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esoo 4 













Pkinisd akd PuiuiBEi^r John Bar and Som. 


C & S <?T34 U 

I g (, 3 . ' >'''-»^2;^ '^ ^ 


Cfcm€, ye children^ hearken unto me : I will 
teach you the fear of the Lord. — ^Fsalm 84, 11. 

For bodily exercise profiteth little : but godli- 
ness is profitable unto all things, having the 
promise of the life that now iSy and of that which 
is to come, — 1 Tim. 4, 8. 

Prove all things ; hold fast that which is 
^ood. — 1 Thes. 5, 21. 

Entered aocordingto the Act of CongTefB, in the year 1856, 
bj JoBN Ba» %l 8oiib, in the Clerk's Qfl&ce d the Eastern 
District of Pennsylvini*» in the City of Philadelphia. *^ 



The committee to whom was referred the 
translation and publication of this work, here- 
with present it to the public. That it is as per- 
fect as it should be, they are not prepared to 
say ; but that it is as perfect as they have been 
able to get it by much pains and labor, they are 
willing to acknowledge. 

With respect to the motives which led to the 
publication of this work, and the propriety of 
such an undertaking, considerable might be said ; 
but as long prefaces are seldom read, and are 
withal useless, unless the works to which they 
are prefixed themselves are read, the committee 
would merely state, in behalf of themselves and 
ethers who have interested themselves in the 
work, — that it is evidently proper, for various 
reasons, that a work of the kind should be pub- 
lished in the prevailing language of the coim- 
try ; and the more so, as the wish has frequently 
been expressed by the English reading public 
to become acquainted with the doctrines of the 
Mennonite church. Here then t\xeTe S& ^^ ^^^ 

[ 4 ] 

portunity afforded them of doing so. May th 
"judge all, and hold fast that which is good.' 
May the good Lord also add his blessing, tl 
this work may do something towards promoti 
his kingdom on earth ; and then we have c 
highest reward for our labor. 

The Committee. 

BuLur, ijOanada We9t) 1856. 





Question 1. Should man besides the ne- 
cessary cares belonging to his bodily wants, also 
observe and consider more ; so that he may keep 
his mind in a good state of rest ? 

Answer. Yes, certainly, as he would other- 
wise live like a brute in the world ; wherefore 
he should, as a reasonable being, consider this 
well, and maintain his proper position amongst 
other creatures, (which live along with him, and 
also receive their nourishment from the earth ;) 
whereby he will then find, that he does not only 
surpass the creatures in many things in knowl- 
edge, — but also, that he is possessed of a much 
higher spirit than creatures. 

Quest, 2. Are there also men who are not 
conscious of possessing a higher spirit than 
brutes, and yet maintain, that they can keep 
their minds in a good state of rest in this life ? 

Ans. Of such men there are more than 
enough in the world; who show not only by 
their words, but also by their actions, course of 
life, and countenance, that they kaoNR TvoiNJcssi^^ 


L 6 ] 

of their salvation, much less that they are con- 
cerned about it ; yea, who know neither them- 
selves nor their condition, and who live worse 
than the brutes : but whenever any of these men 
become of another and a better mind, and get 
into other reflections, (which cannot take place, 
however, without divine agency) and continue 
in them, — they will come not only to a knowl- 
edge of the nature of their condition, but also 
to a knowledge of themselves, and their higher 
8pmt,-a8 many wise Heathen came to great 
knowledge, through which they endeavored to 
bring other men (who from inattention forgot 
themselves, and lived more like brutes than men,) 
to a better and higher knowledge, by their ingeni- 
ous sayings, amongst which the best and most use- 
ful is considered to be the one : '^Know thyBelf.'' 

Quest. 3. Are there also men who do not 
know themselves as such ? 

Ans. Not only have wise Heathen found 
this by examination, but experience teaches dai- 
ly, that there are men, who like blind heathen, 
have no knowledge of themselves, but live more 
brutish than human ; from which it is evident, 
that they neither know themselves, their Crea- 
tor, nor the spirit that is in them. 

Quest.' 4. In what then, does man's true 
knowledge of himself consist ? 

Ans, This knowledge consists in two things. 
1. To know that of and from himself, he has no 
power to do or understand any thing, either in 
matters external or spiritual. 2« To have a 

[ 7 ] 

knowledge of Ids transitory and troublesome 
state of me. 

Quest. 5. Did the wise Heathen obtain the 
knowledge of themselves, wherewith they could 
teach others with their sayings ? 

Ans. The wise Heathen obtained a knowl- 
edge of themselves through the light of nature, 
a mligent observation of their mind, as well as 
that of external nature, in regard to other living 
creatures ; as also by observing the glorious fir- 
mament and the active power visible in all crea* 
tures. By this means they came to still higher 
knowledge, namely : that there can be nothing 
of itself; but that there must be a First Cause, 
a Head and Being, in which, and through which, 
all things are, and through whose power every 
thing is kept in state and being. 

First Article of Faith op God. 

Quest. 6. What First Cause then, is that, 
in which, from which, and through which, we 
and all things are, and are kept in being ? 

Ans. This First Cause is the Great and In- 
comprehensible God, who has created every 
thing in heaven above, on earth beneath, and 
in the water ; yea, who is the Creator and Pre- 
server of all things, and who keeps every thing 
by the power of his word ; from this God, man 
has received a much higher spirit than other 
creatures, as he has been "created in his own 
image." Gen. 1, 2. 7. And has also been ap- 
pointed by Him, lord over all things. 

[ 8 J 

Quett. 7. Are the sayings of the wise Hear 
then sufficient whereby to come to this high 
knowledge of God ? 

An9. The sayings of the wise Heathen are 
not su£Scient for tins purpose, although we may 
learn something from them ; but the Holy Scrip- 
tures teach us this knowledge with much clear- 
ness and many particulars. 

Quest. 8. Li what respect then are the Holy 
Scriptures preferable to other writings. 

Ans. The Holy Scriptures are scriptures 
given by inspiration of God, and are "profitable 
for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for in- 
struction in righteousness." 2 Tim. 3, 16. They 
are given through highly enlightened, holy men, 
who were gifted by the spirit of God above other 
men, and who spake these scriptures by inspi- 
ration of God, "as they were moved by the Holy 
Ghost." 2 Sam. 23, 2. 2 Pet. 1, 21. 

Qu^t, 9, Do the Holy Scriptures also teach, . 
that we should come to a knowledge of ourselves ? 

Ansi/o. Of this we have so much information 
in the Holy Scriptures, that it would be super- 
fluous to quote it here ; the holy men of God 
(among whom was the king and prophet David) 
saw, that many men forgot themselves, and did 
not discern the glory of their Creator. He 
says, Psalm 100 : "Know ye that the Lord he 
is God ; it is he that made us, and not we our- 
selves." And again. Psalm 89, 5. 6. ; "Verily 
every man at his best state is altogether vanity. 
Surely every man walketh in a vain shew ; sure- 

[ 9 ] 

ly they are disquieted in vain." Again, Gal. 
6, 3. : ^'For if a man think himself to be some- 
thing, (understand, of himself) when he is noth- 
ing, he deceiveth himself.'* Further, 1 Cor. 4, 
7. : "What hast thou that thou didst not receive ? 
now if thou didst receive it, why dost thou glory, 
as if thou hadst not received it ?'' 

Quest. 10. Is it enough for man, to come to 
a knowledge of himself and of God, in order 
that he may thereby, in this life, have a mind 
and conscience at rest? 

Atis. That is not sufficient : he must go fur- 
ther in his knowledge, in order that he may ob- 
tain still more knowledge of the Great God ; 
through whom and from whom he himself and 
every thing exists, as the Holy Scriptures also 
testify of God, that He is He who upholds "all 
things by the word of his power.** Heb. 1, 3. 

Quest. 11. Did those who had not the Holy 
Scriptures, not come to a true knowledge of 
Gt>d, through a consideration of th^ir condition, 
and the^observation of created things ? 

Ans. Neither the one nor the other was 
suflScient; for while they saw ailtl knew from 
created things, that there is and must be a God, 
who created such things ; but did not glorify him 
"as God ; neither were thankful ; but became 
vain in their imaginations, and their foolish 
heart was darkened. Professing themselves to 
be wise, they became fools.** Rom. 1, 21. 22. ; 
Eph. 4, 18. For "that which may be known 
of God,*' God had revealed to them. Rom, \^ 


C 10 ] 

19. And what they further came to, is added 
explained in said chapter, (r. 28.) 
Qicest 12. Is it sufficient tnat we absolutely 
believe and hold, that there is a God, who cre- 
ated the heavens, the earth, and the water, to- 
gether with all things that are on and in them ? 
Arts. It is certainly not sufficient, that we 
merely believe and hold, that there is a God, 
leaving him as such, without conforming to his 
Holy Word ; for "it is written. The just shall 
live by faith. For the wrath of God is revealed 
from heaven against all ungodliness and un- 
righteousness of men, who hold the truth in un- 
righteousness." Bom. 1, 17. 18. And it is also 
testified of such men : "They profess that they 
know God; but in works they deny him, being 
abominable, and disobedient, and unto every 
good work rewobate." Tit. 1, 16. 

Quest. 13. What more then, must be observed 

and done by man, besides having faith in, and 

knowledge rf God, in order that he may have a 

mind at rest, and hope in God in this life ? 

Ans. Man must by faith entirely submit and 

S've himself* up to the Great God, and show 
mself in all things obedient to him ; yea, also 
honor, praise, serve, and fear him ; as is much 
required of us in Holy Scripture ; in which God 
represents himself to man, as a Lord, yea as a 
Father, when he says : "A son honoreth his fa- 
ther, and a servant his master : if then I be a fa- 
ther, where is mine honor ? and if I be a master, 
where is my fear ? says the Lord of Hosts." — 

[ 11 ] 

Mai. 1, 6. So also Moses teaches the children 
of Israel, to know their God, who brought them 
out of the land of Egypt, in the following words : 
Now Israel ! What does the Lord thy God re- 
quire of thee else, than that thou lovest hini 
with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and 
with all thy might ; honorest, fearest and servest 
him, and walkest in his ways ; that it may be 
well with thee and thy children forever. Deut« 6. 

Quest, 14. Is the acceptable and perfect 
will of God sufficiently made known to us in 
Holy Scripture, namely, as to how we may live 
and walk acceptably before him ? 

Ans. It is incontrovertible, that the perfec* 
and acceptable will of God is sufficiently made 
known to us in Holy Scripture; inasmuch as it 
is frequently represented as the inspired word 
of God throughout its contents; and amongst 
others by Isaiah when he says : "Seek ye out 
of the book of the Lord, and read : no one of 
these shall fail, none shall want her mate : for my 
mouth it hath commanded, and his spirit it hath 

fskthered them." Isaiah 34, 16. And again by 
aul to Timothy, when he says : — "All scripture 
IS given by inspiration of God, and is profitable 
for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for in- 
struction in righteousness : That the man of God 
may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all 
good works." 2 Tim. 3, 16. 17. 

Quest 15. Which is the chief article taught 
in Holy Scripture, which we are to observe and 

[ 12 ] 

consider, and from which we may hope in Grod 
to have eternal life ? 

Ans. This chief article is, as has already 
been observed in part, faith in God and his holy 
word, accompanied by a pure and fervent love ; 
so that faith and love work together ; for where 
true faith in God exists, love is its companion. 
Now out of this faith hope is bom, so that one 
springs from the other ; for ^^without faith it is 
impossible to please God." Heb. 11, 6. For 
when the Lord Jesus was once asked, which was 
the great commandment in the law, he answered : 
"Thou shalt love the Lord thv God with all thy 
heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy 
mind. This is the first and great commandment. 
And the second is like unto it. Thou shalt love 
thy neighbor as thyself. On these two com- 
mandments hang all the law and the prophets." 
Matt. 22, 37 — 40. Therefore Paul also says, 
1 Tim. 1, 5. : **Now the end of the command- 
ment is charity out of a pure heart, and of a 
good conscience, and of faith unfeigned." Gal. 
6, 6. : "For in Jesus Christ neither circumcision 
availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision ; but 
faith which worketh by love." And 1 Cor. 18, 
18.: "And now abiaeth faith, hope, charity, 
these three; but the greatest of these is charity." 
Quest, 16. Are then these two articles, 
namely, hope and love, so connected with faith, 
that without them, we can have no hope in God 
and eternal life ? 
Am, Yes, certainly, it is faith, from which 

C w ] 

fone love has its origin, and through which our 
hope is strengthened, that is so necessary a 
thmg, that without it, it is impossible to please 
God; as we have just seen from Heb. 11, 6.: 
"But he that believeth not will be damned/' — 
Mark 16, 16. 

Que$L 17. What then is faith properly in 

An8. Faith is, that we accept and receive 
that as truth which has been propounded to us 
from Holy Scripture, by devout men ; which we 
should hold and believe as being as infallible, 
as if we had seen it ourselves, or heard it from 
the mouth of God. In accordance with this 
also is the testimony of Paul, Heb. 11, 1. : "Now 
faith is the substance of things hoped for, the 
evidence of things not seen.'' As we also read 
of Moses in the same chapter, verse 27^ : "By 
futh he forsook Egypt, not fearing the wrath 
of the king : for he endured, as seemg him who 
is invisible." 

Quest. 18. What then must we properly and 
chiefly believe of God, and how must we believe 
in him, and be steadfast in such faith ; inasmuch 
is a proper faith in him, is frequently called a 
savinff faith ; which is the foundation of a happy 
hope in him ? 

Ans. Besides faith in God, as already men- 
tioned, we must also believe the testimony of 
the Holy Gospel of Jesus Christ, the living Son 
of God : "And this is life eternal, that they might 
know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, 

[ 14 ] 

whom thou hast sent." John 17, 8. Paul also 
says, Rom. 10, 9. 10. : "If th^u shalt confess 
with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt he- 
lieve in thine heart that God hath raised him 
from the dead, thou shalt be saved. For with 
the heart man believeth unto righteousness ; and 
with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. 

Quest, 19. On what must saving faith be 
grounded or built ? 

Ana, Not on man's wisdom, or enticing, 
pretty words, proceeding out of his own heart ; 
but on the infallible word of God alone, to which 
the scriptures of the Old and New Testaments 
are serviceable, being written and produced by 
holy men, '^moved by the Holy Ghost." 2 Pet, 
1, 21. — ^Also confirmed by signs and wonders. 
Thereon Paul grounded his faith when he says : 
"I believe all tnings which are written in the law 
and in the prophets." Acts 24, 14. This he 
said, because the Gospel was not yet then writ- 
ten. To this Christ also directs, when he says : 
"He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath 
said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living 
water." John 7, 88. 

Qtiest 20. Is the general description of faith 
called Syrnholum jfyostolorumy or Apostolic 
Faithj or Apostolic Vonfession of Faith^ not the 
true Formulary of the Christian Faith ; and has 
he who confesses it, not the true Confession of 
the Christian Faith ? 

Ans. The so called Syrnholum Apostolorum 
contains, it is true, the chief articles of the 

[ 1« ] 

Christian Faith, and may, in so far, be regard* 
ed as a Confession of the same ; inasmuch as it 
agrees with the writings of the apostles ; but it 
is not to be received as truth, that, as some pre- 
tend, the twelve apostles brought it into its pre- 
sent form, and that each of them composed an 
article of it ; it is however not, on this account, 
in itself objectionable; but saving evangelical 
faith requires yet more particulars to a full in- 
struction in it. 

Quest. 21. Is then the foregoing Formulary 
of Faith, when expressed according to the words 
it contains, not the right Confession of the 
Christian Faith, which is required of a Christ- 
ian, and which is necessary to salvation ? 

Ans. Saving Faith does not consist in the 
production of an article thus composed, which 
is conceived by the memory, and brought forth 
by the mouth; or else school children would 
have saving faith, as they can readily express 
this article. No. The right and full faith to 
salvation must be planted and conceived in the 
hearts and minds of men, by reading and hear- 
ing the word of God ; and when this has taken 
root, it will by its efficacious power, produce 
fruits of faith, which will be^seen by others, as 
has already been said in the 15th question and 
answer to the same, and proved from Gal. 6, 6 ; 
1 Tim. 1, 6. Yes, that true faith to salvation 
does not merely rest in the heart ; but that it 
must also be increased in the same, and brought 
forth, is also proved from Rom. 10, 10. That 

[ 1« ] 

if we believe with the heart, we are justified, and 
make confession with the month, we are saved 
— was the reason that Philip said to the eunuch : 
"If thou believest with all thine heart," &c. 
Acts 8, 37. And that faith comes into the heart 
of man by hearing the word of God, or by read- 
ing and reflecting on the same, is not only seen 
from this example of the eunuch, and in the same 
chapter from that of the people of Samaria ; but 
also from the sending of the apostles to preach 
the gospel. Acts 8, 14. 17 ; Mark 16, 15. 16. 
For this reason Paul also says, Rom. 10, 14 : 
"How shall they believe in him of whom they 
have not heard V* And lastly, in verse 17, in 
the same chapter, he says : "So then faith com- 
eth by hearing, and hearing by the word of 

Quett 22. Has then the requisite faith also 
certain signs, whereby it may be known to be 
saving faith ; as a good tree is known by the 
fruit which it brings forth ? 

Ans. Where no fruit of faith is shown or to 
be seen, there the full and true faith in the great 
and true God does not exist, whereby the prom- 
ised salvation by grace, is obtained; for thus 
it is testified of faith, Hab. 2, 4.if "The just shall 
Uve by his faith." And Heb. 10, 88.: "Now 
the just shall live'by faith : but if any man draw 
back, my soul shall have no pleasure in him." 
The same is to be inferred from the words of 
Peter, (2. Pet. 1, 6 - 9) : "And beside this, giv- 
ing all diligence, add to your faith virtue ; and 

[ 17 ] 

to virtue knowledge ; and to knowledge temper- 
*nee ; and to temperance patience ; and to pa* 
tience godliness; and to godliness brotherly 
kindness; and to brotherly kindness charity. 
For if these things be in yoa, and abound, they 
make you that ye shall neither be barren nor 
unfruitful in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus 
Christ. But he that lacketh these things is 
blind, and cannot see afar off/' And Jamea 
says, (2 c. 26 v.) : "For as the body without the 
spirit is dead, so faith without works is dead aU 
so;" which agrees with the words of Christ, 
Matt. 5, 16: "Let your light so shine before 
men, that they may see your good works, and 
glorify your father which is in heaven/* 

QucMt. 23. Is not that a perfect faith, if we 
believe in the Great God of Heaven, who rules 
with power and glory over every thing in heaven 
and on earth, like a king and emperor over their 
dominions ? 

Ans. The Great Qoi of heaven and earth is 
represented to us as being in heaven, as he also 
is ; but he is so represented to us, because we 
are on earth. The Lord God, although he cre- 
ated the earth, and yet does not need it, is re- 
presented as being locally separated from us, by 
being in heaven, as is taught in the Lord's Pray- 
er, Matt. 6, 9 : "Our Father which art in heav- 
en," &c» We must not however therefore ima- 
gine, that the Lord God is confined to heaven, 
and separated from earth, as, for instance, a 
king resides in his capitol, separated from the 

C 16 ] 

rest of his conntry and subjects ; but the Lord 
God is a God every where present, as David 
amply testifies in his 139th Psalm ; and as the 
Lord himself speaks through Isaiah : "The heav- 
en is my throne, and the earth is my footstool." 
Isaiah 66, 1. As the wise king Solomon also 
expresses himself in dedicating the temple, when 
he says : "The heaven and heaven of heavens 
cannot contain thee." 1 Kii^gs 8, 27. Yes, al- 
though God is frequently represented as being 
in heaven, yet he is *^ot far from every one of 
us." Acts 17, 27. 

Article First, op the Divine Attributes. 

Quest 24. Is God as well present with us on 
earth as he is with the angels in heaven ? 

Arts. Certainly the Lord God is as well pre- 
sent with us on earth as he is with the angels in 
heaven ; and we people on earth are as well in 
his presence as the angels in heaven are in his 
presence. For thus says the Lord through Je- 
remiah, (c. 23, V. 23. 24.) : "Am I a God at 
hand, and not a God afar off? Do I not fill 
heaven and earth." And through Isaiah, (c. 57, 
V. 15) : "For thus saith the high and lofty One 
that inhabiteth eternity, whose name is Holy ; 
I dwell in the high and holy place, with him al- 
so that is of a contrite and humble spirit, to re- 
vive the spirit of the humble, and to revive the 
heart of the contrite ones." The same is con- 
fessed by the king and prophet David, (Psalm 
189, 7. 8.) when he says : "Whither shall I go 

[ 19 ] 

from thy spirit ? or whither shall I flee from thy 
presence? If I asceud up into heaven, thoa 
art there : K I make my bed in hell, behold thou 
art there/' &c. 

Article Skcond, of the Divine Attributes. 

Qiiest 25. Is there any thing more to be be- 
lieyed and confessed of God, than that he is as 
well present on earth as in heaven ; and conse- 
quently every where present ? 

Ans. There are yet more and different at- 
tributes in Otoij who is a Gtod of heaven and 
earth, to be believed and confessed, namely, 
such as these : That he is a .Great Lord, yea, 
a Lord of lords, and a King of kings, who has 
not only created heaven and earth, and the wa- 
ter, and every thing that is in and on them, but 
also, that every thmg belongs to him ; for thus 
it is testified of him. Psalm 24, 1 : ^'The earth 
is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof; the world, 
and they that dwell therein." And further, 
Psalm 96, 3 — 5 : "For the Lord is a great God, 
and a great King above all Gods. In his hand 
are the deep places of the earth : the strength 
of the hills is his also. The sea is his, and he 
made it : and his hand formed the dry land." 

Article Third, of the Divine Attributes. 

Quest. 26. Does saving faith yet imply some 
particular Divine attributes, if it is to be a per- 
fect evangelical faith ? 

Ans, in order that we may stand well and 

[ 20 ] 

perfect in our faith in 6od, it must, according 
to Holy Scripture, also contsdn and imply a 
knowledge of the Divine attributes, as made 
known to us in Holy Scripture ; so tiiat we ber 
lieve as well, that the Lord God is a God of 
such attributes, as that we believe that he ifl 
God ; inasmuch as from such faith, as well as 
from a knowledge of the Divine attributes alone, 
obedience to, and the fear of God follow; in 
which attributes God is said to be excellent, as 
testified by Jeremiah, (c. 10, v. 6. 7.) when he 
says : "There is none like unto thee, Lord ; 
thou art great, and thy name is great in might. 
Who would not fear thee, king of nations ?" 
His greatness and power David also expresses — 
and in these words, (Psalm 60, 3 — 5): "Our 
God shall come, and shall not keep silence : a 
fire shall devour before him, and it shall be ve- 
ry tempestuous round about him. He shall call 
to the heavens from above, and to the earth, 
that he may judge his people. Gather my saints 
together unto me ; those that have made a cov- 
enant with me by sacrifice."* This knowledge 
also induced David to say : "My flesh trembleth 
for fear of thee ; and I am afraid of thy judg- 
ments.*' Psalm 119, 120. 

Que9t. 27. What Divine attributes are those 
revealed to us in Holy Scripture, which it is as 

*In Lutber*8 translation of the I^ble into German, this Terse 
is translated as follows : — *^Gather my saints together unto roe ; 
those that esteem mj covenant more than sacrifice." This 
translation is preferred by some. 

[ 21 ] 

necessary for ns to believe of God, as to believe 
that there is a God ? 

An$. The Divine attributes revealed to us in 
Holy Scripture, and which we should firmly be- 
lieve, are the following : That, namelv, the Lord 
God is Onb God, who is eternal, almighty, true, 
just, holy, and omniscient ; in which attributea 
he exists as well in himself, as in exercising them 
over man ; and shows mercy to all who fear him, 
and listen to him, as a gracious, merciful, long- 
suffering, meek God ; who shows '^mercy unto 
tiiousands of them that love him, and keep his 
commandments." Ex. 20, 6. But the seven 
first Spiritual attrilyites, which serve as a cau- 
tion to the pious in their pilgrimage through 
this world, redound to the fear and terror of the 
wicked and ungodly; inasmuch as they abuse 
and despise the goodness of God ; and after their 
^^hardness and impenitent hearts treasure up un- 
to themselves wrath against the day of wrath 
and revelation of the ri^teous judgment of God ; 
who will render to every man according to his 
deedg»" Rom. 2, 5. 6. On the contrary how- 
ever, the goodness of God is at all times over 
them that fear and love him ; and they can com- 
fort themselves with David, that the Lord "know- 
eth our frame, and remembereth that we are 
dust." Psalm 103, 14. 

Queit. 28. Why is it so necessary to believe, 
that the Lord Gt)d is a God of such Divine at- 
tributes ? 

An9. It is so necessary to believe this for the 

[ 22 ] 

reason, that such belief serves to increase holy 
adoration, esteem, and veneration for the Di- 
vine Majesty, amongst men ; and that it is an 
active inducement to the attentive to fear GU)d ; 
for if the Divine attributes were not incorporat- 
ed in the Christian Faith, men would again ea- 
sily fall into heathen errors ; who had all kinds 
of immoveable, dead images, and held them as 
their gods ; which had indeed "hands, feet, eyes, 
ears, and mouths" made for them; but could 
therewith neither "handle, walk, see, hear, nor 
speak." Psalm 115, 5—7. And each held in 
his imagination his oiyn god as greater than all 
others ; as they also judged of me God of heav- 
en, whom Paul preached* Acts 19, 27, 28. So 
it may also be seen in the adventure of Jonah, 
that each man cried to his god. Jonah 1, 5. But 
our God "is over all, blessed forever." Rom. 

Quest. 29. What evidence have we in Holy 
Scripture, that the Lord God is a God of such 
Divine attributes, and to what is it serviceable ? 

Ans, Of such evidence we have plenty in Ho- 
ly Scripture ; and amongst those who first gave 
evidence to this effect, was Moses, with wnom 
the Lord spake "face to face;" HEx. 83, 11.) 
who received the first words of Goa on tables of 
stone, and delivered them to man ; who also tes- 
tifies of the ONENESS of God, (Deut. 6, 4.) as fol- 
lows : "Hear, Israel : the Lord our God is 
one Lord." And again, Deut. 4, 85 : "Unto 
thee it was shewed, that thou mightest know 

[ 28 ] 

that the Lord lie is God ; there is none else be- 
side him." And through the prophet Isaiah 
Crod testifies of himself, when he says : ^^I am 
the Lord, and there is none else, there is no 
God beside me." ^'I am God, and there is none 
else ; I am God, and there is none like me." 
Isaiskh 45, 5 ; 46, 9. And Solomon says at the 
close of his prayer, 1 Kings 8, 60 : "That all 
the people of the earth may know that the Lord 
is God, and that there is none else." 

Quest. 80. To what may the knowledge be 
serviceable, that the Lord God is One God ? 

An». Such knowledge may be serviceable to 
us in many respects. First, if we should perad- 
venture, by occasion, come into strange coim- 
tries among heathen people, where strange gods, 
or the sun, moon, or stars were worshipped, and 
we were urged to do the same ; we might then 
think of the doctrine of Christ, when he says : 
"Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him 
only shalt thou serve." Matt. 4, 10, As the 
angel said to John : "Worship God." Rev. 19, 
10. For though we were at the ends of the 
earth, in Asia, Africa, Europe, or America, or 
elsewhere, — we would still have our God there 
to worship ; as was the case with Daniel in the 
lion's den, and the three young men in the fiery 
furnace ; who, although they were in a strange 
land amongst heathen people, still worshipped 
the God of heaven, and were heard ; as is to be 
seen in Daniel, c. 3. ; as also in the case of Jo- 
nah in the fish's belly. Jonah 2, 2. 

[ 24 ] 

Qtiest 81. How and where is it certified and 
proved, that the Lod God is One God ? 

Ans. It is declared by and proved from the 
works of creation, as well as from Scripture, that 
the Lord God was before all visible and invisi- 
ble things were created, and althongh these, 
namely, heaven and earth, and all things visi- 
ble, will pass away ; He will remain the same 
God as he was before, as the pious king David 
testifies of him through the spirit of God, (Ps. 
90, 1, 2.) : "Lord, thou hast been our dwelling 
place in all generations. Before the mountains 
were brought forth, or ever thou hadst formed 
the earth and the world, even from everlasting 
to everlasting, thou art God." And again, Ps. 
102, 25—27 : "Of old hast thou laid the found- 
ation of the earth: and the heavens are the 
works of thy hands. They shall perish, but 
thou shalt endure : yea, all of them shall wax 
old like a garment; as a vesture shalt thou 
change them, and they shall be changed : But 
thou art the same, and thy years shall have no 
end." This was also acknowledged by Abra- 
ham, who "planted a grove in Beersheba, and 
called there on the name of the Lord, the ever- 
lasting God," Gen. 21, 33. 

Quest. 32. To what purpose is this knowledge 
of the eternity of God serviceable ? 

Ans. This knowledge is in many respects ser- 
viceable to the comfort of the pious, and to the 
strengthening of their faith ; particularly to the 
comfort of themselves and children, when they 

C 25 ] 

consider that thej have the Lord God as well 
with and about them, as he was from the begin- 
ning with all the pions ancient fathers to the 
enlightening of their understanding, their help 
and protection, when they walked in his fear, and 
continued in the right faith ; as did the ancient 
fSeithers ; of which Isaiah testifies, (c. 40, v. 28. 
29.) when he says : ^^Hast thou not known ? hast 
thou not heard, that the everlasting God, the 
Lord, the Creator of the ends of the earth, faint- 
eth not, neither is weary ? there is no searching 
of his understanding. He giveth power to the 
faint ; and to them that have no might he in- 
creaseth strength." Thus have the pious not 
only such a kind God over them during their 
lifetime ; but also a God to whom they may at 
their death confidently give in charge their chil- 
dren, with a similar assurance, if they only fear 
God. With such consolation did old Tobias ad- 
dress his son. Tob. 4, 6. As an example may 
also be taken the children of Jonadab, son of 
Bechab, Jer. 35. As David also assures ; for 
after speaking of the eternity of God, he says : 
**The children of thy servants shall continue, 
and their seed shall be established before thee." 
Psalm 102, 28. -And in Psalm 116, and 125, 
1., he says in substance as follows : That the 
Lord will always abide with the pioua "forever," 
that he is "their hope and their shield," and 
that those who fear him, algo hope in him, not 
only in this life ; but their souls also hope for a 
hi^py existence in the life to come; so that 


[ 26 ] 

even as they are from the eternal God, so they 
must also abide eternally. The same is con* 
firmed in substance in Rev. 22, 8 — 6. 

Qtiest 83. By what do we perceive and know, 
that the Lord God is an Almighty Grody and 
can so firmly believe the same ? 

An8. God's almightiness (omnipotence) may 
especially be seen in the great and incompre- 
hensible works of Creation, and the preservation 
of all visible things ; which have been in a state 
of operation for many hundred years ; and all 
this by the "word of his power,'' as the pious 
king David also acknowledges, Psalm 33, 9.: 
"For he spake, and it was done ; he command- 
ed, and it stood fast.'' So God also spake to 
Abraham : "I am the Almighty God ; walk be- 
fore me, and be thou perfect." Gen. 17, 1. 

Qv£st 34. In what respect can the knowledge 
be serviceable to our faith, that the Lord Gtoi 
is an Almighty God ? 

Ans. TUs knowledge may be serviceable to 
man for good in many respects ; when he, name- 
ly, perceives and believes, that Gt)d has power 
over every thing, to do and carry out what he has 
promised in his word ; yea also in all the adver- 
sities with which the pious may meet in this life. 
And first indeed it is serviceable in reminding 
him of his, due obedience, to live piously and 
righteously, as said before, that (rod said to 
Abraham, (Gen. 17, 1.) : "Walk befo):e me, and 
be thou perfect." And Peter says, (1 Pet. 5, 
6.): "Humble yourselves therefore under the 

[ 27 ] 

mighty band of God, that he may exalt you in 
due time/' 2. It is serviceable to the pious and 
godly as a great and sm*e consolation in all their 
necessities and tribulations, that God is mighty 
to preserve, to help, and to save them ; as also 
David speaks of the ways of the Lord, (Ps. 50, 
15.) : "Call unto me in the day of trouble : I 
will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me." 
And God himself speaks through Isaiah, (c. 43, 
V. 2.) : "When thou passest through the waters, 
I will be with thee ; and through the rivers, they 
shaML not overflow thee: when thou walkest 
through the fire, thou shalt not be burned ; nei- 
ther shall the flame kindle upon thee." Of all 
this we have sufficient examples and proof in the 
case of the children of Israel in the Bed Sea, 
the prc^het Jonas, the three young men in the 
fieiy furnace, Daniel in the lion's den, Joseph 
in Egypt, and David in the persecution of Sam ; 
who all felt and experienced God's omnipotence 
in their time of need ; as is to be seen in Psalm 
60, 15. — as already mentioned. 

Qn^. 85. Is this knowledge of the omnipo- 
tence of God, also of use or service to those 
who do not live piously? 

Arts. As excellent and wholesome as it is for 
the believing and pious, so dreadful it is to the 
profligate, and to those who live on so securely 
in disobedience and sin ; so that they will be 
affrighted and tremble, when they shall hear of 
God's threatenings against and punishments of 
their ungodly lives, and how God has shown his 

[ 28 ] 

power in the execution of his judgments ; as is 
manifest in the case of Sodom, Gomorrah, Pha- 
raoh and his host, Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, 
Jezebel, Absalom, and Jerusalem ; which Ma* 
nasses also realized and expresses in his Peni- 
tential Prayer, when he says : "All men trem- 
ble before thy power; for the mLajesty of thy 
glory cannot be borne, and thine angry threatr 
ening toward sinners is importable/' (Prayer of 
Hanasses 5.) As the Lord God himself also 
speaks of the infliction of his punishments upon 
the ungodly, as may be seen in Isaiah 1. Rev* 
6, 16.— 17- 

Qiiest 36. Is it also necessary, that we believe 
and confess, that God is a true God 7 

Ans. It is necessary to believe, that God is a 
true God, not only for the sake of the truth, that 
there is a God ; but also that God himself is the 
Truth ; and that all that his servants, the pro- 
phets and apostles, have brought forth of him, 
IS firm, sure, and infallible truth ; as Paul testi- 
fies : "Let God be true, but every man a liar." 
Bom. 3, 4. As also Moses says, (Num. 23, 19) : 
"God is not a man, that he should lie ; neither 
the son of man, that he should repent : hath he 
said, and shall he not do* it ? or hath he spoken, 
and shall he not make it good ?" Through the 
opinion, that truth is stronger than all things, 
the young man Zorobabel gained the prize in 
preference of his comrades. He says at tiie 
close of his speech: "Blessed be the God of 
trutL" 1 Esdras 4, 40. 

[ s» 1 

Quest. 37. To what then is it especially ser* 
viceable, to believei that the Lord God is a true 

AfiB, It is not only serviceable to the pious 
as an especial consolation ; but also to sinners, 
when they hear the word of God propounded to 
them for their conversion and reformation : but 
still more especially is it serviceable to the pi- 
ous as a consolation in all occurring accidents, 
that they can firmly depend on God s word and 
promises, as to what he has promised to give 
them, as well in this life, as in the life to come ; 
therefore they can place their hope and confi- 
dence firmly thereon, as David says : ^^For the 
word of the Lord is right ; and all his works are 
done in truth," Psalm 33, 4. "For all the 
promises of God in him are yea, and in him 
Amen, unto the glory of God by us." 2 Cor. 1, 
20. "He is a buckler to all those that trust in 
him." Psalm 18, 30. 

QitesL 38. Ja it also serviceable to any thing 
else, to believe, that God is true in his word ? 

An$. It is already explained above, that such 
£aith is a great consolation to the pious. Now 
just as it sei'ves the pious as a consolation, so it 
is on the contrary, to imgodly, wilful and impen- 
itent sinners, a certain assurance of their pun- 
ishment, if they continue and persist in their 
sinful course of life ; for it is to be known, that 
what God has pronounced concerning such in 
his word, will certainly come over them, as Paul 
says : "Despisest thou the riches of his good- 

[ 80 ] 

ness and forbearance and longsufiering ; not 
knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee 
to repentance? But after thy hardness and 
impenitent heart treasurest up unto thyself 
wrath against the day of wrath and revelation 
of the righteous judgment of God ; who will ren- 
der to every man according to his deeds/* Rom. 
2, 4 — 6. Therefore it serves sinners as a fear 
and dread, as Solomon says : "The wicked flee 
when no man pursueth.** Prov. 28, 1. 

Quest 39. Whence are we to believe, that the 
Lord God is a Holy God ? 

Ans. This is not only made known to us in 
his word ; but if we ponder in our minds over 
the Divine perfections and majesty, we may 
therefrom comprehend and judge of his Holi- 
ness ; for Paul was even permitted to say of that 
which is human : "If the first fruit be holy, the 
lump is also holy ; and if the root be bolv, so 
are the branches." Rom. 11, 16. Now if that 
was holy which was sacrificed according to the 
law of the Lord, it follows, that He also must 
be holy to whom such sacrifice was made, name- 
ly, God ; who besides his angels is holy ; and 
tnat these are holy, may be seen from Matt. 
26, 81. But how much more is God holy, who 
created them : so that the angels may of right 
cry out : "Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord of hosts : 
the whole earth is full of his glory." Isaiah 6, 
8. And this the Lord God {uso speaks of him- 
self through Moses : "Ye shall be holy ; for I 
am holy." Lev. 11, 44. 45 ; 19, 2. 1 Pet. 1, 16. 

[ SI ] 

QueH. 40. To what is the knowledge servicea- 
ble, that the Lord God is a holy God 7 

Ans. It is serviceable to awaken and incite 
aU pious and trae Christians to a holy Ufe and 
conversation, wherewith they show themselves 
to be children of their heavenly father, and that 
they belong through faith in Jesus Christ, to 
the family of God, and can call him "Father" 
in their pravers. Matt. 6, 9. This, Peter says, 
is their callmg : "But as he which hath called 
you is holy, so be ye holy in all manner of con- 
versation. * 1 Pet. 1, 16. And Paul also writes : 
"He (Christ) hath reconciled you in the body 
of his flesh through death, to present you holy 
and unblameable and unreproveable in his sight. ' 
Col. 1, 21. 22. Even as the holy Zechariah 
prophesied: "That we being delivered out of 
the hand of our enemies, might serve him (God) 
without fear, in holiness and righteousness be- 
fore him, all the days of our Ufe." Luke 1, 
74. 76. 

Quest. 41. Whereby can we know, that we 
should believe, that the Lord God is a just God ? 

Ans. That we must also understand and con- 
clude from his Divine majesty and perfections, 
besides that it is declared to us in his holy word, 
that he is just in his judgments on all the do- 
ings of men, whether they be good or evil. 1. 
Li this life. 2. After this life at the day of 
judgment ; as David testifies of both when he 
says : "For the righteous Lord loveth righteous- 
ness ; his countenance doth behold the upright.' 

[ 82 ] 

Psalm 11, 7. "God judgeth the righteous, and 
God is angry with the wicked every day. If he 
turn not, he will whet his sword ; he hath bent 
his bow, and made it ready. Psalm 7, 11. 12. 
The Lord God also says himself: "I give every 
man acoording to his ways, and aceording to the 
fruit of his doings." Jer. 17, 10. And as the 
Lord God is just on the doings of men in this 
life, so will he also "judge the world in righte* 
ousness" at the day of judgment. Acts 17, 31. 
And this is also declared by Malachi (c. 4, y. 1. 
—3.) and by Matthew (c. 25, v. 34. 41.) 

Quest 42. To what may the knowledge be 
serviceable, that the Lord God is a just God ? 

Ans. It is indeed serviceable to all men uk 
many respects for good, if they would only al- 
ways think about it, and consider, that God is 
a just God. But it is first serviceable to the 
pious as a precaution, to administer justice and 
right in all their doings, their business and con- 
versation, trade and profession, and that no one 
does in any wise oppress, take the advantage of, 
or "defraud his brother" ; for the Lord, says 
'Paul, "is an avenger of aU such." 1 Thes. 4, 
6. As God also speaks through Zechariah : 
"These are the things that ye shall do ; speak 
ye every man the truth to his neighbor ; exe- 
cute the judgment of truth and peace in your 
gates." Zechariah 8, 16. "Whoever doeth not 
righteousness is not of God, neither he that lev- 
eth not his brother." 1 John 8, 10. Secondly, 
it may serve as a particular consolation to the 

[ 88 ] 

piouB, wlieft the^ do thair duty in their calling 
in justice and n^teousness, but are neverthe* 
less oppressed, persecuted, ill-treated, slandered 
and ridicttl^ on account of their piety ; as was^ 
Joseph by Us brethren, (Gen. 37.) and Susanna 
by the ancient wicked judges. (Susanna 42, 43.) 
Yes, it serves them as a consolation, when they 
thus see, how the Lord carries out and defends 
the cause of the innocent ; for ^Hhe integrity oi 
the upright shall guide them," says Solomon* 
(Prov. 11, 8.) Thus, the pious may and shall 
be happy in God in persecution ; inasmuch as 
thOT know, that God knows and judges them 
di£terently from what men do : For ^^tbe inno- 
eent shall stir up himself against the hypocrite. 
The righteous also shall hold on his way." Job 
17, 8. 9. Of this we have an example in the 
case of David in the persecution of Saul. 1 Sam* 
19, 10. 

Qtie9t. 43. Is the knowledge of God's justice 
also in any way serviceable to sinners ? 

Ans, A consideration of God*s justice may 
serve to inspire profligate and wilful sinners with 
fear and terror, as it does the pious with conso- 
lation, when they hear of God's justly threaten- 
ed punishments, which God remembers : ^'Woe 
unto the wicked ! it shall be ill with him : for 
the reward of his hands shall be given him." 
Isaiah 3, 11. And on those on whom God him* 
self will pass the heavy sentence of woe, on 
them it will remain. "For the wrath of God is 
revealed from heaven against all ungodliness 

[ 84 ] 

and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth 
in unrighteousness. Rom. 1, 18. Now if such 
sinners see God's justice in the punishment of 
sin, it may awaken in them repentance and sor- 
row for sin, and a reformation of life ; as may be 
seen in the case of those who became converted 
at Pentecost^ Acts 2, For if God's word, God's 
omniscience, omnipotence, and justice, are dis- 
cerned by sinners, — sorrow for sin is not for, and 
which awakens an internal sorrow and fear, as 
Darid says : "My flesh trembleth for fear of thee ; 
and I am afraid of thy judgments." Ps. 119, 120. 

Quest. 44. Is God also an omniscient God, to 
whom every thing is known that men do ? 

Ans. That the Lord God is an omniscient God, 
must follow from his omnipotence, even if it were 
not made known or revealed to us in Holy Scrip- 
ture; but it is made known to us in Scripture: 
"He that planteth the ear, shall he not hear ? he 
that formed the eye, shall he not see?" Psalm 
94, 9^ "Can any hide himself in secret places 
that I shall not see him ? says the Lord." Jer. 
23, 24. And Paul testifies of this, when he 
says : "Neither is there any creature that is not 
manifest in his sight : but all things are naked 
and opened unto the eyes of him with whom 
we have to do." Heb. 4, 13. 

Quest. 46. How may this knowledge of the 
omnscience of God be serviceable to us, if we 
believe and confess the same ? 

Ans. This knowledge of and belief in the om- 
niscience of God, is a chief article of the Chris- 

[ 86 ] 

tian Faith ; inasmuch as man is thereby iucited 
and animated to obedience towards God, the 
leaving off of evil, and reformation of life ; for 
if God were an almighty and just God only, and 
not also an omniscient God, he would be circum- 
stanced like a potentate who could not exercise 
his power and execute his judgments, because 
the misdeeds of his subjects could be hidden 
from him. But as we know that the Lord God 
is omniscient, we must ever confess with David : 
*^0 Lord, thou hast searched me, and known 
me. Thou knowest my downsitting and mine 
uprising, thou understandest my thoughts afar 
off." Psahn 139, 1. 2. And this belongs to the 
omniscience of God, that the prayers of the pi* 
ous, although they are performed in secret, by 
each person according to his concern, are known 
to and heard by him, as David again says: 
^^There is not a word in my tongue, but lo, 
Lord, thou knowest it altogether." Ps. 139, 4. 
And this was the consolation of the pious Heze- 
Idah when he thought he had to die, that all his 
doings, yea, his heart was known to the Lord. 
He says : ^^Bemember now, Lord, I beseech 
thee, how I walked before thee in truth and 
with a perfect heart, and have done that which 
is good in thy sight." Liaiah 38, 3. 

Quegt. 46. la this knowledge of God's omni* 
science also in any way serviceable to profligate 
sinners 7 

Ans. As long as such sinners live on in un- 
belief, and say in their hearts, with all the un* 

L 86 ] 

"There is no God," and "God is not in 
all tbeir thoughts," (Ps. 10, 4.) such knowledge 
is of no use to them ; but if they are not yet 
wholly sunk in infidelity, nor avow such senti- 
ments, and then come to think of the omnisoi- 
enoe of God, it may serve them as a beginning 
to cease from and leave off their wicked and sin- 
ful course of life, or else they have to fear and 
dread God's threatened punishment, as Isaiah 
says : (c. 29, v. 15.) "Woe unto them that seek 
deep to hide their counsel from the Lord, and 
their works are in the dark, and they say, Who 
seeth us ? and who knoweth us ?" And David 
confesses the same before the Lord, when he 
says : "If I say. Surely the darkness shall cover 
me ; even the night shall be light about me* 
Yea, the darkness hideth not from thee; but 
the night shineth as the day : the darkness and 
the light are both alike to thee." Psalm 139, 
11, 12. 

QueH. 47. Are there also attributes in the 
Lord God which are particularly exercised tow* 
ards those who fear him ? 

Ans. Tes, certainly. Just as we have al- 
ready said before, and as is testified in many 
places in Holy Scripture ; that the Lord God 
IS a gracious, merciral, longsuffering, and meek 
God, towards all pious and godly persons ; who 
honor, serve and love him ; even as we may see 
and read here and there in Holy Scripture: 
That he ^'shows mercy unto thousands of them 
that love him, and keep his commandments." 

C 8T ] 

Ex. 20, 6. As the Lord himself also ezclaimed, 
(Ex. 84, 6. 7. :) "The Lord, the Lord God, 
meroifol and gracious, longHraffering, and abun* 
dant in goodness and tmth, keeping mercj for 
thousand, forgiving iniquity and transgression 
and sin, and uiat will by no means clear the 
gailty." This also David testifies, when he 
says : "The Lord is merciful and gracious, slow 
to anger, and plenteous in m^cy. He will not 
always chide : neither will he keep his anger for- 
ever. He hath not dealt with us after our sins ; 
nor rewarded us according to our iniquities. 
Far as the heaven is high above the earth, so 
great is his mercy toward them that fear him. 
As fari^ the east is from the west, so far hath 
he removed our transgressions from us." Psahn 
103, 8. 12. 

QuetL 48. May then the pious sin against 
God's grace, since they know that they nave a 
merciful God ? 

Ah8. No. Since they would in this manner 
abuse the grace of God, and turn it into lascivi* 
oosneaBy as Jude says in his Epistle, v. 4 ; and 
Paul corroborates, Kom. 6, 1. 2. : "What shall 
we say then ? shall we continue in sin, that 
grace may abound ? God forbid. How shall we, 
that are dead to sin, live any longer therein V* 

Que$fb. 49. How then must the grace, mercy, 
and ffoodness of God be understood, so that they 
may De of use to the pious and gocQy ? 

Asm. For the pious and godly, the grace and 
mercy of God, ase the maia work; in which 

[ 88 ] 

they may have comfort in their pilgrimage and 
spiritual warfare ; for thereby they are support- 
eiy if they peradventure err or stumble in their 
good intention ; and without which they would 
have to despair, when they consider the great 
demand which God has made on them and all 
mankind, namely : ^^Ye shall be holy ; for I am 
holy:" Lev. 11, 44. "Be ye therefore perfect| 
even as your Father which is in heaven is per- 
fect." Matt. 6, 48. 

Quest. 50. On what does the consolation of 
the pious rest, in respect of the grace and mercy 
of God? 

Arts. On the unspeakable and unfathomable 
love wherewith he has loved us, yea the whole 
world. John 8, 16. And siuce God is rich in 
mercy, "for his great love wherewith he loved 
us." Eph. 2, 4. But the pious, who feel their 
imperfection, sigh unto their God, for he knows 
what kind of creatures we are, and "remem- 
bereth that we are dust." Psalm 103, 14. Espe- 
cially do they comfort themselves with the 
words of Peter : That the Lord "is lon^-suffering 
to US-ward, not willing that any shomd perish, 
but that all should come to repentance." 2 Pet. 
3y 9. And this then awakens in the pious in 
their sorrow over their sins, a hope in God's 
mercy, that tiiey sigh and say : "I have trusted 
in thy mercy; my heart shall rejoice in thy sal- 
vation." Psahn 13, 5. And David says there- 
fore in his heart : "I will love thee, Lord, 
my strengtL The Lord is my rook, and my 

[ 89 ] 

fortress, and my deliverer ; my God, my strength, 
in whom I will tmst." Psalm 18, 1. 2. Besides 
this see the Lord's promise and assurance, made 
through Isaiah : '^That they that wait upon the 
Lord shall renew their strength," &c. Isaiah 

Quest. 51. Is then this faith in and knowl- 
edge of the grace, meekness, long-suffering, and 
mercy of God, serviceable to no others, than 
merely to those who endeavor to serve and fear 
the Lord in obedience? 

Ans. It is serviceable not only to these^ but 
also to those who, like the prodigal son, see the 
miserable and dangerous condition in which they 
stand towards God, in respect of their souls, 
namely, how they abused the "grace and good- 
ness of God, and turned them into lascivious- 
ness." Luke 15, 13. Epistle of Jude, v. 4. 
And thus feel and be sensible of the burden of 
their sins, and sigh and speak with David : 
^^Mine iniquities are gone over mine head : as 
an heavy burden they are too heavy for me. 
My wounds stink and are corrupt because of my 
foolishness." Psalm 88, 4. 5. Yea, and also 
come with a contrite heart before the Lord, and 
say : "Have mercy upon me, God, according 
to thy loving kindness : according unto the mul- 
titude of thy tender mercies blot out my trans* 
gressions. Wash me thoroughly from mine in- 
iquities, and cleanse me from my sin. For I 
acknowledge my transgression : and my sin is 
ever before me. Against thee, thee oidy have 

C *o ] 

I sinned, and done this evil in thy sight." Ps. 
61, 1 — 4. "Forgive me, Lora, forgire me, 
and destroy me not in mine iniquities." (Prayer 
of Manasses.) To those who thus "draw nish 
imto God, Gt)d will draw nigh ;" (James 4, 8.^ 
especially when they follow the counsel whion 
he has given through Isaiah, when he says: 
"Wash you, make you clean ; put away the evil 
of your doings from before mine eyes ; cease to 
do evil. Learn to do well." Isaiah 1, 16. 17. 
Then comes He to meet them whom God the 
Father hath sent, to call sinners to repentance, 
and stands with outstretched arms, and says : 
"Gome to me, all ye that labor and are heavy 
laden, and I will give you rest." Matt. 11, 28. 
The sinner coming to God with such lamenta- 
tion, and also with a contrite heart, and a fixed 
purpose to reform his Ufe,— is true godly sorrow ; 
which 'Sforketh a repentance to salvation not 
to be repented of." To such a sinner the door 
of mercy stands open, as is to be seen, with 
many particulars, in the case of the prodigal 
son ; (Luke 15.) and ''his sins shall be remem- 
bered no more." Jer. 81, 84. ; Ezek. 88, 16. 

Quest 52. Is then the Lord God not also 
merciful to impenitent sinners ? 

Ans. As long as men continue in their profli- 

Sate, carnal and wicked course of life ana oon« 
uct, they cannot console themselves with th 
meekness, grace, and mercy of God ; for *^e 
18 no peace, saith the Lord, unto the wicked 
Isaiah 48, 22. ; 57, 21. "For the wrath 

C « ] 

God is rerealed from heaTen against all nn- 
righteousneas and ungodliness of men, who hold 
thetmthinmirighteoiisness.'' Bom. 1,18. And 
this sentence on the angodly stands fixed : '^Wo 
unto the wicked ! it shall be ill with him : for 
the reward of his hands shall be given him." 
Isaiah 8, 11. 

Quest. 58. Are then such people called an- 
godly or godleMf because God has nothing to do 
with them, and they nothing with God; and 
are therefore godUu^ that is, without God ? 

An$. They are not called godless, because 
they are wthout Gh)d, or because God has noth- 
ing to do with them ; but because they are not 
wiUing to bear the Lord's easy yoke and light 
burden, (Matt. 11, 80.^ and follow their own 
will, contrary to the will of Gk)d, and pursue 
their affairs with all kinds of crafty artifices, 
and without any fear of God, as David says, 
Psabn 10, 8. 4. : ''The wicked boasteth of his 
heart's desire, &c« The wicked, through the 
pride of his countenance, will not seek after 
God : God is not in all his thoughts.]' ''The 
wicked are like the troubled sea, when it cannot 
rest, whose waters cast up mire and dirt." Isaiah 
57, 20. Therefore David speaks further rightly 
of them, when he says : "The transgression of 
the wicked saith witlun my heart, that there is 
no fear of God before his eyes." Psalm 86, 1. 
For they turn themselves from God's command- 
ments, as if there were no God. 

QwetL 54. Is there then for such people no 

C 42 ] 

more hope of salvation ; must they remain ban- 
ished from the Lord's countenance ? 

Arts. There is no hope for the salvation of 
such people, as long as they continue in their 
ungodliness and wickedness, and reject the coun- 
sel of God against themselves ; for although 
they know ''the judgment of God, that they 
which commit such thmgs are worthy of death, 
not only do the same, but have pleasure in them 
that do them ;" and are ^'abominable, and disobe- 
dient, and to every good work reprobate.'* Bom. 
1, 32, ; Tit. 1, 16. Therefore Scripture says unto 
them : "After thy hardness and impenitent 
heart treasurest thou up unto thyself wrath 
against the day of wrath and revelation of the 
righteous judgment of God ; who will render to 
every man according to his deeds.'* Bom. 2, 6. 
6. "In the place where the tree falleth, there 
it shall be." EccL 11, 3. 

Qtiest. 66. When we have then come by faith 
to a knowledge of all these Divine Attributes, 
should we not then also have a knowledge of 
the nature of God's Divine Majesty ? 

Ans. In order that we may honor, love, fear, 
and serve the Lord God the better, he has, be- 
sides the revelation of his acceptable will, (as 
already mentioned and shown) also revealed to 
us his Divine Attributes, in order that we may 
thereby know in what relation he stands to us ; 
but not how he exists in his own Divine Being ; 
for, as this could not be serviceable to the pro 
motion of our salvation, it has not pleased h' 

[ « ] 

to reveal any thing to us aboat it; that we may 
not by presumptaoos searching and seeking to 
know his precise nature, commit sin; and as 
mere creatures, how can we comprehend our 
Creator ? For if the works of man cannot com- 
prehend the nature of their makei*, how shall 
we be able to understand and comprehend the 
nature of the Great Creator ? "For as the heav- 
ens are higher than the earth, so are his ways 
higher than our ways, and his thoughts than our 
Uioughts/' Isaiah 65, 9. When Moses desired 
to see the glory of God, he received the an- 
swer : "Thou must not see my face : for there 
shall no man see me, and live ,' (Ex. 33, 20.) 
understand, in his Divine nature ; for although 
Qod's countenance is mentioned in Holy Scrip- 
ture, we must not understand this in a natural 
sense, after the manner of man ; but rather in 
a spiritual sense, as an effect of him towards us ; 
and which is thus expressed to assist, in some 
measure, our weakness, and to represent and 
show his operations, but not his precise nature, 
as no image can be formed of that, as is to be 
seen in Isaiah 40, 18. 25. : "To whom then will 
ye liken God ? or what likeness will ye compare 
unto him ? To whom then will ye liken me, or 
shall I be equal ? saith the Holy One.*' Thus 
the Lord Gt)d is and remains, in the nature of 
his being, to us an incomprehensible God ; and al- 
though we can see his operations in many things, 
yet "his understanding is infinite/' Psalm 147, 
5. And we are obliged to say with PayJ : "0 

[ <* ] 

the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and 
knowledge of God! how unsearchable are his 

Sdgments, and hiswajs past finding out!" 
om. lly 88. Now if God's judgments and 
ways are incomprehensible, how much more so 
18 his Divine Being itself ! 

Abticlb Fourth, of the Unity of God. 

Quest 56. Now there has been much said of 
God ; yea also how that he was One God. Why 
then is it said by so many, and also at so many 
places : ^^God the Father, God the Son, and God 
the Holy Ghost?'' Is then according to such ex- 
pression, the Son God, and the Holy Ghost God, 
even as the Father is God ? Why then are the Jews 
in the wrong when they say that Christians wor- 
ship and profess three Gods ; whereas it is other- 
wise acknowledged that there is but One Q-odf 

Arts. We have said and confessed, that j^ot 
only the Lord God is incomprehensible ; but also 
that his judgments in regard to us are so ; there- 
fore the Divine Being of the Father, of iJlie Son^ 
and of the Holy Ghost, or the Spirit of God, as 
they exist in themselves, cannot be compre- 
hended by man, nor expressed in words. For 
although it is said by some men, that there are 
three independent persons or beings in the God- 
head, and therefore say further : ''God the Fa- 
ther, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost ;" 
yet we do not find such expressions in Holy 
Scripture; but on the contrary, that the Son 
and Holy Ghost are united in the same Divine 

C « ] 

Beinff, and that the Gt>dhead is likewise attri'> 
bated to them; as Christ's own words parport, 
(John 14, 9.) : ^^He that hath seen me hath seen 
the Father;" and, (John 10, 80.) : ""I and the 
Father are one." 

Quest. 57. But when the Lord Qod calls him- 
self to Moses, the ^^6od of Abraham, the God 
of Isaac, and the God of Jacob," (Ex. 8, 15.) 
are not thereby three names mentioned ? 

Am. The Lord Gt>d does indeed confess him- 
self to have been the God of these three persons ; 
bnt not that he, on his part, consists of three 
persons; but that he is the Gt>d of Israel; and 
besides tJuxtj he is the same God that was the 
God of their fathers ; namely, the ^^God of 
Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Ja- 
cob ;" who sent Moses to them, (Israel) and was 
farther now also their God. But this God is 
not merely a God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of 
Jacob; but a '^God of the whole earth." Isaiah 
64, 5. Not a ^^Ghid of the Jews only; but also 
the God of the Gentiles." Bom. 8, 29. 

Quest. 58. How then must these three names 
be understood, of which we read in Matthew 28, 
19. : ^^Baptizine them in the name of the Fa- 
ther, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." 

Am. From this it must not be understood, that 
there are three Beings, or three persons, much 
less that there are three Gk>ds in neaven. But 
these names are thus differently expressed in 
eonsideration of the work of redemption, and 
the salvation of the human race; as, the Father 

[ 46 ] 

the origin, the Son the means of redemption, 
and the Holy Ghost sanctification and confirma- 
tion in salvation ; all of which thus happens to 
us from the perfection of the Great Gt)d, Crea- 
tor of heaven and earth ; as Paul says : *'Noif 
he which establisheth us with you in Christ, and 
hath anointed us, is God ; who hath also sealed 
us, and given the earnest of the spirit in our 
hearts." 2 Cor. 1, 21. 22. Now although there 
are different persons with man; such as father, 
mother, and son ; yet must we not thus talk and 
judge of God, after the manner of man ; for 
we have proved that he is an incomprehensible 
God. Hence we should rather understand un- 
der these names, "One God;" as John testifies 
of the same, (1 John, 6, 7.) : "For there are 
three that bear record in heaven, the Father, 
the Word, and the Holy Ghost : and these three 
are one." Of this Oneness we have also testi- 
mony in John 1, 1. : "In the beginning was the 
Word, and the Word was with God, and the 
Word was God." As we also read of Grod and 
the Spirit, in the account of creation : "That 
the "Spirit of God moved upon the face of the 
waters. Gen. 1, 1. 2. To which David also re- 
fers when he says : "By the Word of the Lord 
were the heavens made, and all the host of them 
by the breath of his mouth." Psalm 83, 6. 

Quest 59. How can it be, that these three, 
namely, "God the Father, God the Son, an^ 
God the Holy Ghost," are "One God ;" sincf 
is so clearly written by Matthew, (o. 8. v. 16. '. 

[ *T ] 

that Jesus was baptized by John, that the Spirit 
of God descended like a dove, and lighted upon 
him, and that a voice from heaven said : ^'This 
is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased */' 
where indeed the Son was baptized, the Holy 
Ghost seen, and the Father's voice heard. Li 
it not then to be inferred, that there are three 
Divinities in heaven ? 

Ans, Were we to view and consider this mat- 
ter after the manner of man, we would conclude 
and judge, that there are ; but this great work 
of God, which God has, according to his pro- 
mise, accomplished supematurallv, through his 
great love and Divine power, cannot and must 
not be judged and understood in a natural man- 
ner ; but rather be viewed, believed, and con- 
sidered, as an incomprehensible work, with high 
admiration of God and his great, almighty, and 
inconceivable wisdom. But the person of Je- 
sus Christ was at that time to be seen and felt 
in his humanity in the flesh ; yet as Paul says : 
"God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto 
himself." 2 Cor. 6, 19. We must also further 
confess with Paul: "Great is the mystery of 
godliness : God was manifest in the flesh.'' 1 
Tim. 8, 16, Thus this matter remains to hu- 
man reason, incomprehensible ; even as a father 
who has a son, is not the son, but the father ; 
so also is the son not the father, but the son of 
the father ; and as the Holy Spirit is a spirit of 
God and of Christ, so he is neither the Father 
n<»r the Son, but the Holy Spirit. But as we 

[ 48 ] 

are mere natural beings, and this is supernatural 
and a work of God, we must view it as a godlj 
m jstery, and receire it in faith. Nor shomd we 
desire to search into any part of the Divine na- 
ture which is incomprehensible to us; aa re- 
marked before from Bom. 11, 38.: ^'0 the 
depth of the riches, both of the wisdom and 
knowledge of God ! how unsearchable are his 
judgments, and his wajs past finding out." 

Que$t. 60. Have then the Jews no testimony 
and proof of the "Unity of God" in the Old 
Testament ; since it seems so strange to them, 
that Christians profess, in the Divine Being, 
"Father, Son, and Holy Ghost;*' through whidi 
they (the Jews) alienate themselves still more 
from Christianity ? 

Ans. It appears that as long as the^ adhere 
so closely to Moses, and the vail remams hang- 
ing over their hearts and eyes, they cannot per- 
ceive nor understand this matter. Besides thi% 
it does not become them to keep so distant; 
much less, to speak so blasphemously of the 
matter in question ; inasmuch as there is so fre- 
quently mention made of the "Holy Spirit," 
the "Spirit of the Lord," and the "Spirit of 
God," in the Old Testament; as is to be seen 
in the beginning of the description of creation : 
"And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of 
the waters." Gen. 1, 2. And David says : "The 
Spirit of the Lord i^pake by me, and his word 
was in my tongue." ^ Sam. 23, 2. And again 
he says, (Psalm 51, 12. :) "Uphold me with thy 

[ 49 ] 

free spirit." And Isaiah sajs in lamenting orer 
larael : ^^They rebelled and vexed his holy 
Spirit. Where is he that put his holy Spirit 
mthiii him ?" Isaiah 63, 10. 11. And again it 
is said, (Isaiah 44, 3. ; Joel 3, 1.) ^^I wiU pour 
out my spirit upon thy seed," &;c. 

Quest. 61. Do we then read nothing of the 
Son of God in the Old Testament ; since it ap- 
pears so strange to the Jews, that we Christians 
honor Christ as the Son of God; whom they 
will not accept as the Messiah ? 

'Ans. As they expect a temporal Messiah, 
such as Moses and Elias, and an earthly king- 
dom like that of David and Solomon, they re- 
main in unbelief towards the Son of God, Jesus 
Christ ; otherwise they can find testimony 
enough of him in the Old Testament ; as there 
are the Proverbs of the wise man Solomon: 
^Who hath ascended up into heaven, or de- 
scended ? who hath gathered the wind into his 
fists ? who hath bound the waters in a garment? 
who hath established all the ends of the earth ? 
what is his name, and what is his son's name, if 
thou canst tell ?" Prov. 30, 4. Of this Son (in 
the person of God) David also testifies : ^^Thou 
art my Son; this day have I begotten thee. 
Ask of me, and I will give thee the heathen for 
thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the 
earth for thy possession. Psalm 2, 7. 8. ^'Kiss 
the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish from 
the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little« 
Blessed are all they that put their trust in him." 

C 60 ] 

Psalm 2, 12. Of the Son's unity with Go< 
Isaiah prophecies : "For unto us a child is bor 
unto us a son is given ; and the govemmei 
shall be upon his shoulder : and his name sha 
be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighi 
God, The everlasting Father, The Prince 
Peace/' Isaiah 9, 6. 

Article Fifth, of the Incarnation of 


Quest. 62. Concerning the Son of God, tl 
Lord Jesus Christ, was he before his birth 1 
Mary, already the Son of God with the I 
ther ? 

Arts. Certainly was he before his birth 1 
Mary, with the Father, as we have just provi 
from Isaiah 9, 6. "Who verily was fore-ordai 
ed before the foundation of the world." 1 P 
1, 20. Not only fore-ordained, but existing frc 
eternity; as Micah testifies, (c. 6, v. 2.): " Whc 
goings forth have been from old, from everla 
mg. Therefore Christ says himself, (John 1 
5uT: "0 Father, glorify thou me with thine o^ 
self with the glory which I had with thee befc 
the world was." But Paul writes of the S 
yet more explicitly, when he says : "Who is i 
miage of the invisible God, the first-born of ev£ 
creature : for by him were all things creat 
that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visi 
and invisible, whether they be thrones, or i 
minions, or principalities, or powers : all thii 
w«re created by him, and for him." Ool« 1, ' 

[ 51 ] 

16. From tlu8 his eternity is sufficiently ex*' 

Quent. 63. Now since this* is so certain and 
true of the Son of G^d, that the Father testifies 
of him : "This is my beloved Son ;" why then 
does Christ so frequently call himself the "Son 
of man ?" 

Arts. This is a matter of great mystery, which 
surpasses all human reason ; as it cannot be well 
comprehended, how it could be, and has also 
come to pass, that the Great God permitted his 
son, whom he had conceived from eternity, to 
be bom man by a virgin, and yet remain his 
son; which Paul calls the ^'mystery of godli- 
ness." ITim, 8, 16. 

Quett. 64. Has then the Son of God, by his 
advent into this world, become that which he 
was not before ? 

AfiB, It has pleased God to reconcile the hu- 
man race to himself by his Son ; and thus to de- 
stroy and annihilate ^^in in the flesh through 
sin." "For he hath made him to be sin for us, 
who knew no sin ; that we might be made the 
righteousness of God in him." 2 Oor. 5, 21« 
And thus he became that which he was not be- 
fore ; for the "Word was made flesh, and dwelt 
among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as 
of the only be^tten of the Fatiier,) full of grace 
and truth." John 1, 14. "Made of the seed of 
David according to the flesh ; and declared to 
be the Son of God with power, according to the 
q[»irit of holiness." Bom. 1, 3. 4. That ^Sv^hioh 

L 52 ] 

we have seen with our eyes, which we have look- 
ed upon, and ou^ hands have handled, of the 
Word of life." 1 John, 1, 1. "Who, being in 
the form of God, thought it not robbery to be 
equal with God : But made himself of no repu- 
tation, and took upon himself the form of a ser- 
vant, and was made in the likeness of man." 
Phil. 2, 6. 7. "Was in all points tempted like 
as we are, yet without sin.'* Heb. 4, 16. Now 
for these reasons the Son of God also calls him- 
self the "Son of man." 

Article Fifth, of the Fall op the Humah 


Quest 65. Why then has the Son of God come 
into the world ? ^ 

Ans. Because the first man Adam, who was 
created by God in his own image, good and 
perfect, (Gen. 1, 27.) transgressed his command, 
and thus turned away from him, — ^he fell under 
God's wrath and condemnation ; and not he 
alone, but all who have descended from him. 
(Gen. 3, 1 — 7.) And thus by one man (Adam) 
"sin entered into the word, and death by sin : 
(understand, eternal death,) and so death passed 
upon all men : and reigned from Adam to Me 
ses, even over them that had not sinned aftei 
the similitude of Adam's transgression." Rom 
6, 12. 14. From which no one "can by anj 
means redeem his brother, nor give to Qtod t 
ransom for him." Psalm 49, 7. "For the judc 
ment was by one to condemnation." Rom. 5, Ir 

[ 68 ] 

it all the posterity of Adam may well say 
he pious Esdras : "0 thou Adam, what 
ikon done ! for though it was thou that 
ly thou art not fallen alone but we all that 
of thee." 2 Esdraa, 7, 48. 
eH. 66. Has then the Son of God, Jesus 
^ come into the world to appease, take 
reconcile, and satisfy the wrath of God ? 
9. It was thus the acceptable will of God, 
ling to his unfathomable love and mercy, 
le sent his beloved and only begotten Son 
he world in the flesh, agam to raise and 
cile to himself, the fallen race of man ; 
!bre he is also called in the prophecy of 
I, "The Prince of Peace." Isaiah 9, 6. 
Jthough the "statutes" of Moses had the 
!se, that these who kept them, should "live 
on ;" (Lev. 18, 5.) yet this was included 
' a curse : "Cursed be he that confirmeth 
11 the words of this law to do them." Deut. 
6. Now inasmuch as through the weak- 
)f the flesh, no one could keep the law per- 
^, all men were "under the curse" and 
I of God. Gal. 3, 10. "For what the law 
not do, in that it was weak through the 
God sending his own son in the likeness 
ifiil flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the 
" Rom. 8, 3. "For as by one man's diso- 
nce many were made sinners, so by the 
ence of one many shall be made righteous." 
. 5, 19. "That as sin hath reigned unto 
I, even so might grace reign through righte- 


[ 54 ] 

ousness unto eternal life by Jesus Christ our 
Lord." Bom. 6, 21. ^'For as in Adam all die, 
even so in Christ shall all be made ative." 1 
Cor. 15, 22. ''And came and preached peace 
to you which were afar off, and to them that 
were nigh." Eph. 2, 17. ; Luke 2, 10. ; Acta 
10, 36. "For the Son of man is come to seek 
and to save that which was lost." Luke 19, 1/). 
"For God so loved the world, that he gave his 
only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in 
him should not perish, but have everlasting life." 
John 3, 16. 

Quest 67. Is then the work of our salvation 
and redemption attributed to the Son, our Lord 
Jesus Christ, alone ; because his name is most 
frequently mentioned, and he is called our Sa- 

Ana. It was thus the eternal decreee of Otoi^ 
that he would, through his Son, accomplish the 
work of redemption, by presenting him as a 
means for the salvation of man ; as is to be seen 
from the fact, that the angel carried the message 
to Marv and Joseph, that they should "call his 
name Jesus ;" (Matt. 1, 21. ; Luke 1, 31.) be- 
cause he should "save his people from their sins." 
Notwithstanding, this salvation did not tak 
place without the Father, but with him ; as i 
to be seen from 2 Cor. 5, 19. ; where Paul says 
"Gk)d was in Christ, reconciling the world unt 
himself, not imputing their trespasses ant 
them." 'fBut of him are ye in Christ Jesni 
who of Gt)d is made unto us wisdom, and right' 

C 66 ] 

OOBness, «nd sanctificatioiiy and redemption." 
1 Cor. 1, 80. '^Through the tender mercy of 
oar God ; whereby the daynspring from on high 
hath visited ub.'' Luke 1, 78. "But God, who 
k rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he 
loYed nBy even when we were dead in sins, hath 

Joickened ns together with Christ." Eph. 2, 4. 
. ; John 8, 16. ; 1 John 4, 9. 10. And al- 
though the work itself is accomplished through 
the Son, and he is therefore called the ^^finisher 
of our faith ;" (Heb. 12, 2.) yet the Father 
must not be excluded therefrom ; but we must 
also give him honor, praise, and thanks there- 
for; as the angels at the birth of Christ in- 
structed us by their example to do, when they 
said : ^^Glorj to God in the highest," &;c. (Luke 
2, 14.) And Paul also says : ^^Thanks unto the 
Father, which hath made us meet to be partis 
kers of the inheritance of the saints in light: 
who hath delivered us from the power of dark- 
ness, and hath translated us into the kingdom 
of his dear Son : in whom we have redemption 
through his blood, even the forgiveness of sins." 
C!oL 1, 12—14. 

Qiisst. 68. Does then saving faith, whereby 
we believe that there is "One Gk)p," also re- 

2 aire of us, that we believe, that Jesus Christ is 
lie Son of God, our Savior and Redeemer ? 
Ans. This must infallibly follow from saving 
fidth in God, who is the Creator of heaven and 
eartk; as we have before proved his (the Son's) 
unity with the Father; and he himself says: 

[ 56 ] 


"Ye believe in God, believe also in me." John | 
14, 1. ^^He that believeth on the Son hath ever- \ 
lasting life : and he that believeth not the Son, 
shall not see life ; but the wrath of God abideth 
on him. John 3, 36. ^^Neither is there salva- 
tion in any other : for there is none other name 
under heaven among men, whereby we must be 
saved." Acts 4, 12. Indeed this is the foun- 
dation of the gospel, the beginning and end of 
the same. Again it is said : ^'But these (signs) 
are written, that ye might believe that Jesus is 
the Christ, the son of God ; and that believing 
ye might have life through his name." John 20, 
31. As Peter also directs his hearers in his 
sermon (Acts 2, 36,) and Cornelius and hia 
house, (Acts 10, 36.) ; and Philip the people of 
Samaria and the eunuch, (Acts 8, 12. 37.) As 
also Paul and Silas said to the jailor : "Believe 
on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be 
saved, and thy house," Acts 16, 31. 

Quest. 69. Is then faith in God, and his Son 
Jesus Christ, sufficient for salvation ? 

Ana. This is indeed the chief article of true 
faith to salvation, when such faith is well and 
rightly fixed in the heart according to scripture, 
and influences the whole man : "For with the 
heart man believeth unto righteousness; and 
with the mouth confession is made unto salvi 
tion." Bom. 10, 10. But as the question i 
here more particularly asked, whether such fait 
alone is sufficient to salvation, — ^we must agai 
say^ that a mere oral confession that we hav 

[ 57 ] 

sach faith, is not sufficient to salyation; but 
much more a faith whereby we willingly take 
upon ourselves the cross of Christ, and thereby 
show by the fruits of our faith, that we have a 
'faith that worketh by love/' And that we 
also give all diligence to have our faith accom- 
panied by the christian virtues of '^knowledgOi 
temperance, patience, godliness, brotherly kind- 
ness, and chwrity." 2 ret. 1, 5 — 7. For if we 
have not these virtues with our faith, but merely 
make an oral confession of God and Christ, such 
confesiion can help us nothing to our salvation. 
^'For he that lacketh these things is blind, 
and cannot see afar off." 2 Pet. 1, 9. Of 
which James also speaks : ''But wilt thou know, 
vain man, that faith without works is dead t 
Was not Abraham our father justified by works, 
when he had offered Isaac his son upon the al- 
tar? Seest thou how faith wrought with his 
works, and by works was faith made perfect ? 
For as the body without the spirit is dead, so 
faith without works is dead also." James 2, 20. 
22. 26. For faith is not without works, that is, 
such works as please God; as was shown by 
Abraham in reality. Therefore James may 
well say with Peter, that a "man is justified by 
works, and not by faith only." 

Abticlb Seventh, of Good Works. 

Qnest. 70. Now since good works along 
with faith, are so necessary; as faith without 
them is good for nothing ; does man merit any* 

[ 68 ] 

thing with God to salvation, with his good 
works ? 

Ans. Jost as faith must be firm and constant, 
if God is to be pleased therewith (Heb. 11, 6.) ; 
so must the christian virtues and good works be 
firm and constant in love, if we hope to be saved; 
as we have before shown from 2 Pet. 1, 9. And 
in Matthew 25, 42. 43. it is plainly to be seen, 
that works must accompany faith to salvation. 
And in v. 34. Christ says : "Come, ye blessed 
of my Father," &c., and then names each one's 
reward according to his works, (v. 35—41.) 
And in John, (c. 5, v. 29.) he says : "They that 
have done good shall come forth unto the resur- 
rection of life," &c. As is also to be seen, PhiL 
2, 12. ; 1 Cor. 15, 58. As however the ques- 
tion is asked, whether man can do any thing, 
towards God to merit his salvation, it is to be 
observed, that he cannot ; as we would thereby 
make God our debtor. For although salvation 
is promised on good works, at different places 
in Holy Scripture, this has reference to such 
works as are produced by faith, love, and obe- 
dience; but it is not to be understood, that 
heaven may be earned thereby. For it is said 
"When ye shall have done all these things whic 
are commanded you, say, We are unprofitabl 
servants : we have done that which was ov 
duty to do." Luke 17, 10. 

Quest. 71. Must we then, while we desire an 
strive for eternal salvation, practice no christia 
virtues, and do no christian works ; since Pai 

[ 69 ] 

nevertheless promises eternal life to those, 
(Bom. 2, 7.) ^^who by patient continuance in 
well doins/' seek after it ? 

Ans. in the practice and proof of our faith, 
oar mind and striving must always be directed 
towards eternal life ; as the needle of the com- 
pass points to the north ; as Christ says : '^Strive 
to enter in at the strait gate." Luke 13, 24. 
And this from the beginning unto the end of 
fedth and life; which Paul also clearly indicates, 
when he says : "Know ye not that they which 
run in a race run all, but one receiveth the prize ? 
So run, that ye may obtain." 1 Cor. 9, 24. ; 
15, 58. "I press toward the mark for the prize 
of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus." 
PhiL 3, 14. Again Paul says : "To them who 
by patient continuance in well doing seek for 
Mory and honor and immortality, eternal life." 
Bom. 2, 7. Thus the first and the last, the 
doctrine and ministry of the gospel, is : "Work 
out your own salvation with fear and trembling." 
Phil. 2, 12. And according to the words of 
Christ : "He that endureth to the end shall be 
Mved." Matt. 10, 22. So Paul also testifies, 
that this in his whole career was his aim, when 
he says : "Henceforth there is laid up for me 
a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the 
righteous judge, shall give me at that day : and 
not to me only, but unto all them also that love 
his appearing," 2 Tim. 4, 8. Thus the course 
of the Christian must be in striving for eternal 
life- (2 Pet. 1, 11.) "For we are his (God's) 

[ «o ] 

workmanship, created in Christ Jesus nnto good 
works, which God hath before ordained that 'we 
should walk in them." Eph. 2, 10. To this 
pm-pose are also the words of Christ, when he 
says: "My sheep hear my voice, and I give 
them eternal life." John 10, 27. 28. 

Article Eighth, of the New Covenant, ob 

New Testament. 

Quest. 72. Must then all believers, who hope 
to be saved, be obedient to the voice of Christ, 
as their lawgiver, and follow his doctrine and 
example ? 

Ans. This we must do from the whole heart, 
and not merely with the mouth ; as is clearly to 
be seen from many testimonies in Holy Scrip- 
ture, as well in the Old Testament as in the 
New ; as also from the promises and their ful- 
filment. As the prophet Moses says : "The Lord 
thy God will raise up unto thee a prophet from 
the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me ; 
unto him ye shall hearken." Deut. 18, 15. ; 
Acts 8, 22. "Behold, I have given him for a 
witness to the people : a leader and commander 
to the people." Isaiah 65, 4. For "God, who 
at sundry times and in divers manners spoke in 
time past unto the fathers by the prophets, 
hath in these lasj; days spoken unto us by his 
Son." Heb. 1, 1. 2. And not only by him| 
but also of him, from heaven : "This is my \y 
loved Son, in whom I am well pleased ; hear 
him." Matt 8. 17. : 17. 6. : 2 Pet 1. 17. 

[ 61 ] 

Quett. 78. Does then the Old Teetament not 
serye ns any more for doctrine ; since our Lord 
Jeens Christ, the Son of God, has come into the 
world, and we are commanded to hear and fol- 
low hun? 

Ans. The external ordinances of the Jewish 
law given by Moses, in which there were all 
kinds of ceremonies, which the Jews were com- 
manded to observe in their Divine Service, are 
not to be observed any more by Christians ; as 
they were shadows and types of the sacrifice of 
Christ and his royal pnesthood, in which the 
promise of Grod of the coming of Christ, the sal- 
vation of the hmnan race, and what the prophets 
prophesied of the same, are declared ; given us 
as an assurance and strengthening of our faith 
in the Son of God ; who by his coming and 
sacrifice has become "the end of the law." JRom. 
10, 4. For through his sufiering, death, and 
sacrifice, all the ceremonies of the law came to 
an end ; as he said at the close of his suffer- 
ing : "It is finished." (John 19, 28, 80.) Name- 
ly, all that was promised to the fathers, typified 
in the ceremonies of the law, and predicted by 
the prophets, according to the words of Christ, 
Luke 18, 31. ; 24, 26. 46. ; 1 Cor. 15. 8. 4. 

Quest. 74. Does then the Ceremonial Law, or 
the^ customs commanded and taught in the Old 
Testament, still concern us; so that we should 
conform as much to them as to the doctrine of 
Christ and his apotles? 

An9. Yes. For all that the holy men of God 


C 62 ] 

have taught, has been brought forth by the HoW 
Spirit, asid written for us as doctrine, (2 Pet. 1, 
21.) as well as that which the apostles haye writ- 
ten ; for Christ says : ^^Think not that I am 
come to destroy the law, or the prophets ; I am 
not come to destroy, but to fulfiL Matt. 5, 17. 
And all that the two tables or ten command- 
ments, and the doctrine of the prophets, con- 
tain, — remains as the chief work of the New 
Testament, namely, the law of the love of Grod, 
and of our neighbor; for ^^on these two com- 
mandments (says Christ) hang all the law and 
the prophets.'' Matt. 22, 40. Upon which the 
apostle Paul has founded his doctrine for aQ 
Christians, when he says : ^^Now the end of the 
commandment is charity out of a pure hearty 
and of a good conscience, and of faith unfeign- 
ed." 2 Tun. 1, 5. 

Articlb Ninth, op the Christian CnuftCH 

OR Communion. 

Quest. 75. Now since the Ceremonial Divine 
Service distinguished Heathenism from Juda- 
ism ; which latter in its time, comprised the 
people of God, the temple of Jerusalem being 
their house of worship, and consequently their 
centre of communion ; in what then does the 
Church of God now consist ; so that they who 
belong thereto, may be considered as, and called, 
the people and children of God ? 

Ans. Of this the Lord himself hath spok' 
through Jeremiah, as also thr9ugh Ezekiel : 

[ 68 3 

will make a covenant of peace with them ; it shall 
be an everlasting covenant with them : and I will 
place them, and multiply them, and will set mv 
sanctuary in the midst of them forevermore. ' 
Ssek. 37, 27. ^fBnt this shall be the covenant that 
I will make with the house of Israel : After these 
days, saith the Lord, I will put my law in their 
inward parts, and write it in their hearts ; and 
will be their God, and they shall be my people/ 
Jer. 31, 33. But now tins new covenant is the 
gospel of God the Father, which has been pro- 
clauned through his only beloved Son, as also 
through his disciples ; for "God, who at sundry 
times and divers manners spake in time past 
unto the fathers by the prophets, hath in these 
last d^^ spoken unto us by his Son/' Heb. 1^ 
1. **For so God loved the world, (understand, 
the whole human race,) that he gave his only 
begotten Son, that whosoever beEeveth in him 
shall not perish, but have everlasting life." John 
8, 16. So that it may now be said : "The time 
k fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand : 
repent ye, and believe the gospel." Mark 1. 15. 
As was prophesied before through Isaiah, (c. 
49, V. 6.) : "I will also give thee for a light to 
ihe Genmes, that thou mayest be my salvation 
unto the end of the earth." Thus the Son of 
God became the author of eternal salvation un- 
to all them that obey him." Heb. 5, 9. Through 
such faith then believers became God's people 
and children of God in the Communion and 
Church of Christ. Gal. 3, 26. ; Rom. 8, 16.) 

[ 64 ] 

And this Son of God is set by the Father as the 
head over the church, according to the words 
of Paul, Eph. 1, 22.; Col. 1, 18. 19.; Isaiah 

. Quest 76. Will then the Lord Jesus, as the 
head of the evangelical church or communion, 
govern, protect, superintend, and lead the same 
alone; as the head does the other members of 
the body ; or as the man is the head over his 
wife and children ? 

Ana. Since the Son of God has been chosen, 
ordained, and confirmed thereto by the Father, 
(Matt. 28, 18.) he has not only shown himself 
as the head and ruler of his memberp ; but also 
went before them as a leader, with the pattern 
of his life ; gave them commandments and in* 
terdictions, besides the guidance of his Spirit in 
holy truth, for their preservation to eternal life; 
as he says himself, (John 10, 27.) : "My sheep 
hear my voice, and I know them, and they fol- 
low me : and I give them eternal life." John 10, 
27. 28. And, (Matt. 11, 29. 30.) : "Take mv 
yoke upon you, and learn of me ; for I am meex 
and lonely in heart ; and ye shall find rest unto 
your souls. For my yoke is easy, and my bur- 
den is Ught." Further, (Matt. 28, 20.) : "Teach 
them to observe all things whatsoever I have 
commanded you." 

[ 66 1 

Abticle Tbnth, of the Deacons and Minis- 


QuMt. 77. Has then the Son of God, the Lord 
JesuBj also appointed persons in his Church, and 
oyer his Communion, as Superintendents, Dea- 
ecms and Teachers ? 

Ana. Yes. He has appointed seyeral over- 
Beers to serve his church and communion in his 
bodily absence ; to teach his members the doc- 
trine, commandments, and ordinances left by 
him ; as also to preach the gospel, to which he 
himself appointed several in the days of his in- 
oamation, whom he called apostles, fMatt. 10, 
1 — 8. ; Luke 6, 13 — 16.) and sent tnem forth 
to proclaim the gospel, as he did also at his as- 
oension, with a declaration of his power to do 
the same, when he says : ''AH power is given 
mito me in heaven and in earth. Go ye there- 
fore and teach all nations," &c. Matt. 28, 18. 
19. ; Mark 16, 15. Thus has God the Father, 
together with his Son, for the edification and 
improvement of the church — according to the 
testimony of St. Paul — appointed ''some, apos* 
ties ; and some, prophets ; and some, evangelists ; 
and some, pastors and teachers ; for the edifying 
of the body of Christ." 1 Oor. 12, 28. ; Eph. 4, 
11. 12. Which body is the Church of Christ. 

Quest. 78. Is this still thus performed by the 
Father, and Christ the Son, without the means 
or co-operation of man ? 

Ans. Just as the Lord God, together with his 


[ 6« 3 

spirit and word, has always effected the saiya- 
tion of man through the external co-operation of 
man, and in the first Book of Kings, (c. 19, 16.) 
Elias is commanded to anoint Elisha in his stead 
as a prophet ; so it still pleases God to do the 
same under the Gospel Dispensation ; as is to 
be seen from Christ's own words, when he B9,js: 
"The harvest truly is plenteous, but the laborers 
are few ; pray ye therefore the Lord of the har- 
vest, that he will send forth laborers into his 
harvest." Matt. 9, 37, 88. ; Luke 10, 2. Thus 
the chief work of obtaining men for God's har- 
vest or field of labor, is ordained by the Lord^ 
and received from him through prayer ; but be- 
sides this, the members of the churcn are to look 
for such men as fear God, are lovers of the church 
and of divine truth ; and are thus good examples 
in doctrine ; as Luke testifies of Christ, (Acts 
1, 1.) where he alludes to his having written all 
that Christ did and taught. Thus we see that 
the first church and apostles did as above re- 
marked, when they wanted to ordain an apostle 
in Judas' place ; that is, they looked to fitness, 
prayed God, and said: "Thou Lord, which 
knowest the hearts of men, show whether of 
these two thou hast chosen, that he may take 
part in this ministry," &c. Acts 1, 24. And 
this Peter observed faithfully, being command- 
ed before all others to feed the flock of Christ 
And Paul, the "chosen vessel" of the Lord, ob- 
served the same thing, when he writes to Timo- 
thy : "And the things that thou hast heard of 

[ 6T ] 

QBe amons many witnesses, the same commit 
diou to faithful men, who shall be able to teach 
jfliers also." 2 Tim. 2, 2. . "Holding the mys- 
tery of the fiiith in a pnre conscience." 1 Tun. 
i, 9. And together with a blameless life, such 
[men must also haye a good report, not only of 
lliose within the church, but also "of them which 
Ire without ;" so that their office be not blas- 
phemed. 1 Tim. 8, 7. ; 4, 12. Such men must 
Oien continue in their ministry, and minister 
KGCording to "the ability which God giyeth." 1 
Pet* 4, 11. And not **neglect the gift that is 
in them, which was giyen them by prophecy, 
Irith the laying on of the hands of the presby- 
tery." 1 Tim. 4, 13—16. Who do not feed 
die flock of Christ with the design of temporal 
»in, neither for the fleece nor the milk — "not 
for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind ; neither 
18 being lords oyer God's heritage, but being 
onsamples to the flock." 1 Pet. 5, 2. 3. 

Qtiest. 79. Must then the teachers not be 
dtaintained by the chtirch ; that is, receiye pay 
for their service ; or must they labor to main- 
tain themselves ; do as the apostle Paul did ; 
who labored day and night, ^H:hat he might not 
be chargeable to any ?" Acts 18, 3. ; 20, 34. ; 
1 Cor. 4, 12. ; 2 Thes. 3, 8. 

Arts. In the choosing of evangelical teachers, 
and those who devote themselves to the office of 
such, all temporal designs must cease ; on the 
«5ontrary, the welfare and good government of 
the church, and the honor of God, must be kept 

L 68 ] 

in view. And he who is thus chosen, must, on 
his part, accept and act in the ministry out of 
love to the utmost welfare of the church ; thus 
devoting himself to the service of God and the 
church, according to the example of Paul. QuL 
1, 16. If he has however opportunity to main- 
tain himself and those entrusted to his care, he 
is to follow the example of Paul, as he (Paul) 
testifies of himself: "It is more blessed to give 
than to receive.'' Acts 20, 35. As otherwise, 
if one resorts to the ministry for the enjoyment 
of temporal gain, it has more the appearance, 
that he is seeking improper gain, than that of 
the fruit of love and affection ; which is other- 
wise required. 1 Pet. 5, 2. 3. For the striving 
for temporal gain, renders a minister unworthy 
before God, and soon unfit for his ministry 
amongst men. 

Quest. 80. Must then such ministers receive 
nothing at all from the church for their service 
for the maintainance of themselves and those 
entrusted to them; but must maintain them- 
selves ? 

Arts. If with such the design of temporal 
gain is not the motive of their ministry ; but 
that they devote themselves thereto out of love, 
and serve with the gift and "ability which God 

S'veth;'' in such case the church is bound in 
ve, on her part, to provide for their necessi- 
ties ; for if a minister serves the church out of 
love and cordial afiection, the church is, accord- 
ing to the words of Christ and the doctrine of 

C 69 ] 

Paul, under obligation, and not out of mutual 
love, in duty bound, to provide for him accord- 
ing to his necessities : for thus teaches the lat- 
ter, (1 Thes. 5, 12. 13.) in these words : "And 
we beseech jou, brethren, to know them which 
labor among vou, and are over you in the Lord, 
and admonish you ; and to esteem them very 
highly in love for their work's sake, and be at 
peace among yourselves." "Let him that is 
taught m the word communicate unto him that 
teacheth in all good things." Oal. 6, 6. And 
of himself he says : "If we have sown unto you 
spiritual things, is it a great thing if we snail 
reap your carnal things." 1 Cor. 9, 11. 

Quest. 81. Thus then a minister may receive 
pay for his service, if he stands in need of it ; 
since Christ says : "The laborer is worthy of 
his hire." Luke 10, 7. 

Arts, If pay is demanded by the minister for 
his service, there is no more room for love ; but it 
is to be feared, that by such an one the flock is fed 
for the sake of the fleece and milk ; as the Lord 
God complains of such, (Ezok. 34, 2. 3.) "Woe 
be to shepherds of Israel that do feed themselves ! 
should not the shepherd feed the flocks ? Ye eat 
the fat, and ye clothe you with the wool, ye kill 
them that are fed : but ye feed not the flock." 
Which militates against the words of Christ, 
(Matt. 10, 8.^ : "Freely ye have received, freely 
give." But if a minister, in his superintendence 
of the church, performs his duty faithfully be- 
fore the Lord, then the church also has its duty 

C 70 1 

to perform towards the minister, and indeed 
each member for himself. But when Christ 
says : "The laborer is worthy of his hire," this 
has reference to the duty and obligation of the 
church and those who receive his service ; and 
that they shall do this to their minister as a re- 
ward for what he has done for them. As Paul 
also compares it, (1 Cor. 9, 7 — 14. ; 1 Tim. 5, 
18. :) "Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that tread- 
eth out the corn." And to this also Paul has 
reference, when he speaks of the duty of mem- 
bers : "That they which preach the gospel should 
live of the gospel." 

Quest 82. But how can it be reconciled, or 
how does it agree, when Christ says : "The labo- 
rer is worthy of his hire ;" and Paul says : "The 
Lord hath ordained that they which preach the 
gospel should live of the gospel;" and yet Christ 
says : "Freely ye have received, freely give." 
Do not these things militate against one another? 

Arts. They do not militate against one ano- 
ther, and can well be reconciled, if it only be 
considered under what sense and intention each 
of them was spoken ; and that on all sides, love 
should be exercised and have the precedence. 
For one treats of the teacher and his duty ; the 
other of the hearers and their duty. Now when 
these matters are on all sides judged of rightlyi 
they can easily be reconciled. But if the teacher 
will continually insist upon the duty or obliga- 
tion of his hearers, and wants to have observed 
towards him what is recorded in Matt. 10, 10. ; 

[ 71 ] 

1 Cor. 9, 14. ; but on the other hand forgets 
his duty, which he is to perform out of love, and 
not for the sake of gain ; and again when the 
hearers insist upon the teacher performing his 
duty towards them, but forget their own : — In 
such case the work of love will be at a stand^ 
become fruitless, and be eventually extinguished. 
But where people act and continue honestly in 
love, they do not seek their own advantage, but 
that of others : they seek what is for the promo- 
tion of their neighbor. 1 Cor. 10, 24. ; 13, 5. 
And when the words. Matt. 10, 8. ; Ezek. 34, 
2. 3. ; 1 Pet. 5, 2. 3. ;— are properly understood 
and considered, it will be clearly seen, that they 
concern the teacher, and not the hearers. But 
concerning the words, 1 Thes. 5, 12. 13. ; GaL 
6, 6, ; 1 Cor. 9, 11. ; — ^which concern the hear- 
ers, it is to be remarked, that when they are 
observed without reluctance, it goes well in the 
church, and love may abide ; and whatever else 
may appear at variance, may be reconciled. 

Quest. 83. What kind of a service in the 
church is that, whose members are called assist- 
ants and governors 7 

Ana. This is a service, whose members di^ 
patch all cases concerning the welfare of the 
church that do not concern the ministerial ser- 
vice ; and who have a particular oversight over 
the poor, over widows and orphans, and over 
aged, £nul, and infirm persons ; so that no one 
soffers want: who consequently receive the given 
alms into safe-keeping, and distribute them 

C 72 J 

among the needy ; as we read that Peter says : 
"It is not reason that we should leave the word 
of God, and serve tables. Wherefore, brethren, 
look ye out among you seven men of honest re- 
port, full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom, whom 
we appoint over this business." Acts 6, 2. S. 
From which service honorable aged women are 
also not to be excluded, (1 Tim. 6, 9. 10. ; Tit 
2, 8.) but are to perform such service in their 
sphere, and particularly amongst their own sex. 

Aeticle Eleventh, of the Enteancb nsrao 
THE Church or Communion. 

Quest. 84. Can we become members of the 
Communion or Christian Church thereby, thai 
we believe the gospel ; as also, that there is a 
God, who sent Jesus Christ ; or must yet more 
be done, if we will become members of the 
Church or Communion ? 

Ans. Faith in the gospel — which testifies oi 
God and his Son Jesus Christ — ^is the beginnini 
or first stage of entrance into the Church d 
Christ. But in order to become a member ol 
the same, a sound conversion and an entire 
change of life must take place. For it is said: 
"Repent ye, and believe the gospel." Mark 1| 
16. As was manifested in many, who— (when 
Peter and other apostles preached the gospel Ho 
them at the day of Penticost, whereby then 
hearts were touched, that they said : '^Men and 
brethren, what shall we do ?") — ^received tha 
tuiawer : "Repent," &c. Acts 2. 87, 88. Aa 

[ 78 ] 

also the words of Christ show, (Luke 24, 46. 47.) 
when he says : ^^Thus it is written, and thus it 
behoved Olurist to suffer, and rise from the dead 
the third day : and that repentance and remis- 
sion of sins should be preached in his name." 
Which is also testified by Paul, (Acts 17, 30.J 
when he says : "The times of ignorance Goa 
winked at; but now he commandeth all men 
every where to repent." 

Qtiest. 85. What kind of a work is repentance ? 
and what use is there in it that one does repent ? 

AriB. True, evangelical repentance — a repen- 
tance that is valid before God — is no small or 
insignificant matter, but a great one ; inasmuch 
as the pardon of sins is promised thereon. It 
consists in two points : 1. In a true knowledge 
of God and his Divine attributes. 2. In a knowl- 
edge of our own dangerous condition. For with- 
out a true knowledge of God and his holy willy 
and a knowledge of our inability to fulfil the 
same, there is no pardon of sin to be expected. 
On the contrary, if any one will obtain the favor 
of God, he must see his sinful condition ; how 
he has, like the prodigal son, abused his heav- 
enly Father's "goods'* and mercy, and turned 
them ^4nto lasciviousness." Jude 4. Through 
which twofold knowledge he will, with David, 
''have respect unto the Lord's ways." Psalm 
119, 15. Besides, he will "behold the goodness 
and severity of God." Rom. 11, 22. And how 
the "eoodness of God leadeth him to repent- 
ance. Rom. 2, 4. Thus repenting, and say- 

[ 74 ] 

ing with a deep sigh in his heart: ^^0 wretched 
man that I am ! who shall deliver me from the 
body of this death." Rom. 7, 24. So that he 
does under the burden of his sins, with David, 
'^go mourning all the day long." Psalm 38, 6. 
In such a condition, man has come to a knowl- 
edge of himself, and is far advanced in repent- 
ance and sorrow for his sins. 

Quest 86. Is it then no true and full repent- 
ance, when we repent of and mourn over our 

Ans. To have a knowledge of our sins, and 
to repent of them before men — to say that we 
are sorry for them — is not yet true, yea scarcely 
a half repentance. True repentance — a repent- 
ance that will be valid before God — ^must be 
shown and attested by a contrite heart and 
heart- felt sorrow before God ; so that we speak 
sighingly before him : "I acknowledge my trans- 
gressions : and my sin is ever before me. Against 
thee, thee only have I sinned : and done this 
evil in thy sight." Psalm 51, 3. 4. Saying also 
with the prodigal son: "Father, I have sinned- 
against heaven, and before thee, and am no more 
worthy to be called thy' son : make me as one of 
thy hu-ed servants." Luke 16, 18. 19. And 
with Manasses : "I have sinned, O Lord, I have 
sinned ; and acknowledge mine iniquities : where- 
fore I humbly beseech thee, forgive me, and de- 
stroy me not with mine iniquities." 

QueU. 87. Is it also no full and true repent- 

C 75 ] 

ance, if we repent of our sins, monrn over them, 
and pray God for pardon ? 

Ans. Although this is the chief part of re- 
pentance, still it is no full repentance, unless it 
u connected with a holj resolution to forsake 
sin and amend our lives. For this is the pur- 
port of the ground and foundation of the en- 
trance into the christian church, laid by Christ : 
"Repent; for the kingdom of heaven is at hand." 
Matt. 4, 17. Of which amendment of life, Solo- 
mon also speaks very properly when he says : 
^'Whoso confesseth and forsaketh his sins shall 
have mercy." Prov. 28, 18. And not only 
confesses and forsakes them, but also puts them 
wholly away from him ; as God speaks through 
Isaiah, (o. 1, v. 16. 17.) : "Wash you, make 
Tou clean ; put away the evil of your doings 
trom before mine eyes ; cease to do evil ; learn 
to do well ; seekjudgment." And James says: 
"Draw nigh to Crod, and he will draw nigh to 
you. Cleanse your hands, ye sinners; and pu- 
rify your hearts, ye double minded. Be afflict- 
ed, and mourn, and weep : let your laughter be 
tamed to mourning, and your joy to heaviness." 
James 4, 8. 9. On such the Lord will look in 
mercy, as he speaks through Isaiah : "I will 
look, even to him that is poor and of a contrite 
spirit, and trembleth at my word." Isaiah 66, 
2. "Wherefore come out from among them, 

Smderstand, out from among the ungodly,) ana 
e ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch not 
the unclean thing ; and I will receive you, and 

[ 76 ] 

will be a Father unto you, and ye shall be my 
sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty." 
2 Cor. 6, 17. 18. - Thus going on from stage to 
stage, is a repentance that is valid before God ; 
as we have thereby the promise, that though 
our ^^sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white 
as snow ; though they be red like crimson, they 
shall be as wool." Isaiah 1, 18. 

Quest 88. When then a person has come to 
the faith, and also to true repentance and amend- 
ment of life, through the ministry and the read- 
ing of the word of God : what more remains for 
him to do ; so that he may become a member 
of the church, and have a mind at rest for him- 

Ans. When a person is in possession of true 
and saving faith, so that he believes that there 
is a God, and also ''that he is a rewarder of 
them tl^at diligently seek him," — with such a 
person faith does not stand still ; but goes on 
from stage to stage ; from virtue to virtue ; and 
from commandment to commandment ; such 
person showing a filial obedience in every thing 
that may be serviceable to his soul's salvation ; 
so that the words, Eom. 6, 17. fully apply to 
him : "God be thanked, that ye were the ser- 
vants of sin, but ye have obeyed from the heart 
that form of doctrine which was delivered you." 
This proof of obedience is then a willingness, to 
take upon ourselves the yoke of Christ ; as he 
calls all penitent hearts unto him : ''Come unto 
me, all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and 

[ n 3 

I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you 
and learn of me ; for I am meek and lowly in 
heart, and ye shall find rest unto your souls." 
Matt. 11, 28. 29. And this is the free, open 
^^fountain for sin and for uncleanness/' (Zech. 
13, 1.) to which the apostles directed all afflicted 
and anxious souls of men ; as did Philip, the 
eunuch, ^Acts 8, S5. ;) Peter, Cornelius and his 
house, (Acts 10, 86.;) and Paul the jailor. 
(Acts 16, 31.) 

Akticlb Twelfth, op External Water- 
Baptism ON Faith. 

Quest. 89. What then is required of man in 
the gospel, to show his obedience, when he takes 
upon himself the yoke of Christ? 

Arts. The first proof of his obedience is, that 
he submits to the commandment of Christ, and 
becomes baptized on his confession of faith ; as 
is to be seen. Matt. 28, 19. 20. : '^Teach all na- 
tions, baptizing them in the name of the Father, 
and of the Bon, and of the Holy Ghost ;'' as 
was done with many at the day of Pentecost at 
Jerusalem, after hearing the sermon of Peter ; 
so that all who gladly received the words of the 
apostles were baptized. Acts 2, 41. So the 
people of Samaria, when they believed the 
preaching of Philip, who preached to them 
"concerning the kingdom of God, and the name 
of Jesus Christ, were baptized both men and 
women." Acts 8, 12. Further, the eunuch, 
(Acts 8, 38. ;) Cornelius and his house, (Acts 

[ T» 1 

10, 48. ;) the jailor, (Acts 16, 38.) Yea, Paul 
himself, after he was tanght and instraoted by 
Ananias. (Acts 9, 18.) So that baptism is a 
work that properly belongs to faith and lame 

Qtiest 90. In what respect then-is Christian 
Baptism serviceable to believing and penitent 
persons ? Are they also benefited thereby ? 

Ana. Christian external water-baptism im- 
plies that it is a commandment of God, given 
by the Son of God, and that it is conducive to 
the benefit of man in various respects, if it is 
received with a sincere heart, and the obliga- 
tion which it imposes properly observed. 

1. It signifies the burying of the old man of 
sin, according to the words of Paul, (Rom. 6, 8. 
4.) when he says : "Know ye not, that so many 
of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ were 
baptized into his death ? Therefore we are buried 
with him by baptism into death ; that like as 
Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory 
of the Father, even so wo also should walk in 
newness of life.'* 

2. It signifies the pardon, washing off, and 
absolution of sin ; for thus said Peter to the 
contrite hearts at the day of Pentecost : "Be 
baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus 
Christ' for the remission of sins, and ye shall re- 
ceive the gift of the Holy Ghost." Acts 2, 88. 
And Ananias to Paul : "Brother Saul, why 
tarricst thou ? arise, and be baptized, and wash 
away thy sins, calling on the name of the Lord.** 

[ 79 } 

Acts 22, IS. 16. Throagh which is represented 
the parification which takes place through the 
blood of Christ ; as is to be seen from the words 
of Christ, Matt. 26, 28. ; Col. 1, 14. ; 1 John 
1, 7. ; Rev. 1, 5. 

8. The fulfilling of "all righteousness," ac- 
cording to the declaration of Christ. Matt. 3, 15« 

4. "The answer of a good conscience toward 
God." 1 Pet. 3, 21. 

Quest. 91. Is it also stated in the gospel, to 
whom baptism is to be administered r or are 
some excluded therefrom? 

Ans. This question may be answered in a two- 
fold manner ; namely, that baptism must be view- 
ed in a general and also in a particular manner. 
The law of Moses was given for the children of 
Israel alone, and not for the gentiles ; as Da- 
vid testifies when he says: "He sheweth his 
word unto Jacob, his statutes, and judgments 
unto Israel. He hath not dealt so with any 
nation." Psalm 147, 19. 20. But the law of 
the gospel is given for all men, without distinc- 
tion of Jew or heathen. Matt. 28, 19. ; Mark 
16, 15. Circumcision was also only commanded 
to be performed on the male sex, and not on the 
female. Gen. 17, 10. On the contrary, baptism 
requires no distinction, not even between men 
and wom«n ; as is to be seen in the case of the 
people of Samaria. Acts 8, 12. ; 16, 15. As 
also in the case of those who were baptized at 
the day of Pentecost ; and that of the heathen 
centurion Cornelius. Acts 10, 47. 48. 

I 80 ] 

Quest 92, Is then baptism of so general i 
nature that it should be administered to all men; 
even as it is said of the gospel, that it should be 
preached to every creature i Mark 16, 15. 

A718, In the administration of baptism, as in 
the functions of the ministry, no distinction is 
made ; but all those who are of a capable un- 
derstanding to give ear to the words of the min- 
istry — who can be taught — and who can ako 
receive the doctrine of the gospel in faith, and 
thereby become fit subjects for baptism — after 
embracing the same by repentance and amend- 
ment of life — all such may be and have been bap- 
tized ; as is shown above from Acts 8, 12. ; 10, 
47. 48. ; IG, 15. For all the persons here alluded 
to — after the gospel was preached to them, and 
they were exhorted to faith by repeutaace and 
amendment of life, and received the gospel- 
were baptized. And although children belong 
to the human race, yet we cannot see — eitLtr 
from the coumiand of Christ, from his doctrine, 
n<»r from the practice of the apostles — that bap- 
tism becomes them, or that they were baptizcU. 
And why nut ? Ik-caus^e they have no ears to 
Iiear, iii»r hearts tu understand. Matt. 11, l.j. 

(Juc^t. 0-5. May then by virtue of the cv»m- 
niainl of Chrlftt, as also according to the duc- 
trine and practice of the apuatles, no eliildrt-n 
be baptized ? 

Antt. We cannot see that the command ef 
Christian Baptism extends to small children: 
and wc do also not find in the whole New Tee- 

[ 81 ] 

tameut, that the apostles in their ministry spoke 
to children ; much less that they baptized such. 
Farther, we cannot see, that children are or can 
be possessed of that which is represented by and 
required in baptism. For young children are 
not capable of receiving the doctrine of the gos- 
pel, nor have they committed any sins of which 
they can repent, or of which they can amend 
their lives ; much less can they receive any 
matter of faith, or believe in Christ Jesus ; as 
Paul plainly speaks of the acceptance of faith : 
"How shall they believe in him of whom they 
have not heard ?'* And then confines faith to 
hearing, and hearing to the word of God. Rom. 
10, 14. 17. So also Moses testifies of children, 

iDeut. 1, 39.) : "That they have no knowledge 
>etween good and evil.'' Yea, the Lord him- 
self testifies of them, that they "cannot discern 
between their right hand and their left hand." 
Jonah 4, 11. And we also daily see of chil- 
dren, that if they are in the greatest danger of 
fire and water, they by no means know how to 
save themselves from them ; thus showing that 
they live in complete innocence, and without 
any knowledge of things about them. 

Quest, 94. Now since evangelical Cliristian 
Baptism should only be administered on faith^ 
repentance, and amendment of life, — why then 
do some baptize infants, although these have 
not the said qualifications ? 

Am* They do this on account of Original 
Siuy which according to their declaration, has 

[ 62 J 

come on all men through the fall of Adam ; ai 
this they endeavor to prove from the words 
Paul, Rom. 5, 12 — 14. To which Paul howev 
adds, that through the death of Christ, th< 
were reconciled, — ^the charge of original sin 1) 
ing taken away — and does consequently not n 
any more on children. Rom. 5, 18. 19. Otlw 
who baptize infants, defend the practice fro 
the will and discretion of the parents ; as al 
from the practice of the old Roman Gatho] 
Church : thus baptizing their children on t! 
faith of the church, and making them, as thi 
think, members of the same. 

Again others hold baptism as a sign of t 
covenant, through which children become unit 
with the church, as their parents are. And 
circumscision was a sign of the covenant, so, < 
the contrary, baptism was ordained and ins 
tuted as a like sign. 

Others again want to prove from Heb. 11, 
that children have faith, if they are bom 
christian parents — ^it being "impossible witho 
faith to please God:" also from the words 
Christ, when he says : "Suffer little childr 
and forbid them not, to come unto me ; for 
such is the kingdom of heaven.*' Matt. 19, 1 
From this they conclude, that if the kingdc 
of heaven belongs to them, they must have fail 
or else they could not please God ; which th 
also infer from Matt. 18, 6. where Christ say 
**But whoso shall offend one of these little on 
which believe in me, it were better for him th 

[ 88 ] 

a millBtone were hanged about his neek, and 
that he were drowned in the depth of the 


Que9t. 95. How is it possible that there are 
80 many different opinions amongst those who 
baptize infants, since they are agreed in the 
matter itself — ^their being so much misunder- 
standing as to the ground on which they admin*- 
ister baptism : is it not proper that we should 
have, in a matter of so much importance, a clear 
and express command, and a firm ground ? 

Ans. As far as we are concerned, we will not 
judge those who believe in infant baptism on 
account of their opinions ; but will leave them 
to answer to God themselves for the practice of 
such baptism. But we for our part, cannot in 
the least agree with any of them; for we hold 
ourselves bound in this matter, to follow the ex- 
press command and order of Christ; as also the 
doctrine and order of the apostles, as before 
said ; by whom the command is established, first 
to teach, and then to baptize those who have 
believed. As we see that the apostles every 
where followed this command, but do not find 
that they baptized children. Therefore we be- 
lieve this chief command, not from inference, or 
probable evidence, but from the infallible word 
of the holy gospel ; so that we can say to the 
candidate for baptism with Philip : ^^If thou be- 
lievest with all thine heart, thou mayest." And 
here the words of Christ are in place : ^^Teach 
all nations, baptizing them. He that believeth 

[ 84 3 

and is baptized, shall be saved." Thus we see 
that doctrine and faith go before baptism. 

Quest, 96. Is it then only men and women that 
are to be baptized, as is testified and shown of 
the people of Samaria ? Acts 8, 12. 

Arts, It must not be merely men and women ; 
for the command concerns all nations ; it being 
said : "Preach the gospel to every creature ; 
that is, to all mankind. The law indeed con- 
cerned chiefly men ; particularly the Ceremonial 
Law. But the gospel concerns all mankind, 
who have arrived at the age of discretion, and 
a knowledge of good and evil — ^whether they 
are married or unmarried — and who have ears 
to hear and hearts to understand the conditions 
of it, according to Matt. 11, 29. Who volun- 
tarily take upon themselves the yoke of Christ 
to follow him, and who — from the hearing of 
and faith in the gospel — say with the eunuch : 
"What doth hinder me to be baptized ?" Acts 
8, 36. Who thus feel themselves impelled to 
yield to the requisitions of the gospel ; as did 
the people at the day of Pentecost. For those 
who gladly received the words of Peter, were 

Quest. 97. Is there then a certain age ap- 
pointed at which people are to be baptized, as 
the Lord God had appointed the eighth day for 
circumcision ; or, as manv think, that Christ 
was baptized in his thirtieth year ? 

Ans. In respect of the administration and re- 
ception of Christian Baptism, we do not find 

[ 86 ] 

any certain age appointed, at which a person is 
to receiye it, as in the case of circumcision. 
Nor do we read that Christ was baptized at the 
age of thirty years ; but indeed that he was 
still considered as a son of Joseph when he was 
about that age. Luke 3, 23. Thus we see that 
the baptism of the gospel is not confined to aliy 
certain ag6 ; but rather, that it depends on the 
emotion of the human mind ; that is, that a per- 
son should receive it when he finds himself con- 
yinced and impelled by the power of the living 
word of God to yield obedience to God and 
Ohrist ; at the same time amending his life, and 
believing the gospel. Mark 1, 15. Now when 
a person has come to this state, then is the pro- 
per time for him to be baptized **for the re- 
mission of sins ;" as Peter exhorts. Acts 2, 38. ; 
and Paul remarks that Ananias directed him to 
do. Acts 22, 16. 

Quest. 98. Are men's sins pardoned and 
washed off through baptism ? 

Ana. The sins which men do, are not washed 
off by external baptism, as this is literally ex- 
pressed by Ananias ; else it would be necessary 
to practice this continually, as was done under 
the law with the sin offermg. For if any one 
sinned against the law or became impure, he 
had to sacrifice, purify himself, and become 
reconciled to God. But for this purpose bap- 
tism is not instituted — to apply it at any time 
for the purification of sin. (lieb. 9, 22. 23.) So 
Peter also says in respect of baptism, that it is 

[ 86 } 

"not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, 
but the answer of a' good conscience toward 
God." 1 Pet. 3, 21. For after we have re- 
ceived baptism "unto repentance" and amend- 
ment of life, on faith in Jesus Christ, the same 
secures unto us the pardon of sins committed ; 
which takes place through the precious blood of 
Christ — ^the free and open "fountain for sin and 
uncleanness," of which Zechariah prophesied, 
(c. 13, V. 1.) and whereby he signifies the death 
of Christ : — "In whom we have redemption 
through his blood, even the forgiveness of sins." 
Col. 1, 14. So that it is not water in baptism, 
that has the power and efficacy to take away 
sin, and cleanse men from it. "But if we wall 
in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellow- 
ship one with another, and the blood of Jesus 
Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin." 1 
John 1, 7. 

Article Thiktebnth, of the Fruits and 

Works op Faith. 

Quest. 99. Now if we have received Christian 
Baptism on faith, knowledge of sin, and pardon 
of the same ; is this sufficient to salvation ; or 
must yet something more be done in order to be 
saved ? 

Ans. Yes. For baptism binds the person 
who believes in Jesus Christ, and is baptized, 
to different things, as well in temporal as in 
spiritual matters, as these matters are compre- 
hended in the gospel ; that is, to observe and 

I 87 ] 

give proof of the doctrine of the gospel. For 
after the Lord Jesus had cominanded his disci- 
ples to preach the gospel to all nations, ^'bapti- 
zing them in the name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost" — ^he also added : 
"Teach them to observe all things "whatsoever I 
have commanded you." Matt. 28, 19. 20. To 
this Paul also refers "when he says : "Know ye 
not, that so many of us were baptized into tfe- 
sus Christ were baptized into his death? There- 
fore we are buried with him by baptism into 
death : that like as Christ was raised up from 
the dead by the glory of the Father, even so 
we also should walk in newness of life." Rom. 
6, 8. 4. So Paul also exhorts, (Phil. 2, 12.) : 
"Work out your own salvation with fear and 

Quest. 100. Now since baptism, on faith in 
Jesus Christ, is not sufficient to salvation, but 
there must be, as I perceive, yet something 
more done ; in what then does this consist, or 
what may it be ? 

Arts, i es, certainly, there must be yet some* 
thing more done to obtain salvation; namely, 
that we bring forth fruits of faith as a good tree 
in the vineyard that does not "cumber the 
ground." Luke 13, 7. Yea, that we may be 
found as fruitful grafts — grafted into the spir- 
itual olive-tree Jesus Christ ; as Paul teaches, 
Rcfm. ll, 24. For such Christ himself calls 
fruitful branches in him — who is the "true 
vine." John 15, 5. And of all such it is re- 

C 88 1 

quired, that they "walk worthy of the vo- 
cation wherewith they are called." Eph. 4, 1. 
Yea, as good trees, that bring forth fruits wor- 
thy of conversion ; who give as much diligence 
as possible to excel in good works. Tit. 3*, 1. 
8. "For we are his workmanship, created 
in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God 
hath before ordained that we should walk in 
them,"' says Paul, Eph. 2, 10. ; Tit. 2, 14. 
Consequently there must be — ^with such — a to- 
tal conversion and change of life. "For as they 
yield their mepabers servants to uncleanness and 
to iniquity unto iniquity, even so now they must 
(after their baptism) yield their members ser- 
vants to righteousness and holiness." Rom. 6, 
19. To which the words of Christ also refer, 
when he says : "Let your light so shine before 
men, that they may see your good works, and 
glorify your Father which is in heaven." Matt- 
5, 16. 

Quest, 101. What is intimated to tho candi- 
date for baptism at the reception of the same, 
when he is "baptized in the name of the Father, 
and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." 

Ans. A great deal ; and tliis comprises the 
chief articles through which salvation has been 
eflFected for him, and without which no salvation 
could have been obtained. 

1. That God the Father is the origin from 
which the means of salvation are prepared and 
bestowed upon him. "For God so loved the 
world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that 

[ 89 3 

whosoever beliefVeth in him shall not perish, but 
have everlasting life." John 3, 16. To which 
Paul also refers when he says : "Giving thanks 
unto the Father, which hath made us meet to be 
Lkers of the inheritance of the saints in 
jht : and hath tranvslated us into the kingdom 
of his dear Son." Col. 1, 12. 13. "But God 
who is rich in mercy, for the great love where- 
with he loved us, even when we were dead in 
sins, hath quickened us together with Christ." 
Eph. 2, 4. 5. 

2. That he is baptized on his faith in the 
name of the Father, and has received the adop- 
tion of the sons of God ; as Paul says : "For 
ye are the children of God by faith in Jesus 
Christ." Gal. 3, 26. So that he has free access 
to the Father, and may address him in his pray- 
ers: "Our Father wliich art in heaven," ko. 
Matt. 6, 9. To which consolation Paul adds : 
"If we are children, then heirs ; heirs of God : 
and joint heirs with Christ." Kom. 8, 17. 

Quest 102. What does the name of Son show 
the candidate for baptism in the reception of the 

Ans. 1. That the Son of the living God is the 
means of his salvation. "Neither is there sal- 
vation in any other: for there is none other 
name under heaven given among men, whereby 
we must be saved." Acts 4, 12. "In whom we 
have redemption tlu'ough his blood, even the 
forgiveness of sins." Col. 1, 14. And not only 
so ; but he is also through the Son redeemed 


[ 90 ] 


from the power of hell and death. Heb. 2, 14. 
So that he can say: "0 death, where is thy 
sting? grave, where is thy victory? The 
sting of death is sin, and the strength of sin is 
the law. But thanks be to God, which givetit 
us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ," 
1 Cor. 15, 55—57. 

2. That Chriet is his mediator and advocate 
with the Father. "For there is one God, and one 
mediator between God and man, the man Christ 
Jesus.'' 1 Tim. 2, 5. And on the strength of this^ 
John comforts the faithful members of Christ 
when he says : "My little children, these things 
write I unto you, that ye sin not. And if any 
man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, 
Jesus Christ the righteous." 1 John, 2, 1. 

Quest 103. What is eflFected for the candi- 
date for baptism, thereby, that he is baptized 
in the name of the Holy Ghost ? 

Ans. 1. It shows unto him, that the Holy 
Ghost was a co-worker in the Divine Being, 
along with the Father and the Son, in the ac- 
complishment of his salvation. 

2. That he shall further abide with him as 
his comforter. John 14, 16. 17. Which "Spirit 
beareth witness with his spirit, that he is a child 
of God ;" (Rom. 8, 16.) having thus, if he walks 
like a faithful child, the spirit of adoption, where- 
by he cries, "Abba, Father." Rom. 8, 15. 

8. It is especially serviceable to the strength- 
ening of all such in their pilgrimage, that they 
will — according to the promise of Christ — ^bc 

[ 91 ] 

guided by the Holy Spirit "into all truth." 
John 16, 13. 

Quest. 104. Should it claim the particular 
attention and consideration of such candidates 
for baptism, that they are "baptized in the 
name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost?" 

Ans. It necessarily claims the consideration 
of such, that through the holy appellation and 
reception of such baptism, they have become the 
adopted of God, as they should also consider 
themselves to be ; as Paul says : "Ye are not 
your own. For ye are bought with a price : 
therefore glorify God in your body, and in your 
spirit, which are God's." 1 Cor. 6, 19. 20. 
And again he says : "I beseech you therefore 
brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye pre- 
sent your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, accep- 
table, unto God, which is your reasonable ser- 
vice. Rom. 12, 1. Thus "showing what manner 
of spirit they are of." Luke 9, 55. 

Article Fourteenth, of the Lord's Supper, 
OR Breaking of Bread. 

Quest. 105. Is there any thing important and 
particular in the gospel, for persons baptized, 
to perform, as a chief commandment and pre- 
cept of Christ ? 

Ans. The Lord Jesus has commanded all 
the members of his church or communion to ob- 
serve his (the Lord's) Supper, which he has in- 
stituted with bread and wine, and also observed 

[ 92 } 

himself. For in the last night when he was be- 
trayed and ate the last passover with his disci- 
ples, ^^he took bread, and gave thanks, and 
brake it, and gave unto them saying. This ifl 
my body which is given for you : this do in re- 
membrance of me. Likewise also the cup after 
supper, saying. This cup is the New Testament 
in my blood, which is shed for you." Luke 22, 
19, 20. "For this is my blood of the New Tea- 
tament, which is shed for many for the remia- 
sion of sins." Matt. 26, 28. And the holy and 
highly enlightened apostle Paul, sent out by the 
Lord Jesus to preach the gospel of God, (Rom, 
1, 1.) — after testifying how he received the com- 
mand for observing the Lord's Supper — adds: 
"For as often as ye eat this bread, and drinl 
this cup, ye do snow the Lord's death till he 
come.'^ 1 Cor. 11, 26. 

Quest. 106. Was then the Lord's Supper alsc 
observed to his remembrance, by the Churchj 
after his death ? 

A71S. Yes. For it is clear and evident, that the 
same was taught by the apostles in the primitive 
church, and observed by the believers of that 
time, as we read : "And thoj continued stead- 
fastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, and 
in breaking of bread and in prayers ; and break- 
ing bread from house to house, did eat their meat 
with gladness and singleness of heart." Acts % 
42. 40. So we also read that the believers at 
Troas met on a Sabbath "to break bread," when 
Paul passed that way, and that he then served 

[ 93 ] 

them with the same. Acts 20, 7. 11. But as it 
"was observed in a disorderly manner by the 
Corinthians, Paul reproved them on that ac- 
count, and told them that they did not observe 
r it as instituted by Christ, but to their own pre- 
r judice. He therefore represented to them the 
: proper manner of observing this Sacrament, as 
: lie had ''received of the Lord;" as is amply to 
r be seen, 1 Cor. 11, 18—29. 
L- Quest. 107. Does it then stand so well with 
t believers, that if they are baptized on their faith, 
i and observe the Sacrament (Lord's Supper) or 
z the breaking of bread externally, that they can 
1 console themselves with the hope of eternal life ? 
L- Ans. Just as external baptism alone brings 
Zi no salvation; unless we do that on our part,, 
i which is required of us in the gospel ;. so can 
the external rite or observance of the Sacra- 
Lf ment, not save the person baptized, if he does 
-ci not endeavor also to fulfil his christian calling, 
as is required of the faithful children of God. 
i Therefore the apostle Paul, when representing 
dT: to the believers at Corinth the observance of the 
rb Sacrament, enjoins, that each one before par- 
5s! taking of the same, shall examine his life and 
a: conversation — as to how he stands with God and 
eii- his neighbor in respect of the same. He says : 
les **But let a man examine himself, and so let him 
? i eat of that bread, and drink of that cup. For 
s i he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth 
he: and drinketh damnation to himself, not dis- 
Tei ceming the Lord's body." 1 Cor. 11, 28. 29. 

[ 94 ] 

Quest. 108. Were it not better to al 
from partaking of the Sacrament, so as i 
partake of it to one's own damnation ; 
people are so frail and fallible ; yea, frequ 
commit sin before they are aware of it ? 

Ana. Not to partake of the 'Sacrament, 
neglect the same, from such a view, or 
such thoughts, would be done more from 
tempt for the command of Christ, than froi 
fear of Grod, and might easily be an occ 
for continuing in sin. But if we seriously 
into consideration the command of Christ, 
thereby find ourselves bound to the obsen 
of the Sacrament, it will incite us the more 
erfully to give strict heed to our life and 
versation — to avoid sin — and bring our i 
the more^eamestly before the Lord — and to 
for the pardon of our sins; and thus tb 
servance of the Sacrament will be servic 
to our comfort and pardon through the n 
of Christ ; since Christ says in his word : * 
cup is the New Testament in my blood, ^ 
is shed for many for the remission of sins. '. 
22, 20. ; Matt. 26, 28. B.ut to continue k 
ingly and wilfully in sin, and to abstain 
partaking of the Sacrament; thereby thii 
to get clear of God*s just punishment, is n 
more a proof of wickedness, than of the fc 
God. For he who from contempt neglect 
keep the passover amongst the Israelites 
not go unpunished. (Num. 9, 13.^ Mucl 
will ne go unpunished, who despises the 

[ 95 ] 

mand of Christ. And although those were not 
to keep the passover who were, according to the 
law, unclean; jet was the condition annexed, 
that they had to purify themselves, and keep 
the passover on "the fourteenth day of the sec- 
ond month." And he who did not do this was 
to be "cut oflF from among his people.'* Num^ 9, 
11 — 13. Thus the command oi Christ is es- 
tablished, (Luke 22, 19.) : "This do in remem- 
brance of me.'* So also Paul teaches, 1 Cor. 
11, 28.) : "But let a man examine himself, and 
so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that 
cup." Which teaches that we are not to stand 
, still in this work, but to continue in it. If we 
then find ourselves, by examination, not pure 
i before God, but guilty of something, we must 
- fisst become reconciled to God and our neigh- 
C bor, and then "eat of that bread, and drink of 
I that cup." 

Quest, 109. Are then the bread and wine of 
^ the Sacrament, the real body and blood of Je- 
^^ BOS Christ; since they are so called by Christ, 
!j and it is so strictly declared by Paul, that "he 
,^ that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and 
\^ drinketh damnation to himself ?" 
^ An8. The Lord Jesus in instituting his Sup- 
^ per, indeed speaks of them (bread and wine) as 
p Buch, namely : "This is my body ; this is my 
1; blood." Matt. 26, 26—28. ; Mark 14, 22—24. 
j This declaration however — that the external 
]^ bread and wine of the Sacrament are the real 
^ body and blood of Christ — ^must not be liter- 

[ 96 ] 

ally understood ; but in a spiritual and m; 
rious sense ; as is to be seen from the coi 
sation pf Christ with the Jews about the ei 
of his flesh and the drinking of his blood. , 
6, 64. 55. As this was however literally ui 
stood by the Jews and many of his disciple 
Said : "The flesh profiteth nothing : the iJi 
I speak unto you, they are spirit, and the^ 
life." John 6, 63. So we are also to ui 
stand the words of Christ about the institi 
of the Holy Sacrament, in a spiritual s€ 
and therefore he concludes the matter witl 
words : "This do in remembrance of me." . 
22, 19. The same language is also twice 
by Paul in reference to such bread and wii 
follows : "This do in remembrance of me. 
Cor. 11, 24. 25. And since the apostles, t 
ever they speak of the Sacrament, call i 
"breaking of bread," (Acts 2, 42. 46. ; 2 
11. ; 1 Cor. 10, 16. ; 11, 23—26,) it cann 
understood by us as the real body and bio 
Christ ; but must be understood in a spii 
sense, as a holy sign of the body and bio 
Christ ; as Paul also calls and represents 
Cor. 10, 16. 

Quest 110. Now if the said bread is m 
common bread ; such bread as we use for 
how then can we eat it unworthily, to our 
damnation ? 

Ans. Although the passover of the Jews 
sisted merely of the flesh of lambs, such a; 
eaten by them otherwise ; yet no one thai 

[ 97 1 

tincircnmcised — ^no- heathen nor Jew that was 
according to the law unclean — was permitted to 
eat thereof. Such were not permitted to eat 
thereof, 1. Because it was an institution of the 
law. 2. Because it consisted of meat set apart 
for the worship of God. 3. Because it was to 
be kept as a memorial of their (the Jews') de- 
liverance from Esypt ; when the "destroyer" 
passed over their houses, and spared their first- 
bom. And 4. Because it brought to their minds 
the knowledge and remembrance of the Divine 
favors shown tor their ancestors, and that it was a 
command given by God, as already remarked. 
Now then since the passover was expressly set 
apart for these purposes, it was a matter of God, 
and sacred in his sight; and therefore it was 
also to be kept sacred by the Israelites, and 
partaken of in purity. And thus we are also 
to understand the matter of the breaking of 
bread at the Sacrament ; namely, thaj; it is to 
be observed, first, on account of its being com- 
manded by Christ ; who instituted it in memory 
of his sufferings and death, and enjoined it as a 
holy ordinance ; and that it is therefore also to 
be considered by us as holy, and thus observed. 
2. Because it (the breaking of bread) represents 
and signifies to us — ^for the proper, separate ob- 
servance of the same — such dear and precious 
things, of the sacrifice of Christ, the breaking 
of his body, the shedding of his blood on the 
cross for our reconciliation with God, the pardon 
of oar sins and our preservation to eternal life. 

[ 98 J 

Wherefore it is proper that- we should observe 
and regard it — ^in the fear of God — as holy. 
Even as it is called by Paul, "The communion 
of the blood of Christ," v^hen he says : "The 
cup of the blessing which we bless, is it not the 
communion of the blood of Christ ? The bread 
which we break, is it not the communion of the 
body of Christ ?" 1 Cor. 10, 16. 

Quest. 111. Are there yet more such com- 
parisons and expressions in Holy Scripture, 
where to external things the name of divine 
things is given, and whereby it is shown that 
the words .of Christ about the bread and wine 
of his supper, were spoken in signification of 
his body and blood ? 

An8. Holy Scripture is full of expressions 
which signify internal, divine, spiritual, and 
heavenly things ; and which things are denomi- 
nated by the names of external things, which 
represent and show to us divine, spiritual, and 
heavenly things. Thus Christ calls himself the 
"door of his sheep," and says : "The good 
shepherd giveth his life for the sheep ;" (John 
10, 7. 11.) the "true vine ;" and believers "the 
branches ;" (John 15, 6.) "the way;" (John 14, 
6.) his Father the "husbandman," and Peter a 
"rock." And Joseph said to Pharaoh in ex- 
plaining his dream, that the seven "good kine'* 
and the seven "good ears," were ^'seven years 
of plenty ;" and the seven "ill-favored kine" 
and "seven empty ears," were seven years of 
famine. (Gen. 41^ 26—29.) Likewise did be 

[ 99 ] 

Sot the dreams of the chief butler and chief 
er, that the **three branches" and the "three 
baskets" were three days. (Gen. 40, 12 — 18.) 
So they also saw and experienced themselves 
what their dreams signified. Further, David 
calls the water which the .'^hree mighty men" 
fetched at the risk of their lives, at the gate of 
Bethlehem, and from amongst their enemies, 
the "blood of the men," and "poured it out un- 
to the Lord." (2 Sam. 23, 16. 17.) As Paul 
also speaks of the two wives of Abraham, and 
their two send, Isaac and Ishmael : "Which 
things (he says) are an allegory;" namely, that 
they signify the "two covenants." Otdl, 4, 24. 
Thus he also speaks of the rook which Moses 
smote in the wilderness, and from which water 
issued ; that this ^^ock," namely, was Christ. 
(1 Cor. 10, 4.) Now these things are called 
tJuit which they signify ; and such expressions 
there are in great abundance in Scripture. 

Qiiest. 112. Must then the Sacrament be only 
observed in memory of the death and sufferings 
of Christ ? 

Ans. The, Lord God not only commanded the 
children of Israel to eat the passover, and to 
celebrate the feast of the passover, in memory 
of their deliverance from Egypt ; but also to re- 
new the memory of the faithful fulfilment of the 
promise given to their fathers ; thereby remind- 
ing them of the favors of God ; as the Lord re- 
monstrated with them through Micah, when 
they had in a great measure ceased to regard 

[ 100 ] 

these matters, when he says : "That ye may 
know the righteousness of the Lord." Mieah 6, 
5. Thus must also the observance of the Lord's 
Supper not serve us merely as a common memo- 
rial of the death and sufferings of Christ ; but 
should remind us particularly of God's greal 
love and favors shown to us ; inasmuch as he 
has bestowed unto us such a precious passover; 
namely, Christ, the beloved Son of God, who 
has been sacrificed for us ; (1 Cor. 5, 7.) thereby 
showing that we are reconciled to him, and con- 
sequently have obtained peace with him through 
Jesus Christ. (Rom. 5, 1.) Further it should 
remind us of what has been effected for us 
through the advent of Christ, as well as through 
his doctrine, example, suffering,, and death, in 
order that we may thereby remember his great 
love; through wluch we are so dearly bought; 
as Paul says : "Ye are not your own. For ye 
are bought with a price : therefore glorify God 
in your body, and in your spirit, which are 
God's." 1 Cor. 6, 19. 20. 

Quest. 113. Does the observance and usage 
of the Lord's Supper serve as a memorial and 
knowledge of the great favors of God, conferred 
upon us through Christ ? 

Ana. It serves all pious and godly persons in 
many respects, as a consolation, as a strengthen- 
ing and encouragement in their pilgrimage ; as 
also as an assurance, that 

1. The Lord's Supper is left to them as a 
testament ; as also that the sufferings and death 

[ 101 ] 

of Christ redpnnd to the pardon of their sins and 
the restoration of eternal life. 

2. That just as they partake of bread and 
wine in the Holy Sacrament, so they shall also 
partake of Christ and his merits ; as Christ says 
in a parable : ^^I am the living bread which came 
down from heaven: If any man eat of this 
bread, he shall live forever : and the bread that 
I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the 
life of the world. For my flesh is meat indeed, 
and my blood is drink indeed. He that eateth 
my flesh, and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in 
me, and I in him." John 6, 51. 55. 56. There- 
fore Christ sets the cup of his supper before be- 
lievers as a testament left by him, when he 
gays : "This cfip is the New Testament in my 
blood, which is shed for you." Luke 22, 20. In 
whom they also have a faithful assistant, who 
watches over them like a shepherd over his flock. 
(Psalm 23, 1. ; Matt. 28, 20.) 

Thirdly and lastly, it represents to all be- 
lievers the unity of the spirit, which they have 
with one another through the unity of faith, and 
the hope of salvation, conferred upon them by 
Christ; wherein they are through this ordi- 
nance, all one ; provided they show the unity 
of the spirit, as Paul says : "For we being many 
are one bread, and one body : for we are all 
partakers of that one bread." 1 Cor. 10, 17. 

Que%t 114. Is there also a set time when and 
how often the Lord's Supper is to be observed 


[ 103 ] 

by the church, as was the case with the passover 
amongst the Israelites ? 

Ans. God had appointed the children of Is- 
rael a certain time when they were to observe 
the passoYer ; namely, according to their year, 
on the fourteenth day of the first month. (Exo- 
dus 12, 6.) But as it regards the Lord's Sup- ' 
per, we find no fixed time when and how often 
it is to be observed by the church ; there being 
no such time appointed in the primitive church; 
which is evident from Acts 2, 42 — 47., where it 
is said : ^^And they continued steadfastly in the 
apostles' doctrine and fellowship, and in break- 
ing of bread, and in prayer. And breaking . 
bread from house to house, did eat their meat 
with gladness and singleness of heart." And at 
Troas it was, in consequence of an accidental 
visitation of Paul, observed on a Sabbath even- 
ing. (Acts 20, 7 — 11.) However it is well to 
be observed, that as often as we partake of this 
Sacrament, we "shew the Lord's death till he 
comes." (1 Cor. 11, 26.) 

Article Fifteenth, of the Commandment 

OF Love. 

Quest, 115. Has the Lord Jesus, besides Bap- 
tism and the Sacrament, yet also given other 
high commandments to his Church, which were 
not given under the Old Testament Dispen- 
sation ? 

Ans, The Lord has indeed given some such 
commandments; but none that abrogate the 

L 108 ] 

chief commandments of the law of Moses : hnt 
sach indeed as make said law more perfect and 
binding. For Christ says : '^I am not come to 
destroy the law, but to folfil it." Matt. 5, 17. 
But particularly is this to be observed in refer- 
ence to the commandment of love, which is the 
diief commandment: yea, the whole substance 
of the law of Moses ; namely : To "love God 
with all onr heart, and with all our soul, and 
with all our might." Deut. 6, 5. Further, 
**Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself." Lev. 
19, 18. "On these two commandments (says 
Olurist) hang all the law and the prophets." 
Matt. 22, 40. That is, that we should well 
stand the test of these commandments, and walk 
in perfect love ; and that in the exercise of such 
love, all that is contained in the law and the 
prophets is fulfilled ; as Paul testifies : "The 
end of the commandment is charity out of a 
pure heart, and of a good conscience, and of 
faith unfeigned." 1 Tim. 1, 5. 

Quest. 116. Where and how is the command- 
ment of love made and cited more perfectly by 
Christ, than it was in the law of Moses ? 

An%. Under the law of Moses, the love of 
our neighbor was not understood to extend far- 
ther than to their brethren, the Israelites ; who 
alone were considered as neighbors. Under the 
gospel however, "brotherly love and charity" 
general love) are required. (2 Pet. 1, 7.) For 
Christ says : "If ye love them which love you, 
what reward have you ? do not even the publi- 

[ 104 ] 

cans the same?" Matt. 5, 46. And when a 
"certain lawyer" asked Christ, who, according 
to the law, was his neighbor, he made to him 
the comparison about the Samaritan ; (Luke 10, 
29.) thereby declaring unto him that he was to 
exercise love towards all those who stood in need 
of his help ; whereby he teaches, that not only 
he who was his brother according to the cove- 
nant of circumcision, was his neighbor; but 
that we should show our labors of love, without 
distinction, to all those to whom we can be of 
service. At the same time he also enjoined bro* 
therly love as strictly as it was ever commanded 
in the law, and said to his disciples : "A new 
commandment I give unto you, that ye love one 
another. By this shall all men know that ye 
are my disciples, if ye have love one to another." 
John 13, 34. 35. He that loveth not knoweth 
not God ; for God is love." 1 John 4, 8. There- 
fore Peter also so strictly and earnestly enjoins 
love, when he says : "Above all things have fer- 
vent charity among yourselves : for charity shall 
cover the multitude of sins." 1 Pet. 4, 8. And 
not only "brotherly kindness," but also "chari- 
ty;" that is, love towards all mankind; (2 Pet 
1, 7.) yea, also towards our enemies. (Matt 5, 

Article Sixteenth, on Kevengb. 

Quest. 117. Is there then in this doctrine of 
showing love towards all men, without distinc- 
tion, nothing contrary to the law; since the 

[ 105 ] 

Jews had to fight against their enemies through 
the hand of the Lord ; whom the Lord God gave 
into their hands : how then must a christian act 
in this matter, when he is to show love towards 
all men? 

Ans. It pleased God at that time to exter- 
minate the seven different proscribed nations, 
who were his enemies, through the Jews ; with 
whom the latter were not permitted to enter in- 
to any treaty of peace, nor their children into 
marriage relations, (Exodus 34, 12. 16.) Other- 
wise they had to show love towards all strangers 
in their country. (Exodus 23, 9.) But now that 
**God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto 
himself;" (2 Cor. 5, 19. ; 1 John, 2, 2.) our be- 
nevolence must be shown to all men, without 
distinction, according to the words of Peter ; (2 
Pet. 1, 7.) as is also expressly taught by Christ : 
**Te have heard that it hath been said, An eye 
for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth : But I say 
nnto you. That ye resist not evil : but whoso- 
ever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn 
to him the other also. Ye have heard that it 
hath been said, thou shalt love thy neighbor, 
and hate thine enemy. But I say unto you. 
Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, 
do good to them that hate you, and pray for 
them which despitefuUy use you, and persecute 
you. For if ye love them that love you, what 
reward have ye ? do not even the publicans the 
same ? And if ye salute your brethren only, 
what do ye more- than others ? do not even the 

C iw ] 

publicans so?" Matt. 6, 38 — 47. In a simfl* 
manner the apostle Paul exhorts believers, whea 
he says : "Dearly beloved, revenge not your 
selves, but rather give place unto wrath : for i 
is written, Vengeance is mine; I will repaj 
saith the Lord. Therefore if tlune enemy fami 
ger, feed him ; if he thirst, give him drink : fb 
in so doing, thou shalt heap coals of fire on U 
head." Rom, 12, 19. 20. Thus must orthodo 
christians through well-doing, silence the igiu 
ranee of imwise and foolish men. 

Qtieat 118. Has true love — the love require 
in the gospel — also certain signs, whereby 
may be known ? 

Ans, Certainly has that love which extenc 
to all mankind, also certain signs. For wherevi 
the true love of God is founded in the hearts < 
men, they are also enkindled in love towafi 
their fellow creatures. "He that saith he is i 
the light, and hateth his brother, is in darkne 
even until now." 1 John, 2, 9. Charity suffers 
long, and is kind ; charity envieth not ; charii 
vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up ; doth not b 
have itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is n 
easily provoked ; thinketh no evil ; rejoiceth n 
in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth." 1 Cor. 1 
4 — 6. "Love worketh no ill to his neighboi 
therefore love is the fulfilling of the law." Roi 
13, 10. Thus a true christian is, through loi 
free from all desire of revenge. 

[ 107 ] 

Abticlb Seventebnth, on the Swearing of 


Quest. 119. Are there yet more such matters 
to which Christ alluded — and which are prac- 
tised by worldly governments — ^but are forbid- 
den in the law of Christ ? 

Ans. It is also a plain commandment of 
Christy that in testimony about disputes about 
temporal matters, we should not swear an oath, 
which is otherwise customary under worldly 

S^yemments, but which is no commandment of 
e law ; there being however a commandment 
m the law, that we "shall not swear falsely/* 
(Lev. 19, 12.) The swearing of oaths was how 
ever customary among men from the time of 
Abraham ; as is to be seen in the case of Abra- 
ham himself; who took an oath from his ser- 
vant. (Gen. 24, 2. 3.) And Isaac bound him- 
self by an oath to king Abimelech in a treaty 
of peace. (Gen. 26, 31.) So also Jacob and 
Laban confirmed their "covenant'' by an oath. 
(G«n. 31, 53.) Now since the swearing of oaths 
18 no commandment of God, and matters of 
troth can be as strongly attested without an 
oath, as with it, Christ directs his people, whose 
calling it is to "speak the truth in love," (Eph. 
4, 15.) to pursue the shortest and safest way of 
troth. He says : "Ye have heard that it has 
been said to them of old time, Thou shalt not 
forswear thyself, but shalt perform unto the 
Lord thine oaths : But I say unto you : Swear 
not at all ; neither by heaven ; for it is God's 

[ i» 3 

tL-'or.-* : nor bj tte iturk : f'>r re ^ fcis footfito 

r.^^irLer :v JerJisiI'tiii : for L- L* ijf c::v of 1 

L^:!"!. :«=':acie ub:-a o-in^t d.':: maie one I 
wi'.i-.r '-.r tliok- E^: :•=" voor c^jmmnnicat 
tr Y-rA- 7-ra : NaT. lit: i:r ^hxn^j^ver is m 
t*r.An iLr<^ C'lnic:!! of evil." Mact. 5, 83 
ST. Fr'-ia tLLs i: i* to bt rcrii, chat the L 
Ji^r:.-. does no: merelT ab-r-liih and forbid t 
v'nich was adcptei bv din wiihout comma 
r/.f-nt ; bur tLar he a: ihe same dme forbids ( 
yrh'inh thk law menzLoiii acou: "swearing fa 
ly," and alio directs how we can testify to 
truth wit?-out swearing: as als*? that his tc 
rnofiy wai* founded on tLe fact, that he did 
"corn^: to destroy the law, tut lu fulfil it." M 
.0, 17. 

Akticlk Eighteenth, ox Matrimuxt. 

(^uf^Ht, 120. Are there y».t more thi 
r;li;inj.y;d, or made perfect, by the Lord Je 
whi^'h are airo mentioned in the law ? 

AvH. Concerning the state of niatrimc 
('hriHt made amends f«ir tl;e abuses and dec 
which had crept into it in conse4uence of \h 
nufl'cnf<l under the law of Moses, and also 
prove<l them. Of which God also complaiii 
that men acted in this matter contrary to 
will. (Ma). 2, 14. 15.) Further, Clirist i 
again brought the first state of mat ri mom 
iiH primitive order. For when ho was asked 
the; I'hariseeB, whether it was 'lawful for a z 

[ 109 ] 

t away his wife for every canse ?" he an- 
d: ^^Have ye not read, that he which 
them at the beginning, made them male 
female, and said. For this cause shall a 
leave father and mother, and cleave mito 
rife: and they twain shall be one flesh? 
"efore they are no more twain, but one 
f What therefore God hath joined to- 
r, let no man pat asunder/' Matt. 19, 
And when the Jews again asked : *^Why 
hen Moses command to give a writing of 
oement, and to put her away ?" Jesus an- 
d : ^'Moses, because of the hardness of 
hearts suffered you to put away your wives : 
rem the beginning it was not so. And I 
Dito you, whosoever shall put away his wife, 
it it be for fornication, and shall marry 
ler, committeth adultery : and whoso mar* 
her which is put away doth commit adul- 
' Matt. 19, 7—9. From this it is clearly 
> seen, that Christ teaches all christians, 
a man (except in case of fornication,) is 
1 to his wife by the band of matrimony, as 
as she lives, and that the wife is also bound 
ir husband by the same tie as long as he 
*^But if her husband be dead, she is at 
rv to be married to whom she will ; only in 
lOrd." 1 Cor. 7, 39. 

uit. 121. Are then all marriages made by 
lOrd, as the words of Christ purport ? 
%8. As Gt>d is an omniscient God, and his 
OS are incomprehensible to man, we cannot 


[ 110 ] 

oome to a settled conclusion abont this matt 
But if we take into consideration the providei 
of God, we must confess, that there are also p 
sons united by God in matrimony, who en 
into this state for their mutual punishment ; 
who must be a punishment to others thereb 
as is to be seen in the case of Sampson, wh< 
marriage became an occasion of punishment 
the PhSistines. (Judges 14, 1. 2.) So we a 
see how married people frequently live to 1 
punishment of each other. But where the ti 
fear of God exists with people, there we n 
be assured that he is the author of marria| 
for ^'great is his mercy toward them that n 
him." Psalm 103, 11. And of this AbraL 
was assured, when he sent for a wife for his i 
Isaac ; and not knowing who she would be, 
said to his servant, who was in such matters c< 
siderate and cautious : ^'The Lord shall se 
his angel before thee, and thou shalt take a w 
unto my son." Gen. 24, 7. Now when the » 
yant met her, he turned to God in prayer ; a 
when Laban understood the message, he sai 
"The thing proceedeth from the Lord : we ct 
not speak unto thee, bad or good." Gen. 24, 1 

Quegt. 122. Are there also means where 
we may come to such a state of marriage, a 
whereby we may be assured, that the Lord G 
has appointed a consort for man ? 

Ans. There are indeed means whereby ' 
may be assured, that we have come to the n 
trimouial state by the direction of God, if ' 

[ 1" ] 

only fear the Lord, (Psalm 103, 11.) as was said 
to king Asa: "The Lord is with you, while ye 
be with him." 2 Chron. 15, 2. "A good wife 
18 a good portion, which shall be given in the 
portion of them that fear the Lord." Ecclesias« 
ticns 26, 3. Of which we have an example 
m the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, 
when we observe how they feared God, and how 
throagh the means of prayer they obtained the 
eonsorts appointed for them by the Lord. For 
*Hhe eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous, 
and his ears open unto their cry." Psalm 34, 
15. So we also see that Jacob prayed Grod to 
be with him on his journey, when for the pur- 

S>se of obtaining a consort, he moved from his 
ther's house to Mesopotamia. (Gen. 28, 20.) 
**The effectual fervent prayer of the righteous 
man availeth much." James 5, 16. And the 
apostle John says : ^^This is the confidence that 
yre have in him, that, if we ask any thing ac- 
cording to his will, he heareth us." 1 John 5, 14. 
Quest. 123. Is not every one at liberty to 
enter into a state of matrimony with whom he 
pleases ? 

Ans. The faithful christian is not at liberty 

to do so. But the wholesome doctrine of the 

ispel — ^when properly observed by him — ^will 

ect him how to act in this matter. Sut that 

it is not pleasing to God, that men should enter 

1 into the matrimonial state according to the dic- 

I tates of their carnal minds, is to be seen j&om 

i the marriages before the flood. "Sox \\iV& wA,' 

[ 112 ] 

*'The sons of God saw the daughters of men 
that they were fair ; and they took them wivefl 
of all which they choose." Gen. 6, 2. So were 
also the children of Israel — ^who were otherwise 
called the people of God-— expressly forbidden 
to intermarry with the sons and danghters of 
the land of Canaan, whom the Lord had pro- 
scribed. So we are also not permitted to marry 
those who are too n^early related to ns by consan- 
guinity. Lev. 18, 6 — 18. Beyond these excep- 
tions, however, we are at liberty to marry whom 
we please ; only so that — according to the admo- 
nition of Panl — it be done "in the Lord." 1 
Oor. 7, 39« That is, that those, who intend 
entering into the state of matrimony, do so in 
prayer and in the fear of God. Under these 
conditions then, they are at liberty to marry as 
they please : the rich to the poor, the old to 
the young, widows to the single ; that is, if such 
persons are free in their conscience from others, 
and are of the same religious faith, and attend 
the same worship. 

Queit. 124. May then not persons — men and 
women — join themselves together of their own 
accord, without this being done by a minister 
of religion ? 

Ans. All intimate connexion between men 
and women without the bond of matrimony, if 
called fornication ; about which we have a com- 
mand in the law of Moses : "There shall be no 
whore of the daughters of Israel, nor a sodomite 
of the sons of Israel." Deut. 23, 17. There- 

[ 118 1 

fore Paul also says : ^*To avoid fomicatioiiy let 
eyery man have his own wife^ and let every wo- 
man have her own husband/' 1 Cor. 7, 2. Also : 
^Marriage is honorable in all, and the bed nn- 
defiled ; but whoremongers and adulterers God 
will judge." Heb. 18, 4. 

Article Nineteekth, of Eoclesiastioal 
punishmekt, ob excommunioation. 

QueH. 125. Now if any member of the church 
peradventure transgresses any of these com- 
mandments of Christ, or acts contrary to them, 
IB there also some punishment ordained by the 
ehurch for such transgression ? 

Am. If such transgression takes place wil- 
fblly-— out of contempt for the commandment— 
the person so transgressing, is disobedient to the 
gospel. (Rom. 2, 8.) Particularly so, if his 
oourse of life is such, that he thereby gives 
others occasion to speak evil of the same, and 
the doctrine of the gospel is thereby blasphem- 
ed. But the conduct of such per son is to be 
examined into from different points of view: 
whether it consists of faults, errors, or inten- 
tional and voluntary sins and transgressions, 
with or without repentance; as also with the 
difference, whether the offence exists between 
him and God, or between him and his brother 
or neighbor. Now if such offence is only the 
consequence of an error, or an over hasty ac- 
tion, whereby the erring person overstepped the 
bounds of his calling, suon matter may be made 


[ 114 ] 

good again by a brotherly admonition, exhorta- 
tion, and instruotion, and repentance on the 
part of the offender, according to the doctrine 
of Paul : ^^If a man be overtaken in a fault, ve 
which are spiritual, restore such an one in llie 
spirit of meekness ; considering thyself, lest then 
also be tempted/' Gal. 6, 1. "Him that is 
weak in the faith, receive ye, but not to doubt- 
ful disputations." Rom. 14, 1. So Sirach also 
gives an instructive admonition in referring to 
evil reports, when he says : "Admonish a friendi 
it may be he hath not done it : and if he have 
done it, that he do it no more. Admonish thy 
friend, it may be he hath not said it : and if ht 
have, that he speak it not again. Admonish 
a friend : for many times it is a slander, and 
believe not every tale." Ecclesiastieus 19, 1^ 
15. And when this is done in love, it may be 
serviceable to much good ; and thus it behoves 
OS to do— according to the doctrine of Christ— 
when one brother sins against another, for 
Ohrist says: "If thy brother shall trespass 
against thee, go and tell him his fault between 
thee and him alone : if he shall hear thee, thou 
hast gained thy brother. But if he will not 
hear diee, then take with thee one or two more^ 
that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every 
word may be established. And if he shall neff- 
lect to hear them, tell it unto the church.' 
Matt. 18, 16—17- 

QtteiL 126. Must we then proceed and aot 
diff^ently with those who sin against Grod? 

[ lis 3 

Ana, In such case we must proceed with cau- 
tion, and well distinguish, whether the sins 
committed are such against which damnation is 
pronounced in Scripture, or whether they are 
such as may be atoned for through repentance ; 
or whether the oflFender proves himself obstinate, 
and continues in his wicked course of life, as Paul 
says of such : ''But after thy hardness and im- 
penitent heart treasurest up unto thyself wrath 
against the day of wrath and revelation of the 
righteous judgment of God." Rom. 2, 5. Now 
in such case — ^in such transgression of the com- 
mandments of Christ — in consequence of which 
the church is evil spoken of from those who are 
**without" — ^the sentence of the church must — 
according to the instructions of Christ — ^bo pro- 
nounced against such offender ; and if there is 
no heart-felt repentance and sorVow for sin — no 
desire to avoid evil— observable in such person, 
he must be eut off from the church as a dead 
and unfit member, and swept out as a leaven ; 
and, according to the instruction of Christ, be 
considered ''as a heathen and publican." Matt. 
18, 17. And so also Paul writes : "Know ye 
not that a little leaven leaveneth the whole 
tamp ? Purge out therefore the old leaven, that 
ye may be a new lump.' - 1 Cor. 5, 6. 7. "For 
what have I to do, to judge them also that are 
without ? do not ye judge them that are within? 
But them that are without Grod judgeth. There- 
fore put away from among yourselves that wick- 
ed person." 1 Cor. 5, 12. 13. "Them that ski 

[ iw I 

reboke before all, that others also may fear. I 
charge thee before God, and the Lord Jeeus 
Christ, and the elect angels, that thou obserre 
these things without preferring one before ano- 
ther, doing nothing by partiiuity." 1 Tim. fi, 
20. 21. 

Aeticle Twentieth, op Excommunigatioh 
OR Exclusion fbom the Ghubch. 

Quest. 127. Now if such persons as before 
alluded to, are punished by the church, for their 
wicked and unchristian course of life, is thiB 
done merely for the terror of others ? 

Ans. It is not done merely as a terror to 
others, and as an example of the punishment of 
sin ; but also as a warning to the offender, in 
order to bring him — according to the command- 
ment of Christ and his apostles — ^to repentance 
and amendment of life. So it is also to serve 
as a declaration, that the church will not suffer 
itself to be blasphemed on his account, by others, 
or by those "without.** Therefore such person 
is to be so far shunned, that he has nothing more 
to do in the church and its communion ; yea| 
that he is not recognised by the brotherly kiss 
or salutation ; no more so, than one who ne?er 
was connected with the church, until the time 
of his conversion, his amendment of life and 

Quest. 128. How are we to conduct ourselves 
towards such, so long as they are without the 
pale of the church 7 

[ 117 ] 

Afi8. If they still adhere to the church, hear 
the word of God, are no blasphemers and abn- 
Bers — ^in snch case we are dili^ntlj to exhort 
ihem again to become reconciled to God and 
the church ; and in as far as we see that they 
are in earnest, we are to reach them the help- 
ing hand to their restoration ; nevertheless, this 
must be done with great cantion and foresight ; 
namely so, that the offender does not fall in too 
flreat sorrow ; and that we do not act against 
God's will in such case. But when the person 
thus excluded from the church, still continues 
in vice, sin, and shame, and there is no hope for 
his amendment, we must refer such case to the 
just Judgment of God ; but for all that perform 
God 8 commandment towards him ; that is, show 
and exercise christian love towards him as tow- 
ards our neighbor. Matt. 5, 48. ; 19, 19. ; 22, 
89. ; Mark 12, 81. ; Gal. 6, 14. ; 6, 10. 


OF THE Penitent. 

Quest. 129. Now if such a person as above 
aUuded to, has, through proper reproof and ex- 
hortation, come to conversion and amendment 
of life, how is he then to be dealt with ? 

Afu, In such case the church is bound to 
show cordial love and sympathy for him ; and 
out of joy at his return, to encourage in him the 
hope, that if he continue in his good intention, 
he "vnll again be received as a member of the 
church of Christ, and become united to the 

[ 118 1 

same ; as is clearly shown in the parable of the 
lost son, when Christ says : ^^Likewise, I say 
unto you, there is joy in the presence of the 
angels of God over one sinner that repentetL" 
liwue 15, 10. So it behoves us, according to 
this, again to receive such an one with joy ; as 
Paid writes to the Gosfuithians : ^'Sufficient to 
such a man is this punishment, which was in- 
flicted of man;y^. So that contrariwise ve ought 
rather to forgive him, and comfort him. ' 2 Cor. 
2, 6, 7. 

Quest 130. Has then civil government no 
power to inflict punishment in the Christian 
Church ; or is such government not recognised 
in the doctrine of the gospel as a legitimate au- 

' Arts. The office of such government consists 
in the administration of temporal affairs, and is 
not abrogated by the gospel ; and although such 
government does not appear to be instituted by 
Christ in the evangelical church, (Luke 22, 25. 
26.) yet believers are taught ana commanded 
in the gospel to be "subject unto the higher 
powers ;" for Christ says : "Render therefore 
unto Cesar the things which are Cesar's ; and 
unto God the things which are GtKl's." Matt 
22, 21. But in whatever concerns spiritual and 
divine things, "we ought to obey God rather 
than man." Acts 5, 29. For Christ himself is 
appointed as the head of the church ; who pre- 
scribes rules, privileges, and laws for the same ; 
which are — according to the word of God — ^to 

C 119 ] 

be administered spiritually; as shown before 
from Matt. 18, 15—17 ; and as Christ further 
declares, (Matt 16, 19.^ : ^^Whatsocver thou 
shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven : 
and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be 
loosed in heaven." 

Qiiest. 131. Is there also testimony in Holy 
Scripture of such great and heinous sins, of 
which it may be understood, that they are 
bound in heaven, and are damnable, if people 
die therein ? 

Ana. Such testimony we have in abundance ; 
yea, also very clear testimony, how that God is 
displeased with a carnal and sinful course of 
life; as Paul mentions at different places — as 
for instance in Bom. 1, 29 — 32. ; 8, 6. 7. ; at 
which latter place he says : "To be carnally 
minded is death, and enmity against God. ' 
And in 1 Cor. 6, 9. 10. he says : "Neither 
fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor 
effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with man- 
kind, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, 
nor revilers nor extortioners, shall inherit the 
kingdom of God." So it is further said of 
others of a similar character : "That they which 
do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of 
(xod ;" understand, such as continue in such a 
course of life ; as Paul further testifies, when 
he says : "If ye live after the flesh, ye shall die ; 
but if ye through the Spirit do mortify the 
deeds of the body, ye shall live." Bom. 8, 18. 

C 120 ] 

Article Twentt-seoond, of the Oificb of 

CrviL Government. 

Quest 182. Are there not also many sma 
amongst the afore-mentioned which are punished 
by the civil law ; whereby the delinquent may 
also be condemned to death ; how tnen is the 
chnrch to act in such case ? 

Arts. There are two different kinds of laws ; 
namely, a spiritual law, and a worldly law. The 
spiritual law is the Scripture, written as the 
word of God ; which is to be used in the church 
— ^in all cases — as a guide or rule, to distinCTish 
between good and evil. He that is spintuali 
^'compares spiritual thines with spiritual. ' *Vim 
the word of God is quick, and powerful, and 
sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even 
to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and 
of the joints and marrow, and is a discemer of 
the thoughts and intents of the heart." Heb. 
4, 12. If therefore any matter in the church 
is adjudged according to the word of God, the 
persons appointed to jud^e the same, do not ad- 
judge such matter according to their own under- 
standing ; but the word of God speaks the sen- 
tence, which convinces the heart of the sinner, 
that he is guilty before God, and that he de* 
serves such punishment. "For true and righte- 
ous are his judgments." Rev. 19, 2. But the 
sentence of the church, which is passed upon 
the sinner, according to the word of God, is not 
intended for his destruction, but for his amend- 

[ 121 ] 

tent — ^for the ^^destruction of the flesh, (that is, 
le destruction of the lusts of the flesh) that the 
>irit may be saved/' (1 Cor. 5, 5. ;) that such 
srson may again be converted and saved ; as 
le iford of God speaks of such sinners. Isaiah 
, 16—18. Ezekiel 18, 21—23. ; Luke 15, 82. 
.nd from the sin from which the sinner is loosed 
irough his re-reception into the church, "he 
lall also be loosed m heaven." Matt. 16, 19. 

Quest. 133. By what authority then, do civil 
idges and civil governments judge criminals, if 
da is not done according to the sense of the 

JLns. The civil laws, according to which crimi- 
ils are judged, and many of them condemned 

death, are not founded on the doctrine of the 
Nspel ; but they are such laws as were in part 
ven by God to the children of Israel under the 
Id Testament dispensation; otherwise, such 
I were given by rulers high in authority, or by 
ise men for the welfare and in behalf of their 
'Ontrics' subjects ; and were consequently rati- 
id by kings and emperors, and other high au- 
orities, for the peace and tranquillity of their 
luntries and cities ; as also for the punishment 
' the bad and protection of the pious. Where- 
re Peter also exhorts all faithfrd christians in 
e following language : "Submit yourselves to 
ery ordinance of man for the Lord's sake : 
lether it be to the king, as supreme, or unto 
'Vernors, as unto them that are sent by him 
r the punishment of evil-doers, and for the 


L 122 ] 

praise of them that do well." 1 Pet. 2, 13. 14. 
And when the apostle Paul stood bound before 
the judgment, in consequence of the envy of the 
Jews — although he was free from every crime- 
he ^^appeale^ unto Cesar/' as the head of the 
highest worldly authority at that time. Acts 
25, 11. 

Quest. 184. Have then civil governments the 
power to make laws, whereby judges may judge 
men, yea even condemn them to death ? 

Ans. "There is no power but of Grod : the 
powers that be are ordained of Grod. WhoecH 
ever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the 
ordinance of God; and they that resist shall 
receive to themselves damnation." Rom. 13, L 
2. As also Daniel says : "He removeth kinee, 
and setteth up kings." Dan. 2, 21. So did abo 
the Lord Jesus Christ himself, submit to the 
paying of tribute money, and commanded to 
"render unto Cesar the things which are Ce- 
sar's." Matt. 22, 21. "Wherefore ye most 
needs bo subject, not only for wrath, but also 
for conscience' sake. For for this cause pay ye 
tribute also : for they are God's ministers, at- 
tending continually upon this very thing." Rom. 
13, 5. 6. So that we are in duty bound, for 
the Lord's sake, not merely to "be subject unto 
the higher powers ;" but also — as Paul teaches 
— to make supplications, prayers, interces^tions, 
and giving of thanks" — not only for men in 
general — but also "for kings, and for all that 
are in authority ; that we may lead a quiet and 

[ 128 ] 

>eaceable life in all godliness and honesty." 1 
Cim. 2, 1. 2. "For he is the minister of God 
x> thee for good. But if thou do that which is 
ivil, be afraid ; for he beareth not the sword in 
rain : for he is the minister of God, a revenger 
to execate wrath upon him that doeth evil. — 
Render therefore to all their dues : tribute to 
ifhom tribute is due ; custom to whom custom 
is due; fear to whom fear is due; honor to 
whom honor is due." Rom. 13, 4. 7. 

Qfiegt. 135. Must we then submit and be obe- 
dient to civil government in all things ; and if 
BO, how then can we at the same time follow 
the law of Christ and the government ; since 
diey frequently militate against one another ? 

A.n8. Since civil governments derive their 
power from God, it is evident that they also 
depend on God ; therefore we must regard the 
oommandments of God more than those of world- 
ly governments. Consequently, whenever the 
oommandments of worldly authority militate 
agiunst those of God, the latter must — accord- 
ing to the example of the apostles — have the 
preference. For when they (the apostles) were 
forbidden to preach any more in the name of 
Jesus, they answered : "Whether it be right in 
the sight of God to hearken unto you more than 
unto God, judge ye." Acts 4, 19. Therefore 
it also behoves us to obey God above all things, 
without which we cannot — agreeably to our 
fiuth, and according to the example oi Tf «q5i — 
hmve a good oonscienoe before (xod. "Sox^^^ 

[ 124 ] i 

says, he ^^exercised himself to have always a 
conscience void of offence toward God, and tow- i 
ard men." Acts 24, 16. Thus, whatever we i 
are in duty bound to do towards civil govern- j 
ment, according to the words of God, that we • 
should willingly do ; but not that which is con- 
trary to the word of God, and militates against 

Quests 136. But if government would insist 
upon having its commands observed and execo- 
ted, or else attach punishment to non-perfo^ 
mance, how would we have to escape or resist 
the same ? 

Arts. All that we could do against such pro> 
ceedings would have to bo done m all meekness 
and discretion. We would have to entreat gov- 
ernment in such case, not to burden our hearts 
and consciences ; stating that it was not from 
any evil design that we refused yielding obe* 
dience to its commands ; but from fear of acting 
against the commandments of God, which we 
were not permitted to do. But should our prayer 
not be regarded, then we would have rather 
to suffer every thing that God would permit to ^ 
be done unto us, than to yield obedience in vio- ) 
lation of our conscience, and act contrary to - 
the commandments of God. Yea, in such case ^ 
we would have to consider well the words of ^ 
Peter, when he says^ "For this is thankworthy, « 
if a man for conscience toward God endure grief^ '■ 
suffering wrongfully.*' 1 Pet. 2, 19. But if onr * 
sufferings shomd be too grievous to be borne, or * 

[ 126 ] 

we should not be tolerated on account of not 
yielding the demanded obedience, then Christ 
directs us as to the ways and means we are to 
adopt, and how we are to act in such case ; 
namely, "When they persecute you in this city, 
flee ye into another." Matt. 10, 28. 

Quett. 187. Is the state of the christian of 
lach a nature, that he is to bear every thing 
that a worldly goyemment and unreasonable 
men may do unto him ? And if so — ^is not then 
his calling a hard one ? And how do the words 
of Christ agree therewith, when he says : "My 
yoke is easy, and my burden is light?" Matt. 
11, 80. 

Ans. Such thoughts and imaginations arise 
from the weakness of the flesh, and from human 
nature ; and as long as these have the upper 
hand in a person, it is very hard for him to 
niffer aU tldngs ^hioh may come in Mb way. 
But where the love of Cod reigns in the hearts 
of men through the power of saving faith, there 
the Lord is their strength and vital power ; so 
that they fear no misfortune that may befall 
ihem on account of the testimony of his word. 
Ftalm 27, 1. For their hearts are firmly fixed 
in the Lord ;' so that they may well say with 
David: "Whom have I in heaven but thee? 
and there is none upon earth that I desire be- 
aide thee. My flesh and my heart faileth : but 
God is the strength of my heart, and my por- 
tion forever." Psahn 73, 25. 26. "Many are 
the afflictions of the righteous : but the Lord 

[ 126 ] 

delivereth him out of them all." Psalm 84, 20. 
For this reason also the life of a christian is called 
a warfare, in which he mnst spend his days ^^ 
a hireling." Job 7, 1. Wherefore Paul aln 
exhorts to ^^ght the good fight of faith ;" (1 
Tim. 6, 12.) and thereby to **rejoice in hope: 
to be patient in tribulation ; to continue instan 
in prayer." Bom. 12, 12. For where evil i 
endured and wrong suffered for conscience 
sake, there the pious soul is ^^strong in ihi 
Lord, and in the power of his might;" (EpL fl 
10.) and can thus by meeting his adversary Ir 
**well-doing," "put to silence the ignorance o 
foolish men." 1 Pet. 2, 15. For "when a man* 
ways please the Lord, he maketh even his en6 
mies to be at peace with him." Prov. 16, 7. 

Quest, 138. Now if striving and suffering ar 
the duty of christians — striving in the faith lik 
Job— on what then does their hope rest, and o 
what is it founded ? 

Ans. That striving thus is the calling of oi 
thodox christians, has already been fiilly met 
tioned ; in which their Lord and chief has goD 
before them, for he says : "If they have per« 
cuted me, they will also persecute you ; for A 
servant is not greater than his Lord." Job 
15, 20. "Ye shall be hated of all nations fii 
my name's sake." Matt. 24, 9. "Yea, the tia 
Cometh, that whosoever killeth you, will thin! 
that he doeth Grod a service." John 16, i 
Therefore he also says : "If any man will come aj 
ter me, let him deny himself, and take up his croi 

[ 127 3 

duly and follow me." Luke 9, 23. For ''throngh 
mach tribulation we moBt enter into the kingdom 
of heaven/' Acts 14, 22. Now since the highlj 
enlightened apostle Paul — as a faithful follower 
of his Lord in this warfare, and as a pattern of 
all the faithful — has testified this in the forego- 
ing quotation — ^namely, that we must thus enter 
into the kingdom of God ; — this gives good en- 
couragement — ^is even a great comfort in this 
life ; so that we may well say : "I reckon that 
ihe sufferings of tms present time are not wor- 
thy to be compared with the glory that shall be 
revealed in us." Bom. 8, 18. Namely to us, 
who ^^ook not at the things which are seen, but 
at the things which are not seen. For the light 
affliction, which is but for a moment, worketh 
for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight 
of glory." 2 Cor. 4, 17. 18. "Because Christ 
also stmered for us, leaving us an example that 
ye should follow his stops. 1 Pet. 2, 21. For 
the ground on which our hope rests, is the word 
of the Lord, which, as Paul says, ^Sras written 
for our learning, that we through patience and 
comfort of the Scriptures might have hope." 
Bom. 15, 4. And this was also the comfort 
and protection of the prophet Jeremiah, in all 
his sufferings ; for he says : ^'Thy word was un- 
to me the joy and rejoicing of mine heart." 
Jer* 15, 16. And David expresses himself in 
a similar manner. Psalm 119, 92. ; and Paul 
says ; ''We know that tribulation worketh pa- 
tience ; and patience, experience ; and experi- 

1 128 J 

ence, hope; and hope maketh not ashamed. 
Rom. 5, 8—5. Now althongh the pious 
tried through many sufferings, jet ^48 their hope 
full of immortality ;" (Wisdom of Solomon 8^ 
4.) so that they can say : "Whether we lire, we 
live unto the Lord ; and whether we die, we die 
unto the Lord: whether we live therefore, or 
die, we are the Lord's. "Bom. 14, 8. 

Article Twentt-thibd, of the Besurrsctioi 

OF THE Dead. 

Quest. 139. Shall then pious and orthodoi 
christians, who thus strive "through faith," 
never die ; while, nevertheless, the contrary if 
seen and certified —it heing "appointed onto 
man once to die." Heb. 9, 27. 

Ans. In Holy Scripture there are two differ* 
ent lives, and two different deaths spoken of; 
and we must therefore distinguish in what man- 
ner the righteous does not die ; since it is said, 
Heb. 9, 27. that "it is appointed unto man onee 
to die ;'* as it is also manifest that all men — ^the 
pious as well as the wicked — are subject to nat- 
ural death, and have to die ; as Solomon says : 
"The wise man dieth as the fool." Ecclesiaatei 
2, 16. For although Adam lived 930 yean, 
Methusalah 969, Noah 950, Abraham 175 ; and 
many pious people lived to a great age; yet 
was the end of them all : "And they died." 
"For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall 
all be made alive.*' 1 Oor. 15, 22. 

Quest. 140. Is there then yet also another 

[ 129 ] 

death, except the natural death; and another 
life, except the natural life? 

An$^ Undoubtedly there is yet another death, 
except the natural death ; and as also another 
life, except the natural life. For natural death 
must be preceded by a spiritual death, (a death 
unto sin^ if we will otherwise come to that state 
in whicn we shall — as the wise man says — 
**Never die." In which spiritual death, (death 
unto sin) we remain naturally alive, but come 
thereby to a state in which we die in the Lord, 
and yet live afterwards, and never die ; that is, 
if we die unto our worldly lusts, thereby that we 
omcify and mortify our carnal affections and 
lusts, which 'Srar against the soul," as Paul 
says, Rom. 6, 11 : ^^Beckeil ye also yourselves 
to be dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto God 
through Jesus Christ our Lord." And Col. 8, 
8. 6, : "For ye are dead, and your life is hid 
with Christ in God. Mortify therefore your 
members which are upon the earth." "And 
th^ that are Christ's have crucified the flesh 
with the affections and lusts." Gal. 5, 24. Such 
can then say : "For me to live is Christ, and to 
die is gain." Phil. 1, 21. Thus men can die 
unto sin, and live unto God. And if they die 
a natural death — ^according to the decree of 
God — as far as their bodies are concerned, they 

S) the way of all the earth ; but as it concerns 
eir souls, they go from this temporal and toil- 
some life to an eternal and happy rest. "For 
iheir works do follow them." Rev. 14, 13. "He 

[ 180 ] 

(the righteous) shall enter into peace : they shall 
rest in their beds, each one walking in his vp* 
rightness." Isaiah 57, 2. Thus we see that we 
must not understand under natural death, eter- 
nal death. That there is however also another 
life after this natural life, is proved from the 
words of Christ, when he says : "He that be- 
lieveth in me, though he were dead, yet shall 
he live." John 11, 24. 

Quest. 141. Shall then the pious — ^who first 
die a spiritual death (a death unto sin) and then 
also a natural death-^-only live again, but the 
wicked remain in death ? 

Ans. Not only the pious — after having laid 
off this temporal life, or died a natural death, 
and are buried — shall again be raised, and 
made alive ; but also the ungodly. For since 
all the descendants of Adam have fallen under / 
the power of death, through one man's — Adam's . 
— sin, althougli they "have not sinned after the 
similitude of Adam's transgression ;" so abo 
through one man, Christ, comes the resurrefr . 
tion of the dead. Rom. 5, 12. 14.) "For a.<» in . 
Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be 
made alive." 1 Cor. 15, 22. Of this also Daniel - 
testifies in the following words : "And many of • 
them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall : 
awake, some to everlasting life, and some to 
shame and everlasting contempt." Dan. 12. i» ; 
"Awake and sing, ye that dwell in dust." Isaiah 
20, 1I>. And Christ himself says: "Marvel not 
at this : for the hour is coming, in the which all 

C 181 ] 

that are in their graves shall hear his (Christ's) 
Toice, and shall come forth ; they that have 
done good, unto the resurrection of life ; and 
they that have done evil, unto the resurrection 
ef damnation." John 5, 28. 29. So Christ also 
flays to Martha : ^'I am the resurrection and 
the life." John 11, 25. ^^In this was manifested 
die love of God toward us, because that God 
sent his only begotten son into the world, that 
we might live through him." 1 John 4, 9. 

Quest. 142. How can this come to pass, that 
the dead, who are mouldered in the earth, can 
again arise and live ? 

Ans. The precise nature of how this will 
oome to pass, is not necessary for us to know ; 
much less to search into it. That it will how- 
over come to pass through the power and might 
•f Gt>d, is abundantly revealed to us ; as David 
teetifies, when he says : ^'Thou tumest man to 
destruction ; and sayest : Eeturn ye children 
of men." Psalm 90, 3. And Job says : "I 
know that my Eedeemer liveth, and that he 
shall stand at the latter day upon the earth." 
Job 19, 25. From this it is evident, that the 
rasurrection of the dead can and will take place 
durough the omnipotence of God, although this 
may appear to our understanding, strange, and 
even impossible. But what is impossible with 
man, is possible with God. For just as the Lord 
God created every thing out of nothing ; so he 
18 also able to reanimate, and again to put to- 
gether, the decayed body of man, and that with 

C 182 ] 

9> single word ; as is to be seen in the ease of 
Lazams. John 11, 43. 44. As also the Psalm- 
ist mentions, (Psalm 90,) when he says : ^^Se- 
turn, je children of men." And as we also fur- 
ther read in Ezekiel 87, 10. So also Paul speab 
of this matter as follows : "For if we believe 
that Jesus died and rose again, even so them 
also which sleep in Jesus will God bring with 
him." 1 Thes. 4, 14. Besides this, howew 
the apostle Paul does in some measure reUeve 
our wonder, by comparing the resurrection at 
the dead with the seed in the ground ; as is to 
be seen, 1 Cor. 15, 85 — 88 So he also treats 
somewhat of the natura of the resurrection in 
the same chapter, (v. 42 — 44.) He says : "It 
is sown in corruption ; it is raised in incormp- 
tion ; it is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory: 
it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power: it 
is sown a natural body ; it is raised a spirituil 

Article Twenty-fourth, of the last Judg- 
ment AND Eternal Life ; also of Eternal 

Quest 143. Now since mankind have a like 
ingress into the world, and a like egress out of 
it, will it then also be so with the resurrection 
of the dead ? 

Ant. No. For although the resurrection shall 
take place in like manner, yet will the conse- 
quence be unlike; as a great difference will be 
made in regard to the lives which men have led in 

[ 188 ] 

world ; for while one will be banished from 
tbe presence of the Lord, and excluded from 
heaven, the other will be received into the favor 
of God : that is, into heavenly and eternal glorj. 
Ifatt. 25, 40. 41. Further, the day here allud- 
ed to-— the day of judgment — ^will come to pass 
■8 Malachi prophesies, (Malachi 4, 1. 2.) : '^The 
day oometh, that shall bum as an oven ; and all 
the proud, yea, and all that do wickedly, shall 
be stubble : and the day that cometh shall bum 
tihem up, saith the Lord of hosts, that it shall 
leave them neither root nor branch. But unto 
jmt that fear my name shall the Sun of righte- 
Msness arise with healing in his wings." So 
Danid also says: ^'And many of them that 
deep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some 
to everlasting life, and some to shame and ever- 
lasting contempt." Dan. 12, 2. And all this 
18 confirmed by Christ himself. John 5, 29. ; 
Matt. 25, 32. 33. 

Que$L 144. Is the time also known when this 
shall come to pass, or when the day of judgment 
shall come ? 

Am. The precise time or hour of this Av^j is 
net revealed or made known to us in Holy 
Seripture; but indeed the certainty and nature 
of it. For when the disciples asked the Lord 
Jesus : "When shall these tningg be ? and what 
Aall be the sign of thy coming, and the end of 
tile world V he put them in mind of different 
preceding signs of wwr and of darkness in the 
spn, moon, and stars ; as also of many other 


[ 184 ] 

tribulations ; but said the ^^end was not yet" 
Now since no one knows any thing of the day 
and hour of this day ; yea, not even the angels 
in heaven, but the "Father only," (Matt. 24, 
36.) who "hath put in his own power the event 
of this day ;" how then should sinful and firaS 
man imagine through his presumption, to have 
found out, by peculiar wisdom, the time of this 
awful event ; and thereby — ^like Martha — *^ou- 
ble himself with many things," and yet forget 
the "one thing needfid." Therefore Christ com- 
mands us to "watch and bo ready," like those 
servants who wait on their master, not know- 
ing when he "cometh." Mark 13, 35. So Paul 
also testifies, (1 Thes. 5, 1. 2.) saying : "But of 
the times and seasons, brethren, ye have no 
need that I write unto you. For yourselves 
know perfectly, that the day of the Lord so com- 
eth as a thief in the night." And Christ himself 
says, (Matth. 24, 22.): "Except those days 
should be shortened, there should no flesh be 
saved : but for the elect's sake those days shall 
be shortened." 

But how, or in what manner, the Day of the 
Lord will come, is predicted in Matt. 24« ; as 
it was also previously by the prophets ; for Joel, 
for instance, says : "The day of the Lord com- 
eth, for it is nigh at hand ; a day of darkness 
and of gloominess, a day of clouds and of thick 
darkness ; for the day of the Lord is great and 
very terrible." Joel 2, 1. 2. 11. On which day 
Peter says — "The heavens shall pass away 

[ 185 ] 

irith a great noise, and the elements shall melt 
with fervent heat, the earth also and the works 
that are therein, shall be burned up. Seeing 
then that all these things shall be dissolved, 
what manner of persons ought je to be in all 
holy conversation and godliness." 2 Pet. 3, 

m 11. 

Quest. 145. Shall it then, on that day, be 
revealed, how men lived during their lifetime, 
and what they did ; and shall tney at the same 
tu»e be judg/d thereby? 

Ans. It appears clearly, that every one will 
receive his reward according to his works. Now 
since all men are, through the gospel, called, 
exhorted, and urged to repentance and amend- 
ment of life, but many live in a state of disobe- 
dience thereto ; therefore "God hath appointed 
a day, in the which he will judge the world in 
righteousness by that man whom he hath or- 
dained ; whereof he hath given assurance unto 
all men, in that he hath raised him from the 
dead." Acts 17, 31. "For we must all appear 
|)efore the judgment seat of Christ ; that every 
one may receive the things done in his body, 
according to that he hath done, whether it be 
good or evil." 2 Cor. 6, 10. Therefore Christ 
also exhorts: "Take ye heed, watch and pray : 
for ye know not when the time is." Mark 13, 
88. "For as a snare shall it come on all them 
that dwell on the face of the whole earth. Watch 
ye therefore, and pray always, that ye may be 
accounted worthy to escape all these things that 

[ 186 ] 

shall come to pass, and to stand befiure the Son of 
man.*' Luke 21, 35. 36. For 'which reasoo 
Paul also writes to the Romans as follows: 
^^Knowest thou not that the goodness of God 
leadeth thee to repentance ? But after thy hard- 
ness' and impenitent heart treasnreet up unto 
thyself wrath against the day of wrath and reve- 
lation of the righteous judgment of God; irho 
will render to every man according to his deeds: 
To them who by patient continuance in well do- 
ing seek for glory and honor and immortalitji 
eternal life : But unto them that are conten- 
tious, and do not obey the truth, but obey un- 
righteousness, indignation and wrath, tribulation 
and anguish, upon every soul of man that doetb 
evU." Rom. 2, 4—9. 

Quest 146. How or in what manner, shall 
then the judgment be held, and sentence pro- 
nounced ? 

Ans. This is circumstantially described bv 
Matthew, (who received the same from the mouth 
of the Lord Jesus,) in the following words : 
"When the Son of man shall come in his glorv, 
and all the holy angels with him, then shall ie 
sit upon the throne of his glory : and before him 
shall be gathered all nations : and he shall sepa- 
rate them one from another as a shephenl di- 
videth his sheep from the goats : and he shall 
set the sheep on his ri^ht hand, but the goats 
on his left. Then shall the King say to them 
on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Fa- 
ther, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from 

t 187 I 

ibe fouidation of the world. Bat to them on 
his left thand he shall say, Depart from me, ye 
^nursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the 
4evil and his angels/' Matt. 25, 31—41. 

Que$t 147. 'Wliat will then properly be the 
0eat difierenoe in the condition of the said par- 
tefly when each of them shall have gone to the 
place to which it wiU be doomed ? 

An$. Th^re has already been much said aboat 
ihe<»rcamBtance, that those who are disobedient 
to the truth — ^the gospel — shall be doomed to 
liell, to dwell with the devil and his angels ; 
where there is prepared for them, disgrace and 
Wratib, trilmlation and anguish ; yea, '^everlast* 
ing destruction from the presence of the Lord, 
«id from the glory of his power." Yea, that 
tiiiey ^^shall be cast into a furnace of fire ; where 
ihere shall be wailing and knashing of teeth ;" 
(Matt. 13, 42.) where the ''smoke of their tor* 
meat shall ascend for ever and ever." Rev. 14, 
3.1. As is to be seen in the representation of 
the rich man. Luke 16, 25. Yea further, tliat 
they ''shall have their part in the lake that biirn- 
fth with fire and brimstone." Bev. 21, 8. 
^^iVTiere Aeir worm dieth not, and the fire is 
not quenched." Mark 9, 44 — 48. But where 
they '^shall be tormented day and night for 
ever and ever." Sev. 20, 10. This is indeed a 
dreadfid end of the ungodly, who were during 
their lifetime disobedient to the gospel. 

QueHt. 148. What shall, on the oontrary, be 
ihe ultimate condition of the pious, when they 



I W8 ] 

diftll have come to the place allotted them afttf 
the judgment ? 

Ana. For them there will be perpetual gloiy; 
yea, an overgreat rejoicing, and ever sweet joy 
and rest. Besides oeing m the presence of the 
Great God and the Lord Jesus Christ; as also 
in the company of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; 
ea, of all the holy men of God, and surrounded 
y a great host of angels — thus being in ever- 
lasting joy at the "right hand of God," where 
*'there are pleasures forever more." Psalm 16, 
11. Yea, in a state of happiness, which the 
apostle Paul says, "Eye hath not seen, nor ear 
heard, neither have entered into the heart of 
man, the things which God hath prepared for 
them that love him." 1 Cor. 2, 9. Yea, where 
"they shall hunger no more, neither thirst any 
more ; neither shall the sun light on them, nor 
any heat. For the Lamb of God which is in 
the midst of the throne shall feed them, and 
Ifthall lead them unto living fountains of waters : 
and God shall wipe away all tears from their 
eyes." Rev. 7, 16. 17. Thus are the pious to 
be with the Lord to all eternity ; as the spirit 
of revelation says : "Behold the tabernacle of 
God is with men, and he will dwell with them, 
and they shall be his people, and God himself 
shall be with them, and be their God." Bev. 
21, 8. Li this state then there will be unspeaka- 
ble joy and glory, and perfect happiness with- 
out end; a happiness — to express whToh — all 
tongues on earth would have to be silent and 

[ 189 ] 

dumb ; while the saints in heaven — ^the elect of 
Crod — ^will sing with heart, soul, and spirit, the 
heavenly hosanna, saying : '^Blessing, and 
glory, and wisdom, and thanksgiving, and hon- 
or, and power, and might, be unto our God for 
ever and ever. Amen." Bev. 7, 12. 

! I 




Feom Holt Scripture, in Qubstions ahd 
Answers, for the Young. 

Quest, 1. The question is put to the disciple, 
(the person desiring to unite with the churoh,^ 
what induces him to desire to unite with thi 
communion of believers, and be baptized ? 

Ana. I am impelled by faith, to separate my 
self from the world and its sinful lusts, and t 
submit in obedience to juj Lord, Redeemer, am 
Savior, for the salvation of my soul. Heb. 5, S 

Quest. 2. What has induced you to this ? 

Ans. The will and good pleasure of God 
which were proclaimed and demonstrated to m 
through the preaching of the holy gospel ; h 
which were also revealed unto me the laws an 
commandments of Christ; which I &m bouiv 
to receive and observe in true faith? Matt. 7 
21. ; 19, 17. 

Quest. 3. Do you then expect to be justifiei 
and saved through your good works, and th 
keeping of the commandments of Christ ? 

t 1« ] 

Ans. No. For througli our good works alone 
we cannot merit heaven ; for salvation is the 
unmerited grace of God, purchased for us b j 
Jesus Ohrist Eph. 2, 8. 

Que$t 4. For what purpose are then good 
works or the keeping of the commandments of 
Christ, necessary ? 

An$, They are evidence of true faith in Je- 
ms Christ ; for obedience from love to God, is 
die light and life of faith ; and without which, 
^^th is dead." James 2, 20. 

Queit 5. Through what is man justified be- 
fore God ? 

An$, Throjigh the Lord Jesus Christ alone ; 
of whoee righteousness we must become parta- 
kers tibrough '^faith which workedi by love.'' 
GaL 5, 6. 

Qust/t. 6. What is true faith ? 

Am. It is a certain knowledge, whereby we 
liDld every thing as true, that is revealed to us 
ia Holy Scripture ; and whereby we cherish a 
jhll conidence, that the pardon of our sins, 
righteousness, and eternal life, are granted unto 
«s by God, through our Iiord Jesus Christ. 
Eph. 2, 6. 

^ueH. 7. What do you believe ? 

Ans. I believe in God, Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost ? 

^ueit, 8. How do you believe in God the 

Ans. I believe with the heart, and confess 
witii the BKmth, that he is one, eternal, al- 

. [ 142 ] 

mighty, and just God, the Creator and Preserver 
of heaven and earth, together with all things 
visible and invisible. Gen. 14, 17. 

Quest 9. How do you believe in the Son ? 

Ans. I believe that he is Jesus Christ, the 
Son of the living God, our Savior and Be- 
deemer; who has been with the Father from 
eternity, and who, at the "fulness of time," wag 
sent into the world ; that he was conceived bj 
the Holy Ghost ; bom of the blessed "Virpii 
Mary; suflFered for us under Pontius Pilate; 
was c^cified, died, and was buried ; rose ^^ 
from the dead on the third day ; ascended mte 
heaven ; and sits at the right hand of God, the 
Almighty Father ; whence he will again come 
to judge the living and the dead. Matt. 25, 81. ; 
John 17, 6. ; Gal. 4, 4. 

Quest. 10. How do you believe in the Holj 
Ghost ? 

Ans. I believe and confess, that the Holy 
Ghost proceedeth from the Father and the Son, 
and is of a divine nature ; therefore I also be- 
lieve in God, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, as 
being one true God. Besides I also confess a 
general Holy Christian Church, the communion 
of Saints, the remission of sins, the resurrection 
of the flesh, and thereafter eternal life. 1 John, 
6, 20. ; John 6, 29. 

Quest. 11. What do you confess of the 
Christian Church, or the Congregation of the 
Lord ? 

Ans. I ^confess by my faith, that there is a 

[ 143 ] 

Church of God, which the Lord Jesus purchased 
with his own blood ; and which he '^sanctified 
and cleansed with the washing of water by the 
word ; that he might present it to himself a glo- 
rious church." Eph. 5, 26. 27. 

Quest. 12. In what does the Church ' f God 

Ans. In a number of persons, who, through 
faith in Jesus Christ, have withdrawn from a 
sinful world, and submitted in obedience to the 
gospel, not to live any more to tkom uives, but 
to Christ, in true humility ; who also "give di- 
ligence" to exercise christian virtues, by observ- 
ing God's holy ordinances. Such are members 
of the body of Christ, and heirs of eternal life. 
2 Pet. 1, 11. 

Quest. 13. How, and through what, is the 
Church of God upheld ? 

Ans. Through the preachingof the holy gos- 
pel, and the instruction of the Holy Ghost ; and 
for the purpose of carrying on and maintaining 
which, teachers and ministers are elected by the 
church. Eph. 4, 11. 

QuesL 14. Who has given power to the church 
to choose teachers ? 

An9. I confess, that as the apostles "were 
accustomed" to do ; so has God also given power 
to his church to do ; namely, to elect teachers 
and ministers, that the "body of Christ may be 
edified" and preserved. Wherefore the election 
of such teachers and ministers also takes place 
according to the example which the apostles 

[ 144 J 

were accustomed to observe in such mM 
Eph. 4, 12. ; Acts 1, 15—26. 

Qv£8t. 15. Whence comes the ordinane 
the service to the poor ? 

Ans. Of this ser^dce we have an examp] 
tJie Acts of the Apostles ; who, when the ^^ 
ber of the disciples was multiplied/' callM 
ffether the midtitude, and caused to be * 
pointed from among them, seven men," 
took charge of such ^^business," which ezai 
is still observed ; so that tfiat which is contri 
ed by christian hearts, is properlj applie* 
the relief of the necessities of the poor mem 
of the church. Acts 6, 1. ; Eph. 4, 28. 

Quest. 16. How, and through what xnc 
are the members of the body of Christ ii 
porated into the church ? 

Ans, Through the ordinance of chrii 
baptism, on confession of their faith, and 
pentance of their past sins ; whereupon thej 
baptized in the name of the Father, the 
and the Holy Ghost. Matt. 28, 19. 

Quest 17. What is baptism properly ? 

Ans. I confess, that it is an external < 
nance of Christ, a sign of a spiritual birth : 
God, a ^'putting on of Christ," and an incc 
ration into his church; an evidence tha< 
have established a covenant with Christ ? I 
6, 4. ; Gal. S, 27. ; 1 Pet. 3, 21. 

Quest. 18. Of what use is baptism ? 

Ans. It represents to true believers the n 
ing away of the imparity of their souls^ thn 

[ 145 ] 


the blood of Christ, namely, the pardon of their 
sins; whereupon they console themselves with 
the hope of eternal salvation, through Jesus 
Christ, whom they have "put on" in baptism. 
Gal. 8, 27. 

Que$t. 19. To what are the members of the 
church of Christ, bound by baptism ? 

An9, To the act of suffering their past sins 
to be buried into Christ's death by baptism, 
and of binding themselves to Christ in a new 
life and conversation — a life of obedience — in 
order that they may follow his will, and do what 
he has commanded them to do. Matt. 28, 20. 

QueMt, 20. What is the Lord's Supper ? 

Aim. I confess that it is an external ceremony 
and institution of Christ, administered to be- 
lievers in the form of bread and wine ; in the 
partaking of which, the death and sufferings of 
Christ are to be declared, and observed to his 
memory? 1 Cor. 11, 26. 

Quest. 21. What purpose does the observance 
of the Sacrament subserve ? 

Ans. It is thereby represented to us, how 
Christ's holy body was sacrificed on the cross, 
and his precious blood shed, for us — ^for the par- 
don of our sins. 1 John, 1, 7. 

Quest. 22. What is the use of the observance 
of the Sacrament ? 

Ans. We thereby bear witness to our simple 
obedience to Christ, our Saviour and Redeemer ; 
which has the promise of eternal salvation. Fur- 
ther, it secures unto us, through faith, the com- 


[ 146, I 

munion of the body and blood of Christ, and 
comforts us with the benefit of his death ; that 
is, the assurance of the pardon of our sins. 1 
Cor. 10, 16. ; Heb. 6, 9. 

Quest. 23. Is marriage also an institution of 

An8. Tes. For it is instituted by God him- 
self, and confirmed in the case of Adam and 
Eve in the Garden of Eden. Gen. 1, 27. 28. 

Quest. 24. For what purpose is marriage in- 
stituted ? 

Ans. For the purpose of increasing the hu- 
man race ; so that the earth may thereby be 
peopled with inhabitants ; as also, that fornica- 
tion may be avoided. Therefore "every man" 
is to "have his own wife," and "every woman 
her own. husband." 1 Cor.. 7, 2. 

Quest 25. How must such marriage be be- 
gun, so that it does not clash with the institu- 
tion ? 

Ans. Persons who are not too nearly related 
by consanguinity, may, after diligent prayer to 
God, enter into this state, and endeavor to live 
therein, in a christian manner, to the end of 
their days ; provided that they — as members of 
the Christian Church — enter into marriage only 
with members of the church. Lev. 18, 6 — 17. ; 
1 Cor. 7, 39. ; 9, 5. 

Quest. 26. Is a member of the church not at 
all allowed to enter into matrimony with a person 
who is not agreed with him in faith a;id doctrine? 

Ans. No. For this is contrary to the mar- 

[ 147 ] 

riage institution ; and he who thus enters into 
matrimony, acts contrary to the law. of God, 
and the doctrine of the apostles. Dcut. 7, 3. 4. ; 
Judges 3, 6. 7. ; 1 Cor. 1, 10. ; 7, 39. ; Phil. 
2, 1% 2. 

Quest. 27. Can also a lawful marriage, for 
any cause, be divorced ? 

Atm. No. For the persons united by such 
marriage are so closely bound to each other, 
that they can in no wise separate, except in case 
of "fornication." Matt. 19, 9. 

Quest 28. What do you confess in regard to 
the power of civil government ? 

Ans. I confess, from the testimony of Holy 
Scripture, that kings and government* are in- 
stituted by God, for the welfare and common 
interest of the countries over which they rule ; 
and that he who resists such authorities, "resists 
the ordinance of God." Rom. 13, 1. Where- 
fore we are under obligation to fear and honor 
government, and obey the same in all things 
that do not militate against the word of God. 
So we are also commanded to pray for the same. 
1 Tim. 1, 2. 

Quest. 29. Is it allowed to swear an oath ? 

Ans. No. For although -this was allowed to 
the fathers of the Old Testament, yet has our 
Lord and institutor of the New Testament, 
Christ Jesus, expressly forbidden it ; (Matt. 5, 
33 — 37.) which is confirmed by the apostle 
James, when he says : "Above all things, my 
brethren, swear not ; but let your yea be yea ; 

[ 148 ] 

and your naj, nay ; lest je fall into condemna* 
tion. JamoB 5, 12. 

Qtteit. 80. Is it allowed to take revenge ? 

An9. No ; although there was liberty to do 
so under the Old Testament Dispensation. . Sut 
now that it is totally forbidden by Christ and 
his apostles, we must not lust after it, but in 
meekaess do good unto our neighbor ; yea, also, 
to our enemies. Matt, fi, 38. 39. ; Kom. 12, 

Quest 31. If a member of the church fall 
into some sin, or misdeed, what is to be done in 
such case ? 

And. I confess by virtue of the doctrine of 
Christ and his apostles, that reproof and dis- 
cipline fiiust be fostered and maintained amongst 
believers ; so that the headstrong, as well as 
such as have committed gross sins and works of 
the flesh — ^whereby they have separated them- 
selves from God — may not be suffered in the 
communion of believers ; but for their own 
amendment, be ^^ebuked before all, that others 
also may fear." Matt« 18, 15—18. ; Isaiah 59, 
2. ; 1 Tim. 5, 20. 

Quest 32. How must we demean ourselves 
towards such as are thus separated from the 
church ? 

Ans. According to the doctrine of the apos- 
tles, the true members of the church of Christ 
are to withdraw from such reproved and impeni- 
tent'offenders, and have no spiritual oommunion 
with them, except by chance or occasion, whea 

[ W9 ] 

ikej may be exhorted in love, compaasioDi and 
christian discretion, again to rise from their 
fallen state, and return to the church. Bom. 
16, 17. ; Tit 8, 10. 

' Que9t. 88. How long is the avoiding of sach 
offenders to be observed ? 

An$. Until they return again, sive evidence 
of repentance,^-of sorrow for their sins, — ^and 
earnestly desire, again to be admitted into the 
oommonion of th^ church. In such case they 
are, after solemn prayer to God, again received 
and admitted. 2 Cor. % 6. 7. 

Quut. 84. What do you believe concerning 
the second coming of Gmrist, and the resurrec- 
tion of the dead ? 

Ans. I believe that Christ, our Head, Lord, 
and Savior, will — just as he visibly ascended to 
heaven — again appear from thence in great 
power and glory, "with a shout,- and with the 
trump of God." 1 Thes. 4, 16. "For the hour 
is coining, in the which all that are in their 
sraves shall hear his voice, and shall come forth ; 
they that have done good, unto the resurrection 
of fife ; and they that have done evil, unto the 
resurrection of damnation." John 5, 28. 29. 
''For we must all appear before the judgment 
Beat of Christ ; that every one may receive the 
things done in his body, according to that he 
bath dpne, whether it be good or bad." 2 Cor. 
5, 10. 

Quetit, 85. Now as this confession agrees with 
the doctrine of Christ and his apostles, the ques- 


It «W) )] 

^<y^ Wftaity pat to the disciple : Whetlie» he 
IsiijplUMfrom his whole heart, to submit hJra- 
«flW^o tW -will of his Redeemer and Savior, Je- 
soa Clhriat — to deny himself, together wi(h all 
siiUU'ltiliti^ — and to strive by the grace of God, 
in trap fiiitb and heart-felt hnraitity — to lew! i 
{oMrUili] godly life and holy conversation, ac- 
^QrfHltt id the commandments of God, as long 

'V4#^T«a. Tqirluehi^bwHnV'3riidie40od^ 

th9 Holy SpU^ito'Bdntiok-.-Tjtii.lriiwk bl 
honi^'fliad praise fol' ever vid'eVer, AmtoL 




wa up at DBrdreeht, at a certain Peace Convention, en 
the 2\9t day of April, 1633. 


aelftration of the Chief Articles of our Geueral 

Chrlstiau Faith. 

iTioLB First, op God and thb Creation 


PVTiereas it is declared, that "without faith it 
mpossible to please God," (Ileb. 11, 6.) and 
<t "he that cometh to God must believe that 
iSy and that he is a rewarder df them that 

fently seek him." Therefore we confess 
the mouth, and believe with the heart, to- 
her with all the pious, according to Holy 
ripture, in one eternal, almighty, and incom- 
thensible God, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, 
I none more and none other ; before whom no 
d existed, nor will exist after him. For from 
I, through him, and in him are all things. 
him be blessing, praise, and honor, for ever 
[ ever. Gen. 17^ 1. ; Deiit. 6, 4. ; Isaiah 46, 
1 John 5, 7. 

[ 152 ] 

In this one God, who "worketh all in all," 
we believe. Him we confess as the Creator of 
all things, visible and invisible ; who in six days 
created and prepared '^heaven and the sea, 
and thinge that are therein." And we farther 
believe, that this God still ffovems and preserveB 
the same, together with all his works, through his 
wisdom, his might, and the *'word of his power." 
Gen. 5, 1. 2. ; Acts 14, 15. ; 1 Cor. 12, 6. 

Now when he had finished his works, and 
had, according to his good pleasure, ordained 
and prepared each of them, right and well, ac- 
cording to its nature, bein^ and quality, he 
next created the first man Adam, the father of 
all of us, gave him a body formed "of the dust 
of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the 
breath of life ;" so that he "became a living soul; 
created by God in his own image and likeness," 
in "righteous and true holiness" unto eternal 
life. Further he regarded him also in particu- 
lar, above all other creatures, and adorned him 
with many high and excellent gifts ; put him 
into the garden of Eden, and gave him a com- 
mandment and interdiction. Thereupon he 
took a rib from the said Adam, made a wo- 
man out of it, brought her to him, and gave her 
to him as a helpmate and housewife. Conse- 
quentlv he has also caused, that from this first 
man, Adam, all men who "dwell on all the face 
of the earth," have been begotten and have de- 
scended. Gen. 1, 27. ; 2, 7. 15. 17. 22. ; 6, 1.; 
Acts 17, 26. 

[ 163 ] 

Articlb Second, of thb Fall of Man. 

We believe and confess, that, according to the 
purport of Holy Scripture, these our first pa- 
rents, Adam and Eve, did not long remain in 
:he happy state in which they were created ; 
>at did — after being seduced by the deceit and 
•*8nbtility" of the serpent, and eAvy of the devil 
— ^violate the high commandment of God, and 
became disobedient to their Creator ; through 
B^hich disobedience ''sin entered into the world, 
ind death by sin ;" so that "death passed upon 
lU men, for that all have sinned,'' and thereby 
incurred the wrath of God and condemnation. 
E*or which reason our first parents were also 
liiven by Gt)d out of Paradise, to cultivate the 
uurth, to maintain themselves thereon in sorrow, 
uid to ''eat their bread in the sweat of their 
hce," until they "returned to the ground, out 
of which they were taken." And that they 
lid, therefore, through this one sin, so far apos- 
tatue, depart, and estrange themselves from 
God, that they could neither help themselves, 
nor be helped, by any of their descendants, nor 
by angels, nor by any other creature in heaven 
or on earth ; nor be redeemed or reconciled to 
Ood; but would have had to be lost forever, 
had not God, (who pitied his creatures,) in mer- 
oy made provision for their fall, and interposed 
in their behalf. Gen. 8, 6. 28. ; Bom. 5, 12— 
19. ; Psalm 47, 8. 9. ; Bev. 5, 3. ; John 8. 16. 

Article Third, op the Restoration op Tk 



As it regards the restoration of the firs 
mankind, and their descendants, we belieye 
confess : That God, notwithstanding their : 
transgression, and sin, and although they 
no power to help themselves, did nevertnc 
not wish to cast them off entirely, or pei 
them to be eternally lost ; but that he a^ 
called them unto lum, comforted them, 
showed them that there were yet means ' 
him for their reconciliation ; namely, the 
maculate Lamb, the Son of God ; who *' 
fore-ordained" for the purpose aforesaid ' 
fore the foundation of the world," and who 
promised to them and all their descenda 
while they (the former) were yet in pa,ra( 
for their comfort, redemption, and salvati 
yea, who was given to them thenceforwi 
through faith, as their own ; after which all 
pious patriarchs, to whom this promise was o 
renewed, longed, and searched; seeing it 
distance through faith, and expecting its fi 
ments — expecting that he, (the Son of Q 
would at his advent, again redeem and de 
the fallen race of man from their sins, t 
guilt, and unrighteousnes. John 1, 29. ; 
27. ; 1 Pet. 1, 19. ; Gen. 8, 15. ; 1 John, 5 
2. ; 8, 8. ; Gal. 4, 4. 6. 

C 165 ] 

Article Foueth, of the Advent of Christ 
INTO this World, ajud the Reason thereof. 

We believe and confess further : That "when 
the fullness of the time was come," after which 
all the pious patriarchs so ardently longed, and 
which they so anxiously awaited, — the previously 
promised Messiah, Redeemer, and Savior, pro- 
ceeded from God, being sent by him, and, accord- 
_ ing to the prediction of the prophets and the tes- 
timony of the evangelists, came into the world, 
yea, into the flesh, so that the word itself thus 
became flesh and man ; and that he was con- 
cieived by the Virgin Mary, (who was espoused 
to a man named Joseph, of the house of David,) 
aUd that she bare him as her first-born son at 
Bethlehem, "wrapped him in swaddling clothes, 
and laid him in a manger." John 4, 25. ; IG, 
28. ; 1 Tim. 3, 16. ; Matt. 1, 21. ; John 1, 14. ; 
Luke 2, 7. 

. Enrther we believe and confess, that this is 
- the same One, **who8e goings forth have been 
^ from of old, from everlasting ;" who has "nei- 
t ther beginning of days, nor end of life.'* Of 
2 whom it is testified, that he is "Alpha and Ome- 
,-s ffa, the beginning and the end, the first and the 
& last." That this is also he — and none other — 
^ who was chosen, promised, and sent ; who came 
; into the world; and who is God's only, first, 
2 and proper Son ; who was before John the Bap- 
~ tist, before Abraham, before the world ; yea, 
who was David's Lbrd, and who is God of the 

[ 166 ] 

•*whole earth," "thefirst-bornof every creature;" 
who was sent into the world, and himeelf de- 
livered up the body prepared for him, as "an 
offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet 
smelling savor ;" yea, for the comfort, redemp- 
tion, and salvation of all — of the whole human 
race. Micah 5, 2.; Heb. 7, 3.; Rev. 1, 8.; 
John 3, 16. ; Rom. 8, 32. ; Col. 1, 15. ; Heb. 
10, 5. 

But how, or in what manner, this worthy body 
was prepared, or how the word became flesh — 
man itself; — as to that, we content ourselves 
with the declaration which the worthy evange- 
lists have given and left in their description 
thereof: according to which we confess with all 
the saints, that he is the Son of the living God ; 
in whom consists all our hope, comfort, redemp- 
tion, and salvation ; and which we are to seek 
in no one else. Luke 1, 31 — 35. ; John 20, 31. 

Further, we believe and confess by authority 
of scripture, that when he had ended his course, 
and "finished" the work for which he was sent 
into the world, he was by the providence of God 
delivered into the hands of the unrighteous; 
suffered under the judge Pontius Pilate, was 
crucified, died, was buried, rose again from the 
dead on the third day, and ascended into hea- 
ven ; where he now sits at the right hand of the 
Majesty of God on high," whence he will again 
come to judge the living and the dead. Luke 
23, 1. ; 33, 53. ; 24, 5. 6. 51. 

And that thus the Son of 'God died, ^^tasted 

[ 167 ] 

death for every man/' shed his precious blood, 
and thereby ^^ruised the head of the serpent," 
destroyed the works of the devil, "blotted out 
the hand-writing," and purchased redemption 
for the whole human race ; and has thus be- 
come the cause of the eternal salvation of all 
these who from the time of Adam to the end of 
the world, shall have believed in him, and 
obeyed him. Gen. 3, 15. ; 1 John, 8, 8. ; Col. 
2, 14. ; Bom. 5, 18. 

Abticle Fifth, of the Law of Christ, which 
IS THE Holt Gospel, or the New Testa- 

We also believe and confess, that Christ be- 
fore his ascension, established and instituted his 
New Testament, and left it to his followers, to 
be and remain an everlasting testament ; which 
he confirmed and sealed with his own precious 
blood ; and with which he has also so strictly 
charged them, that it may not be altered either 
by men or angels ; nor any thing taken there- 
from or added thereto. Jer. 81, 81. ; Heb. 9, 
15—17. ; Matt. 26, 28. ; Gal, 1, 8. ; 1 Tim. 6, 
8. ; Rev. 22, 18. 19. ; Matt. 5, 18. ; Luke 21, 83. 

And that he has caused this testament, (in 
which the whole counsel and will of his heavenly 
Father, in so far as these are necessary to the 
salvation of man, are comprehended,) to be pro- 
claimed, in his name, through his beloved apos- 
tles, messengers, and servants, (whom he choose 
and sent into cJl the world for this purpose,) 



[ 148 

fuii TOUT umj, naj ; lest ye fiill into aondenmr 
tion.^* JHietS,12. 

QumL SOfT Is it albwed to take revenge t 

jLnk* No ; althong}! there was liberty te d» 
BO under the Old Testament Dispensetioii. ^ Bit 
now .that it is totajly forbidden by Christ mi 
his apostleSy we must net Inst ftfter it| but m 
mekMis 4ojSOod unto oar ni^bbor ;m aliis 
to onr enemies. M«tt 6, 88. 89. ; IUndb. IS^ 
18— 2t 

QuetL 81. If e member of the ehnroh fid 
into some sin, or misdeed, what is to be doM m 

An$. I confess by Tirtoe of the doetrine of 
Christ imd his apostles, that reproof and d» 
cipline iivst be fostered and maintained amompt 
belierers ; so that the headstrong, as well u 
snoh as have committed gross sins and works of 
the flesh^ — whereby they have separated them- 
selves from Ood — may not be suffered in the 
communion of believers; bat for their own 
amendment, be ^^ebaked before all, that others 
also may fear/' Matt. 18, 15—18. ; Isaiah 59, 
2. ; 1 Em. 5, 20. 

Que9t. 82. How most we demean oorselvos 
towards such as are thus separated from the 

An$. According to the doctrine of the apos- 
tles, the true members of the church of Christ 
are to withdraw from such reproved and impeni- 
tont'offenders, and have no Hpiritual communion 
with them, except by chance or occasiony whan 

C 159 J 

irhicli after Grod is created in righteousness and 
jme holiness." For neither Baptism, Sacra- 
ment, nor Gommnnion ; nor any other external 
ceremony, can, without faith and the new birth, 
% change or renewal of life, help us — can so 
(qualify us, that we may please God, or receive 
Euay consolation or promise of solvation from 
him. Luke 3, 8. ; Eph. 4, 22. 24. ; Col. 8, 9. 
10. No. But on the contrary, we must go to 
God '^th a true heart, in full assurance of 
Guth," and believe in Jesus Christ, as scripture 
speaks and testifies of him. Through which 
foith we obtain the pardon of our sins, become 
sanctified, justified, and children of God ; yea, 
partakers of his mind, nature, and image ; as 
we are bom again of God through his incorrup- 
dble seed from above. Heb. 10, 21. 22. ; John 
7,88.; 2 Pet. 1,4. 

Abticlb Seventh, of Holy Baptism, 

As it .regards baptism, we confess that all 
penitent beUevers, who through faith, the new 
birth, and renewal of the Holy Ghost, have 
become united to God, and whose names are 
recorded in heaven, must, on such scriptural 
confession of their faith, and renewal of life, 
according to the command and doctrine of 
Ohrist, and the example and usage of the apos- 
tles, be baptized with water in the reverential 
name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy 
Ghost, to the burying of their sins, and thus be- 
come incorporated with the communion of saints ; 

L 160 ] 

whereupon thOT must learn to "observe all tUngp 
whatever the Son of God taught, left on recoitl, 
and commanded his followers to do. Matt. 8^ 
15. ; 28, 19. 20. ; Mark 16, 15. 16. ; Acts 2, 
88. ; 8, 12. 38. ; 9, 19. ; 10, 47. ; 16, 88 j 
Rom. 6, 3. 4. ; Col. 2, 12. 

Articlb Eighth, op the Church of Chribt. 

We believe in and confess, a visible Church 
of God, consisting of those, who, as before re 
marked, have truly repented, rightly believed, 
are rightly baptized, are united with God ill 
heaven, and incorporated with the communiofl 
of the saints on earth. 1 Cor. 12, 13. Aim! 
these, we confess, are a "chosen generation, a 
royal priesthood, an holy nation ;'* who have 
the testimony, that they are the "bride** (A 
Christ ; yea, that they are children and heirs d 
eternal life,*' a "habitation of God through the 
spirit,*' built on the foundation of the apostlea 
and prophets, of which "Christ himself is the 
chief corner stone*' — the foundation on whidi 
his church is built. John 3, 29. ; Matt. 16, 18.; 
Eph. 2, 19—21.; Tit. 3, 7. ; 1 Pet. 1, 18. 19.; 
2, 9. This church of the living God, which he 
has purchased and redeemed through his own 
precious blood, and with which he will be — ac- 
cording to his own promise — for its comfort and 
protection, "always, even unto the end of th« 
world ;** yea, "dwell among them, and walk 
among them,** also preserve them, that no 
"winds" nor **floods," yea not even the "gatet 

[ 161 ] 

of hell shall prevail against it,'' — ^may be known 
by its scriptural faith, doctrine, love, and "god- 
ly conversation ;" as also by its useful career, 
its practice and observance of the true ordinan- 
ces of Christ, which he has strictly enjoined on 
his followers. Matt. 7, 25. ; 16, 18. ; 28, 20. ; 
2 Oor. 6, 16. 

Aeticlb Ninth, of the Officp op Teachers 
AND Ministers — male and female — in 

THE Church. 

As it regards the offices, and election of per- 
sons to the same, in the church, we believe and 
confess : That, as the church cannot exist and 
prosper nor continue in its structure, without 
offices and regulations, that therefore the Lord 
Jesus has himself, (as a father in his house,) ap- 
pointed and prescribed his offices and ordi- 
nances, and has given commandments concern- 
ing the same, as to how each one should walk 
therein, give heed to his own work and calling, 
and do as it becomes him to do. Eph. 4, 11. 12. 
For he himself, as the faithful and great shep- 
herd, and bishop of our souls, was sent into the 
world, not to wound, to break, or destroy the 
souls of men ; but to heal them, to seek that 
which is lost, to pull down the hedges and par- 
tition wall, so as to make out of many one; thus 
collecting out of Jews and heathen, yea out of 
all nations a church in his name ; for which — 
80 that no one might go wrong or be lost — ^he 
left his own life, and thus procured for them 


C 162 1 

salvation, freed and redeemed them ; to whioh 
blessing no one could help them, or be of ser- 
yice in obtaining it. 1 Pet. 2, 25. ; Matt. 18, 
11. ; Eph. 2, 18, 14. ; John 10, 9. 11. 16. 

And that he, besides this, left his churdi be» 
fore his departure provided with faithful minis* 
ters, apostles, evangelists, pastors, and teachers, 
whom he had chosen by prayer and supplication 
through the holy spirit, so tnat they might gov- 
ern the church, feed his flock, watch over and 
superintend the same ; yea, do in all things as 
he left them an example, taught them, did him- 
self, and commanded them to do ; and to teaoh 
the church to observe all things which he com- 
manded them to do. Eph. 4, 11. ; Luke 6, 12. 
18. ; 10, 1. ; Matt. 28, 20. 

Also that the apostles were afterwards, as 
faithful followers of Christ and leaders of the 
church, diligent in these matters, namely, in 
choosing through prayer and supplication to 
God, brethren who were to provide all the 
churches in cities and on circuits, with bishops, 
pastors, and leaders, and to ordain to these offi- 
ces such men as took ^^heed unto themselves and 
unto the doctrine" and flock ; who were sound 
in the faith, pious in their life and conversation, 
and who had— as well within the church as 
*Snthout" — a good reputation and good report; 
so that they might be a light and example in all 
godliness and good works, might worthily ad- 
minister the Lord's ordinances — ^baptism and 
the sacrament — and that they (the brethren sent 

[ 168 ] 

by the apostles) might also, at all places, (where 
sach were to be had,) appoint faithfiil men as 
elders, who were able to teach others, confirm 
them in the name of the Lord ^^th the laying 
on of hands," and who (the elders) were to take 
care of all things of which the church stood in 
need ; so that they, as faithful servants, might 
well "occupy" their Lord's money, gain there- 
by, and thus "save themselves and those who 
hear them." 1 Tim. 3, 1. ; 4, 14. 16. ; Acts 1, 
28. 24.; Tit. 1, 5. ; Luke 19, 13. 

That they should also take good care, Tpar- 
tioularly each one of the charge over which he 
had the oversight,) that all the circuits should 
be well provided with almoners, who should 
have the care and oversight of the poor, and 
who were to receive gifts and alms, and again 
£uthfully to distribute them amongst the poor 
saints who were in need ; and this in all hones- 
ty, as is becoming. Acts 6, 3 — 6. 

That we should also choose honorable old 
widows as servants ; who, besides the almoners, 
are to visit, comfort, and take care of the poor, 
the weak, the afflicted, and the needy ; as also 
to visit, comfort, and take care of widows and 
orphans ; and further to assist in taking care of 
any matters in the church that properly come 
within their sphere, according to their best abili- 
ty. 1 Tim. 5, 9. 10. ; Rom. 16, 1. 2. 

And as it further regards the almoners, that 
they, (particularly if they are fit persons, and 
ohosen and ordamed thereto by the church,) 

[ 165 1 

deavor to maintain and keep alive the union 
id communion which we have with God, and 
longst one another ; which is thus shown and 
presented to us by the aforesaid breaking of 
ead. Matt. 26, 26. ; Mark 14, 22. ; Luke 22. 
I. ; Acts 2, 42. 46. ; 1 Cor. 10, 16. ; 11, 23—26. 

RTICLB Eleventh, op the Washing of the 
Feet op the Saints. 

We also confess a washing of the feet of the 
ints, as the Lord Jesus did not only institute 
id command the same, but did also himself 
ish the feet of the apostles, although he was 
eir Lord and master ; thereby giving an ex- 
iple that they also should wash one another's 
dt^ and thus do to one another as he did to 
0ia : which they also consequently taught be- 
irers to observe ; and all this as a sign of true 
tmiliation ; but yet more particularly as a sign 
remind us of the true washing — of the wash- 
g and purification of the soul in the blood of 
iriat. John 13, 4—17. ; 1 Tim. 5, 10. 

Article Twelpth, op Matrimony. 

We also confess that there is in the church of 
3d an "honorable" stateof matrimony between 
o believers of the different sexes ; as God first 
ititnted the same in paradise between Adam 
id Eve, and as the Lord Jesus reformed it by 
moving all abuses which had crept into it, and 
storing it to its first order. G^n. 1, 27. ; 2, 

[ 166 ] 

In this manner the apostle Paul also taiii 
and permitted matrimony in the church, lea^ 
it to each one's own choice to enter into msJi 
mony with any person who would unite w 
him in such state, provided that it was done ^ 
the Lord," according to the primitive ordi 
the words "in the Lord," to be understood, ; 
cording to our opinion, that just as the pal 
archs had to marry amongst their own kind] 
or generation ; so there is also no other liba 
allowed to believers Under the New Testam< 
Dispensation, than to marry amongst the "a 
sen generation," or the spiritual kindred 
Christ ; that is, to such — and none others- 
are abeady — ^previous to their marriage — ^unil 
to the church in heart and soul, have receii 
the same baptism, belong to the same chur 
are of the same faith and doctrine, and lead 1 
same course of life, with themselves. 1 Cor. * 
9, 5. ; Gen. 24, 4. ; 28, 6. ; Num. 36, 6- 
Such are then, as already remarked, united 
God and the church according to the primiti 
order ; and this is then called : "Marrying 
the Lord." 1 Cor. 7, 39. 

Article Thirteenth, of the Office of Cn 


We also believe and confess, that God has i 
stituted civil government ; and this for the pn 
ishment of the bad and the protection of the ] 
ous ; as also further, for the purpose of gov<n 
ing the world— governing countries and citie 

[ 167 ] 

ns also again to preserve its subjects in good 
order and under good regulations. Wherefore 
-we are not permitted to despise, blaspheme, or 
resist the same ; but are to acknowledge it as a 
minister of God, be subject and obedient to it ; 
particularly in such matters as do not militate 
against the law, will and commandments of God ; 
yea, "to be ready to every good work ;** also 
faithfully to pay it custom, tax, and tribute ; 
thus giving it what is its due ; as Jesus Christ 
tauflht) did himself, and commanded his followers 
to do. That we are also to pray to the Lord 
earnestly for the government and its welfare, 
and in behalf of our country ; so that we may 
live under its protection, maintain ourselves, 
and "lead a quiet and peaceable life in all god- 
liness and honesty/' And further, that the 
Lord would recompense it here and hereafter 
in eternity, for all the benefits, liberties, and 
favors which we enjoy under its laudable admi- 
nistration. Kom. 13, 1—7. ; Tit. 3, 1. 2. ; 1 
Pet. 2, n.; Matt. 17, 27. ; 22, 21. ; 1 Tim. 2, 

Abticlb Fourteenth, of Defence. — (By 


As it regards revenge, whereby we resist our 
enemies with the sword, we believe and confess, 
that the Lord Jesus has forbidden his disciples 
and followers all revenge and resistance, and 
has thereby commanded them not to "return 
evil for evil, nor railing for railing;" but to 

[ 168 ] 

^^nt up thle s^ord into the sheath," or (as the 
prophets foretold) ^^beat them into plough- 
shares." Matt. 5, 39. 44. ; Rom. 12, 14. ; 1 
Pet. 3, 9. ; Isaiah 2, 4. ; Micah 4, 8. 

From this we see, that, according to the ex- 
ample, life, and doctrine of Christ, we are not 
to do wrong or occasion grief or vexation to 
any one ; but to seek the welfare and salvation 
of all men ; also, if necessity should require it, 
to flee, for the Lord's sake, from one city or 
country to another, and suffer the "spoiling of 
our goods," rather than give occasion of grirf 
to any one ; and if we are struck on our "right 
cheek, rather turn the other also," than re- 
venge ourselves, or return the blow. Matt. 5, 
39. ; 10, 23. ; Rom. 12. 19. 

And that we are besides this, also to pray for 
our enemies, comfort and feed them, when they 
are hungry or thirsty, and thus convince them 
by well-doing. Rom. 12, 20. 21. 

Finally, that we are to do good in all re- 
spects, "commending ourselves to every man's 
conscience in the sight of God," and according 
to the law of Christ, do nothing to others that 
we would not wish them to do unto us. 2 Cor. 
4, 2. ; Matt. 7, 12. ; Luke 6, 31. 

Article Fifteenth, op the Swearing op 


As it regards the swearing of oaths, we. be- 
lieve and confess, that the Lord Jesus has dis- 
suaded his followers from and forbidden them 

[ 169 ] 

the same ; that is, that he commanded them to 
"swear not at all ;" but that their *^ea" should 
be "yea," and their "nay, nay." From which 
we perceive that all oaths, high and low, are for- 
bidden ; and that instead of them we are to 
confirm all our promises and covenants, decla- 
rations and testimonies of all matters, merely 
with **yea that is yea," and "nay that is nay ;" 
and that we are to perform and fulfil at all 
times, and in all things, to every one, whatso- 
ever about which we thus affirm, as faithfully as 
if' we had confirmed it by the most solemn oath. 
And if we do thus, it is our conviction, that no 
one — ^not even government itself — has a right 
in justice, to require more of us. Matt. 6, 3f — 
87. ; James 6, 12. ; 2 Cor. 1, 17. 

Aeticlb Sixtkbnth, op Excommunication or 
Expulsion from the Church. 

We also believe in, and confess^ a state of 
excommunication — a separation from — of spir- 
itual punishment by the church, for the amend- 
ment, and not for the destruction, of ofienders ; 
80 that what is pure may be separated from 
what is impure. That is, if a person, after hav- 
ing been enlightened, has received the knowl- 
edge of the truth, and has been received into 
the communion of saints, does wilfully, or out 
of presumption, sin against God, or commit 
some other "sin unto death," thereby falling 
into such unfruitful works of darkness, that he 
becomes separated from God, and debarred 


[ 170 ] 

from his kingdom; — ^that such an one — when 
his works are become manifest, and sufficiently 
known to the church — cannot remain in the 
''congregation of the righteous ; but must, as 
an offensive member and notorious sinner, be 
excluded from the church, "rebuked before all," 
and ''purged out as a leaven ;" and thus remain 
until his amendment, as an example and terror 
to others ; as also that the church may be kept 
pure from such "spots" and "blemishes;" so 
that not for the want of this, the name of the 
Lord be blasphemed, the church be dishonored, 
and a stumblingblock be thrown in the way ojf 
those "without." Finally, that the offender 
may not be damned with the world, but may 
again be convinced of the error of his ways, and 
brought to repentance and amendment of life. 
Isaiah 69, 2. ; 1 Cor. 5, 6. 6. 12. ; 1 Tim. 5, 
20. ; 2 Cor. 13, 10. 

As it further regards brotherly admonition, 
as also the instruction of the erring, we are to 
"give all diligence" to watch over them, and ex- 
hort them in all meekness to the amendment of 
their ways ; (James 5, 19. 20.) and in case any 
should remain obstinate and unconverted, to re- 
prove them as the case may require. In short, 
the church must "put away from among itself 
him that is wicked," whether it be in doctrine 
or life. 

[ 171 ] 


As it regards the withdrawing from, or the 
Bhnnning of, those who are expelled, we believe 
and confess, that if any one, whether it be 
through a wicked life or perverse doctrine— is 
80 far fallen as to be separated from God, and 
consequently rebuked by, and expelled from, 
the church ; he must also, according to the doc- 
trine of Christ and his apostles, be shunned and 
avoided by all the members of the church, (par- 
ticularly by those to whom his misdeeds are 
known,) whether it be in eating or drinking, or 
other such like social matters. In short, that 
we are to have nothing to do with him ; so that 
we may not become defiled by intercourse with 
him, and partakers of his sins ; but that he may 
be iLade ishamed, be affected in his mind, con- 
vinced in his conscience, and thereby induced 
to amend his ways. 1 Cor. 5, 9 — 11. ; Bom. 
16, 17. ; 2 Thes. 3, 14. ; Tit. 3, 10. 

That nevertheless — as well in shunning as in 
reproving such offender — such moderation and 
christian discretion be used, that such shunning 
and reproof may not be conducive to his ruin, 
but be serviceable to his amendment. For 
should he be in need, hungry, thirsty, naked, 
sick or visited by some other affliction, we are 
in duty bound, according to the doctrine and 
practice of Christ and his apostles, to render 
liim aid and assistance, as necessity may require ; 

C 172 3 

otherwise the ahnnning of him might be rather 
conducive to his ruin than to his amendment. 

1 Thes. 5, 14. 

Therefore we must not treat such offenders as 
enemies, but exhort them as brethren, in order 
thereby to bring them to a knowledge of their 
eins and to repentance ; so that they may again 
become reconciled to God and the churdi, and 
be received and admitted into the same — ^thus 
exercising love towards them, as is becoming. 

2 Thes. 8, 15. 

Aeticlb Eighteenth, of the Resurrection 
OF the Dead and the Last Judgment. 

As it regards the resurrection of the dead, 
we confess with the mouth, and believe with the 
heart, that according to scripture — all men who 
shall have died, or "fallen asleep,** will — ^through 
the incomprehensible power of God — at the day 
of judgment, be ^'raised up" and made alive; 
and that these, together with all those who then 
remain alive, and who shall be "changed in a 
moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last 
trump;" shall "appear before the judgment-seat 
of Christ,*' where .the good shall be separated 
from the bad, and where "every one shall re- 
ceive the things done in his body, act ording to 
that he hath done, whether it be good or bad ;** 
and that the good or pious shall then further, 
as the blessed of their Father, be received by 
Christ into eternal life ; where they shall re- 
ceive that joy which "eye hath not seen, nor 


ear heard, nor hath entered into the heart of 
men." Yea, where they shall reign and tri- 
nmph with Christ for ever and ever. Matt. 22, 
80. 81. ; 26, 81. ; Dan. 12, 2. ; Job 19, 25. 26. ; 
John 5, 28. 29. ; 1 Cor. 16. ; 2 Cor. 5, 10. ; 1 
Thes. 4, 13. ; Eev. 11, 12. 

And that, on the contrary, the wicked or im- 
pious, shall, as the accursed of God, he cast in- 
to "outer darkness ;*' yea, into eternal, hellish 
torments; "where their worm dieth not, and the 
fire is not quenched ;" and where — according 
to Holy Scripture — ^they can expect no comfort 
nor redemption throughout eternity. Isaia 66, 
24. ; Matt. 25, 46. ; Mark 9, 46. ; Rev. 14. 11. 

May the Lord through his grace makens all fit 
and worthy, that no such calamity may befall any 
of us ; but that we may be "diligent, and so take 
heed to ourselves, that we may be found of him 
in peace, without spot, and blameless." Amen. 

Now these are, as before mentioned, the chief 
articles of our general Christian Faith, which 
we every where teach in our congregations and 
families, and according to which we profess to 
live ; and which, according to our conviction, 
contain the only true Christian Faith ; which the 
apostles in their time believed and taught ; yea, 
which they testified by their lives apd confirmed 
by their deaths ; in which we will also, accord- 
ing to our weakness, gladly abide, live, and die^ 
in order that we may obtain, one day, together 
with the apostles and all the pious, the salvation 
of our souls through the grace of God. 

t 1T4 ] 

tli6 Ar^ uiu^ aitidat oC ftitfi coodiided bjow 
onilBd cfaurdwi m the city of Dtet, in Holliiid, oo tbe 91ft 
daj of April, in the j«tf or oar Lord 1632,*aiid aigiMd bgr the 
fcliowing miniitrr B md t e i ft li cri ; 


I«ae Koenig, 
Johann Cob^faaen 
Jan JsooImi, 

Cornelia Bom, 
Lamlmclit PMldink. 

Qaea Dirkaen, 
Mela Gyabaerti, 

DiOaert Willeborta, 
Jacob Pennen, 
liefen Marjmefar. 

Peter Janaea Mayer, 
Abraham Dirks, 
David ter Haer, 
Peter Jan von Zingel. 


Baitian WiUemsen, 
Jan Winkelmana. 

John Doom, 
Peter Grygpeer, 
Dirk Woutera Kolenkamp, 
Peter Joosten. 


Wilhelm Jan von Exaelt, 
Gispert Spiering. 


Baltcn Centen Schumacher, 
Michael Michiela, 
Israel von Halmael, 
Heinrich Dirkse Apeldoren, 
Andreas Luckcn. 

Chrialiande Kooink, 
Jan Wfljna. 

Qaea CSaeaaon, 

Peter Jan Zl 

Herman S^era, 
Jan Heinrich HochfeM, 
Daniel Horena, 
Abraham Spronk, 
Wilhelm von Brockhuyaen. 

FaoM THE UrPKn CouirrftT. 
Peter von Borsel, 
Antcm Hans. 

Herman op den Grafi^ 
Wilhelm Kreynen. 


Comelis de Moir, 
Isaac Clacs. 

Jacob von Sebrecht, 
Jan J. von Kniysen. 

Comelis Jans, 
Dirk Rcnderson. 

C 176 ] 

Besides this confession being adopted by so 
many churches, and signed by their ministers, 
all the churches in Alsace and Germany after- 
wards adopted it unanimously. Wherefore it 
was undertaken to be translated into the lan- 
guages of these countries — into French and Ger- 
man — for the service of the churches in thfem, 
and for that of others. Of which this may serve 
as a notice. 

The following attestation was signed by the 
brethren in Alsace, who examined this confession 
and adopted it as their own : — 

We, the undersigned, ministers of the word 
of Ood, and elders of the church in Alsace, 
hereby declare and make known, that being as* 
sem'bled to-day, the 4th of Feb. in the year of 
our Lord 1660, at Onenheim, on account of the 
Confession of Faith, which was adopted at the 

Eace convention in the city of Dort, on the 
st day of April in the year 1632 ; ai|d having 
examined the same, and found it, according to 
oor judgment, in agreement with the word of 
God, we have entirely adopted it as our own. 
Which we have in testimony of the truth, and 
a firm faith, signed with our own hands, aa 
follows : — 

L 176 ] 


Magenhdm« M 

John Miller. Jacob Schmidt, 

HsiOKLHEiM* Bertram Habich* 

John Ringer. Ohnbnhkim. 

Baldcnhxiii. ^^"<* HUSMT, 

Jaeob ScheWy. ^^^ Gochnauer. 


Henry Sdmeider. John Rudolph Bumen. 


Rudolph Egli. Jacob Scbeider. 

Markirch. Kunenhkim. 

Adolph Schmidt. Henry Frick. 

PostBcript to the foregoing 18 Articles. 

From an authentic circular letter of the year 
1557, from the Highland to the Netherland 
churches, it appears that from the Eyfelt to 
Moravia there were 50 churches, of which some 
consisted of from 500 to 600 brethren. And 
that there were about that time at a conference 
at Strasburg, about 50 preachers and elders 
present, who discoursed about matters concern- 
ing the welfare of the churches. 

These superintendents of the non-resistant 
christians endeavored earnestly to propagate 
the truth ; so that like a "grain of mustard 
reed" of small beginning, it grew against all 
bloody persecution, to the height in which it is 
to be seen in so many large churches in Germa- 
ny, Prussia, the Principality of Cleves, &c., and 
particularly in the United Netherlands. 

But finaUy, alas ! there arose disunion amongst 

[ ITT ] 

them about matters of faith, which so deeply 
grieved the peaceably disposed amongst them, 
that they not only thought about means to heal 
the schism, and restore union, but did also take 
the matter in hand, and concluded at Cologne, 
in the year 1591, a laudable peace between the 
Highland and Netherland churches. Still the 
schism was not fully healed. Consequently in 
the year 1628 and 1630, it was deemed neces- 
sary at a certain conference, by some lovers of 
peace, to appoint another conference, in order 
to see whether they could Qome to an under- 
standing, and the schism be fully healed. Con- 
sequently, in order to attain this object in the 
most effectual manner, there assembled at Dort, 
from many of the churches in Holland, on the 
21st of April, 1632, 51 ministers of the word of 
God, appointed for said purpose ; who deemed it 
advisable that a scriptural confession of faith 
should be drawn up, to which all parties should 
adhere, and on which this peace convention and 
the intended union should be founded and built. 
Which was then accordingly drawn up, publicly 
adopted, confirmed, signed, the so much wished 
for peace obtained, and the light again put on 
the candlestick, to the honor of non-resistant 

-'■ r 








WoBD OF God, and a toll Sukiuendkr or the Soul 

INTO HM hands. 

In QAMttonfl and Anatwen. 




imdno' tfihit MtimomU Church a$ NewHoUand^ LanauUr 

CoufOif^ Penmtykama. 

i ■ ■ : . k ■♦ 


The apostle Paul says : "Finally, mj breth- 
ren, rejoice in the Lord. To write the same 
things to you, to me indeed is not grievous, but 
for you it is safe." The apostles always wrote 
of true repentance, of saving faith, of love to 
God and our neighbor, and of true obedience to 
the commandments of the Son of God in bap- 
tism and the sacrament, according to the ordi- 
nances of the church ; in order that their disci- 
ples might "obey from the heart that form of 
doctrine which was delivered to them." By 
which writings and words, they exhorted, edi- 
fied, and strengthened each other in the faith; 
and the more so, as the day of their "redemp- 
tion" approached. 

Now for a similar reason, and from a similar 
intention, a new compilation has been made out 
of our old confession of faith ; which confession * 
we have received and avowed in our baptism, as 
right and true ; and as we are all under the 
same covenant, we have all an equal share in 
the benefits and responsibility of this confes- 
sion ; and as there have been, and still are, 
many opposers, we also equally share the cross. 
Ignominy, and contempt, that may follow our ad- 


[ 182 1 

herence to the same. And as it may further, 
under God's blessing, be serviceable to the edi- 
fication of youth, and may also serve as a re- 
membrance of our foundation of faith, we, the 
undersigned, are willing to aid in its being pub- 
lished ; and would here invoke the blessing of 
God to a spiritual growth and edification m 
Christ Jesus. Amen. 

Signed by twenty-seven ministers ancl dea- 
cons of the Mennonite church, in the name of 
the whole church. 


The chief motive to the production of this 
work is the present declining state of the Chris- 
tian Church, in which there is such a great dif- 
ference in the performance of external worship ; 
as also in the external demeanor of its members 
towards each other ; as one has still some fault 
to find with his neighbor — ^thug following his 
own will and inclination, contrary to the ad- 
vice of the apostle, when he says : "All of you 
be subject to one another, and be clothed with 
humility : for God resisteth the proud, and giv- 
eth grace to the humble." 1 Pet. 6, 6. 

But as almost every one thinks the chief fault 
is in some one else, and not in himself, poor 
man overlooks himself, without thinking of his 
own depraved and deceived heart. In such a 
state man possesses great liberty for himself; 
in consequence of which the young fall into h- 
centiousness and sensuality. And with all this, 
although he is nothing-poor man majr think 
himself to be something — and thus deceive him- 
self. Indeed there are many who consider the 
present state of Christendom as a Babel, and who 
take great pains to destroy it ; but who on the 
contrary, only exert themselves to buUd up the 
mined city Jericho, which they give the name 
Zion. Nevertheless, there are also yet many 
innocent and fiaithfol hearts. 

L 184 ] 

The chief address of this book is directed to 
the rising generation, for the reason, that there 
is more to be expected from uncultivated land, 
than from an old exhausted soil. May the Lord 
Jesus become to us light and life, and bless us with 
his Holy Spirit ; yea, with wisdom and knowledge. 

After having taken into consideration the 
above reasons, we have been induced to lay 
anew before the eyes of the young, our Christian 
Confession of Faith, as also the Covenant of 
Baptism. And as we have fallen upon times 
and circumstances in which our predecessors 
never were, they could give neither warning 
against, nor instruction about them. But be- 
fore we took the step just mentioned, we de- 
clared our minds to the church, who advised us 
to draw up a writing, and submit it to public 
consideration. This we accordingly did, in a 
sense of much weakness and inability. And as 
repentance, saving faith, and love to God and 
our neighbor, comprise the chief articles that 
appertain to the christian course, as well as to a 
true foundation of faith, these matters are treated 
of in the first and second addresses. The other 
articles are introduced in questions and answers. 

Written the 21st day of February, 1792. 

We remain the 


tlEHARKS. — This **Useful and edifying Address to the 
Yonng," was printed for the first time in the year 1804, and 
in the same year it was reprinted at Ephrata, Pa. In the 
year 1829 it was printed a third time at Allentown, and then 
tor the fourth time at Berlin, Canada, in 1 839, as an Appendix 
to the "Spiritual Converiation." And now it is printed for 
the Brat time in EngUah in 1E51 . 


To THE RisnTG Generation, on true Re- 

Bepentance is the first command of Christ, 
as is to be seen Matt. 4, 17. "From that time 
Jesus began to preach and to say, "Repent : for 
the kingim of heaven is at hlk." Vt this 
is not merely his first command — ^his first com- 
mand to his disciples — ^but also his last, as is to 
be seen in Luke 24, 46. 47. ; where he opened 
unto them the scriptures, and said : "Thus it 
behoved Christ to suffer, that repentance and 
remission of sins should be preached in his 
name," &c. This command the apostles were 
to convey to all men. "But now he commandeth 
all men every where to repent." Acts 17, 30. 

Thus all men, without contradiction, need re- 
pentance, as they have all sinned, are children 
of wrath, and by nature carnally and earthly 
minded. Yea, m this state our hearts are a 
desert, overgrown with thistles and thorns ; and 
into this desert comes the voice of t)ie preacher: 
•^Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his 
paths straight." Luke 3, 4. This is the voice 
of true repentance — the voice once addressed to 
Adam, when the Lord said : "Where art thou ?" 
Whereupon the soul answers : "I hear thy voice, 
and am afraid, because I am naked." 

Thus man is brought to a proper sense of 
himself, by the quickening power of the word 

.[ 186 ] 

of God ; so that he learns to know himself 
with all his inherent defects. Yea, hereby he 
is brought to "acknowledge his transgressions, 
and his sins are ever before him." Psalm 61, 8. 
Yea, to one who is penitent, every thing becomes 
a burden, and every thing sinful a great sin. 
"He is bowed down greatly ; and goes mourn- 
ing all the day long." Psalm 38, 6. 

Greatly afflicted and troubled is a penitent 
soul, if she somewhat delights in the pleasures 
of youth, and then retires to solitude. This be- 
oomes, as it were, a hell to her conscience; 
and she is ready to cry out : "0 what have 
I done ! wretched man that I am !" Thus 
looking upon the tree of nature as one that 
bringeth forth no good fruit ; as one concerning 
which the preacher of repentance says : "Cut 
it down, why cumbereth it the ground ?" Luke 
13, 7. "Every tree therefore which bringeth 
not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast in- 
to the fire." Luke 3, 9. 

Man carnally minded, or in a state of nature, 
is compared to the "vine of Sodom, of the fields 
of Gomorrah;", whose "grapes are grapes of 
gall," and whose "clusters are bitter;" whose 
wine is the poison of dragons, and the cruel 
venom of asps." Deut 32, 32. 33. 

The Lord, in alluding to the disobedience and 
wickedness of the children of Israel, (Deut. 32, 
23.) says : "I will heap mischiefs upon them ; 
I will spend mine arrows upon them." Thus 
speaks and feels a person who has come to a 

[ 187 ] 

knowledge of his sins ; his heart is tender as 
melted wax ; he is penitent ; he is heartily sor- 
ry, that so much -evil cleaves unto him ; for 
when he wants to do "good, evil is present with 
him." But his being in possession of this knowl- 
edge, is not yet suflScient. For John the Bap- 
tist says: "Bring forth therefore fruits meet 
for repentance/' Matt. 3, 8. 

The fruit of true repentance grows in a change 
of heart ; for the heart of man by nature, is 
proud and conceited ; but the heart of a peni- 
tent is humble and contrite ; and as the heart 
is, so is the fruit thereof. It moreover "sets itj< 
affections on things above, and not on things 
beneath ;" (Col. 3, 2.) In short, it imitates the 
virtues of our Savior while on earth : who him- 
self declared that he was "meek and lowly in 
heart." Matt. 11, 29. And here it may be re- 
marked, that a person who is ^*meek and lowly 
in heart, cannot bring forth fruit that has ex- 
ternally the appearance of pride, whether it be 
in words, actions, or the "putting on of apparel." 
1 Pet. 3, 3. "For in pride is destruction and 
much trouble." Tobit. 4, 13. But when further 
the heart is filled with the meekness of Christ, 
it bespeaks a good tree ; (Matt. 12, 33.) while 
on the other hand, evil fruit grows out of the 
evil seed which the enemy has sown into the hu- 
man heart by means of the senses and thoughts ; 
whereby much evil frmt has been brought forth ; 
particularly in reference to the lust of inconti- 

[ 188 ] 

nence, with which poor man is, as it were, in- 

True repentance is further very necessary; 
yea, "fruits meet for repentance ;" whereby an 
entire change for the better takes place — where^ 
by we come to a pious and virtuous course of 
life ; so that we do no more that which we wer^ 
wont to do in our former sinful course of life. 
The grace and power, however, of leaving ofiF & 
wicked course of life, and leading a pious life, 
as just stated, must be obtained of the Lord, 
through earnest prayer day and night. Good 
resolutions alone are not siiflScient for this pur- 
pose ; for it is the "goodness of God that lead- 
eth us to repentance.*' Rom. 2, 4. 

We have moreover to take care, that we do 
not "after our hardness and impenitent hearts, 
treasure up unto ourselves wrath against the 
day of wrath and revelation of the righteous 
judgment of God." For in true repentance 
we are subject to great temptations, as the ene- 
my assails us in many different ways. At 
times it appears to us, that at no time more sin- 
ful and adverse things have come into our way, 
than just now that we are resolved to amend our 
lives. We are ridiculed by the world ; of others 
we see bad examples. Again the enemy tempts 
us with self-exaltation, trying to persuade us 
that we have had much experience — much more 
than we really have had ; that we are far ad- 
vanced in the divine life, &c. In short, he 
tempts us in every way. But the weapons of 

[ 189 ] 

our ^Sf arfare are not carnal, but mighty through 
Ood to the pulling down of strong holds, and 
bringing into captivity every thought to the obe- 
dience of Christ." 2 Cor. 10, 4. 5. For he 
who yields obedience to Christ, endeavors to 
"keep his word." Luke 11, 28. 

A person who labors under temptation, does 
well if he diligently takes heed to the word of 
God, as ^hinto a light that shineth in a dark 
place, until the day dawn, and the day-star arise 
in his heart." 2 Pet. 1, 19. For the Lord says : 
"Because thou hast kept the word of my pa- 
tience, I also will keep thee from the hour of 
temptation, which shall come upon the world, to 
try them that dwell upon the earth. Rev. 3, 10. 

The whole work of regeneration, or the new 
birth, grounds itself on true repentance ; and 
penitent souls "love another with a pure heart fer- 
vently : being bom again not of corruptible seed, 
but of incorruptible, by the word of God, which 
liveth and abideth forever." 1 Pet. 1, 22. 23. 

To a penitent the word of God becomes life 
and light in the soul. He who' listens to it, be- 
eomes thereby changed in heart — converted ; 
namely, from pride to humility ; from inconti- 
tience to chastity; from hatred to love; from 
6ovetou0nes8 to liberality ; from the habit of 
lying and cheating to truth and honesty. Yea, . 
he is thus transformed from darkness into light ; 
rescued from the power of Satan, and converted 
to God. This, dear reader, is what is produced 
by "fruits meet for repentance." 


To THE Rising Generation, on Saving Faith, 


True faith is the efficacious power of God in 
a penitent soul, to ^^believe on him whom he 
hath sent." John 6, 29. 

Saving faith in Christ Jesus is therefore more 
than a mere traditionary faith; nor does it 
"stand in the wisdom of man, but in the power 
of God ;" (1 Cor. 2, 5.) whereby he operates 
upon the soul, in order that we may know *Sfhat 
is the exceeding greatness of his power to up- 
ward who believe, according to the working of 
his mighty power." Eph. 1, 19. True "faith" 
is further, "the substance of things hoped for, 
the evidence of things not seen ;" (Heb. 11, 1.) 
for the evidence of things which we see, is not 
faith, but sight; therefore to believe the evi- 
dence of things not seen, is faith. The Savior 
is invisible to our natural eyes; yet, "whom 
having not seen" (says Peter) "ye love; in 
whom, though now ye see him not, yet believing, 
ye rejoice with joy unspeakable, and full of glo- 
ry." 1 Pet. 1, 8. Yes, my beloved young 
friends, here we may see what a precious thing 
faith in God and Christ Jesus is. Be persuaded 
therefore, to strive for such faith, which is "much 
more precious than gold that perisheth, though 
it be tried in the fire." 1 Pet. 1, 7. Yet, be- 
loved reader, whoever you are, let us think for 

[ 191 ] 

a moment, what can be done in the kingdom of 
this world with gold and silver, and what men 
do and sniSer for the sake of it. Yet, as already 
said, tme faith is much more precious than these. 
For according to the testimony of Jesus Christ, 
not a soul will be lost that has this faith. He 
says : "He that believeth on the Son hath ever- 
lasting life : and he that believeth not the Son 
shall not see life ; but th^ wrath of God abideth 
on him.'* John 3, 36. "Without faith it is im- 
possible to please God : for he that cometh to 
Gt)d must believe that he is, and that he is a 
rewarder of them that diligently seek him." 
Heb. 11, 6. 

But perhaps you ask how, or by what means, 
true faith is obtained 7 Christ says : "He that 
believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out 
of his belly shall flow rivers of living water." 
John 7, 88. 

From these words it is to' be inferred, that 
Holy Scripture is a means, whereby to obtain 
true faith ; as also, that faith must be a living 
faith, and in accordance with Scripture. So 
oor faith should also be strong. For when the 
disciples of Christ were weak in faith, he said 
unto them : "0 fools, and slow of heart to be- 
lieve all that the prophets have spoken ! And 
beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he ex- 
pounded unto them in all the scriptures the 
things concerning himself." Luke 24, 25. 27. 
Fnruier he says, (v, 46. 47.) : "Thus it is writ- 
ten, and thus it behoved Cmist to suffer, and to 

rise fron the clend i^ tUvd -daTt -mod tliat ir 
peiiti^icd w4 rQsu0tik>4 of liu s^^ 
ed in luB mwie,'' fc<v So fiatit-dM '^eoiMih tar 
hearings and hemtmg hj 4he irwd^CMp 
Som. IQ, 17« So FmI iilio sm: ^I say M10 
otfier thii^ thaa tiiose ^fjbkdi w propheti m4 
Moaet did imj dieidd <eoiiier' Aoto 36, 82, Hfe 
worship I the <3od pf nf ii4hoM| MSeviog tl 
thuu» wbidi «r0 written im tlte law m4 m Aft 
pnomiets*" Aeto 84) 14. . 

80 the apoafclo fjflo e^Wts." To .*%^immMtaf 
them ivhieh haTo the r«)e ovi^r yom vlio twi 
spoken imlo yoa the word of Qod; wboee Wlh 
follow^ considering the end of their oonrmttr 
tiw." Heb. IB, 7. 

<xod has laid in Im word a seeret poww, whiik 
is a powerfiil remedy for all the wounds asd itti 
to which poor fallen man is subject ; for otsit 
thing that is made is made by the ^ Vord of his 
power/' 80 the word Spirit, and life are also 
intimately eonnected; so that they cannot be 
separated ; no more so, than the preached woid- 
The apostle Peter was the means whereby three 
thousand soids were brought to repentance, end 
faith in Christ in one day. So Paul, and the 
other apostles also preached the gospel to manf 
heathen nations in cities aad country ; by whici 
means many thousand heathen obtained saYS^g 
faith ; for whom Jesus had already offered wf 
his prayer to the Father, as well as for hia em 
disciples, $0 follows: ^^I pray not for these 
alone, but for tbem also which ahaU 

[ 193 ] 

me through their word." John 17, 20. God is 
an invisible mighty Being, and speaks through 
his Holy Spirit, to many a soul in secret, in or- 
der to reprove it, and convince it of sin and the 
depravity of its nature ; and after repentance 
again to comfort it. Yea, this is the case even 
with such souls as have not the scriptures, or 
cannot read them. 

But the convictions of such souls agree with 
the doctrines of the Son of God and that of his 
apostles ; for the teachings of the spirit of God 
agree with these doctrines. Therefore scripture 
is not to be set aside ; for it is with it as with 
natural food : this appears before our natural 
eyes to be dead, and yet there is a power in it^ 
whereby our natural life is preserved. If we 
however do not relish such food, it follows that 
we are not in health. And so it is with the 
word of God. If we do not enjoy its precious 
contents, it follows that we are yet in a state of 
spiritual disease, if not dead — dead in sin. 

Another means of becoming strengthened in 
faith is earnest prayer to God. Of this means 
the disciples of our Lord made use in their weak^ 
ness. They went to Jesus and prayed : "Lord 
increase our faith/' Luke 17, 5. So the father 
of the child which had a dumb spirit "cried 
oat, and said with tears, Lord, I believe ; help 
thou mine unbelief/' Mark 9, 24. So again 
the disciples, to whom we just alluded, although 
they all times believed and acknowledged, that 
Christ was the Son of the living God, yet were 


C iw ] 

they sometimes, in times of necessity, of 
faith." Bnt how weak are we in faith 
time! Yea, I fear that our faith is in 
respects too weak — ^that if it were put 
test, it would be found wanting. 

lie Savior says: "When the Son < 
dometh, shall he find faith on earth ?" 
18, 8. Indeed every body believes ai 
fesses, that there is an Invisible Divine 
which created every thing, and preservei 
thing; and that Jesus Christ is the only 
God, conceived by the Holy Ghost, and ' 
the Virgin Mary, &ic. But what does 
us if we embrace and adhere to such coi 
of failii, and yet lead a heathenish co 
life, in all kinds of sin and wickedness ? 
does it profit, my brethren, though a n 
he hath faith, and 'have not works ? Ca 
save him ?" James 2, 14. 

True faith leads us into a state of self-d 
a state in which we follow Christ, as did hi 
ful followers in the time of his incamatioz 
here a faith is required that "worketh by 
a faith whereby we become "justified," i 
tain "peace with God, through our Lor 
Christ." Bom. 5, 1. 2. Yea, a faith wh 
for its foundation the word of Grod ; whict 
(the apostle says) is nigh thee, even in thy 
and in thy heart ; that is the word of f aiti 
we preach." Bom. 10, 8. 

Abraham believed God and it was i 
unto him for righteousness : and he wai 

L 195 ] 

the friend of God." James 2, 23. Yea, "Who 
against hope believed in hope, that he might be- 
come the father of many nations. He staggered 
not at the promise of God through unbelief; but 
was strong in the faith, and gave glory to God ; 
being fully persuaded that what he had promised 
he was able also to perform." Rom. 4, 18. 20. 21. 
Through faith he became further obedient to 
God in all things, as did all the ancient faithful ; 
who "confessed that they were strangers and 
pilgrims on earth," and who "endured, as see- 
ing him who is invisible." From which we may 
see, that true faith, and a full surrender of the 
80id into the hands of God, is a matter of very 

great importance. "Believe the gospel," says 
hrist ; (Mark 1, 15.) **for" (says Paul further) 
**it is the power of Grod unto salvation to every 
one that believeth. For therein the righteous- 
ness of God is revealed from faith to faith : as 
it is written. The just shall live by faith." Rom. 
1, 16. 17. So Christ also sometimes said : "As 
thou hast believed, so be it done unto thee." 
Also : "Thy faith has made the whole." Matt. 
8, 13. ; 9, 22. 

Through faith we obtain the pardon of our 
sins, and salvation through the blood of Christ. 
For "all things are possible to him that be- 
Keveth." Mark 9, 23. 

If all our sins, small and great, were lying 

before us on a heap, they would form a moun- 

^ tain, that it would be difficult to surmount. But 

if our fiiith were like a "grain of mustard seed," 

this mountain might be remored tk^dreby. For 
*^ih 10 the victory that oyeroometh the worid." 
1 John, 5, 4, ^^And these dpu ahall follmr 
Aem that belieye : In my name shall they cMft 
ottt devils ; they shall speik nith new toncuas; 
diey shall take up serpents,*' &o^ ke. Bian 16^ 
IT. 18. 

^^He that oommitteih sin is of the devil; flbr 
the devil sinneth from the beginning." 1 Jok% 
8, 8. There is no difference : finr ul have m^ 
ned ; and come short of the glory of God*** 
fiom. 8| 28. w 

Now as the devil has teim the seed of sin ii- 
to every hnman heart, each one has to 
his Satanic influence, or cast him ont by 
faith. For ^^for this purpose the Son of God 
was manifested, that he might destroy the works 
of the devil," 1 John, 3, 8. The devil has hit 
work "in the children of disobedience." Eph. 

The Savior says further : "He that is of the 
earth is earthly, and speaketh of the earth." John 
3, 31. But they that believe in him, as already 
remarked, "shall speak with new tongues," 4c. 

Again the Lord speaks through the prophets: 
"Cast away from you all your transgressions, \ 
whereby ye have transgressed ; and make 700 
a new heart and a new spirit." Escek. 18, 31. 

A person who has received a new heart, also 
speaks with a new tongue. John, the preacher 
of repentance, said to the Pharisees and Sado- 
ceoB, who came to his baptism : "O gencratioi 

[ 197 ] 

of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the 
wrath to come ?" Matt. 3, 7. And Christ says 
on another occasion : "Ye serpents, ye genera- 
tion of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation 
of hell?" Matt. 23, 33. 

Now an impenitent heart is a breeding nest 
of this poison and seed of serpents ; which may 
however be expelled by faith and repentance. 
Flee therefore from sin, as you would flee from 
a serpent. For it is a deadly draught to the 
soul ; which may occasion its disease, if not 
death. Again James calls the tongue "an un- 
ruly member, full of deadly poison.'* James 3, 8. 

But Christ is the proper destroyer of serpents ; 
he said to his disciples : "I give unto you power 
to tread on serpents and scorpions, and over all 
the power of the enemy ; and nothing shall by 
any means hurt you.** Luke 10, 19. 

Through faith in him and his word, the ser- 
pents, with their tricks and wiles, are expelled 
from the heart ; and when the hands of faith 
are laid upon the sin-sick soul, she will recover. 

See, dearly beloved, these are the signs which 
accompany those who believe in Christ. For 
,he is the "resurrection and the life : he that be- 
lieveth in him, though he were dead, yet shall 
he live : and whosoever liveth, and believeth in 
him, shall never die. Believest thou this ?" 
John 11, 25, 26. 

The preached word did not profit them that 
heurd it, not being mixed with faith. But we 

[ 1«8 ] 

which hare beUered do enter into rest." Hel 
4, 2. 8. <;» 

Pure love to God and our neighbor is iuMf 
arably eonneoted with tme fisuth in Gt)d; Ai 
how can we love Gbd, if we do not beliewl 
hinu Yea, faith and love are like two brothM 
bom of the same parents ; and they are boii 
dfb of God. ^'We love him, because he ifk 
bved us." 1 John, 4, 19. The love of God^i 
us is similar to the love of a mother to her dv 
dren ; but much greater. ^^Can a woman fill 
get her sucking omld, that she should not halff 
commpassion on the son of her womb ? J0 
the^ may forget, yet will I not forget thea^ 
Isaiah 4§, 15. A mother loves her ohildNi 
while they are young and small ; and has mue 
trouble, care, and sorrow on their account. Id 
deed while they are small, the bond of love hi 
tween children and mother is very strong. Bi 
as the former grow taller and stronger, thef 
often follow their own will and ways, contraf 
to the advice and consent of their parents, t 
their own injury, of both body and soul. T 
honor and obey our parents ^^is the first con 
mandment with promise." Eph. 6, 2. 

To be disobedient to the word and will c 
God, ^^is as the sin of witchcraft ; and stul 
bonmesB is as iniquity and idolatry." Sam. 1« 
28. For under the influence of these sins, w 
are blind, so that we do not see how far w 
have erred from the. right way, until we leai^ 
this to our own ii\|ury ; as was the case inA 

[ 199 ] , 

Saul, as may be seen by referring to the fore- 
going quotation. 

He who is disobedient errs in point of love. 
Now if parents are filled with the love of God 
towards their children, bring them up in the 
fear and admonition of the Lord, and there is 
also a love of the children in return towards 
their parents — in such case obedience grows out 
of love. Christ was a pattern in this matter. 
He loved his Father, and obeyed him until his 
death. And to those that ^'received him, to 
them gave he power to become the sons of God." 
John 1, 12. "Be ye therefore followers of God, 
as dear children; and walk in love,'' &c. Eph. 
6, 1. 2. "My little children, let us not love in 
word; neither in tongue; but in deed and in 
truth." 1 John, 3, 18. 

To "love in deed and in truth," is something 
very important. Such as do this are true and 
fiiithful children of God. For the Savior says : 
''If ye love me, keep my commandments. He 
that hath my commandments, and keepeth them, 
he it is that loveth me ; and he that loveth me, 
shall be loved of my Father," &c. John 14, 
16. 21. 

"If ye keep my commandments, ye shall abide 
in love ; even as I have kept my Father's com- 
mandments, and abide in his love." John 15, 10. 
In such hearts the "love of God is shed abroad 
by the Holy Ghost." Rom. 5, 5. 

Now, dear children, you can see, that if you 
loYO Jesus with the whole heart, such love will 

. [ 200 ] 

lead you to embrace the true doctrine, and to 
obey the same. So that if you do not live in a 
state of obedience, you are not in a state of love. 
For a child that loves its father, also obeys him. 
The greatest commandment that was left us of 
the Father by the Son, is : ^^Hear, O Israel ; 
the Lord our God is one Lord : and thou shalt 
love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and 
with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and 
with all thy strength : this is the first command- 
ment. And the second is like, namely this, 
Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. There 
is none other commandment greater than these." 
Mark 12, 29. 31. 

Now my dear young hearts, if the word of God 
binds us so closely, to love him as our Oreator, 
"with all our heart, and with all our strength," 
there remains nothing of our hearts, wherewith 
to love the vanities and pleasures of this world ; 
such as the "lust of the flesh, and the lust of 
the eye, and the pride of life ;" for "if any man 
love, the world, the love of the Father is not in 
him." 1 John, 2, 15. 

Therefore let every one well distinguish whe- 
ther he is actuated by the love of God, or by 
the impure love and lusts of nature. For love 
and desire have a great influence on the mind 
either for good or evil ; so much so, that they 
make all pains and labor comparatively light 
and easy. "And above all these things put on 
charity, which is the bond of perfectness. Ar 
lot the peace of God rule in your hearts, 

L 201 ] 

which also ye are called in one body; and bo 
ye thankful." Col. 3, 14. 15. 

But corrupt nature is not willingly bound by 
the bond of God's love, as this love aims only 
at holy and divine things, and nature being in* 
clined to love natural and earthly things. Man 
has also a strong love for himself and his own 
righteousness. So the scribes and pharisees 
also had many external works of righteousness ; 
nevertheless, Christ said unto them : "I know 

Jon, that ye have not the love of God in you." 
ohn 5, 42. Yea, a person may do many good 
things ; but if he has ^not the love of God in 
him, they will avail him nothing; even if he 
would "bestow all his goods to the poor, and 
give his body to be bm-ned." 1 Cor. 13, 3. 
"Though I speak with the tongues of men and 
of angels, and have not charity, I am become 
as Bounding brass or a tinkling cymbal. And 
though I have the gift of prophecy, and under- 
stand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and 
though I have all faith, so that I could remove 
mountains, and have not charity, I am nothing." 
1 Cor. 13, 1. 2. 

In short, the only object of eternal joy, life, 
and the rest of our souls, is, Christ Jesus ; and 
to learn to know God through him ; as he himself 
says • "And this is life eternal, that they might 
know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, 
whom thou hast sent." John 17, 3. 

Again John says : "He that loveth not, know- 
eth not God; for God is love. God is love; 

[ a« 1 

and he that dweUeih in love, dwelletli in God; 
and God in him/' 1 John, 4, 8. 16. 

If Qod dwells in onr hearts tiuroaglitnie fiitt, 
ire have learned to knoir him. <<]^ti»t<S 
I know him, and keepethnot his eommaiidiiMB^ 
is a liar, and the truth is not in him." 1 Jokii 
2. 4. Now the end of the oommandiwit i 
oharity, out of a pure heart, and of a good eaa- 
soience, and of faith unfeigned.'' 1 Tmu L & 

What a preoions ihinff then is the tnw km 
of God, as all else wilSout it, ayaih noduBCi 
Tet we should think, that to <%peak wiAtfii 
tonffue of angels," to ^hmderstaad all ]Kjil»> 
ries besides other great deeds, could not bt 
done without the power of God, as well as ths 
casting out of ^^devils" in the name of the Lord. 
Matt. 7, 22. Yet such is the case. Through 
the deceit of the enemy great things are done; 
through the love of God, on the contrary, small 
things ; such as are foolish and insignificant in 
the eves of the world. ^^God hath chosen the 
foolisn things of the world to confound the wise; 
and God hath chosen the weak things of the 
world to confound the things that are mighty." 
1 Cor. 1, 27. 

For instance, when a certain woman wept tt 
the feet of Josus, and ^'began to wash his feet 
with tears, and wipe them with the hairs of her 
head, and kissed them," (Luke 7, 38.) it ap- 
peared foolish to the ^Tharisee," for she was s 
^'sinner.'' But Jesus said : ^'Her sins, which 
are many, are for^ven ; for she loved much : 

[ 208 ] 

but to wliom little is forgiven, the same loveth 
little." V. 47. Through repentance, faith, and 
love, we obtain the pardon of our sins; for 
"charity shall cover the multitude of sins.'* 1 
Pet. 4, 8. So we are also to believe and know, 
that the love of Christ "passeth knowledge.'' 
Bph. 3, 19. "For if any man think that he 
knoweth any thing, he knoweth nothing yet as 
he ought to know. For knowledge puffeth up, 
but charity edifieth. But if any man love God, 
the same is known of him." 1 Cor. 8, 1 — 3. 

Now as men in all their worldly afiairs strive 
after the best things, every one according to his 
standing and means ; so we should also in spir- 
itual matters, earnestly **covet the best gifts" — 
and strive after love, as these are the chief ele- 
ments of Christianity. 

Of the Love of our Neighbor. 

Pure and undefiled love to our neighbor, and 
our fellow-creatures in general, whereby we can 
love them as ourselves, is something that is not) 
possessed by the mere natural man. Such love 
must be obtained by the Lord, as Paul says : 
"Ye yourselves are taught of God to love one 
another." 1 Thes. 4, 9. "Beloved, let us love 
one another : for love is of God ; and every one 
that loveth is born of God, and knoweth God." 
1 John, 4, 7. 

Pure love is of a divine nature ; and must 
therefore be sought in, and obtained of God. 
On the contrary^ incharitableness is sinful and 

[ 204 ] 

ungodly, as James says : "But if ye have bitter 
envying and strife in your hearts, glory not, 
and lie not against the truth. This wisdom de- 
scendeth not from above, but is earthly, sensual, 
devilish." James 3, 14. 15. 

He who lives in "envy, hatred, wrath, and 
strife," generally lives in a state of self-righl- 
eousness — thinking that he has a right to speak 
and act as he does ; and this false righteousness 
Jteeps him in his sinful course of life. For did 
he believe in regard to himself, that his conduot 
was "earthly, sensual, and devilish," it is im- 
possible that he could live on from year to yew 
in "wrath and strife." For the apostle alsc 
says : "They which do these things shall not 
inherit the kingdom of God." Gal. 6, 20. 21. 

Man is by natui-e a fallen and depraved crea^ 
ture, 'possesses much self-love and ambition, and 
seeks his own advantage in his intercourse witl 
his fellow-creatures. Besides, the "wrath o) 
man worketh not the righteousness of God." 
James 1, 20^ 

"Whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer: 
and ye know that no murderer hath eternal life 
abiding in him." 1 John, 3, 15. 

The kingdom of Satan is an unpeaceable king- 
dom, it being ever engaged in quarrels and wars. 
The kingdom of Christ, on the contrary, is a 
peaceable kingdom ; it consists of nothing ba< 
love, peace, and unity. Now if the love to our 
fellow^creatures is of the right kind, it is of a di- 
vine nature, just as is the love of God towards us. 

[ 205 ] 

For "God so loved the world, that ho gave his on- 
ly besotten Son for us.'* John 8, 16. Yea, such 
S-eat love has he shown towards us — ^that his Son 
ed for us ; and now that we are called to be his 
followers, we are to show a like love towards our 
brethren. To this effect he has left us a com- 
mandment: "This is my commandment, that 
ye love one another, as I have loved you. Grea- 
ter love hath no man than this, that a man lay 
down his life for his friends. Ye are my friends, 
if ye do what I command you." John 15, 12 — 14. 

"Hereby perceive we the love of God, because 
lie laid down his life for us : and we ought to 
lay down our lives for the brethren." 1 John, 

Now, beloved reader, consider for once earn- 
estly this matter on account of its importance ; 
ixiasmuch as love and peace are connected. 
^fPoUow peace with all men, and holiness, with- 
out which no man shall see the Lord.'* Heb. 
12, 14. 

"If a man say, I love God, and hateth his 
brother, he is a Uar ; for he that loveth not his 
brother whom he hath seen, how can he love 
God whom he hath not seen ?" 1 John, 4, 20. 
**He that loveth his brother abideth in the li§ht, 
tiid there is no occasion of stumbling in him : 
but he that hateth his brother is in darkness, and 
walketh in darkness, and knoweth not whither 
he goeth, because that darkness hath blinded 
his eyes.*' 1 John, 2, 10, 11. 

^oW thiilk, beloved reader, what a pitiable 


[ 206 ] 

State that is, in which love between brethren 
wanting. A blind man, who is deprived of « 
natural light, is a poor creature. But if a mi 
is so blinded by sin, that he does not see 8 
any more, he is much poorer and more miser 
ble yet than the man who is deprived of I 
natural sight. For while he says, he does BC 
while he does not see, his "sin remaineth ;" ai 
this for the reason that he does not see it ai 
more. John 9, 41. 

Beader, perhaps you have lived for some tix 
in a state of uncharitableness with your neig 
bor ; and it would not cost you your life, (as 
did your Savior,) to make peace with him. 
would only cost a little of your pride and se 
righteousness ; and can you not give up thea 
or do you still want to "please yourself." Boi 
15, 1. 

And should it cost you something of yo 
temporal property to plant and maintain pea( 
God is rich enough to restore to you all ih 
you may thus lose or sacrifice ; and should 
not do this temporally, he will richly rewa 
you spiritually, to the welfare of your immorl 
soul ; for his love is of a divine nature and o 
gin. So also a person who, by faith, has 1 
come a partaker of the divine nature, will "a( 
to his faith virtue, and to virtue, brotherly kin 
ness and charity. But he that lacketh the 
things is blind, and cannot see afar off," t 
2 Pet. 1, 5. 7. 9. 

A person who is naturally blind would gi 

[ 207 ] 

all his fortune if he could thereby obtain his 
sight. But about spiritual sight — the peace 
and love of God — ^many a one concerns himself 
but little, although his whole soul's salvation 
consists in joy and rest, peace and love. And 
is it not a great piece of blindness, if we deprive 
ourselves of the peace of our souls by discord 
and dissension. But perhaps you say the fault 
is not in you, but in your neighbor. But your 
neighbor speaks the same language. And thus 
each one endeavors to shift the fault from him- 
self, in order that he may throw it upon some 
one else. But consider for once closely the 
words : "Love thy neighbor as thyself," and 
then confess, whether you can, according to the 
meaning of the Lord, throw the fault on any 
other person than yourself, if you live in discord 
and dissension with any one ? It is not said that 
you should demand love of your neighbor, but 
that you should love him. And if you do not 
do tms, no excuse will avail you at the Day of 
Judgment; no more than it availed Adam, when 
he said : "The woman whom thou gavest me, 
beguiled me." Adam had to suffer the punish- 
ment laid on him by the Lord ; so "the woman" 
likewise. Thus has every man to give an ac- 
count of himself, as to how he endeavored to 
love God and his neighbor. Christ says : "Have 
salt in yourselves, and have peace one with 
another." Mark 9, 50. Now peace grows out 
of love; and where peace and love are wanting, 
there the main work of godliness is wanting ; 

whether it bo between, njia^ wd wifo» WatwMa 
brother sad brother, or between ft mutvter tai 
his ooDgregation ; qod where thwA ii ito lore 
QOr peM6, there 14 nether happineae nor proe- 
pni^. DJBOord tmd imcharitablenesa are bit- 
ter rogtB, o«t of whioh much evil fruit grow*. 
Ofthewthe»poBtleBi^8: "Look diligently lest 
any Biut fiul of the g^ce of God ; lest a,ay root 
of bitterness epriiirang up trouble jou, and 
thereb;^ xaamr be defiktl." Heb. 12, 15. 

Indeed all the enl firnit that growa oft cf 
t^v^haritablenesB is not to Ve described. Q| 
the oontrwj, "Loyo worhellL no ill to hi* nei^ 
hor;" as nothing eyil can oome oot ef dv loie 
of God. Ohrist sajB: 'Thwefbre all ti^na 
whatever ^e would that men efaoold do mm 
70a, do ye eren so to them : for this is the law 
and the prophets." Matt. 7, 12. "Do that to 
no man iniich thou bateet." Tobit 4, 15. Yea, 
let this be a rule to you from your youth to yovr 
old age, that in all your aotione you are sincere; 
without falsehood and deceit. Beware also of 
all backbiting, whereby the characters of others 
are traduced ; also avoid speaking much of their 
faults behind their backs. "And let none of 
you imagine evil in your hearts agunst hil 
neighbor ; and love not f&lae oath : f<M- all theae 
are tlunga that I hate, saith the Lord." Zech. 
8, 17. 

In all your conversation be carefnl, and al- 
ways speak the truth. Untruth oocasions di>> 
cord and nncharitableness, and is an ofispring 

[ 209 ] 

>f the devil, who is a "liar, and the father of 
lies." John 8, 44. 

Beware also of ridiculing others, or of giving 
them nicknames ; for there is a day coming that 
3liall "burn as an oven ; and all the proud, yea, 
all that do wickedly, shall be stubble : and the 
day that cometh shall burn them up." Mai. 4, 
i. "Be not deceived; God is not mocked." 
Gal. 6, 7. 

Do also not associate with vain company. 
"He that toucheth pitch shall be defiled there- 
with ; and he that hath fellowship with a proud 
man shall be like unto him." Ecclesiasticus 13, 
i. Be also not "wise in your own conceit," (Rom. 
12, 16*) ; and "lean not to your own under- 
stiuiding," (Prov. 8, 5.) ; nor trust too much to 
your own wisdom. Begin nothing in your own 
strength, but give God the glory in all that you 
do ; and do not follow "a multitude to do e™." 
Ex. 23, 2. Do if you find in your youth an in- 
clination for strong drink, so restrain and deny 
yourself that it does not become a habit with 
you. For to what we accustom ourselves in 
youth is not easily left oflF in old age. Now out 
of drunkenness grows much evil ; and amongst 
others also discord and hatred. "Flee" there- 
fore "youthful lusts : but follow righteousness, 
faith, charity, peace, with them that call on the 
Lord out of a pure heart." 2 Tim. 2, 22. 

Wage war against all evil desires; preserve 
your feet from all evil steps. For if you give 
any one occasion to sin, it is already a proof 


[ m y 

that yoa do not walk in love. For 'Ul vdi- 
lighteousnees is buu" 1 Jdhn, & 17. 

*^Let not sin therefore T&fpx in jocat mortal 
body, that ye should obey it m the lufits Hm^ 
of: neither yield ye your memben as inrtnh 
ments of nnrighteonsnesB unto tin.'' Boia. tf 
12. 18. ''He that is joined to an harlot k om 
body; bat he that is joined onto theJiQird ii 
one spirit." 1 Cor. 6, 16, 17. 

Oherish a hatred, and make war, agdut 
all rooted vice ; and ''deave to that wUflh 
jB good,** (Bom. 12, 9.) ; for pure love low 
what is g(M>d, and hates what is evfl. *% 
kindly auctioned one to another with brodwrllj 
love ; in honor preferring one another." Bosl 
12, 10. 

All worldly* and spiritual matters that oome 
within your calling, "prove" by the word of 
God ; and let this word be your guide darinc 
vour whole lifetime ; for it eives good couDsd 
m all matters. So let the Bible and New Testa- 
ment also be your chief reading book. "Keep 
that which is committed to thy trust, avoiding 
profane and vain babblings, and oppositions of 
science falsely so called." 1 Tim. o, 20. 

"Now, I beseech you, brethren, mark them 
which cause divisions and offences, contrary to 
the doctrine which you have learned ; and avoid 
them. For they that are such serve not our Lord 
Jesus Christ, but their own belly ; and by good 
words and fair speeches deceive the hearts <tf 
the simple. Bom* 16, 17. 18« 

[ 211 ] 

Again the Lord says : "Wo to the women 
that sew pillows to all arm-holes, and make ker- 
chiefs upon the head of every stature, to hunt 
souls ! Will ye hunt the souls of my people, and 
will ye save the souls alive that come unto you ? 
And will ye pollute me among my people for 
handfuls of barley, and for pieces of bread, to 
slay the souls that should not die, and to save 
the souls alive that should not live, by your ly- 
ing to my people that hear your lies ?*' Ezek. 
13, 18. 19. But the "righteous shall enter into 
peace : they shall rest in their beds, each one 
walking in his uprightness." Isaiah 57, 2. 

The love of Christ, which is a general and 
eternal love, extends to all men ; as well to his 
enemies as to his friends. He suffered his blood 
^ be shed for the sins of the whole world, and 
also prayed for his enemies : "Father forgive 
them, for they know not what they do. * * Luke 23, 
84. "God was in Christ, reconciling the world 
onto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto 
them." 2 Cor. 5, 19. 

Yes, in the days of his incarnation, Christ 
set us the pattern of a lamb ; and thus by en- 
durance, suffering, and patient submission ; yea, 
by suffering the most painful and ignominious 
death, on account of us sinners, he gained a tri- 
umphant victory over the world, sin, death, and 
the devil. Even as Peter testifies : "For even 
herexmto were ye called : because Christ also 
suffered for us, leaving an example, that ye 
should follow his steps : who when he was revi- 

[ 2X2 ] 

led, reviled not ag?iiii ; when he suffered, he 
threatened not/' 1 Pet. 2, 21, 28. 

In him we perceive no ejivy about religioBt 
He was the wisdom from above, and therefore 
'^without partiality." James 3, 17. He w«fl 
also "without hypocrisy," and sowed the **finji| 
of righteousness in peace." Therefore cherish 
also no envy or hatred about religion towards 
any person; for in consequence of such enyr 
and hatred much innocent blood has been shed. 
Endeavor to love every hujnan being, and abhcxr 
all sin and sinful actions ; and be also no ^^ar- 
taker of other men's sins," (1 Tim. 6, 22.); btrit 
endeavor to convince the world rather by your 
life and conduct than by your words, in your 
words be also careful ; and speak nothing con- 
trary to the foundation of truth. In short, be 
"wise as a serpent, and harmless as a dove." 
Matt. 10, 16. "If it is possible, as much as 
lieth in you, live peaceably with all men. Avenge 
not vourselves." Rom. 12, 18. 19. 

If any one "despitefully use you," bear it pa- 
tiently ; and be careful only, that you do not 
use him so. "Render not evil for evil, or rail- 
ing for railing: but contrary-wise blessing; 
knowing that ye are called, that ye should in- 
herit the blessing." 1 Pet. 3, 9. 

So Christ has also called us, as follows : "Lov^ 
your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good 
to them that hate you, and pray for them that 
despitefully use you, and persecute you." Matt. 

[ 213 J 

Nature and mere human reason, however, 
cannot comprehend this doctrine of loving our 
enemies with a true heart ; for the ^^natual man 
receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God : 
for they are foolishness unto him ; neither can 
he know them, because they are spiritually dis- 
cerned." 1 Cor. 2, 14. 

"If any man be in Christ, he is a new crea- 
ture." 2 Cor. 5, 17. So Christ also says: 
^Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch 
cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the 
vine ; no more can ye, except ye abide in me." 
John 15, 4. 

"He that saith he abideth in him, ought him- 
self also so to walk, even as he walked." 1 John, 
2, 6. Now as Christ commanded us to love our 
enemies, so he also showed by his course of life 
that he truly loved his enemies. To love our 
enemies and not to "resist evil," are fruits that 
grow out of the vine of Christ. But quarrels 
and wars grow out of the lusts of our sinful 
**members. The doctrine and deportment of 
Christ do not allow us to go to war, or to use 
violence towards our enemies ; as John spoke to 
the soldiers : "Do violence to no man," &c. 
Luke 3, 14. Under such circumstances then, 
no true christian can be engaged in military 
service; not being allowed to "do violence" to 
any one. Now the prophet did already pro- 
phesy of a kingdom of peace — the kingdom of 
Christ — in which they shall "beat their swords 
into plough-shares, and their spears into pruning 

[ 214 ] 

hooks : nation shall not lift up sword against 
nation, neither shall they learn war any more." 
Isaiah 2, 4. Micah 4, 3. 

Further Christ says : "My kingdom is not 
of this world. If my kingdom were of this 
world, then would my servants fight," &c. John 
18, 36. 

The true followers of Christ confess, that they 
are "strangers and pilgrims on earth," thereby 
declaring that they "seek a country;** for they 
"desire a better country, that is, an heavenly : 
wherefore God is not ashamed to be called their 
God; for he hath prepared for them a city." 
Heb. 11, 13. 14. 16. 

What a great difference there is between the 
doctrine and deportment of Christ and his 
apostles, as well as that of the doctrine and de- 
portment of all true christians ; and that of the 
professed followers of Christ at the present day. 
The former loved the brethren, left their lives 
for each other, and loved their enemies according 
to the doctrine and example of the Son of God. 
Whereas on the other hand, the christians of 
the present day go to war with one another by 
thousands, kill and destroy one another in the 
most horrible manner; and this even such as 
are of the same religious faith, who boast as 
holding the true doctrine, and who are united 
by the sacrament into the same body. But it 
is not to be believed, that the true body of Christ 
will injure itself. Further there are, alas ! many 
amongst all religious denominations, who show 

[ 216 ] 

by their fruits that they are not true branches 
of the vine of Christ ; inasmuch as one brother 
belies and defrauds another, and does violence 
and injustice to him. Indeed it is as the pro- 
phet says : "Why dost thou show me iniquity, 
and cause me to behold grievance ? for spoiling 
and violence are before me : and there are that 
raise up strife and contention. Therefore the 
law is slacked, and judgment doth never go 
forth : for the wicked doth compass about the 
righteous ; therefore wrong judgment proceed- 
eth." Hab. 1, 3. 4. 

"The good man is perished out of the earth ; 
and there is none upright among men : they all 
lie in wait for blood ; they hunt every man his 
brother with a net. The best of them is as a 
brier ; the most upright is sharper than a thorn 
hedge." MicahT, 2. 4. 

Christ says also of sinners, that they love 
those who love them. But tins is nothmg un- 
common. Christ however did something un- 
common; inasmuch as he loved his enemies. 
In the law it was commanded : "Love thy neigh- 
bor, and hate thine enemy. *' This was said "by 
them of old time" — not by God— but by the 
fathers under the Old Testament. 

Now Christ fulfilled the law when he said : 
"A new commandment I give unto you, that ye 
love one another." John 13, 34. Also : "Love 
your enemies, bless them that curse you." Now 
to walk in tins love, as Christ walked therein, 
18 something rare, as well as something impor- 


Vat. ^Chriita&bfiHWii^: ^'^MMite 
ibiajltm." JofahlS,9J 

And ftf^uii : 'V ffl nf^ 'Boty commandinents, 
'' tbill sbide in MY Idre ; vnb aa I bav^ kept 

,r ViK&ia't oofidinaidiUlltS ind abide in hu 
li»«." Johii IS, 10. nmt ft, if we love our 
aifliniiM ; if ¥6 (HB)^ so vi(A«tice to tliem ; ?. 
iihm «n «vn befiUs n^ We do aM reHist tbe ume ; 
iFiredo "goodtodwm that liate as;" "M« 
dion Aiat flsMe d> ;" **i^sj for them whtcti 
dMpiteEonyiBe ns;" i^ nvx any one "^uo* m- 
at the Uw, uid takea at^ Otir ookt,** vt let 
bim liave the *^sl6ak t!\m> ; ' tt, irhen at^ oh 
'**Baatte us on the right ehetik,*' we "^tnni to tia 
the other also ;" if, When i>nT one "ta):ea awi^ 
our goods," we do not "ask inem agsm ;" if, "u 
we wottld that men Aonld do to ns," we "do to 
them likewise;" and if we "lend to them of 
whom we hope nothing again." 

Behold, these are all pnre fruits that grow on 
the vine of Christ. He that "abideth in Christ 
snd Christ in him, shall bring forth much fruit ;" 
but "without him we can do nothing." Bnt be 
that "abideth not in him is cast forth as a branch, 
and is withered ; and cast into the fire." John 
16, 5. 6. "If ye continne in my word, then are 
je my disciples indeed." John 8, 81. 

But in order to become a tme disciple of 
Christ, something very important is vet required 
as a foundation to the foregoing frmta ; namehr, 
a liring faith, pure love to Christ, Btriet setf- 
denial, earnest prayer to Qod day uid ni^it, in 

[ 217 J 

order to obtain strength and grace to keep hia 
words, and to carry out his will; and to over- 
come all opposition in our nature to a full sur- 
render of the sonl to Christ. "He that hath an 
ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the 
churches; he that overcometh shall not be hurt 
by the second death." Rev. 2, 11. 

"To him that overcometh will I grant to sit 
with me in my throne, even as I also overcame, 
and am set down with my Father in his throne." 
Bev. 4, 21. 


I ^ 


To THB RisiKa Gekeratiok^ ok Obedibkcb 10 



In Questions and Answers. 


Qusstian 1. — ^I find myself at times under 
strong conyictions of mind, as well as under 
heavy accusations of conscience; so that I am 
convinced I cannot stand before God in my pre- 
sent sinful state. Indeed my state is worse 
than I can express it in words. Nor do I know 
where to turn to, so as to get good and safe in- 
struction; as I am in want of experience and 
information in such matters. What then shaU 
I do? 

AnstD^. True and safe instruction is to be 
obtained only of Christ, our faithful Lord and 
master; who called the ^'little children" unto 
him, fLuke 18, 16.) ; and who also commanded 
his disciples: ^^Suffer little children to come 
unto me, and forbid them not,'' &c. Yea, he 
calls upon all, and says : ^^Come imto me, all 
ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I will 
give you rest. Take my yoke upon you, and 
leacn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart; 

[ 219 ] 

and ye shall find rest unto your souls." Matt. 
11, 28. 29. 

Quest. 2. I hear so many calls at the present 
time, of which some are also very earnest ; never- 
theless, I see that those who do call are not 
agreed with one another. Hence it appears to 
me at times, that there is nothing fundamental 
any more — ^nothing whereon one may depend. 
Besides, every one says: ^'Only look to Jesus." 
Is then "Christ divided ?" 

Ans. Christ says to his disciples : "Behold 
the hour cometh, yea, is now come, that ye shall 
be scattered, every man to his own, and shall 
leave me alone." John 16, 32. Divisions grow 
out of man's pride and self-will ; and these again 
have a tendency to produce their like in others, 
namely, pride and self-will. Man's will is bom 
of the flesh, and partakes of the corruption of 
the rest of his nature. But the "seed of the 
woman shall bruise the head of the serpent," 
with all his wiles and tricks. "Christ" is there- 
fore not "divided ;" for we are "all one in 
Christ." So John the evangelist well clears up 
this matter, when he says : "Which were bom, 
not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of 
the will of man, but of God." John 1, 18. 
There is only one good shepherd of your soul, 
in whom you may trust with confidence. He 
is the "way, and the tmth, and the life; no one 
cometh to the Father, but by him." John 14, 6. 

Quest. 3. The new birth always appears to 
me a serious and important matter ; and there 

[ 220 ] 

is in oar time much talk and noise about it 
Indeed I am conyinced that it is a matter thai 
is absolutely necessary to salration ; and I hare 
therefore a strong desire for it. Nevertheleai) 
I am afraid of being deceived. Now can I not 
be advised, how to obtain it without being de- 
ceived and imposed upon ? 

Ans. The work of the new birth is a wonde^ 
ful work, and is effected by God in the sod 
through Christ. But I am not to dictate U 
God, how he is to go to work to effect the same 
in you. If you yield yourself up wholly int< 
the hands of God, without resistance, he wH 
commence, and also finish, the work of the nen 
birth in your soul ; and not indeed of '^cormp- 
tible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word oi 
God, which liveth and abideth forever." 1 Pet 
1, 23. **Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except i 
man be bom of water, and of the Spirit, he can* 
not enter into the kingdom of God. Thai 
which is born of the flesh is flesh ; and thai 
which is bom of the Spirit is spirit. Marvel nol 
that I said unto thee. Ye must be born again." 
John 8, 5—7. The new birth takes place ii 
the heart. Therefore the Savior compares it U 
the wind, which we hear, but cannot see. Wine 
and water are strong elements, which are scr 
viceable to the preservation of human life. Th< 
spiritual wind which Jesus breathes upon th< 
soul, and the water which he offers it, (John 7 
37.) are the gifts of God for the preservation o 
the life of the soul. *^If thou knewest the gift o 

[ 221 ] 

Gk>d, and who it is that saith to thee, Give me 
to drink ; thou wooldest have asked him, and 
he would have given thee living water." John 
4, 10. Christ cleansed his church with the 
** washing of water by the word." Eph. 5, 26. 
The words of Christ are "spirit and life." John 
6| 68. Now if Christ thus cleanses his church, 
namely, with the "washing of water by the 
word," then indeed we may say, we are "bom 
of the word and of the Spirit." By the word 
were all things made that were made. "In 
him was life; and the life was the light of men." 
John 1, 4. The water that he gives to us, shall 
be in ns a "well of water springing up into ever- 
lasting life." John 4, 14. 

Quest, 4. You speak of the new birth as you 
read of it in the Bible. But have you no ex- 
perience of it ; so that you can speak of it from 
experience ? 

Ajis, My experience can help you nothing ; 
nor can your experience help me any thing. 
Besides, boasting much of ourselves is the work 
of the "old man." Christ identifies the new 
birth with the following of him. lie says: 
'^e which have followed me in the regenera- 
tion," &c. Matt. 19, 28. A follower of Christ 
ifl in his whole course of life, a "light of the 
w<Nrld and a salt to the earth," (Matt. 5, 13, 
14.); whereby the "tree is known by its fruit." 
Which indeed is the only sign whereby the chil- 
dren of God may be known. K you talk much 
of your experience, and your life shows the con- 


[ 222 ] 

trar J, jou will become a laughing stock before 
the world, and 8 hypocrite before God. 

Quest. 5. How far may then a person get in 
the new birth ? 

Ana. I for my part wish from the heart, that 
every one might advance further in the new 
birth than I have done. But th^ Spirit of Gtoi 
will make the word of God new in your soul, 
that it will become sharper to you than any 
^^wo-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing 
asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and 
marrow, and it is a discerner of the thoughts 
and intents of the heart.'' Heb. 4, 12. The 
new birth as already remarked — stakes place in 
the heart ; and in so far as Jesus, the true Word 
of Life, becomes life and light to your soul, in so 
far will the thoughts and intents of your heart 
be changed. And if you thus continue in the 
work of the new birth, your carnal and sinful 
nature will be brought into death. 

Quest. 6. Can a person born asain also vet 
commit sin r 

Ans. You must closely attend to the words 
of the Savior, and you will see that he makes a 
distinction in the matter. He says : ^^That 
which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that 
which is bom of the Spirit is spirit." John 3, 
6. Again Paul says : "Flesh and blood cannot 
inherit the kingdom of God ; neither doth cor- 
ruption inherit incorruption. The first man 
Adam was made a living soul, the last Adam 
was made a quickening spirit." 1 Cor. 15, 45. 

[ 228 ] 

50. So Paul also sajs farther : ^'I know that 
in me (that is, in mj flesh,) dwelleth no good 
thing : for to will is present with me ; but how 
to perform that which is good, I find not. Now 
if 1 do that I would not, it is no more I that do 
it, but sin that dwelleth in me/' Bom 7, 18, 
20. Again John says : ''AH unrighteousness 
is sin." 1 John, 5, 17. Now since in your flesh 
there ''dwelleth no good thing,'' jour corrupti- 
ble body will scarcely become so pure as to be 
free from all "unrighteousness." Christ says: 
"The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is 
weak." Matt. 26, 41. 

Bat the new birth does not sin, as John says : 
^^Whosoever is born of God, doth not commit 
sin ; for the seed remaineth in him : and he 
oannot sin, because he is born of God." 1 John, 
3, 9. Out of the godly seed which a believ- 
ing soul receives from Christ in regeneration, no 
sin certainly grows; but it may grow out of 
the evil seed which exists in man's nature. "If 
we say that we have no sin, we deceive our- 
selves, and the truth is not in us. If we con- 
fess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive 
our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighte- 
ousness." 1 John, 1, 8. 9. So you see that you 
must well distinguish between the body of the 
Lord, and the body of sin and death. 

Quest. 7. Is th6n the new birth indispensably 
necessary to salvation ? And is it something 

Ana. The new birth is something very ne- 

[ 224 ] 

eeestajf mnd is a ohief article of salYation. For 
Christ sajs : ^'Except a man be born again, he 
cannot see the kingdom of heaven. Marvel not 
that I said unto thee, Ye must be bom again*" 
John S, 8. 7. But by b^g bom of God ve 
do not become any thing great in this world; 
but we obtidn the ^^option*' which was lost in 
Adam ; as Christ testifies: Verily I say unto 
you, except ye be converted, and become as little 
children, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of 
heaven." Matt. 18, 3. <'Thy people shall be 
willing in the day of thy power, in the beauties 
of holiness from the womb of the morning : thoo 
hast the dew of thy youth." P&alm 1, 10. 8. 

Christ has given us in his birth a pattern of 
true humility. Thither, namely, to his manner, 
we are to direct our course. Indeed he has 
«rivon us in his birth, doctrine, and life, an ex- 
ample of child-like humility. Those who are 
horn of Christ have become partakers of his na- 
ture and virtues. He, "according to his abun- 
dant mercy, hath begotten us again unto a live- 
ly hope." 1 Pet. 1, 3. 


Quest. 1. I feel myself burdened in my mind 
with yarions thoughts in respect of the many 
opinions of our times ; as each one thinks his own 
are the best, they being, as he thinks, founded 
on the tmth. Thus then each one, in his opi- 
nion, founds his views on the truth; and yet 
these views are in some respects directly oppo* 
Bed to one another. So I also feel myself at 
times not altogether at rest, because I have not 
yet externally united myself with any religious 
denomination. K I view the word of God, I 
see that the Lord has a church — ^has given it a 
law — and that the primitive christians were un- 
der one bond of communion ; but at the present 
time things appear to be in a very bad state, 
much contused, and greatly in a state of de- 
cline. Now can any one give me good evan- 
gelical instruction, upon which I can depend ? 

An8. I find mysefr bound in love and com- 
passion towards you, to give you, according to 
my weakness and humble ability, instruction re- 
spectinff the matter in question. And as it re- 
gards the disunion of which you speak, I would 
advise you not to concern yourself much about 
it. For it is with God alone that you have to 
settle the matter, and not with man. Direct 
your mind's eye to Jesus, *Hhe author and fin- 
isher of our faith." For his church is founded 
on him as the "chief corner-stone." And now 
that you are resolved on building, dig deep — 

[ 226 ] 

dig through the whole sandy foundation of men, 
and found your building on the rock Jesus 
Christ. For ^^other foundation can no man lay 
than that is laid by Jesus Christ/' 1 Cor. 3, IL 

You must seek the peace of God for yourself, 
and enter into communion with the Father and 
the Son. Do not seek the Son in his person at 
Jerusalem, nor yet on the mountain, but '^wor- 
ship him in spirit and in truth." John 4, 2S. 
Then if you have found the true foundation, 
namely, the anchor that will ever keep your 
soul, then be no more ^^tossed to and fro, and 
carried about by every wind of doctrine ; but 
speaking the truth in love, grow up in Christ in 
all things, which is the head, even Christ/' Eph. 
4, 14. 15. '*Be not carried about with divers 
and strange doctrines : for it is a good thing that 
the heart be established with grace." Heb. 13, 9. 

Quest 2. I am strongly convinced from the 
word of God, that I should externally unite myself 
with some religious denomination ; yet I am not 
altogether clear in the matter for different rea- 
sons : First, I am somewhat fearful to enter in- 
to external connection with a church, as I am 
afraid I might thereby be bound to much under 
human laws and rules. Secondly, because my 
love of liberty is very' strong. Now what shall 
I do, so as to overcome this fear and timidity, 
and this my love of liberty ? 

Ans. Only give place to your convictions 
from the word of God, and let that be your rule 
dm-ing your whole lifetime. "The gospel which 

L 227 ] 

was preached by me (says Paul) is not after 
man ; for I neither received it of man, neither 
was I tanght it, but b j the revelation of Jesns 
Christ." Gal. 1, 11. 12. ; Rom. 1, 16. 

Examine well this *%ar and timidity" of 
which you speak-— of being too much bound 
'hinder human laws and rules" — and consider 
whence they originate, and to what they will 
lead yon« The apostle Peter speaks of such as 
have forsaken the ^'right way": ^^They speak 
great swelling words of vanity," and promise 
others ^^liberty while they themselves are the 
servants of corruption." 2 Pet. 2, 15. 18. 19. 
Indeed, the liberty of which you speak may be- 
come an occasion of sin to you, (Gtd. 5, 13.) or 
a ^^doak of unrighteousness," or a ^^stumbline- 
block to them that are weak." 1 Cor. 8, §. 
There are many dangers in the freedom that 
yon may thus claim. The Lord complains : 
^or of old time I have broken thy yoke, and 
burst thy bands; and thou saidst, 1 will not 
transeress." ko. Jer. 2, 20. Nor are you bound 
in eim)racing religion to submit to human laws. 
You are only bound to submit to the doctrines 
of Christ and his apostles. 

Qtiest, 8. It appears to me that the church is 
in a very declining state — very destitute of love. 
For I observe amongst its members scarcely any 
better examples than amongst those who belong 
to no church. But if I knew of a church that 
consisted of none but awakened, enlightened, 
and regenerated persons, standing in the bond 

[ 228 1 

of pure love, — ^with gnch a one I would unite. 
Now can any one recommend to me such i 
church — a church with which I might unite with 
safety ? 

An9. David Bays : "Before I was afflicted, I 
went astray ; but now have I kept th^ word. It 
is good for me that I have been afflicted ; that 
I might learn thy statutes." Psalm 119, 67. 71 
Now to an humbled soul it alwayp appean thai 
all others are better than it is itscui. Foria 
consequence of its humility, it eateems othm 
higher than itself. So I have abo obserred, 
that unfruitful members of the church have al* 
ways most to say about its decline. If yot 
have once rightly learned to know your owi 
sinful and impure heart, you will find enough 
to do with yourself. But if there were a church 
without a fault, and you and I would unite 
therewith ; then still there would be two imper- 
fect members belonging to it. "For" (says 
(James) in many thines we offend all. If anj 
man offend not in words, the same is a perfect 
man, and able also to bridle the whole body." 
James 3, 2. 


Quest. 1. I am convinced from the word 
of God, that the baptism of adults is the right 
baptism — the ' baptism which Christ has insti- 
tuted. For he says : "Go ye therefore, and teach 
all nations, baptizing them in the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." 
Matt. 28, 19. "He that believe th, and is bap- 
tized, shall be saved." Mark 16, 16. Thus 
Christ puts teaching and believing before bap- 
tism, the latter of which acts cannot be per- 
formed by infants, but only by adults. But as 
those who uphold adult baptism are separated 
into different parties ; and this for the reason 
that they administer baptism differently ; there- 
fore I would like to know what is the right and 
true baptism. By some immersion is recogniz- 
ed as the right baptism, and none other. By 
others again, pouring. And both of these 
modes are again differently administered. Now 
if I receive baptism, I am desirous of receiving 
the right baptism, the baptism sanctioned by 
the words and example of our Savior. Now how 
shall I learn to know what is the right baptism ? 

Ans. Examine the doctrine of Christ and his 
apostles, in which they treat of baptism ; and 
rather follow them than all other received cus- 
toms. And then according to this doctrine I 
am willing to administer baptism unto you. 

Quest 2. Shall then the candidate for bap- 
tism instruct the one who is to baptize him, how to 


[ S80 ] 

mdminister Iwptisiii ? Dmb not Gbrirt say to Us 
apoetles: '^eadli them to obserye all things what- 
Boeyer I haTo eommaiided yoa ?'' Matt. 28, 20. 
AnM* K I am to instnict yoa in baptiflm, I 
must instruct yon according to the dictates of 
nn^ conscience, as I am oonyinoed from the word 
of God ; and so it is the dnty of oUiers also t9 
do. But obsenre — and with an impartial wmj 
—that I do not want to dictate to you, bat only 
to call your attention to an examination of the 
aabjecti for ;^arself. John saya: '*I indeed 
baptiie yon with water onto lepentanoe." Matt 
8, 11* **I indeed have baptued yon with wa- 
ter,*' ftc Mark 1, 8. <1 indeed bapljae yoi 
with water ; bat one mightier dian I cometli, 
the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to nn- 
loo8e : he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost 
and with fire." Luke 3, 16. "I baptize you 
with water : but there standeth one among yon. 
whom ye know not." John 1, 26. "But he 
that sent me to baptize with water, the same 
said unto me, upon whom thou shalt see the 
Spirit descendingy and remaining on him, the 
same is he which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost." 
John 1, 33. "John truly baptized with water ; 
but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghoit 
not many days hence." Acts 1, 5. Now if John 
baptized with water, Christ was also baptized 
by him with water in Jordan; and he again 
commanded us to ^Heach and baptize." Bat if 
you ask, how did John baptize ? I answer with 
water. Now examine these words more dotelj 

[ 281 1 

than you have yet done, and consider well what 
is to be made of them. Water is the medium 
wherewith baptism is administered. John bap- 
tizes with water, and Christ with the Holy 
Spirit ; and that by pouring out the Spirit, 
as we expressly read, (Acts 2, 17.) "I will 
poor out my Spirit upon all flesh." Here 
Daptism is called in plain language, pouring. 
Nor can, in my opinion, the words "baptized 
with water," be so construed as to mean plung- 
ing or dipping ; as the words "baptizing" and 
**plunging" (or dipping) are in our German 
translation, two distinct words; as is to be 
seen, (Luke 16, 24.): "And send Lazarus, 
that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, 
and cool my tongue." Again Christ says on 
the occasion of his supper with his disciples : 
**He it is to whom I shall give a sop, when I 
have dipped it." John 13, 26. Now if these 
were connected with baptism, or baptism re- 
corded instead of "dipping," I would be con- 
vinced that immersion Was the right mode of 
baptism. But now the words in question are two 
words. Nor do I view baptism as a means where- 
by the "old man" is brought into death. This 
must be efiected by regeneration, or internal bap- 
tism, of which external baptism is only the sign. 
Quest. 3. Is not the meaning of the Greek word 
hapto^ (from which the English word to baptize is 
derived,) to dip^ to plunge^ or immerse f And 
have we not reason to believe that immersion 
was the baptism practised in the primitive church ? 

[ 282 ] 

Ans. I trust that the German translation of 
the Bible is a sufficient guide to salvation ; that 
if we follow its directions in humility, love, and 
sincerity, we may, by the grace of God, obtain 
salvation. Besides, however, translators are 
not agreed as to the meaning of the Greek word 
bapto. In a Dutch Dictionary of four lan- 
guages, published at Amsterdam (in the Reffe^ 
stein Printing Office) in the year 1634, this word 
is translated "sprinkling with water" or "pour- 

In histories on baptism, we indeed read of 
immersion ; but we also read of the contrary. 
For example, in a history on baptism, publish- 
ed in the year 68, there is an account of two 
daughters being baptized by the minister Her- 
mogatus at a running stream. These two daugh- 
ters were born of christian parents. In the 
year A. D. 251, three learned men went over 
to the christian faith, and sent for the minister 
Justinian, praying him to be baptized. Justi- 
nian was rejoiced at such learned men submit- 
ting to the yoke of Christ; began to instruct 
them ; and thereon ordered water to be brought, 
and baptized them on the confession of their 
faith. Again, in the year A. D. 370, Aptetus 
Milevatus taught : "Paul hath planted, ApoUos 
hath watered ; Paul made the heathen to dis- 
ciples of Christ, Apollos baptized them." It 
is also mentioned, that this (sprinkling) was the 
mode of baptism about the year 383, at Jerusa- 
lem ; and that it remained so for a long time f 

[ 288 ] 

DQianj countries. According to this mode, the 
oandidates for baptism were baptized in or at 
streams of water ; they descended partly or 
wholly into the water, and again ascended out 
df the same. But as Clemens spoke already in 
mrlier times, namely, in the year 95, of hereti- 
cal baptism, and advised such as had received 
such baptism, should be rebaptized ; therefore 
Dionysius wrote in the year 126, an entire book 
ooncerning the different modes of baptism, and 
dedicated it to the Bishop of Cesarea. In this 
book he makes mention of a man who was pres- 
ent when baptism was administered ; and that 
on hearing the questions put to the candidates, 
and their answers thereto, he confessed that he 
had been baptized by heretics quite differently, 
and requested to be baptized in the right way. 
Now from this it is to be inferred, that baptism 
was already in the first centuries administered 
differently, by the christians of that time. There- 
fore you are also not bound to receive any rules 
respecting it, except those of Christ and his 

Quest. 4. But does not Paul say : "Know ye 
not that so many of us as were baptized into 
Jesus Christ, were baptized into his death ? 
Therefore we are buried with him in baptism 
into death," &c. Rom. 6, 5. 4. Now how do 
you understand this ? 

An%. Christ "died for our sins according to 
the scriptures," (1 Cor. 16, 3.) and thus estab- 
liBhed by his sufferings and death the whole 


t M» 3 

New Tefftament. For where s teBtament iq 
there mnst abo of neoessity be the death of Ai 
testator. For "a testament is offeree after iMi 
ar6 dead : otherwise it is of no strength at dl 
while the testator liyeth." Heb. 9, 16. 17. Hi 
whole eoyenant of grace of the New Testanual 
is established in the death of Christ Jesiis, Aai 
no man ^^disannnUeth or addeth to a m^n's e0> 
Tenant, if it be confirmed." Qal. 8, 15. fk 
then not only the commandment of baptisa^ 
but all the commandments of the New Testfr 
ment, are established by the death of Ghriik 
Christ calls his shedding of blood and enfierag 
withal a baptism, when he says : '*I have a ba»- 
iism to be baptized with ; and how I am strail* 
ened till it be accomplished " Luke 12, SXk 
The Old Testament was figurative, and wm 
sprinkled with blood. For when ^^Moses had 
spoken every precept to all the people accordinf 
to the law, he took the blood of calves and d 
goats, with water, and scarlet wool, and hyssopi 
and sprinkled both the book and all the people^ 
(Heb. 9, 19.) and said : "Behold the blood ol 
the covenant, which the Lord hath made with 
you concerning all these words." Exodus 24, 8. 
"And almost all things are by the law purged 
with blood ; and without shedding of blood is no 
remission," (Heb. 9, 22.) ; and yet this "could 
not make him that did the service perfect, -as 
pertaining to the conscience ; which stood only 
m meats and drinks and divers washings," M 
T. 9, 10. Indeed, it served only as a fi^irativ 

[ 285 ] 

bodily purification; "For if the blood .of bulls 
and of goats, and the ashes of an heifer sprink*^ 
Hng the unclean, sanctified to the purifying of 
the flesh; how much more shall the blood of 
Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered 
himself without spot to God, purge your con- 
science from dead works to serve the living God." 
▼. 13, 14. Yea, the blood of Christ is the only 
right and proper means of purification, which 
"cleansethus of all our sins," if we become uni- 
ted to him by baptism, obey his commandments, 
follow his life, and thus bury our old Adam >vith 
him in death. 

Baptism belongs to the entrance into the cove- 
nant of grace. Repentance being the first let- 
ter, baptism is an addition thereto, and has 
reference to tlie sprinkling of the blood of Christ, 
as John says: "This is he that came by water 
and blood, even Jesus Christ ; not by water on- 
ly, but by water and blood : and it is the Spirit 
tnat beareth witness, because the Spirit is truth. 
For there are three that bear record in heaven, 
the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: 
and these three are one. And there are three 
that bear record in earth, the spirit, and the 
water, and the blood : and these three agree in 
one." 1 John, 6, 6 — 8. Thus then the spirit, 
the water, and the blood, "agree in one," as 
witnesses on earth. The Spirit is represented 
as being poured out ; and Moses, as already re- 
marked, used water and blood for sprinkling the 
people, as a figure of the external purification. 
Bo the apostle also says of the faithful^ (Ha\^« 

12, 24.): "Ye are come to Jesus tho Media» 
of the Xew Teatament, and to th« blood of 
BpnnkHn<r, tbat speaketli better tilings tban that 
of Abel." NoiT the baptism into the death rf 
Christ, {Rom. 6, 3.) ia an important and fteriont 
baptiam. For in this ba])tifim we make a co»c 
nant with God to be faithful unto him eren 
"unto blood," And as there can be no reoon- 
dliation without the eheddiiig of blood, tlni 
oovenaut leads you to the shedding of the blood 
of the ram of ain, the crucifying of your inbcn 
sinful nature. Yea, to the "presenting of oar 
bodies OS a living sacrifice, holy, acGeptabl« ubIb 
God," &c. Kom. 12, 1. Indeed, the whi^ 
oovenant of grace leads ua to the bearing of<nr 
cross daily, to the denying of ourselves, to "df- 
ing daily." and to the yielding up of our sotilt 
wholly Into the haiid.s of our God, so tbtit «o df 
liver ourselves over from our own hands into thi 
hands of God, and are thus no more our om, 
bnt his "who died for ub." 

Quest- 6. Is not baptism sometimes called * 
"washing of water," or a burying? 

Ans. I, in my simplicity, can no where fi>^ 
that baptism is called a "washing of water." Ui 
apostle indeed speaks, (Eph. 5, 26.) of tlw 
"washing of water by the word." But he doM 
not mention a word about baptism. Again k* 
fiirther says, (Tit. 8, 5. 6.) : "According to Ui 
mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneift> 
tion, and renewing of the Holy Ghost ; whiafc 
he shed on us abundantly through Jesos GkriM 
our Savior." lilwii &«M^«K4a-«K^iiU Wrfy 

[ 287 ] 

consider in the fear of God. And so we are 
then "buried with Christ by baptism into death." 
Now the burial of Christ is not described as 
having been like our burial of the dead. For 
the grave of Jesus was a new grave, which a 
rich man got hewn out of a rock ; it had a door 
whereby it could be entered, and was conse- 
quently not covered with earth. Matt. 27, 57. 
60. Further, Nicodemus came, and "brought a 
mixture of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred 
-weight." Whereupon they "took the body of 
Jesus, and wound it in linen clothes with the spi- 
ces, as the manner of the Jews is to bury." John 
19, 39. 40. He suffered death with malefactors, 
and was buried (entombed) like the rich. (In a 
similar manner the rich of our time are also fre- 
quently entombed.) But why "seek the living 
among the dead? He is not here; but is risen," 
whereby we see, that "like as he was raised up 
from the dead, even so we also should walk in 
newness of life." Rom. 6, 4. It is further to 
be seen, (1 Cor. 15, 29.) that some were "bap- 
tized for the dead." "But (says Paul) if the 
dead rise not at all, why are they baptized for 
the dead ?" So we also find in ancient writings, 
that persons were baptized over the dead, that 
is, over their graves. But he who seeks the life 
that comes from God, in baptism, or in any other 
external works, will find himself deceived. For 
salvation is to be found only in Christ Jesus ; and 
those only become partakers of it, who die unto 
tiiemselves and every thing sinful ; as a person 
who is always laying the foundation of a buildim^ 

[ 288 ] 

will not get it perfected. Therefore do not dwell 
too much upon external matters ; for they are on- 
ly "shadows of things to come;'* but these "sha- 
dows*' are nevertheless not to be despised ; because 
they are shadows of things of great importance. 

By some too much importance is attached to 
water-baptism ; by others it is valued too little. 
Scorners, rcvilers, and despisers, there are in- 
deed many in our days ; and this particularly, 
as many of the doctrines now taught are tainted 
with a false spirit of liberty. But you I would 
advise to remain on the right path, and to fol- 
low the lamb in your baptism wherever it leads 
you. Think of his baptism of suflfering, and 
ask yourself the question, whether you are wil- 
ling to drink of the cup that he drank of, and 
to be baptized with the baptism with which he 
was baptized. Matt. 20, 23. This baptism of 
suffering is an exalted baptism ; which you must 
view with spiritual eyes. For as "Moses lifted up 
the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the 
Son of Man be lifted up : that whosoever believ- 
eth in him, should not perish, but have everlast- 
ing life." John 3, 14. 15. 

In him we have pardon, namely, salvation 
through his blood. So we also read : "Let us 
draw near with a true heart, in all assurance of 
faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil 
conscience, and our bodies washed with pure wa- 
ter. Heb. 10, 22. But if you do not obtain an in- 
ward sprinkling, an outward one will avail you lit- 
tle. "So shall he sprinkle many nations ; the kings 
Bfaall shut their mouths at him." Isaiah 52, 16. 


Quest. 1. Before I unite with your church, I 
would like to have full instruction about all your 
questions and rules ; as also about your ground 
and articles of faith ; so that I might have time 
and opportunity to examine them by the word 
of God, in order to see whether they agree with 
the same. Now whither shall I go, so that I 
may obtain true instruction about this matter ? 

Ans. This instruction I am willing to give 
you according to my knowledge and humble 
ability. The principles of our church enjoin 
humifity, as well in doctrine as in a pious life 
and conversation; and if these principles are 
departed from, the principles of the founders of 
the Christian Church are departed from. The 
only bond of our united brotherhood is the bond 
of love. And if this is broken, all other alliances 
are broken, and the brotherhood is dissolved. 
Further, the growth of our church depends on 
the blessing and grace of God ; and ''every plant 
which our heavenly Father hath not planted, 
shall be rooted up." Matt. 15, 13. Again, in 
our day the church is subject to much scorn and 
oontempt ; and in the time of our forefathers it 
was subject to much persecution ; yea, to tor- 
tures, crosses, tribulation, and distress. Now 
if you make application to be received into this 
despised church, and desire to be baptized, you 
are directed to repentance, faith in Christ, and 
love to God. Yon are reminded, that the step 

[ 240 ] 

which you are about to take — ^your builiUng 
upon the ground just mentioned — is a matter 
of importance ; that you should "sit down first 
and count the cost, whether you have sufiScient 
to finish" what you undertake. Luke 14, 28. 
Further you will be reminded what baptism im- 
plies ; namely, that it does not imply the "put- 
ting away of the filth of the flesh, but the an- 
swer of a good conscience toward God." 1 Pet. 
8. 21. Now if you intend to enter into this 
covenant with God, you must renounce the world 
and its sinful practices, all places of vain amuse- 
ment, and sinful company, deny yourself, take 
up the cross, and become a follower of Christ. 
"Then Jacob said unto his household and to all 
that were with him. Put away the strange gods 
that are among you, and be clean, and change 
your garments : and let us arise and go to Be- 
thel." Gen. 35, 2. 3. Now the reason of Ja- 
cob's doing this, is plainly to be inferred from 
the previous chapter. He was convinced in his 
heart, that his sons had not only incurred guilt 
on account of the men at Sichem, but that they 
had also in their wrath sinned against God ; and 
in consequence of this he stood in fear and 
anxiety. In this condition he knew no other 
way than again to become reconciled to God, in 
order again to come under his protection. He 
therefore adopted the means of purifying him- 
self, and of laying aside all those things with 
which the Lord was displeased. And as the 
pomp and show with which men decorate their 

L 241 ] 

bodies arise out of an impure and proud heart, 
and are an abomination in the sight of God, as 
"well as idolatry; therefore Jacob took '^all their 
strange gods, and all their ear-rings'' and buried 
them. Gen. 34, 30. ; 35, 4. ; Amos 6, 8. ; Mark 
7, 22. 23. 

Again Christ was bom at Bethlehem, and 
laid in a manger, as an example to us of true 
humility. Now if your conduct has the appear- 
ance of conformity to this world, whether this 
be in clothing or other matters, you will be ad- 
monished respecting the same ; and you will also 
be asked, whether you are willing to be instruct- 
ed by the doctrine of Christ and his apostles ? 
And if you answer in the affirmative, your de- 
sire of becoming a member of the church will, 
in its order, belaid before the same, and they 
will be enjoined to watch over your course of 
life, and to admonish you, if they should find it 

QueH^ 2. I am aware that you sometimes hold 
secret conversations with such as intend to join 
your church, particularly with the young. Have 
you then any thing to talk with such that not 
every one may hear ? 

Am- We have nothing in our church, either 
in the instruction of the young, or any thing 
else, that the whole world may not know. The 
young indeed are sometimes req^uested, in a pri- 
vate majoner, to state what has mduced them to 
desire to become members, of the church? So 
th^re are also questions, arranged for the pur- 


a» ]: 

pose of lartraotiiig thom ; andall thia't 
some persons are at times too bashful ttf-i 
for tibemselTes before many people. Qm 
sons are also for a while instructed in il 
and word of Qodf to exercise themselrea 
in, and to become obedient to the same, i 
ing to the oommand.of Christ: ^^Tew 
baptize them/' Matt. 28, 19. So they i 
sometimes bharged to commit to memorr 
chapters and verses of scripture ; as for in 
the 1st Psalm; Bom. 12, 1. 2. ; Eph. 4 
82. ; 6j 1 — ^12. ; yea, according to ihii 
seal, and knowledge of the minister f 
stmcts them* 

When then these candidates for the 
are for a while thus proceeded with, a ij 
of inquir;^ is held, to ascertain whether a 
has anj thing against one or the other oi 
K there is then no complaint entered, the 
desire to be baptized can have the same 
istered to them ; inasmuch as the covenai 
Christ is a free covenant. For he says : 
soever will let him come," &;c. And 
^^Take my yoke upon you, and learn i 
for I am meek and lowly in heart," &c. 

Que^L 8. What other questions are th 
made before baptism, and to what an 
joining the church bound? I have be^ 
that they are asked questions about many 
and have to promise a great deal. Have 
rightly informed about the matter ? 

An». I will lay one thing after anotl 

I .248 ] 

fore you. Then you may "prove all things ; 
and hold fast that which is good." Our whole 
ground of faith will be laid before you, as we 
understand it ; and you will be asked, whether 
you are agreed therewith, or not ? If you are 
not agreed therewith, you had better remain 
where you are, than to accept a thing with 
which you are not agreed in your heart. But 
if you once agree with the church and her ground 
of faith, then you are in duty bound to be and 
remain faithful to God and the church until 
death. It will be further shown to you from 
Matt. 6, 83 — 37. : "Ye have heard that it hath 
been said to them of old time, Thou shalt not 
forswear thyself, but shalt perform unto the 
Lord thine oaths : but I say unto you, swear not 
at all : neither by heaven ; for it is God's throne : 
nor by the earth ; for it is his footstool : neither 
by Jerusalem ; for it is the city of a great King. 
Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because 
thou canst not make one hair white or black/' 
And the apostle James says further : "But above 
all things, my brethren, swear not ; neither by 
heaven, neither by the earth, neither by any 
other oath : but let your yea be yea ; and your 
nay, nay ; lest ye fall into condemnation." James 
5, 12. So we find ourselves bound by the word 
of God, not to swear an oath; nor be guilty of 
any other kind of swearing, or taking the "name 
of God in vain." "For the Lord will not hold 
him guiltless that taketh his name in vain." 
Exodus 20, 7. So Christ has also forbidden all 

t 244 ] 

Tevenge and defence by force, whereby to wage 
war with our enemies ; which was allowed to 
'Hhem of old." But this practice, as just said, 
Christ has abolished ; because his kingdom is a 
kingdom of peace. Consequently we «re not 
allowed to "resist evil." 

We also confess a state of matrimony of two 
believing persons, according to the institution 
of Christ. Matt. 19, 4 — 6. These persons be- 
ing by the providence of God brought together 
and united into one flesh ; and being first espous* 
led to the bridegroom of their souls, Christ, ac- 
cording to the direction in Ephesians 5, 22 — 31. ; 
and being farther members of the same church, 
(and thus under the same church covenant,) and 
of "one faith, one baptism, one God and Father 
of all." "What God hath joined together, let 
no man put asunder," Matt. 19, 6. But if 
such marriage is to take place according to the 
will of God, then repentance, faith, obedience^ 
and a surrender to Uod must have already ta- 
ken place with the parties ; and the marriage 
Btate be thus begun in the Lord, according to 
the advice of Paul. 1 Cor. 7, 39. So such 
marriage is also to take place with the counsel, 
knowledge, and will of parents, and the minis- 
ters and elders of the church. 

Quest 4. But how comes it that there is 
such a rule — that one is only allowed to 
marry amongst members of one's own church ? 
Aro there not also many pious, discerning 
christians, who do not belong to such church : 

t 245 3 

Have we ground in the word of Qoi thus to 

Am. There were twelve tribes in Israel. Now 
which of these tribes was the most acceptable to 
Ibe Lord, I know not ; though one may have 
been more so than another. Yet the'Lord did 
not permit one tribe to intermarry with another, 
as is to be seen, (Numbers 36, 6—8.) : "This it 
the thing which the Lord doth command, saying, 
Let them marry to whom they think best ; onfy 
to the family of the tribe of their fathers shall 
they marry : so shall not the inheritance of the 
children of Israel remove from tribe to tribe ; 
for every one of the children of Israel shall 
keep hiinself to the inheritance of the tribe of 
his fathers. And every daughter that possesB- 
eth an inheritance in any tribe of the children of 
Israel, shall be wife unto one of the family of the 
tribe of her father," &c. Now in the first world 
the inhabitants followed their own will in this 
matter, contrary to the "Spirit" of God, and 
**took them wives of all which they choose." Gen. 
6, 2. And Christ says, it will again be in the lat- 
ter days as it was in the time of Noah. But it 
was particularly, because carnal-minded youth 
is encouraged by such as are of reputation, or 
in authority, that it was displeasing to the Lord, 
that one tribe should intermarry with another. 
But a still greater displeasure did the Lord beat 
to the children of Israel intermarrying with 
heathen nations. This he absolutelv ^rbade 
them. He says: 'Neither shalt thou mak^ 

[ 246 J 

marriage with them : thy daughter thou shalt 
not give unto his son, nor his daughter shalt 
thou take unto thy son ; lest their daughters 
make thy sons go a whoring after their gods.*' 
Deut. 7, 3. ; Exodus 34, 16. Now I say, con- 
sider well what the Lord says in these quota- 
tions. But further, Israel did not long abide 
in the law of the Lord. For they "took their 
daughters to be their wives, and gave their daugh- 
ters to their sons ; and did evil in the sight of 
the Lord;* Judges 3, 6. 7. And "the hand of 
the princes and rulers hath been chief in this 
tresspass.'* Ezra 9, 2. Further I would re- 
commend you to consider the 12th article in our 
small Confession of Faith, and the 25th in the 
large one. So the order in Matt. 18, 16. will 
also be laid before you : "If thy brother shall 
tresspass against the, go and tell him his fault 
between thee and him alone: if he shall hear 
thee, thou hast gained thy brother. But if he 
will not hear thee, then take with thee one or 
two more, that in the mouth of two or three wit- 
nesses every word may be established. And if he 
shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church : 
but if he neglect to hear the church, let him 
be unto thee as a heathen man and a publican." 
Matt. 18, 15 — 17. This is an order which the 
Lord himself has instituted between brethren ; 
and which we are bound to enlorce, both as it 
regards ourselves and others. Entire obedience 
18 further required in every thing that is con- 
ducive to the glory of God and the welfare of 

[ 247 1 

the chturch ; while at the same time ministers 
and elders are appointed by the brotherhood for 
the service of the church. 

Quest. 5. What questions are then asked in 
connection with baptism ? Indeed I have heard 
them, but have forgotten them again. So I 
also see that the covenant of baptism is poorly 
kept by many. And again I have observed, 
that the questions asked by ministers in admin- 
istering baptism, are not always the same. Have 
they possibly a different signification ? 

Ans, Although the questions are not by all 
put in the same way, yet is their import the 
Bume ; so that in the whole there is no difference 
in them. The whole ground of the covenant of 
baptism may be taken as follows : 

1. As Clurist commanded to baptize believers, 
you will be interrogated about your faith, whe- 
ther you believe in an Almighty God, who created 
heaven and earth, and all other things visible, 
and preserves the same by his power ; and in 
Christ Jesus his only begotten Son ; that he is 
the true Messiah, Redeemer, and Savior, who 
died for us on the cross ; and in a Holy Spirit, 
who proceeds from the Father, and who leads 
us into all truth, and puts us in mind of all that 
the Son has said ? 

2. As Christ says no one can serve two mas- 
ters, are you willing to renounce Satan, the 
world, your own will, and all other dark and 
satanical works ? 

8. Will you pledge yourself to be obedient to 

t «48 3 

Ae doetrmeB of Christ, as Mcmmb taid : *^A pro- 
phet shall the Lord jour God raise up tmto yott 
of your brethren, like unto me ; him shall j# 
hear in all things whatsoever he shall say unto 
jw/' Acts 8, 22.; Deut. 18,15. ThoBweaM 
bound to be obedient and faithful to the dbo^ 
trines of Christ and his apostles, eyen ^HuM 
blood ;" as also to administer the order in Matt 
18, 16. 16. amongst the members of the churchy 
(yourselves included, if you are one,) in humility 
and love. And then if you are willing to oouh 
ply with such regulations and doctrine you will 
be received as a member into the church. 

Qt/^egL 6. Now that you insist from beginning 
to end, on obedience to Christ, in external as 
well as internal matters, I am surprised, that 
you do not direct those who desire to be bap- 
tized, to be baptized in the water ; inasmnch aA 
Christ himself was thus baptized : and John also 
was thus baptizing in Enon, near to Saliln, be- 
cause there was much water there. John 3, 28. 
So also Philip and the eunuch went down into 
the water,'" &c. Acts 8, 38. What is then 
properly the commandment about baptism ? 

Ans. The only commandment about baptism 
^ven by Christ is recorded in Matt. 28, 19. ; 
and is briefly as follows : "Baptize them in the 
name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost;" to which there is no command* 
tnent added that people should go into the water 
to be baptized. And where "there is no law, 
there is no transgression." Rom. 4, 15. Nor 

[ 240 i 

is it allowed to add any thing to, or take any 
thing from the commandments of God. For 
the Lord says : ^'Te shall not add onto the 
word which 1 command von, neither shall ye 
diminish onght from it, that ye may keep the 
commandments of the Lord your God which I 
command you." Dent. 4, 2. ^^Add thou not 
unto his words, lest he reprove thee, and thou 
be found a liar." Pro v. 80, 6. "If any man 
shall add unto these things, God shall add unto 
him the plagues that are written in this book. 
And if any man shall take away from the words 
of the book of this prophecy, God shall take 
away his part out of the book of life, and out of 
the holy city, and from the things which are 
written in this book." Rev. 22, 18. 19. So I 
can give no farther doctrine nor instruction to 
the young, than to recommend to them the com- 
mandment of Christ, who is our true teacher. 
In instituting the remembrance of his bitter 
trafferings and death, Christ took bread and 
wine, thanked his heavenly Father and said: 
"This do in remembrance of me." Luke 22, 19. 
Now we are bound in duty and love to do to 
one another, as he did to his disciples. Now at 
the Washing of feet he said to his disciples : ^7 
have given you an example, that ye should do 
as I have done to you." John 18, 16. Noir 
such expressions we do not find in connection 
with his baptism. But should any one — as 
Christ was baptized in Jordan — ^from humility 
and love to him, desire to be baptized in the 

[ 250 ] 

water "with water," as John baptized — in order 
to be in this respect "like him," (Christ) I would 
have nothing against it. A certain teacher 
says — to be seen in a history on baptism of the 
year A. D. 438) — "The sacrifice is washed when 
we are sprinkled with water in baptism." Al- 
cimus compares baptism with the blood and wa- 
ter which issued from the side of Christ. (A. D. 

Quest, 7. Is one church to be preferred to 
another ? 

Ans. I do not venture to say that our church 
has any preference to others. For Paul says : 
"Not he that commendeth himself is approved, 
but whom the Lord commendeth." 2 Cor. 10, 
18. "Let another man praise thee, and not 
thine own mouth; a stranger, and not thine 
own lips." Prov. 27, 2. 

We have also nothing to boast respecting bap- 
tism, the Lord's Supper, and the washing of 
feet, and other external matters ; for the Savior 
says : "When ye shall have done all these things 
which are commanded you, say. We are un- 
profitable servants." Luke 17, 10. 

Salvation is so precious, that it cannot be 
merited by works ; for Paul says : "For by 
grace are ye saved through faith ; and that not 
of yourselves : it is the gift of God : not of 
words, lest any man should boast." Eph. 2, 8. 
9. When there "arose a reasoning among" the 
disciples of Christ, "which of them should be 
the greatest," he represented to them the state 

[ 251 ] 

of little children, and commanded them to re- 
ceive the kingdom of God as such, else they 
should not ^^enter therein." Luke 9, 46. ; Mark 
10, 15. "For whosoever shall exalt himself, 
shall be abased ; and he that shall humble him- 
self, shall be exalted." Matt. 23, 12. 

Qtiett. 8. — Having learned from your doc- 
trine, that no force is thereby allowed, in any 
case whatever ; in what light then is the power of 
worldly government viewed by you ? For such 
government being instituted by God himself, 
may we not then use the same, if wrong is done 
unto us, or for the purpose of collecting just 

An8. You must well attend to the reason for 
which government was instituted; namely, to 
punish the bad, and protect the good ; and it is 
a wise regulation in this corrupt world. "Let 
every soul be subject to the higher powers," &c. 
Rom. 18, 1. So we should also pray God, that 
he may give wisdom and understanding to gov- 
ernment to make a right use of the power with 
which he has entrusted it; namely to punish 
what is evil, and protect what is good. And 
when we are then under God's blessing protected 
by government, we are in duty bound to be 
thankful to Gt>d and it for such protection ; as 
also to pay "tribute" to the same, which is its 
due, and which is serviceable to peace. But as 
the whole doctrine of Christ leads into a course 
of self-denial, and separation from the world, 
Christ makes a distinction between the practice 

[ 852 ] 

of worldly governments and that of his tme fol- 
lowers. He says : '^The kings of the Gentiles 
exercise lordship over them ; and they that ex- 
ercise Hutborit}^ upon them^ are callea benefao- 
tors* But ye shall not be so : but he that is 
greatest among you, let him be as the younger; 
aud he that is chief, as he that doth serve." 
Luke.22, 25. 26. So Christ says farther to his 
disciples: '^But whosoever will be great among 
you, shall be your minister : and whosoever (tt 

Su will be the chiefest, shall be servant of alL" 
ark 10, 43. 44. Not as ^'being lords over 
God*s heritage, but being ensamples to the 
flock." 1 Pet. 5, 3. Government is not insti- 
iuted that the true followers of Christ should 
rule over any one thereby. But that they should 
be ^^servants" and ^^ministers," is in accordance 
with the doctrine of Christ, as well as with his 
course of life ; as also that of a pilgrim on 
earth. Indeed I would rather lose something, 
than to use force against any one by law. 

Quest, 9. Is also expulsion from the church, 
under any circumstances, necessary? I have 
heard remarks against it, to the effect, that one 
had no right to put any one out of the church. 
I have also heard heavy complaints from such 
as have been expelled, that injustice was done 
to them. Were it not better then, in order to 
avoid such complaints and ill reports, to let the 
tares grow till the time of harvest ? 

Ans. We are bound in all cases to take the 
word of God as our guide, and therewith to 

[ 268 ] 

msnage according to our knowledge and beet 
ability ; and then to bear all the imominy and 
contempt that may befall ns ; for Ohrist says: 
"Woe unto you when all men speak well of you,*' 
fcc. Luke 6, 26. Indeed the world hated Christ 
himself; for he testified of it, that the works 
thereof were "evil." John 7, 7. Yea, let one 
oinly once begin earnestly to testify agtunst evil 
works, and tiiere will soon be complaints and 
reproach enough. Between brethren Ohrist has 
instituted a regulation, according to which we 
sre to act, (Matt. 18, 16—17.) and also teaches 
(Mark 7, 21. 22*) what are out-breaking sins ; 
namely, "adulteries, covetousness, pride," and 
the like. And the apostles have further given 
advice how to act with such as are guiltv of 
such sins. Paul says : "But now I have written 
unto you not to keep company, if any man that 
is a brother be a fornicator, or covetous, or an 
idolater, or a railer, or a drunkard, or extortio- 
ner ; with such an one not to eat." 1 Cor. 6, 
11. "Now we command you, brethren, in the 
name of the Lord Jesus Christ, that ye with- 
draw yourselves from every brother that walketh 
disorderly, and not after the tradition which he 
received of us." 2 Thes. 3, 6. "And if any 
man obey not our word by this epistle, note that 
man, and have no company with him, that he 
may be ashamed." (v. 14.) "K there come any 
unto you, and bring not this doctrine, receive 
him not into your house, neither bid him God 
speed." 2 John, v. 10. "A man that is an 

[ 264 ] 

heretic, after the first and second admonition, 
r^ect." Tit. 8, 10« ^^Therefore put away from 
among yoorselyes that wicked person." 1 Cor. 

Now here jou can see in plain words, that 
Christ and his apostles did, by the Spirit of Qod, 
institute a reception of members into the chnrch, 
and ynder certain circomstances, an expulsion 
from the same. And those who speak against 
this rule of the church, are generally despisen 
of true religion. So also the complaints of those 
who are expelled, generally proceed from an 
ungrateful, self-willed, and seu-righteouB mind. 


Now if you have ever bent jour knees before 
Gk>d, and united with the church, and made a 
TOW unto the Lord ; then ^'give all diligence" 
to be faithful unto him ; watch and pray daily 
and hourly, and resist the enemy in faith. 
After Christ was baptized, he was ^'led up by the 
Spirit into the wilderness, to be tempted of the 
devils" Matt. 4, 1. Now if Christ was thus 
'^tempted," how much more will the enemy assail 
us with manifold temptations ; and the more so, 
as we bear a sinful nature in our flesh and blood, 
and the ^^sin which doth so easily beset us," is 
so apt to make us slothful. Again, after you 
have, by the internal light of your soul, learned 
to know your sins and the depravity of your 
heart, and entered on the narrow way of self- 
denial, in order to become a true follower of 
Jesus ; yea, have taken upon yourself the yoke 
of Christ, to seek ^'rest" for your soul; then 
^^giye all diligence" thus to continue. For the 
crown is not at the beginning; but "he that en- 
dureth to the end shall be saved." Again: 
<^No man having put his hand to the plough, 
and looking back, is fit for the kingdom oi God." 
Nor do, like Lot's wife, look back towards So- 
dom, nor with the children of Israel towards 
Eeypt. But ^^run with patience the race that 
is oefore you." Nor do again yield to the lusts 
and sins in which you formerly walked; but 

[ 266 1 

^^ut oflT' more and more, from day to day, the 
^^old maqi^" which is jcormpt according to the 
decisitfdl Instisr; and prsy the Lord that he 
aayitiare and more emigfaten andreitow jpoor 
heart ; yea, aa ytm ^'hare ^seoeiJ^ei CShriat «feM 
the Lortl, eo walk* in him." . Think itlao whaia 
htasty aocoimtabilily will follow thereon^ if yoa 
makS a coyenant with <3i)d-«— pledging jovandi 
to be f aithfbl to him— «nd thea again beoome 
anfiuthfol; as I have, alas! seen many — eres 
such in whom I observed a trae oonyiction of 
iin, a true awakening from the sleep of the 
9ame ; yea, al proper Imowledge of themselYes ; 
yet, who, sJas 1 by degrees £elined from tins 
state — some even fallinff into a life of notorious 
sin and vice ; some agam into quarrels, brawls, 
and disputes; others into adultery and fornica- 
tion, pomp and haughtiness, sluttony and in* 
temperance, and other outbretudng sins ; while 
nevertheless the Lord says : ^^When the riirhte- 
ons tumeth away from ^ righteousBei^d 
oommitteth iniqmty, and doth according to all 
the abominations that the wicked man doeth, 
shall he live? All his righteousness that he 
hath done shall not be mentioned : in his tree* 

£ass that he hath trespassed, and in his sin that 
e hath sinned, in them shall he die." Eiek. 
18, 24. The first drawings of grace are the 
best; ^^keep'' therefore ^Hhat which is committed 
to your trust ;" "occupy" well thy **pound," that 
thou mayst not be found an ^'unprofitable ser- 
vant," and even that be taken away from thee 

[ 257 J 

^luch thou hasty" and thou be cast into ^^outer 
darkness/' into the *^ake of fire, burning with 
brimstone;" which is the ^%econd death." May 
the Lord in mercy lead us through this world of 
tribulation, strengthen our faith, and increase 
our knowledge, and preserre us unto a happy 


I am the Lord thy God, which have brong^ 
the out of the land of Egypt, oat of the hooM 
of bondage. 


Thou shalt have no other Oods before me. 

Second Commandment. 

Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven 
image, or any likeness of any thing that is in 
heaven above, or that is in tne earai beneath, 
or that is in the water under the earth : thou 
shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serye 
them: for I the Lord thy Gk>d am a jealous 
God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon 
the children unto the third and fourth genera- 
tion of them that hate me ; and showing meroy 
unto thousands of them that love me, and keep 
my commandments. 

Thibd Commandment. 

Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord 
thy God in vain : for the Lord will not hold him 
gimtless that taketh his name in vain. 

Fourth Commandment. 

Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. 
Six days shalt thou labor, ana do all thy work: 
But the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord 
thy God : in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, 
nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy man-servant, 

[ 269 ] 

nor thy maidHservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy 
stranger that is within thy gates : For in six 
days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, 
ana all that in them is, and rested the seventh 
day : wherefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath 
day, and hallowed it. 

Fifth GoMMANBMsiirT, 

Honor thy father and thy mother ; that thy 
days may be long upon the land which the Lord 
thy God giveth thee. 

Sixth Gommandmbnt. 
Thou shalt not kill. 

Sbvbnth Commandment. 
Thou shalt not commit adultery. 

Eighth Commandment. 
Thou shalt not steal. 

Ninth Commandment. 

Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy 

Tenth Commandment. 

Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's house, 
thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife, nor his 
man-servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, 
nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbor's. 
Exodus 20. 

[ £60 ] 


I believe in God, the Father, Almighty Crea- 
tor of heaven and earth. 

And in Jesus Christ, his only begotten Son 
onr Lord ; who was conceived by the Holy Ghoet^ 
and bom of the Virgin Mary. 

Who suffered nnder Pontina Pilate, being cru- 
cified, died, and was buried. 

Rose from the dead on the third day. 

Ascended into heaven, where he sits at the 
right hand of God the Almighty Father. 

Whence he will come to judge the living and 
the dead. 

I believe in the Holy Ghost. 

I believe in a General Christian Church, the 
Communion of Saints. 

Forgiveness of sins. 

Resurrection of the body. 

And eternal life. Amen. 

* The Apottolie Confession of Faith was not written hy the 
apostles themselves, but afterwards composed by the church. 
Nevertheless it is called the **Symbolum" of the apostles, as it 
is an abridgment- of their doctrine. 

[ 261 J 


Our Father which art in heaven, hallowed be 
ihy name. Thy kingdom eome, Thy will be 
done on earth, as it is in heaven. Give ns this 
day our daily bread. And forgive us our debts, 
aa we forgive our debtors. And lead us not into 
temptation ; but deliver us from evil : For thine 
is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, 
for ever. Amen. Matt. 6, 9 — ^13. 


Merciful God and Father ! Thou hast again 
permitted the Sun of Nature to rise on the '^evil 
and on the good." Praise and thanks be unto 
thee, gracious God ! for thy fatherly grace, 
and for the protection and blessings which I 
have enjoyed during this night. Permit me also 
to enjoy thy blessing dmins this day ; and en* 
lighten my dark heart with the light of thy grace ; 
so that I may fully learn to understand and 
know my own frailties and faults. Yea, take 
me this day under the protection of thy grace ; 
fill my heart with thy divine love, and with true 
humility and self-abaaement ; strengthen my 
faith, and cause me to grow in every thing that 
IB good from day to day ; impress also deeply 
on my mind my perishable and transient state; 
so that I may be constantly on my guard. Yea, 
set thy Holy Spirit as a watchman over my heart, 
mind, and thoughts ; bo that if this day should 

[ 362 ] 

be my last in this world of tribulation, I may be 
found watching ; and so be prepared to ^^enter 
into rest. " Sol .commend myself into thy hands 
with body and soul ; and every thing that I have ; 
so that nothing may be mine any more, but eveiy 
thins thine. In tribulation and neceaaitT. 
grant me patience ; in temptation, fimnesB a£d 
strength ; and in proBperoua and healthy days, 
a thankful heart. And finally, preserve me 
from all evil in time and in eternity, through 
Jesus Christ. Amen. 


Praise and thanks be unto thee, O almighty 
God and Father ! for thy protection and bless- 
ing, and all the good that I have enjoyed during 
the day now past. I would fain enter into the 
closet of my heart, and worship thee in spirit 
and in truth ; but it is still so full of impurity ; 
for I have been burdened on this day with many 
scattered thoughts ; nor have I, in my life and 
actions, done the best — ^for I am full of faults 
and imperfections, poor and miserable. But al- 
though I am but "dust and ashes," I have nev- 
ertheless ventured to call upon thy holy name ; 
and I pray and entreat thee, my God ! to 

fardon all my iniquities and faults, wherewith 
have offended thee ! Purify my heart of all 
carnal and worldly desires ; and fill me with thy 
Holy Spirit ! Also enlighten me with thy gra- 
cious light ; so that I may know myself, as well 

[ 268 ] 

as see my secret faults in thy light. Make my 
heart truly tender and penitent ; yea, effect in 
my soul, throneh erace, true repentance ; impart 
unto me true, livmg, and saying faith ; kindle 
in my soul the fire of divine love ; and let it 
glow and bum till all my selfishness and self- 
righteousness are consumed ! I also pray for all 
men — ^for all poor, ungrateful sinners — ^for all 
my enemies and adversaries, for all sick persons, 
for all widows and such as are forsaken ; for 
thou knowest the wants of every one of them; 
and mayst thou therefore help every one who 
needs thy help ! And now I lay down my body 
in the arms of thy grace and mercy, and com- 
mend myself, body and soul, into thy hands ; 
protect me through thy holy angels ; bless me, 
and preserve me from all evil, whether I am 
asleep of awake ; teach me to consider my noth- 
ingness and my death ; and finally receive my 
immortal soul mto eternal joy and rest ! This I 
pray of thee, almighty God and Father ! in 
the name of Jesus Christ. Amen. 



Lord ! thou almighty and powerful God ! 
In my necessity I turn unto thee, and call upon 
thee m the name of Jesus Christ : Have mercy 
upon me, for I find myself burdened with sin and 
nndeanness ! My thoughts are scattered, and 
too much earthly and wordly. So I also find 
little power truly to repent; my desires and in- 

C 264 ] 

dinations to evil being so strong, and my love 
and inclination to what is good so weak. There- 
fore I come unto thee as a burdened sinner, and 
prostrate myself before the throne of thy mercy, 
at thy footstool with a bowed down heart, in the 
hope, that thou wilt hear my prayer, and receive 
me under the protection of thy grace; for I 
acknowledge that I am dust and a^es I Of my- 
self I have no power to do what is good, and to 
leave off what is evil. All good giffcs come firom 
thee, therefore take away from me my evil car* 
nal-minded heart, and live me a new and dis- 
coming heart, and a truly penitent mind ; fill 
me with thy Holy Spirit; anoint me through 
and through with thy divine love, thou Eter- 
nal Wisdom! make thy word truly alive and 
powerful in my soul, through true faith; make 
me free from all bonds and fetters in which I 
still find myself here and there bound ; lead and 
conduct me the right way to eternal happiness ; 
and guard me against, and preserve me from, 
all evil in time — ^till eternity ! Amen. 



^^As for man, his days are as grass ; as a 
flower of the field, so fie flourisheth: for the 
wind passeth over it, and it is gone ; and the 
place thereof shall know it no more."' Psalm 
108, 15. 16. To know the nothingness of man 
by one's self through the Spirit of God, is one 

[ 266 ] 

thing ; and to choose Jesns Ohrist, the highest 
ffood and life of the soul, as its better part, is 
uie other thing that is necessary for us and all 
mortals to salvation. Vain and transitory are 
all things on earth ; all flesh and all men, who 
often live so secure. We appear and pass 
away ; bloom and fall off; and in a few years 
we too are here no more. "Pew," says Jacob 
to Pharaoh, '^re the days of our pilgrimage ;" 
**few and evil" are the days of our lives, uen, 
47, 9. Everywhere in nature, where we cast 
our eyes, as well as in ourselves, we see and 
perceive only objects of dissolution, of destruc- 
tion, perishableness, and mortality. The earth 
itself, which hastens towards its destruction, 
and which, as Paul says, "groaneth to be de^ 
livered from the bondage of corruption," is not 
the abiding place of our destiny ; but heaven, 
the fatherland of glorified saints. Here we are 
only strangers, passing pilgrims to the justly 
praised land of Canaan ; who, tired of the la- 
boriousness of earth and life, in consequence of 
the heat and burden which we have to bear in 
the wilderness of time. Ions for the "habitation 
of God through the spirit, for the "courts of 
the Lord." Psalm 84, 8. 

One of the best pictures, which portrays be- 
fore our eyes, and impresses upon our minds, in 
the most lively manner, the nothingness of man, 
is given by Peter, in alluding to the fading na- 
ture of grass and flowers. For "all flesh," says 
he, "is as grass," &o.; which means that all 


[ 266 ] 

ereatures in general, but more particularly man, 
are mortal, very perishable ; yea, nothing more 
than a ^^vapor" dispersed by the air; a bubble 
scattered by the water. 

We resemble the grass of the field, that is 
green to-day, and "withereth** to-morrow; a 
lower that blossoms in the morning, fades, and 
falls away in the evening. 1 Pet. 1, 24. In 
short, what is the whole glory of man here on 
earth? Youth, blooming, healthy days; possess- 
ing this world's goods ; living every day in pride 
and pleasure ? But is not all this vain ? — in a 
few years, and often in a few days, transitory? 
**The days of our years" (the Psalmist says) 
"are three score and ten ; and if by reason of 
strength they be fourscore years, yet is their 
strength labor and sorrow ; for it is soon cut 
off, and we fly away." Psalm 90, 10. Again : 
"Their imagination of things to 'come, and the 
day of death, trouble their thoughts, and cause 
fear of heart." Ecclesiasticus 40, 2. 

The grass and flowers which we see blooming 
in nature to-day, and withering to-morrow, are 
eloquent teachers of our nothingness, and preach- 
ers to us of our mortality. "Look at us," they 
say in the evening, "we rose early in the morn- 
ing in a splendor in which "even Solomon in all 
his glory was not arrayed." But the sun "was 
no sooner risen with a burning heat," than we 
withered, and our beautiful form was spoiled." 
James 1, 11. 

Consider, man ! this true picture of thj 

[ 267 ] 

life, and learn to know thyself. To know thy- 
self is wisdom that makes you wise ; yea, to die 
unto sin before we die ; to become partakers of 
the life of God before we approach death, the 
coffin, and the grave; and eternity overtakes 
us, is true wisdom ! 

In prosperity and happy days, such considera- 
tions and the self-denial connected therewith, 
appear hard to sensual persons ; that is, not to 
seek "things visible," but "things invisible." 

When all things go well with us, we think 
with Peter on Mount Tabor : "It is good for us 
to be here ; let us build {lasting) tabernacles ;" 
and forget thereby that we are dying mortals, 
that we carry the seed and germ of death in all 
our members, and are every hour ripe for the 
harvest, whenever it is the will of the great 
Creator to apply the sickle of death. But we 
often believe with that evil servant : "My Lord 
delayeth his coming," (Matt. 24, 48.); "our 
houses shall continue forever, and our dwelling- 
places to all generations." Psalm 49, 11 « 

God wills, God seeks our salvation ; therefore 
*^is thoughts" are often not "our thoughts," 
nor his ways agreeable to the flesh. "Now no 
chastening for the present seemeth to be joyous, 
but grievous : nevertheless afterward it yieldeth 
the peaceable fruit of righteousness unto them 
that are exercised thereby." Heb. 12, 11, 
Crosses, sufferings, and sickness, are exhorta- 
tions of a loving Gt)d, exhortations that we 
should not forget him ; admonitions of death ; 

t 868 ] 

which we would otherwise lose sight of; awake- 
nings to a heartfelt veneration of God ; to re- 
pentance, holiness, and purification from ^^ 
filthiness of the flesh and -spirit." Indeed, ei- 
perience has proved in this instance, that he 
who has not yet tasted sufferings, who has ex- 
perienced no crosses, has not yet been richly 
blessed of God. He who has not yet been sid^ 
)ias most likely not yet earnestly considered the 
vanity of human life, not yet ^'set his house in 
order" — ^not yet prejpared for death. 

The goods of earth are as inconstant, as vain 
axid perishable, as we are ourselves ; they pass 
away, and we with them ; and this frequently 
when we consider ourselves in the best enjoy- 
ment of them — when we think with that secure 
rich man : ''Soul, thou hast much goods laid up 
for many years ; take thine ease, «at, drink, and 
be merry." But while we thus think, the Lord 
and Creator of our lives says : "It is enough, 
render up thy goods ; give an account of the 
goods and gifts entrusted to thee ; for then 
mayest be no longer steward; this night thy 
sodl shall be required of thee." 

The better treasures of heaven, which are sub- 
ject to no change nor inconstancy — ^the good 
and durable treasure there secured — the glori- 
ous portion and inheritance prepared for ns — 
the glory in the city of the living God — the 
blissud view of his holy face — ever to satisfy 
and refresh ourselves in Jesus and the supper 
of the Lamb— -and to receive from his hands the 

t 269 ] 

crown of life: — these holy treasures of Qod, 
which the world neither has, nor can giFO ; these 
must be the only wish, the only object of oar 
hearts, the earnest desire of our souls, when God 
in his wise counsel and will, lays us on a bed of 
afliiction, pain, and sickness. The more the 
perishable treasures of this earth, which are only 
trifles and uncertainties, and often yet produce 
sorrow to our minds, — recede from us, the more 
constantly and perseyeringly should we ^^seek 
the tilings which are above," where thou Lord 
Jesus, thyself, art our highest and eternal good. 

This ^^good part," which a Mary, seeking 
ttlvation and an understanding of the word of 
GK>d, at the feet of Jesus, choee, — ^the divine 
doctrines — ^the sweet honey-dew of his graces- 
which flowed like a mild run and precious bal« 
0«m on her thirsty soul, from the gracious lips 
of Jesus ; — ^gave her such a foretaste of these 
glorious treasures of heaven, lliat she forgot the 
serving of Jesus, the world, and herself. 

So we must also forget and leave behind us 
whatever that does yet on earth bind our hearts 
and senses, and earnestly ^^each forth unto 
those things which are before — ^pressing toward 
the mark K)r the prize of the high calling of Gtod 
in Christ Jesus." Yea, we all ''run in a race." 
So let us run, that 'Sre may obtain." 

To cleave unto the world, to addict ourselves 
to its vanities and seek pleasure therein, is 
'Hroubling ourselves with Martha about many 
things." For the world has nothing, however 


[ 270 ] 

brilliant its dazzling yanities may appear to its 
vain votaries, that can for a moment compose 
and comfort a believing soul ; and certainly not 
in. the hour of death. The world with all its 
attractions becomes loathsome to the soul in a 
sttbte of pain and sickness : as it aspires only 
after the Centre and Object of its eternal rest; 
seeks nothing but Christ, its heavenly treasure — 
thirsting after him with a burning desire— yea, 
thirsting after him, ''as the hart panteth after 
the water-brooks, saying : ''When shall I come 
and appear before God r" Psalm 42, 1. 2. 

Lord Jesus ! who hast loved us, and hast 
yielded up thy dear life at the cross for the 
blotting out of our sins, kindle within us, through 
thy Holy Spirit, a fervent desire after thee and 
thy grace, which satisfies the wishes of the heart, 
and quenches the thirst of the soul ! Teach us 
to know our nothingness, to deny the world, 
and to strive for heaven. Permit us, when our 
temporal life becomes sickly and infirm, to feel 
thy life in our souls, to taste thy peace in our 
hearts; which is higher, more precious, and 
sweeter, than reason and sense can comprehend; 
so that no sufferings — not even pain, sickness, 
and death, can separate us from thee. 

My life passes away ! I hasten to the grave 
hourly, and who knows how long I may yet be 
permitted to live ! Think, man of thy death ! 
Delay not ; for one thing is needful. 

Yes, one thing is needful ! And this one thing, 
O Lord, teach me to know ; all other thingSi 

L 2T1 ] 

liowever they may appear, are only a heavy 
jToke, under which the heart labors and groans, 
md yet obtains no true enjoyment. But if I 
)btain this one thing needful, which makes up 
for all things, then I enjoy all things in this one 

**Now if we be dead with Christ ; we believe 
that we shall also live with him." Rom. 6, 8. 

Man, created after the image of God, is not 
[lis own Lord ; has not given life, breath, and 
ozistence-to himself; is not dependant on him* 
self and his own will, but on a higher being, the 
Creator of all things, the Lord and commander 
over life and deatlu 

The life of man, his time, his end, and his 
death, are matters with God. This is taught 
and confirmed by experience in many respects ; 
and so also by Paul, when he says : ^'None of 
D0 liveth to himself, and no man dieth to him- 
self. For whether we live, we live unto the 
Lord ; and whether we die, we die unto the 
Lord : whether we live therefore, or die, we are 
Uie Lord's." Rom. 14, 7. 8. 

Now if we are according to the truth of this 
divine doctrine, the ^^possession" of Him who 
80 dearly "purchased" us with the blood of his 
own Son, it is our most sacred duty to praise 
and glorify Him — to whom we live, and whose 
we are — ^in our bodies and spirit, our lives and 

But to die with Christ, does not mean only 
then to turn to Jesus when it appears, that the 

C «72 ] 

hori will require our Bonis of xls, when death 
stands at our ddor, and tiie graye is near at 
}iand. No indeed! It means that we should 
strive to die unto all sin, the world, and our ev3 
lusts, during the time that God grants us grace 
to repentance — before we die ; and this out ci 
loYO, and through obedience, to Jesus Christ; 
that we should ^'crucifj the flesh with the afie6> 
tions and lusts ;" so tiiat we may say with Paul: 
^^We die daily;" that is unto our evil wills and 
evil inclinations ; — "I am (Jrucified with Christ ;" 
—-that is, I ''mortify" throu^the power of Gtod's 
grace, which operates within me, the old man of 
sin, and put on the new man, which is ^'created 
ia the image of God." 

Now if we die with Christ in this sense, during 
our life-time, we are new creatures in him. We 
live — ^but no more unto ourselves : Christ lives 
in us. Temporal death, which only destrovs 
^'our earthly house of this tabernacle," can be 
110 longer terrible to us ; for it is to us the en- 
trance into eternal life, 

The grave cannot appear to us any longer a 
dark dungeon. No ! But rather a soft bed of 
rest, until the glad morning of eternity, when 
ire shall awaken renewed to the image of God. 
Our Savior died ! But through death he entered 
into the glory of his Father. Again : "If we" 
(says the apostle) ''have been planted together 
in the likeness of his death, we shall also be in 
the likeness of his resurrection." Rom. 6, 5. 
Yea, where he is, there shall his servants, who 

[ 278 ] 

suffer, endure, and die with him, also be. He 
is willing to take U3 all unto himj so that we 
may be and remain where He, our Lord and 
Savior, himself is. 

What a glorious consolation for thee, dear 
soul ! that in sickness, in suffering, in pain, and 
even in death, thy faithful Savior stands at thy 
'side, never forsakes thee, even in thy greatest 
necessity. His holy presence, his sweet spiritual 
consolation, the fresh dew of his grace, these it 
is, that e^se the anxiety of the heart, and even 
in death afford us comfort and joy. Prov. 14, 22« 

Look to Jesus, faithful sufferer ! He sympa- 
thizes with thy affliction. He himself tasted the 
bitterness of death — experienced what it is to 
die. Look to him with full faith ; his heart is 
full of grace and love, ever willing to assist thee. 
Sigh after him, supplicate him, and cry unto 
him, ''as the hart panteth after the waterbrooks.'' 
Psalm 42, 1. He is a living fountain — the foun- 
tain of the Lord for all thirsty souls. His word 
is a heavenly manna, the strength and meat of 
life, which strengthens our faith and confidence 
in God, and gives us a foretaste of the sublime 
treasures of heaven. 

Long for heaven ! There your portion and 
inheritance are sumptuously prepared for thee ; 
there the beautiful city of God shines in the 
pastures of Salem ; there are the glorious man- 
sions, prepared for us in our Father's house; 
there are the crowns of glory — ^the never fading 
crowns, flittering with pure gold — ^reserved for 

C 274 ] 

all '^good soldiers" of the faith ; there await ns, 
joy, salvation, immortality, and bliss, ''quiet rest- 
ing places," and calm, undisturbed heavenly 
peace ; yea, what "eye hath not seen, nor ear 
heard, nor hath entered in the heart of man." 

What a salvation ! To stand with the glad 
citizens of heaven before the throne of God, and 
there to see Jesus "face to face." Yea, what 
a salvation ! To prostrate ourselves with the 
"elect" multitude of heaven, and join in the 
"song of Moses and the Lamb ;" to give eternal 
"honor, glory, and blessi ng" to him who has re- 
deemed and saved us. What a salvation ! To 
be with the Lord, and to enjoy eternally, with 
the multidue of so many thousands of holy an- 
gels, "an exceeding and eternal weight of glory." 

Here we sow in tears ; there we shall reap 
with joy. Here in this vale of tears we go weep- 
ing, "bearing precious seed ;" there we shidl 
bring sheaves of joy and gratitude, as a "wave- 
offering before the Lord ;" here we are often 
sad and afflicted ; there we shall be cheered 
with the purest joy of angels. Here our eyes 
are dim and dark ; there they shall be made 
bright to see the glory of God ! ! who does 
not long to be dissolved, and to be where, after 
sorrow, anxiety, and tears, eternal treasures 
shall rejoice us. Towards this glory your Sa- 
vior does now lead you, and perhaps you are 
not far any more from the "mark" where pain 
and conflict will end ; where a crown, salvation, 
and the splendor of heaven await you. Fight 

[ 276 ] 

on, weary sufferer ! Before long you will reach 
the place where affliction and woe will for ever 
disappear. Die with your Savior, and soon you 
will live with him in everlasting tents of peace. 
Suffer with him ; and soon your mourning will 
be turned into a glad song of praise, when you 
will come "out of great tribulation" into your 
fatherland, the home of glorified saints, where 
you will be "clothed in white raiment." 

How will you thank your Maker when you 
get there, that he made you perfect through 
suffering — led you through much tribulation 
into his kingdom ; praise your Savior, that he 
has come into the world to save sinners, and 
lead them to heaven ; ii> consequence of which, 
you have been found worthy to stand before the 
**Son of man." 

Now the nearer you approach this mark — the 
nearer you approach the article of death — the 
more endeaver to be "conformed to the death 
of Christ." He began his sufferings with prayer 
and supplication, and concluded them by com- 
mending his spirit into the hands of his Father. 
Die with him in prayer, and do not "let him go, 
except he bless" thee. He died praying — and 
pray thou to him : "Father, Savior, Comforter !" 
"Into thy hands I commend my spirit." "Take 
back, this my soul, which thou hast created, re- 
deemed, and sanctified. Be with me in this my 
last extremity ; conduct me into the promised 
rest ; let thy servant depart in peace, that my 
eyes may see thy glory, which thou hast pre- 
pared for them that love thee.'* 

t it* 3 

And IfmwA Hf wqdantfetf'lB niglht; 
FcMidl^ I Mid Wkhin ngr betri. 
'"Phwan and'peaee ihau nt'er depart.*^ 

B ut I topottliiiii utmwtm ibnangi' ' 
Wnidi maifo mjr mountain ■taii4 m Ioq^ : 
Botm m tikf il6eV(tn ito hide, 
Mf iMilth nui foBSff' iiy aomfttfOi dML 



I cried albod to tboe^ my Ckid; 
•■What eioMl fbcu prbfit (7 ray blood ? 

Deep intiM duilf ewi I dedM» 

Thy trplb^or^of thjifbodnflestfaem?' .^ 

*«Hew me^ O'CM'of gnoa," I said, 
**And hring me flvnn unoog the deed :** 
Thy worde retofced the,peina IMk, 
Thy purd'ning' lore ieiiioiT*d my guilt 

My groene, andteai^ and ftnns of woe. 
Are turn'd to joy and praises now ; 
I throw my sackcloth on the ground, 
And ease and gtadnest gird me round. 

My tongue, the glory of my ihune, 
8hail ne*er be eiloit m thy name ; 
Thy jMraise shall aoond thro* earth and heav'n. 
For sickness heaPd, and ttns forgiven. 


To THE KiSTD Rbadeb. — To vhom hereby is 
wished, by the grace of God, temporal and eter- 
nal well-being, through our Lord Jesus Christ* 

There is hereby committed to the Christian 
Reader, and particularly to the numerous rising 

?eneration, this Book, as a guidance to the 
ihristian Faith, with God's own words from 
Holy Scripture, which is '^able to make us wise 
unto salvation through faith which is in Christ 
Jesus." 2 Tim. 8, 15. 

JPart First of this Book is a useful conversa- 
tion on the nature of saving faith, and the 
'^acknowledging of the truth, m hope of eternal 
life, which God has promised." Tit. 1, h 2. 

Part Secondy commencing on page 140, is a 
brief instruction firom Holy Scripture, in ques- 
tions and answers; which are introduced into 
many churches, both in Europe and in America, 
and which are given to youth to commit to 
memory before baptism. 

Part Thirdj commencing on page 151, is a 
Public Confession of our General Christian 
Faith, which was drawn up more than two hun- 
dred years ago, and adopted unanimously. 

Part Fowrthj commencing on page 179, ap- 
peared for the first time in print in 1804, and 
18 also intended and arranged for youth, and 

[ 278 ] 

added here far their service. For "all scripture 
is given bj inspiration of God, and is profitable 
for doctrine," ac. 2 Tim. 8, 16. But the whole 
work is ^^joined together in the same mind, and 
in the same judgment." 1 Cor. 1, 10. 

Public Confessions of Faith are necessary, in- 
asmuch as a Christian Church that looks for 
protection and liberty of conscience from gov- 
ernment, is in duty bound to give such govern- 
ment an opportunity of judging of its ground of 
faith. For to government we are bound to be 
subject ; as Peter says : "Submit yourselves to 
every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake: 
whether it be to the king, as supreme ; or unto 
governors, as unto them that are sent by him 
for the punishment of evildoers, and for the 
praise of them that do well." 1 Pet. 2, 13. 14. 

Confessions of Faith are also necessary and 
useful, in order to preserve union and order in 
the church. Thereby the ministers and over- 
seers of the church can at their conferences re- 
mind one another anew, for the edification of 
themselves and the church, that they should, as 
Paul teaches : "Be like-minded, having the same 
love, being of one accord, of one mind." Phil. 2, 2. 

"Therefore, brethren, stand fast, and hold the 
traditions which ye have been taught, whether 
by word, or our epistle." 2 Thes. 2, 15. "That 
thou may est know how thou oughtest to behave 
thyself in the house of God, which is the church 
of the living God, the pillar and ground of the 
truth." 1 Tim. 8, 15. 

[ 279 ] 

This dootrine of faith may be of great use to 
many, particularly to youth, if the same is read 
attentively — ^now and then re-read — and the 
quotations from scripture diligently looked af- 
ter. Thereby the ^^enses are exercised," and 
our faith in the Lord Jesus Christ well grounded. 
Then this book will not only serve you for in- 
struction in a right knowledge of the truth, but 
also as a mirror to your minds, whereby you 
may learn to know your true state, which is to 
be to you a chief concern ; and also whether 
that faith, disposition, experience, and those 
effects which the Holy Spirit bestows on all be- 
lievers, are found with you. Ask yourselves 
while reading — according to the nature of the 
subject-— questions like the following : ^'If mat- 
ters stand thus with the cause of God, and the 
way to salvation, as I learn from the word of 
God, how then stand matters between me and 
God? How with my love to God and my neigh- 
bor ? How with the denial of myself, and my 
following of Christ? How with my refuge to the 
mediator betwen God and man, in order that I 
may come unto him, and be found in him ? How 
with my conversion and new birth ? How with 
my faith ? Is the same of the nature here de- 
scribed ? How stands it with my resolution and 
Eeal to serve the Lord in holiness and in the dis- 
charge of every part of my duty ? What says 
my conscience to all this ?" 

Now if you value and take to heart this exer- 
cise, as the ^^one thing needful" for you; name- 

t 280 ] 

ly, self-examination^ prayer, thanksgiving, and 
obedience in doing and suffering ; — then peace 
and mercy will rest on all those who walk ac- 
cording to this mle. Then will the work of 
your faith, conversion, and sanotificalion, have 
a happy progress, through the power and good- 
ness of our gracious Redeemer. 

Beloved Srethren in the Lord, and fellow- 
laborers in the gospel : — Let us in connnon lay 
our hands to the promotion of the gospel ; let 
Oaoh one endeavor to gain something with the 
talent entrusted to him ; labor under the bless- 
ing of the Lord, to the glory and honor of Him, 
who has redeemed us, ana to the salvation of 
many thousands. 

May the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be 
with us all. Amen. 


UN, Upper Canada, ( 
AuguBt 16, 1839. ( 


The foHowiiig; remarkB, on Predettination, were written 
\j Prm BoEKBouHEK, at the request of some of his friends, 
and were also translated into ibe English language. 

Inasmuoh as there is such a diversity of opinion 
among the different denominations of Christians, 
oonceminir man's free will, I would, with the 
help of A -d his grace, 'endeavor to Bet forth 
our belief, according to the word of Gt>d, on this 
subject* And although this subject is treated 
in the ninth and tenth articles of our Confession 
of Faith, namely, of the free will of man, and 
of election and reprobation, where the doctrine 
is maintained, that it is in the power of man, 
According to his free will, to choose what is good 
and to reject what is evil ; or, to choose what is 
evil and reject what is good. But, as many ob* 
ject to this doctrine, by reason of the word of 
God, quoted by the apostle Paul, and the apos* 
tie's own words, where it is said, '^I will have 
mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will 
have compassion on whom I will have compas- 
sion : so then it is not of him that willeth, nor 
of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth 
mercy," (Bom. 9, 15. 16.) it will, perhaps, be 
productive of some good, to make some farther 
remarks on this subject. And, 

In the first place, the above quoted words, ^^I 
will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and 


[ 282 ] 

I will have compassion on whom I will have com- 
passion/' must be well examined, and proved 
what is the meaning of them : and, to understand 
them in their proper meaning, and the apostle's 
drift in quoting them, we must compare them 
with many passages of his epistle to the Romans. 
And in doing this, we will examine the apostle's 
meaning in tne twenty-eighth verse of the first 
chapter of this epistle, where he says. And even 
as they did not ID^e to retain God, in their knowl- 
edge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to 
do those things which are not convenient : and 
these words give us a key which will open to us 
many passages of this epistle : for here we find 
that, because they did not like to retain Gk)d in 
their knowledge, God gave them over to a repro- 
bate mind. Now,' hsftl they been willing to retain 
God in their mind, God would have had mercy 
and compassion on them : but as they rejected 
the knowledge of God and spurned him, he also 
rejected them, and gave them over to hardness 
ot heart. 

Moreover, in the 3d and 4th chapters of this 
epistle, the apostle Paul speaks of the works of 
the law, whereby no flesh shall be justified, but 
for which the Jews were so very zealous; as 
they still sought their justification by the deeds 
of the law, yet could not thereby be justified. 
And as the Romans were gentiles, the apostle 
wrote unto them, in this epistle, testifying that 
a man is not justified by the deeds of the law, 
but by faith in Jesus Christ. 8, 28. Here Paul 

[283 ] 

teaches and encourages the Gentiles, that, not- 
withstanding they have not the law, yet they 
have equal access to the salvation by Christ with 
the Jews ; testifying, that God is not the God 
of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles. 8, 29. 
For the general tenor and drift of this episde is 
of the calling and election of the Gentiles, by 
faith in. Jesus Christ, and of the rejection of the 
Jews, who go about to establish their own righte- 
ousness, for which they were very eealous as the 
apostle saith, For I bear them record, that they 
have a zeal of God, but not according to knowi< 
edge. For they being ignorant of God's righte- 
ousness, and going about to establish their own 
righteousness, have not submitted themselves 
unto the righteousness of Gt)d. For Christ is 
the end of the law for righteousness to every 
one that believeth. lO, 2—4. Now, upon such 
ignorantly zealous Jews, who mU and ran to 
establish their own righteousness, contrary to 
the counsel of God, is the above passage of Paul's 
applicable, when he saith, ^'So then, it is not of 
him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but 
of Gtod that showeth mercy." For the Jews, 
with all their unllingy and rurmingy and com- 

Skssihg sea and land to make proselytes, they 
d not attain the righteousness of God ; as God 
was not pleased to extend his mercy and com- 
passion unto them, because they rejected his 
counsel, and sought it not by faith, but by the 
works of the law; and thus they stumbled at the 
•tambling stone and Bock of offence. 9, 81. 82. 

[ 284 1 

This Bock is Christ, on whom the Jews would 
not believe ; but the (^entileo, which followed 
not after righteousness, have attained the righte- 
ousness, even the righteousness which is of &ith: 
because thej sought it not in the works of tha 
law, but by faith in JIbsus Christ, that justifietk 
the ungodly ; and therefore their fiuth is counts 
•d for righteousness. And h^ice, these are 
they on whom the Lord will have mercy and 
compassion, because they did the will of God 
and sought him by faith in his own appointed 

And thus it is in relation to our present con- 
dition : if we begin a thing, and ^ on with it 
according to our own mind and will, and con- 
trary to the word and will of God, we may wiU 
and run^ as we may, to our utmost ability, yet 
will God not have mercy nor compassion ; but 
if we do according to the word and will of God, 
he will be pleased to have mercy, and compas- 
sionate us. Of this we have an example of 
Pharaoh, and the children of Israel: for the 
children of Israel went out of the land of E^ypt 
according to the commandment of the Lcrd; 
and the Lord was with them on their journey, 
and with signs and wonders led them on : l»ut 
Pharaoh, wno in direct opposition to tlie word 
and will of God, pursued after the children of 
Israel, to destroy them, was himself, with all 
his host destroyed, without having any mercy 
or compassion shown them from the Lord : and 
this was done because Pharaoh would not obev 

I 285 .] 

the voice of the Lord, to let Israel go : conse- 
quently, because "he did not like to retain 
God in his knowledge." For, when Moses 
and Aaron were sent with the message of the 
Lord to Pharaoh, and told him, Thus saith the 
Lord God of Israel, Let my people go, that they 
may hold a feast unto me in the wilderness ; 
Pharaoh said, Who is the Lord, that I should 
obey his voice, to let Israel go ? I know not the 
Lord, neither will I let Israel go. Ex. 5, 1. 2. 
Now, because Pharaoh would not obey the mes- 
sage of the Lord, by Moses and Aaron, but 
hturdened his heart against the God of heaven, 
he was given over to a reprobate mind, to do 
those thmgs which are not convenient. And 
thus his heart was hardened by his own obduracy, 
to pursue after Israel to his own destruction. 

Now in adverting to the words of the apostle, 
and his quotation from the Old Testament, where 
he saith, "So then it is not of him that willeth, 
nor of him that runneth, but of God, that show- 
eth mercy. For the scripture saith unto Pha- 
raoh, Even for this same purpose have I raised 
thee up, that I might show my power in thee, 
and that my name might be declared through- 
out all the earth. Therefore hath he mercy on 
whom he will have mercy, and whom he will ho 
hardeneth," (Rom. 9, 1ft — 18.) we must, with 
this passage, compare the following scriptures, 
in order to find who they are on whom the Lord 
will have mercy, and also they whom he will 
harden. And here we find, as said above, that 

[ 286 1 . 

they who did not like to retain God in their knowl- 
edge, God gave over to a reprobate mind ; and 
thus their hearts were hardened : because they 
hardened their hearts against the counsel of 
God : as the apostle saith, Despisest thou the 
riches of his goodness, and forbearance, and 
long-suffering; not knowing that the goodness 
of God leadeth thee to repentance? But after 
thy hardness and impenitent heart, treasurest 
up unto thyself wrath unto the day of wrath, 
and revelation of the righteous judgment of God. 
Bom. 2, 4. 5. Moreover, as the Holy Ghost 
saith. To-day if you will hear his voice, harden 
not your hearts. Heb. 3, 7. 8. From these 
scriptures we see, that men themselves harden 
their hearts against the counsel of God, and his 
Holy Spirit, when He, by his goodness, would 
lead them to repentance : for when the Holy 
Spirit counsels men to repent. He will not har- 
den their hearts against it : neither will God 
harden the hearts of any but those who have 
hardened their hearts against him, his counsels 
and his ways, through the deceitfulness of sin ; 
as the apostle saith. Exhort one another daily, 
while it is called to day; lest any of you be 
hardened through the deceitfulness of sin. Heb. 

Hence, it is highly necessary for us to stand 
upon our guard, and watch ! lest our hearts be 
hardened against God, through the deceitful- 
ness of sin. But let us hear and obey the 
voice of God, and the dictates of his divine 

[ 287 ] 

Spirit, to be by him led in the path of wisdom 
and truth. 

Farthermore, as predestinarians hold forth 
the doctrine that Goa, by his unchangeable de- 
crees, has, from eternity, elected and chosen a 
part of mankind to be heirs of eternal glory, 
and by the same decrees he has reprobated and 
doomed the other part to eternal and unavoid- 
able woe and misery : and as they ground this 
doctrine partly on the above quoted words of 
the apostle, (which we have in some measure 
explained,) and also on the type and figure re- 
presented by Jacob and Esau; of which we will, 
by the grace of God, therefore endeavor to give 
a farther explication, as follows : 

As God is omniscient, and knew, from eter- 
nity, all future events, he has by figures and 
2 pes represented what would come to pass, — 
nd herein Jacob and Esau were striking types : 
Esau being a type of the old dispensation, as 
the Jews, with their laws and ceremonies, and 
Jacob a type of the new dispensation, as the 
christians, with the gospel and its privileges. — 
For, when Esau and Jacob werie bom, Jacob's 
hand took hold on Esau's heel ; Esau's heel de- 
noting the end of the law with its ceremonies, 
and the hands of Jacob the beginning of the 

spel dispensation ; and in like manner as 
ku was the first bom, so also was the law in- 
troduced before the gospel : and as the children 
struggled together before they were born, even 
80 did the stubborn and unbelieving Jews strug- 

I 288 ] 

gle and strive against the gospel — stumbling 
against the Stumbling-stone and Bock of offence. 
Kom. 9, 32. 33. Moreover, as Esau was red 
all over, like an hairy garment, may denote the 
rigour of the law, and also the rough, rude and 
unsubdued nature of the old man, in his natural 
birth. And that the elder shall serve the young- 
er, may imply, that the law is subservient to the 
gospel. For the apostle Paul compares the law 
with Agar, the bond-maid of Abraham, saying, 
It is written that Abraham had two sons, the 
one by a bond-maid, the other by a free-woman. 
But he who was of the bond-woman, was bom 
after the flesh ; but he of the free-woman, was by 
promise. Which things are an allegory: for 
these are the two covenants : the one from the 
mount Sinai, which gendereth to bondage, which 
is Agar. For this Agar is mount Sinai in Ara- 
bia, and answereth to Jerusalem which now is, 
and is in bondage with her children. GaL 4, 

And further, Paul speaks of Esau and Jacob 
saying, (For the children being not yet born, 
neither having done any good or evil, that the 
purpose of God, according to election might 
stand, not of works, but of him that calleth) it 
was said imto her, The elder shall serve the 
younger. As it is written, Jacob have I loved, 
but Esau have I hated. Rom. 9, 11 — 13. Now 
this is somewhat hard to understand ; and those 
that do not view the case of Esau and Jacob in 
the light of a spiritual and emblematical repre- 

[ 289 ] 

sentation, may greatly err, inasmucli as these 
words seem to import, That according to the 
purpose and determination of God, he had cho- 
sen the one, and rejected the other, without 
respect to their merit and future conduct, and 
therefore there would he no room given for the 
rejected to gain the love and favor of God, 
though he might earnestly seek it? and thus 
might the inference be drawn, that God is un- 
righteous ! which question the apostle also asks, 
when he says. What shall we say then ? Is there 
unrighteousness with God ? God forbid, v. 14. 
Tea, although we cannot trace God in his fore- 
knowledge and providence — though his dispen- 
sation may be dark and mysterious — He is 
righteous in all his ways. 

Now in that God saith. Not of works, but of 
him that calleth it was said unto her. The elder 
shall serve the younger. He gives us to under- 
stand, that the Jews sought their righteous- 
ness and justification by the works of the law, 
and whereby they could not attain to the right- 
eousness wluck is acceptable with God : but as 
the ccUkdj by the grace of God th^ must ob- 
tain it through the gospel, by faith in Jesus 
Christ. For it pleased God that man's eternal 
blessedness should be of grace, and not of works ; 
that all the glory, honor and praises of our sal- 
vation be to the Lord, and that no flesh glory 
in his presence. 

Likewise, when it is said, Jacob have I loved, 
but Esau have I hated, it is thereby typified^ 

35 ' 

[ 290 ] 

that the love of God was manifested to us, in 
the gospel, and not in the law : because the law 
worketh wrath; (Rom. 4, 15.) and the wrath 
and displeasure of God, under which man had 
fallen, could not be appeased and reconciled bj 
the law, and therefore it is hated. But in Christ 
Jesus, and his glorious gospel, is grace and 
truth ; the wrath of God pacified, and the en- 
mity slain, as the apostle saith, For he is our 
peace, who hath made both one, and hath bro- 
ken down the middle wall of partition between 
us : having abolished in his flesh the enmity, 
even the law of commandments contained in or- 
dinances : for to make in himself of twain one 
new man, so making peace. Eph. 2, 14. 16. 
This is the love of God, which is prefigured in 
Jacob. And in like manner as Esau despised 
and sold his birthright, whereby was prefigm*ed 
the birthright to the promised inheritance cf the 
heavenly Caanan, through the atonement of the 
Savior Jesus Chi-ist, the eternal and only begot- 
ten Son of God ; which promise was made to the 
Jews, as the elder brother ; but as they despised 
this promised inheritance through the Bedeemer, 
and rejected the Son of God, they thus sold their 
birthright to their younger brother, the Gentiles, 
who believed on Christ, and thus inherited the 
promised blessing, in preference to the unbe- 
lieving Jews : as it is written, And they shall 
come from the east, and from the west, and 
from the north, and from the south, and shall 
sit down in the kingdom of God. And behold, 

[ 291 ] 

there are last, "which shall he first ; and there 
are first, which shall he last. Luke 13, 29. 30. 

Moreover, as Esau could not obtain the bless- 
ing by his weapons, the quiver and bow in hunt- 
ing venison ; so also could not the unbelieving 
Jews obtain the gospel blessings by their zeal 
for the works of the law, and their carnal ordi- 
nances. And as Jacob inherited the blessing, 
BO have all the believers in Christ obtained the 
blessing, and are blessed with all spiritual bless- 
ings in heavenly places in Christ. Eph. 1, 3. 
Therefore it is not of him that willeth, nor of 
him that runneth; but of God that showeth 

Now let us consider well, whether, from the 
emblematical representation of Esau and Jacob ; 
and the words, "Jacob have I loved, but Esau 
have I hated," the inference can be drawn, that 
God has, from the creation, chosen and elected a 
part of the human family to be heirs of eternal 
life, glory and happiness, while he has doomed 
and reprobated the others to eternal death, pain 
and misery ! No, that be far from that G<)D, 
who is righteous in all his ways. 

For, notwithstanding the Law, wherein God 
manifested his hatred of sirij and which was 
prefigured by Esau, whom he hated, and by the 
works of whiehy the sinner could not be justified 
and obtain the favor of God ; for. By the deeds 
of the law, there shall no fiesh be justified in his 
sight ; (Bom. 3, 20.) yet God did not hate the 
penitent sinner, who was under the lay( aw<ik!s^\. 

[ 292 ] 

it ; bnt by the law, and its sacrifices, pointed 
him to the all-atoning LAMB, Jesus Christ, and 
his glorious gospel, by which is manifested his 
love to sinners ; and which was prefigured by 
Jacob, whom he loved : and by which all are 
called, and invited to the gospel feast ; as may 
be seen in many passages and parables in holy 
writ ; but the fewest number received the call : 
hence it is written, For many are called, but 
few are chosen. Matt. 22, 14. 

But here let us examine, what is the cause 
that but few are chosen ? Id it not, because they 
will not obey the call, and come ? For the invi- 
tation was as urgent to those who did not come, 
as to those who came ? and even those who were 
first bidden^ refused to come : for when the Lord 
sent out his servants at supper-time, to say to 
them that were bidden. Come, for all things are 
now ready, (Luke 14, 17.) they all with one con- 
sent began to make excuses, and refused to 
come. These were of the house of Israel : and 
when all things were made ready, and they were 
bidden to come, and came not, was it not be- 
cause they would not come — and not because 
they were not invited, and could not ? Now when 
this was shewed unto the Lord, he said to his 
servants. Go quickly into the streets and lanes 
of the city, and bring in hither the poor, and 
the maimed, and the halt, and the blind. And 
the servant said, Lord it is done as thou hast 
commanded, and yet there is room. And the 
Lord said unto the servant, Go out into the high- 

[ 298 ] 

ways and hedges, and compel them to come in, 
that my house may be filled. 14, 21. 23. The 
highways and hedges may denote the whole 
world ; and this accords with the command- 
ments given to the apostles, by our Lord Jesus 
Christ, when he ascended to heaven, saying, 
Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel 
to every creature. Mark 16, 15. This call ex- 
tends to all — ^both Jews and Gentiles — all na- 
tions, of every language and tongue— free grace 
for all those who mil came and accept it. Now 
if the greater part are reprobated and rejected, 
why are they all called ? Our Lord exclaims, 
over that great and populous city Jerusalem : 
Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the pro- 
phets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, 
how often would I have gathered thy children to- 

S ether, even as a hen gathereth her chickens un- 
er her wings, and ye would not ! Matt. 23, 37. 
From these scriptures, and the following, it 
is plain and evident, that it is in the fbeb will 
of man to accept the call and invitation of the 
gospel, and come to Christ and live : or to re- 
ject it and perish : for it is the will of God our 
Savior, that all men should be gathered under 
the wings of his mercy and be saved, and come 
to the knowledge of the truth. 1 Tim. 2, 4. This 
is evidenced by many passages in holy writ. For 
God has no pleasure in the death of the wicked, 
as he saith by the prophet, Say unto them, As I 
live saith the Lord God, I have no pleasure in 
the death of the wicked ; but that the wicked 


[ 294 ] 

torn from his way and live ; tnm ye, ttm ye, 
from your evil ways; for why will ye die, 
house of Israel ? Ez. 33 — 11« Also saith Pe- 
ter, The Lord is not slack concerning his pro- 
mise, as some men count slackness ; but is long- 
suffering to US-ward, not willing that any should 
perish, but that all should come to repentance, 
2 Pet. 8 — 9. Moreover, Moses saith. See I 
have set before thee this day life and good, and 
death and evil ; in that I command thee this day 
to love the Lord thy God, to walk in his ways, and 
keep his commandments, and his statutes, and 
his judgments, that thou mayest live and multi- 
ply : and the Lord thy God shall bless thee in 
the land whither thou goest to possess it. Bat 
if thine heart turn away, so that thou wilt not 
hear, but shalt be drawn away, and worship 
other Gods, and serve them ; I denounce unto you 
this day, that ye shall surely perish, and that ye 
shall not prolong yoiir days upon the land, whi- 
ther thou passest over Jordan to possess it. I 
call heaven and earth to record this day against 
you, that I have set before you life and death, 
blessing and cursing : therefore choose life, that 
both thou and thy seed may live : that thou 
mayest love the Lord thy God, and that thou 
mayest cleave unto him, for he is thy life. Deut. 
30, 15 — 30. Likewise Joshua saith to Israel, 
Now therefore fear the Lord, and serve him in 
sincerity and in truth ; and put away the gods 
which your fathers served on the other side of 
the flood, and in Egypt ; and serve ye the Lo&n. 

[ 295 ] 

And if it seem evil unto you to serve the Lord, 
choose you this day whom ye will serve, whether 
the gods which your fathers served that were on 
the oth^r side of the flood, or the gods of the 
Amorites in whose land ye dwell : but as for me 
and my house, we will serve the Lord. Josh. 24, 
14. 15. Behold, saith the Spirit, I have set be- 
fore thee au open door, and no man can shut it. 
Rev. 3, 8. Also, The Spirit and bride say, 
Come. And let him that heareth, say Come. And 
let him that is athirst come : and whosoever will, 
let him take the water of life freely. 22, 17. 

Now, if God declares with an oath. That he 
has no pleasure in the death of the wicked ; and 
that he is not willing that any should perish, 
but that all should come to repentance ; and if 
ho sets before them life and good, and death 
and evil, and commands them to love the Lord 
their God, to walk in his ways, and to choose 
life ; and Joshua, after exhorting the people to 
fear the Lord, and serve him, and to choose for 
the best, says. As for me and my house, we will 
serve the Lord: — moreover, if a door is set 
open that no man caii shut — and if the bride 
and the Spirit say. Come. If all that hear say, 
Come, — ^if all that are athirst shall come,, and 
if whosoever will may come and. take the water 
of life freely,— can it yet be said, that God — 
that Holy, Just and Good God who is no respect- 
er of persons, (Acts 10, 34.) — should, in his fore- 
knowledge, have reprobated and abandoned some 
of his rational creatures — ^unavoidably on their 


[ 296 ] 

part — ^tp eternal death and misery ! ! Would 
It not be inconsistent with the above scripture 
texts, and in oppositian to them ? And, more- 
over, would it not be inconsistent with the di- 
vine attributes? 

Farthermore, That Christ Jesus, by his sa- 
crifice and blood, has made atonement for the 
sing of the whole world, is clear and evident 
from the following scriptures: for Paul saith, 
Therefore, as by the ofience of one, judgment 
came upon all men to pondemnation, even so 
by the righteousness of one, the &ee gift came 
upon all men unto justification of life. Bom. 5, 
18. And John saith, That we have an Advo- 
cate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous: 
and he is the Propitiation for our sins : and not 
for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole 
world. 1 John 2, 1. 2. Moreover, Herein is 
love, not that we loved God, but that he loved 
u3, and sent his Son to be the Propitiation for 
om' sins. And we have seen and do testify, 
that the Father sent the Son to be the Savior of 
the world. 4, 10 — 14. Who his own-self bare 
our sins in his own body on the tree> that we, 
being dead to sins, should live unto righteous- 
ness : by whose stripes ye were healed. 1 Pet. 
2. 24. For CJirist also hath once suffered for 
sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring 
us to God. 3, 18. And when John saw Jesus 
coming unto him, he saith, Behold the Lamb of 
God, which taketh away the sin of the world. 
John 1, 29. The Samaritans said unto the wo. 

[ 297 1 

man, Now we believe, not because of thy saying: 
for we have heard him ourselves, and know that 
this is indeed the Christ, the Savior of the world. 
4, 42. God was in Christ, reconciling the world 
onto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto 
them. 2 Cor. 5, 19. Thus we see that full 
atonement is made for the sins of the whole 
world ; and that a door of free grace is open 
for ALL who will come, and accept it, by faith 
in Jesus Christ. 

But, nevertheless, we also believe and ac- 
knowledge that, according to the holy scrip- 
tures, God has his elected and chosen people, 
who are known to him, and whom he hath cho- 
sen in Christ Jesus, before the foundation of 
the world. For Christ saith. For there shall 
arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall 
show great signs and wonders ; in so much that, 
if it were possible, they shall deceive thb very 
ELECT. Matt. 24, 24. Ye have not chosen me, 
but I have chosen you, and ordained you, that 
ye should go and bring forth fruit, and that 
your fruit should remain. John 15, 16. Also 
the apostle saith, And we know that all things 
work together for good, to them that love God, 
to them who are the called according to his pur- 
pose. For whom he did foreknpw, he also did 
predestinate to be conformed to the image of 
his Son, that he might be the first-born among 
many brethren. Moreover, whom he did pre- 
destinate, them he also called : and whom he 
called, them he also justified ; and whom he 

L S98 ] 

justified, them he also glorified. Bom. 8, 28 — 80. 
Again he saith, According as he hath chosen 
us in him, before the foundation of the world, 
that we shonld be hol^ and without blame be- 
fore him in love : havmg predestinated ns nnto 
the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to him- 
self, accordinff to the good pleasure of his will, 
to the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he 
hath made us accepted in the Beloved : in whom 
we have redemption through his blood, the for- 
giveness of sins, according to the riches of his 
grace. Eph. 1, 4 — 7. Moreover, it is said, that. 
These that are with the Lamb, are called, and 
ohosen, and faithful. Bev. 17, 14. 

Here let us examine the reason, why some 
are elected, called and chosen, while others are 
hardened in sin, and reprobated ? and by thus 
examining, will we not find, that it is owing to 
their own wilKnffness or unwiUingne%%^ in re- 
ceiving th^ message of peace to their souls ? For 
the apostle saith, Knowing, brethren beloved, 
your election of Grod. For our gospel came not 
unto you in word only, but also in power, and 
in the Holy Ghost, and in much assurance, as 
ye know what manner of men we were among 
you for your sake; And ye became follower% 
of U8, and of the Lord, having received the ward 
in much affliction, with joy of the Holy Ghost. 
1 Thess. 1, 4 — 6. For this cause also thank 
we God without ceasing, because, when ye re- 
ceived the word of Ciod which ye heard of us, ye 
received it not as the word of men, but (as it is in 

[ 299 ] 

truth) the word of God, which effectually work- 
eth also in you that believe. For ye, brethren, 
became followers of the chureheM of (}od which 
in Judea are in Christ Jesus. 2, 13. 14. Then 
they that gladly received his word were baptized, 
and the same day there were added unto them 
about three thousand souls. Acts 2, 41. And^ 
the people with one accord gave heed unto those 
things which Philip spake, hearing and seeing 
the miracles which he did. But when they be* 
lieved Philip preaching the things concerning 
the kingdom of God, and the name of Jesus 
Christ, they were baptized, both men and wo- 
men. 8, 6 — 12. And when the Gentiles heard 
this, th^y were glad, and glorified the word of 
the Lord : and as many as were ordained to 
eternal life, believed. 13, 48. I press towards 
the mark for the prize of the high calling of God 
in Christ Jesus, saith the inspired apostle. Phil. 
3, 14. And Peter saith. Wherefore the rather, 
brethren, give diligence to make your calling 
and election sure : for if ye do these things, ye 
shall never fall. 2 Pet. 1, 10. 

Now does it not appear evident, from the 
foregoing scriptures, that all those who gladly 
and willingly receive the word, believe in Christ, 
keep his sayings and follow him, are they that 
are the called, the elected, and the chosen? 
They press toward the mark for the prize of the 
high calling of God in Christ Jesus — ^give dili- 
gence to make their calling and election sure—* 
And thus ^'The kingdom of heaven suffereth vie* 

[ 800 ] 

lence, and the violent take it By force/' Matt. 
11, 12. Yea, they are elected and.diiosen, be- 
cause they obey the voice of the Lord, hear hia 
savings, and do them : Fight the good fight of 
faith, and lay hold on eternal life. And thus 
Christ is the author of eternal salvation unto all 
them that chey him. Heb. 5, 9. 

And on the other hand, those that are har- 
dened and reprobated, are they who rq'ect the 
offered grace a;nd spnm it, as the apostle Peter 
saith, For this they willingly are ignorant of, 
that by the word of Qtod the heavens were of 
old, and the earth standing out of the water, 
and in the water. 2 Pet. 3, 5. And this is the 
condemnation, that light is come into the world, 
and men loved darkness rather than light, be- 
cause their deeds were evil. For eveiy one that 
doeth evil hateth the light, neither cometh to 
the light, lest his deeds should be reproved. 
John 3, 19. 20. Because that, when they knew 
God, they glorified him not as Gt>d, neither 
were thankful ; but became vain in their ima- 
ginations, and their foolish heart was darkened. 
And even as they did not like to retain God in 
their knowledge, God gave them over to a repro- 
bate mind, to do those things which are not con- 
venient, Rom. 1, 21 — 28. And with all deceiva- 
bleness of unrighteousness in them that perish ; 
becavse they received not the love of the tnUh, 


cause God shall send them strong delusion, that 
they should believe a lie : that they all might 

[ 801 ] 

be damned, who believed not the truths but had 
pleasure in unrighteousness. 2Thess. 2,10 — 12. 
jBut unto them that are contentious, and do not 
obey the truths but obey unrighteousness^ indig- 
nation and wrath. Rom. 2, o. 

Here, also, does it not appear plain and evi- 
dent, from the foregoing scriptures, that these, 
and these only, are hardened and reprobated 
who harden themselves, and are wilfully igno- 
rant of the knowledge of God and his ways ? — 
who love darkness rather than light? — ^who wiU 
not retain God in their knowledge ? — ^who wiU 
not receive the love of the truth and be saved, 
but spurn the knowledge of God and his grace 
from them, and persist in their obstinacy and 
impenitency on the road down to eternal ruin ? 
for. He that being often reproved hardeneth his 
neck, shall suddenly be destroyed, and that 
without remedy. Prov. 29, 1. 

Lastly, some may yet object and say, that 
according to the words of the apostle Paul, 
"For it is God that worketh in you both to will 
and to do of his good pleasure," (Phil. 2, 13.) 
that man can do nothing towards his soul's sal- 
vation, but that all is from the Lord whether he 
be saved or lost? But by the words of Paul we 
understand that God finraciously operates on the 
imndB of men, by thepreachini o/die word and 
the influence of the Holy Spirit, to produce in 
them a willingness, without any restraint, to 
come to the Savior and seek their soul's salva- 
tion; and this seems to be intimated by the 


E §02 } 

»po6ileinihe preoedixur and succeeding rerseBi 
where he BaySy Wherefore^ mj beloTed, as ye 
have always obOTed, not as in my presence on- 
ly, but now much more in my absence,, work oat 
S^ur own salvation with fear and trembling. — 
olding forth the word of life ; that I may re- 
joice in the daj of Ohrist, that I hxre not nm 
m Tain, neither labored in yain. 12, 16. 

But here it should be noticed, that to this 
willingness which is produced in the minds of 
men by the means of grace, as said abore^ the 
«amal mind is enmitv; and upon this carnal 
mind, the adversary of souls operates to produce 
an unwillingness to obey the call and voice of 
the Lord, and to walk in his ways : Here man 
is brought into a strait, as there are now, as it 
were, two opposite natures within him, namely, 
the inward man, and the natural man; and 
these are differently wrought upon, and produ- 
ces a contiaual warfare. Of this the apostle 
saith, I find then a law, that when I would do 
ffood, evil ispresent with me. For I delight in 
the law of Crod, after the inward man : but I 
see another law in my members warring against 
the law of my mind, and bringing me into cap- 
tivity to the law of sin which is in my members. 
Bom. 7, 21-— 23. A^in he saith. For the flesh 
lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against 
the flesh : and these are contrary the one to the 
other; so that you cannot do the things that 
you would. Gal. 5, 17. Hence Paul asks, Know 
ye not, that to whom ye yield yourselves ser- 

[ 803 ] 

vants to obey, his servant ye are to whom ye 
obey ; whether of sin unto death, or of obedi- 
ence nnto righteousness? Bom. 6, 16. And 
Peter saith, For of whom a man is overcome, of 
the same is he brought in bondage. 2 Pet. 2, 19. 
In this conflict is set before us, as Moses set be- 
fore the children of Israel, life and death — 
blessing and cursing — ^therefore let us choose 
life. Let us fight the good fight of faith, lay 
hold on eternal life, whereunto we are called, 
and thus let us give diligence to make our calling 
and election sure ; that we may obtain the crown 
of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous 
Judge, shall give at that day, unto all them that 
love his appearance. 2 Tim. 4, 8. 






Articlbs. Pagx. 

1. Dootrine and Ftactice, • ^ • • • 5 

2. Articles of Faith of God, .... 7 

3. Attributes of Gody • • • • * .18 

4. Unity of God, .•♦..•. 44 

5. Incamatioxi of Christ, 50 

6. Fall of the Hmaai^ RacQ, • • • • 52 
T. Good Worka, . . 5T 

8. New Covenant or New TeBtamwIt, . 60 

9. Christian Church, 62 

10. Ministers and Deacons, 65 

11. Reception into the Church, .... 72 

12. Holy Baptism, 77 

13. Fruits of Faith, ....... 86 

14. Holy Sacrament, or Lord's Supper . 91 

15. Commandment of Love, • • • • 102 

16. On Revenge, 104 

17. Sweving of Oaths, 107 

18. Matrimonjr, 108 

19» Ecclesiastical Punishment, or Excom- 
munication, 113 

20. Exclusion from the ChurcSi, • • • 116 



[ 806 ] 

21. Be-re<m)tioti of Penitents, • . • • 117 

22. Office of Giyil Goyemment, ... 120 
28. Seimrootion from the Dead, . , .128 
24* Laat Judgment and Eternal Life, • 182 

Pabt Sbooio). 

Faith in God and Jesus Christ, . . • • 141 

Of the Holv Ghost, 142 

Of the Christian Church, 142 

Election of Teachers and Almoners, • • 143 

H0I7 Baptism, 144 

Matrimony, . t 4 146 

Office of Oiyil Goyemment, • • • . .147 

Swearing of Oaths, 147 

Of Revenge, 148 

Church Discipline, 148 

Second Coming of Christ, 149 

Part Third. 


1. Of God, 150 

2. Of the FaU of Man, 153 

8. Bestoration of Man, 154 

4. Advent of Christ, 155 

6. The Holy Gospel or New Testament . 157 

6. Bepentance and Amendment of Life, 158 

7. Holy Baptism, 159 

8. The Church of Christ, ..... 160 
9.' Election of Teachers and Ministers, . 161 

10. The Lord's Supper, 164 

[ 807 1 

Articles. Page. 

11. The Washing of Feet, 165 

12. Of Matrimonv, 166 

13. Office of Civil Government, .... 166 

14. Of Defence bv Force, 16T 

15. Swearing of Oaths, 168 

16. Of Excommnnication, 169 

17. Of the Avoiding of Offenders, . . . 171 

18. Resurrection of the Dead, .... 172 

Conclusion, and the names of the Ministers 
who signed the Confession of the 18 Ar- 
ticles of Faith, 174 

And when this Confession was translated 
out of the Dutch into the French and Ger- 
man languages, .175 

Attestation of the Brethren in Alsace, . 175 

Kames of the same, • 176 

Postscript to the 18 Articles, .... 176 

Part Fourth. 

Preface, • 181 

Notice to the Beader, 183 

Remarks, 114 

First Addrbss. 

To the Bising Generation on True Repent- 
ance, 185 

i,m } 


Segoh]) Awmeubssb* 

J6ihe Biring Generation ou Bastfiag fUj3:^ 199 
JfCffB to QoAf ••••f«*9ii» 19i 
{lOre of our Nei^li1>or, ••,••• 198 

On ObediBnoe to ^ Word of Go4« ^ « • 218 

Instbttctiok Fiest. 
Qtiesfioni and Answers^ ...,•• 218 

Inbteuotion Sbooto. 
We mnft come to Jeeufl, 226 

iNSTBUcnoN Tenu). 
Of Holy Baptism, 229 

Instruction Fourth. 

Instruction of Candidates for Baptism, . .237 

Of the Swearing of Oaths, 24S 

Of Matrimony, , . . . 244 

Questions concerning Baptism, . • • « 247 

Office of Civil Goyemment, 251 

Expulsion from the Church, 252 

Warning against Backsliding, « « « « 255 
The Ten Commandments, • * « « • 258 
Apostolic Confession of Faith, « * ^ « 260 

L 809 ] 


The Lord's Prayer, 261 

Morning Prayer, 261 

Evening Prayer, ♦♦♦♦♦••♦ 262 

Prayer of a renitent Sinner, 263 

Edifying thoughts for the Sick, , , , 264 

After Notice, 277 

On Predestination, « 281 




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