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7 ff-^'— '-■ ■ V-' 


(S^vi$tim 3e(emem&rancer: 













iULY, tM3. 


FiwHamiiitarv Papert. ConvtpoHdtnee rflatmg to JffffhanUtau, 
BonAmf Ttmti, 1812. l8i.SL 

A'arratino/t^ War in Affffhanislan. B'j Captain H. Havfxock. 

Th* Etptdition into Affffhanirian. Bg Dr. J. Atkin»>x, Snprr- 
iaUttdiH^ SuffffOH of the Benffat IHeition. 

Rmifk Katm ef the Campaign in SeJivft and AJ'ffhaaiftaa. liif 
Captain JAMKfi OrniAM. 

Campaign nftkt Army of the Indus. By R. 11. KRKKBinr, Sf.D. 

A'M/xn-inr<Winy iSurrftoa to thf ficmbay etJumu of th« Forcf. 
Oulline e/ th» Operalimit of tin Britith Troop* in Sd«de and 

A^^fkanittaa, itOteijI XoeKwlMr iSS&, and JS'vtrm/Mtr 1844; 

Bombay Mtmthfy Tioim, publithfti Febraarv Itt, March \tt, 

Apriiirt, IS4S. 

ffarralir* ^a Jonmry to Kalat, tMiuding an Account of Ike In- 
mrrtetioii at thatplace in 16-tO. Bp Ciiaiii-k^ Maiwon, K»q. 

Tho MUitary Optratiotu at Cabul, in'th a Journal of /mpriMommt 
in AffykoftiHaa. By /Jtut. Vis^ekt Eybg. f 

' A Journal of ike DitaOfrt in Afffhattiftan, in ISil, \Mii. By 
Ladv Sm.k. 

our May Xunib^r wc entered into nii exniiiiuation of th« 
wliicli th^ invo^iou of AHghanbtaii uaa fotindct), 
tfao ojuniou tu ivliicli thai cxuniiiuition )i»(l con- 
tu, Wc imw proctcil to M-ilcciii our pruniisii of oircriiig 
MOKUOticc of the nmniicr in whii.'li itu- gn'Ut and uujiinl iwliciiK! 
WM Ottrrurd out ; and, if our e.[mca Mill allow it, souietliinff like 
• iketch of tbc bcgiDoiii^. tuiddlc, and end, — if the cud la yot 
oomc^-of tb«t strange nod tr&gic dntnia. The incidents timm- 
•elirea tre sufficiently cxcitinf; to Rttriict thit aitontioit of tlion; 
even who read meri-ly for the gmtification of curioi^ity, or for 
■mBiwmciU; and for all tlio^o ivlio find any meaning in the 
CDOtw of hnnuui evente, few jxusagcs in rixcnt hUf jry oontuin 
« dt«|>iT moml. 

The inu*r«iit wluch attache* to the late events to Aflkhnniittau 
W io gmne degree extendcil to the Mrlier {trogren oi tAo war. 
xo, xxxk — K. 1. n 

7 551 75 

and it is prubablc tlint tlie nurka wtiiuh cume fintt in the liat at 
the head of our nrticle \\av6 heeu more generatlv read ia the 
year 1843 ihan they were at the date of their publicntion. Wc 
do not name them with the jmri'Lifc of criticising to uny great 
extent their literarj' clniiris tg ulu-iitioii. 

To those who feel any hii>t(jricAl interest in the subject, nny 
wish to know wlint really happened, and how, they will nil be 
more or less intorcflting; though going to n cL-rlnin extent over 
the [■lime fjrfinnd, they prejii^nt the ^-ariely of incident and 
cimnicler whieli is to be exi>ected from Journals; and the 
general imprcsf^ion ilcrivod from the compnrison of thi'ec or Ibnr 
will be nwirer hi^loricul truth tlinu wonlil be that urlBiug from 
any one. 

Captain Ilavelock's is, we believe, tlic generally received 
military history of Lord Keunc b ciunpitigii in AfTghanistnn. In 
luldiliun to U elcar and Hpirited nccoimt of the eampaign, it 
coutaina Hiindry interspersed obaervationa on its conduct, and 
these seem to be written with honesty and freedom. Captain 
Havcloek is a ilcciilid ndinin-r of the [Hdiry which dictiitvtl the 
invasion of AflghimiBtim ; and, we pn-.iunie that he includes in 
Ilia estimate of the duties of an aide-de-camp to the general com- 
manding a diviHiim uf the invading force, n pretty thoroiiffh- 
going partisanship on the nide of the king whaae cause we 
embraced. He bclicvea entirely in the dangerous approach, 
grtutping iiinbition, and injuetiee of Kussin, ana Jrawi? from lii.i 
belief curious inleronees to guide the ennihict of Kngland. 
Apparently, the best way to encounter injustice and anihiiion is 
to imitate them. lie franklv assorts the propriety of Huhjceting 
to oiu- influence, that is subduing, all Htates lying between our 
Indian frontier and the Kufniun empire. " 'i'hose who tire not 
decidedly for us," he saj ii. " inuy be justly asewned to be uneqni- 
vocallyngaini^t ui>," and may, ofcourse. be treated accordingly. 

Dr. Atlcinson carriee even farther than Captain Havelock the 
Tiew of the case wlncli wc pre^unur wiik tlicn the fushionahle 
one among the trmployh of tlie Indian government. Tie is, 
what a writer in the Bombay Times somewhere calls him, the 
"courtly" historian of Sliah 8oojah; he is indeed an enthn.''iMt 
in his favour, and. on the occasion of tnkin;^ GhtiKnee, Wcouiea 
bis self-elected poet laureate, putting into the mouth of Mnliomcd 
of Uhuznee a series of verses, desciintive of the eomiiig goUlen 
nge of Atfglmnis'tan, a^ bud as if tney had proceede<l from a 
genuine Mahometan ^Vhiteheiid or I'yc ; singularly uniioe tic, and, 
nlii«! even more inauspicioujsly un|irophetic. We might, if we 
plcaiH'd, give «nr readers some apocimcns, which, compared with 
the anbscquent fiicte, are bo curiously wnd literally conlrwdictory 
that they are as ainuBing us any tiling ludicrous on such a subject 
can be; but wc abetoin, merely recommending Dr. Atkint«on, 
wl)09e beautiful lithographed sKctchos of the scenery of the 


tDorch are certainly mow attnu-tive tban hia poetry, to exprcM 
bis ci)thiiFia#ni hcrcnftcr l>j' tlw p«^'iicil only. 

It 'v niriniii', lu illiijilnitive of tlio citrijIiM^ i^fiiuninue of the 
fecUiifT^ of the Alf^lian ii&t!i>n, which prevailed ovon aflcr the 
concIu^ioD of Lortl Kcanc's expedition, to conipnrc the views 
givon hv tJR*«c two writer* of the jwpulnrity of the Kiij^li^h nnd 
Shuh b»ojnh in AllL>hiuiidtui, with cnch otlicr niut with tin; 
event. In Cajitain iJiivelock's opinion, the Aft'ghans disliked 
the Sluih, but were deli}^)ilo(l with the pixwm-ct of living under 
tlw juittMid •Cttto) nilc ci the Knulish. In I>r. Atkiiwoii's^ 
but we muiit ^ive in lils own wonib lild exhibition of llie luutuol 
fwling^ of the EnglisJi and ADgiians: — 

" Tbo |Miirr wlucli niiKisl liim (ttiL- Sliali) to tlie throne vt rlie prindiml 
dnwhaclc on bU popuUrity. /f ii lij/Smilfitr Iht pf^t ri'jhili/ loroinprtlitiiit 
Ui»f*Ueji uUth infiuenttd that meaiurr. Thty can ift itolniHg in our adpanfe 
l« CaM tni a ittnmr e/oinfunr. . ." (Wtiiil cxUHunlitiar} (luliiotia on (Loir 
MH f) " Tte jifffi^iu are Iht moti bifjutfJ, arri/j/itnl, and iHloletaiil pfOptt 
iaai^iaMe, and tttrj- cqunlly dclcAt «ur mtcrri;reiici?, our cuHlnmn. and our 
CTMa. Tbitj look upon iianl vaee ilrtuicl and cooivnipt ; nubducd aud 
proairaU) «» (licy •!* hyoiir power, ihoy y<l ilo'iJisi^ a:* a* a rnei? of infiileU, 
kod, wilbniit oar qualllylo irarrnnt ihcir liciii^ niimbrriMl |-vii<T,illy aiuuiig 
th» d*M [>f civiliusl tii-nigs, Ibry Iiavi-, nrvvrllK-lvx", Miiiiiy «noiigli to 
Mflpuw thftt uv baiv iiol iufficicnl iiciictrutinn In detect and viupect thrar 
•uMMcfugea and cumiii^. Ilicir doubling* and deceit-" 

Subsequent events may, pcrhapa, bo thought to liave shown 
that thi^ ninily, »t least, wn« not ill fouii(k-<l. " Odiwe qiifm 
tm^rit," U a pnivcrhiiilly coniinoii fci-liiig; und if Dr. A(kin»ou 
ia to l>c regarded as the exjxiueut of Kii^lirih feeling tiiwiirda the 
Affghans, hen.' is as strou<; an cxani[)le of it aa we recollect to have 
met with. 'Ilie Aft'ghan* have saved us the trouble of solving the 
inlricale knot of thvee conlndietiuuK — by cultitiK it aiiimder. 

If there arc any of our readers to whom C'aptain, now Major, 
Oiitnun's luiine has not become fainiliar by the recent dcspatehea 
of the Indian mail, we can only tell them these " Kough Noteit'* 
contribute to vindicate for him the rcuutiition he onjoya of 
beiti'; a jui)ici<iui>, aeltvc, and dnriiif^' wildicr ; that he appears 
tlinitighoiit the t^impaign in Allghanl^tan, to have lieen the 
oflioer on all occwioiu •ck-vted lor any service which miehl 
•Mm more pe4;utinrly to reciuirc ihi've <iinditicii ; tJnit he naa 
dUMOd luoro rclractorv chiel'a, captured more strongholds, and, 
in a rough u-ar, fur the time, pacified a ereater extent of rou<;h 
country than any one on rword ; and, linally, that he ha.t tlie 
emlit of liuving, in tin; chanietcr of I{e>"idi,nt at Ilvderabad, 
tlonv all that eould he done hy a moderate, prudent, and humane 
wrvaot of hia government to prevent or defer the dojitriictivo 
criata orconfliet la wliieli, ever siiioc the grxMit aggrc^ivo move 
uf LunI Auckland, thingi^ in Scinde have been constantly 
teatUog — n reputation, il' etiually merited with the rest of his 
hniMurs how mfinitely prcfembitt to tlieni all I 

Tbc last on our list of work? rvhiting to the early campaigns 


in A%IiaDiBtim is l>r. Kennedj-'e, bjkI to us it is the nioet pleas- 
ing, partly as echoing our own feelings on tJic policy of the 
war, though generally in a light and satirical tfmc It contain*, 
however, the lollowing rcmarkaltle pasftsge, which is very Btriking 
when wc consider timt it appeiircti befure any facts or surmises 
could have lieen thought to justify it. But there it no wonder 
that tlie fipirit of indignnnt donuuciuUun of wroug should tor 
once be one with the spirit of prophecy. 

" Thu (lay of Kckoniug Ja not coini; yot ; but it will come, Had bring mth 
it results a( utAich tAt eat 0/ him thai htarelh iiflHrm t/iall lingU." 

Wc are not able to refer at this moment to the passage, but 
tliCiic avK, w(- ihink, nearly the K%i\vt expressions. Dj<l not the 
tidinga of the winter of 1811 miike toe ear of ever)- hearer 
throughout Europe to liuftle? 

For the rest, Dr. Kennedy is a pleu«)nt and lively writer, it 
bit of a humorist, a bit of u philoHopher, and as luunorist and 
{Jiilosopher should be, a kind-hearted man. He loaea his bag- 
cago by tliicvcf, in the Uolan I'o^s, — it is very annoying ; but it 
dou not make him approve of the wholewile t'sceutioni^ by which 
Sir .T. Keaiio thought it right to terrify the phiuderers: his 
natural inclination is to laugh at the follies of men. but he can 
exprej<a jui"t and earnest indignntion when the crime pre-lomi- 
natea over the folly. His lust vUit at C^bool is tu the lunib of 
Babcr, hia last at Ghuznee to tJie tomb of Mahmoud, whero the 
Superitrtentlin^ Siirfiion to tJie Bombay Column of tlift Army of the 
Indus meditates on the tiiiti.-<itory nature of human grandeur. 
" ' Vanity of \'aiiitiee, all is vanity," repeated I to myself, as I 
woudcrcil what had become of the Sultan's Chief of the medical 

} The ■' Outline of OiH:rntions," in the monthly Bombay Times, 

is, in fact, a hhtori/ of the Affghan war, — a history which we 

should gliully see rescued from the periidinbic (and often illegible) 

columns of im Itnliim iiewi>pii|iei', imd tnuisfonued into a more 

permanent shape. The number published on the Ist of February 

contains the account of Lord Kcan«'e campaign. The inquity 

^oto tlie cntif^e^ of the war ii|>i)e)ir!> in the Alarch iiunil)cr, and la 

nllustrated by many despatches and piirts of desjiatchea which 

were never laid before rarliameut, and of some of which wo 

grati-fulty availed ourselves in our recent article. The Inst, 

which we have just received, civrriii* the history to the end of 

1840. The writer is no friemi of the originators of the war, 

but the grounds on which his view is supported arc such a« 

Lbardly ndniit of misrcprci>cutatJon, nnd lie open to the judgment 

M)f every one. In the history oi' the war itself, his facts are nji- 

marentJy collected with care, and pgneralhi supported by the 

rSulitary memoir-writers of the campaign ; and his cxtiinale of 

the charaoten* and conduct of indivituiaTs has «very appearance 

r>f impartiality. 


Suuli ftrc tli« i>rinci|Hil source* Truni wlticli u kDMwWgc of the 
earlier iirugreitii of the war auiy be sought. Mr. MnntmnV work, 
to which we nhall hereafter refer, contains an aceount hy an 
eyc-witncM «inl iictnr in ninny of the scenes he ilcsfribce, oC tha J 
KheUt intiirrection in 1840; "nn ejilKntK! mi-rtrly," a* he Niys, ^ 
"of the great politicnl dram u enacted west of tlie Indus," Imt 
nut the Ica^t inti-rc^linj^, nor the K-tut jiiiinrul tiart of the drama. 
tJ|>on work* whicii, like Lwiy Sale's and Lieutenant Eyre's 
JoumaU, arc in every ouc'a hands, it is slmnst superfluous to 
offer any gcaemi rcmai-ka. Though, of course, indebted for tlie 
Bvidity wilh which ihey have Iwen rend, mainly, to the curiosity 
felt in reference to tlieu- subject, they are yet intrin.tic-nlly enti- 
tled to much pruRC : they arc most interesting records of events 
which no record coutd make quite uniut cresting. Written by 
eyo-witneMcii, and without atT'cctutiun, they hnvc the one surpnss- 
in^ merit of reality ; ami the eonsecjuencc is, that tlicy ninke, 
what aeemMl when we first heart] it the incredible story of the 
Cftbool ORtiuitruplie, not only credible but intctligtblc' Thevi 
ooinoide witii each other to a dcirrcte whioti :([ie»kH well for ilieiri 
inulual aecuracy, the main difference boinp, that the one is 
written by an sclor in the scenes dworibcd, the otiier by a 
doafily-)ulcrc«t«d oboerver. Tht^re is indeed another not un- 
liliuacteristic didtiDCtlon. The honourable caution of the military 
nun, ll>c anxious desire not to bliutie unjustly, the not unfrequcnt 
atntcntcnt of ffleln from whi<:h llie reader cannot but itifer a, 
•ercni ceudure, williout Uic direct suggestion of any,— all this 
oonlnuts strikingly with the honest unreserve, the feminine 
vebeinenoe. with n-bii:)i Ltidy Sole utters, from her whole hcartt 
her well-tneriled itivnte or blame Kneh book i^ in this rvsjiect J 
juHt what it ought t» be. Lieutenant Kyre's position as «n otGcer] 
doubtlees Btrcngtbcns, in this respect, his manly instinct of oooU 

^'udgmcnt and faimc»; and the result is highly hunonruble to' 
tim. I'erhdpa the iiM»t remarkable feature in hio Ixiok in tho 
fair, calm, and unexagjferating tone with which he relates th«j 
long catalogue of errors, and niisconduot. He never blameaJ 
without stating lits n-iwons; and he gives pniisc or blame, in 
onpotitiiin ti» hu confeMcd perwonal predilections Towonlstdloa 
his own side — the English side — Lieutenant Eyre is uniformly^ 
and scrupulously just. If in his estimate of their 0{inoncnls he' 
•ppMn to u* oeciuionally partial and inrnnsi«i|ent, — if lie detils 
a httic too freely with words like "rel»cl-i," and "treason,"^f 
be souietimca seems to attribute to the whole nation the atroci- 
tia ODOtmillwl by a part, — we can. in his circumstances, e.\cuf« 
fO^ Ml crn>r niihuut being misled by it. No one can read tho 
work without nweiving on the ivitole a moat lavoumble imprea-J 
■ioti uf the writer. I 

l*aMn]i; from llie oonsidenition of these work^ to offer somel 
ninark> on the course of tlio w»r, we feel that we cMinot b<^n 



Rli^«fttj woulJ entt^r hid doiiiiniona eurrouiidetl by his own 
lr<w[*i, ihe future cbaraclci' of llie Slinh's contingent iiiiiMt hnvc 
been fuUy known. Lord PalmcrBtonV equivocating defence id 
vortliy uf the ainterlion wliich he di^fends- 

11^ nowever, tbe Indian government failed in surrounding 
Sltah Soqjah willi AfFjiImn troops llu-y proceeded effectmilly to 
fuUil tbeir pr(>nii«« of i>up|K<rling liiiii with n Uritiflh nnny. X'he 
i)n)|Minitii>n» rttiuJu iiidioiiti-d lui i-x]>cetatt(.m of iiHti'tio^ with no 
iBOOMiderable an>ounl of " factions opimgition," and a resolution 
tliat no antouat should interfere with the execution of their great 
project. Inclwling tlic Sholi'v contingent, tut it wits ctiMetl, 
1 « r«w ihuuMndct of Sikh levies, the forocH ai^cnihled in tlie 
\y jwrt of 1839, along the line of the Indus, amounted to 
'more than 40,O(K> men. Wc subjoin a map, or nmplikc sketch 
of the country whicliwas tlK'«»,vn«r of our o))erittioi)», eoiituintug 
w few Diti»e« of |tlaoca ua pos-xihifr, hut ^ullitieiit, we ho^w, to 
make our subfleijuent remarks intelligible. 






^^^P A glance at tliiii map vrill show, that from Peroze]>ore, tlic 

^^^ hciul-quarters of tlie Bengivl (IJvisioit of the "Anny of thia 

H Indus," tho nearest line of niarcli vn Cabool would tiavc been 

H tJiiit 1)V which our troops, in 1842, evacuated llie country, 

H thi-ougn the Punjaiib and the dcfili-8 of tlie ICIivber. The line 

H u]tiDiat4.-ly chosen for the Bombay nnd Bengal divisioDd— the 

H chief ittrcngtli of the army both in numbcni and cfficJoncy^wa« 

H the longer western route, Icadin-^ tiirougli the territoi-y of tlio 

H Ameere of Scindc, aiid K(i»torn Beloocliisttin, bv the BoUn Pass 

H to Qucttah and Ciindahiir. It is oiirioua to lirid that a principal 

H reii^nn fiir t\m profo.roiioe waa — tlie rducUuice of our "old and 

H faithfid ally," Kunjeet Sinshi to pcnnit thoae, who, by a reci- 

H |)rocal relation, must have been hi» " old and faithful allies," to 

H truvCJBC his ti;rrilyric* witii so largo a force, for his scruples 

H we had cverv re8[>ec!t; but, apparently, it is not every ruler 

who is entitled by his position to object to the imasage of 

nrmic)!. The scruples of tho weaker Atnecrs of Scinde, and 

of the Khan of KhelAl, the prindji^ cluefMii of Eiuflern Beloo- 

chiatan, though not lean natural, wci-e leas oomplae^ntly i-c- 

garded. The former, who had prcviouBlv promised sujtplies, 

iwaUtjincc, and oarriuse, were, on our arrival in their coiiutrj-, 

found to regard the advance of the army with hiMtJle feelings, 

which were more than shared by the fierce Beloochoe triltcs who 

acknowlcdg^^d their dominSim. U is even naid that large gums 

of money were distrilmted by them among iheir undineijilined 

, followers, assembled iii thousands along the In<his, to firerent 

^^^ft their ultacking tho British army. Fur a long time they refused 
^^V to HubHci-ilc the new treiity tendered for their awreptunee, large 
^T ns it ivan in its demaiidii, and equivalent to a renunciation 

H of independence. At length, under immediate apprehension of 

H itn ttllack upon their enpitiil hy twenty thouMimd men, they 

H agreed to forward by all nicanii an exjieditiou, of whiidi the 

^B unmediatc effect would be to ivetore thein to tlieir former 

H dependent position upon the monarch of Cnbool, to pay n lai^c 

H earn of money a» inMatmmt of trilmte due to .Shuh .SoojaA »inc« 

^m 1805. and to cede the fort of Bukkur, the key of the Lower 

^^^^ Indus, to be permanently occupied hy a British garrison. Ten 
^^B mouth.* before this occurred tlint conversation between Captain 
^^^^ Burnea and Dost Mahoniod, in which " I refeiTed him to Scinde 
^^ AS an example of the ad\'antagcs of British connexion ;" five 
^^^ft years later that connexion reached iu climax, in ]K-rhnp» the 
^^^P neroc^t battle ever fought in India, resulting in the captivity of 
^ the princes of the land, and the occupation of its capital ; and 
H now, 09 we learn, in its permanent annexation to our empire. 

H^ On the subject of our dealings with Sclnde, in 1839, we have 

^^^H id Captain Havelock with painful aaloniiihment. That officer, 
^^^^ » "record-s not witliout a sentiment of uaiional shame nnd 
^^^^^^Liiliation," that our original demand on the Amecra wa.i in 





direct ridlalkin of a tr«ity tnlei^eJ inlo wild them only a Tew 
years earlier, who etylea thnl (ii^iiiiinil " an exprc«siou of calm 
cont«m|>t, on the p«rt of the Bi-itiah, for Bu)>i<i«tiiig (riiKiigcment*," 
y« nftcrwnnU " ventures to tliinlc, that, after all, thtao deecitfiil 
rulera were ilealt with tuo U-iitcmly," and speaks of the antJci- 
|)atod storm and |ilunder of Ilvdcruluul, imd Ihv " blasted hopc!-" 
oflhc armVt in consequence of a jieaeefnl arniugri-nK-ut, in the 
tpirit of n divapfKiinted Mithinttu phtiiderer. AVe enlemnly 
BHure nur rtwliTu Uiiit thv ]iii{H! in Captain Huvelock'e work, 
ivhich anticijialed lh« itonn of 1 lydemhiid, in ht^ack'^ " Golden 
PnMpccts," that the page which recordii how Ilydemlind caino 
not to lie nlonaed, i« lieiulcd " Pru#pcct« Ulighled ;" that each 
Mgc La like u> itM heiulinir, aii<l that we have been able to 
aiwover no trace of irony, la thU the iiahiral lone of a Itritii>h 
oflker? or is it the case that injustice on the part of rulers 
leflTcni) the wliole mass of those whom they enii>luy with a cor- 
responding leaven of inifpiily ? 

After iMwiine thmtigh Scinde, the rontc followed l>y our 
army led them tnroiiph the [larta of Kafltern Beloochietan, subjoct 
to AMrtib KliaH of JiAehit — a nntnc of deep wRnifiomcc tu the 
student of the Atlj^han war. Tliut ehieAaiu, or hia prcdccea- 
Borft, liad l>een, like the Ameers of Scinde, feudatory to the 
crown of Cubool, but for the last many yciirs they had ijonseseed 
liiith virtual and nominal indfpendetii.*e. In 1^34, Shan l^oojall, 
fiviiu; ftvia ihe coii»e<(uence« of h defeated uticmiit to recover 
Itis dominioiu. took reAiso in the territories of iielirab Khan, 
of whom be was demanwl hv his pursuer, one of the Bamkzyo 
ehicrftainit of C'tuidaluir. Mchmb Khan hud the eenero«ity to 
refuse to give up the fugitive, ami tbo Harukzye the generoaity 
to ftpplatld the refusal, saying, tliat " Mchrab Khan acted like 
B good man." Shall S<xij»h IlkI now an opportunity of showing 
hv gmtitude to the ninn to whotn he wa:; jicrhaps indebted for 
libertv and life, and he did to cburaeteristienlly. On under- 
frtandiDg tluit Mehrab Khnn demurred to the passage of the 
army, lie wrote to him, reminding him that SiaU Naiea: K^an 
wna DOW in his oamii: this Shah Nawai: Khan In-ing u shoot of 
the ruling family of Khcint, nml a h'splimate jjiolender, with 
pretcnsionH abimt one hundred years old, to the ihroLc ; whom 
the English afierwania actually ect up on the death of Mehrab 
Khan, and maintained for a tew months. In any i*«timalc ol' 
the ctuusctcr of our pnt^ij Sbtik Soojohj tliiit incident ouglit 
not to be forgotten. 

Sir Alexander IluroeB, who wiu more tlian once at lOieUt 
for llic ptirpotK; of conducting tho negotiation for Uie fupply of 
[irot^i.Moiis and i-urringe with Mchrab Khan, hsin reciirdea some 
uf his eiinrcrxatiiinH wilb the ebii-ftain. The Khan's remarks 
iijion the daiigeraun iin]Hil)cy of uur conduct, by wbieh, ihoueh 
wc might set up Shan Snojab, " we could iK'ver win over the 
L tin. xxxt. — M. «. a i 


10 Afyhautitiin. 

Afiglinn nntinn," indicate far more judgment and ith i w r i h w 
tlian liv rccdvcH crtKlil for fruni Mr. Mn^snn, wlia eoBflMan 
him an ini]>rii(leiit. tJioiigh by no means treaclieroiis, character, 
Once he ih said to liave used words of ominous prophecy : " \ oti 
have brought sm nraiy into the tvjuutry, but how do you jn-oiioae 
to take it tiut aj^iiin V" Ullimntcly, after showing much reluc- 
tnnee, Mehrah. a« the hicitorinn of the Bombay Times eay«, 
"promised plcntilidly, aa modt Oriental, and many European, 
piinces untler these circiimstaucee, would have done; trusting 
thftt the chjiiter of iieeidentjt would enuhle hira to emde, or 
rol«ft8e him irotn ii treaty wliicli wiui ancedc-d u> under fear or 

As might have been expcct«d, ihcBC pronii(*s were little 
regarded ; probably it would not have been in Mehrah Khan's 
power \m [)erionn them, wliatevcr hail been his intention. But 
the distress oi' the ftnny, in wmsequeuce of their non-perform- 
niicc, seems to hare hcen fearfid ; even before the niiiin division 
of Bengal, estimated, with the cjunp followera, at little short of 
one hundred thuuuiuid men, entoretl tlie tremendons piut-i of the 
Bolan, the non-conibatantd were reduced to half rations. A 
vivid idea of the nature oi" the march inav be gnined from 
Dr. Atkinson's sketches of the scenery of this pitw; the deep 
and narrow Kplit in the bills, where the precipitous clitfa, inclin- 
ing towards each olltcr as they run up, and, nearly meeting at 

" Forehead to Toreliciut hoU tliclr monstrou* homi." 

Half-way up, a wild group of Bcloochees nrc perched in % 
cleft peering and pointing tlieir matchlocks over the ledge at 
the inMtding column; some adventurous Sepoys are seraniblirg 
up the roelts to some "coin of vantage" from which to a^ail 
the plunderen ; while the long line of mnreh, men, homes, and 
laden eaincls, is toiling on painfully below. During the ad>Tinec 
of seventy miles along that terrible chni'm, their losses in 
linggoge nnd provisions were great, owing to the difficulties of 
the route even moi-e tlian to such predatory attacks ; and the 
Bombay column, when following some week* later, found the 
track marked by the dead bodies of horses, camels, and maraud' 
i/iff liftooriiwi, who were invariably dealt with according to the 
order that " no prisoiiei-s were to be tjiken." Yet they were 
never attacked in force- An interi'cpted letti^r to « hill chief, 
WTit.tcn, whether by Mchrnb Ktmn, or. as Mr, Masson thinks, 
by bis treacherous minister without bis knowledge, contains the 
following exprevaions: — " What is the use of your tnwlicit and 
your Hrrangementc? all child'!* phiy. There is no relief but in 
death : no cure but in the dcstmctinn of the English. Their 

"ids, goCMls, nnd bwlies must ho sacritieed. Strengthen the 
■B. Call on all the tribes to harass and destroy." Had thi« 
ce but not unwise counoel Iwen hcnrtilv followed: had 



Hpfcab Khan comlimed with tlie chiefs of Cimdahur for the 
^OTfpCBc of resolutely o|>noeinc the advaiiiv of llio Kiijjlish, 
there MeniM no alight pruliability that the invasion of Afighaii- 
i#taii might have tttmiinatoil *h(irt of llic froiilipr of that country. 
Bnt the retribution wliiHt, jH^rhagLs hut f!>r the ^lisimioii of our 
etKoiic*, miffht have signalized the Pom of tlic l)olaii> vim 
deftrred uat4l it should bo better merited ; 

" UdUI ■ dnr more dikrk nnd drear, 
And a man inemDrabld year " 

■huuld gire to Khoord Cnbool aud Tewen the fame of llie 
itaughtrr of nn EDfrli^^h amiy. 

Betnirvn (jiii-t)nh and Cnodiihar, itliortly before entering the 
Kojok Pa«, the d)im;<."r— not from the ■•word, but from lOiirva- 
tion — waa greaL Tlie eiunti followers were in a state bordering 
on liuninc ; the men were dispirited, and desiiondinff ; specula 
^o(u upon the necessity of a retreat were prevalent ui the camp ; 
but were put an end to by the apiritcd and judicious order uf 
the CoDUDUidet^in-i-hii'f. din^s-tin^nn iinmedintv ndvAncc. StUI 
bcMt br attacks, rather on tlieir li't^r^i^e and stores tliau them- 
m1vC9, lonng very feiv men by the i^woi-d, but many by niekncM 
ud exhauMtion. haviii'; hail many hurocN whot to preserve them 
fVom dying by xturvation, mid iditinvt nil the rest imtit for duly, 
the baraoaod, lutlf-famialied, and diminished column struggled 
on to CKodabar. The Barukzye chiefs of Candahar, deterred 
from rMMtmce by the trcochcnjtie desertion of one of their most 
influcntkl adbernitii, tlnl at I)k- npproueh of the Hrili»h aniiy, 
and Sbah Soo}ah enteri'il unojijjont-d intt) tlic second city of hia 
doariaions, wliere he wiu apparently well reecivcd — fluwvn and 
loATea of bread being strewei I before him by hi/ hiving oubjectui; 
the latter of which demonstrations of reA]>e-Ct would have been 
more to the puriiose in tltc cour«c of the march through the 
;— MP. lie prn<.'ce4lcd to comttilute a court, hold levcce. and 
Wffonn other etmilarly important functions of sovereignty, 
Kor all nich formalities he aeems to have hiul n xfrong ta-^te, 
diaaivtricnlly 0[>|>osed to the pri-judice* and pnn(-i|ilea of hia 
Aflghan duhjects, mocustomcd to feel pride in the rude freedom 
utdiooial equality whicJi exiated under the half-natriarehul, Imtf- 
reodal, government of their chieftains. On the plain outaide 
tlM dtjTt mrroaoded by English officers, and the ruar of English 
cannoiu he was solemnly ri'cogniscd as Kovere'ign of Att'ghaii- 
iatiuL The wbolc ceremony was eondni-ted aecoitling to tluailnc 
proffiunme, BMigning to every ■ >ne lii.i place ; and, among othera, 
B pbe* to the " popuUee," whose exuberant loyalty was to bo^ 
"rwtimtoed" by we Shali's troops. The ]HTforiiianco went off 
well ; but tlie part of Hamlet was omitted— the people were not 

Adfwtotiu^ after two moolha' delay, from Candnliar, and ^tiH 
expeeed to muular privatiwna, the anny iwrived at leiq[lh before 




the fortified uity of Gliiixnec in n ntatc iii which fitiUire would \iaxe 
been moat dangi'rous, aud aucceaa was ahnost neceseary. Such 
situations are not unfrequcnt in war : ant! as the die falU, there 
is blnmc for thv inii)rudcnc(! which risked and lost — or all [iraii>e 
for th« eoiinigv; which rl:<kt;d and won. " I know," said Napoleon, 
after heann^ and answering the ohjections of eome of his 
generals to hi? proposed scheme for tlie world-dividing caiiip!U|:;n 
of 1813, " I know, after nil, I shiiil be jiitlg^I by the event." 
But the .iwil^ deei^iim to Irv, and the rt.'.-<itlutioii to win, which 
have n<!vcr a Munll tthart! in determining the event, determined 
that of the (ihuznee campaign of 1831), Tho hatteiing train 
hud been left at C'andahar; the defences of the town were 
Strong; but one giite, onl of twviity-four, hiul not been walled 
Up; and the siln'nii; suggested by an engineer officer was in- 
stantly adopted by tlic genernl^to blow in this gate with 
powder, and carry the town by storm. All was done a* it was 
■trmngcd. On the 2l8t of July llic garriMin of (.ihiixnee firnt 
eaw from their walls the coluum of an ICngliidi raglment ; by 
five o'clock .V.M, on the 23d, those colours were floating from 
the citwlcl. 

Nothing can be more pie1urc£<ine, nothing, as an exhibition 
of deternuncil vnlmir, apart from nil ei inside nit ions of the canse 
in which it was sliowii, more brilliunt. than that assault, as told 
in the otlicial desptitches, and the accounts of those who were 
prei'ent. The stormy night, the violent giistsof wind preventing 
the garrison from hearing llie appiMucili of our columnit ; the 
enemy, seen through the chinks of the gate, quietly nmoking, 
iminctliatcly belbro the explosion in whieli they were hurieu ; 
tho Htorniiug party, under Colonel Dcnnic, struggling through 
the balt-niincd gateway, at once feeling and fighting their way 
forward Uu-Diigh the covered puKHngc in the dark, until their 
leader saw the blue skv and stars above the heads of tlicir 
retiring opponents; — all these circumstances belong to the 
romance of war. According to the account of Colonel Dennio, 
contirmedfroiii other finarte.rti, an unavoidable mi etJkke prevented 
the storming party from being inimediiitely followed by the 
supporting column, of which the advance was delayed for some 
minntcs; and Dcnnic and his small band forced their way into 
the town, and held their position there on the nuDiiarls witliin, 
for aome time, unnimportcd and ahuie. 

" Alone I did it." He wni» the Coriiilamis ofGhuznee. 

This exploit, in fact, decided the struggle, and Shah Soojiih 
might now consider himself, by the grace of the KngHiih, king of 
Aflghanistnn. Wc find him "every inch a king," taking, and, 
which is much stranger, receiving in Lord Keane'i* despatch, 
ostentatious credit for sparing the life of the "rebel" governor 
of Ghuznee, Prince Hydcr Khan, son of Dost Ulahomcd ; " a« 
'," »aya Dr. Kennedy, with just indignation, " the bare posal- 



Aff^kaiti/taH. Vi 

liility of the nonlnuy could Imvc been oontcmpUted.'' Tlie day 
previoiu be bad begun to exerciae in h yet mure dct-idctl manner 
the rigbu of eovcrctgnty. Fifty or sixty Aifpbim priMtncrVt 
fpritMen <ff war) liad been taken and broii^bt before liim. 
Hb MaJMtj, wbo a|i{>eur8 to Iwve been fond of uetDg stronf^ 
Inu^nge, be;:an to bUuhi ul lli« rcbiiU. One of tlicui, a chief, 
irritttlfd by ll«^ language addressed to bini by ihc Shub, ruvlied 
lowRrd.* hmi, atul Kounded an attendant witli liis tln^cer. Tlic 
king, in tliv mgc, il would Hceui, of a coward. in«taniiy ordered 
the execution of llio wboln; and, in n few minute?, tbcec filly 
or sixty prisonere — i^ain wo »ay, jtri*oneri of war — wore mua> 
««crcd to a num. 

Tliii butdwry vrat Hnid nt the time to have been perpetrated 
iu tJie preaencc of tl»c Briti,-<1i Knvoy, and by nuthorily of the 
Brilifih Coiuniander-in-Cbief. We arc *iii(^rely gbid to find 
Uiat tbiB n*»f not the ca»e ; * but tJiat Shah Soojab was at once 
warned by tlwCommaiidcr-in-Cbief that, while within the limits 
of a Drittvb oainp, he mutt mc««urc out lii» mercy and jw«tioe, 
even lowanlii liia rclKrilionn xubjecti*, in n dilleri-nt [irDimrlion. 
One can conecive the unmiligiiK-d disgust *nd scorn with which 
every I£ngli»bgenllcman — every Knp;lishm»n in tbv eiinii), inui>t 
ha%e bcnni of (hi; pcrfonnance oi' ibiit, the fii-wl Ued of Justice, 
held by the iniheeilo oh) iniin whom they were supporting in 
l«h]ing-«tringa, over the l>udied ol' his eubjects, to a throne, 
Thi» wag tJio first occasion on which he acted for himtclf, and 
itappenni fiiir to prc»ume that it was in cbaiiictcr. 

\> liile tlH^ annv Maid at Uliuxnve, th« Nawul) ■lubltur Khun, 
brotJicr of Dont ^loliomet), (mentioned in our former article,) 
upeared onee more in the character of a peace-maker, oeking 
for bimM-lf, nollung; for Dost Midiomed, \\i» bvrtHlitiiry ofliov 
of Grand Vizier, as the condition of submitting to tbe Kliali. 
This, of votinip, coulil not be granted. When presented to the 
Shttb. we fiiKl hilt deportment was not uncourteaus, but bin 
OOortwy did not prevent biin from addrewinp to the king a 
ruber awkward <|uestion. *' If yon arc to Im? king, of what u»c 
u (hv British army Itcrc? If ihc English are In role over the 
ooimtiy, of wlial uite arc you licrcT By the aneient laws of 
Menu, a severe |>cnalty \» atladied to the offence of overcoming 
a Biahmin in argument ; we do not know wbothor AiTgbnn law 
•ttacheB any penalty to bringing a king into an inextricable 
dilemma; but, if there is any aiieb, wc think it is prt'tty clear 
that the gowl N'Hw.ib biwl incnrrctt it. He was oflired inainU- 
nanea in hia propi'rty and htmuurs, which he dedimd, iiml 
departed to share iits broiher'a fortune; having firitt solemnly 
laid the responsibility of tho blood which would !« shed upon 
Ibo King and the Entvy. At this, "one could not but bduIc' 


11 Affphanittati. 

(Hiivi'Iock.) Owe imiiles nl the limr, nt in:\ny things whicli, «t 
the diatnnco of thrcu years, have a very itii«iniliiig asiKct. W'c 
will answer for it tliat, if Captain Ilavelock itow recalls thi^ con- 
verention, the recollection dues not make him eniile. 

A weiik nftcr the capture of Ghuznee, the anny advanced on 
Cabool, carrying with it tin- prestige and terror of victory. 
Doet Mahomed, who hod »)iortly Ivcfure i:i,l¥H)n)en around him, 
was deaerled, and Ibrced to Hy with GOtl homeaien to the moun- 
tains ; and Shuh Soojuh entered Cabool, like Canda)inr, un- 
onjuwetl, and wm received by the people in a manner wIulOi, wo 
think, <lid thcni honour, — without insoience, without vxulutiun; 
hut with cold and grave respect. 

Uoat Maiioined was pursued by some sepoys and Drltish 
officers under Captain Outram, and a bixly of Afl^hans under 
Hadji Khan of Ivakur: the traittir who, having lately betrayed 
the HarukKyo ejiuwo at ('andahar, was expected lo show the ncij 
of a convertite. This man. whose general course through life 
seems to have been that of a thorough scoundrel, may yet pro- 
bably have felt tomo rcluetaneo to be the instrinnent of putting 
\i\« old miu<ter into the handj^ of hitt eiieiuiee. lie toi)k every 
excurie fiir hmijrinj; bai'k: and hU eftorts in thift line were more 
than seconded by his followers. To Captain Outrani's forward 
energy they opposed an luuionqncniblc r/* iiiertirr ,■ and their 
luiulor roiieaU'dly asMured hiin tliat not one of them would strike 
ngaiiiat Dost Malionied, shoidd they overtake him. Once Caii- 
tain Outram overheard the chiefs remonstrating with the Hadji 
on hi« eonduet,—" Why should he, who had never received 
injury from Ooxt Mahomed, aid in putting him into the bandit 
ot the Feringeee!'" To which, os might be exjwcted, the Hadji 
hml notliing to say. On another occasion we find him. in answer 
to Captain Outmni's reproaches of his baekwartlncss, protesting 
that he tuid incurre<l tbo liatred of the whole nation by liU ut- 
tachmvnt to tin* Knglish. " 1 am, jiapt to th« king, the most 
unpoinilar man in the eountry." N»j-t to the kin/i, whose «ni- 
vensal pojiutarity liad been so incontestably proved to Lord 
Auckland ! 

The result of the piirqiit was such as might have licen 
expected. Ailercm>!oing the Hindoo Koosh at 1^,000 feet al>ovu 
the •en, — after starving for days on handtuls of meal, — after 
ooming to a unanimous and, we doubt not, very Jugt conclusion, 
tliat. in case anything went wrong, all the AflglianB on both 
sides would at once turn against tliem, — and passing, iu full 
conclave of thirteen English otlicer^, a i-esolution which recallf tx> 
It* the wai-s of Cortex with the Mexicjins, to direct their united 
'lacks, should they come into conflict with the enemy, upon 

«t Klahomcd singly, wliosa fall would proliably diifperso hi» 

>wcnt, — Captain Outnun and his eom|ianion« found tltem- 

■ (» obliged to retrace tlieir steps to Cabool ; where, of course, 



tb« iouacdiate coiiiequcnoc of tlk«ir rctuni nns the <lii^nn! nnd 
puoishmcDt of Uic " Imitur," Ilndji KJtan. lie had lat«lv won 
riches Hnrl HoiKiur by bctntyiii^ the Itiirukzyc cutuct and nair, 
lor fitTouring tlic ejMmpe of IiU old iiitu>t4-r, liu wiii> dii!^rnc«l and 
pimtsiied. It was probably the onlv deed promjxcd by good 
feelings ho hod ever done in hie lite, dikI he did not find it 
umrcr. IX>ubtlc«e, in ihe McluHiun of hi» in i prison nicnt at 
Ixwdtwwb, be nctolved in hu heart not to citli-nd t<imihirly n^ain. 
Tttaaoa mu no new g:iune to him ; but thia iinie he luid been 
tnitor on the wronc side. It la an inBlnictive lesson to scoun- 
drd<* to be careful, like Sanko, to preserve (heir chnntcter, and 
not to lUiMpoiiit th«ir employer** utinutc of their Hooundrelism. 

We tilinll not attempt to follow in detail the sutntequciit for- , 
ttmca of Doet Habomcd. It will be EiiDioient to itny that he ' 
Btrow to tnnintnin thfi war aeainst us with iin honmirable perti- 
nacity ; that in the cottrae of bin pndaivutin< to oblain oesirtance 
he waa inipri«(>ned, mvacely trcatc<l, nii<l biH life ondnii^ercd by 
tl>c ndcr of Bokhara— the same wretehed tyrant who lina sincp 
bfconic infomouB by (he murder of our two countrymon, C-olonel 
Stoddart iind Captain CunnUy; and tlnit, «)»cit[iiii^ thence, ho 
retomed to Aflghnni^tan, uud became onec more a rallying point 
of the " diaaSected and rcb(.-11i<mE," and nt one time a souroe of ' 
ntoet BerioBs alami, an iiisnn-ectiun, even in Cahool iteelf. bein^ 
daily apfnhendcd; (hat, uHur aiiKtainin); u rniuuns defeat nt 
Boncwt, from Colonel Dennie, in an action which, in a, military 
poiat of riew, was per^iapa the moat brilliaot fought in Affghan- 
Mtan, — a defeat which a slight advantage ^rnined at Pnrwaa 
Don^ pccnw only to Imve convinced him it vaa impopwblc to 
rtpur,— he ru<le with one attendant Btniigbt from the luHt'iixMi- 
tioned field of liattle to Cabool, met Sir William Macnnghten 
fCtumiag with bis escort from his evening ride, and claimed, M'itli 
a confidence bonotmbly given, and honourably repaid, tlie pro- 
teotioii of the repreaenlntive of Knghmd. The Knvoy merit* 
praiao for bt«towing ecnennitfly and readily the kindnciw which < 
tt would liave been disgraceful to refuse,— but we regivt to find i 
tlial. true to his dislike to Dost ^lahouied. he continued aflcr- | 
wards to attribute the fiivourablL- inipiv»*ion which lie mn'le on ' 
all wbo ranie in contact with him, to the tiingnlar miMli-ading 
pow w a of thin " acconqdialied disumibk-r.'' ^A ith this chivalric 
incident, which occnrrod in Noveroher 1840, exactly a year 
before the great insnrrcetion in Cabool, closed for tliu time the 
poblir career of one whose name. otJicrwiw; little knownlieyond 
tba limiu of hix own country, luu now lie<-n nmde famous 
tlmMi|i(fa the world ; and enrriea witli it, wherever it is spoken, a 
repmoch to the impolicy and injustice of England. 

w"e return to the course of earlier evcntu; that is. to the 
autwnn of I8J9. Tliough l)o-t Maiiomed hod escspwl for the 
lidiR, the Indian povemmenl had kc]« its wortl, and phteod Slrnh 


16 ^Ji/ianiftatt. 

Soojah on the llirone of liis nncestore, and a large part of the 
troops were at oiicc witlidniwn to India. The ri-tiinjing innrcli 
of tlic Homlwiy tiniij' wiut eiS^niilixcd by itiic of (lie most ini- 

Iiortaiit evcnlH of tlie year 1839, the cA])ture of Klielat, Wo 
lave already alluded to the causes of quarrel witli the ehicftain 
of tliat country. lit- wae act-uwd, not only of having failed in 
liw cnfjupenifnts to furiUKh [iro vision.", hut of having iueiKnl the 
hill tril)(-n tu atlitck uo in t)ie Bolan Pass, of iiaving waylaid the 
bearers of the treaty lie had signed, and of otiici' hostile pro- 
cecdinps. Had all that Uv was charged wilh been entirely 
09liibliifhed, we eauniit hut iv^ard the resolution to depose him 
na a harMli, high-handed, and arbitrary proceeding. He was 
felse, if false at all. to a eompulsory agreement, an agreement 
entered into not in furtherance of iiie own luterefils. but of ours; 
and to whatever exient ihe original demand upon him may be 
huKI to he vindii-ated by a]tpiirent necessity, the same cause can- 
not be given for visiting the violation of his engagement with 
the very extreme of retribution, after the expedition had been 
perfectly guccesefnl. It would, we think, have been more oon- 
siittrnt with policy and justice, ai^ well as witli humanity, to have 
iiecepted the excuses with wliich he was ready to propitiate the 
contjuerurs of Aflghaoistani and to establish by future kindness 
some right to those services which hitherto we hiul attem]>ted to 
exact bv terror. These considei-ntiims either did not oocur to 
our (lolilieians, or were disregarded hy them. They had already 
ta«tcd the pleiwnre of being " proud scttcrs-up and pnllers-down 
(if kingM," and the Coiiimaimer ol' tlie llomhay eolunni wad 
charged in his return to effect tlie degmciition of Mehnih Khan. 

That chieftain, whatever his conduct towards us had been, 
BOCms not to have c-iiiccted such a proceeding. He attempted 
to delay the itdvniice uf the British hy profcwions of atlnehuient 
and allegiance, coupled will) the declaiulion that if attacked he 
would defend himself to the last. Professions and threats were 
alike unnoticed, and the Itntish force ap|>earcd before Ivheh'it 
on the 13th November. All the writers on tlie Affghan war 
hear teittimony to the doi'hing gidhintry of the a»snull which 
fuilowed. and the determined resi.ilance of the besiegctL 

The English general performed skilfully and bravely the ser- 
Ticc entrui>ted to him, and Mohrab Khan kept hiii wuni. Fight- 
ing to the lust for the indepcndeni-e of ]m country, and for his 
own hereditary dominion, he dietl like a bravo man iu what was, 
in the main, a good cause, and the reverence of his people has 
not unworthily lies towed upon him and the chiels who ftrll witJi 
him bcfoie the I'cringce invaders, the hlood-^-arued honour of 

Mr, Masson, who arrived at Khelat a few months after tlicwe 
■vents, and who gives a painful picture of the dcpi\-*»i<in prevail- 
\g anion^ the uilmbitnuls, und the rvsignation with which it was 




stntcs llwt he fuund there but one opinion niitpcetiiifr the 
ct v( Mehrab Kli»n ; thut he hnil not bcon guilty oi' tho 
oBtactM inipuled to hiiii, i<^uiii.->t tho llrili^i >i;uvcnin)<'nl. We 
Minot go at len"lh into the ni-(^im(-nt!« by which Mr. AlasMo 
Bkintain* tluit Mi-limb Klian hifl not. as he wasnocuned ufdoiii';, 
excited the rnouiKaiii trtliOM iipiin.->t ii'> : thnt this vrns done by 
others, wbo betrayed his cunfidciii^. Tbut hv vrtu in the )iaD(ti 
of tmiton there e«u be do doubt. It ia certain, tlint hiit rmiicipnl 
ttgvnt in our oamp threw every obstacle in the way of an unii- 
ciiblc u-mneemcnt, — tlutt he wan iit cine and tJic snmc time doinz 
&U he could by letter to eseiie id tlie Khnn'it mind ft-ar iiiiu 
hjitrcd npiinut the Knf;li»h, itnd reprcacntinc to us in the eiroiigeft 
light the hDntili; und liiillih-*s (ILtjHii<ition of' his emidover. Tlie 
first half of this treason, which wiw mil dir'eyvored lifl after the 
death of hw unfortnnatc iniiHter, deprived him of the reward 
which Ik h«d earned in the cliaraetcr of our partisan bv the 
eecond This roan i» snid by Mtui^on to have forped. wJthout 
Mcbrab Khan's knowledge, tfie inlertfepled leltent to the tribes: 
md there nn be no doubt that he was quite capable of doing 
•0. Hi.- objert, evidently, went to entire the Klinn'" drfitniction, 
by leading him to eommil liini!«'lf with the KiigliBli, and, perhap!*, 
Iit ihctr all (Kiwerful a£i>ii^tanec to procure tlic euccession lor 
IntafclT. It ill diflieull, without fuller iutbmintion, to form a 
noftitive ojiinion uimn the ((ucAtion of Mehrab Khan'i< conduct, 
rhe fullest establubraent of liia ctiilt would l>e, we tliink, an 
{niuli^uiite defence for the precipilate nud vindictive course of 
the Itriti»h lutlioritics ; but if he w«is iti every ifcnse, unjustly 
flltaelted — then, no deed more truly huneutable ihuu tliiii " bril- 
linnt expldit" hoe ever stained the anualp of England. 

We must give a eltort summary of the re^t of tlii« Khelat 

The territoij of tli« «hiin chi«f wa« parliltoned, our pet and 
protepi. Shah Soojali, coming in. for a large share. The son of 
Blrhrnb Klian, a boy of fourteen, became a fugitirc and wanderer, 
and Nawnc Khan, the n^-laltun to whom wc have before alluded, 
waa wt up in KhelSl t'l (;i>\eni the dimini.-tioddominionp, ae the 
tributary of Shah Soojah. and under the control of an Kn-^liiih 
[•olitieid agent. Of the indindiial who filkfl this' stution at hi« 
arrival, .Mr. Mai>»on givee an mxrounl, to whieh we have, as yet. 
•een no eonlradirtion offered; and it is frightful to think of tlio 
nniuant of uuebccked power over hundreds of lhouM»d« tiitia 
placed in bands which, if the anM>unt be true, were unfit to 
cserdM luliordiRRte authi)rily over a single company of Boldien, 
-owr a single funn of M'hiiiiltH>ye. 

The panacea of thin Lieutenant Loveday for any diHturbanec 

jlliiirently w«s~tQ blow tho disturber from a gun : his way of 

t«itit^ any oiSfenco to hiinwlf pt-rDWUially — to set hii' bull-dog* on 

the offender. We can hnnlly liring ouiiwlvea to believe this. 

KO- XXW. — V, S. D 






1 8 Ajfy/iauiM^n, 

Mr. Masson stales that lie was iit first himself increiliiluu^ op the 
Kubjoct, and tlioiight that uorac accident must have been cxagge- 

" I wo* rr^ii*iill)' told, tiiBt, since I lind bi-i-n al KlielAt, lie hnd discon- 
tinued lo xtm 1ii« dogs; iind "lieji 1 cx|ipfBHed niixiety lo proceed, 1 WM 
cnircatcd to rcmun. thut Lieut. Loveduj' might behave hitnscir decuntly." 

lliit aftcrwanls, 

"Yftiyn, h dfhwftr or sgrionlhirist of KlidAt, employed ns n be^r, or 
forc«l lnt)(>uri!r, in some wnrks connected with llip house in progrcs" of 
erection, Incurred ihe displeiuiuri^ of Lieuleiinnt Luvedny, nho gave the«]tnry ai'^iiitl ti> liU du^it, Hiid they iiillicted fc-venil ivoiinda nn the 
MrcichPii individiiiil. He mui curried home in a grievous ginlc and lu h lew 
d/iysilieii."— jl/o«nn. p. 118. 

To this dreadful incident, Mr. Mii^on in some degree attri- 
butes (and DO wonder.) the insurrection which foUowci], and 
which terminated in the dcjwsilion of our jnijipct, tlie imiiriwin- 
inent of Loveduv, and (In; rciustntcnu-nt of the mn of the late 
chief, Nudseer Jvhan. A 8U|ierii>r British force wa* epccdJly 
directed tipun Khelat, and Ku^sccr Khan again became a fntxitive. 
In the cuuim- of his ili{;hl the niisemble Lovednv wiw murdered, 
but not hy lita onlers. But the Britidi authnrilies apparently 
I ppgan to feel the injustice of their former conduct, and, a* far an 
it V.HS now po^i^iblc, wished lo repair it. They made kind oilers 
to the ^ouiig Khun ; but it was not ejisy to bring him to trust ui 
the FcrinfTocs. With no niikindlv intention, he was hunted 
like a parlriiiije on the muuntains. We recollect that the Indian 
iiewi-riuiiei's of tlio day used lo tell how, on the entrance of the 
Knghsh force into a valley, the voting Klmu uud liia followers 
would be seen escaping over tlie ridgo of tlie hills, his mountain 
jHjny following him close, like a dog, and clambering over the rocks 
lifter him. At length. Colonel StJicy, the officer to whom the 
settlement of tlie country waa entrusted, having ventured, un- 
attended], into ilic fugitive camp of Nusseer Shan, confidence 
was Won by cinLfidence, and the young chief con^sented to Ix; re- 
placed by the Engliijli in llie seat of his ialher. Tins look place 
in October, 1841. We are ghid to find that the portion of his 
dominions taken from him, has since been restored by the present 
Go V ern or» G e no nil. 

It is worth observing thai, to thi« ungle act of juetice^tho 
restoration of Nusseer Ivhan — we may attribute the subeetitient 
traiti)uiHity of that counli'v, and thoi'cfure, in hU probabilily, a 
meat dimimitiou of the danger t^i whieh, a r<hiirt time alW 
Nusseer Klian's i-estoration, the cencral insurrection in Affghan- 
istan exposcil our troops at (^^noaliar. We arc glad to lintl one 
eiKit njwn which the eye can dwell with i>leji«ure, in llie dark 
"■ istory of our four yeara" supremacy beyond the Indus. 

From Ivliclat, we return to tlie ntliiirs of CabooL One of 

vh Soojnli's first 8tcpB> on hie restoration, was U> inxtitute what 


wm (»U«I the •' Order of the Dounitin^'e Empire ;" and if our 
raaden wuli for n Inti^li, in ihe midst of Minotii* mutters, they 
vomy read Dr. Keimt'dj's nccuiinl of the iaslittuimi of iJuit Uir- 
Ic8(|ue apon chivali^-. the must aiimnng ahiurditn one ahoiild 
tliink, i-viT jKTiictnttcd under the eiin ;— how tlivir dt-corntlons 
were 8iicoi»tfivi,>Iy intlii-tt-<l upon the chief military and pulitiotl 
aathontiea, Colonel I'ollin^cr nh>nv r»«i|iiiig — an escape, iu the 
l>octor'B opinion, onl}- to be explaloed "hy tin- impiindfelcd guod 
fortune which hw nttvnded lh»t gentleman thrtntjih life ;" — nnd 
how Sir John Kekne, on rewivtng his " Grand Vros*" from the 
hands of a Mahmnednn sovereign, made a lone ejwceh "about 
hurling an iwunx^r from the throne." Well, allowance miwpt be 
nuda for tli« inlinnity of human nature, when a speech is 
expected of it ; and Sir dolm Keane, in IK39, hail done eome- 
thinp. But wc have felt eurjirise, nnd something more than 

mirprwe, to «c it Koleinnlv announced in 1&43, that 

haa spjdied for, and r«;eive<l, gniiciows permission to wear the 
insi<^ia of Bome elaas or other of th« Onler of the Pourauneo 
Empire. Flcbile ludibriuni ! The Onler of the Douraunets 
Kmpire! Where i* (he nuumiitiee Einpire? Hitried in the 
bloiHly delileii of Khoord C'abtK)!, nnd .IiigiiulUik ! Like a straw 
un the top of a flood which has swejtt away bndges and 
baildinn, thi» mi^rable Onler come!> llonting hy. Let us 
coaaf, m cooinwn »cni>e, to exhihit with pride a memorial of 
miaerahle and un]iara])ele() disnaters, which could only be worn 
rationally ae a mark of pcnunco. 

Tl»e memoir-writere of the camimign pivc at but little 
tmm which to ji>dg« of the general Mute and government of 
the eiiunirv. durinj^ the two years, from the autumn of 1839 
to Novtmlwr 1H4I, of Shah SoojahV precarious dominiim. 
Thr real niler of the eonnlni-, of cgtir»c, was Sir W. Mae- 
naghten — llie " lord eaiiih," lu the insurgents at Khelat etyled 
bint, refusingi witli contempt, to hold any comiuunimtiun with 
the puppet »ct up by tl>e l-eringecti, but willing to write to the 
"lonl luihib." \V« should be ghul to l>elieve, that his govern- 
tnent wad, in any material r^peet, wise or bcnefieini to the 
eonntrj-. In tlw A^istie Journal, for October and November 
IsM, ve find a letti-r, written t>y Sir Alexander Burner in 
AogtiM I8-1I>, deecrijitive of the then state of the country, with 
remarks u|ion it 1^ Sir M'illiain Macmif^hten. Thfi following 
UM«m (o us a very tingulnr in^lunee of unwisdom. Sir 
AJoBiuler Burnes hait reprcwnted, among many other »nurcv«'| 
of danger, the unpopularity arising from the prenenee of 

■A hodrof Sikhs, tai tiMMvtiiinp of tlirir count ry, as llie kiiiE'* pianl 
ka tU* Maaomcuin capital. A fcn eveniotpi ttifo, I was mliilod by itcTrnil 
I if III III! Willi tbc Sikh nar-cry, in llie lery Mrectii of ('ahdol. I lusurl, 
wtthoat fear of conlrftiliclinii, tlinl no Sikh cicr Aunt, in lliv lime of ibu 
J^fyifll* aMmarrliy, appcnr Ibtii iii this I'iiv : iimt fkirthcr atJtcrt, ibat (lieir 
|iinillln lilli if (Winn* (a tie prtftf, a»J t9 li< Iml degrtt ugmrimi:'' 



Could there be a doubt of il? A ;;uai-d of Prussians, or 
Englisli, ill tlic year siiccL'cdiiig Watfrloo, woidd have nJtlvd 
sotuctliiii^, wc think, to the Frcncli hnirod of tbu BuitrbouEi ; 
scjiov tiling tu the ditliculticA uf thuir dilHcult tiositiou. Conceive 
Talleyrand nioctiu^ a re presentation of the danger which nii^ht 
arise from such u cii-cumstancc, with a truism to the effect ttiiit 
" surelv it wiw not dcsimblc to pernctnate this exclusive spirit I" 
Suoti) however, in the rttuiiu-k of Sir W. MacnaghCen, upon the 
etatemont of Sir jVlexander Burnea. 

That a stnlc«mnn, sittln<; in ChIhiu), a city of ^Ltty thouNind 
inhitliitant^s every huu»u of whici) niicht, on pro vocation, tuni 
out an aiTiied warrior, with the hot anhes of insurrection ainoul- 
dering beneath his very feet, and in different pjurts of (he country 
tiie unextinguished fire still burning, holiling, by such a ttnuri;, 
the !>ecurity of the empire he luid only junt begun to orgauizc, 
the lives of thouwnds and his on-n, should receive a reprcscnt- 
Rtion of the danger of offending, in the t«ndcre«t point, the pre- 
judices of a Hvrce and exasjieratexl pcopH nntl put it aside witli 
a dap-trap of the nlutfonu \ 

A cout|ueror, wno renounces the hnrmlessncsa of the dove, 
afaould at lenat try to have a little more of the wisdom of tlie 
serpent. "Surely it i^ time thiit thic> exclusive spirit should 
cease" — not a doubt of it. It was time— it is always time that 
any evil should cca«c, if it can. Wsis il, therefor*, wise to hold up 
before the eyes of llic Aflghmnt k peqietuul niemoriul of tiieircou- 
queet 7 to take pains to make them connect us, and our king, 
with u people whom they hutod i The encoui'ngod pi-cseuce of 
Sikh euldiertt in Cnbool, felt, ae it would be, ne an insult, may, 
r perhaps, have been n heavy ileui in the luug aocottnt between 
^he people of Cflbool and tiie TjUvov. 

" The great error of Sir William Maenoghten," says the 
Edinburgh lie viewer, from whom weipioteUiu ourfonnerartiolc, 

" ii[)prnni to )is to hnvc hcvn the ultcmpt to iwvluw ton soon, biiiI willi- 
out >uflicient mnuii of cocrciii|c those «lio lii<d liitlii^rto liveil M the ciiicnac 
of their iteakvr nuiKhbuun, the iiiiiipiiriH'inti.'d bli^sing^ of iin orgnaiurd 
and powerftil jp^venuiieut ujioa the pvoplv ol" Atlglianislou," 

It tnight have been bo. Wc know how much iiijiLsticc, how 

much tynumy hao lieen neqictniled, under the pretence — uome- 

timea with tJie sincere hoj>e, of improvement, even when tlie 

impruverH were countrymen of those whose institutions they 

undertook to reform. It might iierhapi* have b(M.-n, in the 

opinions of some, a good deed to bring tlie AfijjhunEt to exchange 

-lor the tranquillity of despotism, tlicii- fierce, atniggling, iJI- 

Rtegulntod freedom. It i« doubtful whether the Aflghuns would 

'have received with gratitude <'»en good jzovcrmnent at our 

hands; but it is still more doubtful whether good government 

wo* ofVored tlierii. We find, in thii^ same letter of Sir .\lcxander 

Uurneii, the Sluth'e clu«f minister druj^ging the puasautry from 

wair boim in hundiedi, at sced-tiiiio, to labour witlioiit iiay; 
unpaid troops damonding Uiuir arrears of this eoiuc uiiiitaUir. 
with tlic threat gf cuttiug oil' liix awe '. uiid rocciviiis it nocoitj- 
ingly; — tJic |wptiUtiuii of dictricta drivcu to the hiLLt \)y tiic 
dcmaiMJ of obsolete taxot— « clmrcmplu^'otl m the ooUcction of 
tritiutc, living at free miartcrrt in the country, for fivcinonths, 
wi[li I80U men. Sir WiUiaiu Maunaghten, denying uone of 
UwM cbiLTgtiis K)>Ih» tlut ihcso tilings were old abui^ee, and 
oould not he iiltorvd at once: hi; dot-s not notice Sir Alexin id tr 
ituruce' remark, that we, huckiiig (hi:* infinite niLijriivitrnnient 
with rvsi^tleM puvrcr, enabled Slmh Soojoh to do tiiedo things to 
■ar extent witu unpunity. 

in one reei>ect, our conduct scemM to hnve been innrlccd with 
siofcular and obvious impolicy ; wtt niettn tlie ciicourugeniviU 
which we npjicur to have given to Shall Soojali'e ehiUliKh jMiMiion 
(or lunu luid ceremony. CourteuuH, (hough fornml and strict 
in his adherence to etit{Uettii to»*uitU Kngli?h oDicors, to liirt own 
mlntct* he was difficult of aceccM, haughty and cold. His aensc 
of hia own unB|>pnj«chable digaity, bis contcuiitt for itU meiincr 
men, n|i]>carft to luirc been rooted in him like n iirinciple. 
During hin march into Afiglumintan, with Win kingdom yet to 
win. Be roocived every adherent who presunled hiiiiwHI wilh 
u nuuiner cold sad repulsive cvtn to rtidenosn. Jlii^ actual 
poaaoMian of power did not increajiit hi.s conde^ceDsion. Ilia 
mcnd« left his prcacnoe with chillod alfectton : his enemies, fresh 
Irooi the compuleory oath of allogianee. sworu a sinccrcr oatli to 
doTOlv iheir live* and forttinvo tuTii« deetrtictton.* In tJie course 
of the last stru^le at C'alMolf wltli hin tlirone and life at stake, 
ba elune willi tlte tenacity of insiuiity to his royal ntnte ; wlicn 
the chient otTercd hiui tiieir allc^iaDCc on two Condilioiiii, tliAt of 
iotennon-ying bin ilaughtvrs with tlicm, and of relinquishing 
the practioG of kei'uing them waiting at hta gate for hoiira 
beftm bis levees, (" The Alffjhanji," says Lieutenant Eyre, " bate 
omaooaj,") bo gave a most reluctant consent, which he alUr- 
wanla withdrew. 

It is evident tliat the king wan upheld in this tone by thj 
■mirouDd and ahnoat ludicrously alfected respect vliown to hitu 
by the English. In (he works of the writvnt before us. in llio 
deqikldie* of Sir Jolm Kaine and the Envoy, "hia Majesty 
Sbu Soujah-ool-MooIkh" is intnMhiced with a pom{)ou« llouri^li 
of reverence, "hia graeioua conimanik" are rceeived with a 
lolemn and dcfcrcntiid gm\-ity, obviotifly acteil (uul ovcr-acteil. 
In nil jtfolNibility, tlic fiction was aeixa through by the .\f('ghanM, 
tfam^ not by tJ>e unliappy king himself; but at any rate it is 
dear that this onume. adojitcd lu a profound {licce of statu-craO, 
y nwdnessof imiwlicv. It was, in fact, doing our 

._ tbe very nwanessoi imi>oi __ . , „ , 

beat to provoke, where ttutlicieiit provocation wiw quite ocrlaiu 

• Aiiiacoi^ p. ML 


22 AJyhanUtan. 

to he given at any rate. Such conduct would liave made miy 
king unpopular; but what muet it have been in a king, who 
couTd hardly be pi>puhir nt any rate— a king ri^tored sind aup- 
porlcd by furciKiieri' ? The Aflghans haled us ; but for the 

golden image whom we had set up for them to worelnp, him 
ley hflted and dcMpist-d. 

" The surrendtT of Dost Mahomed," aaid Sir Alexaiuler 
fiurnes, " ham made the country a» quiet as ^'eauviua after lui 
eruption: how long it will conlinue so, God only knows," One 
thing wni' certain, ihiit it cmild not continue so for ever. The 
country iiiinlly evi'r was quite pacified. As in a volcanic coun- 
try new crater§ were perpetually forming — till, at length, nt 
Caboul, c«mc the "rand oiitbrf-ak uf the ccntrul volcano. 

We agree with Lieutuuant Eyre's editor, in oppoeiliua to tho 
Edinburgh lievicwer, that that outbreak wa«, to a certain extent, 
prepared and organized. There is no other way of explaining 
the simultnneous ocenrrencc of iuKurrentioii in different parts of 
the couutiy, and the warnings we received : nor can we sec the 
difKculty which, in the opinion of the Keviewer, attnchea to the 
formation of such a conspiracy. It needs no very refined organi- 
luition to cutnbinc men who are alrca^Iy united by tlic freema- 
sonry of a con « no n hatred. Those who plotted the outbreak on 
a particular day may have been few in number; they knew 
that, on the first glimpse of succesa, ihuusunds were ready to 
follow their lead. 

Leaders were not wanting, who had never acknowledged tlio 
existing govcrument — such as the chiefs of Nijrow in KohiR- 
tan. '* Since our first occupation of Cabool," says Lieutenant 
Eyre, " Nijrow had become a resort for all such restlesa and 
discontented cbaractci-s, as had rendered themselves obnoxious 
to tho existing govemmont." These men, it seems, were guilty 
of " hatching against the state ireajiouable designs." Among 
them were auch as " Meer Musjecdee. a contumacioiis rebel 
ngainet the Shah's nutlmrity, uhrttinatcly refusing to make his 
atibnii»sion cv<-u ujion the most favourable terms, openly put 
himself at the head of a powerful and well-organized party, 
with the avowed intention of exi>clling the Keringees, and over- 
turning the existing povprnment." 

ContumuciouH relielUoii . . . treasonable designs . . . No, no, 
Jjieutenant Eyre. To call these men relieh, and their designs 
tnaionaUg, was cxcuwiWc in November 18-1 1 ; it was then your 
" mititr d'etre roi/nlUlr" on behalf of the king whom you wer« 
sent there to iirolect^ But it is not so that Englishmen geoe- 
nlly will epcalc of them, even in 1843. The chiefs of Nyrow 
are in reepcctahle oompany. 

" Wbnt Willi lli«io outtau-B, patrioU tliould hare f " 
lerc waa once a coutumacious rebel called Wallace, who 
hanged, drawUi and qunrlered for his treasonable designs, 
e was once a contumacious reb^l called Kosciusko, whora 



nBHtat^^ dedans, tI»ougb unBUocessful, were oulv vi»i(cd with 
nn%ttg <'xile. Thfrc were, between thirty and forty yeai» 
ainoCi > grmt numlicr of ■»>ntuniiu.'iuui^ n-lx'U in Spain, who§e 
treuoo pn>^[)crL-d, and »o be<-iiine nn trcft--iiiii. An liLitury judges 
tb* Sootehiiieii of thu 14tli ccntun-, the Poles of tlio I8tli, the 
SpanunU of 1^08, ■>(> will *\\k jiid^u tlif At)>!lian chicfis wlio 
never xJcnowledged, and ulliiiuilcly ovortluvw, tlm kiog set up 
by tilt? Feringece. 

Tlic fir«t three piurcs of Lady Sale's journal, dated Septeiii1>er 
184 1 , Are miMt ngDinaint of tlie then i<Iiite of thin;^^ It eceins 
that " « chief, coniGm[itu»>ui^Iy desisnmted at a rohbcr'' — tliat i», 
we proeume, an outlaw in Hnn= uj^iDst the existing govermueiit, 
— appcarvil inn town win-re ht- IukI no rifrlit to appear : tliat, con- 
sequently, u forre was e«n( to upprv-bend him, who were "fired 
upon from eix forts." whether with any result iii not atatcd. 
Herrupoa a larger force i» ecnt, who reach a pass where (in 
Sefitvuiber,) tlierc was «dow, and bitter cold. Beyond this paes 
the people of the country hiad fled, atiandouing thtur projierty, , 
and " tbetr suffering must be severe iu the approaching wiuter." 
The chicfeare all (ubmiwiion : but tbe i>rder« were " nereiiiptory 
to dcctroT the lortu whieb bud fired u]Jon tlie Shuli'd Irooiia." 
Akrjui Kluta — we presume the cbicf aliovc uicntioneit ^is caugh t^ 
and Uie4i wc find " the Sbali ha4 ordered Akraiu Khan's execu- 
tion." Meanwbile, tbe u.fiiiil payment tn eei-tiiin ehiefs has boca 
discontinued, an net not only iniiH>litic, but bordering u]>on 
direct disboneety: and so, ut lii^l, there ia " a pretty general 
inxurrcction" iu Kuhi^tau, Ctbool it*i-lf ix di#CJ>nlented, and " all 
the country aWut Texeen and Ithnudkak iu a ntute of revolt. , 
It is only wondcrJuI tliat this did not take place sooner." So i 
think we. 

The desperate oppositiou through whieh, from this timo 
(October, ln41), General Saleltad to fight hi* way I'litui Cabool 
to Jellalabad — tlie asaLiitance given to lus assailants, the Eastern 
Gliilnes, by bodies of roeo from Cabool itself — tlic insults and 
Btlaeks upon individual officers in and near the eitv.^all thei« 
circuniMtnnn-is di-laib-d iw we fiiiil them in LikIv Side's or Lieu- 
tenant Kyre's workis force u«, judging it is true afler the event, 
but with ever)' allowance we can make, to regard tbe »ujiinene»8 
of the political authorities at Cabool as something perfectly won- 
derfuL As Minil>rau mid of the 8t. Domingo planters, tliey 
were sleeping on the edge of the volcano, and its first jets were 
not eootigh to wake them. At length, in Lady bale's Joiinml> 
w» cone to— I 

"Nov. 3. This mornbic satly, all wsa in comniolimi in Catiul — Ibc 
■hops wan plundcrtd, sod Uie pci>plc wore all flich(ici);." 

An announcement, we think, striking for its simplicity^ — eri- 
deally ihe roal entry of tlie event, as it tlteii looked, in tlie 

24 AfyianUau. 

juurniil oftlie dny. Oii tliis "commotion" tiiriH!(! tlit; fate of no 
nmiy and a kingdom. 

It i§ generally agi-ced, that active means at first might have 
renrcsscd tlic insurrection: but those who had been slow to 
believe the cxItiCcncc were slow to admit the extent of the 
danger; nor was it from the beginning so alight as haa been 
njprcecnted- The ball, of course, grew by rolling; but tt grew 
with trcinuiidoiis rai>idity. If, on the first day, the insurgents 
were only n few hundreds, by the next they were truly formid- 
able. AVhalever the defects of tlie poeition of our force, 
wluitcvcr the blunders of its lenders, — and tliey apjiear to have 
made til thnt it was pi^ssibh-, and some that it would previously 
have been impos^iilile, to anticipate — the outbreak, by which an 
nniiy of fiOOO disciplined troojis were so immediately Induced to 
tnke up II dcfenitivc nosition, am never have been con temp tiblc 
Every one ha» felt tlie justice of Lieutenant Eyre's remarka on 
the irabecilitv which fii'Bt led to the loea, and then nrevcnted the 
recjiplurc, ol the commiswiHnt fort ; and, it le clear that the 
nutans which alone could enable the force to maintjiiu its jhim- 
tion, outcht, at any risk, to have been defended, or recovered : 
still the attempts in furtherance of these objects, ill directed aa 
ihcy vfvn-^ must have *nc«ccded, had tliey not been met by n 
most active resistance, caushig a very severe loss to the detaoli- 
inent:* emploved. It is clear that vigorous and well-directed 
exertions might have rcsultixl in safety and triumph. But it is 
out of our power to understand, how any one can, nfler reading 
Lieutenant Evrc's account of tlie fii-st three weeks of the siege> 
feci jiistiBcd m calling the Affghans " contemptible eucmie?.'' 
They may wem so to an Edinburgh Kevi«wer, cidmly consider- 
ing the numeroui^ deficiencies uf spirit and sense on our jnirt, 
wiiieh were neccssBry to counterbalance the superiority ol dis- 
ciplined troops over bnnd« of irregular warriors. Yet no Asiatic 
nation has suocesafiiUy rodintcd uw with forces so nearly equal. 
They did not seem contenintible to the men, on whom, on the 
occasion of the storm of the Rikabaahee fort, (one of the few 
■UGOcBsfuI ojierations underlJikcn during the siege,) lliey inflicted 
a severer loss than that eustjuncd by (Jie conquerors of Ghuznee 
or IChelat. They did not seem bo to Lady Sale, when she noticed 
luiw they stood against our guns without having anv of their 
own ; when »hc saw their cavalry, after receiving witnin a few 
yards the Jii'c of our advancing ot^himns, nish down the hill 
upon tliem— bnt we must give lier own words; — 

" My very hi-nrl leiipt to my teeth as I saw tlic Afffshnni ride riglit liiroHRli 
tbcin. Tlie unsul viui firKrliil. Thr^ looted like a yrcal dutUr of btt; liut 
we bent them mid drove llicm up np«iri." 

(Tliat "^real cluster of bees,"— the close, dark, irrcguhu- 
muse, bangiiig on the aide of the hill, id a true toticJi of word- 
jniintinj). The terrible and disnatrous defeat of Bcymaroo, on 



November, lirouglit nltmit s^ it uas l>v nii tincxttin]>tcd 
cumbituitjun oC errors, — a tic tor mi nation, it noiilti *eein, ti> nm 
all tlio risk ]>afi<ilflc, to improve niid ccruri- no teiuimrnry ad- 
TMlla^ — Uuu-kvU, w it vrii», liv diitgnccttil cowanlifc on the 
put of some of our Inwoe, — gave ri»c to exlkibiticnui of during 
ooanec on tlio part of ihc Anglinn§. "WTial are we to aay of 
the GtuzvCM,* o«timalo(l by Liuly Suk- iit nu more thaii 130 
in number, wlio, creeiMng gntdiialiy up tbe ;iidc of the liill. 
cbarsed, sword in hand, tywn oni' »<f|uare of inftuitry, liroke it, 
and drove it before tbcm? On our own bUc, the few Atfghaii 
" ju£ulchce« " in our service, who otood by ii« to the end with 
K noble HDd exlmonlinnry fidclitv, were about tlie nio«t efficient 
{«rt of our anny. The truth i^ that the AAgiuin», in t)ie:te 
ooofUcts for the freedom of their land, fully nuiintained the 
ehnract«r which they liiive long |Kit^te#»ed, niul whieh their 
Koluilii deMcnduitlit in ludin, wlii;tlieru:< priiu'e» or iiierceiiimes, 
hare nerer forfeited, oi' being the bi-uxc^t umoiii^ the Afltnlie 
nations. And (Jiia U not a. Uttte to eay in their praise. A 
thoroughly brave miio may, it U true, be n thoroughly wicked 
one; sull fur tuition*, even more than individuulit, tlie foundation 
of all exoellence is bnivery. 

We need not go into any dctailcti ttccount of the cvcnln of 
the struggle. From the 'id to tlie 13th November the JiritiMh 
loroea were stniggliog to rcjitunc n poeutioa of i<ujieriority ; from 
that dale tbev met with nothing but disaster. Oa the lAtb 
NoTcmbcr Major Potlinger and Lieutenant Ilaughton, the 
l(tm>er slightly, the latter desperately, wounded, caute into tlieir 
eaiiip, with n (ingle vcpoy, the sole escaped rclicitof our force 
at Charekar, UDniiuuc)n<! by their arrival tlie complete ttuccCBS 
of the InMircenLa in the district of Koliiston. On the 2i;d No- 
vambf r Jklaibomed Akbar came to aid the revolt. . On the 23d 
oocumd the disastrous conflict of Beymaruo, in which our 
troops were drircn into cantomm-nta in utter rout, and saved, 
in Lievteaant Eyre's judgment, from comnlcte destruction only 
bf the foriKarancc ot their enemies ; anJ, from tluit point to 
the evacuation of the cantonments, the picture ii* one of unvaried 
aoi) tDcreasiiig Hiulnew! ; the hoi)e of victory reuounced, the hope 
of safely growing (iiiuler, proviKiooA becoming scarce, reinfurcc- 
Uenta impoeeible; lingcriug negotiations, alternating with 
ileapatriog and unsuccessful attempts; within the camp, vacil- 
lation, tawine, disease, and growing disnuiy ; without, an enemy 
lacreasiDg in strength and c<^nlideiicc, and the woml eneuiy of 
all. the terrible winter, gmduiiUy creeping on. 

In the whole painful and luidcrable &tory, as it lies before us, 

■ IW filaiMi ar» «*Mt oT UuMulmin biMticti llit OUbin > uiounialii tribt. 
n* «■( ■CSinM «• h*d RMD)' of Iha reftlurM ot ■ rrligiout wir. Wa teiit ot 
Uotlalw fMBf iau all ih* ijlbgn to nrar th« people to Hghl la ihc U>i, ■< in ■ 
iImI Ika iafldtik 


so. XXXI. — S. 9. 

26 Ajy&aniitaa. 

the moat piuoful foatiirc U tUe constant recurrence of elmnces 
of safoty pafiSLVely^ ncglectod, of waated ojiportimilies, of feata 
of iisetias \»k)ur. Never did the leaders of n victorious force 
di-ij.l.iy iiiiire devoted gidlaiilry thau was shown by many of the 
English officers at CabooL i^ever in war yeas made so munifest 
the all -importance of the one directing mind. Even diRcipIine, 
tor once, was injurious. A botly of men, lees used to be com- 
manded nctvrdiug to the striet ndea of the service, might, 
I>crhiip9, have been siived, and certainly cmild hardly have met 
with so utter n destruction. Had the constitution of an Kngltsh 
foree ncrrnittcd it, who c^iii doubt that the otScers of the 
Knglicu imd Indian rcgimcnta might, from among them, have 
furnished a Xcuophon? 

But it is impossible, on a contemplation of tlie whole seriea 
of event*, not to echo the rcnmrk with wliic-h Lieutenant Kyro 
sums up hi.* uc^'ijunt of tlie miserable and di^astrou^ day of 
battle at licyinaron. into which were crowded specimens of 
every one of the errors which, throughout, proved so fatal to us : 
" It seemed as if wo were under the bun of Heaven." No 
(ircok triige»ly that ever was constructed bore more strongly 
the impress of an ever-advaucl ng irresistible fatality — a. fatality, 
howcicr, working to its end, aa is the ease in all snuilar event*, 
IcM thriiugh outward circumstaaces than through the ehnroctcra 
of men. In the respective |iositiiins, chiiraetei's, and view» of 
the two English generals, thci'c a])pears to have been a singular, 
hut nnfbrtutiiit.c, aihiptation. Whfitcver incompleteness existed 
in the unlitness of the one, was tilled up by the deficiencies of 
the other. General Elphinatane'a position was, indeed, an un- 
fortunate one for n man, to say the lea«t, of no remarkable 
vigour of character. Disabled, not only by health, bnt by an 
ftccident on the very first day of tlic insurrection, fmm taking 
an active ]iart in the dulios of the defcnee, oi' from personally 
seeing that his orders were obeyed, (iencra! EtphinBtone wft« 
^tili in command, still the person to whom every projwsal must 
Pm referred. Dependent on otlicr.f for the necessary infonna- 
'tion, it was most nalund, though liunentable in its result-s that 
he should dintruMt his own Judgment, and exliibit mucli cunMS 
qiient indecision. He c<iula not decide upon liia own know- 
ledge; and, .IB the statements of other* varied, bo did iho 
G«neraVs opinion. It hiw been «iid thai a council of war never 
fighU; Gt^ncnd Klphinntonc'.i house, during the siege of the 
cnntx>uin«uts, was a perpetual council of war. 

(^n the other side. General Hhcltun, the acting, though not 
tlie sole rcsponEible, commander, idluweil hiiii.ii-lf to Ix: ovcroomc 
Lbv the difliculty of » pwilion, half supreme, half subordinate;. 
^£ij»al in courngw to any one in the anny, it ih clear tlint ho 
Lthruuk from nu uncerlnin share of a divided rrspon-Hibilily. If 
lljiidy Sale may he trusted, h« freiiuently decJincd gi\ing any 




opiuiun on tilt! tnriutircs i>ro[)08e(l. One decided opiiiiuii lie 
iinirornily expressed, nod Uinl, wlirrhcr riclil or wrunf;, waa. by 
11 ■in^Ur lalnlity, od Uio aniv ]>Dint on wliicli tlic cxprceaion of 
Mioh ui opifuon could du nothing but Imriii. 

From tlie beginning, he, llicr ofHccr in immcMlmte command 
of the troojHi. exprnucu hia opinion thai they c^mM not ht.ld out 
for th4> winter, nnd advockled a retrntt to JtrllidHlxul. Tlio 
EoTOy, — the eupmnr |mliticnl authority, — pnilealed in tlic 
tXxoo^gmt tnuiticr ngniti^t otioh » inciifiuro ; nnd the (leneral, 
reapotuible on the uiio luin<l for tJiu ww-nricv of thv ubjcct« of 
hia Govenuneni, on the other, for the aafrly of the anny, ru- 
maintfd wavering bccvrccn them. The Envoy, in bis position, 
and in tbi" circ*in)i>t«nri*5, wjir, ii» far rnt we win judgii, perfectly 
right : «till tli* ii|iiiiii>n of Sin-linn, lind it btvn at oncc nclod 
ui>»n. — lirnt ia, had it been ttuit of'a geiicml tn nol« eoinmaml, — 
woak) at Juflfit have eaved the amiy. As tJiince were, it hud, 
ami could faarv, only one effect — that of dcpro saing yet farther 
tha ipirils of lh« soldier?. It id ditHc-ult to nny which had thv 
want eflect^the Geniu-al'i* univcnud indcct.iioii, or Sheltiin'a 
single o])iDion. AVe do not blame the Intter for holding it ; we J 
incnlv point out the oin-^iilar (.-otnlii nation of circum-ituiiccrl 
working topvtlicr fur tlic i-vii of the deviiC<;d army. Any one 
of those auttmrilics. Acting independently of the others, tvould, 
profnltly. hnw aavcd t!ie irooiw. 

Muviiig already in this, and our prcvioTis number, cxprcracd 
our opinion of the pondnct of the chief nJAiinvr of the Aftjrlmn 
war. vre an- more unxtotui to do justice to hiAdouieanonr through 
the (greater |Kirt of the stni^rgle in which ho |)eri6hcd. Lieute- 
nant ]->yrc'« account ehoive liini to uh in a iiioitt rc»]M--RtnbKr li^ht ; 1 
ij»e I'l'ring of every exertion ma<lc by Uie force; tlie euggeslerl 
ofereTT pbtn; tlic bmve adopior of a reiinonfitbilitv from which 
the nutitary Inidcra tthrunk, and with his foreeigtit uoiforaily ■ 
rimlteatetl by tJio favourablo requite of his ^^gcstions. fl 

Ho couecoled to treat only wlicn forced to it ; he n!Jcctc<l the 
i)fi«r of unwortliy I<-tiim with licconiiiig fipirit, and bin conduct 
throoghout wouU) havo cntitici) liini to no mean place among I 
thu onler of incn whose high i|ualilic8 riiw higher ngainet I 
advernty, but for one lamentable and final exception. I 

Oor rcadcrt will generally kuuw to wliHt we ntludc. During ' 
thu actual exLHtciie« of u treaty lietween our force nnd the 
inaBrgwta, Mahomed Alcbar ])ropofled to Sir W. Maeuaghtoii 
S tAttOOt St 0IM» a test of bis sincerity, and a trap to Uitcli him, 
flOMprUng, among oilier noinli*, the ff'tj-arv. of certain other 
eUn pnnic^ to the actiially cxijtiufr trmly. The Envoy fell 
into the aiiarc, nnd went forth to n eonti>reiie« pre]Kired to Mtisc 
tlw incn who came to it in reliani^c on his word. Treachery 
mot liy irewbcry: the countermine exploded under the feet 
lie miner. He ww hiiiieelf wtzcd, and, re^iatittg simnglyt 



wns diot liy MHliimu'd Akiiar, not, aa tt would aeeni, of prevJmis 
purpoee, but in the fierce pnasion excited by u violent personal 

In IjiuIv SulcV opinion, llie Envoy's readiness to accede to the 
plot stiggeated to liim by Matiomed Akbar against the other 
chiefs, wae JuetifictI by tnc neglect on their part to fulfil the 
condition* prcjicrtlicd by that treaty. In question); of (■Iriet 
morality, not less than in cineslionsof .ipi-culutive truth, a lady 'it 
judjiinent in upt to be biassed by her feelings. With every 
respect for the feclines which, in this case, uiialcd Lady Sale, wc 
must pi"otf»t against her opinion. The alleged non-fulfilment of 
the lerms of tlie treaty could have been honoumbly met in one 
way ©nlv — by openly declaring that it woo no longer binding. 
To acquiesce in its continuance, and plot the seizure of men who 
catnc wiving on iu faith to a peaceful conference, was an act of 
dcte»t<dile treachery, which, up to that time, at Ica^l, the Affgbans 
had done nothing to parallel 

■ The arguments by which Lady Sale would justify the conduct 

of Sir W. Mncnnghten, more than justify the counterplot against 
one alrwwly under his own hand convicti-d of treacherous inten- 
tions The Affghans, in accoi-dance with huiuan nature, slurred 
over their own part of the transaction, which was bad enough, to 
dwell upon ours, nhifh was worse, ficre'cly protesting that they 
had tried us, and found lliat wc wcri^ not In be trusted : and wlio 
can toll what share this miserable transaction, with the di$lnist 
whicit it produced among them, may have had in occAsioning the 
eid)scqucnt fikithlc^ do!*truction of our nmiy ? 

That either part V should rmttt the other after what hadtnissed 
was impossible, and to resume the treaty was madness. \ et the 
treaty — whi<'h bound us. in short, to evxciuito the country, the 
^^ ,Vft'ghn»« lo permit and assist ns to evacuate it in safely — was 

^B resumed ; resumed, too, in aecordancx! with the all but unanimouis 
^m decision of a council of war. One man only dis^nted — the 
^M officer wlio had before saved llci'at from the Persians, and whose 
^H count>el gave now the only clumce of Paving the English army at 
^H C'abool ii-om the AlTghan.-^. He pointi^^l out the risk innirred by 
^H the treaty, tlie impropriety uf binding the. hands nf the Indian 
^H (lovcrnnicnt, and declared that the tnic choice for the army lay 
^1 between liolding out at ('al>ool lo the liutt, and at onoc iignting 
^H their way to •Iclhdalmd. 

^H It i» clear, al\er the result, tJiat ^lajor FotUnger was right. 

^H The firat course might still, jwrhaps have been succeBsful — by 
^H the vccond, a retunant, at least, of the army nitght have reaehcci 
^H dellahdiad. Wc must idlow for the errors uf men placed in a 
^H xituntiou of almost nnpnriilleled ditlicidty ; Mill it docs seem 
^^m iucxplicalile that they should have adopted the one course calcu- 
^H lat«a to int^ure destruction. We find, fron] Lady Side, that 
^H oany Ailgliaiis warned the Englioli ofliccr» once and again, tlint 



their destniction was resolved upon, and attempted U> iitditoe 
tlivir fricuili* tt> tcnvc the caiup, Hnd rcniain in mfetr under thvir 

InrutiHTtioii. The tiowcr of the cliicfs to rcetram the tribes 

' nclweeD Cabonl and .1<-)lal)il)fld, was at lenst <tnul>tfiil, n*hat«Tcr 
their intcntioDH. But tlic retreat waa resolwd upon. In Lady 
f^aU'V Jouniiil ol' the mctancholy dccpondinj; daye at tlie close ul' 
IWemher 1S41, vtc ii))i>t-rvo, with Aid iiitiTCwt, the frequent and 
oniiuaua pnlry of " siiow all day." 

On the sixth day of Jniiunry, I84lf. the forec, amountinc after 
all it« lomc« to 4,21K> fighting men, with 12,0(K) camivfolloirers, 
moved out of tiw auitonwen[», iho wlioic country l»cinc covered 
with deep anow. Tlie ninroli c»uld hardly liave failed to be 
disastrous, with whatever skill it had been conducted; but froin 
the beginning all appears to h»ve been niiiimaniiftcuient and con- 
fu^on. Systematic plan for ])n>vidinff the trwop* with xhellcr 
from the bitter cold there waii none. The ca»i]>-folh>nen i'roiii 
the very fii-st mixed themselves with, and delayed the march of, 
tl>C column. The tents, and inoet of the bo^fgnge, were early 

I Btoriliced ; yet tltinr pro<{rcM wn» ini»cnibly nlow. KverytUin;; 
depended uwui a rapid advance : vet in two days the army bad 
advanced only ten miles. The third morning; found them at tlie 
mouth oftheTvlioortl Cabool Paas.a diitoT^ganin.'d multitude of from 
fourteen tu sixteen thouoiuul human bciii)^ ha ring, iu< yet, suftcred 

k Comparatively little luiu from the diri-et allw^kn of (he enemy. 

r But the two dreadful nighta of frost had alreatiy paralvzed them. 
" Only u few hundred serviceable fighting men remainc«i." At 
this pitint they were OMaiUnl in force by the ravage Ghilziva. 
liosin^ men, by their fire, at each step, the column [>rc»M-<l on 

\ through the terrible defile. At tltc top of the pass they halted, 

f leaving in it, arconling In Lieuteiuint hyre, 3,tHI0 men, having in 
thrt-e days conipictid fifti-cii mile!), and ii»cendc<l to a HtiU colder 
climate than thi-y had It Tt behind. On thirt o<'CJit>ion it was that 
Lady Sale was wounded. She bears testimony to the fact, tliat 
the chiefs who escorted tlie European ladies tlirough the pose, 
aptMtrfTttly exerted thcmitelveji to keep down the fin-, whioli, ccr- 
lamly, endangered their livci na mueh a* thoiw who were under 
their protection. " Bu^'' she says. "I verily believe manv of 
thc*c pcnwjn* would, individually, sacrifice themselves to rid their 
country of us" The iniplii^rd ihmbt of f heir sincerity in attempt- 
ing to dtoji the lire, i» a terrible testimony to tlie streugthof 
hatred with which we were regarded. 

The next day. the fourth since leaving Cabool, wax spent on 
the lop of the KhoonI Calxwl, in negotiation and delay. Under 
the cireumdiunee/t, tlii:t sceiiiA to 1uive been sheer madneas. 
One march more niight have earricd them clear of the snow. 
Mdiomed AUbnr had shown himself already either weak or un- 
willing to pnitcet thefonv; nud, in either ease, whatever nicMW 
had b^n most prudcul initsoltj would \wiK added to hi«ali\Ul 


'JO A£'iilniniH<ii>. 

or mci«a»ed bis readiness. During this dny it was that the 
ladies and ofHoera (iht^ir husband^,) ncrc nuwlv over to hJtt pro- 
tection. The cK^lity, tlinnrfurc, iiiay In: hi-lil tu hnvu li;d to tliuir 
ttufu^; but it scaled the thte of the nriuy, who munt, with the 
fullon-fire, even now, have amounted to more than 10,0()0 men : 
but most of them hclplci>g. liopL-lces. and disabled ; utterly with- 
out shelter, food, or fii-c ; reiiiaiiiing day ami night on the enow. 
The unfi^rtoiiiile nnlivcs of Hindostlftii surtiired, of eoiirac, moi-e 
thaii the HnglUli : hundreds of llieui w ere seen silting on the 
onow, not auuk in the aoalhy of despair, but howlinir with pain. 
" More than one half ot the force," wrilcs Lwly Sale, under the 
heiid of tlii» ilay, " is now froBt-bittcii or wounded ; and most of 
the men can dcorecly i)ut a loot to the ground." 

The fifth, sixtli, ana seventh days of the march were one long 
and dreadfid striijrglc ; deatli from exhaustion, death from the 
cold, dcuUi from the merciless enemy. The wiiy was lined with 
tliote who fell ; every {tass was a itoene of lighting »nd slaughter ; 
at every halting-plsce numbers were left dead or dying. The 
whole of the nittivc infantry wns destroyed or scattered on tlie 
fifVh (lay, at the end of which Lieutenant Eyre computes that, 
xince tli« dc[>Hrturo from Cal>ool, )2,IKH) had iierished. The 
frequent negotiations with Akbar and the Ghilzio chieftains for 
protection, niul no eO'eet, except to diminish the chance of pre- 
servation by creating delay. It wne on th« evening iif the sixth 
dny that Sheltou and Klphinstone fell into bis hands. It is 
inipossibte to refuse our tribulA of admiration and praise to llic 
TXMolutc and noble spirit with which the remnant of officcn! 
and men xtruggicd forward, through the nttaeks of an enemy 
as pitiless and untiring as a jHiek of wolves, forcing all obstacles, 
melting away at eiicli step like a snowball in water, vet still 
keeping together, never to the last yielding to the weatncss of 
desjiair. When the disiwitcrs of tlie siege arc atlriljuteil to the 
miseonduct of the men of the 44lh regiment, and tlie mistakes 
of their commander, let not the steady yet desperate heroism 
shown by iiumy of the former, and uniformly by the latter 
through those dreadful days, be forgotten. 

We read with «uil interest that much dclny was occasioned 
by the anxiety of the men to bring on their wounded comrades, 
in the very last crisis of their fate, on the night of the seventh 
and morning of the eighth day. The miscrnbli; remnant \\ai\ 
by thin time clcJii-cd the i'nsscf, and rciwhei) the open country, 
but by this time, too, their effeetive force was reduced to twenty 
muskets. Driven ft^m the rond, and forced to tnku up their 
]ieisitioii on a hill at Gnndnmiiek, this fragment of an army de- 
tended th<-mi>clves tu tlie last, and were, all but three or four, 
ilestroyetl there. 

On the Uth of .lanuarj-, we believe. Sir Kobcrl Sale received 

(.■ ordvr to evacuate Jellabibiu]. A few clays aflvr, n report 





A^fkamtdaH. ft] 

"nil t]tn>»<rL the garrison tliat t)i« Cabool force wu in full 
rctn.'st utmn tliewi, aod was lieiog out to ^eces by iJic CSliilsicx. 
On tli« l^tli a ein<;[v officer (hunted for bia liitt till witbin a 
d>ort distiinci; of the gntc^s) ciii(H< in, and told tbc nil but in- 
credible tjilo of wliiit )iv bud M-v», iiiilf incotivrciit froin fati)ni<! 
and horror. Even* etlbrt watt iiiiiliinrly iiimk- ; llio country wa« 
•ooured in every duretion by partica of boi'^c, and, lijr Hcveral 
nights, beacon* wen- kept cim^taiilly burning, to guide any 
MmgglcTV, who iitigbt have CM!ii{tvd, to the friendly town. " tint 
mtmt eautf. Tiry teere all dead. Thr armv mit aiimliilatgd." ■ 

Ao fell the curtain upon one of the moat terrllilo tragedies 
recorded in ww. Greater numbcra luivt^ pemhed in less time; 
but DO similar furve of civilized tnvn wiie ever to utterly over- 
wbebned ; nor can a great multitude of hmnan Iwingv have ever 
KiBered more dreadful misery tban wnti endui'ed by iIiokc wIioho 
lingvfine deatmotion we Iinvc. following Lieutenant Eyre, 
faiDtly MKctclicd, between tlie lih nnd 13th of Jftnunry, 1842. 
From rlic tumult in the city on tin- 2d of November, to tho 
marvellous escape of tJ>c single man out of 17,000, the whole is 
one of those trangactiuns of which the l)Cgiiining and end are 
miracloSi when looked ni separately from thu connecting evunis, 
of whicli tvery t>lep it mnet natural ; — a (tcricM of tninitactioiiB 
fdl tending to one end, truer to nature than fiction ever cnn be, 
yet eurpawing every effort of fiction in etraogeness and horror. 

AVc need not dwell much on the transactions uf the rcat of] 
AilghanUtan during thin winter. At Candiihnr uur I'uprcmacj'l 
va* msintaiu«d uiuhakcn. Ghutncu wiut taken ulU-r n mIoii^I 
rciiilaneev ^^mI most of it« garrison aA«ri|KU'd», in violation nf j 
the capitulation, moesocred. The fort of KhcIat-i-Glulzie, bc-| 
tTMn Caodahnr and Ghuv.ncc, nius attnekcd and defended wiih^ 
vakiar as ol>9<tiM.-ili' ns nny min!>lrfl Imv cc1cbrnti'<l. It uat), we 
IwlicTC, un their finid re|ml»i- tlint the Afl'ghana lefl in tlie po9- 
aeaMon of lh« Englinli a aiandard which, in their desperate 
aUempt to gain a luoting inside the fortifieation, tlioy Imd throe 
ttnwe planted in the enihnivuro of one of our cimnon. All thu 
world known how Jellnlsilnul wae defended, and how it wiw at ■ 
length rcttored to »ecurily by a vict4iry which, though brilliant, f 
eott much, — costing the life of Dennie.' Many conipbiinls of 
the treolnicDt received by this officer frun] his HUpei'ior<> have 
been toado, and not, as fiir as wv are aware, received nnswt-r, or 
attempt at aitifwer, fnjni titoso nioi«t int^*rc«lcd in ri-futin^r them. 
We ificrefore hold tlicm convicted of grievous injustice. Judg- 
il^ from hiA kltcra, he was, like ntony I'emarkablc men, iK>t the 
ttoat tnujtahlc of aulwrdinatc^. Jlh temper was evidently iiuick, 
and imjKtiicnt of injurticc ; his estininte of his own descrtf, lii^^h i 
his tendency to tptai out, inoon^'cnient. Hut lie up{icun to liavc 

Leim in an Indian Xmpapor. 




3J JJjjhaiiittan. 

lieen n man of a gi' lie 1011*1, no lf-<Io voting, aiiJ liomic toin' of 
iiiinJ; of great i-nt^r^ry mid decision, — of daring and cuutiuii 
riglitly I'Oinliined, — of singular conduct niid cjijmcity in war. 
Those who are intcrcst^'d in iKl'ciidiiig the jirweiit aystcni of 
proniutiun in tlie British Army, can perhajis esjilaia how »uch 
R man, nfler 40 years' service, in tile last two of which only 
hft hiwl the opportunity of proving what he was, died a Lieu- 

Of the trjiii*actionti of the tiiniinier of 1842, previous to the 
atlvuncc of tiencral Nolt from Camhihar, and GenenU Pollock 
from ileltalahad, no hii^torical suniinnry hiu" yet appeai-cd. 

The occasional notices in the jouimdn of Ihc wqitives of aftairs 
at C'ubool, during tliis period, present a most vividly confused 

Eidurc of liewildering and intricjitfl anarchy. In the course, we 
elieve, of March the unhappy king, who had made eotnc kind 
of arrangement with the chiifs after our departure, was mur- 
dered in cold IiIoikI: the tlrdt, it ap[ieani, of tJie SuddoKve race 
who liul so diecl 

■■ Gvtninthe niktcxl of their civil dUmriiMonii,'' mys the Ivdinburgh Kc- 
vieireF,"iiDmemhfi' of tlial fainily had ever boen put to dt'OlU iii t'oiil blood. 
ItwuregiiniledafliimTi'ed, fL» vrolt hs roynl" 

Our interference, then, had excited a hatred stronger than even 
thia sacred reverence. From the time of his death, the eon- 
fueiun, before not inconiiide ruble, became worec conlbundcd ; iiiid 
tlierc Is a ehiiihing and intertwining of interests, perfectly inex- 
plicable: every man standing up for himself — fighting for his 
own hand, and Chaos sitting umpire. In Lady bale's Jourottl, 
written within hcarifig of the oannim at Cabool, v/c liud such, not 
unamuHing, passages as the fcdiowiiig : — 

" I'nrlii-s run high nt Cnbool : Zi-innii Sliiih Klinn »n_v» be w ill lie kiujt. 
Akbnrdilio, Jitbbiir Klinn (hi.-Hmiii.-, iitul Amcuunllnb han h niiiiilnr I'xiity. n» 
olxu Muboiimicd Hhnh Khun, nnd l''iittc]i Jtiti§: tbc Shnhzndii. The IroopR 
fo out dally lo fight ; Ami-noollnh's to Hcn-i-ibehr. niid Zninnn Slmh 
Khim'ii to SiahSuDfii ihev fi^'bi u iiute, »ud tbcu ri-iri.*Hi lu tlii-ir funner 
potiiuoiis, Zi-innn Sbnb Kbiiii liiis hwii driven out of hit huuse, uiid 
AmcHOollah oul ufhii; hut baM:pnrt Qfthe tomi in ibulr fnvmii'." 

And MO things went on. There are constant acUoiia, Much a* 
" sharp firing all day." " A grand battle is to come oft' on 
Sunday." One day wc find that Zcman Slinli and Akbar ave 
ftllied against the rest; n few days after " wc hcanl that Ma- 
homed Sluih was at war willi Ztrmaii Kliau;" and llii> next day 
lli«t Akbar having taken Zcman Khan and Ins two tioiis prii*oiier*, 
iind lakcn from them their guns and treasure — had released 
them aj^ain. Indeed, there is liiilo apjicarancc of bitter am- 
mo«ty m these contests. As Liuly Sale wiy*. " tJicy fight a 
little" nearly every day ; but it Bc'ems to he mtlier with tin; 
object^ of trying their strength than of doing each other any 
great injury j it was their iacouvenient and inartificial melliod 

^V AppJianittan. S3 

of popular election. Ly univcr^ suflfrage— a slinking togotlior 
of toe lot* agnin^tcach utbcr in tlie liclmel, to see wliicli would 
dprlng out. The moot (lestructive incitlcnt recorded, is the ex- 
ploaiiin ofa mine, liy which Alclinr hlovr ii{> a {jnyit iinmbcr of Ai> 
otfn mm; hut. in sriitc of hia hliindcriiif; engiiici'riiig, the inowt 
niarkci) fi-miirc in tno whole i« the manner in which he, amid nil 
(hi< rtinfucinri, iu*mtU iin iiicifi^siiig mid ultimately completG 
MCeoHency. Hut the civil wnrof tlicAc " hiirhnrinn)>" wn? soon 
to aiok into stillness before the approach of oivilixed inviuion. 

One thine is now clear ; that tiic c\-!icuation of A%haniiiian 
wwrewlvcd H[mn Iiv A.rfA Govomnientf of India, Lord Auck- j 
land'd as wi^ll as Loitl F.llcnhorouj^h'.i. Oik: nluti.-T'mnn wai> hnnly ' 
enough to protest against the measure. One atatecinnii only : 
«hall V.-C call him " JuHum et tenaetm pmxmili virutii f " No, — 
ii^urtjcc like justice is often lunncious of it« purpose : like that, 

" SI fractud UUbnlur urbi* 
Impnvidam Ti^rient riiintc." 

There are men who, when the thunderholt lias s]iatt«re<i it 
over their licatU, will i*et 1o work with a conacicntioua pcree- 
verancc to rcKnild the fidlcn fuhritr nf evil. When the lime fditiU 
come for summing up (hat .itatcrmmra service:^ to his country, it 
»1iould not be foTgotleD that Loi-d Pahncreton carnestlv, warn- 
ingly protested against the witlidrawal of our army from our 
eotMuesl of AfTghanintan. 

But if A(Ighaniht:iii was to he evacuated, we l)u\e to nn.*wer 
the <|tie9>tion, for what purpose was the campaign of 1812 nndcr- 
takeu ? For the recovery of llie pnsoncrs f or for revenge ? 

If Dccessarily undertaken for tlie former [lurpoi^e, it was a 
duty— a duly which, had our original invasion been morel 
iuiaiiituUH than it was, we were still, 1>efore (lod and uian, bound I 
to nilfil, — a duty, llie neglect of which would have been a woraa j 
crime than the mmt unjuot invasion. 'l*lio Indian Government 1 
would Itavc been guilty of er>wiinlly treason, hud it abandoned 
thoM whoM |MMilidn wait the reindt of their fiiitliful obedience ] 
to tta tintcm, so longna it had a .toldier to Hcnd to batlJe against 
til© Aflgluins, a rujiee in its treasury. AVc should have thought 
it noneceaUT)' to say thi», had we not seen in some quarters j 
tlwattempl to insinuate a countur opinion,— that, if the original] 
war WM iinjiul, to continue it, even for the recovery ol our 
ivuntrymen and oouulr^* women, was unjust also — but it is at 
any rate unnecessary to d4>more than say it. We cannot stop 
to argue a point eo evident. 

But was the campaign of 1H42 nccessan.' for the recovery 
of the priMincr»? On thi* |>oint there have l»een many eon- 
tradictnry utatemenls, a& well ai dtveme opinions ; into the whole 
ofwhkh we cannot at present enter. 

tt is well known that, during thv first part of the summer 
of Ift42, negotiations for a niuliiid exchange of prisoner* wer** 

KO. ISXI.— V. *. y m 

3t Affatianutan. 

ci>nsln[itty ocfiurring. It is now positively staled' (hat nrrange- 
menta to that cftbct hsul actually been made, Akbnr Klwin 
engagine not only to rcstoni the prisoners id his immediate 
chnrgc. hut lo colfcot the ii(;|K>ys scntlereil over the cmintry, and 
escort tliem thruueh the pusses; the coiidiltun heing, that tho 
AfTghaD ])i'isoiicrs in India should be released, and tlie Engh&h 
withdraw nhogelher IVoin the country; and that, un the recep- 
tion of direct ordcris Irmii llic inmic Gi,ivi.rninicnt, these urrange- 
menta were hnikcii ofl' mul liostililio^ rccimimenced ; upon 
hearing which, Mnhomcd ,\kbar exclaimed, in fierce anger, tliat 
"every Affghan cliief had been taught to lie and break faith by 
llie Fcringecd 1 " 

On thi» subject, me would direct attention to a letter frt>m 
General P<illock, to the secretaiy of the Governor-General, 
quoted from the I'arlianicnliiry I'aperi-at p. 394 in the Ap]>cndix 
to Iiient. Eyn:'i' Journal. It proves, we think, that General 
PoUiiok'^ hit'aking iifl' the negotiations arose, not (Voiu any orders 
he might have received, but fi-om dletrust of the sincerity of 
Mahomed Akbar. A positive engagement to withdraw would, 
he thought, lead lo delny on Aklinr's part in the rewtomtion of 
the prisoner* : and our advance be likelv to accelerate it. It la 
clear that the Kniinli general treated, as a man treats with 
another in wJiuin he does not confide, anxious lo avoid giving 
hid opponent the ndvanhigc of binding himself lo anything. 
"We believe Gencnil Pollock, therefore, to have considered the 
advance on Cabool desirable, if not necessary, for the sake of 
tho prinoncr*. 

On the other hnnd, Mahomed Akbar, fully conscious of the 
hold on the llritinh Government which he derived from the 
possession of the prisoners, was not in any way blamable for 
the refusal to i-c»tore them till asirurcd of the conditions. It 
ajUicar?, however, from umch concurrent testimony, that ho 
entered into the negottalion lione^tly, with a sincere readiness 
to restore them on such assurance : that the sudden rupture of 
the negotiations not unnaturally impi-essed him with the belief 
that he had been merely i)laye4l with ; and that the adviinoc of 
our army, under such circumstances, expoecil ihe priKonerw to 
great peril. Though no uctunl engagement had been broken, 
Akbar Iiad been at least deliberately led to Ibnu expectations 
which it was never (as he at least must have thought.) intended 
to fulfil ; and had he been the _/fcW, which many in and 
out of India thought hiin, the most terrible results might have 
fottowc L 

Lieutenant Eyre remarks, that 

■■ Thin npsiilinlion • • • • jfemcil now, by the ■iiiiilen turn llinl liad 

Ukcn plftcc. likfW to (ilimge uh into a danicerDua ililcnnQn; Mdlioiiicil 

kbar l>eiu|; notorioiu Tor stuppiiig fit no atrocU;', nlieu Uis tuigry jiasxion* 

^ * Bomhajr Tlinri, A|.ril. 18M. 



I oaccnraUMcl, u wekaewtbej' aoon vniild be, when he should bear nf 
? lulviuicc of botli gcncnJii, vrilh their <ii cruhrlmiiii; force))." 

Ilia KugT}^ parlous item roueed, and not uriihoiit rL-m^oii— 
yet he perj»ctrat€(i no atrocity. The prisoners, withdrawn from 
the u«tgltM>urIiood of Ciiboot, knew not whether to hope or fear 
moet from the |irojjre*» of our victorioiii' nriiiy. At length, in 
lite very lu-ioid nf Uieir fate, tlie iulhi;rent tn whom Akluir Imd 
confided then) was liraii^ht over, and the prisoners, heiided hy 
their jsiler, occupied the fort to which they had l>eeu sent for 
euatoily, in open revolt iigiiinst the power which had sent them 
tliorc. It wa» a curiouA pO:>itiiin in hiiniun uUiiin^, mid not with- 
out it< {leril; but their proceediiiga were conducted with spirit 
lutd prudence, and all went well with them, until they tiiund 
tbeBMclvM onec mure in an Englisli cjinip, restored to safety 
and firecdooi. T)>c prinoipid immetliute n^ent in their recovery 
va«, •ppniprintcly, iIk- niuio Knglinh officer who«e nnnic was 
previously known ad connected with iv service to hiiNiuiiity 
tuon- free fmm alloy, more purely gratifying, than it crm have 
oft«D ftUca to llic lot of n military man to etfect — the rescuQ 1 
aad Mife conduct to St. I'etersbur^ of tlie pi-i.ionero deti\Iuvd at 
Khtv^ Sir ItichmoiKj Shakespeare, to whose lot two etich 
SDrvicea have ttdlen, \a indeed a man to he envied. 

TUs wu the hright b[)oI in the cjuniNiign of 18t2; we tuni 
from it to tltc darkest ; and we wnlo (he nitme of iHali^' with 
ebamo and horror — horror ut tliu iitroeities of whii-h that name 
b tltc »ymbol: iiluime and deep indignation at the feeling, or 
rather the no fi-eling, with which their aimouncement wad re- 
ceived in this eountf}-. IstalilT, a lar|i^ town, about forty miles 
nortli-va«*t of CabooJ, was the refuge reported to liy uuiny of 
the chtcfa and their followers whi> had failed in opjKising our) 
advance upon tltat city ; and n foi-ce vian conac<(uently sent 
wainat it. We say consequently, hut we do not yet know tthy. 
Inlendingia« wcdid. to leave the AlTghnns to the "anarchy which { 
wa« the coiucqucnco of their crimes," and not tlivir cnmea 
only — it doCM not ap[H-»r to have been incumbent ujxm us to 
reduce oil their str>.inglioldii before quitting the country, and 
irven atlmitting tluit ihey had deserved punidimcnt at our hands, 
who will say that enough had not been exaetod, in the daughter 
at TcxeeD, the slaughter at Glni:tnee, the burnt vilhiges and 
wavlnl lands which markol tlir tnu;k of our invading anny ? 

Hut to |Mdg finNn tiii«. IstaliH' was attacked, and bravely 
Ukea : ila capture is couaidcncd, in a military point of view, 
equal to any exploit in the war ; but what followed on '\t* cap- 
ture? This: 

" For lhi« jirHnd < Iwo dajral Uia pl*«e wa> ^ven nver to Gre aud airortl : 
BOt k liTia)[ MKil «u HHUvd, orpied or uaftrmoti ; iba mon wrr« hunted 
down |tk« wild hMMaj not a prisoner was lAkua; mnrcy was oMcrdreiuDt 

• Indian Pufrt*. 


yO A£'^hani*t(tn. 

It will be niinonilK-riHl tlint tlils elitteinc-ut did, in tlie Iluuse 
of Commons, give rise to eunie fjueolioiiing unci eonie cxplfiiia- 
tiuii ; im cxplnniilion not denying, oot niaterially altering tlie 
cliivrge; hiit ifimjily etntiiig thai, as AfTglinu liouaes were all 
built ajid occupied like lortrc^'ic:', it viw< iiujios^ibl^ thut figjitiiig 
coUld cease on the tntraiiee of the tt-oope into the town. What 
then P Look ut the chaige nnd the defence, and say whether 
the one meet* the other. The indictint-nt is not traversed. Sir 
Henry Iltirdingii'K jik-a would, by nny tribunal who wished to 
do juMlice, havi' bi-eu net unide o» iiTeleviuit. ISut it Bounded 
like nu auewer, and every one. of coui'^c, was glad of an excuse 
to (TWiipe from the unpopular po^ibility of an Inquiry Into the 
conduct of II briivu luid isucecwful cunnniinder. It was not ao, 
citlier in or out of the House of Commons, when an unwise, 
i lies utiuuf> and unpopular pmehunation of the present tiovernor- 
Genend g»vc a (jopnlar hundlo for a party attack mwH the 
exUtin;; govemmt-nt ; ami the contrast is a difignice to the 
Datiun m which it oiciured. The eelf-styliid religious world, 
which, at the Sumnautb piocJaiiialion, screamed and yelled out 
like a nimi whose gouty foot i» trod on, received the news of the 
slaughter of l«tidiH' with the cnhiinces of the same man putting 
n cork \v^ into huiling water. Huth were chnructeriatic ; yet, 
were it not for the unfeigned indifterence, we might have made 
more allowance for the hypocritical and cjinting clamour. The 
heathen and uuN'rupulou^ Atheuiaui>, it k said, once ■'eccived ii 
general who came to th<-m frLMb from the perlbrmancc of brilliant 
eerviccs, but accused of a great crime against Gi^ecian morality, 
not with thanks, but a trio], in the course of which, honele&s of 
a fuvonrabic result, he slew himself in the assembly. When we 
filiil read tlii» atory, we lliou^ht — but was a youthful error 
— that the time hud come at which » ulate calling itself civilized 
and christian would not overlook savage cruelty, even in the 
victorioui' lenders of its armice. 

AVith thiii tjark, nnd not single, etiiin upon their character, 
the Kngli^h tijrcea willidrew from a country, in whicJi their pre- 
ecnce had. for four years, been the cause of every possible evil 
that can afflict a nation : — war, misgovern m en t, then war 
again, foreign nnd domestic; terminating in utter anarchy, an 
anarchy Mhich impartial ilii>lory, when she «|ii-aki> of the Ait- 
g bans, will II (i( dennimiiate the " cuntiequence of /AmV crime*." 
Doubtless, the Afghans, like every other nation that ever wiu 
engaged in a i>iniiinr contest, committed crimes in the struggle 
fur llicir indi-pundence. IJut in taking away their independence 
without cause, the Knglivh inflicted on them the greatest wrong 
which nation can inHict on nation. Of all the mutual niiitery, 
of their sn\Tigc and treacherous haired, of our cruel revenge, 
our injuelicc wu.t the origin. Kvil would not be ao evil, if the 
very nnlure of wrong were not to pi-ovoke to wrgng ; — if the 



kfl^bans are now s worw jicopio tlinii they were five ycnrs 
•tocc, U (h« I'liult tli«int, or uurn ? " Tli« li<-jpniiing of «tnft- U 
W wlicn one Icltctb out nalcr ;" !i! that a new £a_vtng ? !.■< it n 
ROCDt (liecovt.Tr, thiit war will iifccssarily lend to atrocities tiiid 
crioiot? ftod w it uul Tor \.\\\* very tMnw that nn unjust war is 
tD04t criiQinul i Nktionti in tUtturenl Ht»ge# of civilixfttiun must 
be cAjM-clcd tu carry on war upon diffcreut [)rincii>Ie!i, and to 
leuipcr it£ coodiict. willi difl'ci'ciit decrees of humanity. I)ut, if 
we wen- to cnli-r un tli<; inijuiry, which, in the mere conduct of 
the war, had ull'ciided most agiiiiint their own ntniidnnl of n<;ht 
uid wrou^, ia it so certain ttuit the answer would be Ihvounihle 
to the Eaglisli t 

'VCk do not think tlint any candid reader of Lieutenant Kyre'a 
work will hiy it dowu with un in)])ret>i>ion altapcther hostile to 
tW AH'^tuin^ If, in the contlict lor their iiitU-jiendencc, they 
rouimiited many 6ercc and ircachcTOHS actions, they yfX, on 
many occa»ionis entitletl thciiii*elvut to the praiiic of truth and 
MM-rcy. When Lieutcuant Kyrv rffens pratcfully to the hiind 
uf ProTMlencei aa clearly diaccriiittle iu "retraining the wrath 
of nvage rocn wlioee intense hatred of ud was only equalled by 
their luucrupuluus cruelly," he eonveve, in Rcnend teniii>, a 
CCiiMire which tJic facte rtdate'l by him nlmw to lie far from 
univemiUy niifilicBble. An ini^iirreelion in nny country, and 
pjifMx-ially suoli a cnuutry as AH^hauistun, is uo orderly, di»- 
ciplined, well -conducted thing; the leaden) in euch a etruggle 
Imvc tu Qiake the fierci-»l ptiivion» of tJieir countrymen ttio 
inotruiuvtittf uf tlieir deliverance: tlieir influence is mainly 
directed Iu excite, nud nut to calai, the hatred which tliey aharc : 
and llie hiiilory of every jtopular rising can furnish examples of 
their want of power to restrain it, when they have the will. 
Yet, in several invlances, we find the chiefs exerting tlmnwelve* 
to the ulnio<*l, and ri.-ktng their owu liveo to iircMerve the Uvcm 
of Kurojjcoiia from their tiillowere. An Eugltah officer ordera 
his lueu tu take charge of) and protect a prisoner, nod be is 
obeyed : — an Aflglnn 

**Takc* nIT bw larhau— the lul njipiwl a Mawiulnun can make — and 
unpkiret tLc tavage GImmck, fur Gud'n ukc, to reipm-'i the UA of hta 
" My coiKlunorHflil Mcoren B.\<ir<lfen Klinn wcra (ibUircd lo prns* tnc up , 
llhc trull. mTirintcnie u-ith llicironn bndjn, and protcntiiig tliat no 
kilil rracli lue but tbruugh thi-ir iicraons." 


** Thew drew tbcir awordii in my defeow, tW chief LiiiiMir (hrowinR liii 
I iohmI my neck, ami recaring on Ui sfaouldar * eol aun«d by Uvollah 
im ai my baad."* 

XamiV, loo, at llio cotiduet of the Xawah Zcman Khan, an old 
chienain, some time king of tlie insurgent city of Caltool; in 

who^e custody we left tlie liostii^c^ given liefare wurnrmy k'ft 
the cantonmente. After jirolccling tlicm for months ngainsi 
the constant eflbrts of the Uliazce ftmtitics to slay thcui, ne at 
ia«t fon^igncil ilieiii to the wire of the Mc-cr Wjne, the high 
]>rift!tt of C'rthool, ill whose venerated |)rotection he believed tliey 
would he more secure. 

" Before M-niliiitt ilicm to the Mepr Wj»e. which waa done at nleht, ho 
tutik the prccnnlioii to tiiiv Ihc H(rvei9 wilh Ins otiii tbttowers, niih atnn 
unlvr^ C<i Hr« iiiiori etvry uiie »h(> ahuiitd mi much nit iiukc hm lioad out of 
nuiiidow; am) he not ool)' ncconi|iHni«] thcin himsell) but sent kia OHn 
family on n-liead." 

It is impoBfliblo not to emile at the very decided character nf 
the precaution; but when good fuitli and plighted protection 
arc Bt iitRke, wv will not ({imrrvl with strong Diea^ures. Noble 
old Zenmn Klian I We read a^in that 

•■ Uundreda of IliiidoBtaii^ut crowded the strwita of Cahool bcfcginfc for 
broad, wliii-U Wits daily serv«d out tu them by Nawsb Jiibbur Khan und 
Zeinon Khun." 

These UindostancM vcvrv t.lic suriivorjt of an invading and 
contiuering urniy. We liavo seen the survivors of a legion, sent 
out mith-r uuthority of the English governinent. reduced to des- 
titution bv the nouful6lincnt of the proruise^ under wliicli they 
were enrolled, meet with lew kimlness in the streets of London. 
But MidiiiinediuuHiti in ii churitublc religion, and its profesaora 
(remiently iiul np lo itri precepts, 

'lliedc tacts Would, wc tliink, l>c tuffieient to redeem the Afl- 
gliaus from the sweeping charge of tri-Jiehery nn<l irihumanitv 
which ha» been i^o freipieiitly made iigiuust them. Hiit there le 
one Atlglmii whono name, generally regarded as the symbol of 
every atrocity, is ttH> closely connected with the darkest of our 
calamities for us to pass the subject without some reference 
to him in jMirticuliir — Mabomed Akbar Khun. 

Thi» tnuti, the second and favourite eon of DoHt Mahomed, and 
the only one, we believe, of the familv, who never submitted to our 
power, was, in his own words, " wfien nn Knglish anny entered 
his country, compelled to become our ennuy, and wiw for throe 
yram a wanderer, and returned at the end of the confusion," Not 
yet (if Diift iMtLhoiiied miiy be believed.) twenty-two yearn of age, 
be luiil seen hi-i tiuher driven from |»oWtfr, to make way for a king 
act ui» by, and on behalf of, a set of i'oreign conqucrorn. To 
htm It must all have seemed the most utter injustice, and so he 
returned " at the end <d' the confusion" our fierce and unwni- 
ptiloua enemy, with one object at Iieai't> — to rid the country of 
the Knglish. In Captain Mackenzie's account of the deatii of 
the Envoy wc find tbnt, afler "laying about bini manfully" to 
sav»? L'liptiiin Min'kenJiii; from the Viliazees, Akbar Klian tunied 
lo the English olhccr clinging to his stimip, "and reiwaledly 
tnud, in n torn: of iriuraphaiit derision, *' You'll tti:x my country. 




irilt yoa f" An unj'i.-Dcroue (lcj>arturp, certainly, Trom the tone 
Iff courtirey whidi Tiis uulwnnl LiciucAiioiir tuwnrd? the English 

Iirimtncn UMtolly cxhihited, but nuliconblc af iilii«trativ<; of the 
M-liogs under whicJi he oolet), tlicn nnd iifternanlit. 

liven without Licutenuit EyreV comdiuUue ex|»reaeioD of re- 
gret over th(- hi^ih giOo nnd cndonincnls nhich IMiihonicd Akhar 
DM MiUictl M'itli iniU-tihli.^ itiaiii», vk ithunUl haw )ivi-ii disposed 
It) Kttrilnitc to hitu Hmie einiiieiit qtiiditJeM. VnHcrupiiluiia as 
to tnMDa, pofificfi^d with a grent object, capable of generous 
aCtiuDtf,— cs]iabli; alra ofgrcut crimeii, — wily, yet of fraiik. o|icn, 
«ltncti\'e dvinciinour, — Riidi men harp onoii been t}i« iniflru- 
meata in great cliangM; and, il-* ibvir liintory iit wntlcn bv tlie 
one BJdf or the other, tbcy deBocnd to posleniv ott heroie aolix'- J 
cnn, or ficD(l-likc destrovcri^ To those who licard of his deeds I 
at the distuiice of halt tW world. Aklmr ii)>pc-:ir<.'d tliv latter. J 
Il IB curiout) to ot(»i.TVi* the diflV^reut and niitiind tunc ^-iicrnlly ' 
used by the captives when sptfaking of their captors. The 
noortcn and miecrcants become men, like other men, when »ccn 
elow at hand by thu#c to whom their deeiU had eniistd »a 
inudi iiuRKtlialu mtfertn}; nnd dnnja-r. While the relatives 
of the pneonera and the flain were shwldering at the name of 
Akbar Kitan with a mixture of fear and horror fur which tbcro 
waa but too nnieh reason ; the uriwnvrs themselves ate, drank, 
and talked with the lerribh- chieftain at i heir cut>e, and on termaof 
convivial equality. The evil gt^nitiA of th« Kngliah anny, the 
murderer — for such he was— of the repreeentative of Enghiud, 
iBt down ptayfuUy on the floor among the ehildren of thoeo 
wbo«c livCB ajwi liberties (kpeiiili-d on hi* nnUri', " dipiiini into 
the didh an merrily a* any of them," and wnn a great liivuurite 
with iliem. Lady Sale, thonL;li ebe professes to tieeirc his 
death, eueake of him without bati-ed and passion, and Lieu- 
tenant Eyre with some degree of positive regaixl. 

Of the murder of the Envoy, he is, na wc said, clearly guilty; 
■ail, towards a man who trustetl him, thmigh ploittng against 
otberv. it was an atrocious deed. Still, it ajipears to have been 
coRimilletl in sudden exasperation, withuntsny previous design ; 
looking at the eirx:uiiMtai)0C8 of the caw, the wrongs his cmintry 
an<I family had utidnred, the fierce ]iiu>sioiiH, the lax inoivlity of 
the East, we do not think, with JMr. Kyre, that it places him 
"beyood the judc of Christian forgiveness;" whtcli wc recollect 
Bumewhcru t« liave rewl, "forgiveth all things." 

l.ieuleiuint Eyre often speaks of this<. the one deed but for 
which Akiwr woidd be worthier than must of thoi»e he acted 
witl); but, in tiur indginent, the delibenilc tiiassaci'e of the anny 
wia, if he wnaguilty of it, a thr wori«e deed than the munler of 
the Enroy. The doubt, which for a time bung over lliis Inin*- 
acttoOi U now, we think, dis[)L'llfl by a ooin[i«U'b')U of the picvioua 
waniings with hU subNijuciit JinJf avownl. He n^ig\tt, \>o«»\\\\'j. 



think that the Englieli would not perform that [jart ol" tlie treaty 
wliifii bound thc-iu to evacuate Jcllnliibad and tlicollicrgarrisons; 
thtit the Nui'o arrival uf so large ii furot- iit Jidlulaliad would only 
enable them to reoonqui-r the country in s])iing. The savTige 
and uncontrolled tribes of the PaBses aftbrded the easy means of 
diwtroytns the retreating force, and lie dclibci-atcly permitted 
them III do no. It was a erinic not to be defended on any yrf- 
tence of ptitrioiimn. Yet tlw massacre of .Iiiftii, for wiiich there 
was Ices esctise, lins not destroyed the French adonilion for 
Nnpoleon. Blacker treachery for the same |)urj>o§c has not 
|»reventi.'d the Cicnnnne from making n national hero of Arminiiif. 
Among those w\w have founded, nr extcndeii, empires in the East, 
there are few who^ie lives are free from similar or worse stains. 
The ^hdlratIa hero, Sevajee, would have done it; Aurnnpzeljc 
woulil have done it; or, to come to those with whom we have 
ourselves been cuaovoted, Tipix)u, or Hydcr, would have 
done it. 

Strong contniste of good and evil may be expected in (h« 
rhumotvr!> of hnlf-eivilisted men ; nnd there are few eonti usts more 
Btrikiiid than those presented by the jiages id" Lieutenant Kyre'a 
lnwk. The man who could plot tlie treacherous slaughter of an 
army, while that very slaughter is going on. receives the individuals 
who nri,r thrown into his bauds with hospitable nud, apparently, 
unaffected kindness. Lieutenant Melville is brrmght in wounded, 
and Mahomed vVkbar ''dre^ed his wounds with his own hand?, 
applying burnt rapH, and paid him every attention." The ejiptives 
Jind their gunnN have to swim n river, and Akbur "nmuirosted 
the greatest anxiety until all hiid crowed in safety." His conduct 
to tlicm throughout, excepting occasional Imrsle of passion, 
appears to have been of the same character. Among civilized 
state* very few prisoners of war arc, with reference to the means 
of their captors, treated nearly a* well u» the English priponers 
under the care of Akbar Khan. Compare this, again, with the 
conduct of other Oriental siivcreigus ; with the horrible cruelty 
ghown towards their Eurojiean captives by Hyder or Tippoo. 

.\11 ihirt, it may bo said, sprang from a politic intention to 
secure some title to our considenition; and we do not doubt 
that policy had ltd share in the kind treatment of his captives bv 
MahomciT Akbar. There is, however, every appearance that his 
judgment was seconded by his natural inclination. Nor in the 
sipectiwie of the same man deliberately devotinc many thousands 
to slauf^hter I'or a greiit object, iind receiving the survivors with 
real kindness, ix there any unexamplefi or ineiplicablc inconsis- 
tency. Take away his evil deeds, and Mahomed ,\kb»r would 
have been entitled to high praise for hii< gowl one*. He is, then, 
at least, entitled to the benefit of them na a set-ofF; and. com- 
jiariiig the one with the otlier, we cannot but rejoice that he did 
not. by failing into the hands of the English, place them in the 



poiition of pHHiDg upon hiin a judgment wliidi could liunlly 
nave been a just one 

P»rUy for mere jiistiw, partly to eliow to one-sided observers 
that eveo these matters have two sides, we bnve thougbt it worth 
while to boctow ihuB much attention upon the conduct of k 
remarkable maiu ^^''v return to grouna marc iuifwrtnnt, and 
leas open to coiitTovcr:«y, in retuminp, for a few wordd of retro- 
spect, to the relation of Knglaiid to Aflghaniotan. 

Towanlfl tlio beginning of these ohservutioii», wc quoted tlie 
declaration of il« own inlcnlioiu, made in 1838, by the Govern- 
ment of Intliik The Hub«cqucnt facts arCf as we iben xaid, the 
DUMt striking oonunent on llits dccbiratiou, presenting aa ihcy 
do so curinuB and singular a contrast between the end and the 
beginning. Such as we bare described it wim the juJicnic, and 
men u we hare described it the ultimate fulfilment. Tlnis 
irerc carried out lh« " confi<lent hopes" of tlie Govenior- 
Oescral, and thus, but not on tlte terms which he anticipated, 
was iIk " British anny tinallv withdrawn." Tlwj contradiction 
between deei^ and accomphshment is the very common-place 
of history ; but it luu» seldom been more etrikingly shown tlmu 
in the wrie* of eTento no have f»ll>iwed. 

On llic defeat, still more on thedestruetion, of English forces, 
employed in wbaterer cause, wc cannot look with any oihcc 
fteuDg ihfla mere pain ; and if tliere arc any whose patriotism 
H norc cooDOpolitiui, wc are not nurc that wc cn\y them this 
liberality. Hut, #e|ttrating, as far as we can, our judgment from 
our feelmg, and looking impartially at this four years war, from 
beginning to end, wc cannot but «o simply this — a great in- 
justice delibcnitclr planned, backed by great power, fur a tune 
triumphant, and then, br the natural and direct ooosequences of 
injustice, violently overthrown. Let those who can exult in the 
consideration that much as wc bare gutTci'ed, it is probable we 
bavc inflicted yet more ; we can derive no consolation from such 
a thought. Let us honour, as we ought, those who have bravely 
served their country — but, as a nation, God knows, we have no 
ground for triumph. 

Wc have recaved a severe lee«on, which we may make a useful 
one; if we choose to learn from it, well — if not, we shall perpe- 
trate injustice acain and again; till, perhaps, another and anoluer 
before " unpiuiJlcIc^) calauiiiy," carrying horror and miseiy Into 
hundreds of Eoglicih families, shall, at length, awaken the nation 
to a right sense of its responsibility, a nght i^eiise of the guilt 
toourred by the cordcss crimes whereby ntntesuen bid for 
m^riticB, a right sciuc of a tnith, old even in the days we call 
aoat ancient, but not worn out now — nor ik>w, nor ever |>crfcetly 



xo. xxxu—y. * o 


Pioiu Harrift, ^. By ike Author of tA* " Jtiiro/ijtt-ct,'" ^. 
Nisbet and Co. 1829. 

LittU Ann. By the lame. Nisbct, 1840, 

Food for Bahe* ; or, the Ftrnt Strvioiis that tm/ little Ckildrm 
are aUfi tn mideritand. By the Rfn. D. BAiictAY Bevan, M. A. 
Sfxond tCdilion. Hutvlutnli). 1841. 

Lim upon Liw, <Su By the Author t,/ the " Pufp of Day." 
Hatcbardfi. 1841. 

Ti« Mimonary Catechiim, to hflp foricard thi' Yoiin^ Lamh' of 
Chritt't Ftwk in laiderrtandirty and promoting the Ufarrnly 
Work of Chritlian Miwion*. fiftoiid Edition. Sutcr, 1637. 

Wb trust Uiat our readers remeoiber the point to which we 
hnd l)rought the queGtion of ihe rclisioua development of chil- 
I drew in our May Dumber. Wc laid down the grcjit principle on 

which we (M>nw(ior nil to di>)>end, iind wlli^^h, therefore, cnii be 
UBcd at once as » tettt of other people's errors, imd funndation 
whtTcon wc can build truth ourselves. That iirinciple is the 
redemption in ChriMt uf our whole nature, aud consequently 
of every stuge lltrough which it has to pass from its very begin- 
ning. Infancy wid childhood, tlierefore, nave both been hallowed, 
and we must beware how we doidjt that our children have 
received the Chrisiian calling, in their ])Iace and degree, and are 
Busceptiblfr of Chi'istian excellence. At the same lime, we must 
be e*r(-ful in acting upon this, to understand tliat calling and 
that ilegrce; since in couaccratin^ children Christ has consecrated 
childhood, wc iiiiitt accurately oljsene what childhood is. In 
attempting an investigation of ehildho<xl, wc were presented 
with a phenomenon whicli wc applied to certain popular 
narratives of religious' clilhlren, and which condenmed aome of 
the favourite topics and views of eiieh conip<^>»ilions. We were 
led t« nee how viiin wiw the demand for what is meant by con- 
ntrtion, or fur fxperifn&t in children ; and how idht, mkI worse 
than idle, it is to impose on them any peculiar line of religious, 

Before uuitting the negntive for Uie positive brancli of tho 
mibject, before (t. s.) proposing our own plauH injilead of exjtoung 
other people's doiu<^, wo must say a few wordd on two errors 
inore,ofa diflen^nl wwl from tiie former. Thcv proccexlcd from 
the confimioii l>etween the niin<] of a child auil an adult: lliosQ 
wliti-h we ai% about to consider, fnuti placing too wide a cliasin 
betueen them. 

The lir«t of the two is one on whidi wc have piu'tly npoken our 
mind already on foraierocca«ion»,bntwhiobiit so widely prevalent. 

IMi^out Detxtopttunt o/CiiUrtN. 


ud Beema, «a Jkr as we can aee, so UDcli«ekcd as yet by what has 
bcra said ag^et it, that wc arc constrained to renew t>iir stric- 
turi-9 un it. "We niran th« error of adapting (aa in iiii|ipnKed,) 
the saorod hiMory f > the coniprL-I)cn:<ion of children, hy re-writing 
it in a «^lc minpoeed to Iw :<iiH|iK-r than that of the Bihic, and 
anyhow very different — a cliildUli undigiiitii-d iHyIc. We allude 
to such buulu oji one or two of those at tiie head of onr article, 
" Lino upon Line," tt iJ ^nia omnt. Both the work we have 
jurt named and the ** Peep of Day," were admirably reviewed 
aomc yeara u^ by our conteniiH>rary> the British Mngaiiine, 
from who«e obacrvationa on tboui we now make the following 
" laeanMclmte people bit (icrpclmilly (^omplninint: i>r ihir diiDcult^ of 

rItinKeUlilrcn lo realm, oh tLi-}' c&U it, wbot U)c,v ri-ad. And no ibubt it 
a diAcoltj' for childron of rillier a smaller or lnr"cr jfrunth (o " rtalizo " 
majfotiver sotw* wWch ra»y be dciwribcd to th«n (hnn ihow which rnnsiat 
pTuicipa!lT of elements witn which thM- arc quit* fnniiliw. Thin difficulty 
does ■■)< bdone to eyitlrrn oiilv, l)ut (o oil luiDits of ron^ned vien*. nnd 
Uwrrfbre to duldmi (>n)j nalonKiu tlidrvicns arc confined. Aslhcjr ^w 
older, and eontersut, from inotitli tu month, nith mart nnd highrr ibuin, 
Ibegr can * realise ' more and mure of whni they reiul. If 1 detcrlbed a 
hone-rat^ (with all icit rrowii* and pxciicmcni) to n lifmc-jockey, he would 
(MibnitaBd it M once, and -rcnlize ' it nith n nitnesf, ami enter into it with 
all hia heart. But if I gave him u detail of the erouds aud Ihe excileineat 
wUcIt alteod the nicullnK* ol' (IikI Kiipigt body, the British AHSOciAti'>n. ni>r- 
tMim^i inMcad of * rnilinDg ' it, hi; mif'M go tn ttcep. If I ntirnipieil lo 
faapeoM kb mind irith the liibliinc iileiii which the ni>rld of nature prenenta, 
or those anful exhibitioaH ot Ww nii^mty of the Ueit.v to be fouud in the 
Book of K( veUtioo, be would hnve »till more difGoiliy iu the ' rfalJiing ' 
nmrril. bccaUM amotion* conitectci) with 'theMihlimc 'hnvc never been 
JuniKar to him. So ia it with jrouog children; try them nith the two hul> 
MMsdoiked pointa, and yon try tliam, of coiinc, in vain, for the Helf-samn 
I11MI which haa been jnst amgaod, — they hare not yet been rnuiilinrixnd 
with the higbfir idem of either mural or intellectual excellence orpcrfeL'tion, 
prwiili the einotiun!! uhii-b tht'ir display la calculated to mil forth, nndcaii- 
aoL eeaaoquientl}'. enter into them. Now, all this applies mnxt strictly to 
■eripturc aamliTm. No doubt, nothing can exeoed their MimpUrilij, in one 
torn, eren where they apeak ot the Creator or the Hrdvemer. U'liat, nt ear 
fnt*. can be more saniple than the narrative ot God's nppcarinK to Mosca 
IB llie liuitb, or of the wonderful nnd sublime scene of ihc ITnnsti){nration ! 
Llhil ahat will be the effect of nfiemptin)!; to realiit these nceoies too coni- 
^letelv without the rerrmriial fev'li.DtE which, bffitrr alt olhm. is ueccasary 
[feat tkoy mav b« realiiMl aright. Vou may rentiae seenca of thin nature in 
BtwowayfltatliaMio whom, atn ((iven lime, these revermlinlfcf^Iiupiure nut 
Vdenlopcd- Tbat ia to sny. vou may wait titl they are. usinu; all proper 
MBUk* (o deralop tbeni -. or if ijnu irill aal iraii, you may iiaie llirm rcAliied 
hf Hripi l iu g them of cTcryihinR ixlriilalixl to command reverence, and 
hringiag Ihna down to tlio level of common, mean, cvery-day life. 71i« 
lattar it the mdr, easy way. aud is the natural resort of a coat«c and vulfcar 
Kft*Mi8h the revwuer wlllinRly alloua powerftil) mind like Jacob Abbot'i. 
BU*H the principle im which all hi* hooka are written; audit ia predselv 
Paeatiae in moat of us the hieher parta ofuur nature at« india oadereloped, 
phatwhatcreriaao ia hrmipht down to ibe level of moaa daily lilk, aailcon- 
Heqnenllv, Abbot'* scripture pirlumi are so ninmlly leceptnble. Tbir} 
Iwbo rr-siWurh b(iokn -rcalixe' all wbirh ia tola them of their Liitd; I«it 
■Uwy TcaHicii as the history of a siarehumanhelaj, beUet, no ^>u^A,^^n 



Reiigioui Dvrtlopment of Ckildrtn. 

lliciDHelvet, but not cuUlled. on any uiLer ((rouu J, (o be h whit more tvttr- 
rnrcd. It U to GidlitaK tliis ■ runtiiinK ' l1inC«uch books an Abbot's talk of 
the ^n.'ntei' Mtention ibnt irnuld have oi'cn paid him if he hiid been a gentle- 
man living on hii aen rilale. niid it hundri-d (ilh» thin^« much uofec: and 
ihiit IhoNC books lalh of hia vrnntiiijf his Humior, niid gciidiu^ hi« diiiciptes 
lu look after a mail with a jug. tu one word, strip scripture characlers of 
wervtliinK nhirh n younjt child lainnot midrntnnd. (tliat is to any, of eiery- 
thiiiji whi^ maki^s acripturc prn^iouji,! iitid tbi'ii ihu^'ounu child a>iU under- 
stand it. Yi-sl bi' Hill, and so long a« he Uvcs, nitl read, and undersUind 
it ill the daoir wny ; ihnt is la nay, ft* ii common-place history of every-day 
life, not cntciilnlcid to excite any higher umotions than a novel or a newa- 
papn. Great obi ipil ions, indeed, wUl he have to the mother, or governess, 
who set him 'rwilixinp' ut throe years old, when all his iiotiona were coa- 
flned (o tbc nnnt-ry and bread nnd butter, and his emotions to the remem- 
brance of pain, when be cut himself, or knocked bin bead auainsl the table, 
or hii punioim, which required coutrol and cxtirpWiou." — VoLsiv. Pp.S53 
— dSfi. 

" The reviewer takes bis leave of ihuae bookn with a very serious and 
eamcBt request to all parents to consider well iibat they are doinK ui 
putting sucb matter into their children's bands, and uhether it ia not tlieir 
■olcnui duty to endeavour, by decrees, to raite their children's minds to llic 
level of Bcnpturu, us far as that can be, and not to lower scripture and il4 
blesHcd Author to the level of babiea' eiipocities, bj' the use of words and 
pbriucs wliicli will rifectiially jirevcnt tlicm iii after life ftnm giving scrip- 
ture the reverence due to it."— P. 360, 

If we (iitve any ol^eclJoii to tlie.*c judicious observntions, it is 
that, while vindicating tlie dignitv of aacred things, they rate 
Uint ul' childicii too Iww. By the uooks in question, not only is 
injustice done to heavenly trutJi, bm oImu to minds more fitted 
fof its reception tlinn the reviewer Eceni§ to allow. Childfeti 
Kurely Imve, pieijuiineiillv have, capiieities for veneration and 
for rm!i:iti(/ greatnesa; tliey have, they arc "famillur" with, 
" emotions connected with the suhliine :" their tniudi^ ean be 
impresBed "with the Bublimc ideas which the world of nature 
prcBentA," and »til] iiiorv "wtilt those awful exhibitions of the 
majcaly of the Deity to he found in tlie Book of Kevelation." 
If one thing more tlian another moves our ire, it is uecdk-ss con- 
deBceselon of language in addressing children, or in (treacLiiig 
to tlic poor. There is nu insolence in it whieli wc think both 
oliuaes liavc ]ienetration to jierecive, and eelf-respect to resent. 
Of course, neither ehoutd be addrer«ed in lan|rniic;e of which it 
knowH notliing ; of course sclentiBc terms, ant) a Infjical cast of 
otir sentences arc to be avoided when we arc speaking to either. 
But though wiir sju'edi must lliua be very plain, it needs not, 
therefore, be undignified ; and if it be, we can have no reailere 
or hearers more ([uickiy alive to the dcfei^l than the elapses in 
([uestion. Children and the poor know wliat dignity is m well 
KB wo do, and they look for it both in book« and in the pulpit ; 
their fancies may, now and then, be ticltled bv nn unexpected 
de[Kirturc from it in either, but their healthv j'udgraentfl disap- 
prove of such depnrturc notwithstanding. Beside*, the trick i» 
"npnrent; lliey know it to be meant for uoadcttccneion la thcni ; 

liAtpiotu Pfftloprntnt of Children. 


for the pondvo value of the communication, therefore, tliey lack 
■aanraoco ; the writer or tho prencher is not snying what he 
would my (o othen, or speakiug on he would uiitiinJljr express 

Iliit after ftll. is anytliing gainc<l in rcnl nlunnecs? How i« a 
child the better fur reading of tlw Crentiou in " Line upon Line," 
M foUowa; — 

** M J Atmt chiUrei),— I know tlwt jou Imt« bvnrd tbot God madu the 
«iitI<1. Cuuld a mnti h&ve made the vtorldF No ; a mmi could not make 
mcfa a Borld lU thi*. 

" Men can make nuuiT IliinEii, nich m hoxrx tind biukcti. Prrhnpft j-ou 
know k nMn who oji make a box. Suppose }'i>u trcr« to abut him up in a 
rMin, nhich wu quite cmotj', and you uciv to say to buii, ' You sliixll not 
come out till you niTCiMdo a box, — nould llic man ei-nr conie oiitf No — 
Deier. A mui ooold not iDBlie a box, esce])! be had •omethinjc to makclt 
of. He mittt bav« Mwe wood, or lome tin, or aomc pastebuud, or aoms 
OibtrtUng. Bat God had notluiig to make the world of. Houul}' apoke, 

" MaknuElbiaga of nothing, b called 'creating.' No one can create nnj-- 
thin^ but God. 

Do you ksovr nhy (iod is called ibc Crrolor! It ii hconunc ho crpnl^ij uU 
Ihiltfi. Hien it only one Creiiliir. Anevla caiiiiot crrvnlo Ihiogi, uor am 
mm. They could not m-nto ouu drO|i uf wnl<!r, or on<- little fly. 

- Yon know lliai GikI na* six dnyx in creating the world. I inll trJ] yciu 
what he did on cvb dav. 

" I. — On the £nt day, God iinid, ' Li-t (bore be Ughu' and there ttoa li^bl. 

** II.. — On tlw MOond day, (iod Hpokc npiin, and tlierc unit water very 
Ushi thai walcr i* callod the clouid*. There iriui nUn nutrr Vtrry loir.. 
There waa notluiiK but ttaier in be iteen- God filled cvctv pincc with air ;J 
but you knov the air eaniiut tia ticeu, 

" 111.— t>n ibc third diiy, God upokc, and the dry land nppcnred from 
under tbc water; and the nnlcr ran down into one deeii placv that God had 
pnrparcd. God railed tlie dry laud Earth, and he call«ii the water Seaa, 
We walk upoB ibe drv land. Vt'e cannot nalk upon the aca. The sea Is 
always nttunf np aad down; bill it can neier come out of the j^at place 
where Ood ho* pnlit. God spuke, and tbiiiKs (;rew out of the earth. Can 
yt>a tell me what ihingagrcwoiit ut'the earth f Grata, and corn, and tree*, 
aud Ikiwen. 

" IV, — On the fourth day God ipfikc, and the sun luid moon nnd ainrs 
were naadc. God ordered the sun to cunne eierj' niuniin^. and to ^ nnay 
bi the eresinc. beeauHe Gud did not cboow ihnt it should lie always lidiL 
ll U beat tkat it aliould he dark at nisht, when we are aalrop. But Ood 
lota tbo DMoB afaiue in the nighl, and the (tars aiio ; HO that if we ^ out in 
the miibt. «• often have a tittle light. I'herv are ntot« atant than we con 

" V, — On the Aflli day (iod befcan lo mnkc IhinK* that are alive. He 
Bpokr^and the vaier wbh lilted with iialit-i. and bird* Hen out of tlic water, 
and perched Upon (be tma. 

" Vl. — On di* (ixih day, God apoke, and the beuta came out of the 
earth : liona, ahcrp, cowi, hones, and all kinda of beust* eamc out of ibo 
••fib, a* well u all kitidi of cn-epiu|; ihin^ such ajbt«a,ant«, andHorms, 
wUck ovep Hpoa thr earth. 

" At latt, Ond made a man. God said,' tia make man in our likcneM.' 
Tu whan did God apeak .' To hi* Son, the Lord Jesus Chriat : hix Son natt 
with bin when be niade the world. God made man 'a body of the dual, and 
iben hrrMlbcd into him. The man b«d a aoul aa wdl as a body. S< 


4C JMiffiota Dertiopmetit of ChiMrtn. 

man could tliinh or God. Aftcrwnnla God mndc the nomnn of • piece of 
the ttcsh and boon from the rann's side, lU you hnve heard before. 

" God iptvt ftU the other rrcnturrs to Adam niid Eve ; und he blcftsed 
them, anil put them into the gArdi'u rjf Edro, iiud denirt'd Adnm [r> tnkc cnre 
of the garden. 

" When God hud finished all his works, he saw tlint ihey were rervpood. 
He was [ileiued with Ibe things he had made. Tlie; were all very neaiiti- 
ftil. The light wnn (glorious; the air was aweel; the eirth was lovely, 
clothed in ETeen ; the sun mid moon shone brightly in the henvunn; the 
binis, uiid heaats. and u!l the living crentu res, were pood niid hujipy, iiiiii 
Adaiu and Eve tvere the beut of all, for Ibey could thiiik of Ood, and pruiic 
lum."— Pp. 1—6., 

inBtead uf in chap. i. of the Book of Genesis ? 

We venhire tu say thnt n child who can rend (iwt id aupposcel 
in either caBc), will, even witli no person by him to explain the 
one or two hard words, gain every fact from the latter tliat ia 
told in the foriiKT. And if there be, aa wc may always take 
for grantud, it jmreut or inrtniclur liy him, how easy and how 
§oon performed the task of telling him the meaning of the one 
or two words which are beyond hia power of guessing ! How 
m»ny arc ihcy ? Crcfttcd, form, void, finnament, abundantly, 
midtiply, tmngc, dominion, replouish, suMuc, — these jtretty 
nearly complete the list ; and, even if they be uncxjilained, the 
chapter, as wc have said, is very intelligible notwithstanding. 
Wliea, however, tJie child has tieen told that rrcafed means 
(Mii(/(' ,- form, tJiape ; ruid, empt^ ; frniitmeiit, fhi. &c. be under- 
tft4tndD the whole narrative pretty nearly a« well as any one can 
tindoratand it during our present condition, ^uite as well a» he 
will understand it wlien he reads it in *' Line upon Line ;" and 
with tluE twofold advnatagc, that he considers what be reads tu 
have .■^lacrcd authority, and that while the diction is simplieity 
itself, it is rhythmic, sonorous, beautiful, and solemn. Again, 
why need children learn the story of Job in any other words 
tJian tho!«c of the Bible ? Much of its eublime poetry inuj^t of 
course be unintelligible to (liem, yet the i«tory has toiidiing 
features which can reach llieir hearts, and as regards the roiit. 
Nature cannot be hurried ; because a high style of beauty cannot 
yet be revealed to thcni, there is no reason why wc should 
present tlieui witii a degrading nubstitiite. 

What is quoted from '■ Line upon Line '" was by no ni cans 
one of its oftensive passages ; nor do wo mean to dwell on such 
At present. To show the inconi'isteney of the book, wc nuwl 
inform our readers that the children who are supposed unable to 
understand the simple majestv of the sacred history, arc to read 
and, wc imagine, understand the following verse*, in which, if 
tlicre be nothing very difficult, tJicrc is nothing ver^- plain, 
and, as wc may Irusl our roadurs lo perceive, something very 




" In decpWL gjuom uT darkest nit;lil, 
B tht WB two wslU or irondroun liright. 
Plumob, with all lit* mea t>{ might, 

Poi>r Isnct'* liott puntie. 

Tb« wind is Uigb — lli« patti in iIt}', 

Ilonrnicn nnd chariotii sviftly By i 

' Well OTcrlAkc,' ihcy loudly cry, 

' And kill ihM sinvith oraw, 

*' Bat tuddcn — drag ihvir c-hariol-n'lieela, 
A sudden horror o'er them ilcaU, 
While Ood on high bin irrath reveiUi 

FroK ponder flvry cloud. 
Tba li^tBinc^ )iln.v— the ifaiindcrs row, 
Tbe aluM a miRlitv iDrront pour: 
Were e'er au^b lig^tninni knoim before, 

Ortlmndcrlngsfo loud? 

" Hie sound, Uie sight, o'enrhelin with Tright, 
lloTsnnvii and chkriuU take to flidiit. 
■Doc* not their God Tor IsrMtl Aglitl' 

Hie boTKciucn trrnitillos cr^r. 

But wliQe niib t'urioiu speed ihcv go, 

Ood makes ilie ui't^tt-m wind to ulow, 

And o'er tbeir )irjid> the: wiiicr* flow : 

Like Mone* the honemen lie. 

* Benealb tbe deep tli*ir bodies sleep — 
And tber shall rise to nnil mid noc]),* 
And God upon their hrndfl xhnU benp 

llailstonee, and eoda uf tin-. 
What jtiureing cries shull rfiid the sliieii 
When ail who were Ood's cncniiee ^ 

Shan meet the Judge's angrj^ eyes, 

Flwhiitg nith lerroro din; ! 

" How vain to try from Hini to tly. 
Who made the s«ft. Urn enrih, and iky. 
WboM arm can teacii the mountain* high. 

And deepest pita beneath ! 
How vain to Irj Rom HitD lo flj', 
Who can all secret thing* dmcn, 
Whose povcr no tngd dnre Auy, 

Whose •rarif can bbat wlili death I" — Pp. 1B7, IS8. 

It mnv Indi^d l>o iillc^i^l timt >>ni) (-xplanntionA of ticiivonly 
trvtli to oliiklrcn are iiiilUpouMilili^ aamupoiiimenta tn ivwling 
of may eort, however plain ; it bein^ out of the qttcetion tliat a 
duld shoakl always receive the racuniDg ei'co of eitnple een- 
UDcca on th« flr«t statemeot— tlint » diTenity of ilJustnition 
bcTrad what may writer lutd soope for ia requisite to injure t)i« 
•DOOCMof bis wonU; and that such oral ex)>laiiatioD, and such 
£nnity of illustration, always do and luuiit partake of tlic M)m« 
•baiseter as that hero ubjoclod to iti the n-orki« bc-fnru its; 
L t, thiy nust be tuuligntficd in thetnaelvca, iDtrinHically 

4ft iMtpiout Derehpnient of CiildrfM. 

iinworttiy of tbeir subjects, ami in-everent if viewed opart from 
their piirpoee. But let it be considered that there is neither the 
Biune dignity, nor, in one sense, the eiuiie authority, in such oral 
expIiiiuLtion as in writing. The one, the child knows to be 
extern poraneous, and designed for himself only ; the other, to be 
deliberately prepared for himself and others. Tlie one ia con- 
versation, and if happy, it must be familiar and intimate conver- 
sation, in which no dignity is expected; the other is pri?iCM in 
a book, and to a child tliat i& itself a point of niystcrions dignity; 
accordingly he is startled and amazed to find things which he 
thought fit only for the most ordinary conversation introduced 
there, and in connexion with the most sacred subjects So far 
&om being less fastidious on the score of (Ugnity in print than 
an adult, a child, we suspect, will be generally apt to be more 
60, because he luw not yet acquired any habit of, nor been 
provided with any matenale for, connecting remote thoughts, 
whereby the great things of tlie universe bear up and give 
meaning and value to those which would be otherwise meim and 

Add to this, that the oral explanation !« transient. As soon 
M it has done its work, as soon as it has enabled the child to see 
the meaning of the written seutouce, that meaning remains ever 
Itfler imnexcd to the latter, and the former i& soon forgotten. 
But " what is writ is writ ; " there it remains, a tbicd form, 
round which associations, suitable or unsuitable, liave time and 
repented occasion to gather, and to which they will cling. 

Moreover, tlie parent or instructor can watch and chu guide 
the moods that may appear, can, by gesture and by inilexiona of 
the voice, turn on any risin" irreverence, and by such like 
means modify and correct the whole in a way Uiat is in- 

If incapacity for all this be pleaded, let it be considered 
whether such incapacity be not blameworthy — whether it 
amount not to an incapacity of doing the task and fulfilling the 
post providentially aligned to parent* and instructors — whether, 
therefore, it be an incapacity that faith can admit or excuse. 
For parents, especially, cannot devolve tlie religious teaching of 
their children on a book ; they cannot, as Christians, escape 
living intercourse with their little ones on this great subject; 
I the inwn work mu*t be done by means of that — there i.* the 
place fur fillings ur>, illui>tration of all sorta ; wliUe reading should 
be litui^c, dignified, belonging to the more markedly solemn 
periods of the day. Nothing is so dcsimble as to make it worth 
while to «icrifico reverence ; and childhmxl i« tJie season when 
alone reverence can onlinnrily be acquired and fixed in the 
c)iaract«r. It 19 one of the many things which cannot bo left 
to time, its absence is no mere blank, the »wintof it 19 iryevtrence, 
\u negation is, therefore, n frightful positive. The adult peni- 

Bftifficiu Dertrteprntnt ttfCbiidnn, 




are ' 
^ "Tl 


Usai will hunily ac4)iiire it> will aoinfltirae* indit-Rlo the want of 
it in his very elnigglce aft<T it. Ilia uwe will tx? tlwt of self- 
distnii^t iind aliinii, tml that iiwc in which is cxocodin^ joy —the 
awe ol" tli« #«ni)>)iim — the nwe whii-li cimeiat* in recognizing a 
grcfttDCM and a goiAne^i bevond nil that viv cnn iispiro ^er 
or gnupat — nit «wc which il le one cf the greatcnt ]>rivil«:gc«, as 
it ia one of the liiebotit fii<M^ic», of the mind to exercise. 

Aad why nre children in any way iu Ik: rulilicd uf thia pri- 
vilcgi^ to be clcoicd this exercise ? WTiy are llicy not to Iwve 
heavenly Inith pitM-onlc^l in ibnt nspoct of myetery which iaj 
tOMt grateful to ihciii, nnil whirh w in iti^elf the jiistcat aspect' 
in which mc ciiii pi-csent it? Nut aa an alto^clher unknown and 
uiiinlclli;;iblc thing, for ill tliat the mind eec§ a mere void, and nin 
tako no mlero»t ; nor yet a« axt allo^ctlicr known ami altogether 
intdligiblv thing, lor in that it i<«x'^ notbin^r greater llian itself, 
nothing whereof it is not ilaelf lite tueiuiure, nothing, tberelbn;, 
to call forth its wonder, udmiralion, and awe ; but as something j 
whereof we prrDt-ivc hut n part, and norcoivc, too, that there \ 
remain* miieh mnn^; an object, part ol wbteh io brought near 
lo tu» but which dies awuv into distiim^t- and dimneod ; a great- 
aeas, which wc can sec iu<leed. but " only through a gLuM darJcly"* 
—it roligiou« truth prcMrntcd to the mind vf men at all, nor _ 
mtut wc try to make it otlierwixc to a cliild. A child delight* J 
in mystery-, an inlelleetual one delights in the Bible, just because 1 
of itit mystery ; ywt because its words have a meaning into which I 
Iw con enter, ami yet seem to have uiiich tiiore besidcs—just 
)«caiwe they arc vivid, and yet far reaching ; j»(it becniiec they 
are wordd uf wonder, iukI i<n;^st much more Uian they express. J 
The 8plrit of God moved uimn the face of Ihc water*," 1 
Darkness wlieroin is light." What ecnIenccH nro thieii; ! Tbcy I 
ley a menning into which wc can all entci', but how small I 
i)j)inHl with thooe volume of significance tliat \ie eeem to I 
T rolling and dying away in tbe aistance. I 

Tliose who Itaro observed narrowly the (astes of children in 1 
poetry, will vee there much to illiii>trate what we have beeu I 
MTtng. Tbt-y lio not prefer verM^Jt written exiireaaly for them; I 
what grown-up nervmna find eh&riuing simiilicity, has for them I 
no chornu at alL They often, Indeed, aumirv and delight in I 
bombast ; but it ts not that tlicy like or wi«h for bonibnitt ; I 
they have not yet ksrnl that what they admire iti such; they 
we that llie word)* have some meaning, they see, too, that 
iher sound as if they hail a great deal nwre, and they give them 
etcdit for having it, and are pleased accordingly. 

One other prevalent niislalcc wc niuet touch on, and then luivo 
doo« with tliif branch of tlic oubjcct. It ixoonunonly imagined, 
that the New Tcatament \» more fitted for a child's reading than 
the Old; and accordingly we buve found in one of our National ■ 
idioole, under the aluest msuDgcmont, that the latter i« I 

Ko.xxxt. — !i.a. 


50 Jteliohus Dtir^opment ofChil^rfn. 

sjfltematicnily ilia|>en9ed wUIi : wohavL" examined tliere cli'ildrcn 
wliopnascd muetcrnioet croditablyonsiicliof tile fncts of theNew 
Tcstflincnt ap wore i>rop<iscd to them, but wlio could tell nothiiif!: 
nlioiit DiviiicI i>iid tlie lion's den, luid the reason of this we found 
to be that they had never read a woi-d of the Old Te&tatuent. 

It is too jrcnerally imagined that the New Testament is better 
adapted for the young, the weak, the half-taught than the Old; 
and if only on« of the two great sections of the sacred volume 
can be bestowed on any one. few would lietiitatc about prefer- 
ring the latter. The iaeue of what are called TestavunU, shows 

We do not know whetlier this e%-il may have been corrected 
in the school in queetiou ainco tlien, or whether it has even 
been remarked by any one else ; but it seems to us a very gre^t 
one, and we wish that our able contemporary, "the English 
Journal of Rlueation,'" would entertain the subject. If the Old 
Testament in its i^arious atagoa was an education necessary to 
trein mcn'H mindg into a capacity for the fulness of time; if the 
idcM-'* it awnkencd, .iiid the associations to whicli it gave rise, were 
necessary in onler tliat the heavenly truths of the New Testament 
might baTfi meaning attached to them ; if the whole structure 
of the Israelitish covenant and history served as "a school- 
master to bring us unto Christ," n knowledge of tlipin, of their 
order, and their significance must be similurly requisite for any 
individual Chrielinn now. Wc do not, of course, mean that 
the reading of the Old Tcsfjiment must always precede that of 
the New ; for the two may well go together in time, with the 
young, even its they do with the elder members of the Church ; 
but, were we reduced in any ease to the nlteniative, we should 
expect Jiir more aflvnntnge from giving a child or a poor person 
the Old Tcatimieiit only to read, aeeomjionying the boon witli 
oral instruction in New Testament truth, than fmm the com- 
mon reversal of the proceaa. And this for the plain reason that 
the New Testament presumes throughout tbc state of mind 
which is produced by tne Old— the conccjitiona of God's being 
and man's duty which are supplied by that, and tlio impressions 
wliich the mercies and judgments narrated tliere are calculated 
to make. The New Testament is addressed to Jews, — whether 
such by natural or spiritual birth, anyhow to Jews, — to the 
seed of Abraham : and, tliereforo, in onlor to enter into its 
meaning, we must take care to t)e Jews, to be filled with the 
ll-eJings aud associations of Jews. How necessary this in, if we 
would undei-staud tlie Epistle to the Hebrews, in which the 
institutions, funiiture, mm ritual of the tnbcrnndc are employed 
as a vocabulary, oo to speak, whereby to expresa the transccn- 
dant mysteries of the gospel, all will readily acknowledge. And 
that ii is no less necessary to our gaining an insight info the 
l)rofouiid Epistle to the Romans, will be admitted by every one 

Itflitftoiu VixrtofMwnt of Chiidre». 

wbo fasa eean the m'ujcliief occaamned by mca's taking up tlwt 
l^pirtlc wttii none hut modern asaocutUoiu, witli do t^aet of 
liow a Jew fell in reffrencc to the law, or bow one who enlcrcd 
largely into those feeling* woiJd endeavour to meet tlie 
(terrcrsioii of them. 

lTie»r, however, it may be eaid. are not the [lOrtlon* of the 
New Tti^ikmciit which one would uatiirally put into tlie hands 
dtlier of llie ^-uime or the half-i iistnictcd. A» a fact, however, 
the latter Epistle ut con^cred by many to 1>e mitjiblc food for 
Iwth. being beyond all qucation the favourite one of o»ir ag(\ 
Happy, indeed, would tliat a«c be were Mnch a preference the 
way to underetand it \ Hut we do not confine our ])rineiplc to 
ihc two doeumcntA whliOi we have eited. We venture to eay 
that St. Mattltew's (io-pel, ihe Pen teeoetal gift, the Acts of the 
Apottlva, the Epistles of 8th James and Peter, besides much 
cue, •(> much a» to leave little if any part of tlie New Testa- 
tnent excepted, cannot Iw under0too<) by a mind unpowoMcd by 
Old ToBtamenl ideis and aEsocialiona. It is in the progreas oS 
the elder cnvetiaut and hietory that those fcclingH are awakened, 
which the New contemplntce and »ttii!ific-H ; iind the latter must 
need« be a dead letter without llie former. 

We will content our»olve8 with one illuBtration of the evil 
urucvoding from llic |n«scnt etate of matters. Would tho 
doctrioo m tamrrion, as understood and delighted ia by the 
poor, haro such n liold on them, if tliey luid been early tmiued 
to view God's dciifpiH and deidin|r<i with v*, tat marked not by 
alirupt anomaly, but as develo[»ed in a bi-tiiitirnl and instruc- 
tive order. — as never for one moment arbitrary, and h-aul of all 
ill that difpvDsalion wherein they have been fully expanded? 
had titcy been trained 1o the notion of a kin^om of (lod into 
which men are brciu;;hi, ntid a aolemn covenant by which they 
are to abide ;— and of all blessedness being connected witii Xnn 
felluw^bip of thij killgdotD, Mkd abiding by this covenant? It 
is not meant, of course, that eitlier chiklren or tin; iinleanicd 
will in words either cxprcw or gainsay what we have now been 
dwelling on, but they can fwl and l>e practically persuaded one 
way or another notwitliatanding. 

Lastly, with all reverence be it asked, can the holv Kiichariat 
b* well understood by thoi^e in whom a Jewish spirit (in the 
best aiM tnict>t sense) has not l>ee» cultivated ? 

But it IB hij;h lime to have done with negation, and eome to 
•ontething ponitite, — to leave otl' the content i>bition of otlier 
(leopbf'n errorn, and see what wc can ourM;lvt;S flo in tho matter; 
a tiu* harder work than has hitherto engaged us. Nor have we, 
w* must confess, s« much to say on lhi« part of the subject as 
tbo former. At the outlet we laid it down that Uie religious 
dcvelopuwnt of children was one of the great problems given 
Xn Ibis age to solve; not menning thereby tul \l VtaA nOHtK 





52 Atf^MNif Dettivpment of ChUiTrdl. 

bvcn dulvcd befon-; Imt itmt it retniiiiiM for solution in tlie 
present circumstauccs. and under the existing conditions of our 
Bocinl and ecclesiastical state. If so, much progress towards 
such solution cun liurdiv bu demanded of a single mind. A 
witisfuctory result in huc.Ii a case cantiut be looked for, except 
from some general development of the Church in thie direction. 
Meanwhile, however, we may throw out a few hint#, which, we 
flatter ourselves, iii'i? iiir i'rom iinpructica! at present, and the 
following out of which would, we think, l)e a movement in the 
right direction. 

It may seem to those who read our former article, that wc 
coasiderctl the right developuietit of children to he confined to 
the (Mile of their own fiiniiiieju And iio, on tlie whole, we 
think it is, as rcgaiild the hourly course of the Christian life, — 
the week-di»y tuekit aud duties-. Wc opposed thiis their ap- 
pointwl [Sphere, to the perversion which would tuni the young in t« 
uiiniuturG puhlic cbnracters, or im a condition of tlieir being 
Christians mdeod, would Mnpress on them the stamp of peculiar 
fashions, liut it remains writtCD that out of tlieir mouths God 
lias ordttined Htrcikgth ; from the numient of their hapti.ini tliey 
liuvi; had larger relations than those whii:h Natui* conferred im 
tln.'ui. Some sense and recognition of this ought to accompany 
their earliest movements of conscious religion, — they have a 
place luH children, not merely >u the family und the nntion, but 
in the Catholic Churdi of Christ, aud wo must find that place 
for tlkcm, and make them till it. 

That we, of the present day, have ftiled in the duty we have 
ju8t nicntiuucd, it* apparent at a glance. We take our children 
to church, do doubt, aa soon ae they ai-e old enough to nmain 
i/uirt during the service ; and in this remaiuiu^ quiet-, wc susj>ect 
moat parents coniuder their whole imrt to consist And a 
preliniuiary of course it ia mo»t needfid to be learned. But 
what wo complain of is, that wo rest on it rather long. Take a 
child from six to twelve, and what does he find ever done in 
church which lias any immediate rektion to him, in which hic, 
just aa he is, in reference to hio iige and eonditiim, is es|iecially 
concerned ; or which may ho naturally counted on as interest- 
ing to hinu We do not eay, God forbid I that parents may. ant] 
do not often succeed In interesting their children in the servient* 
of the Church as tJicy arc now performed; but it must surely be 
allowed that no especial facilities are given them for this. And 
yet such ought to bo given, for it is one of the distiDctire glories 
of the Gospel dispensation, that under it praise and strengtii are 
ordained out of tne mouth tif very i<uclsling8 ; and it is hero, in 
tlie eervicctf of religion, that a place may be nasigned them fi-ee 
from all the evils which wc have hitherto been considering; u 
place whicli need neither elate the religious child with a senw 
of |>cculiar distinction, nor fail to give sco]ie U> thoou wnnt^ aud 


aunt o/CiiiUlrtu. 


IbeEogs—to tlie cutbueliuun, liio .lyuimthy, the wonder, th« 
awe, uul vet rejoicing — which may be deinandet) by h:n tempcn^ 
meat, sod to tlie cx4Mx.-tMi id mmc form of which hie bnpti«m 
~ >v be conndercd odvutUling him. 

It is obvious that our Church both coiit«iiipIiit«# the presence 
untl Buppoeee the interest of hor younger memliera in tiie public 
MTvit-ce uf dio nnctuiiry. The injutiL-tion to eptmsors to call 
on their goii-cliildn-n *' to hi:iir (H'niiun«," preeumcM, m hiu boen 
well niyucd, Uist scmiooH ure at leant frequently »uch on they 
c*n iindcretand, imd feci thcniBclves concerned in. But how 
lew clorgymen arc at any pnins timt this should be the cnsc ! 
How few «cnDonx are preuched in which it would be iit all 
rewottable to demand of our children thut they should be 
interested I Would not many of our popular prcacliera think it 
too great a condcsccimion hitbitinilly to itddrcse the children 
before tlwDi to «uch wi«« ».■> tliiit thoy .■•honld listen nnd enter 
into his meaning? Would not many fear iliiit by doing co 
frequently they would alicnutc and diegust tJieir adult congre- 

SI1OD8? How far the elcr^^ytncn who arc unwillinj^ to preach 
: gonjtoJ, and the biymcii who nre unwilling to hettr it nreacliL-d, 
lu thnm'* liiilc ones, can bo «iid to have become like httle 
children, we mupt leave tbcniwlve* to dctcriiiiiie. Hut wc 
thluk iluit 11 clerjryinan who feclji ihc icy fetter.i of h docLriiiidtum 
brought (m, it nmy he, by hlit neee.tsiiry tHri:ii)jalioiirt, but. fllill 
DO healthy ooiiscqueuce thereof, may l>e glad to a>nil hiuiself of 
this, aa one eepecia) way of lrc«hcniDg rcli^iou!^ truth in hia 
miadi of ceaain? for a while to view it iu itif losienl nud 
anUtfoimtic rclutionn, and of announcing and making himoclf to 
feet It i» itd livelinesa and its power. And what applies to the 
preacher applies to bis congre^tion likewise In un iigv of 
controvcrfly ami dootrinaliam, ificy, too, may be benefited by 
having Heavenly Truth |ire«ctitcd to them, not only in the 
EnUest, hiil in llie universally true and applicable uirni, the 
form in which we should look at them supposing there had 
been no oontrovcrfies about them. And that tlutf cfiect may 
be countol on, ie perh»j>« to l>e inferred from the .■>u<tden and 
eajDCit attention of the whole congregation whenever the 

tneaclier trie<> tlie experiment. May it not be thought, too. that 
y insistii^ on the duties of children, we can hanlly fail to 
call attention aleo to those of their ]<arctits towunl.'' them, 
eorraJatives m tJiese for iIm: mo^t {Hirt arc I Surely, then, the 
ciponDient i» w<n-lJi trying; surely, too, it is not very bard to 
tnr. The festivitU of the Church give abundant niateriala for 
•adm^og ourselves to children fmni tlie pulpit, granting that 
doing to may not at tn-e^cnt be generally convenient on 
indiiiary Sanuayv. ChnBttniw, the lloly Inuoeeiits the l%j>i- 
ptauiy. the Annuncialion, the A.^tcension, and A)l Sulnts give 
obvious fiidlitie!-. nnd supjdy abundant thoughts \v> U^| Vc'lQlQ 
the young. 



54 RAiijtoa* Dtwhpnunt of Ciitdftn. 

But bcsidM tluit our )ircKduiig wi» obvioualy designed to take 
Uieir iiiUiri-eU iiitu coiisidenition, there i» an ordinance of the 
Cliuroh ox]>re8a)y a)>potnte<l for her younger iiicmbcris, loid 
neglected (mofit Binfully we think,) by a fearful majority of the 
cJergy^lhat of catceliiBin^. The ends of the Church Catechiem 
lire Tiy iiu uieamt uucompUelicd, nor the connciencos of the priest- 
hood clear in regard to it, merely hy taking order that it be 
learned by the young of our flocks, or even explained up to the 
ueiinl amount by masters and Sunday-school teiichcr^, tin we 
truat now tu tdinw. 

If WG wished to vindicate t]i« English Reformation from the 
all but unmixed censure to which it is now eomelimes subjected, 
we nii^lit, out of n copious selection of materials, be contented 
with ap)icali[ig i« the Church Cutodtii^im «« one of it^ reaults." 
That surely could have bwu no wioli uncatliolic time, as we 
have heard it pronounced, which j)rodueed so noble a digest of 
eatholic tnith, so comprehensive n eumniHry of saving kunw- 
lecigi^ Never before wae any bniiuOi of the Clnu-cli enlru.^ted 
with 80 wonderful an oivan of fier prophetic office as the Anglican 
received iu the Jil\eenth century, when tliLs invaluable document 
WW! placed iu her hands. The theology of the Cati-chisni will, 
we ore sure, be found to grow on \w iu pitjjMjnion us it in 
studied ; and whoever may complain of iticeiviug no benefit from 
it, it will never be the devout and earnest catcchist himi-elf. 
Now here ix a imxhC an^igiied to the young, and u pi-oviKion niuile 
for them, in the services of the sanctuary, of which thev are 
diiuiiefuUy defriiudcd. It is not enouj^h to say that tlic childi-eu 
of tJie poor Imtii their Cutcclmnii* at itchoul, iind ihose of the 
fich at home; for good an that may be in ilself it in no Kub^ti- 
tutc for what the Clmrch intended the oriiinanee of catechising 
to be. 

In the liwt jilacc, wliat we want i« to find a place tn church 
for our children of whatever rank. Simply an ChriHlion chil- 
<lren, there would, as we think all will admit, be little use iu 
sending those of the nch to a Sunday-«chool ; for no real union 
Ixitween them and those of the jwor woidil be ctTccted thcreby> 
and no InHtruclion impiu'ted «uch as ihey would not i>robably 
receive far more witixfiictorily elsewhere. And — ^liall we eon- 
fe** the tnitli? — Sunday-schools are not especial favourites of 
our*. We ricny not their necessity in populous places, where 
the principles and habits of purcnti> are oAcn such as to make it 
desirable lor tlieir children to pswi tlie Lortl's Day anywhere but 
under their nwf. But this argument for tlicm, valid fhou'ih it 
be where it a]>pli(.-^ at all, presumes anomaly and evil. It is 
itfielf false in principle to eemrate a child from his parentii and 
fiiiuily during more than luJf Uie Sunday. .iVnd then what a 

' All but llii- Intl wction of llic C*lcchism mua pcujuced during (lio cii«i) winch 
•te ull (lie KcrarniBtion, 






Rtii^etu Dfrttofmutit of CkiUivn. 

Mnin nit his aItcnt!on ! He is at acbool or iit work stx (layt> of 
Uic ncfk, uiiil *.n tliat wliicli noglit to bring real and refVei>hmcnt 
we iiiakr liini <roiiiO twin; to iinothcr Mrhool, and demand two 
nttciKliuicfH oti tiw full dcniw* of iIk- Church. I» ihiH the way 
In inakc religiun Attractive to him ? 

Ssoir, Icftvinp for a while those unnaCbntl po|)ulations which we 
lutvv eiiifiilly allowed to itmaM thcineclvc^ neglected and un- 
taaghi, till tUeir whute condition and our relation to them has 
IwoAine an aching perplexity, lei uh imppono iin nnlinarv niral 
[lariiJi. neither better nor worse than the inajoritv (if sucn. Of 
duurM- ilf> l'ii.''lor will not find it the Arca^liii lie [iictured to Iiiiii- 
•el^ whilnl ground down by the umrrtnffc*, cbiirchiugts i>iiriul«^.| 
repstcr-ftearcliings, and connnitteefl of • l>rge town, or whil:tt 
pickinj* hip steps througli its noisome alleys. Of course lie will 
not Gml tbe fre^lt pure <tir that now surrounds him a type that 
may be relied on of tlicniontl |itirity of tlie pl»ce. Of course, he I 
may lay hia count on difficulliea and disoours^metit^i enough. 
But still in such a place, there will be no need of anomalous ' 
ex|>i-i)ieiil«. The great laws of nature may remiire tviIlf^l^Cl^- 
mcni, but tliey luivu not altogether given way. Family feeling 
is atill strong, and a judicious pastor will hold it his duty to 
streogtlien it yot further. 'Wliat, thvn, can he do ia furtlicr- 
anoa of our present aim ? 

We rrally think that the rubric and oanoiis will supply htm 
with all tiie guidance for which he need aak. Let him, instead 
of the evening sermon, catechise aOcr the second lesson. Of 
omirse it will be found inipurtunt that this ordinance, bcin^ 
public and litur^Of nliould l>e con(Iuete<! gnivttly and witlioiit 
untoward accidents: The children, therefore, whom he quca- 
tioDS, ritoittd be tiioee on whose answers ho can wtfely account j 
and he will be enabled to make the selection by hit* olwervatioiWI 
in tlio [NVviou.-i catochining before evening prayer, enjoined b^F 
Canon 59, in addition to hi--< gt-iii-ral kmiwleilge of tliem. Ila' 
will also put leading questions in fo!li)wing up tho hints of the 
Catechism, such as snail win the answer from an ordinarily 
inteUigL-at child, and by forciag him, not withi>t audi tig, to a 
*Ii^t exercise of ilioiight, sluill nx the truth brought out firmly 
in his recollection. Me will vXso make remarks himself, read 
pUMges of Scripture illustrative of tlic subject in hand, and i 
•boct* rtaUn preaek directly to the children, but vii-liially to all 
preMnt. Thow wlio have observed the intercut which the poor^ 
MMDOtiiaes take in listening to cntechiniiig. will feel little doubt 
ihiit tlte beneRla of this particular ministration of God's holy 
word, arc not likely to bo confined to tlie young. lt« hvin^ 
directly addrv«sed to them, and tbcir taking a part in it, ipvo it 
an additional interert, especially to their norents ana rcl 
tivM; but, li«nideK thii>, in cxpUiniiig the Catechism many a 
subject is miulc dear to all, which the prcnclier in the ^ulv>it 



66 Htiiffhii* Dereiopmml of Chihln-n> 

eenorally presmtics to be 90 iJivftily. inmiy n [liei'c of knowledge 
imparteu, tlic poaaession of whicli is tukcn for granted in the 
majority of acrniuns. And tliis benefit may, pcrlmps, n|ii>)y 
to the rich ** well »» tJte poor, Horbeit'e e-stiinitte of csitechlsing 
\i iiucli as might he exjKicted from him, but it is in point here, 
and therefore we *\uQ\e part of it ; — 

" The country pomon vniu*.i entechiiiiig highly. For — there hciug three 
pointH of his duty ^ the aar to iuluse u coinpelciit knowledue of salvntiun Jii 
•TA^ one of his llocl;; thi-tillHT t'jmiiliipl.vniiil build up iliia tiiionledpe In 
KtptritDBl li>inp!c; tbr third la inlliLme this knuwli'dge. to prcjd and drive 
it to practice, turuiii'^ it to ri^tbniiMtiuu uriiri*. tiy pithy and lively L'xhorlu- 
tiona ;— c&lcf hioin;; i» the lir^t puint, fttiil, but liv enlecIuHJng;, the other 
C4llII0t bo nttninccL ISnidcs, nhvreiis in tcrmnns there is n kind uf stnte. in 
oitochiung thi're is u hiimblpness verj- suiinble to Cliristinn llugenerulion. 
.... ht<lpiii^ and cheriiiliiiiL; thi^ nntiwvrOT, by tnuking the qiicalion 
very plain with compnriuon* : nnd ninkiii^ iniieh t^voii uf a, word of Inilli 
from him. 'I'hi» order bdntt """l to oni-. would be a little vnricd to nnother. 
Ktvl ihia is nri Hdmirnlik' Hiiy uf ttiLchin^. wherein the cnluehim^d nill ut 
jctiglh liiid drlight; nnd hy which the entcchisi^r, If li^ (inco jMl the tckill of 
it, will draw out of ipnomiil nnd xilly acmU even the lUrk nnd drep poinli of 

rvliuion At ai^nnuiis and prHyers men liiny xleirp or wnniier; but 

iihen one is itskod ft nucilmn he miwt <li*ciivei' what Iip in. Thin practice 
Cicccdi even HCrmoti^ in touching." — t/erbttt'i Country Partoii, rhnp. \\i. 

It ia no inconsiderable feature in the value of eatcchi^ing tliat 
it is titiirqic, both on the part of the oatechist and tlio catechumen 
— thut llie hitter takt a part in the scrviee, ami tliat 

— - — "Eneh little voice ill iiini 
^^^— Some glorion.1 trulli proelnim* ; 

^^^H Whnt sn<:ft nuujd have died to buit), 

^^^r Now tnught by cotlnge dsmw." 

Surely, if this be »o, if wc have here the ac^cigncd post of 
ChriiitinD ehildreu an aneh, it i^hoiild be filled by rich nnd poor 
alike. Let it not be said that the former have no need of the 
iiiatmction that is to be gained from it. Even were the upper 
clae^cii nearer the true mark of hiv Christian knowledge than wc 
think they are, it would be no diMparti^^cment t« them to say, 
tliat they citnnot so administer the ^N ordofLife, — that they have 
not euch n treasure out of which to bring things new and old »e 
the ordained pastor, i>uppoMii^ him thcn^ribc inetnictod uuto tlie 
kinntoin of hewveii, which lie oii{:ht to be* 

And thus, too, may the npirituul iiiiioti of different ranks 
become very close in consequence of having begun verj' early : 
thus may our children be taught that they indeed helonij to 
nnother liimily thau ihut in wliich thcv were naturally born, 
thus may they livelily apprehend that they are inembera of one 
another by being membere of Christ. 

* Some of our popular p>eicher« mnjr porliopi deapiie caitehiwnf, u of Interior 
ironh to iheir lermoni, nnd fit ro Leemirrly dclcgmd. We iiro ¥r;iy.iir*,lio«i!V« 
thtl the ■yiicniallc unttcrlnkina of ihc duly in some such nay x> we luve b»n 
gating our. ttould hare the cflcci »( mialng the dnndacd of ilicologicil knonlidj!* 
unong ili« cier^. 

ti woiilil \<v ilillioiih iiidcet] (.» ciilciilnic tfic nninuiit of f^titi 
ilii(:ti Would accrue to tlic ri«li from iKnnjr lliii> *til>j«ctc(l to tlic 
B)i[K>inln) tnLiDing uf tlio Cliurch. Kroni bpiiig (■iiriy iwcd in a 
practiuid way to uuvir und to Itcncfit l>y n pH^tor. they iiiny wi.-ili 
lor one through the reiit of tlit-ir lirci', At|)rc«cnt. they tliiiik i>f 
the dvij^ymati, except with a view tn the public orticfs of roligion, 
u existing mainly fur thv sake of the poor, l^laiiy Ituuilies would 
otare on bctng Unt\ ihm they iic^^'iIliI Iiis vi^itH and hia counsel on 
the ame principh* and in lhi> Nunc wny us thvy do : n fatal re- 
Kr\c oilcn cxi»(« hotwecn them and Iiira on the vcrj- sjibjcct 
which ou};ht to be the chief tin between tliem : in, we fear, wort 
fuuiilieAofthe upjH'r vliwtvi> ho in little more Ihnu one among thn 
hcnl of visitora nod acquoiittoiiee^ ; that he hiii< to give nccount 
of tltcir aou)s sntl the bouIs of their children, is little thought of 
citlier by him or by them; »;nrcely a won! or a deed bclravs Iht; 
fatnlijtdt rew>ziiilioii nf ihii*. His ailvicv is little asked for concern- 
ing; the diilureu; he is seldom consulted about their training; 
tlicy ftTo not taught to look up to him as necc»aarily a frieni), a» 
• «piri(ui] rehttive and gusniian. Uut were they catcehieed like 
others in Church, thi« would «ywc to bw the cusmj. Thi; due and 
doxterML" iterformance of the duty retjuiree, as we Wrc eaid, an 
a<.-<{Uaintance with the condition and capacities of the children. 
The. pn-corin^ this must lea<l to vpiritiial intercuun'c between 
them and their clergyman, DevonI iiiii-enln, who are at present 
negligent of lli!^ would feci the blensmg of it, would feci huw it 
■trcRglbcned their own hands, and helped tliera in the <li»chargo 
of iJicir own duty. Then the time for cotilii-matioa would not 
cuinc Ufion the olergyinmi niid the young of thf iip^icr ohiKM:* as 
it dons at ]irc«c»t,— u time of mutual shyneea and di>K»n)fort ; it 
Wiiuld be but the ripening of a process which had long been 
gohtg oa ; a joy to which Uilh hiul long l»ocn looking t'urnnrd in 
eoRunoa. Then, loo, might the men of the iitiper i-Iii.->«i(-m Io«e 
tlutt fearful re^n'e on l^cligio^s matters wliieli unhappily, hut 
oflea blamelessly aa things are, characterises most of them at 

t>re#ent. Then might their pastor feed them, too : then might 
10 ho their et^pceial »yni]Mithl*crin joy,smd eonifortor in sorrow: 
then might Im wx-ifly U- courted for better reasons than it is nt 
prvsent ; and ihu.-, tin- whole tone of their intercourse i>eing 
tfaue improved and raised, might nriesthood and laity alike present 
uii with a nobler and statelier sight than l]tc i>tuat«d and pc^- 
venr rcligiotu growtli whicli we see all around us now. 

OtJier airccttond arc open on which we cannot enter now. 
Tin Terse we have twice quoted from the eighth Ptttdni, nt once 
racgertd the part chddrcu must liike, witli joy to (heniaelveii and 
us to sacred music. Thing* do seem tending to a devch)pmeni 
ihrr?!. which we hojie will, as it ought, lie uecd in furUieronce of 
the aim which we have now luid before us. 

In Uyiiig it ilown. however, u wc liavc now Awnc, \W\ \W 

I MO. XXX/.~JV. A 1 A 

AS rollaie Elrrh-ioity, 

rcligiiiiii' development of cliilJren bIiuuM be lifwrgie, wc iimst 
not lie uudcr&tood iw denying tliem the cxcrciiM! nfgood wurks. 
The laat page of our fwrniep article will vinJieute us fnmi such a 
BUpposiliun. These, however, wc coulen<l, aa we did theOi 
diould be almost entirely domestic, and altogether private. 
Their only public religious nction slioidd be in Cluir&Ii ; ihero 
alone cau tJiey be i»een by otiicr.s in a Christian capacity, without 
the iuimincat risk of injury to themselves. 

Ef^maiU of EUctr»-Mita!lurp;f. B>j Alfred Smbk, F.R.S, 
Second 'Edition. Longmans 1 toL Pp. 318. 11^43. 

Glnphoffraphy ; or, Eiiqrared Dmrtiii/}. London : Edward 
"ftilmer, 103, Ncwgiite Street. 1843^ 

ElectrvtinU Bg T. S.vMPaoN. Piihncr. 1842. 

In our number for June, 1 842, (vol, ill. pp. C3 1 — fi44,) wc traced 
tlic History of Klectricity from its cnrlicet dny», six centuries 
before the Christian em, in the time of Thalcw, to tlio date of 
Coulomb 'a iuvfittigatinn.* ; to whom we arc indebted for tlie 
Bubjoction of electro-statical phenomena to the rigorous nUc of 
matbeiiiaticnl analysis, and the ei^tablislimcnt of the fundamcutnl 
[irinciplea of clectro-sluties aa m\ independent ceicncc. In that 
article we were chiefly occupied with the elementary theories 
anncrtaining to the subject : in the present, we propose to con- 
naer some of its practical applications. 

Natural Bcieuce pntsente to uh both laws and worki* : it hiw 
both its crtAenda and its apmilti ; its rcscnrchci> are both hid/rnt 
and fniUifera ; its end is both " the knowledge of canses and 
wicret motinni* of thiiigB, and the enlaming of the bounds of 
human empire to the elfccting of all things }iosslble."* The 
latter of these was a continniil subject of higli and bright antic'i- 
pttion to Lord Bacon ; and. throi^hout all hie writings, he dwells 
npon it with cntliu^iastic hope. In that interesting philosophical 
romance, tlie New Atlantis, he agsigne a principal place to thoi<o 
" fellows" of " Solomon's house" who devote themselves to the 

" We have three that I>end themselves, looking into the experi- 
ments of their fellows, and cjist about how to draw out of tlieni 
things of use and practice for man's life and knowledge, ns well 
for works, as fi>r plain demonsti-alions of cniispi', . • . and the 
easy aii<l clear discovery of the virtues and parts of bodies, 
These we call dowrymcn, or benefactors." 

Fettaif l^^rwlty. 

•* Fur our ordinancM and rilca, wo liavc two nry lonjj mad 
fair gmlleria : in oao of tltcse tve place pattenu and 9«uiiiili-:i of 
mil nunncr of the nmrc rare and csccllunt inTentious; in tlio 
other, we place tlu! otntiii.'^ of all ]iriiicS|ift1 invcntor^i. There 
wc have tlie Maine of your (oh i minis, ihat libcovcrctl iht; Wc«^ 
IdcGm; ako the inventor of ehiiw : vour monk ttiat was tlic iii- 
TClltOr of onliiHiicr, ami of gnn| Mender; the inventor of music; 
tlie iDTcntor of letl«»; the inventor nf priiitinf;; tlic inventor 
of obsemUioDa of aetronomv ; the inventor oJ' wurlui in tnetiU ; 
the inventor ofglaM; tho mventor of silk of the worm; th« 
inventor of wine ; tJic inventor of euni and l)read ; the inventor 
of aoguis and all tivite Itj more certain tntilitinn itinn yon havo. 
Tbcu we have divers inventors of our own of cxwlletit wtirka . . . 
Upoo every invention of valuer we erect a §tatue to tlie inven- 
tor, and mvc hini n liberal and hunonrable rewanl. 

" Wc have ix-rtain liymiia ami iH>rviix-'«, which we say daily, 
4f land and ibanka to God for ILia marvellous worka: and foruia 
of prayers, imploring His aid and biciwing for the illumination 
of otir Laboun, and the turning of them into good and holy 

It haa ntrely bc«n permitted to natural ncienec to advance in 
Uith dirci:tioas at once. When Kcwton piemtd the fVu^, and 
nii«il philoaophy to heaven, tin- *cientifio arlrt wert- pi >ui para lively 
few and weak. Now that tlie liiiMy liandj^ of science have mode 
ilw aurfoce of tlie civilixml cnrtii a theatre of wondera, her eye a 
all hut ckwed to lolly stieculations ; and. having become the 
liatwininid of materiid tilihty, she no luii};er reigns at a ijuecn in 
ibti lii^icr worW of mind. Amnnf^ our men of wicnce wo have 
•* mjaCcrr-men," who "oollcot lUv OX)»urimciits of all mechanical 
arts;" — •• pionecm or roincru," who "try new experiment*;" 
and we an- not without " lunpa," who " out of ionncr laboura 
and eoUectJonti, take care to direct new cxpcrimentt>, of » higher 
Ugiit, nkoro penetrating into nature than tlic former." But the 
we OtUI w«it)i for an " Interiirctcr of Kntun-," who sliall collect 
tEe oeattcn-d Sybilline Iniveis ond pruclaim the one com])letoJ 
■ad eonnetenl meaning of the broken uracU-x. Mt-anwliile, 
•cieaoe beedfuUy toiln on in tho laboniUiry imd the workshop. 
Hit hand is busy though her eye it c.lofcd, and nhe taila not to 
foalter profuim material gift* among tho amie of men. Her 
f\ory thcNigh olHTured w not de.piirted I and she await«, in patient 
OODo, the time wln^n a new truth bhall cmorpe from her niulli- 
tndinous work.-, to rule over them ; when her preoent humblo 
■liltBUnlionB to the material coinforto ami outward ncoe^-iilioa 
of nao, oholl be rewardcil by one ol' Iliorie grand and MUiplo 
inter|in*tatJ(inA, which iUuniinalv and exalt the age tliut wit- 
a w CT their l^nh, 

Ki-xt to chemirtlry, no science has been more fruitful than 
dectridiy in worka sabMrvicnt lo (be getiCTal \)mf<(Mt» uC ^^^^ 


60 iVialc E!t€tyieiiy. 

The contribution* of thw infimt seioiice U) tin; iii-ta are tu" luiino- 
raiis tu be iluscribcJ in CiiU ; and wc shall confine our^elveit tu a 
notice yf tlie inore prominent, previously glancing at tlie geucml 
theory of electrical action, as far as appcara to be noceosary to 
our iinmctliHtc purpose. 

Tlie itlcntily of all tlie various kinds of electricity liaa been 
tntiLbliiilied by Faraday. From tlie time of Gilbert, the effects 
produced by friction on certain dry substances had been grouped 
imdcr the common name of " electricity ;" a word iiidi Heron tly 
iipplleil tu the science conversant with tlicee and kindred pheno- 
mena, and to the aeent — whether a mode of action only, or 
a material but exr|uisitcly eubtle fluid — by winch these effects 
were protluecd. The term " galvanism" had been applied to the 
effectrt roHultini; from the Contact of ditferent metals: while 
those effects which depend upon the action of" the magnet were 
called " msgnetiem." But these various eftects, at first attri- 
bnl^'d tfj different ajjcnts or cause*, have be«n traced up by the 
indetiitigahlc philuMjplier jutit named, to one and the same 
source : and it has been aatlsfactorily bJiowd by his laboriouo 
and admirable researches, that electrical, galvanic, and magnetic 
phenomena, together with the intcrmeiliiLtc varieties of eleetro- 
maj;netisin, nnimnl eliHtricity, thermo-electricity, electro-che- 
mistry, &c. are all modtficatione of one agent, which exhibit* 
ilHcIf nmlcr different forms according to the mode in whicli it i» 
fxcitcd. The two ])rinciiial of these forms arc those now fami- 
lixrly known as common and loltaic electricity. The first of 
these might properly be designated fWtrieity of tension. It is 
well exhibited by the common electrical machine, with its prime 
conductor and the Lcyden jar. It eccms to result from tlie 
Rccumulation of eleelricily, or, as it is conveniently tcrmetl, 
" (he electric fluid," on the anrlaces of bodies : aud lias a con- 
tiinial tendency to escape, wntil an equilibrium is restored lie- 
tween the electrifiwl body and those by which it is nurronuiKsl. 
The most magnificent KjNicimcu of thiit state of electricity ia 
furui^hc<^l by a thunder-stonn. The other state of sensible or 
free eleirlricity is that exhibited by electricity in t>w[ion ; the 
effects being such an migiit be produced by a current Howing 
with enormous nipidity. Hence the term "electric cnrrenl." 
In this cjisc a vast qniintity of electricity may be in action, but 
without any apparent intensity. Whilst the cun-ent is unbroken, 
it pruducea various magnetic phenomena : when intcrTU|iteil, it 
produces chemical changes upon the interposed substiuiccs, under 
certain conditions; decomposijig some, healing, igniting, de- 
flagrating others. Common eleclricity dilfers front voltaic, in 
having a much greater degree of intcnsily or tension ; so that it 
acts with greater elniftic force in a given direction. (.>n the 
other liand, voltaic diffvrs fmtn coimnou electricity in the cnoi-- 
(10U8 luaQlJty of elcclric " lUiid" which it dcvclojis and puts in 

Veltaie EMricily. 


notion, IUK.1 in the continuity or pcrpctuni reproduction of lEic 

liitvin^ tlius bri«flj' drawn out llio dillcrentw bvtwi-vn these 
two forms of cloctricity, wc sliall. tliroiigh the remainder of thiii 
|K>|nr, ifponk only of the second of tltL-m, m being that from 
which tliofC pructical niiplicntiona tiow, whicli urc our immodiato 
Ktd)joct of consideration. 

Voltaic electricity, — although indebted to Volta, profeasor of 
iiflttind philoMOpliy nt Pavis, IKIHI, fur itd diatinftnisluiig name, 
(that [>liiloAOph«r linving Itceii the first to give an exiict and 
BcientiGc character to liis reeearches in this fascinatinjj; (kpiirt- 
mcHt of physical inquiry,) — owes it« origin, in u great measure, 
to (.iulvaiu, proftwor of anatomy at Bologna, I78U. 

The ftrst 8lase» in th« grawtn of scientific discovery, like Ihc 
£rst Btagos in the growth or a plant, arc generally otwcure, mid 
tlw exact circumatnnoce and dntc^ unknown ; ho that the honours 
of diHcovcry rarely encircle tlie head of the rightful candidate, 
and the fiivourite motto of iMpirant^ — " Palmnm yai oktuU 
ferat" — is reversed. Thus Amerigo gained Uic honours due to 
Columtnia : the invention of llic flusionary or diflert-iitinl cid- 
cuUii* wiw disputed liy Leibnitz and Newton : Franklin ufiur|K-d 
the elLiim to priority of diBCovcry with regard to the identity of 
lightning wid common electricity. And, in the eii*e hcfure ue, 
although the suhetitution of tlie word " voltaic" for the word 
"galvanic" is aneiamplo of a corrected judgment, yet, to do full 
justice, wc uuet go back to dates aotenor to Uiose of both tlic 
Iihilosophcnt. from whoee names these wonls have been derived. 
Aoconling to M. Bcc"iuercl, whoiie Traiti KrpMnentat de 
riCltrtrifil& «t tin MiiffiiHirjM is the standard work on the subject 
of which it treats, Suiter, in I'li'i, wnjf the first to bring to 
light the fact iipon wliiih galvutiiinii or voltaic electricity hteto- 
rically tv»X*. Tlie fiu't wap thic: If wc phicc « strip of zinc and 
a Htrip of silver, one u{>on and the other under the longite, und 
bring their further extremities together, we perceive a taste 
similar to that of vulphatv of iron, and nt the mine time a faint 
lijiht, although each slriji seimnitcly prodiiccst no citect whatever. 
Again, in \~Hft, Coluguo stated, in an early numlier of Ihc 
Jfirwil tJiitiwhrpali'iue de livloari^, that a mediod student, whiUt 
dissecting a live mousci was mucli surpriaed by experiencing in 
hte han<l n flight electric gihock, upon toucliing with Ikis vcalpol 
one ^if tlie nerves of the animal. These two fact4, unconnected 
with any of the then known truths of iihyejidog;)', and, indeed, 
wholly dlssunilar, attracted little or no interest until 1789, when 
Galvani's attention wim dmwn to those phcnomi'nit attendant 
upon the aoeidcntal <^^Ieelriwitio» of a xkluned fivig, which arc 
too well known lo alhiw of onr relating them here. 

Tlie explanation which (iaivani gave of the convulsive moiioiif 
of Uw trig's leg, when pUced in contact with metallic bodicj^ 


Foliate EUctricity. 

wiifitliat the muscle of tlicfrogWM a sort of Leydin iihial; timt 
the norvea rcprcflcnl«d tin- iiiU-rior, niul the uiiiHclea llie oxteruir 
coating of the phiiil; and thnt the (li.-<(;hnr^c or ^hook took 
place \*y tlie inetnls coiiiuiunicutiiig between tlic two electrified 

TliMO experiments excited general intfrcHt. V«lli, Fowler, 
Kol>ii>un, \olt«, Weill", HumiioU, Fiibrioi, and others, turned 
oil their energies in thin direction ; but of nil theiw cxjwruneii- 
taliat^ Volt& waa hv far the most ^iccesaful. Giilvani'« must 
important discovery liiui lieen thnt relating to ttie influence of 
tii^erent nietiiU in iirodiieing the ConvuUive movements of the 
diiwecled nuiiual. Thin fai-t wna Vulta's Eilnrtin>r-[>o!nt. Wliile 
Volta acknowlodg<Hl Gdviitn'a right to the priority of dliicovcry, 
and always spoke of him wilh respect as nn induHtriuiii* ex|)eri- 
mcDtttiist, hv strenuously opjtoiiied Gnlvxiii'it theory, ami nneeess- 
flilljr nuuntuined hb own ; which wom, thnt the excitinff co.vne 
WM ordltiary electricity producctd by the coiitaet of the two 
motate, and that the eonvuUions of the frog arose from the pns- 
neeof the electricity thut) devclojied nlon^ it« nerves and uiuHclex. 
But the great contribution of thia ]ih]loHopher to the inftint 
science waa the Voltaic Pile; an instrument, which has f^wn 
into the veltaie butteries of Cniilchanks, Wolbatoii, Children, 
Hai'c, Fiiriulny, Diiniell, ami Hcvoriil othi.'i's. 

We will amtcut oureelvea with dewcribiiij^ the simplest form 
of tliia instrument ; one too simple indeed to be oi' any pniclical 
tuo, but better suited than more complete and coninltonte<] fiinn« 
to elucidate the theory of the action of the pile and battery. 

Immento- it atri]> of pure xiiic, and another of silver, in a cui) 
of very dihite aulphuric acid. No action will onsm^u But if 
we bring ti>gcthcr the extremities of these strips whirh are out 
of the fluid, a dt^ompor-ition of the water immediately begins; 
it« oxygen combines with the xinc to form oxide of zinc, which 
is dissolved by the acid ; while the hydrogen |xi««ej* over to the 
surface of the nlvcr, where it collects, and ullimatety e»caiH-r* 
in gaseous globuloi<. At thu itamc time there is a continuous 
current of electricity fnun the zinc aeroa.'. tlie water to the silver, 
uinl from the further extremity of the silver back to tlic zinc 
which ia there in contact with it. If we now ^/'•^•s. 
rcwtore the strips to their original |>cisition, f ^ 
but attach a wire to llie outer extremity of 
Ciu.'h, and then bring the furtlier extre- 
mities of tlieae wires together, the docom- 
poaition of ihe water will take place as be- 
fore, and the current of clcolrieily will 
rtow in the diivction indicatoil by the darta 
in the annexed diagram. Various sub- 
stnncvs nmv evidently be interposeil at A ; 
and, proviilnl they arc capable of transmit- 

Yt/lak Eieetrinly, 



ting tlwlricity, tlic curri-nt will sUU piuw. In tliM itnmngeinent, 
tlic cnd^ of tbc wire ntUidicJ to the eilver pinto .S, ut the tmit- 
tlmfi point or pole; ukI tlio cnfl of that attached to the zinc 
pute Z, U the rtceirini} pi-int or [wilc. The firet of those hiut 
been eoUed tt>e poMlivc pole; the second tho ntgalivc: but Mr. 
Fwedey, with a view of Kvoiding certain ini^iipr(.-hcni)ions to 
wliioh these terms have friven ri«c, Itiu cnlled them Hcttrodm ; 
D»cnninf; tlw iloora or puaaeges (of whatever gubstanoc formed,) i>v 
wluel) tlic clcetrieity passes into aitd out of oilier invdia. ifo 
fiutber temifl tlw poeilivo electrode or emitting jmle, tlic 
oMlaefrw^ or omJ*, tJint i», tlio way by which ^electricity 
tnUn substances tltrough whioli it posMs; and tho Ilcgati^'e 
electrode or rwciving [lolc. the taUlrdroiU or catiodf, that 
i«, the way by which electricity poM out of aiibstanci:=i thrvii^li 
which it p e w o s. In mldition to (he nbuvc arran}j^men(», 
it is a oeceoaary conditioti of voltaic phcnumi'nu, that the 
interposed fluid be a conductor; aad further, that it Iw an 
tUetntgU: tluit is, u su))«tanc*; capable of direct docoinp(initi<ii] 
by the aotioa of the electric current. In the extrcincly simple 
arranfjcmont reprcwnted bv the dingraut, the int(;n.«ity of the 
electricity is very feeble. The force of the current is increased 
by l>ro|)erly nrmnf^nS n swcccsaion of gcticroting, conducting, 
end electrolytic HulMiniice* ; mxl thiix are foniicil the various 
kintU of batteries. On theec, the direction of lite nirrciit ii< the 
nnic Of ia the eimnle arrangement described alxrivc, nor tn thu 
•Iwolute (itianlity of travelling or circulating electricity altered ; I 
hut the intensity is inon.'iiMHj greatly, so tnat, when the wriea I 
•re nuiDCTOuo, wc obtain, on t<oiiarating tltc elcctnxles a little i 
frnm one anolht'r, a mutit brilliant current of light, which 14 j 
ropikble of igniting wires, defla^^rating metals, exploding com-t \ 
hustihies, and cRccting chemical dccoinjKxittions. 11tu cfTL-cts 
wc are about to deiscribo rejiMli from the action of a current of 
deetricitr, the velocity nf which lia^ been shown hy Mr. Wheut- 
ttottv (0 w not less tluin X00,0C)O miles per second. 

The applications of this nru|>crty of vultatc clectriuty to 
exploding the wreck of the Koynl Oenr^c, nt Siitthead, and to . 
Jwtloyiug an iuuiienKc innK.* of Shnk-^fHrure'B C'lifl^ at Dover, I 
■re wul known. In a recviit numlter, wc have spoken of the I 
auempts that hare Iteen made, to apply tJic enormous mechanical 
Cm* which is brought into action by certiun modes of exciting 
■ad applying clcctro-tnagnctif>m, to the imiiortnnt piirjMiHeit of 
looomoliofi ; nipcne<^ig stciun, at* iitcuiu Iiilh supert^edcd to so 
peat an extent, the emplnyiuent of animal power. The elec- 
trical telegraph i» another highly useful application uf eli-ctro- 
MpMtisin. Uut we inii^t not suffer ounclvcv to be any longer 
dMabud tnmi the vcrj- iiitcrL-«ting fiwt* cif cleclTo-nietallurKJ'i 
•hJrh arc fully antl *ucccjufully treated by Mr. Siuc«, wlins^ 
work is one of llic most complete that ha> 1 

C !■ Voltaic K/tflrieilff. 

Wlipti i1k! vdllilic current in Imn^mltteJ llimiigli im-tnllio 
an1iiti(iiit>, tlip metallic oxidea arc in certain cases dccoinpoeed, bh 
tliat the pure metal is deposited npoii the cutliodi.'. Fur example : 
let two pieces of clean plntintitu bi; iiiimurjiwl In u wjlution of 
aul]>hal« nf coiiper; iiml let the eii^clrlc current be t miinnutted 
through the solution, so that these plalinimi plates may form the 
electrodes. The consequence will be thu precipitation of pure 
metnlltc cop|»er upon the catelcolrodi.-, wiiilv the anelectrodit will 
remain cloun. The teslure of the deposited copper variea with 
the power employed, and with the temperature aud strength of 
the solution ; so that it may be uhtained hard, brittle, and crys- 
tnllini;; or miilleuhlc and tough, uceonling to the mauipulntioii 
of the peribrmer. 

" When ire eiilyect nny mcrtnltic soliitinn to tlio action of the volinir 
curreut, ihu mi-tal iiavU will lip rcducfil. although not alvay* in tlie siuiie 
Htaie. '11iu«, il' wu dip ii kuiru in a atroiiK solution of sulphiilo or ri:i|>|)i'r, 
bi'iglit mctntlic copper viill be depoHilcd ; out if we use a pjccu of Kinc, n 
block mnsB of cop|>cT will be thrown dowit AgKiii, iiiiniUuce a pipci.' of 
tine bto aii noimuuiuuul solution of milphnlo of copper, and llic rediii.-i.-(l 
copppr will bi^ bri^lit; whilst, if itrv dip iron into a very dilute nnit nrid 
■olutionof tho lulpbnlc liliirk lactnl will he reduced. Il is doubtful whttlii-r 
tfao in«tid In ihMe cases is rediici-d by single otci'tivc fttliiiity, or whullivr n 
giitviuiic action causes the deposit. Be thut, however, im it niny, the Mma 
metnl niny, under diiferent circumaliuiccs, be reduced in dilTcrciit atatea."— 
Smet. p. MS. 

On the one liand, the strength of the luetallic enlution ^xry 
nuitcrially inHu(>ncc!< the nature- of the deiHwit. From ii i«ilu- 
nit«cl solution of suliihate of copper, for instance, cryslaltine 
copper is deitositcd ; if we dihito tliis solution with two to (inir 
times !ta hulk of water, the metallic deposit will be (hicttic and 
mnlleable : if the ttolution hi; very greatly diluted, the mctnl will 
he thrown down under the form of a black powder. 

■' If we etnmine the converse of llic experiment, nnd take a Holution of 
sulphnttf of copper (which should bo iLcididated to iniike it n bclluc con- 
diivloi'.) nnd use i)iic<;i?ftalvuly, (Imt one vcrv small batlory, ihtn two or 
tliree bnttericx niriinifctd in a Hcric4, nnd lastly, n very inlcnfie battery, wc 
abnll tiod thai, nitb iheKnmc solution, we cnn obtain by thciie means, nrit a 
ervBlnllinir, tlioti a ri^gubue, and lb<^u a blui'k di-poiiit .... The Iniv^ whicli 
rt^datr tlio d(rpu"it nt every metal iippwir to be Ibc stime; mid, nltbough 
very simple, yel have cost rac murh labour for their developmcjit .... 
liour I. lliu nielnLi arc invnrinlily Ibrottii down as a black poxvder, when 
the current nf clM^thcily is so alrong in rvlalloii lo the atransth of (lie soln- 
tion, that liydrof[ion ia cvolvci) from the negative plate of the decomponilion 
cell . . . Law 2. Every metal is thrown down in a cryatnlline state, when there 
ia no evolution of ^lU from the negative plate, or no Icitdency thereto ; . . 
that ii, when the strength of the metallic solution is ao greai, thai, cither 
electricity i)f n much itreatcr tension musi paan, or the solution mini be 
rendered of mure easy dccuni position, before gn-t would be evolved, /.im' S. 
Metals are reduced in the rc^dine »rnte, iilmn the quantity of clcclririiy in 
relation to the strcnKlh of the solulion is iniiuHiriciit to cause the priidiic- 
lion of hydrogen on (1il- nupniive |)latc in the decr»mpi)»ilion Irouglw anil 
yel tlie quaiitily of electricity very nearly sudices lo induce that pbmo- 
nicnt'ii." — Suier, pp. HI — Il*i. 

V«Uaie Electricity. 


Mr. Sniee liiLS ct«TOtcd the cuncludin'; portion of \m treatise to 
a conxidf^ration of the prooesMs of clcctrn-giliiing, rciliii'tmD of 
QictaU bv gnlvanism. the electrotype, and giilvanic etching. 

For tlic art of eildinf; u[Kin silver hdcI hniH l>y nicnns of 
eleetricity, we are imlfibliHl to M. l>c lit Rive, who wa* led to 
it by n-itnesffinj; the very dt-leterKnis cfTectii vtymn tlie workmen 
of tlw: proccM known as "walcr-gilding;" in which the article 
to be e^lt liavtng been eovvrcd with an auialgiini of gold ih 
expoaed to tlw lM»t of a clc»r charcoal fire, by means of which 
tite mercury 'n driven off and the gold renmins adherent to the 
»urfac«. 'rhc kvWh atlcndfint on this prucees from the mercurial 
rapour, are avoided in the procean of electro-gilding ; where, 
aocordiog to tlte method patented by Ellungton, after tlio articles 
havu been properly cleiinM^d by a weak acid, thcv arc iinmcrwd 
in allot solution of nitro-mtirialtfof gold, to whiciiacoii^idemble 
eiceea of bioarbonale of jiolasli liaa been addecL They tltus 
rccH-'ive, in the couree of n few seconds, a beautiful and penuanent 
cout of gold. With regard to this procees, it itne bvvn .iup|>ose<l 
that the metal to he gilt ii; diMolvut in proportion to the amount 
of gold deposited; tliat the deposition of the gold prevents the 
further eoliuion of the metal; and, ctwaeiiiiciiily, that only a 
very thin eoai of gold can be obtained. Mr. Smee, therefore, 
gives the prcterencv to a procese in which the gold le prucipil«tc<l 
from a sofution of tlie auro-eyanidc of [mtai-iuiini by lueaiu of a 
single battery. By thin pmoeiw the ojiemtor cmi regtdate the 
thicknesa of the gilding, carrying it to any extent he pleaaee; 
und, by varying the rapidity of the deposition, he can obtain the 
gold under difli.-rviit formii. A rapid depo«ition produtT^ci a bright 
surface ; but if reduced very slowly the metal will awumc the 
bcautilul frosted appearance of dead gold. 

Of all the ap|i1icnlioM5 of voltaic ulectriirity ii) tlie puriioeca 
of art, tlie elcctrotyjH; \t the moat intore4ting and important. 

" Electro metanurgy may be inid to hnve huiI ila origin iu the discovery 
of the constant battery by Prufctsor Dunicll. Tur in ilini in«iriinicni ihe 
copper U conlinnally rvdiiccd ujmn tLo iirgiiiivc pUtc In hi» firnt nperi- 
menW, Mr. UotiicU ohatcniHl, on removing n nicoe of llie reduced iruii^or 
froni A pklinH vlcrtrode, tint scrAtuhiM on ilie Uilirr were copied willi 
accuracy on ihc rnppor. lit tliis oxperimcnl wc Hutc the doclrotypc. But 
Ihe author, in ibc iItki pdper, dctAiliox lii» e\pcrimeni«, having dovoted alt 
kia atlcaiion tu the cixntrucljun of the battery iuelf, tlils valusbic fiu^t 
attracted but Utile ot his notice. 

" It wt,i but n iihort timo alter the diwii-cry of this bnltcry, tliHt Mr. 
De la Ktie expi-timcnled un it* pTupertieOL In n pnprr priuli-il ni tbc. Iliilu- 
«ophical Ms^xiji(> fur 11(50, aher dexcribuig a ptcnlmr furm i>f butlrry 
which he adopu, thf^ foltowing rcmnrkablc passigr >" fauaA • ' '\'\iv c ripper 
plate IS aUoouvcrcd with a coating of mcUllir copper, which i* .•oimniijilly 
DODf de|>oii(ed ; and, >a porfcv-t is [he ihcct uf cupper ihuB fotmed. ihai, 
being KtripC off, it has the counterpart of cierj- iMrmtch of the niai* on 
which il ii dcpomtcd.' This paper ieemn to have attracted rery little atten- 
tion ; and. what seem, still more nngtOai . the author, although well qu»lifl«l 

NO. XXXI. — K. 9. It 


66 Voltafe £ltvtriciti/. 

tmt fall acientillr niuinmcnis to hav« applied tiufM bcl«, never tbouglii of 
•njr oncdcal bi-ncfit in ivliinh IhU cKporimcnt rnkht lead. 

"In thw »UIi; the subjoct rcnHuncU till OnloEcr, 18IIS, when Professor 
Jacobi llnil announced Iliat be could employ tlio roduciiou ol' copper, by 
gllvajnie (l([piicy, Ibr ihr purpnseii of the ftrls. His process vrn& enlled gal- 
TMio-phcUc. lnini(^(liiil(fl,v u|iau hii procrjiii being nnnonnced in tliis 
eoimtr)'. In 183S, Mr. Speai-cr Htaled ibat be had v\eciiled some medatii In 
copper, to vthiph thn piihlic nftprwardu i^aie ibe iiamo of eki'tro types, or 
voltntypcn, or, wlisl is better. oleclro-nicdallionH. . . . The next discovery, 
which is fully equal in value !□ the idea of the eloctrotvpe itself, wa^ uinde 
by Mr. Murray, lie found nut Ihat uon-conducliiig Bufistances might have 
mntallie eoppcr thrown down upon thom by previously applying black 
l*ad. — A'mtr, pp. 17 — 21. 

One of the grenteet Iiindranccs to tlic nit of copper-jilate 
engranng has been the (iiffiiMilty of iirunuriiiw good and pure 
metallic plat«H. This difficulty is nnw entirely vcmoved. A 
pi^jiui^l COiilMir-pIiito with a pood surfiicc may have copper 
uennaited u|ion il by voltnic ngcncy, so tliiit the deposited pliite 
will have the same ]M?fiect eurf'aeo, with the a<idilioual advantage 
of consisting of pure copper. Minute directions will be found 
in Mr. Stnee'* work. Tlic pructical clectro-metidluigist umy 
also consult with advantage JacobiV Dw Gnltatioplaitik. Peters- 
burgh, 18iO; and AnncUet de Ckimia et de J'/iv*i'iue, September, 
1840, torn. Ixxv. 

" Kiigruved jilateB were not employed till ihe futirleenlh ccuturv, but uow 
their use* are inanirold, To hiind down (o posterity, and In didtiAe among 
the miilliluile, copies of the ehoiccit pictures and other works of art. are 
their moBi promiuetit nppliealionii ; but they do iiot coustitule a litlie of 
the purpoKei for which enpaved |ilnle« are rcijiiircd. Tlie great coH«ump- 
tion now for thc-jR plates ii nt the pollcries : for almost every common 
dmner oervice, nnd every piece of pottery, has its desi£n given by a copper- 
plate. The device ie deeply cut in the copper, and iheii it is printed on a 
piece of thin paper ; hut ihe imprc-t.iion in printed nith a compoaitioti of 
uxenito of tobalt inntead of the ordimiry inlt. The paper is then pressed 
upon the poltery |iliile hcl'ore it in glared, m order that the ink nmy adhere 
10 it ; lifter which ihc paper ia careftilly n a^hod off. Tlie pottery plale ia 
nextelHKedi ajid ia then ready fur use. 

"Tno electrotype proniiiics lo improve, materially, the patterns of our 
othcTiviiK! unrivalleil poltery ; for the expense of engrnring valuable plates 
boa hitherto been nuch, thai, on aceount of the umall numher of copies they 
trill afleruards print, their applies lion has been necessarily prevented. Now, 
if a plale ensl oripnally a liiousaud giiineas, an iuliuile nnmher of dupti> 
catea could be laken frnniil hy iheeieelrolyne; and in thia way theexneaie 
of every cummnn dinncr-plute would be the iun]c. whether ilie ordinary 
blue-and-whiie senice ivere uied, or plales and dishes were euibelli*hcd with 
copici of our nnei.t wnrku of art, the mn«t ciijuiaite scene* of nature, the 
nosi clnborate machinations of fancy, or the moit intricate npeciniooe of 

" A aeeond cstcn«iTe applicfltion of copper-plates is to be found in the 
niuiufacloriex of the eniieo-prinicrs. Tlie copper-plat; i> first engraved 
and bent round so as to fonn a cylindrical roller, and then tlie two edge* arc 
•oidered. By varioo" eorlrivances the die ia placed by other pollers inio 
the hollow of the engratinK. when the calico to be printed pnisca under the 
roller by tbe force which the roller itaclf cxertu from ihc rerotution imparled 
to it by n ateam ffi^fl. In tliia way twenty or thirty y&nll of olico can 
be printed in a IVw mimrt**."— .Smr*, pp. 270, ail. 

V^titic EUxiricitv. 


The mutti{))ioation of wood-outs l.y moans of electrotype 
pry«;s»*?!i is verv promising. The vigour ami delicacy, tbe pn>* 
clsion and aoflncse, of nuxlcni wood-citU in stirpriifinE;, and the 
durability of tlic blocks ifl extraordinary, one ImiidnKl t^MUMind 
imprcesionti having been taken from tho same block ; but yet, 
the mult! plication of these by tnciuw of the clcotroty|><> \& often 
desirable. Mr. Snice luu given an intcre^itiiig jirinl, at page 277. 
of a dos'a head, dc»isned ny the rounger Landsecr, a huX twelve 
yewsofaze; the cltcbf« of which was cxceulcd by Brai;aton, 
and tho electrotype by Dc la Kiiv. The "clich(\*,'' wo may 
observe, \» i^imply tho reverse iinpreiwioD : Uie intonnedinte copy 
by means of whieh the ultimate plate ie tnade tJw aaine as lliat 
from which llie design was first talccn. 

The yet more recent art of glypliograpby \» rcmnrkably simple 
and iiHofui. 

" The tprm a:1;pl)0gT«pby u (Urivcd fW)m two Greeli words, ylc'^M /#*- 
pnriv. and y^^tiv la drair ; aud li^iliri thdt rM by nhirh nn cupTnTia|[ is 
pruduecd by tne umple mode »f drawiag ; or. in oincr uunls. dniH ing and 
engfravioft, which have hUhnto b«en two disiincl uiicrAlitinti. nnt lirrc onm- 
bianl in one. Hence its tncriu, Bad vast imporlaDcc to every artisi, sednK 
lliat bv its aid be becomca tlw mgrat«r or bit own work »* mucli h* h^ 
could by the prnclice of ctchinic. btit with thU diflcrence, that hen bin cffnct 
ii K3 immediately coiiKpicuuus a» (bou^ bo wcr« using a blad-Iead pencil 
on paper." — GUjpho^apht/, p. ft. 

In this prooci!^. an orclinnry ptnte of copper, prepared a« usual 
Sot eiigrnvcni' use, ii> taken, iukI blaokenod witli ^iilphurct of 
potaasiuiiL It IK then warmed, and cuated witii a \&ry thin Inycr 
of a white composition resembling wax in nature and appearance. 
By means of various tools, whi<Ji need not be described here, 
thia comiHJsition is clauily cut through by the artist, who seea at 
once tlie efl'ect ho produces, in consequence of his obtaining, ad 
in the case of the lead-pencil, a bliu.-k drawing upon a white 
ground. After careful inspection through a jwwfHui lens, tlio 
plate is submitted to the action of a galvanic batlerv, by meana 
of which ttie retjuiied deposition of copper ia effected, and a new 
electrotype jilatc is obtained. 

"Of the value of electro-metnllaraiy to the arta and maiinfaeturea, eron 
in its prtBtnl state, there i-na bu no aoubt It may, indeed, bi; a mailer of 
(nnjcniiire to nhAt extent this art mny be ultimnldy r4rricd ont, or inwhnt 
olher piirpoien it rony he appliecl in yejirs to conic ; but, urrc it never to bo 
ajiplitd ulhentixe llian it ba^ alroudy been, iiu ouc tould tlenr (liul it is a 
mott valitahl* aequisitloa ; in abort, nc inny >iar«ly assert, lliat no iiin)(1e 
ditcovcTjr ever preacnled oepabilttica at oncn so many, no various, so 
inl^reatiiiKi or mt valuable. 

" DoabUBiS the galvmiic fluid will, before lou^ be nn important to the 
manafnctumir as the heal of a j\imnee. ,\t pmtent, n pcrriuii nm> enter a 
ruon» by n door hnvxnft linger-plntes of the mint costly di'\ice, made by llin 
Sgency of the elcclnt fluid; the walls of lb* roi-m may be eovercd with 
enjcTniiaii;* printed f^om plates oritpunlly olchcd by KslTaniiin. and miitti- 
pbed by tlicaomc force; the chimney-piece may ho covered with uriiani<aiu 


68 Gtnius and CMamct^ ofSoutA^, 

mnile in « risdlar uiAtmer. At dinner, the pUtCB mny limo dct-icm (clvenbv 
rkvlrot^pe engrAviiiiiii, nnd Uie «Ut-tpoanB |pll by the j:nlvniiic fluid. All 
lliCKC. mtid many oilier Mpplieations, we mnylmve al prtsetil ; but we must 
■till look TorwHrd to the nioul iniportnnl uropcrlics ol" (Le plcclric turrcot 
dcHvtid from itiv gitlvnnie bnttrrv - for, allhnugh ^eut nnd glorinus are the 
triumpba of tcicncc detailed in lliix work, yet the praspecl of obtjiintng a 
power which *hnll aiipu CD edo stuam, eitcuds lu value all Ihuse appUcatioiiH." 
—Smer, pp. 295 — 30D. 

Mr. Stuee's raptures are excessive ; but t]ie subject is unquea- 
tiombly one of cousidenibk interest. The applicatioQB of voltaic 
electricity arc of great practical utility; and tlie principlt'* of 
the Mjicncc, when ripened and expanded, will foi-m a valiiulile 
addition to the ever-growiug body of jihystcal truth. 

Tie PoMicttt Worltt of Bobrrt SoutJiiy. eeSeded btl ffimtflf. 
In 10 volfl. Loudon; Longman. & Co. 1838. 

To tliinktng inin<ls, time is seldotn eo impivseively marked, its 
clock seldom tolls m sadly and solenmlv, a£ by the succcst'ive 
retuoval of the fp'cat men of an age. The constellation which 
ushered in the iircnent epoch, le going out one by one. Goethe, 
Scott, Byron, Coleridge, Lamb, huvp dcparled, and now Southoy 
baa cone uOur tJicm. Wordsworth, indeed, remains yet a little 
while, but he is uow liorcl^ of all in* gn-at compiiniouit : of all 
those with whom his name in for wvr assoeiated. There is 
ffoniething, we say, singularly Kid and solemn in these depar- 
tures. Ita great men seem the essential features of an age, and 
when they arc removed, a chill comes over us, the ground .leema 
taken from under our feet, we feel a* though a elmnge of dispen- 
sation were at hand, an untried and unknown future opening 
before us. 

There are few men to whowt death more of this interest 
attaches itself than to him whom we have junt lost. If Southey 
was not the foremost man of his time, he was perhaps the most 
bound up will] that time, of all our men of lettera. No man of 
intellcutual pni-HuitK in our day shnreil »o lurgcly in lUi fceliuga 
oud struggles, and lU the term of hin lifi> spanned its prinei]uU 
tvonta an<l changes, he becjmie n partaker m its most striking 
I Tie writudes. Thvrc is nothing for a serious mJnd to scoff at, 
nothing that can furnish a legitimate sneer at Southey, in a com- 
parison of his early Jncobinisni and sulwquent Toryism. In his 
owe tlie whole process and prngres.4 was that of an earniritt and 
noble niind, eijually tmworldly, though not cqimlly temperate 
ftnd far-seeing at ita commencement and at its termination ; and 
therefore, iu the whole, we only read n deep and intcroetiog 


Gatitia and CMaraeUy o/" Sovt/uy. 

In respect of" itit^Ucrt, (viiithcy wiw nearly us gnat oa 
po«si)>l<! for a man not al)itoliit<-ly lirHt-ntc. Hii* repatatioa 
for genius has eufTcrcil more from tus own unrivalled nnd mcoi 
ceivablc indiutry Uuin from any other cause. Not only did' 
people think it itnpoMible for K^rcnt yiixt to Ik; capable of'euoh 
nard work and such buainess-tike puncruulity in ii» c:«^nt»on — 
to be equally ready to write an Indian Tale aud a Miotory of 
BnuiL — to DMTnte the cx|iloitn of n ThulaUi and a Wesley — to 
Ring the first great Sponiiilt war ogniimt the Mcxtr, nud to record 
the last one against the Frenchman — to indite a ballad and Mil 
article for tlic (^arterly Review ; not only did all (his obacur*^ 
and pcrjjlex the |>0])ular concc()tion of a poet, but by directing 
men's attention to a much greater raricty of to^HC* than l)>ey 
had room in their minda for, diverted it from those which eacn 
night have found congenial to himself, on which he might also 
have found Sniithcy ciieakiiig to him in i^traine to wnich ho 
would hiive delighted to liHt^n. For, ultbotigh he. the name 
man, was equally willing to write, no one of us is equally wiiiing 
and ready to rotul a life of Nelson and » History of [tniul, an 
Epic Poem, ftnd a >.ketelt of Metbodlitin : aud when a man's 
works comprehend alt these, and much more l>e»idc», wc are 
deterred, to voiiie cstcnt, from looking at any one of them. So 
connected with life is all really interesting literature, tliat we are 
attracted to boolcK by our conception of the author, and where 
that tflkce no marked form, aud points tn no one direction, we 
arc not greatly allured to the woikp tlicnifclvcs. No very de- 
lightful mind is encycbpiedic— no very original one unboundedly 

Wherefore hie extraordinary cnpiou«ie« and twriety, both is 

Ero»o and ver^e, while it kept Soutliey before the publiceye, kept 
im further away frum the human heart than be would other- 
wise have been. Not only would he have spiikcn more thrill- 
ingly and impusfiuncdiy had he H[>oken Icm; not only would 
bit wonU btive CDtiic from greater dceiM> of bia own heart, and 
reached to greater in the hearts of otncre, had they been fewer 
and rarer, and more uniform in their direction ; not only would 
bo have gained in tension and concent ration, by confining hid 
lumji, but in jioiul of tiu t his great works, as thev are, wouhl have 
more justice done to them. For the surprising thing is, not 
that sueJi a writer should, with all his powers, have mdicslL'O 
what may be called a laxity in art, or a want of that wiftful 
eumwtneM, tliac dee{)-mi>uthe4l utterance with which the very 
greateet geuituwa epeaV, but that this should not liavo been much 
more the esse than it uctuallv wiia. First-rate a man could tmt 
httve been, who bad bii* fixed hoiin> for epic poetry, for reviewing 
and for hi»tor}', nnil who puitmnl from one to the other at the 
Mroke of the etouk : but il is astonishing that ht- was so ;|T«at it 
Mcood-rate man — that his genius hIiowchI it^lf so jiuweilul and 

70 GtHtu* and C&aract«r 9/Soiah^i/. 

oripnnl. Pfeiiit;mt« in Uipm wimt you will, Tluilabn, the Ctii-sc 
of Kehiinm, iind Koderick, arc wonderful poeme; and while we 
find it bard to iiuagine llint pnittcrily will, any more than the 
present generation, liimiliiiriw.! it.ti.ilf with all the contents of the 
t«n vohimea of Southi-y'i* jKietical work^, in addition to the 
whole library of hia proeo onee, we think, tliat these three 
perfonnanccB will etand forth lis English t-lassics, at once the 
proii»trty of all 6itb9ci|iient agcn, and illustrious raonumcnta of 
that which jiroduccd tlicin. 

Vet, great as they are, they have not received the attention 
due to tucm in our time. They have, indeed, Ijeen abundantly 
noticed by roviewers, and they were delighted in by their 
author's great contenijjorariea, but their contents are not lamJIiar 
to the general reader. There exL!t« an impression, most unjust 
lu regards them, but not to be wondered ut under the circum- 
atancefl) that though fine in [larts, they are hort* on the whale. 
Yet most unjust such an impression is, for not only are thoy 
rife with beauty, but never were three works more interesting 
Uiroughout. One of their auUior'^ especial gil^ was the con- 
struction of a storv, lu the three nocins before us, as well aa 
in Madoc, the whole fabric of the tnle wa« woven out of his own 
brain ; for hardly an incident within the notion of Roderick is 
historical, and wa need not vouch far tlic fictitious character of 
tho others. And yet how intere»lins they are. We read with 
breatlileaa suspense, even when tlie nceue, the ageucy, and the 
events arc most removed from the sphere of humanity, of nature, 
or of puMibility. It is strange that such a master of machinery, 
such a conrilnietor of a l.ule, was not tempted in the present day 
to write a novel. " The Doctor," though a mont delightful Iwok, 
can hardly be accounted one: and though a work of fiction, has 
nothing tliat can well be cjilled a plot. But .Soulhey's powers 
of invention and di^itonition were »ueh n* niutit have enabled him 
to rival Mra. Kadchflc, or even Schiller's fJhost Seer. Had he 
undertJtken a terial, he must have harrowed us as much as wt) 
believe the lust-mentioned work harrowed tlie author's country- 
men, coming out as tt did in numheri*. Southev, however, 
oonlincd the exercise of this gift to his poetical tales, and 
wonderful indeed ia its exercise there. Of these we projioBO 
now to conitidi^r the three eminent oncA, which we almost wish 
had stood alone among his poetical works, and of which, in that 
ca.-<R, the public must have takeu a more nndistraetcd view. 

(if all hia [locms, Thalaba is the one most calculated to be 
popular. An AnibJan tale iw itiieh huji alwayii a fair chance of 
favour; our earliest imaginative adsociations hang round the 
eranire of Uhmnel; and the affinity between the Arabian mind 
and the Hebrew makes us feel ut home, to some extent, among 
Alussulmen and their sentiments. In Thalaba we Iiave all tJiis 
pluasm-e undisturbed. The talc is llioroughly vVrabian, accord- 

Geniiu and CiantftiT of SouiAfy. 7 1 

ing at least lo uniravelled notions of Anihia. Ttic machinery, 
tboush supernatural, is Itotli consistent with Miihumiucdaii, and 
not abhorrent to Chrietian Thcieiii ; and tlioii<;h tnx n riwt ncjile, 
it sever ilisturlw our intercut in Thalutu. Tho cxquieute music 
of the verM, of which the uix^ertain movement it not aided in 
ita impression by rhyme, nttc«(8 the authoi-'s car and hie ttkiU. 
We cannot deny ouretlvCB the pIciiBure of quoting the exquisite 
opening — 

" Haw bcaatirul U nt|cht '. 

A dewy frotboMS lltlit tbe titent air ; 
So mbt obfcUTM, norclood, nor spvck, aoi *laia, 

Ureakii the nCTcne of hcavrn, 
III ftill-orb'd glurj' yonder Moon divine 
RoUa throu^ tliadark blue depths. 

Btaeatli 1i«t atctdy rny 

Tbo doMTtHdrdc iiprt^, 
Like Ibe roond oc«an, drdlcd vrttli the iky. 

Itow bcondml i> nighi '." 

TT>e story of the tleslriiction of Ad, which almost immediately 
follows, iiS very 6ne and imprcc«ive ; and nothing can )>c more 
charming in their way tliiiu tltebiippy scenes of Tltautba's txiyhood 
uirl vuiith around the tent of Moath. Let thoac who dread 
Soutfiey M a u-dious writer set out with lh« Destroyer in his 
great enterprise. Our space only permits ufi to quote »omc of 
Uio Tcr»e« which uaber in its Urcmeudous coosmnmatiou, neftrly 
as bright and elastic u can be found in the language. 

•■ Thua dkl Ibe UiuDael say l« TholalM, 
■ Tha mora ia fmuif , toe San L* fair. 
And ploatantljr timnif;)! pl«Mftiit bulk* 
Yon iitiicl alT^Am lloirs on . . 
Witt tliou embark iritb lac t 
Thou kmintsC not tb« trotcr'i way ; 
Think, itraiiger, well I and nigbi muiE crnno, . , 
UhfohI tboii onibark n ith ni« : 
Through fnrllil prriU ihnii mult paM^ , . 
ScnnireT, the wretcbed luk thine aid I 

"niou wUt ombaik «tih mtV 

Sho nmlad in t«ai« ujmn thn vonth ; . . 

What bcart were hi* who could gainsay 

That melancluily tmilnl 

•I will,' qaoth Thalaba, 

*I wUI, in AUaK'snaaMl' 

" He lale kim on tbe ningle *CBt, 
The lillli? bimt diotmI on. 
Through pleasiiiit bniikvt tbc qaiet ilrcant 
Wout irinibng plaaaanlly ; 
By IVapant fir-purca now it past. 
And now, throwb alder^horw, 
llitoiigk green and ferlllo meadowa now 
It Kilcnily ran by. 
The Huc-flowcr bloioom'd.oa Its side, 
llie viUuvr ircaaea waved, 



Omiuf and Ciaraet^r ofSouAey. 

'llie flowing: curreut Ajrrotv'd ruund 
Tlif wnier-lily'^ flonling leitl) 
The fly i(f grcai and cnuiy wing, 
Foil H[j<)rliD^ diiWD il!t coursi! ; 
And gralefiil In ilip voy^or 
The tVcsbne^s that it hrcaihed, 
And HODlhing (» liia ear 
Its miiriiiiir ruund (he pri^w. 
Thp little boat fnlls rapidly, 
AdoHn tho rapid sirtam. 

" But inttiiy M silent spriiii^ mcnntime. 
And many a riviilel nnd rill 
Hud swolii till-- growing stream; 
And whoii the sciuthcm Suu bc^u 
To mind the downiinrd ivny of heaven. 
It r»n tt rivtr deep and n idc 
Thruiiffh baiike lliul Hiduii'd ntitl. 
Then oncn n^aiii tbe Damsel tpakc : 
' The itti'um is strong, the river brotid, 

Wilt tbuu pj ou with met 
The day ii fair, but night must come . > 
Wilt thou (TO on M ith me 1 
Fur, far ii«h\', iho Milltrcr's «ye 
For thcc hnih lung been looking, . . 

Thou will B" "O wilbme!' 
■ Sail on, sail on,' (iimlli Thnluba, 
' Snil on. in Allnh'i name!' 
The little boat I'nlU rapidly 
,\duwn th# rivcr-Hlreain, 

" A broader and yet broader ilream, 
Thiit rock'd the little boatl 
'I'bc Cormorant stands npoii iis slii.>alN, 
llin black nnd dripping ning^ 
Hull* upend lu the wind. 
Tlie Sun v,^va duun. the crVHcent Moou 
!• britchleuiiiji in the liiinainenc; 
And whai in yonder roar, 
That sinking uuw. and swellui|; dov. 
But cvcmiurc iuereasing. 
Still loudl^^. louder, p'ows! 
The lillle boat fall« ramdly 

AHovrn the rapid tide ; 
The Moon ia bright abovc^ 
And the great Ueean opens on their wajr. 

Then did th« Dnrndcl speak again, 

' Will thou go na with mc? 
The moon is bright, the nea is calm, 
I know the ucean-pathH ; 
Wilt thou go on irilh me? ■ . 
Deliverer! j'es ! thiiu dost not fear! 

'iliou « ill go (111 Willi nic V 
■Soil on. Hail on I' uuulh Thalaba, 
' Sail on, in Allah '« name !' 
"The moon ih bright, the sen is calm, 
llie lillle boat ridei mpidly 
AerosH the ocean waves ; 
Tlie tine of inoiiuiUKht on th« deep 
Still followi aa Ibcy voyago ou : 

Oeniua ami Cim'aefer ofSouti*^. 


Tlic Miiida arc molionlem ; 
1 he penii* uaif n RcntI}' pwt 
111 dimple* ruiuul tlii: pruw. 
H« look* abare, hu luuka Rniuiid, 
The bi>iuidI(»B bonvcu, ibc bountUr^ »cn. 
The crcBrvnt moon, the lillk bont, 
NouKbl elsu above, bdow." 

The Cur»c of Kolmniit in Xfw free and n!tnl>]« tliao Tlmliilm. 
A tropical heat aecnia t» reside id ita Bometimes a)l but iotoler- 
ftlile BplcDilour. a tropical vegetation to onitnfttc and inform ito 
gieuitic and portontou« growths. All this i« 114 it sliouhl K', 
anu ahowH at oiico liow lively itn<l welUilirefteil wn." the autlmr'n 
i magi nation. Wv rcully f't-d in nassing from Tlialaba to Kcliuina 
tliHt vre have piitised from Arabia to India. 

That <»pci-iat gcniud of Southt'v for constructing a plot of 
which vre hnvi; inailu ini;nliDn, »tan<lM forth very conepiouoaalv 
here. Never were oiaterialit more unproDiising. The prelimi- 
nary to the whole plot — Kehama's iire*i8tiWc power— ii« a notion 
80 mon«tronii and uncongenial to the Kiiropcjin, if not to the 
Hindoo mind, the i^cunc of more llinu half the talc bcini; in 
other worlds, the luver of the heroine not Iwing a man, anu the 
strange and invrcdiblc cosmography — all threaten to deprive th« 
poem of anything like human interest. Yet in the author's 
tiandi< none of tlic«e hindrances are allowed to have power. We 
hang n'ilJ) absorbed attention on each crteis of ]vailyid'i> fate, — 
albeit, licr foe \f an almighty man, and her lovor a Glcndoveer ; 
and she liei'iteJf iit sometimes in the Swt-rga, and ai others in 
Padalon. Still alie ii* to wn a iHsiiitiful earthly maiden . human 
in all her joya, sorrows, bopee, and fcar^. One thitip e<Ttjiiiily 
heljw the dtor)', and that w curiwity. U in »o diffieuli to wn- 
ceive wlial iH>K!<ililc extrication can be found for Ladurlnd, 
Kailyal, or the Untrerae itself, from the difficulties caused by 
Kalmnia's achievement of unbounded power, that a rcadcr'o 
inin<l must be strangely constituted who docs not cither go on 
or look at the encL And never wiw anything more finely 
imu};uied tliMi tlutt extrication ; never was a *«ul man repre- 
sented as liim8elf working out his own ruin on so large a scide ; J 
never was a truer lesson taught those wlm hi« after power, than I 
that nothing " less than omniscience can snflice to wield onini^j 
polenco. Aller having by his successful accomnlisliment ofj 
sacrifice wrung the gift of omnipotence from tnc reluctanti 
gods, — after having conquered Patlalon and its lord, he must 
needri drink out of tlic Atnrcutk cup, which, by rendering hini 
hnmorta), would make him ultogethcr a god. The triumph of 
evil Mcme at hand, for by the laws of things, after «uch saciiticos 
as his, that cup cannot be refused him. Kailyal ap]>eai's dextimsl 
to become ti»e victim of hia wicked will, fwim which not even the 
power of S«evn Aeema able to prewrvc her; and if sb« "(ill 
rcfu»e compliance, her father in to pay the pcnidty in cndlew 


Geni»» and Charaettr of South/n/. 

torture. But oven when the Universe ^cirnw iihoiit to pass 
under tJic sway of evil, the holy will rciiiains firm — 

" She auBworcd. 1 Lnv<> saiil, it tnii8t ooL bv, 

Alini^hly in tliou nrl, 
lliou 1ia«t put nil Ihin)^ undumcinth i.\\y feet; 
lint Blill the ri-solulf li<Mirl 
And viTtiipiis will aro fWiC 
Nci'or, obi never, never, rnii lliprc be 
Cum muni on, Itajnb, between thee oiid mp." 

' EebuDft tcecivee tlic cup, uttvrins bIiii)[ihciiiicB ngiimst the 
supreme power willi whom ne now thinks to cope, little knowing 
what he iH ubout. 

" O fool of drunken Impu&nil frantic vicel 

MAdninn ! Id iicvk for power beyond th;^ scape 

or kuu IV ledge, and to deem 

Less tlinn t)iiiniiiieicnco couU aufRee 

To nicid Omnipoldicc ! O fcoJ, to drcnm 

Thut immurliiiity cuuld be 
'Hia mceti of ciil! — yen tbou bftsl it now. 
Victim or thine own tricked benrt'o ileviee. 
Thou hnut thine objeet now, aud now tnunt pny the priee. 

" lie did not know the holy myirtory 

Of that divine-st eiip, dial iii the liun 

Which toiich it, even meh it« iiunUlv. 
Oood or miilij^nanl : Maiininul nna lu^ iKinks 
The bIcxHcd prixc is won, and juy fully he drinks. 

" Tlien Seova opeu'd on the Aceuwed One 
llii; eye of nn^r: upon hini atone 
The nTnlh-benm I'eil. He shudders — but too Inlc; 
11)0 deed in dune. 
The dreadful liijuoF works the will of Fate. 

Iiumnrtnl ho would he. 
Immortal bu i.i mnile; but Ilmiiig;h liis vein* 

Torture at once and immorlulily, 
A uttenm of poison dolli the Amreeia run. 
And while tnthin the hiimiiiL' anguish flows, 

Hi* mituard body gTono 
Like moliFii oi*, beni-nth the avenging eye, 
Dooia'd thus l» live and buni etenially." 

Southev wail iiln-nys at home Jiinonp; lofty thoufthl*, winl ruing 
heroic firnh and fortilndt; in ^liiiinif worthy of Uii? suhjeet. 
Witnciw the following nohle dcHcriptiou of Ludurlitd under tlus 
8wny of the cui-ae :^ 

" Tliut M*T. in her father's donting eye. 

Knilyal perromi'<l the euslumary n(e ; 

fie, pnitenl of liia burnltiit pain (be while. 

Heboid her, And approved ber pioux toil ; 

And sometiiQcs at the sigbl, 

A nckneboly imile 

Wonhl clMm upon his nnfvil eountenAiicv. 

ilc loo by dajr nml niglil, nnd wtry hour. 

Genius awl CAamcttr of Soutiey. 

V*iA la a liigliet poirer bin Mcrilice : 
\a oflering, not oricbcc, or Trull, sad riLf, 
FlovcMiroitn. or blood ; but of » hear) nubducd, 
A raaluE«^ uQconqucr'd Ibrlitade. 
An aguH}- Tai>t«ttt, a kUI rengii'd, 
To bat, nbo, on bor aecrot (lin>n« racltn'cl. 
Amid ilie sea of milk, hj VooUuhw'* die, 
Lifuks tritb on eye uf tncrcy on ounlunit. 
By till' PKservur, witli liu power oidued, 
Th(«e VonniJnvcc heboid* this loirnr climo. 
And morks the siknt mJterinic* of the rood. 
To KCOiupenM ibem iu hta omi good time." 

Nothinj; hut at^titiil j>crui>it1 can "ive a iiotion of the gorpctm* 
upk-ridour "f this jxiciii, — its \a»\ {>luiigiii|r luclwdu-JH, its" iljix/.lmg 
iiuiig«ry, iM tiiiliulin)^ oj>uK?ni!c ftud siililiniity. The tiinoral of 
Arvalan, tlic Swerga, Klount Mem, the Bctrcat, the eubuiorinc 
city of Baly, au<l, above and beyond all, tlic cthci-cal luHX'iit of 
Mount Culiway, itrc ciicli iu in turn among tin.' inu<>t iiiogai- 
fir«tit diMnlavrt of tlie iuingiimlion witJi whivh wc nm acquainted. 
EverylMHiv knows tlie lieautiful linen in Mount Mcru, begin- 
ning — " 'they Bin who tcU ua Love eao ilie," bce.-iuei; everybody 
hiia seen iu IxMjka of vxlruuta ; but cverybiHly iluea not 
know how much more InMiUtiful ihcy arc in tlio place where tl«y 
ue.cur, and niiiSd the context to wbicli tJioy belong. And tJicrc- 
foro, tor the sake of such, wc will q»ot« it alonp: with that ; and who know it in aucli connexion will not quarrel with ua 
for doing so. 

'■ Ob happv giro. Mid lidp|}V dnuKbter I 

Ye on the Duikii of tlini cMutiu n«lor 

YuuT rrating pLu^i- uiid Buticiunr}' have found. 

What I haih not then their luurtal lauit doftM 

The Mcred soUlnrv KToiind ! 

Vniii IhcniKlill the Hnfy Vnlkv cmilcd 

l(c<:Hiviu|; audi u i'm and cliilil ; 

(!nneos, nho opein'd nslecp to lio, 

Dehmd llirnn niili honi^uit cj'O, 

And riptiUid round mi-lmlionil}- 

Aiid roird liCT litllf muvcb to ucel 

And welcome their beloved foot, 

(he plies oTifiicrga tliithcr fled, 

And boii*«sily odouM iliere wore slicd 

About, below, aad overhead: 

And esTth nrjolring in their tr^Ful, 
Hatb htnit tbcm up a blooming bnwer,* 

When trrvTj «marni)thiue fluwer 

It* doatUen bloMom inlcrwearea 

With bright aad undecnyijis leaves. 

" Three happy beinfri nrp tlirre here, 
The Sin.% the Maid, the Olendovrer, 
A ftiurtb approacheH, . , . «lio is ihia 

That raters in the Bower of IIIIhh t 

No fiirm an fair miKht pniiiter find 

Among tbe daughtora uf niaakind ; 


7B Getiimand Charaetrr 0/ Scuti^y. 

For danlli hor bmiitii^i linth nrlin'J, 

And unto ber b form hntb given 

^^^B Framed of the elementii of Heaven ; 

^^^^m Pure dnellin); plnce for perfect mini). 

^^^H She stood nnil gnxed on Sire and Child ; 

^^^H Her lonfTue not yut had power to spc-iik, 

^^^H The tesTs were streAinin^ down her cheek ; 

^^^B And when those tcnrs her ai^ht beguiled, 

^^^^r And -itil! h<T fnllcriiig nueeDtB fail'd, 

^f The Spirit, mute Hnd motionless, 

H Sprciid out her arms for the cnrem, 

H Mnde s^till nnd silent ivith ex<VAs 

^K. Of life nnd potufid hnpplDesB. 

^^^B " The mnid thnt lovely form suney'd ; 

^^^^m Wistful she i-oKed. and knew fa^r not, 

^^^B But Nftture to her lienrt convey'd 

^^^K A sudden thrill, a Htsrtting thought, 

^^^H A feeling many a year forgot, 

^^^^K Notr tike a dreajii aneit recurring, 

^^^^1 A« if Afcain in every vein 

^^^H Her mother's milk ivds stirring. 

^^^^ With BtrBininB neck and earnest eye 
She Btrelchd nee liands imploringly, 

^ An if she fnin would hnvc her nleh, 

^f Yet f«ar'd tu meet the wisli'd emnr'it^e. 

B At ODCO with love and nwe oppre-st. 

B Nol BO Ladurlad ; he could trnee, 

^L Though briehlen'd with imgelie ^nco, 

^r His onu Vcdilliun's enrdily face ; 

^m Ho ran and held her to his brcoatl 

H Oh joy above all joya of Heaven, 

B IBv Uearh ulune to ulbon given. 

H Tuis moment lialh to him restored 

B The early lost, the long-deplored. 

B "Tliev »in who tell uh Love cnn die. 

B WiOi life all other ptwsions fly, 

B All otbcrj) arc but vnnity. 

B In Heaven anibiti-ju entinut dwell, 

^m Nor aruricr in the vaiillx of Hell 1 

B Bartbly these passions of (be ICarth, 

B Tliey peruh uLvre tLvy bavE their birth ; 

B But Love i» indestructible. 

B Iti holy flame tor ever hurnet.b, 
H From Heaven It came to Heaven rcturaeth ; 

H Too oft on Earth n troubled gnmt, 

H At timci docejved, nl time* oppre^t. 

^L^^ It here is tried and purified, 

^I^K Then hath in Ik-nveo ils perfect resl: 

^^^B It Howetli here with toil and care, 

^^^^H But the harvest time of I.ovc in (here. 

^^^H "Ohi when n Mother meets on high 

^^^^1 The Ilahe ihc lotil in infancy, 

^^^H Hath she not then, for pains and (car*, 

^^^B Tlie (lay of woe, the watchful night, 

^^^B For all her xorroo', all her Icnni, 

^^^ Au over-payment of delight.'" 

_ We Iwve s{tokcD ol' the cadIo entitled Afoiiut Culftsay, w the 

Getint and OharaeUr ofS^h^. 


(ineat part of the Curso of Kchuntu In fact, few thing* urc 
aubliincr than ErccniaV long lUCcnt to Sccfa'e throuc, and llic 
foQtal glory which revcftlecJ itwlf tlmrc. Tlicre wAm^taphv 
titat beauty about it not very common in Suulhcy's works ; lor 
probably, to liave lived with Coleridge, no man has eTer aliown 
n rini(>onflity to incl,iphy*ii!.« in Miy form. Our readers iniitt 
folloir firecoia to the eumiuit of Mount Culiuny : — 

" Ne'er did «aeh tliniif^hC of lottj> dmng enter 

CdeatuU Spirit'it oiimL nild adveBtnre 
Tlial [hrttnc to llnd, fur hu mufti lenve bekiml 
Thia World, tliAt in iIir orotro, 
Within ita wtlt-aea jprdlc, lie* eon^Dod ; 
Ye* Ihe Seven Earths Out, each with iii uvru ocMn, 
RiDg duping linfi composo the miglily ruiuid. 

wliot paircr ofmnlion. 
In loHH ibaii endlwu ycara xlull bear him lli«rfl, 

Along tlie limilleM utent. 
To (he iitmoM bound of the r«nu>tc8t Bph«n» i 
What fitrmfctb nf nintc 
Suffice to pierei- the Ooldeii Firmanwut 

Thnt closes nil within ; 
Yet be fakth pMi'd lliu muiinurrlrtib eitent 
And pierced tlio Golden Firmnmcat; 
For Failh linlU givi-n him power, auil Space and Hme 
Vftiiiijb bi'fure (hut ^iier^f sublime. 
Nor doth cicnul Hifhi 
And outer IMrkncM chock hi* rciiolutc flight ; 
B^' >lri>n|; desire tbrouKh all be tnakeii hi* naj-. 
Till Sueva's Sent apprnm, — behold Mount Colnitajr ( 

" Behold the SUr«r Mountain 1 round about 
Seven laddiT* stand, no liigh, the aching eye, 
Seeking their tops in vain nniid the sky. 
Might deem they led Troiu cnrlh to higbcot H«von. 
Ages would pns« away. 
And worldK nith age de<'jiy, 
Ere one whoae patient feet rnim ring to ring 

Must win tlieir upward nay. 
Could reach Ih* atimmit of Mount Caksny. 
Rnt that aCranK power that nerved liia wuig, 
That aUHiurmotiniiuR wilt, 
Inteiuity of faith and huLicst lore, 
Sustain'd Krcenin otill. 
And he hath jpun'd the plain, the a&nctuary above. 

" Lo, ibcTO the Siher Bell, 
That nclf-siiatain'd, hanir" buoyant in the air, 
Lo! the broad Table there, iuo bright 
For mortal sielit. 
From whoso four aide* the bord^ing gnna nnilc 
Tbcir hannoiiiiiinK rara. 
In one mid fount of many-coluur A Hgbl, 
The Btieam of aplendoBr, HaahJng an it flowK, 
Play* round, and tnAa the aUm of yon eclcHtiiil ttoM 1 
Where ia the aagc whaae wiidom ean declare 
The hidden things of thai myslcrioua flower. 
That flower which aenca all roysteries lobearT 

Omiu* ttnd Chiiraettr t^'SoutAty. 


Holding Ibc I'^ibk-m wlikh no lotiipie me-y tvlU 

Is (lim tlie II(<ftvtin of Hcsvona, where Sccva's self dolh dwell f 

" )IcTC fiwt tlic nlmdovccT 
Felt liis winK lilt);, nnd pauDcd upon hU fli){ht. 
Wna it thut fi^nr came over liiiu vihaa liurev 
ll« buw llie iniHi'iiicd tlirouc fljipear I 
Nol to, ftir Ills immortal night 
Kndiircil llic: Tnljlc'i liaht ; 
Uiaiincll]' hv lichvli) nil ttiiiigB arouud, 
Aiid douht and wonder rose niihin liis mind 
That tlii» VIM all lie found. 
fluwbm he liflrd up bin voice and spake. 
There in oppri'ssioii in ihu world l)el<j» ; 
Kartb ^onn> hcnontli llie yoke ; yen, io her woe. 
She nakH if the nvcngcr'a eye is blind '! 
Airakc, O Lord, Awake I 
Too lon^ thy vc iii;oniic« i^lccpeth. Holiest One ! 
1*111 ihoti thy (cTM>rH on for mercy's !inki% 
And strike uie blow in jusliiv to munkind ! 
" So as h« prayed iatonser faith he felt, 
HiR spirit Mopni'd to nielt 
With nr<lcnt yiMirnin^ of incrcaring Ioto; 

UpivHrd he (urii«d Ills eyes 
As if (here should Iw sotnothing yet nhovo: 
l.rt inr not, Scevn ! seek in vmii ! he crien ; 
'I'hou Art nut here — for hntt should iheae euntnin thee t 
Thou nrt not hcri^— for huvr should I stistaiu ihucC 
Uul then, where'er thou nrt, 
CnnsI hear the voice of prayer. 
CnnBl read (lie righteous licnrL 
Tby dwellinn "ho rjin tell, 
Or who, O Lord, hath >cen thy ncicrel Ibmne! 
Dut thou art nul alone. 
Not iiQftpproaclMhlo I 
O olI-conlaJnitiK Mind, 
Thou who art every nhcre, 
Whom 111! who »ccK shall ihid, 
Ileal' inu, O Scovn 1 hear the suppUnnt'i prayer! 

" So •nying. up he nurung, 
And Wmck the Bell, whiih Belf-auaponded hung 
Bcforo the rnvBlic Host. 
[•'rom side ti> »ide tho silver tonpue 
MelodiouH swiinc, and far and wide 
Suul-lhriUing tunes of heiivenly inuaic rung;. 
Abaah'd. cunfouud«d, 
It left the (ilpndovctr — yc-a nil naloiuidcd 
In overpowerin^c fcnr nnd deep dismay ; 
For when that Bell had -louiidcd, 
The fio»ti, ni(U all the nivstwlM it siirriuuded, 
The ttcll, tlie Table, and Mount C^nlniinv, 
Tlie holy Hill iWelf vritli all tliereon, " 
Evcu a4 A moriiinj; dream before th« day 
Di^solvtis anay, they fjvdcd and were ^ue. 

" Whurt' nbuU he real hia wing, where tuia for flight. 

For all nrouud is I^ght. 
IVimal, (v^Kiciitial, all-pervading Uglitl 
Heart cauuot think, nor luugue doclan, 

Gmiitf and dartuter o/So*ifie>>. 

tilt pj'cs 'if Aii(rel bmr 
Thai |[lury lUiimaKinaU)' bri^t; 
The Sun lumttelE bad aoem <) 
A apeck of (UrkncM iberv." 

And here wc niiMt notice one e<necuil felicity in live Curev of 
Kehaunn, that wliiic it «11 secnui Iliiitloo, il \» M-itro-ly lirathcn. 
Ilic idoliitnms <!reedaand wowhip are dexterously invejied witli 
the litghest sgdso of whlcli tlicy tire esimble-, and nuHic to lioi'dcr 
OD a higher still. The inferior divinities arc merely niwle to be 
good and luul created spirits, uid Seeva id tlw! one living and 
true OixJ. The atory, too, considered in it(*elf, ha^ every 
advantage for an Epic. Luis do Loon may tiare gircn the 
hint of its fitness to SoutheVi in that noble imitation of the 
Prophecy of Pcreu*, beginning "Tolgiita <•) Jley R<'ilrigo." 

But Soiitlk-v is greater still w hen he Hurroinubi hiin.'O-ll with 
ekrietian ritual and associfitiDDs. Wc speak not of Madoc, which 
witliall its merit is crude, bnt of that poem in nhich ]u» genius had 
it« iiiU exercise, and all hie di^inclive powers luul scope. ^Vflll• 
dcri'ul M are the splendount of Keliauia, we pntfer to be nearer 
home, to plant our footsteps on a finn -soil, to nnilerstand llic 
faces and the mannvn ftitmud it*. In n word, we like to Iw in 
Europe, ill Christendom. Mr. Soutln'y's gcniuB Iike<l to he so 
loo, and thcrvfore wns it more at home, and in Adicr health and 
vigour in Ko<liM'ick tliaii in niiy of lii^ other pocmf. The eub- 
}cet. of tiiat work i>088C«»ed one luh-nntagc for an epic, which 
vn» wanting to the otliera. It hml a pi-cvious intcri-«t for u», 
and a connexion with ourselves, and the ntirriiig evoiiti* of our 
own age. In tlie preface to Joan of Arc, our author alhidca to 
its having "been c:!talili''hed iw a necessary nile for the epic, 
tlutl the mbjcct should be national," with ubviiiuf> dittparage- 
nient. There is no absolute noceaj^ity, poriiajw. for tlie subject 
being national, but it should at least l)e congenial; and such the 
root and original of tlto Spanish monnrcli^' very eminently were 
at tlic time when Kodcrick appeared. In connexion with timt. 
nation had Knrope ju»l been delivered, our own ci>untryim'ii liml 
just reaped tlicivlauroljamongthemountainB, where Pciiiyo re art^l 
Ills standard, and established nis throne — the poet liiniMf knew 
and loved that l.ind — its cnpnoinii" liti-nitnrc was bis delight, and 
there wa» no oixiinary ntlinity bettveen hU own noble nnlnrt' and 
the beet features of the SpanUh character, tliereibre i* Uoileriek 
Southey's noblest work. Although its subject be historical, the 
story, as wc have it, is entii'cly the author's own devising, and an 
admirable and deeiily intt^resilnj; one it is. Tlie «itiiatiiiii3 of 
Kodcriek and Floniida, when iJiey mirl. by night on their wny 
to the Asturiai-, of Itodcriek and Uusill:! at Canpaf, of licidi rick 
and Sivcrian, whenever tbcy fall towtlier, are aw limdy imagined, 
and as intensely interesting ammylJung we know in fiction. Tbi> 



80 Qmituand Chanicter of fioiithetf. 

olabomtion and finuJ coii!«tiuiumtiuu of the plot arc triit- to 
the granil(r*t principles of art ; we scarcely knnw n statelier 
Story, one that proceeds with a more majestic step, or thiit comes 
to a nobler ending. Its sublimity, too, unlike that uf Kchama, 
is eoncncJ by fre<]uent touches of the deepest pathoe. How 
beautiftiUy do tlie two Ijlend in tlic prophetic \i»ioii seen by 
Roderick in his penitential retreat — 

■' Thiia he cried, 
Esaing Uie preKHuro uf bis burtliened hvart 
With paaslonate prater i ihua poured his Hpirii forih. 
Till thn \fin% effort hnd exhnualcd him. 
Ilin spirit fniled, nnd liijing on the );rave 
Hm wcurv hi^Hd, us uii n piUuw. sleep 
VfW tia liim. Hf lind pvnyed tn hcnr a voice 
Of consolntion, and in drenni3 a voice 
or tuDBulntiun cami?. Roderick, it aaid, . . 
Biidiricli, my poor, mihuppy, jiiiifnt rliild. 
Jesus have mnrcv on thcc: . . Not il' Heaven 
llud opeii(*d, uiJ Kumano, viable 
III h IF* Villi tilde, hnd breathed (li«l priijer; . , 
Not if the grnvc hod spoken, hnil it pierced 
So deeply in his soul, nor wrung bis lienrt 
With such compunctious vititiiiypS nur^ivuu 
So (iiiiuk, so keen n pnng. It iviu thnl voice 
Which iimg: \m frctliil infaiicv to slcpp 
So putk'nttj' ; which soulhcd hiii cliildish !;rien> ; 
Ciinii«oll<'d, with iko^iidi nnd proiihclic team. 
Ilii hcndiili'oi>K youth. And In ! his Miilhcr tlood 
Before hun in the viiiiou ; in thoav' weeds 
Whicli never from the hour when to Iho grava 
Sbc followed her dwir lord Theodofrrd 
Ruailla laid luidc ; hut in her fncc 
A Borrow Uiul hi'apnke ii heaiii-r load 
At henri, and iii^ire iminilitfiiled woe, , , 
Yen n more mortal wrelchoilncji* thnn when 
WiliEBB riifliiiiui luid (he rud-ho< brnHS 
Had dnne (heir work, and in her ariiiB ahu held 
I ler eycles* hu.ihniid ; wiped awny the hvt em 
Which still his tortures forced from cvcrv pore; 
Cooled liii scorched limb:* with inudicinul herbs, 
And prayed the while for piiticncc for hemelf 
And him. nnd prayed for vciiRennee l»o. and foniid 
Beat comfort in b«r ciir«M. lu his drenm, 
nriiaiiiii^ hi- knelt before licr lo beseech 
Her biennial!;, nnd "lie raiAcd Iter hnndx to lay 
A benediction on blm ; but those hand* 
Were chained, and cnsling a nild look nrntmd, 
With thrilli»K voice she criwi. Will no one break 
These ■hunii'fnl fcllers ; Pedro, Thriidcniir, 
Athanafrild. where are je ; Itoderiek'i arm 
I» ailher'd — Chiefs of Spnin, but where are yet 
And ihon. Pclnyo, thou our siirest hope. 
Dust thou loo alrept — Awake. Pelayn .' — up ! — 
Why Urne«l lliou. DoliTcrrr f— Bui willi thai 
She broke her bonds, and In 1 hor form waa changed \ 

Gfttiut aikt fVt/tra<rtit o/fihvti^y. 


Raduunt in arrnn ihe ilnod ! n blondy C'ri^M 
Gkunwl (in her brvnst-plalp. in lier nliivUI iliaplafed 
Erect n lion ramprd ; bvt licinx'ii liMtl 
Rose like Lhu BcrMynthian Goildtui crovneA 
Vkh uirfn, luid iii ber drendriil luind the xirotd 
Red M « Am-bnuid blaKed. Asuii the tramp 
Of honemeb and ilic din of mtilntadm 
Moving la inurUl cooSici, rang arnunil : 
Tbe biiIlIr-»ooir, llif clan^ uf aword and idueld, 
Wnr-criex xtiH ttimiilt, Hlnfc niid hnt« and ragfi 
EUaiplicmuua pra}'cr<. i7onfu).ion. njtciny, 
Roul and piUMiil aiid dv.illi ; mid over all 
Tlie Khom <rf lictory— Spain and Viclory ! 
Roderick, as Ihc xtrimx viuiou niiwlcrcj liim, 
Rualifd to tlic fijilil n.'j»tciiig: sinrluitt Iben 
A* hU <inii cfl'^i bum ih» charin of ^eep, 
He fbuod kimtrlf iipnn ilinl lonHy irraTC 
In oioooli^ht and in nilcari^. Bui iW drntm 
Wruajtht i:i liiin Alitl ; fur slill he iWt bis li«an 
Paai, and hiH wiilirrcd nrm has tmmblin;^ still ; 
And itill that vnicc wiu In liU car nhirh railed 
On Jmuh for hii sake." 

W« are {lersuiuled ilitil, tut a work of art, Hoclcrick requires 
to be Ikr more attentively atuOied than it has geDerally been, 
»ai thmt in tku refit>cct it is ncrlmpH tlic ino#t cxecltunt which 

^bu beeo prmluccd by Eii"]ati(l iii tlic pivscnl diir. From begin- 
ning to end, it i-ionc carenilly worked out whole, on which what 
teem the most cluince touches, will be found to have a bearing. 
lt« different cadences have their especial significnnce and pro- 
prielv. With «hnt n fine austero pulcninily, for c.xainnlc. w the 

I'lil^don) of t!»C Ciotli.t dinulMHed into the jHiat, while the author 
» preparing to »Ing the birth-pauga of a new and mightier 

"Then fell the kinjirdoiii of the Gotlis : ibrirhour 
Waacomi:, mid Tciigcennrr, Icng wilhlicld, wrat looH. 
Famine kiuI peitilcnce bad iraaicd them. 
And trcimuii, like an old and eatinK sore, 
Conuinvd tbo boiiM and atnewa of llidr ttmifth i 
Andj tront of mcnuo, their md» vera armed 
AgainM Uictn." 

Tliere U one particular in which Itodcrick etand« alone, so 
far a» we recollect or know aiuong epics. Ita hcroiHin takes A 
form tinknown to tliosc of old. It ik a picture of monlv peni- 
teDce,-~li)e bcKHnn is thut of a humbled, nbnued man, a broken 
ud ■ contrite hearL A uoble soul that had tried to live with- 
out gnce, amid kingly circumatance and deeds, find.-' lliat so 
living, it falls into » depth of degradation auch an it would have 
shuddered bcforehiutd to contemplate. A whole country's ruin 
ia tlic stern oonKqa«»C«, iIh; bitter fruit that must be gathervil 
from a wrerngn** ain. But the great dccpi* of lits heart are 
. itimd. Uc turtts to the Lord his Uod, in weeping, in fiu>tin)r, 
and pntyer, and in tlic dcrelopinCDt of his oviQ waY« T«x\ft'«u, 

HO. XXXt. — .V, S. Jl 



SB GeHtw and CharacUr ofSoulhtg. 

is involved a second and better birth to his belovecl countrj'. 
He, himselft is well content ilint it Hiould he »« ; wi^ll content 
thnt hii* own name should be Ibfl to \\w infiiiuy it had deserved; 
well content to forego crown tuid kingdom, and re)>utation, and 
under a new and myaterioua and isoEitcd name, to achieve the 
deliverance of Spain. This te a noble and excellent nictuie, 
one Cor which ii s)ib>>titutc cflnnot ciisily be funnd elsewnere in 
poetry, and it ou{rlit tu bo dour to all christian men. What 
precioHfl Ynici are thopo winch narrate how the unrecognised 
Rtxlerick firat of all men gave in his allegiance to Pclnyo, ns 
king of Uic new dynasty round whicli the hones of Spain were 
to cather, how he took care that none snould suspect the 
forlciture to which he was thereby a party, and to which Pekyo 
himself would have been the laet to consent, — how in that 
moment and act of re-constituting Spain, while Pelavo and 
Sivetian wei-e moved by a ihoiwand recollccliona of the cherished 
put: — 

" Roderick nlnne nppenrcd 
Unmoved and calm, for now tiiD Rojrnl fiotb, 
H«d afTered his accepted Mcriflcr ; 
And ibcrrfoTc in !iU soul he fell that pence. 
Which ftiUnwH pninM duty wpU ptrformM j 
PiTfi'ct mid henvealy peaci-, the Fe«cc of God!" 

Perhaps thero is no one of Southey'n poetical works in which 
the purity and beauty of his English Btylc arc more distinctly 
visible. Ila ahj>enco of everything a|iproiiehing to eecenlricity, 
helps to manifent thii*. How cxouiKitt'ly expressed, and in 
itself how full of gentle beauty amia the scenes of tierce war, 
is the following night-piece 1 

'■ Soothed by tlio strain 
Or«iiHi discoiirfc, Julian was nilont thrn. 

And Bnic contemplating. Florindu too 

Wan cftloieih If 40iy< c:vpcri«<iico iniiy bo Ihougbt 

Tn tonvh Ihe nicx of ndvcraity, 

She said, nlns '. trho belter learned (hiui I 

In thnt ssd school! MMbblts If y«i uoiilJ know 

How \i^llalion» orrnlaiaity 

Affcrt Iht^ iii(m« soul, 'tU shown thee there I 

Look yonder al ihnt doud, uhioh through tbe sky 

Sullng alone, doth crog« in her career 

The tnlling moon ! 1 watched it ,« it came. 

And deemed the deep opnke would blot lii'r beams ; 

Bui, melting like n irrcath orxiiuK, it hait^ 

la folds otmry Mlvur nmnd. ntul clothoi 

The orb with richer bonntios limn her own, 

Tlmi pasting, leovea her in her light lercne. 

Thus having; BBid, the pious milTcrcr sn(e. 

Beholding with liii'd eyeu Ihnt luvciv orb, 

Till quiet (ears coii(\iac(l in iliEiy liicbt 

The broken moonbcamti. They loo by tht toil 

or spirit, B» by trnvuil of the ilny 

Snbaued, were xilvtit, yielding to thu hoar. 

The >HvcT cload dilTusini slowly past. 

Genfai and CkararUr ofStittk^. 


And nnir iotn ita airy elenircnts 

KnulMsl ia gotiv ; nbilc thraujcU th« Biura depth 

Alon* in htavcn die gluhuua moon punum 

Her course appointM, laitli indllferaot benou 

SkiBiiig upon the nlent btJlii aroiiad. 

And the diirk Icuu ol'tliat unho!^ host 

Who, all uiicontdnuH of inipcnifiui; &ie, 

Take their la.iI alumber (h«rc. The citmp is still ; 

Hw fires luLvi- mouldFred. nnd th« hrccKc which itln 

Hie tod and Mtowjr «nb«r«. jii<it laj** bare 

At timea a ted and erannik-cnl light. 

Or Ibr a nuwient wbJcm a feeble jlamc 

Thvn hj the foiinEalii hear the stream below, 

Whom mvnniirs, an ihc wind itrosi' or ftU, 

Fuller or Mnter reach the ear attiinrd. 

And now the nightingale, not diitant far, 

ilcgan her solilar.v iwiic; and poured 

To the cold moon a richer, itron^r *f rain 

Thttu lliHI willi whit-'h (he lyric lark talaica 

The noir-bom day. Her deep and Uirilting «ong 

Seemed wiih iu jiicrcinfc mclodjr to t<acb 

The coul, and in mj-ili,'.n<iuii unison 

Blend wllli all thoughtH of nntleoeita and lore. 

Their haarta «ere open to ilie healing power 

or nature ; and the splendour of ilie night. 

The flow of vaien, and ihni iiwe*I«t lay 

Came lu tbcm like a copious cveninft dew 

Falling on vrninl herbs wblL-h tlitnii fur rain." 

Ttic repentance of Count Julian. Mil nbeolution and com- 
munion received from Hocifrick'e hands, and then bid own 
■stoniitlied forgiveness of liici, arc finely conceived, but we must 
turn onr thoughts to tJie mugnificcnl cuiisunimatioii. We ma; 
help our readers hy means of what we have to sav of, and (|uotc 
fruiii it to tix huw iterfect n work of art this whole poeni b ; 
hut the full percc]jliiin uf tliid, of itc unity and enlircnesa, is to 
be attained, u'c c:in assure thoin, only by a careful »tu<ly of the 
whole. Twice throu^'hout the poem, Itoderick apjiciurs in 
battle ; first, at the beginning in that disastrous combat wherein 
bU hi« akiil and counigc were rain against the judgment of 
heaTen, and failed to prejervc hi^ crown and kingdom ; wherein 
friend and foe alike thought timt he hud periiJied: but both 
were mitftaken, for, even while he fought — 

" Desperately in sc*t\^b of death 
llie arrowa pua'd hiiu by to right aud lellf 
The »p(^nr-point pierced mm not, the scymilar 
Glanced Irum hit lielmci. ' Is the sliield ol'hcaTeu, 
Wrelch thai I nin,extcndc>J overmer 
Cried Hoderiok."' 

And once again at the close, he coinee like a vision and leads 
bis ooantrymcQ to victory. We oiniiot restrain oumlvcs from 
giving copious specimens of the last book of Koderick, than 
which WW know little in rcepct^t to iiiiLiie, scenery, cventa, 
words, or tltought«, more altogether spirit-stirring. It is full of 


Gtniiu and Character of Southeg, 

Dtgnlficencp. and vet to our ininile wonderfully pnthetic The 
coogi '■ 
I place. 

LiDlMuUiceQci!, Him vvi lu uiir iiiiiiiie niiiiiicriuny piiiiicutv ^iic 
[rcfiognition for which th« rciidoi' lnw long (rnixt'd, nl length takes 
I v>iai>i>_ but liow ? 


" jV* Pedro ivould hnvc onswcri-il, n loud cry 
Of mcnnciiis imprccniiou I'roni ilm Iroupa 
Aruse ; for OqiiHi, by llie Moorish Chief 
Sent lo »lUy llie slorni his viltninf 
Mm\ jlirrcii, rnme hnstcning: on a milk-nUitc steed, 
And at trnfu di&iaucc buviug clivckcil i\\t ruiii, 
Beckoned fur pnrley. 'Twiw Orclio 
On which be rode, Roderick's cjwn but tie-horse, 
V>\\i' from bU tanator's hand bod »ont to feed. 
And u lib M gind dodlity tilie^ 
Hi* vnice fnmilinr. At the siRht the Goth 
Startled, ami indignntion to his sunt 
Brought buck the tboti^bt« fitid rcelina:^ of old ttmr- 
Suffin' me, Coum, be rrind, to nniwcr him. 
And hold lbe*e back the tvbilc .' Thus having sud, 
He trtillcd no rv\i\y. but as be uns, 
BnrebcHded, in bin ivrcds. nnd nil unarmed, 
Adt'onced toward* llie reneBiule. Sir I'rlest, 
Quoth Orpas nit be euTne. 1 bold no latk 
With thee ; my cmind is with Gundcriek 
And tbn Ciipiititis ofthi^ boni, to ubom J bring 
Such liberal olfurs mid dei\r proof . . . 

The Goth, 
llrenkinK "■'!■ «ecimfiil rnirc hia (pcech, exclaimed, 
What, coidd no aitxA but Kuderick'* sen'O thy turn F 
1 should buve tboii^bt aome sleek and sober inula 
Lung cmined in shncklei li> procession pnee, 
More suited lo ray lord ofSevillo's use 
Than till* %Di<A u ar-borse, , . lie who never bOM 
A villnln, imtil Orjiiih crust his hnck ! ■ . . 
Wretch \ cried tlic tutonisbed rencsndi-. nnd itoopt, 
fOHmiii!* ujlh unp.T. I'roni the ssddle-bovi' 
To reach hiN weapon. Kri^ tbe ha^tv hand 
IVemblins in pasrion could perform its will, 
Roderick nitd seised tbe reiim. How now, be eriedi 
Qrello ! old ctimpauion, . . my good horse, ■ . 
OIT with tliii ri-crennt burthen ! . . . And with tbnt 
He rnisod bin bund, and reared and backed the steed, 
To ihni remembered voice and arm ofjirtwer 
Obedient- Down tiie hclpiess traitor Jell 
Violently thrown, nnd Itoderirk over him 
Tlirice led vvitbjiial und unrelenting hnnd 
The trnmplinix hoitrH, Go join Wltita now, 
Where hi- lies howlin^r, the nvcnKcr cried, 
And lell him Itoderick sent thee! 

At that sight. 
Count Julian 'i mildiors atid the Aslurimi host 
Sot up ■ shout, a joyful shout, which ninp 
Wide through rhc welkin. Their csidling cry 
With louder acclnmation was renewed, 
When from tbe expiring mi*crcnnt'» neek Ihey mw 
Thai Roderick tuoic ihu shield, und round his owb 
Hung it, and raaltod in tbe seat. My hurne ! 
My noble horse ! he cried, with flancriiig hand 

Genius and Ciara^ier of Sentry. 


Pattinebis liiVli-aivhcd neck ! the r«Dcu;ailF, 

1 ihaBk liim lor'U balli kcpl tlici^ dnintuj' I 

Or«liu, tbuu art in lliy limuiy niill, 

Til}' priiie&iidHtr«ngth! Or«liu, luv ieduiI lione. 

Once more Uwu benrcut to the field tlij Lord, 

He wh(j >n oti hitlli fell wild cheruhrd thco. 

He for nliOMwke, wliercvcr thou ncrt vccn. 

Thou nert by all men lionoiircd. Oucc Rgain 

Thou hut thy proper miutcr ! Un thr purt 

Ab thou »eT[ ncitit ; aud btar him gloriuiulf. 

My bcauiiful Orrlio, . . to ilic Ivii . . . 

The hnppic-it of hi* licldji ! . . . 'Hien be dtvw forlb 

The KcymiiBr. irnil waring it aloft, 

Rode toward the lroo)M: lt« unaecuMomed sbape 

Dialikcd him ; RciM^iade in all ihingt! cried 

The (Sntb, and ciut il Irom him ; to the nhiefi 

Then anid, if I line Uodi' yc service hen", 

Hdp mo, I prav vou, lu it Simciiuh sword ! 

Th« trtMtiut bindc tlutt e'er iii [tilbilja 

Waa dipt, would not to-day be minbestoired 

On thi» right haiidl . . Go some oni^.Giuidenck cried, 

And brine Count Jnlina's iword. Whoe'er thou art. 

The worth vhidi thou hoat «howB aveoKiiM; him 

Entitles thee to vmar il. But tliou ^e«t 

For battle unci|uippcd i . . kaite there and atrip 

YuniiUuin of liiti nriniiiirt 

Late he apoke, 
So fn«t the Moors cane on. It mnltcm not, 
RMlied tlie tiotli ; tbcre'H many » muuuiaineer, 
WSo in M b«tt«raraiour rJtHnl i)ii» dr>v 
Than his wonted Imthcrn jtipion, will be found 
In the holleat battle, yet brio)C off nntouehcd 
The unenanled life he luutures . . . 'i'aking thco 
Count Jnlinn's tword, he Attcd mnnd bi» utitt 
The chain, and eycmit the elabornte steel 
With aluro regani ofjoy. n>* Afrii-an 
Under unhappy alnrs was bom, he rrjcd. 
U'ho tnntcii thy edge ! . . Make rcndy for the chai^ ', 
They come . . tliey come! . . On, brethren, to the field 
The void is Vengeance '. 

Vengesncp was tli« wordi 
From m^n to man, and rank to rank it put. 
By errry bearl enforced, by every vinee 
Sent furih in loud defiance of the foe. 
The riieniy in ahriller sounds returned 
Tbdr Akhnr and tlie Prophet's truateU name. 
The horieroen luitered theirspM'"' <lic inSuitT7 
Deliberately nith bIow Mid steady step 
Advanced; ibe bnw-strinKs iwnnu'd, and arrows his«cd. 
And jarelins hurtled by. Anmi ilie bustn 
Met in the shock ofba'ttle, hor«o and nan 
Conflicting -. shield slmck shield, and snord and mace 
And ctirilc-3\e nn helm and buckler niog ; 
Armour was riven, and wounds weir interchanged. 
And many a spirit from its motial huld 
Hurried to blis* or bale. Well did llie Chiefs 
Of JuUnn's army in that hour (npport 
Their old nteeni l and well Count Pedro llinw 
Enhanced his former praise i and by hia side. 

Qentu* atiti Ch<intctm- <ifSeutiey. 

Rqjolcmg; likn n brtdcirrnom in tbn iiirilb, rlirou^li ilic li(i?it of mliduts 

Bore uti Ills blutidy Ihiim dismny hnd death. 

Btit tbvrc WHH wornl confiKiou niid iipTnAr, 

Thrir widctt xlnaghter hikI dL-nnii}', where, proud 

or his nfcovered Lonl, Ornlio pliuiged 

Through ihlckcsl r&uk«, iraiii|iliii^ l>ciic>illi liii feet 

Tbo Uvui^ nnd ihc <lc«d. Where 'rr he lurnii 

7%e MaoM divide And fly. Wbnt man ii this, 

AppAlled tliey sny, who to (he frunt of nar 

Bareheaded olTeri IhiiA hiR nnked life I 

ReplclR with power he i», utid terrible, 

Like Bonie destrojins Angel ! Sure his lips 

Hnvo drank of Kal"« dni-k fuiinlnin, and lie eomo* 

Slroiig in his immortnlity ! Fly ! fly ! 

They nnidi thi» ia no human fou I , , Nor less 

Ol'Hiiiidcrr lilled rbu Sjinuiards when thiry saw 

IIiiw Ihuhl ftiiil terror went liefori- hi* miyi 

And sliitifrhlcr in hii pnth. liehold, rrio* one, 

V-'nii ivh.ll cumnintid and kni^hllr eiL4e ho nils 

Tlie int'ppid siimiI, mid Aenla iVum niilc In fci.lfr 

IIi« drendliil hlowi ! Not Brideriek ia his power 

Be!ilrod(- with BMi'h comtuand and iiia|eatv 

Thnl iKiWe wnr-horso. Hi« loose robe thi« day 

In denth'a hlnck hnnner, nhnkins Iron) its Toldii 

Diimny and ruin, iit no niorlnl niould 

U he who in thni garb of pence nffmuW 

Whole ho»I«, and seen ihcm sr.nltcr where he tnrna ! 

Auapii'iuus llvnvcn bi^bulda uh, luid sume Snint 

HcviHitD earlh I 

Aye, cries Another, ilenven 
Hktii et'er wllli especiitl bounty bUiit 
AbOTc nil other liinda in fiivoured Spnin : 
QiOOiiinE her chi'dcai forlli from nil maukiud 
For its peculiar people, as of yore 
Abraham'* un|iT*(eni] race hencnLh ibc Law. 
Who knoni not how on thitt moit holy ni|iht 
When I'l-aci' on Knrtli by AiiRi-lii was procUimed, 
The liirht vi'hirli o'lrr tht^ I'Lotd* ol' Uethfehein ahona, 
Irrudialed whole Spuin ! not just displayed, 
As lo the Shepherds, and agnin withdrawn; 
All the long winter hours I'ruin rve till morn 
Her forests nnd hrr mniintniu^ and her phiiiia, 
Her hiiU nnd vnlliex were cmh.ithrd in light, 
A lighl wbieh came not from ihe nun or moon 
Or atars, by secondary powcra dispensed, 
But (torn the fouEilain-iqirinffii, Ae Li^ht of Light 
ESIueul. And wherefore ihould we not bvlievo 
Thnt thii may be aoine Saint or .\iigel, ctuirired 
To load us lo miriK'uUius victory ( 
Hath not the Virgin Mollier nftentimBa 
Dntcending, clothed in tlory, sonetillcd 
With feet adornblo our liHppy soil! . . . 
Murked ye not. mid nmilher, how he cut 
In wrath the iinhxilnned sejmiiarnwny. 
And culled forChrii^linn weapon.' Oh be mire 
Thin ia the aid of UcaTen ! Uu, cooiradee, ob I 
A miroele ta-<lay ie wrought for Sjmib I 

Genius attd Ckaracttr i^Sovtlus. 


Victory and Vcncettnce ! Ilrw ibc mUcTcatiO down, 
AnU apnre not I beir Unirailuun in •ocrifire! 
God ia wttk ua I bis Saiuu arc ia tb« Qelcl ! 
Viciorjf ! Riiraipulonfl ViMory! 

• • • • • 

By thU tli« blooi) 
Wlucb I>«vn donn 1i«t faul diRsnel pnuml, 
PuTplinx nonlt'i counte. hod rcMliM uid itairiMl 
The wider striNunH uf Snllu. SooD Tar olT 
Tlifr rir(|Uk'ut glAitfo of 8i>c«n aii<t gleam of artiu 
Were Dccii, which iparklnl to llic wMlcriii^ orb, 
Whtt* dciun the vale impnlicnt (u ciimpicic 
I1ic< ^lurioui u'urk ao nell that diiy bpjpui, 
Petayo led lii* txoo\i*. On loot they cajmch 
ChieiUini and men alike; th« Oaken CrOM 
Triurapbant borne on bigb jtrecedcs tbeir march, 
And broad and brig bt the argent bauuvr ithonv- 
Rndrridi, who. liralintc death IVoBI sido l« side, 
llsd tliToti|;h Ibi- Miiurish nntir noir made way, 
fi«beld it Uiub, and judging; n«lt whnt aid 
Approached, ttllh anddon impulM ibnt way rodf, 
To tell oftrhaC bad paMod, . . leat in ibo sirife 
Tbcy should eagagc wilh Julian'* men, and roar 
The m)|-lity eunsunanallon. On« rau on 
To mcM him DocI of fcol, and baviDgeivcn 
His talo li) this »iiift moMCdgcr, tbc Oolk 
llaltojl awlttlo to let Ocdio brMth«. 
Sivvrian, ijiiotb PtJayo, if mine eyM 
]>ocuive iii« Qol, yon hone, wIioRC rMkise sUm 
Arc red with *Inuglilc7, i* iJic mudo on whom 
Thr npiioTnIo Orpiw in bia vannlcrr 
K'uDt to i>iinide ibe atrcrta afCuruobii, 
But Uiou tdiould'vt kjiow him bcBti rvgnid him well : 
la't not Orctio I 

Either it in he^ 
The old man replied, at oac ou like to him, 
Whom all thiKifht miitcblei*, that Nmllltiidc 
Would be tbc grcnicr wonder. But behold, 
What man ii ho wbu in ibnt dinomir 
Doth wiUi audi gionei and mucsty bestride 
llie nobis flieed, as if ha felt UmMlf 
In bi> own tiropcr icni ! Look how li« leana 
To eherinh him; and how the nllnnt bone 
Cunes u[i bis atalt-ly ueck, ana beoda bia bead, 
A» If a*nm to court tbai gtnllo toiicb. 
And nnmirr to llie Toiec which praiaea him. 
Con it lie Mnecttbce? nyoiiMtd the King, 
Or are Ibe necrel nl(ib«* of my soul 
Indeed MllU«d. and both tbc fjn\c pvcn up 
Ita dcnd ^ ... So nayin^, on ibe old man he turned 
Evci full of wide aiitoiiuluiioul, hIucIi told 
Tbe ineipienl tlioiigfac that for incredible 
Ho »pak« no ftutbcr. But onongh had p>«mkI, 
For old Sircrian ilart«d at ihu unnLi 
Like one uhu Mf» a apectro, und otdnimeil. 
Blind tliat I wat tu know liim not (ill now! 
My Ma«teT, O my Majiler \ 

He meantime 
Wltli eaay |Mce Riat>ed on to meet their m&nb. 

'€tniiw and Charmter ofSoiiA«g. 

Kint;. to PclAyo lie bpfiiin, thin dny 

By nieiiiui icarec It-sa ihaa niiraclp, thy throne 

lit 8tiiblt«h(id, iiud ili« nruii^ uf Suaia revcogcd- 

Orpai ihc! ari'urtcil, u|>nn iioiidcr ndd 

Liw ready for the ravenn. Hy ihc .Moorn 

Treacherougly aiHtn, Couul Julian uill be I'imiiil 

Bcroro Sniiit Hetcr'* iilwr ; uiiio him 

Orncc wn* vouchsafed ; nnd hy ilinl holy power 

Which si Visonia hy the I'limnle's hand 

or his nwn pruper net tu vae ivni ^Iveii. 

Unworthy itx 1 nm, . . yrl sure I iliiiik 

Not wilhont mynicry ns the event hath shcwo, . , 

Did I accept t'uunl Julian's pcnittrnoe. 

And rri:'>}nrilR the dying innn to hc-avpii, 

tiestite him hnlh liii daughter ^onc tu rest. 

DcaI huuuunihly uiih liia reniainB, aiid let 

One grave willi chrifclion riles re-eeivo tlieni both. 

I* it Dot HTJttpn tliin us ihc tree lolls, 

Su it shuU liu ! 

In this nnd oU things olsc, 
Pclayo iLnsH'cretl. loohitig wistlidlv 
L'poii the Golh, ihy pleasure shiiil he done. 
'1 bun KodtriiJc Hutv Ihnt lie u ns knun n, nnd turned 
His hem) nuny in sileiiuc. Itiit the ol<t mail 
Lkid hold upiin hia bridle, nnd hioked nn 
In hia mn»ler'» fnce. H'cepinR nnd Biiontiy, 
Thereat llieUolh »ilhr«rveut pre^nure loulc 
Hi* hand, nnd bonding down toitiirilH him, said, 
My guod Siverifin, po nm iLou thin dny 
To war! I ehiirye tlivf keep thyself Irum hnrml 
Thou nrt pml the a%t: for eonihiilt, nnd uith whom 
Herunfter aliunid thy iniatreaB liilk or me 
If ihon wert gunc f . . . Tlioii seen I am uunrLUcd ; 
Thus disiinnyed in ihou brh«ide«[ me. 
Clean througli yun aiinercnnt iinny have I cut 
My way unhurl ; liul being once by Heoveu 
Prwcfvcd, I would not penrth willi the guilt 
Of having wilfiilly provoked my denih. 
Give me lliy helmet und lliy cuiro** ! . , n»y, . , 
Tlinu wert not vionl lu let nii' ngk in vniii. 
Not to oppose mc wheu my will wa$ hntiivn I 
Td tlice methink* I nhould be ttiiU ihc King. 

"Thus akying, lh«'v Miilidrcw a little nay 

Within the trees. Itodcriek nlighled ihere. 

And in the old miin'i nrmuur dijfht himself. 

Do«t iktiu nul innrvel by whiil wondMUiu cbonM, 

Said lie, Orelio lo his master's hnnd 

Halh been resloved '. t found the ri-ncgndc 

Of Seville un hi* bnek, und burled him down 

Hckdlong Co llic cnnh. riiu noble animal 

Rcgoicingly obeyed my linnd to shako 

His r*crp«iit biirthi'n off, nnd trnrnpte out 

The life whie.h onee I spnred iu evil hour. 

Now let me meet Wiiisn '» vipcrons sons 

In yonder fleld, «nil then 1 may go rot 

In pMce, . . my work i* done ! 

And nobly done! 
Exdumed the old ronn. Uh 1 thou nrt froaicr notr 

fttMiHs and (Jhariieier ofSouA*^. 

Tliiui ill iliat filurtdiiH liour of lictory 

Whm gruvclliiiK ia tlir iliiM WitiM ln,v, 

Tlie (intioncr oflliy liAnd ! . . HmlcrJck repliinl, 

t) faoA SivcrUn, hivpoicr victory 

Thy «on hntli iw« afiiiei«il, . . ilie viciorj' 

(h'Cr till; nurlil, liio tint, nnd liis dM)iMr. 

If on ibc Held my linily nhould I>c fDund, 

See it, I cbarKe tlitw. Uiil iii JuUhd'h grare. 

Anil let no iiUu cur he told far nliom 

Tbuii inoiirneil. Tliou itilt umOkUo 

A> A<ii\> hmcna ihc vtftcil whidi bBt]i >o <ifl 

CnrriiHl n king t'l lintllc : . . be hatb done 

Guud svrvici; for lil« ri(;hirul lord Io-iJaj', 

And Hotter yel muxi Jo. Sircrinn, now 

FilrcneU! I think nc- uhiiH nnl meet again 

Till it be in that world wbcrc ii«i it clinnp' 

Is known, nud tlie; ubo loic shall pnri no mure. 

Comineinil mc lo tny niotber'a pmy<Tn, niid nay 

That never mnii mioyod a licnvcnlirr pcswe 

'rbnn Roderick nt tliu Lour. O bilhful friend. 

lluw dear tliou art lo me llicee to>ir» niay tell I 

With llint )>« full upon the old iniui'ii nccic : 
Thcii vaulted in ilio iinildk-, gave lb« rebut, 
And iior)a rejoined ilic IiohI. On, eommde*, on I 
Victory and Vi>ng«»u;e I he excl&lMwd, and took 
Til* load on that f,aoA ebargtir, lie alone 
Tloncd for tlic oiuct. Thcv with inic rouaent 
Gave all Uieir roiees to tbe inspiriiip rrj-, 
V'iet(ir,v nud ^'I'liuranec ! and Ilie liilis and rockii 
Caugli't tlie propHotie fliout Hod rullml it round. 
Count Pedro's people heard amid the beat 
Of Imltle, mmI rctumrd tbe glnd iicctaiin. 
The anloiiisbed Musslemein. on all iildeH chnrged. 
Hcnr tliat tremeodous cry ; yet mnnrulty 
'Hiey Riond, and evcFynbcre with Kntlant fiunl 
Oppoi>e<l in fiiir array the >bock ol'Har. 
I>cn>emtelv they fon^'ht, like men expert in arms, 
And knoH ing that no safblv cotitd be found. 
Save from ihrir own right band«. No fimncr day 
or all hit loiift career had acm ifa^trehtef 
Appniviul lo well : cur bad Witixa'a ions 
E(er belbnf tliiti hour aehieved in fichl 
Sueli fratu of resolute valour. Si»ifiwt 
Ilehelil Pelayo in the field afoiit, 
And twice eMayed beneath hla horae'i fte4 
To thnivt him down. Txiicc did the Prince evada 
Th« shock, and twice upon bin shield received 
llie (ratriadnl anord. Tempt mi- no moK, 
SonofWiliin, cried Ibe indicant chief, 
Lnt 1 fure^i what mother ^vo thee birth ( 
Go tnrel tliy ilc-ath from nny hajtd but mine! 
He Hiiicl,and turned mide. Fttlient from me! 
KxcUimed ■ dreadful voice, aa tlirougli tbe throng 
Orelio foreed his> way : fltbest from mo 
Receive the rightful death too lone withheld I 
"I'll Roderiek *trikei the blow \ And as he apake, 
tJKin the traitor s nhonliler flen'e be drove 
Tlie weapon, w«^^bc■t^wed. He in tbe seat 



Otmittt and Character of SoiilAty. 

Tollcrcd mill fi'll. TIip Avi-iiccr linslriicil on 

In Bi-nrrh of ICIibn ; iind in ihc hi-iiL of liyUt 

Ki^joiidiiK iiml furin^tfiil ufnll t'toi'. 

Sut 11)1 IiTh cry na Ik wan uoiit in youth, 

Rmkrii'k llin (iotli ! . . . \ih wnr-cry knovm ko well, 

Ptlnjo cngcrly liiok up (lie irord, 

Ami ir.lioijii.-(] out liin kuiBninii's niune beloveil, 

Ruik'rk'k tlivGoili! Kudcrick »u(l Victoryl 

Kndnrick .iiid Vciiy;cnncr '. Oijonr gave it IbrtU ; 

L'rbnn rvpcntcd it. and lliroiigli his rnnks 

Counl Pedro »enl the cry. Nol from lUc lietd 

Of Ula great victory, when \Vitiza fiitl, 

Witb louder ncclnmntions lind tlini name 

Been bomc alirond upnn l)ic niiids of henven. 

The unrefliKting throni,'. who vcaleriUy, 

If it had past their li|iii, ivuidil witli n curse 

Hft»c cloggd it, echoed it an ifii riimc 

From acme cdcstinl loicc in thi? nir, revcnl'tl 

To be thi.- ccrtaia pledge ufnll ihi'Li' hnpi's, 

Roderick the (iotli ! Hoikrick «ii(i Victory ! 

Uodcrick nnd Vengeance ! Ocr llic field it sprenil, 

All hearts utid tonpic? iiuiling in the cry ; 

MoitntniiVB and rucks niid vhIm rc-ccliocd round: 

And he rcgoicing in his strength rode on, 

Lnyinic on the Moorn nith that comi sword, Uiid viiiolc, 

And ovorlbreH', nnd acntler'd uad di'stroy'd, 

And trampled down; nnd sidl at ciory blow 

KxultiiiLcly he Nrnt tliR wnr-cry forth, 

Kodurick the Goih ! Kodcrick nnd Victory 1 

Itoderick and Vougeanco! 

• • • ■ • 

Oh nho could tell what deeds ncri* wrought that day ; 

Or who endure lo hear ihe tale; 

Hatred, nnd mndne«8, and despair, and knr. 

Horror, and ivnun<li>, nnd ngony, nnd death, 

The cries, tlio hlmiiheniica, the nhriuki, nnd (,'runiiH, 

And prayers, and tuingled with the din of nrins 

In one tvild uumnr of terridc suuods; 

While over all predominant nas heard 

Uciterntc from the coniiuerors o'er the lield, 

Hoderick the <iulh I Kudcrick nnd Victorj-! 

Roderick nnd Vengeance I . . . Woo for AtHca ! 

Woo for the circumciaed ! Woe for the faith 

Oftba lying lahmnclite that hour ! The Chitlii 

Have fallen : ilie MdurK. conl'mcd itnd capuiiidcss. 

And pnuic-Btricken, vainly »«i'k to escape 

Tlic inevitable falo. I'lirn where they will, 

Slrouf; in his r-auao, rejoicing in ■ncceas, 

InMtiHte nt the bnniiuel of revenge, 

Thsfmeniy is there; luok ivherutliey uill, 

Death hath cni ironed llioir demoted rank*. 

• ■ • > • 

The evening darkened, but the avenging sword 
Tamed not nw&y Its edge till night hud cloved 
Upon tbc fioU of Mood. The (hieltainx tlien 
nfew th« recidl, tuid fcnni their perfect nork 
Returned rfyoidng, alt but he fur uhoin 
AH looked uilh ino»t expectance. I le I'nlt inrc 
Had tlioiight viprin ihnl field to find hin end 

Geniuf and Ckaraetgr »f ftwthfy. 


Desired, and nilh FloriiMlB ill Uie grave 
Hot. in ioilUiuIiiblc unipn joined. 
Ihii mill nlierv ilaruiiirli ibv pruHs or «ar be xcnt 
1lftir-»nn«iJ, ntid like a. luvcr aockliig ^Mlh. 
Til* nrron* pnHsi'il liim by to rijtlit nnd left, 
Tlw Bpivir-puini {licnHxl liim ntit, ilic ncvtniUr 
Ciluiici'il fruiii liis li«lmvt : lio, wbtn lie uvlii'lil 
Hie r<>iil complete, itnu' iltut the thicld «1' Ilrnvon 
llaii liciim cxtcnikd over him once more, 
AnJ tiowed Ik^utp ita mill. I'pon tlie banks 
Of Sellii vivi Orclio found, lib \v^ 
And itnnks iiK-nrnniliuod, blH poilral fiMcsrod 
With fi (itli aniJ Uixvm aaA Kofc, liix silv<T mniic 
iipTuikled with blood, «liii.'h liuiig uu every hair, 
Aspersed lllto dev-drups ; trcmbUn;; tbi-ro he stuml 
From the toil of baiitc, anil m tiiiiw wni Tortli 
Mis irdnuliiiiH voice far cchc>iii|[ load aimI iihrUI, 
A frutiiivDl, mixiuuH cry, niUi nliich li« aecniod 
To call tlic tiiAdlor nliom he loved no iiell. 
And nbo li«ul tbui ftgnin fomkrii him. 
Sivvriiin'i bclni nnd minus on Ihr jy*M 
Iji}^ ucu*; and Julittu'a swonl, italiilt RDdcbnin 
Ctullod iiiUi blvod; but wlieru nui In? whuM; luMil 
Had iiiuldcd it so well that gltirioiA» dnj'! 

IhtvK, moiitlu, Bnd yenra, and ECUontUiiM paat, 
Anil ccnttiricii held their coiirac, bclVirc, iax off 
Within II liiTiniluge, near Viaeu'« wulln 
A Iiiiinbl« tomb nns foimd, trbich )>urc iiucribcd 
In ancient charnetcM Kin^ HodnicL'a oaam. 

Lml now have wc eiiwl ciiyiigli to thnvt tluit SoiilWv wtw ^ 

S cuter |ioet tlinn mms luvve iiiiii^^iiivil, — tliut tliu miiuiriitiuii »(' 
a aicn ul' bis own Btaiidiiig \vaa u«t misiilaccd, atid that 
Ccrtuin of hie works Luvc iiioii: than tliut contideralitf tiuritt 
whidi wo 8tip|)0se uvvryhudy in hia iionses would ht^ n^ud^v to 
attrit»ih: to tli(;iii ; that lha-<c in qticeition iiro dGej>ly and tJiriJl- 
tngly iiit«reslii)g, cnpiilde of ^lii-niif; our hearts aud souls? If 
vur citatioua have been iiu^utiicient for thia pur|ioHc. wc rvcoiii- 
iiwnd uur readers (o try liow they will look in thuir fiontcxt^. 

'I1iu Hamu man who, if not the ino«t |iri>iiiiii(.'iit, wiut ihu tinmt 
fertile ])oct of Iiis time, who, iu tlic ooui-90 of liis lift;, liurnt, 
iu:iM>rdiug to IIm: te»tiiiiony of one of bis hrotltcr hards, uioru 
vcnws than all tJie others of the day hiul wrlttvn; iiiid the 
nott^'^ to who«c diflcrciit ))octn« aro in tlioin.tolvoi! a niunl (.• 
ordiiiiiry etorc of informnlioii and (!nterlHinni«nt, wn.i tdcii) one of 
tlio richo^t mid iiinnt varitiiiD of our prose writi'n>. IIim induatjy, 
iniiied, nnd it« fiuil^, wore alin»sl beyond belief. The c'xu-Jit 
ttini diversity of hia aUainments. with scarcely a sij;ii of ii[udli)w- 
nvM or ]tiacciiiw;y in any one direction towixnin whieli he ever 
itielincd. Mien), at first, ni-arly ntiracnlouA. To tw euro, <ni« 
wldotM rwn iw imieh liU'nvry |H>wei' omi industry cxeniptotl from 
the diclrni'lionit of ii pmfi'i'.-'iiiii or bubiiie««> of .-mine sort, luiil, 
thcrvlure. lltore arc few with whom he ciiu be well wtinimri'd. 






92 Gtaiut and Character ^ Soutf^aj/. 

But, even iiltowing for tlic fiict tlint l)C Inul iiottiii)g to think of 
but letters, we suspect that Itis icdciriiitiuii of the time was 
Bometliin^ very rare and adniirahle : ag^nistcd, no iloiibl, l>y ii 
verHttility wliicli wu havo aJinittcd to be Rreater than wiis (io- 
simblc, inaaniiich us it wiut iiieuDipiktibIc with the concentrated 
energy of a firat-rate genius. 

ILh prose works are far too numerous to be noticed here; 
indeed, if his jioetry has been more copious tlian the capaeity nf 
our reeei)tivc power, miu-Ii more beyond our grasp has been 
tlie ample range of liin prwe. AVo should have jtleaaure in 
seeing a man daring enough to say that he had read one half of 
it. The author, of whom alone this can liave been predii'-uble, 
mii^t have been a wonderfully iofoiTned person, merely on llie 
strength of having nwd ull hii> own works. All, however, know 
Booie, and may rejoice in eacli opportunity tlmt occurs of knowing 
more, of these wrilings. The grace and purity of the style 
dciwrvc especial notice, at a time when suehnimts seem in suuic 
danger of dciuirting from among uc. They were very wonder- 
ful in an author who not only wrote mi much and so fast, but 
who connected lumaclf with all the passing intcrestB of his day, 
in the cphcmcml records of wliieli tlicrc k to much vicious 
diction, constituting a contagion wliifli even tliose who are 
conscious of it fiiil, for the most, to edcapc. Tliere ia little ora- 
tory in Mr. Soullieys pi"08e, — a fact euniewhat eurious, seeing 
tluit no writer of the day was more oratorieul in verse; but 
ibere i» a charming flow at nil times, wiiU n liemilinil simclnre 
of sentence, and a moot impressive dignity whenever it is needed. 

If he coidd not be called a vei'v profound, he wns, gcnerallv» 
n juBt thinker. Witli little tendency, as wc have alrcadv oIj- 
Kerv«)> to metaphysics in his philosO|)liT. find not much, jierliaps. 
to de*,'i» dnetrinc in his theology. Ins was n wise and Chrisliun 
mind,— Ills vicwa of eociety were gained by n long and aeeuratc 
insight into ite nature aJid tendencies, — hi.-" couBeieneo waa ever 
clear and unjaundtccd, and all his aentiincnta informed by the 
ohristiaii fiiitli. 

^VTien it is n«ked to what religious school lie belonged, wc 
may. perhaps (uifely reply, lo the I'illotHOuian form of Knglish 
dm rch man ship. Ilut of that furni, his ehurehinnnship and 
Christianity were the most favourable specimens, — iho very 
crown and I'tdl-blown Aowlt of it, and the anticipation and 
barbingor of aomelhing deeper and bettor. He did not, perha|is, 
often look, in a practical way, beyond the pide of tlie Knghsh 
church ; but then it must l>o remendiered that, during his eourec, 
the nittionAl constitution and life of ICngland were at slake, and 
that, by e<>nfie<iiience, her liiilhful cliilJron of necessity l>H)kod 
at all tnat ap|iertained to her — ber religion !ind her (.'imn:li, in 
such aejieets US are eoinprehen<!ed within ln-r pale. Thai Mirh 
M[>ecte there arc, aiul that they arc iHith true and iin|iorlant, nut 

OtnimauJ Ciaraeter »^HoalAey. 


I be lost, but to bo cominx^lieiidiirl in (hi; wider range of calito- 
liciem, no just thinker, we conceive, w ill <Ieny. It was Soiitbcy e 
vociitiou to mnko men sec thog>c nspcctd ; ami vre\l and taitbrnlly 
hi; (ltd Ins (Kirt. He waa preeminently nn Kn^li»lnnuu ; nud iiri 
no nuio knew Knj^lish life better, so none fcit more reverence fin- 
ita deep an<I saored s-prln^r^ Hi" iiatriotisui ami piety were eiich 
as admitted no halting imtl no e<inipromise ; and we verily bolievu 
llist he fialt as nn enemy to no man, except in so far hb that mail 
Bf^roved tumectf an enemy to what he rc'^nkil ns Imly and 
Ii-iic. Si^nio, wc do not doubt, lure iiini itct bigoted 
ami unchanbiijle ; while utlten may hitv« wondered that lie cxiuld 
not always extend tlie urbaniticit of private life to tliose fnna 
whom he publicly differed. Sueh ooldnces to a political oppo- 
nent is ooniftrued, by some, into a coldncHS. or nt Icnst u wiuit of 
fmnkntw of heiirt ; and no, when the pointi> of opposition involvE 
no vital eon.^equence, wv ntn il!)^lIy fiiii to rofitird iL Uul to 
have sneered at the Keal of England o^iinst the French revtJu- 
tionary tyrant, and to have discouraged her cftbrte in the cnu^c 
at once of her own safety and European iodcttcndencc, wa», in 
the eye)> of Southey, a crime which no |>eri>oual amiability could 
cause him for a moment to forgot. Wc own that we vhould lie 
inclined to ei'tcwu that the tni est- hear It'd man, tiial with ftuch eon- 
victioii.f wad not capahlc of licin^ cordial to their objects. Huit 
man '9 pressure of tlio ti:ttid, or wcleomo into his hou»>e, U, wo 
think, the most to bo valued, wlio deems that these tokens nivnin 
a real kindliness incompatible with a determined war. We re- 
member well (he eentimen t of n deceased ornament oi' our Chm^h, 
one of the noblest and gcnllo«t minds with which we were ever 
in eunlnct. He had, wc licliove, enjoyed in Konie the ac<)naint- 
aiicc i>f a well-known Anglo-Itouian ecclesiastic, who never failed 
of making Ilomc both more instructive and more dcli^iitful to 
those who knew him. On our asking the Ibnner — -the Inlter 
having arnvetl, witli serious intentions, in England, whether hc 
would renew the aciiumntnnee, he aiifwercd " I think not. When 
one feeli* tliat there is a proi^iwct of war to the knife between us, 
1 own tliere secma little satisfaction in drinking wine with each 
other, and saying civil things across a tabic" Hueh, wc appre- 
hend, WM tile pnnciplc of SinUhcy'ti dcalinjp* with tJtofW to whom 
he might sccin repulsive. We bolieve that none i-onlly j^ot )uist 
the first fences and outworks of his life and heart, without 
linding nil anooth and friendly, 

" t.ikc the )ugli Irnre* upon tlie holly- tree." 

In his latter ycnn tlii* admirable writer miule n now manifes- 
tation of his [Kiwcrs. ASHiat we wonder aliould ever have been 
a doubt, is now no seci-et, th»t " The Doctor ' wiw his work, It 
ocems lo hitve bwn his aim to pioyide |Hti>pli- with a decent and 
unezoepiioiuble Sicrue. In tlutl we muut tliink he litllcd. He 




Tfii Chtir^ o/BHgland, and 

was too exact anJ (miiftiial amnn to succeed well id ecceiitricily: 
and foi' tbc iiiusl [mrt tlic li'iist niiiusiDi; piissjigcs of the Owetor 
ape tlioHc wliicli iirw must Ji'tL-niiinodly jociiliir. lint there is ii 
quirt, liitciit liliiyfiiliK^s:) ill tlic more urtlcrly |"iu-U, which fit* in 
well witli the graver matter. Nothing aw l>u Diuru clmmiiiig 
than the domestic incidents nnd scenes: and the bnuk is rife 
witli tlint wi#G inoight luto Kugli&h life which n'c have nlrcody 
ntcntiuni-d ns one of the choice fruits of our author's yciirs 
upwil in withering true and Divine wisdom, and in cjirclidly 
practising wliat he cnfureed lui olhei-s. 

Such waa Sout hey. according to our, perhaiw not dwiiys accu- 
rate or thoruu^^hly-lnfonncd, impresi^ions ut him, But if wc 
have giine wrtm-if on miy piiint, wc arc sure that it niu»t be one 
on which hia memory would not sutTer, hy i>nr being :^et right; 
niid, "take him all in all," wc fear that it iiiuy be long " before 
wc look upon hie like again."' 

On the important DUerypattc^ betieaen the ChiircA of Ka^latttl and the 
HcoltUh F.pitcopal cimmiinlti/, thmrii'j Uie Seftmmilical Churao- 
tcrofa SuUertiition f'l/ Knijlbfi Chria to tint HcollM Commtiitton 
Office of 1705, //v the lict. Knwrtiiu Cit^iu, formcrbi Pattor 
of St. Jamei Chapeh Eiiifibmyk. 

Tim title of tliiK pniiiphlet, coupled with the name of il« atitJior, may 
fill, with some suriiritie, any one who has been acquainted willi Kiiin- 
hiir((h durinjt the last fifteen years. After his long retirement IVoiu 
llic scene of his former minintry, we were mil prrpnred Iq find Mr. 
Cn»i(r »ni('c more cimlltingiiig iiublic attention, bv jirescntin^' hiinielf 
on tlie arena of controversy. And »e were etill less prepared for 
tlic subject which he Imu clmsen, anil for the rircnmslances under 
ivliich he has thouj^ht proper to bring lliut subject forward. 

It is strange that, with the strong sense which Mr. Gmig professes 
to cnlcrtain of the popish or idolatrous nature of the doltish eom- 
nmniou ofhce, he Ehmihl, for mo munv yeary, have endiirod the pollu- 
lion of inintslering as one of the presbvlers of that eornipt diurch. 
And it is no less strange, that he shouM have reserved tins censure, 
until tli<! moment arrived which seemed favourable fi>r cxcitinL', or, ill 
least, fomenting dissenduns in that congrcgutiun, among wuom he 
formerly ministered. 

Mr. Craig has bestowed some pains, in order to prove that a 
presbyter of the Cliurch of England ennnot, consistently with his 
obligstioos na such, conform to the utRce of iho holy communion 
used ill the Church of Scullund. And he grounds his nrgiuncni on 
the alleged dUere|)aiiey Utwecn the two; as he necii^ieh the Snttttli 
Chuidi uf holding hulli the sacrifice of the inodSi and lnui:vub>uintl(i- 

I&e Drummowl Mi*m. 



ttnn. For to itiU, infnrl, Ho liisdinrgrs nmounl. ArIh olmt rcpunls 
tliein«nL< of tlii.t communion ufllce, Ti<in«T«r, tl ki only nrccxKirv In 
oumino it without prejudice, and t» compare it wilb thai of tlie 
Cliiirch of £ngTnQ<l, in order to admit tb&t tlierc ta no cKscntinI dis- 
crfpnncy l»ct«cr-n tlicm. Tlie wunc pr»t Inilli* whieli nrc fully 
implied in ilie offio; of ourctinimniiion. «nd wliieii liurc been invari- 
nltly lield by tlic soundest nnd best divines of oor Cliurcti, are. indeed, 
mi>T« prominently brought ^.^^^ nrd in ilie (ifTicc of ibe Soiiui»li Church ; 
but ificrc i> no cwentt») differeno- between them. 

The peculiar circumstances in vhich Mr. Craif; nas placed, render 
liiK prvAcnt clinrgcE against the Scottish Episcopnl Chnrcb, not only 
peculiarly ungniccftd, but nllogciher incompatilitc with conHisu-ncy of 
opinion, or even of character, on his paru And wo will dwell the 
mlhcr on tliis subject, bccauKC the arguments which wc would direct 
^inxt Mr. Cmig ilPpty "ith .-itill greater force to Mr. Drutnniond. 
Bolli the one and tne other of them accuse tli« Bculiit<h Church of 
having eli.ingcd her dinracter, and of adoptinfr terms of communion 
which arc tncom]uitiblc wilb the ordination vows of a eU'Tgyumn of 
the Oliurcb of Knglnnd. And wo will lulmit that, in the year 1838, 
certain ebanf:;es were cflcctcd in the Scottish Chtirch ; bill, when wp 
inquire what these ebiuicea were, vc sh&U 6nd, not only that Ibey arc 

Cerfcctly compatible wiili the nllcginncc due to the church of England 
y her own presbyters, but, tluil they have produced no CMcntial 
nllenition in the Cbnrch of Scotland. 

TJic c!iani;c8 which were eEfected by the 28th canon of the Scottish 
church, in the ycJir IS38, w«c _/fw(, an cnaetment which rc(|uirwl 
ihat the rilusl, and no extemporaneous prayer, should be used at 
every public miuintrntion : and KC^udly, im enactment that the 
Scottish communion office should be used at all llic (tcneml Synodal 
luretings of the Scottish Church, it having been prcviou.ily n»f:A by 
obligation only at the ccinKccration of bi»lio|»;. 

With regard to these changes, it must he generally admitted, tliat 
every church, or body of any sort, has a right to effect alterations in 
itself. Thclirst of these was nothing more than to pln<-e the Ian on 
the fame footing as tlmt which exists in the Churcli of England. Itiit 
Mr. Drummond has endeavoured to give to this regulation the colour 
of jiervccutioD, as if it had been directed expressly against him. Now, 
whether or not its enactment may have been caused by hi» ineguhirities 
1)03 nothing to do with the right.* or merits of tliocase. It may be, 
that, witli his single exception, all the clergy in the Scottish Church 
had hitlicrlo preferred the use of the Prayer- Book, on public occasions, 
to their own cxtcmporancoux pmycr* ; and that his singularity first 
showed the neccssitv of thus guarding the fwrvicea of the Church 
against aoch lanorations. But tliia, even if it were so, x* no perae- 

The second of tliese regulation* wus nothing more than a verv 
trifling alteration. The peculiar office for the holy communion, which 
is regularly and ccnetantJy used in several Scottish congregations, and 



% S'Ae Chttrcfi o/JCn^atiJ, and 

\* u«eil at I^pimopid eonaccntions, ^aa licuccforwnrd (» be ti«cil nt 
meclini^ of ;;cncnu 8ynod»i, Surely IIiik vm a rhmif.**; wlik-li coulil 
not, in nny wiiy, nfTuct tlie fliimctt.T cif ilic services of the Clmrcli, or 
of tlie Clmrcli hcraelf. If tlic Scultish communion office was e>i 
tieariy Rimti^li as to rcndtr \\b use incoiiipntibic nitli allegiance to 
tbc Chiircli of lOiigliiiid, it wiis so bnlf « century iigo n* iniieli ns now. 
AnJ yet, in llie face of tbis, tlie English congregations in ScotlanH. 
vtn tben set under iifcotlish bishops ; nnd in the faee of tbis did 
Messieurs Craijj and Drunimond, many ycnr* ngo, join tliemsclvcs to 
lliiit coiiiniunimi, whose corruptions they row, with such feeling indig- 
nation, denounce. 

When, in tbc reign of King Obarles I., a Prayer- Book was prepared 
for S>collaml, the coinuiiinion oflicB of the fir*t Prnyer-Rook of King 
Eilward VI. wa^i adopted instead of that of tbc rituul tlicn in use in 
England. But, as ii was found ihot, ot thai lime, tbc popnlnr preju- 
dice in Scollnnd agninsl the ««■ of any preconceived service whalcver, 
wiM SO violent ns to present an inHiirnmiinudile iinpedlnn-nts it u'as noi 
then pneticalty introduced. And, from ibo reign of King Charles I. 
to the rcvolutiiin, when, with the exception of the period of republican 
usur[mtii)n, Kpiiic(i]Hicy predominated in Scotland, there was no 
Serviee-Hook in general use. 

When ibe Presbyterian sect va* established in connexion with tbc 
Slate nt the revolnlion, ibu Church bccnmi; ft di-spiscd, persecnted, 
and, of course, greatly diminished body. All the Presbytcritin He- 
menls were drained ofi", nnd nothing rcmnined that was not thoroughly 
Kpidcopidinn. The I'mvcr-IJook was then gcnemlly inlnnluced : nnd, 
nllein tinic,it was deemed expedient tore-inodel the communion ofliee, 
with a view to render it, aa was conceived, more in aeeordancc with 
primitive institution. This was effected in or about the year ITfiO. 
when the present ofliec was framed, nnd it obtained, generally, in tbc 
northern congregalions. nnd was, in fact, the acknowledged office of 
the Church, being always used in episcopal con se^nil ions. It is now 
no more than it hu always been, nnd it has niwayi^ been ns much as 
it is now, the communion oRiee of llie ScoUinh Church, And no 
alteration effected in 1838, by the introduction of tbe 28th canon, 
can afford any ground fur the a««crtion that the constttalion of ihe 
Church w changed. 

Thus, if Mr. CVnig bad acted eonKintenlly with the viewo he now 
sets forth, he never would have conformed to the Scottish Church, or 
mini.tlered mi one of lirr prc^bytcre. But, it would appear that be 
has reserved bis censures, until be found an opportunity of directing 
them against tbe harmony of that congn-gntion where he forroerl^ oifi- 
csated. The evil effect of schiuii engendering itself, and spreading its 
malignant infection, soon became mnnifest in tlic Scottish Cuurch. 1'he 
discovery which, during the course of these proceeding!*, Mr. Dnim- 
inond thought ibat be bad made of popery in tbe Beottish communion 
office, and at which be eagerly grasped, as a handle of excuse for bis 
conduct, toon becnmc llie nlleged reaionof aboldsUemptat Aaimilat 

tkt Dfummotid Sciifti. 



Ksiilt on tlic prt of B portion of ibc conjrwg»I>oti of nnotlicr rfrnpel, 
in CoraninnioD willi llicScotlUli Cliurch — ibnt cl>ii)>el nhnv Mr. Ciuigy 
for BO uiany years, excreiwd hia niintsiry. 'i'licy endeavoMrcd lo 
induce Ills 6ucceMor, ilic Kcv, 1). Ilugot, lo iinitnic Mr. Druniinond*s 
example, and ibrow off tlie coniiimnion of llie Smui>li CI>utc)i, 
rcDouMcing Eiibmission lo lii-r biflioiu. Tliis ■tlPin)>(, itrgoj an<t 
abetted as it «n*, in the moKl iinpriiici]>!ed manner, by Mr. C'raig, of 
ubicb [111- (lamptilci; at the lii^ad of this article it a proof, uim tleadilir 
Tcsixted by Mr, Rigol, mliosc conduct, under very living ciietim- 
*(anccs, cxliiliiti-0 l)ie Iriiinipb of KOiind church principlc-c. When 
li« wns foiinil to be alaiindi to hi:^ duly lo his dioeewii, uii atti-mpl 
was next made to outt him from the minislrv of the chape), by ■ 
portion of tJie cougrrgation who were inclinei) lo Klitnm, onil who 
owdc a Blrenuous eSbrl to withdraw the cliapel from its coniieston 
villi Uic Scottish Church, and to lr»n<>fonn ibcmBclTce into ft body of 
Independenix, like tlie hcati-rt of Mr. Dnimniiind, 

It may, indeed, be said, tlint the cxistencu of so loose and ilt- 
Kgutnted a body, as ihc congrrxation in question, williin l1ie pule of 
the Cliureh, iit an eyesore and bIcmSdi, and that their departure is 
nitljer lo be desired than lo be deprecated. Yet it i# inminiful that 
•0 many nentont should, for a tLcricx of years, have assumed the name 
of Churclimen, and shoold have constantly used our pmTeis, nnd 
worshipped according to our ritual, and yet, after al J, should Itavo 
rvceicca so little bcDcBl from their privileges. 

It is because this unhappy schism, which lias lately arisen in the 
Cliureli of Scotland, has, in some messiire, implteaicd tlint of Eng- 
land, and hiis even compromised our eeclcvia.itii'al I'linraetcr, that it 
eccma incumbent upon us, in justice to ourselves, slill more limn lo 
llie Scottish Chtirch, to call for the vindication of the viululi-d pi inciplc 
of chnrehmanship ; for, we musl remember that he who has btrcDme 
a schismatic in Scotland is a presbylcr of the Chimh of Kn;;)und. 
And when, after eommitling a great sin in his relations with lh« 
ScoUi»h Church, and virtunlly ex coiimiuni eating himself from her, h« 
propoics to fall back upun us, we arc bound lo withhold from him the 
cuK'tion which might support him in his course of enor. nnd, for out 
own takes, to rq)uiliatc tJic claim which he wishes to estubliftli to our 
countenance and suppoit. 

'i'hc facts of this painful case arc aln.'ady petly generally known 
the public, and as they have been deuilcd at some length, in one oTj 
our former numbers, we will not here venture, even shorily, lo 
recnpiuilalc them ; more cspccinlly n.i the view of llic subject xliich 
we ciiUKider as infinitely Ihc moat iiiiportatit has, as yet, scarcely Wen 
touched upon. 'I'his is the manner in which the schism of Mr. 
Drummond from the ScoUish Chnreli affecU that of Knfjiand, of 
which he is n presbyter. It is lo this parlicular view of tlic cute that 
wc puTpflae now lo direct our attention. 

Hcferring, for idc (iicls of the cose, to onr former number, to which 
we have already alluded, ami recommending lo our rsadcrs lo leimo 

WO. XXXI. — S.s. o 



Tht Ckarch 9/ England, and 

the cfiTpipondcncc between Bishop Terrot and Mr. Drtiinmoii<I, 
wbldi, as it iias been jmblislied in the cheapest form, is easily neeessible 
to nit, wc will mere)}' sav llml llie BisLugt's cunduct \\m been ilisiin- 
guinhed by inildueas and forbearance, while thut of Mr. Dnimmond 
cxbibits some most puinTul charaelcnstica — nn undutif'ul nnd miibbling 
ftttcmpt t» eiiibamiss the bishop by qiieetions, and thereby to lead him 
to commit bimaelf, und an as8umplion to biniBelf of high gifts of 
edification, and of Biiperior BpiriHiol liisceriiracnt, extolling the bene- 
ficial efTccLs of Ilia o«n exteinpornneoiiv pray iir, nnd iisser Ling that tbc 
lubalitutiod of the Churdi'a urajcrs in tlicir plaee would be hurtful to 
the beet interests of his people. In short, the result of the controversy 
vns fiucli ns iiii^dit have been expected, where llie parties were n 
firm and mild bishop, and a heady and latitudinarian presbyter, in 
a church where i^piritunl authority is Biippurted neither by temporal 
dignity, nor by stale protection. Mr. Unimmond rebelled against 
the bishop, and set him at defiance. 

The ndvanlnge uf dincipline i», that, in o difficult question, the 
superior authority shall direct the subordinate; and the merit of 
obedience is, that the subordinate shall bow to the superior in a mntler 
of doubt and uncertniniv. If we only obey where, even according 
to our own views, our duly ia clear, what tlianit have we ? Wlicn he 
who was set over Mr. Drumniond in the Lord, expressed his judg- 
ment, that judgment ought to have met with unconditional obedience, 
u long as It did not involve anything subversive of Scripture, or of 
the KUtbority of the Church ; more especially as tbc pomt was not 
one which could have affected any unbiassed or healthy eonseicnce. 
The tiibvlitutiiin of the public prayers for bis own eitcinpoianeous 
flddresaea could not powibly, in reason, have appeared to him the 
Bubstitulion of the worse instead of tbc better, or an abridgment of 
cbristiau liberty. And even if he bad regarded it in that light, bo 
should have submitted to him that was over him is the Lord for 
conscience' sake. 

But, supposing that he could not conscientiously do this, he might 
at least have qunlilied bia disobedience by ijuilting the Bishop of 
Edinburgb'K jurisdiction, going to minister in that Cliurch in which 
he was originally ordained, or else remaining where be was, silent and 
innetive, but at least not disobedient. 

This, however, was not ibe course which he pursued. On the con- 
trary, he consummated bis disobedience by incurring the guilt of 
schism, aceeptin;; the invitation of a number of his congregation, who 
separated themselves from the communion of tlie 8(»>ttisb Church, 
and formed thcmaelvea into a conventicle of Independents. Mr. 
Drumniond tlius became, in tbc first instance, a schismntic; com- 
mitting an act of rvbcllioo against him that was lawfully set over 
liim, aTid encouraging a number of those to whom he had formerly 
minijti'rcd, in their separation from the branch of the Christian 
Church to which tlicv bad belonged : thus tearing asunder the 
body of CbrisU Ami, in the second place, Mr. Dvummond biui- 

t^i Drnmmond •SrAiwi. 

self bwaine, dod led liis follawr n to bccomp, Indeppnilfiidi, placing 
llinnsclvca in a conveiitide which i> uoder no autlioritjr, and is in 
eonnexkin witli do dtureli or sect- 
Mr. Drummond i* atnrnnblclo no jiirisdirtion wrctljat of Iris eww 
grrgnlifin. He may inculcate llie most fMirfiil Jierosie*, or lie may 
&II intn llic worst prncticnl errors, or W may entirely lub^crl all order 
in liifl public wotiiliii). And nil tliis wiili llie inotl pi-rfect iinimnilv; 
for lie w under no control — lie is ber<md all discipline. Indeed fie 
ha* virtuftlly admitted tliis very peculiar position, for lie lins publicly 
declared Li* intention of diepen«ing witSi the rite of confiinuitton, 
being well airare thnt lie can a^k no litohnp to a<lmtnisteT it to the 
voung fcltismatics of liis conventicle ; or tlmt, if be did a«k it, no 
bisbop could comply. He must also be nwnre, tlinl lie emdd n^unllj', 
willioiit Icar of ecclrtiustical censure, omit either of llie sacraincnW 
of Hapiiim or tlic Lord's Hupper, or introduce any innoi-atiim, nucb 
as evlreme unction, or lore-fmut*, or ^rasldng In* people'a feet; 
becniiac lie lias made liimsclf altoffetber tuperior to Uw, and lias 
placed liimsclf beyond rule, and without the pale of order. 

This i« hi» real condition, which he nttemi>l» to juiitiry, and to dig- 
nifv, by the pretence of falling back upon the Church of England, 
■ml continuinjf, in virtue of lii» or»lcnt of Anglienn Presbyter, to 
tninislcT to a eon STCpa lion of professing Anglican* in Scotland. 

He may poMibly flatter himself tlmt he can adduce, as cnSM in 
point, examples of Anf-lican eoiigregnlions on the continent, and 
also preccilents of Anglican congregntions, duiing the la*l century, 
in Scotlnnd. But the former case affords him no coimlcnanee, 
becauve the connrcgnlions of our countrymen on the continent are 
those of Anglicnnii in a Romish, Lutheran, or Calvini«tie hnd, 
where the Icnns of national communion differ from oure; with wliom 
wc never have bad intercommunion, and where there are either no 
bishops, or such bi>hop« as would repudiate any spiritual Kuperinlend- 
cncc over us or our people. And, moreover, where there is no 
Anglican bishop expressly appointed for such con prcgn lions, (a* in 
the ease of the billions of Oilimltar and in Jcrusolem,) they arc 
under the sii peri ii ten iieiicc of the Bishop of London, who \\a» 
nctually cicrcised that duty by confirming on the continent. 

I'iie case of the Churcli in Scotlnnd is eipuUy little a precedent ; 
for, during the lait eeiiiury, the English congregations which were 
settled in that country, were, by civil eniictnienls, Mjiarated from 
the ScoltiKh Church ; which, at that time, was nonjuring. And 
whether this was, or vas not, a reason which could liaTo satisfied the 
cnnscicnccs of sound Anglican Chiirchmen, resident in Scollund, in 
keeping aloof from her, is not the cjuestion. A state of civil coercion, 
as tliat then was. is no precedent to us under altered eircumstanecB. 
And this restraint was entirely done away nt the time that the 
Scottish Chutcb ceased to be nnnjuring; when the English eonitrc- 
gntion* in Seotbnd were united t<> her and plnced uiidor iicr bishiips. 
And, looreoTer, that mutual rclotioo which, on sound church priii- 





ISO TAe Church of Evgland, and 

ciplcs. oufilu nlwavB lohavc bocn ncknowledgcd between Oie Chnrchee 
"f" Engloud nnd ScmUnil, lins been very )ntely aulliorized and con- 
finiifd in the eye of tlje Inw, by a rccenl net of parlinmenl, wliich 
Hcknowlcd^CB ihc bisliops of the Scotlisli Ciiurdi in their episcopal 
chnmctrr, and declares Srnttiali presbyters eligible to ofiidate within 
£n;;liBli dioceses. This is mentioned, of course, not as stren^'lhcning 
the ecclesiiislical bond between the clnirches, butns legalizing that of 
ScolWd befure llic Inw of England, and completely nullif'yiiig any 
eharactcr uf iireeedciit wliicli the se|iaralion, during u former century, 
between ihc dominant Chnrch of En;:li»nd. and the despised and 
unaeliiifiwlcdKi^d Church in Scotlnnd, might seem to affbni. 

but Mr. DriinnnrinJ was not satisfied nu-rely to incur the guilt (if 
Rchi«m by a voluntary excotiimunieation of himself from the Scotliah 
Church : he nitMiincd an ngf;re£sive attitude, ast the best wnv of 
nelin)( on the defensive. He assumed the lone which, as we linve 
already rcniarlvcd, wo* taken by Mr. Craig, accusing the Church of 
Scutlaiid of having chnngfd her character, nnd h.iving adopted terms 
of communion incnuipatible with those of the Church of Enghmd. 

In addition to the Tcinarlis ivhieli we have already made on those 
cliargea, as advanced by Mr. Cmig, we would add, tliat ihcy cuiiic 
with a Glill worse gruce from Mr. Dniinmond, who, even after the 
alleged obnoxious changes in 18^8, continued to miniatcr as a pres- 
byter in the Scottish Church for nearly fmr yeore. Durinf; llint 
period he conformed to them witliout scruple or diiriculty ; and now, 
wir the first time, he ntlnches importance to them a« an ai'ter-thonuht, 
in order to liirlify himself in his echisin, and to give to his rebellion 
the ehndow of an excuse with the unthinking nnd ihc ignorant. 

Moreover, even (an is not the case,) if the introduclinn of 
Canon ^8th did effect a change in the Scottish Church, and that u, 
change in csaentiul Diattcra, it does not, therefore, become of none 
cfl'ect to (hose who may consider it as a change for ihc worse An 
inferior civil inngislrale is not permitted to op]>u£e an act of parlia- 
ment which has piissed since ho was admiticd lo the magistracy, 
bciauKc he does not approve of it. He may indeed resign his com- 
mission of the peace ; but if lie does act, il must be in accordance 
with the law, changed ks it is; be it fur the better or ior the worse. 
A new enaclracnt is binding u])oti those who lived under llie law as 
il formerly stood ; nnd its novelty is no exnise for disobeying it,'if 
it bo legally enacted. If Mr. Drnmmond had pleased, lie might 
linve resigned his charge in ihc Scottish Episcopal Church in iS38, 
when the new canon, the 28tli, wns introduced ; or he might after- 
wards have resij-ncd. No one wcinid have been disposed to qucslion 
his motives if he had done so quietly, avoiding; the sin and scandul of 
Kchitin. lint wlicn lie wax first guiltv of disidicdieiice to bun that 
was over bim in Kplrilual thing*, and then of schism agninst the 
Church in which be bad so long ministered, liis ocls a»umc a durk 
Knd grievous cbaracter, wliicb is only bejghteneil by his lame and 
•ppurcDlly in«nccrc attempt to excuse them by an aftei-thought. 

tkr Drumiwnd Sciitrn. 101 

Vfliea tie resiffned, bo did so entin.-lj' <m the gmnnd that he ms 
not allowed lo hold bb nteelinss 'itiioiit itsinf; tlie Litui^. TIkk- 
U|M>n a cmnmiltre wu mod funnrd of hti Tricnds, wbo declared Umt 
Ilia cliris[ian tibcKy liod lw»i iiifriii;:ed iii>oti, and began to m&ko 
nmiijjeincnls tosd upaooncrc^tton Id Edinburgh out of cofnmunii>D 
with ihe Clntn-li of ^colUnil, but pnfcwog to hold tluU of England, 
to which tbcf invited Mr. Ummraood Co minider. 

Upon thia, the clergy of th« diocese of Edinburgh met in a hr<Ay, 
in order lo coiirey a solemn protest ^aimt tlii» oitiditct : and tbey 
aecordinj;ly expressed tlieir iinanimous opinion to Mr. DrumioatK^ 
entreating him to inlerrcre and avert ikc tlirmlenci) Bchiain ; at tlienme 
ttEM demonHmting tlic foHirandainfuIneaaufMicUattep. But go far 
ftma attending to tli« advice of hia brother presbyters, he accepted 
ihc invitation of his misguided friends, and commenced hia mini- 
Btrationtt in a cnnveniiele unconnected with ibc Church in Scotlandi 
or in any other country, but all ibe while Gilaelv anuining to form a 
])orticin <>f t)ic Clmrcli of England, while, in net, their poaitioB is 
that of Imiepcn<lcRt«. 

On ifie otficT liaiid, tli« ctindiict of the Bishop of EdiiiUirgb has 
been marked by very fircat niodcmtion : so great, indeed, as might 
nihcT be conaidcred to amount to au abstaining from the satularv 
exercise of his anthnrity as one of the chief pnston in Ciiritia 
Chnrcb. \\c has allowed active atrpa to be taken onlvon Mr. Dram- 
niond's aide, be himself remaining wholly poiaive. Mr. DraratDODd 
may bo anid lo lure acted wiih as much worldly wi»lom as any man 
cnn do who i) £itilty of a gmt &ult, in his voluntary separation fmm 
the Scotti«h Chiircb. He did not wait until ecclesiatttcal censure 
choiild have been pronounced againat him by degradation or cxeom- 
mnnicnlion : he seceded of his own accord, inab»d of incurring the 
rialc of being turned ouL And had he then wilbdnwn to England, 
or, while in ^tland, had he retired from the exercise of liis ■nioittry', 
the matter would tlirrc luvc ciidol ; but, by committing an act of 
fldiism, he has virtually excommunicated himself in tite eye of tlio 
Cliurch, OS effectaally as if the public censure of the bitliop of 
llio diocese, or the boliops of tlu; Cliurvfa, lud been pronounced 
again%t him. 

Ttitt is doubtless the view taken of the mnttcr by the Bishop of 
Edinburgl), and he con-idcnt it niinecnanrj fut hint to execute that 
sentence upon the athismatic which he Itas already cxcciilcd u|«>n 
liiinaidf. Vet it would be well if the Biabop were to considi-r 
hovr far a difTercnt line of conduct may not be due to the general 
intcretts of the Cliurch of Christ, in whidi he boa a sacreil mist 
to fidCI, And it cannot be denial that if ho Itad solemnly ex- 
pn-awd the censures of tluit Chtireh ngainitt him, he would have 
retitlered an cswntial service to the Chriitian world, dcinoiiit rating 
ihal a power rtill existed to visit a rebel with p»iniahmcnt; and 
tlial ibe Cliurch, when unimpeded by any state connexion, thnugb 
nnaided by any ftdvcntilio*i» worldly advantage, liad still the courage 



Tin Chttrek of England, and 

ta vinilicnlc tlie millMrity wliicli haa been handed clown, as a santtl 
depn«!t, fiom the Apoattcs. 

Wc csnnol doubt bul that bucIi would Iiavc been llie coursp pur- 
cued in llie finy* of Cvjiriiin, Alhanasiu!!, or Ambrose; and we can 
as little doubl that if the Biahup of Edinburgti had acted thus, he 
would Iiavc confcnrd a must valuable boon upon llic Chnrcli, mid 
tbnl lii.4 nami: would liereiifti-r liave been handed down willi honour, 
as ilic adscrlor of u ri};ht and holv cause in the midst of echiematicnl 
rebuke and lalitudinnrinn blaspfiemy. He might, it is true, Imve 
been exposed to persceution, lie might have stood nbnost singly, to 
bear the rcproaeli of an intolerant bigot, actuated by a spirit of 
Ijmnny eiiually imudicioll^ illiberal, and hiirsli ; but, unmicstiunably, 
if he bad aejjmded or exconimunicnted Mr. Drumniond, he would not 
only have benefited his own immediate branch of the Chnreh — he 
vrould have deserved well of the Gtiurcli universal, by vindicntin;; 
Bound ecclesiaalical prinLipIca in these days, when they arc iranipU'i 
to the ground. Altliough there might at first have been a fearful 
uproar, which unlv he could Ktaud uulo whom the angel of the Lord 
ehould appear, aa lie appeared to St. Paul, In the miost of the tem- 
pestuous winds, saying, " Fear not !" 

And there is no reason to thlulc tbnt the lime for thiti Milntnry 
cxerdae of episcopal authority on the pwt of the Bishop of Edin- 
burgh, or of the bench of Scottish bishops, has gone by : the delay 
which has already taken place woidd mther impart to a aerileuec, 
when it did come, the additional force of deliberate moderation and 
matured Judgment, ludt-ed, xuch a step, on the part of the Seottish 
bishops, actnifl to be TCquiiitc, not only wiih a view to vindicate the 
violated integrity of their branch of the Church, and to do their duty 
na its heads, but also to induce the Church of England fully to sym- 
jmthiie with them, and to enter into their cause. We know, indeed, 
that Mr. Drummond is a sehismatie, and that it is our duty eleorly 
to show that he hag no itaiictiim wlmtrvrr from us ; but, in order 
that wo may have some document, some ground of action, there 
ought to be a previous measure of the ScoltiaK Clinreh. Her heads 
linvc on their part also a duty to perform; and, if iheyliiil in doing it, 
tliey will render themselves amenable to the judgment of the Church 
uni'veTwl, boili now and in future times. For this matter, though 
in itself trivial, is one which invidvcs important results ; which will 
cause the parlies who have been oelors in it to be rentembered either 
for evil or for good report. Should these pages ever c^lallce to be 
perused by the Scottisli bishops, they may receive the opinion here 
et])reS3ed as ihiil of a niinieroua and influential portion of the 
Church of England ; that portion tlic moat oniioua to sec justice 
done to their office, and its Hnlhorily vindicated. And, it may be, 
that a sense of what is expected from them may lead them to qucs- 
tiuu the wisdom of a course of inactlvilv — \Thich has almost the 
(ppearanec of impotency — in n matter w^iicU loudly call* for the 
;xeicise of their apostolic authority. 

iA« Dnmnvmd ScAUm. 


Yee, even as it is, tlic scliism of Mr. Dnimmond from tlic out- 
ward And visiUc Ckiiirch of CliriGt U suflicicnll)' nppnrent, nulwuh- 
Btiindiiig ibia \alii asicrlion of fulling Iwck upon llie Ciiurch nf 
England, and continuing \m ministrations as a niiniitcr of tlixt 
Cliurcli to a congrrgstion of its nicnbcre. 

It may be worili wliile to mention the ■tron^i:e»t instance wliich 
can be fjivcn of the drgrrc in uliicli Mr, Driinimond is repudiated 
by liis fonnt-T brclhrtn of the ScwtliBh Church, cvtn by ihow who 
have hitherto generally coincide] uiih hia tiewa, nnd have been tlifi 
most in the hubit of cooperating with biui. When the eo-c&llcd 
Cliurch MiKsioniiry Soci<^ty niu cxpoclcd, as iixunl, to ivod s dcptita- 
tjon to Kdinburgn, those elergymen in the diD'crent parts of t5cot> 
Und who had bcco in the habit of giving the use of tlicit churclies to 
the deputation, took care to intimate to the Society that, in the pre- 
sent instance, tlicy would ^vith)lold thin permission, if the deputation 
should eomc with llie intention of preaching or holding mevting* in 
Mr. Dfummonii'ii cunventicle ; and. in coniw»iiirnc« of ihi*, no depu- 
tation friini the Society is to visit KdlnlHirgh thin year. 

Mr. Druinmond boasts that lie possesses the syinputliy luid U lure 
of the coopcnitiun of many clergymen of the Church of England. 
If BO, it is not improbable lliat other clergymen, with »imiliiT view*. 
Till come from Kngluud on a eruxade agaiiinl the alleged Itomanisms 
of the Chureli in Scotland, and will set up as Indepcodonts, in scliis- 
Diaticnl oppoKiliun to t)ic Scottish bishops ; trusting to the probability 
of mining congregations among the numerous disturlwd and unsettled 

E croons, whom the extraordinary disruption of the presbyteiian estn- 
liahuicnt in Scotlond may possibly, ore long, throw loose upon the 
troubled itca of ecclesiovticul contention. 

'i'hts a a mournful prospect, and om: whicli, for the salco of the 
Scottish episcopal communion, wc must wi»li may not be realiied. 
At all events, however, it is a* yet hypothelintl. But wc of Ui« 
Church of England luivc reason to lament a consequence of tlic 
Scottish schism already cxi:<ling, and must grievously aflceting our 
position as a brunch of the Church Cutholie. 

It is because of this, and wiili no view of dictating to the heads 
of the Church in Scotland, of whose difticuUies we eonfe»» our- 
selves to be no fit judgcK, that we have deemed it expedient humbly 
and earnestly to brin^ this appeal before our brethren, members of 
one common Cliurch, m t)ic hope that a consideration of the evil and 
d&ngcruuii principle involved in our apathy towards the aggression of 
•chism, will lead them to prosecute some remedial measure. 

Util it may not be inappropriate to introduce tlie coni^i deration of 
the way in which the Cliureli of England stands nirectcd by the 
Scottish tehisu), by an account of an appeal which liaa alrcndy been 
made by the fathers of the Scottish Cliureh to the Cathers of that of 
England, in a letter whieb tie Primus, and other bishom of Scotland, 
ad£c«eil to tlie Arehbishop of Canterbury and tbo bialiops of 

iOt Th« Church of Evgland, and 

In tliis Ipltcr two very importnnt questions wrrc nskcd with the 
view of uscerUiiiing tlie Itglit in wiiicli ihc Iii-uJb of llic Angliciiii 
Cimrch regard sclii^tu from that of Scotland, as aftceting tlic gencnil 
cccleeiftElical |iosiuoii of llic Bcliismntic Fint, Do tlic nrclibixlinps 
nml bishops of Ensland consider the Scottish KpiBcopal Clmrcli to be 
in full sjiiriluul communion with the I'nitcd Church of England and 
Ireland? Secaiitily, Do the archbishops and bishops of Eii;,'Iand 
consider that a eongrej^tion in Scotland, |>^ofcflsi^^' to be of the epi- 
Bcond communion, and using the Liturgy of the Church of England, 
Mniier a (■Icrcyiiinn of Eii^iiish or Irish ordination, but being sepa- 
rated from the Scottish Episcopal Church, ie, by that sepuralion, 
guilty of ft culpable scliisin ? 

To the Br^t of these questions an tmhesitating answer was retiimed 
in the afiirniativc by the English bi&hops. As to the second quer}', 
they replied, that so many qnestionR were involved in it, that they were 
unwilling lo express an opinion, which, while ii eouM have no legal 
cfFcct, might bind tlicm to n course of proceeding Wphieh might here- 
after be questioned in a court of law. The letter is. as might have 
been expeetcd, conehcd in the most courteous terms townrd* the 
Scottish bishops, and contains a diselninier of any supposed approlia- 
tton of the late schism ; but, fit the tiame lime, stating that any 
formal denial of a liilsely alleged approbation was unneecssari. 

Thus the opinion of our biahopn is perfectly obvious. As iheolo* 

Sians, and chief pastors of the Cliurch. they totnlly difapprovc of the 
itc proceedings ; and, in their minds, they consider Mr. Drummond, 
and his congregation, to be sehiamalical. But they ore prevented 
from giving any effect to this opinion by the stale of the law, which 
might hereafter compel nnv one »f them to admit Mr. Drummond 
(schismatic though he be jud^d by them) to n living in his diocese, 
to which be might possibly be presented. The English bishops have 
plainly snid. We regard the Scottish Church as being in full spiritual 
commnniou with that over which we are placed In tlie Lord. There 
is nothing in any of your services, or in any part of your ritmil, which 
makcK us hesitate iu thus frankly aehnowledging our approhatiun of 
you. and our fellowship with you. We do not make exceptions 
Kgain^t any portion of your discipline, ritual, or doctrine. Nor is 
your peculiar ('onmiimion Odice in the least degree a situmbling'Uoel: 
to US. Consequently, if we were to cxpresi our sentiments, wc 
■hould tny that a Be]iHratist from your communion, who continuex to 
lire in Scotland, and in tichiim from you, is guilty of culpable 
■chistn, and must, ipso facto, be in schism from us, and therefore 
eannot fall back upon us and challenge our protection. Such is our 
real judgment. And we think it unneeesJiiry formally to refute 
those who have causelessly attributed to us approbation of conduct, 
vbicli, in our hearts, we eondeum. 

Hut we ore so situated, as respects the law of the land, which has 
a peculiar bold upon us, from our connexion with ihe ttaie us the 
eslablLthnicot, thint wc probably could not refuse to receive Mr. 

the Dmrnmifmi Seiiim. 


DnimmoHt) wercnnr pairan to pr«»ent him to a living. Tliufi, ntn 
we U> 8uy wirut we tbiiili, we tniglil pixKibly be ubliged tu act incon- 
nstmUy villi our cxpresewl ecDtiineula : and, in otdrr to troid 
uictiTriii^ tlie risk of tliis, uc will Dot cxprcM ihnn. 

It iaiinpnstiblenul tu feil llie eiiibnrniMment iti wtiidi tlic Fatlicra 
of the Anglican Cliurcli are ititis plaiW. In order lo avoid a vrry 
pttinFuI incuiitielcncy, — llinl of beins c<)inpcUe<i ti) «cl in a way «oii- 
irary to their expressed opinionn, — ibeY run into ihr inowintenej of 
not coDdcnioing (lu heads of a bfancli of Cliriet's Cliurcli.) the acU 
of a preabjter, wboin tliey llicn»e)Tca bove ordained ; acts wliieh 
Iiavc been grossly idiisiiialintl towards another brand) of tlic Cliurcli 
with which they declare themfichrs lo be in full gpirittial com m union. 
And tliid willi the view of, pii»»bly, (nny, proliub)}',) ere lon^. beinfii: 
l«d into the further inconsistency of receiving tliat Fcliisinalic m n 
wcll-lii'lovcd ton ; and of admitting; lo a place of Inirt in tbeir coui- 
muiiion, him wlio btu been ulrendy guilty of rebellion, and has mis- 
gtiided the Hock of which Iw was ot'ciaeer, into the byc-patlK of 
aehinni, 'I'bis ic ueuredly an anomaloiia and very paiitl'ul posiiioa 
for our Tenerable Fnlbcn to be pUiceil in ; and it is one wbicb, for 
tbcir sakca, as heads of Uie Cliurcb, and for our own sakes, as its 
tneiiibeis, we deeply deplore. 

If wc inif^lit be permitled, willioul boldness and irrcrercneo, to 
haxard iin opinion on ll>e subiect, we would veiilurc to niggeat a c<>urw, 
whioh, tliMi^h it vould not Iwve relieved our bishops from ibe embsr- 
Rusiiicnt of forced inconsistency, would still, in some def^m, hiivc vin- 
dicated the violnled piincijile of diarcbninnship. Might not Uwy, m 
hnds of the C'hiirdi. uitd &s theologians, hare unhcutatinglv exprcMcd 
tlicirscDtimcnle; giving to such n separation as thai of Mr. t>ninimond 
and hi* flocli, its rif;lil nanic of ciilimble ttchism, and fully ndmiilins 
that b« and lliey bad no right to lall back upon tlic Clmrch of 
Eogluul, bul had rirtually eicoiiimunieated thcin.ielreii from berP. 
Miglit not our biithops hare thus expn-facd llieniselvta : always, at 
the eame time, allowing that, from ilie actual state of the law, and 
Ibe working of the Eetabli&hment, ibey might, neverlhelr^s, be 
compelled to orl in a way contrary to thiR principle, by admitlin^ 
Mr. Drumtnond lo an Englisli benefice ? 

The latt^ fact is no more than what ia known lo the whole world ; 
vbile the fvrmer cxpresfion of deliberate opinion would have glad- 
dened die heart* of all tme Ghuicbraen, and would have fullillcd 
what they had nnxiogily expected from their spiritoal fnthcn. 

As re^rd* the conipulw>iy working d' the courts of law, the c»c 
would not have been altered if tlic Bishop of Edinburgh had at fint 
taken the course to which wc have already adverted, bv proceeding 
acainsi the refrndory preibyieracconliiig to the cnaons of the Church. 
()n a refusal to induct Mr. Urumniond lo an English living, on the 
grounds of the Scottish cxeommuntcalion, or degrudution, the English 
courts of law might say, Wc do nut recognise the Scottish Kpiseonnl 
Church, or any of her acls. The only ccclewustienl aullioniy that 

vo. xxxi.^M.a, r 


106 Tie CkiinA of Enphtul, and 

wc aclcno«k-c]j;e. norlli uf [lie Twccil, is the Presbyterian Eetablish- 
nienl. The non-csliiWi?hcil Cliiircli i», in lliecvcof tlic Inw, a sjieiics 
of nunirnlity. And un excimimuniculion, nr ilegradulion, proceeding 
iroDi licr, tiB affecting tht interests of a e1ei';;yman appointed to an 
English livlnp, are b* null ns itiev nnidd Ijc if pronouiieed by any 
diMciiLinK sect in Englund or Scoitaiid. 

Indeed the Presbyterian EsUblishnicnt would possibly take nlnrni 
if llie (icU of till- non-csbiblisbed Churdi within its bounds were to 
be Tceojinised as affecting the interests of any one in relation to the 
Knglith K«tfl Wish men t. However, ihis latter ground hns been, of 
late, Imppily rendered unlcimble. by tlie Act of tiic 4lh of Victoria, 
which fully recognises the existence of the Scottish Episcopal Cliurch 
IIS a public body, cxpre^K^Iy nitining her bixhopit, and conferring upon 
ihcHi, and upon her presbyters, certain ecclesiastical rights nnd pri- 
vileges, wliicll, during the century of their political depression, tliey 
did not possess. 

We believe, indeed, that this want of inter-episcopal conimunion, 
(if we may use the expression,) is not confined to onr relation.i with 
the Scottish Ohurdi. For a pieabyter who, like Mr. Drummond, 
reared himself aloft in independency in the diocese of an English 
bislinp, niight, if not prosecuted by liis dioceMu before the proper 
court, and if a due sentence were not pronounced against him, 
compel another bishop to induct him to any Hving to which he 
mij,'hl be presented. Only, in this ease, the sentence pronounced 
would be sustained by an English court of law, which might repu- 
diate a Hcottish sentence. 

It would, indeed, be ditfieult to conceive a situation more anoma- 
lous limn that in which the Church of England is, at this nionient, 
placed. An net of sdiisin is committed by one of her utesbytera 
against a communion with which she is connected by the closest and 
most soercd lic^, wjiich is, in fact, an immediate branch of herself, 
and which Iiuk very recently been solemnly acknowledged as such, 
nnd admitted to a full intercommunion; and yet no measure what- 
ever is taken by her, as a Church, in order to express the slightest 
censure of this act. The sehi.imatic i» permitted, without contradic- 
tion, to fall back upon her, to claim her countenance, sanction, and 
support. He daily, and witlnnit rcb\ike, renews his act of schism, 
and thereby ompromisvs her catholicity ; minielering in her name 
to a congregation of persons who profess to be her sons, and wlii> 
intHuse her venerjbic authority iw a cloak to their deeds, which are, in 
the eye of the Church, lawlet» and indefensible. 

W bile those of the Anglican clergy, to whom right church principle 
is sacred, regard tins, now, with disupprolnilion, nnd reject all inter- 
course with him; there are not wanting others who hail him n» n 
confessor, and e.itend to him the right hand of cordiulil^, bidding 
him (jod speed in his unlawful course. 

Out rencrable Fathers arc, in the meanwhile, prevented from exprcs- 

• sing tlieir sentiments by the embarrassing conseiousniiu:, that theyma^ 

be coinpcHcd by law to act in a vay directly inconsistent with their 

tie Drummond StUtm. 


Miitencc. And !l is only too proLable Uiat such would he titc codsc- 
qiKoM ; fir, nm our binliojM lo lie Iril Iiv tlicir principles and natural 
fcclinp u Cliurchmen topurauen leMcauiiuiiiit'oiine than ilist which 
tlicy have followed, lliprc «re not wantin;; those who. for the «kc of 
a wicked (riiimpli fiver tlicir coitiisK^ney, wwild gindly inrolvc ibern 
in that cinbamesnient. hj excrdNinj; the right of patronngc in bvour 
of iim oliom, ax binhnps and chiirchnicii, ihcy mutt and do con* 
dcinn — a right to which, notwilhitandinfc a previous cxprcaaoii of 
tlicii judj^OMrnt, howefcr eUon^, they wxild, probably, be compelled 
to nve cffi-et, ns the law at prtsent ttnndt. 

We do not, however, say morv than prolnbly, aa ilir nue now h, 
and Mipposing an EngHsli Rishop to have nothins In allej^ a^nct 
Mr. Dniinmond but htK act of nchinn in Scotland. But whilst wg 
were rcasonini{ on the lidit in tvhich the English Courts of Common 
Iaw would regard bin elaini<i to u benefice, supposing Biahop Terrot 
were to cxcoiiimunicate and degrade hint, we were (peaking merely 
of wliat would, in all likelihood, be their/r«f impretiion of the law. 
The law ilerlf, wo hope, i» really very diRrrcnl ; for tlic Canou, which of course looks to the ecclcsiaUical authnrity which baa 
pronounced an cxcominunicatioR, not to the place where it wa* pro- 
nounced, ia Ktill iu force with u*. except so far m it Riay interfere 
wiUi one or more of these Ihrng^t — Koyal Prcnijiative, lire Stnlutr, 
or the Common I^w. Of these, die (wo former have nothing to do 
with the present [jnestion ; and lui little Itaa the third. Common IjMk 
docs not define wherein cxcointnunication consistt. It merely aayti 
Uuit a Bi.ihop shall not impede a competent clerk fnim entering on'a 
benefice, to which he has been lawfully presented, witlioiit due enww 
ahowo. But then thecU-rU must he eimipelent. If excotnmuniaitedi 
«r diine he ia not ; and it will be in vain for him to appeal to the 
Common Law — which aMcrtM no right in hia ea»e. In tliiK >icw ih« 
<pieslion would, wc think, be well worth tiring: butas the i.iMie mijfht 
be <loubirul, it were, perhaps, well, for their own protection and inir 
Mfcty, if our Bishops were to procure * l>cclarmtory Act, settin;; 
forth that llie law empowered them to keep from livings all perxmis 
pTonouDced cicontmiinicateii, by the authorilie« of a Church with 
which wc were in full communion, and whoac ordtre wu recoeniscd. 
Our recognition of tlie ScottiKb bishops is now inTc«lea witli 
Parli.itnrnUiry wnction ; and it were xlultifying thai lanctioD for 
Parliament to reftiac to acknowledge one of ila &ireat conaeqacoces. 

Mr, Drunimond'a scjiism has Wen followed by the seeetsion uf a 
Sir William Dunbor, of Abrnteni, who has thoufflit proper to vinlatc 
the canons, to write oHeiiKive lettcra to hia bishop, to withdraw from 
communion with the Church, and to flatter himself thnl he alxo can 
«titl rcnuin a Presbyter of iIk^ C'1mn:)i of Fln^lani). We are glad to 
observe that one tif the congregation of 9t. I'aid'g, loo long signifi- 
cantly dietiDgiiisheicI as the laat^wliich refuacd Ui accede to the Unions, 
has icpticd, iu a very aaliii&eloTy " Letter to the Rev. Sir Willinm 
Ilunhw." &c. (Aberdeen.) It in not imi>robablc that wc may hft»« 
uetwion to recur lo this punful subject. 



Aeftte4 tU Tracy. A Talf of tkeTimei of S.Thnma* of Canterbury. 
Bff the Jiev. J. M. Nkai-e, M.A. J*(C. Cambridge: SlevMiKon. 
London: Kivlii^tuiis. IH43. 

Oi'it readi-i'H tuuy ronL-inbcr ihe warm lerinB in which w« reuom- 
in«iiJed lu them our author's former lillle tale, " Hcrlierl Tresham." 
If we are uot so hearty in onr nssiirnnces in favour of the present, il is 
from uo falling off tlialwu huve ohservcd, either in Mr. Nenle'a powers 
or his iiivciJtioii. This talc is certainly a clever oiip, and llie descrip- 
tions of ineJi»vul worship and customs are not only lively and 
attractive, but would, at aiiolher time, »e think have been very useful. 
At preseol, however, the public mind it m no very fit slate for receiv- 
ing ibeni. On no side do men seem cnpahle of ibinkirig temperately 
on the siihjecl of (be epoch in which Sir. Ncale has fixed his story, 
or of the extraorJinury person whom he iias made its liero. Let us 
hope ibat, in a year or two, a may venture to announce what 
estimate »>f Thouias I'l Becket be may have been able to form, without 
being supposed thereby to involve all maimer of doctrinal and prac- 
tical coHsequences. 

Mr. Neule taki-n a most dispai'^'mg view of Bishop Foliol, Bpeak- 
ing of hiui m a mere hypoente. Our aulhor'a master, Mr. Troude, 
formed a inoremixt^, more cbariiable, and, weth'mk, a more probable, 
eiFtimatc of bis character and principles. 

But it w of coinpnratively little conseriiience in what light Mr. 
N«ale rcgai-ils (h« ebarncters either of Deckel or Foliol. What we 
complain of i« that, in his en thu'^ias tic descriptions of the ritual and 
practice of the Church inlbeirage, he gives no sign of discriininsttoii. 
A heedless reader will consider uim to think that all was right then, 
and that all i« wroDg now. To produce such an impression was, 
doubtless, far from his desigu ; hut people in general look so much 
■t fint Appearances, that we ore sure of ultra -Protestants denouncing 
bb book ns popish, and nUrn-mediwvaU claiming it as on ibeir side, 
nnd making i[ serve a« one pretext more for a discontenled repining 
after the past, ntid ■hulling their eyes to the plain duties connccled 
with the present. 

Wc may mention a literary dofei;t. The whole dialogue consists of 
fentdices cast in au inverted mould, and having sundry phrases and 
peculiarities, which, along with the other feature, liove, by Sir W. Scott 
and his followers, been employed as conventionally appropriate wheii 
their scene is fixed uiiy time between the Conque-st and tneageof EUxa- 
beth. It is a peculiarly tiresome structure of sentence; and as it 
never could have been used in conversation, being in fact a clumsy 
imitation of the more uhjcctionahle features in the literary styles of 
Ihe sevenleciith century, we think It had hotter he abaiiduned. Mr. 
Neale's cbaraclors must really have talked Norman-Freucb or Anglo- 
Saxon. We grant that it would hare been inconvenient to have 
S'ven their convorsalione In cither language^ and t^ince the facts of 
e case must iherefoiv bo depaitcd from, nnd their talk rcpmentc<t 
ID a traDsleiiou, why not in such English as should rencinble talk 1 

Nolie4i t^Booli. 


The Tnu MinuUrt of Chriat awrediled % Ike Jloly Spirit : a 
Sermon preached at thr Vititalion of ikt F'«it. the ArcMcacon qf 
Derby, ^c. lit/ the Itee. Fiulip'Uei.i^ M.A. Ptibliihed at 
tlu rtquett of the Clergy. Uatchardi). 

tJit reotlen ere ownro iliat vrc do not geocratl)^ give separate notice 
•ermoiK, unlcM tliere bo Komcthing iincotnnion connected utlh 
IlieiD. W« hope iliM the piv*c-nt mny fiiirly be ranked among our 
excepted cucc. Though approximuiinns t» ihc tone nnd character of 
the ilocnmcnl now bcforv ax arc. wc fcnr, much too frccjtionl, we do 
hope that their full-CTOWTi moniffi^tiilion hew id m yet \mcomrnon in 
the pulnit Mr. Gcll unn prcibalily not aw^nre, n'bcii tie botook blin- 
Mtf to tlie work of plundering and mi)irci>re<irnting many of his clerical 
brethren, thnthcwiu! about loriolalcnn iraiiorlani canon of thoCliitrch. 
Wo write it advincilly, — ihulCanon Riii^t liy-"')<l*hyG be enforced. If 
ibc ■pri^wmt evil contmuim, propli: mnst bmtir ihemwJve* to re«cuo the 
|>uli)tt fniin «Tich a praiitiliilion of iti asc« ; and brin^ ihc unchari- 
table ulTeiider before the «nperior, to whose censure* no has be«oino 

To >uy of Mr. GcII'f Knnoii [hiit it i> rude and ignoroiil, i:t only to 
eny that it i* lil^e too many othcr.i. Hut we lutut t;tve a Hueuimen or 
two of bin rt^lit lo accuse others of bad Cbiirohmaosbip, and bin 
(jualili cations Tor decidiiiK on sncb poinl». His poeilioa ib, (hat no 
nisn is a real minieler of Christ, who is not peraODally aaiioli6ed by 
the Holy UbosL Here are bis own words : — 

" Bui, alul it ii nnl only the uohnly ticjronJ djipiiie rliat may fnil of the Holy 

GliDil. Whal any tbi )>Abi[( 0f tnin converuilion in msnyi ihcir eiKOtiil plcamro 
in ivurldEy occupntiooi and dniiuciDcnu: fhcir conilrfiJTjr unJi^r ucFr^ ciapToyme no, 
ami ilitir gloilncu «hi-n iufU wurki oft June f Mini tUiit he»rl« W l1i» icmple* of 
ill* Holy ChiHI r Wilt ttr niiAc Ifcf vmnl lo ** 'the ^lecr </ Gorf,* (u littitur iMr 
prracihig «f il ; vt ISe •aeranmli miani^graci Iqowh IMr a^mlntitralivu .' M»y H* 
iiol, Joc» lit nol ttliue to do lof Wlirie i« ihp ftuil of Ih-jitloUoiif ' "— Pi>. 7,*, 

How often, may vo nsk, has Mr. Gell nubscribed hi* allegiance to 

In tbo very next page to this flat contradiction of one of them, we 
are &voared witli Mr-OcH'e riows of the ArticleM in gciiural. 

" Nob it liu oriFD bcrn (ii^knonlrd^Kl b)' llivoppo*i1( p>it<y> <'><>t ihr comiiilcn ot 
OUT .^Tiiclcdvcri; nol only lira Ira I mil, but catTiiiiiiic, iiikI uilnit nv iiua ciU ivinKrlinl, 
in ihn'il Tttigioui vievrf. Ii liai oflrn botn !t\l oiiil illou'i'il. Misi. in thr plain nnj 
/hH iHtanltB of ihetc Atliclcf, icconliiiit la their Nfrrol aaJ grnnnMiml initt, which 
the TOjiA atclmtion pfrcmplorily sliima for lh«aii wiihuui mliniiliiiK uf any ntat 
inuB nhaifreT, Ihet labour Iri* the Lkudiani and (hi ArnliuiiiiUi, timn ihe Purilsni 
and CalviQini."~P. 9. 

nid Mr. Oell ever h<ar of the late Arclibisliop Lawrence 1 Per- 
hups he might find that prelate capable of adding to hia information 
about the Artietcn. 

But our fullest indignalioii la reaerved for an ontrage al the close of 
the discoiinii-, than wltich we uercr heani, in our own day, of a 

■"riie hnp|>y<""i hM»*nly dtnlhi o( ih«r who ImJ livril u|>on ilit <loclrin« ot 
eianplkal prMtilwitlim air immoniil and irrftUliblr Tniiinotiir* in favour of il<>< 
MnofCtitiiiianlty.MihccruthofGod. They csiiiniutc an cvldtm.-*. which Anglo- 


!\'otifeg 0/ Books. 

MlboliM irilt never W atilv to pruilucr. Wlini wctv die lalli'r Jayt at Pniiiilt'. tlieir 
nodcni proto-niint, if not ttirit i>(ulc»in*rly' F Wli«r« tie tlieir dying wiliKiisei f " 
—P. 4T. 

Mr. Cell tetU ua ttmt a paragraph 6r Iwo of this Berniori was 
omitteO iti l)ic duliverv; but liu docs uol Ie|] of this Imving been 
one of tlieat. If it was not, where, ue a»k, was the cominori manli- 
ncaa of the Derby clorgv that they did not resent the out mge,— that 
they coiidfBcendud to ask the prencher to put his iinfoelinK insolence 
into [jrim? But we will give both him and them the benefit of ihe 
doubt; ire will, in charity, suppose that this moat ott'ensive sentence 
wn» not heard from the pulpit; though we think it greatly concerns 
both Mr. Clell and hh brother clerj^y of Uerby distinctly lo assure us 
ofibi*. Eveiias the case is, it is bad enough in ail conscience. Without 
saying one word, at present, on Mr. Fronde's peculiar opinions on 
■Onie (ubjecta, we can hardly wish better for Mr. Gel), than that tt 
•Hould be with him, ai hie dying hour, as we believe it was with the 
object of his indecent attack — an attack which, considering that Mr. 
Prou'le's father is still living, i$ about ibe m-mi unfeeling we ever heard 
of. A late distin^ruishcd ornament ofourClinrch, wlio wbh far, indeed, 
from agreeing with Mr. Froude in all his opinions. sBi<l, on hctinnt; of 
liis death, that be believed llicre never was n casein which the transition 
froiu saint to angel niusl bavc been move slight. This was the Icsli- 
inony of one whose sjiirilual discernment we should rank as much 
above Mr. Gell's, as his talents and atininnients un<|ue6tionably would 
have been insulted by (be comparison. 

The Spiritual Creation, or Soul's Neiv Hirlh, A Poem in xvren 
Daoki. By Mrs. Martvh Roberts. London: Pickering. Idmu. 
pp. 170. 
TbI8 is a metaphyoicnt anil theological poem, preceded by an exeursuii 
of BOme forty pages, devoted to evolving the views on which the poem 
ii constructed ; and, consequently, we liave lo regard the auihoreiKi in 
the threefold capacity of poet, iibitosopher, and divine. The poetry, 
so far as wc have read it, is plen«ing and above par ; neither do wo 
quarrel with the llieory that a type of every Bpintual tnilli U to be 
found in the physical world, so long as persons do not allenipt to make 
H creed for diemselTce by the stiuly nf these correspondences. It will 
ho rcsdily seen that it mukcs all the difference, wliethera person when 
he devotes himself to thin insinuating kind of inquiry, has already 
learnt hii faith of the Church, or whether lie is going in search of a 
faith. In the one case it is not only a safe hut a profitable employ- 
ment; in the other it is, perhaps, the most dangerous course 00 which 
the cx]>erinienlalist can set forth. The kingdoms of nature and grace 
ubounil, conresscJIy, in so many analogies, that the mind is sure lo 
find Mores of ideusing occupalion in tracing them out ; but their very 
inrioty is likely (o mislcud bini. unless bis mind hnj> hcen trained in 
the Severn school of eulhulic theology — unlesa he has learnt lo resist 
uny tempting theory (hat may arise to lead him away from the truth, 
b)r the opposing authority of the Church ; and can Uike his stand on 
■his aiaiple ground, "This is the catholic faith, which, oxcq)l a man 
eve faillifuUy he cannot be »aved," Wc can foresee no prospect of 


J^otk^ of Bonti. 


peace and Kmiv for the Clnircti, nor of any substanlisl I'rawtli in gratoe, 
till Chnrclinicit Imrii [iriiclicullir, a* a( oU\, to h{)|)Iv liiis leM, "Tlib 
m" — '■ Tills la no/ — the embolic Jftilh.'' It it ihc inisforluiieatid fuult 
of Mra. Robeitt that she wbk not to truincd ; an<l, accordingly, we 
find her treating that luort elevating of all chrisliao Irutbs — tlic 
" Kiul's new-birtn '- as Klill au open qiivklion— if not lo be decided bjr 
nocuaii's wit, and fanciful anatof^iL-x, ul Iinwi one on nbicti each person 
mav laivfutly upeculuic to lii» voul't oontenl. Tlio tboory of Mra. 
Roberts, like that ue noticed in our Juiio nambtr, i« nearer to llic 
catbolic doctrin« than some vrliiob have httvo lal«lv broached : but 
ttill it i« a mere exjieritneni of private Jud^nwnl, and tlierefora is iiii- 
hesitatiiicty to be condemned. 8Iie protculs agninrt the "cant bw of 
ihu word c'oiivenion," uikI npi-akii of the "vpiritiul pride nhicli it 
engendered by tlie idea that Huch a iirw birth has talccn place in a man 
when be first begina to be religioiu" a* nio»t dangerous, and urgea 
tbe neoeasity ot continued renewal and {;ro«ih in cracc; but, on lli« 
Olber band, ehe venturer to divorce "what God bath joined together," 
the *' wal«raiid the Sjiirii," tbe united agent* of rcgener«lian ; and in 
Other plaoei, seems to put bajitiam almo«t entir«lv out of view. 

\Vi(li Mr. Na])per'» theory we dealt tenderly, Irinh tbcologr, 
indeed, deniandn more tendernetw tliaii we are diiii>otuHt to award in 
o*ir own oburch^bui really " Jtzm tatUett!" 11 we are ever to be 
"laying again ilie first principles of the doctrine of Chriat," bow 
shalt we" go on unto perfection"? 

Sfxcimau of Aitcieul Cktirrh PUtle, Sepitlchrul Ci'Oste*, Jr. 

A'o. ly. Oxford: Parker, Cambridge: SieveniKHi. London: 

Rivingtonfi, and Burnx, 
We liarcalnrady n<iliecd the two fitat number* of tlii* book. Tbe 
fonrlh baa ju»t apjicared, and is entirely devoted to ajiccimeiit of 
church phtc. The execution ia auperiur 10 any of tlie former num- 
ben \ and the sabjcclF arc atnong^t the beat of the very few »peeimcn« 
which this oMintrr still possesses. Two paltcms are given; one bdns 
di« roiy beautiful one from Cliffc Church in Kent, «ilver-gilt nnd 
cnaoieilod. Two cbuliccs nre also given ; one being the elubumic one 
still in use at Trinity College, Oiford, There i» al»o lui imcient aliap 
cafld!«<tick. A" the editors of tbi» book are endeavouring to posseas 
ibomMlvcs of drawings of nil tbe plnte remaining in the country, it 
will aoon be seen how careful and indefatigable was tbe sacrilegious 
spirit wliicti jiosaratwd the statesmen of tlie sixteenth, and the common 
peofde of the succociding cmtury. 

We Imvr noticed this work again, as it is really dwintble that the 
information contained in it should be extensively circulal4-d. It i* 
qniie time that the clergy know something of tbe subject, nnd that the 
prwent manufacture of vulgar vessels wag discontinued. Let it be 
once known, generally, what the true chalice is, and we abal) hove 
them in universal use. 



Mr. Pacol'i "Tract on Tumbitoiici," ia gouii in tunc iiml iiilpiiliuii. W« 
qult« agree whb liiiii lliHt it would liv c]«siruUu ii.> lii^i'i mse iiiuiitiuiy mt'tiKirinl* 
in iininl of liiimlipr: If wn muil hnve ihem. adylliing U pielVrnMc lo our 
liciul a>ii) rouMioncii. Tho illiutmiuns on tlir aliulc nrc creditnljlr. Jll. 
IV. and V. ore hcuA itotii.-* uf vsrly ilesif". We aliuiiM like to liuvi- tct^ii 
a grtKler raiifiy in |)nliil '( cluir. No. Vll. leemi scnrcelv tuiinlilr for 
wood. 'l*he ndniiion uf n coped wooUcn crosi, smaller in dtx than any 
glvcD, vould have improved lli« ■(^ries. 

" Eunyi on Ihc forlial Urn n gem en t of tlie Mind, in lUjijinapd connfxjon 
with Kt'Iiginn," &r. by lli« Uu i.Chey ne, M.U. &c. (DiiUiii, C'.iiry,) am the 
fruit" of H {liuun and iiiniiikir mind. It seems to ii;. that nicdicnl learning' and 
rxpcripncc ulonc ore liardly enough to eitnblish all ilie autlinr'c cuiicliitioiiit, 
but (hi^rv h du'ibiti-tx niucli |iru('tii.'Hl Irutli in the greHtur putt of Ills ccmArkt. 

Wv bavo ^ti'iit pknuurr in recommending la notice " The HomilicK of the 
Arslo-Snxon Chuicli,*' which lecnii lo promiic being a srriei, wbcrroT " The 
Uomilici of jElfric, witti iin En;;!!!!!! I'rinitilHtioii by It. Tborpe, F.ii\,'' occupy 
Pans I. and 11. of vol. I. They nrc printed " for the JElfrle Society," en uiia- 
eintion of which we confcji not to have prcviomly beard, but of which ihi* 
object! ore, duubllett, very imporUinl. We nrc };lnd (u observe tlic niiine of 
Mr. J. M. K«iiihl« among tb« coop(<rHiorfi. 

We hnvd also ntiBfuctiun in announcing lo our readert, the appearsnci^ of a 
new and niilatgcd ediliim of Mr. Miirklnnd'" rxccllriit " ItcLimrkii on EnjjIiaU 
Churclion," (I'orkct, Oifoid— Rivingtuni). We hove htrc both freih nioiler 
and more cncraiingi tboii in the liral ritltiun -, naaong the lotter tlierv will bv 
fouud oite of ill? new tnonnmriitiil window ot Cbichettvr. \n indpx ii nlao 

" Nine ond Two, or School llour»." lie., by ti. Mnigrave, M.A.,and "A 
Vocabulary of Kx|1tRn^lilln^" ttc, by th« same, (Kivin)!(onB,) are iniinunia in 
which a vootl dcnl will he found (hat i* iiicfu), iboueh ihi^y ate perhapi loo 
bulky and dear for (lie purpote intended. We ninh the iiutlior wonUI not cnii 
DitMntnn' meetiiijji-bouiiei Otopefi, and that he w<iiilil reconBidvi one of bii 
arjtunicnti in defence of the I'myer-Daok, that It !■ aluioil (uitirely in llin woid) 
of boly writ. Thii ii not true, ond it would be no ineilt if it were; it would 
he but Itriupn;; toother (he words and phrHHi'i of Scripture, (a (ho injury of 
their meaning and n»e. We au«pee(, in op|>oiiition to our anih'ir, that it la 
more the cnic with JiEtenting than wiili cbatch mayrrt. We aim dmidernte 
higher tloi^irine in our author's exnoBiiion, both of the inililntion uf the Lord'i 
Slipper, and of the Di-courK« with Niciiiloinim. Mr. Muigravu writei mote 
wordiily of the former when he cornea to John vl. 

" The iUroneM, a Talr," lie. (Sovley and ISurntide). Judging from a glance, 
it lectni wetl'WiiitoQ in parti i but we can ice thnl it* iloetrinv i> iiiKoiitid- 

We wilt) lb.1t anylhinR we could lay would keep venificn' hand* olT the 
Pwlm*. The Kev . F. Sktirrsy, B, l>. hst juit added one more to our mctiival 
Tcrrioni of >lrning to wbieh modern mtUt ii innpi>licable, (I'ickeKng.) A true 
poM of our day hat tried the experiment, and hut bitimclf pointed out (he 
rwton why it innil be id. Mr, Skurray leemi by no mennn an inelejaiir v«r- 
ailior, but ho ba« diluted the Hebrew energy of the Hiulmiit, to much ai to 
make it olmoil diiappnar, without having depnrtfd enough from lit* original, 
to give bimrelf any real ncope. 

"Quf>(iona for Self-vxaimnation," (Tooveyi) and "Cateebiiin for the titc 
«f young nonona of the Church of Engliind," from the lame publiiher, are 
manual! which, although probably they will meet with prejudiced crtiici, «r«, 
we think, lo be eBtiiiiatod with caudulir. One ^rcat defect in our practical 
tr.ichine, the lack of dclinileneu, chitpneti, and reality in the tpiritiial 
walk, they are adinirnhly calculated to meet -, and we oannot but be tstiiilied 
with uhaiever teodc to cultivate tenderocat of con«cienc« a* lo inilivldual 
c&aei of nclioit at Ihcy arite. 

Xetieef »/ Both. lUi 

"A Mt flf lii TVnrt Otrtn" (Buriii.) fwhieh, koHEVor, *re oIm TncU 
Uiemielvrt, nml may wnll bt iiiHidBS nidi,} plcwcsui; (heconli-iiUltr«vilrlMl: 
uirful nnd oiuMiirnliil, iiitirnclivo botli lii lh« way of mct«(I piecr|>l Mid 
toiigp an*! nl tJii! wiiif lime nifllcienlljr attnulivr. • 

Wcorc liappy lo ico a a reritcd anil aiirmciitcj fuim. of '■ Home 
UUcipJitip," (Burnt.) ■ liiilc «otk vliirli niij-hl lo br iii i)ie bwida of ttrty 
mollier and inittri'*) uf a family, of iha tiichcr anil middle claaact. The 
aaniilaii it hut tteciitd fn»in |h« palraiiajjc of 111* Qncen l>o«ag*r, (i Fi)ually 
liotiouiable lo tlie notk and lo Itt Pluti-vlruaf. 

" Addrca of n Minuln of llic Cliurcli uf England In liit faiuhionMa," by 
Rob«rt Morr», M.A., IWokiiiKliam. nolcleo ; Luncuian). &c.,) It « Tcpriot of 
• Tract whicli originally apprond al llio cloas of Tatl ccnlury ; and i« a very 
)i|««Mn|i (prcinwn of lite mind and lone of tliougbt wbicli marked ilie lUrouier 
■ort ofold-foihioned high Lliiiichmcn. 

A treatUe on (ho Synagogur, taken from that of Vililnga, liaa jui| bcpn put 
forlli by Bii Icitli cIpTRyman of ihe iiomc of Bernard. ( Frilotrtt.) 'Jlic ()ui->lioii 
how £>r llin apiiDintmeiitt of llie Qxircli arc dmrtd frum IhoM of lli* 
Syiia|[n|[ur, which ii handled hrcc, it boih in(<Tf«Iiiig and imporluil ; bat it 
thotild bp carefully icnicmbrrcd, ai «ur Trader* may imill^cl «r ntire ni- 
deiivoutfd la pri-ii upon llirni, ihat pmofi of tueh dirlialion cannoi lead to 
Ihe rvndli Mr. Bcriiatd airivci at, unteia Ihey be bUo proula of McfHrtw dcii- 
vMion from that (|iinilcr. And iiicli ir* ai« well ^vruindtd tafiMOt Im found. 
Believiiiff thai iho whole fyitem of Judaisin exnandrd iolo tlic Church, and 
hud iU ItiU bbw iIhic, «« look in livr al once lor Ibc Irne Synn^ogiie, lh« 
true Tcmjilc. ond lUc inie Throne of [>jvid. 

" Squire Atluarthy and Fanner Uluiil. ur (lie Weekly (Meitory," b lh« titl« 
of a Diott iMfoniblp and »rivloeablu Tract, by tbe lUv. Hilliam Pidin, 
{Hivingloiis 1 Burnt.) 

" A SMnMiilruic« addrvHed lo the ijuarlnlr Revi(«er, ftc," by a Londen 
CSerevmiin, (KiTingUina,) and "Tlie Pr>iyi<r tiir ib« Clmrch Militant and the 
Surplice," (I)ittn,) ore th? litlcs of Iva cxcellrni pomphlul* in reply tn the lata 
contempliblc sriidei in th« Quarterly un ibe Itubrici ami Hiiuul of our Chuich. 
lliD forinn of llie two i« lUc tnorc adapWd for general circulation. 

"A Letter lo the '3ix DarlQr*,&c." froinTurqueniRda the Younger, i«k xtrf 
clever piece of Hatiie. Wo have nothinl on ihia lubjcct to add lo our but 
iKuntb'a remarki, l>i. I'uiey't Sermon not Davinji yci ap[>ciir«d. 

We recaminend to notice tao valuable ncecuioni lo t)ic lumiture nf rellfiluUi 
teacher* for Ibeir work, "A Catechiim on ibe t'omiaon I'raver," by ilie . 
indefatigablf Mr. ^Valtoii, of Clielleuhani, (Durtin,} and hii " hvpoEJiiun of 
llto CliureU Culechiun," by Uie Itw. T. Ilallon, of Liverpool, <Ditlo.) . 

Tbe Itlihop of CBlculla'n Melropolilieal Charge. (.tecUy and Butnfide.) tx- 
liibilalhat mUle'e u>ii«l abitily, nnd containi much ink rcitiii|E mailer. Hit 
Lordahlp'a (arty ptvpoticxion prevcnli our being nirpriMd ai hi* ukinx, at we 
think, an alioKether intcmpemie, and gooaetlinei emiieoua view, cf the great 
queition* of the day. 

A very braulifulSemioii,rnlilled," The PrinciplnnfCliriMlanMcniberabip," 
hy ibe Krr. W. J. I>inipie'r, [Ihiriia.) hoi re^-eolly ujiprarrd, and ii wvll adapled 
for circulation. I'li* ftoiiiiipiece j;"" ' (design o(^ ihc ancient *!itin^s In the 
iiulhor'* chinch, which he lia> taken ai a model for tome open bencbe* 
Inirodnced by liim in place of hli <inn pew, a very judiciooa Innl cuiinccled 
with wbUh IB girta by liini lo bia broihi<r inrumbeiiti. 

Tlict* «r« other liilctetting trtinon* before ue, which wo have no ipnce to 
notice tUi moiilh. 

NO, XXXU — N.8. a 




B». uf I.i»cot>, Sipl. SI. 


tf Uf AncnBimnr or CtxniiciT. m 
SMid-s. Juki II. 

Of Ot/iJd.—ll. >Ii1m>, lliwon.i II. I'lcol, 
m.A. BnMO,: M. J. T. lli>y>, u.a. Wulh. 

S' C>a>'rl''fr.~P- J. (-nil. >.«- Trin, i K. 
nntr, ■.•.Tnn.ll.. ('. Liwlbiil. n.k.Tnn.; 
U. P. SiMRu*. t.o. nuvll.i II. CoIiIj, a.i 
Corp.Clini.: ». Cuuuulnii, >.». P«m, j A. W 

OfOifi>rJ-K. a. Ltr. i>.>. Kr> Ion II 
0'»iMlvd<ter.-J. P.BlrLAI. a,*. J»ua^ C 

P. boTlH. ■.!. Uusm'i^ O. KlDpfml. I.t. 

<^i»pi Clirli. 

Xf U( .tucHDiiiioi' or Yejiii:. *l Siitiv 
UHffr.'n SaiiWd|r. /urn II. 

O/Of/orri.— J, P. Mutinli. B.i. Billlul^ R, 
RolltMUD. I.ll, tinl* J II- V- InmBn, >.l. Line. 

tUC*Kli'Mst.~l. N. FlMltf, s.l. Mafil i J. 
Klad. t.t.i.. Curh. II. j W. DirEK^iubf, b.j. 
<|u»ea'i; II. Ci. I'ctTlis, n.t. cull, II-] H. C. 

o/ t>»r»»K.-l. tlia K,«. UulT. 

OrOtf-ttL—V. Vfitt, >.•. UdI*. 
<V ^">&'>4fi7««— ^' TonguA. I, a. Kmn. : W. 
ATinn. ■ •• Trln. 1 O. Plann. ■ «. UitMu'i. 
<)/ iii,.M-,— O. DwHk ".*. ITnJT.i J. 

Muull. VJliv. 

(V ^'•ei'n-— W- Itfflllh, K-i.Trls. 

Bj/ttt LOIED Bim*4V LoVDDVj df lAf dd^ff 

BtfaliSLJimu't. nSHmtat.Jim II. 

(VO^^n^,— J. gupv. a.i. Itiga. II-i It. B- 
Tvbk n.i. Univ., W. Buncn, ■-•. Ballloh 
P. J. A. Laonncii, ■-* lUat. { ll. HdUoD. K.a. 
Bt. lahnV 

Of Ciim'"iilfi.—'rht tlan. A. tivllf, H.j 
T>lo.: E. RuJite. m.t.t, C«lh. K.; 0.8. Drew, 
>.i. St Jahn'i^ J. nii^liiirdi, ■->, Tun,] R. 
Ktna, Lr-Lr Cbrur'i J. t). WntUcvonn. ■■■>■ 
S[.Aliii'>: tl O. Rathe. >.c I- HI jMlm'4] J. 
B. AuKLdd, U.A- riihaf^i; W. Jciihion, p.x. 
Coip, ihiu-i K- W, Klllfc ■.!, Tnn.; (J. 
llMnut, > 1. Kinni,, S. OiU. B.i, Uiurn't] P. 
I. II. nt'ihtn, • 1, 

O/lii Ckmrel, WlMioMry Collrsr. /.ItBJlo-.— 
S. Cronilici, V- PiiUin, J. Itunw, P. Ilfdron], 
N, IVntAn» V. P. Kbipm^nn. O, T. BAnncucli. 
I>, lltulilci. 

(ifait«ri.~C. C. Snnen. D.*. Qunn'i; V. 
I). Wilinii. t.i. Wsaimni] C- J. amlUi. ■.<. 
Ch, Ch.; C B Wulla.™.. ii-ji,,, A, Cot- 
iaa. s.i. Mmd- H.L 1>' Ruiavll, D.i. Mnr 
lun II. ] J. u. nunc, * .. Bi. Jului'i , w. c. 
tlovfTI, n A. UTB«r.|>- 

0/C*-*'Wirr -II K,.t. Wilninll.»,«.Tlln,i 

c J. Eiiiuti. ■.!. ciih. ir, ». c. iim(Ii>v. 

■.A. NL John'!; II. Ludnm. H,>- Tiin.. C. 
J.Flihi.-r,i • Jntrii O. Phtlllrx, ■>.>-Uu»n'ii 
a. a. Tslwi, Trtn.: B C K. UUIioi>, *->. 

HiciUltoa: J. Cohen, H.i. Prisb. R,; J. 
ThnniuB. *. k. Bl. JuUu'i, 
Ct/UatUii.'K. Jahntsn. H.A.Tila, 

U. Itdlaii. 
lllrmtf^M. Kni»6. a. Hellion. 

By Ur LoHD Uiitict nr HLOtic-KaTsii avu 
nmnoi., iih SwiiIoiI: Juii \I, at SI. JUar- 

o/ Orf-rd. — lt. KtJnaan, t.i. EiM. , W, 
llufrhr^ h.A.Jniiti r, II. J,*i.n*rtn. b-a, »r. 
Kdlu. II.: 8. T. MIIU, B.i. Maailnk'n^ J. FIIL 
n.A.OrinIi Q, PniUKfoc. B.a. Bfu.Tn.i II. M, 
KIDWin, a.!. HI. Kdm. II.] J. II. Woo;!rui>1, 
k.t.Pnnb.. L. C. Pnhnni, n.i Trin.. i. W. 
Cl^eutl. bA, Trin.. O. Pmyiuui. ■ A, N*w 
Ion B. If. <l. US', uf Datli .iiJ Weill, I 

Of Camttl,l),.~u. H. llod^n, ».«, Trto.] 
n. (I. XtnttdDn. (.A, XLJiilin'i- 1). p. I.i'wii, 
■.•.«i J.iIid'i: T, MIIIi. >.•. Tiiii.i C. WhXf . 
Iir, ■.A.Tiln.: ). B. Buiicc. u.a. Clare U. 
II. d. Dp.DfCulUa.) 

0/OiAnL— C.B.Osnlili^ *.t. Bruan.; a. 
W. Ilinplalar. ■.>. Ktsi,] II. I'- Pimman, 
■.c.L. 81. MarrH.i A. Phi>)i(. b. a. Wtdh. j O. 

T, Sprlnl, n.A. tit Edm. II. ; y.. Wuoit, u.t. 
MabJ. tl. ] J. Cuoka. B... fldllol, W. Frwck- 
lln. B.I. Nii<r Ini, II.. H. W. liuf. B.A. Km., 
H- W, \v, Jaini*, n... Orti-I, J, L»ri|[«riirilij. 
n. 1 MaH. K.. J. P WhkUc;. B.A. 
Bp. uf Huh and Vi'vUi.l 

(VConlriil^— .«. CorWn*. ■.i.t'iilT.i W. 
MinllLon, fi.A, <-aih. II.] (( llutililntdDi V-A, 
Bl Jcbo'a, J, II. Kiiwla. d.a. FelIo> uf ElnA 
<l. d. Bo. ft Oaih uia W.Uij, W. Rrxn, a.a. 
Calu' 1lp.a(*ldl. 

Vf Lnmpfif.—1. WillUmi, tc. DiTidVt'-i', 
Dji. or Si. 1>a*14'>). 

Bg at LdBB UiAuor or WoBrxrm, M 
^Bflrfdy, /Baf II. 

Dtxcn >. 

tUOttunl^e. C. Adanu, Mwl-] J. P. Hick, 
gnltkr. a.*. Kt. P.>tDi.ll.i W. 0, ll'irile;, • «,. 
Braun, ; W. I.ct. la. Braaan.L J. Mvrty, ■.&. 
aiHTN'a: a.».>iIuan,B.A.'riln,; CU.Tunisr. 
a. A, lull lot, 

0/C^ti'ltlgi.~y'.^. C. ChAJiiwra, BL Calli. 
H.: W. Oavii, a. a. Cnr)'- ChHa, : B. Hiel- 
maii. B-A. Cmm.-, P- O- lliurhca. b.a. B(. 
John'i] A. <'. Ulfblnn, ■-•. Chrul'i; T, B, 
tllciTnMii. B.A. ChrliUi J. K- Young, h.a. 

Of llutlln—n- DrrbU, ■.!. Tib. (I. t. Bp. 


Of^Otfo'dj—O, B«l<)'. • a. H** Inn U.i 

A. BajriUiBln. >.>. PaHLli. : C. C. Oallk, l.A. 
11*11. 1 J. Collin's I.I. Ma^d, : 1. W. Flolehor, 
B.l BrIHIi.] H, mil, B.A. Wa<lb. 

Of Cimirilft-lt, Bilne. i.A- Huain'i, (. 
lllluinnb, la.A. Clue H.i J. Kinn. i.a. 

Of DaUi:—l. Irrtni, i.t. Trtn. I' ri. Abp. 
of Duldln); T. TmlliuiHi, b.i. Tilo. (A 4. Il|>. 
at Oaaoi^r.i 



PitirUmf*. *> Sim*^. /•»* tl. 

Of Otft'^.—a. X. Cunn. ■ i Hud. B.i 
Ci S. OoMiai. i.i. Kw,. r. W, v. HMnih 
a.i. BalUoli >. ». rUnwr, *.i. Chn.: <». 
RiolinKn. ■.*. St, Juhn'i; H. ff. Suir, 

Jlffwtrir. i^A, Jrtijtj T. Innkfii, *,a, Clurtn^i^ 
fi, UubtUgc, B 1. rath II. 1 1. OII«". « k. 
duRti'l; H. Hobani, ■.*. Imvt: /.C.Rn- 
iKldh t.x. CfarM^^ i. Htad*. a.^. M. Jalu/i; 
K. C Xhanr, a.A. Cbrlirti J. Vkft >.<u 

lyar/krtf.— T-U<nini(.>.l.(I.Mn.ll.i It. 

0/ CmmtrMft.—V. Otiiaa. Qmitftl W. 
Uan. %,!.. SMiHtr; It. HlditlioitM. kj. 
CMnVi J. Ntmui, a.*. OuMi'ii ». mu, 
k.k Tiln.i S. X. WtlHtrr, ■.<. Kniin.i O. 
Scrarfml. K,«. Bi. Jtdia^ 

4|l(WLi»s8TOorart.riira».dt tiienlj. 

^CamtiUM.—J. KTAodnn i^a. Clin H.; 
T. M. llHllvdi, *.*. rrilnw r>r KIni'ii K R. 
Unk, UJ. TMli K. XhIi, a... C*»>. K.i 
ILChnn-tut. Bui. Bus.: tr . Tli«d. a. il. CUk 
ll.i K. n. Wnlh. ■.>. SI Jolini, 

df A^ilto.— II. !■- lUakriic;, a.*. Ttia. ; t. 

(V Oa/W<f.— J, A. Slcdi. ri. titii inn It.; 
O. Horith, ■.!. Ortcl, 

ty CtMtrUfi.~0. Allan, i.k. iMUi J, 
AlliT, ■-', TttUm lif St. Jnlui'c D, IlltnUruil, 
B.i, Trin.i r. Pinau, ■.(. CIihm'i: I, 
C.nrn.t.t. SLJnhn'i; A.<K. liMlt, a.*,SL 
Jukn-ii W. F. T^rtM, a.*.J«H 

fUKolt.— T. A. MUb. 

^ M> Lun Viuini u rauiiEvna. M 

IUOt/u4.—n. Taa, •.!. ll«ttMi J, V. 
Hllli*. u. KHt 

OfCrmtrUlfr.-C.G. Fnal. t.*, Mm^.i M' 
A. F. A. r^cBtl. H.o.Trli', 

AJfwaU.— C. HnHIt 


<tf OfiWil.-N. A. Owlud, i.t. C3i. Ch. i J. 
UutI^k.a. BnMi.^ L. itlUH, a.*. Unln,; 
II, Miirbrit. >.A. I.innilu. 

cy CHttnA>r.-A. RmMf. a.t. IVIn.i O. 
Vacnrr. ■.a.Trla.i A. Sinn. *ki. SkL >■». i 
K. ilnui. ■-•. U^ 

9t lU taaa Dij»or av Uiavraaih ^ Hrtt- 

VOqW—J. It. Wimdnil, a it. nWr. 

q^ (l«B»n^.— J. Omn. Trin H . H. 11. 
Im-Whmi, B-x-BLJukn'ti H. Tn«t. a. t. 


(VO>/><u, H.i L'Mii J. 11*11. 
HI llrwn.^ R. Kta*.*. Wur . A,OaU(7. 
HI. Mnlnnll-i J.llndtlkUa(d.lL 

(y Ca-tri^h— M. P. KaniiSBHr. >.*- 

<>l h'Mm— Dm«w«, ■.*. TfM. 

JI|F U( Loas Ukim* nr KiBTm. »t Mftir, 
Ml *iaih^a^» yk*tf 11. 

IVOi/i'A— A. A. Ilvi,ai EiM. 

(VCw>>>14f--W. M. W. Cdl. •.«.■*. 
J«lin-|; E. M. a. Bulji. (.4- ■>. Jofaa'i; W. 
■adlai. a.A.ODHD-ii J.Mmit. a.«. OaJw 

O/0iJtr4.~a. Anini. ■4. WaA.; H. n<». 
<I(D, a^ Vidb. : r. F. Hnlloi, a 1. KnCi CV 
K. ilulii, Lt. Kui.: I. L. HartlM. a*. 
»FT<Iniill . W. r. A, Xclftinl, nrr.m. i 
11 * T<R.|>]». i.ri. ¥cw1»lt.: O.WouII. 
coinbe. ■ *. Ch. Ch. 

OJ Cam^Uf.-^ Bnw*. a (. i«Mi i. r. 
Thlia, ».«. iVln. 

Bf Ml Loan niton* nr Hit. in U. ffMn/lJ 

Av*. JTfgHr.Jf TT. DS <■■(■). /M* It. 1 

cy IMtnl— Di AkMtrW, a x. Vnlr. If. d. 
Bf. iM Duhala]! tUn. C- F. OviMosn. a.i. 
JWH. F. MA. a.4. lUfU- B- C' •■' »r- af J 

tjf CmmtrUf ' .-f. II. frtXIrui. a-i.OMn'* 
II. ClMntoa. at. CMut. <>. J, Cvm. k.a 
C«h. H.d. «, B» «fl.MhilBli11] t.Oibmn.».,- 
Vcllnw of )«na ! C. )*»■» " «■*.»■». CtA.1 
((. ^B». uf UeM*V11i J. IVni, a.t. r*ll« 
nrlVm.;r. A.SvBluoi.t > FiIIm olOuhtli 1 
41. M. HTko^ II. >. Pdlm uT lIMrlillwt Rj 
Wmi. M.i, rdln* uT Tna.] K. U. WttlU - ■' 
H.i. Kidm 

CV t«^f irr.-.D. Ettai, IL DatM'i. I*. *. 

110. OT l.lAQdBlf> 

LUifUr^Xr W. Oitfltt, (I. d, an. Bf l.lin. 


(W rovMAr.— P. PraH*. >i..i. PMIa* 'f 
tcioba't. W. Khbc ■ a. Ebud.i W. pMiJa. 
•m. a.A, A. Pjat. a.j> Ht Ptwi'i. 

IN U> Laaa Shim* or DcaaT ahd n«»«i>a. 
«r«<pten M 5iit4t9.^M<ll. 


11. C. MiMUii. ».>. dloMH Bf KllWofi 
~ W«bh, ■ 1. dIcMH (f Aaiduw. 

— SRlna. ■.«., II«B. A. ■(*«(>, ■,*. din- 
no or Dmy. 

Itfllu Loau Diiaor or Po** tanTmiva. 
Ill UUMfvt^, >• A»u^, ^aof II. 


0. C. Budlhi lit. dtoto* <if Cannof. 

It. W. nantvr. D.jt.. J, Pinlar. a-(. dimiE or 
Ddwb. p. Oonliill. H.l. rtlnOfM n' Onilnu™: 
I. K. Cldfflii. !.».. ;. A. K«T. a •. *l«rw uf 
Cannat: I'. Mnm, disco* uf Annifh ". ' 
Atip.aT AnuahtL A. UbvI". a.A. ilwrnr <4 
Dinnwn, J. Wu*4nA. »i.ilioi)««t<«-ii«n«. 

J^Af L«ai>Ui>aariM>KiLB'aB,i>>('<rmf*, 

ly Si.Mia.-V. r. Wall*, t^ TiW. «■ * 
Abp. Df pabUa.) 

<V J>*Mia — T OliihtrM. *.• ■ Wa. 

y im 



fVr/fri>r«I, DiKiH^ 




^V nikn, :. 0. A. 

IfloulMII -win - Old ) B,. 




^^1 fienwn, H"— — 

... ill- Skilinu'h r.c WlnohHIn 

lOQ liOM 

Dji, ar Llnpuln 

A 911 


^H Ulgnktnni. u. .. 

Tiln. r»ll . fumbriditt. 



^H rii»J,ti.^ 

... SI Junn. DudlBj, ».t. Wor«.«t- 

Loiri Winl 



^^^^^B OgofHi, - 

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„. Thuri>o BCAi\(rt. V. ... Tfurwlcll, 



^^^^H n.b^i. 1 



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rl.inim.ijplLjin, p.c. *ndl ,, viwrliei 
- \ Llmiii. *k, p.e..( *'■ "•™* 

iHmn. Mum<.fe W.i 



^H KvL J ... 

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^H raWHtl. J,— ^ 

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<lvin^n» It. •>. Ar('^ 
... brldl^tV CliBp«lr>)2 LonOoB..... 

» Tilbury. ■ ) 



^H FUMr,CJ...— 


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... WnalciT) v....... ........... Durham.-.. 

Up. of Uutham ........... 



^" Hall. J 



Idtrdlnn, J- L,. 

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Ilaii>le]>, C. 

... J"?'» ■T"""!-' •'•^'n l.ln«lr> 



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1 .^.™^«. A.. {"r,;„:tr.^»."i} i^n^-n,.. 


11 n J 

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_. Ri.Tlii.iuM, PfTiinn.r.o. Ch«>ur..— 

Mlia JljndfTUn'* Tnu.. 


^ LJinirwuriliyt J. 
1 Mimlcn. T. .. 

_ DtrkwvlC.S'jiiii.-rtDl. v.. n.AW..Hh. 

MBnjuh iifBklh —».... 



... LlAnftr>IIitnH II. .....-.— ■■■«.....-.. .. 

Bti<l]ui> df B4iii;or..H..H 


Minb. l>t. 

... I.eamini;Tf>Ti» r.t'. ....... Woroeilm. 


INffHMn I'urcoHj IP. 1 *»,ft.-. 

J. llBrrlaoD .............. 



Huiw. T - 

Vipuilf Lf«llB..4,.._.... 


OcUd, p. ..._.. 

Rnv. W. U. n. Mum... 



0*u> 0. V....~... HDniiiin Amllsr. *.<;...■ UxTnrd 

Ch. Ch,. ncTDnl .„ 



1 P««l».T.e 

Iltlklltlvli, II. w, lllu-\ n„ 

■" I lull SI, Uli'hul ,,.,) "" 

Ill<.,r-I llrwlrlip. tn'l 

1, lltT. O , O , Fp II n irli r. n H. 


\ 'a 

1 PodlM, (i. 11... 

... llalyTrtiiilir.liiiilDr, ■. EnMor 

D. & C. Elder. 



Kawllnyi. W, ., 

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RlilMTIl, D...... 

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nil W. W.Wjnn.nKrl., 



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8^nMr. J, W.. 

... Vi-illmi, P.i, ,, B.«W 

Biv. E. T. II .111 J....... 



SnrouKJ. W.. 
■nnVlw, J 

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^K Vll!t<.(. II 

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lFt-FrlBclp*l ud Preltaiai i 11 imun, B. ...... ■iB.piMcbtr oTOuit. Caih. 

^H SmUi. Dr 

of Mkihemmk* In Liwr- 


r,...„._ Rwumouip, uinivtip. 

^1 .,{ 

poal <'glle|u» tmiliuiloiv 
Irlil Mulrr i>r Ijimli'li 


n , (Rmd Hum or 

i. M. —.^ Utuamu Sphoul. 


(rrmniiitr Srliuol. 


IL ...^,., HlE-]'n>i:ltct a 

f Col'l- Calh. 

^1 Phichw. W ]' 

[Mil MuUT ID L'uJIdkUU 

Wfiilnbiui. C. fl'r^ii. i>f IliiiUtmnfld t'oni- 

Ctnin. tli'luicil, 9iL>iithiitv]1, 

P. s. 

..-.-..,^— \ nrtlVlBl Sfhiiol, 

^H OowlcOllU. W. G.{ 

ttwl Mhmi of Pm GniD, 
GchM), AndlMD. 


_ .' • f>)<™- Owplil 


K)d( of 





■kmrexl, G., u AjlMWa*. 
Bmchlrbferili. J., Rc«ur of Fvrmlkuit, 
Brown, J. B-. VW of PlwUmrj. 

TwtAl. t«it l>H Itir <irsi. OlaiT't, I^wld. 
Dtttca. J., uf GlDumler. 
DddL U'., Jnnifa^jir of Sow^rbx- 
tampUta, T„ liu of ChkilUib. 

n.eaovKEN DECEAsen 

llniMtk. W.. LD.. 11 KUbum. 

Ilutln, J., OlBplMTl M Km 
w - tar IV 4Si... .• tl 

Luriii. W. W.. VU>i of irtrr-niltn, 

KoHru. J. R.. ■.II., Rrui of auAaftfM 

(irn'h OxfcrdaMic 
S«liHb«rT. J' T.. lui. Dmt. Mn. AMttMub, 
Suiilimn, IL, I'nn. OilUOitad. 
SmiUl, S.. Kkui ur Haul, 
Tlujmu, A,, of L«viiulR, 


.frnmrf tUpo't. — ■■ H>, lli« undmiitncil 

Cunimilt^tf irppoinrcd tu net i(i eoiicrrl 
iviih Krr Mnj^try'i nflvtrnmi^nr. Tor tlic 
p'rrllon >nd rntloirnKnl of AdiliiloiiDl 
llxlKiprio in til* coloiiivi aril d«;i(iiid{iii- 
cit-ialGrpal Briliin, mlopC Ihli mrtm of 
nuking publiclr known ihp inrcm <r>(h 
which il lua |>I*««I AlmiKhly Ooit to 
blcM our undrrtalciog bilhrriD, and tl>o 
fiinhrr nluctta ufaich, in irliancc on ihe 
Mme Divine aid, wc hope to Bccom|i1)Bl>. 

"T*D of thr Biihop* tontrrraivd Tnr 
Srtt nnrljr founttrd, line now b««n fut 
(ome lime in llitir crapiKtivo *phgtn i>( 

" ). Til* Biiliop of Not ZmUnd Iin, 
in ■ journey of lix monllii by im and 
land, cumplclrd ihr Sttt liiiiation of iiia 
cxtonaive dif^tceso; and Tvrorti fjvouf- 
ably or ihe progrvw ot rcIlKlon in ihoiF 

"1. Tlie Blklinp of Ulbrallac, hailns 
rpiUcd (omiD wsi'k* it ihc Meitojiolii uf 
hit Stv. and for ■ conildfr.ibly lonKcr 
prtlod al MalU, and bavtn){ nomiiialvd 
ftn Arcbili'acon fur (lie ^cnr^ral lupfr- 
iiiirndi'iirii of ErcTe>in«tlcnl afliiiM Ja 
•ach of ihoM pUcni, i« now rnifagrit in 
(itiiing (he wtrtti ciiiM in whicb Eng- 
liih canirrcmliont haio bnn gathered 
loffrtberin ibeialanda, and on the coailJ, 
ol Ihe Mfdiiernnenn, Already he liM 
exfrciwd ibe fuiiFiiona ol liii odlce at 
Alhena, Smjrni. and Conitanlmojile. 
where, though liiere are «onaid«r*l>le 
MngregtliMH ta eonimunion with our 
Chunh, no ADgllcin Biiliop hod cier 
before breii teen. 

"3. The Bialiop ot Tsimania, who 
aaJLr J fur hik iliuceM ml thv erid o( Feb- 
ruary iaAt. unilrrlcKik loreuaain fnr afmr 
day* at ihv Cnpvof <iood llo|a', In order 
In adminiMn the riir of cunliriniiion. to 
long inlerniilled, in ■ colony wliicli ur- 
nniljr rtqulnt (h> ear* ot a rotideol 

"Thui, wiihin rompariilvcly ■ ahoTt 
p«riad, uiil. il may be added, by the 

elTorti and ntTmniti of companitiicly ttw, 
llirto new Itiahuptict have l>«en vreMMl, 
and (ha nrdinanret i>( liie Cburr^ in 
Ihvir full hiti-jiriiy crnimiiiticiiled to 
mnny ihoiuand* of her widety-ioatiefcd 

*' Ktii deminitt equal to any wliich 
have been met remain ailll unniltfied. 

"I, The imporiant colony of Kc» 
Brum wick, equal incllenl to one )\tU of 
EnKlnnd. and rapidly Increaaing in pupa- 
lalion. hoa been too lonu witlioul a teti. 
dent Chief Piiior. Tlie lime, hotrerer, 
aernit at leiiRih to hir* attifrd for tbe 
•ii|>I>ly of t ilefKiency lo generally felt 
and aekiiowtTd|;rd: and u i proof of the 
liiierni eiciu^ in New Bruniwieti, by 
the projiotal of fofming thai Proline* 
infoa tepaniM filihopric, if may be tlaled 
thai ihe Governor, Sir William Cole- 
in favour nf audi a niFiKur*. oliila llio 
Chief Juallce, Ihe Sol it ituf' General, and 
olher lejdinit pertuni iii ihe coleny, are 
cxcrlliifc llumwlvei lo raite a fund to- 
wardt llio endowmenl. 

"TheSprcial l.'iiniiulttev. to whomwaa 
cnlrtiaied ihr duty cf anNcitinir mimcrip- 
lioDi on the innie brhalf ill ihi* country, 
have eitimsied the iirceunry ineomeal 
ViVUL; bill Ihoueh we are far from »• 
gnrding lueh ■ proviHon M loo ffreat,w* 
ihait be prepared to recotnmend io Her 
MaJeiH'a Covernmenl ibe appointmeDI 
of a Biahop, at toon at a clear revenue of 
lOOOI. a-year hot been permancnily le- 

" A capital lum, ihertfure. of SO.UOOJ. 
win be required. Tbe cuntribuiioni, 
irhich had only conimcm-'rd in Nrw 
IlrunlHlcb. amounlrd, at llie date of out 
Utt d<i|<alchet, to i.lial., but a muih 
iDrgrr tum wa^eipeclcd '. fii>d the Bitbop 
of Novi Scotia lind aililretii'd a prntural 
Icitrr * lo the clci)ty anil I'y nicinbcnof 
■lie Church,' mum mending a colleeiion 
In aid o( (he endowment fund, in etriy 
parlib and mlMlnn of hit Diocete. 

" Having taken ihcte mailer* into our 






(crlom eoiuldemion, aod lookinE lo the 
IfTMtt urBcncynndiinponiini:!! uf iFif rnic, 
we liivr ilcicnnlncil la ii]ipro[>rin(c it 
liirigr pnrlion uf ihe fund iciniiiniiiK *| 
niir ilKjinol, iinmi'ly, lli<: mm <ir :iO,0(K)(. 
toaiinli iliu rmlowmorit of ( lliiliupnc iii 
Nfw Bruiiaiviii-tc. Ahiiidiii){ ilim iUOflf. 

«ilj only ri'Rinin (ur tKr Cliiiirh nl lioni4 
to raiic on 'ii'iiil mm, in otdcr lo enm- 
p1rl« lliit mod (li-iimlilit work. Anil wc 
eannoi Tcfriin frnm cxpirwiiii; nil nnJcnt 
bopc thai the pubtio ai large, Dnd opwi- 
ally thmpconncclcd byitsdr orpropi^ny 
Mi(h Nc« Brurowick, will mnkc a ncn 
rfi'Liri lo provide ihc rtgulTcd amonni- 

"2. Aliciilion wni dirrclcd, in out 
flnl reaaiu lo Ihc woni ot ■ Biilmp ill 
llio rapidly-gFOMinit ■eiitcmcnl of Souili 
Aualnilia; and llir oQVr o( laud wliicli 
hat brtii made by auraloui pr<i|ril<turn( 
ihal colony nnitcm il ciprcially ilcilrnbla 
llial no linckrci->»iiry fU'ln}' tliuuld uvi^iir 
in ciini)ilp|inE (h^ <itj-dni/alioLi 0/ llia< 
infanl Cliunli. 

" i. Tli> Biiliap of Aiulralia, ihnunb 
laldy rrlicviJ liom llip (nni at Nvw 
2?aland and Van UiciiU'n'i l.and, i> till] 
«harg'd with ilic admiriiilMiiun ol a 
dioccM! vastly lao Ifliifc for hit plTrrlual 
•Upcnnltndcnci: : and lie, thcrrrnre. in a 
recrnt aummuiiicDiiorii ptriili cuiinl)y 
for Ihr ricDlion of a diatincl Iliiilio|iric in 
■he iliritinK hI|1fii>i-i>1 o! rpil rliillip. 

"1. Ill hkr niannri, and with nUiuut 
renaon, ihi Bi>l>o|> pI Cnlcuiin liaa re- 
DDlnmcndcd llie nibdiviiion of liia ovri 
cnonnoua diocetc, 'B'j llic crcciioD of n 
Bialioprlc bit tb« Norlliecn Piavlucci of 

Biinorntc or New BnttKiwicK.— 
Tlic ComniilIPP appDinicd lo promow 
Ihe <'nd<"rR>''nl of a lli<liijprii! In Ihc 
Prorinpr of N»w Ilrminwick. ceniwily 
Mqncti alien lion tn ihc liillnitiiiK rxltacia 
from ihc Second Id-porl ■■( Ihir Arch- 
btillona and Biihopa. under wh nit miilio- 
riiy Ih'V nre aflilig :- — 

" The imponanl oolony of Vet Btuin- 
wick, e^iial in client 10 one hall of Eng- 
land, and rapidly iiiereniing in popula- 
tion. Iiai Iwon loo long wiihoui a reildcnl 
Chii'f Fatl<ir. Tlie time, hovcvcr, tecmi 
at Itriulh to tunc nniicd loi ihe aupply of 
ij d<'lic»iiryuj((fn<"rnlly fc[( nnd ncknow- 
Irdgrd , .-iiid ui a pruof of the intcreit 
Gxcitrd In N«* llmniHlck, by ibo pro- 
-oaol of forniinf- llial fHoviiicc Into a 

tame BiiliPpric, ii may be Hated that 

I OoTcrnoT. Sit Witliam Colrbitiokc, 

"TIloe clalmt nro all ilronf nd un- 

dentbbti^; Ai d. in cornn) ending tbem lo 
the t'hriitiitn litwiMlily, nut ypt, wptrmr, 
cxbauirc'd, of llie nioibiir (!hinvh, w« 
ninut n»l omit Eli put nuniti prominently 
forwanl thr not leu prr«»iii(r, and cer- 
tainly more ancient cUiin>, uf iho Cape 
of Oond Hope and of Ctylon. 

" Wc ptnpose, ihen. Hnl nf all, to re- 
cocntneiid to llcr Alajeiry'i GoVFmmcnl, 
aa toopd db the ndcqu.nle endovmeni h-ia 
been aeoufcd, the eTe<:iiofi of a icparate 
Brihopric fur llw Province at New 

" VTc ahall ■ftcnvardi direct our *ti*n> 
lion lo Ibo tmporlanl Colonial Satl)«> 
nicnti abnvo mcniioned, in (lie order 
aiiKKCUcd by the juliil canilJvrnllani of 
■111' It Inlilnnic dxinir. Ilia olTiTa of muIiI- 
aucp, and the probability of aticctw. 

" Wo mutt not cnncluile ibm afaicmrnl 
of oLir prcifi'r'ilin^aiiil p^iim wiElmniiX- 
priThvinii onr llihiikriJnL'U tf> Alnd^b'y 
ifod for ibi' Kuci;('H« wlittb (Ed ban bi'en 
graciously ^deakcd ibn* far In voucbiialv 
10 ihii lirii ayiieinatlu cuileavour to im- 
part iba full blcningaof nurCliurth toihv 
coloiiieaof iliit|ir«airmp<r«.Hnd bi-trecb- 
ing Him ta diapoav itig heart! of Ilia 
people lo entry on lo iu fiiil completion 
a work iinderiDkcn fni ihr fiiriberancc of 
llii glotv, in the etlcminn of ihc king* 
dom of Itii ever Bicaavil &on. 

W, CamuAn. ' C. Wmtoit. 

E. EllOH. E. DuKliLU. 

JoMA U. Anuanii. ). LiNcoLTi. 
Rk. Ouolin. G. ItoctuaTcn. 


baa oftlcintly ripr<4ie4 bli opinion in 
favour nt aiich a mraauir. whiln Ilir 
Chief Jiulii-p, ilie Sulicilor-d'cnrral, and 
oibi-r lending peraont in Iho Colony, atv 
PiciiioK ihrm^clvi* to iiim h fuiid (•• 
wariU ilift endowment. 

"TlirSptriitl Com mine*, lowborn wia 
<n<ru>t<-d ilie duty of loluitlni; ■ubacrip- 
tians on ibr tame bclisir in ibiacountry, 
have otimalFd ihe ni-ccMary income at 
ISOOt.i but thouttb HI! era lar from nr- 
l^rdinfE lunb a ptotrnnn ai 100 great, 
we iball lie prepared to reeonimctid lo 
Her Majiaty'a (iovemnient the n(>|">Tni- 
mi-ni of a niibop, u aoon n> a rlr.ic 
rrienue of lOUOiC a-)<ar haa been per- 
manpnily aecurad. 

" A cajillal auin, ihitreforo, of 30.0001. 
wdl be m|iiirrd. The cnnfributl<n))i, 
•ibicli had only com iiit nerd in Kcw 



^, B mounted. 11 die tliile of our 

ilm. to lliO/., bill ■ much 

["(DiRKimpccttdi anil llie BiiJiop 

af ^ovn Stoiit bsd iddrciicd n puloral 

^ kitcT 'lo ili( Clr'ur ind Lay Member* 

rof ihc Chutvl),' rciammcnding a collcc- 

• lion iu aid of iht cndoomcDl fund, in 

•*etv puiah and iniHionof hisdiowK. 

" Hkvinf taken ihor matltr* inio our 

, .ttrioui comlderniian, and laukinv to iho 

rf rMl uritnicf and impoiUnccar iheaitc, 

Sir* ]iM« diu-rmintii lo appropriata a 

lirge pBTlion ot iti* fund rcnialnlii|t U, 

BUT dinpntat. nnnicly, (Iia fUTri^f JOlUOOI. 

to«a'tU tfic filctowmtnEof a Hiiho^ne 1 n 

I N** Brunxwick. AHumlng 'ha( iOtiat. 

Fwill bg colifclnl nilhin (ha Prarincv, it 

[ vill only rriDaio for ihc Church at horn* 

to rain* an «|u*l lum, in ordtr to com- 

y\p\e tbii moil tltnirable oorlt. And wo 

cannol rrliiin from Fxpieiaingaaardint 

Iiopg IliQE ilic publit ai.Iarp.andHpFii- 

(iU« thotp coonvFlcrl by trade or pr^portjr 

Willi New Biuntwict, vill make a iicir 

eHiirl <o priiiiili! llie required amounl." 

After iioiit-mii iIk- want* of oilier 

^Colooiea, ilia Report of the Atchbiiliopa 

nd BUhopa prooet4* a* (ollmi ; — 

" Wo ptopoM, flrit of all, to revoui- 

maiid lo Her Majeily'i (iovemment. aa 

aoon a> tbeadoquale eodowmenl liB> Iweu 

areurcd, the ccMiion i>( a ir pa rate 

Bialioprle for tbe rrovince tt Niw 


The fnrr^iuK axincl* abumtanity 
IttLify the frtal intiiortanca wbicb ili« 
Hold* of ibe Chunh altavh to Ihf trM- 
tion of a BIahapti« in Ntw BruntwWk. 

Nothing i* DOW vtnniini; for ih* accnni- 
plialmiMil of ihii cicrlleni deiign, but 
ibc ecmparaiivcly (mall *am rcquiiiietti 
complete ihe moderate eiidowinent ■h!cll 
the Blaliopi conaiJer ceeeMury. 

The objcoi prouoard, and iioo almoii 
within reaeh, w tltc planting of analli#r 
brancli of the Church of England tmonv 
a population of Briliih orifln, which ia 
rrcry j«*r incrcaainii b; tha tnQuX of 
amiRranll froRl the matber country. 

itrair* 10 han ■ Chiof Paaior of lh> 
Chuicb taatdani amans itirm, ia rviilrot 
from till eonlribulioii* •rliicli thry hala 
■opplied froin their own Trrj timittil 
mruu for the due niupori of tlir Biahop- 
rie. It would be uJ to think that iLpM 
thouU prove uiui*ailing for want of a 
broibrrty oooporaiion ai homo. 

Tl.o Committee, tberefarr, confidently 
apnml to all who (eel aa tnlemi ia tha 
Hclfare of the Coloniei, and wpeeiallf 
to #»cry true-be«nil member of the 
Church, (or >uch lilu-ial aniilanre aimay 
at (iiioe r<nko<c the onlyciiatiugobiucle 
■o the appointment of a Biihop of Nt« 

/. T. Cntiainoi. 
Vi. P. Wood. 
JnuN Akiiti;R Mooai. 
MaKnt CuEaiLti. 
SrarroBB H. NoamcDTt. 
Huikr TKirtus. 
Au.nuioiiH lULi.llau.. 
V. Knox Cuilo, Hm. Sir. 


WB ba*a IMD *B tltternllnj; fi;ipia1 in 

•hdf dF lb« Uohawk Imlnuit. ilia letter 

ta Ctrritrmin, Mr. Si I turn Uivint, 

' ICEompniiied with IrstlTnoiiiila, and ■ 

■ketcb of the history of the mluioii. 

Kir, Giiini, and hit clerical frienda in 

Ivogl.iiid. biloriK to a Ihrologicil parly 

with Khicli we h»e hw lympnihiei; it 

I ia. ^berrfarc. with the f^cnter itiiifao' 

, (Ion thai wc reeord our lull concurrence 

, with the Direct for which he and ibi^ 

■to InfrnMcd. The Mobnwki are, it 

ia well knvwii, Ihe nohlrit of Ihe aborigi- 

Dat raeai, and iheir aacrilteri te ibc 

Itogluk iawreat hate been of no ordinary 

■fltunciar. By-ilir-by*iim»r*aota liitle 

['■urpriaatl thai ihia aplxBl ibould bo 

nrnlFiil, eiperially in the qiiailir from 

Which it proceed^ for, if our mtmory 

aerrea tn. the eonvmton of ibit rerj 

nation wai the Hiii'fruiii of the Inbourw 


of tha Soriety fur the Prfl)iaK«t!«ii of iht 
Gal|Htl, mor« llinii ■ <icniury vjiire ; from 
which wc alwaya dtvw en arK'ioienl 
in fa*nur of the onttilution of that 
Society lu ■ miKiniury body, which ■■ 
senerally drniin) by the adaocalot of the 
Satiabury !i.|iiara bodety. It ia impoa- 
tilile, we |irea<ime, lliat the Society for 
the Propnguliuu of ihe Goipvl have 
deaertnl lh<>ireldcitcliil'lt Uf the cxcci- 
lenl aenae and fee linn of ilii' Xlohawlca, 
and alio ai a faiourable indication of 
Mr. Givlna' Id** whlcli could appreciate 
it, the iwo fbtlowinn (itraeia arc a auffi- 

" On on* oceaalon, expoatulaiinfr with 
an aged Indian on the Hani of induairy 
umao-f bia peupte, be ihtewdly remarlud, 
'Why, Hiiiiiter, you are very uureawn- 
■III*. When God made the world, Ho 
mad* a great many kindi of aninmla, ln» 


I he (■ 


he laughl them all diflcnnt wijn of 
fcltlnjt • living' II<^ taught ihe lax 10 
tnnar iliroiigh ihc ■godi nnd IJic ui>an 
whsl lit could (iiieh. Tlic bMvcr He 

tiiU|ilil li> live liciiite llio walerj He 
■huMcil btni how to dam llie iivcr iiid 
la buUil a haute and le lay by a itock of 
|Uovlklerii for wiiitrr. Eia He alia did 
Willi diMl-mii kind* <>t men. Niiw yoii 
caiiiu'l Iracb the fox In live like ilie 
bCAviir, wjr can y(ih make (be Indmn 
WDrk iiul litr hka dm whiter iiiar>i 
I linve a fnrni, and <^ou]d live by it| 
bin wliFTi ibc HDann cDcnes for gaiii« or 
Hall, / mui( Anvr inmr. amJ 1 am 
lempleJ id ^a and look Tor it, even lo ihi' 
■iPHlccE of loning and gallictiDg my 
crop!.' '■ 

"The following anecdale. rvtordcd fn 

Ameiicin biiiory, U imi leu ■ correci 
ihau aSectiDg (lueneDi of ilie cnie of 
iha Indiaa popidxion of ibii coniinenl : 
—In iho year ITBS, ibo Amerienn Gene- 
ral Knox g>Te an enieriainment at hVw 
Vork to a niiinbcr of Indian eblcfa, 
Hcbeiiia. and wirrionL Uelote ditintr, 
•evcral vt llieae walked ttora the ajiatU 
meiii wliara llivy wm aaaeinliltd tu tlie 
balcuny in from nf thu bnUHv, Cruni hIiivIi 
thereWA^a cuiiitnandjiLk; viir-w uf ilir city 
and il* biitbunr« uf ilie KeihL juilI \i>rili 
Itivert, and tlio i>Und iipr>ii wlilcb New 
yufk now aianda. Un rururning iiiio 
llio room, Ihp Indiana Hcecoitl drjvcied, 
ihcir jitinci|j»l chief inure to [bin Iha 
ln>t. Tlill waaobHnadbyGcnvi^l Knnx, 
who kindly aik«d if any ilinij; had bB|i- 
pcned (0 diilrtM him i ' Bt^iilivr,' replied 
(lie chief, "I will leil you. I have been 
looking at your beautiful ciiy, the grenl 
water, and your Hne couniry, mid I iro 
haw happy you all are. — But iben I I'ould 
ual help Ihlnking Ibai ttiii Que country, 
tliU ffeat wMer were om^c ouil Uur 
■DcfBlMs lived here i llicy enjuyvd it aa 
(hell own ill ]ieBi;e; il»a> the gift ofibe 
(Jr«ail*^iri((ollicmaiid lo their cUildrrn, 
At leii|ttb the while gicujile ennie in s 
gntt canoe. They nsketl only lo let 
them tir il lo a tree, ttial ilie walen 
might not carry >i nway. They then 
nid thai tome ot Ibeir people wero iiek, 
and ihey aikid iicnniaiion to land (hem 
•nd put lliciD unilet (lie iliiide of (tin 
trecl. Tlie ice afterward* ciime, and (hi'y 
(oulit not (cl away. Tliey ilieii tientji-d 
piece of ground lo bullil wiguanii fi^r 
(he winter; ihia we granted, 'i'licy then 

aakfd for tome com lo keep ihom from 
ilamnti wo fumiahtd it (a them, and 
Ihcy promiied to depart when (be ice 

waa gone. We lold tliciu (bey niimt now 
depart 1 1)111 (hey pointed (u iheir big 
guiia round (heir nigwaiiti. and aaid Ihey 
would alay, nnd we Could iio( make (hem 
go away. Afitrwardi morn ea me, 'i'hey 
bruu(!ht wiih thcni Intmicaiing and 
dmructive lifjuori. of wliitli Ibe Indiana 
became very lend. They ]>iTsoud«ri ua to 
icll Itirm loiiie lam), and Riially ilicy 
drore ui back Itoni nine lo lime into die 
wilOcrneW. They have deiiroyed iho 
gaiue, our people have wasted away, 
and noiv Wc live inisernble nnd wretcheda 
wlulu the wlii(e peoplii ate enjoying oue 
rich and bi-miiitui ciruiiiry. li it tbia 
brother, thai inakca m" lorry.' " 

Great, indeed, it the debt which we 
owe la ihia noble raoei here, naeliewbere, 
onr fatlier* have sown (lie wind, uml wa 
arc reapiiiK ihe nbtrlwind, Metiri. Ilet- 
licoaredie Baiiki'iawho have uiidcrtakun 
loreeciie aubacrijiiiona. 

" DiinMHoii[it*u,ar AKYTiiisaaniaai- 
ian.— The He'. D. T. K. UTuminond, 
who lately icteded from the Church of 
Chriit ill SeoiUiid. ii alniutl every day 
mantfctliii|{ bii uticr want of |irinci|il« 
und alabilily. The other day he g;aire 
jCIO to pruinuli Ihe inlvrrst* of (he 
icceailoii fruiu iho Preabylerian acat 
(Walitiihed by l.-iw in Scoilanil, and to- 
day uc aee i( announced thai he ia lo be 
pr«a»nl and take part in artoF proceed- 
Ingi conneeled with the VVeileyiin reli- 
gion in Kdlnburgh. What (hit un1iap|ry 
man believe), or whellier anything at aU 
or not, it il ai difllcuti for ua aa it i) for 
himiclf (0 aay." — Church IntiitigeHctr, 

" ItoMatr.— I(iigraiilyii>giaoUic(vc 
ihatlhe liberality ditplaycd by (he Vicsr, 
(he Kon.fand Kev. GerDidT. Noel, in the 
alleiaiion* recently made lor general cun- 
vvniencrandi&ijirvtcd effect in (be Abbey 
Church, i» ipprrciaicd by bia pariahiunera, 
and that, dniroui lo ickn(>vfledi;e (heir 
Vicar't intcrni in (he noble pile which 
give(cc1rbri(y (0 (he town. I( is putpoicd 
to preaint (o Ihe church, ai a lhank> 
ulTcriii^ lo Itie niioii((er. two very liand> 
tome aUar chain and Doppa far iho atr- 
vice. A m-Bily aulHcient miioiint baa 
alf e;idy biTii obluined for the piitiiow." — 
llanli Ailvtitiur. 


Wa Und lliti »e hit tWaj inlere|i™wnlod die Rn, Mi. S»p|nr. on iht laiita at tlic cnm- 

pnaflte aupRlDrltJ uf En^lllb m tiratk in rt^rij \o lliv l*rni« Ilo^«ipr4lloli and New Blnh. 

I'liuugli tlirro li no fuch iljaiinriion o( namn In ttiaeli. Ui, Stifit had inutd thai Ihet* are 

mref in dip »w rwtomeni ufa dlttinctioii li*("feeii (he thlnp. 





■:- ' —.1 


From hii landtag at Anelikiitl, Mag 30(A to November Znd, 1813. 

^^ "brief journal of rilL BISHOP OK NEW ZKALAND'S FIRST 

L^ Toua or voiTA'iioN TdiiouGHOur ins uiocese. 

b ° 

r "' 

I A 


I ol 

it/ny 30, I64S.— The Dinliop wu boipitaUIy KceJred liy thu Go- 
vernor and Mn. lli>b4on, nnd received nn nddreM (ign«d bjr upn-nrdi: 
of 800 of tiM principal inhnbiUmit of AiickUnd. 

Finding ihni tli« churcli «lucli wns in progroM of erection 
delayed foe tmit of rund*^ iho Biahop contribatcd £300 lownrdi its 

June 6.— Tlie Biibop pToeeeded wltU Mr. Cbr1t«, Protector or tlio 
AboTiitincii, to Pureri, a ttailon at ih« moiitl) of tli« Tluiniet, occupied 
by Mr. I'r«ec«, « caC<^c)|{tt of t1i« Cliurch Miationnry Society. HU 
object via* to inquirr Into lli« circuiDEtoiices of a nidaincre perpetrated 
by Tcraia, n ntlirc cliirf. 

JunirS.— The Itiihop visited Terain'v village, nnd, aflcr a lonfi dis- 
cimion with liim, tuccceded in obtaining tiia promiM to give up llie 
prinnncTS taken by him, nnd to behave peaceably fur the (uturo. Of 
this viiil, the UiHJiop write*, " Wn dept Hithin a (jantler of a mile of 
some of llic*c HiunkTCrs, triihoiil »o mnch ii» a holt to tlic door of the 
houii', Tlif pertoni and property of Ivnglithmeti are more accuic in 
lhi( coanlry ihnn in England) and whatever violence mny bn uited by 
the nativci among Ihemsclvc*, it is very rarely inileed (hnt any ag^'rv*- 
(ion i« attempted upon the actllcn. It t> iinpouihic to have any idea 
orinicciirity, to friendly and hospitable it the manner of the people on 
all occasioni,'' 

June IS. — Titt Blibop left Auckland for Pailiia in the Bay of 
Inland*, where he arrived June 'iO. 

June 21 i$- 22. — The Bithop viaitedtlie ll'aimatt, the lUlion where 
he purposed to lix hlii reiiilvnce. IlaTing made arrnniceoieoti for the 
occupation of Mr- Clarke'* huuse, he returned to I'jiihia on the 23d. 

or the Waimale, the Biiihup ihua Krilc4 :— 

" Seen from a diitance, the Waiinatc preienU tlw appearance of wn 
Engliah villnge, witit a vhitc church and s^jire, and comfurtable huuaea 
and gardena. It i« hy Cir the moit settled plaoe in thta country. I 
tin inlbnned that 400 native communicanU aaaemble at the Lord'* 
table. TUIa will probably be my bead quarlert for xunc yran, till 1 
can deliberately choose a aite for my reiMlence, and erect lubstantial 
bultdingf. Thi* will be more nttcfactory than incurring grral expemes 
for building* Rich ai 1 could erect now, nhieh muit be of wood, and 
would only ImI a few yein." 

June M. — The Biihop preached In ibe nUire language ot Piiihia, 
and iidminitterad tba LoH a Supper lo l&O uiivea, whoae devout and 
orderly manner he deacrlbei as mo»t pteaMng, kh uos the very reveren* 
tlal manner in which the rcspnmtcs in tlic prcviuu* aervlce were repeated 
hy the whole of the nntivc congregation. 


vtrt KBAr.4Np. 


J»ig 1. — T)ie Bishop signed anil Beal^d the sppoinlme^t of the 
Rev, tV. Wilthm*, aa Aretidearao of (lie £a»icru Diiiriuc of tfa» 
Null hem Nlnml. 

Jttif 2. — Ttic Biaho)! viiited KoroTarlka, k kUtioa occupied by 
Rev. Air, Barrow*, and founil I'le lUte of (ha place bcllcr Umiii ha bad 
h«n Ird to rxprct, from ibu PBrliaraenlury llc|-,<i(t>. U U mueh n> 
diicflil in populaiion lince tli« ottablhtitncnt of AueUtnd. It » ftbout 
two idIIm from Pnihia. 

Jtttf 8. — At Karorarila, tbe Bishop preachtd in tbs OJitJTS lingno^e 
lit nine, and nt eleven to tha linglisb oongregatioii. 

In tbe afternoon «l tbrM ba rcftd pMyon In tlie native Ianguai[e, and 
at mtvvn for t)ie Enttll^b ontr'eintion. 

July .V — The Biiliup etnbiiibvd on bii «c«onil riiit to Auckland. 

July 0. — Sclccicd litea lat flo additinnal Imrying ground, and 
anarhcr churcli ; nUn for a tchool. TTie cimrcti Iuib nam ftrcntc<l lo it in 
Aucltiond. two burial iiroundi uf right acrra each, two ulrt for churabaa 
on Imo of the three liills on wliicb itie town will it^nd. He aUo 
a«1«cted liir* for paraoMge-hoBM*, cIom to the cliurchei and bnrisl 
ground*. The toBoporary acbool houM waa nearly Qiiiiih«d b«for* hia 

JtUg 13. — Tlie Bishop viKit«d Windtor, four milea from Aiicklaad, 
and aeleet«d n lite fur a cliureh. Thi* vilU^ already coniain* more 
than 100 iiiliabilunta. "During llio i<« of tb« week," be wrilvs, "I 
woa much oonipied in giving niidicncca lo natirca, who came in great 
numbers t<)t ih« tittle {io'|»! of Si. Matthew, whicb I bad printed in 
ifngland. In tbii wajr I becam* acquainted wiib many i)f ibe moat 
influnntia) men in tbe cotintryi wkn wtTe U that tiflw UMmUed at 

Ju/^ 16. — Viaited rud'ki in ibe Iflnnd nf Wnibcluh, wli«ra lu 
had Ixien inritrd by Wirimu llowcll. (\Villiani Jowou,) u moat Talu- 
abls nalivo ctiiaf. " lie liai juit," tbu Bi&l>i)|i wtilea, " built a linuie 
dliiided into rooaw, oac for dining.uneC>r»lccpin^, aadiMicfor n atudy. 
From this Klitdy he wrote mc n rcry polite inritAiion, which led lo my 
Tiali. On Sunday, I reul, prracbcd, catcchixed, and tiaptiied some 
infant*. Tbe achuol clM*ea were admicuble. Fine tall ntec, diiclly 
in Kngliiii clullit^, reading ibc Teslanent, vene by rane, wiili Kiaat 
aecnracy, and afterwardu tepiiiilin^ a whole cliuptec by lieart, witiiuut 
miuing many worda, Wtliiain Jowett liiintelC bss tbe natural good 
bfccdinK of B true fcrntlcman." 

Juig 20. —The BitlMip pitched hia ittffi eliurdi^lent for tha c<on«e- 
eiation of the Brat btitlAl -ground, whicb took place on tlie Sltb. The 
boHal-ground he deacriiMB ai " « lovely apot, in a deep-wooded rallej, 
c«maiaodiii^ a ?>ew of the karlMur ; tha natural beoiiuea of MliioUwill 
enable me, by a iittle judicioui planting, logiva tli« ground lliat leva- 
rcntiji chdmetcc nhiob it ou^ht to liave," 

July t?9. — The Bixbop Milcd, in the Govemineut brig, fietwia, for 
Krlaon, where be arrived on Sunday, Augiut SI, and immediately went 
on tlioie, and preached nt the Dflcrnoon fcrvicc in the Emiifration 
Banacks. NeUoo ia at tbe very botioiu of Blind, or Taamon'a Bayi 
in tha nortliem thore of the raiddh latand, 

A 3 

On the 23tl, the Blfrhoj) pitfheil ilto cliurcli-tml, "a RiAst complete 
Oithcdrnl. wiUi piiljiit. Kn<linf;-dcpk, communion-table, raih, kneeling* 
bMiiii, &c. I liuve litltd it up," li«aiit!», " wlili board*, nttitig on 
tnii>1(« of omiill trees, let inio ihe fiioiiiu), wlilcli llie naii>ei cut for me. 
I b.ive lhu< provided seals for 300, wliich were well filled on the 
fallowing Siindnjr. 

** A lovfly «te for a church imd eemclpry hiiJi liccn rcicfvcd here. A 
small mount, fixing to tlie height nf 1U0 frrt, in the cetitre of iha 
little filwn on which the chief pnrl of the town itnnd*, and with n flsl 
Buminit, Mifficirnt for the liase of ft pine building. Tlic site is alccadv 
occupied by wooden buildingn, convediblo into n lempoinrj' church and 
Hchool, lit n smnll cxpcnto ; nnd tho Company's agenl, Captnin Wake* 
field, hm consented to lot me have them at a vnlu.ilion; by which 
means I can at once provide for ihe rcvetcntiftl peiformnncc of Divine 
Service. In the nieaotime, I liavi' left my tent> with all its spptir- 
tenanccs, fur the use of the Rev. Mr. Iteay, the clerfrymiiii, who is staging 
to take care of llie avrsngenientB made for ihe lieiitflt of the nutires «t 
NcUon. tind to net conj<iintJy with Mr, Soslon. (nnother clergyman 
whom 1 foijnd lli^re,) In the charge of the En~li)Ii setilem." 

i'lmrfaf/, Srpl.. 4. — Coliecled at llie olFtrtory 33'. for church pur- 
pnies. Ailminiitcred the Lord's Supper to seventi-en conimunicunts. 
After church, a native cimeiomc, nml, aflernmch heiiiUilion, explained 
tliat he hsd seen the I'akcpaa (Kngliih) giving their money, and wished 
(o give soTiiething alio, upon which lie produced It. 6d. ai his conltibu- 
lion to the Church. 

Sfpl. 8. — The Itinhop quitted NcUon, and arrived at Wpllingtoo.* 

Sept. ID. — Here he was tnkcn ill. and, finding several of his com- 
panions aho suffering, and two dead, from typhui-fcver, he wai de- 
tained till October 10. A letter written from ihi* place early in 
October, of which the Hishop «pcnk4, hn» not been received- Hia 
other Ictlers, eoniequently, give no account of the proceedings here, — 
except that he found no suitable place for Divine worship yet erected, 
«nil the service tor the present performed in a Mechanics' Institute. 

Oct. in, — The Bishnp comTiienoed his land-journey to New Ply- 
WODth, viailing. in hi* way, Waikanni, the station of the Kuv. U. Hud- 
fteld, at whose houte he rested on the llth, and the I2ih asMinblod 
Ihe natives to service. More than .^00 had come from vnrious parts, 
so that the chnpel, and the ipare outside the wnlls, were quite lull. Tlic 
Bithop adds, " I preached to thi-m, ns well .u I could, and gittliered 
from their face* that they understood what I was toying. At Waikanni, 
I j.iw the preparations for a new cbnpel, on a large scale. 'Ilio n'd|fo- 
pioce waa formed out of a single tree, and is seventy-six f<-ot in length, 
—a present from the nei;;hbouring settlement of Otaki, which, till 
Mr. Had H eld's arrival, was at war with the people of Walkanal. but 
has made p^ace, and presented them with this appropiinlo token of 

Om. 23. — At WAolcenn, soutb of Cape Kpmon t. the wes tern ex- 

' I'lic rMiitUpicci! of the |ir»Fiir numlicr. iliuu-lnf psri ot the WAier-lrontnge of 
Lc lawnof Wrllini^ion, ii Inkrn from ilic Hen. W. feiiVt New Zialmiit, piiUliilitil 
In- lletirr. Smilh Sr Elilcr. 



ircmiiy of New Zenloiid, oKl'no wrvicea aiul schooli oocupled neurly 
ilt« «bol« lUy. 

Or/, :2a. — '*At Tcfig&iuu. Here tbo aativct aticmbteil !n con* 
■idnablu iiutiib«n. tot evening tcrvicc, and ScTipturc qucition*. After 
J hai) qiteolioneil liiem as much ki I tUonglil Si, I invited tliein to nsk 
P« tli«ir difficulties ; upon uliieh sueh a scries of xcTiptutnl queilion* 
wm naked, lliat cur meeting di<l not break uii till ten iic night, nnd then 
only beMuic I compliunc<l tliat my perly were titci', (nid wmleil to go 
to tleep." 

0.1. 21). — Ariivrd at Ken Plymouth, titunted to ilie iiuilli of Cape 
Bgmont — X);a Motii ia the natiiv nnnic of the pUee, ond it lies near 
the Sugftr-lojif Uland. Here thsfJitliop waircceiriid by Mr. Wickitrad, 
tbo Coiiiutny'a aj-eiil, and peifufined tJi» morning service, anti prcBcbed 
(Oct. 30,; in a wuuden buiidinj;, prepared fur tlie ptirpuie by bini. On 
tlui lullowiug day (in cotnpauy »ith tkc Cbief-Juillce, who bad ariivod 
to meet biiii,) ili« Bishop MlMtwl sites for ckurcliei< Of thl> pLsco he 
tliu» wiiiet; — 

" OtI. 30. — AiVer service, tlie natives came in audi bumbers to the 
mid-day tebuol, tliat ihcy filled the liouae nnd doorways. I am mticb 
grotificd by ibe disposition of tlw people of ibia seuli-mcnt, and nlll 
endoatoui lo meet it by zvalouH cndcavouis to prouiuio tlicli tipiriiual 
wclUlicing. lUv. Ktr. lluit will be directed to go u minister of Now 
Pljinoutli, ns suuvi ai postible.'' 

Tuiiday, Xoc. 1. — The Bitliop embarked in the Oovcrnmenl brig, 
and wo* to piuccctl to the undiora^e at K^piti, ihirt' lo Uitd, acid lu 
proceed by lund (» MjuuH'utu Rivei — Ihure to Uike raoou, and arrive, 
if potiMt. nt Aburiri, abmt Nov. 15, nlicrc lie rx|>ectcd to meet 
Atvbde<ieon Williunit, and proceed uilh Itim to llie Eut Cnpc. Ko 
loti«is from llio Bitliup liave b«en tcceivei since th« one a^iit from New 
tJymoutb, Nov. 2; but from uiber sources iiifuiinaliou baa been rtorived 
of bii rvturu to itic Wuimate, in hvulibiuid aafely, Jan. D, IHIU. 

axoo&sa or avstsax>xa. 

^^'fiiK Bisiioc gives ibe fullowing testimony to the j(teul Llilily ot t\w 
SttlHy in bis Dtoeeie :— 

SjJnty, Fca. 3. 1H3. 

'* It i> assuredly ncrtlleaa for me to repeat what I bnve before so 
frequi-ntlv ncknowlediteil, tlini, bnl for tlic imerpoaiiion of the AWicfy 
for lAe I'lupni/^Hiin a/ ibe Goipet,'0\o ChoTKh could not h«v« cun- 
linuetl to luiualiiiu its loMinft tn lUi colony t nnd, duiinit tiio past 
year, owiii;^ lu the severo lo*u» and privation* whieb itic seitlent b«W 
•o generdlly experienced,^ it wonid have been necessary to pal m (top to 
every opcruiiun, bad I not. by [irviuiuing (I bupe not iixi Inr^jnly) on 
tlio continued benevolcDce ol tJie SotiiKtyi conltlvud to keep fevfflo se* 
rrtiaiy woiks in ptogreat. 




oriSCtKd OF A CRitiurH dvlavcd van want of a cleEot-maKi 

" Th» eliarcbes of St. Pbh!, at C.jlibiiy, ami St. J.ilin at Miidgfc. m 

1 bave on former occasions repotlcd, have been cotnpleu-d and cnti»r- 
craled ; but it ia with rrgict 1 oni ttlll competlvd to itnti! that tlic 
latter conilnues cloaed, owing to my not linting At mv dUp'>»»l llic 
terriees of a c1erg)tn&n who conld undrttRkc the dtiiie*. Tliere i« 
&ho A good parBonage -house there, compUle, and fit Tor immediate 

"Upon the whole (teviewing the proceedings of the year (hat is 
pMl,) I regard them wilh iatisraclion and thankfUlncM, and look 
forward wiih any feeling hut deapnndeiiey to the fumTO. I must 
cxpiCM my llianfcfiilncs* lo Goil for suppiyiiiji idc, even against liopPi 
wiih so many diligent and exemjilary fellow-labourer) amon^; my clergy; 
and may, without impiopttcly, offer my nclii:i>wledaroeni lu gratitiide 
to th» Socinty for I'ropBgaling thn OoKpcl, n* hating been llie mo»t 
cHVeiive human agent in inpplying Oit mcnnn of gtacc to a country 
in which, not many year* ago, ihcy ihrcnlciicd entirely to f.iit. 

"I see clearly, nnd thftefoic Miy with full conviction, that the 
Church of England is every year tlrcnglhening and extending her in- 
fluence, and is doing lo hy Ibo mo»t legitimate of means; n»mely, 
through th» blameless lifet, active lea), and incorrupt teaching of her 
clergy. Thus proceediiij;, ihey arc acquiring gtadiially an improving 
influence over the hcurU and minds of the |>enple, who recognise in 
thtm their truest friends and best adTlsers. Mure than one-half of the 
population belongs to the Cliuicli of England. Ai Ita true Datiire and 
object become better understood among them, Oielr attachment to It h 
tncicaied nnd confirmed, to their own {;reut benefit. Neither, aB I have 
occaiion lo lenm, hy fieeiitent proofa, is a fecUng of deep reference 
towards Iho Cliurvh of ICngland wauling on the part of very many 
who yet Bland far aloof from her communion and principles of fatlh." 

Tub following extracts from a letter, written by a carpenter, n T«Ty 
Honest and serlously-dlBposed man, wlio went out fVom a village JD 
Sutiex, to Auttnilia, about four year* ago. painfully »how the utter 
absence of all provision for the religious wants of our emigrant 
countrymen in that district. The letter is addressed to the clergyman 
of h» pariih : — 

" Clirtnee TUrn, Mateh lU, IHM. 
" I am here in n barren land, void of nil good, but full of all manner 
of evil ; no place of worship (o gn to ; no friend to eonveratt with ; 
so that ofteoiimrs it makes the Siibbalh a drrary day." 
Alter mentioning the birth of a little boy, he snys— 
" Having no regular means of cliriatcning here, wt call his name 

The laine person, writing to hia iiaier, sayj — 

■■OetoberU, 1(11. 
"You desired ma to tend yoo word whether we had any pince of 
iroTahip to attend : to which 1 aosirer, No, — for this plac». of all I ever 

roar fiiitLtp, 

in«t wiib, it ih« v«t/ vrorat : I moan as it respects tbe SsbUth ; (or the 
Bioal ttt Out pfoptc arc bclongini; lo Goveinmcnt, nnJ nrc n*iia<ic(l out 
to masiets, ko that Sunday is all ihu time tliej- get to thcmiclve*, nnd 
then ihcy «ili*r gu to woik, or to tlic juljlic hoiiw kod gel dnink, 
aua then from place lo place, rcTelttsg ttboal ttU nigUr." 

ISmiBTatian tD(t|)out liUliifion. 


Tns Tapiil flow ut emifcmtion ta tli« n«wly>r<>Tiiic<l tettlementi o( 
Aottnlia It Icwling to remits which it ia imiMiiiKililo to cunltrnplBt* 
vitbout piiii. ThnuumU nrourcoumrrmcn have, Bithio a very ahort 
time, (tone ta itcek a mniDtcnaRco ig IIm largt pailura diiUi:!* of that 
Dolonj, unncrctniMDinl wilb th« mioistan and onlinancct of r«H)^ioti( 
and wiilioiit cTcn the m*ai» of cdttcation for thair children. The con- 
lequcncc tiu been, in a moiM point of view, p>o«l d«plorabI« ; for 
while tha Dtw aeitletn«nt lia« bMO growing rapidly into outward 
prcispcriiy, the Mttlers ihemsvlvet have been lo«iiig, oito by one, tlia 
habiu and lJicn>ftraim« of their chriattaa prafeaaion. Witliout a cbutcb, 
tbry an ha forneiiinK thf duty of oonumn prayar ; wUbnut a cterfy- 
mnn, ih«y arc cutnlF Irum tbe aacramcata i viihout a ■cboiil, tlie youn^ 
muat aleMMt in«Tiubly {^>w up ignorant and viciout. Thii it spe- 
cially tha eaaa Willi iboM whoao occupation forvci tbeni into ilie lutarior, 
at a dtstanew ftmn a town. 

TIic folluirini; *la(enient of the relifhus cindilioH tad pn»pteU of 
Oi« population fo tli« interior of Atiitralia Pulix (Port Phillip) will, 
ibow ilie Innienlable conHcciiencea of laying llie fnundalioni of a nowf 
soeleiy wilhoul rrlifrion. Tbe itatement i> dcritdl from autbeniie 
source*, and ^amnlccd by the nignalur* of tbe cxcclleiil SupenntcndoDt 
ofibc Colony, C, J. I^irfihc, Kf>q. 

Talcing, then, a dinricl cxKndrng 300 rail**, eaat atul wcitof Met _ 
bourne, ami 190 n)ilt8 inward fioin llic const, !t appears ibat there it 
■cai tired over it a ])opulation ofSUS Diillth ic I tiers, and ISOOnatircs. 
Tbe wholn of ihii larjte pn;MiIaiion ia " entirely without llie minisiraiiont 
and ordinance of rcli);ii>n," and 1300 of tliem oio literally nukc(|J 
UDtuiored aaragea. 

Beyoiiil the present llffltU of occupation, but in tUtiona accctsible t*^ 
the Bngliab, there ii a further number of SGOD degrndcd and neglected 

Total wUia populalinn b lb« BiMh... > > l^H& 

Total filack popnklio Sfim 

I Orand lohl la.tHa 

Th« Port Phillip Dktiicl Committee conelud* their RepoH, from wUcli 
ibcaliore ttatemcnt is derived, wltb tlie fotlowinr forcible appeal: ' 

" This view present* much ta excite our ayinpB'bie* and feniii, nn« 
lo call fcith out aciive exertioni to aupply at l^aH ■otne of ibc coligious 
wanta of our fellow-Cbrisiiana in the Bu»li. Tlwir condilioti hold* out 


to ih« Soeiely Tor the. Propngnlion of the Goi'pcl inch a seen* 
spiritual detlitiition a* culled ihnt noble inuittiiion tiilo cxiatencc, wlien 
thoutoiids of our Chmtian brethren wtrc Bimilnilv «ilunted bi llio 
Nortli American colonicg, iifnrly a century and a bnlf ago. Wone, 
lUer«roi«, aiitl under matt a^fgrnvntod circumslaaN-t of telii;i<>u* deiti- 
tutiin Uibn Iliey ucre tlien in ilie |iIaiiialioiis. ar« our I3u«1i |in|iiilalion 
at thin prvai^iit day, la ibis wide truot urcountry — nitbuui tbe obtcrvunce 
of tbe Lurd'i day ; witbout Ibe calebration o( public wurthip ; ivilhuut 
tlie miniatralions of religion ; and wilhuut even tlie occH«!oiial viiit of a 
clergyman, either to couiuel oreuinfoiti rebuke or exhort. 

" Such brfng the religious condition of the ijopubtion in the Rii"h, 
wilhuut any prutpect of a better stale of tliiiiKt arising out of the cfTorts 
of that puputation itself, the CominiUce fed (bat they would be wauiio); 
in *yinpat)iy towards their rellow>Chrii<inn» to litunteil, und also 
wanting in confidence in the readiness of the Church Socictiea to render 
aid, were they not to make known lliis grc^t spiritual destitution to the 
Venerable Society, which Iim already di>nc so mucli to supply the 
religioua wnnia of thi* country. Tiie Committee, therefore, ii dcsirou* 
Id lecnnd the cflurln of their beloved Bithop in laying tbii stntcmcnl of 
the religions destitution of the population in the interior before the 
Society, and would reapeclfnily lolicit tuch aid a* the Socii'ty may bu 
«bl« lo extend, for the maintenance of religion Binnngut the icnttered 
nembcra of the Cbntcli in Auttialia Felix, nml for the convenion of 
iJie Heathen amongst thein, whose country God'a Providence Uas gircii 
to the ItiiiiKh Crown, and whobo nuKliuratiuu and happiness Ho hai 
confided to Uritish christian bencvolenoe." 


The followIuK paiaajtes fiuni (he Biihop of Calcutta's recent charge, 
g^vn a clear summary occonnt of tha progress of religiiin ia Indin : — 

- ' ' Ni;«SKK or cLEJioT. 

Our tntire body of clergy is 9.'?, the number in 1838 having been GH, 
and when the first bnnouicd and ruvcied Bishup of ilie See [Middletun,] 
waa in the care of tho diocese, lH ; w lUui we have increased, through 
God's goudneu, more than six-fold in twenty year*. 

MDUBBR or PCItJOX* caxfiKUKii. 
The number of youn;; penona who Imvq been conlirmtd durin^r the 
course of tbe second visitatiun liaa b«en 9t&fl ; wbkh i« tiS I more than 
durini; the flr*t ; and added to thfl739conflrnicd in Culcutta previously 
to that |>onod, raises the a{[gregat0-l476. A number not diTCou raging, 
wh«i it is considered that (he civil and military senants of the 
Company come out eetierally after the nge fur con fitm alio n, and that 
their children go home long befuro. 


The uttcudancc on Uio seniccs of our church, In the nine churcbet 
and chapch in and about Calcutta, waa, (hi* l£niler, S9iS ; tbe c.^in- 

!• or ■ 

ivben H 



nunifintt 915 : m IRnS, Ihe anioant was 3088 anil 839, tkowing >n 

Hnereuc in (he con^pfrntioni dnrini! the four y«an of 8H-I, and in 

Lthi! cnmniiinicaiiCi of 7Ai nnd raising ili« propottioo, if chililKn 1m 

FdcilucicO, to Kbniit onc-thittl ; Vfhich. hnwcvfT much b*Iow what we 

thntiH ordfnily <l<«ir« and labour for, ti y«t«eBUM of ihaakfulncu 

to A'migiily God. 

rLActs wittRC ciivacu ttiiricB i> i-EBroRiitD, 
The ataliona aiid phztt wli«ra the iprviccs of out ohutch ore cele- 
ated. »Tc 54, to wltk-h, if we subjoin lliose occatlooally vbilcd, tbe 
number ainuuiit to abuat SO. The iai:ti'd ediltces erected, or uniler 
ciccticHi, ate 70> whicl), with 5 new cliurdi«a ii) udvaiicod prvp«niti'mr 
and tnaD)- nnlivc chapel* in the rariuus muaioiis, amount to nearly 100. 


The ordinntioiu whieh I hare bar] occaitott to hold tincc 1838. hnve 

, been live I one ut Meenit, one at Allalubad, and three at Cjlfulla. 

Thirty-one piiciCa nnd Iwenly-cighl Jeicon* hnvc been jiflmitl«i to holy 

orders in these, and the eighteen preceding ordinaliona celebrated tlact 

, I arrived in the Diocese in 183S. 

coMraars akd iXQL'inans. 

' * ■ * During the U(t four yetn there ba«, I rejoice to Mft 

been a rapid nujcmcoiaiioa in the number <if convert* and inqiiiren 

tcr the (ioipvl, bulh in the misiiions of the venerable Propegatioii 

[Society at Uarrypote and Jaxijeja. and of the Church AltaaioRnry at and 

|Bbout Kriihrntghur. In the oiber stalioiix there hn« be«n a stmdy 

ncreate of good, but chiefly amongit ichool), and in the way of )>re- 

aratioD ; but *'»howcr* of blessing." to use iho Iii)i£ua|ce of thn 

'profibet, have dmcendrd on those which 1 hnva nnmeil. 

***** In the village* of ibe I'mpaKoiion Society about Janjera 

■ and Barrypcre, X'tOO hnve been udmitlud lo boly baptism, who. wiih 

71300 caiecbument, constitute n body of 250U under Chriaciun iuitmc- 

tlou. Uf theic. 370 weic candid«te« for coulirmHtion when I riailed 

the itation la«l Februarv. 





Tuc folluwitiK i« m extract fioni a [.eldr icceutty received from th6 
I^Aisbop of MiMliBS, (lat'.-(l April lb, 1043 :— 

"Our Society is fully aware of my Hevp anxiety to eatahlish one ofita 
niiaiona at Kandy t but perhaps ft i* not fully aware of the urgent 
Bccoisity which now exists for its estahliihmeut. If tliii ground, n 
nott promising licld of mistioinry lahonr, be not occupied immetUatcli/, 
. will be lost to tJK Chiireb of Englotid forever. Kntidy I* the c-ipiol 
|«id centre of tlic coffee planlAtion* of Ceylon ; niioiirous li:iiru|>enn> 
ul East lodinnt niukl, ore long, be employed as luperinteuilcata of 
(hose eiUt**, sBd nuny an so employed olrciidyi and M, ih« leovt 


iher« >n tfairtjr thftuwnd native* of India uiip')Tlo(l ai kbaitien 
the cuntincDt. T<i be cUiciont, liowcrcr. or indcc<l tn tccure uiiy 
lonultle clinncc of aiiccoi«i 1 mutt candiilly own lo our Society ihat & 
million 111 Kandy must bo ukon up in strcnglli, otiitrwifc it will uuly 
end in vcxnlion of spitit to t«ke it up at all. We inutt have therr, at 
lli« IcnM, two Europraii niisaionati«a; men not only of unqucsiionalile 
piety and onnnJ in the fail!), but of great moral couTage, for they will 
IiAvc peculiar dimciilliea to couteiid ivlili. Ver; mucli will depend 
iipon llicir perional cliancler : I mean that they must not bo nrrltnury 
clorjrymen or ordinary minlonaiie*, liut men who would take tlw le«d 
and keep it under any circutniilnncea ; men of a dauntleis spirii, wlio 
would throw themiekcf into the work and never ihrink from it. Tli« 
CliUrch of Riifftnnd has nich men ; 1 know that ibe hat many sueh ; but 
alua ! I cnn icnrcely hope that onr Soeiety will be nble anw tu send tbeni 
put I and 1 mike, thnrefore, the nppcul for Kandy with but little hope 
of inccrM. Stilt it may stir up fricnd« lo liolp us in thii time of need ; 
loiind, eobcr, fnithful, confiitont member* of our Church, prepared to 
make a sjitiilico to enable lier to put lier hand to the plough in tueh 
n ftcld. I could say much more than t can write on this stibjeet, hut 
1 mutt content myself with entreating nur Society to believe that I 
hnt never known a cnte more urj^ently needing its help, and tlmi, if 
not taken up speedily, the Church of England at that tiaiion, *<> fnr as 
its numeruu* out-fctationi are ooncuni«d, will soon be like Uochcl 
w». pIniT r,>r hee ehildren because they ace not. * • • 

" I will now bring tbii tetter lo nn end, wiih a few obserTation* on the 
nnffrsl chaineter of the Socieiy'i mimiitmarioi, and which arc to tli« 
full equally npplieaMe to thone at the Church Mii^tionary Snciety in th« 
(1!oco*e. I am i)iiiii>li«d that nit are mott nnxions to «how thcmielveB 
faithful servanlj of Ohri«t within ih« Church of England. I am not 
aware of lh« exitt*nco among them of any nxtrnTagnnt opinion!, and 
I am quite tnre that none indulge in any extravagant practices conirary 
to iheaobrieir and ilmplictty of the Chnreli of which they are ministcra. 
Shades of opinion> on fairly debalMiblo qumiona, will always be found 
in a body uf Cleiiiy ; hut all seem to me dcstrtnia that upon thcic their 
moderation should he known unto all mcni and tlieir great object, 
I am penuudcd, is to set forth Christ crucilicd, and to t«t forward the 
aalvailon of thane duly committed to their charge. After viiiting Tln- 
ncTclly and 'rrnvnncnre, my revered friend, the Jlii-hiip of Calcutta, 
remarked lo me, 1 never saw a finer Church npirit than that which 
pvivudos botli districts; and this is my own deliberate conviction nl»o; 
M it i) my fervent prayer, iliit Ood wilt bteet their labours and mine, 
in so far only aa tlicy are in aeoordaaee vritli the truth as It is in Chriat 

■ from, ^M 
y tea. ^ 


Tint Rev, B. Meoyaart was appointed as tJifi Sooi«lj-'a Missionary 
at ihit town about the end of the yeur lt!ll. 

An anplicattim for help from thia Miuionary, in order to enable him 
to enrry on the oparattons of his Misnon iu ifab pLacPi hai raccntly been 



lbniTiinI«l to tbe Soeiely tlirougli the BUtiop o( MvIim, >'roin this 
■talefncnt it •pp«aii> lliut Iho pniiulruion oj' th« tnwa o( Mularu it 
11,800, «cHnpn(i»)i 3 EuropitDm, anil \Vi KuroprJiu ilocciid^Qi* oi 
Uwidlien. Tbc population of ilw dmiriat i« 9H,W2, tu Ui* fuUuwing 
prapMtioM : — 

Sutiaiilo* M-iUl 

M*lioiii<iBD« , 3.7Bi 

ninitinna ATft 

h W.OM 

Of tbe Cliriitinn.t, the Car greater number, it ii to be ffarml, bin, 
from Innfc nrglnct, (link into a *t4tc of rvligiim* iiKlttTcrcnce. Pm 
llicae Mr. M. has ii]irnrcl nn Kiigliali »crv!» fw ice every Sunday in a 
Dutch church. Tlie iitiul On^egntlcm ni)mi<en> abbut SO.* 

Mr. M. gives tbc rollowin^ accmjiit «f hi> Tliit ta twomii-dnli'lnt.iti 
h\» KliKion, nhvn be founi! nn utlcr dntimiion of (he Dread of Life 
prevailing. Tliry nr« Tan;;Alle aitd lUnilMiitoIlo, dixtanl 39 anil 47 
milen rMp(tcti»ely from !il:ttura : — " Each pbce cotitiiiiis n »inaH C'liri«-_ 
tinn popiilntion of Biiri-lteft. I h«»e as yet been able (o pay ihem only 
one riiit. which was In February Uit yonr, when I va» infoiinfii tbr»t 
► wclrc years had elnjued «iti« nny clcrt-'y"*" *""' '"^*'" i""""!,' them ; 
(luring which time ibcy had been left onttrely ileilitntc of all chrintian 
ordinnnces. It wmi, however, truly graiiljjng to witccn the pleatare 
and thaiikrulness wlih wbtcli they wemcd to welcome the prettnw oft 
cltriatiao mUiiuiiary amoDj; tli«m alWr tr> Inng nn iniem). I ipeni i 
Siinciay, and prvaofaed at each ptac«, when I also bad the hnp|iitiect of 
ftdminijterJng the sacrament of bnptiitn to AfK^en diDtlivn, some of whom 
htd arrived nt the a^t often and twelve yean. I hnd the Biitlxfucttnil, 
likewise, of leaving behind tne n number of excellent boaki and tracts^ 
pubtiihcd by tbc C'hiisihut Kbowledgt; Sodety, which ibo people were 
Ttty glfld to obtain." 

Tbar« is a almitar oiit-«tntion at Betll^m, about It miles tram 
Maturn. In order to enable bim to keep up A more regular ptatoral 
intcTcourie with lhe»e diMniit members of hU flock, Mr. Mwiynart t.i very 
tnxious (u be naittlect by same Ciitechists, wlM«e knowIdiER of tli« 
' Dative laii{toage9 weuM also materially aid the »pre4<l of the Gospel 
amiini; the snrrotinding hcaibcn. 

He bat alto taken itcpx towanj tlu) establish men I of Chrlttlan wbooU 
in cminexion with the Society's Mission, for which ho <le>rrtb«s the 
population, boili native and Burshtr, to be roixt anxioii>. 

The prcvaJling su|i«ttUt!on in this Minion l«, it will bo setn, thai of 
Baildhibm. This awful system holds ouit as its hl([hest h.-ippiness, the 
abiorpllen of the soul — not inio the Deily, but into noihingoei* ! 
And yet to its wide>sprrail ioflucncc over the n.tlivo poputntion 
of Mature, Mr. M.'s ulatement bears meUneholy witness. 

" These remarks," he iiys, "might easily he extentled further, to 

■how tbe awful mitral degrtilntion of the enllre native population. Tbc 

system of Buddliiam at present bears an ulmiiit uiidltputeil sway over 

the native mind. It is indeed sufficienUy appalling in itielT. and 

Lpeibaps somewhat ilisbcaTtcning to tbe cbiistian miasionar}-, to cun> 





alder (he Dumbtr «f UnplM, amounting to itt I^nst an liiindretl, cledi- 
cattrii to the warship of Boodhuo, nitliin a smu1l cirruit, iik! to recount 
the number of )>U pti«i», ot wJiom, in this district alone, tliero arc 4'i7. 
Such a stalcment aimcMt involuntarily cutit to mind, hi liuinl>ling con- 
in*I, tlie (tnall band of tlie Cliristian priesllioud ivho ate scaltoied 
Dcrc and there over this vast mnnil wilderneu ; and the (civ Cluuli^in 
templet, nlni ! which appear en an; aide to greet the eye of the true 
I vcrvant ot God." 


^^^V From Ihe Rtport of (he Ret. I-\ W. A. SetimUi. 

^1 Tmi Miaiioii wat estalili«tied in the year 177 j.* l>y tlie Rev. Clirli- 

f tian Frederick SchwurtJi, exactly seventy ycam i\go. From that lime 

I up to about twenty years ago, the misMoiis at Cumbacoiiura, Negapa- 

I tam, Ramnad, Maduta, and Dhidlgut, as aUoTinnevelty. .ind, periodi- 

I cally, Tcichinopnly likewise, were nil tlie outpokts belonging to lli« 

I mother nii»ioi) nt Tanjoret not toincntion all ilio villages. From time 

to time these mi*>ions were rormed into separate mitstotiti, aiid uit tliia 
account the Tanjotc mother mistion hat bccuiuc cumpatatively xniull, 
vix. Tnnjorc iticir, villi IU77 Chriuiana; a »cmiuary fur the training 
of native c.itechitti and Hcboo! mutter* ; an orphan •clioiil for native 
Chrittiaii children, 120 in iiunibi-r; three tchoola in the Fort for 
Heathen chtldten, and varioui otlier tchool) in the auburbt of Tnnjorc. 
Amongtt lhe«e tchooU is uUo u Mnltrutl.i school and two English 
tdiools. To Taojore iist'If, which hits two large tuUel:)iilial churches, 
vis. the Fort eliurcli, built by Mr. Schwartz, niid the New Mit»iuu 
churuli, there are also belonging aix ouuntry vilUge circlet, vis. ihe 
Caunenguody circle, with ten rilUgea ; tlie Aneycadoo circle, with four 
villages : the nood.tloor circle, with twelve villages ; the Culeroou circle, 
with eight villages ; the Rataglieiry circle, with eight villages ; the 
Terup.iutrully circle, with tliree villages. In some of these village* 
there are Caitcliisi* iti change ol the village congregation, varying from 
twenty to about oite jumilccd and liliy souls; in otlieTs, there are 
teboulmuiters In ehiirge n( a school, with a view of teaching the people 
the principles of tlic Chiiatian religion, and of improving the rising 
generation. The total o( son]« belonging to the Taiijorc misHion, who 
are baptixed, amounts in all to 32t>l. Our JDercasc tlnrlng the last six 
montlu hat bein rather considerable, viz. tCCi including Tiro adult 
tieatbcn cnnvutts. The number of communicants amounted on 
Chriitmat day to a)iauL40() in Tanjore icscll'. The dectviac wat .M> 
fanenil*. snd 9 upustalizeU, in a village iiaim;d Caumendagoody. 

Tliix btiof sketch shows, thnl, nolnithsUiiding till the ub«taclct Again tt 
t1iBpropagiilioDul'the[:oiipel, the kingdom of Christ f* exteiidiiig in this 
country. The stations of the Taiijore mission, small iis it i» now lu 

* TUs u the yeu Mr. StbwKU biipli/i-d the llrM Mtive eontnls, at entetcA by 
him in the tejlucr kppi si 'I'sujerv in UiB million Hhnry. 


com^rfmn to tomtr (lays, ex(«nd theiDoctvce rrom ihn lianki «f Ibc 
ColMAon, oti the nonli. to Rnmnad, on llw south, to wUhin a few tDilc* 
, or TrlcWnofHily, an tbe wejit, anil tti* cu, on the ea*l. Th« v«nernble 
Mr. Kohlbofl' bdnic in the eighty-firet yaut of hb aee, ih« ch«r|^ of ihc 
tnisiioB brtoDtci princiiMlly to m*, Auided by Mr. Cntt^lii^t Ikiwcr, 
•nd a native deacon. Mr, KohlhoA' pra»eli«i oceaiiunnily itiil in Tamil, 
ami risiw the Chmttani in Ihc morninct in Tanjorc. 

I have ri>prc*cnie>H loonr rcvcHind Diocewin the nrcessityof loc*ltBg 
nt»ionnric« in our villj^ circles; sbould Ike giinn (liie sadic m in 
TiTin«vct!y) bo adopted, the dajr is not fu dutnut wlico we iknll have 
whole Christian vilUgcs. 


Ibc ■ 
ilM V 


Til t follawinc; extract) from the- JoQTniil of a recent Tiiitatton tbrot^l 
arts of bU Diooecc, by llic Bishop of Montreal will «how in a 
irikinfc light tho dilficuUies with which that iofant Cburcli hfti li> 

"On ih<* 7lh, I re-CT08»*d Ihe St. I^nrtncCt and We»t of the 
RIvitrudu Loup Mittion. atill in the Rum an CaihKlic tract* of cuunlry. 
On Sunday the Sih, I conflmicd Hx pcrwnB In i]i« diininnilve itono 
Chtitch. Oa tbe lOlh, Mr. Oticrout, whot<> gucit I wai, drove mc to 
Lake Ma^kinoiip6, tw«nty-four tnilear chi'fl; ibrou^b the woodi, by a 
road barely admitting tbe paassge of the vehicle. rh« next day, I 
GonlSrnied cijilit personi here In a farm faonie : fifty or npwnrds were 
prvienli abitnt the ainie ntiniber ai that which bod asscmhlrd at tho 
Itii-iJ^re du Loup Church on Sunday. They are a plain, simple people, 
rho nppiccjnte ihe ore of llicir patlor ; lint tlicy arc much tounected 
irith ibo Kumaniats, by intcriiiarriu|{e nnJ famitiur intcrcoimc in life." 



" Mr.CItKRoiT took me on, on the lUh, tr> proceed bySl.l^lisahell), 
where we alcpt, and Kildare, to Bawdon, whn-b, wiib iia dependeociea, 
ia the Mia*ioo of Mr. BourDc. A thaw bad now continued far aomo 
day*, accompanied by ncciuional heavy rain, anil very extraordinary at 
tliia acuon of tho ymr, so ihat the ro;id« were moil inloUrably bod, and 
wo were repeatedly upset. In the traet of country in which we were 
now trarellittg, which is mora or leu rude and unfrequented, and in 
whieli Ihe winter track, at if often the case in Canada lin*l. was in 
loniiy places carried through the flald«, away ficitn the lummcr road, wt 
encountered brooka and ditchi's, which had broken their ennfinemcnt, 
and were to aw«I!en with continual nugmenlationi from the melting 
stiiivi, as to oScr lome obainietion to oor pasf^ge acion* tliein. The 
diiver of tl»c sleigh which followed us would here go forward with n 
pole, to sound the depth, but when it wai a^eettnincd that we could 
paia, which we did in erery inaUnce bui one, when a circuit of jcina 




miles bocftino neooBnny, it wu a inatttr of very nice iuRTiK|t«in«nt to 
pr«v«nt npiMtinff, tha bAtlom being wry unoqunl and bri>kf-n up. In 
>i>mc plaovt l)ii> driver only cnuiil i;o, it baini; oecetaary tUat ho thould 
•land up ami balance ilio vohicU in tia paat>g«. Here ihu reat oF ike 
party cruuc<t on foot, upon rail*, which (lie country people hod UmI 
together (or llie {-uqioK, taken from tli« (Voces ) or we had reootirM to 
the frnccH themni'lrr* ai u foint'kridiie, holding on by the uppn rail, 
and moving our feet a,\oag a lower one. In one pincc, Mr, Gucmul's 
little low ninncrcd cariole, coiled n Vrrlina, una floniing. Theiie 
tc«nea brought Torcibly to mind that pnMiig* in th« 147th I'Mlro, when, 
after i1e»c(ihin^ ihc ititenaily of frott, the I'uilmial tayi, " Ue irndctli 
out Uia wotd and mellvtb thom : Ilo causelb His wind to blow, and the 
waters Bow." The rauglinngee wliieh 1 did encounter hoc or else- 
where in the j^mriMy an aucU m aie conatAnlly CumiliaT to the Mis- 
•ionntiM ; and I could hy no nieuna coll them aevere, but I hud deep 
cnnte Tot ihankrulnru to Ood for being able, Rich sa they were. 10 go 
through them without any tort of injury or extreme fatigue, when I 
r«membrre<l ihHt at the taoie lime luat year, I wna in Bcanditiim which 
canacd my friends to ougiir thai, if iipnTcd, 1 should be diinUed fur life. 

"After the lervicc, Mr. Boumo drove mc on to the MUaion of Mr. 
TorrDDce, and Hi the cntl of about iMeuty miles, all of aboiuintibie road 
0xc<-pt the la<t two or three, pi^rrormed upon the River Acliii;an, of 
vihich we found the ice ptrfccily sound, we reached North Glutgow, 
wboro Mr. I'urtAnce had come to intet uti from Matcouche. Iluvlng 
Tafrt'tbcd ourselves and the horii«», y/e set out again, having a dozen 
milea fuitlicr to go, to the nild and m ijueiileied township ofKilkcnnj', 
Midnight wag approaching, when, afti-r winding our way tliroug^i the 
tall, lulcmn, wintry wooda, composed in part of pines ofa rcmatkablc 
hetghl, we reached our destination, in Ihc house of a settler, con*isiing 
of two little roomi. of which one was assitiued to Mr. Torrance and 
my>eir. Mr. Bourne had pievioualy turned oiT to seek accommodation in 
another port of the townthip. Our Irish liotli were excellent people: 
devotedly atlai'heil to the Ciiuich, and reeomiitending its principles in 
Iheir live* and deportment. My servant and hired driver were stowed 
with the family in ihe outer room, or kitchen; I hnidly know how. 
The naxt morning wc drove to the church, where Mr, Bourne met n*, 
passing on our way wbnt is jocosely ciillid the CatLedral of Kilkenny, 
being a little log school house, toofeit with bark, and lighted with four 
paoet, in which the Miasiuunrioh formerly uIGciaUd. The chnrcli la 
a ini^l vrooden unpainled building, wltli tquure lopped windows, but it 
bormonixe* with tlie picient state of things in tiic wonhip; and I 
verily believe it to be auentlcd by some worthippers who worship the 
Father in tpiiii and in Iriitti. I consecrated this humble edifice, which 
Urcgulpily fitted up (or public itnicc in the interior, and conRrmed in 
It twenty-lour persons. It was tho first Epitcopa! riilt, They asked 
me 10 give tho church a ninnv, as I had objected to the of 
oaliing it tha Mountain Cburch, which was partly intended as a com- 
pliment to myself; and 1 called It after St. John the Baptist, an bein^ 


built for ptvaching in tHe wlId«mcM, with which they Wen hishly 
pleated. Ooit gmnt that the preacher callinc upim men l» rcpanl, 
anH at tbc wme time indicating lbs Lamb of God which lakFth away 
th« sin of tho woild, may prepare tbe way of Chriit among llic people." 


" Tub village of UuntinicdoD it ose among many vxamplea of the 
depUmibte tfTt-cta of tehiim in a n«w coiinlry. Tlien-, to a «pol tcnrci'ly 
reclaimed fr<>in the wnodn, isn liiile rollcctiou ol houses, aj^od milt, a 
Urern or two, tome fow vadetmon, aad tome comnMociog iiKlicAiioaa 
orimainess; one good tpaciout churcli might cuo lain all the wonbip- 
pwa; one faithful pnttor mif-ht tewl them all, and their iMOurcm fjr 
the eupport of nligion, iroombined, might prarida for all the deceiHJea 
of wocihip in n reverent manner, anil fur llw oonifon nf the miniiler 
Mid hi« family: tliey might, ia lajing their f(nuid4t}ui>« fcic the fuuiie. 
exhibit in ihe article af religion, nhlch tbould be thvir all in all, the 
picture of a liitle Chriaiiaa hnMbciliO'iili and Ui« liUaiee not drawing, 
ordraiaing oumparatiToly little, upon the liouniy of the Colonial citieaoi 
Sneietita at honM', the aid drrivable from tliuM toiiTcet might the more 
largely eupply ^le unprovided Iraota of couDtiy in tlt« nilJarneu. Uul 
hn* nre four Proleitanti plauet of worablp— altar a)[ain4i aliar, all ill 
nppototed, all jif supported: am] while clieeohUBl preaching tsgojng on, 
or unholy leajciics are made of iwo or thrca irregular tecta against ibc 
Church, and riolent oxctlemcnU are reeotlMl to, like ihr getting up ofthe 
■team, la force on a paiticitteriBtCTe>tBtB|>«lieularci>i^uiiGture. many a 
ruder and mnr« remote Bettlemeat ft BUpt>li«d only at vide inUivalt by 
tbei-xrraordinaryeffurtaof thisor tbatminiitcr; and then again marked 
oflcn by a mutgul jealousy, heightened wbeo ibo Church it tli« object 
of ii, to nn aetimonious andunscrupulouji l>oaiility. In thcM intiaoces 
tlie forbearance and dignity of the Cliurch have, I think I may aay 
without prejudioe, stood in most advantageous contrast with the pro* 
cesdings nf Mber panics. But what einio have we to imitate tbo 
prnyer of tlie Lord bimaeir, that tbty alt may bo one, even as h« aiul 
hi* Father arc on^ * to pray and lung for a neater appraaGh to that 
bnppy consummatioD described by the Apoeile, that Iber* may b« no 
diriiiiiins among them, and thftC tboy may be all jierfcc^ly joineil 
to;,'elhcr ill the same mind and in the same spirit. The Churcli, whiL- 
Iver opposition she may encounter, can be the only possible inslruinvnt 
of bringing on ihete blessed results; and the conviction of this Irnlh 
will sufcly be a tlimulu* to nil the friends and stippnttcrs of tho 
Veiiernblc Society to add to its meant of planting her standard in the 
rising Mttlomentt of the Amrricnn Colonies. 

" &lf. Morris is much beloved, and hat at diffrrent times rceeivcil 
anonymous as well as avowed presenta of poultry, or other small 
tokens of good will, such as tbe country people could sfTuid to give." 




Nut only arc manr <lUlriots la Canadn without any chrcyman >i 
all, but oven tltuiu who pM«esB this tulvanlnge, aro often lo cxtciitivc, 
Ibnt, aliiiough th«ir pastor i* worn out with hiii exvrliiint in Invollitig, 
|U4 Hock caa hope foe no mure than ocfaiioiiil vUi:x, 

" At Ctilonei SohtivcrV I took leave nf Mr. PIock. Ilia cbargei 
altlmngh it lirs vrithin fixed limit*. i» wholly of nn iiiiifrant character. 
At Su Romi, which U hin hoiTK', (10 fnr n.^ lio has onr,) he officialcii 
upon one Sunday iind odp wrck-day in the ntonih. Doth tliete are 
evening aervic**. in whiHi he returns aOer Inliounrig elsewhere. He 
lia:) four othrr S'ind.iy ilatinns in hU misMon : eleven ret^ular itatioiii 
fi>r appoinied wnicc* lii all. He ofRciaics twooty-llirce or twenty- 
four tim« every month, and bi> montlily cJrcnit fs 235 milei, heaitle* 
uU extra calls. ■ • • ■ 

" I wai now, on the Utof K'biuary, on tny way from the iniuiort oC 
Mr. Flees (o (he aiijacent miiaion of the Kev. C. Moiicc, which u prr- 
eiaely of the autre description. About three milM from Hcmininglbrd 
Comer, t stopped to inspect the uoinmencemcnt of a church, which 
unhappily 11 at a itnnd. Tlic wolln arc rnticd a few feci frorn llie 
ground ; but the unfrequeticy ofthe ininiairiitioni which the Church can 
extend lo the «pot, the poverty nf the pcoph-.-and lome diwippoint- 
mcnt* which thry hnrc experienced, have caused ihem to ilriiit from 
their opcralion*, ulihmigh not lo nhnndon the hope of resuming thi^m. 
I met Momo of the leading «cti1ers, liy appointment, and endvav<iiiri-d 
to rncntirngn them, but they vermeil in be a good deal dishcnriencd. 
Grcnt and humiliating are the difHcitliics with which the Church of the 
»overeign and the enipire — that empire the grriitett nnd mint glorious 
upon earth — ha* to nirufrBle in ihcie portions of Flrili^h torrilory. 
Jiuny mu»t be the Diixivliea and inorlificalionn of one abundantly 
conteinus of his own initiflidency, upon whom " comcih tlw core of nil 
the ehurchc* " in a diocese like thUl and heavily must he often feel 
(h« force of the qiirsiions, " Who w weak, and I am not wuak ? Who 
is uflVndfd, and I burn noi .-" Very ncodful fur him is it to be 
strengthened in faith, and to keep before Ins eyes the ansurancu that 
Christ will forget no portion of thai Church for wbicU He ahed His 
blood. Much comfort avi);ht he to tnko also in considering the means 
which Ood has raised tip in the great Church Societies at home for 
prenerving the seed of the Chnreh in the colonic*, and in cuhivotinR a 
lively nu*t that those moans will be enlarged. The scenes in which I 
waa now engaged, (among many others) were calculated to n>ggt«t 
■uch a train of reflections ai this." 


{nustfftmiit klftHimUfeifi'rOnt PrtsyiyrtriW.J 




On Ilfroa, HerO'Wonkiv, and Uis UenM in /lirlary. Six Lec- 
Inm. 0y TiinMA!( Oaiilvi.K. LumliHi: Nickiiaun. F|>. :JU3. 

Having nottred thi« vmU wliai il fint npficaTcH, «e arc only tlrawn 
to it apain by the cniiy (kmaiKl for n second edition, followed so 
cIomIt bj- n new work of tlic same prolific anthor. If our irailcM 
arc uf opinion iliut fe give >n tiiicliic importAncc to the Milijvct, in 
thus departing from nitr luii^, we con but plead our settled convie- 
tioD tliat, in tliis age of loose and shallow itiinkin;;, Oic norks oT 
Thorou Cnrlyic are eminently calCTilat<-ii to inflomce the wcring 
opinions of young and old : and that, ihcrcforc, il is impoGsiblc to 
orerralc their importance. They nre npidly cirnilalcd — ilicy arc 
widely read, and greedily — they «re on ihc tnbl» and shelve* of 
CatboKc aod Sectarian — <»f soholnr iind .iniaiterer. Cliiirclimen ding 
fondly trt the hope, that even vet the voice of this new warrior may 
«wrf! the battle-cry of the Cyiristian ranks ; and PiBscnlcfs, crcr 
ready t" make common cniise with tlic rncmirs of the Chnicb, find in 
him a present powerful ally, without inquiring too airiously into tlie 
prceiK nalnrc of his religious tenets. Ho that, with the forbearance 
of one, and tlic gaping admiration of another, Carlyle is liwl gaining 
an infloencc which, l>e it good or cfili «ill be long felt iu every joint and 
mosc^e of English society. Am) iloubtlc<s, if earnestness andcfofjucncr, 
wwking with tic stores of amiscclkncoun and unusual erudition, can 
alone entitle to influence, we cannot dispute hi* clnim to entincncc. 
But it shall be the aim of thin paper to fihow that, in matters of more 
weighty moment, the whole philosophy of this writer is defective and 
unsatisfitctory ; that it would unsctllc old things without settling 
new ; thai it will not l>rook the test of cool cxaminatioD ; and that 
wben the qaiet ray* of reason liave eraporated Uic froth of trope and 
netaplioT, tlicrc is Icfl to the student a worlhlcM aiput morluim, of 
no use to soul or body. Willi this hope we shall try to place «oi* 
NO. xxxii. — V. a, a 

Carli/k'a Heru-Worthip. 

mIvob in tlie ])OB(lion of linu, immovable critics, wlio arc dctomuiied 
to try tliia book " oit Heroes," on its scieiitiBc prctciiGioDS, not vn iu 
poetic ; and to ask wlinL practical gsiln or loss will accrue to our 
uiin<lii from ftdopling its views. 

The firat mistake ye notice (not the worst) is that of believing 
Hcro-wor»hip to be unbroken grouii J. " How iiiip|ij'," ijiioth the 
author, " ciiuld I but in any measure, in such times as these, make 
iDonifcBt to you the uieaningB of llcrolsni, tlic divine R-Inlion (for 
I may veil call it Hueli) which in all times unites agrcal man to oilier 
iiici) ; and tlin«, as it were, not exhaust luy subject, but so much as 
break ground upon it." (P. S.) Hero-worship is. in truth, no new 
Bubjeet on which n thinker can brcnk ground in these dny». From 
Plato's Apology of Socratca, or earlier, to Lockharl's Ijii'c of Scott, 
or later, admiration of heroes has bccu a icco^iised element of human 
ehoracter. What ore Lives of eminent Stntesineii, Lives of the 
J*ocls, Pursuit of Ku>twlc(l;(e under Difllciittic^s, Books of Martyrs 
even, and Histories of the Church, or of Nations, but so many recog- 
nitions of, and appeals to, itP Nor can the honour oF first exhibiting 
it« dcvclopmentx in a scientific form be ulaimcd so late as our times; 
for every ethieal treatise is, or should be, an essay on the Ddmirable or 
heroic in human character. Besides, the work before u>, whatever it* 
merits, docJt not number among tliem tlio »_vsteniatic exactness which 
this claim would presuppose, aa ivc liupc to make appear in the 

The principle of admiration of the great in otlicrs w, in Iriitli, an 
inseparable part of every mind, and greatest in the greatest. NVhere- 
cver there sppeare a young intellect apparently active, but wholly 
destitute of Uiiii one thing, we may sufcly say it will never lie cjcat. 
Where, on the other hand, strong admiration of what i.i good and 
worthy develops itself in attempt* at imitaviou, no matter now lame 
and nwkwiird at fii>t, there is much hope yet: the chief element of 
greatness is there, and the rest may follow. May not imitation of 
the great be, indeed, the God-sent provision for perpetuating truths 
that ihould live and actions timt iihould not be forgotten '( May it 
not be OH much a distinct alfeetion as pride or sexual love, and Btti^l 
to its distinct fimction as much as these ? For when men peiiiih and 
leave tlicir work to others, it might reasonably be expected ilial the 
conclusions and cognitions they have wrought out and come at with 
toilsome watdiings and sore trouble, would perinli too ; because they 
only, the inventors, had that love for them, that intense overbearing 
■enee of their truth, which led tliem to push tlicm forward, and lu 
protect tliem from contempt, as occasion might arise. The next genera- 
tion, it would seem, will only know them witli a calm, scholarly, 
speculative knowledge, and aer]uicsee in wliatcvcr vicw.t about tiieni 
arc leiut trotibleKome : they must needs perish. But here begin* 
the function of admiring imitation. Some young disciple, or faithful 
friend, when all men else would play the Btcpfather to tlie bequeathed 
charge, prefert the strong ckiim of admiring nffcetion to be its clmm> 

Carlyl«» Hero-Worthip. 


vpion and protector. Tlioiigli t)ic labour tbal prodiioetl die work «»! 

FlKvcr Ml hy Iiinti ttnil }ic liicks, llivrcfurc. tlint cri<lconncnl to it. 
still lli« labour-painB of ibe 6r&t. ore not more inrrun^iblc clinins of 
love than the adoptive admiration of the stcond. parent. Ami in 
tiiiit irnj' tlie discoveries af the testator Iiavc often been to tbe faiiliful 
kntee the foundation of &rtbcT diacovcriea and as Itutinff reputation, 
(men tbe most fnitbful imitator at tlic oiit«ct haa ciidcd in beinj; th« 
leivt imitative and tlic bolilc«t in orieinid ennceiilion ; bcc&UM in 
him nlune ttic seed sank deep cnougu to grow : liu aldnc bad tbo 
digeelion for «uch food as should be equal to the nourishment of n 
bero. Tbe Flalo that ban given the world fuot] for thought and study 
tbniugh two thousand j'cars and more, began the worhl u.i an udmirer 
md imitator of Socrates ; and the future poet of Childc Ilarold (if 
Plato will forgive us for nnining him licre) lay hid in the ntilhor of a 
little volume of imitaliona of fuvoutitc vcraes, tlie Jlourt of Jdlttuv, 
scorned of rcvicwera and neglected by t)ie trorld. Nor is this law 
limited to intellectual prowess ; if tlierc bnd been no brave men 
before Agamemnon, there bad been no Agamemnon ncitlier ; and in 
the highest matter of all, the rcli^on of mnnkind, pwtd men havei in 
all agei, begotten n progeny of good men, through this cnmlntive 
admiration ; and the martyr tied to the Blttkc has been a picture pre- 
fivrvcil and cberished iu many hearts, uuUI it brought noce martyrs 

Moreover, as the prindple is universal and indeBtructihlc, it must 
eilJier be directed by eompetcnt hands, or it will miBilircet itself. 
" Nature is not j-o^^ned bill by obeying her;" and cimlemut of 
one of her in&llihlc Iowa will bring ita own puuisliineiit. If religion, 
OS tnui^ht. is Imnen of examples, it stripped to a scientific nudity, and 
Icll unrelieved by the clothing of hitlorie leuend* — then »hc has lost 
her hold on the people in great measure — ehc b no more popular. 
The appetite by wliieh the soul takes bold upon her, (if one may 
apeak so,) which the Bible \* *o benignly pruvided to KUfipIy, is un- 
grati6cd: and it is not hard to see tlie end. From thai lime there 
begins to grow u[> ijuilc another aystcm in the heart of the people, — 
with men for it» saint* and lurocM — with the works of men for its 
imitable models, — with iIip falla of men for its warning beacon*. 
Hut what kind of men the chosen may be, none eon culcutatc. When 
the clcrisy of u nation liavc desisted from their labour, or fallen into n 
wrong method of <loing it, wliat usurping teachers shall ri»e instead 
none can prophecy. Superstitious belief or latcless scepliciam, the 
creed of Mahomet or of Thomas Paine ; uKcetic severity or un- 
bounded indulgence : l^j'thogDreaDism or Hedonism, ibe code of St. 
Anthony or of Thomas Moorei may have the \kA of it, according as 
tliere nuiy be in those times men able to advocate the one or the 
other invitingly, and to kindle that glow of life upon it, the want of 
which has caused the shrines of a belter wisdom to be deserted. The 
minds of men between twenty and tliirty, it hn» been wisely sraid. 
delcnniQe vbal the miml of Um age shall m — what it Ebsll look like 

1124 Cw^ta* Hero- IVorMp. 

to a long liercoftcr, in tlie pnjtp ftf history. But llial pcriotl of life is 
ul»u tlw SMMn wlicn ihc cjiicst of models and good examples is most 
active ; wJicn the fiiney a flyin)r hillicr nntl thitlicr throiipli time .iiid 
Rpocr, t" find tomethingon wliicU she mny 6x licrsHr, nnd by vhtcJi 
she may live. Hence the rval responsibility rests on those who nrc 
«ble lo determine the fancy of the young to this or that model ; who 
liare power to soy jiersiuuiivcly, " rest here xnd not elsewhere ; here 
n sticnifth, love, and hope, all that can be worth your admiration : 
ttim hitlicr and dwell for ever." Too often those to whom ttii* in- 
fluence is given, ore unworthy lo wield it. liiit the pnire^ is Uieini, 
lor good or bad : the young men arc the hands of the age, doini; its 
imperishable work* ; itnd those who mnvn ihc hands — who leacli the 
young what to prize and admire, are the head. A'lV ndmirari may 
be good enough opatliclic philosophy, but quid admiratur ? is Uie 
key lo political ]JTOphccy. 

It is almost Biiperlliiona to »ny, that though there wilt lie evorr- 
nberc a life-guiding admiration, wc arc utterly without security for 
its direction townnln thing)! worthy. In proportion m tlie evil in 
unR)de<l hesris of men prcdoininatcs over the good, so arc the chances 
that their heroes will be painted idols — things of putty and fncus— 
greater thnii those that they will only reverence what i» wortli the 
homage. A unall number will value the valuable ; the mass of 
mankind, told by myriads, and oulnumhering the sands of the sea, 
will ever he deluded by the semblance of value. The few will look 
u|> unly to the good among them ; or, should the beggarly use fumiith 
none such, to the good whoso shadows arc cast on them Irnm other 
times: the many will bura and flutter round some predominant 
foolisli peraon, who has managed, in the churnings of this whitlpool 
of life, to rise out from sunounding scum, and float at ton, himself the 
lightest. There is in man, in good and bad, the appetite for bowing 
down, and it will sate itself. Nothing i« too mean for idolotry. Look 
nt fiicts. A oiierulouB Ityron is followed hy his hosts of imitators, 
with dcprcitsea eollars, and foreheads high-shaven, deeloring tliem- 
wlvM (truly, if they knew nil) miserable crcalurej*. Mountebank 
sojihista, in Oreeee ftnd elsewhere, in senate and pulpit, lecturc-rooni 
and platform, have had their little day of admiration. Unscxcd 
singers Imre regnlcd ihi-ir none* frfim jewelled boxes, the gifts of 
royalty ; ami dancing girls skilled to walk upon their toe*, have 
gloricj in autocratic diamonds. Admiration there must ever be 
where tliere is one spark of mere intellectual aetivity ; and this fact of 
our nature it was not left for Mr. Carlylc to discover. Wc even 
question whether he has invented a new name for it. 

The highest windom of nil — the wisdom that made our natvire 
flrst — liiis not lufl this univenal nppelitc without its proper end and 
object. We turn to the Bible, with it* priorts and prophets, and 
uposllcs and mnrtycK, but, nborc nil, with that great High Priest, like 
us in nil things except sin ; and tlnfc we see that if our eonstilntion 
hits made iis wurehippers nnd ndmirvrv, we arc not Icll without 

CarfyU't H«n>- Wertkip. 





afaJMts wOTlhy lo claim, and filled to attract, our test iidnitratiun 
and wonthip. " Fvlliiw Hi» »Kc\i% !" I'liis is ttic diitv lati! on lu: 
not vtthuut a clear discerDmenl uf what iiiir whole Wing yeanii i 
afl«r ; Datncly, on example wlicrcto wc may fasliion our life, wi'lb Full 
confideiM:c of k blcscing on the cftbrU And it would bo easy to 
point out bow tlie errors into vliidi the Churcb iiiui fallen, frDin tint 
to time, bave ihoir root in a neglect of that oRo pivccpt ; in begio- ^ 
nini; to imitate otlicr nindoli in*lea<l of Him wlioin it cnjoiDa we 
thouU) follow. We caoDot gio into ibin now; but arc content to 
recommend our readers to examine closclv wbetker all liere^, aJ] 
division, oil urglcvt of tlie doctrines, all dcviatioiis from tbe pru- 
tioes of our religion, arc not readily tnenble to tbat one cuuo — 
ibe substitution of Hero-worship for God-vorship — the adoption 
of human models in lite place of our great Example, human and 

Ilcio-wotsbin (to adopt Mr. Carlyle's nomenclature) is not, 
bowcvcT, forbidden to the ClirisliMi. He, as well as Mr. Cailylc, 
looks with fond aiimimtion on bis "hero a» [(rophcl;" " hero as 
priest ;" " liero as jioet ;" " liero oa man of letters, " hero as king." i 
But with liow mighty a diSereTice '. His love oud liouour for tbeu < 
is bounded by thrir liive and buno\ir for their common Head and 
Example, even the Son of Ood ; and tliti* be docs but honour Christ 
in tlicir penons. He admires tlieir fidelity to tbo tne fiuth : that 
is his mark of a hero. How did they serve our heavenly King, and 
push llic confines of Ids kiBgdom upon cartli to places before slmt < 
c«t from it? 'I'his i» what lie wishes lo know. And when he 
anays his heroes by tlio tide of Mr. Carlylo's, he will not blush for 
them. Elislia, Cyprian, George Herbert, Hobert NeUon, Cliarlm 1. 
on one side: and Mjdiomct, I.utlicr, SliakK])crc, Koasscau, Crom- 
well, on tlie otlier. Who will weish the list of tbe Syncretist 
with the list of tic Cburehman ? No reader of oars, even for a 
moment. We repent, that the Christian too indulges the sentiment : 
of bero-wnrsliip, when he commefflontta a saint or martyr : when be i 
Uesacs Goil's name " for all His servants deparlod tliis life in Ha 1 
fnith and fear ;" and that to speak of " brealdDg ground" on the \ 
nubjrct now, is mere idle talk. 

\Ve bave nid tlint scientific exactness is not tlie dianieteTistic of j 
the work under notice. Nor ia il. Among the author's merits — and i 
lie bos great ones — wc cannot number logical power. A glowing I 
tmagiiution, exulting in the ourioiii grouping ol' iU thougfats, and 
too proud oi' its strength to bonow any tbimcar style as tliur vehicle, 
sympatliising warmly witli cnci^ in thought and action, yet not im- 
partially with all energy, nml pouring forth iU Byni{Kilby in every 
ibmi of prabe nntl apology, hghts up every page with a buc lo 
which this generation is quite a stmuger. I'crliaiw in no author 
<Wes the same ebildlikc abandonment of heart to tlie aiimimtion of 
the hour. lUovo band in Iwnd with tbe xnmc matily power of commU' 
'nioiting llie emoiiun lo olliem. \Vilh etich ckmciils of pueuy. 


CaHyW* Utrm- H'oniip. 

tlic woniler i«, timl tlii* book hut lalicit the giiise of prose lecturer, 
inkleatl of ihat of an Orphic song. Ilad wc been to criticUe the 
latter, wc itiiglit Iinve dispensed with n soincivlint TU<Ie tjucsliont 
whicli now it is our iluly to put ; to wit, Wlint lioes it mean ? Wlml 
docs it tell UB ? Wliat do we carry off" from the perusal, boaidea & 
beating pultc and reddened elieek r' From a poet, wlio elaims the 
immunities of tlie divine affiatu* at the liandx of all well-mannered 
critics, wc should not have sought an answer : but of a pliiloaoplicr, 
clad in the sober russet garb of prose, we ask the question — nnd get 
no nn.iwer. In truth, t)icre is much more of Pythinn inadncMJ 
than of Norunt Ortianum about the whole production ; so, perhaps' 
it is unfair to push the matter. 

Be it enough to say, llien, that if this book be meant for a proso 
treatise, if it be not perhaps » tranBlntion of a German poem, done 
into prose afler the manner of Mncpli ergon's Oaaian, we complain 
of Ihe auiqienition of the author's logical faculty, nnd consequent 
defect of those ecientJIic conclusions; which, resting on solid iliiruble 
grounds, might survive the glow of pasdng emotion, and swell the 
mm total of our pcmianeut knowledge. It is unfair to wind men up 
by eJomience to the action-point, without then telline; them wliat In 
do. All this fine talk, and nothing to come of it ! They arc drawn 
on to admire cliarnctcre they had licforc contemned, or nl be*t not 
admired ; and this on no ground of reason, but in faith of Mr. Ca^- 
lylc'g inltdliblc insight : they find beauties where was barrenness— 
greatness, where all seemed small. Bui what next ? ']'hcy ure not 
told wlial a hero is ; nor how to know one if they meat liini ; nor 
liow they arc to become hcroen; nor how to admire the heroic in 
others. In short, they have heard muth «-lo(|uent eulogy of certain 
men, mostly of doubtful reputation, tending to no practical result, at 
variance with all they have been accustomed to hold, and settling 
nothing of what it has unsettled. Are they the better? Not much; 
when the illusion shall have faded from their eves by time, and they 
rv6cct on it in the darkncsit and solitude of their inmost heart, tliis 
mofle of treatment will be confrwed uiiKilisfncl«ry, nnd they will 
admit by degrees the conviction, that sober reason should have been 
there, to control the tricksy sprite that has pleased them with idols 
and things unreal, under the emphatic and otlcn-repeatcd title of 

The list of heroes selected for especial celebration is, indeed, 

1>UK'j^ting. What one common mark can be assigned to thcni nil ? 
leal and mythic persons, sane abd cmzy, nioml and immoral, 
hunourvd and execrated, self- res I rain mg and wildly self-indulgent, in 
whnt common term, which shall be the note of heroism, do tliey 
ooiocido .•' Such a menagerie ! Can any nnturaliKt reduce tlieni inin 
one common genus ? First, there is Norse Odin, a Scandinavian 
god, demi-god, or hero, t/" rwr A« icom atti/tMn^, which i« just the 

Kint on wnich some preliminary scepticism miglit be looked for ! 
fore wc admire him as hero, let us know whether he be not a {loor 

Cartsk'f fffro-Wwdtip. 




fihailow of II man, ihe HiTi-nlvx of Norse (andes, llic Jack GiiaU^ 
i^UL-llrr of some Scanilinnviau atory-book niolicr. " Orimin," admltf^ 
Mr. Carlvlc, " Grimiu, ibc Gcminn antitiiiaiy, g<ie« ko for ns to deny 
Uiat tmy tnaa Odin ever cxixlcd." Not unreuonable uf Gnarni; 
l>ul tlie author cannot ligbtly relinquish the fiuitfu] theme. Grimm 
makes out that Odin is Wmtan, Movement; and conjcetuns tl»l 
lUc title Odin was but an otlribule of tlie highest God. Oirlylc \» 
tctdy. J 

" W« ntutt l)L<w (o Giimai In matter* Mymolc^iesl. ht\ tu eaiiniler it 
llx»d thai It'ooroii mciingi iVitdiiig, fuice of Movemrtit. And now, ttill, what 
bindrn U from bting the iume of n hctoi« man *nd moitr. a» «f II b> of a ■ 
godT At (lit tbea^tctivc>,aiid vonLi form vit from it. — did not ihc Spinindl^ J 
in ihrir uiiivenial AilinlTulion lor Lojh', got iiilu ihr Imtiit of ihijuik, ' a Lopa 1 
flDwrr.' ' n [.opti damo,' if the flowar or vamoa irer<i of tuiMMlng beauty f 1 
Uad lliia laitca. I.opt <iiaw\A hove grovn. in Spain, to bo an adjoeiivc lignSl}'- 1 
lag yodlike alio. Indeed, Adam Smith, in lii« Buau on Lattymnft, nimiiica | 
tkal all adjfictivM vtliaUoevor were formed preciiielv ici thAl way ; luma very ! 
green thine, chiefly notable for it> Erccnncu, got ihc appellutivtr name yrtm, 
and (lieu llic next tiling remarkable (or tliot (quality, a tree for initancc, naa 
named the yreen nei; — as we ilill tay. ' the jfntm coach,' ' four-hone coach,' 
or llie liVe. All primary niljcciive*, according to Smith, were formed in ihij 
way; wtrc nt fir»t nibaUntivc* and ihiii;^ We cannot annihiUte a man for 
eiymologicB like ihsl!" — Vp.'iV; 30. 

Hut if Grimm were to retort — we cannot make a man with cly- 
molofjics like thai ! surdy the burden of proof would rexl on oor^ 
autlior, where the disputed point is a piece of fabuloiu Inwlilton. I 
Tlie retort, liowever, it not sugj^cd ; and Odin, among all tiisi 
ftionda and enemies, thus provet) " a reality," and no " hcamy," is * 
passionately chanted of, through Bve-and-twcnty pagea of poetry 
idtalien into proie. Yet, a(\er all, Odin it a pililiil hciLnwy ; perhaps j 
tlieie was do such man ; perhaps, as ia more probable, there were a | 
down sueh. The case of Odin. Marement, ia parallel to that ofl 
Zoroadcr, Sou of stars. Goropius Bccnnus, a utrlylcau hero^wot^ J 
ftiipper, fur uvigtit we know, recognised but one of that name, hut | 
found no followers ; the other literati, according to Olcricug, varying J 
Erom two to five Zoroastcre. Similar difficulties attend the name nf I 
Hcrctilea : and the disnusion in both ciues tends to the conclusion, 1 
that no one has anything better than conjecture to offer us. How 1 
privileged must be the intellect iliat can invest these obscure shudowai 
of one w many wjih local habitation niul corpomi unity, and even go J 
out from itself and ducH witli them under their cloud ! Bat then! 
BO few will care lo follow. \ 

The name of Mahomet follows that of OdJn — overclouded, too, with 
no lc« oliKurity of another kiiul. To the end of time tliis trisyl- 
bble is a riddle, « very symbol of the intcrrngniivc attitude of mind. 
An impostor or a fanatic, whicli, or bow much of each f In the eyes 
of )It. Corlylc, ncitlier the one nor the other: by a xubtle argument 
ho is proved a true prophet, and no leas. Mankind is brought lo thu 
poll (or it. M 


Carljflf't nero-Won/iip, 

" Till word Ihi* mnn >|>(iki^ luu bcci) the li^<^-t;uiJnncc now gf «M bimilreil 
xnA Hahly mitUani uf ni«ii ll>«ii' twvlvu li<iiiilri'<l ycnn. Hims tiitndrcil 
«nd cignty millbix went itiniK' \iy (io<l n* wkII iu wi-. A grpnter niiinbct of 
Oad'< CTMIuiVt Iwlicvc in Miiliomct'i word nl thii hoiir thnii In imy ollior wotJ 
whiilrvi^r. Art «« to mppoae Ihol it was a miivmblc piece of npiriliiiil li-grr- 
dt-miuii. thii which bo many creaturus hitvi' livvd mid died by T 1, far my |inrt, 
eniiiiot funn any (uch tii|i|icMilion. I will L>cli«vi< cnotl \\iingn courier limn (Iml. 
Oiie would br riitlrsly nl n Inn wlint to lliink of thin world al all, if ijiiockirry no 
grow and were latictioticd here." 

Of this precious pa^aage, we fit«t challenge the statistics. Taking 
tlie given computus of the Maliomotnns ns conect, wc flntly deny that 
they oulmimbcr the profuMcirs of other creeds. Those who call thcni- 
KcWcs Christians are fiir more. There ore about two hundred millions 
of Boitlx in Europe, of whom, it is moumFui truth, many -ire not Chris- 
tians ; hut, to supply the place of these, there are believers in North 
ami South America, in the \\'eal Iniliun istaodd, in the East Indies, in 
Svria, in Afrien, in Australia, in New Zealand. We tliink. tlicre- 
fore. that more Christians arc iii the world than the whole population 
of Europe, and thcieforc than the numbers of the Mahometim.i, ns 
given by Mr. Carlylc. But as such eneculatioiis are not really to 
the purpose, wo give them at no more ttiaii their worth. We would 
beg Mr. Curlyle, however, to prove ihat, of the four great creeds, 
('hnntirinity, litiuliiiiiin, Ituddhistn. and Mahometanism, the last is 
not the IdfMt extensive instead of the most. He will not find it so 
cnsy, uidcKi he l* content with his own inaigbl and bare assertiop, 
even for statistics. 

But MOW look at ibc philosophy of the nrpimcnt. Miglit not 
one moment of calm thought have shown him that (jwaelterv nWw 
grow here ? that far more than his astounding Mahotnetan hotitK 
have lived and died in a faith which, practically, takes a little yellow 
gold for its deity, and avariee for its sole wonhip .•' How many 
million" tIiouj;hl tlic earth flat, and tlic sun eternally careering round 
itF llow many, that the globe of earth coursed round thelsuni" 
One of these is "ouackery." How many have Ijvcil and died 
thinking slavery rigrit, and consonant with Divine laws as with 
hnman f Tlieic i« no outrage of nature, no horrible crime, no 
foolish vision, no pretended religion, but what has found advocatcjt 
among men. Are we to think that, because these tlnngv were done, 
they were therefore right ? But even sU|)poae that : still, contra- 
dictory tenets cannot be tnie together, — there must be <iuael;cry 
Romcwhcre, and we are. driven on the old problem at last,— Where 
ia objective truth to be found ? "A false man found a religion !" 
exclaims Carlylc, *' why, a false man cannot build a brick bouse." 
True enough : lie m\M know tho laws and properties of his briclcs 
and mortar, and build his house obedient thereto. So did Maho- 
met; he knew the men for whom he wrote Alcoran, conversed with 
nngels, went to heaven. He wronght with his materials like a 
cunning cradsinan, no doubt ; it was never denied. Yet our brick- 
layer may be n godless, dninken, ignorant, wifo-licaling bricklit-yer, 



C^S^t lliiTi^Worthip, 


fur ull Ilia skill, and Muliomct an tnipoilor liir all lii.i nii1)ii<iiji (if 
dopes. Sclllc fbr ua first, then, not by uiimpery incUpbore. l»ut l>y 
tome argiiRicnl tlinl imy eati^fy stuiIeiiU of ordinary rancy and 
tolentble keeDnnu in a|i]ir3iamK cviduncf, the f|iK>lt()n — Whiic wot 
Mahomet ? or wc go no elcp Larlhcr wiiti yon. Were liis |)reter-' 
nntuml commutiingH na\ and cn'dible, or weic they dyspeptic 
lisionK, of the satttr race m the a|)])aritiuiiH and devilries tlial beset 
Luther ill hia towei : or vtcrc they menJacia talubria, whoieeome 
ticfl, used, a» Pltlo rays lie« tnay laitfiiUy be, by way of medieini^, to 
niftke Grin the feeble lotleritig bitli of innlid ixlhcrents? It wiSJ 
be time «nou^ti aXiex tliat to bespatter hii siupeddod coflln iritit 
golden atars of ihctorie, — to chII liim " a nieaacni>eT from the Infl- 
iiile L'nknomi — sent to liiiidie the world — moii of tnitlt and fidelity 
^-perliueiit, wise, sincere, altogether solid, brollierlv, genuine, full 
of wild vortli, all imcuUiired — deep-hearted son of llie 'iTJItlrnimi 
own, soeiai, deep »f>ul — iilonc with his own wul and tlic rcatlly of 
uiings — earnest ixa <lGath and life," &c. &C. At present, llieie 
eulogiea arc simply ridiculona. It^ity of thhigB, iodeed ! There 
never v/m a phrase more ehnnielcssly nbuwd. 

As fur KouKteiiu, wc «ill not seiiouely disciua his cUiin to walk in 
Mr. Carlylc's iriumpbal proeeanon of neroea. Goleritlgv culls him 
"cniry Ritiuseau," and our author admits Uial "tliere had comeot 
laat to be a kind of niadne» in him." He describes the hero thus : — 

" He it n<il vrhot I call mlrtnig nuiii. A morbid, rxcititblc. ajKuinodic miui; 
at bnil, iiiWutc ntlhi-t than alTiitig." *• Roiumbu hn» nol depth ur nidlli, — iMt 
eajin force fur dlfliciilty. " " He iiad not perff cUd himaelf into viclrra oveig 
mer* lUtire : • me-an hitngrr in manj- kxu waa atill lh» motive ptiiicl{>ta 
of him. I am afraid he «m a ttry rnin mui ; hungry for the prnian oF 
m«n." . . . . " Nulbini; but niv[iir;ioii. ■ptf'iralalion, fivrce, moody vaytl HA 
could not tir« wilh atit'iio<ty." 

Considerable di»cuuntii from the heroi>ra of any mortal ! Itut lie 
hu become a star of the lieioie nluv, " because, wilh all bis dran^ 
baets — and iher arc many — bcnas llic first and chief clmracteristle 
of a hero: he is heartily in wrww*." (P. 299.) When people 
grow cmzcd, their being heartily in eiirne*t in their deluuons is 
reckoned dectaive proof of lunacy, whereupon, in this country, they 
arc conveyed to Bethlehem or HanwcU, not Ivclurcd on for heme* 
bv iiieii 4if geniu«. And for the logic of litis claasiHcation, it haa 
elsewhere been luid down by Mr. Carlylc, that aincerity ia net con- 
stitutive of a hero without oilier marb. 

" I sliotild lay tineerily, a il«ep, grotl, genuine linccrily, m tlio tu%\ clianic- 

l«mlic of all men in any way heroic A UtlU nim May km* ll>i* : it b 

ecmpelcttt la all men that God lia* made; but a great man cnnnui be without 
i(."— Pp. 72, 73. 

■^Vliil dse, then, m«de Rouseeoti heroic P for sincerity seems Lla 
sole alleged incriu 

'i'lie name of Burns may likewise reftionabty arrest ua for 
awhile, li ia nol ours to wnrfi'mn any of Adain« diildrcn; not 
even to blame what, unknown their atriiggllnga and temptations, ar«| 

xo. XXXII. — M.S. a 


130 CarhfU'a Hero. Jf'wsftip. 

in the a1»tmet, deep Kin^ Tliere mugt be much in a m'laA so 
dangerously gifted to us ineiplicable ; and we cannot say but tbnt 
wild, unhappy, ficn'-lienrtcd niitn had more given him to combnt with 
than his strength was able for. Perhaps her strngglctl hani and 
christianly, in later daya and un»eon occaiioiis, with tcniptationg of 
the slreugth of devils, and could not caat them out. I'uverty, 
fervent passions, intense fandtics, ill-chosen cm ploy men t, uU these 
things al war one with another, and the unhappy heart of one poor 
man their battle-field ! Presumptuous it were in any, even in one 
who had known the siime trials, to ftttrnipt to strike the balance for 
or against this singular being. Let liiui rest in peace t lie the earth 
light upon him, and judgment lighter ! Be his own lines never for- 
gottCD : — 

r"To step asid* is human. 
One point must Blill be gr«ally durk. 
The moving why thiy do ft; 
And just as lamtly cnn ye iiiailc 

How hr, perlinjiB, llwy rur il. 
Who miido ihe lir-jirt, 'lin He aloiin 

Decidedly can Iry u» ; 
He know* eiich chord, its various lone, 

Eftch (prill);, iu vAiioiiithiiti. 
Tlifn nl tlio hnlaiicc let's be mut«, 

Vic never cnii ndjuil it : 
WIiuIb (Iun« vm partly may compute 

But never vrhiil'i retiKled." 

At tlie same time, to keep open our eyes to recorded fecU. of 
ubidl wo offer no interpretation, no way compromises this wiertd 
principle; and, in the present instance, i* a po»iiivc duty. Without 
condemning Bums as a man, wc oppose his exollation into a hero. 
And if it be urged that true chanty would not only refmin from 
judging, but also from mentioning mutters whereon others will 
judge, we reply, that imumnitv of censure can only be justly WaiWrf 
where the friends of the cliiininnC maintain lii» ininmnity of praise ; 
and that, though charity may enjoin silence ilh to the errors of 
miothcr, a higher charily, even love for all men and for truth, has its 
claims loo. which in this case cannot be satisfied by (ilcnce. Ad- 
mitting, then, that Burns may have «lnig^'Ied heroically against 
temptations, we ask for proof positive that he did so. For blasphe- 
mous and impure verses, — fiir nets of slavish obedience to the lowest 
animal appetites, where is the aloncmenl, what the apology ? Hera 
stand wc m the place of the \ioam\x atvocato (/f^i/iuro/o, showing e.iusc 
against Huriis's enrohnent in the heroic canon, Wc u*k for mm« 
proof tlial lie was more than a mcR- blind NcrvanI of bad impulses. 
Mr. Carlvic cannot think that overt acts of defiance to moral law 
are heroic, else why exclude Jonathan Wild the Cireot, and tlie 
energetic Kicbaid 'I'urpin ? " .f ewdled duchesses " and " waiters 
and ostlers of Scotch inns" shall not judge for us: too mucii i* in- 
volved for that. Be the former " carried off tlicir feel," and the 
latter "brought out of bed"' wiili ihe poet's conversalioa — the 

CartffW* Itt-ra- Wvrthlf. 


ToMcT IB nol yti scltlctl. The same effect wooM bnve followed llic 
ncrcioDs of u fiddler, " Once more n ginni origin«I man !" but in 
what reipect > gianl? "A wise, faitlifiil, uncoiKjiierablc nun!'' 
my, rather, if fictH arc to speak, and tbey only, a man foolish in [he 
bcHt irisJom, unfaithful In nnv nim, and, in the Rtnigele witli life, 
bowed down, piottrntcd, ground into diut, and utterly eonijuered 
cvem to the very ffiave. More is the pity ! but wc cannot, WVt 
Mr. Carlylc, read facts backwNrd, nor, like hini, apply cpilbets 
at random, jiiitt os if wiiiten on catda, and pulleil blindfold out of s 
bag. l>ocd he forgel the poet's addiction to whiskey, and Ln 
qnaiter-dozen ilicgitiouUe children ? Doca he know that 13ums was 
only rescued from n dugraci-Ail diflieulty by the death of one of 
two women to whom lie hod been paytne coteinpoianeoua [ulilimn ? 
" Bums, too," ouoth our author, " could have governed, debated in 
naliuiint a.iscniblicfs politicised as few could." — (P. SIO.) But howl 
know we that ? Miglit not tlie intoxications of power have changed 1 
the rustic rske and thirsty exciaeinan into a Nero or CaligukM 
Mr. Cnrlylc is not inspired, and his intuitions, without some argu-l 
menu tlint may stand a» their grounds to our lew ]irinni>tly judging'^ 
minds, are unsati-i&etory. Let him tell us, then, why Bums, mis- 
mani^png a few things, is to bo matlc nilrr over many lhing» ; and 
whni hetv meftns, if die Ayrshire bard be one. 

Let us now examine the portmit of the " Hero as Priest." If 
words arc to retain old meanings, the heroic man is he who exhibits 
■II manly iiiaiilics in a larger degree than the multitude. Andj 
again, the beroicpricit — "the Hero as Priest" it be whose <]unli(initiunaj 
for the priest's office arc higher and better employed tlian those ort 
others. " Do your thing, and we shall know you," ii", we fancy, w{\ 
exclamation of Mr. Carlyle's, somewhere or oUier : do your priest'n 
work in the best way, and you arc a hcro-pricst ; in a worse way, J 
and you are something else. But tbe priest must do his otvn work,! 
if he would avoid sad iunible and confusion, inevitable e»nsc<[uencea I 
of intruding into anoihei's province. An example inav make our 1 
meaning plainer. When a gang of rascals attacked Lambeth I'alaca J 
to destroy Arclibishop Laud, he might have juslllinbly renlitted tliem, 1 
by arming his retainers, luillying forth, and driving the labbie home. 1 
Ijiis supposed act might have been heroic in another man, but not I 
fvr Aim ; because it would liavc been an oblivion of the episcopal 1 
ehuacter for tliat time— a forgetfulncjs of its humility^ clutnty, and ' 
sabmissiveneas 'to personal wrong. In estimating any action, wc 
must consider the person and position of llio agent, nmong the other 
inflncnciog circumstances. Now, in the case of Luther, as treated 
by &lr. Cutlyle, we complain of this very tophiem : wc are invited to i 
regard him as a " hero- priest," (of course wc do not approve this , 
title, tliou^ wc use it for this turn) for actions in themselves, per- 
haps, heroic, but uot for a priest to perform. It might bo, he hail no 
choice, no alternative, but (as fiir us man could sec) tlie utter iicrtli- 
tioti of the Church on earth, swallowed up by tymnny and unbelief. 

S% CartffU't Hero-W»rMp. 

It «'u Lulhet's nisforlune (may h« |i]eiiileil) to tight on timcft vhen 
stout resistance to ecclesiastical superiors was tbc one course pointed 
to by tlie finger of conscience, enjoined by the word of Gudi 
cnfoTced by drcumslance. Dtit tliiit Ik not pleading tij tlie purpose : 
a plain ignoralio eitnehi, Wc do not make a man a hero for his 
niisfortunes. What wc want proved is. tliat tlii» resistance, in the 
prinnple of it, and the way lie carried it throilgli, niuke him u hcni' 
priest, i. e. demonstrate him a better priest than others. Ami if not, what 
docs he here, in defiance of cominon sciisc and iVcpum Organum f 

Not the Iciutl notable of Lutlicr'* adventures was his marriage. 
Wc arc afraid that, being a, Romish priced und friar, he must have 
broken some solemn vowj by it ; and tliat his wife, being a nun, 
showed her firet olieiliencc to marital authority by following hia 
example. It would liave been more worthy a priest to have performed 
Ilia vows, " though it were to his own hindranee." But, then, it may 
be urged, St. Paul commends matrimony to all who are tempted Ijy 
that np|ielitc which it remedies; and Luther, weighing the matter, 
chose the less offence. But no: he himself savs, "I was not very sorely 
tempted therewith ;" and it Is pretty clear, ^om his own statements,* 
that the Fraii I-nther owed her walronly dignity chiefly to the good 
Martiii*ti hatred for popedom. It might, or might not, be an expe- 
dient step : but it was surely a niisforluoc for a priest, that neither 
111! nor his briilc conhl come at the miirrio^-bcd, except by breaking 
tlic chain of nn oath. 

■ Tile pope and l.ulhcrwcrc not the best friends; the latter felt 
himself imperatively conimi*sioned to maltc war upon the former — 
sent on earth for no other purpose. His wom not the temper. to err 
on the side of ehariUiblc silence, in pursuit of such an object. 
Dr. Johnson would have hugged him for an incomparable Imter. 
" Popediini," saith our hcr()-])ric»l, " lialh been ruled always by the 
i«ickcd wretches correspondent to tlieir doctrine. . . . None sliould 
be made pope but an off*nnnmcd incomparable knave and villain." 
In another place — " Next after Satan, the pope is a right devil, us 
well on this I'opc Clement mav be proved ; for he is evil, in that he 
ia M Italian ; vavc being a li'torcntino; worst of all in being the 

BOD of a ;f is there anything worse ? so add the same thereto.'" 

'Page after page of the Colloi/aia Afeiualia,^ (the only work of his we 
esn lay our hand on just now) rocks witli these fenny bloraonis of 
rhetoric, to ihi- prejudice of Popes I'aul, ■Vlciandcr, Leo. &c. with 
tlieir kinswomen ; m that, perhaps, for strnightforw.nrd abuse, thb 
voUmie wotdd alFuM tlic bnt estant modeU. Yet, in one place be 

• l.ullicT'1 Toblo Tilk, oh. SO, 

* This moiIeK oniixion li not tlic miM Mnrtin't. 

I There irc drcumiliiiKCi in iIip lUimry liitlOTTr of thU volume thit cut a doubl 
im the K«nuini>ii<4> o[ putilmui nf ii. W« quoli it ntiboul acrujitc tfttr iliii cauiion, 
' "Muic Mr.r.ttliTilutlii.-valiii'iiritKrvidanccin lh« following; worJt: " lii I.mliBr's 
e Talk, ■ i>MtliuniPui book of antcilotn Knd tmy'mgt, collmitil bj' bU (rimdt, 
■Ml inMrefiing nan ot otl ihc booki procccdtiia IVom him, wt hauc mang *>«■• 
mcwkt/du dliflai/i ^lie nan, riaJ uiml lari r^MUiriht Agif." 

ParlyUi Jftro- H'oniip. 


obiems, wilh wonJerfiil eimplidty, — " There ore many Uwt coDipUiii 
and think I &in Uio Gf-rce art<l a»ifl nguinsl popedom ; on the con- 
tnri<!, 1 vomplain in tliat I am, alas ! too, too mild : I would visli 
lliai 1 could orcithc out Umndcr-clape aoainst popo ami jMtpedoin, 
anil LlinC every wvrd a'<:re a tliundorlwll.' 'I'bnt nisli accumplishcd 
niglit have uiorlencd ibe Reromialion: yol is it a sinful vish, 
iieT«rt1wless. If this be Luthcroti niildne«, Lutlicron nmcotiT miul 
be aometbitif; subliin«. But (fvr tl)c presunl tiuestion) it docs seem 
that horrible Klander biiiI lielnction are unbentling ibe tooutli of a 
priMt, a bearer of a commission trotn Him «lio, " when he was 
reviled, reviled not agsin," wbo set ah cumplo of combatiog 
wickedness in liigli place* by mildnc«4 and abstinence from ineuU, 
niiil left DO warrant for tlii' contrary course, under any trials, liowcver 
lurd to bear. No doubt much may be taiil in extenuation of 
Lutbcr'e foulncai of language ; but, onco more, this is not the 
point. Uo aacli parU of liis career permit us to muk him with 
those who have filled the priest's office most wortliity ? We must 
think not. The licroisni of his cbttiactcr ii uB()ueMioiiabIe ; but it 
i* of a brawling, nubiviuji; kind. Cull him a hero, but not a liero> 
priest. How eooTse and vulgar — and, therefore, uncbrisltan — hia 
demeanour slia««, with llmt of St. ('rpr'mn, under circumHtaneca aot 
wholly unliUe, Uioufih far less Iryins, we prant. Pope Stephen, » 
ru'le, violent ntin, diflcrcd from mnny brother lN8ho|x!, with whom 
stood St. Cyprian, on tlic matter of re-baptiiiog heretics, and went 
BO &r as to ex communicate them. Cyprian and Firmilian arg;ucd 
thix di>ubtful question, made out a strong case nn their side, and 
spoke in terms of censure of Stephen's presumptuous conduct j but 
tney never got the length, we think, of raking up sloricN afainst hia 
christian conversation, nor of impugninj; the chastity of hia female 
relations, nor of calling him nsugfity itainc^. Hy ttiix self-itsUaint, 
llicy were saved, perhaps, from swallowing aiid reproducing divers 
cnomihUF;, improbable untruths, such aa those in which the monk of 
Krfurdt unwittingly liistiriatca, to the great detriment of what is Irue 

■ among his charges. 

W But, independent of the mann«r of the opposition, LtiUiet thought 

■ it his duty to make, to one whimi he ei>naider«<1 his primate, (for he 
I offered to acknowledge tlie pope's claim to that title,} the faet of the 

■ opposition is a misfortune. Theologians of this <)ay hnvc to defend 
t Luther by long argumentic from the ehni^c of being u idiismatic, 

nil) cut otf wholly from itie Church ; not merely to make good his 

-title as a christian priest, but even as a member of Christ in any 

■capaeity. It is true the majority of our divines think tt provablo 

tliat I.uthcr wus a rburehman ; Alill we submit t]iat the very need of 

arguing Ktich a jKiint makes it a sutpietous step to hold up Luther 

ft |s a nioilel-pricM. The arguments themselves, however, are not 

■ without difttcully. The facts arc well known: in lj>20, Leo X. 
I Uireatened Luther with excoinmunicatioii, iitileid wilbiu sixlv day* 
r ke lihould ictnicl his errupi ; ducini; lhc£C days of respite uutbcr 

13-t Cart^'t Hffrn-Worthip.' 

revolted from ihc pope, by an overt art of contempt for his nulliority, 
ibc burning of liis bull, nnd of tlic ilecrelals aui] canons declaratory 
of llie pope's supremaev. Novr, Moalieim argues, tbnt, after lliis 
act, Luther was not under tlie pope's jurisdiction ; tliat this open 
contempt for his authority emancipated him from it ; and that the 
excoinmunicaliun which lollowed, in 1521, was a mere "blow in the 
air." Tliifl ia trifling enough : for, in the 6rst place, the doctrine 
that n subicct can throw oft" obedience to a king (the vcrj' illustra- 
tion Moitheiin uses) is nowhere recognised, and would evacuate nil 
laws of the power of punishment : in the second place, an eicom- 
munication can never be a " blow in the air," for even if the object of 
it have withdrawn for a lime, it is in force to prevent his return : 
and, in the third place, Moshcim only rescues Luther from the 
sti^a of a decreed excommunication, by pleading that he excom- 
municated himself. That a learned man should he driven tu 
such arguments shows the difficulty of the subject. Others' defend 
the heroic reformer on the more tenable ground that he diH|>layed 
on all occasions a rclucliince to separate from the Church, and 
thai this papal excommunication, unsought by him, only separated 
him and his adherents from the outward communion of the German 
Church, but not from the Church Catholic. To make this good, 
and to prove hie sejiamtion involuntary, they do not regard the foolish 
freak of burning tlie bull in the same light as Moshcim. It is 
looked on ns a bInmcaliJc extmvngaiicc, wiiljtitit nny direct conse- 
<iuences to IJic eccIeBiiutical position of the chief actor. Hut they 
cannot help feeling that this incremation of an edict of one whose 
primacy he had volunteered to recijgnisc, wears an unhandsome 
appearance of inauhordination. Tu Mr. Carlyle it doeii not indecil 
seem to prcjtent any difficulties: — " L fi^i" nne, pardon Lnther for 
now altogether revolting against the pope." We do not doubt it ; 
you, for one, would pardon far wilder acl« of rebellion than that, ns 
we hope to show. What the opinion of " I, for one," may be worth, 
in matters canonical, will probably npi>car at the same time. 

■cr, then, a brave, wise, naturally peaceful man, had a mighty 
it upon his shoulders, and carried it through to the end; and 
it was the fault of the work, not his own, that he could not 
it witli clean hands — that he somewhat forgot the priestly duties 
of fiiith in promises, governmenl of the tongue, submission to 
Guperioi^. Hut having forgotten them, by misfortune or fault, we 
contend that he can be an example of heroic priest no more. It 
is hard to come to such a decision with rc*pcct to one whose charac- 
ter ))rcsunt« «o much that is admirable. When we think how 
Luther, after setting the elements of revolution at work, achieved the 
far more difficult task of coercing them within bounds of his own 
defining ; so that, as Curlvle well notices, " the controversy did not 
get lo fighting so long as he was there ;" when wc discover how 
much that was catholic iu doctrine he retained, in spite of his pro- 

* See PnliniT on the Cliurvli, ml. ii. p. 177. 

Carl^'t Ilero' )t'oniip. 


judioes, because U was ti-w,— to iW immoitol sliaiiic of tliow »lio, 
IB our itiyt, preUiid tn bu tbcclu«t'cbanipic>iii»f wUt he did; vUcn 
n observe bis aDiiely to prc*erve tlial ClHin:)i dbciptbc and govcn- 
mcnt, »bicli Boinc " friends of the Rcformfltion'" are so willing to 
bo quil of, wc willingly own tbat here w« a Iicroic Mill, uliieli only 
a false poulion, atid iu coii.srtjuenceH, prevent from beins beld up 
fw an Gxanipl«. A heroic man. if Mr. Carlylc will, but, for llie moMiK 
xlreadT av^^ij.Ticd. doLu 1icro-pric«l, — not t!i« hnl tpccimen of wlinl tlie 
pnestliood <-»iild prodiK-e, Where i« Pulycarp, tlie Iotct of peace ; 
where Cyprian, Uic friend of llic wretched ; » here Ridley, the brave and 
&itLful : where ore these and other soldiers Iknn the nnks of the Dobic 
army of martyr* ? Conhi not the Church, front the affluence of Iicr 
gtofioua archives, liavc fnrnialied priests on whom human discern- 
ment has Med to affix a staiu, — whom admiring love, forgetting for 
no ir»l«nt the unseen in the lustre of tlic tpotl(«s seen, might awioet 
suppose immaculate ? Yes, yes ; and of &uch, if calm judgment 
had been allowed to seel; aright, the hero-pticst would liare been 
diosen ; from the men who, sent of Christ, as ClirUt was of tbc 
Father — imitated Chrint, as Christ obeyed that Fatlier's will ; only 
indeed in a human measure, yet still having fair diadows of all the 
virtues whereof the Sgn of Man pouerned Uie substiuice — incel;nces, 
humility, charity never-failing, subtnlM^ion to wieheil oiitngc Enn 
lawfid ruler*. But there is a minbow film before Mr. Carlyle'a eyea, 
investing whatever he looks on with Iklse colours ; vain then it is to 
bid him paint iruly. 

Tlie concluding Lecture, on the " Hero as King," though less dis- 
taitcfiil, is open to mnny objections. One only remark we liavo 
space to malie. In defending Cromwell, great ttrcss is laid on the 
malnrc age at which he first launched on the turbnlcnl sea of pnlilics; 
an argument u.ted before, in pleading tlic cause of Maliomel. It 
seems an aiium with our author, that to be orderly until forty is 
Kccurily for man's future sobcraese and honesty. It it not, however, 
more near the Inith, that anibitioD and fanaticism are not the vice«4 
of the young, but of the mature ? Bmvery and the pride of hot 1 
blood may earrj- a young man along the oath of ambition ; but rent I 
ambition, that calm fixcdnt« of eye which singles out from thd j 
sbadowB of the fiilure the object wliercto it sliull press, and from I 
that time shapes its course thiiher through good and evil, prosperity j 
and adverutv. belongs, wc tliiDlc. lo the season of life when " the ', 
hey-day of iIjc blood grow* cool and wait* upon tlic jiidgmeDt." J 
AatUTcdly no plea for Mahomet and Cromwell will ttand on that] 
ground alone. They say the tiger may be reared a sort of qHiet,j 
prodigious, tom>eiit, till he lAstes blood ; but afler that, he becomes 
a dianged nature.* Something of tlie same kind may be Irne of 
Cromwell : when he firs.t tasted what he might do, lie helhought him 
how to do it. And for Napoleon, it is perhaps possible to under- 

lOui '• itfiii Tt»i/v>'.— «• r. A. 


^^■^■[K^IBI WHllout tlie IiVpothesit of \m being a hero nt al). Plato 
^^'^^rEifl 4oWB tlie formula of crcnting audi heroes — given on atino- 
irphercof gtneml lawlessness, a tyrant will not foil loeprinc up there, 
Horn urnlcT nnotlicr lUpect, in n well-govcninl country, the " little 
corpontP iiiiglit Imve riven to be & rc»pGctiibIe coiuutl ami iiicmbor 
of the clubs. 

But let tis now attempt to pierce deeper into the philosophy of 
the wiirk under notice — to ascertnin Mr. Uiirlyle'.* csotcnc conception 
of a hero. From what lias been brought forwani, it appears that of 
cncli class he has produced, for the most part, eillicr irrclcrant 
instances, or not the beat. What, then, is the iuner principle on 
which the selection has been made? Wc have been nble to iliscovcr 
one marlt only, common to all the cinmplcs ndiluccd, which wc beg 
pennimtiKH to name, I«il not tliarcspeet fully, raiVcol fiHiinaeitii. True 
Iicroisni, it seems, is a nearer relation to eharlism, and com-law- 
leagueriam, than most persons suspect. It is not enough to be fearless 
of men, n» wait I^aud ; nor to work out with the vignroux hand the 
plannings of the lagacions head, as did Straflbnl ; nor to " stand by 
the dnngcrouB-tnic at every turn," as many have done, Mr. Carlylc 
insistt torther, that these iiualitieM khali be exerci«e<l on a certain 
subject matter. What is courage in Luther is Bat "pedantry" in 
Loud, because the former resisted his lawful rulers, the latter only 
■resisted the resistors. CromwL-11 clnim^ a blaroned biinner in this 
cemetery of the great ; and Strafford goes without memorial into the 
arms of austere oblivion ; and reason good ! the former was essentially 
n radical, the latter the faithful representative of a lawful king. It is 
•o through the whole wortc, which is no more, after all, than the poetry 
of nidieiili^m. Uadicslism, made conceivable to most minds, cither 
in the shape of the figures of Hume, the poetry of Wak ley, the sordid 
vulgarities of Corn-law Leaguers, or the torch-light meetings and 
broad piltcliends of Frost and O'Connor, needed embellishment 
Borely ; even Elliott, the inspired sniitli, a tnic bard on some ground, 
droops to a mere rhymester here, nor can coax a single well-tuned 
chord from Ins harp when this is the theme. It remained for Thomas 
Carlylo to fit radicatim) with the cestui of beauty, and cleverly he 
lins achieved it. The name Odin, he tells us, is Wuotan. Movement, 
i. C. a^itatiotiy the very watchword of a true radical ; and it seems to 
Btir the gnnmd of our author's heart to find that in the Norse my- 
thology the very gods have a fighting lime of it, M'e are told how 
Thor bclnbouicd Skrymir with a lianinier ; and wrestled with an old 
woman. Mahomet led a life of viarlare ; and, probably, had he 
borne the olive-branch instead of the sword, would have found no 
hymn from this bard. Of Oarte* we learn — 

• W« iifrd httriUy My, tlial Hciiung llie hrroei of ihU volumi) Ihere «re mAtiy wo 
val'iv III liiglily St Mr, (.'»[!]' Iv cmi, 1li!<tomioi ■« invamlily lake ui to conivm- 
pUlc fdfc licro«i. ai he piiln ibom tii ■ (aid* ligbl ; he it lilc« an orrl«I. who, bt'mg 
10 )iBin( nnbU muiiiont, tnYiriobly ilrnwi ilicm troai behind. ••> a" In lirint; iiiio hi> 
rorrgraund, *ubtoa, kennelt, a dung-liMip, m grill with Mnworon tiailcil rtiicirorm, 
Ileollxoar nalitc lo ibi^ vrry paints o[ chirjetcr which detract (romTi-Al lii-raiini. 

Cartffk'g Hef^ irotwSi/i. 


•' flit propnty vtm all i^oiifiaantcd, anil morci ho hod ibc lirrccil frvline 
thai il was cbliitly iiiijuit, nirrariuua in iIip iikIiI of Uod niid man lie Irk3 
what mta In liini la grl rf iiulalL-d ; (rirtl even by witlik* nirpriial, ailli win* 
in hi* hand . bill II wiiiiU not ilo ; bnil only lincl btcoms votiv. Tlivre it a 
rMond. I bclfcvc, Mill cxinnt in ihc Florence aK-birm, doaniin^ tbia [^la, 
v)i«rMO«i'n caui;ht, to be burnt nlivc. BurnI ^Ivr ; m il ttanili, tbuy cny : a 
vatj cDrloiu ciric docuiiiunl. /\Tiuthtt ciiriuu* doeurnvni, *mi» cuntidrnUe 
mmber of y«an laUr, i* n l»llor uf DadI*'* Io ibe Plnreoiinr nugiatnte*. 

*" !ii in mixvcT to a milder pT(>|i»ial of thcin, ibat be iboiild return nn con- 
\ of iipulujftiini; imd paj'ing a Kn«. He aniwcn wiili liivd, >lcrn ptidr, 
If I cAimol M'tiirn withuut tailing mywlf giiUly, I »ill ne*«r return, nHnqvam 
retrrtar.' "—P. 1 Ji 

The grcfltneas of Bliak«pcrc, it eccmK, may all be ImccI to % 
piece of law-brcnkinj^. " Had the Witrwicksliire t(\\i\iv mrt prnec* 
rated Kim for dea'-itt«aling, ve liad, pcrbapi, never Lcurd of liiin bm 
a poet !" Luther's claims to notice as a radical lia*c been di<icu»«(]. 
Ho* Cartyle muEt lore bim for saj'inff, ** if I liad btwiiicu at Iiripxij;, 
I would fro, tlioiigli it rained Duke (joorgeit for nine days running ! ** 
Knox finds a glowing vindication for spcaltins stron(;Iy to Qucirn 
AIuT. Jobasoii forgot the respect due to Bwlion Perry, mid Mt 
the law of n.'Wiult nt dcfinnee by tliuinping a booUKVller : elaiina that 
cannot be denied. For Kouweau — " tlic Frciidi ruvobition found 
it4 rvangcliitt (!) in Il'nitMnu :"* RiiHicicnt credential of hcroisnt. 
The •' ragged downriglitness " of Burib is doubtless not prized the 
less, that it took, to utc his own wordfi, a " pHt-El-El<cl|Mng tuni." 
Crouiwell killed a king; ami Napoleon waa but u huge wave on iIm 
vtild sea of Krench ndicnJism, ^o ends Mr. Oarlyle'a cntolugno, 
<lowD "iiieh we have pa»ed without one *tnele omiasion. It is at 
least a curious coincidence, tliat his heroes all otfriid against niagie- 
trttte, priest, or law ; and agree iii no other respect. Is not, as «o 
said, a degree of radical pugnacity the leading fcntiirc in Ins concep- 
tion of heroism ? He eceniH ncrcr sure of his man till he ares hint 
fighting, and the kind of battle he prefen is ibat waged agaiiisl 
thing) having an li priori claim to be held sacred. 

Against tliis liitle theory of ours may be brought our author's 
own words : — 

" May vt not uy, moreover, nliilc to mnny of our late beroM have worked 
rnllirr «* ravolutioDary men. llial, nevertbcICM, erpry ^renl man, everv fvniiiiie 
mat), il, bjr lL« nwure cif liini, s son of ordvr, and not of diMrderf It !* ■ 
tiagioal ponition (ai a true man Io wurk in m-nlulioni. lie icemx un anarchiil ; 
ana indeed a piinful eirntrat of annreby duci encumber tiim at evpry Ble|>. — 
Ma) to wboM wbole aoul anarchy is hoitilo. butuful. Uia mliiiion n urdiir; 
«tm saaa'a It. H« ti here to make what was ditorderly, ebaullc, inio n tliiiiK 
mlod, rogMlar. He i> the miMiimsry of onW. I> not all work uf man in thin 
world n making 0/ ordrr f The (oriieiiicr findi lonsh trer* ; ibiigir* ilii-ni, 
cunttiniiu iliem into aquare filtiem, into purpiue and lue. Wc arc iiU born 
onemiMoTdiMi'der: it a tragical fur uiiall to be ouncenred in ininge'bi taking 
and dowD-pulIlDir : for the ereat man, mart • man than wc^ It ii doubly uagi- 

lUnnp cited this fine pataage, it contents us (o refer il, witb the 
cvidencea of a contmry w«y of thinking, ju»t ctied, Io those who can 
reconcile the inconoistcndes of genius. 

Ko, xxxil.— JJ. s. T 

138 Carl^ifi Iftro-Won^ip. 

But it is idtp to iii«i*l on minor errurs, when one predominant 
error poisonir tlie whole Iwolt, it U not a CArifCian boot. 

Mr. Curtyle will probably not object to lliis stutement as ex]>1ninc(l 
by liis own worJs ; but some of " llieacL-oiii|ilislieiljinJ ilistingiiiiiheTl, 
tnc bcautirul, tlie wine," who, be says, niado up the auilience in his 
Icclure-rooin, will be surprised that the do<|Ucnee to whidi thej 
liatencd with rnpt attention through six diiys, mn by no tolcrubic 
atrcteb of courtesy, be styled otlier tliau unchraiian. Tlicy will, 
pciliaps, wonder, aa we do, tliat be who so highly valued the 
oaUpoken camcstncasoriL Danlcor a Johnson, Kbouldbcto far from 
iiuitntin^ wliivt lie admires oa to manage to leave an auditory in ttomc 
doubt of the prime fact about him, his religion, from first to last. 
Reserve on tliis head seems ipiilc al vnrianec with the wbole philo- 
sophy (?) of the volume ; and it is in tnilh one great cause of the 
diHiculty of getting at the author's real mcjining. Here and there 
drops out a rcvcrciilial mention of Ciirigtionily ; and the cxiircssionfl 
of a contnry kind, though there i» no nu^talcing them ulirn con- 
sidered, nro ao (luietly edged in as to escape consideration, amid the 
wcaltli of eloquence toat goes before and after. Tlius be writes — 

" Of a mail or of a nation we inquire, tli«r«rorc, Rnt of all, what religion 
iheg (lie) hail! Was it Iiralheiilsm, plurnUly of gud*, more eeiistious leprc- 
tonttitioii of lliia inytli^ry nf tire, and fnr chief tccogniEcd element ihcrein pliyst- 
col force? Wu it Chrtitioiuini ; fnith in nn Inviiibic, not ns real only, but as 
tlieunly reality ; Time, tlirougli every invHnciil niiimeiit of i1,rcilingon Ktcrnily; 
Pagan cmjiin: of force dii|ila('i:d by a nobler mijivRinDi'y, tliai of Holiness F Wta 
itScspIidim, unentninly, and iiifjuii? wbctbct ihcrs wn> nn unRoon wnrlil, any 
iiiyat«ry of lifv axctin a nind on* ;— doubt a* to all tliii, or ptrhapi unbelief and 
Oataenlair— P.-t. 

Hero we do not atop to quarrel with the unnccustonicd name'* for 
Christianity, nor witli its position between Heathenism nnd Scepti- 
cism, like nn bone«t ninn tyrnnnically ehnined between two liardeni-d 
gaol-birds : but we do protest a;faiiist Euch a dc&nltton of the laitli by 
which we strive to live, in which wc hope to die. Christianity is not 
merely " faith in an Invisible," it is not mere F'ialonism or MahomeU 
anism ; but faith in C/m Invi-iiblc, wliose attributes and dealings ^ith 
men are recorded in the Bible. We protest against the despicable 
rcicrvntion which, by the equivocal syllable an, sedts to confound 
Oliristiann with Turks and lieatlicns, yet at the same time to deprive 
thera of cause of complaint, Wc ahould not know that by an 
Invisible he means ani/, not onf. Invisible, ciccpt by comparing 
other pASMgett ; m this — 

" Mnbomcf* creed wc called a kind of (lirliliaiiity ; and renlly, if we look 
at the wild, rapt tarnpattico with wlilch It waji beh'evcd and laid to heart. 
I should My a lictlor kind tlian that of thono inI»oreb1o Syrian «ecl*, with their 

• Chriili/iauaiu a ns old (i word »s IVrlulllui't time i and, did wo not «inpeci 
Ibat CkriKiunijM only Kaiidi in i1ii> iei( lor the iikc of mntchi&a biller wltli Hialhn- 
Im tad Stfpiiciim, w» mighi, piTboi*, allow it lo be m good a dwlj^alion of our faith 
u CMdlumiif. 

rain jangling* alxMt llomoiomion ami //mnoannnn ,* tbc Iiead full of wMlhUas 
uuiM, (li« licnil «iii[>l)' and do«L* — f. lOl. 

Vain jangUug*, in<Ico(l ! How cun lliiK nmn appraioe the vortli of 
ibc cfforla made to exclude heresy from the foM of Clirisl ? How, 
whilst with eyes fast closed against the true peculiarities of otir reli< 
gion, tlif uiice-offered Sncrific*, ihconcBapiiMii, the com nmn ion with 
Uirist, and tlirough Him nilli all ^inla, lie peraiste in assif^ting to 
tbc true failli a dcGnition which may as wcl) stand for Plalonixin, 
Gnoeticiem, Maltoinctauism, or Montionisiii. how ran he l>c l^ui^ht 
(o Ice) with tli<we «]io struggled for the wonl nml letter of the laitli 
committed to them, KsaUcS to part with neillicr jot nor tittle ? In 
bis detceU-ibIc system of comprotniM, timt pretendi to ecc tnitli in all 
creedt, lie encuatos cwry cree<t of its truth : mid the haljit of view- 
ing,' al) the race of men as deluded by ihadowg, nwcd by spectres, hu 
ended vciy congniouslv in a contempt for llic efforts jnndc l>y the 
Cfmrcli in defence of what he thinks her one fortn of (iciiiifioii. 

It is tJie natural wenpon of an inRdelily Uiat dares not speak out, 
to endeavour lo perrerl words from old uses, and thus, by confounding 
Ibc l>aun<brics of right and wrong thinking, to prepare an easy way 
for the latter. No wonder tImt we are asked, '* May wc not call 
Shaksperc llie still more melodious priest of u tra« CatholicimD, tbe 
* Universal a>urdt' of the Future and of all limes?" (P. 180.) 
And agnin ; " Is not ctctv Inic reformer, by the nature of hiiD, s 
pritit first of all ?" {P. IS's.) No Vfondcr we are lold, "Johnson 
wiu a prophet to hit iieopic ; prcncfacd a gospel to them, as all like 
him always do;" anu "tlie French Utvolnuon found its cvangclLtt 
in Roufscait." " I many a time «»y," we read, " the writers of 
ncwFijinpcnt, pamphlets, poems, booxB, these are the real working 
eifeclivc Church of a modem country." (P. 2G3.) The editors of 
the Satiritt and Wetklg Di'tpatch hin been called many names, 
but surely tlicy arc now firet called Churchmen ! With like eon- 
tempt of diclionory, Mr. Carlylc gpcake cliscnherr of finding in 
Brron, Itoutwnu, sliakKpere, Goethe, Millon, Biim^, •• fragments 
of a real Church liuirgy and body of Homilies." (P. S&k) Thoao 
who arc /«» cliaritable, may give this writer credit for enough I^tin 
and Greek to know tbc meaning of tlio words he ho Kcdulously mis- 
takes : for our own part, bavtoe xcen* him aliening to /trittotU 
Pluto's well-known " Mj lli of the Cave," and to Phalaria tlio 
" Bnxcu Uuil" of poor Pcnllus, wc will give him what credit wc 
can for ignorance. But such ignomnee ! Ye who fancied that 
" Catliolic Church'" denoted the assemblage of faithful men, 
wherever on carlb the |>ure word was preaclied, and the sacraments 
duly administereal, know now tliat it stands for the holders of 
V |>oeiiea) psnllteinn, pointed in pky-books and approved by 
Carlylo t Ye who nndentand from the wwrd PrifH, an ordained 
Prctbyter of the Catholtc Church, learn that it means " a wor- 
shipper, in wj(i irnv or Inn otAer, of llie divine Irulh uf things," 
(p. ma,) whatever iLut way be P Vc who would confine Urn eenw 

1 40 CarfyUi Utro- WonkSp. 

of ibc word "Gtispel," to certnin jtpei-ificd revelations of Gotl's will, 
|>re«erved in your Bibica, know now, itmt any Samuel JolmBon — 
tcaclicr of "Moral Pnulcneo," thumper of booksellers, Inlkcr fir 
victory— -mny ]ireueli n ^lApcl loo! Iienrii, moreover, tliat tlic 
ntiserable, crnckcil, and worthless harbinger of oimrcliy and bloodslicd 
may claim tbc name Evangcliet, a^ well as the sninted Four ! Or al 
1cu»t, if not, Kay with us that thcnutlior of Hcro-Worsliipisantneiny, 
not over cotu^^couH, to tiie true reli^on of the Cross. Give ua an 
nvowcd op]>oncuL, and wc know how to meet Uim : but what shall wc 
sny to one who uses our watcliwnrds to enter and fire our leinplea ; 
wlio come:* among u> to preach Uie word of dcviU, arrayed in tUu 
eopc and stoic? 

Alier lliis pfravc accusation, to descend to minor faults will be 
Hcateely tolerated. Yet wc cannot Gnally diimiss our subject with- 
out a rcniai'k or two that nay help to llirow light on the author's 
habits of thought. The trouble might have been spared, if only ho 
liod suoken out, told us what hia creed wjig, and what he mea:it by 
what lie said. An he haa left us the riddle, we must be at the pains 
to solve it. Here is a pasMige that has been more than once quoted 
fur ndinirotion : let us Bcc how much meaning ihc words cover. It 
xpcaks of Johnson. 

" Vet a einiit, invinclUs toill ; ■ true m«n'i. One lemembeii ilwa^s (liat 
fXoty oriliL- shoes al Oxford : lh« rough, naamj'-fMviJ, raw-buncd. college ser- 
vitor, ilnlkliiK .iliuiil, in wiiil*r »»aioti, wiili liia thopn wyiti out; how Oieuhnii- 
tabic ijctiltcijiaii foinmoRcr :icrrctly iilacra n nrw puir at hit door; and the 
raw-l)utii-d (i>rt'itor. liftiiis ibcm, looking al llipm near wiih hii dim ryoi, with 
what ihoiighu,— pItdiM Itwin mil ul' window! Wei feel, mud, frutit. hiinuvr, or 
what you will ; but not bapK"y - '"*' cannot ilnnd beggary ! Itiiilc, tliihbnm, 
xelMicIji here : a whole world of icjiialor, rudeneu, confuted niuerf and wont, 
yit uf iiohl«nus oiid moiifuUieu wilhoL" — P. 2S9. 

A giant, invincible soul > a true man's ! so wc think Johnson's 
WM., But why, pray ? Because he would not case his feet in un- 
Bought charitable leather ! Wc grant llint the great man .Hitting 
down lo try on these impoator-shoes were a hateful picture ; or rather 
an inconceivable one. But on this very ground wc cannot wonder 
tliat he did not ; nor find lieroisni in a sort of honourable pride, 
the comnioQCsl farm of independence in man. which oflen survives 
station and wealth, and illuminates wrecked and ruined morals. The 
quivering clrunkard, the pale gamester, would throw such intruding 
shoes out of window too; but we will not call them " giant, invin- 
cible souls," who are mere wrecks of honest men. Besides, even to 
prove this very common virtue or weakness predicabic of Johnson, 
he experiment was not fuiily tried. The shoes were worse than an 
Urns, they were a hoax ; and no inau relishes a hoax, least of all one 
reminding him of his poverty. Then twJi a hoax ! It never suc- 
ceeded, tJiiil wc know, except in the fabulous case of Dominie Siunp- 
SOD. New shoes arc not so like old : and Johnson probably, thought 
na initc't of the insult to his wits a* to his poverty. Tho fact was, 
lie had holes iu hia shoes, aad could nut well pay a St. Aldatc's shoe- 

Qirlt^'l Utn>-lV«rthtp. 


msktr to cobMc ikcm. Fondly iinngining, u people do in like 
coMf, tltal l))c rcots so coiispicuotis Ui liiiu, vcrc iinsccit bj others, 
lie oontinuctl to make Oiem serve; until, by rude surpmo, hi: f<>und 
liig poTuity kiKivR, and mocked witli gids. Tlic shoes met their 
Tiite : iin<l »o cndeil a piece or cluimjr kJndtK-M, if kindnua it were 
at all. But tlic thing needed oo nocea of adiuitatton, no *' fnaut, 
invincible SouU." And witli nliat hidd<ii rucaninf; hd M |iair of 
kIiocs ii G«llvd, just after, a rmlitif and miletatia!, nnd ibe new ones 
X semllance (|>. SOO), we cannot pretend to say. Had 4ioc« should 
be the seinblancc-, if words have n meaning. 

Tliis is one ainoi)^ many evidence* of Mr. Carlylc's enormous 
" oTjpin of wonder." Mnliomet in tears, and Cromwell anking an old 
eomrado to &Iiake liands, are equally ntiraculotis. Nothing about bis 
heroes is unlicroic, tlicir tears arc criF-slalltZGd into diamonds, their 
MnallcKt Diolioiis noted in a book. 'I'beir lightest act is precious as 
tJie nail-pariiiff of tlic Grand Llama. 

CoDtiast iTjtli this exa^^ration of trifles his magnammotis indif- 
fcrmcv to wUnt other men feci iu their hrorls to be inealeulably great 
and precious; and you have an outline of his philoKopIij, dim and 
alisdonv enough, but all that he will vouchsafe to sliov you, ot we 
can gather from liim. The must trifling vagaries of Ins heroes Lave 
a woilh in hia eyes, wbicb belongs not to the religious hopcit and 
feelings of other men. A gKal ititilJccliial system, of nhieo Chris- 
tianity and Mulioraelanism are alike but com])oncnt porltons : a world 
hastening on to uublemiabed ptrfeetion, to a lialcyon time, wlicn sbc 
Uiall be peopled with heroes, believers in one great creed, of which 
we can uiscovcr no more tbnn that it will widoy differ from all now 
held: a eonsdjuent bi^licf, that the insight of no man is final; that is, 
that wliuL a mnn believes b only true for lum, and others may wilh- 
otit shame or wrong irjecl it; these ore tlte chief points of Mr. 
Carlyk-'s pliilosopliy, as we read it. If vmngly, tlic fault is partly 
liis, in not having nhown his colours niore bravely to nil comen;. 
The following passage, with our comment, will point out whither 
this urctehcd fynciclism temis; and sliall conehidc our notice. 

" And, on th« other linnd, what a ttiolnncboly notion Ii tliut, whlcli hu to 
rqmntnt all mcD, in all counlrioi and limM except our own, a* having vpcnt 
llicir life iu blind condcmnublc eirur, ra«rc loit I'tgaii^ SnmditiaTijuii, Malio- 
^u'Ull^ only lh»l w« might havo lh# litio iiliiiiiuiv kniiwlvdse I All ganrm- 
tioni of nton went lo<t mid utiJiif. only lli*l lliin pn-iciil little lecllon of a. 
grn^alion mixht he uivcd niid nght. Their all niarchcd forward there, all 
scticnitionisn^c ihp bcEiniiing of th« world, liki- ihi> Kuiilnn Kildien into ihs' 
dilch uf SchwFtdiulii rorl, only to fill up lh« ditcli with Ibcir doad bodlM, that 
wu mishc Diarcl) aitt and lake the place ! It is an incredible hypolhefis.**- ' 
P. 153. 

If Mr. Cnrlylo aims this at C^nstiaoity, we must toll liim that its 
mmepreientation of tlie fact is of a pieco with the pbiloaoubic courage 
which prescribed its guarded reser\-c of names. The Christian doea ' 
iw* hold a tmth c"nfinril to one cwmtty or time, lo one "•ertion of 
>, generation." 'i'litru liaa been a witness, more or less outspoken, to 

I K OarlffU's Berth Waraip. ' 

his religion, eifer iincc Uie <Uy9 «f Eve ; iiml for eighteen pcnturiw, 
fifty-four gcnerntione, it has been received trtilb, not in one country, 
as iit insinuulcd, but in gre-at nations iliiTi-rinr; in language, in habits, 
in previous bi:Iicf. For much of tlul tiiin; liic wi(li>eecing siin itself 
could nut take in all Christendom at one glance ; and the believer in 
our day is bound in the girdle of a common brotherhood witli men 
vhosc way of life history wilt not describe for him, — of whom scarce 
n moiihlering bone or funeral urn, withstanding the wreck of age^, 
gives tuhen. 

And now for the metaphor of Schwcidnilz fort. !t will be found, 
like the rcMt of iLi tribe, but Horry logic. If it have an application at 
all, it applies to Mr, Carlvle only. Men enough have fallen into the 
ditch of error, and there hopelessly ]>crished ; but n« for their filling 
up the chasm and mailing it piv^sable, who cxpecta it ? In science, 
the greatcHt labourers have been readiest to confcea that t/ieir labour 
was not final, that they had only been picking up, as it were, stones 
and shcllit on the confines of an ocean of truth, that the only lesson of 
windoui they had learnt certainly, was "gracioualy to know they 
were no belter." They never fancied they were niarching over dead 
bodies to assured success : the inferior souls who did, we give up to 
the hcro-woiiihipper's mercy. Bui in religion the simile fails more 
signally. What marching over dead bodies there ? The Christian 
tiiove^ on over a secure bridge of his own, even over the bow of God's 
promiijeB, whose top is in the clouds ; the only passage for him, un- 
safe as it may seem to others : whilst the latter arc leaping blindly 
into tlie ditch, led bv hi.itii and fancii's, ni.'ithcr help nor hindrance 
to the former. In plainer English, there is no progression, no ad- 
vance of science, no march of intellect, in Christian truth. That 
rcvchilion CAmc forth complete ; and the humble inquirer might be 
as clearly informed upon it in the days of Nero or CoustanUnc. a-! 
of Victoria. So tliia " incredible hypothesis," aimed at the Christian, 
glances harmlessly front his shield. 

If it can touch any, it is the thinker who, receiving the milk of 
the wisdom of ages on a sour, arrogant stomacli, has found in the 
hijttory of mankind — that tells how they sorely struggled after truth, 
— how they failed to fiml it fioiii lock of eyes — how, when it was 
propounded to them, they had not ears to hear it ;— nmly a ground 
for the sceptical conclusion that truth w not, that the belief in an ob- 
jective, unalterable standard of truth, which men have battled for as 
for a necessary of their spiritual life, is a mere delusion, for that the 
sincere belief of a man is true as tar as Innuan things can be, but, 
t'ecaiua all men's contradictory tenets are equally well-grounded, 
Uicre can be no truth extenml to men, and nt the name time 
possible for theui, Sucli a tliinkcr, im<[cr the petost of universal 
tolcruncc, is universally intolerant : any other mmd sides vnth somc- 
botly — he with Dobody ; the race arc all on one common footing ; — - 
good, honest, earneat men, but, fursuolh, "lliinking their own 
uisighl liiialt" and tlicieforc sadly luislukcii. Does Mr. Cailylc 

A Vitit U} the EaA 


suppose lliat any sect of m^n, blindest ulolalcrs, or Cyprinn oF 
CwrDisr^, would liau fccccptcd his comprahciuiTG system, ami Ixmie 
villi liii tolerance ? Abcurd ! ibcj would liavc sniil — " I>o not t<H 
ns that we we in earnest ; w kno«f that : even maninca arc in cnmrst. 
Eitlicr confeas that wc liare &et hold on an otilward tnilli— llial we 
are doing and (peaking in conformily to it, or wc have no pari nor 
lotwitb yon." To tell a Chriftian ibnt what lie intiinUiins is a 
"devout imajjinntion," but "not final," will Iiiirdlybenwde iKtliiliihlo 
to liiin l>y the iLunraiice tlint liis cftnicstnefs is a sort of tnitll. It is 
not whidi truth that he coiitend.'i fur. 1'he innn who«e nipcrcilioua 
Eccplicism thus mnlics ibc diflcrcnces of his fellows the ffroHmi 
of lii*lJirory, in tlielnic ileKplscrofhisncc. lie is walking over their 
dead bodies, if any ever so Nteppcd ; and it is our sole comfort that he 
has but a soft, slippery gangway, and will not reach the fort of truth 
hy tliat road. 

Vitit to th« Ea/t. eoTnprirhp Gfirvuttijf and ti« Danufje, ConMan- 
tinopU, A'iit Minor, IC'n/pt, and Tdwiua. By lk« Iter, IlKNnt 
FoRMBY. London: iJurns. I8-I3, 

Stramroat^ an<il milroodd have mi nocelcnttcii nniiiuil progrc«sion, 
that wo arc hciv, there, »nd cvcrywliere in h-w time Uiiin our 
(Tritndr«th«n would Jiave jwwwed from the family lunnsion in Uic 
weitt, to the town-liouse lu tlie once faaliioiiai>le Ijincolti'a-inn- 
fielda. We now journey to India with less preparation tlian the 
subjects of the first of tnc Georges jMUfod from Si-oUtuid to the 
mctxopolu of Enelnnil. Wc are become "a Unating capital"] 
on the earth, una we condemn aa slow and l)chiiid the age kJ 
ttteuni-engine that fail^ of making less than twenty miles u the 
iiour. Well, well, donhtlcss we have gained something; but] 
was not the world quite as good, quite as happy, when it was I 
not in such a hurry f " Vagabond and rogue," wud tJie lata 
Inurcalc, in his " Doctor,* " arc convertible tenns ; and with how ] 
niueb propriety any one may understand who knows tlie Iiabtti] 
of the wandering clasaefl." Still, wander m wc will, cha] — * 
clime for clime, and nation for nation, the Ix-tler part of i 
nature will Imrdly be etillod, and ttill, despite of all disadvHntii":cs, 
the moet sacred spot on ciirtli will be uur fatlicr'a hearth, 'i'lio 
Khiuc, the Daaubo, the Indus, or tlie ^gODtic Marnnon of Soutlt 
America, will nflect tlie traveller less permanently than tlw 
muddy stream of his native village, or ttie brawling brook in 
which he captured his first trout, or whoae gentle muniiurings 
were the first which ho heard in the monun^ and the last at 
night, in his boyhood. And if he <Io but call one field, one acre, 
hia own, nut by piirduisc, but by descent from eirc to son; if 


A t^fit to Ute Ea*t. 

Ill' ciin Init «>y, Ilvru liave we livei! and clieJ, ng« after ngc; Iiis 
low fur thi« »iiuiU spot coinca to t)ic traveller na liis hii-tliright. 

" It ia one of ilio pcculiKt features of the Anierieao «nil Eaglioh eUftrnc- 
ter," Myi Mr. Kunnbj', ■' thai, wilb or uilhoiit rcivsnti, " Ihey nru jiivnrutbljr 
in n hurry to nthnni-R. It would iccm n> if the chii^f plcit^iire of rcnching 
»ny djjlnnt piriiit (^onmotcd in the power ihiTchr ifniiii-il lo leave it imme- 
iliulotv for some ulber. hi a people, ne are cuulenireilly the nioit crrnlic 
of all tho uulibuH upon the eartFi; for, though nponii>n of (he xume iiiijuir- 
iiiK tipirit (ixihU in Rome morvdirc amnii); the ucrmniis. nnd Irada them n 
good dcnl from home, it Licertoin to exhibit itsulf with iheiTi in n fur simpler 
Knd more patient fonit. Itiil there ii no other country which !ieiiil'4 fi>rlh 
its nrivnie tmlividunU upon thuir onn rt^onrcM into kII eonier> and noolc* 
of the cnrlh, to the tninc riLtcni n» tve do. Wc arc the only people nhu 
Bcem to conindur it a point of nntionni lunhilion to hoist our ting un tU« 
north pole. We are tlie only people thnt ever toiieeived ihu ideii ufolnnbiiig 
to the top of Pompey's pillnr; (lud, what is more, \\>m'iJi'le cUmhi-ii up. 
Wc are (he only jicoplc who ever think of nttempting lo cros« the pnsscs of 
the llimolayii mimntains, duiply berniue it is dnngeroue, ami the native* 
abatalu at siidi tiinos ; and none bnl au I^ngliNliinnu would eliinh ii]i the 
smooth niirfacoof the lower of the two pyramid* of GJKeh, fur the sake of 
the rink of ilipping, and because of the ponribilily of breaking his ncek."^ 
l*p. f<\. 

Atid ret, atartiiig on our trarele in a blind itdvcntui^u^ 
0])irit nud seari;h after diflic til tics, wc gather more ii^cfid inlbi'- 
nitttiuii, Wf open more diiinnels of coiniiicrce, ti) our own anil 
others' benv-fit, iluiii timtiy n *avan acDt out with a sppcial object 
of discovering somctliing — tlic main reason why these lattor irn- 
Tcllent always ilo or sny tlnit tliey iari'disco^'f red Homctliiiift. Tho 
mighty tavnm who fullowod tho uriiiy into Kjiypt were ordcrwl 
to discover something— >>() they did : ftr. gratia, that tUu temple 
of Deudcmli tinted Inck aoiiie thonsantla of yoiirst before tli« 
Mosaic ereattdii. All Franco ranfi with this wonderfitl and 
usi^id discovery, until one day, the dise.ovoi-v of tin? hicroglvphi- 
cal cypher, to the great annoyance of tlir iiilidcli>, |ilaecd the said 
foundation soino time nliotit Ihi; later I'toleinvii, aliont a* much 
aft«r, OS it had jireviotislv been before tlic creation. To take 
one contmat: Mungo I'ar'k went to ewek the fountains of the 
Nile to ifolvo a pmhlcni ; ho reached Tiinbuctoo, and from that 
rUit date our conimcrcial relations wilh tiie interior of ^Vfrica. 

^Vith tlui laet few years the stream of travel has set towartU 
the Eaat, and the Holy Land has been Iravcnted by niiiny an ex- 
ploring party, Witliontguiiigoutof ourwaytodefrnd theaneicut 
pilgritnnges to the Holy Lium, can we fail of reinniking the ditTer- 
«»oc of ioeling with wliich tlione oliorea were sought of i^l, and 
with which they arc traversed by tlie men of ihosv days ? Doubt- 
less there was much of exaggeration in tlte feeling, but yet 
much of 'religion, that sent iTie armed and the unarmed as pil- 
grima to tlie i«ai:T<-d ("pulehnr. Why go we now, partly out of 
furiosity, partly to iuviisttgiitc geographical questions, in a 
moioD of mind little auitixl fur »ug» lioly precincts ? 

A Vitit to tie KoMt. 115 

•' By ikc vKf, I wimUl tein<irk,"' snys "iit tutclkr. " llinl, iKfine imiw 
undcrbiki^ii tbl« jmiTDcy. lie nitild (!•> well In rxniuiiir liimcif u|>on llid 
iKiUDdBeM of Uis bvlii-C It mrnAe Volm-y, ibv ihrrwitul trsidlcr Knoco 
•varlmdiiin inRdel; IVlMePiieUorMiitliau, s wuU-knnwD nil of Cirmiuiy, 
retamed on inAdrl; anil oven Die Jen llncaiKidvea ItiriifJ to idolatry inimc- 
diati'Iy >IU-r llivy biuluxii thn vcrj' miraetei of nliirh wr only rend. Aiul, 
^nirralty, > visit lo ail ncred p\ain b a severe uiid uffailh, under nhkli 
nuiy lail. 1'he hiunao niiiul u nainndly but Uto *«]! dbpcMod lu rvoil 
ftom (lie riiible ciideiMM of llim to Kbiim vcniciciince bcloBKolh, and loo 
rMdy \a tciI 60m itMlf the fnrfiil tin«M.-ii Mnjmir, in irliouc prmenM 
M(iM« trembled extndingly, The cigbt, tLvivturp, uf Mount Sinni, and 
otbcr holy idncm, in. in tbe matter of fliltli, one of (bow Irytiig; (rata nUcli. 
lu uM A familiiir I'Xprestiini. mint I>e iMhpi a kill or acurr; aiid ira cannot 
tlitiik too oltcii upon (hat iiiaxini ut ihf xiupel, wbii^h nayi. ' BIcuMsd aro 
thoy lliHl bate not «crii, and ytrt biiliottd.' TIwim bv|;in fruni (bu jKitiil 
where the; nho have Kcr.n do but end, and b the attainment of vhMb tbejr 
riak the oouMniN of ctL-riiitT. The late mflnx of adcDtiAc travellen 10 lit* 
liallun«d porlloiM of our eartb tnay bo a sign of the centimM npoa nliidi 
we are rtxcrinic. They havebocn, as it were, sa«l«d for vu»j muiratiunii: 
alkd il ii nuw, A>r the nrit titnc, tlut (he fisficr of iiricnee aeoas to la* tl« 
|Hitiy and nnbulj KTas|> on ibem. Maps and mncyi ate made of l^cm, 
luinwlca aro coDfonndMl in hy|MidiMea, and levelk'tl at wilt tu itiit ibi-ir 
cxiKendea. Theloaraod wortd, llrod ornvMic*, iacttHidinic theraoiicof ita 
wtUji|iMriaji ikmiaiiMi to boly Krootid ; and nbm Scripture has r«cciv«d all 
tbe cMillnnacion that tbcoM can bostuw, and for th* mnal pari it is hut a 

!|NBMiotuhlo conArtiWtioD. it hen 11c lunk at Ibe iodifiiMiB iMl-i>oc9 |tiil forth 
B bvour of the Scripture by man) roeuit aulhdrs, we alialt at laat hate la 
Mtarch ill vain for any Kuxe of that mofi hi^h, mymcrioiis, and anful 
iiia)e)1y of tbc AInHclily, lliat siiflcrcth Dot (be prying, acepticaJ, curious 
Ka« of his rrealures. — Pp. 2\0, 2\\. 

TI1C roxjoritv uf trnvellvre thiok !t their duty tn wr^l<> OuidR 
books; to pilliur Uijrt'lhtT at tiny ouo locality every nloni of 
minute tnfbnimtion: nlxi Imilt. t)w ruiiiul t^iwcr, itn<l w)h> l-attL-reil 
the w«itt gate? how many lili in tlte action on ibo Lion'n Mutint, 
nnil tvliat countcwos wciv itnpri«oiK:<l or noieoncd by ^unic Iiigli 
ticrnian btiruu? Somti kcI down vvory (InyV ninrcli, ntxl rclutc 
th« niiiitlior of th«ir ntttfndimK iin<l writ« down every nio«t 
trifltiijr iitei<toiil ; ,ind ilion, if the NhiW id not quite Inrgc cnMigli, 
re«oinjMMe tlio dP8ci-iniii>na of some older guide, nnti cull their 
work " Travels," Mr, Foitnby hag, pcrhapsi. erred on the other 
•Ido. Through an nnxiviv of not n'j>rodiicing wcnc-s iind lattd- 
ticapea loUl »iiil d(^■«'rilK^f od tH^fon^ itiitl hy iiurM>ns far more 
(lunlified thxn he confeMCd liiniflelf to Ite, he lin^ rendered hix 
i)roj:n'<»*^ in hie joitrncv (xt from clcnr, iind here and there over- 
laid hiK irnvvU with dis'|iii«itionK iind mflvAtioiiM. 

Knivring on his lravt;I» hy the way of (iermatiy, on hia oouiw 
to tl»e Danni*, our traveller opcne Kia lMX>k with itoiwfi clever 
rvmarkt* oo the Germans. Truly it may lie .tnid ihnl knowledge 
i* the god uf that. iK;i>|ik'. With )in<-«.-n«iiig toil thcr UlioMr and 
Btndy, and wh«n tliey know niiK'h, thcv il<> hut yenrn in know 
CTcrythinp. ITmversal knowledge ifl lite- grand Bocinl maxim of 
thiiir luihonal life, ^fark the L-flL'Ct^ of thiK aynt^'in. Mcn'si 
miixlit arc li-d awiiy fniiii tlw horwlitary wayn aiiu (iim|>lr hiihit* 

KO. XXXIt. — N. s, t; M 


A FiVe to tie Batt. 

of their fathers, mid the finwstral cluintct«r is dying away, and 
eOepttciEiii i^ nil bill iii)lvvn<iil. 

"Four fiteuttics — thccilngy, jurisprudence, medicine, nnd philoinphy — 
mMntoin thrir respective profeimors and prosdylcs; and nithin each there 
iaftayaUtm of rivalry pi-rpuluiLlly nl work ihat is Ntjinvly crcilililc. Ilie 
professor mnintaiiiH a crowdod niiilirncr by hi« popiilnriiy nlnnr ; nnd when 
this fails, his assembly lonica ; he has no monii power of conlrol or rehiike 
whatever, nad, for (he moat pari, knows sonrvuly so much i>i \\i» |iii]iils ns 
to ho certain ilmi Iheir iiamcH niv o»i liin list, NowMiidfnM in iihilosoiihy, 
jiiriitpnideiice, and medicine, haiiiig a lulernhl^ pracdcnl cniirie tiefore them 
when they enter life, do either really team their vueiilioiis or elnu sink into 
ohflcurity. Bvl iheotogif U ikt rffmt cili iifilif rrri/ rffuit ff ihr u-hulrhody. 
If there n a xtiiilrnl vvhoiie reehleiiB nraggndocio nir, ■tiinted eiip. tuul 
oueomnion dress distinKuiithes himfrotn others, he i» ' a sludunt of theology.' 
None HO fond of low liuunts, tminoral eouss, beer drinking', timokiii^. and 
lirniitinK, as the «tudeat in theology; aadnom these dementi in due tiino 
risen the future prnfbMOr, irhoio uawil course ii to recummeud Limsell' by 
Bii]iiv< tateiil ur aptitude of HKiedi to the notice of the ^overiiiiieiit minister. 
A ejiutiotisi Ht.tlesuian will be aludious tu provide prupi>r variety npon si> 
fxcilini; and dantcernus n topic M religion. The nnw pmfnior, therefore. 
Is choneii expressly for some eminent points of dilFcrcnee iu liin syntein of 
tciubing IWim that of his eotleaguea i inshorl. the iibjcol e»puciiilly snuicht 
for is varictv, with a view to practise the student's mind in juilpinp ibr 
falnuiclf. Tne professor is seleetod and appointed thnl he inav dilli'r Irom 
kis coUmgueB, and utdens he does UilfL-r, lie fails lu fiillil the iie-sipi of his 
appoinimont," V\t. !t, 10. 

Of course tlic oliJ oxcusc is «ct ay, tliat (liflbrenoe of opinion 
elicittt truth. It Diay I>o that, araid all llua cliHcuesion, truth hm 
riseti to the ciirfacc ; but it is vory doubtful if any one of the 
dLd|jutaiit8 saw lier, aud very certain tlint nut oim nf thciii laid 
his hands uiion her. All this rearte on the ]H,'0[ile, even to the 
Itoorcst among thuiu, tliroiigh iiaroi:hial ministers, and school- 
miwtcns the pi"o}icny of these di\inity-8choole. What a fon.^lj- 
tutiun U> I'ry uji, find imitate I A royal Uecnce confers onliiiti.* 
tion. a ]>atron gives the cure, mid the military jiowor of the 
goFornmeiitcontinucH that ecanty service-book which Uio former 
monarch inijKised, if indeed the nniiio of a ritual can be ^ivcn 
to a meagre hymn, preccelinfj and following a lengthy philoso- 
phical dit-eoursc, varying, <)f criiin<(-, iit its doCtriiie!«, aeeortliiig to 
the professor under whom the pasUir K-urnt. 

It is nut until the Itosphorus comes in sight tliat true Turkish 
life is to l>e «ceii by the trnvoller, though gliinpsei; of" it have 
been caught by Hint on his downwnrti |»issagc, at WidJiiit 
Kouteeliouk, and Varna, There is far more tnitli in the fullow- 
in|; fiiW ol>servii lions than in all the imagery of I^amurtiue or 
U»e laboured pmi.-<e of Miw I'artloe : — 

" I am DOt ill any decree cxngKcratiug the charmx of the scene, in xnylnfc 
that it would he difllcult for the human troaipaalion to conceive a vien- nf 
more pleiisinj; and varied beauty. And vol, with all its gnv nnd lively 
nppenrnnce, there arises in i!ic niidsl of "its bttiuties flu odd seuse of* 
mixture uf ruin and decay blendiii); nilh the fresh-lookiug ornainiMits and 
9usy, stirring moveinenlH of Ihv whole scene. It «crnns ns if NeK'<^t and 

A Vmttotk4Eatt. 


Taste were *t declar«d vrar with each olber; or rnllin-, lieini; nt wat, ImuIJ 
niprced lo divide aixl pn reel mil llu'ir pOMWolutis. A li|;lit, lury, liiLiitboiM^ 
buuae, with its kiiot of towi-ring cj^nMRO*, ita ncnl nnlcii oii (he hill iiiile, 
ubovu iwil below, fblu)[c aiid vcrclnre of the moat luxuriaiit grimtU, will 
oftmlMveckiiw braide it n ruinotl hovel, Its fencMorergruwu wiiL biiunhiea^. 
troddoo under foot, its triudovrs felling; oat, to «U apiicArancc dRAcrCod awl I 
vmhulem. Again, whidi i* ibc nci^lnr charm aflhrBniphorui.iu diuitci«] 
of taper ninareta, poiiitlnt; Ui licnvcii from the midst of den?? (;rui'o« of] 
dhric fSabafo. that liiinll}' ailuu itiv chir'f dome of tlic moiiiiir, nud its fUtl 
ctCMXJil, li> appcnr, iho nliole intiinnlinji a df-«p rovciwitcc and MleDMUtji 
tn iheTurkiah irorxliii) of Gail; yrl. id the verjr avxi «pu[ nmjr be often J 
•een the brolien wall or Humc dcsenvd Midosure, an idle aocndilam of lUrlf < 
poMile, aairenjojnn^ tlif prospect of a lime soon tooaai«,itben tbcmotqiM 
ana ita preeinetc would be in the aamn condition. Bnt, taking tli« nh»Io 
scene ln^ether, it b justly to be Drained ; the ntimheT of light c&iiiiies, l)i« 
*«rtoiiR rigs of the little craft, their nliite ssila ^ listL-ning against the ileep , 
blue Oi'aleT, vhich a fk«nb breese tleepcna to (ornctbiti)! appn»clun|[ aa 
Httxiue blHi^luiciA ; the be*utkAil little rluileni of houses, jpmlcsis, moMpiM|J 
nuisrttH, L-vpie^a iTeFH, combined nith raricties of rodt and wuodlanil^ US] 
and date, erngifv l>aiik« on radi side, and dsep blnc-pcsketl diatsnt monti- 1 
tains : Iliew arc some of llir Hmt objects nfaich ^raliiy the straiWH apoa 
bis entrance into ibu Knti! of the cnstcm and vresttm worlds, whou thai 
noble dir lienelf btirsia on the view, occnpting tli« liri^liln of \\ir bill^l 
crowned irith bcr Isll ntiiiaivts, and »himn)( wliito in tho luu, hex buildingvl 
interspuricd with dark foliage, one is almost propnrcd for an eastsrn pua- f 
dbe," V-p. 39. 40. 

The first step oQ sliore dispels tho iUuEion ; tu a few st«pa yoa 
are in tl>c mitli^t uf d!rt nncl eqiialid ini»^ry, iiitt^'niiingli-d nitti 
LtplciKliiiir and di^iJty »cnrccly l«i!S mitierabltt. Narruw, ci^>wdcd, 
airty, tiii-juivcd or ill-pfivtKl «troctH, sinnrliiig, miiipping <i>>;^, to be 
iDsulb'd nt th« riitk nl' your life, and the i^rttiiiil y <>l Llic rcsi-nt- 
toont and bad wUhea of the i>e(iple, baniB or pigt^tiea instead of 
houBCe, compoBe the leading chi^rnctvriKtici! of thu city of tho 
•ullAun. Wc ft^ur we sliall iiitd ourselves m a Dunorily in 
t^reeing with our nutlior in his coodcmaatioti of the European 
improvement^ so called, of TtirkiEh habits and feelings. Few 
tilings have had a greater tendency towards Uic decline of the 
Maliomclan power than the iiping of European miuinert by iu 
rtden*. 'I'hcy have lort by thenc diiingcs the rcfiiect of the 
TCorld, which ever luluiireji tho nation that adheres to its ancestral 
hnbits and manners; they have incurred tlic hutrt-d of their own 
[wuplc, ithocannotbut reel that thcintvreniiriie with the Giaour 
18 inooDsistciit with the pure prulcittiion of Maltonietanii*m. This 
old Turkish feeling t», apnc frvta the govcroment, nnd though it 
still lingera am<in^ the lower ela^sCs, infidelity is every day poison- 
ing it, through the fountain of jiower, the govcriimcnl of tho 
young i>ultauu. 

" Nuw it is impoxrible." •»(■ Jlr. Fonnbjr. "not to be struck wiih the 
Duxnliug devotion and iiiilbfuli sea-vice uf God. which (lie (me Turk of tho 
old aefaoal ev«i;yw]iCK exhibits. His nurd tnny \ie. \ia\iWall\ Inisted. his 
life i« nanplfl, he never neglects his prayen ; he i« poliif, dipiifird, liuspiin- 
hle. and ever kind to slrttn^era. For the Chrialitin. who w uncerc in bia 
lUlii, h« Ims the greattwt respect j and Uiaour and NMursue ara nnhmr 

14S A Vint lo lie Kutt. 

Icnnnof contcmpl Tur tbose who <liB|^rain, na wt do.niU'tln'i-tiappHlftlBBI^ 
llian Tor tlione "ho Uv« tii ihc ]irni;Eio»l toai ofiiin], tlioii^li llie^ KTOIT dM 
Chriallnn ©ovpnunl. Such n miin it bratt^, cixtrlcnu*, noI ini|iatient. dtgni- 
fltd, sober, «nil ia n character ihnt woiitddn bc>nour to iui>' pi-uple. 

" Judgiug from lliv biBttir^ of ibu Turkish and ('lirieiliHii wan, t\w *ainc 
tnutorinlB or dittriu-li-r inny hv trnccil in Ihi'ni, iirgoil on b,\' tbr itiithuiiiniilic 
Moslem *pirit. which mH wilb a rnrrcnpomlini; niilitROliUl in tbi- ilclotiuu 
of the {'hriiitiiiii koiBhtbucnl. Siith wi« ci^riniulv Ihu charncuir iif Ibu lirnt 
cenlilrjr ul' iheir Kiiropuiiu tiinwr ; I'tir ibc ipiVLTiimciit of ibt^ Hiitlniiii nllioJ 
Itoclrtuibc RtiUi "lilie iifi'ph-. nml Cliriiilc'ndum fell the acimrne ntnl upon 
it Pir muni ol' frtiih. Tbr llml «nltiiuiw wcrr niiniora niul siibMslcU by 
cnnqiirvl, ituil ihe n-lif^iiu.i cnlbiiniumi ofthu pcogili.' wus l«i.l uml kqil nbvv 
hv rulinuiit nar ; ihc^y roiiuhl lor thmr Inilli, aud uiuiiiuiiicil niiil cxrniulcd 

Whence, then, do we Jraw the corrceponding decline In tliu 
Muhflinctan cnimri', which the Inst two wnturies has so pLniily 
cxhit>itt:(l? Ii- It nwt pttrlJy due to the nuturc ami ctmslUiiluia 
of tlio biiiik to ivhieh twy lotik (or their rclij^iou unit thoir daily 
life { In the Koran is the creed of a conquering nation, but uu 
element of permanence or dumtion. It has nothing to prevent tliu 
griwluiil infuiul of infidelity, nay, the utiitiiriiuii&in of its esycitoiii 
laids lowiinU infidelity, and it i» this that has Buiiiied the vltala 
nf tlie ()ltornnii empire. It is thi? npirit of ridiculing the waya 
and thouftlits of those snccstora by whom the empire was 
erected, the ewh-avouring to pare down the faith of Mahoniei to 
the ntuiidoTil ol' ICtiri>iH-Jui infidelity. On Mali onic tun iHiti alono 
<loea the empire of the Ottoman rest; every Eiirupeau aiijiUca- 
tion, O'Cry attempt to humanize and Kuro^ieaniiu: the Uiirkieh 

S'ovenmicnt ic> to lircak the natitiDal respect and devotion to that 
ailh, and to drive out the exaggeration of a good feeling, wlth- 
uut providing any other in itti nxmi. 

Among tlie tiilands by which our ti-avcller wuleil in IiIh passage 
from Constantinople to his quarantine at Jaffa, none is more 
inteifsling than I'atinoK, the pecne of St. John's hauiHlnnent, one 
of tlio few smtB, according to girofeseor ^hubert, which the 
Christian n.digioQ does yet jH^s^e^it, imknown to the world, and 
not tw yet blown uijon bv its t reach eroi if cmiimeiidation. The 
Ibilowing aecount of tins isle, to winch we add a sketch front 
Mr. ForinhyV work, of the grotto aesipicd by old tradition to 
St. Jolui, eauiiot fail of interesting every Christian rcatler:^ 

" The island is full of little diapels ic.ittcred all nvrr ihr Ulnml, mid p»»- 
■MHc«a pnpnlnliiin liltiv irxtcrdiiiij; Tour ihousHtid, orwhiini niuri' tlim Inree 

[inrt* Br* ffiunlc*, A» Ihc iHlnudisa comnlolc rotk, tliin iinhislriouspi-oplc 
ivi- priucitmlly br petty tmdi: nt soa; nnd it ig no unrommon thiui; lor the 
luuibcr and dnuglitcrs 'lu oi-ctxpy the pulomal cottoRC, wbilu iho tiilhor and 
Boii* nrc seeking, cU(!wh^r(^, on tho Aatalji: coiui, a mihwienn' tor thoir 
family by trade and Inbour. Dnmr^llc pcncp, virtiii^, hnppincns. nnd ximple 
nrts of hie, all fi^ntra round n deep ftlladimpnt to iheir church, foundi'il hy 
tho nposdc (vho nns banisliL'il thrrc; nnd most JuHtly do tliesc men lional 
that not IMC ot their ninnbei', diirinti Iho couvuUiriiis thni cnxiii'it nnion^ 
o i«]andcr«, linring the grtai Greek rebellion aj^insl the 'l\irli^ became 

A rtfit U> tli« Satt, 


n pirate, or vaa knoinn to MHtunit * MD^c net of viotonM. Tlipii chief 
chAiacUiuiic Is lliv simpk retlmnant of tboir lives, nithoul 04Ceu<atii>ii, 

nvliw up tu th« failb ihcy prufpia in irurd bikI (bed, and briiii[iiig up Uidr 
eliildm to better lliin^ ttmn tbc knunkilire uf ibe muuti-vnili cniturj — 
an the npoHtk directs, m the fear nnd luliiioniiion oftbu Lonl." 

Tliis grotto, where truilitioii rciiorls tliiil tlic Revelation wi« 
vouclisofed to St, Julm in liis exile, U ciuvCullj- [iresorvt'd bv 
the inhnbitant4 of the isle; iiik) tlie «-ho'>l of tlie Apostle, whieii 
iuij')in» it, hiw ln'f-n wdl kmmii in mijili.^rn Qrccoc M nlucntiiig 
more uaeful clergymen nnd fjooj seholars than almost any uthee ] 
plnci; uf vducution in Eljiit kin^lom. 

lit tlitt iivxt ctiii{it«r wc tiiii] i)ur traveller, huw or why he te 
not jilititsod to U!ll MA, inuking fiir the inuutli of the Nile ill A 
ntlhpr perilous oiK-n l».«it. He etitnix^t) by tlie Diiiiiiettn bnincli, 
and pritccedcd. with his conipanioius, to eiigiig« n ctmntry 1k«iI to 
tiike the whole party to Cairo. The eecuery on the bunks of 
th« Nile is fiir t'n»ii int4.'rc«ting, tuid, to a*K Mr. Fonnby'c woriI», 
ofteu eubjeeti thi- %'initcr to octilar iiujiiiletncnt, Iroiii the tall, 
meagre fbrniit of tlie bordering palnia. The captain of tlieir 
boat WM a surlv fellow, evidently ui Ins own niiua disgraced by 
tJ»e »Ooi«ty of Giaours, and only i|iuetod by the prosiiect of his 
two hundred piiiMtrei<. After various preparatory {^mbliii^s, 
ho broko out into open rctielliuii, and Ill^lllally out off their 
niornii^'a supply of ircAi milk. To what extent the ca|itaiu 
might Iuiv« puslied hia obetinucy, our travellers were not forced 
to experienee, after a chance reception of ihcin by the Bey of 
Mcssounih Abdul tlamct, who was too gliMl lo »how bin respect 
for Kuiupeaoji to oaro lor either the dirt or the hol<!« and tatters ' 
of their travelling costunic- The protection of tlie ttccond in 
milk to the [nutlia himself workeif wouders in their favour. 
Ilow this wtu obtained is worlli rvuding — 

" At iMt we ounc ioto a Ltri:n antn-mnm. ub«rc «u BManbled a larfw 
nUMcUaBMua crowd of dirprtKlriitn noil (tiiri-rrnt nvrsuus, nAiliiig lur 
■mBeae^ qt pnisjbljr for jimiu-i-. Al^cr maiaioiui; iievo for a tiUon timi-i 
that tbie Aiuiounccmcnf nt our bciiiic oiiic might take eflfect. hu u'ere 
uAoied bilo the ball of auidi«nci:, oad fuund the hey in Atll dWan. Wc wer 

150 J Fiat to ihe Katt. 

tmd* to sit down by the sitli.' of liii uiccUvucr, close lo htm, nncl he coni- 
mcDOcd « duMuumu eouooniiiiij; ilii* Inlr-tl ticn« tiom Llie bi-iul-quurtcrti of 
IlirBliiin'ti Hriny, tlic coiinlrioa wc had piisscii through, nml mniiv olhur such 
iiiHtlrrH; nnd, ninaii)«it ulbcrs, Ihc proji-ct of unvigntlnji ihn Nile hy Klcnni, 
ami llii^ NUi-Fi-ai of ihu pasha's altvinpt. I'ljics » vru now Avncd ruand with 
must opleodid aiub(tr mouth-pieces. set with di^iciiondv, InuuthornithcollW; 
anil It — , obvcrviujC thd bcr'n c,vc to be iiitlnnied, ahkn! liiiti nliuiit it. 
1 ventured t» recommend a loltoii, wUh a lilile warm milk jmd vvntcr — a 

oimplc reracdj"i»hich thejr seenwd tn liMpixciVDiii lis very siiiipUtily. B , 

Uotrever, going much niiiri- nobly l» nork, rune frova hiK arm, mid, (u my 
gltMl nsloniohmml, took bold of the bi-y'n hnlid, fell hiit piiUe. liKikciI §Tn^'e, 
Baked hii pmieut mtveral ^iiCBtionK, with the mi>«t purlW'l medicul propriety, 
•ihI contliid'.'d h,v ML^ing how much he rogrpltcd not havini; nion- inodH-ineB 
with him thnn be hnd hroiiKbt nn this journey ; but that if \he bey n utild 
Iriut to him. he would send him sume pills ihat he had no doubt niiuld do 
him ft ^at de^ ursorvico. The bey grntft^illj' and uitb perfect subraissiun 
ROOepted (he olTer, and, neennlin|[ly. the dnmoman vins dii'eclcd In accuiii- 
pftny III to the boat, in order lo brin;- aivny ihe medieinnl trcnaurt. .\ii n n 
puKUcd oiir way to tbo huat, «e lu<.>k ucou'iuii lu inform ihe dragoman 
qui«tljr mBpe-ctinic the conduct of ihti otpTiiin, and ri'ipieilrd liim to piobirn 
a few intinintioiio from head- qua rtcrs. ni in the idiimnte issue of such inci- 
wlity tuwnrdx the iutimalo Iriends of his liiphness the bcv. if they should 
hiire any further leason to complain ; und fiirlbMiib I v-m cT'iumiBsi'jned lo 
pack up a dosen common pills in a packet of ivritintc pnper, lied np nith a 
UUlc bronmiih thread, and lubclled in l^iglisli. for Ibe sakcofa nioremi^Ie- 
rioiu appearatiae, and when thin vitut <loii«, tro parted with our Iriunti tho 
dra4^iiuiiiwi[li mutual obei»attecs, hut from that lime wc had not ouc word 
of complaint against llic capliuii." — I'p. ^2, Ci3. 

We heard once of an Enj^liHli traveller in t^jpt who hiwl to 
complain of n imtivt- for thu ililnturincvs with which he pcrfonnoti 
his Mutuil rjirryint^ »if ihe iiaily across the ikwrt. The viltago 
ithi-ikh wiid lie cnuld not interfere, l>ut that tin; Frank tiii^^Tit 
tlini»h tJie fellow if he offended again. Kext <hiy tlio offviice 
wtw repeated, and, finding rcmonstranco usoIesB, the traveller 
leaped from his liursc, hontewlilp in hniid, and ])ursiieil the fellow 
lhroii<;h the hand, gave him a txiutul llirii.shin^ aect>rdin<^ tu the 
itheikli'fl advice, and never had oceaaion nllerwaixU to do more 
tliaii hold up his weapon to enforce obedience, 

Ab iiir lis we hail! been permitted to judge, partly from the 
Kpceiniciis preserved in the tniLsetiins tjf this country, und partly 
trom the elaborate drawingii with which so inauy of the Rnglish 
und French travels in Egypt have been illimtrated, we cannot 
feel ttiat contempt for the massive Hrehit«cturo and colossal 
scidpliirc of that country, which i» too evident in the disjiani^'in^ 
remarks of JMr. Formby- We cannot realize tlie imthor'a mixed 
fculiiiffj of rerijwct and levity when reganling the two wondrous 
jlatuca of Memnon, the only remains of the great city, on whose 
tliey look down in solemn majesty. The rtiiiieil lialU of 

nrnac and Philoc, seem to it*, — thu latter we may judge from 
Mr, KoborW'i* piclurt- in thJa ycor'e exliibition, — to ininrcsa to(» 

IHJwerful respect to render the " harlciiuin adjustment' of the 
lia'oglypliice, or " the t^uecr attributes oud drussca of the 

A Vitit to tht Ea»t. 161 

figures," a source of unseemly mirtb. The Tenii)Ie of Dcndenih, 

tlie work of the later Ptoleiii)>. Ittfui'c tho imogce of wliicli the 
Hiiidiio tnKi])s uf riur Itidmu iiniiv bowvil <lown. Its recntnus* 
iDg the pictures of gods oitoilar to those of ihcir own my tholo;^, 
Burely duscires some little more pmUc than as giving " the b^t 
iinpreeson of the cnpuhilitic^of the Egyptian style." 

TIk: pimha if i-<" will Imum to iw, from lato cvcntB, not to 
make any remarks i>ii tlio kiici^'sh or failure of hi.f ttclicmeft otiier 
ttuui intrresting to the general reader. He. too, wouM he tlic 
reg<'nerst«r of hitf eounti^-, hy engmfling Eurnpeati iiitiovntioiia 
uiH>n a (it^<ck where they will never giy>w, Mive al tJ>o expense o** 


158 A VmttotbeBMt 

old hftbifci and it may Ito better feelings : he regards the arts and 
Bciencos aa the end, not of the aicaiis — as civilization iisclt^ not 
lu mere in'k'xcx of it ; and it \» under thiv idea that he is eur- 
ruiiiiditig liiniself with symptoms uf tlie art aud science of the 
Frank, to the daily oppression of his people, and the rsalrutjun 
of his and his satellite's' dominion. The nollowncse of this nXaXe 
will he *h<)wn on titc death of iti" originator. " But see what he 
hajtdom^!" io the miivemul cry. " Haa lie not put down all 
robbers?" C'Crtainly, except himself. "Has he not a eamel- 
post from one end of his Iciugdum to the other ? has he not 
imported wurkiimn, physicians, ])hilusoj>hcn>, anil ntccliaDtca, 
roitted n great Hect, mid a greater army, biult piilac«s and 
mosfjnea, made s board of agriculture, put down all civil commo- 
tions, and made his niune a pa«»port over what wa« once a lawless 
country?" Ooubtleiw; and for who*C clory and benefit? That 
of tho [HLdhn, and tlie pa^ia alone : he \\a» raided Mehenict AH, 
not Egypt, in the eyee of tho world. Ilia nionufaetures entail 
a loss; his eehools educate hundreds, to send out a dozen fit for 
the panhaV service, and to return the rest as useless to their 
friend*; his hospitals arc for liis soldiera, so are his phy^iciann 
and surgeons. The poor Arab fellah may still seek the Aiiib 
doctor, though in the next village lives a refined garrison »urc;eon. 
Agriculture \* improved at the expense of the peawmt uiid the 
fanner ; hia imported artizons come, do the worK. go away, and 
the people lenrn not. The revenue is raised by violence; the 
revenue* of tlie nuwouos, tlie sources ol'conslnnt eharity, aboorbcd 
into the state, and tuc oolemas made etate jienaioiiens, 

'' Not M pcntiiiiit ill thci tnnil cnn cnll liii rou^h wnnl-ihirt hi* own for two 
Aiiyn. An nn inntiincr of nhat ikiiy linppcns. n houtmtin. in llic crew of n 
friuiul'ii bust, liiul vHriicJ 70 pia^lrait, 1-U. wbilu ill nerviui at Cuiro. 
He nakod Icftve, on lUMxing ihci villniiv where 1u» pnrciils lived, to land niid 
mv Ibem. Ml they bod not iooq uiu^h otlicr for yran, and the w,oa tii*lii'i] to 
Kivo liis «amin)^ In hia pnreiitti, 'I'be I'Dnlniii wnnicil biin ul' bin ilaocrr, 
bill lie iriu> determined Ioro: bcknowW pBTtritii ncrp jiunr, nad tliey 
Imd not mM for iK>me lime. He wna nrc«r(liiii(1y HllnnTil lo %n, under a 
proinine lo nyiiiii bis IhjhI, bi|-licr up. nt n wrlniti iilluf.i' fixed on ; but, 
when the boHt enmc (o the villnp.-, tbe maa wnt iiiisBiij]; ; iiur waa lie ihi-re 
1)11 llii! reltim <>( Ibc boil, xiime vrcekn Adrrn&rdx. At limt, Al a viIUl-k 
loner di>vn, Ihcy found liini. nnd look luni nn biinrd. H« hnd hurilly 
gaae tu sleep nt all, rrom ki>epitic unlcb. leit Ijic Uuat ahoulJ pu» liim in 
thp ai);lil ; and ibe story 1ie (old van, ilint, on cnteriiiii the vllUt't', lie »aa 
eeixed bj* Uie ihdkh, put in priiipii, bAttinodoed. his money tnken IVotn liim, 
and eonqxiUed tu Ivitvv the villam, wltliout oMrinK uitlier bia fatbur or 
iDotlicT. HiMO was ao rednuii : the money whs waoted for the Pnshn'i 
son-ice,"— P. 110. 

So inueli is levied on the district, for which the iF^hcikh ia 

answerable, enjo lie must bostiiiadoe, to save hie own lieel« and 

*>!•> own cofTcra, Again, the paf'ha in lord of the soil, and hie 

nunittee of Agriculture arc his farming stewards. They 

; iheir h<»d:s ti'jjether, nnd ordur how much cotton, sugar, and 

A Vltli to (kf Knri. 


com cacli (1)>>lrict8liiill rai^cin tliv y<.-iir. IVriiiip!' tlierclliih hux 
suwii oui'ti, — llm ItounI iiiik-r« filUm ; i:im!n-i|mriillj\ llic fiiniH-rV 
«>rii ci'i>|i in niMcil up. iiiui tin- willnri wiu-n. A;;ain. tin- lioiiKr 
wants •iOKiQ. Ill' luH crop fur litiii§«ir. To obtain lliis, )iu iniint 
laki; Ilia I'ntirc crop tu tlic piisluiV vrtircltmiM-, m-H it nil at the 
IHmhtt'n Imvi')^ price, uikI rctlt^ciii vrliAt lie wantd for liiit own 
use, at his liiglinoit^'n ^telling prkrc MHtli Budi « nysleiu caii no 
womlcr at tlip jwvcrty of tlio land ? — and wlicn wc read of tlie 
«xjio<liti(in« uf tlif pafhu'ii cnptniuH tn sink vilUgc.1, in imlcr to 
galltt*!' ixHTiiitn for tho .iniiy, ciin wt- woriili-r timt tilt! I'liildcon 
axv niitdo ovdoix-a fnmi ilieir ynutli, iii imli-r to cwojijif IVum 
tlie pmha's military service? Plic piutlm jiridcs Idiitself nn hia 
ICiinipcanizwi young men; — let uh sue vrlint tliey an- tike: — 

" Again, llie ii<uli« ii very miicli ronuncnilod for scndiiij; )'oiiih« tu 
F.unipc \tt Imrii F.urnpcAu nrkiu^cii. Hal vluit kind of diftraclm do they 
cumo tiMk \ Thcr have a iiinatteriag or Freiicli, ot wkBCM, uid uilier 
nii»IIcr», or nil nfikcli lliey kat« n nwfrpic hiMivlcdfrr. Tliey n;luni, not 
Chriitiiui*, bill do8|>isen or the Pmplict. willi thrir fnculiic* only Ibi' mure 
nfanrpi-ned to nvnil ihitmnelmi uf every ini<iuiioiis mmlu of riaiiig in \\\e 
world. Tlwy luarn ii ciitiinis s()rt iif upiah polilcni-an, very <liir<Toni from 
cillirr niin>i)<tiiit ireiitilily, '^r Tiirliiiili rcii^rvc- In n mini, wlmKii-r tlicy 
may hi.' Iimidm, llirv nri? jci-ncrully linlHliiil seoiiiidrclr, uitli Keaivc ons i 
idii^ti' principle of n^lit' t eoimid'er m clrirl MBliomdnii, ictlint; uail« fain ' 
enairiiipt Tor otliiT*. In bn ■ mornl, e^tiniAble clinrtcltr: but lli« nun rait' 
of Arnli-l'liiropi-niia nr<i ».■»] inlidel«. iioL oven iiiulcr^ lauding llir srieim'ii 
and STtg, l)y tTiCAiiit <if nhlcli llie nncitiit (rlory of Kgypt « ctpeclc<l li> 
revive I liarp Kcea llio Htylc of ihmc •>enii-l''rciirtunvii iii imr lixil In tlic 
dilTbrent *eh«ola ; and I confess I think the few ihal have eumo bnrk 
fr»mKiiKUad.tJioup)ideililut«oftlieinftancrism of llie other*, hto buth &U 
ili« heltur liir It, and liavu acquired some tolcmhly aotid and imcRiI aecom- 
pliiihntenla."— rp. I3»— 12!. 

And yet, with all liiR defect*, he i* a iiuiKti'v-niiiid, nrtiilik', yet 
keen; rvsultil^ litit mild; dijinitiwl, yet Iwld iin<i ioark-!*rt in hii* 
Ruuiiin?, tivptviiilly in llie ojionitig years of hi^ eventful cnre«r. 
Doulit^ lie is a grxtat man, l)ut not liccausc Ito )uis lauglil his 
miiiietore to eit on ehaiiv, drink winci epcak Fivncb, nnd deiijnec 
the inoctine^. 

One of till! niotit curiouH chapt<>r» in tho " Vteit to 
the East," is that cntitleil "Huonapartc in K^rypt ;" in wlil«h 
the niithor pves aomo extractg from a Fniuli trannljitiun of 
the prtvnit! jnurnaU of two niilivt-^, dunnp the invusion uf 
Napoleon. AlKLir^halinian Cialinrti, thccliicf ufttiefc juiimuliBls. 
was !i nian oi' ftomo weJiiht and reputation ajiion;; Idg people, and 
a memlicr of Na|Milcon's divan, liefuif the revolt of C'anx); the 
niher urilcr, Moti Allem NieliiiliiH il Tiukj, won a Maruiiite 
('liriHlian, nnd » ()o<rt nX iioiiie (iiine, at tiie coiu-t of the Eniir 
iiesehir. The extracts show how consistent NniHtloon wan, in 
"doing at Ronic ns ihe^ do at Rainc," and in htiildin" up his 
own power on the rums of true religion. The l>irlli-day of 
tlte piiophrt gave Na|i<iloon au opportunity of allowing hi« 

KO. XXXII. — N, B, X 

164> A Vitrit lo thf Bart. 

reverence for Mahomet mid IiU fuitli. He pitrtidcd hte traops 
tlii'ougli tlif »lroL'ls of Cairo, wilh Imiidi^ I*l"y'"g> '""1 kcptlii^ 
fo^tivid in hottoiirol'tlio |iri>|ilirt. Soutinrcvr, tlie vliciklit^ wrolu 
thutt of their new ooiuiuorora: — 

*'Tbp FriMicli ar« the fricndH of the SulUun of tho OsmaiitieH, and tlie 
ODPinivM i>r )iit riK^mica. I'myr^r in »aiA in the nninc nf ilic miliaiiii. 'Ilir 
«iiii hcnrs liic U-titMii of bin immi;. lU-ligi'iii i» iliilv honoiirpil. The 
[■'rwifb »rc Iruo bi-lievurn : thev tvvore Ihi- iiropln'i «tiif tin- KoriiiiL they 
have treatod the itilErinin <" Mwcn with disiiiiclnin ; they hiivc cdcbmieil 
the rinini of the Nile ; nml hitvc cniilrilmicil to Ihi? Mplciulniir of the birth- 
day 111' (lie proplwt. 'I'hc> Frciii'li conininiid ub to iiirorm you. thnt they ore 
tokiiie; muMurea to aci'urc nt) llmt i« iiLfikd for the t«o tat^red tuivii»." 

Not lone ttdcr, the people of Ciiiro rcvoltod iij:^iint<t the hoiist> 
tax, niid (itnc-r t;i'icv»i>ci.v, "^^^^ cuui^cd Home lowt to the invatlcm 
Iiefore the revolt was (juellcd. The ahcikhe were tigitiu onlered 
to write A letter to the people ; in which tliev epokc of the 
charity of tlie ^jreat ninn to tlio poor, hin respect for the religion , 
and concluded with the udvii-e, " Attend lu your liimincKii, imd 
do voiir religions ilutica, and pay the taxes. ' Na|Ktteoii him- 
self add remted a proclaaiatioii to the people, whieli wc extract 

"En Ihd namn of God, tho OivcT of mnvy. Biionnpnrie, Geneml-ia 
vliicf of ihu l''rviich army, to the inhnbilniils cif Cairo, ("ruul aiid limall. 

"Stiipiil and riiolixli men, whu h*vs no fiirwiKht u\' the end of Ihin^, 
have exuilcd the iiihidiilnntH of Caim to revolt, (iod hni pnnishrd their 
Kicked iiitonttiius and nelion.-i. The Holy One aiid lliu AttnVhtv btiK toin- 
mniided tne O) hnvc ini-tct upon Hi» en-ftliircJi; nuhinisirive In llii «ill, I 
bnve pardoned, nlLh»u)[)i in an exreju of iui|;er. nnd miu-h pained at l.hiii 
revolt. Ah a piiiiishniwit, I hiive ahuU&li«d ihe divaii I bad Ibniu-d, and 
which would, lu two munihs. bav« aatabUshcd order in die eil^. Your 
triitujtiillily sinec Ihoii liasinndeme ihinkiio morcof the crimn of the guilty 
initipitorn of tlie rcvoti, nnd I medilale the creation of n new divan. 

■■ Ulomnii and sherilla. iiirorm llie people, that no one bclruys me nilli 
impniiity : be llint convpii'd ngainat me, niKhc)> to \\\.i own deslriielion ; no 
one upon earlh l>ein([ nl>1e to *hvc him, he nil) not eneiipe llie nrntli of 
(iod, whoae decree he will iiol observe. The m«n that U tu.-ic iiiidentiuidii 
that all I liave done hni lieen jnit in execution by tho order and will uC 
Ciod atone. A man nnml be blind, nml n fool, to doubl it. 

" Infarm your pcoph. alio, iKai llie Almigkli/ hat lotig ngo iteitmed tiif la na- 
ni/iitafe tfit riicmiei of /sfnra, amd to t>UTiioV Tur cuoH.-t, 7Vk lloltj dad hat 
unnotcrprf IIibI I iliould ronif from lAe irtil. In Kgypi, la etlcnmnalt ihoai lliat 
tomtnil injiulki- ; Ihr u-itr viii'i Ifr4 i« all llif ful/llmeHl of Hit ilrtiiint. Infom 
gour peoplt llial Hit Kiima lini prcdiclctl lo manij u-hat liat juil hajjjirnfd, mill 
(hat tl toiiUiini prrJictioai of irlial ii to liofpcn. The word of (ioH, in Hi* 
took, it trae niid JMl ; lltr proof of thi» frulh ii, lliiil Ihf Miuuili»rii rflirm lo 
mt wil/' pi'Tt inlciilhiii oad linerre fritmUhip. Shonid any aminig Ihrm, Ihrongh 
ft«r of m'j armi mid puw<rr, dare to nine and lo hale me, Ihey are fuolt, I/ml 
know rial Ihal (iod riaiU llif Htait, and diicctni tirrr n-bal Ihu tyr cannot 
pimriiv. God ii-ill i-aiu and jiunith llir hypocrUl, a'ho 'lii'U hrtiai/ me in 
Itercl, at uvU n< oprnli/. 

"Infarm then lliiil I prnrlrule into llie mo$t hidden feldi iff the biiman hearl. 
I lenmt; At « glance, whul nifn lliiii, tlioiufh iheu lt*tp tUeiite ; a daij iriti eome, 
nhrn all letrrtt thaO be reveaUd. Al\ that I hm* Am*, you knoa; hat been 

A Vmt to Hf E(ut. 




(loltr iv '** ■'*" "f Ouil, u-hifh iiorii' enii ruitl ; a man may in iNiut lerk to 
oppotf intal Vod hai Jont by my IioiiiIa. Uappj/ tath at art taiiird m Atari 
tailkwut /'omntil— Pp. 133. 134. 

8uc]i was the honutifiit c<)m[)oun(1 of pom]ioeity and bbwphcmy 
with which Najpoh-uii lu-ei'iuvtl hi« new fiilywU* fur liUnU-jmrliiro 
tu the Syrian ciwii|iaigii. Wheu he remnifd Imni ln^toiv tin; wallw 
of Afns he tuKI the ook'inn£ thnt. much :uj llicy then hated llio ' 
govermiioiil. nI' thi; Krejieh, "the tiuic would eoiiie when they 
would unbury (he tn>tie8 of tliu l''r«nc)i, to wnlvr thvin wiui 
llieir tents." All Naroleon's declarations in fiivoiir iii" Mahomet 
mni liiB reli"ioti, fniJcu in Diatuiig the oolcmM dupes of his words. 
"Thev lire lie.:*,'" k:i!<I they, " which he jHvjKHind* to estubliiJi ' 
hitnscu' in Eg;ypt. ia lie nut a Niiztirenm niid tJic son of a 
Naznrcnc 'f 

'riic illustrated books of the Mcatif, their pietures of ecae, 
nf phiinH, ofiiiountainAiandall living (hln^, filled with n«tuni#h- 
nicut the mind of the joiirniili:<t Oiihiirti ; nor oould he uud«r- 
ittaiid why the Kreiieh, " if Uiey find an animal which U not 
in tJidr country, imt it in a water wliich they know, which 
kecjLi it a lonp time from decay." The chemists, with tit^j 
dctonatiii^')H>w<Ier, Leyden-jar, and gosce, were high ma^daiial 
ill Gabarti'e cyca. 

-'Till' cliciniHt Uvea in tlic Iiuiiae of Hassan KlicbcC tlio tieorp&n. I 
liHve seen ihure surpritiiug: thio^. TIib)' puurci) Into a mu a wuier pre- i 
pored, and llicii a fen- dmp« oriuioitier wninr; a (unokeordilTeTenl ccilotirs 
cnme out i>f tbc ciiji, lUid af^emnrdii (hero reninincil no more natcr, hui n 
ydloiviiOi Mtone, nntdi tliey nllon c^ us In luiuJi. Tbcv luok a qiiiuility of 
white povder, nad, utrikiiiK il li^'lillj' na nii aiivU nilfi a baminer, it ]>rU' 
duccd a nolae liki* lliu rcporl or a pin ; die chemUt lauiilic^ at ihc frar 
wliicli tilts caiM«d u». He look a uottk, and, piilting it empty into tha , 
water, he cnnacd Nome uir to entvr it, aud artcniardit applying a liebtcd I 
matcli. it eauaed on eiplusiuu. In aliort, wo saiv many euriona rtmlta ofj 
th« coiabinatiun of elemenls. The pLvxidan iiinx'd nniiid a wheel, nliit-.h 
ni^e spnrVs ; on toochinK >hu bolllc. there n-nullcd nti explusion ; nhea | 
(be ii]> iif the bottle is touched, a ahoi'k is felt: urid il' aiitilber persiiu < 
t(iiich<fi it, bo feds it abiu. We bave wltautraoi tLiuj^ i^uitc iiieuropro- i 
iKaisibU to OS-" — P. 133. 

Tliere la so much truth in t)ie foDowing extract from the 
chapter on tuisuoDAiy schools in Cairo, that wc must uuiLc 
room for it, prcrious to accoiupixnyitig the writer ucroM tltc 
desert to Pctra: — 

" l>apin religionsi aa now onstjii^, arc tmiumiinive anccrdotal tyHtenia 
wbid, Id aom* inadixruntc mcaitire. do mierent the alTi^c-tinns of ihe 
pMpb^ and, by force oTncnditary ojisacialioiia, abiorb nuccoaive ^lern- 
tiou of people iulo ihcm. Nviv, the existing pagan s)-atoiiis are evidently 
in ibn way of ()k' (iuBpil, and tliei niiitil bo combated, llierc ia an evident j 
power of fnsciiiatioii in them which Srmlv rirtnini; the mass of the people; 
and tbia mti<t he bmken. In order to do this. Ihif ukhUtii iniasioiiary priiu 
dple U, to educate children in scboolH in tlit' usual MbulnHtic nltninmentai 
let them oue« becomu prafieiunts iu scho>d knowled|;e. and tliL-y "ill lenru 
^ dcaiuae tlw pficslly yoke of tbeir country and kindiad. Ilcncc a wrliej 

li)6 A Vmt to the EaM. 

U|)c>ii iniKkTii niiMWnn, on liciii;: (-(»n]ii.-lk-(1 Im I'lmfbn, trltli n>sp<y?l tu lliir 
whole prngitny llint \in» \ians,fA l1iri)iiitli llic minion ficllooU. ' lliHt ihc) 
liH\t' imi, ii is true, bcronii-- t'hrislkrs,' ctirarorls liinnell' willi unyiiiR ■ bill 
llionc Ilirlr pmiiiUcw biivi- licuii >Iiiiki-ii, itiid llic^ri>iiii<l hn.i lii-i'ii pn-piirnL' 
Thni n. thcyliavi; come onl >.•( Iliu ininFiiaii itclimils iirillior llinilooa, 
MiiliuiiK'tiins, i'ur*i>c>. iir ('iiri»liaiis hiil p j'i>iui|; tty viiilioiil nny rcligiun 
lit nil, Noiv if (bii in Icj iiini (ml, hiTciirtt-r, Ici liip [riorj of Uic C'liriitiAii 
liiitli, ono tiling nl Itmst is di^nr. that K\w Aposlks sm<.I liiiir nui:ci;i>!ii>ra 
(lid ti»t UiiiH prcpiiTii ihc wny Cur ('liri>l'« rcti^ioii, bj IcaiUii^ »iic |;cii(^r>iliiJii 
Ihrou^h III) iiitrvilurliiry coiinc iif nthciim. in iinlcr lo Ilii^ hn-nking up ol' 
tli« iircjudicus tvhicli migbt slam) iii Uio wnv ul'llii' Guspi-l's bi^iui* ivcl'ii i-d 
in Ihr iicxi. A* if tlicfoul whu HuiO in liU hitiiri, TIk^iv i^ iiu (iiiil, nrrci 
iiuum In till- Chmlifln rcliKion tlian ihc it[iii>rnnt wi>r:thipuerwliii, occonliiiK 
tii IiiH li^lit. fccla iiHer GixV. if hnply liemiiy liiiJ liiin." — Pp. 1G3, IC4. 

Ill Marf.h, 1810, Mr. Foniiby and Iliu jiarty i>lncG(l tlieiii- 
eelrcB un<ier th« guidance of a fine weather-beaten and tolci'ably- 
honcHt Amb sboikli, one Sulumaa Mcu^hyn, wliuwas to convey 
tliciii neroiM the desert to the convent of j\Iuunt Sinai, the ren- 
ile/.voiM of tile inleniU'il |>arty to (Im tiiinh;! of Pctni. 'I'lie di^iierl 
tlirou^li u-liicli llic i-aiiivan route lo Suez lies, the now so well- 
beitlen road lo the Kii^t, iirescDts many features of that |ieetiliar 
beauty with which the scenery »\' the desert is cliaracterizeil. 
1'lie ilescrt is not tile inonotonyuB place we are apt to believe it 
to be. 1'lie euiifiii>ioii uf ruckd and ravines, of all hues and 
outlinen, Ihmo and tliere the ojwn cmitics, dotted with palms, 
iind ondiiii; in undiilatin<^ slopes, tinged with green,— nay, oven 
the very ilew4al*!nei?i* uf the scene U far Iruiii inuiiotonouH, and, 
like a Skye terrier, is bejiutifiil in its iiglinei^. The travcUera the fninouB liailjiV Tr<to, on the bonlers of the sand, 
where the portioni> of the pilin'iui'ii ^ai-iiienl.'<, hung tip tu evlu- 
bralo their i«fc return from the holy city, recall the cii^t<ini of 
the shipwreekod pagan of hanging Up bin reeking garmentja in 
the temple of the Ocean God. 


Votivft pitricB indicni, iividn 
Suancudiiiiv polenti 

Vf«liii)i!iiu TaaxM Deo," 

It is 11 curiotw tree, in every rt-Mpect, — a tree of innumerable 
:<iiiall dry bninehoK, on whicli not n green leaf hn^ been iteeii for 
years, and anntuilly bWsoming witli the jiarli-eoloured tatten* 
of tlic returning jtilgi-iins. On arriving on the bitnk.-> of the 
Red Sell, whilst the camviin went round the liewl of the water, 
tlic party, with the oltt nhcilch. and aoiiic of his men, siulf^d 
acro^4. and landed on the beach ojiposite j\in Mousiu The poor 
Beduuina were qmlc sea-aick, and, as a wave ereoled a little 
wliitcr than iiaual. looked grave, and in u tic red "llowadjicl 
djcinet tJiiecb," — the camel is iK-tter. 

The convent ol" St. C'athorine, whero tlic Imvellors united 
Uieir party, Xa itnWdded. as it were, iu the valley of Sinai, amid 
t countlcsfl relicB of tlio ovcnlful wunderingf of tlic 

A Vint to tht Baft. 


m of IsnMjI. At ihc very cntftuiOL- of tlii- valley, tnw 
poiiitA uul ihc rxK'k on whicli Aaruii hUkxI wlivit Ifirau) 
would not wait for Moses, and munimrcd— " As for IliU fullow, 
no know not what liiie licctinic of him." Near tJiiii 'w the Int- 
diti<iiml htiryiij"-f(rouud of thuw whom the pcatilcnco bIcw for 
thin tlwrir rclHjTiloii; whiUt a liltli- furlhcr, ii ulunc, nntitridly 
hollowed out, 18 rogardeil lui th« criifibh- In which Aarvii im-lrod 
down the ffold of iTic laraelilea to form th« niuttcn catf. Within 
liiL-i vaJU-y, loo, te the tnuUttoual stone on which Moecs cast 
down the tnhlut^ ui' the luw, in liix iuig«r. 

■■ Wf then ndvniicivl," ssys tho writer, "nnd, Icauii)^ ntill to the left, 
enlorMl an entirely tliflcrc-nl vnlby, in nhirJi Ibt-rc ni'iiini-d to be lui 
nbuiulftiico of uatrr, frum Ibc unusual luxuriant graitlh of both the ottvu 
unil pnlm-trc(4. In a little time wi- came to a lar^ tnaas uf Stulic^ alKiut 

wliidi a nurobcTof tmall frojnutiiia were tyiii^. wlildi, wo wcto told. «■» 
the *lciue from wlxMice Mount irbtniiii-d the walor. Tl' lliin, tluirerorc. be 
true, we Wfte in the Valley of Hopbiillra, whrrc mas gniucil the lirnt vklory 
tiTOr Ibe Amnlckitrs, tb<: Virrt bnltle r<iiij{bt by llii.' peojilc after tlicy bnd 
ItA Vfypt. I am nlwnys sorry to duubt an old tradition, ubirb, in this 
iNatanco, Is tuppoited by the coDCum-nt le^tiinouy iif tfac Arabs, wbo 
^cstly i«n«TBic ibjaspot, and docs noi. tbercforv. rent untirutyouibc 4olo 
crMlil (if an old moiiuihtir legend. Bui, as juu will see hereafter, tbirr i« 
tiMi mud) reanm to €(ucstioD it. It in ijuitc tnio ilint tbe uritlor> pointed 
to aa tfaoae from whieli tbe water llowcd, arc rpmnrkablc enough: and, 
nliatcvor booonwa of Ibc Inutilioii reipr-rtitiR it, lu tlit- rnck in t\\e Valley 
at Rcpliidim, I question whether auollier Blime, so remarkably coiiaoaanl 
to the hJHlorj- nssipiiivd tu it. could be fouud iu the whole world. I earthly 
never naw oue,"— ["p. 331, 232. 

Doubtlcee there is much ci'cdwlity, nnd more error, in tlio 
UKiiikieh Icgciidi', eNjivfiiilly in the Kit«l : cilill there iif seldom any 
iiarm, anil, gcitcndly, much i>iel.y iu this U-lief. Now-ii-d«y» 



108 A Visit In lAt Eart. 


we can hclicvc noUiing. Not contcut with this as npplifd lo 
modern liit'tj', wo iirc never wtlisliutl until we luive nKiteil up lUl 
old IniditioiiA, and pruvcd tlieir error, hy rt iiiui yt criticUin, ur 
by proving tlio ni>ot m quoiitiou to bo actually a lumdrcd yards 
or so out of it« place. Kvcry book of travels elaughteri) euine old 
tradition or tlicory, and where ia the benefit ? Does it benefit 
\u III |iriive tliat a black ntoiiv in the valley of Sinui wad not the 
, jiid(i;nient-Meal of Miwcm ? Art; we om* wliit the better Christinnn 
lor all our aceuratc biblical geography, than our ancestors, who 
ahuu»t lielievex! In Sir John Mjindeville? These traditimis, it 
w repliinl, have been perverted to a bud end ; pilgriniages sjirang 
fKim them, and the devotee risked life and happiness to reach a 
spot where tlic traditional event never could have occurred, JJc 
It BO. The pilgrim's devotion was not lessened by the ti-ndi- 
ttonul error. Hij^ object may be a mistaken one — ^at least it 
descrvea, it commands resjiect. The modern traveller seeks the 
name places to while away his time, or tt) cavil at the ti-atlitions 
of tlie place. His is a diflfei'ont mode of «;eking hapjiiness to 
tliat of the pilgrim ; bolJi are ^(jiinlly »ncce!««ful,— the one 
di.iiwU his eNiiui, the other natittfied bis devotional feelings. 
The eeienlilic tmveller is ahto but a pilgrim, his god is kiiow- 
Icilgc, and the ehriiies of his god arc everywhere, and in all 
plaeos, 9(1 ore bis wanderinge and pilgrlniii^e!!. To tlie monks, 
who generally reside near these traditional localities, our curi- 
o»ity-pruin)>tcd wandcringH \m inexplicable; and there was 
niueh truth tn the monk's objecting to the travcllcre entering 
the convent cburcb, because the service won performing, as if it 
was something utterly uninteresting to the curiositv-sceking 

()n their arrival at Aladin, the tnivellers had a spocimen of 
Arab cuDiiiiig, owing, perha|)s, to the attempt, on Uic jiart of 
their messenger, to dceoivc the sheikh, who v(a» to be their guide 
and jirotector to l*etni. 'I'he messenger represented the party 
as that of an European consul ; but, as no one was prepared to 
nc^eept the eheeit which the sheikli humbly led into the encamp- 
ment, the old Arab discovered the trick, and recompensed them 
for their folly. The conBc<|Uonce was, most exorbitant charge!', 
and less respect than they otherwise woidd have cxperionewl. 
We have already occupied so much space, that we cannot follow 
Mr. Formby on his route to Petra, or ramble with him in tliat 
(Knigma of CEnigmas, the city of tJie tombs. To give, how- 
ever, some idea, not of the tombe themaelvcA, for they have 
been so often sketelicd and described since Burckliardt first 
visited them, but of tlie scenery of this loeaJity we will extract 
two ongnivingFi, and a abort description of the new track stiiick 
upon by nne of the travellers, in liLs wanderiugd about the 
valley of Wndi Mousa : — 

A Viiit lo ell'' Etui. 


"In a short limp, nnnj vc slnrln! In the riutwinrd. pftRain; the grcnt 
loml> oil otif rijchi. Al first the jfround n »« toK-rahlj- upciii, liiii mi we nd- 
vHiicod, ihc valler appeared tu nanuw itae\{, and wt^ folloued, for noiiir 
lime, thfi <lry bod or « wMcr-voiinii', llnil «o enutiimci! this roiif*!'. it 
would linve led in the foot nftbe hills ihit formlbcrRitcrnhnmrr brtvcvii 
IVIni and ihe dcovrt : but al lens than fanlf n mile to lUe taM uf llie invnl 

lomb, llic piidM poinlul oiil n pittb, by vbich ne fcncnblrtl iiji tn a small 
lable-Unil ol' rocx, coimnainliu); k finv view of (lie western mckK; niii), 
cTOHHing this, ve cam« in view of ■ solitary' nrvhwuv, thniw i> ncrr ii rliunm 
in (ho mck, in h puaitioii more ainsularly wild uiiif mfj«9itie ihitii niiv wu 
bnd ycC •ecu, in the miiUt cvcm of l^rn. We nrrc h«rv eiiiin-l}' uiil of 
tli« nfpan Dftomlw. Indeed, tht* snlilArr arch wils (he only viiihk (r»cnor 
bitnMU hbuur Laving aj>pTi)iLcli«d Iho spot. I'lidcrntNith it. at * ifiw* 


A Vhit to the Ewt. 

ilepth bcloir, trickloc) n «lrcnm. a" we»,\i. thut n lilllc fiirllior mi il rlpiinl 
in tho poiuus aautly hcA ot ila omi t^oursi-. Wi- wcrci for iinmi; time iiiiilcr 

tke miHlnke llinl lluB uiih tlio iiit'liii'Lj tlv-rnli^ .lln M. I.nbnrdr, ni cmHsIng; 
lb6 mniii ontroiicc; bill i>ii ilf9t'i'nUiii« iiiio i1k niviiie, nncl ncrnmhlmir 
ondcT il, il v«a« I'lmir llint n<i bcrul nl' liurclon. — niiicb lisss ii camel—coulj 
tvw tnroe Iktc, or. if brnu^lii bi-re. ti>iil<l tvep inovcftWHj-." — I'p, 27(1, 277. 

Kvpry travollor wlio lias iii&|)ccted the excnrations in tlic 
iHwks of Pctra, has (;ivcn in to tlie «>|iiiiiun thnt it is, as it now 
npjKJiirii, II city of !tO(mlHireB ; wIiUwl , in order to proviilf for tlic 
iiiimcDite population that would have required tlicne tninliK, not 
n lew have given in to tliotlicorv, that in the open apacceof tho 
valloj*, there were once tho liuildinfi'' of tlic city ol' the 
KdoinittiS, and that Tinio, who hu,>* .-•piircd Ihi- xcpuhihrvn of the 
nnliou, haw hmy since destroyed iheir clwelling-hoiiw-s. Doiiht- 
leaci, na but one •(oncration ean be alive at one time, and yet 
oaeh ccneriition iiiif,'ht i-Ihhkh- to erect it» oivti tombs, the 
dcpulelircfl of a eity might very much oxcood Ihi; dwellings of 
itfi inhabitants ; and that tlic excavations of IVtni are the work 
of Biicccssivu LTcncmtioii^ the detail of tho remains is no mean 
evidenee. Still this i» a ciiinhrouii theory — and wo much jirefer 
that of Mr. Foniihy — which would jwople the exeavalionn tboin- 
•tclvea with the inhabitants of the city, and unite in clo>*o 
nei;;hbonrhood the living and the dead. To our western notions 
it fccni.'* iin|iiif«ible ihiit a nation .■should live in the rocks, in an 
iinniense tniek of |iuiforale(i iirct;! pices, rullicr than on the level 
plain, or the rich valley ; but is it so inennc-eiviihle to an l'2a«l4.-rn 
mind f* Is not the rock-d welling a rmiiilinr pari of tlie donicstic 
economy o? the jwojtle of the Last 'i — 
"In tlic villas i>f Silonm. near Januftlem, t]i« groslcr pArl uf the 
'lahitaiils lire in luuma L-iit uut ul' iht toc\. In llio wildoriiesH (if Mii> 
ddi nie uiuncruiM cnvc^ uliivh lucitl tradition rcUlrii to hnvr been ibo 

A Vmt to th» 3tft. 

161 1 

Ills lUe I 

■hodoi of liMmilH. rndi^cd, S(. JprnraR liimsdf Fpenl some purl of liis 
in Ihat kind of snUlude. I'hc cnrl,v monk*, who cbou Uicaic rctrMU, (Ud 
not miik« Ihcm ihcin«olv(iit ; n racu, of nliom we know nathiu, made uid, 
doubtlMB, duelt in llipm. The HO-onllod C*tt of Jeimiiitb, nenr tb« 
Dammnig-galu of Jerusalem, in now partly a dnrlliiifc-pliirr, Agnio. (ho 
ciivr-« in the rock of l'|iper I'^sn'' "'"' Nubia werp, in St. Anlhony'a time, 
favourilc rctrrala cif tlio E^Eyptiuii moukit; and jel lb«,v did not make 
tliciTi. Mr. Hripc. a wcll-Vnown tra»dlpr niid arv'liiln:!, U of opinion that 
the cKcnvAicd IPnipli'. na found iii KiO'pt and part* nf Ana, waa ibo flnl 
oripnnl form of irinplp that the kumAii tiu-p hiin poaicMied. and anterior to 
any edtficr/.thn Unit aiteinpls of wfaivh, nlicn Tht'y isvpiu to be made, wero 
in imilalioD ()f the excavated fomi. If »o, why may not a rock-dw^ling 
hBTc pr«'Cod[id nny atiempl. on the part of man, to onild himacif a house, 
notwithiitaniting tl)H( the il'imnn puetlbrgot to emimMnlr thin, ax one of the 
Ms^ of civiliztujon throiigli whifh he comidcrt lu&nkind to have paaied." 
— 1^.91 1,21S. 

Thiit llic peo|>Ie of tJic IC-vBt were familiar witli the notion of 
n rock-imliitiition, is seen in tbe laiigimfjc of 8cnpHirp, where 
our own lilV- Ls ix^prc^cntod IW dwollin;; in a tent, Clod's murcics, 
" lu a divelling iu a ronk." " Be Tliuu to mo m a ruck of habi- 
utton," saya the Prialniiet, to wliotn the rocka of MaoD and 
EngiMldi wcro more than once a rcfuge-hoiuw. "^^'llut hiwt 
thou here," Kixya Inuiuh, " ami whom ivtit thou liere, that thou 
hast licwcd theo out a sepulchre, ae ho that hcwcth him out a 
sepulchre on high> and gnivcth a huhilation for himself in a 
rock Y" (xxn. 16.) Aipiin, Jeremiah «ijif, " Oh ve that (iwcll in 
Moab, Jeave tho citi«s, and dwell in the roclt." (xlviiL28.) 
But thoflo pasaogcfl might be incrciiaed, even beyond what appcux 
in Mr. Fomiby'B chApter. 

" From then e and similAr paa«a^8," aaya that wrilcr, "it would appear 
that the idfAof rnrk-d»i>tlin^iTaii«ncRfamiliarIu (hose timed. U prevuiU, 
a« we h«»c acen, in the Srripturff, and is »o iiiicrwovwi into the i^ius of 
it4 imajtery, aa almost to become a special feature iti its Un^Af^e. With 
Ihia view of the case, then, it is difficult to reftioe usicjil to tnc literal 
meanlnK of the words of the prophet! bnt if a strong proof be atill 
needed, a very temarknble one ia anorded in another passnge of Scripture. 
The wilduTMiM of Engiuldt, and the irbolu range of ruckii bord^ing upon 
the uc«lcm bank of the Dead Sea, are ntnarkably like the rocks of Pctra, 
and abound m excavations of a similar, but n much ruder form. Thi* 
tract of country wbb known to have been, in fonni-r Jayt, the *ettlement of 
the pnop]« of the Kcnito, teapectiiig whom the prophecy of Balaam apc^ks 
na rolloir* : — ' He looked npou tha Konitea. and took up liia parable, and 
said, ' Strong ia thy dwelliuE-pUice, and thou putteil thy next in n rock. 
NetertliclcH*. the Kenite ■hnH be waated, and A«hur shall carry ihce aivny 
captive,' Now the tnu people, whose countries, to thU day. ctbihil the 
alrongKt veetigea of these auppoaed rock-dwelling^s, are prrciitly thone 
peopl« Mho are addressed by the inapircd prophou. the one an ptitriii;; his 
BMt in the rock, the other lia dwidUne within ili clefts. It mny be almost 
(aperflaotu la add, that St. Jerome. IJie catholic lather of Itctlilcbem, who 
had himself travelled in this coiiiitrj'. in a nork wlii.h treats Keoffraphicslly 
of the eilic^ of Halestinc, after Mating llic linum!ati« of ihc territory of 
Rdom. icoea on to say, "This is the land thut "as in the poaswsion of 
F,Mu : they bad their simple dwellings (AabUaliuiitulatJ in tJie caves of tlie 
roek."— Pii.21i, 210. 

KO. XXXII. — S. S. V 


Ret«iatit/n and Sdmee. — Ethnography. 

The objection nf uniting, w it were, under one roof, t)ie dead 
ind tbc living, IL4 ttiiii i>u[>poiiition woul 1, to a certain extent, 
neoeaaoril)' involve, however repugnant \\\c curtom may I'c to 
our nolion§, is refntcd by the custom of F^stern nations, luid pnr- 
Uculnrly of the Kfiviaiiins of old. In the minds of llic Eastern 
pcoiflf, d^-jiUi nnd tiic tomb have nothing iv(iul9i\'e in them : tiu-y 
rceai"<l the one. n» a release from the luiaeries of thia world, the 
Otlier as an earnest of a happier life. As ihc children of Ksau 
bccftUiO eradually mixed up nnd Icitvencd by the encroach- 
ment* of their neighbour:*, new nmnncrw iiud new buildings 
would neoi'^c'arily ari^e, and the Itonmn lurubs and theatres ims 
equally xvith the remains of the very few dwellings that exist 
in the ^allcy. the mcmorialB of uii age ccnturicH later than the 
l-ock-excaVHtiuiiH among which they stand. 

Thci-c arc manv more most intercatine nnd viduable chapters 
in tlie work which we have been endeavouring to review, 
especially those on Primeval Theology, and the Parallel Testi- 
monies of the Egyptian Moninneul«, and Books of Holy Scrip- 
ture considered as naeenlutal Kecords; on Egypt and the Jewish 
Prophecy; on the Proithecii-.i relftting to l->lom, andlhcWan- 
deringA of I:>rael in tno wilderiiefa of Sinai; but wo cannot 
now do mare than mention them, and close this our notice with 
cnrnest oouimcndations of tlie book, from which wc hare drawn 
ta much sound sense and information, as well in the way of 
text as in tlio form of extract. The cngro^'iugB sjicak for 

TuftM Lwturet on iA« Connexion belmim Scimio' and lietfaled 
tUliriion. Delivered in Kfinie by Nicholas Wi!.kma», D.D. 
Second Edition. 8vo. London: Dolman, Bond Street. 1«42. 
Tub inotlo prefixed In tlicse lecLiirea iliowj iliuir nature and design : 
— " Science eliould bo dedicated In the service of religion." Reli- 
gion supplies those "poles of tnillr," ns Lord IWon finely cnlU 
tlicin, around wliicli llic human mind rrvolvcs ; sustains and guides 
it in its planetary courxe, nnd siibordinales its varied movements to 
the great " Fathkb oi' i.iciiirs, in whom is no vnrioblcncas. neitlier 
shadow of turning." Ueligion Is the living root from wlijcli nil 
lawful intollecliiul i-ntcrprisca spring, and through which ibcv draw 
the vital snp lliat nurtures even their minuiest bmnclic*. nduming 
them with folingc and crowning tliem with fruit. Thculoj-y is ilie 
qnwn of literature and scirnce, mlume Idglic&t glory is to bear lier 
Inrn and cast their riehcsl offerings at her feet. Tliis is the theme 
here chosen by Dr. Wiieinnn. 

" My jiiirjioBe in tiie coiirtp of kctom to wMeh I ha»e Invited you, ii lo 
iliow llic corict[ioiii)cn(i! between the jirogrws of tcivnce and ihp ilovelopnitnt 
orihcCliTJiIiiiii cviilfncv*. . . . And when I mv tho wonl Vvldeiivei.' I muit 

Sntiatwn antt Seiettet. — Etiimffntpti/. 


bn undrtiLtnml in n T<-Ty wide U)d gm*nit (jgiii ileal ion. I omiKiiler that hIihi- 
cvcr tMidi lo prove tbe tnilli of nny mtmlivc in the uicitd volume, — MjMwielly 
if itinl iianatiK, lo merely hutnaii ryes, uppcari iniprobulilr, or irrccotK-ilfnble 
witli oihcr rMti, — IdiiU bIhd mi'iilinlly lu inctPHiv lliv tuiii ol'oviiii-iic* vliich 
Oiritlianity ponrun; railing, na iti>uctiliiilly doer, iipontliraiillisniicity of tint 
bonk. Ally a'acavety. (or inalJincc. llmt n trifling date, (ill lately ineiplic-iblp, ii 
qiiiln cnricol, boidea llir latiiracliuii it gnvt npoii an iniliriiluiil point, hni a fur 
KiFultr inotHl wviglit in tin- iiMiiiuiicv U aSur4> of hfrtiriii in oilier millm. 
Aiid lirncp A long rcn'nrcli, which nil! trail tn a dUcovery of apparently mean 
inipbrtancr. mini be mcninted oecordinj; to tlii> gencrnt iufluctif«, idihcr ihan 
by ill immediuM mulli.'* — Vul.i. pp.0, 7.* 

It is not prctcmlcd tlmt cvcrj* individual Climtian is iwiuircd to 
inal<c Iiimsfif iiimltr of ihc wliwlc raitwi of cridencc*. One of our 
privileges, ns incmbcrs of a bo<l) cirpontc, is, llial wlitle we ourselves 
simply difcliargc our own individiiat and liinittd fiinetion?, and arc, it 
inny tie, tlie least lioiioiimbic ports of tlie body, we derive knowlcdj^ 
ntiil wisiluni and strength, frnm ttie exeieise by otiicr niembcra of 
llieir peculiar nnil loftier functions. " If llicy wcic dl one member, 
where were tlic body .* Bm now arc tlicy innny incinbcre, yet but 
one body." I'lift ^at majiirity of good men timal always be men 
of impcrrcct intellectual attainments. ond inferior argiimentntive hkill. 
But wliilc tben: may safely repoic upon tliuse broad grounds which 
have aualaincd, for eighteen centuries, the fnith of holy men innu- 
merable, it it the duty of tlinsc who have received the ability bohUy 
and patiently to examine the objections advanced against religion, and 
to convert, as ther may, the alleged hostile Iiicts into additiutuil 
defences of the foitn. 

" CiHim jubct meliar *up«rii« sperare Meundof." 

" If w« are firmly convinced Owl God ii a* much the anlhor of our rrlinion 
M He i) of nalurr. wu iou*l b« aloo tbutoughly aniirtit, ihni tha eompBrituii of 
Hii work*, ill both lh*«o u'd«T*, inuit naeoMarily j{ivo ■ uniform rctuli. /tn 
mrnlial ftarf nf inji task wili lAerrfvre ie. to t/ioir liaiB Ihr very scieiicn, whtatt 
o^Vcfionj hnP< bten lUtiii'it against religion^ hart thtntifivtit i" thtif progrciii 
mlirtlg nmavtd lAtm." — Vol. i. p. 8. 

Thi» Itcing Dr. ^Vigeronn's design, his method of Ircatint; each 
science ib necessarily historical. lie first traces its hi^lory lliruugh 
successive pcnoJi, nnil then dmwg out Ins results. 

" We AuM Me how the early *tB^ of each sdcnce fumiilied objeoiioti* to 
religion, lo tha joy of the iiilidel, &iid the ditmay of t)i« bi^lii-ver ; how many 
disoovtagH IhcM puTEultt ut dniie<^toiii; and ilicn, how. in ihvir advatier, iWy 
lint removed the dlfflcii1lic> drawn ftom their imprtfect tlaif^ and Ihtn rvoii 
replaced them by tolid urguments ia favour of rchftion. And honee we thull 

* Ihir extract* from Dr. Wiieiuoo'ii Lecture), with ihcir p*ilii>tt. are taken (tim 
Ae litoditien, in 3 vo)«.. 11)36, uhicli «e linp|>encd to hiv* byua. TiiCKcond edition. 
iib<cb ve have named at llie head of out artick. \» merrly a roprliil of the fornier. 
In the " adieriiicinenl " to thii edition, Dr. Wiii'iiiaii anyiL, " In ptetemlnn ihi* 
Bscoitd vdllion of mj Lrcture) lo the public, it moy iialuml'ly be rijicvitd, thai con- 
alderable allerittun) and einendilioiii will hive twi'ti made. Tliry have, Imwenr. 
bMD merely lepiinled i and I priipme lailicr. in a Siipitleniinl, wlilsh may be Joinnl 
10 either nliilan, to add micli iii'> mailer, or make audi cocitoiiona, u m"'' 
IMfitrcht* may aiigitcti." 

BtttUttion and Scitnce. — Htlmoffraphy. 

f«tl wamnted In canclu<!iTig, ihnt ■*( u eumlialUj Ike inUrttt of rrhgitm U 
aieOirag* tk* purtuil of tcientr and liltralurt in tlie'tr vatiout ilrparlmcnU." — 

-, i. p. B. 

'Tlw Christian Failli has no interest in repressing tlieir cultivation, 
■•tluint;l> tiiey were covert enemies, or, iit best, buttloubltul frienils. 
Yet lliere bitve not been wnnting, in every age, well-meaning, but ill- 
informed and timid disciples, who have looked upi>n these siater- 
Btudics as incompatible witli more sncred piusiiils. In our own day. 
n few tberc are, — wliuse leuriiinji kindles our adiniralioii, wlioae judg- 
ment commands our respccli whose piety subdues even the most 
reluctant heart, and wins our liiiinblest love, — who seek for refuge in 
the Htill and wlentliaunU of christian antiquity I'rom the restlesB acti- 
vities of modern seicnee; and even do violence to their gentle natures, 
fur coni=ciencc sake, by denouncing, often in no measured terms, phi- 
b.tuphicjtl, or, at leutt, all physical, iiiijuiries, as nncalliolic in llieir 
lone and unehrialian in their tendency ; hoping thereby to arrest their 
progress and destroy their inilurnce. We fiiirly meet these good but 
nmtaken men on their own grounds, when we oppose to them the 
venerable authority of manv of the Fathers of the early Oiureb. 

St. Clement of Alexancfria has devoted several chapters of his 
SCromnta to tlie vindiention of secular learning. " Varied and 
abundant learning reeommcnds him who proposes tlic great dogmas 
of fnilh to the credit of his hearers, inspiring his disciples with admi- 
ration, and drawing tliem towards tlie truth," And aguin he says: — 
"Some persons, having a high opinion of their good dispositioos, 
will tiul apply to pliilusophy or dialeetieg, nor even to natunil philo- 
sophy, but wish to possess faith alone and unadorned ; as reusonably 
as though they expected to gather gmpe« from a vine which they have 
left uncultivated. Our Lord is called, allegorically, a vine, from which 
we gather fruit, by a careful cultivation, according to the eternal word. 
Wc must prune, and dig, and bind, and perform all other uecesmry 
labour. And, as in iigrieiiltiire and in medicine, be is considered the 
best educated who has applied to thii greatest varielv of sciences, 
useful for tilling or for currng, so wc must consider him most pro- 
perly educateii, who makes all tliingK bear upon the liulh ; who, from 
genmetrr, and music, and grammar, (fnun geoliigy and chemistry, wc 
may add, and from every oranch of physical science,] and from phi- 
hiiiophy itself, gathers whatever is useful for the defence of the faith. 
Hut the ehampiun who has not trained himself well, wit! surely be 

St. Hasil earnestly recommended the studv of literature, as an 
elementary discipline of the mind ill graceful and gencrou* virtue. 
And for this he has gained tliv wann and eamett cammendations of 
8t. Gregory of Nyssn. " Many," writes this Father, " present pro- 
fane learning a.i a gift to the Cliureli ; among whom wo* the great 
Basil ; who, having in his youth seized on the spoil of Egypt and 
-<nsecnited it to God, adorned with its wealth the tabernacle of llie 


HitHation uud Ncimet. — Etinojfrapiii. 



Pi. Basil's sclioolfcliow nt Allnns, St. Grcgorj Xaiionzon, in liis 
fiiiu'ral orolioit over liis frii-nd, (xprc&scs llie .laiiic t«nliineiit«. " 1 
thintc," he ta,y&, " ibat a1I men of sound mind must a^ee ibat learti* 
iiig is lo be reckoned Uic 1ii(;tiri>t of csrllily ffioA. I speak Dot 
merely of ihnl noUc lenmin^ wliicli is mint, niitl wliicl), dc-»))iKiiig all 
outward graci-, spplicB exclusivclv to the work of salvation and the , 
bceuty of inli-llcctual ideas ; but nUn of that learning nliieli is from 
witlioiit) vrliich sonic ill-jud^ii)i; Chrihliantt reject a> wily nnd dan- 
gerous, and as luming tlic mina from God." 

'I'o argue from (he abuse apiinst ibe use. is tlic common bull of 
mm of timid ami of hnMy minds ; luiil Su ItasiJ bad lo defend tti« 
taiue of univen^l trutli s^in^t tliis pervcne objection. Alter 
observing; that tlic abiuc by llic hcatbcns uf " ibat learning wliicli it 
from williout" is no ronsoii fur its rejection, any more ibsn tlieir sab- 
stituliuii uf mailer for God as tbe object of worship, debant lu from 
its lc{;itimatc use, be docs nol lirsititte to say, "' Therefore must not 
entditiuii be reproved, ItccnuKc scmie men elioose to tliiiik so ; on llio 
contrary, ihey are to be considered foolish and ignorant who so 
reason, who wonld wish all men to be like themselves, that they may { 
be concealed in ihc crowd, and no one be able lo detect their want of 

'litis theme kindle" Bl. Jerome: ''Respon*iiin habennt nnn adco , 
me hebetis fuisse cordic, ct cnkisie lusticilalis, (juimi iiti solnm ' 
pro 9ane[itnlchnbc[it.piscatorum sc<Iiscipalo8asserente9,qiutsi idcirco 
sancli siiit. si nihil xcirrnl." 

St. Au^'iisline claiuiti truth, "wherrvcr found, as ihe property of 
Christ's Church," And among the <jua)itica requisite for a wcll-fur- 
nisbcd theologian, he eniimcmtes scciikr lenmmjr. "If they who 
nre cnlled philcwophent linve said any tiue thingi which arc eniiforrn- 
able lo our faith, so far from dreading them, we must lake ihein for 
our use. as a powcwion which they unjustly hold." The stream of 
human Icnraing ofti-u l3ow« over golden sands, carrying the prccioui 
ore in its rolling waters. These scattered grains the Christian 
should lake "lor ihc righlfnl purpose," says this distinguished 
oniainent of the W«teni Chiirch. " of preaching the Gospel." 
" Hare so niaiiy of the best f«iUifiiI amuuK u*,"* be continues, "acted 
otherwitcP With wliat a wcif;ht of gold and silver, and precluui 
gitruienlK, have we n'>t hclii'lil Cvprinn, that sweetest doctor and m»st 
blessed martyr, laden as lie «em turih from Egypt? How much did[«ntius, Viclorinus, Oplatus, llilnry, bear ftway ? How niiicl), i 
inmmicrsbic Greeks ?" 

It is true that pasragea of apparentlv a diiTcTcnt tendency may be 
found in the lettered stores of christian antiquity ; bui let us hear 
what Ur. WiscniBn says on this point :— 

" It U nut difTicutt (i> rrronciU- with tuch niusoeei m iIi*iid [llioto nlmvi'- 
cil«), sTid iil'ien.] iliutc mniiy plncr* where llio Falhcn •ccm to n^prnbalc 
Iiumsii UATitiiif[ ; » wli«rp St. Atigmiinv himu-lf, in ons of liin iHtm. Mii-.-ikine 
oT tbe cducatinn he wa* giving lo Piniiliua, tayt, that lU* studies iiitially cslko 

106 Beatialiori and Seiatce. — &Miwyr<tf>fnj. 

liberal, dci«rvp not tiint n'mv, nt that timo honoitmbtc, wliich properly bcleiigi 
to purtuiu grounded on (he Inic liberty vi\ut\t Chrial piircliBicd for us : or 
wtioro St. Ambmic, to quoI« one pHisu^o mil of mniiy, tells Demcirioi, that 
' (hey who know by wbat Ubuiir tXtty wore inved and at ivh»t tott r«<luerned, 
wl*h not to be of the wim of thin world.' For it ii pinin ibot they spenk, on 
Ihno ooeaHonx, ' or the fooliih, vain, and irir-sullirLciit Icnming of orruEant 
■ophitU and wily rhetoriciani; utid uF lliat Kcieiici', whicb, void of ihc ^aII of 
grace, and at a religioun apirit, in iiiaipid, vnpiil, mid iiotbiiig worlli. And Imw 
e«n w«i, fiir n iTiomenl, iliink otherwise, wlien n-e pen»e their gloriona works, 
nnd contcmplnlc the trcuuTc of aneicnt learning lliereiii hourJrd ; and Iraoe in 
every paragraph ihcir deep ocquuiiituncc with heuilien philuaoiiliy, ntid in every 
INilence iheir fimillarity uiili ih(^ nurctt niodela of style? Who can lioubt, or 
vho will darn to regret, that Tcctullinn and JuBtiii, Arnohius and Origen, were 
ftimiihcd with nil the wcaponi which pagan tcarniiig criiili) tnpply. (uwards 
eotiibatiii^ on brliulf of truth ! Wlio can wiih thot St. Basil mid Si, Jerome, 
Sl Grrpory and St. Aii^iiitine, had been lest veraed than they were, in all the 
•Icgant literature of the aiieienlal Nuy.even in the very Iciltr to which I liBife 
idluded. St. Augualinci if I renieinbeT right, epeaks without regret, and even 
villi NtiJBfucElDii, of the bouki on iiuiaic winch ha friend had expresied a wish 
to pOMcn." 

" Tliere are l.vo principal Beivicea," says Lord Bacon, " besides 
ornament and illuHtralion, wbicli pliiloeopliy and human lcATnin|[ per-' 
form to religion ; llic one consisls in effeeluftlly exciting to tlie exnlta- 
lion of Ootl':! glory; tlie other, affording a aing'tUar preservniion 
•gkinBt unbelief and error." It ia tbe duly of the CluircU to contend 
MTDCStly for truth in every field where there are enemies to be sub- 
dued, or conquests to be won ; to figlit tlic good fight of fnilh in 
defence of every particle of universal inilli ; to employ in the service 
of llie nnctuary every lecitimate weapon, wlufthcr dmwn from her 
own peculiar armoury, or bonowcd from tlic rich and varied store* of 
literature nnd science. "We mutt (nitc all painB," aays St. Chry> 
Hiiitoin, " that ilie doctrine of Christ dwell Abundantly within us, 
For the preparations rif the enemy's battle are not of one form ; for 
the war ia in itself various, and waged by divers foes. All use not 
the same arm«, nor conduct their assatdt on the same plan. He, 
therefore, who undcilakcsto fight them all, muat understand tin; arte 
of each. He min^t be at once an archer and a slingcr, subaltern and 
Cfimnmnder, soldier on horseback or on foot. ri{nally able to tight ia- 
tlic ship ami on the bulwark. For, in ordinary warfare, eacli on« 
opposes his adversary after that manner whcreunto he hath been 
trained ; but in this conflict it is hi otherwise : sldcc, slioutd lie who 
must gain the victory, be not intimately aciiuainted with every scpo- 
raleart, the devil well knows how to take advontageof *orae\iiigiiu«led 
point, and introduce his despoilers to »ci^c and tear the flock. This 
in not the cane where he knows the Klicpherd lo be provided with 
every actiuicement, and aware of his deceits. It behovclh us, tiicre- 
fore, to be prepared on every side." 

St. .Icrtime writes to the same elTcel, Commenting on Eccles, it. 8, 
" I gathered me also silver and gold, and the peculiar treasure of 
kings and of the provinces," he says ; " By the wealth of kings we 
may tiiidcrstand the doctrines of the philiuuplier« and [irufaiie 

RewlalioH and Sci^ce. — BthnograjAy. 





sciences, wbich t]i« eccloiustic, und«»tAn(ling by tit* dtli^nce, is 

able M catcb ibe wise in their own toils." Antl> slthough we should 

Lardly ^ce villi St. Jcrotnc in ihis intcrptctalioD of llic text, yet his 

^wntimtrnt stnnii* us nii cvi'lfiitf tliul lii.', in comnwtn with iiinny wlbcr 

jretti iigliU lif ihe Cliiitcti, belicvcil ihat lli«re is a real linmiuny 

Ivcen revealed and natoral tnitli, nnil that t)ic sciences are ncvn 

^OTC nobly employed tlmn nlicii engugcil in miniitmngutuuulQiaide 

to Tcjigion. 

Tlie great end of knowlcdf.'c ts, as Loitl Bacon tcadies^ " tli« 

riory of llic Crmlor, «nd tlic relief of ninii'i ttintc." St. Bernard 

hiu expressed tliis Kciitiment vriili singular beauty and force. '' Stint 

^Hainque qui eeite Tutunt co tanluni line ut scianl, et turpis curiosilas 

f«(. Et sunt qui scire volunt, iit scinnlur ipjti, et turpis tamtaa est. 

^ Kl sunt ilcm qui scire volunl, ut scientiam suain vendant, vnbi 

B causa pro pecunia. pra bonoribiis, et turpis qiitcstus est. Sed sunt 

^ quoquc qui scire volunt ut irdificent. el cWitns est. Et item qui 

tcire volunt ut tudilicenlur, et prudcntia eau" This pussa^ lias been 

parapbRued by Lord Drookc, in bis " Treatise of Humane Leam- 

^^» " Tlic cliiof utn l)i«n in niitn of (hut lir knowci^ 

^^^^^^ li hii pniim- taking for the good uf nil ; 

^^^^B Not 6*4lil)r Htfpin^' for our uwti nimlv won, 

^^^^^1 Not Uughiiiji from a niclanchut^ (T"", 

^^^^H Nol tiaiing frotn ■ luiil Ihnt ovcrHowei 

^^^^^K With biiicrnui brcatlipd out lioin inwatd tlintU : 
^^^^B Hut sirtHly rntli«r U> turn, \otnt. m biii<Ir, 

^^^^V As n«sd rvquirct, tiiU fiailc fiillcii Iminnn kiiiii«. 

" In 

" Yrt tome (ccka kiiavlcd^c, nicciely to lie knowno, 
And idle curitnily that ii ; 
l>oiti« but Ui wll. not ttvv\y to lic«li>w ; 
Tlieti' KHiiin niiit iipriid Iwlh lime and imllh amiMT, 
Einhnmiig arl>, by boirly Jcrniin^ lo ; 
Some to build uihorsi wbicb ia cliarilie j 
Bill thM« to build Ihamteiva who vtisr nwn he." 


In niahinif bis selection from tlie tiiimeious sciences, for t1i« pur- 
p'Htc of sliciwing tiow llicir progress bn» ever been seeumpanied by tlie 
accession of new Ij^ht imd splendour to ibe evidences uf Clirli^tianlty, 
Dr. \\'iBcni8n bos proposca lo bimaelf to avoid sucb cxemplifiea- 
iions us bave already found iheir way intn clcmenlary books upon ibe 
■nbject ; and bns dniwn bis materials, us inucb us possible, front 
woAiS DOt directed by their authors to the defcnec of Cbrinianity. 
The first science of which be treats is tlic science of ethnogmpby, or 
tlie cUoificftlion uf nations fn>m the compnralive study uf language*; 
ft MJenctt of very recent origin. 

From the eleventh ehaiitcr of the book of Generis, we learn that, 
immediately after the Deluge, " the whole enrlb wati of one language 
and of one speech ;" that upon the oceanon of tlie biiildini^ M the 
tower of Rubel, Qud confounded their language " that tbey might 
understaitd one another's speech ;" and (but this confunon of 


Btttk^on and Sn^oe. — Etltwifiraphy. 

Xangaea led to n general (litpcmion : " from llienec did the Lord 
scatter them itbrniiil upon llie face of all llie earth." 

" Coinmeiilalor* upon tKi« piHMBg* hiivfl gpnamlly coiiai^rreil llint lliii con- 
filHioii c mini nidi, not in miirli m iIk' oboUlion of ihn common Iniifri|i>, aa in the 
inirndiiciion of iiich it vnriciy of modiBcjIiom in ii, at would tuffirc lo effect 
tlic diiipcriion of ili« liumuii net. I n fncl. it woi only on tliU liypDlhc-sis. llial 
llip loiic nnd iiiieleii waroU after lint (•ligiiinl Intij-iiii^c could liuvo been con- 
ducUil. ' — Vol. L |>. II. 

Every variety of conjecture lias been liazanlcd on tliie Bubject. 
Spcailntion liM run riot. Alimist cvct}' csUting language lias found 
an ndvocnti: in itH turn. 

" The Ccllic Inngtiniic finitid a tiaaloiiii pittron in llie Icnrnei! Pczron ; the 
claimi of iht Cliintie were wntinlv ndvocnicil by Webb nnd icvcrfd olher 
vtittn. Evrii in our own (iniei — for (\iv race of nicb viiionarict ii not yet 
•ilincl — Don Pfdio di> A'tnilun, Don TlioinM ie SoTrr(-iii«ln, und (be Abbe 
iPI1iarce-Bidauoiicl-d'Arozicf;iii, liiivc tnkon Ibe firld a> cbflm|ilon> of llie Bis- 
cayan, wUh id inucb mcrccii ns ibc very {nidjic nnd unwieldy Ooropius 
Becuniii brou^jUt op bi> iiiitivo Luw Dutcli it iKu Inngung? of tlic lern-Btiiiil 
fiaradito." — Vol. i. p. IQ. 

The l^cinitic knjrnagcs — llic |jinBiio;[es of Western Asia — have 
gnincd the grentcst number of suffrngeM in tlieir favour ; nnd among 
llicic, Hcbruiv liiLi asserted elnims wliicli liavo been gcnerallv aekuovr- 
lodg«l w eupertor lo all others that have contested the field. 

" From llifi Anlii|iiitius of Jonejibiii, nnd llio Targiiniii, or Chnldee parn- 

Sliraiei of Onkeloi nnd of Jerumlcni, do»n lo Anton, in ISOU, Cbrjulinns und 
I'wi litivc coniiderail llio pri-tcntiorit of Hebrew aa alinoit dcfinilely decided; 
nnd nnniei of iha higheat rank in lilernliiro — Llptlilt, Sculigrr, Bochurl, Vo»- 
■iiis— bave Imttrd the truth of many of their theorici to the certninly of tbit 
opinion." — Vol. i. p. 17. 

But subeet|uent inveatijralians liavc sliaken this certainty ; ami the 
opinion, that Hebrew wns llic anlcdiluvinn Innguage, can no longer 
be maiiUuined. 

" The learneit und judicious Molitor neknowlcdjtM thnt ' ihc Jcwiili (mdition 
which make* Hi-l>(eiv Iht Inngunge of tlie linl pniriorclii, and even of Adam, 
i% in iti liiciul (uniie. inodiniaiible ; llioiigb. be niiitt very judiiiioiiily, that it It 
nfflciunl to aeknowlt'dRc llic in>i)irnl:ion of ihn Ililitr, for ua to be oIiliRcd to 
COnfcM llint the Inngouge in wliLcb it in wridcn ia n faithful though enrlbly 
image of the apeccb of iiarAdiHr ; tv«ii ai fnlirn mail pT«*erve* ioin« traces of 
bii original gtoHliiesa." — Vol. i. p. 17. 

All these cimelusions, whatever their relative nicrit«, ttre vitiated bv 
two grnnd errors in the method of invesligation by means of nhicn 
tlicy linve been worked out. The fimt is, that hardly nny rehilion 
between languages aoenig la have been admitted but that of fiUuliun. 

'' Piirullel ilescviit from a common parent waa liardly ever iniaginvd. Tba 
moment lw» IniiKiin^ei hart a r«K(nbluncr, it wat cunciudvd that one muat be 
Iha offlipriiig of clio oibvr."~Vol. i. p, I If. 

I'hc second error followed from tlic fir«L In«tcnd of eomparinj; 
words, 80 a* to lucertain whether any, und what nfTinitics existed 
hetween tbe teveral Unguals conlnining them, the labourers in the 

Hereittiw awl Seifacf, — Rlinoffrtij^v, 


field of ctbnognpby have endeavourcct to establish Among wonis an 
etj'mological eonnrxioii. 

" SImiliiTityof wont* or (brma could only liai-c«>UblUli«(l unaffiiiilylwtwMn 
lh« 1«ii(EUi>en i» vthkh it oacumil ; >n<) (liirn'foiy il wiu prpr«r»b)o to flnil in 
ihs favuuriu Uiigiiago a aiipjioaril orlgiiml nunj wliicli cunuinnd in iudf (be 
nrm, ni i[ vcrc, or monning «f the [crm examined, rutber ihtui tracv the oflini- 
■iM ihruugb sillier Unpiogct, or crcli coiidctcrnd l« doriv* !l Troni obviciit 
•1«in«i>u ill iu onn nativo fangtiagr." — VuLi. ii.'iO. 

\Vii liavc nil lictiti] of tlic drrivntitm of " King Pciiiii" from 
"dinner nujikiii ;" and Dr. Wijciiinii has giren more tluin ono 
stuiiFing cxamiitc of llic fllisitrditics into which iwilous ctj|-iDolo{[iijtS 
faave dctiiitlly been led. We have room for one only. 

" Goropiu* Bcunii*, vlinm I miul once tnnre <)uole lu teprcicniativc of tlie 
uMcr »choo!, uccounta for the occuironcc of the word M<k iii w mnny Ian- 
giiAKFi, upon tbe iiigeiiioMt giuund, ll>ut nu tinv nt liabvl would Iiav« forgot liU 
waltfl, wbatavor cite be nil^hi Ir^iiTf bi'hind. Tlti* vnlokbl* p«ycbologtCAl iut<^ 
mite be conlinDa fr«m hi> own obncri-ntion. Our tnrned doctor ww once on 
■ lima called in to attend a Oernwn in n brain fever, vlio bod tiabbed bioiKlf 
during a partixytin of liui oomplaint ; but, tliuuc') tuAVrin^ lirondfiil jiuin, l)ia 
patji-nt would nnt nllow bim or any of bi* bttihrcn \\t nppioucb Mm. ' The 
wretched man,' idii he, ' did nut rcincmbcc that «c were ntiyticianR, ready to 
put hi* disurder lu IlT~bl.' Yet, in »i>ito of lliin mnniftfit rxhibJIlan of mndnm 
and drliiiuin, there vrnt one tibjcct mliicb be never forgot, and about vhieli lii* 
rcaaon leenied lo be perfectly untluud«d — n bag of dullitn, wliieh he kept luiiln' 
hl« pillow. ■ No wonder, tber«foir,' exclaim* nur philosopher. eiinnlngV inna- 
femiig hia argumrat tiom the conicnu to the container, and from the object 19 
tI« name' — ' no wonder, that ot Babel none ahould forget tbe term for lo inter* 
(•ting on ariicle.' "— Voh i, p. 30. 

Tli«<e tva crivn liuving been al laul exploded, and l)ic prrraattire 
BtloptioD of unvcrififd theories abandoned, a new race of philolo^'crs 
flniel< into a new path nnd cnlctvd diligently npoii the eollectioii of 
materiaU. In udditinn to existing stores, truvcllcra and others drew 
up Tocabularia of the langiucea of the coumrics they vtviled, many 
<n which they deposited, on tneir return, in public librxrien. 

" The jiidictnut Reland, wlioio lalHiiira In ihla department of literattir* hnv*^ 
been very much ovcrhioked, pnbllthed, tVoin iiiaiiii»cripta of thii lorl, preicrvt4 , 
in the Lcyden library, voeabiilaHei of the Mabyaliin. (Hntialeie, Malnbari<^ 
Japaneee, and Javatieie. . He alio took particular pnini ta collect from triivellen 1 
tpceimeni of Amrricii.Li lunguageii. In like mnnner, the culkclioni of Alfurr- J 
tchmidt. made during ■ acvcn yoara' rntiJencc in Sibetiii, atid deposited in iho 
Imperial Library at 81. I'eleributg. were of tignal wrvicu lo Klaprotb, in coin- 
piliiift bit Ana Paljglotlu." — To], i. p. 23. 

Collections of the honl's Prayer, in a variety of Inogungc*, were 
mode bySchildberjjet, Postcl. and Bibliander; which prepared lh« 
way for the ^ViUnVa^M of Ge»ner, pubtishcd in 1555, and die germ, 
we may fiiirly my, of its tnu^nificeiil nanicnke, ihc MiiAridatei of 
Adcluiig and Vnter. Suhseouent collectioni were made by Miillcr, 
Ludclie. l^tiirk, and others ; all of which were superecdeil by the moru 
exten»ifc series of Willilns and Chombcrlayne, puhlinlicd at Amslcr- 
dam, in 1715. 

buch was Uic nascent state of ethnography when Lelbnili ditcciei) 

KO. XXXII, — N. 5. % 


170 Hevehtivn and Stitnct, — KlAuvffrapiy. 

Itid bfilliaiU iimi seflU'liiDi:; tiiiiiJ to ibis, amoug many otlicr,— we 
might aliiiiMi say, among nil otlicr, — rfepnnmfnis of liiiniai] 
Icnmtng anil inquiry. It va* LeibniU who nmuldeJ tliese irre- 
gular and diaconnectcd materials into a science, by enlarging 
the object of cthno^niplticnl in()iiirA', and laying down the fun< 
mtftl principleH tipon wliiHi lliut ini]iiiry uus to proci-ci). He 
linted oiil iu usefulness in tracing the migrationB of early nations, 
penetrating even beyond their cmlicst ri-ciinU, nnd brining historiciil 
truth to light from behind the iiiliti> uf uniitilhentie tradition. " Je 
trouvc," Lc says, '" que ricn nc sert d;ivanl.igc a jugcr lies conneiiona 
doBpeuples <]ue Ics langiics. Par cxnnplc. In timgiic dcs Abyssins 
lieui fait connatlru ({u' i]* vont une colonic d'Arabes." And ngain : 
"Nihil inajoicm ad nntiquna giupulorum origincs indngnnda^ luccm 
prrebct ijunni collaliu tingunium." Nutwilhutumling ibc prcvimi* 
cnllcctione, ho ciJinplaiiu nf lli« Munt of niat«nuls : " CVal un grand 
d^faut (|ije ceux qui font dea duHciiptionB do pays et qui Uonncnl 
des relations dea voyage*, oublient d'lijouter dct cswig dc* liingiics d«« 
pcuplcs, car ccla (crvirail pour en fairt connuitre lea origine*." He 
therefore exhorted hia friends to collect worda into conipamtive 
tabica, to investigate the Oeorgian, to confront the Armenian villi 
the Cupiic, lo compare the Albuiu-ae witli German and Liitin. 

" Tliii WM llif I'riliciil mainml of (he •litdv, in rpj[nrij to religion m wrtl m 
cihnoKtnptiy ; and ihc icuion it pl»iti. Tliv olil lir wlilcli linJ Inthcttu lipid all 
langunf^ra in a lujiiiuavd alHiiify — lliclr ruuiiiciI dirii'ulioii frcim Htiiivvr — wit« 
now biokFii or luuiMii'd, onil nu olhcr lubaiilulcd fur il. Tli< niutcriala of i)ic 
■tudy, nhciici- t1ii> nioilern scii-nce had lu iuuv lii fair |iroporltoLiB, vrcrc uuu,- in 
• *UI« of filnioo, wilhiiul form or coiinexion. In III* tcmrrli for new mnlirials, 
each doy wvnicd to diicovcr a new lungimgi?, indcpcniteiil of nil jiri.'viixuly 
known, und conirqucnily to inct-uie itit- Jilucolly iif reconciling n|iptatiiiicc« 
wilh the narrnlin' ol' Mobpb," — Vol. i. p. MB. 

Meanwhile the collection of further nialcrinla went on. Voat 
additions were nmdc by Don Lorenzo Hervus y Pandnrn, 1784 — 
1787, who published, year aflcr year, at Oescna, hia niimcioiis qnartoa 
upon language, which were tranalotcd and republUhcd by his Jrienda 
in S|>ain. T\m industrious JcMiit, however, dreaded the tendency of 
lii« favourite purauit. 

"At every itcp hciecmi lo fear ihni iho >tudy ho in puiiuiiig may bo turned 
lo the prejudicci of rovolntion. He eviilcntly Inboun tmdcr a pcai nnxJBly lu 

Iirove ihi> I'Onlrary ; he nptfns nume of liii work*, and coiicIudH ulli«ra, with 
ong and clnlmrato (tinteiiiliuiis on ihli tubJccL" — Vol. i. \>, 33. 

While thin learned and indefatigable Jrauil was thus labouring in 
the south of I'lurope, no less a person, in the north, than Catheiinell. 
eneonraged this study by her patronage, and even proaeeuled it in 
her own person. The cast also contributed its aid. In 1784 the 
Asiatic Society wnt established at Cnlcutta, nn<l greatly promoted the 
study of the languages of caalern and aouthern Asia. Smscrit was 
cultivated by our countni'tnen with ardour and success ; while Chinese 
yielded to the sagtieity and diligence of the French oricntnli»lc. The 
AlMri^it^ begmi by .l"hn Christopher Ailelnng in 1806, nud 

S*t^alion itH't SciviHV. — EtknoffrafAti, 



i;ompleted by Viter and llic joudrct Addunff in 1817, biingi dawn ] 
<Mhno^p!iy to our nwn Any \ a»<) at lliin point Dr. Wiwrnnn p MJ M 
rroii) the liixtfliical part of liis siiliject to draw out IiIa results, and lo 
eliow Uie ronfirinattoii nliicli the Ulrst developments of etbuogiaphy 
have aflbrilcd In t!ic !«eri|>tiirnl liiifin- nf nmn'i dispenjon. 

" Toil liavn M'tn liiiw, Hi tlie rtotc t>( iho liwt crntuif, Ihc nunicrou< Un- 
cun^H gradually dircavcicd, Mcm«d lo render the nrobaljilitin (hat niuikind 
ba/A originally poiicucd a common toii^utr, miich«niall«T tboil befora; wlillr ihs 
diiiiiluli'jii ul p«rtiiin adinlLttd connextonaKiid anatoglti among ibot* prrrioiialjr 
bciown, arcmi'd la d«fy nil proof, from cDinpnralirr jiiilluto^', of tlicir having 
•cpniftlcd fiom a comiiion iiock. Ev«y new di»covriy only Mfipd loincitsM 
lliii perplvxil} ; and our ncitiicc iniitt at tlmt tini< huvi' preicnltd, lo Arrllgloua 
obirrrtr. ilit upprnruucv of u ttiidy daily rtccdiiig ftum •nund daclrine, and 
giviiie ancoiimgcntirnt lo ruh ipeculalion* ud danccioiu conjecture." — 

Vol. 1. p. aa 

And ycl amid all tliU chaos, a minciple of order wa* secrcllr at 
voik, and lasting harmony was about to «volve out uf temporary 

" llie alHniliea *Iiicli formerly Knd been but T«)to»!y icen bttwecn InnBwngN 
teparatcd in <h«ir origin by bi«lwy luid geagmiiliy, wgiin now to «ppi-nr defi- 
nite und ci!rluin. It wa* novf funnd that nvw aud inoit important connexion* 
•xi'Ecd unions UngnagM, *■> ai to oombiii* in large prav!no»« ur gronp* ill* 
idioms of nniioin whom na oil>ift rvnearcb could Iibvc thown to li« iniiiaally 
n;lul?d. It wiu found lliit the Teutonic diiilecti received cotiiiderabi* lijrhC 
from tlie langiinge of IVnia ; Ihnt Lalin liad remarkable poinW of conlaci «itU 
Runinn and thi.' ulli^r Sclavoiiinn idiom* : tliat tlie ihcnr}- of ihe Orrrk verb* 
in uif could nol nrtl ht uiidt-ntooil willioul rreouric tu llieir pamllvl* In San- 
Bcrit or Indian grammar. 

" In ilioii, it wu cloDrly domonitrattd that nne vpcech, mcniially m ealUd, 
pervaded a contidcrabl* portion of Europe and Aiia ; and •IrelcliiiiR acrow, In 
a brood BWfcp. from C»ylofl lo Icubinil. tmitrd, in a bond cif itolon, naliuni 

Eiral«(«l>g tliu iTimt irrcenncilcoblii rrliKioll', pouciilnK ibc moft diinmiUr 
nalitutiana, and bearing but a alight rmemblaiiDe in pliyiiugnoiny mid colour.*' 
—Vol. i. p. iO. 

Thii family of Intigfuagcs is called llic Injo-Gennanie, or Itnlo- 
European. 1 1* great memben are the Saiii!crit or anticnl and xacrcJ 
language of India ; the Persian, ancient or modern, formerlv con- 
BtdcTcd a Tartar dialect by Paiiw and Hervas; Teutonic, with its 
varion* dialectx, Slavonian, Greek, and Lotin, aeconiiranied I>y il« 
numermu derivatives ; and lo tlicnc mits^l \w. added the Celtic diulects. 
The territory occupied by this family cf Innffuagcs cmbmcca the 
wfholc of Fiuropc, excepting only the small traclfi held by llic Bis- 
cnran and by tlie l-'inniih family, including the Himgariaii ; and 
ftoiu Europe it extends and sweeps over a great pail of soullicrn 
Aab, with llic occuiona) intcrrnpttDn of iiuulated groups. 

We lee at once how the formation of this vast faiaily arcatly 
dtmini«hcs the number of independent original langiia^s ; and otlier 
great genera have been c<jtially well defined. The intimate rchition- 
ship between the difivrcnt dialects of the Semitic family — the 
Itebrrw, Syriv-Chnlihiic, Arabie, anil Gheet w Abyssinian — ha* 
been long ac know let Iged. 'i'lic Malay is aniilhcr iQtcrceling faniil/ 



less knou'ii, and tcn<Iing, in itn liistory, to csUblisli llie condtuion 
at wliicli Dr. Wiaeinan ]iropoaes to arrive. 

" In ntl Ili» Inn^UBgci composing tliii group. Ilicrn U a great lendenej' to the 
motiDiylliilnc fotm, and lo llicri-jict[ori of all inflexion; Ihui npjfraximalmg lo 
till? iii'if:hl)ouriiig g'oup uf Truiini^iigviic language*, with wliich, ind«i>d. 
Ur. I^ydcn ■ccint to iinitt llieia. 'Tlic vcrnnciiUr Indo-Chinese Inngiugei on 
U>c ooliliiwnl,' ho writM, "sepm to be. in their origitinl Biructure, eitlier puiely 
lnoiiat]'lluliic> likt the fpohfn languages of Cliina, or tlirv iiirliiio lu liiiidi lo 
IliiM d«i«, that i( iHity be itroiigly snujiecled llial llie fivt o(i(:ioHl polj'ij-Ilnblcs 
they conl.iin, biiv« ciihcr been imm e dial el y derived from the I'uli, or fornied of 
toaletcilig mnnoiyllflbles. 'Ilicsu lungungcfl are nil prodigiously v.iricd by 
ai'ei'tiluution. like lh« sjiukcii bingUAge of Cbitin.' Now among thvof laiiFiiugvii 
he ictkiiiii lliv lln^i', Jiivanex. Malnyu, TnguU, BntlB, and othcn, which an 
ullird. not ciiily in Kords, but in grjmraalicnl conilruclion, 

'' Ctnnfurd, confliiiiig hii obaerviilioii u'ilhiii rnther nnrrowrr limits, coinri to 
ibo inntecimi-liiMun. ^vane«c he (-I'riHJdeM »■ {iifteniing niunl eli'mf nt« ofthif 
Unguajte Mhicb furinn thv bmii of ull in l)u« c1a»; and jl in urcidiurly deit- 
cicnl in i^ranimulicikl forma ; nhich may be >aid no let* of (be Malayan cliateoL 
Indeed, lie, loo, hu reeogniicd fu tlrong s reaetnblaiiee, not only of wordii, but 
of ilriietnte. In lb« lunguttgCH ii|>nkrn all Ihrnugli the Iniliati Atclilpelagc, at lu 
natrant their liein|t elaiMd in one family. 

" Mandoo ia >lill mofc explicit, nnd ci^tcndj the limiln of the group a good 
deal fVirlher. ' Benidet ili« Miilftyau,' hb) s he, ' there are a VHnety <il' binguHgeii 
•pokeii 111 SumnlrA; whieh, however, liavv nut only a manifest uftinity iiiitone 
Ihoniiielvet, but uUo to that general language wbieb it found la prev.iil in, and 
tu be indigenoui lo, nil the iitanda of Ibe eaulern len, fr»ni Madngascnr tu ibe 
letnolcal uf Ciiplitln Cook's discovvriet; comprehending a wider extent tbau 
the Roman or any other tongiin hiui yet boanled. ... In dilfurent plaeen it hfu 
been more or leu mixed and corrupted; but between the most di^iimllar 
bmiiclie* un cvidvnt Biiinvneu uf tnaity radleiil wuida it nppiteDl ; and in name, 
very dintant from eaeli other in point of litiintion, us, for innlanee, the Pbilip- 
)iincii and Ma-lnKaKcar, the derivation of the word* ia tcurci-'ly more than ia 
obierved in ibc dialccfi of neighbouring pinvincci in tlie tnme kingdom.' 

" Thus, nj;ain, we bavo an iinnirnie fumily itri^lcbiiig over a vaat portion of 
ibe globe, niid eumpriilug many luiiginigen which, a few yeurt ngu, weie run- 
didered iiidependenl. . . . Ano il unuld nliuoat ujipcur ni if nanw aiHnily 
might be allowed between the Tmnigangelie and Malayan groupa." — I'p.lf 
— IP. 

By lilts great step in modern ctfinographic science, inslead i>f bojiig 
peTpIcxi;d willi a multiiilidty of bngii.i^'cs. we reduce litem to certain 
vcrv large groups, each compriaing iimny languages, formerly regarded 
IIS milependctit, but now proved to belong to a single ruinily. Fur- 
tlier n.'«c»Tc!it« disclose bulh wider and mure intimate rcliilii>n«lii]». 

" For example, the muroh of the Indo-European faniily wn* Biippiued by 
Malte-Bruii, in 1812, lube cninplelvly arrMted in the region of the Caueaaun 
by the langna^ci ilicrii ipuken, «* the ficorgian nnd ,\riiieiiian ; wbicb, to u*e 
bi« own worda, ' foi-.-ned thiic a family or group npiirl.' Bui Klupiotb, by hia 
journey lo the ('aiivutut, hat made it neceiioiy to modify thit nuieiiion to n 
grtal exient. For bo hat ptnv*J, or M. Iroal rendered i( highly probable, ihnt 
iJie language or oiic great tribe, the Otaetes or Atani, bcloii)."! to ihe gtvut 
family 1 have mentioned. Agniii, Armenian, wliioh Kredenr Sehlegcl liad foi- 
V canaid«red a tip«ciei uf inlenni-iliale janguiige, rather hangmt: nn ihc 
of ihci aam* group than incut iMiraied iherewilh, boa been by Kiopioib, 
frnnimaticnl, nn well »■ leiienl examination, prnved fairly lu IJelong to It. 
tUjhan, or I'uilituo, ho* iJiared tba ume futc." — 1'. !M. 

Jieeeiadm and ScietiC4.-^EthH6ffraplig. 


Wbil« tlie InJo-Eur»pean family hoa tltiia been cxlending iu 
homes and increaeinf; iU relationi!, other laii;;i)3g<-s, ficaiccty yet 
retleeniril from borWiBm, nre fouriil to be gcivi-riieil l>y llic mine law, 
and to exiiibil among tliemselvea an un questionable family liltenest. 

" In Afiica, tlif dinlooU whcrtof have been compamiifciy bill lijtic ilixliM, 
errry ncir rricurcli (li^playt coDncxioiiB belwrun Iribi-a «xlrn<lrtt over raat liaci* 
Mid o(\vn *«|israud by !ii termed lute iiMinna. In tliv Nutlb, bnwvrii tliv lai»- 
fpugci (pokcn by the Hctlirri and I'linrJIo. from the Caiiaric* to the OnMa uf 
Siera : in Cf nirnl Africo, between the diolrcti of ilic Fciolubi and Fonliui, who 
oeciijiy nenrly llif wholr iiitiirioT; in (lir Soiiih, flinuns llic iribci iicront the 
vholo contiiitui, from CnlTraria and Moxambiijug to the Atlantic Octixi." — 
Vol.i. p.fl'2. 

Such are the great facta, — so numerous, so minnte, so divcrelGed, 
ninBiDg tliroiiRli tlic whole of lime since the Deluge, spread over all 
JaixlK, yet all so explicit and aceunlunl in their lestimoiiv, — whick 
prove that many nations and tribes, covering vast tracts of eountry, 
and not unrrcqucntly wiiii-Iy separated, are ns only one people : and 
lli&t as many lungtiagn thitx cotnpuse, aflcr all, liut one group, so 
these groups arc included in some nider generalization. 

Having thus seen tbat laiignngcf^ in their preMOt Htale, though at 
fint view independent, are in reality related, it becomes a further most 
iDteresling subject of inquirvi whether they have erer been in closer 
connexion than at present. 

Two niethoda i)f invcslifiation Jiarc been pnraucd by modem cth- 
nograpliers, dividing them into two schools, which are designated l>y 
l>r. \Viscmaii, the lexical and the grnniRinlicii]. lliosc who pursue 
the lexical method of commrixon. Keek the nlUnity of liingiingcE la] 
their words; wiiilc those who belong to the grnramQlical school com- 
paic languages by means of their grannnnr. The fiirincr, to borroir| 
an expression from Kl.ipnith, cons-idcr words to be the stuff or matte 
of language, and grammar only its fashioning t>r form. In Germany, 
Von Hammer, and perhaps Frederic Sclilegd, may be enrolled 
among the members aX thix Kchool ; hut its chief membeni are to be 
found in Fmuce, Kngluml, and Kussia; of thcae it is sufSeienl to 
name Kloproth, Italbi, Abcl-Kcmnsal, and llie younger Adelung. 
The second opinion has its principal nupporten in Gennany;, 
\V. A. von Schlegel, and the late UaroD W. von Humboldt, bcin^j 
among its most distinguished chicl^. W. A. von Schlegel Iiaal 
Btronglr dcnouneed t)ic principlex of the lexical .tchool. "ViriJ 
docti, be says, "in eo proKipue pcecarc miLi videutur, tjuod nd 
rimilitudinem Donnullnnim dictionum <iua]enicumquc animuin adver- 
buit, divcrsilatem rationia grnmiiuitiac ct univrrsa' Jnduhs plane non 
cuninL In origiiic ignota linguarum explorntidu, ante omnia re»|>ici . 
debet ratio granimalica. Ha»; enim a niajonbus ad postcros propo-l 
gatur; separuri autem s lingua cui ingeniu est nequil, aut scorsum' 
JKipulis ila tnidi ut verba Hnguio vcmocula rclincant, forninioa 
loijucndt jKTCsrinus rfcipianl." 

Dr. Wiseman, luning ilaled the i»rinciplc» of these two etbools. 

174 RfeeUitioH and Science. — ^Ano^apAy. 

proceeds to advance certain considerationa calculated to narroi* the 
difference bettrcon tticni. 

" Nothing," he in [he fint place abiervH, " u mora common llinn to lind in 
ven judieivii* writcn, (hr idi'a thni there i* in language u tendency to developa 
ana improve llipmsi-lvc*."— P, 7;l. 

Tiius Hume TooUe would lead tia back lo a Lime vflien every 
aiuiliury verb had its real meaning, and wlicn every eonjonclion was 
an impemlivc- In like manner, by analjiing the conjngntionnl 
sjrKtein of the Seroilic lunguages, especially tlie Hebrew, wo can 
resolve it into the mere addition of pronouns to t)ic simple elementary 
fonn of the verb. Wi- can diKOver in tlieir words lite Inieefi of 
monosyllabic roots, instead of tlie dissyllabic roots tliey now present. 
From these and similar phenomena in otlicr langTiages, ninny learned 
ineo,^ — among whom may be mcntiimed Adclting, Klajiroth, Mi- 
chaelis, ticncsius, — have conelud<^d that lan)riiagc8 have acquired 
their present state by a gradual development from some more 
simple state during nn extended course of years. Dr. Wiseman 
strongly dissents from lliis conclusion : — 

" I'roni tliii opinion, wliidi I roiifru I once held, I muil tonttly dlurnl; for 
hitliorto ihe tipcncncn of ■(■vrral ihuii-^and yean doei not BfToid ui a tingle 
damplc of ■ponlancolli drvclopmont iji any speech. At whatever period u'o 
nwet a InngunKc, we find it complete a> lo iu eitentinl and chart ct«ri*tic qiiall- 
Um. II niny ri-cvivv a lliiiir pulliih. n grenier copimisnet*, n moTR vnried con- 
•truetion ; bill iti iprcilic itiatinctiri:*, iis vitui principle, lis loul, if 1 niuy lo 
call ii, appear* fully I'oriiied, and ctiii cliuiige no mnic. 

"Ifnn Bltcrntion doci lake place, ii ii only by tlic spritiginff itp of n new 
lan^iagc, pUa'nix-hke, from (he ailirn uf annllicr; nnd even where tliit lue- 
CPwioii ha» happened, — n> lit ihnt i>r IiHJiiin to I,atin, and of English lo Anj^lo. 
Suon, — there i*a veil of iccrcty thrown over (hc^clmnge; ihr languu^-c nvnu 
tofjun n web of myitciy Tound iuclf, and to enter into ilie cliry unlit tUte; and 
wc see it no more, till it vincrgei, somctimei more, lomctimea lex henutiful, 
but nlwnys fully fuiliioncJ, and no farllier inutiible. And even there, we thnll 
»ve (hat tlie former condition lieid iilr*nd^ wiiliin Itielf the part* and oriaiia 
randy moulded, wlucli were one day lo ij^ivc aliape and life lo (he Kuceeeding 

" The two language* nhidi I hnvo jiint mentioned, ue ai perfect, as lo their 
owential ffnlurei, or ralher llicir pcrtonntlty and ]>rliiciple of iilenlily, in iho 
oldest as in the lateit wtiten. Ijf Uante. or the Gnidoa, 1 need not ipenk ; 
but our Chancer, too, aainrtdly found in his native tongue, oi fully -slringed. 
aniil ai ivcetly-attuncd an Innlnitnent whereon to dag hi« laj, ni ^^ordtwu^tll 
bimtelf could dviir*. So il it with llii< Helinrw. In the writinRs of Muict, 
nnd in Ills eiiilier fVagments incorporated into Genraiii. the etHenllul glritcrnre 
of the language ii complete, and apparcnily incapable, in ipile of il* manifnt 
imnerleclion, of any rarlhci improvement. The nnelenl bgypiian, ox wrilltn 
In Wraglypliic* npnn llio oldest moniimente, and in ihe L'oplic of ih* Liturgy, 
after an inlerrnl of ihiee thousand ye.iri, hoa been eelRbliiJicd by Lepsiiii lo be 
ideniicu!. 'i'lie »am« will be obieived upon comparing the oldest with (he Utmt 
Greek or Lulin wriiert. The eniie oflhelail Is particularly »irlkii)g, if wc coo- 
•irlrr the oppoTttiiiity nf improvement alTorded il by ruining in contact wit)i the 
lint thoiiHli ihc eonqneil of rircnee brought inio rude Lullum tcnlp- 
paintiiig. poesy nnd hiilory, art and Kiencc; llicugh it rounded the 
Ito pi-riuda, nnd save new ■iippleiie** and energy lo it* language, yet 
■d« n ti'iiac or (li-clension lo lu )|;nn)mar, n paiticle lo il* lexicon, or 
ita dlphabel. "—i'p- 7* - iti. 

Rt>KUitioH ajtd HcitHce. — Etlmo^fapiy. 


Tbia a[>iTiioii of Ur. Wticman is FonSrtnci) by the jml^niirnt <if 
William von Humboldt, who. in & lelUir to ill. A bel-Kenmwl, 
Hyi: " Jc n« itgarile pns !« ToniiL-a grammnlii'JiIrR cKminc Ics fiuils 
des pTOftr^H qu'une iiatitin fait OanB I'snal^vse de la muw.'e, dmii 
ptuCot CDtnine un Ksultat dc la iiiuiiicrc doiit unr nalicin cunsid^re 
cl lnut« n Uogue." Aiid a^iii : " Je nui* jiciiclre <li.- h conviction 
(|U*i1 De fiwt pu iii£coiinu!tre cclte force vraimeiit ilivini- (jue rcc^- 
lenl les rucull^H huinain<«, cc RCinc crcolcur dcs nations, iurtoiit 
(Ltns Tctnt primitil', ou Inuitt Ivs idvc*, vt nicnic Ice fncuU£s <ie 
rime, ritifiruntcnt une fofce plus vivc tie la nmiveitiit^ fi« iniprrs> 
eiona, oCi rttomme peut pTCB°cnticr dcs combinaiaons nun qiteltes il no 
KCinit Jamais arrive par la mnrclic k-nlc ct pnif^cmivc dc 1 cxpericRcr. 
Ce gciiK cmteur peut fmucbir Ich liiuilea cjui ■emblcnc p^^Bcritca 
ftu rctte Ht* niortcN, «t »' it est impossible de retraccr sa lunrcbr, n 
presence vivifianic nVn est piis inoin« inniiir<-stc. Pliilot <juc dc 
rciionccr dans IVxplintion dft r<>rigiMe dee laiigucK, it Tinfliicncc dc 
cctic cnu»e piiitotuitc ct pi^'crii^re, ct de Irur asiigiier d tniiicK une 
niorclie uniforme et m£cani<|uc, qui Ics tratnerait |iaa a pas depuis lo 
eoniinriiccment le plus groMter junqu'a Icur pcrrcciifmncmcnt, 
j'ciiibnuyemis roiiinion de ceux qui npportcnl rori(ciiic in bogtici* i 
uitc revelation immediate dc la divitiitt^. Us n-cunDaisscnt sux 
moins IV-tinccllc diiiiic ({ui liiit a Irnvcis U>us Ics idJomcs, m^inc Ic8 
pluB impHFJiiits, et Ics moms ciiltivcit/' 

Itc^ardinf; the graminnticnl ([nicture of a language not tncrclvas 
its outward romi, but ax il* most essential elcnii-nl, Dr.^V'iscman 
cotiirovcrt* Sclile^la opinion, tlial under no circumKtancos can a 
language undergo ciiaagc ; and maintains, tbat under the prcusure of 
peculiar influcncce, a langun^ mnj he. ho cluinged, n« tlint its u-ords 
KbaJ] belong tn one clost, and its grnmmHr to anottier. 'Mini, ns 
Schlegcl himself allows, Anglo-Snxun loet ilx fp-ommar bj- iLo Normuii 
CoTmuesl. Thus, Italian liii!ii*pmng out of Latjii, more by the adop- 
tion of a new i;raiuniaticul svntcni, than by any change of words. 
Sir William Jiirics has obsen-ed with regard to the ancient IVhlrvi 
or Pahlavi, that ihc wonts arc Semitic, but llic pmrnmar Iud<H 
Eiiropcnn. " Were 1 to oflVr an opinion," «yt Mr. Crawfuid, 
"trtiicelinj; the liintoT)' of the Karti, (a language of (he Indiailj 
Aniiipclago,) I should say thnt it is SanRcrit, deprived of its ini_ 
flexion*, and having, in tlieir rocnn, ibe prenociitinni and auxiliary 
verbs of the vernacular dialects of Java." Abcl-Remusnc Ims fouivl 
that the Tartar languages have departed from the origiiinl tyi)c of 
their gninnmattcal construct ion. And, once more: the Aniliaric 
liingitngr, nhich at first «aa auppoeed la be a dialect of the Obcei, 
(Abyssinian.) and then to be Semitic, ts now alieg<^l, by the nio« 
recent inquirers, tube of Afrioin pedigree, and only Co have imitated 
Semitic inflexions. 

(iiiidrd by tliCM and other facta of a simitar notnie. Dr. Wiseman 
is led to by down the fullo«ing rule for examining verbul affi>a%\.\R*-. 


I TO Jlfiretatlon and Seimce. — Ethtio^raplif't 

*n iii( not to Iiwo the gowl of tlie lexical nielhoj, wliile coining nearer 
to tlic sevcrrr rciiuisitionB oi iho grammtLtical scliool : — 

" I'hii rule it, not la ukc wiirtl) h^longing la one or two language* ia dllFtrent 
(ilinilloi, nnd, from ihcir lemmbbncc. whicb may be accidrntal or conimu- 
■ieated, dtaw infctencfi rcfcriiblv to tli« eiilire raiiiilics lo which tliey rupee- 

lively brlunc : but to comp.m togvtlirr woriiii uf niliiple iinjiort and priniary 
DoetHily, lehick rnit thtaugh 'he riilirt famUui, and, conseijueiitly, are (if I mny 
(o expTCii inj-iclf,) aboriginal thtrciii. — P. 88. 

By means of tliis nilc, DrAViscmnn guccceds in tracing a closer 
gmnnnntical connexion between the I iidu- European and Semitic Inn- 
cua^es ttian lias as yd been detcetcd. Wc must refer our rtaidcrs to 
nis own pages for some copious passages from certain letters, 1835 
and 1836, uf l>r. Lepwim ; who has closely applied himself to tlic 
study of Coptic, with a view to discover its relations with other liin- 
guiigcs, seeing that it has hillicrtn been considered an isululed and 
independent tongue. The concliiaioii to which these in vca ligations 
have led is, — 

" That iho aticient Egyptian, now Tulty ideQltRed with the Coptie, li no 
longer lu h* coniidcteil an riiiulslcd luiigunge, void of connexion »ich thoic 
around it; but iiregiont* very cxtrnordiciHry point* of cunloct with Ilie liida- 
Kiiropcan ond Semitic fBUnilici; noi, indeed, luffieienlly diilinct lo iiiiike it 
erilpr iiili> eillicr dais, but yet xiHicirnlty dtlinil* and rooted in ibe euciitial 
eonititutiiin of tde InngiiBge, to pi»*ent tbelr being oon»idered accidental, or a 
luler tngiafling tlierenjwn. 

" I'he ellVcti i>t ihii inlerinediary obaracler, according to Lapiius' expres- 
won, ii to tfioup higvihrr, in » very recnackHbl* harmony, tins cyelii of lan- 
ffuagci; fu lliat liiileod of nny longer eonsidtring tbo Indn-Kurojican and 
Svmitie aa rumplwiely inxiilaled families, or being conipelled <□ find a few verbal 
eoincidcnccH between them, we niny now consider iheni an linked toy-tliiT, bulh 
bjr pointi ot actual coiiliii:!, and liy die inlerpoiilion of tl>e (^ipiic, in nn iiflinity 

Kounded on tlic esiential sttuclurc and moil neee»ssiy fonni of ibe three."^ — 

Tlius far wc have pnniucd our course nnionK the lunfruaijeH uf the 
Old World. But here n long Iniiii of civilization, — which, even if 
migratory, ha? left visible traces of its inBiicncc in every country it 
has visited, — nnist hnve done much towardK the aiutiinilation of form* 
and tlie ninalgnmalion uf diidccLs. Let us, then, cross the Allanlic, 
and extend our inquiries) lo llie iwlivc languages of the Western 

Tlip number of dialects spoken by the natives of America ia so 
great as almoKl lo exceed belief. Indeed many persons did refuse to 
pivc credit to Ilnmhaldt'it rep.irU on lhi» subject when they were 
finit puUli'.Iird, It appeared to ihcm lo be utterly inconsistent willi 
ill* icripturul tiainilivc of llic lineal dcseetit of ihc whole human nice 
from a single pair, that sueh numeruus initignilicant tribes ahould have 
niiiT'Rtcd so far, and should each speak a ian;;uuge of its own, wholly 
•telli^ble to its neighbours. And while bclicvCTS in revelation 
le one hand, rijeeled Humboldt's neconnt, unbelievers, on the 
r liand, did not hesitate lo assert llint America had an aboriginal 

Itfreiation anJ Scien^, — Htinoef>-afihy. 


___Mion of its o«Ti, iii»Iop«iiili'nt of ilmt of Uic t««tcTn world. To 
meet thin oiij^vlioii, die ilermiders of religion hail recourse U) vnrioiiH 
liirpolhcses wiUi regard to tlic Eonrcc from wliicli America had received 
hrr population, and the inennn by wliidi llie inlinbitants of more 
(tt*lern rrgiunii liad been tnuiipoTted lliitlier. 

" Campomnnfi pnlroniii-d ihs Ciirlliaeiniana, Kitch«r nii4 Hupt v!it Egyji- 
liui*, Ue Giii^n ih* Hun*, Sir William Jonct the Indiniu, and maii^ 
American tmliquarin the ten Lribcs of lirarl."' — P. 131. 

Ellin ograpliy lins grappled with thit problem. Smith Ikrton was < 
the first who made any progress in the attempt to trace an analogy! 
between llie Ampriean dinlccts and the languaces of northern anu ] 
eutera Asia. The subject wns cnrricd on by Valci in liis Mithrt- [ 
iattt. Malte-Bniii ulteinptcd n fortlicr step in advance, and emiua' i 
Tonred to eelablieb ^thal lie calls a gcographica] connexion between] 
the American and Afiatic Inngnnges. 

" After n minute inveiti^tion, )iii eonelutioni are \\\*tt : — llinl UIIim con* 
neotrd vltli tlie Fiiiniili, Oftiuirl:, PrrmiLin. nuA C'tiiicuinn familii-t, pauing 
Along III* border* iif lli* Fr<>Mii Ocenii, and ccutiiiij; mm ili'liTiiit:'ii SiriiiU,J 
■pr«ad ihritMiilvei in very dilTcr^nt lawnnii (Sii^oulaiid mid Chill jj 
thai ollien, oliird la ihu Jii]>nneBc. Cliineic. and KuvrtiUiiiii, iirocri-din); ulriiigl 
llif Conil. peiietriliid in Mpiiuu ; mid lliiil annlhfr ciilniij'. ruljled In Oic Tiin-J 
|>cKitPt, hfiuilcheaiin, and Mangoli. pnncd aloiid (lie inoimlnin-trncti of both con^ 

■mailer rmit'i^iiuiu to have horiic over n certain niinibpr of Miilaf, Jnvuiieae, 
and African wordp,"— 1*. 12.X 

^Vc must not lay mucli stress on tlicsc conclusions. The reecm- 
blanccs between Amcrimu an<l Asiatic laiigiuges, from which tli<>yare 
drawn, are too slight for tliia piirnoae ; and tlie above- men lion ed 
niigraiions arc not supposed, even by tlic authors themselves, to do 
more than add to n populntion nliendy existing. 

" But Ihcrr are conclniiom drawn by clliiiu^'rapliical laii'nce frotn the olMaiy 
THiliiii bolh of urneral and local p)ii<i><»n«nn, wliicli livnr irioat iiiatpriitlly upon 
Ihlt poiiit, And liAvs coin 111 i-ttly removed nil lh« ditHvnltic* ariaing (rnni iho 
muttiplicit)' of Anirricon laiiftiia^ct. 

*'.\nd, fint, the examination of ihe *tTUOl»ra pervadipg all l1i« Ain«riraii 
laiigusfiet hoi lefl UD room lu doubt lliat they all furm one imliviilual family, 
etaiotjr kniited together in all in piirls liy ilie mud ttKCiitial of all lie* — ^raiii- 
muUcat analojiy. Thin analogy ii not or a vngue. iniUrinile kind, liiil campleit 
ill ihv e^irtnie. and affeding the moal neceiiar; uiiil eMrntial jmrit of girnn- 
mar ; for il conilil* chi<4y in ibe ii^ciiliar molbodt of modilying conjiign- 
lionnlly tlie inraninKm and O'latinni uf vciibi by tlie Inieition of ayllabliii : mid 
lliLt furm li'd llii- lute W. von Ilumbolilt to give llie Auierieun laiigiingci • 
rsniily iinnie, a* Torniiiig their coi\jngat!un bv what li« ealltd agyhlinaliou," — 
I*. 125. 

Not in tliia analogy partial. It extends over both Korlb and 
SoDtb America, binding together ttic languages of the most civiliicd 
nations and of the mn«t Imrbaroiis tribes, impressing a bmily cha- 
racter on the longiics ?^pokcn under tbc Torrid and tlie Arclic tones. 

" Stcondly. Ibe inure altenljun ii paid to Uiu »ludy of llic American lan- 
gUUM, the more they are found lubjiret m l]i« Uw» of oilier (uiuiliCT, indM-nutU 
ai ilib im« great fuaily lend* «vcry day to luhdixido \lKtVf \i\\uW%« %iuu\». 

KO.XXXII. — t/.a. A A 






178 Siftthtimi aW Sennet, — EtAmyraphy. 

hivin;; cIo*er ofllnilirt witb ihomwIvM than wiUi the gtcnt diviiioii of tthidi, 
in Ihtir luiii, llwy form ft pari."— P. 136. 

Thus miuionnrics have found tliat certain litnguages are kcyn lo 
many dialed* ; ho lliftl wliuever possessed an acqiminlAncc witli Ihuse 
coropanitivcly few languaijcs, could easily master the rest. 

Althougli it iiiny pnrtakc of tlic nature of a digression, wc coniiot 
AToid noticing ttie etlect of IxirlinTigni iipou language. The lir«t 
public and ai?nu1 act of Ilini through whom the one vast Universal 
Society IE bnng niyslicnlly built, until till nations shall flow into it, 
nnd all the Icingdums of litis vrorld shall become llic kingdom of our 
Lord, was to confer upon the Apostles the gitl of tongues : and 
St. I*anl, whenever he oilverU lo tlic subject of language, speaka of 
(iivereity of tongues aa an evil which is eventually lo be done away 
in Christ. As christian and catholic influences possess n uniting 
quality, M bnrburisin, — which is one of the prinie fruits of sin, and, 
of all the states in which our race is found, the most unnatural, — dis- 
SdIvc* the bonds of language, disintegrates society, and resolves the 
grcJit Imnian hrolherhood inlo vleuienU inutuitlly repulsive and 

" In IniMDCM whvra no ilotibt citii tkiat of lavngv honlea hiving been 
origiftBlly iiii1t*d, there htii aprun); up oinong tbem so rndleu mid hi coniplrte 
a viuicly of dialect, thnl littU cr no Bfliiiity cnn be tlifrein ilhcovtrvd. And 
h«DCO we have, ua it were, o rati-, tliut tliF Mvngi' state. \iy iiiiulaiiug fnmlllea 
and (rjhri, tailing ihe arm of cncb one ever ognin^t hii neigbboun. has ciaen- 
lislly the cuntmry iiilluriicu (u lliu a^regsiiiig, unifyiiiE; tendencies of Ea<:iid 
el rill cation ; »i<l necetiurily introduce* a JMlout diviijitty, and uiiiiil«ltl(;ible 
idiora*, into the jargons which bcdga round the independence of ililTerrnt 
horde*."— P. 128. 

Turn, for example, lo the Polynciian Irihcg. " The Papuans, or 
Oriental Negroes," says Dr. liCjelen, " seem to be nil divided into 
very BmsU states, or rather societies, very Utile eonneeled with each 
other. Ilciice iheir language is broken into a multitude of dialecU, 
which, in process of time, by separation, accident, or om! orniption, 
have nearly lost all rcsemblnnce." Crawfurd, in his Hiaton.' of the 
Indian Archipelago, notices the same fact. " Languages," he myt, 
** follow the same progress. In the Kavag<: rlatc liiey are great in 
number, in improved aoe'ety few. The slate of languages on the 
American continent affords a convincing illustntion of this fact ; and 
it is nol less satisfactorily explained in thut of the Indian ithindt. 
The negro races who inhabit the mounlaina of ihe Malaya pen insula, 
in ihe lowest and most abjccl slate of social existence, though 
numerically few, are divided into a great mnny distinct tribes, 
»pRiking m many distinct languages. Among the rude and scattered 
population of the island of Timor, it is believed that not less than 
forty languages are spoken. On Endc and Florcs we have also a 
mulliplicily of languages i ami among ihe cannibal popuiation of 
CO, it is not improbable that many hundreds arc spoken." 
e are now in a condition to draw a conclusion from all the pre-' 

ftrtriation and SeUiKe.—Slinoffrafii; Hd 

ceding feci*, — which, il will \x rcincniberctl, do not even approach to 
nthnitatiiig Uic subjccl, but arc merely a few of the more flriltinj; 
cXBmptca, — aa to the bcarinB of lli« science of etiinognphv upon tlic 
SncrrJ Ut'cords. From the foregoing review of its history, it 
appears that in iU firtt rise it threatened to become n deKlnictirc 
torrcnl, bearing awny. In its tiirbiiU-nt watera, miicti whicli the iiioua 
itiiiul holds dear. It broke down the connexion that had hiiiicrlo 
bound languages together, and hurried ihcm in wild eonfasion dom 
its headlong Mtrcain. But, us it advanced, the real affinities of l>n- 
gungei, javourod by this state of lolulion, began to opentc ; and 
instead of the omorphoua conglomerate vhick " illicit anticipation" 
bad formed, an orderly crytlailization conimcnccd, RKiiililiiig tlie facta 
into slinpcs of beauty, regular in form, and vivid with the reflected 
lijfht of hiavcn. 

" L«t us look back for a momeiit," tny* Dr. Wiieman, "at ilia connexion 
Iwtwccn out uluily nnd tli<* wcreil rcrtnd*. From ihe simple lilnUiiJcal oiiiliiM 
which 1 have laid bcfor* ytt\>, it apjioAr* ihit lU &M ntc iccmcd filter to 
ini|)its nliirin tliati confldcnco, intoinucb at II broke in mndrr lh« givul boud 
ancicnily iiippMed la bold then nil togclher ; (hen for a lime it went on itill 
fivlber ■c>-rnn|! and dlDmemboring ; contcnucntly, lo all appraranci, (vtr 
widvalog the breach bcivef n iUelf and Mcred biilorjr, la il« IbLlwi progfMi^ 
il b>g«u l« di«(K>viT iitw sffiiiitirx wli«rc l«*«i axiwcud; till, by dtfren. many 
language* began to be grouped and cloBiRed in Inrfieraniilieii, ackiiuwiedt-rd l« 
hurt a comrnon origin. Then, new inquiries graduollj' diiiiiniilied llic iiuiiibar 
of independent laogui^M^ and edendvd, iu cuns<>qucac<v the dominion of (ho 
bir)(er mattct. At hngtii, wb#n llib fleU seemed almoit axliaontvd, a new eliui 
iif ri:icaichc( Iina *ni:cccdcd. to (at n* it lion been Irlcd. in proviBx tlie eilxaar- 
dinnry afliuity between llictc fumilirs ; ulfiiiiiiei exitling in llie very cbaracur 
nnd viMTiicp of each language, to ihnt none of tliem «ouM ever bnvc rxiiltd, 
wiilioiit lh(Mc eloment* wliBrcIii (be rr»(-iiiblunci^t coniiil. Nov, oi ibiiexcludes J 
all idea of one harinc borrowed ihem from ibe oilier, m llicy cuiild not hnv* | 
arlMR iu each by indqiendenl proceiHa. nnd at the »di<-iU Jiifereni'e among I 
(1i* langnngo* forbidi iheir beinr eonaiilvred dialect* or ofiibool* bom one J 
another, wc an- driven lo die cnncTu'Ion, Uml, on the one band, these langu^at I 
Ria»t liHve been originntly nniCcd in one, whence ihey drew lliMa common I 
elcmruM eseniial to tlicin all ; and, on the orber, tliat Ihe Mparnliun betwctn | 
Ihcm, wliicb destroyed utlieT DO Imb imporiant elemenl* of rcaemblarioe, could j 
not have betn cauard by any gndunl depnrlure, or individual devcloiimcnt, — J 
fbr ikeie we hare long «i nee excluded,— but by aoaie violenl, uimtujl, end 1 
active force, mflicimt alone to reconcile thetu conflkling A|ipeaTunuC9i, and to J 
account at oneo for the reKnibloncM and the dif&r«ncei. It would be dilltcult, j 
nielhink*, lo My what faithar itep tli* most itiialiuble or unrfntonaldo accptic 1 
could rcnciire, lo bring ibe result* of tbig science inio cloae nccorJnncc willi iho 1 
setiptuinl account." — Pp. 103 — tOt. J 

And in this coticlusicm all the most distingni§hcd etlmographcra i 

agree. " HowcTcr insulated, " says Alrjiander von Humboldt, I 

" ccrlain langungrs may at first appear, however siugular tlieit J 

caprices An<l their idioms, all have an analogy among them, and llieir I 

nuinenius relations will be more perceived, in proportion as llic phi- J 

losoplikal history of nations and llic study of bngiingcs sliull be J 
brought to perfection." Goiilianoff enilnisinsticnlly ii\iiit\taJ.ft'td. \.\m. 
origiiinl unity of Uogxiagcs. Mciian, in \ii» Tripai'lituna, ^\v»\'&. 


so RmdatioH ani Scimee. — Ethit^uf/hi/. 

liis adl:esion to Oic »inii: ondiiMon. Even Kkprutli, nlUioiij-li an 
unliap))/ disbeliever in tlie Mosiiic Iiislory of l!ic Dispersion, Halten 
liiinsi^iriii his Alia Polyiflotla, and oilier work^ that " lUc univenal 
uDinitv of languages ii placcil in so sUong n tiglit, that it tnti»t be 
coii»i<feieil by oil ns completely demonstrated." In GUpporl of liJa 
position. Dr. Wisenmn records llie sentimenle of Frederic Schlege), 
wboDi lie cliaracteriacs as — 

" A iiiiLD to wham our age owei more tliaii our children 't cliililrcn can repay 
— uvnr niid puivr fevlliig) upon utt and iu lioUnit xpplicaliuiis ; iUp attuiiipt. at 
lentl, tu luin pliil<i»ipliy'a pye innnrd upon iho >iiii1, unit to eiimjxiund the matt 
Mcrcd dements of ili Hpiriiuul powfri will) llie iii^redieiiis or Imniaii Icnow' 
Mge ; above all, lliu tucretsCut ihscuvviy uC n ridier liidla tlinn Vaaco Je Gaina 
iipcni'il iiiitu Europe, wliose vhIhc ii nol in Ui ipicri. and JU pnnrti, and iis bar- 
baric gulil, but in trncti o( idencc unexplored, in niiuea bng unuitDnght of 
native uiiduiii, in Irvaiurc*. deeply burii'd, <•( sytnbulic )eaniin}[> and iu iiionu- 
mciiti, long bidden, of piiinciviil and vciu'riililK IraiUtiona." — P. 109. 

^lilegel comidered Inngunirc to be on imlividnnl gift to man, and, 
consequently, in its origin only one. In iiis PkUotopli'j nf Spetch, 
he says :— " Willi our present scnws nnd orcnns it i» us impossible 
for lis to form tlie remotest idea of lliat Bpeccli wliich Uic first mail 
po&aesccd before lie lo^t his origimd power, perfection, and worth, ns 
It would be to reason of that mysterious discoitne whereby immortal 
spirits sent) their iIioucIiIh across the wide spnco of licavcu upou 
wings of light ; or of lliose words, by crcatetl beings unutterable, 
which in the iinsenrchublc interior r.f the Deity arc spoken, where, a» 
it is in hoty song expressed, depth ealleth upon depth, — lliol i.-i, llie 
fulness of cndteiw love upon eiemnl majesty. When, from this un- 
attainable height, we deneend agnlii unto onrielvee, and to the fint 
umti such as lie really wns, the simple, unafTeetcd namtlivc of that 
twok which cantains our earliest records, tlml God la\ight mfl,n to 
bptaik, even if wc go no fiirthcr tlian this Mmple, unaflcctcd sense, 
wiH be in necordonce with our natural feelings. For how could it be 
otherwise, or how conid any other impression be made, when wc con- 
Ipder the relation which (3od therein holds' — of a parent, ss it wcic, 
teaching her child the firtt rudiments of speech." 

" But under this simple sense there lieth, as doth ihrongli all that 
book of two-fold import, another, and a far deeper significaiion. 
The name of any thing, or living being, even as it is cnllcd in Ooil, 
and designated from eternity, holds in itself the csientia) idea of its 
innermost being, the key of its cxislenee, ihe deciding power of its 
being or not being ; and so it is used In sacred speech, where it is, 
moreover, in a holier and higher sense, united to the idea of the 
Word. Aeconling lo lliis deeper sense and understanding, it is in 
tlial nnrmtion shown nnd signiBed, according as I have before briefly 
remarked, that together with speech, entntalcd, eoramnnicatcd, and 
delivcrod, immediately by God to man, and through it, he was 
^stalled ns the ruler and king of nature ; yea, luoro rightly, as th« 

puted of God over this eartliiy crcaUon, unto which office was his 

vaaj dcsUnalion." 

Hn«lat4v» and Scime^, — EUinografiy. 


Our readers will rcmcnibcr ihat vc drew out two piDpoaUiouj 
t«uc1iing lnii<,'iia)^, rn>i» llic Mu«aic nnmttivc ; fi»t, Uuit lai^ 
wiu origiiiuUy one ; ami, iccontlly, tliut iVc pn-itent iiiulliplicitv sni] 
Tariiiy of languages is due to ■ smldcn and violent cause. The fimt 
projiosilion lias been confirmed br iboM etIinogTaphica] rcscarehca 
ad rt'iuonings whicli we have in this paper preaenUd to our readers ; 
pd tlic second almost necessarily fu1]o\?s from ihe first. Thi« is 
eknowlcdgcd bv the beat cllinngm pliers. Abcl-Romtisat, after 
ip3liating on tlic manner in viliicli sueli pursuitH a* ilioHC of liia 
Recfi^rcAii tiir let Lam/ua Tartaret, may be brought to bear upon , 
history, tliiis concludps: — " It is iJicn we slioiild be nbic to pw>«| 
nonnce with prceision, irlint, aecordiitg (u the luiigtinge of n ficotilo, 
was its origin, what llie notions wiih which it has stood in relation, 
what tlic character of that relation was, to what stock it belongs ; at 
leut, until that epoeli when pruraiic histories cca»e, and where wo 
should End among languages tliat confuiiion which gave rise to theiu 
all, nnd which sucn rain attempts have been made to ciplain." Tha 
fact recorded by Moses i» the ainiple nnd iiUininle key to ihcire plic- 
Domeoo, Nicbubr, again, in one of the later editions of his His- 
tory, ndmiU that such a miracle as the confusion of tongues, nt soma 
given date, "ufTenda not reason." To Abel-Ueuiusal and Niebidir 
WG may add Balbi. In the preparation of his Athu Ethnmiraphiqttt 
dti GMa, he was assisted by the ablest etiinograplient of I'oris ; and 
henco to his own ocuuaintancc with tlio science to which he liog 
devoted himself, he add* a knowledge of the views entertained by^ 
those who have prosecuted this study with hardly less dili^nee tliaa I 
himself. In the Erst of his charts, claasifying Unguals according to 
ethnographic " kingdoms," ts be calls ibcm, he thus cxpresites him- 
self: — " The book* of Moscf, no monument, citliei ntstorieal or 
astronomical, lias yet been able to prove false; but with tliem, on 
the contrary, agree, in the most remarkable manner, tic resulls 
obUiined by the moit learned jdiilulogcrs and llie profoundcsl 

^Vo have now broufflit our readers to the conclusion of Dr. AVia^.' 
man's first nnd second lectures. In the tliird be cutcre upon a re- 
laleil but separate science, — the physical history of man ; and by a 
course similar to that he has pursued in the preceding lectures, con- 
firms, from this science, the dccloratioa of lioly Scripture, that all 
mankind, notwithstanding their wide and deep phyilcn] diStrcnecSi i 
BTC dcseendcd from a single pair, are llie oE&pring of one common , 
stock. Wc reserve tins highly interesting subject lo a futuro. 

Throughout the foregoing discussion, we liare treated gencndly 
of the resemblances and difllcrciKea of laoguages, witliout entering 
into any consideration of their special naturek This, indeed, is a 
distinct topic ; full of interesting matter, but too eitentive to bo 
entnred upon in our present nnper. Dr. Wiseman has g1an<x^ at it 
IB ibc conclusion of his secoDu lecture, and has pulatjcd Vj» ott,^ t£ ^^<a 

182 Rttetation and Science, — Ethiio^ra/ihy. 

ulterior pnrjiOAcs of wiailcmi mid gomlnets vihkh liavc bct-n wurlccd 
out by means of what nppcats, at first wglit, to be an cxclusiwly 
pcnnl dispcnRntion. Tlimiglit RovernB language ; but it is no Icbs 
Iniff, tliouj^li not, pi.-rliii)i«, so of\en felt anil nek now] edged, tliat lun- 
f^uage ic-acta upon thought ; so that llie minil of n nation uitist, in a 
grrnt mcMiirc, corr»pon<l to llic Inngunge it possceacs. 

Now there is this remarkable clifTercncc between tlic two gra>t Ian- 
Ruagcs that have been so often mentioned, — the Semitie. and the 
Indo-European ; that while tlic former is " destitute of partidcs and 
of ^Bimnatiuil fnrnia suited to express the relations of thin^, iiu- 
yicUling in ita eonslruetion, and conlineJ, bv the dependence of its 
words on vcrbol root*, to ideas of outwurd action," — llie Indo- 
Kuropcnn enjoys " a wonderful suppleness in expressing the inwanl 
and oulwani relations of things, by flexions in ita nouns, by condi- 
tional itnd indclinile tenses in ita verbs by the tendeney to make or 
iidapl innumerable particles, but prinei])a]ly by the powerrul and 
dmost unlimited faculty of eompotinding words ; joined whcrcunto 
is tlic facility of varying, inverting, ninl invulving tlie construction, 
and ibe power of immediately and completely tmusferring the fores 
of vordflfrom u material to n purely mental reuresentalinn." 

And may wc not see in this an mlnptiitioii ot the peeulJiir qualities 
of these languages to the sueeeitsive dispensations of revealed reli- 
gion ? So long aa divine truth was to be preserved nitlier than pro- 
Cttgntcd. it was embodied in a language ailmirnhly suited fur siniplc 
istorical norriilive, for positive precept, for sententious proverb, for 
" BCDSUona" poetry; and it wos cntrUBted to a people who, amid alt 
iLc trying mutations of their national fortune*, einng, with stern 
tenacity, to the traditions of their fulhcts. Hut no souner docs that 
mighty epoch arrive, when the atationary oracles, — increaaed by new 
and peculiar elements of truth, replenished and invigorated with 
frcali light and life from heaven itself, and so thereby trannfurmed 
from a local and temporary code into the catholic and everlasting 
Gospel, — are destined to spread from land to land, " to every nation, 
and kindred, nnd tongue, and people ;" no sooner is this transforma- 
lion effected, than a corresponding transfer lakes place as regards the 
family of languages whose mjriad tongues are lo carry the "glad 
lidinB"" from pole to pole: and that family is selceled wliieh pos- 
sesses a iieculiar ability to pierce the heart, lo trace the finest lines of 
human thought, lo depict the most delicate nhadcs of human fecHns ; 
n mighty inHlrument, yet gentle aa the breathed air, ei]ual to nil the 
demands made upon it by the philosopher, the historian, the onilor, 
and the poet. 

Wc mu»t not mffer ourselves to enter, at present, upon any of the 
topics of Dr. Wiseman's succeedine lectures ; but we will borrow tlie 
beauLiful eonclusion of his twel fill lecture, for our own. 

" It it in every on«'i power au to order \u» literary occnpalion u to render i 
iteivieiitlo his rtfligiout iinprovemeni, li> iht ttrencthentngof hiivwnpalemt 
rieihot; evfii ihuiigh he do not bicsied with tuicnti tuiiicicut lo aii unl' 




the tum of general evidence for Ihe poblic benefit. Va, KAw W* flwillllil ^J 
Diifne i'loviJence tu Iw lu burning li^ttiii in llii Cliuicll, ]r*l liB^ oacli aim ft 
virginAl Innip to trim ; o niiaII IiuI nrecioui liglit to kirrp buminf; iriiliin hit 
Kiul, by fveillng ii«ver villi frorti oil, lliat il mu)' guide bini tbruiigtililt rugged 
path, and be nut found dim And clomicd wbcn ihc hiidejitctoin thull eomt. ■ . ■ 
" When learning iball once have been thui cDiismated. it will wmine ■ 
ealmer and more vitliiutit cl>nrfielrr lliKn iumt human Itnowledj^r con erer ptx- 
in*. An eniliuiiitiiic love oi Iniiii wiU Vr ingendeted in lb« muI, wliieli wil) 
extinj[uiili cvrry meaner and more Mrtlily fueling in iu purmit. We ilinll 
■lever look with a pHrliuii'ii tye upon tli« UmC) nor eilimste it by petwnul 
motive* ; but, fiillowiiij: ilie advice of di« (XMllent Selilegel, we tliall ' etclieir 
nil ]iorU or utelcH conttntiun and nneliarilAbl* linlo, and *trivo to keep alive a 

3}irit or love and unity.' We iIibII cantidcr tlic cauic oi loo *«crcd to bo eon- 
ucled under (lie influence ur villi the aid of human pauiona. In the words 
or the poet it *il1 seoni lo addrcM u* ; inciting u* indeed to t(«k victory, but 
only in the power of God ; 

" Biit lhe«o motieei will have a itill Urongvr potrtr; they will onaurv lu 
succoH. For if once n pure love and unmixed udmiration of relij[ion animate 
our efiort), we ibull find onnelve* inflamed with n cliiTulroui dcrolioii lo her 
setTido, which will ni«ke u« iiideratlgoble ami uni.'on<]neriib1e, when ntmcd in 
her nenice. Our <]Hctl may be luiiji and periluna ; thi'tc mny come in oui way 
enehantinentf and ■orccTiei. gianti and montten, allitiemonls iind n-«iktniice; 
hul onward we vhall advance, in llie cuuhdenec of our cauic'i ttren|{lh ; wo 
•hull dinpet «vorv phanunn, and fnirly meet crcrv iiibitaDlial foe, and Uie 
cRjwn will infallibly be oun. In other wordH, we ihall inbinil with palienee 
lo nil ihe irVaomeneM which «uch dclailod rKaiuinaiion may rauie ; wlien any 
objection ia brought, initead of contcnllnc ounelren witli tn^'iie leplle*, «• 
(hull at once examine tiic very department of learning, aacred or profane, whence 
it halh been drawn ; ncEliall ill down culmly. and uddrcti ourselvo meekly to 
(he toilvome work; we (hall eiideavonr to unravel all iU intrioaeiet, aiid diligently 
lo unlie e^'ery knot ; and I ptonil»e yon, tlmt, bouev<r hojieli'tn your Intk moy 
have appeared at flrtt, iho irinlt of your excrticni will mrely be tccotded in 
Uieihort expieuive Icf^cnd, preserved on an ancieiil ^eiii. which I (ru»( I may 
conaidfT u the aummary and epilu|(ne of thmo my U'cture* ; 


RrbioioN, TROU HABr cuRuueREo!" 

1. StiUa Morah CaUotica Ofunasimi A* Jfcwewrfro MaH^ni. 

2. TraffedU «rf altre Pomt di Aleaaitdn MaiKoni, Milan«tf. 

3. Storia delUt Cohnna iu/aiM, di Alettauilro Manzoni. Parigi: 

4. / Prometti Sporl, Storia Mitanete del teeolo xvil 

To a relicioua mind, it affords a delightful i«atii!i(iiction to sec 
a person, wliu ii» able to coinnmnil tlw ailiiiiinlioit of the world, 
eubmittJng himiwlf, with child-likf ii(itli, to the teaching of the 
ChaniK We would not> for u nionienl, be ftu^>i>ii9ed tu 9>>np«- 
thize with the wretched modern notion that religion is hoaouicd 


184 Manzoni. 

Iiy eucli M uorifico; fax froin \u We t)e))cvc (and nre not 
n^liniiicd or tlie belief,) tlial the coapcl ie preached to the poor, 
niid received by tlio poor in spirit only. We believe that the 
rich, nnd the leiirned, nnd the powerfut-miiidcil, in mnging tliem ■ 
iclvcH with die liiimbic men of Ucjirt, do honour to therusolveA, 
nnd therefore it Li n matter of rejoicing. We do not think tliat 
religion is praised by tlieir being rcugiousi but we do think 
that they arc benefited ; and wc think thia a peculiar subjeet 
of joy. 

Men of deep and vignrotia intellect, poftseased of tlie power 
of eommunicating tlieir thoughts and fcclinga to the world, 
oaturally comninnd the admiration and R-spect of tboee less 
exalt<.-d thfin theiiwilvca; they are those to whom miin^ talents 
fti-e coniniilted. 'i'liey do (in ono or other manner,) exhibit their 
endowments to their fellow -labourers, and it cannot but be that, 
regarding the present atato of things alone, they should be looked 
up to with more than common interest The pleimurc, tlicn, of 
iH'cing tliein uung their talents towards the end for which they 
were g'^cn, ia great, in proi»ortion aa the pain woidd be great 
of Kceiiig them miauae them to their own condemnation, and ihe 
barm ol otliera. One rejoices that ihcy arc laying >ip for them- 
•clvcs never-ending glory, equivalent to iheir fiullifulnei'» in a 
ercat«r trust. It in plcn«ing to man to aee human j)owcrd in 
Iheir highest dcTclopraenta sanctified and consecrated, as it wore, 
for a i>urer state, bv being dcvi>te<l to Him who gave t]iein. 
The fii-ftt stci) towanlfl aueh a devotion of great powers, i« the 
subraisBion of renjou to faith ; the next is, their einploynionl tu 
furtherance, or defence, of the faith ; and the latter will flow 
almost as a matter of consequence from the former. Submiwion, 
or passive obedience, will issue in obedience of action — the devo- 
tion of u man's whole powers to the c:iu9c of truth. 

The works which stand at the head of thia artiol^ will iilun- 
trate, as tJiey Imve auggestcd, these remarks. 

Manzoni is a layman, long known, and very deservedly cele- 
brated, in ULa own counlry, and in Germany and l-'nuiee, as the 
originator of a new era ofdnuiiulie compoMtion. Iliii deep feel- 
ing, his power of understand lug and developing clinriieti^r, the 
nunlr vigour, at the same time, and sweet simplicity of hiji style, 
the clear and interesting disposition of his plots, and the noble 
manner in whicli he spurns the narrow boundaries of mirMli/ 
poetical juatieo, have snccCedi-d In gaining him llie adniimlion 
and love of his countrymen, notvrith«1ancling tJieir prejudice 
(strengthened by long habit, and great authority.) against the 
Twouliar characteristic of hts tragedies, comjKtred with thoi<c of 
nia pr«d«e«itsors and contcmnoraries. Ho boldly broke through 
Ike two iuiitic« of tini« and pliM:e, demanded to l>e judged neeora- 
■jr to his oirn ruJes, and succeeded. Hts first tragedy, " II 
- 'nrmagaoh, " soon made its way over t\ifi M\», uttd, in addition 


MatKoni. Ib6 

to an ordinary popularity, obtained an utt«ntivo ptniMl».a 
patient annlyiu, and a viai'Di paneeyric, from Goetlie, wbo 
wifihcs tlittt " ail l)>v admirers of Italian literature may read this 
piece uf M. Maiixuni'e wiUi tliv miinv a>ru ue liiiuM:lf, appreciate it 
with the aoiue candour, and real aa well saliB^vd tvitli it." 
"Adclcbi," tlie second of liU tni^frediee, root with an oijuully 
brilliaut and widc*sprcad jtuptilarity. The choruses wliicii are 
iotci^MMMd in tlicav two titi^-ditw dii^cuver u like power of 
exoellenoc tn lyric pieci-s; lint, perhupm, in none of his work* 
does tJie author ehow himself more wonderfully endued with 
ima^uation, discriniinatiun of character, power of deEcriptioti> 

Jiunty of UMC, and elegance of iflylc, tlinn in the ftory of " I 
^ronieaai Siwai," a work of whii^h we nholl nay but lilUv at pre-. 
sent, because we hope, at some future time, to be able t» give it' 
a pincc by itxclf. 

All thcHc works are pervaded by n noblcnew of vciitinicnti 
and an acutenesa of moml Judgment, whicli, while tliey inspire 
respect and lo%'e for the author, assure one tliat they spring 
from eotnc deep fountain of good witliin. " La Morale Catto?^ 
lieu" diwOTCia to us the hidden Koun^e of iheoe refrealiing waters. 
Here we see a deep reverence for holy things ; a bold profeasi(»i 
of unhesitating, uiiquentioriinfT fHilh in tlieth'ctritie^of a ixrlip^Haj 
known once for nil to be revealed;' a mncc^re love for truth, 
shoHH, not in a profane tru§t in his own j>owci», (great tliough 
they be.) but in a willingooss to be taught by an authorized 
teacher. Nothing, it scetna to us, is moi-e absurd than to call 
that common -pi stce compound of curioeity and sulf'lru»t, which 
goes under tlio nuine of philo«aii>hical in<juiry, a love of tvutl). 
It would be much bettor namcu, love of one's own way, If a 
jwreon really love* truth, he will seek it where it is most likely 
to )>e tbunil; he will W: diffident of bin own limited range of 
inquiry, and atill niore limited e\|>ericucc; be will ask of those 
who are ino^t likely to know ; be will trust those who arc beet 
informed ; t. tr. Itc will be teachable — ho will bow to authority. 
Uaiixoni is a noble example of thtx temm-r of fiiith ; it shines 
out in every pii^- of hin Ifnok ijt defence of the " MorulTcticlnng 
of the (Jburch, and is there beautifully idlied with an energetic 
employment of his deep powers of reasoning, and happy clear- 

-'* " CtiUiDlf fiiilli iiuluilui >)ii! iiibiiiiBlun el itttou : lliw •ubminluii 1* nquitrd 
iftaion Itidt. which iu.knawlril||iii|i (cruin (iriiiciplpi. i> loduotcl liiilieiil'crtialii* 
rta)i««lnti c««*iiui iiwiiil*ble cui»t4uriic«s nai undtniuoil by (•■inii, nr u( »n-nino- 
||f(A),BTioeip1«. It«awin hktlnjt tekuualeilitnl t1i*l ll>e cliruiiiii iel>|i>aii ii 
nr^Muy Gad, tannoi tt'tmtriU ttiraw duubc u|inn any |i«riiuii nf >I>d rovlniion : 
deubl would be nnl only irrfllsloui, l)u( •btunl.*'— jtfsrob Calicllfi. p- !■ ll '* 
MUniiliing ho* d[i*i> <Iiu irulh lut Is br rn«ii«il to i>ei>|>l* i ■nil }«( mmiy ii'ifr 
ukt ii iti. No ooe, inilted, leulil dfny <t inmrtiicully. (tui-|ii. pctliapi, a I'll- 
tuiliiUTisii — ii ii hnnl to Mj fhm hr ctul-i wl dn,) tnii |iirictlciiUy mm Ivrj^it li or 

Eui it uidc cicry locoiid «r ihicd day of ihcii |i««)— wttiiMi itic ((*r niiny jxtion* 

NO. XXXII. — K. 8. B B 


8fi 3iauxMn. 

ncMofitrguinent, in lieWlf >if tJiu nioml infliienoe of " the truth 
once deliven'd to t)ie eainta.'' 

It Iins beoD ubjcclod to Maruoni, tluit. for a long time, lie luu 
been 80 swnllowetl iiji in rcligioua conlciniJRtion, tlint be tios 
quite witlidmwn tVom tlio library world. Tbie is only wbat we 
iiuould expect from tbe author of the " Morale CRttolica." Wc 
look to eCD one so humble, eo faithful, nm) withal @o frciit, go 
on unto jwrfet'ticm. Kvery ixkjro of liix book indtoAt<^ a mind, 
not only not likely to be liatis&ed with literary occupations, of 
however hiffh a cast, and however useful in their wav, but one 
which would not stop *hort of iin entire devotion to tJie highest 
«ubject« wliicli can oceupv on immortal intelligence. It waa not, 
theref')re, with surprise llmt wc noticed (in tlie jiagesof a recent 
book of Travels,) Uio cxprceeion of his ojiinion, that " we must 
nil come to theology lU luMt" 

This year, however, Manxoiii bait nppeai'cd again before the 
world, and not as a theologian. The littio volume, contmmng 
the hietory of the " Column of Inliuny at Miliin," hne come out, 
in fulfilment of npromitic made manv years ago, in " I Promcau 
Sposi," and in Iwhalf of the c&use of numanity and justice. The 
author hiu; employed his vivid powcre of description, and the 
calm digiiitv of irroai»tiljlo aranment ngninst the ayatem of 
torture employed in judicial triaU; n system whose wretched 
eficct« were never shown with a more absunl mixture of folly 
wid cruelty, than during the dooluting plngtic which raged in 
Milan in the ^evenlcentn century. When tlie plaene was at ita 
height, the populace suddenly became possessed with the notion 
that the disease was caused by n subtle poison with which the 
walls of the house* had been anointed by some nialicioua iwrsous, 
banded togi-lhcr for the destruction of the city. In conseijueuce 
of this suspicion, many innocent persons were taken up, and 
oomiK'llcd, by cruel tortures, to inculpate themselves, and others 
equally innocent. The houi^e in which the fint of these unfor* 
tunatc men who was seized, resided, was pulled down, and a 
column built on the spot in commemoration of his crime, which 
went ever after liy the iirnne of the " Column of Infamy." Of 
these trialti tins little book is a history and critical analyeis. The 
urn of the author is to set forth the great moral guilt of such 

Jiublic iniquity. He would show that a people is responsible 
or its acta : that uiiiverwil excitement, CArned to such a pitoli as 
to blind the judgment, is no excuse for injustice, but I'athcr a 
port of the fault. He Woidd warn the people of hi« own times 
ngainRt similar excitement on any Hubjcct, He hwl in view, too, 
we caimot doubt, to eet before those in iiower the dutv of main- 
taining oarefid considontte justice in their mejisurcs. Pliis being 
his obiei't, we cannot but admire the calm dignity which per- 
vades his book, contrni^ted as it ia wltli Uie very dtfTcrcnt character 


of politicnl dUouaum^ whose iDimediate object » Uic ctciiU 
of the dny. Thft remoteness of tJie eventa which he coiiiuientK 
upoD, allows him to treat of general principles with a self-pos- 
icssion which conini!in<:]!i rcgpcct, aa surely n» Ihu uncuiilrJllcd 
excitement of pai-ly-fi-diiifi; dc^troy.H it; and witli on evidt-nt 
abaencc of prejudice und private iiitei'c»t nliith prt'di^jiomi^a llio 
mind of the render to the rcecplion of liii> reaeouings in their 
full force. 

We liuve Hjioken of the high opUiion of Mansoiii'e tragediei 
entertained by bo great a ju<%o at) Goethe, and uf their wide- 
eprcfld pu[)ul»rity in his own country. Wc cannot hope to con- 
vey to tlie Kn^liiJi reader any iidctiuutc idea of the bciuity of 
" La Lin^ia one nell' anima si 8ente" [the language that i» felt 
in the Horn,] in Manzoni'a hands ; howcvcrt we wifl give a epe- 
cimen or two. 

Tlie fullowine i<oene in from '* II Canuagnola :" The count 
II Carmagnoln Tiad been employed by the venetianfl as ooni- 
ninndcr-gencral of tlicir forcei). in a war against the duke of 
iMiliiti, to whom II Ciirnifignolii liiid formerly done great service, 
wliich hiwl been reqniied witli ingnitmidc, shown in bo deter- 
mined a manner, that ihe duke'!' sniTcMful general h™l become his 
bittcri:st enemy. This war against the duke of Milan, II Car-' 
niagnoia had conducted at first with success; revereeB followed, 
and he becunie siisiiected of infidelity to Venice. In conse- 
c[iiciicu he wnii rci.'ufhHl, on pretence of a conHultation of peace, 
but, in reality, tliat lie might come into llie power of Ihc senate, 
at a distance from lila army, and l>e got rid of 0.4 quietly an 
circumstsnccs would allow. Thii< design was successfully 
executed, to the cvtM-lusling »Imme of the then Venetian coreni- 
menL While his mock-trial was proeeedinc;, the fullowing 
dialogue took place between Antometla. his wife, and his 
daughter Matilda, who «uppoi^ed him lo have passed the night in 
amicable consultation u])on ftiture iiieasurei* with the govern- 
ment:— ■ 

'lilt morning brcoko, nnd yoc ray tatLcr come* not. H 

«RT0IXtlTT4. I 

_ All ! tliou miial Icnm to knnw by proof, my child, I 

■ Jo)-* long cxpuvted stowly i'»ni«, nor eoiiiu I 

H At all itimctinim ; (|iiick only U rai*fnTtun« ; M 

H Scarce seen, nho b opim us. liui the night I 

H Is past, the piunflil boim of wntdi arc o'er : W 

H F«w nuimcotK ipcd, the hour of joy will striki: : 

H He cannot nun lie Ionic :— from Ihix dclny 

H I nii^^r nvll : the consultation lasls 

H So lone;. Ihcy iduhI ronfult of peace.— and (hm 

H Hewiflbooun — oun for ■ lon|c, loag tiau. M 

H I 

H O mother, no I, too, would Imiif ; <^ouKh fl 

H Of nighte in lean nnd diiys in bwJ iuvv^iiq H 

Wc linvo endured. It now is lime tlml w« 

No moiv I'Hcli liour, al every paa»iii^ iivwk. 

At every murmur of the crcmd, should trumblc : 

No more our dovncn*! oniil should thrill wUli Tunr, 

PirAapt he vAom at moonn'» JtaJ. 


Of f«nr ! but now nt leMt it i« Hr off. 
My child, all joy compurva ir«i'lrwilb grivf. 
KemvDib'ieHt thou tlie day lliv noble nre 
In triiimph rodr, by noMc men surroucded, 
BenrinK the cnBignB of the onemy. 
To grace ibe boif church? 

Ob day! 

All days 
Seem Imh thitn that; the lur liin nnmc rcsuunded, 
And w*), divided rrciiii the crowd, mi-uunliik, 
Bchdd lliis one on wliijin *11 (sycs wcrn HkI : — 
The iuebiialo heart repented tremblingly 

WV, rre 0« Ait. 


MomonlHof bliaa! 


And we, 
Wbnt have wc donn to merit this ? Ti> thix 
Peculinr joy, kind Hcnveii bus ehoacn ua 
From ihousandfi.— Thee it ebuHe ; and marbcid thy bran 
With that srent name, nhirli nhono bcnra wnMm proudly. 
Of bow much envy is our lot the mark 1 
And we must pny tbv debt \ttth ^ef liketliit. 

Ab ! it ia at an «nd . . . lialrn. I bcAr 
The daub at oan ... it grows on lu ... it CMnt . . > 
'Thm doora roll back ... Ah I surely be is here) 
O mother I I beheld an armed man ; 'tis he! 


Who can it be if 'tia not he f . . . My spouse . - . 

[£nf«r Gonxaga. 
Oottcagal . . . where, where is my spouscf . . . Have you 
No answer Tor me r Heavei>eil juur look bttlmj-* 
Some dire, miafortimc. 


Ab I too true it iipeaka 1 


To whom misrortuiio ! 

So cruel a rcqucxt ? 


Why, ladie*, ilo you make 


Aiai ! you try to iparei 
With pity moved: — your pity iamoit cruel. 


Keep ua uut ici suipenso I in God's nninc rptnk i 
Wberc ia myapoUMf 

HciLTftn give jon Ntten^ CO bur. 
The Count . . . 

Hut to tUe li«lil rotunied. pcrliapi 

Ah I he uu mora retunia : he hns offund«d 
Th« lord* who nilc, anci be ia adscd. 

Seiiodl wbjr 

AeouMd at inMon. 




M7 rather! 


Nun |>Ti>cewl ; we nre prcpnrcd 
FOT stL What nil! ihcy do lo him? 

From me 
Ymi shall not bear. 


What! in be alntn.' 


But Mtitcnce i* pruiKimiced. 



He Utos ! weep not, 
^Ife cbiU, ftb ja iho time for work ; weep not. 
"^muq^ fcr the snkn of (tentlc pity, 
Leiive UR not in miifbrtune ; Kenvcn confideM 
U» to yoar caw, helplCM and deaolate, — 
He was tb^ friend. Quick, Iri t>» ro ; be thon 
Oiir ^idc UDtA hi* jucl^a. Come nith mc, 
I'oor innDccnt : oh I come — pity on earth 
Still dwclla :— they, too. are husbanda, ther arc fitthen- 
SuTC^ when they wrote hia acntcDce, they Rii^t 
Tliftt he woa htuhaiul ; that he had a dnui^liU^r — 
But when they aoa wbnt ^rief one word of ihein 
Has canned : Ihev, ton, will tremble. Ah I Ibey fnuif 
Recall their word — the aicbt ofKiicfto man 
la terrible.— Perba^ he, brave and pmud, 
DelraiednottojaMify bimaolfi perhaps 
Heodgned not lo remind ihem of bisdeeda 
For than. Vie can rrcall hia serriccK. 
Ah! well 1 1u)ow he would not beg: Init wc 
Will beg. 

190 MauiONi. 

Oh heavens I— why cannot I one hope 
Lenve to ihe desolate! Tliere is no pini'e 
Kor prayer; the judgca hcrv are dcafi iinplBMble — 
I'tikiiown : the Ughtninp holt is hurled ; — on high 
Tlie wicliliiig hnnd is hidden in the clniids. 
One eomforl yet remnins, the snd relief 
Of seeuiK him, and I will take you there. 
Rill xv'm timi? hitatFB aivay; take heart; fritrfiil 
The (rial: hut the Oort of ihc unhappy 
Will be «ilh you. 


H there no hope? 


My child! 

We camiot bettor describe tlic clinntctcr of tlic oouut, than 
by {jiving part of tJte sid scene wliich follows: — 


My hii«buid ! . . . 


Ohl my Ifalher! 


And doHt Ihnu Ihiii return? I« thU the mom en I 
DcAtrod iQ long 1 . . . 

TUli caliKT, 

O moHt unhappy women 1 
God knows, to iric thin hour i'i terrible 
For you nlone. Fiimiliar sight long time 
Is death to mc. — expected long. For you 
Alone 1 stand in need of courage. Wouhl 
You Inks it from meT tiiirely not. When Ootl 
Upon tlid good mins down misforCnno, then 
He )(ivcji tne heart to bear iL Be your hcnrln 
E(|UnJ ti) your hard fate ! Ta^tu »e this sweet 
Emhrnce : it la the gift of Heaven— o'cti Ihis. 
My cliitd, thou weeuost! and lhou,lo«, mine own f 
.\li ! when I mnde tlice tniM<>, sweetly thy day* 
Itnn on in pc-nee : 1 ealled on thcc to share 
Mv haplosi late: thin thought pobtonD llic hour 
of diMth. Why could not I foreecc what t)ii>u 
For me wouldsi sufTerf 


O mine oirn I — thf 'ight 
Of my yotina heart on fcslive days! BehoUl 
I die of gner but yet I cannot wiah 
To be not thine. 

Tilt COCdT. 

Too well I knnn how much 
I lose in losing tli«e. Oh '. mjiku me not 
Fed it too keciilv ! 




^^^^^^^^^F Oh T the murdcrcra ! 

^^B TIIK cOL'lrT. 

^H No, Kneel Matilda, let ni>l blJKbtins ay 

^H or rAiKvjroui vBii|n»uici' lall I'ruiii tliy pure \ipn: 

^^^ l^iiliirb not the*!! Iiut momcitls ; Ihcy nrc tacrcd. 

Grcnt ia tlie wrong. Iitit pnnlon it. and thou 
^^ Sliftit sou Olio joy rem&liis aiitid our prlol^ — 
^K Tindcnt])! The cnMJlcM enemy c»n but >peed 
^^^^TUe boar . . , 
^^^K Act V. Set** ilh anJta*l. 

We (lo not give nay apecimeti!* from the " Adeldii," liecauM 
wc feci coDBciouB that a\jr altetiiptjH can convey but a feeble idea 
of tlic beauty of the ori<^nn]. Bolli iIr- tragedies abound with 
fine [tojtsngvv, well suited to tempt tho pen of nn aiubitioux tnuts- 
lator; but as the nature of the eubjecu was not of a. kind U> 
draw out the religious character of the author's mind, we will 
paws on to tlic " Momic Cattolicii," a work whicli treat" of 
topics that cannot tiiii to be jwculinrly inlerc«tting in the present 

The great conlctt bvtween the C'Uim^h imd the workl has 
been, we suppose, pretty much the sainc in all ages, and in all 
coimtricn. tvcr biw it Iwen the f»t« ol' the Ciiiircli to be mis- 
uudemtood, misinterpreted, and maligned, by worldly-henrtwl 
inen ; and ever has it pleased tJie Great Head of the Churcti to 
niee up bold and powerful defenders of His holy truth. We 
[.ti^iticve that tJiis cuuta>t in now ^ing on in llna country, and 
iMimuilg cvury day more openly a sjiectacle to nii-n luid aiig<:lM. 
"W^-inc in the midst of the content. It hag thickened round 
us. It has flprgad fur nnd wide, flrom city to town, from town 
to rillnge, frnto viiliij^ to the houses of those who dwell alone 
with nature. It hai>, at the same time, drawn its ranks more 
closely around each indiriduaL EikIi is interested ; each hiw 
chosen his part (each at l«wl of tUc younger of unl. We ho]>c for 
the future, and we fear: nor do we know whicli emotiou shall 
predominate. We hope, wlien wc see so much cnrncstncss, 
humility, and holincw, cngngcd on our side; — wo Impe, again, 
when we see so much bitterness and haired against us;— we 
fear, when wc remember wliat we deserve— when wc think upon 
the awfid guill, individual and national, whicli lies at our door ; 
— wc fear, stilt more, if we think we can see evil paitsions, ])ride, 
angci-, contempt, employed by tliosc who would be defenders of 
the truth — if we see the cbildwn of the Church returning rail- 
ing for ntiling. All tiiat claims our reverence nnd our love, is* 
involved in the tHStie of this contest. \V& ojinnot, then, look 
witliont interest on the same contest in another country. And 
in this little book of Hanzoni's, there m much to encourage us in 
more ways than one. He in, in it, employed to tW swmc \«^«S 

198 ifaMMtf. 

defcDtUng the Church, nt whoAC ItreuAt he wn» nmirlshetl, againA 
infidels uiid lierctica, wliich hsa fallen to ike lot of the beet and 
wisest BpiritH of our own clm;s luitl couutry, in )>chalf of our holy 
Motlier; and it is ruinfirkHblc, tlint, with i«otne few exceptions, 
his (lefeuoe ia of tlie came tone and aspect aa ohoiaotense our 
present writers in defence of Catholic truth a^net similar 
attacks, as well na their predecessor*, tlie great uivinee of the 
seventeenth ccnturj. Catholic truth Ui neoesiuirily the same in 
all ages, and in all true branches of the Church ; and serious 
Catholic minds will naturally defend the deposit on like grouniU. 
\Vk do not mean to ;my that we would recommend llie *• Morale 
Cattolioa" to young pemons unversed in those unhappy coniro- 
versiee which have broken up the external unity of the Church. 
We do not mean to Bay that Miuuoni dues not undertake to 
defend mhiu- dof^ma^ winch we hold tu lu: tlie inventiDnjsof man, 
uiuunported by the word of God, and untaught by TiiE Chutcli; 
wc snould be rebellious children to our own Mother if wc did 
not iiut we believe, thjit it is by no false process of argu- 
ment that he upholds tliei^e errors: his argument is lite that by 
which all Catholic truth is defended ; but his premises are 
untrue. JI» claims the imw de/fi'^ice to om' brandi of tht CiurcA 
liiriflrtl, v/iick we Itliere dm to tA^ Clmrcli untUiL Wc cannot 
believe tlint she, in whom our blessed Lord dwells, can bo per- 
mitted to give »ip wholly any portion of His truth, or to tench 
universally anything as Uis truth, which \si false: Manxoni 
requires us to receive as undoubted truth all tliat tlie Churches 
in communion with Home have taught, because they have taught 
it When he «ays, '/'Ac ChurfJ*, he means the Churches under 
Rome. Their absolute authority, of coui-se, we do not allow, 
when they s)}etdc beyond or against the Church universal ; but 
where their teaching iigrees with tlie tencliing of the Church no 
it was undivided, wc Hllowthe \-alidity of his argument, because 
his premise includcK ours. Ucncc it is, lliat while the tune of 
his argument is like that of Anglicauii, Utu result 'a. In tiie great 
nujionty of caecs, the same. 

With t)u8 eivuUon, to prevent misconception of our mcaningi 
we return to what we said before, that there is iiiiieh about this 
little book cheering an<l encouraging to those who ore tearing 
for the result of the contest for Catholic truth in thia country. 

In tlie ocoiisiitions brought agiunst tlie moral teaching of the 
Churoh by Sisniondi, which Man/oni iiuderlakes in tlits work 
to refute, one recognises tliat self-satisBed mattcr-of-ooureo 
ossumptiMi of the ]>oint in iiuestion, n-hieli sccins at all times to 
have uiamcterined the language uf tlie world towards tlie Churdi. 
't has always been tlie lot of the followers of a despised Mooter 
1 bo dosjtised by the world \ but as he deigned, on many occft- 
oag, to nJvocc the objections of tlic pruud, antl to put them to 



absme, by the use of human aiwiments, which His encmios could 
neither gaioray nor re«Ul, so it hae pleased Him (carryuig nut 
the promisu imuh; to His iinmcliiitc folIuwcn>,) to enublo the 
defeuder^ i>)' Hiw truth no to »iieiilt llmt their enemies have bt-cn 
put toeilenoe: finding neither how they may 0|>no»e the irrc- 
ftistible force of truth, nor how they may, without shame to theni- 
aelvef, cast biK-Jc sconi and repruath uiwu thw* whwc words 
have hreathed of thut npirit of geDtlenCfls and ineekiiv:!^ which 
shows them to be &ithful foUowersof One who would not strive 
nor cry. 

Such a union of power and meekness in the common cauM 
of our holy fititJi, U tui eiiooiinigeiiiviit to \i», w far a.4 w« ei<n 
noognisc (and whocan doubt that we may ?) tlie same heavenly 
unpn!«(> on the language of many of those who arc now carrying 
on the contcot for truUi among us. It is at the same time a 
token of brotherhood, (not to Tic dw])i»i:d when visible tukvua 
arc few.) and a real bond of union between tho^e who outwardly 
•re divided. Where tlie evil passions and errors of men hare 
iepamt«d congenial spirits, lie on whom they both rely, iuipriiita 
Hu mark upon eiu:h-~n mark beheld and deciphered bv the 
angeU, though the earthly eyes of mea cannot sec it, or Lnow 
not what it utemis. 

The contempt and ill-treatment of the world are, m it were, 
pledjTcs of suceejs to the Church. Agninat the fonner, not 
sparingly expressed, Manzoni has hau to contend. In the 
boldly-urged censures of one individual are contained a whole 
elasa of tlie modern world's objections against tijc entire system 
of the Gospel law. All that uppeaU to faith, all that requires 
obedience, is set aside with that business-like air which indic4ites 
perfect self-gratulation, which apjiareDtly would be quickly 
stirred up into bitter soomif icmetwith tht-slightt^sloppoeition. 
With tilts he liaci hod to contend, and has come off more than 
victorious. The defenders of trutlis dear to ua must be pre- 

iMUfJ, it seems, for a more positive exhibition of thu world's 
eelingH towards truth than this. Already hai< [HTiieeution 
began. One ael of oppresnion has l>eeH rc.-ponded to by a lou<i 
•nd wide-spread cry of triumph. This we take to be a pledge 
of success. K\XT have the humbling doctrines of the gospel 
grown mora vigorously and been rooted more tlecidy when 
trampled under foot in the [icrson of their defender*. The 
infant Church, scattered abroad by persecution, went every 
where />mi<^ij)<;. S. Athauasius defooded tJie faith against uii 
atmottt unoiiimouA world, while he himself, an exile and a 
fugitive, was enduring hin )<)iare of the trials di-acrihed by the 
great Apostle as the lot of a wanderer. S. .\nsclm triunipheil 
over the arbitrary will of eartldy power by submissive beaiiag 
united witli courageous firmness, and wew tlt«a t^V'^ Axotx^vM. 


no. xxxn. — N.s, 


IM Mantou!. 

when he teemed to have lottt ulL S. Tliomna of Canterbut^ 
sealed hia victory by death. Aichbi^liop Laud liad n Wkt 
reward, and preserved iJic EnglUh Church from dcslnit-tiou. 
In all these inetaiiccM (and vta nil{;ht miilti[jly iJiuni uhuiiol iii- 
delluitety) tlic caiute prevailed while tu< upluilderA »*u6ered: nor 
ia it wonderful that it &liould be eo, when the instrument of Hi* 
victory, who is the Captain of uiir »dvntion, wn* dailh. So we 
douht not it will be, and iierliapn on no lesser Kcide, if the 
leading defenders of truth ahould be called uj)ou to suDcr more 
in the eause than they have alrciidy. 

But it ia time tliat we Hlluwed nhinxoni to »peaV for himself. 
Vfe choose a nadsage in which he ^iieakii o/himtflf, and allows us 
to see with wnat feelings he undertook the taek of taidt-lindiDg, 
even where the object of hiscenmirc it himeclf a fault-finder. 

•' A weak hut »iiicere npologiet of n itioml iloctrinR whoRc end i» love; 
pertuadvd llint llip si-nlimeai ol' benevok-iict whicb nriscs in the bcrvrt of the 
(irdiiinry -mini led, is niur(> miblo uiid muro valiiabte iLaii llic ample iUid lub- 
lime noiircpiinn nhich uri^antcB in the mind of b peaX tliiiikor; |iorBUiidMl 
that the finding; in lliu upiiuuiis of anuibcr a diapfthtj- nitb unr ou-il, ought 
to ptil lis upon i.-ulliviitiii); noiitimeutB uf onti'em and flfrf-ctioii towHrds bim, 
jniit bcrnuic our mrrtipt metinntion)! mlRht drnw nt. unjimtly thcolhi^r uiiy; 
if I havi- not obicrvcd In this liitU bonk the mont ncrupuluui feeling 
towarda thu nntlior I undurlnku to rcfiiii?. thai ci-rtuinlj' hiu su happunMl 
ngainxl niy inlcntiun. I hope it baa not hupjiuned, niid I rvj««t, by hulLci- 
paljon, every le»« ronnidcratc intnrprctntion iil my words." — Prrfacr vi. 

^Vv suppose that no one, except the author himself, could for 
a moment nave uniij^ned 8uoIi a wnitest to bit nerenMiry. 

The following passayc nobty defendis while it i>ut,t in a very 
striking view the diseiplinary nature of the Churen syaiein: — 

" Pfraons rroquoDtly aoparnte and lind fanU with tiro kinds of nrli^iuua 
precepts, which niifht rnlhi^r to be unitrd nnd ndmirnl in their nititiial rcln- 
tion. Of the tirst kind, are continual prnvcn, regulatioa of Hnsiml app^ 
titca, jicirpctiinl rPhislHuci' agniuit Hutliiiu ilie heail on tkluKt of tlilt world, 
reference of every thiiitf to God, watch fid iicsa n^ninst the hcginnings of 
tniniodcnite dvnirM, nnd luch like. Of these It is iinid that tliey are 
ilospicable obaervmicL's ; chaiDi. which bind danii the mind tiitboul J)Ti>- 
du<uii(C any good result ; «inpioyinonta for Iho cluiat«r. 

" Uf the :iei;ond kind nrn prrrrpla, difHi-ult tn i'ldfil. bnt yet so evid^ntlf 
right, ihHt men cannot deny their ohiipnticm. To obey these prccepin, 
requires HvrilieeB ugninBt v, hirh the sciibc^ rebel ; SHCrltIci?H which nur soft 
and servile heart regnrda as heroic-, but whieh renEnn drclnrr« lo be no other 
than duties uf strict rectitude. With rvKi>"' (o thene, it i.i snid that wemuit 
take tnen na they are, and nut require perfi-ctiob froni n feeble iinture. Itut 
relipon, for this very reason, just bw-anse she knoH's tho ncAknesi of that 
nature on which she would operate, for this very roMon, surronndH it with 
aiding; power. For ihia very reaion, thai the eombiit is terrible, she W'uiitd 
prepare man for it all his life. Just bccnuHc we have a mind that a strong 
unpreiLiion mifliceii to (bituph, that Ibo iinportanee nnd uritencv of a choico 
confound, white they reqniie of it eolinneH; jiut becttuae hiibit uxereisi^s n 

'K of rule fiver us, religion (illx up every moment of our iifo to wousloni 
to self-enmmanil, to subniisaion of passion to rCMOn, to serenity of 




MamoHi. 105 

" RHiirioB, fttm the timeof tlic Apo«ie« dnwnwanb, has bwn comptrfd 
tn It narfiire. Follouln^ out thn dlnulilucli!, ne mnv nay, thai, whoeTcr 
otiuiot *e0 and npptvnnic lh<; Tinilv of her inHxinu And disci |>tiii(<. acta liVe 
one «hi> thinti!! it H(rnnt;<? thnl soldicn nboTilil hntnliijilc ihcinHrlitui (u ilio 
DToIutlou or trari'iire, «iul uudurgu lati^u and piivntion, when thne are no 
tactain," — Ueralt Call. cnp. liv, p. 158. 

The objections here noticed arc identical with tliat ordinary 
wrt of Ot'clitniixiui) iigaliiat the Cliurch of Home which oiie has 
been acctu^tomcd to h^ar iVom one's cliildhuod ; tuid very much 
like, aUo, to the objections lately brought up ngninat tlie iiheti- 
ncnc« and stricter self-deninl put forward by those who enter 
into thfl true rfpirit of our Church. But there ie another and 
subtler fonii of objection to ^If-diMipIine which Mnuxuni does 
not mention, because the persons he lias to deal wilii would, 
jM-obiddy, be the biet to make it. With us. however, it is a very 
common objttction, and one which Momc pt^rrioni> think unanewer- ■ 
able. And minds of a different sttmip tliore are, who, left to the * 
wholesome instinct of a humble heart, would gladly submit them- 
fldfea to such dt^ciplinc; but (in great measure because of their m 
humblenest!",) they are frightened by thu phiUHlbillly of llic oh- f 
jcction of which we speak. Wv mean the notion that the whole 
Bvstem of discipline, ii« a prt-jwrution for trial, ii* foiind«-<i on Home 
degree of self-deiwndence. Persons would say ibnl C'hri.itians 
do not need such an artificial strength as is ac(iuired by self- 
dental tn innttcrs iiidiflercnl, that, on the contrary, it is vain to ■ 
exjwc't ctrcn^h in wich a way, because wc should therebv be 
looking to ourselves ftir strength. Sut-h ii; the form tlic objec- 
tion commonly takes among us : to which the answer is plain, 
that it has seldom pleased the Almighty to work anything in ua 
without means; tliiit we cannot cxjricl to be strengthi-ncil by 
Hin might, except in the use of the means He has appointed ; 
and that sellHliseipHne, prayer, and tJie holy sacraments, arc tlic 
mccms which we are taught by Ilis Church to use thankiullf ™ 
and trustfully. H 

We cjuinut aiTunge our extraclM in any very precise onlcr; 
but, perliiijis, the next will carry our thoughts a little furtlicr in 
the same direction as the preceding. 

" tt is A tnitb. US well kaomnn* it i« humiliating, that the aliiwe ofnicnts 
frxervixcii a <l(-|i[riuliiiij: inllueiicv dii Ibe mind. A 8erie« of thoii^hl*. ursvo, 
wclJ-rc(tuln(ctl, ni.iKnniiiinous, beiicv">ioTil, can bo inmTnpl«d by a mcrry- 
makiDgi and ill thu very icAt nrihoij)cVit nmetatortofenTnal rnthunHsrn, 
an euliaiion of lli« souses, whkli rvudcsn pemon* indUEfercDt to thinp of 
ibe rrentesi importance, whirl i dcslrott or weakens their leMeoftbe beau- 
tiful, and atfien them (oirardi KDanuality and egotism. Sobriety pmsrvcn 
tke liien1(i«9 of the indindiial, aa our il1u«trloUJi author (Siamontii) jaitly 
obMrves; but rttigion Jofs noj conlrnl htntlfimlh ihh nfftrt, lior With virlUR 

loHi wi this, known met) to the Gentiles ifaving roveaicd iho profound uvils 
of hnin.-kntty, (.he Unii miido it her duty to proportion the remedy to tliom. 
In the pluaaure* of the pnUlc, which raity oe combined «ith sobriety, who 
■Msanasual tendency which tumH rona'away hom hu Itoa Am^aw] \ mA 

]96 ifamM. 

in rniw iTh*rc thn evil ha* not jet bcf^n, nhe points out tht Asnger. 
eomRiHndi ■bmliK^iii.'c as nii iinlinptnaublv prvcnutiun to one vtlio must 
■tain A combat ;i<j»iii>'t (he \a\> of liit nirinbcrH; nhe cinmionds it lU an 
expiation fnr ibi? f-iiilt* into nhii'h hiimoii wcnknms cniisca e\ eii thebwl 
tofnll; tha conimuDtU il, again, an nn net uf juiliL-f, ut' cliuritj-, (hut tba 
privali<i[is uf thu fuithrnl may sunt to supply lli« waDls of otiicrs; to di>- 
tribu(v iiPcit>Bnry iub«islrnrc in »ach n mnnnitr ARioni! men, tliat Iboae tno 
und r-ontriitlii'torii-s innv diinppenr from society, profusion where there 
ohoiiJilbu listing, huiigi-r where there la want ur'bivsd." — I*. ITS. 

Tlie fiillowing teelitnony to an interestuig fact, from one well 
infoi'iaed, and worthy of credence, ia pleasing: — 

'■ Ahiitiiicnci- fVom lleih is a inean« prcftcribul by the Cliurch to fkcilitste 
the iic!i|uircmuiit ol' pciiilciice ... If (here arc (hose who citidu it, yet tliert 
arc iioi trunling lich ]icrioDi vbo iibi^y siuccrcly. and in the tipiril of pcni< 
tracer the law of penittrueu : thure are not wutiling those Amon^r the poor 
vrho. (breed to a iobrioly wbldi thry render iii.>ble nnd voluntary by loving 
it, Dud moan* of trentitiii the; body with greater severity on tlio^cdny* in 
which a apccial huniilialiun is prncribed by the Church ; tbcxo xhc cunai- 
dors tut her richest orjiuineiit. her besl-luved boub." — I*. 184. 

We think few Berious-mindcd i-cadera can penise the very 
striking chanter " iSuUa dottrma dclla pL-nit«n2a." without a 
degree of itmlnuw. Ctrrtninly onu mtisl fw\ iuoih! nnd roore daily 
(ami tlii^ jmrot^hial irlor^y will, perlmjia, have felt thit inniit 
alroiigly,) that ihnse who woiJd become peuitent^ and live the 
life of ]>caili'nt«, do stand in need of sonic external help ; some 
visible act of the Church by which they, a» what they arc, 
nay be recognised an among thocio fur whom tihv liiiji especial 
oaro; for wliose caae she haa provided. Two tilings tlier 
want — two tilings which they hare lost br the loss of disci- 
pline; they want eiicouri^;eTncnt, in the shape of ttome amu- 
nuice, that they may claim something; tlicy want, i. *. to be 
withheld awhile from the fdll [lortiun of the upright, that they 
may have eonic proper ground oi" trust that Mtnt portion may be 
thvir». And, on tne other hand, they want not seldom to be 
r«niiudcd that they are penitents; they want an external help 
to keep thciu in a penitent's condiliun. In defiitdt of tlie 
ChurehV living voice, tliey are thrown back (olaal too often on 
llK'iiwelvi» alone ! or) on such discipline aa their individual spirl- 
tuul guitle may give them : and bo a burden of responsibility i» 
oflen laid upon him which he is little able to bear. 1?: nut t!ii<'h 
a, want iw thi» acknowU-dged, in a manner, by the pivjiching and 

fublinbing of tlie Hebrew profcMor'a late sermon, " The Hnly 
luclmrist a comfort to tlic Penitent" ? True and great b*lnefi^ 
we trust, will many a penitent derive from it ; and we hail this 
cheering thought lu a bright «pot lunid thednrkwateraof unholy 
nnd angry coiitroip-crsv which are rolling around that memorable 
discourse. A blcesccT comfort wc think that it suggests; but it« 
ihingdoes not supply 6o< A tlie want* which we have noted. We 
not eay more at pi-eaent on tliie ptuut, but must refer such as 

She H 
sua- ^M 

Nttim tff Booh. 




I dwnly interesting thoiighta on the Bubject, to the 
he Htn of the "Morale CnttoUca." 
Te hnvc one more quotation to make; it contains eome aeutfi 
diatinctioni> on the moml sense. Speaking of L(xJcc he v«.y« : — 

*■ H« hiui proved lliat mvit \My prodiglausly in the application of tlie idea 
of jiuucc, but he hiw noi olitcrvcd tlinl they njtrpc in linving Jtii uuitereal , 
pcnuaiiuiii that there arc jutt mid unjuit tbiiiic* '• <^cX\oat bccominE, or bii*«. 
^liDse who, sincQ hia time, liAve tgtnhllthed thi« truth, have, I do not any 
confuted a ^;reat tnatotXiW ayHlrm, hncccrlaintj- Alltd up a^rcatvojd in il. 

" Rut, comnnritiit tlie truth discnrcred by Lock« vith chM latter, tlivra 
reaulia a tbiril cunseaucncc. and thut ia. the neomi^ of a Dirioo bv as aj 
holy luid iuTullibti* rule of morality. The <iiitvor»al mnral senwi of inanliind 
provM the aptitude of mnn to rccclvi! nn unirtrninl rule, and to apply it. 
Tbut Finder which nmlc ihc^ law, bnil uhvady formed tlic hoatt of man iiith 
adbpcmitioutouiidentandaDdTecognlAeit. — P. 31, Note, 

Certiiinljr, t)i« one littJc remark with whieh Ihiti b(^n*» 
showa how utterly impotent, even sn in K iiitc I y -extended induo- 
tion on the evKtein of Locke would be to dixprove a moral itttefi 
and the eoni>equcnec drawn from the couipariiion of the result 
of Locke's induction with the true doctrine of the moral sense, 
Bosgests, >a it were, a new link in the myeterious chuo which 
UDltee nature with revelation. 

Here we t«ke leave of Manzoni. If, in remarking upon his 
character and writings we have bt^en all but indefinitely excursive, 
we trtift that the witfc field over which we have had the liberty 
of cx[>atiuliiig — in which, too, brisht flowers ami rieli fruit* were 
ever tempting ii8 in a new direction — will he our exctue, should 
Buch be demanded, for the character of our notice of this very 
remarkable writer. 


CluMg* for th« Am&riftin ?fol«f ; in Lrttrr* Jrom Tjondon to Jltni 
York. By an American Ladtf. liundoii ; Wiley and PutOBQi' 

The Atlarke, or 8am Slieh in England. Btf the Author of the 
" Clockmahrr," ^e. S voIb. London : Bentlcy. 1813. 

What, more pleadings in the great case of Old England rermt 
America! How can any deci^ioa be expected, when, to adopt lli« | 
term) of the ecclesiastical oourla, both parties are duily aiiiendiiig i 
their libeln, and putlins in oew matter of cvideoceT In the two 
booka at llie head of uiis notice we liavft England tketclied from 
America and her own colonic* ; the opijiiona of a genuine Yanki^e 
New Yorker, and of a Nova Scotia Judge under false colours. Tlie 
one nil *n<»iriT)g and bitterness, the other tharp, honest, end true ; 
reading our lcgi»lator« a tcison on colonial p^vemuwnt ultv>^«( \Va 

19S Koliest of Itookt. 

gaivn of a humorous tlorj' ; oonv«rtiii2 tite Ynnlccc npnrt of goosev 
|iulliii|' idio u hint I'ur governor ^itorats, ontl (lie Prince ile Join? 
villc'D liur^ i>ito n Iphsoii on colonial protection. Some, perndvcntiirv, 
of oiir mulei-f, when ihcy tec tlie comforting nord^. *' Cliange foi' 
Ameriean Notes," diilj advertised in loiij; lilnck lellera on ihc firet 
m^et of tl)0 newspapers and reTi«trs, tnity delude llicinselves into the 
idea that, at la«l, our transailantic hrcllircn have ccit^cd not only " repu- 
dialinff," but '' non-payin;;," an<l returned to the jiri)j|)EL't8 of honesty. 
Pleasiiic delusion !— ^Iclimive pleasure ! It i» hiit n savage growl on 
Eii);Inii<l, in reliini for Mr. I)tckci)R'» wmi-^uviigc snurl oa ArnGrica ; 
Bti ill-iialiired " tii (|iioqiie" to bis " Arnericnn Notes " 

The mi-iter professes to be a hnly of good Moliim in society, and 
corresponds with her friend at New York. Of coui-»e we may not 
say her nay i but it must strike every one, that whilst gkcichc* of 
giiishopA, and specimens of the low slang of medical students, iind snch 
like taittc, intermixed with the witticisms of omnihuv cads, are rather 
inconsiAtent with even her claims to rcspeclubilily, there can he liitio 
donlft that the writer ia nineh more at home in a sketch in St. Gile«V, 
or in a Gravr^eiid bout, than in the drawing-r(inm,or the court. The 
ont tet of sketcbcx Hccina from life, the other savuurs too much of iho 
borrowed plumo). 

Our American sho-Mentor open* with sundry lines of pnthciB 
regarding widnwhood in a Inrgc cify, in which she phllosnphiziTs on 
the cniicc of firnt and ei!coml marriages, and the short duration of 
weeds, from a senontion of " »ne-<ide<l (lop-siilrd ?) loneliness," which, 
from experience in both Mtitf^t, »hr tell* her frirnd, Mi$s Dlnnk. per- 
vades those classes uf soeiely. And then with tlie trite spirit of B 
member of the Anli-murry-youiig-mcn-who'drink-Kin>Sting-sociciy, 
she lowers the beautiful saying of " the garden of herbs, nberc lova 
iV'to "hett^ir, the poor creature srnnll hoer, with thefavourof a liimily 
about it, than impuiinl Tokay sipped from an unmotcd glass," Was 
there ever such a Jangcrons widow ? 

Our critic's sorrows, as she wfl« on the look-out for thcin, did not 
fail to wait nncin her at her very landing on the Custom-house wharf. 
TheCuiloni'lioiiae officer would mil lenvc others, to search her packages 
fir»l, and so the lady was otTi-nded — dear, no — hurt at the rudeness 
of all Koverniiinit (iffiiiuU. Then she could not believe ihnl those who 
" jioked glaneia imiler her bonnet," as she lounged up Regent-street, 
were not gentlemen ; and she did bel'eve thai '■ the attentions ladies 
(ire taught to expect in society," are regarded by u« " as a tax upon 
our time and Bprrch, and tike a lax, pnid grudgingly, or not at all. if 
wo can help it." Again, there arc no rccrved seats for ladies in rail- 
way carriages; ami— horror of horrors — if you happen to run tlin 
time close, and have hut a minute to get into llie rjirriagr, "you must 
climb and push your way to your place over gentlemen'* kneca u« well 
as vou can, and sit down feeling vou are one crimson." 

Is it possible" that a«edale looltinw sergeant, [?] in some horse repi- 
tneui, stationed at Wiiiditiir, did not Know where Runnymcdc^ ^lui f '' 

r the young lady and gentleman whoso courting was sorely broken 
Upon by our critic's renewed inr]uiries after the place of Magna 

ttrta ? Eren so ; and yet, mya our lady, '■ I never had to inqlilrc 

NoUcf* o/ Bools. 


raan ihM MWt Jn 11>e (JniUid Slstoi fur any spot hallowed bv tlw 
tnomoiT' of a gloriouN deed.'' It i> i>oitit! oi-titiinua tiiice uur oun Ule 
ban hccn tlic xiMI on wliicli lientoHn Imvewrilten dieir glorious doeils ; 
lhe>' buvf jirefcrrvd iIju IuihI uf tlictr eiicinieit. T)i« age of America 
M ^ul lluit of an infutiU No uiic could Ivll our Udy nhcro n«rii«'e 
o*k iitiii. ]'roliabl)r not Ii ui said timt (ti« park-keepeif in Ocorgo 
the Tiiird'v time, cut it down. 

W*> pRM over tUu aulboreM*> ill-iinlured »ueer at the din rity- schools 
of our mcmpoli*, vrilHiig to mn it agniiiM her riifhl-ihiiikinc. hut ill- 
wriiu-n criliquo on (b« HxTiibiliuiti «t St. Paul a oi> tht- day or titc Ijoos 
of the Cleriiy, arid her jii«t deuuncialion ol' ao-calW cliarily iliiinere. 

Ai in thitf oounir; no maii ever yet epoke in parliamMil for more 
than five lioun, and aa. in her land, inetnben go on lor move llian ino 
dayi at a Mrctcb, uc bo|H: her uoiinin-miMi will profit by wliat ia 
ijitpndLHl to he very »cvi-i% on |ioor £nglai)d. 

'the Ifngth o( »nni* ipMthM In Parttament Mrm* to me »pfy Imjiolllirt lis 
(Hmoi b< an ■econipllthril <li>biin wlio rn|uim mora ilmn An ^I>UT tn ilaUvpr Iii* 
anillainila or ■riciinxnii- To jro into ■ lonii hitlvrini or ■i.niktiui drinil it • 
poor «am|>1iawnt tn rh« iniflliGrnn at the mcmbrrs alio ouj[lil iiui lu nrvd luth 
infomuiion. 1 am almjtt wmpted lo Minx ihil a ivry lung tiucch cuiiuiii* vfijr 
ihia matiCT." 

SaiQ Slick hit tlie right nail on the head when he nltribnlcd nil our 
lonu; speecbca and debutes to th« lovo of tulking for " Ilunkum ;" but 
let him speak for bioisclf; pnrfBcing that ibo Attache and hia fricud 
have Just returned from a hcnvy debate in iho lioiiw of commoos. 

*■ Tlitn thai En;ll*h ndieal frlldw, ihiit apuki nidi • ptu volt* mil link HMf, 
(Snlba a brauljsilhoulpalnE. llial ciillrr? tin knnwvil lia hut lo toIp *)pn lb« 
bill, 'caut* It wa* a eovtmmaiit bllJ. (ixl hr kimai'tl lir bad to «|)tak lor lliiiikuni. 
' Bnnkum,' I uiil. 'liny wlial i* RatkHts f ' D»l you iivwr Imr iif itimtaia/' 
' Noi iifvcr.' * tVi-ll, if ilinE don't ynts^ I llt<iu(;bt aviTy boily hnoirvd ilitfl word. 
I'll irW you (bru wlint Siiinkuni i*- All ovrr Aniiirw-.i t%*tj iiIbc^ likr t» hvJir i>f hi 
mrrnlxTH in {'ongr^M, itid ikre ihpif ri|ri'rcli(^)i ; jiiid Lf rtixv donV, Ehcy Arnfl n pifcf lo 
the paiivr, intjuirini- IF Ibi>ir ni<i<iWr dii'd a niiiural lU'nEb, or um ihtirrrd »iib ■ 
bowir Vnyft; for Ibry liani* frn lilt A|>«crb'-i Ute'y, and bit Inrnilt arr aFixioui to 
linoir bia hie. Our Opt acd rnlighlfntd cilit>n« ilun'l apiirtibali ti\tn\ metabrr*: 
il doii'I Mfin nt iT S'|Bitli<ilt(r, nr rumkioiille. or Liinidritovrii, <iia> riulil n.-|irr. 
ipntFd, uhlm Scjuubvillr, or rumkctiviilc, or Lumbrrti^vn, mokri iiMlf linrd aud 
known 1 ay. snd Icarvd loo. &o cvrry Icllow In boundiMi diiijr talk*, aii.l lalha lii|t 
loo : and ibc nnaller the >uii. the bimt*'' louder, and Hcrctr iii mpmbcii islk. 

■' ■ Wrll. wbrn a ciiiitr utka for laikiake. Jin tohavcaiiicfcbin ihe pipiT loirnd 
liome* and not for aiiv airihlv purpoie bur rlcoiioncrring, our folki call u Btinkutn. 
Now I'tie *Ulr ot Maine IS a ^Ttttv\acrliit Hwk<itm~'»% mnrbcrifor yean ihriatriivd 
to run foul of Kitjland with al! iIfmiii nn, and imk hpi aboui tlio buundury iinr, 
vntrd a million of Jollsri. payalijc In pine luifi and ipnm Inurda, uji tn tlaitgnr 
Mills— and callwl out on hurrtred tUnutanJ loi'iii* (only ihr< ne\n orat) ig taji- 
lui'' a lan-mill al Nio 13tunt»i(k — tbnt'x Buiikvm. AW ih*l ll>mri>li ihe.iii riKliI nf 
larrli *■! Bunkuit — all ihsi brag iboul bunging your Canada tlirntl' •rsi BHHkmm. 

•• * Wrll. tliey talk Biaiumi here too. ai well •■ ibrra. Htni'iry aprfchra ato all 
Amhim ; •« arc reromi tpceohea too. Uo i«u ibink ibrm rpllm ihai kopp up *ucb 
an c<*rlatiin)[ Rali abouI lei-rrHntilion catc om cnii. about ilio rxlvniion nf tlia 
Iranchia* t Ulir no, not ttivy ; ii'i only In atciirF tlirlt tt*it — lo Bull ilmir oou- 
■llluonta, togvianamv:— itt AhhIhii r'"— Vol. 1 1, pp. I »I — 1 39. 

Tbc Amcricnn she-financi«r, who proft^awn lo pvo u* burd eiiah fur 
Amcrivnti Notes, oiigbi to be indited for wboli^«ii!c [lirni'v, in telling 
outacrap* from the jiogcs of (he Suniitii/ Tima an4 Dijpivlcls t»\i«t 


aOO Xotim of Booh. 

of ths ■ 

remarks on En||>liEh politics. Ignorant, es ue happily ore, 
majority of the nMlionl mm) troughs, yclept Siiiiitay nevtepttpers, wo 
eannot liesilaie to ascribe to Mr. PiiUicola, (tlie O as long ils you can 
makt it in the common tnnguc) or Lucius Briiliie, our AmericBn'a 
Sentences on EUucatioti, Puseyiam, (as she calls it,) Bishops and 
Royal Stabler. Accustomed, as the Nevr York Americun ladv doubt- 
loss has been, to (be Mfrald atiU other disgraceful papers of her city, 
she could hardly fail to buil with delight tbe newepuper Sunday litern- 
tnre of our less favoured isle, nnd to recog:ii)>e in tlie broadsheets of 
ribald IblBehood with which they teem, the liumbte imitators of the 
lenctirig journal of America, 

We are not nware of any remark already passed by us on this work, 
which, by topping nnd tailing, may be converted into k genenil 
approval of the volume. Let us not despair. AmericRn ingeiniily 
can effect much. And when we have seen the rexpvrtable publisbers 
of this work convert the praise of one short sentence of llie letters, 
dliirdad by a reviewer, into n general commendation of the book, we 
do notdespnir of seeing "Christian Remembhawcer " appended to 
B mojit eulogistic sentence in the next adverliBemeul of the "CImngo 
for Atnericau Nolea." 

Ii is all very well for mammas and young ladies to ran down clubs, 
and debate on the selfishness of these cslabtiahmentB. And perhaps 
the American widow was not far wrong in snying that " had these 
niacee existed in Thomson's day, their laiy luxury would have ensured 
taonoumble mention in the Castle of Indolence." But look at them, 
not as the lounge of those who would huve lounged just as much with- 
out their club, but as the daily dining house of the members of every 
ErofcMion; tlie liouse where, iiislead of going to this or ihnt dining 
(luxe, and requesting the waiter to bring the moat nnd the dirt in 
•cpuruic plotcs, that ho may mix nccording to his own, not th«ir 
recipe, the member may have the comlcttlsof bomcat the least expense, 
and may pass away a leisure evening in conversation and reading, 
bslend of lounging nt theatres, or Iretjucnting the kind of clubs to 
which our ancestoni were driven. 

Oh, but, responil the ladies, the luxury of clubs renders young men 
unwilling (o marry, and xo ha« a bad eliect on society ; or, in other 
words, itie comforts of clubs prevent many a young man from run- 
ning headlong into an early marria^jej without consideiing his 
resources or his prospects. Some persons would say, " So much llie 

" It ii tiiid of k revrrtad oil," lajr* our auilinrrH, " Ihit vhcn thowo (h* ini|t- 
niflcfil drswiiiu-toom of ilic Ilffonn Club, tir ri|itcnFH liii idinlDiTioa. Iiiil ili-uUrcJ 

Vta'% >n<l Slvi'lv'n iliiy. and the mvetn life of a iulcr period, iciiD unknown." 

And thus, ad libitum, until tlic air of the Flnll be redolent of sighs 

and lean. Mawkish ecusibilit}- always goes from borne for its objects. 

The American is again right us to tl'ic modem cemeteries} " they are 

limply tarae tluwcr-gardcns, and mnny of the grave* little Rower- 

ttd«." yCt arc not of those of whom the present laureate aaid — 

" Wlio would criwl and boliniM 
Vpoa Iheir laollKrr'f jravc.** 

Notift* tjf lioekt. 


Wc <lo nol ailmirc lh<?M dmiti ^rdens ; t)i«6e itou1«1 Iiclotiiigca aniitl 
tlic tombs. I)ul now for Sbtd Slick. 

Tlirotighlli«mouibof Mr. Uopew«lI, whom the rebellion in America 
vhitiigcd iroiu parish minister of a small place in Connecticut lu tite 
(lafior of a aniall congregation st Sltckvill«, Sam Sliok give* Ihn 
opinion of ili« party that now holda the i^ins of government. 

"'Whi( in lulut trc von, minialerf uya 5*ni. 'A Ivry.' 'A Tarjl ■dl, 
1 lliouglil lh*l * ToTf Mid ( c'onMrtnilvc sere, u ihc Indslam lay, "all umo «!<■ 
hruddFT." Whnv I* llie tlif&tcncG ■ ' 'You nill (oon nodllul out. Sam j no and 
talk M ■ ContfTvalive ni a Tury, and yuu will Qnd lie la a Wlilg : go and lalk «> him 
^ain a* a VTIiiii, and you mill find lio !>> a 'liar/ ; ihey arr tot *ll i1i« world likv alur- 
(ton. Thtro i> lery ^oad l»«r'iitah> in tlurtftar), and vrr* gontl fiti), loo i and yrl 
Jt aint rillii-r fltli ot IInIi. 1 ilon'i Iik« taliiii|i n iicn nam*, il lonkt amuiaji like 
UkinK nttr principln. or, al all t-tenli, likir InM4-iiin([ old onci; and 1 hantc tccd 
llio er#('d df ihit here icci yei — I doii'c know wlial iia («ncta aic, or nliFtc to look 
for 'vm. Il aiiiksa tno llicy ilt-n'l murd wiili i1i> Torio. and yrl aint in lunc nith 
the Wl>i|]i I Lut arr half ■ noic tower ilian Ihi- one, niid half ■ note liiglicr tlian ihc 
other. No* rliingra in ilir iNidy jiolitic orir iilnayt uevvntary, niocc otIch, in ord«i 
(o mrfl llic changra of (he limr. and ihc rhun^;?! In (he coniliilan of mankind. 
Whrrr tlipy arv nrcr^nry, make 'cm. and D-done wi[h 'tin. Makr '«ni like urn ; 
not whrn you art forcptl lo do »o, and nobody ilmnki you : bui wlicn you »e ihn 
art wanl'-j and ttr proper, and don'i attir your name.' ' Well, llim, I aik. What fa 
('tiimrriaiiini? 1 am (old lliat ll nirana wlml il iflipurli.— a conicrvation of ihloga 
a* (hey ore. Where, iheo, H tlio dillctenfef 1/ iltirt li no iiffrmcr, il li a nrrt 
j^fgtg lo c/innge Che tunru- /f tiien ll a tUffrfenet^ tfit naett if wane IhanaJnggUt ftr 
iHtn't Imytirl ang.' "— VoL j, pp. Itt-a, \i% 

There w one cliapter in tlic fiwt volume vrliioli (Jo#crvw boinc set 
out St full length ; it \» that on Cottage* : in nbich the Englitih cler^nv 
snd ibc good gpeciro^ns of our old rural popiilnlion are staunchly 
defended; nor indeed can tliat which immediately follows it, "On 
stcialing ihu hearts of the people," be rightly omitted in our praise. 
We must take a few exir«ola from both. 

The old clergyman is in the poor man's cottage, has discovered how 
well the cotter's children have profited from iho Ticsr's leaeoni, and 
thus he speaks : — 

" Now look Ml (hi* poor htnily ; hct« ia * elergyniBD proTided for them, whom 
A(*donot, and «ro nol even cv|iret>d to payt Ihcir iplriiual wanu are mlniiiered 
tOi UlbAiUy and nalouilr, a wo w* by (lio Iniirueili^ii u( ihla Utile child, llecc » 
■ (Hend on ohom they can rf ly In their hour of iruulila. at the bereaved molber did 
on Blialia. Ai]d nhir a IniiK Itain of attlfitiiiii. tnliKUKernniiMit. and iJI-digrilcd 
chnngea, h»e dmnicfd ihii l-Kppy counity, at hut recently liecii the cair. here la 
an indul)ient lundlurd. illiipo>>(Nl lo iuHcr l>ia reiii. or Kite lurilier itme for payniriil ; 
or, if aickneH invade* any of ihetr coIUicrK. to ir>'k out the infferer, to allard the 
rrmedlf ■, and, hy liii cuuiiitnance, liii kindnem, and advice, to alletLtte their tmii. 
blei. llrre il ii a poirin* duly, atlnng from ihclt relative aliuatiuiiii of landlord and 
tenant. The tenant* auiiporl (ha OHoer, the landlord [irolecu ihc latunu, (be duliv* 
■re miproca)."— Vol. 1. p. 17& 

One more extract from this chapter, and we hove done with Mr. 
Hopewell for this lime. 

" Bui, Sam. Ihc terpaot I* here, tho aerprnl t* here, lieyond a doul>t. tt changH 
SiBlhape. and alien Ita name, anil lakta a new colour; but alill it i« iht »crpent,>nd 
fl OU(bt to be cruahfiL Sometimca >t cslli iiielf liberal, then radical, then cbarliai, 
then tgilalor, then repealer, tben poUiical <lluenur. Ihen antUeorn Ih« lea||uer, and 
•o on. Somtllinet it aiini^ ibe elersy. and eoila round ttiiin, and nlmoal »(ran«|*> 
Ihem; for it knoK* the Church U lit greaictt eufmy, mw\ ii'«ti»'w«* aijjfttoXVx. 

i«a xxxti. — *. K n ^ 

Then il Mucki ilin ucpr*. ani covet* diem with iu froth ind alnvrr. and tbi 
biiei the UndlofiL Tlivn il change) rorm, «nJ divou at tbe 4uven or hrt iniiikM^ 
•Qd MU flrc le Imililiiiit*. m'd bufiii up corn, to JiicrcaM dixlicu i and olicn huiiiTd 
■Ma]', it divo* dowti iiiio the calUctic; ur ilaila lh< manuhetorln, and nrnddciiii ilia 
people, and urjin Ihrni lu pitindcvr ami dMiiuciian. I( U a intlancholy ihlnj; to 
tbtnk ofi but he it a* of nld, lUvii and aciivi-, teDkinK olicrm h* Mn allure and 
d«ei»e, and wbo*»or liiiaMKin r»iii«l lor tvnt." — Vul, i, pji, 181, 183. 

The following exlrAut from the cloic of the ensuing cliapter, winds 
up these rc-flections : — 

" I do believe, on mjr wnil, if rrligion ttni alto^lhrr Icn (o Iho volunurj in ihi* 
worhl, 11 uraufd Jie a nniural death \ not that tnn wauiitn't mppotl it, but t^auir ii 
uHiutit be lupirotled Mnder Jalte pretfficti. Truth can't bo long upheld by fnltehaod. 
llypocrify would vhitn^fo iti feature*, and iniolerance its name ; and rctigion ivouJd 
*ooa degenerate iiilo u cold, intriguing, unprincipled. mercilviH (Upcrttllion, — tlial'i 
(act."— Vol. i. pp. 235, 22tr, 

The Atlucho seems iiniible to cotupreliend the very delicuie compli- 
uieol which ne presutiie the leaders of ihc fnsliiotiable worlil iiilriid 
to pay, when they ask n mob to their liuiisc, iavite twice ah many a» 
cat! get itilu il, or into tin; coiuiuns of ihc monster Times on ibc fi^l- 
lowing (lay, and euU il aoirfr mumule, danminte, or some other 
Piviicliiltrd name. The lcariii.-il Doctor Hiimbiig'§ convenaxionc 
U.Ti» rather builly in the Attache'* liundi^. 

" My Am party lu-tiluht vrnia coniWMtlnti unci <hai is, for them that could talk ; 
aa (or me I couldn't (nik ■ bit) and all I eauld think was liow hoi it la! 1 iriili 
t could KCt out! It Hu* II Kcicniific |iarty, ■ mob uf men. Well, everybody cxpi-ned 
aDraebody would be iigutxhrd in denih, and na liidiri went, lor ihey alnays KO to Gxe> 
GUtiont. 'Twaa a cunvLTMiiun. Hiirn't ill thiu'i all. 1 CDuldn't undetitmid a 
word 1 lieard. IVnp, Shale, Cin'y, Wacky ; ■ pstrilied anaU, the ntoai Imiioriani dit> 
coveiy of modern ilmei. lltiik novcrnor'a machia* weigh* •OTmign*, lif|ht one* to 
the njibt, heavy onra to the left 

" ' Slop,' sayi 1, ' ifyou mean mvereign people here, lime are none oflhem liRht. 
Ili);lil and ten it both nionitroui heavy i nil over-weifht, exry one of 'em. I'm 

iqueeied to death ! ' ' Very good, Mr. Slick, lei me introduce you to ,' ihey 

are wliipgied od* in the current, and I don't »ce 'em again no inoir. * A beautiful shuw 
of floweri at the garden, Mjdaiii t they arc ull in fud blow no*. The rhododendron 

hod a tooth pulled oni when ahe wai aaleep.' 'Fleaac to let me poat, air.' *Wilh 

all my heart. Mire, if I could ; but I eun'tmove; IJ I could, \ ivoulddownon thcearpetg 
and you ahuuld walk over mc. Tukc caic of your feel, Mitf, I'm olT mine. bW 
ine I what'a tliii ! it'i half a fruck hitched to my coat button '. Nuw I know what 
that icreom mount.' 

■' ■ How do you do, Mr. Stick? When did you come !' ■ Why I came- ■,' hc'i 

turned round and out of heatinK. ' Xaiitliian iiiarbica at the llrillih Mutcum are 
quite wonderful t got into hia ihroit -. the licclor turned him u|>tid« down, «lood liitn 
an hit head, and out it came : hia piniiel vm too iinull.' ' Rddia't pielure — en]i>iiil 
painting,— fell out of a barge and was drowned.' ' Having been bent on Iht aliilling 
duly, ihey will attack him on the fuurpenoe, and ihimhle-rig him out of that.' ' They 
■ay FuKden'i in town^hung in a bnd light — ;ii the Temple Church — who'a (hat I 
Lady Fobus — paired ofTfor lheaenion—l)rodic operated. Lady Francis— got the life- 
niaid* — there will he a diiiiion to-night. Thai's Sam Slick— made a capiinl speech 
In the House of Lords in answer Co Broujcham—Lohelia—' voted for the hdl.— Iho 
Duehiai la very fond of — Irish arms.'" — Vol. ii.pp. IStt— 188. 

And thus amid such pleasant diajointcd liilk did the ,<llnch^ get 
gradiifiUy equeezed into the entry, too glad to make his osciijic from 
II fitshioimhlc mob. 


Let/er to l/ie Sfanagern, Conttituent Members, mid Camjrega- 
r of Si. Panti Cfiapel, Alfdeen. Bi/ llie Iter. Sm Wir.UAM 

I>itNBAit, 8,C,L, Presb^terof the Church o/Ktgland, Aberdeen: 

Wjllio. 1843. 

2. ArunctiT to " A, LtUter," <|r. Dt/ one of (he Cont/riyalha of Si. 
PavV; A1>«rde<M. Abcrduen : I,. Smilh. 18-13. 

3. A Jifpiif to " A J^ttn- front one of the Coniireijation" <tr- By 
a Member of St. PanF* Cutujreijaliin. Al'cidei^i: Wjllic. IS*a. 

4. The Itee. Sir William Dimbar defended in a Heplff to a rwMt 
Pamp/,let,eiiti(led"AnArisii.vr,"^. Aberdeen: Wytlle. I84S. 

5. The Scotliifh Episropal Church, and the Rev. Sir William Dunbar M 
and hi» '• Defeiulcn," in referenreto the Letter, .J-c. Ediiiliurgh : V 
Gnint. 1843, 

6. The DruvtmaHd and Dunhar Sfhiim; bring a reprint of an 
Article iH tha "Christian Hemrmbranrer' /or July, 1843. Aber- 
deen: liratrn. 1(443. 

Atraovaa in our lo^t uuniber we alluded totliit roost gricvAus ftllair. 
the ]>i'<w«nt inay bv a lit u(:cHsion for adverting to iliv (coond, and, in 
some raajiGCtii, improved edition of Mr. Drumtnotid'ii vtitlidrnwnl from 
lli« Cliurcli of Christ. Tlic rcviiK^r and iinilutor of tlic Kdinbiirgli 
Independent Toaehcr, ig Sir William DuiiUnr, Bart, (of the Nova . 
Scotia creation,) S.C.L. and Ibrmcrl/ miiiiiitrr of tlic Floating Oiapcl | 
on the river Thames. We mention these things, not bceausc any one 
of (bun (Ibou/iih ilie S.CL. lias a stispicioua look) is discrediialJe, 
but just lilt Linioricu] aoKs, to enrich the futttre eccleaiasllcal aiiiial* of 

TIk; Kcvrri-nd Biiroiurt i* ii RootohniHD, hut was, we Iwlleve, ovduim il 
deacon and privint in Kii^tiuid; tmd the Floatiug Chapel, we su|>|i(i!<c, 
not answering, on the IGih of Aiitil, 1842, Sir William (we use hix 
own words) " newiitcd from the mimagi-Ts, constituent members, and 
amgrcgation of ^t. I'liul'ii Chii[H-l. Aljctdeen, an invitation and cull 
lo become their minist-^r," (Pmnphlet No. 1, p. 5.) To be sure this 
has n strange smack and twang of " the Kvim>ri-I," after the i>nlicm 
of John Knox ; but if iho Scotch Church permit* *udi iihro»eolog7, 
it is Dot our nlfair to set such tilings right. 

Our leaders have not now to learn of the cxiKtence, rinoe llie Hano- 
verian I'erarcntion, of an anomaloiw body of Scotch laity, uiidex 
jiaclvrji, Koglifh, Irish, or Scotcli, who profc^stil tn \k members of the 
ChurcJi of I-.iiglaiid, aiul who were not in coniinuniou with the Scotch 
bishops. Tlus schism erode about the onths to the house of Hnnovcr, 
which were coii«*tenUy refused by tlic Church of Scotland, although 
many " KpUcopalinns," sit verio tenia, did not partake in the political 
sentiinentA of tlie bishops. VnwiUing to conform to the estnblidhed 
rrilgionixm of the Kirk, and averst- from tlie non-juring poUtira, they 
hit upon a third oourw-, and obtained postor*, who, taking ihe govern- 
laent ooll», profmcd IhemselvM Pratbylon of tlie Church of Knglund, 
though with the fatal inomnsteiiu^ of being priests under no biii|io|>> 
(irailQally, by the prudence of the Hcotch bidiops this awful sdiisoi 


flOt NoCioa of Booh. 

vfns Iwiiltd, tlie so-cuUt-d EiigliKli coii]Kn.'g«llon» suljuilited fo llw'ir 
liialiO[is, ttnd, M thi! |iiV3c;iiI inonient, snving Mr. I>nimmijiiO'a liodj- of 
Inili.-peiidt;iii.*, iIkti- lire otily two flocks', nt Pertli nnd Mimtrotie, whieli 
Lave not coufuriiifd to their gliojltj' Fathers in God. But urnong Iho 
TOIT last lo confiirm, (we wai-e in error liist nionlh in slnting it to be 
" the last,"") viaa the congregation of this Si, I'nul's Chopd, Aber- 
deen*! liowevi'r, they did, in 1841, unite themselves to t!i« Cliuri-'h, 
and (hi* in a Mr. Harris'^ incumlnvicy* In 1 1^12, Sir William Diinhur 
founil, niid accept^ the dinrgu of, tltia flork, in full communion with 
Bi»bo|i Skinner, nnd of rnnsrHiiienci; undi-r tho ennonn of that Cburcdi 
of which tlic Itishopof AI>erdiien is Primiu; but ilill, nnditr a private 
dct'd of emistitiifncy, which, it jj said, rrserved to this oni; mingre- 
gation of St. Puul's for ever n cerlnin " distinetivn cbnrncti^r." This 
doctiini;nt (it is ri-printcd in No. ■! ) i* eerlainly n very curious one i 
but wi! say tliis distinctly, if, ns Sir WLIlinm Dunbar nrgncs, it con- 
tidun any jirovision directly opposed to the letter of the canons, it is 
only waste pnpcr. The bishop puts this very well i he says, (see 
No. 1, p. i*,) " he cannot acknowledge Si. I'aul's to have at one nnd 
the same time a dislinetivc nnd a united cliornclcr;" i.e. it cflnnot be 
Mil Indirprndeut nnd Catlinlic, now cliiireh nnd now meeting. " Un- 
der n'/Wr/f king, Bc/.onian :" tlii^ is llie real question : it is of little 
u«c for the Reverend Baronet to arf-ue that his " accepting llie call" 
upon llio force of the existence of tbo separate deed was «|uivalent to 
subscription to the canons under a reserve of the primary ftringi-ney 
of the deed : surely if the le.^s is blessed of the ^eater, so must tbo 
less Biitliorily in the Churcti, should they claali, submit to the greater. 
Tlic deed of union reserves certain rii/hts. as they are termed, to tha 
congregation of St. Paul's; these Bisliop Skinner is said lo have im- 
pugned. Let us see : and we accept Sir William's stotement of his 
own case. 

The deed re(]uiroK thi; uie of the Kn^litli rommiinion ofBoe, (the 
liturgy, that i«,) in St. I^anl'* : tlic canons of tlie Church declare iho 
Scotcli liturgy to be " oC primary authority," and to hvi used eompul- 
norily on certnin orciwionii, prrmitting, nt the saine timt-, the En;;liph 
liturgy, but sanctioning tbe Scotch. In the dioctwc. of AherJeen, it 
nppearH that most congrcgntion*, (spe So, 5, p. 2;i, ) amotT^ them, tliat 
of St. Andrew's, one of the Aberdeen ehurehcs, uue the aiUhori/ed fonu: 
the English is reserved to St. i'dul's by the deed already alluded lo. 

Now, whnt does Bishop Skinner do? Does he compel Sir William 
nnd his flock to u§e the Scotch office ? becniisc this would have been to 
biTak the union deed : no such thing j but, at St, Andrew's where 
it WHS regulni-ly nnd cualoninrily used, the bishop uses thi« Scotch 
office at an ordination, and Sir William is present, he having been, as 
a matter of compliment, iiaki^d to preach : he declines to receive ibe 
Eucharist, walks out of churcU nfter the sermon, "objects on scrip- 
tural grounds lo administer or unite iit tlie servic"^" (No. 1, p. 7.) 

■ Wf .-i.linit. of courie, lli« comcllon m»de in oat July number, by our Scolcli 
«iJaor ai Abrtdctn i hui, in jiuric* W onwel««, nw Bmy <iuoii; Mr. Linvfoii'i rccciii 
VoluRit, wild ilniM diitiiicily il<a( " \\\t con^r|tslton* ■( rrtlli and .Monlcaic b»« 
conforiDcil Id ilic Union." (p. Ui2.1 iliough he dan cat (pralfy rhe dale. It mailer* 
lllllei but if wa oore iiiaucurnlc, Mr. LKWSaa Iih raialed ul. 

Notieei 0/ So«it. 


aiiil it b not very cVnr lioiv miii-li of tliU mu connirRcl aI by the 
bishop ; for some pnrt of bit ("onduct, bowr<-ri>r, or for ull, tlii; mini»< 
ter of St. Paul's was rrprovcl by hi* iliiK-i-itnn ; tuid «Ti;n the author of 
No. 2, (p. 8,) thinks that hero Mr WilUnm hod tli« Ik»L of it. W« 
dadre to say a tew words on this. 

We niainlain that tlic provitioniof the d<!«d of union irera untouch*^ 
nnd would have been, hud Sir William, a* lit; wiik hound hg ihr. ronon 
to do, received the Euohnrist nt St. Andrew')' : untouched nlM> by the 
liibliop's rebuke of bis refractory I*rc«hytcr: ihc dwd rt-servcn the 
EDgliah office for St. ^ul's : tnic ; but doc* the dcc<l luiy, tlmt the 
minister of St. Paul's shall never cQinmunicalc clsi^wbcri* ? dorx it 
Myoneword obuut what is to be done at .St. Andrew's? His "taking 
]iart in the Seotch service" at St. I^ufs, would have been » breach of 
eontraet i how doe* tliis apply to bia taking part in it cincwiicre? Il 
would he eoii^iiitenl in Sir William, as niiui^ler of St. Paul's, to say, 
" I prttfi-r lh(r Kurdish ufliee, and 1 nlnays intend to Vie it ; fint, becSUM 
it )M niori; deriiitural, ur what not. and next, because il is reserved for the 
UMof my people by a special inntrumenl ;" and all this Is ciuite consis- 
tent with Cnnuii XXI., mid this is all that the deed contemplated ; but 
to any, o-t be itoi^, that (he Scotcti i>ffl(« is popish and iilulalrouis which 
he pretends won what he supposed the uuion deed to imply all along, 
la sbrvr nonaenne. For it coincs to this; the Clinrch of Scotland 
ikcer^>ti> for one of her Prwbytcrs a mnn who, at tlic rtunc moment, 
vulMcribeH tirodocumoDt*; one, lltecaaoruof the Chiirch, whicli dcclnro 
n cf-rtaiti titurj^y of primary nnthority ; and nnolhcr, a private deed, 
which declares the verj" same liturgy unscripturol and Popish : wliidi 
is nbMurd : tlic refore, this could not he the teiua of the deed, which 
Mid not one word about the S<^otdl olTice g and, therefore, the Rev«rend 
Baronet incurred reii*un^. and nii);ht have Iwen suspended for violating 
both fpirit and k-iior of Ciuion XXJ. For, we ask, in uhut seiue did 
Sir Willivn sign tlii« <-aii(in ? >'ot oidy will he not admit the Scotch 
liturgy to be of "priniury authority." but he says distinctly it is of 
none; it is thorclbrn pi-rfM-lly iiuKutury to talk about " resi-rve," and 
" limited conl^ition^" nnd ■'"(uivalent toa prottttt (" when Sir William 
can show distinctly that, whi-Ji lie rabKribed tlu^ cAnons, htr- 'Inw lii* 
pen throu<rh No. XXI., be will hnve tomslhing to K«y on llii* bind. 
Eitlier the deed directly contradicts the canon, and if so, it is perfectly 
worthless; or it mn be construed in harmony with the can*>n only by 
the cotirsc which we have pointed out. and which courwi Sir William 
did iMt pursue ; and we make him a present ol' the dilenimA. 

Wo liarobMD l\i*s rather particular on this bead, (and for the other 
points upon which Sir William has disobeyed wo must refer our 
rmders to tlic pamphlets which wc bavo named,) because it la that on 
wlilrh the nutliors of No. 2 and of No. 5, (Ur. LawKon we abserir, 
by Ihu itiilial-s) and both defenders of the btsliop ajtiiitint this straiigo 
behixm, aeem most doTiblful, and, may wc add? •qucamiali: they seem 
to think the Seotch OlHee an<l C'^non XXI. rather a sore place ; with 
tliis r<-.-liiiK. if it exiMs on their purl, we bnve no sympathy whatever, 
iHit rulbcr, with Bishop ITortley, we glnilly admit the Scotch liturgy 
to be KuiKTior t4> our own— with the American CbuTrli, we would 
inoal UiAnkfuUy accept a clianj^e in the Eliglisk OfUce ; - and, with Rood 



Bishop llurne, limibllws ntltnIiDg to tbi< xf-ry privilege, wo wouW 
answer ini|iiirios as lo the existence uf Scotch bixlu>p«i, &» h« did: 
" Yes, better than our own." 'Hk; nn-inl>we <if thi; Scotch Churdi 
are almost liko the Israditcs, in poi«riuioii of ii gbrioue privllegi; in 
this liturgy, and perhaps in other thing*, of whkli tlicy harUly hUuw 
tbeir sense: when Ood is their King tbcyuk for n lo^ licavfeuly Title: 
wc only wish tlial we were permitted cnUviue into thtit pli'ssiint land, 
of which, wo almost dread, ihcj think acorn : ttiey take for a spot wliet 
slranj^ers deeui ilieir bri^fhtesl star. 

Another tliuagbt itriktrs u§ in connexioD with the existence of tlii« 
(leed uf union, from which our own Church might draw a uiit^ful ksion. 
It seerad, at ltu*t lo ua, i*viewinp the transnclion as BlroiifjiaB, and ut a 
dtittancf . that thero inusi linve been too niucli haale in oomiirehi^mUiig this 
St. Paul'* pongre^gation into the Scotch Church in 1841. The privuto 
deed of lesi^rvutioii niiiy bear a plausible inlerpretHtion ; could it not 
be uuderiituod in at lout a toliu^ble sense, and one conMslent lomehow 
with ihe constitution of tbo whole Church, it never could have bcrn 
acceded to at all. we should think, bj- the DIbIiup of Aberdeen : buttbcll, 
ufliiin, tliongb no principle wn^ uctuuUy sui-ri-ndi-red by him, there wm 
a vant deal too much pscudo- liberality tiiwardA the, real or irauginarj, 
prejudices of tlii^ " managcrd and conxlitucnt meo)biTr»" uf tliat most 
atioraaloui body, the congregation of Ht. Paul'it. Thcy were incor- 
porated into the Church loo H>on : too much gf tlie loarco of their old 
independency was connived at : tlic Church made iwtboufth she fielded 
something : ihcic should have been no compromise, or even apparent 
eomproniiw : the St Paul's Independent* should liave not been treated 
with a* a srpnrRtc aovcrdgn jKiwer : they who Msk tlte hle««ings of an 
Kpiaeopnte choidd do it on their kncot it is a gift, not a hal^ia: 
"all or noni'" should hnvc Iwen the bishop's nltcTnalive. Which, of 
course, it i* much easier to K;iy now it would have been lo act 
Upon in 1841 : tliis we feel ; but we aHiido to it because it may serve 
at> a forcible warnin;; to oumc-lves, to anlicipalc into wbal inextricable 
dlfllculties ao a Chureh we shall stumble, if we enter into sudden rela- 
tions with forejgn on-episcopal bodies on terms of equality and mutual 
Burrcndcr ; wliat lia» happened in Scotland, may teach us what in sure 
to happen from the Anglican -LuttteTan-ComprehenslDn scheme: the 
Dunbar acbism i* an index of the success of Bishop Alexander's 
Jerusalem Mlsaton. In eitlux ease there was too much hurry. 

Next, Sir William Uunbnr ctuKisi^s to think tlint the fact of llie hilltop 
requiring him to make a collection at St. Paul's, in cbijdience to 
Canon X L., was Inconsiflent with the chiu»- in the union deed, which 
ItavB to "tile managers the sole manogi'^ni'nt of the funds;" whicli 
obviously is it rcj^ulation only of private arrungemctil, alluding to iho 
way in which tlu.- ehapcl income and fundx should be appropriated; 
ami, as before, what we ask is this, — and wc think it more important, 
bcciinso in Scotland it has not been urged with sutlieienl lurce: in 
what possible scikc did Sir William eub§cribe the canoii* at all, if not 
in their obviou^i one ;• either then be subscribed them in this st-nm- or 
in none ; and if in none, he is bound to ehow his exceptions against 
them, made at the lime formally and opi^iily. 

A){aiTi, when in the deed of ujuoo, tlte miiiieter and oongrogatioo 

J\'<rfwj of Booh. 


of Sik ElMlVjpnNmwd " to pajr nil xpirilunl obctlKDce to tlie Right 
Rerereo^ ITiIBud Skinner nnd liis «uc7»«or«," irhut did tlii^ tncim by 
thin ? did this imply thut tbrir minister was to dirtnto t« liix bishop 
wluin, where, Mid how he was to cooflrm tho }-oiii)g pcoplu of tha 
lluck 't that thnr ininist«r wtis to d«cid« what csiioiis ot' the 
Church he wns to oboy or what to disobey, or bow lonf, or bow 
oftcti, he was to plead " his scHplural objections," and " his religious 
convictions " agunst his bishop's eommand)) ? diat their minister 
might rigD a paper one year, and twelvemonths at^er plead that ho 
did it under a mental reservation which directly contradicleii every 
word of it? and that by " electing their own minister," they denied, 
to tlicir own bishop tlie authority of placing orer thom their shepherd 
in the Loitl ? * 

Of thu folly, on Sir William's pari, of supposing thai he cim 
still act " Pn-abyter of Uio Churdi of Knglimd." though he bas 
TenouQced hU Bishop, we liavc spoken so much at large in Hr^j 
Drummond's parallel ease, that we care not to repeat It. Mr. Lkwson^' 
(No. A) pami^ilet, though, perliapa, mlher too pungent for our ta^te, 
contains some observations (pp. 9 — II,) whii^ h would i>uzcle Sir 
William lo auower. Wo had iniuked tli«m for extract, but wo ar« 
compelled to pull up lomtiwhat ^luddenly. 

Of theie pamphkta wo can ju^t bfford spaee to remark, (lint Sir Wil- 
liam's it beneath couteuipt in matter and style ; nnd that No. 4, " Sir 
William Dunbar Defended," is the vnlgarest rubbish we ercr read i 
with Na 2 we eoncur heartily, excepting the point which we bav« 
crltlcbdd. Hr. Laweon's is the most ahle of llie set, if be did not] 
fall into railing; ; and No. 3 is remarkable only for its dulness. 

We have only lo add, ttiut at the conclusion of tlie affair (we regr«t ' 
that it wan not terminated by excommumratian ; perhnpa, howeTet> 
it if not yet <it'CT>) ^ir W'illiiun «cenied much disposed to keep tliA 
temporalticjt of St. Puul'!*, wliicli, in the " Histoi^y ol' the StoHi*li Cliurch , 
since the Revolution," wf- find to be " iwrbnps the richest in Scotland,*^ 
(p. IHT,) although he had relin()uisbed tk<: spiriluulties i but we are 
cnablcil lo announce tliiit "tin- inanaficrf, tee." hare so far obeyed 
tlic Bishop's injunctionKii;> to dei^Inn; tlic^ rlinrgc vocunt — whether lliey 
will prccent anoUier clergyman yi^t remains to be «ecn. 


Atltr IliD aliOTC notice of ihe Duntinr tcliiHin »u iii Ijrgic, aiiil |iii(tly norkuJ off, wa 
tren Utouml mitU t ItlUr rrom 5ii Willimti Diiiib«r, requeuing iit, whi'n w« 
rHlcfrmcU our lut iibontlk't promutf of nf^lirin^ iTiit tiuftin««*, iu Iwvri in vi«w Ih9 
conJitiofia uf ilie volunwrf union. Ae llic iiaiucr (iHt iicovitiaiii of iliii dacuniirirt 
■Ft Ihe Mrjf gnuiidt Upon which wi have (r){i«'<i <li> uur, ii it reaiiilmblc enough , 
that vn aiiU our opponent ibould bale ctinirn llii> un<e U>ta for [lie cuntioveray t 
whcp be dicuie* in« condition* upon ahieh w« >r* id meet, he sin cainjituin of no 

■ "The Bishop's l«li«i to xatmbotn the (oltowingopIaioiuiaboeoicria'iiFil by his 
iCTOifiicr : — 

■■ Firir, Th«i ht <ontmllli»d to nie'the chartr* oFSu p»urt. 

"Secondly. That UQlil lie had done no. I had uu luihoni)- lo ii'ad Ihf pobUd ^ 
pnytn of I'hc Clmrch, lo admlnialcr (iuil'i lacrimcnlv and to prvaoli Ilia ward. 
S'ov, in ih<nc icfiiiincnw, entertained by ■>» terereaoe, I ouhwI emcv," Ik.— 
OwMr, p. IT. 


nmfainiMi on our pirl : ind la camiilcie ihc cue igsinit li!m, we >ub]nin (lie tenm 
quoted by llie lUr. llworiBlt — 

" Thai nil the |)r<^H'>[ right* iii'l |itivilc|[r* of the tncmbcn of St. Paul't Cliapel, 
(pailieularty si il-i (ordi in llir roniutiiiiim ot decree nrbiiral. pronounced by (he 
lale tieorge' Moir, of Scolilown, I'.tq., ami i>ilei»inn (hereof,) i.tia\] rciniin entire 
aoJ be (euufeil iii the union, more jiariiculnfly Ihe choice of tile cirrgymiin. (he »le 
■neiiaseniriil al liie tuod^ and ih( coniiiiunil in" end (irctervmion to ihe chapel of 
tlie eicliutve iiie of ihc Liiurgr, including lhi> (Juii'rliDin ortlicCliurch of EngUiidi 
noit* frf Mlilvh rlgnii and privilegFi ihall be infringed upon without Incurring the 
dieuluilon of (he laid voluntary union." 

A Menuirial, iiv. Thn Doctrine of ttui Cro»*, exIiibittJ in tin 
V-'titfA and Piilimcr of a bumble FoHowcr nf Clinti. L<ondoii : 
bums. 1843. 

This U h Imglc which we e>lioulil feel eliamc to take up as mere crilice ; it 
i* far loo holy ami Kolnmn. It U the biogrnphy ofa il'mnlo of very siuiplfi 
nnd cliitdlike olH?ihu»i!i-, iiii<J of a most tlcvout and aaintly life, wbo 
wms graciously h-d, mid llii*. hb far n8 wo tiiny learn, by God'fl espcdsl 
graco Ii> " know ol' the dotitiine," by " doing His will." Educated a 
Quaker, kIiu found thiit cold »i-antUiig of religionism too coiilinc'd mid 
li&rrow for oven Iter aiilelHi|itbiiiHl depth of piety ; the full syRt^^m 
of the Church alone ivas sullicieiit for the pt-rfoct devtJopuieiil of a 
raro and exalted liolinesa; nnd after paAaiiig tlirough some veryi 
singular trials nnd dilhcollies, ^tii; nettled down into tlie most cnrdul 
And diligent wnlk in Ihit Cntholii^ fntlh iitid proetice, at least as com- 
pktcly afi her nhortt-ned life- jierniitleil ; for Aut dit-d before »lie 
arrived nt "the perfi-rt stature." If wc ure not wistnlicti in a con- 
jcctur(( DUpplieil by a singli- passage, she was, on hi;r incorporation into 
the Church, an attendant on the ministry of n clergyman of the 
extreme Calvinistic school : bnt the iiiitilBciency of luodorn cvangoli- 
calism ia forcibly and most pritclieally evinced by her life ; had we 
any confldeiiee in one of the late Mr. Knox's diBtinctions, though io her 
CA60 the '' foundation " might be laid in the uncatholie modern doctrine 
ol' eonvrwion, thi» hiogrnphy proves that it was the Church alone which 
could build the "nupurKiruclure Christian." She ripened out of evan- 
gclicnli#ni by a gradunl and personal experience of its lack of depth and 
beavenlinees : it realited to her neither the true idea of the Divine in- 
corporation^ nor the power of being eonformed to Hi^ image. In her was 
Mt forth the true teac1iingofiheCi'08«; being made perfect through much 
tribulation, she found her way to eternal joy by suffering here with 
Chiist: her door to enter into eternal life was gladly to die with 
Christ ; and if we reciulred an evidence of iho strength of (he Catholic 
system to train sainta for life or death, thiH toucliing "Jlemoriftl" 
would furnish it. It U raiher for tear* mid humblud hearts than to 
be talked about; and we recommend it iuohi heartily Io (hose who 
think tlial our own Chureh bad not suflicient life to produce a St. 
Kliaiabuth of Hungary, a St. Thereau or a ItCagdalen of Vmm, as 
well as to those who say that Catholiciiiro and formnliini are con- 
It appears that the "Memorial" in coinpowd liy n nejir friend—are 


wo wrong in mnjecliiriiig « medical Rttcodnt^if so, sui-h s|>ecliii«iis 
of Ibe '.' R«Ii(;ia ineiUcl* are as comfortiDg to tlie Chuivli, aa. we four, 
rare in ihc iirufcuioii. It is scariM-ly credible liow niudi of tJi« 
Cliurcli's work iniKlit be done by Ihe doctor i in tli« a^ie* of fikiili, tlie 
fuiialioiiH uf [iriext uiul pbvsieinn wore ordinarily uiiiiod ; und '* Lul;e, 
ihe Iwloveil pbyaician," lind those wlio followed biui iu wtlM:r imriion 
of 111* miiiintmlion. Adopting a very sober and rewrved tone, we 
iuapiK! tint! tlie nuthor tiii|;lit, had he plea»:d, have nid much tuon; of 
tlie lovdy i-hnnuTt<:r wliicli lie Ime drawn ; but liis objeel wob, of courM> 
not only to i.lrcngttien u.t, but to attract separatiAtd to tlie Church 
from tlim exliibitiiin of her divine and deeper gUta. We may add (but 
the titl^-pngc Is In tint trui; ancient style : we lutve »o loni^ Imm;!! aunoytxl 
wilh the vnrious trumix-iy caricaturea of illiuniimled iiogeit, that it i* 
voiuuling; to find one cvirrt! and reaUy correct like the [tn-^ont. It in 
bj fur the best wltich has appeared. 



7'li«Pamaitt: orPUamif. mid tUPrke. A 7'akfor the Upper Hankt 
ij/ Socifttf. By Francis E. I'aobt, iSLA. tltc. tt<^ I^ndon : 
Burn*. Rugeley: Wnlters. 1843. ^ 

Os n?cfiving this yoIudic. with at least two others of ibe Mine 
taking cln^s, iVoni Alentrv. Ncnio and Bellair*, n*e nwlvcd, as the 
plirusu gCH't), to spf^nlc out, and to denounce i-niphaticidly, from wluit- 
(!ver ^lurcp, thf. continuance of tliis mode of inculcating hi);h rrligioui 
trathx. It hn> long been n mailer of suh-picion to iis, whether the 
spiritual liciion (rcnJIy wo do not koow in what acercdilcd ilisHnion of 
lilcraliire to i-snk "Tales of the Town," and " Tales of the V'lllBge." 
" Talus of tlic Manufactunn^," and " Talesof the Agriciilturul Inte- 
TCKt") has not douc its work, if it ever hod a work to do. We do not 
iBtcnd the sliglitv'irt di^re^pect lowanls Mesnv. Uresley and Fugcl, who 
ore oxceediiigly able men. and learned and high-minded mm, but we 
deprccale a school formed of their followers ; to think of their tliird- 
raie imitnlors is tjuile nauseating. 

At ihe bcjt, the^e litile stories are rather one-sided ; fVom the day* 
of i'lnio, tlie cum enliuuid liceiue of a dialogue gives an uofiur advun- 
Inge ii> our own side of the diMput« t where an advocate ia pirrmiili^d 
uot only loorrunge his imii but his oiipunent'a argumeotSi to givir him- 
self ail the logie, and the otiier interkicntor all the nonsense, it is but 
a Hiiall triumph to come off victoi-ious. And again, as far a» we have 
yet read, the stock sulgect* of tliew light militia recur at very ehort 
])criodg — apostolical suoceision, baptismal regeneration, sdf-denial ; 
aud then ^If-denial, baptismal rv|tciieratioo, luid npOBtolicnl Fuccesvion. 
Our readers have not to be icAA Oiat, iu tliis review, such subjects nro 
always c^timuted at iheir most awful value ; but we are nlnrmed Id, in a 
mere literary idle druwing-rooin way, ytiuog ladies and young gentle* 
laen should, aji fur an words f,'o, allow all this, and there irtop. It will 
be of little u»e to knoek up the Minervn Press, and to nubilituti? a 
" Caibolie' Minerva Press for it. It may be tlmt " Wotildu de llo- 
sanne," if there ever were sncli a novel, would be K-sn hurtful tliun 
teeibetic, ro«; •coloured, vigneilcd, embua*ed, hol-preswd, rubricated 

MO. XXXIl. — X. A. R H ^1 


210 yctifif* of ttooh. 

mil. Tlis fact in, that (Jiie whole cIdm is atttrh roo uiVr, tiiarti loo 
reftcbUo, macfa toa Miliafj'inK fur us. Somehow or other, the ver/ 
Dovvli)' of «uch n moile of kdjiioB a moM eenous coouonrey, w even of 
inculcwttig (lulU-^^ liowcvci urK«iit or forgotten, nuket lu disposed to 
mupvet ita lawfulnvM. Siuvly tbu Cliurch hss, for eight«eR eenturies, 
bM tliv Httne work lo do, the natue souls to wiu, the same vuTins 
ihoilM of cbnractcr rhiI uducntSon with which to dealt and jret, tiU 
within n few ^car*, «hc never thought of courertint; beretiva hy 
lovo-laletv or of forcing lunclt' iniu tlie boudoir in a whiti' rbip hat, 
and maiabont feathers. No : if we must have coniroverYi let it bn 
Bt«m in guise, repnlsivo in tuna, syHtcniatiuBl und teebuivol in lau- 
gnagc^ as of old. Wo arc rtornly aluruied nt lli« ijuestiuu of Church 
authority discuMcd in the pau«i-i of a (luadrillt ; niul, of tlir two, we 
would rather liaar bin of the white glovm uak her of the pink iJip, 
about the oommon-plaeM of the aaMii, tlio Cortowu, and thti lut 
marriage, than whether she ha* read "Agnes de Tmcy," or wlmt 
l» SHppoted to be the subject of " Mr. Pnget's next." The very 
(act that they are so popular, coiijili-d with another fact whicli i» 
not so pleasant, iliat m very little wny 'u made, \» nt Irnot orrunouf : 
Tor five hundred wJio read lulea and trncl*, is ihurc one who act* ? 
There U a limit, though it require* n wixe head and :>ti:ndy hand 
li draw it, where popularising Imtli cbould reaw. If nhnllow 
seienee owe* iu insistence to the Finnocks and MnrcelA— if tnimpcry 
poUtiea to the Marilneuiu, and Him^y education to the Eitgeworthd of 
a by-gone duy, it may be tiint some who would most deprecate it* will 
hare to aoswi-r I'ur the abeyance of a innsciiliiie, deep, and earnest 
theology in iho Church of l^nghuid. liiiigleted CalhoUeiam anil 
kid-gloved churchmansliip we have an especial dread of. 

All whidi sour «urijr thoughts we have long brooded over ; when 
lo, " The Pageant V a most excellent and livcJy, and weU-iiitentiuned 
ial«s wliich U not nt all eonUoversial : nod Oierefure most of what 
we Imre ludd \x iiiappUeable to it. It embrnce* n subject which ha^ 
aecupied ttocne of our own pageM ; and miivh of tixwc t'■T^ibll^ lUrtaila of 
tlie devilish factor}' and mining sy*t«ii»,uiii>nwhidiw<' have cuimriented. 
has been reproduced by Mr. Piigt^t, nlihough htii cliii-f aim in the pn- 
sent uJe is to expose the Mroeiotm wiekednex* uf fnxhiiinubic Loadmi 
U£e^ as applied to the poor millini^r girU. Wc ran only nay that wu 
Mmottly winli tbi* hook circulation in ibc very (luorteni nttoiii which 
we are most doubtful ; the more nmnrt Lady Gertrudec and Ilonnur- 
abki Fannies we can get to n-nA it tUi^ better ; and the more cuUl, nnd 
worldly, nnd sclHsh tbey are, tlio more thoy stand in need of " UnelH 
Wat's rough tongue. If ever we ngU for a pulpit, it wili l>c to be 
aUow<^ aoinc lir*t Sun<lay in Jiuiv, to preach a sermon in St. Pi^l^V 
Hmlico, on laniah iii. 16—26. 

Whib: wc art: iin tiie subject, wc must just r«i»est the influemee of 
Mr. I'^-t's excellent taste lo prevent his printer from hixoriatiiig ia 
*iiioh childish caricatures of illumiiiaii^d tiilee and hi»d]iieeeK. nn-l 
«lanipMl bindings, ns " 'Hio Pageant" regoleea id; they are nimply 

Tht «Mlit4-far " IViM Kmif loxiirdv ilie ConvenliM of leimt<d ind philo- 
■ii|ihieiil Hlndut," (RWingion*,) b^ Mr- i. n. Monte, P«llow nf ExrM-, Iim 
jiwt dnpcirtd. It i) far too impaKant in iiiljccl, »ni kttt>r4 niiil rloboniie in 
•XKUIian, (o admit of more tknn acltn<i«l«dj[incnl'iii itiii dIbcc. Tlint muM b« 
no cottnaem book (u which iKo wrulli wm swxrdod, whien wch a tnon w Mr. 
S«w*U ftilfd 10 trin. 

"PopiiUr T«l«* mid Lcgf^ndt," (Biinu,) bImuc* u* enucli; il gota upon iho 
rifht prindplc lo ciilrirnic Ihc Uobit of fkilli, by ckrlv cierciiin^ cliUdtra "in 
■be contpm])lii(ioii of llip nilil and the unrarlliJr," atid llis fcii)(iout tracliieg tt 
KU:eNl«d, rACheilbuiiilirfclly Iniruded. Thit Mjudiduui: in our founjtdky*, 
■ ubU Rocmed hnrdlj' cm nrd nftec (WAilowIng the dry hutk «( iiwtnl at the nid ; 
diUilrai tniul bs cmiKlit by friiilc ; ucd it i* about o* wi*r lo atk it nil lo 1m 
fiinny, at to take a child la iu " rctigioiiA lw*on." It ia a bulilty liitn, Uia, that 
«« arc no longtr a«huncil ef fafaif* sod dttirli : ilvi " gooi (wojiId" lift lu out 
of (pile for tlicir bud u>ng«. 

"Nolci on l)io Vte of tlic Surplice, &'c." (Riviii|iia«,) u an Appendix to 
■n txcvlltnt pamphlet, «iititl«d, '* Tlie I'nyti for lh« Chnroh Uilitaiii. and lh«J 
Sutptl<«: in rvply tu ihe Quaiurlf Rcvlcir," and contain! valuabla dociun«a>; 
tery matter. Tho lubjccl hoi obviouiJy giavn uj)On tlm author, and the 
roaearcb it expended vpoa i(, the man deidiive it ibc cvidrn<:i- that the tut^le 
ii iho enlji rMlinenC authorized bj the AnglicJin CLurcli, in all jiorla of dtviv 
■orvice. IC-'mrinburiiir how dcvp a prfiiJiile \» n( ataka on tku quMliea, n 
oaiinol be loo tliankful for tli« can and labour bctCovred upon «1iat laemi uj 
UDprooaising iiu|uiry. 

"Sqirire AHvorthy and Fnrni«r Blunt," (RlifngtOli,) I* a dialogue on tli« 
Olhatevy, by Mr. Pahn, of SiifTord, irf whoie hbonn hi thin caiiic we h^•r<• 
•Irwdf ipokcn fnioiirably. We doubt whether nucA good it iloiie bv this nir> 
titatu moAt bf tnculeaung dutie*; but probnbty ihr exjiPtienoK of a t-iUag< 
clngrman i« belitr than our own a* to its utvlulnru. Il i» wdl iiil«n<l(d 
certamly : but why wa* ilw traet w Tllaly piinled, fat it i« not ot^r diaapf 

A moal nunlAonil andntaktug hni jt»t been commpiievd by Mr. Sunter, 
of York, " The Moiinalie Ruim of York»hir«.'" The work ii dcdicntfd, bjr 
pormiinon, to the Arrhbiihop of York ; nor coutd hia gnu* have oaillv found 
one wurlliicr ol bit pnlronag o. It obo boaitt a moat cxeellenl Introduction, 
of nhlch It It acivtigb 10 My that il i* by tlie Ilev. E> lliurton. No. 1. which 
il all that wc hare yet icen, ii very bi-uutiful. We had no eunception «ilher 
tliBt tilhogmphy could attain micti coniMniinRle dnliraey, or that n hook to 
bvautiful could nBTf been got up in the ptoriiicet. The work, wc bcIieTe.wit] 
b« ciicnnleled in about aix number*. Wc miut alio nicnlion a Chart of Kcclt- 
(iaatical Aichilcctiire, by the mdic pufali slier, as a irelt-etccutod and uteful 

" Flea FomicHlian,'' < Dnrai,) ia a tract which r«(iuirud ■ nlmin^-inindtd man 
M writ* : it waa nf coune tnu^ti needed, for tr« hare been, it It to bo froTrd, 
rutlileu to otir commiMon in aitpprctiing fiom hlic delicacy ult athnion lo a 
MTlain cIbm of ainii Ftnlily luila had not b^rii w I'limniori, and su tittla 
thought of| hod tb« Chiirah «pokc» wiili acriplumi lioldniiN again*! (lieTn; 
iittvever, il It a good rign that ihit ud matter ia gaining allcntion in all 

And wWlc we are upo« Tr«Pl», It wofdd be pretunipliioit* to do more tliati 
■MiouncD from the aame piihlither a trrict of '■ Rcli^ctioiia froni tin- Worka of 
Biabop Wilton." Two iiiunbor*, ono on Conliiinalion, and on* on the Lord'* 
ll«pf*r, lu*c appear«d. 

" A Word of Warning, connected with the alarming (ptend of Traotatianiim. 
by the lUv. Hugh Whit*, A.M.," (Dublin, Cunjr.) u nol only (loplaa.ant, bu* 


iliuig«roiii t» irnd in Uia infim. U n BOinpus«d of Mcli "rtry uiflammftlilr 
matcriDli, IhalihemnrrditBiatlt liaa not exploded bv *i>oiitiinpoiii combiuiioii. 
Think of \he cliuicnl snil floriMl comhu»tioln of O'Aulii^n^, M'Noilr, and 
Beamiili, Mr.Marksnnd " liii uicrul admonition," "thiti rxccllmt tittle work, 
llicCaiccliiim of Piiscyimi,""rtiniloltp Klinibeth'>pc-w(-rriilS(ricluipi,"andMr. 
IiickirrBti;ilr9 "Divine Wnrniiig," nil mfxi-d up wliU >ftHiigi> fin-*, ioiporled 
fmm Biihoii M'lli'uinn nnd ihc i{ii)in]i nf Citlciittn ! Thii t> n l)icoli>^irnl hitiid- 
gtcnndc, alirc with detonating uud fulminating poTrdptt. wliich colli far (h« 
police TilliiT than Lhc rcvieuii'tn. 

And while we arc on thia inrxbauitible nibjcct, ve csn heartily racotnmtiid 
to Itnct diitribulori. {aud who, in thnss dayi. it not m tnet reaoer, nritor, or 
kcallvrtrf) "Piu»yiitnt ronftonlttd wilb tbo Church of EneUnd, and ill Iruc 
chatncloriihowti," (ICdwnrdi.) which ia not'cxncily thai which it* tilleproinite*; 
and "Piueyi*m in London," (reprinted from the Moniing foat.) Th* IsRla 
admirable in matter and iiitcretting in compcmition. 

" Uithop'a Culteue and iti Misaiuni," (Biima,) by Mr. S. C. MfJnn, formeily 
a tutor in that noble eiublUlimenl, li an «arnfal plea In lit behalf, to whicli «c 
wiah all luccpu, 

"A few Kraaoni for deprecating the Attempt of the Bithopofl.ondon to alter 
tU« Service of ihe Chutcb," — lying and inaolcnt to n degree which beggv* 
JtfCriptlon, und feebtp witlial. 

" Ayton Priory," and " Micntrgia Anglicann," arc mentioned cliowhfTe. 

Two volume* of the Anslo-Cetholic t.ilirnry ere jiitlunt ^ a volunipof Coainii' 
Sermoni, hithcilo MS., which la a |^cnl addition to our old diviiiily, and the 
24 vol. of Uuveridue ; we lie glad to Itnd thia excellent undertaking procer^dine 
■o aatiifactorily ^ but wo iniiat again s«1l, where uru Andrewea' CoutTovcni^ 


" A Loilor to the Rev. Philip Gell of Dorhy," (Morfey,) !■ very valmble, and 
bean out the view maintained in iheao page* of the ud character of tbe viiitft* 
tion wrmon tu which it alludea. 

The Bithop of Madr*«'» "Charge" hni been publiihedi in ftlmoal every 
conceivable purlictilar, it i> the oppoxilo of the Bialinp of Calcutta 'i; in tone, if 
we ate obliged In draw oomnaneoni, wc ahoiild any that it liarmonitee most 
eloacly with the theology of tlie Bithop of Snliabury, 

"Ulimi Arundel," fBumi.J under tho form of a oblld'a infiict, (like a 
limllal ttory pnblithed aoine Ileiic aincc, '■ Little Marv,") a parpnt'a book, ihul is, 
It will h«Ip niolhert in the gniit work of education. Wr hkolt much, and Uioiifh t 
at we rend ihit we reeogniied the " line Italian hand" of the aiithomM of 
The Fairy Bower, whoie chftiocter-drawiiig in to niiull a compui it really «ir- 
prittng. If ue nre wrong in our gueia, wc arc at leiut paying a compliment to 
the writer, which we fret to be, In tome rcapectt, deaerved. 

Among ninKUtermonJ. "The Holy Portion of the I^nd," by Mr. Churlon, 
of Ctovke; •' On the Onlination Service*," by the Dean of Cblchcttcr; "Ac- 
cepliible SocxilicM," preached in St, John's Chutch, Cheltenham, by Mr. 
Otehley: Mr. Coleridge 'a, at the opening of' St< Maik's Callesei nnd one by 
Mr. Scvcell, to ■• Young Men," will engage Rtlentlon from the rcpuWlion of 
their reapcctivc aulhon. To which may beaddedatucfnladdrvw, "National 
Education, 4c." by Mr. Nicholann, of Winchetleri and a " Funeral Sermon on 
"r. Bleneowe," by Mr. F. M, Knollin, which It long, and arritten, wo think, In 
bad Intle. 




A SnuHwr Dai/K Pilgrimage. No. I. — 8t. Alban^t Alihtjf. 

Thkrr are nerlm|iic r<rw, hirhorto tmnoticed, ctrcumfUincc* wliich hard 
more contrilnited (o llie loiiit of Cliiircb feeling, or rntlicr to its abejr- ' 
ance, Ibun the j)i)ueitj' of old Cutliolic diurchc«in London. So much 
urewn necosiirlly influrnci^il, eveii in thewny of di-volinn, by uncicnt, 
awocialion, lo miy nolliing tit pn-mnt oftlic Hctual diffrrirnct!, in kJndl 
perliajis ratbcr in degree, of religiou* fccHiig cxeit(!il by Clirioiinn »rt, 
sod its ojiposile, the udii|italion of Pagan propcttioni ami tlrlniU lo 
tite reqiiii'cnietits of tbe norsiijp of tlie i<iuut», that tve can scarcely 
realize how much loss the CUuroh of England — it i.-i Imrdlvtoci much 
to ioy lu the lowering of |)Ositive doctrine and obriuiiitly or itrncticc— i 
has Buffered hy tlic great lire of IBdR and ibc conneijueiit i!e«tni(!tioitJ 
of ihe older sacred edifSci's of tlie nictrojiolii. We arc not nowgoiniM 
into llie rjuenlinn of Wrc-n's skill and genius, which we are disposed Si\ 
rate vei^- high, indeed it ia surprising that wiih the iiilrncuble malt:- 
riaU and the stiff conventionaliBiiis of design, which arc the charactei^ 
istics of tbo so-called classic stjilo, this great man prodaoed suchl 
wonderful dirontity in details, and io ol^en %\Kh solenintly of geiienll 
effect in his churchoB; but considering his relationship niih the fore* 1 
moat of the Laiidian School, the greal Wren, Bishop of Xorwioli, and i 
bis own intimate connexion nith Uxtbrd, it is not a tittle remarkable 
Ibat he was ted so entirely to discard the es^eutiaU, at least tlio«e di»- 
tinctire features which had hitherto been deemed essentials, of a 
church, as w^ us that »ty1c which, under various dc<rrees of develop* 
tneiil, had been coeval with iho Gospel ilsrif in these islands. To nf\ 
that the old Cbristiun architecture was worn out is nolhin<; to the pur-j 
pose: for Wren only assumed to boa reviver and not an inventor; Ut , 
adapt and reconalruet was his aim; aud had he chosen Ijo might just] 
as well have restored pointed as Koman buildings. And tliougll ' 
there is something in tlie argument that the oldest churches were 
B&silicK, yet we mu»t remember that the peculiar charm in them was 
that they w«re the con<]ueTed slrooeliolds of heathenism ; the sacred 
Presenca wae introduced, and had cleansed them for ever; the very 
fact that tli«y had been leats of pagan Judicaliirc. halls or what not off 
the idol*, made them visible trophies of the actual victory of llie CroM [ 
of Christ: -rather than allow, with Middleton, '■that, because by] 
changing the name and consccraling ibo Icmpte, the Pantheon serves 
as eiactl}- for the purposM of the Papist as it did for the Pagan," 
therefore Christianity is pagunisced, we rather sympatliize with La 
Maistre, as quoted in Morus, " Tous les saints k la place do lous lea , 
Dieux ! quel sujci inlarissable de profondes m^iiations philoso- 

Shiaues el rcligicunr* !" Tlie Seed of^the woman was openly in them 
ispiayed bruising tb« wrponl's head ; henceforth ihcy wero hnll'>«id 
ana consecrvie to holiest nses; the lusti-niion of faiib had beer 

214 A SHmmif Day's Pi^rima^e. 

eprinklcd on iticm. And tht* m»on ini^lit liave iu sublime jnSti- 
ence until Ibc gosiwl were l)ioroii^)ilv fiim»bed from \u own an- 
enrlhly stores : to near iriih pn^n urcuitcctnrv up to a certain ]M>inl, 
that is, until Climliiinitj )iarl Mincthing of il« owii, iion)«tliing whicli 
had never bccti <lctll<'<l wiih gcniik uxtoi^iatirtni, iioiiUTthing cvoItmI 
from ilMir, were n(>t only tol?nib1<!, but sucb a* tbe circumstances of 
(he caw at l<««t pcnutitml if tbcy did iMt rctfuire. 

Tb« writer, tbcn, of lb<-|»rfi>i'nt [ia[>cr(iin(l iliit Mirel! topmniw tlxit 
i I dilfetv, in some r(»|)o<;t«, from ticwk wliicb liave been taken by oth«r 
writers in tliie Mngnzinc) objocO to llie force of tho arKumcnt nlb>ged 
from the fnci tbnl ibn carliQ(tchurcb<!« were Roaian, and tlKwc. built by 
ibe fluccMsorsof Constontine in nriou* part* of Italy were RouiuneNjtio 
•ind Byzantine, and of kindred or re»uUing Ktykit, (o the ]>ropri«4y 
of ronlinninc or reproducing vncti cbn^cbc^ evjiecisllj in lhi« country. 
Wc arc far mm snyine (hut ibe old Italian cbarclie* are not CothoJic 
chnrcbe* ; tbny are churclMM curious aiKl valuable in fivery point of 
viaw, most interesting and moat CatlioUc ; tbia wc own fnuKly aiwl 
without hciliitiun, nnri lo say lliat they are nn| llw moil primitif* 
form would o^ily ditplny very (freat ignorance. We can hear ihenwilh 
Uinffltam's ichnogrnpbict, (wliicli are exlrrmcly iucnrrret, be it re- 
marked) or with Sir Gcorga Wlicler'* rtiUinble ibougb liltWknawo 
account of the early eliurclief. or with ^Ir. Gaily Knight's bcanliful 
rolume. or with Mr. Coddington'o fervid letimi: wc admit all the 
facta flilly ; but Ibey are, on« and all, nothing to ibe jroint : the qot*- 
tion M not wbelher sndi Uiinga n»rv, but wlieibcr tltcy nrv fo be again, 
or ouffht to bf a^tim. 

And this must lie argued apon a Mmowliai daepcr principle than 
iia* yel been examined: it i* a subject connected, and that in no 
•lightdegrrc, willia<iuc»t!on which prom imh lo saatlow up all others, 
tlie tiao idea of the Cliurch'* inmtn- of ml/-dnvloitment, Wa may 
admit the uee of many oxtcmalSf tbo rile of vrasliing iIm foet of Uh 
brethren, for example, (bat of cirenniGtsing Jewish coaveru, l» take 
an illuRtration which, being eerinturnl, wc would ap|^y reverently, 
and 6ucb others; but if it lie held ihat tho Churcli is lite jteniHWent 
preaonce of the Spirit, if it hiw intrinsic and innate powers and gifU to 
Bbcdifh and to snprnicde, and to dl&plaoe such things, why may not a 
similar power bo imagined af npplied to christian art ? To say that 
this or that is primitive, and fheiyjuie must be done now, would carry 
08 filKlKr than, or mako us stop very sborl of, wliat moM of us would 
be prqiared for at the present day. It proves too much or too little. 
Anyhow we shall aoon be called u)io«— are we ready ? — to cIioomi in 
the dilemma, " Primitive, and ihrrffort right;" " (ubiiei)ucnt to tito 

," (for the limit* are not yet MtUed) " ih oentury, and fAwie- 

yiMV wrong: Komltb, papistical, modem, Moultii>>e,"&c, &c. 

The line, then, wbick we think nio*t tenable i?. that ecclcfiaslical 
building* which bad fonnerly belonged to beutlMO poiposv* had n 
peculiar pro|>riety and dignity, u hich, from the nature of tho caw, wne 

tlhen, and mu»t ivmaii), malienabic— that ihu imntodiately sulwequent 
vtage of art purely cliriettan being one of transition merely, wlieiber 
't is to be traced in northern Italy, or in Noruistidy, or in oar own 
forman ediHoot, wn« nl the beM but a lalrrabHia intytia, but that it 


A«. I.— St. Alban't AhUv. 



would lie ibout BB vriH) now to write books in Nonnsn Prencii 
while w« 

" SpNk the MB^ua 
, Tbat 91»kf|;en) >|iikc," 

las lo biiild Noniinn, if i;uch bo ilic nnmc, chiircbee while we have tlic 
lahurcbes of Lincoln»liirc of \n ntict among us. linvin;; onoe evotred 
n^own pecaliur nnd rcxiriclcil nrchitoctun, ibo Churdi, it seem* to 
lUn, h_T implication tbrbud her children to retrace their steps; w« are 
'not now Bpeskiiigof niint llie Church ought lo do nnder^iTencireiiin- 
HtSDcea, but we have til's! lo proihicc n fact, and then, if we can, assign 
a reMon tor it. I'hefaei then is, that christian nrchitrature was alwajM 
■ nowtng and nniform and complete in itself as far as it tvetit. Because 
rmtis lo usdecisiro : if it bea fact ihst the Church never did go back 
lo a ttj\e which had bi?en fused into sonielbini^ beyond it, wo di^nre 
no stronger reason lo conclude that it never otight to ((O back cither, 
1. to a (i'an»it>oiiiil »tyle, such as the ltomaite9()iK ; or 2. to a style 
never her own, viz, the VaoAn, either of Kgypt, <j)r«ee, or Rome, «t 
the Apostate,* snch as Alnambra-Saraoenio. Tliere mtut be Kyme 
deep rcaeon lor so remarkable a fact, tliat restoration*, even in the 
fonrteenlh and Gl\eenlh ceutnries, did not rentore the didcnrded 4t,vle: 
L theCliiii'ch, we repeat, never went bock: decorated and perpendicular 
Mnseriions were added lo tlie Normitn mid early Knclish churches: 
Wykeham remodelled tlie Winchester cntliedrol of the eieventb and 
twelfth ccntiiricf, when it was twice »s ensr, anil much more graceful 
and uniform, n^ wc view such things, to coniiiiue it in liie original 
aiyte. and lo carry out the lir»t design. How was tins t why wa* tlii* f 
L but at least to show ilint Norman bad had its day, and never was to 
I be revived ; and if not Norman, ri/o/-ri<'rt not Roman. 
I Nor is it at all lo the purpose to huv thatt mediieval Chiislianity 
I resalled in pointed clmrcbes, chancel nnvc ami aisles, becaniie it« 
|«xtenMl development uas proce^ional rather than coDgre|[ational ; 
'but that we wnnl sjiacious halls, which are not pointed, because 
onr wonbip b congiegationsl, and because we have no prooemions : 
I for facts are a^nst such a theory both ways. Proomsinnc are 
I compatible enongli with churcbw of t)iv Pagan elaas, wi[ne** 8t. 
' Peter's; nay James II. then Dnke of York, got the present 
plui of St. Paul's tt«elf adopti-d iiimI tin: nisloi introduced with a 
I view lo UM ttjnsta* it stands for the rsKlored Roman cerentonial,n'bcn 
I be eonld introduce Komantiim : uud on the other hand, a three hundred 
I years' cKpcrience has shown that ttie churcbes of «il otliers beat Miited 
Ito tbe due crlebraiion <if the ivformed Anglican ritual are tliose 
spacious sncinil fanea when " tlin chanceU remain ail they have done 
in limes past :" besides, it i* rather loo much lo axuumc that procce- 
LnoiM are incompniible wilh any '* refonned * fcrviccs. 
I The reforiuen-, by their cautious and disIiiicTt avowal in this ni(Wt 
I noticeable rubric, one well- weigh od and pondered after tli« lint bcudy 

* W« mcDtioD ikit bpF*iue iheM srv ruinaun of cl»ir«h« id be built wiib mini* 

rtn inil domo and h«r«e-ahuc mbr*, fnr ill ihu Horid like Gnind Cairo, 

Bn^dnl uti t><niaiCMi, nnd ihi .Arabian Nighut Wliy not Xvivc Ihe Hcliean 

I rrinjilci I Apagud* noiilil ilo wrll for a (Itvple — and * cle>cr adtpuilan from 

Ltl'e Bunncw TaJ.Malla) uould niakp a iinxlvm cbMreh mclitltcl'i forliiii* ytt. 


A Smnm^ Day'i Pil^rimaffe, 

nub and luianlt of turbulence and ^poil had calmed donn, meant 
muuli, It wau a distinct ideiiiilicationof ilieniBelrce with tho Church 
of Bfteeii cetituriea : it was to say, " We are the same, because our 
churches are tlie same; all tlial is eeaential in then) and in tli« riles 
there odebrated we must have; we relain tliem all hocau§e no mean 
lu lue thciii all." And 90, although, not in England atone hut 
tbroiuchout ChrUlendom, in as well us out of the Komou obedience, 
lite cTiiirch was deprived of the technical skill, and her Bezaleel had 
departed, vet in the ancieiil spirit and af^er ibe ancient proportioiui, 
aod with llii; ancient filtiiiKS, Andrcwcs • and Laud built aud adorned 
churchen, and shall vre deny their title as the best exponenla of 
Anglicanimn? They did not go back to the basilica or to the semi- 
circular urch or apse, and why should wc f Even ihc ablest advocate 
of ibc nouiaiieM)ue in tliesc pages is inclined to think that what lie 
calU " Ihe Gothic of James I." was a style of itself, perhaps a Witt- 
niate result of perpeudicular ; and of which lee desire to notice that, 
he that a§ it may, it was neither Uoman«sque nor Ps^au; it wa» 
neither the revival of what bad jtast, nor the production of som^u 
tliiiifc new. 

AH this Wren did not see : he brought iJito our English Cburdi 
>oini!Ching(|uiteas uew to it as the creed of Calvin was to the Catholic 
body, andiu lU way, to us in England quite as great a soledsm; and 
we arc prcpantd fur tlie charge of exaggeration when we tay that we do 
nut know how to usiiinate the damage wbieh Sir Chriatoplier Wren and 
Ilia icbool have inflictud ou the Church. Surely it inuBt have been 
aouelhlng like malice | in this great man to blow ui> with gunpowdur 
the ponderous piers and columns of old St. Paul's : he did nut ntbuild 
it, not because ho could not, but because he would not; at all haicard*, he 
was resolved to build, not to restore. London ta of connc considered 
the model iu all things for tlie whole kingdom: what rcceivut the 
metropolitan imprinintur would be imitated nioie or lesH thruughout 
the country. Not only then would the litta'Ulure and hi(;hcr thovighl of 
En^tund, whuBe honit.- is the tuutropoli*, be soon led to think tliiit the 
revived pagan style was the pioinT one for temples of the reformed 
faith ; not only would the dweller* in London, the lender* not of 
fashion only, but of national feelin|j, soon uci]u ire complete ipnoninw: 
but &Iso contempt of the ancient cTiurcbci* : and the renult wus, that 
from having before their eyes two cIeikxm of ccctcMlaelical struetuTes, 
the elder cluas was ideiitifinJ by the people at large with u worn-out 
superstition as well enough for driys of Homiah darkness, but totally 
unsuitable for the P roles l!itiii»m of reformed England, which found 
its symbolism in Wren's Roman churches. So complete waft this 
feeling, tliBt in one of the classical essayists of the Au^slan age 
of Queen Anue we met the oilier day with a kind and handsome 

■ Thnc i« yet eilnni llic cuacl ilracilpikui of tlic cliftjic't uid alor futiiilurt of 
AinlcFiim' plUot clia^cl, wlilcb t.iiiii] ei>|il«il, and wlicn. *uiong oiIifi darlliiig 
tliliiKH, DcciiT ''■ CKDIiIrr tot ihc Harprt — m cvnaor for ihe inccnir liul'I'd M ibc 
reading (if ilii; tKaa>»~« liicaiialc (uT tli* w«l«r of nUiurs in i)i« riiclmriil. Sit." 
It ii juii Jill lilit lull ici llic (tr*t itnmbcr of > **luiililc Muil'Uoii) " llkiurjit AnirU- 
'na," (CambriJui', Stcvunaoti,) odilail by nifiiilnrt uf >lic Cnmitrn Sociclj. 

Sm Wnn'a l'iiDtitii|]n: r!ioii)(l> liit irnik nl St.Piul't mid Si. Duimlaii'i in thr 
'■ li»k»«ti'ii M( (iipiKiiy •iiioi ions III r. 

A^.. I.— Si. Alban't Af^v. 


npoloipr for York Minrter I ss well enough for the dark ng», but 
rcrjiiirin^ a ^neX efiurl of condescension to lie toleratrd bv ihoM who 
wrrc privileged (o rend Vitruvius and Palludio 1 Something of ihe 
mmc son occurs txea io Berkeley. 

Nor wsfl this positive evil a mere defect of ssllielic taste. The line 
boin^ thus firmly marked between the so-called Protestant'and so-called 
Catliolic materia! biiildiDca in this counlrv, wliat more natural tlnn to 
draw the same d is It net ion Del ween tliespirilualchurobesthenuelTe* F if 
the wonhtp ncre so digtinci as to require different ediflcea, fiirely the 
crceda themsolTts must bo eqaullyopptwed: and, 10 our apprelicniiion, 
nothing has so much and «o fntally tended to the pieval^^iicc of the 
common error,tliat the church of Laud and Sancrofl waaollier tbanllMt 
diurcb of Augnsline, Lanfiaiic ami ^^'sreliam, as the ri#eand pr<>^reM 
of the hatofur blunder that wo of the Ref<irmation could not ii«« and 
repeal, when need required, the clinrchesoftbefbnricenth century. A 
Tcry liillethought should coiirinpc \i* ihnl this dispute ol-out the proper 
MtIc of churches to be built now-a-dnys, is hut a branch of a much 
deeper nubjcct, or ntlicr the application of a grcol principle. If we 
•urrendcr nointcd erchitcctnro to the Itoinanisio, they will not bo slow 
to nf)ply rhi», though at first sight tt soems illocical cnoticb, to an 
implied foregoing of the faith of the iiiiivetnal CJliurch. It iit not, 
therefore, witn any haiikcrini: niter Rome tliat we demand the r<4tora- 
tion of ttie nnt&> reformation churches ; but a conviction, putting otlier 

f;roundiiout of lhe(iue«tiau at present, such as intrinsic vet- mlincKn and 
iCHiity, thai in thi», as in other matters, if we wi*h to show ounelvea 
true Anglicans, we munt be Catholics, impel* u!> to lakethiy Manding, 
Now, it is paNt a coutrovciniy, that nobody know* or feet* so little 
about church arcbiteclurv us. your thoniugh Ijoiidoncr; how for this 
may iiceoiiiit for the fact tliiit he in htnrt and sou), in nine caam out of 
ten, a ht-retic at core, lot tlie Icunied judcc- Which 'v» cau»« or which 
liTecl wc nit! not going to inquire; whether be is snli-calholieally 
dispnurd hfoiiii-»c hu lounges in Wren's chiirohes and " hears populai- 
prcacbem," or wliether, l^anse be is of llie modern Protoalant move- 
ment, therefore he jiatronizes "spacions halls, ' ts to us of tittle moment ; 
the two ihiiiff« co-cxi«t in Ihi.' animal Cockney ; and a pen, vulgar, nelf- 
Kiifficicnt iininiiil, with dtndaiiiful no^; and scornful eyes, full of lordly 
contempt of tlie mighty paat, und ideas of llie boundless cidi^b(cnm<!nt 
of it« own Capnopoii* Magna, it is. We hale the little wretch most 
heartily : and yet, coTisidcring the lamentable defects of its education 
in tliis matter of churcbcs, it is rather to be pitied than abutted Ijondon 
isbutabarren wildemtss to tlie Catholic ChurchmaTi: il has very liltle 
of old association about it: mark alter mark which Riicieiil time had 
written on the banks of its proud river hare licen planed out: it is bI 
once raw and dirty : full of pretension and full of eniptiu<as: make^ a 
great show and haf nothing to show. There is scatcely a market- 
town in Eiiglaiid which is not to us fiiHer of interest. Haifa eliurch 
in Soutliwark— the round church of the Temple— the While Tower 
and ii» Chapid- iwo or three churches of the later Henries, such as 
those of 6i. Bariliolowew the (ir^at and 8l Andrew UndcrvliaA, all 
■aiaerably spoilt— and the deaccraied ehurcli of the Augmitiuians— a 
Borap, and a poor one, at St. Sepulchre's -tlieao are all the an.-ionl 
NO. xnmi. — x.s. FP 

tmer Ua^t t Pilffrmaffe, 

remains whicli London can boasi, except tlic Abbey Cliurcb of Si, 
Peter. No vroiiOcr ihiii dissent Hotirislief', fur tins among other 
rensons, lUat there are no lies which bind the Londoner to iho Kver- 
lasting: he cannot, wllhout an cfl'orl, link hiraiielf to ilie civst com- 
munion of the eatnls in a brick and stucco p reach ing- Ii oiise : the 

f*ray reverence of time — ibe boBr branty of wbot has been conEccraled 
ly the prayers of ancient odints— the roof ami walls eloquent with 
the one unchanging craed, bauntcd hy the lioly niemurie? of tbose 
who ftleep in Christ, boauiifiil with tbc »ymhol« of llie one old faith — 
tlie tombs and cross-di8tingui<^hcd slahe of those whose nntncs arc 
unknown save to their Judcc— bow few of ifUcU things, and how healthy 
is their influence, exist for Lou it oners, meet and eignificanl accompani- 
menls all of faithful daily pritycr! 

It was with some eiich foclin^;?, it wh« in some degree to recruit id 
U«a right senso of rcligioiin feeling, thut on a lovely (by in June, we 
Mt off in good company for St. Albau's. Not wilhont shame did we 
tvcal) the history of England's fir»t martyr St. Alban; not witliout 
ihanie that thit noble church, almost bis only inctnoriul in the most 
populous and importnnl dioccnc in Knglund, should still remain 
Other than a ctitliedi'nl xcc. Il were ihe Feast though late return that 
we could mnlcc the piety of Konie of our fuihers ; or it were only the 
Ion;; delayed atonement for the sacrilege of others, to restore in 
some Hcnpc the faintly line of Ctod's scrviints who for dght hundred 
yenrs servnl Him in ibis place with daily prayers and jisalme. But 
wc are anlieipulinc. 

Sl Alhan'.i ia within » vniy ueeessible disUtice from London : try 
it, gentle reader, anil our word fur it you will return the morrow's 
morn a sadder as well its a wi^er man : juel twenty miles of that 
noblo Holybead load, now partly eovereil nilh grass, which was 
once the boaAt ofonr country. But the town itself is a more 
endurable spot now than it wa«: its proE|)erity, thanks to the railway, 
iM fading away, il is clean, sitenl. dull, and nnhappy-looltiag ; not 
tliat we luive mueh sympathy for its sorrows: if St. All>an's might 
he peraonatud, ne iiuflpuct that it has found the spirit of commerce a 
leas gentle taskmaster than good Abbat Whcathamxlcd. In ibis the 
day of her humiliation may Ihia town remember, lliat dbc had duties 
to God's Church, and not having dischamed ihcm, the day of her 
prodperiiy has departed! Gaining that ehulky height aptly namcil ibc 
Ridge, Uie distant view of St. Alhun's ia very grand and striking;' the 
Abbey church queens it fairly over the subjeet country ; fit emblem of 
our faith, it is as a cily set upon a bill, though the sumc can scarcely 
be said of the town itself, nliich is new, and dotted with vulgarity 
and chc*j> pretence enough to delight a MethodJsl. The \"enilamium, 
the diiel city of the Romans, is only dial ingui all able by earlh works, 
and iracmcnts of walls, very plain along the left band side of the Bar- 
net road, and eUewboro worked into the hedges. 

* Tltc latter *c<nu to be ilcliciciii in bcig)ii, npcclilly brarine ia mind ilic c nor^ 
maut Iriigili at iliv lait. though ihi> Intm fcnur* ii ludioroutly tsricaiurcct in 
Dujiilxir. Dm ihe «nil>iiitl>><l piimpei of ihs lowmr » rcstol; and (he angles uere 
douIillFt* flnliilieil, or ifrrc itilrn<lr<l lo be llDiiUcd Kilh Ion iiinniclca, like ihwc of 
Sl Ptier'i in lliv Cut, Oifon), of nlii«h llic circular lurtcu remain. 


.Vo. /.— *v. J/SfliiV Abbfy. 


Wc arc not aljout (o affroiit our roatlere by supposing ihem ignorant 
of Ihe dclaili of St. AlbanV good confeesion ; it is B beatilirul historf 
tliat of J 

" Enalnnd'i firit maityr. »hcm no ihrMli could iluht, 1 

8«lf-DficTcd vicrim for h'lE fiirnd wliodicd, I 

And fur ilio faiili — nor iliall hi« niiine forMke J 

Xlinl hiil nliuse Huwcry plaiforin itcuii to lot, J 
By nature Juckcil (o( Wliut ucritlco ;" 

. rich hn b««n tbe harvest of salvatioii from ibe soil watered by 
our protomarlyKs blooti, and most noble the tnonuniental AUier 
rstnod OTor his relics, and yd its whole aspect is forlorn and saJ, 
CTcn (o bitter tears. If re have oulgrovm, ns is ido^I true, tlie use of ■, 
tliis splendid church, we nsk no mote moiunful evidence that tha ' 
Wt of faith has melted away. More thau ft tbouswid year^ have poaaed 
MRCO Mercian OfBi, who endowed a nioilMt«i7 on this spot with many 
• rich iDKiior, began tfaie church ; and there it stands slill, a stem and 
RUuttingnieRloriftI,in its prcscot nakedness and desolation, that England 
» no longer the land ot saints : it is alone a significant type of the 
history of tlic British Clmrch. 

Much of the rougii material of tlio walls is tbc Koman tile- brick 
of the nnciant city ; and thore ftill rcinain in it* various ^iirl», 
trace* of every period of eccletiavlicul art in luiglimd. —A chri«ttaa J 
ohurclt of the Kotuiin material, like the ci'o»ti crowning tlic Pan* ] 
(lieou, or hallowing the Coliseum, speaks of llic demon-gods— , 

"With hallow thrivk lliv lUtp crl)ul|ihM leiting— " I 

here, perhaps in a low pa^isnge below what wu once the cloister, and ' 
more distinctly in the '' long- and- short work," in the noif;hbourirg ' 
churcli of St. Michael in the town, may be traced the Anglo-Saxon 
rude clumsy work, searoely less graceful than the rough plntlcrcd 
piers and arches which remain of the " new church" of the fourteenth 
Abbat Paul, eotemporary with and, ns it iiccmi<, ■ counlrymon of Nor- 
man Lnnfranc, who ns ^nttlicw Paris tells us, began to rebuild the 
Abbey, about a.i>. 1078. Whether the transepts and the upper half 
of the north aisle are exactly as holel^ it appears uncertain, xincc it is 
knowti that much of whol is now the most ancient part of the cintrch, 
probably Ihe upperpartoftbe tower, is of the date of II en rj' I. — (ha 
choir is ofthoiimeof tbe third Uenrji. Thcm8gnificBitwe»fcrn arches 
of the oavo, with the clerestory and triforia, were the pious work of 
Ahhat Roger, in the reign of Ltlwsrd l,,ili<inch, as wo muy conjecture, 
the works never stood still ihrou"lioHt the whole period of Dceoraled 
art. ATilliaia Wallingford, the thirty-sixth .\bbat, the coiemporary of ■ 
Caxtan, (whose first prcfs was set up in t)ii(> place,) and the pnlron of the 
pricclexs " Boke of St. Alban's," dc«r to the Boxbnrghc Club, in 1 -(80 
built the high alinr anil its gorgcotis rercdos, though this is also nttri- \ 
bnted to the princely Wheathamstcd ; tho gnat western window and | 
doorway, arc of laic tboiiijJi noble Perpendicular; in shoit, 8t. Alban's 
is u perfect epitome of every period of christian art in Eneland. Proia j 
tbs time of OSa, till llie fatal stxteeotb century, iho buihTing scaffold* i 
ooald never have been struck ; probably there was not one ofita match- 
less roU of mitred Abbots, who did not give nobly to God of its 
(irincely revenues : not one perhaps, saro Wolscy himself, whose sordid. 


A Sumuitr Day't J'ifynma^ 


luitlitluu u*i<* to pluuder lliU >t>bey, ami to «ii|)|>Tew otbcr relisious 
hoiifoi, ilini lio Diiglit make liitnaeHa imiiie at l[>swieL anil Oxfanl; 
nnil ilic- limt rcoivnnt, ^vho only took ilie abliucy lo surtendcr it, like 
anuiliur Siuion, tliot Iil> might e«ll tlie revGiiue^ for liis peii»iun of 4nci 
markM. But among llieae nuble cliuichmeii, preeaiiiietit iii ttclf- 
denial and liberalilj-, must bu recorded, l>eside9 tbo« already m«n« 
tiuiK'U, Thomas do la Mare, the ihirttelh Abbst, wbo died in 1396, 
at ihp age ot' 88, ajior spending what would etiual 10,000^ upon 
the tabric ; John of WlKallmmtted, the thirty-third, who waa tvii^c 
AbbBt,liaTinG;i'esi^"ed)iia ofGi-'eandatterlwomy years resumed it, at tliA 
aulicitatlon of hisiiairon. Ilumpbrpy, DtikeorGlouceisler, his friend in 
lile, and companion in deatli, for tliey sleep logetbir — but moreoflhU 
anon — who built and fiiniish«d the library, rebuilt the cloidl^r, and 
decorated tho ccilin)'wiih irii |>i>-«rMl beautiful painting; and Abbat 
Itamryj;^, wlio, like WbcathamMed, wa!i also a great beiieAlctor, not 
only to the Abl>ry but to its permanoni cndnwmont. 

Such wcru the Ibunders itnd gnsrdians of St. Alban's Abbey ; such 
were the lazy monks ; eudi were (ho priestly drones ; sui-b were tbe 
Ueiiedicline sluggards ; micIi wcro the dark aj^es ! Tuni we now to 
the churchmen of (he Reformation ; lot us see bow they served God 
with their substance. 

In Klijsabalh's time, or in that of Jnmc« I., tbe present allnrMable 
was erected; and a very beautiful one it is for wood — curioutly 
carvod and paneled, allnr-wige, with four niches, which formerly 
contained »ilvor figures of the KrangctiEts, of which Cromwell's godly 
reformors know mora than ttc do; and we chronicle it (;ladly, for, 
•nvc n trumgicr;- font, it is the only gift of the last three centuries.' 
About Ihu Mtnu linir, the Lndyc^ cbnpol nas turned into a free-school, 
nnd a public nlby cut between it and St. Alban's shrine, breaking 
flicor tlirongh pier window and wall, which desecration, and the 
thoroughfare, still continitce. A brief was procured in Charles II. 's 
time, to prevent the whole building from falling down, af^r the 
hretial (^acrilrgc of Cromwell and his iniquitous fanatics. Pews 
imil pvnt inniiniuralilc attest the Georgian era, itilli a comfortable gal- 
lery,! iinw ''"PP''^ r<miovcd,nhicKonc« ran across one traoseut; and a 
fi'iglilful ncutlbldmg for nn organ, which still blocks up the other. 
In a word, rohhcrj-, uncrilcgc, coiifiseation, neglect, poverty— this 
i» the Church of the Reformation. " Private men's halls were now- 
hung with altnr-ctolhs; their tables and beds covered with copes 
instead of carpet< and coverlets." " El was a sorry house which nod 
Dot snmtwtmt of this furniture, though it nere only a fair larae cushion 
covered n-iib such spoils, to adom their windows, or make their chairs 
have suincthing in them of B chair of Mate." "Chalices were 

■ There it anmliut ^(r, nn ipi mpmorial of Prutciuniiiin i ■ v»t (iiiir of iron 
Ipitn, for llic porcli vl Iht wcslFni dow, to •how ilial a (liurch U no« »li«y« to Iw 
o|»B tat the pnif m of ilip poor nnd liomdcu : mil Ihttir Iron bin. mlcllji moueh 
imrkcit wdh ike name of a fuimpi rector, who robhcd ihe Saviugi' Bnnk of £UOik 
and ibtcuiidccl. Wl^enilmniiicil'i piiiidcd roi>f, anil hli |iru lo ihi^ Moll High, con- 
'T«il (irniiKBly oith Mi. SiiiaJI, wlia locki up ihu church, nnd Tohi ihe poor. Thus 
"tr our gnu it iiilicr ■ Ioh. 

1 Ther«i>Dtai*o Rillcriv*! «ic niii|jiii|! wrar«ant,ov«r tH.Ciiihbvrl'4*cr«rn,M(ur 
U »• CM Bukf QUI. 

Ai». I.—St. AUmi'* AlA^. 


UMd for cmuiM CBpi i liorses veie watered in tlie nlonc coffins 
of (Ji« licwl i" uid Ura. Wliiuii'Klmin, ilie wire of thu fim dmn of 
Jlurham, ateopcil licr biioon in Uie tiolv water Ktoiii^it of llic abbcv, 
lltat is, made a tiiiik of Ibuin, anil maue a tbrobold of tlic tomb- 
ittones. [Sec tbe contcm]Kirary Dwiumcnts and tlio Aiitiquilicx of 
Diirbam Abbcj^.] Three e]>i8Copal bouaeo, two cliurebi'i', u chapel, a 
ctoielcr, tind a cbamel-huuw, were [iiiUed down for (he vits of 
Somerset's puWc in tbe Strand — thai Boman^t, whom Btimct 
ilwcribrs ni " a person of greot virturt, eminent for \t'\tXy, hiimbtc 
and nflable in bis greatness, sincere and candid in all bin traitiu 
actions" — that Somereci, wbuiic miserable fate, like the deaths of 
Rnfiis, Cromwell, Wolsuy, Lord Atidli.7, Charles Bmudon. Duke of 
SiiHblk.nnd others, was alwaj'sattribuled to tbeir saerilegiuu* plunder 
of tlicCbnrch. 

I^t uo ilhiN<rat« ibis, in tbe case of St. AlbanV Abbey, aAer the 
fuhion of u contrast ; at the head of one olasa of Acts, desiring our 
roadun to tiu;>>re for tberoselves, (it it Du^ale's loucJiing frwitispiwo 
lo liis Moiiaslicon,) tbe niolure of some royal saint, say gentle and 
ine>«k Ktn^ Henry VI. blessed in bis many persecutions, kneeling 
at liic ultar, and bunibly presenting a «barter-d«ed of gift ; motto, 
" 'iff SCO ft ISrcUftflV %" on tbeotlier side, let them suppose that 
swMg^ring miscreant, irlib arms a-kitnbo, burly, bloated, couM, ' 
and tiensital. Henr>' VIII., bellowing out "Sic Volo;" tJio back> 
ground of one shall be a Etat<-ly abbey, rising " Aiir ns the moon," 
on tbe other, shall be a church in flumes, the mob pilfering llie plate, 
and the Abbat of Glastonbury 00 tbe gaflowv. 

At the sitppreasionof tbeabbey of St. Alban's, (and impendinc; trou- 
bles had decreased their numbers,) there n'cre thirty-seven religious 
Benedictines serving God with fasliogs and prayers, night and ilay ; 
for DOl a shadowof apretenceof "scandaloii* immomliiy" wn? urged. 
The revenues of the abbey ihwi wore tj,rto2/. 7". 1 Jrf., rccordinj; ta 
Uiigdale; 2,510/. according to Speed. Hitmc, spcnking of ibis period, 
tells us that land uras th«i ten times cbcnpcr tbui at present. Taking, 
then, no allon-aiice for the oresent improved state of cnltivation, the 
revenues of St, Alban's Aboey at this day votitd be worth S5,000f. 
per annum.* Nobles and kings, knights and ecclesins^cs, bad volun- 
tarily given tliis to Alwigbty God/wr eeer, to say nothing of the sums 
spent upon the building, plate, vestments, library, itc The abbat, 
tne mon^s, tbe Ixoad land«i, the farms, the manon', ibe granges, tbe 
scbooU, the tibnry, the seven servicers day and nigbl, arc sweat 
away, and Si. Alban's Abbey is, at the present day, served by a singla 
clergyman, with service three times a week, and an income of llo^ 
per annum ; and ivhen the church falls down, down it must fall, 
unless my Lady Verulam will get up a fancy fair in ihe nave, for ought 
we know, or will write Ui,ono cards, soliciting shiUIng sulMcnptions. 

Bdiind Ibe high altar was St. Alban's shrine, in a space (called 

* ir«c«r*r« 10 qiiadtuplr ihh sam, wc (bauM net nvMntv i(. Mr. N««l«r 
(Ayion Prioty, \i. tli),) Hnimnln, thounh wlilinui t!au. the iDcamv of thii sbbejb ' 
■lul UiDM ol tuiuluig, til. Edmunil'* Bury, Glutontiury, Wa*tniinw«r, anA York, at 
ilic i>Mwiii v*lu« of ISO/HIOI. cmL. 



222 A Sammrr Dtty'4 PH^rimag*. 

the Prestij'Ury) bciwix-n tiie great rcredos and t1i« Lodye Chmpel ; 
here, in a very curious wooden loft, etill Kmaininc on llic north side, 
formerly wns a priest, wiitchiiig niglit and day uic ebrine, glorious 
witli gold and jewels. Maltheiv Paris thus describes St. Alban'e 
fihrinc: — 

" In form il rcwmbtoil ■!) ilUr- lomb. hniinf; n \itfty cQnapy over ii. lupported bjT 
piUara ; ihpafl wcro of pinip ^^d. thi]ipd like lower*, and having apeflum la rcpre< 
■«nt windom : ilie under part dI ilie cavumy wm inlaid wiih crjtult. Wiilita IliB 
tomb WW a calAn, cautaiiiing tlie [dm of Sl Alban, incliHcd in uMbcr cair, iIm 
■litci or wUich were ciubotivd ulili gold and lilvrr Agurri in hlgb rcHef. clhibiring 
ihc prineip*! <»enU of llio muriyt'i hiitory. At Ihc head of Ihe ihrine, which HM 
lew*rd« (he tut, wuu rcprcientntlan of ibe CrudfiiioD, haling ibc A^urc* of Si. 
Miry and Si. John al the aidei. and ornDmenUd with a low of vciy lirilllanE)ei>«1i j 
■I ihe foal of the ahrine nu an image of the Vifj^n, xulcd on a (hfonc. with Iha 
in fan I Saviour in huarmi; ibc work of cu( gola, highly cm bowed wjlh prteiout 


Un this very spot it \» believed that St Alban was martyred. Al 
pTGMnt this ]dace ifl usod for visilatione and vestriee ; aod on the day 
wh«n we visited the abbey, " the jmrieliioners in veetry assembled," 
some with their hats on — ■' Prolratant diasenters," wo suppose— 
lt«re squabbling about the bciulle's com, or some such thing. The 
bdl was ringing tor this vcBtry as me entered the abbey. Upon 
inquiring at what hour the daiiy service wa» said, our answer was, — 
"Daily service 1 this is a parish rlnirch ;" against which unex- 
coplionnble Brguioeut we had nothing to urge. 

Whether il be riglit or wrong to burn tapcredaynnd night before the 
lelicsof God's chosen martyrs and saints — whether it beright to enshrine 
them in Mosaic of precious stones, and golden tnbemacle-work, we 
will not here inquire; if this were Komish superetilion, woare not called 
upon to defend it : but, of the two, it is infinitely better than the dU- 
gulling irreverence of the Protestant ism of 1843, of which we, to our 
grief, were witnesses, I n this same " Presbytery," in n vault, discovorod « 
some years back, are the remeins of the good irumpbrcy, duke of ■! 
Gloucester, a great benefactor lo this abbey, the friend and patroQ " 

of noble John Wheathnmsted ; they wore " lovely in their lives, and 
in dentil they were not divided." John Wlieathanisted sleeps in poaeo 
in the " sure and eerlTiin hone :" but descend to duke Uumphrcy'* 
Bolemn vnult ; it is u beautiful one. On the wall is pnintcd the image 
of our dear Lord's Passion ; from His sacred side the blood i>t depicted 
flowing into a chalice, which a kneeling priest reverently receive* ; 
and in u corner of this vault, lies, ni thin moment, an open coffin, the 
lid wrenched off, the lead irreverently torn and bonl back) and there, 
open to rU [n«n, rattled about and handled by the sexton, liel<l up to 
be stared atand joked upon, are the brown skull and bones— the ariual 
bones of duki; Humphrey. Now, we nay nothing that this sunieduke 
Humphrey wm of England's blood-royal ; notbmg Ui*t he waa 
" the ihrice-famed duWe" 

of our greatest bard ; noihing tliat be wan one of the mo«t important 

chamders in English history ; nolhiiig that he wns a good, a pious, 

Sgreal man ; nothing that he chose this veiy place for his sepul- 

; tiui, in the nameof our common Christianitv — in the name even 

taaaitj', are the boaes of tkoBC who sleep in Jcmt-^, and which one 

A"* I.—St. Alba»t AU^. 


<Uy will rush WgWlier nt lluit ilrLiul liiiiii pet's sound, to be troatcd 
like iho booM of nn uti, wiili coarec irreverence aiid ribald JMl ? Are 
they to be tnndc n show of, nnd the vielit of them to be paid for with 
shillings? Is it to be endured, llml they ure lo be kicked nbout lik« 
Gountore — nnd this in a church a tliouHiuid veara old t •There is a 
bisbop of the dioc(?se ; there is nii nrcluleticoii, who delivered his 
cJisi^e tbo other day three yards from (his very spot ; tliere is, at 
IfiiKt, one clcrpyiiinn, who huit sonu; uuthority in St. Alban's Abbey ; 
there arc, we prwuine, churchwardens— one and all. can they be 
ignorant of tins disgraceful and scandalous profanation, and healhenisli 

Attaeticil lo the abbey church was. of coune, tlie uionsslery, and its 
•nacioiis buildings, refectory, library, cells, cloister, bakehouses, fcc^ 
all, nil arc swrpt away. The cloisten are desciuyed, and the lita J 
inracd into a banker's kitchen garden ; it is not even reserred for tba 1 
church : the remain* nf the boly men who were liuriej ther*^, go !o feed | 
h is caul i How era and oekr)'. What of tlie fair clustered sbaAs attached I 
to the nave remain are excellent supports for this gentleman's pears J 
and plums; his gardener* manure and delve where the stalely Bene- 1 
dietinea walked nnd mused ; the iiiecnsc of Oie one u followed by tlia I 
tobacco of ibe other ; and the only Piattns and vespers wilb which ' 
8t- Aihan's Abbey is vocal now, is the ribald song of the eircct, whistled 
by ibese same pruners and planters, li^tay, we had forgotten ! one j 
relic of bettor days remains, the gate-house of the monastery, and an I 
ancient tenement attached to the south wall of the nave, and part of I 
the monastic buildings ; but the gate-house is now a prison, and the J 
dwelling is Ibe gaoler's. A signihcant change I for when, b^ the sup- 
pression of tlie great religious houses, the well-spring ot English 
charity was cut off— the poor man must either rob or starve ; so thai, J 
now, when we have ceased to feed Christ's poor, we must ncrforca J 
cage them ; and the prisons, and the union workhouse, nnd the ooin* | 
puTsorv poor-law, stand cursed and cursing, where onco Die duity doto | 
was distributed by the charitable monks, ifho since they bad freely j 
received, freely Kave. Oh, bitter change I I 

We have sjioken of the daily services of this noble abbn-. Once, J 
every aisle was vocal with sacred song ; obcouldwebutrecallho daya, J 
wheii the solemn Gregorian chant swelled IVom tbe full-toned choir, I 
while rank after rank paced along tbe atalla and misereres down to J 
Bt. Cuthbert's sbrinc,t and down those noble steps, and down that I 
lot^y nave, and tlirough tbe long vistas of aisles, along tbo spacioui I 

* On ihe illuBlution otShrtu, llic boJy ot JnmciotScolUnd, ihn defettfld llciv I 
of Floddtin. MM csliumril, siitl liie urorkinan cicllled the biiAy, and liiM*«l the lirsd I 
oITi snd out oun ilniet cqu»l ihe probnity of our failicra. In 1S3A, whrn St. I 
Cathstinr'i Chiiprli «*« dcjimyed for llie new docli*. Ihe tomb of John Duko tt\ 
EsctcT, untie ti> Hriirjt V., wti noliivd, nnd the lirto's icul! npproptiiiiti! lij >lia I 
tumyor i ind iho bonn of Kitifi A^ttil wf-ro diiinlRTcd at Winolmu-t aame y«(ia I 
■pV wlien A ptiion wiu crrcled on I hi- tllr of Ibe abbey wsllt. In Frnnce lbs loysll 
nultsodlie Knjjiiih kings »i FoatvrriuU ban; been irighifully doti'crsted, and itia* 
rcmslni of Couf -dc< Lion iioteo. 

t Tht ehoit «i Si. Albsn'srx'endipmilydownllie nsvv, »■( W««lmin»ler, and i« 
imnlnaled by • liOBUtiful screen, (wo or ilirce picri" brtudih araiward of ilie 


3S4 A tfmamrr Day'i PU^maot. 

chiircli, GiiO foct long; iiixl tliu symbol of retlvaiplioti vrad rai^il 
triumnhantlj', and gliil the tisiiltna of lieavt-n itwept swecrly on, now 
plaintirc, now jubilant, and linge-rcd about [lie shaf^Ml iiiceeMS oftbe 
triforiuDi, and repeated from tlie cloisters — 

" And ilill (lie clioir of etlioci »n»weri bo" — 

and tho angel corbels serineil to Join in llic general liurmony, and 
upward to uhic azure roof,* (be emblem of beawo itself, ulivc and 
vocal witb the aacrod name, and thence rose ui> like iuct-iise with 
the pmyers of tho mint;, not unacceplable to Him vtlio irittctli 
on the throne! Sticb Tvan St. Alban's |i»ilmudy — such n-ert tlie 
precentor and bis clioir. Aom, in every nbop-window of the town, 
you may *cc (at least, nc saw) a pro)rnimme of " a concerl, to be 
girrn in the town-hnU, under distinguishcil pnlronugc,"' by " ifr. — , 

tarit/i cirrk of the Abbey Chirch, and Music Maxicr. Tickets tube 
nd at tli(i Librnry, nnd the Penben, priceSii, each." 8iich ica* the 
my in which our fnibcrs ''prnised God in psnlnii;'* euch m tliefaahion 
in which wc nanclify our gills and tnicnts to His service. 

ADd BjM'aking afajfiche*, these posting-bilU arc no bad index of the 
relieioui change which the last three hundred years has wrouj^ht in 
tbanceoftbecoiinlry. Onee.any unusual religious cok-bra lion uii^hi 
be It«ccd by a lone line of pilgrims. hnr»c unci mail in pi-aoeful array, 
witli siimpl«r-rauks, thrmidiiig along thom; hcnutiful roads, suy the 
Pilgrim's roade, which still enist in th« bccchun woods of Kait, to 
St. Thomaa of Caiitcibitry ; or tlirough the ancient Watling-elreet to 
St. Albon'o shrine ; or to distant Scinpringbnm, or to liattcl. or along 
tlie stiver Tbamw to Reading. Wc know not, (for how can we Judge I) 
of the cuniestnesN which aceompnnicd, or which inntigated thcuc piU 
grimaees : we are not poetical enough to deny tlint, perhaps, tliey 
might DC misused ; hut licing oureclvcs, at Icnst once, pilgrinia to ihis 
<r«ry St. Alban's Abbey; knowing thai lo men pent in popiilouo cities, 
^^roen trees and blue skies arc healthful alike to body and soul: know- 
ing that we oumelvcs, [XTsonnlly at least, can draw spiriluul guod from 
Tisiling God's ancient houses, where His presence anil His aiigi^li 
have, lieyond recorded time, dwelt, and His saints yet sleep; knowing 
diat, to kneel whcit^God has been long and piously honoured, subduiA 
pride, sotlens sinful hearts, elevates devotiou, kindieo coldness, and 
animates us into imitiiiion of the departed, and of Him whose grace 
laaile them whul thoy were; knowing that old chorclieB and cutbc- 
drals are an image of hoBTon, and their service a foreta«Je of it* 
bleHedncBs, an emblem of heaven both in their slatcly splendour nnd 
in their nnearthlincss, and in their ch angel essncss, and in the beautiful 
thoughts which they inspire, we can, without violent effort, believe 
that pilgrimages might be a religious exercise ; might tcacli that hea- 
ven was our proper home ; might, even in their toil* nnd dangers, 
image forth tlie great christian truth, that through much tribulation, 
through toil and trouble, heat and cold, hunijer and watching, the 
Kingdom was to be attained. And if pilgriiuagM and procc6sioiia 

^c lunelicf the abbey fdiT nr<' n.-ihiEctl blue, nlih ilie tocrtd monagitun, 

ilTo. I.—f^. Aflait's Alibay. 



tfcreilic mark which >«li);ion then imprcpeednnon enciciy. «-« Mil reel r 
jet sre reconciled to pica and potting-lnlls, which hnve ut^iirprd tlieir 
place. What tliottgli (he deTution were, as of course we mgpt aJoiil, 
(luMlkmable, wliich proiopted men and wfomen lo bravn wearv day* 
fifid roa^h nuda, for (he privili-ge of kneeling at Bccke('B ehrino, of 
counts naw wk are no( allowed lu hesitate as (o the leli^iuuH nslui-e of 
" the Atimml Moeting uf ihe PrDte*[aii( Aasociaiion in ilie To" n-l>a)l, 
Hortfoni, ihL* Mofli NoLiu the Mariini* of Salisbury in iho eliairj" 
I)ilU o( which, B yard loiij;, itirt ii» on everj wall in the cotiiily, on 
"our Biimnicr-dayn pitgrimuge." How miirli we have gained bj' the 
chanpc, which i* paliiahb enough, jtidirfnt jrerilioixi. 

We Imvc tbuii frchlv uiid inadcriuiitdii' cntiiraMied, in some parll' 
ciitars, t\w 8t AU)»i>'ii "lower end town" of three c<entiiri<« back 
witb its prr^Mit niiscruMi: ntlnl«, and before we iiuni up, alter ilie 
good old fnEbinn of Kermoiio, with a pmeticul tifi|ili<iil)on of our nol(-«, 
wc will point uiit one or two oilier iiiiiurul tbing* about ihe prMetit 
chnrch whieh are sud rviilenecu of iiie great decnr of church lecling 
in those, few- and inipovrrixhrd thonirh tbcj' he. who have aiijr auibo- 
ritj over thiit gloriou* Ahbrj. And wo iimr a* well here declare, 
that e*erT circnmFlnncc eonnpcied with our pilgrimage ia a plain 
iinvamishrd liict : wi- have used no colouring : truth is olten Btrsn{[«r 
and stronger ibnn fiction. 

On mil ring the ehoir we were much pleased witb a large board 
attached (o the aUar-raila desiring atrangera not to enier tiiihin the 
KHcrcd cndoiure. " Well, this in quite right," we exeluimed to one 
of our componiori* ; " lliii ■lionn a prciixr and decenl reverence for 
the chancel ; it in \try miiI und hiimilintitig ilmt tnicli a noTii'c >hauld 
borequrretj ; but any thing i* bctlerthan to permit cnrclcM, ilmughlleK* 
people lo go up to tli« nllar and prrhni* sii down upon ii lo gel a 
Miter view of the church; very ihwichUiil mid piupcr, indeed." 
'". Uoo't be low Burc of the molive," Kiiiu one of our inn'v, » oanlioiis 
bik) oau«tic ol»erv*r. " I'niy, sexton, uhot doei ttmt Imiijil mean T" 
" Why, sir, yon ere that these step*/' pointing to the rjiisod floor 
of Ihe chancel, " were worn out ; wc hove not money enough lo put 
doan Blone sieps so we got these ; very neat, an't ibry ? bnt ihey 
are oidy deal mtt/led over to look lih« 4timt, and if the visiloi'i 
were to'wvlk up and down they would be seraiclMrd to pi<«es pre- 
(enlly ; so we put up the board to keep the new steps fratu (icing worn 
OBI," Never was a pi*lly theory so remorselessly sheltered. AikI 
so it has come lo this -, that a church which took eight Inindreil years 
to build up lo its pre«ent, <hoti|,-h impnircl, msgniticmce, ia loo poor 
to procure three Mono steps for ile uliar, which a fivo-ponnd nolo 
would buy; ibe nobles who are revcltinijon the bruad bmU of which 
tbeir fathers hnve robbed God ore loo poor; the town of St. Alhan'a 
is too poor; llie mayor and corporation are too poor; tbe arcbdenoon 
rtlo(ipi>or; nay, tlie bnnker who grnwa hi* eiildmgcK on ihc con- 
secraitd ground in loo jioor ; Proli-stnnt Rngtitnd i» loo poor ;— In 
bov three stone slcps; so St. Albiin's Abbey inudl bo coiiieat with 
"Mindrd deal." 

On the Kotith ■ide of the choir is the ipleiidid shrine and tomb o/ 
Abbat Jubn'Whcuibuinitcd, which lias been retouched ; it is in beaatt 

KO. XXXII. — V. H. o u * 

!Kf{ A Summer ihy't Pifyrima^. 

the can ^M 


ful pn»eTTation ; biiU can always be idirntifint liy h\» biiilgc, 

of wbi^al; but as thougli (o ccnriise nil Iiinlory, lliti Dcrcmwork has 

been );laii-d, and (lie nia^iiiHceiit and prrtmps tiTi(H|iinlIcd bni«s of a 

Erevious abbat, John de U Mare, in full robo*, K fcol 3 inches loiig 
y 4 feet it incbra, has been laid doHii in it> 

' On tlie north »iii<^ of the dioir is a similar ihougli infcrinr ftlirine of 
Abbat Raiiin'ti^, wbieli, to tljeconaleniation of nil aiiliqiiiirir», actually 
beara the date <s( ltlT6 ; nor svatiuiir |jer|ilcxity drcrt'B)iFd by observing 
oertain vtrsnge (rescovs in the interior, uhicti tiy no mruiii'corres{>otm 
with (he date of ibe tomb; the feet is, that in (Iki yuar l«;8, by (he 
collusion of (be then rector, ibia chapel ivas actually stolen by on« 
Anthony FuiriiiBdon, E-q., who coolly appropriated th« abbot's tC^ve, 
tomb anil thrinc W a burial place for bis odd fiiiiiily — and hiii own 
memorial is painted on it ; so thut Ue la Mare's bran lies on \^''liciit- 
haoHted's tomb, and Farringdoii's epilnph is lutened lo the door of 

Thi» fii*liion of stealing gmvc-stoues seems lo be popular amon^ 
the St. Alliun'H people: one of them has appropriaied the bluuk 
inn»ive iniirbic «lub of an altar, perhape ttio high altar, which i« 
Mill marked with the 6ve crosses, commemorating the Sacred 
WoimiUi and numerous atones of which the brasses are Molen arc 
iiiitcribcd with opilnphs to divei's groceis and publicans of (he ei|i;ht- 
ecnlli and ninrlcfnth cciiliirir'd. Abuut the floor tiiay be seen cojwd 
and plain liunb*, inscribed with vnriouR crosiie!), whicli huvc only been 
preHerved beciiiiie they ^ave iiionrv in hnyiiii; paving stones. Among 
tlie memoriul in* crip lions, the lolfowing, lliungb lute, h simple — 

" IV.iif for XUwilo H«rry.-« wliith licili in litis gnv> 

Diitire tlml limiclir; Imr lowls (nf In mvo 

Wliivhi* ilrctotFil lliF ix ilsy ol rpbruiiic 

On hIioic ixwlc AlmiRlilic Uorl Imvc ni'c^i^. 
Anlio Domini iiiillciiniu crccc irictiinia ic|i<imo"— 

though, from thct mixture of English and Latin, it would find small 
tiivotir in Mr. I'iigci's cyo». 

And if our reailmi cutitioi, with this pilgrimflge In the Abbey alone, 
loiter through a snnnmr* ihiy, they may view St Michael's Church, 
which cuntuin*. an Hickmiin linn noticed, eonie undoubted Saxon 
remains, an wirll »■> I.iird Rtioon's tomb; or the remains of Sopwell 
Nunnery, u mile Foiitb of ihc town, a large Benedictine hou»?; or 
they may do as wo did — brcakfiiit at North Mimtns, and walk atler- 
wnrdi through a pretty park and gmunds to South Minims, where 
tbcrc is n benuliful decorated church, in very good prowrvution and 
rt'ligioiiiily kept ; there is a good hiass in it of a priest with the host 
and cbulicc, surrounded by apo^lles in tabernacle work; of which 
no notice- iiccura in Clnllerbuck*s county history, though all tiie iusigni- 
licant tombs are chronicled. 

In conclusion, mav we mv iometliing 1. of the monnslic life in 
general ; and 3. of the ^scrilege invulvcd in the suppression of (ho 
religious houses at the Iteformation ? Upon either siiliject the appear- 
once of Mr. Neale's useful and graci-fut little volumi-, "Avion Priory," 
ts anllcipHied, and even oompelltd im to omit much that »'r had 

remark. We jircfcr, therefore, in the prwent case, rather to draw. 

A'k. f.~Sl. JllitHi Jbb^. 




on the Mom of a fellow •Ijibourer in tlii* cauM, Ibaii to infli«L our 
reBd«re wtlb raore ofour on-D. 

I. " Wvn mull mocr purely livM. Im oR dniti fall. 

Marc prampity riin. ualki willi n<ipr litrd. 
Mart Midly mn, dic> liappipr, and gjini 
A briHliier crown."— 

Mid flsintl y Bernard, aa tlie sa^e noet* renders the old Chfercian bmwt ; 
and niiliiiiit doiilit it it not llic letul cheeriii^ ei^ of a liHI«r state of 
tiling*, lliiil in atl (-Iniivi-s of xocJcty a ticalihier miiinalL- uf ihu monaHtie 
life iH vupcrKcrling the coiiT^^ntioiiul and blauplii-inv, ubichi 
were all but nxianiiitio totnu yi^ni niiice. Let lull a rouiler Inrn oTur* 
the voliimcT^ of ftvcri a lolrmbly recent fiolli-ction of trnvdii; Coxo, 
Swintmrtic, Wruxiill, ftir J»bn Ourr, Koixi-liuc.-, nn'donf., and tiie 
rent; wlicni;vcr. nx in not mildoui, incident fuiU, or niirnilion flags, bo 
it llint breiiklaals nnil diiini-rti arc bill (.■onimoii-ptncc.-, and biindiimcarre, 
A jest at tbe nionkx '\* a pirre de rejiMa>ir« n* unfuiling &« nmrpdibUt ; 
ft fiicttioiis wanderi-i' roiild alu-iiyii hnvc a iiafcr fling iit n convent wlipro 
lie is Eure never to be conlnidielci], and n chnplcr of diilnru wan par- 
doned orcvni irelconKMl Dt llieclicnp i nvc«l merit of nomc well-ocaioned 
rnminiiccnGc of "a liMv frinr," — no plcnsiinl rmonive no (piy, or no 
grnleol in n Hbeml irnvcller. A* often, and it vta* nol m-ldoni, as our 
BOiii'lly cuiuitiyinon condescended tu devour llio bu-ipitulitv of a 
foreign nuiiiiirtery. tlie superior's gentle iirbaiiiiy was renarded wiili % . 
printed uni-cr, and tlie simplicity uf tbe brelbt'en, simple only in ibrir I 
civiliiy lo oar raseal herd of bookmakers, iias n-[>aid by iinpertiiientj 

Jucflioning* on wlinl llie tjiie^tioncr* ooiild not ntidersiiind, or n* 
sprecifltion of n life wbich ttivv ncro not able to ofliiaaic How 
bcaatifitl i( tho poclR description of llio religious life : 

" A hatty portion of prMcribtd slnp i 
Obedient ilumticri, [■•■< cui wakii and w«rpi 
A'ld ■injt, and tigh, and uork, and sirt'p aKSin : 
SiiTI toWingi roiind in)iKr« of dill relurning pain. 
lUnda full of licnny lilHiur* ; pnini <hal |>ay, 
And prize tlicniielvea ; do iniicli, [Iml more (hey ml)'. 

And work Tor trurk, iiol wauc« 

A In'ijr iTid iliily dyliiu iilr, mliiili bica.llie* 

A rMpinitinii ut ri'vivink! lU'nElin. 

hM n?itli<.'r utp Elirii< Otn^r ii;iii>ti1f miiig*, 

'llio nip ilii- b'ii>(>tn »1' tlir warlil'i livtt iiciiiil*. 

Ami laib int(b-laiiciuriii|; leidni 

No crurl ijiinrd of diligiiK <nre*, that keep 

Cn>wii'd wora Awiikc. av ib^ri^E tint witc lof «leep i 

Km rev«mii] dimipline and Tvliificiiit fear. 

And anlt obidieiire, find ••r»i bidinx bore i 

HiltDce and aacrtd mi i pt-aic nnd pure )"y; 

Kind lavt«,ki'('p bomic, lirclonn, und maktnn noiit, 

And Toam enoui;b for moDirch*, vhile uoitif •well* 

Bryond the kingdom of cenienltul oallt. 

Tbe trIArwneniliPriiig loiil meetly neiiirtt 

Hit kimlrrd irilli ibuttgra; »<>( Ixiiely linvrr* 

Beloff ; bul mnliiaiva brr immorial wny 

Home 10 (he srigini) lourcc of light, and Inttlleiiliial da)." 




But setting itiiilL- fur tbe prest-nt all tiiglier artvanl^i^s of tins 
moTiiiiio va\e, huw sirmiKO u tealiinoiiy tu its practical ti»efu1n«a« 
In borne liy the iiwrul curicatiireo uf u religious bouse wbJch tde 
SMCialiit uomniiiiiitio4 exiiibit iit (be present Any \ if combined labour 
be tbe aeuret of nnncvn*. the inoiiks have suceeeilcd ivbere Ilannoiiios 
bare foiled: llie luonk* iveie a* good p>litical PconomUts a» Mr. 
Ou'vn, and Adam tiiiiitb liimM^lf waa aiilici|iai(.-d Jii his doctrine of 
tlie divibloii of labour, by a wuU-urdered cum iii unity of lay breibreD. 

" N»nc Ifizc* iiuor orn. niJ"c c»in fiTrnnJ IjiborA, 
SiG etn liiira bn-vin. tio laliiir illr Icvu." 

Till* wnR the nionkiifb day — prayer leinitcring Inliour, labour making 
B moImc of rcliijion, — atid it wiu lbi« iininn of itie active and coiiiem|iU- 
livc life, ibiii prnclical solving of ihe pliilrwophcr'H uii»(dved prolilctn, 
which would form no «lighl recuminendniiun of the revival of mouu* 
li-ri<'s. Tlipir reliftions itsc i* un[|iiesiioriablc: but tbinr «erviceit la 
eivilititijg and eultivatin^^ncounlry, are scarcely lej« noliccable. There 
i# a coRimoii error in Bupixiiiing ibnt, frnin a seltisli and fcn.iual feeling, 
tbe religious eclecli^l ilic HchMt and fiiireat spots for an abbc-y,* or a 
nionaeiicliou^c; om/ie qund letigit ornaril. if literally inic of the Church 
and its chief dwelling*. TUc monastery wns a cenircof u«:ful Iparning 
and of the arts of liisof this world, a» well hh of the next, to a wliulu 
neighbourhood : the brotherhood, in which each nicmbrr of the society 
haiF hi« own allotted dulifa oceordittg to his own e*{N^ciul gift: tbe 
couiuiou labltf tbe coniinou fluids, the common drew, tbe econoinv- 
Mud unity of purpose, the ir>terchaiige of mutual diilie?, the life accord- 
ing to rule and svutcm, wliat arc these things but the nvoned ohjec-t of 
the Pbidungcn at M. Fourier, and t!ic nonnnl firms of Mr, Owen? It 
i^ tbe world vainly mtenipting to imitate, and ihuB strangely testifving to 
the value of, tlint wonderful mimiisticKy^lcin, which, tbouLjb the Church 
ba« hi'cn dopHved of, t^lio found in it the most valuable auxiliary of 
religion itself? Making an abatement for its total negation of Cbris- 
linniiy. Uwen's Hampshire farm, as described in the Morning 
Chronicle, is bin a ilrummagem iiuitaiiun of Fountains. or Batllesdeii, 
or Citenux ; nnd in these days, when tberfl^i^forafisocialionand centra- 
liziition ii at the Hood, a Cliartisi ehurch, an Oweidte mouM»tery, » 
Mui'mo:i creed, nnd n Soeiatii'l priesthood, are but signs of Antichrist j 
warning* that duties which tbr Church neglects, ami offices which the 
[lai foregone, will be assunii'd by her enemies; and thai where God is 
not honoiiivd, the devil will have his service, and his owii Church, and 
his worshippers innleud. If man worshijis not the world's Saviour, 
he must worship Sutiui ; religion of numu sort or other is mseparablu 
from human nature, Dut we arc furgetluig Mr. Neale. 

" Wo may luoli nt nligioui liouara, In Tour dlalincl puiiiti of ririf ; and in eich 
■hvypreimt ntlturiiiiaeiuiiiitiiilimlifi^liy aiit oElitt aykicin. In thtllrtt pUc^ waiiiiiy 
eoniiiltr tlitra n» oliiljli-liinciila Fur ilir ]jru|iH|i'"l»ii <■• ''i" "uil" 'H puru of ili- couii- 
Iry where from ;iliy»i.-iil oi inutnl cirdiniilHiitriihc luinichrn! hyttuin Iseat lollk'iMit. 
How mnny irAcis o[ Iniiil, fur liialmici'. are (lierr, wtier* ftiv or six coiuif'i are 
lOaiitrrJ hirmnd llivreon aoniu ii)» nnd anvaKC commnii, nnminilljr hclniiglnii >« > 
|iariili nf whidi ttte ciiiircli » time ur four nitlet affl Sumclime*, n Coli*ii« will b( 

* Oiif InjujiiKE ic> (lie cimirj'ry .)ci:iini in ilic aire of Croytaiiil, in ih" iiiidil of iht 
* ling Mil ill Ire It'iii, wliicli, mclanclial}' onaii^ it all timri, mutl iu ninier liave bcdi 
. (■ diUMl It*. 

jV». J.—St. Albau't Abb0^. 


roiiiiJ a mile or 1*0 from >nj oihn iHbtliuian ; ind Ihe ponr in^ihiiMitn. in ihtu* 
vatFt, exotpl that lliry liavc prahably hetti hsi\ti\iti, >iiJ *ill [iri>li«t>ly t>r liunn) id 
Uicir |»ritn chunli, liarc no ndirr coiiiirxliiii wiill il. Mucb of CiTniwall it in ihi* 
cuiiJliidii : bul prrlikjii ilio inuti miiaf itjbU' inAtanc« 9U to 1»« >cpii in t\\e Voiv*i of 
Doaii. \\tt4 llicro w«r0 chtmlkri; tint mi'riap-* co^^d n»t 1w *«!rEnriT//-4l in i1i<ni» 
on flcctiitol ufdu'ir JMitiii, in mtlity. nnly chaprlB of 'imr, TU«>c"»i^r<|U(nov <*«'» ili4t I 
tDonur limn laku it>« iroiilile or g'lioe tin nr I'clvf nitlii tci • cliutdi hIicic \inf 
couM b* mitrin], m-ut of ihf wmclii'j inliabilanli irtr* ooiitcnl ii> wiiIp ilovn wiib- 
out injr mnrriijtc al >ll. Now, in <*%r* Ilk* ilipt«, o( wlitl iiini>nMl>tr btntfii vouhl 
■ itmitinary boilf of prinU, and (1mv>ni, anJ Inymcn qunlillrd I" MX ■( nulcri. ba 
bundl l>p diiiani hovclt, lo *i>il one of wliicb woubl ocou|>y ihe piriih jitiHl (h« 
bnl port of [he tlbv* when perbap« lie h^i afn-Ady more labour than any fiogtr man j 
Mil prrform, noiilu be known anil cirftullr (iiiivd f(om <bc monniirry. Tliey auulil^ I 
in health, br samrd lo an •Kcnttanre on llu- Chunb'i onli<iiiiii'r>, and in iickiinH, 1 
nteive Her lait cuniuliiiiun* i nn it ii, tliev retsiff. loo ofun. neiihcr one nor Iho 
oOiet."— //y(m Pl-i«ry, Pp. la*. VI'. 

"' Initiwladlic uM inicni, leeur infcliiij[-hi>utiuiprin(lii!i up in ci'<ry itlreciiuii, 
and the jK^r crowiliiifc liinii. bixauiw tbry arc nrari if^alcad of oni»uriu<ri»iE ii wrni / 
Journey aiiil Icuipviluuui Hcuilii-r, in aiterxlinK ibeir chur«h. But Ibnt (lilHculiirf 
aco only ]ihy>ical : lbs inunatliiii. nyiili'ni in till) bciii-r cilciitnKd tu nivri llie ni«t.>l 
dmtitUTion QtXur^c lowni. And |irrba[iiil it tiill mure cruelly Hiiiird (i^ ttio«i< manu- 
facturirtf di*[riett »b<'K a luvn fjiriniE* ii)i in tbtr CDiirtr of mi yean, f T, wjirn lh« 
flnr lariic woikt in tuslia pltcr wvtt art on rooi, a iinnll evil wnr pluml iii'ar il. id 
•n oSibool to auine Urgvr lioutc i iben. ai on* lioiiw (prunK up ndrr ■iioilx'i. *'id j 
ono (0* behind anothtr, ihr pri-irj cburcli wouU br oprn lo ihrni. The biiiili>-rlMi-4 I 
•ould attend ibirm i and the I'liirtii'. and Sncinlitt. nod Arbi-ini woiilil liiiv> li-iaJ 
tJianne of iprfiidiiiii lb«ir d«niliy pniuta nnioti^ iIkiu- The clnlilru'n, iniivad of ll'«l 
labour lo vliicb tliey arr now, from infaney, ripoHdi labour wliicli iiijiirii Iticirj 
ininda at much ni ilieir iHHlitn; ini(;bt wrti W lauKlit ihrir diiiy in OoP anil nian. inl 
lb* piiory Acbflol ; fur tbv fundi ol ihr hrcibrpn uonlil allow lliem lo mnkc ([nod lal 
tli« ^rriili Biiy driicieiicy wliirli mifthl ruuli Irom the ioH of thnr manual labunr.' I 

■•■'ilml rrmtdy," ob»erved iliv CoIdimI, "ia cetuinly new lo me. Hut lucM 
nacliincry would bp ripcniive.^ I 

" ' If,' »id Sir John, 'tichad ihefUndiiof ourBndriitabbFya.wr>liuiil>! bm* rnoniib] 
10 aviuiitrliie all our minufacluiing dlilrici*. 'I'he lundx. at ■i-iird by Hrnry VII I., 1 
jUnounli'd lu Jill I £IU.0O0; the iriilal of the kliiKilnni U'iii,[ ibrn lonicwbat atH.ut 1 
Arni niillioni. Nuw.bad wu I III' Iwi'ntii'ili pari ol iu pmenl >rn>«l| what wniiilrra J 
Il lliv Cliurch do! WKy, iho iwenty niilliuna wlilvli a late wriiiT prupnivd an a 
gnnt from lb* alali', auiuilly aliika into loiiuniflcancy brfgrctiliui b» bri ii 

'You wunlil alio imagine til* builitinK*, aa ibtv irerv, lo ligriliiin^ al ihe preaenta 
day. Il would b« an incalculablr avoruioa of iiiSuincv lo lb« Cliurch. Bul why put' 
a uianitfuly iinpouib1« luppoailion 7' 

•■' Wliiitner)(i.od ihey would do now, thar, 10 far ai it woa needed, ibfj did when 
ihcy eiititd. It \> ht caiicr Forour imafinaiiun lo bring iliem foiward into out own 
llmci Iban tu carry ouiictici back intoihelt*, wbru Wv would Judge of thrli taDufnoo. 1 
Lci ui imagine, (nr eumplr. ibe inonaMrrio of S. Alban'i, Heading. S. Edmotnl't j 
Itnry. Giutonbuiy, Wtiiniinitrr. and Vurk. tflcli wi'h an annual incuuie of abmiti 
£i60,0li0, to lUTI U[i imuiigai u>; oby, llie rlTi'Vt mduU] be little ihnit of inlmi aloui M 
And you are lo reini-uibci. ihai not only wmild llic Cliuri:!) bt ennblfil lo rrivt and 1 
endiiie Kmplei which abuuld OMii uviiiaki' tbr Inciraie of puiiulaliun, and lo luiplv { 
niiiilmcit 111 meet their ncoMilticti lliii ii nol alL She vtonlil at once come lorwrcl J 
aa tbr ]iii{rui:[i>f oE' ihe naliun ; buarji of rducuLion would bv no longer needed 1 1 
traininji ■cliuiila would at once be provided. Tburo it nol an art in whleh She 1> c>'iu 
Cornell, that Sbs would not lio abl>- lo teach; and the bigh and low nould -i|iidII]f 
lake iheir firit Jtvaoii* from Hrr 1i|i«. Then the poor, Itiiiead of the nr|.'ligen< ot 
bnual attendance of tome miarrably paid finriBh doelor, would be under ihc skilful 
cue of the in Rrmarer and hU brethren : ilic iick-l>i.'d would bcintde aofter by ibcir | 
klndnni, and lltr mind uf the lulFcrer be nalxivlly drawn by earlhly lo lii.-avriil]pj 
lliinn. None would I* Ufi lo the tetiili'r meni" of ihr ri-IU*ing ofBtn : ihe iierdjpl 
would llnd food by applyli^K at tbr aliliij iialr. 'I'hr llnlun ayiLcni. ncTuricd of (iUD|' 
and iiiloleriliK' in mun, would vaiiinh like ■ dmu i in ihort, the C'liuivb wou(<J, 
wbtievd wt lutnvd, ptvieiit (b< Mmc taped, ihil of the pctt btnelarlor lo •"*' ' j 


A Sttmmrr J)a<i'» Pifyriiiniff«, 

ntui and liaily. Itotpiulily, n linat nnw ulmoil forgolleiii (for wlio tviT pnKrtiin* 
»ttai>gcri Bi in ihc olden (lint?) »ould revive, and lieic, ogiiii, It would be (ha 
Church xhlch (iricliicil ihc virluc it peeichei.' 

*" Yuu miiit allow,' hIiI Col. Abbericy, 'thai (lie monMlcrin did nut, in ths time 
oflhclr ulory, do all llilii aad iliac Ihrv do not do it now in llioic countrio« where 
tliey *lllT rtmain.' 

'"Graiitril ; but llicn there wi>r« oilier reitoni for ihi*, botldra ihal of the corrup- 
tion of lliv tytlfin. I do nnt nn-nii, «> i >iiid before, To tnj l1i*l il w*i not corruplrit. 
Bui thn iiiiriiual twn'lit" of ibp r»lii;'""t hoimot were hn vivihir; I do nol nay ien 
teal, fur 1 tlull liavv snnioluiii; losdd <in lliii jiuiiu I'mvnlly ; brcaum ih<< iiuiiichial 
lyilrin Hii« then [0 much mnrr fully worked utit. Takit tonie intinncvat I uill n«t 
(iivk ilirm, hut lake iliem ii lliey occur lo me. I.«wi:>ii, in 5tiiisrx, n town wiili •'■in« 
HOOO inligliUanl*. list now >i> cburclici ; brfnrc llu- llvformnlion il liod firrccn, nnil iwo 
inonulpriFi. Tlietford, in Norridk, lind ilieu >nmr lix or cighi, alni'li iiavr- now 
periahtd. York, »ell jitovidcil at ii icrnia. Iiid ioil nboul the tnmF number. So it 
M with Dulhiin; ao wiili Kicier i >o vciili l.iocoln ; %o wiih Norwich ; to, in ilinii. 
with ifhai ever oily you cxaTnine- And ■■ to ihe rural d^itricti. Wc wcrGCon>idrriiiff 
the iisIc of Cornwull. I ipvak vilhin Ittniu when J >ay, ihnt noi ilie ihird pari lif 
ihe churchmi wliich aiood tliete berure ihe Kefocmaiion, arc iinndiDg there now. In 
iu nildett paria, iheie were c lin|ieli, olTdiooli tiom (he pariih church, and probablj I 
•cKTcd ai inlervala by llic ]iari>h. or atblatil, iirleal. And Ihit IcmU lu anoihcFl 
renicn why Iho moniulerlet eiirciied a leu viiiblo rtTccl i>ii ilin tpiriiust welfme uf | 
our poor al ihe (lioe o( their >ii]i]ireuion iliun Iliry would do nov. I rcA'r (o <h«* 
fnlliiileiy ^raler nunibcr of prima wbimi ilir Cluirch iheii iiii|ipi>r[rd. In ihr llrtt 
placo, ihtrc were ih' eliantty pricti'; and wiilioni »i«linip;, or lliidiiiK il neeriury, 
10 defpnd llie cnrrnpiion" ut ilie tyittm wiili whirli lliey were connei'Icd, iliey tnuit 
liati b»n, or Dl liuil. wincli >> lurtieiEnl lo n>y nr^imK'nr, ilicy iDiifht liare bfi<», Vi'ty 
linportanl belpa m il large pariali. Apauit almoBi every ehurrli had at lr*o»l onr, nttcn 
Iwo, denoon* otiuehrd to i(. Wr may tec lr<icci of Ibeni in tile acdilia nhith appear 
on Ihc >outh aide ol' our old chanccLa: tbery ii seldom only one : orii^ncr Iherv artf 
Iwoj ofiener ilill, three. 8g thai wllh ■ body of Cler(t; amply lufflncni lo lake 
char|{c of the population, ihe acrvicn of the tnunlu in Ihal »ay were liiile nei'drd, 
and thcrclore. eoinparii lively iprakinff. Utile exeriej. At To your o^JfClion on (hs 
■(ate of Ihc furcijin motini'efiei iil iTie prcieni iluy, the aumi' reaion ivill "pply (« 1 

(hem : add to which, ihiit (except in iLily] llie reliKloim I av* ar« nu where lu b^ij 

bund In llulr oriifioat iplendour end wealih. Pigiicc owi'h tlivir dralruetiun lo iht j 
revolution 1 Utrmany, to ihe potiiion iha occiniira, being the Kroai Ihealre of all' 
Buronran wan: Spaiu, (o the late rHvoliilion i Porlii)!'!), lo ihe Mari|u<« de I'unilial 
and (he Conilitulion. However, 1 will acknonlrdxe (hat In iliu country wlipct ihfy 

remained longril, Spgin. Ihcy were indeed de^'eiieioird.' 

.pjied til '" 
Ihv ayilrm,* 

"' But you Hid,' replied (lie Colonel, ' iliut you had other argumnia in favour of 

V ayilrm,* 

" ' The aecond I would menlioD ia lliii : thai ihcy Deled In the tame bcnrtieiil way 

ai vollepa* now atn atnonj;a1 na i nay, that the influence lliey eiherciacd «ai eien more 
beneficial. It ii evident thai the active and laboriotji life of a pariah prieii don not 
allow him lime, had he the meana, of laying tip much deep learning, lie muii he 
COnicni wllh ati influence over hli Imnu'diai'' liiick t for lhi> Church al latKc. except 
in the waya or«Xam]ile and prnyer. he cun do lit lie. lie wiinN ihe caleniiivi.' library 
which ho may cnnauii : and it it iit (hi- riik oF injutitig hit pnrith, if he ili'Vom much 
lime lo cimpoiiii <n, oihrr than for the uae of hii pariah. 1 mMn of onunv cnmpo- 
alllon of work* which trill he, in oihrr daya, ainndard iheology. If yon run over 111* 
Hriliiiiia of mir prineipol divinei, you wdl aee ihoi ilio (freali'at of their vrorka were 
wrIttFii liy ihote who wi^re iiOI. or at leait not al tbat time, cngitg<ed in parith duiy. 
llnok^T'g Poliiy. in n gloriou* exeepllon. Ko« here, celle)[ci nnd monHiicriea •up^ 
plied jiiit llist void wliiirh I have noticed. I'licy do not ninkc gvoi\ pativli pneaiai 
ihey du not leach n man how lo vltii the ilck or ilymj[ beJi how to cniiilorl ■ 
|iciiilenl ; lu awaken n harilened aiimer x nay, Tit>t evi'ii how to control a vnlry, or to 
•nforoc o rnlc. And I fear ihat even the iiiudern profi-awrahip of PaHoral Tlieolo|[y 
will nol do much In thli wny. Hut when Jny nrw ami ilanjteroua hereiy aji[iejirs, 
'i*n any great hmIcIc of the fiiih ia called in t|ueKiioii, when ihc voice of iheeailicil 
purecl >gt of the Church ia lo be conmllfil on any Rivi'n subjrci; when our oian 
ich of Ihe (;hufch U tu be defendi'd autiiiiai whnievcr enemyj iheti lliere nunld 
if w* had our menaalvrir*, a tMt ol' mm ready at onec to apiing np the cliainploiK , 


JV», /.—St. Albiitt's Abbey. 


or (h> Cltholrck Failh. irnined. eat by a few houn' ilutty. bot bjr the iuTtHlpfilNI Of 
|«itif| to ut»ai*l the moai lubile hrroio, )ni1 lo jicneifair, ■■ dcrply u DMII maf 
da, into llic ilcptlu ol Tbculojiy. MonUKrrics ute '*r more fultcd 10 Ilie produciion 
oliiichn nor Ihnn cullttiii. lut nmn) n-'uibni. tirdly, pror^nc liicni[i>i« ind icience. 
wMcli niu>t lir Muillcil 111 lliir laller. iv ■ (cruin (trgrcc, for thrir own »kei, nouJd 
in ihv I'uriMcr tnlic iliolr omn nolurnl poiition u the tiiinriinnlda of lhcolo|ry. Tbrn, 
the ii-h(-ii>iit aiiiii»|ilicre of iho ono, llie conittnt pr>;«r*. th* coniunl CoRim union*, 
ihu iiniiirdiiiii' Ueijiciition to (joo, OTiitrail tiviiiiy nllh (hu mlrmlini'* on collrgt 
chB|irI, (h« miitlitrf of ■oitliirr nnil hi|ihct purtulti stilh ntpiritiiun lot iiorlUlv lion- 
ouns 'iiiJ ilinipBitnn in worldly plt^kutnt. Awi oonni'xioii in iwculor hiiftiotki. I am 
not •mrv th»t, »iih ilic »m^\t tttsyiinn o( Uirroui'i Jji'tniot", ony ([rrii work on 
Divintly \iit pfococdcd immnlidtly frum llio «ill> of* riilUgT, Imin tin- rovoluliott 
till ill hill ihp lai< l<w yptni Irl ii* liojio ibr «» will lonn br niiti'lyd flproiil. But 
(liouUI rolle^n ever sgnio broomo lli<- itricily nli^iom fuuiidxtioni iihicli llicy wvrfl 
dviiKO'd <o l)F, llicy rieivr could compf le wlili aur ancirnl monitierin u inimntnla 
for Ihr prr^ijiiLion of Irulh, from s pbjiictl tpflion ; ihe untllncn of Ibtir fundi^ 
Whii r^Z>|jiotii houfn have bten rnouJod lo do in tbit viy, you may »fo in Ihr glu- 
fioni Dc»cdtclmc odi^ioiii of ilii; Faibtrv' workii Bbi^h no indlvtdoAl nor ir( of 
iniliviiltuli vuulil hiiio iiiiJi?r(iik(D. aiitl ilic ri*k of Khi«h no hookirllrr could haT«j 
borne 1 bu< hUicIi f^kfn in hnnci liy n bond ofroliiiioiu intn, «clln|[ under oiden froni| 
Ihcir miprrtori. nnil publiihcd m the Fipcnfc of lii« oommanily, oIkc • noblo oxamplo - 
of one way in uhicli moiiaiiick boui« may oonliibutc to the ^tory of UoD, And by 
aham ia auch n vrork hkely to be earned on nioto aurontfully? Who ii the more 
likely lo cnltr itilo ihc aiiiril of Iho Pnihcn t I'he man, finb frotu llic Iceiurr, or 
thg vxamioaliiin, or ihv hull, or Ihe cambina>Ion-n»in, wiih Ihe paprn, (ood and 
bail, ot' Iwrnty elaaaical or niiitliemalical cxainliiera lo luuk o>vr «hcn the apjioiiited 
prrigTtn •hall bait b«n m»Ae \n Ibc woik in hand ; or hi . «hii witli the %wvvt nolei 
of vptpera yei rinttiiiK in bi> ntn. looka lormni to Jominti. in i U-v huuia, in iha 
■sltmii Conii'lino, and porhapa, in • fevbour* alwrlhal, to Icaic hii brd tvt (ho Hnt 
Notiiirn I la tbvr# a qunlton, cten in acaae like (blaf And bow much mucrniii<( 
tb( bilanor turn in Taioor of monairleiiea. vilicn ihr wmk iu biml iaonc urdnGmalick, 
(till man of pmrHcil ihi-ol»Bt ' Who but the ii)hnMinii( of inch a p'are could boTc 
vrriitrn ihc ImiiatiU CHRiai I ' Vtbo bin one livinKO" the lameiyxem, could bare 
Mmpoiod ihe SFTuiont and I'niyrn of Bitliop Andrenei'"' — Ibiil. Pp. I'i! — t3J. 

" ■ My [liird argumcnl oould be ihat arlaiiiK frnm a coniiderailAU ol (he bcnetlu of 
inMreeuioD. Much ot <hii la. I allow, applicable <o ihe Dally Senioe u ne aoiuntly 
haie 11 : much more Waa applicable lo it when ihe Ilnun veir (aid alx timet, inn end 
of utico, dally. But the btautlful ayaicm of nigbily piayer, ihai can only And place 
In • monaaiick niahliahinent The C'lmrcb then, not content with luppticatiiig ibo 
binainf: of <iOD on Her children at all houn of the d.iy, lendi up bee peiiiiuna for 
ihvm at a limu wbeu ihoy am nmrc peculiarly expou'd lo dinjirr. and «hcn they ara 
uiirontoiunt of ibo aafi't-uatd of llrr (T^yen. And llir fourth leaton I ■hould dwfill 
oci i< Ihe aaylum which inch jila.'ra illiitd ci Ibmo wbii baie no alber home. Tho 
daugbtin, for rKnmptr. of clergy turn, who, when left orjihini, mitil teck their ltvr> 
lihond by going out ai f!nvi;tiicHe«, et hy tome loHer way ot cnriiinii their bread | 
wjuld they not ble»i Goo if ibry ooold hat* lo holy and to cotofniTing a Vinbiiaiion to 
wbieh they might By t There, in difTrrFnt way*. Ibry miiibt etfcatually •erne llini ; 
tlieie, they would daily be coiiaolcd by tile voice of Ibr Cbuivh i there Ihey niighl 
tserkly, and why not ofivner ? receive ihe IJoly Communion i inttead of Ivinjl leased 
and bufTeled about iu ibii wottdi prrliap*. without a home ibat Ibey can call ibrlr 
ovrn 1 ejipoted lo all manner of hafilthipi; without frientli to cheer or comfcirt — and 
■II lliir. not for tome high and holy end, but lo procure bate lu In. mi once and abcllrr, 
tio ilio agti, whoae manhood had been (uken up in the iitntHry pui^uii* ul' ibia 
world i hut who had now ouilived or lettled llieir familie*, might tiiey not nil bo 
thankful for a place where they might Fclire, bdorp Ihey died, from ihe nc"»e anil 
COnfuaion of 1 hit world, and prepare tbemaiKra for Iheir enirnnce on the neil by 
dtPptr penilciicir, more uiiinlerrupied prayer, and doiet comninoii'i with Uod ? 
Again 1 periodiul relirtmrnl lu atich a lioiike might he mi»t aaluiary for one di'i'ply 
fdgaged in butineia: an Ailvtnt or l.i'nt to puaaed would be. at it wcrv. a breithuij; 
■inve tot the tool, on untwining ihe dote poiionoiuciiibraccof weekly atTuIr*^ a unci 
InaoD in aeldtig ihe aOeeiiona on iliingi above. Ihla b often practiacd iu fuieign 
Cllur«liei 1 nby abuuld it nut bn in our own t ' 

"'Huihavbihiaiobodoncr' aakcd tho Colonel. 'Iftrtaivquiio unequal no*, 

232 A SumtntT Aw/» Pil^rimc^. 

ID (he tt^wtuMStlimfTil rt (he monaitick •yilom. what doM >i adiinttfr u* to dwH 
oil ill brmiiin I If uu att ri|Uiil la ii i luw cumci i( (o )iua ihit il hui nrtur bprn 
(ri«>l T Anil why da wi- iiol fiitil i( (lluilcil lo with a|>pToliMiun ia iho wotki at oiiT 
iljiridiinl divrnrt ? ' 

'•• lr» r»-i'>iiMiiilimcn1,' replied Sir Jnlin, "U tn ten loii([ ■ luhjfct for u> to cim- 
mliT *1itn jim m mir riilc'. i-ml, Hiil ii lint lii'Pii [lartiiillj irkd : I of cniirn- ii'ffr 
Ei> ihp Liulp Giddir>iz rat.ihli»liiiicn{ mulIit .Nidiuluit i'lfrrtiT. And I'omirirndrd il Vt%» 
bmi hy Kucli wTitfrv 44 Tlinrjiclik<*, liriiniliall, 4(h1 Jrnrmy Tnylur. Nny. di) you not 
liiiuw ilint Burnt! [ohoni I wouU only >|iii>ii' t" iW n|>|)ni.Tt oF ili* KjsKm, u an 
onfimriJuni ad hmmrm) ipmki ofll'p t#-ciurihli.liinc"nl nf iiimrrripii nn n wotk rhal 
woulil *i>u iiONoiin T" * otins'» firmsi T And doi'ii not Bi'hnii Anrlfrwci rxpr«a 
in Ihr •(rnnani mnnnri lilt n|>i>rnvol of iUf >y<l<ni. wlxn be blrdi* Con lur the 
bolinr<i ol ini->jikf. nud atceiick^. and the brnuiy of virtue** 

" ' If, liowcvrr.' relumed Col. Abberli'V. 'mnnFii(rti» were of >u(rh boiiefll (i you 
appear lo [li^nk, 11 doH *e(ni 10 me tneoniprel) 01141 hie ihn( tlieir diitnEuiioii thutilil 
have been lulxniilvd lo *o utncly. niirl lUal K few voice* ilioutd hire been Inltnl In 
iheir dr(rnt«.'" 

" ■ Why,' •iimerod Sir John, * ilicre «fci« many leuons for ihi«i but tho mo 
principal miun air lu bs tooki'd for In the eurru|iiii<n>— DOI ol' the |»a^'iice, but ol 
iIh piinolploa — of ih* tjilani. Nu one will now deny, for even ItoinmiliU, by llieir 
peeirnl asta. eoiitrM il, ihal rrliitlou* hounri inuil be under ihe coniroitl nf llio 
b'lhop, In whoa* di-HVU tlioy an niiuaied. Tile heaiT-linnilns* and jeiloutira of 
nhtch 1I10 coikiniry |itatiLoe liail l»*n ilio anurre, had nlicnaii'd Ihe inindh of iha 
btiliufn from llio*a wlioin, noi wiih»ni nmhe, ilii'}' rrt^trded aa riirjil). I'he mitttd 
abliat of lueh a llonx aa H^ AII>Hn'« in exUTior a]]l,-i]diiMr and ili-fiurimenE uran <j litre 
lb» rquil of a prelai* : he pnvp ihe Ue*-inc i" 'li"" ■■i"i" "■** I I'f wore Ihr latne 
mitre, tin?, (rloiet. and iniidnla : he varrird ilir tiiitie pminrnl tialTi ihp only (lif> 
(errnce brins Ihui ill crook waa turned inivatda inalead uf oulvaida, lo ilcnoie ihal 
MaJuriHliillon relmed only 10 llio ii^lemul nuinagenieni of hia Own home. I< nia 
T«afiy prepMiereua ihat ihe lUi'et ufr>'i>ii|[> o\ ibecouniy of Ucillord ahould be made 
•t S.AIbMi'a inlttad nlai Lincoln. And ii<-I uiilv itoi-a (Ilia lyaiem of rivoley render 
tb« tr^lar tlleivy ol-Jeeii el Jtalouiy In ihc 1iii)iu|>t 1 bui ibc mesiia by ttliieh thif 
rivalry ««■ aunponed wiili auceriai namely, euiiitmil >)i[ir.ila to, and cuixant da* 
ptndence on, Itomr 1 rendered ihrm nbjeclt <'f dlilike lu the people when Ihc eoT< 
rupiiona af lltine bveame lou n>i[Tan( any lon/er lo I* hidden. Of cuurtr, Il i* only 
human nature llial ••lt)ihl faidialioidd, in popular ml ma lion, faroulweigh Iheiimiim 
bcnelli. So ihe aliliiryt were, in ■ eetiain *>na(, iaolalai from the loat sF tlie Chiireli, 
and acriirdi ugly ihe real olllipCliiitrb (]>irlly, pfrlia|>t, induced ibrieiobja ptoiniieof 
rijihiren new biiliopriikt] Kereijuivi ipertninr* uF ihi'jr ruin. Anolhrr reaiHiTi which 
helped ilieir downlull wu>, ihe lenfph (0 which Ihe ayttrni of approprialiou liod gone 
among ihem, Tlie abbey beeame. lo 10 apeak, reotor: an ill paid titarwaaael overibt 
parial'i and he. nalnniliy enough, preferred ihe lifcolihereli)iioaahDUiv to <he aoliiud* 
and povrrly oriiiB villain home, llowever, ihii was noi ChecBAe everywhere, and lume 
abbey f <t> a very dilTerent eiAniple. Wimeit ihalol Glaaionliury. Many of ihe niirii 
magnifieenl cliurehi-> ol ihr wrti ove Iheir fDundalion lo ihe libvinfily and ikill of 
Ihii home : and ihe pnrtonnK". wlmh, In many iiitlancea (Munich viih »omc mulili- 
Tiotii.)illll remain. ihi'W Ihut ilic cl<'i|;y |irra>'nled tn ihraOcurr>i>>'r(n<itnnii-(ea>rienti. 
Attd iht aama ihiii){ uniy perhnpa be anid of S. IC'Imund'a Kiiry, I knnw iiothini; 
■nora nffirctin^ than die peiiiinns of lome of ihe amaller liouaei a)ininat ihrir dluolii- 
iliiii : ■« have a noiablc namido eiianl in (hat of Leybartii in Leiceaterahti*.' " — 
MU. Pp. )36— 140, 

£. We hnrc tcfl ourvtJvcg liitlc space to eprak as forcibly as ire could 

^cfiit' on tin; fjrcnt Kiicrlkge and eiit which tlic snppreMion of lhc«e 

Miii^rFil foil mini I i>H* invotvcJ. Sir K. Albvns calcuUlCSi and tliis htix 

ii^verheon<liepuloil,lhutlh(!liiO,OOUrf Unions hoiiB«a — raiicine of course 

from Cnihpdrtils to iiingle cells — whicli exisied in Henfy vlfl,'s lime, 

were reduced at oner to I u.oofi : this fact in perfectly horriftiiip. We 

far from undervnhiiiig the doctrinal bviieliia of llie Kefoi'tiialiun, 

lurcly tills sin was cnoiiph, more iban efiou(;h, lo bhiBt iht; fairest 

holiest vork. It has often stnuik good men with «urpri»e, iliat 


No. I.— St. AUxtr.; Ahbfs. 



tofthe English ndbrmcra bdng k> Hnind, bo little prac- 
n liM Monied to ibe nation (fi>r mere temjtorol prosperity 
i9noeigiiorGoit'«ravuiir, railieillm uontran) froiu the great relig;ioiti J 
ch&nee of the oixlct^ulh wntiinr. I» it tiw nmelt to astmine l)ist as a | 
kiDitaoiii wu buvcliticii miller a cimeeTerxiiicc? ETcolieaibeci* weij- \ 
could trace to tli« tbiiil and fourth ceneralion Divine Wrath jKitiishin^ 
meii for allowing the tfirapio ro lall hy itileiit neglect; how luucli ia 
« Christian oaiion bound to recogiiiM; in our |)rc!«iit divUions and 
dislressee, the aveneitig arm, not only for tvligious neglects, but for 
actual sacrilege and robbery? To pull dovrit cburicli«i>, forcilily (o 
banish ihe Holy Angtls from God's cliosen dwellinc places, to spend 
upon rioting aiid ^liiltany, upon the |>rodigal aiid ibv harlot, endow- 
ments wlilch unoi(!iit pidy hwi coruecmted ; to appropriate Abbey lands 
tocuurt uiiiitons; to virit with the euracofdMobtionthoMBScred places 1 
vhere ilio Holy AfyMcrieit bad been daily celebrated for centtinea, to I 
say to tli(^)ii, " wild ijen.-its of ilie AtMfi ihnll lie there, hud ibeir liotises j 
shall be full of doleful creatures, aiwl owl» shall dwell there;" tu Mimmon < 

'' 'III* gmn liiatil uiil Ihr ifWivA rittn" 
to the sbHnes of the Must High ; tiicb sins bare tli«ir acciuing angel, 
and already Hih hmuy judgment is upon us. Let no uipposcd diffi- 
oalties, or what t)i« world calla iin|MM«ibtliticn, daunt us; us » pc»)>la 
we have grievously sinm'd, as a people we iriiiBt rcwtnrc to Ood tlmk j 
of nliicb our fathers li^vo robbed Ilim. '' Wc arc curwd with ii curve, 
for we haTO robbed Hini, even this whole nation.'* 

" ' In IliD llrtl pliicf,' rcflicd Sir Jolin, ' thm i> not *»y oihrr crimp itliich mn J 
ImjilicMc one |[en<niil0n attet snoihcr M (liis Aoe*. In ili« •rcnnil, jnu know tliKi 
at ibc fouiiihiion nfflnf Churcli nr ItrliKi.'ui Uoutc, niulnnn eunrwu pmnounccit, j 
with IW mnut (Iiri'll'iil firiiiatiii(->. on jtn liolslon or ddlruvon. Anil «ilh rctrcetl 
to (lie >oici' <rf llir (hiirrli. I'tily, '1ii> uhnin She Unwlli I* Mcncd, tnil he oliom 
Sh« ourwili ii nini-il.' Anil to ii it in iIip ficrxnl I'Hir. You kc lomc FamJl.T <*ittt 
braad Until and Iiigli honoiiiti finni nKi- >o *!;•< <>>ty Mmale on Ilirongli nil (ho 
rhangn uicl fhanocs of rtioluil'^n'^ iintl Ibo vlci»>Uadn of jfOTcmmFiiii. Some* 
limn it! rtmcnce ilqicndi on ihr lifr nf ■ lickly thild: the lickly child btcamFi aj 
hMlihy man. and lii> chlltlrcn muliiiilr. Komrlinm 'he only ninle hrir i> «XDO(cd 1 
Is itl the diingrr* of miri and smoog llitm all i\t trrm* lo b»r a vhsnntd lif*. j 
He rcium* ta a h*|>py homr, and in » (r* yran tli> r»mj]j kp'ris taait ii'tuirly 
nuliUihed llian ever. White In iU moit QourTiliir); conililion, in an iiil hour It 
■cqatrri Church )ir0|irrly. TIic Curie itciceniii al oncf: llifnorfoimrd tltiii» 

Ejilcnii iiiij liiut* oreitr : Hr*. and robbery, ind nrknrM ilo itirit work ; niulu 
_ jh« (all ; jriloiiay iiiriniii uji belutcn man and wifr: unnaluot halicd iKtHcrn 
JWTfiiti and chil'tivn i ■ lirkly *rn>un ca>r'ii-i otT onr, a vinlent dralh, anntlitr ; ■ 
llilid lall* Id a (orfSa" '""d '»'"' 1« iifvvr mote heard o'. Wliuii'ver •chriiie ia 
uiiderulun fnilt i wrallh makra iitrlt wln/n. and flict awuy: moth cornipla, and 
■he ihicf deauoya. Ami all iliia wliit*. Ihv ourie, vilh ita Inrlvat CTci, Rem* to 
watch eTi-ry motion oFHa>iclin»i crnuca ihem in iheir brat laid planii enttapt 
llirni In an Inrxlrlcable Bcb j iirtiil'ii-*. and hn»«n,nn<l Impo'vcriiWf, and wcikeiit, 
and ruiiia, and only Itavrn ilirtn vrlx'ii lilt Luil lietr i> laid III Ihe family laulr. Tbrn 
ibe erim« of uclili'((» •eeini exjniilin!.' 

"This it a f«arfiil |iiviurt, bir John. Ia It iioi th oitrchsTetd nn*!' 

■"for >hii<,'r«)>tic<l.>>ir John Morlty, 'I trill buldly ii;<|«ario Enifllth Ilniorri 
eopttially 10 fata'\j hltiary. 0ui lank dI the caw d friari. What liu* cwr brtn the 

• Ai'd <i> cDnii.-(( loiJlhi.Tiiur|ia«»iho»ccilifite» wl.ichhi.d nn™ licen rontwisrpd, 
lh»y looked iipnn iit linfiil iin|Hi.'ty. Liiiii|>ridlua ii'laiei, tltai tin- li'sllmi V.iryft'iit 
Attunder Srviiui iiIiKi'd to uniol n f :briiiiijia ornlory to an idulnitr, wlio aMilitd 
lu ute it HI 1 slinji. i.ljuilginj; ii lo ll>v tli.hor.nnd ilccItriHiC "tliat it waslicllto' 
Ibot il ahould ttitit foi any LItiJ uf worihiii, than (or aeciilar uica." 

MO. X.\Xlt, — N. a. II tl Ma 

!R54 A .^imniffr Dap's Pil^rimaffr. 

fata ot (nchlrttc! Look nl ihe Uoly Scripimti; ukc BFlihanar'n «■>». Thctf 

you ii-i' nti lilolalrou* and vicioui prhinc, lirinin hinueir up lo bii own hcarl'l luM— 

«Xcr«cllii|; lili prcdscraian iii nielunlncn ; icllinit liinuclf lo da evil — and j-cl tpaml. 

How often, in all likelihoud, Imct he 'prilacd ihcidolf of gold, anduf illvcr, orbnu, 

of iron, or WDOil. ttid nr (laiicl' Anil yrc lie had llmo and (pace itTordcd \\\m for 

r*p«iiU[irr>. A I lull. Iini'nd* far lliD Temple vsiaal^ and pioalilulri ihem lohla Idol 

warallip. Wliai rullvviii? ' In iimt nioht wat Italaliavfir. ktn|; of the Cliildaaai^ 

■lain.' Look ng^n ■( Vam\irj. An (iperimccd (tenrril, sironji In tJiv alK^iiou 

of lilt country, rvlyinj; on n protpcraii* smly, «nga|r*d, on IliP nholc, in ■ rig:lil 

cauir, lis riiirrrd inio the lifly of lioli->>, and lin npvrr protprird ii(;>in. And 

wharp duet ihe inlidfl hiilnrlin dalf III" cnmnii'nri'mvnt of ilic UrcHnv and Fall 

of tht Homin Kmpid;' With lliv rr\K" of liini who dmlroyrd lli« ifmple al 

Jcriiinlrin I N'om louk back lo our Rvforinulion. li il not notoiinua IliBI of 

lh« fiiDiliri rnriehrd by ihc abbey ipDil* vrry fcir reninin to [he preicni day ; 

and lhoB«, nticr hiving puaed Ihrough icvcrc lotiea. and Tearful Judgmenlt ? la il 

not bIk) etrtnin Ihal abbey landi very (cldDm vonlinue more than two. or three 

gcnrrationa ni mott m n lainity F Cin any one deny ihai. where mora |;rievoua 

Judgnlcnta have not befallen the occupier*, ilic failure of hein male hu been al 

aingular u il ia iiicip I livable '. I> il nnt n fiici. lo deeply hai lacrilege eaien inlo 

our Ikmiliei, thai ivarvcly any arc now in paiieiiion of the aame eiiaiei which ihey 

bald It (he Kclormiiiuii, while * pt'iiuJ of Nvc hundrfd yeari ws*. bufore ihat lime, 

no unuauat lerm of ocrupancy fur one family F Itany une deniea llieao ihinjt*. I 

would refer blm, Itnl, to Nlr Henry Spelman't ' lliiluiy of bicrilriic.' If be taya 

Ihat ll>l* U Ihe proil 111' lion of a aiieeial pU-ador fur mil till iuii, then I would aak blm 

lo look at any coimiy biaiory. I'^ininim-, I wuiitd (oy. ilm lilt of the fainitiei, onee 

of note in it, now citmcl, anil ai'e if nunxeniha of ilieti> vrcre nol implicated In 

Churob properly. Then look o( ihc blatory of llir lurcFiiion of fginilin in nbliey 

ealBlea, and lee if ihete do not eliango iheir OMrnvra ten lime), for onv cban|[« 

in other praperiy, and if ilie decay of any family if not eonaequent on itt li^uching 

Cburoh posarHioni. I aik any candid pcraon to examine ibe matier for hImtetFi 

if Incli ever ptaved any thing, ibey prove what t am >ayin|;. And do not 

imagine that J look on the Itefarmation ai the only lime in wbieb uerilege hat 

polluted Englanil : William the Conqueror and William Itulus ore fcaiful iniianoe* 

of Oou't judBmenlaaaiiinil chnrch violulitini. The Hr»t layt wane twenty villages 

to fjrm a bunling foreit. He diei by n alrange diaeate, nrglcelcd, deterti'd, 

deipiied : lilt cotpie beeomei intolenbte to ihuac who would have itiended it; it ia 

at llral denied lullined ground ; and nt Icnjilh hatiily and diihunouinhty coinniitled 

10 111 re>ling-]>lace. 1'hr o'eond, hunlliii; in llial aanic (uretl, il khot, undet inya- 

l<ri"tit cEn:uinKi--iiicei» by a bund uriknnwii, wiib Ihe name of the enemy nf mankind 

ill bin mnuih I IH ' hnried with ihe burln^ fiFnti au;' anil leaver hii ri;tme na aeurte. 

Indeed. I knoi* no mpre iirrililo illimralion of the Irnib of «hnt I bane been trying 

Iban ' The lam lluni of William Itufui.' Again, t will not Kay that [be denlb of 

I.utd Broukc «n>, atriclly •prnkinif, HUpcrn mural i but [he invcieraeyof hi* hilreJ to 

iha inaiDiii! Ial>riu i>[ ibii Church ; hit birinc given over lo a iirong deluiion Ibal be 

wail doiug Ciou icrvice i lli« arm by ubich he wnt ihol ; ihe disunce n I which the 

.ilin look elTeiili the oircnmitanee ihot Ihe bulk-i entered that eye with which he had 

hoped to tec the detlruciion of nil the ealheclnlii all theie thingi leem lo lay 

diiiinctly, Thii It the finger of Gon! No, no i it It of no uin laying that by ibu 

analogy uf earthly J uilice we are nul compelled lo rettore [.'hurcb properly. He hot 

taken tlie inadcr inlu Hit own bandi. llii teivinCi, in fiiuiKlini; ilieir rollgiuui 

huiiiGi. dcnouneed, wIlli fearful toteniTiily, a mtemii ciirtn on thoio who tliuuld 

alienate them ; He bat fuUllted that eiirae ; He li futlllling i(. Miiy He o|i«n men'i 

ryet lodiicern their dunger.' " — Ayton Pricni, pp. H7 — 92. 

It linK olVii b«en m mnttcr ofjiist siti-prise that tlic bix!}' of the 
Engtisli people aubmitteil nlmcHt u-itliout n miirmur to the suppreH- 
iiion of tlic iihbits, the sources frnin tvliicli nil the comfort ana iiiONt 
"^f llio profipcritv of the common pcoplr^ flawctl ; but it iniii>C not be 
TCOttcn whnt fallaciouB hopes were hold out to them. Sctiook, 
alTcges, nnil «n increasetl niimbci' of biaboprics were the lure to 
'buTchmen which procured silence, if not consent ontbcirpart. And 

utt— ^1 


AV. /.— ». ABkin'i Abify. 


Sir Benjamin Rudyard, in a spcwcli prenervei] by Nnliion, ii. 300, men* 
liona it »« tbe prmctpal iiarliamnntiir^ motive for »ci/ing tim rclifcioui 
houfles br Henry VI 1 1. t)ial tlicy nuuld ho enrich llie cruwii ti» tliul tlit 
jieople Mhottld never be pul to jiau aibtiiifcj a(/ain ; and an iirmj of 
40,0(10 men for tho iliitMico of ihft kingdom xbould Iw muintuined 
ivitb l)ie OTvrplua. Hon- did iLu niHttur tiini out ? Sir Beiijaniiii 
IcIU ua — " Goa'» iinrt, religion [llial ii, doctrine], by Hi* blowing, bu 
been tolerably well ]ivcsftvcd ; but it baib liern wived tubi/Jin; 
for ibe rest b consnniL-d and vanirhud.'' Tlic immrdiuie Mvine to 
ibe DtatG was, llie cominil^ory [>cior-luw~*tunditig urniie« — ana tlie 
balance of power, doclniie^ wiiich, from entbi'oiling u» nilb foreign 
{■oliticf, bavc mivvii us — ci'j)\l Iiiindrod mitliotm of iJobt 1 

Wccnust bear in minil, hoivcvcr, tlial Pope Clemen I i^ct tlie example 
of Ronfifcnting chiircb laiidn, and ihul wliilc tlic F.nglisb clci^, 
tliroiigliout Jnincs', ami l-'limbclh'g, and even Edward'* rcign», allri- 
billed mticli of the digtri^tu of tlie country and tbe little jirogrcs uf itie 
Reformation to Hcnry'ti conliRCBlionf, and conKlanlly demanded ttic 
reaiaration of llic sacred properly, it nas aBitll from Romcnliicli con> 
firmed their jiosseFFiotm lo llio lay robbers, aiid thi» iiwiicil with I'ole'* 
consent, even ihoueli Queen Mary — and amonc many painful memo- 
ries of lier reign, it is rigbt lo mention il — did vrbat nlie could to 
rulorc the crown impropriations. 

It would be perlmps bootless to inquire in wbose jiOBseniod th* 
broad lands of Hi. Auitme arc \eEtcd : some perhaps ntay think that 
a subsequent dedication of them to a retigiuii^ purpooo might veil or 
sanctify ibc original pin ; (o some extent ibis migbl be the caM. Sir 
Thoma* Pope wa« one of the commiMioncr* wliu look tlic surrender 
of thi» pRrliciilRr foundation of St. Alban'*,* and among the Oxford 
wiirtbice, we find him as founder of Trinily College, described as 
"of Tittenbanger, Knight j" lbi» Tittcnhangor wan the counlry lesi- 
dencc of the Abbat of St. Alban'*, nml the commissioner, though be 
anerwaide founded a college, thoiigbl no ncorn it seems to lick hi* 
fingers, while the »weel spoils of the Chnrch of Gel panted through 
them : perhaps like anollier noble knight, 

*■ Sir Antonio PalUv«cinff, 

Wbo robbed llic Vuyt to |iiiy [lie Queen," 

Sir Thomas robbed St. Alban's to pay Trinity, a noble example, 
which ecclcNiastJcnl commissioners have found it eonvcnicnt to imitate 
even at this remote period. But wc FUtpccl that tbe eaduisi* of Trinity 
will not from dutiful reverence to their founder, quite approve of tha 
means by which he was enabled thus 

" To di«, and endow » eoHsar." 

Tlii.4 Hocietv has one startling memorial of their foiinders sin, and 
this pre«cnied to them for tbe mont »acred oecaiion. Tbe magnilicent 
silver gill chalice (which bas been figured by Shaw, and Inteiy attain 
in "the IlIuKtralions of Church Plnle. &c.") belonging to Tiniity 
CoUeee, Oxlbrd, and prMcnied Iiv llifir foumlcr, nVM ftolrn j'ram St. 
Atbant Ahbfjf, and we wish tho President and Fellows all j oy of tho 

• Tlicrc l>, liuivrrer, a »oit of ifudiiinn. llioiigli W»r(iiii mcn'ioinii doubilnitlfi 
ihal ti WM tlirough Tapr'a influrnt* ihsl llit Abbey «u aot demolldied. 


236 A Summer Dai/'t PH^irimtt^. 

credit wliicli ilf poMPHion iinilcr Htidi circtiniKtniiCM oail affiHid tlicm. 
if it Ik! riglil to r<»>lori! Cliuri:)i luaii*, it \» nglit la rcrfore Church 

|)lnli', iiipcciiilly wlicii, nc in tliis nun-, liie pluiidi^rtl clinrch niflU, 
iQiTWi,-)* iIc|irciiM<il niiil (li«inn title*]. TMtinionicii lo lliio nin abouml ; 
wc cxli-nctnii unpriyiiilitctl one. 

"TliF merttlrn dntriictinii aiili «1iich ihiaviolonl lr*n(fi!ror|<raptrt]F wuaceom- 
))Rni(riJ, u ii rvmaiiw ■ iMiinj; mill liirlVacablc reproacli ujinn iliote wha paruok llie 
plv»il<rt ur prrniilltil i< i id wuiiM it be n >tiiiti u|ion %\\e nntlaiinl cliaractrr. If men 
wl>rii llify bmk loot* from rP'liainl. wre ■>»( cvrrynltcri< ilic taint. VTliu can <nll 
tn miiul ttilbout griet uniA tiicti^niitioi), how itainy iiiogii^lui'iit I'tliflert Mrro owt' 
ihroirn In ihif uiiili(imEU')l>'nK ImviicI — Mxlmniiiiry, Balt1i>> Wiltlinm, MkUprii, 
LKnlony. Rirniix. Feunloins ^'''>lly> K irliMliilr, nnil ro many ni)>cn; tliv nobloi 
warki of nirbileclurr, mid llii- cnoit VD>i«nibltt niaaumpiiM of inii'iuiiy: pnoh lh« 
blna'iig dF ihc tiiriounding coixilry, nnil, rolicclivrly, (be glory o{ litis InnJ 1— til(i> 
toiibiity. whicli nBf ihv mott iincrnbtv <i( ill, rr«n liu fxr it> utiiloubttJ aKir, tluo 
for Ibr (ircutniiniicpi loiinrclrd uitli ili b'Kary. and which in beauty and aublimily 
of (iiutiutc WAS cquolltd liy (t<*, luri'attcd by none, <nn euiivcittd by Somencpt. aRcr 
il liod br(n (iripl aiid dtU|)idutcd. iiiia i innriufncion-. whrrc ttfuger vmvrn, chiclly 
Ffrnch 4nd M'alluoii», wrrc to *tt up lbi?>r trodr, 'J'hc luuidrn huA dcnounrcd a 
prrpclual rune upon Btiy one wlii> ihoulJ uiurp, diiniiiUh. or injurt in jiowciaion*. 
Tlic i^oil b'A liisiarlan, William of Multniliurj', whon br ii'i^ttdrd thin, obwrvcd, ibiw 
llio deiiuiii'iaiinn had alwaya Dp lo bii lime bi-i a nimiilf illy rulllllrd, ti^Lng no prrHin 
bad cTcr Ibui imjinwd agaluM ll, wiihoul eaiaiiiK to dliKi-a^i-, wiilioul tbc juajtomlt 
■>f (iihI. I!y ]j>iiin IVaWncrila, a> well lU Piipult, ihc Abtjfy iKiidt ixr* bcliercd lo 
utrty wlili ibvin tb« curir, whicb Ilicir tint dminri iiiiprrcated upon all nba abould 
dliMI llinn rtoin lliiir purpnte to wIiiltIi tlwiy witp mniixtnlid i iiii>i in iio iifttuiice 
•rat lliia o^'iriion mnrr sccirditrd, ilian in llial of llii' pri»lccl(ir Homentt. 

TliP p«r«>>Dt into »bo*r liaiida Ibc Abbey lanil* bad pasrd, uwd tbiir new prnpiny 
a* lit nt ilipy Imd acquired ii. The Icnanlawetc aompclled In lunciidcr their wnimit* 
by Hliieli ihey betd (tlntei, for Iwo or llirve livrf, al an euy nni, payable cbiTlly in 
pfvducri I liB IV nil wen trebled ami qiiadtujiled, and ibe Rnra raised in even more 
•normuui pniportioii — tomciimea even twrnly-fold. NothinK ot the cDiiiidente 
■upciiiiteniltnce which ihe ^lonkt hud exeriiicd. nuihiit|[ of ibcir lihtral hoapitality, 
waa experieuced from the>c iY^r;i taiili, iia Lntinier in liii b>)nc>I indixnatioti dtiioinl* 
nuled ihcTT. Tlio lame *]ii(il nliidi (unvetlt^ Glailuiibury iiilu :i nuollen-inaiiuf no- 
tary, depupidalcd whulrdainaiot lor tbopnrgioaoof cimvcrtiiii; ibrm iiilu ihecp-farmi; 
ibo icnai^ti biiiit liirned uul 'u ^i*g, or rob, or ■lari'o. Tu mtcb an I'lleol wai ihit 
iuhuman tyticm cairiKl, ibal a niaiiifHl decri'ao of pouulalioti *ppi-ar«d." Bull •>/ 
ll.t CInrrh. y<i\ i-. 

Sticli, nccDriliQ^ lo tliv unprejuiliced testimony of Boutbey, virta Ibe 
immedialo cfTeot of llie great racHIc^ upon the comforU of tho 
people; and who shall dare to doubt that (lie curte ■till livt^a for lis ii) 
tbo dead foundci-s of the English ahheys: 

'" An orphan'ii purae mould df.ig lo hell, 
A aplrit from on bijih : 
Bul6h! more humble than ibal. 
la llir cunc in u dead nian*> rysl" 

and Ibat on iih even of the third and funi-lh gcneraiion will 
vlsiled our fftllioi's' hiti*. 

It is with nodark ami fuiiiiiicnl epirii iliat wc pniy. may Ood in 
Hi* niori^y lenicmtwr those «hn rtlaiii llic tnnd* of His Church; it 
U miih sIiiiuk: that we owd ihiit iti our own timet one alone, and he 
an ujiosliilc from our Communion, hiw in some degree beesn the work 
of n>liiulion : ve allude to Mr. Ainhrosc Philliii;^ of GrAce Dil-u, a 
ftiiindation tif Augnaliniiin nuns; hut Ncwslcmf, Sltidlcr, Fnrntwd, 
Ilulm-Culiram, KenilivorUi, Axhohn, Croxlon, Uc-la-i're, Sulby, 


Av. /.-«f. AlboH'i jtbbey. 


{c)itoi), Worksop, Combr, Ciiiionlcigli, Bitcltl.iiiil, Slieibtime, ShalVs- 
buiy, llaluK-Owuti, FoiinliiinK, Alnewick, TaviLtcck, \Vi>l>iirn, Miirli- 
W«nlock, R««cttn|T, Biittlc, Riniiix. Wsvcrlev, Stonclpigh, Vall^^ 
Cruci:(, wbitt «a(] tliOu^lit» do ihcsc titnpiir nonira rvcM ! ulmt mii^l 
I'uliloliUtoric*! wliiit ilisIrwe.poTcrly, e!(tinciioii,»n(! il niny Iir criitu! ! 
We know not a(>ci'vicc to tlm Chtireh more needed llian n rc-|)iil)iicnii(rii 
of 8{)(!linnn'« " Mi)>tory of Sac rilflcc" con tin tied to tlie prwcnl liuMt;! 
tilt! enn of England's nobility snd gentry laiiM be niadt: to tingl«," 
anil ihiii for tlicir own sakcf, foi' unless «e mislske tbo cii;ns of llw 
timr-«, a wider and fiercer con vuUionia all but ni band (ban thoK|>oilLT's 
trildu«t dream bao eoncoired; lb« wrath of God a morso tbaii ib« 
ungur of man, nn^l woe be to i», Hnlesa we make atonement ond resti- 
tution for past sacrilege ! 

Wc will produce tlie family history of K »in^ penon, and a goodfl 
find eminent one, and de«ire our readers to mark the borribto sine ofl 
liis detoondants and tbeir final extinclion : to connect ibis btstory 
with the tin rigb Icons pOMODMnnof Churcb land^ ia ««sy. SirThomaB 
Pope WM tbrice married, and Icf) only one dauijhter, Atlee, who ilied 
"vwty yuiiDg. Hie ibini wife was Klisabeih, daiiKhier of Walter 
Btounl. Thomas Itlounl, the heir of her brother William, inbcrittrd 
Tttt on Ii angers from bid iiiiule Sir Tbonuis Pope, and called bimKclf 
Pope-UIouni, Of ihis family Sir llenry Bluinit was a " cncptic," 
and pulled down i!k- house. His son, Charles Itlount, **inherilnl bis 
fnlber's philmopiiy" and was ibe notorious inlSdel author of llic 
" Animn Miindi," and " Oracles of Iteoson," After his wife's death, 
tills wretched man ikol hiuitel/, becaiire he could not form an iuce*- 
tuam morriage witJi big wifes sister, tvhicb account Wartoti (life of 
Sir T. Pope) ears, that he received from ■■ tlic tuic Htr H. Pope- 
Blount, tilt last of llie famiiif.'' Bnl to piircue ibo tmbjret ; and we 
have been at acme little pains to truce the ilcscctit of olhcr Church- 
lands in ihiEi immediate mnghbourhood. 

Tlie Bite aitd huildinjis ot Sopwell Nunnery, founded by Robert d« 
Gorbum, the sixteenth abbat, were granted by Heiii-y VIII. to a Sir 
Richard Li-e, a* well iis the monaMic buildingtiof St.Alban's Abbey and 
the parish churchof^it. Andri-w, all of which he pulte<l down: according 
to Ncwcomc, he wnn indeiilei! fur tlii» wicked grant to the rharma of bis 
wife, one Margaret Grcrnficld, " who wn« in no saiall favour with the 
Jiiui;:" hv died mtAoHt male i*iw., and his laoda piuiaed into the 

Jlcir lamily. At tlio time of the Restoration, tin: male iinr of the 
aiUeiri beatma txtmctf and ibc property pa>K»l to the SauiulcrH' 
ftmUy; tke maU tine of whiek being extinct, it was sold to tli« Orini* 
ston family, tlic present possossoin. 

Again ; the bospitul uf St. Mnrv de Vr^, near St. Allian's, wnx «uj>- 

ErtVMid by Wolxcy, who aftcrwanlH obtainetl a grant of these lands lor 
is own u»cj Aw Ihic is sofficinnily notorious; atU>r bis attainder, it 
was forfeited to the crown, and granted to Ralph Itowliil, E^f "'* 
the failure of mliote male line, >t was purchased fixtin a femule (/«• 
tcendanl, by Sir Ilarbottlo Glimeion, the ancestor of the Earl of 
Verulam, ilie present poseessor. 

Again ; Goilmiobury, tli« seat of the Earl of Verulam, was origi- 
nally part of tho Abbey lauds, aud grwituA 1>V A-VA»X Wi\«.x\ -1*. 

JJ38 A Smimfr Dagt Pil^ima^. 



Gorliiiin, to a relation of the same name, trim erected a Tnaneion on v 
heiici! culU'il Qurliaiiiburv : it tvas reannexcd lo ihe Abbey by Abbat 
Tin la Mart*, and at tlic diBsolution, was panted to the above Ral|>h 
Rowlut, Emi- ; on ihr failure of hh hetn male, his clnugtilcr conveyed 
it 1(1 — Mijynard; hf nold it to Lord Chancellor Dncoii, who died 
nithiiut imiie, and, a* ia well known, the litk ond f'aiitihj of the 
Jiarnnt hcfainif rxtinrt. Sir Tliouias Meaiilys, I,oi'd Bacon's private 
eeorclury, iiilieriled (iorliambury as cousin and neit heir; he died 
heirlfin, leaving an only daughter mho difii unmarried ; Sir Thomas' 
elder brother HueoecdcU him, who (or his repreeenlalive) sold the 
CBtatct to 8ir Harbottle Grinislon above mentioned. 

Again, the Manor of Childwick, formerly belonging to the Abbey, 
was Ticid by Thoiiia* Huivsc, in a»no 4I0 Eliz. He died leaving one 
pon, who died inilhouf iaiic. 

A^in, Ibe manor of Nunland Stiuitlers, tbrmerly belonging to the 
abbe^, wait ^rranled lo the Sir Richard Lee above named : on the ex* 
ttnotion of hi» nice it wan convtiyed lo Uiehard Grace, irJia died mlk- 
out male iuiu. 

Aeaiii, thu manor of Aldenham b<>lDiiged either to this abbey or ti 
St. Pctcr'K, Wettniinster ; at the diasuluiion it waa granted to Ralph 
8te|)ncth and hia hcim for aver, but he died wiiliout male itt'u: from 
\m cnllnicvtil heir* it [ia«»ed into llie Gary faniiiv, the lait of m/iom, 
tite colebrntrd Lticiii« Inml Falkland, was killed in a |iarlicu1ar1y 
ttlranjTi- und aivfiil raaniicr at the battle of Nenbury : it ihen pasiied 
into llif Hnrby t'nmlly, llio male llim of which bpcanir extinct in IBTi: 
nnd from tlirm to llio Hoiks furnily, the dirrrt line of Teh'ich hreamc 
fatinrt in 1711, by the death of the Duke of Newciutlc, wlio left an 
Cnlv daughter who carried ibc projicrty into the Pelhiim family. 

We hjivo oidy nelecied the seven Jirst estates, formerly belonging 
to the Church, from a common coiintv history, and here we find iho 
families of Pope, Blount, Loe, Sadleir, Saunders, Wolsey, Rowlnt, 
Bacon. Meaulys, Rowse, Gmce, Slepnelh, Cnry, Harhy, HolleB, 
invariabiii faiVuuj in the male line ; Hileen families in eucccseion po«- 
BMoed thc^e abbey lands, and ovor^' one of them i« extinct ! Well 
indoctd might the nobility and gentry of England prevent the publi- 
cation of SpolmanV Hixlory of Sacrilege. If among ihe SOO gentlemen 
who, in titc reign of Henry VIII., shared the abbey lands among 
them, not sixty had even a eon lo inherit the cslalc — if such os we 
have noted are the remarkable calamities attendant upon so many 
noble houses who owned the lands of a single religious house, and 
all this in the circuit of a very few miles, though "we presume not 
to judge of the secret methods of God's jirovidence, and only relate 
plam matters of fact, and leave every man to make his own appli- 
cation, yet it must be granted that tlie^e instaaces are so terrible in (ho 
event, and in the circumsianccJi so surprising, that no considering 
person can well puss ihem over without sei-ioiis reflection."* And it 
18 for Ihesake of those who now hold wliat wuk originally obtained by 
scandalous and wicked sacrilege that we ask, " DiiTtlieHe men die the 
death of all men, or were ihey visited after the visitation of all men ? " 


■ Life el Sit H. S^tlnun. 

<n it, ^^B 
bbat I 



onniNATroKs appoisted. 

n». ar ItVHHIIDp if«^ )4. 

Or. or rntkuaoiait. fyl.H. 
Bp. or Rirai. Dtt. IT. 


Ay (MLonD Biiiior u> Riros, a( fllpM. M 

Of (U/V*-J. D. Hiliiri. »,i. UnW. I*.<- 
Abp. of VoiH, 

(VSl. Bif.—O. I- l.ui||>lon. 

Of DiHi-.—l J. Hiililfui'n. *.I. Tnn. 

I>»>al'.— U. BUUlc. 

QfOr/arJ.—3 C, lliKlln. R.i.UuHn'i; T 
W/Vbux. 1.1- Mii|ia.l!.: O. Uvlhoill*.**. 

0/ CtoatiMr. — W, llaldmlon. s.i. SL 
John'*: W. T. K. Blllo|ip. ■ •- Kmm.i J. 
SuoUuDI. 1.4. ftL Jfihn't: J, A, Bettiotonl. 
n.i. TriD. L J. ■IIkM'iIIIu, B.i Trin. 

Of SI. flni.-crhamiwn, K. Cliulvkli. 

Of C*vtk UUtta-nr-, <<ilUii. lill'ill^n,- II , 
Bufcn |l. ll. Sp. or LandnnV 

or OhMm. — J. T. MKklnloih. a-t,, W. 
K<4lti LX. TWo. 

UlmUt^V. OiuDin- 

HyUrLiiHD Biinvroi PjiTBiinaai>OH,al 

0/ CWMirl>«ir.~UDn. W. R. L^ililtcn. hi. 
Illon. 1«<I), Trin. 

il|r llu Loiio Ulinnli "» WliirB>!>I»11. In 
fanliam Ctilit CliwrtI, un imiiUif. Jr'j 9, 


<^ Otfa't,—V. I., n, AeUnd, i*. Cta. Cb. 

6d. Bp n/Winmuij, VT. Allrn, a. a. MvI. 
.: B. Btlcbir. ■.!. Wul.; J. CamuM:. *.i,. 
XL Krtm. 11.^ ti. N- Itmikir. s.i. Wail, il.rf. 
Bii. o[ nipiint: V- r. Kn.ii, t >. Ni. John'i^ p. 
•ulliun. ■.!. MiupJ. )!.. F. I'. Kulhtm, ir.b. 
Mu4. ».: A. 'T Wilinhgnl. ■ i, Uiitpl, H. 
|/. i. Up, ofWuiowlnJi. 

O/C'nottlrfyi^A. W. C*1b, ■■». StJnhii-ti 
II, Uavntmi. o-t. TtIb.: H. I>, llguhlunn. 
■.i.€oip.<:iirb,^ T. U. roiIMkvjIlT,*.*. 81. 
FMCF^i F A. taillA >.• Tnn. 

Of Lampttir.-B. lUniKth tU. D*<Id-a (I. i. 
Bgi. or SI. Uinld'i). 

O/ OfflW.— E. H. ButDitl. >.!. Mrriiin; C, 
P.Conk. «.i.Mi|id. il.: <i, Ih (■luchi, :i. 
Jtiut,: V. Oinml. ■.•, l.'niv. . II T.tUmi, 
>.i. Nn Inn II. (I- « Uj> «t Uuilur,: W. H, 
Ju;h. ■•. CMr.. c. KutUt, ».>.Wi>d.^ B. 
C. Milan. H.I. BiltMi T. C. UtrliUI. n*. 
Hulllal; .;. UejTiiJi. a.i. Onsni'i; N, Kl<l- 
vlnln. S.4. Magd, II. ; W, TiMiwL ■.!. Ch, 
C)j,i Vi'.Thomfon.k,>. QuHn'i: S.H.VbiIb, 
a.». WuM. 

OfCamtililg'.-C.V.M. BoutTniror, ■.•.Jit 
Ji>hB>: C. II. ». Iluuin, ■ . M>«d . J N. 
ItkrrLfon. B, 4. Calu'; C. KLbKBlai. t.A. MAfil.i 

i. W. B»>». HI Cllllll'l. , 

r.lJo'.l'.— f. <i. Rrw«n ( B|i.ofLaDdM«| 
fnr hf r MAjnatr'a I'urvi^ VnMsaalaJu]. 

*• Smniat. Voiy Id. 

<V Otftr4,~l. Ilodi]!, ■,!, BiuEo. : J. Oar. 
I«n, ».., Will,: w. F. Addlwii, ».». 
F.. PnUfr. i.i, UnHH, 

<i/ C^uBflrtrfoF..— J, A, Bumhwn. > a. Cfirpt 
Chrli. i J. Ihi.l.l. Quwi'i^ T. N. F.fUilnB. •-*, 
Cilh.K.: J. HoUlBjr-inth, ..i-<'»lh. iT.; J,] 
B. limnt. B-4. Knim,. II.JarK^.it.i. rmtb- lli|l 
W. Mullinnit. ■.!. Kiiim.; a Tslwii. ■*.] 
<'<lh. II I J. Ilnydl. >,• ChrUl'i: 8. H. 81l 
mil. LLU. Cbrlit'i. 

0/ Ai.»;<>.-^ Cu. a.1., «. M. CoUI*. >.« 
.1. II umr. TitD. 

fy it(, »/-( -B H, nnviFf. R. Cup*. T.. 
\tn\i<.ii,c. II. P. Hiwhn. R. Kmdw, W. 
Pucliin, J. Wauon. 


OfOifata.—J. Paul, LCI.. Mipl.i T. Huooi 
K^ Wsn.i L. C. VTiod.t.i.Juiu^ P. Kind*, 
».4. Ijnrv 

Of Cmml'rUat-~R, C. Saui, i.x. SL Jslio'ir 
H. D. MutUa t.A. TrUL ^ J. H. Shovln (.«. 
St. JohnV 

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RithuB. V.s. II, Chap, (a lUrl VTaldtirnir. 
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of Trtniij- ('..llniEi', ('imlirlilae. 
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Mdann, J-. Miqiianary In Nfw JCt^land. 
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Vf^ liiverenlvedlbcfqUevilni^ In nreieuoo iDiivorui uircl*, la i>MCh<nde ddI lieidUM la 
|t*e Ualanl InMrilon — 

"]VMe£MDr^l*iCii*i»I>i Riutii>*iM«u. 

" flarfnn r,'f«rr, /fin/'"'. >*'»*'> lUX. 
■■ KiK,~lly iBtro BftlijBiil. I puli'filty ejiTBril a >nimiioi nl llie (-KeliTKii K(Ii> Minm.-«li 
IWr till* mnnih. mil. fliniJuf o^rr an ullAlf i>m ArTtli»<il»1«n. 1 «■■ imuh dliCQi^ril ai Eludtng 
m>^elf llirrr fvpm4rtic«1*« •etin-iiua' lo [he ilLtui> vf MAbuiiiivnl AkNo fuc pra'ecllcit guniitiithe 
Ol»U«. "It ll><-19il nririiiiil>ci. \Mi- The vrtlrrur >lie pi^ii:! istinul hetn Hleutil lllU. II Itut, 
dliffiAcirrul ttiti ttiim »i\y yutAuhftt nvmiiie J^THlilirli I n"i Avnrr, ijid I lirrrbf dliLlnftly dpi>« II. 
I lin iinl pfvEeiid Ti>hfi iiintii lrnllfr«7tiit Eo lift limn ollK'r mm; l>u( it liH d?Ht*> tftn mj tnitfa- 
toiir lo alilil^ bv vhtt. in th* eomniei.Rincni o! n\y iiillkteiy f er«i [ adchpicd fur inj raolto, vii. 
' Suiiiiuum Creole uvfai eiiimauprBfaritpudnrl. I^i pTnp»r vium vwpniii iiArJere ceuftv.' 

" I AID. 3}lr. IKUT mcti oUrdLtni Hraen'i 

" C. UacuMu, C*|iI. ISih ttogl, U. M. I," 

imRATUU IS Jl'LY Ni.aurn. 

Tlj a ilnifuUr ^<vrh1jrbt. ^ nu^e In uur urtkl* on tlDwEh*^. vliirh *u tn\lj fluirjdied ei iTi* trr^ 

]«At, andnf whti^li Tht iirr*a wiik tievwi iwrrHi^l. hw t]|]i|inl Euiii the leii. tteariBut* of kiiHui:a 

fs n. 'P. iHyliiiilni willi llie wuiili, "TIlo iHxy, luu. nntidervd In \aa\l,' Kc. and nlalH in 

Hoatrifk, mt fAtf (^ftf of Kehamt.— Pfir " rereajs" kihI ■' Ktrem," and fiir "ToImau,' reed 




Plain ParocAial iSmMon*. By the Rov. JaS. Sladr, M.A. 
I 'iear of BUlon aitd Prebatdary of Che»ler. 5 toU. Loudon : 

Strmana. Hv tie B«v. Cbas. Gitiui.ErroNK, M.A.> JUelmr of 
jlderleff. riiird series. London : Itivingtont. 

Praeticat StrmoH*. By the Itci-. G. W. ^VooDiiotiss, M.A. 
Viear o^' AIMgitan, Salop- LoiKJun : Kivinglons. 

Is ther^ or is there uot, any eascotml kikI ilnimcU'rittlic diflTer- 
cnoc between tlie iiiethoda of annouuctng utid eiitbi'ciiiK tlic 
ofr«rx of grace and eulrution by the prcnclicr of the Clnircli uiid 
of the coiivenucle? or, rather, wc will divide ilits question into 
two ))ratie]u'^; — First, /« there, as a matter of fact, any euch 
difference to be jterceived ; and, secondlr, Ouffht there,— regard- 
ing not HO much their difference's of poeition m point of educa* 
lion, &C., 08 the work they Iiavc reaiicctivi-ly in trnM, — ought 
there to Iw any marked »nd iKTrccptitjU: liiflVrcnce? Such is tbo 
inquiry we ]>rouo4e to oiir»elt'er> in tike following uagce : tt will 
embrace not only a review of tbo style of pulnit iIii<coune«>, but 
bIki of tlic familiar intcrcourM: bctwG«D tlie clergyman and hi« 
Hock, more eepeoially lu nv hitve omtortunity of judging of it, 
in the numerous talcs and tracts which arc dcToted to recording 
tlii» liort of inlercouTBC And, if the subject should appear un- 

!>roini8ing to Home, wc would yet bog tlu'ir patient attviilion, 
lecausc we are persuaded thiit it ia n matt«r very prcesingly 
demanding inwstigation. 

Xow, in reply to the 6ret branch of tlie inquiry, we are 
willing to take tlie opinion of clioee who late much better means 
of judging than wc can profess to have ourselves — tluwe, wo 
mean, wIk> are in the hiibit nf freqiictitiw', ■\wV\Wwi;w,\\>j,\i»'^ 
Church and meeling-UousK ; and w« uve a«r*; iVaV «%<«*) v>^^ 

JtO. XXXIII. — M. B. 11 

SiS Pmad Slate of Ttirolofiy in Itm Bufffid Church. I 

priest will iiprcc witli hk in saying Uml their unanimous verdict 
ift "timt tlicy (loar oxaotlv I lie same tliingein both placts." This 
is the univeraal answer given to tlierfmonutniiicci'ortlieclorjrjr- 
nuin ; so far, at least, a* our experience goes, and we ej^eak in- 
dilTei-cHtly of the fitTOurcrs of the Metboaiats, the Baptists, and 
iDclependenti', — to saj- nothing of several indiviiluide «fho glory 
in being a creed unto themselves. 

But, lest the kind of tci<timony i^hould lie tliought exeention- 
ulile, we will giro nn extract from a little [xipular book tliat i« 
before ua: — 

*' Now, I.UCJ-, for tilt! iifc of mc I could not cat Mm. Mdrton's word* 
(Mr*. M. is the nifc of the clergymitn) out of mvlciti lli»l «i|.'lit, as I lay 
nlonc, ill, Hud unable to sleep ujran wy \ifA. I find nlwnyn iniii|[inral. ns I 
hnrc ntrcndv told you, — nhancver 1 bad chniircd to give it a llioii|{ht. — 
■lint lit! would H" wll wi''' m" i" "noibtr world, its 1 li»d Ijoeu n tidy, 
iliriny womiiii, mid Iind ini'd to ciirn nii lioncul penny, and pny evrry i>ae 
llirir own. You knon I eit\\\A Iiavc xnid thii of m^cll', nilli Iriitli. before 
wc got into trouble; and .liiici- tbnl, I bnd touki-d iipim il, thai I wn-i more 
l» bu pitied than blained. But now, ulivii I bvpiii tu think about luving 
nnd sorting Gw), of nhicli Mrs. Mortnn bnd bcrii Intking;. tliAl wah (jiiile 
nnother mtillrr ; nnd I roiild tiot help inwnnlly cxokiming. • If I Ain/lovri) 
llim, I «hoiiId not have driven inj' imor hushnnd Iti thf nlc-houst-. br my 
siiifid Ivnipi-ri I sliuuld not bavo let my little Gcoriru nnd Jrdinnv die 
without linen iryiiiH! to Icufb thpm thni there wn« n Ood." Then nil iViO 
Siindnys tvbich J hnil niionl without tcoing to clmreh. nnd rcRnnllw* of nnv- 
thinj^good; Ibu Ihble nenrcoly uponvd aincc 1 bud ti-n school, tiny, 1 did 
not even nt ibnt lime pnAsr-Nn one : ]>rnyer lolalty nc^lcolod ; nil ibm Glared 
me in llie fiice. in a wny »hirh it buil never done befori-. till a deep drend 
began Id erccp over me. fur it scorned etrluin thai if I was to die Ihm, I 
Nhoiihl he lout for crer. 

■' tli)W I longed for the boor alien I knew Mrs. Morion would call ngfitn. 
And ob ! bow {dud I felt when I snw ber enter the rooni. 

" After she Itad asked me bow I was, ihe eaid, ' Uid }-ou tbink of mjr 
<|UCHtion>i Inst niirht, Mn>. Alkiiix ■' 

" ' Indeed I did, mn'am, nnd 1 believe you arc risht, and that I \\i\\n not 
Invnd Ond : hot m hdii [ get up iigniii, J w'ill Irj- to love Him, and to IcatI a 
better life." 

" ■ And do you vu|)po!ie that ynu will be able to do this? that you ai« 
able to sKve your own soid (' she aiikcd. looking verj* Brave. -Tliatr in an 
necdUiil in the Bible, In the Ifidi obapter of the Acta, of one who intiulred 
what be slumld do to be nnved. 'nic nnswer hm, " llelieve on Ihe l^rd 
Jmus t'hrinl, unJ thou nhnit be naved." Now thwc ran bo no other 
aniwcr relumed to you, or to any olber person upon earth, " Pot there ia 
none other name luider henven givoii among men, whereby wc must bfl i 
navfld." ' 

" ■ I do not understand wbnt you mean by believing on Chriat,' said I, 
for I knew nolbing about the ibintnt of GoiL 

" 'To heli«ve on Chrisl,' replied Mr*. Morion, ' ia "with Ibe heart, " to 
belie;i-e what you reed in the nible nhout lltm ; to lake (iod in His word— 
nt nU word. He there IcIIb ii.h thai wc are nUlcn cretiliires, sinnen by 
nalure nnd ptncliee, and, if we look inlu our own henrtn, ran we donhl 
thisT lie alao tells us, "Thnt Christ Jmhk came bito the world to save 
liiMtrtf" Surely. Mrs. Alkins. you have rend in the Seriplures how (TbrisI, 
' niiig God, took on Him the form of man, and died upou the cross for our 

ken. He did two things to procnro our snlvnliou. Pint, He obeyed all 

d'aimr*, in our place, instead of ns; as vc. being fallen and ninfbl, can- 

I Present StaU 0/ TkeUo^ff in tie Kn^Uth Citird. 2*3 

not obey them. And.tMnndly, Hcpaid thcpriec ofour TcdemptioiiondM 

cross will] IliH blooil. Wlidi, tlicrvtorc nay «oul ii brvaght to believe oil 

Xiiij. tiuil will ill tnvrc V rvKuj lliut huiU a^il'it vian ^Dud and lioly, beouiie 

I Chn>>i hn\ ill): obeyed ilic liiw or God in il>i iili^cc, Urn righteousness ia tin- 

jiiilcil to it, u tlic! KucElt were cnven^d iiiili the ncddtQ|;-giiTinent nt th* 

1 niurriago-feBMt, nicnliuD<^d in tlte ?2nd clmpter of Matthew; bqi] be irill, 

t iiboi, lei tbai soul g" Awe from all puiiiiihiiiciir. nnd l«ku il lo he>TCji et 

I Jiuit, because Clirist, in suflaring d»th, bore tin- jiuniAhniitnC of ita sins. 

Il i) <|uitc plnin throtiKl'""^ ^'^ whole of Scripture, ibat miui is s«red by 

f feitb lUoDf ; lUat in to suy, bj ChrisI — by Iiia nglilCOUBiieis aud alonement. 

For fsiib is only the mean* fliro»;;b wbich man ntrvpM the saltation whidi 

Chriii o/Ters luid nliicli unites tlie believer to Him, u the bntncbea are 

L jiuited to tbo vine' 

L " As ahe spoke, I Tell a vriab Co believe ou Cbrist ; but I dlil not know bunt 
to set aboul it, mid told her so. 

"■What do vr. fiud in the iJible on tliia mbjc(i?' >itiil Mr«. Morton, 

vpeniu^ a benuCifut now one she bad brought niib her, which ihe aTler- 

mnU pvit iiilo luy hand as a prcaont to me iroia Mr. Moriou and henetf — 

* For 1 ri-incmbur llicrc is a test irUcli says, " 11' any o[ you bick wiadotn, 

r let bim link or Uud, flial eivuth lu all men liberally, and upbraidelta doI ; 

r and it shall ho given bim. If I turu lu Ibe6th cliapterofSl. John, Christ 

I tIrclArcx. nt the Mill verse, " No man can ciinio to me, except the PathcT 

Luhivh lijith «ent me draw bim:" audnfaiii, in the l.'ilb chapter of Su John, 

LAl tfacSlh vene^ " Without mc je cau do iiuihiiig. " Tin- Or»t thiii|; I luarn, 

rtllcrvfore, is Ibis — Ibiit I ant uot abli: to believe on (!hriiil in my uwn 

Ktrength ! Well, then. I mmt "Search the Scriptures" apiin, if I ifu not 

wish lu HulTcr elenial death, and nee hem I am lu be made able lu believe 

on Him, I find many texts nliirli tench me what to dn. Amon^ tlicm, 

the l(illowiii|:, in the 1 llh cliaj>lc]r of Si. l.uke. at ilic !'th niiil four folio ving 

Mnvea: "Ask, and it sbail he ^renyou; neck, luid ye ihall liiid: knock, 

I «nd It shall be opened unto you. Fur t-vcry one that a>ketb reteiielb; 

I and he that scekuth lindclh; and li> him thiil kiioikclh it >biill he opened. 

I If ji ion shall ask bread of any of you llmt is a father, will he icivc liiin a 

Lcluac! or if he ask u tiih. will he for a (isb give him a -lerpi-ul! or if ba 

uhall oak au ciq;. will he olfcr him a s<.'ur|iionf If ye, then, bi-ing evil, know 

rViW to give ^ood gills unto your children, how much more ^hull your 

hcATenly Valher pve the lliily .Spirit to them that ask hunt" Now, wbou 

thu Holy Spirit L-ntcn into our hearts. Me mdues us with power and graee 

I to beUore on Clirist; for Christ says, in (he 16th diaplorofSi. Johii,nt the 

Li'llh varw^ vrbeii speaking of the Holy Spirit, " He i^liall rccciic of mine, 

[and uhall shew it unto you;" and nhen the llolv Spirit is given by Uou 

(and ri'(!dit'd by nina. then (hat great change is firuuKht to |iaH, which is 

Icallcil ill ScriptuTu being " bom Mniin," witfioul wbica, Chriat tells ua, nc 

it' cannot see the kingdom of Ciod. ' From the lime this change taken plueu 

} in our hearts, and tre believe on ClirisI, and arc ta>ti^lit of the Spirit, il iA 

nnid of us that ite are "new creatures;" audlbcScnptnres add, ihal if nnv 

man he in CUri»t a new creature, " old lliingn arc paacd away ; Itchold, iJl 

things are become now."' "-~itarji Alhiiu, pp. 53— 53, 

We liave given tbio lung extract as a fair speciiiieu of Uic 
teaching of a Ini^c body uf the Clci^. Siiiuc persoiia may 
tliink. iierluipg. that it w not it fair Gpeciinen : bcciuii'i! it teem* 
to cxcfudo the notion uf biiptiHinol rcgfucnitioii. But, even 
iicitiiiiiing (a Tci-y lilwral aMiitii|)tioR !) tliitt tliei-c i» nut tt large 
body of iho Clergy who venture tn deny this ftiiulonteulal doc- 
trine, it ai>])ciira I'mni ibc AiibBOiiKciit \i'Art. uV \Vwi ft\«t^ , >>c«i.V 'Ifta 
Hiitbor adm/f^ (hctfocIrincintiuceVion-, anAlW AOi\^\\ w.a^'i'Wi^ 



Present StnU aj Thcotofit/ in tie Eti^th Chtti-eA. 

of Uhj mother in blinking au infaiit, lliat wm bom ftt a sulnse- 
(|UODt date in her liwtory, to tlic " holy eacranient of UaptiBPi," 
ifl liirmjly <lwcit on. At thfl asane tirao, nothing is more matii- 
fost tluiH that the otWrcftn of tho clcrgyinanV wriic t« Mrs. Atkins 
|)r(»ceccle(l on a practicul dcuiol uf it ; for Aw refcn to the lioing 
" bom ngnin" ii* a HmKk-n ami iiiHtiiiitarici)ii<) chaoj;c to be sought 
by the pfiiitciit mbilt. Ami ihiti we beliove precisely to i-eprc- 
wiiit tho aiiomaloua conditiiMi of too many of our dcrg^-. Their 
preuching and teaching do not correspond with tlicir (unnal 
tlicological opinions. And the crvut enw w tlic doctrine of 
bapti(<niul rcgciiemlion^whieh, H-litle thev aduiit it nbetractedly 
in wonlM, i.4 no far from beina;, as it sliould Ite, the basis of all 
chrintiuii iiinlruction, that it is never followed out to iu Icgiti- 
uiatc cousequenccs. 

TbiM, for vxamplc, u clcr^mnit takeA, pcrhapei, an his text, 
" Kopent ye, lor the kingdoiu of heaven is at luind," or those , 
words of our Saviour, " Except yo repent, ye shall all Ukcwissj 
perish ;" or, once more, those of St Paul in reply to the jailor's 
inquiry, " Believe in the Lord Jveii^ and thou slialt l)C saved ;" 
and tliough the Catcchii^m leachus the C'lirintiaii thut this re- 
pentunco and faitli wen: iiuetTissiiry conditions of Wxa iiaptisiu; 
and tills of coumc doe* preclude the ideu that tliev arc to be rc- 
ucwed and pcrjietuatcd through life, but mthcr involves it— he 
yet hcan« hnmelf c^chorted to the performance of tlic»c duties as 
things to be btrguii ilv noro. If ii man ban neglected them, let 
him DC put in mind of his neglect; but it oaunot bo right to 
ai]dn»(s liim as our Loi-d addressed the apostate Jews, or as His 
ajKKftlc replied to the inquiries of heathen men. The fhct of A 
man being already under tho vow* i>l' his baptism, and ali-eady 
luivtii^ been made a " ehild uf itnice," must, whttlior fur belter 
or worse, at least materially anect his ease in some way, and 
cun iicvei- safely be put out of sight by the proaeher. It cannot 
be right always to bo lulling whole congregations to be " coming 
to Christ," 06 though they had not been brought to Ilim in 
Holy fia]>tisin, and had themdelvea ratilied that act in Confirm- 
ation ; and many of them even in tho habit of approaching lliin J 
in the :<aerament of His Body and Blood. i 

Now, in proof of this etaletncut — ^that a very gn'at ineoiwi*- 
tcncy does prevail in lite teaching of the clergy—it might i>o 
suffiinciit to refer promtscuoii^ly to the tales published by tho 
Society for Prwnotmg Christian Knowledge, the staple of which 
are the hasty repentances and unifbrmlymippy deaths of men 
and women, wliose Uvea <litVer fruni one nnother not usually iu 
die heinousness, but only in the outward form of depravity. Or 
wo might, with cquitl effect, appeal to anv of iho volumes ut\ 
Sermons which arc |>laev<] at the head of this article. It will Iw" 
0cea at once thai [lie writew <hi not U-Ioiig to the Low-Clmreli 
*eijool of diviuitv. They would call VUeiiweVvw, vie i^tcauuie. 

Praenl State oj TheUogy in llu Kttglitk Church. 245 

High Cliurchinen; an*] yet it would bo iinpoaaiblo to cxtraot 
frnra their sermons nnythiii;; like n syetcm of dogmntie t])ii>li>f^'. 
A truth is enunetatocl, ils tW iiistnnoc, biiptimiol rcgotu-'inliuti, 
vr judgment by wurke ; and they wtioi \i(raiu\ of iJicir own post- M 
tivenCM, and liaste to neutralizo the truth euuncinted by a oo|]toua 1 
Use of ccrtaiu &L-t forms of speech which lunount to a rirtua) dv 
nial of what was before stnted. Tii« procora in pirrtunnod witli- 
out tlic coiisciouRDcea of lh« iudivtdual: it is the natural result 
of ui unsyatemiitic «ducntion in theologr; and we are quite suro 
that tho evil will remain unremedied solong as wc cxcliidc dog- 
inati^m from our ecliools of divinity. Laxity in such niiitlcrs 
wu ni»y be vcrttuu is no eliitrily to the eoula of uii-n : niurenvei', 
it w uiiftuthriilneod to God. 

We know that it is [beaded, on die contrary side, that Scrip- 
ture qualifies uU its statements in the siunc way ; and appeal 
will be inadv to tlic seemingly contradictory statements ot St. 
I'aul ontl St. iTuDiea, and to otiier similar iiiotanccft, to hIiow that 
even there doctrines are set one "over ngflinct tlie other," rb it 
were. Granted: but there U this imiwrtaiit distinction to be 
ubwrvcd. Opjiosing statements arofroquently to be found in 
Seripture : but there is remarkable a total absence of all attempt 
at <iunlilication or reconciliation. Each writer delivers tlic truth 
whioli he \* coimiiiesionctl to tell with entire apparent disregard ■ 
of eonsc<tuenoc4. 'llios it in ullinnod that wc are wivcd inJlfrc-l 
reiiUy by " Iiope," by "grace," by " bafitisni ;" our salvation iai 
spokun of in one pJaoc as future, in imollier lu past : Christ tells 1 
UB in one passage that lie in one with the Father; in anotlicr, 
that ilo n-ccives conmiaudmont fi-um Htm. These arc only iit- 
■rtonces of a g<Tuend and iu:knowle(l£;fd fejiture in the i^latcmenta 
of Holy Writ, whtcli linA been nutufaclorily commented on by 
many writers, and finds itB solution in the extreme depth and 
fatness of the Oivinc Mind. But this, so far from being nnalo- 
gout with, is entirely opposed to, tho system of com prom i»c and 
qualifioaUon, oj^iitirt which we ait! cnutcndiu);. 'I lie vuiee of J 
ooripturo is uniflinnlr t)old and positive: the teaching of toal 
many nt the present time is a merely coupling together of con^fl 
tradictory |>ru£KMition8, which leave the imud of " tltc unlearned*! 
in a most perplexing iiioxo. Take the doctrine of the Holf I 
Kuchan^t, Jor cxamjue. Our Lonl tuys, plainly, uttd without 
iLUidificalion, " This is My body ;" " ye cat the tienh of the Siin 
of man, and drink His blooth" Itut \t, there one cicrgymmi i^J 
Rve hundred, we os^, who ventures to re[ieat tlie statement awn 
Uar* It? We are cwnfident there is not. It is sure to l>c fol- 
lowed by some ^vo which takes away all memiing from tho 
wonU ; flss c. if. •* figuratively," or " in a smcramental way." The 
CutochisiD, as matter of course, receives tho suiim: treatineui. 
" Tlie Sacnuitcuts" (tlie Church tc«ch<;»> "»tft *ini«raU.>j wuac*- 
sary lo s^vatiua ;" i. e. no (wrsuu can l>o savcA mlWuv '\\t\a^ 



246 Pmia Slate of TAtvhfft/ in the- EnglUk CAurei. 

wliicli it) a mere repetition of our Lord'a own words. " Impc*- 
wbleP HhoutfortI) ahundi-edpricsta: " See how nianyt then, will 
be coDtlemncd :" " gencnilly ciinnut mwvii " for nil persons :"* it 
imwt menu "ufuwUy;" and .to, in i*pit* of tlie logifiU iiiid grain- 
iimlicrd iiiojtiiin}r of tlie words, and in spite of nil tJiat tlie aullior 
of tbe expreaaion can Bay to the contrary, wc have a person of 
no less presumed orthodoxy than the Dean of i'^iiitjurgh, iu his 
Kxphmation of the Church Catccliisin, positively misreprc^cntjii|r 
tlie doctrine of llie Church which he underlakes to expound. 
Itow tlie doctrines of tJie Church fare with Icss-ingtructcd theo- 
lo;;iAim, is easy to enrmisc, Bnpti^niul regcitemtiou ts averted ; 
and then follow ^uniniotij^cs to he converU:d, pucIi as Scripture 
addresdOB to Ihe unregenenite : the worshipper gocii to teed on 
tlie body and bloo<l ofliid Lord, and ia tolu that It is not there ; 
till at length the clmstiao sacraments become no better tlinn the 
" bc'^arly elements" of the Jews ; the aubstuncc is equnliy «n- 
Bubstuiitiol with t)ic nhiidow; and the mind of tlic inquirer advr 
tinith ia inockcit by worda having ho meaiitng, " The Konianiut 
knows what he believes ; the Chnrchmaii docs nott" is become a 
proverb with those who arc k'ii*t di.-^pocfed to look favourably on 
miylhing that ha:! the tjunt of popery uiwn it. Hcuoe the 
downfiU of tho^e among us who have laiiaed. 

The man who it ivitliout a creed ia, m fuct> A latent heretic ; 
he it) holding all heresies in solution; and it needs but the aeei- 
dcntul diop of 30IUC mond acid to precipitntc any given foi-ni of 
heresy. The Churchman who la unguurded by a [KiKitive 
thcoto^ forms a family connexion with msaentcrs, takes u]> willi 
n popiiijir non-conforming preacher, oncountors a clever eontixj- 
versinliiit, and ho renounces the catholie fait3i without seniplc or 
cunaideratiun. Now, we iL<k, Coil it be tlmt the flock Jiould 
become t}io iney of the wolf> and tbe aliepherd be guiltlesa in 
tlic sight of God ? Where arc the fences to protect the fold? 
Where ia the faithful voice of warning? It is with tshatno tliat 
wo|a«k the queation^ for we know that they cannot bo 
answered. Due proviaion haa not been made for tlie instruction 
of om- people in a settled form of faitli : tlio clergy themselves 
do not know what they are to tcacli; the result is ihnt they 
tcnoh diverse doctrines, and the pe0]ile uatundly think llurm- 
aelvvs at llli<:rly to choose what ttiey wtll l^clievo and what they 
will reject 

It may be tliat, in venturing thc?c remurk*, wc sludl he charged 
with making persouii dissatisfied with tlie Church Oit iV i>. The 
eluu-ge ia unjust : our remitrki^ ii-idlv only go iv render the elei-^ 
dissatislled witli llicmficlves, and ivith tlio means cmphi)ed lor 
their education. Here we du desire to pi-oduco dis«iitiafaetiuii 
in the nunds of our brethren ; itnd to convince them that there 
in iwci} oi' ;i more systematic melJiod of" learning and teaching 
r/iHO wlutt hue been in tisc «l' Vale ye».«. Kot «!«> wc conccid 

Prtimt State </* Thtohffy in ti.i h'npiUi ChtirH,. iM'7 

fruiH ountclvef tliiit tltcru u m )>rc)iininBTy diflinuUy to l>c over- 
come ill ordtr lo jiersunde persons u> be willing to receive a 
dogmatic theology : there would, wo are well aware, ttc an ob- 
jecting uf " bigotiyi" and n i>k-a*liDg of " libcrt)," nntl n cencnil 
i^xeiting of peraoD*' urvjudici.'v. At the »anic time it 13 that 
kind of refonit wtiicli neeiU no It'fi'^lutivi- rnartiuent, and is 
even now within the power of the clergy : and it may he, 
pcrhiii.f, thnt llicy who arc deaf to rcaeoii may yet be «iO\-cd 
i>y the a]t[)iiUiii;; npL-ctaeJc uf ^huiiiit and a]>uiitaaic«. 

We will now proceed to suggest what occurs lo us by way 
of remedy. In the firet pUee, some directly professional edu- 
cation iiiufit. be required of candidatce for holy onlcn'. Tlie- 
olo^ ia a science, and imwt W wu nttidicd. The l'-iigli»h ('Inireh 
pniteaACa to reoiive the iuternreltitions of the fmir first cen- 
turies; hilt wh.1t ineune arc laWn to instruct herder^' in lh<i«c 
intcrprettttionn ? She retains nil the Catholic crocils; awl her 
rilnal is compiled from tlie earlictiL and l>c«t «ouroc0, and yet 
iIm; history ot thoeo doeumenta is not made, as it 8lH>iild U', 
a iiecoMnry part of clerical education. May it not be ho|)ed 
that iho hishopi* will make more u»c of the new pn>feo8ore at 
t)xford than they have yet done? The Bi^iop ol" Exeter, wc 
lK.'liove, \\\\ji ^ivcn notjoc that he will rctiuirc a ecriifiuite of 
attendimio upon tlic prolcmora' lectures before lie will receive 
n CAndi<liite ; and tlie Iliehnp of Oxford hoe lately announced 
\i\6 intention of making a similar demand of thone who bring 
as tith) for ordera a beue/eium (feltoweJiip or seholareliip) in the 
uniTCTiMty. Wo tru«t Unit there arc otlicr biehoiu prcjiared lo 
follow the same example. At nil event*, let them try if poine- 
ihiug cannot he done towiirds ])ronioling the Icamiog of the 
clergy ; even when the iuoren^ins deiunnd for labourers rciiden« 
IIh'Iii unwilling to do aught whielt nniy chock tlic i^)ip]ily. One 
or two plaiiH of thia kind have occurretl to u«, which might assist 
in the object proposed ; and which, therefore, we will venture to 
mention. First, it a|>pears to ue that the bialiop might with 
advantage encourage young persona to signify their thought of 
entering tlkc mini»lry at a much earlier iwriod than i^ now done, 
^y at matriculation in the iiniver!<ily. Of course any one would 
W lit liberty to change hie mind ; hut the earlier in life, it appears 
lo us, that a youth entcrtotnH and avows thii> roikilution, the more 
likely he ia to grow up in »uc1i habits and principIcB as becomo 
tlic nrafesdion to which he is destined, and to follow a line of 
stut^ that will help to Gt bim for it A K^ter of the on- 
coming candidate* for the service of the Church would, we think, 
be many wayif useful to the bishop, and would lead (n tiling 
mudi to be desired,) to his providing suitable station--^ in which 
deacons sboukl commence their ministry, ini^teiwi ol" a man making 
that choice for himself, and being, pcrha]m, tempted to t^sott t.M 
some objectionable contrivance in order lo bccutc a ^A\\^;. \S.'Oi.\\fc 


946 /Vww/ 8laU o/ Theoloiftt in the Euffflxi ChinA. 

pnictioc wvro ]iurj<ii<-<l, finch liinho)) migtit have in liis diooeae 
ccrlnin i«rlionla of the i>ropiicte, that is, certain clci^gymcn who 
would be tnuniD^ u]> piux'CMIvc gi'^ncrntiijni* in ihv ministry — 
mcu capaljiv of fliijH^nrilcn<ltn^ the (.■iliii-jitlim of tlicir t^iiratcn in 
doctrine nnil tlii>oi|>liiii.-, Icnniiii^ luid pmcljoe. This plau would 
imply, of crnne, llint the »tntton» were well selected, eo that 
time should ho allowed for study, and aludy rcndcrcil impcn- 
tivc : and it should be followed up by iuorviwiiig Ui« stringency 
of iho cxniuinntiou for priwtH unler:*, and, where possible, by 
pliicing Hii inlcrvnl of two, if not three, years between the two 
cxauiiuations. An incidental benefit of no inconsiderable mag- 
nitude arii>tng from this pinn would be that t hi.- bishops would be 
enabled to know their clerj^y. From tlie Krpt moment of a 
youth'i* nnjiie being entered in llie biiiliop's register, he would be 
under the eyo of Hia diocesan ; and, when he was stationed in 
the phiec appointed by the bi8ho|>, rcjKirts iiii|{ht from time to 
time be miule concerning Iii4 progroHfl in study mid in otiier de- ■ 
rical qualifications. We caimot but think tliat, mutattt tnutandit, ^ 
some expedient of this kind might Iw tried. A pUm was pro- 
posed'in our pn<;cs some lime i<iiiec for founding DioccNin ^ 
" IJishojis' Colleges ;" but, in the absence of any Buch extensive | 
meotiurc, iKHnctliing, at IctiM. might be tilteropted on the smaller 
scale now advocated ; and we eanuot see how guilt can l>e 
Avoided, so lonj:; as an uttcntpt is not made of sonic kind or other. 
And, even now, it i.-" proljublc that niticli good uiijj;ht lie don*- by 
the examination for orders being mnde more ]M>9itive and doc- 
trinal, even if it were not made w!<ler and dcei>or. In mere 
academical examinations the drawing forth the opinions of the 
young is carefully to be c«cliewcd. Itcttcr not commit them 
preinalurvly to any poiiitive vicH'r>: let tliem bo oonvttffBant with 
lactfl ; ralber ihnn hasten lo eoneluiiions. But when a man is 
about to take upon him the orders of a Church, be should be 
well ocquuiuted with the h!«tory, constitution, tenctM, Mid prac- 
liee of that Church: his \'iew9 fhoidd Ixi fixed, and he aliould 
feel that ihty are fixed — fixed not by liimseli', but by the Chureli, 
whose minister he is. So there should be no open questions; 
f. f. no (juection itltecting foundations. If a man is not eound in 
fiiiidumeutidfi, m in tiie iloclrinc of iHiptismal r«*generution, which 
uitderUea all other dociriiicii, he nhoulil be at once rejected. If 
n man be not learned, at lea.Ht let htm be firm in the faith : this 
is in point of fact a moral qualification, indispensable to the 
mtuiatcr of ClirL»t'e gospel. We have no dcuiru to »et" cob- 
webs to catch flics;" but it is the Apostle's conuiiand that " the 
trumpet piTe no uncertain ^Aonnd ;" and how can this be pre- 
vcntcil, it aecurntc iiiAtriirtion be not given in the notea and 
rammar of music to tliosc who are to sound tjie trumpet? 
It ia not our intCDiion, lioworcr, to touch niwn the differftnccii 
tvliich cJiaractciiie the Aiuioue ^\ooU of theology lunong ua. 


Prttent tilaU «f The^offti in lie En^iMk Chtrri. 5H{) 

But, n«*iiining thnt » mun'fi ttiodlce}' is mhiik], wo ccimjilaut t)i»L 
it is Ml rardy lielt] conaUu^ntly. It ih lli« MlioWtic or doguiu- 
tioU form in which recent vicw« liave hetia propouiidvd ihkt him 
cau«c(l so much ofivncc; and the wiy prcedtit {weturv of thitif^a 
ill tlic Cliurch OemoDMiuteit, moat striktitgly, tmw ihu)g<.'ntu» it is 
(<i he. without fiuch n dogniatical theology. Had the uiindci of 
chtn'chmoD hcen traiiioa in euch a form, tho rzuiK-'Uicttt wliii'h 
now exists in tnco'i!! niiiitlx cuidd never Iiavc ariacn. The ukmI 
extnvigtint doctjincH iiiiffht tlicn ha imuntained by indtviduals 
with coin|iurauvo general hanulcwmcaa. The houndarics of truth 
and error being familiarly known, neraons would bo able to retire 
into the cntrenciimcnte of ackDowlcdp:cd cnthoUc doctriiH:*. Bnt 
now what i» the cow? The ncw^ijwpcra nniiooiico that I>r. Pusey 
hiut htieii nreaohing some extreme views on the doctrine of tliu 
Holy Eucharist. Some call it tmnsubxtantintion ; othcTV i:on»id>- 
stantjstion, whicJi in tiieir ignumticv ihey viitiidly think a jMiiiish 
dootriue. The mention ol' popvry aroui«C(* nn Kncli^iman's 
wont feats and hitterest auinioaitico. The public mind ie dn-wl- 
(ully excited. No doubt is entertained (hat Dr. I'u^y lias 
preached Something very dreadful; but na to what this eon»e- 
ttiing ia they hate a verv imperfect idea; and as to what they 
oiiuht thoni8elvc» f > bf^hcve and hold, they arc tilill h-^s !nfonn<.til. 
A large proportion of tlio clergy luv at tliin tiiiw wiioUy iinahio 
to uiider»taiid the distinction l)ctwecntii« doctrine of Uie real pre- 
eenco and of transubelantiation ; and tlic Society for Promodns 
Christian Knowledge has now-upon its catalogue books whicli 
apeak of the real prci^cnce as one of the principal characlerintic 
errors of the Church uf Komc I (See "Outline* of Kn^flish 
History.") The minds of men arc in a state of most painful 
euspensc. There is nothing to fall back upon : no founchition 
laid: no princijilcji admitted. And, moreover, there w a general 
indisposition to receive any doctrine which clainiit ti>r itself ex- 
elusive truth. Men slirink from the res|)onflibilily ; and no 
wonder ; because they have hecn taught to regard th'cmeolvcs as 
independent units iti the universal family of God. What right 
Lave they, then, tlicy justly ask, to claim siiiHiriimty over others, 
or to impose a creed on men as free and as able to chooiw as 
themselves ? In otlier words, they have practically lost the inovt 
comfortable doctrine of the communion of siunts in the Catholic 
Churcli, which makes the churchman to feel tluit he is never 
alone I that his fiiith is the faith of ages; and (hat on his side 
are all tin! good of every generation and dime, llncked by eudt 
a glorious company, he acquirer boldness in enunciatit^ and 
mamtaining the [)rinci|>lcA of lii»^ belief; and is independent of 
the smiles or frowns of In^ contwiuporarics. 

The principal mc^uis whicli the clei-gj-iiian enjoys for direetinff, 
an<lf<inning the faith of his people are three: teochin^i^C viwvuv, 
preaching, and uttcnthmce «|»on t\ie wck. t!,** "«^-- *«k*i ^'W-V 'w.'j 

HO. XXXIII. — S. S. K K 


250 Prtma State of ThrUo^ h t^ En^lhh Church. 

of these duties are ndoqufttcly iindcrBtood and discharged by 
our clergy ? 

1. Can wc my thtit the ti'aching of youth is? Where, then, 
U cnt«chizing? It scarcely oxUtFi. Of what nature arc our 
Sunday-achods ? The state of tilings which recently cxiiftod 
in Groat Yarmouth is a fair wicciincn. The tca^rhor*, a» a IkkIv, 
lire without any fixetl creeti; nnd we verily Iwilievc Uiat, if 
every iiiciinil^nt were to institute such an inquiry as did the 
Bean of Norwich at Yarmouth, in a vast number ol instances it 
would be found expedient to disband the whole estttbliehmeDt. 
In the mJlHufill^turin{^ districts the Simdfty-«choo!» arc the very 
hot-beds of heresy. In one of itiese places a man was found to 
have taufjht Paine'a " Age of Kcanon" for two years. Wc do 
not give tliia ae n specimen of the generality ; but it serves tO 
»liow ut IwLtt the want of cnrc and inspection pnictised by the 
cleivy. Kelii^ion iit gienemlly tlic hasa of the instruction given ; 
but It U bod both in its quality and in the method of it« com-' 
munii'iition. A taeto for extemporary prayer and preaching, and 
A general laxity of creed, is too ol>en learnt in Sunday-«chool.i 
under the mnnogement of officious Hupcrinteiidcn(t< and scmi- 
diaeentins eonimitteee. And while tJie foundation is so badly 
laid, connnnation, as a necessary consequence, is robbod of half j 
its licnofiu 

2. Again, how few clergy are there who know how to employ 
aright the precious moments that arc passed beside the bed of eick- 
ne*« 1 The service for the Visitation of the Sick is certainly not 
wanting in u severe catliolie tone. Hy it llie sick man is required 
to give on account of hia fnitli, and s searcliing examination into 
past practice is demanded. The kee]>ing tlie unity of the Clnirch 
IS faithfully put forward as an olijcct of prayer ; and a form of 
nbikthition is jirovided, which speaks of better days. But witli 
the generality of the clei^ this is almost becomo a dead letter ; 
and the form of the Church has heen sui>er3«led by the circula- 
tion of " 'Hie Sinner's Friend," and other semi-di»senting Iracts, 
by unanthorixed pmyem, and extcmjiorarv huniilics, in which 
the nroini!'e of pK'imry fiir^ivoriess of sins by the covenant oPI 
luiptiam is triinsfi-rrcd without scruple to the lapsed Christian. ' 
In (t word, fi-om the beginning to the end of his days the onli-' 
nary chiirnhman hears nothing of the distinguishing principleat j 
of Iiis faith. To accident alone (humanly speaking,) is he in- ' 
dcbtcd for being what he is ; and it would be no ^vw^ or trouble ' 
to him if change of eireumstanms led to his ranking himselFl 
among dissenters. The wonder is, meanwhile, how the Church 
holds tiigctlier. But, Iia[ipily, strong is the f/h inertia; and the' 
•raditionarv principle of better time.'*. But if our security lie in 

c faithfulness of our great grandfathers, to wliat are our poe- 
•Jiy to trust? Ttiis becomes a serious question. 
d On the nn/ytfcl of prcncliin{j enougU \w», \>ct\mi\«, been 


Tke GfNitu of Join KeaU. flfil 

nliviuly ntd— jiarticuJsrly m evtoptoma of imnrnveineiit lire 
already manifest. To Uic " Plain SonDons by Contributors to 
the Tracts for the Timds" thin pniiw; w wrtwinly due, that tbcy 
nrc oonitii^ti'ntly ttound in Uncruafrc and feoling. The mnic may 
he «ud iif" Mr. Ward's 3 mall volume. (" Sermons preaclw'd in 
Christ Church. Skipton.") Mr. Ncwmaii'ti iuk] ArclHicnron Man- 
ninfx'e ntKl Kir. AlauriccV SennoDS arc obrioui'Jy to be judged by 
« diDciviit ittiindard ; and wc rmlly do not know iuiywlt«re cite 
to look fiir writers who have die appearance of having mastcri'sl 
both themsetvoB and their nibject, and who, tlicreforc. arc able 
to ui.iintiiin that Cnlm nnd dtguiiiod cx>iilideriev which eeonM 
ovcntiftl for one why i» finiakiiig in thv nuiitv of God. 

We have (Hiopi«ded, we fear, very imperfectly in ukakiiig oiir- 
eelvea uudcretood. AVe deeirc, however, at least to put on record 
our opinion — revftrting to tlic (|iic0t)un» with which w« begun — 
that there h not that diflerence between the preaehing of tliG 
Church and the conventicle which there ought to bo ; and that 
iu> it ii> in the pulpit, BO for the moet part it ia in the echo<0, in thq 
lending library, and K-wde the »ick-lK-<l, "When our Lord 
taught, we read that " the people were astonished at his doctrine, 
for ho taught them at otie kaeintf anlioriCir, and not ns tho 
•cribcs ;" and »n, wc believe, in iu due degree, Bhoiitd there he 
observable a diHerenoc in kind between what people have froin 
their cJeigy, and from the sectarian teacher. Ana tliiii can only 
be brought about by eccuriiig a more strict professional educa- 
tion for the clergy ; nitd tlwt one of dogmatio thcologj-. When 
thU is (bnv, tite retit will follow of counc. 

ne P^ieal Wcrh of JJin Keait. Lomlon : W. Smith. I84I. 

A TAtTN-T which nai Hutne yean ago directed s^inst (lie reputation of 
Kcatt by one of hut delniclora lias now at last been met, and as out 
beulingaltows, anew edition of hia works lias lately ■ppearcd. Hy tbo 
same met, a stigma lias been removed fmin llie iigc-^ which was so long 
«oalent«d to do without a complete native collcelion of some of tlic 
trueA and most original pocma which it baa produced, the mails of 
wliich Invc for tltc most pnri Iwrn known only througli the medium 
of foreign piracy. Tlio neat little volame now before us, presents us 
with all iliG works uf Keats wliicti have ever sera tlic light, and that 
in a coiniuH to jiortable, and to free Troin all superfluity of ornament, 
vliicli nuglit at once enhance the price and hinder the use, that «-c 
think tlie publislwr tncrile tlic warmest thanks of all those vho hold 
tliat the main end of publidllon is to fiicilitato reading. 

The name of Keats has l»t Tcaclicit its present eminence without 
first cncounlcring a good deal of detraction, nnd tluit frnm (junrtcrs in 
irliich a different temper might hove hwn counted on. He *a* not, 
tika Wordiiworth, vaa down by vlic ignoranl, num^ , \» Vinmkv'W ■^1- 


Xi* Qtaiat «/ Joku Keau. 

Kiitcd no mark, siid w)io were for tlic most part tiimwarc of (ib 
exislcncc. Ncillirr wnit tlie flipjmncy of certain poco ciirauli crilics, wIm> 
teemi'd nev«r so happy as vtlien expending llitir LillipiiUnn airows on 
llie f^rcalest PoL-t of tlic age, dirctitcd towards liiui : on tlii: contrarr, 
Iron) lliuiii \w rfceivL-d » nirril of pmitw bcvon<l wiirit mlglit Imve been 
looUeil lor. it was tlie scholarly and enlliusiaaiic, tiic oiorc passional 
and unworldiv lovers of poetry, lliosc wlio owed Ictwt nllcginncc t 
teniponuy fiuIiioD or the Hwny of present npinion, tliuae wliuue untin^d 
devotion to tli« service, won its right place for Uic oanie of ^^^o^dt.«ortll, 
it was tlicy wlio tried by dint of sncn and twrcasin and nicltnaine, Ut 
cnaali a reputation, not in danger any liovr of urenmltirc expansion. 
Tliis was remarkable, but tlie causcB arc perhaps not diHicult to 
ditcovcT. 'V\\t critics in question felt n natuml and by no mcMic. 
unjiistiBuble liutlhitig at the principles and pmctice of the gentlen 
under wlio«c wing Keats had pkccd himself, and whose influence ' 
unhappily nppurciiL on the ta»lc nixl on something more than the tocta^ 
of many of his compositions. Wbut was called the Cockney school 
did indeed deserve the severest reprobation ; but there is no end wliidi 
•wc is entitled to pursue iwr fat ft nffa* ; and wretched as waa the 
morality of some of Keats k writing, and vicioiis as wctt the <bclion and 
style iu many cases, no end of public justice was gnincd by tmttlng 
him otherwiiic than iik a poet of all but the very highcxl genius. As 
regards the latter and lesser evil, the principles of Taste which he had 
learnt from Mr. Leigh Hunt, it i^ sutisfoctory to know that he after- 
words repudiated them, and that h»d he lived, he wnuld probably hav« 
shaken off the halnts they had taught him. Indeed there is not much 
that is CocJtnev in hi»i latter produclionn. 

Wc have said that Keats ought to have been treated as a noelofdl 
but the highest genius. Amid the highest he surely cannot ne placed. 
Shelley indeed has described him as " gathcrvil to the KitigH of 
Thought," but in this life at least he had no pkee among them. Theto 
was no ma^ivc arehitceturv in the atrneture of his mind ; no body uf 
Thought in his utterance ; nunc of that inherent niantineiu which one 
can always delect in the greatest poets as in all other supreme men. 
A poet of firmer Rbre might have no more fallen into a Cliristian vein 
than did poor Keats, but he would never like him have abtiolnlcly 
saturated himself with Paganism ; such an one might, as alas ! one of 
hia contcmporiiries did, render his poetry the vehicle of action nmrkcdly 
and onensively infidel, but would hardly have filled it with whininga 
after '•Oivm])«s' fiided hierarchy." And, tlicrcforc, though tlicrw is 
much in Keala tlial wc cannot but disapprove, «c in no way dread his 
influence, or fear to call attention to his beauties, 1 Great as they are, 
iheie is too much cmaKciilntion about them all to make their influence 
considerable. They Gil our can with the richest and swcetnt melody, 
they luil us uito a swoon of voluptuous delight, thcv irapradisc us 
Old green leaves, incense- laden boughs and " cmbnfmcd darknew,"* 
It they never Te«ch the heart, they never thrill our whole being, we 
Iva ia vaio for " the alill sad miuic of huinanitj." And therefore 

Tig Oi-itiut of Join KtaU. 


llic incmtse of Kcsls's reputation amonf; our young men hva given Iiioi 
n» wixanl power over tlicni. Nol only hnK lie nrceiveil no «ucli pro- 
found liAniage lu lli«y liave lietijihledly yielded to Wordsviortli ami 
ColcH'I^c, but lie liu doDe next (o notliing in tlic way of limping llicir 
ilioiigliix. The influence of niiiny, fnr iiis inferioro in poetical povcr, 
is mucti more pcrfeplible than his. He lias no followers, none who ^ 
but for liiin vouM bavc been otlier tliaii they ure. Mr. Tennysofi'i V 
name tised to be coniipettd with his, but t!ie resemblance vas, vc 
think, at oil times a very supcr6eial and accidentn) oiie ; thcj ngrrct) 
in filming nt some of tin- bcntUic» of Ktixabcihai) literature, and both 
might bt- fitly styled poets nftenMlioii. but those chanct«riatic8 were 
nut, ne think, derived in tlic one from the other; Mid in Mr. Tcnnyton 
we see a grmt mntiy tmits tbut render liiin iometliing very diiferent 
indeed from Keala. 

Yet the merits ibnt we have ascribed to Keats were lii» in m 
remarkable a degree, that be must always be nmko] high nlicre be is 
known at nil. No person of fine car can be indilTcrent to bis rich and 
voluptuous homioiiy, no intellectual man to whom Nature has given a 
GcnsuouB eonslituiion, given keen relishes and sharp pains, cnu fail to 
rejoice in the glorification of many of bis seu.-uitiona in Keats's rersc; h 
no votary of iniagiiiniivc reverie, but must own the npctl of lua tlreamj ^ 

His pssnon for the Grecian mytliolngv was something singular, 
seeing lliat till, wc believe, the last year of Ins life he could not read one 
wonl of Greek, tt shews how wonderful is the beauty of tlio»e shapings 
oftlie Grecian mind, since, seen even tlirvugh the mist of Lemprierc 
or Hookc's Pantheon, it could so Ull the heart and mind of Keats, oad 
become the governing principle of his intellcctunl being. 

We have said tliat KeatH, like Tennyson, is a poet of sensation — 
tAv poet of sensation we may call him ; for none other ever wove 
liis song 10 much out of the rnateiials ttirnixlicd bv the aensei. fl 
Wordsworth celebrates the connexion between cxtenia! Nature and H 
the mind, Keats that between external Nature and tlic body. This, H 
no ddubt, bad been done before; indeed, it is a fact familiar lo ™ 
all critics, that the outward world has, up to the present day, been 
cd prelty exclusively in its relation to the senses — that the h 
ties of Nature were almost unknown until Uiis age in the f 
»m»c and way in which tliey arc now recognised, explored, and set 
forth ; that former poetry *ings of verdant glades rtl'rcaliing the eye, 
the scent of sweet flowers, the cooling murmur of streams, but that it 
seldom presents us witli the picture^inie. Mountains, for example, 
seem seldom to have been individualized, except for purposes of 
practical convcnictcc, until onr age, when those who love them, know 
each as a friend, and arc liimiliar with its individual pliy»iognomv and 
characteriaties. Kvcn Gray, who, in iniuiy reqieeta, hoalded the 
modent taste for the piclureK|ue, could (ind nothing to cay of the 
Alps but the old story of their horror*. Hut ihough the sensations 
Ciuaed by external Nature have ilms beeu»ut\g\>^ y^^^^^ <^N^'t~) ^f}^ 
il wjw n)tcnfd for Keuts lo do wlial oii\y "m l\\K yw«cTi\ wwt '«»■'«»■ 


Tie Gmitu of John KeaU. 

uoiiltl liavc carcd lo sec don?, to describe citriou; sad individunl 
iiiiprcasioriB on ihc scnsrij, to iiarntlc itic oncralions of Nnlure un tlic 
liner frainn, oil tlio^e vlio»o n-lishes and wlioite pnini ik|iproncli to tli« 
RiDrlild. I'liis circumstance is at once the great cliarni and the bul 
liiiiil of his genius ; lur while eucli an exercise of the {luclica) gift is in 
it«c-ir delii^litful nnd worth making, it is tnu subunlinut«ljr inipotlitnt 
to hove been made bis principal one by any very manly mmd. Its 
necessary effect too, is to separuti^ both the I'uct and lii« nditiirers 
from their brethren, lo alitnulc them fiom the commoil heart, to 
uuliuiunnizc and enervate them. 

A« no morUl can be expected to read Endymion all throiigli, wc 
will aay nulhin); fttrther of that proiluctiou tjiuii that, by opening it at 
nearly any clianec page, you arc tiirc to lijjht un cx<iu!sitc thoughl« 
cxipaftilclv exprenweil, und that the one it two oilt-s it cunluina are 
wonderi'ufly fine. Hero is pari of one of thorn : — 

" A[id ai I tut. uvvt tlio IMil bUiP Killi 

TiioiB Fuviio « noinc of rcvHlfw : tlii' nll« 

Into the wide itrcDin cnmc of purple hue — l_ 

'Twiu Buccliiit uLid Ilia rrpw 1 M 

Tli« eMiu'st criiiiiptit •|)(ikr, and filvor (hrlU* ^ 

FToiii kUktng cymbalt inoilc n merry diu — 1 

'Twoi Bacchus and liJi tin I V 

Iiike to a moving vinlngc down ili^y ciime, ^ 

Crowii'il iritli gjoon Iciavwt, and Incn* all an fliimo ; M 

AH niiullr dancint; ihrouoli the plcniunt vultcy, fl 

Til Bi'utu iIh'o. Mfliini'Wy 1 I 

O tlirn, O llicn. thnii wiu-t n liiiipli.- nniiiel ^ 

And I forgcjl (her, an the Lvrricd lioUy ■ 

By aliepliiTds it rorj;oU«ii, wlivu in Junv, -U 

Toll clicilniiK kecf Rway Uii^ nun and diooh : — M 

I ruih'd mtn ific folly! 1 

*■ Within hii ear, aion, youiis Bacchiii itood, V 

Trifling Ilia iiy-darl, in iluncnij mood, H 

Willi liddiilig luuclitiis; ^ 

And little rilii of crimaoii wliir:' linhrncd 9 

1^11* plump (rliite arms, ntid ihoulder*, cnuugh whiltf 1 

For Venn*' ini»rly biti- ; I 

And nenr him indc Silrnut on liii aw, I 

felled with flowcra ai he on did piu* J 

Tipaily quuflitig. I 

" Whtinco <nmo yc, merry Damaeli ! whence came ye, b 

So mnny, and lo many, und lui'li glvcjf I 

Why hove ye left your bovn'r* tlfi.olulo, ■ 

Yoiii hi(f« und jjciiller fntcf J 

' Wo follow Bnechni ! linccliut un the wing, fl 

A uuiiqucring I fl 

Bitoehiii, young Ikieoliut •' good or ill bcliile. M 

We danev befoirc him thorough kingdoms wide : — I 

Collie liiiltvr, lady f&ir, and joini^d lie ■ 

^^^H To our wild n>lni>troliy ! ' V 

^^^^1 " Whvnco came ye, jolly Satyn ! whence came yc, J 

^^^V Sn ninny, and lo many, ;uid luch glee 7 J 

^^^B Why Aave yc Icll your furem hnunt*. why kit ^ 

^^^ft Your Duta in onk tree cWftl fl 

ITif Gmit/» of JoAn KeaU. 


' For wliio, for wins vn \ett our k^rnrl tree; 
For nine wc IcfV our hcntli, >nd yellow btooma, 

And colli muilituoniii 
For wirip ue follow- lliiocliil* lliiniigli ihe earth ; 
Gr<inl goJ of brvnthlci* ciiin and eliiTpllig niiilli 1 
Com* hitlicr, Indy fair, and joined be 
* To our mud mintlrrUy I ' 

" Orcr wide iircam* and moultlaliii Rnat we hmiI, 
And inTc, vlicii llarahtu k«pl hit ivy triit, 
Uuwurd Ihc lifirc iiiid iha leopard (innU, 

Witli Aiiiaii elcphanli : 
Onward l)ie*c myriAdi — willi loiig and dunce. 
With Mbnu iiriped, and ileek Arabiaui' praixo, 
W«b-faoted 8Uic*lor«, crocndilri, 
BMriiig upon their tcaly backi, in file*. 
nump inEant Inugliera. niittikking tin- coil 
Of teaintii, »nti stoiii pnlUy-rowcn' toll ; 
With loying oar» and litkpn Bails ihcy glide. 

Nor care for wiod niid tide." 

Tli« Kre nf St. Agnes is, we believe, uiitinlljr consittcred Uio moct 
perrcet of Kcata's works, and a vcrv finished poem il certainly in. 
Drinking oul as fully the beauties of its metre, oa Kiulymioii Kpnilt; 
that in wliicli H ix wtilleii. Pvjhaps the languaf^ ilnca not boast 
more beautiful Spenaenao stanuts tbaii tbu following, which we hope 
our rcadcTfl will he contented to admire without asking uk to esplnin 
nnv tiling about the " Mi&sal where swart I^ajuitns pray." 

" A CMDuirnt high and ttjple-areh'd Ihsrc wu, 

All iiarlanded witli cnrven imagoricB, 

Of fruits, and fluwon, and bunchii of knal-gm>^ 

And diamonded with pniWR of tiimliit d«viei>, 

liinunierublc of (tains and splendid dyOi 

Aa arc the tievr-niotli't decp-damuk d winga ; 

And in ili« midit, inong ihoiiaand hpraldrlln, 

And (wilighc uiinlj, and dim cmUoioningi, 
A shirldcd icutclicon bluab'd wiih blood of queen* and kingi. 

" Full on ihi< cnwincnt thoae tlie wintry moon. 

And llirrw warm Kukt on Madeline '■ fair breaat, 

A» dowri the knell fur hetvtn'a %tiitr und boon ; 

ItoM-btiMiin fdll on her liiuidi. tnjicther prcit. 

And on her silver crota loh ainL-lliyal, 

And <in hvr balr a i-ioTi', lik« • Mint : 

Slic seem'd a iplrndid nnK«l, Dowly dresi, 

Save wing*, fur heaven: — Porphrro grew faint : 
She knell, xa pure • tldng, to free from iiwvtal taliil. 


" Anon hi* hmrt rrvii-M : her veiiier» done, 

Of all it» wrealhed poaila her liair ahu free* j 

Unclaip* her warmjeweltono by one; 

loa«»D( hft IVagmnt lioddicc ; by dpgr«et 

Her rich ndirf crccpii ruallinK to her hiieet : 

Half-bidden, like a mermaid in len-wtod, 

frnsive awhile ilic dreamt anake, and ten, 

In funcy, fair St, Aenea in her lied, 
But dam not look Iwftjnd, or all ibp citann V« AeiA. 


l%»Omna nj John KmU. 

" Soon, tremUinji In her lofl axA rliilly neit. 

In BUtt or wiiltrful iwouii. prrptcx'd bIi« layt 

llntll iW p"]niifil WHrinlii of i.liti'p opptriu'd 

Hflr iioolln>ii Umb« uiid loul fiitifiupd awny ; 

Flown, tike B I)ioug1it. utilil the niorrau-diiy ; 

BliHftilly Imveti'd lj"ili ftom joy HMrl pniri ; 

Clniji'il likn n niiiuiil whore iwnrt Paynima piny ; 

lltindrd nlilte from iiniiliinc nnd from ruin, 
At tlioiif-li It rutu aliuiild iliul, and be a bud nguill." 

^^ IJi/perion \* on nil liands allovreJ to given greater indicalion of 

^^ KcaU's powent than any thinj; else that ho haa wriUcn. Slicllcy waa 
I quite ii;;lit In pronouncing it llic most wonderful poem ever prm I need 

b; so young n iniin. We are afrniil to iliink of wLut it might have 
nicxint hail it been completed ; for Oceanus's magnificent speech in that 
eulosaal council of the Titans has & euepicious import. As it i^, 
however, it \» little more tlian a Kiililime fragment, too amorjthouR to 
havH a definito signiScancc, yet not too roucli so, to be othcrwiBc than 
Kiirpasainj^ly, divinely beautiful. Wlial an opening tu the talc of 
fallen Sovereignly! 

" Deep in Iha Rliady indnc** of n vale 

Far sunken ftom Ibe licniihy brcatb of morn 

Far from llic fiery iiodii, and evc'a oat star, 

8nt eiry-linlr'd Snturn, qiiivl u a atone, 

Still Di ibc liknci! round nbnut lii> lair; 

Pori'tt nil forctt liimg about bia head 

Like eloiid on cloud. No illr ofnir wfli there, 

Not M) much life ui on a lummcr's day 

Robit nut one llglit »ei'(l from the fcothcr'd ktuw, 

But where the nend leaf fu'll, tbere did it r«L 

A atrcam vmC voicdciw by, *till dcadon'd more 

By rcBion of hii fallen divinity 

Sprradiiiu a ihnde ; the N'aincl 'mid ber reedi 

I'roMcd her cold linger closer to lier lipr. 

" Along the margin-sund Inrge fiKil-mnrkiL went, 
No furtber tlinn to wberc bis feet had stray 'd. 
And alepl there tincr. I'pon the sodden ground 
Mi) old right hand Iny nerveh-sn, listless, dead, 
llnnceplred ; and 111! realniless eyei were etoiied ; 
While liis bow'd head sccia'd liiicning to the Barth, 
Mil nneieni mutber, for some cocnfort yet. 

" It seein'd nu force eoulil »aku blm from hia place ; 
But ther« came oiii', wbowiib a kindred hand 
Toiich'd bii wide ihouldcn, oftcr bending low 
With revL-rence, though to one who knc* it not. 
She wo* a Cioddem ofilie infnnl world ; 
By her in stature the tall Amazon 
Hud aiood n pigmy's heigbl : ibo would have ta'cn 
Acliilloi by the bur nnd bent bis neck i 
Or vith a linger iluy'd Ixion'i wheel. 
Her Bwe wns Inrgis ai thst of Meinphinn «phiiix, 
I'l^Mtal'd huply in ii pnluee-courl , 
When n^e* luuk'd to lig)pt for ihvli lor*- 

T%ei Ofvin* of John Kmt*. 


Hill oil ! how unlike marblR wai that fncii : 

How beautiful, If doiuw liaci nut made 

Sorrow mote beautiful tliun bfiuuty'i nelf. 

There w«» h linli'iiiiig fvar in lier legarj, 

Ai if calamity hud hut bej^im ; 

Ai if ihc vinwnrd cloudt of evil (lav* 

Had >p»nl iMr mnliec, and llie aiillsn ri>ar 

Was Willi it( iilnrcd thunder Ittboitrin^ up. 

One hand »ho presied upon Ihjl aching snol 

Where beali the hiiinnii hvnri, k> if JiuiI tlivic, 

Though Hn iiiimoriitl, iliii fell ei\ie\ pain i 

The olhcr, upon Siilum'i bended neck 

She laid, and Vt the level of bis e«r 

Leaning with partvd Ud^ Mme wonb \\w *pftV« 

In (olmin tononi and dacp agan Ion* : 

Some inourninK nordi. whicti in our feeble (ongue 

Would come iu ihew Uke ocoeiiU ; (> how fraU 

To that large atleroncc of Ihe early Goda ! 

' Saturn, look up I — though trh«refor«, poor oW King I 

I have iiu cumrort fur tli«c, no nul one : 

I cannot My, " O trhcroforc ilcrprat thou t " 

for heaven it potted from Ihe<-, and the enrtb 

Knowi ihee not, thua aBlictfld, for a God; 

And ocean too, with all itntolomn nolne, 

llu* fiom tliy iccpire jiaii'd ; and uH the nir 

!i emptied ol' Ihiiir lK>ury nisjeity. 

Th]r tliundvr, conaciou* of iho new command, 

llumblea reluctant oVr our fallen houie: 

And thy iharp lightning in uDpractiicd iinndi 

Scorciiei and ciirnt our oner tcrMi* domain. 

O nehing lime! O mtimenti bi)( on year* ! 

All Di ye paii mell out the nionitroun trulli. 

And preii it lo upon our vtuiry gnefa 

Tliai unbelirf hat nul a *|im« to orMlhe. 

Saturn, atcep on : — O thoughtleu, why did I 

Tlim violate Ihy ilumbruu* aoUtiidv t 

Why Hhould 1 ope thy inelaneholy ryc\ I 

SntuTD, alwp on 1 wlu'lo at thy feet I weep.' 

'' A) when, njmn a trnnccd summer-ni^ht. 
Thoic green-robed lenolo™ of mighty woods, 
TbII ooki, bnuieb-c harmed by ilie earnenl Klur*, 
Dream, and no drenm fill niglil without n llir, 
Sav* {two one gradual tolitaiy giut 
Which com" upon the lileiice, and diua off, 
A* If the ebbing sir liod but on* wat*: 
So cam* tbeie wordi imd went; ihe while in lean 
She touch d her fair large forehead to the ground, 
Ju*t whcno her falling hair might bo out*pr«ad 
A soft and lilkcn mat for Saturn 'a focL 
One moon, with alteriition nlow, had ihed 
Her Bih'er iraioni four upon thu night. 
And BtiU theae Iho wrr* potiurrd motion I eat, 
I.ikc nitiirtl tculpturc in cathedral cavern ; 
The frozen tiod ilill euuebant on the mrlh. 
And Ihe ind (joddeat wecpiiifr at hii feel r 
Untd at length old Saturn lidcd up 
nil faded eyes and *nw hi* kingdom gone. 
And all the gloom and Boriow of tVic \i\B«e, 
HO. XXKUI. — ,V. S. I, I, 


Th4 Osaitu of Jtkn KttiU. 

Anil thai fitlr kn«oIJng Goddcu : itnd iltcn ipakc 

Ai niih A palsied tongiic, and while bia bctml 

Shook horrid vtiih aiich a<|>cii-iii(ilHd]? : 

' O U-iid*r H|H>u9e uf told Hypi-rinn, 

Thpn, I feci Ihee ere 1 see thy f«!c ; 

Look up, nnd let me se« our doom in Itl 

I^ok u|i, and tell nie if this luehlo nhaji* 

I* Saturn'* ; tell mo, if thou hc-nr'it tiiu voice 

Of Saturn ; it\\ me, if tlii* viinkling brow, 

Naked nnd bare oFiti ^khI dind«m, 

Veen hke ibi- front of Nkiurn. Whohftd powor 

To make mc dcaolale 1 whence (nmc llie itreiiKtb t 

How WM it iiutlurtd to lucli burning forth, 

Wliile Fatu Muin'd ilraiigUil in my iiurvout gtupt 

But it i* KO; and I am imother'd up. 

And buried from all f[odlike cKcrtiso 

Of inlluetKc benign on plaucli pale, 

Of ndiiionilioni (o lli« winila and leaa. 

Of ncncoAil iway aboT* ram'* harvMllng, 

And all thoK acta which Deity luprtmc 

Dotli eaiK ila lieurt uf luve iu. I am Konc 

Away fnim my own l>o«oin : T liavi' loft 

My »tronK identiiy, my real iclf, 

!iomcwherc belwvcn Ihe throne, and wliera I ait 

Mere un Ihia tpol of earth. 80Hrcli, Tliea, trarch ! 

Open tliino iiyet etrrtir, and tplic-re them round 

tlpon nil ipaec ! ■puce itnrr'il, and lam of liEht : 
Space region'd wilh life-air, aud barren vddi 
■SpnccHuf tir«, and all ihr yawn of hell. 

Search. Then, aeaich .' and tell inc if thoii leeat 

A cerlaiii abape or ihadow, making way 

Wilh ning^ or chariot liorte In rvpouets 

A hearcn lie lost erewhile : it miut — it nuift 

Be of ripe progreM. — Saturn niutt be king. 

Yi-i, tliert niiiat be n eolden victory ; 

Thcrv uiiwt ha fioda Itiruwn (town, and IrunipriB blvwii 

Of triumph calm, and hyinna offedital 

Upon the gold clouda metropolitan, 

VulcM uf iwfl proclaim, and silircr atir 

Of ■iringa in litdlow nhollt ; nnd thne iihall bo 

Boaiilifiij thiiiKa made nev, for (lie tLurpriao 

Ofllio «ky-ehiIilr*M ; I will give command; 

Thoa I Tiira ! Thfn ! wherr; ia Saturn f ' " 

TTic RMcniblinf! of ilie Titanic Council in the hcginning of Book 
II. it not>lc ; but wc caniwt do more thou extract lite picturnque 
description of Aoio. 

" NokkM hln 

Aria, bom of dm*! «MTinoiu Caf, 

W!io ooit her molhor Tcllua keener pan^. 

Though fi'itiinine, than any of licr Miii : 

More iboughl than vm wan iti b*r duaky CliBf, 

For »hu wai proplictyin(; of her glory i 

And in her widi^ imagination atond 

Talm-ahaded templot, and hish rival fanea. 

By Oxna or in Uaufia' lacrad ialra. 

Kvvn at Hope upon her anchor leuni. 

So leant tile, not ho fair, upon u imk 

Shed (mm the broadest of ti«r cWphanlv" 

W* GmtHt of John KmU. 


Wc Lore already uid thnc ttic speech of Occanus gives a Hoinc- 
wluit iiliimiing indicKticm of wlint tht.- ponn may have been dcatined to 
mean. As wc have it, liowevcr, it U all safe enougli, aiid il is so inor- 
vi'llougiy, tiBtiacendently beautiful, ibat quote il «« niuaL 

■■ So rniM S«tum ; ani) itio G«d of tli* Soa, 
Sophitt and uuc, Irom no Athenian |[rovo, 
But cogitBtion m hii watrrjr thailes, 
AniM', Willi look* iiut ooiy, and b«gsn. 
In iiinrmun, which hu firM rnddarouiiag (ongue 
Caught infiuit-likc ftom the far-foain'd Mtids. 
' O yc, whuni wrath etaisuiiiM 1 who, puuioii-aluog, 
Writlio at dcfaat, and mm* your a§«ni«a I 
Shut iij> your Mniaa, ttifla up your mn, 
My voice i* not a bcllawm uiilu ir«. 
Yrt lialTii, ye who will, wliilsl I bring pnmf 
How yc, perforce, mint W content to (loop : 
And ill ilic pruurmuch vomfucl will I give, 
ir ye will XAxi tliat comlort iii it* trutli. 
W« fitll by Muna «f Naluro* Uw, not furcu 
Of thunder, or of Jove. Grcol Suluin, lliuu 
Has! Bfted well ihc ntom-uiiivcnc ; 
IIiU for ihii it-aKiii, ihat thou »[[ th« Kiligi 
And only blind fnim ihccr lupiomacy. 
One av«nu« was akaded from thine pyfB. 
TliTOUgli which I wandvt'd t» stomal (nilli. 
And linl, aj thou watt not the fir* I of power*, 
8a art thou Dot the la»l ; il caiinot be. 
Thou arl not (bt< brginiiinc not iho «nd. 
From C1i»o» nnil pnmitnl nnrknvm fame 
Light, llic lirnt fniiu of Ihat iiilnOiitc bruil, 
I'hat lulJcn fennciil, which for woiidrout end* 
WiiB ripciitiiK ■" ilirir. V\iv lipc liout camv. 
And wiib it li^ht, and li^bi cnKi-iKlrring 
UjHrn ilaown producer, forlbwiih touch d 
I'he whole unormoUB iiiall«r into lire 
Upon thai very hour, out pBtenlof;*, 
Tha HeaTcni and tha Earlh, wor« mailifi^ : 
Thai Ihou firrl-born, and wr ihc giant-rocc. 
Found ouTMJm rulioff trnw and beauleoui rcolma. 
Now comoi the pain of Uutli, to wlioa) 'lii pain; 
O folly I (or til beor all nakud triitbn, 
And to rni'iiiDgc oircuniittnce. all culm. 
That il the lop of BOVcti-ignlv. Mark wcllI 
An K'ni-fii and EuriK ut" f*'irer, fftircf fiw 
I'han Chao» anil blank Dnrknoa. though nnr c rliitJV; 
And aa wc tbow bc}'Oiid that Kcuvcii niid Ivarth 
In I'unii mid ibapi* cuinpuct Hnd bcaiitlftil. 
In will, in action fr««, «uiii|i«nioiii<liit), 
And thouwiid other lignt of purer life; 
&a oti our li^ph a frnh pcifi-vtioii treodi, 
A pow«T more Strang in btnuiy. bcvn of tu 
Anil fiit«d to oxcd ni, t« wc paM 
In glui'v that bid Darknpu : nor aro wo 
Tlii-ichv niori! coni]iii!i 'd than by u» the rule 
Of abajpelcH (hnu). Say, doth the dull aoll 
QDarral with the proud Kinriti It halh led. 
And raadtih »tiil, more i:onie\y tVuit ttiuVU 

2G0 leM 0mw <!f John K«at3. 

Can it dMij the ctdtTdom of ^Ktn groves ? 
Or (hall iho tr«« b« cnvioUB ol (lie dove 
Di'MiiH it cooFlli, and hoik mauy wiiigi 
To wnndcr wherenithal mid find Its joys I! 
Wu urn iupli forOBl-treeis mill our fair bonghs 
Huvi' btvd f'nrth, noI pnlu Bolilarv doves. 
Bill cattlci gotJcn-foaihrred, *lio ilo tower 
AtiDVc IK ill tlirir bvniily, slid niiist reign 
111 tiglit tliereut'i for 'tis the eternal taw 
Tliftt firel in bcmity should be fint in might; 
Ycu, by iliaC luw, another raoa may driv* 
Our cuu[|tieroi8 to mourn u we do now. 
Ilava ye beheld the young (iod orilic Suae, 
My diipotacMor F Have ye mku hi* facaf 
Huvv vl- bi-held hit chariot, foam'd alang 
My iiuiilv wingvd creatiirci he hath rnkde f 
I naw him on the calm'd waters tcud. 
With aiich a glow of beauty in hit I'ycfi 
Tlijt it eiiforoiid mo to hiil «nil fiur well 
To nil my cm[>irc : fuiewcll ud 1 took, 
And hither came, (o tee bow duloroUB fote 
llud wrought ti]>oi> yi*; ^uiil li»w I iiiigbt bat 
Give coiiKilulioii in ihia woe cxttcmc. 
lleceivc the truth, and let it bo your balm.'" 

Ill spite uF ila conclusion dUlinctly avowing tlutt (liraml doctrine 
wliicli wt fcur Ocramitu iiitcnikd, ihc ode to aOrodau Um issobcnti- 


won very 
\VorilB worth s 


lifiil lliat every one sliould be atKjuniuicd witli il. 
probobly suggested by the rollowin^ noble sonnet of 
on a picture of Sir Ouot^ Iteaiinioiit'i) : — 

" Prala'd bt llio Art whn«a mibtlit jmwvr could atay 
Yon cloud, and fix it in tlial gloiiou* *\\ayv ; 
Not would permit the thin iiiidIic id ocnpe. 
Nor lltoie bright lunbeams to forBuke the day ; 
Wbieli stcipp'd that bond of Iravcllen on their ' 
Kre they wero loil within Ibo shady wood j 
And nhowed tlic Dark upon the K'a>"y flood 
Fur ever nneliured In bcr ilicltering boy, 
Soiil-noothiiiK Art ! whom Miiriiiuj;, Noon-tide, Even, 
Oo serve with all their changeful jineeiinlry; 
Thou with amhitlon modcit yet •ublime, 
lltro for the «i^hl ufmorlnl mun, hast ^veii 
To one hrirf moment ciiuglit from llevtiiig Time 
The oppropriate culm of blot r.ternity." 

But if KrnUi imitntcd K\m, it wns as only inastcnt cnn, fur no one can 
tax the following ode with want of nriginnlily. 


" Thou atill uiiinvuti'd bride of quietnoia t 
Thou fotter-child of Silence ond ilow I'imc, 

Sytvon bittnrian, who cstitL lhu> expmii 

A flowery talc more iwectly ibiiu our rhyin«t 

Whol leof-friiiged legend tiounti about thy «b^ 
Of dcitit* or uiurtjilh, ur of both, 
in 7>tiip« (It the (Ial«» of Aicady! 

TJif GmSus •/ JotiH fCeali. 

Wliat iiirn oc fflA* mc ihcirf What maiilunt toalli T 
What mod piinuil! What utrujcgle to cKi)p« I 

U'lmt pipes oiid timbrel* ! What wUd «c*iai:y f 


" Heard melodic* arc sweet, but thaie iinhuird 

An) aweeter; tbercftiri-, )■« aofl pipn, play ou ; 
Not lo ihf teiiaiial «sr. but, mort «iid«ar d, 

f^pc to the iplril ditliri <if no font : 
Tait yaiiili, bl^ncatll the trees, thou cnnil not Irava 

Tliv Kuiij:, uor ever can ihoae trees lie bore ; 
ttold f.uvvr, ii«v«r, ntvcr rticiBl ihou kin, 
'riiDUgb winiiinK near the j^anl — yry, &ti not gri«vf ; 

She ewuiot fade, ihoush thou had not thy bliu, 
For vnt trill ibou luv<, and tbc be fair! 


" Ah, happy, bappy bougha I that caimat iIimI 

Yuur tcnveK, nor tvcr hid the Spring odiuu ; 
Aud, happy melodist, unwearied. 

Vox ever piping aniigi for ever new ; 
Mori' hilpjiy love I inuri' liappy, huupy lovel 

For ever warni «nd »iill lo be nijoy'd, 
For ever nanling nnd for ctct young ; 
All breiilhing tiuiiinn psnuon far abuvr, 

ThnI li-iivM a h«arl high sorrowful and ctoy'd, 
A burning forehead, and a parching tongue. 

" Wbo are these coming lolbc tacttficef 

To iihat gri'cn allur, I) myiterioui prieit. 
Leiid'ul thou thnl h<'ir<-r lowing nt the *kie«, 

And all her ntlken llankt witlt eirlnnils dretl ! 
WhnI little (own by river or sea-siiorr. 

Ur niouiituin-bniU wilb peaceful ciludul, 
!■ emptied of iu folk, ihiii piou* mum ? 
And, little town, thy ilreeU for evennorc 

Will lilent be ; and not a auut to tell 
Why tlicu art dfMoIaU', can e'er return. 

" O Atlio thape I Fair attitude ! with hrede 

Of morbl* men and maidens overwruuglit, 
Willi for«il branclio* uid Iho trodden weed ; 

II10U, silent form 1 doal tcnio ut out of thought 
Ai ilolh Eternity : Cold Vnstoral 1 

When old age thall tliii generation voate, 
Thou shah remain, in nildsl of other woe 
Tliiui oui>i, a friend to man, to whom lliuu uy'M 
' IWuly is truth, truth beauty,' — that ii all 

Yc know on eocth, and at) ye ii«(d lo know." 

TlieOdeton Nigtitiiijftile, liiongli pi-rhnris not altof'^ctlK'r lire rn>iii 
the Keatoan wliinc, lias beauty of u still richer and ntni'lt-r kind ; hut 
we cuinot quote it notF, for we roust give a >onDet or two and tiave 

Keats wrot* soiinctfl as tlid cwry i)Oct of liis gcnetalioti, u.M wvc 
or Iwo as bad as die wonit of tbcm. A^wn, on& ^t V«ti u^ V%\wi 


nt Gmiia of John Keati. 

Uke rank with Uic very best, nn<l whnl w rcmaricuhti: tio conKiilnnble 
Bngliah poet liiu been so strict in hi» rhynicd und titructure. That 

I " on Firet Looking into Cliapman's Homer" is nearly faultless, and tlic 

I pictiiresijtic touch at tlic end above all pmisc 

I but 

" Much Iwvc I trnvell'd in the rvalmi of gold, 

And iiian}- goodly sluM and kingdomi nccn ; 

Rvunil inuiiy wNti^rii i»1iiii(l« linrv I b;^en 
Whioh bard* in rcntly to Aj>aUo hold. 
Oft oTonc viAp rxpnnK Imd I been lalt] 

I'hnt dcfp-lirow d Honter ruin) oa liii (l<m»n«: 

Yst did I ii«vrr liraalhc Itj purff Kteno 
Till I hoard Chnprnnn speak out loud nnd buld : 
Then felt 1 ttkr aume walcher ofilii: ikiei 

Wheii n new jilanet swiniK Intu liit ken \ 
Or like Blout Cortct when with eaglu eye* 

Ho Blared at Ihe Pacific— and all his mon 
Look'd Bl rach othur with a wild surprise — 

SileuC, upon a ]ienk in Dsrien." 

TLc rollowing, IhoilgU unfiiiislied, nnd tLougli one " «nnnot ^OOW 
but Etnili;" at tlie thougnt of Mr. Leigb Hunt being a " great Kpirit," 
is very noble. 

" Gr«at sptiilt no« on wrlli are *DJourning : 

He o( (he cloud, di* catanot, tlio lake, 

Who on lU'lvrllyn'i nmmlt, widit awake, ■ 

Cnlcliva 111* frL'thni'iH h^iiii ATchangel'i wing : ■ 

Ho of the roie, (he violet, the ipring, ■ 

T\» locial amile, (hi; chain for FreMtuin'ii sake : I 

And lo ! whnnc atcndriuDi«« would tiovitr taka I 

A mcunor lound than Itaphuel'i whix|>erinK : I 

And other npirils there arc ilntidiiiK npurt I 

Upon thr- forehead uf the iiuo to cuino \ ■ 

Thf»i>, (li«Ro will givo (h« world anuiliir howl, -I 

And other piiltca. Kcv ye not the hum M 

Of mighty workings t ^| 

l.iaicn awhile, ye natiuna, anil be ilunili." 

Tltosc who Imvc hillicrto been unacquainted with Keats' works, 
may now form some t-onceplion of his genius from the ciiniets which 
we have maitti lor them. 'I'hey cannot, however, thus esiimule the 
ricbes of which those extracts are a sample. As a magazine imlccd 
of poetical thought, rather than as a coUeclion of great English 
poems, muit the works of Kenta be valued. His verse (wc exci-j)! iho 
extravagantly loose euuplets of Endyinion) khauid be carefully studied 
by every young poet. Hia sensuous beaulies incorporated into Eomo* 
tliing worthier and manlier would indeed produce a glorious rcAulU 
Hia ftttlta, grievous though they he, arc not, as wc have said, very likely 
to be ci>ptcd. Even the too unchristian nature of his sentiments scctriB 
from the peculinr direction they took to awaken nothing congenial in 
the minds of others. With whatever new forms of perversity we may 
liarc lo struggle, it does in<leed appear as if the scliool lo which he 
behngvd were al present powerless foT evil, aa t'^ost over the educated 

The Enqlith Vniwrtitm. 


unci intelligMit, on wliom even the more vigorous iwmulu of Slitil<!jr 
seem now to fee tliiown away : at lc«sU wc do not any tongci obgeiTO 
fences of tliat evil fcsdnation wliicli lie «erciaed some years ago. 
We may, therefore, cheerfully jmy to Keats that tribut« wliicli, wliere 
nothing higher is «tcri6cnl in ottering it, tiuwt cvw be <lue to ^coiua 
Midi as )i)B. He ia not, and he will nev« be, an EnRlish clasac 
Not only will tho many continue to dispeoBC with him, but one »«• 
no reason why they should do oiliciwiec. He cnn never be estenlial 
to any one, he can never get near the heart like Slutkeepero, Spenser, 
or Wordsworth; but as little cnn he be forgotten by the genuine 
lover of poetry who lu« once become acquainted with him; and each 
an one will find siiucc and leiauie. even nniid ihc crowding sights and 
renienihrances of the Eternal City, in turn aside to that " cwiip of 
death" by the Ccstiiin Pyramid, where a humble hcod-stonc bear* the 
name, and records somctlnng of the sorrows of Keats. 

The EiifflUh Univenittes. From tha (•/•rvian of V. A. IIitskk, 
ProffitttT of Western Literature at Martiury. An al/ridff«d 
Translation: edited by Kkancis W. Newman. 3 vol«. oto. 
lionilon: I'lckerirg, 'l843. 

" TiiKSK is wareelyn spot in the world," ways tlie author of thia 
elaborate and intcre^iting work, " which bears an hintoriml Rtonip ao 
deep and varied as Oxford ; where ko many noble memorials of momi 
and ninterinl i>ower, coKiperating to an honourable emt, meet the eye 
alt nt once. He who can be proof against the strong emotions wJiicli 
the whole aspect and genius of the place tend to inspire, mu&t be 
dull, thoughtle«s, uneducated, or of very pervertc<l vicwi>. Others 
will bear us witneu, tliat, even side by side with the eternal Home, 
the Jlma Mater of Oxford may be fitly named as producing a deep, 
lastinci and pceulinr impreaxion. 

" In one of the most fertile districts of that Queen of the Sen«, 
whom Nature has so ricldy blessed, whom for ecnturie^ past no foot* 
step of foreign armiex )ins desccniled, whoBe trident bears sway ovci 
a wider cirdc than ever did the sword of the ancient Mistress of tlic 
World, lia a brood green vale, where the CTierwell and the I«s 
mingle their fuU clear waters. Here and there primeval elms and 
oaks overshadow them ; while in their various windings tlicy encircle 
gaidens, meadowy and fields, villages, cottagcc, famihiiuses, and 
country scats, in motley mixture. In tlie midst rises a mass of 
mighty buildingit, the general clianictcr of which varieit between c<)n- 
Erent, palace, and cattle. Some ftw (iolhic church towora and 
ptomanic domes, it is true, break thiougli VVtc WvuwA:^ \AfUk, '^v\ 

It6i 17ttEnfflUh {Tnirtrtitie*. 

the goncntt impression, at a distance and at first sight, is essentially 
difTcrent from tbat of any of ttic towns of llic Middle Ages. The 
outlines arc far from being bo ghnrp, ao angular, so irreguJar, so fui- 
tAStical : A certain softness, a peeuliar repose, reigns in llicee broader 
terrace- lilcc- rising masses. Not that tlir (iotliic pinnacles that point 
ii|) into tlic sky are in tliemselveit inconsiderable; tlio lower of 8t. 
Mary's is inferior to but few of the third order: but tliey all appear 
leas prominent titan citlicr tlie lioriionlnl lines or llic cupola form, 
whicn lictc and tliere rears its bead; \vhctlier it be from its greater 
nrietyf or its more perfect liarmony villi the style of the whole, that 
the latter arrests the eye more than the former. Only in the crea- 
tions of Claiule Lormine or Poussin could we expect to find any 
spot to compare with the prevailing eharnctcr of this picture, espe- 
cially when lit tip by a favourable light ; in reixlitir, probably, there 
is none anyiTliere. The principal masses consist of the colleges, the 
university-buildings, and the city churches; and by the side of these 
the city itself is lost on distant view: but on entering the streets, wc 
find around us alt the signs of an active and prosperous tniJc. Kicb 
and elegant sliopa in profiision, afford a aiglit to be found nowhere 
but in England ; although side by side, it must be owned, with the 
darUcst c<uitniKtH of misery and depravity. But the houses of mer* 
chants, retailers, crafisincn, and innkeepers, with all their glitter and 
show, sink into a modest and, as it were, menial altitude by the 
side of the grandly severe niemorialu of the higher inlelleclual life — 
memorials wliich have been growing out of that life from almost the 
beginning of christian civilization. They ore as it were the domestic 
offices of those palaces of learning, which ever rivet the eye and 
mind of the observer, all beside seeming, perforce, to be subservient 
to them. Oxford, indeed, has no manufacture; of consequence : the 
■wealing, KOoty, giant-industry of the day offers to the Muses 
nothing but his prcviously-finiahcd produce, without forcing on the 
sense the thousand ofTeiiaive conseuucncca of its creation. The 
population, moreover, has a trrmquil character, making it seem to 
be far less dense than in other flourishing English towns; and, in 
&ct, the noisy, whirling streams of human creatures that hurry along 
the streets of London, Manchester, Liverpool, and BiTmingluiin, 
woidd be ill-adapted to the architectural and historical character of 
the place. Yet there is nothing herein to suggest the idea of 
])ovcrty or decay. What strikes the eye as most peeulinr, is the 
contrast between the fasliio liable and varied Aress of the more active 
and busy townspeople, and the ancient, severe, and ample ecclesias- 
tical coiitiime of the ' gownsmen," who may plainly enough be seen 
to tie the ruling spmt of llie place. Everywhere, indeed, wealth 
and rank arc sure to meet with outward signs of respect ; nowhere 
■ore surely than in England, and from tradespeople of the middle 
isses : but, perhaps, in all the world it might be difficult to Gnd so 
any forms, evidently the stately rcprcscnlniivcH of the genius of 
le placv, as sre (/ic Fellows and Klostcrs of the colleges of an 

The Ea^ifh I 'mrnr*itita. 


Englifili raivenity. It i«n pcculinr lyjic, ])rcipnf^letl Trora gcncm- 
(ioii to gcncralion. Tlic imivenil^ tuviis Imvo liappily <->capocI iho 
lot of modnn bcnuliricslion, and, In this respect hHrmoniu? nilh the 
college*. Vach uf llie \a.igtx mkI taotf. iim-iRnt colleges loolce like % 
se]Mmtc whole ; an cntiic town, whose walU «ml monuments nro- 
clniin the Tipo'roua ijTowth of mnny ccniurics: in fiiel, every college 
is in itH'lfrt sort cif cliroiiick of the history of nrt in Knglnnd, and 
more C9]tceialiy of architecture." — ViJ. ii. pp, S67 — S7S. 

The inntcrial boaiity siiil grandeur of tlic Univcrsitic* are but the J 
least of their chnrniit, tiic fuint image:! of tlieir inwanl glorr ; and tlie^ 
colleffcs arc " chronicles" of far Jeepcr histories tlian those ofarL 

Here liovc been »iic«^ivdy trained up, during many eventful 
centiines, the niiutei^inindii of Kii)(lund. The expren vocation of 
the Universities is to be t1ic dcpoutarics of knowlctlKc and learning; 
to ciiUivate philosophy and science ; to exerdse and mahion the whole 
intemn! nature of man. 'niis Tocation, lofty ns it in, is ebairly a 
subordinnle one. It is included in tlic high calling of the Church, 
of which the Univcnitie* arc consequently llic organ* on this belialf 
— her sejentijie organs. Hence, loo, their crowning study is and 
must be theology. It is true tlmt SiaU ITnivcn'itics may be founds J 
which do not possess this chiimeter; but thcie arc hiw in tlieir aims, J 
eliallow in the foMudntions, and dcedtulc of moral life. But the! 
Universities of Knglmul arc grounded in jntt principles, ond reinoin M 
true to their historical origin. I'liey arc ein|>haticnlly ecclesiastical I 
institutions, although lay as corpontiona ; as their history, upoFi nhich 
we now enter, will lihow. 

Notwithstnnding certain organic differences between tlic (Jniver- 
sily of Osford and the University <if I'aris, a brief review of the origin 
and constitution of the latter will tlirnw light upon our iinmedinte 
subjiet. And not only is it a*i»antageous to direct our earlier a tt en- 
lion to the Universities of the conlincnt,hut the whole subject of the ■ 
rise of Universities ought to be riewed in coiinciion with the general ■ 
state of western Christendom during the Middle Ages. 

" In spile of national diversities, there existed all over Europe," j 
»iiy« ProieMor Hulier, " a striking jjnity of spirit, of civilization, of^ 
learning, and of ndigious feeling, diffused mainly by the CImrch, 1 
which, from her centre at Rome, ncted as the nmins|>ring of nientnl 1 
cultivation everywhere, ami penetrated into the internal constitution 
of all nations beneath her sway." — -Vol. i. p. 2. 

Monaslie and ciithedrul (whools preceded the ri«) of Unircrsilif*, 
and were in many important instances the root from which they his- 
torically sprang. In Italy and Knglnnd these school; existed before 
the lime of Clinrleinngnt-, who, after his neccasion, establiidicd similar 
nslitutioni north of llic Alps. 

The course of instruction in (hesc early schools was comprised in 
the Tritium and Quadritltim ; terms employed. ccrUiinlyns far back 
as the sixth ecnliiry, to denote tiie ncven liberal arts ot ec'.«^-ws^ — 
gnminnr, logic, and rhetoric ; aritlimeCie, ^cowlcVt-j, n*v.wv,viTO'^,wA. 



Tfuf KnfflitA C'Hiwmtita, 

mule* But willi (he progrcita of intvlligcnce in lh« cicvcnili and 
twelfth centuries, the studies piireiicd in ihc ccclcBiactiml sclioulg 
began to cxpnml niul llirww out new l>niiichcs. Sjicrtiliiiive ibeolo^y 
and iiliilooopliy grew out of itie Trhinui iiiid Qtiinlririum ; wUi!« 
two new sources of knowlcdj^c. Roman laiv and Circpcci- Arabian 
natural histon-, wcic opened, ili^clmrgiiig tlrcflnis wliidi refused to 
flow along tltc narrow clianiielit tliat liad Lilliert» confined the river 
of know!edj;e. Tlic cullivalion of tlio higlicr learning began to 
dourisb in lliese scliool», wliicli gmduolly roi-c to the mnk of plaeea 
of genemt Htudy, literary universities, or academic^. 

i'bere existed, in lacti in tlic Cliiircli, in tiie times of Chulcmiupic 
and of Alfred, and even in Germany under tlic Olhos on inlelicc- 
taol apirit akin to tlint wliich Buiiaetjuenlly kindled the leal for 
classical learning, and &nnod, If it did not kindle, tlic fire of ibe 

" I believe," saya Huber, " that at bolli eporlu tlierc prcrailcd 
eminently an objective historical spirit, ifhieh desires external Ittct u 
a basi* fxrKpiritunl conviction; a spirit which his great mwerof failh 
in approved testimony, and ean bring such fuitli to uorK on practical 
liie/-_VoI. i. p. 4. 

The twelfth century was a period of extraordinary mental activity. 
A general movement of mint! was going on, not unlike that which 
diaroctcriscs the present busy, daring, restless, unsatisfied nineteenth 
ccnliin-. The intellectual brilliancy of t3i« twelfth century lias, 
indeed, been eclipsed to tlic general eye, by the ntarer splendour of 
the Kixieenth; and it muKl aim be ndiiiilted tliat the contributions of 
the latter century to the actual niutcrini of knowledge, iWr exceeded 
in amount lliose of the former : but, m rcj^Tinls inletlccttud ncdvity, 
there has probably never been any age, during tlie Christian period, 
in which tlie liiiinaii minil lias been so daring in its excursions, *o 
piercing in its inquiries, so restless, reverecl, and self-consuming, aa it 
wa« during the twelfth century. That, without rjueation, vas an 
epoch of extraordinary intellectual greatness, which could enrol in 
" llic Ooldni Rook of the Peerage of Intellect" such names as 
Lanfranc, Ansehn, Abekrd, Peter Lomlnrd, Hugo dc St-Viclor, 
Albertus Magnus, TI)oma.-> Aipiinns, Duns Scotus, and Occam, all 
of whom flourished during that (icriod wjiich the insolent ignorance 
of nioilnn days lins contciiipluoiisly designated " the Ihirk Ages." 

" Too vigorous ii fancy," says Hul>cr, "seized upon and eunitnmed 
all the materials of knowledge. Tlicy vanishcfl undt-r the magical 
influence of an intellect which converted tlieir most »ilid substnnoe 

^ ^ ■ . — . — t . — • — - — — <■ 

■ TUii divition n( KirnccB liii bc«ii nitriliuicil lo Si. Augutiin. Tlirir nnniD* 
and objivt* art givi'ii rn tli^ folloninjf fn«niari*l linci : — 

GiiAU. loi]iiil<ir; Pi*, laa iloopt; Riibt. verba coloni i 
Uvf. conn i As. iiumfmii Gci. imnilerali A ST. colil Mir*. 
Hence ■ moo ot unirctMl knowlctlgi: nui imr,— 

Qui ttin, nui Mpirm, qui roliim wiblle notji i 
ji Ai/ft*n>u> JJor, wrilitfl ill commcnJaiion of AloiiiitUc Iniuli*, one gflli* most 
Amriui reliohn p/die Ivvlfili ctiilury. 

Tke E«qli*h I'lhtTtitiit. 


into nrliEcial we1)«. Even institutions which prorci^cd to be practical, 
u Uioae of chivalry luid nioimclilsn), «coni too rmitnatic imd incor- 
poreal for true history ; white the really subatanliol maltcra of fikct 
which dironologicallr fall into the eanic period, — tltc cxtcnfrion of 
commerce, lli« ceUMitJi incut of the rigiaU of chartcrtil cilitM, the 
league of the llaiisc towns, — took tjnile oul of place, as tltiti^h tlicy 
ralher mndc port of a more sober a^e to come." — Vol. i. p. 7. 

The ne.w philosophy of iJie twelfth ceiUmy wiw met by the 
Chitrch in a spirit of coiiccsiion ; al least the 4id not preamt tliat 
front of decided hostility lo which the edhcrenU of the old eclM)ol 
would liave committed her. 8hc nought rathvr lo cnliKt it in her 
own service, wLilc she carefully isolulcd it from theoi«j[y, — lier own 
peciiliar province. Dominicans and Franciscans rii^lici) to this wnr 
of miiid ; tniule tpeculalive pUilosupUy tlit'ir (imi ; imd deOicatnl the 
s|>oiis upon the altar of the Church. 

Much iiii:fuudcr«Ui)ding lini prevailed as lo the relation euataincd 
by the Church to the Univer^ilicH ut iheir rise. It Iiok been sup- 
posfd thttt they were oriciaally independent of her, and were brougiit 
under her control only after eonsidcmblc Upsc of time, and by mjui. 
vocal iiieuns. On tlie contiarv, nigxl of the continental universities 
gnw out of the cathedral and monaatic schools. This was the cose 
north of the Alps ^ith one or two exceptions. Monlpellicr wan an 
isolntcd case. The case of Oxford will be considered hereafter. 
'I'he Iliilinn Universities, connected with the Imperial court, and 
proscculinj; pmcticul rather than ^>c^-iilfltivc .-vtudies, also urigiualed 
iR iiistitutiooa independent of the Church. At Dolosna, for ex- 
ample, one of the oldest and most considerable of tlio Itafian Univci^ 
eities, the intimate connexion of the law-prof(rMor»hi|u with ihs 
JiDperial court mado it impossible for that university to receive an 
ecclceiastical organization, or to be liulijcct to the pope. 

]tut with the great majority of the Dortheni Universities, the case 
was ((uite diGTereDt ; these all spraog from schools attached to cathc- 
draU and monasteries, and the connexion, thus CJttablishcd, wo* 
rendered more intimate and binding by nieans of tlie speculative 
studies ihey pursued ; which were fur more congenial than tlio new 
pmctieal studies to the spirit and constitution of the ecclesiosticui 
Dody. It was not until after tlic, Reformation that this connexion 
was entirely dissolved. l>uring the preceding ages the Church exer- 
dsed an un<iisputcd control ; and for at \fiu\ two centuries discharged 
the solemn trust whidi thin sunremacy involved, with an activity und 
ftithfulneas as honourable to lierself aa they were profitable to the 
bodies over which her tupcrinten<lcnce jirfvailcd. And yet it hns 
been aKserled by Meincrs, in hijt History «f tia SfJiooU, (the source 
of most of llie misconceptioDs on this subject,) thai the northern 
UnirersiticB were originally notliing more llian a voUintury association 
of the teachers and scliolare of the new philowphy ; non-ccclesiosliml 
men, who ncillier derived nor desitei ajiy aulhorijtation Iroiu lU- 



The Kngliih Vniterutiei. 


" This opinion," wiyi Hiibrr, " pIcoM* tlie fniitiisy u>nl pride of 
learning, nnil luinixlcrt to iiiiU-eci-lesIaBlical fecliiig». Hut all liisto> 
rioJ evidence is so directly ihc other way, thai wc can only ottri- 
butc lliis perverse opinion lo cont'ii»e<ln«» of niiiKl, or to n wilful 
prcpoKtcwion born from und matured by tax snti-ctmrch, nay an anti- 
chrietian, spirit." — Vol. i. p- 15. 

Th« case of Abclard has been aJvanccd in support of tliitt opiiiinn ; 
>« eue clearly (.-xcrpliTc, uml yet proving thereby, only the more 
abxmffty, the dependence of tlic Univcreitics on the Clturch. The 
ncvr mlcllectiial impulse snmng up, not only on the doniaiii iif tjin 
Cliurcli, but from the eccleaiuslieul schools, and was Dot only con- 
trolled by the Church, but gaidcd and impelled. 

The old tcnclicrv were nil iiicndtens of an ecclesiastical corporation, 
mnd their »cliolan wrre buyit or voulhn destined to become themselves 
ecclesiastics. As a school of tliis character acrjuircd rq>utatiun, lay 
scholan were attracted, and that not from tlic imiiiwliale neiglibour- 
lioud oiilv, but from u dintance. Al\cr the close of the eleventh 
century these secular scholars increased in number, and vfcre of a 
more ndvanccd age. A few lay teachers nifo bcf^n to aiipcar, wlii> 
relied, for the mu«t purl, upon the fees p»i<l by their pupils, for Ibcii 
maintenance: but, RutHilliatanding these imporlations, the cccle- 
siiislics continued so decidedly to predominnle, that up lo tlie 
tliirtevnth century it would be dilliciiU tn n-clcoii up hslf-a-doien 
lay teachers. 

\VhBlcvpr is new \» popular ; and eomclinief de^n-edly «o, being 
the rceidt of an instinctive cITort of the age timl gives it birth, lo 
supply il«own peculiar wants. Hence it is not surprising that the 
new schooU, which in proccis of lime outgrew llic origiiiiil ecclei<ia»- 
ticul limitK, xhould ouLttrJp the ohl uncK, and then be led to struggle 
for indepenilence : but to imagine that they were originally indepcD- 
deiil, iK to Indul;,^ in a siippositiou wliicli all history refutes. 

In the Univetsily of I'arid, even from it-s very origin at the end of 
the eleventh century, no one could Lcul-Ii within the jurisdiction of 
an ccclcsiaalieal eitriionititm without a license, mute or le« oflicini, 
from the chancellor of thnt corporation. For more than two 
bnnJrcd years the ri;;Ut of tlic chancellor lo examine in bis own 
penon the applicnnt fur a license, was acknowledged and excrci.scd : 
but, long bt'forc this right practieally censed, it wi« inx-aded by the 
encroachments of a " teach er-aritttoeracy." The prodicriotis increase 
in the niinilier of pupils (hundreds of whom uimc boldly forward a« 
candidates for llie office of Icachcre.) Tctidcring it impouible for 
the chnnccllur to examine nil in hi* own person, tliat oGGcer was 
nBttimlly led to odl in the assibUmee of existing tcaclicr«, and to 
gi-ant his license to candidates upon their rceominendation. It b 
ewy to foresee the result ; the clianci;lliir would be gnidually super- 
Bed«d, and the whole power of exaniinulion would fall e:(clu»ively 
into the hamlx of t]ie teiiclieis: and such was I he fact. It i* obri- 
oiis// impossible to OMign the i-xacl dale of a •ileni and gradual I 

ThdEngluM Vnivtmtie*. 



revolution liVc tlii» ; but it vxa nccotnptii^Iict) in tlie coune of l)i« 
tbirl«cnlli wnlurv. 

Thus was formed in process of time an ari^tocmcy of tcnclicrat 
but, mcanwliile, llic giritt increase of acliolun was leading to the for- 
malion of a new consdtullon, strongly n-publican in. its tendency; or, 
at least, (o a iiiodiBciition of tlint iiIrL-oily rxtt^liiig, not furnially, 
indvrd, but in fnct. Thii modi li call on resulted from the rise of tlie 
clans technically ciiltk.-d *' nntiuns." 

Tbcae were parlv-sBsociations of llic eludcnts, ncconlin); to tlicir 
ililTbcnt places of Ijirth. The University of Paris comprised four 
nations, French, Knelisli, Kormans, and Picards. Tlic Frencli 
nution was eubdividea into '* pTovin<M»;" consisting, rcitpeclivcly, 
of Frenchmen, Provencals. Oiwcons, Spaninrdii, ItaliiinA, and (ireeUs. 
The l*)iij;li!i!i nation i-mbraccd tlic Urit'isli, Irisli, Germans, and 
Scandinavians. The Normans were not »ubdivi<led. 'I'lic fourlli 
comjirincd Picardy, Urubunt, and Flanders. 

Ihc conflux of BO likTge and hetero^Dcoiis a body of youllis uould 
render the etjtablisbment of some e)-&tem of academic puHcc neces- 
sary ; but ibis would be formed only as occa*i(>n required. Matters 
went on as they best might, until some intolerable violation of 
decorum, some violent outrage on peace and order Inoke out, and 
tbeii regulations were made fitted to the exigency, ^Vitliin these, 
very confiiderabic scope would be afTordcd lo tlie operation of custom, 
tmdition, nnd prcceilent; while an independent organ'rantion of tha 
nations would gmdually grow out of their mutual or clasliing inler- 
cets; nation opposed lo nation, amon;; tlicmselecs, but all ready to 
nmkc common cause against tlioco witliout, wlictlier tbcif teachers ur 
the town«incn. 

And yet this constitution, republican lu it was in its rise, bad on 
internal aristocrnlic tendency. The four nations in Paris elected 
s)ipeiinlen<tcnt»s called proctors, who presided over tlic corpus tcAolt' 
riiim. It is not iraprobobic that even the rector, who wits eboseil 
by all the naiions, may lit firet have presided orcr the notivna only, 
and not over the " teach er-uristucrac}'." 

The consolidation of ibis aristocracy was the result of tlicsc 
various tendencies ; and the teientifie vtate, as Professor Hubcr calls 
it — the slate of an nristocraey of teachers, — prevailed orcr ibc nalwuai. 
In ibc llalian system, on the eontmry, where the teachers were 
originally iniki»cniUnl of the Cliiirdi, ihcv b>.-uimc proportionidlv 
dependent on their |>upits, and the national organisation prevailed. 
\\ berc, as in Uolo^in, no licence In tcjich was retijircd, the rcconi- 
ueiidalion of the tntelicn was ciiuully unnecessary ; and as it rested 
with llic seJiolarit to decide from whom ihey would learn, it soon fell 
lo tliem to decide who ought to teach, tlul in tlie noithcm Univer- 
wties tlio teachers acquirnl tlic aaccndincv, and even ibe national 
interests contributed lo tlii« mult. Tbc older scholars wilhin encli 
nation naturally set the opinion and lone of their jiimor*, and beiof^ 
themseUes, in many cases, candidates foi lUo uacWii n'Ki.', 'i^^ 
sympalhuetl villi lliv teadiers' intereoU. 

270 The Bngiidi Unitenitie*. 

The twichcre, Main, witc llic on!)- reprwenlalives of (he witol*' 
itcli<ilu!ill<r lioily to lliosc without, whether the lein]»>n1 or the ccde^ 
BKistical sovcrci^. The chancellor )ia*ing virtually Iraii^fcrrcd some 
of his higher fMnctions into the tcachcn' HnndK, it vtas cviilenllr the 
iatcrest of the pones to foster ibc growth of tliis iDtclleettuii nri- 
atocncy, and to elevate the Univenllics into ffen^ml urgaos of the 

And again: each teacher having been supreme in his own sclioal, 
the whole twdy of teachers, when they coalesced, retained the power 
of scholastic lrt;t»tntinn ; and, ntthougli they conliiiueil to be siibjcci 
to the gcnernl sii|>crviBion of the Church, and liable to the iuterfe^ 
ence of hi.ihops, councils, and especially popes, even in minor details 
of scholastic discipline, their n-al independence wn« not violated hj 
thne inferior an omdies, if itneh, indeed, they oui be culled; for, as 
yd, no systematic constitution existed, nor was it to be looked for at 
so early a period : but the spirit which bmtthcd through the wbolc, 
assitniUtetl even hetervgencoiis initerinis, harmonized wsrring ele- 
ments, and quickened that principle of internal organic growth, which 
rresistibly overcome*, liki^ n vigorous pinnt shooting its slender fibres 
into the very substance of the stony rock, all tlie attempts, wlitdi 
from time lo time arc vainly made, to impose a mcehanieal Qxedncss 
up'in living institutions. 

The elevation of the teacher* into a corporate niling bodv, pre- 
ceded the dL'velopmcnt of the academic di^iiilies. Tip to tne end 
<if the twelfth ccntiiiy, the title of liachtlor does not appear to have 
denoted more than a scholastic Htcu; it arose out of the separate 
scholastic disputations, and was included in the internal economy of 
each single school ; and it was not until aller the middle of the thirtccnili 
century that it became an nendemic ilignity. Kut the Ma*Ur't 
degree implied the right ofopening a school, and depended ori^nally 
on the ehnnccllor's license. As the tcachcre rose into a unirtrtitat 
liUTitria, this degree, ftoiii liejng a mere license to keep nchool granted 
by au ccckitia»tieiil ullicer, brcamc, when conferred by the Univer- 
sity, an honour to which ninny a:>pired who had no wish to become 
schoolmasters. .MI, however, who took this degree were rcijuireJ, 
at a certain time, to declare whether they intended to exercise the 
riHice of tracker, and in case they did not, they were disabled, as was 
fitting, from taking anyshiirc in business connected witli the mutnal 
relations of teacher niid Bclioiur. Ilencc arose the d'fttinclion be- 
tween mitp!f:tri rt^jfiitii, upon wliom tlic duty of teaching rested, 
HTid auii/iiriri non rtasHtet. 

The formation of the " FncuUies" wax an important #tcp in the H 
early development of the uniivrsity system. The word " Ciculty'* " 
denotes, elynndogicjilly, an abiUlif to UacJi in one branch ; and hence 
came to be npplietl collectively lo the authorized teachers of ipeeial 
aiibjcets. Am learning advane<'d, separate Beh<iols, rncli ilerotcd to 
it* own special aiibject — law, medicine, theology — were formed; and 
xiiicc n Ctadier In arts coidd, m sticli. have no claim to examine a 
Miiit/enl io mcdkioc, Air instance, ibc Wwint«» oli wawm-Awift m \lww 


The Euoli'h I'nwnititt. S71 

onn )>ninc-li naliirallj Ml In tlic body of tli« lathers in lh»t bnuicli. 
Tliia bodr of trndicni was cnlkil n famHat; while the tcadivn inj 
arts CODStitu led the uniivnilas iit^riria. ' 

Since fnc(ilty>Etn<lie« are moni iiiiiiic«lialcly apjiliuihle to tltc ape- 
cial pnrpoMt of Mcial life tlisn Kris, it Ia Dot suq)riMii^ that prac- 
tical men. as tfacy fondly call thcnisrtvrs. arc apt to assign a preemi- 
nence to tboic, to the dinpniffcuiciit of tlic latter: but tliixte who re- 
gard edueation as the cultivation of the inner man, wil) assign to aria 
their due preeminence. It is in these that the University Wits foun- 
dation. It» first duly k to cultivate tbat vliieli » tiaiwnat m man, 
the easential iumantti/ of every one stibjected to its authority and 
entrusted lo it« care. An education wliich aims merely to qualifvl 
men for the discluirge of their coeini functions, is an ediicatioD whicii-J 
proposes to build tiui super^truciuro uitbout laving llie foundattrnt ; 
cucn a nroeedure may manulHctiiic emdtnien, it will never educate 
men. The most immediate and important aim of education i« to 
ennoble the heart, lo form tlic cliaiactcr, lo awaken and guide tlio 
energies of the soul, to train up and complete llic ma\. 

These rcfl«ct)i>li« will )ire]NiTe Uic reader fur a striking fact tn tbo 
first fonnation of tlie separate faculties ; namely, the extreme dii& i 
culty cxpericnccil in the attempts tbat were made to separate iheology 
from arts. The separation of law and medicine from arts nxiuirrj 
no effort. The roots of these two (acuities had long been planted 
beyond tlic icholMlic |Mile ; anil tlie dilSculty, indeed, consisted in 
training them along the ccelcsiiutical «all, and making lliem bring 
foTtli fniit in the university garden. Not so with llicology. As s 
■ciencc it bad grown out of the old studies, and could not be severed 
from them. Had nut cnminical law been grafted upon it, thc(^aay 
might never bavo become a scpantc ftculty. The extreme ililTienlty 
tliat wax found, even in the Iwginniitg of the thirteenth century, to 
keep arts and theology apart, appears by the repeated and unsuc- 
Ctfssful attempts made for this purpose by the popes. In the papa) 
bull of 1207, the Bishop of Paris is ordcretl to take r«i>ccial care tnat 
no mure than eight niuKtcn ihotild give theological lectures; an 
nrbilrary limit, showing that a natural one could not be found, Nor 
was it until the latter hnlf of Ibc thirteenth century, that tliei>lugy 
iTBs completely scptnted from the allied subjects, and dearly con- 
iititute<l a diiitiiKl Mculty. 

Professor lluber eondudet tbe first chapter of bis work witli an 
iBtcrcsltng section on tbc organic slrncture requisite to constitute n 
University. The parehmeut and tlic »cal, ibe statutes and tlic charter, 
Uie formal acts of an c^itemat supreme authority, ecdctiiMticid or 
temporal, ate not the critical tnalter. They arc but the outward 
form anil sign, the mlificalion aiul pledge of an inward pte-exixtcnl 
vital reality. The " Let lire ! " of a fomuJ sanction may perpelUBtc 
tlie life of noble institutions, but cannot impart it. It can nubion, 
but it cannot create. 

Vet it may be well to point out » (evr txx^ \Ti<&\c ^t^«\iTOK«\. 



Tie En^lith Uuitertitim 

An<l first, the right of internal rrpilation ; a riglit nns^csscd in llic 
cose ortlio rising; univcrstucs, iirat by llie '^nntionV ami oilcrwardi 
bj- the ti,-jic!jcr-nri«locmey. 

Hxvmpttnn from common jitriidiclion is a second step of coqmralc 
growtli. The primitive rcUlioci of ibo univcmtiet to ilic chancellor 
and to tlic old tdiooli, ^liawa tlial tLc bisbop or hia deuuiy iiniht at 
firet bnvo been the ordinary judge of tlic tcnclier* and scholars. 'I'lie 
presence of lay tcaclicrs and ncliulars would oceaxion anonmlics. Aa 
Uic lay spirit ])remiled, frc<|uent conflicts would arise between tlie 
ccckiiiiutical and the tempor.d aiiUiorilics. This would Lappen ercn 
with repard to pcrsoiiR really clerical ; and as even lay pereons took 
the name of c//r»CT, tbcy too were claimed by the eccleaiasticnl juris- 
diction. To sue)) porsDns, cxcmptitin from ordinary tribunaU noidil 
consisi, not in becitniiiig giibjcei to the eccIcBlaatical courts, but in 
bccnmiiig free from tbem. 

A third step towards independence, was the extension of the rights 
of coq>OTnt(; lcgi«latiori and jurisdiction, even beyond the uniTcrsiiy 
iUiflf. and einbmcinfi: matters both of police and of prrtftcrty. The 
UiiiviMsityof Paris did not nltnin this step, but tbejtuisdiclion oftlie 
Enslish 1 nivcrsilics extended to all ciscs ciraceriiinj; nny person con- 
nceled willi tliem, cxce))ting posacssora of copyhold property held on 
a free tenure. 

In his second clinpter, Profes«or Hulier enters npon n direct account 
of the Ensli^b U niverBitics ; commencing with a defence of |]ic 
antiquity of Oiford. 

If there ii, ft« we must admit, whatever over-zcalouB antiquarians 
may aaacrl, no <iircct bisloricat proof of the common tradition which 
connects Oxford with Alfred, neither is there, in Huber's opinion, 
any direct hislnricnl disproof; wbilenll the indirect evidence of which 
the caHC admilK, iippean to him to justify the University in glorying 
in her derivation from the Ssxon king, '^ho wns at onee " hero, 
atatetman, aud noge ; warmeil by humnnity, sanctilicd by re- 
ligion) eminently cultivated in intellect, and abounding in genuine 

" When we find," says Ihiber, in a long hislorical note, "the 
nioat undoubted proofs tlint a school existed at Oxftird in the middle 
of the eleventh century, {vldg Ingulf,) and since then without inter- 
ruutiim ; when we cannot find any epoch to which we could reason- 
ably ascribe the foundation of these inatitutioii*, except that at which 
Alfred lived ; all sound historical judgment would Ind ii* lo ascribe 
the foundnlion to Alfred. And sucli has been the voice of tradition, 
and tbc testimony of some of the moat cre<IibU' chroniclers of the 
day, ever since the commencement of the twelfth century." — 
Vol. i. p. 873. 

Mr, Keywood (the proprielor of this Knglith edition of the 
Professor's work,) hn« appended, in the third voiiinic, a lengtliened 
note on this Eidjject ; containing the flubxtancc of a paper by Mr. 
W^rigbt, natl before tJic Society of Anli(\>iaii\e«, and sub«.'<(iinitly 

The Enif/i»i f^nirrrtitief. 



ymUislicd in \\w Arcfinologia, on the Bio^plij of Alfmt, attributt^I 
tu BihIio)} Asset ; with rciiiaTkB on tlio nnli<|uity vf llir Mnivmiiy or 
Oxford, fVom oilier nrilcr*. 'I'lic piirjioit of Mr. Wriglit's " Ili^lonnil 
Double,'^ i» to diov tW (\\f. biu^nij)li)' id qucaion, vliite it profcun 
t(i be A contemponrir narrative, was in fact onlv a cotnpilntioii dtiTtng 
tlic eleventh century. So Uinl if Uic ]>n>of of ilio cU-rivaiion of the 
Univcnity Iroiii nny icholMlic iiiatilutiona of Alfred be dependent 
on Rudi n document, it niiist be abandoned ; and the univcisitj muat 
be content niUi a later date oa llic cDnnnnicemcnt of lia connexion 
with ropilt}-. 

"No person," observes Mr. Wright, "can rend Aawr's Life of 
Alfred, nithont obecrting that it consists of two dislincl [Mirls; of » 
ehronology of cvcntu, nmngtd y««r by yenr, on wliidi uic gmfled < 
& few Anecdulcft 4>f Alfred's private life, and also a ciilojjv of hia 
character. The fli«t of tlie^c ]iorttonK, whiclt is the Nlriclly iiieloricnl 

tiart, will be found, on comprison, to be nothing more tbnu n Uiin»> 
alien of ihe Saxon Chronicle." 

Mr. Wrij-ht rivcs Mvcril passages in (iroof; dwclliii); ))(irtidil«rly 
on the brief ciiiry for the ycjir 874, in llie (limniele, in Aii};lo-J*axon ; 
in Aaser's ltii)gn>]ihy, in Latin ; and eoncludinn ihnl one of tliCB* 
accounU is taken rerhattm from tlie oilier. " it in," he «y«, "im- 
))rDbable that Ait»er fthcitild be the ongiiial, because in liiti n-imtife 
the yeatly entries contain ninny thin^ which are irrelcrant to Uio 
subject, niid ihcy liat-c there n remnrkablc appenrnnec of palchworl; ; 
wliile, in (he Saxon Chronicle, ihey arc perfectly in llieir. place, in 
entire hanuony with what goes before and what follova. Now if 
these entries in Asser arc UiUcn from the Sexon Chronicle, it is 
iinjiOSKiblc that they can have ita-n written so early ajt K94 : beeaiine 
by the tiiost fRvonrable supposition has Ik«d liauir<l<,-<l on the 
antiquity of this jiarl nf the Chronicle, it was not eompowtl 
before ihv bef,'inniiig of tlie tenth century, and it is more ttian 
probable that it iH a work of a bter period." 

A);ain, there is much in Asgcr's account of Alfred that is merely 
legendary, and therefore not the production of a conlcinpomry. 
And, Otfain, in i>cvenil poMngeH, there m a cotifiaion of narrative which 
could hardly have proceeded from llie pen of one enjoying; sucli 
opportunitiet of knonledgc as the bithop. It li t^rther remuTknhlr, 
that nothitifr is said in AWr'n narrali»« respcclinf; Alfred's writingn. 
Yet it ma probably between SHO and Hfl I. that the bing translated 
t]i« Pastorale of St. Gregory inUi Anglo-Soxon, and distributed 
it amon^ his bisliope, in tlie preface of which wortt he f*y* he 
translated it sometimes wonl for nord, sometime* meaning for 
Bueaniog, '' even af I Icamt them of Flegmuntl my archbishop, and of 
Alter tnyhitJio}', and of Cirimhold my moss-prictt, and of John my 

.Mr, Wright is also of opinion that ihff story couceniin^ Alfred's 
school for the children of tlie nobles, where they were to be \\v&■.T<^<^^«<l. 
in the English and Latin languages, (AMtm, v- ^^^ V*i^ w> w'iw* 

so. XXXIII. — s. S, N N 


Th«Jfii^*A UttivtTtitm. 

foumlntion tliui tliccc words of the kinj; in l)ic sninc prcfncv:^ 
" Therefore it appcani to me better, if it appenr <ii> to you. Hint vre alio 
hnvc eomo books, wliicli aie judged most iictilfiil fur all tuen to 
tiiiileiMand ; tliat vrc tmnslatc tlicm into tbat lan^ungc wliic-li wc all 
know; and bring in pu^ as wo verj' cssily may, witli Gnd'» Iieip, if 
wc hove (luiclnesd, that all ihc youth that are now in tli« Kngli^ 
naliun of ftcc-boTii nitm, wlio have the means to maintain them, may 
bo sot to IcATiiin;;, while they are enpabic of no other uccupatiout 
tmtU Jim they hiow icsll to rm'I Kngti'th «ril'mg. I^d tAott be 
afterwarda taught further I'w tht: Latin tongue, whom one will teodi 
further, or one d<airc8 for a higher dciireo.'" " Wc have hcTC," 
observe* Mr. Wright, "an indirect tivommcndnlion uf a rprtnin 
mode of in^Lr\iclion, wliieh wam to be the reaull »f the Kn^lialt-;j 
Iraiitlationj of Latin boob, hut no indications of any scliools liavit: 
been eatabiishcd for the purpoac." 

There also apucars to be an error in the Biography as to tlifj 
diocOM; over wliicli Asser presided, which could not have been comi] 
luitted by Asscr hiuiEcir. It is most probable that Asser was Uishop 
of Sherborne, at letitt townrde the end of Alfred'* reij^n, or in that uf 
liiii successor, having previously been biihop of some other sec. In , 
the list of the bishops of Sherborne, in the Cottoninn MS., Tiberiui < 
B.¥. iibotit A.D. i)9iS, the succcKiion sUinds thus; — Kullutan, Ueubii 
muRi), .^Ithelhcnh, Wulfiigc/lxirt-, j^'-theiwcard,4«:. Aeoordinf; to( 
the Saxon Chronicle, Asicr died A. o. 910 ; nine ycnrs at\er Alfred. 

" I lliink," says Mr. Wrinht, " that the writer of this book (sup." 
posinj; it to be a forgery,) did know that A«;er wnt a biidiop ; although 
Jlis information is not eHsity rcconeded with history. After giving a 
•omcwhat ostentatious and suspicious account of tlic liivotin wliidi he 
bad received from Alfred, nnd telling h» ihnt the king made him. in 
one day, abbot of the two inonaatcriei of AncrcBbury and linnwcll, 
ftt the same time promising greater gifla at a future pcrioi), he ad<l^ l 
tbat the king afterwards gave biin 'Exeter, with the whole jiarocliia 
whid) appertained to it io Saxony (Wessex,) and in Cotnwal!.' — 
P. 15. I believe tliat among the AnKlo-Saion writers, the wurd ■ 
parcokia (fiMT pari*h) was used invariably (according to its Gicck! 
root) to signify an episcopal dioceic;* and that Asser, or itttlicr th« 
pawn who took on iiimself to represent him, intended to say that 
the liinR made him Bishop of Exeter. I nm not aware ihul there 
WB« a Uishop of Exeter before tbc reign of Edward the Cont'essor, 

• "Tlim, W quote llicftr»i»K«miil» wliidi come* lo hand, ilieti<t Drbliliop>of the 
»nd of ihi' twclflli century In M8. Cotton, Tiber, n.v. it ii said of W«Mex, ' It U 
dUidpJ into two JImihi {parnrhiiu) ; one ills Cliiirch of Winthctler, tlie olhw of 
Shtrbomr. T)i« Chiircll of Winchnlcr iru dividoi into two dirviut (parockial) in 
t)w lime of Ftiil«i(iln, llivn il wu diviiloil into three dloetm (parae^i")- Ihe 
Churohn of Wilton, Wtlla, anJ Crvditaii. Tha ii'ovinee of Mcrcin iiul lira AuAi'/ii, 
npsildEi anil Willrid, nft«t that IVilfriil cteot and lleiddn nforctniit ruled tioth 
^stfiti [patofiiXiuy fkc- See Jtrfi^N^ir Aiillgiiit, vol. ij. p|i. 109, 170. ahcn llibi 
tahabte iloctimtM ii jirinlcil." 


7%e B»ffli»h UtiivvrHtia. 2~5 

Tvlicn (alxnil a.u. IMO,) iW mc of CrcdiloD wns removed lo Escbir 
l»y [.nifric." 

'I'liid iiiistiikc »oiiM bring tlic Biognpby itoirn (o tlic Liuto of 
Kdwon) Uic ConfrMor. At ihis time, tm^ilionairy anecdotes re- 
e)>ectin^ Alfred, itio " darliD^ of (lie Kiiglish ," (u he tscallcd in iLc 
popular poetrir, even of ihe Iwclfth century,) must liave abounded ; 
>nd collection of tUoni would tend to nnimatc tbc Englisli party, 
lindnl by Kurl OodnJii, agniixt EdwnrdV Norninii niid I'micb 

" l-'or tliis puriioae," saj-s Mr. Wriclt, "eonic Dionk appnn to 
lint« conceived ttiv idea of fofniin); a lite out of tlic trail ili on h, nnd to 
have taken for lib gruniid'-uork n copy of tlic Suon (chronicle, (per* 
lia|u mutilated, find endiiif; with tlic year 8M,)and the legendary life of 
Si. Neol ; nnd, in order to give gmiler autlionty to bis book, lie prc- 
Irndcd that it was written by Alfred's friend, Asscr. ... It doc« not 
appooT, on nn invciligntion of llie enliject, lltat eny person baa ever 
>cvD a MS. of Asset which cnii mfrly l>e n«signcd to on enriier dale 
ihftn ilic eleventh century." 

" 'riic«c urc llio pTOunds," lie continues, "on wbich I bnvc \xxa 
led to su!(]>ecl the life of Alfred attributed to Auer. It is a subject 
which Tc(|niTC9 further investigation ; and I have loo much diffideneo 
in my own reasoning* lo venlure to miolc tlic book n* otlier than 
iiutlirntie, until tltey be confirmed by tlie opinioiu uf better sclwlors 
than myself," 

'llie whole siilijcvt of the constitution of the English Univeraitiea 
is recapitulated by I*rofi.-*sor Hiiber in liis socood volume. He 
adheres to the opinion tlitit M:hulaatic teuionrieB were IWnded in 
Oxfcwl by Alfred. 

T?ie nmst probaMe conjecture witli regnnl to llicse iippcnnt to 
him lo be. (hat ihcy were no other than the royiil court school ; 
coiresponiling to those which Cliarlemagnc had connected with his 
own court antl hoosoliold. This coiyeclurr, however, rests cliie1]y on 
<m« of iho disputed )i«mi^;«i of Aaer. " Moreover," t«y« Uie 
biihop, tcspccting Alfrnl, "as to tlie waw of thu^c who lived in the 
roya) hoiucehold ; loving them as dearly as his own, lie crnscd not to 
iiMmct them in good riKimIs, nnd to imbue tliein with cood litcmturc." 
And npin, " He distributed tlie tiiirJ pwtof hiswcoTlh tothcsdmol 
which he had got togetltcr witli great care, out of inimy nobles of his 
own naliiMi," According u> thii; ihcory rcipceting the orijrin of 
the University of OxfoiS. it did not (Icrctop ilaolf, like that of 
Paris, out of a monnstJc or chapilrat school, but sprang out of a royal 

The rise of a Cnivcrsily has dependc<I mainly on the iccufniilion, 
by ("liurch nnd Slate, of power in a ccTlain bodv of mtwlcre to 
confer ticeniic« on candidates for the office oftraching; f»rllii«iit 
the immilive esseuec of the scholnslic dc^c, ^^''llatevet conclusion 
we may arrive at reNpcctiiig the Aiwlo^axou rcRsl fou.t\daX.wcv vX \3ftt. 
University of Os(m), it is ecitain thai a WA^; y^ \ew3wtv* «A 


Th* tinriU/h I'ttittnitie*. 

■cliu)iir« cxtKlnl tiicic IVdiii llic cud uf tlie elcvcnlh ccnturj, devoted' 
lo tlie »c)toluKlic Atudics vliicb prevailed at that time Uirouirlimil 
Western Chris lendom. They were under the gcneml prolcctioiiortlic 
Cbiirrli mid or the Ctown, nnd nulijpet to llie cccli-aiiistical juriadio 
tion (jf llic bishoj) of Lincoln ; who aometimcs cicrciaed his right of 
direct interference, but was generally re jire*eii ted by a chnnccllor — 
tlic chnnccllor or Oxfonl ; t)ie scboWtic body, on the oilier hand, 
being represented by the aasombly of ihc teachers. This relation of 
the bii^liop, nn<l of lii§ representative, the ehancellor, towards the 
Univer«itli-s riutiirally dowed from the gcnernl arnuigeinents of llie 
Cbnrch, and cijuallv existed with rcgnrd to all the Cisalpine Universities. 
l*own to the beginning of tlie ihitUeiith ceiittiry, the cliancelW was 
cSBenlially nu e|>iiH.-upa] nllk-er; ivlioite diitiex were to grant the 
license to teach, lo superintend the studies and disciptiaC', tu exorcise 
eccleuuMlJealjuriifdiction, and to uphold the bishop's rights against tho 

It has been imagined by Mcincrs, and gvcd by llulroiis, that the 
Oxfiird chancellor and the I'nris rector dttTered only in name ; bitl 
ihia fissnmption recoivci no mpport from testimony or fads. In the 
earlier part of bis work, llubcr ticnica that there ever wns a rretor at 
Oxford as head of the UniverKily; but, in the third volume, be 
aclmowlcilgcs that this denial yas too uucuu<)itional)y niadc ; and 
observes that he only wisltcd to protest against coDfounaing the tenns 
'■ nrlor" and " c/i-infrUor" as though they stood for llie same thing. 

W'itli regard lo the earliest schools at Oxford, we are unable to 
wy whether their tirineipal (whatever his official designation,) was 
appointed by the Hcltoliulic body »r by the king; but we know that, 
twenty or thirty years after the Conquest, the appoiiiimenl was con- 
mtcd between the University and the bishop of Lincoln, in whose 
diocese Oxford was then included, llic ordinary, ns might be 
expected, prevailed, and an episcopal diancellor was set over the 
schools. We might have expected that the sclmlastic body would 
have hereupon been led lo elect a rector, ofter tlie model of Pari», ns 
its organic ticud. But since Oxford was not a bishop's see, there were 
itco ehancellori in the diocese, — the ehanecllor of Lincoln, who 
diiiehar^cd lownrdit the bishop those peculiar duties which had been 
the principal functions of tlie Parisian elmncc^llor, and which bad 
gradiwlly estranged biin from the University; and the Oxford 
ehanecllor, whose duties were inlemal to the University. Therefore, 
although the Oxford ehanecllor might at first be in the position of a 
foreign inspector npiu.intcd by the bishop, his duties brought him into 
sympntheUc inlcrcourse with the University, identified his interest* 
with theirs, and eventually rendered liim the organic bead of tlic 
scholastic body. 

" Probably as early a.^ the twelfth, but most certainly in the 
beginning of the thirteenth, ecnturv, the Oxford chancellor, although 
still an cpbcupal deputy, yet, conjointly with the two proctors, ptc- 
'tdetitinr the cuii^rfgalion, and held llic executive of the university ; 

The EngliiA Unirertittet, 


fiiiicUoii* wliicli, from tlie very nstureof ibiii;^, and from iheanalo^ir 
(if CouiincDtal Uoivcrsitice, coiiM belong only to a rcaor — llial is, to 
Ilicorpiiiic hcwl of the UniverMty, elected by tlic cunp-fgiition of 
iniutert: vtliite ol' audi a head, in addition to the chanctllor, not a 
trace a[ipcarg in the English Univer«itieE. liidcoi), before llic middle 
«f tiic tliirlcciith cenltiry, the University liad gnined the orginatinj; 
voice in the appoinlmenl of the chancellor ; for the bishop eonfemd 
the oiBcc upon the candidate proposed to bim by the congregation." — ■ 
Vol. it. pp. 123. 12*. 

We have alreaiiy seen bow, in the ease of the University of Paris, 
the custom had )^wn up, even at the end of the twelfth century, for 
tlic teaehcrTS tlicmselvpi; lo examine ciindidate* for the office, and la 
rta>mmmd lo ibe clianccUur for his license lliosc whom tliev deemed 
conipetcnU In ibc coiini; of the ihirtccnili century, tJiC whole 
biuinesM of examination fell (inally and exclusively into tlic bands of 
tlic teachers ristocmcy ; to that ibe chancellor, an episcopal ofHcer, 
wu left tttaiidiiig outaidc itic academic circle. The true organic ■ 
head of the scbolastie body wait the rector, who was not appointed by 
an cxtcmal episcopal or ecclesiastical authority, but ivas elected, 
togcllirr with the proctorf, by tlie n.-ition«, and cuniititiiled by the 
University itself the common head to the nations and lo the tcacher- 

In this difference in the po*ition of the chancellor consisted one 
great characteristic difTercnec between tlie I'^n^'i^' <"id the Conti- 
acntnl Universities. Tlic uceuliaritirs of the Oxford chancel lomhip 
nay he explaJned in some degree by the fact, that the University of 
Oxford was originally a royal foundation, tinder no Hibjection to any 
«peeial diocese or abbey. From the first tlic University of (>xfor<l 
vas ewnntially n tcholastjc body, and did not develop itself niii of 
any monastic or cathedral establishment. There is ncilber truce of 
the fact, nor tlie least probability in the nature of the case, that tlie 
Oxford ttttdium roMe out of the culliednil chajitcr to tlie Hiihop of 
Lincoln, or grew up as a part of it, in tlic same manner aw the l'ari« 
ntudlum fTTCW out of the Cloister School of the Cathedral of I'aris. 

'■ Had the [>incoln Githcdral," wyw Profcssor Hiiber, " develops*! 
a scholastic or^-an of this kind, it woulil have been at Lincoln, and 
not at Oxford."— Vol. iii. p. 450. 

Dot as soon as schuolt existed at Oxford, wliatever ttietr actual 

" It was to be expected from the analogy of siieli matters in the 
Weat, tliat tlic bisliop would interfere by one of his officers named a 
cliancellor, although he may not have performed nil the diitic!i of 
■Ucb an office. Such an interference on the part of the Church may 
irell be nrcsumed, especially nnder the circumstances of the Coii- 
■juest. Not the siiuhtetit tmce i» anywhere to be found of anything' 
in ilefcncc of the opinion put forth by Inciam as a matter of course, 
tiiat the Univrrxitv rose out of a school belonging to St, Ffideawiiba."" 
—Vol, iii. p. 451'. , 



J%e £n^/«j Vnit*TtUia. 

Hut the thnnccllor'i cunnoxion with llie Univenily at lunt ovcr- 
|)awtrre(l liia allegiance lo the bishop, and he hccaiiie absorbed into 
the aradcmic body, carrying with liiin Uiosc q)ii(coniil prcwfjativcs 
aTid (inwcnt nhich he hud ariginiJly ]M>«iieagcd. 'I'lie bishop* of 
Lincoln al first tacitly lavoured the clianjic, wliich released tlicm from 
R heavy respond bi 1 1 ty nnd vtirirms nniioyancca. But, iw the separation 
widcucil, tlicy began strenuously to refu.te a concession so prejiulicial 
t*i llie rights of tlicir otSce. After severe siniRS'lcs on botti sides and 
sevetai unavailing comiiromises, the praclicul ctfccl of wtiich was to 
ntablisli the right of tlic University tu elect iu dwu oigniiic head, 
Popo Urban interfcicd by an cspreaa biitl, a.u. ISitS, aud foi ever 
abolished the biahopV formal right of rstificotion. 

I'lic bii(lio{» now C0Dt«nd«d thai, since tli« clmncellnr wait no h>ngcr 
an episcopal officer, be could no longer eicrcise episcopal functionH, 
rspcciully those of ceclcsiastical jurisdiction and police, and the 
iidminiatrutiun of Cliiirch ditcipliiic. Here also the " innovolion.s of 
tiiDc" brought about their usual and inevitable results; aud tlio 
revolution was effected. 

" After the bull of 13G8, every trace of the dmnccllor'* depend- 
eucc on lh« bitdiop disappear^ botli as to bis nomination and as tu 
his judicial or other competency. The chancellor now bcUmgcd 
ubKuIiiteiy and indisjiuiably lo the University, At the same lime it 
niuat be lemenibcred that this i» only i\k formal vn, of ihc Univ<.^ly 
triumph ; forsbc had long since, prnctieaJly and liabttually, enforced 
her privilegi^v, though ogainKt resistance. 'Ilic ineviUiblc result won 
that the University earned for herself the episcopal fiinctionft, having 
established a right, in an oflice of her own erealinc, lo pos»:«s 
and cxcrvisc tlicin ; conscijucntly we in.iy speak of tJic ' ncailcmic 
jurisilii'liiin,' iiwlcnd of ' the elinnceilor'n jiirindietion ;' nor is this by 
any incaiia a matter of indiiTtrcnee." — Vol, ii. p. 1^0, 

A long note is appended to tliie section on the functions of the 
diaucellor, which are fully slAtcd and defined in the Klixabcthau 
Statutes of 1 570. llubcr is of opinion tlialtliechanoetlorposBceaod, 
in luMiliun to his functions as a juilgc, a veto on the acaacmic ]>ro- 

" As to lliiH veto," lie obwrvrs, " lis existence is ilcnied by modern 
liberal writcra, sueli a* Wid.ih and others; but lliia can only "how 
their nlinllow prejudices. If wc consider rcablics rather ihnn ftrrnij, 
a veto was contained in ihe chancellor's iiulliority to convoke tlie 
University : in ihc admitted fnctthateverylraniaction, every decision, 
whidi did not take place in the presence of him or Iiia dciMity, was 
invalid. (Walah, p. 29.) He could thus at any moment end a 
coDfeicncc, and Uou a tneoaurv by brcaktngup the nittiiig. Bcaidc*, 
there is uo doubt tliat it lay with him to ])rrparc tlie bumneM for 
ilclilieration, although naturally liis will or eapiiee alone could not 
■erinin« siicb matters witliout Tca«ounble gi-omide. (V, Lamb. 

lect. )>, lU.) If tlie above may tteein lo prove too much, the 

'wiag is Jevttive : la the first place, WaWU avvears not to have 

7j(« Enr^A Unher/i'tii-^. 


iialiccd iliul Uie veto is niosl cUcidcdIv itscribcd to tlic olinnceltrir in 
llic Slalulca of 1543, so liijhly prnisccf by \Vn!*ti fitt tlicir rcpublicon 
librmlity of opinion, ^^'c find in Lli«in, word f<ir woril, itio «tiii« 
eiincltncnt u in tlie Statutu of 1 570, decried by \\*aUli as tynnnical, 
' To llie Bame chuacellor dso il shall be lawful, wiili the content of 
tlic wliolc UiiivcfBity, to cnacl new rtaiuU-^,' S:c.. nn iiTniii}:eiiii-iil I 
tvliicli, licjijnii n dimbt, mnkea llie coiicurrcnee of tlic dittnccllor witU 1 
the Unirersily cwcnlml to academic legislation. As now tli« 
Edwardian statutes in so many poInU return to an mrlicr Klatc <»f 
tliingM, even from tliis we tuiglit infer llint llw ammgeincnt belonged 
to tuc very »ld»L «Ltlute!(, or, at al) evenls, to tlic earliest practice of 
tlie Univcr^lv. 7'hc inference is fuDv cnnfirraed by two statute* of 
13(W. (V. i,nmb. Collect, p. 21.)"— Vol. iiL p. V,6. 

AfUT rapidly Imting llie origin and peculiar funeltonE of tlic 
deputies of tlic clinnccllflr, llic proctors, tlie sti-wanl. the univeroily 
leaclierv, and other academic officn«, Profesior Itnber briclty re- 
(apitulates tbc whole earlier constitution of llic Enfjiisli Univctsitie*. 

" If we now recapitulate the princi|>al troils of the earlier Uni- 
versitici, ve find, in the lirst place, a xeliolastic corporation ba»(d in 
ant, uniting organically in itself, 1, a number of Hchoi>l« and 
bMrding-boiise«, some of wbich wore already endowed eotpuralions, 
(ucaileniieiai\K who wore not iiicinbers of nicb socictie* bein« only 
tolenit»l]i, 2, the two nations: 3, the faculticK, developed to a 
certain intportniice in b ediolastic, but Kcurccly noticeable tn a cor> 
poratfl poijit uf rieir. 

" We further find aa ccutral powers, (1.) The eonjtrcfcatioD of the 
regents lor Fcliolnstic biisine«t and arrangements ; (S.) The convo- 
vation of all tlit^ mnntent for all other biuine^x. This assembly con- 
sisted originally of the real tcacben and heads of the hciiiKeit, (for 
the bouses were once toprcucoted in it ;) but all iu functions wero 
ioon imparted, with the master's iteereo, to a great number of J 
persona who had no connexion with tlic academic teaching or dis- " 
cipline- The convocation received by this means more of a demo- 
cntic character. For, nlthouRh it might *vum an aristocracy, in 
contradistinction to the mass of seholan, yet (when it, came to be a 
tiling of course to proceed to the master's drgn«.) it was too open, j 
loo often renewed in its element*, tcm fiuctiialinfr, riotous, and I 
numerous, to correspond to the idea of an aristocracy. (3.) \Vq I 
hiive, finally, the chancellor, as head of the University, and by his side 1 
the pfoctors, aa repre*entativea of the nations, — that in, of the 
democratic element which prevailed in the nations, uhieh thua , 
found s place by the side of Uic inaaters. The other officers, elected I 
by tlic majority of the nKscnibly of masters, must be loohcd upon 
only OK their reprcientutivcs for the oxccution and adminiitration of 
the pririleges, lnw», decrees, and general bUHnew." — Vol. ii. pp. J 
142— 14-t. ■ 

Socli wa« the miiier conslilution of tlic Univetailies, prctioua to 
the lise and prepondeiancc of llic colleges ; a ctotvsA.»V\\Vwcv ^RtM^JJiw^ 

fSl} TAe SnfflM Unirtrtitiei. 

ticvcrni puuits of contnut to that of the Universities of the rnn- 

\a other respecls there was consideroblr agrccinrnt lirlwecn tliciii, 
III both, the Btiidies and the decrees were siibKlnntiaily the same. 
According to a quaint old Latin iliyine given by Wood, — 
*' E[ procul ct nrnjiriiis jnm Francui et Aligliciu Kqa6 
Noiunt Purisiis quid fcccrinl Oxoiiiieque." 

The cnrly history of the University of Ouinbridge differs in no 
important respect from that of Oxford, It would appear that Com- 
bridge was lirGt raised into a seat of learning by the monks of Croy- 
land, who, under their abbot, Ooisfrcd, (a. d. 1109 — 1 124,) tauijht at 
a farm called Coltcnhaui, and allerwards in a barn at Cambridge 
itself. In very early times there existed in Cambridge n i/lomaria, 
in favuiir of which Hngh dc BnlHlinm, founder of Peter-houw, 
mediated ( l^TC) a treaty i.-onceming various contested jioints of tlic 
university Jurisdiction, These «7/«ffwr/(i appear to have been monastic 
achooU, \vhi;thcr the cnhiny from Cruylniid »ir still earlier, in which 
the older gram raatical Btudies alone were pursued, and which after- 
wards Banic down into a mere gmmmar-schaol. These ecelcsiastical 
CBtnblisUmcnls may have been the germ of the University, which in 
IS31 hail attained nui^jt of those essential peculiarities of OxroTil 
which have been described. 

The middle age of the Universities included the thirteenth century 
and barely the former half of the fourteenth, and a period of 
greater importance, a period more pregnant with deep and lasting 
conscqiienceB, llian is commonly supposed. It does not, indeed, form 
a bomogcncoua whole ; it was nut a period of orderly development 
and systematic growth, but one of alternate advance and regression, 
like those epochs in geological history, in which earth and sea and sir 
ore thrown into violent disorder, preparatory to the tmn(|uil depo- 
sition of new strata anil the consolidation of new fomis of life. 
Regarding the middle age of the ICnglish Univcrailies in this light, 
we are able to imderHtand the ginrtcmitir tiimtdti which agitated 
thcni durini; this period. These tumults present a startling contrast 
to the intellectual pursuits of ttie University. At first sight they 
may apjiear to originate in the general coarseness and rudeness of the 
times, and the hot jiassious of undisciplined youth : but a closer in- 
spection discloses causes of deeper growth, and connects these tumults 
with the very principles of English national life. 

" The UniverKltics were, in fact, fchiiUtttic co/oniiV upon ilir <}iimain 

L of common lift; and of necessity were aflccted by the soil and eliinalc 
in which they were planted. Now Paris, 'I'oulonsc. Oilcans, 
Bologna, Padua, Naples, Piwi, Tiisbon, Snlamanca. and ancrnards 
Prague, Vienna, and Cologne, were towns of the first rank, and 
wholly independent oftheir universities : but Oxford and Cambridge 
were great only by virtue of the academicians. The totrn would in 
cseh cftsc have risked suicide in endeavouring to crui^h the privileges 
of Uie^cHrn. Conlrariwisc, ill tlie great cities of the continent, the 

Ml ^ 

Tie Eiutti*Jk UnireTtUia. 



academic body uplield its ri^Iils ngninst llic townBmcn only by e»)linf; 
in tilt nil! of llic liiglicr ^piritnul nr tcmjioral ntttiiarilicf. Wlicr* 
siicli uutliiiritics (lid tiol «xist, us ill itulugna and Pjuiun, the Univcr- 
silics would soon liavc been iilleily mined bv ihc brutal tyranny of 
tlic lown curporulion, bud tliuy not invoked liclp from tlic cnipcror. 
tie pope, and the Venetians. These putentatea placed ofliciala of 
their own in permanent rrsidcnce at the Univcrailies, for the pro- 
tection of thf K'liolare : a meuurv wbicli at ihemmc time contribotcd 
not a little to the greatness of the Innna. While tliis was for the 
individual bcnelil. of the academicians, it tept them corporately in a 
wholly subordinate position. It i« hardly ncccssiry to wiy, bow nl 
Paris the UiuveTsily and its rector were eclipsed by a rojul coiiit, by 
the liiEb courts of justice, by nobles, biithoiis, and iibbol«. Itul at 
Oxfonl and Cambridge the rfierifT was tlie iiigbest civil officer, the 
nrchdcacoii the biglicet functionary of tbc church : and to defective 
wa« the police of that day, itiat, even when a matter oimc to blows, 
these olnccTS might not easily get the better, unless well furcwariied, 
and, ill cxlrciiic cases, dcterniincd to ciert tbcmaelves. Nor would 
they ever ihinic of more ihiin keeping llie pence, and eunlinning the 
status qito. But in greater cities the temporal and spiritual dignities 
ie|irowcd with a high hand every tumult. Tlic very rector of the 
University met wiili little ceremony from a captain of llio royal body- 
guard, or even of the provost's guard : and tlie authorities souglit to 
punisli for the i«i»l. anil ]>n.'vent for the future, as well as to uphold 
tianijnillily for the present. In fact, in our modem days, when tlie 
niMt uproarious of academieinns is a lamb comiMired to tlic heroes of 
Llie iniiidtc iiges, it has been thought adviBBblc to remove some of 
our German uiiivewilics w the capitals, for the cxprcaa purpose of 
tiiforcing discipline upon lliem. Whnt, tlien, must have been the 
case in tbc time of tJic old defective police, and in a University 
numWring from fifteen to thirty thousand scIioIaisP Wc may, in 
fitct, say tliat tlic unparalleled extension of cornornlc rights won by 
the University, were not more obtained tbrotigli the eliancellor thoii 
fougkl OHt by iin academic mob." — Vol. i. ])|>. 72 — 74. 

Wc have alrciidy mmlioned the system of mttio'U as an clement 
in the coii>titiiti»n of the Univentity of Paris. The same system 
tipmiig up in tbc English Universities, as an order of things congenial 
to tlie want* and feclingi of the age : in Oxford soon n(\er the 
beginnmg of the twelfth century ; in Cambridge about a century 
later. Tlieir hiirlory is obscure. We know little more rvspecling 
ibein than that ibey were rccogniseii, tacitly, if not in due legal fonn, 
as commtiiiilii's, Iv and m the University up to the end of ihu four- 
teenth century; that at the beginning of the seventeenth century 
they were becoming obsolete; and that during their ciistencE tliey 
were cdntinuiill)' engaged in mutual conflicts. 

"Their only permanent autliorilica were the two proctors; 
but, altlic>u(;h the runetions of these two oflicera are well aaccttaincd^ 

NO. xxxiii. — N. a. o o M 


The Engiith Vnir^rtUUi. 

it ia not cntain in what rchlion llicy stood towards tlic t«o 
nntions, net^->l tlint they were elected by tlitm for two yc«ri.*" — 
Vol. i. ].. 78. 

An important liifTcrcnw Wlwi-fH the nations in the continental 
UrtiT<rrsitif« oiul thii«e of England was, tlial wliilc the formci con- 
Mslcil of races so opposed, both socially and iiolitioilly, that ihcy 
could not cohere in any durable organitation wilb one anotlicr, or with 
the nation at large, the English nations were wholly native ; except 
that tlie soulbemmcn f>cncnil1y included tlic Irish and ^VcUh, the 
nDrlhemmcn the Sciileh ; and nlthiiiigh forei^cra often studie-il «i 
tlie English Universities, they were never organised into a distloct 

Tlicrc hns always existed the strongest sympathy between tlie 
English nntlon at large and the Universities, Prom the very 
bt^inning down to the latest agiUitlon in the world of London or tbe 
world of Oxfortl and Cambridge, the niacroeustn and the ntierocosm 
have throbbed with tbe same pulsations and shared in the same 
moral life. 

" In the period of which we treat, the University comprised tho 
strength nnd bloom of the nation, picked from all ranks and orders, 
north and south, and sympathizing intensely with the general course 
of public policy. ... In (iiet, tb« 'degree' being an imi^tbU cAo- 
racler, a student who had ceased to reside, did not cease to sympa- 
tliiie with his ' foster-mother :* and every rank of civil, and much 
more of ceclesioBtical, life, was tilled with men who identified tlieni- 
selves with her intercuts. Wc have, indeed, still to 6ght against the 
ph,'judice that all erudition wa« then confined to a few ecclesiostica. 
On the contrary, the scholastic culture (be its nieriLi what it may,) 
was widely ditfuscd through llie nation at large, and especially by 
me^ns of the intcllfctuul position of the clerpy, formed a tic to which 
biler times have nothing lo compare."— Vol. i, p. S4. 

So intimate lias the connexion between Oxfonl and England 
always been, that popular opinion long ago looked on serious 
university strife aa a presage ofeivil war. According lo tlic signi- 
ficant monkish doggrel, given by Wood,— 

" Clirniika »l peiiscsj cum niign.'iiit Oxoni«iitc>, 
rose paucos mcnaci volni irs pvr AiigligeucosM :"', 

a thyme which is as true of spiritual contests tn our own day, u it 
was of ]>hyMeai contesta then. 

The two university nations bear a eloac analogy to tho grand 
Europcnn c^ntrnst of (leruiauic Iq Komanic races. The tribes 
Biirth of the WcMi'v imi! Iliiniber were mainlv (iermauic ; while in tlm 
•oulhcrn ]>fi]t of tho island tlie Normans ami the Komaniiing Anglo- 
*'^(mH prcdimii Hilled. This dialiiiclion of races lias now nlmoKl 
■lisiied, and political piirtiis have uUn their place. Hut cvcli in 
Wo WC way tmcf, My» Uubcr, a g<;ographical distinction. 

TKi? Etifflith Utiirrrtitifa. 



Whif^sm in uf S:ntch (or UcmiAnic) on^n -. I'oryiim lioa its 
strcnglli tit (lie Roiilli. TLc Boiitlicm ckinent Mil) prcviiils in Uie 
nrUtocni tic anil liigli-cliurch spirit, oml in tlic oM-faaliioncd cluwicBl 
etiKlics uf tlic mllt-^c (vittni : niiil tlnit lliis fyslim is traly Itomanio 
may etunly be jiroocd liv eomparin;; it >viili tlia UnircniUcs of SpnJiit 
nhich liavc Eutfcml li-ust (linliifbaiicc in rcccut ccnlurie*. Tli« 
norlliCTD i^yctrni, Orivcn iiiil uf Otfiiril, loolc refuge in E(iinbur;;ii, 
tli« Atliciu of tlic north, wIicfo c very thing reiuimlii lu nftlic Ocniuii] 
Univemtics and of tlicGeminu tlcvtlopmcnl of lite KefomialKin , . . 

" II is n coiifinnation of tht above to Ucnr tliut the modem intcl- 
kAri rrfonii {larty itscltj as well a& its ojtpoiieiita, luuk on Cieminny 
wHt fountain- 1 lead of its morcmcnls ; and it seems lliat they cannot 
1>e altogether nrong Ja bestowing on us the hononr or llic shame. Eacb 
Engli»ii University Itas still its miiii>riiv, representing the northern 
interests, and in nn «ina11 meaKtir« of real northern eztraclion ; and at 
every *1inll which slrtkcs the University, men's eyes insUnctitdy lurn 
norllivard for the bowman nlio shot it." — Vol. i. p. S8. 

A great secession took place at Oxford in 120£>, when the pope'*! 
Icjpitc laid an tuterdicl on the t"wn, in coii«ei}unice of the niunler of 
some Ecliolars by the citizens, nith the permission of the king, John, 
who thus meanly sought lt> show his spite ngainst C(.-clesiasUcal 

The riot of I23S d«crvcK a more detailed notice. 

" Abont this time (1238,) the I^rd Legale Olli", who had been 
sent to England to remedy multilarious alinses iu tlic Cliurcli, came 
to Oxford also, where he waa received with all becoming honoiint. 
He took iip his abode in the Abbey of Osncy. The clerks of ibo 
Unirersily, however, sent hini a goodly prei«Dt of welcome, <>f uienlx 
and various drinks lor bis dinner, and, after the hour of the meal, 
repaire<l to \\\k abode to greet him and do him hononr. Then so it 
njia that a certain Italian, a door-keeper of tlic legale, with leiis 
perchance of courtesy towards visitors than was becoming, called out 
l<> lliem with loml voice, after Hoaiisli fhshinn, and keeping the door 
uar, 'What seek ye?' Whereti|Km they answered, "'rhe Lord 
£l{[ate, that wc may greet him.' And they ihougljt within themselves 
■KRdly that honour would be requited by honoiir. Hut when the 
ioorhecpcr. with violentand imKcenily wonU, refused tlK-m cnlroiice, 
they pretaed with force into the house, rcgardlois of Uie clubs ami 
Bsts of the Romans, alio «uiight to keep lliem back. Now it camo to 
pass, also, that, during this tumnit, a certain poor Iruih elerk went to 
the (Ivor of the kitclicu, and heggi^l <«meslly, fur (iod s ntkc, as a 
hungry and needy man, thatlbcy would give hiino portion of tlic good 
things. The maslcr-cook, liouevcr. ibc l.egatc'n own brother, it is 
•titl, who filled this oRicc for ihc fear of poi^oD, drove him back with 
hard words, and nt liwt, in great wrath, ilung hot broth from out of 

ot into his face. ' Kie, for sliaine 1 ' c(i« a jeholar from WoUh- 

this?" And then 
bending n bow, which he held in bU \mv\ ^vt Aotti^ "Jfti; v.\a«Ai4^ 


Ti*BKgti*i ('niwrtiliff. 

ioiiie Iwiil kill tiaDtls upon such weapons m they fouml witlim rcacli,) 
)io sJiot tliccgok, — wlifim tlic scholars in (Icrision niitnt'il Ntrlntznnulan, 
the prince orcoolis, — wilh a bolt tliTough the body, so thiit \w fell 
<l<'aii t<) the tftrtli. Then wtis raiseil n lotid cry, nTKl the legntc biiii' 
ecir, in pTcnt Tear, di^giii.tcil in the; garau'nt of n eununisl, fli-i) into tho 
tower of the ehiireh, and shut to the piles. And there rcinniiioil he 
bidden until night, nnd only when thetiiiniilt wiL»(|uitc kid, he came 
forth, niouiUed n hor«c, nml liaslened through bve-wnv-s and not 
withiiui danger, led by trusty guides, lo the spot wlicrc tlic king bcIJ 
his court, flud there he nought protectidn. The enrnged sebolare, 
however, Htnycd not for a groat length of time seeking the le^t« 
with loud cries in all cornera of the house, £aying, ' Where is the 
uxurcr, the siiiioniKt, the ]>liinderer of our goods, who lliinsts nfler nur 
gold and silver, whu leads tlie king astray, and, upsetting the king* 
dom, cnricbcB stmngcrs with our spoila ?' " — Vol. i. pp. 90 — 92. 

Onec in wifety, the legate mwd an intenl'iet against the Uniwnfity, 
and called on the king to support his spiritual fulniinations by tbo 
terrors of tbe secular power. To this the king rashly consented, and 
empowered the town In commence tho nllnek, whicli it ilid wilh 
ready and raneorotis activity. Scholars and masters were hurried to 
prison ; and tho sheiilT of Oxford aided nud ahclted these out- 
tngenuNBcts of blind malignant rage. In it» extremity, the University 
found s champiiui in Oroaseteste, the biahop of Lincoln ; who op- 
pOAcd the Uien effectual and formidable shield of an interdict between 
the unhappy sdiohira and their rude aaiiaihintit. 71ie mbblc towns- 
men were di'iven oH'; llie court confessed its error ; the pride of tlio 
legate auUiidcd ; and a general reconciliation ensued. 

Tbia was no mere academic brawl, but wait an element and a 
token(of no mean significance) of the general reaistance of the nation 
to tiic Ijninnoiis cneroaehraents of an Italian priest. " Holy KoWrt 
ef Lincoln," eiulMiIined in Iradiliun, cndcarrd by «ong, and justly 
illustrious in history, though uueanonizcd by Rome, nobly maintained 
the independence of the University, of which, for nearly ft whole 
generation, be was tlie heart and soul. 

Kiols of no ordinary magnitude also resulted from tlie unsctllc^l 
relations between the Universities and llic town corporations. Hct« 
was a case of two hcterogeneons poptdations locally mixed, which could 
not but give rise to violent and dangerous explosions. The con- 
fiding interests of buyers and sellers, and the danger of a dcteiiom- 
tion in the quality of goods, called fur mark et and police rr^'iil.itions ; 
anil some of the most characteristic privileges of the Euglisb Univcrsi- 
ti« arose out of ihe efforts of men to obtain right or revenge by 
taking the law into their own hands. The mixed hoank of arbitra- 
tion, which had at first been constituted at tbe beginning of tlic 
ihirlcenth centurj', became uiieipial lo the management of the coni- 
''licatcd cases wliidi sprang np, towards the middle of the same 
ttiry, through the rajud incrfusc of both gownsmen and townsmen, 
tiie growing ncallli of botJi cur^toratione. The presence of 

__J. _ ^- 



Tie Uu^ith ('mt«r»itU*. S8B 

Jcwisli money-lenders threw in acldilional elements of discord iukI 
Blrifc, The recijKoral rigliU nnd nlilij^lioiis of ilic UnivcTflilj' and of 
the resident con vcnlual bodies were il]>defincd ; giving rixe to violent 
and j>rotmctcd disputes between the Univcrgitv and the Inlter, capc- 
ciully the Doininicanit. AmHluT wdiiect of bitter cuniplnint on the 
part of llie town was the great number of matrieulaltti traileanen ; 
who not onlyekinied superior rank on tlic ground of their conncKion 
witii the aouieniic body, btit obtained ejtfniiitiun from town btinlens 
and from services in the army and purTcyancc lo tJie king. Add 
to all thetCi tJic presence of niiinerous ocmsional visitoni, at one tinio 
collected by the muiicetii and fnir^ ; at another Kwelling the rettniie of 
nobles. ITic court, the ^lartiament, and ecclesiastical synoils, all 
usenibled from time lo time at Oxfonl. Tlins cvcrylhing ooni- 
bined to increase the difficulty of prcsorving order and dbeipliiie. 
The ultiinnlc effect of llienc increasing diflicidlifs and of the want of 
courts competent to try mixed causes in which town and gown wctd 
equally interested, was to extend the jurisdiction uid increase the 
powen of the ehnncellor. In ISll, Henry III. garc the iuri«diction 
in ftti mixed causes, between gownsmen as buyers or hirers, and 
townsmen as sellers or letters, absolutely into the hands of the 
chancirllor. And in 123.'i, thc|mwcr!i of thin ofHcer were extended to 
causes in which redress was claimed for riolencc done to person or 

During this period, the chancellor was but a. deputy of the bishop, 
and might be expected lo occupy* position ^ufficienllv impartial and 
)nde|)cndc-nt of both corporations. liut with tlic mcreasc of the 
chancellor's powers, his gca<iual nb!toq)lion into the ncndeniic body 
took place. He ceased to be an episcopal officer, and became the 
organic head of the I'nivcrsity. The causes of this change are brieOy 
elated liy Professor Iltiber, The share t»koii by the UnivcrsiticB in 
tlic civil wars of Henry III. rendered ihein object* ofgn-ntcr interest | 
to the Icings of Kiigland than fornu'rlv. They filiated in the deli*] 
berations of councils on important doctrinal ijuft lions uH'cetinu Clmrchj 
and State ; and eflbrts were made to render them organs of opinion ' 
(or Western Christendom. They tints became too weighty lo depend 
on a distant ordinary, whose powers were by no means equal to his i 
authority, and yielded inadequate support to a ehniierlloretinteinding ] 
with incrcaMng local dilficiillii-s. The position of the ehaneeJJnr, ] 
as an epiwoiml officer, had, in fact, become too anomalous to be ' 
longer tenable. He was neither in nor o/"thc University, but above 
it, below it, without it. In urgt^nt need of that moral and phyj-icid 
support which the University could, and the bishop could not, alford, 
the ehancellnr imHsed over to the stronger party, carrying with him, 
afVer suine~ailver)te qiicstioning, llie prerogatives which he had origi- 
nally dcrircd from the bishop; and so uniting the authority flowing 
from an episcopal sourt'e, with the niond and nhyical power con fi-rrcd 
by the Uuivemity, of which lie now became Ihc organic head. For a 
lime, the ordinary sUugijli-d lo retain the tiu,\i\. u^ cw-Ji.Tviu'ng -iiiN. 


I7u Btt$UA Uniwrtkiet. 

clccUon of ihc chancellor by ihcacailcmit' ImhIj*. IjuI even lliis vestige 
of dcpnrlcd aullmrity vniiit-licd in llie courw of iIil- finirtei-iilli ci-nluTy. 

Itiil, liowcver nnlutnl, Doccssary, and beneficial, this ^rcnl acccsiiiun 
of cansolidatcd BtTcn>;lh miglit )>c to tlic ncailcmic Iwdy, one inevit- 
able result wcw, lo cxaspemte llio feud bctvetii lli« Uiiivcreitv ftnd the 
town ; niiiet- llic thiuiiTllur would no longer bo accepted by tlic laller, 
SB nil impartial jud^c in thuse mixed causcK whicu liad vt-cnsi«ncd 
•udi bitter licorl-biimiiigK ; nor indeed was it to lie expcclcd ilml this 
officer could any lon^.'cr occupy an inlcriDcdiatc poaiiioD, now dial Im 
lind become identified with one uftlie ciintvnding [mrtice. 

Hut while the acndcinic body was thus aci]uirinff iuldiliunal •trcnfjtlLj 
itnd importance, the tonn corporation, &1bu. woe iDcreasing in ncaliJt,! 
and, with wealth, In aipirit of bitter hostility and stem rtsistanco taj 
the Bcholiutic corporation. It shared in the general movement of thai 
age. Inflamed by &n iircBistible desire for individual and eorpomio I 
independence, the towns of Kuropu fir*t resisted n|:{,Tessioii .igainsl I 
tlierotelveit, mid then runt! in general revolt agnin«t constitutcti'i 
sutlioriticB : until they achieved municiiKtl freedom, and rnisod tlieiB'l 
merehants to ascatamnnj; prinen. While inonarchs were exhnustin;; 
their strength by warlike <:xpeditii>ns, and nublu were nttatliig their 
•iibstsncc in local feuds, the middle classes were graduallv odvanein); 
into wealth and independence by means uf commerce, kIkhc golden ' 
keys unh'i-ki-d n tliouinnd ^tcs to Uilent and enti:r|)riae. It cknnotj 
be denied thai this great movement has ita nobler aspects ; but, oni 
cluaer iuvpiction, ti lu»t for gold, selfish vanity, pride i jealousy, aiKH 
discontent, uiU be found to have bocn the reaUpringH of many actional 
apparently flowinf; from pure and gcncroua uatriotiam, anil an ' 
lionuiimble desire fcir A mtmined and r^uLateu frcedoR). lo tba 
case of the univertity towns, further cuute* were in operation. In a i 
toyol mandate of 1^5^ the " grievous dissensions and (^imrreU" of j 
the jMirtics are nserihrd lo old mneour and insolence, "xtiinulnted by I 
Ml? teaHtowitft of youthJ" The contcKl in 1297 witli Uobert da I 
Well*, n boker, abittcr opponent of the University, was eharoeteii^tid j 
of the age; and, iil though b pacification was at lii»t brought about by ! 
a formal treaty, which, together with the foniier priviteaes of I24S, 
for a long time formed the chief bosia of mutual dealing between tJio , 
two corporations, con&icte were still to be undergone, more sevcrQl 
than any that had preceded them. The frightful riot of 13.J5 is 
worthy of being noticed in »omc detail. 

On St. Scholaetica's day, February lO, 1835, a quarrel broko 
out between certain scholars and the host f>f a tavern belonging to 
John Hereford, nn opulent citizen, who hiid oflcn been elected baililf 
ftir the town, und who appears to have inherited a double ]>or6on of 
the Wtter hostility of Robert do Wells against tlic University. Tlie, 
tavern-keeper cried out for help. The town alarm>bell was ruDo, 
from i>l. Martin's Church ; the cilitcna, as though evcrytliing baoj 
been pi einv dilated on tticir part, rusli<-(t out, annc<l for conflict, aon 
fci} iipoa the «d;oJ.mi irho wcic walking unarmed and without aoM 

The EtutU*i UnirertUifik' 


picion ordnngcr. In rain did tlic clmnccllor, at llie tiauui] oriiis 
life, endeavour to p«eify tlto infiirialcd townHiiicn anil n:BU>«; ]iencp ; 
Ko timt lie wu Dt ln»t 0'iin))cl]rd to urdcr llic bell of St. Mary's to 
sound an olwm, calling tlie ecliolors to amu; wIia quickly nillicil, nml 
suooccded in keeping tlirir utaihtnle in cbfck during the nij;tit, 
Witli tlio rcturo of il*y, lh« dianccllor rcncirn) liiii attempts at paciB- 
cation, but was rati bj unabutcd hottiiity mi the pnrl of the town. 
Nolwithstandine tbcir inferiority in Du^)t>«T^ tlie gownBmcn nie- 
ccasfully mnitiUiiicd n defi-nHive pontioo tliroii;;liout tlic iby, and 
prevented tliv entrance of the country jkrople, by tteitiiig tbe gate*. 
I)ut, tomtrds evening, about two thoiuand anne<l countryincD, liaring 
burnt dovD tlic «c«t ^le, forced tticir wny in, lindex] by a bIncR 
banucT, put the tiL-Ii(il:in« to flight, nnd Hjiientl havoc around. A puct 
of the day, cited by Wood, line thus described their imiptioD : 
" UrvliHt iioiUu Bjpxciii |)1pbt populana ; 
Pwt mdisloTlaii tMciu qusiunl vjtioaa, 
VexiUuin gerilur iilKrum. 'SUat Sirat' teciUtUT) 
OedunI quod nioriiiiT tox, val Qtwd ii« hiiinitlatur. 
Clomnnt, 'Havock ! ilavoek ! non nil qui »!iicctur ! ' 
' Smile faste 1 gier gode tnoektt ! nullui poiitliiu: ilomiiietur/ " ' 

The savage mob stormed ra<ist of the college* and bikllx, Inintei) out 
tlic inmates, wounding Bonie, tlirosiing some into ain lis and scwera, 
killing many \ treating stiiilent* shaven as monlis wiili peculiar cruelty, 
llic destruction of properly, the demulilioii of cniciiixrJt, tlic plunder 
of cliurcbes, aecoraiianied Uicsc oulnLgcs a^tut life. Muddencil by 
tlicir curousals and drunken orgies, tlto populace put no restraint on 
llicir excesses. In vain di<I the mure popular of the clergy carry 
the hutt along the ttrecls in aolemn piuceiuiun. Nor was il until 
the country rabble, linving glullcii themselves with wine, and 
blood, and plunder, liud deetuuped with ttieir booty, Uutt tlic moro 
pnidcnt cili'iccns assembled, as prudent citizens arc wont to do, 
fur llto purpose of extinguishing n fire which had nearly burnt 
itself out. The bishop of Lincoln i»ucd an interdict against 
the town, and itic king pursued mcaaurex eqiinlly vigorous ; but \\\a 
chief result of this savngn outbreak appears to have been a strong re- 
action in the minds of all piiities. Hecri mi nation nnd retaliation 
were forgotten, antl every one strove rather to reconcile the unha|)py 
(lilTcTcncct from wliicli tliese disnstroiu riots bad arisen, and to prevent 
tlieir fulnrc recurrence. Tbe Univenitv absolutely resigned all lier 
privileges into the hnn^ls of the king, Edward III., the town touk 
tJjc iMno counie, without the least atlein]>t at self>justiScation ; and 
tliUK ibo king found himself called upon, not to sit upon the dii>- 
|>utc as a judge, but to rebuild the whole sysicin anew ns a lawgiver, 
lie cstablislicd llie Uuivenily OS n decidedly independent nnd pre- 
ponderuliug uiitliorily ; vesting Ln the chancellor conlrul over ibc 
to"n police, and all the jurisdiction, civil or military, connected with 
il. Every point before cwnlcstcd was given in favour of the Uai- 
vcnity. On the utile r hand, tlie town wa«n:instalcdinttaifn'<>ic:^c%\ 
Berefbrd was libcnicd from confincmau, oL Oi« 'to\ic««!W»k>. *A ■&>» 


The Ett^iih Unitertitigt. 

Univcniy ; the country-peoiile were prudcnlly passed over; and 
iliu <^iiirch, liaving first inUigatcd tlic Jnlcrdicl on tbe town, shortly 
rcniDVcil it alto^ctliLT. 

^niilar conllicls, villi similar results, appear to have taken pluMS 
at Cambridge ; and, altliougb it would be a great error to suppose 
lliat tlic contuU lietweeii gown and town were at an end, llic Univcr< 
ailies had by thiei time acijuired a permanent ascendency. As llio 
number of students diminialied, nnd discipline became more strict, 
tlic Universities pnucd from under tlie rule of a riotous democmcy to 
tlio traiiipiil governmcut of a sedate arislocracy. Tlicv became 
possessed of landed estates and buildings of tlicir own, vliicfi removed 
many oeeasions of ditiaension. Weultli naturally broii^iit respuet in 
its train ; besides wlileb, tlie town eorponition itself became inipreg- 
nnled willi kindred intlticiiee», nnil tbe two budiex were better able to 
come toa mutual good umlentunUIng. 

We cannot fpiit this period of English University Instory, without 
atleniptiug to relieve the darker HliadcH nist uprm it by the tumults 
we liavc described, by Chaucer's picture of a true scliular at the end 
of the fourteenth century, 

" A ct«k (b«r was ufOxenford nlio, 
Tliat uiiio loL-ik liinjili- lung ygo. 
A> Icnp wui III* lion hx it n lokr. 
And hv trai not tigitt fat, I undertake; 
But looked holwo* nnd theivto aobprlye. 
Ful thrcdt»re woi lilt ovnol rourlppiir. 
Fur be bud giicn biin vet no benefice, 
N« wu iiul worldly t» have an office, 
For. bim wim tcvci f Iibvo ul bit Ix'ddvt Iiod 
Twciil^- bookci t'lollicd in bbiko or ted 
Of Atintoilc nnd hi* p)iiluwpbi«, 
Then rolii-9 richu or fidel or mutrt«.t 
Uul ullbu Ibnt liv> wn* ■ philnmphro. 
Yet badde bo but liucl of roH in cofTre; 
Rul all (bal lip might uf bin frivndt bcii(c,i 
On bookei and on learning bo It tpiiutai 
And bi-tily 'gun fur the bouU praic 
Orbcmll iliat gHV« bim whervwilli to Bcbuluicf 
Of ihidic look bp [iiohI cniv itnd bi'dv. 
Null worde spuke he moro than wni ncdn; 
And ibnl wan said in riirni and revetvncr. 
And abort iinil igiiivk untt fill uf bigb Bcnteiico.** 
Souningft in niutiil virtue win bii iipi-obp, 
And gladly wulde be Icriio and gladly techc." 

We msa on to the later constitution of the Univcrsiticn, the most 
remarkable feature of whieh is the consolidation of tlie collegmb 

" T