S. S. Assoc 143 

„ Temperance League.. 175 

New Christian Books... 254 

Nietsche, Influence of 215 

Night Schools 84 

Novels, Christian 217 

Obituaries 261, 393 

Oita 78 

Okayama 73 



PAGE 

Open Air School 183 

Opportunities in Llokkaido ... 36 
Oriental Missionary Society ... 368 

Osaka 59, 150, 159 

Ozaki Yukio 15 

Pigville 402 

Political Labor Parties 201 

Poor,. The 168 

Premier, The New 7 

Presbyterian Church, Australia 

' 297,330,356 

„ Canada... 30 1, 332 
„ U.S. 320, 346, 360 
„ U.S.A. ...314, 342 

Primary Schools... 342 

Progreas, Sixty Years of 

Christan 20 

Prostitution 171, 224 

Red Cross, American 196 

Red Triangle in Siberia 185 

Reform not Easy, Moral 221 

Religious Books 126 

Rescue Home 179 

Review of Education 97 

„ of Literature ...„ 125 

Revivals 297 

Revision of Korean Bible ..... 379 

Rice Problem 5 

„ Riots 6 

Root, Mrs. Kara 177 

Rural Evangelism 88 

„ . Laborers 208 

Russian Literary Influence 213 

Saga Ken 77 

Saitama Ken 50 

Salaries of Pastors 48 

Salvation Army 37a 

Schools for Foreign Chil dren ... 115 

„ Mission 

106,330,331,332,334,342 

„ Night....... 84 

„ Regulations for Higher 97 

Self Help 347 

Self Governing Churches... 3 15, 322 

Self Support 

299, 303, 311, 316, 322 

Seventh Day Adventist Mission 374 
Severance Union Medical 
College 351 



XCll 



KOREA 



PAGE 

Shikoku 65 

Shimane Province 71 

Shintoism 21 

Shipping 3 

Siberia Campaign 9 

„ Work among Troops 

in 134, 148, 185 

Sixty Years of Christian Pro- 
gress in Japan 20 

Slums ,... 167 

Social Conditions 165 

„ Problems 15, 220 

„ Service 63,163 

Socialist Tendencies 206 

Statistics, Lessons 28 

Statistical Tables In Pocket 

Strikes 199 

Suffrage, Extension of 14 

Suicides 215 

Sunday School Association 143 

„ „ Convention, 

World's 144, 145 

„ „ Literature... 383 

„ Work... 298, 304 

Suzuki, Bunji 15, 201 

Temperance 175 

Tent, Gospel 90, 369 

Terauchi, 7 

Tochigi Ken 50 

Tohoku 38 

Tokushima 66 

Tokyo 52, 158 

„ Foreign School 114 

„ Union Church 257 

Tottori 71 

Training Catechists 366 

Tuberculosis Prevention 182 

Union Christian College, Pyeng 

Yang 345 

„ English Speaking Chur- 
ches 254 

„ Hymnal 385 

„ Movements 233,362 



PAGE 

„ Theological Seminary ... 345 

Unions, Labor 199 

University, Chair of Religion 

in Imperial, 113 

„ Christian 109 

„ Ordinances, Nevt^.... 98 

Victory, Japan and the 11 

Village, Model 329 

Vladivostok 195 

Wainwright, Miss M. E 273 

Ward, J. T 274 

White Cross Society 182 

Whiting, Miss E. F 403 

Whitney, Dr. W. N.... 275 

Willingham, C. T 278 

Woman's Christian College ... no 

Woman's Home 179 

Women and the Social 

Upheaval 169 

Woman's Christian Association, 

Young : 157 

„ „ Temperance 

Union 178 

„ Higher Education ... 335 

„ Work 304 

Working Girls' Night School ' 

84 

„ Men's Meetings . 83 

World's Sunday School Con- 
vention 144, 145 

Yajima, Mrs 178 

Yamaguchi 70 

Y. M. C. A.... 148 

„ Work in Siberia... 185 

Yokohama 51 

„ Union Church 259 

Y. W. C. A 159 

Young People's Work 141 

Y. W. C. A 157 

Yoshiwara 224 

Yuaikwai 20I 



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Official Organ of the Conference of Federated 
Missions in Japan. 

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desires to call the attention of the readers of The 
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L 

2 


|l 

ji 


If 41 


1 

s 


III 

ip 


■s 






!l! 


11^ 
a 


II 

is 

a 


Bis 


1 




i 1 * 


•s 
1 

1 
1 


^ : : - 


k 


1 

1 
1 

i 


J 

1 


1 

1 

j 


ii 



iji 



ill 



lis I 

111 J 

1 1 . « s - 

5.S s» It; 



STATISTICS of Christian Work in Japan for the Year 1918. 





(C) The Japanese Church. 




i 
fj 

s 


1. 

Il 

P 


I 


1 


I. 

1" 


ft 


f 

k 

r 


i 

1! 


1 


.1 
1 
1 


1 


i 
1 

t 


1 

i. 

jii 


il 


i 

1 


1 
1 


1 
1 


t 

I. 


i 

•3 


B 


1 


111 

pa 


worwexelusive of'm'Sl'ion' 


Name of Society or Mission 


!li 


?1 




1 KmniaiCh.inc.Am.BH.Miss 

2 Am. Bapt. For. Miss. Society 

3 South Bapt. Conventian 

4 Cltrislian Church Mission 
cChun:hes of Christ Mission 

7 l,uth. t;osi>el Ass'n Finland 

8 Evangelical Association 

i;=SSISvH 

14 Jai>an Fr«!e Melli. 

15 United Urclhren in Christ 

''Kel"."l„.r,l.i. 1' "s " 

22 /ir^SrlTNlpp^nlikokwai) 

23 Salvation Army 
2J Society of FriJnds 

2S Uen. Kv. Prot. Miss. Soc. 

1 Vo'^ya iiiolf ""'"' 

34 Christian and Miss. Alliance 

^iSsrif^S"'""^""" 


5 

. 
i' 


4 
3J 

I 
64 

! 
I 


■30 

■7 
/.- 

: 

: 

: 


'I 

Japa, 

•H 

2! 

/76 


1 

Meth 
106 

■7 
,(- 

181 

2'' 

38 

3 

i 


23 

I 

S 


"1 

_3 
64 

s 


1 
'I 

with 

I JO 

'j 
166 

3' 


886,750 
233^000 

1:1 

7::S 

800.000 
72,000 
16.000 

8o,oco 

zoo. 

981,627 

37,i6"4 
15,000 
3S.OOO 

32,40. 


! 

90 

tliesc 

^611 
36 

23 
40 
4; 


30 

2S4 

30 

594 


1 

ions affi 
20,745 

•1 

31,938 

400 

69° 
293 


■,073 

191 
'80 

206 
305 


.,25., 

1 

1. 075 

25 
■75 

rt,95o 


99< 
■,380 

'%\ 

428 

25.638 
3,|75 

■'S57 
,7.537 
I4.329 

Ti 
^^ 

'3.835 
3"^ 

175 

793 

2^5 

..5/,[^ 


1 

40 
6^ 

S84 
2' 

■11 
1 

■' 


;s,8.7 

■!s°: 
2,250 

2,376 
737 

38,10;. 
3.S20 

1 

■•| 

i,ii 
5.3 

250 


.9 


58 
200 

4,000 

59 

150 
3,500 


sieN 
J" 

y" 


33,603 
■37 

23,03s 
3.047 

8,^75 


236,843 

897 

4.614 

S.25,3.S 

(.0,370 

179,995 
74,448 

. 5°S 

% 

■2,892 
1,790 

410,754 

so 


S4,'2s' 

2.';2° 

_9,o8s 

47;S 

31.076 

40,000 
29,454 

- 

S,oo3 
7,764 

= 
8,coo 
40,000 
8.000 
4,800 

3.0^ 


.o,.rj 

26,5M 
3,530 


955 
.80 

16,56s 
lo.Soo 

'3,053 


lolal Prot. (cMlusivc of 
(Formosi) 


229 

2 


1,321 


.«. 


327 


765 
20' 
89 


4^3 


427 

■9 


741 
105 


497>,6os 

r 


SflJi 

248 


1,128 

126' 


lto^9 
4.88, 


■6,3.5 
.,384 

5..67 


7434 
2,532' 


■33,8.8 
6,050 
10,050 


2,406 
50' 

70 


■45,625 
1,712' 

3.90S 


232 


■ 1,012 


fei 


87,27s 
497 


l,126,02g 
14,156- 


482,590 
13,'92 

/,. 7,862 


52,177 


31,733 


Total Prot. in all Ja|»n 


233 


■.376 


1150 

»7S= 
267 


358 

78' 


874 

,^93= 


466 
'39-- 


546 


846 

176 


s.339,105 


8.362 
'«4 


iy 


117,086 
75,983 
,6,6iS 


22,866 


9,966 


75,983 
36,618 


2,5.6 


1,469 


232 


.1,0.2 




87,772 


.,.64,562 


513,744 


52,.77 


3.,733 


or...... 1 ;;; 


»34 
19I. 


■.376 
l/>34 


1,692 
.,S80 


436 
347 


1067 


605 
S12 


546 
8S4 


l«' 


5,339.105 

3,886,555 


9.730 


4,08s 
4,083 


22li,687 
2.3,8.3 


22,866 
25,580 


9,966 


262,5.9 
239,64s 


2,5.6 


■54.744 
156,245 


z 


.6,038 




87,772 
.032.6 


.,.64,562 
674.766 


5.3,744 


",.77 


31,733 


' 


620,88. 





(rt) Includes 17 aided by Kumiai Uoard 



1917 slaliMtcs: sujicriur liifuic ^ indicates I916 ti 



IS il is impossible lo properly divide it. It is md 

sustain work formerly suppnrlcd by llic Miaoioii. 
> rcjiurled as memlfcrs of churches. 



islics. Kcccnt statistics f 



Tabu- III. 



STATISTICS of Christian Work in Japan for the Year 1918. 























(D) Educational ST.^■ 


ISTlCi. 










' 


Name of Society or Mission 


1 
1 

.1 


1 

w 


1 

ji 


1 

1 

(5 


t 
1 


1 
1 


1 


1 

1 


i 
% 


1 
1 


1 

S 

■= 

li 


i 


ii 


1 
1 


1 

is 

1 


i 


1 
1 


.= 

1- 


.1 
1 
•Si 


i 


r2 " 


ii 


Ii 


1 

ii 


% 
■0 

1 

1 




I Ivumiai Kyokwai & Am. Bd. 


8 


400 


, 


90 


I 


705 


6 


1,418 




772 


_ 


_ 




60 




_ 


_ 


= 


_ 


_ 


3.445 


_ 


_ 


20,000 






z Am. Bapt. For Miss. .Soc. 


>7 


87 1 


4 


83s 


— 


— 


4 


422 








42 




'9 




— 


— 


220 


1 


20| 2,201 


— 


'3.563 


47. '23 






3 South Bapt. Convention 


4 


107 


I 


75 


I 


'75 


— 


— 


— 


-— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


40 


— 




357 


_ 




7,600 


80,000 


3 






lot 


— 




— 






3!' 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


I 




— 


— 


35 


— 


_ 


•47| - 


82S 




7,000 




5 Churches of Christ Mission 


5 


266 


2 


812 




180 




"3 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


23 




— 


— 


23 


— 


— 


',39^ 


5,807 


20,656 


\ 


6 United. Lutheran 


4 


iSo 


I 


I"; 


I 


55c 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 








— 


— 


145 


I 


2o| 752 


- 


'4.73S 


19,686 




7 Lulh. Gospel Ass'n of Fmland 


1 


6c 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




— 






— 




60 - 










8 Evangelical Association 


10 


434 


I 


105 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


^ 




57 




— 


— 


63 


— 


— 


4.857 3 








8 


9 Meth. Episcopal Church 


»5 


95' 


6 


8b, 


2 


1,168 


7 


1,302 




2S4 




16 




57 




3 


216 


656 


— 


— 


412,430 


148,076 






lo Meth. Episc. Church (South) 


14' 


bb,' 


V 


I,27»' 


.1 


400 


1' 


ii^' 




300 


i' 


30 




4' 






— 


192' 


— 


_ 


3.045 


- 


4,863' 


36.835' 


473,170' 




II Meth. Church. Canada 


20 


900 




• 157 




400 


3 


3b8 


ij 


327 


— 




-■ 


21 




: 


50 


290' 


I 


24 


2.223I 3 


35,000 


50,000 


550,000 


II 




3 




< 


400 


I 


540 


I 




— 


— 


— 


— 




— 




I 


45 


70 


— 


- 


'.335 


2 


20,400 


10,000 




13 


14 Free Methodist 




























5 
























14 


1 5 United Brethren 


li 


q8 











— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


(")- 




_ 


— 


_ 


_ 


_ 


9^1 - 


;_ 




_ 


;^ 


i6 I'resb. Ch. in U. S. (North) 


I,oqb 


2 


137 


-•! 


27c 


42 


P4b 


\i 


40 


— 


— 


2.! 


46 




— 


— 


39' 


I 


16 


2.535 


- 


5'.855 


49.726 


503,118 


17 I'resb. Ch. in U. S. (South) 




35° 


I 










180 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 






1 


60 


6S 


— 


— 


648 - 








'7 


iS Reformed Ch. in America 






— 




U 


690 


U 


480 




12 


— 


— 


J 


7 




— 


— 


'97 


— 


— 


1,189 3 


27,91! 


34.36' 




IS 


ly Womens Union Miss , Soc. 





— 


— 


— 




— 


I 


180 


— 


— 


— 


— 


I 


38 




— 


— 


90 


— 


_ 


218 , 


'0,737 


'^Z 


I20,0C0 


'9 






61 


— 


— 


I 


512 


I 


170 




'55 


— 


— 








— 


— 




~ 


_ 


924 2 


21,470 




20 


21 Nihon Kiristo Kyokwai 

22 Anglican (Seikokwai & af- 










































18 








21 






















































filiating Missions) 


48 


1,677 


II 


386 


2 


1,380 


6 


..03!^ 




250 


2 


35 


5 






5 


Ill 


428 


7 


7b 


4.937 


— 


= 


{b) 49,800' 


ib) 955,000 


22 
























































24 Society of Friends 


4 


"3 


— 


— 


— 


— 


I 


135 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 






— 


— 


28 


— 


_ 


248 


— 


1,630 


8,770 


75,000 


24 




1 


fio 


I 


ho 















— 


— 





_ 


— 




_ 








I 


21 


120 


_ 


','54 


4,Soo 


50,000 


25 


26 Gen. Evan. Prot. Miss. Soc. 




27 


3 


50 













— 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


— 




_ 


_ 


— 


I' 


'4' 


77' 


_ 


6,0' 


750' 


7,oor' 




28 Japan Evangelistic Band 






















^ 











1/ 


15' 




_ 


_ 


10' 


_ 




'5' 

50 


_ 








28 


30 t)rienlal Missionary Society 



















_ 





_. 


_ 





I 


50 




_ 


_ 


30 


_ 


_, 


_ 


_ 


_ 


80,000 


30 


32 Seventh Day Adventist 


I 


12 















_ 




— 


_ 


— 











_ 




_ 


_ 




_ 


_ 


_ 


6,000 


3' 


i}, \ otsuya Mission 


, 


21 











_ 










_ 


_ 












_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


21 


__ 




_ 


_ 


32 


34 Christian & Missionary Alliance 


I 


38 








__ 




_ 


_ 








_ 












_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


^8 


__ 


200 





— 


34 




I' 


45' 


— 








— 


_ 


_ 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


_ 







_ 


^ 





3' 


80' 


45 


_ 


_ 


_ 


— 


39 


Union (/,) 






9 


9,500 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




— 


- 


— 




392 


9,500 


('^)'i9 


45,000 


— 


(<•) 


40 


— 


.— 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


I 




— 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


■ — 


— 


- 




— 


— 


— 


— 






■93 


8,740 


52 


■4.803 


13 


6,970 


40 


7.27' 


'3 


2.233 


6 


'23 


29 


604 




13 


482 


.3.211 


37 


663 


41,169 


5.956 


702,743 


579,280 


8,877.823 




45 Can. Presh. (Formosa) 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


,' 


100' 


,' 


62' 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


,/ 






_ 


_ 


177' 


_ 


_ 


177' 


_ 


7.435' 


16,140' 


= 


:^ 




— 


— 


3 


210 


I 


'43 


I 


166 


— 


— 




— 


2 


47 




— 


— 


339 


— 


- 


S6b 


— 


14.905 


7,683 


=> 




193 


8,740 


55 


'5.013 


•5 


7."3 


42 


7.499 


'3 


2.233 


6 


i^'S 


3'- 


666 




'3 


482 


3.727 


37 


663 


41,912 


5.956 


725.083 


603,103 


8,877,823 




48 Russian Orthodox 


_. 




_ 


_ 


_ 








_ 




_ 




(i')3 
8= 


97 




_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 




97 


_ 


_ 


= 


^ 


48 


47 Roman Catholic (/) 


II ' 


699' 


8 


".578' 


6= 


1,217"- 


16= 


2.978' 


1 = 


69= 


— 


— 






_ 


_ 


— 


— 


_ 


6,6S<i 


— 


= 


= 


= 


47 


f 1918 


204 


9.439 


63 


16,591 


21 


8,430 


S8 


10,477 


14 


2,302 


6 


'23 


43 


885 




M 


4S2 


3.727 


37 


66, 


48,672 


5.956 


725,083 


603.103 


8,877,823 




Grand Total \ 






















































I 1917 


»95 


8,569 


"5 


15,500 




8,123 


61 


9.947 


" 


1,502 


7 


125 


40 


849 




21 


~ 


~ 


^ 


~ 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


" 





Superior figure' indicates 1917 Report reprinted. 

Superior figure" indicates 1916 „ „ 

= indicates no report received. 

a. 5 students in Doshisha with which this body is aiiiliatcd. 

h. r. E. only reporting. 

y. Temporarily Closed. 



Student Y. M. C. A's. 

Separate educational plants not maintained. 

Includes Statistics of Formosa. 

Men's School to be discontinued from Apr. 1919. 

Women's Christian College, established by five Societ 

Schools are indicated where a Society is rcpified as 



Cooperatuig. ( Hhi 
g a fraction of ; 



Tablu IV. J 


STATISTICS of Christian Work 


in Japan 


for the 


Year 1918 








(E) MFiJICAL. 


(F) Eleemosynary. 


Name of Sociely or Mission. 


M 

.1 
1 


1 

1 


j 


1 


i 

'A 


1 

1 


1 


1 
1 


1 

1 
.2, 
1 


■i 


•s 

1 


i 


J 


.1 

1 

1 




1 
1 


, 


i 

1 

1 



1 

I 

•2 


j 


Anglican (Seikokwai & Affiliated 

Canadian Methodist 

Kumiai Chiuch & Amcr. Bd. 

Salvation Army 

Omi Mission 

Asakusa Hospital 

Can. Presb. Miss (Formosa) 

Presb. Ch. of Eng. 

\V. C. T. U. 


3 

3 
9 


1 


5 


? 


57 
5 


3« 




825 

7 

■58 

l6 
207' 
.503; 


275 
6.7' 


3 


5>433 

1,28^ 
4.300 

5.444' 

6,148 


I' 


4' 

7' 


6,277 


6,457 


5 


274 
5> 

374' 


{1 


< „ „ blind 
(Uper hospital 

(2 Workman's Homes 

j 2 Prisoners' 

1 2 Women's Rescue,, 

Consumptiv"^ Aid asso- 
ciation 

Rescue HonTe 

Home for Delinquents 


70 
50 
50 

590 
240 

945 


Total Prolestant 

Kun.an Calhalic 


- 


35 




93 


5-- 


335 


2,716 
1,625 = 


89c 


9 


7l.5«5 
88,886' 




" 


6,275 


6,457 


23' 


799 
1.198' 




Leper Asylums 


2.07 
I07'' 


( 1917 
Grand Total \ 

I 1918 


S. 


" 


35 
40 


9 

28 


93 
88 


»5 
15 


43° 


4,341 
6,,86 


890 


IS 


160,401 
109,045 




74 


6,27b 
7,924 


i:: 


>,997 
.,.5 


'5 


- 


■.483 



Superior figure' indicates previous year's repc 
a. Beds supplied 34,102. 
/'. 2 hospitals closed for year, and third foi 
c. Imperial Univ. V. M. C. A. Dispensary. 
Superior figure - indicates 1916 reporl. 



Talle V. 





(G) Christian Literaiure 


Name of Society or Mission. 


1 


- 


, 


. 


I 
1 

11 


i 

1 

1 


1 
1. 

II 
II 

£" 


! 

1 


•s 

1 

1 


i 


1 

i 


.? 
§■ 

ii 

f 


1 

i 


1 
g 

i 


1 

.1 

1 


i 
1 
1 
1 


I 
.= 

1 

c 

! 


1 

1 

> 


Ji 

III 

s 


3 South Bapt. Convention 
9 Meth. Epis. Churcli 

22 Nippon Seikokwai 

23 Salvation Army 

25 Universalis! Mission • 

29 Omi Mission 

30 Oriental Miss'y Society 

4-- ■ .1. and 

40 l',.J. . ],. 1:,..^, (Formosa) 


: 


_ 
«9 


3' 


?:i 


r 


40.352 
35.527 


95 


'.t^^ 


10,240 

12.572 


15 
18 


17 


13.500 
3.000 
500 

1,000 

5,000 
45.250 


1,004 
32,000 
6,000 

24,S8o 
5.2^ 

2,92' 

42.803 
53.847 
20,000 


3 

5 
37 


JO.OOC 

29l;8^ 
5,000 

S.'89 
60,000 

647,797 
825,710 


rf 


1;^i_o 

S,o« 

.05 

49,209 

20,310 
19.959 
4,500 


145,000 
14,752 

6,5^ 
.6,747 


4,60^ 

475 
S ■o,7Sfr 


( 1918 
Total \ 

I 1917 


16 

'3 


67 

55 


65 
8 


8,7.e 
14.467 


4 

.,3 


75.S79 
114,311 


237 
5.853 


199,128 
310,43= 


22,8.2 
7.984 


18 
19 


30 


70,250 


189,707 
/, 730,206 


75 


■.673.074 
6,536,976 


- 


200,938 
233,641 


192,999 

.86,875 


- 



e. The Bible House, Kobe. 

/. Includes 82 Braille. 

g: Received from Missions, : 

A. Includes, 44'v225 Bibles . 



Table VI. CONDENSED STATISTICS of Christian Work in Japan for the Year 1918. 





Foreign Missionaries. 


Japanese Workers, 


Members. 


Churches, 


SundaySehools. 


Contributions to 
Evangelistic Work, 


Kami: of Society or Mission, 


■3 


.si 

1 




^ 


1 


1 


1 
1 


1 


1 


J 
J 


i2 


i 


j 

.5 

1 

■= 

1 


,; 


1 
if. 

1 


1 

1 


i 

1 ■ 


1 

i 
1 


I Kumiai CI,, inc. Aincr. Bd. 
2-3 Bap.isi. 

5 Churches of Christ Mission. 
6-7 Lutheran. 

8 Evangelical .^.ssocialion. 
9-12 Melhodisl. 

13 Methodist Protestant Church. 

14 Free Methodist. 

15 United Brethren in Christ. 
16-21 Nippon Kirisuto Kyokwai. 

22 Nippon Seikokwai (Anglican) 

23 Salvation Army. 

24 Society of Friends. 

25 Univerealist Mission. 

26 Gen. Ev. Prot. Miss. Soc. 

29 bmi Mission. 

30 Oriental Miss. .Society, 
32 Seventh Day AdventLst. 

34 Christian Miss. Alliance. 

35 Assembly of God. 

Ssi^Eaut societies 

45 Can"presb.Mis°sion°(Formosa) 

46 Presb. Ch. of Eng. (Formosa) 


11 
8 

ti 

20! 

23: 

: 
: 

;i 
3: 

3' 

i! 


36 

4* 

7 

i 

103 

'. 

118 

'( 

5 
'i 

4 


36 

% 

7. 

6 


,0 
35 

5 

: 

66 
63 

5 

: 
: 

. 

: 
3 

>7 


321 

924 
104 
18 
25 
970 
333 
3'3 
35 
■3 

37 

li 

78 
13 


16 
46 
30 
S" 

452 

4! 
665 
'f 

50 
^6^ 


8° 

466 
39 

4 

7s 

3 

.18 


105 

72 
■5 
164 
»9 

7 

i 

II 


1.532 

\°^ 

159 

■■1 
667 
.36 

■■': 

23 

•3 
42 


1,259 

'83' 
1,341 
20,745 

1,477 
3>.938 

400 

293 
255 


'5 ' 

'11 '\ 

. 8 - 

17 — 

231 82 

•II 11 

4 — 

45 7 
9 — 

■7 — 


47 ■■5 215 
67 3 193 
= ii ii 
IS 27 59 

- 13 34 
124 137 404 

2" - % 

5 5 26 
_ — 6 

I 10 ~S 
5 — [6 

7, ~2 7, 

— 19 50 
3 - 70 


18,817 
■2,43' 
2,250 
3,659 
3,"3 

3^.0! 
3,520 

20,095 
22,987 
6,490 

1,531 

500 
476' 

600 

347 
S'3 

4,950 
'.3!i1 


236,843 14.190 
20,781 86.016 
3,343 i>,i8o 
1,59" 21,278 
897 .. 9,°SS 
4,634 26,000 
08,744 15S.465 
8,390 31,076 
4,S90 

6,S,,S i..8;o 
■79,995 "39,454 

55.4.-.7 = 

^8 V^\ 
.Ati 5,000' 

- 3.530 
12,892 

- 40,oco 
900 4,Soo 

410,754 — 

3,267 23,-64 
14,156' 16,292' 
24,328 . 17,862 


Tot.l Protestant 


1127 




276 


3°9 


4.194 


2.124 




1.04c 


8,36 


120,328 




466 546 2,516 


152,245 


..I26,02sl 634,--qo 


47 Roman Catholic Church. 
4S Rus.sian Orthodox Church. 


352 


z 


- 


«34 


■39 


",39 




s« 


784 

rfs84 


^^ri 


T, 


1 


>39- 


: 


-. 


1, 46^9 




: 


GRAND TOTAL 


.480 


527 


276 


444 


4.5l« 


2,263 


1,374 


t,"3 


9,73c 


232,929 


.,692! 436| 60 


546 2,5 16 


154,744 


1,126,028 634,399 



Table VII. 



CONDENSED EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS 





Kindergarten 


Nl^rand' 
Eng. SchooU. 


Girls. 


School. 


„«™. 


Normal and 
Industrial 


Colleges. 


Theological S: 
Bible Schools. 


Finance (a). 


Name of Society or Mission. 






























ii 


S c 






1 
1 


1 


1 
1 


■5. 

s. 


1 




j 


4 
I 


J 


i 

1 


1 


1 


J 


1 


1 


1 


IJ 


I Kumiai inc. Amer. Bd. 


^ 




, 




f 


1,4.8 
















60 


No RepV 


20,000 


1,300,000 


2-3 Baptist. 




97i 




































266 
































^l f"';"T\i \ or , 






I 


15 


_ 


_: 






- 


— 


- 


_ 




7 


■4.958 


20,43f 


341.442 




































9-1 M 1 1 


49 




■' 


2,298 


•; 


^•150 




.,96s 
540 


= 


46 




9n 






"ioti^ 






16 1 \ 1 1 


21 




3 




9 








_ 


_ 


„ 


207 






/■4",9So 


■ 35,478 








1677 




386 


t 


>;o3s 




■,38c 




35 




250 






No Rep' 


f49.Soc 


.f955.oop 


^^^';;.h:^,c,a;sc'^ 

Lnion 




































1' 


522 




9,6ic 






= 


- 


z 


I 


~ 


8. 






49,442 






Total ProBlanI Schools 


■93 


8.74c 


55 


.5on 


42 


7.40c 


,, 


,„, 


t 


121 


„ 


2,213 


32 


666 


725.08, 


579.28c 


8,877,828 










1=78 






f 


1 217 






, 




, 


210 








GRAND TOTAL 1918 


204 


9,439 


63 


■6,591 


5S 


■0,477 


2, 


8,430 


f 


■23 


■ 4 


2,302 


4. 


8S5 


725,083 


6o3,.o: 


8,877.828 


GRAND TOTAL 1917 


■95 


8.569 


65 


■5,500 


61 


9,947 


2. 


8,12: 


7 


■25 


" 


1,50. 


4C 


S49 


IQO..10 


4.5.1,587 


7,717,980 



1917 Reiwrt : Superior figure ; 



a. L. E. K. only reporting. 
l>. Includes 29 Formosans. 
£. Tola! Mission expendilui 



Includes infants. 
Shingakusha fin; 



Statistics of Christian Work in Korea for 1918. 

Compiled by Rev. J. U. S. Toms. 



MlSSIdNARIE? 



:HURCH STATISTIC!- 



11 



Melhrxlist Episcopal 
Methodist Episcopal, South 
Canadian Presbyterian 
Northern Presbyterian 
Southern Presbyterian 
Australian Presbyterian 

I 191718 

Total j 191617 

I 191516 



.J. 372 260 
222 367 194 
203 5S0 236 



23 , 

24 1,241 
1,29? 



«7,J53 
3.786 
6,664 

38,04 



"7,137 
16,265 
'0.'73 



-2,083 

+ 365 
M,389 



30,42 « 
35.558 
33, '46 



15,926 74,78 
90,591 
87,905 



20»,915 
208,436 
203,973 



+ 3,264 +4.363 
+ 2,368 +6,533 



EDUCATIONAI- 


MEDICAL 


\irsM(i.N 


1 

•3 


1 

i 


i 


1 


1 


i 


1 

II 


j 


i^ 


1 

Ik 
It 


i 


1 


|l 


1 
1 




B 


1 


1 
1 


1 


1 

s 


^ 

1 


•i 

jl 


1 
1 


.1 

1* 


1 


H 


1 




III! 


!i 




New. 


Returns. 


^g 


Melhmlist Episcopal 


7M 


83 


I 


,80 


SC 


6S 


S,IM 


138 


64 


3,212 


I«7 


' 


34 


. 


6> 


g 





„ 





3 


62 


^46 


6,549 


3 


11,516 


18,707 


4.S 


14,365 


8,669 


Methodist Episcopal, South 


1 




» 




140 


18 


25 


884 


.36 




1,08. 


69 




1 


164 


3; 




4, 


6 




— 


821 


Il.StW 


3 


I0,4S2 


20,»70 


«8 


15,485 


9,593 


C-ana<lian ftesbyterian 






!<; 









SI 


i.SW 


91 




656 


31 








27t 


V 


5 


V 




.: 




98: 


9,000 


1 


I2,00< 


55.775 


30c 


23.99^1 


12,246 


Northern Presbyterian 


6 




49 


. 


398 


28 


34b 


9,617 


411 


1 


3,o.« 






'74 


M 


892 




9 


122 


9 


7 


227 








SI, 6,; 


84,518 


3,>oo 


< 1 5,7 93 


108,041 


Southern Presbyterian 


A 




.30 


t 


292 


2S 




1,24c 


7' 


11 


206 


11 




1 


187 


2; 


1 


40 


5 


5 




3,040 


40,510 


• S 


17,696 


33,702 




- 


35,070 


Australian Presbyterian 




218 


I' 


2 


131 


1.- 


7 


237 


11 




274 










44 




7 


49- 


2 


' 


50 


320 


4,102 


2 


4.966 


■8.o3< 


9' 


7,225 


2.369 


/ 191718 

Total { 1916.17 

» I9I516 


18 


2,524 


.49 


,^ 


1,291 


,„ 


SS6 


I6,68s 


762 


180 


..., 


366 


2 


208 


3. 


1.614 


no 


23 


788 


30 


23 


439 


9,103 


71,816 


25 


108,297 


226,352 


4405 


177,862 


"74.947 


■7 


2,125 
.■7?9 


110 

85 


>7 


1.352 

.,295 


'3 


f^ 


14,5'6 
23,923 


702 
487 


180 

1 


., 


298 


; 


304 

3<5 


3<J 
2. 


»53 
',235 


75 
59 


3' 


884 


68 


22 
24 


f^ 


l^s 


80,927 


24 
26 


115,109 


178,845 


3.95- 


162,864 
99,256 


1.8,347 


240,681 


3..645 



:d under Boys Schools. 



Indicate no report. 



NA 


nVE CONTRIBUTIONS i 


, even \ 


n. 






• 
MISSIU.N 


III 

M 


i 


lit 


i 
1 ■ 

s 


t 


S 
1 
2 

(2 


i 
I 

1 


Methodist Episcopal 
Methodist Episcopal, South 
Canadian Presbyterian 

Southern Presbyterian 
Australian Presbyterian 


6.250 
90,5.6 
8,260 

__5i55 

143,802 
111,279 
83,469 


16,99. 

6:^7^ 

tr2 

2,957 


1,141 

494 

.,444 
569 


.3,067 
67.349 
8,244 
2,640 


'4,03. 
5,972 

J;5^9 
7. 


77,787 
.5,995 
27,661 
224,277 


60489 
11412 
14,408 
160.742 
20,544 
10,027 


. f I91718 

Total ] 191617 

( 1915.6 


■' 


.5,869 
..,839 
.0,535 


U.,958 
75,403 
60,847 


2?;?4i 
5 ',.47 


249,355 


277,622 
249,352 
246,975 



American Hiblc 
li. & V. Kil)lc 



446 



549 



Christian Life 



7,637 
29,709 



reports from the following : 
Seventh Day Advcntist. 
Salvation .-Vrniy. 
Congrcgalioiial, 



Men ^°'^'R" Staff 

Employed 

on Stair Men Wives 



(hurdl of Engla 
Roman Catholic, 
fircek Catholic. 



224,966 
693,1 



Bible 
Per Week 



233,0X3 
693,114 



BOOKS ON JAPANESE 



By Arthur Rose-lnnes 



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tionary. 3rd edition, 289 pp. i yen. 

Conversational Japanese for Beginners. In four parts, 
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Part I. — Graduated Exercises in Conversational Japanese 
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Part II. — Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Spoken 
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Part III. — Vocabulary of Common Japanese Words with 
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Part IV. — The Japanese text of Part I in large Japanese 
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Examples of Conversational Japanese. In three parts; 
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138 pp. I yen. 

Part I consists of Japanese tales told in simple lan- 
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Part II consists of tales and anecdotes. No transla- 
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3000 Chinese=Japanese Characters in their Printed and 
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