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Full text of "The Christian philanthropist; or, Harbinger of the millennium"

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CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST ; 



HARBINGER OF THE MILLENNIUM. 



BY WILLIAM COGSWELL, D. D, 

SECRETARY OF THE AMERICAN EDUCATION SOCIETY. 



WITH AN 

INTRODUCTORY ESSAY 
BY JAMES MATHESON. D. D. 

WOLVERHAMPTON, ENG. 



SeconTi JBXil 




BOSTON: ^^^^S'O 
PUBLISHED BY PERKINS & 

PHILADELPHIA: HENRY PERKINS. 

1839. 



966924A 

ASTCB, LBNOX AND 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1839, 

By Perkins & Marvin, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of 

Massachusetts. 



PREFACE 



No person who peruses the Sacred Scriptures 
with attention and dihgence, can remain uncon- 
vinced, that a period is approaching, in which the 
Church of God in this world will enjoy far greater 
prosperity and happiness than it ever yet has enjoyed. 
This blessed season, called the Millennium, the 
Lord will hasten in his time. Those individuals 
who pray, and labor for the advancement of this 
glorious day, are co-workers with him in bring- 
ing it forward ; and all those Christian enterprises 
which serve to introduce it, may be considered as 
harbingers of its approach. Such are the various 
benevolent Societies, whose object is to diffuse 
rehgious instruction and knowledge. They are 
combined instruments in promoting the conversion 
of the world and the salvation of men. They have 
an interest in each other, depend upon each other, 

♦A B S 
MY 5, 1938 



IV PREFACE. 

and assist each other. There is no occasion for 
coUision or rivalship among them. All are im- 
portant — and most of them absolutely necessary 
in hastening the accomplishment of that glorious 
and animating prediction: "They shall all know 
me, from the least of them unto the greatest of 
them, saith the Lord." They are precursors of the 
latter-day glory, and will usher it in as the morning 
stars precede the natmal sun, and usher in the 
natural day. As this period advances, that system 
of benevolent operations which is designed to en- 
lighten and bless the world, will increase in exten- 
sion and efficiency. In order to this, a thorough 
knowledge of the nature, designs and progress of 
these operations, must be diffused through the 
community, to awaken an interest, and to excite to 
vigorous and persevering efforts on their behalf. 

It was thought that were the nature and import- 
ance of the several prominent Societies discussed, 
the claims of each urged, and the whole presented 
in one volume to the public, it would contribute 
to this desirable end. 

For many years the Author of the following work 
has been specially interested, in the Christian efforts 
which are made for the extension of the Redeemer's 
kingdom, and, for the last ten years, has been 
exclusively devoted to them. While engaged in 



PREFACE. 



his present employment, he feels bound to consecrate 
his whole strength to these benevolent enterprises, 
which he considers the glory of the present age. 
With this in view, he has deemed it his duty to lay 
before the public the succeeding Dissertations, which 
were principally prepared some years since, but 
have recently been revised for publication. It is 
hoped they will appear to be fair discussions of the 
several topics on which they treat. An opinion of 
the comparative value or merit of the different 
benevolent Societies has been purposely avoided. 
In the arrangement of the Dissertations it was 
thought best to have no regard to the order of na- 
ture, to the time of formation or importance of them. 

It was supposed, that an Appendix, containing a 
brief historical and statistical sketch of the different 
benevolent Societies, would be a valuable accom- 
paniment. This, therefore, has been subjoined. In 
preparing the Appendix, much assistance has been 
received from the Secretaries of the different benev- 
olent Societies, and other individuals. 

The work was written, partly for the Author's 
own improvement, and he trusts he has received 
much benefit from his attention to these subjects. 
His mind has been informed, and his heart more 
deeply interested in the general cause of benevo- 
lence. And his fervent prayer to the Great Head of 
I* 



VI PREFACE. 

the Church is, that the work may also be a blessing 
to others, and a means of promoting that cause 
which is so dear to the heart of Infinite Love, 

Boston, May, 1839. 



CONTENTS 



Introductory Essay, 13 

DISSERTATION I. 

THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE SCRIPTURES. 

Need of the Bible as an inspired book, in view of the deficiency of the 
best uninspired writings. — Cleaning of inspiration. — Consciousness 
of the sacred penmen that they were inspired. — The impossibility of 
iheir writing as they did, if they had not been inspired. — Their 
profession that they were inspired. — Evidence of their inspiration 
from history — from miracles — from prophecy and its fulfilment — 
from the moral precepts of the Bible — from its tendency and effects— 
from the propagation of Christianity. Remarks : — the duty of 
possessing the Bible. — obligations of gratitude in view of the facilities 
of the present day for distributing the Bible — and the duty of distri- 
buting it to all who do not already possess it, 53 

DISSERTATION II. 

DISTRIBUTION OF TRACTS. 

Usefulness of knowledge to man as a rational and accountable being. — 
No knowledge to be compared to that which relates to divine sub- 
jects. — The Bible the great store-house of instruction, but the writings 
of pious and good men, not inspired, highly important and useful. — ■ 
Among these, Tracts hold a conspicuous place. — Their character, 
as drawn from the Bible.— Easy to be put into circulation. — Their 
use among the heathen, and the testimony of missionaries concerning 
them. — Different classes of persons who may employ them. — Their 
cheapness favorable to their wide circulation. — Commendation of the 
Tract system. — Agency of Tracts in bringing on the Millennium. — 
Their influence illustrated in the Dairyman's Daughter and Young 
Cottager. — Mention of the London Tract Society and the American 
Tract Society at New York. — Anecdote of Antoninus the Roman 
Emperor. — Comparison of Boston and New York at the time of 
their religious anniversaries to ancient Jerusalem, at the time of the 
Jewish festivals; to London and Paris. — Hope and confidence that 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

such celebrations will be ere long in all ihe great capital places on 
the globe, and the inquiry what we shall do iu hastening forward 
thedaj, "78 

DISSERTATION III. 

FOREIGN MISSIONS. 

The Saviour's command, ''Go ye into all the world and preach the 
gospel to every creature." — Question how far it has been complied 
with, and what portions of the world are still unevangelized.— State 
of the Pagan world, and the immense number yet ignorant of the 
gospel.— State of the Mohammedans and Jews, and the Greek and 
Latin churches. — Reasons why the command of Christ should be 
obeyed — the necessity of the gospel to the well-being of man — the 
command of the Saviour— and the certainty that the gospel will one 
day pervade all nations.— Cursory glance at what must be done in 
order to it.— Story of a lady in Paris. — Reference to Dr. Worcester, 
and Mr. Evarts, 87 

DISSERTATION IV. 

CONVERSION OF THE JEWS. 

Glance at the history and character of the Jews, with their views of the 
Bible, showing their moral condition to be little or no better than 
that of Mohammedans and Pagans. — Consideration of their number — 
dispersion — degradation and oppression. — Their literal restoration 
to the land of their fathers— when this will take place— and 
their subsequent happy condition. — Afghans descendants of the 
Jews.— Opinion of Sir William Jones and Dr. Buchanan.— Drs. 
Stiles, and Boudinot's opinion about the Indians. Remarks: — The 
exertions at the present day in behalf of the Jews an omen of good — 
great encouragement to labor for their conversion— becomes all to 
engage in the object, 106 

DISSERTATION V. 

HOME MISSIONS. 

Comparison of the state of depressed and desolate churches with that of 
ancient Jerusalem in the time of Nehemiah. — The resolution of the 
Jews at that time. — Survey of the waste places of Zion in the United 
States— New England — South and West. — Reasons why Zion 
should be built — benefit of individuals — good of society — promotioa 
of Christ's kingdom and the glory of God. — Methods by which Zion 
should be built — Churches must help themselves — ministers and 
pious people must assist — those who have ability must afford gratu- 
itous aid — plan of sending missionaries to feeble societies- import- 
ance of their being prudent, faithful, zealous men — importance of 
prayer for the divine blessing. — General call to all who love Zion or 
their country to arise and build, 123 



CONTENTS. UL 

DISSERTATION VI. 

SUPPLY OF MINISTERS. 

Destitution of Christian instructors great. — The number necessary, 
calculating one to a tiiousand. — Great deficiency, even ui New 
England, and more especially in the Western and Southern 
States. — Reference to Dr. Rice and Dr. Miller. — Question how 
ministers shall be raised up to supply the demand. — Information 
must be given respecting the deficiency — societies established to 
educate young men — ministers bring them forward — and prayer 
offered for success. — Appeal to Christians in behalf of the American 
Education Society. — Good done by ninety-two of its Beneficiaries — 
objection answered and an exhortation to immediate and more 
vigorous effort, 141 

DISSERTATION VII. 

SABBATH SCHOOLS. 

Solomon's declaration, "Train up a child in the way he should go, and 
when he is old, he will not depart from it." — Scott's remarks on the 
passage. — Subject of the Dissertation: — the religious education of 
children. — Question considered what it is religiously to educate the 
young. — Should be taught the being and perfections of God, with 
the duties they owe to him and to those around them. — Should be 
taught their sinfulness, and the way of salvation by Jesus Christ. — 
Should be taught also to govern their passions. — Reasons why they 
should be thus taught — early impressions are long retained — early 
piety is in itself amiable, pleasing to God, and conducive to happi- 
ness through life — youth is the best season for cultivating it — it pre- 
pares for greater usefulness here and greater happiness hereafter. — 
Work devolves on parents and guardians, ministers of the Gospel 
and instructors. — Reference to Raikes, Sabbath school teachers, and 
the happy effects of the system, 156 

DISSERTATION VIII. 

PROMOTION OF TEMPERANCE. 

Why abstain from the use of ardent spirit ? — The expense attending it — 
returns of the Marshals — amount expended in Massachusetts — waste 
of property annually in the United States. — The use in any degree 
injures the morals and happiness of society — testimony of Judge 
Rush, Judge Hale, and the Hon. William Wirt. — Use injures the 
body — testimony of Dr. Buchan, Dr. Trotter, Dr. Alden and Dr. 
Mussey.— Use in any degree injures the soul — testimony of the Hon. 
Samuel M. Hopkins— striking remark of President Fiske. — Ways 
of promoting abstinence several — by the interference of legislative 
authority — fidelity in Judicial and Executive officers, taverners, 
physicians, parents and ministers of the Gospel, professors of religion, 
females, persons of all ranks, the press — agents. — President Adams, 173 



X CONTENTS. 

DISSERTATION IX. 

INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE. 

No more aggravated sin in a Christian coinmunity than slaverj'. — AH 
men by nature equal and free— testimony of Scripture — our consti- 
tutions of government founded upon the admission — blacks and 
whites of common descent— color to be attributed to climate and 
circumstances of living. — Slavery unjust, sinful and infamous — nature 
of the case — Jefferson — Pitt in the JBritish Parliament. — It is impo- 
litic. — All lawful and practicable measures should be adopted to put 
an end to it — its effects — Montesquieu — Franklin. — Subject exciting 
great attention at present — should be a total and immediate cessa- 
tion of the slave trade — plans by which the abolition of slavery may 
be gradually effected — what has been done. — Time hastening when 
it shall be done away, 197 

DISSERTATION X. 

RELIGIOUS IMPROVEMENT OF SEAMEN. 

Scenes in seafaring life. — Seamen need religion as well as other men — 
peculiarly exposed to temptations — trials and hardships. — Efforts 
should be made to imparl to them the Gospel — without it ihey must 
perish — their number and importance entitle them to attention — 
their influence on shore — and the circumstance that they are to be 
the carriers of the Gospel to the islands of the sea and the ends of the 
earth. — Methods which ought to be adopted for their benefit — they 
should be furnished with Bibles and other religious books — in every 
port there should be good boarding-houses, and a place of worship 
for their accommodation — slated prayer-meeting's — religious libraries 
established and temperance societies organized. — Encouraging pros- 
pects — numeration of efforts, . 212 

DISSERTATION XI. 

REFORMATION OF PRISONERS. 

Condition of prisoners a prominent object of Christian regard. — Number 
of prisoners. — Tiieir wretched condition calls for attention. — The 
duly of exercising compassion towards them — they are capable of 
being reformed — temporal and spiritual condition pleads in their 
behalf — scriptures plead for them also. — Particulars in which atten- 
tion should be bestowed — construction, ventilation and cleanliness of 
prisons, religious instruction. — Notice of imprisonment for debt by 
Dr. Channing, 226 

DISSERTATION XII. 

PROMOTION OF PEACE. 

Christ the great Peacemaker, yet war has hitherto prevailed. — Reasons 
why it should be abolished — it is the law of violence — is opposed to 
Uie precepts of the Gospel — to the example of Christ — followed with 



CONTENTS. Xi 

distressing evil effects.— Means of abolisiiing it— ministers of the 
Gospel should advocate peace— parents and teachers of youth should 
inculcate it, and show the horrors of war— publications in favor of 
peace and opposed to war should be circulated — and societies formed 
to abolish war and establish peace, 240 

DISSERTATION XIII. 

CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTIONS. 

The Saviour's doctrine respecting- alms-g-iving.- Duty of making 
charitable contributions taught by the light of nature, and enjoined 
throughout the volume of Inspiration.— Question to whom charitable 
contributions are to be made considered, and who are to make 
them. — Question in what manner they are to be made — without 
ostentation — in a private manner — with cheerfulness — from disinter- 
ested motives. — Reward consequent upon the manner in which they 
are bestowed— of the hypocritical — of the righteous. — Objections to 
charitable contributions considered— inability — disapprobation of the 
object, plan, or agent— distrust as to the appropriation of funds. — 
Remarks:— Christians lamentably deficient in times past— have 
begun to feel and perform their duty — must feel and do still more, . '253 

DISSERTATION XIV. 

BENEVOLENT AGENCIES. 

Kingdom of Christ sustained and carried forward by means — The pres- 
ent system of benevolent enterprises among Christians necessary — 
shown wherein and how — testimony of a judicious Father in the 
ministry. — Illustration. — Nature of the agency required. — Illustrated 
by reference to particulars. — Present system set forth with remarks — 
suggestion as to the mode of operation best to be pursued. — Objec- 
tions considered and answered — too many engaged as agents — 
present method too expensive — agents not needed, 273 

DISSERTATION XV. 

QUALIFICATIONS OF PUBLIC AGENTS. 

The world is to be evangelized instrumentally by the ministry and the 
press. — Necessity of Agents.— Qualifications desirable in an Agent — 
respectable talents — good sense — respectable appearance and address 
— good health and spirits — ability to devise and prosecute suitable 
plans — good business habits— gentleness and liberality in feeling and 
conduct — deep interest in the cause of benevolence — entire devoted- 
ness in the cause—circumspection in conversation and deportment — 
freedom from a contentious disposition — good classical and theolog- 
ical education — eminent piety. — Perfection not to be expected, but 
an approximation to it, 291 



Xll CONTENTS. 

DISSERTATION XVI. 

REVIVALS OF RELIGION. 

What a revival is — attention of saints and sinners awakened to religions 
subjects — impenitent convicted of their sins — converted — a reforma- 
tion takes place.— It may be expected when Christians are excited 
to frequency and fervency in prayer— when church discipline is duly 
observed — when religious instruction awakens interest and leads to 
reflection — when brotherly love and union prevail — when ministers 
manifest increased fidelity and zeal. — Why it may be hoped revivals 
will be more multiplied and extended than they ever have been — the 
truth will be preached more faithfully — means of grace will be mul- 
tiplied — Bible teaches this. — Remarks: — opposition to revivals is 
opposition to the temporal and eternal good of men and the glory of 
God.— The duty of Christians in relation to revivals.™ They should 
let their light shine, 300 

DISSERTATION XVII. 

MILLENNIUM. 

The present a wonderful day — attitude of infidelity — state of Christen- 
dom — declaration of the prophet Isaiah respecting the latter-day 
glory of Zion. — There will be a time when the church will be in a 
state of far greater prosperity and happiness than it has ever yet 
enjoyed — prophecy confirms this — Scott and Faber. — Some charac- 
teristics of that time. — Remarks: — the comfort and encouragement 
aflforded by the prophecies of the Bible — church safe and may rejoice 
in its safety — opposition to Zion wicked and foolish — those who labor 
for the extension of Christ's kingdom co-workers with God.— Signs 
of the times indicate that the latter-day glory is near — far greater 
things in religion yet to be attempted and accomplished, .... 318 

APPENDIX. 

Bible Societies, 335 

Tract Societies, 340 

Foreign Missionary Societies, 343 

Jews Societies, 350 

Home Missionary Societies, 351 

Education Societies, 354 

Sabbath School Societies, 359 

Temperance Societies, 364 

Anti-Slavery Societies, 370 

Seamen's Friend Societies, 374 

Prison Discipline Societies, 378 

Peace Societies, 379 

Charitable Contributions, 383 

Benevolent Agencies, 385 

Qualifications of Agents, 388 

Revivals of Religion, 392 

Millennium, 393 



INTRODUCTORY ESSAY. 



The Evangelical Prophet had his eye often fixed 
on the distant future, and seemed to anticipate with 
sacred delight the triumphs of the Messiah. The 
glories of the latter day were present to his mind, 
and the reign of the Prince of peace, (for at least a 
thousand years,) was described in language which 
intimated as much certainty of such an event's taking 
place, as if the Redeemer had already seen of ' the 
travail of his soul and was satisfied.' True, the 
Prophet knew the difficulties to be overcome, but 
he considered these as few and feeble when Zion 
awaked and trusted in the mighty arm of her King. 
He presented many encouragements to the believers 
of that generation. These have come down to us, 
and perhaps we understand them better than when 
they were first uttered. Amidst all the obstacles in 
the path of the Christian church, produced by the 
sinner's guilt and the believer's unbelief, the Christian 
hears the inquiry, "Who hath heard such a thing? 
Who hath seen such things ? Shall the earth be 
made to bring forth in one day ? or shall a nation 
be born at once ? For as soon as Zion travailed she 
2 



XIV 

brought forth her children." And what rephes cai. 
we give to these inquiries ? What encouragement 
can we draw from the closing declaration of the 
Prophet on this passage ? TVe have not heard of 
such a thing in our day. We have not seen such 
things among us. Even the history of the church 
can hardly furnish a full and satisfactory answer. 
There were indications of mighty changes among 
the Gentile nations when the gospel had free course 
among them and was glorified. The rapid and almost 
universal spread of Christianity in the Roman empire 
seemed to be the birth-day of the world ! At the 
Reformation, when the incubus of Popery was thrown 
off, and an oppressed and groaning earth felt the bles- 
sedness of mental and spiritual liberty, it looked as if 
nations had been born at once. And during the last 
century we are furnished with some striking proofs of 
the Divine power in bringing multitudes into God's 
kingdom. But perhaps some modern missions — 
especially those of the London Missionary Society 
— furnish some of the strongest illustrations of the 
beautiful ideas contained in this passage referred to. 

At the same time we cannot but admit that the 
proper and complete answer to these inquiries is yet 
reserved for the future. How distant that future may 
be, we may not be able precisely to tell ; but this may 
safely be asserted — that the time, brief or lengthened, 
depends, under God, on the church. Let his people 
shrink from duty, and the evangelization of the heathen 
world will be postponed to an indefinite period. Let 
them do their duty ; let them obey the Divine com- 
mand ; let them from the heart earnestly desire the 
conversion of the world, and soon, very soon, will that 



XV 

glorious event take place; — for what does the Spirit 
of God declare — "As soon as Zion travailed, she 
brought forth her children." 

Do not these words of the Prophet supply materials 
for solemn thought ? They point out our duty, our 
short-comings, and our hope. Our duty is to travail, 
to desire, to agonize for the salvation of men : our 
short-comings are the neglect of this duty, our luke- 
warmness in this cause, our low estimate of the power 
we possess to accomplish this work, and our unbelief; 
our hope is, that if the whole Christian church were 
only to awake to its high vocation — if believers of 
every name and in every land would only exert the 
power which God has given to them, and bend all 
their energies and anxieties upon a world lying in 
wickedness, the generation that is just entering on 
the stage of existence in every heathen land, would 
not have arrived at the maturity of being before the 
Bible was in the hand of every one that could read, 
and the voice of the living teacher proclaim to every 
one the message of eternal life. This is evidently the 
interesting truth announced in the closing part of this 
passage in Isaiah. It is intimately connected with the 
preceding parts of it, and indeed will furnish the 
answers to the interesting and solemn inquiries that 
are proposed. Shall these extraordinary events take 
place ? Shall our eyes behold such wonders in the 
moral world ? Yes, whenever Zion travails, whenever 
the church possesses the spirit of the Redeemer of 
men, and is straitened till the great work of a world's 
salvation is accomplished ; for the word is recorded — 
it cannot fail. " As soon as Zion travailed she brought 
forth her children." 



XVI 

Is it so? Then what an awful and solemn respon- 
sibility rests on the church of Christ ! How desirable 
that all who love the Saviour, should become more 
deeply impressed with the importance of the work 
before them, and more intensely desirous of the speedy 
approach of the happy days of the Millennium — the 
Saviour's reign on earth. 

I wish to illustrate and establish the following 
proposition — That the church of Christ is able in- 
strumentally to evangelize the heathen world in one 
generation, if it will only exert the power which it 
possesses. 

Startling as this proposition may be to some minds, 
yet I think a calm and sober investigation of the 
subject will assist in removing some difficulties which 
prevent entire acquiescence in the correctness of this 
assertion. It is a subject that demands the full 
exercise of all our powers ; it is connected w-ith 
our own personal religion, wnth that of our families, 
our churches, and of the whole world. A serious 
frame of mind well becomes such an investigation ; 
and our secret but earnest and believing prayer should 
be lifted up to God that he would remove our preju- 
dices ; correct our misapprehensions ; show the path 
of dutyj and enable us to walk in it, whatever may 
be the sacrifice of feeling, of ease and of selfishness. 

We proceed to an examination of this subject with 
advantages which our fathers did not possess. There 
are numerous fiicts now admitted as supplying prin- 
ciples of action, which they had not so fully ascertained 
as truths. We occupy a higher position than they were 
privileged to stand upon. From this moral elevation 
we can survey the past history of the church, and 



XVJl 

better understand the connection between providential 
dispensations and the progress of divine truth, than 
they were able to do. We can look at the present 
interesting condition of the cause of truth and right- 
eousness, and come to safer conclusions respecting- 
the adaptation of the means now employed for the 
evangelization of the world. Neither is the future 
altogether hidden from our view. It comes nearer 
to us than it did to them. We see the promises and 
predictions hastening on to their fulfilment, and we 
can form some idea of the instrumentality which God 
will honor in bringing in tlie- full glory of the latter 
day ; " When the mountain of the Lord's house 
shall be established in the top of the mountains, and 
shall be exalted above the hills ; and all nations shall 
flow unto it." 

With these facilities for assisting us in our inves- 
tigation, let us proceed to consider, 

I. The present condition of the heathen, and the 
difficulties in the way of evangelizing them. 

1. The state of the heathen. 

Here no process of reasoning is required to convince 
us that it is one of misery and danger. There are 
certain facts admitted in this case by all real Chris- 
tians, which render arguments unnecessary. It is for 
instance admitted 

(1.) That the abominations of heathenism produce 
wretchedness even in the present life. 

(2.) That where there is no vision the people perish. 

(3.) That there are at least six hundred millions of 
human beings with immortal minds, in this ruined and 
dangerous condition. 



XVIII 

(4.) That the present generation of heathen is fast 
passing away, and that there is very little hope of a 
hundredth part of them being saved from the wrath 
to come. 

Such is the awful picture presented to our view. I 
have not colored it. It stands before our minds in all 
its vastness, and in all its painful features. A world 
lying in wickedness — in a state of moral desolation, 
without a single ray of hope, but that which proceeds 
from the church of Christ. They walk in darkness, 
and love it well. Without forgiveness from God, they 
seek it from demons ; deprived of real consolation in 
trouble, they apply to miserable comforters. God is 
unknown. Christ was never heard of. Hope is not 
with them. They are far off from happiness and 
peace. The journey of life is indeed to them a 
weary pilgrimage ; but tiresome as it is, there is 
no rest for them at last. The sorrows of life are 
numerous ; but they do not know a period when 
sorrow and sighing shall flee away. Thick clouds 
surround them ; they cannot see beyond the present 
hour; they wander on the dark mountains, and perish 
in a state of impenitence and guilt. Their sufferings 
at last, are not because they have rejected the message 
of the gospel, for they never heard it proclaimed ; but 
because they acted in opposition to the convictions 
that they had of right and wrong, feeble and imperfect 
as they were. The little glimmering of light that had 
survived through many ages of tradition, had from their 
love of sin become thick darkness — a darkness that 
might be felt. 

No speculation as to the benevolence of the Deity ; 
no imaginary hope as to the dealings of God's mercy 



XIX 

with the heathen at last, can yield comfort to the 
Christian in looking at their condition. Judging of 
their prospects by the book of truth and the book 
of love — they see, they feel, they believe that the 
heathen are perishing for lack of knowledge ; that 
however varied in degree the punishment of men 
will be hereafter, yet there will be in the lowest 
scale of punishment a separation from the source of 
happiness; the total and eternal absence of all peace 
and joy ; the endurance of anguish of spirit, and 
deepening rage produced by uncontrolled passions 
and ungratified desires. The very love of sin will 
constitute a hell to every one who is under its cor- 
rupting and debasing influence. Oh there is enough 
in the present condition of the heathen to excite our 
deep compassion, and there is more than enough in 
the dismal prospect that awaits them, to fill us with 
sorrow and shame at our indifl^erence. 1 fear that in 
some minds there is a lurking and a lingering hope, 
that after all, the condition of the heathen at last 
may not be so awful as has been represented. Let us 
banish such a thought from our minds. Let us stand 
on the firm ground of Scripture ; be affected by its 
solemn threatenings ; be influenced by its injunctions, 
and animated and encouraged by its promises. 

2. it is plain from what we have said that the present 
condition of the heathen presents many difficulties to 
Christians while trying to evangelize them. 

We wish not to conceal, lessen, or exaggerate 
these obstacles. Perhaps some minds have viewed 
these as greater than they really are, and have thus 
been deterred by their number and greatness, from 
making any attempt to overcome them. This conduct 



XX 

however is neither consistent with Christian courage, 
nor with a regard for the Divine command. We are 
not indeed to be so imprudent as to use means witliout 
looking at the difficuUies that oppose them, for proper 
methods cannot be adopted by us for overcoming these 
unless we know them and estimate them aright. By 
numbering and weighing them, we shall be better able 
to lay those plans which may be successful ; — we shall 
see how far human instrumentality can go, and its utter 
inefficiency without the agency of the Divine Spirit. 
There is another mistake which is sometimes made on 
this subject — some look at the difficulties as only or 
chiefly to be found among the heathen themselves. 
My deep conviction is, that there are many to be found 
also among professing Christians. Examine the sub- 
ject and judge for yourselves. We all admit the 
depravity of the human heart ; the demoralizing and 
hardening influence of idolatry upon the soul. We 
know the firm grasp that false systems of religion 
take of the human mind, by the criminal indulgences 
which they not only permit, but encourage and enjoin. 
We are quite aware that a powerful priesthood is 
arrayed against the efforts of Christian missionaries. 
Their craft is in danger, and they act in its defence. 
We know also that the great mass of mind in the 
heathen world, is willingly led captive by Satan, 
operating on it by a system of delusion and falsehood. 
He is the god of the heathen, whom they do not love, 
but fear. Seated on his usurped throne, he reigns 
over them with an iron rod. He exacts from them 
services the most degrading and infamous. He in 
every possible way directs the energies and faculties 
of immortal minds against the Being who made them, 



XXI 

and whom he supremely hates. He has a world 
lying prostrate at his feet. His slaves are in misery, 
but he has no sympathy, no compassion for them. 
There is no nobility, no generosity in his nature. All 
is dark malignity and unmingled malevolence. The 
prey is in the hand of the mighty, and the lawful 
captive is not delivered. The strong man armed 
keeps his palaces. The usurper is not opposed, or 
but feebly, while he retains his unjust dominion. His 
delusions are not exposed — his lies are not detected. 
Millions bow beneath his demon power, and he rules 
almost unchallenged the god of the heathen world. 

Such are some of the difficulties to be overcome by 
the Christian church when the evangelization of the 
heathen is sought. It may be asked, 

1 1 . What is the power which the church of Christ 
possesses, and what are the reasons why it should be 
employed without delay, in the evangelization of the 
world ^ 

There are certain truths admitted here also, which 
will clear the way for illustrating this part of our 
subject. It is admitted for instance, ] . That the only 
remedy by which mankind can be saved, is committed 
to the care of the church. 2. That it is the duty of 
Christians to communicate the knowledge of this 
remedy to all mankind. 

These admissions involve the principle for which 
we contend. But to make this still more obvious, let 
us 

1. Ascertain the nature and extent of the power 
which Christians possess. 

It is not worldly power, either as it regards numbersj 



XXll 

wealth, or political influence. It is not a literary or 
a scientific power. It is not specifically an intellectual 
power. It is a moral, a spiritual power that Christians 
possess, though it combines with this, part of the 
elements of power which worldly men possess and 
exercise. For instance, there are numbers — some 
millions of Christians in the world. There is wealth — 
much more, I apprehend, than we are aware of. 
There is intellect— i\\\s, we believe, is closely connected 
with moral power, and when placed under its direction, 
will tell on the best interests of the world. We indeed 
feel disposed to claim the chief share of the intellect 
of the world for the Christian church. I say this 
because this has been, with all the petulancy of vanity 
and assumed superiority, denied to us ; and Christians 
have been allowed to be well meaning, but weak 
minded and rather imbecile. The history of the 
church in past ages proves, that vigor of mind and 
powerful intellect were in the ranks of Christians. 
The defences of Christianity in the early ages show 
this. The writings of more modern times prove this. 
The chief intellectual power of the last three cen- 
turies has been with Christians or professed believers 
in a divine revelation. The noble defences of truth, 
the inculcation of all that elevates and strengthens 
the human mind, will be found among the productions 
of the friends of Christianity. The few mighty minds 
which have risen on our world to rescue human nature 
from the universal charge of frivolity and weakness, 
will be found among Christian philosophers. Multi- 
tudes have indeed laid claim to the possession of 
intellectual power, but they are rather to be classed 
among the herd of compilers, plagiarists, and imitators, 



XXlll 

who pursued the beaten path without one original 
idea of their own. If in an age some mind arose, threw 
off the trammels of former systems, and struck out 
a path for itself, is was found the erratic movement of 
a wandering star, rather than the regular and beneficial 
influence of no less splendid luminaries, but more 
steady and certain in their career. That mind is 
essentially weak, whatever may be its pretensions, 
which admits no force in the claims of revelation ; 
which is proud of its fancied superiority, while it does 
not reverence and love the Divine Being. In every 
such case, whatever may be the productions of that 
mind, society can receive little improvement ; while 
the individual himself makes shipwreck of his mental 
powers, and can never reach the haven of truth. If 
we judge of the vigor of a man's mind by the subjects 
he contemplates, or the influence which he can exert 
over other minds, we find the superiority is with the 
Christian. The subjects before him are noble, manly, 
all important ; and a good man can produce an influ- 
ence on other minds which a mere philosopher never 
could exercise. It is however in its intimate connection 
with moral and spiritual power, that the human mind 
can exercise a beneficial Influence on the world. 

The power of the church lies chiefly in its piety — in 
its enlightened views of the divine character — in its 
estimate of the value of the soul — In its right ap- 
prehension of the worth of Christ's salvation — in a 
deep sense of its obligation to redeeming love — in 
holy compassion for the perishing sons of men — in a 
readiness to consecrate the whole man — soul, body and 
spirit to Christ; and in a willingness to be nothing, so 
that Christ may be all and in all. The moral power of 



XXIV 

the church consists in the influence of Christian prin- 
ciple on the great mass of its members — not in the 
fervid zeal or entire consecration of a few, but in the 
determination of the church, as such, to be Jehovah's, 
and to seek as the great business of life, the triumphs 
of their Lord and Master. It consists in keeping 
before the minds of all Christians, the duty and priv- 
ilege of using the appointed means for converting the 
world — in not being easily discouraged — in a readiness 
to meet difficulties, and to overcome them in a prudent, 
zealous and persevering continuance in seeking the 
happiness of mankind. This moral power of Christians 
will be found intimately connected with a sense of 
weakness, and will exist in close union with a con- 
viction that every effort to do good, whether on a large 
or on a small scale, whether at home or abroad, will 
be in vain without the power of God's Spirit. 

This moral and spiritual power of Christians is the 
instrument which God employs for extending the 
kingdom of truth and righteousness among men. It 
is not the scattered and irregular exertions of a few 
of his people that will do. It is the combined wisdom, 
zeal, love, devotedness, and perseverance of the great 
mass of professed Christians that Jehovah seeks. 

It will, I doubt not, be readily conceded, that if this 
mighty moral engine was in full operation, and bearing 
its powerful influence on the world, that the results 
would be glorious — that if it had been employed 
during the last forty years to its full extent, the 
heathen world would almost have changed its name, 
and though not Christianized, yet it would have pos- 
sessed the elements of knowledge, and the preaching 
of the gospel. 



XXV 

Another question arises here. 

2. Why. should Christians noiv employ this power 
for the existing population of the world, and leave 
nothino^ for the next o^eneration to do ? 

Perhaps no one will propose such a question in 
words, and yet all our past operations appear to have 
been conducted on this principle. It looks as if we 
had selected a certain share of the work to do, and 
that we had left the remainder of the field of heathen- 
ism to be occupied by our children and our children's 
children ! Acting on this principle, understood if 
not expressed, our minds have been kept easy when 
they should have been in trouble ; apathy respecting 
the heathen has been produced, when there should 
have been travail of soul for their salvation. It is this 
evil principle of leaving to others what we should do 
ourselves, that I wish to expose. It contracts the 
soul ; it narrows the vision ; it blunts the moral sense; 
it leads to procrastination ; it depends on the instru- 
mentality of others for accomplishing the designs of 
mercy, instead of leading iis to rouse our own energies, 
and to improve our own advantages in fulfilling the 
divine purposes. 

The question returns. What reasons are there in 
concluding, that we are bound without delay to exert 
this moral power in evangelizing the world ? If, my 
friends. Christians were in a right state of mind, and 
felt the full force of divine authority, the unrepealed 
command of Christ would rouse them to exertion, and 
convince them that now, at this very time, they are 
bound to instruct the world ; and if they can prevent 
it, not leave one soul now existing on earth, to be 
instructed by the generation of believers that may 
3 



XXVI 

follow them. It may however make the path of duty- 
still more plain, to some minds, if we mention a few 
of the peculiar circumstances in which the providence 
of God has placed the Christian church of our day. 
These may help to show us, that our responsibility is 
greater than that of the disciples of Christ ; greater 
than that of our fathers, and even greater than it is 
likely to be to the generations that are to follow us. 

We have facilities for communicating knowledge 
to the heathen, which the church never possessed 
before. 

When Christ's command was first given to his dis- 
ciples, they might have said, ' How can we obey it ? 
We are only twelve, or seventy, or at the most five 
hundred brethren. How can this handful of believers 
cultivate the fields of the world ?' The Christian 
church 710W cannot say this ; there are thousands and 
tens of thousands of Christians, who ought to be pre- 
pared to go forth and obey the command of Christ. 
Again, the first preachers might have said, * We are 
not only few, but poor and despised, and persecuted ; 
we belong to a nation hated by the Greeks and 
Romans. How can we expect that from us, the phi- 
losophers of Greece and Rome will receive the lessons 
of the gospel ? Our nation is a mere province ; phi- 
losophers we have none ; science we have none. In 
the arts we have made little improvement, and our 
moral power is weakness.' The nations of which the 
church of Christ is now principally composed cannot 
say this. We have greater influence in the world than 
was ever possessed by the Roman power. Our arts, 
our science, our literature, our commerce, our political 
power form an influence, that tells on all the nations of 



XXVll 

the earth, but especially on the heathen. The very- 
name of Briton is a passport in distant lands. A 
Roman citizen of ancient times was not more secure 
in the panoply of his civic privileges, than a Briton or 
an American is at the present day in every land. 
Again, the first preachers might have said, 'No place 
is open to our message ; even Jerusalem itself is ready- 
to exclude us, and we cannot do our Master's will 
without imprisonment, and perhaps death.' Can we 
say this ? Is not every place open to us ? is not the 
imploring cry wafted across the bosom of the mjghty 
deep by every breeze — Come over and help us ? If, 
in the circumstances of the first preachers of Chris- 
tianity, there seemed to be some advantages over us, 
they might be considered as the gift of tongues, and 
the working of miracles. But even here, 1 apprehend, 
we have greater facih'ties than they had. Nearly all 
they did, was with the living voice ; and there were 
not many who had this supernatural gift of speaking 
in the languages of the heathen. But we have the 
Press ; we can through it speak to far greater numbers 
than they were ever permitted to address ; we can 
multiply copies of the sacred Volume to an indefinite 
extent, and in a far greater number of languages and 
dialects than were known in the days of the apostles. 

And with regard to miracles, we know that they 
did not convert men. It was a branch of evidence 
which we do not require. We have that word which 
contains facts founded on miracles, and supernatural 
agency, which the Spirit still employs in the con- 
version of sinners ; and in sending this to the heathen 
along with the living voice of the faithful missionary, 
we may expect the glorious results of ancient times. 



XXVIU 

Surely then, if apostles — if the early Christians were 
bound to obey the command of Christ, we are under 
more solemn responsibilities than they were to do the 
same. Again, how superior are our opportunities to 
those which our fathers possessed. Let us not con- 
demn them because they did not attempt the work we 
are only beginning to contemplate. They knew little 
of the abominations of heathenism ; we know enough 
of them to appal us. Many of them had to struggle 
unto death, to secure religious privileges for them- 
selves and for us. They lahorecl, and we are entered 
into the result of their labors. We have not been 
called to endure the privation of our Puritan fathers. 
They did more than we have yet done, as compared 
with our advantages. They kept the lamp of truth 
from being extinguished ; and when some of them 
could not do this, they secured it, left the land of their 
fathers sepulchres, and on the wide wilderness of a 
western world, lighted up afresh the precious flame ; 
and now their light is added to ours, that unitedly we 
may enlighten the world. Again, our fathers had no 
doors of usefulness opened to them in heathen lands. 
It is said that the holy Baxter had planned a Christian 
mission to some heathen land, but obstacles were in 
his way, and he could not surmount them. The 
government of the day was opposed to such an en- 
terprize, and he could find out no suitable place on 
which to plant the standard of the cross. How dif- 
ferent are our circumstances ! Our government is now 
decidedly favorable, and places innumerable are ready 
to receive the messengers of peace. 

Besides all this, if our fathers had wished to give 
the Bible to the heathen, they had no translation, and 



XXIX 

had hardly any opportunity of getting these made 
among the heathen. We have translations of the 
Scriptures in languages spoken by three-fourths of the 
heathen. This department of Christian usefulness is 
fully open to the church. All that is required is 
money, in order to fill the world with Bibles. Once 
more, our fathers did not see our little island the ruler 
of dominions on which the sun never sets. All their 
dreams of ambition could not have reached the reality 
that now exists — in the direct power that we exercise 
over more than a hundred millions of heathen. Our 
commercial enterprize is also greater than it was in 
the days of our fathers. Our vessels navigate every 
sea. Our merchants are princes in the earth, and 
hold intercourse with every land. Surely our duty to 
evangelize the world is more imperative than the duty 
of our fathers. 

There is another circumstance that plainly marks 
the providence of God. When we speak of the 
church of Christ, we almost naturally think of the 
Christians of America, and of Britain. We do so, 
because we cannot but think that the great mass of 
believers in Christ are to be found in those two lands. 
Oh, what hope would there be for our world, if these 
two nations should cease to be ! Now mark the provi- 
dence of God. These nations are essentially one — the 
same origin, the same faith, the same language, the 
same enterprize, and the same desire among the 
churches of both countries to convert the world. The 
mighty work then rests on the very two nations that 
are one in all which pertains to the extension of the 
Redeemer's kingdom. Surely this marks the finger 
of God, and fixes the awful responsibility on these 
3* 



XXX 

iialioiis, as with the very seal of Heaven itself. We 
must be blind indeed, not to see God's design. We 
must be deaf indeed, not to hear the voice of our 
Lord and Master, saying in emphatic language— 
" Enter in and possess the land." 

And may it not be said with truth, that we are the 
persons called on to evangelize the heathen, and do it 
now, instead of leaving any part of the work to be 
done by our children. The existing population of the 
globe is committed to the care of the church now. 
We have little hope of the adults, and if we allow 
their children to rise up without Christian instruction, 
in the days of our children they will be adults, and 
as much beyond the influence of truth as their fathers 
are at this moment. Our neglect then will destroy 
two generations. To save one and that just rising 
into life demand the united energies and power of the 
church of Christ. Again, we have seen that God has 
committed to us the moral destinies of the world by 
his own providential arrangements. We cannot tell, 
that these will be in existence in the day of our 
descendants. Nay we may be almost sure if we 
neglect our advantages, if we overlook the evident 
design of God in giving to us such mighty power over 
the nations, that God will take them from us, and give 
them to some other nation that will improve them 
better. And finally, on this part of the subject ; the 
heathen world is waiting for the gospel at our hands. 
It may not be so in the days of our children. On us, 
then, the duty devolves — it is present, and must not 
be considered Juture. The command of Christ is now 
binding ; souls are now perishing ; the young are 
now rising up, and gettinjj; beyond instruction. Our 



XXXI 

children will have another youthful generation to 
instruct. Are we prepared to execute the work ? 
How has the church acted in past days ? How is it 
acting now ? 
We will, 

III. Show why this moral power of the church 
has not been exerted, and the consequences of un- 
faithfulness. 

There are some who would account for the present 
destitution of the heathen by referring it all to the 
Divine sovereignty. This is dangerous ground, and 
would exonerate God's people from all blame. We 
fully admit that if it had been the will of God, he 
could have furnished every human being with the 
knowledge of himself; and he could, if he pleased, 
have made his people the instruments of conveying 
this knowledge. But in coming to a correct judg- 
ment in this matter, I apprehend we are not to look 
at the Divine purposes, which can be no guide to us, 
but rather to ascertain the Divine command, and see 
what the path of duty would lead us to perform. The 
secret intentions of God can never furnish an excuse 
for plainly neglecting the sacred injunction, '■ Go 
and preach the gospel to every creature.' Our duty 
and responsibility remain the same, whatever may 
be the designs of Infinite Wisdom. To neglect an 
obvious duty, is to be guilty of a great offence against 
the authority of God. This duty has been neglected 
by different generations of Christians, and therefore 
great guilt has been contracted. This criniinality 
however, becomes aggravated by the fact, that it 
was the sovereign will of God, that all nations should 



XXXll 

be made acquainted with the salvation of his Son. 
It is then an act of opposition to his will, instead of 
beincf in accordance with it, when Christians as far 
as their numbers, wealth, and energies could enable 
them, have not directed these on the darkness and 
wretchedness of the heathen world. In former days 
the shadow of an excuse might exist on account of 
the churches' ignorance of the real condition of the 
heathen, and the barriers in the way of sending the 
gospel to them. No excuse of this kind can now 
exist. That difhculties are to be surmounted, we 
have already seen : but numerous, varied and mighty 
as these are among the heathen themselves, they are 
not so discouraging or appalling as those which are 
furnished by the church itself. The same obstacles 
which now exist in pagan lands, existed in the days 
of the apostles, and they were overcome, and the 
same means and the same blessing can overcome 
them now. But there are difficulties in the church 
now, which did not exist in that age of spiritual life 
and of hallowed consecration. Jt is to these we must 
chiefly attribute the inefficiency of the church of Christ. 
It is because of these that so few inroads are made on 
the empire of darkness. 

1. There are the divisions in the Christian church. 

I do not refer to denominational distinctions — these 
may probably exist, though in a modified form, even 
to the end of time — but to the disunion among true 
believers ; not to the absence of uniformity in outward 
observances, which is comparatively of little con- 
sequence, but to the absence of unity of spirit. This 
state of things has been produced by a departure from 
the laws of Jesus Christ 5 by recognizing authorities in 



XXXlll 

his church which he repudiates ; by surrounding his 
rehgion with the meretricious adornings of human 
inventions, and by demanding a regard and respect 
for these, equal to what is paid to Divine institutions. 
One main reason why Christians are opposed to each 
other, is, that some defend what is human, the mere 
creature of man's pohcy and ambition, with as much 
tenacity and boldness as Divine truth itself. They 
elevate the creation of man's fancied wisdom to as 
great a height as the essential doctrines of Christianity 
themselves. They attach as much importance to the 
principles of expediency as to the great and unchanging 
principles of Revelation. Thus, when others seek to 
give Christ the honor due to his name and office as 
the King in Zion, as the only Head of the church; — 
when there is a desire to separate what is vile and 
injurious to the interests of religion from that which 
is valuable, and essential to the happiness of men — 
human passions are excited, the common enemy is 
forgotten, in the open and fierce attacks made on 
those who hold the same great and all important 
doctrines. The talents, the energies, and the piety 
of multitudes are thus wasted in the defence of 
those things, which are beneath the notice of Christian 
men, desiring the Divine glory, and the absence of 
which would be the greater blessing to themselves. 
And on the other side feelings are produced which are 
unfavorable to Christian unity, which prevent a com- 
bined, bold and simultaneous attack on the empire of 
darkness. Christians are jealous of each other. They 
narrow their views, and look at their own little circles, 
instead of looking abroad on the wide field of the world. 
They care too much for denominational accession, and 



XXXIV 

undervalue accessions to the church of Christ. They 
seek to strengthen their position at home ; while Satan 
strengthens his position abroad. Instead of making 
inroads on his kingdom, they make inroads on one 
another and the spirit of Christian unity, and love is 
in danger of being consumed by the fire of sectarian 
bigotry or of fierce theological controversy. Every 
denomination has indeed a missionary society, and 
we all profess to unite in sustaining Bible and Tract 
operations ; but it must be evident to every one who 
reflects on the subject, that even these Catholic in- 
stitutions are not supported as they would be, if the 
unity of the Spirit existed in full operation in the Chris- 
tian church. The enemies of truth take advantage of 
this division in the camp of Zion — this alienation of 
Christian afli'ection. And is it surprising, that the 
influences of the Spirit of God are withheld from the 
church. It is here we see the chief injury done to 
the cause of the heathen. While this alienated state 
of mind exists among the disciples of Christ, there 
cannot be that united, and earnest, and wrestlinor 
prayer for the coming of the Saviour's kingdom, 
which it is the duty and privilege of the church 
to present. And it would be presumption to expect 
the outpouring of the Holy Spirit on the church and 
on the world, when there is an open and extended 
violation of the Saviour's command, addressed to his 
disciples of every age. " This is my commandment, 
that ye love one anothery 

This state of division and alienation did not exist 
in the primitive age : persecution compressed them — 
brought them more closely together. They were 
one ; or rather the love of Christ was so influential 



XXXV 

in their hearts, that they were wIlHng to forget their 
little differences of opinion, and remember only the 
great things in which they were agreed. The same 
love led to united efforts to promote Christ's kingdom. 
There were no separate interests to consult, no sec- 
tarian objects to attain, no political power, no earthly 
treasures, no civil honors to defend — all their time, 
talents, energies, piety, could bear at once directly 
and undividedly on Satan's kingdom. 

2. There is too much of the spirit of the world in 
the Christian church, including all denominations of 
believers. 

The line of separation between Christians and the 
world is less distinct than it should be. The grand 
design for which a sacred deposit has been placed in 
the hands of the church for the conversion of the 
world, has been too much lost sight of. Earthly 
honors and distinctions are too eagerly desired. There 
is wealth, and ease, and indulgence. There is too great 
a tendency to be satisfied with our own privileges, 
and our feeble exertions, while the destitutions and 
perishing condition of the heathen fail to awaken or 
affect us. That high toned piety which breathed 
in prophets, apostles and martyrs, and which is so 
essential to a right estimate of the importance of the 
missionary cause, exists in few minds. If some duly 
appreciate the value of the soul, they form the ex- 
ceptions, in the midst of multitudes who seem to see 
no importance in its salvation. It is next to impossible 
to rouse Christians in general to a right understanding 
of their duty. The misery of the heathen does not 
distress them. Seldom is a tear of pity shed, though 
they profess to admit that thousands are perishing 



XXXVl 

every day. The present wretchedness of hundreds 
of minions does not produce intense desires for their 
salvation ; though they know that to them alone can 
the dying heathen look for help. A little temporary 
inconvenience — a passing political event, will excite 
and affect the mass of professing Christians more than 
the enduring agonies of immortal minds. The con- 
dition of the Pagan world seldom comes before their 
minds ; it is hardly ever named to their children ; it 
is not a frequent subject of meditation ; it seldom 
forms the topic of earnest, agonizing prayer with God. 
The world steals over the heart ; it secularizes the 
affections ; its objects conceal the wretchedness of 
distant fellow men. The claims of fashion, of in- 
dulgence, of business, and worldly cares, are heard 
and attended to, sooner than the claims of perishing 
millions. This is a grievous difficulty in the way of 
evanfj;elizin2; the heathen. 

3. There is also the absence of that importunate 
prayer, of that spirit of intense desire for the salvation 
of others, and which is so plainly indicated by the 
expression Zion travailed. We view these difHculties 
as primary, both in order of time and of magnitude ; 
as in reality greater than any to be overcome in the 
heathen world. They stand at the very threshhold of 
Christian enterprize — they rise as mighty bulwarks to 
heaven — they paralyze the minds of multitudes, and 
they discourage the exertions of the friends of Zion 
whose hearts are right — they give a triumph to the 
enemy — they retard the progress of truth and right- 
eousness, and they postpone indefinitely the conversion 
of the world to Christ. They dishonor the Saviour, 
and keep him from his triumphs. The travail of his 



XXXVll 

soul is not seen, either in the zeal, love, purity, or the 
obedience of his people ; nor does he behold it in 
the accession to his spiritual kingdom of millions of 
heathen brought into it through the instrumentality 
of the church. He is not satisfied, for nothing less 
can satisfy his infinite desires, his divine compassion, 
than the united efforts of his people, and the conversion 
of the world. While these difficulties exist, they stop 
his chariot wheels in the career of conquest. The 
everlasting gospel is not preached to every creature — 
the angel does not fly through the midst of heaven 
proclaiming its joyful message to every kindred, and 
people, and tongue. With whom does the blame 
rest ^ Oh, it is an overwhelming thought that the 
guilt rests on the professing church of Christ. 

But a solemn question presents itself, and demands 
an answer — What have been the consequences of this 
state of things in the church of Christ ? How has 
it affected the exertions of Christians with reference 
to the heathen ? We would reply, that deep injury 
has resulted — that it has kept down the missionary 
spirit, and prevented the application of the moral 
power of the church to the necessities of the world. 
Bear witli me for a few moments while I appeal to 
facts in confirmation of the correctness of the observa- 
tions which I have just made. 

Numerous as have been the efforts of Christians 
during the last forty years, and presenting as they do 
a striking contrast to the apathy of former generations ; 
yet they have been few and imperfect compared either 
with the ability of the church, or the claims of the 
heathen. Looking at the magnitude of the object, 
and remembering that eternity is stamped upon it — 
4 



XXXVlll 

that it Involves the happiness of hundreds of millions 
of human beings for ever ; one feels ashamed at the 
small amount of Christian influence that has been 
made by the church of Christ. If we look at the 
amount of money contributed year after year, we find 
that all the Christians of Britain give less to the 
missionary cause, than is annually spent by the vo- 
taries of pleasure in their pursuit of theatrical amuse- 
ments in London alone. Again, how humbling and 
affecting is the thought, that all that has been expended 
by all the great and noble religious institutions of the 
whole of Christendom during the last forty years, 
would not pay for the ardent spirits consumed in one 
year in Great Britain even. The calculation I have 
made of the amount collected, since Bible, missionary, 
and tract societies began their operations, brings the 
whole up to fifteen millions ; while the cost of ardent 
spirits to the consumer, is every year above twenty 
millions of pounds. Thus for mere indulgence — for 
that which is not a necessary of life, but injurious to 
life ; and the cause of unmingled misery and wo to 
thousands of families — more is spent every year, than 
all denominations of Christians in the world have 
expended for forty years in evangelizing the heathen ! 
Alas for Christian zeal and Christian liberality. Could 
this have been so, had all religious professors, had all 
real Christians done their duty to God and to their 
fellow creatures ? Impossible ! And there is another 
affecting consideration connected with these remarks — 
that it is chiefly the poor ; those who whh difficulty 
can earn enough to sustain their families, who have 
spent all this money. 

Once more, if we look at the number of Bibles 



XXXIX 

distributed, we find that the whole which have been 
circulated by the direct and indirect efforts of the 
Bible Society, and all foreign Bible Societies, would 
just supply the population of Great Britain and Ireland 
if they were all able to read. And though about 
fifteen millions of Bibles and Testaments have been 
distributed, only half a million have found their way 
into heathen lands. Neither have these been scat- 
tered through the breadth and length of the pagan 
world, but confined chiefly to some favored spots, 
leaving hundreds of millions without any copies of the 
Scriptures at all. Thus while we admit with joy and 
gratitude, that through the instrumentality of mis- 
sionaries, the Bible has been translated into languages 
spoken by more than half the population of the globe ; 
yet even with this circumstance in their favor, and 
years to enable Christians to publish and spread 
through heathen lands the living oracles, only a number 
that London itself would require, if its reading popu- 
lation should all be furnished with a copy of the 
Bible, has been circulated among six hundred miUions 
of human beings. 

Again, if we examine the operations of missionary 
societies, the result is equally distressing. At the 
present time, about one thousand European and 
American missionaries occupy the heathen field, which 
is about three missionaries to every two millions; or in 
the proportion of about twenty ministers for the whole 
of England. Since these societies began, not more 
than two thousand missionaries have been sent forth by 
the Christian church. And is this all that the church 
has done for hundreds of millions of immortal beings ? 
We have furnished a far larger number to our little 



xl 

island, and the world has been comparatively over- 
looked. All our zeal and devotedness for the con- 
version of men has supplied as many ministers for 
six hundred millions, as are to be found in the county 
of York ! Need we wonder that so little impression 
has been made on heathen nations. Look again at 
the direct influence which these devoted missionaries 
have upon the heathen. It is a large calculation to 
say that their instructions reach directly and indirectly 
ten millions of pagans. Here then, five hundred and 
ninety millions are literally uninfluenced by the min- 
istry of reconciliation. The actual congregations of all 
Protestant missionaries do not amount to one million, 
and if we allow fifty thousand persons for all those 
who are in church fellowship, we shall exceed the 
real amount. This gives one hearer of the gospel to 
every six hundred of the human family, and one pro- 
fessed Christian man to every twelve thousand indi- 
viduals. This then is the result of all the missionary 
efforts of the Christian church during the last forty 
years ! But even this view is too favorable as far as one 
country is concerned. In China, containing one half of 
the heathen population of the globe, there is not one 
native convert to thirty millions of immortal beings — 
not above ten individuals, among the three hundred 
millions to be found in that teeming empire, who are 
the servants of the only living and only true God. 

Often has it been declared by missionaries, that 
their chief hope in heathen lands, was in the rising 
generation. The adult population seemed beyond the 
reach of Christian instruction and moral influence, so 
that with few exceptions, the millions of the present 
generation will linger out their dreary existence and 



xli 

perish forever, shall I say, the victims of the neglect 
of the Christian church. What a miserable prospect 
for them, and how deeply affecting should such a 
consideration be to us. But even this hope respecting 
the rising generation, which missionaries so fondly 
cherish, is presumption, unless means are used to 
instruct them not merely in the art of reading, but in 
direct religious knowledge. The missionaries are con- 
vinced of this. Christian schools have been formed 
at every station, and their time and talents have been 
exercised in promoting this desirable object. What 
has been the result ? If the rising generation among 
the heathen is not to perish, as well as the present 
generation, at least one hundred millions of children 
should be placed under the influence of Christian 
schools. Even if this were done, it would only be a 
sixth part of the heathen population placed in cir- 
cumstances favorable to the reception of Divine 
knowledge. But what is the actual number in all the 
schools of all the missionary stations ^ The highest 
estimate that we can make is one hundred and fifty 
thousand scholars, or about one in every six hundred 
of the children that should be under Christian in- 
struction ; five hundred and ninety-nine of every six 
hundred being allowed to grow up in ignorance and 
sin, and preparing, by forming habits of iniquity, to 
reject the pure and self-denying doctrines of the 
gospel, if peradventure, in thirty or forty years, mis- 
sionaries may be sent to them. Where is our hope 
then even of the children of the heathen, when these 
things are so ? At this rate, when will the evangeli- 
zation of the world be effected ? 

Let us include in our estimate, all the other means 
4* 



xlii 

employed to eniighten human minds. Let us survey 
the extended efforts of tract societies. Let us consider 
the labors of the press in conveying to the refined 
heathen the knowledge of European science and 
literature, which will at least show to many of them 
the absurdity of their false systems of ethics and 
religion. And yet with all this machinery in opera- 
tion, the Christian church has failed in bringing one 
hundredth part of the human family in heathen lands 
under direct and indirect religious instruction. Have 
not the consequences of unfaithfulness been awful 
indeed ? How small is the extent to which the 
Christian church has exerted the power which it 
possesses ! What is now to be done ? How is this 
state of things to be altered ? How are the heathen 
to be evangehzed ? We come to the closing part of 
our subject, to show, 

IV. That if the Christian church will only begin 
immediately to exercise the moral power which it 
possesses, the world in a generation might be evan- 
gelized. 

What will happen if Christians should be satisfied 
with their present efforts f If they proceed at the 
same ratio to seek the evangelization of the world as 
they have done during the last forty years, it will be 
six thousand years before the world is converted, and 
one hundred and twenty generations of men will have 
passed unblest into eternity ! If we take a lower 
view of the subject, and refer merely to the preaching 
of the gospel, or the circulation of the Bible, it will be 
one thousand and five hundred years before the world 
is supplied ; or thirty generations, or eighteen thousand 



xliii 

miilions of immortal beings will have passed into 
eternity. And even if we allow an equal number, 
or twice the number of native teachers to be raised 
up, generation after generation will perish before the 
gospel spreads universally. 

How can, how should the Christian church act in 
such an emergency ? It is plain that it cannot go on 
as it has done, without increasing its guilt by disobeying 
the command of God. It is also plain that Christians 
will not exert their moral power as it ought to be 
exerted, unless some great change takes place. The 
present energy of the church is feebleness ; the present 
zeal is apathy ; the present giving to the cause of 
Christ is withholding, compared with what must be 
done, when rising to all the dignity of their office as 
the almoners of the world, when they all freely give, 
because they have freely received. When looking at 
the position they occupy as the watchmen of the 
world, they will watch for souls as those who must 
give account. There must in short be a contrast to 
all that has been done. There must be much, instead 
of little — self-denial, instead of indulgence — zeal, 
instead of apathy. These things are named not to 
discourage, but to stimulate ; not that we may yield 
to despair, but to inspire hope, so that the very 
mightiness of the work may bring into full and per- 
severing exercise the whole powers of the renewed 
and the devoted heart. 

In order to assist our thoughts on this part of the 
subject, let me state the following changes that should 
be effected among Christians, in order that the moral 
power of the church may effect the evangelization of 
the world. 



xliv 

1. There must he unity of spirit among the disciples 
of Christ of every name. 

We have already seen that to a lamentable extent 
there is at present the absence of this Christian spirit. 
If the instruction of the heathen is to go on, all 
Christians must combine against the common enemy. 
The world will not be conquered to the peaceful 
dominion of Jesus Christ, till the love of Christ leads 
all his people to love one another. Satan will go on 
exercising his usurped authority, as long as the 
Christian church is divided in heart and affection. 
Wo be to those abuses, and human enactments, and 
unscriptural bigotry, and assumptions, which form so 
many stumbling blocks in the way of the progress of 
truth. Every such thing must be taken out of the 
way. If not done by man, God will do it with an 
outstretched arm, and in just displeasure. The un- 
divided strength of all believers must bear on the 
usurper of Messiah's dominions. The world must 
again behold the spectacle of the early age, and see 
how Christians can love one another. They must show 
to wicked men at home, and to the heathen abroad, 
that they can forget party names and sectional dif- 
ferences, not on the platform merely, but also in the 
pulpit ; not there only, but also in the social circle ; 
not in that merely, but likewise in the closet ; when 
the grand question will not be before we give our 
affections to an individual, is he an Episcopalian or an 
Independent, but is he a Christian ? If he is, then I 
shall love him, because he is one with me in Christ 
Jesus. Oh what a change will be effected when the 
church is baptized with the spirit of unity — with the 
spirit of Christ ! It will at once give a power to its 



xlv 

exertions which it has never yet possessed. It will 
be a living evidence to the world of the excellency of 
the religion of the Bible, which in modern times it 
has not yet received. 

2. There must he moral calculation founded on the 
question, How much owest thou unto thy Lord ? 

This calculation must refer to time, talents, influence, 
and opportunities. Obligations to Christ must be 
numbered ; the time that has been lost must be de- 
ducted from the little space yet allotted to man. The 
abuse of talents must be ascertained, the influence 
that has been wrong directed must be weighed in the 
balance of the sanctuary, and laid at the foot of the 
cross for the future. The opportunities which are 
gone for ever must be counted, and double diligence 
must be employed to improve those that may yet be 
granted. Each one must find out how much he can 
do, and when he has ascertained this, he must do it, 
as before the Judge of the quick and of the dead. He 
must feel, and think, and act, as if the salvation of the 
world depended on his unaided and individual exertion; 
as if the honor of the Redeemer were committed to 
his care ; as if the day of millennial glory could only 
be ushered in through his instrumentality. Let him 
calculate also the brevity of human life, and work 
while it is called to-day. 

3. There must he self-denial. 

Had Christians exercised this since missionary efforts 
commenced, is it too much to say that at this moment 
we should have been prepared to enter on the heathen 
world, and take entire possession of it in the name of 
Christ ? The church has not yet begun to exercise 
self-denial. Christians do not yet know what it means^ 



xlvi 

It may be said, we fear with truth, that even the super- 
fluities, the luxuries of Christians are not given to the 
Redeemer's cause. A few exceptions exist, but these 
only render the number who act differently, more 
apparent. How few have yet deprived themselves, 
even for a day, of a luxury, much less a comfort, in order 
that they might help forward the cause of truth and 
rio-hteousness — who make it a matter of sober calcu- 
lation, and, by giving up an indulgence, not necessary 
to health, to station, or to real enjoyment, be better 
fitted for returning to Christ a larger portion of that 
which he has committed to their stewardship ! The 
spirit of indulgence pervades all classes — we are all 
guilty in the sight of God. Ministers and people — 
rich and poor. Let us be just to ourselves, to our 
professions, to our fellow men, and to our God, and 
we shall exceed our past exertions so far, that we 
shall be astonished at the mighty change; we shall 
be ashamed that we have done less to save millions 
of souls from misery, than we have done for a daily 
claim of selfish indulgence ; we shall wonder at the 
patience and forbearance of God in continuing to such 
niggardly, unfaithful steu'ards, his bounties, and the 
means of still doing good to others. My decided 
conviction is, that if Christians throughout the world 
would only begin to act on the principle of self-denial, 
the amount received during forty years, would be the 
annual sum devoted to the cause of the Redeemer; 
or at least that the receipts of ten years would be 
exceeded by the yearly supplies cast into the treasury 
of the Lord. What ! might we not expect five 
millions of pounds, if the church was in earnest ? 
This would furnish fifteen millions of Bibles ; print 



xlvii 

one hundred millions of tracts ; support ten thousand 
missionaries ; and sustain fifty thousand Christian 
schools, containing five millions of children. And 
is this too much to expect from the whole church 
of Christ f Oh no, when that church appears in 
its glory, this, and far more than this, will be done 
for the evangelization of the world. If this were 
done, and it might be, do you not perceive at what 
an increased ratio the world would be enlightened? 
The word of truth would soon be within the reach 
of every reader, and the living voice might be heard 
in every land. 

4. Zion must travail — must agonize for the 
salvation of the heathen. 

This is the state of things referred to by the 
prophet. And when the Spirit is poured on the 
churches, this will be one of the glorious results. 
The church will then arise in its beauty and strength, 
and putting forth that moral power for the benefit of 
the world — doing this with all the intense and painful 
feeling which a mother endures in the hour of travail, 
God will give the desire of the soul in the birth of 
spiritual children. '^ For as soon as Zion travailed, 
she brought forth her children." 

We have thus brought our subject to a close. Is 
it then true that Christians have power to evangelize 
the world instrumentally ? I trust you admit this. It 
now becomes us to see that that part of it which rests 
with us, is suitably and faithfully employed. Oh ! is 
there a heart warm with the love of Christ — then that 
believer has been going along with me in the state- 
ments which have just been made. Humility, regret. 



xlviii 

shame J fear, hope, desire and determination have 
alternately found a place in his heart. But what is 
now the strongest wish of that mind? Is it not to 
make the cause of the heathen world his own — to 
pray as he has never yet prayed for them — to do 
what he has never yet done for them ? If he is a 
father, has he not declared to his own spirit, and in 
the presence of his God, I will imbue the minds of 
my children with the missionary spirit; — if a mer- 
chant, has he not decided to connect the extension 
of the Redeemer's kingdom with all his commercial 
pursuits; — if rich, does he not feel that he should 
give more than a part of the surplus of his savings; — 
if poor, is he not inclined to give even of his penury, 
to exercise self-denial as a principle, not as the result 
of temporary excitement ? Is it not the earnest wish 
of that mind I am addressing, to identify this blessed 
■work with his own spiritual improvement? — nay, with 
the hope of his own salvation ; to let the necessities 
of the heathen press on his heart, in the house and 
by the way, in the closet and in the family, in the 
social circle and in the sanctuary. Memory will be 
employed in recalling their misery and danger, and 
in numbering his own obligations. Judgment will be 
exercised in duly estimating the claims of the heathen 
and in deciding on their importance. And will not 
love — divine compassion — that principle which Christ 
implants in the hearts of his people, furnish all those 
pure and noble motives which are needed, and con- 
strain that soul to travail for the salvation of men ^ 
And why should not every Christian reader feel, 
decide, and act in this way ? This is the only plan 
by which the w^ork is to be accomplished. It must 



xlix 

begin with individuals, spread to families, to churches, 
to denominations, and to the whole body of the faithful. 
When Zion is thus awaked, aroused to the great work 
that is to be done without delay, and travails for the 
conversion of the world, the promise of Jehovah will 
be accomplished, and the heathen shall belong to 
Christ. 

But do I address one who is not horn again. We 
do read of those who will arrive at the kingdom of 
heaven from the East and from the West, from the 
North and from the South, while the children of the 
kingdom are shut out. Why is this ? Were the 
children of the kingdom refused admission into it? 
Oh no, they were invited, they had often been invited, 
they had been entreated to be reconciled to God. 
Yes, this is your situation — a sinner, an unpardoned, 
an unrenewed, a ruined sinner ; not the victim of the 
church's neglect ; not perishing because you never 
heard of Jesus ; — but the victim of criminal unbelief, 
and perishing because you have heard of Christ, and 
yet have rejected his mercy, and despised his love. 
We pity the heathen, we pray for them, we anxiously 
desire their salvation ; but oh, If there are different 
degrees of pity. If there are shades of earnestness in 
prayer, and if desire can rise higher and higher, till it 
almost reaches agony by its intensity, our pity, our 
earnestness, our desire must be the strongest and 
deepest and most intense, for the sinner who is per- 
ishing In the midst of spiritual blessings, and dying in 
thick darkness while the light of the gospel is shining 
around him. Is there one sinner who is thus exposed 
to danger ? Let him listen to the voice of Christ now, 
lest the message he rejects be sent to others who will 
5 



1 

receive it with gladness ; and that salvation which he 
has hitherto neglected be given to some poor idol- 
atrous heathen, who has not yet heard the joyful 
sound. There is no time to lose, thousands are every 
day hastening to the world of spirits, and you will 
soon be hurried into the crowd. Be wise then for 
eternity, by securing in time eternal blessings. 

The object of this Essay has been to bring to 
view that glorious and much desired consummation 
of the affairs of the church of God, for the accom- 
plishment of which the Benevolent Societies treated 
of in the " Harbinger of the Millennium," were estab- 
lished. I have endeavored to show, that this event 
may soon be realized, if the Christian church would 
perform those duties, exhibited and illustrated in the 
Dissertations of this work. These, together with the 
Appendix, deserve to be studied and pondered well by 
Christians of every name, that they may be excited to 
make incomparably greater efforts than they ever have 
made, for advancing these philanthropic and Godlike 
enterprises. With these views, we earnestly commend 
this book, prepared with great labor and judgment, to 
the perusal of all who love Zion and pray for her 
prosperity. 



THE 



CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST ; 



HARBINGER OF THE MILLENNIUM. 



THE 



CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST 



DISSERTATIOX I. 

THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE SCRIPTURES. 

Man, destitute of Divine direction, though formed with 
noble powers of body and of mind, would have been a 
forlorn and wretched being ; incapable of providing for 
his wants, and ignorant of his duty. Thus considered, 
and considered as the creature of that Being who is infi- 
nitely benevolent, and who forms nothing in vain, he surely 
was not made to be abandoned to himself; nor were his 
faculties given him to remain unimproved. Some rev- 
elation, then, from God to him was necessary, and might 
be expected, at the commencement of his existence. 

The fact that man is capable of being religious, and 
that to be religious is not only his duty, but his highest 
interest, is also an evidence, that God, from his infinite 
goodness, would furnish him with all the means requisite 
for this purpose. But from long experience, we have full 
and striking proof, that the moral precepts of Confucius, 
Plato, Cicero, and Seneca, those lights and ornaments of 
the pagan world, are insufficient to convert men, or to 
5* 



54 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

make them truly religious. They ever have proved, and 
they ever will prove, ineffectual to the reformation of the 
human race. Well could a heathen say, 

" I see the right, and I approve it too ; 
I see the wrong, and yet the wrong pursue." * 

But why are not the moral precepts of men effectual to 
reformation ? Because they are essentially defective, and 
have not a divine sanction. Nothing but the holy and 
perfect precepts of Jehovah and the glorious gospel of his 
grace, sactioned by eternal retributions, can restrain and 
reform the wicked. Hence the absolute necessity of a 
revelation from God, declaring his existence, character, 
will, and ways towards men. This revelation the Sove- 
reign of the universe has been pleased to grant us. " All 
Scripture is given by inspiration of God." t The apostle 
here, most probably, has reference to the Old Testament 
exclusively, for this was commonly called by the Jews, 
'* the Scriptures," that is, the writings most important ; 
and the New Testament at that time, was written only in 
part. It is possible, however, that the apostle spoke by 
the spirit of prophecy, and intended to include, by this 
expression, the whole Sacred Canon, the Old and New 
Testaments. 

But what is meant by the inspiration of the Sacred 
Scriptures, including the Old and New Testaments? 
That the sacred penmen were moved, directed, and as- 
sisted by God, what to write, and how to write, and when 

* " Video meliora proboque deleriora sequor." 

t By tills is not to be understood, that every speaker mentioned in the 
Sacred Oracles spake as moved by the Holy Si)irit, or that every thing' 
uttered was true. The serpent said to Eve, " Ye shall not surely die," 
and the three friends of Job did not always speak what was true concerning 
God. Tlie incorrect opinions of good men, as well as their failings, are 
often related in the Scriptures. All that is to be understood by this passage 
iS; that the sacred penmen, in all that they said, were guided by the unerring 
inspiration of God. 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE SCRIPTURES. 55 

to write ; so that they did write exactly,* and in all re- 
spects, as they were moved, or, as Dr. Doddridge renders 
it, " borne on, by the Holy Ghost." They were the voice, 
but the Holy Spirit the speaker. 

As it regards what the sacred penmen wrote, (and 
they wrote whatever God saw best for men to know,) the 
agency of the Holy Spirit was in some respects varied. 
Some things were written, of which the writers had per- 
sonal knowledge at the time they wrote. Such, for in- 
stance, as the account of the miracles, wrought by Moses 
in Egypt, at the Red sea, and in the wilderness; — of the 
destruction of the Egyptians, and of the deliverance and 
journeyings of the children of Israel ; — of the life, suffer- 
ings, death, and resurrection of Christ; — and of a portion 
of the Acts of the Apostles. Here it was necessary, and 
only necessary, that the Holy Spirit should move, and 
direct the sacred writers to select and record those neces- 
sary things, which they knew, (for it is not presumable, 
that they wrote all they knew,) and to assist them to do 
it with infallible rectitude. Other things were written, 
which might have been known to the writers at the time 
they were said or done, and of which they might then 
have been either ear or eye witnesses, but which, through 
lapse of time, might have been partially, or totally forgot- 
ten. Such, for example, as the discourses and instructions 
of Jesus Christ, recorded by Matthew and John, who 
accompanied him. Many of these must unavoidably have 
been forgotten, and others have been only indistinctly 
recollected ; for Matthew wrote his Gospel more than 

* The ton commandmenls, written upon two tables of stone by the finger 
of God, were most probably the first writing by letters. Moses having been 
taught to read them by God, and having learned to write them, would, without 
doubt, communicate this knowledge to the children of Israel, and would be 
likely from a variety of reasons to write his five books of the Old 'I'eslament 
by letters also. The Pentateuch, then, it is probable, was the first writing 
of man by letters. Before this time they wrote by pictures, hieroglyphics, 
and syml)ols. — See History of the Rise, Progress, S^c. of Knowledge, by 
Dr. Winder. 



56 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

eight, and John wrote his between sixty and seventy years 
after the ascension of Christ. Here it was necessary, and 
only necessary, that the Holy Spirit should revive, and 
correctly establish in the memories of the writers, those 
things which were to be written — once known, but for- 
gotten — and move, direct, and assist, in writing them, 
with complete security from error. Other things again 
were written, concerning which they could not possibly 
have had a personal knowledge. Such, for instance, as 
the history of the creation of the world — the prophecies, 
commandments, institutions, and directions of God-^what 
is said respecting the redemption of man — the future state, 
resurrection of the dead, judgment-day, and its eternal 
consequences. Here, in addition to moving, directing, 
and assisting the sacred writers in what they recorded, the 
Holy Spirit must have revealed to them the things to be 
written, if he had not before revealed them to others, from 
whom the sacred writers had received them ; for all these 
things claim to be primarily matters of pure and immedi- 
ate revelation by the Spirit of God. 

In respect to the manner in which the sacred penmen 
wrote, it is to be observed, that the Holy Spirit dictated 
to them such language, as conveyed the things revealed, 
truly, exactly, and in the best possible manner to answer 
the designs of revelation. All this may take place, and 
still "the words, which the Holy Ghost teacheth,"* need 

*'^ Every man," says Mr. Dick, on inspiration, '' who hath attended to 
the operations of his own mind, knows, that we think in words; as that 
when we form a train or combination of ideas, we clothe them with words j 
and iliat the ideas which are not thus clothed, are indistinct and confused. 
Let a man try to think npon any subject, moral or relic^ious, without the aid 
of langiiai^e. and he will either experience a total cessation of thought, or, as 
this seems impnssilile, at least while we are awake, he will feel himself con- 
strained, notwithstanding' his utmost endeavors, to have recourse to words 
as the iiistruineiil ofliis mental operations. As a great part of the Scriptures 
was suggested or revealed to the writers; and as the thoughts or sentiments 
which are conveyed into their minds by the Spirit, were perfectly new to 
them, it is plain that they must have been accompanied with words proper to 
express them, and consequently that the words were diclatefi by the same 
influeuce on their minds which communicated the ideas. The ideas could 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE SCRIPTURES. 57 

not be such, nor be so modified, as to change the charac- 
teristic style of the writers. 

And in respect to the time, when the sacred penmen 
wrote, it should be noticed that they wrote when they 
were moved, or borne on by the Holy Ghost. 

That the sacred penmen were thus divinely inspired, 
we infer, 

1. From the consideration that, in order to deliver to the 
world with confidence and safety to themselves, what they 
did deliver as a divine revelation — as infallibly true, it was 
necessary, that they should be conscious, that they were 
inspired and under the direction of Heaven. But this 
could never take place, under what is usually termed the 
inspiration of superintendence, or elevation. For the 
former, leaving all the powers of the mind in their natural 
state, and neither suggesting thoughts, nor words, only 
preserves the writers from communicating things, false or 
absurd; and the latter "only assists the natural powers of 
the mind, to operate in their natural way," by exciting the 
intellect and enlivening the imagination. Both of these 
kinds of inspiration may take place, under what is called 
common, or special grace. There is nothing in them 

not have come without the words, because without them they could not have 
been conceived. A notion of the form and qualities of a material object may 
be produced by subjecting it to our senses, but there is no conceivable method 
of making us acquainted with new abstract truths, or with things which do 
not lie within the sphere of sensation, but by convening to the uiind in some 
way or other, the words significant of them." 

Charles Butter, Esq. in his Horse Biblicfe, a learned work, seems to favor 
the plenary inspiration of the Scriptures, that is, that the expressions and 
words as well as ideas were inspired ; and he says : " 'J'his appears to have 
been the prevailing opinion till the ninth century, when Agobardus, arch- 
bishop of Lyons, maintained that it, namely, inspiration of the Scriptures, 
was confined to ideas." In a note, Dr. Macknight observes: "From this 
passage, 'the words which the Holy Ghost teachcth,' we learn that as 
often as the apostles declared the doctrines of the gospel, the Spirit pre- 
sented these doctrines to their minds clothed in their own language; 
which indeed is the only way in which the doctrines of the gospel could be 
presented to their minds. For men are so accustomed to connect ideas with 
words, that they always think in words. Wherefore, though the language in 
which the apostles delivered the doctrines of the gospel was really suggested 
to them by the Spirit, it was properly their own style of language." 



58 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

supernatural or miraculous. If the sacred writers had 
possessed no other inspiration than that of superintendence 
or elevation, they could not have known that they were 
inspired. But such was not the case with them. They 
said and did things to which the natural powers of the 
mind could never attain, without supernatural assistance — 
without a divine injlatus. This they had. And of this 
they became sensible by the fact, that the matter which, 
and the manner how, and the time when, they were to 
reveal, was made known to them by communications from 
the Holy Spirit. And, being thus conscious of what is 
usually called the inspiration of suggestion,* they could 
with confidence and safely to themselves, declare to the 
world what they did declare, as a revelation from God. 

That the sacred penmen were thus divinely inspired, 
we infer, 

2. From the consideration, that they could not have 
written, as they did write, unless they had been favored 
with the inspiration of suggestion or revelation. 

The Sacred Scriptures are, by way of eminence, 
called the Bible, that is, the Book, because they con- 
tain the successive revelations of God. They purport 
to be an unerring directory of faith and practice, for 
depraved and lost man. This being so, can we, for 
a moment, suppose, that any inspiration, except that of 
suggestion or revelation, could have been sufficient to in- 
form and direct the sacred writers, in respect to what they 
wrote? — for they were imperfect and fallible, and some of 
them illiterate. Merely preserving them from error and 
falsehood, and enabling them to write in an easy, animated, 
and lofty manner, was not enough. They must have been 

*The word suggestion is of too limited signification to express the various 
methods in which God communicated his mind to men. The word revela- 
tion is preferable, as being applicable, whether the communication was made 
by dreams, visions, voices, the ministry of angels, or in any olhpr wayj an4 
3US being chosen by the Holy Ghost himself. 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE SCRIPTURES. 59 

divinely informed what to write; for had they possessed 
the natural abilities of Gabriel, they could not have taught 
the things which they did, had they not received them 
from God ; — things too high for them to know ; — things 
appertaining to God, angels and men, time and eternity, 
heaven and hell. Hence we conclude that the sacred 
writers were under the inspiration of suggestion or reve- 
lation. 

That the sacred penmen were thus divinely inspired, 
we infer, 

3. From the fact, that they profess to be so. The 
writers of the Old and New Testaments frequently speak 
of themselves, as under the inspiration, and abiding inspi- 
ration of the Spirit. 

The prophets inform ^us, that they saw visions — that 
the word of the Lord came to them — and that they were 
authorized to sanction their communications with "Thus 
saith the Lord." In accordance with this profession, the 
apostle Peter observes, "No prophecy of the Scripture is 
of any private interpretation. For the prophecy came not 
in old time by the will of man ; but holy men of God 
spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost." Paul 
tells us, "All Scripture," (and he means at least, the 
whole of the Old Testament,) "is given by inspiration of 
God." And he also asserts, in the most positive and 
unequivocal manner, his own inspiration, and the inspira- 
tion of the other apostles. He says of himself, "I certify 
you, brethren, that the gospel, which was preached of me, 
is not after man. For I neither received it of man, neither 
was I taught it, but by the revelation of Jesus Christ." *. 

*It is thought that Paul, in his first epistle to the Corinthians, spoaks as 
though he were not inspired, at some times when he wrote, as when he says, 
chap. vii. verse 6, "But I speak this by permission and not of command- 
ment," and verse 25, " I have no commandment of the Lord ; yei I give my 
judgment as one that hath obtained mercy of the Lord to be faithful." The 
true sense of these passages undoubtedly is, what Dr. JVJacknigiii has given, 
viz. verse 6, " This 1 speak as an advice and not as an injunction," or com- 



60 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

He says of the other apostles in connection with himself; 
"Which things also we speak, not in the words which 
man's wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teach- 
eth." To this same inspiration, John lays claim in writing 
his Revelation. He begins by saying, " The Revelation 
of Jesus Christ, which God gave unto him, to show unto 
his servants things which must shortly come to pass; and 
he sent and signified it by his angel, unto his servant John; 
who bear record of the word of God, and of the testimony 
of Jesus Christ, and of all things that he saw." Citations 
from Scripture to this point might be multiplied ; but it is 
needless. It does most clearly appear, that the writers of 
the Old and New Testaments profess to have written 
under the inspiration of suggestion, or revelation — to 
have spoken in all respects as ^ey were moved by the 
Holy Ghost.* 

I proceed to consider how it appears, that the sacred 
Scriptures, including the Old and New Testaments, were 
given by inspiration of God. 

mand; and verse 25, '*I have no commandment of the Lord, delivered 
during his minislr}', to set before you 5 but I give my judgment or decision 
as having obtained the mercy of inspiration from the Lord, to enable me to 
be faithful iu all the precepts I deliver." In a note upon verse 10 of this 
chapter, this same learned writer observes : " Since, therefore, the apostle 
Paul enjoyed the abiding inspiration of the Spirit, it is evident, that in answer- 
ing the questions proposed to him by the Corinthians, when he distinguished 
the commandments of the Lord from his own commandments, his intention 
was not, as many have imagined, to tell us in what things he was mspired, 
but to show us what commandments the Lord delivered personally in his 
own life-time, and what the Spirit inspired the apostles to deliver after his 
departure." 

* It is said, if this were true, there would be no mistakes and contradic- 
tions in the Scriptures. To this Dr. Emmons says; " It may be replied in 
general that most of the supposed mistakes and contradictions, to be found in 
the Scriptures, may be only apparent; and so might be fully reconciled or 
removed, if we were belter acquainted with the original languages in which 
the sacred books were written, and with the customs and manners of the 
different ages and places in which the sacred penmen lived." " The merely 
apparent errors then to be found in their writings, must be placed to our own 
ignorance; and, all the real contradictions and mistakes must be imputed to 
the ignorance or inattention or unfaithfulness of transcribers and translators. 
And since the Scriptures were designed to be often transcribed and trans- 
lated, this made it more necessary instead of less, that the}' should be written 
at first with peculiar accuracy and precision." Upon this ground we may 
reasonably suppose, that the Holy Spirit dictated every thought and word to 
the sacred penmen. 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE SCRIPTURES. 61 

L It appears from history. 

We have the testimony of the whole Jewish nation, that 
all the books of the Old Testament, beginning with Gen- 
esis and ending with Malachi, written during the space of 
a thousand years, and by different amanuenses, and col- 
lected into one volume by the Jews, are authentic, that is, 
the writings of those persons to whom they are attributed. 
This testimony is abundant, explicit, and dispersed 
throughout a great portion of the Jewish writings. They 
also testify not only that these were the writings of those 
persons whose names they bear, but that those persons 
were divinely inspired, and that the copy they have is 
genuine, that is, a true copy of the ancient manuscripts, 
transmitted to them in a continued succession by their 
forefathers, from the times, in which the respected authors 
lived.* 

There is, in manuscript, still extant, a copy of the five 
books of Moses, called the Pentateuch. This copy is 
preserved by the Jews in their ark, as sacred and inviola- 
ble, and as containing their laws from the date herein 
assigned them. A portion of these writings is read every 
Sabbath-day in their synagogues ;t and to these writings 
they uniformly have recourse, in the decision of those dif- 
ficulties which arise among them in their secular concerns. 

The translation of the Old Testament into Greek, called 
the Septuagint, nearly three hundred years before Christ, 

* " That all the five books ascribed to Moses were really written by him, 
under Divine inspiration," says Dr. Jameson, " lias been acknovvledg^ed by 
the Jews in every age. This is indeed one of llie articles of their creed, the 
denial of which would subject any Jew to the character of an apostate. It 
is thus expressed ; ' The whole law from the very first word Beresheth, 
(that is, in the beginning) to the last words', in the sight of all Israel, were 
written by iMoses from the mouth of God.' This is not merely the faith of 
the modern Jews; we have satisfactory evidence, that their ancestors, for 
some thousands of years, were of the same sentiments." 

t"The whole Pentateuch is divided by the Jews into fifty-four sections, 
that it may be publicly read through every year, an allowance being made 
for the intercalated years, in wliich tliere are fifty-four Sabbaths." — Dr. 
Jameson's Sacred History. 

6 



62 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

still remains, and contains the same books that are found 
in the Hebrew copies of the English version, and agrees 
in all respects remarkably with both of them.* This, I 
think, proves satisfactorily, that the Old Testament was 
considered at the time it was translated into Greek by the 
Seventy-two, as the Word of God, and that our version is 
genuine. Of the genuineness of the English version, we 
may be further satisfied from the fact, that the Jews and 
Christians have ever had in keeping a copy of the Old 
Testament in Hebrew and Greek. This being the case, 
they have been, as it were, a guard upon each other; so 
that the copy of the one could not have been altered 
without the knowledge of the other. But, as neither the 
Jews nor the Christians know of any alteration, we may 
be certain that no alteration has taken placet 

The account of many things which Moses has given, 
is corroborated by the most renowned pagan authors 
of the highest antiquity. They evidently refer to the 
creation of the world in six days, and to the Sabbath, — to 
the innocence and fall of man, — to the deluge, and the 
change it produced upon the earth, — to the ark, and the 
preservation of the different animals in it, — to the rainbow 
as a token that the world shall no more be destroyed by a 
flood,— to the tower of Babel, and the confusion of lan- 
guage, — to the call of Abraham, and the rite and seal of 
circumcision,— to the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, 
by fire, — to many things respecting Moses, the giving of 
the law, and the Jewish ritual, — and to a variety of other 



*"The E%angplists and Apostles, who were the holy penmen of the 
New Testament Scriptures, quoted out of it," that is, the Greek version, 
" and so did all the primitive fathers after them. All the Greek churches 
used it, and the Latins had no other copy of those Scriptures in their lan- 
guage till Jerome's time, but what was translated from it." — Dr. Prideaux's 
Connection. 

+ The Jews have ever been faithful guardians of their sacred books. They 
have transcribed them repeatedly with the greatest care, and even numbered 
the words and letters of them. 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE SCRIPTURES. 63 

things and occurrences. The accordance or coincidence 
between sacred and profane history, is an evidence of the 
truth and genuineness of the former. And the fact that 
the sacred historians give "grave and credible accounts of 
things, while many of the ancient writers amuse us with 
fables, evidently drawn from imperfect accounts of the 
sacred story, plainly discovers Scripture to have been the 
original, from which the other is an imperfect copy." 

That the persons to whom are ascribed the writings of 
the New Testament, beginning with Matthew's gospel, 
and ending with Revelation, did exist, and that these 
writings are theirs, we cannot so reasonably doubt, as that 
there ever existed among the Greeks and Romans such 
men as Longinus, Thucydides, Livy, and Tacitus, and 
that certain writings, ascribed to them, are theirs; for we 
have more proof of the former than of the latter; — and the 
proof in either case, is the uniform testimony of that age 
in which the writers lived, and of succeeding ages. Both 
by profane and sacred history,* it is indisputably proved, 
that more than eighteen hundred years ago, there lived 
such a person as Jesus Christ, who was born at Bethle- 
hem, in the land of Judea, when Augustus Csesar was 
emperor of Rome; who was brought up at Nazareth; 
and who declared himself to be the Son of God and the 

* " We are able to produce, "says Dr. Paley, " a g-reat number of ancient 
manuscripts found in many different countries widely distant from each 
other, all of them anterior to the art of printing-, some certainly seven or 
eight hundred years old, and some which have been preserved above a 
thousand years. We have also many ancient versions of these books, and 
some of them into languages which are not at present, nor for many ages 
have been spoken in any part of the world. The existence of these manu- 
scripts and versions proves, that the Scriptures were not the production of 
any modern contrivance." 

" The Alexandrian MS." says Dr. Lardner, " was most probably written 
in the fourth century." 

Michaelis declarer, that there was no man of learning but Dr. Mill, who 
denied that the old Latin translation of the New Testament was made in the 
first century. "Chrysostom also declares in the year 398, thal^ they," that 
is, the books of the New Testament, " were in his time already rendered in 
the languages of Britain, Syria, Egypt, Persia, and India, and in the lan« 
guages of all people in the w^orld, whether barbarians or others," 



64 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

Saviour of men ; who led an upright, devout, and benev- 
olent life; who wrought many astonishing miracles, and 
foretold many things which have already taken place as 
predicted; who established the Christian religion as an 
institution of Heaven; and who was unjustly crucified at 
Jerusalem under the reign of Tiberius Csesar, while Pon- 
tius Pilate was procurator of Judea. We have testimony 
of the facts, from the enemies of Christianity, Josephus 
and Tacitus, who lived in the first century after Christ; 
Celsus, Porphyry, and even Julian the apostate ; and 
from the Mohammedans and also a host of Christian 
writers. I will mention four of the latter, eminent for 
their piety, who have borne witness to these facts — 
John, the beloved disciple of the Saviour, — Polycarp, 
the disciple of John, — Irenaeus, the disciple of Poly- 
carp, — and the learned Origen, one of the champions of 
Christianity. These four persons were successively con- 
temporaries, and lived within two hundred and fifty-four 
years after Christ. This being the case, their testimony 
is of much importance, from the consideration that it is 
more likely to be correct. 

Eusebius, bishop of Cesarea, who lived in the fourth 
century, tells us, that the gospels of Matthew, Mark, 
Luke, and John, the Acts of the Apostles, and the 
Epistles of the New Testament, were early received by 
the Christian Church, and read in their assemblies as the 
dictates of heavenly wisdom. He also tells us, that these 
same books ara cited by writers of the second, third, and 
fourth centuries, as books of undoubted authenticity and 
genuineness. 

In succeeding ages, many able defenders of the truth 
of Christianity have espoused its cause, and proved to the 
satisfaction of every candid mind, that the New Testament 
is not forged, but genuine— that it is no imposition or 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE SCRIPTURES. 65 

cunningly devised fable of a late date, but the sublime 
instructions of an infallible Teacher from heaven. 

2. It appears, that the Sacred Scriptures, including the 
Old and New Testaments, were given by inspiration of 
God, from the miracles, wrought and recorded by the 
sacred penmen. 

A miracle, in a theological sense, is an effect, varying 
from the stated course or laws of nature, wrought by the 
interposition of God himself in attestation of some divine 
truth, or of the authority of some divine messenger or in- 
spired teacher. "Miracles bespeak the presence of God, 
and are confessedly a clear and striking evidence of the 
truth of the doctrines which they are produced to prove, 
or the divine commission of the person whose authority 
as an instructer sent by God, they are wrought to estab- 
lish." They are indeed wonderful seals of God, set upon 
the Bible, to prove its truth and divinity, and the heavenly 
commission of its writers. For will God suspend or control 
the laws of nature to enable men to propagate error and 
falsehood ? 

Should a person appear before us and say he was sent 
from God, and commissioned by him to deliver certain 
truths; and in attestation of his divine commission, and of 
the truths he had uttered or was about to utter, stretch 
forth his hand, and with a rod divide the waters of the 
sea, or call the dead from their graves; — should we not 
believe him to be from God, and his message of divine 
origin? Certainly we should ; for no higher creden- 
tials 'could be given. But, among other miracles, Moses 
divided the Red sea, and Christ raised the dead. These 
miracles they wrought too, professedly in testimony of 
their divine commission and the truth of what they said. 
Why not then believe their mission to be from God, and 
their relation divine? Nothing can be pleaded as a reason 
for disbelief but the want of competent evidence, that 
6* 



GQ CHRISTIAN PHILAx\THROPIST. 

these miracles were wrought. But w^e have as much 
proof of the fact, that these miracles were wrought, as that 
any event, not known to us personally, has transpired 
since the creation of the world. 

All who have read the history of the French nation, 
doubtless believe that Louis XVI. lived, was king of 
France, and was executed on a public scaffold at Paris. 
And why? Because history relates it as notorious, that 
he did live, was acknowledged king of France, and was 
publicly executed. History also informs us that Moses 
smote the Red sea with a rod, and it divided, and that 
the Israelites passed over on dry ground, the waters mak- 
ing a wall on the right hand and on the left; and that the 
Egyptians assaying to pass over were ingulfed in the sea. 
Of this miracle we have six hundred thousand Israelites 
as witnesses. They could not be deceived, for they saw 
it with their own eyes. In commemoration of their deliv- 
erance from Egyptian bondage, the Sabbath of the seventh 
day of the week has ever since, by them, been religiously 
observed. This fact is a standing memorial of the miracle 
just related. History informs us that Christ arose from 
the dead. Of this miracle we have, as witnesses, first, 
the eleven disciples, and afterwards, five hundred others. 
In commemoration of this event, the Sabbath was altered 
to the first day of the week, and this day, by Christians, 
has ever since been religiously kept. This circumstance 
is a standing memorial of the miracle of Christ's resurrec- 
tion. The two miracles just mentioned were public, and 
were seen by competent witnesses. Public observances 
in memory of them,w^ere instituted and commenced at the 
tim.e the matters of fact took place, and have ever since 
been continued. 

In the concurrence of these circumstances, it is impos- 
sible — I say, impossible, that there should have been a 
deception. These miracles, therefore, are fully established 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE SCRIPTURES. 67 

and proved to be real, and, consequently, the divinity of 
the mission of Moses and of Jesus Christ, and the divinity 
of their doctrines. 

I might here notice, in just application to the subject 
under consideration, the various miracles of Moses, wrought 
** before the king, court, and wise-men of Egypt;" — the 
many miracles of Christ, "performed on solemn and pub- 
lic occasions, and in the presence of friends and enemies;" 
and the numerous miracles, wrought by the different writ- 
ers of the Sacred Scriptures, and appended to their divine 
commission. Suffice it to observe, that they all are sub- 
stantially attested, and prove to demonstration, that the 
hand of God was \yith those who performed them, and 
that what they wrote, as a revelation from God, was what 
it purported to be, and of real divine origin. 

3. It appears that the Sacred Scriptures, including the 
Old and New Testaments, were given by inspiration of 
God, from the prophecies recorded in them, and their 
fulfilment. 

Prescience belongs to God alone. He, therefore, who 
foreknows, or foretells events, must be God, or some per- 
son whom he has inspired. Consequently, the prophecies 
mentioned in the Scriptures, some of them uttered and 
written thousands of years ago, which have been fulfilled, 
or are now fulfilling, with perfect exactness, are a main 
pillar in supporting their inspiration — a chief corner stone, 
upon which they rest, and in view of which, they defy the 
attacks and storms of infidelity. They are a species of 
perpetual miracles, a living evidence which challenges the 
closest investigation of all in every age, — an evidence 
which becomes more incontrovertible, as what is predicted 
is daily fulfilling. 

Is it said by any that those things recorded in the Scrip- 
tures, as prophecies, " are but a history of events after they 
had taken place." Upon such we call to show when, and 



68 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

by whom, these prophecies, termed by them forgeries, 
were palmed upon the world. This never has been done, 
and we believe never can be ; and until it is done, candor 
and honesty will acknowledge their genuineness, " Con- 
sider then, the prophecies relating to that glorious person- 
age, the Messiah ; to his incarnation, character, work, 
sufferings, crucifixion, resurrection, exaltation, and reign ; 
to Tyre, Babylon, Egypt, and the four great empires of 
the Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans; to the 
Jews and to the Arabians :" — and let it be asked, if what 
has taken place, and is taking place, in relation to Christ 
and his kingdom ; if *' the perpetual slavery of Egypt, the 
perpetual desolation of Tyre and Babylon;" the destitu- 
tion of the Jews of a king, priest, temple and sacrifice, 
and their being scattered to the four winds, sifted as with 
a sieve, among all nations, yet preserved a distinct people ; 
" the wild unconquered state of the Ishmaelites ; the great 
power and strength of the Roman empire ; beyond those 
of the three foregoing empires; its division into ten 
kingdoms ; its not being subdued by any other as the three 
foretroinor were; the rise of the Mohammedan religion, 
and the Saracenic empire ; the limited continuance of this 
empire ; and the rise and progress of the empire of the 
Turks ; " — let it be asked, I say, if all these things are not 
an exact fulfilment of the above predictions — predictions 
delivered a long time before the events took place ? and 
if they do not fully demonstrate their divine authority — and 
that more than human sagacity and knowledge were con- 
cerned in their delivery? The capture of Jerusalem by 
the Romans under Vespasian, and the crucifixion of 
Christ, both predicted by him, and faithfully recorded by 
the Evangelists, fully and strongly attest the divine mission 
of Christ and the truth of his doctrines. The same may 
be said of the predictions of the apostles, attended with 
their accomplishment. The prophecies, then, of the Bible, 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE SCRIPTURES. 69 

in view of their fulfilment, incontrovertibly prove it to be 
the book of God — a heavenly message unto men. 

4. It appears that the Sacred Scriptures, including the 
Old and New Testaments, were given by inspiration of 
God, from the moral precepts, the holy doctrines, and the 
various important instructions they contain. 

The Bible contains the only religion that is rational 
and worthy of being considered as coming from God. 
This, coming from him, is expressive of his infinite intelli- 
gence, wisdom, purity, goodness, righteousness, mercy and 
truth, and infinitely transcends all other religions in extent 
and excellence. Its precepts are most ample and salutary, 
its doctrines are most interesting and sublime, and its 
promises, invitations and encouragements, abound with 
the sweetest consolations. Though written by thirty dif- 
ferent persons, and at as many different times, and with- 
out any previous concert, it is all perfectly harmonious, 
and '' adapted to the condition, the activity, the varied 
business, and different relations of social life," and to this 
state of probation. Do we wish to learn the being, per- 
fections, designs, works, laws and government of God 1 
the character, state and destiny of man ? our duties to the 
Supreme Being, to ourselves, and to our fellow-creatures ? 
In the sacred oracles, all these are delineated with exact- 
ness and particularity. Here God is represented as most 
exalted and amiable in his attributes, works and ways ; as 
the Creator, Preserver, Benefactor and righteous Judge of 
men and angels. Here are unfolded the mysteries of 
creation, providence, and redemption. Here we are taught 
the greatness and littleness, the native moral pollu- 
tion and consequent wretchedness, the happiness and 
misery of the human race ; the duties of parents and of 
children, of masters and of servants, of magistrates and 
of subjects, of friends and of enemies, the vanity of this 
world, and the glory of the next. Here is inculcated 



70 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

morality — calm, pure and rational ; virtue — sublime, re- 
fined and enduring ; devotion — penitential, joyous, ele- 
vated, and adapted to the new-born feelings and the pilgrim 
state of travellers to Zion. With this view of the contents 
of the Bible, it is not to be supposed that the penmen of 
it — many of them having their origin from a people infe- 
rior in many respects to several heathen nations, and des- 
titute of their knowledge in the liberal arts and sciences — 
could be so incomparably their superiors in ideas of mo- 
rality, religion and God, without divine instruction. This 
consideration, and the truth that bad men would never 
have written such a book as the sacred volume — so con- 
trary to their carnal hearts ; and that good men would 
never have subscribed to a falsehood ; are convincing proof 
of the divine inspiration of the Sacred Oracles. 

5. It appears that the Sacred Scriptures, including 
the Old and New Testaments, were given by inspiration 
of God, from their glorious effects. 

The religion of the Bible has illuminated the benighted, 
instructed the ignorant, counselled the wise and the fool- 
ish, raised up the bowed down, solaced the mournful, 
restrained the bad, encouraged the good, and reclaimed 
multitudes from vice and immorality. It has persuaded 
without rhetoric, conquered without arms ; and this too, 
against the strivings of flesh and blood. Where men once 
dwelt in barbarity, and paid their unhallowed devotions to 
material beings, now, by its influence, are found the meek 
and lowly disciples of Jesus, who offer up acceptable 
sacrifices to the Lord of glory, from the closet, the domes- 
tic altar, and the public sanctuary. 

The Christian religion establishes more firmly and per- 
manently, the parental and filial affections. It induces 
parents not only to embrace their offspring with tender- 
ness, but to teach them faithfully their duty, and thus 
direct them in the way to heaven. It leads children, with 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE SCRIPTURES. 71 

filial reverence, to look up and catch instruction from 
parental lips, adore the God who made them, and lisp his 
praises. It reforms and meliorates the state of society at 
large. It mitigates the rigors of government, by teaching 
tyrants moderation, and rebellious subjects submission. 
It corrects the morals of men, and makes them good citi- 
zens, by converting them to its faith and obedience. It 
enables them to bear with resignation the afflictions inci- 
dent to human life ; and did it universally prevail, it would 
at once restore paradise on earth. It also enables its sub- 
jects to meet death with composure and cheerfulness, sup- 
ported by the hope of eternal glory ; and at last it raises 
them from an animal and transitory life, and from earthly 
society, to a life that is spiritual and eternal, and to the 
society of angels, and the spirits of just men made per- 
fect. Are these the effects of the religion of the Bible ? 
Then it came down from heaven ; — and though infidels 
doubt and scoff, we may say, '' An evil tree bringeth not 
forth good fruit ; " if this religion were not of God, such 
would never be its blessed effects. 

6. That the Sacred Scriptures, including the Old and 
New Testaments, were givenby inspiration of God, appears 
from the propagation of Christianity. The Old and 
New Testaments are so intimately connected, and, in a 
sense, so dependent, one upon the other, that what proves 
the one, proves also, directly or indirectly, the other. 

The wonderful propagation of Christianity has never 
been denied. Many, friendly and unfriendly to the reli- 
gion of Jesus, have testified to its rapid spread. The New 
Testament informs us, that the first assembly of Christ's 
disciples, which was at Jerusalem a hw days after his 
ascension, consisted of one hundred and twenty persons. 
In a short time, through a signal display of the power 
of the Holy Ghost, about three thousand were added to 
the Christian church in a single day. Soon after, the 



72 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

number of Christians amounted to five thousand, and con- 
tinued greatly to increase. According to history, churches 
were established in a short time throughout most of the 
Roman empire. In prophetic language, not one of a 
family nor two of a city were taken and brought to Zion ; 
but the Lord so hastened his work, that * a little one 
became a thousand, and a small one a strong nation.' 
Justin Martyr, who wrote about one hundred and six 
years after the ascension of Christ, speaking of the extent 
to which Christianity had spread, says, " There is not a 
nation, either of Greek or barbarian, or of any other 
name, even of those who wander in tribes, and live in 
tents, among whom prayers and thanksgivings are not 
offered to the Father and Creator of the universe, by the 
name of the crucified Jesus." 

Christianity has triumphed — it has triumphed over " all 
ranks and kinds of men ; princes and priests ; the Jewish 
and heathen philosophers; and the populace, with all their 
associated prejudices from custom and education, with all 
their corrupt passions and lusts, with all the external 
advantages of learning, power, riches, and honor ; " and 
like the stone in Daniel's vision, cut out of the mountain 
without hands, it has surprisingly increased, become even 
now a great mountain, and is rapidly filling the whole 
earth. To whom shall the spread of Christianity be 
ascribed 1 The apostles were not armed with the sword 
to affright ; they had no gold to bribe, and no eloquence 
to enchant. Neither were the potentates of the earth 
their patrons. But against them were combined wit, 
learning, the sword, and the power of civil government. 
Besides, in the first three centuries, there were ten suc- 
cessive violent persecutions against the Christians. To 
whom then shall we ascribe the spread of Christianity ? 
We must ascribe it to Almighty God. The very existence 
of Christianity, and much more its propagation, after so 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE SCRIPTURES. 73 

much opposition as it has received, is an evidence, that it 
was given by the inspiration of the Holy Ghost. How 
plain, therefore, — how various, abundant, and conclusive 
the evidence in favor of the divinity of the Sacred Scrip- 
tures ! And all who have been inwardly taught by the 
Holy Spirit, feel that it is so — that the Bible must be the 
word of God. 

Two remarks will be subjoined. 

First. All people should possess the Sacred Scriptures. 
They are the only rule of faith and practice — they are 
also the most important instrument in the hand of God in 
accomplishing the salvation of his people. Hence the 
apostle, with holy boldness and triumph, observed, " I am 
not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power 
of God unto salvation to every one that believeth." Mul- 
titudes are now in heaven, singing the praises of redeeming 
love, and exulting in the fulness of everlasting joys, whose 
reconciliation to God was effected by the instrumentality 
of the Sacred Scriptures. But this can be said of no 
other book. Should we look for salvation in the Koran 
of the Mohammedan, it would tell us to put our trust in 
the Arabian im^postor, and receive as a reward, a sensual 
paradise, where the base passions and appetites of men 
are gratified. Should we look for the way of eternal life 
in the Vedas and Shaster of the Bramin, they would tell 
us to wash in the Ganges and be clean. We wash, but 
our pollution remains. 

" The leprosy lies deep within." 

It is from the Bible alone, we learn that the blood of 
Jesus Christ cleanseth from all sin. Here '* is a fountain 
opened to the house of David, and to the inhabitants of 
Jerusalem for sin and for uncleanness." Says Arrow- 
smith, " Other books may render men learned unto osten- 
tation ; but the Bible alone can make men wise unto sal- 
7 



74 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

vation." That great man, Patrick Henry, left in his will 
the following testimony in favor of the religion contained 
in the Sacred Scriptures : — " I have now disposed of all 
my property to my family ; there is one thing more I wish 
I could give them, and that is the Christian religion. If 
they had that, and I had given them nothing, they would 
be rich, and without it, if I had given them all the world, 
they would be poor." 

Robert, king of Sicily, said, '* The holy books are 
dearer to me than my kingdom, and were I under any 
necessity of quitting one, it should be my diadem." When 
on his death bed, Salmasius, a very learned man, said, 
*• Oh ! I have lost a world of time ! If one year more 
were added to my life, it should be spent in reading 
David's Psalms and Paul's Epistles." Dr. Harris, an 
Englishman of distinction, inserted in all his wills, "Item, 
I bequeath to all my children, and to my children's chil- 
dren, to each of them a Bible, with this inscription, 
' None but Christ.' " 

Such is the value of the Bible, and such the estimation 
in which it is held by the wise and good. How important 
then, that this sacred book should be in the possession of 
every son and daughter of Adam ! 

Secondly. It is a matter of joy and thanksgiving, that 
such facilities for the distribution of the Scriptures are 
possessed, and that such efforts are made to impart the 
word of life to the destitute. 

Within a few years past, Bible Societies have been 
formed in various parts of Christendom, to disseminate 
the Sacred Scriptures throughout the earth. Millions of 
copies of this holy book have been carried, by the four 
winds of heaven, to those who were perishing *' for lack 
of knowledge." How different now from what it was in 
the sixteenth century ! The very '' best ministers of that 
day seldom saw the Bible." One of eminence was asked, 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE SCRIPTURES. 75 

*' What were the Ten Commandments ? and he replied, 
There was no such book in the library." Martin Luther 
never saw a Bible till he was twenty-one years of age, 
and had taken a degree of arts. Carolstadt had been a 
doctor of divinity eight years before he read the Scriptures. 
By a law in the 34th of Henry the VIII. it was enacted 
" that no women, except noblewomen and gentlewomen, 
might read to themselves alone, or to others, any text of 
the Bible ; nor artificers, apprentices, journeymen, hus- 
bandmen, nor laborers, were to read the Bible or New 
Testament, in English, to themselves or to any other per- 
son, privately or openly." Blessed be God, that those 
times of darkness have passed away 1 " The Scriptures 
are now not only translated into all the languages of 
Europe, but into almost all the languages of the world. The 
spirit of Bible Societies, like the angel in the Apocalypse, 
has come down from heaven, and the earth is lighted with 
its glory." The British and Foreign Bible Society has 
taken the lead in this important work. To the praise of 
the God of the Bible would we speak of this noble institu- 
tion. The American Bible Society has been second to 
none other but this. The great work of supplying every 
family in the United States destitute of a Bible, speaking 
in general terms, has been accomplished. And now may 
be said, what never before could be said, that a whole 
nation has been furnished with the word of life. But 
what these Societies have wrought, could never have been 
done, had it not been for the facilities now enjoyed of 
printing the Bible and sending it forth. How unavoidably 
slow and expensive must have been the work of distribut- 
ing the Bible, when a single copy of it, written on vellum, 
cost five hundred dollars ! This was the case before the 
art of printing was invented in 1440. But this, (I had 
almost said divine art,) facilitates most wonderfully the 
spread of divine knowledge, and is rapidly imparting the 



76 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

Scriptures to the destitute throughout the world. The Bible 
was the first book ever impressed on movable types, and 
when printing was first invented, a copy would have sold 
for sixty crowns. Now it may be purchased for less than a 
single dollar. And this Book of God, bought at so cheap 
a rate, may now be wafted, through the discovery of the 
magnet, and the invention of the mariner's compass, from 
land to land, borne upon the waves of the seas, till it shall 
reach every clime and every nation under heaven. Let it 
be remembered, too, that Christians are bound to send the 
Bible to every destitute family on the face of the globe. 
One hundred millions of families, at least, are destitute. 
These must be supplied, that Christ, the sun of righteous- 
ness, may rise upon them in his light and salvation. 

In conclusion, I remark, that the signs of the times 
indicate it to be the duty of tho different Bible Societies, 
in this and other lands, to fix on some definite period, in 
which they will endeavor to send a copy of the Sacred 
Scriptures to every family on the face of the earth. The 
signs in relation to this subject are, the establishment of 
Bible Societies throughout Christendom ; the openings in 
Divine Providence for the dissemination of the Sacred 
Scriptures ; the excitement in the minds of the community 
on this subject. Christians are rapidly preparing for such 
an effort as is here contemplated. 

A definite time should be fixed upon, as this would 
centre the views and operations of all concerned in the 
benevolent design. Aiming at a definite object, they will 
be much more likely to accomplish the end in view. 

The methods to be adopted in the accomplishment of 
this object are, correspondence between the different Bible 
Societies and influential individuals in the Christian com- 
munity ; employment of persons to visit the managers of 
the different Bible Societies, in this and other countries, 
that some plan may be devised, matured, and published as 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE SCRI-PTURES. 77 

soon as possible ; selection of individuals to translate the 
Scriptures into those languages in which a version has not 
as yet been made. If none can be found prepared for the 
work, let some persons acquire forthwith the knowledge 
needed ; arrangements should immediately be made for 
printing the Bible in large numbers of copies in all those 
languages into which it has already been translated ; ap- 
pointment of agents to address the community and collect 
funds. Appeals, too, should be made from the press. 
One hundred millions of dollars would probably provide 
the Bibles required. Many individuals may be found who 
would contribute a hundred thousand dollars each, were 
they satisfied that this work could and would be accom- 
plished ; and agents should be appointed, whose special 
business it should be, to see the Bible disseminated among 
all people, that they may be able to read in their own 
tongues the wonderful works of God. 

Appendix A. 



DISSERTATION II 



DISTRIBUTION OF TRACTS. 

The benevolent Creator has endued man with rational 
and moral powers, and made him capable of endless pro- 
gression in knowledge, holiness and happiness. He has 
furnished him with the means of knowledge, and pre- 
sented before him the most weighty motives to its attain- 
ment. Knowledge is desirable, as conducive to usefulness 
and enjoyment. Of this opinion was Solomon. He says, 
" that the soul be without knowledge, it is not good." 
Knowledge is valuable, as it expands, strengthens, and 
ennobles the mind, and prepares it for successful effort. 
This is true of knowledge in medicine, law, politics, phi- 
losophy and divinity ; in all the arts and sciences. But 
man is a moral, responsible, and immortal being. Most 
of all, therefore, is knowledge valuable, on moral and 
divine subjects. It w^ould be important were our existence 
measured only by time. How greatly, then, is its impor- 
tance magnified, when we view our existence as commen- 
surate with eternity ! Great happiness in the life that 
now is, and all the happiness in that which is to come, 
depends on our acquaintance with true vital godliness- 
How important, then, that all men should have, not only a 
speculative, but also an experimental, knowledge of the 



DISTRIBUTION OF TRACTS. 79 

religion of Jesus Christ! "Yea, doubtless," said Paul, 
" and I count all things but loss, for the excellency of the 
knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord." And why ? Be- 
cause this alone could save his soul. Some knowledge of 
divinity may be obtained from the works of creation and 
providence, or from the light of nature ; but the chief 
source of divine knowledge is the Bible. This is the 
great magazine or storehouse of religious truth, and " is 
profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for 
instruction in righteousness," — " able to make us wise 
unto salvation, through faith which is in Christ Jesus." 
The writings also of the pious and good, though not 
inspired, serve to illustrate, enforce and apply the truths 
of God's word. They are happily instrumental in awaken- 
ing, converting, and saving perishing souls. Of this 
nature are the evangelical Tracts, published and dis- 
tributed by the various societies which are formed for the 
express purpose of thus promoting the glory of God, and 
the salvation of apostate man. 

Tracts, those little harbingers of light and life, are 
peculiarly adapted to usefulness, from the nature of their 
contents ; their suitableness to all ranks and conditions of 
persons ; the ease with which they are distributed ; and 
the small expense, comparatively, attending their distribu- 
tion. They are faithful too. They will not flatter, nor 
can they be intimidated. They are, also, as safe as they 
are faithful. Drawn from an incorruptible fountain, they 
inculcate, not the impure and impious doctrines of Vol- 
taire and his associates, but the pure and heavenly princi- 
ples of Christ and his apostles. " They glory in shining 
with a borrowed light. The Bible Society is often and 
appropriately compared to the sun. But if the Bible 
Society is the sun, the Tract Society is the atmospheric 
medium that reflects the glorious rays, and throws them 
into every dark corner of the earth." Tracts impart pious 



80 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

instruction in a perspicuous, concise, and interesting man- 
ner. They must, therefore, be productive of very happy 
effects. In these unassuming advocates of the cross, may 
be found a word in season, for the intemperate, the pro- 
fane, and the Sabbath breaker ; for parents and children ; 
for the high and low, the rich and poor, the righteous and 
unrighteous, the learned and unlearned, the civilized and 
uncivilized. ** A tract is a missile weapon, which the Spirit 
of God may direct to the conviction and conversion of a 
sinner, unassailable from any other quarter." While they 
are highly interesting and edifying to Christians, and those 
in the higher walks of life, ihey are peculiarly adapted to 
persons in humble circumstances, and to the impenitent, 
generally, whether in Christian or heathen lands. The 
greater part of mankind are in a state neither of affluence, 
nor of freedom even from laborious and constant employ- 
ment. Large volumes are not, therefore, suited to their 
use, as they have neither money to buy, nor time to read 
them. Among the heathen, Tracts are more profitable 
than larger works. The missionaries tell us, that the 
natives, not being accustomed to reading, will despair 
of perusing large books, and so never begin ; or should 
they begin, they will read but here and there, and to 
little benefit. But a Tract is easily read, and is generally 
read with avidity and profit. The title attracts his eye, 
the brevity tempts his indolence. In favor of thus pub- 
lishing the proclamations of divine love and mercy to the 
heathen, we have the repeated testimony of Drs. Morrison 
and Carey ; Drs. Henderson and Pinkerton, and other 
missionaries to the heathen. They view them as most 
valuable accompaniments to the Bible, and as peculiarly 
useful in this connection to lead wandering souls to God. 

The following are the opinions and declarations of 
some of the heralds of salvation, now laboring in pagan 
lands. 



DISTRIBUTION OF TRACTS. SI 

** Greece," says the Rev. Dr. Robertson, '' offers now 
more than ever an extensive field for the distribution of 
the word of God, and of religious Tracts gratuitously. 
At Samos, when I was there with the Rev. Dr. King, I 
never witnessed any thing more astonishing than the 
eagerness of the people to obtain a Tract." Says the 
Rev. Mr. Winslow of Ceylon, in a communication to the 
American Tract Society, " Could you provide the means 
of supplying not only the tens of thousands in Jaffna, but 
some of the millions on the continent with Tamul Tracts, 
we have only to say the field is large enough for your 
benevolence." The Rev. Dr. Judson at Rangoon in his 
journal writes — " The great annual festival of Shway 
Dagong is just past, during which I have distributed 
nearly ten thousand Tracts, giving to none but those who 
ask. Priest and people, from the remotest regions, are 
alike eager to get our writings." The Rev. Dr. Milne's 
testimony to the value of Tracts in heathen lands, is, 
" The Tract Society is a most important auxiliary in the 
work of converting the heathen to Christ, and though in 
comparison with Missionary and Bible Societies, it holds 
in some respects a lower place, in other respects, its utility 
is more immediate, more extensive, and more apparent." 
'' A Tract distributer, at some great festival in China, 
where men of different tongues throughout that vast em- 
pire are congregated, like the ' Parthians, and Medes, 
and Elamites, and dwellers in Mesopotamia ' on the day of 
Pentecost, might speak through these Chinese Tracts, to 
every one in the language in which he was born." In 
this way great multitudes of these heralds of mercy might 
be sent abroad, among the 300 millions of China, who 
might hereby become acquainted with that Saviour, through 
whom alone light and immortality are brought to light. 

Tracts are easily distributed. The pastor in his pa- 
rochial visits, as he goes from house to house, warning 



82 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

every man, and teaching every man in all wisdom, may 
disseminate them, and thus feed his flock with knowledge 
and understanding. The missionary, in his journeyings 
from place to place, may widely distribute them to good 
advantage. 

Pious instructions will be happily succeeded by these 
heralds of mercy, which proclaim a Saviour, and point to 
*' the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the 
world." By them, instructers of schools may " teach the 
young idea how to shoot," and thus be instrumental in 
training up a seed to serve God. Travellers, too, may 
sow by the way side those seeds of divine truth, which 
shall take deep root, spring up and bear fruit, thirty, sixty, 
and even an hundred fold, to the praise and glory of God. 
All pious persons are suitable almoners of these sacred 
charities, and may, by distributing them, lead many to the 
mansions of holiness and love. These little, but faithful 
and pungent preachers of righteousness, can find their 
way into myriads of recesses of sin and misery, where the 
ministers of religion cannot obtain admittance. Lying in 
the window or on the table, they will deliver messages 
from God to all who read them, and be instant in season 
and out of season. They will wait patiently till they can 
deliver them, and then they will do it without apology, 
equivocation, or respect to persons, and in all truth. They 
may visit courts and palaces, and by their powerful elo- 
quence, make the great and the noble tremble, as did 
Felix. They may visit cottages, and even the meanest 
hovels, and by their heavenly influence, cause the poor 
and ignoble to become rich in faith, and heirs of the king- 
dom. Tracts can traverse the whole inhabited globe. 
No burning sun under the equator, nor frigid clime in 
polar regions, can prevent them. — Their cheapness is 
favorable to their wide diff*usion. A penny will purchase 
a Tract which brings life and immortality to light, and 



DISTRIBUTION OF TRACTS. 83 

may save a soul from death. A missionary's support for 
one week would procure a thousand Tracts of fifteen 
pages each. In this way a great amount of good may be 
accomplished by small means. Millions of minds may be 
affected with little labor and expense. 

In this view of the subject, how admirable the plan of 
the monthly distribution of Tracts, which brings divine 
truth before the mind at frequent and stated seasons ! 
This systematic effort for the diffusion of these heralds of 
mercy, is like the " tree of life, bearing twelve manner of 
fruits and yielding her fruit every month ; and the leaves 
of it are for the healing of the nations." While much 
good is imparted to others, by the exhortations, counsels, 
and pious conversation of the distributors, they themselves 
are spiritually benefited. While they water others, they 
themselves also are watered. This method of imparting 
religious knowledge to any considerable extent, was first 
adopted in the city of New York, and has since been suc- 
cessfully practised very generally throughout the land. 
Nor has it been restricted to the United States ; it prevails 
to a greater or less degree, in other countries, and will 
undoubtedly be adopted in all Christian nations. The 
Tract system breathes the very spirit of heaven, and is to 
be regarded as one of the grand engines for demolishing 
the kingdom of darkness and sin, and building up the 
kingdom of light and holiness. 

By surveying a map of the globe, we behold three 
fourths of its inhabitants groping in the darkness of Mo- 
hammedan delusion and Pagan idolatry. But blessed be 
God ! it will not always continue to be so. The Sun of 
righteousness is to dissipate this darkness. The trump of 
prophecy has announced it. All this is to be accom- 
plished, however, not by miracles, but by the blessing of 
God, accompanying the use of suitable means. And 
Tracts are greatly to help forward in this mighty achieve- 



84 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

ment. From the immense number already circulated, 
and the incalculable good they have already accomplished, 
we have a pledge that the great Head of the church will 
continue to smile on this work of faith, and labor of love. 
A fountain of Tracts should be opened in every continent, 
nation, town and hamlet, from which streams may con- 
tinually issue to make glad the city of our God. Like the 
Bible, they should be published in all languages, and dis- 
tributed among all people. These winged messengers 
should fly through the earth, carrying with them the Gos- 
pel of the blessed God, till their influence is as extensive 
as human ignorance and sin. 

Tracts have already done great good. Abundant and 
striking evidence of this might be adduced. Incredulity 
itself cannot doubt it. The Dairyman's Daughter, and 
the Young Cottager, have been instrumental in bringing 
many sons and daughters unto glory. Others, too, have 
been equally successful. The light of eternity alone can 
reveal the whole amount of good, which has been accom- 
plished by their instrumentality. " Distributors could tell 
us of the sorrows of widowhood assuaged, of the profligate 
reclaimed, of the burdens of poverty alleviated, of anger 
changed to gentleness, of profane habits abandoned, of 
Sabbath violations ceased, of the tear of penitence, and 
the radiant smile of hope" produced. The distribution 
of Tracts by the infidels of the last century, for the pur- 
pose of expelling from the world the Christian religion, 
first suggested the idea of Religious Tracts, and has 
given rise to Tract Societies, which will be an important 
means of banishing infidelity from the world, and filling 
the earth with the knowledge of God. The London 
Tract Society has attempted and accomplished great 
things. Its influence has extended to the four quarters of 
the globe. Following so bright an example, societies of 
this nature have come into existence in almost every 



DISTRIBUTION OF TRACTS. 85 

nation where the light of Christianity sheds its benign 
radiance. The American Tract Society at New York 
has been in existence only a few years ; yet it has attained 
a greatness and glory, far surpassing the most sanguine 
expectations of its founders. It has received, most sig- 
nally, the approbation and blessing of Heaven. How 
gratifying and animating to every benevolent heart ! The 
more it is contemplated, the more it will afford matter 
for grateful and admiring praise. But though much 
good has already been effected, yet we shall see far 
greater things than these, for the mouth of the Lord 
hath spoken it. The energies of Tract Societies will 
be increased many fold. Their march will be boldly 
and rapidly onward. A host of the sons and daughters 
of Zion will enrol their names among the friends of such 
institutions. The great and the wise will covet the luxury 
of thus doing good. Call not this sentiment enthusiasm. 
If it be so, it is blessed enthusiasm. Would to God 
Christendom was filled with it. There are 150,000,000 
of families in the world, to which Tracts should be sent. 

Antoninus was one of the best of the Roman em- 
perors. His life was a scene of universal benevolence. 
Cecropia or Athens was held in high reputation, and 
attracted the attention of all the philosophers. But Anto- 
ninus discovered more than a local attachment. He looked 
upon the whole world as worthy of his attention, and con- 
sidered it as the object of his benevolence. '^ Shall any 
one," says he, " love the city of Cecrops, and you love 
not the city of God 1" How much more disinterested and 
pure should be the benevolence of the Christian ! and to 
how much greater degree ought he to practice it ! It is 
not a little favored spot he regards, it is not an insulated 
portion of the globe, that he would have fructified and 
converted into a paradise. It is not his own garden and 
fields only, on which he wishes the refreshing showers to 
8 



86 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

fall. But with a noble, expansive, and generous mind, he 
prays that the whole earth may be filled with the glory of 
God. Such a spirit produced the Tract Societies, whose 
happy effects are felt in every direction. 

What a striking resemblance to ancient Jerusalem at 
one of the great annual festivals, when the Israelites from 
every tribe presented themselves before the Lord, are the 
cities of Boston and New York, on the week of their reli- 
gious anniversaries! Then are held the annual meetings 
of the Tract, Sabbath School, Missionary, Education, and 
other benevolent societies, whose object is the glory of 
God, and the salvation of men. Such too is London ; and 
such is Paris, which less than sixty years ago, was infidel. 
And I trust the day is not far distant, when such will be 
the most distinguished places in every part of our globe. 
Are not these things a sign of the Millennium's approach ? 
Will they not accelerate the day foretold in the oracles of 
God, when " all shall know the Lord, from the least of 
them unto the greatest of them " ? What part shall we 
act in this great drama of human affairs? Let conscience 
decide. This is the cause of Almighty God, and it will 
prevail. 

Appendix B, 



DISSERTATION III. 



FOREIGN MISSIONS. 

*'Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to 
every creature." This command of the risen Saviour 
was addressed to his disciples eighteen centuries ago. 
Upon looking at it, the question naturally arises. How far 
has this command been obeyed? An answer to this 
inquiry may be given by ascertaining what portions of the 
human race are still unevangelized, and what parts of the 
globe are inhabited by those who have not as yet embraced 
the gospel of Christ. 

Pagans are unevangelized. This appears from a con- 
sideration of their religion, which is at a vast remove from 
Christianity. They pay divine homage to idols, or false 
gods. Those of this faith worship the sun, moon, and 
stars, fire, water, stocks, and stones; beasts, insects, rep- 
tiles, and even plants and herbs. In India alone, it is said 
that there are three hundred and thirty millions of idol 
gods. In their religious rites, ceremonies, and obser- 
vances, the heathen are most horribly stupid, debased, 
obscene and bloody. Their religion is a yoke of cruel 
and wicked bondage. The most unnatural, atrocious, and 
barbarous practices prevail among them. In Hindoostan, 
China, the pagan islands of Polynesia, and in some of the 



88 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

tribes of the North American Indians, it is lawful to destroy 
infants. In some nations, parents and dear friends, when 
they become sick or infirm, are exposed or slain. Some 
of the tribes in Africa and South America, as also the 
inhabitants of New Zealand, feed on human flesh. 
Thousands in India annually commit suicide, as a reli- 
gious act, by drowning themselves, or burning themselves 
on funeral piles ; by prostrating themselves under the 
wheels on which their idol gods are borne, or by yielding 
to the most agonizing tortures. Dr. Ward calculates that 
five thousand widows are annually burnt in Hindoostan» 
Females generally are doomed to the most contemptuous 
degradation and servility. In the language of the apostle, 
the heathen "are without Christ, aliens from the common- 
wealth of Israel, strangers from the covenants of promise, 
having no hope, and without God in the world." Pagan 
lands are emphatically ' dark places of the earth, full of the 
habitations of cruelty.' They embrace the greatest part of 
Asia, the interior of Africa, the wilds of North and South 
America, and most of the islands of the seas. Four 
hundred and fifty millions of the human race are thus 
shrouded in moral darkness, in all its varied and horrid 
appearances. 

Among those who are unevangelized may be reckoned 
Mohammedans. Their religion was framed and taught by 
Mohammed, the Arabian impostor, and is a mixture of 
Paganism, Judaism, and Christianity. Its principal char- 
acteristics are sensual indulgence, strict adherence to rites 
and ceremonies, and a malevolent spirit towards those of 
a different faith. It is absurd and superstitious; grossly 
indecent, and immoral. The highest reward it pretends 
to confer on its votaries, is a sensual paradise, where the 
base passions and appetites of man are gratified. This 
religion, so dark, delusive and wicked, has been propa- 
gated by the sword, and embraced by multitudes, crowding 



FOREIGN MISSIONS. 89 

their way, generation after generation, down to the gates 
of eternal death. It prevails principally in Turkey in 
Europe, in Palestine, Persia, Arabia, Syria, Mesopotamia, 
Independent Tartary, Afghanistan in Asia, in Egypt, the 
Barbary States, and the interior nations as far south as the 
Niger in Africa. The number of Mohammedans is com- 
puted at about one hundred and thirty millions. 

The Jews, too, are in an unevangelized state. This 
will appear from a view of their faith, or the religion they 
embrace. 

They believe in the Scriptures of the Old Testament, as 
inspired truth, and in a Messiah yet to come, who shall be 
to them a temporal prince and deliverer, and who shall 
ultimately rule king of all nations. The Jews reject 
entirely, the New Testament, with the Saviour it reveals, 
and depend for salvation on their own works of righteous- 
ness. They embrace, for the most part, the literal 
meaning of the Scriptures of the Old Testament, and 
consequently discard their spiritual import. Hence their 
religion, or, in other words, Judaism in its present state, 
is chiefly external ; and probably but little more conducive 
to salvation, than the religion of the Koran of the Moham- 
medans, or of the Vedas of the Hindoos. As to country, 
they are scattered to the four winds of heaven, dwell alone, 
and are not reckoned among the nations. They are 
computed by some, to be about eight millions in number. 

The Greek and Latin. churches should be associated 
with Pagans, Mohammedans and Jews. In faith and 
practice, they are, in general, opposed to the gospel of 
Christ. The Greek church, so called, because at first 
embraced within the limits of the Greek division of the 
Roman empire, and because its proceedings and forms of 
worship have been generally in the Greek language, has 
numerous rites and ceremonies, many of which are bur- 
densome, ridiculous, and shocking. This denomination 
8* 



90 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

of Christians, generally speaking, are in a state of gross 
ignorance, as it respects the doctrines and duties of reli- 
gion. They practice the invocation of saints, kneeling 
and burning incense before pictures and relics, confession 
of sins to the priest, that they may obtain his absolution, 
and the offering of prayers for the dead. They believe, 
too, in transubstantiation, or the conversion of bread and 
wine into the real body and blood of Christ, in the holy 
chrism or anointing, and in tonsure or cutting the hair 
of children in the form of the cross at their baptism. 
Though Christian in name, they possess but little of the 
spirit and form of Christianity, and in this respect, are not 
at a great remove from heathenism. The Greek church is 
spread over a greater extent of country, than that of any 
other church, and exists principally in Eastern Europe and 
Africa, and Western Asia. About seventy millions of 
souls are included within the pale of this church, a great 
part of whom are subject to the jurisdiction of the patri- 
archs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jeru- 
salem. 

The Latin church, so denominated, because at first it 
v*'as chiefly restricted to the ancient Latins, and because 
its liturgies and public transactions are in the Latin lan- 
guage, is in a much worse moral condition than the Greek 
church. Gross darkness covers the people, far more 
inexcusable, and almost as great as that which pervades 
Pagan and Mohammedan countries. All of this church, 
usually called Catholics, or Roman Catholics, acknowledge 
the supremacy of the pope, and the infallibility of his 
decisions in faith and practice. Though termed in Scrip- 
ture the beast that ascended out of the bottomless pit, and 
the man of sin, and the son of perdition, yet he claims to 
himself, and has ascribed to him by his subjects, the blas- 
phemous titles, ** His Holiness," " Lifallibility," "Sovereign 
of kings and kingdoms," "Christ's vicegerent on earth," 



FOREIGN MISSIONS. 91 

yea, "God upon earth." The people are not allowed to 
read, or possess the Bible. Prayers are offered in an 
unknown tongue. They believe that their priests can 
pardon sins, and of course, hold to auricular confession, and 
to absolution.* They believe that the bread and wine in 
the Lord's supper, are converted into the real body and 
blood of Christ, and therefore worship the elements in the 
partaking of the Eucharist. They pray to the Virgin 
Mary, and the canonized saints, and observe a vast variety 
of senseless, pompous, and superstitious rites. They pay 
great respect to the traditions, inventions, and doctrines of 
men, the legends and fictions of saints, and lay much 
stress on masses, penances, and pilgrimages, all which are 
destitute of the life and power of true godliness. The 
Roman Catholic religion obtains principally in Italy, 
France, Bavaria, Austria, Sardinia, Spain, Portugal, 
Poland, Netherlands, Germany, Ireland, Mexico or New 
Spain, the Canadas and South America. The number 
that embraces it is about eighty millions. 

Such as have been described, are the religions of Pa- 
gans, Mohammedans, and Jews, and of the Greek and 
Latin churches; and such is the melancholy and awful 
condition of perhaps twelve-thirteenths of the w^orld's 
population. 

Take now a map of the earth, and survey the extent of 
its unevangelized portions, and number the missionaries 
who have gone forth in obedience to the command of the 

*The following tariff of the prices of absolution for certain crimes has 
been published at Rome, and shows the proportional degree of their moral 
turpitude as estimated by the Catholics : 

Pardon for a layman who shall strike a priest, without effusion £ s. d. 

of blood, may be oblained for 5 

For one layman who shall take the life of another layman, . ..033 

For eating meat on Lent day, 055 

For murdering a father, mother, wife or sister, 5 

For marrying on those days when the church of Rome forbids 

matrimony, 200 

For the absolution of all crimes, 2 16 



9-2 CHRISTLAJS PHILANTHROPIST. 

risen Saviour to preach the gospel to every creature. 
A sketch mav be taken from the Rev. Gordon Hall's 
affecting appeal to the American churches, written at 
Bombay, in IS'^G, only six weeks before his death. 

*'From Bombay if we look down the coast for seventy 
miles, we see two missionaries — fourteen miles further we 
see two more ; looking in a more easterly direction at the 
distance of about three hundred miles, we see one mis- 
sionary, chiefly occupied however, as a chaplain among 
Europeans. In an eastern direction, the nearest mission- 
ary is about one thousand miles from us. Looking a little 
to the nonbeast, at a distance of thirteen hundred miles, 
we see ten or twelve missionaries, in a little more than as 
many miles, on the banks of the Ganges. Turning thence 
northward, nearly thirteen hundred miles more, we see 
three, or four, or five more, separated from each other by 
almost as many hundred intervening miles. And looking 
onward beyond these distant posts, in a north-east direction, 
through the Chinese empire and Tartary to Kamschatka, 
and thence down the north-western coast of America, to 
the river Colombia, and thence across the mountains to 
the Missouri, the 6rst missionaries we see in that direction, 
are brethren Tail and Chapman, among the Osages. 
A^^ain, we look north, at the distance of one hundred and 
eighty mil^, and we see two missionaries; but from 
thence (with two or three doubtful exceptions) through all 
the Dorth of Asia, to the pole, not a single missionary is to 
be seen. In a north-western direction, it is doubtful 
whether there b now one missionary, between us and Sl 
Petersburg. Westerly, the nearest is at Jerusalem, or at 
Beyroot. South-west, the nearest is at Sierra Leone, and 
more to the south, the nearest may be among the Hotten- 
tots, or in 31adagascar !" 

Such was the state of the heathen world, when Hall, 
that devoted servant of Christ, took his flight to the king- 



FOREIGN MISSIONS. g^ 

dom of eternal light and love. Litiie cocnparatiTelT. h-as 
since been dooe to evangelize the great famiiT of man. 
Perhaps there may be foor hundred mJaeMBorj statiflBs m 
the difereot parts of tlie globe, and eight faondFed ws- 
dooaries, to jHeach to fire hmdred Mfflioiis of immmttai 
beings — one mi^: - re-eigiitbs of a Hifliim. 8UI 

the svmpathies of '- 5 foteTer sleep orer smtk wnak 

death ! Shall the heathen peridi for lack of knovied^et 
It must not be. It wiQ not be. The time vifi eocne whea 
''the earth shall be filled with the knowledse of the Lord, 
as the vaters coi^er the sea, and afl ^ofl know the Lord. 
fix»ffi the least of them to the greaiest of th^B." It is 90 
written in the statnte book of HeaTea. Ib the 11 1 !■■ 
pb^aeot of this prediction, the great Head of the chorch 
has giren directions to his disciples, '* Go ye mto afl the 
vwld, and preach the gospel to es^err crealore." 

But why sbonld this command be obeyed? Tfaeve are 
Ibar motiTes to obedience. 

1. The gospel is absdateb' neeessarr to the well 
of mankind. Natoraily. they aie in a levoted 
alienated from God and from a life of hofiness^ 
le^ns within. '' The* whoie bead is sick, and the 
heart is faint." '* They hare forsakes the Lord, ihsw 
proroked the Holy One of la^el to aager, thej are «i 
awaj backward.'* All are alike nuoed 1^ 
dieir language, color, climate, or 
upon this, are the frowns of indignaBt Heaiem. A paE»- 
dise is tnmed into a helL Adreraiy and BHserr stalk 
abroad in the earth. There is ik> peace to Ae wicked, 
and the wages of sin is death. Oar vorid is one Tast 
Aceldama, one great chamei-hcMae. Death has 
from Adam to the presoit tine. Brridf i^ 
regions of utter despair, and lalenuiiahle vn^ aee mam 
experiencing the second death — the gsaviags of that 
worm which shall never die, and the aiigwi^ of that ire 



94 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

which shall never be quenched. And multitudes more of 
hardened impenitent sinners, will be doomed to endure 
the blackness of darkness forever. 

Such are the evil effects of sin. And nothing but a 
restoration to supreme love to God, and the perfect obe- 
dience of gospel holiness, will redeem man from that 
wretchedness, to which he is exposed by sin. The reno- 
vation of the heart by the Holy Ghost ; supreme affection 
for him who is the fountain of all good ; repentence for 
every deviation from moral rectitude; and faith which 
worketh by love, and restores man to confidence in God ; 
— these are the graces which constitute the religion of 
Jesus Christ. And these are sufficent to qualify for 
happiness on earth, and in heaven ; nay, they are heaven 
aJready begun in the soul — prelibations of the blessedness 
of the saints in light. The gospel is the only remedy for 
the malady of a lost world. It is the great instrument, in 
the hands of the Divine Spirit, of convincing and con- 
verting sinners, and preparing them for the kingdom of 
glory. " Is not my word like as fire, saith the Lord, and 
like a hammer that breaketh the rock in pieces ? " The 
prayer of the Saviour, respecting his disciples, was, 
'* Sanctify them through thy truth ; thy word is truth." 
Peter, in his epistle to Christians, considers them as 
*' being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incor- 
ruptible, by the word of God, which liveth and abideth 
forever." Paul, addressing the Corinthian church, says, 
*' In Christ Jesus I have begotten you, through the 
gospel." We have no account in Scripture that any, who 
had arrived to years of discretion, were ever converted, 
until the means of instruction had been used with them. 
The understanding is the medium through which the 
heart is affected. When God was about to gather in his 
ehosen of the Jews, he sent them the prophets ; when he 
was about to display his grace in the salvation of the 



FOREIGN MISSIONS, 95 

Gentiles, he sent forth the heralds of the gospel. In- 
struction precedes conversion ; and conversion, precedes 
eternal glorification in heaven. " He that believeth shall 
be saved, but he that believeth not shall be damned.'' 
" Faith Cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of 
God, and how can they hear without a preacher." 

But a question here arises, Is the gospel essential to the 
salvation of the heathen ? This question, so affecting in 
its nature, it becomes us to answer with caution and as 
warranted by the word of God. '' The truth," says Dr. 
Doddridge, respecting it, " seems to be this ; that none of 
the heathen will be condemned for not believing the 
gospel, but they are liable to condemnation for the breach 
of God's natural law ; nevertheless if there be any of 
them in whom is a prevailing love to the Divine Being, 
there seems reason to believe that for the sake of Christ 
they may be accepted of God." " If we suppose a 
heathen," observes the Rev. John Newton, " brought to 
a sense of his misery, to a conviction that he cannot be 
happy without the favor of the great Lord of the world ; 
to a feeling of guilt, and a desire of mercy, and that, 
though he has no explicit knowledge of a Saviour, he 
directs the cry of his heart to the unknown Supreme to 
have mercy upon him, who will prove that such views and 
desires can arise in the heart of a sinner, without the 
energy of that Spirit, which Jesus is exalted to bestow ? 
Who will take upon him to say, that his blood has not 
sufficient efficacy to redeem to God a sinner who is thus 
disposed, though he has never heard of his name ? Or 
who has a warrant to affirm, that the supposition I have 
made, is, in the nature of things, impossible to be re- 
alized." He adds, " For want of express warrant from 
Scripture, I dare not give the sentiments I have now 
offered a stronger name than probable, or conjectural." 

The most that these candid and charitable persons say, 



96 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

on this subject is, that there is a possibility, and in a given 
case, which rarely, if ever occurs, a bare probability, that 
a heathen may be saved. Now and then, perhaps, a 
Nathanael or Cornelius may be found. While we are dis- 
posed to make this acknowledgement, we are constrained 
to confess, that we see no evidence of the fitness of the 
heathen for heaven. It is a declaration of the great apostle 
to the Gentiles, true in the nature of things, that " without 
holiness no man shall see the Lord." That the heathen 
are unholy will be doubted by none acquainted with their 
moral condition. There is scarcely a vestige of holiness 
among them. So impure is even their religion, that it 
would cause the blush of shame to describe it. " Universal 
history, ancient and modern," says Dr. Scott, " does not 
bring to our knowledge one person, who, without reve- 
lation in some way or degree, was a humble, penitent, 
and spiritual worshipper of God, a conscientious worker 
of righteousness in his habitual conduct." Says Dr. 
Ward, " Amidst a pretty large acquaintance with the 
heathen in India, I have never seen one man who ap- 
peared to fear God, and work righteousness." We have 
then no authority from the light of nature, to say that the 
heathen will be saved, and we have no warrant to say this 
from the Sacred Scriptures. 

The remarks which have been made in regard to the 
heathen, will also apply to the Mohammedans and Jews. 
So far, therefore, as human ken is able to discern, we see 
no hope of the salvation of this vast multitude of human 
beings, while immersed in such gross depravity, igno- 
rance, and superstition. They must be furnished with 
the gospel. 

2. Another motive for evangelizing the heathen, is the 
command of Christ. 

** Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to 
every creature." Such is the command of Him who is 



FOREIGN MISSIONS. 97 

King in Zion, and Head over all things to the church. 
It is an expression of infinite love to the children of men, 
accompanied with all the authority of Heaven. The com- 
mand was addressed by Christ, after his resurrection, to 
his eleven disciples, and it " contains an express commis- 
sion to preach his salvation and kingdom to all the nations 
of the earth, and to men of every description and charac- 
ter, as far as they were able ; and it implies a command 
to the same effect to all their successors in the sacred 
ministry, as far as it is in their power; and to all Chris- 
tians to aidthem according to their several abilities and 
situations." This command, therefore, is obligatory upon 
Christians in every age, so long as there is a single heathen 
on earth to be evangelized ; and it obliges them to seek, 
in all possible ways, the conversion of the world. The 
import of it is, * Go, scatter abroad the blessings of sal- 
vation. Penetrate every desert ; cross every sea ; scale 
every mountain ; and see that no dark corner of the earth 
be left uncheered by the glory of the gospel.' How can 
the heathen ever hear that Jesus Christ tasted death for 
every man, and that through him salvation is offered to 
the whole world, but by the preachers of righteousness ? 
and how can they preach except they be sent? The 
heralds of the gospel must go forth to evangelize the 
nations, and Christians must send and support them. In 
obedience to the command of Christ, the glad tidings 
of mercy must be proclaimed from Cape Horn to Nova 
Zembla, and from California to Japan,till hymns of salvation 
shall be sung by every tongue, and vibrate on every ear. 
Let none who have been purchased by the blood of Im- 
manuel, question this duty. When the King of Zion 
commands, shall not his subjects yield implicit obedience? 
Let the command of Christ then be announced as with 
trumpet-tongue, that the whole earth may hear : — "Go ye 
into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature."' 
9 



98 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

3. The last motive to a compliance with the command 
of Christ, is the certainty of the ultimate and complete 
success of the cause of missions. 

As an earnest of this, I will recur for a moment to the 
success which has attended missionary efforts. See the 
trophies of divine grace, gathered, under God, by those 
missionaries, who have labored among the Hottentots, the 
Caffrees, the inhabitants of the Sandwich and Society 
Islands, the Cherokees and Choctaws. See the converts 
to righteousness, under the preaching of Christ crucified, 
by the Moravian Brethren. In their zealous, patient, 
and persevering efforts for the salvation of men, they have 
set an example worthy to be followed by all Protestant 
people, and the results of their labors have been great and 
oflorious. The success, too, which has attended the efforts 
of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions, not to speak of the success attending other 
Foreign Missionary Societies, is demonstration that the 
cause is the Lord's and will ultimately prevail. The 
Society was formed in 1810, and what has it accom- 
plished ! It has now under its care twenty-six missions 
and eighty-five stations; connected with which are one 
hundred and twenty-six ordained missionaries, (of whom 
nine are regularly educated physicians, and several others 
have prosecuted medical studies to such an extent as to 
render them highly useful in that capacity,) eleven physi- 
cians not ordained, twenty-five teachers, ten printers and 
book-binders, and eight other lay-assistants, and one hun- 
dred and seventy-eight married and unmarried female 
assistants ; making a total of three hundred and fifty- 
eight missionaries and assistant missionaries sent forth 
from this country. Seven native preachers and one hun- 
dred and eight other native assistants, employed princi- 
pally as teachers, are also laboring at the several missions; 
making a total oi four hundred and seventy-three persons 



FOREIGN MISSIONS. 99 

now connected with the missions of the Board and sup- 
ported by its funds. Connected with the several missions 
are forty-nine churches gathered by the labors of the mis- 
sionaries, embracing some thousands of native members 
in good standing ; also seven seminaries for the education 
of native preachers and other assistants in which are three 
hundred and thirty-six pupils, with eight other boarding 
schools embracing three hundred and four pupils ; besides 
one hundred and fifty-four free schools, in which six thou- 
sand one hundred and forty children and youth are receiv- 
ing a Christian education. There are thirteen printing 
establishments for the use of the missions, with three type 
founderies, and twenty-four presses. These establishments 
possess the means of printing in thirty different languages, 
spoken by more than 450,000,000 of people, exclusive of 
the English. The languages are the following :— Greybo, 
Zulu, Italian, Greek, Armeno-Turkish, Armenian, Arabic, 
Mahratta, Portuguese, Goojuratee, Hindosthanee, Latin, 
Tamul, Siamese, Chinese, Japanese, Malay, Bugis, Ha- 
waiian, Marquesas, Cherokee, Choctaw, Seneca, Aberna- 
quis, Ojibwa, Ottawa, Creek, Osage, Sioux, Pawnee; 
thirteen of which were first reduced to a written form by 
missionaries of the Board. The whole number of pages 
printed by the missions of the Board since their com- 
mencement, is not far from one hundred and fifty millions. 

The smiles of Heaven upon these and other missionary 
efforts, indicate glorious things in behalf of those who are 
eittins: in the reo-ion and shadow of death. 

But we have greater evidence of God's favor to the 
benighted heathen, than the success of missions. The 
mouth of the Lord hath spoken it, and it is recorded on 
the prophetic page, " Ask of me and I will give thee the 
heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of 
the earth for thy possession." *' Is it a light thing that 
thou shouldest be my servant to raise up the tribes of 



100 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

Jacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel ; — I will also 
give thee for a Light to the Gentiles, that thou mayest be 
my salvation to the ends of the earth." " All the ends of 
the earth shall see the salvation of God." Such are the 
predictions of the word of truth ; and shall they fail of 
accomplishment? Shall the unchangeable purposes of 
the Holy Omnipotent be frustrated? No. There shall not 
fail aught of any good thing which the Lord hath spoken. 
All shall come to pass. The command of Christ will be 
obeyed. The gospel will be preached to all that dwell 
upon the face of the earth, and the harvest of the world 
will be gathered in. The pagoda of the Hindoo, the 
mosque of the Mohammedan, and the cathedral of the 
Catholic, will totter to ruins, while the temple of the true 
Christian shall arise, filled with holy incense, a pure offer- 
ing to the one living and true God, the Father, the Son, 
and the Holy Ghost. How glorious and complete the 
ultimate success of the cause of missions! How animat- 
ing the thought, that the world, which is given to Christ, 
shall one day become his, by entire subjection to his 
authority, and that he shall reign from sea to sea and from 
the river to the ends of the earth ! But all this is to be 
accomplished by God, through the instrumentality of hu- 
man agency. Means are as necessary in the moral, as in 
the natural world. The pure gospel must be preached. 
Nothing short of this will effectually move the hearts of 
men, and make them willhig subjects of the Prince of 
Peace. This, and this only, accompanied by the special 
influences of the Holy Ghost, will bring sinners to God. 
A case illustrative of this, we have, in a converted North 
American Indian. The account of his conversion is as 
follows : — " 1 have been," said he, " a heathen, and have 
grown old among the heathen ; therefore I know how the 
heathen think. Once a preacher came and began to tell 
us that there was a God. We answered him, * Dost thou 



FOREIGN MISSIONS. 101 

think us so ignorant as not to know that? Go back to 
the place from whence thou earnest.' Then another 
preacher came to us and began to say, * You must not 
steal, nor lie, nor get drunk.' To him we answered, 
' Thou fool ; dost thou think that we do not know that ? 
Learn first thyself, and then teach thy own people to 
leave off these practices; for who steal, or lie, or are 
more drunken than the white men.' Thus we dismissed 
him. After some time brother Ranch came into my hut, 
and sat down by me. He then spoke to me as follows : — 
** I am come to you in the name of the Lord of heaven 
and earth. He sends to let you know that he will make 
you happy, and deliver you from that misery in which you 
at present lie. For this purpose he became a man, gave 
his life a ransom, and shed his blood for you.' When he 
had finished his discourse, he lay down upon a board 
fatigued by his journey, and fell into a sound sleep. I 
then thought, 'What kind of a man is this? There he 
sleeps. I might kill him, and throw him into the woods, 
and who would regard it? But this gives him no care, 
nor concern.' At the same time, I could not forget his 
words. They constantly recurred to my mind. Even 
when I slept I dreamed of that blood, which Christ shed 
for us. I found this to be something different from what 
I ev'er heard before ; and I interpreted brother Rauch's 
words to other Indians. Thus through the grace of God, 
an awakening began among us. Brethren, preach Christ 
our Saviour, and his sufferings and death, if you would 
have your words gain entrance among the heathen." 

Vastly greater efTorts than ever have been made, must 
be made before the conversion of the world will take 
place. As yet, little, comparatively, has been done. All 
the missionaries now in the unevangelized parts of the 
earth, would be but about one minister to a million of 
souls. Plant two missionaries at Portsmouth, N. H., 
9* 



102 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

and strike a radius from that point which shall embrace 
the whole of rS[ew England, and you have the popula- 
tion and territory for two missionaries only. And have 
eighteen centuries passed away, since the command was 
given to evangelize the world, and no more heralds of 
the gospel been sent forth to proclaim the tidings of 
mercy ! Let Christians blush, and be ashamed, and real- 
ize their obligations to immediate and increased efforts. 
Christendom has ability to send the gospel to the ends of 
the earth, and, (I had almost said,) not feel the expense. 
The sinorle campaicrn in Russia, cost more than all that' 
Christians have expended in charities for centuries, and 
more than enough to supply half the whole world with 
ambassadors of the cross.* "An English lady in Paris, 
after entreating her American correspondent to send her 
a few copies of the Tract, entitled ' The conversion of 
the world,' exclaims, 'Only 80,000 Missionaries demanded 
to preach to the whole world ! Why, any petty prince in 
Germany can furnish a greater army ; and shall the great 
Captain of Salvation hold up his standard in vain?" No; 
multitudes will flock to it. The King of Zion will have 
an army to go forth for the conquest of the world, possess- 
ing the fearlessness and perseverance of Paul, and Wick- 

* According to iSegur's History of Boii.nparte's Expedition to Russia, and 
Lahaume's INarrative of tlie Campaign in Russia, there were no less than a 
million of persons, including lliose of tlie French and Russian armies, en- 
gaged in that campaign. 

At the lowest estimate, it would require two hundred dollars a year on an 
average, to support each individual, considering that a large proportion of 
them were officers, whose salaries must have been hundreds, and some of 
them thousands of dollars a year, and that many of them were cavalry, 
whose expenses must have been much greater than those of infantry ; and 
also that immense expense must have been incurred for the equipment of the 
army in ordnance, &c. The campaign, then, must have cost more than 
txvo'hvndred inilHons oi {\o\\i\v%. The sacrifice of property must have been 
viami Innulred nnllious of dollars. Foiir hundred thousand ministers would 
supply half the world with ambassadors of the cross. Fire hundied dollars, 
■Will) Ins own earnings, will educate a charity scholar for the gospel ministry. 
Four hundred thousand, multiplied by Jive hundred, produces just tvo hundred 
nnllions. Tlie sum of money, therefore, expended in the campaign in 
Russia, would educate more ministers, than enough for the supply of half 
the whole world ! 



FOREIGN MISSIONS. 103 

liffe, and Luther; the missionary spirit of Svvartz and 
Martyn, and of our own Eliot, and Brainerd, and Mills. 
The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Mis- 
sions ought to send forth to the heathen as many, at least, 
as fifty new missionaries, the present year, and as many 
more in every succeeding year, that a mighty impression 
may be made upon the Pagan world. They ought not to 
think of any thing less than sending within one generation 
three hundred and sixty heralds of the cross to the three 
hundred and sixty millions of China — one third of the 
globe — a world of men. Had all the Christians of this 
land the spirit of Worcester and Evarts, this work would 
be accomplished. Dr. Worcester in one of his letters, 
written just before his death, observed, " One thing is 
consummated and settled in my mind, and that is, a full 
and delightful conviction, that the cause of missions has 
never held too high a place in my estimation, or engaged 
too large a share of my attention. This is saying nothing — 
it transcends, immeasurably transcends the highest esti- 
mation of every created mind. And what is the sacrifice 
of health, what the sacrifice of life to such a cause ! Be 
the event what it may, recovered health or an early death, 
I never can regret what I have done in the work, but only 
that I have done so little, and with a heart so torpid. 
The world yet lieth in wickedness — in darkness and cor- 
ruption. The gospel is the only remedy — the means pre- 
scribed by sovereign Wisdom for its recovery. To com- 
municate the gospel to all the families of the earth, is a 
work to be done by those who have felt its power, and 
know its value. They have no time to lose, no advan- 
tages to be neglected, no talents to be held unoccupied. 
Christians have yet to feel very differently from what they 
have been accustomed to feel on this subject. The 
standard of piety must be raised. Devotedness to Christ 
and his cause must not be a matter of mere theory. It 



104 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

must be carried into living and demonstrative practice." 
**0 that we migrht think, and act," said the lamented 
Evarts, "under the influence of feelings like these, till 
the ear shall be saluted from every continent and island 
with the gladdening shout — the plague is stayed — the 
wrath of God is averted — the world is transformed — 
Christ is exalted, and his kingdom is universally estab- 
lished in the hearts of the children of men." 

Appendix C, 



DISSERTATION IV. 



CONVERSION OF THE JEWS. 

" I WILL take you from among the heathen, and gather 
you out of all countries, and will bring you into your own 
land. And ye shall dwell in the land that I gave to your 
fathers ; and ye shall be my people and I will be your 
God." This passage of Scripture is a part of a prophecy 
respecting the seed of Abraham. No people whatever 
are so interesting as the Jewish nation. From them have 
descended Patriarchs, Prophets, Judges, Kings, Priests, 
and Apostles ; and of them, as concerning the flesh, Christ 
came, who is over all, God blessed forever. This won- 
derful people have been in every condition of life ; in 
strength and in weakness ; in affluence and in penury ; in 
splendor and in disgrace ; in happiness and in misery. 
They are spoken of in the Scriptures under various appel- 
lations. They were at first denominated Hebrews, most 
probably from the circumstance, that Abraham came from 
the other side of the river Euphrates into Canaan, the 
word Heber, from which Hebrew is derived, signifying 
beyond. They were afterwards called Israelites, from 
their being the descendants of Israel, the father of the 
twelve patriarchs ; and lastly, they were called Jews from 
Judah, especially after their deliverance from the Baby- 



106 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

Ionian captivity, because the tribe of Judah was the most 
numerous, powerful, and distinguished of the twelve tribes. 
They believe in the Old Testament as inspired truth, and 
in a Messiah yet to come, who shall be to them a temporal 
Prince and Deliverer, and ultimately, rule King of all 
nations. They entirely reject the New Testament, and 
the Saviour it reveals, and depend for salvation upon their 
own works of righteousness. Most of the modern Jews 
are Pharisees.* A few only among them are Sadduceest 
and Essenes. | In addition to the Old Testament, which 
they revere as most sacred, they possess the Talmud, 
which contains their written Rabbinical constitutions, and 
explications of the law, and a Targum, or Paraphrase 
upon the Old Testament in the Chaldee language. These 
are their principal religious books. They have also an 
oral tradition, or a mysterious kind of science, which they 
use in the interpretation of the books, both of nature and 
revelation. This is called Cabala. For the most part, 
they embrace the literal meaning of the Scriptures, and, 
consequently, discard their spiritual construction. Hence 
their religion is chiefly external, and is really no better 
than the religion of the Koran of the Mohammedans, or of 
the Vedas of the Hindoos. 

* The Pharisees derive their name from a word which signifies to sepa- 
rate. They affect to be more strictly relig-ious than other people, and to 
possess extensive knowledge of the Divine will and a peculiar interest in the 
favor of God. " Almost all the modern Jews are Pharisees," says JMr. 
Buck, " and are as much attached to tradition as their ancestors were, and 
assert that whoever rejects the oral law deserves death. Hence they enter- 
tain implacable hatred to the Caraites, who adhere to the text of Moses, 
rejecting the Rabbinical interpretation." 

tThe Sadducees arose betv.een two and three hundred years before 
Christ, and take their name from one Sadoc, a principal leader of the sect. 
" There are still some of the Sadducees in Africa and in several other places ; 
but they are few in number, at least, there are but very few who declare 
openly for these opinions." 

t"The Essenes are a very ancient sect that was spread through Syria, 
Egypt, and the neighboring countries. They maintained that religion con- 
sisted wholly in contemplation and silence. They look upon the law of 
Moses as an allegorical system of spiritual and mysterious truths; and re- 
nounced in its explication all regard to the outward letter." — Buck's Theo, 
Dictionary. 



CONVERSION OF THE JEWS. 107 

In this dissertation, it is proposed to notice, First, the 
number, dispersion, degradation, and oppression of the 
Jews; and, Secondly, their final restoration to the land of 
their fathers, the time when this will take place, and their 
subsequent happy condition. 

First, we are to notice the number, dispersion, degrada- 
tion, and oppression of the Jews. The number of the 
Jews, at the present time, has been differently computed. 
A writer of considerable distinction, after much exertion to 
ascertain their true number, estimates them as follows : — 

Under the dominion of the Grand Seignor, .... 2,500,000 

In the Barbary States, 350,000 

In Poland, before the partition of 1772, 1,000,000 

In Russia, comprehending Moldavia and Wallachia, 300,000 

In the different States of Germany, 600,000 

In Holland and Belgium, 100,000 

In Sweden and Denmark, 5,000 

In France, 50,000 

In Great Britain and her dependences, 80,000 

In the Italian States, 200,000 

In the United States of America, 3,000 

In Persia, China, Hlndostan, &c, according to the 
latest estimates, 2,500,000 

^ Making in the whole, 7,688,000 

Perhaps this estimate may not be exactly correct in all 
respects. The number of Jews in Spain, Portugal, Cochin 
China, and the remote parts of Persia and India, cannot 
be accurately ascertained. These Jews embrace all the 
existino- descendants of the two tribes of Judah and Ben- 
jamin, and the remnant of the long lost ten tribes of Israel. 
This extraordinary people, once the favorites of Jehovah, 
are now scattered to the four winds of heaven, justly 
suffering for their rebellion and unbelief, the vials of divine 
wrath, which their fathers imprecated, when they crucified 
the Lord of life and glory, and exclaimed, *' His blood be 



108 CHRISTIA15 PHILANTHROPIST. 

on us and on our children." Looking down the long 
descent of ages, the omniscient God foretold, by the mouth 
of his prophets, the future wretched condition of this 
infatuated nation. "The children of Israel shall abide 
many days without a king, and without a prince, and 
without a sacrifice, and without an ephod, and without a 
teraphim." "And the Lord shall scatter thee among all 
people, from the one end of the earth even unto the other; 
and there thou shalt serve other gods, which neither thou 
nor thy fathers have known, even wood and stone. And 
among these nations shalt thou find no ease, neither shall 
the sole of thy foot have rest; but the Lord shall give thee 
there a trem.bling heart, and failing of eyes, and sorrow of 
mind." "The people shall dwell alone, and shall not be 
reckoned among the nations." "And thou shalt become 
an astonishment, a proverb, and a by-word among all 
nations whither the Lord shall lead thee." " And they 
shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away 
captive into all nations, and Jerusalem shall be trodden 
down of the Gentiles." "There shall not be left here one 
stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down." 
"Behold your house is left unto you desolate." The Jews 
are then represented as exclaiming, "Our holy and our 
beautiful house where our fathers praised thee, is burned 
up with fire; and all our pleasant things are laid waste." 

These prophecies, uttered hundreds of years before the 
events predicted took place, are most exactly fulfilled in 
the Jews. Different from the Egyptians, Chaldeans, 
Greeks, Romans, and all other nations, they have, accord- 
ing to the sure word of prophecy, abode many days desti- 
tute of a civil, or religious polity. From the destruction 
of Jerusalem by Vespasian, the Roman emperor, they have 
had no sceptre, nor lawgiver; no civil government, or 
country, of their own ; no temple-worship, or sanctuary 
where the high priest might offer sacrifice. On the 1 7th 



CONVERSION OF THE JEWS. 109 

of July, in the year of our Lord 71, according to Josephus, 
the daily sacrifice ceased, and it has never since been 
renewed ; they have no image, ephod, or teraphim ; no 
voluntary idolatry has prevailed among them. And though 
in popish countries, they have, according to prediction, 
served other gods which neither they nor their fathers had 
known, even wood and stone ; yet they have always done 
it through constraint, and as mere hypocritical compliance 
with anti-christian requirements. " In the Roman cap- 
tivity, the Jews were dispersed through all the regions of 
the east and west. For every nation of which the Roman 
army consisted, when they returned to their own countries, 
carried some of them with them into Greece, Germany, 
Italy, Spain, France," and many other countries. This 
people, thus scattered over the face of the earth, have been 
reproached and persecuted with the greatest virulence ; 
carrying with them the tokens of divine reprobation. The 
name Jew has been a proverbial mark of detestation and 
contempt among the nations. Kings and subjects, Pagans, 
Mohammedans and Christians have united in vilifying and 
abusing them, and in attempting to exterminate them from 
the earth. "All history," says the Rev. Charles Buck, 
" cannot furnish a parallel to the calamities and miseries 
of the Jews — rapine and murder, famine and pestilence 
within ; fire and sword, and all the terrors of war without. 
At Cesarea, twenty thousand of the Jews were killed by 
the Syrians in their mutual broils, and at Damascus, ten 
thousand unarmed Jews were killed, and at Bethshan, the 
heathen inhabitants caused their Jewish neighbors to assist 
them against their enemies, and then murdered thirteen 
thousand of these inhabitants. At Alexandria, the Jews 
were murdered to about fifty thousand. The Romans 
under Vespasian invaded the country, and took the cities 
of Galilee, Chorazin, Bethsaida, and Capernaum, where 
Christ had been especially rejected, and murdered num- 
10 



110 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

bers of the inhabitants. At Jerusalem the scene was 
most wretched of all. At the Passover, when there might 
have been two or three millions of people in the city, the 
Romans surrounded it with troops, trenches and walls, 
that none might escape. The three different factions 
within, murdered one another. The multitudes of unbu- 
ried carcasses corrupted the air and produced a pestilence. 
The people fed on one another, and even mothers, it is 
said, boiled their infants and ate them. After a siege of 
six months, the city was taken, and except three towers 
and a small part of the wall, was rased to the ground ; 
and the foundation of the temple and other places were 
ploughed up. At Jerusalem alone, it is said, one million 
and one hundred thousand perished by the sword, famine 
and pestilence. In other places, two hundred and fifty 
thousand were cut off, besides vast numbers sent into 
Egypt to labor as slaves. Besides what they suffered in 
the east by the Turkish and sacred war, it is shocking to 
think what multitudes of them the eight crusades murdered 
in Germany, Hungary, Lesser Asia, and elsewhere." 
Multitudes in France and England have been burnt 
Many have been enslaved by the Egyptians, Assyrians, 
Babylonians, Romans and Spaniards. They have at 
different times been banished from England, France, 
Spain, Portugal, and many other countries. It is sup- 
posed, that about five millions of Jews have been put to 
death since the commencement of the Christian era. And 
though they have been thus dispersed, degraded, and 
oppressed, they have never been confounded with other 
people. They have never been reckoned among the 
nations; but have dwelt alone, as aliens and exiles; and 
have been a distinct people, neither Christians nor idola- 
ters, though dwelling among both. The common civil 
franchises granted to others have been denied to them. 
"They have repeatedly, but in vain, attempted to obtain a 



CONVERSION or THE JEWS. m 

naturalization in England and other nations among whom 
they are scattered." Nevertheless, this repudiated people 
have been preserved amidst all their calamities and mise- 
ries, for more than seventeen hundred years. Like the 
bush on Horeb, they have ever been burning, but are not 
consumed. How marvellous, that after so many wars, 
fires, famines and pestilences; so many rebellions, rob- 
beries and persecutions, they are not utterly destroyed 
from the face of the earth ! What a striking monument 
do they exhibit of divine justice and wrath for the great 
crime committed at Calvary, when their fathers imbued 
their hands in the Saviour's blood ! 

Secondly, We notice the final restoration of the Jews to 
the land of their fathers, the time when this will take place, 
and their subsequent happy condition. 

*' Surely there is no enchantment against Jacob, neither 
is there any divination against Israel ; according to this 
time it shall be said of Jacob, and of Israel, what hath 
God wrought!" "He will not utterly cast away his 
people whom he foreknew." From Moses to John, in his 
Revelation, the restoration of the Jews is prospectively set 
forth. Thus saith the Lord God, *' Behold I will take the 
children of Israel from among the heathen, whither they 
be gone, and will gather them on every side, and bring 
them into their own land." " Afterward shall the children 
of Israel return and seek the Lord their God, and David 
their king, and shall fear the Lord and his goodness in 
the latter day." " I will take you from among the heathen, 
and gather you out of all countries, and I will bring you 
into your own land." " And ye shall dwell in the land 
that I gave to your fathers, and ye shall be my people, and 
I will be your God." In the vision of Ezekiel respecting 
the resurrection of the dry bones, the restoration of Judah 
and Israel from their wretched condition is prefigured and 
predicted. ^* The hand of the Lord was upon me, said 



112 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

the prophet, and set me down in the midst of the valley, 
which was full of bones; and lo, they were very dry. 
And he said unto me, Son of man, can these bones live? 
And I answered, O Lord God, thou knowest. Then said 
he unto me, Prophesy unto the wind, prophesy, son of 
man, say to the wind, Thus saith the Lord God, Come 
from the four winds, O breath, and breathe upon these 
slain that they may live. So I prophesied, as he com- 
manded me, and the breath came into them; and they 
lived and stood upon their feet, an exceeding great army. 
Then said he unto me. Son of man, these bones are the 
whole house of Israel. Therefore prophesy and say unto 
them, Thus saith the Lord God, behold, O my people, 
I . . . shall put my Spirit in you, and ye shall live, and 
I shall place you in your own land; then shall ye know 
that I the Lord have spoken it, and performed it, saith the 
Lord." Thus the outcasts of Israel shall not always be 
scattered upon the mountains, as sheep that have no 
shepherd; but they shall be reclaimed from their wander- 
ings and reinstated in their own land, for the mouth of the 
Lord hath spoken it. 

But is their restoration to be viewed in a literal or 
spiritual sense? The plain language of Scripture and 
analogy in reference to predictions concerning the Jews, 
favor the opinion of their literal restoration. It was pre- 
dicted, that the seed of Abraham should be in bondage in 
Egypt, and afterwards be liberated and possess the land 
of Canaan. All this was literally accomplished. It was 
foretold that the Jews should be carried captive to Babylon, 
remain in captivity seventy years, and then return to their 
own land. All this, too, was literally fulfilled. It was 
also predicted that they should be dispersed and oppressed 
among the nations, and after a long series of years be 
restored to the land of their fathers. Their dispersion 
and oppression has been literally accomplished. An^ 



CONVERSION OF THE JEWS. 113 

why, consequently, shall we not suppose that their restora- 
tion also will be literal ? This is at least probable. Be- 
sides, it is expressly said, that they shall be " restored to 
their own land," '' the land of their fathers," *' the land 
which was given to Jacob," and " the land wherein their 
fathers dwelt." Now this is the land of Canaan, or 
Palestine : and that they shall return to this land and 
dwell in it, the Jews themselves have a strong presenti- 
ment. Hence they are constantly looking to Jerusalem in 
expectation of the promised Messiah. The final and 
literal restoration of the Jews has been believed by many, 
eminent for their talents, learning, and piety. Witsius, 
who was the glory of the church of Holland; Gill, who 
was the most learned champion of the Baptists ; President 
Edwards, the elder, who was, perhaps, the greatest theo- 
logian of his age ; Doddridge, who was the ornament of 
the English Non-conformists ; Locke, who excelled as a 
metaphysician ; and Whitby, who was the leading com- 
mentator among the Arminians ; — all these embraced this 
opinion, and strenuously maintained it. But an inquiry 
here arises, when shall these things be 1 When shall the 
indignation of the Lord against his covenant people, be 
accomplished ; when shall they return and seek the Lord 
their God, and David their king ? From the history of 
this remarkable people, the signs of the times and the 
tenor of prophecy, it is evident that the days of their 
tribulation are almost numbered and finished. From their 
history for more than seventeen centuries, it would seem, 
that the vials of divine indignation, denounced against 
them for their impiety and rejection of the Saviour, are 
now nearly expended. Many things indicate their speedy 
restoration. The prevailing opinion among the Jews 
themselves, is, that their national restoration is at hand. 
They begin to be favorably disposed towards Christianity. 
Some of the dry bones move with the breath of life. 
10* 



114 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

Numbers have already been actually converted to the 
Christian religion. Christendom has aroused from the 
slumber of ages, and now feels and acts in reference to 
their woes and wants. Though we may not be able to 
ascertain the particular day or year, yet the prophecies 
contained in the book of Daniel and in the Revelation of 
John, lead us to conclude that the restoration of the Jews 
will take place before the seventh thousand years of the 
world. The tyrannical reign of the little horn in Daniel 
was to continue for a time and times and the dividing of 
a time ; that is, as writers on the prophecies understand 
it, for three years and a half, or forty-two months, which, 
reckoning thirty days to a month, make just one thousand 
two hundred and sixty days. These prophetic days are 
supposed to signify one thousand two hundred and sixty 
years, a day, being put for a year. The same period 
Daniel assigns for the completion of the oppression of the 
children of Israel. " One said, how long shall it be to 
the end of these wonders ? And I heard the man clothed 
in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, when he 
held up his right hand and his left hand unto the heavens, 
and sware by him that liveth forever, that it shall be for a 
time, times and a half; and when he shall have accom- 
plished to scatter the power of the holy people, all these 
things shall be fulfilled." Of this same great and impor- 
tant event, our Saviour himself speaks. " The Jews," 
says he, ''shall be led away captive into all nations; and 
Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles until the 
time of the Gentiles be fulfilled." What these times of 
the Gentiles are, we learn in the Revelation of John. 
" The court which is without the temple is given unto the 
Gentiles, and the holy city shall they tread under foot 
forty and two months." To the same effect speaks the 
apostle Paul, " I would not, brethren, that you should be 
ignorant of this mystery, that blindness in part has hap- 



CONVERSION OF THE JEWS. I15 

pened to Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be come 
in ; and so all Israel shall be saved." The time for the 
conversion of the fulness, or abundance of the Gentiles, 
will be, when the great anti-christian obstructions shall be 
removed. When this takes place, then the reign of the 
little horn, and the treading of the holy city under foot, 
which are exactly commensurate with each other, shall be 
at an end. And at this period, the Jews will begin to be 
restored to the land of their fathers. Now, then, if we 
can only ascertain when the 1260 years commence, during 
which time the saints were to be under the tyrannical 
reign of the little horn, we can determine the time for the 
restoration of the Jews, Mr. Faber, a learned writer on 
the prophecies, is confident that the giving of the saints 
into the hands of the little, or Papal horn, was in 606, 
when Phocas constituted the bishop of Rome universal 
bishop, and supreme head of the Papal church. This 
opinion appears somewhat plausible. If the saints were 
to be given into the hands of the Papal horn 1260 years ; 
the giving them into his hands would seem to note the 
beginning of the 1260 years. And constituting the bishop 
of Rome universal bishop, seems to be the very act of 
giving the saints into his hands. In 606 then, we may 
probably date the beginning of the 1260 years. Much 
evidence in favor of this opinion, Mr. Faber attempts to 
adduce, from the predictions concerning the Mohammedan 
imposture. This and the Papal superstition, he thinks, 
were to commence, continue, and close together. But 
Mohammed began his atrocious reign, in 606, the very 
year in which the saints were given into the hands of the 
Papal beast. Now add 1260 years to 606, and it makes 
1866. This, then, will be the time, according to Mr. 
Faber's view of it, for the destruction of Papal Rome, 
the subversion of Mohammedan delusion, and the restora- 
tion of the Jews ; for their conversion to Christ, and taking 



116 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

possession of the holy city, Jerusalem. It is also the 
opinion of Mr. Faber, that one part of the Jews will be 
restored in a converted state, and the other part in an 
unconverted state. And though the restoration of the 
Jews may commence in 1866, yet they all will not be 
brought back until seventy-five years afterwards. This 
conjecture he founds upon the 11th and 12th verses of the 
last chapter of Daniel ; in which the prophet speaks of a 
time thirty years longer than the 1260 years, and also a 
time of forty-five years longer still. Thirty years will be 
occupied in the conversion and restoration of the then 
existing descendants of Judah and Benjamin. The sub- 
sequent forty-five years will be employed in the conversion 
and restoration of the remnant of the ten tribes of Israel, 
and all others that may not have been restored. 

In favor of the above opinions and calculations, I wish 
not to be understood as expressing myself with much 
decision. I would rather present them as the views of 
others, distinguished for their attention to these subjects, 
and leave the questions, when the conversion of the Jews 
shall take place, and when the latter-day glory of the 
church shall be introduced, to be settled by the develop- 
ments of God's providence. 

It is supposed by Sir William Jones, the Rev. Dr. 
Buchanan and others, that the Afghans, who dwell in the 
interior of Asia, are a part of the ten tribes, and are of 
the first dispersion. In proof of this is adduced their 
personal appearance, their language, names, rites, obser- 
vances, and history. These circumstances render this 
hypothesis probable. It is, also, the opinion of President 
Stiles, Dr. Boudinot and others, that the savages of North 
and South America are descendants of the ten tribes of 
Israel. In establishing this opinion it is argued, " that all 
the American Indians appear to have had one origin ; that 
their language appears to be a corruption of the Hebrew ; 



CONVERSION OF THE JEWS. 117 

that they have their holy ark ; that they have formerly 
practised circumcision ; that they have one, and only one 
God, in contradistinction from all other pagan nations ; 
that they have a variety of traditions evincing their 
Israelitish origin ; that they have a Levitical tribe ; and 
that they have cities of refuge." Whatever may be the 
truth of these hypotheses, this fact is certain, that when 
the seventy-five years beyond the 1260 years, or the period 
here embraced, shall have elapsed, then all Israel shall 
be saved ; " then the stick of Joseph shall be united 
forever with the stick of Judah ; Ephraim shall be no 
more a separate people ; but the whole house of Jacob 
shall become one nation, under one King, even the mystic 
David, Jesus the Messiah; then will commence the season 
of millennial blessedness." " Then modern Judaism and 
Popery, Paganism, and Mohammedanism, will be ex- 
changed for pure and undefiled religion ; and Jerusalem 
shall be a spiritual metropolis, and the fifth great monarchy 
of the Lamb." 

And when the Jews shall have regained possession of 
the holy land, it is predicted concerning them, "Neither 
shall they defile themselves any more with their idols, nor 
with their detestable things, nor with any of their trans- 
gressions, but I will save them out of all their dwelling 
places, wherein they have sinned, and will cleanse them, 
so shall they be ray people, and I will be their God. And 
David my servant shall be king over them ; and they all 
shall have one shepherd ; and they shall also walk in my 
judgments ; and observe my statutes, and do them." 
''And they shall dwell in the land that I have given unto 
Jacob, my servant, wherein your fathers have dwelt ; and 
they shall dwell therein, even they and their children, and 
their children's children forever ; and my servant David 
shall be their prince forever. Moreover, I will make a 
covenant of peace with them ; it shall be an everlasting 



118 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

covenant with them ; and I will place them, and multiply 
them, and will set my sanctuary in the midst of them 
forever more. My tabernacle also shall be with them ; 
yea, I will be their God, and they shall be my people ; and 
the heathen shall know that I the Lord do sanctify Israel, 
when my sanctuary shall be in the midst of them forever- 
more." In this prediction, it is promised, that Israel 
shall be delivered from their abominations and transgres- 
sions ; that they shall become holy, and be the peculiar 
people of God, walking in his judgments and observing his 
statutes to do them ; that, generation after generation, 
they shall dwell in the land of Canaan, which once flowed 
with milk and honey, and which shall again, by the arm 
of Omnipotence, be turned into a fruitful field ; that they 
shall enjoy the tokens of the divine presence, and the 
blessings of religion and its ordinances; and that the 
great Eternal shall be the object of their worship and the 
source of their felicity; that he will be reconciled to them 
through Christ, and admit them to his covenant of peace 
and love ; that the mystic David, Jesus the Messiah, shall 
be their King, their Shepherd, and their Prince forever ; 
and that the nations of the earth shall witness the favor 
and protection of benignant Heaven towards them, when 
the Lord shall sanctify Israel, and when his sanctuary 
shall be in the midst of them forevermore. Then to a 
great degree, shall be seen the removal of the primeval 



" And nature all glowing in Eden's first bloom." 

This dissertation will be concluded with a few remarks. 

First, The exertions in the present day in behalf of the 
Jews, are an omen for good, and an indication that the 
latter-day glory is drawing near. Efforts are making 
in England, France, Germany, Poland, and the United 
States, to effect the return of the house of Jacob. Many 



CONVERSION OF THE JEWS. II9 

societies in Europe and America have been formed, the 
New Testament has been translated into the Hebrew 
language, and to a considerable extent circulated ; thou- 
sands of tracts in Hebrew have been printed and dis- 
tributed ; religious schools for Jewish children and favor- 
ably disposed adults have been established ; periodical and 
other publications to enlighten, animate, and encourage 
the Christian community, are constantly issuing from the 
press ; a number of converted Jews have been educated 
and sent forth as missionaries, to their brethren, their 
kinsmen according to the flesh ; and many persons of 
most eminent distinction in the eastern and western conti- 
nents, have arisen as patrons to this great and glorious 
cause. These things promise much on behalf of the Jews ; 
are as the few drops which precede a mighty shower, and 
indicate that the millennial day will soon dawn. It is 
universally acknowledged that when the Jews shall be 
brought in, then will take place the conversion of the 
fulness of the Gentiles ; then Christ will take to himself 
his great power and reign King of nations as he does now 
King of saints ; then there shall be one fold, comprising 
Jews and Gentiles ; and one Shepherd, even Jesus. 

Secondly, There is great encouragement to enlist in 
the benevolent enterprise of raising up the tribes of Jacob, 
and of restoring the preserved of Israel. At the present 
time there is an increased attention to the ancient cove- 
nant people of God, in all the nations of Christendom. 
The formal apathy for those of the circumcision, ceases 
from the Christian's bosom. The Jews themselves are 
beginning to examine the authenticity of the New Testa- 
ment. There are great movements among them, espe- 
cially in Poland. More than two hundred of them on 
the continent of Europe, havfe actually embraced the 
Christian religion. Already a wave sheaf is presented 
before the Lord, as the first fruits of a spiritual harvest. 



120 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

A better and brighter day to Israel has already dawned. 
Verily the branches that have been broken off from the 
good olive tree, shall be grafted in again. Like Philip 
they shall exclaim, we have found him, of whom Moses 
in the law and the prophets did write, Jesus of Nazareth ; 
and like Saul of Tarsus, they shall preach the faith which 
once they destroyed. They shall visit the land of their 
fathers' sepulchres, and when their restoration shall be 
accomplished, they will pre-eminently aid in the conver- 
sion of the Gentiles. ** For if the casting away of them 
be the reconciling of the world, what shall the receiving 
of them be but life from the dead." Salvation will again 
be of the Jews; for out of Zion shall go forth the law, 
and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. Let not 
unbelief say, there is a lion in the way. Is any thing too 
hard for the Lord ? What cannot Omnipotence achieve ? 
Be not faithless but believing. Beloved for their fathers' 
sakes, the Jews shall receive the benedictions of Heaven, 
Unequivocal indications exist that the time, even the set 
time to favor Zion, is come ; that the great crime at Calvary 
has been punished by all nations ; and that God will smile 
propitiously upon the descendants of Abraham in these 
latter days. These things excite to action, and inspire 
the hope of success, as exertion shall be made to convince 
the dispersed of Israel that Shiloh has come, the desire of 
all nations, to turn away ungodliness from Jacob. 

Thirdly, It becomes all to engage in this great and 
good work, by their prayers, eloquence, and charities. 
The work is humane and glorious ; it is the redemption of 
millions of our race from the most deplorable degradation, 
calamities and woes ; the spiritual regeneration and salva- 
tion of so many precious immortals. That this great 
work shall be achieved, we have the promise and veracity 
of the immutable Jehovah. But it is to be wrought, not 
by miracles, but by means, by human instrumentality. 



CONVERSIO^^ OF THE JEWS. 121 

Gratitude demands the interposition of the Gentile world 
in behalf of the Jews. We are great debtors to the 
children of Israel ; *' because that unto them were com- 
mitted the oracles of God ; " — and " unto them pertaineth 
the adoption, and the glory, and the covenant, and the 
giving of the law, and the service of God, and the promi- 
ses, whose are the fathers, and of whom, as concerning 
the flesh, Christ came." They are the depositaries of our 
sacred things. And a just return of gratitude to them 
requires, that we endeavor to rend the vail of unbelief from 
their hearts, remove the blindness from their eyes, wipe 
away their reproach, deliver them from bondage, and 
bring them into the glorious liberty of the children of 
God. This, too, Christian philanthropy demands ; love 
to the Redeemer and his cause, and the glory of God 
demands. The Jews, therefore, are the proper subjects 
of our prayers. With Paul it should be our hearts' desire 
and prayer to God that Israel may be saved. *' Those 
who neglect to pray daily for the Jews," says archbishop 
Leighton, " neglect the greatest glory of the church." 
And we should pray, too, with the spirit and faith of 
Daniel and Nehemiah. It is also the duty of all who 
have opportunity, to reason with the Jews out of the 
Scriptures, opening and alleging that Christ must needs 
have suffered, and risen again from the dead, and that 
this Jesus, who is preached unto them, is Christ. Those 
who inquire after the Saviour, they should direct to the 
Star of Jacob, and say unto the cities of Judah, Behold 
your God. This should be done with meekness, gentle- 
ness, and long-suffering. Israel, too, should participate 
in our charities. As God has given us ability we should 
contribute to their necessities. The zeal of all Christian 
lands should be quickened on their behalf. *' O that the 
salvation of Israel were come out of Zion ! " " O that 
we might speak comfortably to Jerusalem, and cry unto 
11 



122 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

her that her warfare is accomplished, that her iniquity is 
pardoned!" '' O that the ransomed of the Lord might 
return and come to Zion, with songs and everlasting joy 
upon their heads, — that they might obtain joy and glad- 
ness, and sorrow and sighing might flee away ! " How 
happy should we Gentiles be to meet, on the heavenly 
Mount Zion, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, Moses and the 
Prophets, Peter and Paul ! Let us then imbibe their 
spirit ; exercise their faith, and imitate their example, and 
thus be prepared to join the heavenly assembly, and unite 
with them in the song of redeeming praise. 

Appendix D. 



DISSERTATION V 



HOME MISSIONS. 

" Ye see the distress we are in, how Jerusalem lieth 
waste, and the gates thereof are burned with fire ; come, 
and let us build up the wall of Jerusalem, that we be no 
more a reproach. And they said, Let us rise up and 
build. So they strengthened their hands for this good 
work." 

In the days of Artaxerxes, king of Persia, Jerusalem 
was in a defenceless and ruinous state. Hearing of its 
wretched condition, and possessing great affection for the 
place of his fathers' sepulchres, Nehemiah, a Jew, and 
the king's cupbearer, conceived the noble design of 
rebuilding the city. To this intent he first prayed to the 
God of heaven, believing that success depended on his 
pleasure, and then sought the king's permission. Artax- 
erxes granted his request. Nehemiah, without delay* 
repaired to Jerusalem, and on the third night after his 
arrival, he arose, and taking some few men with him, 
went round the city, and viewed its walls broken down, 
and the gates thereof consumed with fire. After this he 
assembled the Jews, priests, nobles, rulers, and the rest of 
the people, and thus addressed them, '' Ye see the dis- 
tress we are in, bow Jerusalem lieth waste, and the gates 



124 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

thereof are burned with fire ; come and let us build up 
the wall of Jerusalem, that we be no more a reproach. 
Then Nehemiah told them of the hand of his God, 
which was good upon him, and also the king's words that 
he had spoken unto him. And they said, Let us rise up 
and build. So they strengthened their hands for this 
good work." They immediately and resolutely engaged 
in this glorious enterprise, and in fifty-two days happily 
accomplished it. 

The preceding account may be accommodated to the 
spiritual Jerusalem of this land. There are in our Zion 
most lamentable desolations. In view of them every 
Christian's heart must be distressed. These desolations 
should be, must be repaired. Christians should resolve 
and execute their resolutions, as did the Jews in the time 
of Nehemiah. They should say, " Let us rise up and 
build," and then strengthen their hands for this good 
work. In this dissertation it is intended, 

I. To take a brief survey of the waste places of Zion 
in our country. 

II. To show that these waste places should be repaired, 
And, 

in. To point out the methods, in which this may be 
accomplished. 

I. It is intended to take a brief survey of the waste 
places of Zion in this country. In the remarks, that may 
be made, reference will be had only to the desolations 
within the bounds of the Congregational and Presbyterian 
denominations of Christians. By waste places, is meant 
those towns, parishes, or districts of country, which lie in 
moral desolation, where no Evangelical minister will be 
settled or supported, without foreign pecuniary aid. 

Nehemiah, before he commenced rebuilding the walls 
of Jerusalem, took a particular survey of its ruins. The 



HOME MISSIONS. 125 

good people of this nation must become acquainted with 
its spiritual desolations, before they will use their exer- 
tions to repair them. However painful the task, I will 
now attempt to delineate the moral wastes of our beloved 
country. 

I begin with New England, where the Pilgrims planted 
themselves. Under their pious care and culture, the 
' wilderness became like Eden, and the desert like the 
garden of the Lord ; joy and gladness, were found therein, 
thanksgiving and the voice of melody.' But, alas ! in 
many towns where churches were once established, and 
temples reared to the living God, there is a now a sad 
reverse. In some places the church has become extinct, 
and the house of God is in ruins. The Sabbath returns, 
but with it no temple worship. There is a famine of 
hearing the words of the Lord. The people are scattered 
upon the mountains, as sheep having no shepherd. In 
other places a church still exists, feeble, and disheartened, 
and perhaps amid prevailing heresies, and a surrounding 
atmosphere filled u'ith death. They have a sanctuary for 
God, but it seldom resounds with his praises. Christians 
have hung their harps upon the willows, and weep in 
despondence, for no day-spring dawns upon them. Other 
places still retain the form of godliness. Religious instruc- 
tions are not entirely exiled from them. The gospel and 
its ordinances are in a degree maintained. But great 
opposition to the cause of Christ exists among the enemies 
of truth in these places. Even the love of Christians 
waxes cold, and the ways of Zion mourn, because {e\v 
come to her solemn feasts. In none of these places are 
the regular and constant ministrations of the gospel enjoyed. 
There is no stated priest to weep for them, between the 
porch and the altar, and to break to them the bread of 
life ; no abiding shepherd to lead them into green pas- 
tures, and beside the still waters. Some of these socie- 
11* 



126 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

ties have been destitute of the appointed means of grace^ 
for twenty or thirty years. Others have enjoyed a preached 
gospel till within a much shorter period. Others again 
have but just begun to falter, or desparingly to surrender 
their dearest privileges and blessings. The ability and 
wants of these societies are various. Some need only to 
have the things strengthened, which remain that are 
ready to die. Fifty or a hundred dollars a year, in addi- 
tion to what they can raise themselves, will now secure to 
such societies a permanent gospel ministry ; and in pro- 
cess of time, by the blessing of Heaven, it may be hoped 
they will be able to exist, as flourishing societies, without 
foreign aid. Others are more broken, and have less 
ability to maintain the word and ordinances of God. 
They therefore require a more liberal patronage. Others 
again have but little strength, and make but little effort. 
A few only remain struggling for life, while the great 
mass around them are totally and criminally indifferent to 
the institutions of the gospel. A moral death seems to 
pervade nearly the whole. They are dry bones, very dry. 
While they have no kind monitor to warn them of danger, 
and to proclaim to them the merits of a Saviour's blood ; 
no angel of mercy to support them in their distresses, to 
visit and console them when on a sick and dying bed, 
and to commend their departing spirits to God who gave 
them ; — but few among them ever sigh for such a minister 
of Christ. The building up of such societies is almost 
hopeless. Still we should not despair. Let a messenger 
of the Lord of hosts be sent among them, and God may, 
as he has done in other places, breathe upon these dry 
bones and cause them to live. He may shed down the 
dew and rain from heaven upon these thirsty and barren 
parts of our Zion ; the light of the Sun of righteousness 
may break in upon them, and they revive and flourish — 
these wastes may be built. 



HOME MISSIONS. 127 

I will not here attempt to show how these desolations 
have taken place. Various have been the causes. Suffice 
it to know that such desolations do exist, and exist, too, 
in the very heart of the New England States. Of the 
1,100 Congregational churches and societies in these 
States, there are more than 300 unable of themselves to 
support the regular and constant ministrations of the word 
and ordinances of God, Upwards of 70 of these may be 
found in Maine, as many as 60 in New Hampshire, nearly 
80 in Vermont, more than 70 in Massachusetts, 6 in 
Rhode Island, and from 40 to 50 in Connecticut. Such, 
I am compelled to say, are the desolations of Zion in New 
England, though a section of country more highly favored, 
in a religious point of view, than any other on the face of 
the globe. But the spiritual desolations of New England 
are small, compared with many other parts of our country. 
The Presbyterian denomination has in its connection 
probably 800 feeble churches and societies, in which the 
gospel ministry will not be constantly maintained without 
pecuniary aid from abroad. The South and West are in 
a most apalling state. A famine, not of bread nor of 
water, but of hearing the words of the Lord, is sweeping 
a great portion of the inhabitants down to eternal death. 
The great valley of the Mississippi, (twenty-four hundred 
miles in length, and twelve hundred in breadth,) may be 
said, in general terms, to be little better than one immense 
field of moral desolations. A contemplative view of this is 
enough to break any heart unless harder than adamant, and 
to rouse it into holy action, unless colder than the grave ; 
enough to make heaven weep, if weeping could be there. 
But the subject is too painfully affecting to be pursued. 

II. These desolations of our Zion should be repaired. 
The obligations to do this arise from the fact, that 
hereby multitudes in their individual and social capacity 



128 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

will be benefited, and the kingdom of Christ and the 
glory of God will be promoted. 

1. By building up the waste places of Zion, individuals 
will be benefited. 

As these desolations are repaired, religion is promoted. 
And religion is conducive to the happiness of individuals, 
as it delivers from evils, and is instrumental in procuring 
much temporal and eternal good. 

Religion is important in a temporal view. The im- 
moral and vicious, are generally dissipated and prodigal. 
They squander much time and money, in idleness, un- 
profitable visits, vain conversation, pastimes, and profli- 
gacy. But where true religion prevails, these evils are 
avoided. The reproaches of conscience, that monitor in 
the human breast; the dominion of sin under which the 
impenitent lie; the fears of death, judgment, and eternity 
with all the other miseries of iniquity incident to this life, 
are evils which the religion of the Bible removes, and 
this alone, " for there is no peace, saith my God, to the 
wicked." But the wages of sin are not confined to the 
present life. They extend to eternity. There, impeni- 
tent sinners are punished with everlasting destruction 
from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of 
his power; and there, they experience the anguish of that 
worm which will never die,- and of that fire which will 
never be quenched. But religion is a sure antidote to 
these evils. It delivers from eternal perdition — it rescues 
the soul from tJie wrath to come. The spiritual good 
derived from religion is great. It produces joys, with 
which a stranger intermeddleth not. It renders the mind 
calm and resigned, amid the turmoils and distresses of 
life, yields a balm to the pained conscience, imparts con- 
solation and support, which the world can neither give 
nor take away, and affords prelibations of the bliss of 
heaven. It gives hope and triumph in death. 



HOME MISSIONS. 129 

But the blessings of religion terminate not with this 
mortal state. The pious shall be transcendently and for- 
ever happy in the eternal world. *' Blessed are the dead 
that die in the Lord from henceforth ; yea, saith the Spirit, 
that they may rest from their labors and their works do 
follow them." The righteous are perfectly blessed from 
the moment of their earthly dissolution. They rest from 
the cares and miseries of this life, and their works of piety 
and goodness, receive in the glories and felicities of heaven 
their just reward. It is an eternal truth that, " Eye hath 
not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the 
heart of man the things, which God hath prepared for 
them that love him." How important then is religion ! 
It is emphatically the one thing needful, the pearl of 
great price. But nowhere are sinners converted to God, 
when the light of revelation shines not around them. 
*' Where there is no vision the people perish." By the 
foolishness of preaching, God is pleased to save them 
that believe. It is principally by the instrumentality of 
a preached gospel, that conviction is fastened on the 
conscience, and the soul is aroused to action, and turned 
to God. The Bible alone will not ordinarily convert 
sinners. With all its treasures of instruction, without 
a living interpreter, it will remain till the day of judgment 
a sealed book. The preaching of Christ crucified is 
the sovereign remedy for the spiritual maladies of a 
perishing world. How vastly important, then, that the 
waste places of our Zion should be built, and con- 
sequently that the gospel in all its purity and power 
should there be preached and maintained ! And it must 
be preached, not by its divine Author, not by angels from 
heaven, but by men raised up, qualified and set apart for 
this noble and exalted work. 

2. By building the waste places of Zion, society will 
be benefited. Society is composed of individuals; aR4 



130 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

as these are benefited, so is the society composed of 
these individuals. The rights and blessings of the 
social state are disregarded and abused, where the min- 
istrations of the gospel are not enjoyed. For proof of 
this we appeal to the condition of the heathen in the East 
and in the West. There, social order, public morals, 
the arts and sciences, civil and religious liberty, are not 
known. The superior advantages of civilization, which 
Christian nations enjoy, are owing to the knowledge of 
divine revelation. The code of Zoroaster, the ethics of 
Socrates, Aristotle, and Epictetus, the Sibyline oracles, 
and the Eleusinian mysteries, will avail nothing to the 
conversion of men. The best system of morals instituted 
by man^ is essentially defective, for it has not the imction 
and sanction of heaven. It is the religion of the Bible, 
principally, which has christianized and civilized nations, 
and eievdied them above the condition of pagans. This 
favorably effects all ranks and descriptions of persons, 
the high and the low, the rich and the poor, the bond 
and the free. It makes better husbands and wives, better 
parents and children, better masters and servants, better 
magistrates and subjects. It promotes temperance, fru- 
gality, industry, and all good habits. It heals divisions in 
families and societies, quells contentions and variances. 
Where it prevails in purity, Eden appears in all the fruits 
of righteousness. Were all men true and consistent Chris- 
tians, wars, oppressions, frauds and crimes, of every name 
that now disturb society would cease. It has ever been a 
conceded fundamental principle of all wise legislators, that 
the maintenance of religion is absolutely necessary to the 
support of civil government. Two hundred years ago our 
ancestors came to this country, then a dreary wilderness. 
They planted churches, organized religious societies, and 
maintained religious ordinances. In this Avay we have 
been raised to our present state of national prosperity and 



HOME MISSIONS. 131 

happiness. Our laws, habits and manners, our social, 
civil, humane and sacred institutions, the glory, boast, 
and blessedness of our country, are the result of our 
religion. Take from us our religious institutions, and 
our flourishing, happy republic would fall. Its glory 
would be tarnished ; its prosperity wouFd be destroyed ; 
its name even would be blotted out from under heaven. 

Now every waste place of Zion, in proportion to its 
magnitude, subtracts the good which would flow to society 
in consequence of the support of religion. And it not 
only subtracts this good ; but it has a paralyzing and 
deleterious effect generally. " One sinner destroyeth much 
good." " Evil communications corrupt good manners." 
Moral desolations have a baneful influence upon contigu- 
ous societies. In process of time, the latter also will 
become weakened and desolate. And this will be only 
the beofinnincr of sorrow. Thinsfs will wax worse and 
worse. Vice will assume a bolder front, and bear down 
all before it, like a mighty inundation. Human laws will 
be disregarded, civil and religious institutions will be 
prostrated ; the foundations of happiness, social, civil and 
sacred, will be undermined ; anarchy and misery will 
ensue. Knowledge and virtue must form the basis of all 
permanent republican institutions. We glory in the enter- 
prise of our country, in our manufactories, our canals, our 
internal improvements generally. But what are all these, 
in comparison with the morals, the civil and religious 
liberties, the prosperity and happiness of the people in 
their social connection, and their dearest interests in time 
and eternity ! How important then that every moral deso- 
lation should be repaired ! 

3. By building the waste places of Zion, the kingdom 
of Christ, and the glory of God, will be promoted. 

The kingdom of Christ in a certain sense extends over 
all men, saints and sinners. The government of the 



132 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

whole universe is upon his shoulder. But in a very special 
sense, Christ is King in Zion, head over all things to the 
church. This kingdom is of a spiritual nature, and 
consists of redeemed ones ; those to whom the blood of 
sprinkling has been efficaciously applied by the Holy 
Ghost. Every new born soul becomes a member of it by 
birth. As converts to righteousness are multiplied ; as 
souls flock to Jesus ; so is the kingdom of Christ enlarged. 
But accessions to the church are made only where the 
gospel is preached or enjoyed. Hence arises the impor- 
tance of maintaining the gospel ministry where it is en- 
joyed, and of establishing it among the destitute. If dry 
bones are to revive and be converted into living armies 
for God, prophets must be raised up and sent forth to 
prophesy, " Come from the four winds, O breath, and 
breathe upon these slain that they may live." If Christ 
is to have the heathen for his inheritance, and the utter- 
most parts of the earth for his possession, the gospel must 
be preached to every creature under heaven. God indeed 
will not be robbed of his glory. The wrath of man shall 
praise him, and the remainder he will restrain. Even the 
infliction of punishment upon the finally impenitent will 
glorify the justice of God. But it is different with the 
righteous. In their salvation the mercy of God is dis- 
played. This they acknowledge. The song of the re- 
deemed while here, is grace, grace ; and it will be grace, 
grace, to eternity. They actively glorify God by giving 
him the glory due unto his name ; and by exerting them- 
selves to make the character of Jehovah appear illustrious 
before the intelligent universe. They desire to have God 
exhibited in full light, in all his adorable attributes and 
perfections. This they manifest by their holy lives, con- 
versation, and charities. Says the Psalmist, "when the 
Lord shall build up Zion, he shall appear in his glory." 
Thus, as the kinsfdom of Christ is advanced, God is 



HOME MISSIONS. 133 

actively glorified, and in this way of being glorified, he is 
most pleased in itself considered. And as so great an 
amount of good results from the enlargement of Christ's 
kingdom, and the advancement of the glory of God; and 
as these are promoted by building the waste places of 
Zion, how highly important that they should be built — 
that these moral desolations should be repaired. 

But every benevolent heart will naturally inquire, How 
can these desolations be repaired? In answer to this 
inquiry it is proposed, 

III. To point out the method in which the waste places 
of Zion in this land may be built. 

I observe, every practicable way should be attempted. 
The welfare of precious immortals demands it ; the pros- 
perity of our rising republic demands it; the enlargement 
of Immanuel's kingdom demands it; and the glory of 
God demands it. Four methods especially ought to be 
adopted, for repairing the desolations of our Zion. 

1. Feeble churches and societies, and new settlements 
must, themselves, make all possible exertions to support 
the ordinances and institutions of religion. They are 
bound, as well as others, to do all in their power to accom- 
plish this desirable object. It is a dictate of reason, and 
a sentiment of the Bible, that w^e should first help our- 
selves, and then, if need be, solicit assistance from others. 
Feeble churches and societies should call into requisition 
all their energies and resources, and grapple with opposing 
difficulties. It is a great mistake to suppose that a small 
congregation is unable to maintain a preached gospel. 
It is rather a fact, that no congregation however large, is 
able to live without it. The expense of moral desolation 
in society is far greater than that for the maintenance of 
religion. The cost of prodigality, tavern haunting, mid- 
night revels, intemperance, and vicious practices generally, 
12 



134 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

together with consequent law-suits, are too great for any 
people to sustain and flourish. This consideration alone, 
is a great motive for feeble societies to make strenuous 
exertions in supporting religious institutions. Where it 
can be done with convenience, it may be desirable for two 
feeble societies, adjacent to each other, to unite in main- 
taining a minister of the gospel. This in some instances 
has been done with advantage. 

2. Ministers of the gospel and pious people generally, 
in the vicinity of the desolations of Zion, must do what 
they can to repair them. 

In the rebuilding of Jerusalem, it is said that the priests 
and others, repaired every one over against his own house. 
This was more convenient for them, and would stimulate 
to greater exertion; for public and private interest were 
connected. While they labored for the common good of 
the city, they would provide for their own personal safety. 
And it is not contrary to the great law of love, but it is 
embraced within its requirements, that we have a special 
regard to those of our own household, and those of our 
own immediate neighborhood. This is also a dictate of 
nature. It is, therefore, highly proper, that ministers and 
pious people generally, residing in the vicinity of the 
desolations of Zion, should make special efforts to repair 
them. Ministers may exert a great influence by frequently 
visiting them, preaching lectures, imparting to them reli- 
gious advice, and conversing with them from time to 
time, on those subjects which intimately concern their 
eternal well being. All pious people, by their prayers, 
sympathies, conversation and counsels, may assist much 
in building these spiritual desolations. 

3. Another method of building the waste places of 
Zion is, by gratuitous aid from the opulent, or from those 
who have ability to afford assistance in the maintenance 
of religious guides and instructers among the destitute. 



HOME MISSIONS. I35 

After feeble churches and societies and new settlements 
have exerted themselves to the utmost, for the support of 
the institutions of the gospel, the deficiency should be 
supplied by those who are favored with them, and possess 
an abundance of this world's goods. Giving in charity is 
no less a duty than is prayer. Prayers should be accompa- 
nied with alms, that they may together ascend as an accep- 
table memorial before God. Let every wealthy Christian 
be his own executor, and not wait for years to elapse, and 
death to overtake him, before his property shall be scat- 
tered to enrich Zion. The strong ought to bear the 
infirmities of the weak. This was agreeable to the prac- 
tice of the primitive churches. This too was agreeable to 
the practice of the New England churches in better days. 
And it is not merely optional with affluent churches to 
assist their feeble sister churches, they are bound to do it ; 
and they cannot shrink from this duty, without disloyalty 
to the King of heaven, and betraying an avaricious spirit, 
which dishonors the Christian's name. They are, there- 
fore, to contribute as God has given them ability, nor will 
they lose their reward. It is the language of the great 
Benefactor of man; " Honor the Lord with thy substance, 
and with the first fruits of all thine increase ; so shall thy 
barns be filled with plenty, and thy presses shall burst out 
with new wine." And let it ever be remembered, that 
feeble societies and new settlements, encouraged by the 
charities of Christians, will be inspired with new life, and 
induced to make double efforts themselves, 

The plan of sending missionaries to feeble societies and 
new settlements, is wisely adapted to accomplish the end 
in view. In doing this, we follow the instructions and 
example of the great Head of the church, His commis- 
sion to the apostles, and to their successors in the sacred 
ministry, is, '* Go ye into all the world, and preach the 
gospel to every creature;" do this so far as you have 



136 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

ability and opportunity. It cannot be expected, that in 
those places in which moral desolations exist to any great 
degree, ministers will be raised up to preach the word of 
salvation. According to the order of Christ's kingdom, 
there are no converts to the gospel where its light is not 
enjoyed. The preaching of the gospel is the instrument 
used by the Holy Spirit, in the conviction and conversion 
of men. In this way revivals of religion are effected, and 
in these God prepares hundreds of young men for the 
holy employment of preaching Christ, and him crucified. 
Neither is it to be expected that such waste places will 
support the ministrations of the gospel, till they have 
become convinced that religion is beneficial in a temporal 
and spiritual view. Of this, they never will be convinced 
until they have been favored with the dispensations of 
divine truth. Hence the importance of furnishing a 
missionary for every morally desolate place. Ministers 
should be sent to all feeble societies in the country. In 
such the standard of the cross should be erected, and the 
banner of gospel love and peace should wave. And the 
gospel must be preached in these places not merely occa- 
sionally, but constantly and permanently, or, in a great 
measure, its beneficial effects will be lost. The ministers 
and churches ought to ponder these things well, and come 
up to this holy and mighty work. 

Here I would remark, that all who minister in holy things 
in the waste placesofZion, should be most eminently men 
of God, prudent, zealous, faithful preachers, who will do the 
work of an evangelist, labor in season, out of season, and be 
abundant in labors — ministers who, with the Divine bles- 
sing, will make parishes for themselves, and having done 
this, will assist in making parishes for others. For such 
places, no cold, formal, inactive, indifferent men are needed, 
but the very best men that can be found. It requires greater 
wisdom, power, and exertion, to wrest a citadel from the hand 



HOME MISSIONS. I37 

of the enemy, than it does to retain it after it is taken. 
And every minister who is acquainted with the waste 
places of Zion knows, that in repairing them, every inch 
of ground will be disputed by the enemy, not at the point 
of the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God, but 
at the point of every thing, which is crude, anti-christian 
and violent. The work of building up these wastes is 
great and arduous. To accomplish it will require inde- 
fatigable exertion and perseverance. In some of these 
desolations it may be necessary that churches be formed; 
in others, that they be organized ; in others still, that 
they renew covenant. If they have them not, the churches 
which now exist, and those which are formed, should be 
persuaded to adopt sound confessions of faith, and most 
explicit, and impressive covenants. This will have a 
happy tendency in the maintenance of the truth, as it is in 
Jesus, and in the promotion of vital godliness. They who 
labor in the word and doctrine, should pay very particular 
attention to the instruction of youth, institute sabbath 
schools, and theological classes, establish juvenile and 
other libraries of a religious nature, moral and religious 
reading societies among the young, prayer meetings, and 
conferences ; they should visit schools, preach lectures, 
and go from house to house, warning every man, and 
teaching every man in all wisdom. The good seed thus 
sown, would not be lost ; but spring up and bear fruit, 
some thirty, some sixty, some an hundred fold. In this 
way the heart of the desolate would be made to sing, and 
much would be done in preparing the way for the perma- 
nent establishment of the gospel ministry. But let it 
never be forgotten, that " except the Lord build the house, 
they labor in vain that build it." No exertions to repair 
moral desolations will avail any thing, without the blessing 
of heaven. Hence, 
12* 



138 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

4. Arises the vast importance of prayer as a means to 
be used in building the waste places of Zion. 

Prayer is the appointed means of obtaining blessings. 
We may expect therefore, that it will be answered. God 
will hear the supplications of his children, and he will hear 
them in reference to the repairing of moral desolations. 
" He will arise and have mercy upon Zion, for the time to 
favor her, yea, the set time is come, when his servants take 
pleasure in her stones, and favor the dust thereof" Then 
let pious people, especially those living where the moral 
desolations exist, pray particularly, and distinctly, that 
God would build the waste places of Zion; pray humbly, 
ardently, believingly, and perseveringly, that He would 
pour down his Spirit upon them like rain upon the mown 
grass, and as showers that water the earth. Then it may 
be expected that He will open the windows of heaven, send 
down blessings in abundance upon them, and cause those 
places of spiritual death to revive and flourish. 

Such are the desolations of Zion in our beloved country; 
such the reasons why these desolations should be repaired; 
and such the methods which should be adopted to repair 
them. And now, who is not ready to use the language of 
Nehemiah and his friends, *' Ye see the distress we are in, 
how Jerusalem lieth waste, and the gates thereof are 
burned with fire ; come and let us build up the wall of 
Jerusalem, that we be no more a reproach." It is in the 
name of those in our country who are destitute of the 
means of grace that I plead. Would to God I could 
advocate their cause as its importance demands. Will 
you not, Christians, send up your prayers to heaven in 
their behalf? Will you not remember them in your private 
social meetings for prayer, and around the family altar? 
Will you not, as opportunity is afforded, assist and encour- 
age them by your counsel and conversation? Will you 
not also, as God shall have prospered you, contribute of 



HOME MISSIONS. 139 

your substance for their spiritual benefit? Every benevo- 
lent feeling of your heart answers, Yes. Show them how 
much you commiserate their pitiable state. Home Mis- 
sionary Societies or their Auxiliaries, will gladly receive 
your aid. These have afforded much assistance to a large 
number of feeble churches and societies in New England, 
and in the Middle, Southern and Western States. Though 
they have not extended their operations so far as they have 
desired, they have, nevertheless, done much to strengthen 
the hands and encourage the hearts of the desponding and 
enfeebled ; much to revive and raise up languishing and 
decaying churches and societies. They have been instru- 
mental in some cases, of establishing permanently the 
gospel ministry ; and in others, of promoting revivals of 
religion, and thus turning many from darkness to light, 
and from the power of Satan unto God. Through the 
instrumentality also of Home Missions, the gospel has 
been preached in the new settlements, a large number of 
churches have been planted, and much good has been 
effected. To the different societies sustaining the cause 
of Home INIissions, feeble churches are looking for aid with 
deep anxiety. And shall they look in vain ? No, beloved 
in the Lord, they must not. While we would not in the 
least diminish the contributions to the Bible, Education, 
Foreign Missionary, Tract and other benevolent societies, 
but wish the charities in these channels increased a hun- 
dred fold ; we would beg most importunely on behalf of 
Domestic Missions. We w^ould listen to, and obey the call 
of these decayed and decaying churches and waste places, 
" Come over and help us." We would till these unculti- 
vated fields. We would impart unto these, our fiimishing 
brethren, the bread of life. Say, ye who are bought by 
the blood of Immanuel, what will you do to raise up these 
foundations of many generations. I call upon you, not 
only as Christians, but also as men, as philanthropists, as 



140 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

patriots ; what will you contribute ? ** Give, and it shall 
be given unto you, good measure, pressed down, and 
shaken together, and running over." ** Give not grudgingly 
or of necessity, for God loveth a cheerful giver." Give 
in view of the woes and wants of perishing millions. God 
will witness, Christ will witness, angels will witness your 
sacred offerings. Does any one say, The times with me 
are hard ? Admit the fact, and then let the Apostle speak. 
He says, addressing the church at Corinth, " Moreover, 
brethren, we do you to wit of the grace of God, bestowed 
on the churches of Macedonia ; how that in a great trial 
of affliction, the abundance of their joy, and their deep 
poverty abounded unto the riches of their liberality. For 
to their power, I bear record, yea, and beyond their power, 
they were willing of themselves ; praying us with much 
entreaty, that we would receive the gift, and take upon us 
the fellowship of the ministering to the saints." Can the 
disciples of Christ in the present day, do better than to 
follow the example of the primitive Christians? God 
grant that the blessing of him, that was ready to perish, 
may come upon you. ' O Shepherd of Israel, thou that 
leadest Joseph like a flock, look down from heaven and 
behold, and visit these languishing vines, ere they die.' 

Appendix E, 



DISSERTATION VI. 



SUPPLY OF MINISTERS. 

"Behold! the days come, saith the Lord God, that 
I will send a famine in the land ; not a famine of bread, 
nor a thirst for water, but of hearing the words of the 
Lord." This passage of Scripture had special reference 
to the Jews, in whom it has been fully accomplished. It 
is true, however, that there is a famine of hearing the 
words of the Lord in the present day. The destitution of 
Christian instructors is deplorably great. " The harvest 
truly is plenteous," — a whole world is to be gathered in 
— "but the laborers are few" — in comparison with the 
abundant work of God's vineyard — very few. To supply 
Pagans, Mohammedans, and Jews, also the Greek and 
Latin churches with proper Christian instructors, would 
require at least seven hundred thousand. This assertion 
is made upon the ratio of furnishing one minister to every 
thousand souls. Even among Protestants, there is a great 
deficiency of competent religious teachers. Passing over 
Protestant Europe, which, according to authentic docu-p 
ments, is far from being fully supplied, we will take a 
general view of the deficiency of Christian ministers iu 
the United States, 



142 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

In this country, there are now fifteen millions of people. 
Allowing one minister to a thousand inhabitants, (which 
is no more than a suitable proportion, and ninety years 
ago, there were as many as one liberally educated minister 
to every six hundred souls in New England,) it would take 
fifteen thousand ministers to supply the country. But, ac- 
cording to the most accurate calculation, it appears, that 
the number of efficient ministers in the United States, of 
all denominations, is only eight or nine thousand ; and 
a considerable proportion of these, no evangelical Christian 
would consider as properly qualified to instruct. The 
Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Episcopalians, and Bap- 
tists, have between eight and nine thousand churches ; 
and yet only between five and six thousand ministers. 
Three or four thousand are required to supply with settled 
pastors the destitute churches, connected with these dif- 
ferent denominations. Though there may be a number 
of worthy, excellent, and, in a few instances, superior 
ministers of the gospel unsettled, who are able to supply 
some of these churches, and who, probably, will ultimately 
be settled, yet the deficiency of such ministers is alarming. 
There are no data before the public, by which to deter- 
mine very accurately the destitution of ministers in the 
Methodist denomination ; but from the fact, that one 
preacher is obliged to supply two, three, and sometimes 
four societies, it would seem, that there is a deficiency of 
ministers in that denomination. It ought to be considered, 
too, that the ministers are not scattered over the country 
in equal proportion, but quite the reverse. Even in New 
England, which is much the best supplied, there is still a 
great deficiency. In this section of our country, there is 
a great demand for able, faithful, and evangelical pastors. 
To this fact the destitute churches, and the diflferent Home 
Missionary Societies can fully attest. But the destitution 
of ministers in New England is small, compared with that 



SUPPLY OF MINISTERS. 143 

in the Middle, Southern and Western States. The late 
Rev. Dr. Rice, of the Union Theological Seminary in 
Virginia, observed a few years since, (and the state of 
things cannot as yet be materially altered,) " I have 
heard a gentleman, whose word is as good as his oath, 
say, that in one district of our country, compact, rich, and 
populous, there were sixty thousand people, connected 
with no religious denomination whatever." Four years 
ago the following destitutions existed, and no very great 
improvement has probably taken place since. The single 
State of Ohio then contained a million of people, one* 
third as many as the whole United States contained at 
the time of the Revolutionary war ; yet all the efficient 
ministers of the different Christian denominations in the 
State, were but about four hundred. There was, then, 
a deficiency, allowing one minister to a thousand souls, of 
six hundred ministers in that State alone, and a destitute 
population of six hundred thousand. There were twelve 
counties adjoining the State of Ohio, in which there 
was not a single settled Presbyterian or Congregational 
minister; and in the south-western part of the State of 
Indiana, there were eight counties, containing about fifty 
thousand inhabitants, in which there was but one. In 
Virginia and North Carolina, there were one hundred and 
seventy-one counties, of which one hundred and fourteen 
had no settled minister of these denominations. From 
Baton Rouge to New Orleans, in the State of Louisiana, 
the distance of one hundred and twenty miles, and the 
most populous part of the State, too, it is believed that the 
first sermon ever preached on the Sabbath in the English 
language, was preached within the last seven years. The 
Rev. Dr. Miller, in a lecture to the students of the Theo- 
logical Seminary at Princeton, New Jersey, says, "Taking 
into view the missionary as well as the pastoral service, it 
is, probably, safe to affirm, that if we had a thousand able, 



144 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

and faithful men added at once to the number of our 
ministers, they might all be usefully employed in our own 
country." Indeed, speaking in general terms, the great 
Valley of the Mississippi, embracing all that territory 
which lies between the Alleghany and the Rock^ Moun- 
tains, and the North-western Lakes and the Gulf of 
Mexico, containing four millions of people, is but an 
appalling picture of a wide spread moral desolation. 
Moral darkness and death reign. That section of our 
country is a valley of dry bones, very dry. This is no 
fiction, but a solemn and affecting reality. 

Such is the present want, the distressing deficiency of 
ministers in this land, more highly favored in a religious 
point of view, than any other on the face of the globe. 
And this deficiency is increasing daily, as the tide of pop- 
ulation rolls with unexampled rapidity from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific Ocean. Six thousand ministers at least, 
are now wanted to supply the present destitution of the 
country; while cities and towns are springing into ex- 
istence in almost every quarter, as it were by magic, 
where there are no ministers to take the people by the 
hand and lead them into green pastures, and beside the 
still waters, nor to commend their departing spirits to 
Almighty God. The increase of the population in the 
United States is now more than a thousand in a day, or 
four hundred thousand in a year. To supply merely the 
increase of population, therefore, furnishing one only for 
a thousand souls, a minister must be raised up every day. 
One hundred and fifty ministers are needed to supply the 
annual deficiency by reason of death. If, therefore, all 
the destitutions in this country were now supplied, it 
would require an annual increase of five hundred min- 
isters, at least, to keep good the supply, not to speak of 
the demand for foreign missionaries. At the rate of 
increase for the last ten years, the United States, by 



SUPPLY OF MINISTERS. 145 

the year 1860, will be peopled with thirty millions of in- 
habitants. More than half of this immense population 
will be west of the Alleghany mountains, where now 
there are but few ministers of the gospel, but few literary 
institutions, and but few of the means of grace ; and 
where will be a most awful deficiency, unless special 
efforts are made to prevent it. 

But how shall ministers be raised up to supply the des- 
titute millions of this land, and the hundreds of millions 
destitute in other lands — to supply a world lying in wick- 
edness? Some methods, which should be adopted will 
now be mentioned. 

First. Information respecting the deficiency of Chris- 
tian instructers should be generally diffused. 

Nehemiah, before he commenced rebuilding the walls 
of Jerusalem, took a particular survey of its ruins. In 
like manner, good and patriotic people must become ac- 
quainted with the spiritual necessities of their fellow men, 
before they will exert themselves to relieve them. To 
effect this, the ministers of the gospel will do well to 
preach upon the subject, and tell their people from the 
pulpit, the destitution of Christian instructers. Occa- 
sionally, they should make it the theme of conversation 
with them. The press, too, should diffuse information 
respecting the moral wretchedness of the world. The 
luminous reports of Education Societies, and all docu- 
ments and facts which serve to illustrate and enforce their 
object, ought to be printed and widely circulated. Such 
publications have helped much to arouse the churches to 
holy action, and urge them forward in the unparalleled 
march of benevolence in the present day. All Christians 
should be thus summoned to this glorious enterprise. 
And the trumpet should sound loud and long— till Christ- 
endom awakes in all her energies for the salvation of a 
world. 

13 



146 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

Secondly. Another means, which should be adopted 
for supplying the deficiency of Christian instructers, is, 
the establishment of societies for the education of pious, 
indigent young men for the gospel ministry. 

Without such efforts, the churches of this land will 
never be supplied, and the world will still lie in wicked- 
ness. For the last half century, the number of pious 
young men who have possessed pecuniary ability, and a 
disposition, to obtain an education for the ministry, has 
not been sufficient to supply the vacancy caused by the 
decease of pastors. This fact may be easily ascertained 
by examining the triennial catalogues of our colleges. 
Pious, indigent young men of talents and good promise, 
must be educated by charitable assistance, or a supply 
will never be provided ; and they must pass through a 
regular course of instruction, for a thorough ministerial 
education is of the highest importance to those, who are 
to be employed in teaching others the great things of 
religion. It is a divine injunction, that the priest's lips 
should keep knowledge, and the people are to seek the 
law at his mouth. The prophets of the Jewish church 
were generally educated men. Schools for the instruction 
of the priesthood were established in Canaan at Dothan, 
in Jericho, in Gilgal, in Bethel, and in Naioth. The 
apostles were under the immediate instruction of Christ 
for three years. That a man may be an able minister, he 
must not be a novice, but be well instructed into the 
kingdom. His head must be replenished with knowledge, 
as well as his heart with grace. While God, in this day 
of revivals, is furnishing multitudes of our young men 
with piety for this holy employment, many of whom are 
indigent, having not the means of obtaining an education 
though they desire to be employed in the work of the Lord, 
who, in this respect, can mistake the language of Provi- 
dence ? These men should be taken by the hand of 



SUPPLY OF MINISTERS. 147 

charity and carried onward in a course of instruction, till 
they become qualified for the service of God in his sanc- 
tuary. To do this is the noble and sacred design of Edu- 
cation Societies. In this view, they are vastly important. 
They will be an engine of mighty effect, through the in- 
fluences of the Holy Ghost, in scattering the darkness of 
more than fifty centuries. Thousands of spiritual laborers 
will in this way be trained up to go forth into the fields 
white already to harvest. There should, therefore, be a 
General Education Society in every country, an Auxiliary 
Society in every section or county, and a Sub-auxiliary Ed- 
ucation Society in every city, town, and parish, in which 
Christianity exists. This plan of operation has already com- 
menced. The Congregationalists, Presbyterians, Episco- 
palians, Baptists, Methodists and some other denominations, 
have their Education Societies, and are educating their 
sons of the church to be pastors and teachers. But Edu- 
cation Societies can do nothing without pious young men 
to educate, and pecuniary ability to raise up a sacramental 
host of ministers for God. Pious parents, therefore, should 
consecrate their sons to God, and train them up by their 
instruction and example, for usefulness in the church. A 
suitable proportion of them should be devoted, as was 
Samuel, to the service of the sacred ministry. As they 
come forth into life, they should be encouraged, if pious, 
and of good promise, to engage in this holy and benevo- 
lent work. If necessary, self-denial should be practised. 
Does any one say. My son is a beloved Isaac. Let 
such remember Abraham, the flither of the faithful, who 
resolved to sacrifice the son of his old age at the com- 
mand of God. Does any one say, Mine is an only 
son. Let such remember God, who gave his well 
beloved Son a sacrifice for rebel man. In view of such 
examples, let pious parents say, Here, Lord, at thy com- 
mand, I consecrate my sons to thy work in the sacred 
ministry. 



148 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

The ministers of Jesus should make efforts to induce 
young men of respectable talents, ardent piety, and good 
promise, under their pastoral charge, to commence, at 
once, a preparation for this holy calling. And young 
men, if not able to educate themselves, should solicit aid 
at the hand of Education Societies established for this 
important purpose. In such circumstances, it is honorable 
and praiseworthy to do it. Many of the most efficient 
heralds of the cross have been charity students. God 
has signally blessed them as instruments of good. The 
wealthy in Zion, and all, as they have the means, are 
bound to afford Education Societies assistance. Those 
who have freely received, should freely give. Those who 
are rich in this world, should be rich in good works, 
ready to distribute, willing to communicate — and they 
shall not lose their reward. A light tax, imposed upon 
pride, appetite, and time, will do much towards imparting 
to the destitute the gospel ministry. Let what is worse 
than wasted in ardent spirits, be expended for the education 
of pious, indigent young men for the gospel ministry, and 
multitudes would run to and fro, and knowledge be in- 
creased to the ends of the earth. 

Thirdly. Prayer is a means to be adopted in effecting 
the supply of Christian instructers. It was the direction 
of the great Head of the church, after stating that the 
harvest was plenteous, but the laborers few, " Pray ye 
therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he will send forth 
laborers into his harvest." Prayer is efficacious. When 
Daniel was desirous, that God should reveal to him the 
interpretation of Nebuchadnezzar's dream, which none of 
the magicians, astrologers, sorcerers, or Chaldeans could 
make known, he went to Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, 
and they unitedly prayed to the God of heaven, that he 
would reveal this secret to Daniel ; and their joint request 
was soon granted. When Esther was desirous of saving 



SUPPLY OF MINISTERS. 149 

the church of God, and the Jewish nation, apparently 
about to be destroyed, she sent to all the Jews in Shushan 
to fast and pray with her, and her maidens ; and their 
united prayer prevailed. They were wonderfully saved. 
And as prayers have been answered in times past, so they 
will be answered in time to come. Then let all who have 
an interest at the throne of grace, pray that God would 
raise up and qualify a host of young Ezekiels to prophecy 
upon the slain ; that he would bless the means adopted to 
this end; that he would pour out his Spirit upon our 
colleges and seminaries of learning, and cause streams to 
issue from these fountains, which shall make glad the city 
of God. He has, of late, cast the salt of grace into them, 
and made it manifest that he hears prayer. Within the 
last two years, there have been revivals in sixteen different 
colleges, and between three and four hundred young men, 
in a course of education, have been hopefully converted 
to God. Let no pious soul forget the last Thursday of 
February, annually set apart, as a day of prayer for the 
outpouring of the Holy Spirit on all our public institutions 
of learning, and also the Tuesday Evening, immediately 
succeeding the first ..londay of each month, a season con- 
secrated as a Concert in prayer for this glorious object. 
The whole subject of educating pious young men for the 
gospel ministry, should be remembered in the sanctuary 
and at the family altar. God will be inquired of by his 
people to do it for them. 

Such is a general view of the deficiency of Christian 
ministers, especially in the United States ; and such are 
some of the methods wdiich should be adopted to supply 
this deficiency. And whose heart is not affected in 
beholding such destitution of the means of grace, so many 
millions and hundreds of millions, without a Christian 
minister or sacrifice, w'ithout a spiritual guide or com- 
forter? Whose hands will not be extended to relieve their 
13* 



150 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

necessities ? For these perishing millions, you are now 
addressed. Your sympathies, prayers and charities, are 
solicited on their behalf. Deeply feel, and feeling, effi- 
ciently act. Remember them in your supplications. Pray 
with the spirit of the prophet Jeremiah, when he patheti- 
cally exclaimed, " O that my head were waters, and mine 
eyes a fountain of tears, that I might weep day and night 
for the slain of the daughter of my people." No feeling 
but this will satisfy the great Head of the church. And 
now, Christians, have you prayed in this manner? Have 
you agonized in prayer, a single half hour for this glori- 
ous cause? If you have, you will not withhold your 
charities. Your prayers and alms will ascend together as 
an acceptable memorial before God. As one of the best 
mediums of communicating to them your contributions, 
the American Education Society is presented. The object 
of this institution is to educate indigent young men of 
respectable natural talents, ardent piety, and good promise. 
It has assisted more than three thousand of this descrip- 
tion. Among those who have been patronized may be 
found natives of every State in the Union, and some of 
seven evangelical denominations of Christians. The in- 
fluence which the Society has already exerted upon the 
spiritual interests of man, is greater than can ever be fully 
known in the present world. Indeed, God only can com- 
prehend it. 

It appears by returns made to the Directors, from ninety- 
two individuals who were formerly Beneficiaries of this 
Institution, that since they commenced preparation for the 
ministry, they have taught schools and academies 201 
years ; instructed 26,805 children and youth ; have been 
instrumental of 183 revivals of religion, and of the hopeful 
conversion of about 20,000 souls — each soul worth more 
than a world, according to the estimate of Jesus Christ. 
They now instruct in Bible Classes in their parishes. 



SUPPLY OF MINISTERS. 151 

14,800 individuals; and preach statedly to about 40,000 
hearers. There are contributed in their parishes annually, 
for various benevolent purposes, 16,000 dollars. If ninety- 
two Beneficiaries have effected so much good, what has 
been accomplished by the fifteen hundred ministers who 
have received aid from the Society ! And all this is clear 
gain to Zion and the world, and it has been effected through 
the instrumentality of the American Education Society. 

Is it said, that some of these young men would have 
educated themselves by their own efforts? Be it so. But 
the Society by its publications, Agents, and efforts gene- 
rally, has been the means of inducing more young men, 
who could educate themselves, to prepare for the ministry 
and enter it, than would have educated themselves, from 
among those, who have gone forth as heralds of salvation, 
by the aid of the Society imparted to them. So that as 
much as this amount of good has been accomplished by 
the American Education Society. During two or three 
years past, as many as one-sixth of all the ordinations and 
installations of ministers in the United States, an account 
of which has been published in the different periodicals, 
have been of ministers who were assisted in their education 
by this Society. These men are now scattered to the four 
quarters of the globe, preaching faithfully the gospel of 
the blessed God, as foreign missionaries, home missiona- 
ries, or as settled and located pastors. Surely, then, this 
cause is worthy of the patronage of all the friends of 
liberty, learning and religion. It is the cause of God, and 
must prevail. " Who art thou, O great mountain ? Before 
Zerubbabel thou shalt become a plain." Such spiritual 
wastes will not reign forever with unbroken empire. 
There will be hearts to feel, and hands to help. The bread 
of life will be imparted to a famishing world. 

Come, then, beloved of the Lord, commiserate the piti- 
able state of those, who are destitute of the means of grace. 



152 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

Their situation demands your immediate and highest efj 
forts. Remember too, that, would you perpetuate an evan- 
gelical ministry in this land, and all that we hold dear in a 
civil, literary, and religious view, what you do towards it 
must be done quickly. The Western States, which will 
ere long, sway the destiny of the land, are increasing most 
rapidly in population. According to the last census it 
appears, that some of them have doubled, others trebled, 
the last ten years. And the large and increasing popula- 
tion of these States are worse than destitute of the minis- 
trations of the gospel. All kinds of infidelity, irreligion, 
and vice prevail. Popery is coming in like a flood. 
There also, if it is not prevented, will be the seat of the 
beast, another spiritual Babylon, where the mother of 
harlots may again establish her inquisitions, forge her 
chains, and practise her abominations. Ministers, the 
people will have ; and if we do not supply them, they will 
be supplied by the energy of the Jesuits. To this end 
vigorous efforts are now making.* Large sums of money 

* Tlie following- on Popery in the United Slates in 1833, is extracted from 
the Conneciic ul Observer. 

"Tlie population attciched to the Romish church in the valley of the 
Mississippi, is about 500,0(J0, and they boast of an increase of about 40.000 
in that ref;ion last year. Between twenty and thirty Jesuits recently arrived 
in Hailimore from Europe, to g^o to the IMississippi valley. Twelve niore 
are on their wa}' to enter Micliig^an. Five .Jesuits lately arrived at New 
York from Antwerp with tlie same design. But recently five nuns from the 
convent at Georgetown, look their departure for 3Inbilc, with the intention 
of establishing in that vicinity, schools for female children anft youih. There 
is in the Western States a band or brotherhood ol' young Catliofic priests, who 
bind themselves by a vow, to spend three years in teaching youth before 
thev shall attempt to enter the ministry ; and the membei s of it are constantly 
on the alert in the Western States. Many of their chapels are known to be 
built in the valley of the Mississippi by m<jney sent from Rome. In Penn- 
sylvania, since July, four individuals have been promoted lo the priesthood: 
in Massachusetts one or two. Dming the past year Catholic chiiiches have 
been completed, or nearly so, in Bui lington, Vermont ; St. Loui.?, Mississippi; 
Washington County, Kentucky; Clearfield and Nevvry, Pennsylvania, and 
in the city of New York. On the 30th of September, 100 persons were 
confirmed in Elizabethfown, Penn.sylvania ; 2.5 in Clearfield, 5^ in Hunting- 
don, and 16 in Newry, Pennsylvania. On the 29lh of August, 2G in Hartford, 
Connecticut, 22 of whom were converts from Protestantism ; 40 in Wilming- 
ton. Delaware ; 27 in Burlington, Vermorit; and in .July, 43 in St. Louis. 
A i'cw years ago, a few poor Catholic Canadians constituted the entire 
Catholic population of Burlington, Vermont; now it is said lo exceed one 



SUPPLY OF MINISTERS. 153 

are annually sent over by the church of Rome, to be 
expended in the erection of houses for worship, and the 
support of her religious institutions. Twenty-one priests 
and a hundred thousand dollars have been brought into 
this country at one time. In a Catholic periodical, pub- 
lished at Baltimore, and issued in the number for January, 
1839, the editor says with great complacency and triumph, 
'' It must be a source of unmingled satisfaction for every 
professor of the true faith, to witness the steady march 
of religion over the vast territory which we inhabit." 
** The present state of it compared with that in which we 
beheld it a few years since, proves it to have advanced with 
a rapidity which could scarcely have been anticipated." 
From this publication we gather the following facts: 
There are in the United States 1 archbishop and 15 
bishops, each having the care of a Diocese; 418 churches 
and chapels, besides 341 missionary stations, making in 
the whole 759 places where the Catholic faith is preached; 
478 clergymen ; 16 ecclesiastical or theological institutions 
for the education of priests; 171 clerical students, soon to 
take orders for the ministry, (some of these are supported 
by the Propaganda at Rome;) 16 Colleges for the educa- 
tion of young men; 31 female religious institutions or 
convents; 45 female academies; 69 charitable institutions; 
and 7 periodical publications. All these efforts are made 
for the express purpose of propagating the Roman Catholic 
relio-ion — a relio-ion which is calculated to subvert all 
republican principles and institutions, to annihilate the 
pure gospel of the blessed God, and to establish a hie- 
rarchy and a despotism, ten fold worse than that from 
which our forefathers fled. Let Popery be established 

thousand in number. In a section of Missouri, where six years ago, there 
were but eij^hl Calliolics there are now 550. In the colleo;e ' de Propaganda 
fide,' at Rome, tliere are several youili of the American Indian tribes, being 
educated to return as Missionaries among their kindred; and the best scholar 
in that institution, is a native (vviiiie) of Kentucky, who will probably return 
as a Missionary to his native iState." 



154 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

here generally, and then may be written on the whole 
country, " Ichabod," the sad memorial of departed glory. 
In view of this, for the fate of my country I tremble. 
Could I so elevate my voice, I would sound the note of 
alarm, till it should be heard from Maine to the Rocky 
Mountains. Something must be done, and done soon, or 
the country will be ruined. Every right, and privilege, 
and blessing we inherit from our fathers, procured by their 
prayers, sufferings and blood, will be wrested from us, and 
sacrificed at the shrine of a most fearful despotism. There 
will be a reaction, tremendous, and awfully disastrous 
in its effects. There is no religion on the face of the 
earth, consistent with republican institutions, but the 
Protestant. Indeed, our civil government is founded upon 
our religion. When our ancestors were persecuted in 
their native country, on account of their religious faith and 
practices, they fled to this land, then a howling wilderness. 
Here they established a civil government consistent with 
their religion. And if any other religion than that which 
the Pilgrims brought to this country, and which is em 
braced in the different evangelical denominations of 
Christians should prevail, utter destruction will befal this 
fair republic — this land of civil and religious freedom. 
This is just what every Catholic sovereign desires and is 
now attempting to effect, by aiding and abetting in this 
direful work of spreading Romanism through the land. * 

* As evidence of iliis asserlion the following extract is made from a peri- 
odical, published in Paris, in 1829, entitletl " Annals of the Association for 
ihe Propagation of the Faith," translated b>- a gentleman of this country. 

" Most of the churches of the diocese of Bardstovvn, (Ky.) are very desti- 
tute of linen and ornaments; many, in fact, are in want of the objects most 
necessary for the celebration of the sacred rites. Tlie Abbe IVlarlial, whom 
Mgr. Flaget bad sent to Europe in 18-6, having shown the king of France 
the poverty of the Mission ot Kentucky, His Majesty and IMonseigneur, the 
Dauphin, condescended to preser.t him the altar furniture for the cathe<lral 
of Bardstown ; the tabernacle, cross, and six chandeliers are of bronze, gilt, 
and of excellent workmanship. M. INlartial had previously received of the 
king of INaples six paintings, of the Sovereign Pontiff four paintings and the 
sacred vessels, of the queen of Sardinia an aslensoir inlaid wiili vermillion, 
and of his highness the Duke of Alodena an episcopal ring for Mgr, Flaget." 



SUPPLY OF MINISTERS. I55 

I would speak with the patriotic sentiments and feelings 
of 1776, the period of our revolution. The times call for 
alarm. Let the country be aroused ere it be too late to 
preserve itself from the iron grasp of him '* who opposeth 
and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that 
is worshipped ; so that he as God, sitteth in the temple of 
God, showing himself, that he is God." May Heaven in 
mercy forbid this dreadful doom. Let the prayers and 
exertions of Christians and patriots forbid it. The Lord 
Jesus Christ is King in Zion. He has displayed his 
banner, and on it is written, and in lines of blood, "King 
Jesus expects every one of his subjects to do his duty." 

Appendix F. 



DISSERTATION VII. 



RELIGIOUS EDUCATION OF YOUTH. 

'' Train up a child in the way he should go, and when 
he is old, he will not depart from it." These are the 
words of king Solomon, who was celebrated for his wisdom. 
Dr. Scott, in his commentary on this passage, thus 
remarks: "When children are instructed from their 
infancy in the truths and ways of God ; when they are 
inured to submission, industry and the government of their 
passions ; when they are restrained and corrected, with a 
due mixture of firmness and affection ; when they are 
trained up, as soldiers are disciplined to handle their arms, 
endure hardship, keep their ranks, and obey orders ; and 
when all is enforced by good examples set before them, and 
constant prayer made for and with them, they generally 
retain their early impressions even to old age." Such are 
the observations of one, whose skill in this sacred duty 
was happily tested in his own family. All his children 
became hopefully pious; and at the time of his decease 
the same might be said of most of his grand children. 

The subject of this dissertation is the religious education 
of youth. The nature of such an education, and the 
reasons for it will be now considered. 



RELIGIOUS EDUCATION OF YOUTH. 157 

I. What is it to religiously educate the young ? 

A most essential part of this duty is to give them pious 
instruction. In doing this, children should be taught the 
being and perfections of God — the relation they sustain to 
him, and their dependence and obligations. He is their 
Creator — the Former of their bodies and the Father of 
their spirits — the Author of all the perfection and excel- 
lence they possess. He is their Preserver — the Upholder 
of their existence ; for in him they live, move and have 
their being. On him they depend for every pulse that 
beats, every breath that is drawn, every moment that flies. 
He is their Benefactor — every good and perfect gift is 
from above, and comes down from the Father of lights. 
He is the kindest of fathers, the best of friends, the most 
munificent of benefactors. Children should be taught 
their obligation to love God with all their heart, to serve 
him with all their powers, and to render him the full 
homage of their souls. They should yield all their mem- 
bers as instruments of righteousness unto God. As he 
planted the ear, it becomes them to hear, and obey his 
instructions. As he formed the eye, it becomes them to 
turn it away from beholding vanity, and to fix it upon his 
works and word, that they may admire, reverence and 
love him. As he gave them the organs of speech, it 
becomes them to speak of his righteousness, and of his 
praise all the day long. 

Children should be taught the duties they owe to them- 
selves, as th^ offspring of God, as young immortals, as 
candidates for eternity. They should be taught too, the 
duties they owe to their parents who fostered them in 
infancy, protected them in youth, and provided for their 
necessities — and their duties to their neighbors and friends, 
with whom they have daily intercourse, to whom they may 
impart much happiness, and from whom they may receive 
much benefit. 

14 



158 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

Children should be taught their sinfulness, — that they 
have violated the law of God, rebelled against their Maker, 
and trampled upon the rights of those around them, — that 
" the carnal mind is enmity against God, not subject to 
his law, neither indeed can be," — that by reason of sin 
their exposure to ruin is certain and inevitable, — that end- 
less misery is denounced upon transgression — '* the soul 
that sinneth it shall die " — " the wages of sin is death." 

Children should also be taught the way of salvation by 
Jesus Christ, — that through him eternal life is offered unto 
all men, — that repentance and faith are the only way by 
which to obtain an interest in atoning blood, and secure 
the salvation of the soul. 

In the religious education of children, they should be 
taught to govern their passions, and to restrain themselves 
from all evil ways — to cultivate habits of temperance, 
industry, and obedience. They should be instructed to 
embrace the doctrines, discharge the duties, and exercise 
the graces of the gospel ; and should be thus religiously 
taught by precept and example. Though precept has 
great effect, yet example has greater. It is sovereign in 
its influence. There is in children a native proneness to 
imitation. And this whole course of education should be 
accompanied with prayer. " The effectual fervent prayer 
of a righteous man availeth much." Children, therefore, 
should be remembered in the closet, around the family 
altar, and in the public sanctuary. 

II. Why should children be thus instructed in the way 
of righteousness and salvation ? 

1. One reason is, they will be likely to retain their 
early impressions. When they have advanced even to 
hoary age, and are tottering on the verge of the grave, the 
sentiments they embraced, and the spirit they imbibed, 
in their youthful days, will very probably abide, and affect 



RELIGIOUS EDUCATION OF YOUTH. 159 

favorably or unfavorably their decline of life. Some very 
eminent divines have supposed the passage, " Train up a 
child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will 
not depart from it," to contain a universal truth, — a uni- 
versal promise, in fact, of spiritual good to the children of 
faithful, pious parents. The light in which they view the 
subject is this: — If such parents will fully discharge their 
duty to their children — if they will use all the means in 
their power to train them up in the way they should go ; 
God engages to bless these pious instructions, and to 
make them instrumental of their spiritual and everlasting 
good; — to implant the principles of grace in their hearts, 
and to take possession of them by the influences of his 
Spirit ; — that when they are old they shall not forsake that 
good way in which they were early educated, but, walk in 
it, and bring forth the fruits of righteousness. Those of 
this sentiment, suppose that the covenant which God has 
made with true believers, extends in a certain sense to 
their offspring, or implies an engagement on his part to 
interest these children in the blessings of the new cove- 
nant, provided parents perform their duty towards them in 
the sense required. This they argue not only from the 
words quoted from Solomon, but also from other passages 
of Scripture. Said God, speaking of Abraham, " I know 
him, that he will command his children and his household 
after him, and they shall keep the way of the Lord, to do 
justice and judgment ; " meaning they shall be truly pious, 
and walk in the way which leads to eternal life. Others 
suppose that the text is not to be understood in this exten- 
sive, unlimited sense, and that the promise here annexed 
to the instructions of pious parents is not absolute but 
conditional. If parents are faithful in the sense here 
intended, there is very great probability that their children 
will be happily and piously affected. This appears to be 
the opinion of Dr. Doddridge. Hence in commenting on 



160 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

the passage, he observes, " This assertion — ' Train up a 
child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will 
not depart from it,' — is to be understood with some limita- 
tion, as expressing the probability, rather than the cer- 
tainty of the success, — otherwise experience in some mel- 
ancholy instances, would contradict it." Happy would it 
be were none untractable under the most pious and pru- 
dent methods of education ; none who like the deaf 
adder, stop their ears against the voice of the most skilful 
charmers, and have been accustomed to do it from their 
infancy ; — were there none of those who appeared to set 
out well, and seemed eager in inquiring " the way to Zion, 
with their faces thitherward," who have forgotten the 
guides of their youth, and the covenant of their God, and 
are to this day, wandering in the paths of the destroyer. 
But though there are some melancholy instances of this 
nature, yet the many more of the opposite character, fully 
demonstrate, that if parents would exert themselves by 
precept and example, to train up their children in the way 
they should go, it is highly probable that they would be 
happily effected by such an education, and be brought to 
experience the blessings of Heaven in time and in eternity. 
What a powerful motive to efforts on behalf of the young! 

2. Children should be trained up in the way of right- 
eousness and salvation, because early piety is amiable in 
itself and pleasing to God, and greatly conducive to hap- 
piness through life. 

Early piety is lovely in itself, and has ever commanded 
a respectful regard. What can be more attracting, more 
interesting, than to see the whole conduct of a youth 
governed by good principles; — youthful levities and follies 
despised ; the unruly passions of the human breast sub- 
jected to reason and conscience ; irresolution and caprice 
banished ; constancy and uniformity prevailing ; the love 
of God and man shed abroad in the heart ; meekness, 



RELIGIOUS EDUCATION OF YOUTH. 161 

humility, resignation ; a heart mortified to all sublunary 
things, fortified against all earthly evils ; an eye fixed on 
heaven and communion with God. This spectacle is 
most desirable and lovely. It is a vision in miniature of 
the heavenly world. Such religion elevates man to his 
pristine dignity, and reinstamps the divine image on his 
soul. Surely then, early piety is amiable in itself, and 
must be pleasing to God. In the Scriptures, he frequently 
and affectionately calls upon young persons to " remember 
their Creator in the days of their youth," assuring them 
that if they seek him early, they shall find him ; and he 
has proved the sincerity of his calls, and the truth of his 
assurances by examples of special favor to early converts. 
See this illustrated in the case of Samuel, who was the 
child of prayer, and of Timothy, who searched the Holy 
Scriptures from his childhood. 

Early piety will be conducive to happiness through life. 
What can more contribute to this than the suppression of 
bad habits, propensities and passions, and the implantation 
of holy affections and desires in the soul. To live piously, 
-is the happiest way of living, this side of heaven. The 
exercises of love, gratitude and submission, are delightful 
to a humble soul. Tliey are attended with pleasures, 
unspeakably preferable, to all which this world can afford. 
*' Wisdom's ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her 
paths are peace," 

3. Children should be educated in the way of right- 
eousness and salvation, because youth is the best season 
for cultivating the principles of piety. 

This idea is fully conveyed in the injunction, " Re- 
member now thy Creator in the days of thy youth." The 
word in the original, translated youth, might properly be 
rendered the best or choicest time of life. It is the golden 
opportunity for religious improvement. In young persons 
nature is pliant, habits are not confirmed. The mind is 
14* 



162 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

the more open for the reception of truth, and less pre- 
occupied and corrupted by prejudices, than in advanced 
life. The affections are less debased by the world. The 
powers of the mind are active and vigorous. The heart 
is more easily affected by the love of God, the grace of 
the Saviour, and those powerful motives to religion, which 
the gospel presents, than it will be at any future period. 
The passions are more manageable and more easily 
diverted from vicious objects. Youth will blush at those 
acts of vice, which, in riper years, sinners commit 
with boldness, disregarding the censures of others, and 
glorying in their shame. Conscience, that monitor in 
man, active and vigilant, elevates in the youthful 
breast her warning voice, and strongly remonstrates at 
deviation from virtue. Besides, God by his Spirit, 
beseeches and importunes youth more frequently and 
more forcibly to return and live, than he does those in 
older life. Doubtless there are many in the regions of 
wo, who while young, felt the strivings of the Holy Spirit, 
which almost persuaded them to be Christians. By far 
the greater part of those who become pious, are converted 
in early life. This is strikingly the case in the revivals 
of religion in the present day. How true the proverbial 
expression, "Can the Ethiopian change his skin, or the 
leopard his spots, then may ye also do good, who are 
accustomed to do evil." Mr. Henry observes : •' Early 
piety, it is to be hoped, will be eminent piety. Those who 
are good betimes are likely to be very good. Obadiah, 
who feared the Lord from his youth, feared him greatly." 
Youth, then, is the best season for religious attainments. 
Those therefore, who are in early life, should imitate the 
example of Josiah, the pious king of Judah, and begin 
while yet young to seek after the God of their fathers. 

4. Children should be religiously educated, because 
this will prepare them to be more useful in the present 



RELIGIOUS EDUCATION OF YOUTH. 163 

life, and secure to them greater glory and blessedness in 
the life hereafter. Most evidently, religion would assist 
in qualifying them to discharge with fidelity and propriety 
the duties incumbent upon them. Living in the fear of 
God, they will 'do justly, love mercy, and walk humbly' 
before him. As much as in them lies, they will live 
peaceably with all men. They will direct, counsel, 
reprove, exhort, comfort, and do good as they have op- 
portunity. The doctrines of God they will adorn by their 
lives and conversation. Knowing the way to heaven 
themselves, and solicitous for the salvation of others, 
they will labor to make them also acquainted with the 
way of eternal life. Hence they will be, by precept and 
example, instructers in the ways of righteousness, and be 
useful to themselves and others, to the church and the 
world. Such was young Joseph in Egypt ; — such was 
young Daniel and his companions in Babylon, and such 
was young Obadiah in the land of Israel. 

Early piety will prepare for more exalted employments 
and blessedness in the heavenly state. It is the generally 
received opinion, that the soul possesses capability of 
eternal progress towards infinite perfection. Eternity is 
its career. The Deity is its goal. And though it can 
never arrive at the point in view, still it is capable of an 
eternal approximation to it. It will go on from strength 
to strength, from knowledge to knowledge, from virtue 
to virtue, from glory to glory, expanding and brightening 
to all eternity. Consequently, there will be a time in 
futurity, when the saint will be as far above what the 
cherubim and seraphim are at present, as they now are 
above him. But at the same time they also will be 
making attainments in greatness and glory, in holiness 
and happiness. The more our faculties are enlarged, 
and the greater our attainments are in this world, the 
higher will be the sphere of our action in the world to 



1©4 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

cortt6. The views of God, of his ways, and of divine 
things generally, will be more extended and enrapturing. 
Stronger will be the emotions of gratitude ; louder will 
the anthem of praise be sung. Such spirits as Baxter, 
Owen, Watts, Doddridge, Edwards and Scott, will strike 
some of the highest notes in the song of Moses, the 
servant of God, and in the song of the Lamb. Very 
great then is the encouragement to become religious in 
youth, and to progress in religious attainments. 

III. Who are to take part in the religious education of 
children, or in training them up in the way they should 
go? 

1. Parents and guardians should take a very active part 
in this important work. God has laid them under solemn 
and indispensable obligations to do this. He has com- 
mitted children to their care, and given instruction to 
train them up in the way they should go — for himself and 
heaven. His directions are, "Children, obey your parents 
in the Lord, for this is right." " Honor thy father and 
thy mother, w'hich is the first commandment with promise, 
that it may be well with thee, and that thou mayest live 
long on the earth." And, " Ye fathers, provoke not your 
children to wrath, but bring them up in the nurture 
and admonition of the Lord." In commendation of the 
father of the faithful, it is remarked, *' 1 know him, that 
he will command his children, and his household after 
him, and they shall keep the way of the Lord, to do 
justice and judgment." Hence, were there no pleasure 
nor profit resulting from the performance of this duty, 
it would be incumbent on those who have the charge of 
children, to perform it. It is a duty which may not be 
omitted without incurring a high degree of criminality. 
The trust reposed in parents is of infinite responsibility. 
The consequence of faithfulness or unfaithfulness to it, 



RELIGIOUS EDUCATION OF YOUTH. 165 

will be most glorious or awful. By a right discharge 
of duty in this respect, parents may be instrumental of 
securing for their children a happy life, a joyful death, 
and a blessed immortality. But should they betray their 
trust, they will finally weep for the irregularities of their 
offspring, and exclaim in the bitterness of their soul, as 
did David, "O Absalom, my son, my son." Of the future 
consequences, I forbear to attempt a description. Eter- 
nity will disclose them in all their vivid realities. Parents, 
then, by the worth of the precious souls of their dear 
children, should teach them early to seek the God of 
their fathers, and to serve him with a perfect heart, and 
a willing mind. 

2. The ministers of the gospel are bound to do all in 
their power religiously to instruct those children to whom 
they may have access. They should view them as the 
lambs of the flock, and, in a spiritual sense, gather them 
in their arms, and carry them in their bosoms. They 
should instruct them in the doctrines, duties and graces of 
religion — in those things which belong to their everlasting 
peace. They should exhort them to early piety — teach 
them to " remember their Creator in the days of their 
youth." Were ministers to meet the children of their 
respective parishes as often as once or twice every month, 
particularly to converse and pray with them, and also to 
establish theological classes for the special benefit of 
youth, the result of such efforts would undoubtedly be 
most happy. 

3. Instructers, also, should take a part in training up 
children and youth in the way they should go. 

This duty seems peculiarly to devolve upon them, by 
virtue of their office. They should, therefore, attend to 
it with alacrity and fidelity. Much depends upon the 
manner in which children are educated. 

" Just as the twig is bent, the tree's inclin'd.'* 



166 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

Every possible effort, therefore, should be made to curb 
their passions, direct their habits, and infuse into their 
minds the principles of piety. Those who instruct chil- 
dren and youth, or take a leading part in their education, 
should feel their responsibility, and endeavor faithfully to 
acquit themselves before God. Presidents and professors 
of colleges, preceptors of academies, and instructers of 
common schools, should possess correct moral and religious 
principles, and be ardently desirous to infuse such into the 
youthful minds of their pupils. It is a cause of thanksgiving 
to God that the community are awaking to this subject — 
that most of the colleges in the land are under the 
direction of those, who hold the truth as it is in Jesus — 
that this is true to a very considerable extent, in regard 
to the academies and high schools of our country — that 
quite a large portion of the females of the land enjoy 
superior literary advantages, and that these advantages 
"are sanctified by the word of God and prayer" — 
that from present presages the time is rapidly ap- 
proaching, when on all the instructers of youth shall be 
inscribed *' Holiness unto the Lord." This will be 
emphatically so as the latter day glory of the church 
advances, when *'our sons shall be as plants grown up in 
their youth, and our daughters as corner stones, polished 
after the similitude of a palace." 

But I would here speak particularly of those who have 
the charge of our Sabbath Schools. They are subalterns 
in the army of the great Captain of salvation, and have an 
important part to perform in training up 

"The sacramental host of God's elect." 

These schools will be nurseries for the church — nurseries 
from which multitudes will be transplanted into the garden 
of the Lord. It was a true observation of Calvin, **If we 
would have the church flourish, we must begin in the good 



RELIGIOUS EDUCATION OF YOUTH. 167 

instruction of children." Too much exertion, therefore, 
cannot be made to instil into the minds of the rising 
generation the truths of Christianity. How vastly important 
the system of Sabbath Schools, and kindred institutions, 
as Bible and Theological Classes ! Praised be God 
that he moved the heart of the benevolent Raikes, and 
made him the instrument of giving the first impulse to 
this mighty engine. Wherever Sabbath Schools are 
known, the memory of Robert Raikes will be fondly 
cherished, and held sacred as the founder of these institu- 
tions. Could he now be permitted to revisit this earth, 
with what astonishment and delight would he see the 
immense amount of good that has been effected by this 
benevolent scheme ! While we surrender to the preached 
word the first rank among the many means of doing good 
now in operation, we must claim for Sabbath Schools the 
second; and we feel confident, that if properly encouraged 
and patronised, nothing, with the exception above named, 
will take the precedence of this system in the power of 
doing good. Here will be trained up the Brainerds^ 
Buchanans, Careys, and Martyns of future ages, who 
shall preach the gospel on the banks of the Ganges, on the 
shores of the Pacific, and in the islands of the seas. The 
Sabbath School Society is not an isolated institution. It 
is a part "of one stupendous whole." In connection with 
the other benevolent enterprizes of the day, it is working 
wonders. Some of its glorious effects may be learned 
from a statement of facts collected by the late Rev. Dr. 
Wisner of Boston, and published in his sermon on the 
''Benefits and claims of Sabbath Schools." He says, 
"Not long since, one of the Justices of the Police Court 
in this city stated, at an anniversary meeting of the Boston 
Sunday School Society, that 'there are more juvenile 
delinquents brought before that Court on Monday, than 
on any other day in the week ; and that he was happy to 



leg CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

say, that no Sabbath School scholar was ever found among 
their number.' In a report of the Massachusetts Sabbath 
School Union, is the following statement: "In the reports 
of thirty-five schools it is definitely stated, that no individ- 
ual from their number has ever been arraigned before a 
civil tribunal for immoral conduct; while only two from 
all our schools, are mentioned, who have been arrested ; 
and these attended the Sabbath School irregularly for a 
very short time." A few years since, '' it was stated before 
a committee of the English House of Commons, by persons 
who had been much concerned in Sabbath Schools, that 
they had never known one of their pupils to become a 
common beggar." Mr. Raikes, the founder of the Sabbath 
School system, stated, that, "during twenty years among 
3,000 persons who had been instructed in these institutions, 
he had, after strict inquiry and diligent search, heard of but 
one who had been committed to prison as a criminal." 
Of the influence of these institutions in promoting vital 
religion among their teachers and pupils, we have such 
statements, from authentic sources, as the following: 
" During the first year after the organization of the New 
York Female Sunday School Union, twenty-four of the 
scholars made a profession of religion; and many others, 
by their seriousness, gave reason for the hope that they 
were not far from the kingdom of God." And the report 
of the same Society for 1823 states, that " during the 
preceding year, sixty-six of their teachers, and eighteen of 
their scholars, and during the seven preceding years of the 
existence of their Society, 418 teachers and scholars, had 
made a profession of religion." "In Philadelphia, when 
Sunday Schools were first established, out of the number 
who were employed as teachers, there were sixty-five who 
gave no indication of decided piety. But, in two years, 
out of this number, fifty had made a public profession of 
religion." From 1818 to 1824, in one of the Unions in 



RELIGIOUS EDUCATION OF YOUTH. 169 

that city, 205 teachers, and 73 scholars, had united them- 
selves with the church. And in this city (Boston) it is 
known that of the additions made to our churches during 
the last eight years, a considerable and continually increas- 
ing proportion have been from among the teachers and 
scholars of our Sabbath Schools. And similar have been 
their fruits in country places. In the account of a revival 
in the State of New York, several years since, it was 
stated, that of thirty-five who were hopeful sharers in the 
work, twenty-nine belonged to the Sabbath School. And 
of one hundred who united with a church in another place, 
in the course of a single year, ninety-eight had enjoyed 
the blessings of Sabbath School instruction." In 1S25, a 
member of a church in New Jersey, wrote, — " About one 
hundred young persons have," since the establishment of 
our schools, *' been united to the church, who, after 
considerable investigation it was concluded, have all been, 
in some way or other, connected with the Sabbath Schools 
of the congregation, either as teachers or scholars. We 
may add to this about thirty persons of color, who have 
received religious instruction in some of the Sunday 
Schools, and have made a profession of religion." In 
1828, a clergyman in one of the towns of Massachusetts, 
said he was confident that every individual who was in his 
first Sabbath School, was then a member of his church. 
And that while some, during a recent revival, were hope- 
fully converted from every other house in the vicinity, one 
large family of children, whose father, (a member of the 
church,) refused to let them attend the Sabbath School, 
(saying he could give instruction enough at home,) was 
passed by without a single trophy of renewing grace." 
The report of the Massachusetts Union for 1828, states, 
** In sixty-nine school?^, 348 teachers, and 248 scholars 
have publicly professed their faith in Christ during the last 
year; besides very mai y who hope they have exercised 
15 



170 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

faith in his atoning blood, but have not yet publicly 
espoused his cause." In another year they report, " 380 
teachers and 237 scholars added to the church." The 
report of the Massachusetts Sabbath School Society for 
1835 states, that 225 teachers and 1,409 scholars had 
made a public profession of religion during the year. In 
the next annual report 173 teachers and 1,444 scholars are 
mentioned as uniting with the church on that year. The 
report of the American Sunday School Union for 1828, 
after remarking that very few of the reports received from 
auxiliaries, mention the number of teachers and scholars 
who have made a profession of religion in the past year, 
adds, " the number of the former actually reported is 1,269, 
and of the latter 909 ; which being added to those before 
reported, makes 7,659." " But we believe this," the 
managers subjoin, "is not one fourth of the teachers and 
pupils, who after their connection with Sabbath Schools, 
have been taught by the Holy Spirit, and publicly professed 
their faith in the Lord Jesus Christ." 

From the above facts, it appears that the Holy Spirit 
has remarkably set his seal upon the institution of Sab- 
bath Schools. We have the most abundant testimony 
to their blessed effects. Revivals of religion follow in 
their train. They replenish the churches, and furnish a 
multitude of young men for the service of pastors and 
missionaries. " It is said that of the missionaries who 
have gone forth from Great Britain to the heathen, nine- 
teen-twentieths became pious at Sabbath Schools; and 
that of the evangelical ministers in England who are 
under forty years of age, more than two thirds became 
pious at Sabbath Schools. The celebrated Dr. Morrison, 
missionary in the vast empire of China, who has recently 
translated the whole Bible into Chinese, a language spoken 
by the largest associated population on the globe, became 
pious at a Sabbath School." At a Sabbath School also, 



RELIGIOUS EDUCATION OF YOUTH. 171 

the first religious impressions were made upon the minds 
of the Rev. Messrs. Henderson and Patterson, who have 
wrought such wonders on behalf of the Bible cause. 
Under a conviction of the salutary effects of these insti- 
tutions, the pirate Gibbs exclaimed a short time before his 
execution, " Sabbath Schools would have saved me from 
the gallows ; but they were fifteen years too late for me." 
What multitudes are now suffering the horrors and an- 
guish of hell, who might say, •' If we had enjoyed Sab- 
bath School instruction, it would have saved us from our 
awful perdition, but they were established too late for us." 
That this Christian enterprise is one of the most efficient 
instruments, chosen of God for the advancement of his 
kingdom, is the uniform feeling and acknowledgment of 
the friends of Christ ; and it is countenanced and sus- 
tained by all the different evangelical denominations of 
Christians. The wise, the good, and the patriotic, have 
espoused this cause, which promises blessings, great and 
glorious. "No man," said Chief Justice Marshall, "esti- 
mates more highly than I do, the real value of the Sab- 
bath School institution, or the intrinsic value of the object 
it pursues. I am much, very much gratified at the suc- 
cess which has thus far attented its philanthropic, merito- 
rious and well directed labors." Governor De Witt 
Clinton of New York, said, "the institution of Sabbath 
Schools, is one of the three levers by which the moral 
world is to be moved." 

Such is the importance of Sabbath Schools; and from 
them no one should withhold his influence. The Lord in 
his providence k addressing parents, ministers and instruct- 
ers, especially Sabbath School teachers, in the language of 
the daughter of Pharaoh, "Take these children and nurse 
them for me, and I will give thee thy wages " — the salva- 
tion of souls shall be thy hire. Let it never be said of 
those who manage this institution, " They did run well for 



172 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

a time;" but rather, that ihey are "steadfast, im- 
movable, always abounding in this work of the Lord." 
Let the solemn asseveration of Jesus Christ, " No man 
having put his hand to the plough and looking back is fit 
for the kingdom of God," urge them to increased exer- 
tions. Noble was the resolution made in the year 1830, 
"That the American Sunday School Union in reliance 
upon divine aid, will within two years establish a Sunday 
School in every destitute place, where it is practicable, 
throughout the valley of the Mississippi." This measure 
which warranted the most determined, vigorous and liberal 
efforts, has been prosecuted with a zeal correspondent, in 
a good measure, with the magnitude and importance of 
the enterprize, and most happy results have followed. 
Such efforts must still be continued. A Sabbath School 
must be established in every village and hamlet in the 
land. There are in this country at least four millions and 
a half of children and youth who ought to receive Sabbath 
School instruction from week to week. How important 
that this work be sustained. In the language of one of 
the most distinguished members of our national legislature, 
" If our country would render her Union perpetual, if she 
would elevate to a lofty height the pillars of her fame, and 
place herself permanently above all other nations of pre- 
sent and of all other times, she must draw her example 
from the Divine Being, and take little children in her 
arms, and bless them by pouring into their infant minds 
the lessons of early and effectual instruction." 

" Patriots, Christians, Ministers of the most High God, 
the alternative is before you. Employ the means to en- 
lighten and sanctify the nation, and it is saved ; neglect 
them, and it is lost. The instrument of your country's 
salvation is at your command, and the responsibility of its 
failure or success, rests upon you." 

Appendix G. 



DISSERTATION VIII. 



PROMOTION OF TEMPERANCE. 

'' At the last it biteth like a serpent, and stingeth like 
an adder." Such are the effects of intemperate drinking, 
as described by the pen of inspiration. Who then will 
not proclaim, as with the voice of seven thunders, in the 
monitory language, "Touch not; taste not; handle not!" 
Who will not adopt the motto, Total abstinence from 

THE USE OF ARDENT SPIRITS — TOTAL ABSTINENCE FOR- 
EVER ! 

I. But why abstain from the use of ardent spirit ? 

1. The expense attending the use of it is a reason for 
abstinence. This is enormous. From authentic docu- 
ments it appears, that the sum of money expended for 
ardent spirits, consumed in the United States, amounts, 
annually, to at least fifty millions of dollars. This melan- 
choly fact is fully established by ascertaining the quantity 
of ardent spirit which is annually distilled in our country, 
and which is annually imported, and also the quantity 
which is annually exported; and by considering what 
remains after exportation, as actually drank in the coun- 
try. This it would seem is a fair way of calculating with 
15* 



174 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

sufficient exactness. It is found from the returns of all 
the marshals in the United States to the secretary's 
office, that there were, probably, as many as 33,365,529 
gallons of ardent spirits consumed in our country in the 
year 1810. Assuming the population of the United States, 
and the habits of the people, in IS 10, as the basis of cal- 
culation, the quantity of ardent spirits consumed in 1832, 
will be twice as great, or 66,731,058 gallons, a quantity 
of liquor sufficient to fill more than 1,090,970 hogsheads, 
and would form a pond more than 68 rods long, 40 rods 
wide, and 12 feet deep, covering an area of 17 acres. 
Considering that these liquors are freely diluted before 
they are sold to the consumers, and that a large portion 
of them is retailed in small quantities at a greatly ad- 
vanced price upon the primary cost, they may be fairly 
reckoned in sale at one dollar per gallon. The amount of 
the whole at this rate would be more than sixty-six millions 
of dollars. But let the estimate be moderate — say fifty 
millions. What an enormous sum expended for the con- 
sumption of distilled spirits! The ^enditure for wine 
is not included in this calculation. .'his must be many 
millions. 

Besides, will it not be conceded ' y all, that the pre- 
cious time of those who drink to excess, which is spent in 
idle conversation, vain amusements at taverns, grog-shops 
and tippling houses of all descriptions, is really worth as 
much, (Dr. Franklin observes, time is money,) as the 
cost of ardent spirits consumed, that is, fifty millions of 
dollars. 

In addition to this, statements and reports founded upon 
facts, lead to the belief, that nine hundred thousand dol- 
lars are expended annually in Massachusetts, for those 
who have been reduced to poverty and to sickness by 
intemperate drinking. Admitting this to be true, and 
that no more are thus effiscted by intemperance in this 



PROMOTION OF TEMPERANCE. 175 

State, according to the number of its inhabitants, than in 
the other States, it follows, that more than nineteen mil- 
lions of dollars are annually thus expended in the United 
States, for the support of the victims of alcoholic poison. 

Further; much money, say eleven millions of dollars 
annually, (this must be considered a low estimate,) is 
spent for sickness, occasioned by intemperance in those 
who are able, in a pecuniary point of view, to bear this 
expense themselves. 

The waste of property, then, annually caused or occa- 
sioned by intemperance in the United States, if we take 
into consideration the purchase of the liquors consumed, 
the time idled away, and the expenditure arising from 
pauperism and sickness produced by it, (not to say any 
thing of the expense of law suits, lawyers' and sheriffs' 
bills following in its train,) amounts to one hundred and 
thirty millions of dollars. This is a sum of money more 
than doubly sufficient to defray the expenses of our 
national and state governments, of all our colleges, acade- 
mies, common schyi 5, and religious societies for the sup- 
port of the ministfjL' It is a sum of money " sixty times 
as much as thv. ggregate income of all the principal 
religious charitablrd societies in Europe and America; — it 
would supply every family on earth with a Bible, and it 
would support a missionary or teacher among every two 
thousand souls on the globe." It is a sum of money, 
which, if levied upon this nation at one time by a direct 
tax, would be nearly ten dollars for every man, woman 
and child in it, and would revolutionize the government; — 
a sum of money, which, were it in silver, would weigh 
more than thirty-four hundred tons, and would load seven- 
teen hundred waggons. 

In order to impress upon the mind clearly and forcibly 
the cost of intemperance, I subjoin a bill of expense, 
prepared by an able and accurate writer. 



176 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

" Tke People of the United States to Intemperance, Dr. 

1. To 56,000,0U0 gallons of spirit per year, at 50 

cents per gallon, $28,000,000 

2. To 1,344,000,000 hours of time, wasted by drun- 

kards, at four cents per hour, 53,700,000 

3. To the support of 150,000 paupers, .... 7,500,000 

4. To losses by depravity of 45,000 criminals, 

unknown, but immense. 

5. To the disgrace and misery of 1,000,000 per- 

sons, (relatives of drunkards), incalculable. 

6. & 7. To the ruin of at least 30,000, and proba- 

bly 48,000 souls annually, . . . infinite! unspeakable I 

8. To loss by the premature death of 30,000 per- 

sons in the prime of life, 30,000,000 

9. To losses from the carelessness and mismanage- 

ment of intemperate seamen, agents, &c &c., 

unknown, but very great. 

Certain pecuniary loss in round numbers, . . $120,000,000 
To which add, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th and 9th items, 
Total." 

Ample, indeed, must be the resources of that nation 
which can pay annually so much for the support of 
intemperance ! 

2, Another reason for total abstinence from ardent 
spirits, is, that the use of them in any degree injures, 
and, if persisted in, destroys the morals and happiness 
of society. The injurious effects of spirituous liquors 
are ordinarily in proportion to the quantity used. The 
smallest portion of them taken when in health, is detri- 
mental, and the continued practice of taking them will 
almost inevitably lead to intemperance, and its awful and 
baneful effects. By breaking down all restraints, and 
letting in a flood of vices, it demoralizes society. It is 
properly called legion, for innumerable are its concomi- 
tants ; — thousands of evils compose its train. It is fol- 
lowed by profaneness. The drunkard reverences neither 
the name, attributes, works nor word of God. His mouth 



PROMOTION OF TEMPERANCE. 177 

is filled with the most horrid blasphemies, oaths and im- 
precations. Drimkenness leads also to idleness, Sabbath 
breaking, gambling, lying, cheating, theft and perjury. 
On account of its tendency to induce persons to forswear 
themselves, a law was once passed in Spain, which 
excluded drunkards from testifying in courts of justice. 
Intemperance tends, moreover, to lewdness, foolish con- 
versation, and indecent language; to contentions, assaults, 
affrays, duelling and murder. From the Second Annual 
Report of the "Prison Discipline Society," it appears, that 
from the year 1806 to the year 182G, 20,000 criminals 
were condemned to the different penitentiaries in the 
United States. "Now," says the Report of the Ameri- 
can Temperance Society, " it is admitted on all hands, 
that these, with scarcely one exception, are not only 
intemperate persons, but also, that they were hurried to 
the perpetration of crime, when in a state of intoxication." 
Says Judge Rush of Pennsylvania, in a charge to a grand 
jury, " I declare in this public manner, and with the 
most solemn regard to truth, that I do not recollect one 
instance since my being concerned in the administration 
of justice, of a single person being put on trial for man- 
slaughter, which did not originate in drunkenness; and 
but few instances of trials for murder where this crime 
did not spring from the same unhappy cause." 

After many years experience, Judge Hale gave it as 
his full conviction, " That if all the murders and man- 
slaughters, and burglaries, and robberies, and riots, and 
tumults, the adulteries, fornications, rapes and other great 
enormities, which have been committed within that time, 
were divided into five parts, four of them would be found 
to have been the result of intemperance." This vice 
destroys all moral sensibility, all sense of the everlasting 
distinction between right and wrong, and consequently, 
all religion. Now, as every person has an effect by his 



178 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

faith and life upon those around him, so the intemperate 
man by his baneful influence destroyeth much good. It 
has been thought that one drunkard will in the course of 
ten years make five more. Intemperance also, mars the 
happiness of individuals, families, neighbors and society 
at large. Every evil work is its legitimate issue. It 
induces gloominess of mind, depression of spirits, fret- 
fulness of disposition, and moroseness of habit. " Who 
hath wo ? who hath sorrow? who hath contention? who 
hath wounds without a cause ? They," saith inspiration, 
*' who tarry long at the wine." What heart-rending 
scenes, as the offspring of hard drinking, may be seen 
at houses devoted to dissipation, and sometimes in the 
jovial parlor and family circle. Go to the intemperate 
man's abode, to his once peaceful fireside, after he has 
long been social with his cups, and you will behold his 
wife and children in tears, half clad, and destitute of food. 
He who should be their counsellor, comforter, and friend, 
is now become their tempter, their disturber, their enemy. 
Four hundred thousand families in this land are probably 
thus afilicted by this awfal scourge. Thus intemperance 
scatters fire-brands, arrows, and death through the com- 
munity. It makes a man a burden to himself, a curse 
to his family, and a nuisance to society. The honorable 
William Wirt, late attorney-general of the United States, 
in a communication made by him to the Baltimore City 
Temperance Society, has the following remarks: "I have 
been for more than forty years a close observer of life and 
manners in various parts of the United States, and I know 
not the evil that will bear a moment's comparison with 
intemperance. It is no exaggeration to say, as has been 
often said, that this single cause has produced more vice, 
crime, poverty, and wretchedness in every form, domestic 
and social, than all the other ills that scourge us com- 
bined." Now all these evils may be avoided by the 



PROMOTION OF TEMPERANCE. 179 

disuse of ardent spirits. Who then will not practice total 
abstinence, and exert himself to induce others to follow 
his example ! 

3. My third reason for total abstinence from ardent 
spirits, is, that the use of them in any degree injures, 
and if persisted in to intemperance, will destroy the 
body. 

*' Health," says Dr. Buchan, '' depends upon that 
state of the solids and fluids, which fits them for the 
due performance of the vital functions, and while these 
go regularly on, we are sound and well, but whatever 
disturbs them, necessarily impairs health. Intemperance 
never fails to disorder the whole animal economy. It 
hurts digestion, relaxes the nerves, renders the different 
secretions irregular, vitiates the humors, and occasions 
numberless diseases. Every fit of intoxication produces 
a fever, which sometimes terminates in inflammation of 
the lungs, liver, or brain, hereby bringing on sudden 
and premature death." Intemperance prostrates physical 
strength, by inducing nervous and muscular debility. 
By its deleterious effects, if it produce not acute, it most 
assuredly will chronic maladies. Look into the cup of 
intoxication, and you will see tremors of the limbs, in- 
flammation of the eyes, ulcers upon the face, jaundice, 
gouts, fevers, consumptions, dropsies, lethargies, epilep- 
sies, palsies, apoplexies, and madness — a host of ills, and 
death fast approaching. As the destroying angel of Egypt 
slew thousands, so does the intoxicating bowl slay its tens 
of thousands. Were we to inspect the records of mortality, 
they would tell us, that the use of distilled spirits causes 
more deaths than war, pestilence or famine. About nine- 
tenths of all the persons who have died with the cholera 
in this and other countries, were in the habit of drinking 
ardent spirits. After 1,200 had been seized by this 
disease in Montreal, it was stated, that not a drunkard 



180 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

who had been attacked had recovered, and that almost ali 
the victims had been at least moderate drinkers. ** In 
Tiflis in Russia, containing 20,000 inhabitants, every 
drunkard it has been affirmed, has fallen. AH are dead, 
not one remains." The Fifth Report of the American 
Temperance Society, after giving a faithful and detailed 
account of the awful effects of the cholera, says, " In 
Paris, the 30,000 victims were, with few exceptions, those 
who freely used intoxicating liquors. Nine-tenths of those 
who died of the cholera in Poland, were of the same 
class." ** Drunkenness," says Tissot, ** destroys by retail 
at all times and every w^iere." Dr. Trotter observes, that 
*'more than one-half of the sudden deaths which happen, 
are by a fit of intoxication, softened into some milder 
name, not to ruffle the feelings of relations in laying 
them before the public." Speaking of the evil effects 
of intemperance, Dr. Alden, a distinguished physician 
of Randolph, Ms., remarks, "The rosy hue of health is 
exchanged for a deep scarlet, the eye loses its intelligence, 
the voice becomes husky, the blood parts with its florid 
color, the appetite is impaired, the muscles waste, the face 
is bloated, and, in rapid succession, the liver, the digestive 
organs, the lungs, and heart, and brain, lose their vital 
forces, and but imperfectly perform their functions ; and 
sooner or later the constitution is broken down, organic 
disease supervenes, and death closes the scene." 

" Since life is extinct send now for a surgeon, and let 
the body be inspected for the benefit of the living." 

'* The stomach is enlarged or contracted, often in- 
durated, and always diseased ; the intestinal canal, a 
mass of disease ; the mucus membrane through its whole 
extent irritated; the liver shrunk, dense, discolored, and 
its vessels nearly obliterated ; the lungs engorged, ad- 
hering and often filled with tubercles, the brain hardened, 
as if it had been immersed for weeks in alcohol." What 



PROMOTION OF TEMPERANCE. igi 

an affecting description of the effects of intemperance ! 
It is thought, that there are as many as 300,000 drunkards 
in the United States, or one to about every thirty persons 
in the nation. These " would make an army as large as 
that with which Bonaparte marched into Russia, and 
would be sufficient to defend the United States from the 
combined force of all Europe. Convert them into Apos- 
tles, and they would Christianize the world." Of these 
drunkards, probably thirty thousand, that is, one-tenth 
part of them die annually. Thirty thousand deliberate 
suicides by intemperance in our own country in a year! 
Affecting to relate! "To live a drunkard is enough," 
but to die a drunkard is more awful than language has 
power to describe. 

4. A fourth reason for total abstinence from ardent 
spirits, is, that the use of them in any degree injures the 
soul, and, if persisted in to intemperance, will utterly 
destroy it forever. 

Intemperance levels the noblest distinctions between 
rational and irrational creatures. By paralyzing mental 
energy it unmans, and by subjugating reason to appetite it 
debases, thus rendering him who was endued with capaci- 
ties almost angelic, and who was constituted lord of this 
lower world, unfit to dwell on earth. The man is meta- 
morphosed into the brute.* He who was made in the 
image of God, now bears the image of Satan. What a 
transformation ! Strongly but justly is this thought ex- 
pressed in the language of Shakespeare. " To be now a 

* The following extracts are from an Address on Ardent Spirits by Dr. 
Mussey of Hanover, N. H. '* A few years ag-o a tippler was put into an 
alins-house, in a populous town in Massacliusetis. Wiiliina few days he 
devised various expedients to procure rum, but failed. At length, however, 
he hit upon one which proved successful. He went into the wood yard of 
the establishment, placed i)is hand upon a block, and with an axe in the 
other struck it off at a single blow. With the stump raised and streaming, 
he ran into the house crying, 'get some rum, get some rum, my hand is off.' 
In the confusion and bustle of the occasion, a bowl of rum was brought, into 
which he plunged the bleeding member of his body, then raising the bowl to 
his mouth, drank freely, and exullingly exclaimed, ' now I am satisfied.' " 

16 



182 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

sensible man, by and by a fool, and presently a beast! O 
strange ! Every inordinate cup is unblessed and the 
ingredient is a devil." Nothing is more certain than that 
the intellectual faculties are impaired by alcohol. Every 
excess is a voluntary insanity, and if repeated and carried 
beyond a certain degree it often produces the horrible dis- 
ease called "delirium tremens;" in which the animal 
powers are prostrated, and the mind is tortured with the 
most distressing and fearful imaginations. Nothing has a 
tendency more immediately and completely to destroy the 
moral faculty than intemperate drinking. Speaking of 
the effects of intoxicating drinks upon the mind, the Hon. 
Samuel M. Hopkins of Albany, N. Y., thus remarks, "A 
peculiar effect of ardent spirits which I have seen no 
where properly noticed, is their tendency to excite angry 
passions. A very little acquaintance with the world is 
enough to teach us, that different kinds of liquor operate 
very diversely upon the passions of mankind. Wine by 
its admirers has been called joyous and generous, and 
even poetical ; but if all this were true of the pure unmixed 
juice of the grape, no ode can be found to celebrate the 
praises of brandy, while seas of it are drunk ; nor has the 
most passionate admirer of whiskey punch, alleged, so 
far as I know, that it ever prompted a generous sentiment, 
or heroic action. Distilled spirit, however, is not joyous; 
but jealous, angry, vindictive, and envious." 

The connection between the soul and body is such, 
that when one is affected, the other is also. When, there- 
fore, by quaffing the inebriating cup, the body is affected, 
the intellectual powers become deranged, the conscience 
seared, the affections polluted, all the powers of the soul 
are debased ; then there can be no devout exercises, no 
Christian fellowship, no intercourse with God, no commu- 
nion with the Saviour, no participation of the illuminating 
and purifying influences of the Holy Spirit. 



PROMOTION OF TEMPERANCE. 183 

The subject of such moral death possesses a heart 
harder than the nether mill-stone. He is alike unaffected 
by the thunder of justice from Sinai, and the voice of 
mercy from Zion ;— by the glories of the redeemed and 
the horrors of the damned, and is entirely unfitted for 
heaven. In the New Jerusalem, there can be no com- 
panion nor gratification for him who has become a willing 
slave to the lust of drinking. Nothing unholy, or that 
defileth shall enter there. It is also a declaration of the 
Sacred Oracles, that " drunkards shall not inherit the 
kingdom of God ; " they must be banished " where the worm 
dieth not and the fire is not quenched." " Hundreds of 
thousands! millions! are terms," says President Fisk, 
'^ we ought to use when enumerating the multitudes that 
ardent spirits have shut out of the kingdom of God. It is 
not the drunkard merely that is excluded by them. The 
man who makes a common use of them, if he has received 
grace, becomes thereby stupid and undevout ; and if he is 
unregenerate, he is almost impervious to the shafts of 
truth. ' Rum,' said a brother in the ministry, * is a non- 
conductor ; ' and he then added, in an emphasis that caused 
his words to thrill through my whole frame like the death 
chime of souls, ' Drinking rum and going to hell, are 
synonymous terms ! ' O my God how true is this ! Eter- 
nity alone will unfold the extent of this appalling truth." 

If such are the facts in respect to the use of distilled 
spirits, is it not high time for every one who loves the 
cause of humanity, of religion, and of God, to be roused 
from his slumbers to active exertion, that this enchant- 
ment which binds so many with its fatal bands, may be 
broken ; that this prolific parent of crime, misery and 
death, may be banished from the earth. And are we not 
compelled to come to the result of Professor Stuart, that 
"the use of intoxicating liquors, in any way as a common 
drink, or matter of luxury, and all traffic in them for the 



184 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

sake of promoting or accommodating this purpose, is a 
just subject of Christian animadversion and discipline; 
for it is an offence against the plain and obvious principles 
of our holy religion, an offence against the great Head of 
the church and against the best interests of our country.'* 

II. An important question here arises, How shall entire 
abstinence from the use of ardent spirit be promoted ? 
Various are the ways that may be adopted. 

Our legislators should interpose their authority on this 
behalf, and should see that suitable laws are enacted for 
the prevention of this evil. It is acknowledged with plea- 
sure, that some of our laws on this subject are good. But 
can nothing further be done ? May not the penalities, for 
not executing the laws be made more severe ? May not 
other laws be made for the purpose of enforcing the exe- 
cution of those that are now in existence, or of superseding 
the necessity of their execution 1 May not a stop be put 
to the distillation of ardent spirits from the necessaries of 
life? May not the duties on ardent spirits imported, be 
raised to such a degree as to prevent the purchase of them 
except for medicine? May not all license to vend ardent 
spirit be prohibited? I would not say, that our laws ought 
to be similar to the laws of the Athenians and Romans 
upon this subject ; for drunkenness in a magistrate by 
the former, and in a woman by the latter, was pun- 
ishable with death. But certainly they ought to be 
very strict, not for the purpose of destroying but saving 
men's lives — of redeeming them from worse than Egyptian 
bondage.* 

* "The Chinese nutlinrities at Canton have enured proclannation to be 
posted on the walls, forbidding the sale of wine or spirits to foreign seamen. 
'J'his measure wfs much needed, as European and American seamen^ in 
their Ills of intoxication, have often disturbed the public peace, and some- 
times so seriously as to cause the suspension of commercial intercourse 
between China and the European nations. In the present act we see the 
legislation of an Asiatic despot, directed to the promotion of the public 



PROMOTION OF TEMPERANCE. 185 

All our judicial and executive officers should ever be 
punctillious in the discharge of their duties, remembering 
the solemn oaths they have taken. Our judges should be 
decided in their eflforts to suppress this vice, so prolific of 
every evil. They should denounce it in the most solemn 
and public manner, and set forth its awful effects. Great 
good might thus be accomplished. 

The selectmen of our towns should be careful to see 
the laws executed. It is their duty to post all common 
tipplers and drunkards and to prohibit all licensed persons 
from selling them spirit. Let this duty be discharged, or 
let the laws be repealed. For of what service are laws, if 
they lie useless in the statute book, and are never en- 
forced 1 Is it said that this cannot be done, and that if it 
were done, it would do little or no good? Let the trial 
be made and experience will disclose the results. 

And rulers should be careful not only to enact and 
execute wholesome laws on this subject, in respect to 
others, but also to obey these laws themselves. They 
should be an example to others. Says a gentleman high 
in civil office, " If the habit of intoxication is obnoxious 
in all men, in the character of the judge and counsellor, 
it is peculiarly criminal. The man that is daily muddled 
with wine can possess no lucid interval, or power of dis- 

good; we see a liealhen govonimont defending its subjects from the immo- 
ralities of those who claim to be Cluistiaiis ; we see a salutary guardianship 
of the morals of professed Christians and rppui)licans, by a heathen monarch, 
and we see all this on the site of a Chiislian missionary station, designed to 
instruct these same heathen in the pure precepts of our relif^ion. Such a 
sight should make Americans blush, and send Christians to their closets 
weeping." — Journal of JHuinarn'fij. 

" In tlie Sandwich Islaixls, a tl'ousand in a day covenanted not (o make, 
sell or use ardent spirits. The manufacture and s'aleof it are prohibited by 
law, and a man was lined two hundred dollars for selling a bottle of it. A 
Temperance Society has also been formed, designed to embrace the nation. 
'J'he young King has ortlered a cask of s[)irits on board one of liis brigs to 
be poured into the sea ; the British consul ap|)lie(l to l!)e governor for per- 
mission to buy up rum ibr his Britannic majesty's sliips when liicy touch here, 
and was denied; others applied for the privilege of selling to (i)reigners only 
not to natives, and tiie replyof the governor was, To horses, cattle, and hogs 
you may sell rum, but to real men you must not sell on these shores." — Jour, 
'of Humanity. 

16* 



186 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

cernment ; he cannot discriminate between the evidence 
of right and wrong, and thus he is equally liable to con- 
demn the innocent with the guilty." Solon, in framing 
the Athenian code, seems to have been aware of this; and 
another wiser than he, has said, ** It is not for kings to 
drink wine ; nor princes strong drink : lest they drink and 
forget the law, and pervert the judgment of any of the 
afflicted." The same maxims apply to the duty of the 
lawyer ; if not, the peace of society can never be secure 
against evil advisers, 

Taverners and grocers should not sell ardent spirits ; 
seriously remembering that the money acquired by the 
sale of spirituous liquors is the price of fortune, health, 
happiness, reputation, body and soul, and will be dissi- 
pated like the morning cloud a!id early dew, before the 
solar beams. John Wesley declared *' That the men who 
traffic in ardent spirit and sell to all who will buy, are 
poisoners general ; that they murder his majesty's subjects 
by the wholesale ; neither does their eye pity or spare. 
And what," said he, '• is their gain? Is it not the blood 
of these men ? Who would envy their large estates and 
sumptuous palaces? A curse is in the midst of them. 
The curse of God is on their gardens, their walks, their 
groves ; a fire that burns to the nethermost hell. Blood, 
blood is there ; the foundation, the floor, the walls, the 
roof are stained with blood. And canst thou hope, O 
man of blood, though thou art clothed in scarlet and fine 
linen and farest sumptuously every day, canst thou hope 
to deliver down the fields of blood to the third generation? 
Not so — there is a God in the heavens, therefore thy name 
shall be rooted out like as those whom thou has destroyed, 
both body and soul. Thy memorial shall perish with 
thee." The Rev. Austin Dickinson of New York, in an 
address to those who distill and sell ardent spirits, says, 
" You are creating and sending out the materials of dis- 



PROMOTION OF TEMPERANCE. 1S7 

order, crime, poverty, disease, and intellectual and moral 
degradation. You are contributing to perpetuate one of 
the sorest scourges of our world. And the scourge can 
never be removed till those deadly fires which you have 
kindled are put out." The Rev. Dr. Beecher has re- 
marked, " The dealers in this liquid poison of ardent spirit 
may be compared to men who should advertise for sale, con- 
sumptions, and fevers, and rheumatisms, and palsies, and 
apoplexies. But would our public authorities permit such 
a traffic ? No. The public voice would be heard at once, 
for the punishment of such enemies of our race ; and the 
rulers that would not take speedy vengeance, would be 
execrated and removed. But now the men who deal out 
this slow poison are licensed by law, and they talk about 
their constitutional rights, and plead that they are pursuing 
lawful callings. Where lies the difference in criminality 
between the dram-seller who administers the slow, but 
certain death, and the public murderer ? The former is 
licensed in his wickedness by law, the other must be 
hanged." Judge Daggett of Connecticut says, " On every 
grog-shop should be inscribed, in capital letters, ' The 
way to hell, going down to the chambers of death.' " It is 
a very encouraging fact that " many of our tavern keepers 
have banished spirits from their bars, and some of them 
have adopted the substitute of coffee. It is to be hoped 
that they all will adopt it. Almost every traveller relishes 
coffee, and in his payment for a cup of it, he can, at least 
avoid the embarrassment of directly compensating the 
inn-keeper for the use of his house." 

Those who minister at the altar of God, who are set as 
watchmen upon the walls of Zion, should cry aloud and 
spare not, lift up their voice like a trumpet in solemn 
admonition, and attempt by precept and example to stop 
the prevalence of intemperance. They should denounce 
the use of ardent spirits in the most pointed terms, and 



188 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

exhort their people not to be "with wine bibbers," nor 
with those who "mingle strong drink," for multitudes that 
no man can number have become victims to this fell 
destroyer. In their pastoral visits, as well as at other 
times, when invited to partake of the " cheering bowl," 
let them peremptorily refuse, observing that drunkenness 
commences in temperate drinking, and may originate in 
taking an unnecessary glass with a friend — that some, 
(though rare the instances and awful to relate,) who once 
presented the oblations of Christian assemblies before the 
Great Eternal, being seduced by the urgent importunities 
of friends, and incautiously and frequently quaffing the 
deadly poison, have become confirmed in habits, which 
lead down to the gates of death. Ministers cannot be 
silent on this subject with impunity. If they stand aloof, 
or withhold their influence from this cause, blood will be 
found in the skirts of their garments. 

Physicians, who are the constituted guardians of health, 
and whose duty it is when they see danger approaching to 
give warning, may do much by their instruction and 
example, should they enlist in this service. They ought to 
be examples of temperance themselves, and never to give 
occasion for the cutting retort, "Physician, heal thyself" 
They should also teach others to observe total abstinence. 
It becomes them to administer as few medicines as possible 
in spirituous liquors, and never but through absolute 
necessity, advise to the use of them; remembering that the 
celebrated Dr. Rush once "lamented in pathetic terms 
that he had innocently made many drunken sots by 
prescribing brandy and water in stomach complaints." 
One reason assigned for a physician's drinking ardent 
spirit, is that he may not receive the disease with which 
his patient is affected. This reason, whether good or bad, 
has probably made many drunken physicians, and many 
drunken nurses. But this reason, if it be one, need not 



PROMOTION OF TEMPERANCE. igg 

exist. Let the chambers of the sick be properly ventilated, 
the clothes duly exchanged, and the air kept in a proper 
state, which is as necessary for the sick as the well, and 
which generally may be done, and there will be little to 
fear. To prove the truth of what I have here remarked, 
I might adduce the testimony of many able and learned 
physicians in Europe and America. In regard to the use 
of alcohol in the treatment of diseases, Dr. Mussey of 
Dartmouth College, one of the most eminent physicians of 
our country, says, *' I admit that it is sometimes convenient, 
but I deny that it is essential to the practice of physic, or 
surgery." Again he says, " I maintain that taking into 
view the danger of making tipplers by giving ardent spirit 
to the sick, and considering that all its medicinal virtues 
are found in other articles, mankind would not on the 
whole be losers, if it should be banished, not only from 
the houses of every class of the community, but also from 
the shops of the apothecary." It should be acknowledged 
with thankfulness to God, that most of our distinguished 
physicians have taken a decided stand for total abstinence, 
and done much in this way to promote temperance. Their 
conduct has been noble and disinterested. 

Parents have much to do in this cause. They should 
set an example of sobriety before those under their care, 
and prevent them as much as possible from going to places 
of rioting and dissipation. Let them instil into their 
minds correct principles, and teach them from early life to 
abhor drunkenness. Let them depict in reality, (in more 
glowing and abhorrent colors they cannot,) one, who has 
prostrated health, beauty, wit, genius, with all the deformity 
and hideous conduct of an intoxicated man. As Hamilcar 
made Hannibal swear eternal hatred and opposition to the 
Romans ; so let parents bring up their children with 
determined opposition to intemperance, and a firm adher- 
ence to total abstinence. 



190 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

Professors of religion, whatever their calling or occu- 
pation, should not be backward on this subject, nor 
faint-hearted. By the faith they profess, and the sacred 
obligations under which they lie, they are bound to take a 
part. God requires it at their hands. And they may do 
much, though they walk in a humble sphere of life, by 
their holy example, fervent prayers, faithful warnings and 
friendly counsels. But, alas ! the most powerful and 
effectual opposition which the temperance cause has had 
to encounter, has been from the professed disciples of 
Jesus Christ ! The table of the Lord has been profaned 
by the intemperate, notwithstanding Paul, in the most 
pointed terms, has reprobated such conduct. " Ye cannot/' 
says he, " drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of 
devils." Speaking of rum-drinking Christians, it is said 
in the Third Annual Report of the American Temperance 
Society, "We devoutly hope we may yet see the wiping 
away of that disgrace to religion and the church of the 
Lord Jesus, that there are some 'professing godliness,' 
who are friends to this ' enemy of all righteousness,' and 
the breath of whose very prayers and religious conversa- 
tion, is nauseous with the effluvia of temperate drinking;' 
and, 'the show of whose countenance doth witness against 
them ; and who declare their sin as Sodom ; and who 
hide it not.' We earnestly desire to see the day when, of 
'every one that nameth the name of Christ,' it shall be 
one evidence that his professions are sincere, and holy, 
that he shows that one fruit of the Spirit — Temperance." 
" My Christian brother," says President Fisk, ** if you 
saw this trade, as I believe God sees it, you would sooner 
beg your bread from door to door, than gain money by 
such a traffic. The Christian's dram shop ! Sound it to 
yourself. How does it strike your ear? It is doubtless, a 
choice gem in the phrase-book of Satan ! But how 
paradoxical ! How shocking to the ears of the Christian ! 



PROMOTION OF TEMPERANCE. 19| 

How offensive to the ear of Deity ! Why, the dram shop 
is the recruiting rendezvous of hell!" The Rev. Mr. 
Nettleton, in a letter to a brother in the ministry, thus 
writes : "I wish that all the young converts, who profess 
religion, would make it a point of conscience not to taste 
of ardent spirits. This is the way in which many have 
dishonored the cause of Christ on public occasions. In 
this way thousands have become drunkards. I scarcely 
expect that any drunkard will be reformed, by any 
measures that can be adopted. The only successful 
method of preventing this kind of disgrace to religion in 
future, is to begin with the temperate. Though the plague 
cannot be cured, it may be shunned. Had all converts 
seen what I have, they would need no other motives to 
induce them to adopt the resolution to abandon the use of 
ardent spirits forever. Could I learn that all the young 
converts in your parish h^ jointly adopted this resolution, 
it would be to themselves, to you, and to me, a most 
delightful evidence of the sincerity of their Christian 
profession, as well as of genuine conversion." 

Females should take an efficient part in this blessed 
work ; and throw their example and general influence 
into the scale of entire abstinence. We borrow the 
language of Mr. Fessenden, as quoted in the Report 
of the Pennsylvania Society for discouraging the use of 
ardent spirits. " It is the fair sex, while yet in the first 
light of life and youth, that should be sedulously taught 
that the serpent of the still, is not only the bane of beauty, 
but, with the exception of its prototype, the old serpent in 
Paradise, no agent of darkness has wrought so much wo 
to mankind." 

" We feel it incumbent on us to observe, and we regret 
that a regard to truth compels to the duty, that the monster 
against whom we have declared a war of extermination, 
pays so little regard to decorum, that he assaults and 



192 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

enslaves hapless individuals of the gentler sex. The 
flattering tongue, the glazed and glaring eye, the incoher- 
ent remarks, and fitful bursts of unmeaning merriment, 
too often betray an unhallowed intimacy between beauty 
and brandy — an ignominious alliance, which slander had 
never dared to suggest, and credulity could not have 
believed, had not the indications been infallible as well as 
undeniable." While it is painful to acknowledge the 
above fact, in any case, it is but justice to state, (and it is 
done with pleasure,) that the instances of intemperance 
are very rare among females. 

Persons of all ranks and descriptions, who wish well to 
society, who love their country, and are friends of good 
order and humanity, should take a deep interest in this 
cause. They should raise a warning voice against 
intemperance, so loud, as that the whole earth may hear, 
and in accordance with it, they should act. They should 
at once adopt the practice of temperance themselves, and 
enter into a combination for its promotion. Union is 
strength. "A threefold cord is not easily broken." Being 
associated for the express purpose of suppressing intem- 
perance, they should adopt the principle and the pledge 
of those who are engaged in this glorious reformation. 
The principle is, total a'bstinence from the use of ardent 
spirits, and the pledge is, a written obligation not to use 
them, except as a medicine. No other course will avail. 
Permit men to drink temperately, and they will be very 
liable to fall under the dominion of Satan. The only 
infallible remedy here is entire abstinence. This is the 
only certain antidote to this evil. The written pledge has 
a happy effect upon him who makes it. He will feel 
himself committed, and therefore, be more likely to abide 
by his determination. The knowledge of the fact, too, has 
a happy effect upon others. They are influenced by his 
example. 



PP-OMOTION OF TEMPERANCE. 193 

" Temperate drinking is the doivnhill road to intem- 
perance^^' and '' Entire abstinence from ardent spirits is 
the only certain preventive of intemperance.^^ These 
mottos I would have inscribed upon the door-posts of our 
houses, that the destroying angel might pass by ; and like 
the phylacteries of the Jews, would have them fastened 
upon the forehead of every man, upon his wrists, and upon 
the hem of his garments, that they might be as amulets, 
or preservatives to himself and others. As the hero of 
1776 gloried in being in the army of Washington, so 
should we glory in belonging to the ranks of the Temper- 
ance Society. To the end that intemperance with its 
train of vices may be suppressed, and sobriety and good 
habits, health of body and soul, happiness and prosperity, 
individual and national, may be promoted, societies should 
be formed, in every town, village, and hamlet, and when 
formed, they should act with prudence, union, decision 
and firmness. 

The press, too, should be enlisted in this cause of God 
and man. To this late day many are destitute of suitable 
information on this subject. Tracts and reports discussing 
this topic and exhibiting facts, should be disseminated 
throughout the country, and every newspaper, from Maine 
to the Rocky Mountains, should teem with similar pro- 
ductions. Knowledge on this subject should be brought 
to the doors of men's houses, and to their fire sides. 

Lastly, this blessed work must be carried on by living 
agents, appointed to undertake and sustain this glorious 
reformation. No cause in the present day can be pro- 
moted without some one to superintend and manage its 
concerns. The subject must be presented to the public, 
and pressed upon them, till temperance universally prevails, 
and there shall not be a drunkard upon the earth. 

Let us bless God, that so much has already been 
achieved in this glorious work of reformation; that the 
17 



194 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

annual consumption of ardent spirits, in some of our 
largest places, has been diminished three fourths ; that the 
government of the United States does not furnish them for 
the army ; and that the prospect is, they will soon be 
withheld from the navy ; that 3,000 drunkards have been 
reformed ; that 3,000 dealers in this poison have given up 
the traffic; 1,000 distilleries have been stopped; 300,000 
have pledged themselves to total abstinence, and more 
than a million, have ceased to use ardent spirits. Great 
things have been accomplished ; but far greater will be 
accomplished ! A redeeming spirit has gone forth. 
President Adams the elder, said, some years since, that 
there were no eight millions of people on the earth, that 
consumed so much ardent spirit as the people of the United 
States. Now it is not Utopian to suppose, that President 
Adams the younger, may live to see twenty millions in this 
country, who shall surpass all other people on the globe in 
temperance. The motto, " Try," has been put into 
practice with effects altogether surpassing the most 
sanguine expectations. 

Though this cause has been so successful, yet it still has 
opposition to encounter. Discordant voices and murmurs 
are heard ascending from the earth, like those which 
went up from the multitude in the camp of Israel. "It is 
priestcraft," says the infidel. '* It is an attempt at a union 
of church and state," say the mock patriot and the 
aspiring demagogue. " It is sectarianism," says the 
suspicious bigot. " It is an encroachment upon my 
liberty," says the secret lover of rum, and the interested 
manufacturer and vender of the article. ''I'll let them 
know this is a free country, and I will do as I please !" 
The timeserver thinks it is carrying things too far ; and 
the easy and indolent think the work goes on well, and 
their co-operation will not be needed. While not a few 
self-deceived wish well to the cause as they pretend — hope 



PROMOTION OF TEMPERANCE. 195 

it will succeed — lament over the evils of intemperance — 
rejoice at the good that has been accomplished — drink on 
and sell on still. Such obstacles should never intimidate 
a reformer in the temperance cause. He should be like 
a veteran harnessed for the battle — resolved on the exter- 
mination of this vice, and not fearing any " lion in the way." 
Let the temperate cease using it — and the totally abstinent 
continue to refrain from using it, and one generation will 
sweep off all the intemperate from the land, and remove 
the stigma so long cast upon us in the expression, "A nation 
of drunkards," and the golden age of New England will 
return. Then let all be excited to engage, heart and hand 
in this great and good work, to put a stop to intemperate 
drinking, the worst of plagues, for as this declines or pros- 
pers, the nation will rise or fall. The motives for eifort 
are enough to arouse the nation. Let efforts be made to 
bring about a reform, as it respects the daily use of ardent 
spirits among laborers. It is a mistaken notion that they 
are necessary for workmen in their daily business. Let 
those who labor hard, eat often, and make use of those 
drinks which nourish the system, while they quench thirst, 
and they will find themselves better able to undergo the 
fatigue of the day, than when they neglect so to do and 
drink ardent spirits, which afford no nourishment. In 
the better days of our country, even till the Revolution, 
*' strong water," (for so distilled spirits were then called,) 
was comparatively little used ; but our fathers were as 
active, vigorous and laborious, as the people now are, if not 
more so. This proves that ardent spirits are not necessary 
for those who labor. Efforts should be made to promote 
a complete change in the fashionable vice of giving ardent 
spirits to friends and visitors at social entertainments. 
This practice is a fatal complaisance, and is denounced 
by an inspired pen: '*Wo unto him that giveth his 
neighbor drink, that puttest thy bottle to him, and makest 



196 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

him drunken also." The use of wine should also be 
abandoned, as well as that of ardent spirit. So long as 
the higher classes in society drink the former, the laboring 
classes will drink the latter. The practice of presenting 
spirituous liquors at funerals should be discountenanced. 
How highly improper it is, when paying our last offices of 
duty and respect to the remains of a deceased fellow 
mortal, to be thinking and conversing about death, judg- 
ment and eternity, over the rum bottle, or when the spirits 
are raised — not to heaven by the Spirit of God, but by 
deadly poison. The habit of furnishing exhilarating 
spirits at vendues, is highly reprehensible, and should be 
abandoned at once, for it is nothing less than bribery. 
It is done to lead, and it sometimes does lead, a person to 
give more for an article, than he would, when free from 
liquor, and in his sober moments. "Those av ho rise up 
early in the morning, that they may follow strong drink, 
and continue until wine inflame them," should be faithfully 
warned of their danger. The habit of taking a glass of 
bitters, or a dram in the morning, is very pernicious. It 
prepares those addicted to this practice to follow strong 
drink all the day. Such should be exhorted, (for it may 
be, that they are not callous to shame, or deaf to entreaty,) 
to forsake the way which leads down to the chambers of 
death, and to wage an exterminating warfare with the 
enemy to their property, morals, happiness, health, body 
and soul, and to prefer the pure water of life to the bowl 
of intoxication, and the never-ending felicities of heaven 
to brutal and short-lived pleasures. 

Appendix H. 



DISSERTATION IX. 



INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE. 

Whatever may be the sins, which, at any time, are 
predominant in the community, the Christian will ever 
be disposed, not only to acknowledge their prevalence, 
but to point out, according to his ability and oppor- 
tunity, their evil nature, tendency and consequences, 
and also to show the importance of reformation. Of all 
the sins that have ever obtained among civilized and 
Christian nations, no one is of a darker dye, or more 
abhorrent to the feelings of humanity, than that of slavery, 
or the subjection of one part of the community to the 
other, without the contract or consent of the party sub- 
jected. This subject, which, for the last thirty years, has 
produced so much interest among the different nations of 
Europe, and, within a few years past, excited so much 
attention in this country ; and which is so absolutely and 
intimately connected with the present and future happi- 
ness or misery of millions of our race, must be deeply 
interesting to all who feel a sympathy for the degraded, 
oppressed and wretched African. And though we may 
not have been personally concerned in so bloody and 
horrid a work ; yet it is proper, notwithstanding, that we 
should be enlightened on this subject. Some remarks will 
17* 



198 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

now be made upon African slavery, it is hoped, with truly 
patriotic and Christian feelings. In the discussion of this 
subject an attempt will be made to show, 

I. That all men are by nature equal and free. 

II. That African slavery is unjust, sinful, and infa- 
mous. 

III. That it is impolitic in a civil point of view. And, 

IV. That all lawful and practicable measures should 
be adopted to put an end to this detestable crime. 

I. It will now be attempted to show, that all men are 
by nature equal and free. The apostle tells us, that " God 
hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on 
all the face of the earth." They have then the same 
Creator — God is their Maker. They have the same 
nature — all are " made of one blood." They have the 
same parentage — all are descended from the first human 
pair. This is agreeable both to tradition and Revelation. 
Consequently all men are by nature equal and free. This, 
it would seem, ought to be viewed as an axiom in the 
science of political government; for nothing can be more 
evident than that all men have by the very law of their 
nature an equal right to their lives, liberty and property. 
These are the birth-right of all mankind. 

Upon these principles are founded the constitutions of 
government in our American Republic. In a declaration 
of the rights of the inhabitants of the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts, it is asserted, " All men are born free and 
equal, and have certain natural, essential and inalienable 
rights; among which may be reckoned the right of enjoy- 
ing and defending their lives and liberties; that of acquir- 
ing, possessing, and protecting property ; in fine, that of 
seeking and obtaining their safety and happiness." In a 
declaration by the Representatives of the United States of 
America in Congress assembled in 1776 it is declared. 



INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE. 199 

** We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are 
created equal ; that they are endowed by their Creator 
with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, 
liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." *' These rights," 
(natural rights,) says Blackstone, " may be reduced to three 
primary articles, the right of personal security, the right of 
personal liberty, and the right of private property." The 
preceding remarks respecting the native equality, freedom 
and rights of mankind, apply with full force to the Afri- 
cans, as well as to the Asiatics, Europeans, and Americans. 
Let it not be said that the blacks on account of their 
color are not descended from the same original stock as 
the whites. It is agreeable to Scripture and general 
acknowledgment, that Africa was at first peopled by Ham 
and his descendants. From these, the present inhabitants, 
generally speaking, have derived their origin. But a 
question here arises : If the first inhabitants of the earth 
were white, why are any of their posterity of a different 
complexion ? The reason of this most evidently is, cli- 
mate and habits of living. These natural causes are 
amply sufficient to account for this eflfect without attribut- 
ing it to any miraculous interposition of God. This is 
the opinion of Mr. Clarkson, Abbe Raynal, Dr. Mitchell, 
Dr. Beattie, the late Dr. Smith, President of the College 
of New Jersey, and many otliers of high distinction. 
The color of the Africans was attributed by Aristotle, 
Strabo, and most of the ancient philosophers, merely to 
the heat of the sun. This view of the subject is strikingly 
confirmed in the Jews. They have one acknowledged 
descent, are scattered over the face of the whole earth, 
and yet remain completely a distinct people from all the 
rest of the vvorld. And yet nothing is more certain than 
that the English Jew is white, the Portuguese swarthy, the 
Armenian olive, and the Arabian copper-colored. In 
short, there appears to be as many species of Jews as 



200 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

there are countries in which they reside. It is a known 
fact, that "the nations from Germany to Guinea have 
complexions of every shade from the fairest white to a 
jetty black." Hence may we not reasonably conclude 
that the great human family are children of the same 
original parents, and that the difference in their com- 
plexion arises only from climate and habits of living. 

Here let it be remarked, that inequality in rank or 
station is necessary in society. 

" Order is heaven's first law, and this confest, 
Some are and must be greater than the rest." 

Nevertheless in this there is no surrendry of life, liberty, 
or property. We maintain, that neither individuals nor 
governments have a right to sell or buy the lives or lib- 
erty of their own species ; for these are neither purchasa- 
ble, nor saleable. We condemn not that servitude which 
is founded on voluntary contract by the parties concerned, 
and is of temporary duration. This in the nature of gov- 
ernments and society must exist. But this is not slavery. 
Slavery may be defined, " an obligation to labor for the 
benefit of the master without the contract or consent of 
the servant." This never was, and never can be, right in 
the nature of things. From these considerations, does it 
not clearly appear that all mankind are by nature equal 
and free, 

II. It is proposed to show, that African slavery is 
unjust, sinful, and infamous. 

If all mankind, the blacks as well as the whites, are by 
nature equal and free, then the slavery of the former is as 
unlawful as that of the latter. The whites have no more 
right to enslave the blacks, than the blacks have to enslave 
the whites. In either case slavery is as really unjust, and 
wrong, as stealth, robbery, and murder. In no instance is 



INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE. 201 

slavery just, except the subject of it has by his voluntary 
conduct forfeited his freedom. And in this respect, the 
loss of liberty rests on the same basis as the loss of life. 
One principle should govern in both cases. The slavery 
of the Africans then, is a criminal and outrageous viola- 
tion of their natural rights. It involves the innocent in 
hopeless misery. It degrades to brutes beings possessed 
of rational and immortal powers. The children of slaves, 
generation after generation, are born and spend their 
whole earthly existence, deprived of that freedom, to which 
the God of nature has given them an equal right with 
the rest of their fellow creatures. Well might President 
Jefferson say in relation to the whole subject of slavery, 
*' I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just, 
and that his justice cannot sleep forever. The Almighty 
has no attribute which can take sides with us in this 
unrighteous work." The wickedness and hatefulness of 
slavery will appear by attending to the treatment of those 
in bondage. They are compelled to drag out their lives 
in toil and misery. Speaking of the African slaves, the 
philanthropic Cowper has justly characterized their cruel 
usage. 

*' Thus man devotes his brother and destroys, 
And, worse than all, and most to be deplored. 
As human nature's broadest, foulest blot, 
Chains him, and tasks him, and exacts his sweat 
With stripes, that mercy with a bleeding heart 
Weeps when she sees inflicted on a beast." 

Mr. Pitt, in his speech in the British Parliament, in 
favor of the abolition of the slave trade says, *' Five hun- 
dred out of one thousand, who are obtained in this way, 
perish in this scene of horror ; and are brought misera- 
ble victims to their graves. The remaining part of this 
wretched group are tainted, both in body and mind, 
covered with disease and infection, carrying with them 



202 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

the seeds of pestilence and insurrection." Judge Story, 
in an address to a Circuit Court of the United States, 
upon the slave trade observes: — " It begins in corruption, 
and plunder, and kidnapping. It creates and stimulates 
unholy wars for the purpose of making captives. It 
desolates whole villages and provinces for the purpose of 
seizing the young, the feeble, the defenceless, and the 
innocent. It breaks down all the ties of parent, and chil- 
dren, and family, and country. It shuts up all sympathy 
for human suffering and sorrows. It manacles the inoffen- 
sive females and the starving infants. It forces the brave 
to untimely death, in defence of their humble homes and 
firesides, or drives them to despair and self-immolation. 
It stirs up the worst passions of the human soul, darkening 
the spirit of revenge, sharpening the greediness of avarice, 
brutalizing the selfish, envenoming the cruel, famishing 
the weak, and crushing to death the broken-hearted. 
This is but the beginning of the evils. Before the un- 
happy captives arrive at the destined market, where the 
traffic ends, one quarter part at least, in the ordinary 
course of events, perish in cold blood, under the inhuman 
or thoughtless treatment of their oppressors." Strong as 
these expressions may seem, and dark as is the coloring 
of this statement, it is short of the real calamities, inflicted 
by this traffic. All the wars that have desolated Africa 
for the last three centuries, have had their origin in the 
slave trade. The blood of thousands of her miserable 
children has stained her shores, or quenched the dying 
embers of her desolated towns, to glut the appetite of 
slave dealers. The ocean has received into its deep and 
silent bosom, thousands more who have perished from 
disease and want, during their passage from their native 
homes to the foreign colonies. I speak not from vague 
rumors or idle tales, but from authentic documents, and 
the known historical details of the traffic — a traffic that 



INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE. 203- 

carries away at least fifty thousand persons annually from 
their homes, and their families, and breaks the hearts, and 
buries the hopes, and extinguishes the happiness of more 
than double that number. " There is," as one of the 
greatest of modern statesmen has declared, " somethino- 
of horror in it that surpasses all the bounds of imagina- 
tion." Verily, slavery is repugnant to reason and Revela- 
tion, and intolerable to the tender sympathies of our 
nature. It is unjust, sinful, and infamous in the highest 
degree. And let us not repress the shameful acknowl- 
edgment, that the great receptacles of this unhappy race 
have been the West Indies, and the United States. 



III. African slavery is impolitic, in a civil point of 
view. It depraves the morals of a people, discourages 
industry, diminishes the white population, and enfeebles 
the community where it exists. 

Says Montesquieu, " It is not useful, either to the master 
or to the slave ; to the latter, because he can do nothing 
by virtue ; to the former, because he contracts with his 
slaves all sorts of evil habits, inures himself insensibly 
to neglect every moral virtue, and becomes proud, pas- 
sionate, hard-hearted, violent, voluptuous and cruel." It 
banishes the noblest incentives to religion, hardens the 
heart, begets indolence, haughtiness, and a domineer- 
ing spirit, and must therefore be detrimental to society. 
" Liberty and property," says Le Poivoire, ** form the 
basis of abundance and good agriculture. I never ob- 
served it to flourish, where these rights of mankind were 
not firmly established. The earth which multiplies her 
productions with profusion under the hands of the free 
born laborer, seems to shrink into barrenness, under the 
sweat of the slave." Besides, in a warm climate, no 
person will labor for himself, who can make another labor 
for him. Consequently, a very small proportion of the 



204 



CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 



proprietors of slaves are ever seen to labor ; though it is 
stated, that in Virginia a white man will do twice the work 
of a slave. It was Dr. Franklin's opinion, that the effect 
of slaves was the luxury, imbecility, and diminution of the 
whites. The late President Jefferson, though himself an 
inhabitant of a slave-holding State, and the possessor of 
numerous slaves, was opposed to slavery, and gave it as 
his opinion, that the blacks will ultimately be the sole pos- 
sessors of the low country, and the whites be obliged to 
migrate to other regions. It is a fact, that the blacks 
multiply about one third faster than the whites, and in a 
number of the States, they are already half as numerous as 
the whites.* The increase of free citizens is an increase 
of the strength of the state. But not so in regard to the 
increase of slaves. They not only add nothing to the 
strength of the state, but actually diminish it in proportion 
to their number. Every slave is naturally an enemy to 
the state in which he is held in slavery, and wants only 
an opportunity to assist in its overthrow. And an enemy 
within a state is much more dangerous than one without 
it. There have been, and there continually will be insur- 



* According to the census of 1830, there were colored people in the United 
States as follows : 



Free Blacks. Slaves. 



23 
14 

46 

2,246 

386 

3,305 

102,878 

469,7^4 

246,462 

315,665 

Free. Slaves. 

Total, 319,476 2,010,572 

There are now (1839) probably as many as two millions and a half. 



Maine, . . . . 


1,207 


New Hampshire, . 


623 


Vermont, . . . 


885 


Massachusetts, . 


7,006 


Conneciicut, . . 


8,004 


Rhode Island.. . 


3.565 


New York,. . . 


45,030 


New Jersey, . . 


18,307 


Pennsylvania, . 


37.990 


Delaware, . . . 


15.829 


Maryland, . . . 


52,942 


Virginia, . . . 


47.102 


North Carolina, . 


19.575 


South Carolina, . 


7,915 





Free Blacks. 


Slaves. 


Georgia, . 


. . 2,483 


217.470 


Alabama, . 


. . 1,541 


117,294 


Mississippi/. 


. . 529 


65,659 


Louisiana, . 


. . 16.753 


109.631 


Tennessee, . 


. . 4,513 


142,382 


Kentucky, . 


. . 4,816 


165,350 


Ohio,. . . 


. . 9,586 




Indiana, 


. . 3,565 




Missouri, . 


. . 546 


24.990 


Arkansas, . 


. . 138 


4,578 


Michigan, . 


. . 253 


27 


Floridas, 


. . 840 


15,500 


District of Col 


umbia, 6,163 


6,060 



INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE. 205 

rections by those held in bondage. Baneful then mdeed, 
must slavery be in its tendency and effects, and conse- 
quently, extremely impolitic. Nevertheless, Africa was 
annually drained of not less probably than one hundred 
and fifty thousand of its inhabitants, for many years before 
the abolition of the slave trade. Even now, it is believed 
that sixty thousand are annually carried from Africa into 
the most cruel thraldom. 

IV. It remains to show, that all lawful and practicable 
measures ought to be adopted to put an end to African 
slavery wherever it exists. 

In the first place, there should be a total and immediate 
cessation of the slave trade. It is indeed already pro- 
hibited by law in all nations. Great Britain has denounced 
it as felony, and the United States as piracy, the punish- 
ment of which is death. We have, however, to regret 
that it is still carried on, and that there are those whose 
sensibilities are sufficiently blunted to every feeling of 
humanity, to allow them to engage in such a nefarious 
traffic. It appears from the most respectable authority, 
that 200,000 blacks were carried as slaves from Africa 
in 1821, though at this time there was no nation that 
tolerated this commerce in the blood and souls of men, 
except the petty kingdom of Portugal.* How long shall 



* " Even to this day the peaceful villages of Africa are devastated ; 
husbands and wives, parents and children, v.'\[h a love towards each other 
as warm and pure as thrills in tlie breast of any European, are separated 
from each others arms Ibrever. In the year IS^i^, there were shipped from 
Africa for the single city of Rio Janeiro, 31,240 negroes; and for the city 
of Bahia more than 8,000, swelling the Brazilian trade alone to the heart- 
sickening aggregate of about 40,000 persons, cruelly and treacherously torn 
from their homes and families, and doomed to a life of toilsome and hope- 
less servitude. In 1823 the number of persons thus introduced into the 
Brazilian ports, was nearly tlie same; certainly not less. In the first six 
months of the year 1824'. the number of slaves brought into the port of Rio 
Janeiro was 16,563. By a recent official report from the same city, it 
appears, that the number of slaves imported into it in 1826 was 35,966, and 
that the number imported in 1827 w^as 4l,334. According to a statement in 
tiie recent travels of Dr. Walsh in Brazil, the number imported in 1828 

18 



206 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

this inhuman traffic, which the laws of all nations prohibit, 
which policy rejects, justice condemns, and piety recoils 
at, be continued ! 

Though the entire abolition of slavery is to be sought ; 
yet perhaps it cannot be effected with safety at once. 
Still every justifiable attempt is to be made towards 
liberating those held in bondage. The best probable 
measures to be adopted in effecting this end, are to free 
from their birth, those who hereafter shall be born of 
slave parents ; and to grant manumissions as fast as 
prudence shall dictate. These plans for the abolition 
of slavery are already in some measure adopted. From 
a letter of Sir Alexander Johnstone, Chief Justice of 
Ceylon, to the late Dr. Samuel Worcester of Salem, Ms., 
it appears that all children of slave parents, born in that 
island, since the year 1816, are free. This measure he 
attributes to the introduction of Christianity. By a law 
of the Parliament of Great Britain, children born of slave 
parents, living within the jurisdiction of Great Britain and 
her colonies, shall by birth be free. This measure was 
advocated by Mr. Wilber force and others, known for their 
philanthropic labors. May the time soon arrive, when the 
same method shall be adopted for the ultimate abolition of 
slavery in our own country, and over the whole world. 
A society, called '* the African Institution," was formed 
in London in 1807, by a number of gentlemen of the 

was 45,000. — Slave factories were not long since established^ in the im- 
niediate vicinity of the American colony of Liberia ; and at the Gallinas 
(between Liberia and Sierra Leone) not less than UOO slaves were shipped 
in the summer of 1830, in the short space of three weeks. It appears from 
the statements of the Colonial Agent of Liberia, tliat in the year 1834, the 
coast of Western Africa was swarming with slave traders. In December 
of that year, a Spanish brig of three hundred tons, the Formidable, was 
captured off the mouth of the old Calabar river, which had on board seven 
hundred slaves. It is not easy to stale with perfect precision, but the average 
number of enslaved Africans, violently torn away each year from their 
native country, may be estimated with much probability at not less than 
75,000. Many persons who have been favorably situated to form a correct 
estimate, have placed the number as high as 100,000."— P;-o/. Upham's 
Manual of Peace. 



INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE. 207 

most respectable character. This society has done much 
for the enlargement of the Colony established at Sierra 
Leone, by Granville Sharpe, in 1787. Its population is now 
between twenty and thirty thousand. Schools are estab- 
lished, and the arts and sciences are introduced among 
the inhabitants. Public worship is regularly maintained, 
and very generally observed by them. — There are other 
societies established in England for the melioration of 
the condition of African slaves, such as the Anti-Slavery 
Society, the Slave Conversion Society, the Negro Children 
Education Society, Ladies' Negro Slave Relief Society, 
The object of these institutions is such as their name 
naturally imports. In 18 IG, the American Colonization 
Society was formed. It is patronized by many of the 
leading civilians of our country, as well as many of the 
Christian community. This society has established a 
colony of free blacks in Africa, and called the place 
Liberia, that is, the land of freedom. Schools for the 
instruction of the blacks have been established. A news- 
paper is published at Monrovia, a place which contains 
about 1,200 inhabitants, and was named after the late 
President Monroe, who was a patron of this society. 
Four churches are organized in the town for public 
worship, and Sabbath Schools are instituted and well 
attended. Much good to ill-fated Africa is anticipated 
by many as the result of the formation of the Colonization 
Society. Other institutions exist for the benefit of the 
colored population of the United States. The American 
Anti-Slavery Society was formed in 1833, and commenced 
immediately its operations. Periodicals are established ih 
various parts of the land, to enlighten the public mind, 
and arouse the conscience on this subject. Much good 
will be done in this way. The press should never cease 
to raise its voice like seven thunders in this cause of God 
and man, till slavery is swept from the face of the earth, 



208 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

and all men are free. Most awful and alarming is the 
consideration that, while so many efforts in this land are 
making for the melioration of the condition of the colored 
people and the abolition of slavery, any thing should be 
done to perpetuate the thraldom and wretchedness of this 
unfortunate portion of our race. The introduction of new 
States into the Union, with the permission of holding 
slaves, is a reproachful blot upon the history of our 
country, which can never be effaced ! Shall we, who 
boast of liberty, from the cradle to the grave, who glory 
in our civil and religious freedom ; and who now hold in 
absohite servitude more than two millions of our fellow 
creatures, by nature entitled to equal rights and privileges 
with ourselves, perform any act to entail this horrible 
work upon those that come after us ! ** Tell it not in 
Gath, publish it not in the streets of Askelon, lest the 
daughters of the Philistines rejoice ; lest the daughters 
of the uncircumcised triumph." But to the honor of the 
New England States, and some others, be it told and 
remembered forever, that these disgraceful acts which 
open the way for the encouragement, enlargement and 
perpetuation of slavery, were ably and perseveringly 
opposed by their representatives most generally. The 
African slave trade and slavery, are enough to make 
heaven weep. Indescribable are the woes and horrors 
of those who are kidnapped, dragged from their native 
land, sold to the highest bidder, and detained in re- 
lentless servitude, expecting no release but by death, 
hoping for refuge only in that last sanctuary, " where 
the wicked cease from troubling, and the weary are 
at rest." 

African slavery at the present time is exciting great 
interest in the public mind throughout the Christian world. 
Not till the nineteenth century have mankind learned, 
that God hath made of one blood all nations of men fop 



INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE. 209 

to dwell on all the face of the earth, and that they are by 
nature equal and free. We believe the day is not far 
distant when the enslaved children of Africa shall be 
emancipated : 

" When negroes shall be blest, 
Rank'd e'n as men, and men's just rights enjoy, 
Be neither sold, nor purchased, nor oppress'd, 
No grief shall wither, and no stripes destroy." 

Slavery must vanish before the blessed influences of 
the religion of Jesus Christ. The rights and wrongs of 
Africa will be felt and redressed. In this glorious cause 
of freedom the names of Clarkson and Wilberforce in 
England, Gregoire in France, Humboldt in Germany, 
Galitzin in Russia, Franklin, Benezett, Mills and others 
in our own country, will not be forgotten, while memory 
loves to cherish the recollection of benevolent exertions in 
alleviating suffering humanity. — Praised be God! op- 
pressed and injured Africa is yet to see better and brighter 
days, for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it. Ethiopia 
shall soon be raised from her state of degeneracy, and 
stretch out her hands unto God. The galling chains of 
African bondage shall be broken. The long degraded 
and cast off descendants of Ham shall arise and attain to 
an elevation and dignity, which will give them a rank 
among the polished nations of Europe and America. 
Where once echoed the classic story, and song, where 
once breathed the benign spirit of Christianity, — there 
again shall be found, the learned, the wise and the good.* 

* The following are examples of what the Africans are capable of becoming-, 
" Hannibal, an African uegro, who had received a g-ood education, 
rose to the rank of lieutenant-general, and director of artillery, under Peter 
the Great, of Russia, in the beginning of the last century." 

" Francis Williams, a negro, was born in Jamaica, about the close of the 
seventeenth century. He was sent to England, and there entered the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge. After his return to Jamaica, he opened a school and 
taught Latin, and the Mathematics. He wrote many pieces in Latin verse, 
in which he discovered considerable talents." 

18* 



210 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

Those who by many are now regarded as little above the 
ourang outang, shall ere long become qualified to minister 
at the holy altar, and to take distinguished parts in the 
halls of legislation, in the cabinet, and in the enterprises 
of benevolence and improvement. Things shall be 
reversed, and the change has already commenced. The 
arts and sciences begin to flourish, civilization is making 
rapid progress, Christianity is introduced among them. 



" Joseph Rachel, a free negro of Barbadoes, was another Howard. Hav- 
ing" become rich by commerce, he devoted all his properly to charitable 
uses, and spent much of his time in visiting prisons to relieve and reclaim 
the wretched tenants. He died in Bridgetown, in 175S." 

" Antony William Amo was born in Guinea and brought to Europe, when 
very young. Under the patronage of the princess of Brunswick, he pur- 
sued his studies at Halle in Saxony and at Wittemburg, where he greatly 
distinguished liimsolf by his talents and good conduct. In 1734, he took the 
degree of doctor in philosophy at the University of Wittemburg. Skilled in 
the knowledge of the Greek and Latin Languages, and ' ha\ ing examined 
the systems of the ancients and moderns,' he delivered ' private lectures oq 
philosophy,' with great acceptance." 

" 'i'homas Fuller, a native of Africa, and a resident near Alexandria in ilie 
District of Columbia, though unable to read or write, excited surprize by 
the facility in whicii he performed the most difficult calculations. Being 
one day asked how many seconds a person had lived who was seventy 
years, seven inonths and seven days old, he answered in a minute and a 
half On reckoning it after him a different result was obtained. ' Have 
you not forgotten the leap year ? ' says the negro. This omission was sup- 
plied and the number theiLagreed with his answer. When this account was 
given by the late Dr. Rush, Fuller was seventy years old." 

" Phillis Wheatly, born in Africa in 1753, was torn from her country at 
the age of seven, and sold in 1761 to John ^VhealIy of Boston. Allowed to 
employ herself in study, she rapidly attained a knowledge of the Latin lan- 
guage. In 1772, at the age of nineteen, and still a slave, she published a 
little volume ' of religious and moral poetry, whicli contains thirty-nine 
pieces;' and has run through several editions in England and the IJnited 
States. She obtained her freedom in 177.5, and died in 1780." 

" James Dcrham, born in 1767, was formerly a slave in Philadelphia. In 
1788, at the age of twenty -one, he became the most distinguished physician 
at New Orleans. ' I conversed with him on medicine,' says Dr. Rush, 
' and found him very learned. I thought I could give him information con- 
cerning the treatment of diseases, but 1 learned much from him." 

" Ciiristophe, the present king of Hayti, has risen from slavery to a 
tl.rone, and has displayed great energy of character." 

" Paul Cuffe was born on one of the Elizabeth Islands, near New Bed- 
ford, in the county of Bristol and State of Massachusetts, in 1759. His 
father was a native of Africa, and once a slave. His mother was one of 
the aborigines of America. By industry aini enlerprize, guided by an 
uncommon share of ' plain sense and practical wisdom,' he arose from pov- 
erty to opulence. He was largely concerned in navigation, and in many 
voyages, particularly to Russia, England, Africa, the West Indies, and the 
Southern Slates, commanded his own vessel. A man of sterling integrity 
and active benevolence, of modest and dignified manners. He was kuowo 



INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE. 21 1 

and the frown of Omnipotence upon the Cushites is turn- 
ing into a smile. These things augur well. The tears, 
woes, and blood, of the enslaved and oppressed will not 
plead in vain. Their cause, so humane, so imperative, so 
glorious, may Christendom advocate by her whole influ- 
ence, till Africa's children shall embrace the faith and 
imbibe the spirit of the gospel of Christ. Then will the 
Spirit make them free, and they shall be free indeed. 



and honored by persons of the first respectability in England and the United 
States. Few, it has been said, could remain long in his jjresence, without 
forgetting- their prejudice against color, and feeling their hearts expand with 
juslcr sentiments towards the most injured portion of the human family. For 
the last twenty years his mind was chiefly occupied with the interests of his 
African brethren. With a view to their improvement he made a voyage to 
Africa and England in loll, in a vessel of his own, commanded by his 
nephew Thomas Wainer. In 1815 he carried out to Sierra Leone nine 
African families, consisting of thirty-eight persons at an expense to himself 
of more than three thousand dollars. He died September 7, 1817, leaving 
an estate valued at ^^^20,000. He left three brothers in Massachusetts, all 
' independent farmers,' and three sisters, who preside over their families 
with propriety and reputation." — Rev. Dr. Grijin's Flea for Africa. 

Appendix I. 



DISSERTATION X. 



RELIGIOUS IMPROVEMENT OF SEAMEN. 

'* They that go down to the sea in ships, that do 
business in great waters ; these see the works of the 
Lord, and his wonders in the deep. For he commandeth 
and raiseth the stormy wind, which lifteth up the waves 
thereof. They mount up to the heavens, they go down 
again to the depths; their soul is melted because of trouble. 
They reel to and fro, and stagger like a drunken man, and 
are at their wit's end. Then they cry unto the Lord in 
their trouble, and he bringeth them out of their distresses. 
He maketh the storm a calm, so that the waves thereof 
are still. Then they are glad because they be quiet, so he 
bringeth them into their desired haven." Such are often 
the dangers, fearfulness, and deliverance of mariners, 
when tempest-tossed upon the ocean. The world of 
waters is frequently in dreadful agitation. Then it is 
that seamen are in tremendous peril; that they witness 
scenes most sublime and awful ; and that they become 
dismayed, and their soul is melted because of trouble. 
In such scenes, which try men's souls, they need the 
support of religion. And if there is within them a heart 
to pray, they will cry unto the Lord in their distress, and 



RELIGIOUS IMPROVEMENT OF SEAMEN. 2)3 

He whom the winds and the sea obey, will, with the voice 
of authority, command — "Peace, be still." 

I. Seamen peculiarly need religion. 

They need religion in common with other men, as this 
alone sanctifies and saves the soul ; as this alone Tvill ren- 
der them happy in the life that now is, and in that which is 
to come. But they peculiarly need religion, 

1. Because of their great exposure to temptations. 
This exposure arises from their condition of life, they 

being almost literally, 

" Outcasts from God, and scatter'd wide 
To every country under heaven." 

By the very circumstances of their employment, they are 
banished from their kindred, friends, and the better part 
of community, and compelled to associate with those, who 
are the mere dregs of society, exposed to all kinds of vices 
and all kinds of temptations. They, therefore, peculiarly 
need religion to guard them from unhallowed allurements, 
to preserve them from the devices of Satan and evil men, 
and from the way to hell, going down to the chambers of 
death. 

2. Seamen peculiarly need religion, because of their 
hardships and exposure to dangers. 

At times, their labors are abundant, and their hardships 
are great. Their exposure to danger is most imminent. 
They are in deaths oft — in perils of waters, in perils of 
the sea, in weariness and painfulness, in watchings often. 
In seasons of tempests, " they mount up to the heavens, 
they go down again to the depths ; their soul is melted 
because of trouble. They reel to and fro, and stagger 
like a drunken man, and are at their wit's end." Under 
such trials, sailors need religion to sustain them. Nothing 
but this will support the fainting heart, calm the agitated 



214 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

soul, and render it submissive to the will of Heaven. 
How peculiarly necessary then is religion in the present 
life to the tempest-tossed mariner ! 

II. Efforts should be made to impart to seamen the 
blessings of the gospel. 

1. One motive to effort is, that without religion they 
must perish forever. They are sick unto eternal death, 
unless restored by an Almighty Arm. Sin is the malady 
of their souls. They need, therefore, the balm of Gilead 
and the Physician there. No other remedy, no other 
physician is to be found. Here is an antidote for every 
poison, a balm for every wound — sins may be forgiven, 
souls may be sanctified, hell may be escaped, and heaven 
may be obtained. Those who " do business in great 
waters " can be converted as well as others. It is not 
true, as some have remarked, that *' sailors, do what you 
will for them, will be sailors still, and you may as well 
labor with a main-mast to produce a moral change, as 
with a sailor." Many seamen have been converted to 
the faith as it is in Jesus ; and were the means of grace 
properly employed in respect to them, multitudes would 
be brought into the kingdom of God. They are men 
susceptible of strong emotions, generous in their char- 
acter, tender in their feelings, and as likely to be affected, 
renovated and saved by the gospel faithfully dispensed, as 
any other class of people, equally exposed to sin and 
temptation. This renovation and sanctification they must 
experience, or never be admitted to the haven of eternal 
rest. And the salvation of such men is as important to 
them, and, for aught we know, as valuable in the eyes of 
Christ who died for their redemption, as is that of the 
wealthy or honorable. 

2. Efforts should be made for the salvation of seamen, 
on account of their number and importance. According 



RELIGIOUS IMPROVEMENT OF SEAMEN. 215 

to the best calculation, there are in the United States 
100,000,* and in Great Britain 500,000 seamen. In 
different parts of the world there are probably more than 
3,000,000. The number of sailors on the sea shores of 
the four quarters of the globe, and on the islands of the 
seas, and on the navigable rivers, canals, and lakes, is 
immense. It is thought by some that the water popula- 
tion, including all the families and persons connected with 
the shipping and boating, must be one-fourth part of the 
whole mass of the human race. How important this class 
of the community in respect to numbers ! how important 
in respect to their occupation and influence ! They are 
a ''bulwark of defence to the liberties of the country" 
for which they act. " It is also most manifestly true, that 
we depend on them for most of our luxuries, and for many 
of the necessaries of life. Look upon our tables and then 
into our wardrobes, and see how many articles we can 
discover there, which has been provided for our comfort or 
convenience by the sailor's toils, privations and sufferings. 
Some of these very articles may have come to our con- 
venience at no less expense to some poor sailor than the 
loss of his life, and to his family, the loss of a husband and 
a father." Surely then, seamen are worthy of respectful 
regard, and should have the prayers and efforts of Chris- 
tians on behalf of their conversion and salvation. 

3. The influence of seamen on those around them is 
another reason, why efforts should be made to impart to 

* The number of seamen, including officers, requisite to navigate vessels 
averaging- about 100 tons burtlien, may be estimated fairly at about six men 
for llie hundred tons in the foreign trade, four in the coasting trade, and 
thirteen in llie fislieries. An examination of the lonage in the United States 
in various departments, and applying tiie above calculations, will give about 
the following numbers of men. In the foreign trade, 50,000; in the coasting 
trade, in vessels of nearly or over 100 tons burthen, 25,000; in coasting 
vessels of less than 50 tons burthen, 5,000; in the cod fishery, 10,000; in 
the whale fishery, 5,000; in steam vessels, 1,000; in the United States' 
navy, G,000. These numbers, though not made with perfect accuracy, are 
thought not to be exaggerated. They give a total of 102,000 men. — Report 
of the Seamen's Friend Society for 1832. 



216 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

them the gospel of Christ. By sympathy, precept, and 
example, mankind are affected by those with whom they 
associate. If their influence in these respects is good, 
happy will be the result. Christians, by associating with 
sinners, may convert them from their evil ways, and save 
their souls from everlasting death. But " evil communi- 
cations corrupt good manners," " One sinner destroyeth 
much good." Now seamen mingle with a vast multitude 
of people, and their influence must either be hurtful or 
salutary. This will depend upon the character they 
possess. If they are vicious, their influence will be 
deleterious ; if pious, beneficial. How important, then, 
that seamen should possess religion, and commend it by 
their holy deportment to all with whom they are associated 
in life. 

4. Efforts should be made to convert seamen, from the 
consideration, that, in an important sense, they are to be 
the carriers of the gospel to the islands of the seas and to 
the ends of the earth. 

This fact is agreeable to prediction. Says the prophet 
Isaiah " Surely the isles shall wait for me, and the ships 
of Tarshish first, to bring thy sons from far, their silver 
and their gold with them unto the name of the Lord thy 
God, and to the Holy One of Israel because he hath 
glorified thee." Dr. Scott in his Commentary thus re- 
marks on this passage, " This prediction will be accom- 
plished when Christians shall unanimously agree to make 
commerce and navigation subservient to the preaching of 
the gospel in every country with which they trade." 
Then swift messengers of salvation will be sent in vessels 
on every sea. Mariners will convey Missionaries to every 
heathen land and clime. The merchandise of our Tyres 
shall be holiness to the Lord. " It shall not be treasured 
nor laid up ; for their mechandise shall be for them that 
dwell before the Lord, to eat sufficiently, and for durable 



RELIGIOUS IMPROVEMENT OF SEAMEN. 217 

tclothing." '' The daughter of Tyre shall be there with a 
gift, even the rich among the people, shall entreat thy 
favor." Contributions will be made by all commercial 
men for the benefit of the church, " Even the richest 
among the nations in due time will submit to the Messiah, 
consecrate their wealth to him, and court the friendship, 
and desire the prayers of the church." Seamen are to 
have a very important part in preaching the gospel to 
every creature under heaven. Their conversion " is 
intimately connected with the prosperity of missions 
abroad, and the salvation of the heathen. No mis- 
sionaries could be sent to the ' Islands of the sea,' or 
to the * far distant coasts,' without seamen, nor could any 
supplies be sent to them, neither any returns be received 
from them, without the same aid. Indeed, communi- 
cation of every kind would be entirely and forever cut off 
between us and them, were there none to traverse the 
pathless ocean. It would, also, be some alleviation to the 
sufferings of the missionaries, and soften many of the 
pangs which they feel on leaving their friends, their 
homes, and their firesides, to go to an unknown country 
and among a people of an unknown tongue, to preach the 
salvation of Christ, could they find in every sailor a Chris- 
tian brother, instead of a thoughtless, blaspheming sinner, 
as is now too often the case. And how greatly would their 
burdens be lightened on their arrival among the heathen, 
could they find in every seaman a helper in the work of 
the Lord, instead of an enemy, to waste and destroy! It 
is certainly and obviously true, that sailors, if generally 
pious, would be among the most active and powerful 
auxiliaries to foreign missions. But, generally vicious, 
and abandoned, as they now are, they throw innumerable 
and constant hindrances in the way of their progress, and 
do more to prejudice the minds of the heathen against the 
Christian religion, than all other men combined." Say the 
19 



218 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

missionaries in addressing Christians, " If you wish the 
gospel extensively to prevail among the heathen, convert 
your seamen, for they now pull down, as fast as your 
missionaries can build up." Great efforts then should be 
unceasingly made for the conversion and sanctification of 
this class of people. 

III. Some methods will now be mentioned, which 
ought to be adopted for the spiritual benefit of seamen. 

They should be furnished with Bibles and other reli- 
gious books. When on long voyages, they have much 
leisure time. This might be spent to good advantage in 
reading. By occupying their vacant hours in this way, 
there would be a prevention of many bad practices, 
common among sailors, even while " ploughing the 
mighty deep." A very large proportion of them are 
now addicted to spending these hours in idleness and 
gambling. Every mariner, therefore, should have in his 
chest a copy of the sacred Scriptures, a hymn book, and 
a bundle of tracts. The Rev. Charles Buck, in his 
Anecdotes, records the following interesting occurrences : 
A worthy officer, not long since assembled all his men in 
the cabin, and stating the critical situation of his country, 
proposed to them the contribution of ten days' pay as a 
free-will offering to the necessities of their country. This 
being cheerfully agreed to, he presented each of them with 
a Bible, desiring them to preserve it carefully, adding, "It 
will instruct you to fear God, honor the king, and love 
your country." Were every officer to do likewise, what 
good might we not expect ! — A minister, meeting with 
some sailors who appeared to be serious, asked them if 
there were any more on board, who were of the same 
opinion of themselves. " Yes sir," said one of them, 
" there are several of us who, when opportunity offers, 
meet for reading and prayer, and we hope there are six 



RELIGIOUS IMPROVEMENT OF SEAMEN. 219 

of us who are truly changed, who were all vile sinners two 
years ago, but have been taught to love God by reading 
the Bible." What an encouragement is this to distribute 
Bibles among sailors ! The following testimony to the 
utility of the Bible among seamen, given by a ship-master, 
and published in the " Call from the Ocean," is worth a 
thousand arguments. " Every thing goes as it ought, 
when the Bible is regarded by the crew; the duty is 
cheerfully done, the owner's property is more safe, and 
all is smooth and pleasant." The same may be said of 
other religious books, so far as they are read, and have 
the desired effects upon the faith and lives of seamen. It 
is said of Lord Nelson, who was the pride of the British 
navy, that he always carried with him a Bible as a cabin 
companion. Let every seaman do the same, and take it 
as his guide, and seldom should we hear of shipwrecks 
and sea disasters. The character and condition of seamen 
would be changed, and a new face of things be put upon 
a seafaring life. 

Another method to be adopted for the spiritual benefit 
of seamen, is. furnishing them with iho ordinances of the 
gospel. There should be in every port of any considerable 
magnitude, a mariner's chapel, on which the Bethel flag 
should be hoisted, and a preacher be set apart for the 
dispensation of the gospel. This is indispensable. "In all 
large cities and seaports, they could not be accommodated 
in the ordinary churches, were they disposed to mingle 
with other congregations; but from the long and habitual 
neglect which they have received, they are not disposed to 
do it. Many have often made the attempt and failed, because 
in most city congregations, it would be disgraceful to 
suffer, 'Jack with his roundabout,' to sit with polite and 
genteel people. This the sailor knows, and he despises to 
intrude himself, where he is not wanted. There is this 
universal fact, with all the seamen's peculiarities of habit, 



220 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

of dress, of dialect, and even their modes of thinking", 
which makes it necessary to furnish a place of worship 
for them." Where it can be done, churches should be 
organized. Such have been formed in Boston, Philadel- 
phia, and elsewhere, with good advantage. 

Stated prayer meetings should be established on behalf 
of seamen, that Christians may unitedly pray, that " the 
abundance of the sea" may be converted to God, and 
that he may become "the confidence of them that are 
afar off, upon the seas." 

The establishment of religious libraries, would be very 
beneficial to seamen. There should be a depository of 
books and tracts, connected with the religious society 
established for sailors, in every maritime place. Such 
libraries have been formed in some ports with manifest 
good effects. 

Temperance Societies should be organized. The plan 
of total abstinence from ardent spirit, has been adopted 
by many, whose home is upon the mighty deep. The 
time was, when the use of spirituous liquors was general 

among them. All partook of thorn, and many to intoxica- 
tion. Intemperance held dominion over the sea, and 
awful disasters followed. There was great waste of 
property, and great destruction of human life. But a new 
era has commenced. A reformation has begun. Quite a 
number of vessels are now navigated upon the temperance 
plan. The crew is shipped on condition of total absti- 
nence from the use of ardent spirit. Merchants have 
begun to realize the importance of this measure, and to 
ascertain, that voyages performed with this restriction are 
attended with much less hazard.* It is hoped the time is 

* The following account is taken from the Albany Argus of J)ec.,]831. 

'•'The insurance offices i» iNew York and Albany, readily deducted five per 
cent, from the amount of premium usually charged for such voyages, in 
consequence of tlie absence of distilled spirits from on board, making a 
difference of about §100 in a common whaling ship, and this amount added 
to the amount saved in the cost of the usual supply of spirit, will make 
between three and four hundred dollars.'' 



RELIGIOUS IMPROVEMENT OF SEAMEN. 221 

not far distant, when every vessel, that is wafted upon the 
ocean, shall sail unencumbered with this liquid poison, 
either as a part of its freight, or as used by the crew. — 
Intimately connected with their temperance reformation, 
are good boarding-houses for seamen while on shore. 
Till recently, the accommodations for sailors have been 
extremely unpleasant and immoral in their effects. Their 
*' boarding-houses," says one well acquainted with them, 
** nearly without exception, have been retailing dram-shops; 
which is enough to make them the nurseries of almost 
every species of vice. To an alarming extent they have 
been the patrons of gambling, profane swearing, dissipa- 
tion, fraud and lewdness. In such houses the sailor 
ordinarily must board when on shore, because there are few 
of any other description, into which he can be admitted. 
Often have we been told by sailors, when somewhat serious 
about their future destiny, that they could not become 
religious in their boarding-houses. ' Show us,' say they, 
* a house where we can go and find pious shipmates, and 
landlords who will care for us, and then we w^ill attend to 
religion ; but as soon as we get home, our mess-mates, and 
the landlord, are ready to board us at once, and we cannot 
think seriously, or even pray for the salvation of our souls.' 
It is therefore important, and indispensable, if we wish to 
do these men good, and make them virtuous, honorable 
and happy, that boarding-houses of a different character 
be immediately provided for them, — houses where they 
may enjoy some of the common privileges of morality and 
religion." 

IV. The prospects of seamen are brightening, and 
indicate that a better day awaits them. 

The time has been, when intemperance, debauchery, 
profaneness, and vice of every nature and deformity, 
characterized their conduct. The New Sailor's Magazine, 
19* 



222 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

published in London, gives the following description of 
their associations. " The overflowings of female depravity 
in East London, had for years attracted the attention of 
the friends of sea and river men, in their various exertions 
and observations. The host of harlots in Leadenhall 
Street, Rosemary Lane, White Chapel, Mill Yard, Cable 
Street, East Smithfield, Commercial Road, Ratcliffe 
Highways, Wapping, Shadwell, Stepney, Limehouse and 
Blackwell, presented a most terrific and apalling scene. 
Here depravity had cast thousands of its most degraded, 
abandoned and infernal victims, and here, the market of 
female infamy from the host of sailors daily arriving, 
flourished to an astounding degree of profit, so that no day 
was suffered to pass, without adding fresh victims, or sup- 
plying the constant vacancies made by disease and death." 
Says one who has long been familiar with seamen and 
their habits, when at sea and in port: "As to any thing 
like correct and spiritual conceptions of God, I affirm with 
the coolest deliberation, that the Jew and the Turk are 
vastly better informed, than were thousands of our seamen, 
when I was afloat ; and as to any thing like a scriptural 
knowledge of the Saviour, as made known in the gospel, 
the very savage Hottentots, in the wilds of Africa, know 
as much as thousands of British seamen. Some, indeed, 
could, and did read, but what did they read? Books, 
smuggled on board, and sold at enormous prices, and 
purchased w'ith avidity, — such as never dare to see the 
face of day in our land; books of such superlative abomi- 
nation, and which seemed to be the finishing stroke of 
Satan to debase and pollute the reader." Speaking of the 
sailor, the Rev. R. Marks observes, "From the moment 
his vessel enters into port, he is surrounded by a set of men 
called crimps, who keep public, lodging, and boarding- 
houses, of a description which would suit the cities of 
Sodom and Gomorrah. These wretches, with the vile 



RELIGIOUS IMPROVEMENT OF SEAMEN. 223 

women they bring in their train, carry the irresistible bait 
of liquor and good cheer; advance a little money for 
present use; invite the weather beaten voyager to their 
quarters; keep him in the commission of every sin, and 
every excess, until he has received his hard-earned pay ; 
then, stupify his every sense with liquor; rob him of his 
wages, and often strip him of his only jacket, and cast him 
out of doors, and leave him ruined in his circumstances, 
and half destroyed in his constitution, to shift for himself 
as he can; — to procure another ship, and again to encoun- 
ter all the dangers and privations of the sea, or to die with 
cold, and hunger, and disease in the street, and often with 
his expiring breath, he implores a curse on his country 
and his fellow creatures." Happy would it be, if this 
description of character and condition, was applicable to 
British seamen only! There is reason to fear that it too 
exactly describes the most of those, who have traversed in 
years past "the mighty deep." 

But such will not always be the character and state of 
seamen. What is now anticipated in regard to their 
reformation, we trust will be realized. " The abundance 
of the sea shall be converted to God." " The mouth of 
the Lord hath spoken it." Great efforts are now making 
to establish a Seaman's Meeting in every port in Christen- 
dom. The good already accomplished, has amply repaid 
for the treasure and toil expended. Divine worship is 
now statedly or occasionally maintained at '' Gibralter, 
Malta, Leghorn, Constantinople, Cephalonia, Alexandria, 
the coast of Africa, the Cape of Good Hope, the islands 
of the Indian Seas, the West Indies and the Pacific 
Ocean, and at Madras, Calcutta, and Whampoa, the 
anchorage of East India ships near Canton, in China, 
and at Valparaiso, Rio Janeiro, New Orleans, in the Gulf 
of Florida, and along the whole line of coast of the United 
States, and in British North America, at Canada, and at 



224 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

St. John's, and Bermudas, and at Greenland, in Davis' 
Straits, and Baffin's Bay, and at Archangel, Chroninsburg, 
Copenhagen, Cronstadt and Meinel, and at Hamburg, Havre 
de Grace, Cherbourg, Bourdeaux, Cadiz and Le Bois." 
Such are the blessed effects of Christian effort. Marine 
Bible Societies also are established for the purpose of 
furnishing every destitute sailor with the word of life. 

Religious libraries are set up to provide seamen, while 
on shore, with books adapted to improve their understand- 
ing and heart. 

Temperance Societies have been formed among them, 
and have already done much good. 

Boarding houses of good accommodations and charac- 
ter, may now be found in almost every port. 

Register-offices are opened, and books of records are 
kept for the benefit of those who "do business in the great 
waters." In this way, impostures will be discovered, and 
the iniquitous will be detected. Every worthy seaman 
will have his name recorded, his boarding-place or place 
of residence designated, and when he leaves a port, a 
letter of introduction will be given him to some respectable 
individual or individuals in the port to which he is bound. 

And it is hoped, that ere long, institutions for savings, 
or Savings' Banks, will be established, in which treasures 
may be laid up, consecrated to Christ and the church, by 
those who see the wonders of God in the deep, and expe- 
rience deliverance from their distresses. In every seaport, 
sailors should have a place of deposit for their surplus 
funds. The very fact of there being such a place, would 
turn their attention to the subject, and perhaps induce 
them to lay by some of their earnings to a future day of 
want, and to exercise greater economy in their pecuniary 
expenses. 

Let all these methods be adopted for the temporal and 
spiritual benefit of mariners, and their condition would 



RELIGIOUS IMPROVEMENT OF SEAMEN. 225 

Boon be vastly improved. Till recently, the Christian 
community have been totally regardless of mariners. But 
they will no longer be neglected. The sympathies of 
Christians are awake towards those who ** tempt the 
dangers of the sea," and it shall no longer be said, that 
** no man careth for their souls." Every difficulty in the 
way of their reformation must be surmounted ; drafts for 
their benefit must be drawn upon the charities of Chris- 
tians. Prayers must be offered for them, that the Most 
High would " set his hand in the sea, and his right hand 
in the waters," that poor, wretched sailors might *' sing 
for the majesty of the Lord, and cry aloud from the sea." 
When these methods shall be adopted and prosecuted 
with zeal, the tribe of Zebulon, which dwells at the haven 
of the sea, and is for a haven of ships, shall be converted 
to the cross of Christ. 

Those, whose business lay upon the waters, were among 
the earliest converts to the gospel ; were the first followers 
and missionaries of Christ. They became fishers of men, 
having learned to cast the gospel net. One who had 
followed the seas, pieaohcJ on the day of Fentecosl in 
Jerusalem, and three thousand were converted. Who 
then will not labor for this portion of their fellow men ! 
In reference to their salvation, the injunctions of Scrip- 
ture forcibly apply, '* Whatsoever thine hand findeth to 
do, do it with thy might." " That thou doest, do quickly." 
**I must work the works of Him that sent me, while it is 
day, for the night cometh when no man can work." 
"The dead praise thee not, they that are in the grave, 
cannot celebrate thee." Let us then be up and doing; 
for time does not stop, death does not tarry. While we 
delay, souls perish — heaven mourns — hell triumphs, 

Appendix J, 



DISSERTATION XI. 



REFORMATION OF PRISONERS. 

Compassion for the poor, the wretched and the lost, 
was a prominent trait in the character of Christ. It was 
this which induced him to leave the realms of light and 
glory, and submit to a life of toil and suffering, and even 
to death itself. And so essential to the Christian char- 
acter did he regard this virtue, that he enjoined it upon 
his followers as a distinguishing proof of the reality and 
sincerity of their profession. Nut that impenitent sinners 
never perform acts of compassion, but that true believers 
will not fail, prevailingly, to do it as opportunity presents. 
In seeking out objects of commiseration, and in relieving 
their necessities, Christians imitate the merciful example 
of their divine Master, *' who went about doing good," 
and thus enjoy the delightful satisfaction of imparting 
happiness, and secure for themselves an eternal crown of 
glory. Of the different objects of this description pre- 
sented to the Christian community, prisoners are among 
the most prominent, and deserve the sympathetic con- 
sideration of the philanthropic. 

I. Let us take a view of the number of prisoners. 

In this, our estimate must necessarily be imperfect, 



REFORMATION OF PRISONERS. 227 

though it is sufficiently accurate to form a general view. 
The number comparatively is great. In the United 
States, the average number of persons constantly in 
prison is supposed to be about ten thousand, and the 
whole number annually incarcerated about one hundred 
thousand. " The whole number of prisoners in the Pen- 
itentiaries in the United States," in the year 1826, " was 
about three thousand five hundred, of whom one-third 
part at least were in the State of New York, one-sixth 
part in Pennsylvania ; and one-tenth part in Massa- 
chusetts." In some of the States, there are no Pen- 
itentiaries. Consequently, the' above calculation relates 
only to those States, where they exist. " It appears," says 
the First Report of the Prison Discipline Society, "from 
a careful examination of authentic documents, that the 
whole number of convicts, who have been condemned 
in the Penitentiaries in the last twenty years, is about 
twenty thousand ; and from the best estimate which we 
are able to make, about six thousand of them are now 
abroad in society." If such is the number of prisoners 
in the United States, where the condition of the lower 
classes in society is better, perhaps, than in any other 
country, what must be the number of convicts throughout 
the world ! The mind revolts at the affecting thought 
that such multitudes are arrested by the arm of justice, 
and thown into prisons, those seminaries of vice, degra- 
dation, and ruin. 

II. The wretched condition of prisoners demands our 
attention. 

Their wretchedness is of two kinds, mental and cor- 
poral. In prisons are found the most unutterable abomi- 
nations. The mind is debased, the heart is hardened, the 
affections are brutalized, the conscience is seared. This 
is characteristically true of those who are imprisoned for 



228 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

crime. Till recently all the arts of vice were practised in 
Prisons, these nurseries of sin and infamy. All that was 
heard, seen, or done, had a demoralizing effect. Idle- 
ness, gambling, fraud, counterfeiting, stealth, profaneness, 
lasciviousness, blasphemy, wrath, consciousness of degra- 
dation, and hopelessness of retrieving character pre- 
vailed. There the arts of villainy were learned in 
perfection ; evil communications corrupted and destroyed. 
There was the gate of hell. The county jails were 
schools of vice, training up subjects for the State Prisons; 
and the State Prisons were peopling the regions of despair 
with the most practised fiends. It is said in a Report 
concerning the State Prison in New Jersey, there is " a 
combination of men in Prison, called the staunch gang. 
They will lie, and swear to it ; they will steal provision, 
and carry it off; they will lurk in the kitchen, and steal 
other men's provisions ; they will threaten each other's 
lives ; they will make dirks ; they will lie, steal and 
gamble ; they will make their own cards. They have 
rules by which they are bound to each other. They will 
not tell of each other, if they do they will beat the 
informer. One had been known to stab another. They 
consider him a traitor who informs of their evil deeds." 
How awfully depraved ! Such generally speaking was 
the spiritual wretchedness of the convicts of our State 
Prisons, before the reformation commenced in 1824. 

But these are not the only evils to which those immured 
within the strong holds of justice are exposed. There is 
also bodily suffering, arising from mal-treatment. The 
Prisons have been badly constructed. It would seem that 
it was formerly supposed, that prisoners were not subject 
to the laws of nature as other men are ; that it was not 
necessary for them in order to support life, to be con- 
stantly receiving fresh supplies of air. Accordingly, 
Prisons have been erected not having this accommodation 



REFORMATION OF PRISONERS. 229 

in view. In some, their apartments are without windows, 
chimnies or pipes, or any other place for the admission of 
air, except a small orifice in the door," and even this in 
some instances has been wanting. The consequence was 
that prisoners have been found apparently lifeless, who, 
upon being brought into fresh air, have revived. Cleanli- 
ness has been so much disregarded, in the construction and 
management of Prisons, that in some instances visitors have 
been scarcely able to breathe, and have even been affected 
as by the reception of an emetic, when entering some of 
the apartments. What then must be the condition of those 
who are for years not permitted to go out of these places 
of filth! Water has not only been unprovided in sufficient 
quantities for bathing, but there has been a want of it for 
washing their clothes, hands, and face, indeed sometimes 
for quenching thirst. In some Prisons no place has been 
provided for the sick and lunatic. In many instances the 
former have been found lying on a stone floor, destitute of 
covering and medicines, and exposed to the uncouth 
laughter, and heart-rending curses of their negligent com- 
panions; and the latter have been permitted to drag out 
their unfortunate existence without hope to their friends of 
ever recovering their reason, one of Heaven's best gifts. 
Says a Report of the State Prison in New Jersey, " Solitary 
confinement, and scanty allowance of bread with cold 
water, is much used. The period of time not unfrequently 
extends to twenty and thirty days, and this too in the winter 
season, in cells warmed by no fire. The suffering in these 
circumstances is intense ; the convicts lose their flesh and 
strength, and frequently their health; they are sometimes 
so far broken down as to be unable to work when they are 
discharged into the yard, and to require nearly as much 
time in the hospital to recruit them, as they have had in 
the cells to break them down." The object of prison 
discipline as it has heretofore existed, seems to have been 
20 



230 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

simply to inflict punishment on the individuals imprisoned, 
or rather to exercise a sort of revenge on them, without 
any regard to producing reformation in them, and a con- 
sciousness of accountability to society and to God, or of 
securing the community from repeated depredations. 
There was no separation of prisoners at night, when, 
instead of devising and practising arts of mishief, they 
might be left alone to feel the stings of conscience, and to 
make resolutions of amendment. Indeed, there has not 
been so much as a classification of these wretched beings. 
In some instances, males and females, old and young, 
condemned and uncondemned, blacks and whites, debtors 
and criminals, have been found crowded together. The 
result has been the prostration of all moral sense in the 
young, and inter-communication of the knowledge of 
wickedness among the skilful, and an abandonment of the 
less guilty, producing in them despair of ever being rein- 
stated in society, and compelling them to take up with the 
vile arts of the pickpocket, the counterfeiter, and the 
murderer. *' The crowded night rooms ; the one thousand 
debtors annually, and the one thousand criminals and 
vagrants ; the men and the women ; the old men and the 
black boys; the idiots, the lunatics and the drunkards; 
all confined in two buildings at night, and on the Sabbath, 
in which there can be no separation, and no effectual 
supervision or restraint, to prevent gambling and falsehood, 
profane swearing and lascivious conversation, wrath, strife, 
backbiting and revenge; — this was the state of things" in 
Leverett Street Jail, Boston, as described in the Sixth 
Report of the PrisoruDiscipline Society. — The employment 
of prisoners in many instances has been such as to require 
the exercise of the physical powers only, and thus wholly 
to unqualify them for the business of life, when they 
should again be restored to society. Now what condition 
is more wretched, than that in which life is exposed, to 



REFORMATION OF PRISONERS. 331 

say nothing of stripes, and dungeons, and tortures, and in 
which no opportunity is allowed the guilty for meditation, 
repentance and resolutions of reform, and in which also 
the young, and, the comparatively innocent, are under the 
necessity of learning and practising the arts of sin. 

Such has been the wretched condition of those who 
have been incarcerated, not in infidel and uninformed 
nations, as those of the Barbary States, of Turkey, and of 
the most ancient and heathen countries ; but of the two 
most Christianized and enlightened nations of the earth in 
modern times. These furnish sad instances of wretched- 
ness enough to excite the compassion of the hardest heart, 
and induce to the most self-denying, assiduous labors, and 
the most liberal charity. Nor in delineating this picture 
of suffering, are we compelled to exhibit instances of a 
few individuals only, whom greater guilt, or an unusual 
train of circumstances, or uncontrollable necessity has 
rendered more conspicuous in misery; it is a whole system 
of wTetchedness which duty compels us to represent, 
devised by what has been regarded the wisdom of legisla- 
tion — a system which has included, till the late benevolent 
efforts of Prison Discipline Societies, the whole class of 
prisoners; the guilty of every degree, those only suspected 
of guilt, the poor, the lunatic, the old and young, male 
and female. 

III. The duty of exercising compassion towards pris- 
oners will now be considered. 

This compassion should not be a latent principle merely, 
but an active, glowing principle, carried out in deeds of 
mercy. 

1. Here let it be remarked, that prisoners are capable 
of being reformed. 

The experiments made in some of our Prisons satisfacto- 
rily prove this. Where prison discipline has been properly 



232 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

maintained, there have been the fewest recommittals. 
This is in consequence of the reformation of those, who 
are discharged, as may be seen by recuring to facts. " Of 
one hundred and sixty, who had left the Prison at Auburn 
within a certain period, one hundred and twelve are 
described as decidedly steady and industrious, or very 
greatly improved, and twelve as somewhat reformed." In 
the State Prison of New Hampshire, where discipline has 
been strictly observed, and religious instruction given, the 
number of the prisoners was reduced, in the year 1828, 
to 48. This encouraging fact is attributable no doubt, in 
a good degree to the wise and religious government of the 
prisoners. It has now become a familiar remark, that 
none are too bad to be reformed, and daily observation 
confirms this truth. Some remarks contained in a Report 
of the Rev. Jonathan Dickerson, Chaplain of the Prison 
at Sing Sing, are in point. "During the past year, the 
power of divine truth has evidently seized the minds and 
consciences of not a few, in a signal manner, and made 
them tremble, in view of obligations which they never 
before realized, and feel as convicts before God, condemned 
at the bar of Infinite Justice. In cases of this kind, the 
attention has not only been called up to the particular 
crime for which they stand convicted, but perhaps to a 
thousand of equal and some of greater guilt ; the whole 
life is brought up in array before the mind. It may readily 
be conceived that here is presented an overwhelming 
scene as matter for repentance, and much to be forgiven." 
Some of them it is remarked have entertained a hope, 
professed religion, and maintained a consistent deportment. 

2. The temporal and spiritual welfare of prisoners urge 
to the duty of exercising compassion towards them. 

Their wretchedness, bodily and mental, is deplorable ; 
and their prospects for eternity most awful. They are 
miserable within and without. To them forcibly applies 



REFORMATION OF PRISONERS. 233 

the declaration of the Prophet Isaiah, " The wicked are 
like the troubled sea when it cannot rest, whose waters 
cast up mire and dirt." ** There is no peace, saith my 
God, to the wicked." This unhappy class of beings are 
exiled from society, and deprived of social endearments 
and enjoyments. While unreformed, there is nothing to 
render them happy in body or mind, either for time or for 
eternity. They have no spiritual joy or hope in life, no 
refuge in affliction, no present help in trouble. And 
remaining in their sins, they will have no rod and staff to 
comfort them in death, no faith to give them the victory, 
no surety at the bar of judgment, no Almighty Saviour to 
deliver them from hell and raise them to heaven. So far 
as they have any just views of their future state, there is 
to them a "certain fearful looking for of judgment, and 
fiery indignation which shall devour the adversaries." 

Such is the dreadful condition of prisoners, and it is the 
part of compassion to seek their reformation. Their tem- 
poral and spiritual well-being, the good of society and the 
glory of God, demand efforts on their behalf. And there is 
the greatest encouragement to make efforts. Success has 
attended every exertion to promote their spiritual benefit. 
Says Dr. Butler, in a letter written by him while in the 
Penitentiary in Georgia, speaking of himself and the Rev. 
Mr. Worcester, " When we came here, the most universal 
opinion among the convicts was, that no one could maintain 
a Christian character in the Penitentiary. And those who 
appeared very friendly towards us said, that our attempt 
to instruct their fellow prisoners was like casting pearls 
before swine. Profaneness and filthy conversation were 
on the lips of every one. Our seasons of evening worship 
were generally disturbed by talking and laughing. But 
now how changed! Comparatively speaking, there is but 
little profanity, and our seasons of evening worship are 
now as solemn as the awakened worship of the conference 
20* 



234 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

room. Those who said a religious character could not he 
maintained here, stand aghast, though some of them revile. 
Two weeks ago. Dr. Brown and Mr. Hoyt preached to us, 
and Dr. Brown again the Tuesday morning following. 
Much feeling was manifested by the preacher and hearers. 
To-day a Christian class was organized — not for Methodist, 
Presbyterian or Baptist purposes, but for the purpose of 
serving the Lord. All who were determined to serve the 
Lord, were requested to come forward and have their 
names registered. Twenty-five, including Mr. Worcester 
and myself, came forward and there publicly engaged to 
serve the Lord ; others with deep feeling kept back, 
thinking they had not sufficiently considered the subject. 
The individuals of that class will probably be conversed 
with separately, and the feelings of each ascertained. 
Nearly one-third of the convicts belong to the -class. 
Surely it is a day of wonders. The Lord can bring good 
out of evil, light out of darkness; make the wrath of man 
to praise him, and restrain the remainder." 

3. The duty of exercising compassion for prisoners is 
taught in the Scriptures. 

'* Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to 
every creature," said the Saviour to his disciples. It is 
duty then, to impart Christian instruction to all men. 
Prisoners must be embraced in this comprehensive injunc- 
tion. In coQipassion to their souls, the word of life should 
be faithfully dispensed to them. "Blessed is he that con- 
sidereth the poor; the Lord will deliver him in time of 
trouble." The Psalmist here extolleth that disposition of 
mind, which leads a person to relieve suffering and distress. 
Job could confidently affirm, in commendation of himself, 
that "when the ear heard him, then it blessed him, and 
when the eye saw him, it gave witness to him, because he 
delivered the poor that cried, and the fatherless, and him 
that had none to help him." He attested that it was a 



REFORMATION OF PRISONERS. 235 

principal object with him to redress the wrongs and griev- 
ances of the widow, the orphan, and the destitute ; by 
which he caused many a heart to sing for joy, and for 
which he received their benediction. Though in this 
passage of Scripture, Job may have had reference to 
another class of sufferers, yet the disposition here mani- 
fested is to be exercised towards prisoners in their wretch- 
edness. These should experience the compassionate 
regard of all who can feel for another's wo. 

IV. Some methods, in which prisoners may be benefited, 
will now be mentioned. 

Improvement should be made in the construction, ven- 
tilation, and cleanliness of Prisons. Much evil may be 
remedied in this way. Experience has shown, that the 
bodily sufferings of prisoners may be mitigated consistently 
with the infliction of a punishment justly deserved and 
sufficiently dreaded. Our Prisons ought to be so formed, 
that the inmates may occupy separate cells, and be 
secluded from all associates, during the night. The great 
principle of solitary confinement, at least by night, is now 
adopted in the State Prisons of Maine, New Hampshire, 
Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, District of 
Columbia, Tennessee, Louisiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Ohio, 
Virginia, and Missouri, and also in many county prisons 
and houses of correction. 

It is highly beneficial to prisoners, that they be engaged 
in some laborious employment. This will be productive 
of health, and while suffering the sentence of the law, 
they may do much towards their own support. Besides, 
idleness will to a very considerable degree render ineffect- 
ual all attempts at reformation. In the employments of 
the day, it is important that there be a classification of 
the convicts. The males and the females should labor 



236 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

separately, and the young and the old never be associated. 
Females should be placed under the superintending care 
of pious matrons, and the males be in subjection to some 
religious man, who will act as an immediate superintend- 
ent, and be prompt, unceasing and efficient in all his 
movements. Those who have the management of Prisons 
ought to mingle authority with affection in their govern- 
ment. Such a course will be wise and beneficial. 

Every Prison should be furnished with religious instruc- 
tion. A Bible should be placed in every occupied cell, 
and the preaching of the gospel be regularly provided. 
This is now the case at Thomaston, Me. ; Concord, N. H. ; 
Windsor, Vt.; Charlestown, Ms. ; Wethersfield, Ct. ; Sing 
Sing, and Auburn, N. Y. ; Baltimore, Md. ; Columbus, O., 
and Washington, D. C. Appropriate religious exercises 
should be observed, morning and evening, and a Sabbath 
School established and maintained. Says the Warden of 
the State Prison at Thomaston, Maine, in a letter to the 
Secretary of the Prison Discipline Society, *'The Legis- 
lature has appropriated seventy-five dollars to purchase 
books for its use, and at the same time an addition was 
made of fifty dollars per annum to the salary of the 
Chaplain, who is required to attend to the Sabbath School. 
The success attending is apparent ; the convicts become 
more industrious and obedient; and I am in hopes, by 
divine assistance, (without which all our attempts will be 
ineffectual,) that a different result than formerly will be 
produced in the morals and deportment of the convicts." 
State Prison Sabbath Schools are beginning to be consid- 
ered almost as essential, as solitary confinement at night. 
The rules adopted by the New Penitentiary in the District 
of Columbia, are the best, probably, that can be adopted 
in relation to this subject. They are as follows : 

"L There shall be morning and evening service per- 
formed by the chaplain. 2. There shall be a Sunday 



REFORMATION OF PRISONERS. 237 

School under the direction of the Chaplain, with the 
co-operation and concurrence of the Warden. 3. There 
shall be a sermon preached, and divine service performed 
every Sabbath day by the Chaplain. 4. There shall be 
present at all the religious services, and at the Sunday 
School, such officers as shall be designated by the Warden. 
5. Each cell shall be furnished with a Bible, and such 
other religious books as the Warden, with the assent of 
the Inspectors, may think suitable to improve their morals 
and conduct." 

Such are some of the methods which should be adopted 
in the improvement of Prison Discipline. Were this 
penitentiary system generally practised, most salutary 
effects would result. Great good has already been 
effected where this course has been adopted. Success 
has attended every effort. The day of despair in rela- 
tion to the reformation of prisoners, has gone by. This 
class of the community are no longer considered beyond 
the reach of divine mercy. Combined efforts are now 
making in their behalf Societies are formed, having 
in view the amelioration of their condition. These ought 
to be multiplied in their number, and extended in their 
exertions. The ministers of the gospel, whose duty it 
is to exercise compassion themselves, should use their 
influence to promote a spirit of compassionate regard 
in others. Christians, generally, should remember it in 
their supplications for a world lying in wickedness. The 
press should be enlisted in this work for the alleviation 
of human wo. Howards then might be expected to come 
forward and advocate this cause of philanthropy. Let 
none doubt of ultimate success ; but all anticipate the 
time, when there shall be no more need of bridewells, 
jails, state prisons, and the gallows. The Lord hasten 
this blessed day. 

I cannot close this Dissertation, without an allusion 



238 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

to imprisonment for debt. " I am shocked," says Dr. 
Channing, "at the imprisonment of the honest debtor; 
and the legislation which allows the creditor to play the 
tyrant over an innocent man, would disgrace, I think, a 
barbarous age." Once in heathen Rome, the insolvent 
debtor with his family, by a law of their statute book, 
was doomed to involuntary servitude for the benefit of 
the creditor. But this legislation was soon repealed. 
Would that there was no relic of it still remaining 
in Christian lands. The subject of incarceration for 
debt, which is now greatly exciting the attention of 
the public, should be fully and prayerfully considered. 
Its bearing upon the community is immense. It is stated 
upon the authority of Roome, the keeper of the debtor's 
jail in the city of New York, that there were committed 
to that prison, during the year 1828, ten hundred and 
eighty-five persons for debt. The debts contracted, 
amounted to twenty-five thousand, four hundred and 
nine dollars, and thirty-two cents ; and the damages 
amounted to three hundred sixty-two thousand, seventy- 
six dollars, and ninety-nine cents. What an enormous 
waste of time and money in legal prosecutions for debts 
merely, in the great commercial city of this nation ! 
But a revolution in public sentiment and feeling has 
commenced, and the work of reform is onward. Let 
the Prison Discipline Society, in its Seventh Annual 
Report, speak. *' In the great State of New York, con- 
taining at least a seventh part of our country's popula- 
tion, imprisonment for simple debt is abolished. Having 
seen the practical operation of the former laws ; how 
many were imprisoned for less than one dollar ; how 
many more for less than ten dollars ; how many for rum 
debts, when the guilt of putting the bottle to the mouth by 
the creditor, was probably greater than that of the debtor 
in receiving it; how much time has been lost in prison; 



REFORMATION OF PRISONERS. 239 

how much it has cost to keep the system in operation, and 
how many families have suffered under the former laws, — 
we cannot doubt as at present informed, that the law of 
April 26, 1831, to abolish imprisonment for debt, and to 
punish fraudulent debtors, is a great and good law, of a 
great and noble State, in favor of public justice, public 
morals, liberty, economy, humanity and good will." 

Appendix K. 



DISSERTATION XII. 



PROMOTION OF PEACE. 

*« Blessed are the peace makers, for they shall be 
called the children of God." In these words, our 
Saviour has pronounced a beatitude upon those, who are 
peaceable in their own demeanor, and labor to promote 
peace in others. Exalted is the honor of all such as 
attain unto the character of followers of Him, who is 
emphatically styled the Prince of Peace ; and whose 
embassy from heaven to earth was announced in seraphic 
strains, ** Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, 
good will towards men." The religion of Jesus Christ is 
filled with peace. Its whole object is peace, — peace with 
God, and peace with man. As there was almost an un- 
interrupted succession of wars for four thousand years — 
from the creation of man to the advent of the Messiah ; 
so this succession has been continued from Christ's ap- 
pearance to the present time. This fact is a stigma on 
human nature. The prevalence of wars between nations 
professedly Christian, is adapted to excite the astonish- 
ment of infidels and heathens. The disposition of man 
for war, in every age and in every circumstance in life, 
would seem almost to contradict the characteristics of his 
being. But, alas, for poor human nature ! Its element 



PROMOTION OF PEACE. 041 

is war — war, which is " the pastime of kings," but the 
grief and ruin of their subjects — war, whose glory is 
blazoned by the infatuated multitude ; but whose prin- 
ciples and effects are detested by the well informed dis- 
ciples of the meek and lowly Jesus. Every judicious 
effort then should be made for the removal of this evil, 
until peace, with her olive branch, shall become the 
emblem of a regenerated world. 

I. Why should war be abolished ? 

1. Because it is opposed to the spirit of the gospel. 

*' War is the law of violence ; peace the law of love." 
The former, therefore, is totally irreconcilable with the 
Christian spirit. " In all experience and stories," says 
Lord Bacon, ''you shall find but three things, that prepare 
and dispose an estate for war, the ambition of the gov- 
enors, a state of soldiery professed, and the hard means 
to live among many subjects ; wherefore, the last is 
the most forcible and the most constant." In perfect 
accordance with this sentiment are the views of the 
apostle James. '' From whence come wars and fightings 
among you ? Come they not hence, even of your lusts, 
that war in your members?" "The war spirit," says 
one, " is not indeed acknowledged by those under its 
influence to be the inspiration of the devil, but it might 
be with far less impropriety, than it can be deemed the 
inspiration of the merciful God." 

2. War should be abolished, because it is opposed to 
the precepts of the gospel. 

" Thou shalt not kill." This is one of the permanent 
laws of God's moral kingdom, binding upon all men. 

" Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself." This law 

of love the scribes interpreted as referring to their own 

family, friends, sect and nation, and maintained the law 

of retaliation in its full extent. Hence their injunction, 

21 



M2 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

Thou shalt love thy neighbor and hate thine enemy." 
3ut this interpretation of the law of love was not agree- 
able to the views of Jesus Christ. The spirit and prac- 
tice of retaliation, he utterly condemned in his reply to 
the scribes : " But I say unto you, Love your enemies, 
bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate 
you, and pray for them which despitefully use you and 
persecute you, that ye may be the children of your Father 
which is in heaven." War is retaliation. The Saviour 
then, denounces its spirit and practice. The will of 
Christ may, also, be known from his pronouncing a ben- 
ediction upon peace-makers. 

Says the apostle of the Gentiles, " Follow peace with 
all men." This exhortation, though addressed to the 
Hebrews, is applicable both to Jews and Gentiles. It is 
the incumbent duty of all to avoid discord and resentment, 
and uniformly to pursue pacific measures. It is predicted 
as a characteristic of the millennial day, that mankind 
*' shall beat their swords into ploughshares, and their 
spears into pruning- hooks : nation shall not lift up sword 
against nation, neither shall they learn war any more." 
War shall no more be a science or occupation, but 
peace — " abundance of peace shall prevail, so long as 
the moon endureth." War then is indefensible upon 
Christian principles ; and, therefore, all laws in its favor 
are unconstitutional, because not agreeable to the statute 
book of Heaven. The sentiment of a distinguished naval 
officer, "Our country, — may she be always right; but, 
right or wrong, may she always be victorious," is incon- 
sistent with the spirit and precepts of Christianity. Every 
war is anti-christian, because contrary to the Christian 
code, or the precepts of the gospel. As evidence of this, 
I insert the following extract from the Report of a Com- 
mittee appointed by the Massachusetts Peace Society to 
inquire into this subject. The inquiry, say they, is 



PROMOTION OF PEACE. 243 

" confined to wars in which civilized nations have been 
engaged since they became Christian, or since Constantino 
assumed the reins of the Roman empire ; omitting a 
great number of petty wars in small nations of antiquity — 
temporary insurrections, or trivial hostilities — and a 
multitude of wars which have been carried on between 
Christian and savage nations, such as the Aborigines of 
Asia and America. The report relates to two hundred 
and eighty-six wars of magnitude, in which Christian 
nations have been engaged. These are divided into the 
eleven following classes, viz : 

44 Wars of ambition, to obtain extent of country. 

22 Wars for plunder, tribute, &c. 
24 Wars of retaliation or revenge. 

8 Wars to settle some question of honor or prerogative. 

6 Wars arising from disputed claims to some territory. 
41 Wars arising from disputed titles to crowns. 
30 Wars commenced under pretence of assisting an 
ally. 

23 Wars originating in jealousy of rival greatness. 
5 Wars which have grown out of commerce. 

55 Civil Wars. 

28 Wars on account of religion, including the crusades 
against the Turks and heretics." 

How anti-christian, and, comparatively speaking, how 
frivolous, the causes of these wars ! 

3. War should be abolished, because it is opposed to 
the example of Christ. 

As the spirit and precepts of the Founder of Christianity 
were pacific ; so was his example. " Christ also suffered 
for us," says the apostle, *' leaving us an example, that we 
should follow his steps ; who when he was reviled, reviled 
not again ; when he suffered, he threatened not ; but 



244 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

committed himself to Him that judgeth righteously." 
" Now if any man have not the spirit of Christ, he is 
none of his ; " so also if he imitates not the example of 
Christ, he is none of his. Were the Saviour's example 
universally followed, wars would be no more. " If 
Christian nations were nations of Christians, all wars 
would be impossible, and unknown among them." How 
important that all men should imitate the example of 
Christ, the great pattern of excellence, that wars may 
cease unto the ends of the earth, and peace universally be 
established ! 

4. The evil effects of war is another reason why it 
should be abolished. Nothing less than the Divine 
Intelligence, who alone is able to comprehend the worth 
of the soul, and the tendency of war to destroy it, can 
fully estimate the extent of this evil. The human mind 
takes knowledge of the temporal evils of war only, and of 
these in a partial degree. One of these evils is an 
immense waste of treasure. The following account of 
English wars, taken from the London Weekly Review, is 
awfully affecting. " Of one hundred and twenty-seven 
years, terminating in 1815, England spent sixty-five in 
war, and sixty-two in peace. The war of 1688, after 
lasting nine years, and raising our expenditure in that 
period to thirty-six millions, was ended by the treaty of 
Ryswick in 1697. Then came the war of the Spanish 
succession, which began in 1702, concluded in 1713, and 
absorbed sixty-two and a half millions of our money. 
Next was the Spanish war of 1739, settled finally at 
Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748, after costing us nearly sixty-four 
millions. Then came the Seven Years' war of 1756, 
which terminated with the treaty of Paris in 1763, in the 
course of which we spent one hundred and twelve millions. 
The next was the American war of 1775, which lasted 
eight years. Our national expenditure in this time was 



PROMOTION OF PEACE. 245 

one hundred and thirty-six millions. The French Revo- 
lutionary war began in 1793, lasted nine years, and 
exhibited an expenditure of four hundred and sixty-four 
millions. The war against Buonaparte began in 1803, 
and ended in 1815. During those twelve years, we spent 
one thousand one hundred and fifty-nine millions ; seven 
hundred and seventy-one of which were raised by taxes, 
three hundred and eighty by loans. In the Revolution- 
ary war, we borrowed two hundred and one millions ; in 
the American, one hundred and four millions; in the 
Seven Years' war, sixty millions; in the Spanish war of 
1739, twenty-nine millions ; in the war of the Spanish suc- 
cession, thirty-two millions and a half; in the war of 1688, 
twenty millions ; — total borrowed in the seven wars, dur- 
ing 65 years, about eight hundred and thirty-four rail- 
lions. In the same time we raised by taxes one thousand 
one hundred and eighty-nine millions; thus forming a 
total expenditure of two thousand and twenty-three mil- 
lions." What an enormous amount of money expended 
in the destruction of human life, and for the gratification 
of ambitious or selfish purposes ! The expenses of the 
last war of the United States, is supposed to have amount- 
ed to at least forty millions of dollars a year. The mili- 
tary and naval expenses of Great Britain, in the war for 
the year 1815, amounted to forty-five millions three hun- 
dred and sixty-two thousand six hundred and seventy- 
seven pounds. This fact is ascertained by consulting au- 
thentic documents. From official papers it appears, that 
the whole expense of her armies cost France for the year 
1819, seven hundred fifty-eight millions and five hundred 
thousand francs. — To impress the mind more fully with 
the vast expense, consequent on war, we will just compare 
the expenditure occasioned in this way, with the civil ex- 
penditures in the same governments. In the Treasurer's 
Report for the year 1818, the civil expenses of the United 
21* 



246 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

States were estimated at three millions eight hundred and 
nine thousand eight hundred and six dollars ; the annual 
expense of the late war is computed at forty millions of 
dollars. The expenses of the war were ten times more 
than the expenses of civil government. The civil expen- 
diture of the government of Great Britain during the year 
1815, was four millions four hundred and sixty-one thou- 
sand and eighty-seven pounds. The expenses for war in 
the same year were forty-five millions three hundred sixty- 
two thousand six hundred and seventy-seven pounds. In 
the British nation the expenses of the war were ten fold 
greater than the expenses of civil government. France 
spent thirty-seven millions seven hundred thousand francs 
for her civil expenses in the year ending 1817, and her ex- 
penses for war during the year 1809 were computed at 
seven hundred fifty-eight millions and five hundred thou- 
sand francs, — a sum of money twenty times as large as her 
annual civil expenses. Will this expenditure be deemed 
incredible, when we take into account military and naval 
armaments, fortifications, marches, encampments, seiges, 
and battles? "The cost of building and equipping for 
service a single ship of the line, even in time of peace, 
when every thing can be done leisurely and at the best ad- 
vantage, would erect the buildings of a university, and fur- 
nish them with ample apparatus; and the expense of 
manning the ship, and keeping it afloat from year to year, 
even without battles, would supply gratuitous instruction 
at the university for a thousand students." Such' is the 
expense of war, of peril and battle, of victory and defeat. 
And in this it should be recollected, that the waste of 
property by conflagration, pillage, and other ways of de- 
struction, is not included ; neither is reference had to an- 
cient days in recounting the millions of their armies and 
the treasure requisite for their equipment and support. 
Another of the evils of war is the bloodshed and slaugh- 



PROMOTION OF PEACE. 247 

ter it occasions. *' No one," said Croesus to Cyrus, " can 
be so infatuated as not to prefer peace to war. In peace, 
children inter their parents. War violates the order of 
nature, and causes parents to inter their children." " A 
soldier," said Dean Swift, " is a being hired to kill in cold 
blood, as many of his own species who have never offended 
him, as he possibly can." How true the passage of inspi- 
ration, " They that take the sword shall perish by the 
sword." It is stated on good authoiity, that there were 
wounded and slaughtered, on the field of Austerlitz, 
twenty thousand ; on the field of Bautzen, twenty-five 
thousand ; at Dresden, thirty thousand ; at Waterloo, forty 
thousand ; Eylau, fifty thousand ; at Borodino, eighty 
thousand. It is supposed, that not less than fourteen 
thousand millions of human beings have fallen the vic- 
tims of war, — a number about eighteen times greater than 
the population of the whole globe at the piesent time. 
In the Revolutionary war of this country, England, it is 
said, lost two hundred thousand lives. Csesar, in the fifty 
battles fought by him, slew, according to the statements of 
Dr. Prideaux, one million one hundred and ninety-two 
thousand of his opposers. O, what battle fields have been 
drenched in blood by the armies of Alexander, Csesar and 
Napoleon ! If a Persian king, a heathen, on reviewing 
his army was affected to weeping, at the consideration, 
that in one hundred years from that time, every human 
being he then saw would be numbered with the dead ; 
what should be the emotions of every Christian, when re- 
flecting on the thousands of millions, that have been 
brought to an untimely end by sanguinary contests ! 

War has a. pernicious effect on the morals and happi- 
ness of man. Nothing can be more promotive of vice and 
immorality. "War makes thieves," says Machiavel, "and 
peace brings them to the gallows." The habits of sol- 
diers, who have been for any considerable time quartered 



24S CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

or encamped, become dissolute. The miseries of war are 
incalculable. 

"Man's inhumanity to man 
Makes countless thousands mourn." 

Lamentation and wo are inscribed in letters of blood on 
every warlike scene. Awful is the catastrophe of a mar- 
tial contest. Man, horse, car, lie in undistinguished ruin. 
In some, life is extinct. In others, blood is gushing from 
dissevered arteries. Shrieks of expiring nature arise from 
every quarter. Then are heard the 

" Lingering groan, the faintly uttered prayer, 
The louder curses of despairing death." 

What heart-rending anguish has this evil produced in the 
quiet domestic circle ! The dearest ties it has severed 
forever. Families happy in the enjoyment of each other's 
society, are called to part with a tender father, or beloved 
brother, who leave their peaceful home, perhaps never to 
return. What hours of painful anxiety are endured by 
those who remain behind ! How many desolate widows, 
and helpless orphans, has this scourge of man produced ! 
O, could we realize in its full extent the magnitude of suf- 
fering it has occasioned, we should indeed deprecate it, 
as one of the most fearful judgments of Heaven ! When a 
treaty of peace at the close of the Revolutionary war had 
been signed at Paris, Dr. Franklin wrote a letter to Josiah 
Quincy of Braintree, in which he says, " May we never 
see another war ; for in my opinion there never was a 
good war or a bad peace." 

II. How shall wars be abolished, and peace be 
promoted ? 

To accomplish this object, every lawful and practicable 
method should be adopted. 



PROMOTION OF PEACE. 249 

1. The ministers of the gospel should advocate this 
cause by precept and example. 

Every ambassador of the " Prince of Peace," is by his 
office a peace-maker. He is a disciple and minister of Him 
who came from heaven to propose peace and reconcilia- 
tion to a revolted world; and should, therefore, advocate 
pacific principles and measures. He is obligated to do it 
in the social circle, from the pulpit, and on every occasion, 
when opportunity is afforded. Once it was deemed lawful 
and expedient for ministers to supplicate a blessing on the 
warrior's arms, and to return thanks for success in battle. 
But in the nineteenth century, ministers have learned to 
pray, that the Lord would turn the counsels of the wicked 
into foolishness, and dispose contending nations to peace ; 
that he would ''break the bow and cut the spear in 
sunder ; burn the chariot in the fire, and make wars to 
cease unto the end of the earth." 

2. Parents, and those who have the charge of youth, 
should impress on their minds an abhorrence of war. 
Children generally, are delighted with the dress, music, 
and parade of military occasions, and very early discover 
a proneness to imitate the soldier. This propensity should 
be repressed. Children should be taught the design of 
martial exercises. The causes, the sinfulness, and the 
misery of war should be explained to them, and they 
should be trained up with the love of man, and the love of 
peace, ruling in their hearts. This duty devolves upon 
parents, guardians, and instructors. 

3. Publications denouncing war and advocating peace, 
should be printed anrl widely disseminated. 

Information on this subject must precede correction of 
sentiment and feeling in relation to it. This must be 
diffused through the community by that powerful engine, 
the press. To some extent, this has been done. Several 
periodicals in England have advocated, with much decision^ 



250 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

this noble cause; such as the ''Philanthropist," the 
"Eclectic Review," the "Evangelical Magazine," the 
"Edinburgh Review," the "Christian Observer," and the 
"English Baptist Magazine." Most of the religious and 
some of the political periodicals in the United States, have 
espoused this cause, if not with the zeal desirable, yet 
with commendable interest. The opinions of the wise 
and good, of the statesman and the philanthropist, on this 
subject, should be proclaimed as with trumpet-tongue. 
How must the sentiments of Washington, the father of his 
country, impress every true patriot and Christian ! Said 
he, in a letter to a friend, " For the sake of humanity it is 
devoutly to be wished, that the manly employment of 
agriculture, and the humanizing benefits of commerce, 
should suspend the wastes of war, and the rage of conquest, 
and that the sword may be turned into the ploughshare." 
Mr. Jefferson thus writes: "Will nations never devise 
any other national umpire of difference than force ? Are 
there no means of coercing injustice, more gratifying to 
our nature, than a waste of the blood of thousands ? 
Wonderful has been the progress of human improvement 
in other lines. Let us hope, then, that we shall at length 
be sensible that war is an instrument entirely inefficient to 
the redress of wronors." 

o 

4. Societies, having for their object the abolition of war, 
and the promotion of peace, should be established in this 
and other lands. 

It will be found necessary to adopt such a course in this, 
as well as in other benevolent enterprises. Every Christian 
should consider himself a member of a Peace Society. 
He is by his profession an advocate for peace, and he 
should give his name to some society, that he may bear 
open testimony on behalf of the goodness and importance 
of the cause. Every philanthropist — friend to his country 
and the world, should become a herald of peace, and 



PROMOTION OF PEACE. 251 

array himself on the side of Him, ''who maketh wars to 
cease unto the end of the earth ; who breaketh the bow 
and cutteth the spear in sunder." Let none deem this 
enterprise quixotic, or destined to fail. Every benevolent 
institution of the present day, undertaken and carried on 
in faith, prayer, and persevering effort, will succeed. The 
martial spirit will wane. The time will come when the 
"ultima ratio regum " — war, will not be resorted to for the 
settlement of national disputes. A revolution on this 
subject has begun, and revolutions, be it remembered, 
seldom go backward. '' Time was when feats of arms, 
crusades, and the high array of chivalry, and the pride of 
royal banners, waving for victory, engrossed all minds. 
Murder and rapine, burning cities and desolating plains — 
if so be they were, at the bidding of royal or baronial 
feud, led on by the courtier or the clan — were matters of 
public boast, and the treasured fireside tales. Bat these 
things have passed away. Christianity has resumed her 
meek and holy reign." The time is at hand, when the 
song of triumph shall be that of peace. '* The game of 
war," and the " trade of man butchery," will cease to be 
practised. 

May it not be hoped, that the gentler sex will espouse 
this benignant cause, and enrol their names on the list of 
those who patronize pacific institutions. Once, their 
influence was used to impel onward to fight, *' men, fierce 
in war." Once in England, it was viewed honorable for 
them, "to be seen at the public tournaments, riding in 
troops with swords by their sides." But now, ladies have 
other views, and other feelings. The war spirit has 
retired from their bosoms, and the pacific principles of the 
religion of Jesus reign in its stead. Will they not be 
entreated by sisters of departed brothers, by daughters 
made fatherless, and by mothers bereaved of husbands, in 



252 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

the field of blood and carnage, to enlist most cordially in 
this labor of love, and thus be co-workers with the Prince 
of Peace, till, 

" All crimes shall cease, and ancient fraud shall fail, 
Returning justice lift aloft her scale ; 
Peace o'er the world her olive wand extend, 
And white rob'd innocence from Heav'n descend." 

Appendix L. 



DISSERTATION XIII, 



CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTIONS. 

The Saviour, in his memorable Sermon on the Mount, 
thus addressed his disciples : " Take heed that ye do not 
your alms before men, to be seen of them ; otherwise ye 
have no reward of your Father which is in heaven. 
Therefore, when thou doest thine alms, do not sound a 
trumpet before thee as the hypocrites do in the syna- 
gogues and in the streets, that they may have glory of 
men. Verily I say unto you, they have their reward. 
But when thou doest thine alms, let not thy left hand know 
what thy right hand doeth, that thine alms may be in se- 
cret, and thy Father, which seeth in secret, himself shall 
reward thee openly." The duty of alms-giving, Christ 
here assumes, and then prescribes rules in respect to its 
practice. That the subject of charitable contributions 
should be rightly understood, and deeply felt, especially 
in the present day, when the Christian community are so 
frequently called upon to contribute of their substance for 
the temporal and spiritual benefit of their fellow men, is 
highly important. A number of considerations relating 
to this subject will be presented in this Dissertation. 
22 



254 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

I. The duty of making charitable contributions. 

This duty is taught by reason, or the light of nature. 
All men belong to the same family, are alike dependent 
upon the same Creator, and mutually dependent upon each 
other. Their general wants are the same. They are 
alike immortal, and alike accountable. Happiness is 
equally dear to all. A tender regard, therefore, to the in- 
terests and welfare of others should be cherished, and be 
mutually exemplified. The propriety of this, results from 
the relation which subsists between mankind. 

The duty of giving alms, is enjoined throughout the 
volume of sacred truth. It was required under the Mo- 
saic dispensation. " If there be among you a poor man 
of one of thy brethren, within any of thy gates, in thy 
land which the Lord thy God giveth thee, thou shalt 
not harden thy heart, nor shut thy hand from thy poor 
brother. But thou shalt open thy hand wide unto him, and 
shalt surely lend him sufficient for his need in that which 
he wanteth." This passage teaches in the most em- 
phatic language the duty of supplying the wants of the 
needy and distressed, so far as we have ability. Among 
the Jews, the box of the poor was called the box of right- 
eousness; and probably for this reason, that what is given 
to them in this way, is in Scripture, said to be their 
due. Hence we read in Proverbs, "Withhold not good 
from them, to whom it is due, when it is in the power of 
thine hand to do it. Say not unto thy neighbor, go and 
come again, and to-morrow I will give thee, when thou 
hast it by thee." To these may be added many other 
passages of Scripture which enjoin this duty. Said our 
Lord to his disciples, "Love ye your enemies, and do 
good and lend, hoping for nothing again, and your re- 
ward shall be great, and ye shall be the children of the 
Highest ; for he is kind unto the unthankful and to the evil." 
The apostle John, not only teaches that alms-giving is a 



CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTIONS. 255 

duty, but expressly assures us, that they who neglect this 
duty, are not the subjects of religion, be their object in so 
doing what it may. He says, " Whoso hath this world's 
goods, and seeth his brother have need, and shutteth up 
his bowels of compassion from him, how dwelleth the love 
of God in him?" The question here proposed, implies a 
negative answer. Said the apostle to Timothy, " Charge 
them that are rich in this world that they be not high 
minded, nor trust in uncertain riches, but in the living 
God, who giveth us all things richly to enjoy ; that they do 
good ; that they be rich in good works, ready to distribute; 
willing to communicate; laying up in store for themselves 
a good foundation against the time to come ; that they may 
lay hold of eternal life." Here, Paul exhorted Timothy 
to inculcate upon the rich, the duty ''to support and com 
fort their poor brethren, and by other pious and char 
itable actions to be rich in good works." To the He 
brews he observes, " To do good, and to communicate 
forget not; for with such sacrifices God is well pleased.' 
Charitable contributions would be an expression of grat- 
itude to God, the Author of all good. They would benefit 
the recipients, and appear as the fruits of grace in the 
hearts of those who bestowed them. These remarks will 
apply with equal force, to the bestowment both of tem- 
poral and spiritual favors. The duty then, of alms-giving 
is plain, and urgent. 

II. To whom are charitable contributions to be made? 

That all are not the objects of charity, is obvious. 
The really destitute, are those who need such assist- 
ance. This is so, whether their wants are of a temporal 
or spiritual nature. Are any destitute of food to eat, or 
clothing to wear, or the means of grace to improve, they 
should be supplied. They are objects of charity. There 
may, however, be circumstances attending the necessitous, 



256 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

which prevent even them from being, to much extent, ob- 
jects of charity. We are not to bestow our bounties in 
a lavish manner. The notorious drunkard, though needy, 
should receive no more at our hand than food and rai- 
ment for present supply. The indolent should be excited 
to efforts for their own support, rather than have the ne- 
cessaries of life gratuitously bestowed upon them. The 
vagrant, who travel from place to place, soliciting alms, 
are generally not proper objects of charity. They are idle 
and dissipated, sowers of discord, and a pest to society. 
Our duty to such persons, is to feed them, if they are hun- 
gry; to clothe them, if they are naked ; and, at all times, 
to admonish them in meekness, and exhort them to indus- 
try, frugality, and piety. The sick and suffering, if in 
circumstances of penury, are the objects of charity. Their 
wants should be supplied by the affluent. It was a wise 
plan of our fathers, and is a wise plan of their children, 
to erect alms-houses, and enact eleemosynary laws, in ref- 
erence to suffering humanity. 

Persons who are destitute of the means of grace, are 
objects of charity. The heathen, who know not the true 
God, who have never heard the glorious tidings of mercy 
by a crucified Redeemer, and consequently, are without 
the ordinary means of salvation, are objects of charity. 
They need the Bible, that revelation of God, which is 
"profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, and in- 
struction in righteousness, that the man of God may be 
perfect, thoroughly furnished unto every good work." 
They need missionaries to expound and enforce the Scrip- 
tures, and to instruct them in the way to heaven. After 
they have received the Holy Scriptures, and Christianity 
is introduced among them, it will be their duty to main- 
tain the gospel and its ordinances themselves. They will 
then cease to be objects of religious charity. 

The Jews, who for disobedience, have long since be- 



CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTIONS. 357 

come *' an astonishment, a proverb, and a by-word among 
all nations whither the Lord hath led them/' are also ob- 
jects of charity. They have set themselves against the 
Messiah, whom their fathers crucified and slew ; and 
through prejudice, have rejected the New Testament. 
They, therefore, need to have the New Testament put into 
their hands, accompanied with a living interpreter, that they 
may understand the character of the Saviour, and see the 
fulfillment of the prophecies of the Old Testament in the 
life, works and doctrines of Jesus Christ; that hereby they 
may become convinced that he is the Messiah of the Scrip- 
tures, the Shiloh, the Anointed of God for the restoration 
of our fallen race. 

The Mohammedans, and all in Christian lands who em- 
brace fatal errors, and who will never come to a knowl- 
edge of the truth, unless enlightened and instructed by 
the benevolent exertions of Christians, are objects of 
charity. No plass should be left destitute of the means of 
grace — the Sacred Scriptures and a preached gospel. 
As these spiritual blessings are absolutely necessary to the 
salvation of the soul ; so it is all-important, that every son 
and daughter of Adam should be in the possession of them. 

III. Who are to perform these acts of charity ? 

Those who have an abundance of this world's goods, 
should supply the wants of the destitute, as God has given 
them the means. Says the apostle to Timothy, •' Charge 
them that are rich in this world, that they do good ; that 
they be rich in good works, ready to distribute, willing to 
communicate." All individuals according to their several 
ability are obligated to relieve the indigent and suffer- 
ing. Those who possess the Bible, and have the means 
of imparting it to others, should send it to the heathen, 
and to all those in Christian countries who have it not, 
and are unable to purchase it. Missionaries, too, are to 
22* 



258 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

be sent by the Christianized part of the world, to pro- 
claim the acceptable year of the Lord, and the day of 
vengeance of our God, to those who sit in darkness, and 
in the region and shadow of death, and to all those who 
are unable to support the gospel even where Christianity 
exists. — But a question here arises, How much is it duty 
to give in charitable contributions ? it is difficult, if not 
impossible to determine with exactness what proportion of 
his property a man is bound to devote to private and do- 
mestic uses, and what to charitable purposes. The duty 
of alms-giving must be stated in general terms, and the 
amount bestowed in charities must be determined by the 
judgment and conscience of individuals themselves. — But 
is there no rule more definite by which we can be guided 
in this respect? Yes, as a specific but general rule, the 
golden one of our Saviour applies, " Whatsoever ye would 
that men should do to you," (or whatsoever ye ought to 
wish that men should do to you in a change of circum- 
stances) *' do ye even so to them," This rule we are 
bound to follow. To neglect it would be to violate a pre- 
cept of Heaven. And this requisition extends to spiritual 
as well as to temporal blessings. The spirit of this rule 
the primitive Christians imbibed and exhibited in their 
deportment. They "counted not their lives dear unto 
them, so that they might testify the gospel of the grace of 
God." They made great sacrifices for the cause of Christ. 
" As many as were possessors of lands or houses, sold 
them, and brought the prices of the things that were sold 
and laid them down at the apostles' feet; and distribution 
was made unto every man according as he had need. 
They had all things common." — Did all men love their 
neighbors as themselves, or did the spirit which reigns in 
heaven reign on earth, this course might with safety be 
adopted. By a law which once existed among some of 
the ancient states of Greece, all the citizens were made 



CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTIONS. 259 

equal as to property. In this respect no one could claim 
a superiority over Iris neighbor. But this law has not 
been generally approved by mankind. While human na- 
ture remains as it now is, it is doubted whether such a 
regulation would be advantageous to society. It proba- 
bly would be the reverse. We ought however, as we have 
ability, to * bear one another's burdens, and so fulfill the 
law of Christ,' Those who are rich are under sacred ob- 
ligations to devote a part of their property to the promo- 
tion of the spiritual and eternal interests of men, and they 
should do it with a settled plan or system, and in concert 
with others. There should be an entire consecration to 
the Lord of all that we are and all that we possess. Such 
is the injunction of Scripture by precept and example. 
"Vow, and pay unto the Lord, your God ; let all that be 
round about him bring presents unto him that ought to be 
feared," "And Jacob vowed a vow, saying, If God will 
be with me, and will keep me in this way that I go, and 
will give me bread to eat, and raiment to put on, then 
shall the Lord be my God ; and of all that thou shalt give 
me, I will surely give the tenth unto thee." My views on 
this subject are by another thus happily expressed : " Every 
man is bound to regard all his property, and all the avails 
of his industry and enterprise as belonging to God; he is 
to hold it all and manage it, as a sacred trust for which 
he must give account to the supreme Proprietor; he is to 
apply it and dispose of it exclusively as the Lord's servant, 
and in the work of the Lord." 

IV. In what manner should we bestow our charitable 
contributions ? 

1. We should bestow them without ostentation, or a 
desire to obtain the applause of men. " Take heed," says 
the Saviour, '* that ye do not your alms before men to be 
seen of them, otherwise ye have no reward of your Father 



260 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

which is in heaven." We are not to conclude from this 
prohibition, that it is sinful to give ahns, or make charita- 
ble donations, in the sight of our fellow men. This we 
may do and are frequently called to do. In case of pub- 
lic contributions it is unavoidable. The meaning of our 
Lord evidently is this: Take heed that ye do not your 
alms with a view merely to obtain the approbation of men. 
If you are influenced by this unworthy principle, you have 
no reason to expect a reward from your heavenly Father. 
That this was his meaning, seems evident from what fol- 
lows. " Therefore, when thou doest thine alms, do not 
sound a trumpet before thee as the hypocrites do in the 
synagogues and in the streets, that they may have glory of 
men." The hypocrites performed this duty from a spirit 
of pride and vain-glory. They sought the applause of 
men, and wished to be viewed as the most religious part of 
the community. In order to accomplish this purpose, 
they chose to give their alms in the synagogues and in the 
streets, where was a great concourse of people to observe 
and applaud their liberality. Because multitudes thus 
publicly shared in their favors, they were in high estima- 
tion. Their conduct on these occasions indicated a proud, 
hypocritical spirit, and as such it was utterly condemned 
by Christ. Would we bestow our alms acceptably, such 
motives and such a spirit must have no influence in ac- 
tuating us, otherwise we also shall receive no reward of 
our Father in heaven. 

2. Our charities as far as practicable should be given 
in a private manner. 

Thus speaks the Saviour, " When thou doest alms, let 
not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth, that 
thine alms may be in secret; and thy Father which seeth 
in secret himself shall reward thee openly." Some suppose 
that this verse of Scripture refers to the placing of the cor- 
ban, or poor man's box, into which the Jews cast their 



CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTIONS. 261 

free-will offerings, on the right hand of the passage into 
the temple. There stood a box in which they deposited 
money for the support of the poor. This they did with 
the right hand, as denoting readiness and disinterested 
intentions. The phrase, let not thy left hand know what 
thy right hand doeth, teaches that they should ordinarily 
conceal their contributions as much as the case will ad- 
mit; that they should not think of them nor indulge com- 
placency in them, nor desire to have them known. Se- 
crecy is one evidence of sincerity. "The Egyptians made 
the emblem of charity to be a blind boy reaching out honey 
to a bee that had lost her wings." Dr. Scott, comment- 
ing on this passage of the Saviour, observes, "Circum- 
stances vary, and require variation in outward conduct ; 
there are many charities which can scarcely be promoted 
without some degree of public notoriety; and frequently a 
leading person may be called to excite those who are back- 
ward by a useful example. Yet no duty is more liable to 
be made occasion of vain-glory than this ; and many de- 
signs, very beneficial to others, are supported by a liberal- 
ity which almost entirely springs from this corrupt princi- 
ple. The heart is deceitful, and when men love to have 
their names inserted among the subscribers to public 
charities, but are not equally liberal in private ; when they 
love to speak and hear of their own beneficence, and are 
not willing to do much without the credit of it ; it is too 
plain how the case stands with them. In general, private 
charities, if not more useful, are more unequivocal ; and 
the less reward we receive from man, the more we may 
expect from our gracious God, provided we act from evan- 
gelical principles." There are some instances in which 
this direction of Christ may be strictly and literally com- 
plied with, such as charities bestowed on private indi- 
viduals. But the principle, is what our Saviour had most 
in view in this injunction. There are other cases in 



262 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

which it appears to be duty to make known our deeds of 
benevolence, not with a selfish desire to receive praise, but 
to manifest our engagedness in the work of the Lord, our 
love to him and his cause, our willingness to obey his 
commands, to assist in every good object which shall tend 
to advance the cause of Christ, to promote the glory of 
God, and the happiness of man. Christians are to let 
their light shine, to be an example of good works. They 
should go forward in the work of the Lord, and excite 
others to co-operate with them. To accomplish this ob- 
ject it must be seen and known that they are thus en- 
gaged, that they do contribute of their substance to this 
purpose ; and, while they publicly show forth their deeds 
of charity and benevolence, not from love to self, but from 
love to God, they will be accepted of Him, and receive 
that reward which cometh from Him only. 

3. Our charitable contributions should be made with 
cheerfulness. 

The direction of Paul is, " Every man, as he purposeth 
in his heart, so let him give, not grudgingly, or of neces- 
sity, for God loveth a cheerful giver." " He that giveth, 
let him do it with simplicity, and he that showeth mercy, 
with cheerfulness." In unison with this sentiment, Peter 
observes, "Use hospitality one to another without grudg- 
ing," From scriptural testimony, then, it appears that we 
ought to perform the duty now under consideration with 
cheerfulness. We must not do it to avoid singularity, as 
we fear is sometimes the case, especially in public contri- 
butions. Some, on these occasions, contribute merely to 
avoid the mortification of appearing less liberal than 
others. They heartily regret, that an opportunity is pre- 
sented, in which they are called upon to relieve the neces- 
sitous; and could they have the credit of being benevolent, 
and yet retain their money, they would be highly grati- 
fied ; but as this cannot be, they join in affording relief. 



CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTIONS. 263 

But it is evident, that those who give with such feelings, 
do not exercise that cheerfuhiess which is required. Our 
gratuity cannot be acceptable to the Searcher of hearts, 
unless it is a free-will offering, presented from love to him- 
self and his commands. 

4. Our charitable contributions should be made with 
disinterested motives. 

This is plainly taught by the apostle. He says to the 
Corinthians, '* Though I bestow all my goods to feed the 
poor, and have not charity," in other words, love to God 
and man, " it profiteth me nothing." This plainly implies 
that we may have an open and liberal hand, and yet a 
contracted, covetous heart. Vain-glory or ostentation may 
excite to the performance of outward acts of generosity, 
while at the same time there is no true love to God and 
man in the heart. But like the blessed Redeemer, the 
acceptable alms-giver makes the glory of God and the 
highest good of his fellow men his aim. Prompted by 
this principle, he feeds the hungry, clothes the naked, 
supplies the means of grace to the destitute, and contrib- 
utes to the wants of the necessitous, as God has given him 
ability, and in the performance of this duty he is conscien- 
tious. He seeks not his own, but the honor of God and 
the good of mankind. And this duty thus discharged 
will always be acceptable to Him who delighteth in mercy, 
whose goodness is boundless as the universe, and endless 
as eternity. 

V. There is a reward consequent upon the manner in 
which charities are bestowed. 

A reward is promised even to the hypocritical perform- 
ance of the duty of alms-giving ** Verily, I say unto you, 
they have their reward." But what was the reward of 
hypocrites? It was the applause of men. This they 
sought, and this they obtained. They were esteemed 



264 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

very religious, and were highly applauded by those who 
were the objects of their liberality. They also, no doubt, 
considered their services as meritorious in the sight of 
God, and expected thereby to compensate for their sins, 
and to purchase heaven. Christ, however, did not ap- 
plaud, but severely condemned them. 

But the reward of the righteous is far different. They 
have the approbation of their own consciences. Though 
they are not disposed to boast of their good works, nor 
to value themselves on account of them, yet a reflection 
upon the performance of virtuous actions proceeding from 
right motives, is always attended with satisfaction. The 
charitable man is not only rewarded with peace of con- 
science, but sometimes with temporal blessings. Says 
Solomon, *' There is that scattereth, and yet increaseth; 
and there is that withholdeth more than is meet, but it 
tendeth to poverty. The liberal soul shall be made fat, 
and he that watereth shall be watered also himself." "Lib- 
erality exercised from right motives, is seed sown, to which 
God gives the increase, generally even in temporal things ; 
but he that withholdeth wh6n a just and right occasion 
offers, seldom prospers much even in this world. For God 
metes to men in their own measure ; and bad crops, bad 
debts, expensive sickness, and a variety of similar deduc- 
tions, soon amount to far more than liberal alms would 
have done. While if God see it best, large increase, 
flourishing trade, kind friends and various other supplies, 
or savings, soon reimburse the expenses of genuine char- 
ity." " He that hath pity upon the poor lendeth to the 
Lord, and that which he hath given will he pay him again." 
" Cast thy bread upon the waters, for thou shalt find it 
after many days." " He that giveth unto the poor shall 
not lack, but he that hideth his eyes shall have many a 
curse." "Give, and it shall be given unto you; good 
measure, pressed down, and shaken together, and running 



CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTIONS. 265 

over, shall men give into your own bosom. For with the 
same measure that ye mete withal, it shall be measured to 
you again." Thus to him who performs the duty of char- 
ity in the sense required, from evangelical principles, 
promises of plenty, and security against want are made by 
Him who is able to succor in distress, and to supply in 
want. The Most High said, by the mouth of his servant 
David, ** Blessed is he that considereth the poor; the 
Lord will deliver him in time of trouble. The Lord will 
preserve him and keep him alive and he shall be blessed 
upon the earth." But greater than temporal blessings are 
held in reserve for the liberal, who devise liberal things. 
In this way they " lay up in store for themselves a good 
foundation against the time to come, that they may lay 
hold on eternal life." Their works of charity shall come 
up before God as an acceptable memorial. They shall be 
blessed beyond the grave ; for in the great day of judg- 
ment they will be remembered and amply compensated. 
** Then shall the Judge say to them, on his right hand, 
Come ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom pre- 
pared for you from the foundation of the world. For I 
was an hungered and ye gave me meat; I was thirsty and 
ye gave me drink ; I was a stranger and ye took me in, 
naked, and ye clothed me ; I was sick and ye visited me, I 
was in prison and ye came unto me. Then shall the 
righteous answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an 
hungered and fed thee, or thirsty and gave thee drink ? 
when saw we thee a stranger and took thee in ? or naked 
and clothed thee, or when saw we thee sick or in prison 
and came unto thee ? And the King shall answer and 
say unto them, Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of 
the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me." 
What a reward for acts of charity and benevolence ! Not 
the hosannas of men, but the plaudit and benediction of 
Heaven, — eternal life, — a crown bright and glorious, riches 
23 



266 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

incorruptible and unfading, — pleasures ever durable and 
without alloy. 

VI. Some objections to charitable contributions will 
now be considered. 

What are usually presented in the form of objections, 
are rather excuses for not giving, and arise not unfre- 
uently from avarice. 

1. Inability is pleaded as an objection. No doubt 
there is inability ; but is it not frequently a moral, rather 
than a natural inability — a disinclination to the duty rather 
than a destitution of pecuniary means 1 If a person has 
no more property than what is sufficient to support him- 
self and those dependent on him for a livelihood, then he 
is unable. '* For," says the apostle, " if any man provide 
not for his own, and especially for those of his own house, 
he hath denied the faith, and is worse than an infidel." 
A man at the head of a family is bound to provide for 
them, as he is by God appointed their supporter and guar- 
dian ; and if he has not natural ability to do more than 
this, he is absolved from obligation to contribute. — *' But," 
says an objector, " ought I not to lay up something to sup- 
port myself in the decline of life ?" Yes, this is right, 
and the most effectual way of doing it, is to devote a por- 
tion of your property to benevolent purposes, to invest a 
portion of your estate in the savings bank of heaven. Does 
any say, " The demands of charity are constantly present- 
ed, the cry is like that of the horse-leech, 'Give, give;* 
and we cannot meet it." The fact we are not disposed to 
deny. But is not the same course pursued by the Christian 
in supplicating blessings from his heavenly Father ? "Give 
us this day our daily bread," is the language of his heart 
and lips. He begs day by day, and his prayer is, Give, 
give. We need the favors of God continually, and there- 
fore, we should pray without ceasing. The indigent con- 



CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTIONS. 267 

tinually need our charities, hence they cease not to solicit 
our aid, " But I am involved in debt," says one, " and have 
not the means to meet the claims of my creditors, and 
must, therefore, be excused — I must be just before I am 
generous — I must pay my debts before I can give to the 
Lord." But the question arises. Is it lawful for a man so 
far to involve himself, as to put it out of his power to give 
in charity as God requires ? If a person has so pledged 
his income that he cannot without injustice to his credi- 
tors appropriate any thing to the advancement of Christ's 
kingdom, he has done wrong. He has entangled himself 
in this world. His thoughts will be upon principal, inter- 
est, mortgages, payments, and receipts. A man has no 
right to be thus in debt. In debt ! How much, O man ! 
owest thou thy Lord, "earth's great Proprietor?" Art 
thou not concerned to be just with God as well as with 
man ! Persons sometimes meet with losses, and feel, there- 
fore, that they cannot give unto the Lord. But w^ould a 
pecuniary loss cancel a debt due to a neighbor? Why 
then, should it cancel a debt due to our Maker ? Did a 
person ever become insolvent by giving in charity ? It is 
believed not. Almost any person may have ability to im- 
part something to others, if he will only practise self-de- 
nial. Some consider themselves unable to give, and yet 
have money to spare for all other purposes. They can 
amass heaps of gold, — pile upon pile, — till they almost 
threaten the heavens, and yet feel too poor to contribute 
any thing of their abundance to the Lord. 

Blessed God ! pardon us, that we should ever speak of 
giving to thee in our contributions ! All that we have and 
are is thine; body, soul, time, possessions — all is thine, 
and whenever we have contributed, we may adopt the lan- 
guage of David, in addressing God, and say, *' all things 
come of thee, and of thine own have we given thee,"— 
we have only rendered back what thou didst loan us. 



268 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

2. Disapprobation of tlie object, plan, measure, or 
Agent, is sometimes mentioned as an objection against 
contributing. Present to those who oppose on this ground, 
the cause of Foreign Missions, and they will tell you, 
" charity begins at home." Plead the cause of Home 
Missions, and they will tell you they have much sympathy 
for the heathen world. Set before them the Tract Society 
as an object deserving their patronage, and they will say 
the Bible Society engages their affections. Advocate the 
cause of the Education Society, and they, perhaps for the 
first time become zealous supporters of Sabbath Schools. 
They are benevolent, but they cannot give for the object 
now presented. Should they be pleased with the object, 
they may not like the plan, or the measure proposed to ac- 
complish it, or the Agent who pleads on behalf of its ac- 
complishment. There is always some objection or diffi- 
culty — " a lion in the way." Thus they keep up the 
semblance of benevolence, stifle the conviction of duty, 
and deliberately refuse to do what conscience perhaps, 
dictates. These objections, instead of palliating for neg- 
lect of duty, enhance the guilt of delinquency. 

3. Distrust in reference to the appropriation of funds 
contributed, is sometimes offered as as objection. 

The sincerity of this objection, when offered by a per- 
son of intelligence, is questionable. The reading part of 
the community, those who peruse our religious journals, 
must know that there is more evidence, that the funds 
contributed for charitable purposes are sacredly appro- 
priated, than there is, that the funds contributed for any 
other object are so appropriated. The accounts of the 
former are better vouched, than the accounts of the latter. 
The men to whom are confided the public charities, sus- 
tain the *' character of honest men ; men too, of ability 
enough to make a proper application of any donations that 
may be intrusted to them. Let it be remembered also, 



CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTIONS. 269 

that they are associated with men of the first respectability 
in civil life, to whom the suffrages of the people have con- 
fided the most important political interests, and who have 
been ready to every good word and work. If these men 
are qualified to manage the complicated machinery of 
civil government, perhaps it is not claiming too much for 
them to say, that they are capable of managing the char- 
itable funds committed to their care ; and if they have 
not yet turned traitors to the state, is it charitable, or even 
reasonable to suspect that they stand ready to betray the 
interests of the church." 

Three remarks will close this Dissertation. 

1. In charitable contributions, the Church, in ages 
past was lamentably deficient. 

During the lapse of eighteen centuries, with the excep- 
tion of the days of the primitive Christians, the Church 
prayed for the conversion of the world, but in devising 
ways and means to accomplish it, was altogether deficient, 
and, in giving to promote it, did comparatively nothing. 
Christians never sufficiently felt that they were stewards of 
God, and accountable to him for all the property they pos- 
sessed, and the improvement they made of it. They 
heeded not as they ought the caution of the apostle, " Be- 
ware of covetousness." Instead of contributing their hun- 
dreds and thousands, a mite is all they were induced to 
give. It would seem that they never thought that giving in 
charity was a privilege^ and no less a duty than is prayer ; 
— that would they have their prayers and alms an accept- 
able memorial before God, they must ascend together. 

2. The Church has begun to feel, and to perform her 
duty, in respect to alms-giving. 

While Christians pray, they contribute. The habit of 
not giving, is exchanged for the spirit and practice of* 
liberality; at least this is the case to a considerable degree, 
in comparison with what it once was. When the Ameri- 
23* 



270 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

can Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions was 
formed, Dr. Worcester the Secretary of that Institution, 
said, " I think we shall be able to sustain this year four 
missionaries." The American churches sustain four mis- 
sionaries ! The funds of this same Society the last year, 
amounted to 236,000 dollars! The American Education 
Society aided seven young men the first year of its exist- 
ence, the last year, 1838, it aided eleven hundred and 
forty-one. To a great extent, the funds of the other 
benevolent societies have been increased. The astonish- 
ment is not that Christians of the present day do so little ; 
but that, considering their former feelings and conduct, 
they do so much. They have begun to learn whose " are 
the silver and the gold, and the cattle upon a thousand 
hills," and accordingly to bring their tithes into the store- 
house of the Lord. As God hath prospered them, they, in 
some laudable measure, lay by in store, ready to meet the 
drafts, which the Lord shall make upon his churches ; con- 
sidering themselves as a permanent fund, bearing interest 
according to the exigency of the times. All hearts and 
treasures are in the Lord's hands, and he can and will 
employ them to the promotion of his cause. 

3. The Church must rise to a far higher standard in 
consecrating her substance to the Lord. 

The rich believer must become bountiful. He must 
view it as his duty and privilege to give, and to give in 
princely donations. As women helped to build the taber- 
nacle in the wilderness, so now they must help to build the 
spiritual temple of the Lord. They must consecrate to 
this blessed service their '* ornaments of fine gold," and 
seek to be adorned with more beautiful apparel, even the 
robe of charity. The rising generation, from their child- 
hood, must be taught to cast their little oflferings into the 
treasury of the Lord. Even the poor widow must not for- 
get the example of her, whose memorial is registered in 



CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTIONS. 271 

the book of God, and who, " of her want did cast in all 
she had, even all her living." In bestowing charity, the 
question should not be, What ought I give to the Lord? 
for all is the Lord's now, (the earth is his and the fulness 
thereof,) but. What may I take of that which he hath 
intrusted to my hands and use for myself ? — the rest I 
should consider as devoted to his cause and I am to de- 
liver it out in the discharge of my stewardship, according 
to the indications of Him whose steward I am. Said the 
late Dr. Worcester, whose views were bold and elevated, 
and whose faith was strong, *' An exigency is worth a 
thousand dollars, — it is at least a draft upon the churches 
to that amount, which will be paid." No man was ever 
impoverished by contributing, who gave from right prin- 
ciple of heart. This is a broad assertion, but it is, I think, 
capable of proof We have the Lord's testimony to this 
effect. Do you believe that the world was once drowned 
by a flood of waters, and that it will ultimately be burned 
up by fire ? Yes; because the Lord hath said it. "Give, 
and it shall be given unto you, good measure, pressed 
down, and shaken together, and running over, shall men 
give into your bosom." Do you believe this ? Why 
hesitate ? God hath spoken it. O, ye of little faith, blush 
and be ashamed ! Every Christian should consider the 
cause of Christ as one of the heirs to his estate, whether 
large or small. When he makes his will, let him make it 
with the kingdom of Christ in view. But let him remem- 
ber it is better to be his own executor, than to wait for 
years to elapse, and death to overtake him, before a part 
of his property shall be scattered to enrich Zion. Let 
him remember, too, that his property, though his own as it 
respects other men, is yet not his own as it respects God. 
Giving by Will is not properly giving. It is only saying 
when the property cannot be held longer by the testator, 
that he had rather the Lord and his cause should have 



272 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

itj than that it should fall into other hands. Besides, 
testamentary charities, though useful, are often suspicious 
as to the motive accompanying them. Then let not the 
man who intends to give any thing to the Lord, defer the 
execution of his benevolent design. Does any one ask 
himself how much shall I give ? — How much can I give 1 — 
How much ought I to give ? To such I would reply, 
look at heaven and see its blessedness ; look at hell and 
view its wretchedness ; and then look at Christ and see 
what he has done to rescue man from eternal perdition, 
and say what you ought to contribute. It may be added, 
that " he which soweth sparingly, shall reap also spar- 
ingly, and he which soweth bountifully, shall reap also 
bountifully." What you do you must do quickly. While 
you delay multitudes are hastening to eternal death. These 
alms are asked in the name of God, in the name of Christ, 
in the name of the Holy Ghost, in the name of angels, in 
the name of the church militant and triumphant, in the 
name of a perishing world. 

Appendix M. 



DISSERTATIOX XIV 



BENEVOLENT AGENCIES. 

The kingdom of the Lord Jesus Christ ever has been, 
and ever will be, sustained and carried forward by the 
instrumentality of means. It was thus ordained in the 
counsels of eternity, and the purposes of God are every 
day fulfilling in the benevolent efforts of Christians for 
the salvation of men. " Faith cometh by hearing, and 
hearing by the word of God." In order then to the 
prevelance of faith, the Sacred Scriptures must be dis- 
seminated among all people. Here is the warrant for the 
Bible Societies. " How then shall they believe in him 
of whom they have not heard; and how shall they hear 
without a preacher." Preachers of righteousness and 
salvation for the whole world should be raised up. Here 
is the warrant for the Education Societies. ** And how 
shall they preach, except they be sent." Ministers must 
be sent forth to preach the gospel to every creature under 
heaven. Here is the warrant for Missionary Societies. 
Such is the system of means to be adopted for the salvation 
of men, as authorized by the Apostle. 

I. It is most evident that the present system of benev- 
olent enterprizes among Christians, is absolutely necessary 



274 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

to the conversion of the world. Before this glorious event 
shall take place, the Bible must be translated into all 
languages, tongues, and dialects under heaven, and be 
distributed to all who are destitute of it. But how can 
this be done ? Can it be done in any other way than by 
the establishment of Bible Societies 1 If it can be done 
by individuals as such, or by churches as such, will 
it be done in this way ? Does not the experience of 
eighteen centuries prove that it will not ? Besides, are 
there not inherent difficulties in this method of operation? 
It is a true maxim, " What is every one's business, is no 
one's business." This work, unless committed into the 
hands of particular individuals, as the principal object of 
their pursuit, will never be performed. The responsibility 
of carrying forward and accomplishing the work, must 
rest upon some specified individuals. In order then, to 
the general diffusion of the Scriptures throughout the 
earth, Bible Societies must be formed and sustained. 
This fact will no doubt be conceded by all who have duly 
contemplated this subject. The same principle obtains in 
every department of Christian enterprize. Multitudes of 
pious indigent young men must be educated for the 
ministry, or the spiritual harvest will never be supplied 
wuth reapers ; for a sufficiency in number will never be 
raised up from among those pious young men who possess 
the pecuniary means to educate themselves. Resort, 
therefore, must be had to charitable education. Shall 
this be furnished by the churches as churches, or by 
Education Societies formed for this purpose ? Experience 
and reason show that the churches as such will never 
perform this work. It must, then, be undertaken and 
accomplished by Voluntary Associations, established with 
this object in view, that many preachers of the gospel 
may run to and fro, and knowledge be increased even to 
the ends of the ecrth. Missionaries must be sent to the 



BENEVOLENT AGENCIES. 375 

heathen, before they will be converted to Christianity. 
Shall this work of faith be done by the churches ? Yes ; 
all will say. But how ? Through organized missionary 
bodies ? There will be no efficiency without this mode of 
operation. Churches as such, were not organized for 
this purpose ; and if they were, they could not in the 
nature of things, accomplish it. For individual churches 
to attempt it, would be utterly vain. Their efforts would 
be feeble or wholly abortive. This may be seen by a 
moment's reflection. For the church of Christ as one 
body, to attempt it, is totally impracticable. The different 
denominations, (though lamentable is the fact,) will not 
unite in this labor of love. Imperfection and schism 
remain in them and will remain. Christians will never 
be sufficiently harmonious to engage, as a body, with 
united energy, in the accomplishment of this work, until 
the latter day-glory of Zion shall arise in all its splendor. 
Then these united and special efforts will not be needed. 
Besides, were the churches, as a body, to do this work, 
they would virtually do it, as a society ; and then they 
must have their officers, and these must be set apart to this 
business, and consequently the supposed evil would not be 
remedied. No way ever has been, and no way, probably, 
ever will be, devised to carry forward the Christian 
enterprizes of the present day, so well as by Voluntary 
Associations, formed expressly for these purposes. Syste- 
matic efforts must be made, but such efforts can be made 
only through organized Societies. This is evidently so in 
theory and practice. What is true in relation to Bible, 
Education and Missionary Societies, is true also, in relation 
to all other Societies, Is it not then fixed — fixed beyond 
all controversy, that the benevolent objects of Christians 
must be accomplished by the instrumentality of societies, 
formed expressly for these purposes ; and does is not 
appear, that no better way has yet been devised than 



276 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

Voluntary Associations, such as now exist in this land of 
religious liberty and enterprize 1 

Says a venerable and judicious father in the ministry, 
in respect to this subject, " I know of no better way than 
the one which is adopted, though it gives rise to objections 
in some minds, on account of the expense incurred. 
There must be system to secure any permanent aid. 
I am decidedly of opinion, that there must be societies 
formed, embracing the different religious objects, and 
these Societies must have Secretaries, Treasurers, Pub- 
lications, and Anniversaries, in order that the work be 
carried forward. The churches will never do this work 
of benevolence alone." It is necessary, therefore, that 
Societies be formed and have their appropriate sphere 
of action, and press onward their object to its full ac- 
complishment. 

11. Assuming my first position as established, agencies 
are indispensably necessary. The benevolent operations 
of the present day cannot be carried forward without 
them. Their necessity arises from the nature of the case. 
There must be some specified individual, or individuals, 
to manage every concern. It is so in agricultural affairs, 
in manufacturing business, in commercial, and in mer- 
cantile pursuits ; in Colleges and Seminaries of learning. 
Every establishment, or business, however large, or small, 
or of whatever nature, must have its agent or agents. 
This, it would seem, cannot be doubted. The only 
question is, how much agency shall be employed ? The 
amount necessary to be employed will depend altogether 
upon the magnitude of the concern, and the business to 
be perforned. It may require that one, two, or more men 
should be engaged in it. Whatever it be, a sufl^cient 
number of men must be employed. More laborers are 
required to cultivate a farm of a hundred acres, than one 



BENEVOLENT AGENCIES. 277 

of fifty. A factory with ten thousand spindles requires 
more agency, than a factory with one thousand. So a 
commercial house of a million of dollars in capital, re- 
quires more men to superintend and manage its concerns, 
than a shop whose stock is worth only a thousand dollars. 
A literary institution of three hundred students, demands 
the labor of more instructors than an institution of one 
hundred. A Home Missionary Society, which has in 
view the supply of all the destitute feeble churches in 
the nation, requires more agency than one formed merely 
for the supply of a single State. So it is in respect to 
other religious Societies. The quantum of labor needed 
to manage them, will be according to the magnitude of 
the concern. No more agency should be employed than 
is absolutely necessary. But some is indispensable to 
sustain and carry forward the work. And the best 
policy, the cheapest in the end, is to employ sufficient 
agency. Without it, every thing will be embarrassed and 
retarded. There is, therefore, an absolute necessity of 
agency in any concern, and this must be in proportion to 
the greatness of the work to be accomplished. Says a 
distinguished clergyman, well acquainted with these sub- 
jects, " I am decided in my opinion, that Agents must be 
employed in promoting the great objects of benevolent 
enterprise at the present day. Means must be used, or 
the Christian community will not patronize these objects 
as they ought to do. Information must be given, and 
motives must be presented, or the good work will not be 
prosecuted with the desired liberality. For this purpose, 
we want general and subordinate agents." 

In accordance with these views are those of the Man- 
agers of the different Benevolent Societies. Says the 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, 
which is the largest and the oldest benevolent national 
institution in the country, and consequently has more ex- 
•24 



278 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

perimental knowledge on this subject than any other so- 
ciety : "It is the settled conviction of the Board, resulting 
from experience, that, at least till a material change takes 
place in the relations of the various enterprises of benevo- 
lence, agencies must be a regular part of the system of 
means employed for extending the knowledge and 
influence of true religion through the earth. The Pru- 
dential Committee have therefore been endeavoring, for 
some time past, to bring this branch of the operations 
intrusted to their direction, into a regular system. In the 
execution of this design, they have distributed the coun- 
try into various General Agencies, assigning each to a 
competent individual, appointed without limitation of time, 
and receiving for himself and family a competent support; 
to be assisted as circumstances in each particular field 
may require, by local and temporary Agents. While 
pursuing this course, the Committee do not doubt that 
they are supported in it by the Christian public. It is 
certain however, that many persons friendly to the mis- 
sionary cause are not fully apprised how necessary these 
agencies are, and how numerous are the benefits resulting 
from them." 

The American Bible Society, which is neither denomi- 
national, sectarian, nor sectional, but catholic and national, 
and commends its object to the conscience and heart of 
every one, cannot carry forward its operations without 
the instrumentality of agents. In one of its Annual 
Reports we find the following remarks : "It has always 
been the desire of the Board, that no more agents should 
be employed by this Society than were absolutely neces- 
sary. Wherever the auxiliaries can be induced, by the 
help of the clergy and others, to make collections of 
money, and distribute Bibles and Testaments among such 
as need them, this course is adopted. In some parts of 
the country, however, a different policy must be pursued, 



BENEVOLENT AGENCIES. 279 

or little is effected. This the auxiliaries feel, and feel so 
deeply, as often to employ and remunerate agents of their 
own." 

The Board of Education of the General Assembly of 
the Presbyterian Church, which is, as it is technically 
termed, an ecclesiastical organization, in contradistinction 
to a voluntary association, thus expresses its opinion : 
" A general system of agencies, sustained by an adequate 
number of active and devoted men, is inseparable from 
the enlarged success of any institution, for doing good. 
Deeply convinced of this truth, and urged to the adoption 
of such a plan, both by the painful experience of the past, 
and the pressing solicitations of the churches, the Board 
have ventured to incur the expense of such an enterprise. 
Indeed they were persuaded, in view of the whole subject, 
of the actual economy of such a system." 

The American Education Society adds its testimony in 
full confirmation of the above statements of these other 
Societies, in the following language : " The experience of 
this and other Societies, fully demonstrates the necessity 
of judicious and faithful Agents, to organize and put into 
successful operation, an efficient system of means to rouse 
the attention and call forth the energies of Christians in 
behalf of the benevolent enterprises. Without such 
special and authorized Agents to present its claims, no 
benevolent society will succeed." 

III. What is the nature of that agency which is required 
in the benevolent efforts of Christians in the present day? 

It is various. And it ought ever to be exactly such as 
is needed, such as will most effectually carry forward the 
enterprise. This subject may be illustrated in a single 
instance. Take for example the American Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Missions. There is business 
for a Secretary. He must record all the doings of th^ 



280 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

Society and attend to the correspondence. There is 
business for an Editor. He must collect, digest, write, 
and prepare for the Missionary Herald what is published 
in it, from month to month. There is business for an 
Agent. It is his duty to organize the community into 
Societies, and to collect funds for the benefit of the Institu- 
tion. He must take the oversight of this matter, and, if 
the Churches will not discharge their duty in contributing 
to the object without it, he must visit them, and address 
them on this subject. There is business for a Treasurer. 
He is to attend to the fiscal concerns of the Society, and 
is responsible for every thing of a financial nature. Now, 
if the Treasury department requires the time of one man, 
that service must be rendered, or the enterprise cannot 
advance. So in regard to the office of General Agent, the 
Editor, or Secretary. Whatever the business is, a man 
must be set apart for its accomplishment, and the time he 
is to occupy in the service, will be in proportion to the 
magnitude of the work to be performed. If the business 
be not too much for one to perform, he may discharge the 
duty, naturally devolving on the Secretary and General 
Agent, or upon the Secretary and Editor, or a part of his 
time may be employed in some other way. The services 
attached to these several ofiices must be performed. As 
there is a connection in the whole, if one part of this 
work be neglected, the others will in time be derancred, 
as the machinery of a factory would be thrown into dis- 
order, if an important wheel were removed. The con- 
nection and dependence of the diflferent parts of one of 
the benevolent Societies are of that nature, that if one 
part is injured, the whole will be affected. Such are some 
of the agencies to be performed in carrying forward the 
operations of the Foreign Missionary Society. A great 
variety of other duties and services might be mentioned ; 
but it is not necessary for my present purpose to descend 



BENEVOLENT AGENCIES. 281 

to these particulars. Somewhat similar agencies are re- 
quired in most of our benevolent institutions, though these 
vary according to the nature and object of the Society. 

IV. My next point of consideration, is the plan or 
method of efforts, for sustaining and advancing the 
Christian enterprises of the day. 

Various methods have been adopted, and various other 
methods will no doubt continue to be adopted to instruct, 
impress, and excite the Christian community in respect to 
the benevolent movements of the churches. Perhaps no 
one would be better than the following : Let the whole 
country be organized as shall be most convenient, into 
one great Society for each benevolent enterprise. This is 
important for many reasons. A great Society always 
commands more respect, than a small one. There is 
something imposing in its nature ; and it serves to unite 
and consolidate the whole community, to produce brotherly 
love, and to impart strength and energy to its movements ; 
and thus its influence is happy. 

There should be not only a National Society, but also 
State Branches, County Auxiliaries and Parish Associa- 
tions. The minister of each parish, assisted by the of- 
ficers of the Association, or, where no such body exists, 
by a committee of gentlemen and a committee of ladies, 
chosen annually by the church, should manage the con- 
cerns of the Society within their limits. Laymen, as well 
as clergymen, should take active parts in the work. 
Where suitable individuals can be found, it is desirable 
that different persons be appointed as officers of these 
several societies. For while every officer should feel in- 
terested in all the benevolent movements of the present 
day, yet those who are to take the most active parts should 
possess a holy zeal, a sort of religious enthusiasm in the 
particular object for which they are severally engaged that 
•24* 



282 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

the greatest amount of good be accomplished. No indi- 
vidual can be devoted, as he ought to be, to more than 
one object of this nature at the same time. The labor 
and expense of such services will also be more justly ap- 
portioned ; and, as ordinarily they are gratuitous, they 
ought to be divided ; and thus more persons will be 
brought to engage actively, publicly, and particularly, in 
the great enterprises for the conversion of the world. 
This plan of operation will also be a school, in which to 
train them up for active services in these benevolent 
efforts. It is in vain to think of keeping up, for any 
length of time, an interest in the minds of the community, 
in relation to any benevolent movement, unless some or- 
ganization of this nature exists. 

The Secretary of each County Society should have a 
superintendence of its affairs, and see that all due efforts 
are made on behalf of this cause. If he cannot attend 
to it, one or two ministers should be appointed annually 
to visit during the year, the several towns, by exchanging 
with his brethren in the ministry, and to present the sub- 
ject fully before the people, and make what efforts may be 
deemed best in reference to the cause. In this way, ob- 
jections to travelling agents will be removed, little or no 
expense will be incurred, the ministers who engage in this 
service will become better acquainted with the subject, 
and more deeply interested in it, and the people will be 
informed and excited to greater efforts on behalf of this 
cause. Says a devoted servant of Christ, " Every minis- 
ter should be a subordinate agent, without fee or reward, 
to act in his own parish, and in a neighboring one that is 
destitute of a pastor ; and he should feel himself bound 
to exert his influence, and lay out his strength in the good 
cause. How can he better promote the spiritual interest 
of his own people, than by doing it. To water others is 
the way to be watered themselves. The General Agent 



BENEVOLENT AGENCIES. 283 

will find much of his influence depends on the ministers, 
and so far as he can insure their active co-operation, he 
saves the expense of agents, prevents prejudices against 
the cause on account of expense, and promotes a greater 
willingness to contribute." These labors, with what ef- 
forts may be made in a general way, will best accomplish 
the object in view. Occasionally, the Secretary of the 
Branch or Parent Society, or some Agent, should visit the 
different County Auxiliaries, or Parish Associations, for 
the purpose of exciting them to greater efTorts. " Every 
minister," remarks the above named clergyman, " will 
feel himself much aided by a visit from a General Agent, 
or by hearing him advocate the cause on some public oc- 
casion. For this purpose, he should attend the annual 
meetings of Auxiliaries, either of Counties, or States, 
with a view of exciting a fresh impulse in favor of the 
cause, and should also visit the principal, or more impor- 
tant places, for the same purpose." Each Branch should 
be regularly organized, and have its public ofBcers. 
These should discharge the duties incumbent on thera. 
The National Institution should be completely organized, 
having its public functionaries, suited to the several and 
various services. The preceding remarks will apply to all 
the great benevolent National Societies. 

And, whether Parish Associations, County Auxiliaries, 
Branch Societies, or National Institutions — these of what- 
ever kind they may be, should celebrate their anniversa- 
ries at the same time and together. Then to these reli- 
gious festivals the people would go up as did the Jews to 
the great festival at Jerusalem. On such occasions, large 
assemblies would ordinarily convene, and in every point 
of view, they would be profitable seasons, as the means of 
grace ; a happy, powerful, and spiritual impulse would be 
given. 

In the prosecution of agencies on behalf of these char- 



284 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

itable institutions, such arrangements should be made as 
will prevent an interference between the several Agents. 
If there is no concert in action betvi^een them, there will 
be, at times, absolute confusion in their operations. Let 
a case be supposed, and a case that may occur. An 
agent for Foreign Missions preaches in a certain place in 
reference to his subject, say on the first Sabbath in the 
year. The Sabbath following, an agent appears for Home 
Missions. On the third, an agent presents the wants of 
the Bible Society, and on the fourth, an agent from the 
Education Society visits the parish, and submits his cause 
for consideration. Two of these agents may happen to be 
present in the same place at the same time. They all 
wish to collect funds for the Societies on whose behalf 
they act. Now what result may be expected ? The peo- 
ple, even good people, become tired of such frequent ad- 
dresses by agents, grow disaffected with this kind of pro- 
cedure, and ultimately, with the objects presented. The 
ministers, and ministers too who favor these objects and 
desire to do all in their power to subserve the cause of 
Christ, become embarrassed, and know not what course 
to pursue, in consequence of the irritation or disaffection 
of their people. The agents themselves feel unpleasantly. 
They become disheartened for want of success, according 
to their expectations. Though much labor is expended, 
but little money is raised, and many feelings are wounded. 
Let an agent follow others in quick succession, and the 
contributions he obtains will be much less than they would 
be if some little time had elapsed between their efforts. 
This fact has often been illustrated. Says a Minister of 
the gospel, " I have seen and felt the necessity of assign- 
ing a particular time for every important branch of benevo- 
lent effort. Till this is done, much of the labor and 
expense of agents is wasted. When two meet in the 
same place, to urge the claims of different societies, how- 



BENEVOLENT AGENCIES. 285 

ever judicious their movements, and however impartial 
their feelings, at least half of their time is employed to no 
good purpose." Now all this may be avoided by adopting 
a systematic method of operation. This would prevent 
all collision of feeling and interest among agents, minis- 
ters, and societies ; and this is very important, for unless 
they go hand in hand, these institutions cannot flourish. 
The different societies, churches, and agents should agree 
upon some mode and time of eflforts, which shall prevent 
all interference, and give to each benevolent society an 
opportunity for raising funds. It is too late in the day for 
any one institution to think of monopolizing all the chari- 
ties of the Christian community. 

Each society ought to be patronized according to its 
wants and importance in the great work of evangelizing 
the world. In building up the kingdom of Christ, the 
different denominations, the different societies, and the 
different agents, should be like different mechanics em- 
ployed in erecting a building. Then might it be said of 
them, " They helped every one his neighbor; and every 
one said to his brother, Be of good courage. So the car- 
penter encouraged the goldsmith, and he that smootheth 
with the hammer him that smote the anvil, saying, It is 
ready for the sodering, and he that fastened it with the 
nails that it should not be moved." Then " Ephraim 
would not envy Judah, nor Judah vex Ephraim." From 
this method of operation great good would result. The 
Christian community would know when to expect agents 
on behalf of certain societies, and would be informed of 
the state and operations of them and the reasons for 
efforts. The Churches, too, would prepare to act, and to 
act systematically, and efficiently. Christians would bear 
these objects upon their minds, converse respecting them, 
and pray for them, and stir up one another to these be- 
nevolent efforts. In this way they would be much more 



286 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

likely to appreciate, in a proper manner, the object of the 
diflferent Societies, and not imagine that any one cause is 
the only one worthy of patronage, or in need of assistance. 
They would know, too, at what time application was to 
be made by collectors and others for funds on behalf of 
certain objects, and would have their money in readiness, 
and would not be so liable to let one subscription lap 
upon another. Their payments to a very great degree, 
would be made at the time, and this would save labor, 
money, and unpleasant feelings. The collection of a sub- 
scription months after it was made, is nearly as difficult 
as to obtain it at first. This mode of procedure, too, 
would prevent all fears with the people, or agents, respect- 
ing interference. Something like this must take place, 
or the Christian community will become totally unfitted 
for charitable contributions. 

Each National Institution should have a periodical, to 
communicate light and knowledge in respect to the cause 
it advocates, and to present its claims to the community. 
Without these, the religious public will be dormant, and 
nothing will rouse it, but a publication zealously devoted 
to its objects. As the receipts and expenditures of funds 
will be from time to time published in the periodical, it 
answers as a voucher to the religious community, in re- 
spect to the money which they contribute. This is highly 
important on account of the favorable effect on those who 
bestow the charities, on those who are the almoners of 
these sacred bounties; and on the irreligious part of so- 
ciety, which is hereby certified of the right disposal of 
these consecrated funds. 

V. Some of the objections to the present method of 
operation, in carrying forward the benevolent enterprises 
of the present day, will now be considered. 

1. Too many persons are engaged as Agents. 



BENEVOLENT AGENCIES. 287 

The work of evangelizing the world undertaken in faith, 
prayer, and hope, and carried on by the benevolent enter- 
prises now making, must be accomplished. All who are 
not hostile to the church, and who have candidly and fully 
attended to this subject, will acknowledge this, A suita- 
ble number of men must be employed for the advancement 
of these different objects. Now are more persons occu- 
pied in this species of business than are needed ? Can 
the objector state particulars ? Are more men engaged in 
the Foreign Missionary enterprise than are necessary ? 
No one thoroughly acquainted with that concern will say 
there are. If one from the Treasury, Secretary, Agency, 
or Editorial Department, were taken away, the whole 
enterprise would suffer. This, it is believed, would be 
the case, were there a removal of any permanent officer 
in any one of the grand movements, which characterize 
the present age. If this be a fact, then too many persons 
are not employed in the benevolent work of converting 
the world. The cause of Christ would suffer, if these 
men, or any of them, unless their places were supplied, 
were to turn their attention to some other pursuit ; — were 
they to become, for instance, parochial Ministers. 

2. The present method of carrying forward these be- 
nevolent efforts is too expensive. 

Upon reflection, it would seem that the mode of opera- 
tion now adopted, is attended with the least expense. No 
business can be done so well, and with so little expense, 
by many, as by few. This is taught by reason and expe- 
rience. In carrying forward any enterprise, it is much 
the most economical, to employ a few individuals who shall 
be wholly devoted to the work. Men, therefore, should be 
consecrated to this business, and compensated for the per- 
formance of it, " for the workman is worthy of his hire." 
"In Great Britain it has been found necessary, by all the 
important Missionary Institutions, to engage the services 



288 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

of active and distinguished Clergymen who take considera- 
ble journies, attend the meeting of auxiliary societies, 
preach sermons, and deliver addresses on the subject of 
missions. This course has been attended with great suc- 
cess." What is true in this respect, in relation to missions, 
is true in relation to all other benevolent institutions for the 
conversion of the world. 

3. Ministers and private Christians can do this work, 
and, therefore, agents are not needed. 

It is very true that Ministers and Christians can do 
much, and ought to do much in this blessed work. Min- 
isters ought to pray, preach, and converse more in respect 
to these things than they do, that the people may be 
excited to greater zeal and activity. Christians should 
become more interested in the benevolent efforts of the 
day, and speak often one to another on these subjects, and 
strive to interest others in them. They should open their 
hearts, and contribute, and induce others to contribute, to 
these objects. But when all this is done, they have not 
accomplished the work in view. Neither can settled 
Pastors, or private Christians, as a body, perform this ser- 
vice. For instance, the American Board of Commissioners 
for Foreign Missions, has a Secretary, Editor, and Treas- 
urer. The labors to be performed by these men cannot 
be done by Ministers and Christians at large. No Minister, 
or Ministers, can superintend the whole concern, perform 
the correspondence, edit the Missionary Herald, and dis- 
charge at the same time, the duties of a Pastor. No 
Christian can do this work, unless set apart to it. It would 
be utterly in vain to attempt it. Says one whose atten- 
tion has been considerably turned to the benevolent 
movements of the present day, "I am inclined to believe, 
that all Christians of any considerable acquaintance with 
the Scriptures, and the events of Providence, admit that 
many, if not all, the benevolent societies of the day, are 



BENEVOLENT AGENCIES. 289 

necessary to the accomplishment of the prophecies and the 
universal establishment of Christ's kingdom. I hope also, 
that these operations will soon be carried forward more 
effectually and at less expense. But I am not prepared 
to propose the dismission of Agents, Secretaries, or pub- 
lications. Taking the Christian world as it is, they are 
necessary. If the Ministers of the Gospel and their 
churches had suitable knowledge and right feelings. 
Agents might be dispensed with. But neither Ministers 
or Churches are prepared for this now, and I have some 
fears, that they are making very little advance towards it. 
Some Ministers are opposed to the employment of Agents, 
and yet they and their churches would do scarcely any 
thing without them. In general, Churches are in a great 
measure what their Ministers are. If ministers are swal- 
lowed up with selfishness, we may expect churches to be 
also. If ministers pray, preach, and practice, for the 
benefit of the world, most of the members of their 
churches, and a great part of their congregations, will be 
ready for every benevolent work.^ I do most sincerely 
wish Ministers were better educated in these things, and 
candidates for admission into the churches better taught 
by precept and example. At present we must have 
Societies, Secretaries, and Agents." Says another clergy- 
man, " Ministers may exert a most salutary influence on 
the minds of their people in stirring them up to prayer, 
contributions and mutual endeavors. But can they take 
the work of the Christian enterprises entirely into their 
own hands and relieve the church from the tax arising 
from agencies? My answer is, that at present, whatever 
may be hereafter, they cannot. It is universally agreed 
that the number of persons to be found in the Christian 
community who are suitable to undertake in important 
agencies is small. Many good Ministers have not the 
moral power to stir up Christians to a liberal state of 
25 



390 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

feeling and induce them to contribute largely. I judge of 
the utility of Agents in part from their happy effects upon 
my own people. It is in my view owing to their influence, 
that Ministers and Churches have progressed in zeal and 
a willing mind to promote the spread of the Gospel to 
the degree it has been, and it will not be safe to with- 
draw their propelling power." 

Such is the nature and necessity of the agencies to be 
employed in the benevolent enterprises for the conversion 
of the world. These enterprises should be hastened with 
all possible effort. Using the language of one ardently 
engaged in such pursuits, ** Every good work should be 
zealously prosecuted, otherwise more precious souls will 
be lost. And who can make the loss good to those who 
perish ? What is our labor, what is our money, compared 
with the worth of the immortal soul 1 " 

Appendix N. 



DISSERTATION XV. 



QUALIFICATIONS OF PUBLIC AGENTS. 

The great work of evangelizing the world is to be 
accomplished, instrumentally, by the ministry and the 
press. While pastors are laboring for the conversion of 
sinners, and the edification of Christians at home, mis- 
sionaries are to be sent abroad to preach the gospel to the 
heathen ; the Bible is to be distributed to all the families 
that dwell upon the face of the earth ; and religious 
tracts are to be scattered to the four winds of heaven. 
That these and the various other plans of Christian effort 
may be executed, the benevolent societies, whose object 
is the conversion and sanctification of the human family, 
must be sustained and enlarged in their operations. To do 
this is a work of great labor, and one that must be per- 
formed by men especially set apart to this service. Hence 
the necessity of public agents for Benevolent Societies. 

In view of the prominent part which these agents 
are to take in evangelizing the world, it is important, 
that the qualifications requisite in them should be pointed 
out, both as it respects those who sustain these rela- 
tions, and the Christian community, by whom they are 
employed. Nor is this subject one of so much deli- 
cacy as it would seem to be on a slight view of it. The 
qualifications important to be possessed by persons in 



293 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

either of the three learned professions, law, medicine, 
and -divinity, are often considered. Those of ministers, 
especially, are a frequent topic of discussion at the time 
of their induction into office, and beneficial effects to the 
people, and to the ministry, are supposed to result from it. 
Similar effects may be experienced from the discussion of 
the characteristic qualities necessary in agents. 

What qualifications, then, are desirable in a public 
agent of a benevolent society 1 

1. Respectable talents. 

If an agent possesses only ordinary mental powers, 
however much he may be loved for his amiableness, he 
will not be duly respected, and, consequently, the cause 
he pleads will in some measure fail to be appreciated ; for 
it is usual and natural to associate the cause advocated 
with him who advocates it. It is important, that an agent 
possess good talents, that he may be able to present his 
subject in a forcible and impressive manner. It is even 
desirable, that his mind should be of a high order, though 
this is not absolutely necessary to his being useful. A 
competency of talents for his work is absolutely essential. 

2. Good sense. 

This is a combination of talents, and a primary re- 
quisite. While an agent ought to possess a clear and 
comprehensive mind, it should be well balanced, that 
soundness in judgment and discretion in action, may 
characterize all his proceedings. What is sometimes 
called forecast, should be a distinguishing feature in his 
character. A large share of sound, common sense, is 
indispensable in an agent ; for without this, he will not be 
likely to succeed in his enterprise. 

3. Respectable appearance and address. 

It is desirable, that an agent be favored with an attrac- 
tive form. His manners, too, should be prepossessing — 
social, amiable, and free from violations of etiquette ; 



QUALIFICATIONS OF AGENTS. 293 

his attire and habits respectful, and such as become a 
clergyman. The opinion, that an agent will be more 
acceptable and successful by laying aside his clerical dress 
and practices, is entirely erroneous. By such conduct, 
he will be considered as treating the ministerial character 
with levity, degrade himself, and consequently, diminish 
his usefulness. It will be a favorable circumstance if an 
agent possesses a voice that is pleasant and easily audible, 
and an utterance which is ready and distinct. These will 
render him more acceptable, and will greatly facilitate his 
labors. 

4. Good health and spirits. 

These will have a tendency to prevent depression in 
seasons of trial, which an agent will be liable to expe- 
rience ; and happy for him will it bo, if under them he 
has the sympathy of those around him, and if, by nature 
and grace, he is able to endure them. Bodily indis- 
position and mental dejection will unfit him for his 
arduous services, and the discouraging scenes through 
which he may be called to pass. He ought to possess 
great courage and a determined perseverance, and never 
be diverted from the path of duty ; and an air of cheer- 
fulness and hope should always be exhibited in his coun- 
tenance, while engaged in promoting his cause. 

5. Ability to devise and prosecute those plans, which 
are best adapted to accomplish the object in view. 

It is important, that an agent be able to devise plans 
not only for himself, but also for others, that they may 
assist in the enterprise in which he is engaged ; and his 
plans should be not fanciful, but judicious and feasible. 
While he plans wisely, he should be able, also, to set 
himself and others to work in the accomplishment of the 
plans devised. It is, moreover, important, that he be 
bold in his conceptions, ardent in his feelings, and efficient 
in his operations — not blustering in his movements, but 
25* 



294 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

sober, steady, and diligent in his labors. In order to de- 
vise and execute those plans which will best promote his 
object, he must possess a full and accurate knowledge of 
the enterprise in which he is engaged ; and while in the 
prosecution of his work, he should ''expect great things, 
and attempt great things." 
6. Good business-habits. 

An agent ought in some degree, to have confidence in 
his own abilities ; and yet be always ready to receive 
advice and assistance from others. He ought likewise to 
be quick in thought and movements, but not hasty in 
decision or action. It is desirable, that he should be a 
good financier — be strictly accurate in all pecuniary con- 
cerns, and scrupulously and punctiliously so, in collecting 
funds and accounting for them. He should be uniformly 
frank in all his conduct, and devoid of all deceptive 
practices and cunning craftiness in his proceedings. All 
he says and does should be in perfect accordance with 
truth — truth neither exaggerated nor diminished. Over- 
statements for the purpose of accomplishing an object are 
not to be approved. The doctrine,- that the end will 
justify the means, is never to be adopted. He should, too, 
be habitually exact in all his transactions, and punctual 
in all his engagements — ever acting under a realizing 
sense of his responsibility to the great Head of the church, 
and also to some public board. This is necessary for his 
own safety and defence, as well as a guarantee to the 
community for the faithful discharge of his duties. 

7. Gentleness and liberality in feeling and conduct. 

An agent ought to be exempt from selfish or sinister 
motives and purposes, sectarian prejudices and local 
partialities, — disposed to gratify the community in their 
predilections, so far as is consistent with truth and duty. 
He ought to possess a large soul — one that can overlook 
trifles, and will not descend to low measures — one that is 
charitable towards those of different views and feelings, 



QUALIFICATIONS OF AGENTS. 295 

and will embrace in its benevolence the great family of 
man. He ought also to be devoid of affectation, or a 
magisterial air, and to possess and exhibit high and com- 
manding principles of action. Never should he be guilty 
of incivility or misbehavior towards any individual, because 
he happens not to think with him in relation to his object, 
or to contribute to it so largely as he would desire. Soft 
words and a winning manner should characterize one who 
is to act in the official capacity of a public agent. He 
should, too, ever treat with all due respect the ministers of 
the gospel, and enter their inclosures only by the door, 
remembering, that each one of them is bishop in his own 
diocese ; nor should he ever interfere with the concerns of 
the minister, or church, or parish. Nothing like dictation 
should appear in his feelings, manner, or conduct. It will 
be a happy circumstance, if he shall have been a pastor, as he 
will then know the views, feelings, and rights, of those in 
that situation, and be able so to demean himself as to 
meet their approbation. 

8. Deep interest in the cause of benevolence generally. 

A person who acts as an agent should be favorably dis- 
posed towards all the Christian enterprises of the present 
day, and exercise the most fraternal spirit towards those 
individuals who conduct them. While he should never 
view his own object as the only one worthy the attention 
of all Christendom, nor perhaps as the most important ; 
nor infringe on the rights and prerogatives of those who 
may have fellowship with him in the same or other be- 
nevolent societies; he should, however, possess full con- 
fidence in the cause he espouses, love it, and be ardently 
engaged in its promotion. This he may do and not 
disparage kindred institutions, but regard them as neces- 
sary parts of the great whole. He should, too, be capable 
of strong emotions, and be so engrossed with the cause of 
benevolence, as to labor indefatigably with body and 
mind ; feeling, that '• the king's business requires haste," 



296 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

and that " it is good to be zealously affected always in a 
good thing." 

9. Entire devotedness to the enterprise in view. 

In carrying forward the affairs of this world, there must 
be a division of labor. All cannot perform the same or 
every part of the work which is to be done. This is so 
in the nature of things, and this being true, every 
individual should perform the service which falls to him. 
An agent, therefore, should consider himself as wholly 
set apart to the employment assigned him, — as exclusively 
devoted to it in thought, purpose, and action. In this 
way he will accomplish more, and all interferences and 
jealousies will be prevented. As a general thing, it is 
not expedient, that an agent should perform the business 
which peculiarly belongs to pastors ; nor is it wise, for an 
agent of one benevolent society to take an active part 
in managing the concerns of another similar society. 
Evils have arisen, and evils ordinarily will arise, from such 
a course of procedure. 

10. Circumspection in conversation and deportment. 
The conversation of an agent should be principally on 

the subject of his agency. His affections should be 
absorbed in his own cause, and then, out of the abundance 
of his heart, his mouth will speak. He should be strictly 
a confidential man, — one who will neither tell all he 
knows, nor disclose secrets. Some men seem to glory in 
revealing every thing, as well as knowing every thing. 
But no man is more to be dreaded or despised, than one 
who goes about retailing what ought to be his own secrets 
or the secrets of others. Such conduct in an agent will 
be detrimental to himself, or to the cause he espouses. 
He ought, therefore, to set a watch at the door of his lips, 
and at the same time to maintain such a deportment 
generally towards those with whom he associates, as rather 
to prevent, than invite, too much inquisitiveness on their 
part. His whole conversation and intercourse with indi- 



QUALIFICATIONS OF AGENTS. 297 

viduals, families, and the great community, ought to be 
holy, and to have a sanctifying effect. Wherever he is, 
or in whatsoever circumstances, he should endeavor to 
lead all to God, and to devotedness in the cause of the 
Redeemer. In all his deportment, he should, too, be very 
observant of the courtesies of life, and never suffer those 
families whose hospitality he enjoys, to be incommoded on 
his account. A gentlemanly, unobtrusive manner, is pecu- 
liarly becoming. There is a heedlessness much to be repro- 
bated, and an undefined courtesy much to be approved. 

11. Freedom from a contentious disposition. 
Possessing the spirit of meekness, forbearance, and 

kindness, an agent should refrain from petty strifes, and 
maintain, at all times, and in all places, the dignity which 
becomes the ministerial character. He ought never to 
permit himself, in the common acceptation of the term, to 
dispute with those with whom he associates, or to come 
in collision with any class of people whatever. He should 
be free from a censorious, fault-finding spirit, and abstain 
from all sectarian and unnecessary controversies, being so 
much engrossed in his own peculiar business, as to leave 
no time for such subjects, feeling also, that he is " doing 
a great work and cannot come down" to engage in things 
of this nature. Were this the case, more harmony would 
subsist even among agents representing the different de- 
nominations, and engaged in subjects the most exciting; 
and thus, through their instrumentality, party feelings and 
sectarian jealousies might be allayed. 

12. A good classical and theological education. 
Knowledge is power, in every department of human 

life and action, and no less so in the ministry, than in 
other professions. This is true also in respect to agents. 
A good education will ordinarily be necessary to qualify 
them for their work, and to obtain for them respect with 
the literary and religious, and I may add irreligious, part 



298 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

of the community. And this education permanent agents 
must acquire, before commencing their agency, for after 
entering upon it, they will have no time to obtain it, and, 
-had they time, their minds would not be suitably prepared 
to do it. This remark applies but partially to those agents 
who are temporarily employed. Most men, uneducated 
in the business to which they are devoted, are predisposed 
to be radical in their principles and conduct. As a 
general thing, this is true not only of those of this de- 
scription in the learned professions, but also in the other 
occupations of life. Not having been disciplined like 
those regularly taught, they are very likely to possess in 
many respects feelings and sentiments different from 
others, and, consequently, to conduct in a m.^nner that 
will be diverse. It is on this account desirable, that an 
agent should be regularly and thoroughly educated. He 
will also be much happier in the society of those who are 
thus educated, than he would be were he destitute of such 
an education. 

13. Eminent piety. 

Above all things, an agent ought to possess piety,— 
piety of the highest order, the most ardent and devoted ; 
not periodical, but uniform piety. His heart should glow 
with love to God and man. He should feel, that all he is, 
and has, and can do, is Christ's, wholly Christ's, — conse- 
crated to the promotion of his cause and the honor of 
his name. A desire for the glory of Jehovah and the 
salvation of men, together with a deep sense of dependence 
on God for success in his enterprise, ought ever to be 
prevalent in his mind. Such piety will inspire him with 
courage and incite him to vigorous efforts, — efforts which 
will be accompanied with humble, fervent, importunate, 
and persevering prayer. 

The intercourse of such an agent with the community 
will ever be sanctifying ; and his addresses will impress 



QUALIFICATIONS OF AGENTS. 299 

the people to whom he may have access, with their high 
responsibility for the right improvement of their talents, 
time, property, — their all. His sanctity will recommend 
him to the conscience and heart, and will secure for him 
the respect, confidence, and cheerful co-operation of the 
public generally. 

Such are some of the traits of character desirable in a 
public agent, though it is not to be expected, that any 
individual will possess them all, or any one of them in 
perfection. As in other persons, so in agents, perfection 
of character and life is not to be found. The most that 
may reasonably be demanded, is a good degree of approx- 
imation to it. An agent who possesses this will give 
satisfaction to the public, and be cordially welcomed by 
ministers and people. He will be acceptable in the 
family, in the pulpit, and in all his intercourse with 
individuals. 

The design of the preceding observations is to present 
for consideration some thoughts on the necessity and quali- 
fications of agents, by the perusal of which they themselves, 
and the public generally, may be profited. Having satisfied 
myself, that the subject ought to be brought before the 
community, and having been urged to do it by a number of 
individuals whose judgment is highly to be respected, I 
have been induced to comply with their request. The 
remarks are commended to the reflections of a candid 
public, the numerous agents that may be employed, and 
the different benevolent societies which may appoint 
them. 

Appendix O. 



DISSERTATION XVI. 



REVIVALS OF RELIGION. 

"O Lord! revive thy work." Such was the prayer of 
Habakkuk in view of the discovery, which Jehovah had 
made to him, of his future dealings with his chosen 
people. God had threatened severe judgments upon 
Israel, in prospect of which, the Prophet prayed, *' O Lord, 
I have heard thy speech and was afraid. O Lord, revive 
thy work in the midst of the years, in the midst of the 
years make known, in wrath remember mercy." The 
effects of religion are most happy, both in prosperity and 
in adversity. And, therefore, as it was the prayer of 
Habakkuk, that God would revive religion, which emphat- 
ically is his work ; so this should be the continual prayer 
of all Christians ; and with this their exertions should 
correspond. The subject under consideration is revivals 
of religion. In the discussion of this topic it is proposed 
to show, 

I. What is meant by a revival of religion. 
II. When a revival of religion may be expected. And, 

III. Why it may be hoped that revivals of religion will 
be multiplied and extended, to a greater degree than they 
ever have been. 



REVIVALS OF RELIGION. 301 

I. What is meant by a revival of religion ? 

The phrase "revival of religion," has become of very 
general use, and signifies what is commonly understood 
by the effects of the outpouring of the Holy Spirit. By it 
is meant no reverie of the imagination, no wild extrava- 
gancies of the mind and life — no illusion; — but a solemn 
reality — the attention of saints and sinners, spiritually 
directed to the subjects of religion, the conviction and 
conversion of the impenitent, and a corresponding refor- 
mation in moral and religious deportment. These are 
implied in a revival of religion. 

1. In a revival of religion, the attention of saints and 
sinners is awakened to religious subjects. 

Generally speaking, a revival of religion commences in 
the church. Christians become solemn, and deeply 
impressed with the importance of renewed diligence and 
increased devotedness in the cause of Christ. They are 
more engaged in prayer and religious duties ; more con- 
stant in public, private and secret devotions; and more 
desirous of the salvation of immortal souls and the glory 
of God. They converse more frequently and with greater 
interest on spiritual subjects. Their minds are much 
abstracted from the world, and alive to God and divine 
things; and their engagedness appears in their looks and 
demeanor. Beholding the people of God thus aroused from 
stupor and enlivened in holy duties, impenitent sinners 
also become affected. They begin to think there is a 
reality in religion. They have recourse to serious reading, 
conversation and reflection ; and they frequent meetings 
for public and private worship, and are attentive and 
solemn. Every thing of a religious nature becomes deeply 
interesting whether agreeable to their feelings or not. 
Such usually, though not always, is the first appearance of 
a revival of religion. God acts as a sovereign, and in 
26 



302 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

nothing is his sovereignty more strikingly displayed, than 
in the dispensations of his grace. 

2. In a revival of religion, impenitent sinners are con- 
victed of their sins. Their consciences are awakened. 
They perceive in some degree the length and breadth of 
the law of God, and are sensible that their feelings and 
conduct have not been commensurate with its require- 
ments. Their iniquities pass in awful review before their 
minds, while convictions of transgression and guilt fasten 
upon them. " The arrows of the Almighty are within 
them, the poison whereof drinketh up their spirits; the 
terrors of God do set themselves in array against them." 
They are deeply sensible of their miserable condition, and 
their danger of perishing eternally ; and the thunders of 
Sinai seem ready to burst upon them. They no longer 
deride the truths of religion; no longer view them as 
fiction, or a cunningly devised fable; but as a solemn 
reality. Before this they were insensible and secure in 
the road to ruin ; but now they are pierced as with a dart. 
And, being pricked in their hearts, they cry out, " What 
must we do to be saved?" *'How shall we flee from the 
wrath to come?" Persons of all descriptions — the vain 
and the loose, the profligate and the despiser, the stout- 
hearted and the feeble, the moral and the immoral, the old 
and the young, are alike the subjects of such awakenings. 

Here let it be observed, however, that the convictions of 
sin in some persons are vastly different from what they are 
in others. Some, as Dr. Scott for instance, have compar- 
atively very slight convictions of sin before their conver- 
sion. Others have dreadful and pungent convictions, and 
are borne down into the dust in view of a holy God, and 
their awful depravity. The terrors of their mind affect 
their animal nature, deprive them of sleep, and prevent 
them from attending to thein worldly occupations; and 
their apprehensions of guilt and misery increase as they 



REVIVALS OF RELIGION. 303 

approach the time of conversion. This was the case with 
John Bunyan. Others again have deeper convictions of 
guilt after they obtain a hope than before. This was the 
case with President Edwards, the elder. Some experience 
these convictions for a short time only, as the 3,000 on the 
day of Pentecost ; others, for days ; others, for weeks; and 
others again, for months, before they experience a change 
of heart. And some are impressed with their sinfulness 
and danger; whose convictions after a time wear off, and 
jvho remain destitute of a hope that they have spiritually 
passed from death unto life. This was the case with 
Felix. Some have their consciences suddenly smitten by 
news of the conviction or conversion of others- by some- 
thing of a religious nature heard in public or private; by 
some passages of Scripture; by some sermon; or by some 
striking dispensation of Divine Providence. Others are 
affected more gradually. They first become thoughtful, 
and by meditating upon those things of religion which 
have an awakening tendency, deep conviction ultimately 
takes fast hold on them. Some who have been concerned 
in a degree for their salvation many years, are roused to a 
greater sense of their guilt and danger. — Some are 
affected by the justice of God; others, by his mercy; 
some, by his sovereignty; others, by his forbearance; 
some, at a view of heaven and its glories ; others, at a 
view of hell and its miseries. Some have their minds 
fixed on particular sins they have committed; others, on 
particular mercies of God towards them. Some are 
deeply impressed at the truth of the Gospel in general ; 
others, at the truth of some particular doctrine. Thus 
conviction of sin in different persons varies in the degree, 
duration, manner and occasion of it. But in one abso- 
lutely essential feature, it is alike in all — a sense of their 
entire depravity, guilt and ruin. 

3. In a revival of religion impenitent sinners are con- 



304 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

verted. They experience that new birth, without which 
none can see the kingdom of God. A few mercy drops 
increase to a copious shower of divine grace. The work 
of the Lord increases. The noise among the dry bones 
waxes louder and louder. " The stately goings of God are 
seen, and Zion puts on her robe of righteousness and sal- 
vation." Day after day, week after week, and perhaps 
month after month, sinners are called out of darkness into 
God's marvellous light ; " are brought up out of an horrible 
pit, out of the miry clay and set upon a rock, and a new 
song is put into their mouths even praise unto God." In 
revivals, multitudes have thus been renewed by the Spirit 
of God, have had the stony heart taken from them, and 
have received a heart of flesh, who now walk in the 
statutes of the Lord, and keep his ordinances to do them. 
These are so many '' epistles of Christ, written not with 
ink ; but with the Spirit of the living God ; not in tables 
of stone, but in the fleshly tables of the heart." 

Here it is proper to remark, that the experiences of 
Christians are frequently different. The Almighty is not 
limited in his mode of action. There are diversities of 
operations, though it is the same God which worketh all 
in all. Some have great religious experiences. Their 
convictions are deep and pungent, and their conversion 
clear and strikinof. Others have but feeble religious exer- 
cises of mind, who ultimately give good evidence of grace 
in the heart. Others again can give scarcely any account 
of what God has done for their souls; are in darkness and 
doubts who, nevertheless, have a faint hope, and who in 
the eyes of charity are Christians. But conversion, if real, 
be the evidence of it what it may, is a great and glorious 
work of God. . Every converted soul is " born, not of blood, 
nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of 
God." And every person, who has truly experienced reli- 
gion, can adopt the language of Scripture and say, '* One 



REVIVALS OF RELIGION. 305 

thing I know, that whereas I was blind, now I see ;" " old 
things are passed away, behold, all things are become 
new." Religion seems to them a different thing from 
what it once did ; the Bible, a new book ; the preaching 
of the Gospel new ; and religious company and conversa- 
tion new. The reason is obvious. They see and hear 
with new views, feelings and affections. 

4. In a revival of religion, a reformation in moral and 
religious conduct takes place. 

Every truly converted soul is " the workmanship of 
God, created anew in Christ Jesus unto good works.'' 
*' Faith without works is dead." " If the tree be good, 
the fruit will be good also." In all revivals of true reli- 
gion, therefore, the hearts and lives of their subjects are 
reformed. A happy alteration is effected, both in indi- 
viduals and society. Sinful practices are surrendered, 
old quarrels and backbitings subside, and the resorts of 
intemperance and dissipation are forsaken. The vicious, 
become virtuous ; the contentious, peaceable ; the intem- 
perate, sober ; the spendthrift, prudent ; the abandoned, 
reclaimed; and the rough and sour in temper and man- 
ners, softened and sweetened. He that stole, steals no 
more. He that swore profanely, no more takes the name 
of God in vain. The churl becomes liberal. The dis- 
honest man no more defrauds his neighbor. Inoffensive- 
ness of life and conversation prevails. There is an eager- 
ness to listen to the words of eternal life, an earnest appli- 
cation to the means of grace — reading and meditating 
upon the Scriptures, public, private, and secret worship. 
The Sabbath is more strictly observed, and becomes a 
delight, the holy of the Lord, honorable. The tabernacles 
of the Lord of Hosts are amiable. Public assemblies are 
thronged and attentive. 

Such are the benign, beneficent, and happy effects of 
true revivals of religion. Did they universally obtain, 
2G* 



306 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

paradise would be restored ; heaven would come down to 
earth. And of this nature, to a good degree, there have 
been extensive revivals. Many and signal instances of 
such revivals are recorded in the Old and New Testa- 
ments. God at times, remarkably displayed his power 
and grace in building up Zion. This also has been the 
case in succeeding ages. During a few years past there 
have been more revivals, than in any equal period of time. 
These will be multiplied and extended ; for the whole 
world is to be converted to Christ, and he is to reign 
King; of nations as he does now Kinor of saints, 

II. When may a revival of religion be expected ? 

1. When Christians are excited to frequency and fer- 
vency in prayer, it is a strong indication in favor of a 
revival of religion. 

When God accomplishes great things for his Church 
and people, it is usually preceded by extraordinary prayer. 
It is the language of h's children, " Let us go speedily 
to pray before the Lord, and to seek the Lord of hosts." 
" They that make mention of the Lord keep not silence, 
and give him no rest till he establish, and till he make 
Jerusalem a praise in the earth." They are fervent, in- 
cessant, and importunate in their supplications at the 
throne of grace. — Prayer is the appointed way of obtaining 
blessings. And there is an indissoluble connection be- 
tween the means and the blessings. It was thus ordained 
in the counsels of eternity. When God promised in the 
book of Ezekiel a new heart and a new spirit, he said, " I 
will yet for this be inquired of by the house of Israel," 
meaning his church, " to do it for them." Said the Saviour 
to his disciples " Ask and it shall be given you ; seek and 
ye shall find ; knock and it shall be opened unto you." 
" And it shall come to pass," said God by his Prophet, 
" that before they call, I will answer, and while they are 



REVIVALS OF RELIGION. 307 

yet speaking, I will hear." It was while the disciples 
prayed, on the day of Pentecost, that they were all filled 
with the Holy Ghost and three thousand were converted. 
Not an instance of united, humble, ardent, believing, and 
persevering prayer for the outpouring of the Holy Spirit, 
can be found, which has not been owned and blessed of 
God. " As soon as Zion travailed, she brought forth her 
children." " God will arise and have mercy upon Zion, 
for the time to favor her, yea, the set time is come, when 
his servants take pleasure in her stones, and favor the 
dust thereof" " And ye shall seek me and find me, 
when ye shall search for me with all your heart." When 
Christians, therefore, are engaged in supplication for a 
revival of religion ; when they carry the case to God, with 
whom is the residue of the Spirit, and take hold of his 
covenant, it is an indication that God is about to bless 
them in the desires of their hearts. " When the Lord 
shall build up Zion, he will regard the prayer of the desti- 
tute, and not despise their prayer." 

2, When Christians are excited to converse much on 
religious subjects, and with deep interest in them, it is a 
circumstance in favor of a revival of religion. " Then 
they that feared the Lord spoke often one to another ; and 
the Lord hearkened and heard it ; and a book of remem- 
brance was written before him for them that feared the 
Lord, and that thought upon his name." The two disci- 
ples of Christ were greatly affected by his conversation, 
as they went to Emmaus. They said one to another, " Did 
not our heart burn within us, while he talked with us by 
the way, and while he opened to us the Scriptures." Im- 
pressed with the beneficial effects of religious conversa- 
tion, the apostle says, addressing himself to Christians, 
•' Be ye holy in all manner of conversation, and let your 
conversation be as becometh the gospel of Christ, and 
exhort one another daily." When, therefore, we see 



308 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

Christians, out of the abundance of their hearts, speaking 
for Christ and his kingdom ; when, instead of the follies, 
pleasures, and worldly projects of the day, religion is the 
theme of conversation, the general inquiry is. What of 
Zion? then we have an omen for good in behalf of a 
revival of religion. 

3. It is a circumstance favorable to a revival of religion, 
when church discipline and the order of the gospel is duly 
observed. 

It is a lamentable fact, that some of our churches have 
lost much of their ancient beauty and excellence. They 
have departed from their primitive purity and order, and 
consequently, bleed with manifold wounds, by divisions 
and contentions. On them is inscribed Ichabod, the sad 
memorial of departed glory. The church while in this 
state cannot expect to flourish, or to see religion prosper 
around them. While there was an Achan in the camp, 
Israel could not succeed. The church is characterized as 
ultimately being " beautiful as Tirzah, comely as Jerusa- 
lem, and terrible as an army with banners ;" but before this 
can be the case, the churches must be purified and reduced 
to order. Then they will be respected, and have a re- 
forming influence in society. Were church discipline and 
gospel order properly observed, the Lord would appear in 
his glory and build up Zion. In many places a reforma- 
tion in this respect has been followed by a revival of reli- 
gion. Sometimes the observance of a day of prayer and 
humiliation, and the renewal of church covenant, have 
been attended with most happy effects. The Spirit has 
been poured out, and many sons and daughters have been 
born unto God. Renewal of covenant was a means of 
reformation in the days of Asa, Jehoshaphat, Hezekiah, 
Josiah, Ezra and Nehemiah. And this practice was often 
observed by the churches of New England during the first 
century after its settlement, and was urgently recommend- 



REVIVALS OF RELIGION. 309 

ed by the reforming synod^ held in the days of Dr. Cotton 
Mather. 

4. Another circumstance, favorable to a revival of reli- 
gion, is the diffusion of religious instruction and intelli- 
gence generally, especially when it awakens interest and 
leads to reflection. It is through the medium of the un- 
derstanding that the heart is affected. Hence the neces- 
sity, that the understanding should be informed on reli- 
gious subjects. When people are ignorant of divine truths, 
they will not be affected by them. There are no converts 
to the gospel, where its light is not enjoyed. " Where 
there is no vision the people perish." There must be 
light as well as heat, and light in order to heat, or nothing 
is divine and heavenly. Christians are represented as 
" begotten with the word of truth;" " born again by the 
word of God;" *' begotten through the gospel ;" '* sancti- 
fied through the truth." We have no account in Scrip- 
ture, that any who had arrived at years of discretion, were 
converted, until the means of instruction had been used 
W4th them. And though knowledge be diffused, unless it 
become interesting it will not produce effect. Where 
there is no sensibility, there will be no impression ; but 
the reverse is true. Where then religious instruction and 
intelligence are generally disseminated, and excite atten- 
tion, a revival may be expected. 

5. The prevalence of brotherly love and union in the 
church, is indicative of a revival of religion. 

The covenant of the church, which is an expression of 
the scriptural ties by which Christians, embodied in an 
ecclesiastical state, are bound by the King of Zion, has a 
tendency to induce them to *' put on charity which is the 
bond of perfectness," and to " keep the unity of the Spirit 
in the bond of peace." Thus united, and bound together 
in faith and love, they will be one in action ; — and " union 
is strength." •' A threefold cord is not quickly broken." 



310 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

Union of feeling, purpose and conduct, is absolutely es- 
sential to the prosperity and happiness of a Church. On 
the contrary, disunion will destroy all confidence, result 
in discord and confusion, and blast all good hopes. '^ A 
house divided against itself cannot stand." When, there- 
fore, brotherly love and union prevail in the church ; when 
its members are cemented together by holy affection, and 
their deportment towards each other is such, as to con- 
strain the observing world around them to exclaim, " Be- 
hold how these Christians love one another ;" when they 
are careful to let " no root of bitterness spring up among 
them," and are at peace among themselves; — then the 
God of love and peace will be with them and bless them, 
and cause his Holy Spirit to descend upon them, and 
revive religion. 

6. Zeal and increased fidelity on the part of ministers, 
are an indication favorable to a revival of religion. 

" Is not my word like as the fire and the hammer, that 
breaketh the rock in pieces?" "It pleases God by the 
foolishness of preaching to save them that believe." — 
*' Christ preached, is the power of God, and the wisdom of 
God unto salvation." This consists in the administration 
of the word and ordinances, and is the principal means of 
revivals of religion. The gospel, therefore, should be 
preached with zeal, with pathos, with energy, with faith- 
fulness. This mode of preaching will be most likely to 
effect the conversion of souls. Engagedness, courage, and 
unyielding resolution, will do much towards accomplish- 
ing any object. These greatly helped Alexander to con- 
quer the world. These vastly aided Luther, Knox, 
Whitefield, Buchanan and others, in their holy achieve- 
ments. The zeal, courage and perseverance of Paul, with 
a divine blessing, will do almost any thing. Now, the 
ministers of religion are leaders under Jesus, the Captain 
of salvation. Christ's command is, to go forth, strong in 



REVIVALS OF RELIGION. 311 

the Lord and in the power of his might, in the war against 
sin and Satan. And shall they refuse to follow when 
Christ's banner is displayed and his trumpet blown? 
They should rather be " fervent in spirit serving the 
Lord," — be engaged in preaching, not only in public, but 
also in private ; should be very observant of pastoral visi- 
tation ; should go from house to house, warning every 
man, and teaching every man, in all wisdom and under- 
standing, that divine truth may be made to bear upon 
every heart ; and be animated and bold, affectionate and 
winning, always faithful in their divine Master's service. 
When they thus acquit themselves as ambassadors of 
the Lord Jesus, as ministers of the grace of God, then 
they may humbly hope, that the work of the Lord will be 
revived among them. 

III. Why may it be hoped that revivals of religion 
will be multiplied and extended, more than they ever have 
been. 

1. There is reason to believe that in time to come 
divine truth will be preached more faithfully, clearly and 
forcibly. 

It is gratefully acknowledged, that God has raised up, 
in different periods of the church, many faithful, pungent, 
and successful preachers of the Gospel. Such were 
Luther, Calvin and Baxter, and such were Whitfield, 
Edwards, the Tennants, Brainard and Bellamy, and such 
are many of the ministers at the present day. 

But as the latter-day glory approaches, it is to be 
expected, that truth will be discerned more clearly. By 
this is not meant, that new truths will be revealed from 
heaven, or be discovered from the Bible. The Sacred 
Scriptures are now complete, and an infallible guide — the 
same yesterday, to-day, and forever. But by the helps 
enjoyed, and from a continually increasing desire to be 



312 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

able to present truth with the greatest simplicity and 
precision, it may be expected that it will be seen more 
clearly and preached more powerfully. The Bible will be 
better understood, and the Ministers of the Gospel will be 
eminently burning and shining lights. The hearts, too, 
of Ministers will be more alive to the salvation of men. 
They will be particularly intent on their conversion, and 
their preaching will be directly to this point. Hence they 
will be more clear, faithful and forcible in the dispensation 
of divine truth. This is one reason for expecting that 
revivals will be multiplied and extended. 

2. The multiplied means of grace will conduce to the 
promotion of revivals of religion. 

Some of them seem to be almost extraordinary means. 
Of this nature are the benevolent religious societies, 
Sabbath Schools, Bible and Theological Classes. These 
in the very nature of things, are means of grace, and are 
employed as such in the government of Jehovah, In the 
benevolent enterprises of the present day, the objects in 
view, and the plans of operation, are adapted to instruct, 
convert and save men. Every dollar properly given serves 
to enlist the feelings, prayers, and efforts of the giver to 
the cause patronized. The very act of contributing is a 
means of grace. It expands the heart, and induces 
universal and diffusive benevolence. The religious schools 
and classes now in existence among children and youth, 
will be the means of imparting knowledge to those, who 
enjoy this benefit. This is necessary to con\ersion. 
Divine truth is not only the manna on which Christians 
feed, but it is the means of instructing, and impressing 
the minds of others. There is a connection between 
knowledge and grace. Without religious impression 
there will be no conversion, and there will be no religious 
impression, without instruction in divine truths. The 
means of grace produce their effect by presenting truth 



REVIVALS OF RELIGION. 313 

before the mind, and motives to affect the heart in view 
of it, the Holy Ghost giving efficiency to them, and thus 
rendering them effectual to the salvation of the soul. 
Protracted religious meetings . have in some instances 
been greatly blessed; but they should be considered as 
extraordinary, rather than ordinary means, and be held 
with much discretion. In view of the multiplied means 
of grace, it may be expected, that revivals of religion will 
be increased in number and extent. 

3. That revivals of religion will be multiplied and 
extended more than they ever have been, is evident from 
the Sacred Scriptures. 

It is expressly predicted, that there shall be as intro- 
ductory to the latter-day glory of Zion a most remarkable 
effusion of the Holy Spirit. Jehovah speaking of this 
time by Isaiah, says, " Hear, O Jacob, my servant, and 
Israel whom I have chosen; — I will pour out my Spirit 
upon thy seed, and my blessing upon thine offspring, and 
they shall spring up as among the grass, as willows by the 
water-courses. One shall say, I am the Lord's; and 
another shall call himself by the name of Jacob; and 
another subscribe with his hand unto the Lord, and 
surname himself by the name of Israel." By the prophet 
Joel, he says, ''And it shall come to pass afterward that I 
will pour out my Spirit upon all flesh." And, as a conse- 
quence of this, he declares by Jeremiah, "They shall all 
know the Lord from the least of them unto the greatest of 
them;" and by Isaiah, "the earth shall be full of the 
knowledge of the Lord as the waters cover the sea." AH 
nations, if not all individuals, will be converted to Christ. 
The promise of Joel ** began to be accomplished on the 
day of Pentecost, when the Holy Spirit was poured out on 
the apostles, and on the assembled multitude, of whom 
great numbers were converted ; and it was continued in 
the converting grace and supernatural gifts conferred on 
27 



314 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

the Jews and Gentiles through many nations;" — and it 
has been receiving accomplishment from that day to the 
present time, in the revivals of religion, with which our 
world has been blessed; especially in the present day 
when God is appearing in his glory to build up Zion. 
Thus it is evident from the Bible, that revivals will be 
multiplied, become general, and extend throughout the 
earth; for the whole world is to become converted to 
Christ. 

In conclusion we remark, 

1. All who oppose revivals of religion, oppose the 
temporal and eternal good of men and the glory of God, 
and ought to be distrustful of their own piety. 

We have seen that a revival of religion is promotive of 
the good of men. All who are subjects of it are delivered 
from many temporal and eternal evils, and are made to 
participate in unutterable felicities, temporal and eternal. 
Society also is benefited. It reforms, and ameliorates, 
and renders prosperous and happy, all within its influence. 
It robs none of happiness or joys, which Heaven approves. 
As there was joy in the city of Samaria, at the outpouring 
of God's Spirit, and the conversion of souls; so now there 
is joy wherever a revival of religion exists — joy with 
individuals, families, and societies. Husbands and wives, 
parents and children, brothers and sisters, masters and 
servants, who are its subjects, rejoice in each other, and 
rejoice in the Lord. In some measure the place becomes 
an emblem of Paradise. Now it is such a revival of 
religion, as produces these effects, we advocate, and no 
other. We plead not for enthusiasm, or distraction— the 
fruits of a distempered mind. We contend for nothing 
injurious to individuals or society; but for that which is 
beneficial to both. Are not industry, temperance, fru- 
gality, chastity, honesty, truly moral and religious deport- 
ment productive of the public good? Do they not elevate 



REVIVALS OF RELIGION. 315 

the character of society 1 And is not a moral and reli- 
gious life the happiest life on earth ? Besides all this, 
in a revival of religion the kingdom of our blessed Re- 
deemer is enlarged, which consists in righteousness 
and peace and joy in the Holy Ghost. Hereby the glory 
of God is advanced, while precious immortals are rescued 
from the jaws of destruction and saved forever. Such is 
the revival of religion we wish. We speak in favor of no 
other. We pray for no other. Now we seriously and 
candidly ask, if all who oppose such a revival of religion 
as has been described, do not oppose the temporal and 
eternal good of men, and the glory of Jehovah? And if 
so, — if they oppose, understandingly and willingly, the 
happiness of individuals and society, and the honor and 
glory of their Maker, ought they not to be distrustful of 
their own piety ? Ought they not, if they do this, willingly 
and willfully, to conclude, that they are enemies to God, 
Christ, and their fellow men, and destitute of that 
" holiness without which no man shall see the Lord." 
It would seem, that no candid, well informed, and well 
disposed person could object to such a revival of religion. 
How is it possible! Should there be any whose hearts 
rise against such a display of the power and grace of God 
in the conversion and salvation of souls, they are affec- 
tionately and solemnly entreated to stop in their opposition 
and consider; consider lest haply they be found even to 
fiorht acrainst God ; lest God in his wrath denounce them : 
"Wo unto you for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven 
against men; for ye neither go in yourselves, neither 
suffer ye them that are entering to go in:" "Behold ye 
despisers, and wonder, and perish." God forbid, that any 
should thus merit his displeasure, receive his rebuke, or 
lie under his condemnation. 

2. We see the duty of Christians in relation to religious 
revivals. 



316 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

They should let their light so shine before men, that 
they may see their good works, and glorify their Father 
who is in heaven. They should watch over each other 
with Christian affection, and endeavor to reform them- 
selves and their erring brethren. They should converse 
one with another on religious subjects, and stir up one 
another's pure minds by way of remembrance. They 
should pray for a revival of religion, particularly, and 
distinctly; — pray that God would pour down his Spirit 
like rain upon the mown grass, as showers that water the 
earth; — pray, that he would arise and plead his own 
cause, bearing in mind that the effectual fervent prayer of 
a righteous man availeth much, and that God has never 
said to the seed of Jacob, Seek ye me in vain. But, alas ! 
how culpable Christians are in so awful a neglect of this 
important duty. Beloved in the Lord, it should not be so. 
The people of God, of all descriptions, should come up to 
the work of the Lord in building his spiritual temple, and 
be diligent and laborious in it. The whole congregation 
of the children of Israel, great and small, rich and poor, 
men and women, helped to erect the tabernacle in the 
wilderness. The Jews who rebuilt Jerusalem wrought 
from daybreak till the stars appeared. The walls of 
Jericho did not fall till the blowing of the trumpets became 
so frequent, as to be one continued blast. There should 
be no Laodicean lukewarmness. And no Christian may 
be excused in this glorious enterprise. A poor man in his 
cottage may have great influence in this work by his 
prayers. As a prince he may have power with God and 
prevail. Like Aaron and Hur he may help forward in 
this mighty achievement. Were the people of God thus 
to act, the church would speedily be enlarged, beautified, 
and blessed. — Then let Christians be affectionately and 
earnestly entreated to do all in their power to effect a 
revival of pure and undefiled religion, a revival of religion, 



REVIVALS OF RELIGION. 317 

in which Christians shall be excited to a fuller discharge 
of all holy duties ; the dead in trespasses and sins arise to 
spiritual life, the temporal and eternal good of individuals 
be promoted, society benefited, Christ's kingdom and the 
glory of God advanced. It is to such a revival of religion 
and no other, that we call their attention. And in view of 
it, in view of the great good which shall result to individ- 
uals, society and the world, we call upon them to lend 
their assistance — to be frequent and fervent m prayer for 
the outpouring of God's Spirit, and the conversion of 
souls, to pray and faint not; — to converse about Christ and 
his kingdom, death, judgment, and eternity, and from the 
fullness of their hearts, to speak for God and the things of 
religion; — to live the life of the Christian, and to maintain 
order and discipline in the church ; — to diffuse religious 
instruction and intelligence around them, and endeavor to 
excite an interest in these subjects. If they faithfully 
act up to duty in these respects, they may humbly hope 
that God will bless them, that he will grant the desire of 
their hearts, that he will open the windows of heaven, 
and pour them out a blessing, that there shall scarcely be 
room enough to receive it. 

We would also, in an affectionate and persuasive man- 
ner, call upon those wdio have no hope, to yield themselves 
to God ; to touch the sceptre of his grace and live. They 
must touch it or die. Such is Heaven's irreversible 
decree. O then, 

"Be wise to day ; 'tis madness to defer, 
Next day the fatal precedent will plead ; 
Thus on till wisdom is push"d out of life, — 
Procrastination is the thief of time. 
Year after year it steals till all are fled, 
And to the mercies of a moment leaves 
The vast concerns of an eternal scene." 

Appendix P. 

27 * 



DISSERTATION XVII 



MILLENNIUM. 

The present is a day of religious wonders. " While 
the enemy comes in like a flood, the Spirit of the Lord 
lifts up a standard against him." While infidelity and 
delusion are assuming a more visible form, and a bolder 
front, Christ is on his way, for the conquest of the world, 
converts to righteousness multiply, truth triumphs, and the 
cause of God makes rapid progress through the earth. 
Christendom has awaked from the slumber of ages, and 
arisen to higher faith, purpose, and action. Various 
benevolent societies are established, having in view spe- 
cifically different objects, but the same great end — the 
glory of God and the salvation of men. These announce 
the latter-day glory of the church to be at hand ; these 
are precursors of that blissful state and period of the 
world. True, they are but small things, compared with 
the mighty efforts and achievements which are to follow. 
They are the morning stars which will usher in a better 
and brighter day. In view of them we feel constrained 
to adopt the language of the prophet ; " And it shall 
come to pass in the last days, that the mountain of the 
Lord's house shall be established in the top of the moun- 
tains, and shall be exalted above the hills ; and all nations 



MILLENNIUM. 319 

shall flow to it. And many people shall go and say, 
Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to 
the house of the God of Jacob ; and he will teach us of 
his ways, and we will walk in his paths ; for out of Zion 
shall go forth the law, and the word of the Lord from 
Jerusalem. And he shall judge among the nations, and 
shall rebuke many people, and they shall beat their swords 
into ploughshares, aud their spears into pruning hooks ; 
nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall 
they learn war any more." 

Isaiah has frequently been styled the evangelical 
Prophet, from the fact, that he dwelt so much upon the 
rise, progress, and triumph of the Redeemer's kingdom. 
With what copiousness, what beauty, what magnificence, 
what eloquence does he speak of the Christian dispen- 
sation — the time from the advent of the Messiah to that 
glorious period, when " the kingdoms of this world shall 
become the kingdoms of our Lord and of his Christ." 

The passage of the Prophet above quoted, is, undoubt- 
edly, a prediction of the universal establishment, peace, 
and happiness of the church, in the last ages of the world. 
In this Dissertation it is proposed, 

I. To show that there will be a time in which the 
church of God in this world, will be in a state of far 
greater prosperity and happiness, than it ever yet has 
been. And, 

IL To consider some of the principal characteristics 
of this felicitous state and period of the church. 

I. It is proposed to show, that there will be a time, in 
which the church of God in this world will be in a state 
of far greater prosperity and happiness than it ever yet 
has been. The first promise made to man after his 
apostasy, is a prediction which looks forward to the most 
glorious state of the church on earth. "The seed of the 



320 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

woman shall bruise the serpent's head." The meaning of 
this passage is, Christ, who is the seed of the woman, 
shall completely triumph over the great adversary of souls, 
and bring all men to bow to his sceptre. "He was 
manifested," says the Apostle John, "that he might 
destroy the works of the devil." 

The same promise in effect was made to Abraham, two 
thousand one hundred and thirty-three years afterwards. 
God said to him, having tried his faith by the command 
to offer up his son, Isaac, "In thy seed shall all the 
nations," in other places it is aaid, "all the kindreds and 
families," "of the earth be blessed." The promise here 
made to the nations through Christ, is absolute. In the 
second Psalm it is said, " Yet have I set my King upon 
my holy hill of Zion. I will declare the decree; the 
Lord hath said unto me, Thou art my Son, this day have 
I begotten thee. Ask of me, and 1 will give thee the 
heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of 
the earth for thy possession." Here we have a prediction 
and promise, that Christ shall inherit and possess all 
nations to the ends of the earth ; that is, all people shall 
become his willing and obedient subjects. 

A great part of the prophecy of Isaiah relates to the 
flourishing and happy state of the church in "the last 
days." Speaking of this glorious state and time, he says, 
" The wolf shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall 
lie down with the kid; and the calf, and the young lion, 
and the fatling together, and a little child shall lead them. 
And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones 
shall lie down together ; and the lion shall eat straw like 
the ox. And the sucking child shall play on the hole of 
the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the 
cockatrice's den. They shall not hurt, nor destroy in all 
my holy mountain." Dr. Scott thus comments on this 
passage: "Persons of the most dissimilar dispositions and 



MILLENNIUM. 321 

pursuits, and addicted to the various kinds of wickedness, 
would be so changed by the grace of the gospel, that they 
would become of one heart, and of one way. The selfish, 
the penurious, the rapacious, the contentious, the ambi- 
tious, the savage, the subtle, and the malicious, would 
lose their peculiar base dispositions, and become harmless, 
sincere, peaceable, benevolent, and affectionate. They 
would live together in harmony, hearken to instruction, 
and be guided by gentle persuasion and entreaties. So 
that the change would be as evident and surprising as if 
the wolf, the tiger, the lion, the bear, and other fierce 
carniverous animals should learn to be as gentle and 
harmless as the lamb, the kid, the calf, or cow, to associate 
with them, to graze the pastures as they do, or to feed on 
straw or hay ; and should be so tractable, that a little child 
could lead them. Or, as if the asp, or the cockatrice 
should no longer be disposed to bite with envenomed 
teeth, or should be so inoffensive, that infants might 
safely play by their holes, for there would be no more a 
disposition in the inhabitants of Zion, the true church, to 
hurt or destroy." And why ? The reason is assigned, 
" The earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as 
the waters cover the sea." 

Whatever Isaiah has said concerning the future pros- 
perity of Zion, Jerusalem, Judah, and Israel, he has said 
concerning the church ; for they were types of it, and 
names by which it is called. Now, has there ever been 
such a state of prosperity and happiness of the church as 
is here described ? Have all people bowed to the sceptre 
of Jesus, and acknowledged the truth ? Have all the 
nations of the earth been blessed in the seed of Abraham? 
Have all people, to the ends of the earth, become the 
willing and obedient subjects of Christ? Have universal 
love, peace, and harmony, ever yet prevailed? Most 
assuredly not. Millions and hundreds of millions have 



322 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

never yet bowed to the sceptre of Jesus, and acknowledged 
the truth. Millions and hundreds of millions have never 
yet become the willing subjects of Christ, have never yet 
come within the pale of the church. And instead of 
universal love, peace, and harmony, a horrible scene of 
cruelty, war and disorder, has ever prevailed. 

The subject under consideration is set forth in clear 
light in the book of Daniel. " The prophetic dream of 
Nebuchadnezzar, and the vision of Daniel of the four 
beasts," relate to the same thing. They relate to four 
kingdoms or empires, w'hich in succession shall rise, and 
fall, and give way to the fifth which will be the last 
kingdom on earth. " The first, or Babylonian empire 
predicted," is symbolized by the golden head of the 
image, and by the lion with eagle's wings. *' The second, 
or Medo-Persian empire," or that of the Modes and Per- 
sians, is symbolized by the silver breast, and arms of the 
image ; and by the bear with three ribs in its mouth. 

" The third, or Macedonian empire, is symbolized by 
the brazen belly and thighs of the image, and by the 
leopard with four wings and four heads." 

** The fourth, or Roman empire, is symbolized by the 
iron and clayey feet of the image, branching out into ten 
toes, and by the fourth, diverse from all others, being 
compounded of the preceding symbols, a lion, a bear, 
and a leopard, and having ten horns." 

Such is the opinion of Mr. Faber, a distinguished writer 
on the prophecies. 

The fifth, the kingdom of Christ, is symbolized by a 
stone, cut out of the mountains, without hands, which 
smote the image upon his feet, that were of iron and clay, 
and brake them in pieces, and became a great mountain, 
and filled the earth. ** There can be no doubt," says 
Bishop Newton, " but that this last, is the kingdom of 
Christ." And this is to succeed the Roman, and to fill 



MILLENNIUM. 323 

the whole earth, or include all nations. But is the Roman 
empire wholly destroyed 1 Does the kingdom of Christ 
embrace all mankind? The answer must be obvious. 
Papal Rome is not destroyed, nor is the kingdom of the 
Messiah extended over all nations. Then what is here 
predicted is not yet accomplished. 

Many of the prophecies of the New Testament look 
forward to this glorious time, and foretell the universal 
spread of Christianity. 

The final victory and triumph of the church on earth, 
is foretold in the book of Revelation. ** And the seventh 
angel sounded, and there w^ere great voices in heaven, 
saying. The kingdoms of this world are become the 
kingdoms of our Lord and his Christ, and he shall reign 
forever and ever." All the blessed inhabitants of 
heaven rejoiced that the earth which had been so long 
under the dominion of the wicked one, was now in sub- 
jection to Jehovah and his anointed King. — With what 
grateful hearts should we look forward and anticipate 
this joyful event ! Glory to God in the highest, blessed 
be his name, that there will be such a time ! The Lord 
will spread the triumphs of the cross. He will plant the 
banner of salvation on the strong holds of Satan. ''Let 
the earth rejoice; let the multitude of the isles be glad 
thereof." 

IL We shall notice some of the principal character- 
istics of that glorious time, in which the church will be 
in a state of far greater prosperity and happiness than it 
ever yet has been. 

There will be great outpourings of the Holy Spirit. 
Jehovah, speaking of this time by Isaiah, says, *' Hear, 

Jacob, my servant ; and Israel, whom I have chosen; — 

1 will pour out my Spirit upon thy seed, and my blessing 
upon thine offspring, and they shall spring up as among 



324 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

the grass, as willows by the water-courses. One shall 
say, I am the Lord's ; and another shall call himself by 
thQ name of Jacob ; and another shall subscribe with his 
hand unto the Lord, and surname himself by the name 
of Israel." By the prophet Joel, he says, '* I will pour 
out my Spirit upon all flesh." And as a consequence of 
this, he says by Jeremiah, " They shall all know the 
Lord, from the least of them unto the greatest of them." 
All nations, if not all individuals, will be converted to 
Christ. It is not, however, to be supposed that those who 
are pious, will be perfectly holy. There will be no per- 
fection this side of heaven. It will remain true to the 
end of the world, that " no man liveth and sinneth not ;" 
that " there is not a just man upon earth that doeth good 
and sinneth not." The church, embracing all, or the 
greater part of mankind, then living upon the earth, will 
be *' beautiful as Tirzah, comely as Jerusalem, and terrible 
as an army with banners." It will be emphatically the 
day of salvation. Religion will be the chief business of 
life. The church will enjoy too a high degree of purity. 
There shall be such an outpouring of the Holy Spirit, as 
shall cause earth to resemble heaven. It will be a time 
of eminent holiness — of holiness that shall appear in the 
glory of its nature, and in the glory of its effects. The 
church is represented as thus addressed at that time. 
" Awake, awake, put on thy strength, O Zion, put on thy 
beautiful garments, O Jerusalem, the holy city, for hence- 
forth there shall no more come unto thee the uncircumcised 
and unclean." Zechariah, speaking of this time, says, 
" In that day shall there be upon the bells of the horses, 
Holiness unto the Lord ; and the pots in the Lord's house 
shall be like the bowls before the altar. Yea, every pot 
in Jerusalem and in Judah, shall be holiness unto the 
Lord of hosts." Every thing will be consecrated to God. 
This is the meaning of these metaphorical expressions. 



MILLENNIUM. 325 

Intellectual darkness and delusion will be removed. 
"God will destroy in this mountain," (that is, Mount 
Zion, the true church,) " the face of the covering cast 
over all people, and the vail, that is spread over all 
nations." " The eyes of them that see shall not be dim, 
and the ears of them that hear shall hearken." There 
will be great spiritual discernment. — There will also be 
great diffusion of divine light and knowledge, as is taught 
in the following bold, figurative language. " Moreover, the 
light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the 
light of the sun shall be seven fold, as the light of seven 
days." This emblematic prediction of spiritual blessings, 
represents that the church, fair as the moon, shining by 
the reflected beams of the Sun of righteousness, shall 
resemble him in splendor; and that Christ the Sun of 
righteousness shall shine with seven fold light — shall 
break forth in all his meridian glory, and dispel the gloom 
of ignorance and superstition, and illuminate the world. 
The Bible will be read with a right disposition, and be 
better understood, and the ministers of the gospel will be 
eminently burning and shining lights, and knowledge will 
be constantly increased. God and his ways will be 
universally known. Religion will be the subject of 
conversation between neighbors and friends. Parents 
will bring up their children in the nurture and admonition 
of the Lord. *' The earth shall be full of the knowledge 
of the Lord as the waters cover the sea." For ** God will 
teach men of his ways, and they will walk in his paths ; 
for out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the 
Lord from Jerusalem." 

There will be much union in the belief and practice of 
the truth. Sects and denominations will to a good degree, 
if not altogether, cease to exist. The heart will be right 
an the judgment right. " There will be one Lord, one 
faith, one baptism." ' The church will come in the unity 
28 



336 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God, 
speaking the truth in love, and growing up into him, in 
all things which is the head even Christ.' ' All will speak 
the same things, and there will be no divisions among 
them,' ' all will with one mouth glorify God, even the 
Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.' '' And the Lord shall 
be King over all the earth ; in that day shall there be 
one Lord, and his name one." 

Discord and war will come to an end, and be succeeded 
by universal peace, harmony, and philanthropy. " The 
wolf shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie 
down with the kid." " The people shall beat their swords 
into plough-shares, and their spears into pruning-hooks ; 
nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall 
they learn war any more. But they shall sit every man 
under his vine, and under his fig-tree, and none shall 
make them afraid." War will cease to be a science, 
profession, or occupation, and the sweetest harmony will 
prevail among Christians in that day of light and love. 
Temperance in all things will greatly prevail, and, con- 
sequently, a long catalogue of evils which now exist, will 
cease from the ends of the earth. God will smile upon 
the people, and bless them in basket and in store. "The 
seed shall be prosperous ; the vine shall give her fruit, and 
the ground shall give her increase, and the heavens shall 
give their dew ; and the Lord will cause the remnant of 
his people to possess all these things." The meaning of 
this passage is, the earth will yield abundance, and the 
people possess it in peace. 

There will be great enjoyment, happiness, and rejoicing. 
Isaiah represents the enjoyment by a feast of the most 
delicious kind. " The Lord of hosts shall make unto all 
people a feast of fat things, of fat things full of marrow, 
of wines on the lees well refined." By these emblems are 
shadowed forth the choicest spiritual blessings. The 



prophet describes the joy and happiness of that day by 
the following strong metaphorical language. " Ye shall 
go out with joy, and be led forth with peace, the mountains 
and the hills shall break forth before you into singing, 
and all the trees of the field shall clap their hands." 
The prisoners of Satan, liberated by the gospel will go 
forth with exulting thanksgivings. 

The earth will be replenished with people. Mankind, 
owing to their temperance and good conduct, will be free 
in a great measure from those sicknesses, and calamities, 
which now desolate the nations. '' The inhabitants shall 
not say I am sick." War, that direful evil and destroyer 
of thousands and millions will cease. '* Nation will no 
more lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn 
war any more." There will be abundance of food for man 
and beast. ** God will give bread of the increase of the 
earth, and it shall be fat and plenteous : in that day shall 
thy cattle feed in large pastures." And as a consequence 
of all these things, mankind will rapidly multiply and fill 
the earth. 

Thus there is a period coming in which the church 
will be greatly illuminated, sanctified, united and blessed, 
in regard to the institutions and practices of religion. 
What an exhibition will it then appear of the power and 
grace of God ! Angels will behold it with admiration, and 
delight. All the glorified in heaven will contemplate 
it with amazement, joy and praise. And if we are the 
trophies of divine grace, their adoring wonder will be 
ours, their ecstatic joy will be ours, and their enrapturing 
song of praise will be ours, to all eternity. 

Some remarks will close this Dissertation. 

1. The prophecies of the Bible are a source of comfort 
and encouragement to Christians. 

The prophecies in their fulfillment not only prove the 
Sacred Oracles to be the word of God, but serve to establish 



328 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. / 

and animate Christians. By perceiving daily fulfilled 
what has been predicted, their faith is strengthened. 
They are led by it to confide in God's veracity, and to 
believe that all he has promised will be accomplished. 
They look forward and anticipate the glorious and joyful 
time when Jews and Gentiles, Barbarians and Scythians, 
bond and free, — all shall become one fold, Christ Jesus being 
the Shepherd thereof David Hume prophecied that by 
the commencement of the nineteenth century, Christianity 
would be exploded. But he has proved himself to have 
been a false prophet. Christianity, instead of being 
exploded has triumphed ; and all that is predicted con- 
cerning it must be accomplished. Heaven has decreed, 
that not one jot nor tittle shall fail of fulfillment. This 
consideration is a source of comfort and encouragement 
to the friends of God. 

2. The church is safe and may rejoice in its safety. 

Though at times, the aspect of things in relation to ft 
may be discouraging — clouds and darkness being round 
about Jehovah — yet it has nothing lo fear, lie who rule^ 
throughout the universe will take care of his church. He 
is graciously disposed to exert himself in behalf of those 
who are his friends ; yea, he has engaged by promise and 
covenant, and solemn oath, to be their God, that he will 
never leave nor forsake them ; but that he will afford them 
his presence and blessing, and cause all things to work 
together for their good. Satan and his legions with regard 
to them are restrained. Principalities and powers are 
spoiled and disarmed by the cross of Christ. The church 
then is safe and may rejoice in its safety. The Almighty 
God is its refuoje, and underneath it are his everlastinor 
arms. Every true member of it he will protect, and 
finally receive into the heavenly Canaan. Amidst all the 
shocks of ages, the convulsions of the world, the wreck of 
kingdoms, and the desolations of empires, it stands ; and, 



MILLENNIUM. 329 

blessed be God, it will stand, for it is founded upon a rock, 
and the gates of hell shall never prevail against it. God 
is its strength, its fortress, its high tower, and the horn of 
its salvation. The church then need not fear the powers 
of earth and hell ; for no policy can baffle the wisdom of 
God ; no force can resist his power, or defeat his pur- 
pose. If God be for it, who can be against it ? No 
powers can be against it to its injury. Be they ever so 
numerous and formidable, be they ever so malicious and 
subtle, their combined enmity and force, when opposed to 
Jehovah, are but feeble and unavailing. The people of 
God then, may with boldness defy all the assaults of the 
powers of darkness, and triumph this side of heaven. 
Amidst all conflicts they may rejoice in the hope of being 
more than conquerors, and anticipate the songs of the re- 
deemed. 

3. Opposition to the church is wicked and foolish. 

It is wicked. God has the church much at heart. It 
has engaged the attention of the Sacred Trinity from eter- 
nity. For it the Father gave his Son to die on Calvary. 
For it, Jesus left heaven, dwelt upon the earth, bled and 
died. For it, the Holy Spirit descends to earth, renews 
and sanctifies the hearts of sinners, comforts and edifies 
saints. For it, also, angels become ministering spirits, 
and saints pray and plead day and night. Opposition 
then, to the church, which God and all holy beings have 
so much at heart, is wicked indeed. 

It is foolish too ; — foolish because it is in vain to op- 
pose. ** Why do the heathen rage, and the people imagine 
a vain thing? The kings of the earth set themselves, 
and the rulers take counsel together against the Lord and 
against his anointed, saying, Let us break their bands 
asunder and cast away their cords from us. He that sit- 
teth in the heavens shall laugh, the Lord shall have them 
in derision. He shall break them with a rod of iron ; he 
28* 



330 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. ^ 

shall dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel." What 
arm can vie with Omnipotence ? Who has power like 
God ? For the salvation of his people he divided the Red 
Sea, rolled back the waters of Jordan, caused the rock in 
Horeb to become a pool, the heavens to rain down bread, 
and the sun and moon to be stayed in their circuit. 
Though Zion may be persecuted and reproached ; yet her 
Saviour hath said unto her, Fear not, little flock, for it is 
your Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom. 
Infidels and wicked men, Satan and his host, will be dis- 
appointed and defeated, because for the church God will 
triumph bring. 

4. Those who labor for the extension of the church, 
labor for the good of man, and are co-workers with God. 

Men may receive happiness in this life, from carnal en- 
joyments. But the greatest, purest, and best good to man, 
is of a spiritual nature, and is derived from the possession 
of religion. Here is refined bliss, the sublimest enjoy- 
ment. The first and last of all good centres here. Men 
are happy in proportion as they are good, and miserable in 
proportion as they are bad. To promote piety then, to 
build up the Redeemer's kingdom, which is holy and 
happy, is to labor for the good of men, is to save them 
from the reproaches of conscience here, and the torments 
of the finally impenitent hereafter, and to prepare them 
for the ineffable felicities of heaven. Besides, the pious 
and good are a blessing to the world. Had not Noah 
been righteous, the whole human race would have been 
destroyed. None would have survived the deluge to have 
peopled the earth. Had there been ten in Sodom, like 
pious Lot, they would have saved the city. Abraham by 
his faith has drawn down innumerable blessings upon his 
posterity the Jews, and upon those that are afar off, even 
as many as the Lord our God shall call. What blessings 
to the world have been Moses and Paul, Luther and Bax- 



ter, Watts and Edwards ! Generations yet unborn, shall 
arise and call them blessed ; for by their holy lives and 
writings they have instrumentally enlarged the church, 
and increased piety, and consequently, happiness in the 
earth. All such the Apostle calls workers together with 
God; as they are employed as his instruments. When 
the Lord was about to gather in the Jews, he sent them 
the prophets. When he was about to display his grace in 
the salvation of the Gentiles, he sent forth the heralds of 
the gospel. To penetrate the heart of India, and prepare 
the way for dethroning her idol gods, he raised up a 
Buchanan. To prepare the way for the emancipation of 
Africa, he raised up a Clarkson, a Mills, a Wilberforce. 
And the time will come, when Asia shall no longer bow 
down to her idols, and Africa shall barst her chains of 
thraldom, and the world shall be converted to Christ. 
But in order to this, the whole church of God must be 
electrified with holy zeal, and every Christian must act in 
unison with the King of heaven. And how exalted the 
employment to be workers together with God ! 

5. The signs of the times indicate that the latter-day 
glory is at hand. 

A few years only have elapsed since, from the southern 
shores of Asia and Africa to the northern boundaries of 
Tartary, from the eastern limits of Asia to its western 
borders, ignorance and superstition universally reigned. 
Four hundred and twenty millions of pagans were paying 
blind devotions to dumb idols, stocks and stones, insects 
and reptiles. One hundred and thirty millions of Moham- 
medans were perfect devotees to the Arabian fanatic and 
impostor. What an immense multitude, crowding their 
way down to the abodes of despair and death ! passing 
along into the ocean of eternity into which they fall never 
to rise ! An awful night of gloom and terror overspread 
the whole. But, blessed be God, on this " darkness visi- 



332 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

ble," a feeble ray from a distant star begins to shine! 
The friends of Zion have awaked from the slumbers of 
centurtes, and seem resolved to plant the standard of the 
cross in every land. Bible, Tract, Education, Missionary, 
Sabbath School and other Societies, in great numbers, in 
Europe and America, have been formed for the universal 
spread of the gospel. Multitudes of young men are in 
training for the ministry. Missionary establishments 
have been erected in the four quarters of the globe, 
and hundreds of missionaries are now actually labor- 
ing in heathen lands. Others are preparing for the same 
employment — men of talents, piety and learning. Thou- 
sands and hundreds of thousands who have never seen one 
another in the flesh, and who are of different religious 
opinions, of all ranks and descriptions, rulers and ruled, 
ministers and people, are united in this grand, this benevo- 
lent, this glorious work. Let us rejoice in the different 
religious enterprises. They all help to usher in the latter- 
day glory of Zion. The day-star has already arisen. 
The twilight of the morning has appeared. Signs burst 
forth on every side, and indicate that the world's redemp- 
tion draweth nigh. This age of benevolent effort, and 
of pouring out of the Holy Spirit, is the Harbinger of the 
Millennial day. It is too late a period in the church to 
doubt of its triumph. The boundaries of the Redeemer's 
kingdom will extend from the rising to the going down of 
the sun. Religion will become the grand business of life, 
and all men shall see the salvation of God. 

6. Far greater things in religion must be attempted 
and accomplished, than ever yet have been. 

The Bible, that Magna Charta of the liberties, peace, 
happiness, and salvation of man, must be imparted to all 
the destitute. Heralds of the cross must be raised up and 
sent forth to publish the glad tidings of mercy to all peo- 
ple under heaven. The Saviour's mandate, " Go ye into 



MILLENNIUM. 333 

all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature," 
given eighteen centuries ago to his disciples, will yet be 
obeyed. Will any say this cannot be done ? It can — it 
will be done. As a pledge of this, we have the purpose, 
covenant, perfections and word of God. This great work 
then, will be accomplished. And as an earnest of it, 
nations have already been converted to God. Look at the 
Sandwich Islands. These are now as much a part of 
Christendom, as Great Britain or the United States. Look 
for a moment at the success of the Moravian missionaries 
in Greenland and Labrador ; of Swartz and his fellow- 
laborers among the natives of Hindoostan. See Vander- 
kemp converting the wandering and ignorant Hotten- 
tots, and Mayhew, Eliot and Brainerd, the Indians of this 
country. See the wonderful effects attendant upon modern 
missionary efforts. What has been, may be again ; yea, 
and much more will be. The Lord will spread the 
triumphs of the cross. Soon the whole earth will chant 
the praises of the Redeemer, and the song of salvation 
will echo from shore to shore. But in order to this, there 
must be more fervent prayer, more abundant labors, more 
enlarged charities. In the conquest of the world to 
Christ, the church must become a well disciplined army, 
and every member of it must know his place and duty. 
There must be a mighty onset made against sin and Satan. 
In this war. Christians must enlist for actual service, and 
for life. Is it said this is enthusiasm ? Be it so. There 
never was a great and noble enterprise accomplished 
without enthusiasm. But is not this proselytism, secta- 
rianism? This we acknowledge to be a fact ; but to what 
and to whom do we proselyte and divide 1 To the Chris- 
tian religion, and to the sect of Christ. In this blessed 
work, let us become enthusiastic. For Christ let us make 
proselytes. For the conversion of the world to him, let us 
pray, and labor, till our Master call us to our rest. Then, 



334 CHRISTIAN PHILANTHROPIST. 

though we should not, while here on the earth, see the 
day of Millennial blessedness, we shall be permitted to 
look down from the battlements of heaven, and behold all 
this world in complete subjection to Jesus Christ. 

" scenes surpassing fable, and yet true. 

Scenes of accomplished bliss ! which who can see, 
Though but in distant prospect, and not feel 
His soul refreshed with foretaste of the joy. 



One song employs all nations. — 
The dwellers in the vales and on the rocks,— 
Shout to each other, and the mountain-tops. 
From distant mountains catch the flying joy, 
Till, nation afler nation taught the strain. 
Earth rolls tlie rapturous hosanna round." 

" Hallelujah; praise ye the Lord." 

Appendix Q. 



APPENDIX. 



The chief object of this Appendix is to give a brief histori- 
cal and statistical sketch of the principal Benevolent Institu- 
tions referred to in the preceding Dissertations. 

(A. p. 77.) 

Bible Societies. 

"The British and Foreign Bible Society," the largest insti- 
tution of the kind, was formed at London on Wednesday, 
March 7, 1804. At this meeting the celebrated Grenville 
Sharp presided. Addresses were delivered by William Alers, 
Esq., Robert Cowie, Esq., Samuel Mills, Esq., Rev. Messrs. 
SteinkopfT, Hughes, and Owen. The Rev. Joseph Hughes, 
the Rev. Josiah Pratt, and the Rev. Mr. Steinkopff were 
appointed Secretaries. Mr. Pratt did not accept the office, 
and the Rev, John Owen was elected in his place. The first 
two articles of their constitution are : 

1. " The designation of this Society shall be the British 
and Foreign Bible Society, of which the sole object shall be 
to encourage a wider circulation of the Holy Scriptures, 
without note or comment; the only copies in the languages 
of the United Kingdom, to be circulated by the Society shall 
be the authorized Version." 

2. " This Society shall add its endeavors to those employed 
by other Societies, for circulating the Scriptures through the 
British Dominions ; and shall also, according to its ability, 
extend its influence to other countries, whether Christian, 
Mohammedan or Pagan." 

Its officers are a President, a large number of Vice Presi- 
dents, a committee of thirty-six, who nrieet regularly for 
business the first Monday in every month ; a Treasurer, two 
Secretaries, an Honorary Librarian, a Superintendent of the 
Translating and Editorial Department, several Honorary 



336 APPENDIX. 

Solicitors, an Accountant, and Assistant Foreign Secretary, a 
Depositary, a Collector, and seven Accredited Agents. 

Officers of the Society. — The Right Hon. Lord Bexley is 
President; Rev. Andrew Brandram and Rev. George Browne, 
Secretaries ; Rev. Joseph Jowett, Superintendent of the 
Translating and Editorial Department; and John Thornton, 
Esq., Treasurer. 

The origin of the Society may be traced to the benevolent 
efforts of the late Rev. Thomas Scott, D. D. Interesting 
himself in 1787 to procure a supply of Bibles for the poor in 
Wales, the circumstance of his correspondence with a clergy- 
man there, turned the attention of the public to the subject of 
distributing the Bible, wherever it might be needed, and thus 
prepared the way, after the lapse of seventeen years, for the 
establishment of the Society.^ The Rev. Thomas Charles, of 
the established church in Wales, took a very active part in 
this cause in 1802. 

The amount of contributions to the funds of the Society at 
its ifirst anniversary in 1805 was £5,492 IO5. 5d. and its 
disbursements £5,485 2s. 6d. The amount of funds received 
from all sources during the year 1838 was £97,237 IO5. lie?. 
The expenditures amounted to £91,i79 145. lid. The issues 
of the Society were 594,398, being 366,764 at home, and 
226,634 abroad. The total issues since the commencement 
of the Society are 10,888,043. The number of Societies and 
auxiliaries connected with the British and Foreign Bible 
Society is 2,9G0. The distribution, printing, or translation of 
the Script'ires in whole or in part, has been promoted by the 
Society directly or indirectly in 136 different languages. 
The richest year of the Society, or that in which its income 
has been the largest, was the year 1820, when its receipts 
were £123,547 12s. 3d. Nearly all the Societies on the 
Continent are to a greater or less degree connected with the 
British and Foreign Bible Society. The auxiliaries of the 
Society, as acknowledged in the 27th Report, were 316; of 
which 216 are in England, 32 in Wales, 34 in Scotland, 3 in 
Ireland, and 31 in the colonies ; namely, 12 in the British 
Territories of North America, 9 in the West Indies and South 
America, 6 in x\sia, 3 in Africa, and 1 in Europe. 

The number of Societies in Foreign parts, which though 
not auxiliary, have issued Bibles and Testaments with the aid 
of the British and Foreign Bible Society, is 60, namely, 54 in 
Europe, 4 in Asia, and 2 in America. 

* Other accounts have been given of the origin of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society, but for this see Scott's Life, and the History of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society, by Mr. Owen. The first Report of the Society 
contains no notice of the way in which it originated. 



APPENDIX. 337 

The number of Languages and Dialects in which the 
Bible has been distributed by the British and Foreign Bible 
Society, either directly or indirectly, is 153. The Anniversary 
of the Society is always celebrated in London on the first 
Wednesday in May. 



The " American Bible Society " has the same object in view 
as the British and Foreign Bible Society, and was instituted 
at New York in May, 1816. The labors of Samuel J. Mills 
contributed to this glorious event. The Society was formed 
by a convention of Delegates assembled for that purpose from 
various Bible Societies, which then existed in different parts 
of the country. The whole number represented by delegates, 
regularly appointed, was 29, besides which several were 
represented informally, by such of their number as were 
providentially present. 

The Convention was organized by choosing Joshua M. 
Wallace, Esq. President, and the Rev. J. B. Romeyn, D. D. 
and the Rev. Lyman Beecher, Secretaries. The meeting was 
opened with prayer by the Rev. Eliphalet Nott, D. D. The 
Convention first resolved on the expediency of forming, 
without delay, a general Bible Institution for the circulation 
of the Holy Scriptures, and then appointed a Committee to 
draft a constitution, and prepare an address to the public on 
the nature and objects of the Society. At a subsequent 
meeting this committee reported, and the Society was formed. 
The first two articles of the Constitution are : 

1. "This Society shall be known by the name of the 
American Bible Society, of which the sole object shall be, to 
encourage a wider circulation of the Holy Scriptures, without 
note or comment. The only copies in the English Language 
to be circulated by the Society, shall be of the version now in 
common use." 

'i. " The Society shall add its endeavors to those employed 
by other Societies for circulating the Scriptures throughout 
the United States and their territories : and shall furnish them 
with stereotype plates, or such other assistance as circum- 
stances may require. This Society shall also, according to 
its ability, extend its influence to other countries, whether 
Christian, Mohammedan, or Pagan." 

The officers elected were a President, 23 Vice Presidents, 
a Secretary of Foreign Correspondence, a Secretary of 
Domestic Correspondence, and a Treasurer. The first Presi- 
dent was the Hon. Elias Boudinot, LL. D., the first Secreta- 
ries the Rev. Dr. J. M. Mason, and the Rev. Dr. J. B. Romeyn, 
and the first Treasurer Richard Varick, Esq. 

29 



338 



APPENDIX. 



The officers of the Society for the year 1838 are the Hon, 
John Cotton Smith, LL. D., President; the Rev. James 
Milnor, D. D., the Rev. Thomas M'Auley, D. D. and the Rev. 
John C. Brigham, Corresponding Secretaries ; Rev. George 
Bush, Editor and Librarian ; Abraham Keyser, Esq., Treasu- 
rer, and Joseph Hyde, Esq. General Agent. The business of 
the Society is conducted by a Board of thirty-six Managers, 
all laymen, one fourth part chosen annually. 

The receipts of the Society are derived from the sale of 
Bibles and Testaments, from annual subscriptions, from life- 
memberships and directorships, from donations of individuals 
and societies, and from bequests. A contribution of $30 
constitutes a person a member for life, and $150 a director 
for life. 

The annual receipts of the Society from its commencement 
have been as follows : 

May, 



1817, 


$35,877 46 


May, 1828, 


$ 75,879 93 


1818, 


36,564 30 


1829, 


143,184 33 


1819, 


53,223 94 


1830, 


170.067 55 


1820, 


41.361 97 


1831, 


125,316 79 


1821, 


47,009 20 


1832, 


107,059 00 


1822, 


40,682 34 


1833, 


84,935 48 


1823, 


52,021 75 


1834, 


86,600 82 


1824, 


42,416 95 


]835, 


100,806 26 


1825, 


49,693 08 


1836, 


104,899 43 


1826, 


. 46,115 47 


1837, 


90,578 89 


1827, 


65,192 88 


1838, 


85,676 83 



The seat of the operations of the Society is the city of 
New York. Here a building has been erected of one hundred 
feet square, four stories high, with a court in the centre ; in 
which are the offices of the Executive Officers of the Society ; 
also the Hall of the Managers, the Depository for Bibles, and 
the printing and binding establishments. There are seventeen 
printing presses and a machine for rolling and stamping 
books, moved by steam power, connected with the building. 
One thousand Bibles could be printed and bound daily. 

The Bibles printed by the Society are generally in the 
English language. Some, however, are prepared in the 
French and Spanish tongues ; also in the modern Greek and 
Armenian and in several dialects of the Indians. Bibles are 
also imported and issued in many of the European languages. 

Since the formation of the Society, there have been issued 
from the Depository 2,353,298 copies of Bibles and Testa- 
ments. The issues of the last year were 34,000 Bibles and 
108,000 Testaments, in English, German, Spanish and French. 
TheBe Bibles and Testaments have been distributed in every 



APPENDIX. 339 

State and Territory of the Union ; in the Canadas, South 
America, Greece and other foreign countries. 

Besides these issues of Bibles and Testaments, large sums 
of money for several years past have been granted to mis- 
sionary establishments under the care of various religious 
denominations, at Constantinople, Bombay, Ceylon, Burmah, 
China, the Sandwich Islands, and other places, to aid in 
printing and circulating the Scriptures among the heathen. 

The number of Auxiliary Societies now connected with the 
Parent Institution cannot be determined with great precision; 
the total is not far from nine hundred, with two thousand 
Branch Associations. 

Besides its Annual Reports, the Society publishes a Monthly 
containing its pecuniary receipts, correspondence, etc. 

The Anniversary of the Society is held at New York, or 
Philadelphia, at the option of the Society, on the second 
Thursday of May. Up to the time of the annual meeting, in 
May, 1832, the principal field of the Society's operations had 
been the United States, in which it might be considered as 
having succeeded in putting a Bible into every family where 
there was not one already, in accordance with the noble 
resolution, which was adopted at the twelfth anniversary, in 
May, 1829, and which is as follows : 

"That this Society, with a humble reliance on divine aid, 
will endeavor to supply all the destitute families of the United 
States with the Holy Scriptures, that may be willing to pur- 
chase or receive them, within the space of two years, provided 
means be furnished, by its auxiliaries and benevolent individ- 
uals, in season to enable the Board of Managers to carry this 

At the annual meeting in 1835, the following resolution 
was passed : 

"Resolved, That the friends of the Bible throughout the 
country, of every religious denomination, be respectfully 
invited to cooperate in furnishing, as soon as practicable, a 
copy of the Bible or the New Testament to every child in the 
United States under fifteen years of age, who is able to read, 
and is destitute of the sacred volume." 

The American Bible Society and the British and Foreign 
Bible Society are the two principal Bible Societies in the 
world. There are, however, others of considerable importance, 
and the whole number in all the different countries, including 
some missionary stations where they have been formed, may 
be reckoned at from 25,000 to 30,000. 



340 APPENDIX. 

(B. p. 86.) 
Tract Societies. 

The Religious Tract Society, at London, is the parent of all 
Tract Societies, and was instituted at London, in the year 
1799. The first article of its Constitution is: "That this 
Society be denominated The Religious Tract Society; 
the object of which is, the circulation of small religious books 
and treatises in foreign countries, as well as throughout the 
British dominions." 

The credit of originating this Society is due directly to the 
Rev. George Burder, and the Rev. Samuel Greathead, who 
had themselves published pamphlets denominated " Village 
Tracts." What also more remotely led to its establishment 
was the publication of the "Cheap Repository," by Mrs. Han- 
nah More and others, about the year 1795. Previously to 
this, however, the Society in England for promoting Christian 
Knowledge, incorporated in 1G47, had published and dis- 
tributed books and tracts. 

The officers of the Society are a Committee, a Board of 
Trustees, tiiree Secretaries, Treasurer, and a Superintendent. 

The Honorary Secretaries for the year 3838, were Rev. 
Robert Monro, M. A. and Rev. Ebenezer Henderson, D. P ; 
Travelling and Corresponding Secretary, Mr. William Jones, 
Treasurer, Samuel Hoare, Esq., and Superintendent, Mr. John 
Davis. 

The Society began its operations by publishing and dis- 
tributing Tracis m Cgi^^a ^^i^,. ^r.A nnls in thf? EncTlis>» 
language. Now it publishes and distributes them m no less 
than seventy different languages, and in almost all the 
countries of the world. 

The Society has printed important books and tracts in 
about eighty difl^erent languages ; its annual circulation from 
the Depository in London, and from various foreign Societies 
amounts to nearly twenty millions, and its total distribution 
has been about 272,000,000 of copies of its publications. The 
number circulated during the year 1838, amounts to fifteen 
millions nine hundred and thirty-nine thousand five hundred 
and sixty-seven. The Tracts included in the above amount, 
with the Cottage and other sermons, are 7,748,454 ; and the 
books for the young, 2,911,21.3. The Society's receipts for 
the year were £62,054 9*. 2d. Among the publications of 
the Society, we notice the memoirs of Drs. Bedell, Payson, 
and Cotton Mather, President Edwards, David Brainerd, John 
Eliot; Mrs. Graham, Mrs. Judson, H. Newell, and Mrs. Hun- 
tington, and some of the works of President Edwards, Dr» 



APPENDIX. 341 

Payson, Dr. J. M. Mason, J. Abbott, J. S. C. Abbott, Dr. 
Bedell, Dr. Dwight, etc. 

The Society next in order of time to the London, grew out 
of a small association, formed at Basle, in 1802, which in 
1812, became a regularly organized Society. It never has 
greatly extended its operations. 

To the Basle Society succeeded, the same year, (1812,) 
an Institution formed at Berne. This Society has been more 
efficient than the Basle Society. 



The first Society in the United States partaking of the 
nature of a Tract Society, was the Massachusetts Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge, instituted at Boston, in the 
year 1803. The Hon. Samuel Phillips and Professor Tappan, 
of Harvard University, took a very active part in its forma- 
tion. For a number of years its operations were considerable ; 
but it has, since the formation of the American Tract Society 
at Boston, in May, 1814, and the American Tract Society 
at New York, in 1825, turned its attention principally to 
Domestic Missions. Considering its means, it has accom- 
plished great good. The Society has printed and distributed 
8,224 books, 30,350 tracts. 

Since the formation of the American Tract Society at 
Boston, similar Societies have arisen elsewhere, and are now 
common in all parts of the country. But the largest and 
most considerable, and that, indeed, to which almost all 
others, not excepting, in some respects, the one at Boston, 
are auxiliary, is the American Tract Society, instituted at 
New York in 1825. 

From the greater facilities at New York for circulating 
tracts, especially in the western parts of our country, as well 
as for other reasons, it was judged best, in 1825, to establish 
a Society at New York, Avhich should take the general 
character of a parent institution. Accordingly, with good 
understanding on the part of the friends of truth at Boston 
and at New York, such a Society was formed and has since 
been the principal Tract Society in the country. It has now 
1,138 Branches and Auxiliaries. 

The officers of the Society are, a President, a Vice Pres- 
ident, a Corresponding, a Visiting and Financial, and an 
Assistant Secretary, a Treasurer, and thirty-six Directors. 
S. V. S. Wilder, Esq., President; Rev. William A. Hallock, 
Corresponding Secretary ; Rev. Oman Eastman, Visiting and 
Financial Secretary, O. R. Kingsbury, Assistant Secretary, 
and Moses Allen, Esq. Treasurer. 
29* 



342 APPENDIX. 

The following table exhibits a view of the receipta and 

operations of the Society from its commencement : 







Total 


Printed 


Circulated 


Foreign 


New pub- 


Year. 


Donations. 


Receipts, 


pages. 


pages. 


approp's. 


lications. 


1826 


§6.925 56 


$10,158 78 


8,053,500 


3.611,500 




215 


1827 


8.556 96 


30,413 01 


36,114,500 


24,768,239 




22 


1828 


12,464 38 


45.134 58 


53,667.000 


46,321,784 


$300 


103 


1829 


25,173 18 


60,153 98 


68,316,000 


48,895,262 


650 


92 


1830 


11,755 65 


60,210 24 


63,429,930 


62,360,444 


300 


67 


1831 


8,784 82 


42,922 59 


68,786,000 


68,522,704 


300 


73 


1832 


24,474 78 


61,905 07 


88,547,000 


66,160,457 


5,044 


46 


1833 


31.229 25 


62,443 50 


39,700,808 


48,400.607 


10,000 


35 


1834 


35,212 25 


66,485 83 


51,534,624 


57,633.070 


20,000 


46 


1835 


60,727 42 


92,307 81 


53,804,652 


54,316,358 


30,000 


55 


1836 


56,638 04 


104.211 41 


101,293,584 


72,480,229 


35,000 


55 


1837 


71,932 36 


130.991 23 


125,682,000 


96,851.174 


35,000 


41 


1838 


37,173 74 


91,732 10 


48,377,100 


86,479;621 


10.000 


46 



The Society publishes a monthly periodical, entitled the 
American Tract Magazine, which contains much valuable 
information respecting the cause it advocates — and also the 
Christian Almanac. 

The American Tract Society at Boston, which is incor- 
porated and made a body politic by an act of the Legislature 
of Massachusetts, may be considered as, in a great measure, 
the Parent of all other Tract Societies in this country. Some 
others were formed before it, but it was more active and 
enterprising in its early operations, than any other ; and, in 
1825, when the American Tract Society at New York was 
formed, it stood Avithout a rival in the world, except the Lon- 
don Tract Society. It has since, too, continued its operations, 
and is now, amid all the Societies in the country, second only 
to the American Society at New York. 

The officers of the Society are, a President, a Vice Pres- 
ident, seven Directors, an Executive Committee of five, a 
Secretary, and a Treasurer, with an Assistant Treasurer. 
The President is John Tappan, Esq. ; Rev. Seth Bliss, Secre- 
tary, and Assistant Treasurer ; and George Denny, Esq. 
Treasurer. 

The receipts of the Society, ending May, 1838, were 
817,226 49, and its expenditures 817,784 43. The amount 
paid by this Society from 1832 to 1838, for foreign distribu- 
tion, is $39,885. 

The London, the American at New York, and the American 
at Boston, are the three largest Tract Societies in the world. 
Their publications may be found in China, Burmah, and in 
India; in the islands of the sea; in the countries round 
the Mediterranean, in the different countries of Europe, in 
North and South America. Many have been saved through 
their instrumentality, but many are still perishing through 
lack of knowledge. 



APPENDIX. 343 

There are other Tract Societies in this country, as the 
Connecticut Religious Tract Society, instituted at New 
Haven, 1807 ; the Vermont Religious Tract Society, formed 
1808; the Protestant Episcopal Tract Society at JNew York, 
established in 1810 ; and the Baptist General Tract Society 
at Philadelphia, formed in 1824. This last has a hundred and 
fifty Auxiliaries and a number of Branches. There is also, 
the American Doctrinal Tract Society, formed May, 1829. 
This Society has been very useful in publishing and cir- 
culating tracts for the maintenance of the great and funda- 
mental truths of the gospel. 



(C. p. 104.) 

Foreign Missionary Societies. 

The Church itself may be considered as in some respects 
a Missionary Society, and the Apostles as the first Mis- 
sionaries. 

After it was first extended to Cornelius, the Gospel soon 
spread abroad among the Gentiles, and though retarded here 
and there, at various seasons, and sometimes almost lost in 
obscurity, it has, on the whole, gradually been advancing ever 
since. 

Passing, however, the labors of the Apostles and their 
successors down to the time of the reformation, — not counting 
those of the Papacy as worthy to be named, — and considering 
those of the Dutch and Danes, though protestant, as scarcely 
better on account of the worldliness attending them, — the 
commencement of M'hat may more appropriately be called 
modern missions, is to be traced to the Society of the United 
Brethren, or Moravians, a denomination of Christians of a 
somewhat peculiar character, which arose among the followers 
of John Huss, about the middle of the fifteenth century. 

The United Brethren, or the Moravian Missionary Society 
was formed at Litz, 1457, and was then small, consisting, 
according to some, of not more than six hundred persons in 
all. Some of the principles of the Brotherhood, are — that of 
governing themselves simply by the Bible, — that of standing 
prepared to suffer all for conscience' sake, and — that of 
refusing to bear arms in defence of religion.* The present 
number of the society may be from 18,000 to 20,000. 

The Moravians may be said to be a missionary community. 
As a Christian people, they live in great simplicity, and this 

* Hislorv of the Protestant Church of the United Brethren, by the Rev. 
John Hohnes. 



344 APPENDIX. 

is the case with their missionaries. Of course their expenditure 
is small. Their missionaries in a great measure support 
themselves. None engage in the work except from their 
own choice, and none are retained who would relinquish it. 

They first began their missionary operations in the Danish 
West Indies, in 1732, and they have now, besides this field, 
six others under cultivation, namely, one in Greenland, first 
occupied in 1733; one in Labrador, first occupied in 1770; 
one in North America, first occupied in 1734 ; one in South 
America, first occupied in 1735; one in British West Indies, 
first occupied in 1732 ; and one in South Africa, first occupied 
in 1736, and renewed in 1792. The whole number of stations 
in all these fields is 41 ; of missionaries 209, and of converts 
about 43,600. The amount of the moneys by which their 
missionaries are sustained is $10,056.- 



The Missionary Society of the English Wesleyan Meth- 
odists was formed in 1786, by the Rev. John Wesley, and the 
Rev. Thomas Coke, D. D., and others. It has its annual 
meeting in May, and is under the care of the Conference, the 
President and Secretary of the same for the time, being the 
President and Secretary of the Missionary Society. The 
business of the Society is conducted by a General Commit- 
tee, consisting of the President and Secretary of the Confer- 
ence and 48 other members. From the Report of 1837-8 the 
following items are taken. ^ Missionaries. — In Ireland 24, 
Sweden 1, Germany 1, France 14, Gibraltar and Cadiz 2, 
Western Africa 14, South Africa 20, Malta 1, South India 15, 
North Ceylon 8, South Ceylon 15, New South Wales 5, Van 
Dieman's Land 7, Swan River 1, New Zealand 4, Friendly 
Islands 8, Fejee Islands 4, West Indies 85, British America 
85; total 314 — of whom 173 are principally connected with 
heathen and converts from heathenism, and 141 chiefly labor 
among Europeans and British colonists. Assistants. — These 
missionaries are assisted by 3,176 catechists and readers, 295 
salaried and 2,918 gratuitous teachers ; of whom 5,386 labor 
in missions among the heathen, and 1,003 among professed 
Christians. Members in Society. — 66,729. Scholars. — 49,538. 
Receipts.— £Q3,6^8. Expenditures.— £91,4:19. 

The English Baptist Missionary Society owes its origin to 
the zeal and influence of the Rev. William Carey, (Dr. 
Carey,) one of its first missionaries, and was formed at Kitter- 
ing, October 2, 1789. Previously to this time, at a meeting 
of°the Baptist Association in Nottingham, Mr. Carey preached 
a sermon from Isaiah ii. 3, the principal divisions of which 

* Missionary Intelligencer of the United Brethren for Feb. 1832, 



APPENDIX. 345 

were, " expect great things ; attempt great things." This 
produced a favorable influence. The title or name by which 
the Society announced itself was that of " The Particular 
Baptist Society for the Propagation of the Gospel among the 
Heathen." The first Committee were the Rev. Messrs. John 
Ryland, Reynold Hogg, William Carey, John Sutcliff, and 
Andrew Fuller. The Rev. Reynold Hogg was Treasurer, 
and the Rev. Andrew Fuller, Secretary. 

The officers of the Society, for 1830, were John Broadley 
Wilson, Esq., Treasurer ; Rev. John Dyer, Secretary ; and a 
General Committee of 42 clergymen and 14 laymen. The 
amount of funds subscribed when the Society was formed, 
was £13 25. 6d. Receipts and expenditures for 1830, about 
£19,000. The first missionaries sent out were Rev. William 
Carey, and Mr. Thomas, a pious surgeon. They went, in 
March, 1793, and in 1796 were joined by Mr. Fountain, who 
was succeeded in 1799 by the Rev. Messrs. Marshman, Grant, 
and Brunsdow, with their wives, and Mr. Ward and Miss Field, 
who were unmarried. After about thirteen years' labor, they 
baptized Kristnoo, their first convert. This particular mission 
was supported for a time by Drs. Carey and Marshman ; hav- 
ing become rich and increased in goods, through the income 
from its schools, college, fcc^ It has recently come under 
the care of the old Society again. 

The Missions under the care of the Society are. — on the 
continent of India, 8 ; among the Asiatic Islands, 4 ; in the 
West Indies, 25 ; in South America, 1. Members in church 
fellowship, 10,000. The number of Baptist churches in Eng- 
land, in 1828, was 900. 



The London Missionary Society was formed Sept. 22, 1795, 
and is wholly catholic in its character, not being confined to 
any one sect or denomination of Christians, but open alike for 
evangelical Dissenters, as well as Churchmen, who may 
choose to be connected with it, holding infant baptism. The 
Rev. David Bogue, D. D. took a very active part in its forma- 
tion, and prepared for publication its first Address. The busi- 
ness of the Society is in the hands of four Directors, and 
its officers are a Home Secretary, a Foreign Secretary, a 
Treasurer, and a Collector. The Society has 455 stations 
and out-stations, 135 missionaries, 32 European, and 473 na- 
tive assistants ; making a total of G40 European missionaries 
and assistants. Under the care of these are 93 churches, 
with 7,347 communicants, and 568 schools, containing 36,974 

* See Haptisl Magazine and Missionary Reg-isler for Nov. 1831. Also 
" LeUers on the Serampore Controversy." London, 1831. 



346 APPENDIX. 

scholars. The Society has 17 printing establishments, and 
thirty-two missionary students. The receipts for the year 
were £70,255, and the expenditure £76,818. 



The Scottish Missionary Society was formed in 1796, and 
has stations at Bankote, Hurnee, and Bombay in the East 
Indies, and — at Hampden, Port Maria, Lucea and Cornwall 
on the Island of Jamaica in the West Indies. In the West 
Indies particularly the missions are prosperous, the number of 
communicants being between three and four hundred. The 
receipts of the Society for the year ending March, 1831, were 
£7,487 4s. Gd. The seat of the Society's operations is at 
Edinburgh. 



The Church Missionary Society, embracing members of the 
Established Church in England, was formed in 1800, and ac- 
cording to its plan of organization, its business is conducted 
by a General Committee, consisting of seven Governors and a 
Treasurer, and twenty-four other members, of whom not less 
than twelve must be of the Established Church. The General 
Committee elect from their number a Committee of Corres- 
pondence, and a Committee of Accounts. They meet also for 
business the first Monday in every month. The first Gover- 
nors of the Society were Vice Admiral Gambler, Charles 
Grant, Esq., Sir Richard Hill, Bart. M. P., Henry Hoare, Esq., 
Edward Parry, Esq., Samuel Thornton, Esq., M. P., and Wil- 
liam Wilberforce, Esq. M. P., Henry Thornton, Esq. M. P., 

Treasurer, ±tev. inoiuaa ►3i>uti, a^.v.»^c...^. mu- -.j.*-- -<^ 

the Society for the year 1837-8, £83,447 Us. M. The total 
number of laborers employed as ordained missionaries or 
catechists amount to 168, exclusive of native teachers and 
the Avives of the married laborers. The Society has missions 
in West Africa, South East Africa, the Mediterranean, Cal- 
cutta and North India, Madras and South India, Bombay and 
Western India, Ceylon, China, Australasia,West Indies, North 
West America. The present officers of the Society are The 
Right Honorable the Earl of Chichester, Vice Patron and 
President, nineteen Vice Patrons, twenty Vice Presidents, 
Committee of twenty-three. Committee of Visitors of nine. 
John Thornton, Esq., Treasurer. Rev. John Norman Pearson, 
Principal of the Institution, Rev. W^illiam Jowett, and Dan- 
deson Coates, Esq., Secretaries. Four associate Secretaries, 
and one Collector. — Besides its Missions, the Society has a 
Mission Literary and Theological Institution under its care at 
Islington, where many of its Missionaries are educated. 



APPENDIX. 347 

The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Mis- 
sions was formed June, 1810, at Bradford, Mass., and owes its 
origin to the circumstance, that at the meeting at that time in 
Bradford of the General Association of Congregational Min- 
isters in Massachusetts, several young men about to engage 
in the ministry, but in whose breasts the spirit of Missions, 
had now for some time glowed with an intense heat, made 
known their state of mind to their brethren and fathers, ask- 
ing counsel and advice. At first the Association were in doubt 
what to do. To repress so becoming a spirit in the young 
men they could not, and yet to encourage it, seemed unwar- 
rantable. No society existed in the country, under whose 
patronage they could go out. The Association itself could 
not sustain them, and what might be the response of the 
churches to the proposal to engage in Missions, or how be- 
nevolent individuals of wealth might feel on the subject, they 
could not tell. After prayer and deliberation, however, faith 
and hope prevailed, and the Association ventured on the en- 
terprise in a resolution to institute a Board of Commissioners 
for Foreign Missions — to the salvation of how many souls, 
who can tell ? The first meeting of the Board was at Farm- 
ington, Ct., Sept. 1810, and its first officers were the Hon. 
John Treadwell, LL. D. President ; the Rev. Samuel Worces- 
ter, D. D. Corresponding Secretary ; Jeremiah Evarts, Esq. 
Treasurer; and the Rev. Calvin Chapin, D. D. Recording 
Secretary. — The Board was incorporated June, 1812, by the 
Legislature of Massachusetts; — and its principal executive 
organ is a Prudential Committee. — The receipts of the Board 
each year since its establishment have been as follows : 
1811, $999 52; 1812, $13,611 50; 1813, $11,3G1 18; 1814, 
$12,265 56 ; 1815, $9,993 89 ; 1816, $12,501 03 ; 1817, $29,- 
948 63; 1818, $34,727 72; 1819, $37,520 63; 1820, $39,949 
45 ; 1821, $47,354 95 ; 1822, $59,083 87 ; 1823, $55,758 94 ; 
1824, $47,483 58; 1825, $55,716 18; 1826, $61,616 25; 
1827, $88,341 89; 1828, $102,009 64; 1829, $106,928 26; 
1830, $83,019 37; 1831, $100,934 09; 1832, $130,574 12; 
1833, $145,844 77; 1834, $152,386 10; 1835, $163,340 19; 
1836, $176,232 15 ; 1837, $252,076 55; 1838, $236,170 98— 
amounting in the whole to $2,267,757 98. 

The Board has a permanent fund amounting to $87,205 83. 
Besides its annual report and missionary papers, the Society 
publishes a periodical entitled the Missionary Herald, the 
most valuable work of the kind published in this country. 

The Board has Missions in West Africa, South Africa, 
Greece, Turkey, Syria and the Holy Land, to the Nestorians, 
Mohammedans of Persia,. Mahrattas, at Madras, Madura, in 
Ceylon, Siam, China, Singapore, Borneo, Sandwich Islands, 
to the Cherokees, the Arkansas Cherokees, the Choctaws, the 



348 APPENDIX. 

Pawnees, the Indians in the Oregon country, the Sioux, the 
Ojibwas, the Stockbridge Indians, the New York Indians, the 
Abernaquis. These 26 missions embrace 85 stations, at which 
are laboring- 126 ordained missionaries, 9 of whom are physi- 
cians, 11 physicians not preacliers, 25 teachers, 10 printers 
and book-binders, 8 other male, and 178 female assistant mis- 
sionaries ; in all 358 missionary laborers sent from this coun- 
try ; who, with 7 native preachers and 108 other native 
helpers, make the whole number of persons laboring at the 
several missions under the patronage of the Board, and de- 
pending on its treasury for support, 473. Of these 7 ordained 
missionaries, 1 male and 10 female assistants — in all 18, have 
been sent forth during the year now closed. 

Through the instrumentality of the missionaries, 49 churches 
have been gathered among the heathen, embracing 6,062 
members. Seven seminaries have been established by the 
missionaries, and are sustained at the expense of the Board, 
for the education of native preachers and other assistants, in 
which are 336 pupils. There are also 8 other boarding 
schools, embracing 304 pupils ; besides 154 free schools, in 
which 6,140 children and youth are receiving a Christian edu- 
cation. Under the care of the missions are 13 printing 
establishments, with three type founderies and 24 presses. 
The amount of printing executed at these presses during the 
year 1838, including school-books, portions of Scriptures, re- 
ligious tracts, etc., amounted to 665,862 copies, and 29,880,404 
pages. 

The officers of the Board are Hon. John Cotton Smith, 
LL. D., President, Hon. Stephen Van Rensselaer, LL. D., 
Vice President, Rev. Calvin Chapin, D. D., Recording Secre- 
tary, Charles Stoddard, Esq., Assistant Recording Secretary ; 
Hon. Samuel Hubbard, LL. D., Rev. Warren Fay, D. D., 
Hon. Samuel T. Armstrong, Charles Stoddard, Esq, John 
Tappan, Esq., Daniel Noyes, Esq., and Rev. Nehemiah Adams, 
Prudential Committee ; Rev. Rufus Anderson, D. D., Rev. 
David Greene, and Rev. William J. Armstrong, Secretaries 
for Correspondence, Henry Hill, Esq., Treasurer, William J. 
Hubbard, Esq., and Charles Scudder, Esq., Auditors. 



The General Convention of the Baptist denomination in the 
United States for Foreign Missions, and other important ob- 
jects relating to the Redeemer's kingdom, owes its origin to 
the interest awakened among the Baptists in this country by 
the accession to their denomination, of two of the missionaries, 
(Messrs. Judson and Rice,) who Avere sent out to India with 
Mr. Newell and others, in 1812, by the American Board of 



APPENDIX. 349 

Commissioners for Foreign Missions. It was formed at Phila- 
delpliia, April, ]814. The Convention holds its sessions 
triennially, and is composed of delegates from Missionary- 
Societies, State Conventions, Associations and other religious 
bodies, and of individuals, of the Baptist denomination, who 
contribute to its funds. The payment of >'1G0 entitles a dele- 
gate or individual to a seat and vote in the Convention, on his 
first becoming connected with the body ; and the payment of 
$300 at or before each succeeding triennial meeting there- 
after, to a seat and vote at such meeting ; and in the same 
ratio for additional seats and votes; but no member of the 
Convention is entitled to more than one vote. 

The officers of the Board are (1838-9) a President, fifteen 
Vice Presidents, three Corresponding Secretaries, (Home, 
Foreign and Financial,) a Recording Secretary, a Treasurer 
and an Assistant Treasurer, and forty Managers. The Board 
have an annual meeting for mutual advice, and a monthly 
meeting at their Missionary Rooms in Boston, for the transac- 
tion of business requiring immediate attention. At the an- 
nual meeting, eleven constitute a quorum and at the monthly 
meetings, five. 

The Board have under their charge twenty-three Missions 
— twelve among the Indians of this country ; three in Europe, 
to Germany, France, and Greece ; one in Africa, to the native 
tribes in and around Liberia; and seven in Asia, to the Bur- 
mans, and Karens, Siam, China, Arracan, Assam, and the 
Teloogoos. Connected with these are seventy stations and 
out stations, one hundred missionaries and assistants sent 
from this country, and nearly one hundred native preachers 
and assistants, fifty schools, and five prim iig establishments, 
with fifteen printing presses. The numb r of pages printed 
at Maulmein, Burmah, in 1837, were more than 17,000,000. 
Thirty-eight churches have been organizeJ, numbering two 
thousand members, about five hundred of whom were added 
to the churches in 1836-7. 

The annual expenditure of the Board is about $100,000. 

Officers of the Board for 1838-9, the Rev. Jesse Mercer, 
D. D., President — the Rev. Lucius Bolles, D. D., Home Secre- 
tary, the Rev. Solomon Peck, Foreign Secretary, the Rev. 
Howard Malcom, Financial Secretary, and the Hon. Heman 
Lincoln, Treasurer. 

The official publication of the Board is the "American Bap- 
tist Magazine," issued monthly. 



The Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
in America was established in 1819. The Society has a Pres- 
ident, five Vice Presidents and a Board of Managers con- 
sisting of thirty-two members. The Society supports mis- 
30 



350 APPENDIX. 

sions in Africa, among the Indian tribes, and more extensively 
domestic missions in various parts of the United States. In 
1838, it had 18*2 missionaries, 34 teachers, 818 scholars, 2 
physicians, and 2 mechanics. Its receipts for the same year 
were $90,105. 

The Foreign Missionary Society of the Protestant Episco- 
pal Church in a sense was formed in 1820, though it has 
since been greatly modified. In 1838, it had nine ordained 
missionaries, one printer, nine female assistants, two male as- 
sistants, twenty native teachers, 1,145 scholars, one press, 
printed in five years six and a half millions of pages. Its re- 
ceipts were $27,193. Rev. John A, Vaughn, is Secretary and 
General Agent, and Charles J. Aldis, Treasurer. Its seat of 
operations is New York. 

The Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church 
was established in 1837. Its receipts as reported in 1838 were 
$44,748. It has missions in China, Northern India, Western 
Africa, and among the Western Indians. Its number of mis- 
sionaries is 38. Hon. Walter Lowrie is Corresponding Secre- 
tary, Rev. John Breckenridge, D. D., General Agent, and 
James Paton, Esq., Treasurer. 



(D. p. 122.) 

Jews Societies. 

The London Jews Society was formed in 1808-9, and has 
been an efficient and useful society. According to its Report 
for 1831, it has, besides three missionaries in India under the 
inspection of the Madras Committee, thirteen missionaries, in 
the ten following places and countries, namely, two in Eng- 
land, two in France, one in Hamburg, one in the country 
adjacent to the Lower Rhine, one in Bavaria, one in Frankfort- 
on-the-Maine, one in Dresden, one in Dublin, two at Malta, 
and one at Smyrna. The Society has printed an edition of 
the Hebrew Bible, and an edition also of the German, cor- 
responding to it. It has also translated the Bible into Judeo- 
Polish. The receipts of the society for 1831, are reported to 
have been £14,144 75. 2d. 



The Philo-Judean Society was formed in 1827. It is an 
English society, and has for its object the circulation of the 
Holy Scriptures and Tracts among the Jews, and diffusing 
religious information among Hebrew children and adults. 



APPENDIX. 351 

The American Society for meliorating the condition of 
the Jews was formed at New York in 1820. Considerable 
was expected from it for a time by some, but it seems on the 
whole not to have accomplished much. It had funds at one 
time to the amount of $30,000, but these had become reduced 
in 1827 to $15,900 60. The Society purchased a farm of five 
hundred acres for $6,000, at New Paltz, on the west side of 
the Hudson, opposite Hyde Park, but whether it still possesses 
it and what its operations are, is not known. The Rev. Dr. 
Rowan was employed as an Agent of the Society for some 
time. 

The Female Jews Society of Boston and its Vicinity, was 
formed June 5, 1816, and for several years paid over its funds 
to the London Jews Society. Of late, it has employed its 
funds difterently ; and at present it supports one missionary, 
the Rev. William Schauffler, under the direction of the Ameri- 
can Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Its income 
is understood to be about $500 annually. It has a permanent 
fund of more than $2,000. It has had auxiliaries in different 
parts of New England. 

It is a striking and affecting fact, that after the lapse of 
many centuries, the Jews are beginning to return to Palestine, 
the land of their fathers. In a late " New York Evening Star" 
it is said, " Within a few years great numbers have gone 
thither — they amount now to 40,000, and are increasing in 
multitude by large annual additions. In the first day of the 
month a large number of Israelites from the States of Morocco, 
arrived at Marseilles, in order to embark there for the coast of 
Syria, and proceed thence on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem." 



(E. p. 140.) 

Home Missionary Societies. 

The Connecticut Missionary Society is one of the oldest 
Home Missionary Societies. It originated in the following 
manner. The General Association of Connecticut petitioned 
the Legislature in 1792, for a contribution to be taken 
throughout the State, for Missionary purposes. The petition 
was granted for three years successively. The General 
Association sent Missionaries to New York, Vermont, and 
Pennsylvania. On June 21, 1798, the General Association 
formed themselves into a Missionary Society. The name of 
the Society was the Missionary Society of Connecticut. The 



352 APPENDIX. 

General Association was that Society. Its object as announced 
was, "to Christianize the heathen, or Indians in North 
America, and to support the Gospel in New Settlements." 
The Hon. John Treadwelj, LL. D., was appointed Chairman, 
and Rev. Abel Flint, Secretary of the Board of Trustees. 
The General Assembly in October, 1798, upon application, 
made a grant of a contribution in the several Ecclesiastical 
Societies. The contribution for the first year was £382 9s. 
l^d. This was considered a very great contribution for the 
whole State. One of the principal fields of labor by the 
Society, has been from the first that part of Ohio called New 
Connecticut, or the Western Reserve. It has been the means 
of establishino- about 400 churches. 



The Massachusetts Missionary Society was established at 
Boston, May 28, 1799. It is stated in the preamble to the 
Constitution, that the object of the Society is "to diffuse the 
knowledge of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, among the heathen 
and others in destitute places." In 1816, the Domestic 
Missionary Society of Massachusetts was formed. The 
former, being an incorporated Society the latter was united 
with it in July, 1827. The united Society is now a State 
Society, auxiliary to the American Home Missionary Society. 
Its efforts have been principally within Massachusetts, though 
they have been more or less extended to other States, 
particularly Maine. The churches that have been assisted 
are from 60 to 70 annually, and the number of Missionaries 
employed rising of 50. The Society has an annual sermon in 
connection with the meeting of the General Association of 
Massachusetts, when a collection is taken up in aid of the 
Society. The funds raised by the Society the year 1838, 
amounted to nearly nineteen thousand dollars. 

The first oflicers of the Society were Rev. Nathanael 
Emmons, D. D., President ; Rev. Samuel Austin, D. D., 
Secretary; Deacon John Simpkins, Treasurer; Rev. David 
Sanford, Rev. Daniel Hopkins, D. D., Rev. Ezra Weld, Rev. 
Samuel Spring, D. D., Rev. Joseph Barker, Rev. Samuel 
Niles, Rev. John Crane, D. D., Rev. Samuel Austin, D. D., 
and Rev. Jonathan Strong, D. D., Trustees. 

The present officers of the Society are Rev. Leonard 
Woods, D. D., President ; Rev. Richard S. Storrs, D. D., 
Secretary; John Punchard, Esq. Treasurer; and Mr. Benjamin 
Perkins, Assistant Treasurer. Besides these officers there 
are a number of Vice Presidents, a Board of Trustees, and an 
Executive Committee, of which the Rev. John Codman, D. D., 
is Chairman. 

Besides those already mentioned, there are efficient Home 
Missionary Societies in Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, 



APPENDIX. 



353 



and some other States. For want of documents a more 
particular account of these cannot be given. 

The General Assembly appointed a Standing Committee of 
Missions in 1802 to manage all their Missionary operations. 



The Board of Missions of the General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church was formed in 1818. In 1838 it had 
275 Missionaries, 20,000 children in Sabbath schools, 4,500 in 
Bible classes and 4,500 members of the Temperance Society. 
There were added to the churches aided 3,010 members. 
The receipts for the year were $38,000. The Rev. William 
A. McDowell, D. D., is the Corresponding Secretary, and 
William Nassau, Sen. Esq. Treasurer. 



The American Home Missionary Society is a national 
institution and was formed at New York May 10, 3826, by a 
convention of one hundred and thirty clergymen and laymen, 
chiefly delegates from ecclesiastical bodies and Missionary 
societies previously existing, from fourteen of the United 
States, and belonging to the Presbyterian, Congregational, 
Reformed Dutch, and Associate Reformed churches. Though 
of later origin than some of the limited local Societies having 
in view the same object, it was formed with their concurrence 
generally, and now sustains the character of Parent Institution 
to most of them. The particular Society to whose place it 
succeeded, was the United Domestic Missionary Society of 
New York. The object of the Society is, "to assist congre- 
gations that are unable to support the gospel ministry, and to 
send the gospel to the destitute within the United States." 
It has prosecuted its object with great success. The results 
of its operations in several particulars are exhibited in the 
foUowins" table. 





.1 
3 


i 

1 


fumber of 
lissionaries. 
umber of new 
ppointments. 


m 
1 =^ 


II 


3 


1^ 


o 
5 o 


> 


f^ 


a 


^"^" 




u.l 


K 


tH 


< 


1 


$18,130 7U 


$13,984 17 


169 


68 


196 


not rep. 


not rep. 


110 


not rep. 


2 


20,035 78 


17,849 22 


201 


89 


244 


206 


100 


133 


1,000 


3 


2G,997 31 


26,814 96 


304 


169 


401 


289 


134 


186 


1,678 


4 


33,929 44 


42,429 50 


392 


166 


500 


369 


203 


274 


1,959 


5 


48,124 73 


47,247 60 


463 


164 


577 


500 


200 


294 


2,532 


6 


49,422 12 


52,808 39 


509! 158 


745 


544 


239 


361 


6,126 


7 


68,627 17 


66,277 96 


6061 209 


801 


770 


378 


417 


4,284 


8 


78,911 44 


80,015 76 


676 200 


899 


Pupils. 


Pupils. 


463 


2,736 


9 


88,863 22 


83,394 28 


719 204 


1,050 


40,000 


12,000 


490 


3,300 


10 


101,565 15 


92,108 94 


755 249 


1,000 


50,000 


15,000 


545 


3,750 


]1 


85,701 59 


99,529 72 


8101 232 


1,025 


60,000 


20,000 


554 


3,753 


12 


86,522 45 


85,066 26 


684 123 


840 


50,000 


17,000 


438 


3,376 



30* 



354 APPENDIX. 

The officers of the Society for 1838 were Henry Dwight, 
Esq., President; 34 Vice Presidents; 51 Directors; Mr. 
Knowles Taylor, Treasurer; Mr. Arthur Tappan, Auditor; 
Rev. Milton Badger, Rev. Charles Hall, Secretaries for 
Correspondence, and Mr. William M. Halsted, Recording 
Secretary. 

The American Baptist Home Missionary Society was insti- 
tuted in the city of New York, April, 1832. It owes its origin 
principally to the enterprise and zeal of the Rev. Jonathan 
Going, D. D., who was the first Corresponding Secretary, and 
who in 1830-1, made the tour of the Southern and Western 
country, and on his return awakened his brethren more 
effectually to the necessity of engaging in Home Missions. 
Its "great object is to promote the preaciiing of the gospel in 
North America," by aiding feeble churches to support their 
pastors and by sending missionaries to the destitute. In 1838 
its receipts were $16,035 ; its missionaries and agents were 
113; these had baptised 1,431 and gathered into Sabbath 
schools 5,000 scholars. Hon. Heman Lincoln is President ; 
Rev. Luther Crawford, Corresponding Secretary, and Runyan 
W. Martin, Esq. Treasurer. 



(F. p. 155.) 

Education Societies. 

The American Education Society owes its origin to the 
great and increasing demand for pious and learned ministers 
of the gospel. The first meeting in relation to it, called by 
Rev. Jedediah Morse, D. D., of Charlestown, and others, and 
consisting of a respectable number of clergymen and laymen, 
was held in Boston, July 20, 1815. This meeting was princi- 
pally for consultation, and resulted only in the conclusion that 
it was best to establish such a Society, and in the appoint- 
ment of a committee of ten, six clergymen and four laymen, 
to draft a constitution and report at an adjourned meeting. 
According to adjournment, a meeting was held in Boston, Au- 
gust 29, 1815, at which time a constitution was adopted and 
the Society was formed; yet its officers were not elected till 
December 7, following. The individuals then chosen were 
His Honor William Phillips, President ; Samuel Salisbury, 
Esq., William Bartlett, Esq., and Hon. William Reed, Vice 
Presidents ; Henry Gray, Esq., Clerk ; Rev. John Codman, 
D. D., Corresponding Secretary ; Aaron Porter Cleveland, 
Esq., Treasurer; and Dea. John E. Tyler, Auditor. The 



APPENDIX. 355 

Directors were Rev. Eliphalet Pearson, LL. D., Rev. Abiel 
Holmes, D. D., Rev. Daniel Dana, D. D., Rev. Ebenezer 
Porter, D. D., Rev. Joshua Bates, D. D., Rev. Brown Emer- 
son, D. D,, and Rev. Asa Eaton, D. D. Dr. Eaton was chosen 
Clerk of the Board of Directors. 

The Society was incorporated by an act of the legislature 
of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, December 4, 1816. 

It is national in its character, and catholic in its principles, 
and has bestowed its patronage upon young men of different 
denominations of evangelical sentiments from all parts of the 
United States, whose qualifications in other respects have 
been deemed suitable. Most of its beneficiaries, however, 
have been connected with Congregationalists and Presbyteri- 
ans. The method of bestowing its charities has been various. 
The first plan adopted by the Society, was to aflfbrd gratuitous 
assistance to young men, sufficient to meet their necessary 
expenses ; but this was found to encourage indolence, idle- 
ness, and extravagance. October 13, 1819, the Directors 
fixed upon a definite sum to be granted to the beneficiaries, 
throwing them for support, in some'measure, upon their own 
resources and efforts ; but this method did not prove, in its 
operations, altogether satisfactory. October 11, 18'20, the 
method of assisting young men by way of loans was adopted ; 
and an obligation was required of them by the Society, to re- 
fund one half the amount received. This method operated 
favorably ; and since July 12, 18*26, an obligation has been 
required to refund the whole with interest after a reasonable 
time subsequent to the completion of the beneficiary's educa- 
tion, and his entrance upon the active duties of his profession. 
The notes, however, of foreign and domestic missionaries, 
and of ministers settled over feeble churche.s, may be cancel- 
led at the discretion of the Board of Directors. Students at 
academies receive $60 a year, and those at colleges and 
theological seminaries, $80. 

April 10, 1816, the Directors voted that they would hold 
quarterly meetings on the second Wednesdays of January, 
April, July and October, at 10 o'clock, A. M., for the purpose 
of making appropriations to beneficiaries, and transacting any 
other business that might come before them. The quarterly 
meetings have been held on these days from that time to the 
present. 

Tiie Board of Directors established a Committee of Agency 
of their own members, as early as Jan. 13, 1819. Jan. 9, 
1828, the name of this Committee was changed, and its powers 
enlarged. It was called the Executive Committee, and in- 
vested with authority to act in behalf of the Directors during 
the interim of the Quarterly Sessions of the Board. May 28, 
1827, a Financial Committee was established for the purpose 
of superintending and managing the funds of the Society. 



356 APPENDIX. 

For the first ten years, the Society operated in different 
parts of the United States in a loose and desultory manner, 
though societies and associations auxiliary to it were form- 
ed in various places of the land. Since then, it has from time 
to time become more systematic in its operations. In 1826 and 
1827, Education Societies which had been formed in Maine, 
New Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut and New York, (the 
latter extending over the States of New York, New Jersey, 
and Pennsylvania,) became connected with the American 
Education Society as Branches. In 1829 and 1830, Branch 
Societies were formed for Illinois, Indiana, and that part of 
Ohio called the Western Reserve. In 1829 also, an Agency 
was established at Cincinnati, Ohio ; in 1831, Agencies were 
established in East and West Tennessee, at Utica in 1833, 
and at Philadelphia in 1834. In 1830, an Auxiliary Society 
was formed for Rhode Island. Since 1829, county auxiliaries 
have been formed in most of the counties in the States of 
Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut and Massa- 
chusetts. It should be observed, however, that previously to 
1818, four county societies had been formed within Massa- 
chusetts. July 13, 1831, the Presbyterian Branch was reor- 
ganized and greatly extended in its operations. 

October 2, 1835, an Education Society for Michigan Terri- 
tory was formed, and went into operation, connected with the 
Western Reserve Branch. In the autumn of 1837, this 
Society altered its constitution so as to become a Branch, and 
as such was, January 10, 1838, recognized by the American 
Education Society. 

The plan of pastoral supervision of the beneficiaries was 
early adopted, and in some measure carried into execution. 
Persons were specially appointed to visit the young men, for 
this purpose. Since 1826, this service has been more fully 
performed, and been attended with happy effects on the benefi- 
ciaries, and the cause generally. The object, as expressed 
in a Rule of the Society, is thus stated: — "The Secretary 
shall be required to exercise, so far as he shall be able, pas- 
toral supervision over all who are under the patronage of the 
Society, by visiting them at the places where they reside, and 
conversing and praying with them individually and collec- 
tively ; corresponding with them and their instructors, and by 
other means calculated to excite them to effort, and to en- 
courage them to seek an elevated spirit of piety." The Secre- 
tary of the Parent Society has performed this service so far 
as his other duties of an imperative nature would allow. 
Other Secretaries and permanent Agents also have taken a 
part in this important work. 

The receipts of the Society from year to year, as appears by 
the Annual Reports, are as follows, viz. 1816, 8.5,714; 1817, 
$6,436; 1818, $5,971; 1819, $19,330; 1820, $15,148; 1821, 



APPENDIX. 357 

$13,108; 1822, $15,940 ; 1823, $11,545; 1824, $9,454 ; 1826,* 
$16,596; 1827, $33,094; 1828, $31,591 ; 1829, $30,084 ; 1830, 
$30,710; 1831, $40,450; 1832, $42,030; 1833, $47,836; 
1834, $57,818; 1835, $83,062; 1836,. $63,227; 1837, $65,574; 
1838, $55,660. 

The Society has a permanent fund amounting to nearly 
$80,000. 

The results of the Society have been as follows. It has 
assisted since its formation, 3,126 young men of different 
evangelical denominations, from every Stale in the Union. 
The number aided in each succeeding venr, from 1816 to 
1838, is as follows: 7, 138, 140, 161. 172,^205, 195, 216, 198, 
225, 156, 300, 404, 524, 604, 673,807, 912, 1,040, 1,040, 1,125, 
1,141. Of those who received the patronage of the Society 
during the year 1838, 283 were in eighteen theological semi- 
naries, 588 in forty colleges, and 270 in eighty-two academies 
or under private instruction. Of these there were at vari- 
ous institutions in the New England States 617, at institutions 
in the Middle States 325, and at institutions in the Southern 
and Western States 199. The Society has been instrumental 
of introducing to the ministry about 1,500 individuals, nearly 
60 of whom have gone forth as missionaries to the heathen. 

The whole amount which has been refunded by former 
beneficiaries, is as follows: during the eleven years preceding 
April 30, 1826, $339 60; in 1827, $90 00; 1828, $864 22; 
1829, $830 91; 1830, $1,007 84; 1831, $2,647 63; 1832, 
$1,312 77 ; 1833, $2,113 27 ; 1834, $1,947 78 ; 1835, $2,957 
14; 1836, $4,332 53; 1837, $7,644 10; 1838, $4,467 95— 
making $30,555 74. 

The sum of earnings by the beneficiaries for labor and 
school-keeping, reported from year to year, for the last twelve 
vears, is as follows, viz. : 1827, 84,000; 1828, $5,149; 1829, 
$8,728; 1830, $11,010; 1831, $11,460; 1832, $15,568; 1833, 
$20,611; 1834, $26,268; 1835, $29,829; 1836, $33,502; 
1837, $39,685 87; 1838, $37,844 88— making $243,654. 

In July, 1827, the Directors of the Society established a pe- 
riodical, first entitled the " Quarterly Journal of the American 
Education Society ;" in January, 1829, it took the name of the 
" Quarterly Register and Journal of the American Education 
Society ;" in August, 1830, the name of the " Quarterly 
Register of the American Education Society ;" and since Au- 
gust, 1831, the title of the "American Quarterly Register." 
This publication contains a great mass of literary and eccle- 
siastical statistics, and various treatises relating to education, 
the Christian ministry, etc. 

*In 1826 the lime for holding the armual meeting- was clianged, and the 
Annual Report of that year embraces a period of twenty mojiliis. 



358 APPENDIX. 

The present officers of the Society are Hon. Samuel Hub- 
bard, LL. D., Presid€7it, Hon. William Bartlett, Vice President, 
and twenty-seven Honorary Vice Presidents. Directors — Rev. 
Brown Emerson, D. D., Rev. Warren Fay, D. D., John Tappan, 
Esq., Arthur Tappan, Esq., Hon. Samuel T. Armstrong, Rev. 
John Codman, D. D., Rev. William Cogswell, D. D., Rev. 
Ralph Emerson, D. D., Rev. William Patton, U. D., Rev. 
William Jenks, D, D., Rev. Ebenezer Burgess, D. D. 

Rev. William Cogswell, D. D., is Secretary, Hardy Ropes, 
Esq., Treasurer, and Hon. Pliny Cutler, Auditor. 



There are other Education Societies which exist as denom- 
inational institutions, whose object is to educate those young 
men only who are of the denomination to which the Society 
belongs whose patronage they receive. 

The Massachusetts Baptist Education Society was formed 
in 1814. In the winter of 1830, a new act of incorporation 
was obtained, when the institution took the name of the 
Northern Baptist Education Society. Since then its opera- 
tions have been enlarged. There is now organized in each 
of the New England States, a Branch Society holding to 
the Parent Society the mutual relation of giving or receiv- 
ing assistance as the circumstances of either may admit or 
require, and of aiding young men in like manner. Baptist 
Education Societies existed in Rhode Island and Connecticut 
previous to the present organization of the Northern Baptist 
Education Society. The Society in Rhode Island was formed 
in 1816 and that in Connecticut in 1818. 

The design of the Northern Baptist Education Society is to 
receive all suitable applicants coming from any section where 
there is no Branch. The number of beneficiaries reported 
in May 1838 was 170. The average amount of funds receiv- 
ed annually for current use, for the last six years, is $9,040 38. 
The Society has a permanent fund amounting to $25,080 50. 
The amount granted to beneficiaries varies according to the 
stage of his education $48 being the minimum, $75 being the 
maximum. For each appropriation, they give their note, 
without security and without interest, payable, one third 'at 
the end of one year after they shall have completed their 
education, and the other two-thirds, at the expiration of the 
second and third years. 

The officers of the Society are Rev. Daniel Sharp, D, D., 
President, nine Vice Presidents, and eight Directors, Rev. 
Ebenezer Thresher, Corresponding Secretary, Augustus A. 
Gould, M. D. Recording Secretary, and John B, Jones, Esq., 
Treasurer. 



APPENDIX. 359 

The Board of Education of the General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church in the United States was organized in 
1819. It aided during the year 1838, 414 young men prepar- 
ing for the ministry at 95 different institutions of learning ; 
and its receipts were $35,0(39. The Rev. Francis McFarland 
is Corresponding Secretary, the Rev. William Chester, Gen- 
eral Agent, the Rev. James A. Peabody, Financial Secretary, 
and J. B. Mitchell, Esq., Treasurer. 

There are three or four other denominational Education 
Societies in this country ; but their operations as yet have 
been small. 

Other Education Societies as the " National Education So- 
ciety of England," and the " British and Foreign School 
Society" are societies of great usefulness, but are not strictly 
and exclusively religious, and have not in view the education 
of pious young men for the Christian ministry. 



(G. p. 172.) 
Sabhath School Societies. 

As early as the year 1695 the Synod of Germany established 
a species of Sabbath school instruction, which was confined 
to the "unmarried youth of both sexes who had received 
confirmation." Before this period, schools for this purpose 
seem to have been formed in connection with some of the 
Roman Catholic churches of Europe. In the sixteenth cen- 
tury, Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan, established schools, in 
which the Catholic faith was taught and its ceremonies were 
observed. These schools are thus described by the Rev. 
Daniel Wilson, in 1823, while in that country in his tour 
through Europe. He says, "After our English service, we 
went to see the catechising. This was founded by Borromeo, 
in the sixteenth century, and is peculiar to Milan. The 
children meet in classes of ten or twenty, drawn up between 
the pillars of the cathedral, and separated from each other by 
curtains, the boys on one side and the girls on the other. In 
all the churches of the city there are classes also. Many 
grown people are mingled with the children. A priest sat in 
the midst of each class, and seemed to be familiarly explaining 
the Christian religion. The sight was quite interesting. 
Tables for learning to write were placed in the recesses. 
The children were exceedingly attentive. At the door of 
each school, the words, ^Pax vobis,^ (peace be unto you,) were 
inscribed on boards. Each scholar had a small pulpit, with a 
green cloth in front, bearing the Borromeo motto, ^Humilitas.''" 



360 APPENDIX. 

Though Borromeo may have been the founder of a particu- 
lar class of Sabbath schools for his diocess at Milan, yet it 
remained for another greater than he in this work to establish 
them for the world. The present Sabbath school system 
originated about half a century ago in the benevolence of 
Robert Raikes, printer, of Gloucester, England. "One day," 
says he, "in the year 1782, I went into the suburbs of my 
native city, to hire a gardener. The man was from home, and 
while I waited his return, I was much disturbed by a group of 
noisy boys who infested the street. I asked the gardener's 
-wife the cause of these children being so neglected and 
depraved. 'Oh, Sir,' said she, 'if you were here on a 
Sunday, you would pity them indeed. We cannot read our 
Bibles in peace for them.' Can nothing be done, I asked for 
these poor children ? Is there nobody near who would take 
them to school on Sundays? I was informed that there was 
a person in the neighborhood who would probably do it. I 
accordingly hired a woman to teach these poor children on 
Sundays, and thus commenced the first Sunday school." The 
plan succeeded. Raikes died in 1811, and during the nineteen 
years from the time he commenced the first Sabbath school, 
up to the time of his death, Sabbath schools had multiplied in 
Great Britain to the number of 300,000. 

As early as September 24, 1785, Mr. Cowper addressed a 
letter to the Rev. John Newton, from which is taken the fol- 
lowing extract: "Mr. Scott, (Rev. Thomas Scott,) called upon 
us yesterday ; he is much inclined to set up a Sunday school, 
if he can raise a fund for that purpose. Mr. Jones has had 
one for some time at Clifton, and Mr. Unwin writes me word 
that he has been thinking of nothing else day and night for a 
fortnight." The following extract is from a letter of Rev. 
John Wesley, dated London, June 17, 1787, and is very 
expressive of his views and feelings: "I am glad you have 
taken in hand that blessed work of setting up Sunday schools 
in Chester. It seems these will be one great means of 
reviving religion throughout the nation. I wonder Satan has 
not yet sent out some able champion against them." 

Considering the condition and too often the character of 
those whom it was designed especially to benefit, the institu- 
tion was at first unpopular with the upper classes in society. 
It was thought it might be very useful to the poor and igno- 
rant, but that the more wealthy and better informed did not 
need its assistance. It was found, however, that all, of all 
classes, might be benefited, and it has now for a long time 
been common for scholars of all descriptions to attend these 
schools. The first adoption of the system in this country was 
in the city of Philadelphia. Something similar had been 
attempted by way of catechetical instruction, but this was all. 



APPENDIX. 361 

And now besides a more varied and efficient system of 
teaching-, an entirely new field was to be cultivated in the 
way of providing' more suitable books for the young to read. 

The first Sabbath School Society in the United States was, 
"The First Day or Sunday School Society in Philadelphia," 
established in 1791 ; among the founders of which were 
Bishop White, Dr. Rush, Robert Ralston, Esq., Paul Beck, Jr., 
William Rawle, Thomas P. Cope, Matthew Carey, and 
Thomas Armat. 

In 1803, Sunday Schools were formed in New York, by 
Mrs. Isabella Graham, in 1806, in Kent, (Maryland,) by the 
Rev. S. Wilmer, and in 1813, in Albany. Since that time, 
they have been in all parts of the country constantly increas- 
ing. " Where there is a population, there is a Sabbath 
School." The system prevails throughout the length and 
breadth of the country. 

The American Sunday School Union was formed at Phila- 
delphia, out of the Philadelphia Sunday and Adult School 
Union, at its seventh anniversary, in May, 1824. Its officers 
are, a President, a large number of Vice Presidents, a Corres- 
ponding and a Recording Secretary, a Board of Managers, 
and several Committees, of which the Committee on Books is 
the most important, it being understood that it is always to be 
composed of men of different religious denominations, and 
that no book is to appear as a book of the Society, without 
having first received the approbation of each and every 
member of the Committee. 

After the lapse of two or three years, the business of the 
Society increased to such a degree as to require more exten- 
sive accommodations, and in March, 1827, the buildings now 
occupied by the institution in Chestnut street, Philadelphia, 
were purchased at an expense of forty thousand dollars; 
sixteen of which were contributed by the citizens of Philadel- 
phia, and nearly twenty thousand are still due. 

The general objects to which the funds of the American 
Sunday School Union are appropriated are two fold. 

1. The establishment and support of Sunday Schools in 
destitute places, especially in the Western and Southern 
States. 

2. The distributing of the Society's publications at the 
lowest prices, or gratuitously. 

Not less than 16,000 schools, 11.5,000 teachers, and 800,000 
pupils have been reported as auxiliary; and of the teachers 
and scholars, upwards of 50,000 have been reported to have 
connected themselves with the church of Christ. 

On the printed catalogue of books for the year 1826 — 7 
there were 60 containing 3,500 pages ; for the year 1832 — 3 
there were 300 containing 26,000 pages ; for the year 1836 — 7 
31 



362 APPENDIX. 

there were 500 containing 45,000 pages. The expenses in 
the department of publications in 1825 were $7,500; in 1836 
they were !?'38,597. The amount of sales in 1825 was 
$5,5G3 93, and in 1836, $72,776 85. The number of pages 
of stereotype plates in 1825, was less than a thousand ; in 
1836, not far from fifty thousand. 

The Society published for several years a monthly periodi- 
cal called the Sunday School Magazine, but in its stead it now 
publishes a weekly paper entitled, Sunday School Journal, 
and Advocate of Christian Education. It also publishes the 
Youth's Friend and Infant's Magazine. 

The officers of the Society for 1838 were Alexander Henry, 
Esq., President ; Paul Beck, Jr. Esq., Treasurer; Frederick 
W. Porter, Esq., Corresponding Secretary, and Frederick A. 
Packard, Esq., Recording Secretary, besides Vice Presidents 
and a Board of Managers. 

The Society has made special exertions in behalf of the 
"Valley of the Mississippi, and the destitute parts of the 
country generally. The resolution which was adopted at the 
Anniversary of the Society in 1830, — "That the American 
Sunday School Union, in reliance upon divine aid, will, within 
two years, establish a Sunday School in every destitute place 
where it is practicable, throughout the Valley of the Missis- 
sippi," has, to a very considerable extent, been carried into 
effect. 



The Massachusetts Sabbath School Union, composed prin- 
cipally of the Congregational and Baptist denominations — 
was formed, auxiliary to the American Sunday School Union, 
May 24, 1825. The Board, having decided that it was 
expedient for the Union to publish books in addition to those 
furnished by the Parent Society, appointed a Publishing Com- 
mittee in May, 1828, and during that year they issued nine 
new books, and the sales of the Depository were more than 
double what they had been any preceding year. 

In February, 1832, the Secretary, Rev. Artemas Bullard, in 
resigning his office, presented various reasons to the Board, 
why he regarded it expedient for the Union to be divided. 
The Board approved of these reasons, and appointed a com- 
mittee to make arrangements for a division, which was 
harmoniously effected at the annual meeting in May, 1832. 
The Baptists, immediately after the division, organized them- 
selves into a State Society, retaining the old name of Massa- 
chusetts Sabbath School Union. In 1836 they extended their 
organization and adopted the name of New England Sabbath 
School Union. 



APPENDIX. ' 363 

The Massachusetts Sabbath School Society was organized, 
by the Congregational Life Members and Delegates of the 
old Massachusetts Sabbath School Union, May the 30th, 1832. 
Hon. William Reed, of Marblehead, who had been President 
of the Union, during the whole seven years of its existence, 
was chosen President of the Society, and continued to sustain 
that office, in a manner highly commendable, till his decease, 
February 18, 1837. The objects of this Society are much 
like those of the Union, only less restricted. The officers are 
a President, three Vice Presidents, Secretary and General 
Agent, Treasurer, Auditor and twelve Managers. The Board 
of Managers are divided into three Committees, viz., one on 
Agencies, one of Publication and one on Depository. The 
present year (1839) Hon. Samuel T. Armstrong is President, 
Rev. Asa BuUard, Secretary and General Agent, and Charles 
Scudder, Esq., Treasurer. 

There are connected with this Society, not far from 450 
Schools, embracing between 8,500 and 9,000 teachers and 
superintendents, and from 55 to 60,000 scholars; of whom 
from 15 to 20,000 are over 18 years of age. During the first 
six years of this Society, there were reported 1,068 teachers 
and 6,943 scholars who had become hopefully pious, most of 
whom had made a public profession of religion. 

The prosperity and usefulness of the Society has been 
steadily increasing from its commencement. The amount of 
sales at the Depository, for the last three years, has been 
from 18,000 to $22,000 annually. No branch of the Society's 
operations has contributed more to its efficiency than its 
Publishing Department. The present number of its publi- 
cations, exclusive of its cards, maps, &c., is 212. During the 
last seven years, the schools in this State, have contributed 
for the gratuitous circulation of these books, between $3,000 
and $4,000. The publications of the Society are sold more or 
less extensively in nearly all the States in the Union. The 
monthly periodical, the Sabbath School Visiter, also, has a 
wide circulation. 

The Society is sustained, in its pecuniary operations, wholly 
by the business of the Depository and Life Memberships, 
without calling on the churches for public contributions and 
subscriptions. 

The only Sunday School Society of other countries, from 
which a report has been obtained, is the Sunday School 
Society for Ireland, formed November, 1819. From the 
twenty-first Report of this Society, its receipts for the year 
were £3,330 35. 3(/.— £2,771 II5. 8t/. by subscriptions and 
donations. The number of schools connected with the 
Society, January 1, 1831, was 251 ; gratuitous teachers, 



364 APPENDIX. 

18,687— scholars, 202,332. The Society had distributed, in 
all, from the time of its formation, 283,616 Testaments. A 
considerable number of Associations, in aid of the Society, 
have been formed in England, Wales, and Scotland. 

Besides the Society for Ireland, there is the Sunday School 
Union for England, and the Sunday School Society for 
Scotland. Though not for exactly the same purpose contem- 
plated in Sabbath Schools ; there is also the National Educa- 
tion Society of England, established in 1813, and the British 
and Foreign School Society ; the latter of which particularly 
is said to exert a salutary intluence over the schools in France, 
Spain, Russia, Germany, Italy, Malta, the British Provinces in 
North America, Hayti, and the West Indies. The London 
Christian Instruction Society also, formed 1825, is a very 
useful institution, nearly 20,000 families and 100,000 individ- 
uals receiving the visits of the constituted agents of the 
Society. 

On the importance of the Sabbath School system, a more 
just remark has not been met with, than that of Dr. Alexander, 
of Princeton. "I do not know," says he, " that the beneficence 
of Providence has been more manifest in any thing which 
has occurred in our day than in the general institution of 
Sunday Schools." 

The extent to which Sabbath Schools have been instituted 
is as wide, almost, as that of the spread and establishment of 
the Gospel. They have been formed every where in Protes- 
tant Europe and America, and at almost all the missionary 
stations among pagans and semi-barbarians. The whole 
number of children and youth connected with Sabbath schools, 
it is difficult to state exactly, but it has been computed that 
not less than about two millions are receiving the weekly 
instructions of this benign and heavenly institution. 



(H. p.286.) 

Temperance Societies. 

The origin of Temperance Societies is wholly American. 
The first considerable movement on the subject was in 
1811. A committee was then appointed by the General 
Association of Massachusetts to co-operate with committees 
of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church and the 
General Association of Connecticut, in devising ways and 
means by which the then existing evils from the use of ardent 
spirits might be remedied, and greater threatening evils 
provided against. This resulted in the formation, February 15, 
1813, of the Massachusetts Society for the Suppression of 



APPENDIX. 365 

Intemperance. This Society was not formed on what has 
proved the successful principle, and which was about that 
time suggested in a course of articles published in the 
Panoplist, and written by the Rev. Heman Humphrey, of 
Fairfield, Conn., now Dr. Humphrey, President of Amherst 
College. To suppress intemperance, while continuing the 
moderate use, as it has been called, of ardent spirit, proving 
impracticable, the successful principle, namely, total absti- 
nence, was at length more particularly advocated in 1822. 
Sufficient time had elapsed for the Massachusetts Society for 
the Suppression of Intemperance to make trial of its success, 
and prove its insufficiency. In the mean time, articles had 
been published on the general subject, and the public mind 
was becoming more and more prepared for the movements 
which have since followed. Dr. Rush had written on the use 
of ardent spirit, as early as 1804, showing its evil effects; 
and besides the Essays of Mr. Humphrey, in 1813, a Tract 
was published in 1814 against the use of it in entertainment ; 
and Judge Hurtell published his Expos6 in 1819. The doctrine 
was at length insisted on, that ardent spirit is not necessary. 
In 1825, the Rev. Justin Edwards, D. D., now President of 
the Theological Seminary, Andover, wrote the tract entitled, 
"The well conducted Farm," exhibiting the results of an 
experiment in carrying on a farm without the use of ardent 
spirit. About the same time, the Massachusetts Society for 
the Suppression of Intemperance began to revive, and took 
the ground of total abstinence ; and though as yet there was 
no general movement, many were becoming prepared for 
action. At length, arrangements were made for a general 
meeting of individuals of various religious denominations, at 
Boston, Jan. 10, 182G, and at an adjourned meeting, Feb. 13, 
1826, the American Temperance Society was formed. Of the 
first meeting, the Hon. George Odiorne was Moderator, and the 
Rev. William Jenks, D. D., Clerk. The meeting was opened 
with prayer by the Rev. Mr. Merritt, of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, and resolutions were offered by Jeremiah Evarts, 
Esq., Secretary of the American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions. At the second meeting, the Society was 
formed, and the officers chosen, viz : — The Hon. Marcus 
Morton, LL. D., President; the Hon. Samuel Hubbard, LL. D.,^ 
Vice President; William Ropes, Esq. Treasurer; and John 
Tappan, Esq., Auditor. Executive Committee were the Rev. 
Leonard Woods, D. D., the Rev. Justin Edwards, D. D., John 
Tappan, Esq., the Hon. George Odiorne, and S. V. S. 
Wilder, Esq. On the 12th of March succeeding, the Society 
met, and the Committee reported an Address to be published 

* Mr. Hubbard was chosen President, and Dr. Edwards, Corresponding 
Secretary, in May lo31. 

31* 



366 APPENDIX. 

and circulated, and 84 men, from the northern and middle 
States, were chosen additional members of the Society. 

While this was in progress in Massachusetts, the Rev. 
Calvin Chapin, D. D., of Wethersfield, Conn., was publishing', 
in the Connecticut Observer, a series of articles, which had a 
happy effect, illustrating and enforcing the doctrine of total 
abstinence. In 1827, an effort was made to establish a fund 
for the support of a Corresponding Secretary and General 
Permanent Agent of the Society, and considerable sums were 
obtained in Boston, Salem, Newburyport, Andover, and North- 
ampton. This year, the Rev. Justin Edwards, D. D., who had 
acted as Secretary and Agent, not being permitted, on account 
of his pastoral duties, to continue his labors for the Society, 
the Rev. Nathaniel Hewit was appointed in his place. In 
this year, also, several of the most popular and affecting 
temperance addresses and sermons were published, as Kit- 
tredge's first Address, the Address of Dr. Mussey, and the 
Sermons of Mr. Palfrey and Dr. Beecher. Medical Societies 
also came forward this year, in resolutions, seconding the 
cause, and declaring the uselessness and injurious tendency 
of ardent spirit. Tracts, too, were multiplied, and all sober 
men seemed to be of one mind on the subject. In November, 
of this year, Mr. Hewit, who had finished his temporary 
agency, was appointed again for three years; and, accepting 
his appointment, prepared to enter on his labors, the beginning 
of the year 1828. Other temporary agents also were appointed 
in different parts of the country, and the cause prospered 
every where. More, probably, was done this year in Massa- 
chusetts than in any one State, but considerable was effected 
in Connecticut, Maine, New York, Georgia, Alabama, and 
other States. There was generally a great increase of 
societies, and the various ecclesiastical bodies passed resolu- 
tions expressive of their estimation of the subject and the 
evil to be remedied. In 1829, the Committee established a 
weekly paper entitled, "The Journal of Humanity," to be the 
organ of temperance communications, and Dr. Edwards was 
re-appointed to the service of the Society. Additional local 
agents were appointed, and, at the close of the year, there 
had been formed and reported more than 1,000 societies, 
embracing more than 10,000 members. More than 50 distil- 
leries had been stopped. More than 400 merchants had 
renounced their traffic in ardent spirit, and more than 1,200 
drunkards had been reformed. In 1830, Mr. Hewit continued 
his labors, with success, till September, when he resigned his 
agency, and became the pastorof achurch at Bridgeport, Conn. 
During his agency, he visited most of the principal places 
in the middle and southern States, especially along the 
seaboard. Dr. Edwards also visited some parts of the middle 



APPENDIX. 367 

States, most of New England, and the province of New 
Brunswick. In 1831, the reformation was equally successful, 
and the number of societies was increased to more than 3,000, 
of which 18 were State Societies. The merchants who had 
abandoned the trade in ardent spirit were more than 3,000, 
and more than 300,000 persons in all had become converted 
to the temperance cause. Among the agents this year, 
there were Dr. Edwards, the Rev. S. Graham, the Hon. F. 
Robinson, Governor Cass, afterwards Secretary of War, and 
Jonathan Kittredge, Esq. Dr. He wit visited Europe, where 
he was received with warm affection, and was instrumental of 
great good. He arrived at London just in time to attend 
the meeting for the formation of a Temperance Society for 
the United Kingdom, which, at his suggestion, was styled 
"The British and Foreign Temperance Society." There 
had been some movement on tlie subject of temperance 
before, especially in Ireland, where the first temperance 
society in Europe was formed by the Rev. George Carre, of 
New Ross, Professor Edgar, of Belfast, Ireland, also distin- 
guished himself in the cause. Dr. Hewit, while absent, 
was solicited to go to Italy and Germany, to promote the 
cause on the continent. In 1832, important temperance 
meetings were held in England, at Worcester, York, Isling- 
ton, and other places, and the consumption of ardent spirit 
was supposed to be diminished one third. Something was 
beginning to be done, too, in other countries abroad. The 
Emperor of China forbade spirit to be sold to nominal Chris- 
tians, and temperance societies were formed at different 
places on the coast of Africa. In the Sandwich Islands, 
especially, the reformation was very prosperous. 

In this country, a most important temperance meeting was 
held in Washington, at which many distinguished members of 
Congress were present. In Nov. 1832, an order from the war 
department of government suspended the rations of spirit to 
the soldiers, and a reformation was taking place in the army 
generally. Additions to the temperance societies were 
made as in years previous, and tiie number of societies in 
all, taking the M'hole country together, Avas more than 
10,000, embracing more than 1,500,000 members. The 
number of distilleries stopped was more than 1,500, and more 
than 4,000 merchants had given over the traffic. In accom- 
plishing all this, adequate means were of course necessary, 
and besides agents and occasional correspondence, there 
were issued in the State of New York alone, not less than 
327,725 copies of different temperance publications. Since 
the opening of 1833, another imjjortant meeting has been 
held at Washington, and resulted in the formation of a Con- 
gressional Temperance Society, embracing a large number of 



368 APPENDIX. 

the principal men in both Houses of Congress. The officers 
of the Society, are taken from the members of Cons^ress, and 
for the year 1838, were Hon. Felix Grundy, Tenn., President; 
Hon. William C. Rives, Va., Hon. James M. Wayne, Judge 
of the S. C. U. S., Hon. Samuel Prentiss, Vt., Hon. Franklin 
Pierce, N. H., Hon. John Reed, Ms., Hon. Elisha Whittlesey, 
0., Hon. Samuel Southard, N. J., Hon. T. Henry, Pa., Hon. 
A. Loomis, N. Y., Hon. Edmund Debery, N. C, Vice Presi- 
dents ; Hon. George N. Briggs, Ms., Hon. Benjamin Swift, 
Vt., Hon. George Grennel, Ms., Hon. David Potts, Pa., 
Hon. William Slade, Vt., Executive Committee ; J. S. 
Mehan, Esq., Librarian to Congress, Secretary, Hon. Joseph 
C. Noyes, Me., Treasurer. 



The following is an account of the origin and history of the 
American Temperance Union, taken from their last Report. 

At the meeting of the United States Temperance Conven- 
tion, held in Philadelphia, May 24, 1833, it was 

Resolved, — That the officers of the American Temperance 
Society, and of the several State Societies, are hereby 
requested to act as a United States Temperance Society ; to 
hold mutual consultations, and to take all suitable measures 
to carry into effect the objects of this Convention ; to imbody 
public sentiment, and by the universal diffusion of information 
and the exertion of kind moral influence to extend the princi- 
ples and blessings of the Temperance reformation throughout 
our country and throughout the world. 

Pursuant to the above resolution, this Society assembled at 
Philadelphia, May 24, 1833, and adopted a series of important 
resolutions. Among them were the following: 

Resolved, — That the officers of the American Temperance 
Society, and of each of the State Temperance Societies, in 
their associated capacity, be denominated the United States 
Temperance Union. 

Resolved, — That the object of the Union shall be, by the 
diffusion of information and the exertions of kind moral 
influence, to promote the cause of Temperance throughout 
the United States. 

Resolved, — That Isaac S. Lloyd, Matthew Newkirk, and 
Isaac Collins of Pennsylvania, John Tappan of Massachusetts, 
Edward C. Delavan of New York, be a committee to carry 
into effect, by all suitable means, the objects of the Union, 
and that they continue in office till others are appointed. 

Resolved, — That the above named Committee call another 
meeting of the Union at such time and place as they may 
judjje proper. 

Resolved, — That the Corresponding Secretaries of all State 
Societies be, ex officio, members of this Committee. 



APPENDIX. 369 

In virtue of the authority thus delegated to them, the Com- 
mittee called the Second National Convention, which as- 
sembled at Saratoga Springs on the 4th of August, 1836 ; at 
which Convention nineteen States and territories, with the 
two Canadas, were represented by near four hundred dele- 
gates. 

Among the acts of the Convention it was 

Resolved, — That the name of the United States Temperance 
Union be changed to. The American Temperance Union ; 
and the Union was fully organized by the appointment of the 
following officers. 

President — John H. Cocke, of Virginia. 

Vice-Presidents — Matthew Newkirk, of Pennsylvania, 
Samuel Hubbard, of Massachusetts, Lewis Cass, of Michigan, 
Bishop Stuart, of Lower Canada, Theodore Frelinghuysen, of 
New Jersey, R. H. Walworth, of New York, Robert Lucas, 
of Ohio, and Robert P. Dunlap, of Maine. 

Executive Committee — Edward C. Delavan, John W. 
Leavitt, of New York, Isaac Collins, Isaac S. Lloyd, of Penn- 
sylvania, John Tappan, of Massachusetts, Christian Keener, 
of Maryland, and John T. Norton, of Connecticut. 

Secretaries — John Marsh, of Pennsylvania, and Lyndon A. 
Smith, of New Jersey. 

Treasurer — Robert Earp, of Pennsylvania. 

Auditor — Thomas Fleming, of Pennsylvania. 

In the month of October the Committee met in New York, 
and adopted the following resolutions : 

Resolved, — That it is desirable that a national Temperance 
press be established at Philadelphia, from which shall be 
issued such publications as the great interests of the cause 
may require. 

Resolved, — That Edward C. Delavan, Isaac S. Lloyd, and 
Justin Edwards, D. D,, be a Committee to secure the services 
of an able editor at Philadelphia. 

On the 15th of January, 1837, the Committee commenced, 
at Philadelpiiia, the publication of the Journal of the American 
Temperance Union, a monthly periodical of 16 pages quarto, at 
the price of five dollars per annum for ten copies, and appointed 
the Rev. John Marsh, one of the Secretaries of the Union, 
their Corresponding Secretary, and Conductor of the Journal. 

They also appointed the Rev. Justin Edwards, D. D., of 
Massachusetts, and the Rev. E. N. Kirk, of Albany, to repre- 
sent the American Temperance Union at the next anniversary 
of the British and Foreign Temperance Society. 

At the establishment of the Journal, the Chairman of the 
Committee generously placed at the disposal of the Committee, 
the sum of $10,000. 



370 APPENDIX. 

The First Anniversary of the American Temperance Union 
was held in the city of New York, May, 1837, and the Second 
Anniversary of the Union was held at Philadelphia, May 22, 

1838. 



(I. p. 211.) 

Anti-Slavery Societies, 

" Slavery may be considered as having commenced with 
the 16th century. Slaves were introduced into Spanish 
America, in 1502. Ferdinand V. of Spain brought multitudes 
of them into the country in 1511. The first slaves that were 
brought into the United States came in a Dutch ship in 1620. 
The celebrated John Hawkins, who was afterwards knighted 
by Queen Elizabeth, and made treasurer of the navy, was 
the first Englishman concerned in this commerce, the buying 
and selling the bodies and souls of men. He sailed from 
England for Sierra Leone, in the month of Oct. 1562, and in 
a short time after his arrival upon the coast, got into his pos- 
session by the sword, and partly by other means, three hun- 
dred negroes." " In the reign of Charles I. and Charles II. 
we find that British settlements were formed in the West 
Indies, and that at home, joint-stock companies were chartered 
to supply them with slaves. In 1662, a charter was obtained 
from Charles II. for the ' Royal African Company,' in which 
many persons of high rank and distinction were incorporated, 
and at its head was the king's brother, the duke of York, 
afterwards James II. This company undertook to supply the 
West India colonies with three hundred negroes annually." 
From that time slavery continued to increase till 1787, when 
the first united and efficient efforts to abolish it Avere com- 
menced in England. The first treatise on the subject was 
written by Morgan Godwyn, under the title of 'The Negro's 
and Indian's Advocate.' Richard Baxter followed, and in the 
succeeding early movements, the Quakers or Friends took a 
distinguished part. But the most prominent individual in 
favor of abolition, was Thomas Clarkson. The occasion of 
his becoming interested on the subject was, the giving out a 
Thesis, while he was yet a member of college. At first he 
engaged in it only as a literary thing, from motives of ambi- 
tion. But in studying the subject, he became interested in it 
as a man and a philanthropist, nor could he disengage himself. 
Having written his essay therefore, and obtained the first 
prize as was expected of him, he afterwards enlarged it, 
and published it. This was in 1783. And now the subject 
was before the public, and Clarkson, with great serious- 



APPENDIX. 371 

ness of purpose, had given himself to the cause as the 
great business of his life. At length he secured the coopera- 
tion of several men of distinction, among whom were Mr. 
Ramsay, Dr. Gregory, Granville Sharpe and Mr. Wilberforce. 
The last brought the subject before Parliament, and in 1794 
the motion to abolish slavery, though lost in the House of 
Lords, was carried in the House of Commons. It was also 
finally carried in the House of Lords by a vote of 100 to 36. 
This was at four o'clock, A. M. Jan. 5, 1807. Subsequently, 
in 1811, Mr. Brougham procured that it should be considered 
felony to be engaged in the slave trade. The trade was pro- 
hibited in the United States also, as early as March, 1807. 
In 1810, Portugal entered into a treaty to abandon it. The 
Congress of Vienna declared against it in 1815. France and 
the Netherlands followed in treaty against it. Spain abolished 
it in 1820, and the United States the same year, declared it 
piracy. A law to the same effect was passed in Great Britain, 
Jan. 5, 1825. In March, 1830, Brazil engaged in treaty to 
abandon it. It has been abolished in Austria, also, and now, 
in France all who are convicted as being concerned in it are 
exposed to banishment. 

Among the voluntary philanthropic institutions for the 
removal of the evil, there are the African Institution, formed 
in London, April 7, 1807, directly after the passing of the act 
of Parliament for abolishing slavery. The Anti-Slavery So- 
ciety, formed also in London, January, 1823, and the Coloni- 
zation Society, formed at Washington, in December, 1816. 
Besides these, there are other societies for the benefit of 
Africans, as the ' Conversion of Negro Slaves Society,' Eng- 
land. 'The African Education Society of the United States,' 
and 'The American Anti-Slavery Society.' This last named 
Society was organized on the 4th of December, 1833, in the 
city of Philadelphia. Its principles and plans were set forth 
at length in a solemn " Declaration of Sentiments," by the 
Convention that formed it, and more briefly in the second and 
third articles of the Constitution of the Society, which are as 
follows : — 

"The object of this Society is the entire abolition of slavery 
in the United States. While it admits that each State in 
which slavery exists, has, by the Constitution of the United 
States, the exclusive right to legislate in regard to its abolition 
in said State, it shall aim to convince all our fellow-citizens, 
by arguments addressed to their understandings and con- 
sciences, that slaveholding is a heinous crime in the sight of 
God, and that the duty, safety, and best interests of all con- 
cerned, require its immediate abandonment^ without expatria- 
tion. The Society will also endeavor, in a constitutional way, 
to influence Congress to put an end to the domestic slave 



372 APPENDIX, 

trade, and to abolish slavery in all those portions of our com- 
mon country which come under its control, especially in the 
District of Columbia, — and likewise to prevent the extension 
of it to any State that may be hereafter admitted to the Union. 

"This Society shall aim to elevate the character and con- 
dition of the people of color, by encouraging their intellectual, 
moral, and religious improvement, and by removing public 
prejudice, that thus they may, according to their intellectual 
and moral worth, share an equality with the whites, of civil 
and religious privileges ; but this Society will never, in any 
way, countenance the oppressed in vindicating their rights by 
resorting to physical force." 

The present officers of the Society are, Arthur Tappan, 
President; James G. Birney, Elizur Wright, Jr., and Henry 
B. Stanton, Corresponding Secretaries ; Joshua Leavitt, Re- 
cording Secretary ; John Rankin, Treasurer, who, with S. E. 
Cornish, Lewis Tappan, Duncan Dunbar, S. S. Jocelyn, La 
Roy Sunderland, and Theodore S. Wright, constitute the 
Executive Committee. 

The receipts of the Society, the first six months of its 
existence, viz. up to May, 1834, were $1,048 05 ; from that 
time to May, 1835, $9,831 29 ; for the second year, 
S25,866 30 ; for the third year, $38,304 89 ; for the fourth 
year, ending May, 1838, $44,094 07. 

In May, 1835, it had 225 auxiliary societies reported — in 
May, 1836, 527— in May, 1837, 1,006— in May, 1838, 1,350. 
Of these, twelve are State societies, most of which are now 
in vigorous operation. The local auxiliaries have, on an 
average, at least eighty members, giving an aggregate of at 
least 108,000 persons who are actual members of some anti- 
slavery society. In Massachusetts, one in twenty of the 
population are members of an anti-slavery society, beside a 
multitude more who agree with them in principles, but for 
various reasons have never joined any society. 

The publications of the Society are, the Emancipator, 
(weekly,) edited by Rev. Joshua Leavitt; the Human Rights, 
(monthly,) and the Anti-Slavery Record, Slave's Friend, Anti- 
Slavery Examiner, and Plea for the Slave, which are issued 
occasionally, but not at regular intervals. The issues of 
publications by the Society the year 1838 were, of Human 
Rights, 187,316 copies ; Emancipator, 193,800 ; Circulars and 
Prints, 42,100; Bound .volumes, 12,954; Tracts and Pam- 
phlets, 72,732; Slave's Friend, 97,600; Anti-Slavery Record, 
40,000. At the same time the Society had in its service 38 
travelling agents, the aggregate of whose time in the Society's 
employment was 27 years. The office in New York employs 
three secretaries, in different departments of duty, two editors, 
one publishing agent, with an assistant, and two or three 



APPENDIX. 373 

young men and boys for folding-, directing", and despatching 
papers, &c. &c. At the same time, friends of the cause in 
the several States, and the several State societies have been 
sustaining their local papers, employing agents, and issuing 
sundry publications for the promotion of the cause — e. g. the 
Liberator, and ^Massachusetts Abolitionist, in Boston ; Herald 
of Freedom, in Concord, N. H. ; Zion's Watchman, and Col- 
ored American, in New York city ; Voice of Freedom, in 
Vermont; Advocate of Freedom, in Maine ; Charter Oak, in 
Connecticut ; Pennsylvania Freeman, in Philadelphia, and 
Christian Witness, in Pittsburg, Pa. ; Friend of Man, in Utica, 
N. Y. ; Philanthropist, in Ohio ; and Genius of Universal 
Emancipation, in Illinois, all of which are weekly papers, 
chiefly, and some of them entirely, devoted to the cause of 
abolition, and sustained by subscribers, and the donations of 
individuals or societies. 

The principal originators of the American Colonization So- 
ciety were the late Rev. Dr. Finley of New Jersey, Rev. 
Samuel J. Mills, Gen. Mercer of Virginia, and a few others of 
a kindred spirit. Its object is, as its name imports, and as is 
mentioned in the second article of the constitution, " to pro- 
mote and execute a plan of colonizing (with their consent) 
the free people of color, residing in our country, in Africa, or 
such other place as Congress shall deem most expedient." 
It has received the approbation and countenance, not only of 
distinguished individuals, but of many of the State govern- 
ments in the Union. Application for assistance has been 
made to the general government, but no assistance has as yet 
been granted. Auxiliaries have been formed in sixteen States, 
and Maryland has granted $200,000 from her State treasury, 
to enable her free blacks to remove to Africa. The Society 
have succeeded in forming a colony on the western coast of 
Africa, which is in a prosperous condition, as the Society 
represents. The territory procured, extends 200 miles on the 
coast, and 140 in the interior. The population of the colony 
is more than 2,000, and is constantly increasing. A system 
of government and also of education, has been established. 
Churches are provided for religious worship. 

The expense of an emigrant's passage to Liberia, is by 
some estimated to be $20; by others from $25 to $35. Man- 
umissions have been numerous, and are increasing. 

The receipts of the Society for 1838 were $12,748 37, and 
its present officers are, Hon. Henry Clay, LL. D., President, 
49 Vice Presidents, a Board of Directors, consisting of four- 
teen persons, and an Executive Committee of eight persons ; 
Rev. Ralph R. Gurley, Secretary, Philip R. Fendal, Esq., 
Recording Secretary, and Joseph Gales, Sen. Esq., Treasurer. 
32 



374 APPENDIX. 

(J. p. 225.) 
Seamari's Friend Societies. 

Societies for the benefit of seamen have existed in the 
United States under various names since the year 1812. In 
that year a few benevolent gentlemen in Boston associated 
themselves together under the name of " The Boston Society 
for the Improvement of Seamen." The object of this Society 
was to print and distribute Tracts among seamen, and to 
encourage the maintenance of worship on board vessels at 
sea. An edition of several appropriate Tracts was published, 
and partially distributed, but the Society ceased its operations 
very much after little more than one year. 

In 1816 a Society was formed in Boston called the " Boston 
Society for the Religious and Moral Instruction of the Poor," 
a part of whose plan was to provide some religious instruction 
for the seamen. The Rev. William Jenks, D. D. was em- 
ployed by this Society as a City Missionary, and on the first 
Sabbath in August, 1818, a meeting was opened for seamen. 
It was held in the Sail Loft under the Observatory on Central 
Wharf. The Rev. Dr. Jenks continued to officiate as the 
preacher to seamen until October, 1826, when he was installed 
Pastor of the Green Street Church, in Boston. The Rev. 
Stephen Bailey succeeded him in preaching to the sailors, 
and remained about a year. In January, 1828, it was thought 
advisable to separate the seamen's cause from the City Mis- 
sion, and a new society was formed called the "Boston 
Seaman's Friend Society." In September, 1828, the Rev, 
Jonathan Greenleaf was employed as stated preacher to the 
seamen in Boston. In the course of the year following the 
Mariners' Church on Fort Hill was built, which was opened 
for public worship January 1, 1830. In the same month a 
church was organized in the Seamen's meeting, of which Mr. 
Greenleaf was chosen Pastor. In the autumn of 1833, Mr. 
Greenleaf resigned his charge having been appointed Cor- 
responding Secretary of the American Seamen's Friend 
Society, and was succeeded by Rev. Theophilus Packard, Jr., 
who remained at Boston as a stated supply for about six 
months, when the Rev. Daniel M. Lord was obtained, who 
has since been regularly installed as Pastor of the Mariners' 
Church. In the autumn of 1828, a separate effort was made 
in Boston for the benefit of Mariners, commenced at first by 
the Methodist Brethren at the north part of the city. A 
house of worship then vacated by the first Methodist Society 
was obtained, and the Rev. Edward T. Taylor was engaged 
as preacher. A Society called " The Boston Port Society " 
was formed, and a new meeting-house has been erected in 



APPENDIX. 375 

North Square, known as the Bethel Church, where Mr. 
Taylor now officiates. 

The seamen's cause in New York owes its origin to the 
labors of the Rev. Ward Stafford, who was employed in New- 
York city as a Missionary for the poor in the year 1816. He 
saw the destitute condition of sailors and opened a meeting 
for them in December of that year. Measures were immedi- 
ately taken to erect a house of worship, which was accom- 
plished, and the house was dedicated to the service of God in 
June, 1820. Mr. Stafford left New York about this time, and 
the Rev. Henry Chase and Rev. John Truair were both 
engaged to labor among seamen. "The Port Society of 
New York" was formed to sustain the public preaching at 
the Mariners' Church, and "The Bethel Union Society," to 
hold meetings on board vessels, and similar itinerant labors. 
Mr. Truair left New York in 1826, and Mr. Chase remains 
the sole minister at the Mariners' church. The assembly 
there is large, and the institution in a flourishing state. 

In Philadelphia, the venerable Joseph Eastburn was the 
first preacher to seamen. He opened a meeting there in 
October, 1819. His meeting was held for some time in a 
sail-loft, then in the lecture room of one of the city churches, 
and finally in a house of worship prepared for the purpose. 
Mr. Eastburn labored abundantly for the good of seamen both 
in Philadelphia and elsewhere. He died, greatly lamented, 
January 30th, 1828, at the age of 79 years. A little previous 
to liis death the Rev. A. H. Dashiell was employed to aid him 
in his labors, and finally succeeded him in this work. During 
Mr. Dashiell's ministry, in the year 1831, a church was 
organized, and the ordinances of the Gospel introduced into 
the seamen's meeting. Mr. Dashiell resigned his charge in 
1834, and the present minister, Rev. J. L. Elliott was 
engaged. 

The next successful effort was made at Charleston, in South 
Carolina. Meetings for seamen were held there in 1822, and 
in 1823 the Rev. Joseph Brown was employed as the regular 
preacher. Mr. Brown remained at Charleston, officiating to 
great acceptance, and in the most useful manner, till the 
summer of 1832, when he removed to New York as Corres- 
ponding Secretary of the American Seamen's Friend Society, 
to succeed the Rev. Joshua Leavitt, who had been General 
Agent of the Society from its commencement in 1828. He 
died September 16, 1833, aged 46. He was succeeded at 
Charleston by the Rev. John A. Mitchell, who remains there 
to the present time. 

The effi^rts for seamen in Baltimore were commenced about 
the year 1823. A Bethel Union Society was formed in that 
year, a house of worship was soon built, and the Rev. Stephen 



376 APPENDIX. 

Williams has been employed as the preacher to seamen from 
that time to this. 

The first efforts for seamen at Portland, in Maine, were of 
about the same date. The Rev. Jotham Sewall was employed 
to preach there for two summers in succession, under the 
auspices of a Bethel Union Society. At length, measures 
were taken to erect a house of worship, which was accom- 
plished in the summer of 1829. The Rev. Robert Blake 
officiated for more than a year — after him the Rev. Sewall 
Tenny was employed until the autumn of 1835, when he left, 
and Rev. Charles M. Brown, the present minister was engaged. 

Similar efforts have been made in most of the large ports 
on the Atlantic seacoast, and regular public worship is now 
maintained for the benefit of sailors, on every Sabbath, in the 
ports of Salem and New Bedford, in Massachusetts, at JNIystic 
Bridge, in Connecticut, at Newark, in New Jersey, at Rich- 
mond, in Virginia, and during the winter months at Savannah 
in Georgia, and Mobile in Alabama, in each of which there is 
a Bethel Chapel, and a minister. Some efforts for seamen 
are also made in the ports of Eastport and Bath, in Maine, 
Newburyport, in Massachusetts, Norfolk in Virginia, Pensa- 
cola, in West Florida, and New Orleans, in Louisiana. 
Regular Bethel Chapels, and stated ministers are found in 
Cleveland, Buffalo, Utica, Oswego, and Troy, for the special 
benefit of the seamen and boatmen on the Lakes and Canals, 
and in each of these places, except Oswego, there is an 
organized church. A similar effort is commenced at Albany, 
Pittsburgh, and Cincinnati. While these things have been 
going on at home, sustained in every place by some local 
association, the sailors scattered abroad in the distant foreign 
ports have not been forgotten. To provide for these it seemed 
necessary to organize a new Society, which was done in the 
year 1826, called "The American Seamen's Friend Society." 
The first annual Report of this Society was published in 1828. 
In 1829, the Rev. David Abeel was engaged by the American 
Seamen's Friend Society to preach for one season to the 
sailors at Canton in China. This work was performed and 
the experiment was satisfactory. In 1832, the Society en- 
gaged the Rev. Edwin Stevens to labor at Canton, where he 
has remained usefully employed to the present time. In the 
same year the Rev. John Diell was sent to the Island of 
Oahu, one of the Sandwich Islands, as a Chaplain to seamen 
in that place. A chapel has been built there, and Mr. Diell 
is still officiating as minister. The Rev. Flavel S. Mines Avas 
engaged at the same time to preaeh to seamen at Havre in 
France, where he remained till the autumn of 1834, when he 
relinquished his charge, and was succeeded by the Rev. 
David D. F. Ely, who has been succeeded by Rev, Eli 



APPENDIX. 377 

Sawtell. In 1835, the Rev. O. M. Johnson was engaged as a 
chaplain to seamen at Rio Janeiro in South America, and has 
commenced his labors in that place. 

This Society is preparing to enlarge the sphere of its 
operations in foreign ports, and is also about to erect a noble 
institution in the city of New York for a Seamen's Home. 
A lot of ground is purchased, and arrangements are making 
to erect the building. 

The American Seamen's Friend Society has published a 
Hymn Book for sailors, which is now used in most of the 
Mariners' churches in the United States. They have pub- 
lished also for eight years past the "Sailor's Magazine," a 
periodical of 32 pages, issued monthly. 

The receipts of the Society for 1838 were $14,173. There 
were then 6 chaplains at foreign stations, and seamen's 
congregations and preachers in 11 cities and towns. The 
officers of the Society are Adrian Van Sinderen, Esq. of 
Brooklyn, N. Y., President ; Rev. Jonathan Greenleaf, Cor- 
responding Secretary, and Mr. Charles N. Talbot, Treasurer. 

Of foreign societies, one only, the "London Seamen's 
Friend Society," will be particularly noticed, the origin of it 
being rather interesting. 

In 1816, it was found that the master of a collier, lying in 
the Thames, was accustomed to have morning and evening 
prayers on board his vessel, to v.^hich he invited the crews of 
other vessels lying in the neighborhood. At the same time 
many seamen were out of employ, having been discharged on 
the close of the then late war between the United States and 
Great Britain, and not a few of them were in circumstances 
of distress which excited greatly the sympathy of the benev- 
olent and humane. The inquiry arose what could be done, 
and the meeting continuing on board the collier, in 1817, a 
man who had been to sea in early life, but was then a minister 
of the Gospel, understanding the case, resolved on attending 
himself. He accordingly did attend; upon which, becoming 
much interested, as the worship was about to close, he 
introduced himself to the meeting, stating his former acquaint- 
ance with a seafaring life, and proposing to sustain, if it 
should be agreeable, a regular service among them.'^ The 
proffer being gratefully accepted, the meeting was continued 
and enlarged. This led to notoriety and thus to the formation, 
March 13, 1818, of the "London Seamen's Friend Society," a 
principal object of which, on account of the growth of the 
meeting, and the reluctance of the sailors to go to a common 

* This man is supposed to have been the Rev. G. C. Smith of Penzance, 
author of the Tract, " IJethel, or tlie Flag Unfurled." See Report of the 
Port of Dublin Society for the religious iiislruction of Seaiueu. 

32* 



378 APPENDIX. 

church was, to provide for them a Bethel ship, where they 
might feel at home and come with freedom. Having" accom- 
plished its primary object, as it soon did, the society found 
enough still to be done to benefit the seamen, and they have 
accordingly continued their operations to the spiritual and 
eternal joy of many souls. The example of the metropolis 
being known, it was soon followed in Greenock, Leith, Liver- 
pool, Hull, Bristol, and other ports, in which similar societies 
were formed and have since continued their benevolent 
operations. 



(K. p.239.) 
Prison Discipline Societies. 

The leader in this department of benevolence must ever be 
acknowledged to be the excellent John Howard of Cardington, 
England, who for a number of the last years of his life de- 
voted himself and his fortune to the melioration of the con- 
dition of prisoners. 

The variety and amount of good effected by his exertions 
cannot here be stated. He lived and died in the last century, 
was born in 17"2G, and died in 1790. 

From the time of Howard's death the cause seems to have 
declined, and comparatively little was attempted in Europe or 
America till about 1824-5. Of foreign societies not much 
information has been obtained. The London Society has 
been in operation about seventeen years. In 1827, the 
receipts were about $8,000, and the expenditures about 
$12,000. 

In Ireland an association is formed at Dublin for the im- 
provement of prisons ; and prison discipline societies of this 
nature also exist in France, at Petersburg in Russia, the 
Netherlands, and the Prussian Dominions. In Germany the 
subject is exciting the attention of the public. Dr. Julius of 
Hamburg is much engaged in this cause. 

However the spirit of Howard has not been carried out in 
foreign countries as it should have been. Indeed, notwith- 
standing his benevolence, there was wanting in part in his 
operations and plans, the proper idea of discipline, or the 
moral improvement and recovery of offenders ; and the peni- 
tentiary system, strictly speaking, is American, and is probably 
better carried out in the United States than in any other 
country. Acts were passed in the Colonies as early as 1699, 
authorizing magistrates to confine rogues and vagabonds, and 



APPENDIX. 379 

provision was made in 1735, for the erection of houses of 
correction. 

But neither in this country was the subject at first under- 
stood as it now is, nor has it even now, perhaps, come to be 
understood as it is hoped it may be in the further progress of 
attention to it. 

Considerable has been done, however, in relation to the 
construction of prisons with single apartments, to prevent 
intercourse among prisoners, the profitable employment of 
their time, and especially the manner of managing and giving 
instruction to them in morals and religion. Particularly has 
it been shown to be of the highest importance to have for 
jailers and wardens, men of correct moral principles, stern 
integrity, and firm decision, with faithful, devoted chaplains. 

The Prison Discipline Society of this country, owes its 
origin principally to the Christian enterprise, and persevering 
efforts of the Rev. Louis Dwight, who in 1824 commenced an 
investigation of the condition of prisons and penitentiaries in 
the United States, and pursued it till June 30, 1825, when the 
Prison Discipline Society was instituted at Boston. The 
object of the Society is "the improvement of public prisons." 

Besides the object already mentioned in relation to which 
the Society has produced a desirable change, there is also the 
subject of imprisonment for debt, and the criminal code gen- 
erally, towards which it has directed successfully, the atten- 
tion of legislators and judges. The annual reports of the 
Society, embody also a vast amount of facts in relation to the 
causes, circumstances, and prevention of crimes and offences 
in the community, which cannot be found elsewhere. 

From the State Prison at VVethersfield, Connecticut, there 
has generally been an actual income. During eleven years 
from its commencement, the clear gain was S56,348 65. 

The expenses of the Society are about $3,000 a year. Its 
officers are the Hon. Samuel T. Armstrong, President ; the 
Rev. Louis Dwight, Secretary ; and Rev. Charles Cleveland, 
Treasurer. 



(L. p. 252.) 
Peace Societies. 

This class of benevolent associations have for their object 
the suppression of war, and the promotion of amicable views 
and friendly conduct among all nations. 

The first movement on the subject of peace in modern 
times, aside from the well known views and efforts of the 



380 APPENDIX. 

Friends, and a few other religious sects, seems to have been 
made by David L. Dodge, in the city of New York. So early 
as 1804, his attention was turned to the subject, and, having 
come in 1808 to the full conviction that war in every form i3 
incompatible with Christianity, he published his views in 
1809, and involved himself in a controversy which excited not 
a little interest both in New York and Philadelphia. A con- 
siderable number had in 1810 begun to sympathize with Mr. 
Dodge, and to cooperate with him in diffusing their views on 
the subject; but they were kept from forming a peace society, 
as they desired, in the winter of 1812, by the prospect of a 
war with England ; nor was it till August of 1815 that the 
New York Peace Society was organized in form, although it 
had, in all but the name, been in existence and operation for 
three or four years. This was the first peace society in 
modern times. It took high ground, and opposed all war, 
■whether offensive or defensive, as inconsistent with the gos- 
pel, and unlawful for Christians. New members were ad- 
mitted only by unanimous vote ; yet the Society increased to 
nearly a hundred, and used to expend two or three hundred 
dollars a year in the circulation of peace publications. 

In 1813, Rev. Dr. Bogue preached in London a sermon on 
universal peace ; and Rev. Noah Worcester, D. D. published 
in Boston near the close of 1814 his celebrated pamphlet, 
entitled " A Solemn Review of the Custom of War." This 
appeal, issued at the most favorable crisis in the history of 
Christendom, was the means of rousing the friends of peace 
in England and America to associated efforts in this cause. 
A society was formed in Oliio, December 2, 1815; the Mas- 
sachusetts Peace Society was organized on the 28th of the 
same month ; and the London Peace Society, for which a 
proposition had been made in the Philanthropist for July, 
1815, was established in London, July 14, 1816. These 
movements were substantially simultaneous, and seem to 
have been not so much the effect of any one cause or effort, 
as the result of views and feelings which then pervaded more 
or less the best portions of Christendom. 

The efforts of the London Peace Society awakened a 
desire for a similar organization in Paris ; but, not permitted 
by the government to form a peace society in name, the 
friends of this and kindred enterprises organized there the 
Society of Christian Morals, in August, 1821, which has 
always made peace one of its objects, and corresponded with 
the London and other Peace societies. In 3830, the Geneva 
Peace Society was established at Geneva, Switzerland, by 
Count de Sellon, under whose energetic supervision it has 
accomplished much for the cause, by procuring the publication 



APPENDIX. 381 

and extensive circulation of able essays, and by calling the 
attention of leadinof cabinets in Europe to the subject. 

The American Peace Society was organized in the city of 
New York, May, 1828, as a general bond of union among the 
friends of peace in the United States. A large number of 
local societies had been previously formed ; but as the parent 
society has not sought to multiply auxiliaries, neither their 
number, nor the list of its own members, can be considered as 
a true index to the progress and prospects of the cause. It 
has labored chiefly to enlighten the public mind through 
existing periodicals, and by the cooperation of Christian min- 
isters and teachers. It has always had a periodical devoted 
to its interests, called for three years, ' The Harbinger of 
Peace,' 12mo. ; next, 'The Calumet,' 8vo., for nearly three 
years more ; then, ' The American Advocate of Peace,' 8vo., 
quarterly, for two years ; and finally, ' The Advocate of 
Peace,' 8vo., quarterly for 1837-8, but now a monthly, with a 
circulation of nearly 3,000 among the most intelligent and 
influential members of society. The first two were issued in 
the city of New York, the third at Hartford, Ct., and the last 
in Boston. For the first six years, New York was the seat of 
the Society's operations ; for the next two years, it was 
temporarily transferred to Hartford for convenience of publi- 
cation ; but Boston has become, since May, 1837, its perma- 
nent location. Since its removal to this city, William Ladd, 
Esq. has been its President, and Rev. George C. Beckwith, its 
Corresponding Secretary. 

We cannot by the usual tests determine the amount of gain 
in this cause ; but it has unquestionably made much greater 
progress than is commonly supposed. For the first five years 
the American Peace Society, being without any regular agent 
in its service, received an average of less than $400 a year; 
but within the last four years its income has regularly 
increased nearly $1,000 a year, and amounted in 1837-8 to 
$3,605, and its expenditures to $4,007. It has (1838) secured 
from more than J, 000 ministers of the gospel a pledge to 
preach at least one sermon every year on the subject, and 
incidentally led probably a still greater number to perform a 
similar service for the cause. It has induced ecclesiastical 
bodies, representing no less than eight denominations of 
Christians, to endorse the cause by passing resolves in its 
favor. It would be impossible even to conjecture the Avhole 
number or amount of publications issued on this subject in the 
United States; but this Society published, in 1837-8, more 
than 20,000 volumes and tracts, and put in circulation an 
amount probably equal to 1,500,000 duodecimo pages, or 
about 200,000 tracts of the ordinary size, and a still larger 



383 APPENDIX. 

amount of matter on the subject through the religious news- 
papers. 

The London Peace Society has done more than any other 
in the world. It has, nearly from the date of its organization, 
issued a periodical, sometimes monthly, but for the most part 
quarterly, comprising a greater amount of facts, statistics and 
arguments on the subject, than can be found any where else. 
The last year, ending May, 1838, it put in circulation about 
60,000 publications, and since its organization, 84'2,000, gen- 
erally so large as probably to be equal to four or five millions 
of common sized tracts, and some forty millions of tract pages. 
The Society has never, till the present year, (1839,) employed 
any travelling agents. 

The Societies at Paris and Geneva have been steadily 
advancing from the first; but their circumstances, under the 
influence of European customs and institutions, have crippled 
their efforts, and held them in continual check. In Holland 
and some other parts of Europe; in South America; in the 
British provinces of North America, and in India, something 
has been done for the cause. Peace publications have gone 
more or less into the four quarters of the globe, and the 
supposition is not improbable that half a million copies of the 
" Solemn Review " alone, adopted as a tract by the American 
and the London Societies, have been put in circulation. 

The full amount of good occasioned by these efforts, we 
cannot well estimate ; but it is quite remarkable that, since 
their commencement, the general peace of Christendom, after 
more than twenty years of almost uninterrupted wars, has been 
preserved, and every department of gainful and benevolent 
enterprise, and human improvement, has advanced with a* 
rapidity unparalleled in the history of our world. The prac- 
tice of settling national disputes by negotiation, or some form 
of reference, is fast coming to be the established policy of all 
Christendom ; and this grand result, as well as the prevention 
of several wars that were seriously threatened, we may 
attribute to the efforts and influences which constitute the 
cause of peace. 

The friends of peace propose, as a substitute and remedy 
for war, a Congress of Nations, or the embodying in some 
permanent form of the principle, that all disputes between 
nations, as between individuals, shall be settled in the last 
resort by reference to a third party. This principle, partially 
before the public for a long time, is now presented more fully 
and extensively to the community, and received with a degree 
of favor that promises eventual success to well-directed and 
persevering efforts. The Legislature of Massachusetts, in 
1838, passed strong resolves in favor of such a project, with 
perfect unanimity in the House of Representatives, and with 



APPENDIX. 383 

only two dissenting votes in the Senate. These resolves will 
bring the subject before the National and all the State Legis- 
latures ; and, backed by the petitions which are multiplying 
from the people on the subject, they may be expected, in a 
course of years, to be followed by some decisive movement 
for a tribunal of some sort, to supersede the alleged necessity 
of war. 

This whole subject has been fully and ably discussed by 
Professor Upham of Bowdoin College in his " Manual of 
Peace." 



(M. p. 272.) 

Contributions. 

"If God's people," says President Edwards, in his Narrative 
of Revivals of Religion, " in this land, were once brought to 
abound in such deeds of love, [charity,] as much as in praying, 
hearinar, singing, and religious meetings and conference, it 
would be a most blessed omen. There is nothing would 
have a greater tendency to bring the God of love down from 
heaven to the earth. So amiable would be the sight in the 
eyes of our loving and exalted Redeemer, that it would soon, 
as it were, fetch him down from his throne in heaven to set 
up his tabernacle with men on the earth, and dwell with them. 
I do not remember ever to have read of any remarkable out- 
pouring of the Spirit that continued any long time, but what 
■was attended with an abounding in this duty. So we know 
it was with that great effusion of the Spirit that began at Je- 
rusalem in the Apostle's days. And so in the late remarkable 
revival of religion in Saxony, which began by the labors of 
the famous Professor Franck, and has now been carried on 
for above thirty years, and has spread its happy influences 
into many parts of the world ; it was begun, and has been 
carried on, by a wonderful practice of this duty. And the 
remarkable blessing that God has given Mr. Whitfield, and 
the great success with which he has crowned him, may well 
be thought to be very much owing to his laying out himself 
so abundantly in charitable designs. And it is foretold, that 
God's people shall abound in this duty, in the time of the 
great outpouring of the Spirit that shall be in the latter days. 
'The vile person shall no more be called liberal, nor the 
churl said to be bountiful. But the liberal deviseth liberal 
things, and by liberal things shall he stand.' " — Of late years 
Christians have contributed largely for the distribution of 
Bibles, and Tracts; for the education of young men for the 
ministry, and for missions ; and what has been the result ? 



384 



APPENDIX. 



God has most wonderfully blessed the churches with the 
effusion of his Holy Spirit. 

"The following list exhibits the name and income of the 
principal Religious Charitable Societies in the world. 



Bible. 



Societies. 


Income. 


American, 


$143,184 


British and Foreign, 


347,601 


Edinburgh, 


14,600 


French Protestant, 


9,244 


Hibernian, 


28,670 



Naval and Military, (Brit.) 15,639 

Education. 
American, 30,034 

American Sunday School, 76,800 
Irish Education, 159,671 

Sunday School Union, 

(British,) 24,345 



Jews. 



London, 



61,568 



Missio7iary. 

American Foreign Board, 113,901 
American Baptist, 15,000 

American Methodist, 14,176 

American Home, 26,997 

American Presbyterian, 8,000 
American Reformed Dutch, 5,000 
Baptist, (British,) 52,486 



Societies. 


Income. 


Church, (British,) $193,600 


French Protestant, 


4,384 


Gospel Propagation, 




(British,) 


128,475 


London, 


201,328 


Scottish, 


19,780 


United Brethren, 


48.510 


Wesleyan, (British,) 


191,963 


Tract and Book 




American Tract, 


60,153 


Irish Tract and Book, 




(London,) 


20,157 


Prayer Book and Homily 


J 


(British,) 


12,289 


Religious Tract, (Lond.) 


81,728 



Miscellaneous. 
British and Foreign Sea- 
men's, 8,595 
Christian Knowledge, 

(British,) 300,290 

Continental, (British,) 11,761 

Hibernian, (London,) 37,470 

American T'emperance, 3,592 

American Colonization, 19,561 



"The income of the American Societies is that of the 
year 1828-9, except in the cases of the American Board and 
the American Baptist Board of Foreign Missions, in both of 
which it is that of the year 1827-8. 

" The income of the British Societies is that of the year 
1827-8, except in the cases of the Irish Education and 
Scottish Missionary Societies, in both of which it is that of 
the year 1826-7. In the case of the United Brethren, the 
income is that of the year 1826. 

" Remark. From the above table, it appears that the 
income of all the principal Religious Charitable Societies, in 
Protestant countries, is a little more than 82,500,000, and that 
about one-half of this sum is given to Missionary Societies, 
and one-fifth part to Bible Societies." 



APPENDIX. 385 

(N. p. 290.) 
Benevolent Agencies. 

Questions in respect to the benevolent operations of the 
present day have been addressed by the Author of this work 
to a number of the most judicious and influential Clerg-ymen 
in different parts of the country, most of whom have returned 
answers, containing the same views and breathing the same 
spirit. Extracts have been made from some of them in the 
Dissertation on Agencies. The questions proposed, and ex- 
tracts from the answers of two of the gentlemen addressed 
are as follow : 

Questions. 

"Is there any better way of conducting the benevolent 
enterprises of Christians than the one now adopted ? 

"If so, what is it ? 

"Can the present plan of religious efforts be improved? 

" If so, in what respects ? 

"Can the Churches do this work of benevolence alone ? 

"If so, will they do it ? 

" Can the Ministers of the gospel carry forward these 
operations without the assistance of Agents.^ 

" If so, will they do it ? 

" Must not Societies be formed embracing the different 
religious objects in order that the cause of benevolence be 
sustained and advanced? 

" If so, must they not have Secretaries, Treasurers, Pub- 
lications, Editors and Agents ? " 

First Answer. 

" 1. The benevolent operations of the day are indispensable 
to the prosperity and universal extension of the kingdom of 
Christ. 

" 2. That these operations may be sustained, each must have 
its own separate Society to be the heart and the sensorium, 
the seat of responsibility, and source of measures. 

" 3. The general societies thus organized must have, in the 
different congregations each an auxiliary. 

"4. Between the parent and branch Societies there must 
be correspondence, — by writing, printing, and visitation. 

" Hence Agents, general and subordinate, are in my view- 
indispensable. These must be men qualified for the business, 
men of great zeal, firmness and discretion, of good address 
and spirit. 

" By those agents every auxiliary and the people where it 
33 



386 APPENDIX. 

is established must, after suitable intervals, be visited, be 
preached to, talked with, instructed, electrified, and put up to 
increased activity. Such a visit would do incalculable good. 

"Not every Pastor is fitted to act as agent, even among his 
own people. No one is in circumstances to do the business 
in the best manner, and it is nearly impossible that any one 
should have on all points the requisite information. 

"Were the Pastors to undertake the business, they would 
not secure for all the benevolent enterprises of the day more 
than well qualified agents would for one. The weakness of 
the church is its covetousness. This would be so promoted 
by this measure, that, in a few years the churches would 
scarcely be able to sustain their own weight. 

" Those congregations that have fenced out agents, are, 
some of them at least, becoming unable to support their own 
Pastors. 

" The present plan of religious effort is a good one. The 
main improvement of which it is susceptible, respects, in my 
opinion, its agents. These should be the best men that can 
be found." 

Second Answer. 

"1. That those benevolent operations which are the glory 
of the present age, having for their immediate object the dis- 
tribution of Bibles, and evangelical Tracts, the education of 
pious youth for the Christian ministry, the support of Christian 
Missions at home and abroad, the extension and increased 
prosperity of Sabbath Schools, the reformation of prisoners 
and of seamen, the suppression of the sale and use of ardent 
spirits, all ultimately tending to one grand result, the con- 
version of the whole world to the faith and obedience of the 
gospel, must be continued and increased until the great era 
contemi>lated by them is fully attained, is a point that does 
not appear to me to admit of doubt. 

"2. There must therefore be Voluntary Associations em- 
bracing severally all the great objects which the energies of 
the church and the world require us to aim at. Experience 
has shown most convincingly that a m.uch greater amount of 
good can be eff*ected in this way than in any other. Who 
will venture to affirm, that a tenth part of what has been 
accomplished during the last thirty years in benevolent efforts, 
would have been done without Bible, Tract, Education, and 
Missionary Societies ? 

"3. The different societies must have their officers, and 
some of these officers must devote their whole time to the 
transaction of the business intrusted to them, for this plain 
reason that tlie business cannot otherwise be performed. 

" 4. In what way shall these societies obtain the means of 



APPENDIX. 387 

prosecuting their several objects ? Must they employ agents 
to solicit donations, or can their treasuries be replenished in 
any other way ? Can the ministers of the gospel, carry 
forward these operations without the assistance of agents ? 
and if so, will they do it ? 

"As to the efforts of ministers, there is here or there one 
who comes forward on behalf of the operations of the day 
efficiently without the assistance of agents. But, in general, 
I seriously doubt whether without this assistance much would 
be accomplished by them. Most of our evangelical ministers 
do feel, I trust, an interest in the various enterprises of Chris- 
tian benevolence, and are in some good degree acquainted 
with the leading facts relating to them. But it cannot be 
expected that they should have that minute acquaintance 
■with each great object, or should take that deep interest in 
it wjiich is found in the agent whose time and thoughts are 
almost exclusively devoted to the object. The agent then in 
all probability will plead the cause intrusted to him with 
more ability than the minister, and of course with more 
success. Even the ministers who are most efficient will often 
derive material assistance from the visits of an agent, and 
their people will be stirred up to efforts far beyond what they 
would have been if addressed by their own Pastor. 

" Can the churches do the work of benevolence alone ? If 
so, will they do it? They cannot do it to the best advantage 
but through the medium of Voluntary Associations, nor will 
they, as it seems to me, without agents. 

" As things now are, I do not see that the benevolent enter- 
prises of the day can be conducted in any way essentially 
different from that which has been adopted. It ivS however, 
desirable, that the Pastors of churches should act more effi- 
ciently in relation to them than many of us have hitherto 
done, and that churches should make it more of a regular, 
systematic business to contribute statedly according to their 
ability to the several objects to which their attention is called. 
Could a plan be devised appropriating one portion of the year 
to the Bible cause, another to Domestic Missions, another to 
Foreign Missions, another to the Education Society, another 
to the Tract Society, another to the Sabbath School Society, 
&c., and a pledge be obtained from ministers and churches 
that at the several specified seasons they would in the way 
which might be thought most judicious, take up the claims of 
the several Societies, and contribute Avhat they could re- 
spectively raise in aid of them, it might be an improvement 
of the present plan. 

"The desideratum is, in what way can the wheels be made 
to move and continue moving to the best advantage, at the 
least expense of time and money ? Probably we have not as 
yet had sufficient experience to solve this problem, but so far 



388 APPENDIX. 

as past experience does go, it seems to me to lead to the 
following conclusions. 

" 1. At present it will not be safe to leave the cause of 
benevolence to the spontaneous exertions of ministers and 
churches. It would languish in their hearts, and be neglected 
in their efforts. They need to be acted upon 'ab extra.' 

"2. Appeals to the Christian public from the press are not 
sufficient. Something may in this way be done. Some minds 
will be nerved, but no general movement will be effected. 

"3. The most effective method, is the employment of living, 
speaking agents, men of judgment, men of zeal, deeply in- 
terested in the subjects for which they plead, and able to 
plead for them intelligently, and impressively. 

"4. Some discretion is needed in the selection of agents, 
and of the proper times and places, when and whither to 
send them. Much evil has in several instances been done by 
injudicious management. 

"5. Great good is likely to result in several departments of 
Christian beneficence from permanent agents. By securing 
the continued services year after year of a judicious, devoted, 
enterprising, persevering man, in aid of a particular object, 
within such limits as may be sufficient to give him full em- 
ployment, you take probably the surest course, as things now 
are, of promoting these objects. 

" 6. It should be a leading object with the Directors of 
benevolent societies so to marshal the Christian host, that the 
divisions, regiments, and companies of which it consists, may 
act systematically in concert, and if possible, spontaneously, 
in carrying forward the great end to which their Commander 
is calling them. And the time may come when so much light 
will be communicated through the whole body, such a state 
of feeling will exist, that all will go forward, doing with their 
might, whatever their hand findeth to do without solicitation, 
and needing no other guidance than that of their ordinary 
leaders." 



(O. p.299.) 

The kind of Agents needed to sustain Benevolent Societies, 

The former part of the following list of Societies is taken 
from the London Christian Magazine, and includes only 
British Societies ; the latter part has been obtained from 
various sources. The history of these institutions shows that 
they succeed in accomplishing the object they Jiave in view, in 
proportion, ordinarily, to the amount and quality of the agency 
employed. This most surely is the case in reference to the 
Societies of this country. 



APPENDIX. 389 

America, it should be remembered, was first colonized by 
missionary efforts, commencing with 1620, from which several 
institutions arose ; among which are to be reckoned, " The 
Incorporate Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge," 
formed in 1698, and a branch of this, denoted "The Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts." These 
arose out of the First Bible Society, formed in 1670, at whose 
head was Dr. Thomas Gouge ; and the "Society or Company 
for Propagating the Gospel in New England and the Parts 
adjacent in America," in 1663, whose principal founders were 
the Rev. Richard Baxter, Henry Ashworth, Esq. and the 
honorable Robert Boyle. 

1709. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge in the 
Highland and Islands of Scotland. 

1732. The Moravian Mission commenced. 

1736. Rev. John Wesley went a missionary to Georgia. 

1737. Rev. George Whitfield went to join Mr. Wesley. 

1760. The Book Society for Promoting Religious Knowl- 
edge among the Poor. This was a kind of Bible Society ; 
and as its subscribers receive back their amount of subscrip- 
tion in the most valuable religious books chosen by them- 
selves, at a reduced price, with liberty to purchase any amount 
at the price, we recommend it to the consideration of all our 
readers. 

1780. The Naval and Military Bible Society. 

1781 and 1784. In the former year Mr. Wesley, in Con- 
ference, determined on sending assistance to America, and 
various labors were undertaken in the West Indies, under the 
direction of Dr. Coke ; but in the latter year, the Methodist 
Missionary Society was formed. 

1785. The Sunday School Society was formed. 

1792. The Baptist Missionary Society. 

1795. The London Missionary Society. 

1796. The Scottish Missionary Society. 

1796. The Village Itineracy, or Evangelical Association for 
spreading the Gospel in England. 

1796. The London Itinerant Society. 

1797. The Baptist Home Missionary Society. 

1799. The Religious Tract Society. 

1800. The Church Missionary Society. 

1803. The Sunday School Union. 

1804. The British and Foreign Bible Society. 

1805. The British and Foreign School Society. 

1806. The London Hibernian Society. 

1808. The Society for Promoting Christianity among the 
Jews. 

1812. The Prayer-book and Homily Society. 
1814. The Irish Evangelical Society. 
33* 



390 APPENDIX. 

1816. The Irish Society. 

1818. The Port of London Society for Promoting Religion 
among the British and Foreign Seamen. 

1819. The Home Missionary Society. 

1822. The Irish Society of London. 

1823. The Ladies' Hibernian Female School Society, 
1825. The Christian Instruction Society. 

1828. The British Society for Promoting the Religious Prin- 
ciples of the Reformation. 

Other Societies are added: — 

1. Society of Jesus, or Jesuits, for the Conversion of Infidels 
and Heretics. — 1539. 

2. Propaofanda, or Society for Propagating the Catholic 
Faith.— 1622. 

3. Society in London for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 
—1698. 

4. Society for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 
England.— 1701. 

5. Royal Danish Missionary Society, by Ferdinand IV. — 
1704. 

6. Missionary Society of Halle. — 1707. 

7. Scottish Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge. 
—1709. 

8. Russian Ecclesiastical Mission of China, to instruct mis- 
sionaries in the Ciiinese language, Greek Church. — 1727. 

9. Moravian, or United Brethren Missionary Society. — 1732. 

10. Sabbath Schools in England, by Raikes and Stock. — 
1781. 

11. Methodist Missionary Society, England. — 1786. 

12. Baptist Missionary Society, England. — 1792. 

13. Society for Conversion of Negro Slaves in the West 
Indies. — 1794. 

14. London Missionary Society. — 1795. 

15. Edinburgh Missionary Society. — 1796. 

16. Church Missionary Society for Africa and the East. — 
1798. 

17. British and Foreign Bible Society.— 1804. 

18. American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. 
—1810. 

19. Massachusetts Temperance Society. — 1811. 
'20. Moral Society of Connecticut.— 1813. 

21. Massachusetts Peace Society. — 1815. 

22. London Peace Society. — 1816. 

23. American Education Society. — 1815. 

24. Sunday Schools introduced into New York. — 1816. 

25. French Society of Christian Morals. — 1816. 

26. Congregation of Missions in France. — 1816. 

27. Bible Society of Poland.— 1816. 



APPENDIX. 



391 



28. American Bible Society. — 1816. 

29. United Foreign Missionary Society. — 1817. 

30. Bible Society in Germany. — 1817. 

31. Protestant Bible Society, France.— 1818. 

32. Prison Discipline Society, established at Boston. — 1825. 

33. American Temperance Society. — 1826. 

34. British and Foreign Temperance Society. — 1831. 

35. American Home Missionary Society. — 1826. 

36. American Colonization Society. — 1819. 

37. American Tract Society. — 1825. 

38. American Sunday School Union. — 1824. 

39. Baptist General Convention for Foreign Missions. — 
1814. 

40. American Missionary Society of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. — 1819. 

41. American Missionary Society of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church.— 1820. 

42. American Anti-Slavery Society. — 1833. 

43. American Seamen's Friend Society. — 1828. 

44. American Peace Society. — 1828. 

45. American Temperance Union. — 1833. 

46. American Unitarian Association. — 1825. 



Tlie Names of the different Benevolent Societies in the United States, and also 
their receipts for the year 1837-8. 



American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, . 

American Baplisl Board (or do. do. 

American Education I'^ociety, 

American Home IMiS'^ionary Society, .... 

American Bibl(> Society, 

American and Foreign Bible Societ3', .... 

American Tract Societ}-, 

American Sunday School Union, ..... 

American Seamen's Friend Society, .... 

American Temperance Union, 

American Baptist Home Missionary Society, 

American Colonization Society, ..... 

American Anti-Slavery Society, 

American Peace Society, ...... 

Domestic and For. Miss. Soc, Protestant Episcopal Cliurcli, 

Foreign Missions, 
Domestic do. 

Board of Foreign Missions of Pres. Church, 

Methodist Missionary Society, 

General Assembly's Board of Home IMissions, . 
Do. do. do. Education, 

Northern Baptist Education Society, 

New York do. do. 

Board of Home Missions, Gen. Syn. Ref. Duich Church, 

Board of lAJucatic-n, do. tlo. 

Board of Foreign Missions, do. do. 

Baptist General Tract Society, .... 

Massachusetts Sabbath School Society, 

Prison Discipline Society, 

American Unitarian Association, ..... 



252,076 
63,070 
5.5,660 
86,522 
85,676 
33,000 
91,732 
56,582 
14,173 

16,035 

12,748 

44.094 

3,065 

27.193 

26,000 

44,748 

90,105 

38,000 

35,069 

6.086 

12,500 

4,000 

4.046 

11,372 

10,261 

19 000 

2.! 58 

2,957 



392 APPENDIX. 

(P. p. 317.) 

Revivals of Religion. 

Revivals of religion to a greater or less extent have at timea 
prevailed ever since the church has existed. Many and signal 
instances of them are recorded in the Old and New Tes- 
taments. God at times remarkably displayed his power and 
grace in building up Zion. This was the case in the days of 
David and Solomon, Asa and Hezekiah, Josiah and Ezra. In 
the time of John, the harbinger of Christ, the Spirit was poured 
out in copious effusions. On the day of Pentecost, by the 
preaching of the Apostles, attended by the special influences 
of the Holy Ghost, three thousand were added to the church. 
Multitudes were converted in Samaria. There were various 
seasons of refreshing from the presence of the Lord in the 
first centuries of the Christian church. The Gospel had free 
course and was glorified. This also was the case in succeed- 
ing ages. In the sixteenth century, there were unusual effu- 
sions of the Spirit which attended the labors of the Reformers 
in Britain, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, and Holland. A 
revival took place in France, about 1550, in the time of those 
distinguished divines Farrel and Viret. There was an ex- 
traordinary revival of religion, in IG'iS, in Scotland. Such 
was the revival, in 1628, in Ireland. In the time of the plague 
in London, in 1665, multitudes were brought to renounce 
their enmity to the cross and bow to the sceptre of Jesus. 
In 1732, and 1733, God was pleased to pour out his Spirit 
on the people of Saltzburg in Germany. More than twenty 
thousand were converted from Popish darkness to the pure 
gospel of Christ, and very many hopefully became the sub- 
jects of the grace of God. About this time there were ex- 
tensive revivals in England, Wales, Scotland and the British 
Provinces in North America. There was a most powerful 
revival of religion in the United States, more especially in 
New England, in the days of Whitfield, the Tennents, Edwards, 
Brainerd, Wheelock and Bellamy. During this period twenty- 
five thousand persons were probably added to the churches. 
This revival of religion is attested as being a glorious work 
of the Spirit of God, by one hundred and eleven ministers of 
the gospel, most of whom were assembled at Boston, in 1743. 
About the commencement of the nineteenth century, revivals 
of religion prevailed in the Carolinas, Georgia, Kentucky, 
Ohio, Tennessee, Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and 
New England, especially Connecticut. More than one hun- 
dred towns in that State were visited with the eff'usions of 
the Holy Ghost. For the last twenty years, there has been 



APPENDIX. 393 

a series of revivals throughout the land. During the years 
1831 and 1832, probably as many as one hundred thousand 
souls were converted to Christ. Between three hundred and 
fifty and four hundred young men in our public institutions 
of learning were hopefully brought to rejoice in the Saviour 
of sinners. This is the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in 
our eyes. It is not by might nor by power, but by my Spirit 
saith the Lord of hosts. The glorious victories of our King 
should call forth the devout aspirations of our souls. These 
should be declared abroad as memorials of divine grace. The 
trumpet of praise should sound when the King of Zion cometh 
in triumph having salvation. It is grace — grace. To God be 
all the glory. 

See "Fleming's Fulfilling of the Scriptures;" "Gillies' 
Historical Collections;" "Calamy's Life of Baxter;" "Prince's 
Christian History ;" "D wight's Life of Brainerd," and "Pres- 
ident Edwards's Narrative of Revivals." 



(Q. p. 334.) 

Millennium. 

The word Millennium, in its etymological import, means a 
thousand years. It is expressly applied to that time when, 
according to prediction, the church will be in a far greater 
state of prosperity and happiness than it ever yet has been. 
The word is based upon the repeated use of the phrase, a 
" thousand years," in the first six verses of the twentieth 
chapter of Revelation. "And I saw an angel come down 
from heaven, having the key of the bottomless pit and a great 
chain in his hand. And he laid hold on the dragon, that old 
serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thou- 
sand years. And cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut 
him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the 
nations no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled ; 
and after that he must be loosed a little season. And I saw 
thrones, and they that sat upon them, and judgment was given 
unto them ; and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded 
for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which 
had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had 
received his mark in their foreheads, or in their hands ; and 
they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years. But 
the rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years 
were finished. This is the first resurrection. Blessed and 
holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection : on such the 



394 APPENDIX. 

second death hath no power, but they shall be priests of God 
and of Christ, and shall reign with him a thousand years." 

"This passage all the ancient Millennarians took in a sense 
grossly literal, and taught that, during the Millennium, the 
saints on earth were to enjoy every bodily delight. The 
moderns, on the other hand, consider the powers and pleasures 
of this kingdom as wholly spiritual ; and they represent them 
as not to commence till after the contiagration of the present 
earth." The Millennarians, or Chilianists, believe the saints 
will reign on earth with Christ a thousand years. These 
views are not embraced by Christians generally in the present 
day. Most of them believe, that the Millennium is that time 
in which "there will be far more eminent measures of divine 
knowledge ; of holiness of heart and life ; and of spiritual 
consolation and joy, in the souls of the disciples of Christ, 
than the world has yet seen : and these will not be the attain- 
ments of a few Christians, but of the general mass. This 
delightful internal state of the church will be accompanied 
with such a portion of external prosperity and peace, and 
abundance of all temporal blessings, as men never knew 
before. The boundaries of the kingdom of Christ will be 
extended from the rising to the going down of the sun; and 
Anti-christianism, Deism, Mohammedanism, Paganism, and 
Judaism, shall all be destroyed, and give place to the Re- 
deemer's throne. By the preaching of the gospel, the reading 
of the Bible, and the zeal of Christians in every station ; by 
the judgments of heaven on the children of men for their 
iniquities ; above all, by the mighty efficacy of the Holy 
Ghost, will the glory of the latter days be brought about. 
Religion will then be the grand business of mankind. The 
generality will be truly pious; and those who are not, will be 
inconsiderable in number, and most probably be anxious to 
conceal their real character; and their sentiments and practice 
have no real weight or influence on the public mind." 

That there will be such a state and period of the church 
as is here described by Dr. Bogue, is certain from prophecy. 
Whether this time is intended in the passage of Scripture 
quoted above, is not material to the present notice of this 
subject, and will not, therefore, be considered. Suffice it to 
say, that Millennium is the appellation given to the happiest 
state of the church on earth. And this is the light in which 
it is here used. 



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