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^rmttttls ^t\>i^. 


JUL Y- — D E C E M B E R. 








JULY, 18G0. 

Aht. 1 — Cknmicon Monastertx de Abxitgdon. Edited hy tho 
Kcr. J. £>TBTBHso», M.A. Published under the dIrecUon of 
tbc Master of the Uglls, 1858-9. 

* TuK monks of old ' have been always more or less u niisUndcr- 
etood, and Htill more a misrepresented, fraternity. The niodcru 
popular id«« of them i* acompotuid of many delusions; orrnlher 
a ohameleon-like phantom, which takes its colour from aomelhing 
else. Wc are apt to adopt our notions of the 'religious' of tho 
middle ages from ournational ballads and our popular novels. The 
eiimc * friar of orders gray,' according to the fancy or tho prc- 
judicies of his reproducer, ' goes forth to tell hi« headit,' cidni and 
penaive, and wrapt in religious gloom; or, 'down iJie valley 
takes his way,' with ' merry chaunt' and ' a cliii'ping cup ' for 
lu» 'loatiu eong." If we try to call to life again, in our own 
ima^nntion, tlie long-departed tenant of the eloieter, the vision 
wliicli risea at our bidding is either the pate Father Eustace of 
' Hie Monastery,' stern and uncompromising, zealous in all good 
conscience for Holy Churoh, or the rosy face and laughing oye 
of Abbot Boniface over his Bourdeaux and roast cnpon. We 
long, aoconling to our humour, either to have spent a vig'd in 
acme dimly-lighted choir with the holy ascetic, — 

' Vsa and wora vitli uiiduiglkl [)raj'er,' 

or to have had the opening of one of those last flasks of 
Bacharach out of ' Abbot Ingdram's corner,* 

But, however truly such portraits might have stood for 
in<livi(lual monka — as ihcy would iit»lat!x muUmdOi for ehurch- 
nicn in all ages — they can represent individuala only, and 
generally, like photographs, bring out the features stronger than 
the life. The mass of those who wore the eowl were neither 
stem euthusiaets, nor gloomy recluses, nor jovial hon-vivana. 
It U only of later years, long since the date of our moat ^ogulac 

NO. ax. — N. 8, B 


poets and writers of tiuttoii, that we Imve been slnwlv learning 
to form n fairer and more jinicticit! estimiile of what they really 
were. When thu ]iub1ic fL-eliiig had once broken through the 
superstitions reverence which long protected the monastic orders 
throughout Chrijitcndom, it was a very natund Bc<|uencc that it 
should rush into the oppoaite extreme of dislike, contempt, and 
vituperation. Having discovered that they were liable to all 
tbc common imperCectiona of humanity, and no longer admitting 
their cIiiimB to linmaoulate virtue, the secular world soon adopted 
the belief that they were monsters of vice. The dethroned idol 
became an abomination. No doubt the actual abuses and 
corrnptions of the monastic system were gross enough ; the 

Eictures left us by Chaucer and other cotemporariee, however 
ighly coloured, must have had living originals, we miglit be 
enre, even if there were not abundance of direct biatorical evi- 
dence to certify to the resemblance. But as it i^ manifestly 
unfair to condemn any system, or any body of men, by adducing 
instances of corrupt individuals in the body — even though they 
be frequent instances, as in a numerous body tliey probably will 
he — or by pointing to the most flagrant and notorious violations 
of the professed principles of the system; sn it ia more than 
unfair to condemn either system or intlividual entirely on th« 
testimony of enemies. Yet, in the case of the momi-itic orders, 
tliis has been done for many generations. They were put out 
of court at the Reibrmation, and posterity has been passing 
judgment by defaidt upon them ever since. It is one of those 
cases in which injustieo bccomee almost a necessity. Wherever 
vital questions of religion and morals are concerned, we consider 
it almost a merit to hear only one side. We hold it dangerous 
to admit the aiivncnfus diaholi into the court of conscience. We 
do not question the sincerity of an ordiniu-y Christian, because 
he so far departs from the strict rule of impartial justice as to 
decline to hear Hume and Tom Paine in answer to the Bible ; 
nor must we expect the zealous English Protestant, however 
ardent his love for fair-play in the abstract, to read what the 
monkish chronicler bus put on record in his own defence — espe- 
cially when written in monkish Latin. If he professes to have 
studied the subject with more than ordinary care, he will pro- 
bftl)ly have read ' Mr, Fosbrooke's learned work on British 
Momichism,' (m Sir Walter Scott calls it, and will think its 
authority perhaps only the more indisputable, because the dedi- 
cation informs him that it was written for hie 'instruction and 
amusement by showing the errors of ancient times;' and the 
loftrned compiler, in his preface, thinks iiimself 'certainly cn- 
' titled to credit, inasmuch as he may have contributed somewhat 
' to check that spirit of Monachism and Popery which has lately 


7%e Chtonielet ofAbwj3on, 8 

* beeo revived.' Our Protectant friend can harclly l» expected 
to UDRottIc his min^] by looking int« Mr. Konelni Digliy'e .iform 
CaiAotid (for wliidi, too, hv niuHt »o to n Ronmnift bookseller) 
merelj fur ihc i'iit; ouriwity of seeing what can be «aid on the 
odier etde. So aotit*-, indeed, in ^ouic niindi< wnn the imnse of 
the injustice done to ihe monastic RVAtem by the [lopulnr pre- 
judice, which remembered all their evil and forgot tn«ir good, 
that it is not long since (in spite of Mr. Fosbrooke'a conacion- 
tious effort*), by. a tteoontf temporary reaction, a strong feelin? 
extdtt-d amongst a fcir in favour of reviving it in the GneUsn 
lieforiiied Church undrr curlain limits and modi B cations. The 
ide* uf a luomiAtiei^tn ivhieb coulil adiipt itc<elf to the habilM and 
refiuireiiienls of Knjflish life in the nineteenth century wos noi 
'ikely to commend iteelf much to practical minds ; but the whole 
ubject has acquired a fresh intcreet, and seems at last to have 
n lair chance of bein^ disf^i^^iouately examined, and therefore 
better undcrvtnod. To Dr. Mnitland, in hi* ndminiblc Esaaya 
tw fiw- Dark Agig, nn uiilwirned public ore indebted for one of 
th« earliest nnd mo«t popular attempts to replaoi) lli« whole qiios- 
tion on ils fair historical footing. But since then very imporlant 
witnesses have been c.illed into open court, whose testimony had 
hitherto been a sealed book to all but the professed antiquurian. 
The chronicle kept b}- a monk of the convent of S. Edmonds- 
bury, in the reign of Henry 11., was jvublishcd by the Camden 
Society in 1840. It might pmbitbly have reiUAined uudi^tin- 
gaished amongst the other antii]uumn rarities ao meritonoiialy 
reproduced by that learned body, very unattractive both outside 
nnd inside to the general reader, bad not Mr, Thomas Carlyle, 
in happy hour, fised his atfectlons upon it, and made it the 
text-book of one of hie most graphic and intercBting jiiotiires of 
the i'att and Present We may fancy how Mr. Carlyle must 
bare BtnrlleH some of his diAciples — and how he innst have 
emiled to think of their bewilderment — when he chose to find 
in the monk of the twelfth century a hero. However, the 
justice which he thus rendered to Abbot Sampson, and the 
hearty faith which ho himself, an honest writer and a keen judge, 

Etits in the nnpretendtng narrative of poor brother Jocelyn, have 
ecn of immense »erne« in ihe cauae of historical truth. No 
one in his i«n»ee will accuse Mr. Carlyle, of all men, of a supcr- 
Blitiona reverence for worn-out formulate, or of any aesthetic 
(Coderaess to medisevaliem. These monks, then, were not always 
liara or hypocrites — were even amongst the ' veniciliea ' of their 
time ; nay, arc even to be listened to ww, like other men, when 
they give evidence of aiich things as came within their know- 
ledge. In Irulh, ihey were neither so bad nor so good as our 
old-faflhione<l prejudices, or our ncw-fafihloned ipTe'Yie.«I\«aa 


4 The Chrvnicka oj Abingdon. 

would rc|>rcscat them. There beat the ordinary liumRii heart 
benciilli the loolicl null aaiiiuldry, while or blnck, jiist ns in our 
owu (lays iimler the liigh-churchiuAu'a caBsock-veat uiid M. B. 
cont, or the low-ohiirchiiinn'a Ul-made waidlcoat and limp and 
dingy necktie. Wonilerful, liow in llie lapse of centuries every- 
thing ecems to have changed except human nature ! how the old 
Adam still crops out under whatever disguises we put upon liim ! 
The day that made him monk, still left him roan ; with passions 
not eradicated, with desires and f'acultica hy no means dead l» the 
world, whatever he loiglit outwardly prol'ess, or hiwardly persuade 
himself'; but often only sharpened and intensified by being 
narrowed in tlieir object, and circumscribed by his peculiar 
position. The monastery was a little world; very narrow in its 
notions, no doubt, in some respects; yet often containing within 
it inen of larger and more liberal views ihan either the friends 
or the enemies of tlie system have in modern times been inclinod 
to give it credit for. Often, the superstition and the ignorance 
were without its walls rather than within; often, too, the 
'recluse' was more a man of the world, both in its best and 
worst sense, than the layman who sneered at his clerkly learn- 
ing. The same mtstate was made t.lien, asia so often made now, 
of supposing that tlio cultivation of the intellectual necessarily 
left tlic mind unfitted for the practical in life. To say that the 
monastic orders were ignorant and superstitious, is only to say 
that they lived in earlier times than ours, and were not men of 
this nineteenth century. The same might be said with equal 
truth, in its degree, of the Jewish Church under an earlier dis- 
pensation. And the answer must be the same ; if theirs was an 
imperfect code of religion and morals, at least it was a higher 
one than that of the rude world without. But to measure the 
mouastic system by a spiritual rule exclusively, or to look upon 
its members merely in their religious character, would be the 
mark of as narrow a mind as ever was formeil within the cloister. 
Their religious phenomena are highly interesting, no doubt; hut 
in the historian's point of view, their vast influence upon the 
civil and social relations of mankind is even more important. 
The monastic houses were not only tho Missionary Societies, 
the Bible Societies, and the National Societies of their day, — 
they were also the Hospitals, the Poor-law-Unions, the Koyal 
Hotels, the Refuges tor the Destitute, and in a great degree 
tho Royal Societies and Art-Studios also. Lnborare est orare, 
WM a principle not only profeaeed but acted tipon ; so far i« 
the common reproach of ' lazy monk ' from being a deserved 
one, that there were no greater promoters of agriculture than 
tlie monks of tho rule of S. Benedict- The granges of their 
jnonasteries were the model farms, u& tbeu* echooTs were the 


7%e Chrtnticift of Ahinij^tm. 

normal ntwl industrial scboola of the Aliddte Ages, If kings oaiuo 
witli their charters of privilege, and nobles with their gifts of 
lands and titlice, nod liiid UiLni on thu liigh altar, they gave not 
only to a church, but to a charity ; nnd what they otlbrcd to 
the glory of God — ' in honorem Dei' — so far from being wasted, 
in the moiit ntililnrian point of view, vttn generally well invc^ten 
for the common earthly interests of man. 

Some very valuable contributions to the contemporary evi- 
dence on this subject have been made among the recent mibli- 
cations issued under the direction of the Maetcr ot" the Itollu. 
Wc have a UUtorg of the. Mon'iiftcTg t^ S. A>tguatme at Confer' 
hmy, written about a. d. 1414, hy one Tlmmiut of Kltimni, 
' IbriDCrly monk and treasurer of that foundation ; ' and a 
Chrtmielti of the Monastery of Abingdon, written, or rather com- 
piled, by one or more of its brethren, but whose names have not 
been preserved in the manuscript. Of this latter — which is by 
jar the most interesting of the two, for the first is a mere com* 
pilatiou — we propose now to give some account; which wc 
tiuicy may not be unacceptable to the majority of our remieni, 
since few besides professed antiqimrians will have the courage 
to read thi-ough for themselves two octavo volumes consisting 
mainly of charters and such documents, all in very indifl'erent 
media; vul J^tin. 

Tiiis chronicle, though never before printed at lai^o, has been 
extensively used by antiquarian writers. It formed the basis of 
Dugdale's account of the earlier history of the Abbey, is largely 
quoted by Fosbrooke. and referred to by Useher, Wood, Camden, 
and others. The original has probably been lost. Two copies 
of it only are known to exist, both amongst Sir K. Cotton's 
MSS., nnd known as Claudius B. VI. nnd Clniidina C. IX. 
lioth were imed by Dngihtlc. The firat in the later and appn- 
rently revised copy, and trom this the present text has ticen 
printed — the various readings in C'. IX. being given in the foot- 
QOtcs. We h»ve also here printed as appendices, 1. The- short 
chronicle, Df Ahbatiint* Abh&ndomm, MS. Cott. Vitellianus A. 
XIII., a few of the earlier chnpterH of which were printed by 
Swiale, and which, though mutilated nnd imperfect (having 
su^red in the fire of 1731), throws much light upon tlie larger 
chronicle; 2. ^ifric's Life of S. Ethelwold, the second founder 
of tlie Abbey, from the unique MS. in the imperial library at 
Paris; 3. A record De ConaneludiNibtM AhbetidonitB — a terrier 
of customary payments and rents appropriated to certain ofliC'es ; 
and, 4, nnothcr'Z>P Of»vl»entiariui, Ac, being an aceount of the 
officers of tint Abbey, their duties and privileges, of which Mr. 
Fosbro<j:e had already made condderablc use.' The three first 


75le Chronicles cf Abingdon. 

cliapterg and part of the fonrth of the larger chronicle aro want- 
ing, the MS. having unforliinntcly been tuuliluldl ; nor are thcee 
eu|>plic<l from the curlier text, wliicli iippcfirti not, ti> he iiciirly k> 
COpioui^ ut the be(j;iniiing. Thiti, however, is of the \esta imjiortaDcc, 
iniicv what Urnf hvcn luat hclonga to that mythical period of Urilish 
historr in which ChrLatianity is sai^l to have beci] introduced 
ioto the island by Fapanua and Duviauiis, who baptized King 
Lucius and all his jwoplc. llic U'Kcndary history of Ahingdon 
begins, according to this oopf of the chroniolu, 'in the time of 
thu Emperor Diocletian ' (circa A. d. 301)), when a certain Irish 
monk, named Abcnnus, oaiiie to preach in Britain. The British 
prince received the ntranger at his court, and treated liiin with 
e]>ccial lavour — * rejoicing,' says the chronicle, ' tliat hi had 
found a second Jnsei^.' Juseph begged hard for a land of 
Goshen, and received a grant of a great part of the oounly of 
Bcrki), in which he founded a uiooa»tery, and gave it the luma 
of Ahbcn-don: uhich vignific^, we are told, Hihcrnifii — 'the 
dwelling of Abun, or Abennus;' as Abhen-dun in the verna- 
cular Saxon would he equivalent to 'Aben's Mouut.' Thta 
story, however, is an addition of the later copyist, from whatever 
source he obtained it ; and llio credibility due to such tndiiiona 
may be pretty well estimated, when we find that in the shorter 
chronicle. A' AIJ-ati'Mis, this Aben or Abcnnus aj'pears in quite 
a diffi^rvnt cliamcter. He is there said to have been the son of 
a British chief, nn<I to Imve esi'aped from the treacherous mas- 
eacre of hU countrj'nicu by Hengist, at Slanhengist or 8tone- 
hcnge, to a wood in Osfordshire. In danger of perishing frooi 
tfair»t> he prays for water, and a fountain springs up. This 
miracle attests hi« sanctity to strongly to the inhabitantG of the 
uetghtionrhood, that they Qoek to him fur instruction, and 
determine to build there a dwelling for their teacher and a 
chapel in honour of the \'lrgin. But Aben's modesty is over- 
whvlmed by this publicity ; and in search of a more secluded 
resting<placGberctirc:< to Ireland, and tlicre 'makes a good end.' i 
Pa»ng then from tlieee trodidona] uncertain tic«, wo seem toj 
get our first glimpse of reliable history from the vliorter chruntdt^ i 
jUo Alii>atii>us, in the appendix ; for in the MS. of the larger i 
cbrontole there occur* at this point, as the editor informs us, aa 
unfortunute hiatus of two leaved, which the «ailier copy (Claud. 
C IX.) supplies only in very me^re outline- In or about A. Dt, 
675, the first steps towards the foundation of the Monastery of i 
Abingdon seem to have bcea taken by Ciwsa, one of the rt^uUf 
or potty princes who exeroiaed an aataority more or leM inda*] 
pendent under Kinwin or Ccntwin, King of the West Saxooa. 
(Smi's dominiuDs extended over Berkshire and Wiltshire : he 
hdd his court at Bedwin, in the latter county, where the ruin« 

lie Chronicle* o/AhingdoH. T 

of the castlu wliicK he built are still to be Meiu Cissa hud a 
n«)>licw iiaiiieU Hcon, 'very rioti, ami powerful, uiil rcll^ioua;' 
wliu tuul been mi impresaed with aonie preacliing uhicli lie ]iftd 
listened to [probably by S. Wilfrid or some of his missionaries) 
upon the well-known test of tlie camel and the needle's e;e^ 
that he reeolvcd at odco to devote to the monaslic life liimeelf 
and all that he had. Uc obtainnl from hie uncle, Cistm the 
promise of n t>ite for K religious houMc; and bo clioflc — tho 
chron icier says on awoiuit of the iihiindfince of wood — ^tlic pincc 
alrcxdy known w Ahen'd Mount. It i.t probable that he wa« 
tHaa influem'^d in \aa choice by the traditionary eanelity of the 
spot, and by the fact that his own patrimony seems to have tain 
in the Dcignbourhood. He received from bis uncle a large grant 
of land — one hundred and &cvcnty-three caseatcs' — od the ffituks 
of the Thames, in order to carry out his puriiosc. His wster 
Cilia also embraced a rcli^nous life, and obtained, cither at the 
same time from Ciseo, or from Iiis euocessor CuiKlw»lln(for here 
the two account* disagree^, permission to found a nunnery in the 
same neighbourhood, in a spot called UeJi^unt^ir, from a chapel 
said to have beeu founded there by the Empress Helena, and 
whose name is still preserved in S. Helen's Church in Abingdon. 
Hetn, however. tliroHn;h some vacillation of purpose, tho reason 
of which does not appear in thi?«o records, am] which it would 
be idhi now to discuss, was very slow in carrying lus good inten- 
tions into execution. Cieeu was succeeded by Ceadwalln, who 
confirmed his pn-edecessoi-'s grant with considerable addilions, 
and Ceadwalla again by Ini, and still Hcnn had not fulBlled the 
conditions of the original grant. King Ini accordingly revoked 
it: a proceeding which both the monastic chroniclers set down 
M profane and sacrilegious. It eecms by no means iniprobiible, 
bowever, that lliia decided course ou tlie king's pail, fully justi- 
fied as it was by Hean's dilatory and suspicious conduct, had 
really tbe eSect of setting him in earnest about an undertaking 
wht«i would otherwise never have been accomplished. It in 
certain at all cvente, tliat we have three subsequent charters of 
Ini given in ibo ehronielc, by whieb he not only contirma the 
grants of ('issa and Ceadwalla, but adds other lands ol' Itts own 
gifU All thi-ee chartera, it is true, are condemned by Mr. 
Kemblc, in his Codex Diphmaticus. as epiirious; and though 
Mr. Stcveneon shows plausible grounds for admitting two out 
of the three as genuine, there arc reasons to be drawn from the 
chronicle itself (as we shall have occasion to show hereaAer) for 

< Tbc tcna inmiliT apimn M be drciI 1>y the milcn of ibcK chttmicltB {ta bj 
Uflii; ot IlunUtifiiloii) iu> Mini talent to 'lujn ,- if ve lake the hide = 100 acre«, ii« 
hmtllQ hrge toUIof 17,S00 mim. Rut llicMoMmeuuresiuemitorioiuiyTatfac. 

* 8m vol. L p. S ; ToL IL A|>i>, p. ses. 


The Chronicles of Abingdon. 

looking st all Uiesc earlier documcniH with very great suspicion. 
Whether, however, the ehartcr* hniidcd down hy llic chroiiiuler 
be genuine or not, there in no rensoii to tloubt that it wae iu 
tho reigu of Iiii, about a.d. 6S(t, timt Hcan, under Ini'a sanc- 
tion, actually cotuiiieDwd his building. There appears to have 
been Bome hesitation about the site. In two of these professed 
cimrtera of Tni, the wording would rather eceni to imply that 
either Bradanfeld (Bradficld, near Reading), or Strcalley, was 
the locality of the new foundation ;' and the chronicle De Alba- 
tifiun' tells U3 that, five years before, Hcau had actually begun 
to build on ' Aben's Mount ' (in the bnnilct of Bagworth, in the 
parish of Sunningwell), but was obliged to desist by a miracle 
not uncommonly reported ou such occaeions — 'whatever the 
masons set up one day, fell down the next.' At last a hermit 
ofgreataanctity, who lived in the neighbouring wood of Cumnor, 
was privileged to behold the elfish hands which every night 
pulled down the atones and timbers and carried them away — 
*in four-horse waggona' {fiundriyis}. They explained to him 
that it was the will of heaven that Hean should build his new 
monastery not there, but a few milca off at Scukcehnm, or 
Seoveschara, on the Thames, which had formed part of the addi- 
tional grout of Ceadwalla. Here then, twenty-two years after 
the original grant from Cissa, the walls of the monastfiry rose at 
last, and by Ceadwalta'a desire the name waa changed to 
AbbenduD. It is highly probable that in these apparent difH- 
culties and changes of intention as to the site, might be found, 
could we trace it, aorae explanation of Henii'a long delay. 

This town or 'vill' of Seukeaham, Seovcacham, or Sheove- 
eham, was already, the chi-onicler tells ua, 'a fiiraoiia city, 
pleasant to the sight, full of riches,' surrounded by rich paaturea 
full of flocks and herds. It was an old scat of religion in the 
pagan days of Britain, nud not less sacred since the intrmluction 
of Christianity. Traces of its ancient Christian occupation were 
found when the new foundations were dug; amongst other 
pr«oiouB relica, a. celebrated black cross of iron, said to have 
been made from the eacred nails, and brought there in the days 
of Constantine. It was alao the king's occasional residence; 
and meetings were held there 'to transact tho principal affiilra 
of the kingdom.' It appears highly pi-oljabJe that this waa the 
Cloveshoo [Cahvanorum arx) where the great synod of 747 
was held ; and to this opinion Camden, Bishop Gibson, Ashraole, 
and other authorities mctinc. Cliffe-at-hoo, near Rochester, 
which is commonly supposed to have been the place, seems frotn 
its locality to have been but ill-adapted for the scene of a great 

3i4 Chronides cf Af/iagdon. 


aationiil {^tiifinng; while ShcovcivhaiiQ, lying central to tlic 
two kitiyiitmiA orKlGrciii nml Wcmhcs, would Imvc been generally 
accwuime; nml ita religions celebrity tif wc uiay trust these 
chroaiclcs) uii^ht have suggealed another reason tor its scU'ction. 
The derivalion of its new name, AblieiwJun, k utwcrtuin; 
Leland would mnke it ' Abhot's town ; ' but Mr. 8tcvvn«»ii is 
prohnl'ly right when he traces in thu locnl namca Alhnn-ci-u»iile 
(Abbfl's niwwJow), Ahhan-bijorh (Ahl)ii'9 rest or ' bury '), Ahban- 
tctfl (AbhaV well), occuirtnir tiinuiig the old Saxon bnniuliiricd 
ajipcndiMl to the ancient clinrterit of lands io the neighbourhooil, 
a common etymology from the name of one of the enrly hitlers 
in Uerkshire. 

The earliest gi-nnta made to the new brotherhood of S. Mary 
at Abbendun, consisted of lauds nt Unidlicld, Stretitlcy, Botlc- 
fortl(Bcs6i:r»Leigh?),Esccadunc{A*hdown'i') «ikI Kannnndslen, 
a portion of (he present piiri*h of Applelnn. Ini, King of 
WcMCX, added the 'vill' of Sntton (Courliifv); but Ihis wnn 
v;ccbiuiged fliime few years nrter\vnr<U with Kenulph, King of 
Mereia, for the large tract of meadow-land, called Andrnsey, or 
S. Andrew's Island, formed by a diverging branch of the Tliamca, 
and lying to the west of the monastery. This Jslc of Andresey 
was a favourite residency with the Englisli Icings, both before 
and after the Couquest It seems to have formed part of iho 
original grant to Hean, hut to have been exclmnged wilh Offa, 
King of ilc-Tcia and Wcssex, for the manor nf Gooaey. Oflii, 
hia son Egbert, Kenulph, Alhelstnn, William the Coniiueror, 
and Itufus, are all mentioned in the chronicle as having taken 
up their quarters ibcre occasionally. They seem to have con- 
sidered that it commanded a remarkably fine view,' and the 
Conqueror used ' to recreate himself there with letting of blood 
and taking of antidolef,' So liistes difler. KL-nulph, however, 
at itie date we are now sjieaking of, made it a kind of sporting 
quarlers, and kept his hounds and his falcons there, to tho con- 
siderable annoyance of the good monks t)f S. Mary. Tlic 
morale of a great sporting establishment, even in those early 
times, was of much the same character as it too often is now. 
The earliest leeordcd trouble* of the new foundation arose from 
thid quarter. The roynl hunlameii and faleonerx, 'as is the 
custom of their fraternity,' says ourohrunioler, quoting Juvenal 
(he was evidently more of a scholar - than a sportsman), ' aliend 
vitere qiiadrd ' — to live as much as possible at free quarlers among 
ihoir neighbours — were not only exorbitant in tneir exactions 
for the king's uae, but even proceeded to ' contumely and insiih,' 

> 'lt«T — non pnrvn oblco-lamcnto IV>t IWicrctiiT, falnc sqnii circumflneute per- 
ifrions, lllincpnloriim Tlrl>l;kntliim ilnmulctntc illRnnbm.' Vol, ii. p. -IS. 
■ Wo Kiul film cl«t>wliDre quut.iu; Ovlil, VItkU, ami Sencui. 


nifl Chnniclea r^f Abingdon. 


and conld in no way be broHght to desist from their * detestftWe' 
practice 'autprtfs ivl pivtto — by bribe or entreaty. Tlie abbot 
at this time was Bothun, who had been a Mercian bishop, but 
on nceoiint of some troiibles in hia dioceee bad resigned bia aee 
and taken moiiitstio vows at Abingdon, After vain appeals to 
(be ting against bia troublesome retninern, Abbot Reluiin took 
ibe dcciduJ step of going in person to Rome, where be made 
ont bia case sosuocesflfiilly, that lie olitained from Pope Leo III. 
an apostolical mandate in bis favour, by which all the righta of 
the abbey were confirmed ; and the king was wmned, as he 
valued bia salvation, to fee justice done to the monks of Abbeii- 
don. Kcnulpb, however, put them off from day to day with 
empty promi sea iind excuses; the Pope mcanwhllu died, and the 
Abbot, who was a man of some worldly wisdom as well aa 
en er^, took another course. He went ^traiglit to the king, 
and backed the Pope's authority witli the oiler of a hundred and 
twenty pounds in hard money, and a hundred farms at Sutton, 
which, we arc not much surprised to learn, be found an unde- 
niable argument — pott'ssimum remedium ; and he thereby secured 
for his fraternity a charter of privileges which waa evidently of 
the highest importance, since we fimi it referred to in the firet 
eharter of restitution granted by El.helred II. (a.o. 9931, as the 
great bulwark of the liberties of Abbendon. Itcontaiued the 
proyiaus that their lauds should be free from all claims of service, 
except aid in repairing the royal bridges and castlea, an<i send- 
ing a certain number of armed vassals to join the king's army 
when summoned. In this charter of Kennlpb's are included 
additional grunts of landH at Culham, Sandford, Suuningwell, 
Denchworth, which are called ' donations,' but for which Abbot 
fiethun may fuiiiy be supposed to have given ample couHdera- 
lion. Other benefactors succfcded ; and though the record of 
the fortunes of the houae in these earlier times is but ecanly, 
it acema clear that they were in possession of a great portion of 
the cultivated lands from \\'allingford in one direction, to 
Shrivenham in the other, before the kingdoms of the heptarchy 
were united under Egbert; and when Etbelwultj in 855, made 
his grant of tithe» throughout the kingdom to the church, 
the house of Abbendon waa one of the fire^l and chief recipients 
But darker daya were coming. Fi-oni 857 to 8(50 the Danes 
were ravaging England. The chronicler bocomea almost poetical 
aa he dwells on the horrors of thoso three years. Pillaged 
cities, burnt villages, ruined monaateries, were the marks by 
which their course might be traced. ' The enemy,' says h^ 
'overthrew tlio bouse of Gideon; the acenraed race scourged 
the horn of David.' Theae ruthless invaders pillaged the 
monastery, and loft nothing but the walla atandlng. The eacred 

lU Okronielfs ofAbiHffien. 


relic*, however, ftnd the charters iind de«([s of g;ifl were, by 
ipecuil Providenee, as thfi wriler considors, jivcMrved ft-om the 
spoilers' hands to aid in ihe restoration of their rights liereafter. 
It waa not, indeed, witiiout some opposition from the gunnliaa 
powers of the house that the enemy effected their purpose 
A racrcd crucifix which stowl iii the roiiectory — the inmge on 
which i^ aUo rcjiorlcxJ at another time to hnve apokcn — ig 
reconleil to have Imrled Nlonea out of the wall upon the heads 
of ihe Pi^aiM as they were anlncing their 'a<?cursed appelilea ' 
with the monks' good cheer, insomuch that these 'satellites of 
iHatan' wero fain to evacuate the place at once, 'by no means 
after the nwnncr of tortoises,' as the chronicler narrates with 
eriileot glee, in a style aniisually facetious. But if such were 
their Buffering at the hands of' their enemies, even u harder 
fate Hwuitcd ihein at the hnnds of their friends. The writer has 
UtFtnnjre tale to tell na about Kii)p Alfred, not qitite in uccord- 
ancc with the popular notion of Milton's ' Mirror of Princei^ ;' 
that 'complete model of ft perfect churaeler,' as Hume styles 
him — so perfect, indeed, thai the learned historian feels called 
upon to obe«rve, tliat ' we wish to see him delineated in more 
' lively colours, and with more particular strokes, that wo may 
' at ivASt perceive eome of those einaU spcck>4 and blemishes, from 
' which, Hs a man, it is impossible he could have been entirely 
' exetuplcd.' ' If Mr. Hume had been fijrtuniite enough to uicet 
with our chronicle, he woulcl have found a few very ' piirticular 
etrokes' laid on with hvarty pood will, and would, no doubt, 
have been delighted to have had here pointed out to him one of 
them ' specks and blemishes,' quite enough to satisfy him tlutt 
the great king was human. It might have startled him, how- 
ever, as it probably will some of our readers, to hear his ' com- 
plete model ' dcxigiiiited — let us hope rhetorically— as ' a Judas 
among the apostles,' But this great promoter of learning did, 
it is to be feared — for we have our chronicler's word corrobo- 
rated to a certain extent by independent authority' — take from 
these unfortunate monks of Abingdon very nearly all which the 
Danes had left them, their town, or 'vill,' of Abbendon, with 
all its belonging^, by force {lu'o/enfer) ; of which fact we have 
further evidence in a subsequent cliartcr of Ms own grandson, 
Kine Bdrcd, who has to undo this deed of violence, and to 
expiate bis learned anc^^stor's sine, as well as he might, by late 
and TicariouB reatitutiou of the eaid property, 'pro expialione 
»c^entm nteorum pradece»Ktnmi,,' as his cliarter has it- Kay, 

' Hbtloiy of Enclind, I. fiS, orig. edit. 

* Sw WtUinwor M»Iiitci'1>ur;.'dc Oett. PonliC Angt.Lib. II. Script, post Bedam, 
Pi 99% 8S. 'Turn itci, malonim pmr^ntns consiliis, teiriiH qDromiKiua sppcn- 
dioH emit, ta wmm nioruniciud a-xa tvitgiV 


The Chronicles of Ahingclotl. 

another of Alfrpcl'it relatives And gucceasora, Eclwy, in hiaj>rm- 
legutm subapquently granted to the iibbey, gives liirit niiotliGr 
'parllciilar stroke,' na Mr. Iluiiio would call it, and aecuwci* him 
in pinin words of 'diabolical nvarice," in that he had Luilt for 
himself in that sacred locality an rnlt/icivm — hunting- bos, or 
other equally profane edifice — contrary to nil right and justice. 
It IB really alarming to think what dnmsiging effect those new 
exhumations by the Master of Rolls iTiay have upon old esta- 
bliehed reputatioDH.' 

Between the pagan Dimes and the moat Christian king, the 
good fathers of Abbendon Imd nothing remaining to them of nil 
their poaseseions but CuUiam, Wicham (or Wihuni),' and Cum- 
nor. The first restorer of their mined fortunes was Athektnu, 
who is called in the chronicle ' the first monarch of all England," 
and whose piety and munificence are extolled in higlily figura- 
tive language. He gave or restored to them land* in Dnnibleton, 
Flefortb, Shillingford, and Sandf'oi-d, besides consenling to the 
alieniLtion of various fiefs by hia nohlts in favour of the moniis- 
tery. lie kept the feast of Eaater. QS9, at Abhendon, in great 
state, with bis whole court ; and while there, messengers arrived 
from Hugh Capet, King of Franco, with valuable presents of 
old and jewels, to ask from the English monarch his sister's 
and in marriage. They also brought with them, as still more 
valuable offerings, divers holy relics^a nwil from the crosa, part 
of a thorn of the sacred crown, the spear of Charlemagne which 
pierced the sacred side, the sword of the Emperor Constaiitine, 
and a 'precious finger' of S. Dcnys— all which the king rauni- 
liccnlly made over to his hosts of Abbendon, in whose iiosaession 
th«y afterwards worked the moat surprising cures. The gold 
antl the jewels he kept, as far as appears, for himself. 

In the roign of his successor, Edmund, began the first of the 
numerous disputes between the monks and their neighbour?, 
the townsmen of Oxfonl. It w!is a dispnted right of possession 
to a meadow," called Beri, by the rlver-eide, near Iffley, or 
Giflley, as it is here called. The question was settled by a 
singular process. The monks preferred to confide their cause 
lo the judgment of heaven, says their chronicler, rather than to 


' Ihigililc iMoimaf. vol. i. iJDB) mya ihnt Alfred ' took awnj Ttnm them thE town 
of Alilngdon HUil tUa wlicito at llieir eaUtfui, bccniue ttiey bitd not laniie a aiitBuienl, 
roquilal tu tiiui foe vnnqti lulling tlnilr enccaleiL' This is an «*ii)ent min-retiiliDg 
of a puaei^M wliichououni tmru In (,1io IdrgoruliroQiole, vol- i, p, SO, 125, ' Victor! 
Dmmna pro vk'li>ria qun fruotiiK (it ilo Ornai nnpur EesviluTiu vii^tis imjiardm 
nddoiiit (jilionoin.' In this minUlce. Ljboub (Uugn. BrilU I. p. 317) nnd olticr 
write™ hnvo followod him. 

* Probnblj one ot iho Wittcnhnm!. 

> Still knawii K* Bcny Mcailow, oa the river-aiile, between Ifflej and Oxford ; 
no* bolonging to tlio Tnuteee of Majotfg Clwril;, U Abingdon. 

7%c Chronicler of Ahint/(!o». 


the * dJlfttory exceptions, cavils, nnd Bubt«rfugC8 ' of th« law. 
So, after three tl«yi»' fiiat, they placed a ahcaf of corn with a 
lighted lorch i» it on a round shield, nnd »ct it iiRi^iat on the 
vivej" ; it touclied in ita passage with wonderful precision lit, itll 
the lande bcloDging to the monastery, and nt Itial fiuiKlied by 
making the complete circuit of the uieadow in dlapute, which, 
at iKHnc Bcnsoiw, by the ovcrflomii" of the river, became an 
Itlnnd; ihiis giving ils yerdict in ttio nioukH* favour, to Uieir 
intense joy, and the astouishnient of the Berkshire and Oxford- 
nhire rustica, who had crowded both banks to see the trial, and 
who oonfinned the decision with unsiniiuous shouts of ' Job 
Abbendonicf, ivs Abhendonia!' Not the least remarkable part of 
the miracle ueing the fact, which the honest chronicler passes 
over as comparatively uoimportant, tliat the ghii:Id and nbcaf 
performed their voyage all the way against what all Oxford 
boialing-men know to be a prelty strong slreain.' 

The writer proceeds to lament a slate of things whicli occurred 
after King Edmund's death, when all the possessions of the 
monastery, he says, became royal property, and there was not 
a nngic religious remaining. Of the cauec« of this Mtiite of deso- 
lation ho confesses himself wholly ignorant, and therefore, with 
a forhcarancc for which we bIkuiM have been thankful to some 
ehrooieK'rii of later dale, declines to volunteer any (:''S|)lanatiun. 
Still, ill thiii second day of ruin as in the Hret, the deecU and 
charters of the house were miraculously preseived, to be forth- 
coming opportunely in better times, for the support of the 
claims of the faithful, and the guidance of such new benefactors 
as were disposed to make restitution. Is it a very imeharilable 
Kcpticitfm which suggests the possibility that, in an order which 
possmMd almont n monopoly of the arts of writing aud illuml- 
natton, such documetits were easily supplied, when wanting? 
Such pious iiiduatiy would be deemed aciircely ii fraud, if it went 
no farther thnn to establish a claim to enjoy their own ajrain. 

In the reign of Edred there arose more thiin a second Ibunder 
for Abhcndon, in the person of Ethelwold, or Athehvold, of 
whom, a» hao been said, besides the account given in the 
chronicle, wc have a separate Life in the appendix. Born at 
Winciiester, of gentle blood, of high abilities, handsome pre- 
sence, and agreeable iimnnerd, he had been attached when young 
to the court of King AtheUtan, where he had early oppor- 
tunities of learning that pi'actical worldly wisdom which was, 
no doubt, one secret of tiia auccesa. By the king's desire he 
took order", and was ordained on the same day with the great 

' It bs al«o «*criped the oliscrvatlaa of the itilitor, who upritkii of tha *hlcld 
' driniag tntj with the alrcom.' [Vol. II. Prof, zl,) 


77te Okrtmicles fff Ahingdon. 

Dunstaii, iintler whom, nt Glastonbury, be subsequently put on 
the iiiniiaalio habit, und ilevoled bim^eli' tu severer atutlica. He 
was all, eaya the ehronicle, that a man ouuld be. ' In ierrS 
positun vtlum actitarif vidtretur anfjtliiytm.'' He bad intended to 
complete his studies abroad, but Edgitha, mother of tlie youn;; 
King Edred, persuaded her son by no mean^ to allow such tt 
man to leave his kingdom. The king gave b!m the waste 
phiucs of Abbeiidon ; nud (bllowwl by Osfjar and certain other 
monks from Gli«tonbiuy, be wm< fomialiy installed as abbot, 
collected a broLliorhood, nud obtained from the king a re-endow- 
luent of a, hundred cassates of laud, apparently the bounda of 
Ceadwalla'g old grant, but which had now, through tiie unex- 
plained causea belbre alluded to, become part of the royal 
domain. He soon succeeded, by one means or another — ' partim 
ratiane, partim pretio ' — in rcgfunin^ for liis restored monaatery 
most of its ancient po^ttessions. Edred himself laid the Srat 
Btonc of the new buiklings, and took great interest in the work, 
fia did the queen-mother also. Nor was there wanting n miracle 
tointtugurutclhe new foundation, though the li^sson which it seems 
to inculcate is really of such very questionable morality that it 
reads more like one of the extracts which Mr, Fosbrooke has 
'conscientiously' printed from some satirist of monastic life, 
than the honest record of our simple chronicler. The young 
king, on one of hia visits to inspect the progress of the new 
building)!, was invitetl, with a large party of the nobles of 
Nortliumberhind who had nccompunied him, to partake of Abbot 
ElJielwold's hospitality. The mead flowed in nbundanee, and 
-King Edred, being in a jovial mood, ordered the doors to he 
shut, in order that no man should esoape hU fair sliare of the 
drinking. ' Qititl multaf Why make a long etory? says the 
chronicler. Why, indeed? we fear it was a very old story, 
even at lliat date, in the 'north countrie.' But the novel and 
miraculous incident was this : the servnntH were busy drawing 
liquor for the guosts all day, but the vessel, whatever it was, 
was scarcely dniincd a paint's depth, though the north-cnuntry 
gentlemen wtt lute, und went home ' rs drunk as hog« " in the 

Such an inauguration of the restored monaatery was not a 
very I'hvo 11 ruble omen for its future discipline ; but the abbot 
no sooner saw bis new fraternity, who had been attracted from 
all parts of England hy his reputation for learning and sanctity, 
safely housed, than he despatched his friend Osgar to Fleury to 
biing back tho pure and strict rule of S. Benedict ; and 
because be found that hitt new monies hud brought with them 

> ' IndiriciU vuUim.' Vol-ij. p> SS8. 

TUc C^nmieJm of Abingdon. 


from their several houses various 'ukcs' in reading and chanting 
he cent l« Ci'rby, in the diucvMc of Amiens, a house whose dio- 
vipline wns in ttu! Iiigh«i<t repute, for instructors, by whose aid 
tite services of the olioir were e^tiibliahed upon an uoifurm sy »- 
UO). The next succeeding monarcbB, Edwy and Edgar, showed 

?;reat favour to Elhelwoul, issued large writs of privilege Jtt 
invour of liw monaatery, (tiicludiDg the importiint right to frco 
cloction of an abbot from their own body,) niid inercattcd its 
tnwesAiouJt by various royal gnitits lUid [icrniifitione of alicoatioii. 
Edgar especially upi>CRn to hav« been a movt liberal bene- 
fsctor, and the chronicler i^ alniotit at a loss for language in 
which to sound hiii praises betittiiigly. He oonipnres him to 
David, to Romulus, to Alexander the Great, to Cyrus the 
IVrsisn. to Artaxerxes, and to Charlemagne; but laments at 
the tmmo time that 'the malice of the old enemy ami the cupi- 
dity of man' have not suffered the good king's benefnctions to 
remain in ]>osscs«iou of their bouse. It was not until the reign 
of Edgar ihnl Ethelwokl completed ' hi» new buildings ; »nd 
owiog to tlili delay, Edgar bus not only obtdncil the creilit duo 
to his own liberality, but zacifi historians have I'epresentcd him 
as the restorer of Abbendon,' to the prejudice of his predecessor, 
Edrcd. Tbo conventual church now erected, consisted, we are 
told, of n tower, nave, and chancel, all circular : the nave twice 
the size of the chancel. After ruUng Ms house well and wisely 
for ten yvani, Ethelwold was advanced by the king to the see 
of Wiuche«er, and IJndiiig the monn*tery there occupied by 
certain secular cb'rkji, of verv evil lives and lux diacipiine, be 
summarily ejected tlicm, and filled their plnces with souio of his 
trusty brethren from Abingdon. Hie reforms, however, wcrv 
near costing him his life; he narrowly escaped poison at the 
bands of one of the discontented clerics. He recovered, bow- 
ever, and lived to found, in course of time, the Benedictine 
Abbeys of Ely, Thornoy, Hyde, and Medehsmstedc, or IJurli 
(Peterbornugh) ; all of which look their rule from Abingdon — 
'ol^oot«,' says the writer, 'from that fruitful vine.' He held 
his see two-aud-twrnty years, and after his death was canonized 
u the great Siixon siiinl of England. He was succeeded at 
Abingdon by hist fuilhfiil Osgar. 

King I'Ldward Uie ^^lin-tyr was n protector and a benefactor so 
long as bis short reign lasted, and gave them certain lands at 
KioK^ton Lislo ; hut his brother Eihelred proved an enemy, 
rt'CJilled all bis father EUgnr's benefactions, and sold the ahbacy, 
now vacant by Oajjar's death, to his major-domo, Edrie, for his 

* TbcBUlbMof tbo'Lifu' tdjii, lliii; nure not cunriewEif uulU ibeii,t>QL lliUls 
buritr NcoDcUrtile with ibc geavivl liimoiy. 

* Sw Obivn. Johanii. Brontplon, Ulholivil Alitwt of Bivnali, Camden, &u. 


TAd ChroniclcB qf Abitiffdon, 

trotlier Etiwin. Bishop Etbelwold was aUo dcatl Ijy thi» time, 
ftud the abbey had now no powcrlul iVleiul. Edric soon fell 
into disgrace with the king, and being bauislied (iram the king- 
dom, returned wilh n force oC nmrnuding Dunes, who long laid 
waste the country ; which the writer considers a palpable judg- 
meut of Heaven upon the Biniony of which the king had been 
guilly. And somewhat in this light the king himself appeiirs 
(o have considered it; for, in a v''^'vilc-f/>itm granted some (ew 
years after (a.d. 993) to Abbot Wiilf";iir, we find hira restoring 
tile price for wliich he had granted the alibucy to Edwin, as an 
accursed thing, ' aitalJifmatisandv ' — reiiisUting the biother- 
bood in all their ancient rights and privileges, and only asking 
m return the favour of a few masses and psalms— -say fifteen 
hundred masses, and twelve hundred psalms — which the worthy 
lirethrcn of Abbcndon sang, we may he sure, with good heart 
and voice ; and were not purticukr, we will hope, to iiu unit iu 
the reckoning. This charter is couched in rather better Latin, 
and in n lees fttiectctl style than the ruyid docomeiits of earlier 
date ; here, too, for the GrsI tiuie, all the bishops and abbots, 
who are witnesses, append the names of their respective sees and 
houses — a custom which in all the previous charters is confined 
to the Archbishops of Canterbury (who always sign as Doro- 
hernensis) and of Vork, and ihc Biahopa of London and Win- 
chester. It will amuse the reader who ts curious in such matters, 
Slid give him, perhaps, a more favourable view of the resources 
of ecelesiiistioal Latin in the tenth centnry, to observe the inge- 
nious variety in tJic formula of attestation ; no leas than twenty- 
two diiferent Latin verbs nre called into requisition by their 
lordsbijis to express their assent to the charter, until the Abbot 
of Glastonbury, who comes twcnty-tbird on the roll, finding his 
vocabulary exhausted, contents himself by merely subscribing 
hitt name, an example which the rest must have been glad to 

Whether the ravages of the DiiniKh invaders who followed 
Swoyn into England to avenge tlie lunssacre of S. Brice's Eve, 
and by whose cruelties other religions houses suffered so lament- 
ably, afiiioted Abingdon to any Bi:riuus extent, is one of the few 
Questions on wbicli the twocbronioles are appai-ently at variance. 
The shorter MS., De Ahhutibu*, says briefly, but emphatically, 
that they ' utterly destroyed it." But of this destruction we 
find no hint in the larger clironiele ; and in a passage a little 
further on, in speaking of the death of Edmund Ironside," the 
writer records it as a subject for especial thankfulness, that, in 
all these intestine troubles in England, though the enemy laid 

> yol.Lp.S64. ' Vol. il p. 2S0. 'AlibendDummamuiDa ilelevemuL' 


f CT« C/troniefei of Abingdon. 5i 

iraslc all around thorn on the rlgbt hiincl anj on the left, oT 
levied hcdvy riintoius ae the price of lbrbcamni.'c, Ktilt their 
bouse of Ablwiiiloii, nrotcctciJ by tlic mercy of Iieiivcn and the 
vigilance of Ahbot Wulf'gur, romuincd tIii'OUf;huiit unloiiclicd hy 
Dantah spoliation; lanf^age which ia hikriily to l)C I'ccoiiciied 
with its utter (lestmclion hy them a few years heforo. 

King Canute, at all events, followed in the good path of his 
Saxon predeceesors. nnd was a considerable Mnefactor to the 
inonnstery. He gtivc them the church of S. Martin, at Oxford, 
and gnintM of luiid iu other pliiees. As a joint gift also from 
himself and his queen ' with a double iimnc,' j-Elgiva Imina, 
(a piece of unnecessary luxury ul which the cooil monk cceins 
Ecandalized,} he presented to the church a cheat richly inlai<l 
with gold and eiJver, to contain the roUques of S. Vincent of 
Hpain. Uow these hud come into the pOBHcs(>ion of their houe«, 
is u point upon which the writer of the chronicle is prudently 
silent; but wc arc afraid there ia no doubt about it, tor in \\w 
sketch Dr. AhbalHiua we have the story of their acquiciitiou told 
in very brief and matter-of-fact language, without any idea of its 
implyintr disercdit to the brotherhood — rather, perhaps, aa an in- 
i>tiioceot' their zeal and ingenuity; 'the monks of Abbcndon «Co/<3 
tlietn' (_/lirrt/4«m(),say8lhuwri!er, with many other similar arti- 
cles, from tlieir brethren of Gla^ tunbury. It was in the days of 
good Abbot 0;<gar, who, it may be remembered, had been brought 
up at Glastonliury, nnd probably knew whore they were kept. 
'llic bones of ri, Edward, king and martyr, were also brougnt, 
about this Ume, as n pious offering to Abbetidon ; but it would 
seem ua if there were some flaw in their rightful claim to thoiie 
aa well aa the others, for the translator, whoever he was, wlahed 
to have taken them back again to the place whence they came, 
but found himself miraculously rooted to the ground, and 
unable to proceed further in his pilgrimnge of reetituliou, before 
he had got fur from the church door. 

Eduai'd the Confessor bestowed on them aeveralgiimta of land, 
and issued writa addreaacd to all his bishops and oarons within 
whoso jurisdiction lay any of the lands of Abbendon, to permit 
tlie abbot and the convent to enjoy unquestioned all their rights 
in the hundred of llornimere, or Hormer, with right of 'sake 
'andaoke, toll and theam, infang-tbeof, hamsoken, grith-bryco, 
* and forestenl,' within their own proper manors. lie and his 
queen Ediva were on one occasion hospitably outertnioed ut the 
Qtoiui«(cry by Abbot Siwurd ; when (lie queen, obserrins tliat 
the hoy-monks, at the early luncheon allowed them before 
refectioD-time, had nothing set before them but bread, appealed 
to her lord for some grant in land or money to mend their fare, 
' as a rcincmbrunec,' ahv was grauoualy pleaded to say, ' of the 
Ko. cnt. — N. 8. . c 

The Chronicles of Abingdm. 

' queen liavin^ once limclied with tlieiii.' The ktn^ professed 
to have nuthtog whicli he could verv couvenieiitly dispose of 
juet at thut tiiuo ; upoa which she made over to theui the manor 
of Lewknor, near Tetswortb (an ancient posseasion whicli the 
monks had lost, and which she happened to have recently inhe- 
rited under the will of a kinswoman), to supply tlie boys' tablo 
with a matulimidim for ever. In this reign (leriniesioii was 
given to the citizen* of London ami Oxford, for the accooi- 
modatiou of the trading-lioats which were constantly passing, 
to divert the wurae of the Thames, whicli made ii wide tUtmiv 
near tht; town, hy cutting a new and mure direct channel 
through the abbey lands; in ackiiowledguieiit of which each 
boat was lo pay to the cellarer a yearly toll of a hundred salt 
fish, at some time between the Feast of the Pnrificali"n (Feb. 2) 
and Easter, a custom which the boatnjcn continually tried to 
evade : and the monks had to enforce Jl by royal writ under 
Henry I. Their nhbot, Siwnrd, about this time was anxious to 
have floored a^ a Church reat^irer, and like many modern entbu- 
eiasl^ in the liame line, determined to begin by n thorough 
demolition of the works of his predecei^sors. lie obtained the 
king's sanction to pull down Fthelwold's building, aud to erect 
something laigcr and finer in its stead. But the canonized 
bishop possessed an advantage which it is much to be wished 
other religious architects of old days could have put in force 
against over-active churchwardens and dilettanti rectoi-s. lie 
appeared to Siwnrd in his own proper person (in n drcain), and 
begged him to let tiie old wtills alone. He couplrd ihia warn- 
ing, indeed, with a prophecy, that an nbhot should arise in the 
latter dnya (in whose taste, it must be presume<l, he had more 
confidence), who should rebuild, enlarge, and beautify the house 
of S, Mary, and prove in every respect a worthy father and 
BhcpbcriL Siward had the good sense to take his advice, and 
to give to the poor the money which had been laid aside for the 
restoration. lie was soon after made Bishop of Rochester, but 
returned to Abingdon to die. 

Of the abbots next in succes^on belbre theCont)ueat, little of 
importance is recorded ; of one of them, pi-ohably, the less that 
was »uid the better. In or about a.d. lOoO — for as to the exact 
date the nuthoriticit seem hoj>elessly at variance — one Speravoc, 
or Spearliavoc, was appoiuted by Iviiig Edward to the abbey. 
Ilia chief reconunendatton seems to have been bis escellence as 
» goldsuiith. Kot that such an art in those days was in any- 
way derogatory even to a lord abbot, for S. Eloy, we know, 
owed his elevation to the bishopric of Noyon to his renown for 
such handicraft, and filled his new monastery with promising 
young artbt« ; and his fonMnan, S. Theau the Saxon, was not 


7%* Chronicle* of Abingdon. 


'the \ef» a tMiA bGcaiiM he was an excellent worliinfi jeweller, 
ibbot Sjuwrlmvoc, iiowcvcr, liad vi-rj- little of llie eaiiit aud n 

^good i]au uf tlii: Jew nbuut htm. i'romutnl by the king to tbe 
M« of Luniloii, he hiul vnlni>>tMi to him a quaiititir ol' gold a»d 
nniciow geins lo iiiake an iiuperial crown Tor hie roj-al {latron. 
Now, even the onlioary perquiaites on such occasions, under 
Jea of wiute, tare, and tret, muflt have beeo pretty consider^ 
ibl«: for S. £loy aforc^id produced fu^o etate cliaire out of the 
aalcrialii entrusted to hitn for oru, to Kiog Dagobert'a joy and 

^jur}>ru<c ; but the Bishop of London, uolilce iii« brother gold- 
Binith, vcidked oil' with the whole pluudcr, and all he caulu get 
tvgcthitr of the cpiMO|i»l revenue bc«ii1ci, and niu never vcen 
in KDgland i^ain. Plainly there was ttometbing suspicious 
atiouc bini altogether; fijr, ai^cordin;; to the Saxon Chronicle,* 
Roibert. Archbidiup of Canterbury, refuaed hitn conaecration ; 
atf), although he held the bi^wpiic 'during the euuioier sod 
autuuiD,' he appeum uevcr to have been oonsecrated at all. 

Up to the unte of the Conquest, then, we lind the Saxon 
king* ami nobles lavish in their uiuuiiiccnce to the house of & 
^Xivry at Abhendon. Of tbe eslent of its |Ktsses#ions we have 
•ircady seen ample proofs. 'All the lands friitii Enshain to 

I * Dtwdiester belonged to it,' »iya Leland; and 'it wiis the 
•mother church of many of the villager round about, which had 
' but chapels of osn:.' Besides thJe. it poaseased lands at Strat- 
ton in Bcdfonlfbirc, Bedwin in Wiltshire, I>umbIcton and 
Caluwlcn in Glouce»ter»liirc, Keuetngton in Middlesex, and in 
the counlies of Surrey, Sussex. Stitfolk, Usnts, Hertford, 
Dorset, Warwick, Wiuccntcr, Norihnmpton, iiud Nottinghiun. 
The motives for these vnrioud henefiurtioue arc usually set forth 
in the beginning of the cliaitertt, and arise almost entirely out 
of titc doelrine of penance. Monarehs give, like Ini, 'for the 
remauton of my sius ' — oh indiilt/entiam crtminum ; or they seek 
to extend the beiielit to their subjects, like Kenulph — rtoji aolum 
pro Ultima mm, fl pro toliwn gentU MercioTum salute (I. 24); 
ur to ttieir pri-jJecetuturs uud buccl-msoi-s in the kingdom, like 
£dwatd the Elder (I. HG); aonietiines, as in the case of Edrcd, 

I the rios of their aoce«lora alarm them even more than their 
own-— pro KTpiatiotie ^celerum nteorum predeceaaorwm (I. 125), 
KlJielre<l is niovi-d ' to avert the judgment of God upon hia 

I CkroD. SaioD, wliL OitiBuD, p. ISI. i,.K. 1C4S. IVood, iu en unpulilisbnii MS. 
(SS). intb«iVsliinal«Mi Uiuedin, aav« l.hnt !^[i«nr)isruuir)u uinilo bishop of LouiIud 
bj Williun I.. qDOting 'Ueg. vol Ub, Muuusl. liu Abbuuilun,' (ol, 113: one inntaneu 
out of nsn; of the cnrcleu tnunocT iu wbioli \hma ohronicki Luvo bvou uia-rvad : 
tat Ixilii agne In placing him nndFr tbu Cuiifesitor. Scs ;^|>p. At Ablmt. vat. ii. 
pL J81. Anil Florence of Votreauft looonnt corroborutci Ihcm : ' Liiiiilom» 
I'll wain urn *iuclp<t<, »o<l iLnt«i|uain coDKcmtui oMct, n rcgcEdwudo eat ejflolDs.' 

C 2 


The Chronictes of Aiingdon, 

country, incarreJ by bis own ignorance and evil mlviserH* 
(I. I«!U), and again, 'to cacapc tlio curse of his fHtht-r' Edgiir, 
whose grants he had re-appi-opriatcd ^1. 367). King Ctvnute 
gives in a right royat spirit, j^reeirig with all thnt wu know of 
hia character — ' because ihc kings of earlli brought preseuta to 
Him thnt was born King of tlie Heavens' (I. -1.3!)); Hardi- 
cnnute with mure ciilcuhitiug viewB — oh nmiunerfitiwiem ctelenlw 
pnenni — 'ibr the recompense of a heavenly reward' (I. 44fi). 
Moblea gave their l;iuds, nn Sir Alberic de Vere did Kcnsingtoo, 
for the siml of a beloved son — pro ammd Goinfi-edi Jilii sui 
defuttcU fll. .lO). Milea Criapin of Wallingford bestowed a 
manor at Colubrook in Bucks ' for the ecrvice which the Abbot 
Faritius by his skill had rendered him tn hid sickness ' (II. 97) ; 
ttiid Kobcrt Fitz-Aynion, for the psime rcuson, gives lands be- 
tween Hiini[istcad and Murlow. Mr. Stevenson, in hia very 
intereeling preface to the second volume;' is rather severe upon 
what he calls a ' system of conipc-nsatiou ' with Heaven for tha 
crimes of the rich aud powerful. There can be no doubt that 
the principle was carried into abuse, and that it often involved 
a corrupt doctrine of the nature of repentance; but we must 
confess that we are more inclined to believe chtiritnbly that the 
repentance which so readily entertained the idea of rt^t't itutioa 
mi^ht ofteu be not leas real than that which cnutines llaelf to it 
spiritual process however sincere. The alienation of a rich 
manor to the use of the Church and the pour in the lifetime of 
the owner, ' for the remission of hia sins,' was surely a proof at 
least that there wns an actual sense of sin to be remitted, and 
an honest step at least in the way of amendment. It is not tlie 
fasiiionable form of repentance, certainly, among the priuces 
and nobles of tliis nineteenth century ; let us be content to hope 
that in dajs when it was both recognised and enjoined by 
the only religious authorities to whir^h all men appealed, it waa 
often accepted, however imperfect in itself, ' according to that a 
man bath, and not according to that he hath not.' 

From the time of the Conquest, although the stream of royal 
and nuble liberuliiy still continued to How nt intervals, the 
monks of Ahliendon had enough to do, in moat reifjua, to hold 
their own against the Crown and their neighbour barons. They 
did HO, on the whole, willi aucceaa. If their wealth tempted 
the cupidity of a couqueror like the first William, or a needy 
half-acknowlerlgcd king like Stephen, and presented continually 
too irresistible a bail to the unscrupulous Norman barons, it 
also supplied them with what aeems to have been the surest 
means of obtaiuing justice in those days — njoney to purchase it. 

' Bee Vol. 0. Pref. UdL 

7^ ChroAieles of Alingthn. 


There were exceUent lawj-era, too, amongat tIio»o wIk) wore lli« 
cowl ; and the}' I'ouglit tlieir battles (iis we sJinll aec hereafter in 
the long fuit about their market] witli aa much skill as per- 

The Normal) Invaaion, says the dironicle, did not ootne 
without it« warning. The crcat comet which appeared at 
Kastvr, 1066, ant) was luiblc tor eevcD months, wae considered 
— like i(« fellow of 1858 — the herald of war. Of the Oi)n(|uort 
il,^ir the writer says bnt little; protiihly the eoluinpomry 
reeord.t from which his brief narrntive was compiled, m»iiitain«d 
a prudent reserve on the stibjctit. If an oi>iniori either way 
oiuld be gathered from the iVw lines in which he notices the 

I event, it would seem that he considered the Norman's claim to 
the crown aa least as good as his rival's; for he epeaks of 
Harold it gallaut defence at Hastings aa 'fool-hardy hulducA^'— 
innulsus nutuf' ; aiid though he laments tho (ligturhed state of 

, Kii'^lniir] for wiiuo time afterwards, he seems by his language (o 

['attribute it quite ad niiich (n llie ' king'? enemies' who main- 
tained themselves in the wood^ and marahee, ' living like pirates, 
by plunder, and murdering nil who fell in their way." and even 
cadliug in the Danes, to moke matters worse. The csplanalion 
of this bias OD tho part of the cfaroniders of Abbendon may 
perhaps be found in the fact that their own house had little 

'reason to et^uipliiin of the Conqueror. Their abbot. Kaldred, 
niudo bi* nubmissitm, nud was iu tolerable favour a-ith llic new 
tiKinarch \ for wc find William rcsloring eomu mnnnm which hud 

j been held of the abbey by i>ne Blaokman, and h:ul been justlv 
forfeited by his flight from Edgtimd with the mother of Hnrold. 
There appeared good hope also of Abbot Ealdred recovering for 
Ilia house, by the king's grace, certain other hinds held under 
lease, and forfeited in a similar manner; when unfortunately, 
tfomc retainer?* of the abbey were discovered to have joined in 
one of llic many cotispirficies of the day, nnd the abbot haviug 
thud incurred the royal displeneurc, was seized and diq)0i»e88ed, 
und ended his days in a aort of honouiable captivity in the 
custody of Walkelin, Bishop of Winchester. Other troubles 
fell thick upon the house at the same time. Abbendon, like 
many other religious houses, had been made a place of deposit 
for their valuaUca by many of the richer Saxons, who fciu^ed 
the vi(4eiicc tif the eomjoerors. Frogerus or Roger, Vice-comea 
of Bcrknhire, aud other royal oflicialg, unfortunately got gcent 
of the prey, and lost no time in feri'eting it out; and it may be 

* 'firatMVN ■!«» rapCtm •mcwt, sw*7«e otivua vStroiteare.' 
atMlLp. 3.L3. 

4S£L Sm 

n 7%e CAfonicles of Ahinr/tlon. ^^M 

TC»d\\y ima'^ine<l tliat they were not very pnrticulitr in discrimi- 
nating between the veritable i)r(jpcrty of the Lroihcrliood and 
th« lawful ajmila of the diisaftected. The ptuiid<?r inside and 
initHiiie the walla, the Wiitcr says, ivns terrible ; not only beyond 
compiile, tut past even guessing. Roger, however, ho rejoice* 
to tell 118, was speedily to reup the ikserred rewiinl of his 
iniquity; the king soon aCtvrwardit tuok his tnnch-almxed 
(lower nway from liim, nnd ho eudt-d hts diiys in ohaciirity and 
disgrace. Queen Miitildu, too — whom most readers of history 
picture in their iniufrinitlions as n pattern of domestic virlue, 
ailtiiig at home working diligently at her tRpestry whilo her 
royal husband was cnnqucring Jind plundering abroad^hnd 
unluckily heard of the precious things belonging to the church 
of S. Mary, and sent to deninnd a share orthern fur heriielf. 
The abbot and his brethren thought to piicity her by n sdeetion 
ofKuch He they could Uiost conveniently spare: but her niajenty 
was not to b« put oil' with anything eliort of (he heft; i^he 
'utterly spurned' what waa exhibited to her as the nbbot'd 
offering, and they had to give her some of their choice^ vet>l- 
ments, a chsisnhle nnd cope wrought with cloth of gold in a 
wonderful fashion, and other eccli^siustical vanities, which, it 
must he supposed, excellent necdlewoDiiin flmt she was, she 
easily converted to leininiiie iiae- Amongst her plunder wiw a 
text of the Gospel* ; hut it had the additional reeoniuiendation 
of being coverud with gold nnd gems. Lastly, their own sayrist, 
n monk from Juuiicgea in Norniimdy, followed the example of 
his niiuiiuding oounlryaieu, and went otV home with the frag- 
ments of a golden corona worth forty pounds, and many other 

To fill the place of the deposed ahbot, William brought over 
from Jumicges a monk named Adelhclni, a Norman of his own 
type, strong-willed and warliko, who knew how to bold his own 
against all comers. He followed the good Norman fashion of 
sending home for his friends and relations, to enjoy some of the 
good thingEt which were lo be hud in Siisoii England, srnd lea!<cd 
away lo them several of the richeat manors belonging to the 
Church, which were never recovered. In the unsettled stnte of 
the realm, the abbot held it unsafe to walk abroad without a 
doe number of armed retainers; and we have the first intima- 
tion of feudal service being required of the abbey in the order 
for its military tenants to keep watch and ward in the king's 
oaatle of Windsor, Some idea of the importance of the house 
and the extent of its posBCsaiona may he formed from the fact 
that it could muster at this lime from its scTCral military 
tenantA thirty-one men at arms (and a fraction over). They 
appear to have served the king in Normandy, Scotland, and 

J%e (^ronielea of Abingdon. 


Wales, lite abhot himself wa&, probably, at Icaat «s good ft 
soldier as a clittrdituan. Ue accompanied King William's 6on, 
Bobcrt, oa an expedition affalnst Malcolm, King of ScoUand, 
wtdi inslnictioDs to {rive htm his clioico of war or pe*ce. 
Malooltii u'tsciv choftc pnioc : and if the stout abbot could ntcid 
the *worH to as good puqiusp im his ' incw/fa,' \\k would have 
prored a fonni^ablc ojijuiiicnt. Ho found tlic king'* slevrard 
fprtffMmihu) of the neighbouring itiannr of Sutton imprciuiiig 
the abbey oxen to narry aoni« of the king'a lead. King's lead 
or king's fm^potilHt. it was all the same to tlie fiery abbot — 
what business bad they with the church cattle? lie laid his 

IKtstond staff of correction — the aforesaid haaiUta, 'wliicli he 
iHpIK'ncd by chance to have in hi» band' (it was well for the 
officer that it was nothing; worse) — al>out the back of tlie 
offender, ' ltiml>lcd out the lead,' and took the oxen home again. 
He caught this Mmic prirpM-ihut on a su1t»cquent oecflNon cut* 
ting wood in htf forc^l of Bagley, and loading ht^ wnggnna 
therewith ; who was fain to escape this time by ttwiniming hi* 
horse through the mill-etrcam at the risk of drowning — ' wet 
it[) to his neck ' — rather than encounter a second time the strong 
arm of the Church. It is true that for this summary vindica- 
tion of his right« he had to pay some tnllc of smart-money on 
oomplaint being made to Qiieeii Matilda, then regent, who did 
i»ot approve of such .tharp dealings with her servants ; but, a» 
the chronicler IcIIm tii<, aii<l we may rcud'dy believe, the abbot 
was never troubled with Ire^iriaesers again. Consistently with 
his character, he had a true Norman contempt for everything 
Siucon ; even speaking in disrespectful language of Sl Ethelwold 
and S. J-^waru, tbe great benefactors of his bouse, calling them 
Knglinh boors — ' Angloe nuticoa' — and forbidding all commemo- 
ration of them, to the horror of our historian De Ahbatibva; 
nay, he carrie<l this impiety so far, that, one day at diuner in the 
midst of his fnn-ign friends and relations, he vowed he would 
pull down Ethelwold's work, as unworthy to stnnd ; aud died 
suddenly a few niinutea after he hod risen from table. 

William Hnfiis renewed the charter of the abbey, presented 
to it the church of Sutton-Cnurtney, and for some time was a 
warm patron of the new abbot, Itninald or Reginald, who also 
came from Jumicges. But the day of royal favour did not last 
long ; an unfortunate »>n-in-law got into some trouble with the 
king, an<l the abbot went bail ivr him to tlie amount of SOO 

Sounds of silver ; which sum, as the defaulter went off to 
'landers, the abbot bad to pay, to the great and lasting detri- 
ment of the abbatial revenues; 'we feel it now' — says the 
chronicler — vaque ad prasaia. Between this heavy loss, and 
the opprotrive tax of four shillings {aoiiiii] for evcx^ b\dft oC 


The Chromcles ofAUngdon. 

Innd, n'bicli l1io Idng now levied lliroiifrlicut llie renlai, the 
iibfwy fell iiilo {:;rciit. ittriiilii. AIiIjo! llainahl, like hia prede- 
cessor:', wait desirous of leaving liis impress upon ilie monastic 
buildings, and had begun to enlarge the okl chuith bailt by 
Ethelwuld, which was probably found too small for the acctim- 
tnodation of the brothernood, or too humble for their expanded 
wlcnju. lie was sitbBtaiitlally aided in his work by thf Constiiblc 
of Oxford, Robert D'Oyloy, a very rieh diiid, and in times naat 
an cxOL-ediiigly coveloiis one. He lind wronged tlte Chuicli of 
ila jiotisefl.siijnH whenever be could, and anionesl other acts of 
injustice had taken posacssioa of a meadow oelonging to the 
abbey, near Oxford, and applied it to the use of the castle 
garrison. The fraternity of Abbcndon renicmbered him in their 
prayers; first, that he might be brought to a better mind; 
olberwiee, that the Virgin i\-imld be pleased to punish him. 
The constable fell feick ; and iu a dream ho saw the Vtrjiiu 
seated on a throne, and oi'dering him to he carried into the 
aforesaid mewlow, where certain 'very ugly little hoya' seized 
him a& their 'darling playfellow,' fumigated him with damp hay 
in a very unpleasant tHshion — which the curious reader may find 
at length in the chronicle — and otherwise ingeniously tortiientud 
him. He awoke iu horror; and after taking counsel with hia 
wife, made Bolemn reparation of his wrong before the altar of 
S. Mary at Ahbondfiu, and ever after was as noted for his 
liberality towards the Church as he had been before for his 
rapacity and extortion. lie now contributed a hundred ponnds 
of silver towards the abbot's improvements. But S, Etholwold's 
jealousy of the architectural meddlings of his successors seems in 
some degree to have been justified. Abbot Riiiuald and his 
workmen went cscc-ediugly near to bury the whole brotherhood 
iu the new foundations. They had contrived to uDderiiiint; the 
old towej while they were making their improvements, and 
down it came in the middle of the nigbt with a fearful crash. 
If it had not been for a 'divine instinct' on the part of the 
prior {who seems to have been an suspicious of architectural 
abbots US S. Ethelwuld) the monks would have been at that 
moRiciit performing ' noeturna ' underneath; hut he hud happily 
suggested their adjourning to the chajiter-house, va that they 
suffered no greater personal hann than being nearly blinded 
with the dust, which alt-o extinguished all their candles. The 
new works were stopped for a while ; but subsequently, by 
Robert D'Oyley's help, thoy acem to have been completetl. 

At this time there arose in England the nefarious custom — 
'rufanda consuciudo^ — as the writer calk it, of Iheemrhear lo the 
crown of all monastic revenues during a vacancy in iho head- 
ship; which it thus became the interest of the monarcJi to leave 

7%s Chrontdf^ of Ahi»i}<hn. 


oafilled as lonj; a» pai«ible. The abbacy of Abingdon, after 
the death of KnitiaM, remained vacant four yeara and a half;' 
during which lime tiie prior. Mother!, rce^-'ivcd ihe whole iucoine 
at procurtiUrr, jiaving the subordinate oflncci'B their slipcude and 
providing for the mainienance of the e^itHblishmcnt generally, 
■lid {uiyiojf over the balance to the king'* [invy purHC. It vn» 
not until the death of Kufue ami the ucccsdion of Uviiry I. that 
ft now abbot was ajiiraiutcd. 

Henry. Iiowerer, iost iio time in filling up the vacnitcv ; and 
the inMidlittiun of the new abbot proTed a hiippy day for 
Abbcndon. They were now in very low estate; Motbert Imd 
tsikcii advantage of his temporary power to onricli liia own 
relations, after Adelhelin's example, mtli the best of the abboy 
estates by Icnse or alienation; with Hueh cftect upon its rc- 
venuee, that out of ci^^hty ciu'ncatcct of land limy had now Icfi 
in their own posscdsion but twi-iity, the fifty i)iiiuk« whom 
Etbciwold lind left there liitd dwindled down to thirty-two, and 
those had ' warcc anylhiu;^ to eat ' ; and th(; eloicter, i:haj)ter- 
h'lWM^ and dormitory were in ruins. The Buperlor who wn» 
recommended to theni by the royal letters (in which the kinj^ 
wa.i graciously pleased to say that he knew not where he could 
find ihein a Itelter patron) was I'aritius, an Italian physiciaD 
who had taken the monn^lic vow* at Mahncsbury. The author 
of the shorter chronicle attributes his appointment to the direct 
interposition of tlio Virgin. lie tells us that on the accession 
of tlte new monarch, and in tlie hope of ihe meant abbacy being 
DOW fiUdl up, the brethren Imd set apart certain days (or faittin^ 
and prayer tliat it might please Heaven to give ihcm a worthy 
governor. Whoretipon the Virgin appeared in a vision to a 
boy named Nicholas, who was watching before the allar of the 
Trinity, and bewailing the low estate of the house, that they 
had now no shepherd, nor any one to do them good — ' not even 
my imclc Motbert," he added feelingly (for Motbert, a^ wc have 
eeen, was careful to provide for his own at any rate, and had 
now been remove) to Middleton, before his pious nephew was 
oM enough to come in for any til' ihc loavcH and fishes at 
Ahbemlon). The vision bade him be of good cheer, and tcU 
the jirior and the brethren from lier lo Kt<k King Henry to give 
tlicni for their abbot ' her chaplain Faritius, cellarer of Malmefr- 
bury;' which they accordingly did, imd bad their re<]Ucsl 
granted. Whether tliey owed this appointment to divine or 
royal wisdom, they had good reason to be thankful. Both 
chroDiclere are lavish of their prais«s of Farillum; nud the facts 
which thc>" have recorded, especially when read in cunnesiun 

' So Myi IliO chrontolu ; Init [i. ptacca Rsioald'e destli in IdSi?, oiiil (Lc bccbs- 
ika orilculy iu 1100; K'Lk'b woiili! onlj ntlon' lime yi:&r&. ll.i'i., li. 


The Ckrcnttclea of tVnngdoiL 

with Mme !iic!<lciiUil notices which fanve nil the v»luc of un- 
deagned evidence, nill not only jitslity (heir liuigim^u, but 
leave us to ivgret iliat we have do hilkr Ri:iter'tiil:i r(.-ii)[rniiu<T 
for the biography o1' one who in any ag« would have heen nn 
. ordinary man. Extensive learuinir, variecl aocotupliahmentN, 
n winning grace of manner, an cloqncacc which euuld charm 
the great, and affability which would lislen to the humble — 
the^e were only the outward ornaments of a character which 
combined u no« tent atio lis piety with energetic practieid wisdom. 
As Boon as be liiid been iipptiinted, be sot about the needful 
work of restoration grndimlly hut in ennicst; he rehnUt the 
cells, the navo of the cbuivh, tiie chapter- bouse, the diirinitory, 
the refectory, the cloister, the abbot'd lodging, and the kitchen. 
The timber for iheae works he obtained from Wales, by way 
of Salisbury, ' at great expense and with mucli labour ; ' hia 
wagons, drawn by twelve oxen each, were aix or seven weeks 
going and returning. During hU government be trebled the 
number of monk«, and mitde belter provision for their table. 
The rental of bis own private properly in Oxford he devoted to 
n caritiis annually. The poor brethren in the infirmary bad no 
tire ; from a siniiliir source he iiinde pruvieion for it. He watt 
m good a etewui'd of the conventual property that he recovered 
for his house, by one means or niiolbor, the lost manors of 
Sparsholt, Legh (Bessel'a Leigh!'), Hanney, Benham, Lewknor, 
Ibfield. Linford, Lechainpsied, and (Julham — the libGrtics of 
their hundred of IJommer, the tithes of tlie game in Windsor 
Forest, the toll of herrings from the Thames boats, the mills of 
Cuddesden and Uenor, and sundry other rights ami privileges 
which at one time or another since the Danish incureione ba^ 
been wrested from the weak hold of the diminished brother- 
hood. No anch abbot had been seen, aays the ebronii-ler, since 
the day» of Ethelwold. Ue gave to tiie abbey, as the text haa 
it — rather, in moet cases, recovered for it — the churches of S. 
Martin in Oxford, IVIarchxm, Uffinglon, Cuddesden, Witten- 
hiun, and Nnneham. fie was lavisli in bis gifts of ornamentfl 
of all kinds for their own conventual church of S. Mary ; great 
dosscls for the choir, wrought with the histories of Job and of 
the Ten Vii^ias, candelabra of silver, thuribles of copper gilt, 
cups, patens, and amjmllts, and two large bells and three small 
ones. And more than all, he enriched their stock of reliques 
(of which be had n careful inventory taken, which fills three 
pages of the chronicle) by procuring for the house a shoulder- 
blade and an arm of the great 8. Ethelwold, begged from 
William Gifford, Bishop of Durham; and a whole haunch, 
which the writer dwells on with evident gusto — hrmvia tola — of 
S. Adelm. 

TAe Chronit^s of AbingdaiL 


In mich nble tmntU the nbher of 8. Maty dounshec), and 
Bpn>ntl i>i>r brnnclu'R I'nr and wide. Fariiius sceina to h«re 
niaintniiictl tliroiighoitt liis wliole lirn, by his upright churacicr 
Mid wiiimi)^ inanin-rs thai iQliDiHtc coiincxion with princes anil 
noblod lo which hi? skill as n piiyi-idnn hnd Btvt inlrmlticcd him. 
lie vfa» Appointed first phjoidnn U> Queen Miitildn, who wns 
now hoping^ to )fivc an hvir to the thnnic; aiu) Oiv gmtit^idn of 
his royal patient prociirwl rnmi linn a ^rnnl, in sitd <il' hi* new 
W'trkfi, of all the materials rciiiJiitiiiij; on tin; Isihind of Amirc^^-y, 
before mentioncil. tiie royiil ruflid^nee tipoi) wiiieh, now frhloin 
occupied, Hnd tidlen intu bud impair. By n ^uhflcqitcnl ^ratit 
he »Uu obtaini'tl I'rom the king the island itself, which had long 
been a NabothV vineyard in llie eyes of the hreihrtin of A^tben- 
don. King Hein-y continued a staunch friend to the abbot and 
hi!< liou»c throughout the whole of his rei^n. He confiriiiBd in 
the largest manner tile ehartcr« of the CoD^ucror, nnd issued 
repeated writs of privdegc in their favour; cxemplionB from 
royal tolls, grnnta of sporting in the woods of Oumnor and 
Bagley (reserving to himself the vlags), all the tithes of Uia 
^xma in his Fort-st of Winiitior — in fact, every mark of royal 
lavotir which he could bc^ilow, iiml proIecHon against nil cn- 
eroucbwenl^ and diminution of their rights however attcmpred. 
Whether the military tennntR of the abbey lands icfuM'd any 
ciulomary suit and service — or the royal verderera disjxili'd as 
hi the number of pipa for which the nbbot had rifrbt of free 
pannaj^e in Kingsfrid Forest — ov the villagers of Sutton Courl- 
jiey (who seem to have borne the character then as now, of 
being troublesome neighbours') interfered with hts rights of 
' hundred ' — or the Oxford boats refused to pay their yearly 
herrinfrs— or the men uf ytniitonbioke the abbiit'« i>lnicc— or the 
men of Farnlmm curried off bis hay — down came, forthwitii, a 
royal rCiWript directing them to amend ihcir ways, usunlly under 
mnalty of ten ]iounds furfeit, and begging in very intelligiblo 
language that the king nnght ' hear no more of it.' Henry had 
even nominated him to the see of Canlcrbniy, in snci-cwion to 
Atiselm, but the hiahops of Lincoln and Salisbury — ime chro- 
nicler says from jealousy of his inflexible integrity — sncccsi«fully 
opposed his election.* 

Fnritius was no less an oneouragcr of learning than a careful 
Hiewnrd of the eoiirentiial estates. He liberally provided, otit 
of hia own private finances, parchment for the use of the itcrip- 
toriuin, prv l&rnrum renovatione ; and the catalogue of ndditiona 

' Boaiwt ■it Siilritn icmpcr infrnli.' Vol. ii. p, lit. 800 ulso p. I?9. 
' There U ■ wnjrular rciuon given in ihe Approilix Or AHalilmt (vxtl. iL p. 
1 H Ikofraund of hin nycetion— ' JVen ttfJiert archirpitnpwTii unnaa muUmtn 

7%s Chronicles of Abingdon. 

to the abbey library during hie govi 

ternment, however iusigntfi- 
cant whcii compared with our own days of literary profusion, 
might at least help to fiji-nisli an additional argument to moet 
tlid dcrlaimers agfiinBt iiionkii>h ignorance. There were copied 
by bis orders the chiif works of S. AuguHtln, S. Auiitrose, and 
S. Ctirysoatoin, S. (jy]irinn's Letters, the Uomiliea of Bedeand 
Gregory, and ihu CoiumcQiAries of S, Jerome on the Old Tes- 
Inniont— with many olhera, incluiliitg scvend works on physic 

rerhapt* the moat iiitcresting epiFode in Faritiiia* life, and 
whieh gives us just one of those glinipBes of an old interior 
which are as tantalising as they nro dc^lightful — th<;y sujjgest ao 
much, and tell so little — is his connc^ciou with the iiobie family 
of Dc Vcrc, Earls of Ghisncs in Normandy and afterwards 
Oxford.' Godfrey, eldest son of Eurl Albcric, a young man of 
high character, bad been for three months at Abbenduu under 
Faritius' treatment foi' a lingering disease. From this the skill 
and kiudnew of his physician relieved him; but sotuc Other 
sickness attacked him when convalescent, and he died and was 
buried at Abbendon. Ilia parents, eays the chronicle, 'loved 
the [dace therefoi-c,' and marked their love by gifts for God's 
Iiouour and the brotherhood's. Voung Godfrey himself had 
mode over to the abbey, before his death, by their consent, the 
church of Kensington in Middlesex, part of bis patrimony. 
But since the De Veres lived in Essex, 'many miles from 
' Abbendon,' 'they were not able lo be present so often as they 
'desired in that place where the mummy of their son was pre- 
' served.' They founded, therefore, in their own immediate 
neighbourhood, a religious house at d/lum or thhts (Culne); it 
was to be perpetually subject to S. Mary's of Ahbeudon, and 
to be colonised by monks from that hnuse. With the full 
consent of their second son Alberic, now their heir, they 
endowed this new foundation li!)crally, and obtained for it a 
charter from the king.' ' There they promised themselves they 
and their posterity should rest in tlie body.' Culne was not 
Abbendon; but, like the 'two mulea' biu'dcn uf earth' which 
the Syrian would carry home with him — like the window which 
Daniel in his caiitivity set open towards •Jerusalem when he 
prayed — it carried hack their spirit to the home of their holiest 
afFcetiorid. Alberic the father, witliiu a few years, feeling his 
end appro II clung, took the reliaioua habit there, and was the 
first buried witliin its walls. William, the youngest son, soon 
followed him. It is pleasant to know tliat the good phyNcian 

' V.ii. ii. pp. fiB, 67.en. 

' An agruDUioiil whb rondc A.ii. IHtl hj which Colne bficiiiac a free priorj. in 
eonaideratiau ■)( t.hulr tranit'vrnng Iboir vhurvli of KemingloD la Iha monks or 
Abbeiuloa. Dugitiilo, M'o't. tv. OS. 

7%e C/tronicles qf Abingdon. 


tnd the tried frienil wila pretent »t t\»» luat death-bed; able 
niid riiady, wc will not dutilit, to adininisttr fipiriliml help wliea 
eai'lhly Aill imd ciirc hm) liiih^. ' lie was preeont there, nnd 
perfortued ihe ritps "f ihfl tiead.' Such is the brief record 
before us; but wc readily lill up for ourselves tho picture of 
the kind aitd noble cliurcniuan, physiciao of the bouI iind body, 
to whom th« ntflicted family look for help and comfort in thcita 
heavy trials, and who leaves the duties of Iiia houso at Abben- 
don, to him so all-imiiortant, to give wtiiit help h« may in th« 
household of his friend. The chronicler cii])ie8 for ux tb« 
epitaph on the tomb of the De Veres, which as it is no longer 
to he read in their Church of Coluc, wc tu!»y here recite. It is 
not witliout a rude beauly of its own, and will not be read 
with less inbcre.3t if we regard it aa probably from the hand of 
Faritius himself: — 

• Oedmil e vitn votJs ftnimiaquo cnpitu, 
Barbarus ot Scita, (lentilia et Isi'iiBlitn : 
Has parikr mntoK hnbet ODioia sciiin «t mtaM : 
En puor, en aenior, imter alter, filiiia aitpr. 
Legem, fortiiiiiira, turratn vunuro aub miiim. 
Ncpd jureni tutw qiiiia epotavit AUienaa,' 
Nou vctiilo iiotaj vires vi"! upiiB viiluore ; 
8«tl valutsro fidus, I't pi'tedia. quuhi memuramna; 
TTt vatvaul, Tuleaiit. pur aa'oula ctmcta pracamur.'* 

It was probably in the family of the De Veres that the abliOt 
nude acquaintance with Hugh de Montcheaney, who for love 
of him made over to the monastery of Abbeudon the tithes of 
htM church of Edward^tonc in SuiFoIk, with part of the tithca 
of Staverton and Stanstead ; for we find as one of the witiiessea 
to this ;;nint the ntunc of Alberic Vere the younger, and 
Montcheaney had previously contributed an acre of land to the 
endowment of their house at Colne. 

Yet even this excellent abbot found foes in his own hoiise- 
hohl. Tile brethren had oifered him, when engaged in his 
great work of restoration and enlargement, a fourth part of their 
daily ration of bread, lie thanked them for their good will, 
but instead of accepting it, declared his intention of adding to 
it half a mark in wiij^ht for the fiilnre. If the bread, however, 
was more thnu sutlicietit, stilly William Precentor, and one 
Poadio, took upon themselves — * instincla iluihali,' .-ays the chro- 
nicle — to murmur at dome real or fancied diminution in the 
allowance of cheese as originally settled by the regulations of 
S. £tiielwold. The king being appealed to, eent Radulph, 

* Woed, auatinK thU phnuw froin tho MS. {Ifiit. and Ant>\. Oj:. toI. i. p. 13'i) 
■ oonMlns tki* to have bccD il Oxfonl.' 

* VoL U. p. no. WcxTsr nav eight of llie Dc Vere ntiiDDiuontB in Ihc prioi^ 
<kiiKlt, bat d«M uot Kim this {lucripUon. 


The Chrcniel«a i 


Arclibishop of Canterbury. Roger. ISiahop of Raliebiiry, ami 
Hugh Itocliind, a» cuiiimi^sioiicrs t^i inquire into the grievance. 
The nlibot iniuk n dignilictl ppcuoli, in which he set forth hII 
tliHt he hntl il»ne for his hmi^e, nn<l proteeted thiit hi; had never 
done au;2ht conlrnry to S- Ellielwdlil's inslitutions. Tlie ai-ch- 
bisliop, whii eoeina tu liuve [loaec's^ud sometliin^ of the true 
judicial mind in keening to the |K>iiit at ie^nc, re[>lied by a very 
brief query — 'But now about the'r" Whereupon tiie 
abbot prticeeded to exgiliiin that thit onginul wciglit of ohee«e 
allowed by tlie rule of their founder for forty-two inouk^ /or 
ten dnys, could scarcely hold out so well when diviiled, as now, 
umougst thrice that number: but that he would make arraiige- 
tnents that they should in future have the same weight given 
out for five dnys. Then the eommisei oners put on their stolen, 
lijifhted their caudles, and pronounced a solemn iimithenui in full 
chjipter ii^iiinat all iiiterlerence with the cheese in future; 
' /''iaf, fiut, Jitil!' answered tdl the brethren in chorus; and 
William Precentor aiwl his nlliea, we uiifrht charitably hope, 
were snti»fled; for this cliroiiicler enys no more of tlieni. But 
there ia a dark atory, rather sugj^eated than told in the shorter 
record D6 Ahhttihug, which may lead us to fear that the pre- 
centor carried hie revenge farther, and that Faritius, like his 
prcdeecedor Ethelwold, had poitton administered to him hy those 
whom his active reforms had made his euemiea. It was after 
eating of u dish prepared by this monk's bunds, eays tJiu writer, 
that he was seized with a di^cHse winch he at once recofiniBcd 
as itwrtal.' Of *uch cause of his death, liowever, the clmmicle 
itscif says nothing. He ' rested from hie laboui't; in a blessed 
end,' on the 23d of February, lOlG-7, having ruled the abbey 
thus widely and honourably for aeveutccu year^. It wna a day 
kept with bifih honour and aulemnlty by the brotherhood ever 
after. liucli had been his own wish, expressed in his last hours ; 
the one jiersonal vanity of hie life, that the charity which ho 
had provided out of his own private property in Oxford should 
be distributed on the anniversary of his dcuth^' I pray you,' 
said he, 'forget me not.'^ The last wonis upon bis lips were 
LlioMC of ihe 2(iih Psalm — 'Lord, I have loved the habitation of 
Thine houiie, and the place where Thine honour dwelleth.' 

For four years the abbacy was again vacant ; three hundred 
pouuda was paid out of the revenues yearly to the king's privy 
puree: but we are honestly told that there wu* no lack of due 
provision for the brotherhood, Wareiiger, their aged prior, 
governing them during that period well and wisely as procu- 
mtor for the king. 

' Vol. U. p. 260. 

' ' Tim ts^9 «*• mmwm txnitre,' U. l.ia. 

Tit CAroitKka o/Ahingdtm. 


At length, on hit return fiMin Xonnandj-, Kinj; Henry, in 
answer to ttic humble entreuiies of (he brotherhooi], beatowed 
on them si? their uew abbot one ViDcent, a monk of Jumiegea. 
The »{)poiii(iiiciil sverua to have been very popular; a good 
rc[K)rt of liiiit, for piety aod kiadncMs of heart, luu) already 
Kttclted Abbendon, and after his oluutiuu Ite set a renmrkable 
example of self-denial and humility by rising early every morn- 
ing to fill the lavatory with water before the brethren were up. 
lie coald nevvrlhelea* maiutuiu ihe rights of hts hoa»e with 
firmnces, when ucetiful, even against the king and bin courtier*. 
A Ion" and wcari.iome warfiiie did he wage, and with auocvm, 
in dcletice of Al/ingdun Market; a right which the abbot 
claimed under llie chaitcr of King Edward, and which certain 
tlaliererd of Henry would have pen-uaded him to interdict. 
Abbot Vincent todt the usual mcung in those dny» of obtaining 
a. royal dedfflon in hie favour; he preaculcd tlie king with three 
faonored marks in silver; to mii^e which he had to etrip the 
great snpcr-allar, on which the twelve a[)oetles were figured in 
pure gold ami rsilvur by the liandtt of the blessed Elhelwold 
him»clt. Tliey eoulimted to hold their market undisturbed 
cvcu during tlie Btiirmy reign of Stephen, who confirmed nil his 
predeeedsor's charters; although during the civil war 'the 
'whole Church of England was grievously vexed with divers 
• iribulati'ina for many years, and Abbcndon suflored amongst 
' the ^e«t^ One Simon, the king's i^teward, and his sen Tumtin, 
with whom there had bi;cu a lung dispute about the ehurcli of 
JJarchani und 80<ue lands at Toduiordcn which the nbbgit had 
re-»eizedt went to King Stephen with the usuiil nrgumcnt of a 
pune of money, and the righu of the bretherhooil fiiHeTed in 
oURSequence. They were restored to Uiem, however, on the 
aoeeasion of Henry II. Abbot Ingulph soon learned not to 
put his trust in princes {especially when there >vere two 
claiming tlie crown), and procured from the Pope, Eiigeninu 
III., two suoccHdive bulU confirming the abbey in all its rights 
and pusWMioDS, under thrciit of excommuniuntiun against all 
who sliould hereafter dlitlurb them. Tliis did nut prevent 
Stephen from laying his linndn upon all the gold and mlver he 
could find in the abbey, for the payment of hid army.' He made 
a very successful raid there; for not only had Abbot Ingulph 
himself been collecting a hirge sum in gold and silver tor liie 
puri}iMC of rc-covcring the shrine whitdi eoulained the reliques 
uf S. Vincent, but privnie individuals had deported there untold 
wealth — jucuRMX injim'la* — fur siife custody, as they hoped, in 
the disturbed state of the kingdom. They had a triutor in 

1 Vol U. pp. 210, 2BB. 


The Chronicler ofAVtvg^. 

tlicir own household, the aaorist Simon Cratimis (the fat), who 
gave the king informatioo of this rich prey ; iind forthwith wan 
ecnt one of the royal officers, William Dipre — 'a servmit of 
the devil,' as the ehronicler calU him, with very excusable plnin- 
nees of sjioech — who hnving obtained admission into the abhey 
church for the [ireleniled purpose of making his prayers there, 
broke open the chest in which the treasure hiid been deposited, 
and carried it off. Fiit Simon was re\v'arded by the king for 
hiB treachery by speedy promotion; but ho reaped his reward 
in another taehion nliio ; for within three yearti he died, ' eaten 
of worms in his hands and feet.' It is more than hinted also 
that the vengeance of Heaven upon thia act of safirilege overtook 
the king himself even more speedily — ' for in the same vear in 
'which he laid hands upon the property of" the Church, King 
' Stephen died." 

During the rule uf this abbot, a dispute which had occurred 
with the steward of Winchester respecting some right of pasture 
near Uffington was settlad, in oec^irdance with the custom of the 
tiiiieH, by ordeal of battle, in which the abbot's champion was 
victin'ioua. He was more jerdons of ihe rights of his houao 
Bgainst others than careful of ihem where his own interest was 
concerned; for he alienated divers of the abbey possessions in 
consideration of tines which no doubt went into his own pocket. 
' against the will of tlie brotherhood,' retaining the common seal 
of the house in his private keeping; and thtse lenses were in 
coosequcuce annulled iifh*r bis death. He was very charitable, 
however, to the jjoor ; in one year of remarkable scarcity, after 
exhausting his own private fiindd to supply the wants of those 
who crowded the abbey gates, he stripped (with full consent of 
the brotherhood) the shrine of S. Vincent of its gold and silver, 
and bestowed to this charitable use as much as torly ptmnds in 
silver.' And he would have repaired ibis pious sacrilege, as we 
have soon, had not King Stephen ap|)ropriated the money which 
he had collected for Ihe purposes. 

Alibiit Walkelin. who suocceded, had to renew the battle in 
defi'uce of hia market at Abbendon ; a right which was now 
attacked afresh by the citizens of Oxford and of Walliogibrd 
combined. They succeeded lit first in obtaining, by subtle 
representation,*, a precept from King Henry limiting the privi- 
lege to the sale of some tiifliug commodities only, instead of 
the 'full market' which the abbot claimed. They waited until 
the king had set out for Normandy, and then, headed by the 
constable of WalUngford Caatle, marched in force to Abbendon 
on the market-day, and began to clear tlie place in the king's 

' Vdl. ii. p. 188. 

• Vol. ii. pp. 21*, 201. 

T^ Chrtmiclea of Ahingdon. 



nuDe. But they joiiiid iiiopp llmn llicir irmtch in the sbbey- 
retaiiieri) iukI tlit! lowimtulk of Abliendun, who tiiniei) iijion th«ir 
asMtiliLiiUi and drove them clear out of tho town with disgrace. 
Ttii; ilcrcated party weDt straight to the king in Noruiamly, and 
(not sparing falsehoode, aiys ihc chroiiiclei". to make their own 
Btory good,) obtaiDcd n writ nddrcsised to Bobcrt. cnrl of 
Ldccstcr, llicij Cliiof Jnvrice, eontHiiiinj;, iia they sirpoccd, 
'the utter ovi-rtbrow nl' Al)!i(?iidciu iiiiirlift.' Whut it did 
contain, however, wh«n it CAma to be rvm), wiki merely an 
order til auDinion a jury of twenly-lftur eldera, who noiild Hpeak 
frtmt persoaa! knowledge of how tliinga at^wd in the days of 
Henry I. The jury sat aceonlingljr at Farnlmrough, and 
returued a venlict in f:»voiir of the lUR-ient right of the abbot to 
a * full uiarkttl for all vendibles.' But notv stii objection watu 
token to tin; coiii'titution of the jury, upon wliieli eurrnia tenants 
of the nhbey itself had been liuiiimoned, who ini^lit, be supposed 
to Iia»e been biassed in their decision. The tting granted a new 
trial, which was held at Oxford, where the jnrors (or rather 
witnesses for the dcoieion seems to have rested with the Earl, 
as chief justice) gave very coutnidictory testimony. There 
mui^t have been some Imid swearing on the part of the men 
oJ' Wallingford, who maintained that nothing hitd been sold in 
the lime of the firal Henry, esecpt 'bread and beer.' Tlie 
0:( ford deiionenTs admitted something mcire than this, but still 
Dot a 'full market,' open for all boats and wnggons. Others 
from the county deposed to a full market, but were not positive 
as to any trading- bo«t«. The Earl of Leicester, upon this conflict- 
ing cvideiiec. declined to pronounce any official decision ; but the 
brolherhoo^i found an unexpected and uninipcachsible witness in 
the carl hin)!ielf', who wt;nl, to the king and reported froui his 
own personal knowledge, tliat there hud been a full and un- 
disput£d right of market at Abbendon, not only in Heniy the 
First's time, but so far back as William the Conqueror, when he 
himself, as a boy. hnd been cilueatcd in the house. And again the 
king garc judgment in their favour. The disappointed citizens 
tried indeed to induce Henry to revoke or modify his decision by 
protecting tluil if u free market w;is aUoweil at Abbendon, they 
ccMild not continue to hold their tiefs, and do suit and sei'vice 
for them ; but the king treated this attempt at intimidation as it 
deserved, and drove them from his presence ' in a passion.' 

The chronicle has little more to tell. Upon Walkelin's 
death, Godfrey, bishop of St. Asaph, held the abbey for the 
king, ' vice 'M/niiit,' for nine yenrs and n half.' He wa« deposed 

' The •liorUr i.'liranlvk. 11. 'i13S, caja Liial lie »Ha .i>i!>[>t.. lli:)iuilli:l. Aliliiit of 
pMerl>c>ivii);li, 'Uijb Ibal. )jc n^^t^ncii hia bishi>priu in [fac bupo ol' lieiiig Ui[);iuiutt»l 
to llin bIiIhkj. (EdiL IIuujuu 1- lUi'.) GoiImId suiipgeeH liim lu 1>d tieulti7 uf 

MO. cue. — M.S. D 


The Chronicles of AhingSon. 

for having incurred the haired of tlie hrolherhood owing to 
tlie insolence ol' his i-eintives, and the ahtiey given by the 
kiim to Roger. ])rior of BtTfuotiJsey. wlio ruled fur the same 
]>enud; but during all these yciirs iiuthing sccnie to hiive 
occiirred in the hJaloiy of tito momwtcry inalcrinlly worth 
recot'iiing. Upon Aljl'ot Roger's liucitusc, the iilihey waa once 
more jmi In churjic of u inociirator, one ThonmM de HisuebuiT], 
who created a terrible conjmotion tliere hy iiistitutiii« a search- 
ing inquiry into all the rcvrmica and rcBotirccn of the house, 
and causing a roll to be niiule ^ultiiig forth all these at large, 
with the various official wihi riw* and duties. Such an inqniiiitnr 
wa» not more popular in thiiM! Juvm tlian he would be in our 
own. ' He was a niecotid Uahaliiikeh, in intent,' Bays the 
pioiia chronicler, ' thuu^'h T would not call the king a 
hennachcrib.' The roll has been preserved, and gives a 
Com|)k'tc list, it may be presumed, of the abbey household at 
lliat tinio, which seems to Imvc aiiiounled to at least a liundred 
in and out-door .lervaiiln of all grades, most of whom hrid 
liveries once a year, on the Nativiiy of St. Mary [Sept. 8]. 
Thoniae of Hissehurn saw the expenditure all too much. He 
made his report to lianulph de Glanville, the king's chief 
justicu, that nil the oats grown on the lands of Abbendon 
would not keep the monks' horses for a year, nor all Berkshire 
find them in milk and cheese. He insisted, in short, that ihcir 
expemiiture exceeded their income, lie proposed, therefore, 
to seize to the royal use dui'in>r the vacancy, not only the 
revenues of the abbey itselt^ as was usual, but also the general 
estates of the house, and to stop the salaries of the oHiclals, 
allowing them a hare inainienimce out of the proceeds. These 
strong mcnsureji of econoniiciil reform the brolberhond resisted, 
denying the accusation of estravaganee, and jileading aucienl 
right and prescription. Tlie chief jusliee. 'fearing,' snyd the 
narrator, 'to incur the anathema of S. Elhelwold by any 
change in his institutions,' gave bis decision in iheir favour; 
and the king soon after ap|>uinted Alured, prior of Kochester, to 
the vacant abbey. The little recorded of him stands out in 
dark exception to the general chai-a(;ter of the Bcuedicl'uieB. 
Such was hia hard and cuvetoue nature, tliat in a winter of almost 
unprecedented famine, he saw the wretched popuhition dying 
at ois gates without offering to relieve them, ' ihough he was 
very rich and had his garners full.' The last abbot of whom 
thcHo chronicles makes mention was Hugh, 'the tirst,' snya 
Antony Wood,' ' who was canonically elected from their own 
body,' in spite of the repented royal charters confirming to them 

' ' Uir primus inter Abliatca cic AbingJoa de gremio ecdeaijouaDODice eUctag 
ut.' Wood's MS. 55, in Ashmol, Mueeniu. 

7%e CAromtcfe* of Ahmg^mt. 

tJie right of free election. Kind, courteous, mid liberal was be 
to nil. bolli within nni] witlirmt the wiillv uf li'u monastery, iiikI 
the longer be lived, ihir more was be luved iiii<] re»|iccU!i]. Two 
nrconicil iridiaiicefl of bta libotality are chiiraoterialic ; bo im- 
proved ibe quality of tbc nbbev beer, and gave the reiita of his 
' vill ■ of Cuddcadon to supply the brethren with the wine 
which tbc abbot was bound to furnish them on certain fcii- 

Here, then, in the fimt year of the reign of Kicbnrd T. [1 1891 
both chi-oiiicle^ end abru|itly, ntler reeoidinjr the fori.nnea of 
tJie house for aome five hundred years. Why iwo nairatived of 
Beeiuingly indeijcndent autborebip should break oif al l!ie Kinio 
point, can only be explained ))y tlio gii;rgGStion of eonic puiwiblc 
revolution or cutcutropbc oueurriug at that time to tbc house 

It does not full within our pruvinee to truce tbc lill.lo that ia 
to be gathered from olliur itouicen ns tu the niib^eiiiii^iit fi>rtiines 
of this magnifiiieni foundation. Tlie ahbol,* who li>lli)weil aeeiu 
nearly all to have been monks of their own body, if we can 
judfTc from their locid dc^ignaliotis: Kolicrtde Hendred, Henry 
dc Frillbrd, Kiduird de Hendreii, NicbolaB dc Culhara (about 
wliO:to lime f 12S!),J j)i-'ib»,bly llic nmiaining west entrance was 
built). John de Sulton, William de Comenori!, Itn^rrde 'I'lianie, 
William dc llanuey, Itin-hard de Boxor, and VVilllain As:vhe<)nDe. 
Amonjjpt the exceptions was liichard de ('live Ki*ifictipi, who, 
with bis trt-a-furer, cbnplnin, pitaijecr, and Bciieachal, in shurt, 
nearly all llie eliicf officer* of hiif house, wns drowned with the 
Iwo lay -brot hern, ti«lieriiien, who rowed the boat, in returning 
from the Ito^pilahle board of Sir Iticbard dc Znncbe, at 
Cbieelhampton, 'amongst the islanda called de la Wyke.' ' 
Henry 111. kept his court there in 127t;.' In V6tl the 
diitpntcd market at Abingdon brought greater troubles to the 
hoono liian «ver. Tbc townsmen, ' inccnced at the unreasumiblc 
' dodinga of the abbot and convent iti relation to the sftid 
'mercat,' met at (be tolling of Si. Helen's bell, burnt the 
f;uildhall, lately built by the abbey, and ullacked t.ho hnurte 
itself Dcfented in their first attempt, ihey nnpliwl for aid to 
their nei^hlwurs of Oxford, the mayor of whicli city, — ' a«cora- 

I 'puited, lis vnid, with iconic scholars of a desperalo condition, 
' and glad of »ny divet.tiou rather than to study '—joined them 

I OD the Sunday following) burnt part of tbc abbey and the 
manor of Barton, drove out the monks (killing one at the 
Altar)) destroyed all their chai-lers, &c., anil did dania;.^ alto- 

• Wood'* H9. K. Wiltli (Mi'r«d Abbej> L 1,} taja tbii RUhitnl de Clive was 

' Duiiuable Clironiele, p, iM, tdit. Hearne. 

D 2 


The ChroTiicles of Ahingdon. 

petlicr, which is variously aMosBed nt from 10,000/. to 
40,000i. (!). The end of it wiis, that the ublmt movcil the 
king's JiiMticG in the matter, and twdvc cf the guilty partivK 
were hundred, nnd sixty others 'ciist for death.' hut reprieved 
at the abimt's iiitcrcessinn.' The laat alibot waa Thomns 
Pentecost, or Rowland, who waa mnongBt the first to acknow- 
ledge the siipremacy of Henry Vlil., and in 1"»38, with tho 
rest of his convent, signed the roll of surrender; receiving 
at tho hands of the king, according to Lysons, the manor of 
Cumnijr, or, according lo WilUs, wlio quotes from iho pension- 
hook in the augmenlation office, u pension of 200/. per 
annum. Its revenues at the time of the dissolution were 
valued at l,87Gi per annum. The site passed into variona 
hands in rapid succession ; in tho first year ol Edward VI. 
it was granted to Sir Thomas Seymour; in the third year 
of the same reign, Sir John Mason appears to hold it for 
life ; and two years afterwards. Sir Thomas Wroth is in 

Of the honesty of these records, on the whole, we can 
entertain no reasonahle doubt. Tliey were compiled by 
Benedictines of Abingdon, with no idea of ibeir meeting any 
other eyes than those of their own convent. They little foresaw 
the possible strictures of a Protestant public, and had no fenr 
of the Master of the Kolls before their eyes. They were 
creilulo'ts; but not moro so than other historians of the day. 
Aa thi y believed, they wrote. They recorded the good deeds 
of thuir fraternity, but tliey were not silent as lo the evil. 
Miracles are few ; failings many. If we hear of the munificent 
charity of Abbots Adolstan and Ingulph in times of famine, 
we have the counter-picture of Alurcd, who saw the starving 
poor die at his gates unmoved. The writer devotes almost 
lis much space to his grateful record of Kicbard the Sacrist, 
the laudft wliich be recovered or |)reBerved to the house by hi* 
quiet exertions, the organs which be made, and the other good 
works which be did, as to any king or abbot ; and this, he says, 
because Riehai'd was gone to a place wbci'c Imman praise could 
nut reach bim ; 'none will suspect me,' he says, 'of flattering 
dust and ashes.'* The charters which are here transcribed have 
been compared in seventeen cases witli the originals, or with 
authcniic copies (in the Cotton Library, or amongst Arch- 
bishop Parker's M^S. nt Cambridge}, and though there are 
many mistakes and variations, Mr. Stevenson aasin-es us there is 
no trace of any intentional falsification. Their Latinityi as may 

' Wood, Uiitt., (md Aiiliiiuil. »ol. i p, iVi {Onaa. 1792). Tlio swbaliiri vn-ro 
tiewlod bja futura Arcbdeacoa dI Oxford — Udmund do U liuclie, of Bxetei College, 
• Vol, iL p, 208. 

TAe CArotiicIcn of Abingdon. 


be supposed, is not very classical ; and in the earlier docu- 
Dients espectallf. there is n mngniininious di^ri'gard of con- 
MructioQ. The chHrtern ofEdwy (a.u. 9^{l).»nd of lite vucecssor 
Edgar, have pressed into their ei.Tvi(.'cau(-\lriiordin»ry nuinhcrof 
Greek wordV "oJ indulge iu the morit niutriiiluqnenl exonlitinis. 
Wc arc mucti giveu to ctmiiilain of the [UYilixity of Icg&lj 
docimient* in our own day, ana the niint of tcfhuicitl words rn^ 
which il is oonsidored oeeefBary to involve the simplest iransac. 
tson ; what should we think of a preamble which began with 
the fall of Adaui, and touched on the Arian and ^abellian 
heresies by the way ?' 

Wo could have vrished indeed that the good Beiiedicdncs, 
instead of copying ont for ub nil tlie^o iiislrnnienis, valiiuble 
DS such rc«artls are in iheir way, had itsdul[;L-d na with fuller 
details of the inner life of their convent. In this ie8pect> the 
chronicles before ua are not nearly so intereijtiiig as the narra- 
tive of Jocelyn of Edmondabiiry. We gather from these 
writers that the rule of S. Benedict, even as reformed by 
Ktbvlwold, was not so etrict with regard to nlistiuence as ii 
generally MUppused. The brethren Kti Abingdon nppear to 
nave been allowed tienh meat (piobiibly [iujk) once in the 
day," and the general dietary luusi have been liberal enough, aa 
we are distinctly told tbiit not only were their own wants fully 
nliHlicd, hot ttiat the poor were largely relieved from the 
broken meat. If the weights at nil correspond to our modem 
standard, each monk hnd \)vvm\ oi|uivalcnt to more than half of 
a quartern hmf, unil half n pound of elieese dnily, with a very 
liberal allowance of beer twiee a day, hjdroniel on all fea^t dayi^, 
and wine on the great festivals of Easter, Pcnteeopt, the 
Nativity, the Assumption, S. Peter and S. Paul, and All 
Soiints'. In Lent, inlead of cheese, ' one Inrfije eel* eacli was 
nllowctl. Milk and eggs they had in abundance ; the hitter 
was always a large element in niuntistic cookery, and the 
consumption at Abiiigdnn nsay be ju<lged of from the (act that 
their own manors were bound to fiiniijli them with twenty-nine 
thousand yearly. It may interest a BerkBhir* reuiler to learn 
that they got their cheese from Goosey, Charney, Lockinge, 
and Shillinglbrd ; their eels chiefly from Wheatfey, Cumnor, 
and Swndfurd; their straw from the Barton farm, and the hay 
for the monks' hed« (twice w year) from Cidham. Their main 
fish-ponds were at Willenhain, Cnlhani, and Appleford ; and 

' e.g. Thcun, ononitt, nophin, bii»ilcii«, taumn, utogia, miin,Tigi«uB (liunmtiijj, 
[•bilx^iia. cpllcmjitkiiB, Ac 

' See Edwj'B t'liftfliiir, vot. I. p, 189. This wtw oYidently Mmiidaivil s gnsst 
liurxy iriumph, for \l is eoplttd wrbMim iu Edj^u BulioqueaL fibular, p. S50, 
ud BiholiMl'K, p. 353. 

■ T*L IL ^ «». 


Tha CAronfclea of Abingdon. 

the cgg^a and towlii came from Burton, Cuniiior, nnd other manors 
in the iicighbourimoj. 

The monastery, iii the middle »ges, as we have already said, 
■supplied the place of the t»o<Iem ' t'aehionuble hotel ' to travol- 
Icrs oF liny Jistitiction. Iq fuel, eo unHcrupulouMy did princes 
nnd iiohk-s uvuil themselves of the open <lonr ol' the religious 
house on tlieir etnlelv progressei, that their viaits liecuine a 
serious burden. The he(li;r tlic fiirc, the more waa the liberality 
of the brotheihood imposed upon. So mucli eo, that an abbot, 
in writing to Tetci- of Blois, complains, with a mclancboly 
facctionsuess, ibat this //osjiituli'tiis was become rather hoslt/i'tivi, 
aiid even talks uf abdicating in consequence,' The Imspilalily 
of Aliingdiiu waa always lufiijnlficent. Not to lueiilioii (rnests 
of inferior rank. Atbt'laian ki'pt Etistti' there with bis whole 
court in 939. Of Kinj; Edred's eiili^rtniinneiit by Kllielwold, 
and the inexhauslible bowl of liydromel, we biivo henrd already. 
EdwanI the Confessor and his (jueea were received there in 
1052. Henry [., when young, spent hi« Easter thi-re with 
Abbot Farilius in 1084, accornpHnied by Osmond, Bi^liop of 
Salisbury, Kobert D'Oylty, con^stublc of Osf>>rd, and a con- 
siderable retinue.' Queen Slatilda was entertained there during 
the Feast of the Aasnmption in UOti; and Robert, earl of 
Chester, with bis niuther, the ('ounlcss Erineiitrude, nnd his 
barons of superior rank, spent Wbitsuntifle of tbc. aume year 
in the abhey. SumetiniCB, it is true, these vinitn did not leave 
the brorheriioiid of S. Mary nut of piH-kei on the whole. 
Mstilda, fiir instance, helure ebe left, jiave them a valuable 
estate fifteen miles from Lundon, near Oolnbrook in Bui-ks, 
with womli*. meadows, and conveniences of all kinils (including 
the tenant nimMcIT, Kobert FilZ- Ilervey, iieeoriliii^j to the 
charter), lo ferve them as a reslin::- place in tlie Ion*; and 
fatiguing juurnev to the inctropulis. Henry D'Albiny, agaiDi 
who ajicnt the Feaats of Easter atui S. .Iame«, 1 K'7, nt Abtn>r' 
don, and probably died there, gave them lands at Stratton in 
Jiedlbnlshire iti return. 

Tlic ah!,'ot w»t: ti personage of con»id<'nilile state and im- 
portance even ont-iiile the walls of bi.-< cunveiit. lie had his 
ttiwn-htmse in ' Wt^tniinstcr Street,' near the church of S. 
Mary" (which also belongt:d tn Abingdon) — a gift from Ciilhcrt 
de Oant in the Conquemr'a days, and con6rmed to him, xvith 
an ailditioual tenement, by a grant from Henry ]. Besides Ins 
hah'.w;iy bouse at Colnbrouk, he bad a, hostel {fi/cut hogphix] 

• Digliy'ii Mvrn C'Okolid, vul. i. p, 35a. 

* AoLuimIo (liurkB, i. 112] «iy« lie vus cduviitud thi9i«; M alia u;« WurlDn ; 
but tliere <e no biat or it in either of tbe^ cLrtiuicles. 

» n. 197. 

CUrOMtcfr* I 




the north 

oiiUidc the city of Winchester, ' near 

LVilliain Giliord, bwhop of that sec, in 1114-5.' Biiylcy 
aiui CumDOT Woods were his 8|K>rting-p;roun<U, Horny I. haviiifi 
gifeo him rij^iit of huntincr there, reserving only to the ruyul 
use th« ti»29 or fill low '(U'lT,^ Hi: iiiiil rtjjht of free wnrren 
in nil Kcrkiihirv." He hiid n court of hii« nwn in Oxfm-d,* 
wiwri?, and nhei'ti only, all the ' hmtmitia^ of the nbbey were to 

If any additional proofs of the venality of justice, in th«c 
good old days of merry England, were required, the« chmni- 
cles w»uld fumtjih them nhunilimtly. * Turn prft) qnam pretto' 
)>cem« thv (."aliililiKlieil |)hrii!>r f'i»r uil (•iief^eni'fiil huiIuih. Iu nio^t 
otiMi^H, indeed, Ihi; jircJiiivt mi^lit «b wi-ll lirive cojue first. W e 
have seen how Abbi.i Ketliune found hi» silver and ihc lands of 
Suiton mure effectual than even a Pope's anntbcnia to t^ccnru 
hin]*<-lf i^inat Kio^ Kenulpb's Eporlin-; IViendH; uml it c*xit 
Abbot VinccDt three hundred murk*, bc»i(k'» mueli liii^ition, lo 
rcliiiii hitf market. A1>bol Kaliiald '^"V* to Williuin Kufim with 
tifiy [xmods of nilvttr innrtwn h<ir»:s to ^et llie iibbev Innda at 
Duinallon restort^d The holder of" thi-m (his own iieiihcw) 
oSers seventy poundft; and the ablmt bns ti> bid twenty more, 
and even then «ecoi8 to haio been uneiieceMinl,'' Williiiiii 
imprisoned ihc tenant of Spiir:^hult for some offem-e, utid seized 
t)iv land; niid tbo hiul lo lind Mxly |u>und.t to jireveiit the 
king*n layinfr hniidn on ih^ roi>l of hid liulding-i. I ngiilpli, (hiring 
llie fihbiicy, fe^d the sheriff of Ilerko with a hundred eliilllDxs a 
year, to secure favnur in liia court fur the alibey tenants.* Even 
the excdli-nt Faritius ol-iains jnslice, at Iciisl once, from liis 
staunob patron, Henry, thrmiiili the ii^ual medium- — ' tminc- 
rasn/o.'^ The hulder:> of lunnniam's belonging to tin-, abbey 
bribe the kiog'ti jtm-jumiiiis to get pj»eeB»Um of each other a 
holdings.' But it waa nut only wirh kings, or kings' offieials, 
that this universal argument wns all-powerful : even the reli- 
gion* iloor of the sanctuary itself cunld be opened sonietiniea 
with a silver key. How cnmc a king's--' conn*/*//;™ Bt^fin'—'it 
read:! better in Ihe Latin — to be burieil 'with griial, liononrs in 
the cloister before the door of the church?' Had ilie gift of 
Langford Mill by her son aoibing to do with iti"* 

Wc wish that it were possible to speak in unreserved approval 
of ihc manner in whiuh these chronicles have been riditcd. It 

* n. 111. ' II. lis. " IL 24S. 

' It. Ids. Bills, i|ui)tlng irtna n iQiiDiuii;rl|>l io 8. Jobu'ii Collegv Ubmry, la^ra 
11 wftt bcid Id a hooM on unnduoiit Briilin). 
» U. 80. 

* Tl , 380. " ul abbatiw homlnoi levins ttactnrtt, « co« tn pUclUn la bim- 

dreitis MljuvKTrt." 

' U. 185. • II. 25. » II. IW. 

The Chronictett of Ahviffdon. 

U Ji work requiring no ordinary amount of care and patience. 
We are not inscm^iblc to the ijiftioultioa wliicb preaeut them- 
selves to any one who woulJ even rend thcee old cliart«ra, with 
all l.ln'ir un grammatical cunslructiou* and iTrora in penmsiudhip, 
with any degree ol' accuruoy. The text, as it stands, is i'ull of 
blundcri); some of tliem most olivioiw even to a carelens reader. 
In the first volume we are distinctly informed by Mr. Steven- 
son, that these, though not unobserved, have been designedly 
allowed to pftES unqueslioned. The explanation is to be found 
in the first pnge of the advertisement, and a|>pe!irs to be n strict 
cnmjilianee with the siisigcBtion of the Master of the Bolls, that 
' no note or comment was to be allowed, esoept wimt might be 
neceaeary to eet!ilili:^h the oorrectneas of the text.' The wiedom 
of such a suggestion may well be qiieatiimed, espcdally when 
original errors of the copyist are accompanied, as they are pretty 
larc;cly in the present instance, by secondary errora of the 
modern transcriber or of the press, which add considerably to 
the reader's diffieulties. In the editing of the second volume 
this rct^trictiiin n|i):eurs to have been wisely withdrawn; but 
fttill, in spite of a pretty lonjr list of errata, the result is far from 
perfect. A more scrnpiilous care might surely have avoided such 
mistakes as those in the marginal titles, which cannot possibly 
be attributed to any difliculties in the MSS, or inaccuraciefl ot" 
the printer. A surrender of CtilhiLrii, in excliange for lands at 
"Watchfield, is called * Gift of Culhum,' which is the usual furm 
of marginal reference for dumitions to fhe abbey. A gift of 
eight man^iG on the river Kennetl is called ' Gift of Chinete ; ' 
a rescript of Henry I. concerning some stolen hay at Parnham 
is entitled 'Of Lands at Farnham;' Edred's visit to the abbey 
appears in the margin as ' Athelstan's ;' the eluice (cJnumrii) of 
the mill at Cuddesdon is called, both in the margin and in the 
glossary, ' enclosure.' The index, again, is very incomplete, and 
in several instancea positively mislcade. Under ' Appleton' are 
]ilaced incidents connected with Applofoid, quite a different 
locality. Grunia of land at ' Estantona" (Stanton) are referred 
to the head ' Kstratona' (Siratton in Bedfordshire). * Winter- 
burn,' a boundary of Dumbleton in Gloucestershire, is not dis- 
tinguiahed from the handet of the same name in the parish of 
Cbcvely, near Newliury. There are at least four dielincl places, 
bearing the common name of ' Eastnn,' recoi-ded as in possession 
of the abbey: one near Blewliury' (probably Aston Tyrold) ; 
anoiJier near Diinibletim;' a third 'contiguous to Lcwknor" \a 
Oxfordshire; and a fourth near Winchester.* In the index this 
last is the only one noticed, and the boundaries and incidents 

' Las;. 


■ Lies. 

' I. 319. 

The Chrftit^es of Abiftgdim, 



connected with two of the others arc rcft-rrcd to It. The topo- 
graphical antiquitrtiit), who will find thu old Siixon buuiidiiriiis 
a|)pendcd to the chnrlcr (ninny of tlicm Htill wull*kii»wn in tliv 
parii^hca to which they i-efci), niK) other hmiil fiurliculura cuii' 
mined in iheso volumes, esapecially uaulul iiikI inti^reaiing, niuat 
In; warned agaiiut Iriieting for a iiinment tu what such an index 
does or does not contain. The preface to t!»e second volunie, 
on the other hand, is liolh nble :ind pluiaantly writtun, iuid will 
•;ivo a tolerable notion of the chronicles themselves to a general 
Tciulcr who mny be »hy of eiicownterin-; the Liitin of the text. 

The iiinirniBeence of the ancient honnc of 8. lliiry hii3 ioiijj 
since paused away. A pilgriiiiU)^e to itu Bite will now only 
disappoint ihe uioat enthusiastic iiuiuirer. The old Saxon 
named recorded in these pages as having been settled round 
Abingdon before the Confiutsl, arc, niuny of them, well known 
there still — «>mc, perhiipn, on the very lande held by their 
anccslora, Armine, Coleman, Sncll, Beslle, Swetemnn, Wliit- 
lock, Ttuile, Thor^)Id (aino as Tyrrell), und Whitliiek, may still 
be foiitid. Pusey of Pusey still reprenoiita the ' I'isi" of the 
Plantagenets' day, and the name \b still, by the country people, 
IVcquemly »o pronounced, But the Benedictines have gone 
KoA left iwarcely a trace. Even the "stately west front' built 
by the Inter nbbols, which Lfhind saw, bus nothing Iclt but a 
etonc gateway near S. Niehnloa' Church, the room over which 
is now used for varions public pnrpoae^, while somn apartments 
below are occupied as a police-station and cells for prisoners. 
The anna of the abbey — or, a cross tleurie between four martlets 
Fable — with the royal arms, are still to bo seen over the entrance. 
Two long rooms,' now forming part of the preuiises of a brewery, 
are alinoxt the only other retuaina of one of the earliest, and most 
mag ni tint: lit of the Benedict incabbt-ys. Their groined stone roofo 
are elill perliect, and there is a good example of a fireplace," pro- 
bably of the time of Henry III. and a tall chimney of pictnrerque 
and singular design.' But even tradition has almost deserted 
lh« »i>ot. Almost the only legend which clings to it is horrible 
enough, and it is jJossible that there ie some foundation for it. 
The stranger will have a cbimney-wall pointed out to him, in 
which, he will be told, one of the abbotm wua built up and 
starved to death. The person to whom this tradition probably 
ptHnts was not an abbot of the house, but Bishop Egelwyne of 

> Vol. II. 190, 211. 

' P«rliiipt a. pijriiiju of the nbbol'i lodsingn ; wtitoli, iii b m»niis«tipt invcntnry 
of dtie oooisatukl building m granted to itlr Julm Miuioii in 11>« Uilnl ycu- of 
BAnxA Vl.m riitA to irontaiii ' t^^o fair long chamliuri, cnlled tli:: Kirij;'* niid tho 
Quccn'a dumber' 

» Flipircd Is Ljwnn' Borks. * Engnivud ia Parkcr'fi Glos*. of ArcMt. 

The CkromcUa ofAhingdon. 

Durbam, who, liavinjr been taken in arma ttie Coii- 
(jueror anions*! 1 Icrowiml's jinrtisans in the lale of Ely, had 
been wnt ns u primirvr to Abingdon, ' where,' says llolinslied, 
'ha wiw *0 Bimringly foil timt lie diciJ of luinncr;' or, ' souio 
' write that lie wus ho otuliborn-henrlwt, that aftpr he knew he 
'shonid remain in perpolual prison, he ret'iined Iiih iiienis, nuii m 
' [lined himself to death. '^ Itut the monastic chronicler, though 
ho meniions his captivity and death, savs no word of hunger or 
etarvation.' If tlierc Is any tnitb in the story, it is sinoular 
that ilic cniol «ccrtit, on which th« rccurda of the house sre 
silent, Khonid be e^till whi»|iered ahont their niine'l walla as 
ainiunt the iiingle point ol' interest, in vulgiir c-Ettimation, Lo the 
iiKiilern inquirer. 

' nollniibcd, vol. iJL p. 10, n. £0, •jUDtiog Slnan Dunclm. 

* Vol. I. {I. ISO. ' /n ca/ttioae ihi ad tut tiiorlii dtgituK ifMin dbHt.' 


Art. TL — 1. The Four Seaaon*. By M. de la Mi>tte Fouaoi. 
London: Lumlcy. 

2. Sitttram andhi» Compamont. Bjr M. i>ic ua Mottk Fouttuii* 
Xoodou; Lamlcy. 

S. Thiodolf, the Icelander. By M, I>E la Mottb FoVQUft. 
London : Lumlvj. 

4. Ev^inff* witk ih'! Oil Slorif TeUfrn. LundoD : Lunilvy. 

5. Legends and TradUions. London: Liinilcy. 

6. The moat deUctalle History of lie^Tuad, tlie Fox. London : 
J. Cundall. 

7. Fkter SeiUmifii, the Skadowh^ Man. London : Lumley. 

8. Hans AnderteRs Tahafor the Young, London: Luiiiley. 

9. The Lady of the Manor. By Mre. .SiiKRWoon. New 
Edition. London : HouUtoii. 1$60. 

10. The Castle Builders ; or, the Deferred Confrmatiim. By tlie 
Author of tUe ' Heir of Itcdclyflu.' London : Muzloy. 

11. Th« Dftii.,/ Chitin. By Uie Author of the 'Heir of 
KwlL-lj-fle,' Londuu: Muzley. 

jl2. The Fairy Ihu^r. London: Mozlijy. 

13. Thn Lost BrofH-h. By ihe AulUor of the 'Fairy l^owcr.' 
London: Mozley. 

It haa heen tlic fiitc tif nw\ of the henf utory books, especially 
llmae in whiiih niipcni^tuml li(-ini;ii iiru intro'luoci]. to be seized 
U{Hm by a ho^t of critics, in unWi' to [irovc ihut \\w luilhor had 
eomc covert inonninf;, and nnd«r ihe [rnijifl ul* a talo intended 
to iuculnilv u hidden lesson or moml. Foinjn^'a ' Undine,' 
CimmiMo's ' Peter Sehlcinild,' were both seized uiinn as contain- 
ing « iiiyslvry wliiih ihuy would draw qui for the beuefit of tlieir 
reMjera. Bulli liicsc mithors, however, Imvc imbliely disclaimed 
any such iniention ; thi-ir oidy jinrposc; in piibliKhiiif; thosi.' tales 
was to give tlie woi'ld thi; liki; jilmi'suii! in rumling, which they 
had in writing, them. The fact ia, thiit, tlu-ru in nu fiutiou whicn 
iDlroduiM»* eu|>crnalunil beinge, out of whidt cannot be drawn a, 
, nioml, »otUGtiinc5 good, sometimes indifferent, from Spenser'a 


The Moral Cftaracter of Stwy Books. 

'Faerie Queen,' to Hans Andersen's 'Ugly Duck;' perhaps we 
iniglil: go I'arlher, luid cay, no really good work oi'fifrtioD. \Vh'> 
lias ever pondered over the curious Tlieogonies of the ancient 
]>oetif, or read Lord Bacon's ' Wistioni of the Ancients,' without 
niarvelliug at the wondrous Bccrcts of wisdom and truth con- 
tained even in fonic of thoir eoa.rsest and most revolting 
histor!ei>? Who cim dcmbt Imt that, the tmmcrs of these 
Thoogonies intended to tench tin: greal truths of creation, when 
(hey derived all from tilt; first Being, Chaos? When Eroe, or 
Love, wna the oldest of the goda, the son of Heaven and Night ; 
and The Fall in Pandora and her box, out of which flew all evils, 
and only Hope remained behind ? and again, how beautifully are 
these wondrous J'ables ntit'ohled in iJie Inter Greek tragedians, 
e.g. the ' Prometheus Vinctus' and the ' Orestes." As the ballad 
preceded history, and the hymn was llie parent of the nation's 
creed, ao it needed but a vivid imagination to people a whole 
heaven with deities, and all the earth with nymphs and eatyrs. 
Heroes, magnified through the mist of time, would easily rise 
into demigods, and their great actions into nianifcatationa of 
BupematnriJ power. Poet:?, taking up the thread where the 
hymn dropt it, plaited anew into its folds their own thoughts 
and conceptions, and hung up its goi-geons festoons in the 
national Pantheon, from whence later philosophers taught the 
lessons which these allegories eontained. It is no doubt probable 
that many of the later legends anil myths were mere develop- 
ineuts of the former, and were pure poetic fictions, their authors 
having no hidden meaning below the surface, like Foiiqui^'s 
' Undine ;' but there is sciircely one, even with all the groeaness 
of Ovid, but we may find a moral in it if wc look for it. 

' It must be admitted, that from very oarly times a soeoinlary meaning 
was oooiMOuly sttachefi to wvery important work ; it progi'easeii from the 
saeiwi writiogB throiigli l.lie jioetic Satioiis of the olasaics to compoaitiotis 
profeaaedlj nllHgoritu.1. Tlio want of diaorimination, which in our ejes 
osBinnes iiiuc^h of the a])puu,ra,iifB of profauo luvity, with whioh ttie liatioiia 
of the olussita were iiituriiroleU tii nigiiify the gi't'iit tcutha and myBterica 
cf religion, was, perhsiialiaiiliy vaprefiecaible in the simpk* state of know- 
ledge which prevailed at the time when theso attempts nt seoomJary 
iutecpretfltion wore taado. 

' " And henco it ttiia," said Ijntbon, " that in the eurly ages it might eeem 
to partnke of litlla levity to prefigure our Sariour's ijirtL in that of 
Booohua ; liia sufferings ftud iloatli in that of Aetiei>u, or hifl resurrection 
in the legend of Horcultis, as I'olntcd by Lycophroa, As late na the thirteenth 
century thu Fi'anciscan Wallfya wrote a moral imd theological eipoaition 
of the Mctamocphoaea of Ovid." ' — A'rminffa, &«. pp. 18, li). 

Let us turn now to the Christian Piatoniat. Henry More, and 
see how he used the old legende, and how he interweaves the 
ancients' philosophy into the Christian idea oi' the life of the 
soul. He is speaking of the birth of Psyche (the soul) : — 

jRl* Morai Character of Sdynj Rioh. 

Thio Abad > of hinmuilf tlw ^'^a ' fair 
Bogot) Uie farightnon of liiM fntbnr'n Km^" : 
No liTing wigct in li«iivi>a Ui him oomjMiro, 
N« worltluB goodly liouour saoh diHgraoo, 
Nor kwe th;? lime iu teUtiig ot hia race. 
His benutj Mid his I'ltco no omn can totl : 
His glorj 'lArkeDeth the huudos hnght fnco ; 
Or if ought obie tha minouH bright face oinnl!, 
IIm nplendour wuulii it dim, oud uU tbut gkiry i{iiall. 


This is thfin ancient Eidon' omuiform, 
Pount of all bnniity, root of flowering glca. 
/Jyit' old hng, foul, liltliy, und ticfiirm, 
(inuol cuuio iiBfir. Jojfull E/ernity 
AdiiiilH no cLiUge of matabihty, 
Nu sliado of chaijge, no immiiiiitinn, 
No, nor inci'pasn : for wbut increfiae ivin ho 
To thnt that's nil 1 and whi>ii Ifyl' hnth ni> tliivno 
Oui ought douaj 'I aaish ie tito state of great .'Htm. 


Fftvni othorwisfi it fares in tljis same Loud 
Of tnitli and linnuty, then in mortall hrnnd 
Of mirtlily bvitrs, who impusaion'd 
With outwurd forma (uot rightly uiidemtood 
Prom whencL' j:ru«Beds tliia auioroun Bw«L't flood. 
And clinico delight which in their spriglil they feel : 
Ciin outward idolo yiolii so heavenly mood ?) 
TliiN inward lionutj nnto that they deal 
That littlu boautuuuB is: Tbun unto the dirt tht>y rucl. 


Liin tn NarciHaiiB, on the graaHie shore, 
Vinwing his outward face in watei'y glasso ; 
SUll aa hi! looks, his looks B<!d evermoro 
N«w lire, now tight, new love, new comely jfracu, 
To's inward form ; and it dlsphiyH apace 
It's hidd«n rays, aod so new lustre trends 
To that vain ahadow ; hut the hoy, alaa ! 
L'uliuppy iioy '. the inwai-d nonght attionda, 
{tut in foul, filthy, mire, love, life, and form he hlsod*. 


far otherwise it (hrea in .'Sm'ii realm : 
O happy done of sight and that there's aeeD 1 
That tliens in aei-u is good Miiioua,' 
Who Mare' hight ; and Atmai X weon, 

' Ahad. Heb. : rn If. Ouc, ur The One. Tlio I'latoaisfa orginal of all thingii. 

■ ' Kiya, fdmr. ElOrnir,^, 
> Bidos. Vonu or Beuutj. 
• Hjlo. Materia prima, or that dark fluid potentiality of the creature, the 
' (toitacBo, tcpiifnivu^y, auti invapacitv of thn crrrut.ui'o, 
' Abinoam. Patrr amianilali; Fatlwr of ilfiliglil, 
H * UaUoTt,at Atote, \Uti.: 'rir,uair. The (kiuit. 


The Moral Character of Story Boohs. 

Cannot be lease thnn he wbo seta his eyen 
On that iibjaae of gooil dtcrimUy, 
The youthful _K)«, whose fiiip (tion doth shino 
Whifi- h« liiB Fatiior's giory <ii>th v^iy, 
Wbidi waters his Que Bowing forms with light from bigli. 


Not thiit Ilia firmn iiioiviuic. m Uint they die 
For iHoii-laiid. whiuh rut>ii Srim ' laill, 
Is nought hut hfe iu full serpuity, 
Vijjoiip of lifp is POiit, ftt,oi!k, hnmclt, and all ; 
Nought here iucreiuseth, iioiigiit, horn hat.h its fiJI; 
For Aim'x kiiigiUiMii^H nlwjiys jicrl'i'ct staud, 
Birila, bi'imts, Selds, Hpriugi, ijlnnta, won nnd mincnil, 
To [)«rfi!utneB9ti nought uifiiud ho thvra cud. 
This j£on aUii hight AuCuralon ' and Oa, 


This is thu clilost suD of liittove hora i 
Bill, th' uUlcst itniii^hter of thii* aged aire, 
That virgin wife .ft./i, Uraaam* 
She Uriinortt hight, hniinnaB the fire 
Of /El/ir/f ' usHBuoL- sho was bright nttiro, 
Aud inward uusoen guldtu Imc doth dight, 
And lip of stinse and phannie doth iiri^pire. 
Mtber a, the velucle of toncli, i^tuoil, sight, 
Of tjtste, and hBoring ton, and of the giliiatielc might. 

Dr. Jlsitr,^ Miirf'' Phdos'iphinill PufiaH. Psp-h"ttiia, or the Song ' 
of the Saul, coalaiainff a Clirhtiant-PlatoHieall ditpiiiy iffL^e, 

This blemlirg of Piiitonic philosophy witli the truths of re- 
veliitii)n, mill illugtratinu thcni by nieati* of lictitlien lefrcnda, 
nifikea ii[] u very fine iiilognry, luid seetiia to show how coiii- 
jilutely Jill p-iTur to he liiil a iinrveraion nC Irulh, and nil fable 
but a c.iaket which contains it, Jeivniy Taylor, in the com- 
mencemeuE of his matchless eermou. 'Via Intellipentire,' gives 
U8 a fable whioh exactly deflcribes our meaning: ' The ancients, 
' in their mythologiciil leiirnincf, tell ue, thai when Jupitec 
' copied thi; iimu of the woihl striving for Tnilli, and (lulling 
' her to pieces lo secnrc her to iheuiadvcB, he tieiit Mercury 
' down aiiiougdl them ; and he, wiih bis ui^ual ana, dressed Error 
' lip in the imagery of Truth, and thrust hor into the crowd, 
' and 80 left them to contend still ; and though then, by con- 
' tention, men were sure to get but little truth, yet they were aa 
'earnest as ever, nnd lost peace, too, in their importiitie con- 
' tentions for the very iinagti of Truth.' EiTor being then an 
imitation of trulli ; and false religious all containing an image 
of truth in the ctothiug of error, we see how the heathen fablea 

■ Ideu-Iuul. Tho intellecioal worliL 

* Aiiloi-alo". wlf-iuinfi^nt Gi'll, or Being. 

' Urnuora, The light, or bifaut.v of htiivpn, from aifanot. anil Sum, ptiJchriMJo. 

' Mihvt, from oTBai, (o barn. Tho fluid ftory natura of hcBvua. 


The iforal Character of Stor^ Bo6k». 



often be turned into Clmntian nllcfiori*;». And iliiw we 
reiurn to our former romnrk, tlint all fiotioii lias ncwssaiilj-, like 
a &blo, iu Riornl, This idea i^^iH-cially [lervades the woi-ka of 
thiine ino-it iiivvtemte of iitory tvllur^, tlie atitliore of the ' Cieata : * 
every story haa it^ moral, though we fancy, like the commentator 
on Ovid whom we menl.ioned above, that very often ihc story 
iras written 6ral, mid the tnond found out HftcrwHiiU, for xumc 
of the moraU are very far fetched indeed, ccrljiiidy nol to lie 
di»ei>vvred without, an interpreter. With th«in all uniiire and 
all hi.iiory wmt a [larnbli;, uiid they «ul thcniselvea \a> iiiid out a 

'No creat.iira Ja to mnnutrinui, no (ablo nn inoreilible, hut that the 
~ isJi wi-itorn Lv>iilil Kivo it a QiQrul forni, atiii uxtruut frum its uruditic* 
^ ijukliirtiiw EOLiii? mural ur reli^iuua k-Bauu. . . . I'l]iij''tit]ug*h«uieil race — 
whom $ir JuLii [M»iii1«Ti !!>.'] pltioe.^ iu tliu intiiud of Mociiniciraii, luiil ut the 
tame tiroe gi^'i* to t.hcia a qiwn (wpe for a king, who nayii ihr'ic huiiiii^H 
p»y<"* P" '''•'"' bpfoii* he either eats iir liriuks— wcro iinturally rpjpirdnil 
by tb« uiilillc itgu writui-n, n.-i nymbalical of priontly pronohoiii of ruitlifiil 
htwrta anil frugal bubitu ; whiiat of tliiiHu iitlii^r iKiiuidura, who " huvo but 
<am «yOi ami tluil iu tlii^ miiidi'qt of Llmir frunt, and cat Ibeir fit-sli nud liab 
raw." the moah saje, '"Tlnisu bo thi'y that bava tbo nyo of prayer." TKb 
AntoRioK, who hnrc no moiiThs, "are nil bncio ovtir tbo wbol" ImmIir, yet 
olotlicd with soft cotton and liowiie, that cometb from the leaves of trens, 
aad livi! outy ou itiro, and by tbo Hmclliiig of siv^Bt odours, wbiob tbuy 
draw ILrou^L their uois«thnlla," arc the abHtetiiioua ut' tbie world, who die 
«f the eiu of K>iitt.c>iLy, ovcu m »ji ABtome, b; tiie audikiutnl mbulutiuu of 
bad ndour. Huntility in nigniflgd by the atiseiic? ot the bead, and the 
plaeing of the Fncc in the brcant -, and a tundoacy to siu is foresbadoned 
ojr the dwin and habit uf wulkiug on all foitra, and pride by short iioaca and 
geals'fwit. Ttiu Mandovilb-uu i^nders, who had iliil faoBS without uobos, 
and two rouuil holua I'jr their eyew, mid thought wlialsoirvur tliey saw to be 
good, wc.rn earth's foolish 0[io% -. as tboae loul myn. wbu have their lips 80 
gTMit that when they sire)! iu thij sun tliey cover ail tli,*iv faoee Ihorowith, 
■ra tbo juat nion, thn salt of tbo earth. . . . The beautiful men of Europe, 
who boost ofa trane'ii head, uhhIi, atid liualt, ruprest-nt judgL>s. who Bboidd 
lave louK utiuku aud bi'ukB, tbut what the heart tUiuks, may be luug before 
I it mch the nioutli.'— i'ofHf'nj*, &c. i>p. 29, 30. 

It haa bttPn iiuj^miBteil, and we need Iiardlj say, with every 
likelihood of tnitii, lIuiL ihe inediicviil legend of the ' VVunderiu^ 
Jew' was an allegory to represent in one person the doom of 
Isncl, on account of their rejection of Christ ; that, scattered 
I among ChriMtiamt in Christian lands, they eeo everywhere the 
oruiui, and everywhere itt it a torment to them; they huve no 
home, no country, but doomed to wiinder till Chrict come» to 
judgment: a iitnte fur nii>re fully realized in the middle ogcA 
than DOW ; but even in this century a poet could say : — 

Tribe of the wandering foot aud weary breast, 
When will ye (iof away and be at rwit ? 
TTifc wild <iov« bath bc.r iitat, 1<ii Ilia cave. 
Mankind their habitatioD, Israel but the gi-ave.' 


Thf Moral Character ofSlary Books. 

Let us take, by way of illustrating our position thnt super- 
natural Btorics, when consistently written, have a moral, t)K>ug^h 
not intended by the authors, the German tale of Peter Sehle- 
mihl : n poor student meets with n ' man in erej.' who, in 
CXfhiuige for his shadow, g'ives him a purse of gold which never 
is cxhuMsled. Now it h dear, that nothing is so entirely uaelees 
na a ahndow ; we cannot conceive it to be any value ; no one can 
be in tlie least degree better with a shadow than without one: 
yet lioor Peter Schlcmihl is nitcrly wretched after its loss ; he 
cannot go out in the xhine of day without being a marked man ; 
he is cut off from society ; twice on the pnint of inarriagc he i« 
disiippuiuled, ucitlierFnuny nor Minna will have anythlDg to do 
with n weird creature who Ima no shiidow. All his boundle«e 
wealth cannot control rcsjiect, nor bring consolation lo a shiidow- 
less man. And, laatly, when in the dccj>c8t agony of mind, he 
restorca to tlic templor the fatal gift of the never-Iiiiling purae, 
he ainiiot regain hin hst shallow, he is forced to pass tlie rest of 
his life a solitary man, cut off (rorn, and forgotten by, his fellowa. 
Very strikingly does this illuslrute the bartering of any of God's 
gifts for the woiid; honntu', chastity, truth, may and are often 
sold for flume earthly pleasure or fancied advantage ; and, when 
gone, can never be regained. Repentance may restore the 
sinner to God's favour, but it cannot give back what has been 
]oet. Again : even sorrow or remorse cannot procure rcstora- 
lion to peace of mind, or to God's favour, till restoration is 
made; but even that will not restore lost innooi^ncc. Chomisso 
did well in choosing the shnd'iw as the article of sale, aiiuply for 
its apparent uaeleasnesa, as if to show that the very least of 
God's gifts must not be tampered with. 

It ia tliis mural, or hidden truth, half seen, perhaps only half 
suspected, yet intuitively known to be there, that makes fairy 
talcs so attractive ; there is something which at once captivates 
the miud, and brings with it such a ciiann. Generally this lies 
chiefly in tlie end, or winding up. Many novel readers look 
fi rat at the ih-nouemciti , even before commencing the story; if 
that does nut please them they will not read the book. Look 
at children when you arc reading a story to them, how eager 
they watch ; and impatiently expect— what? — the end, the fate 
of the actors. Sir Walter Scott, in (he preface to one of his 
' Tales of my Landlord,' represents an old lady not content with 
knowing the fate of the principal actore, but was quite unsatis- 
fied lill she knew what becitme of all the inferior characters, 
down to Guse Gibbie, So children are quite unsatisfied with 
the most stirring events, the most interesting adventures, unless 
it ' ends well : ' there must be equal justice dealt out to all par- 
ties; the wrong done must be set right, truth and justice must 

2»c MonU Ckamctfr ofBcty Bo<At. 


itoRlIf settle untl arrange the ilwonlcred elements of the t«!«, 
unci give to ench iiclor hi« |>r<)|ier n;w»rt]. Give cliildreQ a 
well- written fnle, like the 'lirido of Lutiinei'Ditiir ' tor iDstancC) 
in nhich iiijiisCice and wrong trliiuiph, nnd thcj are miserable 
for days alter reading it: it is not tite mere fact of killing 
people, not the horror of deaths and executions, that dii^^DSIs 
cliildrcn's mind:^, it is the injiistjcc. They will hoar culioly of 
Float -de-B*Btit' burned in his ctwtle, or hundreds of people exe- 
cuted or e!.iia in an uiijnnt rehellion, bouuime their sentw of 
justice is not outriigcd — it is riithcr sntisticd; but. the fhtc of 
KavcDBwood and Lucy Ashtoii is insupjiortablc, because their 
interest faa« been excited to the utmost pitch, and their 'whole 
sense ofjuKticc is violated. Wc have known sleepless nights, 
tc»r» (tlicti in nilcncc, nay, loss of appetite, ami nlmoi>t of hvulthj 
follow fniiii reading the 'Bride of Ljuiinieriniilr ' nnd ' S. 
I{onan*6 Well ' by seneitive chihlren. That which gives the 
real delight to a tale of fiction is, when !iijii8tice and wrong 
have been for some time triumphing, innocence and riglit sui- 
ii-ring, the end comes which deals out to each its full measure 
of justice ; ndien the order is reversed, and right triumphal, and 
wrung is crushed. We lire inclined to think tliiit, upon the 
whole, it is better that very young people should be allowed to 
road only cmch bonks as ihe hitter, unless there he some very 
strong intimation thai tlie sutFering of the innocent is a diaci- 
pline of faith, a special dispensation of heaven. We would not 
wound too early the clear light of consdence which pleads for 
justice and right; rather encourage It in every way; experience, 
as years come on, will soon enough make all familiar with 
triumphing tiijn^ticc and suffering innocence, but it ia not good 
to blunt loo early the keen edge of the nulutal eense ofjniitice. 
Living as we are under the light of the revelation of the New 
Covcnaott in which the expectation of the judgment at the 
general resumption is at once a solution of all difficulties 
re^rding the inequalities we see here, we hardly realize tho 
dimcaltii'-s of Ihe saints of the Old Covenant, in whicli ' life and 
immortality' were ntit yet 'brouifht to light,' or of children, 
with whom the jrreM.iit is everything. It was this that the 
PialmtEt found 'too hard' for him, until a special revelation 
unfolded the plans of Providence ; and yet they were but this, 
that retribution came in this life: 'Lo, these arc tho ungodly, 
' these prosper in the world, and tlieec have richea in posse'^sion ; 
'and I said, Then have I cloimscd my heart in vuin, nnd washed 

* my hands in innoeenoy. All the day long have I been punished: 

* and chastened every morning. Yea, and I had almost said even 

* w they : but , to, then should I have condemned the generation 

* of iliy children. Then thought I to understand this : out it waa 

Ko. crx. — SA. B 

so The Moral Charader ^ 8k>rtf Social. 

•too hard fDrme, imti! I went i»tolt»>.<anptuiiryo('Go<l: tlicnun- 
'dersitoodllln; tttid ol'llmstiiiioii; iimncly, lunv ttioi; <io»t Bft lliein 
'in elipjieiy jiliiccs, mid cni«lei<t llioin down und dcsI.royci<t thciii.' 

This, ton, i» tlie ^rcut (juerition dtscuMtod in the hiittory of 
Job : tliC! three friends, like tlie Psalmist, ooiild not believe, for 
tliey could not coiuprelicndt how a really rigluei^ua man could 
sutler as Job did: Uify, therefore, hnstily concluded that .lob 
hud been a gr<.'Ht «iDULT, and thut all Ids wclhknoivn rightcoue- 
neas was hut a clonk to CJivor hi» in-crnt wiciii-dnus!*; that now 
hie sin hud found hiin out, mid Gml's uoi^cr overtook him. Job 
utti^rly denies this, he slron^^ly nminlaina hit* Innoeency, i.e. 
eudi a freedom from grent ain as deserved the affliction that fell 
upon him: he knew it was not God, but his enemy Satan, that 
had caused his niislbrtunes, and lie stoutly vindicated both God 
and himself : he wjis willing to meet this ' iidvorwirv,' he would i 
be glad if the iidversary had 'written a book,' would bring n ' 
written libel against him heftire Uod the JiJtI<;e, when he wim 
ready to answer him; and declares his faiih that his ' Kedccmer,' 
God, lived, was not dead — was not unmindful of his aervimt, 
but would, before the end of his mortal life, ' stimd upon the 
earth -. ' and would restore his diiM?ased body to health, and in his 
very 'He*h' Khwuld 'nee' ihe rifrhteonpness of 'God'- — a laith* 
we know, whiub was "verifieil to its liillert pjttcnt. 

We may turn irom iheiiL- t.)!d TesliimLTit examples lo one 
familiar lo us nil— the yireiit conception of luir great potit — 
Haudet, the philosoplilc Prince of Denmark. 8hakea|K!are iiitro- 
duees him to us as musing on his own cx>ndition and that of the 
world aninnd him: he sees his father dead, his unworthy nncle 
on the throne; bis nmt.hcr, after only two months' widowhood, 
rurming au iueestuoua union with her brothcr-in-Iaw: — 

' Oil, tliat ILiB to", too Holiil deah would melt. 
Thaw ami rsHrilv.? itsalf intii h dt'wl 
Oi' that the ICvni'lajit.icij; liiid iii>t lis'd 
His mtiou 'guiiint xi^lf.aLkii^lilyr ', God I Qod ] 
JIoiv wuiiry, stiJo, tint, miU unprolitnbli--. 
Seem to uie all tliu iw™ of thin woi'lil ! 
Vw oii't ! lie ! 'tis uti uiiweedi'it giminn. 
That, gifiwe til seed ; thiiigB runic lUiU grcsB ia luituro 
I'oases!* It nn^rf.)^,' 

Then, after his fii-st interview with the Glmst; 

' Kciiieiiibcr thoo? 
Yea, ffoni (he tithle of ujy nieiiior^ 
J'll wipii awHy ntl trivial foiici reuiirds. 
All haa'> cif bnoliH, nil foi'iiis, nU |ii'i'HMiire!i past, 
'I'hiit youth uuii ubscrvattf.!! ci.picil tln^i'o. 
Ami thj oomiiiaiuimuiit nil nloni.- ahnli livo 
Witliiii the Itiiok ami vuliiiim of my brain, 
UnmiKud with biiUBi umttBr." 

TJm Sforal Character of Start/ Book». 



Here «r« see the !d«a and feeling pooaesBed him tlmt be wa« 
fli»nmiF>fi<i>>ned (•■ act right the urong done to his fathtr, mother) 
hiuia«lf, and (hv ii-h>>)c ol' LViimark. 'Die tlmtight ab»orb)t him, 
\\i* brain reels iimicr tin- pn-nsiii-ir; be nets rtiiingi-iy, upcnks 
wildly; (iocti orucl iiijdclici? to Ojiht-liii, wbnin he rwiiiy lnvod, 
biwiu»« Im tiaa hint nil cnitftileticc in wnniiiM'a hotioiir, by reason 
ol' hi:( nmlhvr'd conduct iu marrying hir luisbiind'd Diitrdt-rer. 
Tlien infirniily of purpfjse withhoUls him from the cuiiimisaion 
€tf the de«d. iind he idlowe biiii)<clt' to leuvc the country: being 
bn>u^ht b^tck u;:ain-^t his will, he i<gcm now no eficii|ip, iind com- 
pleter; the dcvd, gbd tbat, liku bamBoii, hv pcniihe« with his 

Adiliaon, too, in hid woll-kriown tra^cedy, phtces the p-eat 
Kiminn iihiloMipher, Cato, in the like perplexity ; only, [wrhape, 
he puts into Calo'd mouth Ohriatian ecntimciits of expectation in 
the world to cnme, Mnd a jurl<.'mciit iberc. which a hcAthvu 
pbilui!Opher of that periiw) was not likely to posses*: — 

' But irhtrn or whcire 1 thin Wfirld wiw tnaiie for Cxsa.r-^ 
I'm vntry of conjtHiturcn : tliin niiuit «iiil btiom-* 

(Tatf a dayffar.) 

The ancient [)ovt<i ttnlvt^d nil their difficultioe by the D&us ex 
Maehina; only, aa their idea* uf goda were not moulded on the 
OhriKtiaa model, the deity did not always interfere to piinieh 
iHc giitlty. How coulil he, when, perhaps, he biiu,*elf hiid puit- 
^iiin.i and focli<))pi liko tlic nio^l l:twlcss of men? Hnwevcr, wv 
know that Horaeo had In <',tieck tliiH propermily among minor 
pnela to intr»din:« the deiliea to clear np all ditlicultieii, Nee deut 
inUrsit, nisi diif litis vindhe nodus. Now what these did with 
tbeir gode, we do with fairiee: and what more delightful thine 
i« there than a really good fairy tale P It tnkea, firat, llic wurla 
IM it i», with all it« injusiiec and e on trndie lions, only perhaps 
tunidi exaggerated; wc have Boiut- king — your true (iiiry tale 
delighia in great personnifes — tyrannizing over bouic innocent 
and helpleas fiuuily, nithlessly carrying off the beautiful 
daughter, impriaoning the faithful lover, and then, juat when 
the last moment comes, and our feelinga are wrought up to an 
mtcn«c indignation againot the o[i[)reB!>or, and equally intense 
int«Tfi»t in the oppressed, a fairy goilmother suitclenly appears 
tn a ciuriot drawn by milk-white swnns, and diKpen^oa even- 
handed juM ice. The greater the suffering, and the (greater llie 
tfmmy, the more intense the relief and salinfaction when the 
niry appears. And bo, when children see or read of injuaticQ 
done, as it cootinually is in every-day life, how often we hear 
the thought ezpreeaed : ' Oil, I wish a fairy umdd come I ' It 
is true Inat children delight in historieii of giants, sorcerers, 
genii, huge, monstroue, cruel, niau-eating creatures; they read 

E 2 


The Aforat ChanKter of S/or_^ Jioolcs. 

of their killing and eatin? hundredth nf innocent beingn without 
a ehuddcr: hut this \a dimtrent, the int^rc^t in the innocent \\a» 
not been excited, theyhavo been to them a mere flock ofaheep: 
besides, children low nny cxhibilioii of power: a giant or rna- 
giciiin exercising £U|iernaUirul power has a charm in itself, pro- 
vidai syrnpiithy with tlio oppressed le not; roused : escite that, 
nnd fill (li^li^lit: in the giiint'a powers uiid t^trcn^t.h ceiixe. 

We heard a atory at Algier, of an Arab chief, which illus- 
trates our point ; we mean that of sympathy being always with 
the innocent and iifrjiinst the guilty, though of course, in this 
CHse, his ideas were (guided by his peculiar education. An And) 
chief, who hud lived nil bis life in the desert, cnme on n Malt of 
elftte to the Viceroy of Algier ; amongst other places tn which 
he waa taken was the theatre; the plot of the piece hinged 
upon a no uncommon incident in French life — the infidelity of 
the wife. In this piece the {as uie should say) injured husband, 
on discovering the 'I'li moh. of his wife, generously (as tho French 
would consider it.) gave ber up to her paramour, and every- 
lliirig ended lo the matii^faction of all parties — except the Arab, 
who, when this ending was explained to him, was wo indignant, 
that he offered to go and kill tho woman himself, rather than 
she should be allowed to Uvo; and when he understood the 
actual conclusion wiw satisfactory to all parties, conceived the 
utmost contempt for the whole French imtioii geueruliy, which 
oould tolerate such things. 

It is interesting to note how moral tales take the complexion 
of the age in which they are written : the ' Gesia Romanorum,' 
and the ' Moralitica,' all arc redolent of tho convent : rude, 
coarse, as many of them arc, they have the stamp of the age in 
which they gave delight to a ruile and ignorant peojile; the 
grand moral lesson is idways somehow to be cxtructed from 
them. Uistoi-tcal personagee arcjunibled up logetlier without the 
slightest respect for chronology, and all the customs and laws 
of chivalry arc made to regulate people and nations where 
western habits were unknown, whence they appear to us as 
clumsy iw mu»t the mailed crusaders, with their heavy Flemish 
war horses, have done to the light armed Oriental with Ins 
swift Arab steed. How many of us have smileil at the 
strange medley in ' Midsummer Night's Dream '; though here, 
probably, our own ignorance of the state of .\thens when it 
was a dukedom under wci^tero erneaders puts us quite as much 
in the wrong as Shakespeare's. Even Fouqu(?, in his story of 
' Thiodolf the Icelander,* makes the strange mistakes of Bpcafcing 
of the customs of western chivalry in eastern Constantinople, 
and of criicifixe.i and carved images in the Greek cliurche^. 
Contrast the stories in the ' Ar-ibian Nights ' with western 

3^ Monti Giaracitxr of Stori/ Boot*. _ Hi 

talcs, ninl whnt a totally different character the bcro 
T8 in tlieiii froin tliat of thfi latter. In the tbrmcr, tho 

mmum bonum ooofists in ulti-r indo!enc«, eurrouodod by i>cr- 
I>e(ual sonshine and nmes; doim; nothing, but having numerous 
elates to obey the eltglitcst vrisb ; gnrilens. palaces, unbounded 
wealth, cniutlc5« slaves, entire idlcncw, i<t tlie perfection; the 
gratification of isvi-ry whim and caprice, even to the most 

linute [»et[j- reveng«; Uio power to procure everr enjoyment, 
Cr to have cut ofT every oflcnding livud, is tho hichcitt point of 
happincfs ; and this la still the Oriental idea of blis!. At tlie 

ircMcnt day, Turkish ladies dresa in their richest robes, put on 
Jr RitMt prctuous jewcle, and fiit on cushions surroiindea with 

laves, the only vnriely bcinj^ that of chiuiglitg their dre«see 

" re-flrrangin|j tlicir hiiir and omaiiicntt" ; their sole employ- 

cnt eating swcutmcAtti, drinking coffee and shi-rbtTl, and 

noking the nnrghili. Tliere in no one to display all this tinery 

I, but their lord and master, no one to convcnw with but their 

IsTce^ yet they are perfectly happy ; the only thing that dia- 
turba tJieni is when they ennnot have their whiraa or their 
rev engee gratified ; the only politico* (hey are interested in are tho 
petty mtrigucii of the hou^liold. A Turk in his kio§k, sitting 
in a divan smoking and drinking cuflee, thinking of nothing, 
and doing nothing, is then supremely liappy — it is tiV/'— doing 
nothing and Laving nothing to do, having all done for him, 
merely enjoying li^; ami fiiis is certainly the notion of hap- 
pincBS in the 'Arabian Nights.' Then, when supernatural 
beings Are intnHluccd, generally huge monstrous beings, with 
qualities like the OrieiitaUt themselves, only in cxceBi*, either 
prodigally good, or unspeakably malignant and cruel, it ]» to 
nave men the trouble of doing anything for themselves ; not, as 
ID western fairy tales, to set things right at the last, but to build 
palaces, heap up untold wealth, or overthrow some invincible 
enemy, while the person for whom all this is done enjoys /eief. 

'ITic East, however, has its moral tales as well m the West. 
'I"hcro are some virtues which arc to be alwav* ]iractised under 
»ny cin:um5tanccs ; these therefore must be iietd up before the 
eyes conlinually, and the duly of observing them at all times 
enforced; we need hnnily say that the fiKst of these is hos- 
pitality ; this ia not to be neglected, even to an enemy or an 
unbeliever. The beautiful story of Abraham and the Oucbcr, 
which Bithop Ilebcr traced to the Persian poet Baadi, ia a fine 
example of tliis sort of Eastern fable. Tlioiigh well known. 
it is nliort, and to the point, and we make no apology for 
quoting it. 

*Wlwn Ahrafaam satat hia ttoit ttoor, ouuordltig to liis cimtom, waiting 
to ent«rtuD Btrangere, he espied an old luao, atocipin;; anil toJiDitig uu bis 


The Moral Character ofSiorg Books. 

rtftff, Wtfury with ngp miJ truvail, (jouiing towards liim, wUo wuaaii hiiniiroi! 
Jtltirn dill! lii> tx'UVLVud liiiu ki[i<lly, WHnbDil \\\% ftwt, pri>vi(li.Hl Bii]>|)L'r, 
OttutpJ liiui to sit down -, I'lit i)lw(?rviiig thut thii iild iiimi »X^ and praytil 
not, iiiir lii.-ggi'il fur II lil'iMHiiig im his meat, he asked him why he iijd not 
worxhip the find of henVBii. Tile old nimi loM him timt he worshijipcii 
the firn only, iind ackiinw lodged tio otUur god. At whioh nuswcr Abrnhiim 
grow au xitilouaiy ungry. that he thriiHt ttie uld nun out of tlie tt'iit, and 
uxpused him U> nil tue eviU of thir iiij^hl and kii unguardu'l cundLtt<in, 
Wtn?u th« old niMii was gonoi God cnllud to Ah™lmra and H'lhed him 
nhsve the Htrnnger waa. He re|>lied 1 thrust him nnny. beenuBe he doth 
Dot worship Thoe. God anKwei'fid him. I Imvo MiH«ii-d him tbiae hundred 
ycarai, aithouyh In- diiiionourcil me ; aud coiildal tiiuu not onilura liim luie 
uight, when he uavii thee no trouble 1 Ou thix, «aith th» story, Abruhum 
fVtotioii Lim back n^MH, and gave him boxpitable efitvrtainnieiil and him 

The etoriea of the Jewish Rabliin, if not talten up with 
fahiiloiH nccoiints of King Solomon, arc gt'iKriillj' inU'iKled to 
' ju»lit'y the wiiyd of God to man.' Wb alnill f;ive one ; it is on 
tliut vexed (|tit'9lion. ul whicli ue have g|ioken before, of the 
eeeniing iillowimce of wtckednoas, and the (ajiparbUl) iiijuatice 
towards the innocent: — 

' M<i8C8 to whom, hv a peculiar grace, 
God Bpake (the Hebrew phriuie i») face to fnoe, 
Cali'd by an henvu-nly voioe, the Habhiun aay, 
Aaoeiided tg a, wuuntiin top, one duy ; 
Where in uome pomts perp!ei'd. his mind was w^A, 
And doubts coucorniiig ProvidL'iice appeus'd. 

' During tho collnqny divine, say thay, 
The piTipbat was commnnded to survey 
And mark what hiippeu'd on the plain below. 
There he pL^rceiv'J a. line olt'iir spring to flow, 
JuBt at the mountain's foot ; to which, anon, 
A soldier, uu his road, camti riding ou ; 
Who, taking notice of the fountain, atopt, 
Alighted, dmnk ; and, in remounting, ilro^ 
A pui'se ol'gold ; but as tlic prooicms loud 
Fpil ii!i8iispucti)d, be piirsiied his I'otid. 
ScArcB had he gone, whpu a young lad came by, 
And ne the purse Liy just before his eye, 
He took it up ; and, timiing its content, 
SeoureJ the treaaure ; and away he wont. 
Soon ftflyr him a poor infirm old man. 
With aga and travel weary iiuite, and wan, 
Cume to the spring to quench hia Ibirst, aad drank, 
And then sivt down, to reat hjm. on the bonk. 
Thoro while he Ha^ tlio soldier oti his truck. 
Missing the gold, returii'd direutly biwik ; 
liight off his borap, Iwgan to swear and curse. 
And aak'd the poor old follow for bis pwse ; 
He solemnly proteatod o'er and o'er. 
With hands and eyes uplifted to implore 
Huaven's at li-" tali on lu thu Irutli, that ha 
Mot pui'so qui- gold bad uvui- chiuic'd to mq ; 

foral Ckaractur ef Story Books. 


Bui all in Tail] ; thr ninn bcliov'd him not, 
Aiul (irow hiH Aivinii), uiid atubb'd hiia ou tlie spot. 
Moecs.^t'h '""Tiir and amuisi'tuaut Buiu'd, 
Foil oil bti riiL*i> ^— tbH VuiM iliviuH wm pleased 
To givf Ibo ])ru{))ie><*a suxtouH luimt relief 
Aiiil tliuH i>ivvvut «x[iu«(iiUt,iiig ^-tio-f : — 
B« uol euiiii'id'ii ; nov iwk how Mi-ih n i1b«1 
Thd wi>r!ii s jtist Jiidjic could «iiffnr to nuooeed ; 
The cliild hna caiu'd thn [iiimiou, it is trua. 
That innilo thw ■oldii^r (Uii tho oid man Ihrougli ; 
liut know oue fuL't, tliijitgh iit<v«r j'vl louiid uul, 
Aud juiJg* hi'W ;*n/ K'ljiiid banisli every duiilit : — 
This fMao old TOAii, tht'oiigh |i]Ui8ioD once a* wild, 
Marder'd thn tHthnr of that veiy child.' 

Wc now turn to niiolhcr well-known mciliicvul tnlc, iJiat of 
*Bc>'iuinJ tliO Fox;' n liili; iu moral niiil [jiirjiofu tidiLlly dif- 
fcTi-nt t'mm the <itliei-^. lli^yiuird \a n llioi'oii):h rascal, lie keeps 
)iiiiueir in hia caslla of Malopaidus, well lonified, full of secret 
places, wilh every means of (Icfence and cecape, so as to defy 
all aoitDAl kind. Scut for by his king to attend tlie court, 
wlicrc ncHrly ovcry one Ima »ome charge nguirist liim, lie dares 
not Hiiiienr, well knowing what ht^ crimes deserve. The king 
iK\iA» Fybert the cat to eumnion liiiii ; hy a «eritia of nianifuvreti, 
pcKir Tybert gets sadly mangled, and reliirnH in pitiful plight to 
the king. Bruin the bear, nfxt sent, fares no better; Reynard 
get* him into u trap, where h« is miserably beaten; then goes 
Griuiburd tlic badger, Reynard's nephew, who persuader him to 
come. Here, after being condcmncil to dgath, he niunnges to 
deceive the king, queen, and nil the court, into btrliuviug in his 
innocence. Next ne turns hypocrite, and promii-ea to go on a 
ilgrimagc to Rome to obtain absolution. Again the king sends 
"yward the hsire, and llellin the ram, to bring bim to court. 
RcynanI kill:! Kywai-d, and ncndn the body biicli tn tlie king by 
l^llin. ^Watu, clmllenged by Isegrim the wulf, by hU subtlety, 
fHT more uisu by strength, he gains the victory ; again wheedles 
king, queen, and court ; is not only pardoned, but elevate to 
the rank of cliancellor, and mice atl for the king. 

Ill this fable wo are altogether carri4;d away with •ympatliy 
for Kt^ynard ; wc know hia runeiilily, but wc ailmiru bin craft, 
and are ghtd when we hear that he getn out of his scrapes ; the 
fate of Tybert, or poor Ky ward, iloea not diniinisb our synipatliy, 
wesboiitu have been really sorry had lieynard been executed, 
ae lie dceerrcd: Hitogetlier, we must say the story is a very 
iniuionil one. What makes the interest is the skill and clever- 
ness of the cliicf actor; all di.<play» of power arc attraelivc, 
none more so than wheie snpt^i-ior craft prevails over brute 
foioe; we are inclined to forgive the iniquity, on accouut of the 
euccees. It la much the aamc in reading of the achievements of 
Claud Ouval, or Jack Sheppsird ; wo can hardly help regretting 



The Moral Charaetrr of Shn-y Thotca. 

when we oome to the end, and read of tlie execution of these 
two unprincipled robLera. The like leelings arc always excited 
at the very name of brigand : there is, first, ronmnce; the wild, 
free, reckless life of a brigand has a fiiseiiiiuioii in itself like 
tliAt of Uobinson Crusoe, e5i>ccially when Htteiided by acta of 
poneroi'ity, and wild justice ; then, tliere ia success, a very 
important elouieiit — soiue lucii, like Mr. Carlyle, eccm almoitt 
to consider that success proves the rectitude of the successful 
man, and atones for his crimen. 

'Reynard the Fox" has a moral, and it U a very immoral 
one, yet one tlmt has a great deal of truth in it, imd truth that 
one must nckii"w1cil;;c. It is that vvhiih the sophiets of Athens 
and the iitaleaiiiuii of tiiediaivnl Italy lau^jht and practised. 
The argument ;^tunda thus : — The world U very wicked, men arc 
wicked ; if you expect to govern the world and rule men, you 
must employ craft ; your straightforward, honest, aimple-minded 
innn will never make an able statesman ; sooner ur later ho will 
be overreached, out-manaiuvrod, by some clever intriguer; if 
you want to procijier you must lueel craft by craft, your states- 
man must be as wily oa his opponents. Mulce friends then with 
your crafty opponent, gain him over to your side, and you 
obtain a double benefit ; you rid yourself of an enemy, and 
you gain a valuable suiiporter — don't put Reynard under the 
bjui, make liiin chancellor. This is the moral, — a» we have^ 
said, it 19 an iiiuiiurul one, but cau any one deny the policy of 
such a line of action ? 

We shall give a quotation from Lord Macaulay's essay on 
Mnchiavclli, which will ehow the feelings on these things in 
Italy in the middle ages, and will well explain the force of the 
niediaivttl fable of ' Reynard the Fos.' 

' Such n prince ns OTir Honry the Fift.h wfiiiH hnve been the idol of the 
North, The follios of his youth, the aeliish nnd ddnolating ambilion of his 
tnuuhood, the LuUtirdn ruining ut aluw firua, the priaout^i's niiwsacnxl on 
Iho field of battle, tlio eiiiiriiig lease (.•? prie»ter,ill roiiowed for anothor 
uentury, thn (irniMlftil Ipgaoy of a caiisc!«« nml hopeless, boqauuthiHl 
to a people who had no interest in its event, everything i.i forgotten but 
the victory of Aginoourt. Fruncia Sfor/n, on thi- othi-r hiind. was tho 
nioiiol of the llaliuu hero. He made liia omployors und his rivals alike hia 
tools. He ISret overpowered hia open eueuiies by tbu help of fiiithlcB* 
allies ; bo tben armea himself against his allio^ with the apoils tukeu from 
bia enemios. By his incompai'nblo dexterity, he niised litmsolf fifm thd 
pi-eonriouB and dcpondtiit Hituation of n miJitary miveiilurer to the firrt 
throne of Itiily. In ^uah n man iiiuch in forgivnti — hollow frieudship, un- 
geuoroua eniiuty, viotiilw.1 fuith. Siiuh iii'u tliu opposite errors which muu 
oommit, when thoir uii.>rality is not a HcitiiiC'", but a taste [ !] : whon they 
abandon eti>riml iirinciplc for antndcntnl luisoutntioTiB, 

' We hurc il!mitrati--cl ovir iiiiiiiniiig by uii liistaiico taken frota histoi'y. 
We will Hulectt iUiotJicr from liuUim. Otholb mnrdora hia wify ; ho gives 
orders for the nuuiioTof his lieuteuiuit ; be eads by lOurderiD}; himself. 


7H» Moral Charade ef Story BooJa. 


Yet he oevpr lofti'S thu ratMin and nflfcotion of the northeni reader— hi* 
iiiLrepid aixl anlt^ut npixtt reOeMOiug nvtrytliiiig. Tho uiuiii8|ioctiTig cmi- 
ItilcOM with which h« Il&t«ns to Lis adviser, tbe Agouy with wblch Uo 
shriDlu from thn thought of sLsine, llii' t«iapr»t '/f pwuion with vfliich liu 
oocamitii his oriiaim, and thn hniighty fcrirlostnn™ with whicb be fivows 
tfaem, ^ivu %a vxtnwiiitnu'y iiiiprc*t to hi« ohuructra. Jago, ou tVio con- 
trwjr, (B the (ibjuul of luiivcrsiil lonthing. Muay are iiicUiiBii to nuppct 
that Sh«ke«pMU'e baa boi-u Buduuud iiitu an exa^^eitttioo uniiitunl with 
him, iiDiJ has drown a nioustor, who Las iio arcboi.^im in humim ualvire. 
Now, wn ■twpcct that on Italian audicinoc, in the fift.ucnth ceiitur.v, would 
hare fult rary diUbniutly. Othplb would havo inspiri-d nothing but. iJpt«s- 
tetioa aud ooatvmpt. Th« follj with which he tniata to thi- friemily pro- 
fiHMoas of a mau wboao prumutiou ha had obslruutvd, tliv ci'oduUty with 
which be tAkcs unHupport<<d assurlioiiH aud tnviul drculuxtatiniw for 
unanswomhln pmoVii, the violonw with wliicli ho Mlimooit thn o^aulpatiini 
tiU tbo oxoulpation au\ only aRgraviite tbe miaery, would hiivu uioilad tho 
fthbormuM aud diBgiuit of tho i|M.>otu.tori>. Thu cotKluut of luga they would 
MBUiedly have coiidemii(-'d ; but tlioy would have cuiidtmne^ it as wo 
OOOdeDiD that of th« viutini. Something of iiitoreat and rofpcct would 
hntc hoiin miriglGd with tbuir dixiiporobatioQ. Tho readineis of hia wit, 
th« dcame** oT hia judgmeDt, tho ssill with which be peuotrnttH the dis- 
puaitioua of othem, nod ooiiaenls his own, would have iuauiwd to hlni a 
(wrtaiii portion of their wUcni.' 

Wc arc not to be eiip|>oaed (or & moment to endorse ull tlint 
Lonl Mocniilay esiys in tliis passage, we only quote it to show 
whnl was thcctirreut political omniun in the mijdionge!', at the 
time, perhaptj. when 'Roynnrd the Fox' was written. Neither 
do we think that the writer BCCoiiutB lor tho sym[iathy felt for 
Othello, in spite of hia Crimea; Uwt which exates our feelings 
in his behiilf is, that he wan ihe victim of a conspiracy, anil that 
his crioiet were not thoec of a deliberate villain, like lug", hut 
were ihe nntamcd impulse of justice degenerating into revenge; 
hia oWD self-imirder, the enme impulse trying to make atone- 
ment for his deeds — as ho himself says : — 

* For Doiigbt 1 did in bate, but all in honour.' 

If Lord Macaulay'a opinion is right, nod we think it U, that 
the Italian of the fifteenth century would admire a successful 
villain more than an unsucccasl'ul hero, though he were perfec- 
tion itnolf, we can well imderstami how 'RcynanI tlic Fox' 
would set forth in their eyes the true principles of [wlicy, and 
how many active admirers he would linve; nnd this is only 
(mother proof of the fact, that the fable is ever according to 
the age. 

The hst century, the cold, formal, lifeless, eighteenth cen- 
tury, as we, looking at tiic religious aspect of that age, delight 
to call it, had its morni tales, taking their complexion from the 
religious notions of the writers, Titoy were content to loaeh 
morality, plain, f'ormul, unvarnished morality, intersperEcJ with 
jiK'tu reflections on dependenec on God and subniisdion to liia 


The Moral Chtraot^ cf Story Boo^. 

will, nnd roinpIcf.R resignation to his judgnxinls: bill , ecncmlly, 
llio wIidIu d<it:tritje of grace in ignnrea. Take Dr. .lnlinKon'rt 
allegories, tliat one, for instance, of the topless and buttouilesti 
uinuntain, where he warns us agaioet tlic jiower and iutliience 
of little iiii)M called 'liabits' ; all very trut;, and very tuel'idi 
but where tlirouijliout everything necjns to depend upon the 
moral will nnd «lr'jiij;tli nlnne ; no iilhisiou is made ill ail to any 
inuaiia of gruce tii help u» to do cimtiiet with the powers hiuI 
ti;iiipintionM of evil: f-if. what a different and Chrintiim tone 
would have been communicated to the whole had he introduced 
the simple additiun of ' wclla of living water' by the wayside 
of tlie toilsome asooiit, whereby the travellers could have re- 
freshed thcniselvea iitid gidned slreri^th for their work; and 
made tho!^c who nr>|lucte<l these nieuus ^iion and surely become 
vieitmt) of those little inijis, till the power of them hinilered theif 
farther progress. Another favourite form of the relijiious tale 
waa to make all good children die and go to heaven, while 
wicked ones lived on in earth. Here, again, is the ignoring the 
fact that real ri.-li;;iou, tliiit especially which we ahoiild enfitrce on 
the young minti, lies in licai'iag ihu trials and temptations of this 
life, not in the wlnh to leave it. A lady ouire lold us, long ago, 
and wo have never forgotten the fact, that she was educated 
with the continual maxim driven into her brains, ' Be good, and 
you will go to heaven.' enforced by giving her many tales to 
read in w-liieh all good cluldreu died and went to heaven; and 
that this way of leaoliing so affi-eled ber, that having no wish at 
all to die, she did a great many wrong things, just enough to 
destroy that peeuliar ' guodne<« ' which she saw in books always 
led to an early death. In these books there was always one 
great fault, the moral intended to be tsiugbt was ton manifestly 
apparent: it was always being brought into notice, thrust 
before one's eyes, and the story npnilt; instead of letting the 
iiimgiuutiiin go on in its own way, the writer cropped the 
natural growth of the tale, twisted the parts, elippeil the pro- 
[K>rti(>ns, till it became, like the trees of a garden of the 
eighteenth century— that glory of topiary art — lions, elephanta, 
peacouks, swane. AVe have in our day pretty well got through 
this conventionality ; we hud, lioivever, to go through another 
phase first, the preaching. A story is written perhaps of great 
interest, incidents well conceived, characters well drawn; every 
row and then the whole is marred by the introduction of 
religious discussions between the various parties, all intended 
to explain and enforce the writer's particular views — so that 
really the tale wa» a mere bait to enleh the unwilling into 
listening to an ennuclation of Cidvinistlc views or Traetanan 
doctrine. \\'o believe that Mrs. Sherwood was tbc inventor 

He Moral CkaraeUr of Story JSwifcfc 


of ttiix Kiralagem: 'Sioriijs on the Church Cairchism,' and 
tlic ' Liiilj' of ihu Manor,' were Mic l>u<>k« Ity wliidi titir mni^ht 
1<i influence iho TOiin<r, «u(] wiii them over tn a ri'lijpoiis litV*. 
KiHtwin); no other form «f OHniei'l rolijiion thuii thai jvro^iittHl 
by the CvHii<;clical Arhiiol, and yet di'ejily nt(ach«(t lo tlie 
Ciiurch, vhe uHliirall; sought to bend the dngitiatic ^tateiueiita 
of iIk- hilti-r into acoordanee with the peculiar Dotiuna of the 
fonm^r. Her i^loriesarc therefore marred by the narrow views 
Itial charaelerire the school to which she beloD;;eiL); that ^tory 
which i« int«nded to illiiHtniie Holy Bupti^m nnturully dcntee 
the full jfirt ol' {•TiXfc lh<:rt:iii proiniwd lo nil who arc broiiffhl 
to tKOraoKuit, and coiiliiiea ila f;lft lo a lew who are aup- 
pore*) lo lie the 'elect,' Oihers are Ukewi»e Hpoilt by the same 
eoiitioed views. The real del'eet — we ?peak only of tiie rtciry, 
not of ihe writer's opiniuns^is the introduction of [irejich- 
niente; the threiid of the etory i» hrohen. the piitli nuddenly 
bl'-cke<l up. snd wc inu'l eilhir jiatieiitly euilure the di«i|uiM- 
ti(Mi, or *iip whiil« pii^ic*, heloro wc lake uji thu thread, or 
roMUoit! our way, We well retiiernbcr when we were yming 
li»teuiiig OQ hundny evenio&e to the reading of theise e<[iiriee, 
and we remember the vexation and impatience with which we 
viewed these dii^ciissions, iind how glad wc were when they 
were over, nud the s(ory resumed. 

Another delcet in this writer i« the apjisirently fixed idea that 
any man who bttcanie a reli^inuH character ^hoidd inviiriably 
proceed lo seek for Holy Oi-dersinnd that every religiouit woman 
aliould become a cleni;vman'8 wife: arelifrioue hiity cilie iiinorea. 
In one story, an ambitious mother forces her daughter into a 
elate of splendid misery by marrying a worldly duke, when she 
wished lo marry a clergyman; throughout the tale, the idea 
Kcnis to be, thi\t. the unhiipjiiness proceeded, not so mnuh from 
■iMU-rving Ihe duke, a» I'roin not iiiarryiii^ the clcr>:yiniin. By 
far tlie Xeitt stories, and thoae iiio«t free from faults, arc thone 
in whiiJi the scene is laid in India. At the time tJiey were 
written very little was known of social life in that countiy, they 
cunu to UM then with a freithness and novelty which c^mld not 
be found diwwhcre ; life in Indian barrneks and bungnlowH is 
there graphically and powerfully described. 

The great C»tholio movement of our day wnti very materially 
odvuiceu by religions novels, from the rei|;ular three voiuinc 
iixo to the threepenny Btories published by Tturns and Macleis. 
At first they were eharaeteriscd by the faults before mcul toned, 
though fwrhap^ necessary from general ignorance of Church 
duotrinefli llwy were nmtiy of them mere flimsy covers, which 
enclosed, hut did not cuneeal, the author's ' views' and doctrines. 
Very lueful were they for the puriiosc intended, for they were 

The Moral Character of Story Bool:*. 

read where a dirertly dctctrinal lr«ntiae would not liave been 
looked into: beHulet), thej" allowed religious life in a very 
difiercnt phase. In Mrs. Sherwood's days a 'pioua cliTjtyman' 
was one who preached justification by faith on Siindnys, and 
wont t«i talk religious subjects over his lady-parlaJiioutTB' tea^ 
labloa oil week-day evenings, and who, while indulging in this 
Imrmleet* dissijiiition, dc-nounccd in the aevereat terms tlie siaful 
worldlinees of bulls, theatres, and card parties. Positive theo- 
logy seemed to consist chiefly in holding ' clear views ' on jueti- 
ficHtion by faith and eanctihcation ; and practical theology, in 
keeping holy the Sunday. The change whicli took iilivco in the 
style of tlifse novels when Trnctariaas used them to enunciate 
their views is something i^juito marvelloue. It is very curious to 
contrast some of the earlier novelettes of Greslcy or Paget with 
Mrs. Hherwood's; it is true we have the long disquisitions, and 
cxjKisitions of 'views.' but the ideal clcrgynnan, nud the ideal 
religiijuN life, is tolally different. Daily juiiyer and freqUL-nt 
celebrations instead of preachings, schowl-work arid regular visi- 
tations of the poor instead of tca-lahle discussions, were now 
made the characteristics of the priest's life; all amusemeata 
wenj no longer denounced as ' worldly,' nor considered as sin- 
ful; n wider and more genial course of life was iidvooated; 
secular uovelfi, fairy tales, and such like, wliioli by tlic strnitost 
sect of Evangelicals were thought positively wicked, were fiecly 
allowed to our children to read and enjoy, and were showered 
upon them in the biighttat blue and red bindings, and illus- 
trated with delightful woodcuts. The whole was a reaction 
from cold forma) Puritanism to a warm, healthy expansion of 
the natural in mind and thought. We shall not stop to show 
how this principle has run into the extreme of the ' muaculnr 
Christiuuity ' school. 

This great cimuge is only a jtart of the mighty religious re- 
action from Puritanism; and that reaction was not merely the 
work of the Oxford tract writers, but was one of those national, 
iiitdlcclual, and moral changes, with which every student in 
history is familiar. The Kvnngelical movement of the hist 
century wasamitional reaction from the cold fnrniality brought 
in by the revolution of 1688, wheu the Church's best life waa 
crusned out, or had to find refuge among the non-jurors. Real 
spiritual life could not exist upon the 'plain and simple expla- 
nation ' of this or that mystery, or this or that doctrine, all 
•adapteil to the meanest capacity,' which adaptation consisted 
in eliminating all warm, affection at«, familiar language, which 
alone the 'meanest capu(;iiy ' underKtands, and substituting 
solemn Johnsonian RngUsb, utterly unudaptud to the aforesaid 
capacily. No wonder crowde went to hear tlie first methodiet 

Tie Moral Character of Storif Bookt. 


prcachera, nnd filled the churclies of the early Evangelicals ; it 
viun ibe verj tliins that a loviUR and affectionate heart craved 
for, to hear the love of the baviuur and the i^alvalion of the 
sinner spoken ol' in llii» mnnrKT; nay, it could delight in 
li^tenin^ to the horrors of the tornicnis of hell, bccimsc llicru 
wa^ energy, life, realilVi whiirli wejit home to »ii ejii[jty heart 
longing to be tilled. It is true tlint many of those senuona 
whiuli once moved ihoueands to tears, reacf to us now meagre, 
bald, and tame in the extreme; nay, we believe they would fall 
generally powerlesis on a oorigregiition of the present day ; but 
at the time thgy were prcjidifd they were new, fresh, and told 
of things long hidden rnini the hearer*; (o us they arc old and 
familiar, ant) so have lost their fi:irce: nothing oim be a greater 
niiKliitte than for a modern evangelical preacher to reproduce 
the sermons of the laet century, and expect to see them fol- 
lowed by any other effect than drowsiness and indifference. 

In like manner, the Catholic rc-nctiim was a work to supply 
another want in the aonl which hiid hccn entirely overlooked by 
the earlier, and still more by tin- later Evangelicals — the wicni- 
iitcntftl: confusing spirit with iniud and feelings, or rather, 
fancying that what affected the two latter was that which con- 
stituted spiritual life; they imagined that a feeling of a need 
for a Saviour, and a belief in 'justification by faith,' was nearly 
the sum total of a Christian's duty: ignoritig, to a f^reat extent, 
the inner spirilual life, llie growth in grace, the silent struggle 
with teinplnl.iou, uuue of which can be supported but by con- 
stant aid of the Incarnate God, and a union with Him, not by 
laith only, but by a real participating in His twofcjhl nature, 
they failed to supply the stream of grace afforded in the sacra- 
ments; In a word, while they believed that we were 
reconciled to tiod by the death of his Son, ihey failed to 
realize what follows, 'much more, being reconciled, we nIiuII be 
HiTod by his life.' The Calliolic movement came to supply this 
lack ; while the Atonement and the Cross were fully oet forth, 
thev were both made a living reality, and not a matter of mere 
faitn; calling for repentance, sinners were invited to seek for 
pardon and grace through the sitcraments, as the appointed 
means to bring them to the Incarnate Saviour. 

By degrees, as these doctrines became more and more clearly 
undttratood and noted on, the religious tale dropped its esposi- 
tory eonvereations and its prcaclinients, and allowed the thread 
of the story to go on unbroken, trusting to the general tone of 
the whole to impress the reader with the great practical truths 
which bang upon, and accompany the belief of doctrinal truih ; 
faith i.i illustrated more by the life of the character described 
than by nwre theological terms by which it may be expressed: 



Tfie Moral Charactfir of Ston/ Book*. 

inslCftd of a distiuisition on daily prayer, or confeesicm, or 
frequent reception, the good fffctrl* of ihe practice nf tlieae 
things ie shown in the lift: Hnd con vtr»sil!on. The inner life ufK 
family is descnhetl, not idwiijf inlkiiif; giKKlties*. nnd speakin": ae 
if there wita iiltviivs a stir<pirion tliiit. ihe wnlU Imd eiirs to hear, 
iinil inoiilhs In tell the Utile pieces of noiiHendt; llml bruthcn; and 
RiHK^rs iiln-ays do Inik wlieti by theiiiFelvee ; hot as such boys 
nnd girU i-enlly do lalk and act. Tiic tijiht dreea, Miii' oiilkr, 
everlasting pipe-day of the soldier in barracks in i-.n-^laiid, auon 
gave wfty to something nioro tintiintl and easy when the real 
work of the Russian war coniincnced ; so the i-hnraflcrs of our 
tales pu> off the stilf hiirliriini of ^riiui1nes^~lnlkiiiir> and »pokc 
lintiiridly ahiint thenijielves nnd oilier people. Wo iir<! ({tiitc 
»\\w. timl this really nalui-al way of acting and speakiuj;, iw nitiy 
be seen in Miss Sewell's or Miss Yongc's iiovelti, has a far 
more beneticinl and far more prat'licrd effect on miad and heart 
thaa all the preaching and tallsings in the world. 


Arr. m. — I. Tie Annual Reports of the Soa'etg_fi>r Ote Propa' 
gttti'oH of tkt CicajH-l in Foreign Pttrla, fiom lite IVar 1848 
to the Year 1S5!), Mf/i t'mluaie^ Printed for the Society. 

3. ProcM^in;}* of the Ckwreh Missionary Society fi>r Afriea 
atui the, J'mM. Fijhj-oiulli Year, 1857— 185R Scelcy, Jiick- 
6oa, and Hnllidiij", Ficct .Street 

Bepobb proceeding witli t)w subjects of inquiry which vrc 
eketclicd out for oiirMiIveH in the Octolii;r iiiiinlior of t)iu 
Chrittian Urmrmirrautyr for 1H.')9, we feel it to he. nn iio- 

Srntirc <iiitr to call the camc«t nttention of membcre of the 
lurch of KnglaDd to tlie |)rce«ut condition of her Micnons in 

In the paper to which wc s1tiid«, we piviTcd, from the poet 
history of l*rotc»laiit MLimoiik in India, thitt for want of thv 
Gpiitenpiitc and a native jirte^lliood, lh<'y had iiivnrialily, alter n 
wrlain Uj'se ol time, been brought either to a stiind^till or 
eUo had sunk into a alalo of actual decline. 

English Christians may be exceedingly unwillini; to open 
their eyea to the facta which we arc about to place before 
them; but wc shall at leni>t hnve llic eonsolation of having 
lifted up a wsming voice, mid of having home a testimony, 
which even now, if it were bnl attended to, niis'il save tho 
native Church in Tinncvelly from wltat, nmtt olhcrwiue prove 
it« incrilable late. 

The time for Apathy and supinenesa ought to have long 
Mtioe ^no by, yet apathy and lukewarmnew seem oven yet 
to reign supreme. Ab we iiitiniiitctl previously, wc have been 
watching narrowly for now many yoai's ihc progress and 
sueci-w, or "tlicrwlw!, of nipwiiinary operations in llie south of 
India; and llw conclusion lo wliirli we have cnnie is this— 
cither th^it they hnve already rc-aehi-d and prissed their culmi- 
nating point; or at any rale, that there are intwt uniiitMakcnble 
and undeniable signs thai, under the jtrem-nl si/nlrm of ojiera- 
lioDS, thoy will advance no further, but will, on the other band, 
in all proDAbility ntritgrade, and thnt speotltli/. 

What wc arc now aliout to stale is not, of course, exactly the 
class of fiict* to be brought forward at missionary meetings, or 
indeed Ujo promincnlly hefin'e the i>iililie generally. Still there 
are (luiiie who muMt not shrink from Imtking them steadfastly in 
the (iue; and they are the ]>er»on« who, i\!< we l>e1i<?vc, wc have 
ihe beet chance of reaching through the pages of the Christian 


WanUi of the Church's Mununm. 

Thf prpat and isolcinu question for Enj:[liah cliurclimen ju, 
wlwtlicr «r imt tliC Itilo A«s tdrmi/i/ tiirrn;(I. Are tliere nwt 
iti<li(<utk)ti.4 tliut it htiH hi^giin to Mi, niiJ thiit ClirislinDngriiui 
and Sawyerpooi-ain, and other pkcea, wtiich aro now like liuuae- 
hold woi-da on tlie lipa of peraona interested in niieaionary 
siicccasGa, arc rapidly sinking to tliu level of Tanjorc and 
Tricliino|Kily, from ivltich sucli s''*'i*t hopes and ex pec tut ions, 
do^iincd, alas, to disnppuintuient, were formed in a puat gene- 
ration ? 

Of the elate of the Church of England Miaaiona in the 
Diooeae of Madras, a Wesleyan retired niiaaionary, a most 
inipartial witness, writes as follows, nearly as fiir Imck oa 
fifteen years ago: — 'The scene of chief euccess Ims been in 
the extreme south, in th« province of Tinnevelly. Thia 
provineo, t1iotii;1i having only n population under a million, has 
received apeeiyl care fruni the two sociel.ii-s connected Willi the 
Church of England, which, taken together, have there at 
present about 30 miaaionariea. On one station we find a luis- 
eionary, 9 native catcchists, and 2S native teachers ; on 
another, a niia*ioniiry, 16 native ciitcehista, and 24 native 
teiiehera; and others in Biniilur i«trenglh. One miasionnry gives 
returns showing an increiwe ol' 7!I7 during the year; anotht-r 
saya, no fewer than 1,403 bouU have einhraced €]inali»nily 
during the last aix niontha. Another shows an increase of 
6,5SU aonlfl brought in one year out of the daiknesa of heatlien- 
i«m to the light of the Gospel. Another states, by comparing 
the reiuniB for 1S44 with tlio&e of the pa^t year, 1846, that 
there is an incrciiae of 1,000 converts. Tiie Bishop of Madrne 
says, in four years and a half the Christian eommunity of Tinne- 
velly has doubled itnelf, the increase duriug tiiai period being 
equal to the total increnae of 54 years that preceded it. The 
converts are of two cluaaes, the baptized, and thoae under 
instruction ; that is, who have renounced heathenism, but have 
not yet been lulmitted to baptism. an extraordinary 
movement, by which in four years 18,000 persons had re- 
niiuiiccd idolatry, the heathen became enraged, and violently 
peraeciiteil the converts. During theae severities, many who 
had been baptized drew back ; but even then the number of 
the baptized steadily increased, and now the prospects are 
brighter than ever. One missionary makes a statement very 
remarkable for India: — ' There are comparatively few heathen 
in the eight villages forming the Athiseypooram district." 
Again:— 'At the morning service all the inhabitants of Pamii- 
' vilci joined the congregation, at the head of them an old 
* pandaram (jnlgriui-nionk). Though these converts are poor, 
'not aa poverty is understood in England, but as it is under- 

Vatita of the ChurcX'a SfistKra. 


* fltood in In(]iu, where the wdgct of one of our mocIianiM 

* would be « |Tvntleiuati'a revenue, they liavc UlmrnDy raised 
' eubTNjripliona for n<K>r-l\iiidii, tract ami book societiett, iind other 

* cfa&ritable and religious ohjocte. Several substantial chiircheH 

* have been built by their own money (»omc Tillages raising as 

* much OB 450 or 5^0 rupi'eH, 4'>(. or Hot. ; sums, I will venture 

* to Mf) that uo one would have !riiii|riiicd it possible to miM! 
' Tor any di«intcrcsi«d object). It U to be rcj;rcttod that the 

* returns do not enable us to specify exactly the number of 
' baptized converts, but so far as I can gallier, tliey mnat 

* be nearly 30,1)00, or about 1,000 on the average to the oare of 

* each mJEsiooary. The Bisliop of Madnie has such a view of 
' tbc present opening in Tinnevdiy, tiiat he doi^; not doubt 

* that uay additional luicaionarius scut thither winild ciicli collect 
'aronnd him a congregation of t,000 or l,bW aoiils in n few 

* inontha. It ia to be hoped, that the two socielies whoae lal*oura 
' have been so bleaseil of the Lord, may be enabled to prosecute 
' with still greater strength the glorious beginnings already 

* nmdc' 

Now why have we made this long extract ? Simply to show 
wliat a gltiriou.t proRpect wiu opi^neii out befure the Chur^:h in 
Southern India tiftceu years, that ia, half a generation, since. 
The fields of beatbenisii were white for the spiritual harvest. 
Half a generation has passed into eternity. The little Christian 
community ha* lasulc no numerical advance; and it now eccms 
fairly heniuicd in by the advnticiiig tide of iclulatry. And do we 
im^uire whv is all tliia? Must we not answer — it is because tiie 
Cimrch in India could not, or would not, admit into the sacred 
■nhiiatry those persona who, we do not hesitate to say, it is 
God's will should he admitted. The mention of the greatly 
disjiroriortionatc numbers of unordnincd native catecliists is, to 
our miiMl, quite Hufficicnt to account for the Had laii^uiHhing of 
the Mi.'wionif »ubKoi|uvnt]y, and the meluncholy statistics which 
we feel it our bounden <hity to bring foripard. 

After 184*1 the onward movement of Ciiriittiamty in South 
India seems to have ceased. The harvest wae passedj the 
summer ended. 

l>uring the haJf-year ending 1848, tliere were baptised, 
adults, only 84; received from the Church of Rome, 93, 
exclusive of children. But what ia the meaning of receiving 
children from the Church of Rome? We may well aay, when 
tiic chief result of the laboura of Anglican missionaries 
amongvt the countless millions of heiitbens by whom they are 
«urTX>u»(lcd, is to be found in receiving « few converts from the 
Oiurch of Kome — ' How are the iniglitv fitUen ! ' 

We are to remember that those returns appear to be for the 

Ka cut. — N.S. y 


Wants of the Cfiurclia Missions. 

whole of the tniBsions connected willi the Society for the Pro- 
pagfitiou of the Gospel in the Dioceee of Madras. To proceed 
with oiir iiimlysis. 

In the liaH-jear imding Dec.emher 31j!t, 1849, tliere were 
biinlized, udiills, 59; ruceiveii from the Church of Rome, 49. 

For the year 1850 tliere aru uo returns given in the Report 
published in IS51 ; and aj;ain, no tubiitnr statement of returns 
for ISol publifihod in the Report of 1852. An apology le made 
fur this ; but the neglect is really inexcusable. There iriight bo 
a valid excuse for 1851 oo account of the jubilee, but two 
yenrs ia a loug time to go without a Report, idthough fur the 
pecuniary intercuts of the Society it was perhaps us well. 

During the half-year ending December 3ist, 1852, tliere 
were baptuied 121 adults; but then, five-nixths of these were 
in five comparatively new Btatious. Received from the Church 
of Rome tins half-year, 43 ; but adults and children are not 
distinguished. Adidia bajilized during the year endinj; Decem- 
ber 3lBt, 1853, 297. This is a Hlifihl increase; but the returns 
for the year ending December 31ot, 1857, only exhibit a total 
of 198 adults baptized. 

In 1858, it would seem that the Society had become some- 
what alive to the declining state of its Missions in South Indi^ 
For in the 96th page of the Report for that year, we Jind 
these remarks : — 

•In the foUftwing retums from tlie missions, whioh are made up to 
December, 1857, it will he obaorvpil that tint most, hopeful aigos of 

Srogri-sM— out of Tiunevolly — lire presented hy the b/-«j MiBsiim of Cud- 
hIjbIi." (Th-J ilahcs aro ours.) ' Wliilat thci Soiiioty is thaukful to the 
gmt Lord of tho bfti'veat for the proHinrity of t!ios« miasious, it caouot 
but observB with aori'ow tlwt a like lueaaure of succcm has not been 
grantoi! in other pnrtH. In eight missions not a single sidult has boon 
buptiKuil : antl I'ivo missions, though amiTiunded hy a hentlion jiopulatioii, 
wear thi« aspect of settliij puriahoa in a Christian knii, innsuiucU us tliay 
do not sliow a single heathen under tuatrucUoa.' 

Still, with all this before tlieir eyes, uot the least shadow 
of the true cause, the want of a native priesthood in large 
numerical force, aeems ever to have crossed the minds of those 
high in office, and responsible for the management of the 
Society's affairs. But the above statistics, melancholy as they 
arc, arc less so than another tabular statement which we have 
compiled from the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel's 

This ia the entire returned numbers of native Christians, 
both lululta and children, in connexion with the Socicly in tlie 
Diocese of Madras, from 1848 to 1858 : — 

Wants of the Church's Miaswm. 


Tbeso wore m 1S48 15^99. 

„ 1851 14,687. 

„ 1852 15,023. 

„ 18.53 1.5,167. 

„ 18.57 l(!.47a 

„ 1858 15.112. 

From this it would appear, that tliu ChriBtinim of Smith India 
in (»mncxton with the Society for the Propji^'^tion of tho 
OoApel have actually decreased during the last ten year^, that is 
between 184S and 1858, to the number of 487. 

A very curious fact in connexion with thpae statistics is, that 
tlm missions do not show a corretsponding tabular increase 
commensurate with the numbers baptized, including the children 
of coDverlH, and allowing tor natural decresae by death. This 
would Ecem to point to some drain upon the minsiona unknown 
to ua, pOKtibly in the way of secessions to Kome, or rclnpiitta 
into heathenism. Wo are a,w!ire of the Coolie immigration to 
Ceylon and other plaocs; but wc should think the proportion 
of Christians out of tho i.iuttro number of imtnignints muf^t be 
too inconsiderable to account fur tho foot which we have 
pointed tixit. 

But all this is really too and to dwell upon. It is enough to 
break the heart of any one who ever hoped to see India cvan- 
;;clizcd by means of the English Church. It is nut that the 
Lord of lh<; harvest has withheld his promised blessing, but 
that we have utterly disregiu^led the most plain intimations of 
hii« revealed will. It ia true that the last Report speaks of the 

S-vbalnitiy of the ordination of five native catechiats, by the 
isbop of >ladras, before very long. Pour of these have been 
recently ordained. But whnt indeed are they among so many ? 
KatlicT do wo need, and ought to have, 500 native priests and 
deacons at once, for that diocese alone. We can only cuncluilc 
this Hubject by ogniu making a solemn appeal for a Bisho)) or 
Btshojut of Tinnevelly, men who will throw red tape, and 
miserable traditions, and conventional coklness and apathy 
aside, and really give a native ministry to the southern regions 
of India. 

We will now proceed to pass under review the general state, 
and condition, and proi^pecta of the Sierra Leone, or West African 


Tliese. as is doubtless known to all our renders, owe, up to 
the eetablLsliment of the recent interesting West Indian Mission 
to the I'ongas. their e^stablisliuicnt and development to the 
foMtcring care of the Church Missionary Society. We have had 
occiution. Bud we e611 have occasion, to expre.-<s and to feel con- 
siderable mtstrust of the Church Missionary Society, especially 



WanU of the Church's Missions. 

in the haltitig deference which it pays to Episcopal authority ; 
wc therefore nppenl to the success of this boiiy in one pni-ti- 
culiir, and in one alone. How etanda the case with regard to 
the eetablishmeut of a oativo ministry, a safe criterion of mis- 
aionary euccess? 

According to the Rcirort of the Church Misaionnry Society 
for 1^59, it has now forty-one oi-diuncd native labourers 
ntuongst 0, total of 237. The Society for the ProiMgatiua 
of the Gosiiel unfortunately does not specify the number 
of their native mtirjiiouiiries. We have had therelbre to esti- 
mate them aB well as we could, by looking over tlie entire 
list, and marking the names of suc)i as are evidently not 
of English extraction. In this way it is impossible to secure 
perfect ncouraoy, but we believe the result will not he fiir 
from the truth. According then to this process, we oanuot 
find that there are any more, if so many as 21 natives, 
out of a total of 414 clergymen, maintained wholly or in 
part by this Society. At the name time, it is only fair to 
remember, tlmt tlie Society lor the Propagation ul' the Gospel 
does not by any means confine itself to missionary operations 
among the heathen, but that a most important branch of its 
work consists in providing for the spiritual wants of our own 
countrymen, who have gone forth as emignintB to the colonies. 
Still we do tiiink the Society might buve more than twcnty-ono 
native missiouaries on its list. 

We have no hesitation in affirming that, ao far as we can judge, 
and we can assure our readers that we have given our most 
earnest and careful attention to tlie question in all its bearings, 
there are no missions at the present time in connexion with 
the Church of England, or ind(,'cd any I'roti'atiint commnnity, 
whicii can for a moment com|iarti, as to riiul permanent success 
and Bti'iuly progressive advancement, with the Sierra Leone ami 
Ahheukula Missions. Much of all this is undimbledly due to 
Hicrra Leone bavitig had the presence of Bishops who were 
willing to ordain native candidates as black a^ jet. 

In Sierra Leone there are twelve Ejiropeans and ten nativca. 
In the Yoriiba Mission, including xVhheokuta, there are seven' 
Europeans and seven natives. It certainly is most extraordinary ' 
and unaccountable, that the Church Missionary Society, having! 
experienced the inestimable advantage of having a Miesionary ' 
Bishop in Sierra Leone to ordain a native pastorate, should have 
committed itself to the anomalous course of oppos'mg Missionary 
Bishops for Tinnevelly and India geneiully. And this in all 
the more singular, because upon another and analogous oci^asiun 
— the creation of the See of Victoria as the foundation of a Mis- 
rionary Episcopate for Cluna — we believe tlie above-mentioned 

' ^nli of the Church's Mt*$i)n$. W 

Society gave tho scheme their approbntion and support nnd 
ccrtulnly Dr. ^inith, tlie firat Biuhop of Vicluriji, vriut one of 
liieir own luissioiuiry stafl' in that country. The ground upon 
which ihey resisted the nppointiuent of Missionary Bishope in 
India WAS, that though usd'ul when miseioii8 had made a. con- 
sidcniblc Ruioiiiit of progn^*, they were uhcIciw or worse in their 
iiifiint statu. Dut tiurcly ini^.tiniitiry ujKTittioiis were and arc io 
a far lea^ advanced elute in Cliina tliuii iu Tinnevclly and mmc 
other parts of India. 

It ia wonderfu], if men once abandon smptiirul and n]>oEitolic 
precedent, into what strange and unaccountnhle inconaiatencies 
they arc sure to he hetraycd ; and the opposition, eo miecrahly 
active, BgitinHt the noble scheme for Iniuichiiig Miifsionary BitthopH 
into Central Africa, if, ia to be noted, proceeila from the most 
ardent friends of the Church Misaionary Society. Ia tlie dis- 
tinction to be found in this, tliat Missionary Bisliops are only 
not dangcrouii when they belong to a ])artlciilar school ? 

Wc inujt "ive u few cxtriicta from the Itepurt tor 1859 of 
the Church Mi.«fiioimry Society, reiutive to the condition of the 
Sierra Leone MiasJon. 

'Tlve pastoral work wit.hiu the colony has bweo uliiefly cai'risd on bvths 
ten native luiatoi's, who now ocouiiy the pn«ts wiiioh wore (fflCS held by 
Euraficaii laifflKiniirius. Oulj two Enroiiemis nnw siipGi'iiitend native con- 
grtgMaam. The instructioir uiiU baptiani of the lioatheu nnd MnhommetJuiis 
no longer oauupieB a pixxuiuunt place, beoauae those clossca form a small 
Dainority of Ibo population. Tlie R^v. Gcurge Nicull, uative pastur at 
Kiaso'. thns descnbos the change which has lakeu place — 

' "(W nneoiirBging feature obaervablc in oiu' work at the present ifny I 
■nivtt mnott'on with gratituJc!, and that in, the hearty co-operation of our 
p«opl« in »It the plaua of useftiltiees propoaud by tbuir native paatoru ; the 
rwpoot> eBtiuiatiuu, and couiideiice rapuxed in thcui. Iti luany instuicee 
they priffer their teaching. Thk we freely admit is wndouDtedly the 
bloEScd fruitA of the labours of tbo old missiunarica," ' 

The following cxtrnota from the letters of newly arritcd 
riivnOa, will present their hrst impregsitms upon witneariiiig the 
vpirilual state of the colony. Biiihop Bowon writes, January 
mth, 1858:— 

' Aa to th» general state of this nirigiilar colony, I can *« yet say biit 
Utile i bnt there is abiuidnnt cause to thank God and take courage, when 
we cooaider what the puoplo were and what tlity are. The ufforta of 
Chrntian philaotbropiBts, bo far as Siorra Leone is ooncenied, have not 
ftukd, iKit luiVF aif ually mivceedeil. They Imvo dime all that they ooidd 
tave wiabod. Tbey have not uiaiJe Englishmen of a whole heterogeneous 
popubUou of Afilcan savag^a ; but theso have become ordeily and 
pmceabto subjects, and ar" adiiuu-ing ntpidly in civilization, A yoiuig 
toan in thn liress of a British oUictr (he is surveyor to tho Colonial and 
MilitatT' tiuapiuU) mid to nii; the other day — '' Look at xuo ; 1 luu the son 
t4 a lilMmtod African." It wsa cbaraL'liM-iHlic.' 


Wanfa of ifte CltvreJta Missions. 

Tlic celebrated Africnn traveller. Dr. Livingatono, lately 
visited Sierra Leone upon his return to South Alrica, and in a 
letter to Sir R. Murcliison, dated March iiOtU, 1858, he thug 
describes the colony : — 

' Wft were liera on Sunday last, and saw an oi-dinfttion by the Bishop, na 
KunntiOi goml man. He was a missionary form arly, oud a, better luati fur 
A ^hop could Dot have been aelccl.eii TliB Suiiilaj IB wou.lorfuUj well 
olwcrvefl — as w<iU, I think, as aujwhero in Sootliind. Looking «t the 
olmnge uli'octed umong the peopio, and iwraiiaring tlie maasos here with 
what wQ lind at [lorts ali3iig the coast, where the benign idfluencea of 
Christianitv have bad no cftuct, " th.» man" even " wfio bus no nonaense 
about Lim, would be obligoil to confoaa tliat England bna dono aomu good 
by her philanthropy— ay, and aa amonnt of good that will took grftnJ 
in tho eyofl of posterity.' 

We ourBelvee perfectly recollect the lime, some 6ftecn or 
twenty years ago, when the staple of the reports from this very 
miHdion consisted of accounts of the fearful degiadation of these 
very people — their fetish- worslup, their devil-worship, and devil- 
dtuioes; — their awfiil and brutish superstitious, with the efforts 
of the European missionaries to wean them from them, and 
bring tbem into the glorious liberty of Gospel light. Now, the 
children of those very heathen are the pastors and teachers of 
the native Church, and are doing a work, and meet with » 
euccees in their districts, which may vie with the religions 
work going on in the very best cultured parishes of Chriatiaa 

A few brief eslracts fi-om the journals of the native pastors 
will show that the spiritual bleasings which formerly rested 
upon the labours of the European miasionaries are still con- 
tinued to their native succcesora. The Rev. G. Nicoll reports 
of the state of Kissey — 

'The population of Kissoy is 2,SfK). Oommunicanta numbnr 58(1, dis- 
tributed into two lorgi' clasaeB. tho luulus uievUng oti TiioHday and tha 
CMftales on Friday evenings. Tlie uuiuber of candid ales for baptism is 144, 
meeting on the mominga of the above-men tionod days. Besides theae, we 
have an interoatiug class of inquirers, ccittiposed of young persona undc-r 
pvopiiration for Confirmation, meeting on iUonday evening. The femnla 
portiou of this clasa attend bosiiios Mrs. Kicoll's Bible-doss ou -Sunday 

We wonder how many English narisbcs could bo found which 
cxliihitcd lie great a ])roportion of communicants to population 
as 580 to 2,500 ! The nearest approach to it with which wa 
are aC()nniDted was where, out of a parish containing n popula- 
ti'*n of lH'i, forty persona made their Eufilcr Communion between 
Palm Sunday antf Ascension Day. This gives a result almofit, 
but not quite, equal to the Sierra Leone district. 

ITonte of the Oiuvch^s Mitnona. 


•Tbo ncboolsof olomontar; iQstrnctloD throughout tljo colony bus whoUj- 
■u{ipoTted bj tba ooiiffiv^tionn, wnJ by tho fuoa of tbo diildron. The 
nwerintendnnM is mainUincd by tho njitivo iiiuitcrj), anA by nutivo oom- 
iDnt««& tht So«ety rotniiia only thii laaiingtuieul of tho iiiatitutiuas for 
giving » mipcrior education, aud tho aubuolii of libeiatod idiive-i:liildi*n.' 

_ The Rev. E. Joiie:*, ii!«ciKteil Ijy tfie Rev. C. RelcbanU, con- 
tinues in cliaree of tlie Fimrah Hay Imlitulimi, of whicli h« 
reports fiivoiirHbly. The number ot" |)U]iils at the close ol' the 
jrcar was icn. Of the first dasa of four etuduuts Mr. Jone» 
writes — 

*Th«y have all ruad the Qroek Testament tvice over, with fr*!(iuont repo- 
ttti<ina of the Epistlos U> the Komans and HebrewB, fivci bouks of Xeno- 

iibon'a AnabasiH, with Ihv wholo of ITcimu's Coiopdiiiliiiiu, and Nicholl's 
!ibl«-Help. They Iihsb also read tu ^igliBh history to the etid of tbo 
reigu of Queeu A iino- TLey have atted km Christian visitorB in tho little 
town adjoining lis. Mr. Rciuhai-dt reports favourably of thoir Hobrew aud 
Arabw studiva.* 

We must not, however, multi[}l<r extrdcte. What we have 
quoted are mifficient to convince the most fcejitical of the 
gluriom work which has been efiV-cted umoiigst tlte dcgmJcd 
tlcvil-worthippers of Wealern Africa in the course of si eiiifilo 
^Deration. All honour to thnsc who have raised ti fnithfiil mid 
devoted native ministry to prcnch the Gospel of the grace of 
God — and ont of nuirh ninteriale I AVe wish every one of our 
readers would procure tliia Report, and judge for theiueelvea. 

We come at length to Rpcak of the pnet liistfiry and present 
prospects of the native Church of New Zealand. In those 
noble islundd dwell a nation of aboriginal inhabitants, who, both 
in physical constitution and natural mental endowments, urc. In 
every respect, the et^tinls of the muili-viiunted Caucnsian lace. 
Amongst them the Churob of Christ went on her pilgrimage, 
and made herself a. home, whiUt they were yet painted savages, 
deTOoring one another in wholesale banquete of human llesli. 
Thus she found them, and »he slaekoued not in her labours until 
she brought them clothed, both morally aud materially, to the 
feet of JesuK, and in their right mind. Never did miy peo|ile, 
uven in (lie early ages of tbo Church, receive ClirisLiauity with 
greater Icrvour, with a more loving devotion, with a warmer 
affection for the truth, iim) with more si n«le- hear te duel's, than 
did the natives of New Zealand. The story of thoir conversion 
is yet to be written. It will form by far the brightest page iu 
the bislorv of the first eisty years of the niiietecutb century 
Again and a^ain do tho New Zcalanders remind us of our own 
Saxon forefathers in the first fervour of liieir love to Chririt and 
his (Jliiireh in tin; early day* of iht-ir ovin conversion. We 
could larallel uct and event which oocurreil again and again in 

tS Wants of the ChurcJiA Mimora. ^^^^M 

one ciise with thosfi which occurred in the other. ' A nation 
w(ia iDilecd bom lu a day.' The cross of Christ showed thiit 
two thousand vears hnd not weakened its might, or cnused it to 
forget its power lo triumph. Ahuoat all tliinga were (iilr then, 
even as a spiritual Eden, ' as a frarden of the Lord,' with ' trees 
full of the Bap ' of grace — evi'ii 'aa the lign aloes which the Lord 
hath planted.' Wu flay ahnost. because in one poiut the Anglo- 
Saxon and tiie New Zealand Churches wore as dissimilar as 
they well coidd be. Wo alhide to that one dark page, that one 
sad, sad error, that dire aiul ruinous mistake which has iniirred 
the whole miBsionnry work of Enj^laiul's Church iu modern 
days— the abseiire of a native prieslliood. Wo believe up to 
this very time thiirc has never been a single New Zcalandcr 
mhnitled by England's Church to the holy office of the priest- 
hood. Two natives have lately been ordiuncd deacons, and the 
period of which we are speaking embraccB eighteen yiiars of (he 
episcopate of a Selwyn. Alas! we cannot feel surjiriee that he 
himself should speuk in the following luelandioly strain, iu his 
addrcsM to his firat nielropulitan synod : — 

' But t<i ooDie nearer home, upon the eanio line of thought, I must draw 
y.iin- iit.tciilioD lo t!io statu '•( tht; iwtivu CLurcli of Nuw Jliiaknii. And 
timt ia una aiibjuot cliuuilug our iiiiniiiigloil tlinnlifulueN!!, thnt I bope biidii 
to rociiivc a crnnmiaHion to ootiscoratu to tbu nffioo iif a. Bishop one whoso 
ogc and l^xp^■tieuc^e liiw^ oftoti maile me feel aatiamod tUut I sbould have 
beau prcirerreil bufuru hiui, iLtid tu whom I huve long wuih«d to be uUuwod 
to niAe this ro|iutiUiou, by djviiliug with him Ibc duties and rLvi[>uiiBi' 
bilitis- of iiiv f<fl)>!i.\ 

' T!iP ptioi. objert for which thu niiKwiciiiaty dioacse of Tiu-nngn hiia been 
conntituiod in to wiiiim th'_- himiH orimtivu urdimitiou. At prL-Huiit it ia im- 
podaible not lo fuel aaat'.' doubts of tbi.' fulurv aljihihty of tliu untive Clitiruh. 
My reuHut joumtiy through tho uiHsionstaLionH h»» t«(t me ia a bukuui.>d 
state Ijetwueii hojio aod fiiar. Tbo thought of tho populous dietintU of 
Whakittano, Op'tiki, Wainpu, mid TnrftTinki, all left without a rosidt'nt 
niiiuionnry, would bo oiio of uiiniinglfid nrarrow, if we did not see thn fruits 
of tbo Divine bleHBiiig upon tbu luiHsioii now appearing, in the faithful men 
uf tbo uativo raoe who Imvo uh'oadv' boot) ordamml. or urc now pawing 
through thoir prot*tiori for' tlio nuninti-j'. Wn must fuul that, wbuo hiUf 
the binniLn iiitu in Africa, liiilin, uud t'hiua is Htill uiioouytTtud, »•> cannot 
(■xpiict nioru tnon from England to tnkc care of our .')(J,(K;K»80iJji. But why 
Khoiild wc dpiiiro forfign aoru when our own nntivo fields ni'e white aiready 
to thu harvest i Our lot bos fallen in a fair grmiiid. yen, no have a goodly 
li6ritu^. Wi) aro the tillers of a tield whiuh tliu Lord has bluased. 

• This is the biight gleam of hope which chi-ora the saduows of our mis- 
sionary joiirnoyings. It ontmot Im that nil this work of groco should liavu 
bean wrought in vnin. if wo pass through deserted baiciBts, whcro tlia 
aged men and women who wulcomtd uh in former ytnrs hnvc pussud awny, 
leaVkig no child, tho thought arisea that tliough tliuy h.ivu pUBBo.J from 
earth, yet not olio of thpm is tost. If wc sue the sigim of a dutaying faith 
aiid of n, low that waxes cold, m tho ruiuod chapol aud its gniaa^grown 

Eith, we buvo but to look to the tomlia around it ; for there lie thos9 who 
itva gunn to thuir roat iu Jesos, dying iu the fervour of their first lovB, 

Wants (tf the Chwch'» ifmiow. 


and nfbote out off Ul^e Bowers in the mamioa, wHh tha Enwh daw of bap- 
tian»I gTMS ui>on thoir h<!art«. lliRro tbv fint evaogetiiitii ta thuir lionthno 
caunttjIOlMI wait for thdr Lord's retiirn to call tboui tu Oiilur iritu Lis joy. 
If w« •« tbo nutivo youlfi Ji-jntrtiug from tlie eiduijilu ot tbeir fulhuMi 
giveD (o solf^nilulgeuoeydruukiNUieMi. &ud elotb.we soe, on th« othor htusci, 
tbnl thnMiab tbia furnaoe of temptation, as id our own soIiooU anil coUeew 
io Ei^imd, Qod'a chomen nervants are being tiiun<Ml oral pi'orcil for ui4 
niiiiulry of hU Word. The very saiiiu oauao which fills our lic-aHn with 
frara for tli« taany, iitrengtbciui our cuafidenve in the stability ul' tbu fuw.' 

And is Buoii really the present Btate of the native race of 
New Zealand? Alas I imlectl, if it i« ouly now thiit we rtc to 
look for a native miuiBtry niuuuu^t tlicse noble iHlimdcre. n* 
BomelhiDg yet to 1)« accomplialiQa by fiiturc trjiininu; mwl edit- 
catioonl vftorts, all we cat) eny i^, that the New Zealandera 
dwtnrcd i>eller at the hands of England's Church. 

Tlie proof that there have existed in New Zc!il:in{l for a. gene- 
ntion past, ample niateriHls for an cflectivc mid devoted native 
ministry, is most abundant, nluioat more abundant than in the 
case of India. Wv cannot help inquiring, with nil deference and 
respect, why were not some of these 'a^d men, and thnxe limt 
cvanj^dlnts to their heathen countrymen,' of whom the Hiihop 
of New Zealand speaks so touehingly, admitted into holy oivlers ; 
flo that that sueccsxion of spiritual fathers, which was to be in 
all lands, should not have left beliind ihem, now that they them- 
selves arc at rest, a worthy pi-ogeny of spiritual children ? So 
«hould the saying have come to paHs — ' Instead of thy lathers 
* thou eltalt have children, whom thou mayest make prini'c^ in nil 
' Undd.' If this had been so, should wo have reail now of a 
decaying faith, and of a love that waxes cold, ' in the visible 
tokens of the ruined olinpcl and its grass-grown path "/ If men 
were found, nis these were in years gone by, to build thoso 
chapels in every haunt of the native population, and to worahip 
Ciou llierein by u daily sacntico of prayer and praice, were not 
tliOMC nvcn worthy, some of them at least, to bo (iikI'm pr!csti>? 
\V(mkl it not haTO been far better for those men to have dis- 
pensed thcwordof life to their countrvmen around them iu virtue 
of an a|)oetolia commission, and with the gift of Its atteudunt 

It i* now many year* ago sinee we remember being very mueh 
siruck with some facia aixl incidentii which appestrcd in the 
Church Misdonary Reports of those dnyiL Twenty yours ngo it 
was no uncommon thing for the missionaries to find Clirintianity 
known and bearing fruit in districts of New Zenhmd where tbo 
white man's foot hsid never trod. They would come for the first 
time to fuime dL>tant Irihc, to a i<ecluded pnh on upland slope, or 
by the will! wia-ebore, mid find the Lord's Diiy carefully observed, 
wars extinguished, chapels built, seryiecs adapted from the 

Wants of the Church'a Miasiom. 

Pniyer-I>oofc carried on by ihfl inatnimentality of nativea alone. 
A single DHtivc visitiug a niiBslou-statioD. leftraing to read, and 
carrying bnuk with him to his home a copy of the English 
Prayer-lmok in liis native tongue, has bettu known to he the 
meana of evangelizing a whole tril>e alisolutely inaccessible to 
the miesionnriea in those days. Dnes it not aeem to ne, looking 
«t thingH siniply and solely by the light of Scripture and 
primitive antiquity, that one of a Bishop's primary acta ahould 
he to ndmit such heaven-taught evangelit-le, such 'vesaels of 
election ' and of the Holy Ghost, to two at least, if not all the 
orders of th« sacreil miniiflry ? 

In parlicnlar, we remember a mnrvelloua but authentic account 
of an old blind cliiof, who had been a great warrior in his day, 
before the glad tidings of great joy sounded on the shores of 
New Zealand. This old man received the knowledge of the 
truth in the love of it. Blind as he was, he became a most 
auocessful Icaclicr of Ins benighted fellow-countrymen. He 
penetrated, by the help of a guide, districts nt tlmt time quite 
inaccessible lo Eiimpmns, and even traversed unmolested the 
tcrritorica of tribes hostile to hia own, and at war with one 
another, Hia method of proceeding was this. He Icamt the 
whole of the Psalms by heart, so that he could repeat nny 
portion of them at pleasure, together with such piirta of the 
Frayer-bouk iia are cliiefly used in public worship. He would 
then alart on his evangelistic tours, and on ent,ering a village 
would go round and n^sendile the people. He would then repeat 
the Church service, including the Paalnia for the day, hia guide 
reading the leaaona. Next he would preach to the assemblage, 
in a simple and affectionate strain, making known tu them the 

lorious and heavenly truths which he had himself embniocd. 

iVna there ever such a fulfilment of the i>ropliecy, ' Then shall 
the eyes of the blind see out of obscurity ' ? We d<i not wonder 
that NfW Zealand became so bright n jewel in our liedeenier'a 
crown. We believe we are ex|ire»sing tlje recoi-dod conviction 
of the em'lier ICngliah miaaionariea, in saying (hat the conversion 
of New Zealand is, imder God, to he ascribed nvlher to the efforts 
of these voluntary, mipaid native agenta than to their own. 
What would not the >lew Zealand Church have been now if 
these men had been made [irictite insteiid of bein^ sutFercd, as, 
alas, they were, to live and die hiyinenf Just as our Anglo- 
Saxon fnrefathers cnrrii,-d the torch of holy Irnlh over hidf the 
(H>ntin(:nt of Europe, and h.-indi-d it on Ironi bi^hojj tu bislmp, 
and aaint to saint, as they ran the race of life, S(j may we bo 
aeeured that New Zealand priests would, at this very time, 
be penetrating every nook and comer of the Pacific, nnd 
he lilting up the etjindfird of the Cross wherever its myriad 


Wants of the Chtreh'a Miaaiottt. 75 

isles are laved by the 'oountless play of ibc bbiUcs of Ita ocean' 

Thjnps are fur otherwise now. We believe that oven yet tlio 
vast mniority of ihe imtive:* of New Zenluni] prorc§s to be in 
communion with the Church of England. Wc should luirc hiui 
no right to be eitrprised if mnttere liati aeHumci) a n'id<^-ly (iifti-rent 
avpc'ct. And it must be el.-itcd that wc ore here, find elsewhere, 
rather iwkiu^ for iiifonimtion, than writing for nny other object. 
It mjiy be, luii) d«ubtk'84 ii« the eiutc, Ihiit entfhcieut re»aone are 
aflsigiiablo for what we all deplore ; but ]'jtigli.->h Churchmen have 
a right to ask that tlioee reasonis tiliould be clearly and deBaitvly 

The reports of the Church Missionary Society on New 
ZcnUmd for the pa«t year t-trikc us us being peculiarly unsiitis- 
facton,-. When nnulyfed, tliey all seem atiiilmtalde in fnirness 
to one only cause — tlie ubaeuce of a native miiiiatry. Tlieit: are 
only twenly-two miesiouarlciD to a native populiition numbering 
ubout 70,0()0, living not in towns, but in scattered houeeri aiid 
hamlets, llic tribes eeem to be like 'ehecp without u nhep- 
hcrd,' and this is aeimilc frequently made use of in thi; letters 
of the mi^Hionnrica. The Venerable Aiclideacoii Brown takes 
this review of the state of the native Churoh : — 

'8. Pnol in it single verse supplies ns with a eiimmnry report nf thU 
diiftriut for tLo ptist yciir. A grtsnt door and offectiial has bt-ou opouoJ. 
aud there are many aJversarias. Wo huve haeD oheen.'J by ciaudiiutinii8 
of otndidatf^ for bapUaui, by tlie gi-ticru.! steutifiwilnonn iiianife"t>.iJ in thn 
bond of commiliiicfitits, by thu eviiient desiru for instruction niaiiitniiitid 
hy the native tcJiohci's, by llio grailutd deureiisB of Pi)p(iry, luid by the 
appomnt attention dinplayod wliDi'uvur tlio lUMBA^e of rccuDciliiitioii luui 
M40 procliiimod. And to thowo cauaoa !<t l.hnnld', wo lutjjhl add, 
that cre&t 2«a] lum htea shown in soniu fuw pluoofi in buildiug woodon 
cliapols instead of periaLalilu rusli clmp<.'ls.' 

These are cheering features. But tJiere 'are many advcr- 
nries.' C^'t"''''^'^ res|)ecting land have icsucd in bluodslied ; 
the Sunday i<ch()uls are not so well attended; the week-day 
prayer-iiieelings are in many places abandoned ; the pnijKjrty nf 
the nativeii ia often squandered on feasts or useless uriji'lua of 
dross, while the places of worship are sinking to decny ; 
dintpUne ia becoming more lax, and a I'ormal routine of religious 
duties eeems to have taken ihe place of spirituality of heart and 
life. The cimsc of this lamentnblc state of aftairs is attribulabic 
in a grwl niejuuro to the pseudo civilization of the natives ; and 
llic great remedy will probably be found wJien the Lord of the 
harvest, in answer to the prayers of hi* people, shall rai»C up n 
native nastornte, men of simple habits and simple piety, apt to 
teacb, Daving a good report of iliein that are wilhout, and wlio. 


Wants tf tie Churcfi'a Misaiona. 

lik<^ the cliildrea of Issachar, have ' lUKJcrstniKliDg of tlic timce, 
to know what Israel ought to do.' 

Kather would wc say, so far as we arc at present informed, 
that the New Zealiind Chiirch has Dunibcra of men poe- 
Beseing all these qiialiii cations within her borders; and what 
ia wanted ia, carneat jimyer that God would put it into the 
heart of her cliicf ministcra, the Bishupa and pastora of his 
flock, to send ihem forth by the laying on of banda to preach his 
Word with all authority, and minister the Holy Sacraments to 
their fellow-countrymt'D. It may do for dieseuting coramuniticB 
to employ lay agency for such things. If they do §o, they are 
at leiiist cooaisteiit, and do not violate their own principles. But 
we assert, fearicai^ly, that for tlie Church to employ laymen to 
do the work of evaugelists, when she might have priests, is to be 
imfaithful to her high commiseion, and to forfeit her claim to 
plead the promise ot her Divine Founder and Master. So it was 
that when episcopal ordination was not to be had in Kew Zealand, 
tbff niarvrllous success of which we have spoken attended the 
dirt'usiou of the Goapel by laymen ; but aftertbere was a Bishop 
there, and ordem, wc thiuk, might have been conferred, the 
native Church without them would eeeui to have experienced a 
chdck in her career of anticipated prosperity. Again, do not 
thoughtful persons in England, who watch such a syetem as 
"VVeBleyanisni, fur instance, feel that with all the fervour and 
devotion which its members often exhibit, it never can be in a 
healthy or satisfactory condition, never he at reid peace, or 

IHJsseaa true unity, liei^uiiae of its want of a Catholic prieet- 
lood ; because without a priesthood there can be no valid sacra- 
ments ; and because without the sacraments which Christ 
ordained as seals and channels of his grace, the spiritual lite 
must ordinarily languish and wither? 

And why .should it ho any otherwise in New Zcnland? 
Ccrliuii orjTiiuic, inviolable laws nerviule God's luoritl world, 
and the Bpu-ilual universe, as surely as material laws pervade 
the natural universe. The lay brethren might preach to 
their countrymen, but who were to offer the Holy Lucharistic 
Sacrifice amongst them from day to day, and feed them con- 
tinually with the true 'Bread from heaven,' the Body and 
Blood of Christ? 

God of bis great mercy grant that it be not too late even yet 
to give to the >few Zealand native Church what she ought to 
have bad years and years ago, and what alune can save her 
from her candlestick being removed out of her place— a natJTe 
priest liood. 

We come now to the disouasion of the causes which may be 
supposed to have weighed with the colonial and missionary 

TTdftb </ lie Church'* MUtiotu. 


prclfttee in hindcriiig tlieni from bestowing a priesthood upon 
the native cburclics. One causa we have already spoken of— 
Proteatimt traditjon — an inability to throw oB' the niiiicriiblc J 
troditioD of not ordaining men under niiy otiier circuiii»taneca ' 
titan tliosc which they have been ordained under, for tlie lant two 
or Uiree Imndred years, within the narrow cii-cte of the British 
I«Ic*. A aniilar cause led to the disseverance ol' lh« vast 
majority of the native IrisJi from the Angliean commuaion. 

Sicn bnd not been accustomed to be ordained unlees tbey 
could H)>cuk the English tongue ; therefore, none others moat 
ever he. _ . 

Hie fncla relative to Ireland are almost too well known to need | 
re<u^>itulation. Xevcr had a Church and nation been »o shaine- 
fully treati'd as the Iriiih Church and nation had been by the 
Bishops of Rome for fouie four or five hundred yeara previous 
to the ehangc of religion in the sixteenth century. 

'lliift !<tatenient reata upon some of the most undeniable and 
beat authenticated facts of history. The consequence of this 
vrae, that the national Church uf Ireland had been trodden 
down to the very duft by tlie English invaders, ncting under 
Papa] sunetion and eiiconrngiiinent. What more natural than 
that the Irish should cling with the utmost tenacity to their 
ancient independent Church, and view, as they undoubtedly did, 
every tiling oiflti actively Roman with the greatest aiihorrence? 

Ttere never was a grander op|K)rtunity for carrying on a 
true reformation upon apostolic and primitive principles, which 
should have euiliraeed the entire nation, than theie was at this 
time in Ireland. But what was done? Englir^limen who could 
not (peak a word of the Irish mother tongue were into 
all the vacant bishoprics and bencSees, and laws actually pimped 
and enforced to prevent native Irish-epcoking clergy from 
holding any ufBco of tnii>t or omotumi^nt in tlicii' own land. 
Meanwhile liome «eised Iier opportunity. Nun)bcr8 of the 
luitjre Irish were ordained prieHte, Their knowledge of the 
tongue understood by tlie people enabled iliem to win over to 
tJie allegiance of the Pope an immense majority of tlu-ir J 
countrymen ; and to this it is due that the attectione of the 1 
Celtic n»oc in Ireland have been secured for the Papal See 
^- probably for ever. 
^H Things were very aimilar in Wales. It has been proved, 

^^ tluU. up to a hundred or a hundred and twenty years ago, aj 
I disaentient from the doctrine and discipline of the Church wai| 

^H all but aosolutcly unknown in that part of Britain. Nnw, nint^ 
^B tenths of the entire population of tho principality are said to 
f be schismatics. If wc inquire into the reason of this cxtraordi'd 

^_ nary changv wc may find it in this,— that up to the Cieorgian' 



IVanta of the Church's MistwM. 

era it was liie cuBtom to appoiiit nntive Welsli-aiieakiog Bisliopa 
tu tlie Welsli Sues; ntterwardu a ditferent plan oMnincd, ntid 
Eii^lUlmiGii, of nltoni the notorious Hoadley waa one, were 
Bcut to fcfid and rule the Clmrcli in Walea, 

Really, it would aluioat appear that for a man to be a prieat 
of the English Church, tlic following (juhI ideations were abso- 
lutely rctjuisite: — His ekin must be while, although he must 
wcur a lilack coat ; he must be a genlleiimi), or a qnasi-gcotle- 
mun, mupit have been to a university, and must speak English as 
his mot her -tongue. Exceptions prove the rule ; and the few 
exceptions in ivnich men, without possessing all, or Eome at least 
of the above-mentioned qualifitatious, have been admitted to the 
priertlnLHid are eufficient to establish a rule, i|mte sufficieot to make 
• ProtcMlaut tnvditiou. Do those who act upon it ever reflect 
lliut [tcrhaps not one of The Twelite posuesaed a single one of 
ibome qualiticationa ? Bifihop Middleton was actually forbidden 
by law to ordain natives of India; and allhough ihc restriction 
was removed during the EpUcopate of his siicceseor, it might 
almost as well have remained iu force lor any considerable 
uiimlior who have bi^ea ndvaula^ed by it. 

Missionaries in India complain that the greatettt obstaelc 
which Satan opposes to the diffuaion of Christianity is the 
institution of caste, and they are judiciously bending all their 
energies and straining every nerve to root it out. But do not 
the fhiiri-i-sighted and keeii-wittwl natives of India perceive 
that there is n nomvlhing — that there h a barrier, an obstacle, 
which operates to their prejudice in barriug from them an 
entrance to the Christian priesthood, with ita dignities and 
privileges? It must be utterly useless proclaiming to them that 
all are one in Christ Jesus, that there is no distinction, that all 
are eligible for the ministry of His Church, when after all they 
find that as a matter of fact they arc not admitted to it; that 
their while conqnerws are also the priesin of llie new religion ; 
and that such of their countrymen as embrace it are condemned 
to spend their lives in the interior grade, or ciiate as they would 
call it, of catocbists or schoolmasters. They feci that we 
dislike their caste prejudices ; but that we retain our own, 
though we call them by another name. 

And that this really is the case ajipcars irom an ai^utnent 
which took placo upon a certain occasion between an Luglisb- 
nian and a moat intelligent, welt educated Hindoo. The 
Knglishman was endeavouring to convince him of the absurdity 
and foolishness of caste distinctions. The Hindoo adopted as 
Iiis groiuid of defence that they are analogous to those social 
divisions between the different grades of society which bave 
prevailed in emry age and country in the world, and amongst 

WaiUii of tUt) Church'* Mtsaions. 


Engliitlimen as roucli lut Amnngflt any. Tlic Kngliithman replied 
tint there was thie dielinction Itelween ciuite nnd the ranks 
of aocaety, that the one did involve, and ihe other did not, 
religions iocqualitica ; that however low any one might be in 
the social «ca]e. he would with Christians he considered equal 
with the highest het'ure God. ' Don't you tell mc that,' replied 
the Hindoo. 'Do you mean to say that If a iioor hinck fellow 
' wi-re hy aiiy chiinee to ^ei into tin- seat in Calcutta Cathedral 
' where the Governor-General and lua Cuuiiell sit, when they jjo 
* to wonship the God of" the Christiana, lliat he would be allowed 
' to stay there, and wondiip with thorn? No, you know wi-ll 
'he would not. Why,' concluded the Hindoo, 'he would he 
' almoKt euro to ffct A*i Jiear/ broke,' Ciin wc deny tliitt there 
u trulh in this, which we bulieve ii> a perlectly authentic 
account of a conversation which actually tooK place? 

Ajpun: the prejudice which existe in the United States of 
America agaiui^t all persons of negro blood, is fearful. The 
' connivance of the Episeupal Church, and its declining to take 
an honcMt, i^criptural line upon this most vitid question, 'n a 
tftandin^ disgmce (u it. It U ahuost incredible whnt the Uiahop 
of Oxford etales, in his history of the American Church, upon 
ihia point. It appears that in the General Theological Semi- 
nary for the training of candidates for the ministry, persons of 
colour arc not aUowed to pnrtnke of its educational iidvantiigcu. 
They are rigidly excluded. The case of a gentleman of African 
dcsocnt who hiid been thus repelled, was carried before the 
Kpiscopal College : and it was decided tliat ouch persons must 
not he admitted: the late Bishop Doane, of New Jersey, being, 
as well as we recollect, the only one who protested against thie 
iniquitout) proceeding. What would S. Paul have said tu such 
a chiuncfiil ityMtcin as this disclnsus? Mrs. Stowe mentions that^ 
i» New Orleans, the Itoninu Catliolio cathedral is the only plaoe 
, where white and eotoiired persons can he seen kneeling together 
before their common Creator and Saviour. Why this is a case 
in which the early Church would, if need had been, have 
produced martyrs mDumcrahlc. And although this antipathy 
between the races is carried much further in the States thau 
in (he [losee^ons, the latter are by no moans free 
from this uni'liriatian spirit.. AVe Imve been assured by an 
I eye-witnee.1, that in Canada and Nova Scotia tliis dislike of 
blacks as blackii, and apart from any luiH'al or other quiditiee, is 
exceedingly strong. 

Wo once heard Dr. Kaye, the late T?i«Tiop of Lincoln, relate 

an exceedingly interesting interview which he had a few yi^urs 

ago with a black otcrgymiiii, who came over lh>m the American 

L aetlleuicnt of Liberia, on th« we«t coual of Africa. The settle- 


Wants cflhe Church's Mimom. 

mcnl U oompoaed, wo l)elieve, exelufively of liberated Aftionn 
slaves ant) their (IcBcoodaDts. It la in u very flourij^hmg condi- 
tion, snd sanguine hopes aro with good reason cntcrtitiuod of its 
taking un important lead in tlie future regeneration of Africa- Tho 
clergyman in qnv^tioii fand visited England, in hopea of mising a 
cuntril'ution for Chnreh jiurpo^es in Libcriii, and lie waited u|ioa 
the Biwhoii to iwk lii* |ionniKsion to prCHoh in any pulpit in the 
dioco»c of Lincoln whicli he might he iillowed to occupy. This 
perniiaaion was readily granted; and Dr. K»yo took the oppor- 
tunity of gleaning information relative to the condition of the 
Church in Liberi.^. This was represented as preaenting mont 
encouraging fuuturcs, but likely goon to suffer from tho want of 
a r(»iidcnt Biehnp. There arc niimy black clergymen in the 
colony of talent and education, hut no Biahop, and it would be 
a violation of its constitution to have a white person oruupytng 
any -vaty high or influential [loaition in it. Dr. Kayo iinjuired 
why, under these circumstances, they did not choose one of 
their own number, and ]>rcacnt him to the American Bishops for 
consecration to the Episcopate? A sniilc passed over the 
coloured clergyman's face as he replied, ' Your Lordifhip can 
' have very little idea of the state of feeling upon this ([uestion in 
* tho Union, if you think that tho American Bishops woidd dare 
' to fly in the face of public opinion so far as to consecrate a black 
' Bi»hoj).* 

But if the American Hishopa cannot or dure not do this, why 
do not tho Archhifihop of Canterbury and his vufl'ragnus do it? 
Must the Church in Liberia languish, like other Churches, for 
want of a chief pastor ? 

A thini obf^lacle, which U of vastly greater importance, be- 
cause it weighs with men who are far above the narrow- 
inindednesa of abstaining from the ordination of properly quaU- 
licd candidates ou account of race, or colour, or birth, \s that it 
would sometimes involve tliem in a violation of certain rubrics 
and canons of the Church of England. 

We have been told, u]}on tlie very best authority, that that 
large-lieartcd prelate, the Bishop of Fro<lericton, docs not feel 
himself, in conscience, at lilierfy to dlsponae with that require- 
ment in tho Preface to the Ordinal, by which a Bishop is bound 
to see that candidates for the diaconate are to be learned in the 
Latin tongue; and that he, in consequence, feels himself com- 
pelled to decline to ordain persons properly qualified in all otJier 
respects, and who would, if admitteil to holy orders, without 
doubt 'exercise tht-ir ministry duly, to the honour of God, and 
the cdifyhig »<( his Church.' And if this dilliculty weighs with 
sucli a man as tlie Bishop of Fredcricton, we may be sure that 
other prelates feel the eame. It may seem strange to some 

Want* of t^ Chmxh't Mission!. 


. canons and rubrics of lliid kind cihotild jirovG n ^liiiiitiliii<>- 
bIc in the ChurdiV oDward [mth, »nd lliat, changed m are ilie 
(lines »nd men's manncns and different as are the prospecia, the 
requirements, and the whole position of the English Churdi, 
from what they were when those laws were enacted, they Ghould 
etill he considered binding in, j'oro conscientiie ; yet h> it in. 
And wc daro not blame any one lor too great conscicntiousneM. 
We can only wish that the eamo conscientioiiaiica.') w«re shared 
, bv all with regard to all the ordinances and injuuctioDs of our 
t Church. 

The OAth of nllcgiauce, again, is a great obstacle in the way 
t»f ordainin" Bishops and priests to serve in partHnia inJt'Mtum, 
[especially if thoac Bishops and priests arc not the itiibjeets of 
t Queen Victoria. We should certainly have thought that this 
I was a knot which common sense alone would have sufficed to 
tnntJe, vitbout seeking for extraneous help. But it seems wo 
[are nustokea. It wil^ doubtless, be fresh in the recoUcction of 
Four readers, that in the last session but one of Convocation, th« 
'Cifihop of Loudon, in the course of the debate on Missionary 
Bishops in tlw Upper House, aravely stated as his opinion, 
I that Ine necessity of iheir taking the oath of nilegioncc would 

Srcvcnt their consecration for places without the Queen's 
ominions, eucli as independent Cai^Vana. Labuun is another 
Icnae in point. Dr. M'Dougall was obliged to take his title, 
[not ftom his actual Sec, but from a neighbouring Briti«h 

Snch being the feelings and opinions of many of our spirituaJ 

i£itbcrs, it would aeem as if there were no real remedy for all 

[this but II free general Synod of the whole Anglican Church, 

land all other Churches in communion with her. It is very 

I doublful if anything short of this can place our foreign missions 

upon a reativ firm and satisfactory basis; anything else set at 

rest those innumerable vexed questions, both of matters of 

thcorj' as well lis practical details, which must be settled sooner 

or later, and which imperatively demand an immediate scttle- 

I iDCnt, if the present and next generation is to see any decided 

|'pro|Fress made in the conversion of the world to Christ, and if 

itbe^ngltsh Churdt is to have any coufflderable share in that 

f*ork, a share to which Divine Providence seems especially to 

I have called and invited her, and which she might so nobly and 

to gloriously fulfil. May God hasten it in his own good time, 

' that from Kiigtand as a ceni re, and especially from the noble 

uiiMionury foundatiuii of S. A uguii tine's, Cuuleibury, may go 

forth, as of old, apostles of nations I 

BO, cnc — «.a. 


Art. IV.— 2'Ae Congregational Yenr^B,A>k» far 1856 and 1860. 
iKtudon: Jackson & Waltbrd. 

Tbe present atrugglea about Church-rates, the character of 
Ediicalion in our Grammar Scbools, and anytliing which 
involvee the questioa of a national recognition of rcligioua 
reepoDsibility, may be regarded as substnnttally a battle between 
the Cbiu«h of It^nglana and tbe Coii^jrcgatiouallata ; a battle 
not for liberty of conscience, but for tlio supremacy of an 
'idea.' It would be i<uperf]uous to remind our rcouers thnt 
what tbe Congregiitionaliet. bo far aa he is a political religionist, 
aiuia at is the practical enforcement of hia principle of the un- 
lawfulncas of cstabtishments on ub vrho repudiate it ; and that 
this is miuiifcGtlj unjust. If it be intolerable to liiui that a 
Congregational ' Church ' at Sheffield should demand the alle- 
elance of another at Walaall,' how much more unjuatifiablc is 
It to wish even that the State may lay upon Churchmen the 
obligations of the Exclusive Voluntary System, pure and 
ample, as u method of appeasing the Bhnde of ima^nary 
Cromwclla and misrepresented Pilgrim Fathers? Tlie truth 
16, that there ia quite as much ill-informcd sentimentaliisin in 
vogue at the present day about these worthies as used to air 
itseli' a few "years ago in the singing of Jacobite aonga; with 
this dilference, that the latter tolu little, while the former tella 
considerably, on ^ueations which concern our generation. 
Hence the jiopularity of Mrs. Ilenians' song; hence tlie inlereet 
which was felt in the painting of the covenanter's funeral ; hence 
JVIacaulay'ii historical romance. And we wiab wc could discern 
signs of any satisfactory appreciation of the questions at issue, 
on the part of the majority of Churchmen in the Lower House 
of Parlinmeut. The ignorance, or timidity, or easy good-nature 
of our friends is almoat more dangerous than the restless agita- 
tion and (shall we say ?) impudence of our opponents. Impu- 
dence, we might sa^ ; Kir it is almost impossible to believe that 
the Congregationaliat witness who stated (Qu. Hjfl8, House of 

■ 'No Cliiinihoruaioaof ChnTohM hwauy ri^litur puwir to intetTvni villi f.}i« 
'fltllli or di«i-1plLiio of any olliar t-buruh, fuftlior UmD to icpuinlo Croiii luvli lu, in 
' fniUi or jiraclicp, Jcparl (roiii thu QoKpol of C'hriaU' DDuluniUon of the Faith, 
Churi'h-or'ier, iLiid Diecipliiie of ilic CongtigBtlonal or Indcpcnikul Diwwnlcra.— 
Ytar-BiKili, p. i«i. 



T.unl«' Kcport ou Otiuix:)i Katraij lliiit, ' neru tlicru no GHtabIi«hc(I 
cJmrcb, many wouM bccomu EpiDCVpaluinf,' iiitvni,lv(l it to be 
Uiought ttiat be w»s sneaking from conviction. There io a type 
of mind of 9uch small calibre as to be nnnbte to gra«p tlic fact 
that digni&ed geDtleuen — not to aay noblemen — are uBunIly 
too deeply in cnmcst when they eet about any iovealigation 
to rcj^nrd the subvtituttun of what is frccjucntly called 'cliafT' 
for thu exact trutb, as being anything; better tlian a triUinj; 
vulgarity. Kniicy a man who i» convinced of the Scriptural 
Bulliority of Episcopacy enibracing OongregatJonalism bocatwc 
(lie Church ia united to (he State ! Fancy ronscientwuit Dix' 
mvttrrs SO accommodating as to bold themselves ready to ca-tt 
ilieir oongr^ationalism to the winds, if only the Slate will pay 
them the compliment of sncriticing tho Church to their ' solely 
eii^ular ' scruple I Oh, rare Dr. Foster 1 

Our (uitsgonists conitiet chiefly of three parties: the Congre- 
gntion«ltMt« or Independents ; the Baptists, who are a sipecies of 
Congregalionaliats ; and the Enijlish Presbyteriaua. To t)i«8o, 
pc-Tbapa, a fnw Quakers and Melhudiels may bo added. Of 
iheae, the Congr^ationalists are the moat numerous and influ- 
ential body, as well as the moat morbidly sensitive ; quick to 
coostrao anything, however trifling, or however just,' into an 
instance of religious persecution ; vibrating through every 
member, like a neuralgic patient, to the slightest impresvioii 
which the leaders of tiie hwiy desire to make ; and aa it is they 
who have tliruvrn down the gauntlet of doSaiicc, we shall do 
well to look our foes in the face and to lake their measure. If 
our friends would exhibit a proper courage in and out of 
Parliament, on and off the hustings ; if they would but eonipel 
themselves to ascertain snd to bold up to the light the real 
amount of the force which is opposed to them, so as to set 
men's imnginatitms free from the exaggerations which now pre- 
vail, (for, indeed, a stiuggliug minority usually envelopes itself 
ID clouds and noine,) the battk would become, not, what it long 
hu been, a frightened scamper in the dark to right or left to 
get out of the way of Emimsa, but a fair and open examination 
of prinraples, conducted with an enlightened regard to the great 
interc»t4 of the nation, and especially of that portion of tho 
nation, viz., tJic labonriug poor, which is most helpless against 
the mantcuvres of a |iarty. Dr. Ilume's calculations (House of 
Lords' Report) give ua : — 

' Pw liutance. ihrtc conideotioiw DiMcntcru out of four wonM ftpprovc of] 
iMr ««n Minirtera dcroiling >ome portion of on (Mcadoaal acnnou lo th« 
TindlealJaK of TnlaataryUin or CDagregaLianiiliein, aod ilenaimoe cgncapondiuB 
MgameoU tuau oar puliHU as bigot«^. persecuting, and u&ftir. 

G 2 

S4 Coiiffrfffatfonaf*»i». ^^| 

Cliitiiol*i{<niig Roiuan UitholicH ....... 3j per cent. 

„ RititwU rf „ 

„ hiilotiBuilBuU 7} „ 

,, WwBie^'jiuB 13 „ 

All titijt'i- Diwat'iitLTB, Jews, &c (ij „ 

Aotiiiil Cliiirch-gning (.'hiirch of Englanii men . . d2 „ 

iri'tiligiiiUB or Qiiliiiiinl 25 „ 

In other word», the total numlter of 'bonn fiilc worshipping 
ProtcBtttiit Dissenters ' U 2',)!^ jier omit., against nclniij clnirch- 
Ifoent to the amount of 4i per ct;:iit. ; niiil of the 2!)^, 13 ore 
Weslejnns and our allies on the question of EstitbliBhuiGQta. 
Practitally, it is the 7J per cent, Congregationaiists, plus the 2J 
per cent. Baptists — or rather less than 10 per cent, or one-tenth 
of the population — who arc arniyetl against actual dnirch-goers 
to the amount of fbur-tenihe, nominal Churchmen to the amount 
of a fourth, and Wcsleyiiiis to more than onu-t«nth. In other 
words, it is one-tenth against cight-teuths of the population that 
keeps up all this agitation; and lukewarm Churchmen think it 
a wiser step to take counsel on the question of the one-tenth than 
of their own friends. The agitation has obtained its present 
momentum in consequence of the value of votes at doubtful 
elections, and {which is involved in this) of the ignonuice or in- 
difturenec of Churchuien ; in part also, as a result of the unfair 
preponderance of the boroughs in Piirliaiuentary reprcsentatiou. 
The Church-rute question may obtain a rcuaonahle aettlcmcnt 
JD the first Houflc of Commons which shall be returned by a 
general combination among Churchmen to withhold their votes 
from every candidate who la unwilling to avow his intention to 
Bujiport, in itB OTBcntials, the present system ; and surely iHs is 
Dot too much to ask of men who value their Church. 

Assuming that our renders will desire to know what the 
Congregatiooaliats report oa to their own atreuglh, we will 
place before ihem aialiiitics from the Year-Books, premising 
that by ' Church ' the Congrogationalists understand a body of 
communicants (and others) meeting statedly for Divine worship 
in one building ; ao lliat, vpfui the. averai/e of the whole country, 
each chapel does, and no school-room does, roprcaent a ' Church '. 

Itl lAouair, 

is«, miiD. 
Britlsb OoneregutionHlist Miabters and Uiananiiries 

throughout tho world 2400 2734 

Oangregationalist Churubt« in the Uuit«d Eiagtlom uud 

Colonies 2450 2591 

Chapals bailt u,ncl enlarged (or in eoiirse of oroction) . . 39 3ft 

Collugps and Tlieulogiuttl Acudemiea 13 10 

Students in tin' sann- 203 SQG 

ftliuiatfira deneftsod during tho ptuvious yuar. 32 42 

I[eBjj{iiiJ,tioiis mid rciiKivala of Ministers during the prHvioua 

JiwT 198 177 

YacauciH^ or CoD^egutioiis without settled Minislora . . 442 471 

Conffregat ion alum. 




Bot it miiAt be remfimhercd, a.* ngairiRt tli<! nppnrcnt inertuisv of 
nieinl>crit during the four veara, timt (he reliirns for 1856 nrc 
professedly less complete than for 18(50; and (hat the lust li»t 
(viz. of vacancies) mcludea only England, Wales, Scotland, and 
the ChanD«] Islnndx. As the latter is a very important item in 
the statiiiltcs of VoluntaryJBn>, we give it in another form — for 
I860 only. 


1 aMimi 
«slgi- unit c<lii>niul 

1 |I14I>« 


Numlicr uf CongiBga- ,„,^,, 

036 1 147 

tei put «cnl. fi 

'Cbuidi«s' without ^^ 
settled Ministm [ „, ^,;^^„, 



17 ptr cent. 


In other wonls, almost one meeling-honse in every five is willioiit' 
a settled minister: a fact worth rememheririg. Wu hnve, further^ 
to dietribulc the 471 vncanaies under their vanoiia hciids. Ot 
thciC, SS arcdne to deaths; und 51 to rcmovids or rcalgiiiitionM 
(pro|>urly corrected): leaving a reniidiium of 382, or about l&i 
p«r cenl., or rather less than one-Bisth of the entire number ofJ 
* Cong relational iat Churches' in Great Britain and the Cliannel' 
Islands without a settled minister; which are to be accounted] 
for by such causes as want of funds, want of minislers (aithou^^h^ 
the; number more minieters thnu 'churi:)ies'),«nd quarrels with' 
their ministers; and tlie proportions for ISSG ain mudi thej 
annie. Truly an ouanswurable argument in I'uvuur of Volun- 
taryiiun; espccjally wlien we remember the keen spirit otj 
pkTtisanship (to which in the Cliurch we h.ave nothing xiinilai 
aut aecunditta) which binds them closely together, and {observe 
thai) they acknowledge the year 1859 to have been one of 
religious and denominational prosperity. Wo Icnve the fi;;urea 
to tell their own story. 

Let u« a*k further what congregations wjVi aetllod ministera' 
mean ? ^Miat is the j>ositiun of a CongregntitmiiliHt teaeher ' 
in one of our man iifaotii ring villiigCEf' Ilia income probably 
does not average mote than £80 per annum, and is often less. , 
Such as it ia, it anaes from various snnrces. The surplus of j 
tba pew-renta affords a portion; perhaps a grant from ii llomel 
Miwionary Society provides jEIO; the email contributionu of J 
the village tradesmen and artisans a part; mid the hirger con-J^ 
tributions of one, two, four, or more i)eople in belter cirRiim-] 
ataiKCit (who are the real nmintitay of the lunko up the ■ 
remainder. Shoidd a (|uiirrel ari.«e belweou two of the •raem- 
bera,' and 'the niini.ster,' when requested, decline cither to 
interfere ul ull or to take the part of the richer of the two 

n Ct/n^ff/atiimnlimn. 

{especially if they arc women,)' forthwith it is dlgcovcrcd that 
his sermons iir« not ao ' spiritual ' as they used to be, and that 
his stipend h(w not been wiiges fiiirly unrned, but the dole of 
charitable patrons; funds ai-c withdrawn; the tencher must 
reagn, or the ottentied parties will lube thetnaclvea and their 
pnrsca to other places of woraliip, perhaps, even to another 
' Denomination.' Or should he, for tlie sake of their edueation 
and improvement, keep hia family aloof from vei'y familiar inter- 
course with the wealthier, but less cultivated members of hia 
congregation, he must expect to be charged with pride, woridli- 
ncsB, cxclusivcncBS, and to suffer a diminution of stipend. It 
is not at all improbable that the female Dissenters may exercise 
an unpleasant cenaorship on the attire of his family, if it be 
more neat and tasteful timn their own. The awkward cobbler 
of the congregation espccls to make hia ahoas ; the villiigo 
tailor to mnke^ds clothes: if his conj^regalion ctintribute to his 
stipend, he must spend it, na far as may be, in their nhops. In a 
word, he and his family are practicalhf regarded as uppish 
children, who need to be kept continually in leading etiinijB, and 
to be ruled in everything by the judgment of their inferiors In 
education and politeness: they are to meddle with nobody, 
aild everybody is to meddle witli lliom. So much for his jiriyate 

Then, aa to his public duties. He most hold two entire 
services every Sunday, in each of which he must deliver (what 
is believed to be) an original sermon, forty minutes long, wfaicli 
he either composes on the spot, or has committed to memory 
during the week; he is expected to be present s\t a pniycr- 
ineeting on each of the cVenings of Sunday and Wednesday or 
Thursday ; he must have some powers of gestienlalive oratory, 
a tolerably loud voice {the louder the better}, a familiar style on 
the one hand, and magniloquent verbiage on the other ; nor will 
a sly jest be amiss if introduced conveniently and sparingly. 
His sermon will be regarded aa especially edifying, if it contain 
such a full and lucid account of the meaning of some eesquipc- 
dalian word used in theology as enables the listeners to feel that 
they can thenceforward employ the word intelligently; which 
many of them iid'allibly will do at the prayer-meetings (or 
eeveral months to come. He is expected, moreover, to he alive 
to all the political efforts of the body ; and, as it cannot be 
presumed that his abilities are equal to those of the ministers 
whose eloquence baa advanced them to the wealthier posts in 
the large towns, he is expected to take hia cue from the latter, 
resigning the cxereiee ot his private judgment, and approving 

I Compire the rue of the DonaUet ichiBin. 




himself a keen prtisan. If he doea all tliis, iin<l ie n boid 
Btmlent, perhaps tic may not be rcquci>t<.-<l to rc-si^ii within leal 
thau ten or n dozen yuars after he Iihh been eli^tc-d niini^Urr of 
the villagQ congre^tion ; but he must not be too I'aitlit'ul ia 
rebuking the in4:oQsi«te»ciea of his richest bearera; and if he bai 
a vote, it must t>c given to the rlglit candidate at an election. 
If cither be or liU wile po^ess any jirivate property, be will act 
wisely in concealing the fact, unless be wiance biH small stipend 
to be made lees.* Should he be called upon to preside at the 
funeral of his dearest earthly fi-iend, he niunt bo as rcaidy as s | 
Stoux chief to prottouDCC an elaborate oratiun over the departed; 
and 'on tlic following Sabbath,' to 'improve the event from 
such or Kuch a text'— in plain English, lo prcucb a funeral 
ti ' m on. Grief or joy too ileep fur utterance ia rather grudged 
him : others ace waitini; tijr ' editiention,' and be muH talk. 

Id lat^ towns and wealthy congregaliona, the poeitjou of the 
Dissenting teacher is much firmer, and he orton wields s 
greater influence among hia co-religionists than any of the 
neighbouring clergy do in their parishes, because he is their 
•representative man.' The contract between the wclcmnei 
which Disttculers and Churchmen give to their able preaclitTsi, In 
not unlike that betwocu the spirit in which the Scotch auri Eng- ■ 
lish kings, in the ballad of Chevy Chacc-, reofive the newa of ^ 
the death of the border eark ; the Scotch king lamenting tiiat ha 
bas Dono left equal to Douglas, while Henry trusts that he ' baa 
within his realm five hundred good as' Percy. Accordingly, 
when the instincts of the Congregationalists in any large town 
warn tbeni thiit their minister possesses the ability and el(M|nence 
which are caleulated to exhibit Dissent in n very ^i^vou^^ble 
light before the public, and they see that ho ie politically aa 
welt as religiously a thoroughgoing Dissenter, they make a hero 
of him at once, and invite ml their neighbours to patronize 
(wo will not say worship) him. He must, to be sure, maintain 
his popularity by unfailing eloquence in the puljtit and 
Mp«oially on the platform, and ho must perform the other 
more important duties of liis office to their satisfaction ; tlicy 
must feel that, deubiiiiimtionally, they grow more niinierous and 
influential under hia guidance, or elac they will dethrone him. 
But if they are gaining strength, they vrill not be other tJian 
geocroas in providing him a house, and a pretty good income — 
two, four, or in rare cases six humlred per annum; out of 
which ilie claims on his charity will be a very small fraction of 

^H DUai 

I Ttu* fctlntc cf I'ulai^ianjiit* io v'i!la)i'i i> RiilHrieally BHcertainuij. if not an the 
rate, }ct u a lufficlcnll; Treqaeul cxu«[>lluii to 'Ictcrve noUce. Riicb ii humsa 

88 C^ngregatvmali^m. ^ 

those usiijilly made on a Clergyman. Ant]. iDnamucli as that 
portion of his mcouiu which i» not derived IVom pctv-rcnU is 
nimi»hcd by hundiHttiic eubgci'iptioiis from a large number of 
aupporteri* — one halt' of wliom wnuld be nble to continue to liim 
bis present stipend in cuse of necessity, or uf a schism — he is, 
coinpiiratively speaking, in an independent position, so lung as 
his lun^H are in good condition. Besides, he ie aware thiit his 
reitutation and abilities would speedily find him another post, 
which, if less lucrative than the present, nt any rate would 
supply him with the necessaries, and eoine of the comforts of 
life. Yet, on the other hand, he knows tlint every rising onitor 
in the body is possibly a future rival, should lie leave his present 
post: the couaciousncss of this is, in his rase, a pressure from 
without, stinudflting hun in nioraeots of indecision. And if he 
desire to make his position aa a leader jjermanently unass^table, 
he will find it not unadviaable to lay out his ener^cH in the 
production of an octavo volume of more than transient value 
in connexion with some points of theology. 

This remark lends us to the conaidersition of the literary and 
theological performances of the Congregationalists. A list of 
works published during the previous year, by lay and other 
fnembera of the body, is given in each Year>Uoak, and renders 
thia part of our taak somewhat easy. {Bear in mind that, on 
an average, one-sixth of the 17,500 Clergy in Crockford's 
Directory are authors, from the tract-writer to the historian.) 
The following le a tabular statement compiled from the Year- 
Books of 

Number oi piihUcaliunii (uxoliwivc of uiagaKinoa, kc) ... 67 90 

II I, ujagazincs and other porioilicals 26 24 

„ „ RUthore of ^uilieafionn (JI V7 

Of publications, judging from the lists given, there apjiear tu 
be: — 

Single HpnnonH aixi nhort tiTicl.s .......... 10 20 

EpbcTaeml works, tnostly dstineotod with pemonal mligiou . 21 Ifi 

S^ligioiiN biogrupliies 3 7 

Volumes of aeraiiiiis G 11 

Controveraiat 11 14 

Uiiuoiiuecte<I with tlieolugy 6 10 

Other volumes of eome preloneion 3 

Totnl C7 Bit 

Notice here, that nearly one-sixtli of their publications are 
controversial ; and then conceive what shouts of disapprobation, 
what outcries ngainet our bigotry and intolerance would be 
raised, if a sixth, or even a twentieth part of the publications of 
the clergy were contioversial. 



Among the iioh-t!ieulof;iciil works of tlic two j'«iira are. Dr. W. 
Smith's Lntiii-Kii^lUii Uictl»iiary ; Miitiieiiinitc»l works hj H. 
Hiirli-y antl S. New ill (bnili F.R.A.S.); Volumta on Ki^volulionS 
in Kngli.-li Hietory, Geology, Nineveh, the Baltic, luiniignition 
lo the West Indies, Canaaa, Tour in Switzerland, nnd ticboot 
Histories of Etiglftnd nnd Austria. Whether any of the eight 
last uicntioQcil is of more timti leiiiuoniry raluei wc arc not in a 
po«ition to say. Among th« thuuiofrical works of prvlcnsion, 
we observe for 18-59 scarcely any tiling; lor 1855, ft Series of 
Lecturee (difiuae, but not devoid of ability) on Psyclmliigy an<l 
Theology, a. Treatise on Patriai-chy, a Trantitattou (with Com- 
mentary) of the Book of Kzekiel, and a Theological Dictionary. 
The ijongregationalist teacher's line is to 'improve' some 

Eaeeing event in a single sermon, to edit a penny magnzlnc for the 
alf educated or the young, to circulate news about miosionw, to 
simplify the results of other men's lahimrs in [he exposition of 
Scripture.' As a historian, the Congregational in I is very aoldoia 
to be trusted when he diverges from the be.atcn track ; hie edu- 
cation has neither been so early commenced, nor so based on the 
prindple of minute accuracy, nor so familiarized with distinct 
epochs in the development of nations {to say nothing of scholar- 
snip), us to fit him fur historical research : hisgenerHlizatiunsaro 
almost invftrialilj built ou too narrow a basis ; and be finds a dif- 
ficulty in rising nut of the narrow prejudices of his sect (nut to 
mention hix fluttering fear of saying anytJiing which might 
possibly be used as an argument against them), even when he doea 
not study in the interest of a foregone conclusion. Perhaps Dr. 
W. Smith ia the only Congrogationalist mentioned in the lists 
n-ho is ciipnhic of history. Lu Greek and Latin, and especially 
in Hebrew scholnrehip, a great improvement has taken plncu 
within late years. This is due to the reaihly perceived neceR- 
sitj, on the pnrt of religious men, of an acquaintance with the 
Bible in tlie original tongues; to tJie increasing number of 
Dieeenting ministers whose fathers were also ministers, and 
provided them with something better than the education of the 
miiurteiv of the last generation ; to tlie study, in Clark's 
tmulkUons, of German tlieological works, as less object iunabli; 
(from tlic Congregal.ionaiist point of view) lor young men than 
standard woiks of English Episcopalians ; to the labours of such 
n>en aa Dr. S. Davidson and Dr. W. Smith as professors in 
their theological colleges ; and, in part, to the opportunities of 

) la thin Itlt^r ilflfjirtmviit, iaduiii!. Iba PiilsIiyUrian. Dr, Cummiug, la tkit 
pKncipkl (lotatnar of tti<.- public anr : tlioiigli a vury iufunur umii to mnnv of Uin 
leading Oi>agrBgaUoiinliaU ; for it may be wid, with almtut littiriil trutt. of hi* 
cipMllloHB, that vhitcTor in Ihou in hin own in nartUlciu, whAtcrcv ii good it ■ 

Congregn t ton altam. 

grKiIiiatiog nflfonlcd to their tlieologiml students in the University 
«f London. Tt might he sugijeslcd that we are omitrinff a 
residuum of students Iniin Caiiibiidgej hut thia is 80 small as to 
deserve sciircely any nolice in our esiiiuate, since ahnost every 
Dissenter who nintricii lutes at Cambridgo leavca that University 
a Churchman, or, at any rate, not an opponent of the Church, 
Yet, after all this, the Congregational i^te whose scholarHhip is 
' pretty fair,' may be counted by units or tens ; and probably 
the number of Clergy v^hose aL^quainta^oe with the clnssical 
languages is superior to that of the average of the tweuty best 
scholars among the luiuisters, is greater than double ihe whole 
number of those ministers in England. (They niunber 1,401 
raiuistei? in Englniid, less thnn one-twelt'th of the clergy in 
England and Wales.) And, probably, one of the final causes of 
Mr. Dillwyn'e Grammar SchoM Bill, is the desire to find 
employment for the few English graduates whom they claim, 
and whof^e merits they exaggerate euormoualy, fti/yr.nse they are 
rare hirds in those regions, and ■i/i'H't lite to black swans. Still 
they are here on the track of imjirovemont, and steadily bent 
on alruggling with us even for domical fame; content to 
possess a <liizen or two good scholars, provi<led that the do^n 
or two can he sufficiently lauded and promenaded to convince 
(themselves and) the outside world that Congregationalism is a 
sufficiently rcppectahlc institution for gentlemen to n*lopt; and 
that they arc able to fight, with some plansible degree of 
strength, the battle of the Congrcgationalists in (questions which 
at all Inrn oh apostolical or patristic (ireek. 

But if the Dissenting preacher, from early want of edncationnt 
advantages, lacks the breadth of view and freedom of mental 
action which a public grammar school communicates, and 
Oxford or Cambridge studies confirm, he endeavours to make 
up for these deficiencies by an intensity of mental action 
directed principnlly on the workings of the soul : his fiivourite 
intellectual pursuits are merilnl philosophy and inward religious 
experience. His studies commence as a rule just at that poriud 
of Juvenility when problems of mental science excrciae their 
greatest attraction, and flatter, while they strengthen, the minds 
which are engaged on them. He has probably been accustomed 
to a not unfrequent appearance of logical argument in the 
sermons to which he has listened. ' While ho is studying for 
the ministry, Calvinistic reasonings are diligently luculcated 
upon him, and fiill in with hie youthful and denominational 
tendency to ho a parliaan. The arguments alleged in favour 

I Vfv Kcuiuuivud tu \]ie Niriou« iliM'ustiiou uf oar brelbren tbe qiiMtioa of llie 
ndviiabliiiicw oti gnttter thwi qrukI infiuicm o( thie eiemont lata uioir dcrmonit. 



ot Concre^tioDalism nnd agnin^t Nntionxl Hstnltlii^lni^viifv, nrc, 
like all otl)«r falliicicH, ^^cncrally cithir viiLillc in tliuini^t^^lvci!, 
or bmiidicflin n f'orni of subllcly: willi tliowe also h« i» iikIoc- 
triniUcil- All this IcntU tociiltivule any caimcily whidi lie inaj 
nossen for the portion of iiieiitAl jiliitoeojilij [trovitled fiM* him at 
nie theolojpcal college; and here he \a not banijiered I>y the 
inooarenieat necessity of a fainiliarity with the clasaicatl laa- 
gUftges. And it ia to be remcmbd'cd that mental Ecicn<;e is 
alwtiys young, and poeeessm n perpetual charm for aipablv minds, 
until Homc terrible bereavement eeeme to iiniiihilate everything 
in u man nltich it not closely iiitert>vincd with his etrongvst attue- 
tions. Tlicir [iTinujud names in lliis dejMtvtment are, Rugera, 
Alliott, and tlte late Dr. (ieot^c Payne, nnd wo hear that 
Profeesor Mnnc»el'A llamptou Lectures obtain a wide circulation 
among the Congregational ste. Closely cDnoected with this 
mental habit is the preacher's religimts dutif of tmalyeinfr tbn 
inward t-piritual experiences of himself and others; and i\na 
stutly astuinea a much more prominent place in his prufossioiial 
edwsation than in our non-professional nniversity course. It ia 
roused at the |>crio«) of his conversiim ; it is fbalercd by the 
sermons which he licarA, whieli often are nttenint.^ at tiie anatomy 
of the s]>iritnal life ; it is kept alive by the eUorls and habit of 
extempore and varied (for his reputation is at etake in the 
variety} public prayers ; the expositions of tlieology by which he 
is tmined to partake of the same character; the scrutinizing sus- 
picion*, whether friendly or otherwise, which are inseparable 
from the pi-aclical working of democracy, whether it be tem|toral 
or eooleHtaslical, alrengthen the habit; the custom, univcrsalj 
Mnwgst Diaaenters, of putting rcliginus experience into word%| 
opens to hi« observation at any rate some portion of the inward') 
p«rplexitice, soirows, and joys of others, uotwithstanding the 
unconscious deceit' which, by degrees, gathers round the custom; 
like the Weslcyait, though in a less degree, he is tempted to set 
too high n value on religious feeling, and ia often unawares 
affeeted hy a strong leaning to mysticism; lastly, it is, or was 
till lately, a eharacteridtio of his thculugy to do alt but tgnnre 
the duty of glorifying God with the hmly. Thu», what U c-illed 
' experimental divinity ' is his favourite study, and the field of htn 
greatest fluccesa. 

Geaernlly, the ordinary Congregationalist mlnisiter preaches 
and ptnyfi according to a sidii:me which he adopted at College. 
'X'lie divi»ioiis in prayers (such iia uiay be seen in Watts' 

' WbtD iniranl vxpicriencMi tat hcIiIodi luiil iMre, uxoopt to n lingU ionfidtniial 
frUnd. tbr expoiuTL- in ^'ncnilt; IruLtiful and ofltsn ciioniivoi vrhciD they ace 
tiDHight into the vi<w of taimy. ttje confcBwon in nntiimUy TAgiicmil nntruth'ul, 
throngh ttio toM oi damn^ to llic rejutalion. 



writings) liave been a matter of logical arrangement, and furniah 
him with a fi-amework of devotion quite as formal practically 
as any sretcm of Collects; and in the frequently overstrung 
stttte of his mind he finiU the benefit of his sclienie, though 
anawarc of the inference wliich may he drawn from it in favour 
of that wliich ia no abomination to him, viz., the 'use of pre- 
OompoRCii forms of prayer.' It is, nioi-eover, a coinuion whisper 
among llie junior Dissenters, that the old men's prayers are less 
varied than those of the young and middle aged. In prnctice, if 
not in theory, the preacher has a greater esteem for the oratory 
which produces » speedy effect, than of ihe doctrine which distils 
like dew. Should his prtsjtchingpnrtake of ttiu character of gentle- 
uesB and refinement, he may possihli/ become a great favourite 
with his own congregation, but he runs the risk of being 
accounted singular: rather is he expected to be vehement 
or pathetic The principle which Hood makes one of his 
patrons of art recommend to a disconsolate young painter — to 
ho striking and uncomniun, rather than natural ; the admiration 
of power which lies at the foundation of modern hero worship; 
tlie exhibition of vehemence and apparent force wliich, as 
much as anything eUe, keeps up Mr. Maurice's )iopu]«rity; all 
indicate what general style of oratory is to he expected from the 
miniAtcrs of sects whose growth depends, humanly H|>eaking, on 
the reputation of their pulpit oratory, and in which the moat 
honourable ami lucrative posts are secured by oratory more than 
by any other quality. The colouring and outlines of the Con- 
gregation al is t's serjiion are ruder und more stai'tling than tlioso 
"f the EpiscopaliaQB ; and hence it is that an irreligious youth of 
tiie tradesman clntts is, perhaf)?, likely to be arrested by an ocoa- 
sionnl visit to a Dissenting meeting-house, rather than by lookiug 
into one of oia- more sober churehes. On the other hand, the 
quiet, industrious, straightforward type of Enghshinan is much 
more at home in church than at the meeting-houBe ; for he is 
less occupied with thoughts of self, or of the individual itie.? of 
the minister, and has a deeper sense of law and of the presence 
oi the Author of all law. And it may generally be averred that, 
where an earnest-minded Dissenter is led by any accident to 
attend the services of the Church with anything like regularity, 
and yet does not volunteer some expression of admiration of her 
prayers, the clergyman's manner of reading i» careless and 

Wo are led by the last allusion to call attention to tokens 
of an approach on the part of the Congregational] els to some- 
thing like an nclcnow lodgment of the value of many principles 
long held by Cliurchraen, long rejected by the narrowness of 
Dissenting bigotry ; an acknowledgment, however, due, in 


CoiKfreijatioHalima. 98 

Creiii niiaiaure, fo \\w activity of the Cliupcli IierwJf on t!i6 one 
bnnil, and, on the other, not loiiwt of all, tn thu ainhitioii of 
obtaining ho iinpruvcil xociiil Mtaiita foi- Dissent. So long a6 
the Con giegiition alls t niinlaler waa a man of inferior eOucation, 
he might exjiect to bo putted on the back, but scarcely to he 
accejitcil as a guide, by the educated Oongrej^ationalist merchant. 
Hence that observation of facts which led to the quasi proverb, 
that ' No man of the third generation is n Dissenter.' A njim 
who had received only the must urdiuary English education, 
and was a Dissenter, realized a few tliotisiindi;, and gave to hia 
eon a commercicd, but much better educatina tliiin Iuh own: 
that son died very rich and a Dissenter ; but the grandson having 
enjoyed superior advantages to bis father in education ana 
■oeicty, finda hia natural level amongst thoee the majority of 
whom are Churchmen, and observes among them (Veer hnbitu of 
thinkin);, a larger charity, and more accurate and varieil know- 
ledge than among the Diascnters : and every ordinary motive 
invites him to withdraw with his family troni the rants of the 
DicMntcre. Now, ao long as the religions life of England 
appCMvd to be mainly circulating among the lower rradcsmen, 
nom whom the ranks of Dissent are generally recruited, thia 
gradual drafting of their wealthier members into the Eetablisb- 
ment could be accounted for as a collection of instances in 
which 'vital religion' wjis sacrificed to the love of the world. 
But the aspect of the eaac wai? altered when the noble, the well 
bora, the highly educated, the rich sons of the Church were 
stirred up to an appreciation of their duties to God and tlie 
Church ; and innumerable instanccB were observed of rank, and 
social jposition, and wealth, sanctified by a Christian spirit of 
Bptendid lil>erality and devout self-deniaL The revival wliich 
has taken plac« since the commencement of tho century among 
the beet educated portion of the community, principally by tho 
leverage of tho Universities and public schools, has made it no 
longer po»(tible for men gcuerally to shut their eyes to the pro 
bability of the sons of landowners and wealthy merchants being 
quite as devout as the small tradesmen, and when devout, able 
to eflect more good.' Thus the temptation which formerly 
asssulcd a rcHirious man of properly, here and there, to attacli. 
himself to Dissenters, as, par ej.-ctUcnce, the earnest-minded 
body in lingland, was removed; and Dissenters began to feel 
that their religious inHuence in the country, refntiiW,y to that 
of Churchmen, was on the dfcreane. Hence arose a searching 


I Tb«K an veiy low ioilanraH indoeil, of a Tcaltliy Cungrcentlonnlii-I, In rouaat 
ttnNBboiMingn ncuUng-lioiuc all hill niiigle cnit, and luaking llie uilnintar iud^l 

'Oagrfi^ltrm iiliatti. 

itxuiulnittion iiilo the validity »f tlicir olijeclimia to what might 
render religiou attractive, and into the claims which au austere 
Purilanism bod been supuoBod to make to au t^spccially Scrip' 
tural diameter. Dissent tuwl coutractcd ascetic habits ; it was 
iierpetually itching for proiils that everything of an externally 
Dciuilirul or Bensuoiia chiiracler was of necessity worldly. 
Thus, at the beginning of the presenl ceutuiy, the introduction 
of a violoncello, oa an aid to congregational muiiio, was stoutly 
resisted by the Independents of a thriving manufacturing town ; 
and their model of a tabernacle was the squareat possible struO' 
tiiro of plain stone, unfaccil, with the squarest possible windows 
of square panes, and square high-backed pews. Whereas noio 
jealousy of the Establishment, and the anxiety to retain, or 
obtain, the supuort of men of education and taste, have awakened 
the Coiigregutionali^ts to the conviction that an organ, and 
even chanting, are not necessarily liabyloui^h; that carved work 
wilhin or without a obapel doea not render it unavoidably 
Jewish ; and that it is possible to adopt, in the construction 
of their religious edifices, pointed architecture, with floriated 
tmcery, pinnacles, turrets, cruciform ground ]>Ian, stained glass 
windows, Minton's tilee, and even to designate the result by 
tlie title of a ' church,' without belonging to the synagogue ol' 
Satan.^ So far we congratulate tlieni on these tokens of n, 
partial convalescence. The question of the ideal form of a 
'house' of worship is attracting much notice among them, 
and the Ycar-Book for 18(50 gives us long extracts from an 
' extremely interesting' article on the subject (communicated to 
Ihe American Congregational Quarterly), with eontnicndalions, 
Oiir rcadorB may be glad to giatify their curiosity by perusing 
the following passages [p. 22!)) : — 

' Tho idea which govsrnod Iho worshi]) or tho Pi-'imitive Christidaa very 
dearly wua that of union and cnmmnnina in pi'dse tmd prayar. and of 
inatraotion from tlio voioe of him who was " oV"!- l&i^ia in Ihe Lord'' A 
hoiue coiiBtrnotJjii to piumote Ihis wontbip woulJ noocHHurily tuude those 
two its cardiual priuoiples ; via,, (I) it must seat all the worehippcrs 
Bocially and pleasantly togethor, sn that, with as few obstruct loin* n» \mn~ 
Bible, thoy nmy blend thought and emotion ; and (2) it must wiiit thcin no 
that their relation to the teacher Bball be, as nearly oa pmunblu. pcrfi^at 
tov his Rpi^aking tci tbetn, unci their listening to him. We hoid, thuu, 
tlmt tho usBuiiUul and shaping idea which ought to govern the erection of 
bouBPB for tlm puhho worBtiip of Almighty God, — esptioially and ['re- 
eminently wliuro t.hoy are to be used by Gongi'SBntioiiaJ chiireliea — ia not 
th»t of having a partioular form or aspect, like tlmt which In the English 
or Papal cborcbus has hcKi for agos associated with thom ; nor that they 

' S«i tlio »k«tii!i«« (tn thu YearBooltn) of tliftlieln buJlL ■iuriug li,« prut-edlng 
jean>, and tho wooiI-quW of ttic preUnliuu* u<li£ues at CauoDbnr;, laliogtoD, 
Uoclei, MaodiMtcr, tligbgiLte, UroflwlcD, and f evL'aetle-mider-Ljne. 

Coty rtgatiatiaUimi . 


must he crudforu), " Iwuttuoo Uw rellgiou of Ciirist crucified is to be 
preoobed wilLiiu their waUn" (see Horl's Pamh C'hui'ctias, p. i\); nor 
Ibftt thoy tnwX nece^aAvily have n distinct rmvo nnd sjdo uhIm, and 
tranMpta (of Ufg* kIxb) ; nor tlint thny iniist nnnuHarily fWint tlui mkI, 
or som^MW symbolixc the Holy Ti'initj' ; but thut they nhoitld ininintM', 
in the most niiapli! And diroot powdblc tnuiiiicr, to tha vase nnd uumfort 
with which the peoulo tuny "ril Ivyelii-j- in ieapea/y ptaciii in CMal Jh^m," 
Utd " rrrviiti- eiik nuvknes^ Ihr riiijreifird ipimi, mhifh is aliU lo Jarf Ihdr sou/)," 

Softial ChriBtiuu comfort iu apt'okiug aud huaiiog, and io all thv eerviccs 
of the »aueluftry, wo bclinvo was tha vrigiDftl, and in the genuine, and will 
he tho niillermia!, princiric from whioli, a# fruai a. living seed, the itloa of a 
truly approprintG {uid tborofnro truly Chrifttiiui) meeting-hniiso will grow.' 

It IB iiDposslble not to ndmire the gusto, the intende sclf- 
entiufaction with wliich thU writer begs the whole <]ue8tion. 
Notwithstandii7<:; tins, however, he avows himscff an advocate 
of the most ciKliiring ninterials, hecmisc otherwise the building 
would not testily ' our faith in tlie eternity of God and of His 
truth I ' If this Is not an uidcs of tlie vitulity of aymboUsui, 
even iu mimb that would gladly repudiate it, we know not 
wfast is. 

We repeat it, we congratutate the Oongregationalists on 
tlicae tokens of a partial convalescence, and shall be glad lo 
hear of their nearer approach to a sound mind, in the acknow- 
ledgment of the three-fold order of the ministry, They are, at 
present, our most avowed antagonists amongst the Protestants; 
their perusal of the works published a» Cliirk's Foreign Theo- 
logical Library may be expected to raise the Btandard iif their 
inionnation, and to quality tlieir ti]inii<lcr9 for a candid exami- 
nation of the points at isfiie between na ; and their partialitA' lor 
a sturdy, logical (aometiinea over aubtle) eystein of theology, 
together wiui their (somewhat timid, somewhat strained) 
attempts to si'Carc solid principles of action, may make those ol 
them who return to the told of the Church her fast friends. 

Still, on the whole, it is otir decided conviction that the 
ambition of improvement in social position Iiaa a great deal to 
do with that improvement in the cstcrnals of religion of wliieli 
we liave spoken. The feeling is at work in the gradually 
inorea^ng number of Dissenting minielcrs who graduate; iu 
the attempt to display a very wide range of reading in their 
public speeches, of which the addresses of Dr. Legge. in the 
Xear-Book for 1860, are a curious specimen; and in the Con- 
grqrational Lecture, an avowedly rival ciiatom, though (we be- 
liere) without endowments, to the Bampl.on Lecture at Oxford, 
OS IB apparent from the statement in the Y'ear-Book, that 
(1860, p. 2S6) — 

'It coaBists of ao occasiooiit oourso of lectures, that iiiLi'laka moru uC 
th« diaraotAr of academical prdwtioas' (aoto the ralish tor l(iijg[ wonlti}, 


Chngregatiotiialtsm , 

* than of fiojmlnr addrwistH. . . Bovontoon aetivti hftvo alrciwiy heon de- 
livered ; /*c pHliliratioH of which has greatlg iHcreaiedthr literary rffutatioa of 
lie DtnomimUUin' ' 

Wc see tlie feolbg publicly mnnircsted in tlieir lately dis- 
covered principle, timt the State ought not to exhibit a partiality 
for one form of Gliriiliauity rather tlian for another; and 
the eccentric inference that, therefore, the Church shall be 
despoiled of her riglils and property. These things nfford n 
parallel, on a large scale, to tliat which ia reaUy at the bottom 
of half the misunderstandings which ariee between a clergyman 
and his well-to-do parishioners — the desire to mix with the best 
set of the neighbourhood. Who has not known an instance of 
a man of busincHS making money, buying or hiring a residence 
in a good visiting neigh bo urhuod, and then getting out of 
temper with his inciimbGnt^ because the latter did nut introduce 
him to some connty family ? Who baa not met with Diesenlera 
who laboured under the unhappy delusion that Churchmen 
were, in Home myeteriouB way, banded together in a conspiracy 
to put them down, and keep them down, because they were 
Uisscntcrs? Who has not met with, or heard of, that other 
speclee of democrat, the Yankee, who was rude to Eugliahmen 
on precisely the same principle ? Perhaps, if it were possible 
to persuade Congregational) ate generally, that ' noboily wants to 
hurt ' them, much of their iinimosity might disappear ; but it 
would be bad policy on the part of their leaders to appear to 
Bed it; not to mention that [as in the case of election agents 
generally) their political /caderx are by no means the moat 
refined or best etruoated members of the body. Their ecoleal- 
asticat democracy, like every temporal democracy, Is unfavour- 
able to the groivth of feelings and habits of respect towards 
superior position and education as distinct from superior worth : 
to ' kings and all that are in authority.' Personal influence 
professes to be everything with them ; the only other influence 
(and that is far more constantly felt and submitted to) prnc- 
ticnlly recognised is that of wcallb. Kank or old family are 
only valued among them as an excuse for exaggerating the 
respectability of Dissent. Their temper is to demand that 
every possible position in Church ov Slate shall be open to 
merit and ability, with a preference to those who possess no 

' We hit»c not ejcnmined nil th« pulilislied JtectureHj iIiosh! which hitvt) come 
Imfore nn Imlinatn, ibut iHl- nulhora wroto for roadoni who might cecil fhmeniary 
totitruiiUan, and wcri: nol likcl; to po£±usB other (standnidj irnik« no llie eabinct 
of the L<-cliinuii ond ■Lim at i^moat mathuiusticul preclKion aiid roriuiililjr. Tho 
labour oi the vomjioutloo ib too visible ; Ihe vritcirs do Dot know whoa to be 
fileat ; uid Ui«; lAuk mastfry of their tahjecl, 


nllier claims; it is an accident that the highest station in the 
land and seats in the Upper House orPnrlinmcnt are exempted 
in their amhitious desires. Antl even here, until some element 
of Con<frrg»tionRri3m shnll be infused into the pMnigc^, it may 
be ilouhteii whether political Dissenters will not continue to 
Lre-gard the Ilonse of Lorils as an assembly of old women, <ir, at 
*tho best, a somewhat clumsily eoiiBtnicted and almost unneces- 
sary buSer to the political etigiin\ The ilcTiiocnitio ambition of 
rising to the level of their neighljoura, or, wliere that is difficult, 
of bringing down the latter to their own level, must be taken 
into account by any one who ie deuroua of f$irming a corruct 
tcstitnatc of political Dissent. 

The method of pnipagating Confrref^atioiialism actually at 

work in Englnnil and Wiilcs, ciiniuit be said to be of a inisi<ionnry 

'Character; nor. if it were, would it be in accordance with the 

[.Congregational principle. As a rule, Dissenters build meeting- 

tliouBeerelSsWy, t.«., for themselves, with room for others who may 

rlicrcaftcr be willing to share in the support of the 'interest,' 

\ and a few fri-C SL-ata, in the least valuable pnrt of the buildings, 

for the poor ; not nnselfishly for othere. Where no ' chapel ' baa 

been built, and few Dissenters, except the poorest, reuide, none 

lis likely to be built. A striking case in point is to be met with 

tin Dr. liume's evidence before the ConimitUe of the House of 

^Jjords on the Church-rate question. Speaking of Liverpool, 

lie says — 

' In Home of the very poorGst plocea there are no Dissenting me«tingi.' 
— Qu.l2eo. 


' Wben a district beecnnea poor, the disaenting eongrcgntfon gfinorally 
DiijratMi ; tliD chapel is given u]), and repluoud in n ilistriut of the 
I tuwii. Kiiio chajjels Imvo ououpieJ tweiity-aii ditfereut sites ; there lutvo 
been aevonloeu luigmtiuuH.'— Qu. 1282, 

The same thing is allowed in the year-Book for 1860 (p. 2.?0), 
where the writer on chapel arcbitecturo lays it down as the 
first requisite that — 

'Tb» hetl iiluce (dituatiou) ought to Iw secured at any coBt; bort not 
[Bi«rdy notv.but ratutouabty sure to remain be»t through all lhechaiig<is of 
I the coniine ceiituiy. Spcoiallv is this true of thickly settled ami growing 
ItownA. Many n r.ity chiirith Sua buen aradnalli/ ■u.-mlaiwii, and at hut rfa- 
Lj/nWM^ b^l a ahtoke inndti ia Ihr liira/iaa of its meeting-hattit i or' hat beai 
VMiMd to taerifi.ce its kiiloricat atsocialioiis, by suhaequeutly transplanting 
lltMUfroiii an outworn soil to a more fertile spot.' 

' TtM writer hod nuuemd at Ibe luMuuintlon of cliureli arahiUotars with >ym- 
bolum, uul ;et bo regBrda with autraw tlic lung of hutorical uioeuitiona. The 
^naer i* a iai;aK> of llic cnrdimd trutfati o< ChriDtianity; the lutt^r ^rrcd to 
t allre tha Inditiotui of the Denominaiion. 
KO. Cn. — N.8. H 

Congrega tionaJitm . 

The exclusive voluntary flystem, then, fluctuates and wan^era 
with tlie individual congrcgatiouB ; It retains bo hold on tho 
soil; it ofTers no giinrtuitce for the futnre; it folbwH tho 
example of the workl in that very conduct whicli, in ullages nnd 
among all people, has stirred especially the bile of poets and 
])hlInaopherB, hanfjing upon the sniilea of its richer jiatrons, and 
leaving the poor to themselves. The two events which ordiDsrily 
occasion the erection of a new mcctiog-housc in nuy district are, 
the residence of a few wealthy Disseiitera; and a schism in the 
nearest congregation, which is settled by the minority swarming 
out. It is a wonderfully rare thing for a wealthy Congrcga- 
tionalist to build a ' chiipel ' at bis own cost for the benefit of any 
locntity in which he ditea not reside, or even where he does 
reside, unless he knows that, pr.iclically, the engagement and 
dismissal o? the minister will rest with himself: and we speak 
now of neighbourlioods in which the manufacturing or mercan- 
tile wealth is principally in tlie bunds of Disacuters, That the 
same may he said even of eongrcgationp, appears irom the Year- 
Book of 1860 (p. 244), in tlie account given of llie ereciion 
of Et * church ' and schools, at Eccles, near Manchester. 

'Two features of tbis movement ar« deaerring of attention' (i.e, aa 
being novelties to the Dissenters); ' first, a Christiau churoh ruluaiainif by 
tho advice, and with, the active oo-operatina of its po-itur and all the mem- 
bera ; aud, Beoondly, a uhiircli atid aobouia to bo built and opimeii/rnf/toat 

(The Italics are in the Year-Book.) Tliia admission is exceed- 
ingly vahiable in its bearings on the purely voluntary system; 
it grants the non-missionary cliaracler of that system : and what 
makes the concession all the more forcible is tliat, even at 
Kccles, tlie movement wae not entirely missionary. We read, 
on the same page — 

'Tbo villas of EooIps ia a fnvcunite siibiirli of JEnnchrater, and cnataiiis, 
within a cirwle of a mile from tlm iiarrHb Churoh, a population of about 
6,00(1. The efei;tiua of a OuugrL'gal.iuiml plaou of worBbip in tbis faat- 
iucreSJiiiig and inipfulanl tioighbuurhuuil wa» iiiidei-tukeii hj- tbo church at 
Hope Chrtpel, Salford, under the pastfimtp of tho lli?v. 0, 1), liuljioi'. Scecral 
mfih/rs tif Ihiil cAureli haiiiag hivma' rexuiral ot Rvlff, after a meoting fur 
coai'ereuue with Iboir paator, luwl with a few mnrabnrs of other chui'cln^a 
reaiding in the nifighboiirliood. brought thu religiouB ueuuBsitios of the 
locahty ijoforo the atteutitin uf tliuir hwlhruii.' 

Nothing, then, was done towards ibis 'colonization,' fhia 
eupply of a 'chapel' for wluvt was regarded as n destitute district 
(the vicar is assisted by four c"ra!es), until it became a ' favou- 
rite auhurb of Mnncbester,' and until several Congregational ipl a 
from Sulfbrd (probably not of the poorest class, &b Eccles is a| 
favourite suhuib) had become residents there. 

Om^rijgaiionalitm. UQ 

Wc have }i«t« alao the admi!>sion, tlint it is a rare thisg fur a 
Congregational tabcrnitcic to bt built and Gpentd/ree/rtmi ihhl: 
a circumstance often forgotttii or iE-iiorcd by lukewarm Cbuicli- 
men. Wc coulil name a tliriving viiljige, tbc jiopulalion of 
whivli wiu oxr.luaively manufacturing and numbered over 2,^00, 
in wliich ilie ' cbapel and schools wore erected for £1,200, wberu 
there was no diureh, and where, after Beventeeu yean pastorate 
of a coDciliatory and universnlly esteemed minister, whose 
stipend was «nmll, £200 .itill remnlui^d niipiiid. Aud wo do not 
believe lliia cu-ie to be cither solitary or at. all uiiu.iutil. 

Indeed, the efforts of Dissenters in the supj>ort ni" religion are 
enormously exaggerated. No doubt they contribute much; a 
larger proportion of Congregational is t» than of nominal Church- 
men arv in the habit of orieiiing their pnraca for objeettfofn 
directly religious (and loenl) character. The voluntary system 
renders this necessary. Men who arc in earnest about any form 
of religion, whether their earnestnesa be duo to feelings of 
devoti'-n, or to the spirit of party, will have their houses of 
OMWinbly, will have liieir u)inii^ti?r~<, well or ill riirnishcd, ut a 
prealer or lesu cost. Tlie case is, so far, aiii»li>gouB to lliut of 
the support of election agents. The necessity of standing well 
with tlieir fellow-congregationalists — for a democracy exercises 
a terribly tyrannical real.rainl over the freedom of its members; 
the ucctwsiiy <if bearing a shiire in the oaniuion burdens ; con- 
nexions arising out of business, in whieb Dissenters, like 
Scotebmen, aro thoroughly clannish;^ opportunities of exer- 
cising a greater inthience aud iis^nming a greater imjtorlance 
than ihv Cbiirrh bohjii out to then) ; all Ounspire to stimulate 
pecuniary libendity in l>ehalf of the denouii nation. Similar 
motives amon^ ourselves would follow, in some degree, the spo- 
liation of the Church; for hunmn nature is a frail thing: with 
this di(ri-i-enee, that many uho now are uoiniually Chrigtiuns 
would eease to be Chris tians at all. Yet the pecuniary etl'orla 
of the Congregatioiiiilislit, important though they are, havo 
been and are greatly exaggerated ; the voluntary efforts which 
pcopW feel tlicy iriKs* make always 'tee exaggerated, in com- 
Mrivon with thonc whlub they may let alone. Forhaps a mora 
fiivourable field for the observation of these could scarcely be 
fixed upon than the diocese of Ripon. It is full of densely 
populated, rajiidly-increaaing manufae luring towns, whidt are 
usually regarded oa the most fnvourablL- of all soils for the 
growth of Dissent. Thirty years ago these towns were but ill 

' A»d Ttry TttAj lo «tii,'Dial)H(i, lu UgoMi) aad^iatolentnt, anytiiln),' lit<« lui 
idiiltv* DOitiitUly 
nflt4im of utuLMttL 

•MlnitM poiliitUiy tmagiued to liti eliown bf Cburehiuea to ont) auotbur in 



supplied with churches: the field was quite open to every 
epcciea of ^ecturmns. Moreover, the West-ltidingere are a 
stuniy race, keen and shrewd, with n etrnng relish for the lu 
qtioque, a fooiluess for argument?, niatheiualicid, inetnphysiad, 
[ or practical, and (genei-ally) a leaning lovvaida Calvioisni. The 
I C'ongregationalists have had, througlioiit the periud of which we 
'epeiik, a theological college nefir Bradforil, and another at 
Kutherliam, close on the herders of the diocese. The Conser- 
vative party is in u minurity in tlie diocese ; and a great pio- 
portion of the manufacturing wealth of the region is in the 
hands of Diaaentera of one kiud or other. What then ore the 
resullH ? 

The Congregnlionnlist 'ohiirclies' are 108, of wliich 30 nro 
without a settled miuister. 

In 1857, the rectors and vicara were 134; peifetual curates 
270 ; in all, 4(M livinga. Of these, probably, over 200 repi'e- 
Bent churches built and endowed within the Iii3t half century; 
and the number of parochiiU clei^ can scarcely be less than 
646. In other woiils, there must be about seven parachial 
clergymen in that diocese for each settled Congregationalisl 
' minister ; and nearly twice as many churches must have been 
built and endowed since 1810, aa there are Ci'ngregiitioualirtt 
chapels now nctunlly existing, inclusive of those ciiapels which 
have been occupied for more than half a century. 

We feel confident that few things would tend more speedily 
to diminish the fear which many gentlemen in a certain plitce 
njipeiir to entertnin of the Congregationulist body th:»n the 
, bringing to light the esact nuumricnl strenglh of the hitter as 
jwell as the actual amount of what they do; in amijmrinuti with 
fwhat is (lone by Chnrclinien. To our former instances in this 
leection we may add, that it is computed that in Englnnd nud 
WhIcb 2.000 new churches have been built within the lust 
twenty-five years ; whereas the t»tal number of ejnstiny Cougre- 
eationaliat meeting-houses in ihe same area ia stated in the Year- 
Book as only 2.232. The average cost of one of these chapels 
in not more than £2,170 (in the Year-Book of ISIjO), and 
average number of sittings not over G81. For I85(i the ligurea 
were 710 sittings, and ^2,885 average cost; and these figures 
are considerably in excess of what would be the average for the 
last twenty years. 

And now a few words in conclusion on the duty of Church- 
men nt this crisis. The Apostle of the Gentiles did nut scruple, 
when need arose, to speak frankly of his nwn eifurts to save the 
Christians of a given church from the pecuniary burden which 
lawfully was theirs. Why should we have any scruple to 


eileniw tlic a<lvcn>arie8 by collecting stnlistic* of ifiu number of 
chutvlici! built niid eiuloweil in tbe severitl decutlos of the isi»t 
Iinir century, with the emnis spent on tbe»e nnd on niir schoola ? 
Why should we not strain every nerve to obtain enaet numori- 
cal returns of the various bodies of Disflonters? ' He thnt tlocth 
evil haU^th tbc liirht' is a iiiaxini which lins scMom, of Inte, 
been m renmrkniily (>xem|)lifi>-<I iik it is in the conduct of our 
Opponents. If they really believe themselves to he na numerous 
us thoy bonst to be, what could be to them more aatiafactory 
than to have the fsct ascertained in a manner which would 
silence ftll cavils? What could serve their purpose better than 
that ihe census should report them individually? If they be- 
lieve their numhers to be decreasing, what can be more unfiiir 
than to expect that those political conccEeiona should ho made 
to them now which they did not ohiain when they were more 
numerotis than they are ? But if, on the other hand, they are 
aware tJvat an exposure of their actual aumericul strength would 
convict them of airant boasting, and contradict the statements 
which they are accuetomed to put forth, then surely they 
cannot even pretend tliey have the slightest regard for truth. 
At preaent, as the result of indefatigable exsiggerution and close 
combtnatioR. they have secured a prominence in the public eye 
to which they arc by no means entitled. With places of wor- 
ship only one-sixth as numerous as ours (nnd one-fifth of them 
dcirtitutc of settled ministers), ministers scarcely a ninth, classi- 
cal schohirtt nmoii^ their ministers prohably scnrce one hundred 
and twentieth; with scarcely a!iy iiistimcet^ of wealthy Congre- 
gationalisls allowing iheir sons to occupy tlie glavish' and pre- 
carioui« position of a minister among them; with very little 
cllorl indued to build chnpels for neglected districts in which 
Dissenters do not already live; with chapels often in debt; the 
Congregational ista still ai-e trying to make men believe that 
they arc nearly as important a body as Churchmen, and that, 
conKgttently. the rights and the well-being of the Church of Eng- 
land ought to be sacrificed to their crotchet of Voluntaryism. 
And ihit, too, though in fhr United A'tafM 1,000 out of the 2,800 
* COHgreoationi^ are wit/mut sHtlcd mininlers. 

Lrut It be remembered, moreover, that concessions are never 
more dangerous than wh«n olfered to Democracies; and that 
the fundamental princij)Ieof Congregationalism is deniocratieal. 
And what makes concessions the more mischievous in the 

' The KiQ of a iate lillnj^ ConKn-'pilionalint preuchor h.ii told ii> tlint, though 
lia liroke uff all oonnciioi. wiih ito bodj m emlj life and nflfirwardu grail imlcii lu 
ODB of ("ur uniTertJlici, U km not until he had !j<wd maiij jwiw in Hiil.v onJcrB 
thai b<i ■» alili to ihnkR od'that rcitJcuii gppnilii-iikiou iit giving iilluricu in IrlQci, 
whkh had bocn Uie bujiWar of liii hnm« in chjlilliooil and liojlioud. 



present cace is, tliat the Eccleaiasticnl Democracy believes if self 
tobu founded upon revclutions of Holy Scripture. The oi-dinary 
Cwngreyationnliol,— (leihiipa wc might Bay, ivilliout any great 
danger of niistnkc, tin.- onlinnry Congri'giitiouiiHst minister — has 
never hennl tlie argiiu;entri wliicli Scrijitnre nft'^nls in IJivour of 
thetlireet'oldoriifr of ihe minisitry. orof nntinnal KmI alili.ihmente, 
or never save in Bonie necidenial caricnture ; his liahilual belief 
i« that (lis Mr. Briglii. said, on the question of Church-rates,) he 
has been studying tlic Rnbjcct all liis life, and wc idnirehinen 
not lit nil. Tlie nieacre and cliihllnli ^iibtleliee of inter]irctati(in, 
by wliieh <-ven so aule a man as Dr. Wardlaw advocated the 
Voluntary System, biivc been jiaraded liefore him until the 
paasafjiB u)ijicnr to stiind out [irominentlv above ibe Airface of 
Scripture : thv argument llml \\\v. ford ' liisliop' in llm [iiLHtoml 
cpiMlcM cignitiea the aeeimd order of the nnnistry, apjieaiEi to him 
cwneluftive iigainct the existence of a siiperintendiiij; order. He 
is ready to iniaginc llie tlieolngieal leitrnlng of ihc clergyman to 
be very mengri- and uni-ui>6tnniinl. and evim nn«]iirimid, if the 
latter \s nt nil bt.-wildered in listening In the puriliuiLeuI idioms of 
Dissent : ho believes that his sy^lecn is Bcrijilnral ; mir.-', wherever 
it differs from his, not simply nn- but anli-seri|itnval : and it is 
not raliomd to expect him, whilst ho remains under the influence 
of that belief, to meet eoneession by concession. Our concession 
confirms his convictions ; our firm and bold mnlntennncc of 
our own principles shakes his, if Anything can shake them. 
We would illustrate this by two instances. In a certain dis- 
trict in the West of England tliero was living recently a very 
worthy elderly Dissenting lady, who had ibnned ncqmiinluoce 
with all the clergy in her neighbourhood, and was lieard to 
eay, that the only two clergymen who Appeared to her to believe 
their own principles, were the two Higii-Church curates. On 
the other hand, in n certain pnnBli, a Calvinistic conciliating 
regime brought more than one Dissenter to attend the Church 
services, so long onli) as these services nod the ad minis I rat ion uf 
the parish were, as much aa posaible, divested of a Chui-ch 
character. But our renders will easily multiply instances for 
tbemeelves : witness the success of the Church in such hostile 
epherea »^ the parish of Leeds ; and the ovation of Dr. Hook's 
friends on his removal to a more digniGed, but not in his case, 
more honourable position. To meet Dissenters on rrfit/i'oiui 
platforms, is, in their eyes, to acknowledge the validity of their 
ordinations; and their natural intcrcnee is that a little more 
study and enlightenment would lead you to doubt the validity 
of your own. To deny their title to the name of ministers or 
churches, JB indeed to provoke angry recrimination and charges 
of bigotry and intolerance, at which some men are too timid 


Cotigra/jat umalum . 


not to quitkc ; but like every other honest prooccdlng, it issues 
in n aiiiipler, imd ^traigliter, aod e.i»er progress eubBcqiientljr. 
And willi regard to the present atriigglii I'or and agamat Church 
lUtablishiiiL'uts, n bold Irout, nn iiisistitig ujion having the 
Dii-scntvrs counted nt the next ceii^ud in (lit^ hoiicRt Wiiy iw 
individunU,' aiid not by the tVaiidiileiit mnchinery of Sunday 
{looked congregatione. and uuilcd general nclion during the 
autumn, and lor n few years morCi will, under the Divine 
blccein;;, save our Eiigliitid from what would be n greater curse 
than unylhing which lias liilherto I'ullen tu h^ir li>t, viz., the 
severance of Church and Slate, accompanied by the cunlisculion 
of Church property. Only let Clinrchinen provide a meaaure 
of tbeir own ; and let not the question of Church-rates be 
degrflded i»(0 n movement for or jigji'tnst the gnvernment for the 
time iKriiig; MiA, chietly, let the eniatieipuiion of district from 
parish Churches in thia ni&tter be treated aa paramount to the 
^ratifiention of Disscnicr?, Wo remember an inalancc of a clique 
fn a Debating Society threiilening to abtiorb the management of 
nil il.t nlliiire, uulil 0. private motion forced their numerJetil 
strength inti> prominence, and then thi; eliquu collii])aed ; and 
we do not despair of the same result fnUowing awakened and 
enclitic action on the part of the Church. 

) Wc are glad ta otMcrve, u th« aboTc is iiauiuK lliTOu);b Iha preu, tint the 
PtcmUr, in rcauving n dcpuiDiiari uti ilic £.ut>jei.'t of tltti'iuiliiuiiumit ataiifUeit in 
tlw fanh«oraing ccnuiu of lain. innnifMtpd a cltnrappreciniioii of tbi)cluinict«rof 
Ui« oppoiiiUin which i« lUri-iiienpil Itj tlie Congicgnliamli^la. and eiprei»td bit 
optaioa ' ihnt no icllgiouii pcKoii kouIJ have aiif goud rcaniiii for taking olldacc 
at it.' It li, Ituti^cd, rnthcr Ino luuch lio mjicet. llint the Oovcrnmcnt nhall he 
fotUddcn U> olitjtLii triif. ifUMfVwi of itic rclnlivc nnmlKini of idlgloun hnitins, Jo 
wdcr that lilt C<iTiicrc)niliui<HliHl« iii»y ■^{iiil.iitiiii 1^ iiritiifi on tlic I'UiIk of tho Jalse 
KlaUadui molTcil out of l.lic liul. Sii»il»;y ueimug. Nor onn luij'lhlng be mom 
dliviiHj ooiitrary lo tho foot* tliao Mr. llujwuiid'H (ijiinion (Juno tl) thai, for poll- 
liml [rurpOoL's liio Ciiuroli is bt'ttyr orgatiizi'ii llinn llinBHUtC", wnl 
enablod lo uiiik4 its voiue liuard with uiorc< efleut. lu uiiy mattrnr (LtTiiutinif I.Un 
iU«mM of thoiT Iwd}'. the oiynnimioo of liiv CuD;;n.';;ntioniklial.« bus fur j'Oani 
lnwu to complete that Ihtj could, at n moaipot'ii noiiw, owetp tbe t'ouutij (ur 
[•titbtH trom men. lunwir, mid ckildrai : wbil«i this ia thv Jlrit ytnr of aojibing 
even approaching to gcu>^rikl nctlrlty on tho pai't of Cbuicbiucu. 


Aut. V. — 1. Niyfes on Nurtim. By Florence NIGHTINGALE. 
London : Harrison, Pall Mai!. 

2. Nok» on Hospitals. By Floresce Nightikuale. Lon- 
don : J. W. P»rlcer and Son, West StranJ, 

3. Care vf ihe Sick. By Ricuakd Baeweu, F.B.C.S. 
London : Chapman and Hall. 

WiTiiiN these few years nursing haa become a literary suliject. 
Itlmsrisen toanartandhasiteprolcsaors. It is discueaed in news- 
papers, treated as a protninent question of the day in pamphlete, 
invested with romance In novels. It has its written Innguage, 
gmccil with a lui^Iil etyli! am) pointed sentences. People tind its 
delaiU interesting: its topics are- fresh and unhackneyed, and 
yet concern all the world. Here is positive information, — here 
18 reason and argument on a subject of which the secrets in 
former times were guarded with jeidous care, and passeil from 
generation to generation, by oracular old women, to whom tradi- 
tion and experience bad tanght the signs and tokens of disease, 
in its progress to recovery or doatii ; the modes of treatment 
and the meuns of rcHcf. Their calling was wrapped lu mystery. 
Tlicy could neitlier tell, nor did they desire to learn, the grounds 
of their convictions, more precious to themselves and reverenced 
by others as instinct than as processes of reasoning. A cer- 
tain connexion with the unseen spiritual world was uncon- 
sciously attributed to ibem, and perhaps felt by themselves. 
Tltcy saw a hand we coidd uot see, and beard a voice we could 
not bear; and were guided by tokens of which they felt the 
eigni6cnnce without discerning or seeking to know the cause. 

But all this has been changed of late. The historical age of 
□ursiog basset in. We have distinct intelligible data given us, of 
which we are imperiously oidled upon to make use. Bnt positive 
iuforniatiou on every question of this nature — a question, that is, 
which always haa been of paramount importance to mankind, 
but begins now to be regarded from a new point of view — ia 
Bure not to be unqualified gain. When the line is passed 
which separates mystery and vagueness from fact, anil the 
mysteiT vanishes, we feel nioss; our imagination suffers a shock; 
our old dependences are shaken ; we are driven to use our own 
judgment before we have any just ground for trusting it. We 
aeera to have lost a support when we find what we once relied 
upon is nut trustworthy. It a[ipear3 that hitherto man has 
leant in his ^ckuesa on a broken reed; he has been the victim 

Noiet OH Nunmg. 


of blnnilcrs ; ve are assured that ignorance and prejudice have 
too often, in our own tinice, almost under onr eye, changed ihia 
beiiigtiant calling into ii ' ln-nevolcnt i«rm ot man glaug liter .' 
and we arc lorced to the cunchiMoii tliut in inniiuierublc iii«taiice» 
ithaAbecn to. And il' tlie prcalige of Ute old [irotc^Qiiftl nurse, 
who, whatever her moral credit, was aeaamed to be mislrenH of 
a craft, is thuH blown upon, sickness itself suffers analogous 
changes to our perception; it, too, loses its mystery. The 
modem well -instructed, reasoninji, philoso[>bieal nurse nckuow- 
ledgee no such thing an the inevitable. Il seems an if we 
coura never be ill now without its being Bomebod^'s fault, 
eo that we or some one could and should have prevented it, 
Bven the univereitl epidemics of ebildhuod, which we thought 
were in the course of nature to be submitted to, not struggled 
iigitinst, lire asserted to come of nmu'a sins against ventilation 
ami drainage ; when he dues his duty in the matters of light and 
air and water, we are to hear no more of measles and whooping 
cough. We are imperatively called upon to exert ourselves to 
oppose the«e and greater evils hy an efficacious resistiince; which 
ought to be a cheering doctrine, but Bomchow these promises 
ana assurancea are anything hut exhilarating ; we cling with a. 
certain regret to the resigned fatalism which has hitherto been 
accepted as the religious temper : jiossibly in our hearts thinking 
n life-long confljot with physical impurities, a life of ecnuiny 
mid moroid sufpiciona, a qiieslionahle exclinnge for tJie chance 
of taking our share in a passing epidemic, and being allowed 
in the interval to pursue our present habits and trains of 
thought undiMturbud. We are not adrocating apathy in the 
guise of resignation, which has been the world's mood long 
enough. We muat bestir ourselves, and waxh and slusb and 
flush and Tcntilatc with the active spirits of the age. But we 
don't know whether it makes pain and fever more welcome to 
know that they might, lumianly speaking, have been prevented. 
It it n new demand on our patience, and makes true resignation 
a harder and therefore a more positive virtue. 

One good result of the public and open discussion of what is 
technically called Hygiene — the theory and practice of health — 
whatever drawbacks our feelings suggest, is that men are led 
through it to think more than tliey perhaps have hitherto done 
of the fliale of sickness. The sick-room, to those not personntly 
concerned as sufferers or attendants, is an unknown region to 
most of us. Considering the liability of all to physical eunering, 
the almost certainty that we must sooner or later endure it, it is 
wonderful how little most of us know of the conditions of ill 
health, of the mental and bodily changes that we may any duy 
incur. 01' dealli, and of what follows death, we are for wiae 


Notes on Nvr-itntf. 

eacb ktot iu ignorunco ; but of tlie stuU v/\\\di pnxcdee \t wo 
■U mient foi-Q) some iilea if wc woulii, wo nil mtglit Approach 
eomo uefinite knowledge wbich might surely be turavtl to ac- 
count when tlie time catue. The coiiteiii[]l<)tioi] of the oidiiuuy 
intMilnl Ktate in ucvere sickness must be n snlulnrj vrarninj^ 
not to |)Ostp<>De iuipurlant iutereals till then. Sickness, we 
■nisibt learn if we would, changes the mind and pots it !n a 
different frame. Peisons, we suspect, wlien they nre ill do not 
find their thoughts and feelings in llie lititte they would have 
expected them to be. Our teniptulions will be new ones. The 
imaginntiou will niter it« processes; our judgment will fitil us; 
our temper will change ; we shall infalhbly bctmy weaknesses ; 
the sense of proportion will be violently disturbed; we ehiiU 
ece nothing in the free open-air daylight of intercourse with 
others. All this is in its degrei^ inevitable if long sickness 
and {inin come to us as they come to the great majority; 
but how little do we think of this, how small a preparation do 
we mnko for thr supremo trinl. If we become ucquainied 
with an individual case of sickness we set down its mental 
pccnIiaritieB to the idiusyncrosy of the patient, us though suffer- 
ing betr.iyed his latent weaknesses alone, his private faulli) and 
Bingiilarities, We do not lay it to heart that wc are probably 
liable to tho same errors or failures of reason. We do not 
know that what surprises us in the sick man is not so much » 
revelation of what has always been hid iu liimGcli', as the result 
of new tests applied to our common nature. But we are no longer 
confined to our own limited experience. When those who 
Bcc most of tlic sick have the intellect cultivntcd to reason upon 
what they see, and the pnwev to record it, a fresh light is neces- 
sarily thrown upon the slate. Kot that in Miss Nightingale's 
instance she touches separately on the mental conditions of sick- 
ness, her concern being mainly with its bodily manifestations; 
but the two cannot be treated apart, and we Imve a picture ia 
consequence conveying very distinct and vivid iuipressioua, and 
raising sympathy, i. e. fellow-feeling, in the reader, which ought 
to be turned to good account both for ourselves and others. 

The sick man under her treatment assumes a new character; 
h« gains in consistency and completeness. We are at^customed 
to Tiew him as certitinly unfortunate and sutTering, but like- 
wise the prey to a great many funeios which be could get the 
better of if he would. We do not allow that more than half his 
troubles are inevitable; the other half are chimeras, the off- 
spring of a diseased imagination : they are whims which our 
good nature is taxed to fall in with. If he has hia doctor and 
DIB phyaio, and his comfortable bed and his nurse, he ought, we 
think, to appreciate these blcEsiuga more, and to show a clearer 

Notes on Aarjwj. 


sense of our hcncvolcnce In tlovuting niirselTes to liia relief ftnd 
enti^rtmniiieiit. We don't quite believe in liia languor and 
u{iialhy as features of diam»e ; there is % touch of ungraciousness 
and temper in thcoi. He ouj^lit to exert himself more. Most 
of us know in eonic fainler degree llic feeling profe«iwi] and 
coollj' Himlyaei] by the aiillior of 'Eothen' towards hU oom- 
[mniiiu in lioulile who fell ill eo inopportunely. 

' Bcfiim wo rcftohnil Adriiinopk-. Riptlilcy hiid been SE^ined with wo knftw 
not what «ilmetit, nutl wJn'ii wv Lad tukvia up oiir qimrttrB in tho city, )io 
WOB oiiat tu iLw vei-v earth by aicktiesa. , , So uow {whotliw dyiug ur 
not, oii« cuulil haraly U-M), upon a qiiilt stretdied cut doog thu tlooi', 
Ibt^ro lay the bmt hopu of an ncnieut line, wilboitt the lunt.orinl niila to 
comfnii of even tlie bmnbleat sort, and (Bad to iwy) without the coiwoln- 
tion of a frifuJ, or hvau u cuiuradt- worth liiLiiug, I have a iiotiun that 
t«n(l«Tti«38 itad pitj^ arc ftflbotioiiH ncciMionvd in some menxiij-o by living 
within Hoofs ; certainly, at the tiiue I upeak of, the opoa-air life whinh 1 hod 
Wen IcAdinit. or tho wnyfivring hiinlnhips of the journey, had ao straiigriy 
bluiittsl mo, thut 1 fi^ll iiitulcmtit of iJliu'wi, luukc'il down ufioii niy cciid- 
liMiiun, tM if lh«< poor fellow in falling ill hud betrayed it wunt of spirit, I 
ent«rtain«il, too, a moat ftbaiu'd id«a— an idea that his illnoss was rartly 
affcolod. Vou sen that I hnvo made a winfeasion : this I hope — that 1 may 
aliiayK htuvuflor look ctiuritubly upou tho humh, BBvage ants of pcaaautii, 
luid tlio crutdti^^a of a " brutal" Boldiery. God kaowH that i strircd to molt 
inysvlf into ooinmon charity, ami U< put on a goiitlfuess which I could nut 
f«itl, hut thix attempt did not cheat, the kce'incss of the niiO'eri>r, be could 
not have felt thu loss douortoJ buoause I Wiis with him.' — Enlhfia. 

Now ihc render of modern snnifary statistics caa linrilly have 
the face to disbelieve the reality or extent oF anybody's illness. 
We find in them so many excellent veasons, in the mismanage- 
ment, hlundcring ifmomncc, and general selfishness of mankind, 
for people being ill, timt it nrgues something of insensibility, 
Rom«thin;C; ooarse and illogienl, to keep up a comfortalilc show 
of health in an atmosphere and habits of living in which persons 
have no right to do anything but euffcr. What excuse have wo 
for being well, we arc brnught to feel, in the near neighbourhood 
of sewcr^ in i-uoms ventilated on the most unsound principles — 
where every attempt to change the air only briuj;8 a subtler 
pobion to our lungs — where our spare rooms are haunted by 
infection, and fevers exhale from our dingy ' saturated ' paper 
hangings— where every smug expedient of comfort, our carpets, 
our curtains, our ' well-aired' beds, our cloae-titting carpt^ntry, 
are all so many arrows from Death's quiver? The sick man 
who resents these vile expedients by suffering under them, is 
surely the more consistent and reasonable person, Wc do not 
know a keener satire anywhere than Miss Nightingale's strictures 
on the liabitt and prncticcs of the ' well,' as she superciliously 
denoniiuatc.i that portion of mankind who persist in these ilele- 
tetioua practices, and have not yet succumbed under their 
malign inHucnce. The ailments we guard against arc so eliglit 


Notes on Nurslnij. 

to her, our fears so chlinerica! ; while her clear foresight and 
practised senses prophesy from our ' above-mentioned dirty cir- 
cumstances,' i.e. tlic ordiiinry condition? of a London housei a 
GfJifiiiia of undreamt-of pains ami deaths lurking where we 
least expect tJiem. What a fine tragical significanoe is given, for 
instance, to one feature of every house ; to what, if wo think of 
it at all, we have all nioiig asemned to be an indispensable con- 
dition of the eivilized, dining world — the sink in the back 
kitchen. What foi-ce of languuge defines, what etrcngth of cora- 
parisona, what ghastly terrors are made to surround this vulgar 
and ordinary fixture. 

' The orilioar; nbloDg fohk is an. abamiuntion. That great stirliiOQ of stone, 
whioh is nlwnys bft wet, is nlwajis oxbaJiiig into the air. I have known 
wholo IioiiBes aiicj buepiti^B smell ol' tlie sink, I have mot Just as strung a 
stream at itawt^r air cutuiDg uji the buc^k stttircaso of a g^anci LoiiJon bouse 
fi'oni the sink, as 1 have ovtr met at Scutari ; aud I have Been the rooms in 
that house all ventilated l>y the opeu doors, and the pnaaagus all xnveati- 
latud by tho oloaed wiiidowH, in order tliat as inueh of the sewei' air as 
pOHsiblu might bu uoudiioted iato uaJ retained in the bod-rooms. It is 
wonderful.' — IVtiffa on Nariiiiff, [Jp. IC, 16. 

We are all so accustomed to think this class of strictures 
belongs to the poor, we are so used to nssncinte them with coui'ts 
and blind allej-8, that the hold onslaught of this dauntless lady 
on the jxilite world takes us by surprise. She makes no dis- 
tinction between rieh and poor — all are alike ignorant to her 
superior discernment. There is an unsparing, unflinching en- 
forcing upon us the weaknesses and infirmities uf our org-inlsa- 
tioD, tile original sin of our physical nature, often constituting 
ourselves our worst company, wliicli must make many of her 
readers wince ; our emanations, our breath, all to be guarded 
against by a rigid, self-accusing cleiinliness. She plainly tells 
fine gentlemen and ladies, that they share the common doom; 
nothing hut perHOual walchfulness, such as we decidedly prefer 
delegating to housemaids, can make us pass nuister belbre 
her line, hut impartial sense. If wc wnnt to be clean in our- 
selves, and in our houses, there are no immunities — we must 
work for this prime blessing, and keep up a vigilant watch 
which will oppress many an imagination, and lie a burden on 
many a conscience. Before we proceed to her main topic, let us 
read and ponder over her warnings to ourselves, the people who 
have decent houses and servants, and who naturally think of 
ourselves as a race apart, exempt from the possibility of 60 
vulgar a charge as unci can lin ess, and whose sole concern it is, if 
we give our minds to sanitary subjects at all, to enforce their 
rules on our ' poorer neighbours.' 

'.And now, j>ou think thsBU things triSes, or at least exaggerated. Bub 
what jou " think" or what 1 " think" matters little. Lot us see wliat God 
thinks of them. God always justifioa Hia w»ja. While we are thinking, 


liolM OH Nttrnnff. 


ITo bM boiiTi tiMidiiDg. I littve kiiown oases of hospital pTsmiA (fiiito u 
BuTnro io httmlaonie private bousos M tn ttUy of the worei hoapitnls, ond 
frum the name vatiso^ viz, fi-iul air. Vet DoboJy li^arut tbe leHsuD. Kubod^r 
leariil an^lkiiiff nt all from it. They went, on IhinHmi — ttiiiikiog Hint the 
suJT^nM' hfti) scratchmi hin thumb, or that it wns Bingiilav tbnt. '' all Ibe 
servanti^ had " wbitlowB." or tbnt Boniftbing wua " muuli nboiit this ynnr ; 
Uwru is lUwuys aicknoaa in uiir buiise." Tbis is u t'uvoiiritu tiioilo of 
thoogbt — Imuliug nuf to iatjuiro what is tbo uuiform caus^ of tbosu 
eouenJ "wbillows," but to.ititic nil inq^iiiry. In what senHo in '* aickiiOBs'' 
being " ftiwaya there," n jmititiuntioii of its being " there" nt all 1 

' I Yrill tell you what waa tho oauee of tbia hoBpitiil pvnimja buins in that 
large privutu buuai'. It was Ibut Ibo Hewer atr fioiii u,u ill-pluucil sink was 
carefully conducted into oil t.ho rnoms by sedulously opLiuing all the duora. 
Md closing b!! the passage windows. It was that t.ho slops wer<j emptied 
inlo the foot-p;iiiB ; — it wus that thii ut.Misila were nerer propRrly rinaed ; 
— it was thnt the obaiaber crockery was rinsed with dirty water ; — it was 
that the beds were uevet propej'ly Hhakuii, aired, piuked to pieces, or 
cba»Ked. It WM that the ciir|icts and curtains were always musty ;— it 
was lihftt the furniture was always dusty ; — it was thiit the papered walla 
■were saturated with dirt ; — it was that the fluora wtre tii-ver deaiied ; — it 
was that tho uiuuhiihitod rouiuB were never suoued, or oteouiHl, or aired ; 
— it was that tbo cupboards wi'to alwavs roservoirs of foul air; — it was 
that the windows were always tight shut up at night ; — it wrs that no 
window was ever system aticaUy opened, eveu in the day, or thnt the right 
window wan not ojiened. A [lerson gasping for nir might opcjn a wiudow 
for hSinaelf. But the serTautB were not taught to open the windows, to 
ehnt the doors ; or they opBiied tho windows upon a dank well, betweeo 
high wnlls, not upon the airier court; or they opened tho room doors into 
tho unaired halls and passagiW, by way of airing the rooms. Now nil this 
is not liiiK^, but foot In tdat haudaome houHu I fmve known iu one 
summer three caaes of hospital p^ajuiia, one of phlebitis, two of eonsuuip- 
tivacoogh: all the inmedmti' pr'oduct« of foul air. When, in t^emporata 
eltmatea, a house is more unhealthy in summer than in winter, it is a ner- 
tain aigQ of sotnolhing wrong. Yet uoboily IcurnH tha I'^hhuu. Yea, God 
alwAjs jiurtifiea His ways. He is teaehiiig while you are not learmng. 
This poor body loses his finger, that one loses his life. And all iroia the 
most (ia*ily pTCvcntiblc causes. 

'The houses of the grnndmothera and grnat-Ernndmolhcrs of this guna- 
ratiou, at loiuit tho oouutry hooaea, with front door and back door alwaya 
Mwidiag open, winter and summer, and a thorough draught always 
blowio^ tbrough^mitb all tho scrubbiDg and cleaning and polishing and 
Mouring which used tc< go ou, the grau^knothers, and still more the great- 
gnuduiuthr^m, ttlwuyH out of doors, and never with a bonnet on eioopt to 
go to ehuruh, these thinga entirely uuoount for the fact so often seen of a 
great'^mndmotber who wkb a tower of phyalwil rigour desceucbuB iuto a 
gnuidmntber perhaps a Uttlfi less vtgoroits but stil! sound as a hell niid 
healthy to the core, into a mother Inngiiid and coiiBned to hnr carriage and 
boUBe, and Liatiy into a daughter conlinod to her boil. For, remember, even 
with a goueral decrease of tnortaUty you may olteu And a I'ace thus dege- 
nerating, aod still oft«aer a family. You may sob poor little feeble washed- 
out ragii, children of a noble stock, siiffidring nioiiiily and phyaioaUy, 
throughout tlicir useleiB, dogenernto lives, and yot people who are going to 
marry, and lo bnug naoro auoh into the world, will oousult nothing but 
tli«dr own cftiivenienoe afl lo where thej are lo lire, or how they are lolive,' 
—liid.'pp. 17— IS). 

This i« good forcible writing, though of the sternest aort : but 


Notes on Nursing. 

there is that in Cleanliness which makes its more ^iBtingiiisheil 
profuHaora — -from the Kouaeivife, with her immncHlate hcni'tliBtoiic 
ami polishcil cupboards, to the inspired priestess of its mysteries 
— tbruiidable, aud not to be approaclied without propitiatory 
ritee, which for our part wc are willing to offer to every votary, 
80 sincerely do we believe that external cleanliness is a type and 
a sign of that which is witliin. Miss Nighlingale's experience has 
been of a sort to teadi her its value aa a power, to endow her with 
a faith in ita Bublime efficacy as a cure of the pliysicul evils of 
humanity, to conslitutc her its poet and npoetle. We see the 
actuating motive in her case was not only tenclerncaa and pity 
for human suffering, not only a vocation to give herself Up to 
healing and relief, but a love of purity, and a cense of antagonism 
and mortal defiance to dirt and physical degradation. Jjike some 
knight of old, and in the same spirit, she assailed the dragon of 
filth and contamination in his strongest ]ioKI», and came off the 
stainless conqueror. While war was relaying his thousands, tliis 
monater destroyed his ten thousands in our ramps and lioHpitals, 
till sire came with the resolution to do or die, as she would say : 

' Hem ctiniBS ray mortnl enemy, 

Aud either he uiist full In light, or I.' 

And the monster was i>ubdued, and his Augean stable elcansed. 
Some pedplc, having lived for two years in the hospiinis of 
Scutari aud Balaclnvii, would think every other scene [Uii'c by 
comparison; but this is not the tciiipcr of the reiil observer. 
She, watcliing the lonj; iigony of nnr army, dying at ihe rate of 
three hundnii jier ci^nl. per annum, traced the horrible luorttdity 
Ui iia ean.-iea, and reasoned with herself that wherever the causes 
exist in any degree there muet be needless mortality. Disj^uat 
died within bcr in the isi:ic»tific invcsligatiim ; things the 
most revolting were measured by lliiiir ]iowcro of doing miaebief 
to man ; and the dead hi>r»e and si.x dead dogs wliich she counted 
at oiie time under a single ward-window at picutari, simply gave 
a forcible lesson on the evil of all organic matter in a state of 
decay : that is, she learnt to realize thu poison (hat lurks in every 
form of corruption, not to see its especial malignity in these 
repulsive forms. Thus, a spirit of the nicest, cxactent, most 
fastidious ch^anlincss rose out of the contcmplatioti of these 
oppoaites. Every grain of dust, every speck of ' organic matter' 
brought in from the street by our hoot^, is regarde<l as an ele- 
ment of infection, as an atom of thai: monstrous evil by which she 
had seen men die by thousands; and the lady who has lived 
years in contending with these unspeakable horrors is the one 
to instruet our housemaids in the art of dusting, as though our 
health depended ou her efficiency. In these pernicious atoms. 

Notes 9n Mttrairtg. 


in stSLgnnnt air, or air loaded with eniaiutiona vhich vendls- 
tiun ouiil<l remove imd cleaaliuess prcrcnt, lie aJl she nill 
■cknowledgc of infection. All the mysterioosnesa of this sub- 
ject is rejected by her ils £upt;rslition, as too oflcn a cruel EUi>er- 
etition Inulitig to scHiahnessin the ' wdl'ancl neglect of the sick. 
' True tmning,' aa ehe saye, ' ignores infliction, except to prevent 
' it. Cleanliness and fresh air from open windows, with unre- 
'niitting attcntioa to the patient, are the only defence a true 
' nunc cither a«ks or need)).' The argument is that there ie no 
such thing aa in^vilabh infection, and no «in;h thing as conln- 
. all — that both are spectres to he litid Ijelbre any thing 
1 bo done. She ridicniea ihe notion of 'catchins 

gioa nt 
eHectual can 

GtHuiJaiots, it is only like uiiises producing like results. 

'ThftiilM of "cont^oD," aa eipkiniDg tho spread of disetise, appears 
tobave bocn luiiipteiJ at a tinia wben, from tho iifiglfiut of saritaryMTaiigfl- 
incnt.H, c^iidciiiici!! attacked wliulo uioaaes of pedpte, aiid when men batl 
ceiund to coiistder Hint uuturo liud nuy luwn for her guidiinou. Begitiiiiug 
with the ]iuhU tiud litHtoriiiii!>. tlie word iiiuLlly iJiada its wli^ into iiiedii'ttl 
UMueadature, where it> hAsrt^nmined evi^r siiiue. nfl'ordiu^ toccrluio eUsxes 
of miodv, chiefly in thn Konthern nod leAa educated parts of Europe, a 
sutiftfnctory nxpianiittuu fur pestilence uiil an adequate excuse for uoii- 
exerttou to prevuut its rewurreuoe.' — Noles oh HotpUaU, pp. 5, fi. 

She believes vicious air generates distinct diseases. 

'1 nas brought up, botli b; scientific men itnd ignoruit noraen, ilis- 
tinctly to bolievc thiit siuall-pos, tor instance, wnn a tiling of which tlicra 
vu oiioo a first Bpecimeii iu the world, wbieii wnut on propugoliug ibteli, 
in a p«rpL'tuul uhaiii of dcscoiit, juat fts uiiiub a« thut thi-re wiis o. &n<t 
dog (or » 6r8t pair of dogs), and thnt smnll-pox would not hcgiii itself 
laxs IDoro than a ni:w dag would begin without there having been a 
parent dog. 

'Since tlian I lia?e bobii with luy eyes and amolt with my utise BmuU- 
pox growing up in Erit speduipus, eith'T in close moms or in overcrowded 
icardi, wIioim it could not by nuy possibility have bcon "caught," but 
munt have bogun. 

'Nay, luorv, 1 baro aoon diseiues begin, grow up, and paas into one 
aii0ther. Now dugn do not pass intc cats. 

'I bftr« suc'ii, fur instttQCo, with a little oTorcrowdiug, conUnued fever 
nair up ; aivi with a lltt-tc more, typhoid fever; and with a Utile inoro, 
cyphiis, ntid oil in tJic naxaa wui'd or hut.' — NuUii on Nstrnn^, p, l!J. 

\Vc are not here entering upon the qtiewtion on which all 
stdes and all opinions have so much to say for themselves, 
but Siisfl Night ill galeV fenrleiis temper, large experience, and 
extiaoidinary keenness of observation make her an important 
ivitncAs on the quei^tton. Fiactlcally we all believe tlml whcro 
most attention is paid to sanitai-y laws, ihei'c wo ahall hear Iciiat 
of eiiher contagion or infeellon, and that they are hiigbeara 
which constantly stiiml between charity and its object. 

The value of Miss Nightingale's 'Notes 'is not confined to the 
sick room, nor to nursing in its more extended sense, for nursing 



Notts on Nuraing. 

proper does not fall into the wny of the majority of her 
reitilera. Tliou^li aTowedly technical iinil prorcasioiitu, though 
confining herself strictly to the matter in nand, and divesting 
her subject of all sentimental niilH, thcro is yet ench point, s[iirit, 
originality, and good eenae, cnhniiced not seldom by a tooch of 
grim humour, in ber pages, that her work is n tboroiighly entcr- 
taiuincono. No one can take up "Notes on Xursing.'or even the 
more formal ' Notes on Hospitals," without feeling an influence, 
having bis thoughts vividly turned in n new channel, and being 
led on from topio to topic with ii conscious exteneton of infor- 
mation, which at the time at least be intends to put to some prac- 
tical nse. All who visit the poor — aud no one who han the time 
and opportunity is exempt from the duly — will benefit by having 
her rules imprinted on their mind ; of course wc have all of us 
known much of it before, but cause and efTect are brought 
closer together by her way uf putting it — she tells us what 
'her eyes have seen and her [ios« has smelt,' and what 
came of it alL She arms us with an authority, with a iiams 
which the poorest and the most ignomnt know and love. She 
pnta our convictions into maxims which can be repeated, aud 
which may give force to our feebler remonatraiieoi*. 

' Once ensure that the air of a house ia stagnant, illness ia 
'auro to follow.' Every one's own experience must verify this; 
and yet how hopeless the task seems of convincing the poor of 
it. It is one of the tilings ihey will not believe, or believe 
it only as men believe the Bible, without acting on it. Hooses 
built back to hack, without the possibility of a thorough 
draught, can always get and Jceep tenants ; of course one reason 
of this 10 the rent always a little behindhand — and the rent 
of unhealthy houses never is paid up ; for bving in an nnwhole- 
eome atmosphere entails a running expense iu loaa of time, aud 
iu extra tbod and fuel. But it is not only the rent: time 
generates a certain dull attachment to a locabty with nothing to 
reoonimeud it, and though associated with constant eullering, 
headache, sickiiesa, languor, slow lever, obstinate sores. Perhaps 
even because people have suffered all these, painful memories 
faBten them year by year closer to the old haunts, till there ia 
a gloomy satisfiiction in counting up the funerals which have 
left the threshold — the one only exit and entrance— eiich ona 
leaving hehiud a new tie to the fatal spot. Or perhaps the 
father of the family, out all day in the fresh au', naturally 
robust, and living better than his children, keeps tolerably 
strong, and it is hard to persuade him that where be can 
eat, and drink, and sleep very much to his satisfaction, there 
should lurk a poiaon by which his children languish, droop, 
aud die; for how few unless very plainly dealt with can get 


: on 




tnHch beyond their own experience in matters of health ; what 
suite theuQ, what aarees with them, ia with raoit, too many ut 
Icnst, the rule for those untJer th<'ir controh 

In 'gowl limes' it ia this matter of f'rcMh air, of wcll-ventilnted 
houi>e<a, n-)ii<!h makes i\\b difVerenci! of hcnltli tjctwccn ricli and 
poor. In other respeota the youlti of the poi>r have often tlio 
advantage over the riL-h ; it contributes to heahh to rise every 
mominz with «oiuethiog definite to do, and to feci every evening 
that it has been done: they urc exempt from lhe whole cl«.<3 
of nervouH, li^tle^s ailments. Dnl us n fnct, with greater physical 
strength, they sutfer more — they have moru uuc'U9iiii.-i<^, more 
aches and pains, more constant aetiBalion. In towns this can be 
most ciuily tested on women and children ; for if children art! 
the most dclicnte lest, young women are the next, Wo arc not 
disponed to attribute this ineqiinlity ut all mainly to the 
particular labour of mannfacloriort, conclant cure is taken with 
the ventilation of a creditable mill— there is continual cbfinge 
of air, too warm perhaps, hut not impure. Wc believe it is lar 
lienlthier for the women of the class wo spe^ik of, to work in n 
manufactory than to be employed in any other occupfttion except 
doRtealic service. Sitting diiy after day in a pmull, ill-aired 
room, is in the long run death to the average "f constitntions, 
as returning fi-om work to the cloee lionse and stifling bedroom 
CHUKs constant suffering to the more delicate members of each 
liuoily, which no one will realize enough to lake any etT'ectnid 
fltepa to prevent. And perhaps the mill is at t'liull hero in tender- 
ing the skin, and so cxeilitig a [)ri:jiidice against open windows. 
Take a party of these yoiiiie people for an evening into your 
drawing-room, and you will hnd them chilled and shivering in 
an air nhuminntly warm to the usual oceupantp. 

Another and perhaps less acknowledged reiinirement for the 
preservation of healiti, on which Miss Nightingale iosi^ts, and 
which the di))triet v^fiitor, as well as all who are in any way con- 
cerned with the divelliiigs of the poor, would do well to enforce, 
i» the necessity of light to health and vigour. She would flood 
houses fcliouh-, hospltah, workhouses, with light and !«ini!ihine, 
Uoth are indinpenxiible to iK-alth, growth, and vigour, botll 
arc craved after in siekniws, and are umongsl her lieet remedies. 
On this point, Mi^s Nightingale grounds her opinion on her own 
obeervation, and ts not afraid to trust bersel! in opposition to 
some fashionable niembcre of the faculty. 

'Xow let iix HOD hon' Iij(ht ia trnntnij by nomo popiilur physioinns and 
tgnorutt miriiea In nine oittuji nut of tun, a. phjuiomu will arow down llio 
winilow-bluiils. uud hull' shut tliv nliutturs, while uu iguumut uui'se will 
probably shut, tlie ri-uiiiiuditr of t!ie nhuttLirs — tspwially if it be n briglit 
day— and draw the b^d-einliiins. Wo have tho poAJtivo tcstimonj of a 

(iO. CIX.—X.S. I 


Sbttt en Nurnn^. 

well-known Lonilon iVhirsioiaii, given in his report to tJio Nelley coroniittec, 
tliat whenever ho I'litorB n, sick-rocim, lio iiikos earn that the beil ahnll be bo 
jilam^d thftt thu jiiitient shall he lui'iied away fi'oni thr- light. After this, we 
ciiTiimt biuiiio ai'iiij modical officovs foi' ni>t kuowHigmutIiul»outtho matter, 
An aoquairitaiiixi of oure one iliiy parsing n. Ijarmck, saw tho windows on 
tho sunny si'le bnardeil up in n fiLshiou [ieoii1iii.r to prisons and peniten- 
tiarins. llo snid to u frlpud wlio uoc;i)iin]u.iiiod him, " I was not awftro that 
yon hiiJ n peiiitentijiry in tliis (n<igliboiii'hL>oti.'" "Oh !" said bu, "it is not 
tt jjBLiitoiitiary— it isa iiiilitary hospital. Thcro is a gvuht horror of light 
OH the part of certnin army iueiiiiM.1 men. 1 *iip])o»c," ho uddud, '■ the 
mwlital ofticera aru afraiii thu light wiil alter the siiape of the men." Not 
a few civil Hiirgcoiin, uIho, treat light aa jfit wi-ro ati unemy. 

' III tho teeth uf all thuso po].iular fullacies, we assert that every sick word 
tihoulj bo Cftiwhli* of licfiig fl.niiied liy sunlight ; and conseqiieiifly, that tho 
windnwa should bear n large jiroportion to the Trall-sTiaiK< iu all boxpitala. 
Experience nppenra to prove that vsindow-sjiacio ahdnld not be in a ranch 
IciM proportion to wall-space of au liuepital than one to two.' — Nolee on 
Hai/Mih, p. iOO. 

In dcliaiicQ ui' nurses and doctors, a)ic aays: — 
' It ia tho unoualilicti ruault of all my experience with the niak, that 
icciind only to tlieir need of frusb air in thwir need of light ; that, after a 
cIoBu rooiu, what harts ILein moat is a dark room. And that it la not only 
light, but dii'oot sun-light thpy want, 1 rather have the power of carry- 
ing my patient about, after the aim, according to the asjiect of the rooms, if 
ciromuntiiiioua pBrmit. than lot him liu^oi- in a room when tbu Btin is off. 
People tliiuk the cfioot is upon tho spirits only. This ia by no mcana tho 
case. The siiu is not only a painter, hut a sculptor. You admit that he 
dopji the jihotngwph. Without going into any soientiBe expoaitioo, we 
must admit that light has quite as real and tangible effocts upon tho 
human biKly. But this is not all Wlio has not observed tho purifying 
oBoot of light, and especially of direct aun-ltght, upon tho air of a room l 
Here ia an ohHurvatloo within uverybody 'a experience. Go into a room 
where the shutters nro always shut (in a siek-rooui or a bed-room there 
thotdd never be shutters s)iut), and though the room be uniuhabititd, 
though ttiL- air has novcr boon polluted by the brtatbing of human boiiigs, 
you will ohaerveacloBu, musty amell of corrupt air, of air, i.e. nnpurilieil by 
tho effect of the suu's raya. The niustiueas (yf dark rooms and ooi'iipra, 
indccii, is proverbial. The clu'erfulueas of a room, the iisefiiliiEaa of light 
in treating disease, ia all-important.'— A'u(w un Nursiiif, jip. 47, 48. 

It is her observsilion Ihnt pntlents turn to iJie light. We 
))ulicvif thnt fispcricncca would differ in this respect; at least 
iudividuiil invalids do; but here is hers: — 

' It is a curious thing to observe how almost all patients lie with their 
feoea turned to the Ught, exactly as planta always make their way towartla 
thn h'Bht ; a patient will even oomiilain that it glvea him pain "l.ying on 
that aidt." " Then why Jo you lio ciii that aido V Tie docs not know, — 
but we do. It ia because it ia the aide towards the window. A fashiunabla 
physician lias raoently piiblietied in a Goveraraent report that he always 
turns hia patients' faces from tho light. Yes, but Nature is atrongor than 
fasliionable phjaioiaaa, nod depend upon it sbo turns the faces back and 
lomard-t BOoh light as nhe can get. Walk through tho warda of a hospital, 
remember the bednides of jirivate patients you have aeeii, and eouiit how 
many sick you over saw Ijiug with their faces towards the wall.' — Ibid, p, 49. 

Alias Nighlingidtt, ttiough a reformer, not to say a discoTercr, in 



Note* on Nwrting. 


bcr own branch of science, w no contemner of the wbdom of onr 
ancestor*. The vphlietx g'x»f and olil'fathwned not unscldbni 
muct together. She )iiu< \\n itiiti|iJttliy tu mudern warming expe- 
dient^ nothing but open tircpliices antiafy her notions of pure 
air and a refreshing atmosphere. 

* Oor grandfiitbwe* lofty lirepkcts are the greatest loss ia mudern houae 
•rchiteclure. Tbt" little low tiroplaces of tbia tlnte brinjj the best curn/ut 
of air below tlic ntratiirti in wliica wn nro bri^ntliinf;. With our, to 
brotktho the l>ent iiir wo niiint not lio morn thiin six ynars old, or wo muEt 
lie down.' — Nolcn ok //uj/ii/a/j, |j. fit. 

Then our grandmotliers nnd ^rent-gnmduiotlicre were not 80 
lifruiil of » current of nir, nod, she eiiys, sot tlie fiout and back 
doors of llieir Country houses open wiotur and auoimcr to nvcuce 
thia essential. We have nllunona in more modern timen to the 
good 'old-fashioned hospitftl eieter' as securing the utmost por- 
icctjuu of surgical nuriiing; and it is clear tliut tlie houi^emuid 
of our own day has not her confidcneo, ihmigli this is to be 
attributed to the ncgliict of modern tine ladled to the duty of 
vigilant auperviHon of every hole and Qoriier of their houses. 
UntJl ihey do this, until the more active of her bcx ful61, with 
a minutouces which modern habits do not encourage, the old- 
fiishioned expectations from them, she is nut disposed to fiud 
employment for whnt she hn^ i<i:cn described u& ' woman's 
particular worth and generitl mibKioimri ness.' 

Site even suspects that the faculty of observing, without 
whieh K nurec ia nothing, ia on the decline, and evidendy 
conai<lers that the enthusiasm of oiu- own time ia a poor equi- 
valent for tho education in this faculty, wliicli has hitherto been 
deemed essential. 

' It HMrnB a oommonlj' roooived idea among men and even among; vromva 
tbemsulvca thitt it n?L|(iii'oit notbiug but u disuj)[ioiiitiiteiit in Xava, the 
TTWjt «f an object, a generiil diflyuat or iiicaiiftcity for otlier thicgi, to tutu 
a wamnii inl.o a good iiui'se, 

'Thi» reminds one nf the pariah where n atopid okl nmn was Bet to he 
ach<toliniuiti>r booauso ho wab "punt keeping the pip." 

' ^['(''j' '•'^s ^wve receipt for nmkjtig u. good nurse to making a good 
•MTAnt, And the rpciiiiit vrili ho rtiuiid tu mil. 

' Vet popular iiDT'tiliHls of recent days hav« invooted Iruline dimippoititod 
in love or fresh out of the drawing-room turning info the war homji tula t» 
And thi'ir wounded lowrs, mid when found, forthwitli tibiindoning tltrir 
sick-ward fur their lover, as miglil be eipeutod. Yit in t.ho eatimiition of 
th« authors, ttl«s(^ ladies w«re none tUe worse for that, but on the coiilrtu'j 
were horuincfl of nurHiug. 

' Wiut onuil niinUkiis are Bometimos made by bonuvolent men and 
womnu in nutti^rn of businoaa about which thuy can know nothing and 
think they know a gruat deal. 

'Th« everyday management of a hirge ward, let alone of a hospital — Uio 
knowing what arc the laws of iifc and doatli for men, mid what thu Iuwb uf 
health lor wardn— (and wnrda are healthy or tuihtialtliy, mainly atiC'.i'ihiig 
to the knowledge or Ignorunce of tho nm'ac) — aro not Iheeo matti:ra of 



Notes on Nursing. 

MiffioUat ImportaOM tun! diUloiiItj to require loarnine by cxperimiou an<l 
ooreful ioiiuw;, jual m mni^h an anf othoi- iirt ! They do not ooiu« hy 
iiispimtion to th« Indv (liniiiipniTitcd in lovo, nur to tlie poor workhouse 
druiige liard up fur a hvelilicmtf. 

* Auil tarribW is tbe iujury which haa foUowad to the «ick t^m aaoh 
wild uotiousl' — iVul'K iin Nersiaii, p, 76. 

It ia tliU faculty of observiu ion on wliicli, iifter a fitting 
trainin<;, she rc^ts all a mirae's value. After haviug learnt 
tin; llioory of veDtilnltnn, and warming, and llie art of invn.lid 
cookfirv, which wilh Misa Nightuij^ale is a most iutporlant one, 
there follows the ilomand for a constant walchfulneaa -in their 
ap[ilic!Uion, a sleepless vigilance, in securing the |)atieat from 
any remission of rare, so that every want BhouM be anticipated, 
cv«ry change noted. Snch a nurse as IMiss Nightingale pictures 
i.t II sort of minor and second [irnvidence — ao strong, ati com- 
]i:issionate. so qnick-aighted, so far-seeing. We aupiKise that no 
office or duty that man finds to do, but in ita definition implies 
every natural and Christian grace; but after reading theae ' Notes' 
we lire quite ready to iicqiiieace in Miss Nightingale's dictnrn, 
that the loea of a well-trained nurse is a greater loss to the 
nation than thai of a good soldier. Money 'cannot replace 
'cither, but n good nurse is more difficult to find than a good 
'soldier.' We learn that a good nur«e iniiibea heart and 
liead at tlie full streleli of their powers, an exact balnnce of 
reason and feeling, uiiselflslincas without reckless self- sacrifice. 
It implies warm tempered syinpatliy, coul discretion, sensea 
always alive and at work, and yet content to forego their 
natural indulgence, — working, that is, in the scrvico of ollicra, 
not of self; — a vigorous intellect taxing its pnwera lor the benefit 
of il« charge, yet witlmnt a chance of diapluy, and submitting to 
mean and uncongenial einploymeuts; a sense of iodividiiul re- 
sponsibility, wilh an entire freedom from jealousy ; a perpetual 
exercii^e of authority, with habits of implicit obedience and 
ncquieaccnoe in a. subordinate place; moral cournge to stand 
out against the world, regulated by a temperate common 
sense, content to occupy itaelf on what seem iriflea. Miss 
Nightingale never says so, and uniformly shows profound 
respect for the medical faculty; but we cannot rend her book 
without being peramulcd that good nursing involves at lesist 
three parts out of four of the art of healing. Her requirements 
are so high that we cannot help sometimea thinking her a little 
severe on those who fall short of them ; but it is well to have a 
high standard, and every woman reading these principles and 
instructions, must feel that the one undisputed sphere for her 
energies, the scene where all the world allows her to be para- 
mount and important, gains in dignity and elevation under such 
Kandling — that here is an employment, which, whenever it falU 

A'otes on Nurttin^, 


tft tier lot, will leave none of her gifts uncmployeil, but 
will quicken and iuviguriUe them »ll. llio portrdt of t)ie 
profcMional iiiiri>e cmliutlies tlie iiidifjien^ublc <)U)ilitice needed 
lgr hvrcniling. 

'Aud roruei>il>er, every DiiruB ahoiiH be one who is toTw ili>p«iii]ei] uiiun, 
in other win'iln, cnpubb of beitiga"c()ufidotitiiir'minifi- Shodor* jmt know 
how BOon nho iniiy fiiid boraelf pinoed in auuh s Bituatiou : sbo niUHt tm no 
gDMiji. no vabi Lulkei'; shu sboiild never ftuawvrqiLttstiiius about her sick 
exoopt to lUosi) wilt' havo a rifiht t,o n«t thoni ; she niuHt, I jibuJ uut siij, Lw 
strictljr sober aod bomst ; but mors ihaa itiis, sbo mi»t ho a, r^ligjotin Hiiil 
dsTOtflii womivn : «hu niiiat haya a, rt-spcct for her own ciiUiug, beeniiso 
Ood*s {iredouH aift of life is oftun bU=raJly pluceJ in her hwiJii ; she muiit be 
ft sound, mid clow, and quiut observer ; arid nhe luotit be t, wumiui ut 
d«Iicat« wid deoent feoliDg.'— /*«/. pp. To, 7!. 

Wo are gind to find one tPRtimony to human nnture in llie 
midst of nil Miss Nightingale's latiictiires on human fully ; site 
gives it AB her o|iinioii, which is backed by our own, ihdt " wilful 
unkindnc«s to the sick is rnre;' this isnidinL'thing niter I lie nitises 
which the I'figCB of fictinn have {riven it?, (bough oiirclossnesa 
nod Htupidity mny ctl'ect all the niisehiof of unkindne^s. Here 
ngnin hef remavka are calcniated to affect the general tone of 
feeling towards the sick. As we have alrcndy said, ttll penjile 
either have known siokneas or mny expect to know it- I*', liiere- 
fnre, wc nre scolded when we are well, it is some comfort ihut 
wc find oiir.-ielvea uiidcrslood, jnatified, defended, wlien we are 
ill. lU-re is a reconcilement of our fancies and 'nervous whims,' 
with the ncedeofonr physical nature under abnormal conditions. 
It is proved that pleasant things nre often neccKsary things. 
Wc have an advocate not only with the world but with ourselves. 
We have it explained to ue why tiresome, ignorant people irritate 
us — it is because they are literally destroying ua ; why blundering 
kindness excites no gratitude — it is bcciiu^c it not only enhanccn 
our prcwnt sufferinga more than we were aware, liut retards 
our return to health. She pleads for the sick with a sort of 
concentrated charity; eo stern to the rest of the world, her 
indulgooce here is unbounded : she wondei-a at their forbearance. 
nt their pAtiencc, at their submission ; it is the tenderness of 
the mother for her child, and for much the some reaaons, for 
eickncoA reduces us to the condition of infancy, and we are an 
dependent on our nurse as the infant on its mother. The real 

IiaticDt towards whom her heart yearns is precisely in thnt help- 
era stage, needing i>d interpreter and defender; too jiroslrate to 
look lifter hi« own interests, nntl letting all go by default, too 
languid to obaerte, too shy to talk of hia nilmente. Hiven when 
he 18 t'retful, we are not allowed to judge him. 

' I fhiuk it is u very common error aincing the wl^II lo think that "with 
a Uttle mora seir-con^oL "" the sick might, if they choose " dieiaiGS jiainrul 


XatO) (m Nuninrj. 

thonghts" wliich "ftggravotc ttiwr disoaiw," &c. Believe mo, olraoHt «By 
siok poninn, who liebaves doocntlj well, oatrciHoa move oulf-couti'ul bvltv 
moment of his day thiui jou will over kiww till you are sick youraylf. 
Almonl every step Ibal urosses liia room is pftioful to him ; nlnmat CTery 
Ihuiijitht thrtt crossPft his braio is puinflil to him ; mid if h« enn njionk 
without being savage, and look without he'uig unpli^iteaiit, he is eiercisiiig 
Bdf-ODUtroI." — Hid. i>. 3.'>. 

IC lie i» rnetitlioiis nail fhnciful, he lias good grounds ; ten to one 
bis atten<)anl8 creak, ami rustle, and fidget, aud wear cnnoline. 

'AU doctrines about mysterious ofiiiiiticii dud nvereiotiB will be found ta 
roaolvo thcmselros vory much, if not entirely, into jireseiioo or absence of 
oare ta tbese things. 

'A notse whii i'ubUl-o fl am spoaking of nvirsos professional and uii- 
prafeHiioBa]) is tho horror of a patient, though perhaps hu lioos not know 

'The fidget of silk and of criiioliiie, the rattling of keys, the creaking ot 
stays aud •3t uhous. will do a patient more harm than aU the modjcines in 
tho world will do Uim good.' — Hid. p. 27. 

And then follows this general remark on modern femalo 
costume : — 

'Tho noiseless stpp of woman, the aoiwleBs drapery of woman, aroxDere 
figures of speech in this day. Her skirts (aud well if they do not throw 
down MDine piece of Airniture) will at least brush ngaiiiBt every u'ticlo ia 
the room as ehu moves." — liid. p. 27. 

If invaliils nre clmrged, as they often are, with making the 
worst of themsclvCB to cxcile a geiisntioii, or unmerited compas- 
sion, she accounts for etieiptcioua appearances, and turns these 
into R chsrge ngainst their accusers ; for if people will be so in- 
considerate as to tftx excessive languor when it most needs con- 
^deratlon, of ooui'de the pnticnt will frotii instinct, and in perfect 
innocence, do things on the sly. Her sympathy with lier 
pativnts on the quewtion of noise will excite the gratitude of 
many nn irritable though supposed heallliy subject. What 
noisca are tolerable and what intolerable are detailed with a 
eoneitivc consuioiisness, and we perceive that the intolerable 
noises all resolve themselves into want of tact or consiileratlon ; 
they proceed in almost every instance from causes whicli a wise 
niii'so, who knows what it in to btt in charge, eould and would 
have prevenl,e<l. 

' Why you should let your imtient ever be surprised, except 
by thieves, I do not know.' The nurse is a senlry at her post, 
guarding the poor patient's ' flurry and nervousness' from need- 
less shiwka. What is she for but to spare him every necessity 
for thought, every, avoidable effort, to protect him from every 
»onrcc ofirritalion? Tlte nuisc that hurls liini, we are told, is 
lliitt which creates expectation. Whispering in his presence 
or outside hi* door, or an ostentatious stealthiness of niovcmenl, 
will do Iilm more liarm than building operations ntixt door that 

2f«U* on A'twnnff. 


in no (logree floncern Iiimseir. We hiive olMcrrod ours^lve*, 
(hat poo|)le (iftea act rs if sickncM changeil the nature and si] 
the iniad's h:ibit». Whcu [icoplc urc well wc never ciiiry 
on a convi'nwtidii iilMiit llierii in ihcir i)rc«ctiCL'; when iliev 
■re lilt and proUubly lull af vague tears about thcniselvee, U is 
eommon to carry on a whispered talk in their presence, too 
low to be heard, too hij^h to escape notice. There is a common 
deluNon that etckiicss rct-turuit men to the unconscious state of 
infnittd, whij, so loii<; a.t we <lo not iis»nult tlic scales, are 
iudiScrent to our treatment of iheiii. 

Bcaiii^ on this subject in rutber a remaikahlo witrning 
against ' iotcrruptione.' Acute sympathy, and proliubly a 
natural ddieacy uf or^niziitioR, has given this form of dis- 
tarbunce a substance and body to our authoresa. Here is the 
pathology of iatermption: — 

'TUs brings us io auotlwr owitioti. Npvpr epcak to an inroliil frnm 
behind, nor fix>in tb« doori nor from any distaooo from hiw, nor when lie 
in doing nnvthinj^, 

'Tho oilioial potitentvia of Borvimta in thnsc thingB is »o gnttcful to 
lavalldB. that many [irefur, without kiiowiug why, having uono hut Bcrvants 
aboDt tbera. 

"rbM* thingK arn not ffttiey. If wo consider that, withsiek as with well, 
ereiy thotigbt docompoacn nomc nervous tuiittQr,^tliat rlt-compnnition ns 
well OM re-ctMupoHition i>r iiorvous mottor ia alwayn gHJog on, and tnoro 
lUicUy with iiuj aitk lliati with the well, — that, to ubtruJo abruptly 
an'>lhi?r thought upon tho brain while it is iu t.ho act of iJt'slixijiijg nervous 
tnnltAT by thuikinji, i* cnllini; npnn it to mak« a naw exert'tcin, — if ws 
oonaider ihcao tbiii^ which are- foots, nut fuiicicB, wo nlmil ramnuhcr that 
we are doiD^ positive iinury by tuterrupltng, by "utMiling a (iuioiiiil" 
parson, as it is called. Alas ! it is uo &aey.' — liiJ. p. S8. 

And further we find — 

•This nilp, indood, upplinrt to tho woU quite as much na to the aick. I 
bavenem' knowu p(>i'BonH who i^xpoBed themselves fur yuuni to uumrtaut 
tntamptiou who did uut muddle awa? thoir iiitellccts by it at la»t. Tho 
pmen with tbem luny bo aocomplisheil without pain, With the sick, 
pain give* wamiug of the iujiiry.' — liid. p. 29. 

It beoonies im|)ortant to know what it is that conatitntes 
'interruption' of this dangerous nature, which wo are all liable 
to as much as the sick. JMost of us arc subject to endden breaks 
upon our train of thought; sudden compulsory cimiiges of idens, 
oonipuUory detention of the mind from ilshabitual mode of work- 
inj^. Collisions with uncongenial minds are of this diameter. 
The 'bore' is the acknowledged inflictor of this torturu; be 
lakes pos»c«*ion of our mind, and compels it to a writhing and 
miwillii^ attention. An impatience under the infliotioo meets 
here with a moral Justification. The dull plodding talker, intent 
npon hif own views, his own experiences, bis own good dccdjs 
who liisciDatce tu with bis eye, and foibtda the mind to creep 


Notea on Nuraing. 

back to the desired reverie; the restless spirit thnt surrounds itaelf 
with a nhirl, Htid dmne us ngHinet our will into tlic vortCK, so 
tlmt wo are »fi)Ii;tci) wilii a noufnlgla for reat anil (jiiietuess, 
fomii brcalliinz-place for repose of" spirit — lliese, it seems, are 
intiiclirig ii pocilive injury — they would kill ua if they bad ihfiir 
will on us. They arc destroying our nervous mutter; we can't 
niako frceh fnst enough for the enormous, cruel demand. People 
wlio nrc piiticnt umlor these triiik, who hateu, who endure, who 
excite our ndmiintiiui, perhiipa our gr.ililude, by bearing our 
burden, are surely making a mistake. Are they muddling away 
their intellect? We think the question demands careful handling, 
or selfishness may find i(» profit in the doctrine. Nevertheless 
there are people who jtistify lb; theory, who suffer in a visible 
bodily way from theae aggre.ision*', and they oflen the most 
earnest thinkers, persons capable of devoting their lives to one 
pursuit, possessing extra ordinary powers of maintaining one 
train of thought, and victima in a corresponding degree to any 
Gudden or \ioleiit detention from it. Miss Nightingale speaks 
DO doubt what she has felt, as well as what she has observed. 

Her rules would reform society in many similar points. ' To 
' possess yourself entirely will ensure you from either failing — 
' cither loitering or hurrying." 'People who think outside their 
' heads, the whole proeess of whose thoughls appears, like 
' Homer's, in the act of secrc-tion, who tell everything ihat ltd 
' them towards this coucIusiod and away from that, ought never 
' to be with the sick.' 

But nowhere, we think, do 'the well' — humanity in care- 
less, reckless vigour — receive such a snub as in the chapter on 
chattering hopes and fears. Every person in alrong health, full of 
business and engagement.'', whose duty or feeling leads him to 
visit the sick, must know the difficulty of the task; the difficulty, 
the too (ircquently unavailing effort, it costs him to place himself 
at once in a slate of sympathy with the sufferc^r. Passing 
from the noise of stieels, the stir of interests, the tumult 
of pleasure and business, into the silence, the monotony, the 
anchorite seclusion of the sick-room, the change is too great, the 
circumstnncee too unfamiliar for him to adapt himself to them 
on the spot. We often feel for the young curate, who perhaps 
scarcely knows what pain is, who never stood by the bed of 
sicknea.1 or looked on death, when he first finds himself face to 
face with these terrors, and la expected to do something to 
alleviate them. All people who visit the poor in illnees aie 
in the same position, till either a sympathy is created which 
dictate.-! the right course of action, or habit supplies a formula ; 
but till then how hard to know what to say, haw hard to put 
tbemeelTes in thepatknt'a eitiiation^how impossible to know what 



JVofM on A'umMy. 


ts the aspect of ihinjre to him. We arc nulianieil of tlic contrnst of 
our funehiiie nnd his gloom ; the first IjIiiinKiiing iniimUe wilh 
iniiny b to ignore the vii«t diffcreuce of [Kisition, and treat it 
lighily; wc are nbaihcil lit oiirprospeiityin face of his long pain 
nivd blank prosnectti, wc Iry to think things nie better ihiiii tUf.y 
eeein, wo give him the beneBt of our wildcat hojicB and ali the 
extremes of otir ignorance, nnd ten to one we talk nonsense and 
untruth. This the discerning, watchful niirae, followiut; every 
thought; whose nerves wince and whoso jmlso heats with her 
patient, indignant when his feelings are mix understood, has 
noted often and often, and now tells the world of its sine, 

"*Ch uttering Hopew'' mny seem an odd lieoAiag. But I rcinlly beliovo 
there is Evaroclj a greater worrj wliioh iiivalidH have to i-uJuro tbun tlio 
incOTftble hojjcs of tlieir friends. There is no oiio pmt-tiw againul, wLinli 
I COD Bpenk mi>iv! »t.rpni;ly from nctiial porsonnt o-tjicriccoc, wide and long, 
of tto efiects dm'iug wckcess observed hoth upon others and npnn niVKulf. 
I would Uppiwl muKt strioiiHly to all friundii, visiters, uud atleiiduiits uf 
the aiok to Iwive off tUto practioo of utteiiipting to "olieer" the sick 
hf mnliing liglit of their Jnii^r&ud by eiaggerating their probabiJities of 
re«(ivory.' — Ibid. p. 54. 

No doubt on tbo near approach of death it muet seem 
frivolous to the sick man to hear his friends talk of recovery; 
but in IcM imminent states we cannot quite believe that airkness 
so allcrn iho whole man that those who enjoyed a little triviality 
in health are reformed to the extent of desiring only reason and 
good sense when tbeir constitution is disordered. 

It in impossible, however, not to feel n twinge of conscionsnoss 
nt touiii of her examples uf impertinent tbouglitlesaoei<9 in the 
guiae of cheerful encouragement ; though the following appeals 
more to the experience than the conscience of the sober reader. 
This is really Ihe way some people ' chatter.' 

' I have beard a doctor condomned whoso pnticnt did not, uIob ! reuover, 
b(«aaM (tnotber doctor's patient of a diff/rrsf sex, of a diffi-rmt auo, 
mcorervd from n iliffrfmf disHiBo, ia a diffrrml place. Ysk, this » I'efJly 
true. If people wliu make thcHB coinpansuus did but kiiow (only th<?y ile 
liot cue lu kiiuw) the CJiro and prcoiseness with which such onronariiinns 
require to be made (and ai'e made), in order to be of any vuiuu wlmtovcr, 
ticy would spare their tongiica." — l/iid. p, Sn. 

It U ftll the result of a wilful ignorance of the true state of 
tbii^ that will not allow there is danger because it is an 
embarrossing subject to enter upon. Miss Nightingale's 
experience ie that the rick know their own danger oft«ner than 
their friends 8up]>ose, who overwhelm them with a false strain of 
hope and consolation. Jlany people are said to die unexpectedly, 
when it is only that those nearest do not observe ; ' there >viw 
' every reason to expect ho would die, nnd be knew it ; but he 


yok« on Narnnff. 

' round it ueetcES to beiet upon hie own knowledge tn hU 
' iViend?.' 

Her experience Im? U-d Miss Nij3;li tin gale to take a low view of 
the veracity oriuankind. &'u jjcr^on can take less li>i- granted 
nnythiiig lliat ebe lieara or reads. Witness her estimate of the 
{io]iular science of biograjjliy, which she deliberately chisscs 
iimongst ' ficliona.' In epeiikiog of the degree in which persona 
attacked with acute disease think ol'dcnth — 

' III Uieao remai-ke 1 am ftlludiiig neither to ncitto oqsps which t«rminato 
ropidly nor to "nervous" caaea. 

' By the first much int-nrcit in their own ihiiigur is very mrulv fult. In 
wi'itiiign ut' liutiun, wliotber novels or biog[upbii3?, tliu^e i.iurith-bi'iJs are 
geuwiiliy <Ifpioteil as almost sera]:ihic in lucidity of iiit«1lig«i>uo. SiMy 
loiva has buun my oiporionce in denth^beds, and 1 can. only say that 1 hikvo 
SOlSom OT never seen siich. IndiffcnmaCjCiEMiptiiig with regonl to bodily 
suibTiiig, or to some duty tho dyiiag mau desires to purfuria, is the fu 
mora usual state. '—/iiV. p. ^G. 

No doubt there is a tendency not ;done to exaggerate, but also 
to report only tlie favonrablo side in biography: but the cluss 
whose lives arc written are assumed to be superior In mind and 
cliarncter lo other?. Their cnse is exceptional, and their conduct 
exoepiidnal; and IMisa Nightingale's public experience may nut, 
have led her to such cases. In long chronic cases of suHi-ring she 
speaks feelingly of the calm preparation for tlcath, while her 
Eoul revolts at the fnvolJties to which these eleut spirits are 
suiijcct — 

'To raa these commou places, loaviag their smear upou the ohoL-rfiil, 
single-hi-iirtBd, oonhUint devotion to duty, which ia no oftea uvea ia the 
ducbne of such sufferers, recall the shmy tmil left by the enail oit tho 
Huuny southern gardon-wid! loaded with fruit." — lliiii. p. 51. 

. Perhaps dimgust indulges in too forcible a ainiiic in designating 
inane consolations as a sniear. A nervous or timid person, after 
reading ihcae pungent conimenls in the ouiinaj'y tone of visitors 
to the sick, will be slow to open his mouth in the presence of his 
Biek friend. We accept the rule, however, not to talk to an 
invalid of his complaints unless we can relieve them. Miss 
Nightingale's opinion is that the really ill do not talk of ihouL. 
selves. I'cilmpB our own small means of observation hardly 
support this. After telling us what we are not to say — what 
subjects arc to be avoided^ it is importivnt to learn what are 
ifuitabic topics; and a large didactic sphere lies open, free so 
far i'roro tlic bun, into which people might enter in shew 
desperation. But, somehow, Miss Nightingale does not ndvise 
'preaching' as the resource of the whole world under the 
difficulty. She docs not say to the chance visitor, Try to do him 
good, but, Try lo amuse hiiu, to divert his mind from that weari- 
euuie subject— &elf. Regular practice in cnidi profession is in 

Notes on Nursing. 


■OConlnDRe witli the mtler of hop nature ; as every caller is not 
to constitute himself phyeimn, neither need he nilrudc on tl>c 
chnplaiD'a office. But tell tlio )ititiuiit !<(.>nK-tIiiiif; plciwitit tliiit in 
goii)!; on in the wuHil frotii wliidi he id chut out ; toll hiiu mime- 
ihiitg tliiil will luakc the heart glow ; tell him of love and coiut- 
sbip if likely to prosper ; tell him the good people ajc doinp ; 
'tell him of one benevolent act which has really suceccduj 
' |>ntcticully— it is like a day's henltli to li!m.' 

' I>0 obwrra lili«i!a things with the abk. Do rninoml)CT' how Ihoir lira 
ix to them diMppninted auil iocnmiilete. Voa see them lying thi-ri^ with 
niiaenbli: diiuiiiiimutmRiita, fruui which tlioy can linvo nu uni^auu but duntti. 
•ud you oau't reuiembor to tpU them of what would give lutmi bo cuuob 
pleasuiv, or at leiwt an liour's variety. 

'Thoy don't want yim t,i> bB laetu-ymnacnnd whiniug with them, tliTlike 
you to ho fnwh and wrtive nud intitmatnd, but they cannot \xau- hImjciipo of 
luind, tai lti«y are eo tired of tlioiidviue nod preucbm^ they I'Mieivo Irutu 
ot«ijbody, no mstter who it is, thuy nee.' — /iirf. ji. 5S, 

Perhaps one boon to the wiclf, out of the many in this little 
work, is the removiil of the titboo from theiniour neiglihourhom]. 
You mav indeed do thvmhivm hy injudicious treatment, hut tbe 
^ck, well cared for, are safe. With a waving cun-ent of froRh nir 
even our children get no harm. The baby is often the best 
companion for the invalid ; or, if you think ' the air of the sick 
' rtiom liiul for llie bnhy, why it is bsitl for the invalid too, and, 
'therefore, you will of course correct it for both.' liKUilfrent to tiio 
sick of all clasaes, full of the tenderest compassion to poor and 
helpletie euffering, whether the patient in the ward or the soldier 
in the barrack hospital ; loving to children and to dumb imtmals ; 
ftl] this 8ym|inthy changes to keen satire whenever our atithoreaa 
turns to the healthy who do not need her aid and who frustrate 
her plans. With 'the well," we think there is a want of aym-* 
patby. Sho expects from people in general a degree of know- 
ledge, a quickness of perception, an accuracy of language which 
is really out of (be (pieetiun, and wtiicli if adopted would cer- 
tainly not guarantee a corresponding accuracy of thought. A 
certain latitude of phraseology wo maintain to be necessary to 
freedom of intercourse. Wc really take our stand in defence of 
the ordinary intpiircr, when it is gravely stated 'that there is 
' no more !>illy nuei«tion awked concertiiug the sick llian the uni- 
'versal one, "Is he better?"' Universal inslincis, universal 
forms of expression, are not silly, they are the best suited to 
our nature. How in the world arc we to know what wo want 
to know? How is the unavoidably ignornnt to inquire of the 
belter informed, except by h vague luid general fontiuhiV 

* Wlikt you want aro fncts. not opiainnB — f"v wlw can h.ivo any opiuion 
«f Miy vatao «a to whether the x^tinnt is better or woTa?, cioopliiig Uie 
ooDtttaBl moJical attandant, or tii« really oboerviog nuraa t ' — litd. p. SO. 


Kotea on Nitratn^. 

Now, to tills wc dciniir. We do not want, pilinarily, facta 
from which, iK'rhaps, being ignorant of medicine, we could 
inrer nolttiog; but wc do want the opinion oi the jierson we 
addi'eaa, or, through liioi, of some other pei-son. Whenever we 
meet with this desire for bare facts, it argues mistrust, often 
tmdiiu mislrui«t, of others. It is our experience thut tliose who 
betray this jenh-usy fiir fliels, and fncts only, stupefy those who 
come in close direct contncl with them. We cnnnot be mir 
most rational with persons who despise our reasoning powers — 
they, In a nuinner. reduce sensitive minds to the level at which 
they fix them. They never, tlicreforc, ace people at their best. 
Pai'SiigcR like this incline us now and then tu sympathise with 
the aBatiiiietl imbecility so keenly eiposed in these pages. There 
may now and then hiive been wanting the power to elicit llio 
bei«t sense of others. The nurse questioned in a new wny may 
have lost her presence of mind nnd not shown herself to advan- 
tage. When the poor woman ie an oracle, amid ri:spectful, 
deferential listeners, her 'opinions' may be worth hearin;;, that 
i*, »he may be guided by facts in the formation of them without 
hiiviug the grounds of tliein in her fingers' ends. The nurse 
who habitually replied to our inane question, ' Ie he hetler?' in 
the form dictated here we the only sensible one in the present 
etate of knowledge about sickness — 

'"Rowonn Iknowf I cannot tell how he was when I was not with 

would be an unpopular cliarncter, and justly so ; her reason . 
would have too entirely the reins; her mtellect generally would 
not have its pro|ier exercise. We want I'mjiri'.iKions — while 
fully aware that ihey may be fallacious. We desire to know 
the iufiuence of a state of things on the mind most open to 
them. We learn to make the necessary allowances. We cannot 
but think that it on Miss Xightitigale's system we get tiiit.h of 
form, trutli of tone and colour, hulf that makes truth valuable 
i« loat. With these general remarks, which pei'haps hear more 
on a, particular turn of mind in others than on its effect on her 
own peculiar ground, we must stiy that there is nmch (broc and 
accnrncy of observation in her atalenienl of the difhcully of 
getting at the exact truth. Her experience is no doubt largo 
and various, and it has taught her, as we see, never to believe 
anything but facts in their baldest form. She has had to do not 
with deliberate faUehood, but with lies told in good faith, which 
are the fruit of wnnt of observution — a want which she atlri- 
hutes. indiscriminately, to all classes, and which she classifies 
with the following subtle distinction : — 

■ It is a much m<>r6 difficult thing to speak the truth than people coic- 

Notes on Xttrting. 


moaljr trnaginf. Thcra is the wnnt or o1>siM-v&t{0]i nimfU, «ud thu want of 
ohnorvntion miiijinua'!, ooiiipoiiiidiMl, thnfc is, ivitli the imagliu&tiv^ fiiculty. 
BMt iniiy cquullj' iDtwid to auuuTc thu truth, Tlio informntion or tho first 
is simply dBiiwlivi*, Tlial or thy Bi'coiid in tumsh tmirn liftnifproii.i. Tha 
fir«t givon, in answer to a«tlciD ii*kvd tihoul » thing ttiut hsm baou 
bcf-'rc hU pyfis perhaps for yenra, inroraiatiori oxueFjdinglv ini^'i'fuct, or 
•kyK,hc [Intis not know. lie liu never observed. And pboplo simply think 
hi in dill pi d. 

' Thi* second haa observed just »s liitio, but imttginntiou imrocdintoly 
6ti«)M in, and he deacribos the whole Ihitig fi-om iiuagiouViou merely, beinj? 
jicrfcctly onnvincEid nil the while that he hog seen or hesj'd it i <ir ho will 
ropiiut a whole ootivorsntion, its if it were which hnd hoen 
wldrwoed lo him ; whereas it is moruly whiit he hus himaelt said to some- 
body else. This is the comuioiieat of all. Thcdo [loojile do not evou 
observi- thftt they hftvo ml observed, uur reraeiiiher that th"y have Tor- 
gottcn. " ■ • • I have heard thirteen persona " concur" in declaring that 
n roiirtcMith, who hod never left hia bed, went to a distnnt chapel cvury 
owmiiig ttt suYou o'clock. 

' I hftve lieard pcisous in petft'ct good faith declare, that u tuaii cani<> to 
dine every d*y (it the hinjso wlniri:' they lived, who had never dined there 
ODce : thftt A pnrson bad never taken the sncrament, by whose side they 
bad twiue at least ktmlt at CommiinioD ; thnt but one meal ii duy uume out 
of a hospital kitchen, whjuU for aii weeks Ihcy had eeon provide I'rom threo 
to live and sin meals a day. Such inutunces migiit be midtipLud ("/ injini- 
iwui if necessary,'— /All/, p. CO. 

To counteract this uuivereal tendency to fill up by fancy wlint 
tli<j eyes Imve fiiiled to see, she gives rules. ' Lies intentioimt 
'or iiiiintentional are much seldomer told in nnswer to precise 
'than lo leading qnecitioiia.' And iis nn instance of the preciee 
form, she cjnotcs with approbation the practice of a very clever 
physician of licr aci^usiiutance, who inviiilably began his esnmi- 
niktion of paticnt« with ' Put your finger where you b« bud." 

'Tliat man would novor wnate his tinio with colkuting inaouurntB infor- 
mation from uucse or patient. Leading qiteetioiia always collect iuuccurato 
iiiforuiatiou. •■#••» 

• 1 bad rather not any how many instances I hnvi) known, wh«e, owing 
to thin RTstem of leading qiicationa, the patient has diod, uiid the atteu- 
dnnts bavf bi!en aotiwlly unnwaro of the principal featui'B of the cose.' — 

Hid. pp. ei. m. 

Af^n Btrcngthcning ber argument on the vilal importance of 
dose observation by enumerating the four neglects in the uiattcr 
of food aloiic, 

'«ny orio of which wOl produce the aamo result, viz. the patient slowly 
fttarriug to death from want of nutrition." — ILid, \i, G2. 

We cannot wonder, with such instances before her, that her 
advice to the woman who cannot by any means ac<iuirc observa- 
tion, ia that she had best give up being a niir^e altogether; it 
is not her calling. But we are glad to find that she considers 
it n thing to he. acquired ; even those to whom it comes leaat 
nntnndly itonitilimes excel the most. In fact, it would sociii a 
moral quality resulting from a due sense of rcspunaihility. 


NbUa on Nursing. 

Tlie Biiijpilnr RCiifone.*** of this quality in MUs Nifjlitingnle !icr- 
»f\\', which Imn given her judgmcTit n iiuti»niil importruicc, miikcs 
the results ot'her own experience of pnranmunt vuluc. Ailor 
liaving etuilicd the science and practised llie art of nursing 
wlieiTver ihey arc to be lennit,' her conclusion in, that the 
Anglo-Siixon wotiian is c:ipab1e of bcirijj inado the best and 
most olimerviirit nurse in tlie world, Ihoiigh in her uulun^ht 
Btate peculiarly deficient in the (jualilv; i.e. 'English women 
have great capacity of, but little practice in, close observation.' 
Tlie French or Irish wonuin i» too quick of perception to be bo 
eouad an ob^orver. The Teuton is too slow to bo so ready an 
obeorver na the Engliah woman might be; aurl a^ain, ehe 

' lioueslly bi'lieves that it is irapossil^lt,- to learn it from any boot, and, 
that it can only be iJiorougbl j learnt in tbo wnrds of n hrwjiit*! ; anil 
she ftlso honeBtily lieUeveB that tbe jievfeolion of sui'gioal nursing may 
lifi hrru prnctiHmf by this old-fashion pii " Sistur" of a IjOIuIoh hiiHpitoi, an it 
oiui bo BBBii uowtiero else in Entojje.' — lirid. p. H. 

And in answer to quealiona by the Boynl Conuiiiasion, relating 
to points of cleanliness — 

' Can yuii n/ale icAj/ l&e humf» of thf poor in He eouHiry are kspt coaparalivtlf 
ilfiin Olid katllhji.on eerii mudrralf nifiiHn? 

'1 tbinii tbftt tho wiimaii ia superior in atill to the man la all poiuta of 
sanitary liomestic economy, nml more pnrticiilarly in cleanliness nnd tidi- 
n«B. I think great suiiitory civil ri>formcrs will alwnys tell \m that thoy 
look to till- woiimu to carry out pructioiUly Uioir hjgieiiiu reforms. Slio 
baa a superior aptitude iu nartiug the well quite im iiiucti h^ in iiiir«i]]^ tbe 
wok. At the same time, I nm bound to say nolbiiig can be more 
perfect, at least to outn-nrd appuaranco, tbnn Mus cloanlineas of a sbip, 
But the iiuibr is a raua n pi'M. 

• h il llui pri-ttliar itill and iiidusliy of Ihe Etu/Uth Uibouref's ai/e lo tchkh 
lAit in rffirabU ih (lie unfCi/ir; and to Ike irKuwiptlfncy of mm oa lie olArrlu con- 
diirt tif ihm'-nfii- i-cotfiiiii/ i./it /loilir vr an hotpilnl .^ 

' 1 think so. 1 thiak the Anglo-Hiwon would bo very sorry to turn 
women out of his own house, or out of oivil hoBpitols, hotels, itintitutioaii 
of all kiiidB, aud Bubstitute meu-houaokoepeni, and ujou'ioulronH. Tbo 
Coiit.ra*t between even naval hospitals, where thyre aro fomale iiursea, and 
Riilitiiry biispitAls, where there are none, is most striking in point of order 
and cIonnline«s.' ' 


' lurai'ly Iji Llie opening ijoesliioiiB Iti LurliytUi; Uojal CoaimllMoner, 
ire rou"! — ' " Htira j»ii, !"r stwyral yearn, iltivotvil ftMiinUoii lo '.lie of^niEnlJun 
of oivil nnd mi I limy lionpilalBl"— "Ycb, for lliiitwii ypiim." " Wliiit Urilisb iinJ 
foruifw hospital-' biiT-; you vihilpii ! " — " i have i-iaitcii all the lioepimU ill Ltindnn, 
Dnhlln, and Fidlniiurgh, miiny county boopitaln. eomc of tlio naval and military 
hntpllalu in Kngluud ; nil the ho^pitalp in Parii. und itiidicd irltb the taarg dt 
(ImriU ; the InMitiition of protoilnnl ilenponcsses at Kaiterawertb, on l,lie Rhino, 
irii4ro I whb twice in tmining as a niir^c ; the hospllala at liorlio, iind inany nthcre 
ill Uermany. at Lyons. Itomn. Alexandria, ConttauLlnopIc, UiaHgdla; iilno the war 
buiijiil^ds or lite Kicnnli nnd Sjtidlman^." ' 

' 'I ■.hoiilil pfihii(is Blate ihoru is a great. difl"Bron«L", gi.'nc rally speaking, 
linino]£ thi.' wivTufTit or ItroAt Britain and Jrr'hiTiil in tUi^ ri-vpecf. 

■I would put tliu Auglu-Saion nicv in i!iiMiuulh*jruuud uorUi-v«kturc cooaliM 

yittM mi Nur>m(j. 


At flw Snme lime i*Iic *i)e!ili« with Mttcr strcn^tli of the femi- 
nine practice ol' tampcinii^ witli iiioiJi<^iii<.^H wlio^u {iropcrtit'i; tlicy 
do not understaoO, aj^nineiL tvhicli. lill wUer timus, she would 
seem to think honioeupiUhy the ooly sareguard. 

'On««nineiit phj'aiuiiui told njc that bn hiullaiiiwnmorci Mitnmel given, 
both at ft piuch &u(l fur a, uinitinuitneL-, by mothcn, frovcrnanioa, noA 
uunca, to ciiil'lrou Ibwi be had erur liuard ol' a physician pruitaribiiig m 
ail hifl cixperience. " • • There ia iiotliiiig over nneu in uny uro- 
fessiciiml prootioe, like the cectlcss phynicltidg by amatour lotualm-'—jfolet 
ciD Kvniaff, p. 73. 

But tliiit she ntlribut«a to tlint Hftme want of obserrntion which 
lies nt the root ofall iiad nursing, and tlierefure holds in lliu lung 
run to be a curable infirmity. 

Of the rcul question of nurnng, of those rules which con- 
duce to hcidtb Hiid to thu alleviation of discnsQ, full of pnicticul 
tieiiM OS they arc, this hits not been the pince to trtnt, ftud 
for the same reason we have not touched on the main pointa 
of 'Notes on Ilosidtals,' thougli affording so many conclu- 
sive and important facls on hospital construction. Ihe nicntGil 
iw])ix;l of sivkaess, nud the intellectual and moral qualities we 
Oi^ht to briii^ to its relief, have been our main object of in- 
qmrj. Every good btxik ghow8 the mind of its author; and 
from these few, but weighty pages, treating of the moat matter- 
of-fact dctnile, %Yith the nio^t rigid adherence to the question in 
hand, wc niiiy gnlher a dis^tinct perception of the qualitien of a 
very remarkuhle miud, subjected to a tniitiing exceptional from 
the concentration of all its powers to one great cause. Most 
self devotion haa some euthuait\dm on the face of it, eomo 
mental exaltation, colouring the ruling idea, with hues unbor- 
rowcil from the sun. The motive which has led Miss Nii^htingale 
to devote her life and the fulness of her powers to the beneBt 
of her fellow-ci-efttures, nniid scenoa the moat repulsive and 
dispiriting to common feeling, must be akin to enthusiasm, but 
it bears none of its characleriotics. There are no even implied 
profe;«ions. Klic evades in her writings, aa in her public course 
of action, every expression calculated to evoke comment on 
herself, or cnthusiasni un her own behalf. Her plan is to treat 
nursing as a sdence. 

Tt would seem natural to couple her books with those of 
Mme of the other many ladies devoting thcmselvea to good 
works in our time ; but they will not bear such companionahip. 
One or other must suffer m the conjunction. The ordinary 
feminine style sounds, we niu^t own, flighty in the contrast; 

Enl in poiul of domotic mmagiMiiunt ; fur bolow tlicFu ooido liio Dnn'iHli ruoi) in 
lite aut4Tii o<niuiic». xnil tlio iniici race in t!i? iniiiiiifiifturingvoualitigiiiiil lait. 
tlu Irlib sad lliglibud CelL' — Nola on HotjiitaU, pp. H, !>a. 


jVofew on Nuraitiff. 

while the reader not nlivc to this effect, might consider the 
cool, jioiuted, not eeldoiii cnustie vein of the heroine of ihe 
Crimen deficiLut in unctiim, »iid so relii-e from the jivrui^iil of 
her pigcB with a. sense of rehulf, howeviT much he may re- 
yereiioe the force of that motive to good and o;reat action which 
needs no stimiilui; from cxcitetl feeling or public sympathy. 

Mr. Harwell, in hia useful and interesting Leclures to the 
pnjiils of the AVoiking Women's College ou the Care of the 
Sick, containing, as they di', much valuable praclical teaching, 
has, we observe in contnist, felt himself obliged to gild his 
subject with a little Kutiment. He niisen ntlnictive images, 
null invc!ite the duty of nureing with tender romance. 

' TliQ hnpiiieBt face, I tliiuk, I ever auw, the heart most filled ivitb grn- 
tituilti iiud joy, was ouw, wIjou a young wife liad uurseJ her liugliawii 
through ti fever, and wa* fii'nt aasured of his safoty. May you never have 
oucasiuu for such a mirsing I — if you bave, may your reward ba as great 1 ' 
—Curf tiftht Skk, p. 124. 

All this i« quite fuir because it is true, hut perhaps the com- 
parison between the women of our own time, and those of some 
Jifty or a hundred year* ago, is hardly as just or reasonable, 

'Tho hcroiuea of Fielding, Richardsoc, Miss Biirnpy, oven of Watttr 
Scott and of Hiss Austen, do not nppoar to have had many iiti as bHjoud 
nootlbworU Jind love-umkiiig, nor much purposes on mrth, but to paint 
doooptively and to win at cai'da. Now, on tlie contrary, Engliahworaen 
are working and Kecking woi'k iu t*very diroctiou : thi-re rises frutu uuiong 
tbeiu a cry for naefiil eraiiloyment,, for a wider Sold of activity. Tbe 
toncierly niirtiirpil lady ia now hardly content elegantly to dauco, like a 
ddat-mote, through tiio sunbeam of her lilW but strivea to incroaae its 
lirightnL-as : she is doairoiii* to tuako hsr time of value, and to bo, without 
losing Lor lutluouuo ajid stjitinu, one of the" working-women" of the world.' 
— Itiid. p. V. 

Because these writers did not think nursing and other simihu- 
occupations themes for the pen of fiction (though Scott'fl 'lle- 
heccji' is ft flat conlradiction of the charge, as far as he Is con- 
cerned), it argues nothing of what the women of the times they 
treat of did and thought on auch a subject. Women in no 
period of the world, ami especially in Christian times, have been 
blind to their duty towards the sick. It is the one sphere that 
lias always licen appi-opriated to them; and to assume that the 
women of our own day are the first that are idivo to iheir respon- 
eibilities la a dangerous fallacy. Our despi:4ed grandmothers are 
the very people that Miss Nightingale regrettt in the unobtrusive 
sphere of home. They realized what it was to be in charge. They 
were true mistresees of their households, guiding and teaching 
their aervanln, nursing their children as far as their light went, 
vigilant, energetic, and conscious of what went on aUmt them. 
But these 'lunlitics were eo much assumed aa amntter of eoitrttej 

fofti on NtiTStntj. 


that n«itlier they tlicmsclvcs, nor tliosc timt write about iheiii, 
con8i<]ercil tltld llie romautio ciiic of tlicir character the point for 
the iiovolidt to enlarge ou. It tviui their (Icportmeot in the 
drawiiig-rooin, their ci>u(!uct io society, the chiirni they threw 
over it, and ihe ' love-iiiitliiujr' cunscfiiieiit u[njn it, which was to 
he dclinentcd. Ni>hody was Indiirerciit or bliml to the other — it 
wofl simply assumed. We may aeeiii hypercriliciil, hut wc per- 
ceire that the moat experienced opinion on 1 his question is jenlous 
of fiction taking up nursing as an clement of the picture^fiiic, and 
clearly thinks it bad for roraauce-wi-itera to keep to x\w»a old 
eetabushed ■{rounds of cxciUng interest, at the risk of our 
dcecendiinta taking for granted the ladies of the nineteenth 
century trilled their lives aniiy instead of being a distinct race 
from all the ages that hud gone before. 

But because the science of licnltb is better understood, womca 
may undoubtedly become better nuri-ee than they have ever 
been before. The obi lallney Ihiil nicdiciuc is to do everylhiug;, 
and lliat with its aid mou may he healod any wbcro, is being ex- 
ploded. The doctor censes lo be a niaj;icnl peiBonngc. We can 
do more for our^elveii, and lor each other, by a careful study 
and vigilant following of nature's laws, than all his art can effect 
without our own intelligent co-operation, Wc are taught, too, 
new truths — or a new and impressive way — on the effect of 
uiiud upon tuind in this pai'stniount question of health: and 
in le;iniii)g Iiow the state of our luiud and intellect affects the 
physical well-bciiigof those around u», we acquire a new lesson in 
self-Uisciplini.', n new motive to the full development of our best 
facuhieai and powers ; while in the mutual relations of the sufier- 
inz and the liealthy, wc see fresh examples of ths mysterious 
inSuencc for good or for evil, which wc exercise over one an- 
otlier, influences which pass from body to mind, and last tluough 
XiuM to eternity. 

KO. cue— HA 


Art. VI. — 1. LEglise et VEvjjnre Romam'au Qu<Uriein<i Si^cfe. 
Par M. Albert pe BnoCLiE. Prcmiferc Partie. (2 vols.) 
Paris. 1S56.— Deuxieme Pnrtie. (2 vols.) Paris. 1859. 

2. ktnih* Momhs et lAu^rairea. Par M. Albert de Broglib. 
Pftris. 1853. 

Events which have occurred within the limits of the three 
kiiigdonis, i-evivaliam in Ii-eland, and the Eucharistic controverriy 
in Scotland, have dolayed our notice of the remarkable volumes 
now before \\s. We hasten to repair the omieeion, feeling half 
ashamed to think that the Edinburqk lieviewa-s should have 
anticipated ua in introducing to the Briti^^h public a work which 
Ihcy justly characterise ns one which must 'take rank in the 
common literuture of Chriatendom.' 

So long as history is confined to the hare statement of evente, 
we feel little inlerest respecting the writer. It is true that such 
bitrrpn esiMjsitions nre very rnie. As n, brilliant Italiau, Cesaro 
Halbo, \vM observed, opinione make tbeniselves evident behind 
the very datea and commae. Nevertheless, such hooks do 
exiel. In the case of some racdiieval chronicles, we are con- 
tent to know that the author's view was that of the monastic 
mind of his age, and we give ourselves but little more trouble 
rcsppcting his personality. In a compilation like that of the 
Chronological Tables, published by the late Mr. Talboys, of 
Oxford, we sec thiit the editor has simply taken on trust the 
opinion of the most famous hislorian of each epoch, a lleeren, a 
Hume, a Gibbon ; and, while we arc most grateful for ihe care 
and reeenrcb displayed, wo are not particularly anxious to know 
anything more respecting the compiler. 

It is far otherwise when the writer inipreseea himself, so 
to speak, upon his narrative. Without going so far ns n living 
author, who 1ms saiil, if we recollect aright, that the first aim of 
an histcirian should he to produce a work which will make bis 
readers love him,' we may fairly admit the interest which we 
feel in the life and character of such men as Herodotus, Frois- 
sart, Thucydides, Tacitus, Clarendon. We are glad to learn, 
if possible, something more about them than is supplied by tlie 
volumes they have bequeathed to posterity. We wish to know 
who they were, and what cause impelled them to write. 

It is hifrhly probable ibnt these queslions may suggest them- 

^'liu oxjirwiuoo ii, uo tliiuk, Lbat of Ccani'e Cantu, in XdtSloriadi CmS Atm^t 

The I^rtt Chriiliati Emperora — De Bro^Ue. 

selves to some of our rcaJerg, m connexion with the work now 
uiiiler review. We priipose to give such reply as we arc able, 
in tlie iio{>e that it may euhaiicc the iuterei^t ol' M. tie BrogUe's 

If any civre to maintain, as it nuiy be pUiiiaibly tnaiiitaincd) 
that the deepest impress upon society is made by men from the 
two eslremes of social oondilion, by the very humbly or the 
Tcry highly bom, the author before us may. perhaps, be placed 
in one of their two listn. That list will be not the one whicn con- 
buns most of our greatest inventors, and men of science, and 
pltyeiciang — moat of our first iidvociites and judges (at least in 
BritAiii) ; not the one which iiaiiibi;rs on its bead-roll such names 
as those of Cicero, Hildebrand, Wolaey, Adrian IV., (iiotto. 
Luther, Mohlcr, Shakspcare, Cauiung, Napoleon, aud other 
s«]r-mnde men. But the name of Prince Albert de Broglie niay, 
possibly, dome day, be ranged in that counter-catalogue, which 
includes many n great captain by laud and sea, many a states- 
man, many a one whose influence on the course of thought has 
been no Ices potent than that of the most fanioua self-won 
Dtunee ; the monarchs who inherited command, the Alfreds 
and Charlemagncs, and S. Louis's, with Columba, Aquinas, 
Ciiuabue, Dante, Dominic, Wesley, Loyola, and others, who, 
though more or less great by birth, have likewise achieved 
greatness for theraaelves. 

The family of De Broglie ia of Italian origin.' But two of the 
branches, which trace Lo a common ancestor, 8iiiion dc Broglla, 
who died about a.d. 1394, have long been settled in France, 
Tbey have had among them biahops and archbishops, and no less 
than three have borne the much-coveted bdion of a marshal of 
France. For the last three centuries tbe name has been 
thoroughly entwined with French lii^tory, A De Broglie 
dcfcuded Maitd, in 1565, against the attack of the Turrash 
Sultan, Solimau ; another, a general, has his name inscribed on 
the brouKC tablets at Versailles ; and cveu those readers who are 
content to take their viewH of the French Kevolulion from the 
imperfect, though biilliant, sketches of Mr. Carlyle, may 
remember that one of his chapters bears the title of ' Broglie, 
the War-god.' 

Few, however, if any, of tlie family have achieved the amount 
of distinction gained by the father of our author, the Due do 
Broglie. Left fatherless at the a^c of niue, tlirouoh the dread 
stroke of the guillotine, he was in time protected by a step- 

' A phildogUt aiigb'. miapppt this from Ihc t;l. « eonnit topreaenttui in purely 
Preach lutncs, by /'. at. in BduiUod. The otder farnu cf Broj-llu. or Brogtia. aro 
aov w QalliDisea bj the familj thai the final k is gnrcely sounded. 

K 2 



The First Chrtstian Empnors — /Je JDroglif. 

father, and subsequently by the fiimoue M. de Talleyrand, Tin 
studies were eminently cnlcidatcd to form the future sttitcsman, 
and, as soon ns he was of iige, hci becaiiie ii debater in the House 
of Peers, He took «ii eager part in the attemjit to rescue Ney 
frgra death, nnd was conepicnons in dismssioug on tlie freedom 
of the press. Havinj; sujipriried the revolution of July, 1830, 
he was upjioinled by Louis Philippe to the oflicea of Muiiater of 
Public liialruction, and President of the Council of State. A 
difference with hia colleagues induced him to resign within a few 
tnontliB, but, in 1832, he was aummoned to the higher post of 
Minister of Foreign Affairs, an office which, under the constita- 
tional monarchy, was equivalent to the Premiership among 
our»clve8. As minister, he succeeded, inkr alia, in bringing 
about a convention betweeu France and Great BritJiiu, on tJie 
eobject of the slnve-trade. thus currying out in action dcnnn- 
ciations nguinst that luihnllowcd trjidic wliich ho bad uttered 
twelve yeai-a before, lie was, likewise, in procm-- 
ing the reeognilion of the kingdom of Greece ; and lie i>rovod 
bimaeir, whether in or out of otVioe (of which he was singuhirly 
careless) a firm supporter of civil and religious liberty. His 
premiership lasted less than two yeara, but his Influonee con- 
tinued to be very great, and was thoroughly recognised abroad,^ 
*s well us at home. Under the Republic, in 1849, the House of 
Peers being uboli^'hed, he sat as one of the representatives for the 
department of ibe Eure. 

About this time, if we mistake not, first appeared in the Revue 
dex th'.ii.r Miiiide.s, and oilier periodieab, certain articles from 
the pen of the son aud heir of the Due de Broglie, which 
arrested immediate atlenlion. The minister had. indeed, dis- 

Slayed ^reat abihty in the use of his pen, in contributions to the 
',cvu€ Fr(in';a!se, on political economy and general philosophy; 
nnd liiii friends may liave thought that (as a speaker in Plato's 
Timieua says of Solon) hia literary triumph* might have been of 
the higlicst rank, if politics had allowed sufhcient leisure. Hut 
the son had enjoyed an d, jtriori claitu to tlie chance of literary 
distinction, by inheritance on the maternal, as well as the 
paternal, side. The iiuch&SKO ile JirivjUe, who died in 1838, was 
a daughter of the celebrated Madame do Stael. It Js no 
derogation to the sire to admit the still greater success of the 
eon, eo far, at least, as written composition is concerned ; and if 


' The ^reat niithoritywith EngUnh touriits. Mi. Miirrij'n rod hook, thmepuakB 
of tlifl villagtf of Brogiio, ia Niinnsnilj : — ' Th« lai^ (iBil [ilftiu i-hattau, is tho 
fuinil; ri>"iil>;iiCD otl.lxi Due du Bfigllu, cx-miniitkr, ^itiil unu u( llm moat vlrtiioiiF. 
enliirLteiied, and emincul eUteBmen in Fr.'iQce.' — HuDdboak for Fraacu, p. Tc. 
Ed. 1M4. 

The First Christian Emperors — I>e Srof/h'e. 1S8 

the election of tJ>e senior to ttie fnmou! Aciulomj be addiK^ed 
against ue, wc inii»t \>oinl to tlie success of If. Berryer with the 
K)rtj-, ae proof ihnt the learned liotly in (|nestioD has of late Lad 
an eye to jK>l!tici) n-" much a» lettflra. 

Vi helhcr the {irotound thought on political questions embo- 
died in innny of these articles would liave found cxiiression in 
the Chamber of I)eputit?g, and have raised the aon to the poli- 
t»c«] eminence of the ffithL-r, must, for the present, i-eniain matter 
of conjecture. On the labours of the rising statesman comes the 
famous cotip d'ilat of the 2d of December, 1S5I. 

* And, like the tyrannoua brcnthiiig of tho BOrth, 
Shakes nil our buda from growioL'. 

From that time both fatlier and son have retired into pri- 
vate life. 

It is not nec«ssflry for ns at present to discuss the question, 
whether n oonstitulional monarchy was, or was uotj fitted for the 
French nation. It has been touched upon in this review, though 
in a brief and cursory manner, on a former occasion.' Our 
allusion to the subject is only intended to throw light upon Iho 
antecedents of M. AII»ert de Broglie, that his position as an his- 
torian may be the better understood. It will readily be sceu that 
be has, auion^ other qualifications for hi« tn»k, one that Dr. 
Arnold and Sir F. Pnlgrave agree in insisting upon, wc mean a 
vivid and intelligent interest in the events of his own day. 

In 1853 appeared the small collection of -£''«</i"», being, with a 
single exception, repvinls from the Ilevui'. >h.i deux Afuumn. Wo 
bavb given them the second phice in our headinj;, because they 
tat not now our main theme. But they come first under our 
consideration, as they do in order of publication. 

An English reader may form some faint idea of this collection 
by imagining a aimilar gathering together, in one volume, of 
Mr. Gladstone's puljlished orations on Foreign Policy, and on 

' ChriiHaii Jtniiimirmmei: fur Ortobpr. lS5ii, Art. ' Impeiialiiin,' pp. SOfi— 810. 
Mr. Jo!m Stunrt Mill hu, &om a ropuhlicnn point of viciT, fruncd a heavy Iniikt- 
meat ugalnut the Julf Honarchj', ia hU nttompted npolngj' for the PromloQiLl 
Gnvcrnmont of 1843. It U given In \i\a rcrant vnliimM of reprint'. 

It ii *uiDB uUiirAcUon to think l.hnt nblliiug l.lml tru Tenturcil to sny in iiSt, 
*itl> t(^T«B<n! to R)&lks of unliluuxM furcon-Utiitiouiliaiu uhibilvd hy our noigb- 
IxiUTfi, uui poHnibly his xtrougiir Ihan th« cnuiJii] ilii4 mulanchol}' confcjEioDi of 
M. Albert d« Brogltc :— ■ From ISU to 1818, Fmnri! tti«ii, for tiiirij-foiir yenn, 
' iho c\iieiin)cnt of roptoientalive govcrmncnt. Three iinflivoumlik lendcuviuH 
' have ciiii'tly cnDtrlhntcd lo mnkc thli^ nltcmpC twice prrive a faitiii'i>_s gi^ncnit 
' tad •jsteiuallo ipirit if oppikliion lo AUtbotliy, wcesslTa prutociBioua [to plaee, 
' &/!.], HDit Ihv ki.>riiiii.'9- of p mil II 111 unmititii. llmu three featuri;i gf the □■itlnnnf 
' chujiLCltr, common to nearly all our politicians, have rendered government uJt 
' bqt impowiblc with iusiitHiion» whouc freedom tncourigea reaUtacce, esciles 
' unhStlon, Uid ^vea full pts; to ion<^lniciit.'~£(u</(4, p. 305. 

184 The ItrH Chmtian Empurors—Se Broglie. 

tlie Budget, with his Letters to Lord Abeitieea on the Neapo- 
litAn <]iicslion, to the late Biabop of London on the Hoyal 
SupfCiuiicy, and to the Scottish Bishops on the position of the 
Laity in CfhnrcJi Synods ; and the addition of one or two literary 
critiques tVom the QuarlerUf Itcvme. The eseays now before ue 
are similarly varied as regards their themes, though more 
elaborate in their character. We give a few extracts, which 
will, if wc mistake not, interest our readers, as well ns display 
the lofty powers of the writer with whom our critique is 

It may be remembered that among the strange spectacles 
which accompiinicd (he French Bevulution of 1848, was that of 
socialist mobs, paying a kind of respect to the emblems and 
images of the Redeemer of the world, not as their Saviour, but 
as their instructor in politics ; as, in fact, the first {[reat tcachei' 
of socialism. Some good men, on both sides of the Channel, 
regarded this homage as a hope^l sign, as a proof that the maseea, 
umike their ancestors of 1 7S9, were now imbued with the spirit 
of Cliiislianity. Far more just, in ouv opinion, is the following 
judgment of M. de Broglie: — 

' Hunted thus, ictna refuge t» rc^fiige, socialism sbeltecs itself hRhind reli- 
gion. It invokt's the grent Gospel prindplrra ; tho touching reniiiiiscBnccs 
fif Ibc tiirly CliristinuB. Is not Ciirisliaii sudcty, it exclniinn, ibiiiiciycl ttpiwi 
Otber inoUvvs tLnti those of interdst mid fear ; npon the nmliial love &iul 
frnlcrnal retiArd of men? Has it not drawn from tliesc luolives prodigies 
nhicb hnvo rennvfited ibe ncirldl And can h'c tiot nppcal (o the snme sen- 
timents, nnd cxpciit the snme results ? This pious Inogmtge is very miu^ii in 
vogue in aii smriiilist sdiool^. Wc might nlniosl lake thorn for the fiiilhful 
CO[)tiniiH(ioii of Cbrialiiinity, and l!ie society that iht.v iinagiiic (or the per- 
fect c:iprc8sion of CbristiHii EOCtety. In their noisy oralions, tbcy tniiigle 
tbe name of Christ with thoai? of tbi'ir snu^inary precursors; Ibc uanic of 
the victim of (.'alvaty, with those of (he nssnssiina of the temple nnd tbe 
abbey. Such miugUiii/H are ilitffMli«i/, and makri m rr^rvl tic ojifit reeolHlioaaiy 
wipiW/ o/amlier rpori. For wypart,TprfJitrlkfrromlhrnirii 'htnii, /o tA/r erost 
ioroB teilh .wcrilti/ioui rciqifci i" thr pivr-cssiau^ ofpHhifff amtrfnoH. However, 
subduing the indignation that such a t'xr.ites, let ua remind sudalism 
in ibrce words, that bctueen thriatiaua nnd itself there ia nulhing in com- 
mon ; thnt t3ii? Gospd and sui'ialisni nre ihi.> very opposite of eaeli other, 
HD much sn, that if tbe one be truo the other most be fnlsc, and that if 
Bodnlism were not tlie gi'osscst of illusions, the Cospel would be tbe most 
impndeut of lieii.' — Klndrt, &e. 

Some remarlcs upon classic education admit of an easy sepa- 
ration from their context : — 

' Folly alone can impertint-ntly inquire, of wLatose are philosophy and 

ilittrntnrcT They are of use, amongst oiler beneflts, iuyiviug to llie mind 

' that iictivity wliich produces great scir.nlific discoveries, and, coiiscqiienlly, 

the material ndvnnccmcnt of buiiian happiness. Of »'bat use are the towers 

nliick rise above our cities 7 To defend and measure the very soil iThcrcan 

Ftrst Christicm Emperors — Be Broglie. 185 


ytm grovel. To come to the poicit most clog<>ly coiiiiM-tod with ciiiicnlion, 
tbc stuijy oDnnguH^s, and cspKially of iLosc learned litngiiagca, the relics 
of an ilncqnnllec! civittsnlion, dom not Appcnr to iis to bi;, m it in ao IVn- 
qucntly ic-rmni, nn ungrntuful nnd aacksi Inliniir. Tiic living iitiim|> of 
tbougfatilin, man wliolr nnd entire, thnt we fiinl in sluJrini^lhem. U id the 
cuitirc lauutlJes ol' mna vthicli are slrcnglhciivd by tbia Hii»lyBi>t. In tbdr 
iwturat motHpliors. iinHj;Lna1iuubti8difpii:l(.'ditlMii'rcu1oura: in their teamed 
STDtKx, lo^c liRS tli8()tiiyed till ii« resources. It i>', thiiii, nitb giiod cause 
uat the Cindy of Lnliii nnd Greek Toi'dih lb'; bnsis oI'iIir i^iliicntion of every 
maM who hope* to move iu tbe higher clnsa of snrifty, nnd the day when 
k »bAU be utlierwiiit! nill point to n dccity in thu intclligvnea of a iiatiuu 
whose reaclion would be quickly fell in its nmiiiierB." — Ibid, pp, 135, 6. 

The following passngc is a fitting pendant to tlie above : — 

' J undnrslnnd by liigb cdiie.ilinn, >\i the foregoing article bna endcnvniired 
to sliow, tbnt whicli s«tica nn the mind ef it youth when he nlreiidy poB- 
SBMes preciae inlbrniutioii, but cii!d nnd liftltss, when liiislorieHl facts are 
nnnd in order in his memory, when beholds the threndsof tho intrlcncies 
of uie old InnKungee, when be knows the inariagemeiit of thnt dehcato 
inRlnimcnt, style, and nbich sheda upon all tboac confused elements the 
briUinnt lighln of erltiriam niid philosophy, t understand, further, by Itigh 
educntion, thnt which raises the underalauiiing to tbnt common centre, 
wbeoce we aeo nil the ncienee* take thoir rise, and civilinntion he harmoni- 
onsly deveIo{>ed bv their aid, n» the result of their etiunlly balanced ponera. 
1 Chll that hij-h eifiieatiuii ttbich illuinines the history of a people by their 
literature, and explain* their inslilul.ions by their history ; that which 
connects the physical properties of bodies on (heir eheniicnt nlfinilirs 
»itli the elt-mal and philoBophic ktra of matter ; in short, that w hich, pene- 
tT«tin^ to the interior of the human creiiture, lepnniles tht apiritoal from 
the attimal feelin;;, mid thus at unce in^structs the physiciuii on the pheiiii- 
OUfin of health, and the nioruhat on tlie passiuos of the soul. High ediica- 
tkm, tfans nnder«tood, which htis for its objeet to estiibhsh a common link 
wnoDgst all the sciences, and to fertilise the one by the other — we have seen 
H— it <Iocs not csiit at jiresent in France, and what is sadder still to cuu* 
As^ b, that it in only in rrnnee, in our day, that it docs not exist. Tlie 
UiurersitieBol'EuKlnnd and Germany, cvcii'thni of the iilile city of Geneva, 
an moro advanced than we in this respect, and the Sorhonne, under the 
dwa/M rigimg, could teach much on this point lo the Academy of I'ari> 
under the new.'^/iirt', pp. 188, !). 

It is well known thai the sticcess in public life of men who 
bud been journaliats or University profesaoie in Paris, has 
tcndcil to create a fcverieh slate of mind among both these 
c]msc«, ever since 1830. But it ia not, perhaps, only in Franco 
tliat Ibc following warning la needed. (In uufl and to all our 
extruutH tee arc responsible fur the italics.) 

'With the exception of Paris,' nhieh early showed it* eucronchiug 
tendencies, none ol the celebrated IJoiversity towns, neither Salamanca, or 

■ It KvcM Blt«Dgthen M. de Brogliu'" ewe, if we hew lu mind : 1. That at the 
protnUe lisle uf Uie fouudatiuu uf the IJuirenity of Paria, llial olty had by no 
mMU kllained to its luhw^rju«Ilt luprcmocy orcr t^u other citiua uf FmuiM). ft 
That the UaiTenily enjoyed for siiac conturlca noble groimcbi of il« uwu on tha 
•onth bank of the Seine, nhieh il was at leagth coiopclled, with lorrow, lo te4on| 

The First Christian Emperors — De Sroglie, 

Bolngnn, or Louvaiii, were ciipittilii of n ^real Stale: tliLiy wtrn ckclcd 
cilicK, tilivri- BliidivH wuru Uie ftrHiid object, nnd nliiUeQla llie cLii;!' pi)[ju1ii- 
tioii. Kvi'ii ill l.bc niidst of tliC nonJi^rs iiC the grtal ceiitur;', lliu tlry, but 
powerftil, whofil of Porl Roynl prrntcil for iwdf, voliinUrily, nii imiUlioii ol' 
the liRicit oven Bt tliR e'^lcs of VrniiillpH. 'I'd this dny, on other siJo 
of thti Oliniine), whcrr. nil (lint mix hrnlthrul t)f luicicnt iinlitntinnK hng hRcii 
prfBurvi^d, the liugltsh Uiiivtrsiliea (irentut tlic Bnmo lentiiru.i. Alkr 
bebulding ibuxe Enj^Usli Siiidciilv, uilb gritelul liiiibii nnd bealihy liicoii, 
\raii(!t'riij(- iti tbo i-uiilni): ]>tHiti!i oP Kti.>i), or uhU^iii)^, nilL (liiir biiuks 
Uiiitrr Ihcir Hrms nnd doiliril in nrndi'tnir I'Dhr, nloiig tbc g»lbic nnd iiiiiet 
Hirrol)' <jf Oxford, it U iiitposiiiblc! to nvniij u sijh, ns ihu miiui rcvcris to 
our feeble yimfbii nho pUy for eisbt jenrs in ibe college pbj-grouiida, 
nud nru (hrii liirown iiilo I kiiuw not «biit aci.'[biiig mid imimre Bnnerof 
iLe Fniibuur}; S. Jncijucs. We nre iLe uuly iiHliuti nbicb has Jrenmcd of 
disuriug li'aiu|uiliil}' of «tiii1y b^ heaping nil Stndetifg lu ibe melrcpulis, 
and ihr trBniiiiiltity of our cnpilftl by covering its pavement with live or 
»i\ thoiianiid j'liiinj; men nlthoiit huiisebolds (or homes), It nontd 
nlmoil nerrn ni If ii'e hnd ivtsbed to provide such of our prufcssors na 
nd[;lil de.iiro it, M'itb the poiier of Irmisforivjirii; Uieit pro(es»oriftl chuira 
iulo Iribuitei of ctiibsi mid onr Students nitb tbe i<iiti.'rlnihiiit.'iit of biLrri- 
ca6cs on all grout dHys. But IT ibis so luueb preferred life iti i'nris is fiitiil 
to (hofie iiiio Kludy, uhnt ii it not for those irbo tcitcb ! After the Court 
I'rclnteii nnd Abb*;!', H'bo hnve been so long the objects of our ridicule, 
couceivf, ii' it be possible, iinvtbiiig more strnuge, thjin persona nbo by 
their urofvBaioii Imve devoteJ Ibeir Uvea to kiiriiiiig, and hHo make tbi» 
mcntiii reiilriction, (bat they »jll neFoctbi.'Ieija pms it ubulty in ibe nuilst 
of nil the d'lslriiclions of agicut con Ire I I know well itliat it is tbey 
desire lo seek there, it is ibe fiicUity of making ibeuiaelves n uniue, it is n 
■tepping-jilone to high politicnl positions, ttai ne must be nllowed to any, 
dt'spile ao niimy iliiisti'iiina exninples \iimh buve eneouriigcd if, thnl 
ambilion (wbich nssuredlj is nut bniiisbed tbence) ought nor, neverlhelcs5, 
to be ibu siAii inolivD of n liMcbing eurpur»tion. Duvutvdni'ss, on tbe 
conirAry, gboiilJ he its soul. If with a view whose greatness is undeniable, 
the genius ivbo founded tbe Univcr*i(y v/as nnxiongi to n'mkc it n corporn> 
tioa tiud not merely n brnneh ol' liiernrcbicnl nilnuniilrutioii, it was prcciidy 
beoauBe, ill a great body, ihc cotlettivu fettling of honour ttikca tbe plnco 
of arid moderates individual nmbition. /Ja tr^u xjie^ii i,^ lie iinli-iiciiaii of 
youth, tjieah of ti sorl of priri/ioiiil, ami he wiu spfatf of a priciOiooil, speak* 
ofiatTjicB.'—liid. pp. 100, I. 

If we refuse oureclvea ihe [ileasiire of selecting rtDj j>ii?sagca 
of tlio masterly critique on ChateaubtiaDd uonlaincil in lliia 
volume, the omission does not arise from any lack uf aympalhy 
wilti its tone, or of appreciation of its excellence in a literary 
w well as a moral ana religious mint of view. It does indeed 
strike ua aa just (lossiblc that M. Albert dc liroglie, living in a 
dilFcreiit getiinilion, »nd well acquainted with such a book na 
M. Nicula»' most weighty ami powerful Eludes Philoaopkiquea, 

For biilMIng in euoBcquoncc of a debt, — The founilntion of tUi« Univorsily l« 
«ODliitini¥B phrsdMlMe w ISOB: Slnnondi evidently incUnea to bplieve lUOU to 
be ueurur the triitb.— Sec his Bittoirs. dcji Fraiifain, Tom. iv. 33, 4. vi. VXi; and 
eoBipnre NeKmno, 'OSoe aai. Work of Uulvural ties' ([jji. 36—38) uud on Iha 
latcucE* of lh« Euptemftcj' of rails, Palgisic, ' Kcrmuidy and England/ Vol. L 

TAe First Chn'tli'in Emperw»—De Broglie. 137 

mtiy hnixlly iiinkc nllowmico cnoiigli for Ihc time in wliivh AI. dc 
Cimtcaubriaiid oompo*e<J his OSnir H Bftmih rlu Cfirisfianimne. 
Wmk Iks <Iiis Intler work may be, when coiLnitlereil as n defence 
of Chrisliaiiity, it mny well bedfii!il«l wliethor tlic generation 
to whom it was aildrcsscd was ripe Ibi- anytliing much more 
pTDfound. It was somctliing that si man ot' geniae dhnnld, in 
such a day, be found among the supiiortcrs, and not the oppo. 
Hems and contemners, of revealed truth. But, considered as 
H whole, this aconnjing exposure of the intense vanity, cgolism, 
DImI bad fnith of Cii.'ittiinbriaud is pcrhiip* the most varied and 
ncutv of «ll these im|ieip, imd one which wouKl nloiie rcpfiy the 
remarkably loudt-rute coat uf the vohirne. 

W« turn to our author's review of M. Nicolaa. The iMiHsagc 
we are about to give has indeed once before appearea tii an 
EngtUh dress ; but it will be new to many of our readers, and 
ten^s to exemplify a leading feature of it. de Brogllc's style, 
Bamely, — Aw remarkahlc power of hifiy sari:asni, employed upon 
JUting ohjects. 

'AllUnce it not cimrii»uin, mid diilicuit a* it in to trncn n rndicnl itcpitrii- 
tion bclnTCii ii-nBun niiU CaiUi. it ia (i.i chimwUuiI In cndciivtm" iitlcr 
COm^jl^tv osdniilntiiii). Wv mii'lrUKl nil iitli^mpts vtbicli iirulosH to give 
reatoii a Tiill csplrt Mill ion of mvBterien uffiiilli, ftum whal«ver source it 
j>f0CCril», wlictlirr I'ram nu nmhitiou" philnsojihv, or froai n. s|)i>ciilalivi> 
TdiKioB. Wc know tliiit llicrc U n Lrertniii Itiiid of mirlnjjli^ ticnl srlcnco 
nliiclt hat never hcniutcil lo (.•Bur iin ifX|iliinili(>n of nnvllitUL', rxccptini;; 
of its own eiTilutjalioiij ; iie know lliat when men Hi-'t uiit I'rum tertaia 
hei^bla, (tOia tlio jdenlitj' uf Wwg hlkI ihouuht, fur iiiHtuici', or ol' ihu ?^iv, 
which pniposis niid ilctcvmiiies ilsolf, llifiitiostprofonud scljoUsiic llieology 
in DO loDjccr mni'i! thiiii I'liild's piny. H. Thumas (A'jiiiunh) or S. Anseliu, 
speak the nilRiir tiniguo bcaiiic I'lrhtu or Ilrgei, conimEiirr:d upnn by n 
pupil ol' llic DoriiiiJ aciiool. 'i'liwi: is ;iot ti philosciphj nliit'li liiis any 
retpcct fur itei'lf uii [lia i-nst aide of llic ItLiui.', tlint liiis nut tvTo or llireu 
TrioitlM to clioosc fvom, niid foi-Hliich tbc iucsmntitiii of ilic Divine nord 
in lulure il not tin cverv-iiay I'nct mid rvrti the perninncnt spring of 
creation. I'niitliaiini linn itx aitnn extti\dtd over the univcme ; in,llic vnst 
Mdiiof ibf Tulie, "11 tbc my!-tems<irrcli}(i'in, tliejincramc^ntnl tvitriKiniitntinn 
of substnnce^, ilie napiiiisibilii)' of llif btiiiwin taci; dispon tliemickia 
as It ircrs nt ihuir ea^e. Tlier« is nldu in tliu bitukgroutid ul' ilitsa 
syalcm*, a kind uf iniei'incdiBte rc;;tiiii betitt'eii drenois and history. 
{leopled wilh brings bnl f- Ian tn slip, Imif-rcnl, where under the niuivoeal 
ytle uf niythi, all niii'nculmiii fuclN eiiii liDtioiiritbly tnko iheir pincrs. It ia 
on thcsu hcighia, atid io ihin t»ilii;l)t, ibitt metiiphynxci have oSian cn- 
deavourci] to tAVtrt n iiiumngc hi^tweuii liiilh mid ri'Hsuii : liMt there are 
t«o g;rcH[diir'<?iilties in thu iinyof ibesu iii'r»ngemenlB, 1tii.'oiic on lliu Hide 
ot rduwn, ihal it n imposBihlo to compL-ehend Ibtni, and ibn orher on the 
aide of I*ilh, that it ia iiiiposNiblc 1o believe in tliem. 'I'hcxe pmlendod 
coDiptYirouca bi^tivrcn philosophy niid rdigion, fail in tbR very foiindntiona 
of each, nami'ly,- — guoj atmc, nnd good liiith. All thiit is uBinnd by them! 
artifices of loirie is, to trfiiisform kiioHii inyHttrieB, pmiiled long since iu 
vivid coloim on Ih:? populnr itn>i!'m'itiuri, inlii veritahlc ulgebniie prohleius, 
vbot* abttroct lecmK, losing all eurrespou dunce with the realiiy of Ibe 

iS8 The First Christian Emj}erora — De Sro^lte. f 

fitttt, flsciiiiff in their rnpid trans fo mi ntions nil contra! uT lliu byatatiduni, 
I^i4rat)C« tiiii lliu.i ciHiccnl ilscir longer under the iijipareiit precinion of , 
formula! ; MHlikc liur liotler, lo sny the trath, whmi sht' lucxtcstty couresBetJ 
herseir to exist, Tho Gospol was annoum^J lo tlit poor, and eveu to th^ 
poor in spirit. If the ngrcemenl between raagoii nud fnilli is to be serious, 
It must hr. tbe agrt^einent nf n yimpiv fnith with n common renson, itnil not 
of the Enith or ilhiiniuati, irith n trnuaceudcritiil logic. Tlie agri>cincnt i 
ouEht lo exist in gwra in the mind of n good Ourialian, wLo (bllowa ' 
faiilifully iho law (j1* his church, nnd practically, iu tbe daily goveniiog of 
his life and his family.' — UU. 

The lost in tlie collection is mainly dedicated to a I'cfutatioa 
of the Abbt Gaume'a attuck upon classic education, the cele- 
brated Vei- Rongeur. M . Gaume'a line of argument had been, to 
a considerable extent, anticipated in this country by an eminent 
quasi-republican writer of tne Baptist persuasion, Mr. Forstcr. 
The ojipositc side of tho case had foiuid an able cliampioii in 
Mr. Is;iac A^'ilHiiins, as may be seen by & reference to his very 
beautiful volume, The Christian Scholar. But it lias been lelt 
to writeri! of M. Qaucae's own commiiniun to alford the most 
complete replies to his pi-oposiiU, In speaking thus we ai-e far 
from denying that theie i* much in the Ver Uongeur. and iu the 
remarks of some who thhik with it [as for instance Mr. lluakin), 
deserving of eerioua attention. Far be it from us to desire that 
pngnn atmosphere of thought which brooded over Florence 
under tlic Medici, over Paris in the days of the Republic of 
1793, But if w« are summoned to defend chiseical literature 
against tlioac wlio woidd all but totally proscribe it, we shall be 
thankful to borrow weapons from the rejoinders which M. 
Gaume has elicited from Dr. Newruaa in liis Lec/urex on 
Univer&ity Subjccls, and from SI. dc Broglic in the volume now 
before ub. 

Wc may again make some slJcrlit references to this volume 
of Essays before we conclude. But for the present we quit it 
with one or two general observations. On the versatility of their 
author, and on his loftiness of tone, it is unnecessary to dwell, as 
these merits must be obvious at aglancc. Of tbe style wu woiJd 
only say, that we trust that its terseness and vigour have not 
wholly evaporated in the alembic of translation. But we should 
like, in parting, lo call attention to two characteristics which can- 
not be gathered from tbe mere perusal of extracts. We allude, 
in the first place, to the uufeigoed modesty which, notwithstand- 
ing the writer's earuest denunciation of evil, rune through the 
entire volume, lie has a perfect right to satirise M. de 
Chateaubriand as ' nit g6iiti},homin<:friiii<^is. qui ne nous lainsf- rifn 
^ignorerdi'. sa noblesse, ef qui ttanait scs pitrcheinim asses bienpar 
'ct»w ;' for thei-e is not, we believe, a uno in any of bis writings 

The First Christian Eniperors — De Broglie. 189 

which coald Huggcet the poesibility of the satiru being retorted. 
Nor do wc Bc(! liny signs of the pride of ubilify, any more than 
of the pride of Inrth. The very republication of thtso Essays in 
one volume was not, we have beeu useured on high ^continental 
authority, M. de Broghe'a own idon, but h suggestion of the 
bookseller's. Aud, .-cmnd/.y, despite the eerious diifcrences which 
must divide nn earnest member of the Gnllican Cburcli &om 
ourselves, It ia wilh pleasure that we ]>erceive how capable is 
the Essayist of appreciating many of Uie best features of 
£ngliah institutions, English literature, and Engiish character. 
On questions connected with primogeniture aud couetitutional 
government, M. de Broglie may be suspected, from his social 
and political position, of being a partial witness. But he is 
likcniso favourably impressed on poinia whei-e his admirntion is 
less open to sii8|nciou. He observes tor instance, witli n aigb, 
on llie aft'wition felt for tlieii- Aiwa Mater by the great men 
educated at Oxford nr Cambridge, an aflection all but unknown 
by the students of Paris. The creations of Shalispeure and 
Defoe are evidently familiar to him, and when he would fain 
reprove the unhealthy excrdse of the imagination as e:chibitcd 
by Chateaubriand, he contrafits it with those delightsome 
figures (w» li/pes dcUcieuj-), such as Evandalo or Flora Mao Ivor, 
tliat gem the pages of the author of Waverley. In his very latest 
con trilnit tons to periodical literature, the valuable account of 
A^ria in the Levue i/cs (feux j\foni7cs for January, IHGO, he 
pamis in vivid colours the mauly independence of English colo- 
nietii, in opposition to the weak tendencies of his own eouutry- 
men to look forhelphom the Government in all their undeitakinga 
abroad, as well as at homo, Such sen tinienis demand our grateful 
recognition. While reserving to ourselves all our rights of free 
criticism, we sincerely trust that no word of ours may give 
occasion to our author's friends to say that he has not received, 
on tliiti side of the Channel, the courtesy and good-will which 
he luw displayed. 

Il waa not likely that a mind thus richly endowed should sink 
into utter inactivity, because the new form of government was 
Dot one which it could conscientiously serve. Our present 
Lord ChaQcellor looked around bim for a theme during a season 
of enforced leisure, and produced biographies of his prcdecessora 
in the high offices to which he lias since attained : a task which, 
apcut from all question of literary merit, must certainly have 
sodcd to his iitncss for his present duties. Prince Albert do 
Bruglio baa in like manner looked around [him for a subject 


77m Ftrgl Christian Emperors — De SroifVe, 

whereon to exercise liU powers. He Ijss found one eminently 
calculntcd to unit the taste nnil ntiilities of n thinker wlio fecfa 
interest :ilike in those ([ueslinnu which concern ihe Church and 
JD thosi; whicli concern llie Stato. He hiis found one, it must 
be added, which id capable of I'ome application to the present 
condition (if France. This fondneaa lor writing of the distant 
past with a view to the living present has been justly pro- 
nounecd by Sir P. Pnlgnivc to do pre-eminently French. But 
our hietorian's defence of the practice holds gooti, even in cnsea 
where the success of the attempted parallel may be ^imewlmt 
qucHtionnble. 'These fcelinj^s fnim within give him n motive 
' the more. No writer can narriite inipresaively unless he feels 
'furcibiy; and there is no influence which will impel any one 
' who really deserved the name of an Ijiatorian, so energetically, 
' na the earnest desire of propagating opinions which he bolievce 
' it to be bis duty to teach or proclaim. ' 

All history and all science must start from certain assumn- 
tione. Kven Euclid hits to dennind our assent to ccrtam 
definitions, postuhites nnd ivxioms, before he can build up the 
structure of hia proposition?. It nuiy be well to etiite n few of 
M. <le Uriigjie'd assumptions, and to see huw far we ain agree 
with them. 

With him then — aa against Strauss and hia precursors oc 
followers — we assume, as a toumlation for Church hiotory, the 
truth and genuineness of the four-fold records of the Life which 
was manifested upon earth, of the birth and nets and death and 
resurrection of the Incarnate Lord. With him we assume the 
in.'^piratiun and authority of all the other canonichil books of the 
New Tesfninenl. With him wc assume — as against Ncnuder 
mid all of his school^ — the existence of a t!iree-fold Christian 
ministry ■■m an Apostolic institution, and no mere human inven- 
tion, made for convenience, and liable to change. With him 
wc assume the truth of that glorious confession of Nicjea which 
wiiB accepted by ' the Holy Church throughout the world,' and 
which still in England, as in other lands, forma a part of the 
Eucharistio service. 

Nor arc we much disposed to quarrel with M. de Broglie 
respeotliig the imporlaut (luestion of authorities. The staple 
source.* for the history of the period i.)f which he treats ai"C so 
settled, that their ovcnlirow would involve tlie destruction of 
the histories of Gibbon and Milnmn and Neander, ({uite aa 
thoroughly as of those of Haronius or M. Rohrbacher. If any 
man chooses to refuse the testimony of Eusebius, Soci'ates, 

' Bi4ori/ (/Jfenaand}/ and Englanil, Vol. i. p. 2S5. 

The First C/iristwn Emprrort — Df Broglie. 


Sozomcn, Tlmodorct; of the pagnri writ«M, Zovimns and 
Aoimianiis Miircellinus ; and the aid of LncltiQliu^ and S. 
AtlmnnMuR, he must eimply be content to go nilhoiit hUton^ at 
all for the latter half of the fourth imd the first half of the Sflh 
cenliirj-, lie must rcniniii almost without information respect- 
ing an epoch for wliich we lisive ihnt kind of witness which Mr. 
Grille so desiderates for the cnrly times of Greece, and Sir G. 
C. Lewis lor that of Rome anterior tu the war with i'yrrhus — 
eonteinfcmrjf written eviifnict. 

Some ten years since an able and learned writer, Sir. Shep- 
herd) the Rector of Luddesdown, published a Ui'sfwi/ of the 
ChurcJi oflUiuif in which this line was aclually adopted. The 
aiitlior proved, to his own perfect Batiefaclioii, that the letlcra of 
S. Cyprian were an entire foi^cry intended to support the 
Roman clnim?. Considering the use which Mr. I'oolc an<l other 
accomplished Anglicans have made of these letters agaimt 
Bonie, they must be pronoimced to be one of the elumeiest 
forgeries ever attempted. Mr. Shepherd dealt out the same 
mcnsurc to a vast number of other writings. His ar^unipnla 
reminded ii* souicxvhnt, wo muet own, of those by whit'Ti Areh- 
hi^[lop AVh.itliiy disproves llie existence of Najiuliion Buona- 
parte. Within lliree ycara after the appearance of Mr. Shep- 
herd's volume came out the Ut'atori/ ot'lMttn ChrintiaMty, by aa 
author not given to credulity, the l)ean of S. Paul's ; and lo ! 
the rejeeled documents all took their places .is before, and tlic 
Msuliint was dismissed in n single brief, but decisive, nolu. 

A fresh reason for want of confidence in the Church historians 
of the period 1ms, however, hwn suggcated in the eriiiipic of 
that rauiuuif nurlheru Review to wliieli we referred at tite com- 
mencement of this nrlicle. The writer suggests the poesihility 
of these aimnllst.i having been overawed by the ruling spirit of 
the age, the great Bisliop of Alexandria, insomuch that their 
aeeounL^ of events may after all, perhaps, ho only echoes of his 
Toiee. Now we would not willingly go out of our way to do 
battle with a contemporary, especially wheu wo rccoituisc, and 
gladly recognise, so many gleams of c-arnestnets as shine forth 
m the notice of M. du Broglie':; volumes. But Ibis is a subject 
more germane perhaps to our pngcH than those even of the 
£dmbwrgh licvieir, and our readers have u ri"lit to know whe- 
ther we think ihal the doubt thus implied lias any adequate 
foundation. If it ha.'i such foundation, our trust in the history 
c^lhe period must be very considerably diminished. 

We answer that the uoubt thus implied is wholly baseless, 
aw) that it is bard to believe that it could liave been suggested 
by an author deeply versed in these studies. The earliest 


The Ftrsl Vhriitian Em^Mtrors — De Broglk. 

Church historian, Eueebiut), is bo far from being under the in* 
flucnue ol' S. Athanasius, tlmt he betraya decided indinitione of 
nn Arlauiztng temper. Of Socratea it is truly observed bj' the 
liij^heat iiulhoiity on these aubjecte, Valcslus, that be hue itia- 
played reinnikable diligence and judgment, and composed his 
niatory from researches into the best sources of testimony on 
all sides [conquiaitia uruiljue optima mmmmcntis), as letters of 
bishops, nets of synod?, and works of otlier lusloriauu. A friend 
who falls our attention to these words of Valealus has pursued 
the subject into some details which are fur too valuable to be 
omittwl, but which we venture to relegate to a foot-note as the 
recognised plac<'. for such diacuswons, at the same time earnestly 
commending them to the attention of the studious.' 

' Sou Soil. i.\. lu i. 10 Ii9 qiioMs «» lil^ aiii,Uoritj an cje-witouku, In i. 13 he 
givoH iiiuudi! L>r li'mliups, proTlnuoB, viliua, <lii(« ut' NiiM-uu Cumii.'JI, froDi jieraoDMl 
invcitigitliDii. I uLiiuutbut tliiuk tbaL aiuvrn uupyiet of ^ Athutioaiug wuulil have 
Hpokca liuii (Bvourablj Ihan Socrnlci does of ComUmtinc's 'liLenii' letter tg 8. 
Alc^iwclor and Ariiis, i, ». anii also of EiiHebiua of Cieiarea, ii. 21, whom 3. Athn- 
nniliK ncU dovcn as a mere hcrotio {Ae Sjn, IT). Again, 1 don'l ihink Runh a 
enpf li>t wouM hnve called Ihe Arian cnntrnvcivy it vuKTujiaxla, i. '23, ur hnvo said 
that OoiiKlJiiiliao when he i:iimmauc|uil Ath. to ddmil. AriiiB inio tlip Chnrch was 
at^tii'ikt^uil by II iK^elri! roS XimiTtXavvrot, and hy a fear uf disuniuii (i. 27). In 
ii. 1 In lelvta to li;tturs of «miiiont men as ivcit jw to S, AthnnmiuE' nritingii. In 
ii. 11 liD mUlukes tho Uroo of ByrUnui' irruptioa into S. Alhncuiua' Chiireli, 
anil diffiirfl from S. .Mlmnaaiiui' own account of ihe sccnis. In fad, lie goes [jiilte 
(iBtriiy nhoiit Gregoiy and George, :i. Ii. In ii. IS, 17, ho judgca liel.wccn Allia. 
uaoiiia' uuuoitnt ami tlmt of the Maucilunian t^itlimun, irbom liii cunxiirus oil llie 

fiound of supprenBio rfri. In i. 30 and ii. 13 he pruuoiitii'es Man.'i;1luB to be a 
DTOtii!. n'hitli a, Atliannains rofraiiied from doin^, ut ltiu!t cxprc&tlj'. Id ii. 20 
be mija that tlicCoimdIof SardicB mnsUled Paul of Constantinople in hia throne, 
tvliicn & Athaniuiiu doea not my. In ii. 23 he givea a telter of Conntana, 
irhich S. AtlianasiiiA does not give. In. ii. 28 he gives a [ingaaijo in prai^ of 8. 
Athaoaaiiia in .luliiia' letrcr lo the Aleiaiiilrinns, wbich 8. .\(iiiiuafiius' vuraion of 
thai lelli.'r iluiiB not g\w:, Ar to the deatb uf Paul . Socrates and AtliiiuHeiuB diQer. 
Sun. ii, 16 makoB Philip tlio Pnifeot det'oj' him from Conataalitioplo before i. i^ 
air. and BajB nothing about Philip's having anj-lhing lo do with \m flna! oipul- 
lion aad murder at Cuonaiis, a. n. 3WI, ii. 2(1. But 9. Athanaaina (iTwf. An. 7) 
conncctB Philip vitli Iliia last Ii'agedy. Similarly, Athanasina makes Couatanllne 
baniah Paul the first lime; Soenil.PB userihea lljin fir*t pjiicl.ion lo CoDHUnliug, tL 
7. Soe. ii. 80, in wrong as to Murk ol' Arelhuaa having written the areod of the 
ST':niiui, Hu does not gut this from AthanasiuB. but aeema to have mis- 
taken a p!i«6Hgu iu S. Hilary, rrngm. 1 5, or at any mio to have miulu a eonfosion 
bctwucn a meeting at Slnnluni in 3A1. and another at SIrmium iu SfiU. Mark 
really wrote the creed of May 37, SGH, or Ihiril Sii'iniim. wliicli Socr;ii*:» gives, ii, 
37. Id il. 88 Socrat.e* in wrong about LihBi'ius. aajiug that lie wa? Ijsnbliod for 
not receiving the Kvcud o( Ariuiinum. Ho could not have got this from Athana- 
siiiF, lor AlhunaHiup in Lis Ajiulogy to Conetnntinc, nrittcn in ^Sti, upealu a± having 
just tljeu lieard of the llile of Liberiut, Again, in the name chapter, lie s-ij-a tbat 
Fclii, who Buccecdecl Liberlua, or rather was pot in afUir hia c.tilc. was an Arian, 
but that others say he waa nnt, eie. Mow thin nhows that be weighed dilli^rcBC 
statements : for Athauaaiiis (Ilitl. An. 75) unhesilatiugly toudemns Folii. In ii. 
41 Souiates iay» Ihftt Hie ' oooni;il of the dedieutiun ' ui Antiooh p^omulgBt(^d fiot> 
creedd, and eeo ii. 10. But Atlianutinu givue f<iiif Ule Syn. 22, eeij,). In ii. 4S 
Soorates seta down ApolUnarij ns nn here^iarcli. Attianasius did not. He seems 
to bare heeu willing to think that the dogma of the Word being ioatead of a 

The First Chrittian Emperan — Be Broghe. 


'Die ^mc critic who questions the isdependence of the hts- 
torixna just roforreil to, has accused M, de Brojrlie of placing all 
his aulhoritJca on an equal level, and admitting into his text 
apoci7[>hal anecdotes {'lom untrustworthy eourccs. Now we 
are ourselves by no menus disposed to accept unhesitatingly all 
the illuelrations of thia noit which occur in the history before 
MS. If, however, wc did so ricccpl them, it would be our owa 
fsult, and uot that of ttic historian. His censor inu^t surely 
hftTC en tireiy overlooked three very importnnt pages (109 — 112) 
in (h« ihini volume, where M. dc Broglie discusses the vahia 
of t]ie narTAtives respecting the Fathers of the desert, and 
distinctlv declines to yield to tbeni the same kind of credence 
as to tne grave works of a purely historic or controversial 
dttTACter. 'II aerait f.gajemenl ihn^rair^ etdecroire ef tie rejeter in- 
datinctemcKt cesjn'emes iiarmtions.' He proceeds to assert that 
many of the prooigies they relate are commonly external rcijre- 
scntation^, under ti living and sensible form, of the struggle of 
the Christian soul ngaiuet sin nitd paesiou. Ue even traces 
points in eunirunn bt-tween these accounts and the ' Pilgrim's 
Progress' of .John llunyan; and cites Miihlcr, in a noLe, as 
eapporting his view^, and as avowing that many of ihe 
detfiilB inserted by S, Alhanasiua, in liia ' Life of 8. Antony,' 
«oem written rather with a view to edify his readers, tlian with 
B scrupulous adiierence to ])recisc iticu' 

Dinil to Chiial, Kus nut rtolly ta.iia;lit hy liis util Friend. In ilL 7 So^ratci gmatly 
mintnic* "hat wiiu duuo at tUo Alciancirion Council of 3fi2. Atbunniiui fldirly 
mU rorth in Ibe Synodal Lnllnr tliat cxjilnoattons were miitually given an to ttio 
tVD Mll*oii of Ifiipaiioiiir. iiw,iHlK>: says, aXinnrAtj eniiugh, llint Ouriii nwi ItyjXi' 
tbuii were both prixcrilwd by Ilia Syiioi! I 

So utuch fur SuoraUi'. I BUppuso cut nnod iiol. go milch forthur, fur if SounLlnv 
it DOC u Biiim cupyint of Alhanuiu.'. Sul^Dm<.'ll uiii.1 TlivoJorvt will iiol be. OoD 
may Uciwercr mention tho <!cclarntiou of Swomen. i. 1, thai ho hua con.-^ultod for 
tlie i«mcit«r pcrio J cmbrncioi! in Iiib History (I'.f-. for llio Athsnosun trl«1>)^1. 
Inpcriii) Ibwk: % A>;U of ^oihIk, Cntlioiii: nnit A.rinai 3, Letlcre. lie ia wry 
explicit In najinii thiil kt Ihinkfl it right i» givB Jnu nonsideraliou (u Lcluroiiox 
lU veil as orUioitox uccuunis, bvcuiUBU thu historiuu muBl i>iifc for trulb ithova nil 
thiog4. (Ouo Jivpnitj between So/ouicn and Aihnniwius niaj bo named : So/o- 
luvn, in ii. Sl.siyB (hot Coiihtnntine baniihcd AlluiuosiuK tn Trcvcii bceaiiaa of tho 
afltir of iKbynu nnd ihc ohnllcp. Athun^lna (Aiml, c Ari, ST) aays not .i word 
WM coid about llili niatlj^i' by lliotie who proenrcd liis cxUk) OS TiieodocrC, Vftl«- 
•iu> uy*, titat m Som^uifri wrotu iift«r SoitbMk (in /•in tiuw) «o Thuoduiet nfler 
SotOintiD, and (hiit I'liooilorot curreL-lcd Bi.>vi.>ril mixluVen whivli Ihey hud fuUun 
liilfl i» lo AlhniiiiJiiuB will rniil, yet nitli much good fooliug did not uouio them 
U hkriog niLdc such niinlakrs. 

1 hnrc uid littlo i>f liiilliiiiiii, bat I nuppoRO It mlg:1it bo luud. not that he aimply 
et^lcd .\thfln.ii.tiik (fur hu tailK uh (Mnirt wUicli AthanMlu« do«H not say), but iW 
hcg*vc car lu ill'iiipiiurted BtorisB, 

' AivhdKicoa Chiivton. in 3 Idler to tlic Ute Jonhnu Wulaon, E*q. (London, 
Rivinetons, !S(8), gives reasons for qneslioiiing the juslke of attrilmline to 
S. Atbun&iiui IJiia llfo of S. Antuny, Ibougli !■■ Alhanneius probably did nritt « 


The First ChrUtian Emperorg — Pf Broglie. 

It ie nmanfr oar aiilbor'a mnny mcriu lluit he it consoious of 
Oic (liiTereiice between ihita and mfefencc^. Such oont>ciousQe89 
id more rare titaa luigltt at first sight be sujipnscd. Wc bave 
heard a very diBtinguiebed judge afiBcrt \\\» convictioa that 
Imlimcn ivcrc oRca supposed to bo guilty of delibernic f&lM> 
Iiood, io cases where they wore eimply giviug theli- ovrn hiisly, 
and often untenable, inftTcnccs as facte. In order that he may 
show that his u^^umpliuns have not been made ligblly, M. dc 
Broglie lias added coilte hw^whwt Appendicea to nis VoluniKt. 
The firat of" these, ihe one which refers to ihc proper courde to 
follow in ortler to ascertain tlic truth of the Oo«j)el faets, is par- 
tieularly valuable. II« exposes willi nmch force tlie absurdity 
oftbo^e who assunie the iiiiposMbilily of anif ntiniclcs, and 
t3ieo proceed to discuss the authority for individual miracles 
recorded by the Evangelists. ' The Gospel is the supernatural 
■ itself. The Gospel ia the birlh of a Virgin's Son. The 

* Gospel is the resurrection of One dead. It begins and ends in 
' (uiraclc. If therefore all facts arc false, from the aimpiv fact 

* that they are uilvaculous, the Gospel is false : that is a thing 
' decided. Therii ia ho nted to learn Greek or Hebrew to 

* prove that, or to veiify dalcr», or to collate manuscripts.' It 
ia theu sbon'ii that the |irinciple$ on which Strauss proceeds 
would just as easilv prove tliat the Emperor Coustantinc was 
not the son of Helena, that he never rcigncd, never existed at 
all, and that the Council of Nice never look place. As, how- 
ever, we must hasten on to our main subject, we merely call 
attention to this important &-tatrctss^-iiH'ni. It might be read us 
a good introduction to that profound, tliough alas! unfiuislied 
rejily to Stnuiss, whicli was given us by our own great deccated 
theologian, Dr. Mill. 

The mention of assumptions in which wc perfectly agree 
with oar author, mny almost Hecni to imply the existonce of 
other a^suiiiptiouH with which wo do not agree. This of course 
must be expected, when ive are called uiion to review the work 
of a ctinneicnlious and earD<-st Gomiin Catholic ; and the only 
ground of ourpriso is not that thcdc gi-ounds of dilferciice exist, 
but thai they should not be luoi-e marked and fre<iuent. This 
ftriees mainly from the ciroumijtance, lliat M. de Broglie is 

biaj;ni[>1i;f. The Ai'chileuon DuiiQUiiue: — 1. Tliai. lalomul cvlilcncR ii ngt.\ast 
It, tl)u antlior ur lie Uf« aol Bn^uuiiiDg liiuiwlf lo bu AUmuiwIn^. S. Tliul S. 
Clir^BiNitatu, Iluiu. viii. in R Maltli. does aut spjio» to nltuils to tlic }Afv h« now 
hare. 'S. That it dosi not ua^ivpr lo the dtucriptiuii Id Naxiunxua'f Oriit.iou un 
Si AtliiiBiuiiiin. Vfc do ncl prcttnd to have exainmud llie |ioint fiufficiciilly to 
form a definite oplnioa ; hut vc majr own, Ihnt tUui'u would ho a latiifictii^A in 
SMittg wUuilscd awuj rraui 8. AlhauMios a work vhkli aaedn souh an iulerprc- 
toUOD as tlMl of MObior'n. 

The First Christian F^jaerors—1 



treating of a period whereon, happily, the dissensions between 
our rcsi>cctlve oominiinions hiivc comjmrativcly little room for 
(tifpUy. On the celimale of the loiiJing uctora of the ace there 
i» scitroely any cmilroversy lielwoeii iib. We loo, jm well ah he, 
have been bi-ought up to regnrd Julian aa an apo^tiitu. Kvcit 
Bishop Warburton has aliown iis how overwnelming li the 
evidence of that signal and miraculous stoppage of his pbiis for 
the rebuilding of Jerusalem. We too with Tiim, regard with 
8u«piciou» glances llic eomewhat courtly tone of the historian 
Eu^cbiiis of CiB!tttre«. We ton t)iiiik with nwe upon ihe life 
and dt:atli of that ' subtle- wit ted, ami iniiivtjllitii:* fiiir-^|>ol(eti 
man,' ' the arch-heietic Anus. And if in these voluiiic? full 
justice is done to the ever-glorioiia memory of S. Athanadins, it 
may yet well be questioned, whether even the great powers of 
compoiitioii undoubtedly possessed by M. de Broglie, havo 
produced an eulogy of thitt great saint and doctor, so free, so 
rapturous, so niajoslie, as lluit of our own Hooker. 

With the exception of some remarks on the authority fur the 
oelibaoy of the clergy, there is, we believe, only one suhject 
treated in the present volumes, on which an Anglican divine 
woald find room for serious controversy with M, da Broglie. 
That one subject is the position of the sec of Rome during the 
epoch before us. We do not suppose that the whole amount 
of wriljng on tiiis subject amounts to ti-u pages out of some 
2,0(K). The hook 'a uot inteiuled as a treatise on the quesliun, 
nor have we the slightest intention of making this pnper a 
counter-treatise. But the real delight which we have expe- 
rienced in turning from the ]>ngc8, where llic esprit mnlin H 
moqaeur of Gibbon sullies the glory of his gemun, to tho*c of a 
writer who npprooches the subject in so Christtian a lenuier, iniuit 
nut be viiU'erod to blind us ns to points of ditTerence, and we con- 
sequfntly pause to make a few passing remarks. 

it is obvious that crilica bred up and nurlured in our own 
communion, may be charged with viewing the evidence on 
this subject through a mist of prejudice. But it is cquajly 
obvious that the charge m:iy be just as easily retorted. A man 
brought up from infancy to regard Gregory the Sixteenth or 
Pius the Ainth as an Epincojma episaijximm is, to say the 
very least, quite as liable to read the Gospels, and aaU of 
councils, and events of past history, through coloured glaMCS tu 
we can be. To our eyes the testimonies adduced by M. de 
Broglie, prove at most a Primacy, not a Su^ireaiacy. \\^e do 
not know whether it is his moderation on this point which bus 

Ka CIX.— S.9. 

> ilookoT, E. P., V. IS, S 2. 


Th First ChriuHtm Emperors— De Brotflu. 

caused tlie itUliUe of liM work expreBeed by the most extreme 
of hie oo-rcligiuiiists:' but it would be most unjust uot to re- 
cognise luuiilHt our difterences tlio earnest desire to be fiiir. Let 
«3 look at one or two jwiuls more in detuiL 

It ia now generally nUowvl thnt the (ireaidont of the great 
council of Nice wm Iloifiu!*, (nr tia M. do Broylie, with »i)iny 
good authors, calls him, OniuH,') liidinp of Corduba. In the 
Latin ct>ptc« of the Ada of the council, hia name stands as tlie 
Erst, Hereupon the question arieee — how came he to jM-eside? 

Is'ow if we were to asacrt that he presided because of tlia 
weight of his character, and becaui^e be enjoycii the cs|)eciiil 
favour of ConstantinCi it woidd immediately be rcidied, iind 
not without reason — frstjy, thnt this was a pure theory ; and 
seconi/bf, that we were proiiulily biassed, however unconsciously, 
by n di^punit.iou to think too highly of the power and influence 
of the /■fliyraZ-c' Precisely similar is the reply which we in our 
turn murtt make to those who, allowing the fact of llosius'fl 
presidency, proceed to assert that he musf have aiit in tlic cba- 
ractcr of legale from the Bishnp of Rome. T/r<y are putting 
forth a pure theory, they are hiuaaed by preeonceived ideoa 
rcnpucting the supposed Korauii supremacy. 

The account in the Komaa Breviary, written in nn uncritical 
age, quietly ignores the very exiatenoe of Hosius, and simply 
asBcrts that tue Roman pontiff presided by his legates. This 
is mere assertion without the shadow of proof, Cai'dinal 
Bnronius mentions, n» co-ordinate tjicts, first, that Hosius pre- 
sided ; secfindly, that he was the legate of the Pope of Korne. 
M. de Broglie most fairly si'parates tlie all hut certain furl of 
the Bishop of Corduba'a presidency, from the hi/pot fii:.iiii, that he 
did BO as the repreaentative of the Roman Bishop Julius. Aa a 
Roman Catholic he accepts the hypntbesis, and even tries to 
support it by some arguments, inferences drawn from what look 
place at the Bubsequcnt (non'oeoumcnicalj' council of Sardica. 

* The OMin Renew, t.lioiigli not eiiMiDaiastio, trealL"! M. i3h Broglio's tuIhuim, 
If wc reiutmbpr with tmirteny bmJ res|ie«t; Lul we iiinlorBlnuJ Ibal Uio 
ultrMmnntani' \irvtv m Franm is iu nnu" ii;{iiiiiBt llii'm. 

* We ratUof iirufor to nitaiu tUe uspirato. Tlio bishop was cither a SpuiUrd o( 
an Et'.yptiau bj birtli. Bui this liocs nrjt miUtnte ag»in»t those who would iierl»o 
his name from tlio Gri'ek word °On\as. Bolg. item emhe ring, howovcr, the forma 
Ilosca B&d Q\Ke. Hahaklciik and Aiultnkniini, L{iiQnil>al and ADiiihul. wc Kill not 
prunnmo Ui dogmiLtiBC. Bur. S[>siii.irilr, uuliko f ruDcliuiUU unil lulianit, sru j^weix 
to rntiiln luir.ial iiH]iiiiit£ii. Cunsuqui^Dlly wo idiLim thu tigXii to cull a Spuiiixh 
prcUl.n HoAtuB. 

' Biiicc writing i,lie uliovo wtt ubwirrt) tliiit Dean JhtilmUin (Lai, Chr. I, p. (!0) 
aiwvrlii. timt if llueiun presided it waa a? the Court divine. Th«re arc argumentq, 
nu doubt, lor such u view, but it still hocuh to us no more thnn an lijiiuthBtin. 
Mr. Mcila (Eoatam L'hurcb, vol. i. p. 139) contends that S. CusUthiuu uf, Anliooh 

* Ur. AlliM, in his (otacvlut rhaiuwdical nplf to hie oirn book on the Stipre- 

The Firtt ChnsHan 

Ik Brogtle. 


There Hoeitu most probably preaded naain, and Sozomea 
tpcnks of the orlliodox bi»liope as bU fonowers, oi' ofi^ rhv 
''0<nav. Th« IfnIiiLii prcliitc-H (llirpc in uumber, ncooriiing to 
Dtan Milninii), re tire sen ling ihe Itumsn poiitiftj signed immedU 
alcly afier him. IluL as tliia cuuncil, htild within the Komaa 
Pnlriarchate, undeniably showed inailted reepCL-t. to the Kuitiun 
See, and allowed of appeals to Home,' iherefure, enys M. dc 
Broglie, it is eviderit that Hoaiue could only have been allowed 
the prtccdoncc iu virtue of Ins represeniing the Bishop of 
Bonic. We must leave it to impartial judge*, if siich can by 
any |>os3il>ility be found, to aay whicii of u^ is the most pre- 

' judieed ; M. de Broglie, in thutt unliesitatiugly ado[itiDg u coi>- 
clnsion, or we, in not being able to perceive that it is evident. 
"Why might not an historian, who believed that estimable pre- 
late to have prexided through his own merits and the >mpi?ri&l 
favour at Nice, assume, with jiiat a* much appeiimnce of pro- 
bability, that tho defenders of the orthodox fiiitli [iniclaimcd at 
that council, were only too tliaiild'ul to range (Iiemsclres once 
again under the chaiinianBhip of the same justly lionoured 

With one more observation wo quit this eubject, though 
wc shall have occasion to allude, en passant, to the real and 

, lofty merita of many of the Buuinn bishops of that epoch. If 
we were discu^sin^ tliis i|neBtion na our miiu subject, instead of 
incideiitnlly, it would bo neeeaaary to compare the language 
employed by the fathers, with resitcct to S. Peter, with tliat 
applied to S. Paul and other Apostles ; to compare the titles 
given to the Roman pontiff, with those applied to ulher Pntri- 
nrcha and to Icmponil rulers; to take into account, not only 
the appc-als made to Itome, but likewise those nimlo to thQ 
Archbishops of Contttanlinople and Cartliajre; and lastly, to 
place in juxtupoaiilon tlie very strongest clamis tnado in early 

'agea with those put forward by BellanninR, 

Of ihe question of celibacy, it is enough to remark for the 
present, 1, that tt is allowed on all hands to be oue of dij»- 
ciplinc and not of doctrine; 2, that It cannul be discii^ed 
witliout any reference to the Pauline divtum in 1 Timothy iii. 2 ;* 

niaejr, i>t«t<», iBif >l wpiy * malMr ireDetvllyMkDAwloiJKSil, mid i^iiltn andfipulcil, 
tint the council of t^anliuii win an i>H)Dui<iDi<iitI uue. M. ilu Itroglis. not bclns a 
..toimtt, Olid aot writing; in u ilAtB of wild uiuiUiui^ii^, HpunkM vei j ilifrorentiy. 
I'lh* oonnail of Stidim, dnBjiilc \tt Tonc^nUIc {,rcipr:rlnbh) siitliurltj'. i» not 
IltokonrnJ among tho trenmeniuivl oc>iindl». Tlic jjnni laajuriti) a/ crnionijla have 
\AeU<d a'jitinat lit dann.'—VilUc M. Tomo 1. p. SI. 

' Dr. Poii''7 ^ConnclU of tho ('liiirrh, p. Mi) ulHwrviM. thnt tbo olnlh Canon of 
he (nooBiucueal) CcnmcU of ClmlvudoQ i-Oufftr* ktmIat powon on Ibe use of Cun- 

> One of tltD ftbtc«t Konuui Cntli«lic commcntAton, Entiiu, uiainl^nR that ttio 

L 2 


'f%f First Chrintian Emperors — De Brogtie. 

and 3, timt wc must thnnk M. de liroglio for so far using his 
inticpemleiil jiidirmeiit, as not to reject ihe speech in I'livouc uf 
nllowing th« niiuTied clergy to retaio their wives, reported liy 
Socrates nnd Sozoineo to hfive bcgn inadL' at Nice, bv S. 
Paphnutios (htmsclF an aged celibate), bishop of the Thebaid, 
ID Egypt. 

But, after all, it is not {as we have alrendy implied) as 
tt polemical work ajpiinst other Christian communities, tbat 
these volumes come before the public. Tliey are ii new rending 
of old autburitics, ndilressed fur « fipeciul purjioae to a special 
audience. Wc »!\y old aulliorities, for ihc liulk of the evidence 
is nut greiiily altered since the days of Gibbon. The ciita- 
I'.oniha, unknown to that great investigator and e.\hanater of 
evidence, have indeed been laid oiten ; Cardinal Mai, and 
Mr, Cureton have recovered some letters of S. Athana^ius; 
Dom Pitra has exbnmeil some buried fiagnicnts of much worth; 
but tlioiigh additional ligbt has eonae<|ocntly been thrown 
up(m particular points, it may safely be asserted that the history 
of the times has not been revolnlionised. The leading charac- 
lera of the times stand much as they did. Constaniine and 
Constanlius, Athanaeius and Arius, Julian and Libanins, — tho 
verdicts to be delivered respecting their respective character 
depend, not upon the evidence, so to speak, before the court, 
but upon the ability uf the counsel who plead, uud the temper 
and eihication of those wliojud<re. 

For even M. Albert de Brogtie, thongli earneatly, and we 
think upon the whole most successfully, endeavouring ro be fair, 
is yet in some eense the advocate of a cause. In bis mind's eye, 
be seea before him, while he writes, tlio audience whom he 
nddrcssea — the intellect of educated Europe, but principally 
nnd nearest to his desk, the intellect of educated Fiance,, though here and there he may catch sight of a Lutheran 
of the school of Neander, of a pious Huguenot such as he has 
known in chiidbood, of Anglicans like ourselves; they, though 
each in turn may have a word which is intended for their 
cpeciid benefit, are not thr i)er5ong whose attention he primarily 
demands. Two classes among his countrymen are first in hia 
Ihonghts; the one, that knot of eager and extreino spirits, 
such as the Abbd Gaurae and the AIiIjl- Veutuia, who would 


purmiiBion hcretiy granted, ww not meftnt lo bo ponosDMii— »BrpIj a very ratifln- 
allbing moda of interpretation I Wll.ii ttiii rescrratlon, he sayi. 'Futi^ndnm 
qu^J.:m ^t njioAtotum jicTmittcro at in eptBcopum eligatur oui uxorcm 

ie First Vkrittirm Emperors — De Broglie, 


fiiin (leal witli the uinelcenlli century as if it were the thir- 
tvcntli; the othtir, that Fmtice which, iii Iiia own worJa, haa 
'everywhere eradicated troiu her iDBlitutions uiitl I'rum her 
' monuoienta the insignia and, as it were> ihe ibmis {&tii]wltr) of 
' Ohrislianity ; ' which ' has rendered itself, an far aa it ia pnesihic, 
'» nation purely phiJosophical.' To tho first of these clasfiea 
he virtually esclmms : ' I>u nut mii^take the timee. and treat aa 
' wholly Christian a. generation not broiif^ht np to believe in 

* Christ; rc»d the leaBous of history ; see how tenderly, with 
'what caution, whut wisdom and Dioderalioa, t)ie early Church 
'employed ita victories, how it sought to sanctity, not to an- 
'nihilate, the arte, the literature, the laws of paganism.' Tu 
the oictubers of tha other class, whom be bears in mind even 
more iwsiduously throughout his work, his prayer is, that they 
would not believe Christianity to he ihe narrow, Hnti-iioci»I, 
anii-oivilixing inflncnee that they have been lauglit to suppose 
it; (hat they would study its records, as it rooe into beiu^, oi 
it csme into union with the state, and mark how (despite alt ihe 
hindrances of human perversity) it achieved a work which 
even for man's lower destiny was grand, beneficent, and 

There never yet was speaker or writer wholly uninfluenced by 
the cliAmcter of the audience whom he nddressed. He may be 
wamied by the eonseion^nesd of an assured sympiUby, rendered 
cautioua by the fear o\' its absence, atung into defiance by 
the evidences of opposition, but wholly unmoved he will hardly, 
by any possibility, remain. One form of such influence whs 
oucc alluded to by the celebrated Daniel O'Coiincll. Explain- 
ing (o an Irish assembly Ills reiiBona for refusing a proffered 
jfldg<:ship, he aaid, ' I wun nirnid of being partial to my frieude, 
' or elee of being guilty of that worst of all partiality, injustice 
' to my friends for fear of seeming partial.' Whclncr this bo 
the worst of all partiality may well be questioned, for it la 
at any rate the fault of a sensitive and generous mind. M. 
de Broglic 'u a person of such a mind, and we are not sure ihiit 
he has wholly escaped the influence of this temiitation. He 
veems to have gnued in thought upon the bearers wnom he most 
wished to attract, and— if wo inay without presumption or 
discourtesy attempt to detect an under-current of thought 
ia anotlier's brain— to have reasoned with himself somewhat as 
follows: — ' YoUf dcnizcneof that France which claims to itself as 

* of sole right the title of ^iAi7!iao/>/(i(^, — you think that you know 
' befbrehnnil the course of my narrative and the tenor of my 
'judgments. You expect, as n matter of course, the most 
' unquaHficd condemnation of the pereecuting licftthen emperors, 
'llie MUK>ni»ilion of Couglanline m a faultier sovereign, and 

150 The F(nt Christian Bmperora—De iSroglte. 

'tlie dcnuaciation of JuIibr aa an unredeemed prodigy of 
' wick(^(lne»s. IX^nA and judge for your.'«lveA; whatever else 
'j'oii find, most assuredly you shall not find tliis," 

No! they will uot find lliip. but will they not meet withEdmoet 
too niucli nllowanco, an sillowfttice beyond the bounds of strict 
justice, iu the direction of their own tendencies of thought? 
With sincere diflidencc be it add, wc iuelioc to think that they 
will. Fiir be it from us to wiah that aoy should imitate tho 
eilencc of the Bomewhnt eoiirtly biogra|iher of Constantine, 
respecting the giTat tragedy in his household. Far from us be 
Jliat blind enmity, which is unfibic to rcco<;ni8e, iu sueh an ore 
a» Julian, thove endowments which extorted the eulogy of the 
'greiil and grave' Christinn poet, Prudentius, Not in these 
pngc» aliall tlie theory be upheld, which would repieseiit every 
pagan emperor who abstained from periieciition aa Uiereby of 
neccBsity proven to be better than any of thoae who adopted it. 
But still wc do thuik that for Conatantino, a word more might 
be said than i» uttered in these volumes, not {fti} •^ivoiro) ia 
pidliiition of criiiio, but with respect to his own condition and 
the general tone of society around him : the imngo of the 
apostate oasts before our (very possilily over- prejudiced) eyes, 
a still darker shadow than that which is limned in the page now 
open before us ; and as for some of the language employed with 
reference to tho early pereecutiona, M. de Broglic's French 
critic, M. Ampere, will support us in saying, that it needs all 
our knowledge of the sincerity of the autJior's eonvictiona, to 
enable ua to gi^'e his phi-ases n favourable interpretation. 

Wc have other general remarks to make, but they shall 
be interposed as we proceed, or po6l}Kined to the conclusion. 
For the present, we turn to the tatk, more pleasant for our- 
selves, and doubtless more interesting to the reader, of giving 
u rapid and bruken epitome of the four extant volumce of The 
Church and Uonutn Minpire in tho Fourth Century. 

A preliminary survey oocupiea considerably more than n 
third part of the first volume. M. dc BrogHe begins by com- 
paring the unity of the nascent Church with the uulty of the 
rapidly decbning Empire. Tho one he likens to Ihe majestic 
hot artiBcinl unity of a building raised by man, which is ever 
tendinj; to relnpae into the dust ; the other, to that of a plant 
which ospirea heavenward, nod extendi ittclf in space by its own 
organic force. 

And, firstly, of the Empire. We are reminded of Augustus, 
uniting in bis own person those offices of consul, tribune, 
pnefect, aail ponttfex maximus, which used to be a check upon 

The First Christian Emperort—De BrogUt. 151 

each other, toiictlicr with the command of an army of nearly 
400,001) men ; of th<: rupiil degradation of a people no longer 
free, which tolerated and even admired Huch monsters as 
Cuiiguls end Nero ; of the lingering respect etill paid to the 
Mithoritv of the senate, as e](hitiite<l in the very ninniigemcnt of 
that body by ci'afty rulers like Tiberius, in tlii! deference ehown 
by the Flavians and Antonines. Bnl the Btni[;gle hctwetn the 
senate and the ftnny ended for a eea^on in llie victory of the 
soldicn, who cho»e their own favonrites, until in a. d. 285 
» more oricntid coat was impaited to the monarchy by the 
abilities of Dioclelian. During all llii« period, if Uic city had 
lost, Ihe provinces had gained. Under the republic they had 
suffered from the struggles of eonleiifluig fiictionii and tiie 
avarice of magistratcB, without enjoying the glories of ihe capilrtl 
of the world- The Emperora placed thcni more on a level 
with the citizens at home, atid eminent men from Gaul obtained 
entrance into the senate even in the days of Jtilius Ciesar. 
* Piquant witticisms, that consolation of vanqmithcd uristoera- 
'cies,' did not spare thii ne\¥ Futreti CoTHcripti, who tlid not 
' know the way to the Sennte-hou«c, and who liiid elmnged their 
' trovrsers for the broad stripe on the toga,' — the badge of their 
new rank. Successive Kmpcrors played, so to speak, the pro- 
vinces against the city. Seneca and Lucim from Spain, I'lutarcll 
from (jrecoc, Fronto from Africa, were intimate with Emperors; 
uid the great lawyers of tliis epoch— Sal vius, Papinian, Ulpiau — 
were all of foreign extraction. 

'It wiui tlicf wba pnved the wny for tbe fninaubi eilict by wbiub, nt last, 
CiinitnDa srniittil Uie jus civifatii to all free iuliabiUiiiM vt tbe Empire 
(a.11. 2\3). Disboiiuurifil by tlm iiftme of its author, Hiid by the moiives 
of fihciil inlnrest wViicVj !<ii|n(<^4tcd ii, tbia net doRN ncverthRlrii« mnrlc a 
{(Mvc moment in l.lic wf.rM'ii liiatorj. The jirovuk-nLinl dustinj- of Udiiie 
MM necompllBiicd an tbnt iliiy : licr work of iLBttimiiiilioii uikI tutiquuKt t^'iia 
ConaamrnatoJ. ('rum ihc tape ul' tbe Siibtneo to tbe edit-t itl' ('Hracftlla 
nnri^ a tbouonui] yenn bad ukpsud ; no les% n periad of lime coald suiHcv 
to tills grcnt sMr to accompiihh its calira orbit.' — Tam. i. p. 85. 

Vt'e must p)i.4s onwards, at the risk of some omissions, and 
fix our eyes upon tliat gathering cloud of barbaric hosts, which, 
a# our author truly remarks, bore down upon the empire, at 
with the invincible regularity of a physical law. Between a.d. 
250 and 260, the Goth* advance from the Boryathenea (o the 
Etixinc, ihrfnigh Bithynia to Greece and Italy. The Franks 
nuh tlimugh hpaiii aitd cross to Afiica. The king of Parthtn 
reaches Antioeb, and the captive Emperor, Valerian, is put to a 

■ Tht nailcT win era tbe laiting oUuBion to Ihe FtabouTf 34. Otmiiui. 

J%e /Vrrf Chrittian Eoiper/ym — Ve Dro;iUe. 

cniel and inBuIting death. It U one of the gloriee of the low- 
born Diocletian to have arrested for a time, on every side, the 
ftiry of the lowering storui. 

And, Tiionii while, the nncicnl creed whicli (at least in ft 
iiolitlcul und cxttirniil jioinl. ul' view) Augngtu^ Inul auiight to 
inspire with new lile, wati failing under the introduction of new 
gode and new rited from every land^ allegorical pcretonifiGations 
fVom Greece, inagio mysteries from Egypt and the East 

' Thii.t, ill tlint crlcctimTn, in tlmt lumflupnce (if one mny venture bo to 
doatrilie ill <}f nil I'tUnifliiB, tlie vnriim.i ilispdaitioiis of the soul were nt 
enait. No reiitrniiil ivpiglii^d upiin nution ; no we1l-il(?[iiiei) bobi'f ua^ ia- 
llcxibi}' iinpUHod uii tbe mind. Amid tbe inllnile number af iradilions 
wliirli vHvicd Troni plftcu lo iilitrc, nn<l IVoni piicl to poet, no one could 
Huwcnl in believing llipm M, Imt no unc. was ill-mimnerpd enimgli to deny 
tlmin nil; people took ibpni or If ft ilicm. pritycd to ilieir gods, or jesled on 
ibcm Ht wilt, nccordiiig to tbi^ Inncy or iiiterfst of the Any. Erjuiiifb of 
(ftitb Hfw left lu Biijjport vnpilliiiiiiB; huiiifiii rtJisiin « little in iU hours of 
U'cnkiirxa, uut enniigli to siiUdne it to n Inw nu<I make it walk in n striiigiit 
path ; n nitimlion mnrvclloinlj mlnplcd to nn cniTvnied nice who piiHSt-aHed 
iieilbiT llic Ftiertry of h liviiijf fnilb, nor tbe boiJnc»a of a syalemaliBed 
reasuuiiig doubt. '—Tom- i. p. 4[t. 

In the loftier order of minds there was a yearning for unity. 
Apuleiui^, purlifips ApoUonius of Tyaun, eerluiiily PIiitiin;h, try 
to interpret, to lurn into iiiornJ loeauiia, to allegorize, the perill- 
ing fables of polytheism. 

Rome had wished to be more practical than Greece, to 
disenrd the quasi-theological spccniations contained in the mcta- 
pliysics of Aristotle, in siicli dialogues of I'lalo as the Titn%ui>i, 
the Phffido, the Parmcnides, and to confine lier ntfcntion 
to the sort of questions discusBcd in Cicero's De Of/iciis. The 
following remarks on this attempt deserve, we think, our 
deepest attention. 

'The reiult of this nppaTcnt simplification of pbllosopby. is one which 
has ever allcnded on every symem of mnrnlity thst professed lo slnnd 
nlone, devoid of all religious influences. It ia a natural and freijutut 
illniioii lo imHgino that tbe sepnrulLDn of moraliiy from the often ubsuuro 
problems of religious metaphyf.ies, renders it elenror aiiU eaitier. It ia 
rpally only rendered inanpriortJible and inapplicable. Fulfilment of duty 
h nniy poaaibla, and ciiu only become denr to men, wben it appears to them 
Impontul by n divine band, whieb HdUIs out in pruapect before ibcni puniih- 
innnl or rnwnrd, whtn tbu powers of ihoir eoul are ibus doubled by the 
combined indtemenls of hope, love, nnd fear. Left lo ilsclf, saying nothing 
to the ima^' million, nttnching: itself (□ no divine inspiration, lending to no 
prospwtive loUuily, biilding out but Bmill hopes to repentance, sfoie 
morality wm witliuul altraeiion its it was without support. It imposed 
unirriHeM without compensaliuii, it demanded efforta excLtod by no bopei 
llsell' early rtnigniHcd this ; it prodniraed ilself the balief of tbe minoniy, 
of the «niall number of the chosen /«;/■ fxc^teiK^, of the aage as dis- 
tingnishod from the aimpic men (iEiiTriii). It was s solitary rdigion, Man 


The First Chnvtian Rnpenrt — i^ Brorjlie. 

WM bnuiiil tci louk into himMlf, biuisdf nlone, Aluttrncliiic himself from 
every oiitwnril iulliiciice, \o seek xlt Viia power iu liis own will, till liis light 
"S-fcis uwn coDscieiicc' — Tom. i. p. 89. 

Stoicism pei'lAlied on a tlirone with Marcus Anrelliia. V.\n- 
ciireoiitsm, in its moat clegradoil form, aurvived it for a while. 
About A.D- 250 Plotinus succeeds in attracting crowtU to 
listen to tlio new Platonic teaching. Tbcy come, impelled by 
a yearning to hear the answer to the question once pnt by 
Pilate; nnd even nnitdet the profefBed heathenism of the teacher 
there may he tiaccd (it is no oncomuion casi^) snme influence of 
Miother Ibi'in of doctrine which tlic phllusuphtir was uncou~ 
eciouidy swayed by, even while he vainly strove to thwart it. 
To the consideration of that other teaching M. de BrogUo now 
BunuuoQS our thoughts. 

Tlie Rrat notice of Christianity in these pages is that it ia at 
once a fact and a doctrine. Of its Divine founder we have his life 
and his addresses ; of S. Paul, dogmatic epistles commented on 
by hii) toils and sufTcrin^H. Both theae chnractcrii«ticB must be 

Tlit'jse remarks are perftictly jiint. Canon Stanley truly 
rcmnrka of Neander, that his history is rather the history of 
opinions than of men. This is one extreme. There are those 
who would le inclined to Bjty. on the conlrnr)-, that the starry 
writing of the learned Oxford Professor errs in attributing too 
much to individual men, too little to the inRuence of abstract 
but living; and dominant ideas. 

Aitnuming, aa we have said, with our anthorj the authcniidly 
of the Gospel records, we can afford also with him to admit 
tJie human elements which God'a Providence has employed for 
the attainment of \\\» designs. But it nuiy be well before 
alluding to the earthen vessels which were entrusted with the 
treaenre, to consider how vast was the gulf to be crossed by 
tho^ profeffsors of polytheism from whom we have just piu"ted. 
Accustomed as we are from childhood to receive instiiietion in 
the loftiest pi-ublems concerning the Divine nature, insomuch 
that (to illustrate M. de Broglie by the Christian Year) we ece 

' Wlml SHi:fB HOiild liBve AwA to learn 
Now trtiighi by cor.iiige danici',' 

we can hardly imagine the difficulty which even the wisest 
heathen felt with re!»pect to llie worship of an infinite God. 
Wc pity bcHcTcrs in polytheism, feel indignant at the wor- 
«hippcrti of ihe golden Calf, ^luile at llie ftllegorieaof Plato, the 
puxzlc* of Cicero. 


The First Christian Smper»rs — De Bnglie. 

' T.ot UB not, hon-PYftr, he «(» mivcrn upon ihr. ilml; mnslcrs of TpUnion nnd 
thought. Till! licart of mwi is not sn chsnjteil l)y tbc liLpic ol' time ihni s 
IIiUl' inirospi'C'tioti will nut eoHbli* us tu ilucuver an ciplimulion of its 
HirHiigcst HBukiieises. Pur iiiBlauce, it ia ccriuiu tlinl, even to iis, the iilcn 
of God, nlipn tt coracs to us ftom pure reason, only »ppc«ra snrroimilcd 
by incitriciiblc prnblems ivliicb inviilvR ng tlicir coiigciiiciirea tbrcntruing 
mklciliclionii. Conirodictory notioim, diflkiiUiex iimolublf but bUII oii- 
Bvoiilnbto, which My iniellei't, spriuj! Irom prolonged rtflcctioii on iLo 
yductl'Uod. Unitblu to sinni) ou sucli buifbts In a just puiiitoreiiuilibriniii, 
vic form, Bltcruntelv, ideas of the llivino Ksseiice too clcvfttcii for oumeken, 
nr too nnu'orthy of il. SomclimrH ilc loircr it to oiir nnn Htaiidnril whilst 
VI c utrive to eomprebcnd it ; lomctiincs h c cciisu to comprehend ouraelve*, 
u'hiUt vK endeavour to etilarge our tUuutfbtH in ordtr to iiIIhw to it.'— 
Ttim. !., p. 78. 

The pi^es in the same strain, which follow this extract, are 
well worthy of the attention of the students who fuel an iDtereet 
in the problems discussed in Mr. Manscl's Bnmpton Lectures. 
Their main drift is to show how the God of whom reason told 
men was a freezing uhstraction, while yet any departure from 
such ideas at once sunk down into the groe^nesa of itnthro- 
pomorphic polytheism with all its train of eartlily passions. 
One fact — one doctrine — alone can save us from the cold ab- 
etriicfioD of Piinthcism, Irom the impure dctiletnents of poly- 
theism, the mystery of the Holy IncnruatioD. 

Again are we tempted to cite, in illustration of these refleo- 
tiona (happily not new to English roaders), the words of one of 
our own poeta — 

' The very God I Ibink, Ablb ; dost tlion lliinlt 1 
So, the All-tirusl were tbo All-Loving too — 
So. ibrougU tljB ihiiniler comCB a hiimnD voicA 
8nying, '- O benrt 1 ninde, a benrt bents here ! 
Fnce my hands faahiont^d, nca it in myself. 
Thon hnst no power, nor miiy'st conceive of tnlnc. 
But love I gnvu tbo(^, irilh Myself to love. 
Add tboii niiist love M« who hnve died for thcol" 
Tbc madman Boitb He unid so : it is strange.' ' 

Bnt an institution was founded, as well as a dogma taught. 
While *s yet not a single book of the New Teatament was in 
existence, Apostles were on all sides extending the faith. Of 
the three leading membera of the College, 8. Peter, S. Paul, 
and S. John, we are presented with sketches, which may recall 
come pages of Dr. Stanley's ApostoUc Age, and of Dean 
Ramsay's Dtversifies of Christian Cfinrarlcrs. M. de Broglie is 
perfectly juatitied in asBcrting that, left to themaelvca, S. Paul 
and S. John would have Counded distinct and even hostile sects ; 
that they worked for a common end is one of the many 

' Robart Browning. Mm «nd Wumen. Vol. i. pp. 106, 6. 

The Ftral Clirinluin Emptrort—Pe Brwjlte. 155 

thousand incidental proofs of the nntiiire of Him who cnllcil 
them and ecnt thcni rorth. 

liut in the counso of time not only the poor, not only the 
bi'lievcre in gross Baper8iil,ioiia, tiot only pagan priesta but too 
conscious ol imposlure, came to ait beneath the rising and 
sfireaditiff branches of the tree springing from the mustdrd-seod. 
Philosopny likewise sought a place tliere, iiometiiiies indeed, with 
a Justin Martyr or a Clpment, humble and docile, but some- 
tioMM, and more eppednlly at Alexandria, tincturing the eim- 
plicity of the Guspel with dii^tigurt'd Judaism — witness Cerin- 
thus ntid Ebinn ; or with modified Magianigm — witness Basilidca 
and Vutentinian.* 

But we shall not dwell on Gnosticism (on whicti ao much may 
be learnt from Gibbon and Neander) further tlian to observe, 
with our author, how completely it explained away the leading 
fealurCiS of Christiauify, an<l how signal was tlie victory obtained 
over it by the writers of the second age of the Church, such aa 
8. IrcniPiis, by llic twofohl weapon of the tradition from the 
Apudtles and of the four Gospuls, Still the very fact of such a 
contest with such a foe alfectcd, as mnat always happen, tho 
character of tho victorious bo<ly. * It transfuruicd Bishops into 
Doctors, and believers into Havana' (p. 116). S, Clement and 
liis disdple Origen exhibit the new phase of Christian teaching, 
making use of Greek philosuphy, a use which proved of ines- 
timable serx-ice to the Cbmcb, tiiough not wilhoiit accompanying 
dangers; dangers which tiic Latin Fathers always dreaded, and 
in (he recoil rushed to the oppoaile extreme of strict, and some- 
times harsh and narrow dogmatism. 

M. de Browlle appears to have been much struck (as we, too, 
have always been) with the exhibition of these opposite tenden- 
cies in the two greatest gruiusea of that epoch, Origen and 
Tcrtullian. It is a subject to which we may have oceasiun to 
recur, Hm vohnti:, at a future day. At present we can only 
remark, in passing, tlie melancholy fact that neither the stern 
dogmatist Tertulnan, nor the pbiloaophic inquirer Origen, bears 
before his name the honouved title of Saint; and also that, 
just as Coleridge declares that all men are bum Aristotelians or 
Platonistic, so most divine:< may be said to have an inclinntioa 
(OwanU Origciiisni or Tertulliariiam. 

Of the pre-eminence of liaptisjn and the Tloly Eucharist over 

> At thia point. M, ite Bmt;1ic riwommRnda Uie iLiulj of U. ViTlemniD'a Tolnnie, 
Etmis tiir V E!-i'ja<vc( Chri^linni: na Qanirihar SiMi: We liavfi (flkeu (.lit tuKice, 
ftnil found ourf^Mve* wiiiU rejmiiJ, l>aiSy iMjicliirn who chT^- forCliiir'''! ht^tnry i^'oiiUt 
fiad tniu;h to mk-rc^t lliuru in I.Iim pjIriMti'i stu'cirin;!!" ol' i-Uiiiui^ucf, The prt- 
limiaikry «">V "» P<>iythui>in ncal nut bu resit so tt auaditioa tif uuduntiuiuiuif 


The Ftrst Chrnitan Mnpeivrs — Be lirvijUc. 

all other orOinancci of a Bncramental chnrnclcr JI. de Broe;li« 
ppealiB in tcims not very f«r removed from lliose of our English 
iluniilic». Of tliv pusition of n Cliristinn in timt nge onr nnllior 
writes : — 

' A Chriatinu vn* n mnn nho niu trnnqiiil Ainiditt n. nocicty that nm 
nllcrnntply IHvoUjus hikI ninrmed, pltiM-^ed in pti^uBureB or (lintrBaee*- A 
ChnBttHii had bis i'<iii)«.'i*^iii'C free amlilf^l a Buciuty nltoriiiilel}' servile m\<\ 
rebeQious. A CliriMimi ronrelKii straiglii in Inn point, in the tiiid^i of n 
HOpictj' tliiil. una nntidrrinjl it klirn not uhithnr, A Chrisl.inn niu full of 
hope nmidst n siidcty dpuplyiiiscmjrngcdnt its oivn cimdilion. Wlicn Inw* 
Mere pcrinhinp. when Ihtrly ciunpi-lilnrs ncre iiisputing Tor the s»vcreipiii_v, 
nnd a. hundred (jftHmrlnu tribM tur the very soil uf thu Emjiire, a Chri«liiiii 
knew vhert to find his government Hiid bis Ihw. He nlonc madi.* pnrt offt 
eompiict oi^nnixntion irith cbicfa niid niinislcrH of Its nun; he nlone Tclt 
hiniKrlr [irotci:t('d, rpntrnincd, commnnded ; lie nlimp, nmiilsi the general 
deluKC did not expect (o see tiie sliy pumc down upon bis hend, the tiirth 
Inil h(.'ni*itth his ft-et. This I'eehn^ ol' eulmnexs in the midst ol' ihe qunk> 
ing Mil arouLid ortentiineii biii'*i lorili nilb nil ibe ecstasy of ft Irliinipbiil 
»onj[. " Tlic. Cburch," eiicd the Cbrislinns, "is in the world liko n uliip mi 
the hiRh seas. Sbo in sivnyed nt the will of the navea, but doe* not miik, 
fur shi! is guided by ii Ekill'ul pitol, by Jeiius Clirist. She, too, bi^Hrs on 
board liur tropby ; the one by u bieli she hits been snulcbed from di-nth, 

thp CrosH of her Lord The wind is the spirit ol' heiiven by which 

the faithful receive the seal of God." ' ' — Ibid, torn. i. pp. HO, 130. 

And, meanwiiilp, with what eyes did the Roinnn world gnzc 
niiim tliia spectacle? There are prolmtjly only throe iittitudi-s 
wfiich llie hnmnn mind can adopt towards trutli for the first 
time placed before it; those, namely, of contemptuous indif- 
ference, deep hatred, or yearning affection. The Roman world 
be/jan wiih the firat-nanied of these Bentimcnts, contempt ; ' ccr- 
' tain questions of their own Biiperslition, and of one JesuSi 
' which was dead, whom Paul aflinnej to be alive.' ' But, then, 
' the Apostles were Jews, and the Jews were accused of a 
' hatred of the human race ; let tlieee Jews, hke their brethren, 
' suffer the just retaliation. Worse than other Jews, they prosa- 
' lytiso, they ineult our temples and ceremonies, they come 
'across our daily life at every turn.' Thus thought, before 
long, the mass of the citizens of the Empire ; but in the two 
extremes of social condition there were to be found most strik- 
ing exceptions. Oflen, as it is here observ<'d, lias this pheno- 
menon been witneaaeil in the history of Christianity : the poor 
who feel the bitterneaa of existence, nnd the rich who become 
conscious of tlie unsatisfying nature of its joys, are the moat 
accessible to spiritual influences; while those of the middle 
classes seem more immersed in the cares of earth, more drawn 
duwnwarii by the lure of gnin. Soon in the most miKcniblc 


Th« quotstioQ is from S, Hippolytui. 

^ na Firat Christian Emiitrora — Ik BrMftie. 157 

nBarbs of great cities, and in the household of C«8ar, wils 
known the name of Christ. But each day n-itno^soil Stc&h 
coUieionti of thought »n<l action, [ii the honour piiid to cell- 
bftcy, in the strictnt-gs nod [lurity of Christina luarringe, iu the 
clmrity dieplnjed townrila the iioor — what can he moiu Hiinoyiiig 
thiui good deeds that make us teel aahatiied, eapedally if wrouj^ht 
hy those whom we would fain despise? The Pagau saw with 
uneasiness a new code of ethics, a formidable source of rising 
power that could no longer be merely contemned or ignored. 
j^ic notion, too, thut an unenfmnchised slave eouli), in any 
point of view, be considered equal to his master, could once in 
the week ait by him and juin iu the Biimc wi)ralii|i on ibo same 
terms, was in direct oppoeilion to the habits of a people which 
often indeed gave liberty, but had no conception of auy possible 
exaltation of a skve while still remaining a slave. 

And besides all this, the Romtin state hud ever felt the 
keenest jealousy and suspicion of any association that threatened 
to become an {nijifri-um in. imprrio. Trajan disliked the esta- 
blishment even of a society formed to cxtiuguiah fires, and of 
any unntiually large family reunion. What was likely to be 
the sentiment of such rulers towards a sociely which had its 
ramificatioru everywhere? The refusal to swear 'by the for- 
lune of Cawar,' and by similar forms of adjuration, the unwill- 
ingness to lake part iu any milit-iry ceremonies of an idolatrous 
character, were fresh insnila to the state. Moreover the very 
persecutions, which compelled the Christians to celebrate divine 
worship iu caserns and secret places, gave a handle to those 
who represented them as engaged in scandalous and even mur- 
derous mysteries. 

"Hie famous letters of Pliny to Trajan exhibit the petplcxcd 
state of mind among the more fair and reasonable Ptiguns. Yet 
Trajan is responsible for the martyrdom of S. Ignatius. Wc 
must not pause to recount how, in llie succeeding age, the very 
love of Christians, not for their couwtiymeu alone, but for 
Christians everywhere, induced Iroah suspicions of Bympiitliy on 
the part of believers with the barbarian invaders: nor how, 
under Decius, a fearful edict was fearfully cirried into execu- * 
tion, revealing the numbers of those who bore the name, reveal- 
ing, too (shidl we who live at case presume to judge it?) tho 
weakness of some who, like S. Peter before the day of Peutc- 
00«t, denied their Lord. 

Diocletian, though at last seduced into persecution, was at 
the commencement of his reign surrounded by Christian cham- 
berlains, who did not dea|t«ir of succeeding with their imporial 
master as they did with many in hia place. The following 
letter is new to us, and will probably be new to our readers. It 


7%e First CkrwHan Emperors — Ih Broglw. 

is sddresHed by S. Theontw, Biahop of Alexnntlria, to one of 
these chnmbt'rlains. As wc might expect, in nn epistle from 
Aloximdria, it breathes whiit we venture to term the Origeniat, 
rsEher than the Tcrtulhriiiistr spirit. 

' I do not think thnl you tire in nny ilnngcr of vnin-Elury rroiu the 
hapiiiueHii you enjoy ol' causing Bevernl in tb(> prince's piilni'i' (o li^nr lliit 
triitli ttirouiili your ineaiiH : rnlber lliat you ftiirri tliatilis lu Ond, wlio 
hnH niftilcT tit' yoii m ^ood inntriiinent for n good work , . . . Fur yrncr. thn 
priiiCR, not being us vet ciigi>t;i^d in uiir religion, ha^ ni-'vnrtholdii conlidcid 
tiie giinrdiunHhip of (lis life and pi-moii to Chriaiiiiiis as to tliu moil I'aithtiil 
scrvnnts Im cuiild seli'i't, you uuulil to sbuw yottrselves the mure vii-ihuit 
and ncTivn in acjuittiiip ytnirsBKes of this (ask, that the Tiame of Clirist 
may be fclorilied in you .... One af you, it 'a said, has ri'erived Vnt 
privatu moiiic* of the prince into liio charge, another tlie impnrin) vri[< 
munis nnd ornaments, another the prcciinis vhbbs, another the liooks. 

.... Tliia last ought to be the moat diligent of all Let him not 

neglect l.o inlbrat binwejf of neeaUr lilBrninrf, and to atndy the works of 
genina among the Gentiles, uhich laay please the pHnee, Let him in 
iii.i converimiicms with him, extol the poet* f nr their grandeur of Invention, 
lor the interest of their fables t let him pruise the ornlors fur their 
propriety of cuprMBitm and their great eluquente. Let bim also ajinin; 
the pbiioBophers for iheir special merit: let hint praise the hinlurians who 
rrlnle to us the scriea and connexion of events, the manni^rs of our 
atteeHturs. and the origin of our iawa. .... Snmetimes let him endeavour 
til liLlruduee the praise of the Huly Scriptures, trnnKhited viib so much 
care:, and so mueh cost, iutuoor hinziiiige by order ol* Pluletny Pbiliidelphus: 
■nd or^ let him cllc the tinspels and the Anoslle*. depfwitaries of 
the DiviiMS Ornclea. The name of Christ may thus be insimin:Pd into Ms 
discourrie, nndhc may find aiinic opportunity of shoning that Deily rv.iides 
ill Him Jilonc: with Chrisl^s help nil these things may succeed.' — Tom. 
i. pp. 173, G> 

Attempts were now made to parody, and (if we may so speak) 
to travestie Chnetianity. Eusebius [ix. 5)' reUtea how false 
aocoiints of the hfe and psisnion of Christ were taught in 
sdiools mid CDiniiiitled to nn-mory. Lives of would-be rivals, 
esjiecially of that singular person, Apollonius of Tyaiin, were 
freely eirculated. (For, as I'aley has justly I'einarked, no early 
opponents of Christianity ever denied the historic truth of our 
Lord's miracles: they admitted them, and ascribed them to 
nwgtc. Celsus, for example, declares that Chrii>t learnt the art 
of Borcery in Ej^ypt.) Maximin went so fnr m to try to 
estiibiiali ti kind of rtvid hierarchy aiuoDg the heathen. 

• M. dc Broglis refers ng to Oalandl, jBiAHu'Wo w/frww Patrum, torn, iii,, for 
the nrigina). 

* We lui^ haru munlion, uure fur all, that we have veritind a tor^ namber ef 
M. de Brogllu's rerereiiees tu Tseitua, Suekinlus, KiisehiuH. Snomtcii. S. Augustine 
and the Spiciltgium SolnmrTiie, as alBO to OibboD, Nesnder, &c. We have been 
*u mueh niriiok with the twcumey uiii! fiunie*« aliown in the line of tlie*e 
iiulboiitiea. tluil wc fuel the tallest eoniidcnce In thoac we bate not yet examined, 
WhQae™r,ai in thi' ea*;, we ^ivc a rcferenoo In the test, it lius haen vctiCL'd luid 
the rcBultant ttalement i* ntlca ai much oiir^ om M- de Broglie'a. 

7Tt« Fir^ Ckrialian Stnpcrors—Ve BroglU, ISfl 

* The »u<-ccMor of Diocletian, Gnleriun, who had ui^ed, wo 
misht ainioat aay fioaded, that great EmptTdr to tlie aiiiigninary 
taslf of persecution, wag ^inick by a terrible disea*.^, jiud 
published on hia dcatU-bed (a. d. 311} that singular edict of 
lolomtioD which Eui^ebins nnd Lactimtius Lave preserved for 
us, and wliich even Gibbon (olinp. xvi.) has lliougbl it well to 
reproduce. ' lie siicins,' says M. de Umglio, ' lo fi:el that the 
'hands of the God of ihe Christiana haa fallen upon liim. It 
'ia a singular document, half insolent, half Huppiiiuit, beginning 
'with insults to the C'hriHtiaug, and ending with a request for 
'their pmyers." The following comments strike us as being 
umongMt the very grandest, even iu volumes so replete witlt 
noble thoughts as tliose before ua. 

'Tliin fff of griff seems to hiive tern wrung rrom the wry henrl of 
jmcxa society. Sick, like its ngcd tjTniit, exli'iualcd l>v n lusl I'diivuliiioii 
ol' ra^e, extcadnl on its bed ot pniii, it whb abuui Ut cull lu its HssUlance a 
(itxl Toag detestci] aixl Mill imknawn. It vmt Mbnul to n?»(>rt lo ibitl 
mfiilnrioiiH prutcciioti uho^ic piiwcr whlUt it cursed it, if. atill bud fell, Hitb 
ila soul itiiincd wilh murder nnd lis mpmliora giinwcd by k-jmirij. It 
, nre ilsidf whcilly to tliia (Jod with its ricbfs, its goods, nnd its uiirlw. It 
i %U nliout t(i (^iilTUSt tu Hiiri tlte skilM, but nlreitdf detatiiiu;, kliuiir tif a 
idilliant aud prciH|ieTnils dvUiitatiori, slroog Ih»« iin<lamiiuml by HtinrL-by, 
iHpmri" covrled by ilie cupidity of bAcbnriniin, nrt* corrupted by volii])- 
hioiiiBiHit. ChrJBiuiiity ndvniici^d under the bnnnor of Cun.-iiuntinR lo 
gnllier togcibcr nil ibese mreckn, lo imprint liur mnrk upon Ihem, nm! 
Hliiht prepnrmg fur tbe world a iiuw life, to rolnin Htill for a fen- days ou 
tho but of tLe imperial coqiae ibcbrcatb of life ttiat was jiut about to quit 
it.' — Tom. i. pp. i&i, 3. 

From n state of persecution to one of toleration, from 
toleration to supremacy, is the natural course of truth. 
This preliminary survey has exhibited Christianity under the 
two firift conditions; we Imvc now to see it advaiiciug lo ita 

At the moment when Galerius put forth his memorable 
edict, there were no les« than six Emperors. Diucletiun, ia his 
stale of voluntary retirement, witnea^ed tlie frustration of tbo 
plan lie luid formed; that, namely, of having two Emperora 
lAitffu^ti) with two heirs presumptive and associated in jwwers. 
known as CWsara. Among the six. one was alrca<ly coii- 
apicuously pre-cmiuout. Coun^e, ability, and (a» n heathen 
pauc^yriitt observes) the strictest purity of life dlatinguislicd 
Constantino, eon of Constantius Cldorue, by lieritage from bis 
father, Eiii[>eror of the West. 

That father had been a^isociated in Empire by DioeJetian, 
Through clainiiDg some connexion with the Emperor Claudius, 
Constftntius the First was indebted for liia elei'ation far less to 


77ie Pint Christian Eviperora — Df Broglie. 

his birth thiiii to his services, ns un able, though not n rvrtiinate, 
general. Const^intinc wiis the son oi" liis fir:st n-it'e' Helena, 
whom he rcnu'liuteil that he might wed the daughter-in-in\v uf 
Miixiiiiin. When Coufttantiua and (.Jaleriua were elevated to 
the rank of Augaaii, Galeriua contrived to thwart the exrwcted 
advancement of the young Constantine to the rank of Cfesar. 
The father, the sun, and the army were all indignant at tlie 
introduction of such nobodies lis Flnvius Scvcrue mid Muximin 
Dflift to this high position. But Constantius was bu»y in Oaul 
nnd could not help hi^ son. Oalcriua kept Conetanline by him, 
and though not daring lo attempt his life, espoaed him to the 

fi-eatcat perils; till at length Constantius Chlorus found hia 
eakh declining, and desired that his eon should join him in 
Cinul. GaieriuH gave consent, nnd then repented; hut the 
repcntaucc happily came too late, Cun^tantiue had already 

Con$)tantiuB, to his p-eat honour, had eluded obedience to tli« 
commands of Diocletian in the matter of the persecution; 
[wirlly from natural humanity, partly, it may bo, from a half- 
unconscious inetination to the faith of the Cross. Gaul was 
wlready producing great Doctors of the Church and founding 
schools for instruction in theology. Constantine was moat 
favourably received in Oaul. He found his father nt Boulogne, 
just ready to start for Britain. But the fatigues of the expedi- 
tion were loo great for a fjame enfeebled by age nnd illiietts, 
and Constantius Chlorus died at York, recommending hia sole 
surviving son to the soldiers, who were already well inclined to 
the brave and i>ojmlar prince. 

We agree with the present Professor of Modern History at 
Oxford, ' that the succession to the Romuu empire was pnicti- 
' rally hereditary, though the hereditary principle was modilScd 
' bv domestic iulrigue, hy domestic assnsoi nation, and by the 
'childlessness which so often resulted from Koman morale.' * 
It woe no novelty to the army which Constantius had led, to 
give cfibct to the dying wishes of their late commuuder. Con- 
stantine was immediately and uuanimoufly proclaimed emperor. 
Galerins was furious on receiving the formal intimation of this 
election, but not daring to oppose it upenly, consented to recog- 
nise Constantine as Ciesnr, but not as Augustus, to which latter 
rank Sevcrus was^exalted. Couslautine acquiesced; he could 
atford ' to bide his time.' 

1 We say uiye mlriiHjdly ; for ttiongh liur murrioge vas sDini;tliiag»1iurl of (he 
higlit»l known to lluinnn Inw, yut (ml Oiblion furclbly nMairkii) no repadiation of 

a roero conciililiii^ wuulil luivo been needed. 
, » Oxford Vjmyt for 18SB, p. 30T. 

The First Christian Emjierors — De Sroylie. 



'Wc lire not (lispoecJ to <lwcl] Qpon the details of a period 
iviitcli, liwiigli uarratcil nitli much spirit id theee volumes, is 
ftot one of tlieir peciilinr features. "With one exception,' GiblK>D 
has done justice to this portion of Constantinc't) career. The 
vigour and equity with wliich ho ndminrstcrcd the government 
of Gaul, the prudence of his political cotnbinatioiiK with the 
rival ruler', (lie military talent ho displayed, all tend to give us 
n very lofty idea of hia natural powers. Those powers were 
about to be dcdicntcd to a new service, which, humanly 
^Msking, efiected a revolution in the entire fnuuc-work of 

Maxentius, ruling tyrannically at Rome, has declared war 
asainst Conslantine ; and Conatantine U meditating the chances 
of taking the initiative, and instead of waiting to be crushed, 
advancing boldly into Italy. It ia a step (as Gihhon admits) 
full of hazard ; he resulves to entreat a God to enlighten him ; 
but the question arises — what God? Three of those who hiul 
shared with him the supreme power, Maximian, Soverus, Gulc- 
riue, have perished by terrible deaths. They were nU woiahiji- 
pcrs of many gods. Hia own father, Coostantius Chloriis, had 
w far caught the echoes of the truth that were circling round 
him, as to nray, in whatever ignorance, to One supreme Qod ; 
and he diwj in pence, beloved by all who knew hitn. bequeathing 
the cm|)ircto his son. The twu liLte^t expeditions against 
Rome, believed to he under polytheistic patronnge, had tailed. 
Was it poHKiblc that in that ^louotheism of his sire, the son 
might find the key to the diHiculties that oppressed him ? 

From this date (a.d. 312) Conslantinc made eolcmu prayer 
and appeal to tue God of the Ometiane. We chall not paiusc 
to examine the evidence for some outward vision ])roving the 
turning-point amidst his perplexities. But if even the cautious 
and reticent ^Neandcr admit:*, that ' we ought not, without 
we^hty reasons, to reject tlie legend altogether," ht may at 
. once declare that wc iicc no such weighty reasons, no sufficient 
grounds, for doubting Constantine's own Account, as given by 
Eueehius. Edmund Burke and Dr. Arnold have avowed their 
belief in some of the miracles narrated by Venerable Bede ; the 
rcasonM they give fend, aJiMrliori, to make us iiccepl llie marvel 
mid to have been witnei^sed by the firet Christian emperor. 

I Tlie ezccptiim in tli« death of ^laxiuian; GiblioD uilmidt thai 'buileMrvvd 
hkblo,' but llilnkR thnt Conatimtliic i^iiouM haTc ipcrcd his otru fiit)ier-in-1uw. 
CwtalnVi 'f ''^t falbcr-iU'tiin onl flret tried ta luwi^nate him. OibI>cia 
(&MMS to doiilit lliQ avt'uunU uf tluxliaiaD'h jiiior Iranchery; the weight of 
•Tfdenoe »t«ai» to at offihiel him, uvea if Lucl4Uliu>i hiu) Ijeen too favourable to 

MO. CIX.— X.S. M 


Tlie, Fir$t OirisHan EntptrorB — De Broglie. 

True, indeed, it is tliat loan has no right to presume on any 
ft priori reasonings in sucli a cnw ; to our earthly eyes neither 
the loss of an axe-head nor the de&cicncv of wine nt n marriage 
feast would «cem (o call for any special interposilion. Never- 
thclci«B, i<uch \» the conatitution of the human mind thtit it 
Cniiitot ir/ioHi/ free itself from such prepossessions; and surely, if 
ever a mighty change deserved to be heralded, and in some 
degree brought about, by marvels in tbo sky, thie was one of 
them. Wc repeat, we aeo no ground for disbelieving that 
Constatitine was permilted on a certain day to behold above 
the celling sun a cross of lipht, with the worils ey Tovrtp vUa. 

Rapid and lirilliant waa the march into Italy. On the 28th 
of October, at Snxa /?i(irrt, about nine miles from Rome, auiidtit 
noble soenervi the contending armies met. Both as general and 
as soldier, Constantino proved himself thoroughly deserving of 
the confidence of the eallnnt troops he led. The charge of 
cavalry wliich he hcadeiT in person, conspicuous by the splendoar 
of arniii, carried nil before it. The Milvian bridge broke down 
under the weight of the retreating foe, and Maxentius was 
drowned in the Tiber. The pagan prieeta whom he had con- 
sulted had given him what jiroved a true, aa indeed it was a 
safe reply, ' That the enemy of the Romans would perish — ilia 
die hMtem RcmanorHm esse periturtnii.' 

And if, on his entry into Rome, the conqueror did not onenly 

Erofeas, in the alill pagan city, his gratitude to the Goa who 
ad so wondrougly shielded him in youth and led him on to the 
victory now won, let it be rememhered how completely all the 
traditions of the capital, all the forms of government, nil the 
signs of triumph, were entwined with the creed of paganism. It 
waa mucJi that no sacrifice to false gods, no visit to the Capitol, 
the essentials of a Roman ovation, falsified the new convieljons 
of his heart. The inscription of this date on his statue waa 
indeed a sign of the times. 

' The sItttuG was plnred in an opcii and well-frfiquented sitiifttioD. It 
belli in ili bnn<}, Euscliius infoi-ms an, a Innce in the I'orm of n crass, 
liuncitb it, this inscription wns engraved : '■ By (Lib Balutary aign ortriia 
coucNge, I liave lU'livercd your eity from llio yoke of tyraniiicdl rule. 1 set 
free tlie sonalo aud lie people iif Rtimu, and I restored to iljeiii the splen- 
dour of tlieir furiner dignitj." Tbi- cross waa not named, stili less tbe 
Criir.ifipd, ll, is, however, impossible uot lo perceive Ihere the timid 
liomnji;!.' of nsiucdi'c conscience naxious lo do right bdbre God, without 
too openly braving men." — P. 237. 


Thc_ new year (313) commenced with the famous edict of 
toleration publisheo by Conelantine and Licinius at IMilau; an 
example unwillingly tollowed hy Maximin. 

I First Chrt$fian Emperora — De BrogUe. 


Deep and fervent wa^ tlie joy of the Cliristians. On nil ^des 
iiroae noble basUicas, instead of humble and often ruined chapels. 
Thai; at Tyre was especially distinguished by ita magnificence, 
and the solemnity of its dedication. 

It is melanchgly to think how soon this joy was in gome 
degree overcast by the breaking out of the scliism of the 
DonaUsts in Africn. Thut stern spirit of Tertulliaii breathed 
in tJic lieart of many a one auioiig hia countrymen. Flight 
from perseoutioQ was deemed cowai-dice, even pru<k'iit reserve 
was frowned upon. A di8|)osition, which has again and agiiia 
proved the parent of schism, was being manifested ; the wish, 
that iB, to make the Church militant at once into the Church 
triumphant; to gather up the tares in this life instend of waiting 
for the harvest. ' No wonder ihiit Constantino was disappuinted, 
though hnppily the influence of Husius led him to lay the l>hiine 
in the right ijnnrtcr. A email council held in Rome, at Con- 
stantinc'a desire, under the presidency of its Bialiop, Miltiades, 
condemned the Douatlsts and acquitted the Bishop accused 
by tliem, Caecihan. By a curious conjunction, the famoua 
heathen lad% aa>culart>s were due tliis yeai-, but the pagans did 
not venture to celebrate them. 

^Meanwhile, as Constautine in the West, so in the East 
Licluiua had become sole master, by the overthrow of Masimia 
DaiH. This was snother addition (o the violent deaths which 
overtook so many of the pagan petteciitors of Christianity. A 
famoDS treatise, generally asi^igncd to Lactantius, entitled De 
morte pfrtfciitoruiii, CdWcA the public attention to these facts. 
Can we marvel, if, after all that the Christians had undergone, 
the spirit of perfect charity should not always reign supreme 
amkl^t the vivid colouring of one who had belore his conversion 
been by profession ti rlietoriciau? 

\Vhatevcr had been the deserts of Maximin, the victory of 
Licinius was most barbarously employed. And now the world 
was once more divided, as of yore between Antony and Au- 

Sistue- It waa destlued that Licinius should be the Antony.' 
e seems to have brought his destruction on himself, as Gibbon 
grants, by his own perfidy. The first civil war between the 
two ended in a treaty of peace purchased by the Eastern Em- 
peror nt the price of vsst cessions to Constantino, no less than 
the provinces of Pannonia, Dalmatia, Dncia, Macedonia and 
Greece^ Harmony remained unbroken for eight years, from 
A. n. 31.5 to 323. 

' Cr. Dcui Trench On the Parablct formaoy cixdllciit aommenU oil th» it^ot 

' At ikoMDj Lad marrieil OcUivl*, the liitcr of AugutliM, m had Liolnlw 
IDUTwd ConvtAntio, th« lUter of Conatanllno. „ 


K4 Thc^ First Christian Emperors — De Brotflte. 

In the second civil war between the two, Constantino is made 
by Gibbon the aggressor. Without directly controverting Gib- 
bon, M. do Broglie proves, we think, the existence of another 
element tliiin nny mere ambition on ttie purt of" Conatantinc. 
Liciniiis had joined, us we have seen, in the edict of toleration. 
. But he wns etill a heathen, and aoon begun to vex and harass the 
Chrietiana in hia part of the empire. JIc forliade meetings of 
bishops ; and, though himself a notorious libertine, afiecled to 
share the scraples of those who pretended to see in the freedom 
of Christian assomblieH, in churches and for instruction, a danger 
to morality. Disobe<^liencc to his commnnde induced savage 
persecution. What degree of personal ambition may Iiave been 
min^l^d with the complaints of Constantine is known to One 
alone ; but lus honour was at stake as well as his convictions. 
TJie joint edict would soon become a dead letter, if it was igno- 
mintotisly set at ouiight in one half of the empire. In ward- 
ing off some inroads of the Goths, Conslnntiue was not over 
particular (was he called upon to be so?) in preserving, amidst 
marches and counter-maiclies, the exact limits of his own 
domains. Licinius sent hnlf-imploriog, half-insulting protests; 
— ' cum varidssel,' says an anonymous chronicler of tnc time, 
' inter supph'canlta ac tiii/ierha mandara, iram Constantim meritb 
'exeitavit, Constantine recriminated, complaining bitterly of 
Ids colleague's bad faith towards his Clirisfjan subjects. The 
natter soon passed beyond words; the appeal lay to the God of 
liattles, Licinius openly threw his lot with heathendom, his 
rival bore the Cross upon the diadem. 

We have spoken of an interval of eight yeare between these 
two civil wars. Dnriuf; that time Constantine had not been 
idle. He had been called upon to allay religious dissensions in 
Africa, he had made his first ajipearanoe as a legislator. A 
word on each of these points may be fitly interposed before we 
return to the issue of the struggle with Licinius. 

The Donatiats were dissatisfied with the decision of the gmall 
council held at Borne. They affirmed that their cnse had been 
mistaken, that CiEcilian was not the person mainly in fault, but 
I'elix, Bi^op of Aptonga, who had ordained him. According to 
Hiem, Felix had during the last pctrseoulion given up precious 
manuscripts to the magistrates, and such condnet, they maui- 
tniucd, rendered all his ofScial acts null and void. 

' The Eaappror, anxiuua to otid ibe couflicl, alloiTod Iiimsplf to he shitkun 
by thcBP complniiits, niid /is llio potnl iii dispute wat a muiier of I'acl wliidi 
niiglil 1)0 prcived by wilnegaea iiefore a civil miigislrale, lie wrote to the 
BiiCfussur ol' AiiuIinuK, the ptocdnsul .Eliaii, to prooood I m mediately. oU 
other liiisineas bciing giv«n tip (irmotis mcmilaliies pMirh), to an inquiry 
concerning tlie life ofFrlix ol' .^ptonj;a. 

The Firtt Christian Einperors-~-I)e Broglie. 


lasureJly a very Biiigulnr nnd very aignifirAiit spectacle Tor the 

(■WOfliil, tliig cxsniiualJou ol'a hiahop by n mngistrate for a fnct «llo- 
gelbcr rcliKiniis, and of wiiicli tlio Ctiurcli n'loiie could judgr, nnd wliicli, 
but Ihc tiny hcforc, was not nnly permif.led I ul cunimaticicd by t!ic dvil 
Jaw. Tlie (lucstiun was (ihetbec, during the pcrsecutioo, the Biahop Felix 
hnd doue wrong mid obeyed the Imperial edict, nnd m yielding «o the 
UireAtu of ttie magiBtriitea. Submission was now imputed to liljn as a 
crime before iLe very tribunal wliere but n. short time befiirc it had been 
exscted with violence, NoUiiiig could more clearly slion llie complete 
■rielory of the Cbiircli over tbc ackuowlcdjied iiiipoleiice of tlie ijlam. The 
civil power itstif luidertnok to declare that reai^ttancc to itself bad beoa 
right, and thcfnair' onlyrniacd ihcmxclvcs lo bow before the Cross. That 
nOlLtng might be uunting lo this profound and sinking cnntrnit, officers 
of the public (iirces wen; cited and bore wiiiiess lo ihe honour of Felix ihat 
fao had had the couxBge to resist tbem.'— I. p. '111. 

Felix trsii iicquitted ; but Coiistautine, eo imperiouH m civil 
nflnirs, was resilly full of scruples, cnutioD, aud hesitiitton in 
all mkttera thiit coiicerneti the Church. He convoked n new 
Council at Aries, nnd we regret tlint our ^[lace does not admit 
of a compariaoit between the k-tter written to Afriea, which h(w 
reached aa through Optalua, with that addressed on thia snme 
subject to Cbr«3tiis, Bishop of Syracuse, which is preserved' 
by Euecbius. The similarity of tone and language between 
documents coming thi-ough such very different and indopei]<lenC 
ohauneli) ie, as our author observes, a proof of the trustworthy 
chamcter of our materiaU for the history of these times. The 
gCDCml pur[xirt of ciich is. that the Euiperor bewails the divi- 
sion and the scandal given to bystanders liy such diftereuces. 
Though obliged to quit Gaul for Tlirace at the time of the 
Council, he left behind him written arrangements extending 
to the miuutest details of tbc externals uf the gathering. The 
Bishopa (both Cntholic and Donatiat) were each to be allowed 
tbe attendance of two [iriests and three servants, and to have 
their travelling expenses paid. This Bj/fiotTtov o')(;i]y,a [Euseb. 
H. E. X. o) became in after times a serious laic means of iofiuenc- 
ing die action of the Church. (It is on this occH«ion that Euee- 
biua employs that remarkable expression respecting the second 
order of the ministry, Zvo yi Ttra? rav (k Btvrtpov Opovov). 

The Council, despite the authority of S. Cyprian (who had 
argftied against the vaiiility of heretical bapti)<ni), arrived at the im- 
portant decision which is brought before English clergy in that 
Article which treats ' Of the Unworlhiness of Miniatei^, which 
hinder* not the effect of the Sacrament ;' it pronounced, how- 
ever, sentence of deposition from the ministry against those who 
gate up the Scriptures or the Church vessels, or who denounced 
their brothrcu to the hetithen; and it ruled(acuriou«proof of the 
new union betwixt Church aud State) that deserters from the 
army in lime of peace should be excommunicated; and, moreover. 


7%e First Christian Emperors — Ve Broglie. 

dJHGii^sci] (atiotlier sign of the change) the discipline of fiiahous in 
regard to Cliristians elevated to public offices. The unwilling- 
ness nf some of the Donataststo submit, put the Emperor into a 
thorough posaion. It is, however, rcnmrkable that hia letters 
of thiB date present a more explicit declaration than he bad 
yet published of his faith, not in bare Monwthcisu], but in 
Chriatianity. The following ia an extract from one — 

'What fury! — what do tbcso people want? — true Jnatrnmenla of Sataal 
They demaDU judj^eiit frntn me — frnra rae who nivnit tho judgniRnt of 
Clirist I 1'bcy bring farwnrd nn npponi, ns m civil cniises. Tbcy IciiTe 
hcaTealv things for tliio^ nf this world; but I iiny it in truth, the judg- 
ment ofpriesti ought to be reoeiveJ, na ii'God iTns aervitd on their tribannl 
to judge. For it is not permiued to them to think and judge Otherwise 
than they buve learnt b; the teaching uf ChriHC' — I. p. 23V. 

On the third of July — perhaps the day of the month on 
which tlie reader may be glancing at these pages — in the year 
of grace 323, the battle of Adrianoplc proved the ruin of 
LiciniuH aiid of the cause of heathenism. It was followed by 
the reduction of Byzantium (soon about to change its name), 
aod by another battle at Chalcedon, which placed the life of 
LiciniuB at the mercy of the conqueror. It ia a deep blot upon 
the good faith of Constantine, that in about a year he had his 
rival strangled. True it is that (as a writer by no means 
favourable to Constantine remarks') I>iciniu9 had ever mani- 
fested rancour to all who were in any way distinguished fay 
intellectual acqnircments ; had been always totally indifferent 
to human lite and eufiering, and regardless of any principle of 
law or justice. Brave and skilful as a general, he was systema- 
tically treacherous and cruel, and the murders he had oora- 
mitted among the relatives even of his friends (to say nothing 
of )x\sfoe«) ' form a climax of ingratitude and cold-blooded fero- 
city to which few parallels can be found.'^ He may possi/jlt/ 
have attempted conspiracies in his prison ; and the death of such 
a monster conld be no loss to mankind. Nevertheless, we 
thoroughly coincide with the following observations of M. de 
Broglie on tho circumstances of his death. 

'An event so common id the annals of the empire did, however, escito 
very poirerfutly tlic passions of all historians. Pngnn, suuh ai 
ZoBimus utid Victor, point triumphantly to this bctrnynl of hta word in a 
Christian Emperor. Enaebius envelops this whole catnatrophe in a cloud 
of confused ttud embarrassed rhetoric. Socrates, Zouanis, and Nicephorus, 
exhaust every effort to discover vain pretexts and impoBsihlo diaguuics. 
Atoso, amongst the Christian writers, S. Jerome relates thi' fact in kii 
Chronicle without excuan or circutn locution. This is the only language 
Rortbf of a sincurc narrator. It must be freely confessed that ConsUutino, 

' Smith's Diet. ofOruk aad SoiM/it Biufffaphtj, Art. Liciiuus. 


7^ JF^st Christian Emp&rora — De Broglk. 


111 with tilt fnitli ol'n Chnstinn. wlio governeil frcijiienlly accord* 

1 ligbl of the Oospcl, tmverlbelesa did still Hvcngc his own privBle 

' irron^ witli tbc rigour, and o^ivn wUh tLe cnotJing, cifit Ritmnti Emperor 

flfthe old religion . History is right to point out lu him, with nxtoninhmcnt 

■nd severity, vims irhtch irerc Inmilinr to his prai3eceaBurR. Thii it aaolirr 

I komagi) ihr. pags to Ah cliaraHcf and lo hh/ailh. — I. p. 327. 

At tlie nge of forty-nine, at tlic close of tlie year 323, wc 
beboM ConatAntiue sole miiMtcr of tha world, in so far an the 
empire deserves the nnine. His [losition in the two diviaions 
was, however, by no inoans identicnl. In the Western Empire 
the ruling spirit of the age was eaaeutinlly Koiuud; in the 
Eastern it was essentially Asiatic, From this time we see Con- 
elantine more in the Kast; and he is much under the influence 
of Euecbius of Ctesarea and Eusebius of Nicomedla. We sliare 
in our author's dislilce of both these persons ; but oav want of 
affection must not induce us to forget the deep debt of gratitude 
we owe lo the former. He is the very father of Church history; 
the blank that would have been caused by the loss of his works 
would be irreparable, and it may well be queslioued whether 
Socrates and aeveial other writers are not, in a literary sense, his 

Nicbuhr, and some other critics, accm astonished at Conston- 
tine'e not nianagini^ to preserve, either ns man or ruler, a per- 
fectly clear and consistent course. We are profoundly astonished 
at tnelr astonishment. If even a aa'mtly monarch, auch as 
Iiouis IX. of France, fell obliged to make some compromises 
witi) the fipirit of feudalism; if statesmen the most smcere in 
their religious convictions find it impossible to leaven a modem 
cabinet with their prmciples ; how was it to be expected that m 
the face of a paganism, in which he had been nurtured, and 
which had only just been defeated by force of arms, Constan- 
tine, yet uubiiplized, should carry everything with a high hand 'i 
Ought it to Burjirise any one above the nge of a acliool-boy to 
GikI the Etujicror still granting a Iheoretic toleration to pa- 
ganism, and yet unable to repress the ardour of his friends, 
when tliey claimed in tlie interests of morality to overthrow this 
and that pagan sanctuary ? They were, though Christians, still 
men, and they had long arresirs to repay. 

'Thii reckoning once upcntK] niLli paganism was not likely to be soou 
(cttlcd. lu fnct. lh<-ru iviis li:trdly n. paean Idmpie which did not coaccal 
in its loyntuntitis recossos some immodest or sntiguinnry disorder. In 
tnilli, paganiem only olTcrcd everywhere one vast picture of s^ntcmatic 
and GduMcratcd immomlity, in rvgnrd of which religious pretitigc alone 
hail bc«i oUc to lull to alccp ihi) puhlic coiiecleuci;. From the moment 
wlien Ibui prestige disappeared, (he scaudal rerawued alone. From tbe 
<]«]' when meu no longer approached the altars or Vcniui, Pciapoa, or 


The Firal Chrintian Emperon — 2)e BrogHe. 

Cjbi'k- niili (luwnciisl v.yei. ii nan tut liinuur pusHilile to t^fitp npon them 
niiliout bluslics Hud iiidigiiiiiioD. lliu Go«pel, liko a risbg sun, pierced 
icith its rnyg Iho vciU of the tvmiilcN nnd the rrccfKrx oflhc! incrRd wondii, 
and Inid hnrc in tlic oprii >ky the iiDcIimn idols, nnd the obsnuri! ccrciiio> 
DIM, n coniplctp ichool of ni'iitie* ntid linbnuclwfy, wliirh n rpgulated society 
Has Bstoiiislitd nl having bcmc so loog.* — I. p. 34S. 

It would dettun us too much to show the diBicnlties and the 
indccixioQ of the Emperor ; and his ptirtinl nnd temporary use 
of the civil arm, tliuugli it was not sohcited by the Church. 
This tumpurary uae of force w»9 againat the Donatiets in Africa. 

' Biit it is ibr duly ot bistot? to ncknowtcdge tbnt the ClniKh wftfl 
B)UiK«ihfrr iincfnnci^lcd wiih thin firil invnaion ul' her pravincn by Ih« 
Mculnr piiivcr. Thu first appeal miLilc to tbe Emperor in u religiuui cuuse 
proceeded Irom nn li<;rclical necl. 'i'Lu tirsl inlcrpositLou of dvjl Huibuhly 
came IVoiu llu xuid uf no Eitip<^or »bo wits not ;et a csCccbiiaiDii.' — 
t. p. 3!J3. 

In turning to the action of Chrletianity upon Roman kw, we 
may observe ihat in no portions of his wort has M. de Broglie 
cxhiliitcd ti more etnct and conscientious study than in those 
which relate to thie very curious auhject. That the Gospel did 
aiTcct ttie foiTious code itnown as t!ie TheodoBiiin, has indeed 
hecn truly aascrted in other works ; ' but unless our ignonince 
mislcadit ua, nowhere, before ibe appearance of theae volumes, 
with equal minuteness of investigation. 

This may apjiear to many a dry and repulsive subject. But 
before they hastily turn away from it, let them reflect for a 
moment on its importance- That importance seems to us, in 
tlic iinjsent state of the public mind, much greater than is 
usually suspected. Thore is a anirlt abroad which, with more 
or less fiaukness, sjieaks on this wise — ' Say what you will, after 
'all, Christ is nut the great and e^iclu^ive teacher that divines 
'would fain represent Him to be. Greek philosophy, liomau 
'legislation, these marvcUoua influences still train the hunum 
* muid, as much as Evangelists and Apostles.' There is a sense 
in which this nfiscitioii is partly true ; there is a sense in which 
it becomes all but entirely false. 

Christianity never for a moment pretended to be only a. new 
revelation of our relations to the Triune God. It is besides 
this (as Bishop Butler and other apologists have often said) a 
repubUcation of natural religwn. It never miuntained that 
every work of fidlcu man was of necessity u mere mass of pol- 
lution, retaining no trncea of tliat belter nature which he erat 
received in Paradise. In the words of its Divine Founder, it 

' t J. In Mr, SandaiB' latroiluction to his edition of The Inililiila of Jitetlnian, 
and tberefurc prahnbly in tha wotk» of soioo of the groat foreign juriata to nbom 
be Hcbnewtedgia his ouligalion*. Dctiii Milmui ircata only of a latj>r time. 

^h First Christian Emperors — De Brog'tie, 


Inught men ' to render unto Ciesav the things thut arc CiOKar'sf' 

^it acknowledged, with S. I'liul, 'the powei-a thai be;' it made 

BBe of its rights of citizenship; it rchuftcd the Uwle!*^nct<a of (he 

tea at Philippi ; it gliidly availed itself of the fuir and 

limn of that great nation, wliich dcmnnded deBiiile 

p charges, and brought accuaed and accusers face tu face. And 

[when it had Iriuniplied over piignu |)ei'aecii lions, and the Crosa 

tturmounti-d ihe Crown, it did not atlcmpt the foolish and uselesa 

>fciak of undoing all that existed before that epoch. No I what- 

iimever ihingit were true, whatsoever things were hoiieet, what- 

^loever things were just, whatsoever things were jmrc; — these, 

ffherevcr it found thcni, it giilhered under its sheltering wing. 

It recognised — to take the instiuico before us — the spirit of 

rinajcetf and uprightness that breathed, in the main, throughout 

the Roman law. But it inserted by degrees into cadi new 

code both principles and details whicli could never liaro 

occurred to a bealhen mind, and it weeded nut many and many 

t^ blemish which, in the eyes of the Stoic philosopherB aud juriste, 

"r«a deemed no demerit, perhaps a positive good. 

In speaking thus wc by no means intend to insinuate tliat 

.Christian reformers never made mistakes in tbeir alterations. 

riicy may have nuulc many; Constautiue himself was far from 

felicitous in some of hln first legal reforms. But the mistakes 

&f individuals no more prejudice the general beneficent action 

[of Christianity on legislation than the venal temper of FeliJt 

ihe genera! spirit of Iloman rule. If lalitudinnrian thinkcra 

[will urge that we may learn lessons of wisdom, jusiice, modera- 

^on, from the fumoue codes of imperial Rome, wc do not for a 

nuDiCDt deny the fad. In so far as Soman laws were good, 

liey were from God ; what was evil has been in great measure 

(orctscd by the religion of the Cross. The stately Ijnsilica ia 

not now tlie less a Christian church because its original 

Ifoundcrs may have dedicated it to .Jupiter or Pallas. 

Tlic sludent who would examine this question in detail is 
^referred to M. de BrogHe's volumes. We can only make room 
for a (ijw headings of the changes wrought by Constautine 
rhich will »»( be found in Gibbon, though he lias exposed llie 
Emperor's mistakes in this department uf government. Aboli- 
doD of branding on the brow, heniuse man w ttiaJi^ in the tmaffa 
of Ood (a.D. 318) ; ohoh'tion of crucijijewn and of lireakiftff of 
ike 1ms of criminals (318) ; relief to be given to needy parents* 
in Africa, to restrain them from exposure of children (a. i>. 315); 
appeal to Bonic from provinces forbidden in cave of extortion 
' rape, K&altn-cr lint rank of the culprit/ warnings to bo mer- 

* Oibbon does nwntion tbis tntli Mine (rnttw &iat) praise. 


Tlie First Christian Emperon — Vei^a^iie. 

ciful to the accuHCil, ttnd to nb^tain from nets of torture, of 
imnrisotimcnt without light, &d. ; iibolitioii of penalties for 
cebbucy or chiidlcsHucss (319) ; eaoourugL-mcnt to afEronchiw 
slaves, especially with the mti and sanction of the Christian 
priests and bleliops; liberty given (a.d. 'A2\) to nil Christian 
soldiers to be present at Divine service on Sundays ; represHon 
of ail but necessary field-labour on that day, and of every civil 
act except the emancipation of n slave. 

As we shall not be able to return to the subject, at least in 
the present article, we may just mention, that succcodbg altera- 
tioDB iu the same direction were congtantly being made nfLer 
the empire became Christian. The following is tlie most solid 
defence which we have anywhere seen of the wisdom of the 
Church ii] gradually ettiioing tUuvery instead of denouncing it 
wholesale from the hmt. 

■ Tlie suildcii RbolitioLi of stiivorjr would have cansed n (hmino in nncii^nt 
society, which nniy lived on Itie jirodiico of Hf^rvile Inbour, It would liiive 
thrown on to the soil whole popuInliiiiiB, without guide, wilhout rciource*. 
hiciijjhble oC Kovcriiiug IhrinBelvea, living btin^* equiiUy devoid of animal 
iiiHtiiict And tiuiQHn inti<llL^<iit(?. Mora lliun u, duy irns rpcjuirL'd tu creatO 
»nd Dinl.iiro that respect for Itiyinselms mid olhers, that I'Btci'm for labour, 
those iciitimcnts of ilignity and inde|)cudcnc(^ which render nociolics capa- 
ble of subsisting by the efforts of /nv cicrUon. The Church, in tbnt 
eoleinn tnoinenl, iiccepted from God and from ConstiLDtine the task of 
eitiane [pilling ibe irurld without overturning it. It is fur modern iialjous 
to any iih«tLt'r she has kepi ht^r word.' — J. p. 306. 

But & new enemy to the Church was now raising its head. 
'From a little spark,' says Socrates (i. G.), ' is kindled a mighty 
' fire. The evil began from the Cliurcli of Alexandria.' ' 

And here, as wc wish to make no secret of our own preposses- 
noDB, we must own to feeling a iieculiar awe and horror at the 
very name of Anus. For Apollinavis.for Eutyches, for PcUgius, 
we can feel compassion, while we condemn their urrors. But 
AriuB foisting earthly logic upon the relations between the 
Persona of the Godhead, — Arius pubbshing soiiga for the many, 
that be ml^ht instil into their minds his deadly heresy, — Arias, 
by turns insolent and courtly, coarse a.nd subtle; to hia own 
Master he slandetb or fallcth, to Uim who knows the difficulties 
and temptations of each one of us, — but if there be snch a thing 
na indigmition which is righteous, as denunciation which is just, 
we know not in tnith iu direction such sentiments and 
voices may be fitly turned, if it be not on the memory of tbnt 
arch troubler of the fold for long ages and in many a clime.^ 

' 'Ap(ifLfv6v T* Ti^ KaKdi/ dwj) Tips ^AXf^SiiiciBP itfKKTjiriai, at-A- Onrown OOpy of 
8ocral«B huf a mark here referring to the eoimler etal-ement in Newman'n Arian*, 
that the mtiiclilKf bui^ Ht Antiocb. M. de Broglie I'oUone Socrates, nhoae atale- 
ment is oartiiinly BxplicLt enough, 

' M. de BrogUo (■> p. STS) gives the commencement of the poem poblisbod by 

The FirH ChriatiaH Emperors — De Broglk. 


With the true, and all but infiillible, instinct of ioipie^, 
Arius (lclbcle<I at an enrly period of bis career tlio presence of 
that champion whom God m bis mercy rniscd up to confront, 
and in hia own gooil time to triumph over, the fnlse teaching. 
He complained of the harshness of his Bishop, Alexftiiilcr, hut 
• more particularly of a young secretary, a wrong-hendeil man 
' of haughty temper, who carried away llic good old prelate.' 
His epithets were false, but hia recognition of his real opponent 
was perfectly correct. Even then shone forth the great and 
nnag ])Ower* of that roynl-hearted spirit whose genius in after 
years ' would liave <iiiiiliHed him far better than the degencriitC 
sons of Consiantiue, for the government of a great jnouarchy ;" 
Those very name bore with it an auguiy of hope, the uiaslcr- 
mmd of his crs, Athanaeius. 

The finst news of the dissenaion between Alexander and 
Alius cauBcd, ns was to be expected, umch anuoyancc to the 
£ni))eror. Hastily snatchiDo; up his pen, lie wrote that celebrated 
' Uberul letter,' of which M. dc Broglie obseirea that It com- 
mingles, in a strange cuutraat, ' the ImughtiaeBs of the master, 
' the submission of the believer, and the contempt of the stntcs- 
' man.' He at first supposed that the disputants were contend- 
isg about extremely small questions [y-Trkp fiiKo^v xai \lav 
*\o;^iiirr(»i'. Socr. i. 7), and recommended mutual chai-ity and 
reconciUation. He sent Hosius to inquire ; and that simple- 
minded and upright prelate at once saw through the novel 
subtleties of the Arian creed. But Alexandria was a turbulent 
city, and the hereeiaruh had now won many pnrtisaus. In an 
imprudent moment, wheu Constantine was :inunycd at the dis- 
obedience that was rife, Ariua boasted of his influence. Con- 
Btantine, thoroughly roused, sent for Ariue. The Emperor woa 
DO match for the clever dialectician, but still he wa« not satis- 
fied. A truly imperial idea occurred to him. He would con- 
voicG the bishops of all the habitable globe. 

The eccond volume of the work before us contains in ita 
opening chapter an account of the great council at Kice. We 
do not know of any book which gives, in the same number of 
pages, an account equally clear and graphic and reverent of 
'one of the most sublime epochs inhuman liiatory." But as 

Ariiu under tha litt« of ttie Thalia. ' !□ the compnn; of tlio clcrt of Oad. of the 
hiAj clilldren. of llio ortliodoi, of llio^e who have i-ucoivud the Uolj S[jirit, 1 lo»nil 

vtat foUown I liuvu wnlkeil iu lb«ir fi.HjlBtupii. in luLrmony wilJi llieio, I, 

ArioK, llic «1ol>nklcd «ne, nho hare inflbred for the g\iiry of God.' Whal a rortlS' 
tlon of hitnaetf Ito In that one cpilhct, the eelchraCed ! 

> GlhtKJD. 

' We havo mnch pIoMum in iiuoting these words from tho EiUnbargh JtiryiVw. 
Hot diflcTeot from lU louo st its liret ori^a, how dlflerent from the loao of it< 
popukf writOM of thi! cighteunlh wuturj, Wbo, Ha M. da BrogllB obaertes, Wimwd 

172 Tki First Christian Emperora — De liroglie. | 

our limits will not allow as to follow M. de Broelie into many 
details, wc shall venture to mecrt a few reflGCtiona gatliereaj 
from our own humble stutlicM upon the questions at iaaue.j 
TlM;«e reflections will not be uncokiureil by our recent perusal] 
of the work under review, uiid might be eui>portcd by many] 
«xtract3 from it; but M. de Broglie must not be considered aal 
in anjwiae i-eeponeilile for them. j 

Some of the leading truths taught by Doetors of the Church] 
concerning the Nature of the Godhead may perhaps be stated] 
thus. God is One; and forasmuch as He has existed from all] 
etcniity, and nothing eke can exist without Ins good pleasure,] 
matter cannot be eo-ctcrnal with Him ; (or this would destroy j 
one of his primary attributea, namely, Omnipotence. Conse-| 
ijuently, n time there was, when created things were not. Fob! 
ages upon agee, endlestily reiiching back, God was alone. YeS] 
though nloue, without worlds, or men, or angels, not in soli-J 
tude— j*o?(M, non aolitaria^, — for that, from all eternity, there vaa j 
intcrcorauiimion between the several Persons in the Godhead. ] 
Id the perfect Unity of tlmt Nature, there was yet a threefold ' 
Peraonaliiy ; a doctrine not more hard for the resison to con- 
ceive, tiian that an infinite nbeolute Being aliould be a Person 
at uU. There never was a time when the eternal Father had 
not with Him, his image, the eternal Son ; juat as a twig 
growing by the water aide is born with its own reflected Image 
ever by it. There never was a time when there did not pro- 
ceed, ti-om the Father immediately, from the Son mediately, 
the Holy Ghost. And though without any incompleteness, yet 
is the generation of the Son in some sense eternal and unceasing, 
as in the past, so in the present ; and likewise the procession of 
the Holy Ghost. NaUm est FUius, ft nasoitur Ftlum ; procenait 
S'piritus sanctus, procedi't Spirihis suncius. The Father is the 
One God, the Sou is the One God, the Holy Ghost is the On© 
God ; and yet the Father ia not the Son, nor the Son the Holy 
Ohoet, nor the Holy Ghost the Fatlier. And though all Lliree 
Persons be of one substance, power and eternity, yet is a certaia 
priority of dignity conceived to reside in the Father ; for that 
He is ministered to, but ministorelh not ; sendeth, but ia not 
sent; is begotten of none, procecdeth from none, being the 
fountain anu origin of Godhead. 

Wc have already spoken of the manner in which the Inearuu- 
tJon of the Eternal Son sntisfiea the longiugs uf the human 
heart. Whatsoever has been wrought by the God the Holy 
Trinity, for tiie salvation of mankind, hae been effected ilirougn 
the Humanity of the Son. And either in the actual GodhefM, 

with diailaiuful acvority the way in which CoaBtantinc lowered hiraself, as BOTfr 
reiga and stiitcfltnitn, !))■ modcliiug ivitJi aucli pueriiitiea I 

The Fint Christian Emjyercrs — De Brofjtie. 


or in ihe locnrnale Lord, all oartlily functions finj tlic reality 
of vhieb they are onlj tbe rcscmblniicc' It is not tliat men 
arc fatlicra, and He so cnlled by uiialogy ; He is the Eternal 
Fatbcr, anJ uiirllily pwtertiity is tbe sLwlow. It w iiwt tbat 
mon wlio are kings bear a, title u-bicb wc may apply [ii bk all 
ruling Hovereignty, but that He ia tbe King of kings, and they 
his fiiint and temporary reprejentativea. Somewhat similarly 
may we gieak of the prit'Bthood of men as related to the Priest- 
Ijood of Cbrist ; and precisely in tbo same way of tbe Sonisbip 
of the second Person of the Uoly Trinity mt compared ivith 
eartbly eonsbip. 

It was the misery of Anus that be viewed ibeae relational, 
10 to speak, from the wrong end. llis gross and earthly dia- 
lectic urged. ' if the Father begat tbe Son, the begotten baa a 
' beginning of existence ; whence it is |»lain, that there was a 
I * time wbcD tbe Son did not exist ; and from this it necessarily 
t* follows tb»t He is formed (or ha^ bis substance) from what 
I* oacc woa not.' ' His partisans are accused of having gone lo 
ublio places and asked the pnsscrs-by, especially wom(;c, * Had 
^ou a tton before you gave bim birtb ? ' adding, when they 
eoeived a negative rejily, ' Ko more could fbe Almighty.' 

We have ventured, at the risk of seeming to state what ia 

rite and well known, to re-state these principles, because upon 

licir importance or non -importance must turn our verdict upon 

rthc entire cbiu-actei- and career of Atlinuasius. If ibo diff'ei-euce 

lletween him and Arius was only a verbal subtlely, a discussion 

[On the mere outworks of llic failh, then tbe long and unwearied 

Bboum, the flighl, and suifcriDgs of tbe Primate of I^gypt 

{(for such be became], muat be regarded, at the very best, as so 

'^much needless obstinacy. The sneer of Gibbon ia welt known, 

that tbo distinction between the rival watchwords, Iiainoousios 

id homoumsi'os turned upon a single letter. Well niul wisely 

u it been replied by a great living divine of the English 

IChurch, tbat the word Creatmir ^spelt in tbe old way) dillers 

ll>ut by a single letter from creature. lu that seemingly slight 

Jdifierenc« lies tbe gulf that can never be passed; for man, 

'thougb made in Cbriet n partaker of Ibe Divine Nature, can 

never become of one substance with Uioi who created bim. 

The Arian creed made our Lord a mei-e creature ; tbe first, 

lu"best, best, purest, of all creatures, it ia true ; but a creature 

ittul, and therefore far less widely separated from us than from 

iGod. Has tbe Church Universal been suifcred to fjill for cen- 

' Tlii» liM lieen »bII iiut lij Dwn Trench, but wc eannot at tbo mnmcul ivtai 
to the pnaiuge. 
J it 6 HOT*) lytvniaf rar vUr, dpx^f »inf^(Vt Ix" ' "yfPJilhft fol /» rairou 
L JfiAof, 8ti tiv ftr( OIK ijr d ulis- difcAou)*! T« if iviyicni, ti oiH.tmai' Ij[*"' ■i'''^'' T^f 
VtwiuTiiir. Socratu, I. S. 


Thf First Chrutian Shnptrors-^Ue Srogtte. 

tunes into the worst nud deepest iJoUtry, giving to One who ii] 
only somewhat higher ttiiin an UTchangel the homnge due to\ 
Gwl nlone? The answer must be, ' Yea ! it, has," if Arianigm[ 
be the truth of God. 

It is not in our power to give our author's vivid sketch of I 
that wonderful meeting at Nice, where Paphnutiusi, Bisliop o£J 
the Thcbaid, came dragging his leg, its muscles hnving bceDl 
severed whilst he worked in the minea, and turned on the sf 
latora the orb of no eye of which heathen persecutors httdJ 

Suenched the light ; where Pnul, Bishop of Neo-Csesarea on thgj 
juphrales, gave hia blesfting with a nand mutilated by fircj 
where holy anchorites, like James of Niaibis, represented thati 
unworldly element which was now so much needed as a ooun'] 
tcrpoise to the dangers of courtly religion. It is also highljrf 
remarkable, and we do not remember to have seen the fcatura 
brought out before in modern biatories of the time, that several! 
pn^Q pliiloaophers were present. Naturally enough theyj 
inclined to think that Arins was the more logical; perhaps, if j 
the Trpu'Tov -"^etiSo? ofhis system, the applicatinn of earthly sensesJ 
to Divine terms, be once admitted, he really was sn. These 
by-8tftndcr3 did not enter into the spirit of a remark made by 
a father, apropos of these very discussions : ' Oh, ray friend, wc 
' have already warned you once for all, that when divine mysto- 
' ties are concerned, we must never ask the 'cAy and the /««c,'* I 
Yet it has come down to us ou the higheist authority, that ona | 
elofincnt and gifted pagan was utterly silenced and abashed by 
some simple questions of an aged, unlearned Cbrmtian, who had] 
been a confeaaor during the days of peril ; and overcome (as he 
himself proclaimed} by an irresistible impulse, muttered in 
reply the all important syllables, • I believe. , 

The question at Nice was — ' What has the Church from tha ■ 
first held and taught?" When Arins, standing before the 
council, threw aside those modifications which each EuBebiuB 
was (we fear) but too inclined to grant, and openly declared | 
that our Lord was not Goil, but only a partaker of the Divinity 
in the sense iu which all men are, according to Holy Scripture; - 
hia doctrines carried with them to the ears of all, but n mere 
fraction of the assembly, their own plain condemnation. 

Eiiseblus, the hiatorian, would have preferred a. creed com- 
posed by himself^ in which was simply applied to the Etem^ \ 
Word the Pauline expression, the firat-bom of event creature, irpw- 
TOTo^of wdffij? wrtVetiw.' But that master-mind, who, though 

' Qelaaiiia of C'juicum, cil ap. de BtogUe, ii. p. 23, 

' Wo have again mucU Bstlsftwllon In ailopfing Uie woidi of tUe Eriinliurgli 
' U, Ae Broglie atka in hit preluco fur corceotioiu. Seldom indeed !■ it thiA 

^^^ The First Christian Emperors — De Broglie. 175 

\ not yet upon sin ciiiscopal tliniDe, waa (at tlie nae of twcnty- 

,.eevoD) euiJiug tlie acnac of tlic iiescaiLly, saw tliat sucli lan- 

I gui^e. nowcvcr true nuil divine, whs not to the point, ami that 

llbwc needed aome term not new in substance, though pnrtinlly 

hir h tt{M new in form. Tliat word, as is well known, was ifio- 

foiwiov. It may be lamenlablc to have to coin new terms at all. 

' But this waa justified by tlic necessity of meeting the inventions 

I of the heretics, who declared that our Lord was of n different 

' substance or essence [i^ erepa^ i-rroaraerea)'; ij ovtria-i), that He 

was convertible or changeahle (tppttto;, f) liXXoKOTn?) ; it was 

' justified by the blessing ^hed upon it from on high, for it became 

' A very touchstone of true belief, and never since has the Church 

TJnivei-sal dared to discard, or in anywise to alter it. Lilie 

[ the word Trinitp, though not in Holy Scripture, it expresses 

the sense of Holy Scripture. 

I The eemi-Arian creed involved perhaps a more utter confu- 

I mm of thought than tlie professions of Ariue himself when most 

I extreme. Among the scmi-Arians were aome who were able 

\ courtiers and politicians. But there were others of a far higher 

and holier stamp ; men of a class which will always prohably 

exist. Glad indeed should we be if we might, in all humility, 

I BUggeet to any euch minds that their course is not always free 

[ firotn danger. 

There are among good men, as well as men of very ques- 
tionable character, those who slirinfe from extremes of anif kind. 
They are frequently admirable and useful persons ; and in quiet 
ttRie^ and so long iis their dread is confined to plaii.<), as distinct 
from iirinciples, they are very often in tlie right. Rut in days 
of trouble they cannot always be followed so implicitly; they 
accept and act upon that Aristotelian defiiutioD, which makes 

ir« bftTC an oppoclunit}' gf olforing uiy. but be boa hang mndc whMt iccmi to m. 

In oDc lui veil acquainted with Holy Scripture, a ntrangi: oversight. He i^nlU tlin 

•xprawlnn pmpoacil \iy Eiiecbliia tanhiijaiiun ; and ho il wss, JuhI. ne n'ay toxt would 

1)0 nhicli did ti"l toni'ii (liu raal [Kiiut ii'. i«Bno, Bnt lie has nn\\v [ui*' 

I ColUiu tbut tliu |>Urii8u omit-.'« from llio Egiistte tu tbu CutussiuiiB (i. 1 K). iH^sidijn 

[ Mditg ilinoit iniicipated by the autbor i>r EtDlciiin(t)inii(xxiv. ft), in hiitublliaa 

[ dawriptioa of tbo imcipulfld Wisdom. The phnueuKW inaonoliuivc. besiaae Iho 

I Jtrl*n> naintalnci) tlint, by implkatinn, it tniight that our L<ird himulfwDBit 

I mete crsntsTc, Uar Englifth mithoiiicd VErainn oiigbt poiwilily lend lUelf to nicli 

r a tI«w, aa tXio Uia Viilgalu, Pnmvii<nitiu omnU cnaiiinr. ' Born before all 

[ craalivn,' and therefore jioi h part of I'Toatiou. is ILe true and viithollc luturprcta' 

tion ol the Apostle's words. 

Wo ihoaM not make no muaU ado about a single ilip, vcrc it not that a miHtnlio 

I In ao awiii'.iln n is a atirivius utiklr. Hia Frcni^li critle, M. AmpArc, a 

pIcsNinl arid Kwn^rallj wull-inrorniud writer, tbinkiiis himselr quite safe under 

tocli piidaui^v, ptiiug<i6 huaillung inta au imconEulouu atlauk upou lliq orthuduxj' of 

S. Paul I He ia>a of the KuM'biuiis, thnt in their iirevd ' paruii d<;s cipremiuiui 

lr*«orlhodoi«,lli en glit»>rtnt line ijui ne I'eiair pninl da (owl lo preinior 

d£ do la crdalinn.' (Jtiv. ilcH deux Mondet, 1 AoDt, \S!iO.} 


JXc ?Vrs( Chrutian Emperors— De SrogUe. 

tlie being in a mean, part of the cescncc of virtue, iaslciKl of its 
scckIcoU Forgcltiug the rule of a sal'er tctioher than iVi* 
Sta^yriU-, Bi.'4hij|> Bntlor, that ' truth nr right is somewhat real 
* in ititetr, antl ao not to ho jud^od of by its liablenesa to abuae, 
'or by its eupposed diatanc* t'l-om, or nearness to, error,' they 
shift their standard according to the tone of those around them ; 
ihcj delight to think and say that they arc not extreme men, 
even when they are lioldiiig firmly many things that they would 
have considered most extreme woine twenty years earlier. And 
when enich men, not being oa»t in nn heroic monh}, come acrosa 
thoBC wlio are heroic, thoae but for wliom, humanly speaking, 
truth would be erushed out, they are but too apt to think them 
troublesome, unconciliatory, iiicautioue, and the like. Such wc 
cannot but think waa the secret of much of the distrust of the 
great S, Atlmnssius, whieh was felt by some of bie contem- 
jiomries. Are there not but too many whom tliat great doctor 
naa becu the carllily iDstniment, under Qud, of saving from 
fundamental en-or: who, if they liad lived in hia days, would, 
from timidity, caution, and fear of extremes, have been found 
smonE; the semi-Arians? 

It i« no wonder that the popular imagination, improeeed by 
the sublimity of the spectacle, invented eome stories bcnriog on 
the great event; mnrvelloue stories which wUl not bear any 
critical esainination, but which serve to attesWhe vivid impres- 
siiin created on the mind of the Christendom of that day. Men 
told, for example, how the Migiiaturcs of Chrysantius aud Muso- 
nius, two bishops who died during the aession of the council, 
were found appended to the creed, their names aud seals being 
affixed by no mortal band: or how amongst the three hundrm^^ 
and fiii/htfen, ' sis they were familiarly called, nnother figure, 
adding one to the number, iiiystcriously took the fonn, now of 
one, now of another prelate, the Holy Spirit nimseif thus deign- 
ing to aid in the eata.blishnient of the true fuith. 

' Tlicsc pious nnccdoles, dovoid of all Uistaricd value, uevcrllieless 
hear testimony lo the arllosa adniiratloti of the pyople foe the work of 
the NicKnn Fnthcr^. In fnct, tlic Iloty Spirit hnd ncconiplisheil, tliroiigh 
their maaos, n gronler ranrvel ihnn all tlie prodigies timt were rplalod. 
'I'hnl Aoiii Minor, where the Ciiriat.inn Churcii hud jiisl held h«r grand 
UHlxes, had bevn lor mauy centuries liie birlbptaec of aU euperstt- 
tions, and of atl AyHteinB. PlidaHoph; aud fnblo had alike thi'ir favoured 
nbndc ihere. The Hontheru const of thai eaaie land was atrown with 
the niina of Troy, the brilUaiK. eouotry of iho goda of Homer. There 
nits not one of nil the flon ri shin gri tics iilong Ihc mnrpn of thr Ion inn Sea, 
not one of the inlands of licr Art^hipelngn, ivhich could not at the snraa 
tinji; boast of the protection of ii god and the birth of n siige. Sumos bad 

• They tn oflea compared by sneient wrilum to the tlireo hundred^nnd 
eighteen trunod i;ciTitQU,uf Abrftham (Oeaosld xiv. 11). 

Thv First Christian Empertn-s — De Broijlic. 177 

t!i* temple of TJcptiiiic nnd ibo (Tiidle of Pjthng'iriMi. Tlio Apullu of 
Clnri" nnd IIip Diniin of Mphc'iiiis were nilnrnl on ihc unmc shorr« where 
Tlialcx Bnd AniixiiniiiiJer liuil in'ighl, ruid where llfnidiiuii firKt saw rlie 
lii;1iL Bill lliis luiiit l«bour ol' tliu biihu.- piijpk-. lo toui'cive tin.- ihought or 
imiuu dI GihI, bnii uiily p rail need, (til ihhl dny, drvnms, iduls,iiiid miinstcri. 
Aouia 1«B8 lhnn «\\ uci-ks, t.livi^e liiindri^i) men, tiiiknuHti In nne itiiulbL-r, 
arriving froiu nppoJiilr. ctnda (if ilm iiorld, Kfjnnkin!! in diffrrciit toiiguea, 
li«d horn iibic to j[ivc n tscrvnw nnd i!(ini:iM' furmidn of ihc Divine fJ-iliire, 
doiliiicd to IrnvcrKO all uchmiih mid nil ii!;es ! Ami iit thi:i dity, nfW liRctru 
cettturici bnve pnsaud mvuj', from (luo cxlrumily of Ihu civilixud world to 
tlie ollirr, in itie tnuuly hftiiileU of the Al|n, in uiiktiuivti iiilm of ucenn 
dincdvered bj' looderii scieiire, ivhcn tlie <)i>I<^[iiiiit^ of t.lie Sunilnj- lilla 
tunxrJs lienvcii hniivs lieiit enrlhwavd by liiboitr, is hcnrd a coticerl of 
rustic voiees repenting in imc nnd the nmnc lone, tbo hymn of tho Divui« 
Unity : 

•"I believe ill one God the Fiillier AUnighly, Mnkcr oritU tliinsf* visibin 
and inviiibie: nnd in une l.ord Jvoua Gbriiil Ibo only begotlmi Hnu of God, 
ftf^tlen tif hts Ftiihcr heforc sll worlda, God of God, Ll^hl uf Light, 
Very Gnd iif very God. Bei;<it)en not mnde. I!eii>{^ of one subxtHtiee u ilh 
Ibe Father, Hy iihoin nil ihings Here mnde. Who lor iis men nnd for unr 
SHWution oimtr doiui from hrnven, And wns inoiininle, nnd nnx mnde mnn. 
He suiTtred Kiid ro»L- H^»tti oti the third dnv; iinii intended iulujienven, 
uid xbnil rom« ngiiiii to judf;B both the (juicV itnd the dtitd. 

'■■And I bdievo iu tho Holy OboBt." '' — I'p. CS, 69. , 

The worli beFore tie ia divided into clmplere, of wliioli each 
one beat's a single title. V\'e will oi\'n to a sliglit aciilimcnt ol" 
suapicioD rcsijccting tlic ti^erits of this plan. In eevei-ai ip- 
etaiicee it answers well enough; itiiJ it lends itself to tliat 
fondncea fur gruuping nnd neiit nrrnDgemeiit and drawing of 
tableaux whicli hm su Kreitl, nnd ttoiiictinies so periloufi, an 
ftttriiction for Kreucli iiistuiIaiiB. But nnloss n book be si mere set 
of disiwcrtjitimiaon history, instead of a liislory, we (peiliiii« from 
a fljHrit of John Bnllisni) nreler the kind of Iic-adiiijf8 usid by 
Gibbon. The chapter at which wc are now arrived, the lifth, i^ 
full of intercctinc topics, such ojs (to tmme only a few) tlie 
legal abolition ol glmliiitoriihi]i — the persistence of the city of 
Borne in heiithenisin — the OisHkcfelt tn ere against the Eniperor 
OS in h<'art a Christian — the die^provnl of the legend that he was 
bnplized ihere* — iho visit of Conatan tine's mother S. Helena to 

' Wo follow M. dc Broglio in giving l\>o originiil Crood. a" it cmanntod from 
the Palbcr* of Ni.'c. Tho Latin form, in wLluli Lo glvva it, dilliim rrom th«l In 
Dr. Bontir* OfniKid" [Uim. 1, p. MliS) ; I. In the omiwion of the woril« yruprrr 
noa AomiflM ; a In (bo iiiseflion of llio wotd niefo Lu tho final i'Ibubi'. A« ncitlior 
diBennec uaf Uis «liKlituHt praclioid or c«^nttiil miportntii^c. wc have followed 
Dr. ItouUi in poiol 1, aM M. An Bivglie (lor nlrnmetu mkc) in point 2. 

Tie Qreck form, in the Acta uf tbc Council of Clinlunlon, bvonn Dr. Roatli in 

' TW* MOr; U now tboronghlj given up. Evun M, Hobiliacbsr, who o«n»lly 
foIla«8 Btroniun, tonaka him here. S« Dntnral, howcvisr, is it to cooaecl pnr- 
tieidar imNM Mid baililiags with crcau, that the vriCcr iahlsiBelf eoiueioniof » 
KO; cut. — JI.8. N 

178 7%e Finf ChHatinn Emperort — DcBrogHt. 1 

Jenisnlein {tin; wihjcct bo well diccussc^ liy Mr. Ct WiUmins 
in Iiii« Holy Cyty], litrr ilMcoveriea there, Iier buiWinga, and licr 
r1(;ntli. Hut \\w title of this chnpter, runninz along the lop for 
loloswtlian j'ixty pai^es, ia ilie some what oppftlUnj: one of Murder . 
of CriHimii mill r'auttti. At any rate, our niithor cannot he 
nceiiPeci of fulinwiitg in the footstcpB of CooBtantinc's courtly 
hiograjiher. KiiscLins, and concealing the very existence of thia 
de^orable domc«tic tragedy. 

The ecerets of thst history iiui«t for ever remnin unknown. I 
That it was not, sw it is often rcpri'sentwi, a repetition of tlia 
lejTond of Hippoiytiis nnil Phiedra, M. <\a Brojiiie hiis. we think, J 
imfReionlty disproved. Fnuala wna not of nn (ige likely lo ' 
involve auy erirniiial nttaelinieut to her step-sun. Nor wc 
think, will) OiblioD, ihiit Fnufta eseajicd ; tlioiij^h it may not he , 
cii»y to fix till- jireeise date when she folinwcd the step-son, of ] 
nhnse death eUa had been partially tlie instrument. >>(i doubt 
these events tend lo prove, as M. de Broglie observes, thai the 
heart of ConPtantlnc, hiuileued in ynnth by the scenes he had 
passed through, had not been thoroii^hly reformed by the profes- 
sion, however sincere, of Christianity; and it is quite right to 
adduce the uiifavimrable judgments of S, Jerome and 8, Chry- 
eostom. But lh(>ii<;h, we miwt repeat, we do not wish to eay 
one word in palliation of crinu-, yet the argumenta of Nlebuhr, 
Rsauredly no fiatlerer ui' Cimstanttne, Eeem to us to deserve more 
nllenlion than they have reL-eived, and wc therefore give them 
in n fuot-note.' 

■hadi! r>r regret., when he tbinka tliat llie BapUatei^ nh'iwo to him and othent In 
Bume in uu(. rtintty, «a allcgnd, tb« jiluio of Cuii»t»uUn«'« baplion. The jieopla 
of Rome will of uoumo cling to it. 

* ' ETcty ono kuowf Hi« uiineraMo death of ConstunUne'a ton, Crisping who 
«ns ecnt. Into exile to Pain, bd'I tlion put to dcnth. If. however, people will make 
a, ini^dy of llil> eveut. I mu^t conttM Ihot I in nn( seci liuw il ciui be proved that 
CrJHpus wJiH iEiiKiE^Qt. Wiicn 1 read of so oiuar inKum?otioiiE of eoii4 Againi^t 
tboli fol.hor-, I ill) not nee why Crl«pu», wL.i wan Creaar. ntid rtcmnnded the niiik of 
AiiKUHtm, w!ii«b lila f«lh"fr refused liim, shniild not hnve thought— ■■ Well, if I do 
not make iinjl.hiiig uf mjeelf. uij- fatlirr will not. for he will corlaiiily prefer llm 
Mini of FnuKta tu ma, llio son of ii rcpuiliatiid wonnin." Snob a (.huugbt, if it did 
occur to Crinjms. must linve nturji; him to the na'wk. Thiit it Rilber ihuiild order 
hln own noil to bo put lo diath U ocrtsinly tepulsive to our fculingi'. liut it in T«»h 
and In^^oiinilfrnie to .iHert thot Ciinpiii, v/iia irinownt. It it tome hlifhlj pralisble 
tliMt CoiiatniiUne Itimcclf vm (|»li<> wnriiiL-Bd of his jon'i giillt: I infer thi« from 
lij" eoiidui;! tiiwaiitu tlm Ihrw »l^ip>lirolhi>r» of Criepin, whom ho atwije ti'orited 
with tho hicln-nt rc«[W«t, mul liU uniij and hannonj willi hie noiia U triilj cxcm- 
plury. It in rulal*il Ihiit Kiimlii wnn suffociilcd, h.v Const pi ntiuu's commtttiil, l.y the 
ft*uim of u bnth; hut Gihhon hua niwd wntc wolghty duuhts nbout Ihia Innradlhla 
und umwcoiinlablo fact, nnd I cnanot therefore attach anj importitDce lo th« 

It mint be owned thntonr in.ibillly to rtji-ct (with Ollibon »n'I Ntebuhrl Iho 
nibsequenl nxcpulion of FmiBtit, lutroiiiicua a wsnk point iulo tlio above chain of 
reaBOning. Tho donth of that imperial bcaiilj seoniii Iti hino been crniied by His 
oonvictimi on tlio part of LVngtuotine that Criapug had been innocent ; aud that 

J5U Firat Chnattan Eutperora — J)e Broglit, 179 

The next chapter ia at Icnet Tree from the Dbjfiction which we 
feci to the Mikctioii of a rin-^lu title. It U deilicittcd, with the 
exception of n, page ur two oh the ccclogiolojiy nl' that n^n, 
Bolely anJ exclusively to the siihjectof its hesidiiig, 'J%t Vouvdip- 
twn of CofisiantinojiliL It in — ahull wc (.■onfc§B it? — the one and 
Bole chapter in ihtise voUuiicb iu which wc have caught ourselves 
looking onwutd, to aee when it woiikl come to an end. But 
perhaps this wns the fault of our own imputiciicc ; for, on a 
)>econd refcrenre, we must own it ti> he h very wonderful political 
eludy. It Khovvs how much can, und how much cannot, bo 
achieved by the efiiirts of one man in the atletnpt to create in two 
jeard * new capital of the world. 

More than two thousand years have passed awny since ft 
Peruan general, Megahazus, pronounced that the settlers who 
foooded Chalccdon mui^t have been hliiid, fur they would never 
have chosen Biich a wie, when a far finer one lav exactly 
opposite.' The verdict ol' after iij,'e» has niiilicd the judgment 
of the gallant, soldier. Byziintiiini still rmiiaine (he prize city of 
the world. On the raft at Tilsit, Napoleon and Alexander hy 
mutual consent avoided all allusion to its very oatiic, bccauso 
aich knew that the very mention of it would prevent the possi- 
bility of a peacefid seltlcmeut ; and since then England ntid 
Frwieo, Siirdinia and Turkey, have withstood the supposed 
designs of Russia on that wondrous capital. 

Conatantine, whose name, despite Turkish in0uence, still 
clings to it, founded it partly (as M. de Broglie reiuarks) as a 
follower in the steps of Diocletian, partly because he believed 
that he could never ntake Rome a Chni<tian capital. The entire 
social system introduced by Coustantiue marks the ejpoch of a 
revolution. On the wliole, this ntleitipt to urrt-.'tt the decline 
of the sinking Empire it^ generally pronounced to have been ft 

The great Florentine, writing after the event, gives, hi 
ncctirdance with the spirit of his age, an astrological reason why 
the success of Conslantine was less brilliant than that of iEneaa. 
JEoe»e, he reminds us, in sailing from Troy to Italy, went with 
the courvc of the eun from east to west ; but ia this cme with 
evil augury, — 

C\)iisi»ntiii rAfjniU vulaa 
Caitra U coTia del eicl* 

Fuuta and Iwr (riuiils had miiileil biia. But V Canstnnlinn «iiii«riIucc<I hf xr'flil 
KprawnUtloni iato bolicviug Crispux rvuily u'lUij. Iir ma.^ «n I'uv liikv>: Iw.a 
'more kianod nealnot than imning,' Tiic Jfilli ct FsiiBla wa*, »u fciir, lut M. itn 
BrejEliu wy*, Iml Wo miii'-ti Ukc a pngui offjruig I'l Ihe rnnneB uf his bod. Oiilj 
let Da ntmvuiber thai CuiisUntlnc vm nill iinhaptirj^d, uid bad _l>eaa brought op 
amidil tOBnco of iliiB kind. 

' noToclolnt, IT. Hi. '' I>ante, PannJino, ri. 1. 

N 2 


The Firsi Christian Emperors — De Broglie. 

M. (le Brofjlie, who tloee not deny tbe part!nl failure of the 
iitti'inpl.nllrihutca i\\e evil to uiiioli more iubluiiarycaUHies. lie 
Irucea it, if we understand him aright, to the igiiorauce of (he 
age rCBpecttng the true principles ol' [>olitini] economy. He ib 

Jrobahly right, though the admirers of the csistiner^ine in 
''ranee will now hnvc nn uppDrtuuitj' of twitting hiin with big 
allusion to everts of ihe diiy, iis beiiiir hnnlty prophetic or 
folicitouB, To political economists nnd to i^tntesroen we leuve 
\\\ii (juoi^tifin, whether the cveut of the cominercinl Treaty 
hittwccn France niid Englniid X*, or is not, fatal to the a^sertiou 
thiit the principles of Free Trade are among those, *ywn /« 
' jfiruijdi-ji libres Kimln KOBeiit meltre eti prutiqut, et que tout despol6 
* ]n/-i:onnuit Uit ou lard.'' 

Riit ngainst the conclusion that Coiislantinojile achieved 
vothiiig, our autlior protests with his usual force and diftnity. 
'Thatwliieh endures has a jdace in the designs of the God;' 
and Con slant inn I lie bae been the means of iireaervirig for Ub that 
itumiui IjMW, 'which was ihc fairest ideal uf justice that human 
ri'iteoH, before the Gospel came, had ever druujnt of.' 

We find, too late, that we have undertaken somewhat more 
than we can accomplish in proposing to epitomise these four 
Tolnrncs within our present limits of time and spiiec. The last 
of ihe four must lie left untouched until. Deo furrnte-, the 
nppeHrnnee of M. dc Broglie's concludiiijr chapters shall give lu 
an opportunity of retm-ning to the subject. Already have we 
passed by many important topics of which he treats; xve mu«t 
omit many more in our account of what remains. But one 
thing we really trust thai we shall have accomplislied : we slmll 
have given om- readers an idea which, tlionwh stili very incom- 
plete, ia fuller, and we hope fairer, than they can obtain else- 
where, of the amount of mental wealth which is enshrined in 
M. de Brofj lie's pages. 

Passing by Co no tun tine's victories over the Goths and the 
Sarmatians, we again turn our attention to Aluxaudria. There, 
in A.D. 328, Athannsius hud been elected to the episcopal throne, 
vacated by the death of Alexander, and from that time he 
oocupies a space in history greater than even that of IJie aucoes- 
fiive masters of the empire. The event* consequent upon ihix 
election are told with much life and spirit in the work before 
us, aud we agree with M. Ampfere that the author's acquaint- 
ance with tht; discussions of actual life have tended to lit him 

■ n. p. sao. 

in* First Christian Empetvrt — De Srogliei 



for fioU'ring into the dobntes ami recriiniaationB of pnrties.' But 
At [>ro:<cnt we are iinabk; to enter tiimn the sccnef^ lit tliu 
Council of Tyre, the eeriea of mntin^uvred by whkih Ajuw 
obtiuiied the ear of Constantine, nnil the haniahmciil of'S. Aihn- 
tinsiiis to Treves. Arius, as is well known, pre^enll■^l hiiuselt' 
at Cunstantinoplo witli anibigiious formularies, until tlie ICmjie- 
ror, exteniftUy gulinficd, und yet not wholly free from suspicion, 
on a Saturday io a.d. 3^6, ooinnmnclcd the Bishop of Con- 
etantiooplc to ndmini«ter to the horei^iardi on the day followinf^ 
the iioly CiimiuunioD. Tiirowing himself on the floor of n 
ncishhouringdiurdi, Alexander, with tears, wjis heard to piiiy : 
• O God, if Ariua must to-morrow enter into thy eniictuury, 
' take thy servant to thyself, and destroy not tliu juaL with ihe 
' iinjunl. But if thou ciirest for thine heritage, slop AriuR, 
' ihat error cntvr not with him into thy Church.' 

A few minutes alter Arius came by, with every ntark of 
triumph, surrounded by friends, to wrioni he was talking so 
loudly, that pnseers-hy were atlRtcted to the sight. As he 
crushed the forum, he was seized with sudden indisposition, and 
Btcpt iisiilc to ft place of retiremont. A servant, womlcring at 
ihc length of his delay, sought the emise. To Iliui who sent 
that sudden and unloukcd-for derilh we leave the interpretatiou 
of its meaning ; hut the fact remains for evi^r hrnndcd, to our 
own infinite awe, upon the page of history. Arius. the great 
impugner of the Godhead of Him who died for ub, iicrished in 
the very hour of his triumph, like the Apostle wlio betrayed 
that same Master with a kiss, 'he burst asunder in the midst, 
and all hi« bowels gueheJ out.' 

' HiB viTv ducli'ine is ditSciilt ro define, nod bU iinmB htin only pruiiorvifd 
tlie luinoninlc celebrity of acrvinp from age to nge fm (be BymUiil to sll 
tboto uho, in it norld rcncHctl by Cluisttnnily. vioiild lob linmiuiity uf its 
chi«f title tn Riory, nod Us sole bupe of siilvation,' — II. p. 3(i3. 

In the ycnr fiiUowing, a.d. 337, on Whitsunday, died the great 
Emperor whose life is such an epoch in Chureh history ; having 
at his own request at length received the sncniracnt of bapti^n, 
which (strange as it seems] he had deferred till then.' 

Until his rclgn, it had required almost heroic virtue to lie a 
Christian, and it is hard for uw even to imagine how very fear- 
ful mu«t hnvc been such a condition of things. That the 
eataf'linhmcut of the religion of the cross brought With it, accord- 
ing to the lul of all sublunary changes, very ecrious temptations 

I Compare Dr. Arnold's iiioomiuin of Sir Walter Bnliiigli'ii hiWoriti i«)W(if», on 
limiliir grounds- (l.cMun-i on Mod. Hwi.) 

' TItih dr:liiy mils, liowcvcr. by do meant rare ut Ibat epocb, iind had \>eea irp- 
pToicd uv(-u li; Tui'tulliiiD. Tie liicad ut' lack orcouiufic usiier piTM'uutioa oflcn 
•ogg'^iiod it. 


T%e Fvrtt Chri$tiart £taperor»— De Btvgiie, 

ofn iliHcrcnl kimi, \» not fur one moment In Ik! (jiicslioneil- 
3iut ihiit witltoiit licing c.H|»b1i»lietl it could ever have lenrenwl 
eocicty, nrit) nccompli^licd what it renllv lins will) all drnwbncka 
iicc'i>tniiliKl)CtJ, nv <l<i not lor a moment believe. 

'I'lic (rrnlitnilv M' tlic East has ajioken of Constantine aa % 
tninr. Oilier juilgments on the contrary, at least equally hasty 
and prejudiced. Iiave viewed all his acts, including his conver- 
Mon, in the moet uiifavinurable light, and attributed the chanee 
to mere motires of earthly poli«y. The verdict of Xiobuhr, in 
thifi resirect, whith an Kn^'Ush biof;rai)hcr prooouncea to be 
' [icrfectly just,' sctms to ns exceedingly imfttir, and wc can 
hai-dly believe thnt it could hdvc been t-ithcr formed or culojitcd 
by any writer who wtw as well accjuninted witli the Christian 
as with the pagan literjuurc of the time. We Ihink thnt wc 
Cifuld show, if wc Imil sjiiicf, that many of Niebuhr's n^uuied 
facts nru npocrvphiil, anil his inferences untenable. Uut as 
nothing tend.i so much to free the mind from unworthy eoii- 
clumuci as the presence of tho^e which are jui^t and noble, we 
gladly lorn 1o the beat slulenicnt of the ca$e that we have ever 
met, (Aa in other instances, we have ventured to italicise 
claueea that seem to iis remarkable alike for the loftiness of the 
thought and the felicity of the expression.) 

' [( liim been rri'iiiiitiitl^v usk(.>il iilictlti-'r, in biu edobrnted cuiivei'iiiuii, 
Ciius'iinliiio MflB influciici''! bj a fi-clinit of Iritc fnlCl] or by a slireiid poti- 
tiual cfllctilaliiTii. Nnw nil iWn <lc|prnils ii|iiin tlio sense hIiiHi pcrscais 
sttnch in. Riid (lie cnitdilinnii trhil!)) rliry iinpniR it|inn. xinecrity nni} faitl). 
ir tWy rreoiiiiiae tici olhcr kiml [><' Tiiith lliitn tlint pnaitcnt (onipiinr.tion 
whicli vrfuriiiK the viMK »!' the hunrl. dcliitlics it fi'iim tlie pti/ps of ciirlli. 
mid ptiriliL's il from biimuii pissioiiB ; suth a IJiilli did iiol Kiiltr, uolil hU 
(liMtli-beil sickiicas, the Hnibitioiis ntid iil'tuii cruel soul iif ibt- Hon of CoD- 
KIiiiltuK. Util it btplict' ill llie dij(:triri(.'S ri-vL'n!i^d l);r the (iaspel. revfrL'tiee 
for the supefualiirnl ponrr of Clirixl. and 'I'O iiiliiltikto iiuthorilj of Hi» 
Church, firm rci-nliitinn In rrtn*iii in luhmiRBion to Ilicei', nnJ even lo 
brnvc lor that olicdit-iii^i! icriiiiiK pntilicnl ciulinrrnbsniciils und dnn^ci's, 
the vivid nod pri^found ndmiriiiitm Ibr truth,— if nil llifsc seiitimonls, inmir- 
lidciit tor tlie uleriial Balviiiiim of a houI, iifvunlieU'SB dcBorvu in mnn'a 
Biji;lit Id bt< (.''tnsLdercc! as llio pli'dges uf u cuascicntiouB couvii-'tjun, Jl ia 
quite itiipos><i1i!<.' to (loubl Ibe sincerity of Con stun line. No iiiU'runtvd 
■noiivG ii'ipoUfd him tn alipnn,ic rrom birnself, by Ibe snddpn professimi of 
n I1C1V religion, ranta tiinn bnlf ofhiii ^iibjeciSi to hrenk uitli nil the rerni- 
tviniTiirC'-t nnd n.11 lliR irndilions of bis pinjiiri?. Once sefllcd in tlii: Cbris- 
linn rnnki. if lie bud only bri>ii|[lit tliitht'r tbc >ii:i)liniiMits of n invi^rciiii 
jenlous oCnlnoliitc poiM^r, nit sbouUI ncvor biive atpn birn Inlsp pun in ibo 
(.inloriiHl dibcusiiniui of tbu Ulmrcb wilb ii blind miilure of nrdimr iuid iii- 
nccisioii ; ba kuuIiI Lavu iiaued cotntiinndH wilhonldi^lirilln};. Inn nioiiarvk 
ftndiicd Hiih urmit flrmncsa of cb«, nnd nlftBtcr of an irri'eiBlible feree, 
hcMtniion, nliieb cnn only ariso Irom scnipoloiisncss, is tbc sure prouf of 
gDUil fnitli. 

■ Tlie gl*iry of men is for tbe most part increnKcd bv flit nnpnrtnnco of 
tlie event! uitb nliith lliey am mixed up, and mure tbsin aue famona name 
lias Ibus u«cd its ccLbrily to a fbrluituiis tiimibinittiuu. Biil tbc ddtiny 

l%e F^st CTmd'aM Emjierora — Ve Broijlu:. 183 

urCoust&uline lias been prrciit^Tv Ihc rnvevec of ihte. In las uiticc. on Ihe 
(omr«ry. it is ilic Krciiliic-i" uf liii- wurk nliicli 'limit l1ie ri'pii'Hli'ni ol" ihi* 
Wiirkmri. BMKi-'cn tlie rcsulla of liii rciisii niul hi» porsonai murll lliuru 
H by nil mi^nni the oriLimry propotUon litmccii cniisc niii] oflVijt. To I>b 
nnrlbj' nf aitncliiug bis uhiik; lu lliu uoiivifrsivii iit' tbc H<ir!<l, lie ii(:iHii\t( t» 
have JDinnii tci ll« geuiiis of licroe* Ilie virtiiM orsaiiitB. Cocintniilini; uim 
ncilbLT KreJil cuougli iiov pure cuon(£li for bi» (ask. Tlie cuiilrait, but Km 
mtiiiiffBt lo all'B, hit» jiislly sbocknil posli-ri'y. NmertheUss, kiafnrt/ hai 
lerH tofne ineer^igns di-rotr (n thf sri-rire of ii aubh rtinsf Iheir puie'-r, ami errn 
lifir amb'liun, that it hat a right, Khoa it mi-dn with xuch, to il^rmaRii for Ihrm 
liBJUvlue ofmr«, mid lo hi^'efurlht merry of Qad.'^W. p, 'i'M. 

We havfi readied at Icngtli the second part of AL de Broglie's 
hiBton-. It opens with Athaiin»iuB at llDine. And here let iw 
remarlt that it is a good sign of our own age and comitrv, that 
its controver*ia]i»ts do not think it iieceMary to nttribiite tha 
spiritual power ohtiiiiicil by the Rome of that day to rolhin;i 
but unworthy arts and enrthly ambition. ' Rome " [iwyt the lato 
Professor Hussey in his able iiftle work uganint the Surircmnuy) 

* at this tiint-, a.nd fur some time itt'ierwarils, bad earned the prece- 
' dcncG in honour always a!Iowe<I to the impt^ritd See, not only by 
*her ninrtyred Bishops und her muniiieenco to poorer Clnircbep, 

* but also by her orthodoKy, and by the courage ami ability willi 
' which ftlie undertook the championship of the truth aiiaiiist 

* vnrions shapea of error,' Or. as anotlicr writer of very different 
temperament puts it : ' The Bishop of Itome . . . had a special, 
' oioiic awful, moat responsible HtenardMhip entrusted to him, in 
'the discharge of which it is mere nrrosancc, parly spirii, 

* and contempt of history lo say he waa not often io tlio inniii 

But if Julius sliowcd the good side of the office, and nobly 
defended the cause of 8. Atlianasius, bis miccessor Liibi^riii.-i ait 
unfortunately failed, nud signed n more or less Arianiiiing 
creed. Far be it from na to speak harshly of one fu severely 
tried; bul the reeoncilialion of this now uuquealioned Ihct witti 
the ullmmontane view, so prevalent amoni; modern Roman 
Catholicd, is surely extremely difficnlt. De >iai8tre, followed by 
many oibers (and apparently by M. de Broglie himself], says that 
Liberius only acted as a private doctor; thereby, of course, 
implying that, had ho acted officially, the Church universal would 
have been iaijtlicatcd in his fall. Now we by no mciui* widh to 
represent the distinction between a man's putjiie and nrivale acts 
B» mere hair-splitting; for it is one which is constantly being aelcd 
upon in uSicial life. 'ITicrc is not anywhere an arnbasBiwlor who 
doe* not every day perforin actions, which are thoroiifihly under- 
Btood to be uis individual dcedf, and in no wise to com prom iae 

■ Mr. MaiiTlM in nply to Dr. [iewmati'« Theoiycrf Derdopmea'., PiefMs to 
LoclttiM OD (.tao Ei>i£Uo to iLe ileliiuwt, p. ib. 

184 The First Clrigtian Empnvrfi—Dfi Tirajftxe. 

his country. Some of our rpadcn) may recollect how, wtiea 
E*parlcro, Duke of Vittoria, cam« as a refugee ia England, the 
Iut« Duke of Wdlmyton (at tliat lime in Ihe Cabinet} took care 
to wrilc iipoii Iiiti calling can! ' Jhu/ue de Ciudad RodriffO ; 
Capitim-r/f)tfiTfd,' jitet to show tlint it was the visit of one 
Slianish grandee upon another, and was not to be regarded a« in 
any way picdising the Government to any psirliciilar line of 
ciinducl. When, however, it is sought to apply thi» distinction 
lolhewv! fall of Lilierius, wc cnnuot help roiimrking, /rVsfAi/, that 
it it not c4i*y to nndcrslJind hi.>w ^ucll nn net aa lliiit of putting Ji 
sipriuturo to n crt'Cii ctin he eonaidcifd to he of n prirrtli nntiire 
on the part of any Iti^hop, li^nvt of all a piimalial Biahop; and 
ArciiniHi/, that ihc Bupposilion that the public act of u IVnimle, 
whotlur of Koine or Carthage, would in any way comproniise 
(he Chureli at larf^e, never aeeuia to have occuneil to the great 
Christian teaclicM of that age. Controversy has elicited a 
passage bearinjt on thin question from S. Aligusline's tractate 
De Unico Baptismo (cap. xvi,), to which wc have never seen any 
reply. 'Prorsus qualuecumque fuerint Marccllinus, MorcdluH, 
Silvester, Mclchiiidc* [Bisliopa of Rome], MensuriuB, Creci- 
liiuing [Bi^lmps of Carthngf'], ad^ue alii quihus objiciunt pro 
B nil dissension e qnod voioni, niJdt prirjudu-iit EcclvMtv CathoUat 
Mo terrarian orhr. diffusa: : nnlht miido Ci>ni-in innoccidid cora- 
' nanitir, nulto 'iiii'do eorum tniqmtale dtininamar.'^ There is 
eurely Imre no hint of any distinction between private and 
public acte; let the Primate of Liltya or the Primate of Italy 
do what he will, the Church universal is not to Buffer 

It is not in our power at present to follow, with our author, 
the fortunes of S. Athnnnsius. This is a great pity; for noivhere 
have we seen an account of that great confessor (and we are 
Rcqnaintcd witli a good rnnny) which so happily combined 
extraela from his writings with the narrative of his suft'cringa 
under persecution. The inipresaiou left by M. deBroglie's picture 
will, 110 doubt, be dift'erent upon different minds, the primary and 
underlying question being, as we have already intimated. Was or 
was not the cause, for which Alhnnasiua endured so loucb, worth 
the toil and turmoil of a long life ? Assuming, as we have a risht 
to assume, the answer to that question which arises on the !ip8 
and from the hearts of English Cburclimen, we may remark that 
the present narrative cntu'cly confirms in detail the summary 
jjivcn by Hooker. Others showed want of acutoness, or gave 
way under the influence of fciir or flattery, or else in uinmtaining 

I Tom. is. pp. 612, S. (Eil. Ben.) Tlia treittiae is oae of S, AugiiElino'a man; 

uit!-l)onatiHl liniujiueitiuus, 

^P^^T^TTV^f Cf/rislfan Bmjmorit—Be UroglU. 183 

the (nith l)ocsinM> emltittered, Iinrgh to ihetr friondp, almost di*- 
lovnl ti> tlmir Sovereign. ' Only in Atlmuiisiua there wiis 
' nothing observed throughout the course ol' that long trageiiy, 
'other Uian auch as very well Lecame a wise man to do and a 
'righteniifi to suffer. So tluit this was the plain comlition of 
' thrtse times : the whole world n^jainst Atlianasiuc and Athana- 
'siua ngainst it: half a hundred years i^pcnt in doubtful trial 
' which of the two in the end would provnil. the side which hnd 
' all* or eke the part which hnd no I'ricnd but God and death, the 
'one. u defender of' his iiinocency, llic other a fimither of all his 

Gindly too would we dwell upon that most curious »nd novel 
phn.te 01 |mg:tnidm nfter its overlbrow by the iirms and policy tif 
ConAtniitiiu^ While Couittantius the Second was reigning (for 
he soon become eole master), pnganiam made one more struggle to 
regain its lost ascendancy. It liad its own schools of literature, 
in which it was now the fashion to alhgor'ne all the raylholofry 
of aoeient poets ; ' it had its own prnfeiaors of magie ; it had, in 
the worthip of Mithrn, a rising and marvellous system, hearing 
many points of fxtermil n^sciubhincc to Christianity; it had, in 
the Neo-l'liitonic sclmol of Alexandria, a kind of quasi- thoolopy 
O^' itAOwn. Well, imleed, might S.Gregory Nazianzen speak of 
the need "f science in religion iit such u time, and say that 'the 
'priesthood \n likewise a plillusophy, and that philosophy hiiA 
' need of ji priesthood to inenlciite it.' 

This last eH()rt of heathen eagea was not fruitless : hcnihcnLi'm 
foan permitted, in the niyaterions wisdom of God's Providence, 
once more for a season to ait upon a throne, once more to perse- 
cute,* and then to sink it may be for ever. We nmst conclude 
for the present with one parting picture, rather formed from 
llian actually given in these volnuios, which will, we trust, so 
interpret itself a* to form no unfitting termination now, and a 
starting point, should we be able at auy future time to recur to 
the eubjeet. 

The scene is at Athens in the spring of a.d. 355; Athens, no 
longer, indi'cd, the home of statesmen of extended rule, no longer 
t]ie miiilreaa of the seas, but still the home of art.of philosoiihy, 
of poetry and i;lot|ueHco, still the At-a/fcmia of the world. 

And there where Cicero had studied and sent his son; there 
where Horace had learnt such philosophy as he had; where 
Cleanthes the Stoic had indited tliat aublime hymn to the 

1 CC T>r. Scwtll Oh the I>i«l'ifjiu!4 <if Plata. (l.a*l, KlinpWr. Rlw iif Aloiimiilriiin 

Platotiltni.)— WIt.itcvcr In' llioiight ••( Mr. Kin/jultj''" [titiui'OB •<! S. L'jril mxl of 
lbs C'liiir^'ii "f liin tiiim, liu Iiuh cer'ainly raiiglil extrcmuly well, in lii* Hspnti'i, 
auiuc u( tbu rbiLnu'lcriKtk-B uf lliit |)hu<c of lluuth^aiBiu. 
* Cit. ap. do OksMo, 111. p. SM. 

186 The First Chrixttan Emperors — De Brojlie, 

Riiprcinc Buiiig. wliicli 8. Ptiul liiin«cir dii! not t]i«tlain to quote ; 
tlicrc whurc AurcHus Aiilotiinus hml gniiieil tlie iioliluat Icmou 
liBiitliciii.fiQ wiulJ ever iitipurt ; tlicre »re tunv, nrniiUt ihc crowd 
of Icnrnors I'nuii nil pnrts ot" tlie chnlizeO worlil, tbrce stuilcnts 
pcciiliitrly vuii^jiicuoiis ; two uftbcmnre aUuciioTiiitely intiitmte, 
llie Ihird, thoiigli ii(^t their Cnend, y«t knows tliem well. All 
llir(>c lire eagerly engaged in the Btiidies of the phice ; grninniiir, 
IiiBtory, poesy, aalronomy, arilhiiietio, peometry, even medicine; 
nil ihi-ee make great prosrena in nin.itery of thought atid oxjired- 
Slim ; hut how uift'ei-ent is tlie use to he made ot" their gifts : the 
one will be known to posterity as the gentle S, (Jregorv of 
Nazianzuni ; iho other tlie lofty and elocjuent S, Basil of Caii- 
jiadocin ; the third will live to nMsume the purple, but he will 
return, n.\a» I to the crrorg of liis pagan forefatJiurs, and be known 
M— the Apostate. 

Ccrtninly, if for liitn paganism bad put on its mo«l alluring 
form?, Cliristiunity Imd sliowii whatever iu those who profosscd 
it Conld make it le:iat nttriictive. The Ariiia CuD^Iiintins hud 
cut off nil the deeoend.tntd o\' Cooslnntius Chloruci by \»a second 
wife Theodora, escepling Julian and his brother Giillua. At it 
later period Galtua, a weak and fonlieh prince, bad aUo been put 
to death. Thus Julian, who had met with able Alexandrian 
fliiphists, and secretly imbibed from them the love of paganicim, 
learnt to ansociaie the idea of Christianity with a cousin who, 
wiiile as an Arian he persecuted the great S. Athanasiua, like- 
wise persecuted puganism, and kept Julian himself from day to 
day in doubt whether he should be ca»>t into a dungeon, or have 
his rank acknowledged and power bestowed on him. Our con- 
eideration of the history of Julian's rise to that power, and the 
use he made of it, must be deferred to anothtjr opportunity, for 
it ia high time to turn to those few genenil remark* wliich, as 
we prouilaed, should be deferred to the oouulusion. 

It would ref|uire a deeper and wider range of learning ibun 
we possess, a loftier intellectual pedestal than we pretend to 
stand upon, to warrant ns in presuming to pass judgment upon 
the mental stature evidenced in the volumes to which we have 
been endeavouring to draw attealion. Yet it may be posaililo 
to indicate some points of comparison between M, de Broglie 
and other writers, rather in the way of suggestion than with 
anything like dogmatic iiEsertion. 

It was much to be dei^ired that this portion of history should 
be closely examined by one who ia not, like Gibhon, an un- 
btUever ; not, like Tillcmont, a recluse ; not, like Ncandor, so 
immersed in the enquiry into systems of opinions fta to forget 

Chrutiott Em.per<yrf — De Broglif. 


the living men ; hy one n'lio Iia--< accii enough of jioliti^iit life to 
Ciller into the diDiciillies of staleHuieii, tiiicli as Condliiiiiine, imd 
[ wlioae religioiU earnestnesa rendeis liiui al tlie emine time capable 
[of sympathising with an Antony nnd an Athanaaiua. But it ia 
[of cour.*e quite jwgaihle that one t!iii§ worthily endotvedmay be 
Ipronounced by thoee who arc be^t rjualificd to judge, somowhat 
finferior in other gifts to several of his cotupecra. 

With all hU grievous fnults of tone. and temper, the Englii^]! 

lltietoriiLn of the Decline and Fall niu^t be iidmittcd to hiivc 

[•chicved a task whii^h cimnot be performed ii r^econd time. He 

^fint, out of niMtcriids the most cutd'used, erected thiit lofty (uli- 

Icc, which timy indued be justly atigrnnlized m iiavini^ nn (;)itt|icl 

|or orulory titttiched to ite wuiis, which m:iy here and there he 

[•hown to be faulty in xume niiiuir detail, Init which can lini'dly 

ifae overthrown nntil liieralure iteelf ahull be no moi'e. M. de 

jBroglie may ofleo be succesaful in his occasional attacks upon 

I.Oil'bon ; yet after all at the most, how com(iaratively few are 

|th« bleniishes that can be dotectod, when we consider the 

l^ormoua magnitude of the work. Aa an original inf|uirer, tho 

lauthw of VEglUe et L'limjiire Jtomain, must, we suppose, bo 

iTanked after one who has aided him even more pcrhaiia than 

fbe is aware, witliout whom he might never Iiave been cheered 

iwarJ to the proKtciition of his own adinirrblc lahmn*. 

Il is for Fi'CDchtiicn. toeav where, in n innd famous for Icmling 

ftlie van in history and biography, — the hiiid of Joinvilie, Froiit- 

ilart, S. 8inion, Laiivtelle, Sismnndi, 'J illcinont, Fleurj, Dupin, 

the Thieri-vs, Miclielel, Thiers, de Uiiraiite, — ihey will plnci;,in 

rcMicct of ma[ti.-r and of style, the new aspirant to a seal in the 

Iialla ot Clio. One of their living thinkers, whom we have not 

mentioned, will perhaps, though below M. Albert do Ilr<iglie in 

vigour of narrative, be considered his superior in the provinui^Iy 

lintrtMidca ciinracter of tho path where hi^ investigations have 

Iain. Tho son .■\nd heir of the Due de liroglie will not be di-- 

poscd to grudge any mark of respect to one who. if we are not 

Dltstakcn, was his ihther's sometime collengne. M. Guizot. As 

regards style, the terseucw and brilliancy which liavo been eo 

justly cui<^iz«il in tiiwe vohnnc« may possibly be pronminced 

in I'ariti to be somexviiat less conjoined with the ease and rich- 

DCM which arc coiispteoous in such Freneh as that of M. AmedcO 

rTliierry or Jil. Vi<'tor Ctiimin. But our author's languiifjeii* chanic- 

tcriscd by markol individuality ; like Lord Maeaulay, he exhibits 

n bold disrc;;nril of tautology, never shrinking fioiii u repetition 

o** ttw a.-une wcrd, when tlic idea to he enforced is identical. 

rruiii causes wliieli we do nut |it'eteiid to analyi>i', it appeurs to us, 

liuwcvur, a atj le mure dillicuU to render into Eugliob than that 

of moal of the ilistiuguishcd authors Mhom we tiavc jiui named. 

188 Tfie First Christian Emperors — De Drofflie. 

Occa«ioiinl reforcnceB to inveslipatora on the eaat bank of tlie 
Kliiiie occur in tlie couree of this work. lu lucidity of nrrnngo- 
iiient, ill power of compreseion, in pictiircficiue description, in 
eloquence of narrative and reflection, the Gorman hietoriana 
and biographers must, wc imagine, be ranked fiir below their 
Gnllican comptcrj. Thus, fur example, even tlie co-rcligionists 
and greatest admirers of Mijbkr are compelled to admit tiiat bia 
profonnd work on i». AtbannBius is rendered irksome by con- 
Hlflnt interruptions of doctriiiul dissertations, and aniily«e« of 
writinf^s ti> which he rcfora. But dejiplte llie tendency to 
become absorlied in nbslract speculation, which is oflcn injiniimn 
to the lii.Btiiriun, tliero dvas appear to lis to be a hardihood of 
spcoulalion, a power of iuslghi. in the kings of thought in Ger- 
many, such as Goeihe, Kant, Mohlcr, we may perhaps add Dr. 
Dolfinger, whicli if it too often leads some of them astray into 
those wikl specidatifma so justly satirized by M. de Broglie, 
does yet in their be^t moiiicnls elevate them, in thoir rcspcetiva 
lines oFiniiuiry, above the thinkers of France or England. In 
conifuiring liiin with those of his own comuitinion, M.dc ISrogllo 
ccr!:iiniy seems to us a less bardy thinker than eitlicr MiJhler or 

But after all those compurisons, so proverbially invidiomt, 
]i!ivc been made; after all points of difference between our 
views, (ir the views of others nf dillerent cumnninions, have licen 
stated ; it will remain a work of adnilrablo lairness, ufdi^ep and 
conscieolioue research, the result of high powers uf industry, of 
thought, of skilful composition and of eloquence rightfully eni- 
[jloyed. It is not too much to say that nmny of the themes 
natidled in the work before us have never yet by any modern 
pen been treated more fittingly, more worthily. Great indeed 
might bo the service rendered to the sceptical and latitudinarinn 
minds of Frimce, if they could learn from such a hook bow 
conipiitihic is (iiitb in Cbriat with large views, equity towards 
opponents, and admission i-f the faulo inherent, not in Chris- 
lianit)' itself, but in that fallen human niituro which accepts at 
liest eo ini|>erfeclly its Master's yoke. There is a spirit abroad 
which persuades, or at least tries to persuade itself, that tlioufih 
niibctieving in its prcaent age and country, it voiild have be- 
lieved in an earlier age. It sees the liiidts incidental to rhnse 
who arc religious men aninng the living, it recall;! only the 
virtues of the dead. Wb could name at least two English 
authors of celebrity who appear to renson thus with themselves; 
but the saddest and most powerful reprcacnialive of eueh a 
miscrnble stale of mind is lo be found in a French puet not long 
since deceased. M. Alfred de Muasct avowedly niuurncd that 
he had been boru in au age when Voltaire had destroyed all 

IXe First Chwtian Empivrora — De IhogKe. IS!) 

faitb.* Viiin delusion ! liati he lived in that modijevnl «poch 
Lwlticli ni'iK-ar* to altrai:t his rt-gnnlif, bu would Imvc fouinl 
|Cnoii::li and marc than eiimigh 1o diNcnchiint him, iid'I hiive 
Itiglit't). we Tear, I'or the da^a of S. AlhiiniLsiii:ii; as tijrtiin in the 
ittya of Athnnaaiua he would have looked back loiigiiifrly to the 
EChurch of the Cataoomhs. But to mlnilit not wlioliy led nstray, 
ucli works fta that under review may be pern>ittod to render 
jnal benc6t. They may pcnelnite where works of direct 
fcontroverey would not rcnch, and suggest how much of eanctilyt 
[liow much of evil and difficulty lias existed in almost every ago 
[Of tlic Church. 

To one of our own most jiopular writers the name on the 

ltitl(i-p(;c uf these volumes eei^m^ to suggest no other idea than 

pthat of u very incaniution of material force.' It may have been 

I once; hut I be family ia not one of those '/wi. ntitif rim oultli/!, 

In'wif rifn a/rprU, and ibe present heir of the boiir>e alandit Hfune- 

Vvrhnt in the same relation to liis ancestors that one of our own 

linoHl girted anJ exemplary nobles doea to the progenirora whose 

iveshe has sketched so well and gracefully m tue Lives of the 

H^iema. Whether Prince Albert de Broglic, and his brother* 

n-law Count d'HauBsonville, may live to take part in Bueh a 

free govevnmcut as they believe Franco to be tilted fiAr, is 

liddcu bidiind (be veil of the future. In such a CFise the slucties 

cquiwte to produce such volumes as M, de Bruglie's can never 

ihe thrown away. But if ttueh be not our :mtbor's destiny, we 

might venture, if it be not impertinent, to remind him of one or 

two among many just grounds of consolation. It is true that 

' ' Jc ne croU pus. <1 ChrUt ! i. tn pnrolo iiunlo i 
J« luin rcnu irop turd dunn ua monde trap vioux. 
I)'iin «i5i:Ia man ctpalr lutit on niAcIc tan* cmlnM 
Ia* uoniitt^r dii nfilrc out dfipaiijila les deux. 
• * . . « 

Dora-tu oontcnt, Voliuirf. ci ton hidciix (oatire 
Volligc-l-il oni'iir our tcs os Ji^nlmrni'il 
Ton ultiiUp lUiiil, illl. on, Imjj Jpiinc pour tc lire; 
Lv nOLrc <t»i(. U' I'lalrc nt> Wk huuiiiiu'' v>ul iid«. 
II nst tuiulid our oouti, out r^lGus iuinxjiun 
Qii« lie ttta largHH uuuui tu nHpnia auU ol jaur' 

lioiA* L-IV. 

Wc nte IbeM Bp|iftUia|; TOn>vK, Truiu aa obJi-cUoiiiil'tp ruin p<M 1 1. ion of a gnat iKiot, 
1* kbow Uic md pomlbilUy of a utato of fi>vllii|; thai lu luaiij uiu><. xueni tiiiiipt;^ 
" icrcdililo. A mniicrlj rcvii-w of De Un»ol'i writing*, liy Mr. P. T. I'algturc, 
»j hn taiind In the OifeiTd Etnaj/a for ISAfi. 
* 8m Mr. Ciitijlo'A uluipUr (alrcnily rnfcrred to) on the attempt of the Mitn'rhal 
d« Bmglia U> |iul dowQ tbe Ucroliition lij lh« aid of the eohllcr; ; and •.'unijmre 
tin: Ckronoloirital .'iammarti U llio und of llm Ut«r udltlona nf Lli« euuiu wurk. 
* IT89. ^Hni^, Jal>/, Court ti:!rrur« and pltans : old Mu,ri^:hii1 Bro^lio. — tbi« in llio 
foflglio »ho wai jounff tu the Seven- Veura' War; eon of a Mi;r>hul Broglio, nod 
gnodMoof another trfu much filled tlic acirsiiapers iu lluir time' 


jTAe Firiit Chritiian Einperon — I)e Broglit. 

EngHyhmcn who retire Troin the world of politics to that of 
literature do so knowing that they can at any time rrturn. iiiul ns 
the Fretiuh proverb hiis it, ' It is always easy to walk wlicii one 
i« leading a liorse by the bridie.' Yet oae of our most brillidiit 
ifnot one of our loost profound ibinkerg, who hud known wiuit 
office was under a constitutionAl government, dednreil of a poli- 
ticinn who hnd hctukt^n irunaelf to litL-ratiire — ■ Wfi heartily 
'congrntiilittc him on having been driven liy evenU to make ao 
'«xchange whici), ndviintngemiK aa it ici, few people make while 
* they can avoid it. He hua little reason, in our opinion, to envy 
' any of thoae who are still engaged in a pursuit from which, at 
' mofit, they can only expect that, by relinquishing liberal studies 
' and sociAl pleasures, liy passing nights without sleep and Bum- 
' mcrs without one glimptie of the beauty of nature, they may 
' attain that laliorloiis. that invidious, that closely watched *lavery 
' which is mocked with the name of power." 

To influence ii chumber of peers or deputies, to carry out 
schemes of government into action, n.nd leave laws wliieh con- 
tliiue to influence the career and character of a great people,- 
hau indeed a dlrectne-'S and open evidence of ueufuinegs which 
strongly iniprc««es the imagination. An author, for the raoaC 
part, inu.-it be content to live without any such immediate 
proofs of the services lie has rentiered to his fellow-men. IJe 
does not see the hearts that feel gratitmie to him for his toils. 
He does not know how noble sentiments have been awakened 
in other minds by volumes in which there breathes no thought 
that is mean or little. And yet, if we may speak so solemnly, 
it is a profound problem which no mortal eye can pierce, whe- 
ther for his own soul and the souls of many besides it may not 
prove more salutary than any conceivable political achievement, 
to have shown how great and how beneficent are the changes 
wjiieh have been wrougliL in society by the ojieration of the 
faith of the Cross, to liiive inspired in other minds a larfjer and 
more charitable view of the characters of departed aoverei^na 
and statesmen, and to have added one ray more lo the bright- 
ness of the aureole that beams around the brows of saints. 

' Lord Macaiilnj, in njfcronoo to Mr, Pwogrino CoucMjuij'. — (Ebmjb, Sir W. 


fiiT. Vll. — 1. Evening Oommuniojis — a Tract. 
'2. Guide to the Church Hei-vi'cc/t in London and it» St^ttrha. 
I^ondon: Riviiigtone. ISSS. 

Row should we have fflt and acted if >ve lind lived diinug tlie 
ArtiiTi Mnigglc in Alexandria, or at Cori^laniiiiuplc wIud Ncs- 
torius wai4 |iatmi'ch, or ia Africa while Dunatietn was euling 
out the heart of the Church, or in Nuremberg or Angahurfi 
durinsj; the second or third decade of the ^ixtecDlh century ? 
8uch (jucstions the Btudeiil of »«creO history cannot but put to 
liimself when the niomenlima chiiracler of the Church's ])nst 
stnigeles rises linporluunlely liefbre him. But if he raises tho 
question, he does not answer it. He feels tlint he reads the 
destinies of the stuwessivc chiHujiiona nnd gencraiiona of the 
Csitholic Church liy a hght which they never themselves en- 
ioyed. It is not tliat he eeeu more clearly than they iiito the 
H«vcl&tinu which was given in ita entirety once for all. He is 
not foolish enough to suppose that theology can he improved 
upon Baconian principles, or, indeed, can ever be anything but n 
etrictly deductive science, whose major-premises arc the titter- 
»Dcee »if God. But he knows thsit no age ever comprehends 
it«elf; it must be seen in it« results. We arc accustomed, in 
thU age of telegrams and newspnpera. to the phraee contem- 
porary history. Strictly spoakin^', the thing ia an im|>08sibiUty. 
We may, indci-d, clu-onicle conieinpornry facts; but the com- 
bination, the judgment, the analysis of cause and uScct, the 
philo.'iophicid treatment, in short, which constitutes history, may 
be exercised on any era of which we have sufficient records — 
except our own. History can deal only with the paut. The 
prcsa, indeed, peri}etually endeavours to set aside this law, and 
to anticipate the verdict of anulhcr generation upon the events 
of the puMMDg hour. Thie attempt bcloni^s to its pscudo- 
prophciicid chiims; and it has, of course, niiu not unfrcquently, 
to aubmit to rude disappointmentB. But just ns we cannot at once 
eujoy life and anatomize the body which actuidly lives; mo wc 
cannot at once drink into t)ie life of our day und niaii out its 
relation to the past and the future. Real prophecy in nlwayii 
a supentntuml gift; it is not a happy quick-aiglilednesn of the 
natural eye. Kven in secular history, there is little chance of 
suoccMful prediction. In the kingdom of grace, where there 
arc 60 inncy forces at work wliich diatauoe c«iciiUition, it ia 


Bwning Comntttnwjti. 

ccrtiiin that wc ciinnnt even pliilosonUiw upon tlic firawnt. \Vc 
cannot say liow we ur ihia iliiy Htmfl a|i]iciir in the eyca of tlie 
next generation of CliHatiann. We cannot oalculute llie in- 
fluences, the tone, the. moral and spirilual inhenUnce which w« 
fhali bcfjiieath to tliem. We Jiumbiy trust that we shall leave 
to tlioin entire the faith of the Catholic Church ; but that Is all. 
Wc nmy, Indeed, fee! that we live in a time which may here- 
after Iw «een to have been prc^DAiit with momentous tc^uUh. 
Of ihi* wc csmnot indulge «uy thing beyond coniceturc ; but wc 
<:«« note the ayuijiloms of onr day— and wc isliall note them with 
the greater care as we lenrii liow little we can <lo beyond. In 
Church history es|iecia]ly is it true thai ages jicriicliiaily Kang 
upon that which tu the superticial eye is a triviality. Il may be 
that many of the material eflorta of thia active age are deetinod 
ta exerciee the least possible influence upon the future of the 
Church. It may be, that ujron some of the leant observed 
changes in her pnicticc and discipline, there depend results 
which will change the face of WesterLi Christendom. We do 
not ]>niphecy ; but the poseibililics of the prtsent may be argued 
from the faclB of ihe past. 

Willi these reHectiutis, we invite the attention of our readers 
to a practice which has only of late appeared among \ih, but 
which already ihretitens in some dioceses to become general. 
To an aiicii'iit Cliristian, Evening Communions would have 
looked, to say the least, very slarlling, and even shocking. The 
practice, in its modem dress, would have violated some of tho 
deepest instincts of early Christianity. The intense UTid fervid 
conscrvativism, so loyal to that jiiisl in whieli confessors and 
martyr'' had lived and died, and tlie deep inwrought reverence 
for Christ's Spiritual Presence traversing the Icngtli and breadth 
of the Church's organism, and centering in (he Eucharist as its 
hightisl, expression and channel, would have been equally set 
aside by it. That such a practice should have arisen upon tho 
horizon of the Church, backed, too, by episcopal cncoiu-agement, 
would have seemed to the ancients antecedently impossible, or 
a 8ure mark of heretical depravity. Yet wc, who breathe a reli- 
rious atmosphere so different from that of the early ages, have 
ivcd to witness the upgrowth of this reversal of Cntliolio tra- 
dition, almost without protest or even recognition. In 18.*iO, it 
wa* feeling its way, here and there, warily and stealthily; in 
ISdO, it is the acknowledged pmclice of at least fil'ty ehiitchcs 
in the metropiilitan diocese. Nor is it advocated only by ex* 
tremo Low Chni-chraen. Of course such a practice has par- 
ticular recommendations for the spirit of Puritanism. Ever 
wayward and undisciplined, popular Protestantism rejoiccis to 
inaKe hiwIessncHS and disorder a prime condition of its activity. 


Evening Com^mmiom. 


Wii<?n there is a Iraiiition to bo PCt itBide, a time-honoured 
custotn to bo tranipletl on, PtirltaiiiHm is at, its pue>t, atimuhited 
to extraordinary exertioop, clanioroua, contemptuous, di-fiant, — ■ 
we had almost said, but it would be Bcarcely true of Puritanisui, 
^-origimd. And in this mutter of Evening Communione, it 
finds allies iu quarters, alien enough from its chnracteriatia 
temper, yet not univillipg to join it in an onset upon Ecclfj- 
NMttcal Toryism. Men who would alirinli: Irom Exeter Hull 
Mid its grotesque platitude?, and whose sense of decency would 
keep them out of the euburban theatres, have a great opinion, 
nererthclcNS of the BUpcrior insight of our day into the needs of 
the Cliurcb, and are glad to have a hand in setting tufide pre- 
8Cnption, f»r llie mere sake of doing en. And there are otherit, 
— to whom we would especially address ourselves, — who are 
profoundly impressed by the grave responsibilities which Pro- 
viik-ncc has imposed upon the Church of England, and \ty the 
unsati»fuctory and inadequate respouEe to tho«e responsibilities 
which our Clmrch-system actually attempts. They are touched 
with compai>sioii at the sight of the pcrisliing masses ; they con- 
tiust the seluct few who kneul befoi-e the'ur altars with tlie mul- 
titudes w1k> might be ' compelled to come in.' They do not 
wish to be neglectful of antiquity, but they are not altojjrelher 
anxious to scan its real mind too narrowly. Is not apostolical 
antiquity in favour of Eveuing Communions? Does Church 
liidtory yield no precedents ? Is there not, further, in the heat 
sense of the tenu, a practical nud utilitarian basis for the prac- 
tice, which tiiigiil, diHpooo \xi to make the most of weak evidence, 
and to strain a [Hjint if necessary i" Now, it is to ihuse person*, 
thus arguing, that the following remarks will be aildresscd. It 
i» our conviction that Scrii>ture not merely affords no real coun- 
tenance, hut implicitly condemns the practice in question; that 
the ultimate mind of Siicripturc is to be discovered in sub- 
apostolical antiquity ; and that antiquity is as clearly condemna- 
tory of the practice, as it is utterly at issue with the doctrinal 
tone wliich could permanently acquiesce In it. 

I. It is of course un quest ion able that our Lord and Saviour 
iiL»tituted the blessed Sacrament of His Body and Blood aOer 
supper, ami in the evening. Mr Greswell and others descend 
to jiar(iculari#, inli) which we will not follow them, as to the 
exact hour.' Now this general fact Is continualty appealed to, 
as forming a serious argument for the new practice. And it is 
insinuated that the early Church forgot the example of her 
Lord, in her zt-al for the precepts and traditions of His first 
MTvautt and disciples. Nothing can be less true. In coutein- 

' CI flrwwell, Disputiiiions, vol. ill. Dl«#. *1, pp. IIO— I7i. 
KO. CIX. — N.8. O 


Svtniitg CoMMuniona. 

plfttinp our Ijord'a life, the early Church saw plainly itiat while, 
in Mome respeota, His actions were to be imitutt-d cloitoly, lituralU', 
and for ever, in others they were peculiar to, «nd ■ part of, Ili« 
redemptive and incommunicublc rolatiun to the huntan race. 
To tnkc an example. It is well known tliat there waa in tha 
fourth wiitury « general diMpo.iilion on the part of coDTerte to 
Christiiinity lo deter baptUm, with a view to cEcaping the guilt 
and reaiionaihility of post-baptismal ain. On the 7th of January, 
A.D, 3S1, S, Gregory of Nanianzum directed one of th« greatest 
of hi« great orations ngninst this tendency in the AletropoUtan 
ClHireh of Constantinople. We see in that disooui-se thcnjaiiyantl 
ingenious arguments which were advanced by those who wiehcJ 
to ditlay baptism as long aa possible. Among others, they urged 
the example of our blessed Lord. Now how does S. txrogory 
reply? Our Ijord is not. he says, to be closely followed by 
Christians in every parliculav. We fast, as He did. But our 
LcDtcn fast differs from Ilis, in its oecasinn and in its obieet. 
He then instances the Eucharist. ' Christ instituted it, id a 
' BUpper-room, and after euppcr, and on the day before His 
' Passion. We celebrate it in Christian temples, and bcforo 
' taking snpper, and afier lUn resti.n-e.ctwn.' ' He then enunciates 
this principle : oute tiweppiiKTai to»' eiteivov Ttz f^tikrepa, aire 
ovvi^evKrai, jfpaviKoif liXX' orrov tivttos Ttf elvai riiiv tifAerepcav. 
vapaScffevTo, to iramtj ■n-apatrXriai.op Si.aireif>vyev.' His divinity 
and Ilis rGdcnintivc relations to man would guggeat the iirinoipfa 
of the inevitable discrepancies between the model and the imita- 
tion. The Church alone could rule the details of such dis- 
crepancy : and the Uoly Ghost sent down wiion her for a pur|>ose 
no less high than that of guiding her into all truth, would cnnble 
licr to discharge these lower functions with confidence tuid 

This principle has, iti fact, been admitted by atl Chriatiana; 
by none more completely than by those ivho would fiercely de- 
nounce it when slated in terms. If the Church ' has authority 
in controversies of faith,' much more has she power • to decree 
rites and ceremonies.' But she did not at once determine the 
time of day at which the Eucharist was to he celebrated. 
SS. Cyprian and Augustine, as we shall sec. give reasons for 
the determination acfuidly and ultimately adopted, and these 
reasons would have been valid from the first. In point of fact, 
however, for some few years, the point was not ridcd. If with 
S. Jerome and S. Augustine " we see an Kucharisttc celebration 

' Tliji cipr«ji«ioD prolabty refore lo the hot of the (lelebraLion \>emg in lA< 
mww'njj, afitT the hour at which our Lord ro!e firom the crave. 
* B. Greg. Niu. Ont. 40, 0pp. Tom. i. p. 716, ed, BEned. 
■ Hierou. in Kpituph. Panlte nd East. S. Au^st. Libr. 3. de codd. Ev*nj{. o. SS. 

Evening Comtntmiont. 

ftt Gmoisus, our Lord Himself celebrnted in the artcrnoon of Uio 
6nt Bn«tcr day. There ih ho ground for Gupposing that the 
a(x»tloa cuiwccrntcd the Eiichnriat jirevious to I eiitecoat. Our 
Lord's words to S. Mary Magdalene iuijily that only after the 
ascension, (lie closer intimacy of coinmiinion, the Euchaniitic 
touch, would succeed to that not less awful but more difltant 
reverence due throughout the creiit forty daya to His risen 
bunuuiity. Pa^s we on then to t}ie Eucharistic paBeages in the 
Acts of the Apostlcii. Theee passiiges, it must he admitted, 
belp ua in no material degree towards a solution of the question. 
The first Christians, we know, assembled daily in the temple, 
and celebrated the Eucharist at home [tear' oIkov, Acts ii. 4G.) 
Thia celebration was daily {KaS" t'lfiepav). But we have no 

Souudo for Baying, with Nesinder, that it wae probably held in 
e evening, as we can as litlle conclude positively that it was 
in tlie morning. Again, we know nothing of the time of that 
solemn oblation of ihe Eucharist (Xetrovp-yoivrmv Be aiir&v, Acta 
xiil 2) in the Church of Antioch, at which the Divine will re- 
Bpocting SS. Paul and Barnabas was supernatu rally disclosed, 
except that we are expressly told that those engaged in the 
Service were ' fasting " at tlie time. Again, the horology of the 
celebration at Troas is peculiarly embarrassed. It ia very possi- 
ble that the apostle's discourse was continued until midnight on 
Saturday : the fiia ru>v ffa^ffurMv having begun at six o clock 
in the evening of that day. In this case tlie Eucharist was 
celebrated early on Sunday itiorning, like the caOis anlcluai.7n 
of Tertullinn. But S. Luke's account admits of other conatruc- 
tlons; and the celebration in question may have taken place 
before the eermon on Saturday or Sunday CTcning. or even — aa 
B(Hne would say — after it on Monday morning.' Further, it 
seems loo doubtful whether the action recoraed of S, Paul 
during hie shipwreck was projicrly sacrninentnl to insist on it 
for purpose* of ai^iincnt. It, however, did certainly take place 
wliile the dintrcssed crew were anxiously expecting dayfigbt. 
(Compare ver. 33 and 39, Acts xxvii.) But there ia one passage 
in tiie New Testament which eeems to guide ua towards that 
mlntion of the point which was oltitDately accepted by the 
Catholic Church. 

The Church of Corinth would seem in its Eucharistic ob- 
servance to have adhered with more accuracy than the Cburcliea 
of tlie Proconsular Asia to the literal reproduction of the order 
of events on the night of institution. First came the AgapS — 
the representative of the Pascbal supper — the natural symbol, 
aa the Euchaiiet was the supernatural aliment of the charity of 

• ±cU IS. T. 


Evpninff Comvmntmii. 

the faithful. S. Ghr;'so»toni, indeed, expresses hta opinion that 
the Euchurist preceded the Agape ; and lie ie followed by writora 
like Cardinal Bona, who too eagerly assume an absolute corre- 
spondence between the earliest a[)ostoiical Church and the 
Western Christendom of Inter centuries.' But S. .\u{rifttine, 
in hu! letter to Jimuariiii<, iiitiTtnttes the opinion stated in the 
text, xnd he ie followed by conimerilatorA like A Lapide and 
Kstius, whose aim wua exegetiejil, and not liturgical. The un- 
critical and irreverent error which, in his commentary on this 
pasB^e of the Corinthians. Dr. Stanley lias subserviently bor- 
roweil from the rationalizing Lutherans of modern times, 
whereby the Agnp^ is actually identilicd with the Eiichariatin 
oblation, hae been alremly exposed iu the pages of this Review.' 
It is certain that from the first they were entirely distinct; and 
it is observable that in no one of the celebrations recorded in 
the Acts of the Apostles is there any trace of the Agapb U 
linked to the Eucharistic service. The question of priority it ia 
difliciilt to decide upon. If the actual traditions of the Cat.hoiio 
Church be held to settle the qiiestion, we must inier that tlie 
Eucharist preceded ttic Agajifi. It^ with Lightfbot aud Sehiittgen 
in our hands, we examine the question as illustratod by Jewish 
antecedents, and our Lord's actual foi-m of procedure, wc must 
rule that the Agant preceded the Eucharist. And to thii! latter 
concln.-ion wc decidedly incline. 'J'be selfishness and sensuality 
which 8. Paul condemns, was exhibited at the Agape ; and it 
must have rendered communion moat painfully eacrilegious, 
whether we suppose such conduct to huve preceded or fol- 
lowed upon the reception of the sacramental species. But at 
the moment of writing, the apostle was anxious only to bring 
home to the conscience of the Corinthian Church the sum of its 
overwhelming guilt. The wealthier membcra prepared a banquet, 
whicli niinii^tered to their oppetites. and which they refused to 
ehare with their poorer breiliren. They thus sacrificed the idea 
of the Agap^ — the fraternity and equality of the brethren before 
God — to the present gratifications of sense. The ' himgry ' 
poor looked on. The esited rich left the common table 'drunken,' 
and passed to the altar of their Lord and Saviour. S. Paul 
leaves them to the rising consciousness of their guilt. The 
natural appetites were not to he satisfied at the Agapfe, If any 
wero hungry he might eat at home. But this regulation was 
ohvioufly insufticient to meet the evil. And accor<linnly, tho 
chapter closes with the pregnant words, ' The rest will I set m 
order when I come.' 

Tu Xoivii Siard^oftat. How much ground does that promise 

' 8. Chrj. in loo. Bonft do Beb, Litarg. toL i. v. Ed. Turin. 
• O/triitiaTi JtemmxbratKtr. No. P2, April leST, pp. Jfi7, 468. 

Bmiinff (hmmuniimt. 

Actunil; cover? We can only judge by the event. From the 
ciu of the aposlles, if not before, tho Agapt" was diseeverec) from 
tJie Eucharirt. It lived on indeed ; it bad its uses; it is described 
at length by Tertullian; iU memory ie atill preserved in the 
' pain D^ni* which is distributed at solemu masses in tho Church 
ol France. But another aposlle spenk.-i of the AwnjiC' in worda 
which echoed the judgment of S. Paul. The HenBuiU |in(fee8onj 
of Christianity, whom S- Judc rebukes, arc characterized as eV 
Tai« ayavai^ tnnXdSei:, ffwivrflxovfievoi. <ii^i)0<i3<i (Jude 12). A 
second reault of H. Paul's ' visitation ' of the Church of Corinth, 
would seem to have heeu the ultimate prevalence of morning 
celebrations of the Holy Communion throughout the Church. 
Nothing ie^ than the authority of apostles will adequately 
account fur the umverHality of monilnv colclirations iu all the 
widely -se pa r«ttd branches of the Churcii. Nothing lees than 
the fearful scandals of the Corinthian practice — whidi combined 
the ordlnnry pliysical excltemenl of a Lite hour with the evils 
of indulgence at a previous meal — would most naturally account 
for the universal abandonment of a traditional usage, which at 
least might piead literal correspondence with the formal action 
of our Lord when instituting the siicrameot. Is it too much to 
aiy, thiit we are naked liy the partisans of the modern innova- 
^on to ignore the experience, and to reverse the decision, of tho 
apostles theiuselvea? 

II. No independent witness to the existence and character of 
apoetolic Christianity has attracted more notice than that afforded 
by the Epistle of Pliny to the Emperor Trajan. Familiar as wo 
may be with it as quoted by Gibbon or by Paley, wc probably 
are lew than fully alive to the exceeding value of this doeument. 
Mr. CI in til [1 places It in a.c. 104.' It was penned then at a date 
when as yet the voice of the Beloved Apostle had scarcely died 
away in the churches of the Lesser Asia. It exhibits the Bride 
of Christ as she had growu up under that Apoatle's eye, and had 
received his parting blessing. The words are too precious to 
he forgotten: our readers will pardon us for quoting them at 
length. Pljny hae been telling his master tliat he found parti- 
cular difficulties in dealing with the Christians, who were at that 
tu»e brought into the Courts of hie Proconsulate. He declined 
the investigation of such eases whenever it was possible to do 
60. But he held that obstinate and inflexible adherence to 
opinion was of itself a punishable offence. Christiana who were 
also Roman citizens worM to be sent to Rome. With the others 
the proconsul dealt mainly by threats, and on the spot. He 
tvUs 114 that lie put two deaconesses to the torture : he felt that 

* FbiU Komtni. toI. i. p. 91, «d uin. 104, . 

Evenmg Commuiaont, 

somethiDg must be doDc, ta already tlic masses of Uie poopio 
were in porticuUr districts of his [iroriocc eoibracmg tlio new 
religion, and the worship of the gwJs wiw geneniUy neglected. 

.-.._, ,....,...^„,. „^.v.... nptiataciea ; and it ia to the depositions ^. 
the unhappy apootntes that we are indebted for one of our 
clearest insights intu the practice of the flub-apost«]ic Cliurch. 

' Adfirroabant aiitom hnnc fiiisEe aiunmkm vcl oiiljiO! mis) Toi en'orU, 

nl oieent noliti sfaUi d'lK anls luixm mupmiht ciirniHuiiuc fliirislo qunsi D«j 
ru aooum invicom, nciiud mcramfHlit iioo in Bl^^^l^B aJuiucni obatringBru, 
ud ue furUt, [iu Iatrc)(!iut4^ ne lultilteria uoiauiitt^i'eiit, iie livlem fatlcrvnt, 
no depoKiluui nppulloti ubopgarecit : quibuK peiiictls morom ejbi diace- 
ilendi fuJHB, nuBusque ad capii'udtuu cibiim, promisciiiim tumcn eb 
iDnoxium,' ^n.—J'tiit. Epial. Uh. ad. Trij. ep. aft^ . 231. rd. Keil. 

Such was the statement. From friends and foes it liaa attracted 
BQ attention wliicli has been denied to the gymnasium and 
theatre at Nicren, or to the cost and construetion of the aqueduct 
at Nicometlifl, or to the rising importance of commercial 
Byzantium, or to the reporta of the doings of the Parthian or 
other iron tier- jMJwers, which formed the etsple of the oorre- 
epondence to whieh it belongs. To us, tliis fnmoiiH pasaage 
appears conclusive as to the separation of the Holy Euchariat, 
nlluded to under the word * sacramentum,' and celeorated 'ante 
lucem,' from the Agapti — the ' cibus promiscuus et innoxins '— 
which was held later in the day. Mosheiin indeed, Noander, 
and others, think ihnt ' probiibly ' the ' Lord's .Supper (by which 
term they mean the Eucharist] was celebrated together with the 
' social meal ' in the evening." Tlie queation turns partly upon 
the meaning of the word 'sacramentum.' Did the apostatea 
use this word in the ordinary and classical, or in the ccelesias- 
tical sense ? We think the latter. What other word could they 
have employed in speaking of the Kuclmrii^t to a heathen Roman 
magistrate? Its spiritual, mystical value he would have been 
unable even to comprehend : lie characterises the Btatements of 
the torturrd deaconesses as ' auperstitio prava immoclica.' Aa ft 
Homan he would be familiar with the idea of obligation, and 
that one aspect of the Eucharist accordingly it was which was 
intelligible to the Latin world, that thus early appropriated to 
H the name ' sacramentum.' Whatever else it might be, it was 
to the Christian Church what their oath of fidelity was to the 
legionaries of the empire. This conclusion is fortified by a 

' Tlie Cuptio Canoin eerlniiil)' identify Lho 'Hnppur' witt ibv Agnpi — a 
not1c«aVl« pomi foi ihnse who, like Bnrnn Bttn»uii, iinugiaa thsnc canoog to wilaeM 
in ftirour of modern tbeoriea. (Cf. Apofilollcai ConsUtuUoM in Ooptlo, ed. W 
Ar^daBuoii TulMiD, pp. 68—70. Loltdoil, ISJS.J 

* Otmreli Hi^l, i. p. i43. 

Evening Commun{i>ns. 


cou8i(IeratioB to wliicti Nciimlcr liiniHelf shall boar his testimony. 
For he observed thnt 'in Justin Martyr we find the celebtH- 
•tioD of the Siipucr entirely soparntcd from those fctisis of 
' brotherly love, if, imlcod, the Intter still continued to exist in the 
'chnrohc-* which Justin hod in view." Nothing in more eertiiin. 
In 8. Justin the Eiiehnrist ia sjtuken of in terms which show 
what was the real mind of the sub-apoatolic Churdu ' We do 

• Dot receive it,' he says, ' as common bread, or common wine ; . 
• . . . wc have been taught iiiat the Food, over which thanks- 

• giving has been ronde by the prnyer of the word which is fntm 
•Him, .... is the Fleuli and Uloitd of Him, the Incaiimte 

• JeeoB.' S. Jnatin, then, does not agree wiih Dr. Stanley and 
Keander in regar<Iing the most awful tervice of tlic Church ns 
part of an 'evening social meal.' With him it fttllows, upon 
n-ading ' the memoirs of the Apostles, and the writings of lh« 
Prophets,' and u|>oJi a eennon from 'him who presides,' and 
upon ' pmyera and thnnksgivings.' Our renders will remember 
that more might be quoted from S. Justin to tlie enme ofl'cot. 
JJ Gander, nod such as he, are compelled to flii[i|ioee a total revolu- 
tion in the mind of the Churth on the subject of the Eucliuriat 
between 100 a-d, and 1.^3 a.d. For S. Justin was converted 
in A.D. 13d. and martyred in a. n. 165. He tolls us that be 
exactly rci»c»tcd what he ha<i been taught. In le-in ihsn thirty 
years, then, necordins to Neander, the adjunct of an evening 
meal h*d been trannlormed into a separated, awful Mystery. 
It bad become tlio highest and most emphatic act of Christian 
worship — so utterly dissoeialed from tlie Agap^, that the latter 
ia never once alluded to in the pages of Justin. Is this con- 
ceivable? Conceivable, indeed, it is, if the more dcntructive 
rationalism of the Tiihingen School be true; and the Divinity 
of our Saviour, together with the Gospel which so conemcuously 
enshrines it, was elaborated in the midiJIe of the sccono century 
of our era. From this conchision Xennder would recoil; but 
his own method of dealing with the doctrine of the Eucliarist is 
not lrA!< violent than that of those who apply the solt-sume 
principle to tlte doctrine of our Lord's Godhead. 

The truth is that Pliny records the time, as S. Justin records 
the circumstances and rationale of the Eucharistic Oblation, 
While S- John yet lived and wnite, it would Bcem to have b«en 
the great morning service of Uie Church— and distinct from the 
Inter Agn{k^. Indin^tct t<;Hliniony to the same efti^ct might 
b« inferred from what we know rcOTCcting the practice of the 
heretic >lHrcus, who, aa described by S. Irenreua, appears to 
have parodied the practice and dootrinc of the Catbohc Churcli. 

' CfiBivb Hiat. vt nqir. 


Eceninff Communioiis. 

Thia is coiiflnnoJ by testiraoniea tnk«n from the close of Uifi 
scaiiul Mntury. According to Cave, Tertullian was converted 
in A.D. IS/i; the Oxford ti-anslatora of hie works are probably 
right in placing that event ton yyare later — in 196 a.d. Now 
there are at least three piwsHtres in hie writiiisje which go to 
prove that the practice of the Churcli was in his d«ys what it 
uad been in Plinj's. In his well-known alhigion to the 'Stations' 
^n military term, by the bye, which, like ' sacramentunii' had 
passed into the metaphorical phraseology of the Church,' — he 
contends that the ncruple — ' quod statio eulvenda eit ncccpto cor- 
porc Domini '— was un necessary.^ Of this more hereafler: 
Buliicc it to observe that, with Tertnllian, a liit« Eucharist 13 an 
exceptional practice, ami implies a long previous fast, if par- 
taken uf. In another treuticte ' he i^ discuaaing the practical 
daily difficulties of a Christian lady who is married to a heathen 
hnsband — as most have been in his day the caee in thousands 
of fiimilicH thronghout the empire. He inquires wliether the 
huHbiind will not accuse his wife of magical practices when she 
cniaae.i herself, or when she rises to pray at midnight. He 
adds, — ' Non soiet maritus quid secreto antti omnem cibuni 
gustes?' * Now Gieseler and Oehler quote De Orat. c. xiv. aa 
proving the unquestioned practice of Eucharistic reservation, 
and /nip/y that ' ante omnem cibum ' must be taken in tlie sense 
of ' before every meal.' Is it conceivable that the Church would 
have alloivedft lay (iicrahertticarryhomeeniiughoC the Conaecriited 
Species for such very frequent reception 'i Is there any ancient 
r.iithority which affords serious support to such a translation? 
Wc have observed other instances of the endeavour to represent 
the practice of the ancient Church as absolutely removed from 
possibility of imitation, when, in fact, it coiucides with that of 
religious people among ourselves. Those who have found diffi- 
culty in attending an early celebration while staying at the 
house of un sympathising or irreligious acf^uaintances, will beat 
underetand and construe the phrase of Tertullian, who witnesses 
emphatically to the practice of the Church to receive the Eucha- 
rist fasting, and, aa a general consequence, to receive it early. 
The worda simply mean that she received the Eucharist ' before 
all other food' — ^itroay be before leaving her cliamber, when her 
husband woidd take note of" the practice. Lastly, in his treatise 
DeCoronii, Tertullian is arguing very characteristically for the ne- 
ccflsily and force of ecclesiaitioal traiHtion. After enlarging on 
the elements which it had contributed to the Baptismal Service 
of the Church of the second century, he adds, — ' Eucharistiaj 

• I. 13, 2, qn. by Dr. PoBcy, B.P. p. 825. 

» C£ Lsctant. Div. Inst viL Sr. ' Da Otit. c six. 

* Ad. Ux. 0. fi. 

cmnf^ Commamorm, 


' Mcntmentum, ot in tempore victda, et omnibus mandatura u 
' doniino etiam anteluaima ccetibue, aec de aliorum manu quam 
' prtesideDtium Duinimufi.' ' What is the fwco of ' etiara ' in tbis 
pswagc ? Docs it mean thnt the Eiichamt was received ' horis 
Qtiam cxlra nnlehieFinfls,' m in liis note «u tlie jineBagc Ochler 
nppc-iirtt (0 intimates' or does it not, in accordiinec with the 
genius and direction of the entire argumeut, merely (Hiint to 
the apparent contntat between tlie practice of our Lord and that 
of tlic Church of tlie second century, without iuiiilying any- 
tliiog wlialcver ns to celebrations of the Eucharist at other 
tim«a? TImt this last is Tertullian's real meaning wc shall 
diow from S. Cyprian, just as we have already illustrateil PHny 
from S. Juetin Martyr. S. Cyprian was coaverled in a.d. 246, 
GOCi«ecrated Bieliop of Carthage in a.d. 248, and martyred in 
238. During his whole episcopate he eeeiiis to have been 
favoured with revelations of the Divine will ; but he is not lesa 
reiiicmlwrcd as the streuuous champion and asaertor of ecclesi- 
astical tradition. H. Cyprian may be fairly taken to rcprceient 
the generation which inlierited the traditions of the generation 
of Tcrtullian. Let us open his Epistle to Coicilius. In that 
Epistle he if arguin<; against the AqiiarJi, who, as uiir readcra 
will remember, iind na the name implies, 'offered' only water, 
iaat«iid of the mixed chalice, at tiioir celebration of the Eu- 
chariiiL S. Cyprian inninuatee that they dreaded discovery in 
the bitter perstecution which, under Dccins, desolated the Church 
of Africa. If a man communicaled in the morning from a 
mixed chalice, it was po^jible that 'per saporem vim redolcat 
sanguinis Christi.' What was this but to be Wmtued of tbo 
Hon of Man before men? How could they anticipate martyr* 
dooi, wlio shrunk from confea^ing themselves communicautn? 
Tlie Aquuii aeem to bave met these grave coneiderationa by a 
very questionable expedient, If tlicy u«ed only water in the 
morning, they ' offered the mixed chalice after supper.' Tliey 
pleaded our Lord's practice in justiiicnfion of tiiia custom. 

In reply, H. Cyprian oliscrved thnt there were obvionn reasons 
for the time selected by our Lord, which do not genemlly apply. 
It was right, in His case, ' ut horS ipsa sacrificii oatenderet occa- 
sum ct Teeperam roundi.' Even aa the Paschal Lamb was Klain 
in tlie evening, the Kcdccmer of the world was, in instituting 
the blessed Eucharist, to lift up His liaotU for an evening eaori- 
fice. But His resurrection oliliges Ilia disciples to a diifcreat 
observance : tlioy celebrate it in the early morning. The Aqimrit, 
then, could not make the practice of the Church in respeot of 
the tJttw of the celebration, a valid pretext for mutilating the 

De Cor. 0.3. 


Eveninij Covivmnwns. 

matter of the eacramcnt. The practice of the Church wai 
justified by the difference between Chriat »nA Chrislifins- The 
Aciuarii were brenking n pouitirc urn! very plniu commimd. 
S. Cyprian's IdiignnKe imiihe:? that their irregular manner of 
eclcbrating after Slipper wa* utterly unsupported hyaulhurity; 
nnd there arc no traees of any euch irregularity elsewhere. 
They probably proceeded upon some private interpretation of , 
our Lord's words. Their cvcniiif? celebrations were nece-Bsaiily 
private. 'Cum canuuius, ml couvivium nostrum plebcrn con- 
'voearc nou possuinus, ut Sacramenti veritatem, t'mtcniitato 
'ornni praiHente celebreruus.' What can be plainer from aiich 
]angu:^;o than (Ai'", — that the only public celebratioas of the 
Eucbariflt in the Church of the Cyprianic age were ia the 
morning? Not even the bitter pensecutioii of the Dccian era 
could ioduec her biwhopo to ailopt an evening celebnttion, 
aIthoiifj;h it woiilil Imve provided in no small degree for the sceu- 
rity of lier menilji^i-s. Morning celebrations were the ruin, from 
which Catholic inetinct find prescription alike forbade departure. 
And this surely proves that Tcrttdlian's latigungo ia equally 
aescrtory of the eelf-samo prautioe, unless, indeed, wc arc to 
resort to the violent, grn^tuitoua, and utterly unproved hyjiotbexiB 
of a ' dovelopnieiit ' — in plain English, of a revolution in eccle- 
siastical practice — between the first and the forty-eighth year of ' 
the third century of tho Christian era. 

There remaine the cliiaeicnl passage of S, Atigiistine, with 
which our readers will he nii.>re or less neqnainted. About ths 
year 400 a. d,, Januarius — of whom we know little, except that 
he is not to bo confounded with either the Catholic or Donatist 
prelates of that name, who are familiar to the student of 
8. Auguatine — seemB to have applied to the great Bishop of 
Hippo for a Hointion of several queutions touching efclesiaatical 
UBiige, Januariua seems to have been distresseJ Ity the prevalence 
of different usages in different portiona of the Catholic world — 
Buch M would be encountered by a Christian traveller who waa 
loyally ntfached to the traditions of his native place. Before 
descending to particulars, S. Augustine lays down some princi- 
ples na preiiminarieB, which would rule his decisions. He notes, 
on the one hand, the simplicity which charactenBes the Sacra- 
mental Institutions of our Lora and Saviour; on the other, lie 
contends that unwritten traditions, which are observed through- 
out the Catholic world, must be traced either to the Apostles or to ' 
Councilswithplenaryaud world-wide authority (Ep,51.c. I). The 
varying customs of diiferent Churches rest on a basis esecntially 
different. At Koine they kept Saturday as a fast ; S. Ambroae 

' 3. Cn-r. 0pp. p. 100. Ed. Beoed. 

Evening Communions. 


biul to alln; S. Monicu'a gcnipl<!s un (iic score of the oppo»itiaii 

■of Milan. In tM>iiiC clmrcliett tlierc was a pruclicc uf uotiiinuni- 

[culitijf duiljr; m olliera only on sUteil diiy». 8. Aii[;uHtine 

ncepts, in a large sense, the principle of our article on Church 

rraditiona, ae not necessarily in all places one or utterly like j 

ftnd hold« that ' the fi;rave and prudent Cliristian ' will invariably 

bccoDimodale liininvlf ' to the usiiges of the church which he tnay 

fbappea to visit' fc. 2). Now it would seem tfwt n pnrticiiliir 

j>nietice of the African Chui-chea mu^it have shocked Home of the 

leeclesiological travellers of the fourth oentury. On Maunday 

iThursdiiy those churches received the Holy Communion only 

Isfter eating food, nod in tlie evenin'j. S. Augustine remarks 

jtlmost severely ujion the traveller — perhaps Janunrius himself 

[—who should coutru»t thi.-i practice of his native chui-cli dis- 

jparagingly with the diHeronl custcuns that prevailed elsewliere. 

Lit wae at least an open question — tlie practice to lie observed 

Loa that one day. Scripture had left it so. Xbe Church had not 

'lien ruled agiunet the African practice. And there was a literal 

orre*pondence between thnt practice and the scene in the 

I6upper>r00ui. 'Liquido npparet,' he siiys, 'qimndo primum 

[' acoeperunt diacipuli Cori)UA et Sunguincm Domini, uon e09 

' accepisse jejunoe.' 

It wae, then, m no fiji^tfulnces of what ia urged upon ua by 
those who discus? these suhjecta at the present day, that the 
tgreat Bishop of Hippo guarded himself in the following terms 
jttgainst the suppoBitiun that, in pleading for the liberties of 
{Africa, he forj^ot what wao due. ua a nile, to Catholic oonaent: 
-' Xumquid tamen propterea caluniniandum est univerMB 
r Eodoeie guod a jejania semjter arxipituT? Ex hoc enim 
M placuit Spiritui sancto, ut in honorcu] tanti Sacrament!, in oo 
t' ChrutiamprifuDominicuui Corpus intniret, quaio CKteri eibi; 
I* OUDi idea j»^r univi^miim trrlumi nivs trie ai-Tvat.ur.' ' 

The startling exception proves the rule. The mtional pecu- 
liarity of Africa on one single day ia ihrown out into the 
[clearest relief by the otherwise invariable practice of the 
[ Church of Christ. Like S. Cyprian, S. Augustine contends 
that our Lord's practice was not in the matter of time to bu 
imilntvd by His dioeipW. He left thnt point to be re«:ulnted 
by His a]>o«itlei<. He desired to iniprew upon them the lofty 
niajenty of tlie uiyatery, by instituting it u)ion the very eve of 
Hie Passion. Had He said one viord to imoly that the evening 
was ever to be the hour of celebration, it is inconceivable that 
the Christian world should hare, with one consent, set His 
injunction n«ide. 'Si hoc illc mouuissct at post cibos alios 
seinjMr ai;cipcrctur, credo (juod eum morem nemo mrioaseL' 

* &. lug. Bp. 61 *il. Jan. vol. il p. ISO. M. Bcncd. 


Somitg Communions. 

The universfll i>rnctke is nroLably to Iw traced to the unwritten 
rcguIntJonv of 8. Paul, woo, aU«r the scandal which arose from 
the union of the Agapt with the EuclrarUt in the Church of 
Coriuth, 'set things in order,' by dieeociatiag them, and by 
introducing the now order of things, which wc bnvc already 
seen to be tliat dviicribcd by Pliny as prevalent in the year 
of grace 104. 

Such it S. Ausustinea remarkable statement. Let its full 
Mgnifioance be well weighed. We have heard it remarked that 
S. Augustine is himself rcspontiUc for the practice of oommu- 
nicatini; fasting, nod that that pnictictr oblained chiefly tlirougb 
the dctercncc so generally yielded to his great authority. Such 
a Blatcment is obvioiisly at issue with the facta of the case. 
Augustine docs tiol recommend are obeervanee : he records one, 
»a wrekdy nothing less than occumenicaL And hie own famous 
canon, so tellingly ui^ed in hia eontroversy with the DonalUtE, 
that, where there were »o many causes calculated to produce 
diversity, the absolute agreement of the Catholic world in a 
(Io<^lrJiic or practice should be accepted as nitne^ng to its 
apoetolicjty, must here be borne carefully in mind. Mis words 
may be ai)lly illustrated by the terms of the twenty-ninth canon 
of the Tliird Council of Carthage, which had been passed three 
years before (in a.u. 897). At tb«t council S. Atigustinc him- 
Hclf wan present; be subscribed its decrees, His language to 
•Tanuarius i« an cxiiaiision and justification of the language of 
llii; Council. The latter runs thus: — 

* Ul Sacramenta altaris uon nisi a jejuni^ hominibua cele- 
' brentur, excepto uno die annivcrEario, quo coena Domini 
'ceiebraiur' (Cone. Carth. III. can. 29. LabW^ voh ii. 
p. 1171). 

But this exucptioiial practice on Maunday Tliursday had been 
itlrciMly dlsalloweil in the rest of Christendom. In the Council of 
Laodieea,' which wns held in the Nicene [leriod, probably about 
Ji4J — though this is uncertain (cf. Cone. Liiod. can. 20). And in 
A.D. 692, we find the Trullan Council referring expressly to tlic 
Carthttginian canon, and generally prohibiting that exception to 
Cathuliu rule, wliich was [lermitted on Maunday Thursday in 
Africa (Cone. Tnill. can. 29, apud Labbe, torn. vi. p. 115o). 

If then S. Ambrose, wlien expounding Psalm xix. alludea 
to evening celebrations of the Eucharist, be muet be understood 
to refer either to the late celebrations on the days of tho 
Stations, common in the Latin Churches, and alluded to in 
Tertulliiin ; ur, possibly, moie remotely, to the African custom 
on Maunday Tlinrsda)', .\nd from S. Chrysostom's first letter 
to Innocent, in which he describes tbe various outrages whidi 

' 8. AmhTot. Opp. eil. Ban. i. 1073. in p. ]]S, Eipout. 

Everttng Commmttont. 

TOCcdcI tlmt second exite or lii9, from which he never returned, 
; would appear probable tti»t at Constantinople — nt least in 
|.D. 104 — tilere was a lato celelirntion on Eiislcr Ere.' But 
Ambrose apecially, and without making nny exception, 
njoioa a strict laKt upon the cooaciencca of those who coniniu- 
itcd late at Milan : juat ns the Eastern canona would have 
aforced it at Consliuilinople. The Constantiuopolittiu practice 
1 Kuster Eve, and that of the Littin Church on the Station 
^»y8, cannot be quoted bj those who buve ski fur depiirted from 
the spirit and hinguHge even of our old Anglican wriltirs as to 
ecout the practice of communicating only when factiiig as a 
_aupcr»titioui< form. T/itT/ cannot quote the practice of the 
"ifrican Churchea on one sinsle day in the year; since this 
Btice provea the general abgolutenc^a of the rule which they are 
itxioua so oonsistently to violate. T/ity cannot altogether even 
eal to the Egyptian Cliristlans ; for tJie historianH who record 
ficir irTCf;"l«rity use language concerning it which sufficiently 
Kprc»*c* the profound ilisj;ust which it excited in the Christisn 
rorld. The Egyiilians lu the neighbourhood of Alexandria, 
nd thoee in the Ihebaid, celebrated the Euchsirist on Saturday 
pvening. ' But they do not,' obeerves SiJcratvM, ' purtake of the 
aystcricH, a« is the cuetoui for Christiana. For after (uaating, 
["and being filled with every description of eatable (vat'Toiuv 
'^(SttTfidrfav ifi<})opi)0^vai), when tbey come to even-tide tliey 
'partake of the myisleries.' * If the Kuppo^ition be correct that 
i>zuinoii generally Imrrowi* hia niateniils from Socrates and 
pjy tones down expressiono of opinion, without opcidy pro- 
mg to criticiae, it is obaervable that he here rivaU Socrates 
in the Btrengtli of his condemnation of the Egyptian practice. 
He. like Socrates, alludes to it in a chapter which is a perfect 
repcrtoriuui of Church usages. The Egyptian*, he says, i^piur^- 
MOTfi ^Sfi, liwrTipiwp /xrrc^owrs. He does not cnlitrgu tipon 
ihe fulneia of bread which Socrates eo eagerly describe* Even 
if no such excess be prc.-'npp'.aed, they acted vapa to Koivy Triiat 
»*ro^Mr;*^»-oi'*— contrary to the universal rule. That was enough. 
It way be said that the dislike to Evening Communions is at 
bottom connected with the desire to restore the ancient practice 
of fasting before communion. If this were so, wu nbouhl, after 
«U, only be treading in the steps of Bishop SparrDW and many 
Other gri.-9t Kngliith names who might ho <pK'ted. But here, 
wc will only ttfii, is nothing to be c<mc<:ded to the oractice and 
instinct of the ancient and universal Church of Gou? Are we 
to fashion our rule by exc«p^ons which she barely tolerated or 

■ S. Ciirrt. Opp. iii. p. 619, cd. Gfiume. Bp aA Inn. L 
' SocnUi^ Hut Bed. v. 22, ed. HiUKr. vol. ii, p. 6S2. 
* SoKmi. HUL Ece). viL IB, od. IIiwcj', vol. li. p. 744. 


JfcjWt'wff ComntuHiOTu, 

energetically repudiated? Arc we £t)gl!»li of the nineteenth 
century, so much wiser ami more coniprclieuRivc, and deeper, 
and holier, and more jealous for God's glory aud for His truth 
than tliey, llmt we may safely cast to the winds wliat was trca- 
mrcd Mp and Una heen liandod down by the saints and doctors 
of antiquity— a portion of that body of tiiith and practice which 
h the heritage of Ciirie tendon)— as if it were a foi>lish cnactmont 
auited to the etintcd and cramped intelligence of a darkened 
age? The Bisliop of London may think tt cousiatcnt with his 
high position to speak contemptuously of these, the only autho< 
rities upon whom he can ultimately rely for a proof of the canon 
of Sacred Scripture. But the general sense of churchmen will 
recoil from tuch extremes, so condemnatory of the only great 
school of Englii^li divinity ; so fatal, if viewed ns a concession to 
the destructive ratioualiHm of the day. And if the Ancient 
Church is to bo taken into account, if we ai-e to concede uny- 
tliing, we will not say to its authority, but to its sense of pro- 
priety, we shall hold our baud ere we bo persuaded to abandon 
our own traditions for the practices of llie I'rotestant Noncon- 
forraisls, and to adopt or attend, as the case may be. Evening 

Ill, It will of course he ui^ed, that the real rccommenda- 
lions of the practice lie in its practical utility. This is a prac- 
ticil age. It wants men who feel its wants and can lueet them. 
It can dispense with tbeorists, even with those whose thcoriea 
are to them convictions. It will not he hampered by archaso- 
logy,^ — n*^' not by Christian arcbisology. It is bent upon pro- 
gress nnd improvement. Religion must he practical, like 
everything else, if it is to hold its own. If what savours of 
the past be merely ornamental, let it stand: at least, it docs no 
harm. If it cramps or numbs the energies of the living present, 
it is a cobweb or a fungus : sweep it away. This is the temper 
of our day ; the temper of not a few clergymen, for example, 
in the diocese of London. We describe what we have not time 
to criticise on moral ground, although something, we apprehend, 
might be said to it on that score. But a clcrgynmn thus 
minded looks out into his parish. There is the small inner 
circle of a few communicants; there is the larger circle of 
church-goers, who do not communicate; there is the zone of 
dissent, which never enters the walls of the church, or only 
occasionally; there is the outer circle of all the irreligious, un- 
praying, unlistening multitude. Towards all of these he has 
duties. But his chief duty lies towards Church people, — his 
strength is tiie number of his communicants. This is true in 
a siipenialurul sense, which he may be slow to apprehend. But 
it is true in a moral and social ecnso, patent aud obvious to 

Ei<ening CommvnvmaT 




ricnd nnd foe. To increiiBP liis eomiiiuiiicftiits — tlmt is the ques- 
ion. ll may be tliat, unhappily, he I'cgurda tie Holy SiLcriuncnt 

m a ZwiagliAD or Calvinietic poiot of view. To the iiitolli- 

iit cliiirchman, it is the dmnoel of grace — the certain, awful 

point of oonlaot witli the Most Holy. Such a clergyman may 

lew it as the giyinbol of n pertiiin etriitum of Chnstian attain- 

nt, rather than ae the well-tipririg of Christian life. Still he 

will, if poseible, increaae hin commiiiiicnnts; they represent hi* 

central strength, bis actual reliable flock; thty are the ex- 

ireiwiatt of hw ministerial success; their inward sanctification, 

■nay think, i« a (iiiestion for their Malccr and for themselves; 

leir number is his concern — pre-eminently hie. He will, before 

things eUe, increai^e that number. lie linds that the people 

have habits and ncceasiticfe whioh interiere with their gubnii^^iun 

to the actual triidition of the Church, as to the time at which 

the Holy .SiKiruincnt may be celebrated. Without hesitation, 

h« will alter the time of celebration. Why should he rot do 

80? lie will probably have learnt to consider Scripture an at 

leaat doubtful on this point. Antiquity he holds to be purely 

irreleTanl. So forthwith he gives notice, on the second 

and fourth Sundays of every month, there will be al'lernoon or 

vening Communions. 

In this statistical age, the temptation to measure spiritual 

growth by tlie ngmbers wh" attend the ordinances of religion 

has, it id to Lie fear<'d, greatly increased upon na. Men live in 

fear qS educational Blue-books and Census- re ports. Publication 

^dja inevitable ; it must be met with the beet figures at command. 

^^Biit this proce«« is very deadening both to pastor and people, if 

^■M^checkvd by a keen perception of those Eupernaturul truths 

^Hnd lawj" which alone nil'ord any true criterion of the real con- 

^Huests of our Lord in the wide waste of human hearti^. Great 

^^sk there ia of putting forwaid religious privileges in such a 

way as to lead to the impression tliat tlie great end 'm only their 

beiD]^ accepted, no matter in what spirit. Put them forward, 

nay, press them on others by all means; but insist, at the «mic 

lime, upon the abiding guilt of past sin, which is not really 

repent«d of; insiKt ujioti the necessity ior perKonid atrictiieaa and 

aueterity, or at least for a practical aelf-denj iiig rule of conduct ; 

^^o not fondle the luxuries and privileges of the religion of 

HPuiet, aod forget its severities. Years ago this was felt by one 

^Krho, ahwl lias given his talents nnd his neurt to anotlier com- 

^Kunion) to k«enly, that, while to him beyond all others the 

ihurcli of England owes her revived loyalty to sacramental 

truth, he hesitated to advise tlie immediate and general reatora- 

i' Cf. Scnoong on Suljcct* af the Day, bj 

J. II. Neimian. Sonuon Ix. 


Eivninff ComMunions. 

tion of weekly comtnanions. Dr. Ncwtnan would doubtless 
admit that early oclebratioaa arc more or less free from the 
dnngcrs he iiriprchcndH, since they iinpu«e nn necompiiojing act 
of .■"elf-dcninl : they are out ol the reach of mere hubit or 
fuihioQ, aiid, geiienilly xuenking, they nttraet only the eumest< 
and the devout. Itut ol the principle of hia caution vie hare^ 
great and abiding need to be reminded. Evening Communions 
»e a repudiation of that principle ; tliey offer the highest ^ 
religious privilege divested of any Bceonijinnyiug self-denial or \ 
inconveuienre ; they offer it to surfeited boilies and to wunricci 
anil jaded liicultiee; they offer it to the excitement of nn 
evening meeting, where the activity of the eensuoua organa ia apt 
to be mistaken for spiritual keennese. They may, for a timet 
augment the Dumber of communicants, at tlie altar of the Church 
of England. That they will save and sanctify more souls is a 
position of the truth of which we are absolutely increiluloua. 

If, then, a clergyman's object is indeed purely and solely to 
increaiie the number of his communicanta, we are faiily unable 
to ;irgue with him. He is out of our reach, and, sad as it is, 
iiiUfit go on hia way. But if he is careful for the separalo 
souls committed to his charge, he will stay his hand, while wc 
bid hiui consider whether Evening Communions do not oppose 
serious barriers to the sanctificutiiiu of individual Christians, and 
even wliulher immbcrs miglit not be increaaed without auch a 
sorinus departure from llie tradition of tlie Churcli, 

Now the csperieiicc of the Christian world is in favour of 
tarly devotion. ' O God, Thou art my God, early wilt I seek 
Thee.' This is fiimiliur to the experimental Christian, — so 
familiar that we shall not insist upon it. The soul is clear, 
fresh, vigorous, and keen in the early morning, unaoited as yet 
by the dupt and toil, unbroken by the burden and heat of the 
coming day. The morning is the time which will be chosen for 
the strongeist resolutions and the most persevering intcrcessiona. 
There are physical reasons doubtless for this; such as recent 
sleep, imd possibly atmospliei-io conditions which iuvigorutc the 
powers of the mind througli those of the body. There is a 
sensible sympathy with awakening nature, such aa is recognized 
in the ancient hymnology of the Catholic Church. At any rale, 
memory, imaginutiun, will, are all more active in the morning 
than at other times; and it is but reasonable, or^aa vulgar 
writers would say — 'common sense,' to devote these ijnickencd 
powers to the one religious action which outweighs all others in 
ituportance and in effect. 

It will be said that this may be admitted ; and yet those who 
cannot attend an early communion must be provided for. The 
one claaa who seem to engage the synipnttiies of certain clergy- 

I Evening Commtmtons. 209 

men arc tlie eerrant-maide. They, it is, whose cai-e (1cniftii(U a 

Ircvcreal of the tradition of the Catholic Church. Now vrc 

Llisro every sympathy with sin unnftbcted charity towards the 

[Boub of Ihii* too-often neglected chiss. We are well awiire that 

Itficy arc unpruvidcfl for in many n parish, otherwise well- 

Indiniiil^tcred. The clergym.iii ninuot interfere with the hou8e- 

Ebold arrangements of hie weallhier iiiuishioucr ; nnd the kdy 

rof the house considers tltc religious training of Iicr servants to 

[be pre-eminently the work of the clergyman. 

L ittd there ie too often a complete absence of Christian feeling 

m&o the nobleness of service — of auch, we mean, as is felt by 

PoMee who learn their ethics at Bethlehem and on Calvary, 

ISomo of our readers may recollect n striking passage of Pfere 

tl^vordairc, in which thitt grcut preacher contnists the condition 

lof the English hoHHehold servant with that of the 'homme de 

[■l« Diai^on, Je veilliird qui uous avait autrefois tenu Fur scs 

M^noiix ' — the honoured nurse who lived nnd died in the feudal 

[chateau of the as yet nnrevoluttonized and most Christiao 

uingdom.' Tliere is an element of truth iu thi^, tlion^ tiicrc 

Ha auo an element of unhistoricat e.Taggeralion ; but if we jBiirrlish 

are becoming more alive to the fact that ' JOsus Christ a cl6 lo 

premier domeetiquo du monde,' and to its practical conscfiuenccs, 

ihiif is no reason for ' Evening Communions.' There are fiiatteiv 

in which Ihe Church may rigblly defer to nalionul and dome »tic 

habits. Wherever it is barely possible, she will naturally do 

00, ihat she may belter cCDuomize her resources for tlie unequal 

struggle which she carries on n^ini-l the dominant maxims, 

temper and mind of the world. But there are maxims which 

she cannot acoepl. There are matters in which she must mould 

the national habit at any cost. Now wc arc disposed to think 

that the English habit of lying iu bed on Sunday morning is 

on evil with which the clergy ought towage mioeaaing war, aa 

being fatal to the growth of spiritual life. EeTigious dissenters feel 

the truth of this; and we know of En"liBh towns where titers 

are prayer-iucetingB in morii than one dissenting meeting-house 

at tux and seven o'clock a.m., while the parisb church isi not 

open until eleven a.m. Do the dissenting maids-of-all-work 

never attend those meetings? Is ihal on impOBsibility in 

gland, which is the rule in Belgium, in France, in Italy ? Arc 

English mistresses invctcratcly oj'uosed ta an arrangement which 

©iiiy seems inconvcnietit bccutise it has never been tried "( Are 

Bervants, who know what the Blessed Saernntcnt is, and what 

Bort of preparation it ilemands, likely togrumlili! at the umount 

of exertion necessary to their consecration of tlirec-quarters of 

■ lacuTdain, Conrerencos, II. p. S3. B3. Bmxellee. 
MO. ax. — U.S. t 


EcemMff Commumtmt, 

an honr on SunJny nmrninjr? Or if the^ do so grumble, are 
tliov likely to receive Holy Communion in the evening with the 
Inio ili*]t<«ilioHti? We rocollect (liecufsing this subject with 
the vicfir of n Inrge town church in the West of Etis^Iaml. On 
Chrii-tniw-day lie celebrated fin afternoon communion for 'the 
6crv»nt-niaidfl.' Very few of (hat citws attended ihc scrvioe. 
But other jicrsone came, who would else have riven in time to 
come in the morning, — they cimc 'recking from (heir Christmas 
dinncre.' 'fh« vicnc did not coiitimio (he experiment: and wc 
cannot doubt that his cxiierience- hns been confirnied in other 
town-i)nri(.hc». On llii^! olinr h;iml, llicre nre many churches in 
London where the ntt(!iidnncc at cmty communion i^ euch ns to 
justify larpc exi»ecI«tions on the score ot a reformed practice in 
llm mutter lliroujihout the country. And if the Church of 
England is to recover spiritual \igour in a wide eense, early 
ooniiuunion^ nmsl be the main cause and chief symbol of eucK 
recovery. They are the real remedy for many of our oviU. 
We have bad long experience of niid-uay celebration!. Coming 
at the end of a long i<crviec, which succeeds to tfome hour», it 
may be, of previous distraction, they intercept and obviate 
countless spiritual blessings which early communions would 
secure. Thi^y apprnximnle to the more ortensiTC iiii?chief* of 
afternoon nnd evening eelebralitms. Let it be boldly confesaed 
that the Churi'h «)tnul<1 mould the national habits to the true 
intereBta of aouU, and that our present cttatom ien real corrui)! ion. 
We do not forget the many cases of age and of weakened 
health which will always demand such late celebrations. By all 
iDcanM. But for the young nnd the strong — for the great majority 
of commimicunts — ^ihere is no objection to early communiona, 
save th()«e of custom and indolence. The earlier and more csu-- 
nt^t evangelicnliffin felt thid strongly, auii, in some cases which 
vrc could name, acted upon it. V\ o have reason to know that 
there is at this moment a considerable movement among those 
enfjaged in trade at the Kast end of London to aecure a privilege, 
which, ill loo many eaece^ their Icss-cn lightened clergy are slow 
to concede. 

And there are, thank God I chureht-s in which the people have 
had o[>portunities for early eomuumioti, and have been encou- 
raged to mahe the most oi' them. We have the highest authority 
for saying that at S. Barnaba?, Pindico, ' the number of poor 

* persons ami servants who communicate early is much larger 

• than thai of Ihwse who avail themselves of the mid day celebra- 
' tioiis/ when the conununieants arc more generally members of 
the upper clas-es. At S. Mattliias, Stoke Newington, there 
wei-e on Eastei-day 130 commnnicanis at 5.30 a.m., 38 com- 
municnnle at 8 A.M., and 200 at half-past 10. On the same day 

Evening Ckmvmimions. 


at S. Paul'it, Brigliton, there were, at tt qiiart«r-past five A.3S. 
&i comiiiuiiiniiit»; at lialf-[tH8t six, 174; at ciRlit o'clock, 140; 
and at i-lcvi-n, 23H ; uinkiug n totiil of 606, Somewhat similar 
«UtistiL-a might be sbowu by tho clergy of All Sniiits, Mar^ai-et 
Street, and other well-kiiuwn ohtii-chcs. Of cuurec it will ba 
«fud tliat sQcli churches are itbiionunl, — that they represent, not 
tlie territorial area of iheir act iial jurisdiction, but large portions 
of the nielropolis, from which Ihey gather the scattered clenieritis 
of BympaihiBJiigChurchmanahip. Look then at Wiintiige, whccc 
you ha?e the parochial princijjle hand-iii-hand with the usaertion 
of the Church syettm. In that old panBh-church, one hundred 
communicants, gathered almost excluHively from tbo labouring 
dtuaes, might Imvc been seen kneeling at the altar to receive 
from their pastor the IJrcud of Life :it half-paet four in the 
morning of Inst Aaceneion-dity. Early coniniuuione are the 
obvious clioicc of the ilevotioiinl instinct. They will not, of 
course, be frequented when first ntlojilcd ; bnt tliey iiuist be put 
forvranl ua a. leading feature of the rcviyod Church system. 
They embody its moial and il^ sucmmeutal eignificnncc, they 
nec«entate an act of self-denial, and they secure the freshest 
enei^ies of the soul for the allar of God. It ia said, sometimes, 
that they huddle away into a comer of the day its rao«t laomen- 
toue act. This ia reasoning which might have objected to the 
manger at Bcthlchcui, on tlie score of it.^ obacurity. When no 
word bus yet been uttered except to God, when no nuun»b- 
ment hua yet pulsed the lips, when the first aclf-dedieation of 
tirt waking moment Still echoes through tlie soul, there is tho 
truest welcome, the moat genuine adoration, tlie most lender nud 
sout-coDstraining recojinition of the King of kioga, who seta up 
Ilie throne in the heart, as in the world, without obflcrvation. 
Only lot a soul have felt thin experimentally, and a lute com- 
muniou will appear to be a disadvantage, an Evening Communion 
mmply intolerable. For, as it eeems to us. Evening Connuuniona 
MOTT involve two diiastroua conseqiicncca. Of these, the firat 
U, ft lowering of the conventional tilandard of sacramental pre- 
paration. Even in caaea where the Holy Sacrament is received, 
say once a month, and then only after a late morning service, 
there is a species of consecr.ition of ihc preceding hours, in 
families which give wejglit to religions considerations. Tho 
family praycra contain, it may be, a sacramental allusion. The 
breaklnet-table, if attended, is nevertheless left earlier than 
usual. There is a restraint in conversation — an eagcrnexs (o 
put wrious topicd fonvard. Uui this t«nsiun vould not Ijtr kept 
up in such a family, if the communion were duferred until tfio 
Dihine would be loft to represent thu relaxation and 
of the Lord's Day, if its raort solemn act were 



ev«nbig. Koihi 


Bvenmg C%»m)tiiKt«n«. 

poistiwnecl until atmset, and the previous iioure tlovotcd to iocea- 
int iireparation. Of course, fc<l dctiiuiidif in religion, 
B in other matter*, provoke cxnggtTiilcil rchislnuce. The conse- 
quence would be «L large neglect of iiny sneraiuentul jtrepitration 
whatever. People would go to the Holy Sitcramcnl, it iimy be, 
in great nuinbere, but just its they go to an Evemng Service 
They would Cdrry with tliein raind^ which hail been ti-uvcrecd 
by nil the wvrlilly associations which ai'e ineeparable iVoiu five 
or six o'clock ol the evening of Sunday, do what you will. 
They wouUl take faculties, of which the first and freshest ellort8 
had been olTered to others, or had evaporated through weariness, 
or hud become impossible through repletion. Imagine a worthy 
squire rtaing from the wine after dinner to attend Holy Com- 
iDunion in his pamh chuvcli. We forbear to dwell on the 
picture: but the case Ik not an impossibility; and it is certain to 
annihilate the lingering, indefinite, yet tenacious sense of what 
is due to their nearest act of apjiroacU to God, which etUl 
prevaiU so generally among our people. 

And, i>ccondIy, Evening Communions will tend to lower the 
popular standard of Eucnnristic belief even more tliau that of 
tuchurislie preparation. They are intimately allied, we believe, 
with u Zwingliai) propaganda. Even a Calvinist, if intelligent, 
ought to Le afraid of them ; for be imagines the faith ot the 
receivei' to consecrate as well as to claim the Presence received. 
He must be therefore anxious that that faith should be lively. 
A Churchtnan knows that the promise of Chriet slandcth sure, 
resting uu a bitsis Imppily distinct from his own weakness and 
vacillation and numbness of spirit, and effecting its beliest 
through the invnriuhle power of an apoatoHcnl priesthood. How- 
ever anxious he may be to make the best use of the gift of Heaven, 
he is well assured that it is given independently of himself. 
Not so Calvin, With him faith mahes what it touches, and it 
cannot create unless it be strong, and fresh, and unimpeded. Of 
course a mere eiternal covenant-act — a symbolic commemora- 
tion, involving nothing siipernntursd, nothing beyond the natural 
action of the memory, and imngi nation, and affections, might be 
respectably gone through at any time of the day, Thu question 
becomes one of social convenience when wc descend to this 
Zwiaglian stratum of religious misbelief, and we forbear to 
follow it. But late communions, which ought, to present diffi- 
culties to religious evangelicals, must seem fatally inconsistent 
with the belief in that Presence which serious churchmen seek 
and fiuil at altar. And we unhesitatingly predict, that when 
churchmen aie so uuliappy ns to yield to the present current of 
popukr pressuj-e, their higher, better, fuller, truer belief in the 

E»«m»g Commnnions. 


blessed SacrnmCDt, will be subjected to a rude shodc, nnd pro 
bitbl; abaDdoaed. 

A^in, there U a consideration of gmrc importance, which 
csnuot but occur to thoughtful nnd religious Christiana in a 
qucDtioii of this him). Is it not certain that the general adop- 
tion of Evening Communions by members of die Church of 
England would nmke the breach between nur^Ives and iho 
great body of the Western Church pi-actieiJIy wider, ami the 
nope of reconciliation more distant than ever? The philoNO- 
phics) student of Church hietory knows well that with the 
masses a ditference of retizioua habit or practice avails to aepa'- 
rate much more aurely than many a weightier diS*crence of 
belief. For the outward, sensible, tangible differcucos of practice 
and of rite imprciw tboKc to whom the largest diversity of inner 
conviction seems but as an uiry un^iubstantial subtlety. Hero 
then we have wliat would be au outward and evident dificrcnco 
of pi"aetice between the Churches — widening the breiicb more 
mailEcdly to the popular npprehcnsion than do the Sacramental 
Articlva or the Defiuitiona uf Trent. Of course, there are those 
among us to whom sucli n result would be a recommcudation. 
They have forgotten tlie burden of our Loi-d's Prayer in 
S. John xvii. They have resolved His vLiiible Church into a sub- 
jective and ideal oonoeption. They have studied the Apocalypse 
under the auspices of Dr. Cumniing, An insult to the religious 
mind of the Cnristendora of France, Italy, Spain, and Austria, i^ 
in their eye*, a religious graice— nothing moic or less. We are 
not wriUng for them ; wc repudiate thcu- first prindplcs as tbcy 
ours. But intelligent and earnest Churchmen must admit that 
something, nay, that mucii, is due to our se[)ariited brethren of 
tlic West. We inherit a separated jKisition ; we did nut make 
it. We are thankful for the undoubted blessings which it 
aasures to us ; we are sensible of the greater weakness which it 
as certainly entails — the paralysis of a divided Cbiistendom, the 
doubts or EcoGb of au unconverted world. In God's name, let 
tliis generation beware of deepening the chasm by wanton 
abandonment of usages and traditions which wc hold in common 
witli the Catholic world, and which, once abaudoui-d, will be 
abaudoiied for ever. Rome has alrea<iy, by her definition of the 
Imnvaculate Conception, in IS.^4, rendered the Itope of a united 
church hev'ond measure more hopeless than it was before. We 
cannot afiord to imitate her policy and share her guilt. But an 
imperceptible lapse to uncathohc practice may speedily effect 
more mischief in the way of traditional division than even the 
Bull IneffahtlU. What would the Latin Bisliops say to a 
communion which made post-prandiol reception of the Holy 
Sacrament almost its rule? The modern rite of Benediction 


Evening Commuaiont, 

U no real parallel. Doubclc^^ that rite is an expreaalon of the 
Anxiety to sanction by tlic liulicst Presence those cv<nun2 
services whicli are seemingly so congenial to the modern worlu. 
But it concedes nothing that grossly violates the uaiTCnul 
tradition of the Church of the Father?. It is not a delibcmte 
return to a. main feature of the practice of the Church of 
Corinth, which was condemned by the experience of the 
Apostolical age, and set aside l)y tne nimstlce. Uow far it 
uwy ite<^lf be linked to a sacramental conception, which b a 
' development' of the early faith of the Church, is a question 
upon wliich wo ore not now able to enter. It docs iK>t at any 
rate sanction Evcnioe Commuuton, unless an awful and distant 
reverence be identical with Intimate nnd iietuiil reception of the 
Sacramental Species. 

Here, then, wc bring tliese remarks, for the present, to a 
ulose; premising that tlioy do but toueli upon a vast subject, of 
the iin;K>rtiuice and extent of which, when viewed iu its real 
bearings, our readers might find it difficult to form an exag- 
gerated estimate. 


Abt. VIII. — Phitippo Stroxti: a llutor^ oj ifte Last Days of 
the Old Itah'un Liberty. By T. AUOLPUUS TuOLLOi'E, vVu- 
thor of ' Decades of Itiiliaii Women ; ' ■ The Gii-lliood of 
CjktlicriDe dei Medici,' &c. &c. Loudon : Chapman ^ Hall, 
193, Piccitdilljf. 1800. Svo. pp. -110. 

Tab reader need not i'eiir that we arc about to inflict a political 
dissertation on his patience. ' My kingdom is not of this world.' 
And it ia that kingdom with which T!te Vhriatian Bemeniiranctr 
is principally concerned, rathei' than with earthly uionurchic:^ 
and their rulers. 

Prone as every generation is to consider its own epoch as a 
crisis in the world's history, it is scarcely posaihle to doubt thnt, 
80 far as the Latin Cliiirch is concerned, one of those periods is 
at hand, the close of nn owov — one of the qxjcha to which the 
apostolic title of the Lord's comiu}; may not unwarrantably be 
npplied. And we neither enn, nor ought to, shut ourselves up 
in our insidarity, iiod try to iicrsuudc ourselves that the English 
Church is not cuucerued in the present sgony of the Lntin Com- 
munion. It may he that out of that agony the Roiuiin Church 
will come forth purified aa gold iu the fii-e ; — it may he that the 
Lord's words to Peter will be again fniniled, according to 
incdia^vn] belief, as regards the successor of Peter ; — Whm thru an 
convfrtefl. strengthen thy hretht-en: and that this ugain will be 
shortly. Or it may be, also according to strong mcdlicv&l 
belief, that a grievously mis-era pWtd supremacy \s about to 
pass away from the Eternal City ; — -thiii; the Bull hf.ffiitnlis 
tilled up the measure of her crimes; — and that, from a disaolu- 
tioii of her present organisation, she is to be remoulded into a 
new form, and endued with a new spirit. 

The whole Italian struggle, deeply interesting as its consequen- 
ces must of necessity make it, ia without the chief source of ia- 
tcpcst which a contest can present — the affording grounds for 
sympathy with either party. While one laments the obstinacy, the 
blindness, the perverse tyranny of the Neapolitan government; 
while one moiurus over the absolute demoralization of the Papal 
States, &nd knows not whether most to despise or to execrate those 
false flatterers of Ultramontane tenets who could call the Patri- 
mony of S. Peter the best governed state in the world ; one cannot 
the less regard Victor Emmanuel as one of the moat grasping, — 
perhaps one of the least talented, — of the grasping house of 
bavoy : that house which never lost for the want oi asking, never 
seems capable of embracing a generous policy, which uubluah- 


23U £0man See and Sardinia. 

ioglf cames selfishness to a pitch beyond which U cannot go ; — 
and Cavour, as tic thoroughly unpriuciplcd minister of » perrecUy 
unscrnpuloua master ; — a man, worthy to hnvc bocn one of the 
C a, b, a, I of Charka the Second's tinics. 

Indeed, the condition of SBrcIinin nt this time— and it has 
fallen to the present writer to see a good deal of it — is, ander a 
show of prosperity, one which must |nve rise to the gravest 
apprehensions Six yejirs ago, the bulk of the people were 
reli^ons — if not so well educated as their Austrian ncijjhbourB, 
at leaat passably instructed — the secular clergy of a high order 
for Italy, and the monasteries, so far as a somewhat careful 
inquiry leads us to conclude, fairly, though not enthusiastically, 
doing their duty. In an evil hour they, as their Portuguese 
brothers had done before them, assunied an attitude of hostility 
to the Coustitutiou ; nud for this they were to be punished. The 
king h.ia one qnulity of an Italian — he never forgives. There- 
fore the dissolution of the religious houses was resolved in the 
recesses of the royal residence at Turin, agreed on with Cavour, 
and one or two men of a similar stamp, and then mooted in the 
Chambers. The Chambers were not anxious for the spoil ; bnt 
the greater part, men thoroughly irreligious, saw that by voting 
for the dissolution they should obtain the favour of Victor Eui- 
mauuel, Jind had no scruples of conscience to deter them from it. 
It was in vain that the noble-minded Count Solar de la Mar- 
ghttrita, a man without pre-eminent talents, and as a speaker 
certainly deficient, but one whose daily life is influenced by the 
precepts of the Church of which he is the chief political defender 
— it was in vain that he, and a few like him, offered every con- 
stitutional resistance in the Chambers — in vain that the country 
towns and villages exclaimed loudly against the contemplated 
sacrilege : Victor Emmanuel's resolution was known ; and 

Qua voluat rrga 
Faduni kgts. 

The attitude then taken by the secular clergy is the saddest 
portion of the history. Probably n united effort on their part 
might have deferred, if it did not prevent. But so far from 
joining in sueh an effort, the greater part were well disposed to 
the suppression. Poor themselves, the country priests expected, 
and were promised, a share in the spoil; and thus threw their 
influence on the side of the men who were at once bullying their 
bretliren and cajoling them. It happened to the writer, »ome 
fortnight ago, to be walking up and down the magnificent 
Contntda deyJi Au<ftU at Turin, in company with a country 
priest of some eminence, aieb-priest oi an important district, 
and, we believe, canon of a collegiate church. ' I am sure,' lie 
■aid, ' that in not more strenuously opposing, though they did 


Tke SoToan Bee and Sardinia. 


DO, the dissolution, the clergy were nctiiated by a good 
•inotiTC. They wished to keep well with ilie government; tlicy 
' believed that, iii good tnitli, it would !ie little more than a 
' cbiingc of ecclesinstical property ; tLat what coiivcntual lusti- 
' tutious had bitberto possessed, educatioual cstiiblishments 
' would now inherit. I)ut it vas a mistake ; a mistake from 
■ first to Inst. The seed was sown in that aacriloge ; — yesterday's 
' apectaele was one of the bitter fruits.' Yeslerdai/'s ttjKcf.acl'i was 
the arrcat of the Archbishop of Pi*a: certninly as iiagrant an 
instance ofsletnro rat'tone voluntas as Napoleon III. could him- 
self furnish. It had pleased the Sardinian government, some 
years back, to decree thiit the Second Sunday in May should 
be observed as the festival of the Sardinian Cooatitiition ; and 
that a Te Di-um should be snug in every church in honour of 
that event. Though generally disliking the ceremony, the clergy 
submitted ; and the new fcaat was a Jhtt accompli so far as the 
Sardinian dominions were concerned. But when the annexation 
of the other Italian states had been brought to pass, they also 
were required to observe the same holiday, and the Te Deum 
was cnjomcd on their ecclesiastics. The Archbishop of Pisa, a 
man of high cbnrncter, and known us one of tlie most active 
prelates of northern Il.'ily, forbinle his clergy to sing the 
Te Dtum. Cavonr iustiintly commanded the archbishop to 
attend him at Turin ; by what shadow of law, the minister's 
varment supporter may puKsle himself to decide. The arch- 
bishop refused. An officer was instantly despatched into Tus- 
cany, with orders to arrest the prelate, and to bring him under 
guard to Turin ; and this was accordingly done. Now let the 
reader remember th:it Sardinia professes to be as constitutional 
n country as England ; and then conceive some state service 
enjoined on the English clergy, anil the Arehbishop of York 
forbidding its use iu his own diocese. The telegraph wires 
tm mediately flash a command from Lord Falmerslon for the 
prelate's attendance iu Dovrning-street. He refuses. The next 
train carries an officer down to Biahopsthorpe, and on the fol- 
lowing day His Grace is safe in the Tower. \VTiat would England 
say in such a case ? And yet the correspondent of the Timc« — 
but then every one knows the general character of the Italian 
correspondents of the Times — landed to the skies the energetic 
conduct of Cavour; and the minister was only exposed to the 
mihlc^it of interpolations in the Chambers, and blustered through 
his reply on that subject iu a manner which singularly con- 
trasted with the hang-dog look with which he answered the bitter 
questioning he underwent on the subject of French aggression. 

At the present moment, to an English churchman, tlic reli- 
gioos situation of Sardinia and its dependencies is Mugularly 


Tit SomoH See and Sorrfinw. 

diiheftrteniDg. Three qmirter* of « century Jigo nortliern XUHf i 
seemed oa tlie {loiat of ncliieviiig fgr iuelf n. really Catliolio ' 
refonuatioa. The name of Scipio Ricei will lire as long as 
ecclesiastical history 13 read ; bat those of PaitniliQi, Diahop of 
Chiusa and Viconza, Fabio de' Baffi, (Jrand Vicar of Florence, 
Buoniascgiii, Provincial of the Dominicans inTuscany, and Douati 
and Mannotto, Professors at Sienna, were not only some of the 
most learned ecclesiastics, but some of the most jcijous defenders 
of episcopal rights in Europe ; and the noble Council of Pistoia 
admirably carried on that which Couslnnce nnd Ba*le hni 
gloriously begun. But now, all enrncst religions feeling i*, 
almost necessarily, arrnyiug itself on the side of L'ltritmontanism. 
In Turin itself, the clergy are all but in open schism. The 
government more tlian tolerates the attempt recently made at 
founding 'a Protestant Church 'in that place; while, in the 
upper cTasflCB, infidelity, thinly veiled under the guise of tibc- 
ralistn, is rampant. Everybody, wc think, regarded the Papal 
dennncintion an a blunder ; as either too much or too little. It 
was so manifest a declaration, ' You, A''ictor Emmniiuel, deserve 
to be e.\ coram uuicatod, and most glndly would I excomnnmicfitc 
yon but for one nmsou : I am not sure that my command iroidd 
have been obeyed.' It wjis natiiral, in throwing for so tremen- 
dous a stake as the obedience of a kingdom, that the puntitieal 
advisei's should have been nervous; to hurl an anathema, and 
then see it disobeyed, ivoiild have been ruin. But the general 
belief is that had the King of Sardinia, Cavour, and one or 
two of the ministry been cicommnnicnted by name, the feel- 
ing of the country, deadened no doubt as compared with 
mcditeval times, would nevertheless have convinced the king 
that he mu«t at all events seem to yield something. It was 
our lot to liear, on hoard an Italian steamer, a spirited discus- 
sion between a party of clergy and government emjiloyfis on this 
very subject. One of the priests, a portly, comfortable-looking 
personage, who appeared to answer to the high and dry csitegory 
of our own clergy, was the only individual out of seven who 
approved the policy of Rome, In these times a protest, he said, 
was all that was possible ; had the King or Cavour been named, 
there were districts in the country where, likely enough, there 
might have been a rising. The second priest, a much younger 
man, and fiercely HI tramontane, ui^ed that to pillory men anony- 
mously, when every one really knew who was intended, looked like 
cowardice ; and the officinls agreed with him, while fully allowing 
that — such was ' the superstition ' of the coimtry even in this 
enlightened age— had the excommunication been nominal, the 
conaeijnencea might have been very serious. The third ecclesias- 
tic, — we know not whether a priest or not, — a Franciscan of the 

The Soman Sic and Sofrdinia. 


Third I]l_7riaii Oriler, said tlmt on his side tlio Adriatic the 
iru])resi<iou tbat Home dnres nut speak out would do more liurm 
thiui would have been the result of leaving the Sardininii tiggres* 
dion unnoticed. 

In looking at this aggressiou as regards the Legations, and 
the consequent political statm of Rome, we must keep two oppo- 
site things in mind, The first, thiit, let Ultraraontanes he never 
so true in their denunciation « of the injui^tice of the annexation, 
let them be never so just in regarding the King of Sardinia as u 
Geuend Walker favoured by circumstances, and playing the hypo- 
crite as well as the bully, the question of the loss of her pre- 
sent territfiries is one which really does not nJiiterinlly nOect the 
poner of Rome. In her palmiest days nhe j tosses a ed a temporal 
province of far inferior extent. In acquiring tbat which she 
now holds, she sndly injured her si)iritiial 'j/restige. She squan- 
dered her spiritual powers in gaining esirthly acres, and as she 
existed in the plenitude of tliose powers before siie had made 
those gains, so she might after she had resigned them. But, 
sccoudly, a temporal iudepetideitce, whieh involves n separate 
territory of wmv- extent, is, if not easentiul, quasi -essential to 
the Liiliu Patriarchate. You may argue that, as it is, political 
niotive.i enter so largely into tlie election of her Popes that a 
little more, or a Lttle \cm, matters not. True it is, tluit the lot 
uf the triple crown is decided as much by ambassadors as by 
cardinals. True it b, that political motives, and none other, 
excluded Baronius, that giant of learning, and the saintly 
Bona, from the chaii of S. Peter. But let hira once ascend that 
chair, and the Pope is irremovable by King or Ca-sar; and 
tliough his actions may often be inflaenced, they never eiinbe 
compelled. Nothing is more valuable asa historical study, than 
to compare, iu this respect, the differing fortunes of Rome mid 
Coti»tanttnop1e. From A.a 1000 to a,d. 1700 n hundred suc- 
cessors of S. Peter wore the tiara. In that same period one 
hundi-e<l iiix] fifty successors of S. Chrysostoni succeeded each 
other iu the seooud See. Of the former, one only, S. Celestiue V, 
resigned; one only, Benedict IX., sat twice. None were de- 
posed till the great schism, and then, properly speaking, otdy 
two — Gregory XII. and John XXIT. In the East thirty or 
forty were deposed, — as freely under Christian as under Turkish 
princes, — several sat five or ws times, several were murdered, 
several blinded. At a time when France was all-powerful, and 
when the reigning Pontiff owed everything to her monarch, she 
could not obtain that her hated enemy, Boniface VlII, should, 
mftcr bio decease, bo proclaimed heretical. Pixrther observe, 
tlmt whcuerer a Pope has put himself in the way of the tem- 
pond power, he baa atways been worsted. So Vigilius with 


7^e Roman See and SarJiaia. 

Justiuiaii at Constantinople, so John XX!I. with Sigismuiid at 
CoiiHtaiicc. Aud during the seventy years' Bfthylonish cap- 
tivity, the Popes at Avlguon were the mere slav«a of France. 
So utterly ruinous to Papal autocracy was that residence, that 
those who most deeply deplored the great schism thought it a 
merciful change after the captivity. It was less ruinous that two 
(or three) rival Popes should be anuthematising each other, thaa 
that one undoubted successor of S. Peter should be simply 
registering and endorsing the cccle:«ia$tieal decrees of the King 
of France. Indeed, Gcrsou somewhere expressly says, tliat so 
terrible s disease as seventy years' servitude could only be eared 
by a violent medicine such as the schism ; — like those illnesses 
which are rather clTorts of nature to throw off poisoa than 
diseaae-i in themselves. 

We so far, then, agree with Roman theologians, as to regard 
B certain portion of independent territory all but esseotial to 
the Papal See; we disagree with them in thinking thnt the 
Legations, or any other given part, arc of very great importaneo 
to it, lost or saved. For, to :i certain extent, an ecclesiastical 
sovereign is in a false position,— like, to compare great things 
wilh small, a priest who is a magialrate. The mercy of the 
Church and the sword of the State do not well ht into the same 
hand. The JJishop is defiled with blood, however righteously 
shed, — the secular povfer may be honoured by it. If the throne 
is a neeeasity for the spiritual potentate, the iudependeut 
territory should bo of as small extent as possible. And here 
we find ourselves on the snme side with the famous pamphlet 
of Napoleon III, barring its trash about /e cultc c/m ruines. 
He might hare pressed the consideration still further. At the 
time when Rome, in Iier spiritual character, was .^ueh that^ 
she hardly retained a vestige of her divine mission, the Pope, i 
as a temporal monarch, ruled over a contented and happy people. 
Take the century which sncceeded the Council of FJoreuce. 
The best of its Pontiffs were men eaten up with worldlincss; 
men who allowed without remonstrance eight, ten, twelve 
bishoprics, — one, two, three hundred livings, to one man ; tho 
worst were such beings as Alexander "VI. And yet, with the 
one cxecpliou of the fearful storm that burst over Clement VII, 
the Patrimony of S. Peter was at the height of worldly prosperity. 
During the Pontificate of Leo X. — aud, as a Bishop, was lie not 
even worse than Alexander VI.? — the States of the Church 
rolled in wealth. How should it not be so, when gold and 
silver, scarcely to be reckoned, rolled in from that fearful sale of 
indulgences ? when whole cities were absolved at once, with the 
express clause that the absolution held good, whether the iuhabi-. 
tants repented or not; when robber knights and soldiers of 

77ie Soman See and Sardinia. 


fortanc were iil>so1vcil for future au<) aa yet uacontnved sins; 
and vlicu tlicst; fraiixnctions Lrought iu items, the amount of 
vlticli struck witli surprise even the cofilircra of the Papal 
trdisurc. But that Btato of tilings passed. The hoary actultcrer 
ami murderer, like Alexander VI. went to his own pliicc; the 
licrce warrior, like Julius 111. disnppenred from the seem- of hia 
bloody triumph ; the surly, fHlse-hearted, treacherous politician, 
like Clement Vn. stood before that tribunal where all lieartn arc 
open, idl desires knuwn, nnd front which no secrets arc hidi 
the infidel Ion vivant, who as a child had been Ciiuou of Flo- 
rence, Ficsole, Arezzo; Rector of Carmignano, Giogoli, S. Caa- 
ciano, S. GioT^amii in Valdanio, S. Piero at Caaalc, S. MarcelHoo 
at Caochiano; Prior of Moute Varchi; Precentor of S. Antonio 
nt Florence; Dean of Prato; Ahbat of Moute Cassino, of 
S. Giovanni of Passcgmmo, of S, Maria of Morimondo, of 
S. JIartino, of Fontedolco, of S. Lorenzo of Collibuono, of S. Sal- 
vador at Vajauo, of S. Bartolomco at jVngliiart, of R. Maria at 
Monto Pinoo, of S. Julieu at Tours, of S. Giuslo iiud S. Clement 
at A'oltcrra, of S. Stcfauo nt Bologua. of S, Mielicic at Arczzo, 
of Chianivalle iu Milau; Bishop of Piua, Bishop of Cbiaru- 
monte; Archbishop of Amalfi ; Curdinal of the Holy Romna 
Church, afterwai'ds Pope Leo X. — he, too, went to liis account. 
Tlieu, conimeiicing with Paul IV. wc have a scries of eai-uest 
men in the Papal Chair, — all of them rcspectabtc, some holy ; 
snd then also the Roman state begins to suffer. Ttie more free 
were the coffers of the Latenm from foreign collections, the 
heavier, of course, was domestic tiuiation. 

At tlie same time we must allow that, at the very worst, the 
poverty, Inwlessuess, and misery of the Roman States hare been 
much exaggerated. The proof of the heaviest accusaliona ag.tinst 
the existing state of things, that the residence of Piuii IX. at 
Home dc))ends on French bayoneta, will soon be put to the teat, 
and that under happy auspices for the Pope. It may he doubted 
whether the whole of Europe could offer a military man so well, 
both physically and intellectually, wc may add too religiously, 
(lualilied for his task, a» Lumorici^re. 

Ill looking back to the various steps by wliich the civil govern- 
ment of Home has reached its present state of wrctchcduess, one 
cannot but bo struck with the great difference between the 
warmest mediaeval supporters of the Roman Sec, and its L'ltra- 
montanc friends now. The latter seem to consider thcmodTea 
bound to defend it, through thick nnd thin; eulogising ita 
dvil administration as the best imd wisest, auJ cuu»ideriug 
the cunditiou of its subjects ns the happiest iu £uruj>c. We 
»ee the vt'ry tcverw iu those who may fnirly be called the 
Ultnuuoutuie« of the Middle Ages. Imngiuc Dr. Neirman, or 


7^ Airman 8te and Sardinia. 

Dr. lifaniiing, acouscd by their brethren here, — appealiuz to 
Rome, and honourably acquitted ami dismissed, — and then, 
by way of expressing their gratitude to the Holy See, dedicating 
to Pope Pius IX. a work with these lines, aa not only the motto, 
but also the subject :— 

Komain voxnt :idhuc amor imflnoderiitus bnbend', 
(jucm non citliiguet, nisi Jiiilici« irn tromcBdi. 

Tet this w«a the gift which Gerholius olfered at the Papal 
throne, iu retui-n for the warm patronage lie had experienced 
&ofn it when he laid himself open to the charge of heresy by one 
or two iudiscreet and uutheological eiipiessioiis. Or imagtuc 
Cardinal Wiseman, under the circumstances, composing and 
publishing a poero, which should thus speak of tlie cardinals : — 

Suiil liklruuuv nun latori^s, 
Lv^is Uei ilL'StrticlortB : 
Synioii, ecilciis inter i-os, 
IXiI Hingis I ro4 cisy rcos. 
Symoji i-nnlox jirn^rert bonis, 
Svmun iittiiit Hit in dotm ; 
Sjinuu rcgijHt Hpud Auvtrum; 
Sytiiou Iro^it uitiLJD duuitrum. 
Cum null datui', 8)'itioii striilet, 
SccI li daliir, ^ymon ridcT. 
Symnn nul^rt, Symon donot, 
lliinc (-■xpellii. Iiunc cor<iiiRt:-| 
llli duimi iliaiiumn 
Qui iittiic oral iiiiathuinit. 
Islu S,vmoii coiifiiiidatur, 
Cm tFiiiiiim poMc dalurl ' 

But it watt ft bold Anglo-Saxon lieart; which dictated these 
lines ; no other than S. Thomas of Canterbury ; much as he > 
had said in prose to Cardinal Albert, 'Ncacio quo facto \>nii 
'Domini semper mactatur in curi&; condeiuuantur apud vo*. 
' miseri exules iunacinites, iiec ob allud nisi quia panperes 
' Christi sunt et iinbecillcs." And to Pope Alexander be- 
speaks e\'en more plainly.' Or take that Intter complaint of 
another Englishman : — 

nnnw, ti tu retis e% »i9 shsolvi?— Promej 
^S, ut (umns vcninni, in os cjufi vomc: 
Vrece siini^li numinuli cxnrftnic pro me 
Si blaapliBiiius I'ucni, mcx pboelni Homnj. 

Dudiiiii terriis dcimtiit, dominji tKrmrura : ' 
Colin vreuKUs plcbum, urbium, lingunratn i 
Nunc niK uiiIIm mibjicit ape pvuiimuriini. 
El fit iduiAtria dux CbmticokruTii. 

* B«ir, O^licsr. Script, t&ni. ivi. p. 416. 

• Id. Tom. xrii. p. EBS. 

The Soman BeTi 


' SI te Romn repatel jiarritidiiin, ina'rJuim, 
^Dtcnifl A))08ixlw cor Imbelu cii:l-uiii. 
rcf urgent! lilin, rosn« anri rccum : 
Ibi Bncrftot rcprobos, ecrIiib r«i1>ii!nt mqnilln. 

Or the witty complaint of Gtiiitier de Chatillon ! — 

* Seil nasciilts, PoDiirex, cm- linbenH tnjii cniiciim, 
Ut til esnii roll cougrcgca, icsLimo unii fcijuum : 
Quiirf liidt Doininus— ut jiitn Inqunr tcciim — 
li'miqiiid rx denarin CBiinctiisli Mecum ^ 

"Or ngniu, still of Home : — 

VurUns, Cnrilni), 

^ijuitiis, Cnmitn!), 

LnigitHSt I'robilJW, 

C«ri'uU: VlluJt: 

Falsi! 14, VaoitM, 

PrnviUH, Foeditai, 

llruiitnK, ViliU*, 

Viguil: rUriiit: 

Urban it n.i Ebrietas 

Ev^unii. Prievfliuit. 

Nov ne want the reader fully tu estimate tliesc two fncts: 
tlie etiormotiri revenues and little outgoings of Borne in the 
flfteoDtlt centurj' and begimiiiig of the aixteentli, — the entirely 
reTcrsfid case as regards the end of the sixteenth and he^inning 
of the seventeenth. The mountains of gold which found tlieir 
way to the Vatican from every bishop, — from Reikinvik and 
TJpsala in the north to Faro in the south : the drain on every 
religious house; the deeiniatioiiof everj'cnllicdral nnd collegiate 
dignity; the smaller, hut more numerous, purses that the inferior 
clergy nontnbulcd. We wish thnt some master of Europeau 
history would endeavour to gain some approximate idea of what 
was the rCTeime of Uomc during the time of her greatest appa- 
rent grasp over Europe : say, for example, towards the close of 
the fifteenth century. The mind is ausolutcty lost in the con- 
templation of the various sources of revenue j from accessions 
to hithoprics and abbeys; from si'lling dignities which fell 
vaciint in the Fnptil month or months ; Irom dispensation:!! (and 
remember the cnormniix number of dixpensntions then needed 
for pluralilie*) and ahbohitious, for grants to monarchs, sucli 
»s those of India to Fortngnl, Mexico to Spain, and the lika 
And then remember that Home was engaged in no ecclesiastical 
work which involved any great expense: no Propaganda with 
its missions and its presses ; no purehnscs of invultuiblo manu- 
wriiris ; nothing c&ccpt the erection of & reter's [aud thut 
provided for in its own miserable way). — 

But turn the page of the next century, and wlint do wc xee ? 
Not only n third of her territories lost, but her sway frightfully 
ircakencd over the rest. Her suppliet of money diminiahed 


The Soman See and Sardinia, 

almoKt beyon<I comptitntion ; and yet, at titc same time, that 
Btru^Ie — the Counter-Kefurniatian — commeiiring, which never, 
ve think, has received cither from Uomatiists or others the 
tribute it deserves. Protcstniits seem generally to imagine that, 
from the blow struck at the licfbrniation, Rome has been 
wcttlccaiag ever siace. Whereas, let aoy one compare her state 
at her lowest — say nt the bcgioutng of the ecvciitiicuth century, 
nnd some time after — and at the close of that century. At the 
beginning; Bi^lgium half Protestant, iiuJ appai-ently to be lost 
like the United Provinces; Buliemia a fiercely Frote-;tant 
country, Lutherans and Caivinists persecuting each other; 
Austria more than half Protestant, Vienna the focus of the 
reformed doctrines, — ^thc nearest poasib'e escape of a Protestant 
dynasty. — the ' nevci'-conqncred king' apparently fated to bo the 
Alaric of Christian Rome; France, with a majority of Pro- 
testants, and a Protestant king; Switzerland, overrun with the 
new doctrines, and many of tliii Catholic cantons held ouly by 
the sword; Poland bidding fnir to be a Sociuian land; the 
Rhine provinces tottering in their ;dtegi!mce; Bavaria in auoU n 
condition that a Proteulaut dynasty woidd have carried the 
population with it,' Again, tlie Catholic Church forced to 
shelter itself in a few stray fortresses of Brazil, and depending 
for esiatence on the poor chance of an ett'etc and eshaustcd 
people like the Portuguese rolling back the overwhelming force 
of the young and vigorous Dutch republic. Lastly, Italy 
herself threatened, as on the north by Gu^tavus Oxeu^ticrna, 
80 on l.lie south by the Ottoman arms; the occupation of Sicily 
and Apulin at one period idmost a question of time. 

Now look at the end of that century. Belgium smd Bohemia 
have bccume the most Catholic c<>uutriea in Europe. Austria 
is perfectly secure, aud her Protestants in Sabkammergut arc 
dwindling daily. France has an enormous majority of professing 
Catholics, and a dynasty of the same faith. Sweden has sunk 
to a third-rate power, and the daughter of Rome's great enemy 
has become Rome's vassal. Bavaria has a majority of two to 
one, the Rhine provinces of three to two, for the Church. 
Poland is revindicated; the Duke of Lorraine has hurled the 
Turk from Eiu'ope, crushing him with the hammer-stroke of 
that one glorious campaign; the Swiss cantons, that remained 
faithful, are now secure ; and the contest in Brazil has ended 
in a manner to wbicli the world's history affords no parallel, 
Pallen and exhausted Portugal has expelled the entire strength 

' Tbl» U not, mid earelesBlj. Tlicrc arc Biiiiy Iwiti in Kii-'Ur's Bnrariti Saneta, 
whieliabow nhMi wAh tliouglilit Uiat timebv the best jodgcs; andiuaii}' mare la 
Drcxdliu's HttU wuiki^ eepetiitill; thoee dedlcsieil to hu patron', tho Elector sod 



of IIollaD^. Now, also, hundreds of misBionKriea nre tr a wafMBg 
the £iut aad Ethiopia ; Japan bids fair to become a flouri^n^ 
churcli ; the Manillas arc evangelised; nnd, besides the heralds 
»rf religion, tlic envoys of learniug go forth to Athos, to Mosul, 
to Nubia, to the Desert of Cells, to Etchmindzine, paving their 
wav with gold and silver, and eendin); buck caiiie1-1oad« o( 
ineiiliuiabic MSS, to the great Vatican Library. Wliat, too, 
shall we say of the Propaganda, and its complex machinery of 
missionary effort, of uneqiiiUled topography, of unrivalled 
criticism ? The Counter- Reformation, purchased by incalculable 
treasures of learning, labour, blood, money, yes, and holinesa 
too, is complete. The It^iman spirituality stauiU well and firm ; 
— that of the States of the Church, — how has t]»e change 
affected them ? 

How could it but affect them? How could taxes but increase? 
How could government officials, with diminished salaries, but 
Be«k to make up by conuived-at extortion for honest pay? 
And thus, while externally the arms of Rome were everywhere 
successful, her internal constitution saidi deeiier and deeper into 
corruption. Consider again how the returnis of the Emperor 
Joseph cut off another large source of revenue ; how the Frcneh 
Revolution, while it did not ruin, frightfully maimed and 
crippled; how the constitutions of Spain and Portugal, in con- 
Btcating the revenues of so mnny monasteries, closed so ninny 
wurccs of Rome's wealth ; how not a concordat was signed, but 
it left Rome poorer than it found her. From the time the 
Papscy rose from its miserable corruption, from that time, and 
pari poMU, the Papal kingdom began to fall into disorder. 

It is very easy to say, and no doubt many honest well- 
wishera to Rome have said ; Why shoidd not the Pope revert to 
bia primitive character, — divest himaelf of hia dominions, — 
be the Bishop that S. Silvester, or S. Leo, or S. Gregory was? 
Simply because the thing is impossible. Notice the especial 
providence which prevented the residence, after peace was given 
to the Church, of any emperor at Rome. In that age the 
cbair of S. Peter was always virtually independent, with the 
exception of one or two remarkable crises in the world's history. 
Such was the era of Charlemagne; and then, by a providence not 
less remarkable, kings were the nursing fathers, their queens the 
nursing mothers, of the Roman Churcli. See how for centuries, 
cinee the fall of Spain. France and Austria hnve balanced each 
utlier in the Vatican ; and thus it has preserved itself unfettered 
by either. But were one powerful State — say Imperial Franco 
— ever to stand in ihe same relation to Rome that Regal X*Vanoe 
did to Papal Avignon, we cannot express how feartul, to us, 
would be the bign. And the more so, the more affectionate, 
Uie more confiding, the more ttattcring were the atlitude of tUa 
so. ax. —s.a, q 


77ie Roman See and Saniinia. 

State. For it woald Ijc that terriljle precarsor of Antichrist, 
the World-power fluttering tlie Cliureli, tlie Benat aubmilting 
to be mounted hy the Woman ; and we all know in what that 
ends : how, no); lung after, it is said of the Woman, ' Come oat 
of tier. My People !' 

It ii«ed to be the fashion, with a particnlar set of English 
Chnrchmen, to anticipate the brightest results from the attitude 
assumed by Napoleon III. to the French Church. It would be 
well if those who entertained this view would study some of the 
Mcdiicvnl Commentaries on the RevehiHoo, Wo imagine 
thnt the not utinsiturid prejudices eicitt-d by modern writers on 
prophecy, have deterred even those students who have learnt to 
go for Scriptural Comraeutators to the Primitive and Middle 
Ages, from paying much attention to their treatises on the 
ApocaljTise. Wo can only say that they have a grievous loss. 
Nowhere does the humility, the love, the insight into spiritual 
things of those writers shine so brightly. And, at the present 
time, n very curious treatise might be written, comparing what 
some of them thonght would be, with what actually haa been, and 
with what seems taking place now. 

'Wlio are these commentators?' Hear, in the first place, 
■what one of them says, in defence of hia treatise : — 

' Ut igitnr tcrram istara ' — the Apocalypse — ' possideamut, 
' fidclium cxploratorum. qui mites fuernnt, exeniplum sequamur, 
' Dicendo contra immitcs hieretieos, huic terrie detraheutes, Terra 
' quum circumimiis viddc bona est. Ipsi dieunt, Terra qunm lua- 
' trnvimus devorut hahilatores sues, sed meutinutnr. Non enim 
' terra ista, terra Dei, devorat habitatorea suos ; sed suae ipsornra 
' ad invention es devorant sujierbos, sicut mnrmuratorum illorum 
' quosdam non ilia repromissionis terra quam non attigcrunt, sed 
' ipsa qntim calcabant terra devoravit ct deghitivit, aperta snb . 
' pedibus eorum. Proiude espcdit, ut (sicut dictum est) mites 
'animo simus, quieutique banc terrani, id est, banc Seriptnraro 

* ingredinmr, et ibi altiorem divinorum sensuum mnjestatcm 
'latere arbitramnr, ubi ndliuc minus iutclligimus. Sienimpro- 
' pitius fuerit Dominus, iutroducel noa in earn, et tradet humum 
'lactc ct melle nianaiitem, ut iiiveuiamiis latentes in ea divitias 

* salutis, thesaurus sapiential et intellectna, conailii et fortitii dints, 
' scientiEe et pictatis,el amoria Domini.' Few better eommentators 
are there than he who thus writes, — as indeed the passage itself 
might lead one to imagine, — Rupert of Deutz, who has left os 
twelve books, iu which lie goes through the Revelation, word by 
word. But hia quiet life led him tospeculate from it lesson the 
future of the Chui-cb as regards the political future of the world, 
lliaii did others, more mixed up with that world. Pierre d'Ailly, 
'the eagle of the Galilean Church,' has some must remarkable 

Tlie. Soman Bee and Sardinia. 


obscrvKtioiis on the temportil power of Rome in his trputise J)e 
Neceg»iUilc Rvji/rnuil Ionia Ecclcsmstu-fP. ^ ami especially where he 
consider) the qufiHtion, What will happen, if the C'liurch refiisc.t 
to reform herself ? His remarks on the Apncalypse would be reail 
with ijtieat profit by any one who is now especially intereaterl in 
watching the great Italian struggle, Aud ho seems to have 
felt this very strongly; thnt, of all things, it ia necessary for that 
Chureh wfaicli is opijoscil to n torrent of sci;pticism anil unbelief, 
to be very carefiJ in her nuthcuticiition of niiraclus and the 
like crentK. li' part of her cdifiee falls, liow eIiuU not the other 
menace ruin ? If a large portion of her doet.rlue must be nbau- 
cloned as taught only by superstition, and for gain, uliosc hands 
will not be weakened in defending that which is really of faith ? 
Now, considering the frightful torrent of infidelity rolling 
over Italy, all but openly professed in Sardinia, secretly eating 
its way into the very core of Ronnm, and into the upper classes 
of NfJi poll tan, society, what can be so heart- sickening as to see 
iniraelei^ pjirjided, aud boaated, and indulg^enced, which we know 
cannot be believed by those who set tbem furtli? OIi, what a 
millatone would be loosed from Iter neck, if Home could hut 
be persuaded quietly and calmly to drop the miracle of 
S. Januarius, and to discourage at tirat, till she could abolish, 
the pilgrimage to Loretto I It happened to the writer, some 
Weeks siuce. to be looking over the Dii-cctorium of the Diocese 
of Zara with n priest belonging to it. lu Dalmatia the First 
tratmlaliim uf (he liuly llinisc of iorcWo, natucly, froui Nazareth 
into that province, is celebrated with considerable pump. We 
had seen, iu eon versa tiuu, that our i'rieud was an earnest and 
intelligent man, and therefore ventured to ask, after apologizing 
for the hherty, 'Do yon really believe in that translation?' 
'Not in the least,' was bis instant reply. 'It is difficult to 
' prove a negative ; but as nearly as a negative can be proved, 
'this iu my opinion can.' 'Then do you not feel it painful 
' to say nn office for an event which you know never occurred? ' 
' Well ; Goo accepts the faith of the people, and they do believe 
'it. Besides, if we were to turn round and say— This tale, 
'which we have taught you for so many centuries, ia not true, 
' would they not proceed to doubt everything ? ' It is the state 
of mind which can so clearly see this, which can go on adding 
and adding to a rotten fouudiition, that sccms to us so very 
sad. Instead of accepting knuwle<ige as the gift of Qod, such a 
priest must struggle nguinst it, because, with education, scep- 
ticism must cunio in. The writer bopea he will not be 
blamed for adding, tliat, ofter that conversation, he could not 
bnt return thanks to (ion that though as a priest of the 
English Church ho might wi&h some ttuths moi-v phiinly and 

^pl 1%» Boman See and Sardima. 

boldly stftted, and same daubtfu) expresaiona explained in a 
Cntholic shape, slill he is not bonnd to teach his people that a 
miracle happened which he knows never to have bnppenod — 
that he is not engaged in that hapelesK, frtiitlvus task, of 
cndcavotiring to shut out the light of cducntioii, Icat it aliould 
ientjoy faiih. 

These remarks were an^geatcd hy the mention of Pierre 
d'Ailly's treatise : let us now go on. Again : one of those 
Commentaries which seem to hear most clearly on the prc-w-nt 
state of things is thnt of Ambrosias Anapertui. lie, too, Imth 
in that piirt where lie trcHts npon mystical Babylon, and where 
he speaks of the dragon on which the woman was seated, 
expresses himself in a way which would give great satisfaction 
at Exeter Hall, and in which thei-e i« much that any on« who 
has the real well-doing of Itonae at heart would advaiitiigentiKly 
lay to heart. To him, a»aiu, we would add that trr-ntise which 
i» ununlly asrribi^d to S, Thomas Aquiuiis; but his claim to 
which is at least very doubtful, the more probable author being 
a certain Thomas, called Wallensi?. Aud so once f^in, the 
so-called Comntentaries of S. Asselm, but which were in reality 
written by Hervsua of Dol, contain a frightful view of the 
way in which it la worldliness, actiug within the Church in the 
first place, and then the suhjcctiou of the Church for the sake 
of temporal power to the secular arm, which will bring about 
the great apcstnsy, uot from without her, but from within her. 
The Coiiimeutary of 8. Albcrtus Magnus, full of quotatiutia 
from, and references to, other parts of Scripture, and mar- 
vellously interesting, takes the same view. 

But of all the writers who are brought to one's mind by 
the ninny paiuful spectacles presented by the Roman system 
in the south of Europe, Agobard, Bishop of Lyons,— S, Ago- 
bard he is, uotwith^tauding the vigour, anil one might almost 
Bay coarscuess, of his nnimnd versions on the ecclesiastical 
abuses of his day, — stands first. For esample : we know not 
tliat there is any sight more utterly revolting to cumiiion 
senwc^riny more, to common feelings of propriety, — than to 
see the prepurntions for some great procession in one of those 
glorious siicristies of mediaeval cathedrals, liverything in the 
architecture so solemn, so stern, so breathing of the reality 
and eariiCBtueaM of l!ie days of S. Bernard or S. Ansclra ; the 
decoration of fresco aud stained glass, no less chastened than 
bcimtiful : and what is the purpose to which it is now turned? 
A great ugly wooden doll, perhaps nearly the size of bfe, is 
erected on a band-barrow in the middle; aud five or six priests 
are engaged in dressing it, not merely with the silk and brocade 
which it is to wear on the morrow, but with the under-clothing 

Tim Raman See awl SuTcHma. 


which it is to wear, and the wire wluch is to pad all tbii ont. 
6- Agobard, iu his worlt on images, inreigtis nginiiiiit Home RhiiKrs 
connected with them in a maiiuer which sliowx how, h:ul he, or 
uld he nt hia early period Imve seen anylhing hke lliis, ht: would 
have given the reitis to his indigo »linn, iinil denounced a sy.item 
wfaieh permitted decorations so half grotesque, half revoltinff. 
Yes; we repeat it: seeing the terrible struggle against infidelity 
which the Church in Italy will have to carry on, it is most 
depivsaing to see follies hke these tscked on to the defence 
of the faith, and exposing that most unrighteously to all the 
ridicule which might justly be directed agninst tliemselvcit. 
Indeed, that work, intemperate a:< its zeal m.ny fairly be conaidered, 
WM written itt a period when the present zeal for iraiige-veneralinn 
was only in the cradle; and more especially that worst feature 
of it, the cultua paid, not to the saint in all his images, hut to 
the image, the local image as distinguished from other injages, 
«f the saint. The writer heard a Protestant emissary at Turin 
dilating ou this subject, nnd that with a coarse common-sense 
power that evideutly told ; and as any attack on Austria is 
welcome to a Sardinian, he was especially bitter on the Austrian 
pilgrimage to Maria Zell. We felt at the time curious to know 
how one of tliose rough-and- I'eady friars, who rolled back the 
creeping Manichecism of the thirteenth century to Sonth 
l-'riince and to Bosnia, would have popularly answered him. 
Probably to so rude an auditory the assertion might have been 
hazarded that thus the Church had believed and acted fraui the 
beginning; and more than one story of some black itnngo of 
Apostohc times would hnve been employed toeleneh the argu- 
ment. But to au audience too well taught to he thnii impimed 
on, while yet iociipable of llie subtle urguiuenls by which a 
Jesuit would defend the system to cultivated minds, it does 
eeem difiicuit to imagine what a Koniau pi-eacher would reply. 
Undoubtedly the celeluiited pilgrimage-images, such as Maria 
Zeill, Maria lUlf, Maria Tiiferl, Our Lady of Einsicdleu. S. 
Aonc of Auray, arc, at the present moment, towers of strength 
to Rome. But why? Because they lie in the mid»t of an 

eenthu«iustically Catholic population. — Catholic to the \-ery 
'backbone,— asking no questions nnd harassed by no doiihta. 
But set Maria Zell down ten miles from Turin, and what would 
be the consequence then? What floods of ridicule, as open 
t» the State allowed, would the 'liberal' papers pour on tlie 
whole affair! how every frenli miracle would be sifted nnd 
weighed, and with what an iron arm would the government 
prc^-ent the publication of such ! And what will Loretto be, 
when the Legations are Sardinian ? Will not that become, 
instead of a gem in the diadem, a millstone about the neck, of 


^nieSomau See and Sardinia. 

Kome? Notice that in France, vhich once abounded in 
miraculous imajiea, they have, for the most part, been quietly 
pot rid of, and thiit without latxrating popular faith. S. Anna 
d'Aurity is oue of the most fiimous, but then it is in Brittanv. 
Th(! image which gave rise to this devotion was discoTcrcd 
in March, 1635, and the history of the establishment of the 
pilgrimiigc ia n very curious piece of ecolesinstical liistorv. The 
rector Hud curate' of Kc-rniitia proclaimed the discovery either 
a cheat or the work of an enthusiast: popular feeling rose so 
high against them that they were forced to implore episcopal 
protection. The Bishops of Valines and of Cornwall (so he 
of Quimper is called, from the tract of which it is the capital) 
disbelieved the prodigy, and would have put it down ; hut the 
Cupuchins of Auriiy took up the matter, over-rode priest and 
prelate, and made the pDgrimnge what it still remains, Thit 
is an example of the method in which these pilgrimages were, 
iu the first place, set on foot ; Htui when once CHlablished, they 
for a while become the sujiport, then the most fearful hindrances, 
of the Church which ssiuctions them. 

One of the most curious of these places ia S. Hubert, in 
the Ardennes. In the green solitudes of that anoieet forest, 
in the wildest part of Belgium, till lately far from, and still 
not touched by, any railway, is, as is well known, a celebrated 
pilgrimage for those bitten by mad dogs. The landlady of the 
iuu where llie writer slept had kept the house twelve years, 
and in that lime received li)7 patients. And there are many 
other inns iu the place. The cure is performed by the ofiera- 
tion of the taille. That is, the almoner of S. Hubert niake^ au 
ineiaion in the forehead of the patient, and then with a little 
pair of pincers a few threads from the stole of the saint are 
there inserted. He wears u black bondage round his head for 
niue days, and goes through a ^im-eiia in hucour of S. Hubert ; 
and is then out of danger. More tbau this ; he can give the 
Ttjnl, as it is called, to any persons bitten, which secures them 
forty days, in which time they may hope to reach the shiine 
themselves. This mode of trcatmcut is known to have been 
in use since 87W. And it is fair to say, that the cases of cure 
here ai-c very much more convincing than tlio*e of any other 
pilgrimage place with which we are acquainted ; and that we 
were toid by a celebrated physician of Brussels, who C!dled 
himself a/j-f('-(/i/n/i.e)-, and is, we fear, an infidel, that though be 
cared neither fur S. Hubert nor bis stole, he believed that some 
hereditai-y mode of treatment was handed down among the 

' Id BretAgne lie whom «u vail Lho citritl,f in tlie iiir/, iDftcAd vt, tui ia 
other pari* of France, tlio ficaire. Only tbe jir^mier vieaire, however, U Uiorc In 
loorc ilion oec, is so uallcd. 

The Roman See and Sardinia. 


uliDOuei's, nntl tliat he had never kuown it to fail. ]iroii!(ei|picar 

Delesselle, tlio pieaeiit liishop of Namiir, has followed his 

predccesBors ia authenticating the good effects of the noveiia of 

8. Hubert. But the celebrated Thit-rs, so well known, among 

Otlier works, for his treikli^c on Snjierstitioiis, hitd a pari^liiaucr 

bat Chauipronds who was bitten liy a mad dog, Thiers, uot much 

ilieving in the imvena, yet advised Lis pahsbiouer to go to S. 

[ubert. He went, received the tm'llc, performed the v/^venOf 

came back, and died miserably of hydrophobia. Thiers thea 

ivvstigatcd the subject at length, and the result, of course, 

viw a book, which he afterwards incorporated into his treatise 

>n Superiititions; and it is k terrible tboni in the side for the 

vorthy priests of S. Hnbcrt, wlio do tiituly believe in their own 

awer. Their adversary makes bitter mockery of some of their 

iles; nud certainly the following rules, during the fwvena, 

itc of abject superstition : — 

'3. The person who has received the Caill^: must sleep alone 
' iu clean and white sheets ; or must not undress, if the sheets 

• are not white. 

' 5. He may eat while or brown bread — the flesh of a male 

* pig above one year old— capons or pullets also more than a 
f * yea^— fish, if scaled — hard eggs ; but all must be eaten cold.' 

Wc have been led away by these pilgrimages from our imme- 

]intc subject; and shall return only to conclude. We have 

imply laid before the reader a few reinai-ks suggested to us 

jdnring a recent passage through continental Sardinia. Polities 

|*e have left to the newspapers: partisanship we have utterly 

" lid aside : we have merely set down on paper what, had our 

cader been our compauigu, we should have said to him. Of 

Naples wc have sutd nothing : the subject is utterly too painful, 

i. either on the monarchiciil side — which every one will allow ; or 

Ion the liberal, which is simply the infidel^a fact which has 

I vet fully to he acknowledged. But let the reader imagine 

I tiimself to have been listening to au English companiuu in the 

same carriage, while the train dawdled along over the fields of 

Magenta, — oh, how rank and green here and there the yonng 

wheat is I — from Rho to Novara, an hour's ride, and we shall 

have accomplished what wc iutended. 



' ConnODA AoBEY,* ftp. ftc. (Snundem, Otlcy, And Co,), is a religions t«V. 
mritlen in n revcrcnl, alTfctinRale tniie,wilh » lively interest, nliieh JHiriaiu- 
t)iiiii?d to the end. An Oxford under^frndiiale, the lieir of an »ueient 
Mlale, pnrl of nhicli coiMi^t* in coiitiHenlvd dxirch liitiils. lui iird«nt. 
tinnipnntive youth, is dmwn aivay In llnly, and bwome* o convurt. A 
deeper inai)!bt into tbe Koinun systeiii, itiid cunvitlion* of bi» sin ta 
dUobeyiug; hla fktlitir — tidings of iiIkisc dvnlh xcaeb him while sliU 
alirond — lend lo hia rnr.onversion. Hi» fnlher miffcra from ihe eonaciou!^ 
neH i>f tinving nlienate'l bit, srm'a nfTcctinns, nnd lost inftiiencc! with him, 
through vinnl orsympnlhy nnd roHcrve of mnniier. There Is n Jesuit, plot, 
hut the circiimslfttices of liic tnlc nlmic fire left to tell »ih«l is llionglit of 
tl.c ByEtem ; nnd toiicliiiii^ iiniiirni traits, nx « eli «8 n bigh order of mind, nro 
exhibiled in the I'bicf Jesuit. The nutb<ii''a opinions are eipressed In Ibe 
person of nn elderly clergyman, who seta ns maiilor lo the curate of a 
neighbouring parish, who gets into Irouble by bis clforts at Church 
revival: a good deal of driillery ciimiuguiit in tbc descriptions of paio- 
rhial maiii Ten tnl ions of bivb I'rolenlntit xen\. The opiniuni of tbe nieiilur 
are tliougbtful, birge, luid kiDdly-benrtcd, with n ducidcd preference for the 
Oaibolic (h'c are gind to see the trrm employed in its right jcine, p. 237) 
principtca of the Chiiceh of Kiiglnlid, and yet great cinsidi-rnlion for tbono 
who ennnot appreciate them. The coulrii»t to the young lUiman convert 
in .ihown in a friend nud seboolfellow, whose Kiinplicity, alTi>ctianntenet>, 
and practical strHl^hl fur ward diitifulncM^thc fruits of a religious mother's 
training — exhibit the aiithors view of tlio true tOBO of mind to foster iu 
children. The tale wemH mnioly intended for the Instruction of the youi^ ; 
but children otii hardly fail to derive beucflt fruiu the feelings and sentiments 
cipressed. Mauy vAliinble and udil'yiiig pnaisages will be found itcjiltered 
here and there. Tbe liillouiiig one, though rather lung, we venture to 
quote in full, as it Boems to us to eoiitain n »pccinlly useful line of ibuughl, 
linppdy *]ipreBscd ; — 

' Huw many minds, and those cf a high caste, are tike this father and 
' soil ! I'rufcising deep feelings nnd high aspiratiuun ; capable of under- 
' standing encli other if they were not severed hy a reserve, the tendency 
' of which is la elose up nil iho atTectionH and tincr feelings ; dvielling in 
' spheres of their own, and deprived of tbe light and ivarmlh obtaiued by n 
' ennlaet with others, theie sympathies lose the power of growth. If not of 
' life. Whence arises this reserve, so blighting iu its effectsT Is it not 
■ flroni mistttlting pride for deUcncy ! or, at best, is not that delicacy morbid 
' that shrinks from any touch that fails to respond in perfect nnixna 
' «ith itself! Mr. Trcsilinn nnd his son woxdd each have rejoiced if the 
' otber bad opened bis hcnrt : hut ncitlter coidd suiiimon np courage to 
' break the ice. Many painfnl feelings conspired to distreviH Mr. Tresiliau's 
'mind: there was not only the teuacity of an til J penun la blti own cui> 




' lictioiiti, but tburo nrns nlsu Uie natural and right reding thitt his ojiiiiion 
' simply AD tlinl of ihc: fntlicr, iiught tuliave wei^'bt u-itli Ib« aoa. Bemdes, 

■ ibcrc! TTis A feeling, or rather, ■ net of fcrliugs, nt work in bin mind, 
' equally Iryiiig iind coinitioii to mniiy in these diiys, nrlsing from it rortnlii 
' bind of BjtprirhvusiTeuesB bf ihe younger gencrittion being iu iLclvniici! of 
' tbemaelves. Sudi persoue. forgetful, perliaps, that tliey were rqiinlly 
' in udvuncu of their pri^ilecussurB. and having a just sense of thir vrild 
'or viiiioiiary cxt.ravngnnce willi which the young are frequeulty carried 
' ftwny, lire loo apt to look siiaptciiiuaiy, or at lanat coliilj, npon Iheir Kcal, 
' tnxtcad of admitting it as tJie continuation of a progrcxa uhivb hns in it 
' clKrocnts of real good — good which, if jlidiciously rheriabed, might grow 
'•ip and choke the evil. Tho young are, on the other hand, snrc In 

* oveivMtiinate this «lumeut of good which Ibey are eouecioiDi exists within 
' ihein ; tbuy itre cuinnionly IMe disposed tii yield Uieir opinions to the 
' wJMiuin and ttxpericnci; ofnge; and this indispositiou is certain to retanl 
' tliuir advance, if it does not prcdpitnte them into error, liumility, that 

* lint and, perhaps, rarest of all Christian graces, iii probably the one intiBl 

■ nccdwl on botli Bides, &c.* (Pp. 131, 135.) 

Wilb H good dvnl of tnlcul, the nulhor is evldeully jij experienced in 
writing. Several limits will readily be iti8c<>riied ; e-g., there is something 
forced and far-fetched in the infiiicnce of the old disciple of IMix Ni'ff on 
the return home of the heir of Corrodn, ihongh the incident is perfectly 
'doKcrihml, and gives occasion for the oppression of the real moral of 
tbe talc ; viK,, ' upon our taking or resisting the appulnlmeul^ of God 
dtpeode the upivard or doivnivnrd of life.' 

We think the author is right in not entering into tbe feelings of either 
the retnrnRd convert or his friend, who at last meet happily with more than 
the renlixAtion of bia early dreams iu the reatoration of the Abbey lauds to 
thti Chnrcb. 

To those wishing to possess in the French language a brief and at the 
same time a substantial and eoinprelienBive account of the great revolution 
of I7S0, we can rordially reconitnend Barrau's ' Ilistoire do la KLWulutiou 
Franpawe, 1789-1799,' a duodecimo of some 54i> pages, luid publislied by 
Hochelle of pari*. The siyle of the uarrnlivc i» clear, rigorcnis, and 
flowing, tbe facta are correctly and impartially given and admimhly 
amnged, and the antbnr's prinoipios ejiccllent. Geuorally speaking, 
M. BotTAii eoiitenls himself nilb recording ibe salient facts connected ivith 
that important epoch ; but when he docs indulge in rcllections, tbey always 
(cnn to as remarkably judicious and to the point, 

Oiir readers art acquainted with the summary mRTinec in which the 
Imperial (iovrrnmcnt put a atop, some months ago, t» the French services 
ntnhlished by Mr. Archer Gnrncy in tiis cbapel in the Rue Madeleine, 
Mr. Gumey bas collected into one volume four sermons preached in that 
ehap»l, and publlshMl litem uuder the title of ' Sermons Anglicans pro* 
ttnncfs en cbalre" (Paris: Deniu). What wc have said of M. Barrnu'* 
political principlea, nc may also safely predicate of Mr. Gurney's theo- 
logical URcs, as exhibited in tbe volume before us: «c only regret we 
atnnot Mcord to Mr. Gnrney the Bartie meed of praise as regards bis style. 
KO. ClX. — N. 9. a 



Wo are fcr from tvinliine to deptcdnte Mr. Gurney's laboura among our 
feUow-counUrymen in Vatm, or lo nndprmlti ilie iniporlauM of tlie object 
be hud in view in iliv cdcbrntioii at' Fcetich servicus uiid the delivery of 
Freiioh Burinoiis, but vie very niiic!i iloiibt ibc cxpudicncy of givinj; to thR 
world the ' !>erroo[ia Aiiglicnua ' in iheir present xhapi?. It cita hnrdiy be 
expeclod ibtLl Mr. Gurncy slionid write French like M. Barrnu; indeed. 
Mr. Gtirucy hinuulf iii'k.tiuwledge8 (bat lie jg but imperlecily ncitnAinicd 
nilh that Inn^nuige; an apprecintion in nhiuh, jndgitig from tbo specimens 
hef'ciri: us, wu I've) divpoiaed tu concur. 'Bat why tben publish V We have 
not, it i« true, nuliccd many Mi:tual grnnimnticid blunders iu tlio ' SerraonB 
Anglicnils ;' hut tben, fa nwaachir, ibcy nhouud in runny loose, disjointed, 
badly .contrasted p1ira8i?s, awkward lours, grotesque locutions, alrangc 
eolccimns, iucuugruous inm^^es, ill-arranged Bi-iitences, and irivinl or obscure 
foriiis ol eipreasiou, del'iicta of which llm Frcncb nre peculiarly tulolerant. 
Neither dou-i Mr. Guruey always pay inuth heed to iho important prin- 
ciple hud down by Malbcrbc, an<l for which he ii eulogized by Boileau, 
nha says thnt he first 

' U'un mot oils k sa place enaeigna le poavoir.* 

In illuBtration of onr criticisms, we had marked such instances of incorrect 
or inelegant composition ns we had stumbled upon in the two or three first 
piigea of the work, for the purpose of laying Ihem before our readers ; but 
the specimens are so niimorouB, anil would otcupy so much space, that we 
must refrain from giving them. It has been stated that these sermons 
were admired, viewed as mere conipositiuus, by some of those tbat board 
them, and wbo were qualified to judg;e. It mny be so i but all wo can say 
ia, tbat they do not rt!iiil well, and that though, if literally translated iuto 
our language, they would make escpUent English, they are very excup* 
ticinnblc French. Some of our author's thoughts arc very good, and hia 
orthodoiy is unimpeachable, but he lacks one important requisite — 

' Sana la Intigue, en un mot, I'anteur le plus divin, 
I^st toujours, quoiqu'il faase, un mechant £crivain.' 

On the whole, we cannot but regard the present publication as a, somewhat 
adventurous procci-ding on the part of our author ; and should the 
' Sermons Anglicans ' fall iuto the hands of an Ultrnmontnnist critic, wo 
foar they would not receive bettor treatment than Mr. Gurney's French 
services themselves have experienced at the hands of the Imperioi 

We announac with pleasure another French puhlicatioD of the Anglo- 
Continentnl Society, ' Des Prindpes de la RiSformation en Angleletrti ' 
(J. H. and J. Parker), tvhich appears to us an important addition to the 
nlrendy very valuable aeries. The present work, compiled «iid edited 
by I>r. Godfray, eousista ofa traiialation of the Bishop of OxJ'ord's uerinoit 
on the ■ Pi'incqdua of the llnglish Reform ation," and of exlrncta from tbo 
writings of some twcnty^ight theologians of the present time — including 
the bishops of S. Andrew's, Lincoln, Tnsmanin, Frcdcricton, and Monireal, 
Uenn Hook, Mr. Gladstone, Drs. Wordsworth, Moberley, J. A. Heaauy, 
Symonii, nnd PuNcy, the Uto Professor Blunt, Chancellor HarriuKton, 




the Reva. F. Mejrick. W, Polmer, P. Freeman, W, E, Scud&more, H. 
Sounea, W. Ore^Iey, Sec. : bc^nrinjc upon, nnd illuatrnliu^, and enrurdni; iho 
Mine principluB. Ito%ides ghnwing what the true principle* of the FJigliah 
Itr formal ion Jire, the extritcts raiij^ over a vnriely of imporlmit coUfttcrttl 
topirs, dirci^tly or inilirectiy coiiuevt«d wilh the Rerormttioii ; 8ucL as the 
indcpcnilt^ncR of the luinicnt Brilwli Church, thit office of CntlioliL- tradition 
in tlie interprnlntion of Scriptuca, the Paiinl suprtnuity, the true CMuae of 
ifae BepBTfttion bntweeo tbc Cbnri'hes of £ug1and and Itiimc, tbu diictrino of 
Uie8MTAinRiit«nnd thcCntkiilicfnithgcDi,'rally, and the tnic ponilion of our 
Ctarch aa it stnods dislingniBhtid front nil Pnpnl nnd Pimtnn innovation*. 
Tlie extrautH ajipear well chosno, nnd nre systeranticaUy nrraiig;cd ; ihnjr 
bilre Ijvcn iiindL', a« will hnve been obsened, from ihe nriliiigs of 
contcmpornneoui thi-okigiaus, without refurenca to auy purtitular school 
or party; and it »eani« lo us there is scarcely an argument or ntcuiintion 
brougfat forward against the English Relbrinaliou and the pnitinuu na- 
suiD«d by our Church, nhicli is not directly met and aucccsiirully refuted in 
llnss pitges. The different trnnslatiuns scctn to cnmbinn great fiduiily and 
oleguice— ft by no menns easy achievement, ns our readers konn ; and, 
ia fhct, the whole reads more like an original French irork than ». trsnsla- 
tion 6«<ro the Kuglish. Wo perceive, from Dr. Oodfray's prefncc, thai it I> 
intended, nt xonie future period, to publiiik a eoinpauiou volume to the 
prctont onc,canai9ting of passages ou the same subject from the H'riliiiica of 
tbc principal Anglicin theologians from the Rerurmatinn In the preKeiit 
period. There is scarcely a subject upon which mor« mia understanding, 
ifpiorance, and misrepreaeutntion prevail througbuut the Continent than 
tJint of the English Reformation, and such works ni the present one are 
veil calculated to remove ibc prcposseagiona of foreigners, nud give them 
truer and mote enlarged vietrs than thej' pogsesa npoa that imporlunt 

'Etghleeu Sermous ou Easier Subjects' (Masters), by the Rev. W. P. S. 
Bingham, refleet ui an cany ntyte, and with many luuthus of poetic feelintr, 
tbc leaching which has in lo many ivayii been driven forth for us of 
Inle yearn, specialty by Mr. Uoitc Williatnann, from tbc pntristic fount of 
theology. We have not read, for a long time, more readable sermons. 

The Rev. Edgnr N. Dumbleton, of Chiselhnrst, has proved himself com* 
pelMit to n task which very few hnve succeeded in hitherto: that of 
writing to the purpose, in the shape of ' Seriuona on the Daily Services ' 
(J. H. Parker). I'his little volume, \vhiie it bespeaks htm an apt disciple 
of our latest ritual vriLurs, abounds also in vigumun thought, and original 
M well as thoroughly devotional handling of his mbjecl. We can 
conmend it very highly. 

The most important book of the quarter seems to be the ' Dictionary of 
the Bible.' edited by Dr. W. Snuth (Murray). .Althnngh nine-tcntbs of Ihe 
contributors to this new C«lmet are English Clergymen, it i» some reproach 
lo us that they man'h under the flag of a captain who in, wo believe, a 
Dissenting preacher. The pnblicfttion, as must be the cnse with a literary 
pio-nic, exhibits dishes of various, and occasionally doubtful, ingredients, auil 
of cookery not always the most succcxsfut. But on tbo whole kc can 



a*j that, pvea the plnn — and Buch n work can ouly be executed on the 
)>rinciplo of itrpnrnte eirntributors — it is i> higTi vuiiircmi. UnduublcUly tli« 
(irinciplu of excluding points of doubtfii] intRrprctntioa nnd mnttcni 
iiivolt ii)g ibvolugiual cuutroicrBy ia n correct one ; only it Iftboiira iuiiJct 
thn IcxBTF liillicully ti( being altogether unatlnlntible. it is not ntlAined in 
llio prcient vnluiiic, brtnuse it is iniposaible to carry it out; but n« 
arc g'nd to observe tlint there in so little which is renily obj».'tiunHhle, nnd 
SO miicb nliieb is positivclj' eommenikblc. In the gDU^mpbical nni! 
tnpogrnpbicitl licpnrlmciit, infominlioti is hroiigbt donn to the latest 
Huthoritios: nndna tbc bookcnnnot but be n stniiditi'd, we can cnngratnlfttR 
bulb the pubtisVier a>id contributors uu ihu first iusldlmeot of n n-orfc 
highly credilHble, on the wliule, to nil pnriics concerned iii ita production, 

Mr. J. H. Tntker hnn jiisl, publiihed two volumes completing the morlt 
of Mr, HcAiitl'H piibliention on ' Ancient Armour.' It i.t one of 
tbc [DOeI completely illiiHtralcd wirks which ne have received from a 
presH prolific in such publicutious : nnd Mr. ilevritt has filled np a gap in 
Engliab Archteologiciil bter»ture. TUv ntiod-culs exhibit out only great 
renearch, and of course entire Mccuracy, but great mcchnnical perfection. 

The indefatigable Edinburgh piibli^Iicrs, Metiers, Clark, irbn have really 
done great service by publisliing tbe boat of specimens of what is perbapx 
imrortunBlcly often clsssed eoniemptuouBlj together as German theology, 
have completed the ditliise but useful work of Suer's, ' Words of out Lord 
JesHu,' and an edition of Ben^l'e ' Onouiou.' 

It Is somewbat Ute to acknowledge it, but Sir Emnrson Tennent's 
' Ceylon ' (Longmnn) is, in our judgment, an ailmirnhle a mnnogrnph as 
our literature posnesaes. Its wcU-deaerved popularity is the least among 
ilK recommend ntton*. 

We can only reiterate a recommendation which we have often urged to 
the clet^y to assiat the Marriage Law Defence Association. Wo may as 
well say distinctly, that wlicn our opponcnli have ftinds at will, the 
tlefeiiders of the truth arc lilernlly bankrupt. That the nssaull on the 
existing law haa been averted is, we believe, mainly dnc to the existence of 
tbe Associution: bnt in this, as In too many other matters, a ftw indi- 
viduals arc left to bear all tlic expeiiBc and trouble of opposition i and 
when nt Inst that opposition to iunovaliou i^ broken doirn, ihey have also 
to incur the charge of inactivity from tiiose who during the struggle never 
helped either by iLeir assistJince in money or Jiympathy, 

The ' Declaration by the Ten Thousand Clergy against Lord Ebury's 
Motion,' tvbicti wun so ignominionsly defeated, has bceu published by 
Bell and Ualdy, nnd ought to he preserved by all who are interested in a 
question which is sure to be renewed. 


An accident has at the la»t mamriit pnstponnt an article on tJte Ox^yri 
' Eaiapg and KevKva ' (J. W. I'aTker)t vihkk U alrtady in type. 



OCTOBER, 1860. 

Art. I.— I. The Aihenaum, Not,. 1705, 170B, 1707. 

2. Hrittgh Atsociation for the Aihancemmf of Sritmce. Tliirtieth 
Meeti/iff, I860. Journal of S,'£tionnl Pror.fedinqg from BW- 
»e»day, June 27(A, to WedneMlay, July 4th. Piint«il iitider 
the BHperlnteiideiico of tlie Ass'ialuut Ociieinl Secretary. Ily 

.Jauks Wbiout, Oxford. 

3. A Sermon preached hnfnre tJie V/nvernttf of O^rd, on Ant 
fimdmj, Jult) \at, l8(iQ. By the Rev. F. Xbmple, D,D. 
O.\iord : J. H. aud H. Parker. 

l^E late ni«eting nf the British Association for the Advnnce- 
mcnt of Science nt the UnivcrBity oi' Oxfurd is, ]iorh:ii)a, an epoch 
of nolc in tbc history of both thtiae bodies — the one erriiiil, the 
other fixod. In one aeiise every meeting of euch a chiiracler 
ought to bo of higher interest than any which preceded it ; 
siDce every discovery in knowledge mnkes fnrther dicteoveriea 
more easy ; each miglity flh-ide evokeil by science cariiea n glaas, 
like rhc Hpcctve king in the play, ' which shows us many nior«.' 
Bill there is just now sometluDjj more to be noteil tlmu the law 
of pi-o^csfl, by which new theories stinuilnle the registry of 
fiicts, and from which ayain siart more tlnrories, as we claim 
for this meeting: a superior interest to nny which has gone 
before. When any question has cangth the tninds of thinJiing 
and Rctenlific men which bn* a Hue of intersection or a point of 
contnct with the cnirltual conviction,'" or rclii;iiiU9 iiiatincli" of 
the greater mass aliVc of thinkers and thougblles-, there 'iiriaca 
no small stir about that' 'Hicstion, even as when tbc duclrlne" of 
the Riwurrcction of tbc Bi«ly first impinged upon the Greek 
intellect. fn»liintly there sets in ii vtning <b'au^ht Upon the 
Rame wbich ^nch ineetinga as thnae of the Assncmtion kindle. 
Now, tho*e convictions or instincts have been Uitely stirred, 
perhaps ruffled, by the theory of the nature-world to whicli 
ibos^c views known generally ns ' Darwinian," nre pr«snmed to 
tend. Wbvlber tbut tendencr is legitimately ascribed to thotie 
DO. ex. — ».»: s 


Oxford BfitiHh Afumation Discu*»iok8, 

view* is not, for tlio moiiivnt, uur |>oint, but lli« fact of its 
8ul)jt!ctivc existence Iia» given u ke^a thrill of human intercut 
to epeculattona conversant originally with the briite-wotld of 
matter and the infra>buoian itutiucts which guide its udiidbI 

Viewed with regard t" «iiy immediiite reBuIle we might bo 
inclined to ihiiik that llieae meeting*, sind this one in [larticuinr, 
ecom to priimiec more thnn ibcy could jterforiu. Nit)-, in one 
HCnsc, their vahic ie in the iTiveree rutio to their intermit at tlie 
moment. That nliich becmiies of permanent value — and 
Miencc knows no measure of n value which h not pcrmancDt 
• — doea 80 by leiiving our inlcllcft. ciirifhcd by mnnc iitieorliiiiied 
coucluaiuD. It is not the n»c imd aiiddeu nvcrafireiidiag ol' ibe 
watera of intellect, hut tiie ft-rtiiiKing eedimt^nt wliicli they be- 
queath which conveys a Irk-ling treasure. 

NoW| let us suppose an uniutipped nnd uufathoinod chaos of 
phenoiiivua waiting lo be »ysteiiintized. The kcciiewt intcriwt 
capable of being ao excited lied not in the mere fact of (heir 
novelty or of their trulii, but in the prucess uf ailjuating tli^m 
to the other received jind settled truths) on wliich the mind 
habitually repoi^es. Are we thrown into a ci>nBcii>u« Htiitu of 
conflict by their chdma fur admi^pton? The parting with any- 
thing f&U)iliar for the sake of what la strange, is a proceaa 
|)iiinful in proportion to thedcplh and cHrnc&tucss of our nature. 
' Who will ehango old lain|>« for new ? '^the que»tii>n nt ttio 
disguised magician in the EaHtcru I'uiiy tale — ia often repented 
now-a-days. ' The desire to cleai' up the relation between fnitli 
'nnd ficienec is tilmu»t univei-sal in iho^e who devote themselves 
' to Bcientilic investigation.' Dr. Temple h pcrhftpi- ripht. And 
there seem to arise two oppiwllc dangers from llio eall thus oflcn 
made, that of cither shutting ourselves obstinately up.-igain^t the 
light to avoid the trouble of adjudicating on the claims of wluit id 
new, and that of a loose way of viewing all claims as |>erliaiJt( to 
a cerluln extent recognisable, but ut the same lime paying real 
homnge to no truth whatever. Perhaps the prueet<.t ol" inward 
recantation often repeated, of adherence earelcss^ly given in and 
withdrawn, cannot be cjirricd on without limit in the same 
individual wiihout im[)ninng the moral sensitiveness. When, 
bovrcver, a broad sweep at a current belief is made, there will 
always be many on whom the call to suiTender what is old ie 
made for the first time, anir to whom it comes with a fresh and 
acute sensation. Of cnui-sc, also, the question will needs occur, 
— not so often, however, to the veiulor of the new lam|i as to 
tlie proprietor of the old, — can we not possess io(/(, retaiiiin*' 
the old ami acquiring the new ? Can we not reconcile the 
cUinis which, oa abruj)tly cuuaciiilcd, leave a sense of hopeIe»» 

0* nilattd to ^{ritual Questions. 




otaeh ? Bat whether the iaane be one of protracted disconl, or 
of balanced coiiipromige, or of union and accord, n process hna 
iilways to be j^onc ibrmijih of intense interi'i«t to the Heckeritfler 
truth, Knd wliicli, to tlm Chri^tlim, who i'mvX* tiiiit thv result to 
hia own mind is not the whole thing to be considered, is 
enhanced by hie pmfounder aense of higher and unseen reidiliea. 
Thin is mcri'ly ii new application of tfie old mnxim i-eaaiding 
things which slir iim actively, nnd thiuc wliicli cxciie only 
p&4Hive, however profonnd, inipresaions. It is not, th<'n, llie 
fixed and ascertained truth, however great, its permanent value, 
which give* thvir peculiar interest to ttiese and similar ' in- 
nthering*,' at Biii^h * fciula ' tis those wc hiivo seen liitely cele- 
brated, becMise the truth, as such, however profound, imtj- ho 
pa»«ivc1y rec^ved. It is their relation to a generally pre- 
vailing mental condition at the time; it is the degree in which 
thi! i>);^rei*ciivc eliiirnctcr prcd<)ni>unb;s in jirnpoundcd theories 
that uiakea tlieir interest huoyant.. even as things will bo borne 
along by a torrent which would sink io a. lalie. 

And in this iL^pect the loctility of this yeiir's meeting bears a 
tjpical cluinioter, reflective of this very condition of interest. 
Tlie ver)' site and scene of this stj-njrgle between the pi'0|)Ounded 
novelty and the trcEianrod antiquity was that city, wliictt. of all 
cxt8tin<; sifr^TS"'*'^ "' mind »,ni iruitter, in the fittest repro- 
Ncnlutive of It piutt living iin in liie pnwnt which hu.'t [frown out 
of it, not been founded on its ruin. Ilto ' schools' seemed to 
be thcniE«ivea in a state of siege, tyjjified by the position taken 
up by a large piece of ordnance, %v)iieti Cuptaiu Uhikeslcy had 
imgiorted thither, in the middle of llidr frowning * quadri- 
hiteral;' or rather, the fatal horse had been, in the form of 
sections I) and B, received witliin the ivalle; nud tlio eeneation, 
unfoundod, let us hope, 

* — - - fuiniua Trots, Tuit lUon el Ingeiis 
(lloria Teuctorum.' 

sc«tned uppermost in the niindo of some of the garrison. Ad' 
mitting that the prime iutcreRt of their mvi^ting lay in mlj»*ting 
the relation between the old and the new, the Association Lad 
certainly choecn rcnresentative ground. 

M'c say that sucli nieclings, however, ii« a general rtde, MCm 
to promise more Uinn (hey perform. 'Tliey draw out theantago- 
nt»iu of the question iu a. giersonal form by virtue of the presence 
and tJio living words of thinkers and speakers ; unfortunately it 
does not often happen that the thinkers sneak or the speakers 
tldnk. Here \* the grciit difficulty. With great redpcel for 
the names, many of tliein of the highest euiinenee, of tho^ who 
took leading parla in the proceedings, it is difficult in a moment 

8 i 


Oj^ot^ Britialt A»»oclat\oK IHscusmiu, 

to pass from the profoand to the popular. 'Men who onjoy an 
KUalence caonot easily refrnin from yiclilin;; to tlic :>yiiipnthj 

fhich ile 

besets in tlr 

'I'hiTy iiri: lu<l rulhur by (he 

UDCoiiKciotia titct uf the ornlur Oiiin by any design «t' the 
ai>phi»t, to appeal Lo ic«linga wliicli lliej know are salient a»d 
lively, to finger some chord which Utey feci will Tibrntv. 
Thiis the coiiclumott which th«y cvtiibHuh niny be true, but U 
not cstnblii-hcd by ii worthy proof; ilicy do mil place it on its 
inie gi-»unU» ; ibey do not give such argunienlfl as the subject 
admite ot niid denianLla, but auch n^i the hearers then and there 
arc capable of nppreciatiDg. The henrere are uot tit their 
bighcHt pitch of reflective power; they come to the room 
excited, and their cxeitcnicnt rises with dejjate. Many of 
llicm, perliajui the majority, «re capable of dlitingaishing 
between what they have heai-d and accepted thua iu public and 
in a mixed assembly, and what approve? itself to their resettled 
miuds in suber and solitary nftortliuiight. Where the ipiestton 
ia priictical, e.</. where public ineiisurea have to be token by a 
public body, the evil is inherent ia the nature of thinga, though 
there it has many valuable forms of reaction againat other evils ; 
but where tlie question can only opernte on practice through 
Bome other theory or dogrnn, wliirli, tf nflirnied, it mu«t dis- 
credit, itii silling sl)0uld be purely intellect tial, and the ineru 
loose shnke which can be given it even in section D does not 
further t\th. Indeed it ia idle to think that any settlement of 
it can be mwle, or any reiU step towards such settlement taken, 
in ft room pnckcd, eveu at Oxford, by a mujority ut tvrcntj 
ahillinga a head. 

Yet though this is enough to show the inc(>nclu«ive charaoter 
of discussions on the broad and popular side, where the nrgti- 
menlf which command the greatest weight of iiBsent arc ulwnya 
the lea^t pruluund and the most plausible, yet there is not 
wanting a wholc>iome sprinkhug of intellects really trained in 
the subject-matter under debate, and a lar^o supply of that most 
valuable power in a mixed audience, that ol niiudi; of high 
general culture, and wide iufonuation on various EuTijectv, aMc 
often wisely to suspect, even where they cannot venture to 
affirm or deny, and on the basis of trained common sense, cor- 
rective of the extravagancies of theorists antl proles* ion als. 
To the picked pioneers of scientific ob»cr\'alion, hnwevcr, sucli 
meetings probably nfliird higher gratificaliim lliiin anything 
which the world of mind or even matter to tliem could 
furnish. No rock-tapping solitary, the ' Old llortality ' of 
extinct races, can enjoy, from the unlocking of the rock's 
hidden treasures, the reconstiiution of a skeleton, or the com- 
pletion of a species, such delight as in reading to the collected 

09 related U> Sprntual Qaenticnw. 


representatives of the world of mvam tlie paper which records 
«nd (lilTuBes the tr(Lvail of hia liaramcr and the toil of his brain. 
Mtn of the first mnrk in every wnlk of theoretic, tlioiif-ht mii«t 
have (ht'ir conijieers. Ilidilcu elrcums emerge muliiuliy to 
light, nnd join. Tho^e wlio have been tu each otbor but the 
nominis umbra projeeted by fame across the ocean, nuiy now 
nitft face to fnce as'^syropathising friends or antngomst* of 
pron-c«s Jind renown. And, certainly, apart from any other 
reaultd of this iDlvllectunl toiirnameDt, in tvliich the jjnas is held 
by Huecessive flcientific ml venturers ngivinst all comers, the keen 
stmngc iileasure which gladdens the hearts of these brethren of 
the Bcntlercd order of thought, is in itself worth no small price 
AS a aiimulHnt to exertion and n renan! of activity. The 
intereai.* of sciem-c assert Ilieir ' suHdarity.' A man who haa 
vrmtglit in some retired cell of the comb feels that he cannot 

I)cri«b unknown ; and this thoun;ht of itself sustains a weight of 
nbour, nnd prompts to efforts tnat would not else have scenied 
worth while. 

On the whole, so far ns the proceedings of the Assoclatioa 
have yet been piibli^hei], or as individual attest at iima can enable 
us to decide such a quealion, there does not seem to be much 
mere whinpiug-of tops or rUin" of hobbies — not much of what 
is mere frivolous and superficial guessing, or of what ia merely 
the forging anew of some niiti'juated crotchet, interesting only 
to the prop«Mi!ider. The cuiitributions, whatever their relative 
value, have been G:enuino of their kind, and appear to be the 
fruiti of a love for the special eiibject and leiaure to follow it. 
The difficulty on the part of the sectional comniitteca must 
have,moiitly taken the form of the question, how to get rid of 
!lic abandanoe of contributions which encumbered their time 
nnd eiiibarrasised their choice, without giving needless olfeuce to 
the ariK-nt volunteers who oilcred them. 

At the same time there is one remark which wc think appli- 
cable to all such rvrsi^ardi ; and that is, that no lover of truth ia 
ever retarded in his pursuit of it from reverence of mind. Bevc- 
renoe is a humility in expresaiona which relate to superhuman 
persons or things, a mental attitude of deference for such 
wisdom as exists in the world, but not of it ; wisdom from some 
higher source than the mind of the inquirer. No one could, 
•avc on the assumption that there is not in the universe which 
ho. studies anything grander, nobler, or loftier, whether niorully 
or intellectualiy, than himsvlf, be justified iu irreverence. 

'Lft knowledge grow from more to more, 1 
But nivrc uf rcvft«iirc in uk difcil; 
1 tut mind nnd Rnul, nccordinf; a«U, 
May make uao music ax bclure.' 


jxfvrJ Brttiak Asaoeiatvm Ducuaetona, 

The (]ue«tiaii may of cuursc alvrK}*:) bu m!9«d v,-lictlicr dcrcrcnoc 
be duo to nny i!)>vciiil <lit:tiiin, or liow fur reverence lun be 
cUinutd for liiia ur llint auUiorily. But even a bare DeUt abould 
revere Go<l in His works, — nay, a Deist might bo fairly ex- 
pected xti be more <IcTotiona1ly moved at> be contemplates tUeut 
than a Christinn ; for 10 the Uuiat Uiere \» ootliinfr ;ircHt(-r, ns a 

froof of Wi»daiu und Goodness, than the mere m^/^ of creation, 
leuce, the devolional feelings, eo fiir as they an: 4-ji|uible of 
being excited in himi arc not, as in the case of a Christian, to 
nny extent prc-occ^upicd by the gruntei' marvels of Wisdom iind 
Ooo(lHca« which lievelalion iinfolits. Bovond t)iis even taking 
the of the euperstitioue reverence ol olliers for timt whic^ 
has no awe for us, there ii<, firstly, the question how fur they 
may pos.'i'ibly be righl, and wc may pusNihly be wrong ; scoondly, 
Uie rjni-atioii whdtiii'r there h<i not soinc^ higher truth held in com- 
nioH by lnuli, tiiouj^h superstitiouely by them, whidi mny be com- 
promised by an irreverent dealing even with tliat whieb is purely 
«uper9l>lioii«. An example of this often occurs in the mo«Ies of 
8i>eecb which many of divers Protestant coinuxinions allow them- 
selves with regard to tlie Virgin Mary. Thu-dlv, bf*idce tlie ques- 
tion a« robitcs to truth, there is to be considered the habit of 
mini) which tlic exercioe of rcverentiid feeling engenders, iitid tlic 
oj>pitsite one produced by the exercise yf its opposite. No one, 
surely, need be afraid of reverence where ihe most awful cjue*- 
tions which can stir human thouffht arc either nnder debate, or 
by implication involved — tJioae, viat., wbicb rekle to man's own 
nnrure, or to the Divine. And yet here it is possible so to con- 
duct research, or to manage controver^ty, ns to gradually wean 
one's own mind from all rcverentijd habit. Fourthly, as rogarxHJ 
liie issue of nny piirtieuhir diepule to the persons concerned) 
there is the (jucstion whether »uoh i^ prejudice may not be 
inspired by irreverent handling as very much to retard the pro- 
cess of conviction, and to quicken the growth of partisanvliip 
and personal animosity. The last consideration belongs, indeoi^ 
rather to the courlesiea of controversy ; and, wherever it \a 
conducted in a well-bred spirit, to waive the higher ground of 
reverence, ibe wish nut to pain needlessly another's feelings, 
will guard agiiinst the miflchicf of such irreverence. We regret 
lo have observed occaaionjJi^-, in the discussions of mor« tlian 
one section, a tone of acrimonious exultalion — of so called 
•scienec' rejoicing against 'authority.' If there be, as some 
disciples of ' Bfiienee ' complain, a stubborn defence of untenable 

Sositions, on the part, of tlie chnnipions of authority, the ten- 
eney is only too likely lo be increased by such an attitude 
on the other side. Hi-Mdi*. it ought to be observed, that the 
cuav Lh not equal to ihe two panics. For iuatance: ^1 is an 

<u rttaled la Sptrtluat Qiwiltoiti. 


ardent believer, whose tbeoloj^cnl creed, as lie lioUs it, htu 
tekcn up into it«clf, iwrhnpa uim*arrnntably, a cerlain dognmtidm 
CO nre riling hi.itomiil events or matters related to physical 
science. J? is a roving ex|i!iirer of lnosie convictionis anil whose 
feelingB, dull to all tlie vexed questions ol' theology, iire keenly 
alive to tlie ouiubcr of vcrtcliriO in a ])ij;eo», or the arrange- 
iiieiil of curuU ill n bed of lia#. lie is uttcily carclees on who§e 
toes ihe ntarcii of * Heience ' mny trciul. He enjoys llie pursuit 
of knowledge; and if a favourite theorem bv ultinuit«ly over- 
tlirovrn, he lias yet had his reward in tho ingenuity exercised 
in eoti.'<triic-t!iig and prqioii tiding it. But to tbo other man 
a ohcriHticd tlo^nia uinuotud is like an old tootli drawn, which 
pains and mutilatee. lie feels tliat certain tenets nri^ ti> him of 
vital im[K>rlani:e; that in them to live, and for thcni, if need 
be, to die, is the Iiighcst destiny of a moral (feature. And 
ivith ihem he, iierhnjii* wrongly, nvifociales cerlain other [iro- 
poeilinne whieh nis ' scientific ' friend claims to have upsel. Hp 
thinks — possibly may be mistaken in thinking — that the latter 
nnd the former must stand or fall together. And so he 8trug}flc8 
lianl for holii, nod etiilcavoiirs to di-Tcnd both a^iprouclies to the 
sanctuary wliicli he deems imjiertlk-d. Ilia anxiety is to hit) 
cool frkiid intcnsoly amusing, who watches his eHbrts as n 
whooiboy does the frantic cxckHn^ of a hen on the edge of 
a pool, where the diicklinzs which she h]iJi> halclted are citjoying 
tl^ic element. His mUtJtke costs hint mueh,— the error of him 
who has miscountci the verlelnse of an animal, or mistaken (he 
habitat of A [)lant, co#te him little. Who would die ihr h 
' tittlcbatian theory'? Whtri: i» the nnrtyr of the ' undnlnlory ' 
Of 'corpuscular' school? Would I'l-ofessor Iluxlev, though 
Ilia nhilanlhrouy may extend to certain cagea in the Zoological 
gai'deng, stand even an hour in the pillory for all (tie reptiles of 
botb the n;d Mtndstones, or for all the wonders in a drop of 
dirty water? (jalileo, indeed, whieperinz an 'aside,' E mit si 
miivix, with conscioUB humour, recanted his recantation; but 
BtJU, on the faith of thnt ricantation, he wax re)ciu<ed. Oalih^o 
'was in tbe right; and why ? ItccuuKu to Kiitfur tiir a doctrine of 
plijMcal science, whicli, if true, will surely prove itself, and 
wliidi, when proved, leaves mankind none the better for iu 
truth, would be not only simply ab»iird, but infinitely more 
absunl than wiw per«ecnt)OU f(jr the sake of it. Show that not 
merely it io Inie, hut tliat the acceptance of the truth is « moral 
dutT) and suflerei-s for it will not be wanling. Oiherwi.Ko, to 
suDter for it eulbrces no lesson, and kavi'rt ln>tli mankind and llie 
doctrine just where each wii» before. This shows how utterly 
uneijiial u the case between the man n-ho fhinkit mistakenly 
that some tenet of his religion has u vilid relation with a 


Oxford BrttHh AsMciatioH IfuctitMons, 

physical or hintorical theory, ntn! tho nijin who is merely n 
phy»ioul or iibtorical tlieorUt, and in such mnttere, with Vr. 
Hooker, 'knows no creeJ.' 
This is the tiifterencc to which Dr. Temple altudes without a 
' due homage to its iin|>orlance, when he sitya in the Mrraon 
preached during th« melius of the ns^odiition : — ' The sliident 
' of science twvf i'ecU tiiniaelf bound liy the iiit<:F(^«ts of trnlh, 

* atnl can Admit no other obli^iition. And if he be m I'cligiotis 
' man, he bcHcvcs that hoih boiiku, the book of Nature iind the 
' book of Rovcliitioii, come iilikc fn-ni Gnd, and Cliat ho Anjt no 
' more ri'jht to rr/uxr. to arr^>t what hi- findu in tliv one thtni ithat 
' iKJiiuhi in. thfi vther. The two bouka are iiidci-d on toLiUy dif- 
' feront duhjccts; the one may be c;dled a treiitise on physic* 
' and mathemntics, the other a trcittisc on theology nn<l Hiomlxi. 
' But they are both by the same author, and the difference in 

* their iinpnrluncc ia derived fmm tlie dirtiMt-iii'e in their matter, 

* and mit lii>m nnv dirterence in their sutliority.' 

The iias^agc which is itnlJeiscd in the above cxtrnct contning 
the eophism hifking in the popular nssertion of 'scienlific' 
clftim^-. Now, it may be snfoly muintiimeil that no man need bft 
ri^(|uireil to maintnin or to nocepL any theory whatever OQ 

Iihygiieiil siilijectit. It ia always possible, without traii^gresi^ing « 
aw of our nature, to remain simply ncutriil on such questions; it 
ia impossible flo to remain on questions of theology or of mornU. 
This is a;jain, like the teat of uiurtyrdom, n proof crucini, which 
prcoipil.atsB the hay and stubble of suoh jihiliisopliiciil ]ircten- 
Mon«, and shows their perishnblc slutf in the light of ninu'B 
ultimate responsibility. 'Geoloay, for instance,' the preacher 
Gontinuoa, 'has already altered our conception of a ffreat part of 
' the book of Genesis * (n mther broad statement, since beyond 
ccrtiiin vcirses of the lirst chapter it is nut ea^y to nee auy rela- 
tion between the subject and the btjok); but that depends on 
whah conception we have fornieil.uud how far we have accepted 
the nHfumed diacoveriea of i^CoUigy. !t i.t, we re[K;at, consistent 
with thefioailionof anioraily rea|jouBibit) being tusay, * I neither 
' accept nor reject those assumed discoveries, I simply suspend 
' nil judgment on the question ; I do not even feci obliged to 

* investigate for myself tlic eviilcnce on ihc »ul>j'ecl, tuuch less 
' to accept the resulls nf the investigations of others. The 
' Invetitigatioti of physical laws, mid the coui|)arison of them 
' with revelation, may be .1 high privilege, but can never bo a 
' duty.' There is nothing in eueh ao ubstineiice from opinion, 
however obstinate it be, which can be compared to the false 
jiosition of a eeeplie in matters of theology or inuraU, in which 

' ijiiuil mugis hd DOS 
PertioeE, ct nescire nioluni est, ajjttnmiH.'^ 

ta relateil lo f^jnritunl QueKihtti. 


We ' liiive a right ' iii tlie one-caae wliich ' in the otiier ' we havo 
not ; howevef onc-^klcd or tituiiHj: )'rni]iuloii« a tniiid it mij^iit 
ehovr to cxcrciMt tliiit rij^lil with iiniti-riii inic-siiluiiiK'sa. 

Biitn fnct of greiiler wolglit \a tltttl iiiiicli of l.lii.^ lil^ti-flown 
btlknlxtui 'aoience' and' truth' is merely ao much dalibliiiji wllh 
theory and conjecture under griiiid ntinics. Tiic advance of 
science in umttcrs which can pOf^ihly hear unnn bihlicitl state- 
ii]Ciil», spiicars ti> open with every »iti'i<iii a hir widur consc'toiiB 
uren uf ■};nonim'e ihitn orknowledi^e. A century may {irnhulily 
iipaet mueh of iv hat now is viewed aa ' science,' and di.-wipiite it 
into sciolism. Have wc a fair sample of tlie earth's wliole 
cru»t? havcwc the nlierc with ronimlysc its formfilion in detail? 
ran wc he >uiid In Imve ri-aohc<l to Klnictunil Iiiwm which, l>y 
(heir fiiiii[il icily, a|i[)ii>ve theni»elves aw linu! ? Many, no donht, 
are ready to shout a rajitnrous nflinnative to all such (jueetiona. 
But sgain, are there not vast tiuctiintions of opinion amoHj; 
'scientific' men; have we not recently accn earlhipiakcs oJ' 
debate, chasnin uf dincri-iice, u{ilicavtd» ttml di^pliu'cnic-nls of 
vast surfaces of ihenryV UiiforlitnHlely It is aa easy for one 
man to dogmatise as for a school of Thoniists or a cjiliaiia of 
diviues. There i« much to he said on the side of him who 
wail?, and says, " if I uni alive and of nonnd mind n century 
lienci-, I will eiideiivonr to tell you.' This i^ a considenitiou 
which gains force when we murk how very unequal is often the 
evidence for different pro|)ositions, nil of which their advocated 
npiimr to n-^ird as cstnLli^hcd wilh cfjual conclutivcncM. it 
may he blind ohttlitiiicy to doubt tlie c.ireulation of the blood or 
the taw of gruvitiitiiiii, hut we may he pcriiiiltcd to demur lo 
bwnllowins the coneluMons current under the names of Buckle 
and Darwin. It is a new fashion to dignify by the name «f 
Vcicnec a erudc medley of fact and theory which may poiwiliiy 
•onte day be siHcd and di^e^tcd, and of which what ie worthless 
may be putted ofT, and wlial is soiuid remain. 

And however weiik. vapid, or foolish a hook may be, let it 
contain but a smart altack on any stntemcnt contained in or 
mppoiwil lo be j>rovcable out of Scripturr, ami it will at once 
Couiiuaiid H larjicr vharc of altcnlinn than a hiiok of the ?ame in- 
teUeciual mark on any other question. If it he clever but flimsy, 
"ita talent will he puffed, and its weaknc?* cxtcnHatfd. There 
are i>copic who would read eagerly a ireati»<! un the philoso- 
pher H stone if it coutuiued nNo an uilack upon tJie inspiration 
of one of the minor prophil^. Of couroe such a hooK as is 
venomous and yet cuii-etii, like a mad dti^, may and will have its 
run and die out, but that debt of nature is not paid till it has 
done much harm, llius, whot>o will, may be^iilc bis leisure by 
founding monstrous theories oii lorco, shifVy, and vaporous 


Oifi>rd Brilifk A«»<iotali/it DlnMatioM, 

driftA of fMt ; ttoA hariDg thus lic^otten a Contaur on a cloud, 
mav parade it on a Ppgati^s in the ince of an adiuinn}* puUic. 

But without (King of a vreiik, v«[>i(I, or rcnoiimus cnaracter, 
even wlwn the auilior in gravely lieiil on tlic pursuit of truth, 
eui:h ■:• the »tiitv uf hiimnn kuowledge nn tho»e {ihyiii<:»l (jueiiliotK 
whicii arc iii<)»t ugttatvil, that the most uncertiiin statcineiita are 
hazurited with t\w. \neiifi\fwn» uf dincovcrici^, rik) announced ax 
' laur»,' to tlto canon of which whatever hut hitherto [KH<«CMod a 
hold over men's niinds must ODnform. T\m oonibulive wdf- 
MMertiori proceoda jirobably from the less worthy but the more 
oowy section of tli« ]iioiii^on< of ktioivU-d;^, hut atill the fashion 
is to ftssume generally that the result of oncV own iav^stiga- 
tions is ' triilh,' and if any one else differ*. Iiowcver veiicriihlo 
the preKCrtittioti wriiich his opinions enjoy, bo much the woi-sc for 
hiin and for all tlic ground)) on which he rcJioi : > 

'To ohiorvn.tiftns nliirli finrso!"^ wc mnlm 
Vic grow mo(c pnrtinl for tlip olncricr'a nuke;' 

and the measure of inodeat probability which ought at most t« 
atlnch t<> i?iich hypolhrsi*. id pnftcd into n concluaiou of doj^matic 
finality^at Icasr »« regnrds the ' rvvclation ' which they aro 
ataumed to Rti[tersede. 

But especially nmnd the domain of ethnology — that wide 
and transcendental horixon of historic research— there floats a 
qui^mire of questions which decidy affect revealed eta'temcnt^ 
concerning the I'rigin of mankind. Tliece have by no ineari'i 
the flame degree of reiaiion to all euch Bcri|)tural tonics ae ihcy 
relate to, but all stand in a c1iM«r rclaiiou to such than any 
theories of the mere physical nnivenw can do. History and 
reli^on, or ethnology and r<;vcUtion, deal with the xuine tubju&t 
matter, man. llevclalion must include a iilaleincnl of what 
man was. in order to account for what ho is, and to explain what 
he will hercaflcr be Kevcliitiim ami ethnology have each their 
own canons, l.t'nttt, tmd authorilie!>, beyond which eiu^h idiki> 
tcnowA no appeal. We are reminded of the claims of temitorid 
and epiritual jurigdicJiou, each dislingiiialuiljle in Uieory, but 
coinciding iu the «tnie eubjeot-matter, and refusing any separate 
acyustnient. Thu«, the tltcory of Bundtun ascril>e» a gruit anti- 
quity to mankind, wheruu the calculable data of Scrl[kture, aa- 
8iiuitng their giinniiieiietts, allow one much leas limited. Again, 
other theorists have letl the quoeiioo at present to fluctuate 
between this iheory of high antiquity and aoDthcr of a nuilti|iIo 
hmnan stock. If, say they, man ciirnitil he iillmvcd 20,(X>(t yeam 
for diil'usion, wc mu^t Nit:tume many niniuilaneouH points of 
departure. Thia latter theory would people every rivcr-baain or 
plateau from a distinct primitive ancestry of n»in. An inetinc- 

a* relahiJ to Sjiiritaal QtteatioHS. 


tive coosciousDess of rcco^ition nccnut tu uh Ui furliid tli<! notiuu 
of any such alw«noc of kin lictwtiiii race and mcc. ' A 
man and a brot)i«T* Kiigeet>U a fctdin'r wliioli funiisheti a paas- 
purt tlimujrlt all diversitiea of elvin, language, and etature, 
and nliicli resembles iliat happy IVccinaHonry of tlie canine 
race, wlitck iiinkoe all. wlictWr epnnicl, bull. (;iir ur turnspit, 
dogfi and brctlircti. liut tlial tburo in n tcucliing of ^i^i])- 
turc on UtM mibjuct uf linnmn dtiHt^Riit, and thiit iu dicLuui is as 
Htroiiglv and plainly ngninat a plurality of Adauie as languaji:e 
can make it, needs hardly be etatud hero. The only superlicial 
fact in the hii^tciry of mankind with which it tallice u tlie 
COtninou (;Jaim of inilij;onoiis iip-sprliig from Uic uartli, put forlli 
by every nation wliune pedigree trauacoiida recorded lime — the 
natural aulf-asaertiou ot ignuraoce, worili about as much ss the 
'Bpects I firowed' of Topsy in the tale of Undo Tom.' 

Nor is llio Isct of einple-steinmfd unity one of b»re hiBtoricol 
«igmfiC)tnuL', it bus the clo^ci^t relation to our i-piriliial edttite 88 
Cnrisliantt. All mankind art so olearly the scope of the GoBi)el 
that uo one could for a moment on Scriptural grounds reject 
Hottentot or Knifrc on account of iiifisnority of organization 
arpuing dc»ccnt fiom i<ouic nicuntT stock than that of which 
Chriiil tiamc. Ili-yond this, the oo-eMensivtmcss of the Promise 
with the universal need of man, is b:iaed upon the air respondent 
unity between ' thu first ' and ' the second Adam.' Its golden 
oord is reeved as it wcru thnnij;h this eyelet-hole, the unity of 
blood umiing ;tll ' iiutionH, uiid kiiulredw, and peoples, and loiii^ues.' 
The" gi-ea test ntay of ethiiologioal resPiirch in of eoiirse the 
Btudy of languages, the modern, the deatl, the lo.-sil ; but 
through all the research this ninxiin must bo carried, unity may 
have existed, and be yet. irre truce able, but if it be traceable, it 
must have exi^leth There may be dttfereneea enormously large 
betn'eea languages yet really akin, and chasms which we cannot 
fill up may separate branches ultimately related, tt may be 
observed that the 'principle of selection." as traced by Mr." 
Darwin, do fiir a« it ha* any weight, ie in I'avour of the original 
unity of the human stock. Thus languages, diverging from one 
stem may be conceived to have become permanent in some 
wlcctcd type, wbilo many other inferior dialectic varieties may 
have beeotue uxtinui. The quiwiion what degree of cttningo- 
uicut langu.igee so related may sustain, in one of gruat obseuriiy ; 
nor is there perhaps any standard by which we can measure 
that degree. Whether this obscurity will ever bo dispelled, or 
to any important extent mitigated, it would tie extremely rash 
to pronounee. But in this mate of the problem there arc sonic 
who love the quicksand, aud cannot wait for the rock to be laid 
bare. Their genius is so i»trongly constructive, and their 


Oxford Briti'ai Attoctation DUaisium», 

uientiil offililT ho grent, that construct m theory tliev must, and 
the ground which can lie most impei-ceptihly shifted euits best 
their display of intellectual yyninaetic. On tliG queiition at 
iMiic resd evidence ii> very scarce ; the leaminfj extinct l;mf,'««2«» 
is not » work of i-ertainty or witc, every jnich hiriffiiiigw dis- 
covered cmnplicnt<>A the problem, opening ft demand for more 
new ADiilngies to elucidate it, and starting many subordinnte 
tracks of distinct enquiry. llunmn life pasBcs away, and the 
fccMc glcntior in this ovcrwhelmiiig field Icavcj* n poor littlo 
shciif of guiicriUiKafioii iiniitl.ll the (.-ndlettH dry utiilihle 'if facts. 
V)f eourtte a puinl in the proMcm may exist heyond wliieh the 
terms in the series, as it were, converge, and afler reacliing 
which further explorers will liud dilliiiultics turned into f»cili- 
X\ve, But who can us<<nro us thttt wo cun uvcr mount to For 
abovA vxiitting lnr)dtii;irk.4ns to rench It? 

Whilst touching on the (]uGstion of ethnology in relation to 
language, it may intci-est some if wc notire, in piissiug, an att-tck 
on the ' Indo-Cicnnnuio Theory,' volunteered by tlic I'rcfiidcnt 
of the IjOndon Ktlinoliigiintl A^ftociiltitin. Even elw^whi're the 
name of Profesaiir Max Miiller is so fully iilent.ified with the 
ninintenaoce of this theory, tliat hia championship of the question 
wherever raided might have been nssumod, but in Oxford it 
was jtiBtly viewed n« a direct challenge \o him to appeur and 
reply ; which, however, he was prevented by poreniplon' ollieial 
dulieii in London from doin^. His letter, read by the President 
of the Section, acknowledged llie call, and perhaps implied a 
proini»;c to iiiiswer; but eniphatiealiy siddeil that he shi^nhl as 
eoon liave expcrclird to hoar the Coperniciin Theory of ihe earth's 
revolution round the sun called in (juestiou, as that of the lodn- 
Oermanic Stock. The paper in attack was necessarily reduced 
to conclusions, the chain of argument, or uuniber of examples 
adihiOfd in eupport of wliieh were ^uppresseil. in deference to 
the rule of lime alloweij, — a role withonl which the institution 
would speedily become unmanageable, but which, perhaps, 
operated unfavourably to the rea^^oninge of the assailant. He 
sought to invalidate the presumption la favour of Indo-Gcr- 
nianic unity, derived from the aecordanec between all words in 
the varionii huignagei* of ihyt stock, which express ttie paternal 
and maternal relations. These, it was urged, were merely tho 
natural svllabiculions common to infant lips, and, being the f)r«t 
eound:* of wbicli their Jmperfeet utterance was ciiimble, were 
uniformly n)ipropriated to Kxpre.-'li the first familiar object*. But 
tJie leclnrep forgot to exiilain iicw it was that Malay and Mon- 
golian infants have a different syllabication from those of the 
races named Indo-Gernmnie; as on this supposition they must, 
one would think, bavo become the bases of a world-wide pur 

as r^inltd to Spiriltuit QuKxtionii. 


of «|)pe]liUive». Why in the vocal organization of otlwr races 
BO dtffcrciit? Ami, if it lie, is nol thiit of itjwifuf trooper argu- 
lucni. ill Cuvour of tlie iiQuik}' unil tlie ililfcreiKri; t.linn any iiici'o 
«]i»linctioQof at'\)itnirily iiivt^iitL'd Biiundti? Tlic-iiHlo-Gi-'nnaiiin 
itid« wa» ably austained by Prufesaor Jarret of Cambridge aud 
hy Pru(v»»or Uawliii^on and I>r. Scott of Oxford, a weiglit of 
Bohfllunhi[iiig»iiiet wbiub t lie objector bavingiudeed no Kouoiidcr, 
ytae unable tn niaku any aigiiifiriuit reply. Tlic nr^iiiiK^nl, 
however, which si-arched tlieiiirtpof Hurope Ibrvarimis rtieoiidite 
raccis siicli a^ theLaiw, Fiiinsi, and BaequeB, wiie, from the bigli 
tiehultutic fclcbrity ol ibosc wbo oiiiijttcd in it, iiioro intcrci-tin;(, 
perha[)t(, on grouiidx of pliilotiigy, tliiiii any i!incu.-<»ion which 
took (ilaco at thia met^tin^. But, owiiig of oourae to the flood 
of schulttrsliiji which would otherwise overwhelm the association, 
a (ttrict check i§ ncce(i>^arlly iuipoeed cm all ihat is purely or 
directly philological. Even after allowing every piiMBible iilmte- 
uifttit, in con^iili- ration of the Hmiewliiit di.->ti timbered and 
unsupmrted eonditinn of the ar<;iniieiilii adduced against the 
Indo-Gcnnanic theory, n heavy preiiomierance in the disciiseion 
n)UKt be allowed to have rested with its defenders. Aod the 
nudivncc woiihl [Jrobably gather the nioet dceiwivc pret<nin|ition 
in its favour fi-oiu the lact that oiily so viiry elt-iidi^r nn iirray of 
probabilities, aa was adduced, could be niufctered against ii. 

But on the general queaiion, afl'ccting not a s{rnup of related 
races but the entire human t^^ck, other evidence bar* iat<,-!y been 
|>iit ill, ill the form of alleged discoveries of hanitin roniaiiia, fti"|itf- 
eially flinln faehioned by the hand of man. found amongst pn lien - 
zoic deposits. On the qnepfmn of a plurality of origin, this could 
only have an indirect influence, but on thatof tho antiquityof nian 
n wide door is opened to di^ciiFsiun. Tiwre in, however, (lit- pro- 
viouK cun^ideratiuii of ibc i<itid flintd being eocval or not with 
the reniaiiirt ainocf; which they lie, to bedisiioaed of, and on this 
a curious light was thrown by some recent discuBsiun* in Sect, E 
«t this year's meeting of the Britisli Association. On Tuesday 
the 3d of July, papers were reiul by Captain Sir Kdwnnl Kelchi-r, 
•On th« luaniifaetnro of Stone Hatehetn and other Implements 
by the KHi|uiniHiix,' and by l>r. Janiei* Hunt, ■ On the Antiquity 
€>i the Human Itiieo,' The former jiaper was full of the rare 
interest which allaches to mtesof wild scene* and Iribixamon^itt 
Tvhich tho narrator's own foutprints have fullen. Sir ICdwardV 
pnsMCnccaud manner were even more Miggeative than hia recital*, 
for th(-y made tlie hearer? feel ftouicwhat of how the heart of an 
nrdio expedition wait an»tainet] by the cheerful vigour of a simido 
character, the atery ponrtraying, unconeciously and incidentally, 
the man. 

But, altliough nothing which Sir E. Hokhcr saMl called for a dls- 


Oxfitrd Brilith A»aociaiioti Duaumoiui, 

ciimon upon UmKotKiHityof ninnkinil, a Dolhor member, agallant 
ndiuinil, IoiiikIuii e:i»y Irait-iitioii from the flint nrrow-lu'tuls of the 
Esquimaux to tiic ' <:«Iu'orii mee. HU|)p<i!ud extirici, uiul itmin'ti 
only to some of tlic moat advanced ^jtccuUlore un (inlKontologj. 
ThcM 'celt*,' if that bo the right nniiic for them, are fttnta 
whtdt iicJir pre»iiitittblv indications of Kuviti;; hnaa wrought by 
liand, whiUl their locittion Htis atnid iitratn coinjiutcd «« being aome 
geological a^tea earlier than the firat apgieai-aiico of our apmco. 

Wc luivc iilrcady rvmarked on the fair conqilaint which may 
he laid ugain^t tliu luiijc talkers of ouch oicctings an that which 
givett oceasiiiQ to tlieso [Migei^ The oa»e naw adilnecd iviu one 
which completely justilicd the remark, and exeuiplilten the iiiis- 
chicf of inuladroit advocacy to a good cause. It maken one 
regret the small t-xtcnt to which the power uf lucid simple etale- 
ment of a tnan'.-i viewx, niul the insight into o'»:ni<ion, generally 
prevail. The gallant gcohjijint, lacking the diaccmnicnt whi^ 
enables a man 

' ut jam nunc dicat, jam nunc (IvbcntiB diet,' 

riiahed to meet, or rather to Bud an opponent nhose turn was not 
yet come to appear : and bia untimely zeal was at once more pr&- 
voking and more amusing, tnnstniich as that, turn was exactly 
next on the liift. in the paper of l>r. Junie--< Hunt itbovc men- 
tioned. Had the itiliniral reserved hia hroadiide, he wcnjhl hare 
bad an antagonist fairly atongi^ide in ani->ther half hour, iuriteatl 
of whicvli he blazed an*ay across the bows of & friend at one who 
vnii out of reach. Tbi.i hail tlie effect ultimulely of calling up 
the president, to whom, however, the admiral seemed at lir«t 
dii)pr>^ to ahow such obedience as NeUou allowed Sir Hyilv 
Parker at Copenbaffcn, when he kept his blind eye to the tele- 
scope which showed the i^ignnl of rceul, and bade tbcm 'keep 
bis own for closer action Hying.* It i.^ not quite easy Ui estch 
the words of n speaker, the broken fervour of whose ejacuht- 
tions showa more of feeling than of reasoning, but we believe 
that the malaprop champion did not subside till he had flourished 
what appeared to be a pockel-BlUe in the face of the Section, 
proclaiming that 'iliat wius hiit ffuide-book,' or 'log-book,' or 
some other audi tille ; by wliitih ue meant, doubtless, lo convey 
au impression of hia respect for the Siicrcd Volume, if such it 
was; but xvhich was rather suggestive of the familiarity which 
is allied to an oppiwitc feeling. On the whole, though »ynipa- 
thi^iug with hia ndvoeacy, had it uot been ao ovei'Mpurred and 
brok<-n-kneed, we cont'eas to a grateful sensation of relief, tliat 
the admiral's fire had been drawn, and a mental murmur of non 
tali au-vifio nix. (hrfriisorihus iitis, wa he reluctantly Buccumbed to 
the cbairman's decision. 

(U fWiuW (9 Spu-itual Quettiotit. 


Dr. Jftinfa Hunt, however, * following on the otlicr side,' and 
being ' in ftrder,' proceeded with the facts of flint bladca fonnd in 
or near the bed, ne believe, of the Sninbrc, nod likcwiHc thut of 
tltc Rcti or *omc other Amcriain rivtr. Thu fact of llioir 
nlluviiil iHuiiion wiis coiieiidcrc^, lionevt^r, W oihor eminent 
geologi.-lfl nreaent to bo the key to iheir paradoxical relation to 
older remaiDB, Rmong which, as ihe balance of probability eccmcd 
to be, sonic water forec bod eiut llicin. Tbu situntion ruuiindcd 
lietciier* of Kdie Ocbillrec'it luict remark, when the exulting 
Mr. Oldbiick has iu»t fixed upon ihc auppoHed prap.lotium of 
Agricola, ' I mind the bilging o 'i.' But a ruder shock was 
given to Dr. J:inic« Hunt's theory by a Tr.insallnntic ucologist, 
who claimed i<uRie per!<i>iial ai'ijnaiiilniiee with fb^ iiiiid be<l--i of 
the Mif-Mssippi, ti) which, we behc-ve, an aiipeal had been nmdo 
as confirming the testimony wrested from other rivera. The 
vide delta of that immcuso btisio i« often seen uffenug it« 
sweltering expanse of mud Iwnks to the sotithem eun. Oh 
i>u<;h o(X!ii.4ions vant mud bliMers it seems, will form, swell, and 
pnfl^ till liie surface flime beconiff, like a cup of cocoa cooling, 
covered with a rind, but one which U llnek, leathery, and 
dai<tic. The*o mighty impoittliumes arc a great bindranc*. by 
their preaenoe or their eoiiKeiiiicuecii, to Iho navigntion of ihc 
stream. And the federal government hud incurred some expense 
in watching and operating on their slimy tumours. The custom, 
we believe, ia to fire round shot into, or otherwise 'discuss' them 
with nuilicient force; on which,* or, cvcntuully, mertly by the 
gaseoup pressure from wtlhin o^eicotning the resistance of the 
mud coat, the blister bursla, Hcallering iln contents, org:»nie mid 
other, in confusion over the adjacent eurface. Thus nil order of 
I* I rat iti cation is lo5t, and any refuse tools of an Tndian villngo may 
be toaaed peU<mc1l with nntlera and monumental bones, of every 
geologic nge, lying near the banks or emi>edded in the bottom 
of the great river of the west. Of convee, therefore, all reasoning 
whii'h xhould treat the former as coeval with the latter wonlu 
be liased on an nnnehronisin ; or as a Icnriic^ a-wociate stated it, 
in prim phrase, appropriate, wc stip|iOMe, however, t<> the 
occasion. ' the human and other remains were merely related in 
* ^acp> »ot in time.' 

Thus the argument of Dr. Hunt, so far, was blastetl and 
dispersed, even like » Mi^iiWippi inud-pnff. An attempt, how> 
ever, was made to restore its shaken validity by the exi)lorer of 
a cavern not long ago lighted upon by a labourer near Tortiuuy, 
who one day striking njjou n slab ol rock which rung hollow, 
was induced to follow up the blow till hiA curio«ity found the 
way to a cavern conttinmg, as ptxived on exuminRtion, a floor 
of stalactite, on which lay the tuiual horns, boncSf &<:■, and 


Oxford Britith Aanocialifn DtKu^iong, 

among or near them aQine wrouglil flinl;i. I'lic cave liij- in a 
cliff, kboiit a hundred tcct above sea level, and wd-t itawlf about 
Eeveiity-fivc I'oct iibovc tlit smiic, cousequcntly nt about tweutj- 
fivc foct below tliu eurtiiUL'. A good dt-al uF sti-esfi wiie laid <>a 
|hc fi»ct of" a leg ol' deer or l«jiir bi;inj; fuimd wijh every bono 
in nVu, oil the abacnco from the eaveni of itU traces of tliv acfioa 
(if wnt<r, and on tbc elcvatinn and direction of the greater axis 
of the cavern rendering fuch action iiu|]us§ible. There wue no 
tradition of its having ever been previously entered, a circum- 
slance whieli BCUiiiS to bi! of no weij|bt in wicli n neighbourhood, 
for the distance b<.lutv tlie surfnco wan nut too great to make it 
likely that in the courae of human ag<jd it might have been 
known and used, and yet wa« great i-nough to have allowed it 
to be lo«t eight of and its memory obliterated in cii^c of the 
concurrence of any uiitiirdi convuUion witli any grwit social 
cimnge. There « aa no statement of any trace of human ugency 
in cWing tlic cavern, and ils sealing niuat be pregmued refurabw 
lo pnrcly nitturd cau»ce. It' the eaithqu;»lcc or liutds.]ip which 
scaled it had been followed >ipi:eiiily by n famine, a pestilence, 
u nuiK-iuere, or » migration, all record might easily peri»h. Had 
the exnlorer been unhickiiy atrieken with asphyxia or any form 
of anduen death on entering, and the action of the weather or a 
fresh cmiviilsion closed the small aperture through which ho 
entered, till his bones hud time to fo.<*ilizc (for wliich it is by 
no ivi.-iin» certain that very va.-^ piM'ioiU are rerjuired, at Itrast in 
favonraiile opots), and had llie cavern then been rediHcuvercd 
aflof that interval, how vastly strengthened would the argument 
for the antiquity of human remains have become I Here would 
have been a fi>ssil liuman skeleton eriliro, with every bone 
/« situ, *epiilc!n'etl amid the <lr.firu «f ci'i'atnrejt soppOiteil carliwr 
by whole geological periods; hero would have been a recovered 
sjiecinicn of paJieozoic man I As it is, there ai-e merely the 
flints to hang a theory on ; and though the question, bow they 
got there is one of curious interest, yet, hb compared with the 
Koltition which lliu theory would allirm, it \s merely one of tea- ' 
table ini II rir lance. The whole argument suggested to a Pick- 
wickian hearer a reminiscence of ' Itill Stumps, bis mark.' 

Perhaps, however, the most subtle danger to be apprehended 
from would-be votaries of so-iallcd science is that which Inrks 
in thcab.uso of ihc term ' Inw'iiscniploved by certain theorists on 
the progrens of human civilization, of whom Professor Dniper, of 
the United States, was the representative at this meeting. That 
iutelluctual conditions follow physical organisation, mid physical 
organisation the equilibrium of imtnral intlueiicca around it; 
that thus the udvimccs of the man or of the nation, the one 
being a perfect rcHex of the other, are due not to internal but 

as niaU.-d U> Spiritual Questioif. 



Bee I 

to cxlenml ooiulilii^os, — in short, that all wliioh we have beon ia 
the liahii of i-e^uriluig as the reaull nl' man's fre«-vfill is merely 
a function of base niatier, ia, we believe, no tinjust statement of 
the theory newly afloat on the tide wave of speculation. There 
ia an end then to gpcculation. If mind liave no independence 
of matter, any thought, whatever be ultimately the resolution 
of the pbantaein coDsciousness, is merely a vibration of a portion 
of matter. It can control no other molecule's vibration. Every 
quHsi'thought is free, equal, and independent in everybody. 
Conviction, disctisstou, agreement or dissent, become noa- 
entitiea; each ia but a modified phantnam; all link nnd Beqticnce 
of premiss and conclusion vanishes, all licit and illicit [irocefls in 
trgument is quitehed. What seemed arn^uing is but. chasing 
tlie tide or whirling on tlie eddy of our cerebral molecules or 
nervoua fluid. Professor Draper's eloquent tougue ia but M 
the beat of a pendulum, the sensations of his bearers are best 
DieMurccI by tlie bni'ometer ; a theory, even the Darwinian, is 
but as the neat and elegant curve into which eteel atoms 
are thrown by an electnc current. Jove is dethroned and 
hubbub reigne ; man is one of the flora that fade, or of the 
fauna that perish ; he is a bubble, holding a little gaa, that 
wells upwards from the centre of existence, to break and be 
no more. 

We believe that the radical flaw in the argument whicJi 
seems thus to crush all that thinke and iicta into brute earth, 
lie? ill the abuse of the term ' law.' By way of illuslrating his 
poidtion that man, the nation or the tiiiil, is but a seeii, that can 
aevetop only under favourable circumstance.'), and then only in 
direction, the Professor employs the figure of a round marble 
resting on a smooth flat table, whicli is at rest while the table so 
renuiins, arui iitny so rest for centuries, but, ns soon as the table 
tills, must roll, and can then roll hut in one given direction. 
And this ia given us as an example of the law of external 
drcumstancesi As though the gravitation, by virtue of which 
the marble so rolls, were not as completely tiitemul to the 
marble as it ia extemnl, acting in every molecule of its smaller 
mass as perfectly and as powerfully as in every molecule of the 
earth's larger one. 

In the marble and in the earth the action of the force » 
hoiHogeiicous throughout every particle of either, and the illu8> 
tration, being so simple, is useful wherever the case to he 
illustrated m one of a body or a ^rstem, the law internal and 
external to which is, wholly or so far, one. Still, even in the 
marble, it is untrue to spetdE of the force as being circumstantial 
merely. The same principle of gravitation may produce an 
effect which seems extemally like, and may, where strictness of 

NO. ex. — s.a. T 


Oxford Briiiah Aaaoeiatifin Dueuanotu, 

u^umeDlativc trutb \» not nccdeJ, be lifted to illiutrHtc tliat of 
a purely inu-niiil uod iii<Ic{>eiident force ; lliu» Wordawortli 
spvulu ut' 

• Tlifl river wiiuliiig st hifl owft sweet TiiJl,' 

wliere he deAcribes an effect precisely sunilar to that of the 
marhlo on the tabic, the inotiou of whicli each fluid moleciilft 
follows ; but wlial the ]>oct iDcaiit in n conception dirtx-tly (bo 
Oppoeito of the Iftltcr. Wonluworth [ici-dOiiifii'.H lh« river, Pro- 
fu#E>or Draper materializes man. liut there is this dilfereuce, — 
the poet nicaos what be snys only in a iiguro, the professor 
suppoees that he states a sober trutli. 

JJut in man, the individual or ibe nation, we assume the 
oxiatonce of an inn-anl law not homogeneous with tbot^e which 
afleet him externally, but wholly unlike them, and imlccd n 
thing pa- He. There ia not in the universe, aa observed by ua, 
anytliing like it : nil our illustrntioni^, tbcrcfuTe. fall fnrghort of it ; 
lor the most trivial action of the inenljdiy unditvciopcd child or 
the dimly perceptive idi»l lum more in comimin with Ihtt loftiott 
and grandest drama of history than the most sublime phe- 
nomenon or most widely diffused quality of phywcal tliiogs has 
with tUv feeblest inceptive ntteuipt ot a moral being to act. 
Tbi* was mif-ieiitiy acknowledged by tho bcrt, wt«iit, and 
greatest of the world. Wiser men, ^ve sitppose, have now 
arisen to enlighten later dnys, who think that by siudyiiig man 
in the mass they elicit soniething which overthrows the con- 
clusions iirrived at from the tttudy of llic inilividunh If man — 
tie man — act from a law internal to himoelf, h it not »t once 
. absurd to any that man, the race or nation, ie controlled by 
ciroumstnocc^ which are wholly external? May wo not claim 
that the concludions derived fi-om the complex study be tested , 
by some fonnirlii nf vcrificntion derived from the earlier, the 
more trustworthy because the Himpler, suhject ? 

However, we aaaurae that those whom Professor Draper 
represent!) siijijiokc that, from the study of ages, races, periods, 
and phases of civilization, they have rcaehcd to fact* which 
reduce man to the cmidition of tlie iiinrhle on the table. We 
will consider presently what amount of deference is due to that 
presumption, and meanwhile we only assert tiiat the individual 
and the nice must etaud or fall together. If I who write these 
lines do so from oome controlling force of external circum- 
alanccB, tio doubt all nuinkind wlio read or loHve them unn-ud 
arc in the ttunc predicament. If the Ixiy who builds an oyster 
grotto has no internal law bidding him do it, then neither was 
any internal law involved in tlie building of Babylon or the 
organiKtlion of the Kouan empire. The medium of nioof by 

as related to Sj»rtluat QacsHona. 


wliicli the oollective race of mail bi nrndti to rcdot on the indi- 
vidiinl and overthrow his free agency, ia ihe supposed cslft- 
bluthmcDt of • lawe.' For we assert conversely, thai if men — 
the civil!si.^<l constituted nice — lu-e but pcllctH in n ]H)[)-guii, 
moulded and propelled liy aouie cxlernnl force, then nmn, the 
eonbtitticnt unit, is no better. AVhnt, then, ia ' law ?' It is the 

I generalized expression of a fact whidt holds good in a multitude 

> of instances. When we have reached to such a comprehensive 
(sitiniatc of all jKissible conditions of the fact «,■« to Ije able to 
Q!t press tlie one cinditiou under which it ia nlwayg true, 
eliminating all in which it fails to be verified, we can ^ve our 
law an iiniTereal statement, but even then we are as far froni 
ei<tablii<hin<; a (raise as ever. If, however, on the contmry, 
there be in the individual a cause wbicli produces ontwurd 
plienomena related to him, then we have ntude no further 
progre^a qua cause, in tracing the fact through any number of 
tuillion^ of instances. The law stated leaves ua in the dark as 

f regards tlie cause. TTou may prove that A i» B, but that docs 
not allow why A esist& We derive Irum the study of con- 
current qualities no insight into the retd dependence of what we 
observe to exist. We get no nearer to a cause from a law than 

I we do from a, name. Given, that Hght ie ponderable or iin- 

£nnderable, docs Ihnt iissist ns as regards the cause of light? 
law, in fact, ia purely formal an<l expressional ; tJie reautt of 
our own mind at work, observing, classifying, noting, and 
nidueiDg natural phenomena to such a form as it can most 
;^ea«ly graup and wield. The multitude of sJngulnr facts »»hich 
converge to and register tliemselvos upon the observing dif- 
ference-noting mind, write thereon a la>v ; but that law, pro- 
perly speaking, is subjective to the mind itself; all that is 
objective latlic universal presence, in given objects, of llie fact 
of whicli U)e law is the general exjiresaion. There is, at any 
rate, no proof thai law haa any existence save in the mind that 
conceives it. When, therefore, we use the common expression 
ituit (Jud works by general laws, we only mean, in strictncKs of 
epeeeJi, that ht» o|>eriitiona take tliat form to our minds. He ia 
etill the ean^e, ititd Ihe law is not even nn interposed machinery 
between llim and the ettect. And when a fact is observed to 
be universally present in a certain class of objectd, the riuemion 
causal roniiiins tioth in the individual and in the class. If an 
itidividual man buihlH a house under certain circumstance^ the 
fact tbal generation after generation of men, containing each its 
millions, build houses also under precisely similar circumstoneca, 
docn not assist us to the cause of any one single boufO being 
built. Wc say that csnse is to be found in the will of tbe 
individual builder. Professor Draper assort*, or, to be coo- 

T 2 

Os^rd Snttsh ABiociation BiscuKtions, 

eistent, should a^^ert, that it U to be found in the external 
circunifltniipea wliich \\c. ohserves to coexist in every case. We 
Bay, you may lay down a law, it" yon will, that such and 
such actiooB are to be found under certnin circuiiistances, but 
you do not thereby anggest a cnuee. If the choosing will, as 
we assert, be tliiit caui*e ia ihia or t}ittt man, the similar circum- 
stances nltending siniilar actions in other men, through an 
iadeiinite period, can never alter its being the cause, however 
many millions of times the circumstances may nttend the 
actioDH. If there is in n higher sense thiin thut of a mere 
generalization ' a law unto liimaclf ' within a man, nothing 
external can ever supersede or to the smallest extent quality 
it ; they are as distinct from eacli other as arc argument and 
brute force, and must remain radically asunder whilst a thinking 
mind exists. 

The argument is nt bottom identical with that which was long 
■go condemned by the father of ethical philosophy, the fallacy 
of those who lay tho blame of vicious actions on extcrnul things 
and not on n man's self as being easily attracted by them. 
' Men are caught by ptcnaure as fish by the hook,' but thooe 
who thus are amde n prey have first enfeebled by vicious habit 
their power of choosing. But what tho old philosopher con- 
ceded, under this qualification, as true of the baser specimens of 
mankind, the modern professor a|)peftrs to assert unconditionally 
of them all. 

llut there is a further fold of sophistry to be unravelled, one 
wheel of fiillacy concentric within another. These ' law« ' 
which, we are told, prescribe for man from without the march 
of civilization along lines fi-om which he cannot deviate, are 
really nothing more than summaries based on the omission of 
details, average calculations which neglect extreme cases of 
divergence. But it is precisely on these deviations In detail 
that the problem crucially turns, and the average troths, often 
propounded with confident wisdom, may as probably as not be 
wholesale falsehoods. In order to establish this statement, it 
must be remembered that superior practical wisdom is what 
qualifies men for the social advantages evolved by the growth 
of political society. ti> wliich the name of civilization is given. 
This wisdom shows itself in various forms; the pliable ingenuity 
of the Frenchman, the dry and dogged crafl of the Scot, fore- 
sight, endurance, enterprise, adventure, power of organization, 
all constitute it. The man, or the race, superior in these 
respects, will make the beet of a situation, flourish where others 
have a bare existence, or tlirive while others starve. Is it a 
strange thing that reasonable choice should lead men in closely 
similar circumstances to closely similar actions? Or doea it 


as rctatcd to Sjnriluaf Qvpstiom. 


■ est: 

C€A9e to be rcaeonable, or to be choice, l>ecause its results abow 
on the whole a atriking regcmblance ? On tbe other band, it ia 
precisely the deviations in detnii, which the Boecuktor neglects 
,^ trivialities unworthy of his pliilosoiihy, that vindicates the 
t in which the cbuioe xn shown us a result of iudejiendent 

org}'. Compare a dozen Esquimaux villages with a 
wasps* neats, and you will find in tbe latter that rounded off 
symmetry which makes every individual specimen an adequate 
type of the apeeiee, but not in the former. The wnsp's nest 
v^\t to delight our philosopher most, for ' represcnfatiye' 
on and 'typical' jnatilutioua pleaee Iiim ; and whatever is 
Iredundant or abnormal he trims to terse rotundity with theo- 
retic shears. There will not he found about the wasp's nest 
nny exiiggemted individuality to demand Uie ProcruBteuu 
stretcher; but in the village, diflerencea in shape, size, oma- 
inentAtton, and material, will offend the dictator of nature, 
which he will reduce by setting off one touch of salient gro- 

iqu^new against anulher, recognise only what they have 

outunion, and neglect that in which they differ. This ii> like 
nocking off the noeca of the twelve Caesars in order to 
estabtiah a family Hkeness between them. Thus in our theorist's 
eye that which is dietinctive, individual and, in n word, human, 
will be discarded. He will divide tbe cubic contents of all the 
hiil!> by the square of the number of squawe in each settlement, 
and be satisfied by cstabhahing a ' law. 

But tbe most barefaced fraud of modern argument is that of 
Avemges. An nverngi- may be rigidly true which docs not 
ncoord with a single individual case from all out of which it is 
gathered. We bave only to imagine conflicting facts poised in 
opposite extremes in order to see the futility of any reasoning 
based on an average. Among a hundred individuals forty may 
be the average age, not one of whom is forty nor near it. It is 
no unoonimon thing to find a concurrence of a low average with 
a high extreme in vital atatietics. There may be aBsumplions 
conceivable which are safely baaed on tlio average in such cases, 
but their limit is obviously a very narrow one. Thus with 
regard to the connexion between the rate of marriages and the 
pnce of corn, we may allow the average a critical value, hecauee 
there will be so many fewer marriages whenever that price 
ri«c8 ten ehillings above the average as to counterbalance the so 
many more marriages whenever it falls to the same extent. 
This is merely an example of the general unity of result to 
which rea3«nable choice leads men in similar cii-cumstancea ; but 
are all men thus prudent in ihelr actions ? Are there no rash 
marriages and starving families in consequence ? Now, clearly, 
it was open to the rcmeM bachelor to take advtco> and oalouloteii 


O^ord BritUh Aaaoeiati&n Ducuaaione, 

bofbro tltc fntnl step, ihc nunibcr of mouths be wouKI liave to 
fee<l. lie might liavc done aa pnident men do. Society, bow- < 
ever, much as it tuts to di.>pti>r« on Ins account, acknowiiMi^ee afei 
any rale litis oblif^ntion to him, tlmt he has vindicntcd the acu] 
of men from tlmt luotiotony ot' prudciicic, wlit»'li wotd<l rounto-l 
nance llie diibbifr in stutt8ti<;ci in tbc notlnn tliftt nil men audi 
things movL-, like 'navvies' mid their tiarrowa, along a plwik 
which oeceesit; has laid for them, and along n-faicb he caD 
trace their rut. 

Sueh ure some of the Riflectiona to which we were led by 
some of the mure riniinntcd ninung the (liacuAsiuni^, to which 
certain of tl»o [laiiem lately rc-iid at Oxford gave rise. It would 
be more coiuteouB than coneot to eay th»i those di«:usstoii0 
were uniformly conducted with n diiipn;Miomito absence of per- 
sonality, sueh a» should di»tin<;u>sh the ilehatcs of the frienda of 
edence. Over those peveoiiulitieB, hi^wcver, faintly developed as 
they were, we gladly draw a veil. That which we wished had 
been wanting at tho time, and from which uu UHcfuI lutaoti can 
be learnt, is best not runcated afterwurds'. 

It 19 enough that a lenrncd [)rofes:<i>r thinkti that there is no 
euch thing as a bar sinister in naluri?, and that we might cvea 
archieoliigically connect the eimiolutry of Egypt with the hero 
worship of anccatriil greatness. As wc hear of an additiuniil 
vertebra having been gained hi a pigeon's doreiil column by the 
crand iirinciple of selection, wc Hup|)use that experimeuta will 
be made to te^t the poHsibility of a caudal continuation of the 
opine in man, by way of recurrence to what, on this hyjiuthesiM, 
ia the early type cif ihc race. 

But the fact of cncoiintoring a modiRed ' Monboddo' theory 
on a platform of the British A^ocialiun gives grave matter tor 
tbought. The men who say the.4o things are not pompoutf| 
clmrtntans, nor crotchety cavillers, Tliey, perhaps, lack 
guiding inward ligltt, which leads us to repudiate i^uidi u theorji 
as a sort of niimtid dallying with a thing abhorrent. They 
have not been lorLiliird bi^forchand, ami one-aided study does its 
work ui>ou their mind. It wenw as though there was indeed aj 
leiKlenoy in the I)ur8iiit of physical phenomena, taken alouo, to 
beguile the student, at any rate at certain incomplete stages of 
the nrogress in that pursuit, into mulerialism. But we have too 
mucn faith iu all the works of God to suppose this tlie innata 
and proper teudomiy of their study. All truth must be ulti- 
mately one and colierent ; there can be no real conflict between 
the Word <i\' God and His worke. And, doubtlo^^. a want of 
faith in fpiriluidity, when tho whule attention is biistowed on 
things 'of earth earthy,' nni«t ever lend to extingnish tho 
bdief and the hope that God \» the origin of man's being in a 

at rioted io Sjitritual Qwtiiltomt. 


Ji^ier seuso than He is that of fowl and brute, and not only 
thv orij^io of tnuii'it being, but the uim and objl^(^t; of it. But 
till wc rciLuil llie centre itl wbidi llie ifcuttercd ray» vt' truth 
:>mbiiic, tiiej- iDny :t}i|ieai' tn tlirow duubt on boich other, ftnd 
resent a maze of conttict which bowUdera as we gaze. Mean- 
hile the hnpts of rccoucihng nil truth in God ultimately, should 
'-uuilic ii« reverent to Hia Word, and patient amidst His works ; 
aw) tliu wiiatoD theorist, who goattcra loose Iiypotho^ois with 
a withering contempt of those who are Imm mulled, us he 
asveite, by preconceived opinions, not only misleads and 
injures thv minili^ which ncecpt his views, but begets a pre- 
judice ii<;iiinst piiilcinmihieal Hpeeulution, and rouses uncn- 
liglitenvd bi^ou-y, ai'nied with tenfold power, ns iha compensa- 
tion of hia llippaiicy. The working theory, which, ns far as it 
goes, serves to expUin phvnomuna, may bo allowed the place of 
u wniruldinf; wliiUt the edifice of truth is being niised, lint tliosB 
who onguge in (htui tentative process must not be utlowcd to 
Ik>«hi aa though their poles and rafters were a permanent edi- 
I ficc. There aie thour-imds who love the clatter of new theories, 
^^whu have not the power nor tJie wi&)i to grapple fairly with 
^Hwhal if pr»{>onniled, but love, with t; yiiiive innri innifno feeling, 
[ to contemplate the etlecta of a bri^k, atirring breeze of fpecula- 
^H^ioo. They think by deputy, but embrace with full personal 
^Hbnergy; though inea;Kible of sifting what they take np in the 
^^Way of opinion, or even weighing accurately any fact on whi<'h 
it eeeiiiii to ri>dt. iliich less can they measure the chasm whieh 
separates the childish phantasm of the seiolist Irom the grave 
Iiypothoeis in favour of which the weight of evidence pleads 
[mwcrfully with the patient disdple, although ho ctuinot yet 
aceept tl um approved, This <rha»m may be titled up by ODT 
indetiuite number of more or less plausible hypothesea, for eocit 
of which something may bo said. We cannot, perhaps, turn 
our backs upon them, but the temper in which thoy should be 
met i« one of eandour and caution, like stin|iieiouH acquaint* 
nuces w1k> may turn out honest men. S" mi civ here, wc »u8- 
i>ect, in thia interval, should the Darwinian theory find place. 
The main question on behalf of whidi it vet desiderates proofi 
! appears to be the amount of modification ol which existing typus 
^n[>f life arc capable On tine, indeed, the whole theory nesnis to 
^fiurn. That they ore eapatilo of some, every one would admit 
^^who baa wilh even common cnriosily watchwi the pigeon-house 
or the beehive ; but there seem grave reasons for doubling 
wlietboi' this has at all a wide range. Probably the limits of 
ibie ntodilieation imiy bo much xooner rcaciii-d than )lr. 
rurin supposes, and it w even questionable whether there be 
II nature now the lueuna of vol^'ing tltc question as to the modi- 


Oxford British Aasocuuian Ditcmsioiu, 

fieutton possible i>t an curlier cosinuKiglcul cpucli. At oil eveilt%ij 
to uiiimot wlintcvcr inalc-rluUi cxUt lor ap|>roxiutatiQg to a eola- 
tion may probably be much more than the work ofoDs mao's life- 
time ; perhaps we may need centuries of patient pioneering 
before vrc can reach an eleviition neueesnry to give n» the 
reniiircil breadth of pros]>ccL over uaiurc. The vastly greater 
dinerenceit which exist between the nearest of non-rclal*!! varie- 
ties, and ibe moat widely divergvnt of those which have a 
radical affinity, Hccin to indicate that a central fixity of type ia 
tlie law of those specie^ with which we are raoet familiar ; a 
certain leaven of peculiarity appears to dwell and work amidst 
tile opposite tendency towards fluctuation and change. Nor is 
either of these principles the \ess real because we auinot Gx the 
limit ofits working. Further, the very quality of ausoeptibility 
to physiological change in concurrence with physical drcum- 
etances, acems to be broadly stamped on some animals, and 
even still more largely upon aonic vcgetaljles, whilst it but 
feebly characterizee otners. Nowhere can we look for a uni- 
form exemplifioation of ibis law. It may, however, be laid down 
that the more complex and highly organized a creaturo is, the 
more it is enabled to reeiet inroads made upon its type by ex- 
ternal influences, and in swh, save as regnrd» the superficial cir- 
Cumstancea of Ciijouring matter of hair, skia, Sea., no important 
modification takes place, so far as our observstion extends. 
But as the higher organianis betray less susceptibility, so jnaut 
the highest of all, pcrhapw exhibits the least, save as regards 
those mere superlJcial tokens. The great resemblances and 
differences remain in ux, pig, dog, and dove, resemblances between 
cognates, and ditferences between heterogens. Or, if the oppo- 
nent insists that this is but playing with woi-ds, and that our 
term 'cognation' is merely a compendious way of saying that 
between groups of creatures reaembiances exist, still those re- 
semblances and their corresponding differences abide unelinii- 
nated, so far as our experience goes, in the face of hostile 
circumstances, and amidst all the ingenious devices of natural- 
ints to besiege them with modifying influences. Now, with a 
full view of these prime diflerences, can we suppose that they 
have been surmounted by development, — that races of crea- 
tures now thus permanently, it seems, diflercnced, were origi- 
nully only divergent ; that, the dog, for instance, was once an 
oSkhoot of the fox, or both ramifications of some cynatopecic 
stock, which contained the element of either destined for later 
maturation? Why, then, can we not reproduce the mere 
cynalopex? The developed conunon element would seem not 
to be capable of oflering any opposition to fecundity. It seema 
at any rate far more easy to accept, as cutting off the pos- 

ae related to ^Intual Questions. 



aibility of dettoeiit Troui n common stock, this broitd bar w)iicb 
n»ttiro Kct^ before nil who would confuse tbo lines site 
till?' tntcvd, thau to suppose such descent possible, and then to 
account for the impediuient to sustained propagation. The 
guestion of hybrids xawy further suggest that it is nut the 
Nciog of a ticKeted monstrosity to be the trophy of a museum 
rhich can ever prove ft Inw of nature. The man of true 
science w'dl never acek to make some successful warping of a law 
contribute to the establishment of what one stop more shows to 
be unnatural. These pages lire not a re\new of Mr. Darwin's 
book, but we may venture to record .in opinion that he ha* not 
^snocess fully grappled with tliis important question. Wherever 
Sistinct stocks are found capable of fusing in, and sustaining a 
bybrid race, we ehould he disposed to admit the posvibiHty of 
their common descent, and in default of this to maintain the con- 
iry. Two species mis in a hybrid. It forms no variety, but 
^ ay exist within a wide local range, in a non-reproductive form, 
as largely aa either primary typo ; but every specimen of the 
bybrid is produced by an artificial utiiDulus, to which nature 
Hibdvcd succumbs, but to wbich she exhibits no tendeucy ; and, 
^Mhough the number of mules in a country should equal fur amo- 
^Knent tJiat of horaea and asses together; yet this will only show 
^^hat within certain limits the law of nature is plastic, and the 
known result will surely soon be that horse, mule, and ass will 
become ahkc extinct. We do not aee that the jiriuciple of pre- 
ferential selection explains this ; if these creatures are all the 
products of one stock by the preferential selection of nature, 

■why do they thus tend to disappear when reduced to these pro- 
^rtiooA by the preferential selection of man ? 
Of course to attempt to disouse adequately the results of a 
tenth part of the papers read before the association would be 
utterly inconsistent with the demands of these pages, both aa 
regiu^s the quantity and the quality of the matter to be dis- 
cussed. We touch it only where it touches the higher truth of 
^moral phlloBotihy and theology. We only seek to eound a 
^■trumpet to ail who are willing to man the walls, wliich ihe 
^BneitbouH plausibilities of modern science are threatening; for 
^■tfae surest ground of all defence of all truth, whatever its place 
in the tivalc of faith, in to recoi men's minds to the great ultt- 
niate verities of their moral being and re$jK>osibility, of God 
the author of our Fiutb, the creator and pillar of all things. 

AbT. U. — Memohg of thf Ltjr- and Writingii of the Right Itm, 
Ittrhard llurtt, />./>. Ixfffl ItJuhtrp vf WarrciUfr. By the Bcr. 
Fra.\ci8 Kii.vrbt, M.A. LoDOon: B«ntlfj. 

liisiiop IIl'ud is one of the nnmcs of (b« lut century. To most, 
wc »ui<pL-ct, lie w Uttic more tliui « tiunic ; c»nno(.'tcu in the fir*t 
place ividi thai uf Warliurton, perhaps without iiiiy vt^ry (IU(>tii;i 
idea of dte nnliire of the a»90ciatioDj nest with a'ilici^m: vta 
loMK, somehovT, that llun] was u critic, meeting here and there 
with mention of him in Hosncll, half r..'»|)e(:(fnl, half cynic*]. 
Wc kitow, toy, lluil h« wrote eernioiii', wliich, however, wc luivc 
never read, except, it may be, in disconnected extract&. We 
are not speaking now ol the vrcU-rcad, th« students in the 
heUfs tettrtt of theology, who know cvervthing about the 
eighteenth century as a waller of cour^te. \Vc urv gii'-wnitig ut 
the knowledge of such as do their rending in a deniilUiry tii^liion, 
who do not seek out books or pursue a course of reading, but 
follow a lead ; who, while nnitnalcnle? nro the rnse, know a vast 
deal about rotifers; who, wheu Hue itutde travels entertaining, 
were up in Thibet and China ; who, no long tm Sir Eiw^rwn 
Tennent circulated llirougb ^ludie't;, are versed in the habiii» of 
leeches and elephants ; who take to history while they can be 
edified by Mr. FroiidcV experiiuculg in the art of washing an 
Ethinp white. Wv nil of iia know a go(Hl dcnl abotit ciirrcot 
literature, whether we read it or not ; a certain uIukmii)!!^!^ tli-ais 
round the volumes on our library or drawiug-room table nltioh 
n-6 inhale into our Eyeteni by an almost involuntary proceed 
How many never breathe any other air ! To he out of this at- 
ii>ot<phcrc in, in Inith, to be forgotten liy the hulk of iiuinkind. 

ll ia the pious aim of Mr. Kilvcrt, in the preseiil work, to 
rescue the memory of his ' diatii^uished relative ' l'rt>m this ac- 
knowledged neglect and unmerited oblivion. Thereseem to hint 
to be munyploaH for reviving the world'it Hctiuaititance with one 
who, if not an inliucntial power, ])oaE<eiitietl weight iind ituthority 
in his day. We question if the (ask is a jKi^tiiblc one Frag- 
ments of good sense and practical observation can hardly lake 
strong hold on a generation when the pergonal infiuoncc of the 
writer ih over, bccjiuse opinions in this cliisi; of Micculation 
depend mainly for their force on our actjunintnnce with the per- 
sonal oliarneLerDfllie man who]>roponn(i» thim, and I here \» not 
matter enough alter eighty or n hundred years to place this vividly 
or |>ermanentiy before ue. The poet may say, ' E'en in our 
ashes" life live their wonted fire: fur, to diaoge the met.ipbor, 

BisAffp ffurd. 


etainpe hie iuii^c on his thought, but out tlic critic or tho 
B of the world, e^^ccially where, na herC, tlio ik'tniU of" his 
life urc necessarily uieagre. A career like Ilurd'a ul' nleady 
fii>cent frwii hia fiillicr's farm to school and college; on to a 
fuUutvahiji, hvinc, aud artilideaconry ; llicncc to a biehojiric and 
further tranaktion; where there ie little collateral hiatory, and 

■wherothe prepress Iia^ l)een reeorded by the I'orttinnte imui, Dvt 
jto a doniestio eircle, but to iloctora of divinity, tlieiimclvcii on 
til* wily to |>refemient, with whom unrelnxing dignity of deport- 
ment is essential ; does not afford matter for eseiling intercut, 
especially where the ronmncc of his liTe, the excesses and cxtiti- 
TRgancics of a gennioe frieml!<Kii>, are to he ki^iit in the Imck- 

§ round, ns alrca<^)y toopmniini^iit, llie bloi in the picture, thconti 
aw in the example, the error l>y which those who knew him 
at all are too apt to judge him. Under these conditions, the 
are much ag!iiu«t our having a popuhir or interesting 

N ever! Ii el ess, there ifi mucli to intercnt and to learn from Mr. 
vert's vohjtue. We cannot any a diameter ie dr;twn, but wo 
can construct a chai'acter ft'om tlie facte given us, «iid one well 
worth the etudy, as impersonating its own ace, representing a 
certain stiige of thouglit and habit of mind. Wo hear *o luucli 
f>( tho didncas and deadnesa of the last century limt it io not 
^ iiitss to search into tho grounds of so gcnci-al a charge; ami if 
TF6 find that neither are so denee as readers of modern essaya 
arc led to suppose, that a vast deal of quiet intelligence, com- 
put'cd i^ood wnse, and RJneerc religiona fecliug pervaded that 
fieuerid Buciely whi«h hns yoi the character of being empty and 
frivolous; thai beaided certain knots of hard-hi-uded ihiukcrn 
were setting in motion trains of ideas which have developed 
into our bolder and more prominent line of thought and action, 
we may learn to temper, if not wliolly to reverse, our hasty 
judgment. The »ludy will further ahow its that this nmu- 
despised age refli-cta some excellent qnalitie«, whieli we either 
regard as |pmething old-fashioned which we have outlivetl, as 
ibeing past the common natural stages whicli need homely sup- 
ports ; or which wc more likely assume for ourselves as a matter 
of course, forgetting that no good quality in its sincerity and 

EerToclion i.i ever a matter of course in any inaii, but always a 
nppy and distinguishing possession. We think, tlien, that 
i3ishop llurd reflects the virtm.'« of his own time when we see in 
him n certain steady, Mcrvicvable ftutli, not always theological 
in its tone, purhnps founded more on tlie ont^ idea of tlio unity 
if the Gotihead than on the higher sjuritual lively apprehension 
" the great doctrinea of the atonement; hut an aetmiiing and 
tlmdox faith notvithstauding ; one realiiaiig the Divine I're- 


BUhop Uurd. 

ecnce, quick to discern the guiding Iiaml of Providence, nccent- 
ing implicitly the revealed Word, and j>erfurmiug all relative 
duties, as in the sight of a hcavvuly Father. I'erhaps too 
exclusively engngcd on ihcBC, not recognidiiij; more distant calls 
to BOtion, content witli a limited epiinre, and uinithetic to the 
cliuntit of uinnkind in the extended meaning of the word ; but 
Btill with a recognition of duty as such — duty that lies at our 
door — which we often miss naw-a-day». Wc arc always struck, 
in reading of the worlhiea of that date, with their sicnnle pcr- 
ftiriniuiec of the whole class of otiIigntiuiiB included in the Fifth 
Commandment, which, in its more Uteral rendering, aecina to 
comprehend especially those duties for which we have not to 
seek, which are brought to us — parental obedience, respect for 
cunstitutci] authority, honour to our betters, all the observances 
townnU wliich natural religion and right instincts lend us. The 
impulse, a noble and religious one, to go out into the world — 
tlie recognition oP mankind aB one brotherhood, however sepa- 
rated by space and race and habits, has extended even in our 
own day. The missionary and evangelizing spirit, though not 
sleeping then, has roused itself to more energetic exerlion; a 
spiritual activity has set in : hut with it, in analogy to this dif- 
fusive benevolence, selBshne»s has undoubtedly assumed a more 
perviuliiig and concentrnlod influence. Personal ambition, in a 
more individual and resolute sense than of old, rules with a 
mastery which we do not see in past times; the old nepotism 
hafi changed for the spirit so fatal to the domestic affections and 
the strength of social ties, of rising in the world ; of easting our 
slough; not merely getting rich, getting honoured, getting 
established, which were points — as in all ages, so in the 
eighteenth — fully appreciated, but the desire of changing, if 
possible, fundamentally, the relation to other men, shaking loose 
impediments, adopting another standing in the world. 

Wc are not Baying that people are inliereutly Iea« affectionate 
now than then, hut the temptations which war against the 
social affections have gained force, through the widiy sphere of 
fashion ; and perhaps also, from the real increase of refinement. 
Men were not as sensitive, then, to anomalies, to depar- 
tures from the received type of good breeding. Society will 
rot tolerate what it once did, consequently it is a greater effort 
for a man to own his homely relations. Rank was such a 
deGnlle tiling in those days, state so imposing to the imagination, 
that a pei'sou invested with their prestige eould indulge his 
natui-al sentiments at little cost to his worldly importance. 
Wliether this mere publican's virtue is a merit in the individual 
or not, it is certainly a merit to the age where its practice is 
easy. Bishop Hurd would be set down amongst us as a man 

Bishop Hard. 


of the world ; there w no doubt he possessed ilie «rt of using 
hifl ad vfi Hinges. Born !n n liotncl; rnrm-houBe, dving in nn epi- 
scopal piilacc. liis cnrcer was one of extraordinary auccVMX, out 
the tender intmiineas of hie conduct ihroiighout, not only to tho 
vxedlrnl pon^nta whom it would have been ii dii»gnice to hiive 
flighted, and impossible for him not to honour, but to relatives 
more remotely allied to him, is a pnttoni and an example. Mr. 
Kilvcrt tolls us— 

' All Biiiii^iiig anecdote is ciirrent in tbc familf retipccting the Bisliop's 
jouiigcr brotltcr. Tbomns. Ili; wwi. nt the lii»bop bIhIijb. in tbc Birmingliam 
tnde- At thnt )ilaci: he bud formed »n altucliincnt, uukuciwn to his ramily, to 
* highly tMpc^clablR ^uuiig persuu, but in liuinbb lifn, nnij of uo gteal pcnuDul 
BitHaUciDtt. TliiB ittjicbnifut ri;iiullf{i in a [irivate uinrringe. lu oue of hit 
Tifiits til bis paruuts, bis motber, ohsprving biin lo lie ijhoeiihIIj siltnt and 
thou ghlfulip rested him wilb na niFcctionnt.p '* Wiinl, nils lliec, child P" to toll 
thoCftusiv Tbcrtplj.inafiunlvmci', win, "Mother, I'm muri-ied." " ifnrriedl" 
cried the old Iftdj. " nud wlicrc's llij wife? " (Ri:pij iu a still fnintcr key) 
"J left her ill Ibi" curt ■bouse," "Go," rejoined bin niolhrr, "and fi-tob lier in 
dtreot^y." The poor little woman, sliiteriue wilb sold und anxiety, wns necnrd- 
ingij ushered in from her inhospitfifain ahcllcr. The reelinffs of the good old 
people were loiiclifd, and she was welcomed as n member of tbd fiiniilj. Tliia 

SaiD little ncDioii lined in after- limi;*, on her visits at HartiBburj Caetic, to bo 
d up bj Inc Itialiop with ululvlv euurlVii} to tbu bend of hi^ (ublc, and proved 
the onlj mudiuin iliroiigb whifh the faiuilj waa continued,"— i^ awrf Ci»^ 
Tttponi/aKt u/ Biahoii /Inril, pp. 3, 4. 

Warburtoii'rt bitter [ion writes often and lovingly of his 
mother, confessing to his frieod how far he comoa short of her 
worth ; he takes into his house his sister and her tai^e family 
opon the ruin of his broth cr-in-Iaw in trade, and finds joy iu 

le hospitality ; qtiotjnc Brutus and Cicero to express hia sen- 
timents, while adding that a man who pretends to he a Chris- 
tinii -ihonld not come behind a Pagan, linw great soever, in the 
performance of moral dntics.' All will remember the poet 
Gray's devotion to the mother who for his sake Imd kept shop 

the cily, and with what cIiKjiient pathos he lamented her loss. 

Another ditfcreuco between our own age and thnt of which 
we now treat lies in the idea of friendnhip, or rather its treat- 
ment and development. We think men in thnt time showed an 
aptitude for a certain close alliance and friendship beyond wlint 
we sec now. People were more ilevotcd to, more >vriipi>ed up 
in each other then, llinn iiotv when society and public upinioa 
are in every one's thouffhta, and the universal guides. Thiji is 
not a welcome notion. As every person thinks of himself that ti« 
has an eiceas of hcnrt and fcclinj^; whether showing itself in 
cxpanMvcnc^d, or in some mysterious depth of sentiment un- 
known to others, and needing to be kept in constant cheek by 
the postjcssor; bo we are apt to assume for our age that it is 
peculiar in its measure of the affections. AjmH age, as viewed 
in its Htera(ur«, is commonly called a cM one. W c talk of the 



/tiaitip Hurd. 

cotd conceits of one npc, the coltl propriety or cold itnpro- 
pricty of niwthcr, t)i« coM politcnuiti, the t-oM accuracy, tbe 
cold worldlitifdci of n third ; and &a forth. Wt have thv ^Ai 
oF feoling, hoWGvcr, disguised by some veil of caprice or 
rceerve. By some cunniag process we arrogate tor oui'selves 
sod our tint<» an exclusive patent of feoling. Wo lake for 
granted that our afFcctions nru developed in some uiieoninion 
and exceptional way. The rciuion nf tliie lui^iinption nui»l 
lie in the liollowneas or coldness which no detect in pnut 
modes of expre&.=ion. Juet a» we follow the lines of the 
human frame benciith the costume of our own day, but find 
piirt I'luliions mere disguises, so witli those forms of exprcHsion 
wliioh reflect the tone of an nae, and which wc none of ti« brcuk 
through except on rare occasions; we take them for what they 
profess in our own case, but regard what answered the same 
purjjosc a hundred or two years ago as only counterfeit". Thus 
wc do pot UEisociate ideas of warm romantic fricnJslii|i with a 
curoful choice of phrases, and studied clearness and elegance of 
wordine — with correspondents who say ' Sir ' to one another 
at the beginning of a letter, and who esjiend some considerable 
part of the conclu^ioQ in elaborate expressions of respect. Such 
forma -arc incom|iatiblc with oiur ideas of familiarity, and we 
oMume familiaritj' to be a great part of friendship. Now it may 
be that we understand familiarity a good deal better th«i 
friendship, for cnsc is a feature of our own day, and wc all 
affect <vi«e towards one atiolhcr, which to the car pasi-es muster 
fur intimacy; and so with little reason we settle it, that the 
close alliances of the last century were associations of conveni- 
ence or policy or vanity, with very little soul or true earnest 
about them. 

Now we think friendship comes out very well in that age 
if dcfmed as a love of each othcr'^ iiociety, a satisfaction and 
pride in each other's gifts, a care for each other's interests, a 
defence of each other's cause, a thought for coch other in absence, 
11 sympathy in each other's trials, and tfileration of each other'* 
inGrmitiea or social drawbacks; and moreover the intimacy is 
more genuine than commonly with us in sjiite of our freedom 
of style. We believe that more of domestic detail, more of 
simple family allusion, comes out in the correspondence of men 
in that time than in our own, siippusing as in the cases before 
us the writers to be bishops or college dons. 

Again, we think we cannot be mistaken in asserting that 
learning took a higher po«ition in the worid's respect then. 
It mi);ht be because learning was a monopoly in tbe Iinnds 
of a f^y \ but certainly a learned man hud a rank, as such, 
then, wbioh be has nut now. There are evidenced of more 


Buhop Uwrd. 


_ ut»e love of learning in the scholar, more simplo oonteot- 
ment ID the acquirement of knowledge vritliuut iitiy Smmctliitte 
notion of putting it to use ; iind iii«re rcvci'tiucc iiir leiirniiig in 
nil ranki*. Tiicre in that age »n iinmon»! vencmlion for 
itclioIiin<lii|i and intellect. Learning eecured for its poesesiiorit 
the highest social distinctions,; it gave them a warm welcome to 
the tables of tlic wrcat, led them to the presence and the favoura 
of royally it^elf^ find procured (hoiu the more enb&diutiul 
rewiirit.i of ineril. Men were iiinde hijiliops for the sake of tlieii- 
erudition ; aa a rewai-d for a life of stiiuy. livery neighliour- 
bood wae proud of ite scholar, put up patiently wilh his eceen- 
tricitics, foi^vc his incivilities, consulted hia fandec, accepted 
hii> notice an n favour, collected and tranMuiitted Via payings, 
and took note of hie liMiit^, hin person, hiet miinner^. Men valued 
him for hia own sake, wondering that ' one small head could 
carry all he know;' ihey cared not that he had ppriing from 
flrtimn or pca»int, it wns for what he knew, not for what he 
', that they ^■attied liiin. 

Whnt yming man of fortune and ih^hiou of our day courts 
the mere scholar, thorector of aaniall living, of no social import- 
ance beside — as Mr. Cradoek must have courted Hurd before 
he could receive and treasure up the following amusing pro- 
gramme from his self-invited guest: — 

' In summer he would ttouictiaips lioiiour uie by brinfriiig a fricnil with liim 
to pass n diiv Rl (iumlny, wlifii I nicrclj wime liown to ni,5 old lioiijin to look 
after mv wnrknif n. Of Ponrar it wi»a my wish to in/ike cverjt.liing (is plndinnlj 
as posaibit, iuid iiniewi lie wna indiiifid in hp jilRuwid with p.vrrvtiiiuf-, tor 1 
fgltowed liis own Jiretliiins m ncaiir b.i wiw ncuciiuulilH. '* Mj joanj; frxeud, 
ve sIihU not rtacb jcu till ttftec brcakf-ist, aiitl ibcn juu will ^ivu ub, aa usual, 
only a nice Irg of your iniiHcui sud some titniiji", u ri>ii"t fowl, n.iid a iilnLn 
puudinjt, or lomrtliin^ niily of tijiit kind, «• I do not ent itn;tliin)i but nbat a 
plaic. I know you will nipi^f^t mc t.o drink Iho Uiiivrnily nf C'nmljridftu in 
n bunifier of jour old liock. After lea we inusl Imve aii'itlitT wuik. and rotura 
in llie cool of tlio vvL'uitcf; lo Tliiirtnituii. My yijiiti^ frjtiid IoIIb iiiv lie Ijiitt 
adopted my tea rules from luu. I like Boni.' sa well as Twining'* tijsou at 
terealeen »hilline« a pound I by cboicu I never tjikc niiy other, and iiidepd I 
Dcwr find it ttllcct my nnrvPs. It ig Blw»y* n trrat to roc to wnik OTnr your 
romantic lerriiorj ; nnd I xlioil miiiutRty rxninini! all the books that you bave 
InLcIy purcliaiejl. I do iiul wiib Lo nx^rl the Iter. Dr. Parry : bv is h uoud 
lIcbruiM, b«il be is to rswne dl^-uilaries »bo are the avowed nnlji- 
gouinls of Di.ihop Wartiiirloii, Tbere i^ n Udy from ElBrborongii, Mr». Allnn, 
wlio, I find, froqaontly »i«it.i nt jniir bonsn ; I niiould bfi hnppj to bn intro- 
duced to iior. . Sb« is daughter of the laic I'rofoMior Andorson." " — Ibid, 
pp. 69, 70. 

Learning being then bo marked a distinction, may account 
in part for the diili-rencc so much in our favour of the dcpoit- 
ment towards eadi other of iiieu of letters At llint lime 
M man's opinions, criticisms, jit<lgmenls, were Iiia properly, 
lis freehold. Whoever infringed these, diaiMraged or opposed 


Siahop Hard. 

tbem, attacked his vealth, what conatiluted his clum to 
the goodwill and respect of maDkhid. Tli« de«i>ei^ social 
injury w!is infiicted, and cvcrj* po^reion roused wlten an 1i^[h>- 
ttieais was attacked, a theory sucoesatidly ctimbatcd, or a new 
rendering blown ujwn; and hence the virulence with whicJi the 
merest snstrnct and morally indifferent dincuadionjt were pursued ; 
the rancour, the lifelong enmitica, that gr«w out of a new >-iew 
of Virgil's meaning in a particular passage, the asperities which 
seaM>ricd nli controversy, whutever the subject. Whatever the 
(|uestifln, however it uiight set out in itmonth, oiiy,lndy-likc terms, 
as ' the Antirjuary ' liae it, it was certain to wux sour and eager 
in old Scaligor's style, as it went on, and to end ' in a trimmer. 
* All the world knows,' writes Cumberland, sore from an attack 
on his grandfather, the arch-critip Bentley, 'all the world 
' knowa that Warburtun and Lowth hud mouthed and mumbled 
' each other till their very hands blushed, and their lawn sleeves 
' were bloody. I should have thought that the prelate who had 
' AVurburtou for his antt^onist would have hardly found leisure 
' from his own self-defence to have turned aside and fixed liia 
' teeth in a bystander.' Happily our scholars, whether bishops 
or laymen, liavc lost their likeness to bulldogs, but we maintain 
that they uo longer lie under the old temptation to be scurri- 
lous. Sfen are ashamed to he mere book-worms in these days; 
they take their stand on more Courtly and carpet considerations. 
Learning is not now an idol ; the world values men for their 
success in society, and takes little part or interest iu the quar- 
rels of the learned, ' therefore the learned quarrel no more. 
Some touch of the old manner may indeed be seen in Mr. 
Itusktn lavishing tlie epithets of ' base,' and ' doubly base,' and 
'brutal,' on those who do not follow him in his notions, but this 
rather proves our view, for art is more fasliiouable now than 
literature, and Mr. Buskin may hope for sympathisers. But 
it is time to turn to the individual who has given rise to these 
general reflections, and whose career is further to illustrate them. 
K;cbard Hurd, the second of three sons, was born at Con- 
preve, in the parish of I'enkridge, in the county of Stafford, 
in January, 1719 — ^20, where his parents, 'plain, honest, and 
good people,' lented a considerable farm. Early in his fricnd- 
3iip with Warburton he thus speuks of them: — 

' I bclicTO I never told jou iiow hnppy I nni id nn MCfellDot fatter and 
mother,— Fcry [ilaiu peoplo, jou nmj be sure, for lliry arc fHruiers, but of a 
turn of miiid that oiiglit hiivo honoured any rank and any rdiicntioii. Wil.h 
very tolemhlt, hut in no degree alHueut, cirt^uniatniioeH, tJicit gwicrositj vma 
Biich, tlmy never rupirikd ntij espenso tliftt wss in lUeir powi-r, und nlnmut out 
of it, in wliatever regarded tlic welfare of tlicir children. We are Ihree brolUers 
of us. The eldest [John] settled very wputablj in iLcir own way, sod the 
youngest [ThomosJ io the Jiinuiugtiam trodo. Tor myself, a poor tckular, as 

TOa know, T aiu a1iiio!>l asliauii'd to oua liow solicitous llicv nlwnjs wfirn to 
inrnja!) me widli all tlic opporltiuitics of the bpsl. niid must flbcinl ciiucntion. 
U; Rktc in to miinf pnrticiilara rcsrmblcs t.list; wbich iiie Itornan Pupt dMcriliet 
■a hit onn. Hint wiLli Pojie's uit 1 coulii applj ulmoal cvcrj circumntauci^ of it. 
And, j( ever I wurc tii wisli in curnest to be a pui^t, it wuuid be for tim nuke of 
duiuK juaticu la «» uucdmnion u virtue. I sUould be u wntcli if I did not 
oncIuSc, as he iloe», 

K Datura jabereC, Ac. -&c. 

* In a wciri], when llie; had Hied us in 3ue)i & rank of life, aa the; designed 
i b«liavcd sliould aalisfy u», tliej very wisely lel't llie bu»i(ie»f of tlie world 
(uch aa wanted It iiioro, or liked it bellei-. TIjej conaidered what age aud 
ilining health seemed to demniid of theoi, rcserviDg to themselves oulj giieU 
»up[>iirt lu thrir few and little wiinU nmife tlic^ni think sufficient. 1 shnuld 
ag |iaril(>Ti for troubling joii with this humble history ; but tho subjceta of it 

are ao iiiucli. auii bu leiiderlj, iu my thoughta at [ireseul, that, if 1 writ at all, 

■ could hardly help writing about tliuui.' — Hid. p- 2, 

To wliicb Warburton replies: — 

Tea ooiild Bot have obliged me more than by bringing me ap(|iinintcd, na 
'oin jour hist kind letter, with ijcrsons who can never he indifferent to 
hat to near lo you, Sir K. Littleton had (old bii^ great things of Llieni ; 
tuid from him I learned tiiat virtue and good sense arc heieditaty umotigst you, 
«ud faiiiilj quulilief.. Arid as to (ilinl piety, I knew it eould not but crown all 
tho [crt of your adniimhie eiidowun^ula. Pray make uie nemiaiuted with jour 
good fntlicrand mother; tell them how «ini.'er<^ly 1 ooii^rutimtc with them on 
the honouc of auch a sod, and how mucli 1 abarn iu their hnppincss on that 

' Sir Edward oft seeti jnur elder hrotlicr, and sjieuks of him as the beat com- 
jiauioQ be has, — indeed iii n rcry cxlraofdinarj manner, of bis abiiiiicB. Your 
her brother was, I wm luld, nut lung since, among ibe trading towns in this 
iRhbonrliood, where bo fell into oomoanj at dinner with some of our Somer. 
' hire clergy, by whom he waa much catcsaed on bearing to whom he was 

' Prior r«rk. July H 1754.*— /*«/. p. 8. 

Ho must early have ahown tho bsnt of his gcoiug, retaining 
lat affection for hia Bchoolroastera wliich ajMiaks so well for 
lar at! well &s niafiter. lie is reported to have been 
%ya n^icluous at hi» books from earliest cliiklhood, itnd wa:< 
aumitted siiziir iit Ktnninuuel College, Cntnbt'itlge, iu Iiis foiir- 
ccnth }'car, though he dJil not reaiile till » year or two later. 
1<! took Ilia decree in 1738-f), and was then regarded aa a 
i^iig scholar, in 1740 we find liitn in correspondence wilii 
persona of some coneidgration ; bis letters being then marked W 
tli.1t stifl'tieas !iii(] formality of cxprciseion which iiidicatea working 
a way to a style, and which niii^t alMttja be tolerated in the 
" Dung as more proruiaiti^ than mere ease and nothing else, 
'ritiaem was even then nis turn, and he writes on the graver 
book* of the day, forgotten now, with a remarkable gravity ol' 
interest. Sucli patwigee as the following give evidence to the 
KO. ex. — S.9. u 




Si»kop ITurd. 

fEcncral tone of disparagement of Scripture which we so oflen 
fiiwi noknovrlcdgvd in tlic writinga of that tjinc, 

' Ttiixk nut. Sir, 1 mcntim ihii as tlioagti I lliouglit llie portrj- of Uav!d 
could rcoEtie tmjr nddiliouiil vlory or mciit (roui nii<r rKsoinblanoe it tnaj be 
found to bcnr to lbs fligbla efPagiin wcilere. Tlial I'tnow is iiii|>o»Bible ; but 
must awu it eivcg mo some piciwarc to mccl «it]j passn^'ca iji hoalben le«riiing 
thftt dre parnllc! to those in sacrad writ, »iiico it is by suci) kinii of proof only 
lliftt nuuijr dualcal prd^ndcm to criticltni will suil'ci' tlirmaelvRi to bo cm- 
*iuce<l of Ibo buuLj o( tliosG lublimnil of cnmpoiitioiu.' — Hid. \). lU. i 

In June, 174"i, lie wna ordniued Deiicon, rind had a temporary 
chaise of a entail pariah in Norfolk, wliere he hiis to lament tho 
wonderful scai'city of reputable clergymen. ' Sobcf arc rare, 
hut learned I have not heard of one near me.' Here, uu that 
principle of duty whicli always nctuated Kurd am far M he 
rcooeoiBed it, lie nut alwut writing sermons. 'Sermonizing' 
wafl bia apoln^^y for not writing letters. ' Aa I have tired niy- 
'eclf a good deal to-day with writing a sermon, you'll excuse luy 
' talking by hiti^ and scraps, &c.' At the same Uinc his pros- 
pects were very much in his thoughts : whether he should sttintl 
for a fcllowahip, or, iv< he at first preferred, 'cut out his name ' 
from itci ho<)lut,and 'instead of reposing in the shade of n collie, 
trust hia fortune to the world.' Thi^ world was alrtiady be- 
ginning to smile on him. lie reports having been treated with 
great civility by thi^ and that person of distinction. There 
must undonbtcdly have been a singular charm about him when 
he wii'he4 to please, however formal and reserved in company 
not to his fnHtc. Warburtun calls Mm * the iilul of his friends,* 
and when later in life he was presented, Ocorge the Third ' was 
'pleased to remark that he thought him more naturally polite 
' iJmn any man he had ever met with.' That he had tact, and 
Isncw what manner could and coiild not do. is evident from his 
mention of his firet parishioners. The tithes of lieymerstou 
were rat(rd too low, which he wtia pcrfeclly awnrc of, hut the 
really 'rising man ' Is not of the sort to get into a lawsuit about 

' In tCBpect of tliK tithes of Rcymftrston, wliioli joit are pleased to mention, 
1 npprulieud. nol only lliat tlicj enmiol now, but ILat tlicT cannot ^rr, bj iflc 
bn niBtciiallj ulltred. Tlie Lemperof Die pt'oplf is sorcsolntcly ob»tinnlc, tliat 
upon any sucli attempt 1 am t'citaiu tbcy uoitlJ hnvc tlic i-lntirl) ; of nliicli, 
tfipURli in l.fac iiesertioii of my juat rlgbls, 1 slioiild lliink nijscif uiJiuppj !» 
bmiig liii! (iccnsioii. Tbe rent-dsy i» occr; and tlie incomt i.i (tliougli nut, 
iiiUe(;iI. tliii year on nccount of aniiie (iediict-ions) a good ciglity pounds. I ain 
actisiblp, 0.1 you suggest to mo, tlint ii is worlb mucb more ; but am asaurcd it 
will ncviT ha in ike pimcr of Ibal uddti'ss you aru so polite to compliiiient oic 
upon, to ailvauoe it. And aa to galLcrina, it a wlial I niiiat never think of: 
for llie inelosiircs arc so Bmnl). so perpieied, and lie in such a manner, tbot 
iho l.fotibk: of doing it would lie infiniti!. Tliongli in tbis cnsK I am prudeat 
Hiiougli to keep my thoughts to myself. The; would olhcrwiit be apt lu tulw 
advsatuges.' — I6i^. pp. 13, 14. 

Suthop Ilurd. 


Here in lita llmt naridi wfi find eome prim ntluitiom to tlie 
litiltos, wlioiii he ihiuKH it worth while to descnbc as a)^'ecahle 
and polite ; but there is no incliuntiun of liii; ever hiivlng ioruieil 
an attadiuicnt, or even ever feeling the need of female society; 
tltere wax, in fuut, an ciciiiont of ihe fc-iuiuiiie in hie own nnture, 
which no <louht uccuuiiU (or the exlrowrdinary liolil burton's 
vuet., coluBsal/and rudo qualities had on h!tii,:itid the conttii<tcnt 
frienddliip tJiat subBiated between them, and nUo for the epilhcl 
hi« enemies cboso for him, *aii old maid in broechee.' Hie own 
old-ntaidiem clearly made him uQsynip!i(hii=ing towards feminine 
wealcDCst in the other sex. ' It'evcr I full in love.' he snys, 'i^ehall 
oot he with (I ])oeleB3,' alluding to Pu|ic'a friendship with Marlhu 
lilount. And again, half in Jest, ' When I conten)plal.(> this 
' tUculty the ladies have got of being well everywhere hut ut 
' lionic « * * I ehiidder at the thoiigbt of matrimony, and half 
'acquit this libertine age for the disgust it has conceived of it.' 
So there was no Mrs. Hurd to disturb the exquisite order, 
quiet, and decorum which aurrouudcd our fricud throughout 
his existence 

His was one of those oonstitutione of mind and body which 
Attain their object in life, lie ingtinctively took the right 
way to gain hix endx. Re wa« n man of the world in its beat 
I tense, us he haj? himscli" well described it. 

* It is tbia art of cot.criiie into tlie cbninctcrs, {nTJudiccg. and expiictaUaiii 
i>r others, and of knon^ne tinw to suit oiiir appliffltiou pruiieritlj, but wilb 
waoccnce, to tlicm, wiiick eniistitutci »lint we call a KNOWLEDGE o? TUB 
I ^OHU>. An art oF wliicli tlir atnaX pnvt (nnruce) wai > conxiimiimtc roMtcr, 
and than wliich ihcrc caiiiiut t« a nivru uir!'ii1 nr amiable ignilitT. (hil; wc 
uusl tnkc can iioL l,o eoiifomid il wilb Ibat buiijiIi', viirsuidt, nnJ iiilriRuing 
geuins, which, lukiit;; all isIiiij)CA and icfltcliri;.; nil cliiirauters, uuiioriLlly posses 
for il ill the coniuierce of ihp world, or rather is prii^ii much nboto it ; (>ut. us 
rcqoiiiu^ uo ol.hcr tnlcnls in the poaiiniiinr thnn tho*R of a linB cotmsi/ aud 
tarru/tt d«iwii,'i»a^ a\\ ntlins tlii: mtutmiscliicvuut, WDrl.hIcM,n.ndcORtcin|itible 
fliiantoter, tuat iiifeitn liunmn "Cdit'—ilnil. p. 31(1. 

Th« ])UMUgo provee thut he had atiidtcil thi.* hnuich of knowledge ; 
indetd, the question waa one well tuiited to Iiim turn of thought. 
He was naturally a fttudentof character, not no much throuf^h tJie 
lolcrcouree of general society, for which his fastidious niitiiredin- 
qualifiod him, as in hooks. lie loved tu invei^tigate motives, to 
h>ok iuto the ti(>ring« of great aclimi.t nm) leading ciueers ; and 
where the chitnicter was umgenial, this xa done with much 
felicity of llioueliC and expression, both in his characters and 
biB dialoffuee. fiut the knowledge of cltai'actcr, the tracing of 
iictiun to Its source is a power wbidii people can only possess iu 
nroporiioD to their other powers: t. powoii poaseiMed of it will 
' unuereluiid all it can gmsp and fathom in others, hnt thci-e may 
be a whole range of qualities in the ehanicter studied, wliicb will 

n 2 


Bishop Hftrd. 

mvvT enter in tli« flcM of tlieir perception; tbey have not in- 
tcllccliiEO Biglit Cor it. Thus with Ihird the character delineatetl 
inunt liuve smiie affinity with his own, or he Is at faiill ; it inuBt 
bo Qiarked liy soDse rather than genius, aud it must nut li« 
tinctured hy enthusiasm, Kuthusia^ui with him an<l Wnrhurtoa 
16 eynonytnous with f'aimticii'En, acid of liolh tlie^c qualities they 
CMii only take iv im;ri?ly external and uniiymim'tnising view. 
'I'liuR Hwrd cun draw Archliisliop WillianiB, but entirely fails in 
Savonarola. \\\a motto through life was ' think soberly ; ' there 
ie something remarkable in the con»iHteot courage with which 
ho set down and dit^pnraged flights of every sort It is the 
deliberate conviction of a sensible man ihnt lor practiciU pur- 
poeea, tieightK and depths arc incunvenlent ; that we do better, 
that iJie world thnvoa belter, in ajuat medium. There is, wo 
rejieat, courage in recoiding ihe following preferemco for 
Rxquiaite good sense over the highest flights of imaginatiua. 
There arc cridences of his being able to appreciate Shalespeare 
to the full as hi>^hly as wen generally du, bnt his relL^h for 
truth in ii elevated range was of a more vivid oharaeter. 
Writing to the poet Mason in 1770, he says : — 

■I Imve foumi aa uuiusciuuliI hlely in turning uvet tlio works of Mr. 
Adilisuu. I «et out niiuiy ^ein a^o with a wui'ui ajiiilraliuti of tliia aminble 
wril«r. I tbrii took a eurfi^it of Ills natural easy manner, and was taken (like 
luy bcttcrt) with ilio rapturous and liifih fli{,'lits of 8ti.ike3|icnrn, My mftturor 
judgment, or kninnt ngc (ciall it wtiicli you will) hna now led mc back to tlie 
fuvouritn of my yoiiUi. And here i (Uiuk I simll stick : t'nrsuch useful ieu»e 
in SCI cliamiing wurda I liiuJ not elsowliere. His luste is so pure, aud bia 
Vir^iliuii |irui>u (as Dr. Iouuk culls it) bo uxquisitp. lUat I liuva but uuw found 
out, at lliccloscof acriticallitc, the full value of hia writiii^-s.' — /£i(f. pp. 3G3-4. 

The words 'deep,' 'depth,' ' originality,' and the like, are never 
applied by him, or Buflered to pass, without conveying wamo 
trait of this mistrust ; even where he applies the term in a 
fuvouriible Bonae to Shakespeare, it is what is cnlfoJ * originiility 
thai is frefthneas and novelty.' Addisun caunut apeak of" dfutK 
of style, but in a note we find this word explained — 'deep, that 
JB, excellent ; ' and lie despises Locke for aiming at the reputa- 
tion of an original thinker. ' The aftectation of passln" hir an 
original thinker "lares strongly and ridiculously in Mr. Locke;' 
and we lind Mr. Kilvert confirming our view. ' Another idol of 
' the present day," he writes, * is oriyinaliti/. In opposition to this, 
' the Bishop's opinion was that originality is au inferior merit to 
' the dexterous use and applieation of thoughts already struck out.' 
Now Hunl was unfloubtedly a clear-headed, clear-sighted 
man, with a mind well practised to pursue and investigate. It 
might be the union of self-respect with u just mid nut too 
partial appreciation of his own powers which -produced thio 
preference for mediocrity — to use the word in its hteral sense. 



Sishop Ilnrd. 



not as meaniDg iRferiority. It is not difncult to understaiu] 
how euch a man sbould deliberately ostimate the worth of 
things by hU ]>ower of imderBtnnfliiig them. Meet people do 
tile 8nme without owning it or rntlicr without linowinp it; 
hut he was eKfti^(.ly »w»re of the naturi} of hid own rui!ii]tiui> imd 
of bit likes ani] diHlIkc8, and wa^ aahamed of nothing; nlmiit liini- 
BelF. A grave and impartial aelf-respect was the ba^is of hia 
diameter and fbrhincH. Of course a person who found his 
tnind niid habits of thought in ^uch exa<;t accord with the 
external world, was not likely to have much pity or sympathy 
vith unsatisfied aspiriitiuue. Itisofteuanillustratiuu of Andcr- 
eeen's fable of the ' ugly duck ' and the ' hen ' wlio reprenenia 
common senee, and used to say, ' We and the world.' But, 
Bays the iDcipJent swan, 'it is so deliijhtful to swim in ihe 
' water, si.i delightful when it dashes over one'a head and one 

* dives down tu the very boltom.' ' What next 5 ' atid the hen, 
whose experiences all lay in another direction. 

Uurd's early manhood is distinguished by a gravity and 
propriety of pursuits which marked him out at once as a person 
of weight. At four-ami -twenty we find him entering upon con- 
troversy, and contending ngiiiust ' unyrt.lindox,' 'chimerical,' 

* wliimaioal and enthusiastic perfornianoes'nnd 'pieces,' i!^i;. and 
about that age he began bis oorauion-place IwoW, a record and coin- 
mcntai-y of books read, and a register of psesing tlioughts and 
reflections which heoontinucdthrongli life, and which is still pre- 
served in the library of Hiirtlelmry Cftatle. It was at this lime 
that ' Warburton's Divine Legation' came upon ihe world an<l 
excited universal attentiuu and not a little Hiispicion. Iluid 
writes from Cambridge of the first attack, and the ' acrimony' 
and * resentment' which arose from it. 

In 1745 he writes:— 

'The sttmlion of tlic Icnrncil world nt prcwnt turn* entirely tdnioiil oa (Jin 
autbor of the Divine Legation of Moses, wLo ia mowing Jowu Ui» lulversarins 
Willi as great aeal mid siiucess ss ecer oU Bcntlej liiil before liicii. IniiL'til llio 
superior eeniut and abilitii.-s uf timt writer gnve liim u very ^rcat advanliii;e 
o?er »!l the pnnt.lcnicn tliRl liuvc ftpiii'ftred a^aiiiBt liim, nliiitever umj bo ife- 
lerniincd tinallj of lii» raimc. A piece lie litis jtibI uow piihlislicd in nniwcr to 
Dr. StcbliinK ajid Sjkox i% vnrj in^-nioiii, bul wroto wit^ a SRVctc sntiric spirit 
peculiar lu liiinsdr tiud hit bio fnoud Mr. I'npc.' — }Md.p. 23. 

In 174!), Hurd c«nflnned his own reputation as a writer br 
bis commentary, and 'Notei*on IIoi"ace'a Art of Poetry, 'ofwhicli 
ibbon has written : — 

' Mr. Tlord, the supposed auHior of tliia pcrformannc, is ono of those 
tatuablc nuthora wtio oaiinot be tend nithont inmrrivRinrnt, 'I'n n grrnt fund 
of wcll-dtgtntpd tcomiiift, tie ndtii ■ clciirnc»> ni^ jiidfcnienl nnd n nic^nrsi of 
pcnelraliun cajialile of traciiiR lliiTigs from liictr first |)ri;u.'iplt's. aiid olnorvii'g 
llicir most mmulo diffei'ouac!». 1 kuow few writera uiore deserving of llio 
peal but ptoelilulcd uuiie of critie.' — Hid. p. 30. 


Bishop ffwtL 

In ihe Ttatea to this work Iliiryl had insGrteil n j^nccftil com- 
plimcDt to Warburton as the friend and coninn-iilntor oi" Pope, 
which wns replied to by an c<jually wctUtiirncd oomplimcnc 
from Wnrburton, al«> in a iioW tu the ' Essay on ('riticism.' 
Tltcsc ciTilitics |nt»vi-(l intiru Blcrling coin than eiich efTueions 
ofttn do ; they ciiutnntcti from a genuine &yni|Mithy ; a unibn of 
pnmuit.-* nnd di.oimilarity of character alikcinarkcd them out as 
united to one another, and they no Booncr nict than llwy were 
fast friends. The ecniua of Hunl at onco rcuogni^ud it^ niaxtcrf 
and seemed from the first to hnvc gloried in being tlio anbject 
of Buch an ascendancy. We do not wonder; the portraits of that 
joviiil ColoMUS of Ic-irntng have n remarkable fascinntion. Then 
\i II wild trroBponiiiible sense of power about hiin which reminds 
one of a lion, a giant, an Iri^hnmn at u fair. His rebsli foe 
6ghting, his extraordinary skill at vitupernlion, his cimteuipt 
and BCtira of opposition, hi? pmfoiind belief in himself, his in- 
tendG rcaliziUionof the truth nnd importance of hisown theories, 
Iii» thori nigh -going pnrlizanahip, his genial temper, and we muEl 
add Ilia genuine, noncet, religious faith, nil point him out the 
idol of hi8 friends as certainly as he must have been the detes- 
tation of his foes. The effect upon II nrd was magical ; caut ioua 
nnd nneulhnsiftslic by nature, his zeal for AVarhurton made 
him reckltss and infatuated. He leanit lo r.iil from his master, 
nor did time or death ever nuike him regret the excesses into 
whieh the extravagance of his friendship led him. Wnrburton 
had been trained in a good school for contempt and nhnse. He 
succeetk'd to Benlloy's crilienl style, and he was the chosen 
frienil (Hid llieolrtgical defender of Pope, had been thick in the 
splenetic politics of the Dunciad, and had learnt to call names 
in the iieat company. Hut he had never foi^ottcn the imra- 
mount claims of theology. Our readers need not be told the 
great argument of the ' Divine Legiitlon,' which goes to prove 
the inspiration of Moses and the divine origin of his law from 
the omisairtn of the doctrine of a future state of rewards and 
punishments. False religions, setting forth false gods, all taught 
a future state as a necessary mode of accouniing for present 
imperfections in the world's scheme. Moses could promise an 
exact scale of temporal rewiu-ds and puniBbments; and n par- 
ticular especial Providence in the one instance of the chosen 
jieople worked out hia promises. A prodigious amount of 
learning was brought to bear upon this argument with a vigour 
and liveliness of style which commanded attention. But the 
argument was new, and the religions world viewed it with 
extreme suspicion, tlinugh there were notable exceptions, as 
Rinhojjs Sherlock nnd Hare and the Is^oii conformist Doddridge. 
Wnrburton found his orthodoxy attacked and his faith called 

Sisftop itard. 


inqiicet!on: 'it i^tiiok witli ciin<Iit) men iiow n religion witliout 
a future sdile could be worthy of God.' OonscioiiK of his own 
lionesly of/pMrpoae ho couid never give orwlit lo hie op]K)nent« 
even (or good intentions, lie rcgnrded them as filclieid of his 
cood name lUid railed on them as so m.iny jiick pockets. II« 
Qiereupon ' assumed,' ns a writer of the time lias it, ' the high 
' oiEc« of Inquisitor-General and sujireme judge of the opinioiia 
' nf the lenrncd, luid exercised it with :i lerocity nnd u dcs|K>ti«iD 
' without example in the republic of letters.' Hu declnred him- 
tself in periodicals, notes, letters, by word of mouth, nnd bis 
friend Ilurd thought all worth preserving and reproduction. 
Let us take a few llowers from tbia branch of rhetoric. It can 
scarcely bo deemed a <li^rcsj*ion, for Iliird cnunol be treated 
wholly apnit from his friend. A certoin IV[r, Webater attacked 
Um'; — 

'To tlilnV I will ever toitt into a coiitrovcrsj witli tlm weutest us well iis 
wickedest of A\ majitind, is n thing impoeailiie. This I slirill ilo, indeed, lo a 
•liort riefaec to tiie S^cniid Fclunw. 1 eliAJl linng hiui auii iiJi fcilowt m l.licy 
[do vemtin in a iionrn, anil Icrvr tlicni to posicritv to sliok nnd bittcknn iu tlie 
rind; anil lliiiwili 1 liowiis tin; I'ope liimiclf llieir jiTOtcctor. Ollwir bujinrai 
rill] liicni ill ilia way of arj-uiiiL'iit 1 tliall aevutlinvo nnj.' — LiUruri/ Jsr-cdoUa 
'Ihf JUgAieim/A O^stary, vo!. v. ]). S4S. 

Th« Rev. W. Roroaine from Epsom writoa in a curious strain, 
i,with well-choBcn arguments agninst the view. Warburtou 

■T hope you received one from me by Iho Iwt port, iiud that we xliali fonct 
ml tlie Hjinam LfUfT-icritef. 

It is the sport, to see Die Ingoneer 
Hoist witli his owu petu — 

If it WM he, never was there a mote execrihli; sooundrel. 

I calls down the secular nrm upon inc. Cnn I ontlive itF If 1 do, it will 

: in mere spight, U> mb itiirithcr vDliinte of the Divine Legation iu the noses 

wye Shai^espeare. 
ruo csUs i' 

: in mere spi^ 

'. bigotsi and Mohrts.' — Ibid. p. 551. 

We meet everyvfhere the phrases ' dunces,' ' wretches,' 
I'ini-ipid creatures,' 'abandoned libeller,' 'scoundrel temper,' 
'■jsennelcs*, nbtindoned scribbler," ' proHigate scribblers,' ' worth- 
ies.'* crew,' ' infamous rhapsody,' and the lifee. Any person who 
expressed an opinion conti-nry to anything he had published, 
especially in his ' Magnum Ojnwi whether he did it designedly 
or not, was gibbeted without mercy ; bi« prefacci? nnd note*, at 
wa* observed at the time, being the eatahfishcd |iltiei-s of cxocu- 
~ on for the piiniahment of all who did not implicitly adopt his 
QttmenteL vVe somelimes are disposed to think that vice 
itself cannot incur worse language than a mistake or difference 
■-of opinion, but he had degrees — ^fiirther depths — ns where, in his 
laoc in the Iloutc of Lord.*, he ni>ologis«d to Satan for having 
upposed hiui capable of inditing Wilkes's [lamphlet. 


BCskop HureL 

Like Johnson, he mnkee free use ol' the chnrgc of ljing> 
With him there was uo diBtinction between mistnke of judg- 
ment Kiitl wilful niicirepreflentation, that in the one ease n man 
lie*, in the other he liea and knows that he Iks; with the 
further variation of being maliciously mistnken. Sometimes we 
do not ao much quarrel with his term*, a* where he prononncen 
Lawrence Sterne an 'irrecoverable wcoiinilrel:' or where, in 
Hume's case, lie threatens ' to trim the rogue's Juclcct ; ' or 
even where he gives judicial aentenee on a hbelluua acribbler, 
' who writca bad verses and attaclics Milton's namo to them. 

' On wliicli T will vtuilurc to prououiico cou^feiiLiiiitiun in duo form of law — 
lliKl it sliall rflurn frvni whm/'f <t camf. From a liiingliill lie sfijs he reccited 
it, auit to a iii[U};liill it »lml) go, let liim prim, upon ns stiff pappr b» lie pli-Bsen. 
In tlii» case 1 aoi as clnnr nnd positivi: m tiic (nnious Etymologist, wlio tnid lie 
not onl; knew from whence wordii oanic, but trliitlicr tiicj wok go'mg/— Hid. 
»ol, V. p. fil5. 

Or where he Batirises the public. 

' Lnuder liuH utTorud niucli aitiiiEtimeiil fur tin; [mblio. uuil tlicv itrR obliged to 
bim. Wbat tbe public wauts, or subsists ou, is iil'wh, Milton was lUeir 
reigning favfiurite; jut Ihrj took it well of «. inao tlicy lind never bciird of 
before, to tell tlirm tlin news of Alill.on hr.'mg n thief nnd a plflgimj ; liad 1io 

boen provcJ a it !md nlwi-ir.d tliom miicti Ticltci'. Wlicn tfiis wns no longer 

iWBB, lliej were euuallj ddighltd willi tini>lli(T. us niuoli a slrnni;cr lo llinm, 
wlio cnterlxiaed tliein with nnutlier pii-co uf news, tliut Lauder nus h ]ilngiHr,T 
and an itnpostor ; liad Le proved liini a Jesuit ia disguise, uotbiug had equaJleo 
their gntiglgction.— f/j'W. vol. v. p. C50, 

It is atuusing to see naniea of note occurring in theac letters 
as ' one Home,' and ' tkia Johnson ' — ' Of this Juhnaon yon and 
I, I believe, think alike.' And let us note that Johnson never 
stands out more amiably than in contrast to this reckless imd 
iiromiscuons vituperation ; while Warburton jipenka of bi» ' ivso- 
tenc^,' and ' malignant reflections on bis notes to Sbakeftpeare.' 
Johnson always did justice to Warburton, waa grateful to him 
for ' praise wlien praise was of value to hini,' and adiUiccd him, 
in bis celebrated interview with George the Tiiiid, as ' greatly 
more learned than himself." He — 

'Joboiioa lind not been able to read mmsli compared witli otbere; for 
instance, lie, Imd not iiwii sbio to read mucli DoinjiarBJ witb lit. WartiiirtoD. 
Upon wbich the King said, that he licaid l)r. Wsrhurton wag h man of wich 
gennral knnwleiigc, that you eonM souve talk with him on any siulijeet on whicli 
ne was uot quulmed to ispeuk. and Umt )iis loruing resembled Garrick's ootiiig 
ia its ullivtmalitj.' — BumcM'a Joknatm. 

Elsewhere, Boswell aays: — 

■'I am informed that Warburton said of Johnson, "1 admire bim, hut I can- 
not bcnr hia stjic ; " and that .Tohn^on beinc told of this, said, " That i» exactly 
my case a^ainrt bim." The manner in whinh he csprcascil his admiration of the 
fertility of Warburton'* ijenim, itnd of the mrinty of lirs ninttrinU, wa»— " The 
tablo is always full, air. He brings things froiu the iiurtli add the soiitli, and 
from every quarter. In liis Divine Legation you are nlwaya cutetttuncd. Ho 


curies jiiii round and routtd, and without carrjinr yon furotnnl tn thi^ point, 
bill Ihen jou !i»ve uo wisli lo bo catritid forward." He soid lo Hid Knv. Mr. 

Slmlmo, '* Wsrliurlou is perlisps lln' last mau who \im writlea willi «, nucid (lUl 
of teadiiiR and rel!i;cliou. ' — I6iJ, 

In spite of these testiiiioniea of reelect, it is jiliiiii there wa» 
little real congeniality hot ween tlieae rival giants, neither of 
whom could have ttiken a subordinate part. Tliey met but once, 
and ihoiigli the interview was paliBfactory, it was never re- 
peated. Warburton's excesses of language, however much thoy 
enabled him to carry il, over tamer spirits, really vreakcned 
his luAueiice, and permanently lowered his leputation. .John- 
son's tone, whenever we encounter the name of Warbiirton, 
ehow!^ that superiority that reason must have over unrestraint, 
and assumes the em|»ire ; aa where he speaks of the controversy 
that raged on Pope's ' Essay on Mnn, couinienteil on by the 
SwiM, Mr. CiMusaK, and defended with rancour by ^Varburton. 
He recominenda the learned world to elect a moderator for 
all disputes. 

'Among llip duties of a moderator, 1 bavc mentioned that of recalling t ho 

dinputanta to llic lubjuct. ami cutting otT t!>e excrescences of u dcluite, whicii 
Mr. CroiiBMjt will not auffer to bi: long unemployed ; nnd tile rfiprcision of jier- 
eoDid inwclivea, wbiob have not been very carefullj avuitluil on eitlicr part, 
■ud are Icm excusable beoatise it Iiuk not been pruvcd tbat eilber the poet 
or hi» commentator wrote witli any ollitr design tli«n that of pvomor.iuo biip- 
[liiican. hj Riilt.ivat.inK reason nnd pictj.' — LUfraiy Jmcdott* of the Kij/Alori'lA 
Century, vol. v. p. 67U. 

Something must be allowed for the literary habits of the time, 
always i>rof»se In it* tone towards persons, whether for praise or 
blame; the strain of compliment and detraction alike extrava- 
p>nt. Doddridf^e'a letters to Wiirburlou are adulatory; and 
Warburton always writes as though his friends and opponents 
reprcaented the wheat and the tares, and the good or bad fishes ; 
while it was evidcniiy necessary for Warburton's friends who 
would retain his i'riend^hip, to treat nil who attacked him as 
infamous. A way of assuming to be better than other people 
belongs to the correspondence of all these worthies. l*ope and 
"Warburton, Waibnrton and his friends generally, Hnrd and Sir 
E. Littleton, all adopt this tone. It was the thing to write to one 
another of the poodness of their hearts, their di s in le rested neas, 
tbeirsnperiority to vulgar objecta of desire; to treat, for instance, 
honours and prelerraent as of value mainly aa proving the wortli 
of the donor. Those who confer them arc nobic-minded, tho6« 
who withhold flicm slaves and creatures. Wherever flattery ie 
an eslalilinhetl clement there must be vituperation to balttucc it ; 
yel, while we use the term llattvry, we do not mimn any inten- 
tional i&ainccrily. People did not alfect candour then; ibcy 
look eide^, and stood thick and thin by their party, whether 
social, religious, or political. We arc not to eupposc that 


SMop Iftird. 

Warbnrton was left nndisturbed master of the field ; many 
tried their etrcnglh with liini. lie pronounced a state of 
autliovsliip II »l«ti! of war, kik! esilleil the liiind (hat wielded 
Uio i>eii, liis eworiMmnd. People questioned iJie nccunicy 
of hifl learning, the elearnesB of liie reac^onin^ and wrote aorely 
of his ' mud^ly bead and bitter heart,' There were aomo 
who even darc<) to encounter him face to face, as when he taxe^ 
DoL-tor Taylor, the pliSlologiet, witli liaviug been reportcti to 
wiy that be whs no scholar, aud the Doctor plucked up spirit to 
reply ' th:il ho did not recollect ever sai/ing thiit TJr. Warburlott 
was no scholar, but that indeed he had always thoughl so.' 

There are no evidences of Warbiirton bearing malice; he 
was tliick-skiDHcd, thought all this good qjort In'mnelf, and did 
not see why others Bhould suflTer more. He tioasts eome- 
whero of being cations. ' I believe,' he writes, ' as few men diu 
' of the nige or envy of dunces as of the frowna of their mis- 
' tresses ; and tliere is as little miscliief done by literary as by 
' amatory sqiiabblee.' He lacked the quality of respect altoge- 
ther. Wherever he was, whatever subject he touched, he uiuet 
give room to his hnmoiir, and could bear no reittnijiit. Anti- 
quity, though his miiid was so nmeli engaged upon the past, had 
no charm to cheek the licence of his tongue. The Society of 
Antiquaries was 'a hospital for blockheads." Nor did patrietical 
learning teach him better manners. John of Antiooh he sus- 
pects of being a * Shag-rag." 

"As forltiat forlorn lio|)0 Tbeodorct, Pltilostorgiiis, Niccphoras, wifl Thei>- 
]iliHue3, 1 uliall put iticm wiiere t.hc; eaa do do liiirt ; na to good, littte is to bo 
expected from such poltroons, who arc reut; to rua nwii; to the enemy' — 
IbU. id. V. p. 649. 

Never was so much faith joined to ao little reverence. Few 
faith he had. His whole tone toward Scripture isoneof undouht- 
ing, implicit belief. He threw himself with ardour into the contro- 
versy on miracles, ocea,iioneil by Rliddleton's sceptical lone, 
and wrote a treatise to prove the miracle which defeated Julian's 
attempt to rebuild Jerusalem. But in hi^own nature there was 
au absence of awe, or fear of anything human or divine. Perhaps 
all controversy tend* to this, to deprive all mysteries of their 
tenors, to make the sacred familiar. A writer in the ' Quarterly ' 
nttributc.'" to him ihc disuse of splendid vestments, which some 
iu our own day have made tliemselvea confessors to restore. But 
it-was on personal, not on ecclesiastical grounds, that he got rid 
of copes : they ruffled his wig nnd consequently his temper, 
both of which articles were easily dtBarranfred. 

' A. fiicnd oi ann. mnny ytm ngo. on bt:iDg sIioith, smoug tlio ourioiiJLies of 
DurbacQ Catljcdr.i1, ihe spluailid viulmeul!) fanUHrly worn bj tlic prebeudariea. 


Bwhop Ilvrd. 


Ml[«d how Ihejf liftd onuie lo be dieuMd ; whcu (lie vergor wiil, " II bap]ieued 

, is my liniR. Did jou ever lirar of one Dr. Wurburlou, sir !'— h vltj liol mnn 

lie wu, Kir. We never could pletMC liiin in puttiug on bis robe. Tlii« MilT 

Uffh collar used to tvMt his great fiilUbottomed wig ; till one d.ij lie llitcw l.lic 

OM oil inn grenC pn>»iciii, nnd »id lie ncvcrwciulil wcnr it n!>niii,nnd lie never 

lid, tmd tlie oilier gentlemeii »aon Ir.fl llici(s oil' Ion." ' — Quiirlerly, vol. sxxU. 

p. 273{IS25). 

lie always showed an ostrcme carelessneaa ns to the imprcs- 
aion his cotKliict mndc upon others, and ticvcr tUd thin;;» bccnusc 
tlicy were (.'xpccted of him. Eron Im worshiiipt-r Hurd udinittcd 
to beiiifj ■ iigi>iiiz(jd ' nt bis iodiiTureiiCc to Ilio pri-jirioliw in public. 
Cradock \vrttc»: — 

t VM iiitroduoed into tlie Te!<trv-r<^oin hj a rricitd, ithere llie Ion) major 
tai Mf end of tiie g<)vc[tion of ilie liospititl nerc iFfutiii); for the latu Duke of 
York, wbo WM tlicu pteudcnt, nud in t)ie menntinie tic lti»iiop (Warburf^on) 
did cTCJ^tliiitg in hi» pnn'er to etitFrlain nnd alleviAtc Iheir im;ral,ieliee- lie 
WM bejtind nicn»iir« eonikseuudini- nnd eoiiiteoiis, one! even grneioiislj iiniidcd 

i aomc Inseiiib iind wine on a aali'cr lo tlit- tiirnle wlio was Ii> read |)rnjpr!i. 
His brdabip buiui; iu good spirits, once e^ooFdoil ilie buunds of liewnini bj 
quotint; a comic patcut^jo from Sbakupeare iu l<ia kvtu sleevu, and witli all ilo 
characteristic hamour ; but auddcidy rcooliectiii)* himself, lie to niitlv turued 
the inadverti^tice to bit ovn ndvnnlnge, ns to raise ttie ndinirntion i>i all tlic 

' eompAiiy. Jinn; part* <jf ha diseourie were ijnitc anblinic, nnd were given 
with due aolfiniiitj ; but a few pastages wtire, as in bis eciebiiitf^d trirtiiiial 
CharRe, iiuit« IucIktuuh, as wlien be procoedcd au far ai lo dEjui'ibe some 
diatiiaUu nioidL» who bad robbed their oim bcggiiiK bcixus, lie txcited mure 
tliaii K »[iiile IVom iiiuiit of bis aiidience. " TLougb cciluiul;, air, aaid 1 (lo 
llurd)i tlierc wns much to ndmiri?, jct upon the whole, to speak tlic truth, 
1 WHS not Koriy thnl jou were absent, for 1 well knew tlinl ymi would not, have 
ftb«oIulclj appeared. "'—Oflrfrvfl*'* LUerary Sliictllaniia, tm. i. p. 187. 

Hit mode in liiiiidling texts sbows the satDc coxy turn^'and 
by good luck we Jind in the Hebrews ;' ' but tbe Ajrostie tells 
Miother etory,' &c. His Chnvgcs, which have the rareconimpn- 
dAtJon of being lively and entertain log, tnlk of *a magnificent 
show of vinnds and all from the. bog-stye,' and a sermon 'of 
l)i>cii»-iiocua trick*.' We arc glad to find that, at any rnl«, lie 
carried his easy mannera to court with him when he went there, 
which was not often. On hia first appearance on that ntcene, tlio 
lord-in-waiting called to hJm, ' Move forward, you clog up the 
doorway ;' to wbtHu he promptly replied. ' Did nobody clog up 
' tfte king's doorway more than I, there would be inori; roiMU for 
' honest men.' Trails like these perhiipn <I() nut ff, far in account- 
ing for the wonderful prestige of Warburton'a name amongst 
his contempornric)', and the r^ort of ptiE«ion ol' admiration which 
many tell lor him. }iut (here was a magnificent exuberance 
about htm which fnscinuied those who were permitted to feci 
lh« sunshine of his lovealile qualities. He could fill the m!nd« 
and hearts of his friends. Pope elung to him as a prop and stay. 
Allen of Prior Park welcomed him to bis oloso^t intimacy, and 


Hiahap Ilurd. 

f[Rve Him liis fiiTOiirUe niew ntid heiress. He ehnrmed all whom 
le otred to pleui^e. His mannrr waa frank: he liked Mciotf, 
and WIL8 not la^lidioue. He opened the whale store of his rich 
nature to his friends. What Mr. Seward eaid of liim wm 
true : — 

■ Mr. Seward liaa well ohscn-ed, tliat tlie liUliop " wm one of tlie bcifi 
letter- writerii thai ever put pcii to |)Bjjer. Ilin knowle^h*!! nns viirinii* nnd 
pxtouivc : be lisd Krcnt ivit, aitd grout force of expreMiuu. mi iiu reserve ia 
CommiiTUCttting wlint his tlioiijihts were at the tinm lie Wfoto the letter*.""— 
IMerar^ Anetdolea of the Ki^hieoith Century, vol. T.p. 052. 

The habit of i 


' contempt doea not so hlight a m. 
not so corroding (because after all it is not eenuine), if it is not 
a solitary exercise, and if it is expressed with jovial recklesancan. 
Ho was a man who must have (rit'ndi!, muat have a home and 
room for the play of the afTections ; nud in such circumEttmecs 
the contemptuous liiimour is kcjit down. He was a good hus' 
band, a moat lender and admiring son, a fond father, and though 
we cannot hold him an example in the performance of his 
onerous episcopal duties, it was by no means because he 
neglected them. He was remarkable i'or a rigid abstemiousnoAS, 
the more alnldug from his Iiu'ge frame and genial temperament. 
11)8 ascetici8m was in ihe cause of learning. 8tudy was the 
absorbing pleasure and chosen business of his life : and conscious 
that if he ate and drank like other men, he must devote mnch 
time to relaxation and exercise, he deliberately chose a strict 
moderation, that no care of the body iniglit stimd in the way of 
the paramount pursuit. Hia appetite fur books was indiscrimi- 
nate; very different from hia friend Hnrd, who 'read only the 
best things,' he read everything and remembered everything, 
and after lon^ application to deeper studies would run through 
novels from the circulating library by the basket full, nnd laugh 
over them by the hour, H« had a deep religious sense, though 
we must wish, in his dealings with the Methodists, that he could 
have understood and Byuipathised more fully with their aspira- 
tions, and not been so ready to fly off at a tangent about 
enthusiasts and bigots. Yet his sincerity won their respect as 
well OS his learning, and John Wesley wrote of him, ' I let 
' Bishop Warbtirton alone ; be is gone to rest I I well hope, in 
' Abralmm'a bosom.' In a letter to Dr. Birch he writes on flie 
Bubject of inspired troth : — 

* Thi» moriiiiig I had a letter from Cambridge, acqiiuintiDg me witli £r. 
Middlctnn's death. The; siinpasc bit builder baa killed birn, or at leut 
liiut.pnri! his dcnth. " He deolnred," snjs mj, "a few diij's ago, that b« ' 
ahoiiUI die with that eomposiu-R of miiiJ wliicii he Ihoiiglit must he the cujoj- 
uieiil of everj man who had been a aiuuBre aeoroher ofltfr truth; enpressed 
some conoerD that he feit bis ittrength aud spirita dueliiic bu fust that he could 

Bishop Hbird. 


ar>l complete some desi^as he bvl thca id linnd : and tbat be ima^'ined lie 
liaii given tlio miracles of the culj ngcs such a blov u lliuj would not easily 
f tCcoTcr." 

t do not -iHii how tlio meet! diacfivory of tcutb sITurdii such plcnEura. It 
tlii.i trulli be, lliat the pruvideiieB of Gnii govema llie mond as well as nEturnl 
world; Biid tli^tt, iu cojtipaatiioa to Imuitiii dintresses. Hu has rGvealeJ his wdt to 
I mankind, bj wliieli wc nre eonbled to set the bttter oF them, hy n reBloratioa 
bis fsvoiii', 1 cnn ewiij conceive liie pIcBsui'e that, at any period of life, 
\ BCeniitpany sucli n dixcovcry. But if the truth dlscnvered be that we 
I no farther ^imrH iu Goii tlian ns we pnrtnke of bis aatuftl jtoTpmrnent of 
the universe ; oj that all there is iit his niom! govcrnmeiit in onlv the natural 
iieccsMir; eO'eots of virtuo and vioe npnn huiuan aganls here, nud that all thu 
eteudcd ruveifttiotis of an hcroaflcr were Itugot Itj fuoU, aad hurrieil up by 
lives ; if this, 1 saj, be our boasted dii-coveij. it must, I think, prove n very 
' tincomfDrl.ahlc eoutciu pint Ion, cspcclnlly in our last hours. But every man has 
iis taste. I only spcuk for myself." — Iliid. pp. 047-8. 

Antl tliere i? n striking [masage in a letter to Slifrlock, where, 
in uiiiioimciug a &t\ij ut' the aeooiid editiou of the 'Divioe 
I.>egiiliou,' lie aaj-s : — 

' Far 1 will tell your loidsiiip what it is that supports mo. — it is the love of 
tmlih, Knd a thorough couticlion of tlie reiility of the Jewisii aud Christian 
Tevclation.^, I think I nm not too iiDcb.^rit.nble in suapecting that it may be 
B want of the lattiT Llial makes some very zealous people cooler ami mote i\a- 
pieiooH of the former tliiiu is fitting. Hence we see them almost ftiglitnd to 
death at every foolish book writ against religion, aud beluke themselves in all 
haste to their old poaluic of defence, to prep aud bulti'ess up with any 
_, iB&terials thnt earns tn hand wlmt ihey thiiJi n smkinK fabric, becAuso they do 
not UR the eternal foiindntiens on which it stands.' — Literary lUmaini n/ 
£iakiip War/iuflon, p, fill. 

But WC have been led away ton long from our main stihject. 
The name of Wiirburton, however, is iiisejinrable from that of 
Hiinl, nn<l some espIuDntiou is needeil of the powerful nisceiitl- 
ancywhich coloured his whole life. It was an aacendancy, and 
yet the infltience was mutual. Hui'd never loat or merged hia 
own character in that of his friend. Ho was always welcome to 
Mm. Warburton, that Ins oil might allay her hn^band'i^ vinegar. 
If he Mpnkc of Wiirljurloo'a eajile-eyeil sagacity, the other cor- 
roborateil ihc testimony ' that jtr. Ilnrd was a man who sees by 
' an early penetration thai which the generality never find out 
' till they have drudged on to the end of life.' If Ilurd wan im- 
pelled to undue severity of language, in defending his friend 
with hiii own rough weapons, he was nn habitual restraint upon 
Warburlon. lie could not help weighing every word ho Hpokc 
or wrote, fo lliat Jnhnsiiu culled hlni 'a word<picker,' mid wH9 
so much on hia guard in conversation that Cradnck givcK it lU 
hU opinion that Warburton waa never thoroughly at his eatte 
iu his company, though he felt so warmly towards him. Ilurd'a 
liabitfl of thought would nil contribute to this; he was essen- 
tially systematic. His judgment was always at work to the 
silencing of his feelings. Johnson said of him : — 


^Mioj> Ifwrd. 

' llmtl, tir, i« oneof iiK'.t of mm irlin nooount forrvrrfthinsiijttcmticaQT: 
for iualaticc, it Iioi bcrn a IJisbion Ui wcw icarlcl bruecliM ; tTi«*e men wonM 
IcII j«u llial, icuuriiing to cnuies auil eXvalts, im olliec veex coulthat tbat tinu 
liave bMR cliu»«ii.' 

Adding, Iiowcver, ' Ilurd, eir, is a mau whose no[uauitaace I 
Id a rfllaable &cquUitioa.' Iliu fricndiilui) left the coDslitution 
of his mind untouched : hi» uref'crcnces on ordinary points of 
criticiem remainnl tin disturbed. He deliberately preferred 
finish to energy, and fearlessly espreescd Lis oninion. ' We,' 
auys lUi-. Kilvert, 'are incltn«d to CBliiimle it (litcriiry merit) 
'nitlier by the miwtiitt of energy exhibited in bterary coinpo- 
' ntion Uian by the perfection of the work producetl by it." ffe 
took the contrary view. From him the jacetum (finiahcd cic* 
gancies) of Virgil found moro approval than the forcible sim- 
plicity of Homer. 

liut where Warburton's fame or credit ivos involved, the 
otilmncM.t of hi» IcniiitTuuent and hia criliad acumen gave way, 
and liifl biographer iiaa to apologise for an outbreak whicli, to 
modern readers, Becms sufficiently unprovoked. 

' III llie year 1733 an opiiortunit; wna given to Mr, Uurd of aigmliiini; hii 
attschinent lo Ur. Warburton, of which he itvnilrd himself too much lu llie 
irljlc of bis friend Hiid palron. Wnrbuit'jn, in thn second book of his " Divtua 
IjqEntion of Mo.<icV' ''nd broiichcd thi! opiaiun thnt tlic licsccnL of Maaar, inlo 
lUdcB, in the tixMi book of Virgil's .£nciii, vu an allci^rjr rcprutcnling the 
Dcicinoii; of iiut.tnunn inla thn fileuuniaa nijaleriea. Froci tbis otiiiiioa Dr. 
Jortiu bnii vunlurud iu bin Sixth DisEorlation to e^prew parliiJ uifisent, in 
re»)i«Olfu! lurms, iiiduci!, but, na ws* liioiiglit bj Iliiri!, willi that dc^rci! of 
faiot priiise which im]ilics imiirect iMndriiiimUon. Tlita cftte occasion to & 
pitmphhtl from liutd, pnlitlni, " The Urlioacy iit Kiicniiship, u Srvnith IJjg- 
fcrtntinn, addn'Mcd to lliR Author of thu Siilli." In this picco he cxpoans iu 
Ibe nimt unxnuriiic; mmuier vibal hu ilcciuud ;iU iuBidiuua nttacl; u[K)ii the 
tlicorj nf htj irifnJ. It is iuduod a niaittrplece of kei'u aud dcljeiklc ironv, 
but no candid judge van do otbt^rwisc than regret that so scvl^'D an utlud: 
should have been iiiaito oh a man of'* inlent and ch.iraotor on siioli 
slight provoeaiiou.' — Zi/i atd CcrmpwdtH^t of Bithap llmrd, pp. 65-4. 

And ngtun — 

' The 175S witnrweJ anolUer of IhoM cvor-ienlou» dcfancr* of big 
tneni Wnrbiirton which, however th«y inaj pm»B the strciistb of Mr Ilnni'* 
uttaphmrut, rrrti-ct ilio k-aat credit on his courtiiny and liWralitif as h conlro* 
Hnialut. Thia wan Vxa " Letter to Dr. Thoina» Lclaiid, ou liia DisHcrtBtioti 
on Ills ^inB^u of Ilumaii £loquc»cc." iji which the cxurciisiou of some 
diasent from Waiburloii's sciilimcnls in his " Doctrine of (irncc," ia treat*"! 
with a keeilueBH and aspriilj totidly out of plnci-, coiwidning the dricrveJly 
lii|th character of Dr. Lcloiid as u writer, a:id tho upcnimss of the q'lCbtioQ 
under discussion.'— /iiV/. p]i. lli-'i. 

'lliongh Kurd never apologised for or recanled his attnckg 
either on Jortin or Lelnnd, he would no doubt have been wil- 
ting they nhould be forgotten. But there ia a i-elributivi; jus- 
tice at work in these thiii^a ; and thirty-four years after the pul>- 
Itoation of the first of these tracts, and twenly-fivo after the 

TJisho^i ITurd. 


8ecuii(], when HunI, now Bishop of Worcester, had attainod his 
eeventieth year. Dr. Parr chose to republish them, along with 
some early treaiiacs hy Wnrburton, whitli hv had wished to sup- 

Erese, under the heading ' Triicts hy a Wmburtonian,' adding 
18 own pungent couiineut^ aoling it ii supposed, under the 
irriutiun oF haviug met with a cold reception, aud not being 
asked to dinner when lie preaented hiniseit" at Harilebury Castle 
Ifor institution to the l>cnefice of Ilatton. The thing made » 
] great noise, and vrns much read and relished, whieh no doubt 
Hurd knew quite na well as though he had read the attiick on 
hinmeir, which, on the principle of all phloji^natic tempera, he did 
not. He read, however, u defence of' hiti>BeU" which appeared, 
■ind wriles, 'Aa to the letter to Dr. Parr, I have read it, which 
' is scarcely fair, as I never read, and never shall read, the thim to 

* which the letter k an answer.' Had he a notion all the while 
^at by these long-ago asperities, those flourishes of an intcm- 

Semtc piirtiiianship, he sliuuld he remembered more than by th« 
elibemte, careful efforts of his own jiidginent, engaged on con- 
Seowl subjects of theology and criticism, through a long stii- 
iou« life ? and that he of all people should be known and adduced 
as an extreme example of the literary ncrimoiiy of bis own time? 
I Jt u thus Dr. Purr iiildreesca his diocesan in his dedication : — 
' Tlic distinguishing virtues even of the beet of men may for 
' ft time bo eclipsed by particular sitn&lioas ; while, therefore, we 

* allow your lordship all the praise which is due to habitual dia- 
' crctiou and eonatitutional gentleness, we arc by no menus aur* 
' prised that iu tlie service of such a lender you were now and 
•then hurriod into rashness, sliarpeQCd inio acrimony, or betrayed 
' into illiberality. We rather lament that the better prnjien^iticR 
'of your mind were euspendod, and indeed overborne, by the 
' fascination of Wai'burlon's example and the sternness of Itia 
'commands; and, with all due deference, let mc add, the trc- 
' meudous severity of his threals. We inouni over the common 
' iiiliniiilicM of liunmn nature itself, when we recollect that with 
' a temper whicli eifeetuiiUy preserved you from the tumnltuuus 
' fervour of enthusiasm, and with talents which might have pixH 
' cured Tou success in the regular and ordinary eourie of contro- 
'vcntial hostilities, you were disposed, or I would rather my 
'dcsluicd, to become the herald of the Hfurdicst knight-errant 

* that ever act out in quest of literary cni^ndcs — to become the 
' apologist, nay the avenger, of a staunch polemic, who attacked 

* with nlind and headstrong fury the most unexplored fastnesses 
'of impiety, and the most venerable citadels of truth — to become 
' ihc drudge of an imperious taak-master, who, finding himself 
'accompanied by a train of feeble and officious dwarfs, eum- 
*iiii>ncuthembyhi«Gereciunndate<i topluugewith him into every 


* difficulty, to tniimpli with him in every victory, to make » dis> 
' play of their fidelity or their zeal in every wild or <le:>]icmbO 

* schievctncnt which he wii« liitusclf emboldened to undertake by i 
' the consciousness of Iiih own <^i(;aiitic strength. -" The staff of 

' hia spear wiis like ii weaver's beum," mid " one benniig a ebield 
' nlwnve went bef'ure liiiu."~{/Wj-"8 WiirKs. vol. vi. p, 371.) 

II' Di', Hurd coidtl have read this dispaHsionately, we think he' 
would have pronounced fiivourably on the point and force of ib 
style. After it. Piirr could ulTord to be generous, to allow nobody 
to dispiiriigc Hurd but himself — to reprove others, after the 
manuer of Mttirii*t», for not doing his victim Justice, ' am) of not 
'apeaking with suHicient caution of so Illu^trioits u preliitc as 
'Ur. Hurd;' and lo defend him in a long iirgumenl with the Hrinco 
Kegcnt, hi? quondam pupil, ss a better tutor than Dr. Mark- 
ham, who eubscxjuentfy filluil this office, and with whom the 
Prince eomiinred him. ' Have you not changed your opinion of 
Dr. IlurdP esclaimed the Pnnce, who probably thought hit 
topic not well clioaen. 

' 1 liRTc rend n work in wlticli ;oii stttickcd liim Scrcclj. — Tw, sir, 1 
' attacked him on one point, wUfcli 1 tliaiiglit importimt to letters, &nd I gum- 
mnncd ilic nhnle force of my miiid, and touk. every po&sililr pnins to do it well, 
for 1 cooniUrr llurd to be a grcut man. Kr. in CKluiiriilcd as such liv farcigii 
critics, who apprtniatc justly his wuiidortul auulcueBs, naguoity, aitd dexterity 
ID doiii~ wliat li(? Iiita done witli bo siilbII a stock of iBHruiug. • > ■ Fruui 
a runiiboiisu uiid villiige-aiilioul Hurd emerged tiie friotid of Oray fttid a circle 
of dialiiiguisliud mcji, Wbile fellow of a smnll coilegc, lie seut out w(ttk» 

Iiroiacd by foreigti ci'ilic«, mid not dcsjiiscd by our uu'ii sc^liolms. He enriclied 
lis iindcrttoiidirig by study, ami hmI (mm the obscurity of :i country lillnge n 
book, sir, which jour royal tatder i» suid to Imve declared niiidc him a binliop. 
ill! mhiie bimimlj tmpopulur in bis owu urofeBsiou by Ike defence of a fun- 
laiticul ayBleiu. He bud dccriers— lie lina no Iruinpetergi h« was ^reul in and 
by biDisulf; and jicrliapi*, sir, a ]>ortion of that jiowcr nud ndroilucM you lia«e 
mauifeslflil lu tins debate mig'ht liave been owin^to him.' — ii/i and Corrt- 
tpuiiileact of Buhop Uurd, pp. 373-1. 

Many years aflerwarda Hurd and Parr met ; the interview 
tells well for both :— 

' At one of nurd's visiliitious in the latter pwt of his lift, he observed Dr. 
Parr wno'ig the clergy, ami, walking up to him, said, " Dr. Pari', tbtTC has long 
been Tiiriancc between us, but niy a;;e u now so advaneud tiiat I can iio longer 
afford to be at enmity with any huuniii being, and therefore earne^ll^ request 
that wc muy sliake liaiida, and coufiign the pn^t to oblivion." My mfonuant 
added that Parr was affected even to tears by this address." — IhU. p. 376. 

Mr. Kilvcrt is somewhat ashamed of this part of his subject, 
and paaaes it over as quickly as possible, Ijeing anxious to 
show Bishop Hurd fullowing the bent of his own amiable, cool, 
philoaophie nature, not warped out of symmetry by the prepos- 
scesiona of h'w friendship. Still his introduction lo Warburton 
was the turning-point of his life — ^his mind had been up to that 
time quietly forming itself, and taking its own independent bias ; 

fiifhop fhird. 


Its lie c^preesea it, 'I grew up inta the use of a little iMnimon 
aeose,' but he seems instantly to have felt the value of such an 
ally. It was part of Warburton's IJca of friendship to push 
th« fortuin^'* W his (rien<is. lie pniC4ired for Hurd a welcome 
to Prior Hark, where he wiia ever after received on terms of 

' friendly iniimaey. He introduced him to other men of note, 

■ }Ir. Murray and Charles Yorke, who were at once attracted 

( by his conversation and mftuners — 

' To wboiii bis eolid leorDiug, liis rcHuoJ taate, tlio jiurity of iiis life, Aoi tlie 
Dftl.iTc clt^ncc of hia mnnnera soon rccomiiieailcd liiHi a* nn associate and a 
friend ; nnd ti> wlin^c t;ood offices he wrs piincipull; indebted far Ilia fntarc 
Bdvanocmfiit in iirtr.' — lUd. p, 3S. 

These uiuch-talked-of manners of Dr. Hurd set the reader 
spcculutiii<;. Manuel's as au art have, we susjiect, rather retro- 
graded. They refjuire a luoi-e undisturbed thealre for iheir 
exerciE« than wo can afiord now. People are shouldered in 

^Grow<l«> interrupted or afraid of interruption in tlieir best formed 
•Cnteoecs. There is a Iiurry and impatieuco in ihe world whtcli 
Btanda in tlic way of tlii« 'elegance.' W« go at a (^nicker 
Bace, the stately minuet has changed into a whirl. We think 
it will be observed still that a ^ood manner, wherever wc sec 

I it, \* not associated with n busy teinjiernuicut. Hurd was 
' never vaptivalcd with the line notion of a busy man,' He 
never allowed himself to bo run away with; he could not 
enjoy society where the idea of bustle could interpose itself. He 
thought on the subject, and went into the sources of real social 
|>lea.4ure, and found nnler and rliytlim to He at the root. Hia 

> couimon-plaoo book saya: — 

' It tftkra miicii froni llic jilriiaure oC emiverafitioa (tlioiisU I know not 
trbrlliur it lini bt^ea ulix^rvtil) ItiiL iiieu do not apcuk in time, i.f. with llio bsuis 
dtiiwe of mjiidiljr or slowtifss. Wbca tlic »ncM»»Jnn of ideas, nud coiisc- 
qnciktl; of wofds, in tbc liCAier is contidcrnlily ditrernnt from tMsiL of tlie 
Mjienbcr, tlic nttrntion nf lliu fotmcr iji D]>i)r(-ssc^ii mid fuLigued hv Iht clTurt to 
conform liii own Imiiit of lliinkiii^ aiid sptjikiug to tljat of the latter, that a, 
tijo convorauliou beounieu uuplcasmg.' — liiii. (>. 283. 

Madame D'Arblay, who later iu his life entertained him at 
her tahlc at WindMor, reports : — 

' Tlio nceUcnt BisUoii and Mr. Smelt J^nin dined witli m. The Bi^iop 

iprererred our quid tnbla to ibe cruwd now Eelonging to tliat of tlie cqucrrio*. 

f we had dome vcrj good trsiitises upon society between liiin nnd Mr. Smelt, 

He pntetted he uarer cliosc to nienl. morn tlinn *h, rtnd llioagbl ull added lo 

ttit immlKr crrotcd confusion nnd ddtroyed elegance.' — Ji'il, p. 109. 

She had, on first introduction, been Motiicwliiit alarmed by his 
appearance and air, VH-jtiilitKl, placid, gruve,and mild, but cold and 
[ratlicr distant,' though alive to his being 'extremely well brod;' 
' but very soon the harmony of his tout ensemble, fascinated her. 

' Piety snd modncM hm: »n marked on his couoteusnee, wbieb is truly a Gne 
one, that he has beea nanied. end very ju>tly, " The Benuty of Borincss," 
KO. ex. — S. s. X 


Diahl/p J/ui-J. 

luileri^, in face, mniinrr, itpinvunnur, and convnnnttnn, lir >ccni!i pn«ixcl; i 
a bi>hop shnulii lie. niul uliut woulil make a Iiiokcr-uii, wrrc ho not n bii 
and a icn vnciuit, «ill nut, " Tnlur Dr. Hiud! tliMt is tba nian."'— /hV.p. I6l. 

Thougli women (>ccu[)iefl very liule ut' liis thoughts, amt 
whciicviT lliuy JiJ, >t wita to keep tlii-ui |>rctty ngidly in n »nb- 
oriliiiiitc [ilitec, this same nisnnci' told ui>on ih^m. Courtesy and 
suavity are in fact very nuotbing qimlitii* — it la a pity thai 
they are so gencnilly gone oul of tiuhiou. Uow tviidcrly do 
|ico|>lc look uiiok upon nn aiuialile de|JOi'tiii(,-nl — iigion n winning 
Mtnile : it ifl ^ratifying to be ninde the Ktibjoei even of mere sooiu ■ 
Rolkitude. We all remember the time when our ruffled eoule, 
wearied with all sorts of rou^h encounters wiih the work), hare 
felt the ineff:iblc ehitriu of being t-tnoothcd down aa it were by 
some gruciou* pn.wi;nce — of Ijciiig livtrni'il to wirh defercnoc, our 
Opinion sought for, our feelings couatdered. Aa things now 
ftre. it id an accomplishment thnt more commonly belnnga to 
women ; when no look for vxan)i>lc8 amongst our acquaintance, 
tlic thoughts nrc apt to rest ou tioiiie fair centre of an admiring 
circle. But there naa certainly a touch of thu feminine, which 
ia different from eft'eminacy, in the tineat gentleman of the age 
we epcak of. Under this eol'tncss, indeed eeseutial to it, lies a 
cleHr jicrceptlon of cliiimcler, iu women instinctive, in men 
more tVuni rvllcelion. Hunt oleaily occupied himself much on 
the mora] and intellectual qunliiietj of those with whom he con- 
versed. A very curioua instance of ihiu ta given tn the fol- 
lowing reminiscence of an old lady : — 

' Mj gninrlniotlicr, Mi'«, Jolin Parsons, used to tell tlio followidg Biiecilote of 
llic llmlinji. Rill! di'kcrihrii liis uiuuiinra ns imiticiiUrl; wit and winuiii^ bis 
voice as liiiv mill nimii^nl. lie wns Tniid of ooiicir^iiif; vith )icr, Rrid aa«w«rilig 
lier iii[|iiiric?!i aboiil liic Court. Hliortlj aUvr liia nrvivnl nt tLu'rlnbui^, she 
(aid ro litiii oiip day ni iIjpj «^rc siU.iiig ■u^t'tliHr, " How do jon tliink jour 
pnpil, Ids Itoynl UigliriMB llie Pfiiice of Wnlts, will turn out? " " M» dew 
e(>uiiiii," l\u-- MMinn replied, laying liis )icciili»rljr hmnll wUilc liaud upon licr 
Mrui, " 1 isuii liardlj tell; eiLlivr [lie moat polislird gcutlcmnn, or llic niOHt 
«ecoi(ipli»lied blackKH"'"'! 'a Eurouu ; pu»»tb)y ui aumixtucc of hoUi."' — 
/Aid. p. 3?8. 

This Htory of his cool judgment of the Prince, his pupil, is 
oharact eristic of the calmly phlegmatic, and wo think idao of 
the studious temper. Commcrfio with books mntnly, has a re- 
markably sedative effect, and disposes men to a corl,niu falaliam, 
viewing otirecrs ,1* iu a glass, and not allowing the pa3.4ions to be 
diaturbed by their own ornclcn. 

But it was not upon idl that the light of these graceful 
manners shone. Ilurd wns a scholar, nud as euch had no 
{mtiiMice willi the dull ami the ill-informed ; even in the highest 
company he complains of it. After dining with Lord M:ins6eld, 
he writes: — 

Bishop JTurd. 


* Ubvcvcr, I dioRil nrtrrernrils wlf.1i him, and met thrrn brils ntiil the ;nun;[ 
Prince 1' iicpliew to ilic^ KiiiR at I'olaiui. •Khanr. ndvcnlurr liiu luUJjr 
mnilc M ni'icli noiae. Our oouvufsalioiL turj^d upon Tok»y niid olliur Hoa- 
fpainn vriiiiu. Aud tlilii is oallud keeping tlie best cunipauj ! — liij. p. } 11. 

And CniJook writes: — 

* Of uU Uiu meu 1 uver knew, IIur<l, ns a coiiiitrT diriiif, curried the loftiest 
carrinee. No gicrsgn ul limes io higlictl life looked wiili iiioii; disilain on 
liltte (oiks Mow, or, to sponk more corrcctlj, on nnlcRrncd folks.'— -/Aii£ 
p. liti. 

He preferred solitude to uncnngeuml society; concrratulated 
Iiimseli on the badnees of tlio roaile in his neighbourhood, and 
iniitrmcd WarburtoUi thvn Bi»)to]i of Gloucester, who came to 
sec htm at Thurcustoii, thnt there was no one in hia nciglibour- 
hood whom he would care tn meet. 

* " What," Mj!» tlie Bisiiou, " lire nil llie good liouses tliat I sdc sronnd me 
here utterljr uninhftbiicd I Lei ua Inkc nur hoisca nnd bent up some of t.hcir 
qUMtcre. I linvc no doubt but ^ev^rD1 will be well indlned Io be friendly nnd 
Mcitble." " I certaioh Ciiinot refuse allciiding on your lordship Hiiywliere." 
Acoardiiigl}> Ihey waileii ujiou Qve fjcultL-meii nliuiii I luid the pleasure to kiioir, 
and Ihe^ all kiiidlj ueeeiited an iiivilHtioii tu lake s family dinner at Tliur- 
eaaton, Wlien 1 licurd ni ibi* nt Leicester, I determined to fsll on Mr. linnl, 
who (eCi'ivrd nie with ({rent eordinlil.y. " Whv, Sir," *iiid I, " there i» nolliin)t 
tftlkcd of but jour K*iety ; it has evea rtnefied jour friend Dr. iJickhnni nl 
LouflltiborouKh. "1 don't doubt i(." n-plicd he, "aud if jou will pass the 
dar vilh me. I will treat fou vith tbu reitiaias of the fesi.ival, and give you an 
iiecount of all particulars. I CAn assure yoii [ wa« at iirsi nlarmca a> to the 
ijTOvision that conld hn mode hy my little household ; but nil the ixKnpuny were 
di»pn»nd to be pIcnMsl. 'I'lio lti>h»p wb« in iho hiKhent spirits ; xnd wLea Ibu 
gentlemen look leave of me in Ihe hnl!. lliey went bo fat as to declare that, 
"TUtij Uiuught tliey had never passed a uiiieh planaaiilor daj." "And, as you 
liave beeu so succcs'sFul, Sir," I ventured to add, '' in this Unt elTort, I have no 
doubt but the c;ipcrimcnt will soon he repented." Mr. Ilnrd wu* silent,'^ 
nid. p. 71. 

It confirms our vi«w of the honours paid to learning n 
hundrcil years lu^o, that thexe country squireit should so gladly 
aocApt hoapttalities from a country pnrson, who gave himself 
airs, and treated them n-ith disdain ; and be thus at his call 
whenever he pleiwed to invite them. Hurd's eym]iathi<.'«, how- 
ever, were never durinant toward? learning and literary effort ; 
even with that greatest trial and test of forbearance, the %'ain 
littiratvur, who obtrude hia manuecripta on his fricudu, he could 
be pntJOnL 

*Tbe iadcbtigabic Sir Darid i* tranilatini^ Minutiui Felix, and writinff 
note*. Of the !ojt, I have a large farrago in my hauds, anil aui to keBii 
theni, I saupuM', till his Arch-Criltc arrives. This Sir David is a good, vetf- 
intmtioROd man. lias leanting and scnnc, but is wilhal immoderately tain: 
whicli I eonetiide, not finin his writint; so mueli, (for tlicii bunr should ojiellier 
friend of voura <ueape F) but from his loiiKins his rriends «o iuiuiodcralely with 
Ilia HSS. UowcviT, with all hia iiti|>vrrtelions u|>oii his bnd, pva me a 
writer — B« auinal that is now bcconte a mra acU, and much to be stared at, 
ma !■ our learned uBiversitjc>,' — Ibiii. p. 140. 

X 2 


Jiishap IfurJ. 

His poor curate at Thurcarton, Mr, Ball, gronnod under iIms 
6en«e of bcin^ on the north of liis cood opiiiiun. 'I do 
* not prcleiul lo he very Tciimwi,' h« mio, ' but 1 liave never 
' hccn troiti'd with aiich cliatancc, or rather diitilain.' The gouci 
iiuiu Imd tn be soothed to vciiiaiu in a scene of such discournge- 
ment, but was rewitrdwl for his forbearance when the first uee 
IlunI made of preferment was to give ' poor Bull' a living;. 

Ilurd had a Ntrung menac of the cliiiiiis of iho^c about him. 
Crodock writes: — 

't'nim tlift time 1 lir«t kiien KurJ at Tlmri^nilon until I vUitnit him ft* 
bisliop in Gfunl KusscU-^trett, Blounialjurv, 1 liu not rcuolk'cl «av diauuriisnt 
L'iruutii«lHiiOo in Ilia fainJI^. liu WHi, of cuursf, very carul'u) about clinrnoler, 
mid lie bad vm Utile inCprcoiu'se tlio worid; but liic Hnia pcrdaiig re- 
mained, nnd ] no not rcollnri, niiy niic of llic m iid iint'nitlirul, nor do 1 ever 
romcmhnc tiin lonat cnnipl:kiiit. To Ixi slim, lie waiiiiniKuir itrictlj good, but 
lie was ttlwnjs ujiuu liis guard.' — li/id. p. T'i. 

He was remarkable for his kindness to nil in any way 
associated with his early days who had helped his first afai't in 
life; and we notice that his fiieiuls had that reliance on him, 
when their feelings and personal interests most wrouglit on tliein, 
nliich is so genuine a test of the real estimation in which n nmn 
is held. Warbiirton solemnly eiinimeniled Ins wife to his care, 
in his will, and Mr. and Mrs. Allen both emphatically obtained 
his promise that be should read the funeral service over thcni. 

In 1756 Hnrd had taken the cullege living of Tbiircni"l«n 
in Leicestershire, Celebiuted by Mason na ' Low Tliurcftdloii'a 
aequestered bowers,' where he assumes his friend to be 'distant 
from l*romolion's view,' an opinion in which Cradock ditfers 
from the poet- 
He wad thnnght to preach good sermons, nnd was a believer 
in them, as all good prciichers must be. Disputing the truth 
of the saying, that ' Locke ciircd not for sermons, ' he says, 
' Air. Locke was too wise to give liimeelf these air»,' though be 
goes on to characterise Ihe sort of (Hscouvses 'slight pulpit 
harangues' which had probably excited the philosopher's disgust. 
He is said to have sometimes preached Bourdalouo to his 
country parishioners, reading from the French copy, and turning 
it into good Guglish as he went along ; if i^o, we cannot mucb 
wonder at the story given in Lotly Huntingdon's memoirs 
quoted by Mr. Kilvcrt to illustrate his liberality. 

' TliB veiirralile Dr. Uiird, Bialiop of Wnrce*t", being in tlin bnliit of fireoch- 
iuff freqiieiitij, bud (ibHrwd n jioor iiinn rcmnrknhly nt.l.rni ive, nml made him 
Komc pi'p»eaTs. After a wliils be misBed bis bumbli? auditor, mid, meeliug 
him, imid, "Jnbn, how i« it, fluit 1 do not scu .you in Ibo uiale a* UBU«]f " Join 
witii some bcsilnliott replied i " My Inrd, 1 bopc jou will iic>t he oSeudcd, snd 
I will tei! you t)ie Irul.h. I wuiil llio olber dnj lo lir-itr tbe Hutbodists ; and 
I nndcDptand tbtir plain words so miieb belter, ihnl ( hn»e attended them ever 

liixhoj) Uurd. 


laiune." Tiie BJnliop putliia Uaiid iiiloliia pocket, nnd krvc liim a piiiico, «iih 
words lu tliJs effvct : " God blcsa jou ; go nlivru ;ou ciiii rcci^ivc tlin grntett 
profit lo jow soul." '—Hid. p. 201. 

On hia bein^ nppninted, m 176o, tirenclicr itt Lincoln's Inn, 
through the instrumentality of Mr. Yorke, wlio persevcrwi iti 
pnjBsiiiK tl't' office u|R>n hira wliiuli was three times dediueil, 
liis hii.igrii|ihv'r tells iis — 

' A« a prirsr^liAr, Itfs mnnncr vtn calm, digntGi-d. ind inipresnive. Hit ijis- 

corir»c», tlioustb not mnrkpd bj fotct mid entrgj, Ijiul jet a uiild pcrsua»ivell«^ 
and a luuo of f-i^iilk- inainuitliuii. nliicli, joiiii^i! to frequent ori<tinRlil.; of 
tlioiight, and curiBfaiil i^xaolui'-is oF nielliod, pocullarlj recnnimrndcd liim lo liia 
I cnltiintnil and rtlrird iiudieiicr nt Llnooln'^ Inn. Tlu*; lind nlw t lie merit, 
' no ineociiclenhip one at that period, of hi^iiiR (n» lie recoinmuiidfl h lo Ilia 
dorgy, in bi> Jlrrt CfanrBe, In multe tbei») •'wliollr CiitiBiian." ' — /4iV. pp. 

Theae sermons wcrw printed. Mndwn rendera think thera 5ull. 
Thi-y were at the time commended for their nmljiod — a very 
pood thing, but which ehoidd not stand Ibrcuioat in the review of 
Ihi-m — and wtrc extolled also for their 'iniiitoncsf, originality, 
' their vein of genriinc piety, and jiimple unnR'cctcd clcgitnee of 
* atyle,' It la probably more correct i>raise that they fell id 
exactly with the \\ews and retiiiirementa of his hearers. 

In 1744 he WAS niiido liishop of Lichfield and Coventry, An 
Appointment which George the Tlilnl attrilmted entirely to hia 
admiration of hi.? ' Morid mid Political Dialogiiea,' having never 
seen him till ho camo lo kins hands. Ilnrd was no vnlgnr 
seeker of preferment, but Mr. Kilvert thinks it most prolmhlc 
ihftt the royal mind had been unconsciously swayed by the 
mirewiitations of the throe staunch friciid«. Lord Mansfield, 
Mr. Chwlea Yorkc, and Bishop Warliurton. On tbia occaaion 
he writes to hia grcnt friend Dr. Dalguy, with a request that 
ho will preach the consecraiion scrmoo: — 

* Out good llialiop of (jlcrnce»ter OTeHlaw.% in liis jov on lliia uecniiien- By 
the war, Iw !* «o munh coniidtred »t Court, tlial 1 uelievc be will liave the 
dii[K»>l of my arohdunennry. in spite of tlie Court tiar|>iM. I eipeot orcry 
day to bave lo rosij-u ii into Iu» baiida. lliia will make him very Lappy. and 
ia m my opiiiioo bul a juat Qomplimcot, tbougU aa usooracnoD one, to liia emi- 
iieut merit. . . . 

■ liidifictd it on all aeeounti nil eligible see, the rulue about eiglitecn liundrtd 
ponnds ■ year. Tlii» I had boili from Lord Norlb and tbe Aroiibislmp- 

' 1 haie a bundred Ibinga to say to juu. and tliecefure coiiio bitlier m aoon 
a* yon can. I am ptatered uitb civilitita from nil quartets; but one heartfelt 
Donvralulation from sutdi a friend an you i§ of more nortli thiin a Ihouaitiid 
vclI-penned complinicnts' — /W-/. p. 123. 

Two years after, ho was entrusted with the difficult office, 
before alluded to, of preceptor to the Prince of Wales and the 
Duke of York, an appoiutntcnt nliieh might very likely be 
due lo the king's nppcobatiou of his (tolilical uid moral prin- 


Biahof/ Hard, 

ci|ilt3A, n pootl (i])inion conUniicd by hta li'oturcft "ii progihecy 
preached at Liucolii'd Inn. Hioi-c )h no evidcDco of liiti liuving 
particularly enjuf-ed tiU office, though at first he (lc«ci'ibca ' tba 
youn" princc)« (I do not say it for form's mIcg) ' as ' extremely 
plufufiiig.' i^in^; OD to project :i pl»ti of atiidtcv, for which 
he ask* Dr. Hiilguy"« udvicc. Little further i^ told Mi* of thw 
pan of hiri hfe; that he fuiind it iiksuuie in to Ito inferred from 
the Tullowing paaeoge in a letter to Dr. Balguy : — 

' I wiah jou, itciir Sir, a plirdiBul aiimtntr bflween jour twfl ddloiutn resi- 
lieiioea of Altou and Wiiioaratur. Htce ani I cliuiiicd ou llic bauks of tbe 
Tliune*, for iiijr t)iii8, do doubl, nx otLcr culpj'ita im.'—lii'l- p- 132- 

Iit I78I, on the death of Dr. Thomas, Bi^hoj) of Worccrter, 
he received tlic very next moniinn by i«i»eciiil meaaen^r from 
Wiodaor the ap]H)tiitmeiit to that ttcc, with the Clerk^hiii 
of the CloaeU HiM fir^t act was to put the palace ('Hartlc- 
bury Castle') into complete repair. Ho had, if not a taate, 
a feeling of tiie importance of state, which probiiltly belong* 
etipecialiy to mi'n who have ri^rn in life. Hurd is said to have 
retuioedeertAiii humble fentiircH about the place with the design of 
romindinff himself always of his homely orir[in, but he lived in 
state. When he went to the Hot Wells he was nttcndt^^ by a 
dozen servants, in contract with Warbiirton, who was curelciMly 
inditferent to appearances, and would make the saine journey 
on a Ecrnb pony. 

It has been aaid that George the Third loved raediocritiea — 
that, like all ■ dull men,' he suspected superior people. HJB an- 
buuodcd conlidcnce in Hurd would certainly have been brought 
ttdttproof of the assertion, if the writer who makes it had carcil to 
ac<)imint himself with the more respectable phases of society in 
the time of which he treats. The class of superior penijle who do 
not like ihin^d as they are, wiio find t.hciiiaelves at odds with ex- 
isting circumotancep, who crave for change, no doubt were little 
to the king's taste ; aud that order of intelligence — in its equal 
degrees of good f^enec, caution, and prejudice, representing con- 
servatism — which makes the beet of things as they stimd, and 
never thinks of innnvations, w:is very likely in the Catherine 
discontents of bis time to win his confidence. The world had 
been very good to Ilnrd; hia was not a large enough mind to 
(juarrcl with a stale of tilings which fitted him so well, which 
brought out what powers be possessed, winch regarded him 
with respect iind reverence. Those men who stiike not only 
the good old king, but most men, as wise, are- in fact those who 
make the best of things as they are, without launching out into 
untried seas of change and reforni. There niuat be progress, 
but it is not thoee whom we must implicitly trust who bring it 
/■bout. Wo all of us have faith in mediocrity, because we all of 

liuhoji Hurd. 


119 liave fflt Ita reliiil)le and comfurlablc qnnlilics ; it nt'cdcd no 
courtly or unwortliy art« therefore for Jliiid ti> iij^rou in aU 
poiula with hiu ri>yiil iiiiii«lcr- — ^cvcry interview wdijM enhance 
tbeir luutuni respect and Kym^ialliy. But Btidi niediocrily roust, 
we lOttJiitniii, keep to ita derivation, nnd must not be caiifoimded 
witli aiiytliiitg inferior. If George tlie Third, on neooimt of 
this same mediocrity, pressed upon Iliird a t/iird pronmtioii, und 
offered him withuut hesitation the Ar(;hlii»hopric ofCftnlerliiiry, 
liurd allowed his moilei'ution in a noble manner by at once 
declining it. It was a fine independent act, even thoi)}j;h 
motives of a personal nature mny have influenced him. Few 
men really know what is for theif hajipincss, few men cun 
deliberately trust their own judgment, so far ait U> give up what 
the world considci^ an advantage ; few men have x^lf-reapect 
enough lo renounce any portion of the world's respect : thcit 
own approbation, their own content, ia not nn equivalent for the 
loss of worldly consideration. It was one of Huril's linest qoa- 
liticD that lie could trust himself and take his own etand. 
Yoar-t before, he had jestingly reproved his friend Dr. Bal^y 
for wisliing promotion for him, and shown that it was not lor a 
Churchman's good to wish lor it. 

'Aristotle nad jou ub a cnujile ordinice p1iilnso|>lia[it. Inslcrul of eadi a- 
Tiiuring to ullaj llie ferer of Die puBilnua, Tua Biicuurai^ .inil ()romolir it. But 
«B must Lave BOiuL-tlim^ In bope or In setii ; and »re '1\btb do dIijvcU of dcoirc 
or means of activil; but dpniif nesaiid bJtihoprics ? Are Ilioni m hwAt tu icnd 
or to write P la there nosiicli lliing as coiiveraalion or aiimspinent ? 

Or, Ifl be KCBve, 

Have we no friend lo serve, or »oul lo save ? 

Will ntrt ftll this kcrp a divine from Riniiiiig iuto iosipidity tio6 dlsgasl? • • • 
£ul my tills of Cliiirrbmnn if j(>u ean. \s. a mini likelj lo be t>bu belter divine, 
jorlociilliviilu oni- uocfiil 'iimiiij tlic mori', for inspiring tn Cwilrfhurj? I Imw 
not, and I defy jou to niakf gooil 50 oulmgtous a paredox.'— /iW. pp. 106, 107- 

It must be noted ihnl Dr. H«%uy so far shared these views 
that he also subsequently refused tne Bishopric of Gloucester. 
Having thus slighted Canterbury in the distance, we 6nd Dr. 
Ilurd fourteen years afler writing to the same friend. 

' Upon ilie denth of Atrlihislinp Comwollis, Maj 1, 17S.1, Bislion Flurd 
wns jjruostd by tin; King, wil.ii nmDj grarioiia cxpiessioos, to ucoupl ihi: nrfb- 
bikhopric of Cuiilcrbury. Tili^ bowcver, as lie himiclf iilatcit, "be liumblj 
bcgxrd Icnvc lo dt'ciine, an d i^liar);!: mil eiiiti'd lo bis leinpt'r and tuleuid. Had 
miicli ton brnvj for liiui to Bustain, eopuciftilj in lbi'« liiiirs." '■ Tbc Kin)[," 
he addx. " win iilpnuc^l not to tske oiTi'iiec nt tliis frcrdom, nnd tbrn lo c.nicf 
into some eontiiteiitinl r.nnrortitr.ion on tb(i nnbjrct." Ihft IVsbnp, in rrlnting 
the circumslince In Mr NiclioU, mid, " I tr>ok tbe librrty tif tcliliijt hiii 
}lnjc*t; liiat several tnueli (trealcr men lliau myself luul lieea contented lo die 
Bixliopt of Worcester, tutii ibat I wiBlied for no hii-hnr prvftTinciil." Tlie ro- 
' *iilt WM thai lliG 8.r«bbitliu|ii'iu v&i (,''*<'U %u lit. Momi:, Biebup of Bancor, it 
]iu been staled, upon tlie rooninmrndiition of tt)9bo|) Hurd. On tbo 13lh nf 


Biakifp Hard. 

the Bionth he trrilrs to Dr, D*taw : " I am truly Iiappj, as rau suppcoe, in 

having riOBiifdLamhi^l.h.tlimtgauiaoflVroril coulauolbot b« iLit.lcrinh- tu we. 
A fi'innd of tours iroiilcl not hnvo «iid, .Vn/o urrki'puiropari : but l&e King 
kuuws his Bitlio)!!! udl. and htu prnvidcd belter lor us.* — Ihid. p. 14G, 

Tiiis rcfiisiil did not in nny Jogrcc nflt-ct tlio fricniUIiip be- 
tween tim bisliop and Ihe kin^, of which t)ierc is one curious 
instance in the king's hitving actually decided on ivnioving 
his family to Hartlcbuiy Castle in case of iuvasion. Twice in 
this iiicmoir invasion scene to have been considered imiiiiucnt. 
In hit youth, in tlie yvar 1743-4, wc tind Hurd writing from 
Cam bridge : — 

' NotliiiiK iH lulkci) of lieri^ but an iuvMion iram the Fr«uc!i. The Cheva- 
lier is at Paris, mid wc arc to expect liim hnrr in n thoit lime. Wlialcvct 
Ihero mn; be in tliis atva, it irrhi* to liavr cnnKtrrnnted th<! minialr;. The 
Tower Is trebly gunrded, luid si> is SuiiiL Jamei's ; and lh« nnldicr;; liava 
ordors to be rendj for action at au hour's wnmiiig, Tlicj are basUD<;, it Berms, 
from alt quarlBrs of Iha kingdom, to Louiloo. I saw a rcd'ueul vesterdajr 
goiaj; through Newmarket, After all, I aptu'cliend vor? little from tliu 
terror; it seemi n potitie contrivance of the I'rcnch to give a (iiversion to 
our men, and keep tiic Eugliiili out of Germany. Let me luiow wliftt is iltid in 
jour part of llie world.' — Hid. p. 20. 

And juat sixty years later, in IHIIS, George the Third writes to 
bia now aged friend, who had placed hia house at his service. 

'Hi beak cooii Bishop, — It haa beca thought by some of my friends, that 

it wi!i not be ntoessary to reieove mj familj. Should I be uiidor so painful ■ 
necc«fiitv, I do not know where I coiihl plnee them with so much salisf&ctiiin 
to mjself, and, nndrr I'rovidnnce, with so mueii seeiiritj, a.i with jouraelf and 
mj friends at Worcester. It iIoim not appear probahle lliat Ihere will be any 
occasion for it. at 1 du not thiuk the unhappy riiaii who threatcoa us will dare 
to venture among us 1 ucitlier do I wish ^ou to make aoj picpnnition for as; 
but I I.hou};ht it riglit to give you lliis ntformatioa. 1 remain, my dear jcood 
Bishop, 'Gkobge.*— y^/i*,/. p. 1H9. 

Ae far aa the world had honour* to bestow. Dr. Ilurd may be 
said to hitve attained tliecu. Uis la an instance of rising in the 
mo»t real sense. Fie had not only the esternala, but the inoro 
solid and intimate circumstances of elevation; and it wa.* the 
hom^Q of the day to learning [or what had the reputation of 
such) and good senae, of which our own time does not offer 
similar examplea. Not that distinctions in his peraon are very 
dazzling to the imagination. He was ao mattor-of-fiict) made 
KO sober nn estimate of men and things, that everything must 
■•cem matter- of- Ikct about him. All is caay and common -place, 
and not very interesting. Perhaps, too, the old king had ao 
much homely humanity in hia nature, hia taatea were ao essen- 
tially domestic and private, that he cuidd not lift people up by 
his more intimate notice, !mt rather proved his own yearning 
for (he fuller and freer life of common destiny, by dcscomUiig 
to the level of quiet, ordinary, bom.e-bred people- 

BiAop ffurd. 


No doubt llic muoli-tiilkeil-of umnner won the kinfj. Or. 
Hiinl's Imbituiil thouglitfiil gravity would mould this into the 
model deportment for a bisWop. His well-regulated mind 
alwaj'E secured this adaptation. Tbus the court luarned to t'v.v\ 
A reverential conlidcncc m liim. It is plciixant to find that j^ood 
Mid fpintuflie old lady, Mrfl. Dclitnj, seeking hia counsel in her 

* Tliis inorniri;- (writi-s llsdaine D'Arblay) T mot tUo Bishop of WoRicgtor 
at M(s. DcUuj**; lio wia very tcriuuK, uiiusuajlj so, btit Mia. D. was cbrcifrtl. 
He *00n left IIS, ntiil glic llirn!il inc she hail nccii ill in the iiiglit, .iiid linil 
brcii Ipd In desm somp v^rj solrmn nnnvcnjil.loii witli ihc good Bmhop, who is 
lier friend of many jKirn' stwidine, and was eoualiy itiltiimle wii.L her lo«l 
dHrline llie DuelieM of Porttnna . . . alio liu^ hvva discou[»tii); mi lie 
ciid of all things with tha Bishofi . . . h^r tiuud w»» rclievr/l itnd her 
tpirit chdcred by Ihc conforcuce ... be liad gpokco peace to ber fpnrs, und 
joj to her host fiojies.' — liiil. pp. 160, Ifil , 

His wa^ in fact, a pious nnd d«vout mind, though oonsti- 
tutionally cold, of which he seems to have been himself aware, 
for wc find in liis common-pla<;o book epoculations on the best 
mode of (renting this temperamGOt. 

'Tiwiy wb« have culm, eold, nnd alugnsh affcotinnii, »bonld endenvoiir to 
warm tbetn by reading tiiR ^ieriptorcx. l.f tlil.i rxpcdicnt fail, I wnnid not 
■dtine llicin to bavo r«timnc la (lin ila/frn iif thr Spii-itna! l.ifi, n» tliuy nre 
celled, lo enlivea thur ptuly. Fur punouB of tbal tunipiTaniunt vill nul, 
pwbaps oauuot, feci those IIIl'IiIs and raptures, boviever wfll foiudmi, when 
tb« liMTt i> more tender. Their rlTorls will probnhly aid in hypocrisy or 
diiappointment. Tlicir better wny, 1 tbiiifc, will he, to itndy the evidence* of 
Inie rpligion in sound reUMiners nn that Mihjpct, their eonvielion of whirb will 
produce a tirm faith. And such a faith will Imve nil the cfTi-cts of love (though 
not so »[>etdily or wrtaiuly purbups) in tyniittij; Ihein to h ^jood !ifu, tlie end of 
true Chrisiian religion, r'.c. of true piety. The spiritual lifu of thepiXW may 
bo plcasnnler nnd motn rapturous, but will be equally »olid lu the rHiiimaii't, 
i.e. the belicter, who is such on the crounds of fair reasonable inquiry, and 
not of fcslinp nnd transports, of which bis complexion may rcndex bim Inco- 
pdrie.'— /iiU p. 203. 

In lii» correspondence with Dr. fialgur» we find the great 
sabjects of Christian doctrine frequently dificu»>cd with n 
thoiiflbt and earnestness which iinprv»ses u^i rnvoiimhly. Tn ii 
long letter from Dr. Bntguy, mainly on the auhject of loleratjon, 
in which he was more liberal thai) his times, we find allusion 
lo «omc troote of the time, to which he call« the Bi»hop's 

* It apHara to me nnqueetionable Uiat the deatli of Christ is the appointed 
nuiu of our rodeniption ; but the reasons of this appointment may probably 
lie too doqi for oar com prehension. To suppose that wc know tbem' nil would 
bo prcsusiption, and we can know nODc of tnem onlcaa from the dcclaratloaw 
of SoKptute, whicli, as 1 think, has not rcrv cxplioitly declared Lhcm.' — Iiid. 
p. 1C5. 



Shthnp Iltird, 

To which the Bishop replies chnrantcri^ticnlly; — 

' I BffTK vi'ilh jou that tilt bloud, or, »« jou cx|irc?a il, l.iip f/Ai/i of Cbnif^ 
i» tlie sppointed means of out niiktinilioii; of tin; reaaiJii of that i)p|iuUitiaeiit 
T sm not aniJoua ti> inquire, but I llimk » solioituiie lu invcitigntc ttic icasoae 
incUuin maiij to reject llic mcnri!!.' — Hid. p. IGli. 

We <lo not quote these passage!* — and there iirc innny like 
them — for their intrinsic vnluc, lint to ahow wimt were the 
eiihjcctB or thought iiml iiiiiiiiid interest between the^ IViunilii. 
Mr, Kilvcrt, in x(>calciiig of hijf rclntivp, Richard Kilvert. ihe 
Bishop's chiiplaiii, gives testimiiiiy to iJteJr constant rtiuly of 
Holy Scripture together; and pinna uotiucd in ndvundo"; itg«, 
with apt and einiplc referencea to the inspired Word, tiViow it 
mind watchful and thnnkfiil. Ills common -place hook ha^ 
many reflections, tut it wer« civlrrily prejiaring himself for the 
end, nod noting the inevilalile uccoiiipauiuients of even a happy 
old age. 

'AinODg llic iiiNiiiirRnirnoEii of u luii^ life, oqp is, thai it brings ns acqiiniutcd 
with tht: mrprnl ns «t!1 an [ilijsicul ilflecls of oiirielvcs and othnr». Tiiis un- 
welcome ittsnuvrry uDlit!i and indigposts us for society, at s time vi\u:n wr most 
w&iit llit^ refnaUiiiGiits of it. But let us uot coin[ilHia, It iiervi-s. tuo, by tiio 
wise diiipugal of ft good I'rovideace, to dissolve, or loosen lit It^iist, uur oun- 
nezioa with this woi'ld, till wc are soiiicn>liat prepared to lake a, llual Icsve of 
it. . . . 

' Ilow ftfimfortnliifl is the idea of living un<ler llie coLiatanl eye and narc of nn 
Almightj nnd nll-gruci'iDB Providuiice ! and with what horror miwl wc ri-gwd 
o ratliRrUas world, luid the isd oondition of being upgnd to wliat llie (wel 

Ooinipoten* fortuna et Jnelactnhilc fntnm. 

Virg. jEnoid. viii. 33*. 

'Whv puMie and porplcx nursnlvex nlMut the intricacies of I'mvidcncc? 
wliiRli, liotrrvcr iti.ianilaliln In ns, viis know to lie ronl, nixl not giiiiRrnl nnly, 
but particular, ninuu u aparrow falls not to llio ground willioat uur Fallier. nay, 
and tlial the liai» of uur arv all iiumbfrud. (Matt, x, 20, 30, and Luktt 
xiL 0, 7.) W!iy, llicii, be altwrialdy ejttled or disjected at wlint taics pl»ou in 
tlic mysterious econonij and shifting scene of this world F " je of little 
bHV," iiXiyimrre. ! '—im p. 193. 

He 'licil in 1808, at. the great arje of eijihiy- eight, from a 
grniluni Jccity of strength ; his health had never heen 
and ull his liie he was subject to serious attacks of illoesti. 

It id no wonder, after such a life of success, that we should 
be told of little vanities, of a willingness to receive the flatteries 
of acquaiutancea and friends, of occasional festiness in old age, 
capecinlly where his ovni particular speciality was concerned. 
Mr. Craidock writes — 

' VVhon Mr. Mniiiwarina paid his Inst via't to Dr. Hiird, then Biahop of 
Worcpster, it waji his miblie day, llii Lordihip, nlwnjs rattier irritsblp, wbs 
now become oontriderably captioun and peevisli, and, M.x. Moiawnring at dioner 


Bishop Ifui-ct 



.iviii)! some hotouhI of the Frencb cmipranf* hn liad trtu in [innins Uiroufrh 
iVorcml'T, iii8 Lni'dsliip indifcnly ruilnimnl, laving ii(i*n his knife iinJ f<irk, 
" IIhyc I liveii lo iipnr llic Lndj Mnr(tiirel.'B trofeaor ot Cambridge cull it 
Cii'lffrHnt ? " Tlic nnmpan; wi» nlrui-'k with luilunife'jinetit, nnd tire profcMCir 
only noollj mplicd, " My Liinl, 1 tiiri corlaiul; nuiLrc Ihnt ihc i* in ihc LHtiii uC 
emiffro h bug. hut uioJerii usage — " " Nij, Sir, if you ciune to modrm 
usHgt. I can ct-rlaiulj; *oj no more." Mt. Mninwnrinir, cimajduring liix I^rii- 
ship"* »gc and iuorcaiing iiilirmitici, said iiu roore.' — Hid. p. Ii7. 

But these and liko infinnilies we ought surely to be inJutijcnt 
to; for if wc live long enough, it ie pretty certain wc Blinll nil 
fiill into kindred one?. 

It U ua a life, as n characteristic of an age, that we have 
treated Dr. llurd, not as an author. He was one of the many 
who influeocc their ovra (tmCi in diHtinctiou from the few whn 
win ho|)c for a lasting rule over men"* iiiiuds. The neglect i>( 
hia works, of which Mr. Kilvert conii>luin!', will prubaW)- be per- 
mancnt. What lliird himself aoitiewhere says is very true, that 
every ^e must have its own books, and the truth told in its 
own way. even though less forcibly than by preceding writers, 
and Hurd suited hi# own time, but not ours. As n critic, hi« 
influence was mainly for good. He Hteiulily oppoaed the fu:thion 
of grandilo(incnt vrriling, which CJinie in in his time, and the 
world has come round lo his opinion, though not, perhaps, in its 
strength and prejudice of expression. 

' Simpliuitj ia writini^ p»cliiie<i! br the best writer* tncteut titid tnodem, hu 
been gnnrinf; out uf Tashtou in Ei^gkrid (1 writu this lu l^Oll) Tor aiiiii« time. 
The {K>nipoii8, or wliut (u.'t bi> culled ihe Kfaijgeritig, innancr, wa» iutrnduoed 
bj BolJDgbrokc ; eonliimco, or rnliifr heigh ten rii, hy Junius and JohniOn; till 
nov it i» hcrconic; ihi; only titjk thnt pknsi's the; mob of render*, and (mpires 
to be tnknn notirc of in tcficirs nnd tnnguuue*.' — Ibid. p. 896. 

Of Gibbon he writes — 

' As lo Gibbon, I have reiul a part of his third voluinc. Tlioit^h s writer of 
■rnsc, parts, and iuduat.ry, 1 read him with liulo [ili'atnrc. Ills loaded and 
luxurinnt itylc is disKiistiTic to llio tost dftrrce; ami his work is polloted cvCTj- 
where by ttiu most immoriuns well as irreligious insiiiuntiniis.' — (li'ul. p. Ki7. 

Of Burke, of whose fantastic modes of expreeaion be else- 
where complains — 

' Jttirke's writing) arc such as may be eipeclod froiu a man Ion; habitnated 
(o cxtfmporiiry hknin;[uei in % popular assembly, and perhaps for that reason 
afforit a prMumptton that they ore properly wrUteu lo niisncr hi* rnd; as to 
the mulliluile of word*, CJoero, on tli« like occasion, would bate B»cd a* many, 
tknly he w«u1d h&re pul them (oirethcr iu a better method and ia ■ purer stvle.' 
—lUd. p, U9, ■- ~" ' ' 

Johnson he calls a pedant, nnd can't write of him with 


liinhiip Ifurti. 

\ag Vnnm of 

n con< 
flf ■ 

' RiMWcll's " Lifn of Sumur) Jiilinson " exiiibdts n ttrikiiw mmmitwm ui h uui 
(iilent, ov^r-vHtiinf;, (Iwlutvridl pedant, lliougli of |)nrts nniTloBrnis^i nnd nf 
weak, slialluw. HubmiwTa admirer or Bucli a cliBraoUr, deriving n vanit; fio 
tlial verj admiration.' — Ibid~ p. Sj4. 

Simplicity is his constant watchword. He detects the want 
of it in the wits timt |}rccc(le<l Addison, iu mnny of the ancients, 
as well as in tlic new lis'its wlio were clondiiig the fame of )ii« 
own great cxnirinle. ' I have lived,' he ttiilea ptithctioully, ' to 
' see the day when some have called in (jueHtioii the clnini of 
' Addison to be a good writer in prose,' adding, ' and of Pope 
' to be a ^ood poet Ills cnlhusiiism fur Addison was a kindred 
passion with lits fnendnhip for WaHiurlon. They were the two 
OTCu-«Aeit of hie life. Iliv edition of the great cs.-<ayiat mnrkii llie 
difference between tlio criticiiiin of hia day and our own. Verbal 
critidsm is with us mainly cnnlined to the dead litngnages. Wo 
do not pick the sentoncca of our contemporaries to pieces; wo 
Icnvc men to cxpa'ss themselves, as we eay, according to tlicir 

f!>mu.-i, keeping no purticuliir watcli n[)On words and phraser, 
ew, wo suspGot, analyse very exactly why they are ple:uied, 
though wc 6tdl confer the praise of a classicsil stylo on compo- 
sition where a full meauiof; is rendered in clear muMcal 
English. But men wonhl think it derogatory to wait upon an 
English writer as llurd dues on Addisou, noting hia felicities, 
detecting minute inaocuraciea, fondly exulting over any par- 
ticular sueceas. Such criticism belongs to a reading as ojtposed 
to » writing age. The critic of a hundred years ngo is a writer 
now. We will jpve an example or two of this obsolete style of 
criticism, with rinrd'e Adilisnn before us; and first, one sen- 
tence will allow the ' wurd-pioking ' department. Addison 
writes : — 

'It is itnposBlble to cuumBrute the evitu wbicli urine rroiii lliosc arrons tUat 
fly in tlie <^rk-' 

Hurd's comments; — 

' Tliis sentence liad been more cinct, nnd less Innguid, if ho bad g»id, " Innu- 
merftble eviU nriic from tbosc arrows Liml &j in tbe dark." ' 

Addison aaya : — 

' lluw many a pretty g 

In a note wc find :- 

' lliiw many a pretty gHutleniau'ti knowledge lies nil williin tlie verge of ibe 

' Manif a man is nsed in faniilinr discourse for mauj/ ihch. Tliii wny of gpenk* 
ing if imomnloua, anj aceininglj absurd, but maj in some sort bi? accounted for 
by obseming thnt tbe iodeliuilB pftrLiole "3"niuBnH "oub" in rvfereucc to 
mere ; so that " maHg a tium " is lue same lliini; ax one man of maity, ftc>' 

Biohop llurJ. 297 

Addison speaks of Sir Roger'a chief companion : — 

' Who hu lived al Iiia bouse in the n&ture of a uliaptaiii.' 

The note, fearful leet so great an example sliuuli] mixiciul, 
appends ft caution: — 

"Hio word "iialHre"\% iiwid Lore a littJo tiocnliouslj ; lie nliould Ihtc initJ, 
"in the offiet^' or tlic " quatity " of n i:!ia]>lftiii.' 

Many of the notee. however, take a higher atand, and might, 
fwe think, he valujible to the student as guing into the causes 
of kenuty in style, tdhng us bow we are pleased. Thus, in 
Addison we read : — 

' It ia llicre mid [in tlic Alcoran] t.bnf tint Angel Gabriel ttxik Malionipt out 
of liis bed one moniin;; to pve hiin a ai^iit of al! tlitngi in tlin tr.vcn lirnvcnR, 
in paradiWt and iu lii'll, wineli lie PropLul. look a distinot vIhw of ; tind nftnr 
having; held ninety LhouMind confctviiccB willi Goil, wiis broiufljt liHuk UKuin to 
liii hc.a. All lltia, «a;t tlii; Alcrivan, wiu trnnsacted iu ao aniftll a spaoe of time, 
tliat MoliuiiicL, at his icturn, found iiis bed still vnrm.' 

On which the note remarks: — 

' IFiitt llf Prophet leok a dhlind r'wa of. Tlii* wnj of llirnwinft thn pnt- 
pmifion to tlio I'tid of a wntPiiCB tg Htnong llin pi-uuliuritics of Mr. Addison'* 
munnrr, and was derived from liis nice car. Tliu Bcerut dL-servtm to La ex- 
pininnd. Tlic Englisli tongiip is nutnmllj crave md nnijcstic. Tlic rht/llm cor- 
resfionds to tlic genius of it, und rnti.i iiinmst, wliel.licr we will or no, into 
IHuibics. But tliB eun'tiiuitv of tliis soIciiiti nieuauru !ina an ill pITcoI, whore the 
subject is not of tiioiiicni. Mr. Addison's delicuie enr made bim senEible oC this 
defect in llio rhjtlini of onr Inngnnge. (ind auftgeatcd to him the propBr cure for 
H, irtiich wns to hrcnk the contiaiicn inmbic mensiire, especially nt tbo end of 
n aentence. whcru tln^ n-etsht of it would be nio*t fell, by a prrposi/iim or other 
short word, of no eiiiiibaslB in the guiLse, and withnut ncaent, tnrown into tli»t 
part ; wlienee a tiocheo biding introduoed into the plaee of au iunibus. would 
Eire tlint nir of negligence, und what, the Fieiicb eati " /.yrir'r," wliich in a 
woTk of Eiiiefy or elcRnnce is fomid so l.nkin?. Fur inatnnce, hml the niitlior inid, 
"of whteh the Prflphet took u distinct vl«w," the tnctn; hud lieeo wholly 
innibie. or, tilmt is wonc, would htive bi'en loaded with u tip)Oiiiilee in the last 
tool, und Ihe accent mu«l liate fallen wi'L soleoinitj on the word rkic. But 
by reserving the preposition " of" tn tlic end of the sentence be. gnins thia 
ud'anlnjte, thnt " riV/e of" boeomeii a troehec, and the wir i» not only re- 
lieved by the vnrit'ty, but esi.'iipeii llie " ictus" of a too iniportnnl close. For 
the aaine reasou, he frequi'iitl^ leriiiiiiates a aonteceu or a |)uragrapb bj auch 
unpretending phrases a» "r.f It," ".^f him," "\r\ hfr," "from t.hiW . . . In the 
^formal ttylc it h evident thii liberty should he nparinglj n»ed, hut in coneersa- 
lion, in ktlirfs, in iiarrntii-t^ and universally in all the liKhler forms of composi- 
tion. W\ii Addimsinv, tenjanaliou, aa we may call il, has aueitrcme grace.' — Addi- 
wb'« Workt, vol- iii- 

We fully Bgreo with all this, but apprehend that the language 
haA drifted away from the form, so ttiat the bahitual use of the 
preposition as a termination would now he a manneri«ii. 'Ilie 
subject of English composition is so seldom treated now with 
this dose ana^sis, tliat we are tempted ta give one further 


JJisAop UttrtL 

extract, trusting to its finding interest with iivoaa wlio like to 
trace ecnaations to their CAUses. No teaching e^u make men 
write musical iiro«c ifthc}* Itavc not certain nstiinil felicities of 
taste nni! ciir, but ciire and stud/ tn»j turn tlwsc ]>rc<:ious gifta 
to viwlly gi-calcr lulvanlnge. 

'J isan Kko tat any relith far fat irriting! This mwlcry of fmi tttitii^ 
(more talked i)f Uiau uiiderslood) oonsiftl* cliiuflv in t\ref tliiii;^ 1. In « 
cboicH lit/!/ iGniia. S. In rucIi « fonxtmrtioH of iWni, m agrve* to Ibe gnin- 
iimr or t.lic laDBDti^.. in irliicli wn writi^. Anil 7i. In n plcntmt; nn^ uttd 
arraag'-meiit ai iTipm. By \\\t: fint or tliMi' qualities, a »tj-lr hraxinira what 
WB call etrgiml .- by tlie lecomi, eiad : mid, bv tlie fhinl, harmoni/ius. Eacli oE 
tlieso nunUtiea iiiaj !w jiodsesueii, Ij itwlf; out tliey inuat uoucur, to form a 
Diiiiibcd stvlc. 

'Mr. AJdisort wtt» llic/^»', nnd i» alill, ]ifiriinp«, tlio only, English writer, ia 
trlmm tlir«c tlirre rrf|iii*it(!s arc fnund tiifrptlipr. in, nlmnst, nn ci|Uiil d^rce of 
pCTttfffttion. It i», inJpnJ, one piirpoic of llicflt cursorv notps, to sliow, llmt, in 
some lew in»tan(w», liu lias lraiiBSLi'ii8ed, or rslliiir, iicgteclcd tliu strict rules 
of grammar-! wliicli j«t, la )t<'nvrnr, )ic obsorvrs vitb more rare, lliau aiiy olbcr 
of our writnn But, in '*" fhoirr oftii trnu» (wiiicii ia tliP most CMCntttl 
point nf all), and in the uumbrn of hi» ttgle, lie in nlmust ranlllcM, or rftthcr, 

' It will uot \«i easy fur llic reader to eowjirelir'nd tliu meril of Mr. Addlsou's 
prose, in tliesc thtHU respects, if be Las not been conrri'ssui. in ilic hvtl (lictori- 
tni wrltiDgs of Ihc niicienls; mkI nspcr^inlly in thoac pnrta of Cicero's Had (liiiuc- 
tititn's workii, wliicli treat of tvhat tlicy oall campaai/ion. But, because the 
Marmony of liii slyln is rxquisite, and lliin praiisn is ))eauliu to himself, it ma; 
tre worlb wiiile to consider, in wimt it cliifRj couiists. 

' 1. Tliis BHcrut vliuriu of Humtifrt in effecled b; n certniii arraTigciiifot of 
woids, ill iW J«CTP tmtfirr : tliat is, by putting 6iicli worda togetlier, as rend 
citftilj, and ire prrinniinced Killinut ulTtii-t; nhilr, nl ilicsnnie time, t.he; ore so 
toPMpercd lij difierrnt inuiiils and meoimrei, as to affect lUo ear wilb a sense of 
variety, as well as nwci^tucss. A^, to liike tbe first seiilence in tbo fullowiiii' 
esSHj ; '' Oar sight i* Ihc mvnt prrffH and moti thliffklfnl of all <mr afiiuft^ It 
jOH alter il iLus ; — " Our siglil is liic pfrfrdcti and mnst dcliglitful of all our 
senses." TIioiirIi the cliango bn nnljf of one word, the diifcrpunp is vci'V simsihle; 
prfixfnt, briiiR > word of diUicnll proniinoiation, ami rendered still Wsiier by 
till) subsequent word mtal, uLioh ui'Loits to llie termiiiHliou n^. 

'Or, again, read thus— "Our sigbt is tbe most ptirfcol and most ^/ra^ny of 
all our icnsns." Here, tbe prcdoiniiinoCG of tbc vouel r. and the alliteration of 
lliB two adjectives, prtfrcl and pleasing, with the repetition of tlie superlative 
sil^-ji " miml," oocasioiiB loo great a tamfHfsa or sioiiluritj of somid lu tlie oon- 
stitueul parts of tbis sontcucc. 

'Lostly, rend thus : — "nur sight is the most «iw/'W( and most delighlful««ii«» 
Wf hiien.'' — lint Ibun joii hint trie nicnsure or ytuiifi/^y, which, in cmr Isngiingc, 
is determined by tbc accent : as will appear from observing of vrh'ji feel cither 
sentence consists. 

•"Oflr siglit-ls th3 niilst-cflnijiisie-Jtnd mSst-danRht-ffll sOnse-wE liftve." 
Hcri^eKcepl at the second foot, wliicb is an nnapm't, the rest arc nil of one 
kind. i.f. lambios. Bead now with Mr. Addison— "t)ar slghl-Is ibO mOst- 
pCrlCot'iliid uiOst di5llgiil-fill 6f 5lI-oat sCnsBs." — And you see how the rlijlhni 
is varied by Ibc iulcruiiiture of otber feet, besides tbnt the short rcduudiiiii 
syllable, M-a, gives to tlie close, a slif;lil. and negligent air, wliich hits a belter 
effect, in lliii place, thou Ibc pr[i)>cr iambic foot. 

' 2. A sentence iniiy be of a mui'lez-ahh Ifiiglh - and liien the rhythm arises 

BtuJio^ UhtiI. 


frnni tuci' » oaniiK)»it.!nn, lu brnuki t.lin wlinlc intii cliiTifi'mil. part.i ; and (-oi>5utU 
nl t.lic vimis Linic. Uic midudinus (liiw iit «;u;li. A» in Ujc ai:c»iiit |ivi'iikI of lliu 
»nniR piiptr. — " II I'lUa iho niiud wil)i lliu iui'j-Bal vai-jotj of xJcilb, cuineiUL-s 
with iUt ubJeuU at t,lie greatest liislaiice, anil conliimcs llic luugrst iii sctinu 
withuul \iv\tiyi tired or suliaU'd wjrli iu fimpur viijiijiiirnta." 

* A »iiig!c Fi'iik'nrc nlf^iild rnri-lj ri>u>iiil of iiiorn ihiin tliiiH! tncitibnr*, niid 
I the (lijtlini \s. nioAt ccimpl(!tF, wlicii timn rise U|X)ii. mid cxci-cd, rni-'li iitlier ill 
Idnjttli luid I'ulnusB uf suuuit, til] iliu wliule in ruuiuk-d by u {ne iiuii iiiiwaured 
clone. Iu Uiis rinw, lliu tbj Lliui of tliu hi'iiIl-uui! berc ([uulud, iiiigbt bo iniproTtd 
by ihoitCTiini- ibe fitil mciTibcr, or liiDgliiciiiug t)ic second, ns tliii*;— "it. fills 
tiic mind wilh l.lii; moal ideas, couvcrse^ witli its objecl.a »t tbc ^entoiit di*- 
tanw," A,c. Or tliu»— " it fills Ibn iiiiiid witli tlic> InrgrJt vurictj uf idr.iui, 
litis ibeailviiiilngp of conversiiiji wtlb ils objt't'ls at llip greiilcsl dialaiici'," &c. 

' Tlirtn idltTiilintiB ari^ sugKeiitod out}' to uxplaiu my uieuuiitg, mid iiol lo iiilt- 
niute, Ilmt tlicte to any lauli in l.lic feeniencf! ns it kow btnuda. It i^ not ncccs- 
MTjr, bb; il would be wrong, to luuc cvnry ptriuil into lLc c(iin]ilctcst linj'nionj : 
I would only si^uify lo tlie rirudcr. ivlml lliat iivraiigtmcnL uF n ciiiiiiilicatrd 
))(!ii(id i^, ill wliicJi tlin Iiimiiouj is most coiiiplelu. Wu liuvo uuiiib«rlcii9 in- 
Htutiuiiii ill Mr. Ai!diauu'>g nriling ; as in Ibe iiei,l of liia pupeiii uu tlit iiiiaviiia- 
liou — " ilie eye lias room to raiige nbioad, to tipat.iatc at lari;c on the ini- 
moiisitj of iti views, and to lose itself nmidst llie varictj ot obji'Ols lliat olTor 
tbcnisuiici to ils objcrvulioii." 

'Tlie inaiuni^i!, linrL- given, is liable Iu no objection. But there w daiif^r, no 
doubt, teast tlu« alti^iitinti lo rbvlbiti sliiiuld bctisy llm wrtlKr, iuaeniiibly. iiiio 
Koine degree of lau(;iior uud redmidiLney in bis exprossioii. And it cannot be 
denied, llint Mr. Addiaoa liimsnH bns, koinciiinin, fallen into tliia trap. But 
the f/i-iteral ru'f liolits, niiviirLhciess ; and caro Ik only to he Intcn, that in aiming 
at a bouuty of ou« kind, w« do not ovorlook auotlier of equal, or, n» in lUia twse, 
of Kreiilor iiii porta iicu." — Jildmax Wtrh, vol- i»- pp. 331 — 333. 

It ia nat ■ lUtle cur'iuua lltiit, with iitl t.bia keeu appreciation 
of grace, anJ clearnesH of diction. Dr. Hurd should, on the 
occasion when he would oioat wi«h to excel, have made a signal 
failure. Ue hod a tu^te for iiiHcription)^, which dcmtin<l a )i»r- 
liciilarly terse, correct, and hanuooious style; and dL->iii)KuiBlieil 
himself hy siime excellent Latin performances in tijis tine, noted 
hy his hiographer — hiingelfwell koown for Ills adniirablG inscii])- 
live Laiin. A» a matter of course, Hurd w(i» deputed to coinpuse 
the epitaph on hi^ friend Warhurtou, and we may he sure would 
fiUiunion all his skill to the work. Dul when terseness is the one 
thin^ ainicd at, it BBoms always to mvc a writer the slip, or betray 
him into fomc blunder or other. How it is that it is »o difficult 
lo write a deeent ejiitiiph hiLt to be explained, but we suspect 
alt who ))ave tried know it as a fact. Ilere is Huid'a on War- 
burton : — 

' To the memory of 

Wir.uAH WxKRUaToM. D. I). 

for more tlian lix vtiara Bishop of lliia See. 


of llic mnat anblime (Icnius, and exquisite 


Bolb wbich TalcntB 

he eoipli^'od ibrougb a long life, 

SOO SS*ltiip Runl, 

in tlie suppurt, 

^ (if vliRl be Grnil) birilcvod. 

the Chriitinn Ifcligion; 


of wluit lie cBlRcmcd tlie bnl KsUlilisliirienl of !<, 

tlie Cliurcli of Eri!,-I»iid. 

He was bom si NViiArk'uauii-TrcDt, 

Dec S*. 1C9S-. 

was ooDWcratod Bishop of Gloticr^lrr, Jna. iO. 17110 ; 

died it hit lUuc, in tbis Chj, June 7. MVJ, 

uul waa buried near tins pi nee.' 
Literary Jiirrdolfii of the Fighlecnlh Century, TOl. r. pp. 6SS4. 

A tniii«pnrcnt failuro certainly, on wliich two very just com. 
menu liave been inmle. Dr. Wurtitn miticea the tieo talents as 
aa improper expresaion : ' \V\a Genius aDd Learnliig nrc called 
two lalentg, but Lenrning is an acquirement.' Aud Cnidooic 
writes : — 

'After Ills dentil Huril nrole bis epttapli, nbicli wii« placed agniiixt a pilLi/ 
in Gloiicestpr Cathcdtsl, A bruttier Bisliop, Dr. TImrlow, oncn xniil to me 
nftr.rwnrils, " Cnnii) jour fiteiid tind ootliing beUiT to siij, in bonoiir of liiS 
f»fnier ido!, tbmi lliet \\a dinl in llio belief cf what liu c'rim'i'ivtd ia be 
Clirisliauitj " ! I gute a copy of Hurii'a epilaph lUiiu ufttr it win put up to 
»oine Icnriied digiiittrics, aud one cuuld Bcurcelj believe iL waa csacllj copied,* 
— Cnukek, To!. iv. p. 203, 

Mr. Kllvert concludes bis volume with an imposiiip; list of 
Bishop Huni's works, consigting of criticism, contrinerey, tiiond 
and potitiuni diniogiics, eernuiDs, mid chnvgcs, uiid ii viiriety of 
tracts. These are alrca(]y before ibe piiblin, though not in a 
very practical form ; Mr. Kilvert adds to them a variety of 
extracts from tbo bishop'* tinpublished record of tlioitgbt, his 
etxtimon-phice boolt. They show a mind oon*lantly busy in 
worlhy subjects of thought, of cousidendilo power and clearness, 
and with a wider range of sympathies than perhaps might have 
been expected ; with the one exception of 'cnthtisiiism.' Wo 
will give an instance or two, tb<3iif^h we arc drawing to an end 
of our space. There is, we think, a touch of modern thought 
in the following passage on illusions : — 

'One of llie wnjs b; wbich linman lire becomes tolerable a throneh the 
illusion of hopu. Ii would be a euriou* nulijeet to inquire hnw mueli of what 
we call happinirti iit this life arises fruni siioh nurt of iliuEieuH. I doubt, if 
thinet appmred to u^ jii8t rs the; are, we bbould iiol oiilj lose n great deaJ of 
neeaml Cflml'ort, but deprive oiirielTeii of much use,r\i1 imlrndivH- Wbnt child, 
for iuataiice, would nuhiuil lo the drudgery of lii.i cdnciitiiin, if he wiire not led 
en and iMvdtd, us we innj sst, b; eerluiu foud niid rilruvngiiit fauciea of the 
eiccilcnor nnd advniitngeR&f lusruiag, niucb bujoud ulial ht liiid»Lt tojieldto 
him, when be ronies to grow up lo yenrs of onserialinu ^ But bj tlmt time, 
luckily, hnhit Buiiplies tlie pluue of his former lUxiion, and bo eonlinnes hift 
!<l.udiefi, tliou^h lie no Iou^lt dreumn of Ihti prodii^'ous iiiij>urlunee of them. 
Tbe iamn may be snid of the other pursuits ot liftt hugIi tw b'^eatncss, weiiltli. 

Btshop Ilurd. 


lilies, &e. In iliort, mnte all men [)liii()!>(i|ilier», Hint is, imlriict ptaipln from 
tlioir eai'liftt uLiLranut; on life tu rt-Kurd tliiii([ii \mt for iriai Ihri/ arr, and jim 
cnl. tlin lincws of all liunian iniJustry nixi virluf. We jira mutlu liujijij by 
Rhadoie* here: l.lic mhnlimeu is to be nought ib oilier regions." — L(/'s anif 
Cortttptrndtnct ofJiiikqp Herd, p. 268. 

In Iiiii own line of criticism we find tlic following Incit 
apology for tlic rouglier foi'ins of controversy (he is speaking 
of writcre) : — 

'The views, liuBiouw, anil chftniclctj of, rerj diffrrcnt. Tliii is not always 
cnnRiiifrei) wlien houio are H[j|)Iaudecl mid otlicm run den mod, e.ff, as inucb of 
tlic posiLivB and dogmatic spirit may lie liid in tbe dilSdeiit writer as is 
ejprPMfd in ■ confldent nne, Tlie mode of writing mskcs all tlic diffcrcncr, 
tad tliis may proccpd from different ennscs, nnd mny in citlier cnNc ho jnntilicii 
ftom llieni. Would yim convince or prosidytc the jn'rson you write ufr»inal ? 
the vaj of iusinuLitiau is preremble. l)o you ilcsptiic ii( tliis, and would vou 
gimid others from hvlog misk'J by liiiii? Tlio direct slid percinulnry metliod 
u belter. Besides, would llic dcooruui of character be iirc»erved it llie bold- 
spirited wrote with the CRUlions reserve of tlie limiii f But you "hke llio 
softer eluirueler hetlrr: " that is snotber Ronsideriition, niiii niny its well mean 
jour pride as your humility." — J6id. pp. 21)1, 29fi. 

On the <iu€sliou of tediousness he says : — ' n tedious writer 

b one, not wlio uses many words, wbellior iu long or sbort senteners ; biit who 
nacn ninny words to little purjioHc. Where tW. sense keeps pnce with tUn 
words, thoiiKli these be numerous, or druwn out into lonu periods, I siii uol 
iircd Willi an author : when liis exnressiou (joes on, and tlic nense stands still, 
I flui preiiently out of iiutieuce witli liim, Ol all tlio great writer* of sniimiity, 
Cicero is perhaps the feast tedious, and Scaeca the most so.' — li'd. p. 2SJ}. 

He woe noted amongst liis friends for bis ekiil in druwing bis- 
liiricnl characters; nmny of tliese are given, but at too great 
length for our purposi^ We extract tlie one of Braeniiis, us 
coming within our limits : — 

'Two iotirmities in tlii.i grenl man account for all the iucoiisistonciM of his 
character. TheBc were vanity and tiinidilj. His vanity led bini to expose the 
nbn»M which his pnctrstion and luve of truth had discovered iu the Uiuircli : 
for IVolea taut ism, or a free vein of disquisition coiicfming the tlicn state of 
religion, wns r» fa^hioiialilo in his time m inlidelilj is become in ours. Hut aa 
such fri'edom in writiiiK nnd speaking v/ia snre to Rirc offence, and could not 
but be altendiid with dnnftrr, his timiilitj led liim again to pslliate oi explain 
nwny wlial he Imd juatly advanced. Hi.'uce he was obnoxious bolti to I'rotcs- 
tnnts and Papists, lie ceitainti wislicii ami aimed at s rrformatiini of religion ; 
but iic wished, at 'he same time, that this reformation miirUl be brouj-lit about 
by neiitle nnd pncilie rnrann only : a iJiinjr impossililr after a ferment bad been 
rsiaed iu men's minds by his own free wrilinss, and especially by tbe furious 
invcctites of l.uUirr. If hia nchcnie cuiild have been effected, the mischiefs 
and miseries (which n-ere innomerahlc and eiecssivel of tlie Itjifomiition had 
been nroided. It mi^hl have been cllceted if nil ninf lind been ns ^nideut and 
eiiiicilialury as he wah disposed to be; but by slow drgrecs nud lu a gi'entcr 
compass of lime than ihe passion of llie two parlies wonld allow. On the 
wlinle, Erasmus mis iin uuclleut man ss will ns writer; and, Ihoiigh tliO 

NO. ex. — N.S, Y 


Sisftop Jlwrd, 

boistoronx iiitiit) ol LiitUcr A\A nt onM wlinl thii tjtlicr liiul prnjcclcil, ;et il wn* 
dnnc tlir cmier fgr tin: nftrncalilu mill piipulnr infiirmuliou cunvcjed lijr 
EruiniiB. Anii tSiuteforE il wan truly but ooarsaljt ob»ci*cd, tliat the one 
Itud lliu Bgg wliioU tho oliior hnWliod,' — Ihid. p. Sl'j, 

We must now t«ko our leave of Bi»lioi> Hiinl, If our efTort 
to bring liiiu mid Ins limei bclbre our ri.-aclcre) slioukl ioducti 
theni to penetrate into the liistory of the liust century for them- 
selves, our end will have been answered. It baa been tiio 
fiishion with nuthorx and thinlicrs of tliu most various itims to 
cry down the period on which we have been engngod, in its 
nmitjcs, its society, its religion. The reigns of the Georges ate 
neld up to popular ridicule and reprobation by a fascinating 
writer who has econ little in ii range of n hundred yennt but 
matter for his pungent wit. But people only find what they 
go to scuk. Tlie satirist of our day has gone to the satirifltd of 
the paiit for his jilclurea of the period he contemna: all times 
furnish food for sucli a temper ; few, we gladly think, arc so 
barren of good but they can also supply the contrast, lo those 
■ who will patiently loiik For it ; for worth, and steady principle, 
and purity of life do not catch the eye as readily as do vanily 
and folly in high places. These and other kindred virtues may 
surely be found in the company to which Mr. Kilvert's book 
baa led ns, not without ready wit and learning to give them 
edge and frcshnces ; and tlicsc where the satirist would least bid 
US look for them.iii tho studies of denas and the palaces of 


Abt. III. — 1. la Educational Reform required in O-s^ori, and 
whatt Oxfoixl and London: J. H. & J. Parker. 1S59. 

2. /Vm* nnd CIum. An 0.rf>rd Ouijlv-Jhok f,hrott<f/i the Cmiritfji 
of lAlcriP Ilwmimiorejt, Malhfmntic^, Naturnl Scif.nct'-, and Law 
and Modern HiaMrv. By Montagu Dubrows, M.A. J. H. & 
J. I'arkcr. 1800. 

3. 2 he VoUtnlary Svstvm npph'ed to Acadcnncal In*tmction. 
Stiftjfgtmm hy D. I*. ChasBi M.A , Fellow of Oriel College, 
nnd Principal of St. Maiy Hall. J. H.& J. Parker. ISiJfl- 

4. 77ie Voluntary Smlum ajmliiid to Univorsily Examinations. 
Ihf D. P. Chase, M.A. J. II. & J. Parker. 1859. 

.5. Tiro Letters on the Examinations, to the Itee. the Viee-Chao- 
Mflor. % J. P.Tweed, M.A., Fellow and TuU^r yf ExcUt 
CoUege. J. H. &, J. Parker. 1859. 

6. An Inangural Lecture, delivered Jy Goldwin Smith, M.A . 
Mi'iiius Pr'ifkignr of Miulfrn Ilistortf in this University of O'jford, 
J. 11. & J. Parker. 1859. 

In the course of tbe last fifty years, tlie UniverBity of Oxford 
baa been tlie scene of tliree different iiiovement!<, whi«Ii have 
stirred the usually quiet watera of academical life into an 
unwonted cxeltcmcnt. Ordinarily, nothing can lie moifi still 
and unmoved than ihe appearance of the University. Each 
Rwn 1)113 hit* own work tu do, antl he has tlie good sense to do 
it, and when he had done it, lie finds but little time for other 
occupation. It requires, therefore, a strong noccsBifj, or a 
master's hand, to evoke the fund of energy which exists, I)Ut 
esifeta uaiially in a latent form, except tn far as it expends \ieiA( 
>u the efficient fulfdnicnt of the daily duties of the place. It 
was a strong necessity — 1}0 other Llian the np{uirent necessity of 
eaving the Church from ruin — which co-operated with Mr. 
Kehle, Dr. PuHcy, and Mr. Newman, in producing the grtwt 
Iteligious and Thoologiual movement ivhicli form» the first of the 
three movements to which we have referred. The aecond, which 
we may call the Const itutional movement, as it had for itsohjcet 
the creation of a new constitution for the UniverHity, wai» forced 
upon the residents from without. The thiid, or Ednciitional 
movement, was iho luitural iiroduct of the {^nernl advance 
and change of thonghl which liiut tiiken plaoe, both within ami 
without Uio University, in the coui-^ of half a century. 

V "1 

804 Oxford — ita Cotutttuti'onal and EJitcntitmal CJinttgta. 

I. WiUi UiG Theologioitl movement wc tlu nnt lierc deal ; 
cnmigli that it stirred the Univoreity to \U ilcjitlia, that it pne^^ed ' 
fnmi the Uoivcrsily to the Church at large, and that its effucta 
are now felt throughout the length nnil breadth of England in 
iticruuscd y^nl und love to (jod's service dUiiluycd iii many u 
village [Miraonngc, and in the niid^t of the hitherto unreckimed 
inasaca of our great towns and cities ; and in the fact thnt prin- 
ciples are now univcreally recognised as axioms which had pre- 
vioiiBJy been overlooked and forgotten. But its originni Iwnic 
knows it nomorc. Ci>lditct«s,<leaduiifia,iudi9'i5rence)hi^vo taken the 
place of theological excitement, and ' the great atorm of religions 
con trove ray," aaya Mr. Goldwin Smith, 'through which the Uni- 

* veraity haajuat poised, has cast the wrecks of ber niont cplWd 
' intellects on every nhorc.' — P. 34. 

II, The origin and ]>rogress of the Conatitutional movement 
ia known to none heller than to the writer whom we have jugt 

?uotcd, and to Professor Sumley, tlie secretary of the origmal 
Jniversity CoinmisMon. There wae a amull jiiirty in the Uuiver- 
eity, Btyliug itseli' liberal, which was iitiable to carry out its pet 
theoriea for remoulding and rearranging everyllung, or at leuat 
many tilings, about them, because thoy found themselvea in a 
minority amongst their peer?, Ae they did not doubt for a 
moment that the whole wisiiom of the University wa» centred 
in theirittelvcs, they were unable to endure the tyninny under 
which they were aufiiiriiig, and in virtuous indiguation, — 
warmed into action, it was whispered, by a fellowship being 
refuHcd to an able candidate on the ground of hiu having, in the 
opinion of the electors, too large an income to allow him to be 
eligible, — they appealed to Lord John Rusaell. Lord John was 
prepared at a moment's notice to undertake the refonu of tlie 
universities. He announced his resolution — a Uoyal Commiaaion 
aliould be issued. The Commiasion was appointed, and it was 
found tliat everyone upon it was a party man, more or less 
committed to the same views, so that the nature of the Report 
might be caeily guessed from the character of the Commissioners 
and of the Secretary. It was not of course likely that the 
University authoritiea would act corflially with such a body. 
Moreover, there was a tioubt hanging over the legality of their 
acta, Pnpera of que.tlions were sent out by the Comoiiaaioncrs 
to persona aeleeted by themselves, ao (iramed as commiafiotiers 
krii.w hiiw to frame questions which arc to produce answers on 
whicli til frame a given report. In due lime the Report ap- 
peared, together with the evi<lence ao collected, aiid a question- 
able sketch of the iiaat and present stale of the collegre, contri- 
buted by Mr, Goldwin Smith. A great utir at once nrtm: in 
the Univei-sity. Tlie lieport was diligently studied, ami it^ 

Oxfitrd — its ConatitMtional and Educational Chatige«. 305 

essence appeared to be this : — That it was the opinion of the 
CouiruieeioQeri? that tlie Univerjiily [•lioulil no looger govern itself 
by its Hebdoiniidal Boanl and its Convoeation, but that it 
ehouM be controlled by a wise oligarchy, which should direct it 
aright in e]>ite of its own conservative perversity. Thia oligar- 
chy was to be found in the ProfesBorg, the majority of whom 
were to he nouiiniittid by the Cruwn, and who were to ho the 
prepondL-rating idenioiit in the new governing body. Further, 
tlio Collegiate system was to be weakened and depressed in 
favour of the University, both by taking from the Colleges to 
give to the Profeseora, and by permitting young men to lodge 
freely where they would throughout the town during their 
ncndemicul career, thus raising up an University dietluct from the 
Colleges and Halls which comijosed it, at the expense of ntl 
efficient moral control.' ' Clerical restriction' ami poverty, of 
course found little favour tit the hands of the Comoiissioncra. 

Wlmt was to he done by those members of the Univortiity to 
whom the modest recommendations of the Commissioners were 
distasteful ? The Proctora pronoeed the appointment of a mixed 
delegacy, one-half consisting ot Heads of Houses, and the other 
half of Mnaters of Arts, to consider the suggestions, and to 
report upon them. The Heads, being now demontrid before 
tlieir fall, refused to acquiesce in the Proctors' proposal ; even 
the able and far-seeing Dr. Hurington, whoso unexpected 
death, which occurred i<hurtly afterwards, waa a heavy blow to 
the Univeraity, counselling tneni in the negative. The Heads 
mppnitited a committee of themselves to consider the Commis- 
sioners' recommendations, and invited evidence from the Masters. 
The Maslera resuscitated the Tutors' Association, which had 
previously existed under Mr. Jelf'a presidency for tlie pur- 
iJO!io of discussing educational changes, and they appointed 
Mr. Hansell llieir chairman. It was a busy time— tlicre was 
the whole of the ordinary work of the term to be carried 
on as usual, and in addition there were discussions to be held in 

' ITic oniMiiilcil clmmnlcr of tlio CoouDiaBicncfs' Itoporl ww shown in notliiaj 
mora lluui in tliuit hiring no fnutt to iind with the italo of the Hull*, nt iho 
that thnt, lUnjr iaiiieil r.hvlr KcpufU At r.hat tlmn, nlth the one cicoptinn of S. 
Eiliuuiiil'* Hall, Jill the llalU weta coiiditL-lod in iaeU > wnj iw to he ft acUKlal to 
the UulTFnil; — llie only jml.eiit ai^ntxlnl Ihun «xletiiig: nt OxfiinL Yet the Com- 
mlHiauirB wwre iiiiur lilln<l to l.hoir hhoriomiiiitfrii, hi^rniiiiic their thnicj' na> thiLl 
It WM Uii! CoIIbki'b nhli-ii pn>i!ui;i"l all lliuurili* of tin; iiliu;o,nii'l Ijio HttUn wore ths 
only rcproM;iitri(iT(w uf tlui »ri.iiijii.u iiiiiTurisil)' lifu »lil«li Ihoj liwimd to earoii- 
ngi. It )■ tbc Ivss ilifGL'iilt lu ti|ii.>ii>k rreoly uf Ihs eviU whkili tvitrit nt. that lima 
enilindlcd in the llnlli, bueniuD tin-; liavv nuw hvpn rluiio uwn.v, lhoiit!li out hy Mij' 
lU'lion ot thn Ci'inmtxion. Thcrv ia no otlicr pluuF tu tliv UuiTi<r«Hy, iu which 
yniinjt men itre mif m snicfullj taught [ind tnuuod tw S. Edmund'* IIhII, and S, 
Alliiin Hftll, Aiiii wi: lirlkvf tliol wc nmj add S. Marj Hall. New Inu Hall <till 
renAiru Ut khnw ia whal UiG Comiiufnioiiers could noi diEtover ouythini; with 
wliidi to find IkuU. 

■soft OsSfbrd — its Cimstitwtitmal and Educational Chatty. 

coinnioii-rooiMJ*, nn<l rcportit tu be tli'awn up ti^ conimittecs and 
I iiuli>cotiiiiHttfieii, occupying almost every eveninif in Uie week. 
I Those wiio took the most prominent part tu "iii^n" tlie dclibe- 
I rations of tlic Associntiou were Mr. Charles ^Inrriult, Mr. 
I Luke, Mr. ItawliridOR, aiiJ Mr, Mniisel. It was in iIickc ilelibc-' 
I nttiuns itml dincux^iuntt llitit Mr. M»nee1, whose lame hnd l>eeR 
I liillicrto iioiuewhat confined to his college, laid the tbundntion 
I of his reputation for consuraraalo abilily and practical wiitdom 
I which he now eminently enjoys. At the snme lime there «p- 
I pcared oue of the wittiest [loctical siitirea which ever poured 
I ridicule on au nnfugoui^t, culiiled Phrontisterwn, imitated from 
I Aristophanes, and breathing the Aristophaiiic siiirit, assailing 
I tlic Commissioners and their scheme, now with broad jest, now 
' with keen irony, and now with a wjiil of iridi^uution, eucli 

as forms the undersong (unheard by some,] of (lie patriot Atlie- 
I oiati's poems. It wns published anonymously, but no conceal- 
I ment waa made about its author's name. There was no man 
I in Oxfonl but Mr. Mansel who could have written it, IrVe 
I hope that it will not suft'er the usual fate of fuj^itive pieces. It 
I deserves to live for \l& intrinsic puctical merits. 
I Reports were issued by ihe Tutors' Association on the Con- 
letitution of the University, on the Professoriate, and on the 
I Collegiiite question, which had considerable eiTect on al^cr tc|^B- 
llatioti, as Mr. Gladstone was now in power. After ft while the 
IKofiortof the Committee Af the Heaiu of iloiiaea appeared. It 

■ contained some good senge, but it did not co nearly as far as had 
Inow become necessary in conceaaon. The Heads of Ilousea 
[bad never been coni^picuous for knowing what it wsu* that the 

■ Masters of Arts wished or meant, and they oftercil whnt mi^bt 
rouce have satisfied but was now rejected wilb conieuipt — they 

■ were too late. 

I The most valuable part of this volume, and that waa very 
I valuable, wits Dr. Puscy's evidence. There wne one man 
in the Umversity whom tlie Heads in their days of power had 
Bet themselves deliberately to crush. The Reclor of Exeler, 
the Principal of Braeenoae, the Wanleu of New College, 
perhiips the Warden of All SouU, and of course the venerable 
President of Mi^datene, all of whom are now passed away, 
held themeetves aloof from such counscla. But soaiveiy one, 
if one, of the others can be excuseil: they had warned the 
young men in their respective colleges against listening to him ; 
llicy Tmd denounced his doctrines as dangerous ; they had con- 
demned him for something, they did not venture to say what; 
they hud (;one the length of Huspeudiiig him from preaching 
before the University; they had driven his friends from llio 
University and from the Church. This was the man who stood 

0.rJvTtl — I'to Gonstitutiimal ami Eiiitcational Cfianijts. Si 

fortli M ihcir protector in tlitiir hour of danger. UnmoveJ by 
the iutligiiitiea whicli tliey lia<i jiourcd on him. Dr. Pusey ]>lciu]cd 
and argui^d fi,ir them witli n power wlit<?h no other man >ii the 
University coiild exercise, iind if hfi could do nothing else for 
them he at least broke their full. We should be glad to know 
if the Warden of Wadhamnnd the President of S. JohnV felt a 
{;low of shntiie when they found ills protecting ehicld thrown 
over them. 

But the most importnnt [inrt of hie evidence was not on 
tho constitution of the Hebdomadal Council, but on the com- 
pnrativc merits of ProlVesotinl teaching, and Collegiate teaching 
aitd training. On this t^uhject Mr. Henry Halt'onl Vaughan 
had contrihulef] evidence to the Royal Couimiseionera, couched 
in 8«ch strikingly mctnrihorieal language as to liave caused 
iDcrrimcnt throughout the University. Mr. Vauj^han was at 
that time Regius Proi'eosor of Modern History, and he was not 
remarkable tor ih« excellence or fur tlic number of his lectures. 
Generally, indeed, he appeared in the summer term, wheir the 
University was well supplied with ladiefl, and gave in the 
theatre a scries of lecture*, which, for gi'andiose language, 
emptiness, and even less dc»irnh!e qualities, have seldom been 
equalled, at least in Osfonl. Once ihe University was obliged 
to pa«8 i\ epeciid stature exemjitioe undergraduates from tho 
necessity of attending two courses of professors' lectures before 
their examination in the schools, hoenuse Mr. Vaughnn did not 
lecture. The purport of this gentlcnianV evidence was, that 
Tutors were wretclied inventions, which it would he better to 
do away with as soon as possible, and that Profeesori-hips ought 
to be established for the. instruction of the academical youih. 
■'Xhe»C pRifeiwori<hi|^« were to bo well endowed, hut at the same 
no conditions with respect to Iwtnring were to he enforced 
the Frotessors, — that would h« cr.imping genius. In all 
firobability they would lecture, and, if they did not, they would 
still serve the purpose of some curious water-engine, whose 
ftmclions wore dimly ehadowcMl out, cleansing aiKl purirying 
the eiliea of the earth, while the drop* which imeonsciously fell 
from them wouhl give wifllicicnt rcfr\-«hiiM:iit 1o the soil mound 
them. Mr. Vaughan's viewn were, to a considerable degree, 
ado[iIcd by the Commtssiouers. Dr. I'usey drew ujioii the 
Ktorc of his cnortnous erudition, and of hie own experience as a 
eludcnl at ii Germnn Ilnirentity, to prove the great superiority 
I'when only one of the two wa.i to he hnd) of Collegiate to 
J'rofessorial leaeliing. This elicited ft [>ani|)hlet from Mr. 
Vaugliiin, written in his usual arrogant style, which met witli 
;i ernshiug reply from Dr. Puecy, in liiu ' Prufcssuriul «ud Col- 
legiate Teaching.' 

But a mightier power thai^ argument waf bringing the aca- 

308 Oxford — Ac CotutttuiWM^ and Edtuatkmal Change*. ^H 

Acidic ilcbntc^ to n concliuion. Mr. Gladstone, Lnrd I'aimorpton, 
und IjovH Joliii Itiig^ll, brought in a Bill for ibe puqraee of 
carrjfing out, bo far ns thoy iboiiglit fit. the suggestions of the 
Boy ft{ CoiDiuiijsioiiers. No doubt tlic University owes much to 
Mr. Ultulstoiie — how much it <!aniiot tell — for [)ri!veutiDg tbe 
lultnixiion of whnt mighl, but for him, Lave found iia way into 
llic Kill. Ilia courtesy and considcratcnees in weighing and 
replying to the BU{igoi"tion8 made to lum by any of hie 
constituents who thought fit to writo to hitn, won bim the 
afluvtion of many. Sir William lleatlioiile and Mr. Itoundoll 
Palmer earned the gratitude of the Univeraity by their en- 
deavours, eomctinies succvsiful, sometimes unsuoceeEful, in 
her behalf. The Bill met with much opiweition, and it was 
only by the singular an<l indomitable persevermiec of Xfr. 
Glttdstunc that it was pushed through in a shorn con<litioii at 
laat. At the very latest moment a clauae was tacked to it, 
opposed by the Alinistry in the Commons but accepted in the 
Lords, requiring the aiiniiaaion of Dissenters to the University. 
in the House of Lords, Lord Canning took charge of it, and 
delivered a speech which showed that liiougli a Firdt-class-mAn 
himself, he knew very little about the University and its needs. 
Indeed, the only two Peers who seemed to bo at all conversant 
with the details of the aubjecl on which the House was legimia- 
ting, were liord Derby and the Bishop of Oxford, 'i'ho latter 
gave a ' grudging ' but yet an active support to the Bill. The 
former had his h^ds tied by bis previous enunciation of liberal 
sentiments SB to the atiraissionof Dissenters: nor has Oxford 
yet forgotten that her Cliancellor — the lender, and if he chooses 
the controller, of the House of Lords — allowed the Bill to [lass 
through the House with a hasty debate and an illusory oijposition, 
because the Liverpool races were expecting bis noble presence. 
The Bill became law, and the Commissiuners for carrying out il» 
])nivii*ions with rcapeet to the Colleges were appiiinled. Here 
aeain, we do not know how much the Univei-sity may not owe to 
the influeneeof Mr. Gladstone as to the^(*/-swiwe/of theConimia- 
gion, which was on the wliolefair and equitable. This Commission 
in due time brought its work to a conclusion (except in regard 
to S. John's College), and we see the results of the whole 
movement in the preaeTit stale oi' Oxford. We may now 
what is the good and what is tlie evil which has been effected? 

Among the good things which have been wrought, we may 
first name the bren!;iiig down of the hebdomadal oligarchy and 
tlie institution of Cougregalion. Secondly, the abolition of lucid 
restrictions, and the revising of cerlaiu truMs, whieb, though 
ub)ectiouB may be easily raised, appear to us bolh justitutble and 
expedient. Thirdly, the abolition of certain oatlis, wblcb seem, 
though without goud reason, to have been a snare to some 

( — lis 

laMttttenat and Educational Chtmges. 309 

consciencos. Foiuilily, a general life wliicli wiis imjiarteil to tlie 
University, not by any specific cnactmenLs, but by tbe very 
etiiring uf University questious. We are lutable X(t eoe any 
nthcr ailvanta<>es wliicli have reauhed from llie Umverslty 
Relbrm Bill. 

The evils nre more patent. First, the IhTOn^ticiil [loeition of 
the University is very (liferent from that which it held before. 
What has been thoroiiglily remodelled once may be more 
thoroughly remodelled a sccoDd time with lets offence to general 
eenciment, and even to juelicc. When Founders' wills have 
been put iifide, not only in their aecideutE> but in their eseenlial 
proviaions, it will be diHicult hereaj'tcr to appeal to Foundera' 
wills. When 'some portion of the revenues of colleges hits 

* been taken away with the conqueror's Imnds (I ndmit it is 

* small, but it is tlie net of a conqueror, nevertheless,) to stvell 
' the pomp of the University' [Ciimi, p. 13), it is etran»e if 
the vts viclia argument is not some day pressed further. Whea 
K on conformist undergraduates have been recognised as existing 
by Parliamentary right, it is less easy (tliough, no doubt, pos- 
sible and right) to argue against the existence of Noneouformist 

But we pass from theoretical difficulties to practical evils. 
Formerly, fellowships were given to thouc persons for whom 
fellowships were founded, that is, for tliose who were, or 
wlio were about to be, ordained. Kow they are to a great 
extent tenable by laymen. Formerly, they were held by poor 
men, or at least by men who made a profesiiion of limilcil 
means by the very fact of lioldiiig them. The claims of poverty 
have now been ignored. Foi-nierly, fellows were botiml to 
reside, unless they received special permission from their college 
dispensing with their rei^idencc. Now, residence is not one of 
the qualifications for holding fellowslii|is. Formerly, fellow- 
iifaiiw were regarded aa imidyiug some duties and sentiments — 
duties towards brother- fellows and scholars, sentiments of affec- 
tioa and gratitude towards founders. Now, they have become 

* college emoluments ' gained as prizes, and involving no duties 
to any one. These contrast* take but a few lines ibrtheirexpix^B- 
«i4>n,Dut the distinction efliicted by them between fellowships as 
they were and fellowships as they are, is world-wide. Mark each 
one of them. 

A cerluin proportioo, and in many colleges a very lar^ 
proportion, of fellowa mu«t now be Inynien. \Vc pass by the 
fiiet lliat Colleges were founded specially for tlie education uf 
Kcular clergy in distinction from regulars, and tbat.consetiuenlly, 
tlie prinuiry purpoiic-s of Founders in estiiblifiliing them have been 
Tiohtle<l. We ask what will be the practical result '( ;Vs yet 
tbe enactiuent has not had time to bring forth its fruits, but it 

910 Oxfiird — ita Cotu<Uul!onal and Educaltottai Ckangts. 

will do «o ourcl)', nnil \a Ueg'mninj^ u> dn no alrt^iuJ/. The firat 
npnarcnt efieol will be, that tlic junior fellowB in each College 
will be unsettled au to their |)n>fe8eion. On the one hand, there 
will be the tomptation of n tutorship, which with the fellowship 
would produce ^otiic 500/. or 600/. n ycttr, but woidd ofTvr no 
prospect bi'jond it*<?lf— nolhinj; on which to rest after InliOur 
or to aeillo upon in -life. On the other Bide, there will be 
allurement ofivrcd hy the Bar, the medical profession, the public 
office^ the Hor«c (iui»rd», or (why not?) the hunting box. Sup- 
pose they tnWe thefurmernltcriintivc, then thechnmcl^r of Oxford 
eduention will greatly change ; for, whatever may be eaid to the 
contrary, the only way of Becuring a Churchman's education is 
that of placing education mainly in the hands of the clergy of the 
Church. Suppose they choo^iic the latter course, then tlio whole 
of the cinolunicnts which they draw from (,he University will 
be subtracted from the support of education and religion, which 
the University and Colleges were specially founded to cdcou- 
rage. Nor" wiw there any just cauHC for the change on the 
grounds of ftcniutal produced by the present sj'stem. If we were 
to take the same number of clergymen in Oxford and in ihe 
country, we are bold to say that anjoiig the former would bo 
found fewer who had cntcredlloly Orders inipropi-rly, and were 
a disgrace to their profcBsiou, than amon^; the latter. 

Then, with regard to poverty. On this point Mr. Chnae and 
Mr. Ncatc fought a brave but an unsuccetisful battle. ' We 
' have seen,' says the former in the pamphlet before ns. ' poverty 
' and struggling merit pushed to the wall, and the advantages 
' of wealth at Isist admitted to that prepondcnuicc here, which 
' elfewlicre, in wnr com mere in I nution, they hud long t-ujuyed.' 
And yet, with what pi-obablc reault, except to increuao non- 
rctiideuce ? 

' TIiu |>retexl Fur iLe inuQTaUoii is, lliat since tlje C«]lp^'ea liavc bccoiue tbc 
cduoaliujifti biiilirs i>i tbc Unirursittus, nil utiicr co n » ill c rut ions bliouIJ givr^ wny 
to till: pnramounl, npncujiily of prnvidina; tlic nhleal. itiatpuotnrs- Rut i» it. nl all 
prnhiiblr t.hnl whnn iIjk ftllonsliips linvc hce.a licstowcil ou nblc und lirilliwit 
Binn, w!ki urc ixi busj itirnumiilariMs, llioif scrrieps will bfi avuilulilo for llie work 
of in.ilruutiou y , . . Ww mu»l fuco lliu fnol.a i)[ llie case. Putting aitiiie lliciso 

«f wiiicli limply uccouiii for tiii! reailiunes wiili which tliey nee fillrii, An wk find 
ttiKt (iitn IN cai-J oii'dimstjinfics iisinllj pit t!icni»r!vrs up to the work of 
whlCntion y Anil if tiioy \\n.\e not hltlirrto doiin so, nlij lire wu lo tntc it for 
granted tnnl tliuy wili dti il iii fiiliii-L- i 

' An iibto j'uimq iiiun of Iwu nr UirL'e-antl twenty, with iiii^»|iciiil<3iit ine-iuis, 
.will iievtT uiidtTltikc llie Jriidj/rrv u( iiislriicliiin, Somt few ninv turn fi-oni 
, more ambitions c.tnplojiiiiciit^ lu the Icnrntii Ir'iMirrof imailRininil lifi; : Init they 
will prftf<-r to t^dncatc thnmnnlvr*, nnd so cullimt*! LliPir own powers, »nQ 
follow tliiiir iiivn pur.inits. 'I'lii! deliciat of inatnii^lioii thtj rimy t'oiidenoeud lO; 
Imt, if pxpcricum- niuy hi: (r»»lt:d, wo must look fur ucaduiiiiciil instriLotion to 
Ibc runk» of Ihosi; who, ubligcJ Lo work f"r thair livelihood, (lud a salisfactioa 
ill iljractios 'hfii- coergii-s iuLo ibis chaniicl.'— C^»^, p. 9. 

F Oasjord—ita Constitutioaaf and Educational Change*. 31X 

And next, as to resilience. Before now, it is true that some h»vc 
not rcM(l«(l; but tliere hoi beeu no r\^\\i uf n on -residence, and 
genorally, when non-resident, men have been employed as scbool- 
maetcre (so preparing themselves for Tutorship!:) ur as eur»tc0. 
In either cRse, they were ftdvancing educiition tind religion, and 
could he snuimonod to the College, if needed. The yoiing 
barriater is Tiot specially promoting education or religion, 
and it is utterly impoeeible to summon him into rcsiucDcc 
without ruining tho whole prospeols of hi» life. It will oever 
be done. 

And lastly, what a diRerence between a fellow aa he was and 
the holderot'a ' College emolument I ' There was an old tashion 
of President, Fellows, and Scholars meeting yearly, and reading 
orer together the stftttiles which their Founder laid down for 
the regulation of hiii College, Generally, at the end of tlie 
statutes, was found an address, wherein the Founder eorneetiy 
besought thoee who subsisted upon bia bounty to look on them- 
Belvee as one family, to live with one another as brethren, nitd 
to d« their duty one to imothcr. The tie was felt ; the younger 
felt themselves drawn nearer to the elder. — the Icncher to ihe 
taught; thoy were all members of their Fonnder'a family, and 
to him they bore a common feeling of gratitude. We trust and 
believe, that by force oCi/fithts led, nnd old triuiitions, this feeliii}; 
will continue still. For * the unity of the college has been,' on 
Mr. Goldwin Smith's testimony, ' a strong band, not only of 
' affectionate association, but of duty,' which ' it is hard to brc^k 
through.'^ I*. 39. Uut bo far ns the llcform bill goes, it has 
been ^wcpt away rulhlei-Rly, A fellow having gained hiis 'Col- 
lege cmolumeut ' by his bow imd Uh figienr, enjoys it of right, 
as a reward for paat exertion. The successful student who has 
won the Hertford or the Ireland Scholarship, owes thereby 
tltanks to none nud dutiex to none. So far ns the Bill ha.-' bocn 
iiblo to eflect il, the eainer of m fellow-^hip hm been put in the 
same position of cold intlependence. 

Wc say. then, that the abolition of each one of these things, 
the ' Clerical restriction,' Poverty, Residence, and Collegiato 
duties, is in itimlf a^rcat evil ; but the nbolilion of them nil at 
once intensifies the evil more than fourfold : — 

•Ifdii [argcl llii^ R'lriirni fur wUicli jim cither cl.imo<ircrl, or ovsr nhlcli jnu 
ohuokle.l or sllowt'il joiirself lo go lo tUvp. Allow mc to mfiirm joii, th»t 
felloBiiiiipii iLiivf boeii 8l.ri(ijicd of every veslij;!; r,f llieir (■iHcmii.iynary clintnckr 
— ibat tlicj uu lunger hinrf to resilience — tlinl tlinj niaj lie tiijiij'Ril (to l.lii! 
rkcluiinn of jour own *ons, wtio iippJ lliriii) by iiii-ii wIiobb fatliorB aliould lie 
nsliaini'tl to lienclit by tbcm — tlinl, in roiiArriiicnPc, you mny ei|iect tiiey will bu 
iiM'd by llieir lioUprs ii.-i a UM-Stil Iidp in tliclr ptiifcsjiionnf life in LdtiSoh, niiti 
will not aurt(<qucully auitiily ImUcr lodgiiigs, s horse for Ihe puA, ionjirc nud 
)>lnsHlteT COntini'utaJ tourti thtiii before, lo Baine of llio&e forluiiate yoiilliji wbo 
tltaw antpU supplies slnody, tilhw from Uic (latemal purse, or, by favour of 

'Sl3 Oxford — Aa Corutttittional and Educational Changti. 

tbo powers tlittt tule in Donuinjc-iticet, rroni tbc bottomless piirM of lli« 
Biitioii, Tbc pica on whiiA tho rigliU o( ittihi/ritlfii were sscrificod wfis tbat 
yciii ironld get nblnr men to liold (^IIckr 'rutnriJii{iii. 'I'hftt ptrai unrortimit^^ly 
aiuwered ita iotinciliati! purpose, koA it bus done iU work ; but [ ciiD<idmUf 
auticiimtc tlml lliu "ubler men*' wUu are tu ourrjr oti uur felluwsLlpi will 
inure tliuu uvcr be luiii|>tci] uvvav frum tbuir CoUegcs aud from the Uiuvi^nil; 
to try Ibetr fortune in tlip worlil oiitsirir, nnd wii! cnntiitcr their duly done 
wbrn they hnic iii'tnftH'Iniijjprf tlic roftiiipt of the llur»*r'i cimiLiie.' — Chiar,/!. 7. 
' ll is my hulipf thnt the iulu (^Iihusp* are so fur from brJtiR iiltplj to improvo 
tbu means at uur comiiiaiid lus evm prubabiy to irmke Ibene iiiuaiu less cOicitcinu* 
Ibmi tbuy lia>e he«u. A prciuiuoi li&s buuu (jiven on ^ii>K avajt uud ws Lave 
not tlie power to outbid bj a premium on reinnioing.' — /f^i'l, p. 9. 

Wc have not named nmotig the advantages of tlic reform 
the increased life and power with which the Pnifessorintc haa 
been inspired. We hiivc ddiberjitely notiloiie so. The Pn>fes»or- 
ery v/oi n fidly, but it was BUCce^aluL It was set afloat by tlie 
original University Comniiasiou, who made the ProfeBsors their 
pots, because they are University as distiiiet from Uollc;s;iate 
teachers, bceauee many of them are nominated by the Prime 
MiniEtlcr, or by some body external to Oxford, iind becnii:<e, 
always accepting the theological Professors, the subject of tlietr 
studies necessarily puts them, more than others, outside the 
flow of ordinnry nciideniic thought and feeling. Now, whcQ 
the rry hits done its work, we are lo!d ihiil 'the modern prC("8 is 
'the mediaeval Professor; and it isabeiird to think that in the^c 
'days of universal moutal activity, and uoivcrsal publication, 
' men cim be elected or appointed by Convoealiou or by the 
'Crown, to head the miu-ch of thought, and give the world new 
' U-uth ; ' and tliat ' the Professor is heneeforlh the colleague of 
' the Tutor in the duties of university education ' C^^' omit^, 
p. 40). This is ^ood sense, but it waa the idea tliat is now 
pooh-poolied, which wsis strong enough to carry through tho 
Hcheme of layinjj hands on Collegiate property in order to endow 
the Professoriate. In matter of fact, so liir as Professorial tmrk 

foes, no appreciable difTerenee has been wrought by the Hill, 
t ie slightly increased, and slightly bettor, but not much. The 
real work of education in its main branches is done, as we trust 
it will nlway.* he iIone,by the College Tutors, while the Professor 
atlds some urnamental touches: — 

■"niiupily," writes Caolaia IturrowB, " tbesn ooiilrOTeraiesnn thereapBctivc 
merits of ibu PrurtEaorLiit und Tutoriid sjeIi-qis ^liicU ditided the Uuivorsity 
some time ago, base left if. Tor b!I [iriiclicwil purposes, pretty near wlierB it was 
before tlifry l)cgmi ; it is iiiUicient for tiie rnidor thnt both ijitcnis arr. working 
on lidn hy sidi^ and wc hnvc only to inquire how best to ocmibinn tbcm, 'i'Ke 
profior ailjii»tiiii?ul. aeems to bo simiily tbid : — The Profusaor's lectures must be 
considered m 'B/i/y/'ncu/rtrylu tlie Collt^({o Tutor's, and by uo uieau»a»ubaliluio 
foi- thcni."' — Pii-v nail Cfiitg, p. 54. 

Tliiit which the nnivcmit.y Reform Bill did well, it might 
have done better. As we have wiid, the chief good elfecttHl hy 
it 13 the alteration of the constitution of the Hebdomadal Hoard. 

■ Oxfi>rd — its Constitutional and Educational Changes. 313 

But this alteration haa not been eficctcel in t!ic way wliiuli 
would answer best to the inturt-Bta of tin- Uiiivcrwiry. rrofeHfioi- 
Sniitli feels confident timt 'jealousies between ProfeHsofa and 
'Tutors, wliich were never very rational, may now surely be 
• numbered with the past ' (p. 40). We hope so likewise. But 
the constilntion of the Hebdomadal Council neems to be expressly 
framed for the purpose of keeping alive n digtioct and separate 
i'eeling in the ProfesBors and in the rest of the Maaters. There 
is no conceivable reason for one-third of the Council consisting 
of Professors aa such. Had the election of the members of the 
Council been left, free to the Maalera (with, iieihnps, a certain 
reserve in favour of the Heads of Houses for old tradition's sake), 
th«re would have been an equal number of Professors chosen 
as there are at present; indeed, we feel sure that almost every 
Professor now sittius iu the Council would etill be there; but 
then they would not nave eat"* Professors, but as the delegates 
of the Masters ; and that would have been likely to have made 
DO little difference in their feeling towards the bulk of the 
University, and in the feeling of the bulk of the University 
towards them. But Oxford cannot complain of the framers of 
the Bill on this score. Even the Tutors' Assueiation recom- 
mended, as an alternative plan to a much better eelicme, tlie 
creation of the threc-boilied board. It is to the Bishop of 
Oxfiivd, if we recollect right, that llmnks are due for having 
carried an amcudiiient, vesting the election of the Heads of 
IIouBCB, Professors and Masters who constitute the Council, in 
the ntcinbcra of Convoeation ; whereas, according to the original 

IiroiKiRal, the Hefwls of Houses were to have been elected by the 
leatla of Houses, the Pnifeiwors by the Profeas^ors, and tlie 
Masters by the Masters, which would have elFectually prevented 
the Council from enjoying the confidence of the University. 

On the whole, we may say that the Conatitutional changes 
effected by the University Reform Bill have done some little 
good, eome preaent harm, and very serious prospective evil, and 
that the beat interests' of the University would have been 
heller «ervcd by a short Bill altering the constitution of the 
Hebdomadal Board, giving tlie board so constituted a power 
of r^M^'isiog certain trusts within a limited pcrioil, abolishing 
load restriction*, and cither forbidding cirtain oatlis, or adding 
to thom an cxplannlnry chtusc. But whether such a meiiaure 
as that which we hare sketched in the last ecntcncc would 
have satisBed the House of Commons after the publication 
of the Koyal Commissioners' Report, is perhapii doubtful. Tliiil 
both her burge«cs strove to effect in i'arliament, and out of 
Parliament, wiiat they were convinced waa the best thatcoulil 
in difficult circumslaiicos be effected for the welfare of iJie 
UniverHity, we do uol doubt. 

S14 Oxfitrd — itg Constilutwnal and Editcatiowd Chauget. ' 

III. We now proceed to tlie Educations) Ikloi'enient, on 
which the pablicatioiis wliich we havo placed at the head of the 
Iin-svnt articlfj have a more direct bisiuin^. The two that stand 
fii'cil, wc ntnnul be wroii^ in iittribiuJQ;^ to the sunic autlwr, 
ahhough ihe lirst i$ piiblittlu'd anoiiymoiisl)', for the twaw. nriii- 
ciplos, pervade botb, and lliere are passages in ' Pasa and Clasa ' 
wliich are expatisione of paaeagee in ' Educuiional Reform.' The 
prcfuocof 'I'flMand Class' cuds as follows : — 'If tho«<; whobave 

* been tmincd up from their youth on the kneca of Alma Mator, 
'can forgive t}ic prefltimpLion of the uiideiraktiig, ihey will 

* perhaps make allowance for any errors which may have been 
' conimittcil in details, by one who, before his seven years' ap- 
' prciilici'sliip nt the Univeraity, received his own training nndex 
'a nurse iihic]i mon; resembling tho "Sabine Mother' of the 

* poet' (p. viii). This nihision to himself gives us a right, which 
KC should not otherwise have, of inquiring into the antecedents 
of the writer. The modesty diBpInyed in th« sentence whioh 
we linre <]uotcd iii not misplaced, for modeaty is never mis- 
placed; but, if we niii^lake not, our readtre will ciee that no 
one coidd be better situated for forming a clear and dispassionate 
judgment as to the Btate of University education and its merits 
llwtn Mr. Montagu Burrows. The 'Sflbine Motlicr," to whom 
he rel'erfl. Is the Koynl Navy. HLt boyhood and early youth — 
all that period which is generally devoted to Greek and Latin, 
and to the stadiea of the University — were spent on board 
ship, where he rose by successive stejis to the post of Com- 
mander. During this time hie physical training was perfect of 
its kind, and his powers of observation were quickened and 
drawn out by that experience of ' the manners of many men and 
their cities' which is one essential part of education. Nor were 
the odvnntageeof the ' Sabine' training lost. But still Captain 
Burrows felt, what most men would not have felt, that there 
was a want of systeniatio intellectual training to make him the 
fully-developed man that, with tho powers that God had given 
liiui, he might become. Accordingly, as soon as he found him- 
self a.shorc, he determined to spend such time as ho might have 
before he was again called into active ncrvioe, in the cnliivatioii 
of his mental |)owera. The beat place for carrying out hia 
purpose he .Judged to be Oxford — where hie brothei-s, wc may 
add, had already distinguished themselves, lie matrictilateil, and 
8et liimsolf to work diligently and fiiiihfully iipim the studies of 
the place. Of course, n Commander K.N. could not have 
that familiarity with tlie niceties of Greek and Latin composi- 
tion which a young man coming straight from the public schooU 
would have ; but he had, instead, the firm and strong purpose 
which thedisoiptineof hia Sabine nurse had taught him, and the 
vigour and determination of a roan's will. These <|ualitie8 made 

Xhcford — its Conathiittonal and Educalional Changes. 315 

Jlifi baliiDce more fh«D evcD. Science, bislorj, and echolarsliip 
wore iilikv ninstered, and at tbe end of three years, Captain 
Burrowa was found to make one of a small firHt-class in the 
classical schools. He was nut yet sntislied. For the next hnlf- 
year he devoted liimselt' to the atildy of law and modern history, 
and at the end of lliut time lie obtained tlie honour of a iirst- 
clasa here likewiae; a ' better first,' it was currently reported, 
than had ever been achieved in these schools, with the sole ex- 
coptioD of that won by the Marquis of Lotliian a year or two 
previously, Cnplaiu Burrows is the first Commander U.K. 
who haa ever gained the honour of an Oxford double lirst- 
class, as Lord Lothian is the first Marquis, and ne believe ihc 
first actual Peer who haa ubtaineti the same honour. The 
portion which such a man miiat hold la singularlj good for 
judgine of the merits of the Oxford system in general, 
as well as for acting as a guide to otliera through the 
country which he lias liimaeM' traversed. Coming to the 
University with a inau'a matured mind, he is able to grasp 
the ifyMtvm in all its hearings, and he is able to look inwards 
upon himself and mark the effect of the course on his own 
mind, in a way which a boy cannot do who has just arrived 
from school, and who ha« not yot learned the art of sjiccu- 
lating.on hi'm^lf as though he were an exteninl object. What- 
ever, tlierefore, may be Captain Burrows' conclusions, we may 
be sure that they will be well worth consideration. 

What the gyatem of educiition in Oxford was before the 
commencement of the present century, we do not pivaumu 
to guess. Certainly, some welt-educated men eaute forth from 
the Univcndly, but we suspect that the educational system had 
little to do with it. But in the year 1802 the class system was 
inlrodueed ; and it continued, with slight moilifiaitionis down l» 
•the year IS.'iU. Haifa centuiT is as long a time as any system 
of examinations can he expected to remain unclianged, even when 
it is as good na the ' old system ' undoubtedly was. It waa based 
»oIcly on Cluesies and Mathematics ; and Mathematics were as 
subordintite to Claries ul Oxford, u» Classics to Alathematics 
in Cambridge. Each student passed two examinations, one, 
called by the gods, Kcsponsions, but by mortals, Liltlc^o, 
ihc olhcr, known as the I'ublic Kxamination, or Great-go. For 
m«D anibitioui< of double honours, the latter exaniinaliun was 
divided inlo the cliuiietical and the mathematical Kihowls, but no 
^lathematics were rtquirtd of a iiian who took honours in 
Classics. It was under this system that the foUowii^ statesmen 
obtained \\vt highest bououiv, — Sir Uol>crt Feel, Sir Hicharxl 
Bethell, Lord Ilturowhy, ^r William Ueathcole, Lord 

316 O^nl — tto GMUtttHfional and Eiituyitiojtai Changet. 

Shaf)(»barV| Mr. GUtbtODe, Sir Frederick Rogers, Lord Can* 
niii-;, Mr. Lowe, Mr, Houn<lcll Palmer, Mr. Canlwcll, Lord 
(Jarnan'oii; ami tho foilowing Bialii>]i0, — tfio ArelilHsliop of 
York, the Bislujris of Clucliesler, St. Asiipli, Hereford, Oxford, 
Ciloucesler and Bristol, Salisbury, Lincoln, London, Carlielc 

In 1850, tfao cliumEofPhyncSiLaw, and Modem History, ncrc 
recognised by tlio University as conijieting witb ClASttictt and 
Matnenintics for tlie riglit of being regarded im ineitrumente of 
education. But were they all to bo placed upon an cqualitr, 
or were the new eubjecte to be admitted in subordination to tb<! 
old? It was delcrinined that the essential chanictor of ibe 
educfttinnnl conrse »aH to be Cla^Bical, but that it waa to be 
supplemented in each case by Krathematica, or by Phywce, or by 
Law and Modern History, (which were thrown together so as to 
constitute one subject,) according to the taste of eacJi indi- 
vidual. Ai^ordingly four tinal schools were constituted; tbcClas- 
eical school, to be paaaed by all, and the Matheinalioal echool, 
tlic Physical school, the Law and Modem History schools, one of 
which was to be passed by each. At the same time tho 
examinations were reiiio'lelled, and were now inCreaiwd to four : 
1. Ilesponsions, or Little-go ; 2. Moderations ; 3. Final Classical 
Schoof; 4. Final Mathematical (or, perhaps, Phyeical or Ilia- 
toricai) Sehool. This was the system which the present Vioe- 
ChanccUor, then a junior Head of a House, carried through 
the Hebdomadal Board and Convocation. We shudder at the 
thought of the labour which ho mu8t have undergone in doing 
so; but his success was creditable both to his own assiduity 
and to the Hebilomadal councillors. The change efTeeted was 
enormous, and might well have roused prejudice iigitinst it ; but 
the Board was not obstructive, and it was Rcocjitcil by the 
Maslcre. This system is at work still. But it wns not to 
be expected that it would be free from assault. It is of the 
' nature of a compromise. Classics yielded so far as to admit 
not only Mathematics but Pliyeiea and Modern History into the 
curriculum. Therefore the ultra-classieists were opposed to it. 
Cut Classics did not yield up the tiuprenie place, or grant her 
young brothers and sisters an equality with herself. Therefore 
the 'advanced' party was discontented with it. Twice have 
efforts been made to overthrow it, — once in 1857, and again in 
18.59. Each time the object was to deibrone Olussii'.ti more 
completely ; but these efforts were so far from being successful, 
that the last attempt resulted in a reaction which nearly suo- 
ccciled in reinstating something very like tho old systcni, mich 
ns it was Iieforc 18.30. 

It wa» on the last of these ocmstoiiw that C'liptain Burrows 
published his * Kdueatiunal Iteform.' He statct* ' the principles 

Oxford — ifs OoRstitutional and Edurxitional Changes. 317 
which the present ajrsteui waa inteDcled lu cxjircsH ' lu 

' 1. To iufture in t.Iie pnac nf evrrj m^mbei- of the University a knowledge 
if Iho nniinntj elements of a gcnllcniau's pducntion, p-rmtimnr, itritlimctic, &C., 
nx a conilition of pnii'i-ediiig to llin proprr «ork of tlii; jiIiicp. 

'8. To niiika tlia anxn stuily of ilii" Uiiiversil.y a imiforni Iroijiiiiff in 
liLtiguH^ (lukiii^ tlie Lutiu ana Qi'eck as tlic niosl lii^-lily devulojied, miJ 
piWuriQiiig l.iic best raaaterpiecrt), logic, iiliilosiipliT, ftii'i iiiicieul liislory ; »t 
the innic time raqiiiriiig fi ccrtniii tlEnieWnry kHontcilge of ditinitj, mi a oeccs- 
(Hiry npt^oinpaiiimfiit to tin.' Liier-e Hamaniorrn. 

' S. To apjiend to this, Liic principu! iibjoot of Ibo cnurtie, an pxamiimtion 
nliich Hliould oiiforco (tii ACijiDiiulttui'v witli nl leiuil llJt^ eltMiieuts of sutnu imtt 
out of tlirce other suhjrcts-. huhjecis whicli minht be titlier uSL'fiU as sub- 
tidinry ^prcics of iiicnlnl t.miniug;, or iDtroductorji to Mme profeasioiial 
Piircer.' — EinradoHal lir/orm, p. S. 

These principle* ha accepts na the legitimate princi{ilc on 
which the Univeraity ought to base her eilucHlionnl sj-rst^m : — 

' Tlipy will not bn tinpagnud by IIiobb wlm rpgnnl Oxford ns n place fur IUb 
goiiunil traiiiiHg of Uiu miod. rallitr llmii foraiiircct notnindnccmpiit ut tliB 
pursuitH of artur life ; assured as tbcy urc tbHl any future work will be of % 
far higher order if grouudcd on siic)i ft foundation. They will uol bu Ibrow" 
luidc M old'fnshioiieti by Ihiar. who have wntcbed wilb bcarty fHtLttfaolinii llic 
revival at Oxford, in a form sailed to llm riKiuiromditj of tlic .irr, of those 
Iruly li'jvral studies for wliicb she van ooeejiu fniiioun. and utiiuli she nlmust 
aJouc in tlicir ^dicrni dccny kept, elite; who have alun^' uith tliul rctival 
cliRorfulIjr nni^rptcd thoso further cboiiKCfi which the circiira^taQCCii of tiic 
timiis tmiti'd, uiid liavi: udiiiitttd, but only to a sficcinilnry pinrn in tlin eourap, 
«l<iiig witii Mild 00 the same fooliug aa Matlii-niulii-M. tli« subjects of Naltirul 
SciuilOC, of Law aiLd Modern ILislory. No tssuiitial dupnrtui'c from llitmu prin- 
ciples wi)l be tolcoitcd by those who are resolved timl Oxford sliall not 
dnnccnd from the lending position »liich lias biUicrto, with oU bcr short- 
eoroin^ beitu generally asiigiuid to Iter.' — P. 6. 

But although Captain BurvowB, and, aa it turncil out, the 
niiijority of Convocation, ' accepted theae general principlea as 
those which ehouid guide the University, there waa a section, 
hoth in and out uf Uie Cuuncil, which wa« by no means satislicti 
with Mathematica, Natural Science, Law, and Modern History 
being ' appended ' and * subsidiary ' to training in echolnrj^liip, 
liigic, philosophy, and ancient history. They accoiilinglv pro- 
posed an njitioTinl HcJmol whime, that is, a plan wbicli allowed 
theatudeuL to puss hitt tinal exiiniiiiution either in Classicit, or in 
Mathematics, or in Physics, or in Law and Modern History, aa he 
pleased, williout necessarily passing through a final Claaaical 
school. On thin jtoint Cuptaiu Burrows writes : — 

'Tlie CIbmic* under this plan irctild no loneer forut tlio niuin elKuient in 

Oxford rducation. An put ire revolution wotiid rinvc taken pltice. The K^fst 
HiBJiiritjf of piwi-iiitn would poniider one qiir«lion onlv,— Whieb examination ia 
llic edsiest f— and Ihey are uot likely lo prefer Lntin and Greek to English. 
An Oxfoni degree would be more gcatiruUy taken in Natural Science, in Law 
KO. ex.— N.8. Z - 

318 Oxford — ita CoiwtUatiottal and Educational Changes. 

&n<l Modern Hislor;, nr «ncD MDthcmnlini, tli»n in (.'lutiicit. Tliu traimog of 
tbo lasl year of t\\v oour»p, which is more vulualilu lliaii lliat of (lie oilier two 
put tdgi'liitr, vroulj lima r.caie to Ire givfii lij llioBO sliniifs "iiLch, it Iins been 
UMUiiicd, (iri: tljH Ijest hr tbnl uucjiUbc. Tlio iiuu-dftitsictal ;clto(ili, bciDg Hnnl, 
uui tUc ml* filial scltooia, woald Ki*c tlicir ooloiirine lo ll>c whoia oarncr of 
cnr-li man; l.lic previous Cl»»*ical woit, Qnislied aniT thrown esidc nt Moiicro- 
tioii*, would be looki^il (in iu> onl; » liindrniici: lo Lite otlii^r, with wliiuii il wuuid 
liiVR no visible i:ann(!iion, anii fur U-u iiitemt nouhJ bn lakeu iu it Qia.u uvcn 
at {ireseut. 

'Nor would tliu etteal, be coiirined to Uic piuta-»olioo1- It would be aioiUar 
'in kiud, thoufih not in li^roc, in Ihe dttsa^cliook. Tlio (ellowships &t 
Colleges niiiila of cout-iB iii£iPuoc tlie l:itl«r to a coDiidernblc oitpot, imd at 
pi'cucnt the jtrcAt nmjoi'il.y of tliesc btiug given away (or Cloisics, that sciionl 
would for a timn nttmct tlic grent.cst numocre ; but it nui bardlj he doubled 
thai nuoh u premium on the Cl)i%^ic»l school would Ixi of a, very precarious 
imliirc wbwi the rbnngp now under nousidr.rnlion iiud bad liniu to make ilsulf 
^uerully fplt. As h matter of coucr^ thci fullowslitpis would gr^duBlly follow 
Uie clion^u iu the Uaivirrsltj Hlndies, mid Ihonu (jife.ii for Classics n'onld 
dimiuitib 111 Duiubur till ihey Hiiiouuted to no more than a proportion corre- 
aponding to the eitcol to which tliosc studios were piivaued. — P. 13. 

One more passage : — 

'I'lie Oiford cumrse has (wrtninlj provct! ilself inferior to no nlber iu pro- 
^ucjng_ tlial. wclHwdmieci! charnclcr, rciigiouslj, mornlly. and intclk-ctunlly, — 
thnt riohnens of menial (mltiirp, tlint (uipnaity for Lho liigbcat allaiuiiieutB, 
which ore the true objects of uducaticni. Without inakiciji iavidious ooili- 
parisoiis with noy other iuDtilutim, unu has 011I7 lo take Iheliastiesl glance at 
IUIJ of the higher riciiarlmenls of aueiuLy. in order to find nbuuiinut evidence of 
her »ui!(!P«. Whirl.licr we look nl our statesmen, nur divines, our men of 
l«tt<irs. our more! cultivntcd sentry, our upper school in asters, we .iball find nii 
lack of Oxford men in tiipir liijiheiit ranks, W^lilc. Liien, it may well bu iioped 
limt under prescul arrniifi''""-'"''* '"'' "n"? ""<' Oxford ta,ke u inora effoolive 
possession or the world of Koicnce kUo, it is just to piuso before we do Any- 
thinfi; to daninge the position she has already won," — I . l!l. 

The piiojijhlet, tbough iiublistied aaonyraouBly,hatI coneitlemble 
cfTeoton (Iioiig)itfuliiiin<le, and several of tbc speeches in Congre- 
gation were avnweilly biweJ upon its ftrgtiinente. The result of 
discussion was that the Optit'iuilvits were routed, and the aehenie 
of 1850 confirmed, witli a Il-w moiMentions ot" detail. Twice 
the Master of Pembroke has hod the satisfaction of seeing his 
scheme Iriumphnntly vindicated — but it lias been ugaiast ag- 
saults headed by himself. On the second occasion the reaction 
rau so high, thai hod it not been for the (liberal) obatruotivenees 
of the llebdoiiiiidnl Council, n main feature of the 1850 scheme 
would have been swept away in favour of the old or 1802 system. 
A petition to thut effect obtained, we believe, the signature of a 
uiiijority of Congregation. 

In the course of this debate Mr. Chase put fiarth bis pamphlets 
(in place, as he euid, of n 8[)eech) on the Voluutury System as 
applied to University Examinations and to University Instnie- 
tioti. We have already quoted pasi^agcs from tliem with approval. 


■ Oxfiyrd — its CottMitvimml mid Ethnyitional dhaaget. 319 

but we liraat that tlie Prii>dp«l of, S. Mary Hall wiil allow us a 

[ «onI of fiiendly re nions trance. We cannot help most sincerely 

^regretting ttmt n man of hia high chaiiicter antl undoubted 

nbilities ribotild so throw away liia influence as he does by hia 

Kivc of paradox. His projrosnl of aibnittiiig students to any 

t examination &» soon as they brought tcetituouy of having passed 

[tlietr previous examination, is one ngninst whidi argument prc- 

Lpoiidcrates, but yet it is worthy of consideration. But wlien he 

I coupled with it a proposal of delegating all naeH-es:iniinntioii h> 

JtbeColl^eB, and of Kubstituting forOoUege Tutors ' imy men of 

I good character," who were to ' form classes ' throughout the lTm« 

iTersity, ' the questions of ability and payment nettling thein- 

I wlrw,' ho niiiflt have known that he conld only hope to raise a 

^nnile In his audience. We do not doubt that he reli^thcd thu 

jiropositions himself all the niore becauau he knew tliat iio one 

else would think with him. But this is not the way to gain for 

himself that influence in the councils of the University which 

his great talents and bis known integrity of purpose deserve tliat 

lit: should have. 

F The result of the struggles of 1857 and 1S69 being the con- 
iiriiiatioti, as we liave said, of tlic system of 1H50, Captain 
BurrowK hus gmblishetl bis ' Pass and Cla«s' as a guide-nook 

I through the courses of JAlea-ee Hmiianii/it:D, MatbeiuAtlcs, Katural 
Scioacc, and Law and Modern History. 

'Tlic want of sucli a nurk fur tbu me or Oxfnrd Uederfnuil notes lins been 
lIodk avou'uiL To uiec^t Qii.1 wunl is llio cliict' aim of lU'a bttcin^t : but ti 
ralnuglitrurward dtacripliou of llio ejiicaljoii f-ium nt llm L'liivtrsily auemed 
I itsn desirable foi ao ultoiior putjpo&t. It wa» tbouglit it. inij-bt bu uai'tul at 
\ Bchools to thtiSR prtparing for (limrd ; to purents, wbo naturailj wish to kii'jw 
whkt siwl at letcbiug modi^in Oxforil jicDpnxni to pre their soits; to tlionn of 
tbe (^iitrul public wlto otxe In oonMclFr thi^ lubjn^t nitlier nbkttnclcillf or 
, otbvi'witw. ana » liosc iduus, uol pirvioual; very dent pci'luips u to liu; nicoiuafi 
I of tbc words " Uuivcrvitj^ cducatiuu,'' have brtii in a I'liruiilo atutc of uiyBlifi' 
I wtion CTCr rincc llic introdacliou of the " new jijitem " lu ISSU.'— VVr/irf . 
I' It will not bo only to tlicac classes that this book will be nse- 
jful. Doea any one who is auxlous to educate himself wisli to 
[ know how to begin, and what books he is to set to work upon ? 
iHc will find this little volume, invaluable. I» him subject ancient 
Hitstoryy He will find his books chostn for him, and iho order 
n)f bis Jtudiua laid out, iu the fourth chapter. In the tenth 
nliupter he will find the Eamc done for modern hietoir and 
[for law; in -tbe fifth, for moral philoBophy and logic; m the 
[cightli. tor matheniatjca ; and in the ninth, for natural science. 
LAnd not only are courses of study prescribed, but tJic reader ia 
unstrucUd aa to the manner in which work must be done in older 
li«atly to ' get it up,' in the Oxford sense of tJie word. 

To tlie student therefore, in geueral. and to the man who 
desires to becojue a etudcnt, ' Paw wiA C\a»s-' '«'-&\wi\\M&«!i.^«!>> 

320 Otfi>rd—il» Cofuitttttwnal tuid Eductiiioiial 0/utnget. 

luorc piirticiilarly to tlie Osfurd undergraduate, for whom it was 
priiiturily inlonded. Too many young men go to tlie University 
with a full tQtenlion of duvoting tlicinsclvcs to tlicir Mudioa, 
who do not know how to begin, nnd never grti^p tliv whut, nnd 
the when, and the where, and the how, oi iheir work. Tiie 
o»nii«(iufiuco h, tli'it they Houiider through the wrong books, or 
use the wrong editions, or waato their energies on unimportant 
questioiM. and the result at hst it failure, in spite of huueot 
work done, and good talents ill-eni|iloyei]. This in <i»\iec'ial\y 
the caae with young men who hikve been educated at private 
echoola, or by [irivatc tutors wlio have themselves been absent 
trora the Uuiversity for a considerable length of time. We 
will nild. that, there ix a reverent tune and roligious spirit which 
run through the book, enhancing hs value to the atudcufr at ull 
times, hut ennecially in the present state of Oxford thoughL 

Mr. Tweed was not contented with the vote of 1869. and iu 
the following term (May, 1859) be wrote hi» ' Two Letters to 
the Vicu-ChaneeUoron the llxamlnaliiiuti,' urging further changes 
of detail. Ilia li-tlera Boem to have fallen dead. The UnivL-raity 
was weary of legislation, anil, like the nation, preferreil expend- 
ing it« energies in enrolling and organizing volunteer bands, 
to debating ami carrying doubtful measures of refonn. Tho 
Univcraity v/m right. Nudoubt the preitent syateni is ucompro- 
mioe, but it i^ a fair compromise, and it is best to hold by it. 

The real point which has been in dubatc for the last fifteen 
ycaia in Oxford, has been often overlaid liy iiou-c^ential quoa- 
< liuun reading to ful^e i.4«ue3, and ha« often narrowed ititiUf to 
' some alight matter of detail utterly incomprehensible to out- 
fiidere, such as whether the poets should be brought up at 
moderation, or nt the final examination. But there has ever 
been a real queHtion at the buttum, und it is thia: — Shall 
Oxford edueution be (1) cliissical, (2) general and liberal, (S) 
tutorial, i.e. moral as well as intellectual? or, shall it be (1) 
I non-ehissienl, {'!) special and professional, (3) professorial? The 
I first in the prognimme of the Conservatives, tho second of tho 
I KatlicalEi. The present ay?(eni is plainly a compromise between 
[tlieae two views. For (1) Classics, <>. ancient moml philosophy, 
lAUtuent history, logic founded upon Aristotle, and a critical 
J though not hypercritical knowledge of Greek and Latin, are the 
Lmaio study of the place, but they admit Mathematics, Natund 
' Science, Law, nnd Modern Eliatory, to a sent, not on a level with, 
[but next below themselves. The student (2) continues to be 
I wepl iruf TTOTMSfvfieva'i, and his education is therefore a liberal 
education, but still room x« made in the second schools for 'sub- 
jects which may be inlroduetory to some professional career.' 
The training (3) is mainly Collegi;ite uud Tutorial, but it b 
L<u/>p]eiucuted by Professorial teaching. 

I Oxford— if« Constitutional tind Edvcaiionnf Changat, 321 

We ooiiDHel both parties to rest contented witli whnt llivy 
Ihavo gained, and not to push the struggle a ViodrariM. Twice 
Itlic jtrcscnt alaf'is hiis been iiseiulcti from the lliidicnl side, but let 
lUmiu>Hailiinl3 recollect ibivt, ^^'tidi tiiix; tiiuy wwciinsiicccssftil, niitl 
I tbuL the aci^otiil tiiii« they provoked a n^ticl.ionai-y Iccliiig, which 
Iwould iafallihlv have carried all before it had it not been for the 
liiitcTposilion orthoHcbdomadiilCoiiDcil. Lot theiu retlcot that a 
Iniftn iHiij- pfias tliroiigli iliu University with only a emnttering of 
ICliiflsiciJ, tmd yet earn hunuiirs in any othci' aubject.thnt he may 
Idiooiw, and that he miiy iniike his aindies almost wholly profea- 
leioniil, though the majority of students (we trust) will not. Let 
lth«m bu contented with seeing one-third of the ^oicw in the 
lUniverstty jilaced in the hniiils of the ProfcReors, while the 
■ drudf/ertf is cheerfully undergone by the Tdtors, 

On tlie other side the Conservatives have their share of 
LbcnclitB from the compromise. Nor t^hould they forget that 
fthei'e arc reusons for their not holding by ChiE»iu« so elltlly, 
ad from 1^00 to 18£il>, while yet they niuintain their supre- 
macy. Tmining in Classics is the best (raining that can 
be hitd, and the classtcnl models are the best modcU that 
«im be hud. Even Lord Brougham may be brought forwmtl 
in testimony. His remarkable letter toWr, Znchary Macaulay, 
|)ub1i«hcd at the time of the death of Lord Macniday, will 
I not have escaped our readers' memory. Sir Williain 
I Jlaniiltoira ogiiiiion of the immense iiupcriority of* CliiEeieg to 
Uathematic?, which 'tend tocullivntcoidy a few of our fiicullies 
in a partial and feeble manner,' and to Natural Sciences, which 
lire 'essentially easy, and do not cultivate the diind,' will be 
I found in his * Discueeioiw,' an well ai? M. Cuuein's dceluratiun, 
■riigt ' classical studies maintain theseveial tr.iditionsoftheintel- 
Dwtual and life of our humanity,' and ihat ' to cniecble 
KflHUJKould be nn act of barbarism, an attempt iigainst true 
BQIWWtiun, and in a certain eenfe the erinie of lcM.*'huniiuiity.' 
rVe accept the prc-eiuineiit value of ChiA.'iicf as an luidoiibled 
' iaet. But we desire [o ofier one caution and two observations 
re«|)«elti)g them. Our cauiion is that Classics are not to bit 
confounded with philuhigy. Phihilogy w as much n tjirnaltif as 
oeteology, or numisumtology, and is in bu condemned as confi- 
dently whoi) under the disguise of scholarship it encroaches 
beyond itn liinitit. To use the uorde of ]VIr. Tweed and Mr. 
Linwood, both of them excellent scholarti:— r 

* Tlie EoKtisli puilicDiaii, llie future buriisl*r, nlijiiciBii, tliuologian, suuatiir, 
will ccrt«ia]JDcl bv euulcul loucat awaj evou liiv irliuUut liia acuileniicul life 
m Uic rtudj af wwiis nnii plinwcs. "Tlicrc nrc two kinds ot ).uouli?d)tr," 

BSJS ErasmuB, " ffrinram //nor, rrfvm iiotior ; " nuri I.Iin llxford itinn iriUdl bo 
encoiinigt^ to proceed fnim llie fornm to tJie Intlrt. Iij nn c),Diiiiiiiitioij, 
making icliolnmliip subiiervieul lo llie illuBlTMliun of tiintur?, of |>i)i<tr;, and 
umtor;, anil tiutly of ptiiluso^-li; itaclf, i( «e liO|ie lo vugfii^o «M V^ ttf.iw.'Bi.'ioa 

322 Oj^^srd — its CotistUutionrt! a/ml EJuatlwmat C^aa^e», 

intemt of tlin dun wliicli probnlilv ivill tilwnys fnniuili br iai Hit liu^Mt 
immhcr nf our nluJrnt*. . . . We niiisl nijt, to f»i- at we osn litlii ll., sllow tlie 
Oxfuril ti>!iuliir to lie lt?» of liti' trfpl icor rr'nuiSriijiiVoc ihaa lie is at preeeot. 
. . . Lot pliilologj ba ri!iM)gQi9f(t (is n .y/iiri/il/v. in which digtitigiiigbcii proB- 
ciency is to be t^arded ; but not. ns iia c»ciil.inl niic! indiiiprn^nhlr ijtintlltr.Filioi] 
for iTtc 6"il ctau. In an examination lystcm like ourn, tiio popular of 
*cholai9ihi|) "for the »p<»dy nnd VRrfcct nUaiiiing kn^uagt^s, fur uikIgm land in|t 
of author*," in more to he irgordnd tliau llic special (ilijecla pursuad by Ihusc 
who aro thargcil " '' ' iIib duty of udvauciog pbilologicttl suienoe .'—?>??«?, p. 19. 

Antl simikiii/ Mr. GolJwin Smith: — 

' L clnMicnl educatitm mesot then, uot a gTninagtic cxercUe of the mind in 
pliilulugv. but a >iecp diau^ht froiu what wn& tlic f(rcat, nnd tilmott the ouly 
BBriitB o'f iiliilosophy, dcicnec, history, Bmi podrj, nt Ihiit time. It, i« not to 
jlliloli'igicnl rxpirw! thnt our nriicst Lnfin grnmnmr crhort.i llic s.liidrnt, nnr 
_ I it a mere shnrpcniii^t of '■h" tncullics that il [iriiniisaa as liii rfward. It (>bIU 
' to the ttiidy of tlin luigtuf^n wherein ia conlaiuail n croaL trcuiuri' of wixtom 
aiid ItuowUdjfe ; and, IIib tludeufa labour douc, wisJoiu aud kiiowlmJgo wnro 
Vi ba liiD ueed. It was to ojjcu that trcnsui'c, not fur i.hc eakR of pliilulouira) 
nicotics or fapantics, uot. In wiinn fts iiivfntor nF n canon or tlie eniiiiiOfilur 
nf a porriipt pn«agp, that the rnrly siihohirs undcrla^k Ihosn ntdi-nt, lifp..lniip, 
and tml^ (omBiitjo toil> whiuli their nio^iij volumes beipeak lii our days — tmt 
khiTD whiuli ai'D iiol doge Iterate from tliaira iu luhuur, but in w)iii:Ii tlie most 
■rUeut iutellecLual labour is directed lo ii new pri»e,'— .S'biiY'I, p. SI). 

If 'CUmcs' were to be confoHiidcd with {Iiib 'gymnaelic 
exercise' io the Greek iinil LnTin laiiguago, there would bu no 
ilHcBco for them, fiy the term ' Clfis.tins ' is lucniit niniii'ut 
hlciature in ita {nireat types, more particulnrly coiii[irehending 
the philosophy, hi&tory, niid poetry of Greece niid Rome, illiis- 
triituil by tlie works of modern pliilojiophcrs, historians, and 
poets ; and it ii quite true, ns Mr. Tweed warns us, that while 
uvoiding otlm Bpecialties, it ia neceaeary to piiitrd iii^itin^it thu 
upecialty of Greek nnd Latin hypercriticsil sflioldrshii). 

Nest, it cannot be denied that some adynnlngos ivhioh 

belonged to Clii 'ics have been diminished, though not de- 

rtroyed, in the c<!;iree of the hist fiHy years. Formerly, the 

grand old wrilors of antiquity wore left to wiy tor theiiiBelves 

what they had to aaVi but now they are treated mucli ns the 

Fathers nrc treated iiy the Church of Rome. They arc inler- 

preted by a modern authority. And unhappily, by a great euror 

©f judgment on tlm ]ijirt of Exmninera, tlieae interprctationa arc 

r(Mpiire<l even more rijoroualy ihan the author'.-^ sentiments or 

BlatemcntA. Under this system even Aristotle nnd Pinto nrc 

not allowed to lay down the principles of morals add mcla- 

physica without having modern theories attributed to them 

. which tlicy nrver dreamed of. But more particularly ia this 

l-trufi with i-espect to history. Under the mfinipntntion 'of 

Ijiiehubr, Arnold, and Dean Liddell, the arietoerntio Livy haa 

Ifceeii made to teach democracy, while Mr. Gtote has turned the 

genial stories of Herodotus and the grave unbiassed wiadom of 

Thiicydides into vehicles for pbiloeophto Kadicalism. 

Institutional and Educational Chav/jee. 

' " Ancient liisl.nrians," siij* Professor Smitii, " liavr, nr unrm to hnxt, (liis 
advuiili^c oviT the muilara us instnmicntit nt' cdiiautiuii. '\!hej nrc rrnicivnd in 
liinu froiti tliu party fueliiigs uf llii: present dur. Thcv might oe expcotcd to Iir 
ai fur from our |i.iBsii)iJ!i »» lliej aie, cousiucriuj' Llm wiju iutFrval o! agt'i, 
niflrvclloiisly iicsr lo oiir lienrl.s, And, undoubleolj', Ibcj arc fnrtber from our 
nastioii" tliBH tliR liislorinin of the prpsciil. liay. Tel (Tcn tn thoBO sereui; awl 
loSlj poaki of the old world, politicnl iiri^jiidicR iins fniinil it« way. Tlic Imt 
grrat Hittor; of GrciTi: in at oiicc a nxiit admirntik hi>tor; am! a pamplilct 
»'|iicli 3wne may Uiinl: Ip9« udiiiirabia in favour uf univerMkl iatftage, vote by 
lidlot, aiit! iiiol] courts uf liiw." ' — P. ii. 

'i'hcsi; iLVO words woilliy nf serious con!^i<lerntion. According 
to Pmfeiiaor G^Wwiii Smith's teslimiiiiy, Mr. Grote's History 
of Greece is n jtuHtioal jiainj/hlnl infawiir of unii^entat svff'rage, 
vote bi/ liaUot, and mob courts of lau). Antl yet this is tho book 
which every young man who goeit up for » chus must, as the 
L-xaniiniitioiis nrc nt present, conducted, not only refid, but study 
KO diligently us to 8iit,iir:ile biti mind witb it. Cuptaiu Burrowa 
is pliiiuly tiwnre of Mr. Grote's faults ami deficiencies. He 
speaks oJ his History as ' being wanting in that spirit of fairnesa 
nnd moderation which distinguisb Bishop Thirlwall's ' {p. 73), 
and ivaruB the Btudcnt against being milled by his views 'on tJie 
' primitive Icgowls, on the deuno<;rntlc ohurnct«r nf inuny events 
' of whicli ho treats, and on the cliaracter of the Sophists ' 
(p. 106) ; and he significantly adds : ' The more faithfully 
' Thncydidca' own spirit is caught by the particular mind 
' biwi^ht to hear impfirti?iUy on the text, iind tlic less attention 
' that lA paid to the colouring which ia put upon him by otIierB, 
'the better.' (/7>;Vi.) Yet Captain Burrows recomnienda Mr. 
Grote as the scholar's guide. And he could not do otherwise, 
while Examiners exammc in G rote !n»1cad of, as they ought, in 
ITcrodotUB nnd Thucydidce. We think, indeed, tliat Captain 
JiniTowrtuvcrratestlie value of 'Mr. Grote's critical treatment of 
the text of Herodotus and Tbucydides' (p. 7.)). Mr. Shiiloto'a 
pamphlet, 'Thucydidea or Grote?' was no doubt writtea in a 
more off-hand and contemptuous manner than the subject of his 
critivisni deserved, but he hns proved Mr. Grote— Jlr. Grote 
jirovcit himself in every pagti of his history— a very bad Hcbolar. 
Whenever he doc& &aii hia way through a diificult passage 
which haa puzeled previous commentators, it is by bis historical 
instinct^ not by his critical acumen that he i« led right. We 
cnunot pnu.«c to [wint out hi* many nuKl.ikes, sometimes of a 
word, as when he says tliat Tiniocrales 'fell overboard into the 
harbour of Naupactus ' {vol. vi. p. 283), wliicl) would have been 
a hard feat ns his ship was not in the Iiarbuur, instead of ' that 
'his iKxly was wasbeu into the harbour and tltrown up there:' 
i^iweaev it TOP t^awaKTitnifXifiiva (Thiie.yi\. ii. Q2); ;iumetimes 
of a construction, ai< iu bis rendering of Toucyd. ii. UO: ' Kaijoi 
'ffioi Tou>vi€p &vipi ofTftfyaBt' ftsoilSefOs oJoii.ai7iaau>t"iv^yai re 
' KalipnnirevaM rovra ^tX^iroX/f re Mat ■f^nfiMitav k9«uiii<iiv. 

324 Oxford — its Cortstitiatonal at*d Educational Chajiges. 

* Ye arc now nngry both witli iiic, wlio iidvUed you to go to war, 
I *»nil with youriiKiIves, who Iblloweil llie advice. Ye listened to 
f ' me, rowiidRrinf) me superior to otlicre in judgment, in speech, in 
I'patriotisin, and in incorruptible palriotiam' (vol. vi. p. 223). 
f Nor can wo atiiy even to refer to liis muny political nuphiKiiiK. 
Mr. Goldwin Smith's woids are not a >vhil too severe, Mr. 
Grote's ITistory is a jiamphlGt wnttcn to suit and to bolster up 
certain preconceived notions, and tbe metliod n-bich he iidopU \« 
.to miBrcprcsent everything Spnrtaii when conflicting witli tiny- 
I thing Athcninn, and everything done by the Coumervative party 
I at Alliens, when brought into comiJarigon with the exploits of 
ICIconand the mob. Nor is Mr. Grote the only culprit, lu 
[reading the firet decade of Livy we are nn longer reading the 
Inistory of, Livy, but im iinaginiuy account of an imaginary 
I people, which being 'an expansion of a subjective coneciousneaa' 
on the part of Niebuhr, has been dressed up in a spirited and 
genial way by Dr. Arnold, and more dryly by Dean Liddell. It 
wonhl surely lie a great improvement if Exannncrs would en- 
courage the second decade of Livy, whicli does contain acknow- 
ledged history, though, it is true, not of a political character, 
in place of the first, with respect to a great part of which Sir 
j George Cornewall Lewis hn* proved, that if it contains any 
I history at all, it ja impossible fiir us to know what that history is. 
I We say then that the value of the study of ancient history 
lluiB been considerably diminished by the glosses of ninderu bie- 
Itoriane on history as written by the aticionls. The same nmy 
I be said in a less degree of moi'al science and of logic, tliough 
[ Mr Mnnsel's Pro/ei/oiiwna Logica has done something towards 
jcorriicling the evils resnltiiig I'roni a tno confiding stuiiy of Mr. 
} Mill, and we trust that Sir WiUium Hamilton 'm volume, lately 
published, will do more. 

Our other observation is that from the progress of 
modern literature, and the general spread of iniormatlon, it 
I would be neither wise nor safe to ignore ' modern things,' utt 
[compared with ancient. The ' younger' studies have a position 
tof their own, and that position \s fairly assigned to them at prc- 
rsent; and where they are, ihey are most advantageous. 

On the whole, then, wc repeal— Let the ccniiproniise stand.'' 
Itis likely that it will be again assailed. Professor Goldwin 
Smith (after the manner of Professors who have Bpecial interest 
in the supplemental studies of the University) is anxious fur 
I nit G rations in the Law and Modem IJistory school, and lie hna 
publ)i<hed his inaugural lecture, with the view of bringing such 
alter-ilions 'under the consideration of (he Council' (p. 35), and 
of 'drawing tiie attention of the University to tlie state of the 
Bchool' {p. 38). Dean Liddell, who is supposed to be iniioh 
under the influence of the Regius Professor of Medicine, h(i» 

Oxjbrd — I'^s Constitutional ami Educational Changet, 325 

vuguely pled^eil Iiiinself to do aomething more for tlie Pliyificnl 
muIkioI.' It la nnlurnl for active-minder] Profefnori* lo Irj- to 
make the study which they represent a more substantial part of 
tlic studies of the University. CoDBcqucntly ihoy are seldom 
lit rc»t, mill here is n rcftson why that 'jciifousy," to whicli Pri>- 
IfiBHor Smith refers, U not so ' irrational ' kb he woidd have U3 
regard it to he. 

There is one iiiiprovamcnt which we do earnestly desire to 
sec ciirrietl out in tlic University, but it would he by way of 
addition, nut of alterntion. Something must be done fur the 
study of theology. True, there are difficulties and ohjeotions in 
tlic way — objections which sensitive and religious minds will 
he the first to feel. But wc any that nometlnng muil ho done. 
Wliat is the state of theology in Oxford at present ? There 
are four Theological Profesaors, Canons of Christ Church, eacli 
of them escellcnt men, and representing, singularly enough, the 
four chief schooU of religious thought iu the Church of Kng- 
land, each of the four being, perhaps, the best specinicu of lii^ 
school that could be found in the whole of Eiigliind. There are 
also the Ireland ICxegetical Professor, who is Provost of Oriel, 
and tho Laudiaii Professor of Arabic, who Is Principal of Mag- 
dalen Hall. The two lust are doulitless greatly engaged with 
the business of their College and Hall, niwl with the aftaira of 
the University, as they arc also members of the Hebdomadal 
Council. We may, however, consider these sis men tii bo 
engaged in the prosecution and advancement of thculngy, and 
to ihem we must add the name of the Rev. W. J. Biirgon, llio 
products of whose pen show him to he a theological student, and 
a proniolcr of the study of theology, and the highly respected 
Principal of 8. KdmundV Hall. With the exception of these 
eight men, we believe that there is not a single man in Oxford, 
among gniduatcs or undergraduates, \vbo systematically studies or 
proiiK>tvH tJie «tudy of theology. Professor Huesey — no ahinniat, 
no iillerer of unconatdeied anti exaggerated words, but a grave, 
wiec, thoiighlftil, reverent-minded man — in the last aerinou 
which he preached before the University, solemnly warned his 
lienrcnt that the study of theology was dying out. So long 
ago as at the lime of his inntullation. Lord Derby urgc<l that 
something should be done for theology. Nothing h»s been 
done, and meantime the ' medlfcval ami chi-icnl colleges have 
been adapted to the purposes of modern and lny cduciition' 

'Tin b*d IMtc of LoTd Wtutttali'j-. ill luiJiJuB liimsflf up in llio InU'Riiil 
■Irnj^lot of tbc UnJVBrfit7, oIifq he wut invitcl to priiKidu over tbv BtiLuli Awui- 
ciiilioa ia Oxf<Dird, wan ciciucd ou the hcoto of liii ignoriiin^o ot ihc dcUawy of the 
((ronnil on nrbtdi ho »ts tM»dinff. Tho upctf h of the Doin of Chriti. Clmtvli. 
tthen in mortng ■ vnio at thuik* M Lord Wrollaloj be commcntod upon his 
prwioun rvmoTkn. «■« hj w much In worao tmitc, n> ft could not be excuicd on 
the awrc ot isiiomocc. 

3Si Oxford — its ConsthatUmal and Eiwxtlianai Changee, 

' Ye are now angry botli with aw., who tulviaed fou to so to war, 
• and with yoursefvee, who followed the advice Ye listened to 
' me, conttaering me superior to otliora in jud(;ni<;iit, in spoucb, in 
'jintriotiMn, and in iiicorruiitiblc iiiilriolifini ' (vol. vi. ji. 223), 
Nor eitii wv .tt:ty even to refer to Iiio many political eo|iliiaiiui. 
Mr. Ooldwin Smith's words are not a whit too severe. Mr. 
Grote's History is » pamplilct written to suit and to bolster uu 
certain preconceived notions, mid the iiietliod whieli he adopts i» 
to niUrcpreaent everything 8pnrtnn when coiitiicting with any- 
thing Athenian, and everything done by the Conservative party 
nt Athena, when brought iuto comi)arii<on with the expluil« of 
Cleon and the mob. Nor is Mr. Orote the only eidprit. In 
I reading the first decude of Livy we ta-c no longer reading the 
I Ilislory of Livy, but an imaginary account of an imaginary 
I people, which being ' an expansion of a subjective consciousncas ' 
I on tile part of Nicbuhr, has been dressed ap in » apiritcd and 
I genial way by Dr. Arnold, and more dryly by Dean Liddell. It 
' would surely be a great im|troveraent if Examiners would en- 
eournge the second decade of" Livy, which docs contain acknow- 
. ledged history, though, it is true, not of a potiliail cbariicter, 
I in place of the first, with respect to u great part of wbieli Sir 
I George Comewidl Lewis has proved, that if it contains any 
f history at all, it js impossible for us to know whnt that history is. 
Wo say then that the value of the study of ancient history 
has been eousiderahly diminifbed by the glosses of modern his- 
\ toriana on history as wriiten by the ancients. The same may 
be said in a less degree of moral science and of logic, thoogh 
Mr. Maiiacl's Prolit^otiH-na hnijica has done something towards 
■ correcting the evils resulting from a too confiding slnily of Mr. 
F Mni, and we trust that Sir William Hamilton's volume, lately 
published, will do more. 

Our other observation is that from (lie progi'ess of 
modem literature, ami the gcuend spread of in formation, it 
; would be neither Wise nor safe to ignore 'modern tilings,' as 
[coinjiarod with ancient. The 'youoMr' studies have a poeilion 
I'Of their own, and tliut posiiion is fuirTy siwigned to them nt pre- 
rBcnt; and whore tliey iire, they are must advantageous. 

On the whole, then, we repeal — Let the compromise stand '' 

It is likely that it will be again assailed. Professor Goldwin 

f Bmitli (after the manner of Professors who have special interest 

in the supplemental studies of the University) is aniduus for 

alteriitions in the Law and Modern History school, and he has 

published bis inaugural lecture, with the view of bringing such 

alterations ' under the ronsiderntion of ihe Council' (p. Zo), and 

of 'drawing the attention of the University to the state of the 

scbool' (p, 38). Dean Liddell, who is supposed to be much 

tiindcr tlic influence of the Regius Professor of Medicine, ha« 


Oxf>rd — ila Constitutional mid Educational Changes. 325 

vaguely pledged liimnulf to do Eiomfrtltin» more ibr tlie I'liysical 
iwhool.' It h itntiiral for aotive-m'mded I'rofeasois to try lo 
make tlie study which they repreaeat a move subBtaulial part of 
tlie studies of the University. Consequently they are ecldom 
lit rest, nnd liere is a reason why ihat 'Jealousy,' to which I'ro- 
feasor Smith refers, is not so * irrational ' aa lie would have us 
regard it to be. 

There ia one iiii[)rovement whicli we do earncBtly dcare to 
soe curried out in the Univcri«ity, but it would be by wny of 
nddttion, not of alteration. Something must be done for the 
study uf theology. True, there are difhciilties nu<l olijectiona in 
the wav — objections which sensitive and religious minds will 
be the first to feel. But we say that gi)nu-lhin<; mtut be done 
What i« the state of theology in Oxford at prt-sent ? There 
are four Thtiologicul Piufessma, Canons of Christ Church, each 
of them excellent men, and representing, singularly enough, the 
four chief schools of rcliRJoua thought iu tlic Church of Eng- 
hmd, each of the four being, perhaps, the licst specimen of his 
schiiol IhaL coulil Vie found in the whole of Enghmd. There are 
also the Ireland Kxegclical Professor, who is Provost of Oriel, 
and tlic Laudian Prolessor of Arabic, who is Principal of Mag- 
dalen Hall. The two last are doubtless grenlly engaged with 
the business of their Cnllifge and Hall, and witli the aftairs of 
tJie XTniversity, as they are also members of the llcbdonnulal 
Council. We uiay, however, consider these hx men to be 
engaged iu the proteeulion and ailvancement of lhci>!ogy, and 
to them we must add the name of the Rev. W. ■!. Burgun, the 
products of whose j>en show him to be a theological student^ and 
a promoter of the study of theology, and the highly rc»pocleiI 
Principal of S, Edmund's Hall. With the exception of these 
eight men, we hL-tieve that there la not a single mim iu Oxford, 
ikniong graduates or undergraduates, who systematically studies or 
promotes the study of theology. Professor Hussey — no alarmist, 
no utterer of uneon^^idered and exnggLTated words, hut a grave, 
wise, thoughtful, reverent-minded iiinu — in the htst sermon 
whii'Ji he preached before the Univeraily, solemnly warned his 
hearers that the study of theology was dying out. So long 
iigo as at the lime of liia installation. Lord Derby urged that 
sonieihing nhotdd be done for tbeolo^'. Nothing b^)s been 
done, ana meantime the ' roediioval and elerieal colleges have 
been adapted to the purposes of modern and In^ education* 

> Tbo htd iMtc of Iiord Wrotleilcj, in mUtD;^ bimstlf up in tlie inWnial 

ulnpglc* of the I!nli4r>.lty. when he Iran invitid lo ptiaidp ortt Ui< BruUh .\*»o- 

cUtim in Oxtbrd, «iii ciciiaod on llie upoip uf hin igiionincc of i.bc dolicnpv of the 
ground on irhleli ha •ruti iri-juliaif. Tlio (.iicctli of the Drrim of ChiUl Church, 
when in moving > toi* ut thuika U> 1i:>rJ Wrouule; h« commi-nled upon his 

prcvion* mnftrlu. •*• bj m luuvh In nortM tMic^ as it could no) bo exciiu») oa 
tl|o noore of Igiiorsncf. 

826' (krfivd—it» Q 

and EJvmHonat Chnn^es. 

(Smtth, p. 30), 80 that tlie evil has been increasing. There nre 
i-cgnlntioDs for n theological cxaminntion laid down in a statute- 
l»ook of the University, but there are no oxaininecs, and the 
Ktiiliitc Is « iteaii letter. An attempt was iriiulc ii year and a 
half ago to iitrn th« John.ton thcwUigiciil acholnridii|) into n 
reality, by making il an annnat ubject of eompctition, and re- 
tnoulding it in certain particulars. It failed, because meinberA 
of tiio Hebdomadal Council would not consent to expend so 
mneJi aa 100^. on such a ucht'me, while they were pounng out 
thotj.<<andit ami ti-nx of thoiii>aiid.-< to be used or wfUttcd on tho 
Pliysical Profesaois' iialacea in the navk^. In the course of the 
present year an eftijit has been mode U> institute a theological 
echool, It failed — wholher rightly or wrongly, Wc do not say — 
but this wo say. that if the Council could devise, and Convoca- 
tion iioccpt, soimi unobjectionable plan, whereby youn» men, 
wholhor aftt^r their U.A, degree, or at>cr their final ClasuMcnl ex- 
amination, would receive a real training in tlie fitudy of such 
booksaa Pearson and Hooker, H. Augustine and S. Chryeostom> 
Kusebius and Bede, a iircat good would be effected. Wc are 
dix|)Oiied to think ibat young men — particularly if they are going 
into Holy Orders, and like too innny arc 7ii>i going to a 'riieo- 
logical College — would fin<l auch a training more useful than 
attendance at two sets of lectures from the Divinity Profceaors. 
or even than a liligbt acquaintance with a certain number of 
curious physical phenomena, or a few cveut« which occurred in 
Euglattd between KKIti and ISUd. 

*»* ^^ •* have not spoken of the luiddle-clatts examination, 
because our subject has been rather the esaniinations of Oxford 
than tliose conducted by Oxford. Hut we cannot refrain from 
expresflins^ an earnest hope that before next long vacatiou the 
Delegacy will have altered its regulations with respect to that 
part of the examination which has to do with the rudiments of 
faith and religion, 'i'iie nnccrtuinty of meu'a iniuds at the time 
lit which the alatnle was passed, with regard to the rellgiouii 
tliiiitii of Oxfoi-d herself, arid the haste with which the promoters 
—Mr. Chase says, dictators — of the scheme hurried the statute 
throu<;h the Council, ami Congregation, and Convocation, may 
be an exeu^e for the nrrangcnicnr, ,ia at first niade. But thei'e 
is no excuse fur its continuance. Religions kunwledge is ignored 
iu a way which Sir James Kay Slmttleworth did not venture to 
pi'upusc. It is more than ignored, it in discouraged ; and the prac- 
tical result is each year in thi.s respect less and lees sat! ti factory. 
We call the special attention ui' the delegates to this point, and 
we would remind the non-resident inembecA of the Dulej^acy that 
it is a point of sufficient importance to require their attendance 
at the nicctiugs of the Delegacy, as well as that of the residents. 


IRT. rV". — EsHay/i and Ifewu's. Loncloii: John TV. Parker and 
Son, West Strand. I860. 

As n pentml nile, we are not disposed to think highly of 
vohinics of essays and reviews, whether the comjjosition of one 
nynd or ihe contrilmtinns of scvornl. Few writers arc cither 
bnlljant enongh or deep enough to jiislity the rcpubliciition of 
fugitive pieces which Imvc tippeured in monthly and fiuarterly 
reviews; and even when the anhjects are new. and Uio writcra 
varied, the very form of piiblicalion seems to indicate that tho 
authors have nothing of great importiince to coinniunicute to tho 
world, and that they have rather found a vent for the trani^njis- 
sion of the casual thoughts of leisure hours than that they hope 
to produce anything of permanent value to society nt large. 
NcTcrlhcleas, essays arc the fnaliion of the day, and for four 
Muccessive years we have heon presented with one of these pur- 
poseless volumes from each of tlie two Knglish universities ; and 
the faehian has even extended Jtt-elf to our more sober and cnu- 
tioug hrt'lhren of ilie Nurlli, and Edinburgh has pioduecd its 
rival volume to compete with the productions of Oxford and 
Cambridge, These essays exhibit, as might have been expected, 
very different degrees of ability and very different phases of 
opinion. Some of them have been written on topic* of tho 
highest interest, whilsl some have from the nature of their uuh- 
jecta secured a very limited circle of readers and admirers. We 
nave called them purposeless, and if the word bo objected to 
as not being a word to be found in Johnson's, or even m 
more modern English dictionnrie*, wo answer that we thinfc wo 
havcafcimiof right to invent a new term to describe a new 
phenomenon in literature. Such eAsnys are wholly destitute of 
unity of purpose, and the writers are only connected tiifjelher 
by the somewhat artificial and, if one may so call it, accidental 
link of having been cilucntcd at the eamc university. During 
the year \H^ii tliere seems lo have been n pmisc. Probably 
there was not to bo found a sufficient number of per^oiiii con- 
nected with cither university who had enough to eay to fill an 
octavo of four or five hundred pagt's ; and tho occasional rcpod- 
tion of the wmie name during tlic fiiur years of their duration 
seemed to point U\ a probiibio terminalion of thii* fancy. TIio 
idea has, hovvoicr, revived, :uid indeed we suppose may be -laid 
to have culminated in ISO iu a new volume which represents 
(he thouglitB of certain writers without distinction of the univer- 


Eaaag* oWJSertncw. 

dly at wbicli-tlioy were c<luciitcd. Some of the writoni of l)ic 
work [>cfoie iia Iiave t,rie<J their himils before, nnd the eulyecta 
to which they have applied thtiinsclvtai in the prtftenl volume are 
u euiitiiiuntion of thoec which apjiearcd in previous vohimee of 
tlic eoric^ Thus Dr. Temple bas followed up an essay on 
national ediicxtion by sonic Btrictures on the educntion of the 
world; Professor Powell has ndyanced from nntunil theology 
to the study of the evidence of Chviatianity ; whilst the disser- 
tation on ecbemcH of comprehension by Mr. WiUon ia appro- 
priately concluded by an attempt to show how a national 
Church may adapt itself to the advancing intelligence and 
developed scepticism of the nineteenth century; nnil the hienitic 
papyri of Mr. Goodwin arc supplemented by an attempt to show 
that the Moeaic coeniogony is altogether unworthy of credit. 
Mr. Pattison alone of the acpiemvirate hns given ushiethoughls 
on a subject which, though certainly not new to him, hna never 
heforo, we believe, employed his pen. The otlier two writers, 
though new names in the series, have devoted themselves to 
eubjt'Cis Buch as tnight have been expected from tlicni. Dr. 
Kowlund Willintus'a account of Baron liunsen's Biblienl re- 
searches touches u[>Qn matter which hail heen noticed before 
by h