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■iMiac Di L'mrrnjT. 





Naw ToMcr Ε.Λ J. B. YOb'NQ AND CO. 




(iHiud uii4tT Ik» (HrtMlim <^ IKe ΤτλΛ, CnnmiltM, wJb, Aamnir 
lUrtady pubUilud Warrm't taluai/t ΙπΜίΜ on (Ac Liturgy aj the 
^•Ut-JfioeiM CkurdA, Jk«e Oanyht it dnireiU to mppUmmt that 
leort by puttinff /artX (Ait, tta «wit fftnenllv aectpltd, aaeoMtU of 
like ievelopeitnl itfChrUtia» WoriUp tiptoHu Hme if Charltnagae. 
The TtaAtr νϊΰ A^rv ttf, on rAe rtpneeniatuin qf α Uanud Raman 
CalkoUt wriUr, wAM «AoniMt lA• pn'mMtM eennien^t unifnwuf 
tn (A« well •t^deKiepiiMM am' ΟΜπΚβη.] 

rannm ir wulub ctavu aid ra«^ iraniD, 

1J)XS0S AID uccu*. 


This volome coatabs the deecriptioii and expUnatioa 
of the chief ceremomes of Catholic wurship as they 
were performed in the Latin Churches of the \Ve4t 
from the fonrth to the ninth century. The title is 
eomewhab ambitious, and is not exactly that which 
1 would have chosen. But I did not feel juatifled 
in disregarding the suggestions of my pabUshcr, and 
have had to relogat« to the sub-title the descriptton 
which I had in view. 

The contents represent, in the main, merely notee 
of my lectures. I have dealt with this subject on 
two or three ocoietona in my teaching at the ImtttiU 
Cathdique at Farie. My pupile and other persona 
having expressed a wiah to have the lectures 
printed, I am now able to satisfy their deeirc. 

It is, indeed, but a modest contribution to the 
I subject, and I make no pretension to compare this 
little book with the great works of the French and 
foreign Utm-giologists, who, from the seventocntli 
century onwards, have explored every department of 
tbia vMt domain. Small bouka, however, have their 
lue, and mine, perhaps, may b« welcomed by begiunei's 
who want a general view of the subject^ or by busy 
people who an: engaged in kindred studies and desire 

h 3 



to take a rapid survey of this field of research. 
Owing, moreover, to the narrow limits which I have 
prescribeil for myself, I have found it always possible 
to resort at firnt hand to the original printed texte, 

When once we have come down beyond the time 
of Charlemagne in the West, and a limit almost 
corresponding to it in the East, we 6nd ourselves 
confronted with such απ immense namber of litur- 
giwil books that their adequate study aud classifica- 
tion would require more lives than one. The great 
and valuable works of Renaudot and of Mart^ne give 
merely a faint idea of the material stored op in the 
manuscripte of libraries. But if we go back to a 
period anterior to the ninth century, liturgical books 
are much rarer, and it is not impossible to study all 
of them, and even to throw light on them, by com- 
paring them with other historical documents. This 
is what I have attemptetl to do, without having 
recourse, it is true, to the manuscripts, which arc, 
unfortunately, widely scattered, but confining myself 
to the texts edited by Tommasi, Mabillon, Martine, 
Mumtori, and others. The last-named has brought 
together the principal documents in the two volumes 
of his Liturt/ia Romano, Vetm, a work which cou- 
stitutes a convenient, though doubtless incomplete. 
Corpus of the ancient Latin liturgical books. 

I have devoted myself particularly to the Latin 
Liturgy, consulting the Greek usages merely for pur- 
poses of comparison. Our ancient Gallican Liturgy 
— that of St. Caesarius of Aries, of St. Germain of 
Paris, and of St* Gregory of Tours— to which the 

jldthob's ΡκκΓΛΰε. ν 

uinale Λϋά cotincils of McroTinginn times make 
each frequent rcforoncc, deserves a promiocnt place 
I among tho venerable monuments of our ecclcaiastlcal 
^ftntdqaitjee. I thiuk I have been ablo to add some 
freeh obeerratioDs to the conclusions of Mabillon and 
Mart^nc, particularly in that whicli concerns the 
ritual of ordination and the dedication of churches. 
It is, however, specially to the Roman Liturgy that 
I have directed my researches. Its history is clearly 
more interesting to us than that of any other, since 
for centuries it has been the only liturgy of the West. 
Although I have not hesitated, when I found it 
poasible, to go back earlier than the fourth century, 
I have, however, for the moat part, confined myself to 
a less remote chronological period. Attention might 
be called to very interesting Htui^ical facte in docu- 
ments anterior to the time of Coustantine, but they are 
isolated facte, and the documents arc few, and rarely 
explicit. In researches into this period, conjecture has 
to play too large a part, and it is more profitable, 
therefore, to concentrate attention on α somewhat 
later date, where both trustworthy and abundant 
material is forthcoming. 

With regard to these primitive liturgical forms, I 
have not said all that we might wish to know about 
them, or, indeed, all that might be made known. 
My erudition has its limits. Ou tho other hand, as I 
said before, it was not my intention to write α large 
book, but a small one. It is for this reason that 
I have refrained systematically from ofiering any 
explanation as to the connection between the present 



and the anriicnt. ti!vigc& Such explaDationK would 
be intenninabU-. The same may be said of queetione, 
haTing α direct or iodii-cct theological import, arising 
from the cousidcratioD of certain rites, such, for 
instance, ns the epirtr-^is of the Mass, the reconciliation 
of penitents, and oi-dination. These queations have 
been carefully discussed by specialists, but in large 
works commensurate with the importanoe of the 
Bubject and lieyond the scope of the task I have 
ondertakcn. If at times, when lecturing to an 
audience previously well prepared, I have been able 
to offer some solutions of these questions, in furnish- 
ing explanations of technicalities and in referring to 
other writers, these were episodes which I consider 
out of place in the present work, where it would 
be impossible to elaborate them in such a way as to 
make them clear to the ordinary reader. 

When once I had resolved to restrict myself solely 
to the domain of histor}', it appeared incumbeut upon 
me to avoid a sjiecial theological terminology. Not 
tlut I ignore such terminology, or do not recognise 
its utility, but, having no other aim in describing 
veiy ancient usages thau to rcprtecnt them as 
they wore practised from the fourth to the eighth 
century, it seemed best not to speak of them in 
more precise language than was in use at that date. 

Many works of a uaturc similar to mine are 
restricted to the study of the liturgy properly so 
called, that is, the Eucharistic Liturgy. I havel 
adopted a nider scheme, and have extended my 
researches to other ceremonies, and here it became 

λοηοι'β pucvAOK. 


neoMsaiy to make a «election from among tho in• 
uomcniblc mantfcatatione of the Chmtinn roligioas 
life. Some nUs, soch as thoee of initiation and of 
ordinAtion, are so eminently essential that the choice 
of them was inevitable from the flret But beyond 
these, aelection became more diflkult I at first 
thought of taking the seven Sacramcnte as the Itasie 
of my scheme. But this arrangement, important as 
it is from a theological point of view, and oven 
from that of later history, did not fall in with the 
clironological exigencies of my plan. The seven 
Sacraments will, indeed, find a place in this book, 
but only such a place as they occupy in Christian 
antiquity, that is, somewhat scattered, and differing 
trom each other in importance. I have conscqaently 
adopted another system. I have selected such cere- 
moniee as have, bi a somewhat marked manner, tho 
character of collective acts, that is, that are ccclcsi- 
asUcal in the true sense of the word, and have a direct 
beanng on the life and development of the local church, 
Xheee arc almmst always recognisable from the circum- 
Btanoe that they were, as α general rule, transacted in 
an aesembly of tho whole Church, and prcetdcd over 
by the bishop, surrounded by all bis clergy. It is for 
this reason that no mention will be found in these 
pages of funerary ritual, which is of an absolatoly 
private nature, and which, with the exception of 
epedal formularies for the Mass, has no very ancient 
features. For the same reason I have omitted all 
that concerns ministration to tlie dying, baptism 
and penance admiuistcrcd in ej^ireiais, extreme 



uuctiou, iuid pi-ayers for the departing. All these 
rites, necessarily accompliehed apart &om any 
cvcleeiestical asacmhly, tack that publicity which is 
the ordinary and prescribed condition, for example, 
of baptism and ordination. If I have admitted 
marriage, which has rather the aspect of a family 
«ceremony than that of an ecclesiaHtical act, it is 
bccauw marriage implies u publicity beyond that 
of the family circle, and brings together all the 
mcmbere of the local Christian community. The 
bride and bridegroom are married before the Church, 
and not solely in the presence of God and their imme- 
diate family and friends. It was also necessary to 
exclude from this work all the forms for the venera- 
tion of sainte, reUcs, images, and for the benediction 
of hooeee, firstfruits, etc. It would require another 
volume U> deal adequately with these varied mani- 
feslatioua of iiidividuul arid [lopulur piety, which have 
received the protection, and indeed the encouragement, 
of the Church, without having been elevated by her 
to the dignity of thoee great rites whicli constitute 
the actual procedui-c of the cccleeia«tical authority 
— that is, of the Christian priesthood. There is no 
place in this book for the consideration of the furnui 
employed by the individual worsliipping God in 
private. It is concerned solely with the assembly of 
Christiana in the Church, and the prayers dealt with 
will therefore always have a collective character, 
in whatever measure the various members of the 
congregation may join iu their outward expression. 
To this tirst limit which I have set myself must 

AtrrnOR'S niEPACI. 


be added a chronological ooe. As I did not 
intend to treat of anything posterior to the eighth 
century, I •have been obliged to omit certain cere- 
mouica, some of thera even of an imposing rJiaracter, 
which were not introdncod until a later date, or of 
which the ritual has come down to us in a form too 
far removed from ita primitJve condition. I allude 
especially to the rites connected with the inaugura- 
tion of sovereigns, an act of great importance, 
whether Wewed horn the p<ilitical or thu religious 
Btaodpoint In France this ceremony is not older 
than the accoesion of the Carlovingian kings, and if 
we have reason to believe that it was practised some- 
what earlier in the liritish Islca and in Spain, there 
is no document extant which enableti u» to gathcr 
the detaila of the ceremony at that remote date. 
The various ritoala for the consecration of the 
emperors in the basilica of St. Peter at Rome have 
been recently classified, but none of them, in my 
opinion, goes back even as for as the ninth century. 

Such ia the scope of the present volume I have 
thought it necessary to define it, in order that the 
reader may not look for that which I was neither 
capable nor desirous of including within it» pages. It 
merely remains for me to add that the work I set my- 
self to accomplish was that of the hiatoriau, or perhaps 
even of the anti<]uary, and that I had not the least 
deaire to protest against the changes introduced into 
liturgical usages in the course of centuries or by the 
dedeions of competent authoritica It is poesiblo to 
take an interest in the history of the Merovingians 


without bciDg suspoctetl of harbouring a secrot aoi- 
moeity against Pepin d'Heristal and Hugh Capet 

Neither wee my main object that of ediucatton. 
This book is by nti mean» one to take to church to 
help the faithful to follow ceremonial worship mote 
intelligently. There is a work which has been written 
for Uiis purpose, and which is admirably suited to it — 
I allude to the Annce Lxturgique of Dom Gu^ranger. 
If, however, my volume is merely α text-book, I do 
not think that its perusal can tend to lessen in the 
reader, whoever he may be, that reverenoo and 
affectionate devotion which the venerable rites of 
our ancient mother the Catholic Church arc entitled 
to command. If any expression has escaped me 
which might be construed otherwise, 1 should deeply 
regret it These ancient rites are doubly sacicd, for 
they come to us from God through Christ and the 
Church. But they would not possess in our eyes such 
a halo of glor^' about them had they not also been sanc- 
tified by the piety of countless generations. Through- 
out how many centuries have the faithful prayed 
in these words I What cmotiojis, what joys, what 
oficctions, what tears, have found theii' expression in 
these books, these rites, and these prayers I I count 
myself happy indeed to have tahoured in shedding 
fresh light upon an antiquity thus hollowed, and 1 
gladly repeat with the neocoi-its of Euripides — 

KA«i-'jf Sit E-ernt f>M 
6tcMTW SoiiXay χ^* !χ*ιτ, 
ov uvatiii^ liAA' ■UianiruK' 
Λφάμοικ Sj iroroit ^ο)(β*ΐν 

ovK AmKilwia, UM. 134. 



The translator hae to thank several frieode foi 
looking over the proof-sheets while the work was 
passing throagh the press, and among them the 
Bev. Canon F. E. "Warren, B.D., F.S.A., whoso 
eztensire litargical knowledge has been freely 
drawn npon whenever a difficulty arose as to 
tie English equivalents of technical terms. 

Since the third edition of this work was published 
β few weeks ago in Paris, Mgr. Dnchesne has 
contributed some additional notes to the English 
version, in order to meet certain late criticisms. 
With these exceptions, and the addition of a few 
short notes by the translator marked [Tr-]> the 
English edition represents the French original in its 

ChrUtma*, 1902. 


PiDACDi ... ... iil 



S 1. Jewiih «nd Chriitiaa OmnmnnitlM ... ... ... — 1 

fi. Local Chnrches—l^taooiMJ DiooMS• ... II 

1 3. Bodeoutieal Ρητίηοββ ... ... ... ... ... IS 

i*. FiktriMolurie•— Naticoftl Chnrohea ... ... ... 28 



1 1. The Li»rK7 in Primitive Tinm ... ... ... ... 46 

{ 2. The SjniMi Litnrg; in the Fonith Century ... ... 55 

I S. The Oriental litoi^ua — •>. •■■ ... ... Μ 

(1) Syria, p. eS; (2) Heaopotvnia Bod Ρβπία, p. 69; (8) 
Cttmnik and Omsbutinople, p. 71 ; (4) Aratenla, p. 78 
f 4. The Alex&Ddriae Liturgy ... ... ... „, 75 

(1) The BQchoiogim of 8a»pion, p. 75; (2) I^ter Lito^ie•, 
p. 79 
f S. Later Uodillcatiim ... ... ... ... ... 82 



{ ]. The Baman and OaUioaa Uiea ... ... ... ... 86 

i a. Origin of the OaUloui Dn ... ... ... ... 90 

%S. FniionoftheTwotlMa... ... ... ... ... gc 


PxcrAoa ... ... ... ... ... ... ■'■ iit 



{ 1. JewUh Bsd Cbiiitian Oommnnitie• ... ... ... — 1 

} 2. Lockl Ohurohe•— ^ΐΜΧφΑΐ Diooeae• ... ... ... 11 

S a Ecclcaiutio&l PioTinoDB ... ... ... ... ... 13 

1 4. Patriarobate•— National Chnnibe• ,.. ... ... 28 



S I. The LitQ^y in PrimitlTe TiBtM ... ... ... ... 46 

S 2. The eyriaii Liturgy In the Fourth Century ... ... 55 

1 3. The Oriental Litnrgiee ... ... 64 

(1) Byrla, p. 63; (2) Meaopotanift and Penia, p. 6S: (S) 
Cnurea and Cmutantinople, p. Tl ; (4) Armenia, p. 78 
S 4. The AleiandriDe Litm^ ... ... ... ... 75 

(1) The Bnohalogum of Barapion, p. 70 ; (2) Later Litnrgie•, 
p. 79 

1 5. Later Hodlflcatiou ... ... ... ... ... 88 



} I. TheBomanandGallioAQtlM• ... ... ... ... 86 

{K. Origin of the OaUlcu Um ... ... ... ... 90 

fa Fnnonof theTwoOMi ... ... ... 96 





S 1. Bnildfngi oouteorated to CbrutUD Wonbip ... ... ... 899 

§2. Roman Dedicetion BitM ... ... ... ... 403 

} 3. Oallioan DedioatiODB .„ ,., ... ... ,., 407 



1 1. The ProfMBiOD of Virgini ... ... ... ... fig 

{2. The Bitei of the Vdatio Virginum ... ... ... ... 424 

(1) The Boman tTee, p. 434 ; (2) The OeUioAn Um, p. 423 








1. The BoDun OntiMM from the HumacHpt oT St. Anuuid ... ... 4SS 

2. The Bomftn Onto for the Three Day» hefare Euter ... ... 481 

3. The Dedication Bitiul in the 8aoraiiientar7orAiigoaUme ... 485 

4. The Dedication Bitnal aocOTding to the Dn of the Biihop of Meti 487 
9. Older of the Offloe• at Jenualein toward! the End of the Fonrth 

Centnr; ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 490 

β. The CanoDB of Hippolytni ... ... ... ... 524 

Two Nona BT Hob. DuCHOiTE... ... ... „. ... M2 

INDBX ... ... ... 54Π 




ecclesiastical aasa3. 

§ 1, — Jewish and Chbistias Communities. 

The ChiiatiaQ Church arose out of Judaism. It was at 
Jerusalein that the preaching of the Gospel liad its begin- 
ning, and it was through the medium of the Jewish com- 
munities of the Boman Empire that it reached the pagan 

These Jewish colonies dated back to the time of 
Alexaoder'a snccessors.' The Seleucid^e and the Ptolemies, 
who did so much to Hellenise the East, were not less 
successful in their efforts to force Judaism beyond its 
national limits. These two objeets were subsidiary to each 
other. The new towns which were springing np throughout 

* S«e MoauuMD, BBm. Ge»rAiMe, τοί. Τ. p. 1S9, fl teg. ; ScbOrer, e«»eh. 
dtt Jid. Yoikf, ToL iL p. 493. 


cuRiariAX woitanir: its oaiGts and evolctiok. 

the l^ast were in seed of nn increase of population to 
onsare their prosperity. Siooo the time of the Exilo the 
Jews had gn^ally inoreaeed in nttiiibeRi, iind ooloniste ooald 
reiulily h•: oliuiuetl from ainong»t iheru. Sevenil dyniutieB of 
Asiatic nilers — Assyriuis, Babylouiiuis, Mcdcs, and Puraians 
—bad already hod demonstrntioQ of the tractable nature of 
tho larulito*, of their diatncliDAtiou to play any port ia 
politics, and of llieir fceignod and passive loyalty to tbetr 
ooDqaeitns. Xo «ovvi-uigQ cuuld wish to have more faithful 
8ubject« provided li« wua ctircful that thctr ruligioiu customs 
sliould not be intorfunxl with. This was of vital iioportauce. 
Ilie Juws tntgbt Ui brought to live iu tlie midst of Greeks, 
to speak Greulc, aud uvuq to furj^ot Kubrow ; but to convert 
them to polytheism was u thing not to be thought of. 
Antioclius £piphaui>s, who atteuiptod it, oould not congratu- 
late himself on the success of his «udeovour. On the other 
band, apart from the (juestion of religious assimilation, it 
was impossible to make α Jew into α true Crook, α ritism 
of nn Hellenic town. This eonsUtutcd an obstacle to 
oolonisotion. but it was sormouated by onangicg that 
the Jewish colonists should not be introduced among 
the body of citi/ens, but assigned α privileged pocdtiou 
among those who were nou-citizcns. They possessed ao 
entirely separate adminieliative and judii^ial orgiuiieation, — 
a privilege not Miared, for instosoe, by tiie .Syrians of Autiodt 
or the Kg>'ptiiiii3 of Alexandria. Kich Jewish community 
rendered obedience to its own particular rulers, choseu from 
among its memben; it constituted α sort of sulKinliuate 
city, occnpying on inteimodiate position between the Hellenic 
dtj and the subject population. The religious scruples of 
the Jews were, moreover, respected by law ; they could not 
be compelled to break the Sabbath, as, for instance, by 
appearing in a court of justice, and they were exempt from 
oextatn burdens which were repugnant to them, such as 
railitarv service. 






It wu Dot only, however, into the cities of teccDl 
foondatioD Uwt Jewisli ootoniee were iuCrodaoed ; we find 
than, and that at «n early date, in tlio Ureek citiai of the 
^tgM" There again they played a part amongst the 
"inetromenta of gorernineDt " Reoordlng to Uie custom of 
the Maoedomao dynaeties. Into tJie midst of this netless 
popolation, etimd periodically by the remcmbnuine of their 
ancient freedom, the Jeve imported no element of order aixl 
loyalty to the eet«blish(9d rule. 

Once foonded, tlNae Jewtah ootouies doretoped mpidly, 
both by the natunl iDcraue of population, and tlie sponta- 
neons imaiigiation of tliuir foUow-countrymiin from Palestine, 
u vtH aa by |>rosel3rtism. Proeolytism was favoured at this 
pMtJcalar momimt by the decay of rulif;iou(i boUuf tliruughout 
tba wliole of 6ιβ<ΧΜλ Jewish idcae wltli regard to tbu 
dinnity. vna if they difitand widuly from the polytlicism 
of tfae people, wcru not opposed to thu UsnvU of tbu Gruek 
pbiloaophers, which liod spread lai-^ly among the oultivated 
olaese•. In that puriod of survility, tliu bntt^r spirits within 
the recently fotindod cities whuro the (^reek decadence 
waa nnba[^ity nlliod to the old corruption of the Eoat, 
might by η momi reaction bo attraotod towaida Judoiam, 
The Jew, morco^OT, far removed from Jerusalem and the 
Temple, displayed notliing narrow or exclusive in hie faith, 
and became readily disposed to making convorte. Many 
Jeviah books were iu circulaiiou, in most oaaee under fictitious 
names, setting forth monollieism and a pore worship. Alle- 
gory, boltlly employed, veiled those features of Hebi-ew 
history which might have offended tlie festhetic senne of the 
Greek, and presented them in such a philoaopliic fonn as 
fell in wiUi the fashion of the time, Philo of Alexandnii 
was the meet celebrated writer of this school. The principcU 
obstacle to this kind of propaganda was the difflonlty of con- 
Teraton without α change of nntjonality. IIowe\'er diluted 
the Judaism of Philo might be, it still remained a religion 


peculiar to α fOTeign nfttioa, and it vfos neceseaiy to become 
a Jew ID Older bo worship the god of the Jewish people. 
Oo the other haod, the <.ii«ek8 for some time [ia«t hai] 
combined η respect for the esternAla of worship with tlie 
greatest latitude of o^oioQ as to their eflicaey, and evoo u 
to the nature of the goda. Philosophical «peculation conld 
readily be porsned witliout abaodoiiiug the national religion. 
Such a state of thin^, however, waa not very favourable, on 
the whole, to the spread of Jewiah belief among ttie true 
Hellenic population. There ia ground Co think tliat the 
Jewish propaganda obtained ite chief euoceBS in anotbi-r 
dinjctiou. uamdy, among tboae subject peoples without borne 
or oountrj-, who wore legally incapable of citizenship, and for 
whom union with the Jowiab community meant a stop 
upwards politically, while at th« same time their iniUatJon 
into the worship of t!oi) meant α step upwards spiritually. 

However tbm muy Xm, it is certain tliul tltc Jewish 
communities ία tiie Kasl, as iilso in Greece, had attained α 
oonsidoruhic development by the time these oountiiee iraro 
tnnsferre*] to the Bomiin rule. The lioniaos accepted the 
situaUon and maintained uud aaf^uarded tlio privileges 
granted to the Jews by tlie Afiicedonian rulcn. Ttiis orga- 
nisation was part of tlio polilicul machinciy, and they were 
careful not to doettoy it. They pcfrained. however, from 
importing it into the West. There was no doubt a Jewish 
colony in Borne, and that at a fairly oarly date ; but it had 
no privilegod position. More Uian onoo — under Tiberius in 
A.D. 19, and under Clntidins in .\.D. 54 — it was broken op^ 
and ile meiiibera driven out of Italy. Rome, moreover, 
was at this period a semi-Greek city, and it was among its 
Greck-«peaking inhabitants that the Jews were to be found, 
a fact whicli is evidenced by the cxriusively Greek inscrip- 
tioos on tbeir tombs. The ilews never translated the 
Scriptures into Latin. The influx of tbeir nation into the 
West is posterior Co the early ages of Chriationity, 





S*fagaarded OQlvudl; by Uiotr privilegM, provided with 
■ reoognited oTgnnisnlion. the Jewish communities of Qreek- 
Bpeaking osuntriin wuro not Httiidifd to each other hy any 
extenul bond. Thtur coaaecliou with the political authontiea 
at Jenunlem was oevor manifeet, not ereu during the 
abort period in which the Maccabees made the Holy (Hty 
the capital of η «mall im1e)>endeut Idogdoin. But the Jews 
felt Ihenuolves to he closely imitt-d Lo^thm* hy the strongest 
ties, — hy a commou religion, luid hy λ kvun patriotic Feoliog, 
which, althou<;h aninfluence<.l for the moniuut hy nny polilicnl 
hopes, wa» still fostered by taysturioiu oepiiatious. Jvi-uiudttiu, 
wbftterer her temporal mlers might be, always ιυτηαΐβθΐΐ the 
ide•! cent», (he lodeetar of tho whole Jewish Dispersioo. 
The ties wbidt boond them to her weru tlie aitaual tribate 
of the half-ehekel, which evei'y Israelite ptiid to the Temple 
of the hcxtu, and the pilgrimage thither, which eveiy Jew 
had to make at least once in bin liretime. 

Id coatndl^tinction to the Holy City. Home osenmed in 
the Jewiih miud, before long, the position of inetropolia of 
the pagAo world The Greek kingdoms having passed away, 
and the ancient Greek cities having been reduced to iasigni- 
ficauce, it was to the Italian capital that the spii-it of Hel- 
leoisui turned. The opposition between these ceutrea soon 
maaifested it»e1f. From tlie time of the perseoutions of 
Ef^pbones onward, the Jewish nee had bceo swayed by lui 
nodetcommt of lialrod against Gnek pugaoiem — oguioet the 
whole Hellonistac spiril, iustiuitions, art. nud religion, Joru- 
aalom was tht eourou from whence this ondercutrent flowed. 
Here it was felt, and hero it woe proochvd, that tlicixi could 
be no Iruoo between the empire of fuieehooil and evil, which 
bom this time forward bad its throne in the great Babylon 
of the West, and the kingdom of God, which the Messiah 
was shortly to sot up in tbe Holy City of David. 

We know how tbceu h<^os wure fruslmted. An upon 
straggle at length broke unt under tho shadow of the Temple 



between cbe chief iwieete and the leaden of ibe fsDAtical 
maesee. The triumph of the Inttei: was soon expiitted by 
the deetruction of Jerusalem and ita wiuctunr;. AltempU 
at repriaalB under Tmjau. and again under Hadrian, vera 
promptly sD^^reesed. As u teeult of the» miafortunee, Ibo 
Jews of the Roma» Empire vta« dnveo into nn increaeing 
antogODiem to the world in wliicb ttiey liiul to live. Be- 
ci>Diin}{ duily more isolntMl. it duvolviKl on the Cluietioas bo 
condnct the projiaganda of monolbuam. The Jews stiU. doubb- 
leea, constitutud a uution, even more etiosgly characterised 
ibnn beforv, aud thuy still prcecrvi-d, even after Uie deatnio- 
tjon of tlie Temple, a centtv, somun-liat tliooretkal it ie true, 
in the Talmudic ecliool of thu TibtTind. But it soon becane 
eridont tlut the fntrnv, or at all evonle iliu immediate future, 
did not Itelong to them either in the sphuro of politics or in 
ibe domain of religion. 

Tluur former privileges weiu, uovertbelese, maintained, 
and in tliis particular thutr posiliou was a moch atjoiiger 
ODO than tbnt of the Christian commiuiilice which had 
separeted &om tliem. 

This aepamtion was the fonndation of the Church. It ia 
not ray aim to write here the luetory of tho hcginninga of 
Christiauity. The genenU facts are well kuovn. TheapostUe 
of Cliriat, aa soon aa they arrived in a locality, placed them- 
selves in oommnnicatioD witti the Jewish community, preached 
in their aynagogne, and aet forth the object of their miaston. 
It does not appear that they ever were completely anccessful, 
and that the entire Jewish colony in any place accepted the 
Uoepel. Ill most cases, aiter having recruited a certuin 
number of adheruiite, they and their tlisciplea were excom- 
mnnioated by the elders of the synagogue. They then 
founded a fresh group, acbismatical in relation to the older 
one, with ita aepatato meetings and with a distinctive 
s^nU doctiine, and government Tliia was the origin of 




the locttl CbriBtum cwmintuiiLiua, ihe bugtnuing of the body 
of tbfi laitbful — iu λ void, tlio Churcb of Josue Clihst. 

OeUuhed ooe after anothur from iliu Joniah com- 
miuiiUee, aod repidly iucroasud by ua uctivo propaganda 
uaaag tbe pagao popalntioo, tho Cbmliitn Cliuruhiie soon 
roaliseil that tJiey wero ooited togoUier bjr α vommou fouling 
of tutii, hope, and cbnriby. The mora thoy epratul and io- 
creaaect in atrongtlt. Uie eCrongor Uiw foelisg ruvualed iteelf. 
It wus a DOW roligioiLi brotherhood, a loftier ami nioni 
ideal aatiooali^ looking for ite realisation to the near futnru. 
Altlioogh on tho earth, and in tho world of reality, ita 
MpauaioD waa sot that of a race, iior ite oetabliebueut a 
national ooe. for it had no local roUgioiie cuuu« iineworing 
to JanwJom and ila Tomplo. It ia true thul ihie latter 
featara, which Rccontuitt^Ml μ strongly the dillvnuioe 
betWNQ Jew and Chhstian, was aoou to disappear. The 
tnompli of Titus iDonwed for α moment the reeemblanoe 
betWMO tlwM two reUgioua oatioos, both living io the 
bean of tho Empire, and on eoversl points in opposition 

Any reaemblanoo and reUuonship between thum waa 
toUur tiie tueemblanoe and relationship of two hostile 
biothen. Tho question of privilegee made this apparent 
iiota the outset. Thu Jewish commuoitjee were rocoguiaodi 
the Christian communities wtiro not. Their exiateacc was 
in ooDtrodiction to the law, cuid tbiiir development 800D Come 
to be cmteideied wholly incompatible with the constitutioD, 
and βτυη with tho spirit, of the Empire. Heocu the state of 
iaeecnhty, und at ttmee, of terror, iu which tho Chiijtuuis 

lived until tbu rui^ of Coostoutine. 

Η lived I] 

^m I have hud empbaaia on Cbe historical tie which oonnectod 

Η Ihe first Christian Chm-clice with the Jewish communitici 

■ fcottcnd over the Greek-speaking world, because so close a 

Η relationship could not fail to be an inipnrtiint foctur in 


cHBisTiAS woKsan•: ITS OBiGis ASD Evoumos. 

determiDing the organisation of ecclosiafiUcal government, 
and the form of public worahip. 

Thu ChrUlian Churches appear before ns in Ihe earliest 
documents μ having ονντ Uiem a hiumrcby of two or thnw 
gr&doe. The lowrat gt«do is that of the minieleis, or ecrving 
bretbren, to whom vere entrusted tempornl matten, and who 
exercised tlie lower functions of divine worship. These were 
the deaoona. Above them were the " elders," jmAyten, prieete, 
or the "inspectors," episatpi, bishops. It ifi clear that in 
early times the iise made of these terms was variable, as were 
also the fnnctions assigned to the persons they designated. At 
any rate, it is certain that the priests or biehope who directed 
u local commonity, recognised Ua apostles, of whatuTor 
order, as possessed of superior aalhority, and as tJte foondcn 
and epirittial m.'iators not only of an isolated Christian body, 
but either of all Christian bodies genei-ally, or of those of 
particular regions. Aa Hieee great leaders gradually passed 
awny, a definitive hierarchy made its appearance. In each 
town, all the Christians and all their directors, prt^nteri, 
^iicopi, were ranged under a chief bishop, to whom this name 
of bishop was shortly after exclusively applied. Around 
him, and constituting with him a ooUoge, were his prieal•• 
coonaeUora; beneath them the deacons, who in their func• 
lions, already beeomo varied and numerous, were not long 
afler assisted by a whole staGT of inferior ministers. 

The question has been raised how fur all this organisation 
grew out of that of the Jewish communities. It appears to 
me to have had ile ori^n above all in the nature of tbiugs. 
It is indued diiBcult to imagine a community of the sort 
that we are dealing with, without a council, α stofl' of working 
functionaries, aiHl a head able to oot and direct.' This was 
the hierarchy beqoeathed by tlie apostle•, in the dawn of 

< TbI• \* «D ηνταίιαΐ rlcment in tlic cuutitulion at ooqMTStkin•, μ 
dcfliMd bjr itomui Lo«. Di^., Ul.. 4, 1. 



ChrtaUaalty. to thu Cliurcli of .Jeruealem, (M tint in point of 
time οΓ nil Chhsliao Chnrehee, and the most ftvounbly 
p1sc«d in those early days to serre as a modvl. IVom 
litis period tlie quosuon under discussion losee mncli οΓ iu 
inteiMt. It is one, moreover, somewhat difficult to treat 
wiih any d^roe of procision, owing to the paucity of tha 
iitfannatio& vt possess with regard to the orgoDisation of the 
Jewufa oommuoitioe of the Dispersion. The condition of these 
differed widely. In some instances, where the Jewish popu- 
lation WQS considerable, several sjoiagogues were to ho found 
in ODO «ltd the same town, although the Hebrew i-ommunity 
as a whole was under a single ruler. This waa tlie case at 
Aleuodria, whore the Jews were under the direction of Iheb• 
£rAttarcA. Al Smyrna, an iuscription ' mentions " the nntion 
of the Jews ; " but it does not stale whether there al£o they had 
an otlmarch or some similar magistrate. If from thu orguai- 
aotioD of communities regarded as national bodies we pass 
to that of the aynagogues, which in many cases must have 
served both putpoeee, the infoimntion ir ttlitl more nnctrUkin. 
The Uoepela and the Acts of the Apostles freqaeuUy mako 
mentioa of the ruten of the s>'nngogue ; but the ioformation 
is tnroty definite enough to enable ns to determine whether 
wch ijDsgoguu had one or scvem] mien. When they do 
ticeptionally give us the distinct information we require, it 
is not of sudi a chanctvr ns to enable us to infer the exist• 
eoce of a single and nniveraolly recognised tj-pa In the 
diitiict of Galilee, where the raising of Jairos's daughter took 
place, there were aeveral " rolers of the synagogue." * In 
the locality where the woman with the spirit of infirmity 
was healed ' tlnre waa only one. The same want of uniformity 

■ 11 dnli aith the taftiiPnl ^ η llB^ Id a cue of tlio Tlolstlon of ■ 
tifMfcftoce. τψ ffr«> T£r 'lovlafw. Tbl• lnKriptlnn h» leoB piibUibod 
br U. eUunwa BeiMdi in tbu Ume Ja £tud- Jntrr.. Wi&. jl lul. 

* Uwk V. Ct 

' LiuiQnU.ID.ll. 


is raanifeeted beyond the limite of Palestine : at Antiocli in 
Pindi* then; am several "rulers of the eynugogue;" ai 
UoriDtli. A Btngl» one' This divci^ity in Jowish ctietoma 
may potaibly have contiibat«d to produou that looecoeee in 
the uec of tcnns. or in thu ttctual diffenncee, vhicli meet iis 
in the curliest Christian doGumente when they come to epouk 
of the hierarchy of thutr nevrly foundttl Churche&^ The real 
diiTerences may have been very great ; tbe primitii-o Clinrches 
were not all iafltionoed to the tame extent by the ChtisliaB 
social ideal. At Jei-iisalein tbey went bo far ae lo recognise 
the commimity of poeecssions; but as a gonenil rule ihcy 
stopped α long way short of tlus. 

The iiutiUition of thu Sntn, m the same Church, served 
later on as a support for the tradition that Uie number of 
deacooa shoald not exceed that lignni. In other Cburohee, 
where the duties to be peifonncd were of u leas complex 
Datnre, tbe number of the officials, μ far as svrving broUiren 
were OQOoemad. was more lesu-icted. Tliore was α similar 
dan of persons employed in the eynagogue ; they ore 
designated in the Uoepd «imply as vwnpirm (aervitors). 

In abort, whether fhnn iisitAtion of the syno^i^ue. or 
simply from tl» exigencies common to any community, the 
first Christians soon apinurcd ci;ii)ppe<I with a hitirarchy of 
three grades. This hierarchy derived its powera directly or 
indimetlj bom the apostlos themsoIvM. As a rule, the 
oommonity chooa ibc iiKlivtdual, but tbe ioveetiture was 
tnade wtfaer by tiie loial ltii^ui>, or, when this otTiou ileelf 
wu in (|U6atioa, by die sntMrtor ecclea i asU o a l uuthohi)' 
nqffffwuft^'^ die sucnesston of thu apostles. 


Λ.-1* lOS P. i'?J t IT 

I..' tnak, Or^giu 
rd loiL 


to the Cbristiao Cburcfa. It ie a mistake to suppose villi sotDe 
UiaC the documents of the fourth and fifth centuries Λβοτά 
ground for belief tbnt tbc buhop bad it shore in tlio govom- 
inent of the city. It is not only impossible to demonstrate, 
but obsoluttilf incompatible with the ecclcatastical law of 
the period with which we are dealing, that the dorgy were 
identified with iho curia, and that the bishop, under the liUo 
of df/cMor eicitaiis, took his place among the municipal 
mBgietrates. There ίβ not any doubt that moral influence 
may have made iteelf felt, and that in the fourth and fifth 
oentoiiee the religious rulers may indirectly have played a 
part in the government of the towna. But both in theory 
aod practice the Church and the city, the clargy and tho 
curia, the bishop and ibo municipal magistrates, continued 
to keep tho limita of their respective domaioe distinct. 

In one respect only, and that an important one, the 
administrative organisation of the Empire exercised a 
real inQuBDce on the development of eccleeiastical insti- 
tutions. I refer to the areas of jurisdiction, municipal, 
pTOirincial, or otherwise. 

At the outset no question had been raised with regard to 
local limits, llie Jewish colonies were always confined to tho 
towns, and this was also the case with regard to the early 
Christian communities. Aa Christianity spread into tiic 
smaller lowiu and the country districts, it became neceseaiy 
to know where the territory of each Church began and where 
it ended. The cities of tho Empire, with their territories 
clearly marked out by the census, hero presented limits 
already defined, sgunst which no reason of a religious nature 
could be raised. It was admilU»! generally that each city 
shonid have ita own bishop, and that its population should con- 
Btitate Λ Church by itself. These areas, it is true, were very 
onequal. In some countries they were really piOviucos, as, 
for instance, Poitiers, Bourgcs, sjid many others in Gnul. I» 
Africa, on the other hand, in Southern Italy, and in Weaturn 


Asia Minor, the towne, situated close to one another, had 
merely a narrow ring of Buburbs. There were conntriea also 
like Cappadocia, into which municipal inetitutiona were not 
introduced till a very late date, while in Egypt they were 
almost unknown. Such provinces were otherwise eubdivided, 
nomes or strategiac forming the componente.' 

£lsewhere, there existed, among the metropolitan areas, 
immense domain lands, njUliits dvitatis, the rural popnlation 
of which was ruled by procurators holding office directly 
under the provincial governors. The city limit was, 
however, the general rule, and the bishop's jurisdiction 
was co-extensive with the city, or some equivalent area, 
in nearly every instance duriug the fourth century and 

$ 3. — Ecclesiastical Provikcbs. 

But tiiere were other ties between Christians besides 
those which bound together the members of a single Church 
within the territory of any one city. From tixe outset, 
Christiaoa of all countries, no matter of what race or of what 
oondUion, had recognised one another as brethren. Apart 
from the ties arisiDg from a common faith and hope, apart 
firom the continuous relations established by charity, of 
which we have evidence in the early pages of Christian 
literature, there was at the b^inning the perpetual intercourse 
of apostles, missionaries, prophets, and doctors,' who were 

* I do not metui to infer tlut there were bieliops of notnoa, of tlra- 
ttfiae, ot of «olhM. A ■peeial itady of thcflo partiCDlar οιχκβ ho* not 
yet be«n tDhaa, mud this U not tbe piece to put forward wbat I have 
beeo kUe to gstber on tho subject Id the way of texts, otacrmliotia. and 

* AietDn it a very Doapreheiitive word. 1 um it in tbe acceptation of 

14 CHRISTIAN woRsatP: ITS oitiaiN ASD κνοι,νποκ. 

not attocliud iu iJteii- laitiistry to any fixed locality, bnt who 
came and went tmm oiie ChristtiLii body to nnother, moving 
in »11 diruotioDS, either to ctjry the Gospel into reigions 
whitlier it bad cot yet penetrated, or to enconngo, instruct, 
and defend struggling infant communitiee. 

At the cloee of the lirst epoch, when once all thie itinerant, 
unattached, minietry had {Mseed anay, there remained nothing 
but the local eoclemastical organienltonA. It was to thesu 
organisations that the hierarchical exprosuos of tlic unity 
of the Church, and at the same timu the ρτονΪΑΪοηβ for it» 
tecnmenical and provincial govemnient, wero to ove ihtiir 
respeotire oiigins. 

Jentsolem bad ceased to exist except u a memory. After 
the deetructioQ of the city imder Titus, a email body of 
Christians were able to ru-establisli themselves there, but 
thoy lenudaed for & long time obscure and unimportaut. 
It was evident tliat the Holy City was not destined to 
become the metropolis of Christendom. It devolved on 
the great Babylon of the West, against whom the Jewish 
propbete had hailed so many imprecations, to take her 

Although situated on the confines and even beyond the 
limits of the Gretik world, Home was, neverthelees, the centre 
to which that world wae gravitating. I-'iOm the moment that 
Christianity sought to embrace the whole Orbis Jtunutniii*, no 
other capital was possiblu. Ποιαβ was, moreover, us it wunj, 
ooosecrated by the preaching and the martyrdom of the 
two grealuat apostlue. Xhu romeml»iuice of them wiu still 
fresh. The other uud!iii.iuary apostles, with the exception of 
St. John, had disappeaitiLl, U-iiving but u vaguu memory behind 
them. In the absence of otltur (ban very flvuting traditiDBs 
concerning them, it was all ibu mate natural fur tlicm to 

the Oitek lenn tiUfum^t*. wLfob would peAsp• bn bwl nmdonnl by 



bticonie the anbject of legend. Itome, the capital of tbe Empire, 
the see of St. Peter, a plftco hallowed by the apostlee, became 
tbe anconteeted mebopolis of the Church. Tbe Euteme 
tbeneelTes. in spite of the long et^Jonm in their midst of the 
Apoetle Joha, recognised the feet withoai railing any obstacle. 
At the end of tlie first centnry, tbe Roman Church, by the 
mouthjiiece of Clement, intervened with imposing authority 
in the iDtemal oonflicts of tbe Church of Corinth, which was, 
bowerer. equally of apontolic foundation. Hernias, shortly 
after, wrote bis P<uior for all the (Marches ; and Icnatiu.•», the 
Martyr Biahopof Antiooh, call» attention to th« pre-eminence 
of the Church of Rome. In the second century the whole 
of Chrietendom flocked thither — heretical doctors, orthodox 
traveller, apologists, bishops, inhabitants of Asia ϊίϊοοΓ, 
Syrians, people from Pontua, Palestine, and Egypt. Rome 
was, in short, the visible centre of all Chriatian activity, 
whether CiUhoUc or heterodox. The great capitals, Carthage, 
AlnzaQdria, Antiocli. which played on important port here• 
«Iter, bad not yet riseu to any prominence. The Roman 
pievioce of Asia alone counts for something ; but itR claim.s 
to importance were only secondary, as the conflict at the 
end of the second centnry with regard to the keeping trf" 
Easter clearly demonstrated. 

This hierarchical pre-eminence, this general direcUoo 
which had its seat at Rome, wa.•), however, exercised without 
any thought of organising a special .itaff of officials. It was 
with tbe aid of the priests, deacons, and secretaries (notarix) 
of his Church, that tbe Itishop of Rome dealt with the affairs 
that came before him, or attended to the temporal and spiritual 
Deeds of the Churches wliich he devmed it incumbent ou turn 
to assist. 

Among the latter, tbe communities of SontlierQ Italy, 
already very numerous in the third oentnry,' were bound by 

Kiuclnixi. tt<a. KeuIi*.. η 4» 


closo ties to Roiae, fVom wbtcli, oviduolly, tboy bad received 
their first apoBtl«s and Uiuir orgaoisauon. MutropoUa of all 
ChiieUDdom, Itomu was y^t tJiu' cuutre of vhat nii^t even 
tb«D be colltKl α proviudul govunuauDt^ «Of an ucclesiuttad 

Simibir relAtioDs hnd been esUblisbed. sad for unklogone 
reiuoue. in other coimtrics oroand ooTtain largo towns. 
Outhagv. for example, was always regarded «β the centre 
of Africitu ClirUtianity, both u regards eraogelisatioQ and 
organisatiOD. As early aa the b«^ianiiig of the third 
oentury. it» bishop had become a primate, <»* a patriarch.* 
It was the eaiue at Alexandria, ami in a leaser degree at 
Antioch, the oldest of the Christian communities in the 
Qreek world, and the centre of the earlieeb miasiuna ta 
Kortbem Syria, Cyprus, Asia Miuor. Meaopotamin, and 
Persia. In Asia the missionary centres were more numeronn. 
Mid authority was more conflicting, owing to tlie presence 
of 80 many celebrated citiea, between whom a rivalry had 
exiated from fabulous limes. Kpbesus ue%'er enjoyed more 
tban a primacy of honour over Smyrna, Saidis, I'ergamos, 
and the other Churcbos of this region. 

Tbeee relations between motlier and daughter com- 
tnunities may bo taken into conaideralion in themselves, 
wiUkont regard to iha internal development of their 
orgaDUiation. We have seen- bow, in the earltesb Cbria• 
tian bodies, the single episcopate appears aa the final 
stage of an hierarchical evolution of varying duration. 
Befote this final stage hod been reached, α body of 
CSuietiaos might already Iiave evangelised its immediate 
and even rotuute neighbourhood, and formed ctJonies 
which went bound to her as to their Mother Church. 

I Tbi* loc«l authority, bowetor, wm nl tlut Umi> Itm fell in Atnc* limit 
11m liiRlinr nuthorily ^f ttiD iBoouin L^urob. Tbii ia particulnrif Kcn In 
ibc «tltliiKi of TvrtolluiL 



Tberu was thus a metropolis withoat as yet a nietro- 
ptdiUa. &uoh was Uie case, for eiample, in Uio Cbnroh 
ai Astioch. 

When socb inter-rulations were represented by the 
episoopBte witb ite hienrchical stati'. Uiusu are found u> 
correepond vith tolerable exoctBess to certain institutions 
of the Empire. Wo may comparo the Biebope of Cuthoge, 
Alexandria, and Antioub to the Ptuoonsul of Africa, to the 
Prefect of Egypt, and to tlio Legate of Syria njepcctivcly. 
but it is certain that ttieru vras no imitation intended. 
The forma of civil govenunout in question uroeo oat of 
gQOgnk[diicel exigencies and from curtain historical relations 
resuItiBg (ram tlioeo exigencies. It was the samo unth tlie 
CSmstiao primacies. The Bishop of Carthsge bucame thu 
chief of the A&ican btsbops, because it was fram the Church 
of Carthage that the founders of the Churcht^s of Africa hati 
gone forth, and their suirting out from that city was con- 
diUoned by the geogiapbicul disposition of the country which 
had nuulu Carthage a natural centre. The same may be 
said of other natural metropolitan sees, which ore the tuoet 
ancient of all. 

Beyond this, howevei', there i.^ no I'artlier reeemblanoe, 
daring the period anterior to tbe end of the third centory, 
between the areas of the metropoliteu sees of the Church 
and the provincial divisions of the Kmpire. What 
httle we know of the couueils held in those early times 
is sufficient to prove that there woa no attempt to 
gnntp tbe Churches aix»rding to the divisions of the civil 

These coancile, the earliest of which date back to the 
later years of tlie second ceuturj', constitute α very ro• 
tuarkable revelation of ucclesiosticnl inter4Uoc<iean relations. 
At the time that TenuIHaii wrote his Ve Jtjnniis (clr. 230) 
iJiey were unknown in Africa ; iu the Grcek-epeakiug coun- 
iriM, on the contmry, they were alrvady an established 

18 €ΒΕΐ8ΠΑ.ν woBamr: its okigis and BVOUniON. 

institution.' Veiy ehortly iifterwards we find the Bishope of 
Outhage— Agiippinue, uonatus, Cypn&Q — gathering urouDcl 
them t))0 buhope of all the African provinoo». Maurituois, 
in the time of St. CyprioD, wu not under the Proconeol of 
Carthage, und it is now known that Nuinidia, although 
bound to Africa by certain tics, u. for iostaace, by α 
common Udo of provincial cuslom-houeos, bad neverthelBsa 
ίΐβ own govomor. Ια spite of thin, wc noo the bishope 
of on tko African provinces ranging themaelvee mund 
the liishop of Conhago without our being able as yob 
to distiuguieb any othor distribution. The priawtee of 
Knmidia, for ioelaDfe, woro aot instituted until a later 

In £gypt> where there is do record of councils being 
liold up to Lbie period, the Bishop of Alexaodiia i&leiv 
vvocd not only in the aflairs of the ChuicbaB of hie own 
{•rovince,' but also in thoee of the Libyan Fentaiwlis, 
which at this time was under the administraLion of the 
island of Crete.' 

In Syria, towards the dose of Uie second century, a 
council held there to deal with the Easier controTersy, 
brought together the Bishops of Obcswku, i'Klia, iHolemais, 
Tyre, and others whose soue ore uot kuown to as.* Now, 
Tyre and I'tolemais belonged al that time to the pronnce of 
Syria (though aliortly after to the new province of rhtenicia), 
while jVlia, and Cieeftrea were in the province of I'alestine. 
This grouping, therefore, was not in any way oouditioned 
by the distribution of the provinces. It was purely 

■ "Agnntur .pot Oraocia• ItU «crU» ίο kicie «rmcllia «x Biiivcnut 
n^MMl^ pe 4βΜ Ct kltiiim <]Qiicquo In cniuiDiuio trnctAnliir ct ipw 
WjlllMinUWi taUiw nMnlob nlmMiiuii arngm, veiMroUoiiu oeblutut." 
—DtJfJHuiii, 13. 

' Fur cxnaplc, nt Andnoc (Eniebiiu. ffiiL HmL•*^ liL S4). 

• h^awiMu*. Ubt. J£Wn..TlL Cft 
JbU^ V. 23. W. 



geogn|>hio«Li The buhops of iho sovtbecn slopw of tbe 
Z^ebuoo vere Dcaror to Onsana Uuui to jVntiocU; the^ 
Uierafote weal to Ctotaio•. Il is uUo uotUtMble tliet in 
their synodul letter, of wliich Eusebiae has preMivod a 
fngmenl, they state thnt tbey ore in tho linbit of referring 
to the Biihott of Aloxaodri* for Gxin;; thu dalu for keeping 
Eajter. Tlioro is do tiaoe of any relations with tbe 
metropaliun am of Syria. 

This Βββ,υη tho other baDd,oxtOQtI«J ite iiiflimnw heyond 
the boondones of the province of Syria. Towurds tlio end 
of the wcood ocntory wo find Suiapiou, Bubop of Anliocb, 
exercuiag hia piwtoral autlwrity ut Kbuwioe,* a town .siloated 
in Cilioia. According to the Lmditibo of tltu Chun^h of 
EdeMa,' Uite aamc Siuupion Iiad Drduiood lluoutb, third 
oixrapanl of the MeeO|>otaniian eve. lu Uie time of 
Sarapion ontl I'alouth, bowvvor, lliu town of iuless» hud 
not yot lujcoiiio part uf the Botuaii Empii^e. 

tn Aaia Minor, about tho middle of Lbo third ceuUiry, w« 
fiod a Council at Iconiuni, at which bishops of wholly nn- 
inocltiil provio(Ms>~Cappiidocia, Galatiu, C'ilicia, and olbunt 
I gathend together.' 

Wo han,on the «bole, as yet^ no traces of a tendency to 
ihapo the eccleeiastical on the model of tlte civil provincoe. 
But there is hero and there a local ecclesiastical grouping 
cither ozound the natural inetntpolitAn »eee or into re^tooal 
oouncila embracing mi:>re or leae esteneive areas, according 
to circomstencee.* 

• Bnwlii». au. &tin., Ti. 13. (OmT. Aieua^Ts.] 

' Tlii• (nditioa I• pcMtrvnl In tli• DvMna J-Umi. μ mU u 
In di« Beta oT St Banunua (TUirgnl, In Origitw lU F^im ^Kltft, 

' ^^Tff-• fy-. In*- 7. leDnlom Mid Ljaiaiiiii (hen rorni'd put ot lbo 
ριτηΓίΜβ ci Cilicia. i^ Bmtteii» Jr oorrM/i. ΒίΜ•••ια-, vol. tiL y. 2tltt: 
ToL χι p. 311. 

• II hm bMB ofUn ewM of kU tbu Uiv ChriAliiB lllenuchjr o{ IiUliup• 
■ad Mttnpollluu ow«d it• origin to the Hkt&rrliy of tlia iitunicii«l iu»l 


Under tlie latter onlegory, meatioD must be made of 
Antioob as one of snch cenlree from tlie raiddle of the third 
century oowardfl. Ou varioue occaaions we find the bishope 
of all Syria gatliered together there, «s veil as thoee of 
EaetoFD Asia Minor, wtiicb shortly after wiu to become the 
diooeee of Pontiis. As early as the year 251 we find mention 
of a synod, vhich niost hare be«n held at Antioch, on 
account of Fabiuet, biahop of that place, appearing to favour 
KovatiaQiem. Tlie promoters of this conncLl were ibu 
Biehops of Taraue, Ciesarea in Γαΐββΰηβ, and Caaetueu iu 
Cappadooia.* A few year» later, in 2&6, Dionysius of Alex- 
andria,' in onumeraling tlie Churuhoe of the East which had 
been disturbed by this conflict, mentions tboee of Antioch, 
Cic«ftr<iB in Paleetine, >Elia (Jerusalem), Tyro, Laodicca in 
Syria, Tarsus, and Cteearea in ('nppadocia. Subsequently, 
ΐητη 264 to '2(ι6, the case of Paul of Samoeata necessitated 
the meeting of seveml bUhope at Antioch in the intereeta of 
that Church. On each occasion they come from the same 
provinces, from Pontua Poleraoniacna (NeooBsarea) and 
LyCBonia (Iconium) from as far as Arabia (lloslra) and Pales- 
tine (Cffisarea, /Klia). Immediately after the penecution of 
Galerius and Maximiannn, a celebrated council was held 
at Ancyra, presided over by the Bishop of Antioch, at 
which some fifteen bishops from the same countries 
were again present ; this time, however, the provinces 
of Galatio, Bithynin, Pbrygia, and Pampbylia are repre- 

{nwlncbd Prltatliood of name in Dm time of An^ttiu. It (i dilBeiill to 
inaffine a mm orroooooa Idok. ur «ne more ul τητΐπα»', tnth irtib ΰιυ 
dueamrat• and Die niituro of llio luaUtulioni tliui cniiii«rv<l. Tiiam vim 
or^builed nch a *in((iili)r notion liaTc nllmrixl tlicniurjve• Ut be mi«l«(l 
1>y Ml naytj rCKinbliuicc. The; Iuito, ηαηαητ, mtniavd fmia prodocins 
nnj proof•, lunl linvo nut «tmllnl the qneallon MTluiuly, WIil'd con- 
TroDlid vith tarh D gistDitoiu ■UlcmcnC I ciuiniit do noiw liero tliui 
cbHrltobly )>oliit out tlie fniitlcaRicu of tlicir too uft rcpMitvd Una οι 

■ Kuwbfiu, ΠΰΙ Kcrhi.. vl 46. 

■ IM., vU. 5. 

tccixaixsTK/j. juceas. 


eeoted, bat Asia, property so called, stdll remnined outside 

Ttw sees abore meoUoDcd form, u it were, the nucleus 
of vhai was called id tlio fourth coDturj the Episcopate of 
tbe Orienl, which vta perpetuiJly engaged ία ooofliot about 
certain individuals and formnlartoe vitli llie Lueho]» of the 
Weet «od of Eg}!•!. The doeignation wliicb it bore was 
derived from its ondtepnted primate, tlie liisliop of Auliocli 
—that great city at this time the capital of tbe immense 
dioooM of the Orient, tbe residence of tbe Coma Orientis, and 
liBoe the time of Constantiiis, of tbe Emperor of the East 
h'Tt*^^ Shortly before this Nicomedia bad been the Imperial 
raddence, aad, tboogh ConBtantine was occupied in planning 
a gnat future for his new Borne, the time had not yet oome 
for its teolisation. Up to the reign of Theodosiue, Antioch 
romaiood Queen of the Ease, tbe centre to wbicb the Greek 
Empire and its chief ecclesiastical metropolis gravitated, 
tbe uideDt Churohee of Asia and the CbrLitinn communities 
tA the diocese of Thmcia being drawn within ita oirolo of 
influence. Alexandria reiusted ite attraction. The opposi- 
tion shown by Atbanasius to the counciLe of the East was 
wumdy supported by the Egyptians. Ttieir hatred to Syria 
dated back from the very earliest titnea. Tlie Egyptiaiii 
hod been fonnerly placed undur tbo rule of the Cornea 
Oritniit, and α dignitary of no lower rank bad now to be 
granled tu tticia, and hence the prefect Augiutul made hie 
i|ipeanuu;u there under Theodosius. Au attempt was omde 
to impose upon thuin bishups from Antiocli orduinvil by the 
metropolitan of that city, but they obstinately rvfused to 
reoogniM them, and ut leuglb succeeded in this point also, 
in spite of all Impi-rial insistence. 

Ilieee oonsidentiona have carried us somewhat boyond tbe 
third century, but lliey may servo to sbow that thu further 
Christianity spread tbe more ite limits were couditiooed by 


the same geograpliical and historical infiuencee wbicli bad 
determtsed tboee t^ the Empire. Somo assimilatioD between 
tbe tvo vaa Uierefore inevitable. In tbe East this took 
place much sooner thno in ibc Woat> on aocouul of Uw vuet 
ηαπΜτίί'α] superiority of the Orieotftl Clmstiuofl over tboee of 
lb« latter. At tbe Council of Niisea,* tbe classification of 
bishope Acooiding to provinoea and their subordinntion to tbe 
bishop of the cinl metropolis irere already accomplished 
facts. This arrangement was the basis for legislation in 
tbo matter of onlinations and with rugird to eodesiastical 
jiirisdictioa, hh well aa for regulating certain special caeca. 
Tbe provinces with which tho Council hod to do were tiiOM 
of the time, riz. thoee that Diodctian bad formed out of 
tlie older provinoee.' Eccleaiaaticol provinces were not iu- 
etitiited by the Council of Nictea, for they were in existence 
previously in the tlast. There was nothing as yet corre- 
spouding to them in ibe West, except perhaps is A&ic•, 
where the btsliops of the province of Numidia bad poeeeesed 
a aenior or primate of their o\ra from the time of Diocletian 
and MuxeDtiits onwards." But all the pro\'incea of Africa 
had not arrived at this stage, That, of Mauritania Sitifonais 
remiuned incorporated u'itb Nnmidia until tbe Council of 
Hippo held in 393.* These African primates, moreover, 
must be dUtingnished irom metropolitans, properly speak- 
ing. Tliere was no ecdeaiostical metropolis in Africa, unless 
nt (.Wthage. The provindul primate was simply the senior 
of the bifibopa of tbe province, wherever liis see might he. 
It is possible that in Spain tJiere was some ot^anisation of 

• Ctiuni4J7. 

* 8m HomlDMn. ΜΛηοΙη μιγ InproHit 

I TtmaivH. (mn«. b; PienI, 'PuIm. 

Pblier. 18β7(ΐκιιη lhi< ICrrm. Arfhtalogt^t» til Ι8β(ΐ}: JoHIaii. JV h r^fetmi 
pivriwiah (iHrAtitft <1 Dia^Mm, in the iUfw BiOnfiqva. vnl. lii. (ΙβίΙϊ)\. 

* Tlir• mny lid E«tborfd ftvm I1u> dnoiinifiiM iImIui)- «itii Uic oritpo ef 
Ikp Ikiiinilft HvUImb. 

• CW. mh. tMrtttU! Afr.. c. 17. 


this kind. Λ somewhat obscure exjnOssion iu tho docreeB 
of tb• CooDcil of ElriiB gives coloor to thie oonjoctore.' 
Sbewtiera^ tbrouglioTtt llto whole of the West, up to the 
Dtnnb• and tbo Adriatic, no traw oxist» of eooleeiaetical 
divisions soccnling to provinocs or of meUvpolitan joriadic- 
tion in the Eostvni eenso of the word. 

The Council of Nicto* made spedid provision in ita sixth 
auHU for oertuQ cuw which did not fall in with provincial 
dtstnbutio». Tito chief oxooption was that of the Bishop of 
AlcEUidria, who wis ncaredilod with powets to settle all 
epcledaetiotl aiGiira, especially ordioatiou», throughout tho 
whole of Egypt end in the two Libyan pravincee. In 
support of this oxoeption, tite example of the Bishop of 
Boma was cited, who also exercised jurisdiction over a largo 
Bumber of Churches without the mediation of metro- 
politans. It is not stated precisely wtiat were tbo privileges 
granted in the cam of tho Bishop of Aotioch, but bis case 
was specially considered. The council αίβο mentions other 
exceptiuns without indicating ttiem by oamo. It ia poesiblu 
that thcae were in Western Christendom, where, indeed, 
oUutr usi^es obtained. Moreover, tlie Council of Nicien. lilio 
all SuterD eonncils, even when tliey were (ixumfuical. 
ΙιοφύαίΛά mainly for the Ka-tt, and took but little hoed of 
what was passing in tlie West. 

) 4.— Patriarchates— National Churches, 

Tbu organisation by provinces \>y no means represents 
^tho limit of approxiouition which bod been established in 

I US: llaratt lUfUr ft mnxftw tn m Inn) I» quo jirfmn wthnlru 

tiwdamL It U uot ccttniQ lliat yriau oulAnini tpitaijintni tlui-• nol lutui 
■|)1; Ih• «filacoptit cliDir. in lymtnullalllHtllou to tlio jil/br• or parfalrt• 
1 la lb• towM or TiUegn, 

24 CIIBtSTIAN WOBSmP: ΓΤβ ORIGtS ΑϊΠ) Kvoi.tmoy. 

the £α81 bolwwu eodusiAslicftl and civil jumdiclion. Orer 
the governors ctf provincfis Diocletiui lud established nileis of 
diooeses, or vicars. Id the eastern division of IbeKmpirettieee 
dtooeses were at fitat four in number — those of the Oiient, of 
PoDltie, of Asia, and of Tbmce. About the time of Tbeo- 
doeios, this number was increased to five by the creation of 
the diocese of Egypt, taken oat of the jtuudictioQ of the 
Coma Orimtie. At the Council of Constantinople in 381, 
those five dtocoeos wurc adopted as buses for an ocolosiaetical 
juriediction superior to ttiat of tho metiOpolituus and pro- 
vincial councils. 

This superior jurisdiclion was assigned, in tho diocese of 
Pontue, to the Bishop of Cieeaiea in Cappadooia, and in 
the diocese of Asia, to tlie Bishop of E^dieeus. Ια the 
diooeee of Thrace, Constantinople, thenceforward the Im• 
penal restdonov, ^avo the title to the see. But tho bishops 
of the Eastern capital were not content to remain Iont> the 
ecclcsiasticul rulers of one <lioccee only. Tlio Council of 381 
ha«l given thL^ni precedenoe of the whole upiscopato, after 
the Bishop of old Itoine. CoustanLiooplc being, from the 
civil point of view, the exact counterpart of the ancient 
metropolis of the Empire, the Fathers of tho Council ood- 
aidored that, from the eoclesiastical standpoint, it ought also 
to take prec«lenoe over all the cities of tlie East. This 
dednon, it is true, was not accepted «t Bome, and its 
OODfinnaUou seventy years latei- by the Council of Cbalcedou 
was ecinally fVuitlese. The Popes adhered to the ancdent 
traditions, and, in spite of the cliums of tho bishops of 
the Imperial city, persisted in maintaining for the ancient 
sees of Alexandria and Aotioch their privileges of antiquity 
and honour. 

The Popes' contention received but scant attention ; 
doubtless some satisfaction was aooordod them, but merely 
as a matter of courtesy. The Bi^op of Constαntin<φte 
assumed more and more tlio position of α i«art of Pope of 



the Oriental Empire, and ilie obsuolea he met with id βα 
doing were one afi«r aooUivr ewtipt swuy. 

The Church of Alexmndriu was the most energetio ίο 
defending its privileges. Thi) obetinjicy of ancient Egypt, 
ite extreme oeDtrntiMtion conceatrated in its patrinrcb, the 
n«l «nd preitir,'« of its monks. to^tJier with the traditional 
uid marked support given to it by the Houian Cburch. 
enabled the see of 8t. Mark to mainlain its indcpeDdenee 
for β long time. Men like Theophiius, (ΛνΓ''.'^ι>Ί thcDioscori 
on more than one occasion made the binliops of llio Imporiul 
dty to feel their power. Heresy waa Die cauec of their 
lOin. The Koman Church on the one hand found iisulf at 
leogtb obliged to abandon the successors of Athanosiue, 
aotl the Council of Cbaloedon on the other was the means 
of bnmbUng the pride of the eccleaiaatical I'liaraoh. Tbence- 
forward. split up into factions, exposed to internal quarrels 
and eecnlar troubles which altBnut«(t it from the Empire, 
Ohristiaa Egypt full an easy pruy to Islam, and its separation 
hvcune an ocoomplisbod fact. 

The remaindur of the Euatvm world was accustomed to 
regard the capital as its contn,-. Antioch hanng lost this 
poeilion &om the time of TheodoeiuB, the entire I^ast now 
looked to Constantinople. The three Dorthem dioceses, 
originally oat off &om the ancient capital, were soon seized 
upon by tbe now. The Bishops of Constantinoplu, upheld, 
it must be admitted, by general opinion, soon began to 
iolerfere in the ecclesiastical affiiirs of netglibouring dioceses. 
SereiBl instancee of this interference, not without resist• 
BDOe iu soma oases, had already occurred,* when the Council 
of Chalcedon gave the Bishop of Conelantioople the right 
of cODSecrating the provincial motropolituns of Lbu three 
diocesee, reserring only to the lattoi* the ordination of tlieir 
sofiVagansL The same right of onlinatioa was grunted to 
him in tlie case of the rulera of thoHC tmttona] Chuix.'hes 

■ 8m TUIcmont, ΠΜ. Unit*^ vol. sv. p. 70S. 



which derived their autboiity &om the three dioceeos already 
meotioDvd (can. 23). Uo was invustfld, moreover, with a 
jarisdiction coextensive witli Uial of th« civil rulers of 
dioceaos (oxarclu), enabling him tu decide in ecclesiastical 
cases farooght np befgre the metropolitaoa (cann. 9, 17). 

In this manner the occupants of the seea of Csesarea, 
Oappadocia, and Kpheeus gradually lost all authority over 
the bishops of their respective provinces ; they at length 
become mere metropolitans, whoee only honours consisted in 
α few titular privilege» and in diatintitions of precedence. 
By the fusion of the three dioceses of Tlirace, Asia, and 
Ponlus, the patriaivhntu of Constanliaople thus became 

It vn» not, however, in this matter alone that the area 
of «celesiaetical influence exercised by Aniioch had become 
restrioted. It might be supposed that the diocese <d' Orient, 
considerably retluced by the withdrawal of Egypt, would 
have constituted the pronnce of the patriarchate of Antiod). 
But such was not the c-ase. At the very beginning of tlie 
fifth century we find the Bishops of Cyprus defending the 
indLpeudcnce of Uieir province against the patriarch. I'ope 
Inuooent intervened ' in favour of the claims made by 
Antiocb, but tlie issue of his action is not known. The 
Cypriote availed themselves of the opportunity afforded 
liy the Council of Kpheaus (431), which was ill dispoeed 
towards Antioch and the Sj-rian bishup.s, to wrest from tltat 
assembly an ex[KeBS recognition of their independence, 
and of the nutocephalic: privilege of the island.* But at 
Antiocb the quoetiou was not regarded as definitely settled. 
Ια 488, the patriarch. Peter the Fuller, who had conetderable 
influence at Court and witJi the Bishop of Constantinople, 
snocceded in bringing gnat praosare to bear upon the 

■ J1JH.S10. 

■ VII» Ma*»; BMtodB.foLLpklOlSL 


insular bishops. Their caose was all but lost vhen the 
tomb of St. Bamabae, the apostle of the country, was 
euddeoly diecovered near Salamie. This event, which was 
r^erded as an intervention of Providence, bronght about 
a reaction.' The ecclesiaatical province of Cyprus had its 
aotonomy confirmed, and has remained in posaession of 
it to this day.^ 

Again, it was at the Council of Ephesns that the first 
official attempt waa made to create a patriarchate at Jeni- 
eolem. The Council of Nictea hod granted the Bishop of 
Jemaalem some special honours ; but, far from raising him 
to the position of an arch-metropolitan, the Council had 
still left him under the jurisdiction of his provincial metro- 
politan, the Bishop of CEesarea. A century later, we find the 
ambitious and somewhat unscrupulous Juvenal, Bishop of 
Jerusalem, exalting the honorary distinctions granted to his 
see into a power of jurisdiction, and encroaching boldly on 
the domain of the Patriarch of Antioch. At the Conndl of 
Epheaus he endeavoured to get his action legalised, and 
persistently claimed half of the Syrian provinces, viz, the 
three Palestines (Cuesarea, Scythopolis, Petra), together with 
the Phcenicia of the Lebanon (Damascus), and Arabia (Bostra). 
His pretensions were not allowed. Twenty years later, how- 
ever, at the Council of Chalcedon, he returned to the chai^. 
He entered into an arrangement with the Patriarch of 
Antioch, by which the three provinces of Palestine were 
made over to him. St. Leo, the Pope, though mnch displeased 
at the transaction, did not, however, formally annul it, and 
from thenceforward the arrangement has remained unchanged.' 

< AMeiDuu, [Bibl. OrimL, toL ii. p. 81 ; Thoodonu Lector, ii. 2 ; Acta 
Sanrt, Jyme Utb. 

' It if pnHible that this antotiom; eiitted riotu eotlioet times. TIid 
Cooneil οΓ Bphcam bMod it• reoognttion of it on bd ancient and itdII- 
Btterted traditioD. 

■ Ctnuioil of Chalcedon, actio τίί. ; Jaffi, 495. 

28 CilJilsTLOi wnitsniP: its okigin akd i:\Onmos. 

In thu way the grcut eoclcsiuticftl areas of the Euet 
were defined, from the middle uf tlie fifth oenlury onworde, 
viz. che patriarobatee of CoiisUmtt[iopl«, Antioch, Jorumlom, 
aod Alexandria, witli the auloaomaus province of tlie island 
of Cyprua. 

Outeide Uio patdftrcbAtM and beyond the fhjatiers of the 
Empire there still uxiuted the nnlioaal Chorclies of Ethiopia, 
Persia, and Armenia. Theeu Cbtirchos, founded respectively 
by those of Alexandria, Antiucb, luid CteeiU'va in Cappodooia, 
«ere looked upon as subject to these great sees. That of 
Ethiopia did not date buck fartlier than the time of St. 
Athaufiuus. Its metropolitan, whose aeat was at first at 
Axiim, woe, and still ia, ordained by the Patriarch of 

The Church of Persia, far more ancient than the above, 
bad been in existoncu as early as the close of the second 
century. Barely tolerotvd by Uio Parthian kings, it waa 
often poi'seculcd under the Hii-iaautds. Its ruler resided 
at Soleucia. When, towards the close of the lifth oeatuty, 
tlie N^uatorians were proscribed, and banished from the 
Empire, thuy took refuge beyond the Persian froiilier, and 
Noetorianism, introduced by ibem, become, after a fashion, 
the national ruligion of the ChrLttians of tJie Sossaaid 
kingdom. This circuinatance aiTorded them increowd 
aecority, and they availed tliemsetvea of their position to 
found in Malabar, and even in dbt&ut China, Churches 
which exist, or of which traces are preserved, even to the 
present day. 

Christianity was introduced into independent Armenia 
towards the Iwginning of the fourth century. National 
tradition makes St. Gregory the Illuminator the first apoetle 


* Til* fnimdiiUnn ι>Γ tlin (linivh at UBliin 1« not earlier than ike time οΓ 
JoMinuia. It. tno. (m'ii|ik'<l thf positlnn i-f mirnipiii t« AlrxniKlrin. ft•» 
mjr Kgliitt S^r4M. p. fiJ.let arg, 



of the 


coUDUy, bnt with do loss piecJaioD it connecte hu 
aposLobte with tko Cbarch οΓ Oeeazea. As a Titctv up to 
the middla of the Gilh century, tbe Armeniau C^tholioos 
wu oODMcmt«d bL that place.' 

B^ood tbo DaDubv, vhich constituted Ihe froatier of 
the diooeee of Thrace and of the Empire, there was also a 
fonigQ Cbuich — that of the Goths, the origin of vhich was 
ooanected with the great invasion in the time of Valerian 
and Gallietias. It was to the missionary eflorte of the 
pristmen, which theae Germanic tribes carried away from 
Pontus and Cappadocia, that they owed their conversion. 
A Gothic bishop, possibly the only one existing in the 
country, was present at the Connoil of Nicsa. Another, 
the celebrated Ulfilae, who waa won over at an early date to 
Arianism, spread that heresy among his compatriots. When 
the Arian Goths, in 37β, crossed the Danube and settled 
within the territory of the Kmpire, they soon came into 
eoofliot with Nicsan orthodoxy, which had been restored 
by HieodoBias. ITiis was also the co^o with the other 

Ibarborils•, amongst whom, from the close of the fourth 
oentory, Christiani^ in ita Arian form had spread with great 
rapidity. 'Hie invasions of the following century renewed 
not only the conflict of Germanic barbarism and Latin 
drilisatioD, but also that of Ariauiam and orthodoxy. 

In the Westy at ao eojly date, we meet witli two strongly 
eaotnJised ccelenastioal gronpe — that of the Italian penin- 
inla and that of the African provinces. 

As far back as the year 251, Pope UOTnelius was able to 

* McaUd• mwt alto be Btt<U of the little onUonnl ΠιιιηΙι nf nwriii,or 
0«w|i«,tbe(aiiitdatkiaorwM<*il«ncioM]cd1i;RnUiiiia(iruc. /ί^η.,ί ΐιιχ 
nalNifcopor the ΠιμΙοιη. «Ii» at η luti)rd»t« boni llie title oT ('nit»iliaa, 
•r barali, naOUi kl TUU*. AlUiuiii, to One «ut of Iborle, hod alag, down 
lo Ui» tenlli (vnlniy, Iti uwu CbUhJUu». 

30 cnmsnAS WOUSnrP: rr» ORiniS asd fvolction. 

gather round him a council of eixty bishops,' who went miunly 
Italians from Soutbora Italy, for, in the Xorth, there woro. 
until the fourth century, very few episcopal sees.* Italy was 
not. as yet, divided into proi-inoee, as the division did not 
take place till the end of the third centur)'. By that time 
things had aliOady taken detinite shape, llio I'ope oxeixised 
his audiority as superior, wiUiout any iaturmudiary, over 
bU the bishops of the peninsula. When the Italian islands 
were brought into cunuuL'Lion with the Enburtncarian diocosc. 
iJuir bishups nutmnlly furmcd piui of this ;jrouix. ThiMe uf 
OaiuUs and Syracuse sncceodod in obtaining some special 
honoun for their sees, but that wait all. The Pope reDuinod 
tlie only real metropolitan of the Italian peninsula and 

I liavo already spoken of uccloBioBtkal ocntrali^tion ™ 
;\inuu. There, the primacy of Carthage did uot pi-uvent a 
oertaia praviudal grouping of the episcopate around the 
senior bishop of each province. In the African councils, of 
which wc have so bu^jc a number, it is always nocessary to 
distinguish between those that arc provincial only and tboee 
lliBt are general, convokod and piusidud over by the Bishop 
of Carthage. But those difTercnl groupings ore mcroly the 
outcome of the organisation uf one large uuitod and vigor- 
ously active body. No ooclesiasticol group is more clearly 
specialified than thai of North Africa, just as qo logion of the 
Empire is more clearly isolated from the lost by its oAtuial 

In i^outhcrn Italy, and specJoSly in AlWca, the episcopal 
aoee were very numuroiut. The same cannot be said of the 
rest of Western Christendom. In the part of Italy watered 

< Ktuflihi*, nut. Errifm., ri. la 

' The only tee» lUal hnve tmj H'rtoue cltitio to itn nnliiiuilj prior lo Ikv 

\ foartli i.'unturj ui• Hum» οΓ IUtmi>i> (ClMil»% Milan. Aijniluio. Bkmi•, «nil 

t Verooii. Tlio Inn flnt appou to bavo been fonnded «boul the betfUiaius of 

tbu Uiint cvnturjr. oc oven α little mrliec. 



bf Ibe Po, in the Danubiao provinous, in Gaul, Speio, aad 
Bcit&LD, whether owing to the fact that tho citiw in those 
mgioBs inclutlud u laige extODt of iemtoty, or that it wne 
not thooght advieable to plaou a bishop in cadi, the epis• 
oopkl areaa were more extensive and numerically smaller. 
This bcl probably aocounle for ihe late grouping of ihvm 
into proTinoes and assigning them metropolitans. In NOr- 
tbam Italy there was at first one metropoUtao only, that of 
Jdilan, whose jurisdiction extended over tlie whole diocese of 
Italy so called. Towards the beginning of the fifth century 
tliis provinco was made into two by tlie formation of the 
laetrojioHtaa see of Aquiloia. Λ little later the province of 
Kmiiia runUsIiod some sufTnigans to the Bishop of Ravenna, 
when this town became the Imperial rosidenoe. Ιΐατοηηα, 
bowevor, wa» included within the urea of the metropolitan 
nile of the Pope, and huncv its bishop nimainod a su0ngan 
of the Roman see, although he was bimself metiOpoUbut 
of the Reoe of tlio province of Emilia which bod been 
douched from thai of Milan. 

Britain and the Fannomiui pro\-iQc<}6 were separated from 
the Empire before the system of ecclenastical metropolitans 
coold be intiodaood into them respoctivoly. At all event» 
then ie do documentary eviduncv to thu contniy. In 
the fifth and sixth ooQturiee, what rumoined of the Upper 
Daontaan proviooBS was divided between the two Italian 
DMtropolitan seaa of Milan and Aqidluiu. lUuL-tia PriDia 
(Ctnro) wua under tlie juiisdiotion of Milan ; Bhwtia Secunda 
(Augsburg, Soben). Noriciun (Tiburnia), Pannonia Prima 
(Soorbaatia), formed port of the Council of Aquileia.' 
In Gaul and Spain the metropolitan system was introduced 

< Am the •Ι(ααΙυη» οΓ Uic <'i>unc^l οΐ Mfljtn, In ini. nnd thoM of 11m 
UMedb ef Aqnilriiw nndcr Ihe ρηϋΪΑκΑ• Ηαΐϊυ• and Sctoid•. In iho 
Ckiemtam Omdrmi, uul In the Hiitory of llit• Lombwik, bjr Pnuliu 
DiMeaM. UL ϊβ (JUW. (tirm. HrH]^. U«g.. ρ ve.r,. vqy. (f. tlin l»lUr 
of Um leflngnai ot Aqnilein to Iba Emjuinir !kInuiio; {Uir^. At. liig., 

32 αιιιι»ΠΛ> woKsiitr: rrs ouieiN asu bvolltiox. 

tovnnb tho «ud of tbc fonrU) ω- lliu boginning of Uic 
foUowiDg oentuiy. 

Gaul, Spain, and Britain are coonbiee οΓ which the limita 
are clearly detined by nulure. In lh« fourth century the 
difference in the degree of cinUsatioo which possibly existed, 
for iostanco, between licEtica and Spain, and between ttiu 
region of Xaibonne and the Tree QaUia, had become oon- 
sidorahly less apparent. If the Bomsn Empire had lestod, 
it ie possible that Spanish. Gallic, and British ecclesiastical 
giOupe might have been formed, of which the oontru would 
baro beoD detcrmiQod by tho convoi:gttnoo of the lines of 
udminietratiou. The ecdoeiastical proviuci^ of Arlos, which 
in no way corresponds with the civil ρΓΟΛίηοβ of Vionne, 
look \\» origin in that way. But the Barbarian invasions, 
and the ivdistTihntion which followed, put a stop to any 
development on tii^se liue^, and the ecclosiasticiil prorinces 
of Cranl and Spain remnincd independent of all sujiorior 
authority or orgoniitation until they emei^ed at length 
as the two national Churches of the Viaigotha and the 

We must not, liou-tver, ignore the [leculiar i)oeitioD 
whicli Milan huld, louarde the end of the fourtli oontuty, 
as a ocntro of ioflnoncc, which wis felt more in Gaul than 
elKwhcrc. For a short but important period it would tlius 
appear that tlie Weaturn episcopate recognised a twofold 
hegemony — that of the Pope and that of the Bishop of 

This divided authority became first apparent in Uie time 
of St. Ambrose. 'Hie see of that iUustrious bL^Iiop vrae 
regarded with a respect that wae quite uxoeptioual — without 
prejudice, of couise — to the authority of the u{M}Stolic sec. 
The influence of Ambrosu made itself felt in tlie affairs of the 
Kastem Clmrch — at Antioch, at Cffisania, at Constantinople, 
and at Xhesaalonica, aud he it was who was commiseioaod 




to provide Sirmiam with α btehop at ά critical momeot 
of ila history. At AqaUoiA ho prosided over a cotmcil 
U which cho hut (UfficulUcs cooncctwl with the Ariaa 
aiaie in iho Lowor Danubiait proviocn-s were diepoeed of. 
It is, hovoTer, ptrticuhurly in Gaul and SpaJD that tho 
ecoleetiietical authority of Mika si>cma to have boon 
ftcoepud a• a natural and superior iribimat. 

About the year 380 we find the Pmcillianists οΓ Spain 
brtogtiig tboir caow both before Pope Damoaua and 
Bishop AmbrOM. Lon-; after ibo blomly executions of 
ttvm, St a time wlivo Ihu positioa of tbu dissentients 
in Spain was in queMioo again, both eidos approached the 
Bishop of Milan. Tho Gulician prolatea, who bud rumained 
laithful to the traditions of Priscutino, hod bttoa eummoned 
by their ooUoagUM aseombled in Counuil at Toledo to 
appear befoni tJiem. Thoy refudtid to acknowledge the 
johadictioo of the latter, but the foremoel among the 
dtssenliont«, Symposiiis, the agetl litsliop of Astorgu, and his 
βοα Dictinios, repair^ to Milnti. Ambroee imposvd very 
bard conditions upon tUein, which, uvvvrllielixfe, they pro- 
mised to fulfil. IVpu Siiiciue acteil with him in this 
matter, and odviAvd the same solution of the diHiculty. Bui 
this decision did not put an end to the conllicL In tliu year 
•too, after the death of both Siricius and AmWoeu, a frvsh 
oooDCil ossembkd at Toledo, and was successful tlus timu 
m securing the attendance of the GoUcian prelates. Several 
difficulties were then settled, but on some i>uiuu thu cuuucil, 
mietnisttng itit own authority, or faiUug to come to an 
agTMmaot, made a formal appeal both to tbv now Pope 
AjDiatMias, and to Simplicianos, the successor of St. Ambrose. 

Kot only in Spain, but also iu Gaul, PriscUlianiatn had 
■own diseoneioos amongst cho bishops. Somo of tlteso 
aoo^ted, while others lenised, comniunioo wtlh Felix, 
Biabop of Trevee, who luid been ordained with the oon- 
cnrrenoe of the oppoiionts of Prisi-illisn. Tlie contest was 


oarried before the tribanal of the Bishop of Milan io the 
fitsl ineUnoe, probably during the lifetime of St. Ambrocie. 
It WHS, indiMxl, very Uk«ly to deal with this businees thai 
tiie meetiiig of the Synod of Mil&ii propter advetUvun. 
QaUorum ^ttcoporvm w»e held, which wm in session wbea 
the news of the maesncre at Tbessalouica reached AmbroM.* 
Hie Bishops of Octodnrus (Uartigny) and of Omnge were 
praeent* They had already attended, a few years before, 
in 381, the Council of Aquileia. 

Later on, about a.d. 400, the Council of the Bishop of 
Milan osst-mblud a&esb at Turin, to pass judgment this time 
not on ono. but on several disputed points wbidi the Cburcbee 
of Gaul hod referred to it. The following questions were 
submitted to it — the dispute between the Bishop of Mar- 
•eillee and the bishops of Gallia Karbononsis secunda, the 
quarrel fur precodcnce between the Churches of Aries and 
Vienne, the difficulty as to communion with Felix of Truvus. 
and many other pointe of discipline and law of minor impor- 
tance upon whidi wo are imperfectly informed. Upon all 
tliese tbJe Synod of Turin gave decrees and judgment without 
llie slightest hesitation as to its competence. Before the 
Bishop of Milan, the most important Bishops of Gaul felt 
thvmselvea in presence of α superior authority, and believed 
themselves bound to accept bis decisions. As a fact, the 
decieea of the Council of Turin were inserted in oil the 
canonical collections compiled in Gsul, and were regarded 
Cliere as one of the most authoritative texta in the matter of 
occlesiastical law. 

The Churches of Spain and Gaul, however, were not alone 

' Ambte*«,^5l. 

' Tfah mart LaT• bnM Ui• csmiiefl that gar* Iti sil1mvec« to Λβ ma- 
deonulke of JiirlnUn. The iuiiim ot Tlioo^atn ncd oT ContUnliu• 
Bfipetr at tbo «d of the ajuoitel lulcvr >Jdn«»<.<d U> Pupe Sirioiue (Amlir,, 
j^ fltX UtuvKli willioat iDdlculIno ef UimIt Met. It b Kcnnnlly utnlilod 
UmI tbo; mitt li« idrBttflpd with llie two U«h^« of tbn mioc nana trho 
toDk put i» tbe CooMol of Aquitria— ik«t ij, Um Bialiop• of Ocbidarai uii] 
uf Oranfl•. 


in appealing to Milan. The Cliurch of A&ica alec attached 
extreme importance to the decisions pronounced \>j this 
illostriooe see. In 393, the Crenoral African Council, held 
at Hippo, thought it advisable tio withdraw the prohibition 
which prevented their clergy from ministering to the 
Donatiste who had received in infancy schismatic baptism. 
Bat as this involved the infringement of a general law 
of the Church, it was thought necessary first to consult 
the "Church across the sea." Political events interfered 
with the accomplishment of this project. The question was 
brOQght up again in another general council held at Carthage 
in 397. The decision arrived at by that assembly indicated 
expressly that Siricius and SimpUcianus should be consulted. 
The rephea sent from Borne and Milan were unfavourable ; 
but after the death of Siriciue and SimpUcianus the Africans 
made a fresh application to Anaetasius and Yenerius, their 
successors. The General Council of June, 401, sent as a 
deputy to the latter a bishop charged to explain to them the 
desirability of the concession demanded. 

Ihere are thus evidences of an universal tendency, about 
the close of the fourth century, to regard the Bishop of 
Milan as an authority of the first order, and to associate him 
with the Pope in the exercise of the functions of supreme 
ecclesiastical magistrate, that is as judge in important 
causes, and as interpreter of the laws of general discipline. 
This extraordinary position ascribed to the Bishop of Milan 
did not owe its existence to the antiquity of his Church, 
which did not date farther back than the end of the second 
century, nor to the celebrity of its founders, for they are 
quite unknown to us. The earliest facts pointing in this 
direction are to be referred to the episcopate of St. Ambrose, 
but the personal merits of that great bishop are not 
sufficient to account for this attitude of the Latin episcopate 
towards the see of Milan. There was no lack in the West 
at that moment of prelates renowned for their zeal, sanctity. 



and eoligbtuDinuDtv St. Martin and St. Δυ^,πιβΙϊηβ boUi 
belong U> this period. The real rouson was that MOon 
was Cbe Imperial official reaidonce, the capital of tb» 
Western Empire. It had enjoyed this position from the 
doea of tbe preceding century, on ibe ruorganisatiou of iba 
Empire under Diocletian and Maximianns. At tbe period 
with which we are dealing its supremacy became more and 
more nccentuatcA IVoni the deatli of Maximus, in 388, 
Treves bad ceased to bo the second capitaL The importanoe 
of RsTonna wae still a tiling of the future, for it waa not till 
404 that the Kmporor Ilouoriua took up bis abode there. 
Even then a certain liinu must have elapsed before bis 
reeidencc could have taken delinite effect and bare producecl 
ita consequences in occlesiaetical circles. Milan wua there- 
fore without a rival, and it^ ecoleetastical position was 
becoming eetabli^ihed on tbe same lines as that of (.'uiiRlanli- 
nople. Aa early as the reigns of uonatans and Uooatantiu» 
8θ\'βπι1 councils bad been beld there, and it was there, rather 
than ut liome, that the two (Miurchea of tbe Kaai and West 
fouud a point of contact. Thither the fonnulanes elaborated 
at Antiooh were bronght, aii<I there the Latin bishops and 
tbeir delegates were called together and aesetoblod under the 
eye of the emperor, ^kliliiii woe thus, even before the middle 
of thu foiirtli cvntury, the great centra of ecclesiastical inter- 
rulntious in tbe West, and that solely on account of ita being 
tbo oaiHtal of tbe Empire. Conetantius filled llie sue with an 
j\rian bishop named Auxuntius, an able aud onergttLic man, 
who succeeded in maintaining his position after tbo defeat of 
his party in the West, and remained thuro till 375 the per- 
sonification of the doctrine of Arimiiiuni. There was doubt* 
1β!)3 then a lull in the competition of which the Imperial 
Church was the prize, but the election of St. Ambrose was 
soon to remove all difTicultios and to shed a litstre ujton the 
SCO which should render ir famous for all time. 

Tboae who bad i«conrse Ut Milan at the same time that 

BCCLSetAenClL λ&ΚΑβ. 

Η tbejr αρι>οιι1υι) to Roin^, or even in preference la Ilome, had 

H certainly aa intention uf crenting an oppoaition between 

these two great autborildea. or even of placing the Impuiul 

■ Chtudi on a let-el with ibo «poetoUc βύβ. This appeul to 
them WM made.eiiunltaneoiisly on the Ηορροβΐώοη that they 
ooold not act otLervise than in concert, and the issue 
Innriahly ju-ttiQed this tusamption. When Uie appeal was 

I made 1o Milan alone, as tbe <>iilliciLti Bixhope are known 
to have done on several oocosions. it wue only bemuse Milan 
was nearer to thein aad for thia reason hiul a belter 
opportitnity of obtaining ioforniatiuD. Quoationa continued 
10 bo submitted to Rome all the tome. We may point out 
•a instoncea of sncb appeals, those of Hiineiiu», Bishop 
of Tarragona, in StU, of Victticius, Bishop of Itonen, in 403, 
and of KxQpenus, Bishop of Toulouse, in 404. We still 
poeseaa the decNtala of Siricius and luDowDt,' lu which 
they replied to tbe (|ueetion3 aabmittod by these bishops 
of Spain and Gaul. 


Tbe pre-eminent position, however, of the see of Milan 
oonld not have been further accentuated without in the «md 
eatablieliing a precedent which might be cited against the 
pi• eminonce of Rome. The Popes soon nuiliaed this, tod 
oeglected no opportunity of defending Ihutnaolvea agaitiat 
tlus incipiont rivalry. It is not known what part they took 
in Uto foundation of the metJOpoUtan see of Aquilein, but it 
if certain that they helped to create the metropolitan diooeee 
of Ravenna, fonned at tbe expense of that of Iklilan.' lu a 
letter addienod to the Bishop of Eu^binm. bis suffingan, 
Popo Innocent points out, not without α certain incisivenese 

■ JtA, 1^ £iUi i'Xt. Vi'v nuiy πΊιΙ tli't Syiuulw /CmunoniM ad QaltM 
l^iiirofai (ConaUtil, K/rp. Horn. /Ί<η(ι/. ι•. Oi^), uf wliluli It k InpOMiUn 
le Hj >b«lMr it WW dcBwn up under Smciiu or Innnccat. It t• eurtatnlr 

■ Bl. Peter ChrjiDlogn*, Μπησα 172. 


οΓ 8t]?le, Uie iacan^teDcy of Iboiie who do nol• follow in all 
things the umgw of the Romau Church. He asks tbvm if 
they hare read unywhcrc Uiiil the Churches of Italy, (ί»π1, 
and Spain owe their foundnlJon to oiheie tluiD to St. Ρωβτ 
imtl bia !iucce.<Mon. It will be seen further on that this 
letter testitit», more fully thui I ean indicate here, to 
the oppoeition betwcvn the two groal llalijui metiopolilan 

Under Pope Zoeinaus, the nuccoeeor of Innocent, tJio 
primacy of Milan received a blow, which, allhou^ of an 
indtrcct character, was none the Ic&s docieive. I refer to the 
foundation of an apostolic vicariate for tlie (ΐαΐΐίοβο 
prorinces. attacliod to the episcopal see of Ariea.' Tie 
continned advanoe of the Germanic hordes had caused the 
gnat Roman establiahmont of Treves to be all but abao- 
doDoJ. The higher Roman funddonaries bad been obliged 
Ut rctjm and to remove their headtjuarteTS lo α position in 
tbo Rhone valley. Arli», which had long boon a floorisbing 
city, and had enjoyed the favour of the emperors of the 
family of (^oustantine, b*8idft3 being advantageously sitnatud 
between tbo Gauls, Spain, and Italy, became thenceforward 
the TBsidenca of tl>e prefect, the prsetor, and all the higher 
ndmioistrative funcaonaries of the transalpine provinces. 
For a Terr abort Lime — that is. during the leign of the 
"ueurper" Constanlinu (407-410) — it had even been tbe 
capital of tlie Empire. This reign was followed by α violent 
political reaction directed by the powerful Conetoiitius, the 
favsorilJ! and afttirwnrds the brother-in-law of Honoriug, 
wbo at length mode him his associate on the throne of 
Dm Καρκ. The inhabitants of Aries, in the hope of 
- '"u!ttttr pardon tor \he attitude they hod assumed in 
■-κη\Β. boniahed tbuir saintly bishop, Heroe, who 
.mpranuBed himwlf in Lhu opinion of the Court of 

«bfoi^tavawifarMnWMx-f^nMtc. vol. I. ^ %t-^U. 


Milan to Bome. Th« correepondvnce botween Romo nod 
Aries becwno inceseaiil, tad the BUhops of Southern Gaul 
grew aocustoDied to proceed to Borne to submit than• 
diepQtes to the tribunal of the Pope. We note the presencu 
οΓ such bishops at the Roman councils of the fifth centmy. 

ΙΓ the Western Empire had boon able to maintain iu 
existence, on ooclesiaetical contmlisatioD umilar to Ihit 
which had made such vigorous progreea in the Eist, would 
have been established at an early date tn the West. St. 
Xeo had plooed this ecclesiastical ooncantration under 
legal proltictioii by obtuininj; from Valcntiaino III. » 
TOOognition of his right to compel the btsbope οΓ all tbv 
provinces to appear before bie tribuDal,* This Wostem 
centraliiiing roovemonl was, howvrpr, ttiwart(!d by the 
rise of the barbarian kiogdoma. Political frontier» werr 
eetabIiBh<>d betwocu Rome and the Churches which lay 
beyoo<l Ui« Alt» ■""! ^^" ei-ws. TIte laws and Γηηοϋοη- 
artes of Kavonuo had no longer itay iuflaence in Vandal 
Africa, in Kninkish Gaul, and ία Visigotbic Spain. 
Whether Catholic or heretic, the horbftrian kings rogardcd 
with hut slight favour the moiutononoe of regular and 
frequent communications bi-twi-cn their bishops and the 
Bishop of Rome, a subjoct of that power at the expense 
of which their own authority hod been established. On 
the other band, the Frunkish and Vi-^igothic eovereigoB 
soon recognised Uic necessity of being on good terms 
with their bishops. The Roman Imperial officials having 
once disappeared, tlie bishops were found to he the best 
qualified representatives of the conquered population, and 
nomborlesa occasions aiOse for an appeal to their moral 
BUthoiily. Constant relations wore thus established betwcvn 
tl»o various Churchee and the sovereign, and the Court of the 
king became the centn: of eccleeiostical as of all other aJfairs. 

A'»*. r«ln,t. IIL. 16. 



From Lheace wem a^xial the summonMS oonveniug oouocile, 
and from the same sourco procoodod Uic appoiiitmeots of 
biflhope. Each kiDgtlom was α centre Tor itsolf. There was 
tbns a natinnal PniDkish Chiu-ch and a natioaol Vteigothic 
Church, the former tho more centmlJeod, and more cloeely 
united to the State, the latter always the more disintegrated 
of the two, owing to the constant r&dislribiition of territfoy 
among the Merovingian princes, and the absence of α capital. 

(cither rali^oiis or [Mililjcal. 
In Italy, the Lombardic concineet bad at first still greater 
damaging efTeote upon eocleiuaslical oentralisation and oven 
upon religious ooity ituelf. Tlie Metropolitan of Λφΐϋώα, 

■ who had become a schismatic after the Gtlh (Ecumonical 
rooncil, continoed his insubordination for a considemble 
limo within the shelter of the frontier of the Dnchy of 
tViool. The Churches wliich had beeti overthrown at llio 
beginning of the invasion, bnd not all recovered by the 
savealh cvntury. Those which were fortunate enough 
tu have done so, found tlioniselves somewhat strained in 
tbdr ntUtions with Kome. Metropolitan ia^titutions in 
Italy, however, were loo deeply rooted to be easily over- 
lamud. Home, Mihui, Aquilcia, and Kavenna maintained 
their rcsptictivc positions, and continued, in all essentials, 
to czerdM their jurisdictions. 



tyond tho Adriatic, Dtlmatia constituted a province hy 
tteelf, ondtT the Metropolitan of Solonn (Spalutro). Further 
east, tliQ group fi;rmc-d by ihe ΙΙΙ^τίαη provinces, togetlier 
«ilh Macedonia. Thee.ialy, Kpirus, Acbaia, and the Greek 
islaoda as far as and including Crete, ('■id not belong to any 
of the Eaatem pntriarohates. These countries were included 
in tbo jariMlictiou υί the Pope, r^arded a» the I'atriarcb of 
Uie Weal. According to this assumption, the West began at 
Ilitlippi and Sardica. This demarcation bad been determined 
by the limits of the Hastern Empire under LJcinios (314- 

-iiS'. ''>tfwrjMitiiia i'337-:ioi)\ ud Tileu (3&4r^i78). When 

ΊιτηιϊΐΜ w>v;aurl Tjetvintaiu vtch hmi j• tsnpKoc, Eib 

intrm•!^ ;iini r:tii τίικ ^7<>nuaen£ ^f ί^""™^ QlyTicnm. 

vhwrli "trtitiwteii nnrJiwrls w Sur u liie dne, md wesc- 

««ifffl 11} Ά ΊΛλ Ty^muaaa aionnauia. GnmeeCBd in titds 

.-nmitwtr -^lth :he Baintn Emptie, dieae ^inviiuxB <xniM ooC 

'(nl vt Se Ίτχττη «ithia ^le «cclenaoial mrtnmifa of 

^yvnutentinoplx. Ctuek wae ^oksi Efarnni^unil matt of 

r.h«m, «ιΊ iwmmenuftl inurcoime and fansnea of enoy 

IrtTwl ''xneM a mnr-Ji stroa^ dnft in. die (fiieeaon of 

''ymetMnciiiA^ile chaa is chat of B*ime or SCHoo. The Ραριβ. 

«nirwMM not t^ loee :he spiritnal ijirecaon of 90 many 

flMtini^iiihtyl diamhen, KaoLved, ac an eaHy date, tu fbnnd 

* τίΛΑτίίΚΛ at ThesealooM», of wiiicii thai at: AHhb w» 

«n't)/ Λ,η imiution. Ki-,r« socceasfonT msotaged t±im is 

'>»ΠίΛΛη v-nntftrpart, it manifested a cotais vialiLT, and 

tr/f ήΛΛτΙ/ Λ i«ntnry prfniaced appreciable tesnlla The 

v^tvinrfi i-if IciTtif flnratiiin W/nnected with Acacias (434-519) 

mHictAd >->» it » Uia\ \t\nv. Although we find as late as 

tf<A flixr^ an^t seventh centnriee certain acts indicating 

pMfel jnriwlicitkin in these regions, they are eiiher isolated 

'xnnfHWt^, tsT nnft/*nnected with the institatioa of the 

vuMnMi:. <tt f,hK lattCT nothing remained but the titles, 

whif^h \)>n y.Uhh^m of Thesealonica and aome others 

fJifi((hU:il U- \Λτν\'•. at ctmncua. In fact, if not in 

UiiKfry, th« \nimui:t•.* i,t Eftetem lUyricnm had passed 

iindnr tho anthority of the Fatriarche of Constui- 


ΛΙ. Uio (>|i[Ai«iUi nxlroniity of the West, the Churches 
'if hrihiiri, wliii^h hml licen deetroyed by or had suffered 
HdvcTi'ly Γγοιρι, IIpii Haxoip invEisJon, had not long enjoyed, 
li Ihi'y liitti tiviir kinjwn, the iiietropolitau system. 


Christianity, which bad taken refuge in the West, held ite 
own there as best it could in the midst of a barbarian 
population, which, thongh undisciplined, was capable of 
great religiooa fervour. Towns no longer existed, but 
from the monastic centres missionaries spread over their 
immediate neighbourhood, preaching and canTing spiritual 
ministrations to the inhabitants of scattered groups of 
dwellings in these out-of-the-way districts. Many of the 
Britons emigrated, some to the shores of Armorica in 
Gftol, others as far as Spain. In the latter country they 
formed a bishopric which found a place within the 
organisatioD of the local Church. In Gaul it was 
otherwise. The Breton Churches preserved a separate 
existence, entrenched behind the frontier whicli separated 
the peninsala with its national rulen from the Frankish 
EmiHre. It was not until the time of Charlemagne that 
they were at length brought into union with the 
ecclesiastical body of the Franks, and were incorporated 
into the metropolitan province of Tours. Even this onion, 
disturbed by political fiuctuations, was for a long time 
lacking in completeness and e£Gcacy.' 

It was &om the Island of Britain that Patrick went forth 
to be the Apostle of Ireland, then an independent country. 
Tbe Church which he founded there reproduced, and at the 
same time exaggerated, aU Uie traits characteristic of BritLBh 
Christianity. It developed rapidly. As early as the sixth 
century, through the efforts of Golumba and his monks of 
Hy or lona, it had already spread to the country of the 
Ficts and the Caledonians. Other apostles, free lances of the 
Irish Church, appeared shortly after on the Continent, and 
settling on the eastern confines of ancient Gaul, began to 
spread Christianity in the parts of Germany watered by the 
Danube and the Main, whence, after the invasions of the fifth 

' FumUi EptKopaux, nL ii. p. 252. 



ceaVaiy, il had beoa almost completely exCoriuuisted. Their 
sotnewlmt nndiscipliued roimdntious tliero were, α oentory 
Inter, taken in baad nod reformi»! by Si. BooiTaoo. 

Thus tbrouglioiit the regioDS of the Weet, wbatevor the 
political situation may havu been, whatever the form or 
degree of progreHB of eccleuiaelicol organ isatioo. there 
wu aoihing at the close of the sixth century n-hicb could 
lead ιΐθ to forueee that iho Latin Cliurch would one d*y 
be more centralised than over the Soman Empire had beea. 
Rome continued to bo for the whole world iho upoetolic see, 
the supreme metropolis of the C'hurcli. Un the queetious of 
dogruia or geaetal disoiplbie which divided the K«st and the 
W(^t, it was an undoraUjod tliiuj; that the Fope h»d the 
right to flpeak in the Dame of all the Weebem Churches. 
The Pope's decretals had the same legal force as the 
deciaions of cotinoUs, and were inserted nnder the same 
category in the collection of canons. The saoctuaries of 
tl» apostolic city, porlicularly St. Pet^-r's, aitmcled pilgrims 
{hum all couulne.i. Xo siiot in Uie West wa-i more sacred, 
and 00 moral or religious authority could be compared to 
that of the priest who mtnifitered at those illiistrioue shrisM. 
liut from this universal respect to an ecclesiastical oeotruUsu- 
tion was a far cry. No one, moreover, not even the Popes 
themselves, appeared to have felt any urgent noceeeity for it. 
They adapted themselves to the existing state of things 
without attempting to modify il. 

The movement towards ceniralisstioa hod its origin, 
though indirectly, in the couvenduu of England under the 
auspices of the Itomun Church. The Eiaukiiih Church, 
which did not possess the misiuonary spirit in any extn- 
urdinory degree, made no effort of any kind to convert 
their neighbours beyoud the Khine or ucruss the Channel. 
On the other band, the zeal of the ItriUsh in preaehing 
the Gospel was limited by the Saxon ironlier. The work 



in England wae begun and successfiilly carried on by the 
Boman missions of Augustine (597) and Theodore (668). 
Between these two the Scots of Ireland had intervened to 
aach an extent, that it would be unjust not to attribute to 
them a very large share in the success of the enterprise. 
The Boman mission in Kent, however, retained the direction 
of the English Church, and in the sum-total of influences, 
it was the Boman spirit that predominated. From thence 
went forth the apostles of Germany and the ecclesiastical 
connsellors of the first Carlovingian princes. From thence, 
through more or less numerotm intermediaries, emanated the 
reform of the Frankish Church, and later on of the Homan 
Church itself; and from thence, above all, proceeded tbat 
centralising movement which, by relieving the Latin eccle- 
siastical world of the embarrassments and complications 
arising from primacies and national Churches, placed 
their united forces in the hands of the successore of St. 


§ 1.— Ths Litctrot is pEiMmve Trnw. 

We have βββη in Uio pi-uccditig chapter that iJie local 
Cluiatian conunuiiitjee for tbu most part were detached 
from lU« pnv^xistiog Jewish comtnniiitic^. and that in 
consw^uuDCu of thie origin, a atrong ivdumblaiiGe existed 
Iwtween the organisation of the Cliurcli and that of the 
gytugoguo. This resetnblanci] ie especially ajiparoat in 
the sphere of worships The Christian liturgy to a great 
extent took its rise from the Jewiah Litui^gy, and was, Id fact, 
ineivly its continuation, itut here it is important that 
wu should not confound the worship of the temple at 
Jorusalbm with that of the synagogue. The former did not 
in any way influence the Christian Liturgy', and the oonaec- 
tion whicli the commentators of the Middle Ages delisted 
to point out between the ritual of the Pentateuch and that of 
the Church cannot be taken seriou.<iIy. Eretytiiiog that has 
boon .laid on this point is a inatt«r of mero imagination, and 
has no basis in tradition. The worship in the Temple was 
of a national character, and altogether different liom tbr• 
xeUgions exercises joined in by a brotherhood, or a local 
eongrogatiou, iu the sticred asaembliea of the IHatptfra, or in 
the towns of Palestine, or even in Jenualem iteelf. The 




fiist Chrifliaiu. at >i time in which Ihcy w«re still almoel 
■ItogoUier coagrvgatod in Uic Jewinh cftpilal, took part in tho 
wonhi]) of the Temple, bui without prvjadico to their ova 
special meetings— those of thu new sj^nsgogno which they 
had eetablished at the very bc^tnniug. Outeidu Jeraaalem, 
the highest ezpreeaioa of Ihetr collocttvc religious life was 
for them, as for the Jews, in the weekly inuCtings of the 

Tbeae meeting!* took place on Saturday. From a very 
'ly period the Chrietiuns adopted the Sunday. It is 
poMilble that, at the rery ouUet. the choice of this day 
wu not snggested by any Iiostility towards Jewish customs, 
but that they observed it merely in order to tuive side by side 
with the ancient Sabbath, which they oelebrated with their 
Israelite brethren, a day set apart for exoluaively Chrietiau 
assemblies. The idea of importing into ihe Sunday thu 
solemoily of tho Sabbeth, with all its exigenciea, was an 
entirely foreign one to the primitive ChnatiaD& This was 
eepedally tbo case in regard to the prohibition of work, 
but It was tJnio also with respect to worship properly so 
colled. Thu obsorvanoo of tho Sunday was at first supple- 
mental to that of the Sabbath, but in proportion as the 
gnlf between the Church and the synagogue widened, 
the Sabbath became less and loss important^ and euded 
at Imgth in beiag uutirely neglected. Tho Christians, like 
the Jews, bud thus ooe single day in the week set apait 
for religions meetings, but the Christian day was diRerent 
from that of the Jews. 

The religious assemblies of the synagoguo involved no 
bloody sacriilce, no oblation of the products of the soil, no 
fiistfniils or incense. The children of Israel asevmblod 
together not only for oommon prayer, but αΐϋο to ruud their 
sacred books— the Iaw in the first place, and then the 
Prophets ; that is to say, the remaining liook^ of the Bible. 
Diaid«e these readings there were also clianU, of which tbo 


text was furoUhed by tlie Pealber. Λ less eeeeotiol but 
vriduly used exorciso was the bomily (Uidrash) oa ft tbome 
supplied by the lections. 

These four elements^-kction», cb&uU, homilies, and 
prayera — wej'o adopted without heaitatton by the ChrietiaD 
Chorcbea. There wa» soon to Im found on the reiuler'a deatt, 
in addition to the books of the Jewish Itihle, the nritiags of 
the New Teetatnent, among which a Hi>ecial promiuence was 
given to the Gospel. This wae all the obange, with the 
exception, of course, of such modiucationa as were neoee- 
sitated, by the new direction given to faith, in the text of 
pmyors and homilies, as well as in the choice of the bibUcnl 
lessons and sacred canticles. 

But if Urn Church took over en Uoe all tlio rtU^oiu 
service of tb« synnguguu, it added tbueto otto or two now 
ulumeute. wuicti coiieiiiutcd tliat wliieh was oiiginitl in the 
Christian Liliu^jy, I refer to the Supper, or socrvd njiwiai, 
and the spiritual exci-dses. 

Thu8u boih oci'ugiied a very high place in the Cluistiaa 
service, such as we Hue it in tbe eai-Uost documenlB. After 
the Eucharist, ocrtitio inspirod porsous bi3<;Bn to proacb and 
to tnake niitnifeat bufurv llic ass(>inbly the presence of the 
spirit which {inimutM thum. The prophets, the vcetaLics, the 
spvukerii lu tongues, tho intvipruU-ni, the supemutuial boaleis. 
Absorbed at this time the utteutiun of the faithful, lliere 
was, ω it were, α Liturgy of the Holy Ghost afl«r the Liturgy 
of Christ, a iruu liLujgy with a Ituiil Presence and com- 
munion. The iuspitntion could be felt — it sent a thrill 
through the organs of cortain privileged persons, but tba 
whole assembly va» moved, edified, aud even more or less 
ravished by it and transported into the Divine sphere of tlie 

' Sw («iwclnllf 1 t'er. siv. : kdiI llic Dortrinr of IKt AfMlm, Id. tt «f . 




IP Howover frequently these Divine [^ooouieiui migbloccur, 
they were doi on that ecooool tbo less oitntordiDaiy, and 
tt is impoesblo to n^&nl them, propeily itpwluilg, aa a 
roligioua iustitntioti. Xeither the Chmtian commumliea 

»nor Uteir postore were able to produce ibem or to olrtun 
tbom at «ill. It was very difficult even lo legulato tbem, 
lie we we bvm the bietoiy of Su Paul aod the Church at 
CorintlL UoraoTor. tboy eooo disappeared, aod from the 
begiiiniDK of the «οοοιμ] century onvards we find only 
exceptioEial and isoUtod instiuicoe of thum. The only [ηιγ- 
nuuumt elemoQtv ou the whole, which Christiaoity added to 
tbo liturgy οΓ the synegogno va» thus the aacred meal 
1^ iQHtittitod by Jesus Christ as a perpetual oommemoration of 

^H The details of this august ceremony are furnished by 

^F tite synoptic Ooepola, and by the paaeage in which St. Paul 

Β tnste of the Last Supper. We have, first of at], Uio act of 

Uuuik^ring. or euoharistic prayer, then the brofuctng of 

the bread, and finally the distribution of the bread and 

wine to those preeeot. These constitute, strictly speaking, 

the principal elements of the Mass in its ootircly Christian 

I and original aspect 

ll is not my aim to adduce hure all the U'xts of iho 
aaemd ur third c«nttir>' in which thurc is mention mode of 
the Eachaiiat and of its otseutial rites. Τ confine myself 
to ςηοϋο^ Aou tJio tnmi im|)orlant of them, namely, Uio 
description of the (.'liristiau woetings for worship on Sunday, 
which we find in the finrt Apoloffff of Justin Martyr.' 

' Jvlin, Aftl^ L & At lU vtry mrigio. u wo »w U ϋιβ Vim ^Uile to 
til* LvrinthiBai, iho BwchnriMio oolobntlnn «m pn?c<nlnl hj aa ontinary 
rrfiMl pMtakta nC in caiaaion. Thi* *>«• what ia callpj tbo Airnpv. Bui 
tfui oMtan bIIovo•! ι•Γ Uw tatradaetSau of too 100117 inooDtotiMirai lu bo 
laMJag. Tbr lilurginl Agape diMppoftml, or nenHy tu, lii Ιι-« tluu 
• bnilted jmn 4IW tlie flnl pteMbios «Γ Iho Gopol. Tbo ΛιιιοτμΙ 
ApqWh <t «tiMi tbaro uo ImUoktloDi μ Ule Μ tlio foutlb dt fifth ecnlaty. 
mmt an «■tinlj' diflfatenl inatllntkai, 



<Ib t^ dny of iho titui (SuaiUyJ «U wbu live btoviu οΓίοΙίΜΟΟίιοΐΓ/ 
gatlier icguUier to one plMW, «nd tbo momoin of the tpoitlH or tba 
wrillngn of the propheta «κ nad u long u tine pennlte. I'bon wficu 
Uio raadof liu OMMd, tlio pnmdant vorbaDy inRtntcte and esborla Ia Uie 
tntlUdoD of tba good ezain)il«B olted. Then all riaa tcgvther, and pnye» 
an oObted. Λ1 length, ω wo hare already deauribed, pniyer tMiug ended, 
btud aod wbo and water are brought, and tho praildont otSm prayer and 
(bonki^riiigH bt the beet of bu ability, «ud the jMople aasent by caying 
Antea ; and the dietriballon ia tnndc te «wh one of h» ahara of the 
cleoMnta whiah liuvo been Uaaaed. and to thoae who are not preMni it ii 
c«ot by the miniatry of the dcocorm. 

Of tbe lotir elements bonOwed b-orn the cuireut usage of 
the synagogue — osmely, tlw loction, the chant, the homily, 
iiud the pnyer — the ooly οηυ of which thare i» hui-u uo 
tutpraes meutioQ is the chanting of tbe Psalms, In another 
puBage of liis Apoloffy,^ St. Justin, in oxpUiaing the 
MretBOaies of baptism, odds a deacriptioD of Uie euoha• 
ristic litiu^ in temta similar [o those juet cited, except 
that he here makes mention of Uie kiss υί pwtx, which 
the Chfistians, he says, give to one another nftvr Lbu prayers, 
imd before beginning the sacred meal, or Eacluirixi, properly 
90 colled. 

St. Justin continee himself to the desoriplion of the older 
of service followed in the Christian aesembliee : he gives so 
text, or forinulury of prayer or exikortuuou. Uis omistiotis 
on thie point, however, am be mode good by the help of 
very luideut ocdeeiastical documente. 

Tbo epistle of St. Clement of Itome preservea for tie a 
[Meeage evidently of a liturgical charuder. We cannot, 
indeed, regard it aa a reproduction of a sofind formolaiy, 
hat it is un excellent example of the stylo of eoloms prayer 
ia Thicb the eeoleeiaalical leadeis of that time were accus- 
tomed to expcees tlidiRselvea at meetings for u-onliip. 

-■ May the M«)ed numbtr of the eleel b the wbofe world bo prMervcd 
' Les. 


■eUet ty dw Cni«tor of All tUnge, through Hit w«l|-bebveil Son Jwd* 
CbriM, bi «tiom He bM called n* (ram dorknesi to light, from if^ormnco 
U dw kaowMfo of tha glory of His Name ... to hop* in Thy ' Xam•. 
(ma «Ιιααι «veiy onatnn prooMila. Tbou hut opened the »jm of our 
bent• thai tli«y nay knnv Th••, Thoa th« aolo nijihcM Λοαιψ tbo 
faoi^tMt, iIm Holy One who retu to the mldet οΓ the holy onea. Thou 
who aboacat tfae iuioleneo of Ui« proud, who toattoroit the machinitfone 
of the people, «tio «uJtMt (be homble and paUe*t down the miglily; 
Tko« who stTwt HohM eiid povettyi detlb and Ufe, aolo BeMfaoior of 
«fjrita, Ooil of all fleah ; Tboa whom ngard poootnlw tho abjm, aud 
tho «orka oT aiea ; Tbuo who art our hirip In danger, Thou who 
OB tnn deepaJr, Creator and Ovureoer of all fforita ; Thou who 
multiplied tho iiuImm upon cnitti, and cliow:» from anioni; them 
ibooe who love Tbee llirougfa Jremi Christ, Thy well-heluTed S«muit, by 
whom Tboa hmt taatmcled, lanctifled. and bonnureil wt. Wo beeeeob 
The^ Ο Htotcr, be our help nod euccoor. Be ϋιο Selvatton of thoee 
at OB ^lo are ία trib«lation ; toko pity on tlia lowly, raimi u]i ihem that 
taU, tereal Thysolf lo tlioao who are in need, boul llio ungodly, and 
rmUm Ihooo who hnvo gooo oat of tho way. Appeaac the hanger of 
Ike aaedy, iWiver tboea aoHBg na who «nffor in pritoo, heal the riok, 
eantot the bint beaited; that all people may kuow that Thon on 
Ae oatjr God, that Jem Christ i• Thy Scrvnnt, nud tlial ire are Thy 
pvpJo aad tiho «beep ofTliy panlurc. 

■•Thou art He who by Thy operations hast rniinifuited Uio ever- 
laaiing harmony of the world ; Tlioii, Lord, bant croatod the oarlli. Tin u 
«4)0 ronaiiuat laithfal thron^out all gcnDmtioni, juet b Thy jndgnwnta, 
«OodeffU Id Thy might and tatftMj, wi*e in oreation and pniiliMit in tbo 
BpViMh^ of tbingi ereitttd ; Thoa who Bhnurott Tliy gnodnow in earing 
u, Tly Eailbfidn«« to tluee tnutlog in Thcc. Ο pliifid anil mercifld 
God, foTgiTe 0* oar &i«lt•, our (njumii^oB. our ahortcomingi, our imn*• 
graMJau : remember not thi> tint of Thy *orvant• and Thy hundraaid», 
b«t dianee m by Piy trath and direct our irtepii, that wo may walk in 
hollB«a of boait and do tint which In good and acuoptaUo in Thhio 
eyea aad En the «yea of our prince. Yea, Lord, iiioke I'hy Gu» to 
■Una upon aa, for our woll-bciuK nnd our peace, for our protection by 
Thy ■trong btnd and our deliveraoco from orery tin by Thy lulgbty 
a», for our Miration from ibo*•? who wron^ully hate imi. Giro peaoo 
and «moord to na and (o all the dweUere ujno cartli, lui Thou diilst 
fh• Uua lo our fonfttbor» when tbey ealled npoo Theo with fnith 
and afatearilj. In eubmiation to tho almighty power and auprcRie virtue 
_af ThrNMi•. 

' TUe «bange of fvmm u in lli« Orock tost. 

52 cHBisriAS" wonsHiP; ΓΤβ rmiois λκρ evolctiox. 

" ll ί> Tboii. Ltinl, wlio luul ^von to our jirincca,* lo diow vbo nil• 
over m npon ««nh, Ihc jiowor οΓ ro; r1 if, b; the oseclleat ud untpMlutile 
TJrtiie of Thf migbt, {n ordur that, knowing Iho glory nail liononr which 
Tbon hwit conferrol upon ihem, wo may Biibmit ounolve• la then, 
end not pitt outm]v«b In opponUon to Tliy «nil. Umnt th«n. Lcvd, 
bedtb, peAco, concord, And ttebilitf, tbat they nay exerciee unhbilered 
Um auUioritf villi which Thou hast eiitnulod thom. Γοτ it it Thou, 
bureiily Lord, King οΓ the ag«a, who givwt to the wne of men 
((lor7, honour, and power over «trthlf tii'iagt. Direct their ccninseU. 
Lord, «ccoTilirig lo tbtl whiob in good, avcording te that which Ea 
•ooopUble in Tliy eight, «o UiM uerMiig pcaooably and merdfiiUy Uie 
power which Thou ban given them. tli«y may oblniTi Tliy Tavoiu-. 
TboQ alono haat tho power la do thtt, and to coufcr opon ua atill grealM 
benseta. W« confen Thee tlirgiigh the High Priett and Roltr of out 
«nls, Jenu Christ, tlirough whom glory nud inuJMty In- to Thee now, 
and tbroa^ut all geoeratioiw, for onr and over. Anien." ' 

In addition to these documeQisdniwn up κι Rome, I will 
further quote the fonnularJe3 preserved to us in the Doctrin» 
o/ the ApaitUe, a very ancient writing, costemporaiy, at the 
latest, with St. Justin, but of whose provcnatux nothing is 
definitely known. 

"Aa to the Eucharist, wo give Uiauks in Οιίβ wise. First for ilie 
JIMP*: ^t^ ""^"^ '^«^ <»*'" i-'atiurr, /or Iht Holy V\ne tf Darid, 7Xv 
■IJHMt,' whkh Thou ΚολΙ madt ktuywn to lu by Juut Thg StnvnI.' 
Qlory to Jlitefor wcrmon I 

■* For ϋι« bread : ' It'e thauk 1%«, our /'atAer,/or Ot Jj/• ami Ue 
kaMtUds* wKith TTiou λαιί wuf* Jhwun» U> u» hj/ Jtmit, ΓΛγ Btrrani. 
ύΙ«ηι Ιο Thn /or evtrnv/r* ι At the demtntt tif Ihit brtad, tntttrtd en 
li$ iMnntMii•, were broughi togtther into α tingh u>Aotg; mag Tig OAurcA 
'n IHm moMittr he gathtrtd togstker /nm lAe tndt of Ihe narlh into 7Xy 
kingdom ; /or Thint i» the gCory and the pouvr, thrtmgh Jeau* Chrittf 
/9T eMrnwrt- 

' Note tbc ipirit In which ilic rhrintiui• nt Rome pniyoil for tbt eaperor 
on Uie morrow of the fory of Doinitiau. 

* I aon. HD-Cl. 

* 't«0 MiMi ffev," in botb coaca, and furthnr en. 

' "ttfi τβΰ ιΛίβματη" TbiB refi-n to Ihn bmid u aln«dy br^ikea or 
abODt to b« M. 




"Let nooneeUOTiliiuk oryour Knchoritt ίΤΙιβί» not bapli*ed in the 
Xuw «f Um Lord, for it wiu οΓ ύύβ the Lonl u!d, ' Give not Uiat whicli 
η bolf to dogi.' 

" ΑΩπΓ VDO uv «ΙηβκΙ * rotnm thank* tin» : Wt (AawA T&oe. I/oli/ 
Fatter, for III•; Wy Sam», wA«cA T^ou Aiul ιπα<^« tn divtll i» our 
Ι^ατΟ,/στ til* ht^icttdi/t./aUi and imtnartaliltf uihic/t Thou ttut rtvMUd 
I• Μ Mroayt ^«MW ny &rMMt. Olory U> That /or evtriiuM I It U 
Ttuu, nigAty Lant, wlo A<u( created the tknivertt /«r M« gU>r]i f^f 7Ky 
JIBmm; teio ha*t fire» la tara mtat and drink, that th*y may «ajoy ih*m 
imfiatny Thet tjiantt. But to μ Th«a haH jivrn tpiritaal maai and 
drink, amd lift eternal through Vijf SerwinS. We give n«f Iharnkt 
iffvrt ntrylMing, tteaaie nou art mi-/Uy. Gtorg to The* fur «Mrmor*/ 
Bt miad/itl, L•ιτd, to dtlivrr Thy Churrh from alt «ml, unci to groat 
U ftrfietian in Thy hv*. Qatkrr it tcgrthtr /ram (he four wind* of 
llUa mncti/fed Chvrth, for Iha kingdom whkh TJioh ka$t 
\ for it ; for Thine i* Ik* pot*er and /fiery fbi• tvtrmor*. May 
\eo»*ititd thit uKirld pau aumy t Hoiaima to Iht Son (f David I 
If any ant be heiy, let hint conte ; if any on* b* not, let him rtpenl. The 
Lard it at hand t* Amm. 

"Let tbe jiropbetii tli«n nuke Uie Eucluml u long on tbey rany 

U i» evident tbet thu ritunl nnd Ihijee fotmularioa come 
b> tie from Β sphere videly difltiroiii ixom that in which 
Sl Justin aad SU Clement composeil tliuir writings— from u 
Kfbav in wbicb iateose QUthiuioetn still iiivvaik'd. Tliu 
propbcbi plMy hviu un important r^ie. The tiiiiids of the 
people, too. ara excilbd uid feremh in expectation of tho 
kbigdoDi of Christ. I IiAve uo intention οΓ entering hore 
into dctoUe of the coutzost. It is enough to point out that 
the littugical languAge of which St. Clement offers tie 
sadi an oociont and authoritative example, and the ritual 
pnweuted by St. Justin as of general me in Uie oisemblies 
of Christians, arc in every respect analogous to that 
which iru encounter three centuries later, at a period when 
iloeumente aliound. The liturgy described in the Doctrine 
bMA, on tbu contnry, ollogether the aspect of au anomaly ; it 


migbt furnish some of the features wlticli we meet vHfa in 
btor oompoaitioQS, but it is on the wholo ontside iht) 
main stream, ouleide the goneral lino of derelopmeot 
botii in nwpect of its ritual end style. 

From tliese monumenta of the primitive age we raoet 
eome donti at once to the fourth cuntor/. It is abost 
tlie latter period that V6 encounter sufGcieDt]y numerous 
exunploA of the litnr^cal uses whiob, completed and 
varied later on, became eventually that which we see them 
to*day. Between the two epochs we find only isolated 
referenoe», passing allusionfi, scattered among authors of the 
most divers character. It must bo admitted, moreover, 
that peculiaritiea tu rituul took a certain litngth of timu 
to become fixed and estebliehed. At the beginning the 
prooedure was almost identical ovaiywherc ; I say almost, 
for a complete identity of all the details cannot be 
assumed, even in the Churches founded by the apoatlH. 
It was not in accordance with thu practice of early days 
to attach to tilings of this nature Ujat importance whicli 
would sanction and fix tb«m. Ueagee developed by alow 
dcjirees into rites ; rites uxpanded into more and mon; 
imposing and complicatod ceremonies, and at the same time 
a limitaLioo was put upon the eubject-matter of the prayers 
and oxhortatious. Custom had indicated to Uio celebrant 
the ideas which ho hod to develop and the oidvr in which 
he bad to treat them. Λ final step was at length taken 
when fixed formularies were adopted, which left no longur 
anything to indi%idual caprice, or to the cbanoce of 

Long before tliis stage had been reached, locnl 
diversities bad crept into the ritual. The uses of Rome. 
Antioch, and Alexandria must, in the third century, have 
departed widely from the primitive oniformity : Faaf* mm 
tmnibue itna, na airtrsa tam$a. In proportion as tiieee 

πη HAsa ιν γηε uer. 


,^_ meiropoliUB Cbnrcbee widoned tho circle of ibeir 
auslons, tbey extended «leo tbe area of tbetr apecikl usos. 
Ibr it is altogether natnral that the xte& oF the Mothur 
Cburob should become a law to tLu ilaugliter Churches. 
It wse io this iniuiner Ih&t the Uttuyical province», if vm may 
oee the expreenoD, became identilied with the ecolesiastical 

We may refer the Utorgiee with which we are acquainted 
to four prinoipftl Qrpee — tlie Syrian, the Alexandrian, the 
Itoman, and the QalUoao. It mighl not be imiwesihie, 
moceover, to trace back (he Uallican to the S)rrian type, 
and tn infer that the dm of Alexandria waa derived, ae 
far u a certain portion is ooncenied, from thut of IComo. 
Tbe four tlifferent forma would thua be reduced to two, ii 
difiiioa which b aoalogoue io that wliich obtains to-dny. 
wbsti tbe luoe of Borne and Constantinoplo have almoat 
abaotbed the net. 

But tlio documcnte do not carry iia so far back. We are 
oertab that in the fourth ccnturj- there were four types at 
the very least, fcHr the Syrian type had already given origin 
10 some veiy marked sub-types. 

) 2.— Thr Stiuak LiTtiEtiT is THE Fouirrn Ckntoby. 

Tbe most ancient docnmentary nouroee of tlie Syrian 
Liiuigy are — 

1. The 23rd Catechiam of St. Cyril of Jerusalem, delivered 
about tbe vear ^7. 

* On Λ» RmIc*b tilnrjcie^ tba «nrk of «apilitl ImportnnM• h aom 
Liimr^ KaiUm mimI ΙΙί.Ι<η. Iiy V Κ llriiclitmiMU vnt. L, uiTori. IMO. 
I iImU Imku Iu BWkp ixuiftuil rcfrrtuioc to ll 1 iliall mrclf lutTP niimiiiii 
In Wl• thv book «Γ Ibe «nnc lilli; b]t I. B. Hacnmunit. imblUlifd in lUTe, 



2. Tlie Apostoiic CoaUiiutioTU (IT, 67 «nd VIH. 5-16). 

3. The Homilies of St. John Chryeoetom. 

St. .lohu Chrysostom citos frequently to his Homilies 
pasaagea, and erea prayers, tnkon Γηιιη the Litui^gy. 
Biii;^hain ' was the first to form the project of coUeotiiig 
and putting into order those scAlterwt data. This work 
hflB been lately imdiTtukun ngsio by WTeral experts.^ 
Interesting testimony may be drawn from this sonroa, bat 
the orator nowhere gives a eyetematie deecriplion of the 
Litorgy in the order of its rites and piayers. 

The Oatechiam of St. Cyril is really on expoeitioo of the 
ceremouiiH of the Mass, drawn up for neophytes after their 
ioitiatiou. The proachor leaves out of cooaidoratiou the 
Μα.ιβ of the CntocliiimuDs with wliich his auditors have 
been for a long tiiuc fiuiLiliui-. Πο ossumce tiiat the bnad 
and wine havo bueii brought to thu altar, and beguu at 
the moment in which tbu bishop, having washed hi« haoda. 
prepares to celebrate the holy mysteries.• 

Is the Apostolie Ccmtilutiotie we must make a dis- 
tinction between the dt-scription given in Book U. from 
thai in Book VIII. Tho first is somewhat skt-idiy; it 
oonioiiis merely the descriptiun of ilic rit«5, without the 
formularies. The latter furnishes at full length the 
forms of prayer complete, hut only those which occur 
after the Gospel. 

We know now that the Ajmtolie CotUtitiUioiu represent, 
in the present condition of the Greek text, α fuMon of two 
similar works, the IHdascaiia of the Apostle», of widcli we 

■ Origin. Rrha.. x\U. 11. 

' UatamnaA. The Jntimt Lilnryy o/ Aniiorh, OztiOA. 1879. Cf. SWl- 
thri/l ftr kalh. Thrologir. IS7!t. p. 619 (Birki^ll), nnd 18SI. p. XJO (IVutiM). 
Probat iiinkoi * dlallnotloa L•et1rfcπ tlin IfumllJoi praadhed nt Antbefa ud 
UiOK ddUcrcd nt Cciiitatit)tio|>lc- Mr. Bti^htnuui {ΙΆ. c4t. ρ -ITD) 
tvbjiiiilli-'d the nilJMl. prollluii; by tliw Ikboun u( hU prcJtawauL 

• BrlgklaiBU, |>. 41», 



'only the Syriac vetsuiD,' and the Doetritu of Ike 
AfottUa, dUoo>*ero(l not loug ago by the tnotropolitan 
Brjrennioe Philotheoe. The fonner of thoee works sen'oi) 
18 • boM for Books l.~VI. of the Apotiotie Consiituiiam ; 
tht letter, mooh nttenitAted, became Book VII. of the same 
DoUeeUon. ΊΊ10 eighth book must hitve l)een nddecl tn the 
other «even by the nutlior of the later redaction of th« 
IHdatecdia and the DcetrxM. ThU was the author who 
intopoUted ία the seven anthentio letters of St. Ignatius 
six others of bis own production. He lived in Syria, 
dther at Antioch or in the ecdeetaetical region of which 
that town was the centra. He wrote towards the end of 
the fourth centuiy, al a liin<^ when the "subordination" 
theology, of which we have more than one indicatinn in his 
varioua works, still enjoyed a considerable reputstion. Ue 
woe the author of the <lcscriptioD of the liturgy whinh 
egorea ia Book II. of the Ai>oitol\c Ctnutitutiotu. Thie 
pBSWgt, in fact, ie wauling in the SjTiac Didtuealia. Wax 
be al» ihu author of the reduction of the litui;gy in the 
tighth hook Τ Wq may hoaitatu to answer this qiieation 
ufilrniati%'ely, for there are some difRsniioes between this 
liturgy asd that of Book U. 

1 am now going to describe the Divine Service such 
aa these documenle imply it to have been, noting where 
nscwsniy their divergences from each other. 

The congregation hns assembled, the men on one aide 
and the women on the other, and the clergy in the apse. 
The readers at once be^iu the lections, which are in- 
lempUH] here and there by chants. A reader ascends the 

' Lagui^.tevbaa. Ιβ62: Lo^nnlt' tried to rcvootlniiTt (hv Gn«k i«st 
|it«B in tul, U. of llir Atinttt. .InbinVnu (Bnnara. ChriitM-nitt/ aitJ 
MHtUital, rot. vl , LtBiliMi. IKM). Some l«t[n Γη^ι-ηΐι diamvi?n<d at 
VuMMa «<(« |iiiUuUi«il n-ornlly by KAm. Manhr {Didatealix Afij,. /mgm. 

βΟ cauiiTiA.v WORSHIP: IT» υηιυι,ν axd κνυιηιοκ. 

the ealntation of the biahop, followed by a reeponse from the 
oODgregatioD. Thereupon, at a 8)gaal given bj the doacoo, 
τ&β clmgf receive tlie kiss of peace from the biehop. while 
the uoithfot interchange it with each other, Uie men with 
men, and the women with the women. 

Then the deacons and other inferior minislera diatribut 
thsnuelrw into two bodies, to one being assigned the siipor- 
TiaioD of Uie congregation, and to the other the service of 
the altar. The former tako thoir places among the faitliful, 
amnging the latter according to their ranlc, the young 
children being placed at the npproBchvs 1o the sact«d pre- 
cinete. They watch the dooi-s also, in order tiiat no pirofime 
person may enter th« church. The others bring and place 
upon the altar the loaves and chalices pTL-parod for the mcred 
repast, while two of their number kuep wa\ing the flnbella to 
protect the holy ubktion &am insects. The bishop washes 
his hands and puts on a fostul garment ; the priest• arrangt 
theroeclves nround him, and together they nil draw near to 
the altar. This is the solemn moment. After a private 
prayer ofTured in alenco by the bishop, the latter makes the 
sign of the cross on his forehead, and begins: 

"The grace of Ood Almighty, the lo^-e of our L• 
Jesus Chriat, and the communion of the Holy Spirit, be 
nith yoti all. 

•• Aud with Thy Spirit. 

■' lift up your hearts. 

" They an) with the Lord. 

" Let ns givu thanks unto tlio Loid. 

" It w moot and right. 

" It is truly right to glorify Thoo, first of all, God truly 
«xiatiug. . . ." 

And the euchartstie pmyer goes on, stattittg fix>m the 

OontUnltnopIf <cc linvc in the lint iiIoM' iho pntycn of ihr• talUifnl nll«*«d 
tij iWi^lclMiil. Ilii-ii llic i>nic(icii.<n <>Γ Ibe uU&li(in. tbc liiBoonnl Liton^. 

t llP kJM ΟΓ |><!«M!, Mill tllC LVlnL 



majee^ of the nuAppraucbablu God, paesing in roviuw all 
His benefits oonferred upon Ilia creatune, eaamer»tia)j »11 
tbe wooders of nature naa ^n'scti, appealtug to thu groat 
types of the ancient oovuuiuit,' and coucluding, at luogtli, 
by Λ return to tlie mysturioiu eunctuary, tii which the 
DirinUy leete in the midst of epinta, where the Cherubim 
Bad Seraphim sitig togetber the eternal h^-mn of the 

Al this poiol the whole congregation raise their voioee, 
joiaing witli (lie choir uf augeU in their hymn, " Holy, Holy, 
Holy is the Lord. . . ." 

The hymn being ended, tJiere is οηοθ more βϋβηοβ^ ftod 
the biahop then proceede with the aodiuutio prayer vhicb 
htd been intempted : 

" Vca, truly Thou aii holy . . ." and he oommemwntoe 
the work of B^Mlumption, the incanwtlini of the Wend, 
and His earthly life and passion. At this moment thu 
improvisation of tiie ei:Iubnint follow* cloeely the Goepd 
aooonnt of the Loet Supper, and the mystertoiLS words spokon 
tor the first time by Jesus ou the eve of Ή'ιλ death ore 
rapeated at the boly teble. Thereupon the bishop, taking 
as his test tlie hut wonh), " Do this in tacmor}- of Me," 
expands tbom, rocalliug to memory* tlic pasttion of iJio 
Son of God, Hie death, resurrectio», ascension, and tbe 
hope of His glorious rcliiru. dectojing that it is truly 
in keeping of Christ's command, and in commemorating 
these eTcaie that the congregation offere to God thie 
«Bcha ri stio braad and wine, finally, be prays the I^ord^ 

• Hid lotmidtitj oi Ibo Apothlio OmttHulioai «iinnerate•. is tbdr 
UMOri«Bl onW. • oerUUi DumWr at minoks frcnn llie Old TMUmeot. 
Aa laterrnpUon Ibra oooun. wtii-n nfUr liAvLag retailed lo weniarT th« 
bH of tb» wnlb of Jetlolio Id tlio time οΓ JotbtuL, tlie fanaalMy «lop• 
ibnrL Swli ■■ thnpi (ircoeb οΓ cymtbaity tun noltlwr Imm lieoa rtpilw 
DOT habilnftl. 

* Tbta I• abat b ckllod tn tonlinlcnl loairiu^ lli« Aititvimti•. 
' Tltia i» Ibe ^Metlt, or ioroantinii uf the lluly trjilrit. 



to regard Ute obUtion with favour, and to cause to 
devcetid upon it the virtue of His holy SpmL, io order 
that it may be made the body and blood of Christ, the 
Hpirituitl food of His faithful people, and the pludgc of their 

Th« eudifthstio piuyor pi-oper comes thus to an end. 
'Ώιβ mystery ie ix>nsiimmatod. At Lhu call of Hi« dieciplee 
Cbmt has become prueunt iu their midst. Ho has taken up 
Hie «bode on tho lacred altur under the mystic Teils of Urn 
coDMcrated elemoota. The prayers are rwnmed, but directed 
now to the proeent, although invisible, God. It is no longer 
the deacon, a» inferior minister who spoake and conducta 
the mpplications, but tho bishop him«uir, the hoad of Λ» 
Christian oommiini^ : 

"I-wd, we pray to Thee for Thy holy Chnrch sp: 
abroad from one end of Uie world to the other ... for 
myeelf who am nothing ... for these priesta, for the» 
deacons, for the emperor, the nuigietnitoa, and the army . . . 
for the sainta who in all ages were enabled to please TbM, 
patriarchs, propheta, the rigfateoos, apostles, an<I mar^n . . . 
for tUB people, for this city, for the sick, for those who are 
under the yoku of slavery, for the exiles, the priaoocis. 
soUora, travullers . . , for those who hate us and pcrsu- 
cute OS ... for the catechumens, the poMeesed, the 
penitents ... for regularity of the seoaona, for the 
fniite of the eai-th ... for the abeeat." At the ratd of 
this long prayer is a doxulugj-, to wliich the whole congre- 
gation responds Amtn, thus nitifyiog the act of thimke- 
giving and intureeasion- 

The Pakr Nosltr^ is now rueit4:d, acoompimicd by » new 
but very shoil Dioconal Litnny, in whidi some of the 
subjects already unumeratod by the bishop in his long 

* Tho plAo)] οΓ till) I'litrr Naittr li not Uio mime In ikll tlio (lacmueala. 
Tfao Litiir|7 of tbo Jp. CotiH, omiU il onltrdjr, bnl Bt Cyril plMwi 


supliUcaiion are t^aia taken u[i. After Uiis LiUioy iho 
hisbop again givea bie blessing to (fae p«o{>lc. 

Tbie cerenumy betn^ ended, the deacon arouees the «Uen- 
UoQ of the &itbful, while tJie tiiabop says, in a loud voice, 
" Holy things for holy penoos 1 " The people respond : ' 
"One sole Holy, uqo sole Lord, one sole Jesus Christ, for 
the glory of God the Father, hlessed for erermore, Amen. 
Glory to God in the highest, peaoe on earth, good-will 
towards men. Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed 
be He that oomelb in the Νκιαυ of the Lord I The Lord 
is Uod; He bee nanifeeted Himself to as. Hosasna in 

It wae doabtleos at this point that the fraction of the 
bread took piece, a oeiemony which the dooomente of Uie 
ioaitb century do not mention in expreaa terms. 

The eommunion then took place. The bishop oom- 
manicated first, then the priests, deacons, sub-deaoons, 
l«eU)n, paalmista, asoetie, deaoonessoe, virgins, widows, 
and yooag children, and at length the whole congre• 

The bishop administered the comtecmted bread by placing 
it in the open right hand, suppoiied by the left, uf the 
raapieot. The deacon held llie chalice, fiOin whicli each 
one drank directly. To each coiumuoicant the bi:3hop said, 
"Tlio Body of Christ." The deaoou adinioietered with 
tbo words, -The Blood of Christ, clialioe of life," The 
nieiptente replied by " Amen." 

During the commuiitou the pealnuels cbiuit PeuUn 33 
[34], Bmedioam Dotainum in onnt ίβιιφοη, in whidi the 
wotds, GvsUUd ti videU quiu »tut»ia ett Vomnua have u special 

■ lU• Is Ibo forsuknt «r thu λρ. OMd. 8L C^ ftvn «uy the 
"•Ti Irftet, lit «4fMi. 'Iqffoii Xfierii." CempiiN iho thiid 

pnjrsr of tbe Duirime »/ the AiJif^lt, flwa nLiiVu, p. i3. 

■ W. Cjnl nftfuj cit(« llocm. 


The oomiouuiou uodud. tins ilwicoa giv«e tlio sigD for 
prayer, which thw bishop oflcra in the name of alL The people 
bow to receive liis blcssiog, and arc tinally diaiuiescd by the 
Joacon with tho words. " Depart in peace." 

5 3.— The Oblkstal LiroBctES. 

The Litni;gy of Uie Apottolie Cowtiiuiums cuukot 
considored as the nonnal and oflioiat Liturgy of aoy dintinet 
Chuivh. It can be proved that its formularies did not 
paee into the texts adopted later on as the Official Use. But 
if, from the point of view of ite purport, it cannot lie con- 
sidered more than α private composition, it is otherwi^ with 
the ritual which it implies, and with the tirrangetnent of the 
prayers, their style and general tenor. Id regard to these, 
wo must recoguiw in it an exact rei*rei<eatatio& of the iiae of 
the great Churches of Syria, AuUoch, Laodicea, lyre, C^tesatvu, 
and Jonisalem. The mo.<>t tniatwortliy documents, in that 
which concerns Antioch and iTomsulcm, fkimisli αβ here witlt 
completely convincing evidence. Among Uieee documenta 
we must not only a.<<sigu α place to the texts of St. Cyril of 
Jemealem and of Hi. John Chrysostom, but wo must also 
take into our reckoning the Syrian liturgie» of hiter 
centuries. All these are, indeed, of the same l^po aa tho 
Liturgy of the Constilntiona. allowance being made, tte a 
matter of cooreti, for the additions and the greater com- 
plexity of the rites and prayers which have been tnoor- 
pornted into it in the course of limv. 

This brings me to epeak of the urea in which the Syrian 
Liturgy wus used, of il«i spread, to α varying extent, through- 
out the whole East. Kgypt excepted, and finally of the 
documents containing it. 




1. &fria. 

We h«vo alreadj' seen that the original obedieDCO owed 
10 Antioch hnil been reetrict^d, in the lifih century, througb 
the foundatioD of the autooephaloos pmvinoe of C^pnie and 
of the l*sUiaTcbflte of •Tenisaletn. It woiilcl appear ihut this 
reamngemeDt bod no marked influonce on the liturgy. At 
tho time in which it toob place the use of Andoch lisd l>oen 
adopted tbrougbout the whole of Syria, and it contiuuud to 
be obierrod there. An event of more grave coosequenco 
to this roepect was tho Joeobitc schism of Ibe sixth century.. 
TIm adTereariee of the Council of Cholcedon wore tbeo 
(bnning themselves, nndcr the insligution of Jttcob Baradiu, 
into disaeotient Churches absolutely separate from those of 
the orthodox oommonion, and proTtded with a complete 
hiemohy, from the ratriarch of Antioch down to the inferior 
ccden. Tbeso communitiee msintainwl their existence side 
by side with the official Churches (Imperial, Melchites), and 
attained, especially after the Mussulman ϊηταβϊοη, a high 
degree of prooperily. Tbey exixt to this ihiy, but, ^om the 
end of the cigbtecntli century, a considerable nnmbor of 
Honophysites have returned to orthodoxy in attaching 
tbemselres to the Iloman Church. Ilence two groups 
of " Syrians" hare been formed— the Jacobite Symns 
or Honophysites, and orthodox Syrians. Their two 
patriarchs reside, or are supposed to reside, nt Mordiu in 

After the Monopbysitea came the Monotbelites. Mono• 
ibelism, oondemned at the Sixth <Koametiical Council of 
Constantinople (t>81), wa<i tbereupoo abandoned by Uie 
official Chorches of the Ureek Empire, except during u short 

• The OilhaUe |»triucb roddo* iMimlly nl AU-pfxi. 


inlcrviU wheu il vne leetored ander the I^mperor rbilippjcns 
(71 1-713). Il held tta ground, howevflr, at the convent of 
John M&joa, in the Lebanon, and within the nuliue of 
influence of this monastery. Hencu the origin of the 
religious group of the Maronitm, wlio, after having main- 
tained their dugmatic isolation for five hundred yean^ enbarod, 
in 1182. into communion with the Boioan (^ureb — in a, 
sumvwUat precortoue fashion, it is true, for even up to Uut 
end of the sixteenth century the union was subject to cod- 
sidcrablo Hucluations. The Marouites wore governed from 
their monastery, in wMch a certain number of bishops readed. 
After many efforts, soccess at length attended the attempt to 
anbetitnto for this primitive uiganieaiion a sort of ouclu- 
siaslical province, witli dioceses and fixed episcopal ecate. 
The bisliupK rucogoieed a patriarcli us tlioir head, who took 
hie title t'loin Antioch. ijyriuc is tlie liturgical language 
of the Maronitee, ne it is of the Jacobite», both Uniata 
and non-Uoiate.' 

Alfmgside the» tiationu] patriarchy whoso origin gow 
back to the lter«tioaI schism, the official and orthodox 
Patriarch of Aotioeb maintained his vxistenoe, although 
uumeroua socesuons bud much eufuvbltxl his poeilion. 
Uis peculiar liturgy was gradually supphiuti»! by that 
of Constantinople, tbu only one which is now in use Ln 
the Greek Churches of tliu PaUiarcbate of AntiooL. A 


> Tlio Mnfnnitc piitHaralialc ia thanroTc (juiUi ■ mudoni iuttilulinn. lU 
liLuUr patririroliB iin- in iiu napuut lliu Βυαυακη of Ibu kncleiit ΙΊιίΓΜίΐΕϋ• 
vf ADtioeh, Till* in nut llic ivijh% howvvi-r, niiti rkmiI lo the Rjrrian 

p»triltcch«, tbv Mi-loliitv (laliiurFh, lUiJ the Greek DOD-Ulliat feuiueb. 
TImm Iwu lut tiprwful— wttli tliu dilTcniuooorouiDtnuabu — th* «uaciwloa 
οΓ the Uraek oitliodox {utitiuvlia of Aiilioch; tlm I^yitui pklrUroli•, «ith 
Ibe mnc difforeoeo, vc iliu ioburiion of tlic JmoUIo patrivelMl wa 
laiwded ία the elxih ocalury. Klrielly qicftkiuK, there ongbt not lo bo 
iu Syria μοΙΙμγ Catliolte iwtriweb thiui the Uvlohll•. Tlio uililBBCB of 
thii oUtcr tiro ia duo to tbu rrajicol with irliieh the holy sec eoiuiden it 
rifibt lo πΐ(ρ>η1 iliiitinetioaii ia(nifluiN>d «ώΙοΗμ ago, whatever Ihoir 
kKitiOuic)' aiuj Iinvo bvi-ii nl llieit bt^iiiuuag. 



nuuiburof Hynim Ureeka, or nther of the Clu-ietiaa popu- 
lation using ibe Arabic l&ogoage and folloning iJm 
Ityzuitine rite, became i&corponOed in tbo Ronuui Com- 
lauuioD U the end of Uie eoTenteODth century. Theee 
ooDMitate what are called the Greek Melchitea. They are 
organised into u patriiuchate,' wboee titulary iceidee at 
DftmascuA. Theii' eulr)' into tbe Boman Commiuiion, bow- 
ever, has bad no inSueace upon tbeir liturgy, which, wiUi a 
few slight alterutioufl, reniaii;^ that of the non-Uniat orthodox 
Cfanetiane. They use purely and simply the Liturgy of 
Uoostonlinople, trkoelatod, it ia true, into iho Arabic 

The Utiu^cal documente which owe tbeir oiigin to 
Syria, that ie to say, to tlie Patriercbates of Antiocb and 
uf Jeruaalem. as woU as to tho eutocophalous province of 
Cypnu, ore — 

1. The Ortdi LUuryy o/ Si. Jama. — This appears to have 
been at first the normal liturgy in all these oountries, and is 
atialogoas to that which is called in the Koman rite the 
Ordinary of the Maes. At the present day it is no longer in 

, except ία Jerusalem, C>'prua, and certain other localities, 
tbtm only on one day of the year, the Feast of St. 
fuaw (October 23rii). During the remainder of the year the 
liturgies of Constantinople are exclusively followed. The most 
Euicieol witaees to the exintence of this liturgy is a mention 
of it in the 32ud canon of Uie Council in TruUo (G02), whero 
it i» cited as being tlie actual production of St. James, tJio 
iibrother of our Lord. It must go back, however, much boyond 
•ereoth ceutury. The fact tliat the Jacobites have 
red it in Syriac as tbeir fnndainental liturgy proves 

■ Th» titlu au Μ ΆηΙ llul (ιΓ I'ntriaroli πΓ Aatiooh. Ctom Uio llniu 
«f Qnfutf XVI.. tli« lii.«il uJ Uw MuJi'liiCe CUnnib tiiui Iwon dirtugwialicil 
hf tJio tlUa lit I'tUUrtit uf .^sUunli, JmuhIuib, uiJ .\Iouuidrin. lie ti 
raivoKuUd I» tneh of tba t«u luit dllv• by • VK*i. 


ihal il wse ftlrcady οαοββοτΗΚκΙ by long use at tlie limu 
when those oommmiitiee took Llieir rise — that is to »iy, 
itbout the middle of the sixth ceQturjr, 8t. Joromo 
appears to haro known it. It is certain, at leivit, thiit 
bo citus II liturgical passage timt ix Tound iu tliu Liturgy 
of St. Jiunue.* The niftnuscripte in which it ie pi-oserved 
«aoDot, unfortunaltily, lay claim to any antiquity. Aa it 
nppoais in those manusciipte, it coulftins many modiflcatioDa 
tiBCMble to the ByKontinv use.' 

2. 3^r Sifriac LUury^ o/ Sl Jataft. — TUi* \% nearly 
idontiool with the preceding. &om the Eiss of Pc«oo 
onvrards. The manoscripte which contain it are of the 
uighlh century," 

3. Thr, Other S^ae LUurffiee. — lliey differ from ooo 
another only in ϋιβ Anaphora. The Onunsty* is the eame 
in all of them. 

To t^hese manuaci'iptA must be added a letter of Jnmes 
of EdeesB (end of the aeveuth eeutury), whieh oontaios 

■ J4r. Ptiaff.. ii. 3S: "Hiu^iAntiua quuliilic on ennveloUrant i firei 
ΛκψΛ^ττητνι, ψιηΛ in Hngim unatm divilar ^n/ aoJw rti Hue jmwilo," Tlicai 
iiuF<U ούι-ΠΓ nlu in tho M-mmlo fur Uiu ι1«ν1 (BriglitinaD, p. U): «hif 
y^ icTit t iiinui IrMiJ^qTDi f>u*li Jir) till yj(. In Sjiinu; " Xen ullnf 
Mt α fwcmtl nulpn ImiDDnU nut » ii»n]il>u« |iura» ix liuniiniliuii lai «upcr 
tenrnm innt. niiii nniw D. S*. Jisni Chndna." 

* TIlc IwE tiJiliuu il Iliut uf Bnjcliliuiui. Liturgie• Kubni ami Wtitrrtt, 

[>. 31. ΊΊιο iDoat κιιοίκηι ι iHM-rlpI 1* % mil «t lliv mil of tliu U-nth 

□cDlurj, aow prcacrmd al Mtwinii : t mtut fartliiT uitu ϋιυ Boanno hubu• 
•oiij't (flit»'., I!i7il) iT IW tni-lrtli cnttury; tlie FatMmt 2ΐ(0. »Γ llio 
runrtuTiiLU iiiDtun (oopf No. :tii:i of tliu Grmk •ηρρ1βιικϋ1), aail tbn 
P^ι^i^iHlιψ. Urci'k tuppl. 47β. iiIb) υΓ Ihc roortconth oeiiliirjr. ThoM «i[jiii•, 
or tlinlr oriiilnnlii. «11 («nc fnim β}τ'"- Tliv tiitan nmj bo wU uT Iha 
Biniutic miuiuicniil uf tlie Touni-'enlli orDliuy. Γπαη «rlijeb Sir. Briiililinae 
huo Ulh'ii η tiin/vnifj» iih•' ilnio-jn'• J'irt) ΙκΊιχικίηιί (•> llip Man -Λ Itiu 
Prawnctifiod ΒΟίχΐΓάίηβ l•• tlir rite ι.•Γ i^t JtuuM <»^ rU,. p. (!■(). 

' IleDMidot'* Imuilation ilJInrg. (hind., \t>\. κ.) liu botm τβιιικϋιιοαΐ 
\/} lIunmiuDd, nnil, fu thi- purtiooa «iinman to llie Orevk kiul thp l^)rii*e, 
by 6«ruiiiiuu {Jlir fltfk Lilurgi'•; l^joduii, ISSI), Mr. Origlituuui ififok 
tliv U^tt at Uiii Uliircy Id RnttlUli. 

* Fur thoK! Icsia, ttt' Brighlmiui, p. Iv-, Η tg. 



lany detaiU witb regard to the liturgy in Uie Muuo[>kyeit« 
iturchae luiiig the Syriac langiuge.' 

3. ' Meiopabimia and Pcnia. 

Then) ie no doubt that tbu Chnroboi of Meeopot&mia 

•od rcnda wen; roundwl by miasiooariee who cams 

AoUocIl But the differenoe of languagu nod cpf 

UUooI alloj^ncc iu tlivse i-u^ons suua i;iivfi α special 

■ture to ibeeo ChurcliL'«. Knd did uot fuu to have au 

inl)n«aoo on their litut^ical uses. It is eomevrhnt difB• 

lit tu dilTdruDtiato Xvwk Uttwvun Edvsea nod Seleuda• 


The ΧυΜοτϊαη oommuaitiee of tbv asciont Soaeauid 
lom have [a<eeerved litui^es, tbo original prowmana- 
which may be either of tbeee two motropoUtiin citioe. 
At Lbe close of the fifth' cencnry the Neetorione of Edeesa 
Ptmia, and there is no reaeon to supposw that 
' did not cairy tbither ouiny of their country's ciutome. 
loweTer this may be, lbe Neatoriau liturgies may be 
lidered to repreneat the type adopted in the countries 
the Euphrates, where the liturgical language vna 
leluaively Syriac. We niuat at the present time ^s- 
between the NesCorians properly so called, «ho 
I kept themselves together witb their national patriarch 
the moiintainit of Kurdistan,* and the Uniat or Chaldean 
fcvtoriana, who have at their head a Catholic Patriarch 
Μ Moeeul. Thueo two digoitoriea, wlio bear the 
of Fatriarcha of Babylo», are reprenentativea πΓ the 
^cceamon of the nneiont Catholieo* of Selencia.' 

■ AMemut. ΑΛΙ. IhimL, *aL ί p. iVi. Briglilmiin, p. ino. 

* lit* riMdener la at KocbiAr•, timu JDlnmcrk, α piftou nlonlrd on tlir 
Zat^ In ILo naeuUia• lo tdo nnrtli ot MomoI, λ «linrt ΛΙιΙκαοα Γκηο Dip 
fenUa tmalUr 

' Tlir JamUiM kare m\m In tbeM enmiUiM Ui^ nwn pirllnkr 
M r p wt w lfc tt, praldad over by k - Jbphriut." 


Tbu tntLst rhamcteristic feature of the liCnrgies of 
Neetorian origin is the poeitioD aesigned. to the Great 
SnppIicatioD, or Mcmmto. Inatcail of following the Bpidiei», 
Μ in the Syrian Liturgy, it a placed before, and inune- 
dtfltely coonocted with, the Commemoratdon of Chriat, or 

The foUowiDg are the texte whieh are al present known 
of UtCM litnigiea. 

1. An Anaphora of the aixUi century, Brat published 
by H«rr Bkkell ' and, after re-examination of the manu- 
script, by Mr. Ilammond.' It is merely α fragment in 
very bad preser\'ation, but entitled to respect on account 
of ite antiquity. 

2. The IJtUTg}- of SS. Adeens and Marie, founders of the 
Churches of Rdeasa and Selencia. This is thu nonnnl 
littifgy of Lbt! Neeloriana, iiud thu only one used by the 
Chaldean TTnints.* 

3. The two Anaphorae of Theodore of Mopauestift and 
of Neetoriue, which nre used hy the NeetorianH at certeiti 
times of tbe year.* 

Neetorian ti-adition attributea tbe final fixing of the 
littiigy in ite curtailed form as found in thti text attnbnt«d 
to SS. Adaena and MuKs, to tbe Patriarch Jeeayab III., 
who lived about tlie beginning of the aevenib ofnlnry,' 

■ Cmapntn» rri Syr^nnn ZAerarfao, p. 71 i ΖιΛιΛι*Α Λη «ImtMlm I 

Otilltehaft. 1^», p. am. 

■ 7V Litntgy r,/ AnUodt. \i. 41. DriehUDAO, ψ. 611. 

■ I'ubllklinl only In ψΛΐΙ by B^oBudul (rcil. iL p. ST8}. Tbe boU 
.tail mm pnbliahod in Ιβ!)2, by the Kngliali nuMion at Uruik (lAnyta 
SB. ApoOelonm Aitaii ci Xarlt. ttf.). EngUali UviL•, BrlxUtiuM. 
p. «7. 

' Killtml. ingvrilicr with tlie tumnal LUoifT, by Bfiinnilot, ia tbn 
τηίαηο Jiul mcnilnnnd. 

* Npkcll, ibvil Sue., xa\. iL p. 1121. Here. «• In otbcr JiwtiUiMv, I autke 
nn iDt>ntiu)< I'f tlic li-xt* jirintifd Γοτ actaul ΙΙΙιΐΓκΙτβΙ lur. Tina•- kIiicIi nr» 
■»c<l bf Uk' Calliolic cinnimiinltlni Imvn «iifltrr•! ttaax ultornll'inii wtiii-h luivn 
been. nude vitb more moJ tluui knmitrdge. It I• not tottirw) hub, bal la 



3. Cmarta and Constanlituplt. 

We luvo pteviomly seen Uiat, towards the end of 
the third contary, and daring α considerable part of the 
fourth, the Uhnrcht» of Asia Minor, and especially Chose 
of CappadociA, I'ontiu, and Bithynla, had close and 
hvqaont rehilioas with the see of AntiocL It was from 
Aoliocb, moreuver, that the (lospeL was carried towards 
then ngiona. Cteearea had looked to AaLioch boforo 
owoiDg obedieooe to Conetantaoople. It waa by the 
bialiap• who ouae from Aatiocb or Coisftna — Gragoiy 
NasiftOJren, Nectoriu•, Chryaoetom, Xestorius — that the 
Churcli of CotutAntinople was ruled ut the period whon 
it r«c«ivwl its final orgaointion.' It is, thcreforf^ not 
•Bipritiiig Uiat ite lituri^y roprodiicoa all Che eeaential 
foalon• of the Syrian Liturgy." 

ThU liturgy is now used over sji immense area. It 
baa ended by eapplanting the older liturgies in all 
the Greek patriarchates of the East. It is in ueu in 
the Kational' Church of Givece and iu those of .Servin, 
Bolgkiia, Buasia, Itonmonia, etc.* It ia tmie that, in these 

■nntiaT MuitiKripta. «β «iwl bAvn rfMuno ΪΓ wo «ieb to reeonitraet 

' TliB Ariwi blihiip Rui!>ixiia (3ti0-37i>) alio euao tmta Iho enviran• 
U Aatiocti. 

> Till- CoenaQ of LoedloM. fu tlie tonrth («Dlury. hM pnatnud 
(m ^ tarn» uiUiMtlnir UtuiKicnl dolalla; *^ looUniu olUmalfoe witli 
UpDJW (a t7\ lumuliu•, μη^νη. Ilie dlmUMol uf ntlmliuiiieiui and 
pantlenla, the tbitwfold prujvr υΓ llio failbful. in atlmv• I» Λα Dnt 
iHtanr», anil tvire klunil, Λαά fiiinlly til» Um cf pvncv «nil the obUtlun 

* n* ■mhrit^Ual κπιιιρ• oaoiiectnl (hraritimllii vrith tlie Grcok 
l>aUUfth«la of CmutkntiiiDiFlp uv : lit, Ut• Uul)- e>-uod of AIIirhs (Kiii|;' 
iem ot Qi«Mt-): tud. tlw H0I7 Uyaod ct Petonturit (Riuflut Enpir»}: 
IM. Uw Sarrlfta fauiftrchaU- οΓ Culcnriu (flervia in Anrtro-Huiitpiiryj : 


ι;ηβι»τιλν woitsHiP: its obioix akd evolution. 

latter countriea, wheiv the liturgical language is ootGrock, 
traoslittioDe are employed which are made from the Greek 
t«xt ufied iu the Vatriorchate of Constantinople. 

There are now in use two texia of the complete Con- 
stantinopolitau Liturgy, besides a Mass of tlie Preeanctd6ed. 
llie two complete liturgies bear the names of St. Basil sod 
St. John Chryitostom. The first was, at the onteot, the 
normal Liturgy. It is now uoed only on the Sundays in 
Lent (except I'alm Sunday), Holy Thursday, Easter £τβ. 
Christmas Kve, the Kve of the Epiphany, and the let of 
January, which is the Feast of St. Basil. On other days, 
the Litu^QT of St. Chryeostom, considerably shorter thsn 
the former, is followed. During Lent, except on Saturdays 
and Sundays, since the Moss, strictly so called, is not 
then oulebiatcd, the Liturgy of the Preeaoctified ia used, 
which has oomo to be attributed, but for what msoD it 
is not Icnown, to SL Gregory the Great. 

The most ancient miuiuscript known of the ByKantine 
Liturgy is the Codex liarbrrinva. No. 77. of the eighth or 
ninth centiuy. It is a Enchologion, which contains, besides 
the three lituigiee, prayers belonging to other services. 

lUi, the HDlropnlltan Tiunncc cif C'ctinjo (ΜβοΙαίΜβτα): Alh. tb» Hirtro- 
7>i)lit«n Hriii'!!)» uf Ih'lifniJo (Kinplom (>I Murvia}: Glli. 1I10 Xalinoiil 
BulcnrSnii (.liiirtli: 7tli, the NaUiiiial Οιτιτπΐι oT nnnniiuiin: Stli. lli• 
McliYi{in11lnn Provliicni of Iloniwutftdt (Τππ•τΙη»>ιπ) λοΑ cif TehcnunrHa 
(Uukoiinn): 9Ui. thb Ocorgian Clinroh unJirr tlio Kxnrfb ol Tlftla (mw 
■Uorlitd Iiy Hit? Biim'&n t'hiucli). In Qroco«, l\v> ISIur|cleal buiKuaf^ it 
nnvk: VD OHirglit, ΟαιίΓκΙηπ: In Boonuuiia. nnd Uic tin> pmvincra of 
Hi'muuietD'U ftiid Tobcnmiritc. Konmniiiui ; In the other Miuitriu^ Hlaronle. 
Tbc UniAU «f tlic ttyunlli»• ritii »r* uroopud ocriMliMtjmlljr μ foUow•: 
In Ihe BnitNa t'lCtrinnJiatui nf Antloeh. Jununlon. nnd Alouodila Ui»]r 
im mdor tliu ΜιΊι')!!!» [intrinrfb racidin); at Dunnanui, tut nbavtvimntlaiMML 
In the Piilrinmliittft of Uiniitnnitiieple, tho Gra«b-«pH^ni{ Uoint• have 
no apotnkl argnniMtioa: tlicy nro unilar tlio Liitlii bUliopi, •■ u• •)■» 
tho few OnMk ptufib» in luljr nnd i«ieily. Tbne ipeiddnK Balgulaii 
in Tnrfcey. ΒοηααιιΙαιι In Hiinifftry, «nil BallieDiMi in AnsUV'HmgBff 
■nd Ruuiii, buvc blihnpi nnd ntn eoclMlutlwl provtncM <Λ l)i«lr 
owii rlto. 


Bach as Bsptiem, Ordination, etc. The firat of the three 
liturgies, that of St Basil, is the only one which bears 
on it the name of its author, the two others are anony- 
mooB.' In thia ancient manuscript ike prayers bo be 
«aid by the celebrant only are given, the litanies to 
be said by the deacon not being included, nor, of course, 
the lections and hymns. It contains but few rubrics. 
This arrangement closely recalls that of the Latin Sacra- 
meatariee. The later manuscripts, of the twelfth century 
and onwards, are much more complete. 

There is no doubt that the Liturgy of St. Basil is 
the most ancient of the three. The text we possesB of 
it is attested as early as the beginning of the sixth 
century. In a letter addressed about 520, by the monks 
of Scythia to the AHcan bishops in exile in Sardinia,' we 
find a passage from it quoted at length. 

4, Arm&tia. 

The Armenian Liturgy, evidently derived from that of 
CfESarea and Constantinople, may be regarded as representing, 
in certain respects, an ancient stage of the Byzantine Liturgy. 

' Mr. Brightnun haa pnblUbed (pp. eil., p. 309, Η t<q.} the three 
lltlirgi«a aoMvding to tbe Bnrbcrmi maniucript, which giTH* the uao 
of the DiDtb oentmy or tbercabonta : in nddition to this, ho gives tho two 
littnpea of St. ChiyBaatom and of St. Itoail, following the toTU now in 
vm. He hu dbo ooUected sod olnoiflcd (p. SIS, et ttq.) a certain number 
of text! which ue Bsefnl in giTing an idea of tlie development of tlie 
BjsMitiae Litnigy. 

* Kigiie, P. L., vol. Ixv. p. 449. " Hinc etiun beatna Bsailiiu C'aeaari' 
Maia epiaeopuM in oratione Boori altaris qvuim iMcne nniveraiu freqncDtnt 
fMett•, inter caetcru: J%n>a, iaqait, Domian tirtmeat ae luinatciilitBi ; ηκιίο" 
faoMWHiu, ionot faeito. boru» in bonHaie conterni. Omnia mint polei et 
«a ttt qui etmtradUat lAi. Cum enim voluerU mIboi et nvllut rwittii 
MtonfaU toM." 

74 ciiKtSTiAK woRSiur: its o&tcia and evoLUTio.s. 

The Annenian use is repreAented by only a stifle text, of 
which the oldest attestation as to its details is a oommentary 
of the tenth century.' The Armenian Church, in 491, de- 
nounced the Conocil of Chnlcedon, at a time when none 
of the official Chnrchee οΓ the Greek Empire accepted it. 
When the latler came into comnnmion with Some (519), 
and embraced the faith of Chalcedon, they made aereral 
attempts to indnoe the Anoeniaoe to do the sauno. But 
their elTorte were in vain — in plac* of lecoociliBg thum 
they only intonsifiod tho echism, which made iteelf par- 
tdcnlarlj noUccable in tho matter of ritual.* 

in tho Middle A^s, many Armenians, who had been 
driren out of their country by various invasions, emigrated 
into Persia, Syria, Asia Minor, and even as far as Hungorj• 
and Poland. In this dispersion, which was similar to the 
Jewiflb Diaspora, they preserved their language, nationality, 
and rituaL Their chief eccleaiasdcal euperif»* has always 
buon. theoretically, the CathoUoos of Etchmiadadn, but thvy 
Iiave, as a matter of fact, in various countries, an organisa- 
tioQ independent of this theoretical authority, placed at the 
present time under the iuflueoce of Husaia. During the last 
century many of thent have been received into communion 
with Lliu Homan Churcli. Those in Turkey have at their 
heiu] a national patriarch (Patriarch of Cilida), residing at 
nstantinupkv Tn Austrin they are under the Armenian 
'Hshop of Ijeopol.^ 

Uar. CluarDM M. lUplinilfi) prfotm ηιΐ4ΐα*. PKbminr. ISSO. Hi» 
* 'tETKy ii irfri^ In KnelUh in Btigblnuui. γ. 412. 

•caiuu lit IliHl Uini' imkI un1e>n>n«I bm»d. w>d «αιΐΜ«ηΙ«>ΐ 

ιΛ aoj Hilmixliixi c/ min. Tboy did act «dnlt the 

w Inio Uioii mlmdar. 

nuitlier tho Ann«BlMi-Or«furliui Palriorrlw of Tntktf, 

bterrh 'Ί (."MitbL, rati be placed on ϋιυ Μη• footins 

iM hf Uii> fm Onok latriwAaloL The CmiImUix• 

line joFiailMlini ία Uirurj «iKeed• a**r ilia «bat* 

Iai » «Bpcria title to thdta. Bat. MoetiUnK to tbo 

saob OS BapdsDt. OrdiuatioD, etc Tlie first of tbo tlucu 
titiugiee. thai of St. Basil, is the only one which bears 
oa il the name of ite author, the two aOien are anony- 
mous.' In this ancient manuscript Uio prayers to bo 
uid by the oolebrant only are given, the lilouies to 
be said by the deacon not being included, nor, of course, 
the lectiooa and hymns. It contains but few rubrics. 
This uiangement closely rcealls thai of tlie Latin Sacrs- 
mentaiiea The later manuscripte, of tlio twelfth century 
and oniranls, ore much more complete. 

There is no doubt that the liturgy of St Basil b 
the moet ancient of the three. The text we posseea of 
it is atieetcd as early as the beginning of the sixth 
century. In a letter a(ldree.<ied about 620, by the monks 
of Scytbia to the Alrican bieliops in exile in fjardinia,' n-e 
find a poBSOge from it quoted at length. 

4. ArmcHia. 

The Armenian litorgy, evidently derived from that of 
Qnarea and Constantinuple, may be regarded as reprveeuting, 
io ooctuo leepecte, an ancient trtage of the Byxantlne Litui^g)'. 

■ Mr BricliUnea bM pnbUcliml (op. WI , p. 300. tt Mg.) Uio llini- 
υΐοΓκΙ•* oMijrilinic la ibo BnrlirTini uinniiiiiripC wliicli pirM tlin lui• 
nf tUe nl&lli «i-nliiryor tlirimtrtul•: in ndJitioii hi llitik Im ίΛιη ί\•ι• twn 
UivkI** "f t*l Cli^^abiin Mul οΓ ΑΙ. BmII. fullDWinf; tliR text» ddv In 
•w He JMi abo «illMt«d ui<l oloaiieml (p. .MS, ft v?.) η ccrtnin iimuU-T 
if Irxli wklph Μ« nrnttH in )ρτΙι>κ na tiUii of lhi> ilofelofimi-iit "t Ilia 
HrmnUw• l.ltnrer- 

• Hitnie. Γ. L•., vol. k«. p. *t9. " nine ctfum bmhu BmUIiw U»aui• 
•••i• «fiiMepii• In nntieao Mori klbiriB qnnia ρ«•ί>•' onlvi-raiu ΓηΗ]ΐιοιιΙιιΙ 
Oiiram, iatat oMInU' Ainu, tn^uit. tk^tiif Pittnum ac (π6ιιη.-ιι(•ΐΒ> ; witu• 
ywf , Imd• /iieita, bonot (n bonilal' amterta, Oauiia enlrn futr* tt 
•«■ •>! fH< antr^iliaal lAi. Cum mfn wttMrf) talvat Λ ΚοίΉ' ntUtit 

76 riininTiAS woftsmp: π* oriqis wji EVOMmos. 

Prayer of Obbitiott ς/ JJinAo/i Sarvjao». 

It le meet uii! right ta pnu'M, to byiiin, to K'ori'y Tlioe tit• 
αηηοηίοιΐ ■ Fatbor of the only-bcttnctvn Jeene ClirifL W• pralw | 
Tbco. Ο iinorcftted Ood, wlio &rt Dtucnrohiiblo, incflablc ίικαηρη- 
hnniiblo by nny ormtod nibatano». W• praixo Thtw who •η known 
of Tliy SoQ. the only-begotten, who tbrough Hfm mt spoken at and 
interpreted nmt tnaclo known to cT«nted nature. We praiie TIm« 
who knowiwt llic Son knd reveiuost to the taints the gloriee tlHt 
arc about Him : who art known of Thy begotten Wvnl, and lit 
bran^t to tho (ii;ht »nd intArpTotod to the nndMitanfUiig of the μΙοΙα. 
We pnu'«c Tlieo, Ο utuecn Father, providif of iminortality. Thau 
■tt Uie Pomit of life, Uip Fount of liRht, the Fount of nil gtece vul 
all truth, lover of nioii, Ο lover of the poor, wbo t«oaDCiIee( 
Thyself to &1I, Aiid drawcel all to Thymlf through the advent (/n)iuJ«} 
of Thy ΙιαΙονοΊ Son. Wo benooch Thee mftko n• liring men. CHte 
us a Spirit υΓ light, tliat " wo may know Tliee the Trao [Qod] ud 
Him whom Tliou didst »en'I. («ven) .lorn» Cliri»L" Giro ω Holy 
Spirit, thnt WD ιπητ hr iMir to tell fnrth nnil to cnmiliate Thy luispoabiUe 
myfiteriu•. May the LonI Jesoe ipoak in na and Holy Spirit, and hymn 
The» tliroiiKh im. 

■Fur Thoti art "far nlmve oil role and anthorhy and power ma 
dominion, and evi^ry nnme thai b named, not only in (hiii world, but 
abto hi thai which is to come." Bcado Thee aland ttioaeniid tbaoMOih 
and myiixl myriads of angeb, archangels, throne^ domitiioiu, primil- 
palitioc, powora (lit. raltu, aiitliorttiea) : by Hiee aland the two moM 
liODOuraUe «ix-wing^ Heraphira, with two wings corering the ftco, aed 
will) toO tho foct, and ^tfa two flying and crying holy (άγι^^ίτη), with 
whom receive also onr cry of "holy" (&για0>.^)8> wo aay: Holy, holy, 
lioly, Lonl of Sabaoth, full i* tlic heaven αικί ihe earth of Thy glory. 

Full Is Uie beavan, fhll also in the enrUi of Iliy excellent gkiy.* 
Liml of hoela (lU. powers), fill alito lbl« uciifice with Thy power aad 
Tliy partluipation (^ΐηολ^^Μΐ) : for to Tlicu liavo wc otTorod tlils liTingi 

' The witfd ΰ iyJmrm• in tlie ori^aL [Ugr, DucLmuc tmtdered the 
WDtdST«nrrJt oadi^ATrai by er^T and Wrtf hi the Franch— at tbe boi• 
tine ntCrettiag thai tliat loiiKiiage dlil noi [iiinult of hia ndu^ iJnoiu aad 
inJtrra» (thu Iftttir i1cMi« nul ciliil) in an alMolule ten*''. — Tn] 

■ |TlurBiiiIii4>orSnlii)iarymni|!nr« IhiiniUi (Ji<- pliraai- of Ih» N'cMofiaa 
LilUTcT wl.Mi Hiionki »1 Uif β. 4^ nnd Blood ei OtiHM 0• Mof! oh thd allM 
lirfur•• nHinii-nitji.ii (llrii:liliiiiiii, p, ΪΙΓ7).) 

* [Tile Biohop «Γ Snllnlinr;' my* Ihrn• In mncli «ImlUrlly In ll>r puiOf'' 
beiwooD thcae aateriiik* tii the pamllil fiiwiii.-i? in Iht• Lilorsy of i*t. Mnrii. 
bet tho dUTi-renuae are uteu atilkiuifj 

«wtiSce, ϋύι Uondlew oblukm. To Thcc wo hnw oflend thin lira«d 
the Bk«»WM (Jftofw^Mi) οΓ l)ic Body of the Uiily-l«gottcD. Tlu« hrmA 
b dw I'^tn'tt of tbe Holy Dody, tieoauM) tlie Lord Je«iu« Christ in iho 
D%bt in wUcli B« wu betraj-ed took bread «nd broke and gsn 
lo Hi• diadidw nying, " Take jo and rat. ihia in Uy Body, which le 
Wig tmktn lot ytm tor r«iiumoti οΓ nns " (cp. Lit. (/ £r. iVnrA, ttc.), 
Vfhution «« abo maUag tJi« IQceDeaa of tho deftUi have ofhnd the 
l<«*d, and twicb Tb«r tbrongb thii wcrilivu. be recuticDod to nil of us 
'. awl be BHfdfbt, Ood of Trulli : and as (bin * bread had been Mattered 
' «n lh« Ιορ of iIr moDntuins and gathered together onrac to bo on•, m 
aln gatliot Thy holy Clratcb out of* every nation ami ornrr fouutry bdJ 
evcrjr dty uiil vQla(^ atid Itouee nod nuke oiic living Cotliolic CUurcli. 
Wo havo offered ako the cup, th« likeaee of tbo Blood, boaaiuo Uio 
Lxird Jcena CtitiK, talcing λ cap after mippor, aaid to Ηίκ nwii dleolplea, 
" Tike jre, drink, (hie !b the new ooveDant, whidi (S) is lly Blood, which 
b bong tbod (or 3W1 for κοώκίου of uiis (ίμΛΐ>τ^άτιτ)." Whenfbra 
wv Lara alia olTerod llio cop, prcMtnling η likeneHi of tb» blood. 

Ο God of Tnilfa, let Tby Holy Word • come upon tills bread (hrOr 
wwfcn ... Μ τΛ*.)^ ibat tlie bread may become Body at the Word, 
and npoo lUa cap that tliu cup may become Blood of Uie Truth ; and 
I make in who οοηηιιιιΐοβίφ to receive a modicino of lifv for llie beoUiig of 
I βτίτγ utikmr and for llic rtienKlheuins of all advancement and virtue, 
Laoifer oandemnntioci, Ο Uod of Tratli, nnd not for cenenre bu>1 reproach, 
■■^ht ban bvokeil llcv, ibe tmoroated, tJirt>%'b the Ouly-begotUo b 

Let tin» people ronive nieniy, let ll be counted wor^y of advaueo- 
tBctU. let ai^cd* be «tnt Ibrtb as eompatiioD* to tbc pcojile for bringiug 
to nuiglit of tlie αν'ύ one ntnl for telablialiineiit of Iho Cliurcb. 
I Wo lnUR<d» al*o on bduOf of all who bava hoou laid to tvat, nboeo 

maoMikl w• era maUng. 

4fttr (A* neUelton {tre0»>>ir i)<iftht namoi ; SanctUy theoo eonls : for 
Thou knowHt alL Kauctify nil (*οηΐ«) laid to rest in tbo Lord. Aiid 
namfaor tbvii «iOi all Tby lioly ροποπ, and give to ihoin a plauo aud 
a mwilOD in "Πιν kingdoio. 

Receive oIm tlie tlienb^nng (evahaiut) of the people, and bletv 
Im have «Sered llie ofleringa (ri vpAr^•^) and Uie tlianlo^vingi, 

k* It ΐ• nolleoafala that, id ibl• pneMKC wliinh ooneqioadi lo Uiv BfMttt*, 
a Dtrlac Vutd, and not the Huly Spirit, ύ ineDtlaDcd. 

Tbr puaaK* Utwi<n> nelOTiake t* euKfMted by tbo thrttiaeof Λβ 
■, riil« mpm, p. ίΊ. 
t 0%» Diobop uf BoUobofy cnlli nttcnijon tu Sucntce, B. B., νυΐ uJi. 
p. Wl, «bciv tea0e\t'.i Λ(τ nvntlonetl «ill> ** lt(*il«t> ": Ke Talndui* duU-, 
•ad the Bbbop*! Inika. 1•. IM.} 

78 cmasnAK wonsnir : its oeigiu asd evoLtmoir. 

end gnuit lieolUi iui4 aMiodaa•* and clworfuluae uit «11 «ilvaiicomMil ι 
will aiuj body to tliie wh(rfe people ihieogfa tfa« oaly-hogMmi Jmiw (^iriri'' 
in Iloir Spirit; ui it wutmd iiead «hall be togeneratioiu of gtaenition* 
•tiJ to all the ag«e «f tlie age*. Arneo. 

Five »Iiort prayers follow id the maDiiscript. The first 
Wits said at the momeat of the fractiou ; the necund, over the 
people, upon whom there vna an impoeition of bands 
[bleseiog] after the comtn union of the clergy; the third 
was the tbaokegiviitg after the communion of the people. 
Then follows a blessing of the offered oil and water which 
were to be need in private as pbyhicteriee, and la<Uy the 
bleeaing of the asaembly at (he inomeuC of dinoiesal. 

Aa to the f<ninulaiie9 which terminate the Suekolagio» 
(X^-ZO), and vhich, according to the rubric, preoedai the 
[wayer of Oblation, the series begins (19) by α " lirst ptayer 
for Sunday," which is, in fact, an introductory prayer. 
Supplication is there made to Ood for the right appre- 
hension of the Holy Scripluras, and for their right interpre- 
Ution. Tbc second (20) c»mus alU:r the homily. 1 tuko 
it that these two pniyois presuppose the presence of those 
who are still outside the pale of Christianity, though they 
may be dLipoeed to embrace it, or, at loaet, to be instructed 
in it. The three ensuing formularies are prayers for the 
catttcliumens <2I), for the sick (22), and for the fruits 
of the earth (23). The prayer for the catechumens was 
doubtless used at tiio moment of their dismissal. Then 
follows II prayer for the local Church as α whole (24), 
OD «notber for its rarioos membera, bishops, prieats, 
-«aa, aub-deocons, lectors, inb^rftore,' oAcflac (μηνά- 
v), viigins, and married people. Next we have (26) 
iy«r of genuQection," which duals with the names 
id in the book of life. Ferb«i>s this hud some coo- 
i with the recitation of tlie diptychs. The prayer 

■ In Ε|[;ρ4Ι1υ)0κνλΙ»1Ιαίβυ«4ΐ•1»1«ΑϊαΙαΟφ11ΐί. 

THE Ηλ8β IN THE E.18T. 79 

which follows (27), entitled, "For the People," deale in 
detail with all the objects and claflses of persons prayed 
for b; the Chorch in her eolemn euppUcations — the well- 
being of the faithful, the peace of ώβ Slate, the tranquillity 
of tiie Church, for the slaves, the poor, the aged, the 
txavellera, the sick, etc. The three last accompany the 
impoeition of hands on the catechumens (28), on the faithful 
(29), and on the sick (30). 

I do not believe ' that these twelve formularies represent 
(he official or ordinary ordo liiurgicua of the Church of 
Thmnifl, hut they are all of a nature applicable to a non- 
litargical service, or to a liturgical service before the ana- 
phora, or prayer of sacrifice. 

2. Later Liiurgies. 

Religioas unity in Egypt was broken up after the con- 
demnation of the Pabiarch Diosconis by the Council of 
Ghftlcedon. After a century of fruitless attempts to bring 
the dissontients once more within the pale of orthodoxy, the 
Imperial Qovenunent found itself obliged to acknowledge 
the coexietence of two Churches within the country. One, 
the orthodox, supported by the Government and the 
Byzantine official world, the other, the heretical, upheld by 
the mass of the indigenous population. This division did 
not immediately make itself apparent in the sphere of 
worship, both heretics and orthodox continuing to follow the 
ancient use of Alexandria. But the official Church modified 
this use little by little, under the influence of the Liturgy 
of Constantinople, until a time came when the latter was 
completely substituted for it. 

' Id thii I differ from the Biihop of galiiburf, Dr. Wordiworth, «rbo 
hM pDblialied the "Pnifer-book" of δαικρίοη in Kugluh, icith a IcDnicd 
miuoaitarj—BUkap Sarapim't Prayer-book : S.P.C.K., London, lti9U. 


οπίϊΐβπ,ΐΝ wobship: its obigi» asd bvoldtios. 

The oithodox ur MolcliiM Church contJuued to oso 
Greek, wheieu the Moaopbystte Chnrcb discarded the 
lugoago of CtMUtanlinople, and made a]most excloeive 
use of Coptic, the natiotial •tongue of the Egyptian 

The Church of Abyssinia, which was not definitely 
fornied iintil aft«r the Council of Chalcodon, was, 
iiom the outset, dependent on that of Kgypt^ and, follow- 
ing its example, embraced the Monophj-site confeeston. 
tta liturgical language has always bueo Ethiopic or 

Tiie toxLs al our disposal for studying tho andoot nse 
of Alexitndria uro — 

1. The Grixk Liturytj of St. Mark, of which three texte 
aitt kuowD.of Lhu twttlftb oontury and onwarda. Ildoabt- 
lese was aubjoct to many Byzantine romions, but the 
essential ports agree with the style «ad oflcn with tho 
tenor of tho beat tcxta which Imve reacliod its from other 
eouroos. There is no doubt thai it ts of gnwt antiquity, 
going back at latest to the fifth century.' 

2. 77ie Coptic Litu/yiis. — Tliette are three in number — 
that of St. Cyril (of Alexandria), of St. (iregory (NaKianien), 
and of St. Basil.'* They do not differ except in the 
anaphora. Tlie liturgy at present in use is that of 
St. Basil, and it is to the Attap/iora of St. Basil that the 

' A ecriuiu uuioliLT οι iho I'opu Iiato eatercd into wannwtlaa 
■tlh BuiBc. Thi^y hnvo nxMiitly (ItiX} bMB orjputood Into ■ pttri• 

' Tbe Abfuinian L'athullc• puM«M no other orguiiaBtiiiD limn Uiftt 
of iliD .\po*toliQ Ticuriato of Alijarinbi, nndur the illnctiea of lAtio 

' Mr. Brifjlitduii, Rurlciuf' on ttiu ruulta ο1ιΐΔίηι:ι1 bj Ciwon eminaon. 
b•• ^UUboil tlii* liluru)' from lite Kueanu toanueeilpl, uid from t«v 
rolmli, one at Mcnioo, of the (wolftb cuatnry : Uie oUicr In tbe Vatkiui. 
of tliL• year li»7 (op. eil, p. 1 13). 

■ ni* Uluiyy mtut uot be omfoniidod «itL• Ui« Bjriuiliiiii Ltlni;^ 
tieiulng (bo Bunu ηηπρ. 



'Oidioary οΓ the Moss ύ altoobed ia ttiu lilurgicul books. 
Tins Anaphora of SL Cyril, hovroTur, is uvidonlly tlio moeb 
ftQcient, Thie is clear, in the first place, from Uie fact 

Itb«t it iilotiu of the three presents certain features charac- 
teristic of the Atexandriuo liturgy ; aod, in UiQ second, 
'becaoM it repTodoces oflea tlie t«xt of the Liturgy of HU 
Ifark word for wend. By joining to the Anaphm-a nf St. 
Cyril the Ordinary of tbe Coptic Haas, we obtain a Coptic 
litui^ which is the exact ooimterpait of the Greek Liturgy 
of St. Iilark.> Tbe Anaphorae of St. Gregory and of St. 
Basil ore aleo found in Grock. 

3. Abi/uinian Liturgife. — Tliu Abyssinifuu bave lut their 
normal liturgy the liturgy o/ (he Tw*lve AposUa? which is 
fundamentally ideutioal with the Coptic Liturgy of St. 
CyriL In addition to this Cliey have a dozen or bo altei^ 
nntixii niutpharae. 

4. TV Borgian Fraijtnenl*. — These were publialied 
raoentty by the λ\Μ Hyvemat' from Coptic maanscripte, 
nogiog in dnte &om tbe eighth to tbe Lwelflh century. 
These bagmcate are pane of tive different maaeea Giorgi 
had ftlivady published a portion of one of them.* 

Xot counting these fragnientii, and disrairling the 
altomatiTc pieces belonging to tbo Abysainions, together 
with tbo anof^wrae of Gregory and Basil, which are rather 
of tlw S>'run type, and represent u foreign itoportatioD, there 
remoio llirce tvxle. viz. the Gnwk Liturgy of St. Mark, 
tbe Coptic Liturgy uf St. Cyril, aud llio Abyeaioian Liturgy 
uf tlte Twelve AjKwUes, which have each us its source 
cnie of tlie thn» eoclceiastical variciiee of tbe Aloxandnno 
■ rite. Ttie texts ore fyindumeiit-nlly one, and their variations 

1 BrfgfctBHi. p. 141. 
' JWii.p liH 

* Fm^nndmm Btaitgtiii it, Jvltatmi': R>Hni', ITKI. lY. U>innw>ii(l, Ί%ι 


urtH merely from later modificftuoru. If we would 
roconslmct the ancient Alexandrine Liturgy we must, to 
begio with, compare Uieee liturgies together and saleot 
from tbem that which they have in common. The worke 
of Kgyptian wriien containing liturgical alluatons may also 
be profitably examined.* 

The oharacteristic feature of the Alexandrine Liturgy is 
the oocurrence of the Great Supplication in the Preface 
inttead of after the CoDseciation. The Semetne, the words 
of institution, and the Hpideeie, are thus placod much 
]Bt«r than in the Syrian Liturgy. This Anaagameot is not 
found in the Minphora of Rnrapion, but it waa pointed out 
by Jacob of Kdeesa a» early as the end of the soTonth 
century.' He remarks also that the Salutation before the 
Pteflwe is much less complicated than in the S)rriao, tke 
celebrant merely eajing, JJommus lobitevm omnUm» ; * 
moroovur, the acclamation of tfae people at the Saneia 
Sanctis presents certain peculiarities of form. 

$ 5.— Latkb MoDiKicvTroNfi. 

Even when wc have reduced thviu to ihetr most ADcioDt 
form — that which thoy possessed before Uie schisms of the 
iiixtli century, nil tlicee liturgies are slill far fVom luivinf; 
tJte simplicity of those of the fourth cuntury. Many tilings 
have been changed, suppressed, and addedL The pointe at 

' Tliey ΛΙΒ Iimnirlit fjrctlicr by BriKtilnMi. p. IHH. 

' Aaicniaiii, Bibl. Ortmt., ToJ. 1. p. 4HI, Η *rf. Th*7 ue dI» to be 
Γοιιοι) ίιι llii• rraipncnU pubtiihed by llfvuniDt. 

* Tlic rolluirlng orv Ihe foruu In ktiu«ni ilocnment•— l.lL of f>L ileik: 
Ο KiV•"' M"! *i>TBi- (Cod. BciM, : tlio tloi. VHlicatum bM bur» Ibe 
Syriiiii Huliilntli'ii : tn Ibu /fat. MtuannnL• then- it ■ hialmt *Λ Uiit poiM) : 
Lit, «r »<i<- Vj,i\ mA DMil: />tiD>('n«< nMcim,' Ui« .Alblnpka gin•, 
Doi»tnat rMtum vmnAiu. 



which the modificatioiw hare been moeC nuu-ked we as 

lo the Gntt pluoc, Uto entr; of the ock'brante boe become 
an imposing coniuoiiy. Id the Byzantine Liturg)- it vroa 
ujcompHoied from un early date by α epecial chant, the 
Μονογινης} ΒοΓοη3 the lections comes the Trisagion* The 
lue of this dosology must he very aocieDt. Il is oommou 
to all the Greek Oriental Umrgiee, aod occurs even in the 
GalUcan Liturgy.' The most aodent teetimony Tor its 
existence ia found in tlto Coancil of Chalcedon {451>* 

The dLimLieal of Ute catechuinoos, eners'"'*^'"• oom• 
petents, and penitentA, which stands out so promtnontly in 
the liturgy of the fourth centiity, had all disappeared at 
an early date, owing to citauges in tlie discipline r^^arding 
theae different categorieo. The OoDBtantinopolitan ntaal, 
howerer, has preserved to our own day the ceremony of the 
<lTgmia—j of the Cat^cllUIUPRS. 

But it was especially in the preparation of the elements 
of the sacred feast that a theme was found for the develop- 
ment of ritce and prayers. The br(?ad and wine for conse- 
cration were prepared, before the entry of the celebrants, at 
Λ special table — the table of proposition (πμή0ισι«) — standing 
like the altar within the sacred enclosure und out of sight of 
die ooiigregatimi. lliis constituted a preparatory Mass, the 
Mass of the Prothesis, which was very long and complicated. 

* Ό ><inuh THt η) A^t τβί βιβν. lUrarn btifxiv. naratifjfunr 
Μ rftr ^tifor evrn^ar <tufiuittiir»i it τ^ι άγΙαι «tv^imv καΙ iinr^freu 
Hafte. Ατρ/νπχ ήτΒτβ^Ητήναι rraufuttU it, Xfieti i Itiit, tiuitif MraNi• 
«■Γ^ΤΗ. ill t« τΐ( trfar Tpiiiui. rwiofafJ^KOi i^ Hcrp) ■•! ry l^fy Οηίμβ/τι. 

* *A>i»t I etiif, tyttt Xaxvpbi. ly^et ΑΜνατβΙ. tttijtfer ijwi. 

■ In tlio Coptke Liliuny tliv TtiMiglon t* placed bcfoie tlio Goqivl. teA 
■JW Um uUwt UctioBi. In the Oalliiiui LHiut}' «u fln-l it ol» plauu) 
lalot• Um) Oail»l,ftn(l viea uft-i il: bul Uii• doM cot Intorfcro nitli ita 
beUv iUBg »X Iti wniml pUte 1«Γατ« tbe ΙββΚαη•. 

* Sonhsfa, tdL iL p. 3Ώ. Fur tke togmd «iiiiIiod«d «Uli the 
Ttla^rn. ■» TUlcibcxoi. UiA. HetUe.. mL dr. p. 713. 


eepeotally in tlie ritual οΓ CooBtAQtinople. After the lecttona 
and tlio pnyor of the faithful, the oblation woe brought with 
great pomp to the altar. This prooeeeion of the oblulion * 
constituted the most imposiDg ceremonial in the entire Mass. 
It was acoompanied in the Cburobes of the Byzantine, or 
Byzantaaised rile, by a chant or bymn, called the 

It vas at this point in the Mass that the recitation 
of the Creed occurred. According to Theodore the Beader, 
this cuatom was first introduced at Antioch by the taahop 
Peter the Fuller, in 471, and afterwards at Constantinople 
by tlie patriarch Timotheos, in 511. Peter and Timotheos 
wero rockonod among the most xoalotis opponunts of the 
Council of Chalcedon. Their innovation was not, bowoTer. 
abolished after tlio Eastern Churches camo back into the 
orthodox CommunioD.' 

During the procession of tlio oblation and the ceremonies 
which followed it — the kias of peace, the rccitalio» of the 
Creed, the recitation of tlie diptycba — the celebrant aaid 
bis own private prayers. These prayers at length became 



* DUnn'"* <'<" •^nnpoe*'" m'e•• MofloD of tiUi L 
aDdOMa(ehaiittagab]rmndariiielt,faDlhAdowiial ^tta Oa lAI cf tta' 
bjrmn (£οηΤ. i/ier.. HI U). 

* Of ri ΧιρονβΙ^ )•υ(ΐτιΐ[ύι ilKtrl(erTtt ml τρ (ιαβηίψ TfMi, rlr 

'ΛλΑηλβύΙα, Άλληλ«ΐ;β, ΆΑλνΑβΐΙα." Tbc Uturny οΓ St Jauoi fiunidiM α 
«riUi Knutbor μ Ann : ■■ Ιιγη^^τΒΐ η^α rlpj Bfnti» κ«1 vr^* lurt φ^βιν αϊ 
ιρίμβα ml |iiiiJ» yt(lrar In tavrp Ααγιζίαΐ». 'Oiif $aait,*it τ£ν β^ΛίλΛίιίτηιτ, 

ψχη U Totttt at χβρβΙ rir Άγί^λιν, μ*τΛ *Λαηι 'λρ.χπ< ιαΙ 'tfn/rimj, τΑ 

ββύττα tif ίμηο 'λΛΑηλούΐα. " 

' Odd of thu thin^ looit orBcatly iiulttu] upoD b; the MonophraSte 
pMtj «M llip abmgniitiu of evurj' formulaiy ιιΓ («llh ΙαΙ«γ ttuui ttMt οΓ 
NIcuaa-OuutnutlucipI», It I* ci'rtnlii tliut in Uic laliodiictiaa of tlie 
UtUr Into llic UtarKy, llicv nrant lo |>nitiat Kgniual Itie ili-Dniliini of 

τηκ MASS IN τιιι: kart. 



fixed io fnnnularioK.* Otui of them vrae said at tbe moment 
at wfaicb the veil was withdraws. There was in fact α 
τβ3 vhioh. Btntchiog adosa the altar, or even across the 
whole apM, that out tUo view up to the moment when, 
after the diamissal of the catechumens and other uoa- 
ctnamanioaots, th« celebration of the mysteries in the 
pQceeeoce of the initiated only was begun. This veil is 
etiU in oao among the Churches following the Oriental rite. 
It ΰ stretched before the central door of the ieonoetans : 
mod is drawn and withdrawn ut the times oDJoined in 
the ancient lituigiee. 

We must take note of thu »cibition of tlie diptyche 
ία tliis part of thu Mass. The Syro-Byzuntine liturgies 
pbce it Itetwcen the Bass of Peace aud the Preface, and 
this custom is oonoborated, at Uie beginning of Uie «ixth 
oeDtury, by Dionyaius tbe Aieopajiito, II ΰϊωϊφββτοΰ aflei^ 
wards at Constantinople. In tho Alexandrine nee, the 
nading appears to have taken place, as tt did in tho Gallicao 
rite, after the Kiss of Peaca 

From the Suraum G»rda until the end of the Mass the 
rites, and subject-matter of the prayers, have remained almost 
the same as tjiey were at the beginntns:. Some divursities. 
when we eompare one ose with another, appear in tbe 
position assigned to certain parte, such as the ilemenfo, the 
Pater Nost»r, and tho fraction of tbe brend, but. hanlly 
any addition has been made to the primitive ritual. It 
is neoenaiy to draw attention, however, to the eomplica• 
tioQ introduo»! in the ceremony of tho fraetjo, und of the 
eommixiw. that is to say, the mixture of the consecrated 
bread and wine. Λ charncteriatic feature of tbe Liturgj' 
of CcHUtADtinoplo was thu infusion of a little hot water 
into tlio chalice immediately before the Communion. 

' Dbnjvia• the- Anopa^tu luakrt inontiuii ot thu [irajct Mid hj 
Λ* blalwii mt tbo Domant whan Ike ncntl nlilnllui• nvtf pldcod npMi 
th• aUtt: tU• y ibe hixk τ4( «pcnewKt of Dm Rrmnllnn Lltnricr, *ho 

Blet^art οΓ the pcaynr SufFr eblatu In Ilw Ronifta Litntfj. 



^ I. — Tub Rouan and Gallecah Usia 

Toe liturgical usee of the East, varyio;; at Gnt with the 
patriarchatee, or, rather, with the grcial ecclesiastical gronps of 
the fourth oentur;, gave way at length, one after the other, 
to the tUBliiiclivo ritunl of the Church of ConstootiDopIo. 
Proriacial pvculiaiitius were maintained only among the 
duseDtient Chorchus oataide the sphere of orthodoxy, and 
bejroad the bounds of the Greek language and even of the 
Byzantine Empire In the West also diveisity of oso 
preceded aoity. It is easy to show that towards the end 
of the fouitli ocutury th« I^tin Churches did not all follow 
the sainu use. Judged in thu whole, and apart iVom certain 
Incal pvculiiuities, thee» dilTerent liturgicAl uihm can be 
rvdut:cd to two— iho lioman and the Gallican. 

Thure ifi aomethii^ etraog•; in this duality. The history 
c>f ihu uvanguUaKtion of the West gives support to the 
aJuertiuD uf Popo Innoocnl that ii proceeded entirely* 

: ~'i-Tur, in tliA Cbmcfc of Ljrana. U the liow of ih• 

ik.of « otrtMH muBborof Cbriatiiuu fran tbo PmrlB 
< r >Mi Plirygik, Γβπ» •ο ol^wlkn U> thi• potiit ot new. ΑΛ ' 


from Some, and that on this ground the Boman Liturgy 
alone haa the primordial right to be the lituigy of Latin 
Christendom : — 

QiiiB enim neecUt ant ooa advertat id quod λ prinoipe apostolorum Pctro 
Bomaoae ecclesUe traditnm eat ac uiidc Qsque ctistoditur ab omnibne 
debere κγτβτϊ, ηβο euperduci aut introdaci aliqaid quod auctoritatom αοα 
habeat, aat aliunde accipere videator exemplum? Praeeertiro cum ut 
rDamfeetain in omnem Italiam, Oalliam, HiepanUs, A&icam, atque Sioiliam 
insnlaeque inteijaceiitee nolluni inetitniBee eccleeiaa, nisi eon quoB veitera- 
bOie apoetolos Petrua aut ejuB Bocceeaoree constitnerunt tiacerdotee ? Aut 
If^aot si in bie proviaciis alius apostolonitn JDvenitur aut legitur docuisee. 
Qnod si non l^nnt, quia Diuquam ίϋτβπϊηαΐ, oporCot cos hoc sequi quod 
eccleeia Bomana cnatodit, a qua eoe pnncipium acccpieae aon dubinm 

However strange the foct may seem to oa, it is none 
the less certain that, from the time of Pope Innocent, the 
Roman liturgical nse was not the only one followed in 
the West, or even in Italy itself. The bishop to whom the 
letter, &om which I have just quoted, was addressed was 
Bishop of Bugnbium, in the district of Umbria, which 
belonged to the metropolitan diocese of the Pope. As an 
immediate suffiagan of the Pope he had special reasons for 
conforming to Boman customs, and notwithstanding this 
he was tempted to introduce others. The practice of Bomo 
was thoe attacked in its own domain. 

The letter belongs to the year 416. The liturgical 
and disciplinal peculiarities which were therein found to 
be opposed to the Boman ctietoms are all characteristic of 

Ibe docnmBnte «hioh hare como dowD to ne bearing od tbia uncient 
duiatian oonieiiDity agree in lepreientiDg it aa being in cloao and 
frequent lelationa with tho Chorcb of Borne. Tlioro ia notliiug to proTo 
that Iti foniider waa from tho Provinco of Asia, ratlinr than a Boman. 
Happcaing βτβη that be waa an Asiatic, it van ponibly the cnac that 
he bad Ιϊτβά in the firat inalanco at Borne, and liad thuTo reccircd bia 

'^ cmitsTiAN wousuip: its oniois anp kvoutiox. 

Uui iim; wbidi is coDVnDiiuiuiIly ciillud the GalUcaD. The 
latter was, therefore, alwftdy in oxistcoce at tlie beginninj; 
o( the fifth cenltirj' ; it had eves sofRcient vigour to tmtet 
into competitioQ witli the lioniaii litnrgy, aad that, too. 
Dp to the aiirburbicaria» dioceee itaelf. This iis«, as is 
evident froDi v«ry Bumeroiis documents, was followud by tlio 
Cburobea οΓ NortUeru lUily (melropoUtaD diocbsc of Milou)' 
and by tlioee ia Oaul, SpuQ, Britain, and Ireland. From 
what we can loam, bowcvor, from alliiKionn by the Christian 
oraton imd syuodical decroos of Africa, the use there aeenu 
to have biHin in absolute oouforniity with the use of Rome 
and of Soiitlieru Italy, Wi; ύηΐΛ find Itome and Carthage 
on υηυ side, uiid ou the uibvr Kfilan and the countriee 
beyond the jVlps. 

In grouping the transalpine countries vith Mihin, I 
imply that the AmbroBian litnrgy i.i identical with the 
GalUcan. This is β view which is not gonerally aooepted. 
There is no diifictiUy. on the other hand, in the identification 
of the liturgy of the Churches of Spun, or Mozarobic 
IJturgy, up to Uie eleventh century, with that which was 
followed by tlie CliurchcH of Uaul \)βίακ Cbarlomagne, and 
with that which obtained in the British Islce before Urn 
Soman miuions of the seventh centuiy. Vt'itii r^iard to 
the Amhrosjan liturgy it is. in its proscut state, very 
dilTeivnt from other typea of the Gallicui liturgy, but we 

' Wo ΙΐΛϊρ πι> ili«-i]incnlni]r ι-νίΛίΊΐΐΝ• tot llic B»<» fuUowcd in AquUolB, 
in Ibp Uimutiinn iiniTiorn•^ ami in ]>uli<iiilin. Il it prcbkble llint Uie om 
obicrml In Aquilnlii αικί Ιΐκ- Dnuublnn {rrurinuf• natmiblod i«lb«r Uie 
Mllnik thnn llio Romiui Liliirgy. Dom, O. Ucdn luu pnl)Ulliiid IaUHj 
(firrvo B^UiL I'JVI. \\ 1) α I^Tlii'iiniy Iff Uie Ompol•, iriildi |>r>l«Iit> 
btlimgcil t'> Aqultuiit, niiil ll (χ,ηίαίπ* uciUiiii); njipiwd lo UiIr Ttsw. ΊΊιβ 
Lalfal lilnrgical fnttnciiia «liieU arv iactDdtO in ϋιυ Arun ΧιλΙμ p«l^ 
ΟΛβΛ hj Mai {l^eripl. Vtf.. \''.l iii. p. S08. tt «f.; rf. P. L. vol. illl. 
pL Cll) ft», in mj o]>uiiou, ufisublD k• tbe Durabiu ttgtau. Rig. Memll 
•• tbrowB fii«Ii tittbt ηροη tlirm id » κΛρ la lili Mxli r Tttti ef 111• 
VMiou, Itae. 7. p. 17. 





mttM DOi lose eight of the fact ihat it lua been for centnriee 
•object to continuous modification in the direction of bring- 
ing it more and mom into confoniiit)' with the Itoman 
oaiL Tliia movemuiit suffered no cbuck frum tbu discovery 
of printing. EtlitioDS uflor editions of tbc Aml^osiiin Missal 
became mora and more Itonuuiieod. Bat Uie bcgioninj^ of 
this proceea goee back to aomo time before Charlemngne. 
It «ae nainral that such shonld be the case, for Milan 
was too near Rome to eeoape from ita influeuce in this 
u in other tQB]>ecte, It adopted at an early dato the 
Gngorioa Canon. Tn spite, however, of the many modifica- 
tions it bos vxperiuncMl. the Ambroeiao Litni^gy lueaerves 
•ttfBciont Oallican feaiuroe to entabtish clearly its primitive 
identity, in my opinion, at least, with the tmnsidpino 
litoi^gjeeL* The facts I intend to udduoc UUs on will put 
ihia in a clear light. I do not brin^ tbum forward here 
baoaoae they would lose something of (liuir aigaiGcuncu 
it I tBotat«d tliom from the ooiDpamtive analysis of the 
Oalliciui ritee; bat I think no tmo will regrot giving me 
endit in the mean time. 

' 1 uncht ia tratli to ny tlint thcac viom hnTit iiol bcun ucniikid 
«iUiMt renrTO bj Ibu Slibuiv•!! cxiH-rU wLo Iiqit tuki-a up llic dutly <■! 
the AMhoiui LllurKy. Thl« (ΙίΙΓκπΊκ,-ο "f •>|>|ιγ«οιαΙ1ιιιι hhuIJ Iiavo )i>vi>n 
mt awn opaoem if I did nnt f«.'l Uint It «»■ «onnMtod with β, toiidJoiiey, 
ray ■klteml and wortliy οΓ rcgknl in oUitr r»pMiU, (a mij;ganlc tbe 
iBIiariMm of llii* liluiKy. It ia lurt «lUiiicly adnltlfd tlint ϋιη AnfaraaaD 
rtCe luu Ivra nlifVot to lu macU Rtminli toTiucui, and llial It !e umr vut^ 
fw fn«i it* priniitirc fom. I ffox I hunr pvrhap* giica nifimce in jir^ 
MDtlnv II Ba a (vrabiniUkoi, KimcKkat hybrid to cluinulpr. uf thu Boman 
•*d Ibo Gallicau. Tliorg ia a tcndonoy Ia rrftard It u iu>t only rolaliruly 
tnlM^ bwt iJiat it prunrrca ia it tli» luioiciit Latin rito. ι>Γ wlildi tliu 
Bi^an b s ikcn^ud funn. I nuinut ne«>pt Ihu view of Uil• matter. 
I'Ua 4ow not, bownv, pm«at me from Iwrlnir ■ litwi) iul^mil in tlic 
Amiwian Litvrgj.nai in iU ρη«πη1ίηη and nstunllon, 'J'lii• (.inllicMn 
Utiagf ■•; In piunr In Um ajirii-nl book», but. Wto Bobind'• nuinr. ii)iirli 
kad «UUfwiM aneb eMoUpnl qunlltli'•. It ia il««d. At Itilnn. LicKct^r 
■odt it mftjr likn aBlIomd in ita Biany vidialtado•, it I• ■111) Uriiu:, In 
lUi ra*fC«t tfaecc bcamptmBilinn for many itnrccti. 

90 οιικιβπλ:^ worsiup: its ohgui akd Kvournoit. 

§ 2.— Orioik of thk Gallicak Ust. 

ABBaming that the domain of tbo Gallican Liturgy uxluniiiMl 
up to tho metropolitan rlioceae of the Pope, embraobg Nortli 
Ituiy, ur. at tho least, the metropolitan diocese of Wlan, the 
way bucvmus open for the solution of no obacuro and conten• 
tious q^uiMtion : that of the origin of tho Galliuan Litnigy. 

The Knglish liturgiologiste, who have been much occu• 
ptod with this question, have in gonoral leeolvcd it as 
foHowe: Tbti Gallicuo Litiurgy, according to them, is the 
I.itur:g}' of Epbesus, of the ancient Church of the lioman 
{novince of Asia, and wae imported into Gaul by tJie founders 
οΓ ibo Church of Lycme. From this Church it spread througli- 
oiU the whole transalpine West. 

I believe that this position cannot be maintained, and for 
the following reasons : The OoLlican Liturgy, as far as it is 
distinct trom the Uoman, is a very complicated affair, and 
tbote is aomething very formal in ita compUcati^HL While 
it implies numei-ous and varied rites arranged in a certain 
order, it consists of formularies which are identical in theme 
and style, and sometimea in tenor. It departs widely &om 
those simple and still unfixed forms which can be definitely 
aeaigned to, or may be as.<iamed to hare existed in, the 
tibugy of the second century. It» development coTTeepoods 
at the earliest with the condition of things in the fourth 
century. It shows a» «dvauoe upon that of the AiHtatolic 
Constitutions. Ite importation into, and [tropi^^ition throagh• 
out, the West cannot Ui asei^ud to tho second century. We 
have bets beforo us s text which most be aacribed, at the 
vei; earlieat, to the middle of the fourth century. 

Nov, in the fourth century, the ecdeetostical inlluence of 

Lyona was «Unost oon-existenL This city, after the new 

provincial organisation under Diocletian, had lost its position 

a metropolis of the lbi«e Gauls. The glory an<l infiitenoe of 


Trevflfl, Vieit&e, and Aries had passed away. The Bishop of 
Lyons, whatever may have been his importance in the second 
centniy, occupied no special {vominence after GonetaQtine. 
He was scarcely more than metropolitan of Lugdwnensia 
Prima until the time of Gregory VII., who was the founder 
of the primacy of Lyons, ineffective as it was. It was 
not is conditions such as these that this Church could 
become the model of all Western Ghorches, the focus of an 
ecclesiastical radiation sufficiently intense to make itself felt 
beyond the Pyrenees and the English Channel, and, crossing 
the Alps, strong enough to withdraw from the area of Koman 
infiaence half the Churches of Italy.* 

It is manifest that another solution of the question must 
be sought for. The solution I have to offer is based on the 
assumption that Milan was the principal centre of this 

I have shown above that the Church of MUan had been, 

' I am well acqiuinted with tho fact that, tawarde the ond of the 
•ixth oeBltu^r, the Biahop oi hyoa» aeoma to hare put forward λ claim to 
anpieDMCj over the BiaUape uf Gontran'a kingdom, Grogoij of Toun 
(fliM. Fraite., T. 20} giToe the title of patriarch to Ht. Niiier. Hii 
■neoeMor, Ρπκοβ, bean the aaaus deaigoatioii in the anttoaal coonail of 
MS. Ho efen tcinga about tho deoiaion there that tho national coundla 
ahall be held orerj three years, be and tho king convuking them. Tho 
ΒίβΐΜφ of Lyona it the firat to sign in the oonnciU of I'sria (614), Clichy 
(eST), and of Ohakm^it-eadne (abont USU). In tho jean OU7 and 692 he 
oonaeotate• the Arehbi^ap of Canterbory. Of. my Ji'iiglo Epuoopaua de 
tAadame Oaule, vol. i. p. 138. Bnt this atato of aflaira liae no sort of 
lelation to that whieh obtained at the begioaiDg, in tho time of Pothinna 
λλΛ ΙηοβΜ. The history of St. Antiu of Vienna and that of the Vioariat 
of Arlet aie anOlcient to prove thi•. 

' We might, in thii oonnectioii, think of Arlea, whioh enjoyed ioch 
• Terj high ecdenaatical position in the fifth and aiith oentnriea. But 
thii poaitioD waa attained too tale. It woa to the foorth, and not to tiie 
Sttil or lixth, oentnry that tho liturgical inflnence belonged of wliioh 
I am aeeking tho origin. Artui hecame at α fairly early date the focna 
of eodeaiaatieaJ law in Gaul. I have shown {FaiUi Spiec, toL i. p. HI) 
that almoat all the Llbri Catunnim in oae in Merovingian Gaul were derived 
from tboM of the Chnrch of Arloi. In regard to the liturgy the matter 
waa different. Arte• waa not of anffloiont importance at tho time wUco the 
Chorebe• of Qanl felt the neoMnty of regulating the oidei of werthip. 



tun-arda the end of ttiu fourth ctiQliiry Aod in tlic onrty yean 
of the firth, « kind of superior mutropoUs to whicli tlie νΐιοΐυ 
of the West wiks incUcod to look. We ha%'e Mcn tliat tbe 
Bishops of Gaul iind Spuiu ποΓο occiutotnod to prooood 
thither frequently to procure eolutiuns of difScultics and 
rules of conduct.' The trnporiAl city was udinirikbly sittiutwl 
to ftfTotd α modul in the matter of worship un<l of titurg}'. 
What cannot be allowed to Lyons is readily granted in tbe 
case of Milan. From the moment when Itomc became au 
looger the centre of uttmclion. from tbe momoQt when 
inspiration was sought elsewhere, Milan could not &il to 
have tbe preference over all otJier Churchce.• And it ia 
worthy of note that Uie time to which wo have assigned 
these relations between Milan and Die transalpine Cburchco 
of the West corresponds with a period in which a consider- 
able number of these Chmvhee were uadei^going an internal 
OTganiaation and development, or oven in process of being 
foonded.' This was the time in which the maeees in thu 
towns were converted, in wbicli Chnrches were reconstructed 
on a larger scale, in wiiich it was nwsaaaxj to increase 
the number of tbe clergy and to lay clown with precision the 
rules regulating discipline and public worship. Tbe inBuenoe 

' 'Πιη tcnoutettncn of lliia Inlliinnce U ■llll •ι-ΙΙτβ in the middk «S 
Ibe slitli eFOtiiTjr.u we too Imm » Mnnnu pn-odicd kt t>nutnBliiu)|ilc by 
Iladiu, Biilujp «Γ Mikn: -Kere vgo et piu« omnlnn faecadolan ImIw 
quu• oooUiiK 01« ounttitoUl *M, IJ ml (IkIIIiw, BurgmdUc, SptUMt, 
■•ignxiM, ΔοοΟϊμ itqno VeneliBc. voatnlor qnU quionniiino in edipU iala 
eanMoieertt, ηρπιιισπρί&πια proriDcSiiruiii inntifici'• iionuBiiBlmlxrK• iMlme 
Don polorit, qiilii (uimiiit av olk-lu litn Miir^Ani «yDoduB C'ImIm• 
dont-niiom et ΑΊοοι Hillioltcikm porliitlarii " (£)>. Olrrtntnim IMiiu, il^me, 
l: L-Fi,. vol, liU. |i. 1 17). 

- Il In w>>rt)i «liilei (t• rnvU lim liow thr Bntlinf; of tbe inortyi• «1 
Mllnii ill tbu limir of SI. ΛιπΙαννι' r«1)i.<i1 ΓυτΙΙι iii (ίλΐϋ a nvponalT• (ΜΗ^χ. 
Il b Ιο tliiii tiiwli. and in onndqitcnn" ut thcxi rrtnlt'ou, llinl the iMlOiliuii 
■■Γ »•• tunny diiirclii* in Gonl uniloc tliv invuiuttciiu i-t St Gwvalt ud 
ί% Xiilnirc nn• t(i lie HaJ^OiL 

' Mi>i>> I liunlic• In n>ul «vtn ΓπηηιΜ in Urn fmirili MnliiTjr, b. In 
Ih» Uuw of I'viutHntiuu »n<l litii «uiw 






of IClaa wu aaeetting itself just «t Lbe momeDl when tlie 
Gsilioa Uto^y bad rMcbed that elage of developioeut 
wbicb it poncesed wlien it spread IhiOngbout the Weet, 
and At Uie very moment when the Wcet experieaced the 
need of a definiutly ilxod lilui^. 

Thie is sot all. It is well known by every one Lbat tlie 
OaUicao litui^y, in Uie features whicti dintinguiah it from 
Uia BonULD uae, betrays all the characteristicH of the Euetem 
hth. ^iee. We shall see, ftirther on. tlukl some of its formu- 
laiiae m to be found wotd for word in the Greek texts which 
were io ose in the Churches of the Syro-ByzonUne rite either 
in tbo fourth cenlury or somewliat later. This close resem- 
blaooo. this eaeential identity, implies an importation. The 
Gallion litoigy is an Oriental Liturgy, introduced into the 
Weet towards the middle of the fourth century. Now, 
putting aside the preeenoe of the Oomt at Milan, and the 
anmennu auembliea of Oriental bishops which were held 
there, we have to take into account a further fact of grave 
impOftooce, namely, that the Church of Milan hs<l at its head 
for nearly twenty years (355-374) a Cuppuducian, Auxentius, 
who had been designated by the Emperor Constantius to 
occupy the see of St. Dionysius, vrliun the latter n-aa exiled 
for the Catholic faith. Ausontios bulonged to the clergy of 
the Coort, who were out of sympathy with St. AtbiQastus 
and tlio defenders of " coosubstnntial " ortho<Ioxy. He 
played a distingnished port nt the CouDci) of Ariminum (359). 
AAer the defeat of the Arioniaing party which, as fiu- aa the 
Wot was coocemixl, followed closoly upon tlie breaking up 
of this council, Auxentius maiuLuincd bis position, and 
lemaioed fifteen years in his seo, notwithstanding the eifoits 
nude to dislodge him. This would seem to indicate that he 
liad a atreagth of mind beyond the common. We con readily 
bttUere, tlierefore, tJiat during his long episoopate be made 
aonw impi«88ion upon his clergy and upon the internal 
oigniisition of bis Church. St. Ambrose, bis successor, found 


man; cuetotne eeuiblished which (Ik) tint all neem to reqoire 
oorrectioD. It is supposed Uint, doctrine being BAfflgnivdod by 
the very fnct of his eleratiou to tbe see of Milan, AmbiOM 
thought it ioopportanu to introduce Qseless ohftngea in the 
domain of ritoal. It is oertain Uiat inaoy of tlte most 
important Milanese peeuliaritiee, from the point of view of 
disdplme snd worship, go baclc to hi.•) episcopate, and, seeing 
that Uiese pecnliarities have ft distinctly Oriental character, 
thoy could not have been introduced by him. It la mora 
natural to believe that they exUted before him, and that 
ho hud only sanctioned by hi^ acoeplance and practioe 
CHBtome previously imported.' 

I do not wish to be donatio on this point. Milan ταβ 
in euy communication witb Conetanlinoplo and Asia Minor 
tlirongh Aquileia and the Illyrian provinces. Auxentius 
woe not the only Greek who in the fonrtJi century may 
have exercised episcopal Γιιηηϋοηη in η Latin country. His 
action in the liturgical domain may have been but an 
episode in a larger movement. Others mi|;ht have acted 
as be did in taking snggestioos from the same modeli. 
Neverthelees, as far aa Gaul and 8pain are ooncemod, it 
is very difficult to regard tbu dcvelopnieDt soted in tliv»• 
couiitriea aa liaA-jng proceeded from α Latin soun» furtbu' 
removed than Milan.' 


■ To tfacac «bo ore »enlitacot>U; diainDlincil ki «oeopt ■ qsImb 
wnuld «Muu tn lurriU- nn Arinii <>il|rin U> tlin Gnlliom LitiirRy. I imuU 
Mj tlut Ariiuiiaia tjo* luithinK In do witli the qnifllion. irtiich u aiDnrrenl 
mArly wHL• tljo Oriuntnl form pf the Ulurcy. η fnnn «f wwlicf d*t« tlua 
ArliUiUiu 111 tlui conntrln• of It• οτίκΐη. 1 would ndd that. iuuatDanli μ 
fonuD of pmjpr «uro ϊα tlii.' foatlh ontitury nncli varied Via τ«τ; fMUy 
Uikllflnil. It ibikC bo oonttdcn-d ccrUiii lluit HI. AmbreM would liava bft 
iiuthine In them which could powibly 1i*yc foatccod lieteajr. Tbe Utwor 
tii lliu AjH«kiUa Canilitutiuoj l> οΓ tlio Mini! dale khiI iirnreMMM. Il 
prounla «rUeat U*t«•» <i tlMulofioal niHviilntlmi•. «rhloli vim ouraDl 
fa Uw ragion horn «hidi Arianlim Mernllod It* chief d*ft«deta. 

* Till* dim not «xclnde tlii? •1ίη«ΐ impottntitoiii of oortain ByasatJMc, 
«ad npt^nlly PalMtlakn, imfiM. I tliall haw to jKiiiil out mMaJ 
initnnoca οΓ thi« kind. 

rtuur i 



However this may be, tli» imporliuit pQlitical poeition of 
tbe d^ of Milui vna not maintained beyond the oarly years 
of the fifth century. Hie gloty of ite episcopal see woe 
Jimmod Bl lliu eame time, and Rome found lionolf thne 
relieved from s competilion which might have ended In the 
eetabliahnteDt of a rii-al. It was acaroely possible, indeed, 
to oodo «n accomplished fad^ The Popeti coneidered, 
apparently, that no inconvenience would arise if liturgical 
nsa^ somewhat different from their own vntre aUowod to 
oootiaoe; in any caee, there were more urgent questions 
seektog solution. They confined their elTorte to defonding 
their metropolitan diocese fiom ihe invasion of the Crallican 
ritoal,aad left tlie Churches of otha' provinces to malce th<^ 
arrangemeDb) on this ppiot as they felt iDcliued. Circuiu- 
stsnoes, moreover, were not favourable to the development of 
eeeleeiastica] centralisation. National barrien eoou rose up 
between i!ome and the Chuichee of the barbaric kingdoms 
founded in Gaol and Spain.' 

' Tlia *ie« tluit I hkTc jiial pal torwnta luw. ίκπι ttio lliat CcUtioD <J 
lU• hook, tuen οοηΐηίοΐ by divon iwmiia, 'Πιιμ.- umosf; tbom tihc«r 
ορέηΐΜΐ U <Λ m'iffhl, put r-iruiud anntliiT ri|jIfinnllon, Tlio Onllinn 
riliMl. ■mnnlliin id theen, i* nt«io utlicr (hnn tlu- bdfuuii Roiunu rltnnl. 
«kM. nConncd Kt Βαπκ Id tlio fouitli cvnlury, uutintuinwl iu jioiitinii 
in (be proviooM. 1'lk«y κ^"" *^oo tlio misio ηΓ tlii> π'Γκιιπί'Γ— fupc 
DMHaoi. DnfoitiinitUlv, liuwnvor, thcjr ami not nblu Ui uIiIul'-' Ini'iaioaj, 
ittimt en Ui fcefaklr. or that uT any olluir. Tlib nuw hyfutbori• U lut 
mm fkUj «plotted by dociuDvntary «Tldonco ibau muiv. Murcorer. linw 
tenld «« «ΐ]>ΰιι, on Me wuiajilion, Ihe fad Ibnt Γορυ Iimwout. fnr 
tium Kco^Uiap the uokat UM of hi• n<m Clinnh in tho Unllimii ritnnl. 
btai• tl Μ of Γ-^η-ΪΚΙ) inpCTtalfc» (allniule arrrjitam ntiwpf ««■) ΐ Uov, 
Λα, OLD «• •ipUlD «h; AfrifD, •» juiluua of iu uwn peonlinrdiML «u 
ln«n U> Moept Ui« B«ua rtiCnriii, wliilu St. AmbiOM, BdinuD hy bulb iu>cl 
diifcaiUoa. rcf oh»! tu Inlroiliio» it inlo hij <1ι«γο1ι7 Ci)m]Miliig Uypot]i(«l> 
«Ui hypnlbiate, I oudUuiii.' tu U'liuTc tiut muie w man in canlbmlty wflh 
Md BitUBlIonii tliui ttio oilier. NevertliclfM, It 1« to be «dl nmlvr• 
Uwl I do not put It Twtli μ λ dc^oltivo lAutian. I «la n«dy 1•ι 
It If kujr one oia put fotlU b Mlpr. Cf. my nrtiole entitled, " Rut 
rOristee dB Is LlluiKk OalUMiHN." b the Bmi tTBU. Ar tAtt. tUI., IIHNP. 

ciimaTUti vorship: itr origin axu etolctiok. 

J 3.— Fysios OF the Two Vsts. 

If Um Goontnee οΓ the Gallicuo rite, however, Touad 
dtemselree more and moro isolated fiom Itome. their littir- 
gical use, tn the abaetico of a common religious ceaLre. 
was plttood outeido all roKulatioa and all auperitn* eccle- 
etafltica] auLhorily cnpublo of conLrolluig ite devolopmeot. 
Nunierous vaiititicMi wure the consoqueiice, and many details 
which had not been settled at the beginning were determined 
later on without any common understanding. The provincial 
synods attempted here and tlicre to establish some ttni• 
formity. As e:(ample3 of theee, the decrees of the Council of 
Vanoes (about 465) may be cited for the provinoe of Touia, 
those of the Council of Agde (SOfl) for the ngioos of Gaul 
then under the Visigothic kings, and those of Uie Council of 
Oerooa (»17) for the provinc« of Tarragona. 

The most remarkable niaulta wore obtained in Spain, in 
the seventh ocntuiy, whon thai country bad attained its 
religioua and political unity. There, at least, there had been, 
in the Couuciht of Toledo and in the primacy of that aoe, η 
Rrm basU for Ivgielutioo and for the reformation of public 
worship. It was in this country that the Oallicaa oso 
maintained its hold the longest. 

Outside the Vieigothic kingdom this use was auhjoct to 
an irrcmuiliablo decadence. Rome, on the contrary, continned 
always to appear as a model Chunb, as well regulated in its 
worship aa in its discipline and its faith. Uelatioos between 
it and the Churchee of the West wero not impoesible. 
though they had become less close and less easy. The 
bisbops of the tegioos of the Galilean rite were accuetomed 
to nssort from time to time to the apostolic see, after, as well 
as before, the invasions of the Sftb century, in order to obtain 
from it a ruling in thuir difticultiee. When liUugical matletv 


τΐΙΚ TWO UnnMlICJU. 08E8 Οί ΤΠΕ LATIN WB8T. ί>7 


were [q qnoetioD. Uw Popes could not reply otbemise tbnu 
by sending their own books luid roGommcaiding cbeir own 
xun. In this manner, little by littlo, the infloenoe oi the 
BoDULn rttnal made itself felt. The result was at Arst the 
combination οΓ the two osee ; then by degrees Uio Konuia 
oae gained the ascendency over tlie other until nt length it 
ended by almost completely elimiuuting the Uollicnu. The 
foUowiog are the main facts of the hiatory of this oltaogo. 

In 538, Profutorua, Bishop of ItrB^a, the metropoHt»» of 
the Suevic kingdom* of (iolicia, wrote to Pope Vigiliiis to 
ooosult hint on certain litnrgical points. We still pos»c«s 
the Pope's• reply. Added to this reply were certain 
appendices containing dedaioos on matteni of discipline, 
ud, in the way of liturgical texts, the order of the 
Ittptismol ceremooiee and of the Itoman Sfass. The Ini.ii^r 
contained merely wh»t wo call the Ordinary of the Mass. 
tluu is, the part which does not vary, but the Pope 
notified to the Kiebop of Braga that it was cuittouiary to 
add to it in various places fonnnlariea peculiar to the 
solemnity of the day. Of these formubuiee, which repre- 
sent the greater part of what is called the Liher Seur»• 
nifntanim, or Sacramentaty, Vigilius oonSnes liimsolf to 
giving only one specimen, that of the festival of Koeter. 
Be aasnoiee that tlie tlishop of Uraga conld draw up bia 
own Sacramentary for himself, in case he tbonght projier 
to conform to the Homan ritu»!. The Pope gives expression 
to no order or advice on this point. The liturgical doou- 
mente sent by him were novertholees received in Oalicia 
with iIm greateet respect. This was numifosted a little later 
on, when, after the convorsion of the king of the Haevx 

* The Bmii and thdr king woro nt ible Umo (till Ariiiaa. Tboir 
[garoHtcn dktM bock οαΐτ Ιο llw jtnx 51». or tlicnobciul*. 

* iUU, ftr7. 



to CAtholicism, ibe bishoj» of tbui country considered it 
oppoitnne to put their eoclesiasttcal rcignl&tioas on a deGuite 
beeie. In the NaUonal CoimcU belt! in ΐΛΙ the Utur^cal 
texts sent from Ιΐοηιο to rrofutnnui were made obligatoiy.' 

From tlii» there roust hare arisen a mixed Utiu:g7, in 
which thetn were naturally blended with the Roman ordina 
of the Mass and of baptism certain other ulementa lutbor 
of an indigenous origin, or borrowed from the Gallican 
IJturgy, As no Sueric Litorgy has come down to us, it is 
not possible to form an idea of what theee cx>mbioAlioDS 
weroi, but they did not at anj rate enjoy a lengthy extslenoe:. 
In δ88, the Suwvic kingdom harint; been annexed to th« 
Yiagothic, the Church»» of this country pnsstxl under llie 
jurisdiction of tho National Councils of Toledo, which were 
very cAgm for liturgical uniformity. The Roman nsages 
introduced into Gadicia wero treated aa dttp<arturue trom the 
norma], and were carefiiUy deleted in fitrour of the Galltcan 

Tbo RomMI miatiou which was sent to Eugknd at tho 
end of the sixth century nntutolly introduced the use of the 
Boman Litoigy into the Christian oommomtios which it bad 
oewty founded there. But thi» tii-st miseiou was not attended 
with permanent succe&l Tlie work of evangelinng tlie 
Anglo-Saxons was again taken tu hand, ahonly afterwards, 
by Irish missionariee from the North, where at lindisEame, 
a small island on the east ooaat of X(»thumberland, they had 
their headquarters. With the advent of these new apostles 
the litorgy need in Ireland, that is to say, the Gallican rite, 

' Cboc Bnuaraut, c 1 : " Item pLuvit at oodcn ordinn iiitwnn οΛ»- 
timilsr Λ oainiljua quern Pnifutnnu qnaadaai hiijni mlTnfnlttiiwti 
>ei J i Mt >B cpitooim mb ijiM afKaloUoM «e*U« kUcturitAte nucqiit •ariptam." 
—C 5 : " lIuiM (dacDit nt nvllita «nia huptlundi onliaom piaetetmittat 
quBn Η »nt«a taenit ndiofwUtMiB BtMstanala oedeii^ et pro unputudt 
ttUquurvm dnbtoUle pntcdictu• flofMimii tptieefiu Mriptum libl et 


was imported ioto the Ai^lo-Saxon Cbnrahes. Hence arose 
a conflict aa to ose between the Irish miasions from 
Lindieforne and the eomewhat inactive miseion in Kent, 
which waa always Roman in principle, even if its members 
were not all Boman. The episcopal succession of Conter- 
bary having come to an end. Pope Yitalian sent to 
England (668), as its new archbishop, Theodore, a Greek 
monk of Tarsus in Cilicia. It was to this man, as able and 
energetic as he waa conscientioos, that the English Church 
owed its definitive foundation. He managed to reconcile 
the various and somewhat conflicting elements which he 
fonnd in the missions entrusted to his care. By his wise and 
strong mie be was able to secure tmity, and the work of 
evangelisation prospered in consequence. He doubtless made 
conceseions in lituigical matters, and condoned the customs 
introduced by the Irish missionaries, for the oldest Anglo- 
Saxon books by no means contain the Roman Liturgy in 
an absolutely pure form ; they abound, indeed, in Gallican 

The attitude of Theodore, however, as far as the liturgy 
was concerned, was in harmony with the instructions which 
had been given by St. Gregory to his disciple Augustine, 
the first Archbishop of Canterbury * : — 

Com on• nt fldee, cor euiit eccloBianim coneuetndinea tarn cuversae, 
wt altera oonaoehido miasaruin est in Boraana ccclesia atque altera in 
Oalliainm eccleetie tenetui ? 

— Novit fmternitAS tna Romanae eccleaiae consaetndiaem in qua μ 
mmniiiU enntiitam. Bed mibi placet ut tive in Itomana, rive in Qalliaram, 
•ίτβ in qnalibet eccleaia oliqnid bvenisti quod plus omnipoteDti Doo 
poent placera, soUicite eligae et in Anglomm eccleBlo, quae adhna in 
fide noT« eit, inatitutione praedpua quae de muitia ecclesiis colligere 
potniitl infhndaa. Hon enim pro locia res, eed pro rebue loca uobia 

' (ing. M. J^, xl. 64 (ΐβα). On the inlijeot of the anthmticity of thii 
Mttf, tee Monunaoo, Nait* Ar^ie., vol. zvii. pp. 390, 39S. 

100 cimisrrAK worship r its orioik αχπ bvoldtios. 

tnuiDda *nnt. Rx lingua «τχο qnibiwiae eocleflile qa»e jiM, qoM 
leligioeA, qtuo red» ninl oolligo, oi liu» quul in bK«cuJua ooU«cta 
a{iod Aitgbniiii montM in conmictiidiacin depcmo. 

There were, in England, moreover, even in the lif^me 
of Theodore, some who vere more zealous than he wae 
for the parity of the Roman use. We may gather this 
much from his dUputoe with St. Wilfiid. This ultra- 
moDtatm tutidunuy, ils wo sliould suy at the present time, 
was introduced on the Continent by St. Booifaoe, the 
Apostle of Germany and the reformer of the Kranltish 
Cburob. It was he who ioaiigmatod tliat movement 
towards liome, which, favoiu-ed by Inter political relatioas, 
brought about, among other consetinouces, the βορρτββΰοη 
of the GoUicau Litut^ in the Churches of the Frankish 

Even btiforo St. ItonifAco the iafluonuc of the Soman 
lituigy bod been felt in GauL Duiiug the seventh cootuiy 
this country was constantly traversed by the Itoman 
missionaries on their way to Euglaod. The Eoglisb con- 
verts, ou Uieir side, weit; accusLomod to undertake the 
journey to Itome, from whence tbey brought back relics, 
pictures, books, and above all, liturgical documents. Some 
of the latter may have been dropped on the way, or 
copies taken of them in the dwellings of tiia bUhope. or 
in tiie monasteries whore those pious travoUers were accus- 
tomed to pat up. Finally, the monks of St. Colombaous, 
who did so much to propagate the Benedictine rule,' must 
also have contributed to the tipruad of Uie lituigical onstoms 
of the Koman Church. 

The few Gidlicau books which have come down to 

> Cf. tlio impartkDt duavrtsljon by Honiioar I'Abb! Mnlnory. QuU 
J<«SO»bMM mfniirlii iiJ t'ljulam ηινηιι•((τίο/-«η (itgur Hit t^Λllm••<^tWι Ikriniat 
fini/KtiMi tmluMnt Taii*, UH, p. 30. 

TUB Tvfo mhttistciiciit» oV tub UTJir-.wBST.- loi 

Ute hack to the Inst period of the Merovingian 
rale. Nearly all of tlicm boataia formulanes of Itoman 
otigto and Mnssos in cotnmumorntioa of Komau saiste. 
Am earljr s3 the timo of Orogory of Toms, the UUrony- 
IMCM Marttpvlogy, a book of Roma» origin, tJiongh nob 
of an ofSd&l oatnre, woe iutrodnoe<l into Cnnl and adapted 
to the Uee of the country. The Sacramentary of St. Uenie, 
known aa the ffe&uuin StvranieiUari/ — a work which is, 
in bet, rnodamentally Koman — was drawn up at the 
latest io the time of Charles Martel. Some other books, 
or fingtnents of books, of both Itoman and mixed orjgiti, 
belong to this period, that is to say, to α dmo when the 
ϊηβαβαοο of St. Boniface had not yet made it«clf felt iu 
th• FMnkisb Church, at bU uvonte, wiuun tho Umitd of 

That Su Bouiface gavii a etiOn;; iuipulsu to liturgical 
reform and to the adoptiou of Uuiuan customs is indu• 
bitabla We know little, liowovcr, of thu details of his 
aetJTity in tliis dircctiou. Hu iiiusi Ικινυ bucu vigorously 
supported by the Γοροβ, ηΊιοβΰ coiuiscllor liu was, as well 
■s tbeir legate. There was introduced into the maltur, 
Duveorer, a ικηΐ and an acrimonious hoot fur removed 
from tbu spirit manifested in the Gregorian docuniosc I 
have just cited. One of the most imprc^uvu ritos in tho 
Galilean Mass n-as the beoedictioa of thu people by 
tile bishop at the moment of communion. So much 
impottenco was attached to this rite that it was rotiuned 
eren after the adoption of the Koman Liturgy, Almost 
ill tbe Sacnunentariee of tlie Middle Ages contain forma• 
luiee of booediction ; they are even still in use in tbe 
Cbnroh of Lyons. I quote here a letter to Boniface from 
Γορβ Zachariae, which ehow.s how the latter speaks of 

' JidK, tBl. Tbs ktter beloot• to the year Tfil. 


forth by Charleniag:iie in 789.' The passage (cap. 80) leads 
esfollowB: — 

Omni derv. — ut cantDm Bomaniim pleniter diecftnt et ordinabilitor 
par Doctnnule vel gradale oEBdmn pengntnr, Becimdnm qnod beatM 
memoriae genitor noeter I^ppuiu rex decertavit ιώ finet, qnsndo 
QaUicunm tout, ob nnuiiimtatem apoetoUcae aedis et <eaooUe Dei 
Eccleaae padflcam cooconliam.* 

It waB not, therefore, Charlemagiie, as has often been 
etabed, but Pepin the Short, who abolished the Galilean 
Litoigy. This reform had become neceasary. The FranloBh 
Church, dnring the reigne of the latest MeroviogianB, had 
fallen into a sad etate of corruption, dieorganisatioo, and 
ignorance. There was no religious centre anywhere, no 
metropolie whose cuBtoms being better r^ulated and better 
preserved might serve as a model and become the point of 
departure for a reformation. The Yisigothic Church had 
a centre at Toledo, a recognised head in the metropolitan 
of this town, and an nniqne disciplinary code — the Siwpana 
collection. The Liturgy of Toledo was then the litn^y 
of the whole of Spain. The Frankish Church possessed 
frontiflrs only, and lacked a capital. The Frankish Epis- 
copate, except when the king or the Pope took the direc- 
tion of it, was an acephaloua episcopate.^ Each Church 
poeeeesed its book of canons and its liturgical use. 

I BSmier-Mflhlb., 292 : Hardouin, Ctmc, vol. i?. p. 843. Cf. chaptera 53 
Kjid Μ of the nine work. 

■ Page 61 of the edition of BotetiuB (Jli. Germ. Ltg-v, Sect. II, vol. L, 
F*rt L). Of. the Epitiola Gauralu pnt forth betweea 786 aad 81X1 i<bid., 
p. 80): "Acoeuai praetcrea venenuidae mcnioriae Pippini gceitorlB noatri 
exemplii, qui total Gallianim eeoleaiaa Bonuttiae tiaditioiUB aoo etedlo 
oMitibna decotsftt." 

■ Thii poutioD never varied. It was the caae before the Menmngiani, 
Knd ooDtiiiiied bo aftenrardi. Gvery effort to eetabliah in Fraoce an 
eoderioatioal power niperior to the biehopa — apart from the Pope or 
Ooremnient-^iae invariably resulted in failure. The metropolitan anthbrlty 
it«ell nerei enjoyed a strong poaition. The arohbiahopi are no longer 
ntore than dtgnitariea, and it would bo eaay to prove that, with a few 
iaolated eioeptiona, they have never been anyUiing more. 

ICMl cuBisTUs vroBsmr: rre obeoik and etoldtio». 

There vaa no order anywhere, ηοώϊης but tbo moet 
oompleto anarchy — α lawless etate of aflsirs which would 
have bwa in-emediable if tho Caxlovingian monarchs had 
made no appeal to tradition and to tho authority of the 
Roman Church. 

The intervention of Homo in the reformatjon of the 
litQTS7 ^^ neither spontaneoue nor very active. The 
Popes contented themselves with sending copies of their 
Utuigical books v,-ithout troubling themsclvea us to the 
DM which mi^^lit be made of thum. Tbu ludividnals who 
were charged by the Frtinlciah kings — Pepiti, Charlemagne, 
and Louia the riotia— with the exeouUou of the litoigical 
reform did uot regani tliemeelvee ee jHrohibited bom 
supplementing the RonuLU booka or &om comUniog with 
them whatever seemed worth preserving in the GalUcon 
rite. Uunce arose a somewhat composite Utuig)', which 
from its source in the Imperial diapel spread tbrougliout 
all the Churches of the Fmnkish Empire, and at length, 
finding its way to Ιΐυηκι, gruduully supplontod tliere the 
ancient use. The Komon Litiugj-. from the olorenth century 
at the leiLst, ia uolliing else than the Fnnkieb Iituxj>y, 
audi as iii^ like Alouin, Helisachai', and Amaloriua bad 
made it. It ia even extraordinaiy that tlie ancient 
Roman books — representing the gentiine use of Rome op 
to the ninth century— have been eo completely displaced 
hy otheia, that uot a single example of them is now to 
be found. 

It would appear that the Utorgtcal reform taken in 
hand by the Carlovingian kings never readied Milan. 
The particularitios of tlie Milanese ritual wore not un- 
known in l-'nmce, but this important Church, being hotter 
governed, doubtless, than those of Merovingian Oaul, 
seems to have been able to tlispense with reform. Tbe 
use of the Church, moreover, had already approximated 
considerably to the Roman rite. It was protected by 


the name of St. Ambrose,' The fables related by Landulf ' 
as to the hoatility displayed by Charlemagne to the 
Ambroaian ritnal are not 'worthy of credit." 

< WaUfrid Strabo, Ih Ωώ. Eecl., 22 : " AmbroeiuB quoquc, lIcclinlaaeiuiB 
cpiMoapnt, tarn misiae qnain caetGrnrum dupoaitioDem offlcioruin entui ccclc- 
liae et aliii Ligaribiu ordinaTit, quao ct nequc bodie ia Mediolanenei 
tenentat eccleeift " (Uigne, Pat. Lat., vol. cilvii. p. 583). 

* Hitt. Mrdiol., U. 10 (Higne, Fat. L•ιt., vol. cilvit. p. SJ'J). 

* For the nipprcMion of tho Hozarabic Liturgy in Spain, in the timo 
of JUex«udor U. and of Grogocy Vll., ioe Gam», KirchengetchkhU von 
SpoHitn, s. 1 



Before enteriog apoo a descriptioD of the Latin litui^cal 
books, I tliink it will be useftil to discuse briefiy the 
fcnmatioii of liturgical books in general, and I will deal 
in the first place with the elements of which they are 

§ 1.— The Foumb of Prayer. 

Common prayer, especially in large assemblies, was 
subject at an early date to a certain amount of r^;tilation. 
Prayer was offered in three diSereDt ways, which I may be 
allowed to specify by tJie terms lAiany prayers, CoUasiive 
prayers, and Buekarisiic prayers. 

The Litany was said in the foUowing maimei. One 
of the sacred ministers in a loud voice invited the congrega- 
tion to pray for divers needs, which he specified one eSter 
the other. At each petition he made α pause, during which 
the whole congregation joined in α short formulary of suppli- 
cation : Kyrie deison, Te rogamu» aitdi -nos, etc. This form of 
prayer still holds, in the £aat, an important place in the 
Liturgy of the Μαβ& In the West it has disappeared ; but 
we shall see later on that it had α place there in ancient 
times. In the East the task of enumerating the petitions 


of the Litany πββ assigned to a deacon. At liome this 
office, together with other analogous functions, was tran»• 
ferred at a somewhat early date from the deacon to the 

The second form of prayer was arranged as follows. The 
president of the congregation, that is, the officiating minister, 
invited the faithful to pray to God, indicating sometimes 
more or less hriefly the general tenor of the prayer in which 
they were to join, and at others confining himself to 
a short formula of invitation. The congregation then 
assumed silently the attitude of prayer — that is, they stood 
with their arms raised up and hands extended. On certain 
days they were accustomed to kneel, or even to prostrate 
themselves with their faces to the ground. They remained 
in this position for some time, praying silently. Then the 
voice of the officiating minister was heard, expressing in 
a short formulary a riaumS, as it were, of the prayers 
arising firom every heart, and the congregation associated 
themselves with him by the response Amen. 

We find, it is true, no description anywhere of this ritual. 
The liturgical hooks which have come down to us are neither 
sufficiently ancient nor explicit enough to furnish us with 
information on the point. The structure of the formularies 
contained in them is such, however, that we cannot imagine 
matters to have been otherwise conducted at the outset. 

In the Gallican ritual, in fact, the principal prayers are 
always preceded by an invitatory, in which the officiating 
minister exhorts the congregation to pray. This invitatory 
has sometimes the proportions of a short sermon. Several 
formularies of this kind recall, in aU r^pects, the style of 
the addresses of St. Zeno of Verona, which were doubtless 
composed for a similar purpose. A real formulary of prayer 
follows, in which the officiating minister addresses his sup- 
plications to God in the name of all present The following 


Bpecimon, taken from the ofl\ce for the vigil of tbo Ejapbany,' 
will give au idea of thu coiiibiuatioo referred to : — 

Miracolomia primonlia qiiAe ttominiie nostcr Jams Chrittui ρτ<ι£ίπ« 
ill adsumptao CAcaia tiovilatJi dijpiaiux «kC, Frstr«B kfirieaimi, dehita 
oxuluUcnc vcnetoraiir ; quia iIiitii «lO Doiim intmhiiniiiimTitccnpraferebat, 
jam de «aJuIie uoetnio abeoluilunu Iraoubat. Uomo cat utiqao invtUiUM ad 
nnptiae ; Μ quod in nuptuK proliiUt Peiim probnviL Οι^η* ρηοοοαΰι om 
intor tpM qaideiD rirtuliim potmimus nidlmenU d«pronoi»; aod dom 
UnUrtun ranun NltipMcininii Kloruun, totnoriULom ■ prar«MndM Uadia 
■ngredimuT, Uumili ct)^ onitiuiie pwcatnua at per ip*uin ad ntun 
utenuni nobia iribuutur iosrcwus, oujw nAtiritatiH lumbeorbla hdaatntai 
Μ uoiveniM. Qiiod ipso prOMUro dignelnr φύ Ιο triniUUi perfect* τΜί 
ct rogxMt Id μοοιιΙα Mccnionim. 


OnnipoUne ct niMericoni Deas. ]>l«bi buo «npplictter exoranti pk 
teiiigRitate reeponde, qaam ccmie in hoc dio fidoli dcvottono jguiaen. <|uo 
(tombne >G Dbiw nottor vera ImmilitaU «uiioepte u'o MrvHem ίυππιιη 
miMricorditer oBtendit in moculo ul divlnam potoBtiu» «uiit minbilil«r 
monitnret Iq caelo. Qui enim pru nobi* puer purttloe fult, tpM «d Μ 
raagM offido κίοΙΙαο praoonntis addiuit. Obaeonmitt iui|iie, Domine, 
domentiiuii tiiain, ut aicut llUe iledititi Cbristum tuitm voriim Deua tn 
ven ciuiie oognoK<tr«. sic orane• fidolM tiio» qiiM mjucrno bdu micta 
gmtat Gf^Jeela io pnoMoti tempore pToteg^u iarlctao virtutie aiudlJo* ot 
in fiituro fnuai nffa caeleelu ftdipien ιηιιποτ• * ncnipitentB. Per ϊρηιη 
dominutn nostnuu Jetum Clirietuia Allaiu tniint, qui Vtcnm boatw 

Tn Uio Botnan Liturgy few foimalaries of Ihia kiud 
have beeu presi-rvod. Enough of Uiem, however, exist to 
«lUkble us to reconstruct tlio ancient use. I npiiend, μ 
an instance, Uie following, taken fVota the solemn pnijren 
of Good Fridny.s 



■ Mlimle OMi'^um. Monttori. Lil. ftnnaiM Vdu, VoL U. p. SW. 

■ 'Fbeprlntud odilioii Iim Umrriliiti*, 

■ In Uie printed cdiliijit, uuiriVi'iini- 

* In the ]irtntod rillllim, munnjvi mnjrllfmo. 

' Gelaeinn B^tromatL Blunttori. Ul. Ihm. Vit., mL L p. 500. 





'Onarai^dDeotMailiNlife InptinUi pro EodcriAUDota Poi; nt cam 
I Η ItonuiHis podficam, «dnatre et ciutodiro dignotur per univiiniutii 
η temniB, nbidciH ol princIpMue ct poietbttoB, det-^iie nobii 
ma^ldkai et qmoUm tUmii degentEbiu glarificara Deiun Fulrtra 
oiBi^otntMii. Or«niQi I 

AdmmuHat tb'aconiti : VlettMBoa geav^l 
Ilmmdieit: Ltvalol 

ORini[>oUni^ MDipttcnH), Dcut, qin glonam tuam bmiiibus' in Oiristo 
gtBlSiw ntdiMti, cnattMH open muaricanlino lanu, nt Rcclonin ti» totu 
wb• dIShn (ttbili fido in confeaeiiuDo till numiiiis jwniereral. Pw 
[nBdcu OiriMBB, etc] 

Wo must alBo recall in this oonneotion the Orate, Pratrcx, 
of Uie Mass. The Itomao invitator; is more l^BqiieQtly 
confined to the simpler Oremtii f SomctbiDg Ulce this most 
bare also been is oso in the GuUiciui riiiml, for many 
pnyers therein have no elaborate invit&toric«, and it b 
difflcoU to bi-licvo that tiioy were not preceded by any 

The Soman f(nTautarie9, Pfedamas ffenua, Ltmte, con- 
tain, both in books and tisogo, the only ti-aco of what was 
at one time the essentiat element in this form of pi-ayer, 
via. the anppUcaiion ofVercd op in silence and in a 
preecribed attitude. 

Tbe Buekaritlie prayer wiis iho most solemn form of 
aU. It wu said by the officiating minister alone, and in 
tbe name of all; the congregation bad merely to listen, to 
join in it mentally, and to make the responae Amm at the 
«Old. lie geaenil subject-matter is tbauksgiving. In the 
Boman ritoal, and indeed in all others, it began olvaya in 
tlie same way : " It is truly meet, ri^'bt, and salutary to 
Tender thanks to Thee, at all times and in all places, holy 
Lotd, Father Almighty, eternal God I " 

tbe ΛπΛ it,. 

The Qregeriiui Sncnuueutary liu nut 


It cornea befoire us everywhero, not only in tho somo 
WOTils. but also m\T»rinbIy \ireoede(J by an invitatorv in the 
fonn of a dialogue between the officiating minister and tJie 
congregation — 

""Die Lord be with you! — And with thy simit! — 
Lift up your beart« ! — We lift them uj> unto the Loid. 
— Let us give ihanke to our Lord God !— It is meel and 

This |>ni>'ur forme one of tlie eesonlial piirL* uf the Uoee, 
but it is also found in several other liLurgiiad ofTioce, such 
as Ordination, the CooeecrsttOD of Yirgiuii, the Uooodiction 
of BiijitismiU Foute, etc. In (h-eek the special oama 1^ 
which ihu Euchanstic prayer used in the Mass is known 
is the Anaphora. Lntin liturgical language has no analogous 
t«rm, but two names are applied to it wlttcb correspood 
respectively to its two ports. Tho part of the formulary 
which precwics the singing of tho SanctM is called the 
Preface (rrae/atio), and the port following, the Canon {Cawm 
Mtionis or Ae(io). In Uie Qallican books the Preface lias 
several n&inix^Contestatio, Ulatio, Immolatio} 

These throe modes of prayer furnished oocosion, st a some- 
whatoorly dote, for the ooDStmction of foi-mulariee, which were 
at length gtonped together in special books, called in Greek 
SuelwAogia, and in Latin Lihri Hacranuntoriim (Books of the 
Sacnunents.)' These books, which wore for the special use of 
tiie priest or ofGciabtng bishop, do not contain the port of the 

' In tUa Anafhora it it i»*}/ to diitingniili eortaiu cveatUl put• 'wVUL• 
U« fuuiiil in nil lilurjitoiL Itcaidiii |ϋ]β Prefaoo nnd tbi- fiaiiH—, thofo 
It ivlwayi tXm Ar^vunt t,/ Ikr LnA Supptr, ΓυΙΙονοΙ by tiio AtummeU uid 
Kpiftf-rit, tu vliioli TafnrMioa «w iu>de at ρα^ο CI. 

' Coiucib ul Luilliit^ in H07 (ou. iU) nitd 107 (Cod. Can. £M. 4/Ηλ, 
C le»): ΟοηηιυΙΐΜ,,ΟΒ. 79, (Ml: LiUr I'mUJIaiU• (Ovluiiu^ vol. I.|w3SS: 
Qnvoty of Touts, ii. 22. It iru piulnbly α bonk of (ho laoivniMit• lo 
whteh Uiolfnii Ceittm m• applied la η eliutcr of (be jew 4TI ilAtr Pent., 
vuL L p. cslvij-a). 

urtniGicAL• poiuruLARiea akd books. Ill 

Tbu UtUir bad ttitfaor to know tus Litany by heart, or 
nad it (rom another text.' Certota Γοπηηίαηοβ were wrilleo 
in wlHmtB, or rolls of porchiuoal, sepamtuly. Tbis was 
tho cuo la the Eaet in regard to tbe Liturgy of the Mass. 
We find in Italy similar rolls for tbo wnjtnomes of the 
Beoodiction of Font«, of Baptism, and for the Praeeonium 
PaaduiU* etc Sometimes the formularies ware uwomponied 
by directions as to the order of tho cbremomus ; forming vhat 
ii tallod an Ordo. There is the order of Baptism, and those 
of Ordination, of Penance, of tho Consecration of Churchee, 
of Chrism, etc Thosu ordina are either foaod existing 
separately, or bound up witli other formulaiies in tbe body 
of the L^rri Saeramenturum. There wejtj also forma which 
were reetricted to details of the rites and cennionius. the 
omitted formularies bemg fonnd by tho officiating minister 
in the Saorameatary. 

The Sacramontaries, or I.ibri ScuTammtomm, assumed a 
greater impoitanee in tho West than in the East. Thlt arose 
tttua \he fact that in the Oriental ritual the pmyeis of the 
BlflM were, irith eomo uxcvptiuus, always the same, whilst 
in the West they varied according to the oocaeion of the 
iiata. At Komo there woe still a certniu fixed element, 
the fonoola of the oaaon being nlmotit invariable. But in 
the Gallican rite there wait liardly anything Bxed except the 
commemontioD of the Last Supper, with the words of 
institatioo of the Eucharist. 

later on, at a period posterior to that with which we 

* A «oIlMtica ef dioeonal lituiio• far tbe lue οΓ ιοιηυ Clinreh in 
B(rpt«a> pnUllbfd b^OtsiifciU ΙΙιβαηιΙοΓ Iiie «Mik mlloil Fnijmmtvm 
BmifiUi 8. AJunmu, Bnmo, ITVtl, «nd rcpfixluw•! I<y Hammnnd in I'Ar 
Ulmrff o/ A»Uvk, p. SI. Olbw exiUDplcs oODUr iailr.DfigiibSiiia'alAtHfgiai 
IhA iiif tlnimi. 

* CK Om temj of K. LMifbto nn On πλΙφλλ il'Kxtiltit In Uiq Jtf«Ic(«g« 
Λ» rJM> da SemK, voL vl. μ. 4βΤ. A «pcciol term ιτη> iu«l nl Milno 
to ilnrigaain Ike <iMto «hoae buniotM it «m to hold iui<l uufuld theM mIU 
Mra the oBeinlbg Udioj)— tlint ol KvhiIxrAw. 

112 christiak wosskip: its ODICIK Λ^*D EV0LUTI0>'. 

are dealing, the cnetom arose of inserting in Uio Sa«rft- 
me&taiies the lections and chante of the Mass. Honco 
originated what were called Misult plmary, or simply 
JfiuaU. Those are now the only books in uae. 

} 2.^Tra LEcnose. 

Lections were, in the first instance, taken From the books 
of Lbe Biblu itself, either as isolatod taxtB or grouped in 
divers mannurs. I'he president of the congregation ohoee 
the passages to bo read, and be atoppol Uie reader when he 
thought proper. Later on tlivrv wan an assigned text, of 
whicli tlic length had been previously determined, for evecy 
Sunday and festival. This did not prevent, howevttr, the 
emplojrmcut of books with coinplvte texts, in which it vas 
enough to indicate either on the iDai:giD, or in a table placed 
at the oommcncomoul, tbe beginning and end of the leesooa 
bolong^ug to ϋΐϋ Sunday οτ holy day. Tliis table was 
designated in Greek by the term Sffwaari/} and in Latin 
by tibat of Capitulary, The ctutom soon began of extracting 
flrain thu books of the Uible, and oven &om the Gospels, the 
lessons for the dlRcrent days of the year. Thus tlxne aniee 
to place of the Svang^ium tlw Svangdary, and in place 
of the complete Itiblo, the LuHonary. There resulted at 
length a blundiug in the some collection of the IcseoDB 
taken &om the Old Testament with tboee from the Eptsthia 
and Goapels, including oven extracts from certain other 

It is manifest that a great Dumber of v-aneliea would 
thus come into existence, not only in difrercnl countries. 

' Tliii Uonooi IboIIlαlLlιiDe•oΓtL•c1ratd: tboro nn oUiera. Cf. JitabWn 
Bollatul.. vul. »iT. p. +00. 

> Fta iltTiaiU od UUi point, too UiB MMate£td<iiiiiry b Balih't XWrttowfy 
o/ Chriril»n AntiqHtUt». Cf. OooDadlva, 80. 




but evoD ia Uio samo ooonti;. th«ec varielios depmidLiig 
oa whotiiBr tlw Obnrcli wae ui imporuuil oiio, capable oC 
iodnlging id Um oxpeneu of η ricb lilurgical Ubi'aiy, or 
whether it vn» ■ poor country Churcli whicb had to 
nstrict itMlf to wfaAt WIS nbeolately necoseaiy. Betlittg 
aub the Leclioiury of Luxeuil, of wliich I will treat 
fttitber OD, t am tmable to t'uruish lustauces of the 
«xisboQoo in tho Wvsl of thu tuDd of book before the 
time of Chorkmagne. Thoee of the Kast are not more 
itacieDl. But thoi-e is iio doubt that tlio mtuority of the 
TDTjr ADcioDt manuscripts of the Bible, whether Greek or 
lAtin, wUioL• have oonie down to us, were employed for 
public nading ία Churches. They atUl boar traces of 
this use. 

5 3.— The Chakts. 

Tbo cbantiDg of tho psalms was from the begianing, 
ae I bavo previously pointed out, one of the essentia] 
etmnoote of public worship. Its iiao alternated with the 
letUons, wtuch were road either at the office for vigils, or at 
itam before tlic oblation. 

Id onaent times, and np to the latter part of the fourth 
oeotury, the pealms were always sung as a solo, and, 
doabtle», also with soiaewbat complicated modulations. 
The oODgregotion, however, repeated tho last words of the 
chant. The oxoculion of the liturgical chant is doscribod 
in thie way in the Apostate Conslituti<ms} Tho choir- 
rules, moreover, prescribe thia same mode of chanting in 
the oaeo of those portions which, in the Koman use, corre- 
spond to the most ancient psalmody — I mean the gradual 
and the other musical pieces insurtvd butween the Epistle 
ud OoepeL Thusu psalms aru usaeuLially I'aalmi respoiuorii 

8« abatt, p. ss. 


(reepODdH), and they were thus called becanse the oongregalion 
made, in fact, η respooso to thcin by ropeating the Ttnal clause. 

The ICoiaan castom permilUid the use of two kioda oT 
melodies for thu claes oT saered chante. One of theeo was 
designated by a term which has no reference to ite musical 
ohaiactu*. This was what was called tlio gnulual, whiclt 
was Bung at the ambo, or r/mdiif, and took from tliis fud 
ite name of Pealmia r/radHolis. The other vae the I^aimu$ 
tradua, or trtcL At tliu tim<: to which the moat ancdeiii 
documoDte dealing with thoeo dutatls go bock, Uio itefiiHU 
iraeitis woe, like the gradual, enng at Uio umbo, and uob in 
the choir. Its namo of traetm coo thus bo derived oiily 
from some peculiarity in ite execation. Anmlarioe tolls us, 
in fact, that the tract diDered from the Psedmui ταφοΜοηπ» 
in tli&t thu choir did not reapoud to it ns thuy did to tbo 

Thu custom of singing the AUdn'ia is Tcty anciont in 
the Church, bol the adaptation of this chant to the liturgical 
service did not tako place until late, and then with con- 
sidcrablo diversity in its usu. At Itorou it was joined to 
tho last verso of the gradual psalm. In tbo East and 
in the counlriea of tlie Gallican rito, it was sung still 
later in the service, that is, after the Uospel, or at 
procession of the oblation. 

Towards the end of tlie fourth century there n-ae intro• 
daoed «ide by side with the Pealmm retponeorwa anotbor 
kind of psalmody, the antiphon, which cousietod of a psalm 
chanted by two clioii-s alternately. It was at Antioch,' in 
tlie time of Bishop Leontius (344-357), thnt Uiis custom 
was introduced. Under tlie guidance of two asoeUce, 


• ΛDU>lιufιι^ n« Ryl. Off.. IlL Ιΐ. I «Jlod ntunti»» to tlili latt in ' 
PatHfrapliir lUmnnl•• nt Uic BtnicdlctUlM of BolwtDC•, vuL V. p. III. 

* TluMdoTOl, UN. Sod., Ά. U. 




Flavian and Diodonis, who bacame later OD Biahope of 
ADtioch and Tarsus reapectively, some pious la; people 
wave aocuBtomed to meet at night ία the eaticttiorieEi of 
tbo marten to pass the time in chanting psalms with Ivo 
clioin. Bishop Leoatios, who favoorod tlie Arianising party, 
Kgarded with distnist these meetings, which vera held 
without bis sanction. He induced the friends of Flavian 
and Diodoros to celebrate their pious vigils in the Cburcliee 
nf the city. This circumstance contributed much to making 
known this new metliod of psalmody, and it soon spread 
rapidly. Uy the lime of St. Basil ^ it hud already been 
tntn>duc«d into the Cappadocian Casaroa. The pilgrim 
Silvia, in the time of Theodosius, makes mention of noc- 
tomal meetings exactly Uke those of Antioch and Caesarea: 
tbo antipbon there occupied a place alongside the ancienb 
fWponsive pealmody : Fialmi respmduntur (sic), similiter et 
ηηϋρΛαηατ, St. Ambroea adopted this praotioe in 387.' It 
appears to have taken a longer time to get introduced into 
tbo Roman Church. A text, somewhat obscure in ohaiactor, 
it is true, of the Ziber Pontifiealix* refeis this introduction 
to the time of Pope ColesUne (422-432). 

In tbo form in which it was adopted at Itomo. tbo 
ontiphoQ admitted the alternative singing of a complete 
peolm. AU tbu νυπνβ wens chanted to the aamo molody, 
bat the molody varied for e*ch psalm. Bofont ΐΛ-^πηίος 
the pealm proper, suiuo uiusical plirosus weiv lintt cxecutud. 
to whi«fa oottais words, boirowcd ctiioOy Irom tho \ysa\ia 
itsvlf, were adapted. This woe what is call«d tho aulhuin 
\timtiennt\. It woe doubtless performed as a solo by 
a cantor, in order to give the tone for the following 
poalmody. Tho psalm being ended, there was a re^jetitioa 
of the anthem. 

■ Ep-SOT. 

* Bt. AnipmtiD», OrnA i'- 1• 

■ VoL L pp. &JU, 231. 


It is clear that tho word antliom is DOthiDg more 
than a IransformatioD of the term antipkoita. I will use 
IJie word anthem in its preeoot significanco, Imt to atUiphon 
1 will apply its primiiive xcnso, viz. lliat of a psalm auog 
by two clioiis, ad<I wiib itn initial and final modalation. 

Wu sliall sue hereafter tlutt iiotiptions were used at 
Home, not only ία offices otiier than tho Moss, bat in 
tho Mase itscir, wbicli admitted of two fonos of it, the 
antipliou ad introiiam and the antiphon Ofl communionetn. 

Whatever the form of pealmody might be, it was a 
genemi oiistom. in the fourth century, for the paalm to 
end witb the doxology: Gloria Patri Η Filio U Spiritui 
satuio, tietU trai t» pHiuapw H nunc ti Ktnper et in acueuta 
tMotloritm. Anun} 

As was the caae with the formuUiriee of piuycts. tho 
innaica] portions of tho 8ervii.-e were fixed at an early 
dale, and had places aaaigiiod to them according to tlio 
days and feasts of the year. Hence arose the need of 
special books. At liome there wei-e, t)eeides the books 
which were employed for the day and night offices, two 
distinct volumes for liturgical use, strictly so called, that 
is, for the Mass. These wore called respectively the 
Caittaiorium* and AHiipJumarium. Ίΐιβ former was for 
the Qso of the deacon (later cantors), who sang tho 
gradual and einiUnr chants from the ambo. The other 
was α choir-book, wMdi was kept in Uio place in which 
the tcliola eatUoruvi was held. It coulainel, beside the 
two antiphous already monliunitd, the oilier musical parts 
of the Mass for every day in the year, namely the offertory, 
tho Gloria in eseelti», etc. As far aa the antiphoos wero 

> ThU ii the Bomui fonnulary. Tb« ilifbt mieljoni in oUur ' 
WW ha notud oliewlicre. 

■ OMo Horn., i. l()i ABi*lariDj, IX ogkiU, Homd jmlifpic: ih Ori. 




conccnMxl. it vna only necessary to note tbo itnthoms. 
wbicb gave tho tono for ύι& psnlm, seeing iLat the 
choiieteis either bad a pealter in their hands, or else 
knew the psalm so thoronghly by heart that it iras 
needless to inscribe it in the autiphonai^. 

AnUphonal cliantiag of the peatma as it obtains today 
is executed soinetiin«e with η rapid, and at t>tIiei-3 with a 
slow, morement and more complicated modulations. The 
latter method is almost exclosively reserved for the antiphoo 
of the intrvit, while the otlier is of general use in the 
pnliDody of the ofRce. It is probable that at the beginning 
the alow movement was that wliioh was more generally 
followed. There baa been a progressive shortening of all 
the ports of Divine Service, whether prayers, lections^ 
or cbant«, bnt it wat in the category of the chants that 
moat of the suppresiuons orcurred. We see this clearly in 
the aotiphooa of the Mass, In one of these — the itUroit — 
the pealm is reduced to a single verse, followed by the 
doxology, while in ttie antiphou ad comhnanumem tt baa 
entirely disappeared. 

In addition to the psalms introduced between the 
lections and (he antiphoos of the Boman Moss, the 
Eacbaristic aenrioe mdmittod other chants, of whicli I 
will treat later on. All of them, with tlm exception of 
the SanctuM, are of relatively rucent date. In rvgard to 
the Santitui, moreover, it is u«cessar)' to distin.t^iab 
be t ween it« words and the musical rendering of Ibvm. 
The present coatom of reciting the sumphic hytim in 
common, and aloud, goes hack to lliu smiiu uorly date as 
that assigned to the guneral subject-muttvr uf tho pnifuce 
and of the canon. ΊΊιο application of uiuludy to the wunis 
is probably of later date. 

I do not include under llie term liturgical chant the 
TtcitatiTe or intoning of the lections or such of the prayets 


as are stud aloud. This pmcticc may bo voty anereDt. It was 
necessarily introduced a» soou as Che Christiaa assemUiee 
booamo very large, and thus rendered it difficult for the 
officiating minister or ruadur to make himself beaid. The 
flections οΓ the voice eervod for a scansion of the text, 
and thus gave more relief to the intonation. But the 
xlight modulations reanltin;; from this wore more atcin to 
ocoeutuated reading than to ctnLoting pruperly so called. 

It was for the same reason — namely, the difficnl^ of 
mtintutmig a high intonation in a large building — that 
tbe eaatoin must have arisen of prououncing in a low 
voice certain formularies which were evidently intondod 
in the first instance to be heard by everybody. There 
are two of such in the Ruinau Hass, viz. the prayer 
called Secreta before the preface, and the Canon &om the 
Sandiu onnarrla. According to tlie Kaslcni uai^e, many 
other formularies of prayer an said in a low voice by 
the officiating mioieter. Bat in eveiy country ihaee 
formulariee end in wliat the Gteeka call an ecphone^ 
(ΐκ^ννιισις), that 13, in a raised inflection of tbe Toioo «t 
the end, so that the congregatioo may respond witb Amen. 





AxciEXT books of the Latta rite are much rarer than 
W} might bo led to expect. It ia uaGleaa to look for 
uijthiug of ϋ)θ kind ίο tbu Danubian prorinces or iu Latin 
niyrictiin, where the Caiurcbua of Dorostorum, Stmlica, 
Sttlona. Sirmium, Siscia, and Savaria onco Qourishud. A 
wbolecato deslructioD wa« alToctud in thceo countritis by 
the Gennaaic. Slav, aiid Finiiiab barbartaus, and though, 
no doubt, these coootriea have tlieir liturgical history, it 
begiu very late, that is, in the ninth contury, at the tttne 
when the mtssionarios from Borne ned with those from 
OoDstantinDpIo in evangelising the conquering tribee which 
thenceforward took np tboir abode in those regions. Africa, 
alao, has nothing to offer us. unless It bo ibo montion of α 
L^tBut Saerammlorum ' compiled in Mauritania, but now 
hopeleasi; lost, and a few decisions, scattered among tbo 
deenes of tbo councils. Ancient manuscripts of tbo Spanish 
Utaigy an said still to eicist, but up to the proeont time 
nothing is fortbcouiing except the Mozarabio MLssal, which 
«as reooTOiod by tho offorte of Cardinal Ximenea. With a 

* OmaaAioM, Dt Seriti., 70: " ViKxmiui. Ciulclliuii, Mauri Umiao ujipidi. 
■ptaaeyu^ acripiU mlvcniu BcvUnliio iniiuiou*, Jutlitnot ct Arinun• et itlifla 
liMwellCM. CcnpOMit dUiuh Sactnmonloruni cgTctfium Ubulluia." About 
tlie JMV 400^ eookiittltStBl leKiabttiuii nxiuld ImJ tie lu »\>ρ\•ι*α tlint tLu 
Hih*|t IttA, up lo lliikt lime, owuldcmbla lalituilo In tlic mlnction unJ nao 
<rf EunMDltfu•. Coiu>ciburCuUMgaef3ti7(.a.S3jaiuluf«J7(Cluii lUJ). 

120 cnniSTiAM worsbip ; its OWGIK ASD EVOHmON. 

single exception, wliich 1 shall shortly meation, the Liturgy of 
North Italy te found in no text earlier than the tenth cectniy. 
Of the manuBcripte of the lioman liturgy, one alone — Had 
that not an official book — has an absolutely iodigenotu 
origin, fVee from any transalpine influence ; all the othcn, 
and they are legion, are traceable to oiiginaU which hA\'e 
suffered more or less from IVench Carlovingios alterations 
of the eighth century and onwards. IiVom the British Itles 
wo have merely mixed manuscripts of the eighth century, 
or earliur, in wliioh local rit«e are curiously combined witli 
those of the Itomau Cliurch. Gaul is scarcely loes povet^• 
stricken, though there a few manuscripts of Merovingian 
times have been preserved. 

I propose to describe in this chapter the ancient liturgical 
books still tixtaut. which are anterior to the fusion of the 
Soman and Gallican ηκββ. 

§ 1.— RoiUK Books. 
1. Tkt Oregorian Sacrammtary. 

In a letter from Pope Adrian ' to Charlemagne, written 
between 784 and 791, it is slated that the king luul asked 
α short tiuiu previously that a Siicntiticiitary drawn up by 
St. Gregory mijjhl bo sent him from Home, and that Ιί« 
Pope had (Ivspalclied it to him by John, a mouk and 
abbot of Bavenna. 

As ROOD as it oirived in Fcnnce, a large number of 

' • Do SnPoiincnIfiTiii vctn η einrto ilinpiwili) fmtarepmotj• nottra, dd- 
flno Grcgurici giupa: iintuiiium vuLU aniiUcreiuiia. j'luo ("'^■^■b l^alM 
t^nmintilim• α Diibis <'πιη |iru vaida pttentP, arettintiini μοιΦι» ucalne 
ccrlfitnc iniillclaiiam, prr Juhanucm Bonaehiita nt^DO abbalroi ritttatk 
Bavtniimnlliiiii nabno rogeli «niaimii» ncclh-nUae " (CM Oarti.. Mm- 
Orr. K]t. lom. Ii[. p. Οβ). 



oopiee were made of the Gregorian Saciamontory, nnd 
appatcntly all the Churches were obliged to moke it the 
baaie of their UCni^cnl use. Λ considerable ntunber of the 
copies executed under Charlemagne and his immudiato 
soccesstns have been pi-eseri'ed till the prosoot time. 
Umiaieur L. Delisle has drawn up a catalogue' of then), 
which will, no doubt, be rendered more complete by fnrUiur 
raeeucbes, but which is auffloient to give an idea of the 
rapid propagaUon of the Or«^riaii textw 

The Sacnunentaiy sent by Pope Adrian was, however, 
far tmm oontaining all the necesaary details and furma• 
Iftiwa In transcribing it, it waa reudcntd more completo. 
Id some of the monuecripte, lis test from onu end to the 
other λταβ combined with the Koman Sncmmentai-y which 
bod been in pnjvioae uso. In otliers — nnd tbeec are Uio 
mo8t nomeroua — tbo copyist merely ineertoi}, aa an nppendti 
to the Or^rian text, the supplementAry matter wliich 
be connderod necdfbL 1 doubt whether such η thing 
exists as α pure Gregorian text wilhoat interjiolalioD• or 
aiUitione of any kind. 

But this is of little moment^ since in the lar^c number 
of ooplea is which Llio Gregorian text is followed by 
anppletnents. these latter are separated from it in α very 
disttoot muuier, and it ia perfectly easy to isolate them. 
The auilior of the aupplumented edition baa btHsti cuivful 
lu infurm us what were tlio contents of Uie Sacrumentar>' 
pn^erly so called, and the nature of iltu additions 
which he bolioved it uecessaiy to uiakc. He has prefaced 
Uie latter with an explanatory note and a list of iho fresh 
material addecL Hence, tbere can be uo difficulty in 
dlsUogotshing in llie Gregorian moiutscriiite tlioso portionit 

* MAMfrM d- VAcoJtluU da JnterifUeite, TeL sxiiL. lit put. Blno- 
tlMtf DelUlc*• ralaleiriM oamptiMa kU llie Latin iiluonini«iiUii(ii ttilliciul 
^dbttMtioa. Urt tUc copJM at th• Qrogorinti McnuDtaUrj ηι« Ljr for llio 
muA ηΒΟΜηιιιΐί 


wUicb ropreeeuc the oopy sunt by Adrian to Cbarl*• 

Tho Gregorian Saoramentary compriaod: — let, tho OrtU- 
D&ry of tito Mase; 2qi1, Uiu Praycre, l*relkoee, oud other 
variable porta of tho Moss, recited or chanted by the biabop 
or oflictating prtcet, on festival and stational ditya. This 
series cmbnwes tlio entire course of i^be eocleeiaatical year, 
beginning with Cbrietmaa Ένα 3rd, l^ayers at tlie orcUimtiou 
of deacons, priuste, and bishope. 

The second port, by far Ihu most important, is tJie main 
part of the Sftcrameutary. As I have said, it contains only 
the Masses for great fustivab and solemn atatdoos. Tliere 
am noou for thu ordinary Sundays between the Epiphany 
and Lent and from the octave of Koater to Advent. Advent 
with Christmaiitide, Lent with Easter Week, Ascension Day. 
Whitsunday, and Kmber days ore all that is represented by 
the proprium dt tempore of later Mi&sals. Tliu feetivOls of 
aaints wliich aro on fixed days ore distributed more or less 
aystomatically among tliu movnblo feasts, but iu aucb a way 
that Lent uud Bostor Week form an uuinterruptod soriee. 

Tho place of the atatiou ie always uxprvesly indicated, 
unless tho name of the saint alone is sutGcient to designate 

' Fitr llie Gr»j;:otiaD encrnraeDlnr7 I itaku ntc i>f Blnralari'• «dlttoa. 
tJlunjiii ItiHtun.! pilui, vo\. Vi. In hit notMon tho Awl; i/U0nw(Uio Pmytr 
liij'li :( Α>-Λ•ΛνΐΛ]Λ llio Itulicp. u>uim"iily cnlWTlio Buuk of (Wii«v'*«i- 
by Uom Λ. It. Kuy|M>ni, CiUiiIvIiIrc. \'Λ"2), f. i of Uii; aqianlo part, tit. 
Ediuuod BUlio]! cunridur• it eridi-nt llinl iii nij opinliui ihe Vmamatmtarj 
lit Ailriau it cxoliurioFljr τ4'ρη«ι-ηΙΐ"1 by |U'- I't^ «f Uiintori'• udltioa. 
«Iiili;, In Iii* opinion, [ip. Stl-2T^ and :ΰίΤ-ηι:ΐ nJuiuld alw 1w iooltidnl. 
PbKM 337-9ni οαηίαίη tba fonoa of onllnmiun t-a liiiliop•, pTf««la, aiiid 
d«>u]iHi>,andit «ill tv «I'cn abuvL', Μ al»> in prtactliiig udittuD» cf the p nm ml 
Wurk, tlint I bavn mniiUriniil llii-w fumiiiliirlQ• as t^intUtUtttig pvt uT tin• 
ttu-rBai-ntflij' in iiui-rtiun. Aj lut u tlili jwiut, UiMcforc, ύ conccifaod, BIr. 
UuIkV* unliviani Id wlltiniil Γαυιιάαΐίοιι. A• i> pp. XiI-2T3, I wiltingly 
lulinit wllli lilm tliut tU^y «linuld U' mldi-J lii pp. Ι-ΐπ(Ι, and tliai timj ««n 
only «'lurulul frum llu-m by u miiliuiu in Ihu ivtniatiftanit of tlio ραβί•. 
Bwu tJit'n. witli lliie xtUtli'iJi. Uio HncrnUK'utuy i* >tlll u ivry iiMmiplvte 
bwk, mill I ndluTC 1» my ΙχΊίΐ'Γ tluit, Ukcn by llwif, 11 dixw nut ιηιηκτΜ 
tlio vDtlro oflWotion οΓ lilurgionl foimulatica in tuc nt Bubm duriii^j th* 
ci^ibtl] cvDtury. 





tbe Choicb at which the fescivA] vaa held. For tostatu», it 
wu DOt deemed necessary to any where the statioo was on 
the days of St. Marcellua, St. Agaea, St. Sylvester, etc. But 
for tbe days of Lent, for the fi9»tival of Uie Holy Innocoate, 
and for that of Su Felix of Nola, the Church ia indicated. 
There are eometimee even two indications, wlion the station 
is {««ceded by a general jtrocoasion; in that caea the 
Chaicb ii denoted from which the proceesiou starts, and 
tliat aim wherein Mass ie oelebratud. Similar iiulicatioue 
an gives when there are severiu stutions on tho suno day, 
or several st<^piog-p1aoee in a prooceeion, «β, for iottancu, 
at the festival of Christmne, oa the day of the ϋπ»Ιοτ Iit;my, 
and at respets in Easter Week. 

We have here, io the main, α book drawn up, not for the 
Boman use is genend, apitlicablu to ouy country whatever, 
but for tho Bomaa uso aa obeerved tu Boini•. Moioover, 
it is ao eeaentiallj etational SaaaaiODtary, to bo used only 
oo feativaU and days of solemn asaembly. It iiiakee no 
pnTioios for Sundays and onlinai-y days, siUl Ices for private 
■olemnitieB, such as marriagee and IXmerols ; wv, again, for 
special Deoenitios,enchas wc Gnd incomplotti books, namely, 
Μ οί Οΐ in time of war, postilooco, tempests, or other visita- 
tioiii, or for the sick, for sinners, for IravoUors, etc We do 
DOC even find in it the formuloriee connecte<l witli tlie ulatio 
wirynutm and the reconciliation of pouittiiita. 

We must therefore be careful nob to take tho tircigoriau 
Seenunentary for other than it is, or to expect of it what 
it does oot contain. It is the I'ope's book, and contains the 
pmy er a that the Pope had to use at those ceremonies ovur 
which be oeoally presided. 

Another error which we must avoid is that of regarding 
the book as tbe work of St. Gregory himstilf. It certainly 
contAins a number of prayers which were in use in llie time 
of SL Qregory, and, indeed, long before him. But tho 
anthor of the supplements added in France hod, even in 


his day. remarked that St. Oregory could not have mootioaed 
his ovm feetiva], and he also ootce as later additioDs the 
KIni(.if>s Tor the Xativily aud the Asaumption of tlie Blessed 
Virgin, and those for certain days of Lent. He has farther 
decoUtd by an obelus* wliaterer be cooaidered to be ao 
iuterpolatioD. Indeed, beside» the Moss of St. Qnieoty 
hlnuelf. we must reject those for the four festivals of the 
Bleesod Vixgin. not only thoeu for h«r Nativity and Aseamp- 
ϋοα, but, ovcu those for thu I'urUicatioa and the AnnuDcUtion, 
and the fealiral of the Exaltation of the Croes. theae holy 
days not having bticu introduced into Rome till during the 
course of tlio sereDth century. With regard to Lent, the 
Btatiooa of the Tliursdays uru not older than Gregory II. 
(715-731), wtiL-njas the stations of Ash Wednesday and tlic 
following days, up to the First Sunday in Lent, are more 
ancient, but at the same time still later than St. Gregory. 
Another addition is evident in the station of January 1st, 
given aa ad Si, J^ariam ad Hartiprg, since tliis Church, 
that is, the Pantheon, was not consecrated for Christian 
worship until the time of Pope Boniface IV. (G08-610). 
Its dedication is indicated on May 13th, so that ben 
again we have a festival poeti<rior to St. Gregory. The 
«one applies to the dudication of St. XicomtHle. on Jutw 
1st, this Church having boon consecrated under Itooifaca V. 
(619-G25), The Churchee of St. Adrian. St. Andrew near 
the Literan, St. Lucy, St. Οι-ογκο, St. Tlieodoro, and St. 
ApoUinari5, mentioned as stational Chim:hM. are, the three 
first of the time uf Hononus (625-638). ihu others protiaUy 
later. Finally, the fuslival of Pope St, Leo, indicated on 
June 28tb, is the anniversary, not of his deatli, but of the 
translation of his relics under Sergins• <G87-7CH). 

* An tia ηκ t nm nwnrp. the <-πι|ΐΙο/ιηι>οΙ οΓ thU obclu* lint Krt been 
IHiliitrd oul in uny uf tliv mniiiiiiori|>la ilill cilAnt. 

■ It iliuuld «Iwj Ijit iiiiloil lliiil cat lliu SOtli iJ July wn Bail nntUr Uii- 
rnliric SS. Friiri•. i^lmfilMI, FiiutlM il Bnttiei; π Mu• ia hoooiir of it. 
FvUx cnly. Tliu •«^gi'*t( Ihnt the IniiRlnltun <if ΙΙιυ tfan<« otlii-t nartfi* 
IkSd BlNsdy υύχα iilui«. It ueonrtol iu>iki Lim II. (082-083). 







Those an the ooly inodiHcatJoiis that the iaformatioQ 
It oar diqioeal has enabled us u> verify. But it is poesihle 
tben m&y bo nuDy oUiors which have eeoaped ue. We 
shoaH therefore do well lo regard the Qngorian ijocra- 
mootaiy u ocnToaponding to the state of the Roitmd Liturgy 

»■1 the time of Pope Adrian. It urould bo more nAtiiral to 
ftvoid tU ambiguity, to coll it Uie S«cnuDoatary of Adrian, 
and this I propose hcacofonraid to do. 

2. The Gclasiart Saeram^Htart/. 

I Ιΐ8τβ already said that, immediately after its arrival in 
France, tlie Sacranicntaiy of Adrian had been combined 
witli a similar text which had been previously in use, and 
w«8 far more complete. This text is what is known as 
Uie Oelanan Sacmmentary. Besides the form in which 
it appears combined with the Gregorian Sacramentaiy, it 
is known to us from several manuscripts of the eighth 
oontiuy, tho earliest of whicli is No. 31C of Queen Christina's 
oolloctton in the Vatican. This manuscript has been pub- 
lished by Tommasi,* whose edition is reproduced in the first 
vtdamo of tho Ltiuryia Semtma veti /Λ of Muralori. Koxb iu 
date to this are two manuscripts, one of lihoinau, the other 
of SL Gall, till lnt«ly very imperfuclly known througb a 
paUicauoo by Ikim Marliu Ueibei't.* Δ oompleto edition. 

■ CbUeM Saerim ml viim, Bamo, ΙΙίβΟ- 

* Th•; u« Mas. 30 (Ubcdoau) λΙ Zurich, And Ka. MS at Bt, β•Ι]. 

' Cf. ITilliliL ep. βίΙ-. pp. *3, H. Owbcrl hM not pnMltlied cithvi ci tbcac 

' SMmiMatarto•, but oelf β mltcd (sicnusentory «vmpilcd In llio tcnUi 

r trtjilel tiiu Gtlnii-ioo. GtcyoHeno d Arnhn^fatm. ThU (Ιαοπι- 

HM ttim Ut. UnU. but in U<.-ilMrt'a Unw il wm at Znricb. It 

*H V». H8 of Ht OkU «bicb fiuuivbi^ Ifao ΐΜαφίΙίΤ «iiL tho Gclruiiui 


Ijuood ^D these three mannsoripte and collated afresh, has 
boon pubUshod at Oxford.* 

ΝΏηβ of these copies beara the name of Gelaeius. 
Tommo&i, however, who applied it to the text which be 
publiabcd, did no more, as will be aeea, than revive β 
desi;;iiatton in uso in Uto ninth contmy.' 

Id the inveatory of ibe liturgical booka at the abbey of 
SL Itiquier,' wo find Uregortan " MisaaU," Gelneiaa MissaJe, 
and λ mixed Mise*!, Jiissalit Orfgorianut €i Oeieuiamu 
modernis temporibiu ab Athino ordinatue. WakfKd Stmbo * 
mentions that uolaeias was supposed to have arranged in 
order tho prnyers composed by himself and others, and 
adds that the Churches of the Oaiile made use of bis 
ψτ&γοτϋ, and that many still conttnao to do so, bat that 
SL Gregory, stnick with the imporfoction of GelAsiue** 
boolc, rovisod it, and mudo of it tho Gregorian Liber Sacra- 
tiuiUorum, Those two testimonies arc both of the first 
half of tho ninth century. Fifty years later, John tho 
Doaoon, in hie Γ,φ of Si, Grtyorif*• oaod nearly the same 
flzpreeaions as Walofrid Strabo. It wae therefore boUovod 
in tJio ninth century that a Sacmmentary of Gelasius luul 
existed, and ttint tho Gregorian Sacramentory was merely 
a revision of it. By Oregonon Sacramentory was ovidoutly 
meant the Socromentary of Adrian, such ae I havo do• 
scribed it, bearing as its heading the name of Saint llngory. 
But wliul wae undentood by the Uolaeian Sucnmonlaty 1 


* Tha QdMlui BMnuneDlATT. edited 1>y Π. &_ WiLnn. (Vifdnl, ISH. 

* Before TofnliMtf^ tiuui, Miiriii mid Bonn linil alnadj giron Ihe aMnc 
Oulnainn to tliu loit «Inch Tmnmruri oftcnninU pubUtbod, kad «itb «hioh 
thcj liwl Λ nrri-hand boqniLbtnnoOililii. 

* CHnttUoM Oinfnimar, MSipii>. I'. £., tcI. dixit, p. Ittl. Of. O. 
Bookor, QUalogl BAtfotkoirum Λιαίηι,ί, Doaa, ISS9v p. 38. 

* fi«IUu.JBMf.,o.SS. 

■ IL 17: "OaisriMiUD oodloum do miaMflim ■oloiiuiiia.ini]]la«iibMb««^ 
I»UM oonvortMik noBBiiUa nn mpemdloloiii pro t)ii>anoB(Ua evuvolid• 
lootiontbiu, in nulnii Ubri Tnlunlno oonrtAvit." 




lb wu eridaoUy Ute saxm text as Ibat used by Canlinol 
Tommnsi. utd it is, in foot, usder llie oamo οΓ OuUsiui 
SacnmeoUrjr that it is qooted ία a oompilatioD of tbe tonlli 
eteaaty pnblislted by Doia Oorbert. The auUtor of this 
oompUMUoa dosirod to briog togetlier in one volamQ Uib 
Uiree tojcte — QoliLsiaii, Gregorian, nnd Ainbrosian. For Uie 
fint οΓ Utaw ho ump\y QO\nw\ MS. 348 of SU Oa3l, wliicli 
8tiU Iwara inoaa of this work of tiunsoripljou.' Wolafrid 
SUabo, wbo wrote iu tlte neigbtwui-liood οΓ St. Gall, ceuoot 
have meant anyiliiog else by Uio word Gclaaian. For tbo 
matter of that, only two types of Itomaa SacmiiioutArice 
ware known in Franco, namely, that of Adrinu, bearing 
the name of Su Gregory, nnd vhon any othur typo ia 
mentiooed, there can l>o no doubt aa to its meaning Lho 
Gelaaian. Thia roniark is applicablu to tbo dwi^uliong 
used in the catalogue of SU Itiqiiicr. A» to John tlio 
Oaaooo, who lived at lEome, we luay iuiagiiio that in 
bis eaae the term Co<Ux Qctatiantie might be applied to 
some other fonn of tl>o lionum SacramuuUtry. Bat this 
nippositioD must he »ol aaaao, anw John tlio Doocob 
qieake οΓ the SacrameDtary anterior lo St. Gragory in 
lenna vhioh are exactly applicable to the text which 
we have now under oonaidenitloD. It ii, indeed, much 
longer than tliat of the Gregorian Sacratnentory (muUa 
ntitrahms)•, the formularies ooounon to both are aliuost 
always tho same (pauca cotivtrUna) ; it is divided into 
aeToral books, whereas the Qregoiiuu Sacrainentaiy com- 
prisea only one (in unine ItM volntnine toartatil).'' 

The question now arieos, why tho name Gelnsian wtut 
applied to this Liber Sacramentorum Ϊ Tliu title in tlie 
maaaacript of the Vatican and of St. Gall (that of Ilhcinau 

• IMIiU^p.8S: ef.i»pra.p. Ι2Λ, iwteS. 

■ I an BDt qailo ct<ar «luU Jolm tho DMoan biiuqii by the vocd* 
wr» NpiioJMoM pr« Mjionowlt• weaiu/ntieU l^iotiAui. 

138 ciTBisnxK wo&ship: its oiuqik and etolctiox. 

tifis no [leading) is aiioply Liber 8turammioruM Somaniu 
£etUtieu, williout the name of any Pope. Λβ to tbo text 
itmlf, it conloiiis α great numbtir of ttiinge jMetcrior, not 
ooly lo St. Golosiiis, bul to St. Gregory. It i» thcniforo 
iiot the Seoramontaiy itself tJiat can have suggested iu 
attribution to Gclusins, neither can I believe that it woa 
hundod (luwu by tradition. The Gelaeian SacraniuiitAry is 
(Imvud iront ofliciiil booke which were in use in Borne 
about ihu end of Llic seventh century. It is not easy to 
boliovo tliul ut tbiit dato a tielasian Liturgy oxistod at Itoinu. 
At tliat period ewtytbing followed the Gregorian Undilioo, 
not that thotxi was any shrinking front the intJCodactiOD 
of needful moditicatione, but even when changes were mido^ 
they were supposed to follow on tlie lines of the Grogotian 
une. It was frcin this method of representiug tilings that 
the appsllation of Oiegorian Sacramentary was appliod with- 
out tlie slighlcst hesiUttion by I'ope Adrian to a book 
much later tban SL Gregory's date. If the Boman books 
that we find in use in IVance before the time of Adrian 
and Cliarlcmogne had borne llie name of any Pope, it 
would doubtless have been that of SU Gragory. We cau, 
however, without lia\'ing rooouno to a for-fotohcd tradition, 
explain how tbo designation of Gelasian Sacromealaiy oioeo. 
It a])ptuira to have been &r«t used by Fnmkisb scholan 
of the ninth contur)•, who moved in a sphere in which 
litiii;gi<^ matteis and vcclosiaatical biiitory were of absorb* 
ing interest. The Liber PotUificalie was known lo tlieeo 
writers, and wne ngardod as a great authority. Wlicn its 
pages were consulted for information ooncuniing the books 
of the Itoman Litorgy, it woe indeed rightly found that 
St. Leo and Sl Gregory had added some words to the 
canon of the Moss, hut that Su Golosius was the only Pope 
who is mentioned by his biogn^ber as the aulbor of a Ijibtr 
SacramaUorunu Again, on closer inspection, it is clear (hat 
in thb lifu of GvltLsiu^ muruly prefaces and isolated prayon 






An ιΐΐηΗυΐβιΙ to biin, Ληά not u syetonuilJc and olDcial 

oiUveuoti.' Tltis, however, proved sufficient to give rise 

to tbo idea thet Geluius hitd put fortli • Sncmtnontnrj, 

On tbo Brriv«l of Fopo Adrian's niisaivo, the fVenks had 

fotmd tbetDselToe feco to fiico with a Sacramcntnry nttri- 

Bbated to St. Gregory, und <lifnning bom thnt which ihey 

Bhad known hitherto. Thencoforwnrd tho ktt»r could ho 

W^ ^Λ»Μ Other than that of Gchuius, and this Jdcu hftving 

once taken bold of the minds of teochen like Alcnin and 

otbeie, it was inevitable that it ehould epread widely and 

npldly. Among tlie branohea οΓ study over wliich these 

learned men presided, there were few of greater importoncc 

and of more practical ap^cation than that of tho liturgy. 

iTbt Gelasian Sacrameotaiy becanie α subject of teaching 
In the ecbools, and its position thenceforward was tm- 
In onr opbion, no weight can he attached to thia 
derignation. By tho tcnn GoIosJan Sacramentary we 
iuA ondcrstAnd a Komon liturgical collection introduced 
fJnto Fnnoe some time before Adrian, and certainly sub- 
^Dently to St Gregory. This conjecture as to tbo date 

' 'ffWttUMntt «ncrnmcntoniiiipmnfatiDataetontlkinremiita Mirmoue'* 
(Uav Ffd-, ToL i. p. ΐ3ό>. Id «umo oopio• of tlu: Zh ^-liptoribut ot 
OmMJitt». m flad ■ uotioo of Qcluiiu, in wliicli lio ia «ud to Iulto 
writtM •ί1ν«λΐ4•, "trattetuM «UMrMrwn terifitimmm Λ Nieran«nt«<nim" 

* Tki• iplMWltow U ft pun liypotbcn». But in qiito ot It• sot 
)i>*ln( bcea aeetiitvd by all llioic vho uo oonoorood wUli tlio ■uhjcct, 
no faattor ana Hm μ jpM been put formud. It bn* boon *uKit*•'^'*) (hut 
Um lloin V»cTa.niea\^ij eol^fat hftra been tutroduccd into Q&ul by tit. 
Caauiuk endcf Uio βΛίοα of nrloaiiu, bat tbU ia <(uitu ininliiiiiMhlii. 
I^L rnsuiiu^ Μ U Mt• bjr hu ΙΙαιηϊ1ϊο< Dcvor <w«d nny «io«pt tho 
CMUoul Utarpy. Wtlinn (op. ttt.. ρ Ixi.) protxM-ly rtmBrka, that If Aluuio, 
a» «beofw Iko cmbimL:* i>f ibn tajiplvnint• to tho Uregorinn tfaanmoiitBi; 
M>x 1m«« bMB impra, p. tSI). hiul fnniid tlio nwno of Odaaiii• In the 
0«1ηΙμ SMnrnMbUT, lio oould banUy Uavo rcAudncd Aon uiiiig [t to 

130 ciinieTiAN woeanir: its obiuik aso kvolvtios. 

of the coUectioD may bo cOQ6nned by a more careful fttsdy 
uf tile manuacripMi 

The most ancient of them. No. 316 of Qnoen Chris- 
tioa'e colleclioa, is, in the opinion of Mons. Delule,' "of 
the serenUi or bogimiing of tJio eighth centory." Tbis 
opinion ia coofimied by intenui ovtdenoe. We find, for 
instance, no mention in it, of the statiooe fm the Thundajrs 
in Lent, instituted by iivegorj II. (716-731). Th« Bonuui 
original was therefore earlier than the deatJi uf ihul Pope. 
On the other band, we tiad in it certain tbinge which could 
not have been introduced hefcee the sevenLb century, viz. α 
tapUiUum. Saneti Gregorii papac^ (I. 21), the Wedueaday, 
Friday, and Saturday statione before the First Sunday in 
Lent, the four feetivals of the Virgin, and that of the 
Exaltation of the CtoBs. The latter five festivals are poeteiior 
to the time of St. Gregory (d. 604) and earliur than Popo 
Sergius (687-701) ; ' that of the Exaltation must have doubt- 
less been ialroducod after tba discovery of tho true oroee 
by Beraclius (628). Wo cannot therefore determine within 
a century (626-731) the duto of the Koman original of oar 

I call it the Roman original. I ought rather to eay the 
Roman model, or framework, for tJie Qelasian manuscripts 
are fai- ftom liaviug proecn-od for as a Koman text, free 
from all interpolations. In the moat ancient copy all 
topographical indications have disa{φearθd. Not one of 
the basilicas in Rome is mentioned. All llio prayen 
having reference to certain observauoce peculiar to Koman 
ritual are likewise auppreaeed, euob as the Maes of St. 

• Op.ea. p. 6S. or. ΒΛΙ, d» rSeeh lim ChnrUt. 1 876. p. 4ΐβ. 

■ Tlic nunc οΓ SL Qtenarj oooun in Uio uuiun οΓ tba Hmp, «fcnra 
il could nut havp bven iotraducnl until κιια•) llaiu «tWr liii ilcBlh. (tut 
UMK nrt di>tnilii irhicb viuj in Uie duTcraat uuiuKript•, uid wiicfa «a 
titnnot tnwv lo tlia odginnl «itb anf oartatal^. 

• Liber Ilmt.. pp. 379, 881. 







Amiatiaia Tor (^irielmiu l>Ay. tli« Greater lAtiaty (April 
35). tbe proccesions at tbo Kwtter veepen, awl tlio ooltects 
00 oertwn fMtivftU. These belong to the course οΓ the 
eceletiMlicau year at Rome, and λτ« eesentially Itamaa 
formalarioe, though appropriauyl to cbo use of other 

Tbe 8HcnmeDt«J7 known aa No. 31β wu tlravrn up in 
Ftani-e, probtbly for the Abbey of St. Denis, whose tJiroo 
ptttrODA aru tnontionvd in tlii: Canou of the Miuh, boforo St. 
HUajyaod St. Martio- The two other maouscripte, IImmo of 
Itlieinnu and St Gall, are also Frankisli ia origin. It ie in 
Fnooe, morvovur. that we find Hm Dianuacripts which the 
CBrioringjoa liturgiologiste made nse of to sapplomeut 
Uw Saoruneutary of Adrian. These manuscripts, with Uie 
oxoeptioa of that of St flail, agree in employing certain 
lignieoant variations in tlie prayers for tbe Sovereign in 
the ofRoQ for Good IViday. The Sacramentary of Adrian 
owntione tbo liomon Emperor only, and does not nsao- 
date with Idni tliu Prankish Sovereign. In the Gelaslan 
Swanmontnry, tlio formulnriue arc modified us follows : — 
Omma et pro tArintianimrHO impenUore VBL REGb KOSTBO 
•//9. . . . Rtspia• propitifta ad Btmanvw ?tvE FitjUiconiTM 
M* iiaperiuw* 

modiRcatioDs, however, are net limited to tho 
of peculiarities relating to the city of Itomo, and 
10 the te^on subject to the Empire. Thoro arc others, 
of » purely liturgical naturu, wtucb indicate α combination 
of tho Roman lu»! Oallioaa neee. These are mostly mot 
with io tbe rite of Urdinalion. I will merely point out the 

' Tbo oofTMtlon w«• nnt miwl<< •1 flnri is \Ue lutt of tbo Ma 
n m f m hill d Pn nyAiK. wklcb flgiur to Uie IhUd bwk «f tlio OdMiaa 
fhwiMinniij nndcf Uii- N'to. 57-fiS, Tbe pmren in Uibm M—m βΙοκμΙ 
kll nver la tbe pup}il«iiu<nt <Λ Uio timcoriMi t^Mimoeataiy. Nua. 83-87, 
WiUi ■ rfaglo iOMptiaD. No. 88. tho word OKti*tSamm b tlvaj• round 
Mbitfla(«d fur Ibat of JlanumiM. 


priucipal instaucee, as I shall have Ιϋ teturQ to tliis subjuoL 
later on. At tho end οι tbe bonodicuoD of Ibe sab-deaooD 
(1. 1)6) we tiad a farmuliiry entitlod GotuecnUio manuttm, 
which is evidently out of place, for tho consecralaoa of 
hands waa tievur employed io the case of eubdeooone. This 
formulary, morouvor, boluogit to the rile of tlie ordinatioD 
of [flieste according to Uiu Gallicaa use. It cannot poe- 
sibly have beeu Koouia. We know, indeed. Gram most 
Irustworthy documents, that the consecration of handa 
did not form |>nrt of thu ordinaUoo rilM in tise at 
Bomo. We ore here confronted, therefore, with a unllicao 

Tliis is not an iaolaled instance. Tlie whole of the ritual 
of the minor orders, lu it appears in eoctions I., 95, 96, of 
the Golaeiou Sucramentary, is tiaUioaQ from end to end. 
It is hooded by the rubric Inmpit ordo dt taeria onUnibti» 
bmudkaulis. Next follows an inetruction with regard to tbo 
oonditiouK of ago, Ota, for receiving <»don, copied &om the 
decretal «tent by Pope Zoeimus to Hesycliius of SalouL* 
ΊΊιοΒ follow tlie first ten chapters of the Statuta MeeU n ae 
jintiqua, as to tlie ordination or inetalUtion of bishop•; 
lirioete, deacons, sulMleacona, ocolytos, exorcists, readers, 
doorkeepers, cantors, consecrated virgins. This documont. 
which is often oesigned to the foorth Council of Carthage, 
is in reality α decree of Gullican origin, promulgatod in iJie 
pTovino» of Arlce towocdn thu uu(l of the fiftli century. Tbe 
whole of ihu above wrvee as a pixiface to the JienaUetitmm 
eujtcr <v» qui aaeris ordinHua hentduxniii tutU, benedictioni, 
aa we shall see later on, which were not iu use at Rome afc 
alL Tbo compilor who inserted this long excerpt, had before 
him a Gallicaa text embracing all the variou» oi-dent. As br 
■s the benedictions are ooaccmed, he ru9lrii:t«d biinself to tlie 
forms connected with the minor orders, those for the nm'or 






orders being found in another plnce, but, by an oversight, 
at the end of the formnlEmeB relating to the suhdeaoons, 
the compiler baa lefl η fragment of the rite for tlie ordi• 
nstion ofptieet•. 

The•• iDtorpolttions are not isolated iDsUtoces, as I ehnll 
loOD baro oocanoia to point out. 

In ttie mniaguDtent of the vnrioas festivals, tliere are often 
dianepandra betmc^u the ((elasiati and Ciregorian Saoni- 
meatariee. Tho former ineerte certain fcativols which iho 
lattar oniite, and «te» vena. Now, it ninet be remarked that 
in these dtvetgcnctc!« tlie Gregorian has the support of tite 
Leonian Sacininontaiy, of which I shall epouk latvr on; 
that is to say, it ha» on its side a purely Roman com- 
pibtion, free (rom any Frankieb or Gallican inflaoncc. Tins 
Lvouiaa novtir mentions any fcelival choracttirislic of Uio 
Gelaefao Sacrnmoiitary. On the contrnr)', it oontainn soveral 
floatirala peculiar to the firegorian, n»mely, those of the 
Sercn Brothers (July 10), St. Stephen, the Pope (Augutt 2), 
S8. Folicisaimus and Agapitn3 (August 6), SS. Felix and 
AdauctOB (August 30), and S. Ctiryeogonua (Norember 24). 
It inaerbe, moreorer, although out of ita proper place, the 
aanivfltmiy of St^ Silvetter, a fcedval unknown to the 
Oelasian Calendar, and floally. an in tlie Gregorian Sacra• 
aentoiy, it placee the Feast of St. Euphemia on September 
16, whcrans the Qelauan ae.iigiu it to April ΙΆ} This last 
diTorgeDce, which in also met with in the Hieronymian 
Maityiology and in the Mozarabic Missal, may veil hare 
bean soggeeted by the Gallican use. ΊΊιβ name may be said 
of the feetivalR of the Invenliou of thu IVue Οθ8β and the 
Uattyrdom of St. J(Aai Baptist, which are inserted in Uie 
GolUcan liturgical bonks, bnt for which no Roman docu- 
ment can be cited as an authority. I would also |K)int out 

■ TUa ii •!■> tho Atj on «faicb llii« tatlnl it nuttkod la the UtUndor 
«f OuthBge bmI to kU ϋΐΡ Onek otteadui. 

134 cnaiuTiAN wobuhip : its omgls and EVOUmON. 

the expreeaioii ροιά dauaum, Ptuchae, applied to lite Sundays 
between Uie octave of Kastor and Uie festiyal of Pentecost. 
This tei-m ts found in the MitatUc Otttkumm and in Uie 
I..ectionar7 of LuxeuU, both of them Oallican booke. Gregory 
of Toars uses it,' but it is not met with iu the books of 
purely Roman ty[)e. 

Theee detftiU an sufficioBt to show that Uw GelasiuD 
Sacnuuentoty catmot bo ro^urilcd ue afTonling uniform 
evidence to thu ciutonie of Uio llonian Church. It U, both 
as tfigai-de its origlu and ila Ιΰχί m ii wholu, a Ιΐοηιηη book, 
but unu wbicli has uu<lorgoiie mnny modifications in a 
Galilean directioo. 


3, Tltr MmaU Fmiicorum. 

Thi! ifiuaJe ^atuorum should be asugned a place bendo 
the Gelaetiin SacmniuDtwy. This manuscript in now in tlie 
Vatican,' and figures aa No. 257 in tbe collection of Queon 
Cbiiatina. Before it found its way into tiio Pctau Library, 
from whence it passed into that of the Queen, it bad lain 
for a conaideTabte lime in the Abbey of St. Denis, where 
it was Icaown as early aa the thirleentli century. It is 
written in uncials, and maat be attributed to the end of tbe 
seventh or the beginning of the follotring century. Its 
Frmnkiah origin is undoubted. )n ttie State pnyors, tbe 
rfffHuin FYuncoruM has everywhere been substituted fur thu 
fioman Empire. 

This manuscript is merely a fragment. It coatatus^ 
first. Ordinations, tlie Benediction at Tirgina and Widows, 

■ (itorUi On/, 47. 

' DHinle. 0J^ fH.. Nol 4. Tbe t«t liaa bM-n |iublislii^d by 
{ιφ. rll.), by Mabllliiii, >ti bu Ut Lituifp'-i ISalHruwi, oiiJ by 





the ConseoTBtion of Altars, followed by eleven MoBses, of 
vhioh the first ib pro retfUyax, tbe secontl in conimemoration 
of St. Hilaiy, tbo reet for the common of siiiiite, or for 
otber porpoaeB. The «oHectioii ends with the Canon aetionis, 
that is to »j, the Ilomiui Cnnoo, which breaks off with the 
tDADuscripl itself tit the Ifobia quo^u. 

All the Massoe ooDtoised in this SacrameBtary are 
Roman in stylo and ritnal. Hero and there, however, we 
HUM with a few Gallican mbrica, such as post prophttiam, 
tmif «omina. At the beginning, the ordination prftjers 
exhibit an ttnoeiul oomplusity, and in thi» section tO' 
tcniting njeemblaaces may be pointed out between the 
JVuaa/« Fratworura and the GoUsian Sacrameutary. I 
ua of opinion, hoverer, that they have not been taken one 
from the other, nor tfaiit they are both copied from one 

4. The iMmian SaffraiMnlary. 

Joseph Biaschini, in 1735, was tbe Eirot to publish ' the 
text of this Sacramentary. which had been fonnd shortly 
befoe in the Chapter Library at Veroaa, It is-Mi oocial 
manuavript, and, in the opinion of M. Delisle, of the 
eerenth centur)'.' The beginning of it is mutilated, .•κ> 
that out of the twelve sections^ oorreapondiug to the 

' In ψΛ it. of tlie JuoHartitM BiVMkfniritu οΓ liia tindi-, Vi. 
BbtuhUL TU• edition «u fFpnidacol by ΜαηίΑτΙ in τοΙ. 1. of hia 
LUmrgia Jtoaaiw utiu (ITifl). Thv bmtlii-n BuUoriiii h»ve pnbluhcd 
KiMAba, eolUlod irilh lli« αη'ί,ιηΒΐ iiuinuinrli>l. iu tlidr tdUlii» of tlio worke 
«f Sl Loo. This U tbu odiliou found in Mlgnc'• Palmlofiit ΙλΛ, tuI. Iv, 
Cf. Dtlkb, Vv, 1. A mew «dition. ilUl more oritio»!, nod vl-q' «oari^nioat 
to en — ill , hu bran Iat4-l7 pnbltahod at OuaWidgo by Mr. Fultue (Snera- 
iHMm £«nl*n«in. Uaivcnil]r Pre*, 189β). 

136 οπηίδΤίΛΚ vroRSRir : its obioin aso evolctioh. 

tmJve moiiUis of the year, oine ouly are now remain* 
iag, and Uie fourth, Uiat of Uie moLlb of April, ύ 
inoomplete. The loss of tiio fii-st three uoutlis ie mnoh 
to be regretted, for tbeee couUdnt.-d the poscbol ceremoniea, 
which eoastitat« the mo&t intereitiDg [«irt of the Sacro- 

What rcmuDB of the month of April ia divided into 
thirty-aine scctioos, comprising ne many ' Mueee in honour 
of TArioue martyrs. The martyrs are not mentioned by 
naiDe.' so that Uie formulai-ies may be used in commomora- 
tiou of ony martyr. The mouUt of May contains the liaaMS 
of the Asconsion, of Pentocoet, and of the summer Ember 
dayt. In the month of Jane wu have the Maseee in honour 
of St. John Baptist, SS. John and Paul, and the Apostlee 
Fulur and PauL In July the only festival given is that 
of tLu Sovcn r>roth(<r3. These ore followed by a conatderable 
number of Mnssus and pruycra for divers occasions. In 
the mouth of August we Gnd a still greater number of 
festival» — timt of Pope St. Stephen (August 2), that of 
SS. Xystue, Felicissimus. and Agapitus (August 6), that 
of St, Ijiurenoe (Auijiist 10), that of SS. Hippolytna and 
PoDtiaDus (Augtist 13), and SS. Adnuotus and Felix (Angnst 
SO). In September we hare the festiTals of SS. Cornelius 
and Cyprian (September 14), St. Euphemia (Soptembur IC), 
of the dedication of the Chorch of St. Hicluiul ou the Via 
Salaria (September .10), followed by the autnmD Kmbor 
days, the pmyers used at oitltnatione and for the mUale of 
bishops, priaits, and deacons, for the benediction of virgiue, 
and for morriagee. There are no festivals in the month 

* And ov«n α fw mot«. The nnmtiMi oi• BcmeUoHe Inconwtly plM«d, 
m that two Hfu>«i ore j^nrn iindor on• biMdioa- 

* Tliw.- HiMxa «Mc. boni'vcr, dtkwn up nt tbo ontaot for the uuiItw• 
MrtN οΓ •ι<•νίΙΙι.-ι1 nuaifn, of wtiom thi-y oriffliiMf wntaliied the BalD«i. 
But tliMT have betn aitppnwtod, olLliinixb tin> dT thorn atUl «bmIb. 
ihon of &L 'ilbuMiu• (Nu. C). and 8L QTegarj. or nther »t UtnrBc 

(Sft as), 




of OctoUtr, but inenly Mtitw tU tieeUate ttmp&rit and 
•HfMr eU/anctoe. In November wo find the foslivals of the 
Foot Crowns, uf Sl CociUa, of SS. Clouumt uod Folicitas, 
ChiysogoQue and Gi«gory, *od alec of Sl. AiidKw. There 
ii no aauy in the mooth of Docombor until Uio Chiistinas 
IfMltf. wbich ATV fuUuwud by ihu ftKttivals of St. Jobo the 
Evsogolial, the Ugly louowut», aud the winter Ember 


To what dute uru wo k> oseiga this coUection ? 

It oonlaiiu, at thti end of the month of October, κ prayer 
oompustxJ I'ur tbu buml or fuaural lumivenAty of Pope 
Simpiieius, who diud in 483, but this daU: would, I believe, 
be tu too i»rly. 

Many of the prayen, indued, allude to the times ία whicJi 
tiie Bomans wen besieged, suironnded by their enemioe, 
and exposed to mnasaoro and pillage. Otbors express 
ihanksgJTOig to God after a victory or a deliveranoe. 
Among the latter I \rould point out one which is the Secrela 
of a Mass oocunitig in the month of July, and denoted by 
the oomber 28. It \vill be seen that this Mass has no con- 
neetion with the month of July, but ought to be relegated 
to Esetertide. This ia but one out of numberless inatAnoea 
of tlie disorder which chatacterisee the whole coUeotion. 
Ί3ιβ SMftta ia ae follows: — XHncra twmmi tuo, Dmnitu, 
ett» gnUiarum aeiiaat dt/erinnu, qtti iwu ab in/ati$ hottibiu 
iHeratot paaduUt aouramentum teewra trilmi» mente euedpere. 
The beai^iog and [ulloging of Borne by Alaric, Geoseric 
and Ricimer, oil took place in the summer months, and 
thardbre it cannot be to these attacks that the prayer 
under con^eratioa allndee. On the other hand, the 
long aiege by Yitigee, which lasted a whole year, was 
raised in the month uf March. In that year (SSS) Easter 
Sunday fell on the 4th of April. The coincidence is 

It might be possible to find in the Veronese text of 


tha Socramcntary other allusions which may be explained 
far more sfttisfactorily by attributing th«m to the anxiety 
folt ιΙιΐΓΪηΐΐ Iho siego of 537-538 than to any other occaaions. 
Thns ytQ find, for example, in tlio Preface of another Maas 
!d the month of July (xviii. β), the following worda: — 
Affnoteimus Domine . . . ad peuatUiytn, mfrita ptrlinert ut 
etrv&mm titarvvi labon juamia tui wu^tdu noitro manibiu 
diripianlw aOeni», et ptae detudantihu/aMiUie luuei trUmia, 
ab kostibwt patiaris abtumi. In the year 537 it waa tlie 
OotliB who reaped tlie barveat on tiie Roman ctunpagiia, 
and from the tops of the city walls the Komaii>) miut have 
watched with sorrow Iho operation by which the fruit of 
tlieir own labour passed into the hands of the besiegers. 
It is for other roasous quite impoesible to assign this prayer 
to the time of Alaric and Gunseric. It was the city tather 
tlian the campogua that sufTored &om tlie piUaging of the 
Visigoths and the Vandals. Had it a-fcrred CO them, we 
should certainly find somowhere in that long list of MsBsee 
tempore kosliii, aomu allusions to the sack of public buildings, 
chuTcbes, and private houses. Wbou these invodf-rs, mute• 
over, appcarud before the walls of Rome, the soosoo ww 
too for advanced for the hnrresting to be still proceeding. 
On the oilier han<], everything can be satiafaotorily explained 
by tlie hypotbeais that it refers to the Ostrogoths and 
the siege of 537-538. On the other hand, however, as Uie 
Romana were often besieged during the wais wiUi the 
Qotiis, and later on daring the Lombardic invasion, I 
would not like to affirm that it was this particular siege by 
Vitiges tbat was ectoally in question. The latter is tbe 
earliest to which we can assign it, end I do not press the 
point further. 

The earliest limit having been thus determined, it 
remains to be seen whether a more definite one can be 
found for the latest date than that furnished by [lahi-ograpby. 
I do Dot think that wc need look later tlinn the time of 

BOOKS or πιε latin ω,η. 




St. Gregory. It Is true that the SaciameDtaty contaiiiB the 
tuuDo of Β St. GregDiy in Ιπο places; bnt eren if there 
be not ft oopyiat's error between the two names Otoryivt 
uid Of^ariut — an error of frequent occurrence in the manu- 
scripts — it cannot, in any case, be St, Grogory the Popo, as 
the mint in queetJoo is α martyr. Beaidw thie, the Pope of 
ibM nnmu docteed that the prayer Hane igilHr Mationem, 
in tbo Oaaon of the Mbm. sboold bum tbh Limu furward 
ooododc nilh the «ronls, dieaque noitroi in tmi paat (/upotuu 
ulgue ab ofienta damnatume not eript rt tn tleetomm titorum 
jtibiaa frtge nwnurari. It is true, indeed, that the Canon of 
tlw Haaa ie missinf; in the Verona mamiscript. It most bare 
been at the beginning, in the part now lost. The pmyor 
ffone iffitur, howerer. occurs ii certain number of liiaue iu 
the remainder of the text, yet never onoe with the Qregoriaa 
ending. As wo do not find elsewhere any other indication 
of a date posterior to that of St. Grogor>-, wo ehnll not be far 
wrong in attrihuting tlio old Veronese Sacrami^Dlary to the 
middle or end of the sixth eentiiry. 

It muat Iw u purely Roman book, not only bocanso of 
the absence of any traces of Gallican elements in it, or 
beoBoae in the State pmyera it alwnj-s makes mentiou of 
the Roman Empire wiUi [lecnlinr loyalty, but because it 
exhibit* on evory pogu those t'lpof^rapliiciU totiebee which 
«Bablo tta lo distin^iisli between a text dmvn up for tlm 
Cfaureh of Komo locally, and one which is merely in con• 
fonniCy with the Roman use. The mbrii» which announce 
the featirals of the saints often dveignato the pltoe οΓ the 
•ΐΜΐοη with marked topograpbical precision. Thus we have 
VI id. Jul. TMtiUe tan^torttm Ftlicia, miippi, in UVMITKBIO 
PbI8CILLA£ ; Vitaiis ft Mnrtialis et Altxandri, IN cruiTRBIO 
JOBDAXOSCX ; * ΐΐ SUant, t.V CYMITFJtIO U.IXIUI, Πλ Sauiua ; 
ft Janvarii, IS CTHtTCRtO Praetk-XTatI, via Appia ; — /// atm 
A«^., natait Mndi Strpkani, IS OTMiTKRio Calusii. via 

■ teiwa, -SaeroM. Ltv».. rwdi .Ιοβχλιιτμ ftnd PurrsxTATjie. 


Appu; — VlII id. Aug., nataU mtuii X^Oi, vs οϊΜΓΓΜΙΟ 
OaLUSTI; «t FduUsimi et Agitpiii, IX CVMlTOin ΓβακτΒΧ• 
ΤΑΠ, VL\ AJ'Ma;— prW. ioi. (kL. nataie btuilMu AngtU !S 
Salaria. Tilts iaet festival is UiaC of the dedication of λ 
Chiiroh ia the eovirone of Borne. Another dedicatory Uau 
io honour of St Stephen is fotmd amoBg tlie Unsses for 
the mouth of August ;' it must bo referred either to the 
Church OD llio Vtii I^tinn, or to thnt on the Ocelian. Ώιβ 
Frefaoe of οου of tliueo Mussos, tu honour »f SS. -lohn and 
Ptuil* takes for grftntud that tho ofTioiftlJRg priest is at 
Bome and in th« Church dedicated to tlie two martyrs. 
The aune remark is applicable to the Uaeees in honour 
of the apoetloe Potor and Puul, and many otliete. Among 
tho serrJcM for tho departed * suvcml formularieR pneoppoae 
that titose prosent oie at San Lorenzo /uori U jatara, and 
that the prayois ore offerod for one of the Popoa inttsned in 
that Church.* it ίβ nanecessaiy t{» press the point farther. 
The liomnn origin of this coUeotioo is clearly evident. 

On the other hand, we must beware of regarding it 
08 an ofHcial book, for the use of tho Pope and for ecdemn 
stntionB, like the Soonunentaiy of Adrian. It is a private 
compilation, in whicli various materials of duTersut age 
and luithorsliip h&\Q been gathered togetlier without much 
attempt at order. We find to it, indeed, the Stattonal 
Mosses fnr tJie great festivals and fnr tlie Ember days, bnt 
beside ihese necessary offloee there ia a vast amtnint of 
superfluous matter. In the other Saoramentaries, the «un- 
pUen have confined themeolvee to giving one Maas for 
each station. In the Qelasion we someitimee find two pnyere 
There tlte Uregortnu givoa only one (p. 141), but one of 
tkew is merely a vaiiaut, or an alternative pmyer. lu the 

< Mumtori. i>p. see, 380. 

• mi., p. 329. 
> thSd.. p. 4». 

• 2^iiniM, Xfitua III.. nUnrjr 





Varotia manuscript tbu altcmftuvea are far greater in number. 
Tbere aro fivo Muses, for iustaiice. Tor the festival of St. 
Cecilia, nine for Christmae and fur St. SMphen's l>ay, eight 
for Sl Sixtus, foiirteuu for Sl Laurence, twenty-eight for 
S8i Fbter and 1*801, and so forth ; aa to privnte Maeau», they 
an given ad tMtum, and are legion. 

In this enormous collection there is, as I hare remarked. 
mora material than arrangement. Thus the Whtteuntide 
Maes is inserted among the Ma£»ee for the Bummer Kmhor 
dsya; vlule under th« rubric wliicb aimounoes the anni- 
varauy of Pope St. Stophon, on the 3rd of Angost, we find 
only tJie Maasea in honour of St. Stephen, the 6rRt martyr. 
These latter, on the contmry, do not appear in their proper 
fiaco, that is. botveen ibe festivals of Uhrietmoe and St. John 
the EvaogoUsL The Ember days in December are placed 
after Christmas. Several Massoe pro diversie, or for the 
general oJfU» «f martyrs, arc found in imposelblc months. 
Than am some, in July, which proeupposo that the festival 
of Eostor is still i>eittg kept. Muaees to be said on u vigU 
we placed after the festival which they are mpi>osed to 
preeaile. U would be imposaible for an official book to 
exhibit «uoh a Mate of disorder. 

It tboold bo added that the mniiascript contains a 
certain number of oomposition» the preaenoe of which is 
inexpUeaUe in each a book. The brothers Itnllcrini tiavo 
peinled out a oontndietion between the diH.-r(M of Gulssina 
Ik ndpitnclit el turn rtc^Mndit libris and ono of tlio Masses 
in the Sacasmentary in question. It is atuted in the latter ' 
that the ^>oetl6s Peter and Paul suQurt-d, indeed, on the 
eame day, bat, tempore dtKreio, in different years. Kow, the 
decree of Ovhuiius holds this belief to be hereliuii gossip, 
aiaU haentici garrinnt. This contmdictiou would be a 
seoooa ono if it wvni curtain, us the brothers BttUerini 

MumIotL. p. SH. 

142 (Ίπιιιπίλ:) νηκβΗΐρ: trs oriois asd ivoldtio}). 

suppuec, (Jul Ltui ducrou coaceruing the books is n»l\y 
uttribuLttblc to Golaeiuit, or, iDtliwd, to any Fope. As tbU 
poial appeajs to mu U> bu ditlicult of soluttoa, I eball 
confine mysulf Lo puintiug out α ccrUin Damber of pref&oee 
in the StcmmuDtur)' wlticb give uxpivttion to uuexpeotetl 
and rntber startling iwnlimonte. Thero are actual declama- 
tioDS sgaiust monks, unwortliy monks it is tru«. but sucb 
declamstioo in any caeo is siogolor. God is called to 
n-ituc»s thftt His Cburcb now oontaitui faleo coofeesora' 
mingled wilh the trou ; enemies, slandemrs, are mentiODed, 
proud ones who, uet«cniiug tbomaelves butlvr Uiou otliers, 
barm them, who prueeul thtimHclvus under u ptous external 
garb, (tu& epecie ffrati<u, but with Iho iutviil lo iojuie. 
The nocoesity of guarding agatoet ibete is ni{^; the 
wisdom of the seqicut must be joined to the hannlees• 
nose of the dove ; improvidoul kindness must not be 
indulged in ; it ie right indeed to forgive, bnt πβ most ι 
also defend ouraelvoa. Sometimes the offensive is asnimed. 
U ia urged thai these ecusont are not so worthy as they 
tliink tbcmselvos. If they do not petoeive their own vreok- 
nees, their ovm basooess, others can perceive it, and God 
UTBt of alL It is in vain that they make honeyed speeohM, 
that they wrest the Holy Scriptures ; it is known that they 
go to seek Christ specially in tho secret chambera of otheia. j 
They will bo judged by tlieir conduct, and not by their 
words. These decoilful wurkertt seek to explore the liberty 
which the Church haa in Christ that they may bring 
it to a shamuful servitude. They penetrate into honaaa, 
and lead captive silly women laden with sins; apt to 
appropriate fur thulr own use not only the fortune 
widows, but even of married women. To judge of tbam | 
by their external conduct, what must ihay not do 

■ Mnnilari, p. SOI. "Cooitmoty in tha ΐΜΐ|Γβ>βΟ tt th« fourth and 
&riL• iMiDtttriM, ottuu nuuM lui Mr%'lt« — α ηΙίίΒητ SDouk. 




tectel? It ie a acanibU ίο the eyea a{ the faithftil, and 
βτβο for the heathen who are thereby deterred in>m 

I am miniinieiiif; mattera ; hat it is uaete»9 to press the 
matter hirther. This laanuer of putliog one's adreTsaiiea in 
the pillory, or worse thno the piUor)-. is olenrly Foreign to the 
recogniaed methods of the Roman Chutoh. The compiler 
of the SacrameDtary could not have invented theee ttimiig• 
pmyerfi, for it is scarcely posuble for them to have boen 
composed in the sixth oentnry. The use of the word eon• 
fator in tlio sense implied, and OBpectally the mention of 
a still nnraeroiu pagan public, cnrrios ue back rather to 
the eod of the foorth century — to tlie time of Camosus and 
Siridos, for instance, when relifpotu houses for men weio 
almost anknon-n ut Bomc, but whore, on the contnuy, 
ware a considentblo number of isolated ascotios, of the 
tjrpo of St. Jerome, Uufiuu«, or relogtus. It is well knovn 
that St. Jeiome did not spare the Koman clergy. One is 
tompbod to believe that they did not allow him to get 
the better of tlioin, and that his blows were eometimee 

Those dispotes must have been frwintntly reuewod, 
siBoe WQ find an echo of tjioni even is the pugus of the 

It is certuo, moreover, that snch liturgical scandals 
could only be ]>ossible in «mall communities, in little 
private conventicles, where the olficiatiug minister, taking 
advantage of tlio liberty still allowed to tndividuat cn{)rioe 
in such mattors, could gira vent to his spite. It woe ο 
great mistake ever to have written such things, but to 
have made a collection of them afterwards and inserted 
them in α book of liturgical texte was a blunder that we 
should not be likely to impute to the rulers of the Bomaii 

Unmtori. p. 800, ύ m^. 

144 cubistiak worship: its orioix ,vho KvoLOTtou. 

Church. The brothon Ballerini. Iborororo, went perfectly 
ri^t in ngnrding tho 80>cftlled Lvonian SacmneDtaiy sa 
α privAUi colleclion exhibiting but llttlu intvUigenoe in tbc 
maoDer in whidi it is drawn up and anuiged. 

This Sacramentory haa noTerthelcse a very great value, 
llie furmuIariM which I have jtut mootionod «re relaUveily 
fev in number, and are the exception. WilJi rogard to 
th« otliars, what I have said above throws no doubt oo 
tlieir Roman — indeed, oxcluitively Homaii origin, and provae 
that they go back to a lime anterior, in some CMM long 
anUirior, to the pontificate of St. Qregtny. 

5. 7%« BoU o/ Bavenna. 

Signer Ceriani pnbliahcd some yeare ago' a litmgical 
Roll belonging to the coUuction of Prince Antonio Pto of 
Savoy. Thte parchment, which !« 11 foot 9 inehea in length, 
in itpite of ita being mutilatvd at tlio beginning and ending, 
containe, in latgo uncial character*, forty pmyunt, of the 
Boman type, relating to tlie prejMUntion for the feetiTa] of 
Cbiistmae. On the back of the mannscript have lieen 
copied,* in minuscules of the tenth century, seven letu-ra 
of an Arohbisliop of liavenna named John, and another 
flrom Pope Serginn III. The^e eight docximeuta all belong 
to the perio<l 1)00-910. Tlie letter of Pope Sergio» wm 
vritteu in the intereets of the Church of Itavenna, and the 
arcliliiahop acknowledges, in one of his replies, that he 
has read it. We have, therefore, ground to believe that 
the whole of this correepondeace came originally from the 

' II rolija oyi'togui/a <lr,l prlnetpt Aidimt» fh ill fitntfa, iB-f•, MUuu 
188λ Tbia luejQEiir liiui bcuu rv-odilwl in tiia AnJiirio atorim ίαοΛαηΙο, 
I8$t, p. l.fltnr- 

* 'ilii• put of tho ItoU hu been ro-cdiUd bj Berr 8. 1.iSiranfoU in 
tbo Aeuot Arehlr., Vol. Ix. p. 515. tl nq., witli ur hirtorioil commonlvj. 




nwtlopolitaD nrcliivea of Rftvenna. The liturgical lioU. ou 
the back of whioh it was Imnitcribed, mast therefore have 
tlio >une prorenanu. We have here, then, a collectiou of 
pmyen which had been in uee in the Chui-cli of Kaveun». 
ϋηβ of them only, the twenty-soventh, is fouud is any 
IcQOwn dooument of the Roman Litur^'. It 6gDre8 in oae 
of the Hums for ChrisLmas Day * iu ihu Loonion Sacia- 
meotary, and among α group of pmyen fur the aume fusttval 
io the Qregorian i!acramentary.* Tbu Ravenna prayers am 
not arranged in the order olxservuil in tho Mnas. Then; 
ia DO attempt at any dtstnbulioQ of this kind, for they 
are aiinply placed one uftur tlie other. Thoy could have 
aerved aa well for the O0ioo αβ fur ttiu Maes, and this 
dnmmBtencB detncu coosidcnihly from the vain» of the 
Rarenna BolL 

It i», moreover, difficult lo assign a date to it. Thu 
imciaU ore rather eoonely fanned, and it may hv ultnbubud 
with equal probability to tlie eighth or ninth na well ua 
to the aixtb cvniuiive. 

Uona. Chotelairi hoe pubUahed" a wrioe of {oayers, 
which are in the script of the seventh ot eighth century, 
and accompanied by α ooitain Dumber of I'ironian notes,' 
from a manuscript which came &om Bobbie* They number 
KTente«n in all, and comprise the posi eornmumo prayer 
and the Stcreta; they are Soman in type, and are Γοηο<Ι in 
the Sacraniuutariea of that nee, especially in the Leouiou 

• Mtmlari, toL [ c-l 168. 
' IMA. TuL ii. oil. 10 

■ MmrrorffM b ta httun Ία uoIm l/ronnlnu»•. Pnri•, ΙΘΟϋ.ρΙ. sllL p. SJ9. 

■ Aaitrv, O. Slffaop., fal. 1β •ηηα. 

■ ei((nut 0. H«a«BtJ, wlio wm tli« lint tu dmw atWnlEuD to tbb Uxl 
(^uUoD^l lUT IdUuia LoaAittrlo, Ι89β. pi. 1211), hna nn^dltrd It wKb 
111• bvl|> of lloM. <1ial«t*fn'a naJing•, Add oomini-iit'-d on it In the StuM 
» T^tut tbm Valkk» I.lbnr7. So. ΤΠ.. |i. SA. 

■ [Th• flioctlwnd «f Ibc aneiBnt Rokibd• — T>,) 



6. Ordint» Jiitmani, 

In tbe second volnine of liie Mmaevm Ilalievm} Mabillon 
publiabed some of the Ordinea Romani, or ritual directions for 
different ceremonies. All theee doctunente ire not of the 
same date, and it is poesiblo to trace in them modificationB 
which were made in the Pontifioal Liturgy βπαια tlie ninth 
to the Cfteenlh centuries. It is only ivith the most aadenc 
that we hare to deal here, and we must of oooree pat 
naide those which correspond to the IComan Liturgy as it 
haa heen modified owing to Tarious influenoee, whether in 
lYanco or at Borne, aubsequent to the ninth centoiy. 1 
shall thonsforo aolect only Noe. L, VII., VIII., and IX. 
out of the whole «υποβ of the Ordivcs. The first of tbeoe 
relatee to thu Ιϊΐιιη^ of the Mass, the second to bcptism, 
and the two others to the ceremonies at ordination. 

We must, moreover, distinguish between the different 
pari.» of the Ordo llmmnua L as it in published by 
Mabillon. The whole of it, indeed, is taken &om luaou- 
scripts of the ninth century, and it may be taken for 
granted tliat all of it existed in the early years of that 
century. But all the parts do not exhibit to the aamc 
extent a Roman impisss. 

After an introduction relatinj; to the apportioning of 
the liturgical service among the cleric» of the mxna 
regions of Rome, the Ordo givoa us a description of tlw 
stational Mass, presided over l>y the Γορβ. This first 
part comprises Chapters 1-21 of Mnbillon. 

It ia found, with no altrupt break at this point, in 
sevtiial manuscripts citt^t by Mabillon and others, and 
especially in that of Verona, published by Fr. Biaachini.' 

■ In Ihfl eilltian r^nndiiMd in Mlgnt^ fW. UiL, τοΙ. LmlH. 

■ .liMiif. SSii^ Tol. iii. p. Kifix. For Uii* Ot^o. cf. Dtuir, J*«Mn 
Somalia, vA.Lp. IBS. 






Tbeo follow some supplemeDts, refurring to pecaliftritiee 
in the serrioe wbea the Pope is prevuniud from being 
preseDt, and also to special fealivuls oi- eeaaona of tbe 
year. These sapplementa are peculiar to the Sl Gall 
tnaDDScript, which Torms the basis of Mabilloo's ediUon. 
To tliew may be added Chapters 4δ~ό1, vfaich are 
ftlso fotmd in the Verona manuscript, and have the 
Mme enpplementaiy character. The description of the 
eeremooiee at the end of Lent and in Holy Week 
ia comprised in Chapters 27-47. Another »et of 
directions for the same oeremooiea, but carried on 
to the end of Eaeter Week, is added as to appendix to 
Ord» I. in Habillon'e edition. There era tvo redactions, 
the necoud more complete than tbe first, of tho same 
paschal Ordo, bnt they are not found in the same manu- 

About the year 830, Amalarius' put forth a work in 
four books, entitled De OfieUt Bedeaiatlick. It is α com- 
meotaty on the liturgical oeremoniee and tbe Divine Office 
Among the documents which the writer made o-ie of, there 
was no Ordo Btmanut, which ho frequently cites as un 
important authority. We recogniee in it the text of 
Mabtllon's Ordo I., including the chapters on Uie pasclml 
oonmonise. Tbe latter, therefore, must be very ancient, but 
tfaeee cemnouies did not correspond with those in uotool 
nee at Bom•, u Amalaritts luut occasion to expeneooe in a 
journey which be mode thither in 832 for the special purpose 
of pursuing his liturgical studies. Pope Gregory TV. put 
him into oommunioaUon with his archdeacon, Theodore, 
«ho gave him all the information he required. It is 
nmarksble that on almost every occasion in which he 
tofacnd to the paschal ceremooit», the information of the 

• βοβ, tat tUi penMUffo ud hi• varloa• tMletiwilEail pMltiMu, Doou 
Moifa*• ttftUM In the &m• ΑΜΜΑμ, 1891, p. 133; 1892. p. 397; ISM. 

148 ciiBisTiAN woRSHrp: rre obicih and kvoldtio». 

nrchdencoD was ooDtmy to that fumiahed by the 0rd9, 
and poor Amalarina was obligetl to acknowledge that hie 
document was not without ite shortcomings.' 

It does not, moreover, require a leogtby exftmioation 
to see that the pmcbal 0>-do does not poeeew the Komao 
chaiaotexistice of the Ordo of the Mass. Ια taking up the 
latter, we feel ourselvea transported to Itomu, into the midst 
of the Boiniui clergy, to the city with its sovon rogioae, 
aad its Bpecial days of service for each regioa. The 
officiating miDieter ίβ the Pope lumteir, liornnM apottoliem. 
who appears surrounded by the groat dignitariee of bia 
court — the primieiarias, the Meondutrim, the aaetUaiiiu, 
the nojrundator, and otben, Ue storta from tiis Palace of 
the Lateran and proceeds on lioraebaok in prooession to one 
or other of the itoman basilicas. It is clearly impossible 
to refer these details to any other locality. In the paschal 
Ordo, on the contrary, there are do indicatioDS of aoy 
porticulur town, while it ia an ordinary dignitary— a bishop 
— who officiates, and sometimee even merely an inferior 
ecelesiosttD. Tbo use is indeed Romas, but Bomao as 
observed elsewhere than in Home, and combining wiUi 
it customs unknown to the papul court. 

It is therefore impoesiblo to attach the some weight to 
the poeobal Ordo as to the rest It contaius, doubtlees, 
many Itoman details, but details which in every case 
raquiro to be coufinncd by more trustworthy documents. 

Among such doeoments is a fingment of u paschal Onto 
found by Signer do Itosai ία the cetobrated epigrapliical 
and topographical manuscript of Einsiedolo, and puUtshed 
by him in vol. ii. of his Inseriptiona Ckriitianat, p. &1. 

■ Bit βηνιηίΜ wtm not alow to Uko adntntne• of tbia «dulMdM. 
Flonu. Adv. Amalarium, 17: " Libellum Reraaui otdtnb UolM uctori- 
Utia babot ut eunt pcno lul vHrboin nlUluT «xpODtrK: ot teaua Matiitt 
■ibi IpM omtmrin* Mmit bn&c ICanuma ucbidinonnn culu• UnJltkaUnB 




It contains merely tfao Uuroo lost days of Holy Week, but 
it is abeolatety Rooun io chamctei-. 

MabilloD'a Ordo VII., relAting to Uie ooremo&ice of 
CbrUtian initiatton — the cat«cttumonsti). baptietn, uatl con- 
firmatioQ — u lut well altuisbMl by dociUDentiiry ttvidcucu αβ 
the Ordo I, LQcc tlio Ialt«r, it is publislied from ιπαιιιι• 
scripte of the ninth ceaCiuy. Prior Ιυ the deatli of Ctinrle- 
m^oe, Jone, BUbop of Aiuluns, wi-otu η conimoutary od 
it, uul tnui«cribed a Xaj^gm poition of it bi hie £pi»iola lU 
Saphmno.* It must βτωι be oarliur lima tlial, as it %urae 
almon in its estirety in the Gelasian Sucnuncntuiy. 

With reg«id to Ordo VIIL and Ordo IX., I «in 
unabhi Io give any other external jiToof of their iinlitiiiity 
than the fact that ihoy occur iu i»uiiuecript« of thu 
ninth century. They commend thomsulvoa, moreover, to 
tu by their import. like tho preceding nuinuacript, they 
ρτο«α[φοβο that the ceiemonies take place at Come, and 
■re pitusided over by the Pope in person. 

I have found in the Latin manuscript Xo. 974 in 
the Bibliotheqoe Natiomde, which came from the Abbey 
xA SL Amand, a whole group of Ortfinet lUmAi^i, which 
appear to me to have escaped, up to the presunti the 
QOtice of Uttirgiologiete. This manuscript contotiiis some 
tnatiKs of St. Augustine, and advantage has bueu Uiken 
of the few bhmk Ιυανββ at the beglnaing and the end 
to oojiy the Ordinet on them. The t«xt of those, like that 
of St. AugUBtinc'e work, is of the niuth oontuiy. It 
oomioisoa: let, the doscriplioii of the etationni Moss; 
2ad, the puchal ceremonies ; 3rd, the order of the 
Gfeaisr litany ; 4th, the ordination of priei>ts and deacons ; 
Stfa, the dodication of oburchee; 6th, the prooeesion at 
Uoadleinae. In all these cerenionioe the rituat is strictly 
Itotoan — ItomoD of the city itself, for it is taken ior 

Ui^o, Put. Lnt., vol. CT. p. TSI. 


granted Umtighout that the I'ope is preeeot uid 

The Ordc of the etational Masa, in the state in which 
it has come down to us, is ceitainly later ttiao the lime 
of St. Gregoiy. We find in it several direcUoue which 
we know tn have been intjnduced by bim. For inelance. 
in the I'ope's escort defenders of the regions are 
mentioned, dtgnitoriea whose ollics was created by St. 
CregOTy ; ' the gradual la sung by a eantor, and not 
by a deacon, in confoi-tnity with the nde laid down by 
the iioman (^uncil of &ΰό ; the Pater A'oaier a placed 
before the Pax JDoniiHi, an alteration which St. Gregory 
himself statee that he made." It would not^ however, be 
coireot to afErm that the whole of tbe ritual goes back 
to tbe time of St. Qregory and to the beginning of the 
seventh century. The mention of tJio deacoariee, the 
deeignaUoD of the Palace of the Lateian by the name of 
J'atriarchium* the marked development of the papal 
court, — all point to the later part of the seventh century. 
Moreover, we have the mention of the ^^lu Dei, and this 
hymn is known to have been introduced by Pope Sergioa 
(687-701).' It ifi therefore quite to the end of tbe seventh, 
if not to the following century, that I should asaigQ the 
redaotioD of the Ordo, as we posacaa it Iud«ed, we must 
give oven a luter date, if we ore to Include some of the 
eupplemente, for in one of thcso (c 24) we find tbe name 
of Charlemagne, and a reference to the time (already past) 
of tbe pontificate of Adrian. If we take into oooaidenUion 
thi» additional part<, the Ortlo cannot be earlier than 795. 

' Tbo tcit of lliew: Ontlnrt. aai tli&t of »igant KomI. will b« fomil ίο 
the Appondix to the pitamit tvImdb. 
' Op. vUL 14 (16). 

• Kp. Ix. la (26). 

* ΣΛ. ΓοηΙΙ/., yd. i. p. S6t, note β. TIio ponilllcol polMO «u, in ll» 
Mvatb οοϋΐαπ*. tfillcil Epiieaptumi Ulfl deigiiMiini PatriarrUmm doe• 
Dul npprui ia tlio L. I', hntanr th• notice «Γ 8«r{iliii (ΑύΛ, ρ, S7I, L lOJi 

» Z-ft. VoMf, vul. i. p, 37C. 



ξ 2. — ΟλίχιοΑ» Books. 




7. 7%« iiisw/c Uo^tnun.' 

Thix v&luable manuscript beare the Qumbor 317 iti 
F|Qiioon Clirietiiift's collection in the Vatican. It came from 
ue Fet«u library. From certain details wliich It coDtains," 
wo tre ablu Ui aecertaia that it waa drawn up for the Cburcli 
of Amim, Tommaei, who woe the 6T»t to edit it, and 
MabilloQ, who published it tSloT bim, were incorroot in 
thi nkin g that its prevmanee wu thu proviucu of Nerboune, 
tlieo ettbject to the Visigothic kings. This opinion appears 
to hsTO been suggested to them by a note written in 
Um Gftcentb century as a heading to the manuaoript : 
Mittale Gothieum,. We must also be cautious in accepting 
IfabUlon'a opinion IJtat it represents tlie purut onio /jalli~ 
eentM. As a fact. Uiis Sacnunentory contains many Itomaa 

Two Maaeee are miesiug at the beginning, to judge by 
the numeration of those which follow. The seiiee, ns it 
stands, begins with the Maes for Christmas Etc. After the 
Epiphany, we find cermin Massee in honour of \-arious saints, 
then follow L.ent and Easter, the festivals of the Invention 
of the Holy Cross, of St. John Ihe ICrangelist, the Rogation 
Days, the Ascension, and Whitsuiuide. and finnlly other 
Masses in honour of sainte. either spect»! for certain festivale 
or for the common of saints, and six Mnuea for Sundays. 

> IMUIe, eaemmmlaliv^ No. 3. βηο nlitiniui by Tnmmuii. MnbiUoii. 
Mnmtoci. «p. rSI. cr. Noklc g>ail Fbrb^ n>i Anoimt Lituin of tAe 
(Wtfaut GlafeL |> »2. Tbc iJlr jtUHrpt" Ui/r>n<nfi </l lUnlitlkiu hit• bwii 
NpriBtoJ In vuL txx<l. uf Μίκη"'• ''•■'- Vat., wlui ull tliu Uixl• udlkd or 
t«-«dtU:d by Ull- IlloetTlowi Dbncdiclioc. 

' It ««laiiu «iMwU M>T» Γιιτ Uio fntimli of tM SymiiluriaB nnd 
8«. \jf9n. 


ΊΊιυ voluiuu, wbicli is muUliilod tovrords tlie end, bresks 
off in α muua totidiaiui Bommsie, of wlticb only the firel 
prayer is given. With tbu oxoeption οΓ tide latter, all 
ibe forniQlariee arc ujmtiged iu tbe order followed io the 
UallicAD Μ«ββ, LuL many among them, espeoially llie 
Masses io boooar of saiut«, arc Romao formuUnee. 

lliis Miseikl contain* λ Moss in honour of Ht. leger, iu 
which his relics arc spoken of as being distributed ihrongfa- 
uui Oaul. St. Legor. Bishop of Autun, died in 680. The 
manuscript cnnuot therefore be earlier than the final years 
of the sevenCh century. Id Mons. Delisle'a opinion, its 
date ahonld not be placed later than the b^inning of 
the follon-iog ceuttuy. 

8. TJU Miaiak OaliivMum Vettu} 

ΊΆύΒ Saonmentary, which it of the same date as the 
preceding, is known ns No. 493 iu the Palatine colleotioo in 
the Vatican Labnu-y. It is much mutilated. The frag- 
ments even are not in their right order in the maoa- 
eoript, but Touimasi, their first editor, arranged tbem as 
they ought to be. 

Tlio first document we find in it ύ a Mass in honour 
of St. Germain of Auierro, which is foUowod by pmyeis 
for the benediction of virgins and widows. After a break 
comu two Masses in Adventum /Vmmt, one for Christmas 
£vo, and the prayers for the following night, interrupted by 
another gup. Fiirther on, wc fiud ourselves in the midst of 
the rites of the cutvohirnittnaUi aud of the TraJitio ayinboli, 
bclongbog to the Sunday before £ast«r, according to tlie 
GaUican use. After a third gap follow the ceremomos for 

• Dolldc, No- 5. Cf. tbe cditiont hj Toataui, MobUloa, Ummi. 





Holy Week, tho fntiTols οΓ Eaeter, and the οοηϋαοΑίίοη 
οΓ tbe proper of llie time op to the Mass for Kogationtide, 
where tltc text brooks off. 

Id Lhii poseiigoe where this Sacramentaiy can be vom• 
pared with tho preceding one, nany identical fonnulArics 
ere met with. Neither of these Sacnunentarios is complete. 
In order to reconetract certain series of praycre, il ie 
oeoemny to supply tbe omissions uf one from the other. 
There is, tncvMver, here, as in the Autus Sacrumentury, 
a Urge proporUon of lioman elementa. 

9. Matte» pttHUked hy Afonc} 


^K Ib 1850, Hen* Mono' published a collectioa of eleven 
Galilean Maaees, deciphered in a pstimpeest manuscript 
fouad at Beicheoau. The script is uncial, of the end of the 
sevootb oentnry.' Acoording to a nutv added at a later 
date to the vnd of tho mauuscript, it belonged to Joba 
1 1., Bishop of Coastanco (760-781). 
Β Theeo texte have this ndvunta^O over the pi-etivdiug 
Η Saonmenlaries, they are outirely GaUicau, without any 
V admixturo of Bumua νΐυπιυηί». Unfortunately, with the 
ezooptioQ of a Muse in honour of St. Germain of Auxuriv,* 
■11 the othera are MuAsee for ferial days, or Sundays, 
withoat ascription to any spixial feetivul. There are two 
eaiUttlaiuma, or pro&cee, to each Mass. offering an alter- 
native to tho ofScialing priest. One of the Masses is in 
bexameter verso throughout, a pecuUarity unique in tlie 
«bole of tbe litui]^cal teste known up to the present time. 

I • DdHfe.}!ih8,|]. 

JaiikimUrU Knukfurt. 18M. Cf. iUnae, f. L•, Tol. aLUTlll. f. 8U3. 
Kcal» Mid Voiiim, «p. til., p. 1. 

• DdIU^ φ. dL, PL 82. 

* Tli• Hon la ^«Et• lUffirvBl tiom Uml oT tbo Xttialt CnltiMium 


To this Augment of a Socramentary aliould be edded α fuw 
palimpsest leaves publbilied by Peyron, Mai, aad Βιιηββο. 
Tlic Ira^nieiite of Mai and I'eyron appear to bavu bolooged 
to tho sutne manuscript in the Amtn>oeiaD Librsi^'.' ΤΙιοβ« 
of BaneoD vere dedpliorod from α toauu8cnpt at St. GolL' 
AU these remjiDs are of « well-inorkoil GalUcan character. 
We cannot say the same of η fragment more loceotly 
pobliebed by Hen- liickull from α aianusoript at Cambiidgo.* 
It oonlftins part uf a Christmas Hoes, composed almost 
entirely of fioman prayers. 


10. The Leetimary of LuMoil. 

Tliis manoscript, numbered 9427 in the Bibliotl^qt 
NalioDalc contains the lections of tho Maas for Λα 
coclcsiaetical year. It is vrittun in minosculea of tbo 
nevontb century. Mabillon found it at the Abbey of 
Liixeutl, and published it iu his Se Liturt/ia QaUieana. 
He did not give the complete text^ as he did not oonaider 
it necessary to reproduce, in their entirety, the portions 
known from other eources. He therefore printe merely 
the beginning and end of each lection, with the oeceeeaiy 
references, but be gives the whole of the rubrice, which 
are of much greater imporlancc. 

The Lcctionary of Luxeuil is a purely GaUican book. 

■ M. 12 (or II) Hipp. Tboaa of Pejmii ore to bo tmai in Id* book 
«Dtill<.il. .V, 7', CitvrmU OnttiouHm Pra^nunita ItititUa, t<tiit(|;krd, ISM, 
]>. 22ϋ; llKwn i,r Mai, In 111* ihripL V«R , vol. Ul^ Sad part, p. 247. Uf. 
C. E. Uiuiuo-md hiu τκ^ήιΛΆ tita flnt in bl> poupbtel, Tb ΛλολΛ liturgy 
(/ Jnti'oeh, p, SI ; Iho Ottii'ra iu lii» LHargitt £a«lBrn ami Ilculmi. p. tusi. 
no latUir appew sI*d Id Hltciit-'a toL £■■<„ Ht the vai of Uoiic*• BUmm. 

op. off, p. sas. 

* Bumuo, <liHi(. ^utoiMiunu. vgl. iu, p, SOS, IIaliiin«nd, iitaryy V 
A»ltoal>,p, .13. 

> ZriUArifi/Si latKdUA» Thmitogt,. Ιββί. pu a?0. 



wiLhout the sUghteitt tnou οΓ Romau mflncnce. It is 
ananged according to Iho order of the Gallican ccclceiastical 
year, nnd thu ooiu<itittU«is its great iotercat. Tbo fMlivals 
of tlio saicte given are few in niiinbor, that of St. Guduvuto 
bciog the only one which might furnish us witli any iodi- 
ettioiu as to tJte origin of the manuscript. Although it wae 
diacovQiod at Luxeuil, it containa notliing which relates 
particularly to that region. Dom Morin' ta of ορίηϊοα 
Utat it ropre«ont8 the use of the Church of Paris. 


11. 2%• ZtUen of St. Ofmam of Paris. 

Amocg tbe most valuable documeuts for the study οΓ 
the Gallican liturgy, we must include two letters puhlishod 
by Mart«ne' from a inauascript at Autun. The llrst bean 
as ita title the words Gurvianua cpiecop^ts Parieiwi scriptU 
de mua. I do not boliovu that there is the eligbteet 
teaeoD to doubt llie uuthunticity of this bonding. St. 
Gemiain of Paris, wlio flotirijibcd from 555-576, is well 
known' for tbe zeal he displayed for the worthy celebia• 
tion of the divine Service, and it is thorefoio not sur- 
ptising Uiat he should have boeu careful to devote α 
fow pages to the s)-mbolical toeaniug of the ritual of the 
Liturgy. Thi^ is, in fact, the subject dealt with in the 
two letters. The Bret deals with the Maes, the second 
with certain particular details, ceremonies for special 
occasioDe, and liturgical vestments. In order to explain 
the ritual, the venerable author is obliged to give a summary 
description of it, and in this lies the peculiar interest for 
us of his explanation.* 

' Jbn*e BMUMiM. I89S, i>. i3H. 

> π*. ΑμτΛοΙ-, toI- v. rr. Mlg»e, F. L•. vol. IxxJl. |i. S> 

* FartwHtBi, Cam.. U. I>. 

< Vo ndy ronnuilnict from lli« l«4l«fa ot Hi. Gtnnpin a kM of Onto 


12. BritiA and Irish Book», tU. 

The ancient liturgical manaacripte foand in tbe British 
Ules aix) all, with gue or two exceptions, books οΓ a mixed 
clmiacter — in tlie main lioman, but with certain Gallican 
details. The most iiiiportAut is the Stowe Miaeol,' wliidi 
oontains, at tbo end of St. John's Gospel, so Onliaiuy [uid 
Canon] of the Mass, foUovud by prayers bulougisg to throe 
Maseee for special occasions, an Ordo HapltOai, on Ordo ad 
infirmwn vmtandum, and finally a treaty in liish oo the oore- 
moniea of the Mass. All oi-o not in the same bandwntiiig. 
The Latin texte aru partly of the eighth and jfoxuy of the 
tenth century. Nearly all the rubrics are in the later hood, 
in which also are inauy additions in the blank spctoee lolt 
ία the original test, and even over tbe Hnee, which have 
been previously enieed. The beginning of the Canon is 
in the later wntiug, ns is also tbe rubric Catum daminicui 
papae Oilasi, to which too much oonGdeooe should not 
be given. We have here, in fact, the uaoal Itoman 
Canon in its Gregorian form, that is to say, with tbo 
fiaal die$que nastros, etc., in the Jfane iffUttr. Tliero arc, 
however, interpolations in various places, eometimw in 
tlie earlier, someUmas in tlie later hand. Among theio 
intcrpolalicne, one of the meet curioos is tliat of the 
Mevientu for the departed (in tbe earlier han<l) ; we find 
mentioned in it a lung list of the righteous, hxm Abel 



Αι/Λ'οιΐ)'». Till' runrlli Γ<ηιηαί1 υΓ Tuludu (c. SS) deened tlial bUtCf• 
«lu>iil<l funiitJi I'vcr; |irii4t bi wlL•;!!!! llii'jr oulrnelwl Ihe care οΓ • fMlU), 
«itli Λ liballiii offlriiiU• to direct tlium In px^rfonnlay tLii nrrnnoiiic» 
cuiuiuclcd wiUi publiu «Lmiliiii, Nti bouk of lliw natiuo hu mm» Aatm 
lo III. 

> I'uUialied by Wuron, Tht lAiatyg and Μ«αΙ (/ th» OrUtt Ctmrrtt. 
Osfoid. 1881, pp. 307-219. Cf. Wbltley StolcM. The ItiA Paungi, h Uu 
tS»imi liimil, CAlenlta. 1881- 

BOOKS or TUB urts rite. 


down lo tlie Irish SMnte of ϋιο eixUi ceatoiy. We find in 
it, moreorer, the Dame* οί Pope St. Gregory,* aod of tlio 
throe fitst euccoaeon of SU AugusLiso in tho see of Cnntur- 
iiury — I^iirooco, Mellitue, uid Jaetue. The Utter dicid 
about the jtmi 627. aad is the lUeet of the sainte mentioned 
io tho Stowo MiMal.t 

A fevr flvgmonle. QalUcaD in cbaractcr, ore to be found 
(1) in Uie book of Deer, *n Evangeliuium belonging to 
Sootltmd, but DOW in the UaiTonuty Librar>' itl Cam- 
bridge,' (2) in the Irish books of Dinimft* and Mulling," 
«ad (3) in η ountLscnpt at St. Gall.* The matertal in 
these IB, bowtrer, Tery scanty. 

We poaeoM, OD the other bond, an Irish liturgical book, 
(mtjrely &ce from aoy trace of Bomnn influence. This is 
the Antiphonary of Bangor." lliis i&an»8cri|)t , nuw pr«- 
serred in the Ambrosian Library, ia dated by tbu list which 
ttinninatee it. Tliis givee the names of the abbots of the 
monaBteiy of Bangor' from C^omgill, its founder, down lo 
Cnoan, tlie abbot then living, whose rule extended Irum 
6S0 to 69L The mannecnpt also contains α nurobur of 
hymns for the ofiloe of Hatins, various pntyers con- 
nected with tlte same office, and a few antiplions and 
iotber small ptecee. 
I WafHB.efL «1.. f>- 1M. 
i ■ JMi. p. 187. 
* No. I3M: V»niM,AM..f. Mt- 
1 PmUtaliod Iff Haralari, dmerMa biU. AtAfoibiaiUt tcJ. iv. p. Hi ; 
«I «dUlM rvprinud in Hlffn»'• Pat. LaL, τοΙ. lull. p. M3. Λ new edition 
bM bom biBljr pnUWwd hj Ibv Ufaddiair Scciety [«ith 0uiii|il*|p fBowmilt*. 

mud faj r. a wmt«*. pli.. ins: ι^,α, in».— t«.). 

■ TU« muaaUttj «t Baaicer. •ϋιΐηΙ•ι1 ia co. Dmni, Irobuid, mmt not 
fa• HmfgwHlMt «Itli tbo BiDiu«lMj of Bkogor in Watc*. ucntionod by Bcdo, 
BU. /&Λ. tL i 

* [ Elev. V. K. Wmrd Iblak• Uilt b η niatako for Orrgnry uf Toon.— Ta] 

I [tec MW j>. SIO. D. R-Ta] 

158 CltKiSTIAII W0B8HIP: m OIEIOIN ί«0 εΛ -OLimoK. 

13. Thi daiiiean Stxeramentari/.* 

Ono book rumaioB to bo doecribod, wliich, like most of 
the ttceiont lituigioftl nunuscripte, bu received ftOm its 
wugimtl editor an incorroct titlu. Thia ie the lEiDwraflwii- 
lan'um Oallioanum uf M&bUlon. Aa the IOmoU OoUtiettm 
and the MittaU. QailicamiM ore tlius deeigiMted, although 
they ftre ool Miaeals. but SucTcmeDtariee, so tbo Saera- 
mentarimu OaUieanum boure Udi Bttmo, altbough it is doc 
ft Socnuneiitary, but ft Mieeal. Mabtlluu fouiid it at Bobblo. 
aiid published it in hie jfueaeum Ilaliam* The nxna- 
scripl, which wiia sent to 8t. Uermaio dee Pr£e at the time 
of publiofttioD, line remnitied at Pari* ever einoo. It is now 
ID the Biblioth^ue Xationale (Να 13, 246). Μοηβ. Deliele 
believoB it to be a work οΓ the seventh cootury. 

Ια spite of ite great antiquity, the Ilobbio Misaal ie but 
ftn indifferent aource of inforraatioD on the Gallicao αββι It 
Iwgitifl by a. mitta Bomentu eoUidiatut, in whicli the Boman 
aiid (Jollican usee are oombmed is a peculiar fasbioo. 
Up to the Preface, all the ritual is tiftllican; from the 
Preface onwanis all is Koman. This ia followed by tbe 
Masses and ritual of the ecoleaiaatical year. The uries 
1>egiDR with three Maeaes tn AdvatiKia Domini, befon: 
the Vigil of Chrietmas. The Saints' Days are few iu 
uutuber. Thero is a Mass iu honour of St. Sigismond 
for those who are enffeiing from the quartan ague Id 
each Mass we find, first the text of the three Gallican 
leotioDS, then the four prayers before the l^reface, and 
dually ibe latter under the rubric Coniietatio. None of 
the Mas3e3 goca beyond the Banehu, which implies that 
Uiey alt terminatud in the same way as the musit 
SotncTima cottvdiana at the beginning of the MissoL 




> DvlUK Ko. 6. 

' Va. i.. port 2. Cr MfpicT'• Fat. taL•. nl. UsU. p. 491 : Hn 
fjll- Ham, lol. u. cut 77S : NMle «nd ttirbea, tgi. e>'(., i>. f05. 



In the part before tliu Prufneo, Uie prftyore aro mostly 
tmuiged acoording to the QsUican use, and placed under 
GalUcao nibrice ; in nearly one-third of thu Masses, how- 
ever, the I'mjera are prvccdud by Roman rubrics, and are 
uimoged «oconliag to thu Roman mulbod. The cumpilur, 
oeverthdeee, baa shown such a want of skill, that in tbo 
ICanca of Itomiin typo the (HSyera are mostly Gallicon, and 
vke vena. He even plsoos purely GaUican inviiutoriee 
aoder the rubrics belonging to Itomun prayers. lu άιοΛ^ 
all we have in this text ie a very bad attempt to combine 
the two usos.' 

UabUlon is of ΐφϊηϊοη that the Bobbio Missal may have 
oome tnm the provinoo of Beeoofon, wherein was situated 
Loxeoil, which was the mollier house of the Italitiu 
Convent. He regards the Mas* of St. Sigismund as buJog 
on indication in favour of this oo^jeotuie. I am anahlu 
to say whether tliis is eo or not. The Mass of St. SigiamiUMl 
i» not a Maes for the anuivertary of this eaiot, but one 
for tlie cure of the fever-atticken, of whom he was regarrlwl 

the patron, and tliat not only iu the Seine valley and 

IBorgojidy, but in other districts. I should rather be 
indintxl to lay stress on the place from whence tliu manu- 
script came, and on the fact that the name of St^ Ambrose 
oocun in the Cniiun of tins Mass, a peculiarity not met with 
in any other Oallicau or Fronkish Sacromeutary. Tliu 
Bonuin rite, moreover, is here oomtHned with the (Jallican iu 
a peculiar fashion, quite different ttom that which obtains iti 
tlie systems of combination which we find in ttiu Frunkisfa 
mannscripta of Into Alfrovingian timee. It is not exactly 
the Ambroaian Liturgy, but it te aomowbat analogous to it. 

^Τΐιπ BaMdletiDM ot SoUmamt bave nsnoancod «n edition ct thb Inolc. 
tit UiGiu, Dea Cactn. bu «xpMocd lii* tUeoiT In Iho JUAfnifiAl• 
hat», tot, V. p. 97. Η ttq.; bnt I «tonot ihiuv bt* nptnloM. I havE 
^**e ny rrMOM Ln tbe Same >ΓΒΜ<4ΐ9 tt <l« LM^alut* lUiftmm, VuL v. 
(IWO). 11. SB. 


The Romau Cknou is Iruukly adoptod, idotc complete];, 
indeed, Llian id Uks Ambroflian tilv, wliioh ha» in tliis portton 
of the service rotaJBud α few peculiariucs. 

14. Ambrotian SookM. 

We find Β coneiderablo number of litnrgioal maRoecripts, 
compiled for Churches tuiing the Ambroeias rite, pre- 
served in the culleotions of Xortb Italy, particularly in the 
Atnbroaian collection at Alilan. and in the tieasnry of llie 
cathedral of that town. The Qioiit ancient are of the tenth 
oontui^'. Tho first of th<t »me» in the SacmncDtuy of 
Bloeca,' which is somewhat coarse in exocntton, ne migbl 
bo expected, siQoe it was α book for tho ase of a coontry 
potieh. In llio AinbrosiAD books, the Mclouostic•! year 
begins on St. Martin's Day (Norombor 11), nod wo And 
the Ordinnry of the Mass placed after Wliit Week, in the 
middle of the voliuae. Boaidee the Sacranieiilanus, tliere 
alRo a few Antiphonariefl.* 

■ Anbmi., A %t bU inf.; Ddule. Να ?l. It t* not witlil• Ui• Matw 
of thta book lo detertUs «vm brl^lly, Xh* umnwinnpf οι Ibe Anlmriaa 
Lilncs;, Bod t bATD not «tndiod Uieni for κ lioiic <•ιιοιΐι;1ι period to be 
αιηφβΐΜΐί ta Λα m>. I hkTc Itamt mneli In Ibo abort tlmn vbldi I be*t> 
bMn kUo tn il^roto to tlicm, owine to lb• foot Ibnt I bod ■• mj gkliW 
tlio Abb^ t'nriiuii. tlio mori IwRifd Mpnrt an tlio MUanue Lilvi^. Il 
U t>> I» helped that be nili anv iny paUUb tbo recnlt• of liw touf oad 
coiuoicnitiolu rMHuebe•. ΜνηηκΊιίΙ" Ibv deaoripliim of the auMi λοΛοΛ 
AiiiliK«*ii BMtunoetftrin irlll I* f<iunit {n Ibe iaaaoit of Utau. t>. DelMf^ 
|i. Ι9β, Η tq. 

' Tba Ih-ncdd-tinr* of fiolmnnc• havn pnbH«b«d <1β9β} In volunn τ. οί 
tlidr ΓαΐΛ^ηιρΙιΙι Maiirale, an AnbroHUi AntlplinnBTj of tlu IwiiLTIb 
ci-ntnry. l>r Sint.'UtrntEi «ditod in I8H the llemt-lut, • MfCKOiutl rvpi«- 
Hentinit t}iu onalDina of tlic «luno period : be h«a, momivnr. bcfcnn a eoUcclkai 
«Dtitled, jfonnnwili ratrn• Liliirgiie ArnbmtMiiae. Iliu flnt munbiir of wkM 
(IBOT) ΟΊΐιΙηΙη* ■ rnntiScnl οΓ ihi^ iilntb i^ntncy. .\tt#<ilioa nay alw be 
diBirn to the tla-hv» of ϋίριοι Munuti in ΧαΤοΓ tlio^aJl* Trtti i)l Ih» 
ν•ϋ«(η Ltbmty. Tlin Rnnivlivlini.-• of Su|i.>nn<« joibUtlicd in lOOV • 
ttediunrnUry uf Itorgnnio οί tbi; clrvi-nlli ocntary, willi tbrec cnpiluluini 
of Itw G<ap»li. Till* t-ilitiun oanalltuta tbo flivl DiilabCT of tbirit IllnnnnJ 
njiyliaMnI to Migne's lOinlagl* LaL 





Tos Ordinn Somani aaeenbe to iia the fiUtioii•! MuU as 
oetobnUid \>y the Pope in penoo in the j^reai Uliirgtcal 
assemblies lo ivhich rU the c1eif;y and people were con- 
voked, and at which it wue lakoo for gnmtod thut they 
were ptesent The priests, in their titulary churches, in 
the chorohee and chapoU of oometeriee, in the ornlories of 
monaateiiee, of deaooariee, and of private hon&ee, were 
Mcratomed to celebnte noconlinf; to a form fundamentaUy 
the name, hut without the solemn corcmonial. The cardinal 
I>ri«st had at hii di^poeition only clerics of an inferior order 
— the acolytei — luid he was obliged to take upon himeelf 
many functions which in a solemn Muss would be usigned 
to the deftoons. Tlie disparity in the ceremonial was 
not occasioned by the differenco in rank between the [rriost 
and a faiahop, for it often hiipiwned that when tlio Pope 
oontd not celobnto, Uie stational Moss wae takun by a 
Biiuple prieet. awl the ociemonial in this case was not loss 
impoung and complicated tliau if the Pope himself were 
praaent It was nut, moreover, the place of the station 
which made the difference. Private Maaeea might be said 
at SL Peter*•, or at Constantine's basilica at the Latetun, 
or at Santa Haria Uaggiore; and. on the other hand, it 
ο(ϊ«η happened that the stational Mass, in all its ceremony, 
was otdebntted in a simple preabytcral churdi. We may 
even safely say tliat all «iich churches, or almost all« had, 
.ml least once in each year, the honour of being dvsignatod 



for the etntioo&l Mns». Tlie difloi-eiice in place depuDdod 
on the cbaructer οΓ tho coDgregstioD. ΛΙ tlio Humb oele- 
bnited in cliitpclfl, cemeteries, preebyterol churches, aod crvCD 
in the groat basilicas, there were present, the βίβϋοοαΐ days 
oxcuptud, only a prirate oangragatioii, consieLiDg of a family, 
or a corpoiation, or the inhabitants of a quarter, or any kind 
of aseoctatioD of the faithful, whether rcaitluul or pUgriras. 
ΐΊιβ Man said on such occasions was a private Μβββ. The 
public Hasa, tliiit is to ^y, thu stational Hoea, was that ία 
vrhicb tho wholu church was cunsiderad bo teke part. 

This public Mass ie that which agree• beet with the 
(nimitive type of the inBlitiition, and on that account iU 
study is the muixi iuijOrtaDt. As wis tind it deacrtbod in 
ibu Oiditus of the eighth or ninth centmy, it implied a 
ceremonial which convniwnded more with tho exigoodo• 
of a later date than with those of piimitivo ttmoe. Tho 
pontifical oomt, which had then reached a coosidwabUi 
dovelopniODl, playod in it an important part. The dilfenmt 
classtis of thi3 clergy, nrrangod accordin;; to ttiur oiden 
and 10 their rvgiona, the corporation of cantors, Uie cntcifett 
of the quarter, tho inilitaiy and civd rulcn. and, in lack 
everybody, had his part in these high curuniouiala of wot- 
abip. I will put on υαβ side everything in the Oirh which 
baa to do with tbia high ceremonial, and will confine myaolf 
lo thusu rites which ore essential, and which ore common to 
the Ilomau and other liturgies. 

1. JSe MTUry 0/ the OJUiating Ffiat. 

The ooogregatiou of the faithful having aseemblud, the 
priests, accompanied by the bisIiopR then iu Kome, took 
their places in the apse of the church which was reserved for 
the aupeiior clergy. Tho ponlifT and hin deacooe aet out 
ft«m the ttn-ttarium, or sacristy (which was situated dose 
to the votraucv vf Ihe churchX and procovdud to the altar. 



The Onlinea of tho eighth coDlur; represent ibem a» wunring 
ihair littirgioil vwlnieaU, and as preceded by the sub• 
deacons, one of whom swings α oeneer,' nod by eevon 
BcxAybea carrying tapcta.' During Ihie proceseion ibu 
choir (tcMa eantorum) sings tlic aiiUpliou ad itUroUum. 
Originally thii aatipbon consisted of the singing of η com- 
plete peatm, or, at least, of several veraes of iL. It cou- 
tinued to be Bung until llie pontiff Iiod roachud the allur. 
Before be did so, he was luet by ii cleric, who brought U» 
him Λ fragment of coneeornted bread, which was roeorvod 
from a previous Maes, This euchoriitic portion was in- 
tended tQ bo placed in the chalioo before the ocreinony 
of the " fraction of the bread." On onteriug the sanctua:^ 
tlio I'opo gave the kiss of puaco to the sonior bLihop 
and senior priest, and then to all hie deacons. He 
Ibcreupon proceeded to prostrate himaolf before the holy 
tabtu. Λ few luinuUMs before his aniTa] there, the book 
of tho Gospels had been solemnly brought and placed n[H)n 
the altar. After the Popv's prostriiuon, tho deacons pro- 
ceeded two by two and kissed the altar on its sidoa. The 
iwntiir aleo, drawing near, kissed the altar, as well as the 
book of the Gospels. 

It ti difGcult bo assign a precise date to this oera- 
mooy. In all rituals the entry of the officiating minister 
was from an early time assomtcd with some pomp. We 
shall not go IJir wrong, howeror, if we refer to the Ufth 

* Jedflag tttm tlie thillaiu and otter lUnfgica] looks, u «ell u trum 
Ibe iaMDlork• <>f L'bu»Ii furultuns wbioli wu Bod to lliti hihcr ΓοηΙί- 
fi—l••. tbo porttblu ατοΜττ *ii« lurtl at Koiae, np to the niolli o'ntiiry. only 
la twill iMtiiin TIm rontc «liiob the cortig» had to ΓοΙΙα* vm tliii» 
a^O SBiiil ^wltiiiil with wocmo. A> for ooniiag Lhc ntbu, or tho «lienla. 
Of the dngj ft CDO^RSkLion, aiiuli i> lliisg in ucvi^ inouliuuvd. 

* I bd«7 that thctv miut Imv^ U«a »jno omaoctka betvMM tho 
«■iMn of («rTyiii):• "o ocHoin oooidniu, taper• befon Iho Fope and behm 
Uw tnok at Λλ GgipeU, luid Uio Upon Oeiuiiig aiuong ibo iualgala οΓ 
Ite hlcfciM dieailarice oT iho lionan Bkoplra la the KMUa lUgnUetem 


ceotur>-, at thu eatiieet, the tni^onty of the ditails which 
httvo juet bceu doecribud. 

2. Introductory ChauU, 

The KyrU tftmn x&ixy be ooosMlOTod as α remuaul of 
the litany fono of prayer, or dialogue bθl^t'eeo one of the 
SAcrad ministers and tlie whole congregation. Thia fonn 
of prayer ocoupiee, ae we have eeoD, a promineiit place io 
lliQ Greek Utingiee. Tlie Liturgy οΓ CoDStanlinople, i«t 
instance, contains a litauy bo be said at Uio begtooing of the 
Miiet, before the enuy of the colobi«aU. It would appear 
also that at Komo. in uarly tiuiue, it fonnwl tlie iaitiol 
portion of bhu Liturgy. It woe customary in the utgfalli 
century on the Litany days, that is, the days on which 
Uie people went in general procession to the church of the 
elation, to aing neither KyrU nor Oloria. llie serrioe 
at the church begnn directly with the /Vw roit* and Uie 
Srel prayer. The Kyrie, in like nuinner. wus omitted on 
the days appointed for urdiiintiuus, bocatue on such occa- 
sions the Litany wa» sung alter the gradual. Kven at 
tlio present time the Kijric eleuon iu the Mass lor Easter 
Kvu is noUiing more than the conclusion of the Litany 
with which that Muea commenoed.' tit. ui«gory ' is 
the authority fur the statemeal that in hie time the wurda 
Ktfrie eltmn and Ckritte dam» were accompanied, except 
in tho daily Masees, by other forniulariae. These forma• 
laries weiv, doubtless, a litany more or less elaborated. 

The Litany of the Sainta at jireeent in use has preserred 
this ancient form of dialogue-prayer as it was accustomed 
to be said in the Itomao Uhureli, II has, doubtless, beea 

■ Tbu oaiTtrlntSen I'f Uii> KyrU «nj Lltuy It itUl dmtljr BUklfe•! (o 
Ui« Onlimt nf tlin tKOlftli oi'iitury. 

* Kp. U. 1ΐ(ΐϋ):"1η iiiM>tidia(iU miwiniJi^iuiquiioilidMliiat bMcaw^ 
UnHnuBiMl'i JJLjf.i'i• 'liiftt rl ChiuU dn-un Jkiiutu, ut ia lUs ill^lwltiillh 
vocibue luulif tliiitiat uccu|HiiBiir." 




nibjcot to considerable devolopmeat, especially in Uie first 
pnrt uf it, which contuns the inTocftUon of Saiate. But 
tbe coDcldsion, ία whidi Iho responec occur», TV rvffamvs, 
audi noi, hu quite •α ancioal rin^; iibotit it, nnd posMssea 
• great rewmhliuioe to the t>vtiti<>[is iu tbo litanies used 
in tbo Greek Church. Although tho wriiost text in 
which it ocoura goc* beck only to the eighth century, 
it ia ptobablo that it is moch more nncient. 

It is evident, moreover, that the place Assigned to the 
Ktrrif tSfiMm ϊη the Ilomitii Litnny is not thiil given to it 
in tbe Eastern Churches. In the Kom&ii Litauy it occurs 
ftt tbe bemusing and tho eud, and is said altumately by 
the )irocentor and Ibu cougregation. In tho Kost it 
fonnvd llie people's πιβ[>οηββ to the (wtitirios iu tlie 
XHaoonnl Litany. St. Qregory was alnttidy evram of tiiis 
difbnnoe.' It arose ftom tiie fact tlutt the KtfrU was 
■drentitione in the Roman Chnrob. ns il was thronghoot the 
entira West.' The fnnnulary Tc rotjttMtit, av^i no«, hovoTer, 
oould not be omitted, since il occnpies in the Roman 
Litaay tbe same plaoe an tlm A^ym tteumt in the Greek. 
Another place bad to bo found for the latter. It ίκ a 
somevbat sin;;nlar thing that the K^rtr., which is of later 
dote at Koine than the Litany, should now l>e preserved in 


' RpL II II: " Kfiit Jetum HiiUm luii niyiiip dixlnoe ncquo ιΙΙιΊβΜ 
ifrat α QnitrU iliritar, qiiin in Onuciia nniiil omnoi dlanal. apttd dm 
knlrm rkrlr-ln illritiir rl a ρπροΐο n«t<onili.-t>ir; rt totidr'iti vicibui ntiain 
Ckriflf tlwtfon dli'ilur. qonl opUil Gnuon• ιιιιΐίι mini» dinltiir." 

' t'oiiaril iif ViHiwn (539), u. :■■ " Kt quiu Uiiu iu χίΚ' ηροβίΐίίαα 4|a*iD 
rtlnm fvt U4m» nrinitalM alqui- Itnlioo |>ni«iiioiiu rliil<.-ia tl tn'mium 
■tlvlarl• eoMnttod» ral biimmlwa nt £]ίιϊ•( lir^n frrqm-iitiiu cma irnindl 
■A*tU •! «laMpiiIiclioiiu iliniliir." ctf. Tbu ('oUDijil (ΐ;!!!»! 1» tJie lalm• 
■Iwitiiw «f llii* cnitKtu tii<i> llw• Churclira ι•Γ tlip prOTinn• uf Ailn>. in 
wkMi il «a• Mill imkiluwii. I'iio wonl itUumlna onliaol Ι•πν<• lUij 
rfrxfooo la ibc ΒμΙι•π> (.'liiicolii*. whi(^t>, lut wi• ku-iw, iimil lli•' K^Ui 
ttiim lb• nnaMeM Iudr•. Thn drawing ii|i ■•( lli(- i'unriii m xaocwliat 
ιΜκΐΙη en tbi* imiut, bat it i* cImu lluit iho O<iuioi1 nf \niiwn 
Ptpii b J IIm K|rf* thtrii in dmi at Itwmu and in Itttlj (llikii) u• na 
iMjurtalkni of lonicwluit tcooDt dat«. 


the MaH, wbereae from the litany, a more oDciciit sarrioe, 
it has been almost eliminated. 

The Oloria in exctisis. — This hyion, like the Kyrlt, 
a of Greek origin. We tind tt, in a slightly diflerent 
fcnm, however, in the AposUtie ConatUuliaiu^ (viL 47), 
and in the appendices to the Bible at the end of the (Mm 
AUzandrinus, which belong» to the Rfth oentory. It vea 
a morning hjrmn, and formed port of the office for Matuxa, 
and did not belong to the Liturgy properly so called. It 
was originally introduced at Rome into the first Maes of 
the Natirity, which waa celebrated before daybreak. Pope 
SymmaohuB extended its use to Sundays and the feutu 
of martyrs,* bat only in the case of episoupal Mum•. 
Prieete were allowed to say it only on Eaeter Day, wlim 
tliey were regarded aa taking tlie place of the absent Pope, 
or on the day of their first performance of saoenlolal 

3. Tht First Praiffr. 

After the salutation of the cougivgation. the oolebtant 
calls npon them to pray with him in tJie intiudoetoiy 

* Tb* follnwlDjc U (ho tnxl In tli• GyiullMbitH : ' &iim it t^l^it βι( 

at tiib τβί μτγίί,οα ipi(iipimi, ei. rbr trr* βιΐτ, i/ytrtTrtor In. ktp l rittr 
nirar. tii τί)ν μιγίλην auv tilfir, 

" V.ifi,t, $*σΛη ittvtdnt. Mr] ntlrtp npraKffJr^p, 

■■ Klpit i e»St, i wei+p Toi Χ(ΐΐΓτοί, TiS ίμόμβν l^itei, tt ίψ•ι rlr 
ίμαρτΙατ ταν κι^Γμον, wpieStlai τ>|ν SJiinir 4f >r. t iraHf"»' Μ rW Xxfufip, 
Sj* σί μΛνΜ 6ytot, ffh t^Srox ni-fito^ Ίησοΰ Xpirron. *όϋ Otv* vo^f ywt^t^t 
^ietirt. rav BafiAinn i|μiιr. ti' αύ loi Sifa, rtuli ηύ eiBait." 

The prinluil cttitiom κ'ιτ•.• nt the cnil ' ΙπααΓ'ΐ Xpiarii ; «lilHi I• «vUenll; 
on ι•π«Γ, iind inu«t Iw ivinTliil μ 1 hnTn ύαιιι•, ThU ti-irt lirtnthM Ihc 
■pirit «r " ■uUifdiuatlunisin," It bat U-vn «ivfnil; rt-vuc•] \itt<m iatot• 
linn in t)in Riitnali Ι.ιΙιιγκ?'. 

■ ΙΛ. JOntl/., vol. I. p. ΙΐίΙ (Toleqihonu). uid S(i3(3)iiiniiioliM). 

' Onl. Ai-m. L 3S. IT, tn Iho 'Mo ιΛ Ibf mnnuicHi'l γγΓ Skint-Aownd 
(Iprintrd in the n|i))(>nills nf lhi> pnwnt «i>rkj llip pIisjiUt dniUnic wllk Λβ 
«nlinMlou of prto•!•. 



prayer, whiuh was calied the eoilecta, bucaiuo tl wu SHJd as 
sooo as the people bad folly ossemblod.' Tliis Js ibe 
fizsC of the three " collective prayers," " or collocu. Allowed 
in Um Boman Haee. Tbe other two arc thu prayer iuper 
oUata (secreta), and that colled iho pott eommunio. 



4. 7^ icetiotu and the Chanting of Pnatmi. 

Trom tlio beginning of the eixLb century there were 
in UM in Rome only two luclions, viz. the Kpistle and 
Ooepd.* The ftret was taken, eomelitnee fVom the Old 
Taetoment and eometime* ttom tho New (the four evango• 
tfsia exoopted), hut meet frequently ftOm the Epiatles of 
St. Paul, or Oom the Cieneni] Kpistloe, fVom whence its 

OrigioaQy the lections wew more numeioufl. In 
tbe exiiting uae, indee<l, more than one trace is found 
of tlie proplutic leolJon, which has now disappcarud. 
Tbis fonn of leason, indeed, is still employed ou certain 
dayt — for instance, on the Ember days and in Lent. Tho 
meet remarkable thing in this cooneetiou is the orrungu- 
ment of the chants betwuon ihv Epietlc and uatpel. 
Ibate chants arc always two in number, a p.iatm«s n- 
y owo n 'tt», or respond, which is entitled the QradwU, and 
the Alleluia* to which there Im slill alteohed a verse 

■ CWIf||W pMnn 1« llin nrdinitry iixjirRMlnu for uulliuu tlio pooi>l« 
kCMlMr to mnbip, Tbe nuAning ot tb« woid rdlecUt ( = eollceli'it, u 
mhia = wtSttioi ii mKde poriVetljr etear In Utv rulirU• οΓ ilii' Qrepvlaa 
g«inTiit»rr roblinir tu llie l>tl*sj ιΐηπ. TIiu prayir pcivoritied for 
ime at tho IJhnrch vlimfv llie proociidtii] toU t'ot ία «llnl " ad «οϋΜίΜΜ." 
ll y n«*dl«M to puint uul tlint <Iih Oiwk wuril* oivafii, y n i/ytf, W* 
ttm «qalvmUBti of Ibo Idtin lomu «if/vta Mid rolligrfe. 

* ZiAl P«bL• iXnIlne. Ml. L p. ΧϋΟ. 

* IIm lUiifuig οΓ (lie Alltltla i» α νοΓχ Uiiui>iil |>πνΙίιτ In tlio Uiorcb, 


of α psalm. During Lunt and otbor penitential eeasons, 
and al i/lasaes for the dead, the AUtiuia is ropUcud hy 
a peolm, nitb a melody οΓ a spvcio! character, called the 
ΛαΙπΜβ traetm, or tract.* There ϊβ in every ca«e a 
second chaal afler the (gradual. Whence this duality ? 
Tho ruaeon will occur to ue ΪΓ we consider that in 
the few Msssee which havu pr«eervud the "prophetic" 
lectioii, the gradual ia sung between tliat lection and the 
Ejustlc, vrliilst the AUtiuia, or the tract, ia used between 
the Kpiatlu uttd GospeL Thu two cbonls were at first thus 
inserted rcepeclivcly between the loctioos, but when the 
first of the latter was removed, both chaute were united 
and sung between Uie E])i.itle and Gospel. 

The euppreemon of the prophetio lection must have 
taken place at Rome in the course of the fifUi oentui>-. 
About tlie same time it siitlered similar treulment at 
UoosContinople.^ The Armenian Liturgy, which la to 
ancient form of the UvKautiue, still retaiua the three 
Icciioue, but in the most ancient books of the Byzantine 
nae which have come down to us there are bnt 

I have already pointed out that the practice of chanting 
pRalnis between tho lections in the Mass is as old as 
these lections thomeclvos, and that both go back in direct 
line to the religious services of the Jewish Synagogue. In 
the Christian Liturgy these psobna constitute the most 


but Hi Mnrt ρίαπο in iinai> H-rrlco vartM aeoordlDg to thp alStnmt mm. 
la the OnlliuBii iwo ll>c AUelala «M nuig after tbc Ocvpcl, «I tb* 
praoMdon vt Ibo oUation. 'Πι1* i• sbo tho pbeo it ooeupiM in (b• 
ftlut. Tbe pttkoloK of the ΜΊχία Ιχ-Γογρ tho Geqiol la ■ pMDlIarllj of 
tlii^ Itoman u», ΒνΓαΓο tint (imc• οΓ Ht. Qttgoty Η iru «on; »t EuIm• 
liJu ouiy (Ep. ix. I'.' [ΐι1|), ll «oiild (tv«ii nppoar ttiat It «u «rtfimUy 
aiiiiR »11 Rattor Day aalj (Sutomoo. ΒΙ•Ι. EmI^ rii. Ιί). 

' 8«ι• iiboTi". p. III. 

- I iu<X II τη•<ιιΙ1ι>ιι•Ίΐ. hnwrvir. ■! Ilii- beginning ot tit* HTrnlb ocatery 
in tht UfD nt St. ThDodurua ^iccolM. Α•τΙα S3., Aiiril 31, f IS. 



■ Booiant aad most eolemn repreeenlaUon of the Davidic 
Patlter. We must lake care uot to put th«m on the same 
footing as the otlier chauta, tku Introit, Otlurtory, and Com• 
miuiioo, whiob wuio ialroducvd Inter, ami thou merely to 
oooup]r attention dtirtog long ooromonius. The gradual 
aad similar chiLote Iiad an intriruiic value, and dming the 
timi! in which they were sung there was notbiog else 
going oo.' This was the aocieot chanting of the psulme, 
which in the primitive Church alternated with the lections 

_ from Holy Scripture * 

^ Thf ffroitttal, as has been eaid, was so called becnum 
it m» sung at the ynuf««, or ambo, where the lections 
bIso were read. It was aui^ always by a single cantor, 
and the oEGce of the choir waa confined to taking up tlte 
final mnaical pbraae.' llie other chante were executed 
m flano by the choir, or xchola caniorum. It was iilso 
CQStomary, up to the time of St. Gregory, that the 
gnulual and its additions should be sung like thu Gospel, 
by duoooos only; and this function had quite a xpccinl 

^ importance io the ministry of that order. Meutiuu of it 

Η fhsqucotly occurs in epitaphs : 

" PtaBar» et in populU rotni modultmte frtfida 
tic «MmV pMtm Chritti rtlinrrt mnnte•^" 

says a Insbop, explaining in this manner how the faithful. 

> 8t Λα^αΜΙηο rvferi to llilii frtqaentlr. Cf. PtM/gmiM'• Μ<•ιίηιΙ*. 
L r .^ »0. 
I * W• ■(« ΓΜη Uiii «lint η here•; it i• to κρίοα• thcwa clvuitii hy onmn 

bbcdr-nilea eonlinnr to (irrvorlbo tLI> method at (<ΐΜτιι1ϊη^ tlir 

ngof thu ehoat. Thi• ptoelicc u nry oncinit. fnr inniilimi U aud« 

of it in 111• ΑρβΛιϋηιΙ OenlUmNtmt: -Tit reit »v ΔαβΛ iIoAAitw Sfuwvi 
nl i Aoit riitfenSina Ιπ^αλλΑν" (11. ST). Cf. Bbave. pp. 113, 114. 

172 rHRlfiTr\K ϊΓΟΒβΗίΡ: its ηιηοικ axd r.voi.rnoN. 

and go ont of the holy place. Tin; initiinur id which St. < 
Gregory exploios Ονηφ** ... ex mokk diae^nas eiamarrt,] 
eeero* to JDclicate Unit thU furm of diamisea], or ouo (iquivA• 
lent to it, woe still iu uhu iu hie time, that ίβ, at tho end 
of llie sixth ctintury. 

6. J%e Pra^fr of the FaUh/ui. 

After tho Mass of tHe catechumeM had been eaid, that ' 
of llio faithful began,' The biahop, having once inore 
saluted the congregation iritb the worda Dominus vdrUeitm ! 
colls npon them to pray : Ortmna ! It is a strange thing 
thit this oxhortatioD irae aa barren of result in the eigh^ 
century as it is in the present day. "Sa one prayed. The 
Pope and his BBsistaots proceeded to collect the ofTcrings of j 
the ]teopIe and clergy, the choir execated some chant or I 
other, but DO prayer was provided by the liturgical books, and 
there vrojt no rubric implying that any prayer was to be 
said privately or .tecretly. Thei-e is, therefore, a hiatns hen ; . 
something has disappeared, and that something is nothing { 
ehiB than the " Prayer of the Faithful," which, in all other 
liturgies, occurs at this place. 

I am inclined to bolicvo that the disappearance is notl 
altogether complete, and that the form «sod in ancient timee 
in the Rumno Churiji '\a atill preserved in the series of 
solemn prayers employed on Good Friday. 

In the eighth century tJiesc pmycrs wore said, not only 
on the Friday, but nlso on the Wednesday in Holy Week. 
There is nothing in their tonor whidi connects thnm 
especially with the solemnities of the Peseion and of Easter. 

' Tho niMlom of ιΊιηηΙίηκ tli« Cnitd at tlitt jiUm ία Itio Mm* «u nnt 
Inlraducc•! nt Itumi^ niitil llio flnt lialf if llio oloronlli ρταΙιΐΓ;. Bocnon. 
AUwt of Britliennu. nOiilt• ilint in hia pret-upi» the t-mporor llftirj• II, 
Inilnotil l^M- ΙΙοπ'πΙύτΐ VIII. (υΐ1ΐΊΐΐΐ4] Iu lulnpt (litii ciulnm : Lvfatrriliia 
U m( nnkunwu lot1ii< Hciinan C'buKli (J)r of. Minm, e. Ί ; Ml^n, i'al. Xol.. 
vol filii- p. lOCO), 


Η Th^ ux ptmyen Tor Uiu onlinary Doedif οΓ Ibo Churcb, for 
Η pwoe, for tbo biehop, for the whole hionirdiy down to tlie 
oonftHOfs (ascttof), virgius, nail widowa ; for the Rranon 
«rapwor; for Uui eick, tho poor, cftplivw, Uuvellers, aoilon; 
for bentice. schismatic•, Jows, and heatheii. These are the 
Bunu petiiions which wc «ncounUir, froqucully repeated, in 
tbo daily Utorgioe of the Eaetorn Chiiruh. I am of opintot), 
iberoliQfV, Uiat thuae piayors odov formed jwrt of the ordinary 

*Benuo Uaaii. and that thoy wcru said aAer the lectioo, that 
is, al the plaoe ia which Uicy loug coutiuued U» be nidted 
OD WoiIiMeday uid Friday in Holy Wouk.* 


6. The OJerinff. 

If the Romiin Utnrgy vas deprired at rd uarly date of 
tho I'niyor of thu Kiuchlul, it still praeerred in the ninth 
eantory, as a coinpcasation, ilint of the ohlnUo», whidi had 
tUsappeored ul oii uuly diklv fri>m all othur litutgiee." Thv 
faithful, iuclading noi only ibu laity, but also the piioete and 
other dimes, together with the Popo himaolf, brought each 
their gifts of broad and wiuu, for uoch vas obliged to make 
his own oQering. The Ρορυ hiineolf, assisted by the lushope 
and priests, rweivcd the loaves ; t3ie ardideacun and his 
ooUeague• the amuiat, or iihiala of wine. This distinction 
of nuKtioas was obeurvcd ihronghont the entire ceremony, 
the speciea of wine being vonaiderod as within tlie special 
province of the doaoona. 

Dtuing the ofiering tlie choir chanted a lespoueoty psalm, 
oiled the Offtrtorium. Thix chant is of aodent use. It vas 

* Th• prafttf• nanl nm btt«(«o tlie Goqw t ud Iho Homily or βαηοη. 
caDai Pimjrcf* οΓ tbo PrMeaniam, eomtpoBii «iUi Uut oadcat prajtr of 
tbeblUiM. tOi-Min!; I'rajcr.-Tn.] 

■ At frtMnl it ia n•• b^nui-r in «m tii tlto Clinnh mi Home, but il i* 
gllll |MWTwl «1 Mikll. and in c<>rbiin fhtaa» in Fnuiou. 

174 ciiiueriAK woBsmr: its oiuom akd ETOuniOK. 

iotroduccd into Outtinge while St. Au^usUno was yet 
alive. As is Lbe com with ftU novdlics, this introdaclJOD 
was advetsely criUoiaod. A certun Hilary, an iDdividasl 
of the mak of η tribune (vir triiHtniUiui), made such α stir 
orer the matter that the Bishop of Hippo vas aaketl lo 
write a treitiise to oonfuU) him. Tliis was tlie oooasiiHi of 
tlio book, now lost, called Contra JIilar[i]um, in wbiob the 
celebntod doctor defended mam» yui ihm etso apvA 
Carthoffiaem ootperat. ui Aynrni ad allarc dutnatut de 
I^ttimorum Itbro,^ nw ante oblationaa, $ivc cum dietr^tuntur 
•papido quod /uissel oblalum- 

Tbe Offertory at [Roaeat consiste of η single vorao without 
rotponee, but in the ancient antiphonarios il presents ■ 
longer and moru complicated form. 

The oCTeringa having bocti made, the orcbdeocon olioonua 
fmiQ the loaTe.s those which arc to bo employed in the 
communion, and places Ihom upon thu altar. He places 
there also the vessel (scyphue) containing the wine for Uie 
communion of the faithful, the two loaves offend bj the 
Pope himself, und lastly the chnlioo, which, togetber with 
these two loaves, is to serve for commnnicatinj* the pontUT 
and the higher clergy. Ho takes cam lo |)Our into this 
cbalioe, together with the wine offervd by the Pope, a little 
of that ofEured by the priests and deaeoos, and of that 
wliioh ia contiuued in the segphiis which rqireaoDta the 
oEferiog of tho faithful. He adds, last of all, a amall 
quantity of water. 

No prayer accompanies these ceremonies. The Ρορβ 
takes no part in Ihum, hut aits all the time in his eeat at 


■ Aug., HtiraeL, tL tl.— TaIm nsAo of Ih• «a^oyDoni of Iho «otd 
Β^βίΛΗΛ to dial^iwle ■ pMlm, Mid ftba of Iho eoatoDi of uldog Uw UU 
of 111• (iffottiiry from tbe Uciok of Pnliua. ThU doM not osdada Uw 
U80 of tottaii taken in Ilio onun» (Λ tlniu rmm oUier Mcrol bonliB, or «thi 
f Mm iitlier wurn». Lilt it throw» Ijfibt on the origin MtdpciinilnuuhaiBOWr 
uf Ihie cvdialMtlcal aluuit. 




tbo cod of the apec Tlie alTorlory pru>-vre uow in use lire 
not iD<ltnted in ibe nacient books. Th«y uro, howover, 
«nnplete cvuDtorpaiti. ks Γηγ as the meaning is ooacemod, 
«r t^oee employed by the Uroek priests, and. donbtlefls, aleo 
by tbo GftlUcan priueU, bufon; the begiooing of ihc Mues at 
Λλ Ubio of PrMliosis.' 


7. TV CoMteratioK Praytrt. 

Aa ihe pruparation of tbe obUtioD tnkee place, according 
to tbe Roman costoni, at the altar iUelf, and during the 
time of Uaae, there is no room in it foi- tho solemn entry, 
with tbo oblation previously prepared, of the Oriental and 
OaUiciU] ritnaL The Idas of peace and the reading of the 
diptycliB are rclegntcd to a later place. As soon as tbe 
archdeacon bas finished placing on the altar tbo leaves and 
cbfltioea to bo ooDeccratcd, the Pope, after washing bin bands, 
prooeedl to tlte iiltar and begins the consecration jiniyen.' 
Ho calls tbe faitbful, in the firaC place, \ο join in η prayer, 
«Ueh Is tbe second of tbe ivo eolUctivc prayers of the 
Itotnon Maes, and is known by the nppollatJun mpcr oblaia.or 
Stenta. It ia preceded by an invitatory of a special form : 

' Fat ibn iMiandieTitj ηΓ the eoatom οΓ tbe DouIntMna an Ihia puinl. 
MC ihe foUowins (ΐΐιιφίβτ. 

* VtDM ιοτοπα l«sti ur Ilia Ubn l-mtiflfMi («{MwiBUjr vol i. p. 139. 
■oto Λ; «ad p. S4(!, noUi 9), aompAiol «lUi * paaw)p> in llie Ordo J. of 
MaUUna (c IS), U iroutd «ecin Uiul Ibc tiluiur pricata oinde tuo bora 
of ■ fjiacitJ tita aX Urn «utaut, Kinio c>f tliu ot/uLin nrvro bdd bnfaiv thorn 
m pal«a«. Tticj Miid tli« tiuiOD *t llip tonus Uine ii> Ui• Pujiu, aai tbiw 
ialBlml<J Um KnduiutM LilnrKy *riCIi him. If I bNin- rl^hLlj Inttiqiri-UKl 
Iba pMMifa• in qnanloB, IhU oiuloin miut huvi' cxitlad at [bo bceiuiilnii 
«f lb• ilxlh onlnrj, ■■ flv μ Ibu «[αΐϊιιιιιϋ Mnann an coooNoed. In 
tht aisblli «letnry thi• irDstoai «na obnnod iioly «m tho TumIo c4 
IbO Xalitilr, EMtvr. ΓοηΕοοαΙ. and of St. Fcter. On iiaier ilnyi tbo 
■KaipWuiiiin <V Uiv |iricrta «in linutud lu tlio vffertiiK. tbe fruclion, itnd 




Oratf.Jralrte, ut vuhwi ac veslmm mcrifieium ateepiabUf. fiat 
apiui Deum Pairen omidpoteniMn. Tba foi'm of praytu 
which foUowe, Hnd wbicb at the beginiUBg was merely the 
concluaioa of tho prayer offered up in dleooe by Uie futhfnl, 
vaa said id a low voice, and heoce iU name of StavUt, It 
was teiTiiinated hy an cepkonif, that ia. by ad ODdiog OO 4 
high note, to wtiich Avwi was i^ponded. 

Al tills point catne Ute encliaristio prayer which 
oonwpondud to tlie AttapJtara of tliu Greek liturgiet'.* 
It was divided by the diauUsg of the Sanetu» ioto two 
parts of uoegual length, of which the first, sung on 
a high Dote, was called the PrtJacK, and the seoond, 
recited in a low tone, named the Ca.i\on. The Roman 
ΑηκρΚοτιι possesses testimony to its great antiqaity. The 
form al present in use existed already, word for word, at 
the beginning of the seventh centory. St Gregory gave 
to it its tiDal touch, adding U> the prayer Παικ igitur 
the following words: diesqve nottrta in tua pau duptmat* 
αΐψιβ ab tt^tun damnalione nos eripi et in deetamm 
iuorum jvieae grtgs mvmtrari. Tbe anther of the Libfr 
PofUiJiealu, which dates irata the beginning of the sixth 
century-, speaks of the Canon as iixed in form, and of 
known contenL He implies also that it bad been a 
long time in ezistonce, for he relates that SL Leo 
(44U-461) had added some words to it.' But we can go 

■ Tlir |[roiipl<iRoIlliU()o"«i^ir*»)<leucAarMJcptay<inMtii>tftfitciilkriIj, 
ID Uie Itonma uso. οΓ thu lilnrgjr at tlio Unw. It ii mrt *i11i in all Uie 
imIoiiu) bcQuJiuliuiia oiid ixiniii.'uniU(iiiM, 

' It b pOBilblc IhnI thU imijcr for t('ni]HimI ppnoe wm Domamied hy tlic 
inccmnt trouble• btuuglit nbgat by tlie I/juAmxHo iaTMdOD. CT XAar 
re»!./.. Tul. i, p.SI2. 

' Tbe worda uo «uielum taorifieimm, fMncntlnliim λαοΤιαβ. «hirh 
Biund iu upjKidtiaii to tlic Biontlen of UoiaUiodoo'• HoriOoo in thn pnyrr 
{jupni lucio pmpMu, I tbink thai Bt. niwl han inU-niM I» to* 
troduM by tbem α iirotcal ηκτύηιΐ tbu MauicbMM wb» did uol Alldir Uio 
ΟΜοΓιτίπΑ in tlii'ir Utiirjiy. <f Lih. Vnnlif.. τηΐ. i. p. £10, 





scitl ΓατίΙιΟΓ back, and shove conclusively that the pmycr 
to vhich St Loo added four words was already in boiDg 
io the timti of Pope Damasa». The proof is to be found 
ID a critidem lovι^Ilιΐ1l iLt it by the author of tlio Quafstionte 
Vttsri» a Novi TestaintitUi} who was a contompomiy of 
Damaeos. Id the luieleading theology of this nritcr. Mol- 
cbiaeJec ia ideolified witli thu Holy Spirit, luid, while tie 
U atiU roeognised aa the priest of God, Melchi»edcc'e priest- 
boM ia coDsidured as inferior to that of Uhrist: Simi- 
liter Η Spiritut iandns qttasi antiMe» taeerdos nppdIeUue eH 
aaetn DH, non, tummru, sieut nottri tn oNtUto/u jmumtmunt, 
Qiti/i quamvia uniua gtiitta>*iiae Chrittu» et Spiriiue taiuiv», 
tiniiueujtuque tamen ordo o&smvtmitu eat. The words non 
«MBMiM mtU noetri in ohlaliotu prateamunt bare evidently 
in view tbu form of thu Roman EpiclcAia, mtamMa taeerdot 
hna Mdehittdfeh, 

We 6nd, I'urtheriDoro, id ii \vork not much Inter than 
the time of Daotaeus— the Df rmframentu of thu peeudo- 
Anibmso — Ui^ portioua of the Itoman Canon. AllUeii<:h 
we cannot aes%n a predac date to this work, or give the 
naioo of ite author, it would acorn, in my opinion, to have 
l>«vn drawn up in some North Itnliuu Cliiircb, nhere the 
Ifotniui UM inut oonibiuO'l with that i>f Milun, probably at 
Itavennn. Λ» it a«tuines thnl the population of the tovrna 
b atill lOade up of pa^n» and Christians, and as it la, 
moreover, partly bomiwud fr»ui a similar work of St. 
Ambioee, we cannot go far wrong in fixing its date oa 
aomewlme about 4O0. Tht; portions of the Ronifln Canon 
which appear in it run as follows * : — 

■ Ulguc^ ΓλΙ, ImL•, xxxt. p. ΐίΆ> 

' Or βχ-ηιικ. It. S; Sllicnn. l\tL Imt.. v»l. ivi. p. Ήϋ. Oita <\. 
UMim (JUm• ΒΛιΛΛ.. IMtH, p. Til) Uiiok» ttiat tlii• «<>rk nmiitta of unl«R 
Uk*a I17 KmM αβο in 111•• aiiilivitiM iluriiiiK i<t. Aia.\aom.'* iiiHtrnolioiu 
ot \h» N<>(4iliytf•, I'oincllii*. a oMuii of llniCfOB. in bu mirk i-ntilli^J 
iJlutfiea Lntinormm (τυΐ. ί. p. »i)l). pnblttbcnl at Culofciic, in litTI. 

178 cnmsTiAs woRamp: ιτβ origin \nd EvoLimM. 

Vi• «ίτΒ quia verbi* oMloctilmii conivcmtur ? Accip• quH mt 
rerlM. Dicit wrmlo•: FHf κΛί*. iminlt, Aa*c oUo tf wwwi oMr^Maai, 
filoKi, raliduabiiem, aoeeplabiUm, ijual figura tat φτψβτί» d tOitguM» 
Itta CM*li. QniprldU fvom pattrrtur, ftt ntneUt πμ»Α«Μ fit aarytt 
pouBin, rmpexit in mditM orf fa, Mn«fe /'(ilirr onntpofnt*, Mfrraa /Jnat, 
gntia» Mgmt, UnudtsU, /ntU, /ro^nnuja* apoiMie mii* et Jittipalit 
tai» Ira-Iidi4f dicMUi " Aedpit* ct «dilt S> hue iimmm; Aoc r$t nim 
Mrpv mtuia, ^uoJ pro mullia totftiugdtir^ Si»ili<rr dten nUtoim, 
/iMffuam awnaltin tH, prUit 71UM• paientir, tier^pil, rrtpail im 
caelum mi tt, «ancM Pattr omnipattm», Mlenw Dtttt, gratltu egr»t, 
bamtijitt, aportotii tuit Η lUteif^it Mil tradidU, dicwu: "JocipHi 
tl bibilt nr !ioe timaet ; hie ttt «nam iangui4 mm•." 

Rt Nacordoa dlcil : Sryo Memona ifhrio»itM($nM rftu piutionh tl 
<Λ it(feri» twunwItowM el in «ααΤιιπν tuom*ieii<i, ofaHim» tiki haat 
imnaeuiaiam kottiam, hwir. panum landtun <( eo/frant vita» atUraot; 
•tjMMoMn d jmiatt/iur, ut Auih: oUuttunMi πικήΐΜ• >Ί• »Mimt aUmh 
tuo per tnanuf αη^βίοΓΗτη (unrurn, lieui (iwinp«rc dtynefiM u DMUim 
puerj iuijutU J&tl *t «Ticr^tfium /JiitrtarcAa* uoaM /IfavAae tl jvorf 
oUulil mmmii^tagtnlci MeMtitfleai, 

This text, vbUe it does not ootre^Mod word for vord, 
agrees TSty okwely with tliat of the pneeal Bomen Ouioo 
Truin the conclusion of th« formulaiy of ibo diptychs up 
to and including the EpidtsU. 

But let us return to our coosideiatioti οΓ the Ιϊοιηω 

After the injunction to Ufl up tliu Iwort 10 God, and to 
render thanks to lUni,* the ufGcialing priusl goes on : iVnt 


Intmdnaci tUia fmemmt inU tho middle of Um ρ»;θη nf the Aa 
yiam, and from tiiU (act It luw bem mully dtod na tbo '■An 
ιΛιιιαη '* Tlicrn noTor wut. In fact, on Ambroiiiui Oi&an. Before Uie 
ii'lo[]Ii>iii of tbu IComuD νκΛΟΛ at Hlbui, the oooioorklloD pnj«« wme 
•>r vnriHlJn Iciniir tUkio, μ Ιο tlio Otlllcan booka. WIikd tlio Konu Umai 
wu ndoptod it «u tslniii ίϊοιη tlio focm to lue in liie •ρτΒη1)ι ceatafj, 
with ilic ndiUtlna introtlnoed hf 8t Οτ««ι»]γ. I'll• AntvealMi Haa ef 
I^hmUui la, in muiy itajwcta, an flrtlflctal text dniwB ufi bjr lb• nBtlmr 
hlnaeU. It it not to be fouu•! Id nnf nf tho nuLiiiucripta at tbe Auloailan 

■ Th• SHcmm eoffn U All(«U>t bjr 8t. rjrprian (ZV Cto«rK. OmM••'. 
81): "Adro 1-1 ιιιονηΐο* aiit« ualUjunn ΐιηρΓηΙΙοικι imii inlja 



r futivn eat, etc. In iJte Sacratnenlfiry of Adriao, 
this tbnn, tluit is ui say, the Prt/act, admite only β small 
nomber of %*arifttioiM for Uie chief feetivaU. Iteviouely 
thexe vKri«iioua ururtt muL-b more numerous. We would 
gather tnm lh« Loooiaa Sacramentaiy that iiDprovuuition, 
or at tho leasl the interoBlation of certain senteocea pre- 
▼ioualy oompoeod by tbe officiating prieat, was still the 
practice Id Uiu sixth century. I'he l*Kface eoda vitb an 
aecriptian to the gk»y of God. and ih« Stuuttu. 

AitdT Xita Satutva Hui Roman Canon, inateod of proccoding 
at onoe to the account of ibo Lut Supper, intorcalatee a 
long passage npprv>printod to the vnumcntion of tbu persous 
ia whoee name the ubliition ie uindo — the whole Ciitbolio 
Cbnrcb, th« Pope (or, if occneion requirM it, the buihop of 
the loooliQ'), and nil tJie orlbodox hiubops; then the 
SoTenign and tbe con;{regation ; and finally, as reprueout- 
in}{ tbe Communion of Sninte, all the ri^teooa vbo hare 
already atteinod the heavenly beatitude — the Vir<^>in Mary, 
the Apoetles, and their mccenors the Fnpve, martyri•, and 
other sainte. I'he oblation is thus made by the whole 
Chiistian family, and dad is asked to accept it, and to 
tivneform it into tbe Body aixl Blood of Christ. 

I Tbe exieling teste for thie part of tbe Canon ' give 
Γοπηβ which are iletinitely Rxed, but not so much so, 
however, that provision has not been made for additiona 
with the object of commemorsting the feetival of tb» day 

. or for the enumeration of certain persona or claue• of 
pereons. Thus, tbera is no doubt that tbe names of the foiir 
patriarche of the I'^t, and possibly of certain Woetem 
primatee. were formerly mentioned in the Te igitur afUr 

fntnm menu• djoendo: BMrtim oonlii, nt, dmn TMpundi'C ^Ii'be Bahemit» 
%i Ihmlmam, Oillaoimlur.'' etc. Thcac vnsIcIm sppcnr Dlmuly In tlm 
Ommm» BipfOlfli {$cv ΛιφπιΊΙχ). 

' n>l 1•, Ui• pMyon «lilrli bcdn nxlh the word•, Ti iyitur, Mmmlo. 
Πι— liMti iialii Star ifitmr. imd Qunm dUationn». 


tliat of Lbo RoiDau poutilT. The ifemente, vUicli follow* ft, 
admite of a break wltuni many names and pelitione might 
have been intercalated. As fur the piityer beginning with 
CommunUanU^. the SucrumeutAry of Adriui runushos vtna• 
tioiM suited to thu solouinity of th« day. Later io tlie aamo 
prayer thti list of Popos, now icduood to tho first Uimo oamee. 
Linus, Clfttiu, and Clcment> must have boca recitod at 
length.' It is not impoesiblo that the andent pontifical 
catalogue, of whioli we have a relic in the Hieronjmuui 
Uartyrology, vaa oxtncted ^om some copy of the Oanoo. 
The uamen of martyrs which follow are also merely a 
selection. The Churohe» which adopted the liomaa Liturgy 
were within their rights in completing that list by adding to 
it the namoe of the sainte which they held in special honour.* 
Finally, thu Mane ii/itvr ndinits the inswtion at the festival.^ 
of £nater and Peutecodt of a commemoration of the newly 
hupUflod. Formurly the names of the candidates for baptism 
were therein recited on the days of the scrutiny, whilo thoen 
of their godfathera and godmothers found a place in Che 
Memento? Similar additions were made in Μαββυ• for 

All this port of the Canon corresponds, on the whole, 
with the recitation of the dip^ch.s prescribed in the Gallican 
and Oriental UtiU'gieA, but which ore placed in those liturgies 
before tbu bugitmiDg of the Preface. This latter dispOM• 
tiou may «cum the mui» natural one, and we may readily 
admit that the former is not altugotber primitive.* It is 
at the same time certain, that from the beginning of the 
fifth century tho order of the Bomas Canon wu» already 


■ lAbtr PontfflHili: vol i. p. Ixx. ; De Homi. Bmm ScIL, foL 1. 1 
^ 114. 

• 111 Pmnw, the nanica οΓ 8t. BlUrr and St. Hutin bm b]w»j• 
kI tUi« fioinl, 

' OrJo Sim, Til. a. 

• Sm» ^BUt. tt de LIU. StUf., ml. v. (1900) p. 4S. 



which it is to^fty. The GhaI formiiUu'y. id fact, in all 
this SBiifle of enntueratioDS, namoly, tbat which appean 
hefote the Qui pridie, ia already mol witli in the Ve 
taentmaUia, in t«nu almoet iileoticol with those of the 
pmseot Qitam Matiotum. The letter of Ρύ[>β luaoceat to 
Decenttus assumes, moreover, that the rucitutioD oT the 
dip^chs occupied at liome in 416, and for a loDg time 
previously, the place which it holds at present. 

The Kooont of the iostitutioD (Qki pridU) and the 
[AnamnaU {Unde tt memorte), which follows it, present 
< nothing peculiar. 'Hie some may l>u said of the £ljnclaia. 
This portion of the Canon ruos as follows : — 



8li|n quu (Uu obJttion•) popitlo to aerana vtiltu ruptmre di^cria 
et MOOpto bftben, akratl aooepU lialwre dlKuatufi ee muuera pnwl 
wi jnti Abel *t ΜΚπβαηιη patriarchne poitri Abrali^o, «t quod tibi 
obtdil «uauntit ekoerdoa tnoe Mclcfabedecli [naiiciain «icnScluni, tm- 
rrfl'*'"Tt bo«tiftin]. KuppKoc» Ui togumui, οηιαϊμυΐοηιι Dunn, jtibu 
haw padorH per nuuiiu suicti angdi tui m mblinie nlure luum, iii 
DOOapMUi ditUuw iii^|eat«tiB tnae, nt qnolquot ex buo allariH partici- 
pation• Mcnaauetom Fitti tiii cocpiu et luuiguinain tumpHoKmu», ocnnt 
faeaeilktlone culeati ci gntit Teploemor. 

Thia prayer b far ftom exhibiting the preoieion of th« 
Greek formularies, in whicli there is a specific meatjoa of the 
giaee pnyed for, that is, the interrcntios of tlie Holy Spirit 
to effbct the transformation of the bread and wine into the 
Body and Blood of Jeaus Christ. It is trae, nevertlieleeB, 
(1) th&t it occupies, in regard to the subject-matter and the 
logical oooikectioD of the formulary, the exact place of the 
Qieek JBpieUsU ; aud (2) that it oho is a prayer to Gvd for 
iHia intervention in the myatvry. But whilst tlie Greek 
Litngiea use here cK-ar oud simple lenn», the Koman 
Litorgy embodtea ite meaning in symbolical t'orms. It prays 
that the angel of the Lord may take the oblation from the 
VLflible altar and hour it to the highost heaven, to the 

18ΐ υιιωπίΛΝ worship : its oriqin and ETOLCTIOX. 

invisiblo altar, before the shrine of the Divine Hi^'^V• 
This symbolical trftuerereaoe is in a oontrary seaso to Uut 
implied in tlie Qieek formulary ; it involves not the ileeoenl 
of tlio Uoly Spirit upon the oblation, but the uluvalion hy 
God's augel οΓ the oblation to Iieavon. But in both case• 
aliko it is after it has been brongbt oear to, and ha• 
participated in, the Divine Virtue that it is called the Body 
and Blood of Christ 

The pfaycTS wbich Follow oorT(ui]wnd with the 
Intercession of the Cr^ek Uturgiee, and occupy the 
place as that assigned to ii in the S]rro>Byaantine rite. 

It is certain that Uiis formulaiy has been much cor• 
tailud. It begins wiih the comioemoralion of thu fnitHnl 
deported (UanciUo),' but it embroeei also the oommemoia- 
tion of ihe living and of the fiainte (jVotu /ριοφ(«). There 
is im cviduut hxti<u.i at thu end of this pmyer after the 
words iaryitor atintiUe, After uivntioaiiig by name the aainta 
among whom the suppUcunte pray to be admitted one 
day, it goes on : Per Christum Dominam noetrttra, per 
φί«Μ kaee omnia, Dumincp temper bona erta», eanetifieat, 
vivifiau tt prateteu ηο&ύ. It is mtuiifest lliat the wvrds 
haee omnia iena have no oanuection with those vhich 
precede, lliey cannot, mureover. mean the coDMorated 
orTcrings, wbich are now the Body and lllood of Christ, 
and to wliich the terms ena$, tanet^fieas, vivifieat, cannot 
consequuDtly be applied. The eaileet explaaation of the 
dtfRoulty is that there was formerly here a mentioa of 
tlie ftiiite of the uurlb, with an enuintinitioti of the various 
kinds — wheat, wine, oil, etc This new is confirmod, 

' Th• Mmmta of Uie <l«p*fttd i• mnlbiK I» «emnil ondcnt tafim «t 
Uw Ouua. M, Em iutoaae, in du> (Miwfa» «Wremmtdrp. TbU teaimttn 
anm, I boliorev fown llie fafit that tbu tatmviiiTj ικηκΛ u ■ fran^wotk 
fur the diptircfa* of Iho 3aniL wliloh w»ra ηβΛ ΐηα » «pfcUl t^ixl. a tuU, 
■ UUut, nr •ηιιι>ίΙ1ιϋΐ); at tbia Iciitd. 







aver, by the ΐαιΛ th«t thu bleesing of nlimeute look 
pUce. on certain days, at Uiis point in tbc Moss, as. for 
Lnetiuice, the drink made of wutvr milk and honey, wliicli 
was given to tho neophytes at t^ieter and F^ntecost. 1 
appond thu forianlary of this benediction, accordiug la the 
Luouian Sacrumontary. for the first Mass at f entecoat * — 

BeDodic, DoBitn•. ti liu tuu croatarw foatli, mollis ot lacdt, «t puU 
bsmloa tooa » boc fooM »i|nM tiue peraoiila «inl eel Splritae TOriUtts, 
et «uilri M• de boo hcle «t moDo, qnctnadnodan polribaa aoatrfe 
Abnluun, laaac ot Jwob [pcamidM]] ' InlrDdiicere te eus In Ιβπηηι 
IKWDiMionk, tcmm Uuanlem mello ot UcU<. ConJiiniCD or^o ΓαπιμΙο* 
luaa, I>on>iaii, Sjaritui nnoto, «icQl cDiijniicliiin ««t hov mol ot be, quu 
eMtaMia ΙαηβοοΦφΐβ wbetaatiM tSgniUDOliir iialUo hi Ckruito Jeau 
DonOBO BoalTO, |«γ i|uoin baoc om&ii, «Icl 

II was aleo at tius pUce tltnt the now bwuix wan 
bleesed oa Asoensiun Pay, and tlie new gmiiea on Uie 
day of Si. Sixtiu (Augoet 6).* 

Onmiie, iknnine, tl hat/ruetut novo* nror, «Ic. 

Finally, it was at tbia point that the oil for thu 
TmrLiun of tlii^ sick was blosaed, and still is bleesod, on 
Maundy Thureday. 

There is no doubt, therefore, thnt tiio lonnuhiry per 
quein hari omnia was originally preceded, oud that, loo, 
apart from these extraordiiiiiry occasions, by a prayer for 
Iho frtita of the carlh. Tliis ftirninhea a furthur instance 
uf the rmemhlanM of the liomaii Cauou to the corrc• 
■ponding portion of the Oreek and Koetern Litui^gies. 

■ Mnratori. ToL i. p. 318. 

■ I *u|<(<ly Uu* wonl. utaitti»! in tlie nuntMotliiL 

' Mnniod. vL i p. lea. p. 74«: vuL iL p. IW. 
nil. I. p. i:ai. 

li. Ub. P*iM/^ 

164 caueruH wobsiup : ns ougin and btolitioh. 


8. Tkt Frtietim of (he Bruid. 

The CoooQ having como to αα end, the PaUr luMfor 
follow*. According to anivcrsal custom, Η hns a short 
introductory jintfAoo, «od st tbu end an olaboratioo of tho 
lust petition {Libera no»). 

Before the time of St. Gregory, tlie fnctioa of llie 
bnwd followed inimudiatuly u[kki the CUiou. It wo• _ 
lio who LraDsforrfid the ΡιΗτ notUr to this place, on the Η 
ground that it was hardly iirojwr that the fonnulory 
of UtG Cnnon, the work uf sonic unknown echolor, 
sboulil olouu be ivcited ovui' tliu oblolios. u> the uxclusiou 
of the [irayor composed by our Lord Hiiiisulf.' Thii fl 
trane{M3Bition, iillhougli Si, Gregory defends luioeolf from 
the accuantion of having fullowtid any autliority in intro- 
dacing it, had tho efToct of bringing tJte Roman use into 
couformity witli thnt of (ktrntliiiitinople. 

The ociviaony wlUch fullowD Ls scuminfjly ooiuplicatod. 
It begdu with tho kiss of peace, which is {dacetl imme- 
diately after the satutation. Pax Domini »U acmprr 
vobiacum. The Pope places in the chalice the fingmeDC 
of consocratod bread which hud boon brought to him at 
thu bu-^iiming of the Maes ; he thon breaks ono of hie own 
two oblalac, and places one half of it upon the altar. 
We have not yet come to the baotion of the bread, 
property speaking, but as all the loaves upon the altar 

■ Bp. XL•. 12 (2β): -■ Ontx'ixiui τβιο doniniwUD lildrna mox ρβΜ 
pnvi-xu dioimtu. quin inci* upuetuluruni Mt nt md )(Mm ***■— ™-*" 
entlnixMn obliitloni* 1io*ltiuii oonMcramt. Et nldo miibl totiwvnten 
Timm uat at prcocnu qnun aalkolutloiu ocapomumt Mi|wr nhl>Hiiiimi 
(lip<'n'iuut, vt iptUD tmdillonen quniu Kcilumiiter DcUor oomfnauit Mi|iar 
rjiu (urpw «Ί Mtifiiifioin hob <]li'j<rriniiii. Sod Η domlsltti oratlii •ρΒΐ1 
QnWM alt oami papain dicliur, npud no• vor» • «ulo «cvrdetft," VTu mn 
not obllicod tu bvller•. in apile of llio nnthuKI; of Uii* t«sl, lliftt Ibv 
Ap<«U>li(< I.tlufKy knew of b« oiliur tonnnUay bat tlia fViter iwter, tat 
ilUtlilHciill to argue iij^iiut H. Gmgarj'e ΙΐΗΐΙηχ tlMiu;;blMb 



inte&ded for the CommuoiOD an about to be ruainvfld, 
and Η it WW culomury to obeerve tb» pre$cnpttoii, ofieiM 
mUMTUM «obmitta pentgwUvr, aitare sine merifieio ntm 
tit^ Ibe hslf-toftf placed ou tlie altar by tfau Pope ia meuit 
to tuaintUD thie idea of puriuanenco. 

It wait Λ niAttor of importance in the ΚυπίΑΐι Church 
that tbe rituit) of the Οοηαιηαοϊύη should cuntoiu α «low 
and strikiuf; «xpreseion of ecoleaiaetical imity. HoDOe 
tbe cuMom of the /crmntt^Tn. that ie, of sending conso• 
cnued bread from the bishop's Mass to tho priests whose 
doty it was to celebrate iii the Titidi ; ' Itoucu also tho 
aigaiftcaaDC of the ritv of tho Sanda, that is, of pntttng 
into the dtalioe at the Ρλκ Domini • fragment oonsaorated 
iit thtt pceoedii^ Maee and brought forth at the be^gjoniag 
of tbe preeent ouu, Tbiiti, in all the (.^luvhee at Ilome, 
«od at CTtiry tMvinbly then} for liturgical worship paet 
vt present, tlivru woe alvaye iJie same i:>acniice, the 
Kuue Encliariflt, Ibe same Communioti. Tliuu. iu order 
to ibow clearly that the bread brokeu and distributed 
sway Groin the altar was thu «anie as that which bod boon 
conaeorated on the ftltor, a fragment of it woe allowod to 
remain on the holy table. 

The other half of tlte first ohiaia and the second in ite 
entirety were placed ou tlio luiten and brought before the 
Pope, who, after the Pax Domim, bad retuniexi to his 
seat. As for the other consecrated loaves, the arch- 
deacon bad caused tbvm to be brought before the biehops 
and prieete by acolytes, who carried thorn in linen bags 
eospended horn their ntioks. Tbeienpon followed the 
fraction of the bread by the whole prcdiyterium, llie 
I\)pe also took jmt in it, but only tliroiigh his inter• 
mediariw the deacons, who«e office it was to break the 

■ ΟτΛι Horn. •4 Bttinl-Aiiuiiid. Sm ApjNinillx. 

* FW Ikl• rtle «n ilix Lib. I^U/„ tuI. i |i. lUV. nulc 4. 

1S6 ClmiSTIAX WOneiltr: rrs OIUGIH AXD BVOLUTinS. 

Maia &Dd 4οιιιί•ο/'/ηία ρΙΐΜΐτκΙ upoa the pateo. From tbo time 
of P«iMj Sorgiiu (687-701) this cureinony was acoompatued 
by llio cLftnting of the Δ^τιλιλ Dn. It is probable that 
before the time of St. Οτβ^οιτ the J'alcr nasUr was said 
at this time, that U, after thu fraction.* 

9. Tiu. ComMumo». 

The fraction having been perfonnud, the deacons present 
to the Popo the paUiu, from w!iich. taking a fragment, he 
detachea a particle aiid cousuun'S the rest. Ue then puta 
tbo detach<xl portion inU> the chalice, which the archdeacon, 
wbo hna brought it from the ullar, hulde ΙυΓΐΐπ; him. This 
is the rite of the Commixlio. The Pope thereupon drinks 
from the chalice, which i» prvaeutod to him and held by 
the archdeacon. 

Then oomee the oommiuiiou uf tlie superior clergy. The 
bishops and [aieete iipproucli the Pope, who putslinUt the 
bands of each a fragment taken from the paten. They then 
proceed to the altar, and each one, putting on the holy table 
bis band containing thu cunsueraUtd bread, then commuui- 
catea. llio deacons do the same after tbem. The arch^ 
deacon brings back the chalice to the allar and puts it into 
iJiB hands of the sfsnior bishop present, who, after having 
dtunk from it, presents it to the other bishops, and then to 
the prieets and deacons. The iximmuniou of the congre- 
gation then follows. The Pupe and the bishop» and priests 
diatribnte the Eucharist under the species of bread. Tlie 

' I am indnotd to bolioTc tbi• b; llio tMA, tbat In the uidcot Itonuut 
books tbcre \* no praTcr fmpknitorj to tha eammniton. In thi' OoUioaa 
l^taats W• ΛβΑ iu tliu place tlio b>-naliotioD. «ad in till' Urwk I.UoikIm 
pfayon of linillar iDijuirt sre prMcrlbvil Iiere. Tbe hiehu «lueh eppcnn 
he• in tho Roman Mui miM liavn borai necadmnd by tlie mo'ivkl «Γ 
Uio PaUr «win- Us anr.ithc* plnvc. Tbu Mai«< ia ut Uie jiivtunt time Ailed 
up by the {iritnt• ptujfn of Uiu prii«l. 


archdeocoD, following the Pope, and the other deacons 
foUowing the bishops and prieate, administer the chalice. 
As the Pope's chalice is used only for communicating the 
higher clergy, the archdeacon takes care to poor, befordumd, 
into the vessels containing the consecrated wine for the 
communion of the people, some drops from that nsed by 
the Pope, and, afterwards, what remains in it after the 
communion of the bishops, pieets, and deacons. Sy this it 
is intended to show, that, although all do not touch with 
their lips the same veesel, yet they all drink the same 
spiritual drink. The rite of the Commixtio, having been 
performed by the Pope in the principal chalice, is repeated 
by the bishops and priests in all the other chalices, &om 
which the faithful are communicated under the species 
of wine. 

Before the communion uf the people, the archdeacon 
announces the day and place of the next Station. There 
was an object in choosing this moment for the announcement. 
Those who did not communicate were, doubtless, accustomed 
to go out before the communion b^an. While the faithful 
were communicating, the choir chanted the antiphon ad 
conimvnioium. At present it is chanted after communion, 
and is restricted to the anthem [antieniie, see p. 115], which 
is sung only once. But the lituigical books of the ninth 
century still presuppose here a real antiphon, the psalm 
being chanted either in its entirety, or in part, according as 
the time occupied in the communion is long or short. It 
was terminated by the doxology Gloria Patri, etc., and the 
antiphon \antienne\ was repeated. This chant, like that of 
the offertory, must go back to somewhere about the end of 
the fourth century.' 

The communion having ended, the pope returns to the 
altar, and salutes the congregation, inviting them to join 

' Sen above, p. ITl. 


in an act of thanksgiving, the post eommunio. This is 
the third of the collective prayers of the Boman Mase. It 
ie followed by a final salutation, whereupon the deacon 
announces the diamiesal in a special formulary : Itc mitea 
est. The proceeaion u then reformed in the same order 
as it had at entrance, and as it proceeds to the sacrarium 
the Pope gives his blessing successively to the different 
groups of clei^ and the faithful which he encounters on 
his way. 




The Oftllic«Q use having almost eotirely disappeared, it would 
be difficult to piuture to ouradves from exporienoe the ancient 
oemDOniee of • iolemB MA.<«a in the Churches of this rit«. 
Fortunately, 8t. Oormnin of I'aris (f Γι76) bns left us α 
anffioiently clear account of it, aud one mudt more ancient 
than tliat afforded by the Komim Ordint». I will restrict 
my dcscriptioD of it, tJiereforv. to that ^veu by thia ^-eaimiblo 
aathor, and in leproduciug hie text' will comparu it with 
other dooomentary eouroee for reconstructing the Oallicao 
use — that Is, the Mo«ambic Missal, the litnr<^i^ books 
of Merovingian Oaul, of Britain, and of North Italy. As 
the Gallicau texts are le»» known oud loss acc«eaible thou 
tbo Boman, I have ihought it iiecessury lu iutroduce in 
my deacription all tbe foruiularies for prayers and cbants 
which the Uallicaa Itlass contained. With this purpose 
ία riew, I have selected those for tbe festival of the 
Kativity, and 1 take tbe text £rom the Mistale Oothicuitt. 

> In thia w pwdttioa t tMtrlot mjtcit to ttiu «outFiicc• ot pkrt* oT 
% MBtraqe I* whlob Uio rito b lUtenb*!. Αλ lot 111* lymbulinl ■ij.-oi• 
fcatloa of tbo rilM, Μ Un-jr do Dut Mitur dut«U; iiilo my ainw, 1 mftv 
Um reader lo UMtoiM'• <<liliiio (ThauuriM. viil. v.: Migno. Pat. ImL. 
*bL IksU.). Htn and there I roDturi! hi oimot (hu niMt iclulii|c erruia 


Αϋ ϋιίβ work does not contuin Uio parts sung, 1 have tak«D 
llie latter from the Mozonibic Missal. 

By following my deecriptiou, it n^ll bo poseiblo to gtia 
an upproxiinate idea of what a soluuiu Mae» would have 
been in the sixth century, say, at Milan, or Aries, or Toledo, 
or Faiie. 

1. Sntry o/ iite Officiating Buhop. 

Gkkuain : ArUiphatM ad prwUffoidwa eanitur. 
PmUejUibus cleriei» proeedit stxardoe in «pffie CkrvU dt 

This Antjphoa was epcdally intended to eoliaaM tblt 
dignity of tlie entry of the sacred miuialen. It cocreepOIldli 
in the Byzantine Lituj:gy, to the chanting of tlie hXovoytv^, 
and in the liomao LtCoig)-, to the Introit. At Milan it 
wa» called tJie Ii^frasa, and at Toledo the Offinnm. Hw 
following is tlte Mozarabic Οβάΐί^ for the Mass of cbe 
Nativity ' : — 

AUolnin I BcnodlchiH qui votiit, aUolnio, in nomine Donuni ΛΙΙοίαΰ I 

f. Done Domioae ot llliult nobis, 

Bf. Ill tioniHie llombi. 

f. Oloria ot honor Γβΐιϊ et FilJo ot Spiritui uucto m loecak mm- 
lonim. Amen. 

if. In iiomine Domitii. 

Gekmaim : Sileniium, diaconns anminHat. , . . Sacerdut 
idto datur popuJo ut dum Hit bmcdicU pUbcm, diem»: 
I>ominu3 sit sempor vo1>iecuin, ab ommbu* bentdieatur 
dieeatemt : £t cum spiritu tuo. 


' Tim piatlai U rotliitio.l hotL-, ω in tbo Bcoiaa bcvJcn, lu • tincle Tttw, 
Ob*DrTe bI«o Uui torn llloria it Uamr I'atri, etc Tlio «wd» ri kmor mn 
kbnuljr In Uie tevnuIL• Netory cbentolMlMIe of Ifae epaakb we (Γμα 
ΤΛ, ii. U). 



deaooD enjouis silesoo; for which tlio Mozarnbic 
formulary ΰ SilaUtum /aeite} Tbe bishop sklutoe tbu 
congngatioD in a formuJary praeerved by St. Uermain 
< «nd identical nitli that givea in Uio Hozarabic liturgy, 
■> At Milan it was tlie custom U> use ΙλΜαϊηηβ vobitmm, aa 
at BonuL St. Germain apeaka of the snlutation only in 
due {daoe, that ia, before the introductory ciLDtides. This 
ia tbe place also assigDcd to tbe fint aalutntioD in tlto 
Ambtoaian Litor^. la the Mozarabio it in eaid only niwr 
tbe collect, la Uiese two liturgies the salulation fvllows 
each of tbe tluee lectjous.* 

2. 7%: JiitrodHCtory Cantitit*. 

Germvix: Ajua vero ante projthftiaw jm> hoc eanUur 
lit ijraeea linffua qHta. . . . Inapiente pratMiit eedena AJHt 
jMiUil, Aictn» taiinum cum ifrafw. . . . Dictum Atnen ex 
k^tntuo. . . . Trte auUm parfiUi ipti ore uito iiegventee Kyrir 
tdrucm. . . . Canlicum aaieiH Zaeftariae puntifitia in honorem 
$aneti Johanni» Bapluiae ntntatur ■ ■ . >' itlw ρτυμ/κΟαιη 
fiu»iN pater tjua xpao naacaitc eednit ailemi» voeUma eeefow 

Tliere are three canticles : first, the Trisagiou (AJm = 
*Αγ«οτλ which woa intoned by Um bishop, at first in Greek, 
and afterwards in Latin ; second, the Kyrie tUiton, song by 
Uirw boye; and tliinl, tha Iknedidu», or "prophecy." In 
tbe Uoaaisbic and Milom-ea uses the TrisogioD la not foand. 

' In Ibe UennUo UiM>) «o du nut uiicuiiati-r it U thU pUea. 
Willi ragu<l lo tlio ilMnuail for «ilemw, vt, Qregotj of Tiinit, UuL 
Friaur, lit, 8: ** fjtiiulnni dlo itiminiiv. pottqnuin dinomtii «llmitiiiiii 
popnlta at niUaw nIaculUreutur iudbdt. . . ." (.t. Isidore, Dr Kr*l. 
tifinit, L I». 

' W lUi lliU dif otoDCD Uiat in llie MusuaLdo Uturgy It picccfic•. and, in 
the AMti>Mi>n. foUuw• the nvpouM oliuitnl «flor i\w flnt l«rllou. 

192 cHRrsTiAN wfiKiiiip: rra ORiois \st> κνοι,ιτηοχ. 

■t leoet not iu this pliico. It le eviitenUy on Ensteni im- 
portsUon. or mtliur ByMnUne. At ibu lime of the second 
CooDcil of Vuiaon (>'>29), it was iieud ouly M " public Maesea." 
Tbie council decrcutl (r. Ά) thHt it wus lo \ms sung at ull 
Uuses without distiaotioD. 

In plitcu of thu TnsugioD we find in ihu Mozimibio and 
Ambroaiitn Missule the Qloria in cxcfJjiis, which is here' a 
Komao importation. 

The second chant, that of tlie Kyru, is [ireeorved in tbo 
Ambroaian Liturg}', bat has disappeared from thu Moamiblc. 
It was customary at Milan, as in Gaul, to reetxki iLo 
number of Kyria aaag to three. Tlio Kyru was introdoced 
in imitation of Eastoin usage, but in the Orieotal litntgies 
it is only employed as the reapoose of tho people to the 
petitions of the iDinconnl r.itanjr, and even nt Rome it had at 
fint a strict conDccliou with that litany. In Urn GalUcan 
UM it woe a sitccics of chant absolutely uncoimuctod with 
the litany. 

In the time of the Council of Vaison* the KgrU was 

' [ «ay hri-, fur it \» ci'rtHin thHl tin? Oloria In okvIim. λλ a phant in 
till' Ιιβ•ν. wiu knc>«D ill ί>]ΜΪιι nn•) Kurtbcini luly tr>m thp ■t'T««(li 
etmtvrj ut bU«M lOmr. TU.. iv. If; Sitemmntt. iinU, μ ΪΜΙ, MntmUrl). 
Ί'Ιιβ TrlMMtinn Ικ iDoiit1>jn>><l hi Ilm life of hu (Itvy, Bialinp υΓ Ountn) 
In tlio wuatli ('outury: "AJii'. aju•. -iji», poi tnniim uiuucnini Inpuialt 
fn muniiic: Triiiilntiit" (.Innl, ΒιΉ . nil, vii. |>. mS). 

* OhutH. Viumt*, <•. S: " Kt qniit Inio In M'do Apoalolina <|Unin «liaa 
|ier tiitM OrlontnUs mtqup Itiilinu proiiiiHu iJnIcia ei Dlmium tulatui» 
ivuuualUilo fBl intrtnnioKi ul Kyrie Λ4•ηη r(>«|iii;iitiu i^U )cmaiIJ aRurt* 
ul iyim(iuiicUuna illcaturi pinuuit rtLuu imhU at ia amulbiu code•!!• 
tuatri• lit• tarn mboU eooiuiXaUo rt ad nmlutinuni ut nd mlMM «l tA 
fr«p«eun, Beo prDpitio iutrnmittnlur. Et in υιιιηΐ6ιιι Bilaiii^ tea in nttil• 
Itnia. •βιι in qaadrnKWiunliliuit, «ou in lllia qnao pro iK-fuui-btrum lam• 
■neinomlintie uiinl, wmpor Sitnttm. 8-'*tiii*. linnelut, to oriliiiu ηιω Modn 
■d inlaia• fiiibliciu dioilur, dii^i dvtvat; quia Utn «uirta vl tun dalel* 
et dutUitrubill* νυκ. (tlkiB*i di» nueluque pamt dici, fulldtuiD oca inwl 
gr«ior»rQ." I'ho Amrbu haro teTetred to is evidenU; Ibe TtiMglon, aal 
not till? fiiiTirtw after thu Prufam. OfaMtre tjiai tint (xiuatii] dooi not 
uamu Miniii ηιαοοχ tlie ouimtrlfa «lioni il •πιι cueiomary 1« nap tho 
Kyri' ■ 

TUK galucan mass. 


still ilmoet ouknown in Gnul, while It wne already in use 
•t Botae «nd " in lUiIy," that is, nt Milan. 

■ After tLc /Cip-ie came tbc " Propliocy," ' that isi, the 
eaotiole Btntdutus Dominat Dtua Itrarl (Luke i. 68-79)i 
In the Mouuibic Liturgy it is still onlcnjd to bo iniig 
0OC8 eriiry you-, tb*t ie, on the Sundky in adventu 8. 
JehaimU Baptittae, It baa dieappouied completely from 
Ihe Ambioaiaa Liturgy.' 
^L• The Trisagion aod the Prophecy were not iiaed during 
^n«it, at least at Poria, but a special cantdcle, vhich 
VbegaD vitb the words Sanettu Dfns vircAaii^eientin, woe 
«abstitnted for tliom." 

After the Pfopheoy tbo bishop sai<I a prayer, which 
kul either aome analogy with the canticle itself m- α 
bearing upon the festival of the day. This is what ix 
called the OolUttia post Pnpheiiim. The following is the 
l«xt of it, taken from the Mimde Chthicum for the festival 
of the Natirity >~ 


Ortna Μ ιιώί•, venu 8ol JustitiM, Jeai Cbrivte; veniati d« endo 

Ibbillni. aad muij othen nft»r liim, hav«i oonfooiilvd the ** Pm- 
pAtey" «ritk ϋιο PiDphullc Ijcrtlnu. It It t-Tlik^nl thkt It !■ t<i the flrat, 
Dmt li^ to UM Ouxidc οΓ tlic UnM^t-tui, tliat Oracory of Tom im 
ivfenine In BIH, »u»r.. tfii. 7, wlMtQ PlJIkdim, BUiap ut Sainic•. i« 
briNlscad Μ boginniuK Un• ehmMbig t4 the Pri|>bi>oy : " Quo liuJ^tonl• 
pnpliattuii. . . ." Tliu ufBcMliiig Uthop pretMmtul Uia ouitlolca, bat 
b• diA BH read th• iMtiona: that tru the tnuincw αΓ tile 1ι.•οΙοπ or 

* It had a pUoe iketo origiaallj, to judge fna Uie 8*onimralary 
Λ BobUo, b «bieh tbo nibrla OoOeetio pert PfopMiam ocoiua «cvcral 

* 0«fiD»tii. Bp. U.: "HiiHctiu Dtnu Aniiangtianim In Qundrngtnn)» 
cooetallar et turn nmtliORi Zurhantm. . . . Tfoc AUrluia In lUMtm ra- 
I hwi. Atiu^a•, T«<1 ΡίίψΙΐίΙΰι, hyniDuii trium pueroniin, rr} emitloiiiii 
Rairt Ηκτΐ• QUi dletnu dMnntttnlur." I lliiiik «^ uugtil ti nudfntuiiil 
Jhactw b«l« Μ ηοηαΐοκ tbo TrtwiKlon Tbvm πυ a prprltiua n-fur- 
«•M to • «wilicle Attifint -te C/iiU'•, «bicli «lu rciumid ut Kattiir, 
m^th 111• mg oT Moaea ud (lie Hrblofn. «flvr liaring b«'u omltU-il UuKng 

194 cnBiarux woBanip: rra oriois asd evou'tios. 

nl geoerie Redemptor; ewxietl nol»t oorna Mint)•,* «t o«U 
Qmutana ΡηΛοβ pcrpntun, gcciius in doino DaTid profiter prvooram 
onuula TttuDi, ptoprian) voIciiu absolvera pleben ot votnau cibiudw 
dctera chirographuiD, ut eotnrniM nbie panden• triumphnm. Idooquo 
Dunc te qoftemtmoa iit b mJMricotdiu tnao niecen noMjii kppereu 
nicDtibuei ealiu oetenia; ct dw eripieodo ab inlquo hoete jintUlao 
cultores effloiu; OTnniqne mortis orrcro epnto pacii viun iwcto itinero 
grwlienle•, tibi rectc serriro )<cM*imiui, SalvaMr muD^ qui cam Patre 
ct Spiritu UDCio Ti'irt*. domiiwrie ot n^ivi D«ai in «Mcija necalomm.' 

3. 77«; LteiioM and tht FttUmt, 

Oerhain : La:tia vrro Ρηηο1ι«ϋοα mum tMtt ordinem 
VtUri* vidtliett Tatamenli, torrvpient mala «f €ubumaan» 
fttturot ut inttUisamu» ipmm. Dmtm. ecte φιί in Prophttia 
ienuit qvam qui Η in Apo$toio datmit et in Beanffdieo 
^tendon rr/ulgil. Quod ejtim jnvphela damal /tUurwn, 
apottdue docfi /actwn. Aeiua auUm Apoetoiorum «at 
Apoeal^si» Johanni» pro novUaie ffawUi paeehalia UgmttoTi 
MTTonfe• ordimm UmporHm, tiettt hietoria Tatanm Ui 
V0tm» Μ Qumqaa^nmo, v«l ge$ta tanetorum wi\f«montM 
ae martyrum in tolemmtaiibu» torwm, ut popnlta inteliigat 
quantum (Sirieiu» anutverit /amvlun, dan$ ή rirtuti* 
indicium, quem dnola ptebieula fuum pOMhiIat palrtntitm, 
Symnum anfem trium jnter^rum, quod pant Uetitmea eanitur, 
. . . Ealesia lervat <ndineni ut inter £unidieiianem (I 
Evangflium lectio turn. * intfrfrdat, ydti taHtutnnudfi r*- 
^xmioriwi quod a parvuJie eanitur. , 

There wuiv itlways two locUons in the Uaee beaidM 
the Gospel. The fiist (Zeetio Propketica) vat Uken from 

' Tbi( U an allunon to tbe eanttaU StMriMw. The whole psfw tm \ 
Rttl of reminticcnoM of lliii diamotcr. 

> In tbo proMut MtUnm nao tho Collod 1• placed bcroie tho Oaalfcia». 
Tbo gdcnuneuEnry of Itolibio imjilii» that il waa «aid aftct Ihein. Btajdw 
certain mIImI• /mil ΡηφΚΜιη, It ctmtalna oUivrt Ibot are lald afUr ϋι* 
TriwffioD (pott JJu•), βτ after tlui Gloria fn raoeUi. 

' 1 haT« ioaerted bure ib« ητ^Ιίτ*. «tbioh b ivqninxl by ilie leit 




the Old Teetament. and the second from tiie Apostolical 
Epistiee. Daring Easterliile Uie Apocnlypee and Uie Acts 
of the Apoetlee vere also read, and in Lent the " Histories " 
of the OU Teetament. θα Uie feeUvale of the Saints Uieir 
Uognphiee were included in the loctions. This informa- 
Uoa, which is fumishod by St. Germain, in in full agree- 
meoC wiUi the arruui^umcnt in the Luxuuil Lectioaary. 
with that in tbo pnutunt Mozombic iisl>,* and wttli the 
disbrifaQtioa of luction^ in the SecnLmontary of Bobbio.' 
The use of ConeUintinoplB in the time of St. Cliryeostom 
madu provifliun also for this tbrevfold amngement of 
lections — the Prophctio, tlie Apostolic, and the Evangelical.' 
AlXer tbo reading of the two first lections, the Hymn 
of tlie I'hree Clxildreo, acootding to St. Germain, was sung. 
U woe known also by the name of the benediction {Btnt' 
itieiUi), because in it the word Bmtdieite is continually 
repeated. Then came the Bespond. The order in which 
theee various portions wenj airaoged was not the some 
eveijvbere. In tlio Mozarabic Litur^^y thu chonte wen 
pltoed between the Gral two loctiuns, whilu in the Maro- 
viogiluii lituigy they cuiie aftvr the reading of ibu Apostolical 
Epistles.* The Klilnnese Litur^ still makes use of tlie 

' Tb• rrftiUnx οΓ Ihu ApomljiiK la the UMtcrtido IIumm >m * 
tmy aadent mihnn in Bi«Ui. Tlie rourUi LViuw^II o[ Tolrdo (o^ 16) 
ill II all ml nilb ι-^ΐηηιιηιιηΐΜΐΙιηι Uiiau «lio «οαΙ•1 omit it. 

* Tb• AmUoaUiB LilDngylui• lUMtuiliiinnl tlio Ι'ηφίΜΐΙΙβ Ι^ιοΐίυβ, «ZMfil 
OD fSTtAin Akj*. II ma atill iaotndoil ihure in the twolMi i>ratnr}r: oni) 
It «■• mMoHnrr to um it with Ihr Gtata Sanetamwt ou tlie fntivala οΓ 
i^alfc TliU u lo bo ialerml iitau t)io toll«ra of Pnul (ΚκπιηϋιΙ) and 
G«be1iMd pebUdwd hj MaLilkm (JV>u. i(.iJ . vt>l. L, put 2. |>. VT) : " Orali• 
BkwtoniB qtua minwiim cvlrliniiitniilnia ii|iiiil \-nt intcrjKiui (όΐβη!." οίο. 
nMSUttM• wtn writlea abint llio jatr Ι1ϊ<(ι. 

* TTiiw nix. it Λιΐ., Aff^ ρ, 22ί>, Thi• Annouiui Lilorgy bu pm- 
temd Um• I'rnpliclif Lvotiun, «btoh biwl falbai Ist» diiuu- at L'uiiitanltiujple. 

■ Tbr Luxi-nll Ijretioohij, bovcTer, ptwcnbn t'-t t)ia N'alivilj, " AinU 
ran IttiteiirUoKr" Dial i*. th• UjUB οΓ llic Tlin>r CViflilrun bcfutv tbo 
A(aU>llaal LccUuu. It !■ tnio lb«t la IIm Mim υί tJi# fluiuum Piu^att it 
I it •Λ«τ Ibla locitoii. 


BfTudiciie on certain day», and provides Tor a roepoiKi 
called tbe Paatmnlua, aiW the Propbctic Lection, and ■ 
νβηβ accompanied by the AUtluia after the Apoetolic 
Leetioii. The foUoning \& the introduction to the Ben*• 
didu in lh« Mozanbic rite ' : — 

Dknie] Prophcta. Tanc illi trcn qniui ex nno on hymnmo oaae- 
bant et benedicebont Domliiiini do romacv, diceuUi: Beoedictii• μ 
Domine, etc. 

This is almost tbe actual text of Daniel iii. 51. ΊΙμ 
respond for the Nativity in the Moxarabic Missal is arranged 
aa follows : — 

Dominns dixit «d mo : Filiiis mens •• Ui| c^ Iiodic genid ib.—'f. Pttle 
a me et dabo \Άλ gvEiie• hiicr«ditAt«ra tuaro ct pow<»«inaem tniun Undiu* 
ιαπκ. — IV• Κςο liodia ^iiiii ip. 

Aooording to St. fiermaiD, this respond was snog by 
boye (parvvH). Gregory of Toun assigns the singing of 
it to a deaoon. The use at Toura' may poastbly bare 
diflbred from that of Paris on this point. The Kouan 
use in this respect undertrent an importanl change at 
the end of the sixth centnry." 




4. The Ooaptl. 

I Bk ^1 

GrrhaIH : Tunc in advenCu sandi £vaugtlii ciaro Modv• 
laiaiae dmuo ptallit clems Aju*. . . . B^rtaitur pntmi» 
eaaeli SvangelH vtlut poicntia (^ruti triumpJtantit dt 
morte, enm preudietit karmaniia ti cum teptem oawUiahrii 
lumini», quae eitnt siptem dona Spiritws ianeti ntl r{rtm») 
legii liimimi mystcrio crueU conjiea (UCMdcRs in tribunal 
anajoffii* velut Ch/rinttu tedem r^ni patemi, nt inde iiUutui 

' 1 tako tUi tnaa Uin lint ttntidajr fai l^nl. 

■ Of of OrlewM. fbr it aaa at OrleuM «Iiore tbia MTvico Icik pUop (Bht 
fVnuw . Till. »). 

• fWe aboTi•, p, 170, 
' Tlie «nlio. 



dMa viUut danutfUihu* tl«rici*: Gloria tibi Doinin«t . . . 
Saiictiia cndcM» qiutd rtdtnnte eaneU» Svanotiio eUru» can- 

Si. Geimain it thu only writer who mentions ϋιβ 
cbuntbg of the TriMgion as aocompuayiDg the (iroceesion 
of tlie Gospel, both on going and returning. But in all 
the Latin Utorgiee the exclamation by the congregattou, 
Gioria ΐΛϊ Domine, is presoiibed as the reeponae to tbu 
aanouac«roont of tbe Qoiipel lection : LfcUo tanrli Etangdii 
«eeiuwfnm N. 


5. TAelTomUjf. 


fiKRMAlX: Hotniiiae atUom itaneUirttra qtta* leffttniur pro 
itjla jmudieatioHe poauatur, ut qukquiH Propheta, Apoatulu* 
w/ Atiii^tuiK iAandavit, hoc doctor ttl ροΛίστ Soctaritu 
mpertiori sermmu! populo pratdieet, Ua arte temperaru »i nee 
ruelicibu iapi^ntet offeatiat, u*c hoHoila loqvaeUai <A«citra 
■ntetiei» fiai. 

Ώιβ cnstoni of having the Homily nilur tlio tiospel was 
loiter obeerved in Gaul than lu Ilomi). The priesle, aa 
well Ββ the bishops, were accustomed to preach. This 
usage is denounced by I'ope Celestiiie in a letter which 
he addrttsed to the Itishnpe uf l*rovcnoo,' But ioatead 
of being abolished on that account, it wiia confirmed and 
extended even to rural purishea by the second Council of 
νώοα (529). Tim uouncil was the Provincial Ooaucil 
of the Metropolis of Arlee, and it ie well known what a 
xealouB advocate of proachiog its buhop, St Cesarius 
of ΛΗβΒν was. Mia bomilies havu exactly the qualitiee 
of clearoeae and simplicity which St. Germain claims for 

■ UKi, SSI. 

'Οι t: 'Har' MUiB pi» ■«diflMlioue 'luuiaiu owlMtntuni et i>ra 


6. 1%e Prayer*. 

QkriiaIX: Preees viro peaUere Iveiiat pro popida ai 
origine ίϋή ifot/eaeu diieit ejiordiw», vt audita AposioU 
prtudieaiiane lemtae pro populo deprteeiUitr U mcerdotm pnu- 
trati ante DoTtUnHjn pro pnxata popidi iateretdantt etc. 

The Pnyor of tlie Fnithful btguis with a diaoonal 
liUuiy. The Merovingiim liturgical books, which faroiah 
only tho port for the celebrant, have preserved do text 
of this litany. Λ pmyer in the form of a litany, but 
drawn up for the tise of public iwiiitents, oconn in the 
Motarabtc Liturgy for tho Snnduye in Lent Iwtweeo thie 
Piophocy and the Epistle' The AtnbroHinn Utui^ also 
praservcs u traco of the Litany after tlie Qoapel in the 
Uireefold Kijric dfison. which continuea to be said in this 
place. I'he Litany itself Li still in αββ at Milan in the 
Uasses for the Suuditys in Lent, but it is placed at the 
bqginniog of the Mass, after the Inffretiia and ibo Donann» 
wbiaaum. The following \a the text of the Sacramontaty 
of Biasoa (tenth century):— 


Incipit lelania. Dominica I d« Quadngmtma. Diri&M pad* d 
iudulj^iitki] miiuero •ιΐ|>ρ1ϊ(:ααΙ«*ι αχ toto nrda et ex tola mealo pra- 
camur to, Domiue, mieorerc. 

olilltalc loliiu iHjpuli noUi pLu^ulL at nau mIuid in «i'dutlbu*, «rd otias 
In onuiibiu iiaioohlll Tirbuiu f«ricnili dttrvmiM iiruilifiefu polotahan: 
Ite ut iri prcabrlpr nliqoa iiitlrmitate prohibont? per «uipium nun potMcll 
)inL>ilic»n', niuK^lorum Pntrum hamiluo η (U>ran(ba« redtantar. βΙ 
rain digni «nnt dlntviiiti qaixl Oirblua In BTangelto locntw Ml t•- 
gtrw, ψίΛη iudigat judktrntDr wiacturtiiii ΓηΙπιη viixaiUooea p«ib)i«a 

' Thli pr«yur u incntjonod in tbo iImim* of tho Council t>( Lyon• la 
tho JCBT 517 (c. ϋ) ; |ioriaiMJnn i» κ'*<^ ^ panitaaU, u λ ΒρΜύΙ hfonr, 
to nUDBln In Uiu ehnKh. "tinfinr ηΊ umlionciti |•Ι•Ή]ι ijimi.' [wl fvauplu 



Pra Eoeleek lo• wnetB oatbolioai luae kio et per uniTeniuu wbtm 
' Jift»a Mt, (vecainur, etc 

1^ pip• ooatro iil« ' et oiauJ elera ^ui omolbuKiue sMenlolibiu nc 
■unirtrii, pracunnr . . . 

Pn Cuialo tBO Hio impenion ot fauiuU ttm ilta iaiporatrico et ouiqI 
■XWilta «οπή, precamur . . . 

Pn pioe ecl«i>niDi, vocatiotifl geotinie cl qidete popiilonim, pr«- 
Ckmar . . . 

FM plabo bM» «t oonTanatioiM «jus oauilbutqae babiuntlbus in ot, 
fnttmar ... 

fto aenm tamperie ao (Viiolmim «t feeundItAl« («rnxnim, pire• 
Mav . . . 

Pn> «JiKiidbu, tidni*, orfsnia, captiv» «c p«nllentibtu, pre• 
euidr . , . 

fto «MiifuiSbu, It«r BgMitibu*, m cuoernnu, in vluonlie, lii mcullit, 
in «tnui ooDBtltaih, preoamnr . . . 

Γγο bb urn liinrni* infinnitktitiiw ilulinontiir, i|i]iiiit« t>p!HLil>uir 
vvtantur bnitndu. |<r«c«mnr . . . 

Av bia i\vi m niKin itia Kclaun Iructn» miiwriocirilinu Iniginotiij', 

t Enitdi DO• Doua, In omul onDouu al(|tii! deinvcatioDe Doslra, pre- 
DfmniH omnet: ttomloe mleerare. Kyfrto eleitioD), Kjr(ri6 dalMii}, 

In the Slawe Missal, repreeenUiig the Irish 1190, tliciu 
[is u vei7 Bimiliu- litany between tlie Epistle and GospeL 
It its as folio vs * : — 

DicuDU omoM : " DonuM «x&ndi ot mif eivrc, Domine lauwmn," ex 
lolo cwde et ex tottt ιη«ηΙ«. 

Qui KBpicn «iipcr terrBm et fncin eani tn:mer& — Onmuii [t« Domine. 
«xudi «t «Inrarej.* 

L fm «Itiititoa pace et tmuiiiilUbttu t«mporuin nostroruin, pro 

^^^V Tke ΑηΜιΰΙορ of UUm. 

Η * WuT<^nfX«(urni/AeCUtleChiin*,p.220. 

^P * til tlnf 8to<*e MImoI «Mb Tciao U rollowod bjr Ibc «rurd OraMitt o&ly. 

Ha I'UdA naniHcript, quoted by Bonn (Rei. Lilutg., ti. 4. { S), oonUiiM 

V Um Mua LltMy, vilh α ίνν iligLt vonuiong. In It It Ii meau tlutt tliu 

luraolnrj <Λ the RoffMOM.' ouetit lo be complelod w I linvv bero gif un 

ί {cf. WWTO). Pl 252^ 

200 οιικιβ'ΠλΚ n-oBSiur: its obioix axd EvoLimox. 

MociA EcGi«u& ceUiotiot quae » UnibiM luqno «d icrmtntu orbie temo.— 

2. Pro putore η <[oaljo] eplocopo ot orauibaii eiuMJapf• ct {Kwbylcrii 
Μ tlhcania et omni dero, — Omnnii. 

8. Pto lioo loco et IubsUteutiliut tu eo, pro piimimi* inpenloribM 
ct omoi Romftuo csomitu.— Ογαπιοβ. 

4. Pro omaibiia qai iu vabUiiiiute conttHuti uinl, pro ffag tofl w»! 
vidui» ct ΟΓΓαιιϊβ. — Onirauw. 

6. Pro perogrinutibiw nt iter «geatibua ae tUkviguilibnH el γβ/κιά• 
tcntibax ol catocliunniole. — Oramiu. 

a. Pro hie lui in mucIb Eoole•^ fractal• i&lMricoHiM lugianfan, 
Domiae Dci» rjrtutum, exaudi pteocB nostras. — Oiumai. 

7. eanctonim «poMeUmim sc martjiTOm inemorM linma, utocutibw 
«b pro nobis vudImu merMraur.—Ununiiii. 

β. Chtiftiuum «t rtefficnm nobu fiimn concodi a Domino pncoamr. 
— FraeMa, Domiot, jitwflU. 

9, Kt ilinniim in nobii pDnnanere vinculum oaritatm «anctimi Domt• 
niUD deprecciiTiir. — PrawitB. 

IOl OaDMrran unctitAtcm et calbulicM Ma ]}uriUt«in Donhnia 
(leprecemiir. — Praeila. 
Dicnnuu^ etc. 

By comparing this litany with those round in Uie 
Orieatal liturgies, from that of the Ajioetotic CotisUUi- 
tioiia ouwards, we sliall see that they are all absolutely 
of the Haiae ^pe. We may go even further and say that 
the examples given are nothing more than translatioos 
fiOiu a (ireek te\l. llie beginning is precisely the sane 
u» iu tlie Utany of Constantinople*: " ΕΧπωμίν rainr it 
iXiiC nic ψνχΪΓ Kil iS όλιις της Siai-ot'ac ifiiii' ιίπωμιρ." 

We luay eiay the saiiie of the form of the respouBo, 
Αΐ(ΐμι0<! iTov, (iruMtvffov και ίΧίησον- As for the petitions 
of the Lituiiy, the text does not wrreapond exactly willi 
■ay known Greek litanivs, but thi;y arv anunged in the 
βηοαβ order and dranni up in the sainu manner ai the 
Qrvek. There is less diffuroncu betwvcD the Latin Litany 
and those oontaiuud iu the Grwk Utu^;iu« of St. James, 

■ [N. herv atnutla prribcibly for llit^ nun»of ttiii iiiiii*a>oil \Λ»\ιαρ.—Ίβ.} 
' UriKlitBuui, p. 3T3. 






Sl ChiyBoetoni, etc, than there is betwouD llio lulter and 
thoee of the Apostolical Constitutions.* 

The litany iraa followed by a |ituycr said hy the 
bUiop. This van ilie Collttiio post pitefn. It suiue up 
tbe {letitioaa already recited. The follovring i» Uio fonu 
for ttse σα the Nauvit)' from tiie iiUmU GoUiicttai : — 

Euuiti, Doraine, bnUlUni \.\\A dicttam at in tu»o «cclmiiM eivmio 
ia bae botfiorn* Mlcmniute NstirtUtia tuae ooDgregatMi iit luudce 
Vat» <>xpoiwL Tribno optMs ndoroptionom, caeoii viBuni, peoMnUbut 
ftmii^oiMm; q«ie tn vcnbd el sftKos hoiH Doa. Anfliet do cmIo Maola 
too at toluniiiM popnlDtn (uuni, ipiorum uiiiuiM in la pkaa devotlane 
oooMil, Sdnlor inaiKti, <γα tivte, ale 



This colled oornMpond» with the prayor Ktptt wevta• 
κράτος io tbe l.iliirgy of Uie ApofltuUiml Confltitnlions, 
«nd with th« sLortur furmular}', Kii^tt ό Btoc ήμΰι•, nj•• 
ttenvn tairr^v* ID the Liturgy of Constiuitiuople. It has 
diwpiMured from all the Latin liturgiee.* 

* I βΔΛ Uen ilie nu»! oiMwwihj luincidenooa (CPsBywiiiino ίίΐιιτ^; 
Ja«.sl]|• titurgy g< St. Jkomai It. = tbo LUiltk; ■M' tlio A|KMUill<itl 
I'enatitntkin*) : 1. Trl^ τί)ι 1»«••' <if^nti (Ju. ίΤ), Mp τήι άνΙαι η- 
l»ti»<i μ) 1>««τ«λΜ(4• ^ιηΛηβΙαι T^t Jiri np^Tarr fvt wtfirm (CLX— 
X *T*lf T«v hie*^v ίιμίτί, τον TiMiou *ρι«βπ(^Βν> Tflt ill ϋριττψ Sia* 
nwlu. ••rfii rti κλ^ρβ» (LT). — 3. Ifwlfi τί)ι I7IU μβκήι τ«*τΐ|ΐ, wiinis 
witjmt «al X^^t. ■■! tm• '(«t» ohofrrar /r αίταΐι (Cl'X'-'Tirip τού 
»<>ι#ι»τ<Γ>ν aol φιλρχρίβνον ^itM β•«ιΛ^ν*, «arrli τβύ tbAbtJuu rot τβν 
VTpBTvsA•• ml «fit' oirriir line.}. — I. Ύ*ί|• eaaiAtair itai τΰ» /« iinpcj^jf 
{Cl.^ i/wip ^ ■ , rape^B-m', XVp"^ '" *a3 lip^aru»' 1.). — A. Ύνίρ «Afiif^wr 
«t 4t»ir»ft(vriH• (Π., fP-, .Int.). (tvinuii-rnv (Jut.) — 0. 'TVlp fie «β(«ο- 
Yfuirtwr )• τ^ l)4f <«κλΐ]*1^ και «wuiiivaiv rili «^rifiri rit ί\•ημβνύιιαι 
(Ct.).~7. n* »oa>t«l • . ■ Ma^loi ■■! wirTm/ Tin irrinr nal SMafwr 
jirvenllnWKr, tnti ti;l[e<i ni •|ΐ•«Α•(α•) einm »1 wirrtt ίλΛηΦύμιν (Jito.), — 
β Xfirritfi τ1 τ/λη rqi firi' 4>Hvr, iniSuva, iniralfrxvrTa . . . «iniirvHtAi 
{Jac). — 0. 10. TV 'r^T^TB τπι rlertm no) tJ|* iinMwti* raC «vraytou 
IlniiurM (Jac.). 

* Brigbtiiinn. op. fit. 

' U*t ■• It belong Ui till- l.llany wliioh (ireohln it, it U «ortli «hilo 
kt Mcall wlut tun bMa «Id abavn «1 p. 173, ii»to I. iii rrusrd It• tlio 
BMTtapoaiUBx |iart of the Kamen Maaa 


7. ΊΊΐύ IXmittal o/ the CaUehumm». 

GbehaC! : CaUckuneitum ergo dtaconiu trfw eUmuU 
jmia oMitouin Ecetena* ritttm, vt torn judtui jtMHi» hatrttid 
vd pagani inttrugti, qui grandta ad bajOunum vmiAaM 
«t ante hoftiimutn probcAaniur,^ itarmt in taltma «t 
avdiretU amnHuia Vettrie et Nov* TesUnnenli ; poelm 
deprreartnl pro Ulos Untae, dicent aactrdot eotUeUtm, pett 
prtotm tcaraU pottta font qui digni no» went stare dwn 
w^ertiaiKr obUitio, ti /oraa anU oitivm utuetUtartftU pn- 
straH ad ttrram moffnalia. Quae eitra ad dioionw» vtt 
ad oaftortUM pertinAat, vt Hie* eoi adwwMrrt mrt, vU 
provideret «u- φΰ» indignv* retardaretiir in tempio, diixndo: 
" Nolite dan Sanetvm canibtu, iuq»te vii^atia warganta» 
ante porayi," 

By the secoDtl haJf of Ibe eixtJi century tlie catc- 
cbameuate had become merely a renumsceDce. It was 
neoCMUy then to explain the mtiM (dismissal) cafocAv- 
mmontm, of which the rite, boirever, continued to be 
preacTTod.' This ceremony took place after the pmyer, 
OS in the Liturgy of Coofitantwopla In the ApoMoUe 
Constitutions it is placed before the prayer. We cannot 
giiUier precisely from the text of St. Germain whether it 
was accompanied by special prayers. I am inclined to 
believe tliat its text has in view the prayers which I 
have juat dealt with, but Uiat at the beginning Uicre 
were flpecial prayers, which disappeared with the di»• 
appearance of the catechumens. Thus, at the end of the 
Etixtli century, at least in the Church of Paris, nothiiig 
more was said than some such formulary aa Ne φά* eate- 
chununu*, cataJtumcni rtcedant, etc 


■ ΓΓίλιηΙκΓ. in the piinl«il «ditimi. 
> [111- cud] rlft'f, Ln the priatod edition. 
* Tha f'nnnpU οΓ Ερηπη (5ΙΤ), t•. 29. itlll nonliniu: 
proccdoie eunmuintiatui." 

■ i u» calMlii 



The difimie»)! of Uie peDitenUi, which is not alluded to 
by St CJeaioftin, wae still in ase shoilly before his time. 
The Cotmcil of LyoQR, held ftbout Ihe yuar 517. makee 
eximtts tiiQiiUon of it (c. 6). Aocoidisg to this, the poDit«Dte 
ninrt h»ve been sent iiwny oi'diniuily before th« Prayer of 
the Faithful.' 



8. Prottstion o/ the (^Λαίϊοη. 

Gebuais : SpirUuaiiter jubemnr siimtium /aeere obier• 
vanUa ad lutium. uf. egt ut laeeuttt a tumvitu verborum . . , 
hce lohtm rar inteadai ut in se Chrititim maoipiat. 

Ik tono. Sontim attttm qvtod eaaitvr qtiando proctdU 
oblaiio, kine traxit exordium. Praeeepit Dominus May tit 
. , . JVnik avieta proetdmian ad, ailariun eorptia C^ruti 
ae» jam ttdtie irrcprffif-ninhililm*, *«/ .ipintalihus \'oeibHi 
pratdartt CAritti vuignalia dvlci vutddia pnaliit Ecclaia, 
Cbfptu vtn Dmnini ideo dcfertitr tit trtrribue φ*ϊα . . . San- 
ffui» wro Ckristi ideo uprdaliter offertitr in ealiec quia . . . 
Afva aultm idto mitcetur vtl quia . . . 

Patata a«lrm voeatttr uhi eotueeratur oblatto, quia , . . 
Palla vtra tinmtifna . . . Cerporalvs xero palla ideo pura 
iinta fat super quam Matio ptmitur, quia . . . Cooptrtitm 
ten ucrattuniorum ideo exoniaiur quia . . . Sirica auUm 
omaiur a%tt awv, i-«t gemmi». 

Lauiai atUem, hoc at AUdma, Johanna in Apocedypti 
pott rt*urrediifnem andivU psalUrt, Ideo hora Ola Domini 
faUio quan Chrialvt ttgitwr eado,' eecUsia aolei angdieum 
eantieun \eantan\. Qnod uuiem habft ipsa AUdwa prima 
tt Mcwnda et Urtia, liffnat iritt leuxpora ante Irgem, tub Ugt, 

The oeremony beginR by an injunction to silenoe and by 
the appointmeiit of a wntcfa at the doors. St. Germain 

• 8«« Klimv pl loe. note I. 
' A rattii)H i>uMf <■■ 

204 oHBiBTUs woRsiirp: rre obiow axd evolctios. 

inLdrproUt Lbie as applying lo the gates of the soal, tbat ie, 
tho aeoeee, but Uie true eignificittion U forniebed by ibe 
Liturgy of St. Jntnes, when the deaoon excbuniB: Mit nc 
rbv κατη^οομίνι»ν, μι') rtc rui• αμ*ι>ιτια», μ^ rtc i^" ftQ 
ίυ^αμίναι» nfav 9vt^«q0«»wr ! 'AAAiiXavc tviymart '. Toe 
θύρας'. ΌμθοΙ ττήιπις! It hji9 evidently rei'vniacu to the 
doon of thu cburcb, whicb hud to be guarded id oi-dur that 
DO profime person might tann the iiseumbly. 

The ubItttiuD was preporod boforobaod, and there wea 
bcetowod un it by anticipaticHi Uie nmc bonour whioh it had 
allcr coneecroUon. It waa ovon ulrcudy deeigiiated by the 
temu Body and Blood of Christ. Tho prcpanitioD took place 
before the entnuico of tho edebnuil,' and was perfonned 
with rites and pnycrs, of vhich no Uaooe romun to the 
Meroviuj;iaQ inunu»cript& Some nUcs of it an to be 
found in ihe Iriab biHiks, the Stowu Miwul, and the Lebhai 
Breao.* The UoKorabio MiMal contoine the whole oemnony 
down to the most niinute details. It even repeate it at the 
end of the i'TOceaaion of the Ohlatioa, after having previously 
prefixed it to the entry of the celebrauU Ite place after the 
l^rocossion of the Oblation is that which this rite ooou[Hee in 
the Ambroiiian Misaal, and it is that of its oonnterpart, tbe 
Ofterlory, in the present Homau use. The prepeLratioD of tbe 
oblation in tliis place can be regarded only as a modification 
suggested by the Roman use. We may atiU recognise the 
latter in the ceremony of the Vecckioni of Milan, who make 
ul this point the offering of bread and wine; a coetom 
observed also in many Churches of Fiance. The offering by 
the peuplu at this point in the Mass, is & ceremony of Bomao 
origin, and is incompatible with that of thaproefstio oblaiumit, 
Λ custom cummon to tbe Gallican and Oriental riie. 


> Ttiia Uullitiui («culiBrily Iim pMKd into tiio ηΜΚύΙ uo οΓ 11» 
UrduT ul SI. Dnmlalo. 

■ WLllU>y 8kikc«, Th« frM lOtaget in tt« Mmm MUf4, CbIcbII•. 1 
pfL H. H. 



The broail is limoght in a vessel having the form of a 
tower,* and the wine, nixcct with water, tn a chalice. Beddee 
tbeee two encharistic veesels, the paten also waa employed, 
in which the consecrated bread wae placed, eithei' at the 
lime of the preparation, or at the altar during the cou- 
eeontion. There were aUo, as it appears, three veile, one 
of which, the eorporaii* paUa, waa of 1ίη«η, without any 
admixtare {pura linea). This was the cloth for the altar. 
This other woe of silk, and was ornamented with gold, 
and enren with gems. It was used to cover the oblation 
after it had been plac«d upon the corporal. I am at η 
lose to kttow a» purpose served by the paUa Hnostivta, 
of irtiich Germain eiwake first of all. Id the Byzantine 
rite there wan one reU bo cover the paten and the bread, 
aud anotJier to cover Iho cholico. and a third to cover both 

Doling tbe prooeanon « choal^ similar to the Byxantine 
ClurmMeoa, was sung by tlie choir, and ended, like it, 
with the AUtltiia. This is what St fiennain calls Uie 
Sotmt. In tlie Moznrabic Liturgy' it bore the name of 
Lavdts. a word already met with in llie seventh century.''' 
At Milan it woe called the Antiphima jxmt Ei-<tn'jtlium. 
When the sacred element• were placed upon the altv. 
they were covered by the precious veil.* The choir then 

■ Cr. Orog. Tut.. IHor. JTurl.. 83. Tho pTont U Ukins phco at Rliiu, 
mhI oa (b• liny of SI, Piilyturp. ••Lnotn igilar punooe (8. Polymqil) 
««B rtllfiil• kctlnnlbn* qana numn Mi«crdc>Uliii inveiil, l«m)>iii m] nerl- 
%mMU oeprMdmn adniuit. Acoo)ila qu'xiun inrrv dWonttH. in i|iia 
njvtortna Donliitpl corja'd* Ιια1«1ι•1ιυ, fvrc» ivplt il (•tiam; Ihkn•- 
niifM (OMJilnB at run λΜλιϊ MipeipamMet, cUpM du nunn cjiu ferebntur 
Ik uni. el <lc mI tpwLBi nnai iWMidena, BsniiaMn ομπ wiuini illiUMnl |K>luit 
•dacqal: «iiod woi allii omUiniM Kotiuii <tn MiMk niii ijiila jiolliitu• i>r*t 
In ΜΗΗβηΜΒ." Knub. in dmline "ilh lbi> jimw);;!', in wmnc in «on• 
fimndiiig ika «he ct IliU biwxr «lih lluit at tin• CnpM, In wMch Uio 
ftottikil•* ira* nurtnl In the Roinna Mom. 

* Iii.loni. O• ew. Off. i. I» : Cmr, Τ'Λ. iv. 1 1. 

' Thli vail b MMitiMCcI *>Ίν>ταΙ llnrn by aiivttjot ToiOT(ffM Ft.. 


eoug a siicred diaotv wliicli Sl GeruwiD caUs Laudt*. or 
AlUiuia. This wae ibe Saerifieium, or Offertori&m. of Uw 
Mozanil>ic Liltugy,* aod Uio Offtrenda of the MilAnewh 
I append the Mozarabic text of tbeee two chaoU for 
Xtilivtbj : 

AUeluUI Rtdemptionem ml»!! Domiuiu ρορυΐο mo: otsn^Tit m 
MteTHtBil tMtamtntnm «nmi ; nnctiim Ή tonihilo noieei] ^a•, AHaluIa ! 

eacr^ftetHTn .■ 

Ftrvnlue iwtue est iiobie et flliiu da,ttu «(t nobis; «t ElBtni «I 
priudpittua «jus super bitmoroa ejus. Allvlaul Allduia I 

There aie ordinarily in the Mozarabic Litnrgy two 
venee in the Saerificutvi, so \>j combining these two obanb 
the tnple Alleluia was obtained of whicb SC Oermiua 
speaks. The idea of grouping them afom natunUy from 
Che fact that they originally followed each other immodiatoly. 
The prayers, which are at present interposed botwoon tbetn 
iQ tlie litui^gies of Milan and Toledo, are, as I have ainady 
aaid, not in their original place — nt least some of tbom ; 
the others are secret pmyeis, which were recited privatcily 
by tlie oHiciating priest whilst the choir was engaged ίο the 

t m I 


9. The Pragcr o/ Ike Veii. 

SL Germain does not speak of this. It wits 
by a kind uf preface, or iiivitatory, addressed, not to Qod, 
but to the congregation. 


Tli. 22: Yirtutm S. MartM. II. 33: VU»* PP, Hil. 11> Wo m• Am 
Ibi* Lut text thai the Btnir out <Λ wUoli it «u nudn ronU not bai« 
bbrii Irunapunnt, tut the veil WM nwaat to Lide iLe mffttrium torparl* 
ttivgniiinj'!' 'Iiimiitiei• 

> .Sb-nl^Hf» i• the torm nniplojrod la Ih• lltitixtnl hnlca: q/Merfan 
Is fuuaci in I*L. Wdan (tor. fit, II): "De «tttfteini». Offertoria, ^ώμλ ta 
nctieoioruai liunort cuiucitur," i-tc 



bwtM Kfttiviutu diem, io qug, nanoenlo Domino, 
tUori arcane IaxaIa mst, iiicoiniptorniiicitx; goniulium pondue 
wecoU IcTMaen «flniium eat, elcut exopuviuius votiii it• veoeramur el 
padSi. Hie naaiiiiio ortua <Uo uplanditliar, lao« oonucanlior oaU In 
koo ODUiipoUotem D«uiu <\m\ terrpnun fVaflleiaqiie materiam cmim 
noaliM rcdanptioniii adHiiinpnt, Pmtre* dilDoltuimi, mip|ilieM dopre- 
«βίΒΓ, Qd DO•, quM ortu corporifi viBJtnvit, eocleute convcnutlonia 
•iooBt, pnuevpto pnodioatiuaui inntitull, dagnstatione mortii rodcmil. 
pBrtieapatiom moitia amidexiu oat, diritii f^piritua bfiwiono diunl, ^ub 
pajpah» Λβηάοαα cnatodial; ol in hi» boat! fAmutatue stndllii ])er- 
tatatn eoneadat qui cnm Fatre et δμίτίΐιι Sauoto vivit el regtut Dou» 
In wa c ala •μοιι]ο(ιιιιι. 


Μ in tni«oricnrdia, qua mortnoe ooe peco&tta con• 
■ filSa too, ut formam eeni ocdperet qui omnia fonnavit, 
at ^i «at in daiteie Keneraretor in rarau, ut involnratnr In pann'w qui 
«dorabalar b atellla, ut jacercl in prsewpio qnl regnabftt b ca«Io: in- 
▼ooantibaa nobia aurom niajMtatbi tnae propitiatua ndcommndii, donaim 
boc ptr BuAUlatD liia« mimricordia« «nrilatcm, ut qni cxiiitavimwi d« 
natMtale mil tai, qui vel as virgW nutue vel ex Spiritii nuicU) io- 
gtaantna aai. iMtraanwa pneoaplia ^jn» qnibua no» «'loculc rul M>Iiit«ui. 
AaMta, per dooiifunii noatnun Jaaum Chrialnm Fillum trmm, «gni 
tacna, «Ic. 


■ MIL 

■ Aob• 

In the Ambrasiaa nud Mozarabic liturgies tlieee for• 
malaiiee are preceded by η saJutation.* St. Isidore gives 
tbem u the two Drat pmyeiB of the Moss. They form, 
ia fact, only one prayer, and that not the first ; but 8t. 

' II «a* al thia pnint that tho EiMorPaaoeocourrad ΓαηηηΓ)^ in Ibe 
Milan rar oafL The Attimn gava lh« %\gmd tor it lif tbe «rorcb, fVn» 
AobfCrf Hf ilvo adder): ErtgiU πη ad ttratimunt le «lilult tlie mpunac, 
AJ U JXimine, WH given. Cf. Ibe Id Kipir, a frtiqeoot nvpnnw in Ihe 
Onek tilnrgiea. At tba pr««"nt day tliu woidf Siigtta m* od omUimtm 
at* enltted tttu Λα tltnisicsl boobt, and llie Maponaa Μ I» Domtne baa 
DO IflBfaa. ocaueqwvllj. ita nalutal ΙΟΜ•, 

208 CDBieTus woitsiiip: rrs oniors aku rroumos. 

Isidore nndorecood that tho Wus did not be^ until 
after the singing of the OfTertory.* At Milan tbia prayer 
waa called the OrtUio super eindonmi. In the oUier 
Oallican liturgies it baa no special name. It ia evidently 
the counterpart of the prayer Sitp0r dlaia, or Sicreta, in 
the Roman Missal la the Uoiarabic Liturgy the invi• 
tatory is separated from the pmyer is the following 
manner : the prie.^l, having said Otrtntu, the choir nag/t 
the triaegion, Άγιον, ayioc, aytoc. Domtne Deut. rex lutenu, 
tibi laude» tt gratia* ! llten the priest proceodt : SecUmam 
ecmctam tatholimm in omtiontbua i» mente AoiMnnu; tU 
tam Doiiiinm fitlt et ape Η carUaU prepitiu» ampliart 
dijnetur; amnejt lapxoa, captivo»., infirmot at^u p«Ttgri»o» 
in merUe habeaauis, tU eoa DotattuM pnpititu miimtn, 
sanare, et con/orlare digiutvr. The choir answers : Ptaat», 
{uttrntf omnipotent Dem! and then follows the pnyer. 


10. The Ilmtliii{f of Pie DiptychM. 

Οββμλιν : Nomina di/KJiHoi-um ideo hora iUa 
Joniur fua paUium tollitur, quia tunc trit rtatirr^io 
morhiorum «iwmdo admimU Chrieto eatlum acut 

A formtilnry for the diptyoha ta presorved in 
Mozarabic Liturgy — 

ORiiriinl Dno Domino obktionein eaccnlote• nottri,* papa BooiMuii 

' Ik RnrJ. Off,. 1. 1Γ): "Onio Ainctn tniHoe cl omtionDin ςβΠι« obhta 
Den Morlflda «nuDcnuiliir primnm a nnobi IVtm μΛ Uiitilatn•, oqj^ 
oeliibntiancm una mdcniqiK.' modci unlTiirwiu pnngtt oiUa (iLi• oogbt (u 
ba luMrjiralixl). PiimK mruntiliyiu onitio ailmonilioiti• cat Βτ^α pt^ataa, 
ut FXcJlcmtur aa etoninduiD D«aia : ιιη<Ί»ι<1ιι Jnvooatkni* id D«aa cM, at 
clMDOnter «uiniplni prM'^'t Hildiiun ubUiiancaqtM eomm." 

* Tba Itlahop• r^ itpkiii, Ίΐιβ ouu of tii# Pope oagkl alinja lo h• 
gireii. Council οΓ VaMoo (S2tl>, o. 4: "Hi hoe ooUtJiHtaa tiMum Μ 




Ml nUiflll, pn Η et pro omni dno ac i^ebibn» οοΗμΙμ eibimot ecu• 
rfgoalk vtl pro iminn• ftaturnitaU. 

Dam eObnitit οΒίτβηί prMbyteri, dkooni, clerid ac iwpitll oinnuiiat- 
tABlnii iti hoDorein auioionim, pro no el pro mtU. 

Bf. Oflvnint pro m ot pro imivitnu Uratcriiiulo. 

Ftefentee coni(n«raottt30innn bmUmiinonim apoalaloruni «t mnrtynim, 
shHeaD' MocUe IhriM VtrgiDW, ZuctuiiiM, Joann», Infiuilum. Petri, 
ν^βΛ. Johuinb, JmoU, Andrcee, FliilfppI, Thonuc, BaTtholomoei. Matthei, 
Jacobt, SSiBODia «1 JncUe^ BlatUbiM, Uuei, et Luoao.— Ip. Kt omaiura 

ItaB ffo ιρΜίΩχιβ ρααβαπίϊηοι, HfUril. Ath&nult, Hnrlini. Λπΐ' 
bnrfl, AngnrtlBi, FuJgeDlii, LuDdrt, kulori, «to.— ^I. Kt «mniuiu 

I will quote also a IbrmulAry for the reciting of the 
(liptycIiB ucordiiig to Uie use of au Irish Cburch. It ie 
to be rouoil in liiu Stowv MiBHul, insartvil io the middle 
of iJie if^nun/9 of the dead used in the Koman Mass.' 


CuiH* omulbiut iii toto mundo aflereatibiu lutcnflciuin spiriUle Doo 
Purl et ΙΐΙίο ct S]>Iriliil «aiicto micti* μ TDiienibilibiui Mcordotibiu. 

nl MSMii dedMl ΡΒ|>αβ quIouioiiDc «liJi κρΜίοΙίοι• tumeriiuHl, in noatri• 
mhImu• ivrltvlar." 

' Tbf morAtf^iiotm . . . iit/utttuinuinflhittoliMnalaUrrMldlliuii. Ilie; 
M« MM pravldail Tor in Ilio fotiuukry wbidi gon bcfnro: •ΐ}>π•(υΙοηι<η el 
uartff ■>■ Tbc DMiiM of tliii murtjrn Imvu dinapiiuaml. 

* Tlii• fariDiilafjr itiiuC illffiT wiiluly fnim iu prlmltm' ii'il. It Iim. 
mrwUioliwi, pruKTrvnl ctrrtAin vu«Li},'« οΓ iinliquily, ncjtalily lliu giUDping 
of the liotj CuvTrann trilb lln.-• •'rAitary Jcsit. Miilnllun otimptuc• >t with 
tin ocniMtaiontivo formulary, wbirli njipoiir• nl lint end of Ibe Hulu οΓ 
AorUui. BUmp i>r Aril*, of tbo itttli cnnlurj (HIkuc, Pal. Ι^Ι,τοΙ IsvUL 

' Vairto, Isr. (4(.i pp. 137. S40, Thu roriaulnrjr ή inlcrnqitod dj α 
UtMJ and a pmyrr οΓ wblvh «υ nimd not likke account. Tbotc piooci 
«w^r **» intercalakJ Iwna (10. 3U) (Wnrrvn, p. 9(W> in a kt« hpknd- 
wiMng. Tlw DMBM ία the Liiany, buUi Latin Miil Iriab, ore «U !■ tbo 
noatit•. anil are proo*d«il by thn word .■ίη»**, and followed by Ont pro 
wAlr. tn Iho priBlliva liit— thn nnly mte whioli I cite bcm— tho Idtin 
and Irlab hum• ate all iaolatod. aail in lli« (^vnitire caM% na tbc conatrnctiou 
of IL•* acatenM rBqerea. 

* I havo rattaiDd tbo uaunl i>rtl»iRnipli]r for Ibo ortUnary Icil, bnt out 
for ibo pmpvr uann. 


al&rt MDwr nmtur N. presbyter, pro μ at pn> anis ot pro Utiu» 
occMae coetu cttlxrilcMi, ot pro ootnmoinomiido uatUetko gmdn 
veoanbiUuiii («tiiMdiHiiiD, jiropbetaraEa, •portoloran et iMrtyraa Μ 
oiBnimn qnotjao «nctorain, at pro nob» dominaoB Demn nortnis 
ojtonro <lif^MDtiir : Ablit,' Zolli. Enoe, Koe, H«fehMd«cb, Abndie, 
Ihc^ Jacob, JoMpb, Jub, Mosi, Esut.' SuBiMlb, Darbl, Bdlu, 
HdcMiM, EMaiae^ Ilorcnitito, Kwchdu, Daaielia, Uotfre,* Obi, 
.lobnl, Amu•, AbdiRc, .toiiHc, Hioluao, NauiuD, AnbtcoCi Qojibouiae, 
AglAe, Satihariae, MaUcblae, Tobtao, Auaniae, Auil••, MfaabaB^ Hadi•- 

item [πΓκηϋηιη,* JohooTi» Baptisto «t Vii^mi Hafiaei Patri, PWli, 
AodriikC, Jiu^abi, Jobanniii, IHIijii, UarUialomae, Tona•^ llatfaot, JaooH 
SimoiuB, Taibci, MoJiaoi,^ Alanil, Lucae, SteTanl, ComQi, CSpriaiii ei 
coteronnn martmim; 

Paiill, Aiiloni, ot cotenmiTn jialrnni faoretnl 8«ti ■ r 

item epiaeopo ni m : Martini, Grigoti, itaxiini, Kdkas, t^trid, 
ratrici, Sacnndinl, ΛιιχΐΙΪ, Iwrniiti, Cerbani. Bn-I, Catkeri, Ibori, 
Atlbi, Gonial, MaiciiuBut, Moiaeiui, Seiioiii. Fmbarri, Caaai.' 
Colniani, Ciioni, Ucvluoli, Laiiroiitj, ftbUoli, .lerti,* Aado, Ougm, 
Tigermdi, Hutnliti, CUonani, Butli, Eogeni, Deolaoi, CaitibaiB, HaSfr 

Item ot aaoonlotDni : Tinniani, Gianni, OcQgu«M, Ed(U, OlIiK 
Drciutini. Breudini. Caiiiuiobi, ColuEobe, Uulnmbu. Colmiuii, CoragdB. 

η umiiEuni panaanliiiiii, qui noa in doniioica piKW piaiuaii 
niDt ab Adam ueqnc fai hollcnitun diem, qnoma Dem do^m 
DomioaTit et DOviL>* 

' Abelia. 

' Jem = Jnhiia. 

' lUdnc. 

* The Hnl; Iiin(><«tit4 

■ MalUiiu. Hki iuudl- U rcpi-atoil t«ioe to Bmr. 

■ The dnurt ot titaetu. 
' ffiiKlj oiwcL— Ta.] 

■ 'I'iic tlim.' iiDiiic-duIr inwcafnr* οΓ ί^ΐ- AnipBUiir In Uw «* tt 
CanirriiiLry. Aiiiciuliii" liiiiuclf i* umildil. t'iGari; oaing to ui a* 
ef tiionlttur, ')r«rUieixipyMt [or frmCrltloDBlipalliy lo hiiB.— Ta.}. 

* "ΙΓ. oa U probnlik. Uie Haalmca htw Mcntiannd tra• Madniala 
nf Tallaclil, Uiia piH -t Iha ηβηΐΜηΙρΙ Bwl luvo brt« whltoa aAcf 
Λ.ι>. T9i, in «bicb frar tliia UAnp died." Wliitlty Btoba, of>. Λ, 

■* ίίβ manuaoript. 



The ledtatioo of the diptycbs wus foUowixt by Lhe piuyur 
ΡοΛ namina: — 


^Ι^ΒβΒΚφ•, •jUMtumiK, Domioe Jeau oomipoleoB Dcue, ntcrificniin 

^r bldb ollktom quod pro tui hwUema InauuatjoDc ■ nobis otTerlor; 

V et per <na dc propidatne *Λ»β\ιο iil supentltibuB vilAm, defuactia 

reqidecQ tribiui eunpiternKni. Nominu quorum nml rcciutiono com- 

pJoxa Minbi jnbou in uunitAM. pro quibu* AppAruieli b unie, 

SaiTUor mimdl, qui oum coMtemo Pstre vivli ct regmie, etc. 

This is Lhe Uiird of tho prayers of ibc Moss awording 
to Su Isidore.' 

11. Jlu Kies of Pom. 

GeeuaJK: Paeem atUem ieUo Chrvitiani* mntuo prv• 
/mwU «i ptr mwt»vm osck/umi Untant in ae eariiaiis 

The foUowLDg pntyor accoiiipiiiiivtl ϋιο curomony of the 


ooLLcOTio Λ» rjumi. 

OnmipoteoB sempitenie Deus, qui Inino diem Inounttiomi toM 
Λ paHs boatao IkriM νίτρηίχ eonseccuti, quiqu «Uaooidkm 
vdiMtam per ItaaipMBiuoom ligui Telerin ouiii ftngolis ct horaiubni 
pv iDCanatiou• mjiuriuin, Upi» vigukris jniizisU; ik famiUM 
toM in bM Cfllebriuti} kotitlnm ; Qt qui to oonaortctn iu oamln 

' Of.Ht. "Tcrtu Βυίοιι i-ffiuiditiir pro DffcirDlibn• tiro pro defuoctli 
UtUboi^ at pw lihn •αττΙΙίπίιιηι tvuliun ronaoquuitur." 

■ ΛΛϋ, In tho priMtH] cdiilon. 

■ Udcac, op. riL: ■■ Quarln ^ pent huvc• infpitnr pro Mculo ρατύ, iit 
ehwiteta wwdtiati oninn ύιτΐοτηι ditnii• (Hii'mDcnlo ccvporfa PI ηαιιιυΐηύ 
I'lirMI ratnwIcDtnr, ψύ» noD nolpit diMoniloDrai ouiiuquMn Cluiitl 
todiTiaiUli' (ηηιΐΒ." 


(iroptiiqultate laotonur, nd «amaortun ciTTinn uiibileii)^ wafer quo• 
oor]>uii AiUumpMm evciutl, penhicaQtur ; «t' eoiuttpM• per extmiM 
eooploxA jiui);a[iliir, iit jurj^i non pUettl Iitlaraptlo, qd U tnctoron 
giuideiit [d aua natiira pet ounle Teulme emlaberaimB. Qood Ipae 
pn«aUre dignerii, qui cum P*lt«, eto. 

In iJio Mozarablc Litur;^, wMdi alone luie preserved 
both tlic unlor and fortuulu-iue ol' thie ceremony, ibe 
prayer ad I^ieem ia said beforo the KUa of Fuaee; 
then follows the long Salutation, which in the Syio- 
Byzastine litiii:gie3 precedes the Eucbaiistic ^nayor — 

Omtia Dei ratrn <iraiii[iQt«Dlie, p&x ao lUleetlo donlu βοιΜ Jon 
Clirifiti, Qt cammtiiifcstio Spiijtue Nincli «it aiiniper 

Kir. Et cnm liomlnibut bonoo volunUtu. 

Quomodo aaUlin pace in fooitc. 

During the giving of the Kies of Peace the choir singB 
arwpond — 

PBcem raeiun da vobu ; poticm niMm comnmilo voV» ; ngo Mnit 
itiuiidiin dut; pticcm do vobix. — Ϋ. Novum raocidahun da voTm at 
diligKti« invioom. — Pacom moaiu, *Λο.—Ϋ. Gloria t>t lienor Vtn «t 
Fills et 8piriiui uiicto.— Pdoom muun, eta. 

In tlie present Ambrosiau rite the Kiss of Petee 
occum, as at Home, inuuodiotely bufore the Oom- 
inuoioD, bat this was not ite origiiial iwsilion. Vna 
Pope Innocent's letter to Deoontius, written at tl>e 
beginning of the fifth century, we aee that tJie ooBtom 
of givisg the Kiss of Peace before the consecration 

' dtoue raob tijiroMinn da tic inUr miul ΐιο here anp^od. 

' CI«in. "Ή χι1)ΐιι r«S warroiipBrD^•! fl>«v «ttl h i-/iw^ τνν evfit» 4pi£> 
IqiTsu Xpirrau nai )i Htinerla tai- silou ΠηύμΒΤΟί l«^ti larrk tirtmr ΙψΛκ' 
Tbc Lalin mid* onljr tlio «onU J'fil'fi and i^M I Ike «luilc οΓ the tvmetattK 
Mng nDthiii); πΐ'>η' tliua α tranalatiua from Aa Ontek. Tho fotinaluiH 
of 111* (ireuk Had Oricnlol lituiRiv• dsfatl non «tidvlj ftun tbti toil tt 
tbn ApwtoUuu Caualitutioiu. 





pnyen (atUs eon/eela mj/steria) was in fall obMTVUioe ia 
Kortb Itolr. A yestigg of this cusbom is to bo found in 
the ioviUtOTy of thu deecon, Paeem kabeie, which occurs 
to tbo Unuieso Ului^gy beforo the proyur 9Hper tin• 
demem. A» for tho reading of (ho diptjchi. wo aeo 
f^m the suae docnmvnt that it also took pUoo before 
the Prefico and the Canon. It hne now, owing to the 
adoption of the Romiui Cauou, dixappoAnsd ftotn Uie 
ArabroftJan Lilur;^. 

12. TL• EnfAariiUe Pra^. 

QSKHAUl : Siiraum, eorda ideo mtetrdoa haben admonet 
III nulla togiUUio terr^iM maiuat tit puUnihw ttMfm lU 
Kara $acrae oUaiumi», etc. 

After the long sftlutation given above, the UosaiatNO 
liturgy foroiahea the foUowii]<; tuxt for the initial 
9ini^: — 

Introfbo >d altar• TM, 

— Ad Dtinii 4« taetiecat junntuMm neain. 
Avn» ad Domniom ! 

— tlabeDiw ail Uominaon. 
pnnniD eordal 

I^Temot ad Domic um. 
■e DoibAbo WNtro JwD Cbrfelo iSlio Dei, qni o4 ϊα eacfia, ϋϊκιιαιι 
lipHMgoe grailai nfenniiM I 

— Dlgnain et jaMnn <Λ. 

ΊΙμο Uie celebrant begina the Enchoristic prayer, 
called amtt^atio} or imvuitiUio in Gaol, and alalia m 
SpaiD. This last dotif^atiou. to which St. latdora vrit- 
iKBun.' o^ght to bu compaiud with Iho onalogoos GnMk 

• ting. T«r., TUU 8. MatUnl. II. H. Till* la An term amt ^aaaUr 
tOfViftd in ibe Merovinn^iiui llliir][ir«, ui'l ία tho BoUiia SaofWBMitaiT, 
bnt «e ind ^UBMrfaat fn^nnntl; ίιι Hit' Uttah (tttMcm» and UiauU 
tJ^llfatniimi ill* U-rm immutoUa. 

< Op. lid " Qulnla dcalqiic inbrriur illalio In ΜυΐΕΐίΟΜίκαιΐ) obkliuaU. 


term αινφομα. The GaUican ooatettnlJo is tlie equivalent of j 
the Uoman I'reface. 

Vcre disQUin et jasram Mt, aoqaum et uIiiCst• est, d<m tibi gnti•• 
tftn, Doinino mmote, I'ltter omnipouu, μΛοώλ Deiu; qui• Iio£b 
dtmifiiH iioiUtr Jonu CliriMhi• (lignatiui o«t vwUr• Banndmn, piocaril 
de Hcrario t-otpurii virgiuoJie ot deMxndit piotete de οΜΗΐί CwiiMiuut 
luigoli "Qlorin in «xcoItiH" cam fanmanitu cloniU Salv>torik Oudl 
tlenlqui! iiirba uMtluLitl anf^lonun, qnU tent regm SOMepIt Mtenmn• 
Miuia licnta facta i!it leTiiplutii pretiMiun pottaoi doniiDDiii doiitooiuai. 
(jcnnit Miim pro ncatris dolictia viUm prMclinim ut mots pa&gnur 
ainara. IDa eulm Tiecerft quae humonam non riovenutt iDUtuuo Dmui 
porta» monionmt. Natiw ert in mundo qui eempor vidt ot nnt in 
cmIo, Joeos CbrisUiB FQiiia tuns domluua noicer. Per quern na^ntMcB 
liuun taiidnnt Anguli, etc. 

Here follows the singing of the SatKtvs, which is commoD 
to all the liturgiea. Tli» Usxt of the Mozenbic Misnl 
vnrice iu no respect from ihm of the liomuo text at preMOl 

iu tLSO. 

The prayer that follows, CoUeeiio post Sancitu, eerves 
merely to couiivct ttiu Sanet\t« with the account of the 
institittioa of tite Eucliarist. Λβ in the Oriental litorgie•.' 
it begiutt regularly with thu worda Ven Sanetti». St. 
Isidore does cot distinguiali it from the prayer whteh 
precedes it, but in tlie liturgical books it is clearly ieptzat*; 
As α rare exceptional instance, the words Vere SanOu* do 
not appear in the Jifisxtle Qothicum at this point in the 
Maes for the Nativity. 

POST e&Kcnm. 
Gloria In exceteln Deo ot in Ccm pu liMniaSiuB bonac voliautbl 

Iu qun cllam ct αΔ Du\ lainlriii t4>rrMlriuin nvnlnrarum rlHutaaiMt 
cuclMtiuni Dnin-rntB* ptuvomtor ct BotanHa in rwt•** tnnl&tnr, qaoi 
Sdlvnturo <Ic ic<>tioni Diiitl ηαικοαίι: bIiu η uncle Mque aid rt w -l w 

' — A7iei >ip J &, ίληβί,,. κβΐ wariyun . . . (CL CJ•.) — "Ayui Λ fltorO** 
rw iyivf imJ νίσηι a7<a>e'ut^t tvpiei . . . (JnC.)- — fU^frqi ji^ irrt*, •■ 



Qok >d{in>iiUM)iiavil rtdenipliu iiattm, tenit Aiitiqiu espeolaUo gentinm, 
ailM prniiili tonrtectl» roortaoniin, junqno pracfulGot aeternn expec- 
lUfo Wtoran ; per Chrienra domfnnin notlnuu. Qui pridie quua pro 
aoMm omnhifn nlute patorctur. . , . 

Η The AmbroeUi) liturgy of tlio preeent day follows 

" here the order and text of the Romiin Canon, but lhw« 

still renimiie ία it a remarkablu tnioc of it.i original cod• 

Lformity with tho Gallican nmuig«incDt. Id the Mum for 
Satnrday In Holy Week the Sanetiu ie couneoted n-ith 
the Qui pridie by η single and UDiuiiftl fonaoliry of lui 
nnmistalcably (jallicau typo: 


row «nscTfs. 

Vtm nncln, ror• IwiunUoIiw ilomioii* iioater Jmii» Clii^itiw flllua 
Una, Qnl, cam Deue omet majestatlf. dc<»ceiulil Ho cmIo, fnrmHin 
Mivl ψΛ pramu periomt «Diioepit, et *γαχΛα ραΐί di^wtna w\ iii oiini 
i|iMD ipM focerat libonnil. Cnde ■ ot boo pftwImJi: luoriHciuiu liln 
oArtoraa pro hk quoa ok «qua et SpiritD saucto regvniiram diKuntiiti 
Λ, Λλβλ vm ηηΰήοηηη omnium pcccnUinim, iit inveulres tan in 
Chfiato Jen domitia ικβίπ; pro qulbtie tlbi, Domini:. iiii|ip)ic?x fundi• 
ΠΜΜ prooM at oomiua ooram pariterquo rannilt tui iioiiuraloriH Kcriptu 
hkbeu in libro vtvuntiiun. Per ChriKtmn dominnin noiuum, qui pridiii 
qua pro notrs «t uniniuni «tlutc p*t«rotur, kcdijene puiem, Mo.* 

Id the aiident Gallicau books tliu aocount of tJie 
ioititutiOQ of the Eucfaniiil is always omiltud. or is merely 
indicated by tho first words of it. Tbc celebiftnt roust 
haTo known it by heart. The following is ibe Ambrosiin 
text : — 

Qni pfidie qnaiii pro noatro et omsiiiin nlute patoretnr, icdpiene 

■ ThbMBt«Bo* I• vm>w\iuL uuiloKom) to the flaw tgltur ηΓ the Km* 
Inr Butrr in tbc Bonuui nar. 

■ li i* liBidl; DcnaMrT I» «Imw ΒίΚαιτΙοη Ιο Uib fMt Uwi Uiu prinUiil 
MiMkU, ud an>n Um blt> nianuKiripl Μ|«ϋ• of the Middle Afe•. Imt* 
•dcfited hem Uir flnt p«t li tbu Ibonui Cuum. ollbongb Ibb \ϊλ3μ bi 
11• ilenUc aaplnj-nii'iiL 1 tvtn to Uiu eeciuucolnij i>t BioeiNk Bind UiuM 
of a ■latUBi' «ge 

216 ntnisTUN wobahip: its obioix and kvolution. 

pUMtD elenvit ooulc* «d to. Dnuin Patnini mam Ofunipotmiem. tfbi 
gntiu i^cM bea«db(tt, f^git, duditqiM dladpnlk rata dioen id m•: 
"Hoe an «nin eoTptu mtmin." SimiS nodOi poaUa qoui et m tUum 
Mt, acoIpleoB nlIo«m elevftvit oonlo• ad oaaloa, od te, Deinii hbttt 
aanm emnipolentoni, itoin tibi gratia• agau. banvJuit. tradtdit dimpolk 
«nie, dicene ad «ea: « Aooiplte etblbllo ex womna•; hie aat ealsi calU 
aangnim• moi, norl et aetanii tealAiiMDti, mytteriuin fide!, qui pro tcUi 
«■t pro miillii olTundMnr In remlMionem peccaloium." MwftiWna φιφφιτ 
et diccoi ad con : *' Iliiec quotieancunuiue Γαοβιΐΐΰι, ίη meAfn ooinin«Bio- 
rationem fAciotiii, mortem mcAra praodlcabftia, reMrraelioneni mtain 
adnonUahitie, adrenlnra mMim «pembitia, dopcc itcfiHU da oaelta TWihw 
tul von. 

The rollowing U the text of the Homi&bie ICasal :-- 

[Adeala,* ada«to^ ileau, hono gwatifex. in niodio nirutii, neat foa 
nadio diacipDlonitD moram; aaootUlo• li*no oliktionocn nt 
asmami» per inaiuu aanetl ongcili tni, aancte dnmlno ao radeBpUr 

DomSnua noster Jesue ChriHtuii πι qtu iioote Indobatnr] aooapk 
{lanem ot ;tnitia« ngena benrdixit nc ^egit, dedilqnu diKipoBa nil, 
dicong : " Αοοίρΐΐβ «t manducatc : Iioc eiit oorpna mooai tpma pn vobb 
irodetur. Quotiwoumi]ue DiaiiJucaveritia, lioo fadle ia maam eon- 
meinonitioneDi."— IV- Amen. — 8inulit«r nt calioom poatqaun cMOBTlt, 
lUcena: "Hie ott cnllx novi («riamcnti in nieo Mngniao, qni pr» ToUf 
at pro mnltiB offnndetnr in remUdonom paccatnnini. Qnotlaaeitmqna 
Uberitta, boo bctte in moam ceramomorailoiMm.*'— IV- Amen.' ^taoUt- 
«oumquo tnandiicavoritin |>uiom liuDo «t calioom tttuni biboritia, MOflan 
Pomini anaimliabitia, douec «uuiet in claritatam de cnelik— R/. Araaik 

The last eeateooe in each of those fon&alaiiee ύ 
VDggeeted by a passngQ Γγοπι St. F«u] (1 C<nr. xi. 26). A 
slmDiU' adoption appuure in the Liturgy of the Apostolical 

■ Tlic prnfirr AiIb-I» rniinol tx' primitiro, for tn the Mcravinglan I 
πΓ llie nvnoth ntid riglith ranlnriw the Vtn Sanriat alwaja pNcedM 
immodinlelj tbo Qiti priJit. The wmLi Shimimt• tunUr, He., fatn a eon- 
nectin^ liuk. I linvc piit thpio, Ι<^Ίΐιοτ iiith tlic jUita piajrvr. u 
bniokct* up ίο tli>- pciiiit tn «ΙιίοΙι tbu text Uennm ^famtDatusll; mn— rfwl 
Willi the Unt worda uf llio QiitprUifi. 



titutiofu, uid in those of St. James, St. Basil, St. 
Crril, and of St. Basil as used by tho Copte. 

Tbe ReroeniODt of tho Mozambic and Ambrottian lilur- 
fftm with eotih other, and with Ibu Eastern litnrf^oe. in 
ft dflteil of tliu importonco, i» a rtimorkable coiacidoDce. 

13. The Epieletit. 

Then follovs ■ pmyor ' in which tltun; is nn olnborftUon 
of two themuit, one of the comtneinonuion of the Lord, 
•ad tbo otlier of llic EnchAristic duuige effected by th« 
€φβπιϋοο of Uio Holy Spirit. It iwtnetiniee happen», more• 
over, that neitlier of these ideas is found expressed. 1 will 
give betv Cwo speoiment, lioth of them t&keti I'roiii theitfwNt/e 
Octkiatm. the QibC for the Mil») of the Nativity, and the 
seoood for that of the Cimitmeuiion. The prayer in prefaced 
by a nibric, wliich appears in the different foiiiis. /'iwi 
uereia, I'ott pridk, Post myriCT-rxai. 

Post Sf.ckkta.— CAr^lniot. 

CrediniM, Domino, ndvcntura tnnm; recolirotu poMdatiBin tnatn. 
Cor|>M buua id [«ocatonuii aailionim romUtioncni confnctuin est, 
ΜΙφώ ΜΒΜμ lain in piDtmin aontrac ictlomi'tioniii efTutiU «M; qui 

I PtfN et Splritn Mncto *i*ig A ngnae m iuectil[a Mcciilonim]. 


Xlato Doe, Domioe, inetiiulA cl praoccpU rotiDcnioo, luppliclter onunua 

Mi boo acrifiiniiin «lucipen! vl buneilicAre et unctLficare dlgner!*; ut 

I* Bobii «ncheiietia Icgitimn in ino l-'iliiijnr tni nomitic et Sptiitoe 

* laidatP. 171. rJI.: "Γΰπι *eiU ΐΊ btno aucMdll, ninfnnoalio 
■nli, ut «btelin qntr Dm nStortnr, «utctiflcato ^ (*pirilDiii Miictl . 
OwtMl o«r]»t1 Of wo^dIiiI coiiflmni-lnc.'' 

' The minla «hidi fuUew wv α mal of onatuuuiry |>Iinui», vlur>H-U4ia1lc 


nncti, b ΙηιικΓοτιηαΙύϊΐιοιη oeqiori• nc ΜΠ{[ΐιϊηί• ilomini Del ooetri Jw» 
Chrivti, unigoniti tiu, par qnam onale CKu, onttA bsnedJcii, bene£<U 
wnotitlou i>t BuiotlflcatA ΐΑΐςΜι, Deiu, qui in triniUte |ie(fecta vivw ct 
regiue b nocnlii xoeculoranL 

These shoi-t fonnulnrios have been replaced In the 
MiUnuse ns<t tiy tlitt UJtde et mtmorcs, etc., contiiming tho 
Romitu Canon. Dut even here alao we can dUtingiiUh 
in tho mo8t nncicnt mantiacripte a trace of confonnity with 
the Gsllican uso. Id these manuscripts the prayers Unit il 
mtmores. Supra quae, Stipplices tn rogaimt». Memento, end 
Jfobi» pu>que, are omitted on Maondy Thorsday. aod are 
replaced by the following formulary ' : — 




Παοο boimtui, tioeo oeli-bnimiM, tuo, Dotnhic, jinMCopU MrrentM ι 
1(1 commiinioiiiitd iuvlolabUom hoc Iptuin quod corpus Domini siunlmn 
morloRi itominicnm nuntinmiu. 

14. Thf PraeUoH. 

Οβεεμλιχ: Con/raetio vera et commvctia eorporU Demiii\ 
tantie mj/stenU dedarata . . . In kae eotifraetione tacerdo» 
vuH auffere; ilndem debet addere, quia tane eaetextia terrenis 
mitcfntur et ad orationtm nuvnioMo cadi aperiibjUur. Saetr- 
date autttii /roj^pnte. mppltx eiernt psailit antiphcnam, quia 
[CAneio] patiente dolore mortis, omnia' trementtx trMala 
nnt tlementa. Oratio vera dominim pro hoe ilndfm poniiur 
vi omnii oratio nostra in dominica oratione ctaudatwr. 

The Fracdoa waa a cooiplicuted matter; a certain 

' riir Cannn Tor llmindj Tbnnda; «m publUlicd !>; Hualgri ι 
α.•.,ι-•<" Γ'Ι»•, νι•Ι. i. p. l:i:t) fnim a mMiiKript «liicli new bridvfitti'&i•' 
MiLi'iiii- I'rnlli (dieerlbod hy Moo*. D^lalO. Op. tit, p. 20β> Λ hUttt 
«liili»' ui It «n• pill furlh by l>d|[. C«ciMl, iii bU Xotttia LltmtfUr 
AwAf'-ri'itiii: 18ίΙΐί. 

■ 6ie. I linvo xiiipliod Chiltto; nmettiini: monr «t«iiu vnaluiK. 



amonnt of supentition was imported into tUe ceremony 
et an eaxlj date. The particles of tlie Host were arranged 
upon the paten in such a manner as to represent the 
human form. Ilie Council of Tours (567) denounced this 
practice, and decreed that tho portions shonld be arrauged 
in the form of a cross.' This is atiU, with a slight 
vftiistion, the Mozarabic custom. The particles of the 
Host are disposed as follows, each having its special 
deeiguation coirespondii^ to a mystery in the life of 









' " ut «προ* ΙΐΜηύ>ί in altui non in inutginario ordiue, wd ιχΛ> απιαύ 
titnlo oooipciiiatur" (Cone. Tut., iL o. 3). It wa• to oorreot tbo «ame abnae, 
I beliQTe, that Pc^e Pelagiut I, wrote (aboat SSS) a letter to Sapaudni, 
Biihop of Arte• (Jaff£,9T8]: "Quia etiain Uliua non cxoe«a*,*ed aoclcrla 
dicam. icdditurni rat rationcni. quod apnd vo• fdolum ex limilagliie, re 
Iniqmtatibiii noatriil palienter fieri andiTifflui, et ex ipao idolo fideli 


In Ireleod Uie Hoeb was dividud io seven difloraDt 
ntanners, nccording to die foetinla;> at ordinary iUta» 
ioto 6νυ poiticloe, on the feeUvaU of eainte (confeasors) and 
viiKina into Huvon, on tho foetivils of mutyrs into eight, 
on Sondays into nine, on the feeliraU of the ApoaUes into 
eleven, on the kalends of Jaauaiy and on Thursday in 
Holy Week into twelve, on the Sunday after tlaeter and on 
Ascenaiou Day into thirteen, and on the festtvale of the 
Nativity, Easter, and Pentecoat, into eUty-five. They were 
arranged in the form of a cross, with certain addiliaiial 
complications when they were oumeroue. At the com• 
munion each of the parts of the otosh, or of ite additjona, 
was distributed to a special group of persons, that is, prieeta, 
motdcs, etc. 

During this ceremony the choir chanted an antipboo, 
which wflA called in tho Anibroaian Liturgy tlie Gm- 
fraetoritunu A ohant of this cbamoter is implied in tlM 
Mozai-abtc Liturgy, but in the books now iu uae it is 
replaced by the recitation of the Creed. The following text 
oociirs only tu Uio Stowu Missal ; and il ts to be noted 
it is not an antiphon, but α rospood. 


Fiat, Domino, mUericonlia ina sopor not qnemadraoilniB iitefavluua 
in to. 

CognoTcrunt Dominuni, aUuInia, in Γπκτίαοο jmuiU, allohiia. 

Va.\iit quom bitDginiiu coqtue est Domini iiottri Je*u CbriM], allelid•. 

Qilix ηυοπ) beDudicimUK, alleluia, «angniecet doinlntnodtri JeraCbriiti, 
alleluia. In remlsnoncm poccntonim iioatrurain, oUelni•. 

Kint, Dominu loisoncurdiu liiu Kujxtr ngs, nllelniB, (|iioiniilnioduB 
Bp^raviuiiiH in Ic, nllolmik. 

Cognoveniul Duuiinum, Alleluia. 

μομιιία. quMi oniuuiqno pro ni-rlbi, Ληη». ocnle•, BBnii* ae dircn• afavnlli 
utwbni diitrtbnlT" 

■ Λ Lrmli»! ία lri*h un ilic Uiim (u-iilb oetAaiJ} La the StDWD Waal. 
WUUeH Αϋολη, p. ID. [Wmko, 1. ο , p. Ml.— Tl,] CT. abotv. p. 1*8, ι 




Wlien tbe chonl yna eaded. th« Lord's Prayer,' wiUi, as 
in all the liturgieA, a abort preface al Uio beginniag and an 
elaboration of the LiUra tua a maio al thu und, was then 
end. I append the text of the lattur from tbe MitaaU 
GotAicum for Cbristmae Day — 

Noo nmbo |ira«naiMotea, Puer euiote, tnorito, ted domiiii notri 
Jmc ChiM Fffii tid eliadlHitee Impttio, «udraiiM diccre : 

RUtr Boalar, ete. 

lAera ao•, αοαοϊροΙβΜ Dvue, ab omoi male, ώ omui periculo, ei 
•BModi 0« in aumi open bono, [icrfoota veritiui ot vera ΗΙιοιϋϊ, Daun, 

ngau ID BMCiik MVCuJorum. 

Tbe Fahr notUr was wid. Dot only by the |>rivel, but 
also by tbe ooogregatioD.* At present thu participation of 
tbe congregation Is confined, in the Mozarabic rite, to tbe 
reciling of Amen to eaob of tbe iKtitions in the Palrr 

Then came the i-ite of the Commixtio. The oelubiunt 
dipped one or more of tbe consecrated partiolce iulo the 
chalice. In tbe Uoxarabic rite of ibe preeoot day it ia 

tthe- particle regn»i'n which is used for this puqioec. The 
celebrant holds it over the clialice and saya thrioo— 


Vkh loo do triLa Jado, radix David, olloluia, 

To which is said tbe responeu — 
QbI aedos ei^r Cberuliini, nulix Duvid, Allduie. 

' Hi• i« ibo ImI cf thu MivcB |itmyon oaiiBnalod iy St. tiidoro («p. 
«M.}: 'Bumo Dltiow cal nrnllo ηιια DamiiiD• n»t«T diodpnloi ruim ormru 
iMdtDlt," «le. In βρύο it «m cualomiry to tvdte tlw Nloeoo Crvcd 
batbn lb« Palff HMlfr. Tliii nuU'in wn* iiiKllliiti-•! by κ diwree of the 
tkltd OmmM «t Tolodo (δΗΟΧ η. i (cf. Udorn. t>i>. ril . «. IC). 

* Or^ Via-, TIH. 8. Martini, ii. 30. Tlui i« tbe Oruck omkim; οΓ 
Owe. IL, 1^ tx. IS m\ 

223 CWRISTIAK worship: its omen» ASD Evoumos. 
Ho then lete the particle tall lduj t>b« chalice, ssyiof; — 

Swcla Ruotis ! Et conjnnctto cotpork dsnlBi imU itm 
MOBeiltiblU «t pOtaaltUua nobla na redult, tt dcAoutb 
ftd roqnicni. 

The ot-dcr of the corcmoniee, aocordmg to the Mozanbic 
rite, is attested bjr the fourth Conncil of Toledo, c. 17, which 
mentioae, in tlie tirst inetaoce, the Lord'e Prayer, then Um 
Oommixtio (conjUTictitmem pant» et caiida), then tho Bene- 
diction, and finally the Oommunlon. 

In the Ainbroeian rite the J'at/:r noeler is radtod after 
tho Fraction, but ihe Commixtio follows immediately after 
the latter, as in the Roman use from the time of Gregory. 
The SaiKia Sanctis hae also disappeared. 

15. The BetKdiaim. 

OBEUiaui': Seimticlio/tem veropopulitaerrttotibtis/itndcrt 
Saminm per Mojfitcn matidaviL . . . Propter stnianHum 
hunorem ponttfioi* meri coTteiitnermU eanvae* vt lonf/iarem 
htiudictioneni gnecctpu* pro/erret, brtmorem preabjfUr /und^^ 
liicens*: "Pax, Hdee et cantos ot communicatio corporis 
et eaogninis Domini sit semper vobiseum." 

The Benediction wan the occosios of the introduclion of 
a great number of fonnolariee, varying with the feettvala of 
the year, fonnolariee which earvired in France even after 
the adoption of the Roman Litiugy. They are sUU found, 
at the moment I write, in the ritual of the Church of 
Lyone. The doooon calls upon the faithful to bow their 
beads for the bleeeing of the bishop. The formulary whiofa 

• Of. Udcre, op, rtu o. 17. 

* DMI, In the \>ΛΜνΑ (Litton•. 




be employed, as attested by Ut. CieBanus of Aries,' la still 
used in the Mosarabic rite : HumilifUe vtu benatidtom ! 
Tliis is the comiterptut of the Greek formiiUry : Τα^ κιψαλβΐ 
ίΐΛν Τψ Κνμ<•ι• κΧίνωμίκ ' AfUir the oidinar)' salutaLioD,' the 
tiithop proDOunoi-s α blussing ia soveiul eentencee, to each 
of wbi4^ the coogregalion r«ply. Amen. 

Deui, qd adveatum tniw nujo*UCia per «agelum Ukhrilivloia ρη'ωφίωα 
desetnderw ηηιιΙΪΜβ JiiaieU, 

Qq! £gpuiler intra hiinunn vincora tngrcasux, oi bIto nrpnti hodso 
β moodo cluiBoktiu, 

Ί^ DoraUie, beoedio hano &ιηϊΙ»ηι tuam, (guAtn liodienia sokmnitaa 
Ea admttn tuo fecit gandaK ; 

Da paceoi ροραίο luo, quern pretiom iialivibiti: vivlflaaa ut iiAaiioaiK 
tnls ram t» a mort* perpetua redenuiti ; 

TVibue eh de thnanro too indcficionii» divitiaii bonilatw; rnple eos 
■eicBtia, ut bnpoUaUa aotlliiu ot [luro conic wxiuanlur te duMim juetitlae, 
cfoeo) (UDm cognoaonnt fnctoram ; 

Et afcBt Id diebne Ulb odvotJonUim te in rantido peifldla HcrodSii 
«ipavH «1 perat lei im|uui a Γα^υ rcgia magni, ita none jwactcnti Uraporo 
calabtala loleiBiiilae poccalonim oMtronim viocU diimolvBt; 

Dl mm ittnun ail JudicuidDm venerie, diUIuh ci ηοίίκ ante Iribiiiial 
(Diun nine appanu; «od dtKuna do pect<)nl>iu noitrie caljgtne tene- 
1>ianiiii. plaetiuDas οοπηκοΐαΐ too et pertcoiamoa ad lUam lanain qnaia 
Μοοϋ tui is »i{nam poandobuDt actoraam. 

The following ebort. fomiulary for the use of priests is 
foujid, almortu 8t. Oennaiii gives it, in the Irish Stowe Miseal 
uid is the Atnbroeiaii Liturgy. The Ston*» Miasal ' has — 

Put et caritan datniiil noetrl Jceiu Chriitt ot commuiiicalio «auctorum 
funi^uiB eit fotapor nobifcum. 

' " Bogn, rmttr*. quotir• clmniitaiii rucrit dI km λπιβΙύΊιίΜ• hiiiiii'Ji"r« 
dtfacatli^ DoD Tolna «it lAbuti•^»!» <«|jiu iBelioanv ^uia aun Ιιιιηύαί. Mid 
Dm fcaialll*»! " (Aug. Mm., ίίύ, Ko. 'i). 

■ UnacaUcL 

• WamB,to>■.W)..^ϊt£ 

2S4 υιικίδτίΛΝ woiwiiEP: ITS ORiam axd evolotiok. 
The Ambroeiau Miesal gives — 
Pa A «umiaunioUio ilombl aoetri Jew Chftetl Λ 

The Amliroaian rite place» here the oeiemoDy of the 
Kiss of Peace, in cooformily with the Botoait oiutom. 

16. The Gmmumon. 

uEUMAUj : Trecanum r.ero quod ptaUihtr mgttum est 
cat/wlicac fidn de TriniUUis credulitaL• pneedere. Sie aiim 
prima it» smtTida, aectmda iu tertia et ntntun tertia Ϊλ 
sfeiiTula et Kxundn rottUur in prima. Ita Pater in FUia 
mystcrium Trinitatis compUetU: Pater in, PUio, FUiui ih 
Spirilu saucto, SpirUus ftnctus in PUio et ΡΰχΐΛ rurmm 
in Patre. 

In Gftul Lhu fuithM, in order to communicate, entered 
the euuctuary und cftme up Lo thti altar.* The same 
coetom waft QOl obsorved in Spain. There ibe priests 
and ileacous communioaled at the altar, the other 
clurgy in the choir (before the altar), aud the luty out- 
side the choir* Thtj men received the Host into the 
bnre hand, the women into the hand covered vrith a 
linen cloth, called the dominical, which the)' Inoogbl 
with Lhcm for ihA purpose.^ During the commooioa a 


> Cone. Titrcn.. ti. 4 : "Ad orandum nl «uinmnnlouidiim luipii nt Γοηϊιΰ*• 
HMt mM oM, iMtoaat wncui •ιιιΐΕΐαπιηι." (Τ. Oieg. Ταΐ-, U. Fr^ is. 3; , 
χ. β: ■■ Ad alt&rinni." 

» CotiB. Tol, iv. I'. 17, 

' H, Cmoriiu (lumi. 232 rU Tfmpinr, Uigno, PaL L•ιt., luL suil. 
p. lllW): "Omiin viri. quuado ad olbm ««ΜΜοιί Mint. Ibtm»! mmiw 
■um; oI omnra muUiun ulttiU ezhlbvnt llBtcaniiin iiU corpiia ChrtiU 
luxiipiiint." Synnd of Λωιτπ», nboot S78. c He, RT, i2; ' Nun Umt mnliErt 
Diida mnnii (inchiitiitlam ocvipotv. Non Uout ιοιιΙΙργΙ inuiiinifiiitiand paDiuti 
duniiniimni (tlii' lines clotb on Ihi: nltni) miltcir. Ut iiuaqtMci|Ba maliui 



shnrt «bnnl was aung, which St. Germein cmlls the Tre• 
ranum, utd which aeemed to him to bo ui expresaion of 
the iluctrine of the Tnaity. The foUowiog is tlie chuit, 
to the Moiorabic formulary : — 


Onrttte et *ldet« qium lUiTin Mt Domino*. AllduUI AllehiU t 

BMiMlicasi Dominnra m omoj teispar», ββιαροτ Uu> ojtu in ore raeo. 
1 AUelnkl Allebul 

BtdtSMt Docninae &ii!mu eerroniin nonim, et oon danlinquet smoea 
qni •ρ•πΒΐ ia «inn. AMm! ATlcluU! Alleluia I 

Olofia et honor Patrl et Filio et Splritu! wicto in nencnla Mcculonjoi. 
Anm. AUetoUI Alldiual Alleluia! 

The two first verses an found in iho chants for the 
rommimio in the Stowo Missal and in the Bangor Anti- 
phonary. The Utter are much longer than that just 
giren, but, like it, they tuv broken up by rop>iated 
alleliuAS.' It is remarkable that the tliree verses of the 
Hoiarabto Trwanum should bo ningled out from that 
psalm (33) which in St. Cyril of .Ternsnlem, and in the 
Utai;g^u of the Apostolic ConHtitutions and of St. Jamos, 
is praeciibad as the chant for the Communio.' 

I think it worth while to give hero, as a spei;imeD of 
CiaUican liturgical i>outfy. a hymn t>rovided as a snbstitute 
for (be psalm at the Commuuio. 


jiMiiiIn oamBeiilatt damiDimlnni «nuin hnboti: quod «1 i|ua noo habueriti 
■■qn• in «linn Hem donlnioiim oon «miiiunioct" 

' A chaat «rllli •ΙΙο1ιιια tnaorlot itt inlnrviili. like tfate, ia λΙλο met «itli 
In ihe ArwnJMi. tlu Spiae, and St. J^me^» litnrgioi. Tim AtDbrriaiitn 
LilBTBT lu• Imto β ohoiit etllfid Trinuil^rium. 

* Tbo vcrae ptttonixd in IlioHiiiamliicMUMil bvforc tbo Putt CominuniD 
BMt have originkUj b«:n allaohiil to Ibu Giutatt. It run• lu toOawt: 
S^trtl ChHM forport tt languim to taudumm, Domine. Atliliiia 1 AUdaia I 

226 cuBiSTU» woKSiiiP: its ORIGDI AKU E\OUmO!r. 

It is fouiid ID ϋιβ Bangor Aaupbooary.' Xbe mewan^ 
is in Iambic Irim«ter — 

Saneti tidIU^ Cbiuti eotfm κπβΙΜ, 
«ncttmi btbanlea quo redaiiptl nagsimiB. 

SilvftU Chikti urpore «t Μΐφΐία», 
ft que refccti ludM dkunus Deo. 

Iloe Mcnmenlo ootpotb et — npitnU 
«ΒΜβ exvti tb Inferni haciba•, 

Italor nlati* Cbriiti», FQioi Dd, 
muadoiD nlvant per craeent at miguiiieni. 

Vn unirend• immrfBtiiB OoinlniM 
φη «ccHm exiiUt ct lioalk. 

htgo praecefituni immolui hotliu 
qua •dumbruUir divin» ιητνίβτΐ». 

Lodi ΰκίαΐίαν «t tuuvator omininn 
pnecUimm auictia IvgiUis «el grtUae. 

Acoediuit omnea put» mente craduli, 
«nwDt actcnmni iwlntii ciulodum. 

Suwlonim outoa ncXot qnoquc Uouuoiu 
*{Im ρβΝΐιηΪΒ UtfpHuT credeBtibiM. 

OMloeUa ρβαοΐΒ dat eaariciitiba• 
tie foute rivo praebet atllcntibiie. 

Alfft ot uiiioga' ipM Cbiiatua Domnui 
vvnit, ruolurut jodicue homboc 

17. Thf Thanhffmng, 

The communion being ended, the bishop caUb open 
tbe coDgngDUOQ to tlumk God, bo bimself reciting the 

' UigDP. /•"<. L•ιl.. Tol. IxiiL p. 587; Wurnm. (^ WL. p. 187. Tli• tSi* 
[■: I'mnutn qmnflv «■minuiiiAinnil muxrJaUt. (Hi'« VaniuD in BpBS• 
AaebBt ud Mudura. 812.) 

■ w in the prlnttid edition. Tlio oiotir raqnire• κηΐΕΐΙιίηκ Βαν Uuw Ihc 
•onnd β. 1 fancy tli«ro it •Μΐιεώϊιιβ oniltcd U.-lw«eu Af/n and «t. 



prayer υΓ thanlagiTlDg. I ft[)pottil Uic two forniulartce 
ukcQ from the ifvuaU Golhicwm for ChrUtmaa Dsy— 

rosr coKMVXioimi. 

<Sbo oMleMi e^inkti et pocnio Mterni caliciR reerottf, FratrM luuCs- 
■^■1, DodIdo Dm ncwtro budea et gnuu todMinenter β(;αιαιιι, peUaton 
«t qui flksoniictam corpus •ΐυ[ΐιίηι' ocatri Jmu Chruli npinuJttor Munp• 
MBUi, oxuli Λ rarnoUbiut vitiis, ep'iriUl«a oOici oiurcnmiir, por doDUDUra 
noatnun JcRntn Cbrutnm Filiiini βιιαιη. 


Sit nobit, Domioe, qoMMunuei mediciiM mentia ot oorpom quod ia 
MOoU altarii tai b«ii«d[odoae pereepimue, ut nuUle BdT«niudbua oppri- 
■■B li ir qd t&nil remedil psrticlpktlone muoimur. Per doninum nuctnini 
jMun Cbrwtnm Pilimn taiim. 

The invitatory formulary has iltsappeared (ιόπι the 
Ambroeian an<l Mozarabio LilUTgie.<i. In the former the 
prayer is both praceded and follovred by the ordinary 
salntation ; in the latter it te only foUowud by ϋήβ, 

According to the Mozai-abic ritt;, the formulary of dis- 
misBal is aa follows : — 

θοΙηΒΐΜΒ cani|ilieta luut iu nomino domlnl noatrl J«au Cbrirti. VotUBi 
iioelnua «it Hcooptm cum |«ov.— IV• Po>i patian I 

The Ambrosiau Litiugy preecribw h«ra « triple KyrU 
tUieo», aod then the benediction, Benedicat ei cxaudiat 
Ml Dmu.—'Sif. AmtH. Then t'oUonii — 

Froeeduniui in pftce. — IV- t» nomine Clirwii. 
BnmlinMiiiii Domino.— IV. t^eo gratios t 

llie Stowo Miasat furni»bM 
ifuM acta ett. — /n jtaet. 

the most simple text: 



§ 1,— U&UAt. Obbcxvaxces op -ran Wkkk. 

The Cliiirch Jchorited ffoni Uiu Jews tbe ctubom of 
keeping the week holy. In ndditton to Uus SKbhstb, the 
reli^ouB obscrvaucu of which was oommftoded by the L*v, 
tb« pious Jews kept two olbur days in tbe wcok. ommely, 
Mooday and Thursday. The Sabbath was obeorvod by • 
oeseation from work and by iiieutin^K Tnr wcrsliip; tlic 
Monday «nd Thursday wero days οΐ fantiag. I^CM of 
Lbie pnclii;*] are fouod in the flospel. The words of the 
PhiSrtoee are familiar to iis ' : "I fast twice on the Sabt: 
that is, twice in the week. 

The Cbumh substituted the Sunday for the Sabt»», 
but not without certain modifications in its obeervaoce 
with regard to the strictness of the prescribed real. Tbi* 
substitution had already Lakun place in apostolic times.* 
tn very early times also wu find iJiat the Wt'doeaday 
and I^day fasts had superseded those of the Jews. TIm 
Doctrine of the Apostfrs expressly mentions tbem,' and 
the Pastor of Hernias* alto spe«ke of faete under th« 

' St. tub xvlli. 12. 
' ICIor. S¥i. 2; ArUtx.T-. fin. i. 10 
' *ili, 1 : of. Epiphuilu», tf<i«r., tri. I. 
• Sina., V. 1. 



name of jSfoJioTM, without iadicatiDg the daj^s ; this omiaiiou 
i», however, sopplied by Clement of Alexandria.' Tcr- 
tulUoii,' and α number of later writers. Tlie fosta of 
tlu StatJone wore not prolonged foste, aa the; did not 
extend beyond Uie ninth hour, chat U, until the middlu 
of the kltemoon. 

Ftrotn thu point of riew of worship in iM strict 
MOB», the services on tlieso holy days were not oil alike. 
Monday wae oaMntioUy the day for liturgical worship in 
common. Tim Hlurgiotl service took pliicu in the early 
hours of the morning ; but this eervtcu was preceded by 
anotlier. held before daybreak, whicli coaetsted of lec- 
tion•, homilies, the singing of cliante, ami tlie rvcital of 
pnyon. This nocturnal meeting, or vitjil, is mentioned ai 
an early date, namely, in the letter in'whicli Pliny speaks of 
the costoma of the Christians.' This service was com- 
bined later on with the office of Matins, whioli gradually 
snpetseded it. The two services weie still distinct, al- 
though mentioned together, in the description of the ritual 
at Jerusalem given iu tlio Pmtgrinatio Silviae. At Rome 
the Vigil was retained for certain solemn seasons, such as 
Easter, Whitsuntide, the Sundays of the Ember Days. 
Ihe offices for Easter Eve and Whitsun Eve, in that part 
which precedes the benediction of the baplbmal wuti-r. 
still preserves the type of the ancient vigils as they 
were celebrated every Sunday in the first centuriue of 

• «MM, *L 7S. 
■ A>JO-«-.,H. 

> Sat, M: " AdAniubtut . . quod tmeni mXM aUte die ante loete 
LMoiira, ouniDnqiu' L1irijtti> qmui lUo illonre iMiua intioein . . . ; qnDnu 

piMtU OMMin alU dlwtdondi ra<«c. mi*iM|iio aoaiudi ad Mplwdiwi 
dbi^ pmmlaemHi tMsen at InooiiaB." 

* Tbe Muiio naj ht rnmiuiuil of tho MqueiiM of iMttesi, iwpoBMi, utl 
^ηϊ*π «ilh «likli the Ho» Γοι Halntdkj la tlw BmbfT Dkj• beyiu. 

lia MMi b. fai tttAi\J, Uhi tuly Uui of lh« folloiring dsv. Sunday. 

330 (ΊΙΚίπίΛΚ WORMIIl•: ΙΤϋ ΟΒίαΐΝ AM> EVOLOTinX. 

The two etauoDft] days were uleo marked by meet- 
to^ ΓοΓ wonhip. But tbeee wen held in tUSereot 
tnannere id differeDt localities. In some pUoea the 
lilui;g}- propt^rly so cuUcd was ueed, tiial is, die Enchariet 
mu culubntod. Tliia viui thu cuetom in Afiica in tbu 
time of TurtiiUiim,* and at Jcrasalom towards tlio end of 
the fourth ccatuiy. In tbo Church of Alexandru, on 
the other band, tbe Statioii did not iaclnde the liturgy. 
Socratee t«Us as that on thoeu days " the Scriptures were 
nod and νιπ« intcrpruted by tlie doctors ; in abort, all was 
done ω in tlw Synoxee, except tbe celebratJon of Uie 
Myeteriea."' I brieve that on tbia point, aa on many 
others, tliu nea at liome vm siiniliu- Γα ilint nt Alexandria. 
It i» curtain, nt leaat, that about tbo bo}{iniiiog of the fifth 
CODtiuy, the celebration of tbe Mysterios {Sairamenta) did 
not take place at Kome on Fridays, lliere is no reoord ν 
to what took place on Wedoeadaya.' 

Saiorday, of which the ob*ervance bad at Gist fiUlen iotii 
desuetude, was later oo uesigniMl a special place. In tbo 
East, during th» fourth contuiy, it was a day of SynuA 


It trfU b» «eon ilikt SnCnnla} La the Embur !)>}■ bM an 
■Mignwl U> it. 

■ rhOraUime.U. 
* SonistM, B. M., V. IS. On tbo oiber bxid. a Vlpl wm olMemd thM*. 

nntl it ψα» during > Friday TiK-tl that iiL AtUnnutn mu alUckod is l\» 
(liiireti <4 'V\iixmaM. (lie nlgbt oT Fob. 8th-Iltli. 35C. 

' Letter of InDOPent to ΟβΜοΙίιι^ ο. 4: ~ Nnu dablniB «at in 
«M (Ilia Dpcvtln) J<t}<tnMM biclao ntinormbi tit tniditiu Ecoiisiae 
i»to lildim MoriuDuDia pvniriu pnu cwlabrBkri; iptaa forwia ntfftw fti 
*iugiiXat UHttutti «tt htbilnmaiiiu. propter id qunl oomBMOOMtki dial HUM 
M'iniHT ret rclcIifnn'lH." TbU only apj^r• to puliUo. «ed not ki prinli 

■ Omr, LiioM:.. c. IG: a«utu. Αρ.. Μ Μ: V. 90: vtl. ST: vUL 38: 
Bpiphuniit*. Hxp, fi.f., i\. Ht. Kjiipliaoiiui doM not mmb le «mUm 
tticw 8ynn:tea ω α anlvnnnl cHlou; "Ir τι«ι ll τάναιι nai Jt τοίι rJjfliw 
«•>><i{ii( <*ιτ<λιιί'<•ί." 'Πιβ FOfrtmfge <^ SBiV-i nmtjuiu Ihe Uletfhml 
Bftuiam et I.4«l, bat doM not qwak ef llia« U otbor liiva of tbe fvu. 
πιβ Cumudl of Lrtodloea (tt-. rti.) dBcnM tJiM Uip ivwUb)! .if Ibe Utnf*! 
khall b« oaabiued «ith (h*t <d oUiw BoriplwM. It ia ia^awlth lo 

τω 0HU8IUN reenvALs. 


tad oven of Ιίΐαη>ίοα1 Synoxos. At Alexandria, however, 
■the Synaxes were not liturgical. This omieeion of the 
Mitorgy was peculiar to the cil)' of Alexandria itself, for in 
Bbe tnteiior of Egypt tho liturgy woe said in the evening, 
and vu prooeded by aa agape.' It might bo imagined that 
lUi obeervanee of Saturday ttos α primitive attempt to 
neoooOe the Jewish and Chrietian oee». Bat ae these 
Saturday servioee are not mentioned by any author before 
the fourth century, and aa, moreover, they were unknown at 
Rome, it ie more natural to suppoae that they were a laUvr 
institatjoo. Beeidea tliia, the Eaatero Churoh, while adopt- 
ing ihe obeervaooe of Satui-day, waa extremely careful to 
eliminate ftx>m it the chief chamcteriatic of the Jewish 
Sabbath, namely, the obligation to observe it ae α day of 
reet' I 

_ In the West, and particolarly at Home, Saturday became 
Ρ η day of fasting. As early ae the time of TertulUau, 
there were Churchus iu which the Friday fast was ooca- 
sionally prolonged to the Saturday. This was colled 
eontinuare jtjuni«m,' an expressioQ which was superseded 
later on by the term tuperpojitrr jfjunium, wliich is merely 
to nnaatisffictory attempt to trunslnte into I^tin the Grock 

• word Μτιρτ/θιβθαι (to protract). These prolonged fasts 
were veiy common at the end of the third century. Refer- 
ence 19 made to them iu one of the writings of Victorintis,* 
Uiahop of Pettao. The Council of Elvira enjoins the 
observance of one such fast every month, except in Jnly 
and August, and at tlio Htme time abolishes the weekly 
"superposition," which liad up till then been obeerved 

«y wbeth«r tba ust vtiieli It Bimad >t ntanae^ inolodtd the tUni^ 
mlut tbeM UeUaoM or nnt. St. Biwil ^εp, S89) tftelu of UlBrgb•! 

■ SeetalM. ojMit. 

* Cone. Uiad, of. 19: o. psMido-Icn'ttiUh Bp. οΛ ΗηρΜ*, β. 

* Dt Jtjm.. Η. 

* D» J^kMra Xmdt (Ulgno, Pai. Lai., ιΛ. τ. pp. SM. 900). 



orerj Snlunley.' Tb« ori^ of the Bomiui Satorday im 
nenftUy rcfomid to ibis weekly proloDgation of tlie Fridftv. 
The fast on Friday must in curly Umee hsive trvochod 
on tbo Saturday, and when tho ptacticc of proloogiog it 
vne found to be too severe, it wu prob*bIy replaced by 
another fast or semi-fast, distinct from tliat of the Fnday.* 

However this may be, it is certain that ai Bome then 
was no celebration of the Eucharist oa Saturdays. Sozomen, 
who OD this point coDtirms the statomeat made by Pope 
Innocent,* adds that in this matter the Alcxandrimu 
in agreement with the Church of Rome. 

We may enm up by saying that in addition to tbo 
raeetinga on Sunday, one for the Vigil, and the other for 
HasB, servioee were everywhere bold oo Wodnesdayv and 
Fridays, but these sennces did not in all plocos include the 
celebration of the Fucharist. At Borne and Aloxandrit 
theee were noa-litiirgical, but in all parts of the East, 
Alexandria excepted, the Utui^ was osed. As lo the 
Synaxis of Saturday, it was peculiar to the East, and was a 
later inetitntion than those of the Wednesday and Friday. 

§ &.— Tbc Embu Daxs. 

The arrani^cminit of the eorriooa in the Ember 
still prestirvus some features of the early religiooe weakly 
observances as practised by tbe Church at Borne. It slill 
ooDtains three fast days, the Wednesday, Friday, aad 

' Γ. !3: "Jcjuiui aupi-rpcailionca per «ingnlM neiiKi placiiit edabrah, 
cxeoptia diebu• duorum munuuin Julit et •η(αι1ί jimpln qaonBdam 
inflrmltatom." 0. SO : " Ktronmi plaenit eortigi nt onmi ubbott die aupet• 
poiltleiic• cclebremiu ." 

' CaDtti 96 of lb• CoiUK^il of Blvim iru at ui t&rlr Jue girat ■ Hilt 
«rblob doM not oorrNpoiid «ItL• fti eoalcDla, bat «itli tfau BiodieMtka tfa»l 
I lieve liera pointed out: Ol "runi •αΙΑαίο ftjvntlvr, 

• au BcuL, vU. ItL 





Saturday. The ancient fonnulariee of iodicUon, however, 
which are given in thu homilies (^ St. Leo, mention the fast 
of the Wednesdays and Pridajs only. That of the Saturday 
being merely a " saperposition," or protoogation of that of 
the FtidAy, is not taken into account.' The distingiuahing 
bat/an of the Saturday was the Solemn Vigil, which on this 
day was always observed al >St. Peter's : Quarta igiiuT et sexia 
/eria j^memus ; tahbato auUiti ad bcatnm apoatotum 
forittr vigiUmita. The Vigil was always followed by the 
Haas in the early hours of the Sunday. 

The EmbeiMlay fasts, which are met with in those 
oountnes only which followed the Roman nee, and which 
even in Rome did not take their rise till the Bfth century, 
appear to me to be none other than Ilie weekly fast, as 
obeBTTod at the beginning, but made specially severe, as well 
by the retention of the Wednesday, which had disappeared 
eaily £rom tlie weekly Koman use, as by the aiibstitution of 
• real fasl^ for the aemi-foet of the ordinary Stations. 
The choice of the weeks in which the fast was thua in- 
eresMd in rigour was determined by the commencement 
of the four seasone of the year. It is probable that &om 
tho fint ioHtitution of the Ember Days the Synaxi» of the 
Wedoeedays and Fridays, or at all events those of the 
Wedoeedaye, were litoigical. This appears to mo to be 
anggoBted by the archaic anaogement of the Maes for the 
Wednesday in Ember Week, in which tlie prophetic Ιθοϋοη 
was still preserred, although it had fallen into disuse in 
moet llasaee in the course of the fifth century. 

■ The bUIw» et the £A*r PoniiJImUt {rot. 1. p. til), on th« contnry, 
mcntkin• thj* one railj. Tbn rcnamt u thnt bo ii drallng wilb il aa a 
nuiu•* (ιΓ piMtior, *λΛ not Uke S[, Ijkj, wi n inattcr uf tridilkio. Tlic 
i^lnrdajr hat «m tbo Ktcit wivcrc. w no food oonld baw bo«D •αΙ«ιι linoc 
Ike Thoiwky rigtkt. 

' TliM• WM a much greater dlffamioe in the «rictnos wiih «Uiob tbi• 
Tut VM li twfffid IhiB Is tbo mvUiods of flabog tbo taaxiof. duya tlictoMln•. 

234 ciiKisTiAN woBsuiF : rrs orxqin and kvolvtios. 

S 3.— HoLV Week. 

Similar obeervatione may bo made on the aubject of Holy 
Week. The most uncieDt of its peculiar fcnturcs is tbe 
feetival of Maundy Thwrsday. devoted to th« solemn com- 
momoration of tbe institution of the Eacharist, to which was 
added, at all evente at Rome, the coDsecnttioo of boly oik 
and the reooaciliation of pcniteuts, coromooiv* which ioTert 
it with tbe character of an immediate jireparation for tlie 
Cbristian ΚολΙοτ. With the exception of tlie Thomday, 
there are uo ancient Stfttions in Holy Week except thoee 
of the Wedneeday and Friday. Saturday nerer bad, and 
even now hne not, any Station ossignud it, properly apeskiag, 
since the present service for that dny is merely tbe Eftster 
Vigil anticipated. The litui^pcal Stntions for Monday and 
Tiie8d«y aro certainly latur than the lime of St. Leo. It ι 
was, in fact, the custom of tliis Pope to give a yearly ^| 
exposition on the Pasaion of our Lord, and βλ it was im- " 
possible fur iiim to do so in one sermon, bo began on the 
Sunday before Kaster, and continued bis expositioQ at tint 
Station on Wednesday. Had tboro been any meeting• 
between the Sundiiy and the Wednesday. St. Leo would 
not have waited till the latter day to resume his dteooai«e. 
In ihe present service for Good Friday, if we except tbe 
ceremonies connected with tbe Adoration of tbe Cross, ^i 
which are certainly not an ei^sentin] port of it, and also tbe ^Λ 
Moss of tlie Pre»anctitie<], wo have tlie exact order of the ^ 
ancient Synaxes witbont a lituijry, namely, lections alter- 
nating witb chants, and followed by prayers for all the 
necc^ssities of the Church. The laotions are still three in 
number, suparat«d by two pmlmt rf^tonaorii in the form of 
the i^iOdua] uud thu tract. 

I am inclined to bolievo that the ancient service for 
Wednesday in Holy Week was of exactly the same typc^ ι 





Aod that the iircMnt liturgical Station is as much ad in- 
uoratioa aa those of Monday and Tuesday in the same 
week. In the eighth century theru wuru two services on 
the Wedneeday ; one in the morning, ντίιυη the same jasyers 
for the oeoeentiee of the Cbureb aa those now reserved for 
Qood Friday vure rocitod, nod another in the evening at 
the hour of ves{>ers, for the liturgy properly eo culled. The 
morning eervioc, restricted to the recital of solemn prayerB, 
appears to tne to be the rusiduiim or vestige of the ascieut 
Station without the litur^'. while the lections and chants 
which formed port of it Imve been transferred to [bu nev,- 
litozgical Station in the ovemng. 

We see, therefoie, that befui-e the institntioii of the 
SlatioDS in Ll-oI^ wbicb cannot be regarded as primitive, 
TJivino Service in Holy Week «t Rome was identical with 
that in other weeks, always excepting the festival of 
Haundy lliursday, aud was compotted of .Synaxes without 
tlie liturgy on Wednesday aud tYiday, and of ii iiolemn Vigil 
in Uu) night between Saturday aud Sunday, 

ξ 4, — MOVAULK tVjlBTS. 

lit ibo maCtiu- of feeljvale, qjs in many other things, the 
Clntrch is, up to a certain point, indebted to the Synagogue. 
He ecdesiastJcol your is nothing but the combination of 

itWD calendais, the one .lewiah, the other diri.ttian. The 
movable feasts correspond to the •Jewish, the ilxed to the 
Christian calendar. We miial not, however, press this 
analogy too strongly. The Christians did not take over 
all the Jewish festivals, aud to those which they did retain 
they sliiichod, at an early date, α signifieance in harmony 
with their own Iwlief. Tbus, for instance, the feasts of the 
Mreatb month, those of the Day of Atonement and of 
Taberoadoi, and the feast of Panm at the cod of tbt• year, 
were complotoly disregarded. Only those of Eaxtw and 


Pentecost were retaiDed. In adopUag. moreover, these andeot 
festivals, th« Church intendod to employ tbem to com• 
memorate respectively Christ and the Holy Spnt, the two 
terminatiiig points of the Divine evolution which wtre 
chamctemtic οΓ tlie new belief. The festival of Easter ii 
devoted to the oommemoratioB of the work of Christ in this 
world, accomfdished in His Passion, sealed hy His ϋυβαιτΰο- 
tioo, while the Feast of Pentecost is that of the first mA&i- 
feetstion of the Holy Spirit iu the diaciplea of Jceus Chriatv 
and conSQqaently timt of the foundation of thu Chtueh. 
Historically speaking, the evenbi commemotatvd had coin- 
cided in tituQ with the Jewiah feaate of the first and thinl 
montba, and it was therefore quite natiual to connect them 
with those festivals. 

1. The Oimpiitation t^ Batter. 

The festivals of the Jews were detennined by a lunar 
calendar, the twelve months of which fell a little short of 
the length of the solai- year. From time to time, there- 
fore, the intercalation of a supplementary moatb was 
aiTanged, but rather in accordance with the state of 
the seasons at the end of the iwellUi month than from 
the consideration of well-established astronomical laws. 
Kaeter fell on the full moon of the first month, otherwise 
called the 14th of Nieao. Itul when did this fir»t month, 
JJiaan , begin ? Was it at the end of the twelilh or «t 
the end of a thirteenth supplementary month 1 The Jews 
came to an agreement on this question, and the CbristiaDS 
ftt tlie outset accepted their solution. There was, however, 
much discussion ou tlie subject even withiu the Cburd) 
itself; bocnuse, in iJie lirBt place, the Christians were divided 
on the question as to how far the new Easter should coincide 
as a ceremony and in date with tlie older feosti and in the 
second pluoe, because they could not agree as to the mode of 


ΤΗΚ cHBiariAS resTrvAis. 



fixing the iDODth and ibe week io wluch the f«8tjval shauld 
be kept. The most noteworthy of these controversiM 
with regard to thv keeping of Easter may be thue hrieHjr 
eoamerated : — 

1. The conienuon which arose id the proviDce of Asia, 
•hortly alter the middle of the eecond century, as to whether 
the rite of the Faechol Lamb should be retained or 

2. The conflict between the Churches of the province of 
Asia as a whole aod those of olhor pEirts of the Empire with 
regard to the day of the week on which the paschal fast 
sboold termiuati;. The Asiat ChristiuDE inado it end on the 
14lh of Nisan. ΐΐιυ uthure on the Suiiday following. This 
divergence of view oontinuod till nearly the close of the 
second oenlury, when it degenerated into an open strife, 
which ended in the defeat of the uncieut AsJat custom. The 
Churches of the provinoe of Asia adopted the general custom 
of keeping Easier on the Sunday. Tboec who still clung to 
the local custom, quartodecimans. organised themselves into 
a separate aed, which maintained an existence down to the 
fifth century. 

3. The conflict occasioned by the difiOrent methods of 
computation at Antioch and Alexandria, was settled by the 
Cooncil of Hicoa. At Antioch the Besurrection of Christ 
wia commemoTSted on the Sunday following the Jewish 
Enter, without queetioning whether the Jews had rightly or 
wrongly fixed their Easter and first month. At Alexandria, 
OD the otiier hand, calculations were ipecially made foi- 
flodiQg Easter, and it was constduted imperative that it 
sfaonld always fall after the vcmal equinox. The Alex- 
aodriane haring won their cause at the Cooncil of Nicea, 

ti old ctut<»a of Antioch was followed merely by small 
' I Imvc et{ilaiiw4 tbw in nlikp. ιτί. of my Oiigi-t» CKiHif^tw* (btbo• 


Miete (Audiuoi, ProtopfLecbilua), and all the C'liiuohee of tb•: 
East cooformed to tliu paadia) computation as proposed b; 
llie BUhop of AlexAndrift.' 

4. Numberlces difBculties again cropped ap in the fooitl 
and tiftfa ountuiioa, owing to Uic dtflerencee between 
Alcxundriiui aud Roman computations. Tbese difficnl' 
aiOHu from certain difieiencBS in calculation and cnston.' 
Tbo determination of tbe age of tlie moon, μ it tnu 
calculated at Home, was founded on imperfect Inn&r cydei. 
It was often at variance with that of Alexandria, which «M 
based on tho cycle of nineteen yeara. On the otJier hand, 
the Komana did not admit that ICaater Sooday coitld fall, in 
the lunar month, before the 16th of that month, whei'vas ai 
Alexandria Kaater might be kept on the I.'tth. Finally, a 
tinditiOD was nuppoHed to exiet at liome acoording to 
which Ka!»ter could not be observed after the 31et of April 
Thin limitatioa waa unknown at Alexandria, where it migl 
be held up to the 25th. The coD)lict« arising from tbew 
diCfbrences were, for the moet pari, amicably settled between 
the I'ope and tho (ireek Church, and when Ιΐοαιο adopted lb• 
Alexandrian computation, under the form given to it 
Diouyeiite Kxiguua ' (ΐ>2'ι), they at length finally disappeared. 

5. Mention must also be made of tbe divergence between 
the poechal tables of Victonus of Aqnitaioe and Dionyafau 
Ex^uos. The table of the formei', drawn up at Borne 
in 457, was not long in nae there, if indeed it ovur was 
omployeJ, hut it was adopted by the Churches of Frankiah 
Gaul, und was used by thorn till the Carlovingian period. 
Id cCTlain cases it offered two solutionH by giving two 
pEtschol dams, that of tho Alexaodriane and that airived at 

to I 

lb• 1 

■ 8ββ ny nwiiBotr : La Q-ietlion ib In Piqti» an Owactt) «b SMb, la UlB 
SetMdmQimtiantBiitorique• far July, 1880. 

* 8«a Do Boait, later. Chntl.. *ul. I. pp. Ixizil.-xovU. : Br. Knadi. 
Ikr Stiiihrigr- ΙΜη•γΙαι nn-l xinr QurfUn, l.t-ipn'ir. Ιβββ; AdtiMit QrMgHt 
vol. L PL IVi. 





by the application οΓ the old lioraan ralee. This dual nnilt 
•was neceesarilf U>c cause of mach uncertainty.' 

6. Finally, we have the quarrel with regard to the Celtic 
computation in tUe British Isles. TUe British Chnrcli, and 
ooaiMqaently the Irish Church, had pres<:rved an old method 
of keeping Gaeter, in me at Rome about the beginning of 
the fonith oentnr}•. acoonliug to which £iist«r Sunday could 
occur from the Uth to the 20th of Niean.' The lioman 
computation having been eubjuctod u> several modifications 
aiDoe the time when the British adopted it, the Soman 
missiooaries of the seventh contury found themselves, con- 
sequently, at variance with the Insular Church in their 
meUKMl of calculating RistLn-. lloncc tho qunrrels which for 
some time played so important a pm-t in the history of the 
conntry. Both aides appealed to alleged apostolic tiadttiona. 
and the Celtic clergy did not Hcniple to quote apocryphal 
boofca composed expressly to defend their national custom. 

2. Bastertide. 

The Chrislinu EaaLer was preceded by a fast and 
foUowod by flovun wwks of n^oicing. Thus defined, Iient 
and Eaetcitide may claim attestation of their observance 
from ttxlrumo antiquity. For the fast before Urn festival, 
it will sufQoe to cite in η general way tho documents 
rolating to tJie pasclinl controversy nt the end of the second 
oentttiy. In these documents, whatever may have been their 
mee, the festival of Easter is reguxled primarily as 

* For tU* ned the foUcnring οοη1ηιτοη7. «eo the menuur by Hon Brnno 
KnMcb, DU Sh^/thmmf dm Gtier/ittfAc» I'mrtmlriiiu im AbenMiruli. in ttiu 
Nam Arcktv^ vol. Ix. p. 00. 

■ Thk nile dUTor* rtom Uial inlBFquuntly (and ovim ρκτΐοοΒΐ;) in tuw 
■I Bern•, in Μ far Uiot tliu ItinlU «Mixned bf Ui» fonnrr for the vmristtou 
«f lb» d*t» <i 0<κά Ϋήάαγ am in Iho athnr «pplled to ilio vnrlatlQa ot tlio 
tblo of BmUv HnndAf. 


ύιβ eud of a fosi. ll could uoi tliOD huvv bcoo of recent 
inetitutioii, for besides tlie evidonoo of its antiquity in tlic 
unanimity of no man; traditions, olherwiso divergent, ve 
have the testimony of Ireoieu», in dealing with faetisg at 
Borne. «8 to the practice of the Popes Telesphorus aud 
Xyetue, who were coutemporories of the Emperor Adztto. 
For the obHer\-auce of Pentecost, understood ■■ auodited 
with a period of tifty days, we have the attettation of St. 
Ixenffiua,' of TertulUas* and of Origeu,* who in their 
agreement on this poiat serve to eetahlish the great aotiqeity 
of the custom. 

The festival of Pentecost, the end of this tame of 
rejoiciog, is implied rather than explicitly mentiooed in 
early Christiaa writings.* It ia possible that there was 
not at first much outward ceremony ia ita obMTvaace. 
The Council of Klvira (eirc 300J considered it necessaiy 
to bring to remembrance the obligation of observing iu* 
The writeta and councils of the second half of the fourth 
century spoak of it as a festival already of long standing. 

This last obsurvution applies also to the festaval of 
the Asoension. but it is impossible to find a trace of it 
before the middle of Iho fourth century.' 

' hi α book (iu)if b•!) on ϋι• PiaanTcr. but oitod by the {«cadivJutlia. 
Qiiocit. ad Orthoiioza*. 

' Dt /All.. 14 ; Ih Baptirme, VJ ι D* Oaroaa. 8, 

• A-it, CUnin. vltl. n. 

' Ori^un appL-an. hnwcvot (nji. ΉΙ.). to dUlltiKUiih bclveed Ui* t«« 
DWMiiiig• of PoQtHMwl ; be urid(iDU]r oHiiiuuIcd it wilit the ceainaiiMt«U«i 
ef Uu dowMUit uf the Hulf Spirit. 

* Ou. 48: "Γπτηαι iiutitntionam orDBndsri plaonit, jnsU Kiiotaritauai 
HaHpUmnm. ut cunoti dium FutitwKatei ci:lubra(Dii• : iw, el quia nan 
r«oarft, qoMl auviua houivMni tuduslMo onUrlur " 

' Id Cappadoda tliii iatlvol wiu ■-■ntitlod 'Ζ*ΐΛΐιζβμ•ηι ((iny. ri'fi ι 
Migno, Pal. Gr., vol. tlH. p. SOD}. Tlic mne nune wu given >t AaHoA 
to Uio i?UDday b»foti> <ir niter il (Oliryt., vol. ύ. p. I88X Tlila dotlgnaUM 
ha* not yet boea fatlibotorllj «xplklaoil. C" ^^7 ^f ipcoUll; retalaed fnr 
•uluou) uvlL-bration orcv and ateve (he grt&t feativab." ' A holiday tccned 
iu luddilion." Did. Okr AM., i. 145.— T«.) 

niR CltR(»TUK nUTn'AU. 



3. UiU. 

Λβ tot LeDt, it hae been the subject of many viciesltudus 
aa well in the mailer of its duration as iu the rigour with 
which it was oluerved. It is certain that the fa«t before 
Easter, in the time of Irenffiua, was for a very short period ; 
soma Cuted only for λ day, otbore for two, and others again 
for a nombor of days. Some, moroovur, ate nothing for 
forty hoars. ΌϊβΒΟ periods inust be coosidorcd. I think, 
as ooolinuotu and nnintemipted faste.* Tortullian was 
ttsaoqnaintvd with any aoloma fast, prescribed by the 
Catholic Church, oxoept that of the day of the Patcha, a 
Usrm which he uses ia a a^iecial sense heru for Good Friday. 
He declares that the time of fasting included only the 
days qsiivs aUatite at φοηηα, that i» to say, troia Qood 
Friday to Easter Sunday morning.^ In Alexandria it was 
cnstomary about the middle of the third ceotury to fast 
the whole week before Easter Day. some continoously, 
and others at intervals. The letter of SL• Diouyaioa of 
Alexandria to BaaiUdes,* in which tltia qoeetioa crops up. 
ia the moel ancient authority which we posaees for the 
obeervanoe of Holy Week, or the week of Xerophagy. 
fieforo that time the Montaoisls observed a fast of two 
weeks' duration insttad of one. una this custom was con- 
tinued amongst ihem until the fifth century, when their 
%uut«d ftst of longer duration than that of others wa« 

' Ol ^ -,ίψ ΛοΎβ* μΐβ* 4»J#w Ιΰ ainaiit •^ντ.ί*», «{ β Ifck •( U m) 

Vlr" *i^*'• BetU**, AM. Beti., r. 3Λ- There it no need t» ukc into 
ttetUmtt aa hta th• Mwidf of BgflaM, who, pwaocupicd by Uie disGipliu• 
pmaOtne ia Id* <■*>■ taim, mbeOMtnicd tbo eiul »r ibU uxt, 

' iMJ^jiii^>,%lXU: DeOnibm»,\9. 

' Micncw PaL Or., tdI. x. p. 1S77. 

* TNtoltiBa, OtJejinUt, 15; cf Buwliiui, iT. £.τ. ISi ^ceemco. Η. JC. 
vb. 1ft 


or the QnattragfMma (JteaapaKoerli. Loot) no tnOM 
arc Γο«η<1 boforo the fourtfa coDtui;.' The fifth cadoii 
of tlic Council of Niora (325) coutaiae the eadiaM 
mention of iL From iJiie Lime forwanl it ia EreqtMDtly 
reforred to, but at first chiefly ae β time of prepeiatioo 
for baptism, or for the abaolatioo of penitenta, or aa a 
seaaon of retroat and recollecUoa for the faithful Uxiag 
in the world. Among the dntiea of these sacred weeks 
lutiiig naturally occupied an important place, but the 
practice voriod in duTurent countries. In the " festal 
lett«ni " of St. Athunuaiua ^ wo oiq able lo follow the piogi aas 
of the obeervnnce of Lent in Egypt. St. Athanasios apeaka. 
in the beginning, of Uie iivu of Lent and of the vtetk of 

' Οιίκτιη'• lifiiiiily 'in I.tikv iL, «hleh i* momUib•• ollcd η an *Mtler 
witncM^ iixiiU onl; ia thi- mTUcd tjitin trst <J Kuflnnli ud rwieot Λκ^ 
font bu regnrdcd Η oridcndi: fif α nmikiui eontvmpumrj wflh Ui• gnmt 
ilooUir or AWkiiilrift. Wbat ll n;* •<Γ the fuut of ΙοΛγ dap I* tpmaUntlj 
In Mntimdiclion Willi the irqnonRi of ido*• ία tlii• Γη^ι-ηΙ. 

* S«o i»pn'iullf uumo uf llio jmra 3»i). 330. SVt, Sll. 3IT. In Ibe flat 
(SIS) it ti iDKnly ilmlt wllli u ■ ρτ«ρηπ>ΙΙοη fnr (be foallval of Kaelar. 
und tlinl, tn». in a Rinioral my villinut imy menlion of lliu Q«adMgHdM•: 
till- fiiBl in iniliiNil(>d in thu imlcx nd mmmeaeinf <e Uio Htmitf la 
Uifly Week. Ill 3!KJ tin- Qiwlnifff^lnwl {icrlod U tDratlcand μ ΙμΙΙιι( 
far ns wntki, but th« fut. itrietly «pnkliig. i• altmyc ihat of Holy Week, 
ll me WL-11 imduntood thnt ΓμΙΪιικ ma »tano$ tlic ouebrr ol ndiiiwiij 
ni-rpUe• |>r«[Mint<ir; In tho oh«fiivuiii> oT Koalor: it m* out, bawBT or , 
lin^nrilMMl iw «Γ *tritit obl<;;atioii, or u u ciulom aiNNiptcd i-TcrTwherc, Tbo 
RRTptiiuu mninlainpiL for lh« trnsl jurt. "nly thu fut of HoJy Vtttk. Wldle 
St, AthuniutiMti WM nt Bomc> in 940 uid tbo (ollnviiii; yian. bo >u Ibi 
■uljwt ι•Γ π'ιιγιιπγΙι in rmppot of tlila practioc. ΙΙ<? curnploin* of thi« ia • 
mtp ιΐ[>ροιιι1(κ1 I•) his futal Ivlter of S4I. It <ra• daMd Μ Boan, and 
nildreatt] to bia frii?ntl Svnpinti, BUfan]• of TbmuH «bo *■• cl>UC*^ *itli 
tbo mjiortlalini of tlin Churnhiv nf Egypt in bb «bMiioct. H« exborb Hm 
lo InipmaiTD tomu to n^otu iif'on tlio B^pUana tbo etwrrue• «I (fc• 
l^t. uyini: Ibnl llipy niiiki.< llii'iiuiclti)• tlin UaKblnfp^twk of tb• «ravU. 
Fn<m Il'i* lioiii tfintnH Ihi- Inika taonti<nu nifrul«>y tlio Γμ( of lb• 
Forty Day* and ot Iluly Wt-ck. I*i«vio>iiilr Kt. AUiunMJiu apoko of tbt« 
u the time of l.i>iit nnd tlin «nok of the fMl. In the Γμ1»1 1m4(* ol 
347 It b fominlly dMluKd thni he "who ihkll ηηκίοηΐ tbo ohnmno• 
of l,«tit lUUl nut crlcbmlr Baal«r." or. Is «4ber mrda. tb*U b* 
niQtiicntfid tor a tIaiD• 




fast, but Uter on iieoi tlte terms "the /tut of Lent 
umI the Holy Week of Easter." At Bone it ms the 
enstom to ohaerre tht! fost for only the Isat thieo weeks 

^ΜΌτθ Easter.' 

y Various endaaToors were miula in ναηοαβ conntliM 
fa) combiae the Qondiageaima with the Holy Week. At 
Antaoch and in the Churches following this groat oontm, 
the two periods wuru mare distinctly deBoed than else- 
where. In one of his homilies* St. C'hr^'soatom expresses 
himaelf somewhat as follows: "We faave at length come 
to the end of Quadrugesima, and we ere now about to 
eater on the great week." In the AptuMie Cbn- 
mtiUioiu also' it ia formally declared that the fast of 
Lent is finished when that of the grout paschal week 
is begun. At Kome, on the other hiuid, and itt Alexandria, 
and even at Jerusalem,* Holy Week wils inrrlmled is 
the Qoadrageaima in Ruch a maaoor that the whole fast 
lasted only six weebi, but at Constantinople and in the 
East properly so odled, that is, tlie countries following 
the aodent ctutOD of Antioch, the fast woe observed for 
Hwn weeks. The Sundays only were excepted at Rome, 
bnt at Couxtantinople both the Sundays imd Saturdays, with 
the exocpiioD of Suuini»y in Holy Week, were exempt 

I ' 8oemUa, B. S., τ. 32. Thto paBagc, btnrevtt, ίηηιίΜ• mo «ith κπηβ 
dUnat, (or il my* tbot in Ihew three wixdn tho l^iiiidAya and Aatiirdnri 
wtte «xoepled. Thi• ewptiiiii «f th« SntiirilAr* ia far rrom being can• 
IbiBaUa to ftonuui DBtge. I αα inoUned (o beli*Te Uial tbi.• Ibrce wwk• 
of Haliag. follonriag the prinutlvn oiutom of RotBa^ ««« ant ointlnuoiM, 
bet kmba bj tntemb. tbat i». tlie faxl wa• ofaaorrod ση tbo lint, tb« 
ItHBlk, ud tlie lislh WMk. The flnrt i> dov uaigiied to tho tpriag 
&ib«r Db)% Uu tmulh. oaited formerlj nudlatM, L••• prwarred oortatu 
IHoqiiMl pMolIuUlc•, aud the ιίιΐΗ i* H0I7 Wook. Tbtw throe «TMk• 
kM iTMta tat ordlaatloD, 
■ Bom., zxx. im Gm^ I. 

I • Bk. T. 15 

ψ * Aa to JpnualeK, thae were flaotablion*, for the PtngHnaHo at 
WrL• nmti oT λ Latit of eight vK-kt' duntiun (fp, m. Si. Qunurrinl). 


from thu obgurrance of fasting. The fast in b< 
iherofore, lasted to reality only thirty-six days. Ilore 
vere, m<»eoTer, Churches in vhicb, op to the filth 
cestuiy. Lent ocmsiBted of only three weeks (rf fasting. 
These, whether broken op by intervale or not, alwsvi 
oocarred in the sacred pei-iod of aix or seven weekL' 
About the middle of the tifth ceDttiry the groAter MtmlMr 
of divergences had disappeared ; the two usages of Bcm•• 
Alexandria and Antioch-COnstantinople bad abeorbed all 
others into their respective domains, and taken di 

Certain supplemental days came, however, to be 
The tbirty-six days of actual fasting seemod at fiiM. 
form a perfect aumber, that of the tenth of the whole 
year.* The inconsistency of this period with the oame 
of Quadragesima, however, came to be noted. Tba author 
at Borne of the Liber Pontifietdi» sought to ooforoe, eran 
in his time, the ooceasity of a seventh wook, wUoh 
would, nccording to the Boman usage, have increased 
tho number of fasting-days to for^-two. In the eereath 
century β four days were added, by what Pope wo caonol 
say, and from thnt time forward theee have been univenally 
aoceptoil llironghout the Wcet. It was about this time 
also that the etational Massea for the three Sundays in 
SepUiagmma, in Sexa^esima, and in QuiHquagetima, were 

ed all 


■ βο«ι«1«>, Β. Β., V. Xt 1 tkeomeii. Β. Κ, vti 19. t<ootmUi twum 
eiplHtii bow. nhilu οοιην fut fur Uiut;r-ils day•, uul otbna for tUtm, 
OTerjbodj •1ιοιιΙΊ itjit^k •4 Qii*dn(Mii&ft. He did not bow llM th• 
|wriod «f fortj dayp biid been >t flnt i&trodnood for onothw pnipon tlun 
Ibat «f futin([. nud ilml il irw imljr hj η Krt of coDCinBou 
tbftt tbo fut cDOMaded In «xUfndliiK ΙικΙΓ over tba «tiolo QiiiiliifWlBi 

* Cuiinii. Coll.. ui. 30. 

* til. Ofi>pir/ Id bin time Itnoi™ of aalj Ihc lhiit}r-«K daj• (J 
in Blvng.), Tlie Oeloniui Hociuncntarjr dntrn ap ■< Ui« b«giaala( 
tbo eigbtb evbtury bu ulreuly th• ««ttoml Umm• for Ibo (wpplMMntary 



slitnted, and the cycle of posdul eolommtios thiu 
to the oiBth week before Easter. At Coa- 
•tuitiaopte nlso three Susdnje wen tdded, asd asaooiated 
with the festival of EAstor in tho esme way aa the 
8BT«o Studays ia Leot properly bo called.' Tlie first two 
are deiignated by the oames of the Gospels read at Mass 
oo tlieae days, tbat is, tbo Sunday of the Pharisee and the 
Pablicao («v/itaitq rot> TtAuvou καΐ rou Φαμ«τα/ομ), and the 
SoDday of the Prodigal Sod (nt Άσωτοι;}. The third is 
the Stmday of the Carnival (Άτυκ^ιιω),' 

These iooovations did not extcrnd to the countries fol* 
lowing the Gallican rite. Tho Uttor conttnoed to obscrre 
the six weeks prescribed by the ancient Bomaa custom,* 
but I believe that this anclunt custom iteelf had been 
preceded by a Lent of seven weeks* dorstion, the 
Saturdays being exempt, that la to say, a L«at similar 
to that observed at Constantinople. At Milan, in the 
time of St. Ambrose, the Saturdays were not kept aa 
fasting days.* The Council of Agde {fi06) ^ and the 
foorth ΟούοοίΙ of Orleans (541),* which were posterior 

' Tban toi veok• eenipriM that wbicb i• ciul«d tn iho offlce book• 
ibo t>>^lMr: the paMh*! leaea, IneladitiB (bo oolaio oT Pentroott, foriM 
Uie lUvrwueHfier: (ho remniniu^• waakM of tli« jtat conatlttito Ui« 

' Frae thb Soadtjr forwud tin ιιιααί U mlco. kitbougb haul bo• not 
jal bMB meheJ. Th« faUowing Sooday ia o»Ued, far ■ timilir rcaaos, tha 
ObeM• Svuday (τΐ> Τν^φ^Ο- bi^MOM) fraa Ibk lUy forwaril (li• (.enini 
iHt exdiidM ndk-prodooU. 

* lU• b «Ull Um «otom in the Cbnteh οΓ Hllui. Lent U^in• at 
ΚΟλ* not w ΑΛ WMUsdaj, but on Ih• Sundky follovlac. 

* D* JMi 4« Jffunb. 10: " QiuulimgarfiB•, toMa prmtet wbtnlna ot 
deoiciiauii MonMBiw dlubuii." 

* U. 11; -Plocujt ctiam ni omna• Ncletiu, oioepUi dtobu dcnniiuebh 
In f oadne^riin•. tUua din Mbbotl, wocrdttall orilnBtlw» ot diitrietleai• 
emBlailtaio Jajwciot." 

' C- S: "Boa Btiam deMrainHH olaemndDin ut quadnie^<M ■b 
nasUna eoekaii• aoqmUlor UiMatar: mqw qnioqeaKcsiiium nut avt^g^ 
tiiota «itte pHcha quillb*! «oocrdo» pmemn»! in<lla«n>. ϋοΛ noqii• 

'246 CHlUl?r[AIi WORSHIP: ITS OKtOIX Λϋυ EV0Ltm05. 

to the i&txodoctioa of the Komoo oaigv, vere obliged 
to iosut upon the obeervBQco of fwtJBg on tho Sclutdaye 
in Li!Ut. Tbe last-named council ideo ooDdemns ibe 
prolonging of Lent by tbe Quinquiigeaima (»" Sexagesima. 
Tbese decrees imply that the Eastern custom «aa still 
maintaining its gronnd on some points. 

There were some poculiaritiee in Divine Service daring 
Lent. In the Eoet. vfaeievcr it was customary to celebrate 
the Encharisl at the Synaxes of Wednesday and FViday, 
thie usage was omitted.' As a compensation the ordinary 
^oaxca btioune more numerous. St. Cbrj'sostom [n«8cbed 
at Antiocb over,• day in Lent. In tbe West, on the olhor 
hand, the liturgical Synaxes became multiplied, but by slow 

The Moxorabic Missal contains Maasoe for the Wed- 
BSfKlays and FHdays in Lent, and the Gelasian Sacramentary 
bae them for every day in the week, Tbuisdaye exceptud.* 
It ii difficult to truce this institution to its origin. Several 
of the Itoman Churches noted us plaous for Stations in the 
Sacramentory of Adrian had boon founded in the course 
of Ute seventh century, but it ia possible tltat tbe Stations 
may have been asaigned in the outset to other OhorcheB. 
However this may be, there is do evidence earlier than 
the seventh century or thereaboat for tbe Koman Stations 
for Lent What 1 have already said' in regard to thoae 

per Mbb*U ftbtqnq [nflrmiMM qvtiqaMn tOint qnftdmgeiiiiM• jojniUBiiL, 
niii tMiloM die dominlco jifdant. qD«l «In llifrl «pcdnltlifr palnnn stklnta 
••BiomiL 81 ijnii hatie rcgulMn irtupsait. laiuinnm tnuinsrrMor (tlfclpUiuu; 
a ■wcrdciibni motwlur." 

■ 8«e fbr Aria MtDor, Uw CouoUcf ljuxlii.««. c 49 : "*On •» tiTJkvf 

Junoalini, Pmgrim. SOr.. p. 8& 

* Tha Hm» tar tbe Tbnnl•; «u «iIiW by OrtfotT U. (71&-TII1). S<w 
ΙΛ. Ftmtif.. ml- L p. MS: cf. V 41S. nol<- 19. 

' I'. i!M. 


for the Monday and Tuesday of Holy Week would lead lu 
to believe that they were iuatituted after the time of 
St. Leo. 

4. Holy Week. 

Holy Week, at the end of Lent, begins on a Sunday, 
which, both in the Greek and Latin Churches, is called 
Palm Sunday, or the Sunday of branches. The Mass on 
this day ia preceded by a procession in which each one 
carries a branch, prerionaly blessed, in remembrance of 
the triumphal entry of Jesue, six days before bis death, into 
Jerusalem. This ceremony, like many others of the same 
kind, was at first peculiar to Jerusalem. It is described in 
the PeregriiuUio ol' Silvia.' Cyril of Scythopolis, a writer of 
the sixth century, also makes mention of it* It was intro• 
duced into the West at a relatively late date, that is, about 
the eighth or ninth century. The ancient Latin liturgical 
books make no mention of it whatever. Amalarius of Metz 
speaks of it, but in terms showing that the custom of 
observing it was not universal' St Isidore, however, with- 
out explicitly mentioning the procession, speaks of the dies 
FaliJiarum* and of the custom of carrying palm branches to 
church and of ciying Rosanna. 

Maundy Thursday, which, in the cycle of movable feasts, 
commemorates the anniversary of the instdtntion of the 
Eucharist, could not fail to be observed liturgically. In 
Africa the Eucharist was celebrated — as a thing unusual — 
after the evening meal, with the view of establishing a cloeer 

' p. 91. 

' Vitu 8. E«th^i, 0. 11. I(t3 (Ada 8β., vM. ii.. 20th Januair). 

' Ik (fff., i. 10 : " In memoiiaCD illioB rei nt» per eccluwaa noctra• •οΙ)>ιιιιιιι 

jmrlnn) ramot et clAmaro Hdennnn." 
' i> Off., i- 28. 


coDfortoity with the circomstances of ite inatitutioa «t tlie 
Last Supper.' 

On Good Friday, commemoratiDg the Paeaon and (Iwtfa 
of the Saviour, there vas no liturgical celebration of th« 
Eucharist anywhere. I have previously stated UM the 
Bcorvice of this day, aa it is foond in the Roman nee, b« 
preserved for us in its first part an exact type of the «ocicsl 
meetiaga for worship without liturgj•. It bftcamo compli- 
cated about the seventh or eighth centuiy, by the intiodoc- 
tiuu of two cvrvmonios, the Adorotioo of the Crese and tbe 
MuB of the Presaactified. The ftmnor of these came from 
Jcnisalem, where we have evidence of il as early im the 
fourth century. The wood of the croea was eolumnly pre- 
sented to the faithful in the Uolj City on thai day, in order 
uat they might approach and kiss it.' 

The ancient Latin lituigical bookB. almoet without 
exception,^ speak of the Adoration of the Croea as fortning 
part of the religious service on Qood Friday, but they differ 
considerably as lo the manner in which this ceremony was 
connected with the rest.* The chants which ore sung it 
the preeent day during the Adoration of the Crose have 

■ Oranell nf Ctuth»^ of S97, A SB: ^Ct iMiVDRDla «IlAri• noa wM 
Β jcJDnla homiiiibiu wiebrenlur, «loqilo mw die uniTemuio ^oo «MM 
Domini c«lebratiir." St. AngUBlmn αΰα epMb of tbSa cimIoib in U» J^ 
lie, ail Jimiariunt, β. 7. Ue «nya ovi-n Uiiit, u eorUln penm* did Mt 
fMt at nil uo tbtt iaj, (ho ΛΜΙο» wu oolsbnitod twiee, oboo in Uw 
Kortiing. and onoo in the evening. In thi• wKf tboM «bo ΛΛ Mt tui 
could piu-uki.' of il after tli« tnamlng moal, uid thoM «bo did aftw tkt 
I'vcuiiig nh'iil. Tttu oaiiMiuu of faitlns «U owiug to the carton of *-*•^ 
η bath an tliii dnj. DivUiing iiod futtng vNe oenaideted inooapalibla. 

* Peregrin. Silnat, f ίΙ.ΐ, tf mj. 

' Tbo eiwtsmDiiUiy vS Adrian |>ri»:n'M no limcc of it, doubUcaa owiag 
to the fbot (hftt it givua uoly the pmyur> loitl bj Ibe oeMnal, tbe pope. 
Tbu Oritu of tbo nuunUKTiijit at Pt Anand InAlcatca Ute eaaapuj is ib« 
tltlo-{«gc, but it mdcn uo mention of it la the ilMcription of the papfti 

* Cxunparo tho throe nntiw diworibod, ρ HO, Ί «ly,, and the ΠρΙμ^ο 
SMuinenlfirr. i. 41. 

TBZ crustijU! nsTiruA. 



oertably an kucioDt, bnt rather QaUican,' ring nbool thorn. 
They are oot foand iu the ancient Boman booka.' 

The "Uue οΓ Ih» Freeanctified " is not marked bj 
any greater pitPtainvnce. It is moroly the Communion, 
nparated from the litutgical celebmtion of the Eucharist 
properly ao called. The details of the ceremony are not 
fonnd earlier than in books of the eighth or ninth century, 
bat the service mnat be]<nig to a mach earlier period. At 
tbe time when Synaxes ivithoat liturgy were frequent, the 
"Haat of the Presanctified " must have been frequent 

In the Greek Chun:h it was celebrated every day in 
Lent except on Sauirdaya and Sundaye, but in the Latin 
diarcb it was confined to Good Friday. The ceremony 
at Borne was of the most sunplc diameter. The capta 
coDiaioing the oonewmted broad wiu placed upou the 
altar; the P(Uer notUr, with its iulroducloty and concluding 
fonnolariee, vaa said; a particle of the consecrated bread 
was placed in a chalice containing ordinary vine, and 
Bvefybody commonicated by partaking of the consecrated 
bread in tbe (χφβα and of the wine eancUGed as described. 
It is probable that the faithful, when tJicy administered 
the ootnmnnion to themselvea in their houses, obaerred a 
nmilar corDmonial* 

' Fnt luUnoo. Iho TrtMglon, in Oreeik bud L&Uti, Uie Ropiwebe•, u)d 
ϋι• bjinB Pvufe Unfua. I ilo nnt quote iu tbla iMpoct the Omgnrion 
AaUptatMiT. Β bmk «bidi ii !u from bcdag bomogencooi tad fieo Γιαπι 
OklUcM iaftimn!. 

* TW ΑρροοΛΙχ ίο tlw ύ/Λο I. of MabUluo noiillani oaly thn uUlian 
(•Βϋρΐιοα) A«tU0miMChKi>.eomUnod with tbo long piiiIiiiiiAili'imfiMniteM, 
AcDoidlBf to the Orde of BUuitideln. thu luitiplion niui aung during tbe 
i m tMlcB. beUi iMiK λβΑ cimlnc, Ικπα tlin Lntonui lo tb• Biwflriin 
iMOIca. Tbe Adomtian of the Crtm (oak plaoo diuiag the leotioD• of 

• Onaaniui U boini>, η nrj ftaqnent ciulam in the time of tbo 
lenceaUoai, *u Bwtolalnod tmong nUttrlo• to BoautcriM where Iherr 
«ere no priort*. a&d. pmorally. in the nue of thoee who liveil at ■ greet 

250 cHntsTiAs wobsiiip: rre osigin and Evotmos. 

On tlte Saturday in Holy Weuk Uiero vwt on epwnl 
meeting for worafaip, The oeremonies of the Kneter Vigil 
liad aliijBdy lieen tmuferred in tbo eigfatb oeatury to Uie 
nftui-Qoou of the Sacdrday. At the pre»eDt day tbey an 
performed io the moraing. Apart from the ritee in 
which bear upon ImptiFimal initiation, and which Rball 
described later on, this solemn Vigil was disting^iiabed by 
txriaia p«<nUiaritiee, namely, by the blessing of the oo<* 
firo, and of the candle, sod by the Mass itself, in whtdi 
certUD an^haic fouturea wen) preserved. 

A very natural symbolism led to tbe adoption of 
tbeee ctiivmontee. The drath of Christ, followed quickly 
by His rcsuiTOction, found no expmsnvii image io Uw 
iire, caudle, or lamp, wliich being uxlingni&bod, can be 
lit again. W« know wluil importAooe i•* still attached 
in our own days to tbu ceremony of tbe now &n in ihe 
Easier ritual of the Greek Church at •feruHalem. Id tbe 
East, however, thi» oereinony does not uxtuod Iwyood 
the Holy City. It Li not found in the ordinary Uyzautine 

In the West, we learn from the legend of St. Patrick 
that it was customary for tbe Irisli, as early as tbe sixth 
oeatury, at latest, to kindle great fires at nightfall on 
Saeter £v& It appears from the correepoikdeDoe between 
St. Boniliace and I'ope Zachariaa' that these fires wen 
lighted not from other fires, but &om flints. They wan 
zeally new fires. This custom appears to have been 
peculiai' to tbe Hrilisli or Irish, and to ba\'e been con- 
veyed, through the Aoglo-Saxuue. tu tbe Continent by 


diiLuico liina a cliiuch, <-i«ui αΠοτ lli>< ϋΙιαηΊι km ftvu [mm |NuanTuti"n. In 
51i>. LKinilliTiJ•. Uio Bi>lio}> of TliiMiliiiiiiB, Toriiig tlitt penocuUuu «m 
i^lioiit k> (I'fWuil ujwn liiB Quuk, eaiwed Uw cIodi-iiU Γυι «nninuiiMi lot• 
diiltibutcd a&uuig Uioni ία )η«Μ•ΓοΙ, funiMni plnu, μ i mtm im M» 
oMemttemmMttam non pf-nl (l^icl. Bpff. Ami•- Paat, vnl. 1. ]>, MS). 
• J«fff,lSUI. 





ndarioDariee of the eighth csQluty. There is oo Usee of 
it in tlw ancient Merovingian boo)».' 

It was not known, moreover, at Rome. A rite, how- 
r, of simitar import was observed here. On Manntly 
Thnisdajr, zi tho time of tJic coneucration of Uiu holy chrism, 
soffideot oil was coUedud fVom all the lamps of the 
lAteran basilica tu fill tliroo groat vessels, which were 
pleoed in a conor of the church. The oil thus collected 
was allowed to bom by meuis of wicks until the Vigil 
of Eester It was at these three great lamps that the 
Cttodles and other Ughts were lit which were used ou the 
night of the VigQ of Euster to illnminate the ceremony of 
baptism.* It is possiblo that the taking of the light on 
ibi» oceasion wae a matter of somu solemnity, for Pope 
Zachuriaa assigned the office to ii priest, or oveu to u 
faishop (ptr Mc^inioten). But there is no trnve of this 
either in tho Ordina or in the Sacramontariva. 

The cutom, ftirthurmon, of solemnly blosaing tlie 
Easter candle, and the lights of the church gcuorally. at 
the beiginning of tho holy night, was one foreign to Borne. 
It is needless to say that thia cnatom has the closest 
relation to tliat in which a spark, as it were, of the 
ancioDt fire was preserved, or that in which there was α 

■ In ϋι« MixnrwUo Vimtl now ia iMh tiitm U. μ Id ILu lloniun ΜΙκαΙ, 
Λ tllMinu of lli« ii* U Ibo bi'ginnliiK ol Lho Rular VIgiL Tbe flu; w 
•blalBed fmiD a flint βοΛ ((μΙ. 1 do not know wbetbL-r Ihe MRUOEiy 
i• lOlly piiinilivo in IIm Munnbio MuiaL II ia furutiiil; not μ In the 

' ZodiuiM lo ΒααίΓοιη.• (l••-. ril.): "Do igao uulcm pnaohuli qnod 
is^aiaiali . . ., qutntn tttia Γηχ-Ιιαο, tlinn menua ohriisuiB niuBcyrBtur, 
In• ΙηιιΐΓ"1ι« natciuH) aa)npiUU> i-X dlvcnSa i-unilvhii cnJouiic ol«i 
niUooln In Mcrctktfl ccelMiM boo, ad β^ιιηη Intcrioria Ubunuu-aii 
iBiMetttd, iniloflaiHilor mm utilui dlligMitta nrdobnnl. its ut oli'iim 
t|msi BiillMre ptMit hmjup ηΛ terthim diirtn, Di• qntbiui i&Dil«tii 
mUmU) Mad» |in> mrrt fuiil.ii• bn[v(l*nintr nimpliui isnie per iMvr• 
iktaM (CDurabaliir. Di- cmUUia iialcm, ut luarJ'Uiili, imllnin lialiMBM 


eolemn productdoB of the new. At Itotne, wbero the obr- 
moDy of bleseii^ the paschal candle was not in naa, the 
gieat lampa prepared od Maundy Thursday were used on 
the Friday nnd Saturday to light the two candles whidl 
in theae latter days were borne in proceeaioD before the 
Pope, in plaoe of the seven candles which ordinarily pre- 
ceded him. 

Ontside Rome, that is, iu Xortliora Italy, Ganl, and 
^ain, the blessing of the pascbal candle was an anoiBnt 
ensttHn. The eamo may be said perhaps of Africa also: 
St. Aiignstine {Cit. Dei, xv. 23) furnishes some vesses 
which he had composed im laudt quadam urti. We are 
not sure whether that Laus Otrei may not have been 
composed for some deacon at Milan or of a nei^bouriiig 
Church. Tliis ceremony was so popular tltal the Ρ(φββ, 
although tlioy did not adopt it in their own church, were 
obliged to permit of its ueo iu those of the " suburijicarian " 
diocese. The middlu of the sixth century, according to 
tlie Liber Fontificalis (second edition), is the date of thai 
concassioii, which is attributed therein to Pope Zosimos. 
The Easter c&ndle is met with at Ravcdiui in the time 
of St. Gregory, and at Ναρίοβ in the eighth oentoiy.' 
It is in Southern Italy, moroovor, that the blessing of 
the candle has loft the most striking tnioes in litnigical 

The formulaiy of the blessing, wherever it was in use, 
WM said, not by a bishop,^ or a priest, but by the anfa- 
deacon, who for tiie purpose uoeDded the ambo. close to 
which the candle to be blessed was placed. He b«ean> 
in a sort of inviutory, to anoounoe the beginning of the 

■ Ub. Ftmt.. nl. ί. p. 825: 6t. Gro«orT, ^. si. 33. <31): Ihrt• Bff. 
Stap., !>. ΜΆ of tbe ediUoo ot WoiU (.Mm. Otnn. Script, /xng χ 

* At Haivunn, humvcr, tboM pnjvi» uttt Mid bjr tlM hiAaff {81. 
Ow«wy. f^ '•il'i- The) wrn• ■> l-nii ub U• **nty tli• oflMrtlt 



great ΐίϋύνύ, then adopLitig Ui« tone uid st^le of 
ihe most eolemn prayer — the Eacliaristic — he ctllod for 
the Divine blessing on that luminone pilUr which was 
tbout to «hed iut radiance on the mysteries of the Cbrietian 
FkHOver, aa in like manner of old the pillar of fire had 
gone boforo the children of Israel to goide them in their 
madeiutgs in the desert. He dwelt poolically upon the 
•ttOMoU composing it, the papyrus,^ which famished the 
wick, and the rir^ oil and the beeswax, which formed 
th• tnfrt^ffinl Here occurred a curioue eulogy of the bee, 
chute and fecund like the Virgin ntoihur, and which in 
the manner of its generation furmahcd a type of the eternal 
origin of the Divine Word.' 

The following is the formulary now in use. I re- 
prodnoe it here from the earliest manuscripts,* without 
taking ioto consideration later revisions. 

* S«• iLo twa UoMuiga of Uio ciutdlf, uoataiood io Uio Oputcula of 
&i»odiM, Noa. 9 mad 10. 

' Tbe foUcsine i« the pnMngo ia the fannnbu; Dan mundl amJitot 
of tlM OvfaitMi 9»emat(atttj ; "Ap«B vcru wint Γπι^κΙμ in «uaptibue. 
(■ pwcwticac "■■Η.«ΐιη(.» ; Millflciint ce]la1u ocrco llqiKini fiiudala•. 
^BWiU• Imudoiiu pCTiUao an msyuitnt απη Miu<quiil. Lt<(rUDt [ledflroa 
Borai •! ηαΙΙβη dsmniin in floribiu tiiTcniinr. T^tna unii nlnnt. «od on• 
l<CMtM ooaccpti foetm reddont exomina. rirul i-tMii)ilu mirabili Clirutiu 
•n pklwnu proMMiL FMosda <■! in hU (inc purtu titginitu. qunm 
nti^M Deninn• «qui dipnutiu μγπβΙμιι hi maln'Oi liulwrc ilnclnttatl• 
tmon emMitmlL Tails Icltiu, Domlnc, digaa wMtu nitaribui ini* mimora 
«βκνιΙΒτ, qoibna to laetori peUgio «Imatuu» sen untngiL'* Tliu μι-ηνηΙ 
wHtc« of Iho PrMtofrfni FatduUi 1• dowrflwd, tea ΜΒίαιιτΙιιιΙ nu-icalu/*•!, 
Id ■ Icllitr ■tUibeUd to St. Jmodm, but eurtolnl; of the fear 3tH (Mignc. 
Fat. Imt^ ttA. iiz. pL 182). Thl• ta tuirtmtA to a duaoMi of Plaomui, 
ctlM PiaMJdie•, «bo bad ukid dm writer to draw ap foi blm hh 

' Thia i* (111• forBttlao <•1>ϊί4ι Βρρηιιη in Uio Ibrw Oallioan i^oeni• 
■•ii4Bt1«k from wbMio• 11 poaol iaio tbc aapplomont tu tJie tiacrunentu} 
uf Adriu, «kkh waa prubabljr coiapllv•! bj Akuio {mm nlavp, p. 121). 
lUi HpflMDOnt ooaUiiu alao the fomalarjr Dtiu mnivH MrmUtor, pWuBar 
to Ite OalMten t^MMtacntiuy Boiindliis {.Ofme., tf, 10) baa tell u Im• 
IbnaaUrica of tbla kind, dnim up, doobtlcaa, for bit uru tuo, wbilat be 
«aa Diwcon of tb* Cborch of Pa*!•. 

254 cFTBrsnAK wottenir: its oriuih aku evoi.itio;t. 

Esnh«t JAin oaedlcft tmbA ctoloram t «ιηΐιβοί >1ivtu mjaterift I Et 
pro taati regit viotorw tub> fntoaet ttluurbt: GAudott' ot uUdr 
tutie lare^te fulgoribiui, et n«t«imi nf?u Hpleodon latfnM. hulltil 
orfaw w sentiat amiBlBe caligiDern t La«t«tiir et iMler EcoliM 
iMiM Inmmia ndonwlft fulgore, et mgnie popnlonun Todbu hwc 
unitt roeulioti 

Queprupter, Kdetuitlboe vobis, PrattiM Iwrwaini, λΛ Um mnm 
tuicti iiH]ns luRiiiiii duitetoni, una moount, ητια»ο, I>ei omnipoleoiit 
mieerSooTdiaixi brocaH; ut qai mir Don mde tn«rit!> intnt loritaniin* 
■nnncram dignnlua est ttdgrciBara, hualali mil grmtk lohoitenW, coroi 
bqjna iBodom implen pmociiiUt, Per roiuTgeaUiEa BJinn niHB Ή^ίΐηΐΒ 
noAram, etc. 

Snmim cordat — Ι{γ. Ilnbrniiu• ad Domioiimt 

Oratlae ιριηκιβ Domino Deo noetrol — ^, Dtgninn el joffann 

Vore, quia difcaoin cl jnrinni cat ϊπτϊκίήΐοα) Dcmn oomipoliuHiB 
Puiem, Filiamquo ejus unigenitum, donUDun nottruni Jenin CbiittiUD, 
toto cordU no metilu oSDCtu et rocu ininutEria ponuoftro. Qni jm 
coUe nctcmo Patri Ad» datiitiim solvit «I wtorii phcull caetfoiuin 
IHO cniore delimit. Usee Hunt ίΐιίηι Γβηΐ^ PoKhafi•, in quibu «vm 
itlo Agniu ocuiditur, ojuxgui' siiif;tiui puotitiuit comocraliir. In ^m* 
primaro patrea noetn» flUo• Ivabel odiic«i» d• Adgypto Bubnnn tmn 
■icoo veati^o tnuinr» foobtL H«M tgHtnr nox ot quae poocatonm 
tanebnui coliimnae inlnntnaliona pnigavlt. Uaoc nox «at q|nae boiBe 
per Dniveniini luuiidiiin to ChHsto ovdentea, a vitiia laarnll at^it^iTin 
tit cnli^ne piN»«tonim, reddit i^ntiM, aodat euiotitBti. Have nojc wt. 
in qua dceuucti» viitculie iiiortia ChriatoB ab bifaria rictut oaondl. 
Hilul otiim oaecl profuii ιϋβϊ redimi prufufnet. 

U inira circa noa lua« piotatie dignaHo t inaeitkiabtlfa dflwtie 
carilAliel UC »vrviun tedlniefeii (Utuin tnwlidutil Ο Mrto ΒΜΜβΜΐΙιΐΒ 
Adao poccattira, φΐοΊ Chriati motto doletnni eet! Ο Mix oitlpa, ipaa 
taletn ac lantom tnuniil habere rodamptOTem t Ο bcsta dox, qvM «la 
Tncrnil Kire tcmputi et homn, in (lua Chrialnii ab inforia raaemxitl 
Uaeu nos osC do qiia icriptutn oet: £t mot ticut dim inlumitiMliir, 
Et new tnlnnvinotio «Μα m dtHieiii meii. Iliijui i|ptvr ηηοϋβηΐΐο 


> Tlia tbiwi OaUIoan RMramontarlei have: (huJaai m 

> BacetdoUtm, in II16 Mim. Gotli. TUIa la a Tarinni wkloh depeadt Μ 
the quottion «livl)i<^ the cttelatinK iiiinial«r μ a ριΰ«1 or a bialia|i, 

' Tliii pniiunin. liku tlio rerb /tciiti. at llio «ad of Ihe aMrtmee, doM 
nut tnlt in OMily νιΛ «linl fuUnm. SoaotUng MWt havn folka tnt, μ in 
llie Mac of tlie «ordi Nihil «nfm, ■ llitle lower dowiL 




Boeiii fagfd taim, oii)pae Umi, niih [ituocentliim lapria «t iDMitM 
tmrllUw ; fii^t oJin, oonoordiun pant, ot onrvrnt impona. 

Eo bujiw igilnr noctin gniit, amwipe, sftnd• IVt»r, inoeuin ■ linju* 
McrifionB TtapattioBm, qiii>d UbI in too <κηά oUatione «oloinni pnr 
ainiKranm nknuB ds eporibnu «pnm uerownot• r«ddit EoeloniH. Sod 
Jui ooliunnae bujnt prucouia DOiimo• qiinni in hciuocein Uci rutilnni 
Igaia acModlt; >ini licet divlena in paitM πιαΐη•ϋ Inintiiie detrimenta 
ua norit. Alttnr ti>)iiuitiba> ceria, qua* in (mtoUtitiani pratioaao liajiw 
Unpadit apb suUer edoxlE. 

Apia* oaeterii quae «alijoot• «not bomini an!iDAiiltbii)i antooelHt. 
Cttm «it Bualma oorporis parriute, bgeote• anlmoe aognslo verut b 
IMMtom; tlribna inbeciUa, aed fortia bgeulo. Huic,' «plorata tem- 
ponun vice, viun etaJtiein prainon bybaniapoeaoriiitflt^acialeMiLluii] 
nnd tenperia noderatto * deterMrit, sUtim piodeiinill ad labonu oum 
Mooedilt ifiipcnoeqae per agroa, Ulmtix* pnuliiliun {linaiii, omribiw 
iM^nuiii iuaidunt, parte* ere Icgere flowuloa, oneraUo' ricluallbiui 
anil ad oadra reaioaiit ; Πιίι)ΐιο αΐίΐίο iiniMtiiuabili arte mUuIm 
taoad 0ulku> inrinnmt, aliae liquantia iimIU aa'pant, alto* Tcrtunt 
lotM in eanm, allM «n natn• Biigiiiit, allfto colloctia α foliii ncetar 
indadnuL rem ImiU vt nunlnlb a|na! ϋμίιι• αββ aexuni maeonli 
vlolatil, Ibettta ihd quuauii, ιιββ fllii deatninnt cafUlatomI Sioutaaada 
OutUSBfit vitgo Uaria i vir^ peporit «I virgo ponuaiwlt. 

nn baaU box. quae expoUant ADgJt^o», diUvb EI«bm«Ml Ni», 
in (]« tecmit caelesUa Jnogiuitiirl 

Oranwf le, Dovlno, at oanaoa itt• in banomm noniinlB tnl coit. 
Mcratiw, ail iiocti* bujiui caligincn deitraoDdam In^eHcieiu perMvent, 
«t la (Mlaram muvfUtii acotpliw aupcrnis lumliiaribiu mfecMtrir. Flam• 
laaa ^Jim Loeifef fnatntinu* invgniat: ilk•, iaquani, I.iioifer, qui neecil 
; iUe, ψή lu p t aa at ali bforla hamano gon^ «cnnu-i inlnxit. 

fai— 1( baa ban ■ Sgnralivo numning. The aer^iant reiptrUnum 
JiMMnf let. Pt, Itl. (. 3) ia iwiliiiie elau iliui tlio candle Itaelf. Tlic «vml 
<i»WMt, bovuTcT. Iina κί•<!η Dri^^fa I» tlio ocmnoay of tbo Dv» smii» ut 
1mmmi% which Mmf Idraiol tfsHhcr with the now fin, ate ttetv toacrtcd 
iMd Uio bodj ui' Uio uuidlo. 

' Tbit eulog; of Uia biw. ftitl οΓ Virglliaa romlniacenoqa, 1« no Uni|t«r tii 
b« tuend la lli« tvil ιω« bi β*•ι. 

* Bntr^ In the ManiHcnpta. 

* Wabral'i, aiaanacTipta, 

* ilbralim p. piiutUm*, nannaoripta. 

* Baptim (f). 

* tii^rolL•, nMuwurlpti. ^oniuUiing anurt b>T<? tillni onl bov. ^w 
«bole puaage U vnry ooimipt. 


PraounuT ergo to, Dominc, iit no• &iiiuIm ucm,' omnem denun 
(t«vi>tiniinam ροραΐηπι, >KaieU> trnnp^mm toncMM, in hw PMclulibu] 
gnndiie ODQMrvftTe dignerx. 

Hieso formularies vhk said, in Italy al least, from'' 
separate rolls, which |il was customary to decorate u 
sumptuously as possible. Tho text was ontameoted hen 
and theru with mioiatures illustmlive of vorioua pmigM. 
mcb as the angelto choir, the earth illuminated with 
celestial light, the church, tho offioiatiog deacoa, bees, 
etc. Tho name of the sovereign at the eod was sonuximei 
accompsniutl by his portrait.' In tiio ortuunentatioD of 
these rolls the figures vcie placed npsido down, eo ihat 
the reader observed them turned in the opposite direcUen 
fixim tbu text. This custom finds its explanation in the 
fact that each roll, es it was read, was allowed to fkU over 
the side of the ambo, ao that its end coold bo seized by 
members of the coDgregatioa, and the miniatures contem- 
plated while the deacon continued his chanting of the 

The MoKarabic Liturgy contains here, besides the 
ΐ' lessing of the new Bre, which is not. perhaps, primitive 
in this place, a twofold benediction, namely, that of th^ 
lamp and that αΐ tbe candles. There were two officiating 
ministers — deacons— who must either have composed the 
□ecessarv forniularies themeelres, or have known them by | 

■ Tho lowl oommualty. W# βηιΐ tion^, in tb« ocfiU•, fintnnlarie• la 
irhloh tho pope, tho liUliop. nnd tho uTcroigD, wo luunod. 

' Thi* «M the Qoae in ooe of tho JfciiiM» ιικμγτοΙ udqiic tiie aroUvM 
of th• Uilhednl of Burt: we tM <l«plol«d uu it lb« portislta of tw> 
MBponirm of tlie FjM, Iliull II and CmulknUiie PC., Ibco rakn of the 
coDtitr;. TliSa nil fnniulit'ii n formuluy which ταπο• «ααιϋΐτ^Ι ttnm 
iho tuna] last. I t*fnt thnt I bav• boon provnUod rram molciac ■ mpj 
of IL Tho Bcnodictian of Honto Ouriiw h«re nndeitalccB Ui• pabU- 
ntlou cif tbu miniaturn in ume of tbeM roll•. taftiAallj thate ot Oaeu. 
Ftmdl. Uipiw, Mid MIratM'lU (U Mhialen Mi rate» dtiT SnM. Heat• 
UkHiuu. lam) 




prelimioory ceramooiea were foUovi-d by a long 
seiieB of loctions, chants, luul prsjers, oonstilutiog Uic 
YigQ serrioo, and after thvso by the blessisg of the 
baptismal fonts, the colcbintioti of baptism and oon- 
firmatioD, and finally tlie Mass, which was said in ancient 
tImM at the first signs of dawn. This Gnt Easter Maes 
pmaenred at Rome, and still continues to preserve there, 
ite primitive luraogement. It begias, after the litany. 
with the Gloria i» tsueUts (which was originally sung 
oolj on the Nativity), and exclude;! the othi^r chants in- 
trodaced at the end of Die fourth contuty, that la to 
say, the introit, the olTertory, and the antlphon of the 
commimion. The same is the case, aa we might naturally 
aotieipabe, witli the Αι/ηι>Λ Dfi, which was not iotroducud 
antil thrae oenttiriea later. The only other chants occur- 
ring in this Mass — the gradual and the aanetta — f^o tiacl; 
to tlw earliest Umes. 

{ δ.— Thk Ijimotablb Fbaitts. 
1. Otrutmat and Epiphany. 

The aeooiid of lite mnlinal points on which the occlo- 
ittcal year turns is tlie festival of the Xativity of ChrieU 
this festival had become fixed, it detenniaed, like 
Bacter, a great number of otheiR. 

Tbctv is no authurilative tradition bearing on the day of 
the birth of Christ. Even the year is ancertoiii. The latter. 
however, was dulermined at an early dale from α considera- 
tiun of two texts, Luko iii. 1, and Luke iiL 23, which 
imply a synchroniam between the thirtieth year of .leeus ' 

' 'n#*l ifAr rftiartu. ΤΙιίι Bpxtt^ ίι i^tvi'n u nf>|m>iluuiU^ Fi}' tlio 
Bf>n^tlal liliupir Ii i» I rriiouiir liable with Uil- ■laleniitiit amuuuu lu 
81. MUlb«« μΛ Ht. Ijiko. thai Jiwn *«a Inrti «bik Hi-m] lb« Oroil vm 



and the fiftiMntb yiuu- of thi; rule ot TilHuius (28-39). Aij 
for the moDbh and the day, ClemeaC of Alexaodna > epoaki 
of calouUtioos which reeult in llxing theee w Che 18tli or 
19tfa of April, or evoQ a» the 29th of May. Bal tbcso wen 
privftto culeuUtioDB upon which ito festival obeervanoe coold 
bo niAde to depend. The book colled Ik Paaeka Compittv, 
put forth in 243, either in Africa or in Italy, states that onr 
ΊΛτά was born on the 28th of MarcL> Those who proposed 
aiieb tignree evitlently knew nothing of the existence of tiie 
feotival of the Kntivity. At Itome, however, Uippolytof. 
at the beginnioj• of the third centory, fixea, in his Commen• 
tar}' on Daniel (iv. 9), the) date as Wednesday, the 25ti) of 
December, in the forty-second year of the Emperor Augaetua.* 
We have no reason as yet, however, to couclnde from tbia 
that the festival of the Nativity bad been already taatitaUd 
in the time of St. Hippolytus. 

The moel ancieut authority for the obfuervaiioc of tiie 
Xativity is the ^lilocaliau Calendar, dniwn up at Rome ini 
the year 336. We read in tt. in the table called Zfepoiitiei 
Martt/rum: vi/ii. kal. Jan., ηαΙηΛ Ckruttu t'ji Beiierm JvJtt, 
The table of episcopal acnivenariee, moreover, impliea tliat 
the beginning of the liturgical year waa between the 8tb and , 
27th of Docvmbur,* 

Christmas was originally a festival pecnliar to the ΐΑϋη \ 
Church. St. John Chryaostom status, in a homily delivered i 
in 388, thai it had not been introduoed into Antioch notQ 
about ten years before, tliat is, about 375.* At this time 

jet alire. "Πιο flnt ycnt at Jcmi b(f«i>.cia tliii hj^elhcni, in 111• ^Mr 
Ϊ at 1 befufv our tm <Τβϊ-Τ&3 A.r.a), wlitM ilc«o<l died ία the qwiiig ot ; 
Uio fourth ynir hftora aj>. (,Ιλ. 7ΐ0 Α.νΛ). 

' Ttki• vurluui Jocunfut «ill Iw Tcniiid in Iho ■pppodlca• to OwM'ij 
edlUcm of St, Cyprinn. p. iffj. 

' Tbii hut wu ncantly diiDoroied bj Man•, BmU. GootgUdM^ fOL l.| 
p. 206, of thn ndltlon of ItoDwotwh uiil Aehulii. BviUn, 18OT. 

' cr. BitllMn CriU^u. ISW. p. II. 

' SIij;n^ Pet, Or^ tsA. xIIi. p. 951. 



there WM ito observance of this Ti-uat either at Jenuulem,' 
or at Alexandria. It was adopted at iho Ultvr place about 
430.' The AnneniaDS did not observe it either.' These 
Cbnrchee, however, had a fe^UriU of the same import, or of α 
significance similar to that of the I^tio festival of the 25Ui 
of December. This wm what they called the festivnl of 
" the HjuiifeetatioDa," ra 'Eirrfei-ia, or Epiphany, wliich Ibey 
Oftkbnted on the 6th of Jnnuaiy. Tlie moat ancient indico• 
tioa of this festival ie to be found in Clomeut of Alexandria. 
He states that the Basilidians celebrated the day of Christ'» 
bapUsm by a Γββϋνα] which was preceded by α TigU, or 
Watch, sptmt in hearing lections.* There was α variation, 
however, as to the date. Some celelrutiid this festival on 
the lOlb, others on the 6th of January. It in ui>l possible to 
say at whM exact date this custom wtui in^duocd into the 
ovtbodox Chorches of the Kaat, but it is cvvloin thai iu the 
conne of the fonrtb century ihe festival uf the 6th of 
Jinnuy was nniverally observed among them. Three events 
were oommemomted in this festival — the hiilh of Cliriel, thv 
•ddtatioo oT the Magi, and the baptism of our Lord. The must 
ancient mention of thie feaat is found in the PosstoD of Sc 
I'bUip, Bishop of Hemclea in Thrare, where there is muntion 
of an incident which occurred in the time of the Diocletiou 


' Tlii w UwiiD out l>y llio Prrtgrlnaaa HiliiiM, luiil »1«. hy ■ aenn-B 
ft ItL Jwoae dt'liTcrnd at Uothlalitm iu one οΓ ibn mrly yiun t4 llie 

flfUi Mirtwy. TliLi ικ<πιυ>η bw Ιβΐ'Π Roentif doatt with liy ii. Morin 
(Bkro* fOldL It il, UtUt. Utiigi'HMi. tot. 1, Ιβθβ, p. 411). TIiq kiuni^it 
«tMldM «u rtill is mgno «t J«nu*lDin la Ibe «JsUi ivotiiry (Conmu 

ImUeo,/., ia Mige*. fiat. Or., vot Ixixviit. p. 187). 

■ QMdaji. CUJ.. s. 1 : UpnoiirLius. Dt VlrU, 09. FdiiI. Blihop nt Kxnem, 
pneohnl Β κηικια ou Snndnr, Uie SSlh of DetMnbLT (S9 KIioIhJe), In iIm 
y«aj t32, Iu Uip gttM etnireb al AIoxoudriB, from vhicL il opjinua lliul 
lU• day n« uUnrrnl IlivrF iu ri-mambnocv <if tlic bbtb of oai LunI 
(IlMAniD. 0mm., vol. 1. (•. 1G03). 

■ or. abm. p. 71, n. 3. 

ifwyr4viv• (fac rA.). 


peraeoatioD.' It was also obeervcd in the oounuiee foUowiog 
tho Gallican nUs. Ammiauus Murcelliniis* relates Uuit, ia 
361, Julian, who was ubtMidy ill-dispoaod towards Coo- 
etaatias, but vho conUnucd to diB<;uise bis pagan loaniags. 
was publicly present at the Cliriatinu religioae aorvioe ia 
Vienna on the day of tho Epiphany, /prui™m die qvnt ede- 
broTtta mense januario cAj-UiiaM Epiphauia diditani. Tho 
Council οΓ Soragossa (380) meations it also (c 4) as a 
very lii^'h fttstivaL" 

At Itomo iind in Africa the festival of tho 6th of Jannaiy 
w«e as little known as that of the 25th of DcMOiber unoag 
the Orieiitule.^ Tho Epiphany docs not occur in the Philo- 
oalian Oaleudar, nnd Die Doiiatiiits did not kuep it. St. 
Anjfiucinc repreocbes them with itiin in terms which imi^y 
that the faetivid had been imported from the Kaet, fitia mb 
HmtaUw. amunt, nee orimtaii tedrnae . . . eommuMieant.* 
The two foKlivals were accepted eTei7vbere in tho Wert 
from the beginiiint; of the lifth century, except nnong the 

It ia thus clear tbat tov.-ards the end of the third oentoy 
the oustom of celebralitig the unniveraory of the birth uf 
CbrUt bad !)|>read tbrougbout the whole Church, Imt tbnt 
it was not obHcrred everywhere ou the snioe day. iu tJw 
West tlie 2iith of December was chosen, and in Uie But 
the tith of January. Tlie two customs, distioct from euiii 
other at tirtt, came Anally to be combined so that the two 
fi>jitivals were universiilly ohiervod, or almost so. 

< Rninatt'i edition, «•^ S. 

•xij. 2. 

' " Λ sii. kill. }Λη. ιΐΜ]α» in itom EplphMtlao qui nI τΐϋ. Id. JiM. 
conliDnii didtnii, ntiltl llnml lUi (vt-lraln olaiuiUrv.'* 1Γ thi• fAtilal of Ov 
VStli of Dciymbor lind Invi> nhvirnl in Hpnin ut Ihte lUte, it vogbt, 
ntiliitnOUy. to have bci-n mt-iitirninl in lliu tnimi. 

■ St. Eiiiplumiiu ΙΠιιτ^ li. IS. Ϊ4: Eap. FUH. 33) <• ntohislvrir rur 
lliceili <ιΓ Jnoturr. 

TSB CiatBTUN FBSnVjlLEt. 261 

^V Vfhht went the influeooes, we may ask, which lot) to Uio 
wloptioD of th«ec dftMs I Sovuml answers have beeu pro• 
posed, which I wUl here eaumerate. 

Fint, the Satttnalia of the Koniftn Catoodor wcra coo- 

oidered to bare been a det«rmming motive. An eDdcavoor 

WIS mode, it vnu thought, to tnru away ilie faithful Πόπι 

the obMmtion of thi-t popular faaliTal by directing their 

liiety to tbo retnembnuice of Christ. Thia motive miiat be 

dbcarded, for there is bo ooincidenco between tbu two 

feetivmls. The Saiurnaiia began on the 17th of Decemboi'. 

^^ and were not prolongwl beyond the 23nl. 

^H A better expIftiinUon η that Uisod on the fe-iUviLl of Uie 

^V Xaialit Invirli, which appeers in the PAgnn Calen<liLr of 

^f the Philocaliun coUoclion tindur tJio 25Ui of December. The 

/nneitu t9 the Sun, wboee binh coiouidas with the winter 

I lolstioB, that is, with the 26th of Dvoenibcr, according to the 

ItoouiD Calendar, flie worship uf Mithms, or, epoabtog 

more gonemlly, of tbe Hun, wan widwproad and popuhur in 

the third and fourth uuuturios. One i^ inclined to believe 

that the Itomun Church made cboico uf iho 25Ui of 

Oeoembur in oider to enter into nvaliy with Mithraism.* 

Thia roaeon, bowovor, leaves uuuxpluinud the cboioe of the 

6th uf January. The following solution has tbu advantage 

of explaining hoth fosttvabt at tbu aomo timt;. 

The date of the birth of Christ was fixed by taking as 
Β starting-point tbnt wbtcli was believed to he ihu diiy 
of His deatli. 

The latter date caoiiot bo determined with historical 
aocaracy. The infonniition given in the Ooepols and fUr- 
niabed by triKUtiou is inauffident to enable us to come to α 
deBnite solution of llie question. Attempts wore made, 
bowevcr, at an early date to solve tlie problem. Clement of 
Alwuuulria^ mfutious uorlain private calculatioua which 

■ tfoc Ilia tula qiiuli<d by M«liUHwii (Corft. inrer. />iL, nil t. p. 11«. 


resulted — as far as the day was concerned — ^in aaaj gn i n g tfa« 
2Ut οΓ Mitrch or the ]:ith or 19th of April for the «by of 
Christ's death. Tlie l)e I'ascKa Compuiat, previoaelj re* 
Tened to, gives the <Jth of April. Lactantiue' aatigni it to 
the 23rd οΓ March, bat a solution mure genomlly uoqtled 
makea it the 25th. TertolUan is the Grsl to tnootioo the 
safaject; he saya: — I'tutio per/eeia est siib Tibtrio CatxiTf, 
emnJibua lUbeUio Grmino tt Fufio GfTniiio [29], vukm 
nutrtio, ttmporibus PascJiae, die viii, kal. april, die prima 
tagmorum? Ilippolytus, in hie Paschal Tiihic, rofen the 
Passion of Chi-ist to α yoar in which tliu Mtli of Nison 
fell on Friday, the 25th of March. In his Commentaiy on 
Daniel ** he dutiuitoly assigns the Passion to Friday, the 25th 
of March, in the coniiulBtc of the twu GeminL The Philo• 
volian Catalogue of tho Popes gives the oatno day and year. 
)t mii^L be roinombsrvd that both the Cycle of Hippoljrttis 
and the Pliilocaliau Catalogue ore bocod upon oflicial doca• 
menie, and that they may be regarded as indiniting the 
Itomau coclceiastical reckoning;. This HUinc date — ihu 25th of 
March — appears also in corlaio Acid of I'il&te, which, about 
the beginning of the fourth century at latest, were widely 
known, and enjoyed a considerable reputation. It was from 
this document, which was well known throughout Asia 
Minor, that the Qunnodocinutns of Phrygia obtained their 
date of the 25tb of March fur Easier. In Oappadocia the 
adhereotit of this sect wure divided as to the fixing upon the 
25th of Marcl), or tho 14lh of Xisan, but they were at one 
in reftisiug to colebmte Easter on α Sunday.^ Id the fifth 
Bod sixth cenlunes tho ttnditional dat« of the 26th of Uaxcb 
was 80 lirmly eetablishod in Gaul, that it gave rise to not only 

■ Ik mari. Ptn,, 1 : Ditin. InU., W. 10. 

* Adr. Jitdaeot Ctrrlttcn al»ut 20T), n. Λ. ThCM data m 
with mfIi i>thtir. On Uiu SUtli ηΓ Match, in the jna S9, tlie moM 
it• Inel quiLTtrr. 'I'lic ΙΊιμιιυεγ ronlJ ιιυΐ llii'ivfaro fall υη (bia diiy. 

• toe. cfl,. |>. £47. 
' EpIplmniUB, ilvrr^ L I ί et IliilnHrln». tf-irf„ H. 




a ofllebmtiou of Lbe Passion of our I^nl ou that day, bat 
tlao α festival of His Besuiroction oq ύχυ 27tii of the same 
moolb, without interferiDg. however, with the movftble feasts 
of Good Kridity and Easter Sunday.' 

Tbeee festivnl observanoee imply iiu iovuiunitc tradition. 
We are not, on (his ocooiuit, lo assume that this tnuUtion 
bad OQ historical boeis. The Passion ocitoioly did not occur 
OQ a 25tb of March.' This dote must huve bucn nrbitrimly 
ehoMD, or mh«r snggeatod, from its coiacldenco with the 
(official) epting equinox. The death of Christ n-os thus 
made to fall on the same day as that on which, according to 
an uniTersal belief, the world had boen creatod. 

This dale havLng onoe been determined, and determined, 
too, from astronomical and symbolical counderations, it was 
not unnatoral that it should be used to eetaUisb anothar 
oonddoDce. Christ must have lived npon earth, it was 
thought, for only a complete number of years. Fractions 
arv inpcrfoctions which do not fall in with the domauda of 
a symbolii»! systuui of nombeia, and hence they must be 
got rid of OS comploMly as possible. The Incarnation most, 
therefore, like iha Passion, have taken place on the 25th of 
March, and as the Incarnation was reckoned from the first 
moment of the conception of Mary, the birth of Christ most 
hare taken place on the 25th of December. 

This explanation would be the more readily received if 

■ Cbtoidir of pNpctiDU, liiahup of Ίναη (t tir". 400}, lii Ογοκ- Tor., 
UiA. Fr., s 31 : nioniDymiaii Mortjrology, 2£Ui oad 2Ttii uf Hu«h. Of. 
Hnilln (U Itngt. Dt riueha 1 (Mlgnc, I'at. Lat, Vol »xiii. p. SO): "A 
|i)orUqao QklUoBnii <-|>ί•ιι?ι•1> tuqup knii? nno ιααΙΙηη tcin)>n• «αιΐΜΚΐβη Mt 
ut ■αηφοΓ viiL kal- apiiL ilicm I'ualuu: (inoskct) odobrutnt, in quo fut* 
Ubtttl NMUTvMlu Ukdltur." ΊΊιΟΓβ ii tomo Mnftuloii hitf. PoMio •Ικι1ιΙύ 
be re*d tm r w ff w Kp, tuikw Slnrliii mc*iil to «rite ti. baL Ib pkoo of 

' In the jrnua ll> and U the 2&tli of March fdl on t, Txi^j, lul thi• 
Fr>il«]r awld noL likru boon cillior Ibo day of the Jcwuh PuMorcr. or the 
day f^dlowlag tU Ί'ϋτ ajpeof the ηιΜπ b appeaerf tu (bia. In (tia tntertvl 
th• jaara it and !ΙΦ. tliu 2>^Ui ιΛ Man'li <\••<•» βτΊ iMvnr <m a Fridn) 

264 CIlRtSTIUI WORBfUP: ITS ORIGIN λϋΐ* ΗΥοι,τπίοκ. 

we cotdd ttnd it fully etutod in aome author.* Uoftntu- 
ualely we know οΓ no text ooDtoiniog it, Mid we ore tbero- 
ΓοΐΉ compelled Lo put it fonrard μ ud hypotlieeie, but it is 
an bypotbesia which Tails in vitb wbnt we may call tbe 
rocognisod lucthods iu sucb matters. 

I will adduce, m(neovcr, a coincidonce wbioh iocnuH 
its probability. Up to tbo present we tiave been deeling 
only witb tbu dat« of the 25tb of Deoember. That oF the 
6tb of April still romaiua to bo uxploiued. 

Suzomca" makes mootloQ of a sect of thu Moatoniets 
who celebrated Easter ou the Cth of April ia plaoo of tbe 
25Ui of March, because tlie world having been croatcd at 
tho oquiuox, tb»t is, accordJog to thdr reckoniug, on tbo 
24tJi of March, Uitf first full moon of the Gist month took 
place fourteen days latur, that is, ou the Cth of April." Kow, 
between tbo 6lh of April and tbo 6lb of January there am 
juHt nine months, the βαηιο interval as between tbo S5tb 
of Miiith and tbe 25tb of Duccmbor. The Greek day for 
the obHurvaooe of tbu Xutivily, tbu Ctli of Januafy, U tbns 
found to bo conuu^tod with a paschal computation, baaed 
on astronomical and symbolical oouaidenUione exactly aimilar 
to those from which we have eadearouied to dednoe 
date of the 25th of December. 

It is possible, fVom what has preceded, that tbe date 

■ It ύ iDilcfd fnund. bnt at Ion tstA Λ ilAtc. I>>nl b. «litn the fMllMl 
of thn Niillvlty hud lin-a ulaemA t'i>r a long lime. Thai fil flmiirtlin 
liliunra Iho Jcin tar bnTiog tnuugTuBed ngiiiiiat lUe mnumnd mm oifW• 
ιτ0ηυτα In lu'-tii miitrtt tune. Tho liknl• la Jmw Obrlirt, ciuelflwl IIm tSth ol 
Mhrah, tlint li, un tlio mum a»J in wUJab Hi• motliL-r b^i^n tn Imvo min r 
' DicDDliir cnim tiauiaao cKquoODaiHpiTriQtlncculIiK^ro'X/ 90). 

' JT. R. vii. 18. 

' ΊΊιύ rvruHiniiig *'>u1il aat be concIuitTO Tor tho dnto οΓ Uie rurioe. 
*n fVDnt Rcpnrnlixl fram the Cnintiun bf on iolt-rvnl ηΓ •ιιη*< Ihotuuiil* iit 
yMn; liul It i> uiiil«nil<i«l ilinl Uie Pimovcrr of Climt, iiciag tli« Iran 
I^ιMι»'<ιI', mint fiill iliK' at Iffiml uuiturily fcduinoil froin tlir origia t4 
nil lbint{>. I'lic Pnadon oonM not pnalUy lutro bikat plkne nn l)ir Clh ιΛ 
April ; fi>r on Friilny. llii- Glti iif Al<ril. mil Ix- round In tha IsUtml «f ywi• 
Γκιιιι vhloh «Γ lm\f (•ι i^1ii>M'. iw iviiiicitlliif; wilb tb« full inniii- 



for tlitt birlh of Chmt wiu fixod frum thu aastitaecl sUu-Ud);- 
point of His PastioB. Λαιοη^; all ibe solutiotie pitiposod 
this seems to me Um most eatJefaotor}', but I would ncrf. 
τβοίαιβ to say, ia regard to the 25th of l>ecember, thai the 
ooinddenoe of the Sol noeiu exercised bo direct or indirect 
iofiiieiice od the ecclesiastical decisions arrived at in regard 
to the matter. 


2. Tif FaiiBoU a/Ur Chnttma», 

The festiral of the Nativity having beea once fixed, 
thete were aasodatod with it, and that too &om cm early 
date, certain oommemarations coDnocted with the greatest 
saints υί the New TestamuDt. St. Grcgoiy of Nyssa, in 
his fuaural oration over St. Basil, prenchod ut the Cap- 
{ndocian C.'tearea in 379, states that it was customary aA«r 
Christmas and before the 1st of .Tatinary to celebrate thti 
faedvals of St. St«i>ho[i, St. Peter, SU James. St. Julin. and 
St. I*aul. This atatement is cODRrinud by tho Syriac 
Mcaologion publiabod by Ifr. Wright from a manuscript 
eC tlic (Into 412.* 1 have mode a sludy uf the text of the 
UUur, and have shown (hut il ia merely an abridgment 
of a GiMk Uartyivlogy of Asia Minor, of which a ηκηβ 
complete form was embodied in the Latin compilatiou 
oalled the Hieronymion Klartyrology. The Greek llar- 
tjv^agy is of the eud of ΐΐιυ fourth century.* It is, thore- 
fore, in tbu main, of the same date and country as St. Basil 
and St. Gregory of Nyseo. The following are the days after 
tmos wbidi it oootaius': — 

• J<mn<d (/Awiwl LJt-, ml. tiU., London, 1805-«. pp. IS, 433. 

' in Samrtt» du Marfifelog^ mo u wfwiw», in Ibe JMangai ih f Seok ιΐκ 
Rmw. leW. Mmp Ifao itijiMmiiM of the lint «dfliun I Imii• irablubcd 
tlii• I'rriH Mcaefafim In tiio Aita S8• ATavimfrrw. vul. il. |i. lliLJ. 

' I follow llfra tLo Kni"•' UcaulnRinn. In (liii ΙΙίιικηγηΙηιι MnrlyniloKy 
III* fmllnu• *4' 8L I'rtcr uiul St, I'aul hu\L> Ih'l'u Inimri'm-d, iioiDrdifid !■■ 
KmMt auMim. In ibf SlHli .•Τ Jiniu. 



December 2G, St. Stepjieo. 

27, SS. James and Joho. 

28, SS. Peter aind Paul. 
Ttie coiocidence 'm complete. It is not, moreover, urn 

iK>lftt4r(l ineiAQce. Tlie NeatoriaD anil Armeniao Churcbe•' 
lUrnUh ill Uieir reapective calendar!! e\-ident traces of tl»e 
same cii^tom, ΊΊιβ ArmenianH have not the feetival of ^ 
ChrUtma» in tbeii- caluiidar,' yet, before they begin on tlie ^Λ 
2dtb of December lo make immediate prcpanitiOD for tltc 
obeenranoe of the Kpiphany, they celebrate the four follow•^ 

December 2S. St. David, auJ St. James, tbc brother of 
the Lord.* 

26, Su Stephen. 
„ 2", SS. Peter and Paul. 

„ 28, SS. James and John. 

'L'be Nestorian Calendar aiTaiigeu Uiese festivals soroe- 
whnt diQerently. The custom iu that Cburch is to com-j 
memorate saints on a Friday. Tlie order is as follows : — 

1st Friday after the Kpiphany, St. John BaptJeL 
2nd „ „ „ SS. Petor and Paul. 

3M „ ,. „ The Four F-Tangeliste.' 

4th „ „ „ St. StepbeB. 

* Tlie Uniat Anntuiiaiii liftTn aiViptcd tlii* frativnl. but tlior atlll em•] 
tiem to βυΙΐΊιηΙϋ liiu fuur tt«livtilfl I hnvv mcntkniu). and llint alas iaJ 
Uie κιαιβ onlur, oxcofil tliat t*& David lU»! Jtam ue jilAord bate•• 

* Tbint two aainta nnr intnKluwd here na reluliun• οΓ Cbrirt. Da^ b 
βίβτΛτβιμ. nii'l Jnmi'« iSiXfietr,!. ΓΙιοΙίΐΜ iHtV. Cod., ΪΤ9) «ptalca of λ 
•Μΐΐιυη by Hwycliiue uf Ji-nuuliun (llflb ccntar;') In bananr of Juaca, th• 
Inolhurof tba I«unl, unil οΓ D«iliL."aiii'dikiir uf Oud." It U cvtUla that 
UiEii rutlral is of Pnlwtinifta origin. CoauHa Ιικίϊβιφίι.'ΐιιΐι* IcatiDc• Uiat 
1[ wiu «till (vlL-bnitnl in liia lioie at JoruMlMB (Μίςηι-, Pat. (!r^ vuL 
Ixxiviii. p. 197). 

' Tbie fufllTal ii, I tbiok, • IntiufonnnUoa of Uic pnuillve rntlval «I 
Uia tm win* uf Zubcdve- tit. John mini Ιιατν *ltni<-lvil X-i bin llic Ibrtf 




It is miuiireet tbitt these nnuiversary dates were fixed 
iiri)itrtri)y, and that there was no historical suppcnt for 
their adoption. St James, rod of Zebedeo, is the only 
uno unong them whose death may be assigned to one 
period of thu year more tliao auother. Bnt, be was beheaded 
aboni the time of the Passover,* aod not in the month of 

The most ancient of these festivals are those given 
in the list of St. Gregory of Nyssa and in the Syriac 
MeoologiOD. The festival of St. Stephen goes back, as wc 
koow, to η period conaidembly earlier than that οΐ tb« 
diecovery of bis tomb, vhich took place in 415, and gave 
• gltat impulse to hi» cominemoration. It is mentioaod, 
moreover, in the Apostolic Ooiiatitntions.' All Weetem 
calendan and liturgical books,' from Ihe fifth century 
ODwds, give this fe<iiival with ite Eestein date.* 

The festivBt of the 27lh of December was at first 

^HltetfMnttiH Hd tbo rMllvul hnvtue ll>u« vhuKcd lU dtuneter, 

■niHK^iHBtSM OBlUcd. 

■ '^'ielitll.l-i. 

Η ■ viiL 38. 'Πιο ilaj la not notod, bnt It could only bftTc been on 

™ Ui« ϊβΟί of D«riiibt-r. 

* ΊΐΐΒ Ixuiitna SncrainnDUrj |ira*cnl« >n rtpjiotiDnt snonwly. In tlii* 
a»ll>Ctlo«, «tiidi ia In uQcli iiioiAat, Λο Miuw^ in lumnur at SL Stephen, 
Uw Int MutTt, inaloul of being pUevd at llio Siith uf Di-comUir. ore mnicod 
oadar ifaa niltfio of the ind nf Attgnal. nlung ollli tlia Vupc. St, Stpplica. II 
i^ dMifatiCN, boMUMi «f Ibo Idontit; οΓ tliL- namvor (beropcBiid Iheduuon, 
timit Ihe riBitiral of tbc iDTcatiiin uf thu bodj of St. ti|«]>lion (Atvual 3) bu 
II• origin. Tliia Γινΐίταΐ ti noted in ibo Uluronynlsn SlnrlypolnKy, but not 
is aU the numnvriiit*- Iti intorpublian, tlicrofure, could linve only bMn 
UbAb so Ikr lock u tha romioa of Ausvrre (firri S03), Nu ftBdent 
^«ifijijiti work, LKltii, QnUlran. or Bomnn (cxa-pt tbo LmdIui Snom- 
IIWHij] oodUiiu a fcBtiiiil i>f Die doeoon, βΐ. βΙορΙΐ''η, In tba monUi of 
Angnnt. On tbu olbL-r band, llie foatlvnl <•ΐ tlio bKsjuW) rir liti^ituy τον 
i yU¥ Snfirmf Λργτ*.η <m tlic Slid if Angiut ίη tbu IlyinnllDu Cnlfnilora, 
■t leMl trm Λλ end -'Γ the tenth conliuy {Mnrtinrrr, jnniu Κκ1β>1ιΗΗβΜ 
uni*w-eh(if<nu, p. 11)2). tl u nlw celfbratml by tbi? Annnntani. 

* I'hg Chardi uf LOuilimUnnjile tnuufcra it to the STtb, For Κ «ϋΐ^^η• 
Iho d^y nftor Ohiitluw• lu tliu (Mmtuemorution of tbu UUMc-d Virgin «aij 
M. Jcan-ph. 


coiauieinoralive of both SL James and St John. It ta in- 
serted as such in the CarUisge Calendar, the Hierooyinian 
Mariyi'olog}-, and the GalUcan liturgical books. In this, 
ae io man; other reapect», the Dallican nsage agrees with 
the Oriental. 

At Itome, on the other hand, the oommemoratioo of 
Si. John alone was adopted. At Constantinople the two 
apostles were transfeired to two other days in the calendar. 

As for the apostles Peter and I'anl, their commoD 
festival was cetubraled in the West on the 20\h of June, 
a prautico which goes back at least to the time of Con- 
stanttuu. Thu FasUTu anuivursary of these saints, the 
2tSth of December, could not disturb such a deeply rooted 
tradition. At Constantinople also the liomaa date was 
adoptud from an early period.' In other Kasteni countries 
it was fonnd practicable to combine them.* 

The festival of the Uoly Innocents muBt have been 
in.'itit.uted at »□ uitrly date, that is, some time in the fifth 
century. It is found on the 2Stb of Uecember in all thu 
ancient I.Atin calendars and liturgical books fitom the sixth 
century ' onwards. The Church of ConaUmtinople has also 
thia festival, but plucce it a day lalur, that is, on the 29th of 


■ God. TW-, XV., v., S: Ibo bw l^long• to Ifae jt*r 125; iu tci 
nm wmoftlmt vnsni.-, Inil Ilivy μηίιι Iu poiut Io the fcaliinl of (tio Munlk 
itf Junu. It was «■lobrntiii at Ouii(tuiitinu|>lu u Uio ηΛ «f Ihu OIU 
cuDtnry ^'Diood. Loot., ϊί. 10). 

' TliDri.«tiiii1«iuiti1l a'lulimt«l at JrnimU-Bm tbi'muoUi αΓ ΟβοοβΙμτ. 
ill ttiQ Μ'νι-ιιΐΐι cvultiry, ni «a learn fr«iD α lianll/ ut Uialiop Bc^fcRMlai 
(Jligno. i'ul. Gr., vol. UuvU. p. S3GI). The Tcatinu of BL. Stcfilm 
tuok vianc oa the £T(li, mul tliut <d Uie iipi«UM PeUr maa Paul <■ 

' Hjr roanika licrc aiv abcnit Ihe featiTol, and not οΓ the meatfan οΓ Iks, 
lDU>xtint• in hjmu, ue Ία PniduiUn*. vr io homUio^ «a ta Unn vt St.] 

■ Tltii t"nn rnnocnili is piimliar to Hiinuta liliirf;i«il buiffODCe. I'b• 
ΙΊιΙΐΊκΙιιΙ <>r ('iirllinjft' iiu'l thi< Unllioali l>'>k>i itlDjih^ t)ii• anrJ trnftmL•*, 



3. Tht Festivals o/ the Viiym and of 8i. John Baptist. 

We bare m«d tLut the Λζτηοηϊαα Calundar providee io 
Uie hat daye of December fur a special festival in honour of 
the two relutivoa of Chrut, King Dnvid, and James, " the 
brother of Ibc Lord." The person who haa in this respect 
an inooDtoetublo right to ft special commemonition among 
tbo festivale of the Xattvity is aestirvtily the liK-secd Vin^n. 
We need not, therefore, be aetonisbud that her fwttival liDds α 
place inuQodiately after Ohrutmae in the Neetorian Calendar. 
Λ eintilar festival appears also in the Coptic Calendar on the 
leth of Janitary. almost immediately after the aolemnitiee 
of the Epiphany, which came to an end on the I4th. 
[ In Cmnl nltto we find, in the nixth oentary, η feetlvul 
of the Blaesed Virgin in the mouth of Januaiy: matianit 
nieitM mutnimo, say» Gregoiy of Tours.' The Hieronymiuu 
Uartyrology. in H» revised Auxeire form {dre. 595), asaigns 
tlus feetival Io the ISlh of January.* It appeals ala? 
in the litnrgical books in Ibis part of the calendar, but with 
somewhat less precision. 

Her festival was celebnited in Spain, but at various 
dates in various places. Tlie tenth Couucil of Toledo (Coti) 
ei^oins a fixed and oniveraal date, the 18th of Ueceinbcr, 
m^l days before Christmas.' 

' Vler. JTirl.. 8. Thrn: ii no i-nritr-r nltnitatlon na fnr nit Oanl i* 
nmccmnl Thr IivUtbI (lor• Dol appiOr la tbo Calciuliu >ιΓ Γ«γ|μ,'(ιιιι« 
(ΟπΊΤ 'hir. ΙΙΰΙ. ».. I. 3 1 ). 

' In llip Luscull Lrctiuiiiu7 it followe llj<• Sod Rnnibky βΠμ R)ii]ibui7, 
Mat* UiB rMlivnl of GiOudn P<M. wliliJi wn* (hi<u c^'UbmUJ iiu tl<i• 
mil iif J*«UMjr. la llkr Mitttl* Gethienwl• il cxuriin brtwouo l^>ipbnii,v 
nail ttl. Λ(Μ• (tl*t Juiiutry); lu tlio SmenaavuUtTf iiT lloblnii. iwlwn» 
K|iliilwijr uul Lmt, with (ud niter) thm fntlvnl of thu L'hidr iif i<t. Pclcr. 
'rile HtcuuBJIuiui HuI)T<-tiiBy givn (hti tua Tcatii-aU iin Uic «nao dny. 

* tlM. I. Tmiq tbo 1«ιη> cmplnfnl by tfau ooancil it ha» bcfo wnnigly 
iahmd tbiit tlmuotifialwit of llic fwtivalof lheSSUt«rKunh luin •roguv 
ju fMtoJB I1ittnili«a Tliiv bm nul Urn omo. Ttu• munoil eunlliH-d itmlt 


The Chnrcli of Itome seeine to liave cvlubruUid no 
faitival of the Virgio beforu llie eovoutb centiuy, when 
it adoptod Uie four Byzantine feetivab, of which I u-itl 
speak prosently.' 

The Gospel' fomiahoe, in regiml to the feetiral of 
St* John Bftptist, > fingmcDt of ioforinalioD wldch has not 
boon neglected. The birth of tho ForcTunnor of our Lord 
must havu preceded that of the Saviour by six moalhe. 
I suspect, notwithatonding, that the festivul of the 24th 
of June was preceded, at least in tlic East, by another 
commemoration, whicli was obeerred about Christmastide. 
We have eccu what the NoetomD luo was in tlii» nwpoct, 
and we find that in the Armenian Church aUo the festival 
of the FcffemanLT of our Lord wtis tlii; Rrst which was 
oheerved after Ei-iphtiny.* Tim Calundar of Pcipotuue. 
Biahop of Tours (461-490). places tlie A'ataU S. Joftannis 
between the Epiplmny and Vttlhafru Petri, that is, exactly 
at the same period in the year.* 

This festival waa replaced tat^r on by another, that of 
tlie Passion, or Ρ^ηϋη/ϊΰη of St^ John, «becni'd oa tliu 
2dlli of August, which was adopted in tiallieiui rejjioos ami 
iu Conetoutiuoplu before it was followed at Koine.* 

to ιΙαΙΙκκ thnl Uiia dati\ whtoh t* Hint of the inokfDaihM. «duI•! it» 
«lUblo Tor Uiu fcutind of ttie Blnvd Tlrsin, bet (hnt Uie iilgencM• of 
Lrat Bad uf Uio imwibnl ΓΜΐίνιιΙ• Ίϊιΐ not n11i>w υΓ iU «<k>i>ll>ni. 

> tlMi.hinroTOr.whflt UmU on page 2T3 αΓ tliongniBmnccof IbcfeatiTo] 
οΓ the lit ntJamuaj nt Hoatr. 

* κι. LdIk i. 36. 

* Nlllna. K»lm.l. .Vnnuub, Tnl. li. pp. 361. λβΟ. 

* la the Oupniirif of CnrHingp. Dndur ll.u 27lh of Di-cnrnb» we n*d. 8. 
JtAamU Sapl'il.u• «t J-iivAi A]f»UAi qucm nnrtflr» wrvlil. Init «i• liav» 
mmj rouma ta believo that thia «u on error uf ttiu eopyid, «lio τηΛ 
BafUtbit ία pkoo at Baaigdl'tae, 

* For Omitlantiniiiib we Uftitlnov, Akihu ΆκΙ. Gratfo-SUrirttt, p. 210. 
la till' llli^ronymina lAutymlogy and Uio QnlMliin Snornmc^tBr^ llii• 
fratlTiu U placed on ih« S9tb if Anttnit. All tlio Gntlicnn liiurgiul look* 
luivu Β ninM for tho PtMlon of St. Jolin, «liidi \\wy μΐιιιν ut it rtmIot or 
IcM clEiitnni» Bftrr ttiftt of the NnlMIJ of tlie Hini> Mint. Iiqt wHlmall 



Aa for the fcelivul uf Uw 24lli of Juue, it ιιιιρυαη to 
have been of Weetem origin, Uko tlinl of the '25Ui of 
December.* Tku carlieet witsow to iU obeervouce is to 
be found in tho Bormuns of St. Auguatine.* ϊ>οιη the 
middle of tlie fifth c«utury onvnnis the exieteooe of this 
(oatival is atteeted io all oar source• of iDfcnnation as 
to Westcni uuigee. It appeared also at a very early date 
at Constantinople and in the Byiaatine East. There were, 
however, plaous in which the ancient festival of .InnuBry 
held ite own against the innovation. The Caleutiar of 
Tours, belonging to the sixth centuiy, repreaeatA a kind 
of couipromifie ; the NalaU of St. John is still retained 
in the month of January, but tlie festival of Jnne is also 
adopted, and, strange to say, as the anniveraaiy of the Paaeio 
of the saints 

The festivals of the Ulessed Viigin, as they are now 
observed both in the Latia and Greek Churches, have a 
different origin 'and α diflereot history from that of the 
primitive comnicmomtiuu which 1 have just duall with. 

The most anciual of theee is that uf the Preeentation 
of Chri»t ία the Tumplo, which is generally called to 
tlie West the fusUvul of ittu Purification of ihc Bleseed 

pnobcdj inilicatiiic Uie <Ltt«, Thi< kmiuIuv lininiui liodn Ιιατβ do mratieo of 
thw fettivU : lb kppcAnuiw id Uto Gcloiitixti i<acruitimUi7 μ aa unjicaticin 
ef oue of thu tniui; κτϊιήαη• Vy Uallioui huidii to «hlah Uii• cuUkUum liaa 
booD mlijtwttiil. 

■ It w to bu notol thftt the fntinl b on tho 21th. *nd not Ih* 2Sth 
of Jiuie ; knil wo mny wvU «ak why llic Isttcr Of^iire ma nul odoptn), itnoe 
it «uold hnvD κίτοπ tht' tv&nt Inli'ml of lii intintlia lirtwivii ihi• Hopti•! 
uid Clirlil, The tcMan ia tlutt tbo oolcolatiao «u mule aDconllDg to 
t)io ΙΙ(αηΜΐΟ«Ι«Ίΐ•Ιητ: tliv 21th '-Γ Jiiii<> u tho n'H Airi. >■!.. jiut μ Ilia SSlb 
of Dccrnilm k• rid. laiX-jn». Λΐ Aiitiii^h. whcv• tlie CBlcnilMtlnQ «u Bulcv 
tiom the ti»Kintiing In tho uoil of the nxuitL• thu SSUi would αιιιίααίίικίΐιτ 
hare biNTD dIwuil. 

' HftiK. 19β mill 287. It in not tn Ir Γοαικί 1b cithct tha Πιΐΐααιίΐιιιι 
CUcndu. or in tbtt ι>Γ Pulrmiiu !^iltiiui (118). Owini; to tho piMMit ciiii• 
ί υΓ Uio SyTiao ΜηιυΙο):ί"ΐι, wo caAaot Mf wholhcr it wh iborc or oot. 


VbgiD. Its (Iftte malu from thst assigned to t)i« birth of 
Cbiist, wliich it must follow at on interval of forty flays. 
The first notice wu have of ita instittition is in the second 
balf of the fonrtli oentnrj•, and that too in Jenieak-in. Tho 
Penyrinatio of Silvia deecribee it nnder the name Quadrtl•- 
gmmae de Epiphania. As the festival of Christtnas had 
not yet been iido]>tod there, the Fresentatton vas cele- 
brated on the fortieth day after the Epiphany, that is, on 
the 14th of Febriiitry.' Ια the description of the feetiTa] 
fnmisbed by Silvia, we remark nn isdicatioa of a special 
oasociation witli tbo Blossod Viivrin. An edict of Jastinian, 
of the duU: 542,' u^joina the solttmnisation of ΐΊιϊβ festival at 

The observance of the featival of the Annunciation, on the 
25tb of MaTth, is attested by tJie Ohrouietm I'agehaJt (first 
balf of the seventh century), which Hpeoks of it (a<l ann. 
ίϊδΟβ) as an eetabli&hed institTitioo.' Like the preceding 
festiTal, this ia also depondont oa that of Cbristmae. 

Abont the time of the Council in Tniilo (032), whidt 
mentions all four festivals, α document at Itome attested, 
not only to the observance of tho two preceding fes^Tale, 
hut also to two other commemorations of the Bleased Virgin, 
viz. that of her Nativitij (8th Soptembor). and that of her 
Dormilio (I5th August),* These four festivals ore recorded 
in the Gohieion Sacmmcntary at the begimmig of the eighth 
century. They hud passed, therefore, into Itoman «sage as 
eftrly as the seventh century.' I am unable to say, or even 

■ Thia k the (bio nilopled. nod fur tlio >ane t**ma, ia the Ληιιρ«|αιι 

' 11ii«pliniiiiui. aj> COSi. 

' Tlii>n< I• II liiimily '4 St. Rn|>Iirr>iiiiu. Ruhop πΓ Jcniiinl<O. no ifcc 
MjaUry o( tliu Aiunuiiriutimi (Mliriir, fal. Ι!τ„ vol. Ixsxvii. ji, Ά2\Τ). 

* It m• ubnut 111» time tliut Andrciu of Crrlo ιΙιΊΙντ'Τ^τΙ IiIm IicudUW 
DD llii• Nnlifity, Aiiiiiini-inliaD. luid Uunoitio of tin; UUiwil Vlr](ln (Miguc, 
PetL Or^ vol. xcTJL). 

* It t• corlnlD thnt ■bc]' «n>r« not ynl In «zliUqiee in tUe time οΓ Rt. 
QMgwy. NiH f«ly A'lt• ho ncm- nuke mention of UiPin, Iwt the MUne 



Ιο coiyecturu, whore and how tlie two dates Uie laLh ul' 
August and the SLh of SepU>mber were airired at. 

Tbuw four feeUvals υΤ tlui Blessed Virgiji Miiry am 
ByzaaliDc impurlatioa». Tbuy wuru tuiroduuod iu Lhu Ural 
plica u liome. The ooiiniiies of the GalUcun rile knew 
nothing of them until Uicj udopUxl thu Boinui Uturgy.' 

4. The F€»tivai <tf ih* Ul iff Jaumrg. 

The feetivul of the CircumdHion, as we onderstAud it, is 
not of Itouiaa origin. ITicrw was. from the seventh oontiury 
onwsnt, A eoleniD Slution at Bomu on the 1st of Jaiioiuy in 
the boailit» of St. Moiy ad Martifres, but Ute UtiU]gioai textd 
prescribed for this diy make uo inonUon of uio uircnmdaioa' 
The official deaignution of the fcstivul was Octavos Domitti, 
It wiis a ftort of nnuwal uf thti aoluintiity of Christmaa, with 
a special oousidunition of Uiu Virgin Mothur. The moet 
ancient ByzouLine calendurs,' uti thu uthur hand, give ub tor 

U Crnu vt nil tbu iloviiiuiuiU LiiLrlae on lliu BcanMi ωαρ) prior lot <ir 
oemidand to bo prior to, tins Kvuolb ooiitur)'. siiuL iu tliu Oilmihr uT 
Cl»r<h«g», the IiCanioiiHiwnaiiwilary. »[■■•. Uat w>uil iii>Ull mom eondlnrive, 
Uujw fuatlnU wotv atlU nukiuiw» to tliu Λιΐ8ΐι>4•ιοη Clxircb al tho 
bcgfaining of the ciglitlt «caltiry. 

' Tlitydo tw>t «iiiiMreltlitv in Die Atticim mcnaloii of the Hionmyaiiaa 
Maityrvkgi-, or to Ibu QkUkun Itiurgiuol booloL An inccriptiaa (Lo 
ItloMl, Ho. 91) nuDliuiia tliu dudiostiou uf » olintfli in Uie diooEio ol Cou- 
bmoo — tho oriobmtwl ilMltuntInu nmu• agtuto media. The eliunilj tuid 
bovo bolU in hoaor• Jlaw JUiiKii. tc mnat net, boouti:!', Iw •anuned fioa 
tbuchBtUiefutivalur tlu-'ISUjof Ao^iJIt WMtheotibMixvnliiiKuiatri». Tliu 
fialirkl ill cbu midUlu uf Λη)[«*1 nifcrrcd to in Uie lii*i;riiiuuii, noil ikaoribcd 
Μ Ixting odobiBttfd uivtj yiar on tbu miae ilajr, vmi out Uiat oi Uii' 
ilwrnilin it, lUariae, bul tlic tU^tlcaitaa of Ibo OliuNh of BUB. Tbia 
tltJlnttion luA jiliuv b C8i tilutf. •Ια• JnUewifrw il* ^rwtM^ Ιβββ, p. 387). 

' Tliii weed appeals, it U trw, ία LUo ΙΊιιιίαοο of Ikn OclaiiMi CJaM»• 
BcDfau;, but Dot od iiMouiiitiHl wilb tbn mniaomuratioii of Ui* cimuacldan 
of Um oUU Jisue. It oiiMii uwi>ly Ibc JvncoUoeUvGlj.jDat μ ifan <rai4 
pnMpnlivw, ila udIIUicwk, uiuuil Ιΐιυ (ivotJIi* ooUooUtely. 

' TliBt nf Mnrrciri (Kill- tT. Bulnr, 1788), uttribuluJ t^i ibe ugblb 
tiriitut] ; Uiul uf Nuiika (>ualb cvutui} ). LJic Skuului-iiiii ι•Γ Ihiwl. vie 


374 ctrsisTLvK TonsHtr: its oniout λχο btolutiok. 

th« lel of .January Uic tvofold festival of ibo C'iix.'umci»ion 
of Cbriat and nf the Aoniversary of St. Basil. In ancioot 
authorities on the Gallipan custom the Circumcision appeuns 
alone; and it is mentioned at a tolerably early date, as, 
Tot inetance, at the Council of Toura in 567 (can. 17), in 
the Auxerre recension of the Hieronyniinn Martyrology 
[eiiv. 595), and in the liturgical books of the seventh and 
eighth centuries.' There was, moreover, in eonntriea of 
the (tullictm ritu at this period of the year a βοΐϋπιη faet, 
wliicb had been instiimcd with the object of tumiag away 
Ibo £ailhful from the observance of certain riotooe festivals 
oolcbruliHl on the let of January. 

5. ITu Feetitale a/ the JOots Crtm.* 

Holy (Ίχ).'<β Day. the Nth of September, like that of 
the Prcsonlaliou in the Temple, la a fwtival of Palvstioian 
origin. It was the anniversary of the dixlication of the 
hajiilicne ercct^Ml by Conslantinu on the oiles of Calveiy 
and thd Holy i^epulchre. ThiR dedication festival waa 
celetiralod in 33•'• by the biabops attending the (.Ouncil of 
Tyre, who had pronounced upon St. Athanusiue the ecnteocv 
of depoaitioD. There vroB nsaodated with it also the oom- 
merooration of the discnver>' of tlie true cioss. As early 
as the end of the fourth century it was oelebrnted at 
Jenisalem with much solemnity, and attracted thither a 
great concourse of bishops, monks, and pilgrims.' like 

■ Ktetb flM^ Saemnontary cf Bol>blc>. «ml th« Liunnll LwlioDuy. 

* la iddilb» lo tbe lexti Trfemv) to. oiuiutt Iiiaiiro. Dr Og^ (. 41 ; 
Oime. Trtt, iT„ c, 10. 

' " Iliim <Ui« Foniriiiorum nppcUanlur. <iuuu1a nncU ocelcnn qnai> 
In OnlgoUia ist, qunm MrirljTiaiu n-cunt. ivmiiprral* Ml D(o; »•Λ ill wiii'Ui 
vodcuu qnnr ml ιι•1 Ληιιιίαικ'. id lat ία vti lovo ubi Dualaoa mwtvllt 
pn«[ [inBaiouciii, «i ilk «I l)m oiniieemta nt Dna. HaiHD er^ Nvlnrinmn 

THE cnitiBTiAS rtsnvAis. 


Ute fosttvaU οι Kautei- and F.piphuiy, il lasted «Klit. 
dHye. From Jenttialem it pkS9«l to CosfitanliDople, and 
at length tn Kome. where il was iatrodaood u late aa 
the seventh centory.' 

The Gallican Churches, to vbich this festival was ud• 
known, had another οΓ the same significance, at lea&t in 
regard to the discovery of the true cross. They celebrated 
it on the 3rd of May. It is found on this date in 
several early tnanusciipte of the Hieronymian Martyr• 
ology.' In the two Oallicao Sacraraentariee of Autun 
(J/iod/e OotkicHt») and Bobbio respectively il appear* 
between ihe octave of £aster and the Itogation days, 
without a more precise indication of date. In the 
(ielasian Socramontary il is noted on the 3rd of May, 
bnt, ae it i« not found in the earliest documente bearing 
on the Roman usage— the Saciunentaiics of Leo and of 
Pope Adrian — its [nesenco here may be atiributed to α 
Oallicon revision of this text. It seems even to have 
bees intirodaoed into Gau] somewhat late, that is, in the 
ooutse of the sovoDth cootury, and it is possible that it 
was nol universoUy obeerved there when the Koman usage 
VM adopted.' Tbo assignation of the date seems to have 

Moul&nun oncBucta i^m iimmo honuN' oolvbrimliu'. ijnoniMi) ami Ποηίιιΐ 
lnTrala ml tpM dlv. U ί1«• propter boo iU onlinMum Mt, nt quaada 
priinniD KOiTUa ιιο«1««μ «DpnucrtpUo eonaeomfaMitiLr, <• die• (»κ[ qtu 
crsi Duauai fntvkt imtcDtn, υΙ «ύουΐ i^mal iBclitiu tnAaa die cvkbntn^ntor. 
Kl hoo ]ior ^rijitRnu liivcnltar quxl i« illo• all «ncuBiknim qn* vl 
Moetiii 8»lamoit oannmimaU ioao Dui qtuim ni-dificsTcfat, lUrleTiC nute 
•IterioB Uoi ot oravvril, urrut Kriptmn Mt in litirit I*iu«llpoiiieiKm (p. 108, 
Oefflarrini. S. SOvia» I'tftg.). 

' ift, r<mL. wiL I p. 87*. 

* For liurtaiion, Vatmt ot Berne απΛ WotrenbfltlBl. the latter of the 
jrar 772, uid the tmrnet •r«ie«ihiil UIct. Id llio Kplemnvli nifteuKTipt 
it\iriiinu: lOSST) of Ibn Irginnlag of the eighth etotBry tlicra U no 
tnuntioTD υΓ thii fntivul. It U alao UeklnB In Uw LvimD LeotMnuy, 
imtl Οη-κχνη •ιί '\'••αη Jiwe nnt mentioiiit ellhor.ta ΜρΜΗβο(ΰΙ. lbH.,S) 
vlirm «c miglit i-ijipoi U• tliul a nutice of it, 

' Hoe tilt' priMudiDg aoU\ 


276 cnRiBTUH vroBSHir: its obiqin' Atn» KvoumoN. 

buca occftsioneil by the bgond of the invcnlioD of the cross, 
in whidi β ooitaio JudiU'Cyiiucus figund.' 

6. St. Miehaei and the MaaxAec». 

Tbe only angul of whom we find α commcinoralioD 
bofon tho ainUi century is St. MicJiiuil. Fostirals of 
this kind con bo attributed only to the dedicutionn of 
churcbtis. Thia vas the (msu, in fact, with the Byzaatioe 
foetJvnl of tho 8th of November, relative Lo tb« Church of 
St. MidiJtuI in the batbs of ArcadiuA;' rtlsu with thi; feetival 
of tlu) 8th of May, rebitive to thu vtilubrutt'd suncttiary 
of Monte Gargano, and with that of the 29th of SopUunber, 
relative Ιυ a church (doetroyed long ago) in the suburbs of 
Home at tho sixth miloetone ou tho Via Salarin. Thia 
feetival of St. Michael is the only one of tlie kind which 
appears in the early Roman littu:gica] books. Il is found 
in an authority as early as the Lconian Sucratiientary, that 
is, of the sixth ceutury. The Galliean books and calendars 
make no mentioD of a day especially assigned to the 
comineinoration of St. Michael the nrohsngel. 

The feativaJ of tho Maccabees (August 1) eeenis to have 
been univereally observed in the Oharch about the fifkh 
century. It i» mentioned in all the calendars, beginning 
Avith the most ancient form of the Hieronymian Maityrology.' 
It doos not occur, however, in any of the Galliean or iioman 
liturgical books, except the Qelaaian Sacramentary. The 
commemoration of the Macoabeee, occuning, as it does, in 
the kalends of August, must have been euliiieed by the 
festival of St. Peter a inneuli». 

' LCb. PcmL, Tul. I. p. cviii. 

■ MiuliQov, Ahimu EbcI. tStattii-8^»i«iu, p. KZ. 

' Sjriiu.' Monulugiaa (tI2)i «ucuilnr• of rblcmiai SQritu (118). and 
lit CnrUiikgu (flrtli to •1χΐ1ι tvbttiri-}: »11 ll>c nnuuuoripU οΓ tlio iiii~-ruD}miMi 
MutyraloJEy ; liomillM ot bl. Urcggty Nnciiuizvn. til. C'lir^scjetom. Ht. 
Augualinv, 8l. (t»iiiti nlinn ui limciii. Hi. l>fJ. M. I. iDHirim υΓ Arlis. itu. ; 
ui'l thv liMwrlplioim υΓ Arlua ία lie Utxti. Bull.. IS74. |•. MS, 



7. Tiu FeaimU of the Apeetlei. 

I bare alnodf mentioned certain fesU^s of the 
apostles celebrated at ChrietinasUile. I jiroceed now 
to deal with eon»! otln'r rentivals of Uic same ntttnre. 
confining lujiielf lo tlw notice of thoeo which wens 
celebrated at an early dfttu iu the Vi'usi. Thu most 
important of th«8u is that of St. Putor iin<I St. Paul, on 
the 29th of June. It ai)peare in tlio Ρ1ιϊ1υι.\ι1ίιια Calundar 
of the yenr 33C. coupled wiUi the cunxiilar date 259. 
I have elsewhere * showu how thi» diit« may aerve to 
detennitie the origin of the festival. We have here, not 
tlie iiuniversory of the ninrtynlont of eith<.Tr of the apostloe, 
or of them both tuguthcr, but niunily the coinmemonilJoii 
of tlie translation of tliuir relics to the place callud 
ail CatafKin.b<u, tit the third milestone on the Af^ioa 
Way. At the bef^iuniug of the fourth century, when Uic 
calendar of the lioiuaD Church was dmwu up, bom wldeh 
calcndor the tuxl uf tbu Ρΐΰΐοοαίϊαη is donvud, the bodice 
of the two apostles were still reinsiog in this place. 
They were romoved from it later on to be dcpoeited ϊα 
the basilicas raiaed to their honour by the Emperor CoO' 
stantine on their original burj-iog-placoe at the Vatican 
and the Detian Way respectively. These transbilious brought 
about no change io the date of tlie celebration of their 
festival, the obeervation which had doubtleee become rooted 
in tho customs of the Chri^UsLn populuiion iu liomo. 

The same calendar contains, under the date of llic 22nd 
of February, a fustival entitled Na(eUe Petri He CatAolra. 
It was intended to bo α eummemoration of Uie be^ning 
of the episcopate or apostolate of SL Peter. Its oon- 
nection with t)ie fe«tiviil of the 29th of June was exactly 
the same as tliat which exists between the aiiniTenaries 

' LOirr, ΙΌλΗ/.. ToI, i, fi. pi». 



of tJie nafaJU and of the d^mitw οΓ each bishop — 
aDniversaries wliiclt thu Popoe, at leoat, weru occuBtumod 
to, luid tliiit, too, as early 0£ tlio firil half 
of the fourth cunlury. The choiuu of the day wits not 
Buggostal by any Chrisliim tradition. Tho reaeoo will 
be clear if we gUoue itt the ancient calendars of pagan 
Rome,* wherein we sou that the 22nd of February mts 
devoted to the celebration of a feativol, popular ubovu 
all others, in m«niory of the dead of each family. The 
observauL-u of Um ivsuv&i and the participauon in its 
ceremonies were coiigidered ae a tiling incompatible with 
the profession of a Christian ; but it was very difBcult to 
uproot such ancient and cherished habits. It waa, doubt- 
less, to meet this difficulty that the Christian festival of 
the 22nd of February was inittitutod. 

This festival was of more special interest to the 
Church of Borne thou to othon. Hotice we see that 
it was never adopted in the East. It has not left, 
moreover, any truou in Africa.• In Gaul, however, it is 
found at a sumowhut early date. As varly as 44S it is 
mentioned in the Calumlar of Polemius Silvius.' Several 
hoiDiliea hear testimony to its existence and to its identi• 
licatioD with the festival of the Cara Cajiialio.* The 
CoDDcil of Touts of the year 567' is also a witnew 
to it. From these authorities we may gather how difficult 
it must have been tu suppress the ancieut funeral repast 
of the 22ud of February. This funeral repast was obserred 

' HuinniM'n, Oarp. Iw, ίαΐ., vol. t p. SSS. 

' 'ΙΊιι: ΟβΙοοιΙαγ οΓ Utrtlmgo makM η» mcnUoa of it The wnDou «a 
iLi» Γ(•1ίι«1 altriliutitl tu St. Λο^ηιΙΙιΐΡ ar• iww known lu Iw npocrj -μΐωΐ. 

' Uoilvr tb« Incum'nt tUk al ΟηιοΜύ/ MinrU I'rfi' «I PiiiJi. 

' 8w. Mpuoinll;. «LTinuai ISO-IOS fn Uie nppciidii to lh« wnsiiii• οΐ 
St. AojiwIiDe. 

' Ota. tt: "Sunt *4ίΜο ςηΐ In fMtirfMte oatboltBc domai PelH 
epoitoli «fln« morluii nlTi'miit. υΐ pnat biImh rcdtniutM ml demos pnprisi 
■U ^■'iitiliDin rr^tTliuiliir fmirce. i-t pint carptu Domini wenta• dsmoiu 



io tlie West up to Itw iwulflb cuutury at least. I have 
been a witness of this ciutom among tlie orthodox Greekfl 
io EpiruB, atiil abo ainoDg ttie MahometaDS. 

Thti A'atalr Pttri de Cat/ttdra was the subject of 
another coincideooe, of which the iticonveiuenoe canie 
at lungtb lo lie recogaised. It occunvd often in Lent. 
^Id oouDthce observing the Oalliout rite, where Lciiten 
DbservoQCQ was considered iocompatiUo with the honoor- 
ing of saints,' the difficolt}' was avoided hj Iiolding the 
feetirol on no earlier date. Tho Uturj^ical books ylacv 
it io tho month of January, nlon^idv tUv fuetivul of 
the Blosuiid Viiijia. which was celebrated on the 18lh 
of ihnt month.' Tho Ilieronymion Mailyrology, in its 
Auxcrre receoaioa, is more precise. It gii-oa the 18th 
of January as the day of the festival of the Chair of 
St. Peter at Jlomc The Auxetre editor was uccomraodating 
himself here \a the ciistoiD of his country', but us the text 
before turn not«d α Natale S. Petri de Caihcira on the 
22nd of Februui'v, ihe idea occurred to him of preserving 
the two coriimunionitioiis by alliibutiDg the latter to 
Aattoch. a see whiuh was believed to have been also 
occupied by the prince of the npostles. 

This combinatioo vni» not nt firat received with favour. 
Only the feast of the IStli of January continued to be 
observed iu Oiuil. Thi« ί? »een from the mention of it 

' 0»ΐϋ•.Τ«ΐ,χ.<•. J. 

' Til* LdxcuH Ijtxtiaaiaj tc«kuui• oul/ Iwu buudAj* bolwison K)>li-luui7 
(util Uiu fislivnl of Ilic GiIAoIim. <uiil i>Uov* Uirci.' brtvora ihu lattic iieJ 
IjuqL Thu Saorkmi-'DtiiTjr υΓ I(<il>bl<i puU Uip Γωΐίνκΐ ηΓ Ilic CiUr-'rii 
ImnediulTly War" (Imt >if thn Tirs^a (Jwimtry 1Θ)• ■" '*^ tliu MfMib 
tUkicun, It inU-nolikle• Utwoen ttiu fnUval υΓ Uio OilAnJn mi•] Uml »{ iltv 
Tiigiii miiMe• tor Ht. Akiu» (Jiumuy SI}, ft. Γιχΰΐία (Xuvtmli^ ^ly, 
Kl. Clctniml (Noicmtwr 23X 8l. Salitniiiiiu (Nuvi'Otbrf 30), Ht. AnJien 
(Korvmbcr 30}, Bt, Eululin (D«M<al>i>r 10). und fur Ibo Luoverdan «f 
St lOiul (JkiiwifT ϊ3>. It i* uli-nc fmni tliia tliol it Λ•κ» nut follow bent 
iim untrr ιΊ tl••• cnlcDJu. lUiJ tl>nt it ceuiuit inuw.<iuii>t1} In mUodciI u 
■ witiKw Bgabil till' uiiuuimitj uf tJie otlm ιΐντηιιιιιΐιΐ•. 

280 inKtimw wottsnip: rra ouon a!cp s^outiox. 

in tbe ancjeot Sacrunentaiy of Gellonit (eigbllt lo Dtnili 
oenlorjr), where it is accompanied by Uie expIiiDDtion f!rrnn• 
Hum Gallon. Ab for u Rome wu coDoemed, the feeuval of 
the 22nd of Febmaty was maintaiDed to the exeliuioD of the 
other, and that, too, dovn to the sixteenth oentuiy.' 

A third feativnl of St. Tnter was celebrated at Rome on 
the let of Angnst. This wa» the festival of the Dedication of 
the ChoTch of the Apoetlea.* on the Eeqniliiie, which woe n• 
bnUt in the time of Xjstus [Sixtos] III, (432-440) at the 
coet nf the Imperinl family of the East. In ihi» chiirch were 
praMTved, as mn^fa-Tenemted reticti, the cbatiui of St. Peter, 
by which name the hnsilicn itaelf was frequently detignatcd." 

■ Dp Rom. Bvll.. ten, p. »&. The ooudMioiw lutivod «t ia title 
ΙίΑΠκιΙ mcmuir diff'T fnnn 111•!•.' irhich I jmt Γντνιιηΐ Iictv. Tliu >)lff«r« 
enw BOit not tv kllrllniUil tn an intattrical «r iiqwrAclRl -irnalniiH•»!! mi 
mrf p«K οΓ tfao rFwniw nllfftcd and at llu) nlnliniu art aadc. I am VBablD 
to •ιΙαιι1. in |*xliralar, ttml itii-n• «m mi; auinirtiuii, iittam tli• iMcr 
itiddb- Ακη, hlwrn tho fi-Uali Onttolrae S. Petri λοΛ the rah ol Iho 
tpUh Trsptatn) at Itnmf nndtr tin• nuiu> of Clinir of St. pi'U-r. Tl» iczia 
tuMnonl tn jinivi• lliit t^it ph^lr «tm in rslirtwic*' lu (srij ■* tiii- Kwrtb 
nnliirj ill Uin |japllat*ry vT llio Λ'ηΙίηυι luiiv nut tlui miaiiinR nMlinnd 
tn llii-m. 'thi'j «iimk of Uio Salt» Ptiri. ur Suf*• Apatlollea, nnlj- i» α 
ιιιι-(η|ιΙιππΜΐ «ntf-. Tlii^ «lalrmcnl •>Γ Rnnndtn* ■« lu a trtta fribUtHa, 
bot• n*r<ir«noo la the ulit oii «liicli ibc (xamilji mhI i» bo mrrinl ui llw 
day ^ llip ummUr iiruouMioa {Neme Jr I'/tilntngir. v<iL νίί. (1883), |i. 81). 
Thi' mot ιιπ''ίι?ιι1 mi-'ulion I'f thia n-lii), Imkvd. uccws fii llio (•Ι«1θ|(ηυ ot 
MoiUU. Ifbwuiaic ti) tlie Ilea» of M. Qregor; Hid Qncrn TbcodellBda (Do 
RaMi, Monu iSctL, lol i. p. 171!) : OUa Λλ tetti Μ )iHu* mJU «onefai fWnw. 
TbU dl bud U«n obUliii<d f*r frcoi ibn VBllimi, thnl U, iiu tlx'^ Via Salaria, 
or Vin Xranvntjuin. Tbn miclnnrjr fiun whicti it nine ηιηίοϊηηΐ a ^Mt» 
^t. /Wn, wbii>h mnj' bam liora bkkra At a ktor dftttt to Ibu VntinuL It 
■u'CTnii lint to liaTc hoea in mncb rrpnl? until tbr It^tb t-vntiiry nt cnrlic^t. 
Tln-Tc i* nrit Ibc tliglitDat Blliuinn tn it tu tho «ritinffi «f RL Οπ'Κοτ]τ,<« 
in 111•• loiNj^mfiUiml dt'Kuiptlcn• of tCumo uf Ibe wnntb or pigbth evnbiry, 
(ir ill Iho Libtr ΡαιΙψαΙί*. 

* rhilip, a priMt βΤ tbli ctinKfa, vw «cut u a Irenic to tb« OanacJI 
r.r Κ|ΐ1ι>-«η• (431).and dsncd lu dcoron (ΙΙιπΙοηϊπ. ii<l. i. p. 1183), II 
■•xbtiicl, ibcrrrn». U-forr TCjiriiii III. 

* Tliit dMiKnatiun. a rin^//i β. PtM, b mot wtlli tar Unr tat lime 
III llio LAvr Pont.. T»t. i. p. ΐβΙ. In tba neeonnt oT «m fviet of ih» jri-ar 
Ml. isd bU<r im. in nn inMriptiim >ιΓ .'iR.1 (ilM., p. ΐβ-Ό. An I•• llic ehnia• 
uf M. Peter, we the poan of Antor, rmd in iliii Imailim In AM. 



Tliis fceliviU vms [xicnliar to Some, and wns nevpr 
import«(i into the ΈλΜ-} or into the countrice of thu Gftlliciui 
rito. It la certain that it was intende<) to commemorate 
tliu dodicatioo of tbe basilica on the Eequilioe. This d«di- 
cation, therefore, had taken place on tJie Ist of Angiiat. As 
the 1st of Augnst, from tbe time of Aogustni), van a day of 
pagan religions obfemtnce and rejoiotng,' it is possible that 
it mu designedly choeea. 

The special featival of St. Paul {Jannaiy 25) was of 
much less importance than those just mentioned. In the 
Auxorre recension of the Hieronrmian Mertyrology it is 
cnllwl Travslatio S. Panli Apotloii. withont any indica- 
tion oa to where this trannlation had token place. In the 
MiMHaie QoOUeum thei« ie a maea in Conrmnotir S. I*atiii, 
which appears t« Iiave been assi^ed to the same date." 
tn tli« oncivnt Roman books there is abaalntely no mention 
of this foetivaL* 

Th« festival of St. John the Kvangelist (May 6) must 
have b6i-n the anniversary of the dedication of thv oliiin^h 
near tho Porta Latina. which bad biiuti consecruUtd in hiit 
Iiouoor. This church is mentioned for ibv fint time in 
the Lt/irr Ponlififalis. in the pnMage dealing wltli Pope 
Adrian I. (772-795)." Tlio fustivnl of St, John anJt 
hirtam Laiinani has no i^rlior tiMlitnony than the Sacra- 
mentaty oftiwBome Pope. Weought, however, to take note 
of the fltct that tlie Greeks celebrate on the 8th of May * 

* In tli« ΤλΛ tbeto ηκ rMtimU in facooiii οΓ tbe uhnina oT liL Pulcr, 
or «r tlM) dcUvcnuiee of St. Pvtor i&nu xU.], Iiut tlio; linrc BO eunototlcm 
•itii the Bmdu fiMtiml andor cotuildi-nttioii. 

* Tbo ntlgni ttill olacrvc at Roue tbe iay of tho/EUee dfiMtO. 

* Ct p. «79. noli- 8. 

* Wp nofit b<-nr la mind, bovevcr. Ifatt llic Rumnn mnu fur Ri'Xngi^Iiiui 
Siudnr i* mJly n miiai la luooar of St. Paul. Τ)ια lUtiMi wim Iii-IiJ un 
tbnt day in Ui» torilica of Uib nixntlu on Ibr Oillnii Via;. Thtrr nn- 
menaana of 8L An|ni*tiun oe llii< CuiiTcnrion of St. Paul, bat we muit 
Dnl crrndiulit ttraa lilt* lliat thi' fiiitivnl cxiitid in Iiu IJlui'. 

' Vol. i. ]>. Soe, I. S8 : Johntmit BuptMot it kb turvr. 

* Mnttimfr. φ. dL. p^ 12«. 

282 .-iiRisnAN \rf>i»iiiP: rre οειοιν an"D kvoutiok. 

a rcstirat in oonimomoration οΓ a. miracle wbicli was 
p«if<inn«cl on the toin1> οΓ Uie apoatle at Kphoeii», Tbu 
tniraclo wor known in Oanl, for Gregory of Tour» makes 
mention of iU* lu the Miataie Oothicum Uioro is α Masa 
S. JohannU Aposlali ΐί Eeaii{f<-iisla€ botwovn tliu feedval 
of Uie Invention of the Cross (May 3) anil the Rogation 
days. The connection ia closer, I think, betwcoa this 
feutival and that obsen'od in the Greek chtircli thao 
between it and the Komiui Commemoralioo. But Uiure 
ia nothing to prevent our helieTicg that the latter, which 
must have been instituted when Rome waa under Byzantine 
influence, had been itself deleriniued by ΐοιηυ consideration 
of the aolentnity at Kphesos,^ 

The festival of the let of May in honour of SS. I'bilii) 
and Janiea was alao an annirersaiy of the dedkation of 
a church, namely, of that called the Holy Apottlee at 
Rome. This church, originally founded by I'ope JuUu» 
(337-352), was rebuilt about 561 by the Popes I'elagiiu I. 
and John III., and placed under tbo names of tbe two 
apostles I'hilip and Jamea. The let of May «as lixed 
upon fnr the day of the dedication, because the fe«tJTal 
of St Philip was commemorated on this data* 1 am 
unable to single out from tbo two or tliree apoettus so 
named, the Jnmcs who was bunt uaeociatvd with St. Philip. 
The Hieronymian MuityiOlogy meutiuns the fuelivul of 
St. Philip at Uierapolis in Phrygia, and an iut«ipolauoa 
occur? here of the name of St. James, who is thus placed 
under a false topographiciil rubric. The Gallicau liturgical 
books contain no mention of any festival commemoratiug 
either St. Philip alone or associated with St. James. 

< Ghi. ifari. »0. 

* lu Uic Miutyiulogjr ot Ailii, Uii- i'orhi Lalina I• |fvna μ tli« loMiUtj 
gf tbe <»iil(lJOti nf lulliuK ull, in nliicli, acconling tu α tnidllkin al>T*dy 
in MUlUfw• In tbo •οι»ιη1 cPDtnrf, St. Julin vn• auJ k> ban- U-m ptoMgnl 
(TMoUka. Fnut.. 90). 

• LA i'onC, ml. L p. sot), ontv 2. 



Id the East there were fesUvale of St. Philip the Apostle 
aad St, Jamee the Doacon, but tliesc hnve tio ooonectioD 
with the festivals previoiuly initDtioiied. 

The festival of St. Andruw (Novemlwr 30) was of much 
greater importance, and was more widely celebrated. It 
occnn on this day in all the calendan from ths sixth 
century oawards.* It is difficult to trace out ΊΙλ origin, 
or at luust to suppose, as would seem to follow from the 
caleboratcd letter (upucryphal) on the martyrdom of the 
apoetlo, tliat this was tliu day of his festival at Putroa. 
In any caee, this was not the day on which his traoelatiou 
was ohsorvod at Constantinople (March 3), nvilhin- was it 
thai uf th(j second dwliculion of the Church of tiie Holy 
Apoetlf» in this city (July 28). nor of that of Uto dedi- 
cation of the Gret church cooBecraled lu him at Itutne 
(Novembur 3).« 

8, Jlif Mariyn and other Loral Futivt^s. 

Whatever inny have λχχη the dignity of the individuals ι 
in whose houour the immovable festivals of which I liare 
just been writing were instituted, these feetivols, without 
exception, yield in point of antiquity to the anDiveraariea 
of the martyrs. ΤΙιυ luiler gn back to the second cumiur}'. 
Hie anniversary of the martyrdom of St. Folyoarp (t 155) 
was iastitutod at Smyrna iiiime«Uately afW- his death.' 
I could not instaucti, in the vase of Home, a commeinoratioa 
as ancient. It is a remarkable thing even chftt the maityrs 
of tJie second cuniury at Borne— I mean genuine martyrs, 

' II U not ftnuid in tlie Culcndikn of HIuIomIiu. oi of l^ΐlυmiII■ Silt iiu, 
at of Porptlniu. ll iLiipi-un in tli»! tit Outliaffo, iu all tliu U<^<innu uiul 
UflJlious UtnrgiMil U»la. uiil in th<: Bywtiliiu: Cwliadar, vtc 

' LA. honl. v-ol. L (1. 250: Hier. Mart. Sri SotvtB.\ter. 

' MatifT. /'tJ)«„18: "aa^lii i Kipiei iwirtXtir rii¥ rti ^epTiiftav ■«τβί 


and indabitflb)}- of the eecnnd century, Itlce Pope Tela- 
ephome and St. Joatin Martyr — were nol inscribed in the 
«ooleeustical colendAn of the time of Constaotine. The 
MDurflfwries inserted in tltesc calvodars refer to maztTn 
of tbe third oeotory at the earliost. Tb« Chrietian epitaphs 
at Home, moreover, belonging to it date earlier tban the 
thirrt centnry, oontain no iudication of the day of the 
death of Iho deceiL<)ed, wlictbvr they vera martjn or not. 
The caee wonld have been different if, 03 early ολ thie, the 
foneral anniTorsory had become the enbject of α religious 
oommemoration, and, as far ae the martyrs wen concerned, 
of an ecclesiastical M>lemniaatioR. From Ι\κ W-iinning of 
the thtnl centnry, on the other band, Uiu celobmtion of llie 
nnniTersary became α mntUjr of nniveiMl obeervnnce. 

The aiinivommce of martyn wore, naturally, local feeti- 
taIs. Erich Churcli honourvd it« own aainle. SometiiDU. 
owing, it may be, to the lack of special festivBle for each 
martyr, or in tbe way of addition to these feetivaU, a general 
commemoratioD of nil tliu martyrs of α locality was celebmteil. 

The pmotice soon arose of one Church adopting tbe cout- 
memorationa οΓ another, and thns the foetJvala of the meet 
distjngoiabed saints were celebrated elsewhere, as well ne in 
their own ooimtry. Some even attained an almost ceciimeniool 
veneration, aitch as St. Xyatns [Sixtus] and St. Laurence of 
Bome, and St. Cypriun of Carthage, etc. The tranalatioB 
of relics, real or representative, gave, &om the fourth oentmy 
onwards, a groat impolse to this form of veneration, ai>d to 
the festivaU afl«ociated vrith it. 

TheiQ soon came to be associated with the martyrs the 
holy confessors, that is, tbe aeoeta>, using the term in ila 
fourth-century si;{ni£i:anoe, enck as St. Martin. St. Anthony, 
St. Simeon Stylitea, etc. 

Among tbe local feativoLt there also be mentioned 
the anoivcrsaiios of tbu dedicatioue of churchc•, and of the 
ordination (nalalt) and burial {dtjiontio) of bishops. 



9. Ά^ίί, Oetavts, and IManiis. 

Beefdea festivals, properly so called, iho occlosiastical 
yeor tinibraoed alw fiutiug Hud Utjuiy Any*. 

At ihe outset, the fasts before Easter aad thoeo of the 
fi'viikly Ntation^ were the oaly public, common, imd obUga- 
toiy obflervancos. The bbbope, however, wvn; ucctuitomod 
to proscribe extfaordinary fasts, as the occasion duinaudud. 
These arbittary appointmenta, which eeetn to huvo bccii vury 
froqnoDt, and for this reason somewhat burtbcnsonic, wero 
gradoally replaced by tixed obeervancee ou certain proflcribed 
days. It was for this ruRson, iie wu have eeoo,' that thu 
CouBcil of Elvira restricted the custom of weekly super• 
ptftitioHs to once a month. At Home, ftom the time of 
St Loo, DO more than four were providud in each year, 
but fifty years previously they appear to have bceu mom 

The Kmbor days, as 1 have jireviously said, were u 
special feature of Uomaa usage in the matter of lasts 
ubserved at other seasons than Lent. Elsewhere than in 
Home, the daya at the end of, or immediately following, 
the paschal solemnities were observed as fasts everywhere. 
At Milan, in the fourth century, the ten days between 
Asoensiou and Penteuost were reckoned as days of fasting.' 
St. Isidore ' makes mention of tbia custom, and explains it. 
But it was a more general [oactioe to pat off this fasting 
until alW Pentecost. This was the custom in thu East, iu 

> Sw aboTO, p. 23). 

■ 81. An)(iMiiiv. B^, 4β; " OlirUliiuiua itui qwHta et mb» fvn• Λ 
[|ilo atbljalo Jtjaiuir<< viwimi'Vit ι\>ιιΛ ftequanttr \Λα\Λ KoniUiB liMiil•'* 

' ΙΊιίΐΜΐπΐΗ,αιι». I 111 

■ Ueqg.,i--.i&. 

386 ciiDiSTux woRuHTP: ιπ origin αιπ> kvolctiox. 

GanI, and ία Spain,' allowmg for certain rlifTerences ία 
the number of (lays and in Ihe lime fixed for ibo be;riDoii]g 
of the fast. 

The summer Kmbcr days at Ιΐοπιβ offered some poiote 
of roeemblanoe to the Pentecostal fnet. 

Id Oallican regions the fast of the kalends of January 
vas alao observed. It ii to this, poeaibly, that Philaetnus, 
vritjng in the fourth century, refers when he speaks of the 
faAi of the Epiphany ." TIte aim of this oheervaooe in Gaul 
and Spain " was to detuch the faithful from (he pagan 
moeqaeradee and ceremonies of the let of January — tncieat 
heathen cosloms. of which trace» remain antil tlie present 
day. It is possible, however, that this cnstom was adopted 
at the very beginning as a preparation for the observance 
of the Kpiphany.* Fh>m the example of the fast which 
preoedee Easier, it woe concluded that every high Γοβϋτβιΐ 
ought to have a preparatory fast immediately before it. 
Such was the otigin of the fast before Christmas, which is 
mentioned by Philasthus ία the passage just referred to, and 
which was adopted later on in GauL' This n-as the fast 

■ ΟμΛ. ΑροΛ, t. 90: cf. Atbanotiiui, Apot. lU /iga lua (rul. i. p. SIS); 
die Oovneil οΓ e«ron4 (517). o, 2 ; liidore. lor. eit. : COniioO uf Tonn (M7), 
c. IT (in tcforcneo to ninnk* oiilj). In lli^ Knit tl ww nul Iti^en nniUl 
uflcr tbo (wU*e of Pi-ntiOiat. Tbi* «v• Ibc Cut wlikih, lianng b««ii 
cUmdcd up ti> tbo t<«U)u1 >ιΓ 6β. I'litcr and i'liul (Jonc 39), bccunc tbo 
Qmk h«t of the Holy .Xpotlw. 

• In I-:t>tpb(uilii (ϋκί πϊ.}. 

■ CuiuioU at Toun (£67). e. 17 : IMorr. De Off.. I. 41. (2. 

' We bare pfcrUnul}- »(cn (p. ϊβΟ) lIiM ibc» ftaUMl of tbo ΚρϊρΙΐΒΐιχ 
•rem 10 bavo bran n-g&rdid, in OaUicait wtiutrint, u oT nai« imjHirtuw 
Uyw tbftl of ChrUtiD»•. 

■ Cklenibu of rcrpclniu : Onunoll nf Toan, oiii. tA. ; Onitneil uf lUoen 
(Ul)( α 19. I And no traoo of it in Spdn. tl m• HMrr rcpofbutj 
obKrted \/j monb (Uudo, B. K, til. ΪΤ : iv. SO) It is worlhy of not» tbal 
in the ■yatom tutomA lo by I'lilliwirlni Ui«rv Hvrr. αα kl Bonu.'. Γοιιτ 
«ilnnn rnitaeirirj ytw: thovt orifnl,Pcati-cail,C1irlftmii*.iuiil EpIphMiTi 
bul Uio «ρροίηΐιηυηΐ of Ihe βροοίΑΐ werka nnri innntbi ilici tiiil ariginato 
fpHn 'w^ Β"!! il" Mimi^ ixiiialili'nitl-iit* 



which gave rUo to the sijedal soleiimiaaUoD of llie four 
eks before the feetivml of Chmlmae referred to in Iho 
'Bomao liturgical l)Ooka of (he eighth ceotuiy. 

Tbo eamc idon was at the bottom of tbc ciwtom of 
fasting on Uio vigils of tlie high fuetivals, that m, 
of those in which trhc ancient ptrvlfjilium or nocturnal 
Synaxia hod been preserved. Bnt ih&se fasts were not 
generally obsonrod antil a somewhnl lat« period. That 
vbich i» ancient about tbent is Dot the fast, but the 

Th« feetival of Easier was truly a model feelival, and 
vas an object of imitation in the case of all otiirr.*. Before 
the latter had been provided with preparatory fasts they 
already poesessed octavps, which were a reprodnction of 
lEaeter Week.' In the fourth century it was customary at 
Jerosalom to solemniee the Kpiphany and dedication ffstivals 
for fjght days, Tim cu&toro wa» very genetnlly followed 
everywhere at an early date, and applied also to other 

IJtaniee were aolema supplications, iustituled to tm• 
ploro the bleasing of Heaven on the fruits of the earth 
It vaa customary lo recite them in the spring, tJiat is, 
in the season of late trostR, ho much dreaded by the culii- 
vaton of the soil. It is not a matter of wonder that 
Chiistian practice on this point should coincide with 
customs anterior to it. The same necessities, tlic same 
apprehension of dangers, and the same trust in Diviao 
help, inspired rites mutually resembling each other. The 
practice was hosed on the idea of a kind of liatratwn 
of the cultivated lands, iu which the future harvest wae 
giving indications of its promise. The people marched in 
prooeesion to the spot, chanting the while that dialogue 

> 6m above, p. %zi. 

' It U socdlsa h> jmUit uul lliat Uib ww ilvrlvol frou tbo OcninuDic• 
lit tlir Jrvldi ΙΊΐΜονη. 


prayer which we call « liuny, «hiboimt«d, ftooording U> 
circumiittDCiii, into ii long e«rioe of invocations uddrvsecd 
to God iLDcl U) unguis and eoiata. 

The <lay set ujMut for this purpoee at Rome was lh« 
2Dlh of April, a tiadilioaol date, bdng that on vhicli Uiu 
ancient Bomone oalebiatwl thu fesUval of the Itebiffaiia, 
The principal ctoreiiiooy of Ihu Utter was α prooesaon, 
which, setting; out from the FlutaiQian Gate, made its 
wuy lowanle ttic Milviau Itridgv, ud<1 arrived at length at 
a suburban suuciuury sumu dislaiico olT, that is, at Ihu 
fifth iDilcatonu on tiie Claudian Way.' Tliu Christian 
proocssioii u'hich replaced il fullowod tht! same mate as 
far as ibe Milviau Biidge. It set out from the Church 
of St. Luui-uucu in, LuctHa, the nearest to tlie Flaminiau 
(Jate, huld a st<uiioD ul St. VolcDtino outside the walla, 
and afterwardit at the MUviin liridgu. From thence, instead 
of proceedint; along Uic Claudian Way, it turned to the 
loft towards the VaiicaD, stopped at a cross, of which the 
site is not given, and again in the paradise or atrium of 
8L Peter, and liually in the basihca itself, where the 
station was held.* 

The most ancient uuthtndty for this ceremony is α 
formulary for convoking it found in the Bt^ster of St. 
Oregory the Greal^' which must have been used in the 
Urst instance for the year 598. 

la Gaul, liom the end of the tiflli century, the thteo 
(lays before Asoeoaion were adopted for uaing this litany. 
BUhop Mamertus {circ 470) of Vieimu was the first lo 
introduce this custom, and it was uxtoudod to the wl 

■ Orid, >Ίι•Ι«, ίν. 901. I'll» fiinnat QaMnu/ii MMrifiMd iu thU lenplo 
u dec *o^ > ■lu)u|>. 

* TbCM ibitiaii• aro outi.'d ΐιι Iko SaoniiDcnleiy of Vapo ♦'lrl*n. 

' JtffI, 1198: £^1. ufip,. 3. Wo miut not <iinfoiuid Uiw uuiiulI lituijr 
wiUi Uif I'HtnMnliiiikrT liuiny <'f .'■!)», iti-aorilivd bj flttpir; uf Ttiu nk tfi>t. 







of Fmakieli G»ul ' by lh« first Coniicil οί Orleens (oil).' 
These liuuiy prayers were cuU«d Bogatiotu.' The Bogntitni 
days vrerc duys οΓ vci^' strict fasLuig. Thoy veto iiitro- 
άυχβά into Rome in the time οΓ Pope Leo III., about the 
year 800.* 

The litaoies for springtime were not employed in Spain, 
bat litanies were used there iii the beginning of November,* 
at the time of sowing the seed. These were not the only 
litanies in UBe. They were also employed, according U> 
the locality, oa the fast of PentecOBt," and at the autumnal 

Litanies were as much in use in the I'^t as in the 
West, bat they seem not to have been connected vrith 
prescribed days. 

10. Calmidar» and Ufartyroloffiet. 

e feetivaU celebrated ever>' year were noted in the 
local calendar. Each Church must have poseeesed its own. 
The most ancient which bare coma down to na are those 
of Rome, Tours, and Carthage,* 

The Roman Calundiir bus come down to us in two 
different forms. The must complete form is that presented 

■ WtUioat dlalarbiti);. it musL be ondoratood. 111» litAniea «Ircadjr in nM 
is oHtaia tlmTchui, 'I'lipri' vra«, nl Λuxcm^ιt liluajr Μ thu begJuiing e( 
Bwh moatli (.Gmtn Fjip, Attiuiut., e. 10: Migno, Pot £<il, τοί. csxxrUI. 
p. 23»). 

' Sldtmin• Λροΐΐύιατΰ, Ep.. τ. 11 : viL I ; ConncQ of Orleaai, & 27. 

' ThJi u thi- turm mm) hy βίιΐυηία*, nnd olwi by Ανίη», tho emxtatot 
0f HoBUVtiu, la hit liiiinlly In Hagiilhtiihiii. Tlio CoddcU of Orleuia obo 
meoUoai Rognllonm Μ βΛ UtonAu. 

* β«« Ml [bin autjjivl tbo Liber i'otitiflmlit, vol. li. p, S3, ncitc 17. nnd 
p. 40, Doto SB. 

* Οοαικ1Ι«ΓΟυηιιιη(517). 0.3: luduru, DtOff.t\.Vi. 
' C'lmocil οΓ GcKuin, c. 2. 

' liidort, De Of^ i. 3t>. 

* I miut out ne^Wii lu mnntiou hen Ibu rngmviiC of α Ootlilu ouuadar 
paUlibed bj Mnl. i^vipL Va.. toL v. p. ββ. 

290 chr]stia:« worship: its ovaam axd EvoLtrrioit. 

in the HiemnyiDLaD Marlyralogy. The Ιΐοιιιαη Calendar in 
Lhis collection in not. it is true, given by iteslf. It is 
mixed up day hv day with many other umlogoua docamente. 
and it requires considerable critical ability to diseagigo 
it bom its context. The oilier form is that given in Uie 
two tables called Depetxtionu SpiiKOpomm and DepontionfK 
Marlyntm, which are contained in tbc collection known aa 
tho Philocalian. This collection, or, at least, the part of it 
containin;; these two tables, was drawn np in 336. The 
calendar preserved in iho Hieronymian Martyrology exhibits 
indications of certain revisions, of which the latest aro of 
the time of Pope Xysttia III. (432-440); but it aleo 
famishM traces of an editing in the time of Pope MUtiadea 
(311-314). From this circumstance, and from certain other 
cooeidcnttioae, we may conclude tliat the two forms of it 
were derivud ftam a text in existence about the year 312. 
inunediately after the last persecution.' 

The Calender of fasta and vigils in the Church of 
Toun has been preaerved to tis by Qregoiy, bishop of that 
town, in hi» Jiistoria Franwmm (z. 31). He mentions 
only the moat solemn festivals, that is, those which were 
preceded by a vigil. This arrangement had been drawn 
up by Bishop Perpetuus (461-490). 

The Calendar of the Church of Carthoge, published by 
Mabillon,' and reproduced by Ruinart at the end of hia 
Ada MartffTUra Siwera, is somewhat less ancients It 
contains tho name of St. Eugeuius, who died in 505, 

By combining the calendars of different Churches^ eepe• 

' See my inuinuir on Le• £l>ui'iw <lii Martfnil"ge UUltmfmim, in the 
ΜΜπν» tie ti'vla <U /ionw. voL v. (Ιββϋ). p. 137, d «η, Cf. ΙΛ. Ami.. 
wi. i. pp. U., ciltiii 

' Jnulect'i. \χΛ. iii. p. 8Θ8: falio cdUion. p. 1G3. JlnliUlaa diiotnwrod 
it to the biodin^ of • iiuuiuMKpt οΓ the MTeatli ccnliir^, or lban«bont, 
a^ t'luDy. Tim tltln niiu μ toil«w: Bir tmtHitnitnf iliim i iala tf a fa nww 
mvtj/rt* Λ Aeyoiitionm efito p arum q»i» teelttia CatOuigviii* amaitmiaria 
eMntni (nv). 



uiuUy iboeo οΓ ί;ιυβΙ citit» tike Bomv, Cnnhogv, <Vluxua<lm, 
Aouooh, and Nicomedui, this so-called m&rtyrologies wore 
fonned. The moet ancient ctdlections of tbie natnre eoem 
to liAvo been drawn up aboat the middle of ώβ fourth 
oentnry, in Africa and Asia Minor respectively. They have 
not come down to uh to their primitive form. We know 
them only λά they appear iu the Uieronymian Morlyrology, 
which was compiled about the middle of the fifth century 
in Italy, and tbence carried to France, where, about the year 
5'J5, it waa subjected, at Auxerre, to a revision, fi-om which 
revised text all existing manuscripta of it are derived. In 
addition to the Ilieronymion Afartyrologj', there bas been 
prueerved to us the primitive roartyrology of Aeia Minor 
in a much abridged Syriao translation.' 

Tie HieiORymian Martyrology tuid attained, from tho 
Mventb to the ninth century, a wideepread celebnty; bat, 
owing to ite oomplexity, and tlie many errorn made hf 
copyiete, tvho were embarmssod by the multitude of proper 
ounee 1>olh of persou-i and place», it was held in less eeteem 
tbao abridged texts, which, while containing fewer βαϊαίβ, 
furniehe<l certain historical detaiU cuncemiug tbem, together 
with exUuots i^om their actx. These are what is known as 
historicftl martyrologies. The moet asoioot and best known 
examples ore those of Bude, tlnbanus Maunis, Ado, and 
υ,-^ηΑπΙ. The latter, which wa.'* drawn np at St. Germain 
doe Pr63 about the year 875, enjoyed mncli popularity during 
Ihe Middle Ages. The existing Roman Martyix>lof;y is 
nothing more than a new edition of the latter, revised and 
completed by Oardinal UaiOiiiue. 

1q lEgnn] ti• all llii«. wc tbi) <<diUuii <Λ thp HlumuymlBa hUrtyrolos?• 
jvhiuli 1 |>ubllibuil in IfSai ui ixmuurl wiUi U. it Itwii, iu voL ll. of the 



The oeremomee of Chmti&n initiatioo, such ae ibey aiv 
deecribed in authorities from the end of tiic second ocntnry 
ODvarda, ooneisted of ihree eeeeDtiul rites — Baptism, Coa- 
fimution, aii<l Fb-at <;oiiimuiuoti. These could not be 
entered upon — al least, ordinarily — wiLhoul• a more or leaa 
lengthy jireiHiTtttiou. As early as the end of the second 
century the increaeiDg number of Christ i an candidates 
rendered it necessary to aystematise this preparatioit, to 
lay down dutinite rules for its performance, and to dcterniiiie 
the period of i>robftiion. Hence arose the diaoiplioe of the 

The cateckuinenate woe a period during which converts 
learned and put into infictioc their esseutial duties in 
tcganl to bolivf and condact. The catechutnene woru lookod 
Dix>u as memburs of iho Chrietian community, luid were 
regarded as Christiuns, tlie eutranoe of oonverts into tJits 
lower category being eflected by rites which appear in the 
imcieDt liturgical books under the heading ad C}i.ri».tianuav 
/aeiendum, nr under one of a similar eigniScance. Cale- 
chumena could remain in their probationary stage as long 
as they liked. The Kuiperora t'ODstantino and CooHtantius, 
in the fourth oeutitry, continued oateofaumens until Ui«y 
were at the point of death. The system of prolongiog 
the catechumeute ooDsidenibly lightened the borden of 



dteoiplinnry obligationii, and was much in vogae with the 
aristooraoy, who ki;ge1y nvailed themselvea of it. 

If ft catecbmnen was desiroua of completing hie itiitia- 
tion, nnd the ruleni of the Church deemed him worthy to 
receive beptism, he pnssed into the category of the deet, «r 
eompettntf.^ At the begiitTdng of Lent the names of those 
who were to be baptised on Easter Eve were written down. 
Daring these nolemn forty days tbey were obliged to hu 
pi-esenl frequently at church, ia order to undergo esorcismB 
and to hear preparatory instruction on baptinm. 

It waa at Easter, in fact, that baptism was ordinarily 
•dministcred, and that, too, from the earliest times.' The 
TigU of Easter Sunday wm devoted to this curemony. If 
this did not allow sufGcient time of probation, or if the 
Doophyto for any reason could not partidpato in tlie initia- 
tion on this day, it was postponed to a later date in Easter- 
tide. The last day for thie purpose, that of Pentoooet, 
as roiich OQ account uf its being the last as for ite own 
special solomnily. came soon to be regarded as a second 
baptitmal festival. 

The Bomoo Chnrch restricted baptism to this period. 
In the East, the Epiphany, the great festival of the birth 
of Christ and of Ilia baptism, appeared to be naturoUy 
indicated for the second birth, the regeneration, the baptism 
of Christians. The Greek Fatheis of the end of tho fourth 
century am witnessos to tlie custom in tliuir reepcctivo 
oountriee of blessing the baptismal waters on this day, and 
of baptising the neophytes. The oxaraplu of the Eoet wne 
followed by several Western Churches, and it became 
gradnally the cuetuui to put CUrietmas and several other 

< Hfrr Pr. X PdhIc (Thuolag'wlvf QwtrUiltduift 1883, p, 41, (I leg.) «lion 
elMil; that lli««(• ««Γ(ι 111» iinljr mbdiviiiitmi cf tiie wtteoliDiiiviii, »d<I 
Ibkt th• dew οΓ Ibclr bavinff liecn flUtribated into four eInMC• ia hiUN<j 
on a mvog lotcrprotnlion al the niiclont testa. 

' TertolUftn, Dw BapUtmo, I». 

294 cHRrnTiAN vomtat: itb oRinitt and etuuttiok. 

fustivoU on the satae fbotiii^ as the Epiphany' in thie 
respect. The Popes, however, ni^ently iosUted upon, mid 
succeeded in eecuring — not. it is true, without difficulty — 
the obserrBnce by the Latin Churches of the ancie&t Boman 
cnelom, which had its origin at a period long anterior to 
the institution of the festival of the liatinty. 

The rites obeerved in regud to the catechuueiiate, 
ba{)tieiii, and oonfinuation, varied, aa waa the case with 
the Euchoriedc Liturgy, according to the country. I will 
dworibe in the following I>*gea the various cuetome. 


The docunionts from whicli we gather the h&ptUloal 
cercnionie; of the Bomau Church are na follows : — 

1. The Onlo Baptismi. published by MubiUon as. 
No. Λ'ΙΙ. This Ordo. as fur ae the toxt is concerned, goes 
liock, at leoet, to the lime of Charlemagne. We 6nd it 
almost in its unlirvty, and word for word, in an instruction 
on bai>ti«iii f^ivi-D by Ji<ese, Bieho]> of Λιηίβηβ, to the clergy 
of hiji dioccso, pi-obably iu SIS." 

2. The Sacramenlftiy of Pope Adrian, which fumishee 
but few delBOls. except iu mgurd Lo the final ceraniony. 

' Cf. lottor (mm Sirioiun to Himon» of T&meonn, c. 9, tl kppau• 
In h«*« bad nu elFeot, for tli« Ommpll at Ιλντ Protln^t- oT T«rnifiinM 
■till iMiUKniiwd. la SIT, ChrbttDu na a baplionnl Γ<>*ΙίτΒΐ iCtmf. (hrtiiU, 
c 4); tliu loU«r ol SL Leo lu Ibe Binh")» »i tuoilf iiaSi. 4I(, v. 1): 
tlM )i<lUtr (if O^liulu• l<i llie Bliili<>|i• <<f Lucunla, I'kt.. «. 12. Victor 
TltPDil*. AM. Pmwe. 7amUil, ii. 47: S^uimIiu Patriril, ii. )ft (Hanlnule. 
*nl. L p. ITSS). Vna tba•» ImI two ButlioritlM tt wnuM tt|>i>«ar Uim 
Um Epipluiny wai a btptlmiiil fp«Uval bcitb in AMcn aad ία Inland, 
The Couticlli of BIta.u (585). c. 3. anil Aiiic^m) («'n•. .WSX than 
that llw Kumaii dutim pnrvailnd iu OanI toward* Uio Mid of tb• aixtb 
century. For tha Kaac, m» Btppe\ii\j Qrogary Nniiaan•, heB. 40; 
wiotH honilia el St. John CbtTKelmn, τβΐ. It. pp. MX. 4ΙΒ: vnL it. 
|> H: TliMdoret, Hi-t. Keel. il. 27. 

' MtfD•, Pal. trit., ml OT p. 7»l. CI. aboTe. p. 14B. 



3. The Gelasian SacnunentAry, which ■grcee geDeraUy 
with the Ordo; bnt here, also, poeeiblv GollicAD revuioa 
has to be [alcen into account. 

The aloioftt completo agieomont butwucD the GfllMiau 
Sacramentary and the Ordo Baptiemi prove• that the latter 
npresents the custom of the sι^v«Dth cvntiuy at the latest. 
From oertain detaiU, sach a» thu bilmgiinl formularies, the 
employnieDt of the Miocne Onwd. the eubetitution of 
ocolj-tus for exorcUte, we are foroed to Um coDcluaiou that 
this ritual woe not finally drawn up ontil the course of 
the seventh ceoluiy, that is. in Byzaiitiou times. 

At this period the ba)>tism of luliilte bad become 
exceptional, aud tlio rit«s of initiatinn were ordinarily 
confiuud to iofaats. Thus the Ordo and ibo rubrics of 
the SacnmuntaTy speolc of iofuite in «rms, who are 
accompanied by gudfathun aud godinotliere to answer in 
their uomea It is clear. howoTCo*, that the formularies were 
oompoesd for adults, aud that the ceremonies themselves 
hmvB only their full ei^fniiicaDce where persons of riper 
yeoiB are coucerued. It is necessary, therefore, in order 
to place the whole in ite true light, bo reganl the details 
which limit the ceremony to infants, aud thus cause a 
duroDological transposition of the whole text, as indications 
of the work of a reviser. I will cndvavour, tbeiefore, to 
take this into consideration in the following description.* 

1. Rites of Uit CaiediumeiMtt. 

The entrance into the catechumenate was accompanied 
by tlio following cerumonies: — 

< Mm of tho rlloa hero dneribed «re «till ίο nw wlu• taptint I• 
J adinliiutefcd to kdnlUi but «viirjilUiBB takH place nt tb• on* 
la tlie COM of Infants, tli• aenmoaiM ara riiiuliuienlBlIjr ibv 
iMit oeauiderftbl; «bridifoL 


The insufilatioD, with a formulary of exorcisn) ; 

The signing vrith the cross on the forehead ; 

The admiaistering of salt. 

The convert preaente himself before the priest, who, 
after blowing in his face,' luarlca him on the forehead 
with the eign of the croes, saying, in ncmine Palris et 
Filii et ^rilm samti. This ceremony is followed by a 
prayer, which the priest recites, bohiing bis band extended 
over the candidate : ' 

OmnipatoD*, •βιηρ!(οηιβ Detu, Pater domiui nutn Jsnu Oliritti, 
TCipicere di(7iu« eupor liunc Γαιηιιΐιιπι Iniim qiiom *(l niditiientii tidei 
vuciui! digutaa M. Oratiem caeciutem cordis ab eo cxpelle; dltfusipo 
oiBDM laquecw SnUnao f[uibii> fnnmt ci>iilif;AnM. Aperi oi, Dumin•, 
jnDuam picUtii t<uie, <it ingaa «apiuiitkc biae imbutiu omnium cupiiUta- 
UD foetoribna «kreat, «t nun odora prMceptornm tiinrnm lutiu tlU in 
Eederia doKirtal, ei proBdat de die In diecD, ut idonwi effiditur 
Bcoedn» sd i{Tati*ni baptinni tni, percopta tnodicina. 

Then follows the adminietei-ing of the salt,* which bad 
been previotiitly exorcised ;-~ 

■ Till• wmmoaj U nol gina in Out OrJo or ia llie Sacnmratsri*•, 
ύΛ It ii Atlaitf^ bjr John. ttiB Bonftti doaocoi. In U• letter lo Bnarlo^ 
■fa οΙΒοίκΙ of tb" tim•! "t Tlinidorl•' (Mlιπ'^ I'at. Lat. toL Hx. p. 102). 
11« M^r• •Τ«η thni It wai t'allonril by u «xotvlim. bI meet tt rtetdat 
tiliaMm), Tbeao vrKrd* nro «l*o [ounil ία Uie farmulMlM for exDmbnt 
wbidi ware p««cTtb(»d oocordiu^ to Uie outtom oT thc^ Mtvutb cnliiry 
for the Mivtlny fit l^tit. 

* I itlT• iho loxt nf tbc froludAD SMrunmtaqr, L SO, luliig ibe 
maenUr for the plural nnmbvr. Tli» two otlwr fbnnalftrlM whl«h fbUew 
tliia pntjuT *ortD t<> \iif ntriiuit*. Tlile prayer 1• ftteo fonod in lli« OreeoHan 
SaenuDcntuy. p. 00 (Unmlori). bat it 1« inoomploto t"ward« tba end• 
UmIiU til•; ritOBl fifea in i. 30-3λ the Odujan BacrnnioDtarj fttratalMa 
iinother, I. 71. «hleh Lm *uppU«d muoli of tlie rnKti-rial of Uia rltnal 
of tb» protest day. I think, boweroi. that Ihli Mxqinil rlluol la OallleaM, 
witli the «XMptlon of Uie ivlniiiilfteriii^ of tbc «alt, whiab la daeidedly 
Boman. hot whiob !■ opoompuilcd In Ihia oaao by no rormnivy. Tbo 
rutmulaiiea ί. 71. or κιπκΐΐιΐηκ llko them, ora found ia tb• iliimlt 
(MtteMand Id tlio OoUloaa i^iimutaiaif, 

' Tfao admlnlilvriiig of mII ti raeDtlooed by John the Dcacco : 



Exorcno t«, cToatun «ύΙ*. id nomino Om Phtm omntpotontis et 
in Oiirilate domlnl noecrt Jemi ChHsti et iu virtute BpiriUu auietl. 
ExorciKO ta per Deuiu vivum vt pur Dctim vemin, cim ic »Λ Utekm 
Imiiuili genefta ptY>ctwvit ei popnln venlent; lul cradiilltAtem por ΜΓΤΟβ 
tuue oooaocnH pra«oeptt. ΓγοιικΙθ rugnmua l<-, <|»αιίιιυ Dciis uoeter, nt 
b«cc CKatnro mII* 'm nomine TrioiUtit cftictucur (nliiinre ucraincntuni 
Ad efluganilni» inimicum. Qnam tn, Πυαιύιβ, UDCtiticaudo itaQclillc«i>, 
beaedioeDilo beaedicw; ut Sat oiDaibni Acoipicatibun porfoclA tncdicinii, 
pnnwoeiu ία viKoribiui conim, in nomine domiiii iiosiri Jexn ChrUti >i>ii 
ventoruB Mt Judiouo rivoe at niartuos et ueouJaiD per i^fQuni. 

Tho priest then pute a particle of salt in the moath of 
tliu ciLudidutv, Buyiag, Arxipe N., sal sapieniiae, propUiaiii* 
ta vUam acieritam. He concludes with α prayer— 

Deiu petnim uottronini, Deiu univenue condllor vericattit, te iupplIOM 
noramiiN, ut hnno Γηιηηΐιιπι tuiini rf«picprc dignoris ijropitiim ; nt hoc 
[irimiiiu p&bulnm baUi gURtxateni nun diutiutt ecurirc [lertnittiui (ριοιιιίηιιβ 
cibo eiplutar 0Βώ•ΰ, qnatoniu ut nmpcr, Domiiic, «piritn rorvaim, 
• qM gtudeiu, tiio numper notnini nervieuu. Perdue nam οΔ uotu re• 
' gtaentionw Uvacnim, nt cum Bdollliue tiii« prombnonum tnainm aetwu 
pnetnia ooasequi nereetur. 

After this ceremony the caDdidate was regarded Μ t 
catechumen, and woe adoaitted to religioue oesembliee, 
but not to the Kurliaristic LitQigy, properly so called. 
The catechuineiia tiad a .ipeciol place aaugaed to them 
in the church, and were dismiseod bcforo the begiooing of 
the holy mysteries.' 

Anjpitt Jan faUrhiuiuauu tme'lMum tU. It would tpfrtti thst nt the 
, bagtonlag thii oeremoDy nu frti|ucDlly repcstt'd. λ vtmoa ut tli<i 
' OoDDon «r BIppo (393) iini'livB llml tho u>teuliuu»Dit imv MetuluiDcd 

to TSMlfe Ui* Hik nil ilimiik;lt Ibt- j-iiar. I'Ven at &uter (Cbno. Ovtt.. 

lit. o. 3). The odmiaiiitoriii^ οΐ wit μ r cbMietertatlu οΓ tho Bonu 


■ 8m «bote. pp. 58, 171. SOS. 


2. Preparation /or St^pium. 

The praparatiou for baptism, at Borne as elsewhere, 
ctHuisted of a series of inBtructioBB and exercises durinj; 
tlie seaaon of Lent. The meetings for this purp(x»e were 
called aaratinia; and in the seventh century amounted to 
se^-en in nmnber. No Itoman collection of catechetictl 
instructions is now in existence which might be compared 
with thoee of St. Cyril of Jenmalem, but the latter u 
sufficient to give ili an idea of the nature and form of the 
ttiachiog given preparatory to bnpti'un.' 

As the name siiggest-i, the ucmtinien were dea^ned to 
test the preparation of the rnndtdittee, aiid eepeciaUy to 
praeent them to the faitliful, who, if the oooaeion arose, 
cottid protest against the admismon of sooh as might be 
ooworthy. Upon this matter the documents are iiiiiiiii—lilji 
mult). They contain notliing beyond the prayers and tbo 
ritee. The latter hod in view the gradual casting out 
of the evil spirit by forcing him to relinquish liie hold 
over those who were about to posa into the kingdom of 

In the seventh ceutory the Bcmtiuies began in tlie 
third week of Lent. At the Stational Mas» on the Monday 
an announcement " was made from the ambo of llio fint of 
those meetings — 

Scnitinii liiom, dilcotiiwiini Fratro, quo eleoU* ηοΜτί diiiiiitiu la- 
■duaiitor, imiainerv oognoscile. Ideoqno aoIUciU devotion», niooodeoto 

' The mnBotm uf St, Atiftuitico addroiwrd nif mmptttnM (Kca. SCSS, 
IIS-llQ) isitjr In regnrdnd u ropmoittliiB tlie LMa ceaUnii, uid βτοη 
the Bomui. for Afric• foUowcd. boUi in Uptiamal kud oilier rllw, Ih• 
order prerailinE »t Rome. 

* Gol.. i. 29. Tito G«la*Uu FiacnnuiilBrj gina ufti'r thl» the rilM 
at tbm aalBdiunc^rmtf auch as liave been jmt di.-«enbod. Tbo Unto aba 
wdgpl Ibun Id the lint Mrutliiy, but ttiU may not bare bocm their 
urigliiaJ plaoe. 

uutimoNJBs or οικικτιαν imitutioh. 


Mqaente ilia feri•, drcffl bomm diei (citatn confenlie digiiemlnl, nl 
cftdeite myiUtriTim qiio diaboliu cum nu pomps dentn^tur at iJuuia 
ragai c««lo»tte «peiitur, bciupabili, Doo junnU, miniaUiria pangon 

At tiiu first scrutiny the eleot gnvo in their names, 
wbicb n-fire inecribud io α register. Then tbe sexes were 
separated, the mcu Ixung placed ou the right, and tbe 
women on the left. 

The Uaae then began. After tbe collect and before 
tlie loctJone, α deacon called upon the catechumens to 
prostrate themselvee in prayer. The prayer woe oon• 
eluded by all of them saying in a load voice. Amen. 
Always at u signal from the deacon they signed themselves 
with tlie sign of the croxs, sajnog, /it tiomiiu Patris, etc. 
The exorcisms took place at thia point in the service. 
One of ; the clergy,' vboee duty it was, approached the 
male candidAtee, and having made tlie sign of the cross on 
tlie forehoad of each, imposed bix hands upon each and 
prouoanood tlio fomiidary of i-xorcism. He then proceeded 
to the female candidates, and repeated tlie ceremony. A 
second exorcist felluwed him, and theu α third, performing 
the BOme ect. 1 give hore one of tlie formularies used — 

Dbiu Abnbun, Dotu Ικλλ, Dona Jacol). Dpim qui Mopid fnmalo too 
in inoato Sinai sppaniieti et Alios Isnol de lerra Aogypti edufeti, 
^«pubuia «ίΐ aiig«Iiim picui» tuiu qui LiulixUret eoa dlo se nocte ; 
to qtuMumne, Doniine, nt mittcre illgiipm «anctam siij[<I(Uii liinm 
at ^niliter oaatotliat el hoe rmuulos tuoe «t perdnoat eM od gntinm 
bnplieni tui, 

Krgo,* Duledlcte diuliolo, roouguoece euQioiitinm taam «1 it, hauatvm 
Deo live et vero, «t ilu honorviii Jcou CliHtito Fflio e|UB et Spiritu! 
flsncto; ot racwilo •!> iiin famulie Uoi, qnU utoe aibi Doiu ot domintui 

' Til• Olio >iul the Sifnimmtory mentloa MolyM tii thb pteM, 
bat ft is cettoiii tlinl %» long lu tbcrv wcro eioiel•!* In «fflot^ tbi• wm 
nut tbe dutj of bmI jIcb. 

' Tlii• portiou οΓ tbo formulkty I• InvtirlnUo. It i* ni]M-iitt>d ot M«k 
of Ibo ill esuKijnna. 



noBtor Jmiu Cbrietos «d sufttn MDoUm gratlaiu el beucdicUoQem fontem- 
qne b*plMEnatM dono' tpcbk dtgnatut ent. Rt boc rigaBm MDoUe 
cthcm iWtntiliiu comm qnod nog dsmtiB, tn, tnoJediob) dfabole, anmqaain 
Hideu violftre. 

Aflor uach of tlic exorcists had ροΓΓοπαοιΙ hie fuoctioa 
la turn, the catecbumoiis were inviuid to prostrate tbem- 
selvos antl pmy, signing thomsulvos with tbu fliga of tiie 
cross. A priest ihvn «ppnxichcd, and repeated tlie cere- 
mony of the signitig and the imposition of hands, while 
saying — 

Aet«ni&m ao JnstiMiinam I'ieUtiin tium dq)recor, iloiaiae laaote, 
Pfttor omntpoiciiH, nolcnio Dcun Ιιιτιιίιιίκ el veriutiii, «ip«r hm &dium 
el famuliui tiiiu. ut ilxgneris ea» autunUuiTe liiminn tnlelligfntiiio tOM. 
Mniida cce ut muctiilca: (In eU eoienliam verain, ut digni elEeinBtiir 
•ooedera ad ^tiRm bapUHRii ttii. Toncunt finnnm fpora, eoiMilhHD 
rHtnm, doctrinam unoUun, ut apti mnl ml percipicitdnm fntiam (MB. 

It is to be noted that the priest, ineteud of foUowing 
the exorcUts in conjiiring the devil, merely makes his prayer 
to God. It was not hin office — at least, at this moment^ 
to conjure the demon. After a final prostratioD. the 
catechumens resume their places, and the Maes proceeds 
in their presence up to the Goapel. Before the rending 
nf this they were dismissed. Their relatioim or sponsors, 
however, took port in the offering. The names of tlic 
latter wore recited in the Afeiasato, but those of the elect 
were included in the i/anc igitnr, with a special recom• 

These esorciMUis were n^pt^ted In the same maniier, 
and witli the- sumu uucumputiirnunlfi, tin the other days of 
the scrutiny, except the seventh, llie thiid day possessed 
a special Importance. Π vas on Ibis day Utat the candidate 
was officially instructed in the Gospel, tbe Creed, and the 

■ Dtnvm b tbn nunaioripL CT. Mew. p. 303. Tlie Mae 
ha•, however, givcQ ptr la pUUv οΓ «f. 
* Ot ateTe,p. IW. 


ciBj^coMras OF tiraiaTiAx ιχγπατιοκ. 


Lonl's Prayer. In other coiuitritM iho inilialion at this 
atago WM limited to tbc Cruud. and Lhe ceremooy vros 
called TyadiCio Si/iaboli. At Bomc it was cuelomary to 
make knowu to the initiated not only ibo Creed, but also 
tbe itutrumaUa «aeroaan^tu tttfi»} that is, u summary of 
Ibe Cliriatian Law. The oame by which this ceromony 
was knoH-Q there had also α wider import. Il wan culled 
the " Opeiiing of the Eora." 

Od this dny the catechumens were not dismissed im• 
mediately after thu gmduol. As soon as this chant was 
Hniahed, four deacons procitedod &om tJic sacristy with on 
iruposiiig curumoiiiol, each carrying ouu of the four Go$puls. 
Approaobtog tho altar, they placed thoreon the sacitid 
volume•, one at each of the uornors of the holy table. Λ 
priest then began a discourse, in which he explained the 
nature of the Gospel. Tho elect weru thereupon ordered^ 
to stand op, in order to hear, in an attentive and roipect• 
ful manner, one of the deacons read thu first page of 
St. Matthew's Gospel, to which the priest added u short 
commentai}'. The same ceremony was rupoatod in the 
case of tlie threo other evangelists. 

After the traditio of the Gospel camo that of the 
Croud, which was preceded and followed by an oddreea 
from tho prieet. In Byzantine times the Niccco-Constanti• 
nopolitan Creed was uaed, and promion was αίβο made 
for its being recited, lii^t in Greek, and then in Latin. 
Tbe population of Itome at that time was bilingual, and 
the cattichumens were grouped according to their language, 
to hear the recitation of the Creed. Kacb group in turn 
was led up to the priest by an acolyte ' set apart for tliia 

' la Afrlo», «liuni thu Itunum liti• W4ia fulluwiil, «ni finil utai< a tiaditio 
vt tbo Paler «mfar, bnl out Uutt of tho OMpvl. Aag^ San-, i', OS; 
Pcmuwliu, ICp. ail FiiJgntiK» (Higno, Pal. Lat.. vul. Isr. p. 379). 

• CT. p. 170. 

' 'J'hti M»lf tc in liiii cMv b piobalily η mibttilaU! for tbe ueroitt, or 
pUMbly fur Lbo reader. 

302 f;HBrsT!As wobgiiip: its obioik λιπ> FTOitmos. 

purpoeo, Ίΐιβ priest ihea neked: Qua lingua eonfiifiiUtr 
dowinufn tioAntm Jemtm Chrtsttmif The acdlyte i«p1iee, 
u the occasion i-eqmree. either Oratee or Latint, and ie 
Ibca ordered by the priest to teafh the cateclmmens, in 
their proper language, the fortDulary of the faith. 

There ia no doubt that the formolaiy employed wi^scin• 
ally at Itoiue was the Apostles' Creed, which is, properly 
speaking, the Bomati symboL This was the cieed dealt 
with by St. Angnstine iii his explanation of this oeromony.* 

ITieD followed the fraditio of the Paier noster. TTie 
pi-iest himeolf aesumed this function. He began with η 
general exhortation, and then proceudod bo recite claoM 
by clause ibe text of thii Lord'ti Preyer, uocompnnying 
hi;i recitation with u running i?oinm«iitary. After the hut 
petition there wiis α short iiddrms, which concluded tlie 

This simple, but wry imposing, ceremony must have 
pnxluoctl u lively imprce^ioD on the candidates for baptiam. 
1 am inoUoed to 1>β1ίβτβ tliut thie ceromony finds artistic 
expi«wion in the reprewntation of the giving of the Law 
which we find on many early Chmtian monumunts, audi 
as pictures, earoophagi, decorated vases, and especially llio 
upmdol mosaics of ttie basilicas. Christ is there depicted 
ne seated on a splendid throne placed on the summit of 
a moimtain from whence flow the four riven of Pandise. 
Aroan<I him are assembled the apostlee. St. i'eter, tbelr 
chief, receives &om the hands of the Saviour a book- 
emblem of the (Miristian — on which in inscribed 
DOMINUS LKGKM DAT, or some similar device. Aboro 

■ Witli npui U tli« Ttnman «Tubul λοΛ tU Wtlarj, ntti ■Im Um ate 
of Ijrtrk tn the Itonuui liturg^', nuo nufMrl, Qutllen t»r ne»4UU• <Im 
Ta*/tymbi<U. cte.> nd. ίϋ . Itirbtiuil», 1βΤ3. Cf. Λ. Htmaok, Patrm 
ΛροΛαΙΜ. Κα. I. put S (ϊηιΐ ηΐίϋηη), p. IIS. 

' SFV4-rnl κ'ΠΒππ• rif Hi. Αιΐ|π»ΙΙηο(9Ί-60)ΐΜΐΓ npnn th« ImdU/e of tfca 
I'atti tiifUr, nnil an' rx|iliin»liir)i i-l tbti UlUT. 




group tbei« upvcar in Ibu asuro of liiu sky the lour 
ibolienl animals vilh th? four books of the Gotpel. I 
'would not uke upon myMilt' to say tbal this κοηβ was 
cxpiisesly (lopictud from tlw ritual of the TrndUio Ugi» 
Christiatxaf. but, (hero is eodi a strildog reeembknce between 
lb« two things. iiMt, tbe likeneNi could not fail to Itnve 
bees romarkeil. Mnny of tbe failli(\il, wlieii costing their 
upon the painlings which decorated the npeos of 
their churchos, miist have had thus brought before Utom 
ottc of the most Iioantiful ceremonies of th«r initialioD. 

Tho sot'enth and lost scrutiny wa• almoeb immcdialdy 
before baptism. It. look place on tbe vigil of Eastvr. und, 
according to tbe mauiiscript^ of the eighth century, i\t the 
of tirnt; hut it is probable that in more anciont 
[times it was held in the afternoon. As no Man vrue 
ioelebrated on the Saturday in Holy Week, tbe ceremony 
bad no connection with any sladonal assembly. On 
this occasion the exorcism was no longer assigned to the 
inferior detgy; a pnest perTonned the duty of adjuring 
Satan on this the \axt function of tho series, Piisaing 
doHO the ranks of Ihu candidates, he made iipun each the 
sign of the cros», and having placed his hand on the head 
of each, pronounced the last exorcism in the following 
turms: — 

Neo te latet, βαΐαωυι, imrainere tib! paeoM, fmmltiero lihi tormmiU, 
naminOTC libi diem judicii, diem «upplioi, ilium <]ui v«ntnniR cet relut 
olibauue &rd«ns, in quo tibi stijiiu tuiivenia ftogelia tub aetemu* vctiiot 

f Interiliu. tVoiodo, ιίαιιιηαΐβ, du honorem Uco viro ot rero; dk honontu 
Jmii Cltnelo Filio «juH el Sjiiritni Miicto, in ci^'iia nomine atigue virlule 
prMcijjiu tIbi ut etv.u est roctdu ab hoo fAiiiulu Dei, quein hudic dotninu* 

■ DsiiB BOitOf JoMW Chripitiin ad mum «anotam gntiam et boned ictioiiom 

llbntemqiie baptlsmatiii dotiu vocan dipunu ett, ul liu ejiu Unnplum 
' kqnam rai^eralianin in remiiBtoiiuiu orunium pecontonun, in nomine 

'Andnl Dortri Jmu Clin«d •]ΐΰ ventunu est, «tc. 

Then followed the rite of the Jigeta \£plip}Mtka\. The 


jiriMt, b&ving nioieieaed hie tiagor wiUi saliva, toucliod 
the upper pari of the Up (nunu)' and thv oan υΓ each 
of the candidates. ΊΊιΐβ mode of anoiDting, after the 
manser of our Lord's hoaling uf the deaf-mute in the 
Gospel, was accompanied by tliu following formula :— 

KflvU, i|uo<i en ■tlniMrrlre, in (xlorom euavltatii). Tu «atom offogare, 
diabolo, odpropinqiuyit cnim judiciara Dei. 

The candidates, having then laid aaide their gamente, 
were anointed oo tJic back and bteast with excirdaed 
oil. The whole ceremony had a aymbolical meaning. 
The critical moment of the atrifo with Satan had arrived. 
The candidates wuiv now to renounce him solemnly in 
order to bind tliemsslves to Jesus Christ. Their eansee 
were loosed that Ihey might be able to heai- and spwilc. 
and they were anointed with oil as athletes about to 
enter the arena for the strife. The anointing having 
been finished, each of them presented himself to the 
priest — 

Abrenuntiu Sntane? — Abrenuntio. 

Et oinnibu» operibuB ejua? — AbKuuntlo. 

Kt omnibuB ροπρίβ ojua?— Abntnnntio. 

Once the renouncing of Satan bad been acoomptiahed, 
the new disciple pronounced the fonnulaiy of the faith 
by luadiug the text of the Creed.* 'Γίή» was the so-called 

' I» iplto of the «Old• Ai odoran matUaUt of iLc fonnnluy, Uwre fi 
BO dodbt thM the iKHtrll• were hnt mbrtltnt«il for tho inoutli, Tli* kalbar 
oT Uie De SaeramtnU* gitv» the romon: "Quia mulicici ΙκρϋΜϋητ" 

* According to the boolo nf the tigJUb teaivj. it wm the print 
hlouclf «Ito redUfd it, holding hit hand over tlic ebildrui. μ if lu wium 
tlmt ho WW nctios la their nam-. In the tiao uf 8t. AugutlBa U WH 
ciiolnaary at Κοηο for tbo iKophytc• to aKrnd tfl an dcratnl place to 
BuJm their pnrwaioD. in tora eminmlion. In omapiWii popnU flildl• (CW. 



recitation of tJie symbol {Reddilio aynihUt)} Tbu ceromooy 
beiug over, the candidates prostrate! tbem&elres in pnyor, 
and ware di^miseed bj tbe archdeacon. 

3. Btuing of the Holy Oil*. 

It is oKtUAry hero to go back a little. While tJie 
etndldatM vara oompleling tlieir preparfttions, the Church 
wu making its on-ongemente to receive them. On the 
Thursday in Holy Week the chrUmal Ma*a was celebrated, 
at which the holy oils «ere consecrated for use io tlie 
ceremony of initifttion. They were prepared in two sepaiate 
veeselB {ampuUae), one of which contained nothing but pum 
dQ, and tbe other oil rendered frat^rant by a mixture of 
balaam. It was the Pope himself who poored the balsam 
into the oil in the sacriaty before the Moss. During the 
ceremony the two vessels wens held by clergy of the minor 
orders standing before the altar. 

The Masa was celebrated with α high ceremonial on 
account of the solemnity of the day. Towards the end of 
tbe Canon the faithful brought small vessels of oil to be 
blessed for their own use. This was the oil for anointing 
the sick, and the faithful could make use of it them- 
selves. It served also for extreme unction. The vessels 
containing it were placed on the balustrade, or podium, 
whicli separated the sacred precincts ttam tbe rest of the 
building. From thi.>t place some of these vessels were taken 
by the deacons and brought to the altar, where tbe Pope 
blessed them, using the following formulary*: — 

* Tkii IMJllio ηηιΑοΙί wu » ceremany ; In AMm (too Ang., Serm., 3β, 
.19) anil in Jnniulom (Ptrfgrhuitto) it wn» prpcojed by α privet« rubtnnal, 
ill nnUir tu uialtp οβΗκίιι ΙνΓυη.' Ili(> wilcmit wn-mony οΓ 'I'lianHlaj ill Koly 
Wtwlc lliei thn nuulldttM knew tb• Ci«wl hj bout. 

' ti ia ctuantni to bcth the Qvlawui SMramcniaty •ιι>1 tlint of AdrUn. 


Etiutte, qoMAUTiia• Uoninu, u|urititii) anctniii PaiaetiMiD de cteUs 
m luuu pinguedlDHiD olei, qiiAnt <lo viridi ligoo prodiiccn diffntu• μ ad 
tcfbctionoiB meitti» ct corpari»; et tue toncu bon»dictioiio dt omid 
luiKODli, guitnoU, tangenti, tutomentutn mentin ot corporia, uiimM ft 
ipiriltw, ad oracoaadoe ORinoa ιΙοΙοπμ, omneiii [nflrmlUtem, omnem 
aoftritiKlinom meutu et curporia, mile nnxisti *acOT<lotM^ ngta et 
prophcUH ot mnrtyreii, ohriamn tnum perfoctuin a to, Domtn*, bene- 
dictiim, poramDeuH in vtaDoriliu» nustris in nomino Porami nottrJ Jwa 

The bleeeiag boiug en<J«d, the bishop proceeded viUi 
the Mrss £rom Ιΐαβ Per ^«m kaee omnia, etc., et the end 
of Uie Canon.* The duttcuns ruluniod t^e vessels of oil to 
the place wheooo they hiul hroti^ht them. Those tJint hud 
not been brought to the oltur weru bleasod where thty 
•itood on the tnduatratlo, by either bishops or prieete, who 
made iiae of the fomuilttry employed by the Pope. 

The conitecration of the greater veasele took placo tm- 
mudiiituly after the communion of the Pope And bufotv 
that of the clergy and cangregatioo. Ilie deocons brou^t 
back to the altar iJie paten and chalice, •η<1 8|in:ad over 
them a \vhil« linea clotb. The noolytea who held the 
xc^iAi contattiiog Uie wine for the commnaioD of tb• 
faithful, covered these in the sama manner. 'Die rob• 
deaoons, having bronght tho ampuJiae to the archdeAoou 
and to one of his coUet^es, the archdeacon took the do• 
couteining the IVagraot oil aod preeeoted it to the Pope. 
Tho Poiw, haviog breathed ihrioe upon it, signed it witli 
thu sign of the cross, saying. In nomine Patrvt et FUii 
ft S^ritia Mimeti. He then, having saluted the oongre- 
■^tion as at the Preface, with the Surtum Corda and the 
GTatiat ogamv*, recited the following euchnristic piayer:— 

Vera djgnnin . . . ai-u-mc Draa, <\v\ b jiriucliiio, intor cactom Ixmi- 
latii ol piwtaiie tune miinrra, termm prodiiccrr fructifera ]!|^ Junlul, 

■ Cf. «tev*. p. IBS. 




Inler qoH hnJQ• pmgtiMiiiiu Uqotin minurtrae oloaQ nueaNDtnr, <|ααπιιη 
firiiotiu ucro chnsnati de«emrot. Nam Dkrid prophetloo «pirttB fpntlM 
tuae lacrkDMiita prHDoieeue niltuii noelroa tn oIm cxhilarandoir omd 
uoUvit. Et cum munili crimiua dUuvio quondam oipiBrontur nlTiito, 
in eitnilitudiuom rutiiri maneris columba demoosimiB per otivie nmum 
pMcm tenia reddidua mnliavit. Qood in ηοτϊηηια teraporibtM 
BUfiUistU* est oCfecUbuB doclantoin. cum baptl^nutie mqutii omnium 
otiadaani oommlna <l«I«iitibuii, lioec olei unoiio miltna nt-itrDs jucimdo* 
cfllclat et ΜΓβηοβ. Inde etiut Ho^ fumtJo hio [nmulutA dcdisli nl 
Aaron fntrem miura priia aquA lotnm per ίιιΓικϊοηοηι hujiiH nnguentl 
coDftitner•! noordotom. AocomH ad hoc empllor liunur cum Filiuii 
ηφι dominiiB nMUr Jem CImttua lanri α Joliaanu nndi» Jordeoicia 
n«^Wt, ot Spirita «ancto in colnmbao •!ηιΠιΙυάίοο dosnper mieflu 
Unlgniltnm tumn la qw> tibi optima oomplacalate teetlmnuio κιιίαΐΐ• 
iinenti• Tocit oetendere», hoo iUiu) etto manifiwtuaime coinprotjaraa, 
qood eiun olao laetitiae ptM consorlibiie auk nneetiduiii Dntid prophnU 
CKUntwel• Te i^tnt depracttmnr. Domino «anotc. ?ator omnipoleiu, 
aotcrao Dons, p«r Jflnm Cbrietnm Fillum luum dominnm aosUvm, ut 
hujoe CTWtntM ^ngoedlnem sanotiflcare luu birnediuUono diitneris at in 
niicti Sptntiu imrowoet« nrtulem per ροΐνπϋαα) Cliristl tai; a cii|iia 
aancto uomiii* cfariema oomoo occeput, ande uiisiiiU Moerdotes, ngem, 
proplietoa «t maitTTM tuoa; ut ait liia qui renati fuerintex oqaa at Spiiita 
aancto dirisRU Ηΐαϋβ, βοβ^ηι» aMorna• vilaa particlpee et caeleetia gloriao 
Iketa• caae coaeorte*. 

T)ie Kinpulla oontaiaing the pure oil was thea preeeDtod 
to tbu Pope, ana coaeecrated with the same coremoay. It 
woe bnatUed upon and signed with the cross ία the manner 
folloved ία the case of tlie holj clirieai, but the blouiog 
wfts rocitod ia an ordinary tone of vmoe. The text in as 
follows : — 

Deoa iDcrementoniiD et vrofectuum epirltaliiiin munerator, qui virtnte 
Mncti Spiritus tui imliecillarrira montiam mdimenta connrrnae; te 
graaiiu, Domioe, nt veniuTie nd beatae regenerationis lAvacrnm tribiiaa 
per anelioneiii lattu* crcatnrao pmsationen meotJe Η οοφΟΓίΗ : at al 
■lua* illii adTenantium tpjntuum inhaomre rdiqniac, ad toctum lancti• 
ficati oloi hnjus abacedant. Nnllua aptritolibDe naqnllile locuii, oulla 
refiijifi rirtiitibuH nit &ca1ta«; cuUn insidlantibuu malia lateodl liceiitia 
r«lia^uatiir : mhI veaientlbiio ad fldnm Rorviii tuia at xuicti Spiritna 
opantione muiidandia «t unctiouiii bujua pnieparatio uiDii ad vlotwn ί 


qnua «tiain par culMtii regoaemtionM nHtiTilatom in McnnHoto waat 
InptiKmnlis nijopitari.' 

4. .Beftium. 

The "elfiCb" were present at the solemn ngfl of Eastm. 
The lections' olioeen for tlio occasion πβΓβ meant to preeent 
a smnmary of the relations butwcea maii and God, and 
to form, as it vwe, a final instruction at the moment of 
the aocompliahment of tho mystei? of initiation. These 
lections are practically the same in all the Latin ntuala. 
Some of the finest passagea in tlie Old Testament are 
presented in them — such aa the account of Uio Crcattoa, 
the Deluge, the Sacrifice of Isaac, the Passage of Uio Bed 
Sea, the Vision of Ezekiel, the History of Jonah, the 
oocounl of tlie image sol up hy Xebuchadnoxzar ; thuu 
sonie paMages f^om the prophets, ne, for instance, Uml m 
which Isaiah predicts baptism, and extols the vino of the 
Lord ; also that dealing with the covenant of Μοβοβ and 
the institution of the Passover. Each one of theee lecUoue 
is followed by a prayer.^ Canticles of a like import are 

■ I Iinvp iciVMi Lcrt• lli« prayon cemmum Vi th« Oolndon HaoninlcnIiity 
anJ tliHl of Λ-ΙΗ(ΐιι. biii vtinp tli? text of ttie Ibnaor. an ftcoonnl of Ha lx.-tlcF 
pnat-rvHti<m. A» Γυτ lli•.- riltwl, I Ιιιιτβ dcaeribcd that ia tbo UnlliteM, «itli 
«hloL• ΐίιιι SiLomini'iitaiy nt Adriun ia In ΓαΙΙ iigrcPDioDL• Id tlic GnlMlui 
HnonunKDiary Ιΐκ'π {■ finin-l ίο tti" fint jiI&cd tlicpmyer JJnu inerrmailotin», 
iiii>l Ihn oonarcmton' f-innnlnr}' Ikti* qui tn prineipin, bnth ot wlilcb ther»• 
Γ<αν teviu (i> huvii η,'Γοητηοη to Uio mudu unpulln, tliaC of tbo lioly (uirltai. 
But tlip form<^' <Λ tiiatc pmyoi* U eridcnlly out of place, for it vna dtsKn 
u|> 111 rcforonoo to lliu ail Intmdtol fur tho nti'iiallnK «hicli jHvcpde• 
baptimn. wljilil (he cithfr hn* in tIdw tbo knodatliiK vblch fiilliwn it. 
Aitot Ui« Donarcntting farmnbuj tomm hi exafdwD of tlie oil logvUior 
«lUi • mohoriatic pruyM. T1i«m two do iwt imbi to foil in «ilh tbe 
ritual of tbo Onfinor, uul it ia poidblo tbbt Ibo]' uo Uolllcaa, uul nol 
BoBui, Id origin. 

' At Ent tben) *en lvelt« ImIIoo•, μ <r« «m fnuu tbi• ΟφΙμΙμ 
8•αηιιΐιβηΐΑΤ]Γ. Only four u« fi'uad tu Ihu SKomiucntary of Ailri*u, bul 
ill• uncicnt cwtom. nbicli haa btru miunUinoi] in Fmna.•, wwt tvttoKcd 
IaIci on n( Boms. 

' III nipp-irl of tlit* dnwrlptlou of the rigil of Pjulcr, Iber* b ■ VOTjr 




intenpcned between UiQ IttctiooB, u, for instosce, the song 
of Miriam, the niater of Moeea, CarU«mM JDomino ; that of 
lauab, Vttua fada ett ; that tn Duutoionomy, AttentU, 
eadmn, «t loquar; and, Giially, the paaho Siaiit cervu» 
dttiderat ad /onUt. 

At tho appointod hour the Poj» aod fiii clergy accom* 
punied the " cluct " lo tho biiptistcrj•. 

The main stracture of tho baptistery of the LRteruo sliU 
eidete. It ορβπθ on to thu coiutyanl which cxtoade * 
behind the basilicu. and is entered by a portico, at the 
ead of which on either sido aw two apses. In one of thcee 
the original mosaics of the fourth century or thoreabouW 
are still prusurved. The subject represented is the noe, 
as typical of our Lord, and its leuws ore here and there 
interspersed with golden crosses. Falsing through this 
portico, we enter tho baptistur)- itself, an octttgonol buililing, 
having in its centre a large font of tile same sbapo. Eight 
maeeire ooltimns of porphyry snpport the upper part of the 
haptietery, which formerly terminated in a dome abovu the 
font, the aisle being roofed with a barrel vault. On the 
architrave may still bo read the inacnption which Pope 
Xystua ΠΙ. (432-440) cau^d to be engi'aved there — 

^. Grrn taeranda ροΐΰ hie temint urueilur ulino 

quain /ecundatit ujiirifui edit aquit. 

Icm* «i[iigT»pbiii tiuciiptlui ruund nt Cliiu^ bebiigiBg to Die fowtli 
or UicroabQDU, in «hlrb tticrv ii mention of the dMtli of • eUUl 
Oikl ooonrred during tlic vigU. nod nt tho mainent οΓ tlio fifth pl«]rer : 
ifrtlim* MetiiiuH orMlmnui (lie) fidtUt panfrimit tUe jmmAhi <•(, fill viiit 
UMBJI mj. diet 'luo; qui <fi/iinrtu( »1 Jin* Sutuini Pattae; noclli ijniue 
pmtgOaiii/, omtione giilndi. i-i'ln prfnilua tut τι lepuUiu dine κΛύ VI. kal. 

apru (a /. L•. vol XL, Mo. S501: of. Do Ho«i, Jmcr. Cluut, roL L 
II. aitf). 

* " Wliich nilFoded," for, otiiag to tho «dditiona modo to tbs old 
buUte» of l»te, (hie fMortyitrd line boen ocouldMaUy natrlotod lu nno. 
poi ui Mconot ot tlinun building! ww the Liber PonU/., νυΐ. i. pp. lOl, 
103. ISe, >U. Cf. Κυΐιαιιΐ du Flcory, Lx Lnlnin λο moytn age, pi. 

810 cuRiJSTiAx v/OKsaxpt πβ oRiaiK and etolctioh. 

Vir$i»eo/riu gtntlriic JSedmia Beta» 

φιο» «pirantc i)n> foadpUi emu* pariU 
Cuiorvn ngftupi ipentlt, loc/onit rmatti 

«on reeipit/fliz vita mik<I graito». 
Fim* Me at vilas juf Jfottim dilait ortem 

■uin«iu de ChritU vuln«re priiKipium, 
iftTjrnv, fteaattrr, «mto pwiynndt ftvmtv : 

iftMm vtitmit accipiel pro/eret uiula novuiK. 
htont ntt Do/«M Uto munAm lavam 

im pahio premarU erinUne mtproprio. 
ifttOa ranoaMTifuni at rUiiantia, f fo• /aeit Mniim 

IMW/en*, imai tpiritui^ una Jida, 
Hk iiomerM fium^tKim todtram nee /i>rma mtoruut 

ttmat : lioe nttdu flumint innetm rril. 

Facing the eDtrance is u door, oponing formvrly 'on to lo 
oblong courtjAnl, at the uad of which was tho chupol of the 
Cro8s. built ill the lima of Pope Hilary (461-468). It is to 
Uio same Pope UuiL we owo tho erection of the two other 
ontories on iho right and left of Uio baptistery, roepectirely 
dedicated to the two St. Johns, tho Bnptiet and the Evan- 
gdist. Theee <n«toiios are slill staading. 

From tlie middle of the water in ihe buptistory orow α 
tall caodelabrum of porphyry, eudiug iu « golden howl full 
of bolRain, in which burnt a wick of amtuilhue, diifiisiog tt 
the same time both light and i^agnnce. On one of the sidea 
of the font stood two silver stAtues, one of Cbriet and one of 
SL John, having between them α goldea lamb, with tho 
legend, Jfft/ Aijnu* Dei, ffxe qui loUit }>rcia(a (μην/Ζι. From 
beneath tbu lamb a jet of water iseued into the font, while 
Irom the seven remaining Rides as many Htreamti of water 
poured forth ^Om the heads of slags. 

It vaa in thia buildup that the Pope officiated at the 

> 11 lunr up(iu« im tu Ibe pista of Θ. UIdviuiiu in I^Unuin. and byU 
ii nniiill}' (^idmI bi tliu tnpllclorjr. Tbe onto»; αΓ the f.^m. or 
uf 81. Aaitfu. Willi lU ovn sUluoi, bu diMppWMd lincv the aixtMOlh 



Br baptism,*' Che most imposing of nil the ροηΐίββιιΐ 
ceramoDiea. He entered at the head of u proooeaioo before 
which two great tepers were bomo, the litany, meanwhile, 
being siiiig. When this was ended, the Pope, slftndiug by 
tbo font, saluted the congregation uad called upon them to 
join iu the eotUUive prayer, which was immodifttely followed 
by ■ prayer of auAarietv: charactor. The following are the 
fonnuliu-ice of the anctoot SacmmentArics, which are stUl 
ill ueo:— 

Omnlpoteiii, eera()!t«m«, !>eu8, adeato maenao plolalie time mjvtoriii, 
»Ααύο MaornRiODtiK ; ot λΛ croendos ηοτη» popnloe quo* tibi foti» 
btplteiMUe pulnrit Bpir!tiiin adc^tfotiiit emilte; ot quod humilitatiti 
noctrae fit^nnlam t»t miniKtorio ttioo Tirtnti* complwtiir efTcirtu. 

Ven> difjuuiu . . . aeUruu Deus, qti] [nvMbDl potoRlin uu Mcninen• 
lonun iQOruiti mimlnlitcr opemrw cfTcctiini. ICt licet iio• taotb mjirtoriH 
oxeqnendiii nniw indignt. tv lAmon grotiao tiiac iloiin noo ilewronn ctlAiu 
αά nostins preon ηηπΜ tuse pietntifi inclinu. Uciui, citju» epiritus «iipi^r 
«ηοαι inter ipw mmidl priniCM^ Tenibntar, ut jam tunc virtntom Mnclifi- 
«atlctds •ςα&πσ) natiini coiiciperat; Deue, qui iiocentw mitnili crimniA 
pw ftqUBN «blueoi Γ^βηβηΙϊοαίΝ *]>eciani in ίρΜ diluvU effiuiono HJgnuti, 
lit nniiu ^tudenqiM elemonti myiterliun ql βηίβ onet vitiiit ot origo 
Tittntie; reapioe, Domlr», Id fodem EooImru taaa et mutti)jllca in oa 
gontralioDM tnu, qd gradae toae «fflaeDtia liop«ta laotiflcim civitatem 
taam foatemquo bftptiematis aptriii loto ort>o ΐοΓΠιττιηι gentiliu» ίηηοηηβΐι 
ut tnu majiMUtie imporio sucoAt DnlgoDlti tni gratiam at Spiiini nncto, 
qui h&oc tquam reeMicTMidis horoimbiie prMtpantUini arv-ana r.m InrauuB 
•dmixtione fecnndet; ut tanctiScAtiono coiK^rptn nb inimanulato dWini 
fontie iitera tn novam renatA L-tvatunun pragonicft caelcelii; omorgtl; «t 
quoB eat Ββχω In corpora atit aetiu ilincmilt tn tempore omnon in unam 
puiat grstiA mntcr infnntinm. Profnl oTgo hinc, jnbont« te, Domino, 
omoia epiritoe imroundiw Ab«coilat ; procul tola nequitia diaboIieM fraudie 
abriattt. KM Uo loci Iiab«t ranlTariao virtutii atninixtio ; non inn- 
ifiando oircnmvolet, noti liit«ndo tubripinl, dob inRciundo cuniUDiwt. Sit 
haec «ancta et InnooaDS oieatura tiWia iib omu\ impiigDotoriB inciinu, el 
tob'uH neqnitlae purgata diacccsu. Sit foM vivuii oquao regetieraue, iinda 
puriiicane, ut onioen boc Invacr» talutlfero dUutndi, oporanto in «it 
Sptritn aoncto [ietToali, purgntiuuii iadalguntiiuii couMquaatar, Undo 
benodico tn, cnutura aquae, jwr Deiini νίτωη. por Donn Mnotam, per 
Daum qai to in prinoipio rertKi aeparant ab aridaet in qiiatnor fluminibae 
lotkni lernUD rigara praMMptt, qui to in dMRito amaroni eiiftvltato inditn 


(ecit etite jiolubilotn ot Htioiiti |>opulo άβ petni prodQxit. Bmuhuco te et 
per JcKitm Chiieiitni, Filiiim ejus uniciim, dominam noetniiD, qui le Is 
CanA ΟΛίΠβΜ tigou ndmirabilj eiut poteutia oonverlit Id id&iim, qui peilibia 
auper lo «obuhvit «t a .luhaium iu Jordaae in tu Uptftttui wt, qui U 
ltDft eoin nnguine di lalmv eno produzlt et diMipulii miis jnint nl 
credoDtM b^tlxarentur in to, dicciw: IU, docole omm» gontw, Lajitl- 
ubtM eoB in uoiolna Fatrik «t Filii ot Spmtne inaai. Ilaec nobis 
praccepts Mrrantibus to, Ddos omiilpotea^ oleniena adeiU, tn baoigan* 
aapin, tn han nmpljcoe nquua tuu ore bonediutto; nt pnicter iMtB- 
reloBi cinaiidatiL-uoiii qiiuiii luvanilli ipovnint ndliibore corporibua, sint 
«Ijem piiriflcandie uieutibus uffiiaici». Doacendnt in tionc pleoItodiBin 
tontis rirtiu Sptritiia Iu! el lotnui bujiu nqunu wibtiUatiam regauiMidl 
focundol effectn• Hiu oiiuiiuni pectntoniEa maculae deleantur ; Uo 
nattirft kil ύυΐφΐιβπι tuam coixliu «t Ad liononim «nl nifonsit* prin• 
cipii uuuctM vutiuutui Hiunluribun vmiiudctuT; ut uuioie bomo hoe 
taunuucnCuin rcgeucrotionis ingrceKUs in vcru iiuiocotitia nor* iahnlik 

Acuunliiig to tlie litual directions οΓ Uie eightli coDtuiy 
tbroc.bmiks vere to be made i& this long pntyer, thnt la, Μ 
thu making of Uie sign of the cross nwr and id t)ic water 
and ugaiu at ihe insiiftlatian. vt bniathiug ovur it. When tJie 
Popecune to tlie word», DactndeU in kanc plenitudtntm/imiia 
virtia Spiritv' Cui, the two dignitoiies who carriod the tapers 
plunged them into the font. The Canon being ended, tlie 
Pope took an ampulla full of chrism and poiu-ed it croM• 
wise on the water, which ho then stirrod with his hand.' 

All being then ready, the baptisms began. Ccmplut«ly 
divveted of Uieir garments,' the "elect" approached tlio 

< The HUDC Oi<U«u tuU m Ihnl Uic Γαρο tbifn aprinlOed tbi. nwwnhly 
with liulj «uUt, and tbnt llie ΓηϊΙΙιΓιϋ wi-n- ptnolttcil at thni momeat lo 
(nku κβιυ of il nwa; μ > jibjlnc Uvy, TliU can tcarctTly bd prlmllliv. 

■ Iu Ibo Appimdix li• BUbillm'* Ortio I., αύί• of the latcrml diiip•!• of 
ttiD baptiMery !» called ad S. Jelunmem ait Vt*la». It wni probably tbon 
UibI ibe caiuUtUtM dlTMt«d t]i«iaM)lvra of Uicir gnnucnl». Λ• Uivn WO 
tvo fl&lUr chllicb. it i« powablc lliat tlicf «vn.- b^th iwnl, aao tat tbo 
ήβη, tho (rthor for tbt trumcn. It i• («τιχΊχ owtiBaiy to rmiuk ΛλΙ, 
in ^liU of tlila ι1ϊη«1ίοιι Ιο nmiovo oU dMliflif. pr(>c«otifliiB wrve Ulnti 
ID tbat deomoy, u It wm iboo nmlmtood, ιύοΰΜ not be Kfcudcd. Tlit• 



foot. The archdeacon presented Uiem, one hy one, to the 
Pope, who pat to them the three questione, which epitomieod 
the whole Creed — 

Credi* in Dmim Patrom omnipotentem ? 

Crcdia »1 in Jtwum CliriBtatn, FHinin ejua unloum, dombum Doetnun, 
n»ium ct poHunt? 

Credti ot b Sjjiritum «auclum, sAiiotAia Eooleeiem, rcmlnttionem 
pecCfttonua, cnriuB ruurrccUonom f 


AittT hie tliroofold reply in tlio afBrmativo. the can- 
didnte was thrica immened, while the Pope pronotmced 
the formulii, Baptize te <» lutininc Pairi» et Filii tt ^iriitu 

iJaptiainol ioiinersiou did aot imply that the person 
baptised was entin^ly plunged ia the water. He entered 
the font, in which the water would not reacli Ijeyond 
the middle of an adult, and was placed under one οΓ 
the openings from which a stream issued, or else the 
water vraa taken from the font itself and poured over 
his head, it is thus that baptism is represented on the 
undent monuments. 

The aotual ceremony of baptism was not perfonned by 
the Pope alone. PriestR, deaoons, and even clerics of 
inferior order, entered the water, clothed iu long linen 
tunics, and adminiettiibd the aoored washing to the crowd 
of neophytes. 

dtMOonovis hnil licrc an imporliuit p«tt to pkj' in oratioolioQ with tho 
laptiini of tlie •τοιιιϊίι (Gnut. Αρ., ίίί, Ι.Ί, Ιβ). It matt αοΐ 1» Uiuugbt, 
hom^wr, tluit jimpriotj In Kiiri'ml [ini>'ii >»« μ WMlly offciid»! lu it wuulil 
ϊι• nmr, TLc iiuthof οΓ ita lingulariUih rierlivrum (Cjiinnn. App,, p. 18», 
Harlil) duv* Bit uadcnlikuil Ihnl tn ijmi bapUimolt enJHffunm nwilbu 
«rulmnil, itb• ΛιΙ•ΐ4 tt i^w miomtar in/tinlia. nre Keponit tttt pfAiut Ofri/iit 
iMfifcnM. Ct. Ute cnrimu >t<>ry η?ΙπΙ»1 bj J»hn Muwliiu in hit PreL 
Spfr.. eh. S. 

314 ciiiusTiur νοηκιτ: m mooi uro Evounos. 

0. Coi^firmatioH. 

While the baptieme wore proooodiag, ihe Pope witb- 
drev to Ibo <«nai(fnaiorium, where the Beopbjtee wen 
bnmgfat to hint for the oenunony of iho Conaigoatroa 
[ngnisg]. Tlie placo set apart for thia wu, froui the 
Ume of Pope Hitiii>- (461-468), tU oh»pttl of the Ctim. 
behind tho beptieteiy. Befoiv eotering tfw oh^Jcl. Uic 
nowly bnptiied fint presented thomMilrQe before ■ prieel.. 
who anointed thei» on the head with the fhtgrant oil of 
the holy cluism, sayiog— 

Dene omiupotMM, Piter doniini noelri ■luen Cbrtsti, <]d le rieDkcnvit 
ox aqna ct Kpirita MnMo, qoique <Μίΐ tibn ttinaaDeca οηιύβη 
pMeiicvnni, ipM U linit i-krimMto Mlititt in TiUni ΒοΐοηΜπι. 

The bajrtiBed then i^eaunted tlielr gorineuu, or rather 
they pnt ou new wliile ouee, being aetuted ta ilibi operation 
by their godfotliun and godmothers. Hariog been 
brought before the bishopi they stood in groups, over 
each of which the pontiff first proDuuoc«d the ϊηνοΰκΐϊοΏ 
of the Holy Spirit ' — 

Omnipotnu, aeinpitenie, DeuH, qid refteitemre <li;;iutiia «• bea 
fiuanlw «1 fuaulaN tuan η aqna et 8ptrita maato, ijiitqa» liwiiil 
oh romimonem omntttin pflcoatenini. eoiillc tn «m MptifonDHii BfbHiam 
MactntD tniim i'lrai-titum <le caelh: Sparftnoi MfmcitlM et iotcllevtiM, 
Spintaoi L-uiigilii ol Turtitiiilinm, Nplriliim «iMitlu at f^eUtli; «Unfile 
OM Spiritv tiinorin liil et ooiuri^ eo• tigao οποί* Phriiti ία vitaiii 
proirfthnu Minnntca.* 

The Po]M) ibuQ tnmle the ajga of the cruse with his 

' AMurdin^ (u (lie (>f<ln of BL Anud, tU• pnyvt la aeemfuied by 
Ibe iiiipaiidon dT fannd•. ftnrt ηροα Uw bcb. hhI then npjd tli• «nauMi. 




ihuuib, previously dipped in the chrism, upon ibo I'orebeud 
of e«eh iieophyte, saying to each eeparuUily, In ?toini»e PatrU 
tt FUii el ^ritue saMti. Pax tHi. 

6. Firitt Communion. 

The CoDsignation beiog ended, the procosBion again 
aed to reium to the baailica. Tho achofa mntorum had 
iy been there for nome time. During tlie long 
oeremonien which had taken place io the baptistory, 
they had continued to eing the litanies, repeating the invo- 
cations first eeven times, then five, then thrice. At the 
end of the threefold Utany t]iu Pope made h'la entt^-, and 
approaching the allar, prostrated himself before it. Ηυ 
then orgee and began to fting Gloria in exceUut, thus coni- 
menciiig the liret Kaster Mass. Before the end of the 
Canon, he bleaeed the drink, composed of honey, wntor, 
and milk, which was given to the noophytus after ihoir 
communion.' The newly initiated participated in the 
holy niyeteriea for the first time. It was daybreak 
before this Kolemn ceremony came to au end. 

The octave of Eaat«r was, as we have already 
remarked, one unbraken feJitival There was a Stational 
Mass every day, at which the neophytes were present 
in their white garments, and at which they communicated. 
They met at the basilica of the Latemn every evening 
for the ofBce of Vespers. Ια the basilica three anliphone 
were Bung, accompanied by alleluias and responds. This 
port of the ofHce ended by the chanting of the evangelical 

' CT p. 175. Τΐιύι potiun, mcnlionat in tlic uttli o'ninry by JntinnnM 
DiMxnn• la lib letter b> E^i'muim, uid in thu Irintiion SuuruDuntary. liuui 
not appenr In tlio lator doDumniiU of thn Huinaii LiCuijij. Uurr U, Um^uer 
(AlaAL Miittvin. rol. IvU. p. 18Θ) ocn^'cctum* tlmt tt tnu (uppnnwil iihiul 
Uw time uf H. Oragevy, and in-rbti]» by ttiuL Γυμο bimiclr. 

316 ctTRisTU» woRsmr: πβ origin aud evolctiox. 

liymo, Uiat ia to say, the Ma^ifiaU, aod by prayer. Tba 
Deophyten were th«B ooodacted to the baptistery uotl 
\hu chapel of the Cross, thus acoomplieMng a kind uf 
pilgrimage to the scene of their baptiem and couunnalioD. 
This doable proceesigQ was accompanied by Hinging, somo• 
lim«s ία Latio, someltmea in Gniek.* 

% 2.— The UjUXicas Baptisual Rite. 

It is sotnowhal difficult to rocoustnict tlie beptismal 
rituul of the Gallican Church. This documvute wu possess 
uru (dl luom or luss mcomplote, and, moreover, if they 
iigreu OD moat points, thoy rovoal here and tliere certain 
dilFarunocs poculior to this or that couDtiy. I will class 
Cboia acconling to their geogmphical order. 

North lialy.—Tbn trcatiso De Mysteriis of St. Ambroao, 
tlie anon>tnoaa treatise Όε Saeramenlia, the eormoQS of 
St. Maximus of Turin, and the Sacramentary of Bobbio. 

Gixid. — A few details given in the socond letter of 
St. Germain of Paris; the Mmale Golhimm; the MimUt 
Gaiiieanuvi. veCus. 

SptttTK—Tho Dt Ofteiis of St. laidoi-e, and the Dt 
txigrtitiojie JiapOsini of St^ Ildefoneus. 

■ Ob tlio two lul tUy», litttMd «t ttftbiBg «lirrcUy to the teptutefy. 
Ui^ mat, ou tbfi FriJuy, to 8uttA One• in (■cniulMoine. and on (be 
ektwdtj la Hula JUriii λΙιι^ΐροΝ. On IhcM ilajr• tbo itotlMi al the 
alu|wl of the CroM ili>l η•Λ iaku (>Uc«. Λ1Ι ιΙκγμ lUtloii• un given I» 
Um HncnkiDinliuy o( Γοριι Adriau- Tlmy linrc long lince oBMed to )m 
elNcrtvd Bi ItouiL•, bat in kidc conotnua liii-y atv atill iu iim>— (it (he 
dlMMO of I'ltiie. till in*t»nrF. till trfiatcr Ι)β]τ. Vuw jionuii•, boir«T«r, taam 
their origin or imdonlanil tlicu ροιτοΐίατ ngniflcanw. 


1. ITte CaUAumtnaie. 

The ritual of the catechumenate conaieted of three 
ceremonies — exorcism, unoHon, and iosuRlfttiOQ. 

ExonuBDi is mentioned by Isidore and IMefonsus. One 
ntther curiom formulary, preserved in the Misaale QaUi- 
%, probably refers to this cereiaooy ' : 

Adgndior le, iminuiulUBiiiie, d&mnate eplrituip, fttc. 

Tbe aoctioQ, meDtionod also by Spanish writers, is 
SpeoiaUy that of the ears and mouth. In this respect it 
coTTeeponds U> tlie Komau EJfeta, t)ut it was abio applied 
10 otiier parts of tlie body, and in tliLi case it correaponds to 
the unction of the breast and nhouldera, which, in the Komiin 
rite, follows immodintely after the Sfftia. We have here, then, 
at the τβΓ}' begiiming of the oateohnnienate, the ceremony 
wbicli, according to the Koman use, terminates that period 
of pruhatioD, and immediately precedes the renunciation of 
the denl.' Finally, this anointing is accoin])auied by the 

' et Iddore, Hi Off., 11. 31. ndd> to (^xorciun llin n^miiilntnvliiiii oT Mlt: 
" Rxordainttir. <1oln<lo hIo nci^ipiunt «t nngUDttir." UM tlii* n^rt'tnuay 
mu not nniifrwl ia ^imiii. ui ll>l<?(<>ii«iu> (/> nynif, kipHtmi, 3I>} »ya It 
WM ubMrrnl In toiac jiluoin, but llwl be (lunppraVDil at Uu• «uloni. It 
«u tumt, porhitp•. in liu• priivinoe of BoeUra, muI van η vnlign of tlii' 
Komaa iw», wlitpli In [lint cuaiitry lind jirooedvd tlio Gullli»!). 

■ St. Ι]ι1ι.'Γοι»ηι moationi Uie nactloii «• immcdioldr idttiivinf tfa• 
notiu$m iop. «I.. 0. II. 27. 2S}. Hf ntnn tli• origin u( ibis outoa lo 
Ui• li»^lii|{ nf thu dnir nnd dumb by tho BphjAaOia aaa III*• aaoiatin^ «rilli 
tb« Mllm. citing in raiipott 8L Mark viL SX.33; he taya kIw tliat tiiia 
ροΒαιτυ frijm ■l>'-- thMpol WM κοΔ nt tlio Moa daring «bjob Uia οχοτβίκη 
took jiWi-. All thU aliDira tbnt it i* clearly Urn QaUleui ^eUi wlikti is 
InqnatiaL• The nine- «liti'r.indcnl. qHtiifiisfc. 3S) tluti " puat ι•>•ιη'Ε(ΐιΐΜ 
lAHifiiiilnc «Drionlu• ulnn . . . tnngitar cl na." nnd all tlifa bcfurp (he 
IraJllio at tlie Cnwd. si (he inoiDCul wln-n tina b-'ins grntilU l)>i- iwrMn 
bconini- folfliiimenii' 


imposition of the sign of the cross, uud, uom Um point of 
viow, it correeponcte with the Itoman ceremony of the signing 
with the crose ϊα the lituol of the catechumenate. 

At M i l a n, tlte anointing and the Efftta were relegated, 
B8 at Borne, to Eostur Eve* This difTetunoe in the 'order 
of the ceremonies appoars to go back to a ooneidemble 
antiquity. It was α subject of discussion about Uic year 
400, for wo soc in a document of that period* that the 
bishops of Gaul had ooosalted the Popo on the matUr. At 
Rome, providi^ the nncUou took place after the third 
Rcrntjny, the day was sot conaidored of any moment. We 
nee that on this point the Church of Milan conformed her 
use to that of Home, but in Spain it was otherwise. We 
have no docuinanlttry u%-idunce to show which course waa 
adopted in Gaul." 

■ Thorn «re. howovor. <1iffL'rrDoc^ for at Booie the ^Λα uul tlin 
miiuuuliuu uf \3m tli>Til ("ik )>liiiy< la lliu ιιωπιίηχ, nt α «nrvioi ^nilv 
tlutini^ Tram thn iwhw) haptluo. m\\\\« at Mlinn tlitw oMvtnonl^ ooeund 
iminniUittvly tofbro the nn)p1i}-tt! miprnd tlie fimt. Moremrar, llie jQfUa 
■t MIIbd wn« mini•' witli οιοιιιη'πιΙ'.ηΙ oil, nnd uut oilli «ilivu. 

) Cin"?!»! αΛ OaUot. II ; Cinilonl, Kiitibjns Bmu. I'ant., ]>. OS'S. 

* In llio Mltiilr fliithictiai, tbo Htual of tlin cuti'<:liiiinimatn, untlvr tllV 
rubric Ail CArMftnuuTn fiieitiutum. U plnoud on Knilcr Ern. Ια llie Jftuulr 
OttUmnum. It 1> Ιταο, thi* ntnni prooaktu tliu Tr-viUin BymSmli; but Ihera 
ii^ at tliat (lined. U Innuuu *rhil^h prcvr^Ota lu Γιοαι MCtTrbttiiiiiK whutllM Ibe 
nnetioa oocumO thero nr mA. lU lue U not luilioalod oa Butvr Etc. 
1 giv« lioro tfm fnrmiiUric• tat thii ΜΜίικιιιχ. tliu Bnt of which fl^n« 
in tlw JWnele (MhioHni ; lh(< nllMr, «liteh ti lUU ίη u*«<, la «Mntnon Xo tlip 
0*1m1mi eaenunontDry (οΓ. tupn, p. 296) Mid to lh«l iif Bt4lila 

ergna te in uotnfM PoM» Μ Full tt Sptrtlut mntti. «1 lit fhHMiammt! 
omio•, vt rirlfi• i^aritattm TM; nurri, u( hiuJiim rnrem I>Miiini ι Mirva, «< 
oihrm nuiKhfnn Chriill; «iiiniiviH. ul nmfitmrlt Patrtm Λ FUliim ti 
BplHtum wiTirfHm ; tw, ut i-miui TriniUilem inteparabiltnt. Fa* Itrum. 

Jarip* itfvm irvtit, lam in /toritr ^ unn heordt; nmujUm mtli^tmm 
pnuHfttrttm : i-ili* "to morAv* ul Itmplun Dfi mt Jan pomit; fa^n*• 
«M^tW Sedrttam Dri reniiur fe Ιηψιβπ» mrrtit laelitt ofucam• Bortmte 
Woln, twpw «iim'nun», «ifi> /Vnm Paln-m omnipntMim ft Jiwnm OkHttum 
iVium «fin 5"' rifit mm Fatrt! Η Splrilu mnrfD jut r/mul•* MieniJW 

Then foUam, Id llm ΟοΙηΙμι eMMBtMiterjr, the prajvv Tt <h|>nr«r, 
•till In UM (for ndalu), and uiotlior pmycr. fViw quiteiiftU «*m, Me. 



The iiiaufllation appears also in tho nUw eaumonued by 
St. Isidore, It is also foand in the Bobbio Sacnuneutary. 
and according to this authority it was odininiBterad tbne 
several times on the face of the candidatu, Uie (^fidaUog 
minister saying, Aceipe Spirilum tanetum tt in mrde tateas. 

2. Preparation /or Baptiam. 

tWe have no information with regard to the number and 
!Γ nf the Oallican acriitinies. All that remains of this 
, of ihe ritual are the two formularies of prayer in the 
JHUsale OeUlieanuin, where they appear nndcr the title of 
Pramnitsioncs ad tcrutamoi. 

On tlie cpther hand, the Traditto S^taboH 13 often men- 
tioned. It look place on the Sunday before Eoster. Wo 
have the testimony of St. Ambrose on this point, besides 
truet^rortby attestations in (Jaul and Spain.* The bi;^op 
himself pimduil at lUt» ciiromuuy, which wua plucud between 
the Mass of the ciilucliumoiis and that of ιΐιυ faitbTol. He 
liegan by an addretu), and then, having recited the Apoetlee' 
Oeed three times, he procoeded to give an exposition of it 
article by aitiole.* 

' Amlir.. F.i,.. 'JO: **8iH|iLunti •1Ι«. ctnt nutfin diimtnlaa (^uhcUt Iirfnrr• 
SMtor). [icMl koiinaui ntqiio tiiLRtJituin. dimiBit catMbaincnii*, •7ΐη1η1ιιηι 
«Uqiilbui uceniieCvutlbi» In l^itulirrli* imildhiuu hullinu)." Council iif 
AfcJu (SOd). c 3: ~Sjioba)iiin«tkiii jilamiit nbumnlbii* Mcloiilii unn iliu. Id 
■olut^wloilfra (laminRse RfMirnvtloulx. jiuMico iu vcrliwiu ooiniwlvnilliiu 
tmdi," M. Qcmuln nf Tari* nnd all tlio HtnrKl«nl biMik•, tofcelber witb 
IMilon «tul lldefoiuuii (/or', pit), munllua tlie Hnu.• Sundaj'. Uf. Mabllhin, 
Jfiu. ttnL, tdL I. ji. 9S, anil thu Mnzkntltl^^ IklbwiU fiir Palm !>iiiiiln)-. 

' Tile tUmuI* llnSHnmvm tnntaia* tno fonunbulci Tor lliu TntiHtin 
S]/piboH, <«ie mtirD. tho other Imporfm-i dwiuk Io η lueuna ; nnd tbm la 
a llilnl in Urn- Bobbio i^n-niiicntiit)'• Τίκυ c«d bcok» «mlnln, 1»*)<1μ. 
will) «um^ *IiKbt sMirr^inlinna, the Homiui ccmnonj' of llitt Aprrlio 

Tbrir «lUiplcxitj on Ihii potst i^Ta•• wttit tho gr&pral <rbainttpr 


SL Oemaiii of Paris deacnbes this ceremony ae oon- 
neeted with Uie benediction of the holy oils. It me only 
nAtora] to cbooee tho Sunday which vna oalled dia undionis 
for the bleeaing of the oils.' 

Having been taught to the catochumens on the Sanday 
before Easter, the Creed was ronderod. that is to say, recited 
publicly, on Maundy Thursday.'' By this means its recita- 
tion was separated Crom tho rouunciatioa of the devil, which 
ia the other rites prcctsde it. 

3. Baptism and Confirmatwn. 

The obeorvauces for Easter Eve von» much the same u 
thoee in use at Borne. The passngos from Holy Scripture 
which constitutod the lections were almost identical, and 
were, like the Bomau lessons, interspersed with hymns and 
prayera. At the appointed hour, all concei-ned proceeded to 
tlie bapli.>it£ry,^ where the ceremony of initiation began by 
the blessing of tlie water. 

of ΐΙΐ(•ϊΓ radnciioa, wbid) i* lIuouKhcmi d MmblnatiMi (Λ Κοπμβ uil 
ϋαΐΐίιϋΐιι aleiiwtiibt. 

' Ep. II. : of, lldor, loe. rii., o. M, Thia appollallon i>w«« it* οΛ^η (α 
lliu fout tlukt till! Uuqiul Γοι Uial Aay euiitniju tlia auuiultu); οΓ Cbtitt at 

■ Uutin ai Bmga, eaa. tt : lUefonaiut, Joe. etf.. α 34. Direct rIImU- 
lloD tniDM fnun BpkDlali aonrcM only, but b nJI nlht'r OaUImn «Duntrica, 
fontmry lolhn OrleBUIuiilR(iiiiA>inM«,«oSnil Ibul Lbi' TPintncifttlon of the 
dt-vil Ib nut (oDiivcA by iho tvcitalion of tbo CraoiL Tbi• otaiMliw ooncan 
vriLh tbo Ittimnay frum Spaubh want•, uid ro» to ρηιτο tbat m br• 
liuro not «imply > Spuniali |woulintlly. but uno thnt ύ OoUieau In tba 
niJort iH.-iu>- υΓ thci word. TbU o:>Dc1iukiii In nbo by tbo fhot 
lliiil tliv Council of Lnudiwa flxu Tlinmbiy, and tbitl iirtibaUy Huuidy 
'rburxLiy, fur Uiu KfUiUii Symiioli: 'On I•: ταύ> φντ<ί«*•ίΗΐι• r^r νίντν 
iitltaiAiinty καΐ τρ »#(4ΐη(ι' τή» iOio^itn knrffiXKui τψ ^ifflAry 4 "*» 
T/Mdvr/^ii" (c. tej, Tbu c«non va» ouuHfBioil by tbe Conanl <■ Tnile 

* Sannu niitbon tpak ef twiiUniuI fontfk whieb wore aiinmlMidy 




Tho officiating ψήββΐ first recited a collective prajer, 
which was preocded by a Bomevr-hat lengthy inritatory of 
the uiual GuUicjin tj-pe.' The following ίβ one οΓ the 
formularies which have been preserved : — 

Deum itnmoruitluTii miin«Tiim et nlutarlum gratianim, Fratne dOeo• 
tiM.imi, coQi^urili mante et humili ontioao ροκαιπ""'. >it per Vcrbiim, 
SapientiAm oc Virtiitcm «nam, domiaum DOKUrum JeMun Cliriettun FQium 
■niUD, conoumnti ad b&plismmn MJuUtera plolii miae gratiBRi novu 
t^iDoretioniH i&dulgeat; »U[tm acoestiin h!iic pcnlliiH mallguae conta• 
^ola avenenii {nfundst vitoti btvirrn Spiritiim mum >Ancli;in ; ui dum 
litMM fidom ροριιΐπλ αι^ιιω wlulaTee ingrvditiir, v«ro, iil ecriptuni tut, pel 
tfiflua »t Spirttuin uDcliun raiuuoatur, el conwpiilltin in lavauri> Itcdccap• 
tori «no, in nmilUadinoin puicri dinnjiiiio myHtcriJ, cui coromoritiiT p*r 
LftplUninm eEdcm conrtniuRil in ro^o. 

Benedic, Doraitic. hitnc a>|iinm «olutBiU «t nnotifiod tAOi, omrupoUii» 
Trlnitafl, •γύ liuaamim i;cdu.i ΓοΓΕΠλτβ otevequo jiu^U, 'lutque etiua 
deilwtt Dobia |>er tii: bapUmnati» mysCeriam ' graUacn rcnojioondi. Dcepioe 


fUko) dnrine tlio nl(ht βΤ Eailcr Kro. nnc of thcto wiu Jn Sicily, and 
ϊβ inentinMd by ΡμοΙιμΙιπιι. llbhnp of Lilybovuui. in λ lulUit nddrrMcd 
lo Pop* St Lco{BnlIorini, vol. I. p. 607); tlicro wm «ocithw at MarMillInn», 
nrair Ccduntinaai. in Luconia (Oaaili)donu, Var., viU. 33): and (ithor> in 
Ann Uinnr (Mox^liiu. f'rut. Splr.. 211, 2)SJ. Tho mott eoMoalcil wu Hint 
afOoN-t [nuocrtjiuUntIn,? 8i>ltiirna,—TiL), now 8«rl1|i\ In Spain, rnqnoutly 
mcotlnnod by Gregory of Tour» (Biit. Fr.. v. 17: vi. 43; OTw. Mart., 
23, S4: et. Ildufonmii. De Bnptirmo. lOS, ΙΟβ). Ua vu carofu] tu aak, 
in IliciBCi ymn «bon lliorc wiui iinnoKniiily ω In tho data vhcn Ruter 
•bould foil, «bcUier the minunilon» fuut ΙιηΊ Bilod Itaclf on tlie day «n 
which be liad kept tlio rcnllrnl. 

■ Tbtii 1• noo of tbo ton givrn ia Lho Mimile OaUlfatiun. Tbo othn 
luu a Oalliona invitalory. fnllowed bf the RooMl pmyor qnoidd m p. Sll- 
!■ Um JTiMo;• Gelhinm, lb» tnTltalnr7 1» •□ lodly onplod that It ■■ 
anlBteUltfUo. After tbc «Dnlmoo ^^Cant», /ratrm JnHiWmJ, tupn ripm 
■ttrcf fimlU, oenw aeviiral wunla «hiph hnTO no icnie «halcvt'r, Ibcn tbu 
t««t eontinUM; Niiriffautn ^lubunt nuin μογημ nnn rirga icrj cruiv, non 
liMfu wf Niiuu, «ON baailo id Micmmmlo, Loeu* f iifin paritu mi gratia 
yttiiiu. υΐιν Tlie fnnnulnry of tlio Bobbto SununendLry hua bcni cnriotuly 
art iitti of tli'< Ibitnnn nU: Tlio MonnUp Mfnal don not contain any 
fomnlwy of tliia kind. 

* Vytter^A, prtiikJ edition. 

332 cmtisTiAK wossnip : its OBiacr axd ktolctiok. 

imipitiiw nper ίαΐίιιη •ΐ|ΐιαβ crathitvQ rdi^mie nyiterio' {irwniraUffi, 
tpiriulem hum beDedluiiuuoiu petfiuulet ut lit cin qui io μ btptumiili 
suiit Γοιικ aquae tAlubuin in rcmiMiono vctonim crimisiua, (β, Domluti, 
lugientei, In viUm ftotcrnatii. 

After this iotroductory prayer, the bishop proceeded to 
exorcise the water.' 

llxoTciKo tc, cTciktura o^tiec, exorciso te οιηηίκ cxMcitu ditbolj, 
oninie polettu sdvenuU, omnle imbra daemoniiin. Kxorcito te In 
namtD« doiniiii tio*tri Jcau Christt Nuwrai, ηιιί incarathu Ml in Miria 
virgiao, cui omiiin eiibjocil Pnter ίιι oaolo cc in lorn. Tima at tnraci 
tu et DEnnin malitia tiu; da locum Sjiiritui uncto, ut omDat qfn da- 
Hcenderiiit Id huuc fontcni flat «t« lavocnmi bn|>timil nsenendkntto 
in remiiaioDeiu nnmium pcccntonim. Γ«γ Donumim iiMtniin .ΙβιηΐΒ 
CbrietDiii, 1)111 voDiiiruj) νΛ in ecdo iui\jeetatie Pacm atti cam HOcUt 
aB([cJia euie Judicare te, iiiiiniitt, at Meonlnm i>er ignem, in nocula 

Then) is \evy uncient evidence for this pott of the 
ceremony, quite nparl from its oxistenoe in the lituigical 
books. It is meDtionod by the author of the Be Sacrammtitf 
oad by Gregory of Toure.* 

Then follows the CimUatatio, or euohadftic pi^rv•' 

Dignun et justiim eet, vera aeqnum et januiin oit, do libj gntlu 

■ Mfiterliiin.)>Hiitaf «fUto». 

* I (tiro boR the iomuLuy ef Uio Wmtk flt^Aiflum. Tlicra aro otban 
In the Jffwiii Oiif/ieiiiiuni.ln til• l)oU>i(>euniiiiiiibiT7.niid in llwUonnfete 
Uiaad. TliBt οΓ tlin lliitMU GolHaimtm U pwtJy burruKcd fraa tl» ftoman 
ouniii <it eimKcrntioi]. 

* L It: "Ubi priuum IflKmUtnr «ocrdca. aoroianiiun fneli aoonndiiB 
Cfeatamn a^niu<, iavootiancB poctoa ct prac«4n dcicrt st aaneUflootvt ftoa 
ot adait pfncacntia Trinitatia a«t«nwi.'." 

* (Nor. ifurL, 23. 

* I (iTit tlic ftmnulary «f the Mitt^t OaUtiaaixim, «likJi i* idntiad 
with (hnt of tlio Huxuabio UiHa). In the two olkar KacnuvaUrin mtt 
otben of diir«4t'at tcour. 



D, I>oinine Denu aeterne, i^oi eolnii habes JmmorUliUUni, οβιαιπο ne 
•oliu pOMUdoM uobU iinoque ronovat* aetatc uibiiiati ; (|ui buniaiiu {^«iiert 
>iiiil>iii per trautgraiioooin prittiiuui ογι^ποϊκ (LignilaUim nIbniMto ία 
molini um jiretioeo quun falici bBj>d*inaiIi niiiuora voluiati• AdueU, 
<{no«amiii(, nd iii^-ooalionnn ηοιαίηί• Ιιιί ; MooliGca fbotoia buno, MnoU• 
liMor generi• hinnani; fial locae leM drgntu in qaom Spiritin Hnott» 
iafliut. Bepelkliir iUio Aditiu reUia, reeuisal iiovus; loori&liir omn* 
<liiod οκτηύι Mt, ronugat oiwiq ijiiod •|)ίτίΐιι*; cxuaiiiui' winloiicen rltiit, 
Ot dwpttw criniiiiie αιιιΐοϋΐιιιβ, e[)toiidori9 ot IniDiartalilAti» indiinwnta 
ranuitiiT. Quicniiu|iio inChrittu biptirnbunlur iiiJiuuit Ctirutum; (|ΐιί- 
cumquo bic rcniiDciavorinC dinboli) da eie IriuiupbnM da mDndo ; qai \λ 
in hoc looo mvooaveril tu cum oojjiioKas b regno. Sic Cn hoc ίοοΙ« 
Mtiiiguantur orimiiu ne rvnur^iit, niu invalewut ■qiue iitiun bmefiuiiim 
ut Mterni igiuit r<Mtinguai iiicetiditiin. MJtt« foote ' aluribiM l>ii> 'luoii 
•Iter» ngp^ tnis milUnt. Tgtu* hie lionin tuortin intcront ; 'luimuv^uo 
Ιιίο ΙαΐΜ β8Ηθ ccporit tuue esse noji derinat ; •ιαΐο<ΐ)ΐΐιιιιβ hie se ΰΐιί nugavcrit 
to liicriliici>ta ct per minieioriimi nohtnini «t niiatiitiuui tuuui cuufovratiu 
tJbi |iopulus Mlemis ad to pnomtie coii>ovr«tur. 

Ai tliis point the iiifmion of th« dirism into tho font 
takus pkoe. The bishop pours it mOsawise into the water,' 
auying — 

tuJtMio clirismiic ealatarie dODtiDl coBtri Jean Christi, at Sat bos aquae 
Mlionii» canctb deecondeutniiis In oa, in vitam aetomam.* 

He then ledtea a Bnal prayer, imploring the grace of 

' FuoU*. piiutftd tdilioii. 

< Tbo Mitale GuDiaiiiiim «Intc* Ihnt tbl» lafiuiciii la auiLe In threo 
diatloot lu^t*. Tlic Mimile Oothieum bcra toontioni u triple IntulllAtlun, 
bat aa It plac» nC tUi• (uint tbs «soroi^ag of tho nl«r, wbioh all atb«r 
dixnuneula put UToru tbu GvnlMlnHo, It 1« |ioaatble that thle rite refet» to 
tko OIordUB illicit, nnd uuC to tUu oouaccratinu prapetly e« mlIJuJ. 

' Thi* fnrmalar? it tout witb In tho Mi— aim OoUtieiim, and in the 
Bobbio tuJinuntulUTy. It ia omiltuil ίιι the Mintift 0«/'ic*iuum. The 
ll«aanibio MUbiI auiitHina lUKitbcr : /rigno U. tafralMnu (trnt, «tc 


God lor Lhoee who aie about to enter Uie consccniled 
water — 

DeiH tA quoin rittBEAM uimno virendi ' imnnnbuiUtk aioon feeiinftBt, 
(U a!• funitlis tuie nppltcutihiu invoniro moDiui qaod cafnoolt adiptMi 
Snttam ifiiod tnerentiir ; infrediAiilur biilein rcgeneralioQn ractoram, in 
qno Icthifuram EUud primi pnrcnux offonwn, mutkU in uovum liomiaoa 
cadunM niutu EngQElole, dcpuouiL* 

The Ueeeanf; of Uiu watui tloubUuee took pUoo before lUe 
CBadidktoe weru adioJittid. At the apiioiiitod momeat tiio 
doon of tlic buptiittvry wuru opuocd to Uiuin. Each od• 
preeODtud liinuiulf, complctvly divtistud of his gannunt*.' 
Thu condiduU: touk up Lis position faciD^ wcstk and wm 
tlirice cnlled upon to recotiDco tlie devil, his pom]» «nd 
liie pleasures.* Having made λ tbi-e«fo1d reply, he van nuulo 
to enter ibe font, and was th«i'e thrice required to make 8 
oonfeesion of Llie Uhristian faitb.* Tbiioe be replied Oivde. 

' mbeniUtUO. pn'nCoJ nlitiVm. 

' This t« tlio rrumvlnry In tlin iW/jwats OalUmevm. Thet• u« ettol 
in iilliiT Siwrnmi-iitarlr•: tlin Ml—uh (idhievm nnuu il. 

■ At MiUii, il ivna nl ΙΙιΙκ point tlint tltu (i-reuiiny nf tin- JQn^ OBdoT 
the UKiintliiji tii'lc [ilnn!. 

' " AbK-nnnciiMi 8alsnn>.\ pnmpl* iooouli el mliqiliilihwi (jwr (JVliula 
Ο'ΐνίνίΒΜΛ.'ί AtlminiivliuSnIaiiwtipumph'jiui.liisnrtiiMiitiMtcslo liulc?" 
(Bubbiii tJiMnuii.) Tbi- fonaulnry a not },ητι:α iu Iliu SlS—alt OMIaim. 

* Tbi« fuRuuUrr aIwi U (imlttiO ΐπ ihti MinaU OMievm. Tfaht la Iko 
BubUo fhutamentaijr ii meic]}' tlii> Ay^mLle^ (.V'oil (n na intonngnlOTy 
fonu, arnuiiirod Into tbne ikrllrJrv. Cf. tli^ fniuiiilurf cited hy the 
UKuyaoni Ariu aiiatlancd ηΙ»τη, p. 88, nnto : Crr<f f* fn iJiun, Pain* 
tmHlpdmitm, ertaiorem eaafi ct irrraet CralU rf in OhrUL• JemfiUv^ mit 
The foUovting U Ihvlof tUe Mi— ale Ottlltniiium.'^ 

Cndi-• t'ntrr^n tt FUiunt tt tiptrUum •uwitin Hiiiiu mm riiiiUii f 

Ondu y. il y. d ^. •. «tuHif-m «ua polnhitu r 

QmH> f- «I i'' r( ^ji, *. liiivit, tenlnli* una miineult *ubrfiiiilM, 

MM JMt/otI Ufll Τ 

I'biii funnalafjr, ovldcnllj prumpbd by α lutitd οΓ AiiitoiuD. ouinnt }» 
oldin Uutn tJtiu ruurlh ouutiuy. ul u time «liuii llic UirWiiui Aiiiii» ouv 
UlU£ in Uaul Kiivuix llii• Calltultia. BL Uiamiu» of Tivb (M OujiUim. 



Hd ia Uien plungtid bliroe times iii the consecraled water. 
This was not the cusu Id Spain, when single immeraiOQ was 
coQsidurud as u piOtuiti iigaiitst Arianism.' 

Tba bapliscaal luriuulaneii which are given in the 
G«lUcim books all tiAVO something additional to the t«xt 
U ueixl at Homo. Witli all their variations, they agree in 
introducing the words zU kahteu vitam aelernarn,^ 

As ho left the water the neophyte was led to the 
biahop, who made the sign of the cross on bis head with 
fr^rant <al,' reciting; meanwhile tlio formulary — 

Deut omiiipoteui, ijui te rcgeaeravit es Aqua et Spiritu soucto ood- 
co«it<iiM tibi poccalA tiin, ίρκο tv ungat in vitam ootcnuua.i 

liaet. 2) b<V<<• thn rnllanring Toriaulary; "Cn-HlU in Dcom Pnttuai oinat- 
potmtuni? CtihIm et in Ji«um Ckruluin, Filiuin itjiu. qui ouncvptiu cat 
"itb f^iritu mnolu m mliu «tt «s Huriii Viritlno? CrwlU itt ίι> K|>iriliitu 
BiiDliua?' Vnrtbor on ho mU•: " Crodi» in mnetua ϋκαΐκίαηι vl 
raidwtcnioB pMCkluratn?" 

' Oone. Tof-, ίν.,Μΐι. 5. 'I'bo ΒιιοοηΙηηιι,ΐτΚο «cm «atn-Bii! nni] uUtinntn 
Arioiui, αϊ•) prat^tlinJ alnfflf inuncnuuii (SoaMii., BM. Keti., τΙ. SU), Ibuoeh 
ouutrary tu Iho oiuriom «Γ nil tlxi Cnllioli» t'liurcliM uf tliir KuL Wi> «uu 
rtam IhU thnt ih» lyniUilifln la tiilirvly urbitniryi [lie rilu luia n» nthcr 
ϋκαπίπ); tliun tlmt uttaalicd tu il. 

' iUm. ϋο(Α, : " Ilii|>ii»> tn. In αηιαίηο P. vi V. et 8|(. •. tn ι«ιιιίιιιιί>ιηίΊη 
poooiiAiiruin ul liaU>iui vium •υΙοηιαια." Hit. QaU. : " i]a|>tiiu In crv• 
•Icntrm in nomiiiL' I*, ct V. i-t S\i. ». ut bubuw viloni nvlvmiun in Hicvulti 
■wculiirulu." BiUi, Simiiii, ; " ϋιψίίΐυ In in nomlnu Γ. <it P. i-t Sji. 
■ί, miuai linbouluiu mbtluutiitia, at luibou tiUm uctunuou, puluna uuni 


* Tbo UoUilv Kaemneatary «peclll*• : Suffumlit chrima (■> /route 

' Tliia fonnuLtry U givua in tlio D« SarnaMiitU ; it ia foimd witb kouc 
■UkIiI tnilntinna In Oui MitaU GiiVlea»im lutd in tlie IkibbI» Sacniaiiiitiifjr. 
It i> «Imwl idontionl «ritli Uiu ICuumn funuuliuj uF Ibi: QirlimMo, «ικΐ 
■Uouttly iMunblui thiit κ'>'''θ ^y th-i niinnyai<-a« Arliui <i. λ): Ifen* rt 
faUt ikmlut iKhM JetU Chriili g'i< le Tegtiienirit ex αψιά ipte Id Untt 
(mbl : limtl) ifpiiila .'vinctri, ulu. Tbu JUiualr tiul/itrnm Lt-re uiiubtiail ■ 
fitruiuLiry «liJali up|>i.'iini (u be uvrtDjit iiuil I» linv Ixta lUuiilKiuniiiiil nilL• 
lliot <'( tliii κϊνϊιιχ ΐ'Γ llio wliUii icnriuiiut : " Ι'ι-ιιιιΐ)(θ [u uliriiunH ■■iivtiUliii, 
tottlniln imTuortalitati*, (|niuii I). N. Jniw i bristu• tnulltuln λ I'uti• |ii ioiiui 
noetyit, utuun iuii.'),'mui ii iulilnliuu iKitviua uatu tribunnl Cliriiii i-t 

826 cuBiSTUN woEsittP: rrs omoix axd rtolutiox. 

lie then ivceivtid α wliitc gunucut, wtiicli tlw bishoii 
banded to him, sayin<^ — 

Accfpo venteiu uatididum quam ■"""■"il'lt" perflNia Ante Iribiiniu 
domin! noeiri Jcini Chriiti.' 

Before or nftor* this ceremony the wuhing of the &«t 
miut have takeu plu-cn. The bishop, having his loins 
girt, washed the f^et of the neophytoe, eajring U> each 
of them — 

r«(t Htn Invo pedes, MCiit <]αιη!αιιβ notler JfOi CbriMm ftoti 
•iiocipnlle si:i>>, iit tii faclae brapltlbiu et ptngAriB, itt liabeu vftam 

Tho ceremony of the feet-waehing was obsorved in 
Gaul ftnd at Milan, but not in Spain, wlierc it had been 
officially proscribed by the Council of Elvim.* We find 
no traces of it in tho East, and it is quite certain that It 
wo» not practinod tit Eomc It wae η load peculiarity, 
introduced at an eurly date into tho Churchee of Southern 
Gttiil or Nortbern Italy, 

Tlio initiation ended by the imposition of hands upon 
tlio uoophytee, accompanied by a spucial prayer. In tbe 
texts of the ancient Milanese iiso, this prayer comprises a 
petition for the ee\-enfold gifts of the Holy Spiritv The 

vIvM In «uwulft Bwiculunim." A» tlirro la, TAither on, bowcm, η tftuM 
fanDUlnrf Γατ the «ivlng of Uio while ttibe, it U poMiUc tiiat UiU btlM 
maj be tiiv eom-i^i oiil•. Id that ama tlib Γοππιτ Vunlil have » q>oc>Ul 
•jriaboliiia. luwotibiit! tu which tli« pliritm would 1n> conddircd u α gunraL 

' ΊΊιίι ii the r-^rmnlary in Hi•: Mtniaie OvOtinvi uid in the BoUil» 
enenmoiilaty. Tho MimaU GallUaivM» umJt• thi• ccnanony. 

■ Bcfbns, «wuiUdic to llit> 3f*Mat* OoMam: kftcr. ηοοοπϋηκ te Uia 
BoliWn Sncnmcutnrr. 

* Tpxl «f till' ,1fi*«i« Galhiaim. 1'ha won!• in the other fncnunriilnrlM 
liarc tinuly tliu «uno imjKirt. !<L CMurini (Bomi. ΙβΟ, De lemf.} implk* 
an Idi-niiii)! forliinl»r]r. TUc mudu OMy be mIi] of Bt. MuimU of Tatta 

• Can. iK [It '"« «UcrrM Lu In-Und. Sec 8to«e MiHsl, Wam-n'• 
oditiooi. p. SIT.— Tl.] 



Spaniab writeis also appear to refer to βοιηβ iuvocati<»i of 
thte nature. The formolanea praeerved ia the littugtad 
books ooDtaia merely α pmyer for the penevemDce of tho 
newly bapticed.' 

After this prayer, the bishop rolimied to the church 
Slid began the Mnsa, at which Uie aeophytcs coinmunicaled. 
Tho pnsclitil festival does not stioiii to huvo been marked by 
any paniculu* observance beyond (hat of tho double Mass 
on Eeettsi- Sunday and Che daily celebration of the liturgy 
tholiig the following week." 

§ 3.— The IsrruTOBT Bites ct the CiruncnEs of 
TUE East. 

Wo poHSoas η cuueitlerablu amount of information as to 
the baptismal ritual in tho Kasturo Church, properly m 
called. Among llie docuinttnts of the fourth cuiuuiy wo have 
the Cntecheeos of St. Cyril uf Jeniaalum, tho duscripliuus in 
the Apostolic Constitutions,* aud thoau of the Per^rinatio, 
or Pilgrisiage of Silvia. For the be^pnning of the sixth 
eaotiuy we hare the writiugs of the pseudo-Diotiysius the 
Aicopagite. We may add to these important central 
torte the scattered informaUon gleaned from other writers, 
and that which we deduce from the lituigical books now 
In UM. As the scope of the ^nent work does not permit 
of my dealing with this subject in a detailed manner, or 
at any grefit lengtli, I will confine myself to dealing with 
the four documents above mentioned. 

With St. Cyril as our guide, we can follow the whole 

' The Jtftunf•) O'llhiciim ifintnlu» two tHvlintoriii», but ua Unt <ii kny 
pKjui; llic ilititiile (iiiC'enitum liu a, pmfor irilhont luTltaUiry. Btiili 
iDTiUloiy «id pnjtri niv fuiuiil in llic Lloliliiii tJMniMnUt]'. 

* TIiu AiulinMinii Utnrjo' pnniJn two Momu Λλ «vny dej In ΆΜ«τ 
W*«k, one ΐ)Γ wlikti intplic• ilii? prcaeiic<> ηΓ the neoplivlM. 

> UL 13. ItL 

328 CHRisTux woieiiip: m oriois asd KTOurrtoM. 

sorieB of preparatory rites and tliose of the initiation iteali. 
Hia catecheees aru tUvided into two groups, οαβ dMliag 
vith the oenjmonios wbicJi proccde, the other with tlioev 
which follow, tliu iniliatioD. The lirst, which ia a kind of pre- 
liminary discourso, ontiilud pro-Cat«cbeeia, deecribee tbo cate- 
cbuinens as prwunting thumsolves at tho botrinniiij; of Lent 
to bo uiutiUod as caodidaltui for bupliam. Thu PU-frimofe 
o/ Silvia gives α «iidlar aocoonl of this preparaUnj stuge. 
Tbo oames having been iueciibed, α day waa appoinMd on 
which the biiliop, assisted by hia prieete and idl the oUwr 
clergy, proceeded to make a gunerul scnitioy. The candi- 
date•, acoompaoied by their relnUves, appeared be&re liim 
006 by one. Hie biahop inodo iut^uiriM of the atie^bonra 
of each catechumoa as tu liin oooduct ; if the candidate 
were a atraager, he had lo show commendatory letteis. In 
tbe case of hie uot being ooosidered worthy U> ptenot 
himself for baptism, he was made Co wait until a sal»• 
sequent occasion. If the infonnatton given was satisfactory, 
he was accepted, and n-as thencuforth plaoed uiDuDg the 
number of the competente (compHciilM, φι,,τιΖύμινοί). 

During the whole of I^ent the competente wore summoned 
eveiy morning to cliurch, to be exorcised, and to hear 
a sermon from the bishop,' or from some ono appointed 
by him. The exorcisms were performed by the inferior 
deigy, and were accompanied by insufflation, Cyril eeoma 
lo say that while the words of conjuration were being 
pronounced, the candidates had their facus covorod. 

At the end of a stated time* the Traditio Symboli, or 

' Tbn Pnmyrinnlio tiAvt t"r cmBli"] ll">t II U tllO Maluip who fOVMliM ; 
tiBt it IB cIl-u- llint lii^ iviulil niijxilnt ii ilc[rut.T. (>iil lunuult wh aaly 
a prtiat wlim lio doHTcrvJ liiB «ιιΙιφΚ•νκ«. 

' In till! Kriui of ll>i• LHUobMi* of St. Cyril, tbat of Uic TnuMU» 
Si/mboli uiMTniiita llio Btlli filum-. Bilrlik nlnlM llul Uie ftrat Are wuila 
(if l.«il WCT* ilrtvitnl lii u cmrrsl mmmpr (n llip uipluinljuii uf Ibo 
Bcri|i(Diia mill tu ilnrlriiic. lUiil llinl tbi• Tru-IHin ■■■■k |>l'ii-•• nt lltv bf«in*lag 
of llie «ixtli wiwk. TUit «IIS hIm tlio cmc iii lUo OnllkuD rile : Imt <m LvoI 



cmitiioN'iEs αν cHHisTiAS ram.*Tros. 


deliTery of the Creed, took place. Λβ it was Uie univenal 
custom for the Creed to be tauj^bt by word of month, and 
not learned &om β writtea copy, Cyril has not insertecl 
the text of il ID ids Uatecbeses. After the Traditio, tiie 
Utncbiog doult with the arUclee of the Creed, and was 
ooDtinued ϋ11 the bef;iniiing of Holy Week. It wae tliea 
that the RrdditiQ. or recital of the ('reed, took plnoe, 
uocb candidate pre»enung hiineelf before th» btflltop and 
reciting the Belief, which he had leained by heart. The 
cuUicheees during Lent were devoted to instruction in the 
doctrines of the and liaptbni ; and these abo 
fbnsed the theme of the teaohiug which the neophytes 
nccived during I-^ter Week. 

At Jurosulem, the commemoratiOQ of the FasstoD 
WM of too great an importance, and eognged too mticb 
ύοΛ, to permit of the caodidale for buptiem ruceiving 
iaetniction during Holy W«uk, but they pi-usiiuted thom- 
ββίτββ on the night of Easter Eve for thu ceruiuouius of 
initiation. They were received in ihe vestibule of the 
baptistery, and the aervice bugnn by thu ronunciaiion of 
the devil.' The candidate tumod to the west, the regitm 
of dorkuees, and extending his hand, pronouticeil the 
fonnulary of njection, addnnbdng himself to the ovil 
one, as if he were present — 

" I renounce thee, Satan, thy works, thy pomps, and 
all tby worahip." ' He then turned to the east, tlie 
region of light, and recited the Creed for the second 

nt JcraMkn in Silvin'a [iuu lititoJ cl^lit weekly tbu Ttu^HIo euuwnd IbiN 
wiM-liB ΙνΓιιΠ) EmUt. 

> AncurdinB to Dl>-iny»tiiii, llic c«ndi<]ntu diTMbrd ΙιίιηκΙΓ piwliituly οΓ 
iiiiivrljr oil bii )^ntiDuU. 

' 'llila njrutulnry it llml i>f SL Vfn\, «lio nidutkiiui vipra*!; the luo 
of tliu Mooad poraun. In the ApuMie Oo»Ml'alUii••. thu nLiitlidntii Diur 
•xpnaHd hinwlf: "I τνικκιηΜ• SnteD, hie «urhn, lil« pompii, Iiu woiliii•. 
tiu ctuMu•. bia iDVootiam, anil ull tlint bi.'hj(i|[a to Lin kiii;^-<l>jui." 


time. ThU oereniony, with iie two corresponding parta, 
conetitnted what is called iu the Oreek, the air<fra&c and 
the σνιτα%ιςλ 

Tfav caQdidalo then put ofT his gnrmoats and ODtered 
the baptistery. H«i was immediately anointod,' &om hood 
to foot, with uxorcised oil. In the case of the women, this 
unointiug wob perlormed by deaconesses. 

After this anointiug, the neophyte entered the font, 
which had been previoosly blessed by the bieliop.' He 
once iiioru confeseed tiia faith, i-eplying Co the ilmstl'old 
qnestiouiuf; of the officiating minister, and was thuD pluugLHl 
tliree times in tlie consecrated water. 

Having quitted the font, tbe candidate* was aooiDt«d 
with perfnmed unguents (μύρ<η•, duism). According to 
St. Cyril's account, this was administered on tbe forabead* 
ears, nose, and bruasl. He Umn turned to the east atid 
rented the Loixl's Pmyur.^ The oeremooy euded with 
the celebration of Ihe Kucliarist, iu whidi the neophytes 
took part for the firtt time. In tbe countries which 
followed the Alexandrian uxe, the Qrat communion was 
followed by the reception of the draught of milk and 
honey, as at Home." 

Tlie £uobologion of Sarapion gives several formularies 
which correspond to these various oereiuoaies: namely, 
first a formulary for the oonsucntiou of the water, followed 
by a prayer over the neophytes befoio baptism; then 

, ' DInn.niiu Iiere pInoM η ρηχή «tleli aooceipuled tbe brioffiB of 

' Aoootdiag to Dbnjriiu, tiiO Udiop UnMttf btgin• tlii• luuilitltiif by 
a llirocfold ouuifpullaii. λοΛ the pdMla ocmolnde It. 

* DlcnifdaB nulu thnt Uie benadiotion wm Moompaalcd bjr ο trip!» 
InAMlon uf diriNH In tin' Γιίπιι οΓ λ ογπμ. 

■ It ii lioic. nooording to Oionjaliu, ihnl lio miunn liii gnnnunta 

* Tbii pmj'ir ii nut mmliouiil eilbi-r \ij VfM m lir Diunyciua. 

* Tkla nutiiui nlilob. ιτοη at Rumr-, fnU into illnuc nt uu Mtlf •!«)« 
!■ 11111 retained in tlii: Coptic and EtLiujiiiU] eoiniiiiiiiitJiA 



ADOthvi- |>rayoi' ιιΓ|«γ the AbrtnwUio ; a fourth at the 
opproach to thu font; aod a final one when Ui&y bave 
quitted it. tt also contains prayers Γοι the Mussing of 
the oil for the first nnction, and for that of the chrism 
used after baptism.• ' 

S 4.— CojfPAnwoK OF Rm», aud τπκιε AwnQctiT. 

Ainid this <livenuly of ritual, we have no difTiculty to 
recognuing Die chief oeremonies wbioh were oornmon to all. 
They may be divided into two series. Before baptism, 
there vnta first a ceremony of adinieflion to tlie caleohunienate, 
followed by a prepnrntion which consifited of several exor- 
cieme, inatruction.'i, the delivery and i«cital of the Creed, 
an anointin)^, and the renuncLntion of the devil. The 
initiation itiielf included the pixifession of foilh, immer- 
sion,' the nuoiutiog with perfumed iingiienb) (chrism), the 
coneignfttiOD or signing with the cioa», and the impoaition 
of hajids. 

The rite of admieeios to tlie catechomenate contained 
the insufllalioo, the ceremony connected with exorcieui, uud 
the signing with tlie cross. At Borne, in addition to these, 
tliere was the adminislvriu<; of ibe salt; while in Spiiin, and 
probably in Gaul, there was at thia point tliu auoiuting, 
which in other countries was relegated to the day of baptism 

The immediate preparation of tbe oompetents, or 

< *■ 'AvuHTfiir Uitmt (T], Zixt\ Inif,tirmr (β), Mni rlir AvorrH* 
(&), Μ*τά rjkv Ιτίίληψι•' (lU), Mrrl ri 5ι>ττ<βίΐ». «I inXSiU (II), ΠρΜίι-χϊ 
3α|>ι»(ι>ιπ>ι iwiaicomau e^ouiati, ϊ.ίχ^ι ill th ίλιιμ|ΐα Twr βαηκζαμίηηι i 1,•), 
C£lf4 til rlk χρίσμα it ψ jstpfot^ai oJ /iawftaifttrr4i (16)." 

' For IIh• ίιη|κιΗ of llir- «.■fil ί»ηΗ"ίι.... ι••ν <«f/it, |i. 313, niiil olio wlml 
1 liarr mIiI uii Itip fulijort In my Bglif βήκιν*•. p. '3S. 

SS2 cnRisTUN woBsaiP; m obigix axd xvourno^t. 

fi^iZ^nm, took place niuveiMlly dnnng Lntt.' On » 
giTOD day the candidate «era aolecmly taoi^fat tho nynibol 
of Uiu Cbrietian fattb, and at Rome iliis Lnulitton of the 
sytnlxil vaa accompanied by the tiuditioo ot tfae Go*pel 
and tb« Lord's Pnyer. 

Immediately before their baptism (except in Spain. 
and perhapa iii Caul) the cajididates received the pro• 
paratory anointing with the eigniug of the arm upon 
thv organa of sense, porticiilarly on the ears and month. 
At Rome the signing of the or^ns of sense is mode with 
saliva, wbureaa in the East, and in the ooontries obecmug 
lbs Oalliean use, the same oil is employed with which 
Uu body is anoiuted * In all Tjitin oonntries this oeremooy 
pnoedea the reniindatiou of the dovil; in all othect it 
hninediatisly follows it. 

The Ihnwfold tvnuuciation of Satan, or the attjuntian 
of paganism, is ahio oommon to all ihe ritce. Kverywheret 
uxcept in Qallicau ooiratries, it ta followed by th«; lucitiuioa 
of the Creed,* in which the candidate expnwtes his odbenmce 
to his new Maat«r, Jesus Christ. 

'Hiu Last profession of iaitb, under the form of a reply 
to a tii{de interrogation, is of nniversol tuc. So is also 
the triple immersion, except in Spain, when: iinmervon 
took place only once. A special peculiarily ia foond in 
Gaul and North Italy [and in Ireland — Tu.] in tliu waafaiqg 
of the feet after baptism. 

' It la Indocd, la nil probBbilKy, Uutt Ihmi lU• Maui pnfsntloa 
dnired it• ari|:in. >*i!0 mpra, p. 213. 

■ At Aleundrin, Oiu tlnotluu uid Ihu ^Λι uo M>p«ntcd. Tha ^«b 
look plooe, a» at Uono, bHTorc tlio Enatar viefX, tHat Λο ImI cxodnL 
Pcrlatp* ethn. wm uacd, but κΐ an; mio no muntion U rmmIu at the nw 
of ulL TUi« Η to be gMheMd (tan on uwitqil ViffptkM ritml. «f «Udl a 
Qetnuui vuniun baa htta pBhlithod. logethor wUli Ihe Ofnont «f Utpptlgtm. 
\ij Urrr ti. Aolidi•. iu '/«4• mml UeUnudimntm, ιΛ•Λ.ρ.ίΛ. 

' Id Uic EmI tbxiv ut> tln> -nddilbiu" of tiie Crtod (κα p. 3X0): 
oqu tvfoni Ibo d»T of Out ramwaaUD•, itio i4lii-r inrnmliBUty alUr that 
HMt'iuiiuy. The OaUIena tilr ha• n-lnionl llie BTit oi thtmt anlj. 



Tlio anoinlin^ witli ungueata, Uic βϊ^ρύο)• with the 
ciOCS, and Lbe ΐπηκβϊιΐοιι of hiiDde,* were also ceremomes 
of univer«iil obeervuntia The Bigoing witb the cross vns 
made with iho raine fivgraot oil as that need for the 
Anointing itself. At Kotoe an<l at Alexnndm ' the anclioa, 
01' tArumalio, wue separate I'roin Lbe conaigDatioo. It was 
IMjiformod by η priest, wherea» the sigaiog with the 
croea was reseri'ed for tiie bishop. In tlie East, and in 
Uftllicon couDtries, the eigning took place at the same time 
as the chritMatio, aud was mode by tlie bishop when pi-eseut, 
or by an ordinary prieel in bis absence. Another itomaoo• 
Aluxandiias peculiarity, uii known to the Oiientat and 
Gallican ritos. was the drink of milk and honey given to 
the neophytes iift4>T their tirst rnmmanioD. 

All tJieso curemomos were in iisu ut t)m Ιιυ}^ιιηίηκ of the 
fourth cvutiiry ; on this point ibero uannot hu tlio eli)<htvst 
duubt. They must, therofon;, have been introduced before 
the Church was fruo from pureoculiou. aud even buforo that 
of Diocletian. It dow rumains to be βουα how fiu' wo can 
trace them back into the throe pi-eceding centurioe. 

The New TeAtnmont* sols bcforu lut, in the earliest tiinee, 
an initiation composed of two uctii, by virtue of one of 
which, viz. baptisni with water, the couvertud peraon is 
washed from hia sins, wliile by the other the gift of tJic 
Holy Spirit is imparted to the soul of tho neophyte.* 
Baptism was absolutely indispensable ; the iniportiag of the 

' Tlin (litvit ritnel* do nnt nctnnDr mmrlnn the hjlng.4n of hftndi, 
but it i* cortnin that it wua uripnolly conacolcd with tbe pni;cr Uiitt 
BiMniniNuitca the ν!ι;ηίιι^ of tlio 0Γυ«>, u pmytu in wliiob Ibo Uoly βρίήΐ 
In tuTuktd. CT. ii'Jra, p. 'MO, mil» It. It al«o vcuun Id Uie Cuioiii of 
HipjKiljlui R-Dil in thf KgjpUan ritiul tuoolinnnl on the opfwiiM page, 

' Bihul OKiutuini'it ua l!ie oj^orito puK^'. iuj^ 2- 

■ Vi,iU.i-n\Ai\y Ael»i<flheAjiulI».liu.Xi-n: ιΙχ,.Τ,β. 

■ Tluiw pnuofM imply tliut Uio Holy Spirit thco li»aif<wtcil Hia 
PruHnuv in Uiu inituitixl bjr nsu emilur la tliow muuUunod •μι ι*. Hi. 


Holy Spirit wus monily ibc oomploLioD of the iiiitintion. 
While, boworei', bttpti«tn lui^'bt bo perfonnixl by Lbe inrorior 
inetnbets of the ChrieliiLQ comDiiinily, tlic impnrtiug οΓ 
the Holy Spirit m-us iworviKl to tiic cliiuf nilois, to lliu 
npoetlee, niid to tlioeu iiiVKstud witb npoetolic powers^ Tbo 
muiiiotl of piOcisduru was by iiniwsitioD of liutiih, Uiere 
bung no tnviitiun wbiitvvcr !□ thu uirliest times nf the rite 
of unctiou. 

The Apoatolic Fuiber» and the u]wlogiete of Che 
oumury ftmiteh tie with uo uMldttiooal iafonnation. St. 
Justiii, in hie deuoriptioii of tbe initiation of the neo- 
phyiuB.' .-n^ieuke only of the first act, tbnt is. bnptinm with 
wntvi' ; the Daetriw. of the Apoetlta does tbe mme. 

νια must come down to the time of 8evenu, about the 
year 200, Itefore we flml nny definite tnention of the 
■aotatiu){.'' Terttillian and St. Hippolytue,' especially 
the former, apeak 'with a precision wliicb leaves nothing to 
be desired. Tertiillian describes the rites of initiatioii in 
several pliuxa, and wrote a special treatise upon baptiero. 
He status that tliia rite ebould be administered by a bishop, 
or, with his delegated authority, by priests and dcoooas, 
and that in certain cases it might even be uunft-rred by a lay 
persoo. The candidate bad to prepare him»;lf fur it by 
ptayer, tastings, and holy vigils. It was usmdly uduiinisterod 
at Easter or during tbe fifty days following. Before onteiiog 
the font, which bad buuu [iicviouBly blcssud, tbo noopbyto 
solemnly renounced the devil, his pomps, and hie oj^gids.* 
After tlie sacred washing, conferred in the Name of the 
Father, the Sod, and the Holy Ohoat, he received an unction 

* (.T.. bnwuici', in Tbtvpliilnk, il-I JuiolycHm, i. 13, «a «llnmuo «liluk.lf 
nut curtain, la nuvurtlitiluM qalto η pivtahlu one. 

• /τ• iMn., V. 17; Dt Chtiila *t A>.titXrbt«. W. 

' Tbia <Ιι>[Λί1 u out fuund in tbo UtftUw Dt Saptitmo, but In tiM ill 
CWenii Jfiltlu, G. 3, 



of oonsecrnted oil aod tlio impoeilioo of huids, (luring wliieb 
the tasliop prayed thiit the Holy Spirit might bu given to him. 
In his treatise on the rennrrection of the fleeli, the SBtae 
writer sums np in a few wonja the whole uf thu haptismul 
rituiLl, and he mentions not only the anointing with chiiem, 
but the signing with the cross,' and alao the llret oom• 
touoion: IJaro ablnitui; ut anima tmamU^ur; earo KnffUitr, 
ut anima conseerelur; caro aigiMtur, »i ct anima munialitr; 
can maittui tntpoetttone ad\tinbratnr, nt et ariimu ψίηΐκ 
iliumiiutur: «tro torpore et Mwptinc CKruti vetaUiir, ul et 
aniiiui Deo toffiuttur.' Finally, in hie trcatiHu oguinsl 
Miin?ioD,' ho speaks of the ilrlnk uf milk tmd boituy ad- 
miuistorttd tu thu neophytes. Testimony ig also borne to 
thi» tiuMom in Alexamh-iiui documentu subeequent to tbti 
Canons of Hippolytua.* 

Wo have here ncerly all the lites incidental to baptism 
and confirmation, at all eveuts those vhioh, in the fuurih 
century, wQtv nnirereally practised. There is only one rite, 
apparently, which is not meulioned, imd that is the imction 
proviou^f to ba|)ti»m. Witli ivgard to this lutU-r 1 cannot 
find any definite refoi«ncee to it anterior to the fourth 

TurluUiau d[K!uks of all these things as being univerBolly 

» Cf. Ff^KfipL. iO. 
■ Be Asrarr., 8. 
• 1.11. 

' Hett H. Uat-per, wlin baji roceotly κίνοπ hi• allontlon to IhU liUi 
{JtftM «hi' Bonig, la tlm liMnltrAei Miitcum, vol. Iril. p. 177), cudiinvours 
(oeannect it Willi Uic pagiui lugvnd οΓ Diuuj^uii. He in. liuwdri-r. miitokco. 
The «ymbalixm οΓ tho ΡηιοΰΗ••) Liuitl. nUli iu alnsini " fluwinf• witli milk 
mtii IiaQpy." noil thul at tb" nnurlahniQnt of thu Dcw-biira Intw. ia unply 
•uOIui'.'nt tv atjitiaiit for tliu intiudnotiun of Uiie aorciniuiy, witUont ita Mag 
ncui«««r7 to odioit impiDbulilu Ικιιτανίη^; Γηιιη piigiuUMD. 

' Sea, howeTfr, (Λιιιαη. Hipp,, 1^0. It i• powllili• lliut tlii» r]tc ma; 
bo mucli [•.'«• uiul^nl tluin Uic "Micnt. At Ilia end of Uio toarth «.-nlury 
tt «till \μΛ • •οηιιι«ΙιηΙ nncortain |ιο11ΐυη in Ιΐιυ Wralom ritniil. Cf. lujtra, 
p. Sle. 

SS6 CHniSTiAS wnnaiTip: its oriqik asd evoutios. 

noairod and ae oT long standing. In bis oontrorersr wttli 
UardoD.' Iiu witnoeeM to the fuel that llic followers of Uiie 
heretjo uned the same b^tsmal rilunl es thut of tho Chordi 
Catholic, and speciSee the liuptism with wator, tM unctioa, 
ih» signing on Uie forehead, nod tJie drink of milk and 
bonoy. Beaide« this, wc ore awate that the Valentinians 
and other Gooetic sects attached gnat importance bo 
unction, mtn^ so. indeed, tliaD did the CatlioLio Church 
iteolf.' It is difficult to believe * that tbeeu vmy early 
sects did not borrow tliu ciietoms in qaestion from α ritual 
already cstftbltsbed nt lb« time of thuir separation from 
the Church, n-lniteviT may have boon the subsequent 
mo<lifioatioDS wbivb tbey introduced into it in other 


ΛνΐΐΒίονβΓ view may bo taken of this chronologieal 
discumion of the coivmonioe of unctioa, the signing of Uio 
croee, and the drink of milk and honey, it is eertain tliafc 
the division of the initiation into two distinct acts, sucJi 
OS we Rod already in the Now Toslamontv was maintained 
in uee. The distinction became inncti more sharply de&nod 
when the controreray arose with regard to the haptiMD 
of herelica. 

It is clear tluit ceremouius of such impMlaoce were 
presided over by the bishop. Ai«, liowever, they might 
have become interminable had the biahop himself performed 
all the rites in connection with the initiation, a divisioa 
of functions was made at an early date. The bishop bleesod 
the holy oils and the font, and baptised with his own hand 
«omv of the neopbytee. The priosle, assisted by ministen 

■ ί«ί. etc.; ef. ilL ^. 

■ IronmiB, i. 19-23; «eo nl» Ihe apwcrjihal Acti of 8L Tlxwiii• (Max 
Boanut'• odltloDji aad tliu ourirnu Outctic vpiU|<li [Dund «I lloane {Ctrjt. 
letr. βπΜβ.. No. WOia). 

' It at uuty to ttstu tLc conlrKry (Ibuuui. ΓΒ^ΙΙμ dirtfi•••!•*. ρ. IM). UU 
not U) proTo it. 




of lower rank, contioned tlie adminietratioa of baptietu, 
bat Um Embiiequeitt ceremonies — the aDoiotiRg, signing 
with the ctosn, Aiid impositioD of hands — were roeerved 
for Uie bisho]). At Some, however, and at Alvxandnu, 
doubtlees on acooant of tho length of the eervice, tho 
priests first poured the perfumed ungoente (holy chrism) 
tm the head of the neophyte, thus reducing Che Pope's 
function to the signing with the cross mid tho impoation 
of hands. 

When tho local Cbnrcbes became more numerous, and 
dependent parishes had been thus created outside the epis- 
copal city, it was uecesHary to cede lo the priests of thuso 
portshce the right of conferring holy baptism. But this 
privilege was nowhere extended to them in ite eulirety. 
The bleenng of (he chrism, and of the ous employed in 
baptismal unction in genei'al, was in all placea interdicteil 
to priests, and they viure therefore obliged to liave recourse 
to the bishc^ to obtain these elements ready consecrated,' 
This reetriotion expressed symbolically Ibe idea that none 
could enter the Christian oommutiity without Uiu personal 
iuterrention of its supreme ruler. 

Baptism with water, wWch, from the oorlieet limes, 
bad been considered valid eveu whva conferred by α 
CbrisUan layman, was reckoned among tJie ofiioos of a 
parisli priest The aame was tho casu with n^gard to the 
benediction of fonts, and even, in countxies using the 
Roman rite, to t^o anointing with chrism. In Uieso 
countries, the signing with the cross only, together wJUi 
the layiog-on of hands, was reserred for the bishop, who 
perfonoud thceu functions cither in the episcopal town 

on the occasion of his diocesan visitationa. In the 

* InnocPiit. loUor to Dwontfui. e, 3; tlilM (:<ibiic)I of Onlinic* (XiT}, 
«. 88 ί tot OinaHl oT Toleda (100>, r SO; Snt ('•ηιη«1 nf Λ'αΐηπ <44Z). e. 8. 
Me. In tliH Rm14vo (.'burcli, lliv tUwUic οΓ Ihn liol; ohtiu> I• tiow 
IM-rfummd by llie pklrionlM oolj. 


Eastern Cknrcli. αβ there wne do distinctioD betwooo llie 
anointing with cbnsm aod tlio «gaing with the ρκμ•, 
the prieste poseessod Lho right to poribroi Um whole oen- 
mony.* There is ground for belief thiil this was alao tti« 
case in countries u»iRg the Oallicun rite, and that, UM. for 
tbo same γθοαοο ; hat thp influence of Roman diedptine 
miMn to have intraduced Home i'eatriction&' 

} 5,— ToB Recohciliatios op Heretics. 

The question it^ to how far Christian initiation was 
ralid when it was porformod hy an heretical sect had been 
a sahject of discnielon even buforo the close of the eeoond 
century. TurtnUian donln with it in his treatase on 
baptism, or, rutlior, h« njfwre to the solution of the qnestioD 
wliich h» bad already )^vcn in a special book on the 
subject, dnwu up iu Greek.* Acconliog tu him, tnitiatit»! 
performed by heretics separated from the Cluirch baa no 
\'ftlidity. A man who lias been oooverted from ingaoism * 
to an heretical seci, who has been initiated by the lesden 

* III Egvpi Kim. «tlmv, Unvtever. tliia dlitlnollon η1«(η| (imtntrntai^r. 
In EiA.. iv. 31 : Qiinetl. Vel. Λ .Vor. Trdnmeuti, 101, In llignv, P. L^rdL 
xtii. p. SS8. nnil τ••Ι. xixv. ji. SiKQX 

* Th<' li'lliT lit limooniit to Dfcrntlua, c, 3. Iwnr• (•^timiiny ι», «litl• 
InvHsbiae PKninirt.Ibo rnitoni irliicli nlliiwisl priMla Ibc rijrlit lunmflm: 
Ihfi Fiutam !■ ilicnrii lii \m\r tai*Ii<>l la OadI by thi• t.Ouiii-iU <Λ Ornaicp 
(141. c. 1, 2) and nf Epoonc (ύ17. «. 10): •λΛ in Hp&ln by Ibo Itnl Conndl 
of TuIhIo (100, r. 30) uiil by Ibf OipiMa MarlM. e Hi. For Ibo an- 
Ι(φΙ1<ηι wlilrb tcik |>liu<e iii tb" Ubuid of t<«rdftiift. pmLably owiug 1« U>* 
rl]ialiliiK οΓ tlie lira n»ea, Kv Grtg. U., ^L, it. 9, ίίΰ; et Ibe ofAt»p\t of 
MuvM (Lib. Fonli/.. τΛ. i. p, 30S, nolo U> 

* 1)« BaptiHm, lA. 

■ TbU u (bo only «i*c licfe tdcra into nccnuiit. Tliet of Ihp vUM 
biro ot her»tia>l puvute nnd baptbnl in infuicy into tbelr wot nnfl 
have liNti folly covnml by it. A• bi llirw Cliriitiaiin mho. bHvine li^ lli« 
Clinrrli I» tmtvr * wvt, n'tnrncd tn (bdr flrar fiiltb nnd uhnl Ca b« 
ri-oeiTvJ Lock iiilo thv ccoDDiuiuly, Ibt'y w«rc nuiilc tu da pouiKo. 



of that socl, and who Uien leaves it to enter the Catholic 
Church, should 1>θ treated as a pagan, that is, aa otio not 
initiated. lie must be baptised, since the baptum he has 
already received is not valid. 

Tertullian's view wos that of tJio African Church, and 
in particular that of the MotropoUtao Church of Carthage. 
The same practice was observed by the Churches of Syria 
and of Asia Minor. This wus not tlia caac, however, at 
Some ajid Alexandria. In those two gnjat Churches, and 
in those following their diruction, a distinctiOD was made. 
Baptism with vater was admitted to bo valid, whoever 
had administered it and in whatever eccL it had boon con- 
ferred, so long as the esstioliiil forms had be«u obsoTved. 
As to the remaining part of Ihe initiation, it was rojocted. 
and had theiOfore to be repoatcd in the case of thtj heretic 
who demanded entraoce into the Chiu'ch. 

In the year 256. the divergence between the African and 
Bonau practice was I he canst.• of an animutud discusaiou 
between Pope Stephen and St. Cyprian. Bishop of Cartbage ; 
but the conflicting customs, notwitlistanding, remained un• 
modified. It was not until titu Council of Arlett, iu 314, 
that the Catholic Church in Africa gave up her aneicut 
practice,' It was, nevertheless, obstinately peisistetl in by 
the Donatiats, who evuu applied it to the Catholic Church, 
which was ti-eated by them us a dissentient suet. The 
Kastern Church also continuud to regard the baptism of 
heretic» ne invalid." DisUnctious. however, eoon came to 
bL- introduced. We find the Council of Niaea decreeiog the 
adoption of a different treatment towards the Novatiaus 
and the jHirtisanH of Paul of Samoaata.' The seventh canon 

■ Cone. Jntot, <\ fl : of Ooho. Carihag.. I (347). e. I. 

' Coift. App.. iL 15; Cun. App.. 4β. 47: 8t. tVtl of JonuntctD, Fto- 
ttiUfh., 7. Till• n>l«|>tiiiiii to \aag pnrlbed bj Uic Uolliic Ariuw «u U 
lutandOf iVint cmtam.l 

' U. at. Buil, ep. 188.; 


of CoDebiDtiuopIe, wUicb, allhougb not emaiintitig from the 
(Kciitneiiicol Conncil of 381, hem» witnese, neverlbeleM, 
to the Qse of the Charch bc Omstantinoplo in tlie fifth 
century, divides the herotical sects into two eaOegoriM, 
thosti whoso bitptisro, bat not confirmation, was aocq>t«d. 
utd tiioeu whose baptism end confinnation won both re• 
jeeted.' The Monophysites, who sopamt«d from the Church 
in the fifth (ind sixth centuries, were tre&ted with lees 
Mverity, nnd wore Admitted upon a mere professioa of the 
orthodox fttith.' 

The Western Church remained fftithfu) to the old 
Roman custom, which wu often enjoined by the Popee. 
Councils, accounts of coavetnons of Iteretite, ηη4 erea 
liturgical books tJiemeelToe, all bear teaunkooy to ita 

■ Thl• eenoii wnt liiM-ttvA In Iho CoDDcIl Ai Tmllo (fi. M), nd Uioi 
ftnmd a ρ\Λΐν. in Dyinnllno ntiionlml Inir. 

* Orvg. M.. Aj).. xi. 67 (i2). 

■ Jftffl, tSS (Sirti'iuii; of. tlio Κιιηαη C'luncil of SW. A S). SUw 908 
^uu«ont),JtSe.M4(L>Ni):Orog. M,,liji.,ii ιπ(Α2): (V,aDdlDrOruig«(MI). 
ol 1; or Toledo (58»); Urcj^ry of Tonn, BUt. ».. ii. .11. »4: [τ. tT. SH: 
T.38; Is. IS: FirLli. AfnrUnf. i. 11: OrUuiuii SnoraiiiiMiUry. 1. 8».SU,cte: 
II mny hctv be nsolal lo point oat λ iHlTorciiun nt vxprrmioa wbieb {• 
mniUinlly ΓσυηιΙ in llie tiita wlicn Ihe rite of impnrllDi,- Uiv Uiily Spirit 
a in quKirti•»!, lUpradliu.' «a «tliclIivT it ii tvRKiJnl n« occnrriuB In iha 
oolebnitian οΓ bo ordinory lajitinu, or in cnnoticUou with the rrrancQiiilMD 
of hi'D'lli-*. i^xuctimiv il is niK'tion. or tht' thnimaUo, llmt li «pofcim at, 
nt othur tlmrta llic liiylofc-oii "Γ Imnd•, Hot we Iimvo ont; io cmopw* Ih* 
texts lo ava llial tlio mm budljr «tvor goca wltliDDt thu oUior. Λμ ■ rule, Uib 
Hoiuiin tvita fnijilny lbs term oaHtignatio wlian il is a qQMliuu of ordiiuuj 
ixmAniuliuD. anil Umt nf mniiui imponlia tor Λα timini' Illation of liotnlicA 
It ύ «τυη pogaiblc tUat. la oouotfira wliero tho Itntnnn rito me foDuwid, 
ϋιβ wboh Mnrnmy wa» not rcix-iitod tat ounvertnl heretic*. Cortain 
ρηΐΜΚΒ• of et. Optnlna itnd i^t. Au;:iiati]i0 κ'**' '•••har to tliii. uaa Um 
■am• ma; tc wid of tliu tmt of l^t. Ογγ^ι»? tlio GTBkt(^, xi.ST(6t): 
"ArtanM {vr iiii|ioailii>nmi mnniu Oceidiro•. per miiilenenl TWO Mootl 
chrinniitl•. . . . Orloni rufnmmt." Bnt thi- lettim i.4 St. Imi anil of «Ibn- 
PopM nboTc oitui JMin no room fur ilonbt that, If IhU really wu» «^ 
(bvy mad» tho MtviiUnl |>urt of tlie rito— the in^MttiiK nf lb• Holy 
Hplril— to lie in the iupoMtion of httod•. Iti 0«UleaB Miutrie• It b 


olwajB the rhritmatio, and not the impodtion of hands, that is mentioned 
in the text•. Λβ to the BMtern Chnroh, Bi QregoTj'a phrue βηΙΐΓΒΐ; 
agree• with tho rale kid down b; the leTentb c&non of Coottantinople ; 
hat all the aune, the litm^col hooka eiprenty mention the impoiition of 
hftnd• when it ii a qoeetion of dealing with heretics. On the other hand, 
the? do not mention it in oonneotion with ordinaiy conflnuation. although 
writers like Ctuyaaetom, Theodorot, Gsnnadina, and Photini, when they 
comment on the text Βώ., τι. I, nerer fail io apeak eipreeslj' of iL Indeed, 
the author of tho ApodcUe Cbnalttufunta, τίϋ. 28, desiring to ennnoiahi the 
theory that β pricat haa tho power to confirm, but not to ordain, thus 
cspreeMe hinuclf : " Tlpttrfiirffei . . . χιφαθίτύ at χιφοτβηΐ." Ho also calla 
(iii. 15) the ceremony in which Iho bishop appUee tho perfumed ungnent• 
after baptiam Impoaition of hands (χιιραβισίά). Wo moat thereforo bo 
•omewhat oaatians here in dealing with i«olatod oipreaaiona, and in θτβγ; 
ease consider the thing itself rather than the term used to denote it. 



( 1. — TuE Ecclesiastical HipJtAKCev. 

Thk occle.'uaetieal hiemrchy. in iU earlteat stage, compriMid, 
lu wo have seen nbove, three ordeiii, ϋιοβθ of the epieoofate, 
tlio priesthood, and the diaoonate. The I'lmctioQs of Uk 
first tvo oi-den could be exercuod bjr men only, but 
womuQ hftd been admitted, to η ourtuiii extvnt, tu sbaro 
the duties of the dincouol mijiistiy. Beeidv Uiu deaoone 
of the male sex, tbe anoieat Cliarch rocc^ised deeconussee,' 
who also bore the oame of Widows, χηραι, viduat, or even 

■ The Mli/irinf iitecrlplinn, dleooiOml tn tbn oomrtcr; οΓ ΓιύοΙΙΙ*, (■ 
pcrlinp* tlii! mint nncient CbibUan ttucription whieh uentioni • "^.ymtitr 
«r tha mgImuuUuiiJ hivmrvliy. It la tUepitnpb of iLdciMWiieaCxi^):— 

*KiatA ■ APKAC ■ XIII'A ■ HT C 
ffotfiN • AITH ■ ΠΕ ■ MHTPI " 
7\B«UTATH ■ *.\aBlA • βεο«ΙΛΑ 
«lO^itrHP ^KtlHCEN, 

"Vtark ArcM, «i<low, «ho Hnd ciehtjr-IIvo ymn. To hvt bvlonxl melfaw, 
Flana 'nl■.■o|lL•ίlu, het aavgUUii, liia nuulo (Uiii hinib}.' It u liArdljr 
jHWublt- llinl tliiB prtwon «ui lui finliunijr wiilow. Al cl);Ut7-IIv» ytmn of 
ago «tdowboml i« uul •η ιιιιηΐϋΐηΐ α (Uito α> to rrquint apodal niniilloti 
or it «n »a rpi1ai>h (Vn Rnmi. B'Jt.. im\ p.'M: of. Bull. Cfiliqw. tut. riiL 

p. m:.). 



Virgins, mrsine» eaiumtetu, Tbey occupied iLeiiuelves 
chiolly ill works of chnrity adiI liospiUlity, but they hod 
also eonie liturgical functiona to porform in tho adminie- 
tntion of hnplisTii and at the aga^»». The service of the 
■iMr WHS reserved for the deacons, and we find no instanoo 
(except as so abuse) of the denconoesus havin•; had fUiy 

The diaconate uf womuu maiiituiuud an vxistenoo down 
to the 61Ui or sixth mntuiy. By that time the baptism 
of adulta had become inoru and more uicceptional, uud 
the deacoDoeees had thus no lon^^er the opportunity of 
Oxercisinji their 1ίίηιν;ίαι1 functions; besides which niouos• 
teries for women gradually began to attraet within their 
walls such holy persons on lived in that age of the ** re- 
ligious " life. There wae therefore lees need of this special 
and somewhat exceptional order, and aa early as the 
middle of the third century we tind the doacotieiisee at 
Itome Inking a ]ilai»! in the tninon, tliat is to say, ία llie 
group iif jHiRtuiis iisslsUkI by the Church, >tnd not iimong 
the eierffy properly so colled.' 

While the diucouiiU] of woiucii thus declined ία im- 
portance, tliat of men develoi>ed raiudly. Tlie functions 
of the deacoou were distributed among the gntdes of u 
more or lets complicated hierarchy. In the East there 
were only two degrees, that of deacon and that of nub* 
dcucou. At Borne the subiliaconato was itseli' subdivided, 
and in addition to the aubdeacons there were acolytes, or 
altondonta. The i-eading of the sacred books in meetings 
for worship had at tirst been entrusted to any persoo whom 
the president thought fit to appoint. It was soon raised 
to an office, and from the end of tho second century wo 
note the existence of Uctmv, who are also ranked amoog 

' Ou llic ηΙ^ι,ι'Ι uT ■loHxdii.'wu•, was Tb<jaiUMU>, Uitttf. Ίβ FSj^m. L, i. 
U: tL, 1. i3. 



bw is 
dccici. tbe 

'"'— * ntn Goda ud 
of tte ClnrclL Fcr tUi 
wtn not hKl»Jwt 
tM docnMpMit It 

ifce okfKr 

tlw «eebaHliad ίκηπίοτ. As to 
not ihn a^ — ifbte umskanoog 

nii|[>igiii in ao teable as «oifioy• 

Hh» woe. Λβηίαη, μπι t jpat of Uvucky. 
MBbcMing Bt•, nd tk othw «i^ gnk». 

la tba Ixter vritten bj Pop• Οοηκϋο*' to Fabia•, 
BbdkOp of Aalioeh, iu 2S1. we Sad ■ dafiait• «BaaMnOioD 
df Λλ Beano dagf. There nitted Λ Aat tiane tottf-mx 
fri ci to , MVCB dMeOBi, aev«a cobdeaoooa, forty-two aooljrtas, 
aad fif^-t«o miacr «IoIes (aicrai U , keton, doorinepen) ί 
bend» tbew tlxve vtn bmc« tkaa fift«eB boadred widows 
or penoDS "aamttA." We hat-e ben. iocluding tbe Ptipe 
Uaiidtf, the eight otden of tb« Latin «cleeiwtical hienicbjr.* 
FMbiaa, tb• pwdwcwor of Coruulitu, bad ooostituled tbe 

• Omi Αρ.. «ΐΐί «. 

• BmmUi tb» (««k. boniTcr. of wMmw «ad ktte. m BUhar ««Md• 
Ik• HmtAj rnpMlr *> odleil. the FmI ΟαιΑ» wwff i wd m^ 

OTtifMlaiL κββ «oaBBMi Iv all Llivclwa. the slhe» tmtW ιΟΜκΙϋν to 

iao n um f m*. tntetfratoK mpU m, yoroMe^, etai Jp. Om< tUL t»-K; 

9Μ«)1».1κΒ•Ι1ιι«. Χ)Ι.1ϋ(•Μλ, II: KpiptMttlM, a»rw. >t. 31 : Coeiictlof 
AeUa«h.CL lU: CooucU uf l^udiM*. c. XI. 21. 

• KomMih, H. £. vL 1& 

< n• βοηΜφαΜίΜα• «f SL Cypriui pmna *b»t al IWUmk* >I«o.m4 
Id Uin MtJdlu uf iImi Uunl eKUtmij, nil tlivae difiwnl ninoc utden «ren 
luKiwii. uuop* pvrlMf• Ikit of dDnHcuojnir, wliidi I d» out Had monUaocd. 

Bui llHJ Mtwipp rf ikb wikr b «erteiofd lir Uio fuw iiiiii irlilGh 

m 1 jprliB aiiil lili mf n ripwlwli liiil ιιΓ mi ntiiniinj il 



neveu ecclesiastical regions,' and bad apportioned xhem 
among the same namber of deacoDSL Thia apportioning 
involved 9oon aftemrnrds a redistribntion of the clergy, 
which continued to exiel for β loug time afterwards, 
namely, the distribution aoconling to the ββτβα regions. 
John the Deacon, at the beginniiig of the sixth oentury, 
uxpre»<ly nieutions thia: Apton rtgiori^u* iectmaetiea apud 
nos militia mntintiur.' The Ordina Somani of tho oigblli 
and iiitich ceiittinen are still clearer on ibis subjoct. It 
should be noted, moreover, that the ouiulfer of tho re^oas 
was, from the outset, not only equal U> that of ibc <lciicons 
and snbduaoone, but that il also evidently aflbct«d that of 
lb« ttoolytes, of whom there were forty-two, that ia, aix to 
«■eh region. If vm odd to ibeee the subdeocou, we have 
in each tugion suveu clerics under the rank uf di'aooD, 
samcly. the si\ acolytes and the stibdencoa, who was a 
kiud of head acolyte. 

We have, therefore, ground for regarding the ministry 
of snbdeaoon and acolyt^i as α development of that of the 
deacon. Tlioso three vuUtgoriee of clergy, muittover, have 
thia in common, that they are all attached to the service of 
the altar, which is not the case wiUi the inferior ministers.' 

We note the existence of acolytes at Rome an<l 
Carthage icoin the middle of tho Umd ceotuiy onwoida. 
Bat we must not conclude from thia that, oven in the 
West, oU the Churches, and mora ospocially the smallor. 

' Libcriiui Catnt. : we my cdilion of UE^r PoitUf^, toL L p, 5. 

• Sf. ad UmariHrn, II (UiRoe. FM. LaL, vol. Ux. p. 40S). 

■ Till) 1« Tury wnll pot by John tho DgMon. loc «it., 10: ■Aootjllil 
notcm Mionrialla hew ordine diffurmit qtwd «α««νϊ*Ιϊ« portaadi ucnuDonU 
(■oque atmnlntilnM niiiiiHtnuutl nefatn potmlAi nt, lantmnque nvuiiu 
tmptwltlniil raonnt, ρη>|Ηιτ ηυοιΐ ασκΙΜΜ» iLlcniitor, vcl M«tem qna• Inlnt 
ucolylliornni orcUutiii cao prolnntiir laplcro TcaHnDDt. Aoolythi ηη> 
•acrumontunira iiurtnnilii viw auacipiunl cl inuiuUatiiU aMortlatibiu ordinmn 
jCfTninl. lik'i'iuiL' rinrf iitt•• β•>ιί p<>Ii-*l iwolftkiu; ίβίο vcm ad ΓΐοΓη•1οΓαιιι 
nlllolnai nollji ιιιτηιΐπ» [inuu'itinnr ilio-rndit." 



346 cniusTiAK wobship : its otucnt and etolutiox. 

were pixivided witli clerics of that order. While ihv officM 
of exorcise imd lector arc met with nearly eveiywheie, 
tlint of the acolyte i» lacking in some coimtnea of the 
oxtreme West.' After the fouedaiion of the tcKola canto- 
rum at Itome, the acolytes, beiug then the only minor order 
angnged ία active ministry, acquired a mach greater impor- 
taDoe than Itiey had hillierto eojoyed. They are coaatonbly 
mentioned in the Ordinm of the eighth and ninth centuriee. 
The eaixlinal prieitts liad no other nsaiatants in their Litnlar 
Churches. In tlie jxjuutical ceremoniee, all tli» inferior 
office», hecoming increasingly complicated, were delegated to 
them. 1 luring Lent, and at the solemnisation of baptism, 
they fullUled all the fuDctiotia which hitherto had devolved 
00 the exorcist*, jost as the siibdeacous hod absorbed tltoee 
of the lectors. 

With ragaixl Ιυ duorkvepurs, luctoi-s, and exorcists. 
Pope Cornelius classes all threu calegones togetbei', merely 
giving U9 the total number. Each category contained 
a lees number than tliere were of the acolytes. Their 
number would be in proportion lo the various services 
iliey had to rouder, and of these we have no procise 

The doorkeepeis are rarely menlioued in Komon docu- 
ments.* Lectors, ou the other himd, ore very frequently 

* ΓΓ. (nfm, p. .les. In the (1ιτύ1ί&η«]>ί£τηρ|ΐ]τ (if Oaul.Mftr Μ I Icoew, 
laenlioti ΰ iiindc οΓ only oiii» iu«1j1'<. νίι. n( Lyuiin. In .Ί17 (Lo Dlult >β)> 
Tba ΒΜλΙλ provu that tbU order yraa kaoKn in tlic pmtoM of Arle•. 

* Figvriag In the trial oonwruiQc the Klsnra nf the Cberdi υΤ Γΐη*, 
In SOX m And, bMidM the Uiliop, Uuv• piicalJ, thmo dca«on<, fmu anb- 
ilcDoiiu, ud fomorm in groetcr Diunbcr. bnc οΓ wbum iix oalj *n anaed• 
UmUit» thawi eoeleabutioe, who vcni pruairiit eA kUh ntcara^ tben wtm Mvm 
lictun. Neither nooIjrtM, osoraieU, ncir duurkvqH'r• «ιυ mtmlioii^ (MJuntv 
P. L•, Vol. TiiL PL T:ll}i Notice thn eoarnnnitf in thv ιιηιαίκτ uf prinia end 
dvMont «Itli III» pmeriptioni uf tho Eu<rpliuu A|Hifitiilio (.iiuatilellnae 
(Fnnh, DoeCr^nn j(;Mi(oioruin,ii]i. U3,Ce: rf BtiUMti (X/^nt, vul. τίί, )>. WiG}. 

* Tlic mnM ancient, lo mi- kiu>wl(i<tgn. wo* (hat Sinwinuf Oaiariiu. wliun 
the LOier lO-tifiralU (ml. i. p. 135) ΜΒϊρΐΒ ni η cvm)>eiii<iii in ninrtrtdon 




'τβ&«ι1 to. Tho series of their epitaplis begina as early 
OS the second century on monumente which are probably 
anterior to TwrtuUian, who is the first writer to meuliuiL 
them.' Id tho fourth century this order was pro-einiuently 
the fint of tho miaistry, &ud constituted α sorb of prob»• 
tionory stafie. Young clerics began their cai-eer in it, and 
remuiuud lectors until they had reached an sdult ago, 
which was a necessary qualification for receiving superior 
orders,* Most of the ecoloeiostical caraers of whic;h the 
details are known to ua began nitli the lectorate. Such 
was the case with St. Felix of Nola. St Kuaebina of Vercelli, 
the father of Pope Damasus, tho Popes Liberia» and 
Siricius, Moesius Romulus tlie Deacon of Fiesole, St. 
KpipbiRtus vf Puvin, aud many other•,' It need not 
tlierefore excite surprise tliat tliis order was extremely 

loSt, IjiarnniN:, in3Si<. TLt• ili^eri-tulii of Fu|H«Siripliu. Zualmu*,iind Ciclii• 
■iva (Jaflli, 8U, ^tuli, lUHt}, britrtii); ua pmrooti'») in llio c«ek)DMtieal euoer, 
dii not qictik uf iliuurki't.-p<:ri iw α ιΐνμ tu vnU-riug tUttt oalUng. ttolMiu•, 
«bnaliuio mciitkiiw (lii« urilvr. rains n Γΐίιι1ϊικ>1ί»ιι Utwritui It oiul tliL- ullicn, 
bj Bfying lliat ii hncnclvdgu οΓ Inttrn ii ublisittory Ixlota naWtiug •ιΛαη. 
•nil that «rltliiiut it. fix /oriatl* cittnrii (fUM) |mumI infbn nUeiiltrinm. 
Tlw Liber Peal, cuiitiiin» (vol. i. pji. I<il, ITl) twi> CDuranmtion* of tlio 
rsaka uf tho hicnudiy : tk•' order ul •i<jjrko<;|>ari flgurn oa\y ia the ivcxmd : 
tho Q>Hf((I<iruni Si'ratri mnlle it Hvu ϋη!!* uut ot »ur<ni In «πααΐΒΓΜΐί•>η« 
οΓ tk» mavi lutture. 1 know iif un Kiinuui ίιυητΙρΙΙοη wtiioU muolioiu tbii 
oaUo. It it mul «itU in a. law οΓ HSI (CUL ΤΙιβοΊ., XVI., liL SI): eco 
■bo Ibo Tniru• mMirijitiu>a. Lc Ulniil, S!)3, luitl tlio Ivllor uf Kg. La|iiu 
and Enphraniiu (llniduuin, OonefU'. vol. iL ji. ΐΟΙ). Tlio donrkwpcn «ero 
raponudoil ut an euly ilutu at Itumc by lUu ntan^iaiiurii, α kiud οΓ meiialMa 
not la otdun, wlio uiipmr ni uurly u 11κ< itxUi MVlury. 

' Fee tlio oi>ltfi|>h« of tho luolon Kiiw uiul Olatiliut Altietanm, IM De 
ΒβΜΐ, BulL. IBTl. p. 33 ; Tuttalliui. Pr«eKr.. il. 

■ Sao tlw deoretalt «text «itirf. p. »16, note S. Tlio«o who eot««ed tbe 
tank» of tlio ulcrgy wlieii of ndutt n^n onulJ boylo thetr career bj* bolag 
OOroiata; uhildrvn wore ulvnyi pliun-d aDuiug llio leetora. 

• rOTFVIUofKtJii,»cc. I'oulinu». iVui. /F.iVL. Y. IM: Γΰτ Eiw^biiui. St. 
JoraiDo, tM VirU. Oi! ; Γκγ Lhu futlitii vf DnniMiu, fur Liborius. Hiiictua, aud 
Konmlu, MNi liu(irl]i(kUM iiubli*hi<<l in my «illllau of |li« Libi^ Pant., vuL t. 
ni-S13.S10.817: Jn the B«,ll.u1 Do Itum, \%Ά. p. IT: for Εΐ'φΐιαηίακ, mo 
bl• Ufa by Knnodiiw (p. »aj, Unrttl). 

348 cTTBisTUN' wdbsiuf: m nam and κνουτποκ. 

numerooa in the fourth and fifth cenbnnos,' Those whoeo 
epitaphs have come down to us had, aa β geoenl rule, 
reoobed the age of adulu, bat there were many young 
ohildrea ίο the corporatjon. Their eilvery voices penetrated 
the vast spaces of tlie hnsilicaa, and were beard bjr the moet 
diataat portious of the coogregatioa. Is Uie fulfiliuent of 
their duties, which were of a serious oatore for those so 
tender in yous, they were expoetxl to the temptation of 
playing tricks. The epitaph of Pope !.il)erius does not 
omit to call alteniioQ to Uie good behaviour of which 
be gave evideuce nl this eutge of bis career; never bad 
be been beard to ivad wroog woids wilAtUy. or to 
change the holy luxt for iliu amusement of hie giddy 
oompomone. Tlie lucturs wore d).-<lribut«d among the 
parochial Churchee,' but this did not prevent their being 
grouped according to regions. Tboy came even to be con- 
stituted as a corporation (raA«/a Itctorum) at an oarly date, 
tliongb the existence of this body at Rome, it is true, is not 
attested by any specific document.• These sehoiae, however. 
Were to be found in other Cburchee/ and, at Rome, the 
neiiola earUorum, of which there is dear evidence &om the 

■ Tb« OoMtuuiiMi Silmtri gin» nlocty u tbo uambM al Btma. la 
<M, Um eloncy of t^ortlugo oomprUeil about Ατα handrol pcnona tetm gMi 
gMm phrimi trait Ueloret in/aiUM {Tidor Vit., iu. M). β«α Oe Beai, 
SiJU ISKI. |ip. 17-'i:^. 

* Sue lliu poMngo In «hlch I bate dealt wiik tl)U «ultjcct id Uw 
Milaiigu de rEcoin dt BontB, «J. til p|). 55-67. 

* 'I'liu ContUUitum Silmlri, a[ti>i bavinc neotloMid tlie blotrij looMa 
at Honu, My* tbut tlii^lr rckllvi• «xxnopuitcd Ui«m to tbo oonitnL Tkk 
ama not |>uint tu α nndcnt oorpamtioti. 

' A. primiteriiu trhalae leetonim oiiaUd at Lyeu (Lo Dl&nl, 6β7Α, 
Inecrlptlou ol Uii): al Tongrui or at Klieinw, a ptimieeriui idtotu» •t^aH»' 
wimiix. mititiacqnt Urionim (Letter of 8L ButUBin•, ia Mign•, ΡΛ. ΜιΛ» 
nl. liT. p, UGSi): at I'crre (I'iriia), in tbe pmviiwe of llio Enphmta^ ft 
^*BiK*ri<u taiotum (Onw. Otalori-, trm. liv.); al Carthago (Fi'dor Fit, 
ioE; eit.), a maeUr oT llicao buj• i* mpnliiniod. Cf. tba opitaph oT a f rt a w yi 
eaiUetwm mctokmcI• uelMiH MirUtliat (MptiUa, in L,iintaiii>X publiriwd 
by Men•, do Laurilrc. in the Sn'IrltH de• .InUguairai rfe ynmer. \Kt, p. 217. 



seventh cuDtnry oQwanLs, cousuutd maJDly of loctora. The 
IftCter, it bi true, wei-e no lonj^ur employud in their litai^cnl 
funclJonn. As the vigils bad fallun into dcsueiuile &>om 
an earl; date, and as the lections in Ιΐιυ λίαββ hud also 
been redoced, as early as the fifth century, to the Epistle 
and Gospel, the reading of tta Qoepel being confined at the 
same time to the deacons, the lecton had but rare occaeioos 
of exeitsising their ministry. Such lections as were of lew 
importance than the Goapel, and still remained in use, 
were assigned to aubdoacons. The adult lectoiB conse- 
quently disappeared, and the children of the eeMa can- 
tonan bad no lon;^ any other function than that of 
siogiiig. Hence the name xehola cantoi-um} 

The office of exorcist was also one in which an eccle- 
siastical career could be begun, but it could be uxercised 
only by adults.' It appears that the function of exorcist 
M-as more fi-uquently exercised l)efure than ai\er Uie Rfth 
century. The Boman epltophe of exorcista all belong to 
the third or fourth century. At the Council of Aries we 
find among uiue clerics of the inferior orders, who camu 
thither with their btshopa, seven exorcists and two lectin».* 
ΊΊιβ functions of these clerics woro strictly confined to 

' Tbn «ιΑ»Ι<ι •νιηΙοΉτη olilniued iU rocruiu. uapwIiUly aloat titn ciirhtL• 
and ntntb oootnrira. Γηηη rtmung υτρίιηηι (JjHer IMuntut, liL 19. Oanilcr ; 
tMl. PonL, vol. 11. Jip. HI, 193). It (ivQiiicil i> bulliIInK «iliuLUi] cm tbo 
Vl> MwttUa», bctmoo tlip diunJica <•{ gt. Hattbuw and St. Uartholnoinw 
(Uriicba, OMm u. B. Ttfogr.. p. 17»). 'i'lni riti; iif uulv tliu ri.rmor of 
ItiPM• nhnrobcR It known. W« hw from tlie Ortliu*» fiotniitii tlmt the ιΛοΙα 
tioil at iti huiu) KVcnl «ιΜιηηιη*. Tho prior or priiniarrlut, Oif ivnluiTtu 
or Mimiiiii>«Wiu, the tettiiu mill llii> fiMrfiU. 'ir uriAifnntflioitiftn, wrrn tlin 
ill^lturlra of llic corpomtiiin. Bolnw lluan won) tli• hMd• of diTUriona. 
ur paraptuiiiliUia. Onrinf tlii' «tritnuniia llie cliEldtoii wnr• *ηιιηκι.ι1 In 
two mw•, irltli lli« di^iluHo* nt tliolr htirul. sad the paraplioHMir tdiigtiiK 
up Uie rukr. 

* tk-v th<- cclcbrattii ppitkpli uf FL Ldtiniu, Biiibup oT ttttwdn (Oarjt. I. 
JaL, Tol. v,, N<A 194β}. 8t, Martin lifjrnn by Yfiufc mi <-x<irptiA 

' Aocordlii^ to tbo CotuHtataiu Silntiri, tbe trnn In thi• ΓιιηοΙΙ'ϋΜ «t 
ta txoreiit lutnl tauj one Hay ; bnt oocurdiiig to Ibe Lit. fWI, (8ii.VMm) 

350 cnmeTiAS woasuip; τκ omgin add kvoixtios. 

ihu preporatioQ of candidates for baptUin, and they become 
ol>soluh) with the disappearaace of the catocliumeoate. Ibe 
insunptious in wliicli they axe mentioned do oot any- 
vthon connect them with the titulai? churcUuS ur regions 
of Rome, aliJiough tliey ought U> have heen grouped, like 
the other clerics, according to the latter. From the begin- 
ning of the sixth century we hear but Uule of them ; * if 
there continned to be still exorcists at Borne, they most 
have been among the minor cleiics of the βΛοΙα eaniorum. 

§ 2.— Latin Cebkmo.vies of Obpination. 

The authorittee wliicli liave come down to tis on the 
rites of ordination in llie L•llin Church are as follows : — 

1. The Staluta EecJctiiu Antiqua, λ collection θΓ dit- 
ciplinory and Utui;gical canomi drawn up in Caul, in the 
province of Arlos, about tho bcginniDg of the aixih century.' 
We End in ihvin i]iu priucipa] cenmonies of ordinalion 
for oil the ordurs. It ίβ evident from tbeae ceremonies 
that the use was Galilean. It is probably the only ten 
in which thai ueu is preserved free from imy admixture, 
for the Gallican liturgical books do not contain the «re- 
inoniea of ordinntiou. 

2. The Roman Sncramc/Uarics. — Wo must confine onr 

II ma a mnntli. TIii> ii-oiind jiafUila-eilnMiian Oounnll η>ηοΙη• t-ir It Ion 
jmud. Am U• Ihc aulunl illnoipliiwi, •ιη• tlifi dwrntul* rltiid nhnrc, f. 34(ί 
tute 9L TIi*< ConititutinH. nbioli mentioiu cijibtf k-ctoni Mut fortj-fivr 
■oolyU•, onmnonlM milf ■«»nt7-two exorolala nl Kohhi. 

' T]io inaoripUoD•, morooTur, tntoitian an cxordit, «ho died in Sit, at 
Kcilnnii; nod onullii-r at Coma, ta S3e (fiorjt. Imer. LaL, τοΙ. ix., Kn. ISSt ; 
vuL v.. No. (Μ2β). 

■ HuMn. QtuSSt». rol. i. p. »82 : Hulnorr, & COairt, p. SO. Tlila 
«ntleoHoti na inacitnl, ηηιΙιτΓ Ilia titW OaneUbim Oarlkar}i<i(n— fiuftHat, 
in tbe BpAnkh body οΓ «nan• {Ηίιραηα), (rc«n wliNioe it \aM>-A Intii IbaL of 
tl)• pMiulo-bidora. ll 1« «till ^mrtfxl by many imdar t)tf laiuv lUJe^ Md. 
wtiat i• moro «eiiaii^ poMMniDDCd ai an kathority for ΛΓτμμι «eeUuatkal 
Diagvi lo thv ronrtti ccnlary. 



Dolice here, in general, to the Leooian Sacramontary 
and that of Pope Adrian. They coaUin idoQticoUy Ui« 
Mme prayers for the ordination of doacous, priesU, and. 
bishops, and nothing else. Tbeni b no niuuiion in them 
of any of the orders below the diaconate. 

8. The Ordinra Jlomani. — I hare threu of these lo 

fipeoify: (π) that of the manuscript of St. Anumd,' which 
«outaine only the lioman ordinations at the Ember seosmia, 
that is, those of deacons and prioata; (fc) tho Ordo VJIi. 
of MubtUon, which contains in addition tho ordination 
of the inferior order», together with that of biehops ; (e) 
the Ordo IV. of Mabillon, in which nru ipvua the core- 
muDii3S in regajd to duacoiia, pntiste, bishops, and ihu 
Pope himself. The three Ordincs o^pvu iu the main with 
each other, and the curomouiea which tliey describe fall 
in exactly with thoso implitxl in the Iwo Sttcmmou- 

4. The G«luian Sticntmeulary and the Idittalt Fraiuu- 
rum. — These two compilations furnish as with llie com• 
pleto ritual for all the orders; but a slight examiuation 
is enou(;h to convince us that tliey contain many things 
ilerived fttim widely diffurfint .ιουτοβΗ. We 6iid (herein (a) 

III pssaage of η letter from Pope uoeimus on the int«rvala 
of time between the orders;* (b) Chapters I. to X. of Lbe 
Hlahita Eoiaiat ΑηΗφίΛ ;* (<^) ordination prayers for 
the five iufttrior onlera ; * (rf) prayers for the ordination 
of deacons, priests, and bishops.' In the laet portion. 

Ltho Rotnau ptnyen, that is, those found in the Leonian 

KSflcramentary and the Sacramentary of Adrian, are embodial 

■ θοο Apjwadlx. 

' Till• b foDDd only in the ΟοΙμιοιι S>uniiii-at&T]r, L Ml 
* In tlio SUimU Frantnnn* cbu rlmptc-is biMring on Uic iMtiit• and 
nbikuvon• AT» wanting. 
' Oolu., 1. 90, 
' OcL». i. 20. 99, 


in other pnyera, -which suggost n riluul widely diflereat 
bom thftt of Ilomo. 

rrom this duscripuoo ii will be eeeo that tbe Uommn 
raage miusc be ^iJiered from the Loootoa and Gt^oriui 
Sactamentariee as well as from lb» Ordine*. The Statuia 
and the DOD-Romaa portions of the Geluian SacrameBtary 
and of the MittaU Francorttm, topnaeal tbo Gallicao use. 

1. The Miwr Orders. 

From vrh&t has already been said, it is ttatum] that vn 
fihould find in tlie Roman books no cemuony for the 
ordination of tliu tbreo minor orders. If this ceremony 
ever exisldd, it must havt; bwn of an entirely prirate 
ehonctor, that is, it must have talcon place iu the interior 
of the itohoL• eanlomm, and not in public. 

Even in the casue of the acolytes and subdetoons 
there was no solemn ordination. At the time of the 
communion, at any onliuary Μαβϋ. even when it was 
not slational, tbe future acolyte approached either the 
Pojie. if he were present, or one of ihe bishops of the 
Pontifical Court, hohiing the linen bag— a e>TnboI of 
the liigheet function of tbeee clerics, that of aurryiug to 
the priest« tlie eblateu, or oooeeorated hosta, at the 
moment of tlie fraotion of the braad, — and then [«oa- 
tnted himself while tlie pontifT pronounced over him hie 
blesriog, in tbeso words : IrUererdente beata ei gtorioaa 
ermperqut virgine Maria, et bcato Apoatolo Pttro, salvet et 
cwitodiat et proUgat U Dominw. U it were the oaeo of 
a snbdeacon, he held, in place of a Usen bag, on 
emp^ chalice, which hud buen hnudod to him by the 
arohdeaoon, or by thu bishop himself; but ihe wholn 



ceremony ooiuUukI of a empXo bleeeing, of the same teoor 
aa that jnel givun, and without any special Teference to 
the confurriiig of eitlier boooiir or authority, Thia for- 
mulary of blessing, morooret, bos ao vury antiieot riog 
about it. I do not think it is older than the seventh 
oeotuty. John, the Boman deacon, speaks ut tho bo• 
ginning of thu sixth c«ntury of the traditio of thu 
chalice as constituting the whole ceremony in the ordination 
of subdeacons.' 

2. The Ordmatwns at the Ember Seaiems — that is. ^ 
I'ruste and Deacons. 

The ordinations of deacons and prit^ta were also per- 
fonnod with a very simple ritual, but they were celebrated 
with great publicity ut α solemn stutioo. There was not 
an ordination uvury year, but wboii the necessity arose one 
of the Saturdays of the Ember weeks was alniiye chosen.* 

The caudidatos for orxUnation. chosen by the pope, were 
at first prestntud to the faithful during the Stational Masses 
of Wednesday and Friday in Santa Maria Mngginre and 
iu the Church of the Iloly ApoatJos. Shortly after the 
beginning of Mass, a notary, mounting the ambo, announced 
the names of those who bod been elected, and called 
upon those who had anything to say against thorn to do 
HO without fear — 

AnxilianU Dcmino Deo Solnter• nntm J«H Oillete^ «Je^OMii 
oralno duicani (rive prcebjteri] Utam eabdliOflttiiiB (ere dikcoiuiBi) 
~(de tluilo eio). Κ quis sutein baliet aJiquM ooatra hoa viro*. pro Deo 

■ " Cq]vi hie apod do* oria <M at αοσβρίβ BwmtiHllw) ««llee . . . tnU 
Aluoniu jun ilinlur " (Hiipifv Put. Lot.. toL Ilx. p. 405). 

■ It »ι•|ιι«η tliat, nt thi' bvRiimui^, Bad np tu Urn end of Ihc flfUl 
(«nlury. tbo DMcmbc-r ΚαιΙκν ϋκρ «ι•η> c)ii«c« liy ιιγρΓ(•ν.ίιι\.-. fur the 
ΛΑ;γ PotUlfimti• ηΚΊΐΙΙοη* tlic nidiDntinni η* c<*loliniti<d nluuwl nlirit}! 

3 Λ 

864 CHnisTUS WOKSHIP: ITS oaiom and etouttiok. 

et propter Denm cum 6i)uci& ex«&t et dint. 
ODannntonU eaa». 

VertunUmea meiiior nt 

This is the formularj' of the Gelaelan Sacmmonlaiy 
(i. 20); the other two do not contain it The Ordo JX. 
And that of St. Amand bavo fonnuliu-iee almoet idoDbictl. 
Aoconling to the rubric of the Gelaaian Sacmnientaty, it 
is the Pope vho dcUvors the addmss: ttdnunciat ponti/ee 
i» populo, dkcna. One of the Ordintt assigDe this daty 
to a liictor, while the other refers it to a tenniarius, or 
notary. These two Lenas must be coDaidered oa meaning 
Uie Mme thing, for in the first cose the word Itetor does 
not designate β cleric of that order, but tbo person who U 
performing the function at the momenta We m&y oonclode, 
moreover, that, although the formulary is given in the 
Gelasian Ordo as prouounced by the Pope and drawn up 
in hie nume, it was always read by some one acting on 
his behalf. 

Tbo candidates for ordinution wore stationed at a oertoin 
plncu where tli»y could be u-ell seen and their identily 
well established, This public probation had been preceded 
by α declaration, made boforu the higbvsL dignitariee of 
th« Clnircb, in which the caudidato had to swear that be 
hiul never committed any of tbo four bvinuus sios, the 
commission of which, according to the discipline of the 
time,* was an impediment to the reception of orders. 




■ Thno «liu tin pnononUd in the Ofio VUI. tl Uafalllon: thirf 
were: nd'imy. b^tiiklit}-. xltiltorr, vioUtion of «cueemted vligliw. TbU 
ctiiiiDomlion Λοτ% sot Inolnda nil tlio ilui, «livthor worgt or opm. wliioli 
Id tbc auoiont diicdpUoe mro aabjoct to public pnnuioo, and caa*lUult<I 
thi» ■ b&i Id ordora. There i•, tlierefoiv, η diffl^tjr here «liich, »• hf 
Μ 1 um flw»r«, hu novor been MlUrnrtnrily win•!. I mndd«r, tat nj 
|nrt. that tlimo IntutmentcricM pn>Ilmliinry to nnllnntlnn g» \mDk to • 
tinui •rhuD baptism wnn twuivul nl sdutl nf-e. uad tlmt it YmA uot in view 
Uie prMDnt «ODdiUon of Ihti lunnrli.'iKM) i)f tlio oondiiUtu. Inil faU coculiM 
bor«f« hitring iKMind bftptiun. Wliilr pnicUlinifiK Uic n^mwiua ίΓ riu, 
bowmr Ueinmu they might bu, bf yxtWo of the neruneut of ba|<ilnB 




It waa on a Saturday evening, at ibe Maea of the 
"VigLl, that ordiimtiona took pl&ce. The eightb-oentury 
texts imply that this Ma«s had already been transfeired to 
an earlier hour, and celolirated in the ooorse of the ofter- 
Dooo. At the onteet it wae celelH«ted at ni^t^ like the 
Msaa of Holy SulunlAy.* It was begun by iho antiphon 
ed Introitum, which -wo» followed by a long scries of 
lections — both in Grvek and Latin — with chants and prayon 
between. Shortly before the reading of the Gospel, the 
archdeacon took the candidates and presented them to the 
Pope. The pontiff, arising, called upon the congregation 
to pray — 

Orumiu, dUectiimini!, Deum Puttvui OMJpatwitein, nt mper lio» 
fiuimlos snoR qtioe nd οΠΙοϊιιοι dlaooiiii vootn dlgnetur beciedicliotioiii 
gratjac Kiuc clemonter oAiintlat ot conxecmtionit indii)la« prop!t[ti« dooa 

This ie the formnlnry preRcribed in the Leonlan and 
Golasian Sacramentaiieft for the ordinntion of deacons — a 
slightly dilTeront one was used for the ordination of prtoets. 
In the Sacrainentary of Adi-inn, nith which Mabillon's 
Ordo Via. agrcee, the formulary is ao drawn up that it 
can be applied at tlio same time to either the diocooato 
or the priesthood. Thie Orio, Like the two others of a 
similar character, impliee that deacons and priests were 
ordained at the same time, the subdcacona intended for 
the pHeethood receiving, in the first place, the benediction 
for the diaconate, and then immediately aflerwardB that 
for the priesthood.* 

tlio Chnrch nijilit liftiv ipiK^t n^qnlrcmenU In tlio οββΜ οΓ ρ«ΤΚΐΜ «lin 
tnlfntlc•! Ιο tnhn nnlfni. It <nu owjnf; to thia Uut dlfiiuiaU «oro 
cauladed, vlthoat α diwrnuiou tif tlic iiuvniiim whethcir tfao flnt tnnrrMgc 
lud been (cntiU'tol bcfoii• or nfii-r ln|itLiiiij. 

' fit. L«o, in α Ic-ltor to XHcauoru•, Bialiop o[ Aloxandila (Joflif, VK,\ 
Inalita (tronglj on [hii point. 

* Tbo cnvloa οΓ «lufcniug BlnmluoMtuIy ibo dlaoouatc and tlia 

•Ί56 cHiusTiAK worship: rrs oaois Λκη rvoldtiok. 

A ι tiie icvitatioD of the Pope, the whole coogregttioa 
ptrofttnted thenuclvcs, includiitg Uw Pope himeelf, Ihe 
condidatoe, uod tho clergy, vhilu the tckola eanlomm nog 
the Litany. When this was eudetl, the Pope αηβο, and, 
placing liLi handa on the head of each of the candidutos, 
MtciUid α double form of prayur, coDsisttog of as ordinary 
prnyur mid a coiisuciatoiy caooo' (etuhariitie pniyur). u 
followi: — 

DeuB,* conlntor Mcrnnim nuigDJIice dignHalnin, qnMmtm'iii, at boa 
fanmloa luoe quos ed offiriam levtUnim Tocnie ^itkrie, alterit uaotl 
miniKtorium tribuiui tniRtduiiter implore, oudcukiiio danii gnttiM radnn- 
dtnte* et fiduciiua eib! tuae toaJeaUtia Mqnbwe nt oliie pracbera fidu 
peiftctM dvvotiotui oxomplam. 

Van diganm. . • • Adeito ' qnaeeiimus, omuiiwteue Den*, boDOnini 
dttor, ordimitn itittribiitor ufficiorum({iio diif|>niiiti>r. Qui in U «■■■■»«» 
iDDOVU omtitB, «t ctiDcta (Ueponeiin per Verbiim, Virtiilcm 8ft|)ieaiti- 
ΗΐηφΜ tiinm, Jo*iim Ubrintum, Filiitra luirni, dominiim nflitmtn, Μπιρι- 
tent pfovidentu [ΐΓΔοραται ct aiugulie (])i!buei]ue teiii|wjribiut spUtula 
d[ip«iuu. Cujiu oorpu» EcclemfLni luaia ca«lc«<liun;i gratianim vBrietato 
dlniaotam, euoramqae ooiuiexam dletiiictioDe membroraia, pet legem 
totiiu mtmliilein compngis unitAm, in fttignwDtsm teinpli tai aaw^ni 
dlliturique larpris, Mcrl iTii)ii<*rii MrvitntetD triala gndlbu mialalitwiiiB 
oumini luo mUitore cuneitUitMui; electfa ab Initio Levi flUla «ini myMitdi 
opmlionibiie doxaa» tuno fldelibtu utcii^i pomunoolM, bMrodhato» 
beoedtctlouie aetemae eorta pcrpetn* |)osu^ereiiL Snpw boe qnodpie 

prieatbood e^hina «lijr the pootiflntl bi'>iinipbi>ni «f Ibn nlotfa ouuuj, ia 
doaoribinK tbu «nvu* tmnoruvt of tiv Ι'••ρι•» clioanu fmie among Ibe — ~*i"i 
prlMti^ nevM niMttii looDtion of tho lUneaaatc, bnt pM• Blwaja ttarn 
the anbdlMMtiBtD to tlie prieaUiood. Cf., in thu ΙΛ. Poet., tbe deaoriptia 
<f the early plitaoa of tlio cccUaliuitiiiil αιηκτη of Loo ΏΧ^ Paaotl ]., 
ONgory IV., Serifiiu Π., Leo IV., Ituoodiot UL. AdiUo Π., and 
8ic<plunL V. 

' Tlib imtyw mtMt bavfi btwn oneRtdered aa tho cod of tbt> oelUiUm 
pftjw, mhieb wa* will uflxr iho invilntoiy Omuu^rfiferffWW. Tho pf»y«r. 
«faMi «oa tunoUy «Durod up in liJijnui b/ the coDKTcgDtion (mm ahim, 
p. tOTX «oa bi'ie repUoed by tbe Lituny. 

* Thli fonanla^ la ponalimr to the liMolui Seematularj. I have 
oorTMtKl the raiiMrfator of the mntiaacript into audalar. 

' Tbic Foinonlary ii ooaunco to Uio three Saenowiiteric•. 



"WUn• tnos, qiuennniui, Doroine, pluAtw tnteaile, quo• taili aneris 
■Itarlbiu mrvitiiroe m offldam iliftconii ΜΐιρΊ>Ιΐοίΐβτ dediconiiu. Et dm 
qdilam, tanqtiam hoiBtnea, iliviai eetmue «t Rnrnmao nlioDW iicnari. 
honini τίΐαηι ijaanliim pomamait ιι«ιιΐίηΐΑηιη& Τβ ιηΐβιη, Docnine, 
quiu) DohiN mint i^nulu iioii traiieouiit, to occulta non fnllunt. Tu ' 
oogni^ΊΓ poMoitt^nini. tii xcniUtor μ animftnim, tn vuracitcr in eta 
cmIwIo potaa adliib«r« jud!L-{um, ft *<>1 iiidipiiii dubaro qnac pnMUmuii. 
BnUtU in 90Λ, Dcniiiin, qiini-Jinmiui. tSpiriinm eanctnni, quo lu opus 
muiuUiru fldelitor eiseqaemli muucr« eeptjfuniii ttiae greliM n>bo- 
rantnr. Abuudet in eie tutitu furnu rirtiitiii, auulurltas modnla, 
pudor ootMtana, innoooatiM pnrifau) (Λ npiriUliti oli»en-Rntia disi^'iplijiae. 
In noribiis eonim ptMOepto tua riilgeaiit, ut «lae cMtiinliii «icmpJo 
bulMdaiiieio «uuitM plcbu aoquiraat, ot bonum ooueclentiM toati- 
noninin pmeftrentM in Chruto flrmi ot NlabDes porearnronl, diKniu- 
quo MicoMuibiiB dt iiifuriori Krodo per gratutm liMtm oftpore potiora 


Wliuu ϋιΐΐίϋ [iniyvTit are cudcd llie new tluucous reoeivu 
the lets» of peace l>om tbo Pope, ibe bishops and piioela. 
aad ttike tbuir place, by the side of the Pope, amoug the 
other dcAcotis. 

The cundidalca for tbo priesthood — whethur thoy biivc 
long eincu bwD promolud to tbtj dtaconatu" or have just 
buen promotod — are then presented. They proalmty them- 
so1tc8 before the pontiif, who recites over them two other 
prayers of a similar form to ibose just given. After 
this they aro ω 11 braced by the Pope, bishops, and 
pnwte. and dien toko their place at tbo head of the 

I append here the formularies,* with the ezceptioD of 
the Litauy, used in the urdiuution of privets : — 

' Ong.: "Tn cngnitnr BKcrrfanun. to •ΐ!ηιΙ>Ιατ tm oordlntn; (u oiinilil 
vltaia eulMtl poterU ciataiiiiLrL- jutlit^iu qiM wmiK-r iimcmli* <ii lulniiMu 

* This iduhI tinvr Ικί-ιι nir>-. Tlin pmgrva tmax the diiuuniit« t» Uict 
ftieetbtKA WM ncit an muy nwitcr. Fcir tlili mmlil ImTe, in foot. Invnlitil 
cxdtuiiHt frotn tlio ratA twliiig tu tlwi ι•μΐΜορα1η. 

' TiMte fomnlttrio• itro aimmnn tn tli« thrr* (tncmncolnrinL 

358 niKiSTiAN vobshif: its owam axd EvoLirriOH. 

Incifatorif — 

OrerauB, ditcctuniu, Doiim P&lrem omiupotentam, nt Mpar hoe 
rundon WHO» quo• ad preebjlem mutitu oleipt cftdoattk dom ut^plicet, 
•luibiui qaod ejui dignetionc fn»cipjiuit ejoe οηπ^ιίΑοΙπτ niixDio. 


Pray<T — 

Kian^i no*, Doim luliiUrit noet«r, «t utper bo• femido• to» bcn^ 
diotioosTa MuctI Spiritiu et f^liu nccrdoUlb effunde Tirtatem, ut que• 
Una peutia upectRnu oDerimna coneeonuidos porpeliu latmcre tul 
lAigttaU proeeqiuuts. 

SuehariatK Prayer — 

Vers ditpioin. . . . Dius, liononini omniutn et omnium digniutnn qoM 
libl mllltaDt dietriliutor, per quem proHuiunt uiuvenm, por qiuan cuncU 
ftrmentnT, βιηρίίβοητιΐβ β(^τnpcΓ in Fiiolinu nntunM ralionnbilix incromctitu 
per ordiiium vungrua ratiouu itiK|itiBitum. Uiide wocnlutolM gntlns et 
ofRcU loviurum luiiiiunfntiK mys^» iaititiiU crcvenmt : nt cam 
poiitillcM euiuiuuH rcgcudlB populia ptseleclaNa, ad coram aodctftlie 
at 0[)Criii ailjuniontnm leqiieiitii urdmis viros et ηοιιπιΙμ digmtatb 
oligCMi•. Sic in orcmo per iioptangititn virorum pnidentum munte• Mo;«I 
iplritiiRi propn^nti ; quibiM illo adjiitoribiM iwni in populo, inimmcreliilei 
multimdiDea fiicile gnbernavlt. Sic- iu Elcauro ot lUuimu Gliia .Kana 
pKtoniao plonittidmi) abundnntiacn traaaruduiti, ut ad lioetlu talutarae et 
l^eqaeiitioria officii aaorameiiU Ktiffloerol ncritDro Mcordotum. Ha« 
proTidcntia, Domine, Apoalolie Ρίΐϋ tiii Doctoree Mai comltce idtUdiBll, 
qaiboB illi orb«n] Uiliim cocniidiii prnedicaloribuR biplci'eruut. Quapropter 
infinnitali quuqau ουβίτηυ, Uoiuiue, qiiiuiiuiniie, linco ndjametita lai^sln, 
qui qnaato magiR ftagiliorei Bomua tatito liis pluriLiiii tudi^cmiu. Da, 
quBOramna, Pater, in ho* famulos Lum praaljyloiu di^Iutom ; innora 
fai vleoeribiia eonim flplritum eanctiuclii ; acoeptam a te, Vem, woundi 
meriti muoiui ubtineaiit, ctiuauramque morom «xempb anae eODTar- 
Mtioiue iiiniiincnt. Sint probi cooperateree onUak noetrl ; elacMt ίιι eia 
totina roTma -JUHlitiae, ill booam retionom diaponwtioDia eil>i crediUo 
redditnri aolornno beatilu<1Iii[.i {tncmii) ηοιίίοήΐιηηΐιιτ. 



3. Tilt Ordviation of Bi»hop$, 

We bavo seen that in the ordiiuitiou οΓ deacons and 

priests the entire rite, according to itomaa usage, oonstste of 

prayers — aotoe ofTererf in common by the whole congregation, 

and others recited by the Pope over tlie prostrate candidate. 

The ceremonial in the case of bishops was not more complex. 

The bishops cotuecrated by the Pop« were almast 

always those of his own metropolitan province. They were 

not chosen by him, but elected in theii* several localities. 

The election being over, an ofltoial report or decree is drawn 

p, which is eigaed by the notables οΓ the plac«, both clerical 

lay, and the fnturu bishop thureupuu sots out, occom* 

by some repruaeutativus of his Churdi, for Rome, 

whore thu olectiou is vcrifiod and the candidAte eznminod. 

If the election in found to have been regular, and the Pope 

approves of thu choice of the electors, the consecration 

follows. There was no special time in tlie year aeeigned to 

litis ceremonial, but it had always to take place OB a 


As was the cime in the ordinations at the Ember seasons, 
the Litany and iCyrie were defeired until after the Oradu&l. 
When this had been sung, the Pope called on the congre- 
gation to pray, and then all present prostrated lliemaelves 
while the Litany was being chanted. After the Litany, the 
Pope arose and recited over the candidate a prayer composed 
of two formularies, of exactly the same type as that uMd 
for deacons and priests. The now bishop then arose, and 
having received thu embrace of the Pope, bishops, and 
priests, took his place at the huad of the bishops. The 
choir then sang the Alleluia, or Tract, and the Mass was 
continued in the usual manner. I append here the special 
fonnulariea used for the ordination of bishops: — 


360 cBBisTuii woicemr: ns ouoni asd ivolutiox. 

Invitatory > — 

Onmns, dilectiniau nobii, nt hit τίτί• td BdliUleai Bcdvote 
pivrtlHadiB* btoigBllaa ommpcAeotis Del gntiM mm tribotf Uigiuua. 


Prayer — 

l*ro[alian^ Domiiie, ni|iplioKtioaibn aa<(nf, «I inclltikto nptt bos 
fuonlo* tucH coniD gniiM MMtdotiUe b«Bo£ctionii tne in βα• eAmda 

SnekariiHe Prayer — 

Ven cUgninn. . . . DeH faDnonna oranjiiin, Dcim obuuiud Jignilatmn 
φΜ» ifionM tuM «Mnda bmilutur OTfUnlbm; Dem qal ItojmB 
ftHlllTilfii tanm eeoratl ftrnflfiria kfiiUii, inter cetera OMieMi• doeamenti 
cnlttiTM Ae habitn qooqno indomoiili McerdoUlil inUinioa•, vleetani 
.Uron uij-rtioo amioU vesdri iaier oscn juaibU: nt iutelUsrallN 
meum lie «xetnpUa priontm oapeiet tccntnn poiUriU•, ne cndUo 
dootrinBc tiine alii deoaot «etati, can «t apiid velerM rvToraatfuB ipw 
«gniflcntioiHUO apodw obtiaorat el apud ooa oortloT• UMnt experimeaU 
icrum qnam HnigmaU fignnnim. THiun iueic|Do iaondotii uiieriori• 
liabilua iioftra• meotia onutue (^et, el tHioLlfiualem gloriam no» jui Bobn 
honor conmwndat Teetiom M<t aplcndor animonini. Quia et ilk ςα» 
tunc ctmalibo» blnodiebontar obmtibiw oa potiiu quao in Ipdi «nut 
hteUigeDda poaoebanU Kt iddroo Ιώι bmolii tnk qnn ad eamml 
aacordotii muiieUrium dele^sti, haao qoeMDiBua, Domi&e, gndam latp- 
aiia, ut quidquid Ok reUmina in ftilgore auri, in mtore ^mmanun, in 
mnltimodi opma T&rlotate (li^nabatit, hoc in liorum monliue actrbiMqnn 
elaracnt Comple in eacordotibiu lui* mjitcni bti aumtnaiD, et on»' 
nurtto totiu gloriflcationia tnelrucloi) cadMlia enguenli Bnoro MactiAcft. 
Hoe, Domine, eopioao in eoram caput inflnal, boo m oris iab}eetk 
deourrat, hoc b tottua oorporie extrema daacendat, at tai Spiritna virtaa 
et inleriora horum rvpleat et exteriom drcunilegal. Abundet te hii 

* Tbia and the bllowiag hmnlatj uo oommna lo ibo tluee 

' In the Gcleaion oal;. I enttct protirlmilU Into prorctemUt 



coneUutlA (Idei, puriuu doloctionu, sinooiiUa (Mciii. [SSnt' Bpeoioti 
munen too p«i]o« honiiii αΛ «vnngeliuiniltim pncem. λΑ cTnn^iiudiun 
bona tuo. D• efe, Doiuine, ta!niiil«riuDi reconcilinUoniii in verbo «t in 
factis, et in virtitic π'ΐΐηοΓίιπι ct iirodigioniiR. .Sit κτταο oomm et pra•- 
(licttdo non iu (Mtniuiuiibililiua ΙιιιηιαιίϋΟ npi«Dtiiie vorbii), aeii in oslonrioDO 
8|^tuii et virlutiK. Do oin, Uomiiic, cUtm regni cftolomm ; nUntur, 
noc gloTicntnr, pole»tttte qium tiibuix In aediliofttlonem, iioii in dostnio- 
tioaetn. Quodaiunquc ligavorint mpor lorrain «it ligatam ot in cs^is 
et i]uodcuiD(]iio eolvoriot super temra eit aolutuni et in coelie. Qoonun 
dotimieriut ρ«ϋΐ:αΐα, delenU «int, ot quurum dlmlacnut to dimittu. 
Qui benodixerit oie lit benodictite ct qui mdcdiiarit cin moludicuonlbtu 
reidntur. Sbt OdelM lervi, pmdcntee, qura ooiutittms tu, Dominc, 
super bmiliam timra, ut dent Hli* oibnm in toropero ηοοββΗΟτΙο, nt 
«xUboast omtiem liuminuu perfcctum. SinC aolUDiludiDo iinpigri, liDt 
«piHtu furveiiteo. Odorint nporboun, diligmnt vcritatoni, neo ^sam 
utn'iu«in doHrunt nut liwcitiidins »iit timora eaperati. Non (lonant lucon) 
od tfnobroB, nuc teuobroe [ed] lucem. Non dic&tit malum bonnm, noc 
bonimi innlnm. Sint MpiontibiM dobitorae ot fniotnm tie profectu 
omnium cousequantur.] 'iSibuM d• mthednm epiiwop&lem ad regcndam 
t^ccitiHiani tium «t pleborn univcrwm. Sis eb auotorttu, m o» potortM, 
eh Dia finuttuii. MultipUoea «uimr uuh beDedtolionom «t grstiam liiant, 
lit oil rxnrnriiUni wniper miiwricordiaui tniun, tuo munore idond, tiu 
gralia (loeeint o&ae devoti. 

Id ibis eeremouy. as in Uiut of tho ordination of deacooa 
nud prioste, the Pope nlone officiated. Ue might have 
biiihops around him — and in general this was the caeo — 
but he vraa the sole luliiiinietralor iii the oereinony. This 
departure from the rule that a single bi&hop could not 
Cunsecxatu anolbcr is montioned in the sixth cuntuiy, in Uio 
Breviarium of Forrandue." 

' Tho puwis» la bnichntj U not found olthcr in tbo LMmiM ot 
Orvfiurian Snorammtario : bnl it occun in llio Geloaiui, uid aim in the 
ilitmh >'η»ιοη-ητ», wliii-li uW• rxntjiiu* (hii rurmnlurjr. Tlic «lyle and 
ohaneter of Uili pnvn^ i• i-omplctoly iu bnrraonj «Itli tho not. Tliie 
eircniDMBIicp indnoc• mu lu b?li<^-ii — nulnilhitundiiig a omfliet of polnn• 
fn|lUo anlbiirilitM — llial El muit hai^ {armed pntt of the ori)^niO Romiui 

* Cap. β: ut uiiiu «jilieofnu tpiumptim λολ onli'vf, ttrnpla oanhita 
Bomi"". ΊΊιΙϊ (iinuD ίιοηοιιΓ lliow ροη!.-!! κΙ Ibo Bumnn Cunncll of :I9C. 

36S αΐΒίβτίΛίί wobship: m obioik asu kvolutiox. 

4. OTtftnofum o^ the Pope, 

The oeromoniat followed in the conseciatioD οΓ the Pope 
waa Dot mach more complex, but it had some special 
foataree. The ceremony, as in the case of btabope, took 
place OD a Sunday, but always in St. Peter's, where KomaD 
deaooDfl and priests were ord&ioed. U was a matter of 
obligation thut all the higher clet^ of Bome should 
receive ordination in the sanctuary of the apostle himself.* 
The elected bishop' put on, in the teerdarium, the papal 
liturgical vestments, with the exception of the pallium. 
At the chanting of tlte Inlroit he proceeded to the altar 
and prosUaUid himttolf ae usual before it. But JF*»t*>yl 
of rising immcdinuly and prooeedii^ to his throne, he 
remtuDcd prostmt^i all thu time the Litany was betoj; 
sung. Mlvi thu Lituuy hu portly raisL-d bimsttlf while 
the Bishops of Albano, Pono, and Oetta respectively 
recited over him three prayers, of which the last woe a 
eucharisUc prayer. Duiing the saying of the latter by 
the Bishop of Oetis, certain deacons held over the head 
of the onlinand an open book of the Gospels. The bene- 
diction having come to an end, the archdeacon placed the 

bul tlid wuiile in It, rtetpta «wttwin Smuinu. yrtrv lAita hj tttmiAa» 
tiloui'lf. nnd ant Indloilirc of the tuage in the «ixth eetttary. 

' Tho oliuicu of till• Viitiiu» lnKilli-a «lui α<Λ. ha'Kt\i-t, prtmltlT». V• 
cnn ^ttit-r Itva tho <]>>cuni(-utK dc«l)n); with Ihr nciUnnlJim of Popw 
Dimuui», UontfocD I., and llcmifaou II.. tbut the Lnl(Mii.n loeillc•. In ΰιρ 
limo of (hu Cbrutiun ciB|wn)r• (uid G<itli!Q ίιίαμβ, wm I)io I«nw Itgilimui. 
ui iMitt iu iliii ou» r-f Iho Pofw. Tho privilege oT KL Potet^ dalM lui 
fBn)ii<r liiuJt iLuii Bytnutioo time*. 

■ He wiia alirajv * dMWQ ur prioit of Ken•, but ffi^frntbly tho talBtf• 
I'riiii In tlin Liat ysu> οΓ tlw ointli Pt>ntiiry, oo biabop wm |i(aiaotad kt 
UM pnpiiDjr, Tbe diUMilen and oontrorcnJc• oixunui)i.-d by tbe dectioB 
ut Fotmatn, lliobup oT Porto, to tbu papacy. un< iri-ll Vai/mu. In tbo tcatb 
Mmtni? Ιΐκ'η.< wiTra tmjnant Iji^nf-bid nI tin' aiicinot rale, lusa turn thi• 
tlniu (oniwi it ixveod lo be cuiuidoti.-d u oldigitturjr. 




pallium iipou the ehooldcrs οΓ the new ponlifl; who, 
going up to his tlirone, nt oaae bof^u tlio Gloria in exalei»} 
The Mas» n-a» proceoded with ia the lUual maQser; and 
when it vaa oror, the Pope was conducted back to Uie 
Lateraii with oxtxaordinary pomp. The formuliLri&f of 
blessing were the eiunu a» thote employed for ntlier 
bishops, but the Et idctrvo. in which tlie dignity conferred 
OD the ordinacd te mentioned, was modified as follow.1 ; — 

Bt idoireo Imic bmiilo tuo, qii«ni Apoetolio* wdie pracealem nt 
primatem omnliun qui m orl» temnini nnt waerdotuni ao unirenuliii 
KuclcfiiMi tiiw doctorcm dodieti «t ad mmmi uoonlotii nuuieteriam 
«hlogitfli, etc 

§ 4.— Obdwatioss AccoaDiNG TO TUB Galucak Eitb. 

Tbo ordination ccremooica according to Che OallicAS 
rite are summarily described in the Staluta JSedmtu 
Anliqua, In Lib. II. of llio De Οβάίκ EcdmasiieU of St. 
Isidore thure n an accoual uf Lhem which is is oonfaimi^ 
with the Inttcr, and there is also α reproduction of the text. 
In the GvliLsiau Sncrameatary and Mitsale Franeorum 
we OQConuUir both the ceremonies of the Statuta and 
the Bomna pmyers which bare just been described, 
together with certain other pieyers, which are either 
incompatible with Roman usage, or so completely identical 
with the Koman pntyeis in their import as to become 
pleonoatic. Thi.i concerns, however, only the thnto 
superior orders. As to tlie five inferior orders, there 
la nob a single feature common to the two liturgical 
books. The ceremonies of the Statnta and of the two 
liturgical books are entirely different from those which 

■ Tlili) TOrumimt i> ou^ntiDnnl in Ihi LlbM Wurniu. li. 8 (Qkriiiwr), μ 
well Μ Id tiie Orila JX. «ΐ MabiUoii. 

304 ciiRteruK woBsnir: rrs οοιογκ axd rvolution. 

we meet with in the Boman oMge. 1 will hera desoribo 
tJiecD eeiiaUin, f^imishiDg «t tho eame lime the formulaiice 
ns we find Uiom is the two Meroviog^ iSacraioentanea. 

rhorkt.ep«n. — The doorkee]>er U first ittBtrooted by Lbe 
an-Meacon μ to liie cooduot ία the "House of God." 
and ie then preeented by him to tlte lUBhop, who, taldoj; 
the keys of the church &t>m tho altar, huicU tliem to tlic 
candidate, euying ' — 

SIo «se quaai rtdditnnu Deo rau'cmera pro bis nbus qnte Mb cbTBun 

The». ID plnco of the bloseiog. preceded, acoordiug to 
tlie Gallicao custom, by im iovitatory or prefooc, the 
foUowiDg prajrer is need :— 

UouDi DttTCRi omnipoUntem *iit)|)!iuit<ir doprecemnT tit hnnc baiBhn 
HUUin n<J7Miric lUtim bi'iicilicuii• dlgiiutur. <)uein in offiaiDBi oatiaiii «Kgm 
disnabw cnt, ut nit ci ti<I<:liiuiimit cnni l[i dirbiiii «o nootfliu» ad diatinetiamoi 
lionniin ciTtaniin ad tTivucftndum iioiiteii IVimiiii. 

Dominu «anctr, ΡαΙ»γ omidpolooH, aMornn Dcui, lioiKidioora digocrU 
liitnc fAiDiiliim tuiim uMJftriuni fiumifm /Γ/υτη, vt imei jtuiitcTteMClMiu 
pwol obnuiiuia ut inter olecto» taoa partem iDDrciktor bsbOTo nieroodi& 

tedors. — The bishop, addressing himself to the candidate, 
eays — 

BUgnnt ta rmtnii tui. ut em lectnr in dome Dei toJi «t 

■ Tbl* and til» fnllowinic fonniiltrin•, «<xwpt «liMC Uic wiDtnt; li 
■pocifled. nppcftr with «li|;hl ηκχΐιβαιίίυη* ϋι tbo PoutlAcal dow to nat, 
«liioh, liki< all llio Iliimiui licwka poalttitu to tho ninlb Puatnry, atntaXn•, Μ 
tai n• ordlnatioiM am ciiiicumtid. ■ mlxlum ηΓ thii twn onnlent rlEoaliL Λλ 
UoiDMi iLiid tlio UoDicni). 

' Tliii ronaulnry, na wbll lu Uic nnidu^oiu roimuluy ΜμΛ tat tbu 
ntillDntinn οΓ loctora {Λι^ρ• Η edo} and Hint for cxoroiBta {Arrift el 
<«ΗΐΜπι1ιι), BK Ιο bo toasd In tlio AiJufn, whleli (mi iBptio• UibI they 
i>«ro in one. at Arlp« at Icnit. μ oirly n• llii- rail nf thr II fill ocnlort 

offidniD tmiffl nt Implei• aiud; potem wl enln Deo» at Mgul UU 

These words imply' that there had previooaly been 
an electiou. The election having been onnoanced, the 
poDtJtr delivers an address to the congregation* in which 
he dwells upon the faith and ability of the candidate, 
and then, in sight of all the people, puts into hia hand 
the book from which he was to read, saying — 

AflC^•, at Mto 7orbi Dei rolator, hahitnni*, *i (Idelitor «t ntiliM 
fanplanrii affldmo, partem cum hte qui verburn Del luiotetnivenuik 

Then follows the prayer — 

Doraiiie aiiicw. Pater oninlpoteu; «βΙβΠΜ Dmm^ beMdlcn• dlgDVia 
fnmalum tunm iKimin* Jlltim in offlob Inlonk, nt aanduttMe ledttoimiD 
dIsliDatiie Btqoo onutluB trurii modulla fi[ttrlt«U d«votloiio rawnot 

' Tlit-jr upixntr tii Ibo Iwo tiumunnnlufioa nodur tlic Ullu Pnu/atta 
iM-lorU. tliUR foimme α lyiuntorpurl ti> Uio invitnUirlc• omplojod Tor tbu 
iithur [inbni; liuC tlii'lr fonn 1« wiilely difToronl. I linve bwu IncllnnI tu 
pbifTo tliom ot tlic boginning of tlio commcmj. that it. at tho nimioiit 
LniUuiitHl \ij tbu wiim of tbo funnularir. Thu blnaiiig «onld tlini 
uppoiu williont aa iayiMory. Vnthay* tliu wldreu of Uin bUliup tonk 
ita plaou: bat thi• la not yerg profanlili;. Tlie Poattflial now In om h•• 
α qHiel»! lov(UUnr> 

■ Oar nanuiH-ripU giva mi no fonneUiy Tor thi> iuUt«m. Th(<i« is odd 
in lli« csuting Pualiflcul. u vniW na for Ibc three ottiur mlunr iirtUin, portor, 
vxorelat. uuJ ftonljrti.•. I lun ηυΐ cvrliiin on lu Uib UMt date of Ihcir oi1|lii ; 
tmt U moit bo \uty <«r)j. 

* ΊΊιύι ti'il, wliicU m tliat of thcGeluino Soumiuxnlary, boemiptuil 
iiulattiUiKiblo Μ Uix «tiA. Tlmt uf thu UUtale Franeorum 1• not In • 
bMtn atkto: ϋΐ sufJufMb Heettonum ΊΜίΛ••ί»> offy* «nHnoAtf esrb 
■wrMi• (pirflnli ilemlturie lingua rmonrt Kerlnltie. In thu ΡΧΐιΕΙηχ PoDttflcBl 
Λ Inctil Ipst ia fonnd lien\ Jcrlvnl Γηιΐιι Ibo toivguluK '. bat ίΐ cluutjr b.-(rBjw 
the fuet of Ιιανίη([ bocu tfiuclied np, 


MxoToUt». — The bieltop bands to the candidate the book 
of «xordsms, saying — 

Accipc el oonunentk, et liabeto potwUtem bopOBBodi niMiiUD super 
enet^mBunni, si το bnptiMtuni nra cal«chumcti<iin. 

Then followa the Meeeing — 

Detira Ραΐτβιη οπιοφοίαηίβηι eappljow dopreeemnr, ul liBac bmohun 
fluum nomint Ilium ben^ci?rD dSgnetur b olGduoi exordrtu, Dt lit 
npiritmlui trnpentot ad abidemloe dMrnooM de corporibnt obMMi• cam 
nmta nequitin oorum mnltifonni. 

Dominc unote, Vaia omiupotent, oeteme Ueuis benedloero digneri• 
fimtUBtn tunD) huno aomtne lUmn in otBufo ciorcielw, at per inporf• 
tfodi nunuiiro et oris olBciuta enra eligcre dii^trin, ct imperinm habwt 
apMtna Immondo• oooroendj ■ ct proluttiilio eic meillcoe EocletiM taw, 
paUM ouimtioiuitii virtule oonlirmnciub 

AeotyUe. — ^The order of acolytes seems not to hava been 
everywhere in ose in GalUcan oonntries. The Sfatuia} 
doabtless, describe their ordination lik*; that of the other 
orders, but the Gelasian Saciamentaiy omite the Γοπηιιΐιυϊο* 
of blessing. In the Misiale Franeorvm a prayer only i« 
found, and tbstv too, withont an invitatory, and in an natuoal 
place, viz. between the blessing of the doorkeepers and that 
of the lectors. At Rbeint», in the 6flh cuutur}-, there were 
no acolytes.' In tbo collection of Irish canons, the acolyte 
is not reckuued among tlie aevea occlesiaslical degrees ; ha 
is placed with the pealmittt and cantor, onteide the ordinary 

* The two mAimwriptii hare (pirtiuun imnnii-loiMin Mtnwul» («Mr• 
tmdum, Mlat. Fr,). I mrrfct it fmm lli•.• ΡυοΙίΟαϋ and Ibu iHtala Ft. 
Til* OrIu. >*<wr hoa liighi-r αρ ori• f» efftmia». Tho wnria nm tUgen 
rligMrit tt MWDi ■upofeuiiu*. Th<7 ilu not oecas in ttii- ΙΌιιΙΙΑακ]. 

* Th* Aalaln. drawn up >t Arln. girt' m Lhu iu»e« of the ■!■! 
lm|wrtaAt OhuTchM in G>n1. 

> Tb« will of Itisliui' Ituiiniuliiu. predoMiBiT of Ht. RemlKla•. 0*(<• Λ\ 
thaoBtc^priaof elennexorpt lliutuiicCF1od<Mrd,l}bt ltmn.,\-Vy. 



bieiHTcby.' According to ibe Siatuta, the candidate was 
ilrst ioetracted by tbe bishop in the datiee of hia office, 
and Uiea u coudlestick with a candle was pkced in tiis 
bands by tlie arobdeacoa, as a stga that the lights of the 
church would be in his care ; tnoroovcr, an empty urecoiwi, 
or cruet, wiu given to him as a symbol of bis fnnction 
of presenting at tin: altar tbe oucharislic vine. The 
bleesing was as follows' : — 

UomiM Miicl*, FkMr oniiiipoteo)^ uUtroo Doiiti, i^ui Moysi «t Αλγοπ 
looutiu Μ at MOendercRir Inccma fn taberaitoulo uwtJinuDii, «in bene- 
dicen Κ MHClifinre digneriit hnnc funulum luum ut tit AoolitUB in 

Snbdeacons. — The candidate received from the hands 
of lliu bishop tbti patun and chalice, and &oni those of 
the archduaoon iho bastn and ower, together with a napkin. 
Before thu traditio of these objeote tbe bishop delivered a 
short addivse to the candidate, of which tbe text, preserved 
in the MiaaU Francorum, is as follows : — 

TUe «φϋ minlileriiim tlbi tndltnr. Bt ld«o si ιι§ηπο nnnc fhled 
tarine ad seoleshin, amoda debei «Μβ auiduUB; id utqne uunc nomna- 
lentiH, Βΐιιοιίο tipl; ri tuqn• nnno «brioans, amodo mbrin-!: η ΐΜηιιι; 
Bvac inbonestuB, amodo Daetna.' Oblatfonea qnae venJuut to kliuiu, 
{wnee propoeitionle appelkntiir. De ipsis oblntioikibiu * uiitam debet 

■ WoMcnwIiliiboit** dlition. pp. S3, ϊβ. 

■ Till' invilulurjr. wliivli » vtADtitif Id tbo JfiM. Ft.. I• fottnd in the 
UuIIdi: PoiitiDivlL I.lkn nil thiwn pniycrm. II ϋ eaUtcnn In Klyla 

' 'I'liik ί• ο tvty fitnumliDaiy addiv••. It implica Ibol mon ohn inigbt 
bn fnAoimd' oould be udmilltil mlu llio ruiiki iif tbu oU-rgf, Ihnl ύ, ana 
who niiglit hkre conualtted κίηιι entailing public poiiuncn uiil Irnvreii^'ity- 
^Tbo lutructlon• foUowins bavs α «umewbAl mmniDiiplttoe IcelmiOBl 
r. I ibaald not \λ Mtoalibed if tlio wbole pMU^ n «M ΙβΜ uielait 
[tbsn Ihow pNOoding and Γ»11πν!ηκ It. 

* TM» portion οΓ tlm iiwtniction ii JnoamFatiUo witb Bonuui UMge, 
In wblok tbe oboioe at tbe Matae ta tbe btuiniai uf ihe dmcmii^ ind not 

368 ciuti3n.vN woBsmr: its OAIULV AXIi etolutiok. 

b «ItArio poo! quaotiini populo poeilt anffioere, im «liquid piuridnni 
in oftrmrio raaneat. ΡηΠαο vcro qiMo nint in nibitrttnno ώ alio vu• 
deboiii hvi, iu αΐία corporalee pulliie. Utn piJlM oorponlM krtUe 
fuorint, nnllnin Ιϊηίπιιιηρα ibidem nliiid debet Inn ; rpw Bqna ta b»ptift«rio 
debet voi^gi. Ideo U admoneo; tn ita to taiaba ut Dm phom 

Here came the trtulitio of the iustromcute, foUowvd by 
α call to prayer from Uio biehop— 

Oremue Peum ot Domluata noiitnira, nt «nper eenram noia Iltam 
qnom ftd mibdUMOneluii ofCcium evooare dignatUB e«t iofnndttt bnw- 
dSctiunem ot iraliam eiwin, ut in conepeotit euo fldolitor Mrvine dwtfaifttk 
wuicti* pracraia oonaoquatnr. 

Then came the ble-teiDg, as follows : — 

Dotnliie «ancM, Pntttr omiiipoUns, netemu Deun, bcnudlooro (fi^«rie 
hnndmn turn» hiinc Ilium, qtitun ad sulidiflconntue offldm» eligere 
dtgnatiw c^ iitl eum Mcnrb ino aaciGto xtn-niiam !«>l!icilDim|no cacJeMJ 
ndlltiM iitftitiiBe, «t auictin nltitritiitx β•1ο)ίΐΐΊ' intbrainlatret. Requieinu 
mipor eum Spfritae Mplentine et liiteili<olitB, Spiriliia owwilu cL fbrtitndinli, 
KpirituK wii^nlfite ot pieUtli ; nplcixi oum Spirit» timoriR tni ut c«ua in 
miniiilcrio divino corifinDos, ut obodlans nUiws dicto pareiu, tuam ςηΰιη 

Deaoone. — The formularies of the AiiasaU Francontm 
imply ibat tho candidate, previously chosen by the biehop, 
wu preeeated to tbe people, who tiad to testify their 
«oceptanoe of him by an acclamation. At liome, thu silunce 
of the congregation was reganled as an expraesion of their 
approbation of the choice made by the bishop. In the 
GaUican ritual this ajiprobalion had to be openly expreesed. 
The Eraber seasons, moreover, being unknown in ooautnee 
of the Gallican rite, the presentation to the people took 

of the «nbdeaooni. In the βΒΐϋοαη ritual, this cboioo, txittg cffiwled la Uu 
VOftr;, wiold Iw «miSdwl lo «iiMrnron». 

■ Thia nddma aypi -Λη Id ilif (•χ1ιι1ηβ Pgatlllail, bat η Dtiialiw at 
•cutenoca Iwre been nildcd to it 



plm only on tbo <tay of urduiation iteelf. The following 
i« tile uddrtMSs delivered by Lho bishop to Lho people in 
proeontinj; the candidate : — 

Dilcctituifflt fratree, quamlibct pomiiit nd ordinatloDem cocloeiasticl 
luiiuetorii prounvondam libi tpM sufficero privllogia Mcordotuiu, ettoinou 
i|un [irubiklQIor ot uoetrs Rpiid Dominiim convoruti» eat et conim 
qnortun honor angetur miijor osl gnlia »1 id quuil uibiirik Dwln «ligtiut 
etiain TortTM confinDet ililoetioniN mIhoiuius, iddroo Glium nonlnini ilium 
ouplo ed officinm dtoconnliui in ootimrtiuiQ nontntn diviniUUa «ιιχϊΐίο 
promovoro; Λα oitm liigiinm hoc olficiu ceonoatia vdro dotldoio; ot 
«i vcttra ftpml me&m concordat electio, toetimonioia i|uoil vuIUh tooRhui 

The congregation then exclEdmed, DignMM M<." Tbero- 
upou the bi^op calk upon tbu people to pray — 

Cuminune rotnrn ooinniuiii* prmcqiutnr oratio, ut Ιιίυ Utti'ii Kcolo• 
atae prcoo qnl in dlaconatiis miDbtario prMparatnr leviticae bene- 
dictionii' Ot «pintali oonventtioDe pnofolgenB gmja Muivtilicntioni* 

The bishop then proiiounces* the blessing, holding his 
band oxtended on tbo bead of the candidate — 

DomiiM eancte, spoi, Rdoi, gmtino ot profcctuum rannoimlor, tpa in 
oMlctliliui ot torteoiit oageloraui (ΐύιιίι>1«ήύ uliiquo diapudtb pit 

' Tbi• exoUnntJon. lui mil iw Die niMn^ lu nbi^b it a^Tvr• μ a 
rMpoMi>, wu not in tho bmlu fcruu wliirli thu miitiuR Poiitiflml «lu 
talirn. but thu bc>giiiiib(,' οΓ thti prnj-vr «htch foUinr•. Commuii» mtum, 
implic• Ui'il llic unnnuoivni'Cit uf Ur' >uan>j;^« «Γ tbn [ιηιρίυ bu4 jaA 
b*na nuulc. Thrao worde bam ne longer a moAniog in Uic praicnl 
■nuifitiiiiiMit of UiA ceremony. 

= C«Rnpt iMt. The rimtiOcnl Iim; qui ttd lUaeemalm wtlnUUrium 
jtraeparaturt ttelUiae ttntddctiimu onliiu rl'irmmt^t ipliltuali, etc, 

■ Tbe exittiSf ΈναΰΛαύ bae Iwie tlm UoUicuo iuvilabvy Cmmaiu 
«etoo», raUo*ed hf a Bomul lB*itat««r, wluoh ύ nnipcttcd uf Ino R-iuiaa 
formdirlt• of thill nntvrn, lud oadlilg «ritfa tbo Β«αΐ•α «□«.■αηιΐύΐιγ υαηση. 
ϋΐΜ* hottorvm Λϋοτ <noe above, p^ 8ββ>. 

2 Β 

870 αΐΒίΒΠΛΝ WORSHIP: ITS owam and stolctios. 

omida elemeiiU vulimutu Uue ι1ιιΓβο>11β Affectnm, tiuuc qixxino funuluiu, 
tnam IBma apcculi dignnro inluntimre lepeotu, nt tui* obnqulia 
expedltos aauotle oluribua mhleter pnnu adcnewt, at iadnlgMiti* 
purior, oorom gradn quo» Apoatoli tm tn tepUnuio naDMro, haUo 
Stephiuio duoe kc ρΐΊΜτϊο, eaacto βρίτϊΐιι αοΪΜοιβ dagcnot dlgniu 
ensUt, ol rirtiitibox luiiveniii quibux tibi serrire oportel tiutraeUu 

Primb. — Tbe cootiQuatioii of the oeremoDiee mu eucuy 
Uio same for prieats as for deaoooe, oxc«pl that the former 
were asoiated on the hands. This M'ae nleo α custom in 
certun pUc«8 in regard to dtiocoos.' Tbe foUowmg is Uie 
foruiuWy for tbe address : — 

QUDniam, dDeotI««!mI fratre». ncWn Mfb Λ BUiga 
MJem wt v«l liocuritatie ratio vul timorla, oommmib βαπηη MUtt'ttt^ 
«eD(«ntie qiionim caiiiu cominimiK cxulit Noc fnntm λ htrfbna 
TUtDiiUHctniur iiielitutiini iit do electioim coram '[Cii ed ragiiaBD alttria 
Kdbibondi miuiC coiuulatiir et |>opiiIuii; quui do nolu «t convnaalion 
prMMtnti qnod notmiiiiKitiiun ignoratuT n jJuritiue «citnr α panoii^ ct 
uocene est irt fftcIUiu qob obe^ontiaai oxhibeU or^'imto coi mdatimiun 
imebncrit ordiDnndo. FVAtris oostri et cuapr«eb]rleri converMtio, 
qtuntum [uxeo mihi ridoor, {irobnU ac Duo pkoiU cct, i-t digiw, ut 
nrbitror, oodiwiaiitloi honum a^tgmoiito. Bed ne UDum fortun τβΐ 
pBUOOc nut deoipinl udKcoaiu nut fnllftt afTcctio, MUtenlift m( ftipHwirt* 
multoniin. ItAiiuc, quid do oji» oclibiu nut maribut tiovoriti*. quid d« 
merito oeiuwiilu. Deo Ictit«. cuiiBulimiis. Debet liano Adem habure ouita• 
TWtra qiiKm iioi;'un<lum proccupliini Evaii^ulii el Deo exUbtn d*btU> 
«t pro&imo, at bnic teeuoioaiuEn teoordoti nugie pro merito qaim pro 
aHlBctiono ftliquiJ triboatiii. Et qol devotionom omuiinn cspActUDiw, 

■ OtMiu ihOttr Qiio-h/ui. iii. 21) fpcaln of α blcMlBg fwi UUtatttMr 
Mf»nIolum Ttl mli'i-lfiriim i>win«>. 'Fhl* csprcation κυΐΜ (0 hnra rtforvaro 
lo ■ qweinl mniituni;, probsbly llic uimiattng nf the IiaiuU of foUtl» »mi 
doMoai. ΊΊιιι lui'iintlnK ol llic lionde in cue of both th«o oid«i• U nvi 
«Itb tn the AnglD-iinxnii Inukii nf tlio tnntli Mtd ck'tMilli ««ηΙνίΜί It 
HIipMit• from tliu ItMicr uf Nicoliu I. u> Kodnlph. Blttcip of BowgM (JaK. 
STeS). tliftC aboDt the ttm•.- >'( (.linrli• llic [laid Ibc nnoiotlag ef dtacoM 
«M in prac««> of being tattudDoed into hancf. 



intelligen Ucentu non tionnimiw; ectiniie Ι•ιηβο, ιαοιΐ ttt wcepUbiliiie 
I>io, *dorit por Spiritain ιαοβΗΐΐΒ oouMoaiui uiiu* ouuiium uiiuiaruiu. 
Et idco elecUuDcni voBtmn debetia voce public• proGteri. 

After ibe exekiBAtion D^fima ttt!^ the bishop proceeded 

Sit Dobb, fntrct^ comRinni* oraUo, ot hie lui in odjntoriuia ot 
utSitetem voMtm uJnti• «ligitur preebytontu beotdictioiMtn divini 
Indnlgentift muiieHB oonee<]iuit»r : ut nncti Splrittui noordoCdia iIoim 
priTDeglo virtutum, oo fmpAr loco iteprebondaUir, obtincat. 

Then came the blessing, during which not only the 
bishop, but all Lbo priests present, extended their haads 
over the head of the candidate — 

SanotificfttioDum omnium auotor, ciijnit rcr» eonaocratio, plena ben»- 
dlcUo «t, to, DomlDo, enpor hiuic fsmuliim tuam lUuta quein protbjleril 
liQDQre dodicajniM maauiu tusc bonodiotwnu* iafonde; at graviUto 
ikctuum ol ooniBtft Vivendi probet te mm Mniorem, hi• inrtitutu* 
diKiplima qnoa Tito ot Timothco Panlue oxpostiit ; nt in logv tns dlo 
ae nocte, OmnlpoUns, rueiliUiu, ([uod legerit credat, <|uod credideril 
docoAt, quod docucrit imiictar; jastiliaffl, coDcUntJam, miMrioor^un, 
fuTttUidiuem, in μ oxUiuJui, cxoruplo prebet, ■dmouiliuiio ooDSnnet; 
ut puruiQ Blqtw immaottlntiira minieterii tni do&uiu ciubodist, et por 
oliitequlum plebU tuaf corpiu el ungolnem FilU tui iinmaculaU bcoo- 
dictiooe tnuirfonQet, ct iiiviolabui caritoto in virntn iwrtVctom, in 

■ Tho acUrCM which prco«dra thia Iiu toco piMtrvad (n tbn pmtftit 
PonliSoal. bat )!■ oudin): bn* heea loplacnl bjr lh« Bomao >4iiionitioi> 
ρτβη above, p. 353l TIil' Digavt ori la alio etoitted. tOKeiliar with Iba 
Invilalorjr Hit ηΛί; wbtob fornu a owtdiwlnn te the fennnlar; Oamnmne 
«atem, in tbn urdinetina οΓ deaeona. lo place of tlic ludtalorjr 8tt noM), 
and tLo pmyur SanHififalionum. tbe BMDnu fuimiUarka κΐνοη above (p. BMJ 

* Till• MiMt. Fr. add• bnra turn; the Golu. Socibsi., In vbloh Ui« 
fonanlojjr Uinlbeidtind.hM"bii"ia tba mmc place Thii μ a fsrtfairr 
liMbuioo of the pa«ag• bobg eonapL 


RHinminiB Htatii pleoito'liD» Cliruti, in 'lie jasUtla* MUtni juUen, 
eoMoieali• para, 6de pleot, Spritu muoio pleinis pcnolnt. 

Then came the anointing' of ώο hands, which wa« 
accompanied by the recitation of the following formuhry :— 

^ Coneeenobir maiii» ϊβΙμ et luiolificeitttir pw ttUm odcUodadi et 
flMnni booedlolIaiuaB : ul qououmque beoedixcriiil beoedku hIdI, et 
qt)a«cuaique wuctl^mTeriat unctifioentur. 

ΒίΛο^ — In couDtiies which foUowod the Gallicao uugo 
thib oooSBontiriQ of a bishop wms ti«iully oBucted in the 
Church over which be waa called to prcaido." The metro- 
politan and bishops of the province, having proceeded 
thitiier, presided over Uie olectioa and uonducted the 
ordination. The fin^t business, which had nothing in it of 
a litoigical character, was the choioo of a c&odidate. When 
it waa found that one of theae had practically obtained tbe 
unonimooe aiilliragea of the elector», the president of the 
aesembled bishopa presented him to the clergy and people 
in the churcli. Tbis presentation ' was accompanied by an 

■ Thu «ιιοίιιΐίη^, and iU ocoomixuiyiiig farmuWy, havo bom ΛάύρίΛΛ 
troa tho GaUiOLD rilunl into tlio liucnna ΓοιιΙίΐααΙ. 

* Thn cloclnni οΓ Ihc Blibop of Milnn lipl»>h thftnitulTut lo Ihe metn^ 
politan cilir (KnnmUiu. Kibi Kpiph,, p. 'HI, Uurtul). The UelrapeliCaa• 
vt Mlinu nnd Aqullcia «oimocmt»! cueli ullior, bul the oarMDonjr kad lo 
be lidd 111 Ihn city ot liim irha wu lo bo oancccratod (Letter «f Prlt^iM L. 
JaSi. αβ3: Pat. Lai.. ToL Uix- p. 411). Tbc foarlli CoQiHtU ef Toledo 
(itXt) left tlie choice of tlic pUoo lo (be mcbepolilHi, ai far a» lila 
■uf^sRcin• vara «niDonicil, but ho binutlf hftd to fco eaiucurnbu] In hit 
nthadnl dtj. In (lnul thn cnri'iminy wiu inunllji perromod m iIm 
eliweb of Uio candidate toihop, cxoopt «hen It W^ ρίκν at (bo toytl 

* Wli«ii the PmnkUh hin)^ camp %a ntom (o tbMnadvu• Ihc appFOfsl 
of tho olMtlon, ot even of thu choice of the faiihop, this prucutatioo 1 
nenlj MiMDoniAl ; but it wm not ou at tfao boifiiiniag. 



ftdflress, of vbioh η formuUty ' bae oome down to iis ia the 
lituigtcal books — 

Btrvandi iwt, dEJoo^nnu IHtrai, in «xooaa Hoordotuin lex ■ aDtlqn» 
Boolealu ut «leocdentfbne pastorfbiu ■lii* dlgnlwliiii nbrogentur, per 
qnonim doctriiuim fid•• mlhobc• ot rdigio ohriiitiiuia autwliut; ne 
OTili Domini praedo violentiie iannopftt, «t dispema absque pMtoi« 
oves fiir nootnrnno invadAL Rocepto JUqae dUpoiiMtioni) Dvt ucerdete 
vBctro, nllioite tobje igcudum eec ut in looam dothooli talis nnrnnMinr 
pnepAntiir ecclwnno. cujiu ροΓνίκΐϋ cum ot InAoiitJ lotlidtudiao ofdo 
«οοΙμϊμ ot orodentium ficloe b Do! tiiDoro nwliiu coiiTal«eott ; qui, 
piMoltdeDte Apottolo, in onitii doctrin» formiuii borii ojicri• ipae ptsebMt, 
cujuiqiie bdbtlus, nermo, vultna, InoooiUH, doctrtnn, νίτίαβ «It; qui το at 
piutor 1)0111» fide mttmat, exemplo pationtiAu dooeat, doctrioa Μ))ροΒΪιι 
innllLuHt, lu οιηαϊ opcro bono confimxit cariiatM wcomplo. Socuiidiim 
volontateni orgo Doiimni in loouro wikiIm memoriae Jiliiu uffmiae virum 
veoenbUecn Jllitm teotimonio piwtiytororum ot totitui clori et conellfu 
eimuiD oe eonsiattti^iun * credimua eUgeudum ; vinun, ut aoetU, iu,t«libiiii 
nobDeiD, morlboa oluwn, religions {irobnin, fido otkbilem, mituricnrdin 
abuodiuitom, hnraileiii, jiutum, padSoiun, patltsloni, caritetem luben- 
tunt. («iiocctn, cnnctii •ιιιαο Mcerdoti* ellgwide nurit, bcmiit woribnn 
eKuboriuitem. Huuc «rgo, dileotiraLmt fratn•, tMtimoiiie boni operi» 
I'loctum, digniesimum luuwidotio coDfOoaaice laodibu oltnuu et dioiie: 

When the peopio bad prosoanced Uie Dignua at,' 
the ooiuecrftting binbop oidled upuu tbe oODgregttion to 


' Tbtii formuleiT, whtoh ti iaontupnClblo «itli Bomui bm^o^ dU not 
find Ita iraf ΙιιΙ•:ι ΙΙια Rntnnn rantiflcnl. 
' 8aen-Joliim et ηηΐίψιηΐ. Miwi Vr, 

* DtciilmUbiu aliii quittm diyniaimt, Mi«t Ft. 

* TbeH«M are ihc ailitvn* o( tlic ptncu: liiL>n)N*bl#Hla>ar«tiioeopni*oDt 
who luiT• oonu frnm aootbor town. 

* Sanrde*,. MiM. Ft. Loitot down, tfUmauli. 

' Thli nccIiUDatInn l> oftPii iprcrrtid t« In tbo OMonittl of epboopal 
doHioiu. cr. Oriipirj οΓ Toura. iL 19: l^idan. ApolU Mp., vU. B: Life 
of til. (ί<!Γ}-. 11ί*1ιυρ ot Ounbnu (JmJ. Βοξ!.. ml. vtL p. 891). Thr •IIkiidi».• 
pmanunwd bj gidonlua αα Ihc oonwioD of tho ordlDatieil trt MiopUelgt at 
Uouign ia tbe cxoot «luivelpnt οΓ that h«rc fivon. 

374 CnttnjLN WOBmilP: its OUIOLt ΑΧΟ EVOLUTIUS. 

Donm tutitui wnctiflcationte ac piatAti« auctorcm, qd pUotttoiMa 
fltum CI HEorificIa et «αοτη coneUtuit, Fratree dilcctiailmi, depraooiniir, 
nti hnnc fAinalum snuin qoem exnlUro la Ecdona Λ soniorura cutbodru, 
ooncottUbiu Nua inepintione judioutt et ofliiab euper plebeca eium votie 
flddibiu ttc rocain toslimnoiii, volii!t iniponi, uonloouu «am cum prioct- 
plbua popiUi ml; ad eonim aaaa prwem univeiMm «ondom anmmo 
mcordolja detiita honorit plcnitudiae, choriMiiattiai gntia suKtiSntiimuia 
iibcrute, ac pmccipoe humlllutie vittnts locupleMt: ut rector potiu* 
non extollatur, «ed in omiubua ne qasatum eat αα^οτ huraQlaaa, alt 
in ipnii quaij untu «x ΏΙμ; omnia jiidicJA Domini noatri noo pro as 
tantum ud at pro onini poputo qui oolliuitudjn! Rune crediluc oontre• 
miecone. ut qi)i niemincrit do epocutatonua maiubo* otnnium animaa 
requirendao, pro ommuiu «olute pervigilet, paatotali etga croditaa eibi 
am Domini diliRnotin «jin' «cmpor μ fUgreQUMtmnm oilproIiaiM 
nuuidatonun. Ut igitiir praeruturun omnibua. cleoDia ei οηηίΐκιβ. 
iiniTerna locrU tacnuidinqiiu idoueuH Cut, sub liac, ijuaa cat bomliu per 
liomiDem pOBtnmia boiiodictio, coneummaU xlqao ptnftela, nao 
oonaoerotioiija, iiosUaa eubpUoatfoiiie, adtootleniniii oonQonHMBmbqtt• 
omnnim prKUius acyuvemur ; onuduin pro lp*o orallo iiwmaliat, col 
narandi pro ODUiibue pnndiis imponltar. Impelnt ai affbotus tolius 
Eooleaiae virtatAm, pietntcm, iianotl6oalioiietii, et oaeleru annual 
■acurdotii eujDU dote» iinivonue Eeoluiiie profutunu, Domino Deo 
[lOHtro, qui Morornm monarom protlune fone oit, qiii dat omnibtia 
odfluantor, quod aaoondoll pio afleclu po§citiir. ad exuudandata in 
omniliue MDOtiAcaliotiein mioram onmium, prompUsume oc plenhriiaa 

Then followed the consecrating prayer. The MittaU 
Franeorum and the Qekai&n Sacramentary agree in giving 
bere the Soman t«xl Dens /lOnurum ωηηίν/η, but with 
a long additional pnssagu, whidi is wanting in tin 

' Tlili pAMtge 1> V<^ DOrrapt In tho XUt. Fr., whteb ntd» : fiubtnU 
trgA ertJilai riU ohm Domini lUUgcutiaa ajut irmfn μ fiaQrantittimum 
οΛρτΛαπ*. Τβ lUlSrtorHm ailigilur pratfutnitu, e» om«Oi<u dodnt, «r 
«UmAhj unfrerifa. . . . 

* Thu furmolury. irhich Ja nlaa Incampatitlc with Botniui Otag*, dfd 
not And it» «ητ lnt<i thf Pnntlflcotl, wlilcli boa b«rL' the ronnulaiy fflroci 
nliiie, at p. >IC0. ί'ηηιΐπκ-: /λ-πιΊιπ . . , •■nnfrriaU. U-l (ουιιι/ιιηΊιιΐΒ . . 
gw«d potfilur uietr'lvH (^rouifrnailo). 



Leonian and Gregorian Sacnimentariea.' It implies, like 
the remainder of the formulary, lliat several bishops are 
coDBecrated at the same lime, whilst the two addressee 
<]noCed above otti always ia Che singular number.' Elas- 
vrbere than ία Rome the simoltaneoua oonsecradoQ of 
several biebope must have been a rare occurrence. I am 
tborefoie inclined to believe Chat Che formulary ϋι thoroughly 
Bom&D, and that no Gallican form for this part of tbe 
ceremony bae been preserved. 

While the presiding bishop— that is. the metropolitan — 
ia saying tlie consocratia^ prayer, Ιπο bishops hold over 
the head of the candidate the open book of the Qoe{>els, 
and eacli of the buihops present places hLi hand u|>oo 

After the eonsecmling prayer come the anointing of 
cbe hands,* which ceremony was accompauiod by the 
following prayer * : — 

Ui^uantui mauun ulu du olu lanotifiekto el c^lirinoUe nnotlRoa- 
HooSm, uaut unxit Sikinufil Ι)ατϊι1 ia ragom •1 prophcUm j tta udk**'''!"'' 
Λ ooMnnimontur in iif>iniiie Dui Putrid et Pill! et Spiritue Hancti. ΓηοίηηΐΜ 
imaginem iiuiL-tai' crucin Snlvntori* domini noctii Jmii ClirUti tfui noa 
a tnoTto Tedemit el ad rcgiu caelonua penluclt, Exaudi nox. pic I^ter, 
omalpOteDS aelerao Di-un, ct praevta quod t« rc^miu « oramuA. 

■ ec« nbore, p. 361. 

* Ί'Ιιο Mimo miiM be mIiI ot tlie Rosuui inlroduolnry iimynn vlilrh tlip 
Mtualt Pranearam ptoooa )>τΓυιν the addiMi. Tho fornralnrin nRvr tliv 
ecaKcnttns ouioo in Uic unliufttka Ma« an.•, un iho oiiilrui}, *ll In 
ilic BiuKular amnbur. 

' Tiin kiuiiiiliiig ot tbc bond• it tbe 0η1]Γ mirthod uf luctiim mcntiuuHl 
In Uiv nuncnt Herovln^ui booka. Ί'ΙιιιΙ >•Γ tli« boul I• nnt rnund thuro; 
but in th•• tino αΓ Lnula iho Plou It «n« lb« oiwtnnuVT α•>κ« Ιο Prmuo: 
(AmaUiiii*. D- KW. Offirli: li. 14). 

' It la r-iiiiil only in llii- Mianle »iiiiMn>m MIowlnK thftt of llirprltiMo 
(•Mabevo,p. :]Τΐ).ιιη>Ι»ι t)'•- nililic ittmiUia. 1 tltiolc Ihnl Uii* U mil ««iiiiplc 
mriuiL but π ajiccul Γ>>πιιιι1οΓν for biehopt. TbU iliMiiirtimi i* ηοηΓππη- 
abli; will) |>mciiit nwii^', n(V»t>lin(r In vliloTi Ibi' fuOTDulary Oiiumwnlifr (« 
UK.'d lot pristU, and Unit of tTngiMntHr lot bitbop». 



In dealing wiUi the £eateni ceremomes, I vill confine 
my descriptions to thoee fambhed by tbo Afxatolic 
ConilittUiotK {vm., 4 et sttj.). and by the De StdaituiUu 
fficmrehia of Dionysiue tbe Ai^opagito (c 5).' 

If tbu ordiuation is that of α biahop. tlie candiilate 
is preeeiitvd to tliu oongrogation, at which several luBhope, 
sunxmndcd by tli» load clCTgy, preside. Tlte prinidp•! 
bishop— that in, by right, the tnetiopfilitau or his eab«titute 
— interrognte» tlie coiigr^&tion «$ to the identity of tbe 
candidate and bis qnalificatJone. la he tbe m a n of tlteir 
cJioice? Ha.4 he such luid ench η qualification for his 
poeitioii ί These quoslions are tbnce repeated, and at tbe 
thii'd time with additional •otenittity. The peopW were ex• 
pected to reply in η loud voice. " He is woilhy I 'AE*<>c iotiv." 

Then thi-ee of ibo bishops approach the altnr. The 
candidate kneels down, and while two deacons bold the 
open book of tbe Gospele on hie bead, tbu prceidiog 
bishop ledlea a consecrating prayer, eucbaiistJc in fonn, 
at th« und of whicli coiuea the response, Amc», 

The nowly made bishop is then conducUid to hia seat, 
receives the kies of peace, and then celebrates the Mass 

The same fonn i» observed in the case of priuste, 
deacons, deflconc^w, subdeAcons, and rctiders, «iUi ibe 
exception lliai tltu diocesau bishop alone prasidee at tbe 
ceremony. The consecmting prayers axv itlwa>'« accom- 
panied by tbe imposition of bauds. 

Such is the ritual of the AjtmUiUr. VmiMilution*} Tbe 

■ Thi) ICncbologion οΓ βαπρίοη but <inl]' tbn rormokrif•^ Xnfti^im 
trnferiatt•) Siu^wv <I'^) . . . wptreinipur (13) . . . twiarinu (U>. 

* Afli-r ϋιΐ) nvJllnit nf (Iti- κηιινκπιΐίιικ canuii over ih» hl«1io|>, tlw 
antbor «Γ the Ap, Onwl. adit* ; " κΓι tw iwia*iwv¥ ίτβ,φ•ρίτν tV >w#i•» Jvl 
(M- χ*ιιιύτΎ<ιβ xtipvreniMcrai.'' TboMt «cnU tiHTe do dcfu* mtuiing U>np. 



oeremooiee given in Dionyeius are fiuuiam«Dtally tko aam«, 
bnt thero aru some mont [iTQcisu detoib. For iostanoe, tfa« 
deaooo kooels on only onu kneo dithng tlie rvciting of 
the coneecnting pmycr. AHur this pmytir, the olScuiliiig 
minigter eigne the forabead of tbo oowly orduioed with 
the sign of the cross, and annouQccs solemnly bia name. 

We see that in all these rites the ceremony of 
ordination consists especially of α prayer recited over 
the candidate in a public and solemn assembly. Tbitt 
prayer is aocompanied by tbe imposition of hands.' In 
this geoeial fonn the ritual is that which we find in the 
New Testament.' We see, moreover, that the choice ol' 
llie rulers and mioisters of the Chiireh vna fiOui tbo 
beginning reserved to the apostles or to the» repre- 
sentatiree. ThU authority came naturally to be imssed 
on to the bishops, th^r eucoeesors and contiuuers of their 
wwk, as far as the rule of the local Christian oommQuitics 
was concerned. Λη for the insiallation of tbe bishops 
ihemsclvea, it was considered indispensable that it sboutd 
be entrusted to » more exalted authwity than the individual 
bisliop. This authority could be no otiier than the superior 
jurisdiction of the Church, tliat is, the colluctive upisoopal 
hierarchy. As it was impossible to bring togeUier at each 
ordination all the members of this hierarchy, it was amaged 
that it ^ould be represented by a group of DDigbbouring 
Uahops, or, in certain places, by tbe metropolitan bisliop. 

' It i• worUi while dting butu tlm wonk nf St. AiiKUBliac: "Quid 
oliuil tal DuuiaaB iupotilio iiiului omiin «upur lioniiaom ΐ " Tliti iilaw- 
VBtioii U w Inio ttiat (hu trop-wiii-m οΓ lianda in eiprcH ti.-rma U freqaenllj- 
(OnltUtd in tlic booki of rttnul. It wiw nrimlil'-rod lu bi- iiD)iUcd iu llic 
«m((o tufitr AoBMHcm. ll U nvoeMUj •Ι•ο hi tuiUi that in ahaon ull llie 
knowD fwiiHilwl•• of prayvr (Im degno to «bleb tlio candidBtc ii pro- 
iBOtod \» montiancd. I lay -αΐηκ•! »11." for Ibii imliualimi ύ α•Λ fuoiiil 
In ibr• ρ ny*T forUiunrdinalina ofu |>riMt la tlie Kucholouiou nf ixuajiioui. 

' &ou'vt. ύ . liJL a ; I Tim. I*. Η ; ΐ TIid. L 6l 

37β cBKisriA>- woKSHir: πβ obioin and evolution. 

Hence tho obligation of h&ving Uiroe buhope for a cod- 
aecration to tho episcopate, an obligation univorsally accepted 
from the bo^nning of Lbe fourLli century, except vrbero a 
eonaecrator sufficiently qualified to roproeent ia liimself 
the collective episcopate is in queetiou.' 

Beudee tliis inturventioQ of thieo bishops at tlio teoet, 
ei^copal ordioatiDti was cbaroctorisod, with the same tini- 
versality, by tho ceremony of the open book of the Gospels 
being placed on the head of the candidate.* This nte, which 
was already widely observed in the fourth century, cannot 
have bean altogether primitive, but it is certainly very ancient 

The anointing peculiar to the Gallicon rite must have 
been suggested by the Old Testament, where we have 
iruquent mention of the ajtoiating of priests. It would 
seem not to have been ver)' anciunt. Certain indicatioas 
would lead ua to look for its οήφη ία the Churchee of 
Britain,^ where it was practised as early as the sixth century. 

It was about this period, or lutber shortly after it, that 
the iraditio of liturgical vestmeute and other simiW insignia 
biigau to take their placu auioug the ocremonius of ontina- 
tioD. I have passed ovor in aileuoe up to tho prceent the 
indications funiishud uu this subject in tho Itoman Oniinei 
and other ritual autburitiue. This seems the proper moment 
to discuaa the matter. 

■ Tbl« li tho oun οΓ llic Pope- 1 «honld cut 1« utooUbed if it irerD 
foanl Ilmt η limilar oaage cxlilval in Al<>XU)dria ; tint I Itavt nn prenf of 
it. The Putriiircli of Alcsnotlrlii, Ιίλ* IIm Pnpv, •πιι iImi tiiitf liinliuji in 
hi• pmriocu Ht «liiMR anlluation Uil> rile of tlie impailtian ιιΓ Uid ΟοφβΙ 


* Seti. Iiowarvr, Uie rrautnlioiM polntnl out In tb(t pr«cnltiii|[ note. 
ThfM iloiNirtnm, Iiawcvcr, do not «ttnin Ilie Kimo nniroiMllt; a* tbo 
olMomuicc of tbe rile. 

' GiliLu it tlic inrliMt «otlior «ίο BimiUuai It, Tho Sbttut» kaos 
nothiiiK "Γ It. The «ime ia Uio ohm. I bolicn^, with the Pmnkkh «ilton 
οΓ the alsth evninn'. and the Bpftiiiuli up to liiiloni induun•. It wm 
klwajt non• wideljr pnu-tlar^ In firmt Itrltnlii lliiui «Innnlierti. CI. alMn. 
p. 370, tmte 1. 


1, 77m TunieU* and the Ptaneia. 

In the Gftb century the outdoor costume woni at Kome by 
ofiicinl persons coniiiBted eseentially of two garmenU — an 
under tnnic, with or without sleuvoe, and a paenvia, or 
itnmeDse cloak, which was sleeveless aod wiUiout any 
opening in front, llie head was passed through an aperture 
made in the centre of the ^^armeiit, and it was liAed in 
folds over the arms when tlie wearer required to malcv υβυ 
of his handa. We find %\us costume prescribed by a law 
of 397,* which forbids stinatora to appear at Some wearing 
the military cMamys. and permits the urn of the co/ofriu 
[Ϊ ΰοΐώητη, i-e, Cdobinm — Tb.] only, a sleeveless tunic, 
together with the paemUct, Thie is the coetuine which 
n-e soe portrayed in a painting of about the fifth 
cetituiy, repreieuting a Pauft^ue anaumat with his 
BtHi.* When, however, they wore uugaged in the exercise of 
their ftinctions, the magietiates continuvd to wctir the tog». 
The οβάαΙίΛ (apparitors, attendfuits), when iu full dress, 
ώο donned the patii«la over the tunic ; but in this cose 
the undergarment woe confined at the waist by α girdle. 

' Cod.llKe<I..XIV.,i. 1. 

> AimaH Mr /wMulo. Ι8ββ. pi. 1. 

* (I linif tmuatHleil lliu wuril "CTiuique" la Uie Preoo}) utiglna], iff 
" tiinlc," ntbon ii denote• Uiu clualonl ipinttMit. kiiil "tDaicln" wUca the 
llturgicol t'ealni<-'iil » i» iinHilon. 'ItM-rc U luily uni- •**νΑ fur Inlh in 
KrniiJh.— Τ«.] 


In addition to Uieeo, thej h«d to wear oonepicnouety a 
bright^oloiired palli»m. u a badge of tlieir ofBoe.* This 
paiimm vaa a lort of scarf; Iho two figures 1914 and 191S 
in Saglio's Dictionary of Aaltquiiius uxlubiL the manner ic 
which it was worn, oither over the ptunvia, or merely over 
tJie tunic. 

With thv exception of the pallium^ of which we shall 
have occastoa to speak later on, the dn»H of the Boman 
cler^ wiM absolutely identical with the dreee of a 
civilian of the timi; having eoinu position. Pope Colustinc, 
in α letter'' addrvssud to tbu Bishopa of Proveoos. cdo- 
detnne tbo use of any special eccleeiusticftl costumu, 
which is clearly a proof that none existed in bis own 
Oburoh or in the countriea niider his immediate jnriedic- 
tion.' The dociuneots, litiirgicnl or otherwiee, dealing witli 
llie Itomau nae, take for granti^d that all ecclesiastics, ftom 
the Pope down to an acolyte, or even beneath him wore 
the planeta, or pacaula, with the tnnic under it. The 
planeta waa usually dark in hae, either biOwn or violet 
{purjnirea), while the tunic was of α light colour. This 
costume woe still used in the sixth centuiy by Laymen of 
distinction. The biography of iit. Knlgentiua relates that 

■ "DiKolorlbiiH pnllKi poottn* oonteernt*• aandiltaiii• «luut iiMoMlUtoni 
tx hnjinauadi ngiiltiaiin uatiuitBr." Thia acait ii motdy λ enitallei Dm 
«f Uic pallium, at luidL-ut monlU•- Kiurjtliiug U povilbla la tliate Uad• 
tiT tr«n*funiiiitluii8. Tlx' π<1ίκίυ"« οΓ ih'iCaId οιιΐϋκκαΐίοιι» of r«c<*lw 
olnlki (at Mount i^l. Riimiuil, for liialAncv, »1 Kloittrmnubnr); and θΙ*α• 
wlieic-) itUl wuir uvor tlxi-ii liabiu α ILnrik faapd dL-poDding in bout aad 
l«l>iud. It b nut tLrue iuvliM lu «iJtL•. Thli U do ollwr, bowcrtr, 
thui α loubet. thol 1« to my, a Itmg tnuio wlUi ■IticvM. Aftor tU> we 
■InU aaftiMly btr mrprlKsl to Hod α imuitlu bNumine ruduocd hi ft 

' JtOt. 369. 

' Th» •1»ΒθΓηΙ{οη of lb* mckniDg nttMbed to tbu prieitl; TMttMnU 
at Uio Old UlipeninUon «rbldli li found lu tbs pnjac tot tbo onHuMIhd 
i4 VUtOft (of. rupn, 360), aim pnaappiea tliol lit llii^ lime iJhiit prnjer 
«n« dni*ii up Ib«ro wvro not nuj tikurly diillQod UUir^^iuil «Mttumt*. 




when the saint dieein barked od the coaet of A&ica, aflor 
bis rcliirn frum cxilf, the noblee spread out their planetw 
over his head to shelter him from the rain which wte 
falling at the time. John, Che deacon, in hia Life of St. 
Gregory, deecribea the costume of that Pope and bis fatber 
Gordianus from uout«mpoiiu-y pictures ; ' both are dressed 
aliko, and cacb woam over the dalmatic a cbeetnut-coloured 

The uader-tunic baa become the albe, &om which have 
been derived, through various modificatioas, the canon's 
rochet and the surplice; both of those garments may bo 
worn by clcrkt) of diffurunt ordui». Tbu planeta hoe 
become the chnsuble, now acorculy over worn ' uxccpl by 
priest» and bisbops. It was a costly gamiunt, and the 
inferior clurg}' j{avu up its ubc at an early date. 

Beyond Lhu limits of JKomo, the liturgical dress com- 
prised mnch the samu gormonta, namely, the albe (iunutt 
linea, alba, ατιχάριον) and the planeta, called bLw eaetUa 
(chasuble) or amphtbalumi^ ua^ in Grwk ^Wffrtton (ftXuMov). 
The elbe of the deacon, although not of tbo shape of the 
dalmatic, whicli was peciiiiur to the Roman use, was, 
however, of a moro costly material than that worn by the 
ordinary clerk. It woe not ooofined to the waist by a 
girdle, but fell straight from the shouldera.' 

' In IiUt and oUici penllenlMl nuoiur, U ΰ ■till worn hj the deawon» 

* Ttwao two tomu ktc mul wltb for Uie llist tlno hi denote α liluijloJ 
vntncnt in Ibo Initliw οΓ St. 0«niiaiii of Fuifc At Bomu, Uic «ord 
platula -ma UM-d. but id oritrin ia imknmra. Tbe Una otnrfmor nUiar 
nxMtili; Bppcar> ttiuro fur tlin flrtt tlmo Is Ui• Llfo of BltfiheD II. 
{Lib. Von., Tol. i. |i. 443, I. 18), «nd «gnin imilur κ t«ty ootTWfi fonn 

' It U tbna doaribol bjr BL (ίοπηΒία of Pari•; the <ir<«k doftoeo• have 
>lw*y• worn it lii lliu miutoi'r. 

* [A n'liMduution of λ pieturv ■graoing willi thit duveripliou in girca la 
Muriotl'a rerituriiim CbrtManitim, Plate ZXV.— T«.J 


2. The ItatnuUie. 

Bttidee these two osecutinl vcstmonte, common to «U 
tlie olergy, the Pope and hb deacons wore, on feitirtle, 
between the ordinary tonic {liiua) and the planet•, α second 
luiuc with large eleeves, called a dalmatic. Tbia oombi- 
nntion of the three garmente was need oonaiderably anterior 
to the time wheo the eccleeioetical costume became stereo• 
typed. On the day of hia martyrdom (258) St. Cyprian 
wore a linen tnnic, a dalmatic, and an orer-gannent, 
answering to the pacnula, or planeta.' As early as the 
end of the fifth ccntuiy the dalmatic, which had passed out 
of fashion as an ordinary aTticIe of clothing, had become 
the distinguishing badge of the Fope and his clergy.' The 
Pope sometimes griinted it ae au honorary decoration lo 
bishops and deacons of other Chorchos. Pope Synunachus 
{eire. .^13) conferred this privilego ou Uio deacons of Arlos ; 
St. Gregory made α siniiltu- gift (»99) to the Bishop of Gap 
and hia archdeacon. ' Tlie bisliops and deacons of Ravenna, 

■ Artn procKiru-, h: "Sc laoornu byrm exipolinvil et genQ in lerra 
βοχΗ ct in urntunfin bc DomiDo pruslmril. Kl oum m• dalouUcft 
I'lep-ilLuMul at dlnooDtbtu UftJiiliMicl, in UiM« alvtit el oocjitt ηιοβαΐβίοηο 

■ Tho ΙΛ. PoniSf. (vol. i. p. IT), of my edition) aliriboie• iho uiton. 
duetion of it to Ρϋ|ι« t^ilTcoUrr. The lu^rtOdary llfn uf SL Kllnrtcr, 
writtPD et tha cud of tlic flfth «.-Dtiiry, doa not malce it eo ba«k μ liu, 
bul impli'e thnt It linil bwn In lum Tor »boiit. a coDtury. It ΛοιΜ be 
noUid Ihiit,' aoDordlag to the author of tliU doauntoit, tlie Bomui Jiteoail 
InaioU' wiu at tlit< uulari Iht• nme lu Ibe rolabur, wlileb the «mpMOr 
Honnriua votnamudfil hie «i^mitiir* to wrar «a Ibflr ontdoor Iniiie <«m *mpMt 
p. 87.t). 

' Vita SI. Ouwin'i. e. 4 fN'?»•^- 1'•>'• £«(■■ ""ί- ls*f- Ρ- ΙΟΙβ): Ores- 
U.. £ρ-. ii. 107 (ΐΙ9) !^t. (1ηΐ)ΤΊ7 *<>■ vw «rvfol lo tved daliMtjia 
n-iidy mnd» to finp, whii'h iilnnni liiut Ihoy wen; col αηκίΐτ -^-■~ - 'Ίηΐ 
uoniitry. Wc οΐΐ™ «cp quutcd ii aiinilar οοοομβΙοπ by Pet» • ιλ 

Anitrubcrt. Biihap ef Vknm^: but tlie ilootuoMtl wbieb Mut^iui i^ i• ui 
•pucrjfbiLl k-llor (Jitff^. HiS). 


who are represented io the mosaics of the sixth century, 
also wear the dalmatic, doubtless in virtae of some similar 

3. The " Sfappula " and the Sleeves. 

Besides the dalmatic, the Liier PojUifiealis, at the 
beginning of the sixth centuiy, mentions another gannent 
pecaliar to the Roman deacons, and also to those of the 
suburbicarian diocese.' This is the pallium linostimum, 
which is worn on the left ann. This pallium linostimum, 
woven of wool and linen, is merely a variety of the 
napkin, or viappula, which formed part of some cere• 
monial costumes — that, for instance, of the consnl who 
presided over the £udi circerwts. The Ordinea of the nintii 
century speak of the mappula of the Pope. This article 
of apparel is, however, never found at Some on the 
mosaics or other monuments representing persons before 
the twelfth century. This was, no doubt, owing to 
the fact that the mappula was only used on certain 
occaaione, and being liable to be constantly laid aside 
and resumed, it was not considered as constituting port 
of the costume. On the other hand, when we have a 
representation of persons in the act of presenting or 
receiving an object, a napkin of some costly material, 
unfolded, almost always lies acroaa their hands. Some 
ancient monuments,^ which have no connection with 
liturgical vestments, show us how the mappula was carried 
when it was not in use for presenting or receiving some 
object. It was folded together and placed over the right 

■ Vol. i. pp. 171, 189, note H2 ; p. 2ΐΰ, noU % 

' Λ Synduim painting, pnUiahod b; Do Βομϊ, Svil., 1S77, pL zi. ; of. 
tbo bae-relicf found >t Travanx (Jnn), and pobltihcd bjr Fire Thtfdeiwt la 
the BmIIcUi Jet Antiqiiairet tie Franee, 1887, p. 178. 

384 cnRiaruN worship: π» OUOIH ΑΙΠ> ΒΤΟΜΓΓΙΟΚ. 

unit wiib lltu ottntoiilios hiiogio;; iloirn. much an we anw 
we lh« Latin priestn, deeoona, and sobdeaoone weario^ 
the manipH wbicb is, indeed, none other than a modi• 
GcatioD of the ancient mappiUa. 

As a dittingniBhing liturgical badf^e. Xho mappn/a ia 
not mot with oateido Bomo.' In the Kael. however, and 
iu Oallioan oountriue.* sloovue of some costly materia) wei» 
worn (manualiii, mantcar, Ινιμανίκια), which extended over 
the edge of the Ionic at the vnatst. 

'Die rartona litargical veetmeatB which we have hitherto 
niouliouod were merely the ordinary garmonls of doily tiso. 
whicli were gradually invoetcd with a sacred character. Wo 
now oome to the ecclesiaetical innignia properly so called. 

4. Thf Pallium. 

As early as the end of the Gllh cootury the pope wore 
Λ dietiDguisliin;^ badge, lo which tlto name of paUium vaa 
applied. It was a long band of white wooUeo stuff, draped 
over the shotildere with the two ends depending, one bePcm, 
one behind. 

The Bishop of Ostia also wore it by special privtli^ 
as the usual consocrator of the pope, and the Budiope of 
Ravenna shared this honour, as is seen on the mosaics in 
which they figure. Pope Symmachus also conceded it to 
i>t. Cicearius of Aries, a coucobsjou which was renewed in 

> It id pnattlili- thai (hn InytaiiTiar, nr kind οΓ l«aD|IO-«hil|Md plltae. 
wbidi tlio Gioek bUbupa «rear hons-tne fnun tliu rifibt «ido αΓ their sMlo, 
awkj kbo be α relia of llio mappuin. 

■ Bt Oamuin. Bp. 1. [In tlin noniMeriiiL knoao ui -The Bitle <f 
ChailM tbc Bald." ilic• πιπ}•ρνΙα ν »,ψρν*ηΛγ it y i uwiu tcd. See «tifomo• 
llthogi^li iu Ilooolio, Oi^pivt4M ••/ OMw uifc TdL iu plftle «{φίΜίΙο 
^ 81.-Ta] 


LfTjaOKM, VnrilRNTS. 

the case of hie aucceesora. We see Stv Gregory oonferriug 
the paUimn od tbe Biabope of Syrncuae, Messina, Milan, 
Salona, Nioopolie, Corintb, Jnstiniana Prima, Anton, Seville, 
and Canterbury. 

This mark of hoQanr «i^ears to derire ite origin from 
•D Imperial gift. Id tbe ej^th oentTiry thU was the 
opLuiou of tlie forger of the Donatioa οΓ ConatanUae, when 
b« mokee that emperor beetow upon St. Silvester the 
euperhutMraU, vuUtieet iorittn qui ivipertale eireutadan oBtoUt 
coUum, In the sixth century, when the Popes granted the 
pallium to bishope who were not subjects of the Greek 
Empire, it was customary for them to first ask tlie aathori- 
satJon of the emperor.* Tbe Utter, moreover, claimed the 
right of bestowing it directly, for in the seveuth century 
we find Muurus, Archbishop of Bavcoua, mking the 
Empen»' Conetons II. fur it, and obtaining it. But theoce- 
forward such a step was regarded as equivalent to α revolt 
■gamst the Pope's supremacy. The Boman paUium gn- 
doally acquired a symbolic significance. It was regarded oa 
α relic, that is, as a sort of replica of the mantle of St. Peter. 
Before despatching it to its destLnatUMi, it was depoeited 
for the whole of tlie previous night in the sanctuary of the 
Confano, iutinv^lialuly above the tomb of the apoellv. Si. 
Pot«r was regardwl as having slept a night under this 
mantle, and it thus bucAmo hia own. By a vory slight 
exteusiou of tduas it came to connote a kind of trans- 
mittion of power, like that symbolised by the numtlo of 

■ Title WM «hoi Tigiliiu did in Die owo «f Auxuliu mi<I AvrIIiui, 
lIUIiop* ot AjIm; in tlto oaae nf tbu otber blabop•. Si^BiidiM, T^reUtoa. oed 
Floriu, no pctmlMLeD 1• rreonlnl, and it i» pMalbl» (hut In Um ooil Ibo 
mthorinliuD fru gnuiti^d iu |wrprtiilt; for the Biahopi οΓ Aflca. St. 
Ongorjr Mkad It In the ewe of the Biidiop οΓ Aatnn. tral don not •π>«•γ 
to bare Ano μ bt IhoM «T BfrllUi and Ontotlnuy. Tbe ktbr «m. 
boiroTnr. • Romui tDOok. a «olgMt of Uio Bmporar Mkvleo, uut Lender 
of SnvUlo tuMl Majrod al ilic Cunrt uf OoMfamUncylB. wbera bo wm will 

2 c 


Elijab, passed on to bis sacooseor Elieha.* Tbo paUitm 
thne boc&me the natural aign of u sapertor jurisdtctdoD, 
th&t is, of ft epeciea of patticipatloQ ία tlio Patee mvs -ouat. 
Ax early as the sixth cunluiy tlie Biebope of Ariea^ and 
in the following centurj' those of CaDlurbury, wore It u 
ft murk of the special powers wliicL• Lltey luul ivoeivod tron 

On th« concliLsiun of the olliuuoo botweeo the Pope and 
the Corloviugion princva, whun the Fnnkish Chanh found 
itself more closely related to Boma, t^iu meuopolitans acce pt ed 
the Roman pallium with the symbolism attached to it. 

Tliis conception of the pallium aa a maotle was 
soggosbed rather by the word iteelf than by the thing 
denoted. The article deaignated by thie term woa not is 
the form of a ganneot, but of a ecari'. In tho lust analysia 
thie ecarf was, no doubt, a relic of the short mantlu which 
had been brought into fashion in the Itomao Empire by the 
GrtHiks. But the diseolora pallia of the Ttwodosion Code 
wcru tividcntly scarves, and scarves of office, which vrere 
worn ovur the paanUtt, as the pontifical paltium was worn 
OTur iho pluneta. The Tbeodoeian Code mentions this sign 
of oSicv only in connection with fuuctioDarius of a com- 
perfttiTcly bumble rank, but the monuments rvpment it 
on the ahouldera of consuls, a fact which jrivea ground for 
belief that Ihe Imperial Government confurTOd, in leali^, 
a very great mark of honour on the ecclesiastical dignitaries 
upon whom they bestowed it, 

Δ glance at a consular diptych* will illnstrate what 
I mean. The consul is there represented in the meet 
solemn act of hLi inauguration, vix. at the momeat 
when he gives the signal to start the horses in the arena. 

■ A> tAilf Μ th» uidi ccDtniy λ riuiUf meomng wm aUad)«d lo Ibe 
paHnm nf AloSMtdria (Liberaliu. Bm,. 20). 

' ζ¥<Μ riAinpIc, No. .HlW — 1671 in thn Hoalh KniuriDgloii Unoouai. ιττρ««• 
•cdUd); AnniitaBiiu, Cuiunl at tho EW, t.t*. 617.— Tii.J 



Orer his garments wu dUlingiuab a long searf arranged in 
the foUowing manner. One end paeaes over the left ahonlder 
and hangs do<ivn in front almost to the feet ; this extremity 
is folded, and has tbu ap^oaianoo of a long vertical orphi^; 
from the lefb shoulder tho acorf paeeoe across the back, 
under the right arm, aud is brought up <]ia;;oiiaIly over the 
braatt towards the kft abouldi-r, where il can U> spread out 
at will ovei- the upper part of the back, and passes again 
under the right arm to termiuata at the left baud, with a 
slight curve of drapery buluvr the girdlo ; the end is either 
held in the loft hand or thrown over the left wrists In 
the diptychs of thv nislli century, instoad of falling trom 
the left shoulder, the lirst end dupunds &um the right 
shoulder, but oare is tint tolcen to bring it fonrait] towards 
the miitdlu of tbu brcwt, in such a mauiiur thai the end 
falls strvgbt down the ceutru of tbv body, between Lbo 
legs;. This is kept in place either by moans of a fibula, 
which socume tbu orpliroy on the bruost, or by merely 
skilfully tighUiuiu^ thu scarf. 

This drupod satrt', whicli is uot so much a moditication 
of the classical paUittm us uf the Boman toga, presents a 
striking similarity Ui the appearaoou of the pontifical 
pallium as il is rvpitiseulud on Uie ancient monuments. 
The latter, bowerer, ie not nearly so wide. It is not a 
piece of drapeiy richly embroidered and tarminatod by an 
otphrey, but a long narrow band of white woollen material, 
of the same width throughout, without any other ornamoot 
than a small black cross at each extremity. Otherwise it 
is draped in exactly the same way as the consular scarf, 
except that the second end, instead of being brought round 
in front to terminate in tbu left hand, is left free, and (alls 
down behind. To prevent it from dragging on the gionnd, 
it is cut short at the ankles, or oven mther higher. 

Thus, by its scorMike form and its armngemont, tho 
pontilical pallium reveals its official origin. It is to bo 


regretted, aft far as tbe Koman ChiiniL• is oooceru«d, thftt 
w« Lave no ilociini«nt relaliog to it< jrroreMintic or tlM 
earlier tbati the beginniiig of the sisth oeotur;. At the 
limu whoo il first oomM beforo ue, that is, under Pope 
Syinma«bus, thb Romiui Church woe eep«iated bfxn Coo- 
stADtiDOplo by a βυΐιΰηι ; it was thoroforo not tbe moment 
for her to enjoy Imperial favours. Tliis had been the 
eitnatioo eince the yuur 484. For several years before 
the latter date Komc bod ceoeod to owe allegiaiic« to the 
emperors, and had passed under the rule of l«rbtuian 
princes. We must therefore ro back well into the fifth 
century to find a favountblo time for its institutiun. Ob 
the other hand, Ibu Biabope of GaiJ and Spiun ' had, 
apart from the Romaa pallium, which bad been granted to 
some of ihuin from the sixth century onward, a pallium 
which thuy used as η sign of ofntH.% and which appeus 
to have had the aarue sluifte as that worn by the FOpe. 
This would lead tut to believe that Uie Iinjierial grant 
of this ornament went back to α lime when Uie whole 
of Oaul woe still Itonian, that is to say, to the first half of 
the fifth centurj•. 'Hie African bishops also wore the ^xiJ- 
tium as a sign of their ol)ice> If tliey held it liom the 
emperor, they must havn received it before the invasion 
of the VandaU. It is to the same period that we mast 
refer the most ancient mention of the pailium fonod in 

> 8L Oermoin of Fori•, Mp. t. Τΐιυ Bnt ConnGil of Htcut (S8I) IMnde 
Ullloii• to oplftrnttn Mom wittiunt Uio patliHnu Ut ajitMPfnw «i'im jnlHo 
Mtwi* iHeere ttou pra«fvi»a.t. The raadlng arMrfbeopiu, which ia Knind 
ia the priulvil leiu^ In mun-ly tbu oditar'• comcllon: Uig nianiucripl• nwl 
ηΑαρ^ΐΛ. Cf, IiOtuiiujc, Drvireh. Kiiehenneht, TuL iL p. M. ΐ••τ .S|«lii, WK 
it\/ni. p. 301. 

■ L[f» of 8L Fnlgontiui, eli. 18. 8t FnlKeBUoa, Mt of hutoilltf , fiirbom 
to wear It : " Oiftrle iiiildom dcat nnMut cplioapl Dmnqnara nWfealw." The 
torm orarlum hna no dilFoiviit Import: It I• Mod In Spain (Cbn«. Tol., Iv. 
α 37). km] tvtn nt BomG (ΙΛ. ΓαβΙ.. τηΐ i. ψ. 4TS. L S). 1β dnou Um 
•ptaeop•! puUivm. 



the ecetesiaetical literaiure of the KaeU St. Isidore οΓ 
Felnsium ^ is already faiailiar with thU sign of office 
under ite Qi-e«k oame of omophorion ; he attaches to it 
also a symbolic eigaificance, wliidi leads us to ifaink that 
its introduotioo was oot of recent date. 

I should, therefore, be inclined to believe that its 
origin must be sought rather in the fourth century than 
IB the century following. 

In these early tJme», the paiUum woe the distinc- 
tive murk of episcopal authority in full oxorciso. When 
a Pope or patriarch wat» deposed, hi» 2>ailium- vms taken 
from him. When Pope Folix IV. dusirDtl to invOst his 
suceeeaor before his own duatlt. hu doUvervd up to him 
hig paUium.' It would seem that in iho Knat, and 
also in ooiiiitries folluwiti}• the Gallicau use, the pailmvt 
,yr)U) worn indisoriininntely by bU biaho]», and it is ίηι• 
' j^OB^iblu to say whether or not they needed to Iw ioveetwl 
with it by their motropoUtans or pntriiuvlis. The liomau 
custom of ruscrviu^ this mark of honour for ceitain biehoi» 
only, and of sending it to them from Itome, appears to 
be A modiftcftlion of the primitive institution. I am nther 
incliued to believv that it had some oonncctiou with tliu 
change of idcAs uud of laugun^ which transformed au otBcial 
badge into α relic of the apostle Peter. 

Although orif^iDiilly derived from the same sonroe ae 
ttiat of other bishops, the Pope's pallium acquired gnadually 
α diHercnt and more exalted signiGconco. One cittum• 
■hgwT which most have added considerably to its prestige, 
Irtf «M fact thaU with tho exceptions of those of Ostia and 
itaveoDa, the suf&agan bishops of Kcme luid not tho right 
to wear it, either because the Pope, from llie tirat, was 
opposed to their receiving it, or else — which would be 

> Sp.. 1 13(1. 

* 8m xa. lOnti/., νΛ. i i>. ^«i, juiu, *: p. ta. t i: p. an, I i, a-, 

p. 171. 1. 3 ; TlMnrliiiDiii*, A- h. 0221 : υΓ ht/ni, »5, imiIo 1. 


iiioet unlikely — beoause tie bad eubeequently * deprived 
tliom of it.• 

5. 27ίί Stale. 

The bi»hope were not the only ecckoUBtdcal digniuuioe 
to receive a special distinguislimg mark. The prieeta 
and dotcoos had also their roepectivu insignia. Here, 
bowevvr, we must pause to diatinguieli betweoa tbti 
Bomon ciutom and that of other countrioe. At fiome. 
the wearing of insignia seems ιό have met nith little 
flkToar, u wu have already seen Γγοιπ tlit- letter of Pope 
Celeetioe to tlie Bishops of i'rovuuct;. This ia toore 
otoorly accentuated by tbe fact that the orarium of tlio 
priest aud (loacOD, considered as » conapicuuiu mark of 
distinction, was unknown there, certainly aa latu lu ibu 
IcQih centory, whereas elaewbere it was univenally adopted. 
The orarium is doubtl&<4s mentiooed in the Orditta of the 
nlotb ceottuy, but we see tliere also that this voetment 
was worn by acolytes and aubdeocona as well as by the 
suiwrior orders, and tliat its place was under the outer 
ganaenl, wlietber dalmatic or planeta, and not over it. 
This orarium was merely the ancient sitdariitm (band- 

' tho btthnp• of tlio tubnrbicuriui dino»e w«rr b α mnnli bk>i« mt^ 
ocdioato poritlMi with η>κ•η| Ιο Ιΐκι Pupo llinn otlicr 1tl*lu>is were villi 
Uiulr moln^oUUi». Tliv; «ere obligcil to cutnc tu Bonn.- tu bu «maccntal, 
and Ibo coiuicrmtiuii wnt {κτΓοπηηΙ by tiic 1'ί>ρ)' κΐιιηο. «lUionl tlio oce• 
οηητηη! of ouiat bubnp•. They lioil not thu riglit «I» to f(«uid niral 
CbmcliM witlunil the Fopo'• antlmriMUon. Aii («ninliMtioo of tfacneblua 
cf GolMltas PoU^ua. λοΔ tit. OtVKOiy «ill rafllcv to ■Uow tbo difonme• 
Id thi- ndainistrntitiD of llin Ιίιηπαη pnivbtra and IIiaI uf Ailu•, Γι•ι iiutuu^ 
«Γ Milan. Like tliu Afriofto bUbopB. Uic pn^kto* οΓ βσαύί Italy «Irilm m 
Μ ooonpytnx tho |Ki«iliou ot liii|MrUut jiwitb jiriivt•. rather tbna llwl of 
aetniu ηϋοπ οΓ illuDtMa. 

* [I'roUtbly Ihr tnrlint repmcalatun) of an Gn|Eli*li Mclibbbop wtailag 
tbc f>if/i<>fn (Ixwidm tbit κίοΐι-} 1> in Abbot Elfuuth'i Book of Pmjroi• 
(Huloiiia Huiuaorijit, No. ΪΙΜίΙ), υι AnKlo^ltexon uoniiKript of Ike (ailh 
Μ doviuttb aii)tui7 in tbc llritiih MtuvDiD, when the kbUt la depleted 
oflferin^ ft li«ik teSU Au^iMtinc— Τκ.) 



kerdiief, or Declcclotb), which came finally to take α special 
shape, and to become even an acoesaory of cerotnomal 
dnae/ but not a distingaishiiig mark. I know of no 
Roman repreaeotntion of it before the twelilh ceniuiy. 
The piieete and deaoonn whom we see in the moeaioe 
never exhibit this detail of ooetumo. 

Klaowhtm; it was not so. Towards the end of (be 
foarth century tlie Coancil of I^odicea in Pfarygia forbade 
the minor orders {rabdeaoon•, luotore, etc.) to asurp the 
vrarium. St. Isidore of iOlusinm" reganled it as some- 
thing analogoos to th« «piscopal ptMum, esciipl that it 
was of linen, whon»s the paUiuvi was of wool. Tlie sermon 
on the Prodigal Son, altribntod to St. John Chrysostom, 
usee the same term ύ9άνη, and adtls that this article of 
dnae was worn over the left ehoolder, aod that its Buttering 
recalled that of angels' wings. 

The Cireek deacons still wear the stole in this manner ; 
it is thiu quite oonspieuous, being over the upper garment, 
iind Rficured on the loft ehoiddcr. lie ancient name of orarium 
(άιράρ^ον) still clings lo it. As lo the priostly orarivm, il 
is worn, like the stole of the Lntiu prtusl«, around the neck, 
n-ith the two <mds falling in ίτοΏΐ ulmatt down lo the foot. 
Tliie ίϋ what is called the epitnuJuiion. {iiiiTftti\ti\wv). 

Thetie diHUnctioDa are also fmiud iu Spain and Qnnl, 
Tlio Council of Braga, in 6ΰ1,' decreed that deacona were not 
bo wear llieir oruria nnder the t-niiicle, lest tJiey might not 

' It nt Ifoplli rtiocivKil (like Ui« 1\φο'• palliumy u hluil υΓ oonwontioa, 

«bldi oonfrrnxl u|hiii It thu ιι•!!!!;» nf η πΊΙυ. TIic omWit glvea hi the 

'^oiadiiUk• fat ordinaUan on Rinbor Salitntap hud been dcpoetcd dnrlng 

tliu |ir«oeding ηΙκΊΐ in Ihf Cm/enio οΓ lit. fvUir. ll ia «onmu thMt tbo 

btogretfiiMn of Ι'ί^ΧΒ Afftlliu kud titcpbcn HI. imu tliu void oratium xa 

dcalgnale tbo{wttiareliidt>(|)oDtilii»tjM/fium(Zi(i>, PanCiVoL ί. |)p. 3ΐ1,1Τΐ). 

' I/Oo. oft : " Ή iHni /iif it λιιτβνρ>βν#υ' hr iyion al itimtru," 

* "IloB pUrnit «t ψύΛ lu «llqaontl• liuju* prvvlnoluD imdoiiii 

(USOODM nlaooniiU liifni lunioun otanlnr omnia, ita ut nihil difforri ft 

Mbdlftscdw Tidtnnlnr, d« ccloni «upvriiuaito MspuliKs unut dowil, utimlur 


392 cHKisTUK wouButP: ITS osiGiK Attn KvoLunoy. 

be distio^ishable fVom eubdeooons, bnl «bore it, and over 
ϋΐθ sboulder. Tlie Council of Toledo, ία 633, defiued (c. 27) 
the orariitm, as a. dietisgui»hing mark, commoD to the 
three major onleis, bishope, prii^to, and duacone. It ApeoiSed 
(c 39) that the deacon should wenr it over his left 
shoulder, and that it should be white, without admixture 
of colours or gold embroidery. Aiiotlier Council of 
Btoga, held in 670, forbade prieita (o. 8) to celebrate 
Moss without having on orarittm paeeed round the cock 
und crossed on the breoet, exactly ae the Latin pricete 
wear it at the proa«nt day. St. Germain of Paris 8|NsiIca 
of episcopal and also of diaoonol insignia ; he giree to the 
lintt Ihc uiuuu of pailiutn, stating that it is worn toniul 
the neck, that it falla over the breast, and is tomiinnted 
by u b-ingu. Ho citUa the diaconal distingniahing work 
a stole {siola), and says that the deacon wears it over 
the albe. This fashion of wearing the diaoonol stole 
sproad, dming th« Middle Ages, over nearly the whole 
of Italy, and even to the pates of Itomc.' In Rome 
itself thu ancient custom seems to have hocu retained, 
but with α compiODiiflo. When the dioconol stole was at 
length adopted there, it was worn, indeed, ooroee the left 
shoulder, but always under the dalmatic or ploneto.* 

The prwsbytcr's stole was also adopted, and in the 
mosaics of Suutu Maria in Trustevcrc (twelfth century) 
we see a priust wearing that vcstmuut. It is to be noted 
that the four Popes who appear ,in the same mosaic are 
wearing the pallium, but not the stole. The one 9eems to 
ezolnde the other. In fact, the Ordina of the ninth 
century, when describing tjie dress of the Pope, always 
omit the stole. On those inonumente, moreover, where both 

' 8m llifi ίν*ΐηιηΓ of ΐΛ. Lnuicnni in tlic iUuftrolUnt <Λ Ibe Tltoll 
MrfMfnWiim (Otuiu. It ngettn di IVcoIJ, ]il, it.). 

■ TliM ΒΠΜηιιιΝ for it luvtiig to bv MUtilit toKCthor at UM «πήΙ. UmI it 
nishl be worn boailutier-fuliloti. 



ore ropreseuted, we observe a striking reaemblflooo betweoo 
the two. To be oonvinced of this, it is merely Qeccssnry 
to glance st the mosaic which I have just inculton»), or 
at the miiiintiir^s of the Tivoli earivlarium. In the latter 
we (tea gronped together the Fopo, witJi his /Kt//tiim orer 
his planeta, and the BTiburbicariAn bishope, vilh their 
siolefi uuder the some veetmeut. Both etolea and paliivm 
are of exactly the aanie sliape and colour, and are oma- 
nieuled with the same little black crosses. It ia tliere- 
fore quite cooceivable that whoever wore one of tJiese 
two insignia might not wear the other.' 

In the end, however, a oombiiiatioQ of the two «as 
effected. At Kaveona, where a love for dooomUona was 
always evinced, we see Id the luoeatce of San Yitole, Bishop 
Kculeaius (sixth century) weariog both Uie piiostly stole 
and the Itoman peUtium. This picture seems to l)o an 
ieohued iustaooe,* the other Btslioi» of Karoonu, snccouora 
of Kcclesius, being iO|intsentud with the pallmm only. 
Both are seen worn togtilher in a SitcmRiunuiry οϊ the ninth 
coDtuiy* from Autiiii. utid ou thu palioUu [ahiir ci^ivuriugj of 
San Ambrogiu of Milan ; and such appcan U> have boon Ibo 
CDstom che&oeforward among the Vtankislt clergy. 

If we take these facts into ooastderatiOD, and also the 
differencee and modifications, we are thus led to trace the 
history of the insignia known under the names jellium, 
omophoriou, orariuiu, stole, uuil vpliracholiou. All have a 
common origin. They are dielinguisluag marks of dignity, 
introduced into ecclveiastica) use during the fourtli oontury, 

■ Of. the [«itttiiiK in Sob acmcuto (Do Bum, £»0., ISGA, p. S) tvpn- 
MaliBg Ft/pi NieholH ttuiwlaliof Uie icnuinii οΓ SL Clwacat. Tlio I'opu 
«oan ill• yaUum, but no ilole. θΐ. Uetliodlu• uid aaotber Uxhuii, •ΐια 
ura B«Ulins »t (bv ouTMnooy, haro the «tele, Imt nM iLe fttlUtum. Tlio 
paintiDg U of Ιΐιυ twulftli cpiiluxy. 

* It ahonld txt Baoertiumxl whether iLi» !■ α TMluntlcn ev nut. 

' 8m the rcpnidnetion publiihud by ttima. L. OcImIc In ihn uuctta 

394 ciniifiTiAH wossnip: rrs ouigim ami evolttion. 

iLDd niettmbliog Uioee preecribecl by tbe Tbeodosian Code for 
uertain closeea of functioiiariea. The Bomaa Ctiiirch, for oae 
reason or aoother, refnsed to accept them, or rather oonJiiied 
iUvlf to Ihu adoptioD of tbe papal pa//(utn, which soon acqaired 
a distinctly epeciul Btgnificam». Elsewhere, this vestment 
was adopted for the three Buperior ordvrs of the hiemrchy, 
introducing slight difUBrancee aecordiog to tlie L-colusiustical 
tmnk to which the wearer belonged. The deacon wore it 
over OQO shoulder, the priest and bishop nrouod (he neok ; 
the deacon over the tuniclo, «liioh was hlB upper gannent, 
the prieet under the pinneta, the bishop above it.' 

The paJlium, with the exception of tlie crosses whidi 
omameatec] Ite extremities, was always while in ooloor, 
OS was also the stole of the doacou and thul of the prieet 
or bishop, The yalUam hoe universally and &um all time 
Iwen made of wool. I» the East the diacoaal stole was of 
lioen, but 1 tun utinble to say of what mulurial cither it or 
that of tlie prieel was ootopoeed in the countriee of the WosL* 

■ Wo liAVL', buvovcr. very lilUo tnfonnitlian lu) lu llii» nulhad uC 
iliffitri'iilliitlne )irl-i>t mul bUbiip. Tbe Cumu uf Uie tbinl (uancil 
<J Unu:» iwte wupra. p. 391), dtwretliig ttiftt priMta riionld enm thn 
onin'vn uTur lliti bnwil, prvuppuaue Uiwcb; Uint il wm won under tbn 
plunt'tiL Tlio ommuU iJor« nut «ay lliiil thi• mi'llinl υΓ wculiig II ma to 
b« [H'ciillnr to prlnb ooly, luul thai bjihnji• abuulil follow tntao other 
fMhua. Tbo lurm meftdobr, «liioli it cniiloyB, niiijr tncluJe liuhop• aa 
wrll lu |>ri<iala. ItiyoL»! Uiia, w<> nu Rlimi au tnfunniilliui fmoi Ibe 
knoluiit ncclcBinitlcol litcntluro cf Spain. In Ganl, St• ticrmnio of V»tit 
qwoki οΓ tba ctiiifopnl paUium ntlrt Lnving drvcribnl Uil• obuuble. which 
night liml ui to biili<>ti.< tlmt tlii< ptllium wm «uru abiiTe it. I ha.'n 
ulfuady iBii&Uoneil tliot Biiluqi Euctuiiiu uf ItuTnnnn i* nrprMrlitad «ItL• 
till! «liilv, or orartuM, bunging ilown iu Truiit, undt-r Ihu plunc^n, while at 
tlio uiniL> time ha wenn thu pnlHam orur it, dnd tlutt (hie vuaUau wu 
adopted in Pnutor in the rnrlotiiiKfuii period. The (Ireck blrimpa abo 
«our BtniulliitiiKiluJr Iha epUmtJmUoa nud Ihe omopkorion, Tbia aOcaUU• 
laHoa of ituiicnln wait fuihtil<lr« In βρηίη in the wrroath cmtarf {CbkCk 
Tol-, ir. B. 39), nod wn doI• tliat the Popp nhatnuKd ftdin «eoiiag both rect- 
SMiil• (ill nboDt the twdRh M&tury, bikrlag pravionaly vttd tha paatem 
«nly, without tba elolp, 

■ [!^L Ciithbr^rt't itolc at Duihnin i* of linen, oompIoUil; mrMvd witb 
tubnii'lury. — Ί"π.| 



6. Shoa ami Head-drtB$. 

Shoee and h«ad-(lrees also were osed ae distingmshiiig 
marks of occleaiasticAl rank. Not all the clergy bad the 
right to wear the campagi, a aoTt of slipper which covered 
ODly the heel and toes. As early OK the sixth oentuiy 
Uiia constituted the oeremooial covering of the feet for 
rtbe clergy of higher rank in Rome and liavenna.' Fer- 
' mission to wear them had to bo obtained from the Pope.' 
In tlie histories of the deposiUous reapeotivcty of Γορβ 
Martin and the aQti-ro]>u Constantino,^ we see tliat in nuch 
casfss not only was the wearer deprived of Iho pailiwm, but 
the straps of his camj/offi were cut.* 

The tiara, in early times, eoems to Imve been u coetumo 
peculiar to the Pope. At all events, it u not met with 
uUewliei-e in the West. There is no mention of il iu 
any document earlier than the life of Fope Coostaaline 
(708-715),' which describes the pope making his entnmco 
into Coasuintinopla cum eamctatuo, >U toliiui ett Soma 

* Wf tuny MHi lliiiD n.-piviiuiiU<d In llie inuMlre of llie tlnw>, pBrlimtlmrij 
in lli'MQ of Sua VlUlo of (UTraiiut, whura Ihof ure warn liy tbo cnperar, 
tho οΟΙικη οΓ hi* Contt, tbo BUIuqi of RavonDs nnil kU Jraoont. Uac of 
tbo OhUim Bemani awBtiona Uimi μ ukmI bj t)iu Itonuui print• and 
dnMuna; the astlior of tlio fobc Danalioii of Ooiwtaiiliuc alao i^Mka of 
tliGiit, bat iiiit iu wjj dctlDitc Ιπιιιι. 

■ HL Oregnry (,Βρ.. nil.;lT) forbid• Uie Douan• of Chtonia to two the 
ootHpagiu ; bo atjt that tho άΐΜκαα at UcwiiiK am tlinte klonti in tlio 
wliolc of Sicily wlio Iiilio t!iu |Trivilo|^ of XATing tlivm, a prirllegu ynuitud 
k> thoni by hi• prodramir•. 

' It •βηιι• Uwt Uic tumpiiffut of (he Popo liikd •οπιο11ιίιιβ ιρΜΐα] about it, 
for Ibo Oroak «utlmr uf Ibo mJioHiin U> Urn li^ttut at AnaMnaiuit Uio Apoori- 
Mrina (Sligiie, PaL Lot.. ¥ol. uixix. |i. 6&'0 mj» llutt lio liod rccoimil 
Μ a rellO one OT th« tampagi of ΙΊ^κτ Bbrliii : tino d* oaimpagiM q'm, id φΛ 
tatigU, f HM Mutiiu oliu• inlet Arawno• jiorlaL nOi tanetm papa AeoMntu. 

* "Cum ineldiHol |>eu('linii3n(pitlliiun)betitl viii ozeBbilM' «A οοττί^Ιαα 
cumpagiunuD «jui . . ," (tlajdoutn, Opkc., vol. ill. |i. 081 : £A. JOhL, toL Ϊ. 
μ 172). 

* ΙΛ. lO«t., vol. I. p. 3D0. 1, ΙΓ.. 

396 cfliii8TiAx woEsniP: ITS oniois AND gvournos. 

proetderc. The similarity of the word eatattenitKm to the 
Greek tenn καμηΧα&ηον shows that a covering for the head 
is hen tnoant. Sixty yoan lat«r. the author οΓ tlie false 
ttonaUoQ of Conslnnline gives a description of it and ex• 
plains tte origin. The Emperor Conelantine desired to give 
his Imperial crnwn to St. Silvester, bnt tho saint haviog 
out of htimility rofused it, the emperor placed on liie 
bead a white Phrygian cap,' friffitim eandUlo niiere, and 
granted to him and hie anccessorn Ihe ri^ht to wear il 
in pn>oueaione after the manner of a aover«ign. Thi» die' 
tinguishing head-dress docfl not appttor, as far as I am 
«wan, Qpou any monumenl prior to the tvrulfih centuty, 
when we find it in the puintiu^s of the aacieut Church of 
San Clemeute at Borne, tn these fresooea, the cap, which u 
conical in form, rises from α jewelled circlot ; but this crown 
must lia^-e been added suhsitqucntly to the uif^hth century, for 
iho false Donation of CoDslantino implies that it was nut 
then in use. The second crown is not met with In any 
repreeentations before the time of Boniface VIII.; the 
third was added by ooe of the Vopm of Ax-ignon. 

7. Tht White SaddU-dotk <^ Λλ Ατπχιν (Άι^τ^^• 

The Donation of Conatantine muntiooa another distin- 
gnishing mark, not peculiar to the Fope alone, but to 
members of the Boman clergy in general — that ta, the 
white covering {mappvla or ina/ipaitt/ii) * of linen of α 
silky texture, which the olei;gy had the ι\φχ of placing 
over the saddlea of their hoaes on the days when processiong 

■ Τΐιο popeJ tiois ud tlie I'hrj^na cap ban tbi» α kaI tlionslt Mm*• 
«lul dlaUnl eoanMlloe. The mlUo uf the Ιύιΐΐιιφ*, whiob ii only a |;Ioriflod 
hood, takot lUt <n1jcin TtniD π oo«l («ιπιηκ*λ which la oMou timn wiu na 
wtklo of BiifAntl of tho woildnK pI iw w ud the peon* pauKnlrjr. 

■ ■■ DrcornlMn• ct hee nt rlcricl DJiudcon auicUu Βηηιαπο* MttlMiau 
DWiiiuli• «t liotouiiiiiibui. id lat uiodidiHim» nilurr iU«urnii oqaoa nl Itn 



took place. The Roman ecclefdaetics were very jealous 
, of this privilege, in the time of St, Gregoiy ' they pro- 
tetted vigorously ttgaiofit the ueurpatjoiu of the clergy of 
Ρ«τβω» ία thia respect. Ίϊ» bu^pber of Popo Coooo* 
(687) severely reproaches him for the great crime of having 
anthorited η deacon of i^yrocose to use the mappnitim. 
At BcHne, the lusser^ clerks, υννα buforo entering the 
minor onlore, h&d the cDJoymeot of this privilege 

8. 3%e Orotier and Ring. 

The crozier aud nog are inenliotied in the Canons of the 
fourth Council of Toledo (c. 27) and in the /fe Eccienaaiicie 
OfficiU (11-, 5) of St. Isidore au insignia of the episcopal office. 
They muet, tbcxufon;, have been in seo in Spain ae early 
B.1 the beginning of the seventh century. In the eleventh 
cenlnry they were olmoet tiDivorsiUly used, la is shown by 
the history of the strife conotming iuveetiture. Indeed, long 
Itefore this dato. some of the Iive.<) of the sointe drawn up 
in countries coufonniug U> tlio Gallicon rito, give us ground 
for belief that the use of them was not peculiar lo Spain. 
Further support of this belief is found in the employment 
of the crozier, under the name of canintta, in the dedica- 
tion rites according bo the GaUioan Ohntch. At Rome, on 
the other hand, this sign of office was unknown. When 
the episcopal crozier, with ile veiy natural s}'mt)olism, bad 
been everywhere adopted, it was a cause of surprise that 
the Pope, the shepherd of the shepherds, was the only one 
not to make habitual use of the pastoral staff. In order 
to explain this peculiarity, which wee mei^ly the anetent 

• lAh. VoiiU. Tol 1. p. 3β9. 

' Ofia Ham., Ix. I : "AocipioDt prinmm boiwdiatianom «b ucbldloeoii», 
nt liwat tHa eopcr Uatoani vflluaiuu Bcdim-, quod noM rat jKinoro fopsr 
M'IImd niitl." 

398 CHHiSTiAN wonsmp: its oriqis asm ktolutiow. 

BoDMn custom, belter observed al Kome than eleewtaere, 
recoimo was had to legends without any foundatioD.' 

As to the milro, wu have no roaaon to troal of it here, 
Μ it does not come into queation bill tho oloroolh centary. 
Indeed, cdther in tho eleventh century nor nt the present 
time con it be naid to constJtote an epUoopoI sign of ofiloe, 
properly speaking. 

The tradiiio of Teelmonte or cccli»tiutical ioagnia had 
its place in the ritual of oixliuution. Tho texts of St. Isidore 
and of the fourth Council of Toledo, citod abovo, make 
expioae mention of it, but do not state at what moment in 
the ceremony it took place. The other documents of the 
QaUican ritual are silent on this point In the Boman 
Ordtne^ of the eleventh century wo find the arcbdeaoon 
clothing the candidates in the vestments of tlie cnder aboQt 
to be conftined on lliom, and presentinj' them to the Pope 
tliufi Apparelled to receive the liles.'ung for the dioconate, the 
I>riesthood, or the episcopacy. Thia ceremony took place in 
fW>Dt of tlie altar, in the special enclosure, or prcibgterium, 
httyond the apse, where the ροπϋΕΓ, surrounded by the higher 
cl<n:g^', was enthroned. Tho vestments thus solemnly oon• 
fuired were — the orarium with the dalmatic for deooone, 
and the pUiiota for priests. Bishops were iarested with 
both dalmatio and planeta, the latter being vara over thu 

> Tbeibirr,fariiU[aiie»,orth<tBlAiruret. Potor. which iru aooflJcd (φ κ 
miMiuiiury tiUlicip, th&t ho mlnhl rratflm life to oao of his rompiuiionii wbi 
bikJ diiil on tho joome;. Ιηυοοι,-ηΙ UI, (Bt JIL MftL•, 1. βϊ} b III• flial (n 
havu ffU'ti Uite tipliinnllun. i(i< ojuucqI• it with the Ιιςναιΐ of SL 
Knckoriiu of Trevn, At Uiu limu Ibat ho «nto^ Hi• MMO slccj mi iilaM 
«tbinit WTural other ■uinta. 



The primitive cborclies were onltoar; bouses enited 

|q>e<ually for Cliristian wonhipt or rather for all the 

I aervicee of the CLriiittun oommunity. The house» of that 

[period wei« vnry uftsily adnpted to thui piirpoee. They 

I eomprieed, at λ riilv, mi vutititice (mm the public lOod. α 

' ooQTtyard eiirrounded by a coIutinad« (airiam), and at the 

bnck another court, or eoclosed hell, a bath-room, liviug- 

rooms, cellars, aud offices of all kiods. arranged around the 

inside courtyoida. This kind of buildiog supplied what 

was required for the aooonunodatioD of the varioud claaaes 

of persoue of which the Ctuistinii uioeting» were compoeed, 

namely, the catechumens, the fiuthful, and the penitente. 

It also provided a dwelling for the bishop and the elergy 

kirho utieted him in his oflioe, aud could be used u ft 

i.depository for pnpeis, books, and the saored vessels, and 

• aa & storehouse for the clothing, bedding, and provisions 

for the use of the poor aud strangers. A domus eaUnae 

in those early times compnsod all that we have joet 

enumerated.' It was a somewhat complicated institution, 

* Cr. Vb» cAlU npert nilatinit; tf> (ho •oinun of the Qinroh ri Ciit> 
lD3a3,iiitlie(Maap^2r»>';<AiViim(Mleiic Val. lut^ voV vlll. p. 7:11). 


being at the siuaa time a chnroh, an epificopal Γυύιίβηοβ, 
Ά refectory, a dispeiuety, and an almahouee. The plaoe 
spociiuly clioecn for worship, however, naHuniod from an 
oarly date a epecml iinportasoe. 'fhe oilier parte of the 
boildiog came gmdually to be detached, and participated 
in DO respect in its sacred character. 'Die Ayrnm adtisiac 
became the demu» Dei, Ibe place where Chrietian^ met the 
Lord — the lUminieumy 

The idua of associating a partionlar aolcmnitj with the 
taking poseoaeiou of one of those eocrod bnildinga woe too 
natural to be overlooked, and wo find, consequestly, an 
expieeeion of it at an early date. Immediately aRer the 
persecTition of Diodetiaa we have notices of the dedicalioii of 
churches performed with a certain degree of pomp. Enaehius 
deHcribe» that of Τλτθ. which was colebrated in the year 
314. Λ Hpecial ritual did not yet exiat. The neighbouring 
biahope were called toother, and an immense concourse 
of people assembled, i^ivtn^ solomnity to tlie iirat cele- 
Ination of the holy rayateries. AdiirosBCs bearing on the 
subject were delivered. Euaebius, who wns elected to 
deliver the discourse at tlie dodication of the Church of 
Tyre, did not neglect to insert in his history his addresa 
on ttiis occasion. 

The Church of Τ)το was a city church, or ratber the 
church par cacdUnet, the Cathedral of Tyre. It is possible 
that there may huve been none other there at the time of 
its inauguntion. In such great cities as Rome, Alex- 
andria, and Carthngc, tliere were at an early date several 
churchus, It siuj^le one being insuHicient to contain the 
whole Christian population. These churches had their own 
spcciul piioste, but they were none the less conmdered 

' Kupiua', In Orrak. Htaice tbo tenn in ue UDong GtmiMiiG ution•, 
MraM, kiHc, rAurrA. In tlio Nao-Latla Unpu^EC the nuoinnl (una /«κΑ^βΙ• 
I* (ho Μαΐ[<ο «t tlic dcai(^tlou la pruMint nw. 



as belonging to the coUootivc commiintty. «od tha bishop 
proceeded iret^ueully ftoia ono to aoother. Tbey repreeeoted 
tho expansion of the cuthedral rather tbut diaUoct pnrishea 
in tliu eettee we nov atXtush to tlicm. 

Beeidee the urban churches, tbero wvra cemetery 
chapels,' sitnated is buiying^plBcee and used for funeral 
s«jr\-iot»i aDil ΜβββθΒ, and for muiivBrairiw and other 
commemoraiioDS, ae well aa for the fuQeral (φαρ<•, tlio 
oheervance of which conLiaiied for a long time. Some- 
tunes theee were nothing more than oorered buildings, 
ci^ablti of eheltering the priest, the alter, and a small 
eongregstiou. If the congre^tton vera numerous, it 
osaembled in ihu opeu air within the bounds of the 
cemetery. It often happened, howevei-, that the cemetery 
cliiipel was btiilt near or over the tomb of a martyr. 
In such a cuse popular devotion attracted thither a mul- 
litudv, who did not, however, limit the festival to a 
commemorative auniversary. The faithful loved to hold 
meetings, eilher lituigicol or otherwise, on the sites where 
the heioea of the faith reposed. lu order to shelter such 
ossembliee, and with the desire of hooouriug the memory 
of those who wore the occasion of them, editioes of con- 
sitlerable sizi: and grandeur were constructed over the 
tombs of martyrs and apostles. If for any reason the 
relics of the martyr were not already contained within 
the eacrod precincts, they were transferred to their new 
Kstiog-place with α solemn oeremoniaL^ This was, so to 
speak, α farther interment— « deposUio — but α triumphal 
oue. On such occasions, besides the ordluury Uiurgical 
aenrioQ, that is, the taking posaession of tho place for 
Chiietian worship, the festival of the dedication was 

■ Upaa thii nibjout, •βο De tiotai. Homt Hai-. <rol, ui. p. IM, et m). 
- 1 cviutlnu Uf iwtloM liorc lo Ιΐιυ tnuuUtion o[ rdlu• muutioned bj 
tit. Ambniw!. 


ins CTiKisTiAS woBsitiP: im onicni asd KvoLirnoir. 

ftSMoiatcfl with the tTMisUtioo oT tbe relics of the eaint, 
thnt is, wilh hi» taking pomcnaion of ibe monument 
whicli he woe henceforward to occupy. 

Tliere were, Uierefopu. two kinds of chnrclies. nnniely. 
the ordioAff clinrclioe. which wore merely placoe of moet- 
ing for liturgical worship, uid thoec in wliich the hodice 
of the mJDlA rested. The to«'n churches belonged chiefly 
to the former categtny, aa did abw many of tlie oouDtxy 
places lof worship. The second type moirt have been r•- 
pnsented by but a small number of Christian edifioM, 
if they were limited to those actually constmcted over the 
tombs of tlie martyrs, relatively few in nomber, wboeo 
memory and cult had been preserved. By a eort of 
ritualistic Gction, howdvcr, it came soon to be recognised 
tluit R single sidnt could hare u ^reet number of tombe. 
Any nilic whatvvor — η pieco of linen saturated with his 
blood, u veaeel containiitg oil drawn from the luupe Id 
his sanctuary, η fragment of atnff detnclivd fVom Uie 
pull of hii* BarcophaguB — waii suffirienl to n^reseot 
him at η distance from Ids resting-place. To ροβκββ att 
object of thLs nature was to poaaees tbe body of tbe 
saint itiieif. To translate it and depoee it in α cbundi 
was equivalent to interring the body there.' Thus repre- 
sentative tombs could bo multiplied to any extent Uut 
might bo deaiied. In tlda way the churchus with rulios 

■ Tbo'hlitarjhMbMTn known fir η InnR llmo at Ihc; lt<uill^i Remmma 
of Mlliui, dodloBlod tijr t<t Aubmw «itb tbe pignorn df t*l. I'rter Mtd 
St. PmL, wUeh were limughl from tbunc Tbla dediatlon wu prier to 
the ytiit 38β (yitnbr». Kp . ^: ''■ I^ialinni, flla AwAr„ SS). Ve bM 
rr«sll nlm tbe baallieB of the eama «|WillM mtiftnMod by Ballnii• la bte 
YUU οΓ I ho (Mk, Dtnf Cbftlnxlon. μΛ MlM&nlj coMoamtiMl In Ibe yimt 3M 
with rrllrs ulw rroml Rcine. But thiae inaUnca nr« rouaidcniU; Icm 
anriL-nt than Umt «t wliMi «n Afr!t«n InKrli>tluii nf tht> yoM 3GD UJI* Di. 
Tliia Kn• ttic oMc ιιΓ ■ nrmoriii in «hich thoro bad bcco pkeod, ίη •ά<1ίΙ1αο 
to Uie roli» ot ecrtnln lucal uiirlyn, itd Ugmi <ntit, rf^ Ifita jirnwiwfaif» «M 
Mtw tM Chrt•!•!*, ipigiutm'i mjt».trJ{ Viir< ft ΓλλΙΙ (AuitJIrat. la Uw 
lhU:gm -I- FttnaU >tr Kom•. vuL t. p, 44ΐχ 



became soon ta Dumorous as the rest — nay, even more 
uanieioiu — until, their repntaUon having altogether ex- 
ralled that of the others, it woe impossihle to thiok of 
α chnrch without rclice in ite altar. When relics (p^ 
nora, aatuitiana) of the aunta were uot to be had, por- 
tions of tlie GoejKjl, unci even coaaecrated boat», were 
employed for the purjx»».' 

f 2.— BoMAN Dedication Rites. 

Formulariee for] Uio dedication of chnrches are not 
found in either llio Loonian SacrameDtory or tliat of 
Adrian.* The Gelasian Sacramentor;. aa ie alw&ya the 
case, is more complete, but we cannot say beforehand 
whether it coiTesponds in this respect with Boraan or 
Crallicaa naage, or whether it is a mixture of the two. 
llie same may be aaid of the liturgical works of F>ankiab 
origin from the eighth century onwards. There is, more- 
over, so little agreement among them, that the question 
natnislly arises whethor tliu whole of the dedication 
fonnulary was fixed when they were copied. There must 
have still been a wide laUtude in this respects 

If we carry our researches further back than the eigbtli 
century, we Knd the earliest authority for liomau usago 
to be the letter from Pope VigiUus to Profutums of Bngt 

' &«U* Cfaaodl at OntUvlli [Ohabm— Τκ.]. ΜΛ in 81β. c S: 
" SaohaiilUa . . . omn alSia Kllqnili amutliu ia Mpniln a« wfveliir in 
«ulom Uuii]k<u. Kl ai nlUe retiquiM inliuare noii putot, tUMB fcoo uulaw 
pmOcoie pntcat. qiria coipiu «t Hngnl• Mt domlnl nMlh Jom CBUWL" 

' A iledieaiiua Mm• oooan to Uic Laoniui iMoraoentary, L Η (Μη•• 
tori, p. 80«}, but «e miuC mil mnfoinil tadi » Mm• <rltb tlw rllM Mid 
turaitiWica pooatkr to llio dodieation llarii, nbieb miut hftTc Ιαϊαα pUou 
bufuru llie )l>a. 


(538). Wo Icani from this tbat eboat tlio middle of 
the sixtb c«utury the liomuu Church bad oot yol a ritual 
for the dodicftlioD of cliurches. Δ church wus dedicated 
by the simple iavl that Mass bad beeo solemnly said 
within it. la the oase, however, of η church having 
relics, theee hod to be dopoeicvd in it before the saying 
of the Gnt Moss, Aspersioiui with holy water, which 
form so imporLant a parL• in tho existing ritual, ore only 
mestioDed to be excluded.' They found no place in Ilomaa 

About sixty ycart lulur the letters of St. Grogoty 
mention the dedicabiou υί churches* somewhat ftequontly. 
In the metropolitan diocuse of the Fope no mral church 
could be consecratwl without )m auLhoriaatioo, and to 
this circumstance we owe the fi-eqnent montioo of these 
ceremonies in the papal norrespondoncu. The ίϋκτ 
dittrwie coatains & score of formularies of the Romaa 
usugo.' 1 can discovur uoLhiiig iii these documents 
which implies, everything considered, anothei' ritual than 
that referred to by I'ope Vigiliua* 

'■ "De fabrioa rata oqjnalUicl eooluiia«, »1 lUruln fui:rit ot ύ ία en 
loM ocnuMiratioiii• aidemnlU• debnt [lentd in quo Hinrtiuna duo Γααηηΐ, 
nihil jmllcuBU ofdocra ■! por «m nlaiine aqua uxurcante JiMiviur : qui* 
ciinnncmtidiiem oujnslibot ooeloiiui In qu tannliurl• uoo ροιιοιιΙιΐΓ ocJtf- 
britntmi tuttnm Kiniu tmo nUMonim. Et idno, ■( qa» «netonm 
tiuiliui κ ruailumiiiUt vliam Tuorit luuovaU, ήΐΜ «Ιϊφΐ» ditbUaUoiiu, cum 
ia ta miivuiue fucttl cclubmta aolenuilliu, totltu «Miollflestl» eaams- 
cnitiaiuii iiiii'ktar, 15! tuco aauutiutriiv qiiaa Imbcbat atilatn «nut, nmu 
canim ilotioeiUi/De cl uiamrum iwlciiuiitiito itn^oRiatinD] iDacUBiMliaai• 

* Grcs- U..B^.. i. 5« (U); U. 9 (S): IfL 1»; tL U, U iii}, « (48); 
tUL 4 <&): is. 35 (4SJ ; of. Dialcij., iii. 30. 

* Gamier"* nUtlon, oliftp. v.; Itosltru, 10-31. 

* Wc mcpt nnwUiora «iUi cvlcbnlcd dvdicillocu nhtqee dwhm ριΛΙΜτ ι 
tat UitM an dm» οΓ nionualic omloric• oat open to ibo puUlo, lud «bere, 
onusqnoiUlf , wtimu pabliatr coulJ oat be oolebmtcd. Λ> tbu udifioa wm 
lunw to NTVO for pnWc MawN, II U qnito oaliud Uui Umw aluiuU not 
tv mid nl the -ΜϊοιΗηιι. 



We find α coofinnatioD of thia in comparing togotlier 
the two mottt ancient ordiiue of dedication aocovdiog to tbo 
Roman usogo. The Gnl hu boen hitherto iinpublitliod.* 
and the eocond was «dtted by F. Biaachini in voL iii. of 
hie Anaetasiue, p. xlviti. The ceremony describod in both 
of them iu fnndeinentally tho same, Uie difTeronces between 
them arising fVom the fact that while one toaert* tlio inasical 
porttone and omita the prayei?, Uie other does the reverse. 
On the whole they supplement each othtx. Thiai titles are 
ngnificant. There is no mention of the dedic«tion; tho 
translatiou of relics takos its phice, and, in fact, almost 
the whole oeiemony is taku» np with it. Apart frnin 
these two ritualx, we find in ihe Gelasiiin Sacraaientary * a 
convocation formulnry entitled DmunetaHo nun rdiptiae 
poncndcut sunt mwti/mm, which oorrcsponds to Uie ceremony 
in question. I will briefiy deecribo it^ 

The bishop, accompanied by bis clergy, proceeds to the 
]>Iacu where are the tanciuaria. Tho choir, havio}; sung α 
n>8[)ond. Uie litany ia suid, followed by u prayer of the 
bishop. The lutlur ihcu plocua the relics* on a paten 00 
which a linen cloth was spread, and covers the whole willi 
a silk veil. Tbo procoeaioD thou seta ont for the church to 
be consecrated. The relics are bonie father by the Mahop 
himself or by a prioet During tlio progieee of the prooeasion 
a psalm is chontud by the choir, and on approaohiug the 
church the litany 19 begun. 

The bishop conaigns the relics to the hands of tho pcicete, 
and, accompanied by only two or three clergy, enters the 
church. He begins with the exorcism of the water ; having 

■ TliU U Uic ■nnntwoript oT St Anaud. Il «ill be fotmd al tlio «nd 
of tlio praMDl Tolnma. 

• II. S: Mtmtorl, vol. I. p, CSC 

* I'lio rvtie• wcro tmuul; placed in α bra of prwioiu mHnl. See Όν 
Rail. Bui!.. 1873. pi. I.-xii,: do lAtuftn•. SultHiH Maimnutilal, m. tlr. 
(tSSV). iVtitr «ir (/«lis rtlifMnirm, etc 


mixed will) it some drope nf chrisin, he nee<t this to make 
Uh) mortv witb which he will presenlly seal Llio nlCar-BtoDe. 
With a sponge previously dipped in Iho oiorciecd water 
hfi waebee the altar once only. Tbeo leaving the church, 
ho coocludee the litany with α eecond prayer. Befote 
ro-entering the chnroh, he aapetses the people with what 
rBmains of the lurtral water.' 

The bishop now takes the relica, iho door of thu churoh 
is opened, and whilv he uiitvrs, followed uii llii» occasion 
by all the ροορίκ, α third liUiuy is sung, nud cuuclndod by 
another prayer, Wh«!n this is fintebed, and wliilu the cho^ 
is chanting an antiphou, he divoals biioBulf of Im plaueta 
and pioeeods alone to the altar, upon which bo dopoeite the 
aoncftiana. Before cloabg the cavity (sepulchre, confeeaion), 
tie nooinla the four internal angles of it ΊΊιβη plaoiog in 
poeilion and sealing the atuno of the tomb, be reoitee a 
prayer and anointe the stone once moro at its oontre and 
at its four comors, 

The altar is then covered, and the Inshop, resntning bis 
TCstment, recites a βηβΐ prayer. Ί^ο linen and sacred 
veasob, together with the alter crosa, an then bnmgbl to 
him to be bleesed, He prooeeda thereupon to the sacrariam. 
when: the dourkeopcr await« him, holding α light«d taper 
in his bond. The bishop blcssoa thia taper, and by it the 
whole Ugfala of the cburuli, which are immediately lit, and 
the Mass begins. 

It is easy to see that this ritual is exclusively funemry. 
The tomb of the saint is prepared for him ; ht) is broiiglit 
tliithor, enclosed within it, and the interior and exterior of 
the sepulchre is anointod with α bagrant unf^oeol. The 
idea of an embalmment is still mine clearly exprceaed in 
thv subsequent curvmooies. in which the anointing with 
fnigrunt oil is ucoompanied by fumigation witb inceoee. 

' Tlili mtrr ii ttiled. Id Ibo Inter rfliialf, OregeHait. 



The Ofda of Verona menlions the aapetsion of the church 
at the end of the cereinoDy, but this pasitngo ts euspeoted to 
be an interpolatiou. Id iuiy <;ase tlieiu is Dothing like it 
in the other Orda ; ereii in that of Verona the oeperdoo 
is a mere afterthought added to the oeremouy of the 

There wouhl bo, indeed, nothing extraordinary in the 
fact if it had been oostomnry to aapenie the walLs of a new 
odillo». As Mrly Ra tho timu of Ρομυ Vi^iliiu th« faithful 
at RoDU w«ra in the habib of sprinkling holy wot^^r in Ihuir 
bouses. The LOtr Pontificalis tostifice to the practice.^ 
From tho oxisliu•; ftulhuntiu», however, wu cannot, I bolievu, 
coodnilo thitl thi» cufiU)iii htul iMwn thun, ur uvi-n fur η 
long lime, extended to odifiuss cousucraiod for woi-sbip. 

5 3.— Gallioah Deoicatioss. 

Having reconstructed, at least ία its main outlines, 
the lioman ritual for tlio tleilication of obnrohes, I will 
endeaTOur to do the same in regard to the tiallican TUtage." 
It is no easy task, for no description ban oome down to 
us, and no liturj^ioal t«xt, if we do not take into acoooot 

' A• Uio Onlo οΓ VoroDu biu mi n^urono; l'IjcvIigiu Iu tho auppnUin 
of til• pmpio wllli tlic mmnln• ιιΓ lliu i-xinviKil watiT, bvturv llio deor «Γ 
the clisrcli. it ία (luBibli! tbnt it tuny Iii^n; tmvu Ibat ia Hew. Tho ptsupli-, 
and uot Uiu iriilU, mo nqHinud, imd tliia in thu iiiU'riur iiutaul ut the 
extorlur. In tbu otlior ritoaU, itukt «blcli nuDoini οΓ Uio Intnl mUv I• 
•Imply pnatui nat nt ttiu laA of tho a\tm. It tninld ftjipow tbtit Bimc 
ImpoitMiiNi me atlHlicd lu its dlMppouium•, ptnLnUjr lu pwvoot it« briog 
wed ttar Mmo ηρβηΙΙΙΙοιίΒ purpoK. 

■ Vol. 1. p. m. 

* Aa early u the l»ginniii); of tlio «xth «rntury ire flnil IniMa of a 
Oftllitan fltuftl fur the- d^Emtinn of ehurclio•, Cone. Aar»!. ΓϋΙΙ]- c 10: 
" Kcclivlaa (CIotLcinnul aliniU (jnu ouatmc Innomrl toloDl phicult urJiiie 

books in vrhicJi Uie Rodiuo luid Gallicau rituale are toon 
or leea combined. 

An ancient c-oniDieatary ou tho ritiml of » dodicaUoo, 
pablished in tbo first instanco by Mort^ne, was attributed 
by him to Itemigiu» of Auxerre. the head of the Episcopel 
School at Rheims at thu end of ilic ninth ccntitry. Aluiough 
this ftttributtou m oot certain, the text to which the com- 
mi-DtOLry i» ftlcoL-hod was wsurodly in use ia the nioth 
c«ntur}-, fur it Lfl found, almoec word fov word, iu another 
Onto, that of the Verona luanuHOripl, of which I buvo epokea 
nbovu.' It iiumudiauily pracvdos thcru the Koman ritiul 
which I have jtiat described. 

The Sncramenlary of Augoul&tne* of the end of the 
eighth or begiuniog of the ninth oentiuy conlaioe, in n^jnril 
to the dedication of churches, an Onto fundamentally similar 
to the ritual of Remigius. It difTora &om it io only one 
important point, to which I will shortly refer. The prayers 
and other formularies contained in thin Socnuuentary ami 
in that of uellono, whioli i» of nearly the same date,' ore 
the same «s thoae of which the ritual of Kemigiiu forolshee 
the series and the first words. 

Finally, the two ancient maniiscripte, cftlled rwpectivoly 
(he GelosioQ Socramenlory and the Mmaie Francorum, 
coDtoin the minority of ihcie prayers, and even some 
rubrics which are abeolutuly identical with tliose implied 
tut exproeeed iu the Itemigitis ritual and the Ordo of 
Λ^βΓοηα. Wo may therefore conelude that the whole of 

' Dr. )lBei>trtttt Itu iiulJlulicd the text of it, bdltm by him from • 
MHiuiGao IVniiOcul n{ tliv ninth otntun'. '^■■^ ^^^»^ * M*Ints Γτπΐίΐυιιΐ » 
Uttlo ΙβΜ Molenl (ΑΙση. lAl. Amhr.. ml. I.}. Tlio Ordo Ambrwia-tu. i>uU- 
lUIii^ by iiitOuri Muicoti (Sltvli * Trtii, p»tt ?, p. SI), fmta κ Latt» 
innnuiu'riiit οΓ llie cluventti I'untur}'. furnuLu ou tnilicntlan of havliltt 
bum rfhandlod, lUto the tvUciiu: I*oiitilI««1. 

■ PnrfWiiM, eic. Soo thU Ordtt tn tbo AfpcDctix. 

* DelisU-, Anrieun HaframaiUiir—. ΐΐ«. 7 ud 15 (JVAa. •1τ ΓΑβαΛ. 4m 
loMT^ n)l. xaW. |iMt \'i. 



this riluol was in uee tu Ftunco at Lbe bcginniiig of the 
eighth oontary. 

1, Entrance of Uu Biaiu^. fntrodttctory Prayers. 

The relics of the sninte am In α place opart; an all• 
night vigil tn kupi Wfonj them. Hm churdi to bo oon• 
secraled is uiiipty, but twelve candles ore burning, rooged 
along the walls. A clertu shiite himself iusidu in order 
to open the church when tlio occasion arimw. The bishop 
preaenta himself before the door, ntul touches the lintel 
with hi» postoral staff (eambuia), whilo sajiiig the antiptton 
(unlhcni), TolliU porta», jnrinnpa, nettrtu. etc. The choir 
then chants α similar psahn, Domini at terra, at the end 
of which the dour is opoocJ, and the bisliop enters, saying. 
Pax hate domui! Proceeding to the altar, the clergy 
following, all prostnitc themselves there, wtiile Uiroogh the 
empty cliuroh the cliant of the litany Li heard reaoimdiag 
lor llie first time. The bishop then lisea nnd ivcilva ihu 
fliut prayer— 

Mnpiifiura, Donuoo, Den* aoiter, in mucIm tnix; et buo bi tomplo 
aoillflijaUonla ajipAte, ut qui omiifa !n Gliln adoptiooui opvmia, 1pm tompor 
in tiM lincfiitlilal« landcrie. 

3. 7ΐί< Ccremoni/ o/ the Alphabet. 

The iHshop then proree>b U) the cast^'i-u corner on the 
left-hand side, and, paKiitig in a diagonal lino across the 
chnrcb, traces on the pavement with the end of his {lasloral 
■taff the lolteiB of the alphabet Then going to the right 
iaetem comer, ho lepeate the ceremony in another diagonal 
line across the pavemeuU* 

' Tbo jintcDt Diukim w u treoo tho alphnbet In Oraok ebAnwUn In 
lh<- firat llni'. bikI In l.nlin in Uio tttmi. The n1iithi«cnitatT rlliinl* Λο 
out ngtc tliU dUllnrtiuii. ΊΊιο pavnnirtil <■ jirctlondy oncred will) oakt• 
ηΐυακ Uic two dtogpiuili, [n onkr Ibat Uio luttcn nuy be readund tiaibU. 


aapereee the pavement while proceeding &om the altai to 
the door, and then on a line at right angles to this acroea 
the middle of the church. 

6. ITie Cotuecraiing Prayers. 

The bishop takee np a position in the middle of the 
church, and, facing the altar, redtea two prayers, the latter 
being euchahstic in character — 

DeuH qui toca οοπιίηΐ tuo (ticata sauctificae, efloode super banc 
orationia domtun gratiam tuam, ut ab omaibua hie inTOcaatibaB te 
aoxilinm tnae miseucordiae sentiatur. 

Domiiiua vobiecum. — SniBum corda. — QraliaB agamus, etc. 

Vera dignum et juBtum est, aequuin et salntare, noa tibi eemper et 
ubique gratiaB agerc, Domioe eaucle, Pater ommpotens, aeteme Dem, 
sauctiGcatiODum ODUupotens dominator, cujoa pietae sine fine seatitiir ; 
Deus, qui caeleetia siiiiul et terrena oomplecterie, aerrane mieerioordiarn 
tnaiQ populo tuo ambaknti ante cooBpectam gloriae tuae ; esaudi preoee 
servoruiD [tnonmi], at eint ocoli tui apetti super domam iatam die ac 
nocte; huioque baeQicam in honorem eaocti Uliui «acriB mysteriis 
institutam clementiBBiinae dedica, mieeralor inlnstn, proprio spleudore 
clarificai onmemque bomineia venientem adorare b boc loco placatoa 
admitte, propitdus digoare respioere; et propter nomen tuum magnum 
et rnanum fortem et bracbinm exoelmim in hoc babttaculo sapplicantee 
libeoB protege, dignanter eiaadi, aetema defeusione couaerra ; ut semper 
Telicea semperque tna religione laetantes conetanter in aauctae Triiiitatia 
fide catboiioa pereevereot. 

7. The Anointing of the Altar. 

While the anthem Introibo ad aliare Dei and tha 
psalm Jitdioa me Deus are being song, the bishop proceeda 
lo the altar and poors out at its foot the remainder of the 
lustral water. Having ceueed the altar, he anoints it three 
times — in the centra, and at the four comers — the first two 
-with the ordinaiy blessed oil, and the third time with the 
holy chrism. During this ceremony the choir chant three 
antiphons suited to the rite — 


Brtat Jacob lapidem in tittttum, /ιιηάβΛβ οίβιΟΛ dmtptr, 
otc. — Psalin : Qnam. diltxia tabemaaUa tua. 

Saneti/icavit Domnua tabemaculum «Kum. etc. — PMlm : 
Deug noatcr refugium. 

Eooe Odorfilxi tiw», ota — Peolm : Fwadammia. ψΛ. 

During the anointiiig α priest makve conlinua] circuite 
aroand the altu*. swiogb^ u cuuxer, tbuB coutinuing the 
cvusint; begau 1j>- th« bishop. 

8. Tht Anointirtff o/ the CAwrfi. 

The bishop, having completed the anointing of the 
ultar, prooeedB round the church, and anolnte the walb 
once with holy chrism. 

9. Contecraiing Praytrg. 

Bctuming to the nltAT, npon frbich he plaoee in the 
form of a cross kintllod grains of inconst), he rocib», while 
these are buiuing, a consecratiiig prayer of the GolUcan 
type, preoeded by an invitatory — 

DeJ I^ilTM oiDiiIpoCiintiB mUoricordiaTD, lUlcctiiuimi FratTM, depte• 
cemur ; ut hue altoriura wmQoiU 6|iiiit&libiu congecniiiiam, ndi BoMnM 
«xcrandiui officio pnueonTi boncdictione HtnctifiMl ; ut in eo aamper 
oblatioDM ramulornm nioruni eludio euae ιΐβτοϋοαίβ impoaltae benedloera 
«t MHCtifloaro dlgaetor; et «piritnli ptacthui inconto, pr«cuiti ftunlBt» 
atue ψηαρίνΛ euuditor uUatAt. 

litnia omnipMeni, hi oujue kouoram •1ΐΑΓίιιπι nub UiTocftdoee tin 
ooDMCmmu, clomen* el propitiim prococ nortrao hntnuitnrii exaudi, 
et pnnl» ut in bao nienM iJDt tlbl libamEna accqita, tiot gnlfti slot 
jAigiUA at Spiriti» mncti tui *«mp«T rora perfuM, ut omni lempoi* 
Id boo looo rappllcaiitfe tibi ramlllae toae aiixieiatce relon», Mgri- 
IndiiiM cureo, preou exautlioK, rota tuadpiaii, ilmiilentn confinnc•, 
poeRtlaU concetlniu 



10. Btemnff of OlijixU: uted in Worthip. 

The subdeaoonn aftenvanU brought the linen, the sacred 
vessels, »nd the oraiuncute of tho cliitrcb. lo the bishop 
to blesa them. SiMtcial foriuuliu'iue aru foimd for the bloss- 
iog of iho liiieo and the puLeo and choUoc, ibe Ulttit 
beiog coneoorated by »a anointtng \vith the holy chriem. 

11. TraneloHoK of Stliee. 

The clet^, headed by the bishop, then luCi the church 
and proceeded to the locality whor» the people were 
gathered together around the holy relics. These were 
translated nith high ceremooiaJ during the chantitig of 
trimnpbal hymns: Amhilatia landi JM, inffredimini in 
civitatcm, etc The people followed the solemn arrtetfe 
into tho church, but when tho bishop hod reached tho 
sanctuary, a veil was let fall behind hiin. Ho went 
alone to the depositio of the pignora, and while he was 
cndosing them in the altar the choir saiig, a-i au auti• 
phon to the psalm CaiUcUt domino eunUcum noi'uia, the 
antipboa Kxuttahunt lancti in Qloria, When th« ceremony 
was over ' tho lights of the ohaich went lie, and tho bUhop 
proceeded Lo make his preparation in the Baerairwtm tor 
celebrating ilass. 

This ritual is in the main cloar and logical It fol- 
lows the line prescribed for initiation into the Chtialian 
mysteries. Just as the Christian is dedicated by water 
and oil, by baptiam and coutirmation, so the altar in the 
lirst place, and the church in the second, are «oauecrated 
by ablutions and anointing. When the church had 
been consecrated, the saints, lepreeeuted by their pi^nora, 

cmiSTiAS woBsnip : ITS ontaiN and evolotiok. 

3. The IkdtwUk. 

BendN tlieee two esaentlal vestoiente, commoD to «U 
Uie dcigy, the Pope and bis deacons wore, on feetivtU. 
belWQon the ordinnry tunic {tinea) and the plsneta, β Mcoiul 
tonic with largu ekuvus. called a dalmatic Tliie oomU• 
Dotioa of tho three gBrmeote woe used oooeidonbly tateiior 
to the time when tho eodeeiasticat costume became stetBo- 
typod. On the day of his mul^rdum (2&β) St. Cyprian 
wore a linen tonic, η dalmatic, and an OTer-gannmil, 
ansvi-ering to the paenvla, or plonota.* As early a• tbo 
Gttd of the tifth century the dalmatlo, which had pBMod out 
of fashion as to ordinary article of clothing, hod beoMne 
the distingniahing badge of tho Pope and his clergy.* Tlx- 
Popo sometimea granted it ne an honorary deootation 
Inabope and deacons of other ChurcLoi. Pope Synn^n 
(ettr. 513) conferred this privilege nu the deacon» of ' 
St. Gregory made a »miliu' gift (09!)) to the llishoji 
and his archdeacon.' Ίΐιβ biehope and iImcoos of ' 

' Afta pnnMm•., h: "Ho Uwniu 
ftult Ά la oratlcinraii w Ddeinn ι 
«xtpoluiMrl Ct diaoMtiliiH mdiduaM, iii ιιιι•-α titui •<■ 

• The ΙΛ. lO^t/• Inl- i- 1^ 171. οΓ tn; adilfe«' 
iliielioe <if it la IVpc ϋΙΙΐΜΐπ. YIm \u$tmiiuy 
wrilton ot III* νηΛ 
bW ΗιφίΗ^ U»t 
aoWd lh>t, 

p. an). 
' ran 


Λ . 

■)■ r^ 


.. Milan. 

■Μ, Seville, 

^ Λ 

rij^in from 

u-a» the 

inline, when 

Silviviinr tbe 

ttindart oetofei 

l>ud gmnted tbe 

.M of the Greek 

luik the aatliori• 

. ovur, claimed the 

' seventh cuntuiy 

. -nita, BsUitiK the 

m: if,. But theuce- 

ii.ili iIiTit to α revolt 

' Κυιηαο paUium gin- 

^....^iiiiw. Il was regarded as 

Urfl of the nmnlle of St, Petor. 

linalioii, it wils de|)oeit«cl 

inj-fii ill the .sanctuary of the 

tlic lomb of the aposllu. St. 

lag slept a night UDder ιΙιϊη 

Λΐιιβ his own. By a very alight 

lune to connote η kind of trans- 

:bnt symboUeed by tbe mantle of 

iliD• diJ In Ibo law οΓ AuuAiiu lUid Avkuab, 

3•« <ii Uiu citlwr btahefN, enpmitiu, VlrffUIna, and 

LI treordicil, and it b poaiiblo Uiat in Uu» cad tho 

ιιΙ>-<1 iu pi^qittnit; tat lliu ΒΪΒίκφα uf Δ(|«. St. 

Ill» «uo of thn Blihop of Anian, bat dmit ινΛ appi-ar 

•r tbam οΓ Sorillu and Outctfboiy. Thn Inttr^r irw. 

monk. • ■nigeet «f tli• Bmpwor Unirico, and Lcandfrr 

r>il at ill•• Caofl of OBMtanHiiopbi. mhtu» ho wna veil 

2 c 

41β cmiisTtAN woBsrar: ιτβ oBicra isd etoldtiok. 

(leposiiioa of Uto reUcs are quite distinct ceremoniee, 
and look placo usually on difTerant days. The biebop' 
b^aa by settling the table of the altar, which vac 
placed either on columns or on a soUd base. He isadej 
npon it the sign of the cross, and washed it^ 
in the first instance, with baptismal watm', and theai 
with wine. He then anointed it with chriem (jt&poviM 
and 6nally fumigated it with inocnse. When the altar' 
had been consocmted, he made a circuit of tbu chorob,] 
swinging the censer, while a priest, walking behind him. < 
anointud, in the form of a cross, the walls, oolumns, etc. 
The ctinimony Cjuno to an cud with the blossiog of the 
linen, sacred vessels, lumps, and other objecte used in 

Tbo depoeilio, which u-as preceded by α solomn vigi], 
WHS αcϋom]>lisL•ud with all lite cnrumony ponible.' On 
arrival at the church, the chant TalliU porttu, ρηηαφβΜ, 
v*«trtu was sung. Before cUming the tomb of the relics 
Iho bishop itnoinled it wiih chrism. 

This summaiy Is suSiuiont to impress upon ue the 
relationship exieting butwoun ibtt Greek ritual and oar 
second Latin ritiml. After all that we have seen of the 
relations between the Byxtuitine and GalUoan Littugies^ 

' Dion^dii• the Anopagito (S^. Uier., iv. IS) manticaii tlio on tit 
niper in tbc eoiueontian ef Ibe κΙιαγ. 

■ &l CioiuutiUiM)ile Uio cotwror tixik jwtt lo Um piooMiioii, «alkiOK 
on (tot bchii»lliU(Utr'ci)iulot,ln«hluti Ibeputrlarobmiaw^tud bolJlugtiie 
ri'llc• on hi* Icdcol Thmplinniun (p|>. 217. 227, 338, 138, Dc Boor) dcavtbCB 
in tlio BUiii• mj diilteuli-jiui iiilubnitiHl nt UmMvitiDopIu in the Unt• tt 
Ja»liii»n, in Uio iytan i'Jl, UU, 0Δ1, ΜΛ. Ue nbo BmUmu Uu ebeml 
'AfoT* κύίαι, αϊ 6ρχαηίΐ, νμύ». Λο ivot^, pKMmed at Trsti^ MfmeaM 
one of ihtma «.'nrinonlca. pusiblx lliikt uf St. Irene, at OalKtn. «hicih «aa 
cvlcbmtvil In S31. M)' rnt*}ti Cur lOtiiHiabiit tiil« dah) Is Uw p w a it oo cf 
two patrianilw in tlic Imperisl obkriot. N'ov, TlKvfhMiiiii mji U»t tbo 
d«dia>liun sf (51 VM imadel over bj lliu two |iatriartlia Alciuw of 
Ocmituitiiieplo miiI ApalUjuris tJ Alcxudrt^ th• α rqiruMiotnlbn (« 
Ud οαο)οΤ this obgoot in Om Hmtt da ΓΑΗ CBknMiM, nL xui. p. IIOL 



then eui hardly be any doubt that it h α OalUcas 
ritual we have before ns,' 

A question still remains to he answered. Wbat is 
the origin of the oeiemony of the alphabet? It is un- 
koovm in the East ; and in the West, ae wo have seen, 
it is not attested before the ninth century, even in the 
Frankish Liturgy, Ymm that date it is difficult to trace 
it bock to tta true sooroe, and to say whether it is 
Boman or Gallican, Sig. de Bossi' points out intflresting 
relations between this singular rite and certain Christian 
monumeuta on which the alphabet appears to have a ejrm- 
bolical signification. He has removed oU doubt as to the 
idea which suggested the ceremony. It corresponds with 
the talring pos.iession of land and the laying down ile 
boundaries. The saltire, or St. AndreVecros9(crux</eciui>ato), 
upon whicb the bishop traces the letters of the alphabet, 
recalls the two transverse lines which the Boman sur- 
veyoiB traced in the first instance on the lands they 
wished to measure. Tlio letters written ou tliijt cross are 
α reminiscence of the Dumerical signs which wuru combinud 
with the transverse lines in order to determine the 
perimeter. The series formed by thoeo letters, moroovor, 
that is, tbe entini alphabet, is only u sort of expansion 
of the mysterious contntction AO, just as the denusit, the 
Greek X, is the iiutiol of the uamo of Christ. The alphabet 
traced on a cross on the pavement of the chnrch is thus 
equivaleot to the impression of a large ngnvm Chritti 
on the land which is houccforward dedicated to Christian 

This profound symbolism, as welt as the ancient costom 
OD which it is grafted, must go bock to a time when 

> Cat it ι* to W waU tmdantood Uial (he jinrtioiu indicittrd «boTu 
βα Bomoji BMut bu omitted bi erclor lo rowiuUlnti: it tu iU ortginal 

* SxU., leSl, p. ΙΜί 




barbaiiam vaa not yet dominaDt, and conaequently 
beyond the eighth century. This is all that can be ei 
There were Boman surveyors in other places besideB Be 
and Italy, and there is no indication that this curifms tra 
feresce of their practices originated in Italy- isther tl 
in Gaul or Spain. 

Τηκ diflerent forms taken by the aecetio life in ChiistiAo 
antiquity aucceeded one after another in the folloiriiig 
sequence.' In tho earliest times individual Asceticism was 
practised without ite involving separation from tho eodcsi- 
iLstical commauity and family life, or absence from tho city 
and ordinary avocations. Experience having subseqncntly 
Rhown the difficulty of reconoiliog such cooflictiug duties, 
aflcetioe " retired &om the world," and nought silence and 
solilnde away from human habitations. This second sttgo 
is that of monks, or isolated anehoriia. l''inally, these 
neoetice or aoohorites conceif-ed the idea of living together, 
of forming groups of indiA-idoaJe drawn exclusively from 
persoDS of their own calling, isolated from the "world," 
and even fiom ocdinuy Christians. It was tlins that the 
coBQObitio life took ite origin. 

It i> merely with the Snt stage that I have to deal here, 
namely, that of the ascetics attaclied to the local chnrch, 
without segregation of any kiDd. Their ranks were recruitod 
from both sexes, even at an early period; we note their 
preseneo even in the second century under varions names, 
such as ascttiu, eunuchs, continentes, enemtittu, etc. Thu 

■ I liniv tpvia iLo logieal, whloL• ie. in tbu ηΜΪο, «Im Uiq ohnooleKlcal 


term " ascetic," or " monk " (ά<τκ{ιτης, μονάχος), in the forath 
century wns more freqnently used in Qreek-epeakiiii| 
oouutries to denote men ; whereas id Latin, whon tlieae 
same tenns were not employed, the vord " confessor," od 
later on, " religious," was used (am/tWfr, rdtgicsua)} Tb| 
women were designated by tbe ηΜηθ of virgin», or Μβη4 
virgins {v&fAwot, virgints taorar^. j 

Tiiis term, like tho majority of tlioee that precuded i^ 
expressed the kind of rentmciatiou wliicli was moet hi(;bl]j 
esteemed and sought after. Wo must be cautious in drawing 
comporieooe between the modem "religious" of both ββζβ• 
and their forcninncrs of a remote autiqoil^. The earliec 
examples ctiltivnted aeoetism for its own sake, and not a& a 
fuvournble condition for meditation * or for tbo exorcise of 
w(Hrks of charity, of prenching, and '«■"bing. The ChnstiAiu 
vii^gin who remained α virgin had poribrmed the eesDotiw 
part of her suporerognlory obligations. No ttpocinl furvourj 
was demanded of her, ito citraordinory aeddiiity io attond- 
iog moetingg for worship, nor any particular devotiou 
to good works. It was only at α later date, when the 
first fervour of the Christian communitiea in geiianl| 
had aomewhat abated, that on exceptional piety ^ran 
looked for in those that practised ooDliiteDoy. It (β 
true that this idea developed rapidly, and eoolesiaatieal 

■ Cimft—ar la the tonn need to the RemitD Ltturjcy ; mo infra, p. 4fil,' 
D0(« 8: *a epitaph (Do Itowl, Buil.. I8T4, pi. vL) of Τηπιυΐηΐΐ ιηοηΙίαΐΜ< 
η Svtivtf ooii/euorf it iit iii Uiln sviiiw Uiat the torn U anplojrod Is! 
Iho Cunni'ib) ut Klvlm (a. ΪΛ), ΛγΙπι («li. c 9). «n•! TuleJa (400, co.] 
β. 9). 

■ St. VaxA (\ Cor. tL) «dopta « atandpoint morv in IiBiiDony irlth oBr) 
ewn. It AvnAA Iw noted tlul what ho mjt with r»(:>nl to liigfari^ || 
In oannucti'in with tho iDUmdliLto «gming ot Oluiat: ImfiM tow m^ 
yraatrtii flffura hujtu muiulf. Wu ihonld l» WitJiil ti> nallw ttal 
Chri«tlan (ucctioipio i> in no wny dorlvol fhm thit l«uhlag of DM 
Bjxntle. AscDticum in antuitw to Qiriftbtnltf, aua b «ertnluly But pcOO&M 
toil. 1 



tegislstion in Uiat dirvotion was upheld by or evoa prompted 
by tbe tendency of goncral ορίαϊοη. Thoeo who have given 
way to laxity do not regard with disfevonr the small body 
of courageous aools who ondorlako to bear the burdone which 
they thomeelvcs vrill no longer attempt to lift. With 
regard to chantable worki, the performance of such was 
coneidcrtHi incumbent either on the faithfot in general, or 
on the community as represented by the clei^ and their 
ussistante — biahope, priests, deocona, deoconeeaee, and humbler 

The principal ηιοϋτβ of the profession of virginity was the 
■mmpUon that Ruch a manner of life, being ίηιρβηοτ to the 
foroes of nature, reflected special honour on Christianity.* 
The virgins of both eexea — but eepecially the women, on 
Account of their peculiar frailty — were regarded as an 
honour to the Church, tlie mottt i}recioaa jewels in her 
crown. Thus, far from biding them behind walls and 
gratings, special delight wiut talcun by the Church in putting 
them forward. The confussora and the sacred viigina, to 
whom wens added tho widows who, after a short marriage, 
hod remained stoaJfast in their profession of widowhood, 
constituted a sort of aristocincy in the commonity of tho 
faithful, obtained special mention in their prayers.* and 
had a dietincc place reserved for them in the church. Marks 
of respect vera voluntarily shown them, and the matrons 
did not leave the sacred place of assembly witliout coming 
to ask the holy kiss of the cooeeonitod virgins. 

The greatest freedom prevailed in regard to entering upon 

■ 8L Ambmo draw• η cniopiirlwn] bolw««n tl)o CbrUtltui vtiflne ΛοΛ 
tho Banna Tfal*l(L He poinla tritunphantly h) tli« iua>iuii>lumble BIIBibor 
of tiiu Uttor, ftnd to tlie oi?i«i<tcnia1 unil pnftirwil oaturu "Γ tlii'Ir oMMipkliont. 

' In the Baamii finnalitry «Γ (Jid |ΐπΐ}^η' oT the rnitlifal, μ It I• 
ptiMrreil In tbo litnr^ for Good Frilay (cf. nlovo, p. ITJ), tliu n-rlae of 
biilli mm* ni« mituticand InucnUntoly ttUn tho tietgy : " Ornnut rl pn> 
οηπ&η» epift^U . . . o•Unτ^U, «mt/tmoribu*, wtrgtitenu, riitui* Η yni unuii 

422 CHItlCTUK worship: its ORtGIK AKD EVOLUTION. 

tbo virgiual etale. Its adoplioD vas not marked by καγ', 
special ceremony. A change was made in costume, gannenU' 
cf ft more Bobcr ahapo and colour being worn ; and if tb»t 
peraon had the true spirit οΓ her vocation, a more rotintd mod*] 
of life was adopted. Chnstianity woe praotued with serioo»- 1 
ncM aad severity, witlioul indnlgence in any atitlionsed 
or tolerated relaxations, and to the sacrifice of the pleasurea , 
of tlu floah were added special austeritius ία the uso of food, , 
bathe, and eleep.* 

At α later date virgins, on entering npon their calling, 
were the objects of α special ceremony, which conaieted 
of the bestowal of the vuil, or wicUio, to which was 
attached the idea uf α Idud of mystical marriage with 
Christ." After tbis ceremony the eugf^emeat was regarded 
as irrevocable, and it was no longer poesible to contract 
a marriage, any violatioa of the tow constituting a sort 
of sacrilegious adultery. In the fourth century Imperial 
legielation confirmed ecdeaiaetical opinion on this point.' 
ϊΐιβ age for the reception of the velaHo woe not at first 
definitely proscribed. It varied occonUog to the judg• 
ment of the bishop,* or tho custom of the country. In 
Africa, at the end of the fourth century, tho veil was 

Thi• WM tbo pmotleo of the canioit ucotk• ; but thorn «ore otbera, 
tivi DDincroua, «hoae 1ϊτβ> were not «o orderly. Thu F>>tboii of tlw 
Church cfiiulniktlf liivelfih B([ui>ut Uio oooeoonlcd vtrgliiK who cnrnprombid 
tliotr profuanoi) by a mart worlcUy exterior. Soino «ore ftmiid who, baving 
lot tiioU (""'"'>'■• ^' *ho fur KODc Ttaatm vet« not llvm); will> thtit 
family, Bllowi>d tlicimMilvM a ~ protoclor," «bo «bored tlioir dvcUing, to 
aay tbo lowL Public opiuion nppmra to bnTO boon rery tolurtnl of tfacM 
diaordar•, for tliej had ofloo to Ι» denouaoixl la wrmMit of tlio Hae. 

* Tliia cononptloD of virgiiiul ociiuiocratiaii esplBina «bj tbu oomiaoay 
■liould take plnoQ only in tho <nae tit womott. 

* OxI. Thiod.. Bk. DC., roL 25, 

* AiiiU., Jh Virg., 7. Bla siitnr MarooUisit rm «till young «boo ιΐ» 
wu oonwcrmtiid by Popo Uboriai. Tbo «ordi which SL AmtiKme «ttri- 
bntca tu LibcKoe on thU occosioo woald la«d n* lo bcUt-Tu that tbo 
BoBMi viriituit UEUiJIy rmIvmI euiULOnttion bpfote «Jnuiood •)[ο. 




given 0« OBily ae the tweoty-Gllb year ; ' in Speio, 
«bout the same time, the woman had to wait till bor 
fortieth year.* This latter limit helped to obviate many 
difficulties, and s law of 458' officially sanctioned tL 
Id this manner the velalio lost much of ite significanoo. 
Instead of being the ioangural act of a canwr, it was 
merely its crowning-point. Under the pretext of eocimng 
tlie fidelity of the spoaees of Christ, tbey were only 
dedicated to Him at an advanced age. Popular opinion, 
it must be remembered, favoured this amngements and 
hod even gone further in that direction, since some 
apocryphal writbgs protest that the age ehould be sixty 
or even seventy-two years.* 

The performance of the ceremony of the vetatio was, like 
ordination, reserved for the biahop. It took place with great 
pomp on some eolemn festival In the curioua discourse 
entitled Ad virginem taptata, whicli appears among the 
works of St. Ambrose," tlie bishop reminds a vii;gin, who 
has lapsed, of her solemn oooBecmtion on Baster Day, 
surrounded by the white-robed neophytes holding lighted 
tapers. At Rome the solemn festivals chosen for the 
purpose wore Chiistmas Day or the Epiphany, Saster 
Monday, and St. Peter's Day," on which occasions the 
Station was bold at the baeilica of the Vatican. 

* Cod. <Λ«.. 16. 

■ OanneU «( ttangiMM (held In 800), e. B. 

* Jfin. JfqfortoA «t 1. 

' The H• of list; 1• Denttcmod by the writer of tbo LA. PtrnL (voL 1, 
pp, SAO, 211): tliftt of ecnatj-tw hj the folw CbuHMHm SUmM (iML). 

* Higne. fti(. Lat., wO. XvL p, 8β7. 

* Deantot of G«liuiua (Jnfft, βββ), oh. 12, oompftrad witU η nibrio of 
the GoImUd eMMmcnbiry (L lOS). Th««B l«xt• do nut iul-dUod tbo 
fMtind of ChilBtDuui: MarooUfna «■•, homnror, oonwxvat^il on that day. 
It U ραβΛΗο that when tho ofaNmoee of the B^phony niu intmilitcod nt 
Β«αιια, which tnu not, I beltovc, till «ftor Liberia•, Ihut the otatumj of 
the mlttUo tiigirmn «na tntn«fun«l to thnt fartival. 

424 cuusTiAN worship: its o&ioi» avd Kvoumoa. 

§ 2.— The ΚιτΕβ OF the Veutio Vmouiiru. 

1. Slu Homan Ux. 

No tuiciont ritu&l of tho vdalio accordiog to the Itoman 
nao in cxUiot, but the prnj-ors for it arc givGti in the 
8Acrainciitime«. The ToUowing arc those of the Leonian 
Sacramentory,' and they were, doubtlose, preceded by a 
litany: — 

Beapico, Domino^ propitiue mper bu Γαταπίω tiiat, ut nrgjniutii 
propodtum quud tu insiilnnte eusoipiuut, 1« gnbemante 

Vere digDUm . . . aotenie Duuii, cHBtunim οοφοπηι btnlpiae bkbttstar 
et ineotrupUruiu Uciut aimtlnr nnjmiuiiin, l>oiiiiqui hinnuuunntaUntiaiii. 
in primiH hominilme di&bolica froudo vllialann, ita in Verbo too per «juod 
omulB facta sunt rcjiaraa nt «am nun nuliim ml primou origiuie [noocentfun 
TQTOoee, Bed ctioin ad oxpflrientiam ^junninidani bonorum qimH :n novo 
mecTilo eunt faabondu perdncu, ct obetHctos adhuo oondltiono morulinin 
jam ad «imilitudiiiom provrJios ongelorum ; rupice, Uoiniue, auper bae 
famnlBa tnne ijiioc in loanii ma couliuoutUe suae propouUim coHocimloa, 
el devDtioDiim mmm QfTonint a quo ipsa voU βηηΐΜταηΕ. Qnnndo eofaii 
animaa oiottali came dnvmdataa legem natutne, Kbcrtatem Ucentiae, 
Tim connuetudinia ot aliiiiidoe eataliB aTinoaiet, nin lii hone flanunam* 
domen tcr accendccca, tu hano cupidiUtuni * beuIgDua alereii tu fotlitadcitoa 
miuiatraree? KfTiua Euinqiio in omneM gentca gratia tua ex omnl 

■ Mumlnri, vnl. I. p. 144. That nf thn Gfilnmnn Rnfnunpiitu; (ΛΙΛ. 
p. 1>2U) U mtbcr Icingdr, u ύ pomtcd lout fiuth» on; that of ϋιυ Mittalt 
JlnwM W t iw i» vinilat to tbut o! the Ocloiiaii t<acnuneilary, esmpt for an 
fnW^"" of a fuv lines <το1. ii. p. Θ74). In llin «nppUiiHiiila of (ho Gr^ 
f-orinn ilaomiacnuirj wn find η mu<>li (liottrr formulary, but dcrired fron 
Uiot of tbu LeotUBO, «ith a tvtiiiiiiiLtion nwmblinj; IliHt of Ibn Gdaalaa 
8Batanenlaf7 and (be MinaU Fmneontm. TliU clrcunwlanoo kadi ua In 
baUen tbat tho fanaelarj hn« b«cn abortcnod at tbci end in tbo Lemlas 

* "Bane Aomawn pur Uberam artitiium buM amoicn vifsiaitBtia." 

M. ir. A. 

» " Captditatoa in mrnni eorde." fl•!. ΛΓ Wr. 





quae (M nb oaelo m MoIluntD bniimenbllein Diimeruo) Hon TestunenU 
huradibiw adopUtU, bbir cctcnut virtnlo, quM ίίΐίΰ Iiuh hod ex Mnfoin• 
lliiui noque ex voluntato carnw κά do too Spirilu geiiitie fnilidisU, οϋαια 
hoc donum In quoedam inentu do lar^tatk tunc Γοοίπ ιΙοΠηιίΐ. Vt cum 
bonorem Duptiuum nnlU inlordiols miauinoat ftc super uanctiim coojii- 
ginm inlllalle benedietio permsnervt, oxiiWront tmncn Rulilimionii ΛηίπΜο 
qimo in riri nc mnUerie oopnk batidir«Dt connublam, co[ii.-ui>ieocrent 
Mcmiuentam, oeo halUtrentur qaod nuptiii agitnr, voi diligtttcot quod 
nniitiia pm«iiotatnr. Agnovit andorem guiim bests vbginitas, ot wmals 
Intcgiilatis sngcUcao Dlius thaluoo, illiiu cubiDiilD, io doruTit, qui cio 
ρβφβΙιΐΜ rirginilAti* est apoMus qiioEnodmodam perpetiuw Tiigjidta^ 
cit Alius. ImplonDtibue ergo auxQmm tuum. Domino, nt confirmui ao 
benediccioniti titne coutccmtione ciiidontibus, da protectioiufttDadmunimeB 
ot ro^tneo : ne boatis aiitiquue qui exeellentiora atudia aubtlUoribue 
Infaetat inaidita ad obKurandam poTibcta«GeiitiiigQliM{)aImAinpara]li]uaiB 
•crpdt Bianti• Inculaio, at rapiat da pro]Kidto tiig^ua quod «tlam 
moiibue dccot !n*MO oi^tanim. St in oia, Domina, per donum Sptritua 
lui, pnideiu modectia,! aapleu beuI^ICAs, (praviit lenltaa, oaata ΙΠηιΙαβ. In 
cftntato r«rvciu)t ot tdhil extra ta dillgact ; laudabiUtcr nnnt, laudnriqiia 
noD appcUnt. To in aeoctitata corpora, to in ontnii em piiritAto ^orifi• 
cont. Aniorc to llmeant, aniOfe tlbl KrrianL Tu oia honor ais, tu 
^ndlnm, tu Toluntaa, tu in maorore aolalium, tu in ivm1iiguitat« oontiiliuDi, 
tu in iqjUTis deCeniilo, In trilialatlODe patitiuUa, in pmipurtjitQ abondantia 
In j^juaio cibui, ia intinuila.te modiciiui. In t« bfthciuit «mtiiu ipiom 
«Ι<^βτο ΒΐφβΓ oiDDia.* Et quod rant ρτοΓβιβΜ cualodliuit, gcrutatori 
pectorom noo oorpora pladbiiaie aod niaiil*. Traimcnnt in mimeram 
iqilaDtiutu pucUurum; nl caelmtvin «ponstim acconaie laiopadiboa cam 
olao pnuipuutiDnie oxpoctont, noc turbaUo improviid rogi» adventu 
pnecedentium chore jnngaDtiir ; occunant, ncc exoindantur cum etultfsi 
T^Cnlom jannani cnra c«i»eotibne vii^inihna licontor intioeant ; ot b Ag&i 
tui perpeUio ooiaitatu ptobabilea mamun cutllAte pemunaaat. 

2. GallUaih Utt. 

The Gollican form is oblAiucd by the comparison of 
tboee tcxta οΓ uudoubtvd Bomaa origin with tbo MieaaU 

> Vbnt folkm, aa far a« elt^ert nptr omnia, U iTimtinf; la llie Mlenle 
* Whai [fuUom ia act round in Uie Golaalan EleommenlMj and Uio 


yranearum, vliich coqUuus a mixtare of the two Tonns, 
and with the MUstdt GaUUaiwm, Vau». Ibe eorvico 
began with a prayer, preceded by its iuvilalory ' ;— 

FAveatiM, dlleotinlml Pnitree, Ua vlrtutibns qiua praosUm pftDCornm 
Mt, Damn Hmper purticitme ααϋίαΐΰηιιβ ciutodem Μθ«ρώ ddem 
prooibi» oromtw, ut bnnc ΓΑίαιιΙαηι eu&m onmibiu auculi inlecebrie 
liboram CAnulibus ac eplritn tutognm, Begb Utuni tholamo reur- 
Tnudftm aditiu eulettn proponti vjrtuta oonoljorat, et ad aasugtalBuim 
rmotum [jitoni proptit devotion• praewalt wiAaX κλ IQnialiut• c«Ua- 

Omolum i)iiidem landum βΐφίο «(rtatnta eod praecipoo caattUtii 
odflortor, onatos, anxilislor, effector dJoatto tibi b aanetia ooipaTibiia parilar 
ao mentibiu puiitetie ; qni virgliiitolem idoo pliia intaero et diliip* qnia 
tibi Diigo vlrgioitu ; quique iii buuo uundnm natne ex virgine id ία alUi 
prsbaa quoil iu cnntre «Ιοκΐβϋ, at^no odeo aptieaimo tiU spoon viro tpoo- 
aam Tirginem dedicamue; lu, Domlne, tribue base puellao )ini tOM 
•eroper opUlinem roagno proporito penevoranliam, ct contni multitiirmiB 
inimici iiiBtaiilJ& spiiitum oigiuiitM Insldlaa iDdeflcxam buxpiiKoaliUeiiiqii• 
(.'ODHtButiaiii, vrt Ubi d«bcat connuomtttioiie φΐΑβ jam ante habuit bona 

Then camo tho giving of the veil, a<!oonipani«d by tbo 
benediction : — 

Ampc, puelU. paJUuiD, quod {«Tferu aioe maoiUa ant« tribunal dooiini 
noatri Jeeu Chneti, cnJ fleotit ouioe genu caeleatiuia et t ar tee ti i gi H et 

Beccdtcat te oondltor ceeli «t t«nso, Deua Pater omn^otooe, qui to 
oligure digiuttiu out «d iniiUr noctao Mnriac matni Domini noatri Jon 
ChriHlt ail btegram et Immacuktsm virs)nitiit«in. qoam profeaM ea «OtUB 
Doe «t aogclle aaDOtii. Iddrco aerva proponitum, wrva cotftitatem per 
patleatlaia, nt coronam Tit^oJiatia tnao aocipore raurcaiie. Nunc exoro 

■ I glm bero the fotmnlaty cf the MitmU 0«lHmmiim FirfiM, Himtorf, 
ιΛ. iL f. 701. In tlw Mbiale Fnntamm {Aid., ]>- 078) thn Itoauia Μοβα 
Dmt tatlonim i* pnoedcd bj a fonnulary of Rmilar import, bet bavlBg 
Ibe invllatofy pbMd after lb» prajor 


domini ooBtri Jeea Cbrieti divinam mieerioordiam at banc virginem 
coneecTELre ac sonctific&re dignetar usque in fmem. Benedicat to Dene 
Pater ot Filius et Spiritus eanctus ocoai benedictione apiritali, at muieas 
une roacula aub veatimeato eanctae Marue matrie domini ttoetri Jeeo 



Tbbtvllias ' oxtoU Iho hApinnees of that maniago which 
is oemeDted by the Church, confinnod by Ihu obUtion, 
senloi with tbu bunudicttun, which the angule (iroclaim, 
nnd which in raUiiud by the Huuvunly Fftlhor. Many othor 
nucient writers also Gpoalc of mamagos celebrated befoni 
the Charch and blessed by her with mure or less solcmtiity. 
No ecclesiastical law, however, obliged Christians to 8oek 
a blessing on tbeir marriugu. The benediction was a matter 
of onstom or propria^, and although it suheoquoatly became 
the rule, it was uerer a condition of validity. The inarriago 
is independent of tbu rite. 

The rite has buL-ii subjected to many variations, aeoording 
to the times and countries in which it woe oelebmtod.' 
KoUiing can be gleaned on this point either from the 
Ordiiue or &om the ancient litnigical books, except tho 
prayers of the nuptial Mass and those of thu nuptial 
bleselog. We must come down as far as tha time of Pope 
ITicolM I. to find a description with, aay details of the 

• Μ Vaar„ U. 9l 

* Tho ttaoua ritiul now lin nio, after having givBD ■ mblflieiD of 
MremeoU• utd ΓοπηπΙηΗη. ndda ttiat, if Ihcro UD any oilier pnucworUijr 
eaibm «r enamanici in tiiia «r that ooaatiy, tho Council uf Trout ikvUt* 
tbnt thoy ihoiild bo rvtalncd. 



of nuirriage in the Latin Church.' The desoriptioa 
occurs iu his celebrated coafereuce with the BulgariaDS. held 
in 866. The acta nrhicb he menliona are dit-ided into two 
ealegoriee, those which pieoede aud Uiose which accompany 
tbe wtptiaJta/oedera, The flxit ontegory containe — 

1. Thd botruihii], or oeponeal (apoHtaUa), the oxpreesioD 
of the couseut of the couple to be mfttiied and of their 
porunta, to thu projected muriage. 

2. The svharrhaiio, or delivery of the ring by the bride• 
groom to the brido. 

3. The deliveriog over of the dowry, by written docnment, 
in tho presencu of witnesses. 

These are the preliminaries. The marriage ceremony 
itself oominiMi — 

1. The cclubrfttioQ of Mass in the presence of the 
uewly married, who take part in ttte oQering and arc 

2. Tbo boDediction pronounced while α veil ia held 
above their heads. 

3. The ccuronation on leaving the church.' 

' Kwpoun ml coiiiaHa BuJt/iironm, e, S: "Pcet (ρβΜοΙΙπ, qtuu• fota• 
rumni nuiit DUptianiia prumiiin Γυι.-ιΐΐ'ΐη, qnjMiqDi) ouiiMlmi eorum qai 
luwa muUnbuDt ut wdiua la quuram potwtato anal ovUbmiitor, ct puat- 
qnun arrhii qraneMD liU qwaiu• per dlKltnm fldvl α bo «ιιβιιΐο buljpiitiwi 
dcapondeiit, doteni ntriqiU) plftcitMH fpcnnu (^i cam κπρίβ pMtmii Loo 
eouUnente cumin iiivitjit» nb utnuiuit μητίιι tnullili>rlt, uul mm nut npto 
Ιοηφβη . . . ami» nil nuptSnlln Tuodcn porducuulnr. Bt primum quld'-m 
tn Malc^ IXiuiiiii cum uLlAlionilma quiu οΠν -rni deti«at Duo per vcunlotl• 
muinm nUluuiitur. >ic>iiii< ilvTuiim liN)«lletlnniTin nt velnmun oaulnto 
mdplnnt . . . Vi'ranitiiDii'ii νι<1ηιη•ιπ Uliid aaa mucfpil ηιιΐ mi «MTDudita 
DnptiM mignt. IVat bocc buIdid ilc «<«lc*ia νςκΜΐ aininu In capilibiu 
Bwbuit. quuo MODper fn Mclnin ipin mini Brjlila« rMWVkri Et lla ftvtla 
inqitlBUbui odabnti•, nil duccnititw iiullvldiiitiD vllnm Dcmtnu iliii)KnicoiD 
do eueUiro dirigHDtur." Thu Popa govt on to «ay llint uu(hiii); of ull tlil• 
is «acntial lo Hi* lBιLτriι^nι tb^t «huwiiI !■ •υηνϊ<αιΙ, Had I• the unlj 
ibtag InillapaiinUil• 

* The Γορβ taka note that tbcie cromiB ue nntatl; Ικφΐ in tho vlianth. 
Ko doubt «•» trna taken to ptmeai the vwing of tnwaa «bich had bocn 
prufoued b; καιο niporfUttcKU vmK 


All Uiese riUis are eiUl found in modern uaea. The 
nnptial ceronioi])- &t tltu proeent time comi»isee tfae oero- 
mooiee of the betrothal, fts woll u iboee of nuuriage properiy 
BO oilled. It begins by the declantion of cooeont, wMob. 
Μ Uui martiigo follows immediiitely eitcr, hu hero tlie 
eliiiaeter of >n engagement de praewUi, The co&UacUng 
ptrtie•, inboTTogatad hj the prioet, publicly exptees their 
intontioD of being luiited in mamoge.' Then follows the 
tubarrhatio, porfonaed by the bridegroom, villi e ring 
previously blessed, followed, in many places, by the oon- 
Teyance of the donTy, represented by a medal or piece 
of money. 

The whole of this conslitutes the ancient ritnal of 
the betrotlial, which formerly Cook place in the family 
circle, and without the intorruntton of the prieeL As 
to the ritutt] of ihe maniagu itself, the proeent nse 
and that of the nioUi contuiy both ogroe with that 
implied in the inoAt ancient liturgical booki. The naptjol 
Maae is met with in all the Roman Socramentariee.* 
The formularies of the prayon in theto am naturally 
suited to the circimistancea It should bu remarked that 
they preeupposo the oblation to be made for the bride. 
The following is that of tlie ffanc u/Uur in the Leonian 

■ At till• point, lo the Mlddto Agm, ocourrod the rormuliuy Bgo «on• 
^MfO MO fn maUimoiiium. irk., wblob b, w nwy bo •ora, » Mrt of 
inteqKilBtian iu lliu pruuilivo wsctaopuj. Tbia rormnlary, gf whl«fa the 
lil«ml HUM goo• beTond Ui• ftot, ht• ooiudilcmUj ouiUlbnteil lo k Um 
{d«a οΓ the nktara of tlw ηΙΐΒίαιι• BUirria«o, «ml hu givni tim to tbo baltaf 
that the mntrimooial ti« d«p«nd> on tlie atUhutity oT Uie ptJeaL The 
C'lMooil «t Trent (jSn». ulv., De n/. mar., a 1) montioiu il wltkmt 
onfoKing it• uie. 

' The Galllou facob give do Ham. I And in them OMt«lj η btaaiiH4o 
titataeil utfur «mfttnlM, eompridn; »d invilaloiy unil α pMyur, in Ui• BuUwa 
SMnmnieatujr (HanL, li. p. 960). 

■ (t. tho ΓοποοΙοΗμ of Uio OalMlui &Mnnaat*ry ΟΙΐ"»^. >- p- ?SS> 
nnd of the QwgariMi H*rriai>-ntMy (widcd pitrt, WiL, vA. ii. p. M&>. 

τακ χσρτίΛί blessikc. 


Hano i^tUT oblslionem famnlaa tca« iHim, qoftm titil οΐΤβτίηιιι pro 
ΓαπιαΙβ taa Ufa, qnutnmiUi Domtac, pkcatiis •βρϊΐί•Β; pro qiw nuJeelA- 
tern ttuun impptioM «xortmns, ul iiicut wun ad tetaUm naptiia con• 
gni*ni«ai pemolra tribnieti, ric οοηκπϋο mariuli tno muntre oopulaUm 
deaiderabi aobolB gaudere perfiolaa, atijne «d ofitatui eericm cam no 
coi^DgD pfOTohse bonignut umoraia. 

The nnpti&l bcnediclioD takee place after the Pattr 
neeUr, before the fractioa of the consecrated bread. A 
veil is held orec the bride and bridegroom, and the 
offlciatiiig minister recites, first a simple prajer, then 
one of &uharistic character. 

Adceto,' Domioo, eitpptiealionibiia nottris, ot tnatitDde tub qdboa 
propagatloMtD liimiaiii geaoris ordlnaaU bealgotu aauto ; ni quod Μ 
aaotore jnngHiiT to aoxOioaCe «ervotur. 

Ven dlgnvBi. . . . Pater,* muadi oooditor, naaoqatuitii genltor, nultt- 

plioandao origima inatitutur ; qui Adae comitein tnEe niaoibua adduliati, 

onjoa ex oa^iiia oaw croaceDtla parem fonnani admirabili dlvenitato 

rignanoL ffino ad totioa mubitudinit iaoMiiMOtiim couJugiUia tluiri 

jnaaa eonsortia, qua totnm intm- w Baeoalum ooUigamt, human! ganeria 

rordnm nexucnmL 8io erilm tibt plooilum ηνοκββηπσ ; ot quiu lonn 

n«u>t iiiflnuius ψιοά honiini nmilo quani ιριοΛ libi doo rccera*, additiia 

fortiori «exua laflrmiur luium riIlM<r6t ex dnobua, ot pari pignora (obdca 

mixU manarat, dutn per ottlinoai iluerct dtgwU poetorilaa, ao prion* 

T«ntiim Bequerentnr, noo nllnm albl ftnem in lata 1ΐΓ«τί tMinioo qnaniTia 

easent codnoa proponerent. Ad haec igitnr veaturae ki^iM Bamnla» tnae, 

Pntor, rudiraeuta aanctiiica, uC bono et preapero aoGiata eonaoTtio Icgto 

HUnao jvra ouatodiat. itaniaoritgua bo, Dombo, noo csotini) ad 

Ueeatiam ooojugalem sod ad obiarvaiiliam Del laucleninKiiie plgoonun 

ointo^ao dolagatam. Fidelia ot oaMa nubat in Chriato, itnltatrixqtM 

MHoUnini permaaeat feminarnni. St amabillfi ut Baebel riro, eapteua 

at Babeooa, loi^iAva et fldalla nt Sarra. Nihil ex hac nibcUtna ιΠο 

aaotOT pneraricationls onupet; nixa fidoi mandotiujue ponnaaeat; 

muoial iuHnnilattm taam robore diieipBnae; sni tboru jnacte cmtaotu• 

vitel illiraUx. 8tt verecuudla gravis, pwlore Tenurabilia, dootriala Trriha 

^us eniiUta. Sit reciuida lu tobolu, ait probata et iuuooeoiL tt ad 

beatonua reqidoiD atqua ad caolMtia n^na perraniat 

I Laonlan giiaaaamafy, Mnratori. toI I- p. H9. 
■ Ixvnlaa «ad Qdaalaa ea«iBiiieatarlc«, II. ee. 


This ooromony u the priiicipnl roligtons rite. It ϊβ 
by tbo Dame of Lbe vtiatio nuptialit that the nuptial 
benediction i» known in the old Leonian δβα8ηιυη1αΐ7 ; 
ftt tho cud of the fourth centnry Fope Siricius' speaks 
of the vtiatio amjugalis. St Ambrose' M^e tlso that 
the mamoge ought to bo sanctiiied wlamine ue&rdaiali 
a bmtdietionc. Not long sinoe it was still the custom in 
Fraoce to hold the veil (pidlium, paUum, ροίΐβ) extended 
over the married pair during the blessing, but thie 
eoitom, not being mentioDed in the Soman ritual, in fast 

ΊΪΐθ coronation of tbo newly weddt-d, which BtQl 
occupies Buch an important place in the Greek rite, 
also been given up in the West 

I have already stated that the old Merovingian 
do not contain the nuuriage rite. The Qallican 
bowever, has, I believe, left a trace of it in tbe later 
IfissaU, in the benodictioQ which is pmnouncod over tbe 
bride and bridogroom after tbo communioo.* Of the 
three ancient lioman Sacramentaries, the Gelasiaa, in 
wiiich we BO often find Qallican prayers, is the only 
one which contains a formulary of this nature. We 
bave seen, moreover, that tienedictions at the time of 
oommuuion form an important fealore in the Gallican 
lituigical system. The following is ihe formulaiy in the 
Gelouau Socraniealary : — 

' Doon-UI at Ilimem, α 4. 

* Sp.. xix. 7. 

* TliU in uno uf llioBo anHcnt tk-mnn riUw wliicli inn I 
in Fratiec Uian In luly, «nd wbioli diuppeuvd whua Ui• m^f" '■ 
nw WM «f Ul« yttn iiUuptuL 

* The ranniiliLry Dm» Abmhatn . . , i• no* pmuBiiood oAor Uw A• 
. «rf. ut lliu muiDciit iiri'wribvd tut Uic Utadng of Um |iu»p1o In the 

ΏΛΟ. In llic (Juliuliui SRcmia(<ntAr7 Uie brntdfotioo uf Iho nowly 
iDMTlnl U plMOd iinuixliatuly atUir Uio mmniialoii, bctoK the ptmj^ 

■nn; rrcFTiAL BLisstxo 


DorninQ nucto, l^tar omnipotona, utorM Dana, ilemt» procihui 
te wippUcM ojtonmiu, pro quitni* apud ts suppUoftbir oet Cbrieb», 
conjnncb'onw funulornni tnonun lovoro dignoria, bcnoUotionM tuu 
oxdpero meroaalw, et flUoruro mooeaalbna fecundonHir. ΝιφΙίΑβ eoruffl 
•iGnli primi bomcnia conSmare digaan; Kvoruuitur ab «ia inlcnfci onuiee 
iDBtdiBo, lit sanotilauni PAtnim etiun ia ipao oonjiiglo LmilentUT, qui 
providotiLu tun, Doiume, oonjnogi merneniiit. 

U ύ iulcreeLiiig to note tliat the DUplial ritual d^ 
wiibad by Pope Kicolae is neither more nor less than 
tho anotUDt Komau marriage rito, without the eacrifioo, 
or rather with tho subautution of tho Hose for tiie 
pagan encrifice. The Komans thomaolvue distingmshcd 
between the preliminary eogagemeot or betrothal and 
the nuptial ceremony proper. Their rito begaa by the 
mutual engagement, which was contracted by both paitiea 
in pnwmoe of uach other in a eut form of words. I'his 
ougHgeraent was marked by the delivery of the ring, or 
swharrhntio : tlien Followed the drawing up of tho murriago 
contmet, aocomponied by gifts from the bridegroom to 
tho brida AU this look place in tlie presence of the 
fViendfl of the family, who wuro uiterwards entertained 
at a banquiit. 

On the morning of the marriage the gods wcro at Bret 
consnltod by tJiu taking of auapioee. At α lutcr date the 
divination of the huruspex, which presupposed a sacrifice, 
was aubetituted for tho auspices. On the previous evening 
the woman hod laid aside her m&tduu dress and bod assumed 
tho garmeote of a brido. Her houd wiis covered n-itb tho 
fiammcam, or rod-coloured veil, which, with tho exception 
of the colour, was the same oa that worn by all married 
women. It is from this obnidiilatio «tpttw that the tenns 
nvhcre, nuptiae, nuptials, are derived. Ώιβ bride's hair was 
divided into six pl&ita, and her head crowned with flowen 
which she hei'self had gatliered. A similar floral crown 
woa also worn by the bridegroom. 

2 r 

434 OBBiSTutt TTOBSHir : its orioih akd ivotimoH. 

The invited gueeU having aaeembled, the hamspicee came 
to announce the result of their divinations. The bride and 
bridegroom then ex[a«8sed their consent to the nnioo, and 
the ooQtrsct was Bigned (tabulae nuptiaUe) ; the 2ΐτοη>ώα Lhoa 
anaed Uiam to teke each other's hands. At thia point came 
the unbloody aacrifice of the eonfarrtatio, an offering of 
&uit6 and of a wbvatun loaf. While this was ptooecding, 
the manied conple were seated on two chairs bonnd togetlier 
and covered with Iho skin of the sheep which bad boon 
elaughUiTtid for tbu divinatiou. Whilu ibu priuM leoibed ihe 
prayer the bride and bridegroom made the circuit of the 
■Iter, waUdog towards the right. A bloody aacnflce then 
took place, an ox or a pig being immolated on the altar of 
a tompla The guests then shouted Feliciter! and the bride'a 
father gave a great feast. At nightfall the bride was cod• 
ducted with much ceremony to the houeti of hut husband. 

YtQm this ounory description it will be evident that, 
with the cxcepLion of the rites of α purely religious charaottt, 
espcicially those of the haruspex and the aacrifioea, the 
whole of the Roman marriage ritual has been preeerred in 
the ChriBtisQ ceremony. Even the fiammtnm and the crowns 
have foond their place in it. This inatanco of thu adoption 
of α P*gan custom does uot stand aloae. Bteentially 
conservative, the Church in these matters merely modified 
that which was incotupatible with her laith. 



Sl»»Eiis who Itad booD exoloded by eccteeiaatdcal authority 
from the society of the faithful, either for faults which they 
tbemselvea had acknowledged to the Church with more or less 
pubUdly, or which had been brought home to them in some 
other manner, oonld only regain admisaion by the way of 
penance. The first step in that directioa was the petition 
for rehabilitation, that is to aay, for admisaion into tbe 
niunbor of the penitents. It was not easily graaled; eome- 
times, even when it was accorded, the penitent waa given 
to understand that the expiation for his fault must be 
continued till tho day of his death. It was never granted 
more than once to the same individual. Throughout the 
whole time of his penance the ainner hod to live under 
much the same conditions as the professed asoetiee. Ho 
could neither marry nor ful61 the conditions of • marriage 
already contracted. He liad to renounce his military or 
ecclesiastical career, as tho case might be, ae veil as 
partidpatioa in public functions; he waa made to practise 
austerities in eating, drinking, dress, and in the use of the 
bath; he had to be fVeciBently at church, and his life, in 
abort, was that of a monk. The whole difference between 
the state of a monk in the world and that of a penitent 


lay in tlto fact that a monk had freely choseo his manner 
of lifo, whereas for the peoibent it was β condition of 

Such wae ihe discipline vith regard to offenders in tbo 
fourth and fifth centories, hut it was not long before it was 
mitigaUid and so modified that, except in exteemely rare 
cases, the penance lost all its ext«nial formaliUM. and oeosed 
to have any place assigned to tt in public tronbip. 

In early times it hod its aocompasying ritual, tlie forms 
of which closely leeomUed those of Christian initiation. 
The penitent w ngarded in tlie nuun as α Christian who 
had lost his initiation and was labonriog to reoover it. 
Penanoo was, aa il wore, a beginning again of the novitiate, 
or the catechumonato, except tiiat die qnestionings, the 
eoTutinics, and the exorcisms wore replaced by aaeetio 
exercises. Joat as there was a doctor avdientitim, or head 
catochiflt, assisted by a staff of oxordeta, BO there was, in 
certoia churches, at all events, a penitentiary priest, with 
dorks under Mm, who were entrusted with the care of the 
ponitonts, and wvre responsible for the sincerity of their 
expiation. In church, the penitents, like the catecbumeoa. 
conHtituted a group by themselves, and wore diemiseod at 
the same time as the Utter, that is, before the cetolnatioa of 
the holy mysteries. When at length their time of pnbatieD 

' It iheuM be noted thttl lli« mtmtBlia alnte did Bot. like tlia ponJUal, 
prodndo the lakintt of Holy Order*. Thn tlirco or foar lUec• of penitential 
ditdpUnii In Uio Kiut «ura αυνοΓ obcorrad in Latin «nmtric• (Fimk, Ί%ββί. 
itaartalMhriJt, 18ββ. ρ, 373, *l Hf.). Wu nuty even qoeallna, if In Iho 
But liiaj mro of ααΐνβηκ) oljaervMMe. Tbo A]witoUi> CbiutilDtioi]• •α4 
Oft&ou do Doi mditloii tlicm, ndthor doee tho Otnimtl of Aivlioch (311) 
nor Ht. Jolin CtuTMatani. Id Hyri» *e Μβ• boUt by the writing of 
Ht. Jobn Cht7«nitoin MBd Book H. oT Ibe ApoatoUe Ovutltatioiu, tbkt grtmk 
Icuieaoy WM aliown lowatd* pnulost Miuien. Tlie uomtilntion• (tL Ιβ) 
BMign, in praportion t» Uie αΙΓωοο, « gnUer or li'scr duistkoi Tor the 
penltcDUal «xcrebOB: but Uio mMtmnin longUi of llino \» κτιφ «««ka, 
Thl• duration la tliat of tbo ntitiiul Linit, Mid elw of tlial appanottj 
obacrvo•! in Boiuo ditrJaE Urn aoYCiitii oontory. Cf. tn/rti, p. 189. 



woe ended, they were solemnly readmitted into the body 
[of tlie foithfol, just as they bad bees solemnly introduced 
it at tlio time of their baptismal initiation. There vae 
α coincidence of time in the two oeremoniee. for both 
took place immediately after the Eaeter festival. 

Bnt few traces have come down to tu from these early 
timea of thu ritual in me for the sdmisaion to the nnmber 
of tlie ininitunts. It was necessary lintt to have acknowledged 
tile fuolte for which the penance was sought. We gather 
from the life of St. Hilary of Arlee' (t 'M7) tliet the 
bidhop gave an address, laid his bands on the penitents, 
rend raoited a prayer. The CoonoU of Agde <506) also 
Γ mentions the impoution of hands,^ to which was added 
the giving of the hair-shirt. After this ceremony, the 
penitenta were obliged to wear mourning, the fonn of 
wliicb differed according to the cuBtonu of the country in 
wliich Lliey lived,^ 

At Borne, the purely unmixed litur^ioal books, that is, 
the Lvonian Sacniumutiiry and tliot of Adrian, are absolutely 
silent with rugnrd to the penitential rites.' The Gelaeian 
Bacramentary takes for gmntod that, at the beginning of 
Lent, tlie penitents enlonod a monastery, which they did 
not quit till Maundy Thursday.* 

' in. 17. 

' " Paeultentn. lemporo qm puailMitlBni pMiml, impnitiononi muiiniiD 
et οΠΙοΙπια nipor Mput β uoetdote, •ίιιιιΙ ubi<]u<' (ijiietlliilum Ml. axufr 
qnantBr" (oan. 1ft). 

* In (inuUby «liBvuig Ibe bead (CoonoU of Agdo, toe. Μ.'); In epain 
both linjr kiul butrd wore Bllvind to fERitr (Uidoni, Da Sect. Of.. II. 17). 

■ In Uiu Iiooalui ewtuaantary, tliU β•]γ fa• mlaft to tbu motiUtloa of 

111• UBOBKrlpt. 

■ It ma;r «cll be lufccd. wwuig tbe nkew <Λ Ibe ('■a otbur tteont• 
nentoHe• on tbo ni)J««t, If ««• ant Mit tioi« «onftaotod wlih α ritual 
«bicb U GkllicBii ratbcr than Itoman. But tlu• brpothcm» ig «it natdn 
bjr itie diotloo of the pmyon, ukI by th« nonUon of Uip Ψ*ύΛ*β3Λγ im 
tapOe j^ntl. wlileh. nt lli« llao «Γ llin UaaioriptlOB of Uiu 0«ΐΰΐ•ΐ) 
HaitniTnnitnry. wu lUll chomctmilio of Bonan iiHig6. 


On the Wedneeday * i» oafUe jejunii, which πο ώοψ 
call Afih Wednesday,' the penitent prasenbed himself be- 
fore tbe prieet in tiio early morning, that is, before the 
prooessioa to the statiooal Hwa, end ntceived from him 
u hair-shirt, in which he was clotlied daring the lodtal of 
a prayer, the text of which ie not giv«u. Tlii^ ie in 
the main the ume coromony as that proscribed by the 
Council of Agde. There is no roABOQ to doubt that in 
Bomo this ceremony may not have boon in nee mach 
earlivr than the aerenth oenlnry. The more modem 
element in it is the ohoioe of Ash Wednesday for ita 
perform&ooo, and also the eediuion of the penitent in 
a monastery. As latu as the middle of the fifth century 
the peoitonts at fiomo wen left to themselves, and were 
neither seclodod nor aubjectod to ofHcial saperrision." 

The custom of seoluaion naturally obviated the solemn 
dismLssal of the penitenta {missa paenitmlium) at the 
public Mass. The Latin Sacramen tones have preserved 
no vestige of this usage, but in the Greek books, and 
especially in the Apostolic UooatitutioDS, it is other• 
wise, for in them we note the group of penitents, proeent 

* BaeMtHL. Oet.. 1. Ιβ. Ordc agmlibm publiean pwaAntfaM. Ihtftpli 
11Π. /λΗλ ikiiw, fa raptU Qibhlmgittimaf, et euoftri* nim Mine, ore» 
pn η tt Inriaudii uigiu ad (henant Amfnf, Qui eodem JU in gi iimtv 
pTMNNtadtr «eeMM,- «t pnUntU «O MMf «orport in Itrm. clol onMimm 
pcgrif^ tnftr m» ad mrnMUn n il u m , l» qiUnta /eiia Oamat Dimliii, ttaf 

■ KcHliw tlw OtiMlan BwrainvntAry nor Urn Onto /. of MaUUan, wUA 
Jnorilx* Iho lUtioa of tlie Vednoada; fit eopfl* Jqfvnff, montiou the liim 
dMioD 01 the UDpeiitim of »Λμι but tlie «d«tlii^ eemnonjp la ιγΙτοβ at 
IcPiSUi In Uui Ordtnm «t Ui* tmUlli oealnrj. It oomeponilB witli ■ wUnr 
CGOOfptliiii of ptnunoo. All tlio blthM, lietgj aad tally, aikfit tbv 
kltitnde of pcnilmt• for llie LsbIcii HHni,aad iMdr• Uic imfcuHitm of 
Mb«•, whioli iu¥, Ulw ttiu hftlr-cblrt, the ητοΛΛ οΓ α «Ut• of praitoBOc. 
Su«b an iil<n, putionlulv ία rolation U> tim Bhrgj, h IrmoncilnUc with 
tlie aooliint peiiiloiiUiujr Ic^Uttan otacnid in BoEUt' duwo Iv tbif didHi 

' Svxnnon, B. B., vU. 10- 




St the boginning of the meetiog, oa coming forward at 
the eummoua of the deaoon, awl as leaving the sacred 
buildiug aflcr u spudul prayer, followed by the bishop's 
Uesiing. Tliin custom was still observed at Kome iu ibu 
middle of the fifth century, oa we have Soxomen'a ' express 
authurity for this. 

Th? final ooremony — ^that of recMmciUation — ie foond iu 
Uie Gelasian Sactanientury,' ivith very copious formitlariee. 

By the help of this text we can imagine ourselves 
at Rome on Maundy Thursday, the day speciully set 
apart in that city for the reconciliation of ponituote.* 
Mass begins without any singing — that is to suy, with- 
out the chanting of the Inlroit*— and without iho Pope's 
Bolutation of the oougregatiou by the Dominu» vobiscum. 
He recites on introduclury pmyer,^ aftur which a deacon 
brings before him the pmiitvnut,* who prostrate themselves 
full length in the centre of the churcli. The deacon then 
addresses tliu Pope as followa : — 

Adost, vtmeniliille pontlfex, t«mpiu aooopnm, dies prapltlatlools 
ttmimo ot mlutis hiunanac, qua more iuteritom et viU acoepil aotcnu 
priuL'iiiimD, qtiando id viuea Domiul Sabaolli nc uuvunim plautatio 

* Loo. oit. Cf. mpra, p. 171. 

■ L 3S: " Oral, f» fuiiifn /eria. Eodim dls MB iwllilur, n«e wluttt, 
Id 4«t nun diott Ihaiinw OMiz-mn ι ot reeonidliatto poimiteatU." Throti 
prnyor* follow, lliiMi: "Ordo agmtibm pubHtam paeKttmiliem. Kyicditlir 
pMnllfiu do loco ubi pMnitontiun iCMslt ot to grMnlo praMcoutur ooclcrie, 
luoAmto omni «oipOM In tertm, Μ pcatnkt in liiii rrrbiB duouDtw." 

* Letter oT Inaooent la DecMitlii•, o. 7; οΓ. Lib. Poiit., vat i. p. gsI. 

* TIm Kj/ri* Btri*im U n» doobt •υ|ΐ|ΐη>Μ«>1 beonMi it «omw m> ΛοίΟ^ 
nftor; Iho nmo «ppUo• lo tho Otaria in txetlaU. All thoao dotolU, mora 
at IcM dellnitoly ρτοη. nro ountradiotod bf the OnltuM οΓ tbi' oioUi «ontory, 
«kieb Imply tlmt Ibe Uom bogett la tliu uenal way. ΤΊκ• biter «uolnin. 
Bwnonr, novD(tle»ef tlMroomdllntloaor proilmtton Mnuody 'nnuwlBy. 
It U poMible tb«t thi* eomnony may havo faMn «bandoncd in Um βαηηα 
οΓ the «ightb etntnry. 

■ T1i« Qobjlan iteonnMilnry Kivm Uuve different forau of 11, «Uiob 
uv vvldobtly nltcrnntlvn. 

■ Tbe nibrio uul tlio (Mmnluiui an: nlitny• in tlic lUiBiilar. 


bcttedK eat ul pugDtnr «l ctintlo (?) ηΙοΜκϋ•. QoamTii «Bte ■ 
ιΰτίΙΪΗ bonHftti• ot pi^-tntu Doi nihil tocnporiit ncet, aino Unuo Λ 
lat^or Oil per iiiilnl(-t.*riuar[i rcmisilo iHKCttonmi ct eofuotSot per 
gntinni ailmsiptio ramuoontinin. ΛαχνιαιίΓ Tei;onernotUa, crewunna 
rovanie; Uvuit nqiue, larvit locrymae; bde gMidium Λα kilMuap- 
tioM KKktomm, hinc liwtiliB do nb*alDtigiig pMiuteDtiun. Indt Mt 
quod cupplox tuiv, poHu qnatu in vniiw form*! criiQimitti M^aetu 
miidatunttD cadediiini Μ ιοαπιιη probabiliuin Ιηπ^τ««1οη« CMtdH, 
bmnillBbu ntque praetmlae pnphetiom Hd Doqid vom okinat, dieei»: 
/tanW, fmpfa isr/> Vitfru^Wflit /«rf, muft-orr «m JAmtiw, «mi|^- 
cam vDoem nos fruatralork an» cojilcni: Btati qtii tuifnt, jnoittan 
ipti eontddbMU-r. UaadatAvit, ticut unptum eel, puent doJoria; 
laarmb ■tntam rignvit ; cor ninni loctu, corpu* aitfllxH jtjmlb^ nt 
udmu iiuo rociiwn>t <iiiain perdi<iunit nniUlom. Dnwam it«|u• 
iwt paonttentiae i<ulTni;;Ium, quod «I tdigQlit prodeet et oonlbu In 
oommtuie niocurni. IIJc oigo dam ad paanitii(Uai> actioMni tantia 
esciutur t'semiille, bu1> ixiiupeotu Ιοβΰη^κκαιΙϊβ ucoKwUc, Te»«nbil!e 
Puutifui, proUstncar «t dicit: Ini^Uote* ιμμ tgo agfu»a> ol dJiettun 
fn««m ronrra me ttt tcmjier. AmrU fatten tuam a preralU mtU, 
Domlme, et obm** inigiUlaUt tncM dett. Stdie mA* taitttiam aatu- 
lari» tui ei ιρΜΙιι priacipali confirna me. Quo ita inpplicuta It 
mitoricordlam Di>[ ndfiioto oonle poaooute^ redlah^a in eo, apclollcB 
ΡοηϋΓβι, qiuo<]uiil diaboln KJndente eorraptiim oat; et ontaooara 
tuonini patructaantibua meritii^ per divinso rooondliaticviia gntiaia 
fee liomlQeni ptoriTnutn Deo; ut qui wtM b na* porrcnitatfbua 
diaplioobnt, nunc JAm placero so Doidrio fn regtoDO vlvonua' dorkto 
iDortia niao auctoro grahdeliir, 

Ibe Pope' tliea odmoniehee the penitent, either in 
person or throngh a priest, and after that recitee η pmyor, 
followud by another of Euchoriutic cLiuacler' — 

Adoato, Dombo, «iippUcatUDibiia noatrie et id«^ qui etiam nlaori- 
eor£a ua prinine iudlj^o, denianter eiaudi ; ul quata non elecUoa• 

* Hero tbc Sncnunpnliu]^ kfUit euo. «Meh haa bo ι 

' J^B^ kan uifmoutfar ιΛ ηιίκιψο tlrr idta «inrdU* ut fworf partrilendo 
tlihiU itrfuiuta Mn nnoel. ttnlt txr» hat dMI ornlfiMM nuwnkm mp^ 

* Till* |nrt of Uio tamtinry in fniiud luiuntg the anpplatnraU of 11»• 
αη-ι, -unnu tOcnjouulu; (No. 90), tlm vuiiutita of «liiuli «rv mAea at tlic 
null pagu. 

THE aZCOHOIUATION' ov ηκπζκπί 


noriti eed doDO gntiao tiiao ooDetusieti oper» bnjus niniBtrum, da 
i duoiitm tui miinoriM oi&iuondi, ot ipso io iiontro mbusterio quod (tiM 
pieUtie «et openire.' 

[Vtnv dignnrn . . . aetornn] Doiu, Immnni ireniirii bonignltdaie 
oondltor el mineTicordiuinie niortaalat ; ψΰ liomiiieii) Invldtn dlsboli 
ab ODtvmitalo dcjcctum unici Viii'i ' tiii RfitiKuini redcmiiiti, vivilica 
hunc fttmnluoi ttiiun' qoem Iflii iiuIliU«tiU8 iDori dealdeniB, et qni noii 
i]crelini{iiie doviiiin, ndnimn corroptnto. Μ ο vaunt pietnteni tuaro, 
qtiRO!>iiinuB, Dcmtiio, htijiie fiLciiill lul IncryiDQM tiuplrfa. Τα «juii 
mtKtora viiliii'rilitis, in jnconli mannra porrif^ Rklubireni, nc Eccleria 
tiin iiti>]iia Bui corporis purtiono raetAtnr, nt gros lune dctrimoDtnm 
suatinuat, w do fiunib'ao tun» diuiino inimicui esullet, ne rentttsm 
Invaoro uJnUri mare Moouiida poeeidcAt. TIbi prgo, Dotnine, rappliocs 
pTQOcv, ttli! fletnm conli» ofTunditnua. Tu parve confitenti, iit* iii 
iraniinotitoB paenu eetiifTitlnrnquD fntiiri jndJcii t« DiMeniita dod 
InedlaL HoidU qaod tomt in lenoliru, qnod striJ«t in flaminie; 
atqno ah cmm via ad iter nvtatM jnslitiM. n<K|iiu]iiBm alt» novin 
vnineribue Bauoiotorj ncd btegrnm ύΐ d «tque petpetuum et <iuod 
gimtin tiu coDtiilit el quod mleertoor^ nformavji.* 

The Gslticnn books furnish us merely vith η single 
pmyer, wiUi its invitatory, for the rccunciliAtion of [teni- 
tonte. It is preierred at the end of the Bobbio Socn• 
montary,** but tlio manuscript is in a very bad condition. 
At the time when these books wvru drftwn up, the peni- 
tential discipline, wpecially in Gaul, had been subjected 
to vety ooDsidenblo external modificatioaa.^ 

' Tlipre ti η unnind pnijrcr hero; but Ilin cottrrnl oluuncUir οΓ the ItoaiD 
eomoiinlo* ImJi n» tu rctcnrd It u an ulli-mntivo. 

* FiUi ιηρρίίυιΐ frutn the CJ π'ριήαα HnvrtunHntwy• 
' i7iiHi-/iiniHluniInu«iQt«i(.: tlaqtuGul, 

• Vt . . . heiha] Qrog.: "Dt ^ in hoc moruliute fKConC• m» to 
DilJuvBiito dpflMt <)iiallti>r In tmnandi Jndloil dlu wuMillaa dunnalbnU 

lU'toniiu' omdat. d nn«clilt. nlo." 

' Uofc tli« tiulariMi Sb^nuDCiitnry \pviM m tniah pvnp οΓ fanDuluira. 
tkrvu pnij't'n. mid u Kurilinriiitiu I'rayii ; lhi«<' Bltomalivni do nil apfMir 
ill Ilio Orofiiiilnu «npplomcint. 

' Itiinituri, vi)L ii. p. Μβ. 

■ For lltu TArintlnna of tli« pnxltaltUal diartplioo in fluil ami in tlie 
ΙΙτΙΙΙκΙι Ιύα. m* Molo^iry, LhmWumb Jfenoi-A•. p. 6Ϊ, tt n^. (I'm!*. 


I mey hero moko ft pusmg reforQQce to αα kodonC 
offioe known as the ceremony of Indalgonoo, which took 
place in Spain on Good Fridny, the eame day on which 
apparently the eolomn rocoucilialioa of ponitcnte was held 
from viiry early limes at Milan.' This oeremooy was pre• 
scribed by the fourth Council of Toledo (633),' and all the 
details of it are found in the Moznmbic Missal. 

Alba a few prolimiuorius, among which aro the lo* 
ipODduB, Popvle me\a, quid fed libi, now forming port of 
oor Good Friday ecrvicc, the οίΒοΰ begins by Ihrw) leseoos, 
one drawn from the Prophets (Iso. lii. 53), one tiam iha 
Epistlca (1 Cor. ▼. 6), and one from the Qospols. It was 
tbo Gullicon custom, as we see also from the Lectioiuuy 
of Luxcuil, to read the Pa«ion from « oompoeit^j text, α 
sort of JHatessaron, in which Uio noirativee of tbo four 
evaugolists wore coinbiuod. This consocutivo ocoounl was 
distributed butwcttu thu various offices of Slaundy Thund^ 
and Qood IViday. At the service of Indulgence this leotiOD 
began by tho words, Mane autem /aeto, cma pum, anmiium 
iniertint} After these loctionit foUuwed the actual cvnunony 
called the IcdnlgeDce. Those pnwont, who am indis- 
criminately described as penitonte, ore thrioo invited to 

' TbU ΓοΙΙοπη, I think, fmin Άι. AmbriMc'i twcntloUi lottor: "Em 
nutnm dlu• quo umb Dominiu) pro nobie tradidit, quo in Eodcdk pMulUnUk 

* Can. β: "Oportet ccdem dio mjPRtorloiii omda. quod tpM Xkninu 
oiBiilia tmnunUBndnm volnil, {irni-dicnn ntqne IndalKCatiam erunianm 
clam row oouiMB iMpalam poatiiUn>, ul iiBmiUntUe eenpsuetfoBii mmdnil 
vmUnUbn diem dnnliilciMt RnFanpollimti r«iBlHl> tnlquiUUbui ■ηΜίρβη: 
Udtttsmr, eorponnud ^tu vt MttngnitiiA ncnuDCAtniii nmndi & penKtu 

MIDIMnHf ** 

' tiatt »v!l. 1. Tho wnnl• ana jmra. «Iiloh do not fonn pnrt of thn 
tat of Iloljr βοπρίηκ. arc η very (indent dorignntloii vf (!»>1 Friday. 
Th«y are nwt wUli in a Umk on tlie pna^l ncmpntotiuD ilrosn up at 
Rtsno in tb« foutth eontiif; (Knuch. An- ntjikrig» OtUrrynlui, p. 234). 
The texl Mum antm /aeto 1* nirigned in tbo Loivuil LpoUodbj]: to ttic 
oflloo οΓ -SfiHiiilii, a momiiiic office. MrtM|i»ni]liiK (o tlutl of Prim, In ike 
Bceiui hoitn. 



proBtrate themselves and iavoke the Divine mercy. The 
formularies preserved oloeely rasemblc that of the Sfiasa 
paeniUntium in the liturgy of the Apostolic Constitutionii. 

Tlie arohdoacoQ, then addrossiug the assembly, both 
clergy and laity, calls upon them to cry out, Indtihfmtia I > 
When these cries have cooscd, Uio aichdoocon dir«cte the 
minds of all preseot to the "Good Shepherd who giveth 
His life for th• die^," and theo invites thom to unite 
in prayer. The bishop then begins α kind of rhythmical 
Utaay, to which the congrcgatioa mspood by fresh cries of 

Ts pMoamsT, ΟύηΙιιβ^— Inddgmda I 
Ptooeditab AUMnw-JndulgiBtial 
Snocstrat nobie mieeriit— IndiSgeuda 1 
DelioU porgut omnibuc — luJulgential 
IteMtetar pooii Jleiilibaa — IndolginitlB I 
PBtioiia dtldgentibu»— ladolgimtia! 
Emntu fido oorrig&l — Indulgeatlal 
IJepsoe pocnmtje erigal—Ixidulgetitia I 
Te Jeprvcomur, Domine, — Indalgetitla I 

A prayer in the form of a collect follows, pronounced by 
the bishop in the name of all pteaont, in which he appeals 
to the Divine mercy io favour irf the penitents. 

The cries of Indttl^etUia arise afresh, followed by the 
litany, and the bishop's prayer, with other formularies, 
bnl in the same order. This series being terminated, it is 
lukcn up α third time ; but at the end of the latter the 
final prayer is omitted, and the service is continued by U>e 
AdOMtiou uf the Cross and the Mass of the PrvsanctiGed, 
mncli as in the present use. 

' Tbo rabrio of the pmont Monmblo Mbeol iaJast Γοι gnatud tlint 
Uieio eric• are rcgnUted, and not qMotauDOiu; th« Hit Itine thty ore uot 
Ui be rfrjieutcil luura tbun llinic Iiuodntd titna; thn icconil. oat uoto 1I>*b 
Iwo hundrfld ; and Uie ttilfd, uut uuru Uibq ueo liiuidivd time•. 

444 ciiRiSTiA*; woBsair: its obigik and evolctioh. 

ΤΙ1Θ oereinoiiy of the Indulgence ie casDy separated &on 
thti othor parU of tho service. It comprise• three acta: 
the prayer of the peiiiUjuts tlicmsetves, the iatarceeaioD 
of the coagregation in their favour, tho pntjer addresBed 
Id liie own person by tho bishop to the Divine mercy. The 
litui^^ical books do not di^tini^itb clcurly betwMO tbv 
penitunte and the genuml body of the contrregalion. At 
tho opening of the aurvioo every one* appears to Im in 
the position of a pcnitont; but, later on, in that of an 
intercessor. Bub the parte must be distingaished if wc 
wish to Iraco back tliis ritual to its primitive meaning. 
In early Limus the punltent could not re-enter the com- 
munity of the faithful without their expressed consoot, 
Wliun it was nut sjwataiieously inamfosted, it was tho offtoe 
of tho bishop to evoko it. Tho scene is dosoribod in α 
passage of TertoUion* narrating the procedure of Pope 
CuUixtus at Lhu ruconcUiation of a repentant sinner — 

"Thou dost usbur into the cliorch the penitent odulterur. 
who comes to petition the assembly of the faithful. Behold 
him, clad iu α bair-abirt, covered with ashes, in ganneota 
of mourning such as to excite horror. Ho prostratos him• 
self in the midst of the congregaLiou, before the widows, 
before the priests. He lays hold on the hem of their 
garments, he kisses their footprints, ho daspe thorn by the 
knees. Meanwhile, thou dost address Uie people, thou dost 
exate public pity for tho sud lot of the suppliant. Good 
shuphord, blessed Pope, thou dost relate the parable of the 
lost sbucp, that thuy may bring thee back thy wandering 
lihu-goat ; ' Uiou duet promise that it shall no more escape 
from the flock," olc. 

* Onnparn thia with what liw becti Btated on p. 438, note ^u to tho 
«rigCn οΓ tho coriTiuoiiy uf Uio AaliM. 

• I», {•«•licith. 13, 

' We mnrt not tmgtt thst tbli dcseriptlMi i• α ητΪΜίατνί Tcriallhl, 
«bo wu D bitter eppoDcnt of PofW ΟβΠΙζΙιιι uod lit• ikette < 
(wnitcuoi!, U bW) doing hi• beat tu tnra it (oIq ridlcale, 


Between this picture and the nboal of the Mozarabic 
Missal there ia the difference which in matters of thia 
nature aeparates the third century from the sixth. Bat 
the cries of Ivdvlgtmiia which on Giood Friday once rang 
throngh the Ghnrchee of the Tisigothic kingdom are directly 
deecended from the cries of pity which the persevering 
faitbfnl of old times raised, either spontaneoualy, or at the 
exhortations of the biahop, when a repentant sinner came to 
beg for readmisfdon into ^e Christian assembly. 



We h*To seeD in Ch&pter VHl. what vas the organisatioD 
of tho ftscioQt Church in regard to the sanctificatioa of the 
woek and the year. The meetings for worship on Sanday, 
WodtMseday, Friday, and tho festivals, with their ooctonutl 
and diurnal services, did not exhaust all the ptooa re- 
eouioee of the faithful, nor evoo all their obligatioas. 
The ideal of the Christian life was that of a constant 
oommonion with God, maintained by as frequent prayer 
Μ poeaible. A Christian who did not pray every day, 
and evun froqnently, would not have been oonaidered a 
Christian at all. Ko doubt pnycr in common, made 
collectively iu thu same place by tbe whole of tho local 
Church, wue cou&nod to those days and boura fixed for 
assembly. Bat prayer could be made in private, apart 
from the stated timet of mootiug, cither alone, or in the 
family, or in coqjunction with friends and neighbours. 
The oosbom was established at an early date of devoting 
the last momenta of tbe night, this timo bctweon cock-crow 
and sunrise, to private prayer, and also the end of tho day, 
the gloomy hour when the son diaappMn, when shadows 
bll, and the household lamps are liL Those were the 
fundamental prayers oniveraolly in use — tho morning and 
evening pntyur, or matins and vespers. Uuring the day 




oortAin limos wcro also sbgl«d out, oitbei- in BocoidaDce 
vith Holy Scripture, or Jewish tndition. or oven in 
agieoment with tho customs of ordisary nad cinl life. 
It wM nfttuift] to take odraaugo of tiie moment wbua 
the family met together for the midday meal, and later 
oa, wheo they again separated, to contlBltB the avocationa 
of their daily life. Two regular time• of prayer Trere ύΰο» 
obtained — tvo lumn, observed privately, but habitually. 
Others, calling to mind that Daoiel prayed three times α 
day, concluded that it would bo profitable to foUow hie 
eicample. The throe hours were iodicatod in the Acts 
of the Apostles, where πβ see the disciples gathered 
together for prayer at the hour of lia-ee, when the Holy 
Spirit came upoo them on the Day of Pentocoet ; St. 
Peter goes up to tho roof of the honee to pray, at the 
hour of sexi, before partaking of his meal; and finally, 
the apostles Peter and John enter the temple for prayer 
at the hour of none. These hours, moreover, constituted 
the principal divisions of the day; they were observed 
for business, and were marked by the call of the city 

It is &om Tertollian that we leam the observance of 
these three " hours " of the day, and it is he who tbnn ex- 
plains their origin. Clement of Alexandria was also aware ' 
of this division of the Christian day. In his Cathaneruum. 
PnidentiuB appears to take bin inspiration £rom α κηηθ• 
what diiTeient custom, that which I first described, bat 
with the hours of matins and vespers doubled. Iliere is 
a hyuut for the hour when the cock crows, AUi dia 
nantiua, another for the dawn, ifox et Imebrae d nvbUa; 
others are written for before and af^er the midday moal, 
eruci/er boru, Iveis taior, Pasiis vuccrilnu αΙχψκ sumpto ; 

' D* Jttmnkt. ID. 
■ 8tnm., Til. M. 


aad others for the evening, Inventor rutUi, dux boiu 
/kuhmw,' And for the hour of sleep, A'iea Pater g»preme. 

Wq mtist repeat again that theee prayers, distribated 
over the course of the day In eomewhat different fashione, 
ore OBdontJally private prayeta The lushop and the olorgy, 
no doubt, were those vho particularly observed them ; but 
before the fourth century we do not tiee them traasfeiTod 
to tbe edifioes where the public meetiBgs of Sanday and 
the etaUonal days were held. They are not the i«[iirttuiU 
oxerciM» of the commiiDity, that is, of the whole Chriatian 
community of a particuhu locality. In the fourth century 
the fact tliat they were adopted by the ocmgrogations of 
ascetics, that is, the Dionaslerios, attracted speciftl attention 
to them. There waa no monaetery that did not haTe its 
bonrs of prayer in common. As in many other matten; 
there were in this respect, at first, great differences between 
the religious bouses Ihomsolvtis as well as between thoee 
of different countries.' In the liftli century tbe Kgyptian 
monks had merely tho two primitive hours of morning 
and evening, the Gaiiiciniwii and the twemaTiuia. The 
monks of Syria and Mesopotamia met together, in addition 
CO those, at the throe dny-houn of Iwrm, 6txt, and hom. 
At Bethlehem, another oflloo woe added at the first hour 
of day, to prevent the monks iVom retiring to bed after 
the night offioo and sleuping during part of the morning. 
This custom spread beyond the town of ite origination, 
and thus occasioned six hours being set apart for prayer. 
A verse of Psalm civiii.," iu which tho psalmist sayi 
to Qod that he praya to Him seven times a day, provide• 
a sort of ideal which it was attempted to realise by maldng 
a distinction between tbe two parts of the office of Uatins, 


> It U ft raiotnlui to regard UiU dolly pnjrer.M niDo liavo done, μ » 
poem ccmpiMvd in boaoar of tliu luutchaJ oondle. 

■ ForaUthKRMiBook [ILoftba /lutUnUoMofOuiiaii. 
* [P*. oxls. 1(H of the Pm;or-tiook vcnlvu.— 'l'a.J 



praycis at cock-crow and Uiou at dawn (Ζ««Λ). 
At a much later date the same result was attained by the 
i&trodaction of tb« office of Compline,' betwcou Uie evening 
meal and the lime of letiring to xval. It is tlio system of 
Prudentius combiued witli that of TcrlulUaD. 

The study of these diversities lends us into the special 
htstoiv of moncutic disciplioe. Δ ροίαΐ of more general 
interest wae the inti-oduction of daily prayers into eocle- 
ffHyfipttl neo proper. The author of thu Apostolic CoDStt• 
tntbns insists even in hia day that the bishop should 
require the foithful to attend the moming and evening 
oftictis, and evun those of the three day-hourif.^ He tnlcee 
for granted that thesu offices are said in the church, and 
that the bishop and hie dergy take part in them. The 
pilgrimnge of Silvia ftimiahes very definite information on 
thia point as for as the special tuage of the Church of 
Joruealom is concerned. ^Except during Lent, when the 
hour of tierce was recited in public, there were four daily 
meetings in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre— at cock- 
crow, at eext, at none, and at veapeiB (/luvmanum). The 
sacred edifice, whicli was not, be it remaiked, the mother 
church or cathedral of Jeruaalem, but merely a sanc- 
tuary of relatively restricted dimensiona, waa open to every 
one who wished to enter. As a matter of fact, the con- 
gregation was principally composed of ascetics of both sesee 
(moJuuotUct and pariKcnae). These ρίοαβ peisona sang 
psalms, eitJtier according to the ancient method of reeponds, 
or by means of two choirs, antiphonally. Two or thrcu 

' Tfala oiBoe ha• not IU17 oultor kttefecntiou ilita the rule of St. Bcncdiut. 
When onoe tanfttn» m• wlaiiltod, It mw poMlU•, •τ•β by diatinKuUhlug 
Hstini from Lauda, to point lo tlw StflU» a uu laitctfln dixi tlbt, «ilbcnt 
reckoning Mallio, wblob VM • el^t dOoe. 

' II. 30: riiL 34-39. Id tbc flnl of tlioce l«xta tlie <ln]r-hoiif« Λα not 
ynC come Into quettion: Iho otht-r tuit mumlj giTO* llit> furamlBfica tar 
mgirumg mid ντι^Ιηκ, irblle at Uio wow time raoomnwadlog Iba tlifM 
buunt uf ti'env, MicC, Bwl noM. 

2 ο 


prieeU and as maDy deacons took thoir turn fa rodting tbe 
prayers, for it was an understood tlung that, to asMrmbliee 
of a certain importance, the general prayeis, litanloB, nnd 
other devotiotLfl, could be conducted only by (Iio higher 
cleigy. Any other practice would have been oonsidored 
somewhat peiilous, ttom the standpoint of ecclesijuticol 
unity. Bat this was not the only part taken by the 
clergy in the olSce of the aecetics. When the pealsu, 
interrupted by pniyent, were drawing to a close, tbo bishop 
and clergy entered Uie church. From this point onwards Uie 
semce became definitely ecclonostical. Frayers were said, 
first with tbe catechumens present, then with tho faithful 
only, the catechumens being dismissed after a certain time, as 
in the litoi^csl Synaxea. The congregation did not break 
up without recoiring the bishop's blessing, and it waa even 
customary that all should kiss hie hand before leaving 
the chnrch. 

On Sundays and festivals the ancient Synaxes were 
again nisumed. The private office followed, and took place, 
if time pemiitt«(l, in the interval hL-tween the Vigil end the 
Mass, At cock-crow all the clergy, headed by the bishop, 
were present at the night office, which was attended by far 
giuater numbers than on weok-daya. At daybnjok Masa was 
said in the great basilica (Jifartyrium) dose to the Holy 
Sepnkbrv. The eervioc waa a very long one, eo that there 
WAS onljr time afler it for the tveemarium, tat and 
having to be omitted. 

It is needless to say that tegular attendance at 
frequent offices could not be expected of every one. 81. 
Ohrysostom ' menlJoDS some of the objections made on thia 
■core by the laity of hie tin». " Ls it possible " (be mnlccs 
bis hearers say) " that s nun of the world, engaged in the 
business of the tribunals, can be inteirtipted three times 


■ flbm. IV. -h Am>a ; ΜΙρκ^ Pat. Or-, ml. Μτ. p. ββ7. 



α day to go to cborch for prerer?" To which Uio saint 
roplioe, thac it u possible to pray in private, v-liervvur ono 
inny be. Hie words, howovor, testify to the fact, as do 
tboBe of inAny other coDtempomry writers, that the officee 
vera mid didly in the cborchi», at the caoonioftl hours, 
in the presence of tlie clergy and under their direction. 
This 18 the important jMint. Hating once found α plioe 
in the church, privatii pr»yer was thenceforth to be ivtunod 
in it. The isolated ascetics, and the virgins living in 
the world, eooD diaappcarod or became attached to the 
monasteries, in the oratories of which the occupant• 
perfonned their ofBces. Τΐιο habit, however, bad been 
formed. The fuithfnl. althr>iiM;h not attending them, felt it 
was right that thu offices iihoald be said by the clergy in 
tbeir churches, and the clergy themselvee were obliged 
to B^•* to the pontiimation of a practice, the tognlor per- 
fonnance of which was somewhat oneiOiia, all the more 
Μ because in early timee it hod not been obligatory. Tbe 
obligation to say the ofRces. like the duty of celibacy, was 
a legacy left to the clergy by asceticism. We might 
almost say that, on these two poLots, α sort of tacit 
agreement had been arrived nt. The popularity enjoyed 
by the " perfect," the conttjtentte, the " men of God," as 
they were called, bad been, and coutinui>d to be, so 
great, that the right of the clergy to tlinxt the Christiau 
communities might bare been called into question, had not 
tlie latter hastened to adopt, in ita main fcatun», the 
curriculum of the monks, and thus stopped short in a 
decisive and visible manner in the downwonl path of 
general relaxation. 

Thus was laid upon the clergy the obligation of eayiog 
the canonical offices, both day and night, in the public 
ohmfthee, i» the cathedrals of the towns, and llie pariah 
churches of tlie country. Great variety, however, existed 
iu the precise arrangement of these offices, — in tbe distribution 


of the pealms, antipboiis and reapoDds, in the pr&jers, 
litamc* or "colleote," οτβο in the lections, and Uio boon 
of saying tbe offices and tliu timus of the year to be observed. 
Ια tbeee^ αβ in the priioitivv sorvicus for Sundays and 
the stations, tbe suflragsn cburcbes Γο11ολ(-«1 the tisage 
of the great metropolitan catbodrals. Provincial oonncila 
did their best to legalate the details and obtain some aoit 
of uniformity. On tlie other hand, tbe order of the offioee 
coiisdiutvd 000 of the principal features of the monastic 
rules. Tho important religious houses foUowiMl on this 
point the ruluB which they had adopted; others accepted 
tho diocMon or provincial usage, as laid down by the 
bishops. In the Woat, donii to tliu ninth centarj-, there 
ezistud uo uniformity in this ephera When at longth 
inulimnity was aiiived at, it wa» due to the inflaenoe of the 
BenedicUne mle, and specially * to ihul of tho great Romao 
monastorics which bad sprung up aruund tho baaOicae 
of the Latoran, tbe Vatican, and Santa Maria Maggioro. 
Theae cveutually bccamo cbaptur», firal uf regular, then 
of secular monks, but lliey represented in the main 
the jtrinifipium tt fov* of the whole Latin development of 
ecclesiastical and monastic offices.^ 


■ I nliall oonfliie mjKir to poioling uul π fow fnoU which may hn uf 
ink-rMt bi thuBK wlin etudj the nnolvut »lllc•' timlnL At ^imns at iJl 
«vent! Amra to tha ninth d-atnr?, hjOOi wera nnknown : chiuti^ p^hni. 
and othuc i>uriptiinil contiolc• >1ομ bring (uod. Tlie lecUuna, •1 OtM 
NMTTwl ft» tho ooolmt mnio» t>t tlio Ytgll an.l tho Mom, won) nM 
IntieiJdeod lato tho ofSw• until «nno timo bad «U{«C(1. ij. nboal Ih* 
•oTtuilh oontniT. Th» olllc^a, th<^refti», wv» entlrrlr βοηρακά οΓ [— rlai. 
antipboiM nad rapmvdt, nnd projrcnL Thi• priniilire Ikunuk luage o^rrtc• 
exactly vitL wbnt una obwrvi-d nt JoriualL-iu in iJiu limo of Silvia. Tbo 
roll «Γ St. Iknuliut, mi t1i<i ntlicr liiuiil, odtall• uf hymua and kvtion». Se« 
the k'ltt-r of TUaodt-mac, Abbot uf Mantc Curiiii\ lo Cboilcouieni^ in Imtti^ 
Monnm. CaraHna, )i. StiOi cf. LA. Pont. ml. ί. p. 231. ootc 1, «hero I turn•' 
nutdc tbu miiiokc οΓ jihieing the rMiponiU of llie offli'ca In the category uf 
later xlditiuno. 

■ TUSK Hiipllra, nf c«u»('. to limM pn»Wt\at io the «cnnlh mnlatj 
III llic coK of tianl. and to tbo taath oad «levootb ia Iho am» of Spaia. 


It will be easily underetood that, when confronted with 
30 Tset a subject, I have been obliged to abetaiu horn 
entering upon it in detail, and can touch upon it only 


In these coimtrice, we miut toko note of an IndigcuonB development, «hiek 
took its ri»a nndoc tbo direct inflnenoe of tlio Oriental nice, and wbioh 
owed littto to that of the Boman ntonastorioi. 

' Amaag tlio booki in which port* of tlii« inlject have boon troatod of 
late, I may mention Hidoire dn Brtviaire Sonuiin, by Monioignoor Battifol, 
and tha OttehieU» det Bdmit^en Brevian, bf the lamonhid Dom eoitbcrt 


Tux uuinuscript of the ninth century (Parinitae 974), from wbUih 
I hnvo luken iheu texbi, ooiiteius tliu foIIiiwtiij{ IrcaliHC* of 
St. Λιι^ιιβϋιιβ : De Ubaro atbitrio «J jratia Dei liiri II. ; Alhrailia 
F'didani arriani el leati A»git*tini, llbur /, ; De prunieelinuUone, 
liber I, Th« provetMaee oi Hxv nutniutcript is SL Anwnd vn 
PuftUe, Μ ia shown by th« folluwiu^ not«, writtea nt the uiul : 
JUniae ecaetiae trincti Aiitaadi iit Pabul•* liber. Before uod «(Mr 
the text of m. Aujputino, a C«w l>l«nk nheete reio^mod. Rod 
adv^ntAgo wae tak«a of theae for trutsoribiog tbtt Onliitet, 

Theee tti'e diawn up in vulgar Lktin (nun fframmafyo 
aerm'.'tte), which would, if the writer weru α Kriuiki«h clerk, maJra 
them of A date anterior to SOO or thereabouts. If it were α 
Roman clerk who tnuucrtbed theiu, then the d&to might bo 
rather later. The moauacript a certainly cot on original. It ia 
α copy from on original which wao full of abbreviatioiu, ftU of 
which have not been decipber«)d by tho cbpyiat with equal oldU. 
I reproduce it as it stonda, with tho oxceptioD of α tow mauifoit 
erroTM which wen eoaily corrected; In theoo eoaei the reading 
of the manuKfipt i» given at the bottom of the pa^ 

In timntnf Ifmntm rmtiri Jem Chji§li ineipU onto qnaUlfr 1» 
tancla alijut apatfoUM etatAi fionotui nUMs «irUbratur, 
qaam no» cum wunmo tludio at^pu eum dUige»tia MoniMi 
euTttvimiu, vott t/raiatnatico eermone, nd aperto laqtumtio 
wtrilatrm iaiticare, td ett tjualHar ptrnti/ta froetdit in die 
toliemni cum httore taaffw»; n'rut mpettiffatttm eit a tametia 

PrimiUu euiin procodit omoi* clenu nd ocolenuo τβΙ 
oamls populuti ubi miwM ca«Iebnu)d& eat) et in^roilitar pontifex 
in aocTArio ot induJt se veetimonlie aacerdolalibaa. Qaaado 
dnlmnticas induit, «t diaooni similiter iuduuot se, Pt rabdiaooBt 
involvunt «r Mmgologio droa. CoUo et iaduunt m toaicfta 
ftlbu quklei habcnt, aerioas txat Uneae. Et ύ pontifex dal• 
matiou aoa indaorit, dinconi χιΔ iiubdi(U>oai non μ ϊητοΙταιι6 
«angolAgio, «ed cum lunicis albia et planilis umbulunt. EC 
interim dum pontifex «edit in eaerurio in .tedo nus, ciutodic 
«Tangelium dioconus qui eum leoturus est, el poetea tradit 
■d Rubdiaconum. Deiude portans eum snbdiAcontu por medium 
preebitcrio, et non presumnt scdere quisquam (luaudo com 
vfderint preteretanteui ; vt pertnuisiens eubdiacouun ponat 
Mm Miper «It&re. Et interiin stat quartos de ecola uit« 
poQtificem et fUcit"' ed eubdiaoono regJODario"": "Talia 
paollit rMpoDvorium ot talis AUelnia." Delude dlcit pontifex 
moIm : " lotrate." Et renuDtiat ad primuai Bcole^ et didt : 
"Jubete." Deiiide veoit rabdiaconn* eapraeciipttu «d auri• 
eulaia pontilicis ot dicit secreto: "Talis legit, Ulis et talla 


(1) dioeoiNU. 
ifi) regioiuria. 



Delnde oblftUonarius inlnminat duos eereo• ante eecre• 
ttirio pro luminoi'ia pontiticie,'" quod est oonauetudo onuii 
icmporo, ot ADtocAodit *nt« [loiitifioom,"" el ponit eoe ratro 
^tftre, ID duo oandclubrn, deitra leraiiuo. Dviodo inlnini• 
n&ul aoolithi oereoet&la "^ ante Becntnum el keju:re(Htur 
poDtifcx do eeoTftrio cum diaconibue, tooontM eoim duo dextr» 
IffVAquok ct VII. ooorMMtntA proc«cdunb auto own ot vub- 
diaconuj ' temperitA "^ cum thlmbunnetoriuin uito ponti- 
fieeni. Et ipai diuooni pl&oitaa habeont inilutae tiuper 
dalioalicaB, usqiio duiii venorint cum pontUioe ad Hommum 
preebileriutn. Kb com introierint, exuoat planitos quu baboot, 
el rodpiunl Mta minutri ipMHOm. Bt dum ridcnt Hubtliocoau* 
pHiiiuA de Bcola eos expoUare et poatiiicem iutroeuntem in 
preebiterio, oxpoliat so planita qua est indutue, et rocipil 
rAm socolitne do soola. £t rargont eacerdotee ob staDt. Et 
Hu1>diacoiii qui antMaedast pontiGcem dod traiuoant prr modiitiD 
hcoImi, Hed dcxtn levaqoe atantoB subtua oanoello, liinc et 
iade. Et cum ttdpropiaqu&vorit pontifex bcoIu, slant ibi 
OLOlithi cum cemostata, matanlos, noviesimi primi. Kt transit 
pontifex cum dinconis por modiam hcoUid, ot nnnuit primo"' 
Kcolite at dicatur Ohria. El venit prior episoopus ol prior 
prosbiter; dat nis |>iu:em ))onttfcx, dunde el od dtacono•."^ 
Et η pontifex niioime fnerit, eiiaUiter dut diaoonua pacom 
qui ipsa diae lectums est evangclium. Doindo psallit^ anto 
nitare, et atat inclinato capito ot diaooni similiter. Oum 
dixerit Bcola SiaU erat in prinripio, erlguut se diaooni ab 

(i) poutifcx. 
(ii) pootifox. 
(iii] «oor. 
Ov) teperilB. 
(*) ptimum. 
(vi) dloooBum. 

■ Thn ■nl'daioui hmpetita NAjipean lator oa. I ilo uot know tbe 
meaiiius οΓ thi* qoaUflcfttioo. 

■ In till* test thn roib ptalleit. baaie» its ardiiuU]r incsniiie to diant 
D psalm, algnifics bnrv to Moend. 

Dtmini moeiri Jcm Clnrft ήαρίΙ οτβό ^»» Ά κ • 
KtiKia at^tf api<ttolita Kc/Mta Bomam mitta eaM^**'• 
fiutm iM* cum gamato lindio alfu mm diligmli» ■«■■ 
emranmtu, no» yrammatieo aermoM, t«d aptrU It""^ 
weriMem imdiam, id «< qaalikr fOiUi/tx fneadit m ft 
eeOammi am komon magm; tiaU i mwtfy fftew ml a mat 


Piiuiit^u enim prooedit ouuiis cJerus »d ocoIoub "^ 

otnnk popalos abi misM cMlebmada ett, et ingredilttr fooillm 

ώ ncTM-to nl indoit *e vmtJiDcotu ucerdoUliboe. (^nlt 

dftltDfttieM taduil, et dUooni «imiliur [ndnunt to, ot sobdilM^ 

inx-olmot ee udb^oIji^o cir» oollo et uiduuDt m• tonkH 

«Ibu <)u*1m liAbeot, sericu wl lineee. El ύ pootifcs ΛΑ- 

m&ticM uoa indui-rit, tU«oom rd eubdueoni noo Μ tareJTtsI 

•n^folftgiov eed oum toaiclt albie et pUoiCii embiiUat. & 

ialerim dum pODtifex aodit in »CT*rk> in sedo isa. caMott 

orugelium dioconiu qui eura leotunu eet^ Η jra>t« Ιπ4ίΐ 

■d aabdi«oonam. Deiode portuia Mun MbdUooeoc par medte 

praibftariok ei non pnnuxut ndor» fubquun quutdu «M 

vidcrint pre terean tern ; et pertnuudeiu nbdijwaau ι<β£*) 

cum n)p«r dt*ro. Et iuterlm etAt <)»-■ 

ροοιϋκΜτια e( dicit'" »d mbdiuouMi •< 

pwUit η»]χ»ι«οΓίαιη et ulii ΛΗβΙαΙκ,' 1>mi^ iu>-)| 

aoolM: "iDtntou" Et nnuatut wl iiiin^ imf 

"JuUto." Doinda reajl 

onJftm pootiBcia et dioit 


.1. ^..\ 


orationei, ot oMcuUnt kltore hiac ct iiido. £t dtiro dixei^ 
Bcolft versum im1 repetendiua, snii^t ponlifez ab oracioiM ei 
oKouUt ovMigeliDBQ qui eet supeo* ftltare, et wUt do daxtn 
|iarto iiluru nd sodam mam, ot dinoooi cum ipeo hma tl 
iade sUuiteB ei aspjciontos eooLm oritmum.' 

Uciiide poauut Miolithi oereoet*!» quae tetieat ta temnL 
Κι duiu uoaipleTcrit booIa «utiphou&ui, uinait pontifex nl 
dicktur Kj/rie tteuoti, £t didt βοοία ot repuUiat regioiuuu' 
qui Btuit eubttu umboae. uam ra|>elierunt tertK\ itcnun 
NkBBib pontifex ut dio&tur CkrUtae eUiton. Ά dkto tcrtiov 
itcmia aaouit ut dicatur iCi'nV eifiton. E( dam «oaplerwint 
noram vicibu*, saaaib ut finiuntur. Kb κΐφΪΕΪεΟΒ ponUicx 
ad ριφιιίαιη dicit Gloria in txcelti* Deo el revolvit ma ad 
orieutem et diaconi ouiu ipao, luquo dam oxplctnr Oloria i» 
taeehie Deo. liimc oxp)oh\ rwpicit pojndum Μ dkit : Pax 
vobit. Rvxpuudctur : Et »ni ^nJu Aie. Dttade Orcmiit. 
Levenbur itcolithi oaereo&tatu et poaunt e& αα1« klt«re, ncnl 
ordinem twboot. 

Oracione expleta, itcdet poutoiex lo sede su* ob diaooni 
nUmt hiuo et inde. Kt rovertit booIa Hubtn tabola qui aci 
subtua amboiie, ot rabdiaooiu qui stanb eobtxia oancellDm 
fuUlunb cdrca altnre ex abnuiuQ parte. Kt aimuit pontiiu 
ut sede«uib Buoerdutex tu preebyterio. Deiode lei^tar Ivetio 
a «ubdiaoouo in ambono, ataiu* in medium do aoola, anl 
luolittiuB planita et iiccipit caiiU>ritui) ot ptudlit in aiuboue 
et didt reepoiuoriuin ; aiuiiUtor et alius Altelnia. 

iloo expleU», iiicunai Ββ diaconun nd pootifioeBi, et jubM 
pontifex nt legatur evaogelium ; et vadit ad altaro, ut uacnlat 

■ Un cundltiini. It tantt Iw iuiil«mU>)d, Uiat Uio Cbucb Imda IImIT le 
this onuntotiuci. Tbia is iliu vaeo ttilb the Im umUjcm uT tlie t^lcns 
ami tliu VBiii'iui, liut nut with tbuB« of Soala Mwia Htfigbxt, tit. Vka^jj 
nan; uthon. 

* Tbo region -άνΓθοιΙοΜΐ 

* The tvxl in here ofUtQpt. Cr. tliO Ori» of HaUlkn: fMilfiini—i . . 
aieemlit in ambouem o( tagil. Patli/tiam Itgeiit, eoator ewa eBiidatei*-^ 
iUfeadit ei ilieit nrpOMun. la our laxt autne wucda oru anuitiag: I think 
tlial tlie ooutor nue bicv roqueaUxI 1« jiul ulT iiit |>luoU baton mcmatlnf 




Mtvangeliuiu et itccipic eum. UeiDde eargit pontifex λ cede ttit 
[•■»1— T^jotonitmtncvrdotciistnnte*, Ktuitocodanteutnduu 
eabdiiwotil, uniui dftxtr• ^arU, Aliaa de ainiiitm, et duo «ooltLhi 
portenteB &nte ipeuni duit caereoBtitt&. Et duin ^^ncrit «abtos 
luubomo, porrigit ei subdiacunne qui eat dextra p&rte br*cbio 
Minintro υΐ rocumbit super eum diACODtta «eTMignlhun uwino 
dum ouHtodit si^niu. Deinde paallit in unboDe, ot rornrtoDi 
oeraoetAla aute (uubuoem «t tegilur nevuigeUuiii. Et nuoipit 
MVftogelium subdiocooDB, el Uoeiu eum rontrft pectus suum 
subtue ninboii», usquo dum (mcuUdIot omnes aevMigeliiim. 
lude relrudit eum in cap» «uo. Et rerortit itiiuKinn« nd Rh*ni 
et ip&a ce«reodt«tA ante eum, et poaunl ολ retro α11μ«, hou 
et rcliqua caercastAtA. Et si fuerit palliuia Muper altAfo^ 
roplitnt eum in un» parte wl otiontoio, ot expenditnr oorporolA 
super alUiTD α diitconibu*. 

Deinde luvab poiiUiex tniuiu.i .suae ot nirgit « iicde twk 
Et revortitur scola in partae simstra praCBbilcrii. Detade 
doscvndit pontifox nd euecipiendum oblalJouee & populo, ei 
lumuit arcludi«ooniu «οοΙαο ut dicntur oeertorium. fit dam 
enedpit Mas pontilaz, fcradit λ aubdiaooDO et aubdiBoanna 
ponit eafl in Bindooe qvoa acolilld tenent, wquentes «nni. 
Kt dincooi reci|Hunt lunuloa ot porlaUir etatioUAriue calix 
» eobdlaoono r^onjirio, «t nfundit diAconni mo mains in 
ipBo coliee nnoto; et dum r«pletua fuerit, dovooufttar in 
acifib quae portant aoboUttiL Deinde nulit pontifex ad 
ptutem muiierum"' cam diacooibua et Eaciunt nmiliter. 
Deinde rerertitnr td acdem κηλπ ct permanent dlaeooi ad 
amulaa recipjandaa. Et interim atant ante pontiSoem primj- 
coeriuB, aecundioMrioe, notarit et rcgionivrii, dnm preeUteri 
rodpiaat obladono aeu et unuUa iufr& preebyteriam, tato 
de parte virorom quam de mnliaerom; ot ncolithi tencntm 
Hiadonea et aciffM ad rocolligoDdum. 

Deinde larat arohidiacoaue maaoa auas, et vadit ante 
altare, et octer! dtacwil l&v&nt manus suae, et teneot aooUthi 
Hindone cum obl&tae quae roccpit ponlifox a populo in destro 
coma nltari»; et nliguntur oaa a aubdiaoono tcmporita, et 

(i) midfork. 


trkdit eos λ eabdiacono regioiMrM ot ipso porrigit ma» ad 
ArchidJAooaum, eb ex aa» (neat tree nut V. onuaM mper 
ultve, toatum ut auffiuiat poputo eC exmde in crurtJao 
reauuMttt, socuDdum aiictoritatcon canooicftm. Et interim 
fatomtur mlix Λ subdidcoQo rogiuoArio, ot occipit wchidiMontt» 
AIDuIa poDlifloia de manu oblfttionaris et devecunt ob in ealin 
Mooto^ riiniliter Amtotilne prnbTbtironim mu ot duunnornm. 
Ddnde tenet iiulKiiAfOitua coUtorium .«upcr cAlioem cl• mittitar 
de vino ([uod out in bclita (]uoe oflL>rl pojnilua. Deind« partalur 
luiuikrum do »colii fontom uuid ntjun muadu, vt dator iwl iiblA- 
cionarium, (>t oblacionariue porrigit cam nrchidiaoooOk ot f»dl 
cnicom <lo nqun in oaUoa» uuiolo, tenente a «abdiAeOQO la 
dextro corns «ItAria. Dcdnde dceoeudtt pooUfex a Mdo nu, 
venlena Ante altaro, et rodpit archidiACoaua ohl&tu poDllfids 
A subdJACono oblncionArio «t tradit qa* pootifid, ct ponit «•> 
pootLfex super alt&re. Et reotpit ar«JiidlAO0nu calicem a 
aabdiacono et ponit «um mpor nltar». 

Kb Anauib [)ontifnx ncola ul fiw^iiint finem ; ct roT ertil ar 
HcuU nubbus tabula. Ια Natale Doruini siw in AepypfaaiuA 
•b in Habbato aAncto aea in Dominica nncta et In Ceria 
socondA, in Aiiccn» Domini ob in Pentecoeten v«l in natale 
eanobi Petri ot aancti Pauli, ntADt βρΰηορΐ po»t pontifioein 
inclinato capite, proebiteri νότο deztru leTaque et teiiet nniu- 
quisque corporalo in manu eua, ot dantur eJs Ab Archidiacono 
obUtaa doai nd unamquemqao,"' et dicit pontifox canon nl 
audlatur ab «ί*, et Kanctificantnr ' obladonca qoM t^nenb, 
aieut et ponlifex' . . . inolinuto capite poet epleoc^io* et rab- 
diaconi"" uute ipsuni inclineto ciipite od altAre, usque dam 
dicit ΝΛΰ qnoque. Kt η isbi dies solompoi nun sumb, dam 
ualix pontbur «apra attare, revcrtuntur prMbitcri in preebiterio; 
ainiiliter fib alitu ulenu rererbltur subtun tabola ; ci ai domioioft 

(I] nnumqao. 
(ii) sulidiacoDo*. 

' For tanelffioaHt. 

' eanaihlng it «oatiDg bore. We mu«t add, acooinliaK to UAbtUon, 
(Mo L, tonathiDg like ΟμμιιΛ mro ifaaJ. 





!rit, pratbitcri inclioAto cnpUe tttivnt, et ni oolidinnu diebui, 
genua fleotont qtuuido LDcliMuit San^ltu. Kt rt^niunt ooolitlii 
stAQtCit anta altore poet duooQoa, dextra levoque, involuti mm 
smdi>nibu& Kb uaaa ex illia involubne do pall» cum cruc« 
uricit, tvnoi» pHtctuun contra poulu* iiuuia, alui• primus, tt 
alii tuiieni*!* NdiTuu cum fontM, alii «itooula. Eb dum v«norlt 
pontifex nd (Mini* hortor et giorta, leTot dune obluUa in niaune 
auao, et diaooous caJicam beuens et levftne paululum uu)Uo dnm 
dicil : Per onmta tateuia itueutoram, avum. 

Et Nurgunt nb omciODC diaooni h^u ft lukocrilotc'it, «t dum 
dixerib pontifex: Pax Domini »il Mmper totiiacam, Acdpil aub- 
diiwonus petenam ab uoolitho eb |>arrigeC earn ftrohidijkcono et 
bennb euD ad dojcteriuD pnntt&ns «b fraogit anam ex oblattn 
quaa oflerl pro Μ et dimibtib «iroiuua Epaiiu anper altAre, et 
ponit uo&Di intef[Tam et aliam inediam in patenam et reddit 
archidUootiUB patouam ad aocolitum, ob poatifox rulib ad eedom 
KUam. Doiiide confrau^iuiitur αΐϋ diacuni in put«n», sou «t 
epieoopi in dexbra purte abeide. Deinde tevat arcbidiaoouu* 
t'Alicem de albaro eb dab a<l stitbdiaooDum, rb stab com ipso ad 
dcxbro cornu nlbM-iii, eb [xuiUunb ncolibht ad altara cum loecala, 
ot «bant circa altare, et ponit arohidiaooiuu oblfttae per aaccula 
eb reverbuntur ad praebiboros ub coofnBguttnr ob ' interim 
paallunt Bfali itnmtuulali xt^reto prmbitori vel diaconi ; ot ai 
noceeeibos eroncrit, rum|Muitur primituH oblatao a pre«bitern 
et Ntcut frangantnr eubdioconi regMnarii. Kb roverbibur hooIh 
in presbiberio, in parte sinistra, eb annulb arobidiaeotina eoola ut 
dioatur Agnut Dei. El interim, dum oobfrangUDtsr, tternm 
rMpondunt iKuUtbi qui sciffiw 64 amulos '" t«neDb Agtm* JM. 
Kb dum frnctum habuerint, acoipib arohidiaoonuit caumju 
s&iiotum a subdiacono, «t aliuii diaconui patenam ab aeoUtbo, 
(lb vndunb utto poabi£oem. 

Acoipib ponbiiex Hmcta do pnteua, mordib ex ea particala, 

{I) amalu. 

I «ordi ft jflMn Ah mtfrenguKtur, at Oisl Itil out. ««re «itqiliod 

I Buugio cf 111• auaHripL 


Μ de ipsa faoit oruc«in super oftlloem, dioendo merato: Ftmt 
eonmixlio el coiutxritlio et reliijun. Deindo raDUrmnt pMitttaXi 
tenento v*lic*o >b »rulii<iin<-ono. Dainde aocipinnt αορίΒοορ 
nl prflkbiteri unct* de mum pODtiticbi ot vadunt in ainietn 
pftrttt kllAris, et ponant ioauiu cum Moeta Buper sltM» at air 
oonuaimicaat. Qunndo incipiuat «pieoopi v«l preabitcri oocd- 
muaioaro, tune v»dit nrchidioooiias ia dtuctr» pftrt« aduria, 
stuu note earn ncolitu* cum κίίΓο prjoro, et iulnunci«t «tocicMM^ 
et reepondoat omues: Deo ^racia», Et tano perfimdit do 
obUgm ia Bcifftx Deindo dtkt caliocm ad epiM)o}miii <{u> jiriut 
oommuaicarit «t vndit wl p<intitio«tn et acfipit aMKtn de nuuie 
ipaiiu, aimilitcr ct nlii dwouni. Et rftdunt in dwrtr» parte 
lUtariii et numnumeuDt. Deinde oonfinnikntur ab episoopo ■ 
i{uu et prwbitan contirmati sunt. Detode <.-oiiiiuuiiicat ponti• 
fex priinicoritM vt ■vcuadtcnerioH. I>oinde recipk ■rcbtdiAConi» 
calioem nb opiitcopo, et rcnions Rulidin«ontis, bnUnts oobitorii> 
mtiioro in mnnu sua, expollit aiuicta do calicae, et punit Μ 
in fonte priore uude &rcJiidi»oonuH debet oonfimuuv popolo, 
et devAouat caltcom nrchidUconUH in aeoundo catice, 4t de 
ipeo porfundit aoolithaa in fonto priorae^ Deinde doeooitdit 
pontifex ad uomuiuiiioanduui populnm, et nnnuit arcbidiaeOBV 
scula ut dicatur antiphona ad oommnnionem. Et dam dizerft 
■ecda, repetnnt subdJacuni do einietrn parte caooello infln thny 
mm. Ex dura vommunii'ati fuerint primatJ, tnbnaj, eomtt» 
et judiooa et oaeteros qaoa Toluerit, radii de parte muUereni 
infra oancollum, «t diaooni poet ipenm, oonflrmantea ροραΐα 
Dwnde qmiodu jubet rervrtitnr ad HKiom suam, et etaat 
Mwordotea ad oommunicanduin vel confirmandam popnlajD 
in&a praebitnium. Ht interim pontUex .tedei In «ede Nna, et 
■tab anto eum ncoUtua oum eancta petemtt et reuiuut ad 
eum subdiac-uui, notarii rol rogionarii, et commnnicat eoa, rt 
couJlmiantur a diacono. 

Deittde slant notarii ant« nam teuDBtea oalamario et dho- 
mnm in manu, et oui rolucrit pontifox invitare, jubet nt 
Hcribanlur nomina ipaoruni. Et doaccndunt notarii α eodo et 
adnunciant ud ipaos qui acripti aunt. 

Et iatorim vcnit «aoerdoe et comiaonicat eoola, et teofnui 
^nsrtus fwntcm in nuinn, (jnod impU>ta wt de aaSo primn, 





et aoetpll oam preebiter de nuuiu ipdns et focJt cruvein de tanctA 
BHper fontcvi ot ponit Mm intro. Similiter eft omoee pr«sbiteri 
fnci&nt quAndQ oonfinniuit. populnra Η coDlirnutt soils. Et 
dam ridiTril arohidincoaiu quod pauci Hunt Ad ccDununicMndam, 
annuit ul dinitur uola Gloria, Et rapetunt nibdiaooiii Stent «ra( 
inprineipio ct ropetjt scol» vnraum.'*' 

D«ada d«couadit pontifex • tedo et vndit ante altAra et 
nvortuutur cereoelktiL post Ipsnm. Et interiin Uvnnt ucnrdotoa 
vol diaooiii mauuB suae et oeculAntor se perordinom »t cub- 
dlaconi in ricnm ubi nUtnt, «imilitor «t aoola in looo φιο stnt. 
Onvciono nxplntn, dii^ib diacaniu lU mJiM «H, noo ipw qui ti^t 
nvKngelinm, sed aliiiB. 

Deindo descendit pontifox nb nttiUO et dieooni cum ipso, et 
mbtfiaeoni nnto oani cum tliimiMaiutenon qui niiprn eoriptnii est, 
■^tet et ooreoittAta untn eum »b ftooUtin poa-t«at«i. Et tmanicna 
per meditun pr&esbileriura, <licit subdiaoooa de acolu: Juhe, 
dimne, bmMteere. Et dat pontifex orntJODom, Η reepondetur 
Amen. Et cum i;xi«rit <t<- preabiterio^ itorom diount. jndicce: 
Jubv, dofnnt, ltent*iiciTt. Et data benedictloiie reapondvtur Amnt. 
Et venienti» acolithi auto pontifioo cum «oreoetata, staat ante 
gatium unque dam ingreditur pontifcx Morarioin, et extingannt 

Et apoliat bo ponllfex et i«cipiuot vcatttniiDtn a mbdia- 
conibue, et ipai troduut mb ad cabicularioa. Et dlacord ipoliant 
w forna sccrotano, ot accipiont vnttimcnta ipeonim acholitL Et 
tlum aedet puntifei, vi>nit luan^ooanut prior de ecdeda mm 
bucea arjfPQtea cum paslilloe, ot si non faerit argentea, mm 
oatino, «tnt auto pontificem ; «t veniunt per ordinem diaconi, 
d^tdo primicwrioe et eeaundii'ereua, Hod "" et vicaodominiiB ret 
snbdiaooni '"" et uccipiunt pAslulos de nmnu pontificin. Doinde 
miacitar poiitilici el ort^'rfM Mipruoripto•. Omnia expteta, dat 
pootilex oracioDcm et egT«diuiitur de secrartot 

Bt hoc qaod obminmnx ad memoriam reduolmua, id est quod 
si pontifex non procewierit, diaooni aic procedant Hiuut BupfTtuti 

(II) ee qnlcae domlinifL 
<iti) aiilKllacoiiiui. 


dictum Get, Gt ο liinconi minime foerint, in looa ipeomm 
prooedat preebiter do eecmrio cum corMBtota ad ^ cuatodleodBB 
Mdem poDti&dii"" et licet erftDgeliiuti legore in uabono pr»' 
otDctua de planits, sicot et lUftcoQUS, nt doeooiidorui da lunbone 
induit «o piftaitft. Et dum venermt uite ciuicvUuiii dMconi «vt 
prosbiteri, Tcnit opiccopiu aat pivabitor do pMte «aniitta pre>- 
bit«rii qtii ipwi diu mUea CMlobntunu ect; d«t ei dboornu 
pocfln qui i;van^«lium Icctum» ect ipui dine. Et dam finterit 
scoltt Kirie eUiaon, pnlUt epucopOB in parte dcxira tbroni 
infrn ouutdlo et didt Gloria in «aeeleit Dm. Et si pnvbitcr 
mint• debet OMilDbriirfi, non dioit Qloria ifincttti* Dto, »ed tADtnm 
paallit et diat tiraeione. IpM expleto, revertitur in loctim 
Buum, usque dum lef^ltur ev&ngelium. Ipao expleto, peallU nt 
supro, ot dictl Domintia eobuoum ; deinde Oneuu, *>t Boquitor 
omiuA aicut sup» acriptum ect. Et dum veoerit lul tmtms lomar 
et gU-ria, non \ttAi, duwonus OAUcem, siout ad pontifioem, aed tpeo 
epiecopufl aut preebiter levat duos obl&tAs eC tongit ax ίρβϊβ 
caliccm ot dicit Per omniii mtfvia taeeulerv». Et dam dixerit 
Pax Domini tit §emprr tohineuvi, tonct nibdiaiOOnna do unotn com 
oorporule nd coma alturiu quod pantifex cousecravit,"" et uo- 
cipit cam dinconus et tradit earn episcopo aat piTMbitero. Et 
exinde facil cruoum lupor cnlioeon, dtccndo Paw Zhmim ml Mmper 
n>6wmn. Et oiwnlatur altftr», et diutvinue d&t pnoem ad nb• 
diaooaam. 1>οΐπ(1ο vvniot aliiu cipiscopus do parte nntatn ; 
t«ii«tnt Ktiibo maniu super oblatn «t fr&ngunt oa, VI vpiecopua 
tevertitur ad locum suum. El episL-opua aut ptveblter qui fooit 
missa tradit una ct motin ublntn qui partita net ad diaoooo^ et 
ipa« pooib medieUib! in patfrnvni ct qui iategra eat in aaccttlo, 
tenente aohoUto. Et vndit ad urchipresbf tero ad oonfraDgeodiim ; 
et atnt epitcopas in ainistra parte altaj-ia usque dam expeniae **" 
fueriiit oblatae per Miccula achoUtomin. eicut mos est. Deinda 
mvrrtitur i>pi»copue ant« altare et oonfrnngtiodnm mediatate de 
oblntA qui remausit* Et dum coofracluni habuertiit, odnnnciat 


(ii) pOBtiScuin, 
(IH) ccDsecnblt. 
(f*) vipeun. 



diaooniu fttaciooo, eicut luoe <Mt. Et veniunt bam <tpiecopi (|uua 
preebiteri »d ootDmanic&odum Ante nltare, ot cUt opiecopuu 
particoloe dnw od primum ox ill» oi>i8copi• innunu sua ; et ipso 
qui oIh tuuipit, reddit uu«m ox illis ad euiu ; ct ipun pattioaU 
Mnil in tDiuiu doxbra uw{ue duin oomuiumciuit niuut eupra. Et 
tunc pooii nunus supra ullare, et L-ommnniL-at ipse (|ui m'uiM 
but. Dotoda uommnmcuit dioooni <Λ continnMitttr «b opiacopo 
■ho IV prMbitcro qui pHtu oomiDutiicnrit ot caliuvm tenot «4 
oomplet omnia aicut eupra ncriptnm est. 


(inatiler Feria V. Oaene Domini agendum til. 

Media iltn niictr isurgraduni, aoc mar• aolito Dme in adja- 
lariam metim ucc iavilaturiuin, Ned in primk onm Antiphonis 
lU. psalmi ttecuotur; deinde Terms;'" neo preetnter dat ora- 
donvm. Deinde xurgit lector «d l^eDdmn, et non potat bcn»- 
di(4ionem, et non dldt Tu antan Domine, aed ex verbia locdonii 
ju1ti?t priui- fitoore fineiD. III. [lectiooest de lameDtatioue Η.ίβ• 
remiae, HI.'] ' de traetAtu gaacti Aagnetioj ίο pindmn Exaudi 
■d Deut oradimem mcam dmu Iribulor, Πί. de ApotUilo ubi 
nit CortDthio*: Et ego oocepi a Domino quod tl Iradidi tohit. 
Vmi. [pttbni] cum tuitiphouls. Villi, lectioneis VIITI. 
reeponsoria outnpleti nunt; et non didl Oloria doc in pi^lwt'' 
nee in reepotuoriie. tioqutlur matutinum. iM«tutino completo 
uoa didb Chirit tlciton, sod vaduut per oratori» pMlmia 
[MftlliMulo cum antiphonia. 

In eodem die, ora V., prooedunt ad eocleeiam et muUuit κ 


* I lupply IhMC wofdi, sod abo pvuM, loirci domi. 

2 II 

466 CIIIttfn-IAN 

rra oBioro Aim CTonmoit. 

vwtUDOntis auU Uuu puntifox qiuuD el duooni'" iMm ιί">πΐίΐΗ•ίΓ 
et aubdiitooni udd induunt pUultu. Delude egredltur poatifex 
do SMW«no uum dUKOoibue et VII. cereoetuU λάΙλ eum, ot coMrs 
simt tnos cal in die tJoUempai. Dum trknnerit per medJiun 
sooImi, Minuil pi-imuiii ecolae ut dicntnr Otoria. Et nnteqiuun 
MCondAt nd Allare, dat poceiii priori cpUcopa et priori preebitero 
MM ut duooEUbuB omnibue. El venuuis ikDte tdUn ct ro>:lLaadis 
«0 «d onctoitotii prortTKttu in torrain,iuque dttm didl vorram «d 
npelendiuu. Deinde ps^t ad Hod«in. Eb dum fioieril Kiri* 
eUitcn ecola, dicit Dominu4 vobitrum ct enqiutar orocio Dent a 
qao «t JttHat ; doitidn Icccio Λροιιΐοΐί et raapmworinm, dcaiul« 
evaD^eliuu). OfTereute populo didt aooU offertorium DeeUra 

Data venerit nd lineiii, >u verbU in ijuibua ooepvit dJowv 
inlra ψιοτϋΐ» nn» eoiuortium non aeslimator Tnerili,"" wrf etmiae, 
</ud««umi(i, meritU iargilor ndmille, per Chritlttm rfirninnm aMfnim, 
tuDi: vndunl diaooui et tolleat »mpulliu cum oleo qoe ponuntur 
η dit'criue in podin ct t^tuent one super ηΐίκτο et bonedicualor α 
pontifice; residue vero quB« ranianent καρβτ cmunjIIo•, d«xlm 
leviu]i]o joxta iilUre luciMultint epuioopi et priora praibilMi : ah 
ni« benedicuntur. Qua benediclione olei compleC*, eubjungit 
ponlifex «t dioil : Prr ijiifm Iter omnia, Domiiie, temj/rr bona creae, 
el revooLQtur ompuUiic κ <li*conibuH par loo» sua. Hoc aatem 
bnnodictio dicilur supei* oleum secreto, tiun a pootifice'"' qnun 
ct ab cpisoopii vel n prwbibenii : £«<««, Domtw, Spiriluw 
eaiKtum tuum ParaeUtum, et ' uratiooe octnpletn didt poatifox : 
Per quern hec oumio, Doiniue, ct cetera, deiode oralioue dotni- 
Dioft, et «ec|uitur Libera not, t]uacfuiBU4, Domrnc, ol dicit: Ptm 
Domini til semjter eobiecavt• Et radit ad sedem el ooofraogtmi, 

(i) diaoomiB. 
(!!} meritift. 
(iii) pontiUoibnK. 

■ Betirooo ol nnd οτοΗβμ tlw miuiiueHpt iuktIj Die «otdi ipM *■>« 
oteMm ad ungufliiduni fa^bMNM, «hicb ue α DUkrjpnal icfcmu• «TDngly 
inecTU»} ill the l«xL /pM *iium If. aifmtivet, a «ronglj dedpberad >l4n 
vlBtlon. Wc oDgkt to nwd Μ mpra, ivb 9βΛα oImm, cle. 




sioerdotttt unola, mu at dutooni, ol interim paatUitur Aymu 
IM. Deinde erauanmcet pontifex tnatimi, «t dwoonus cooperit 
unct• seu at oftlioao mipor «Itnrc chid corporaJo ; siinilitiT ot 
Kcoliti oaoporitmt «cifliw cum p&Umi, twientea βαβ. 

Κι venit paiilifex unte nltare et babeiui suitjura' diua 
Ampullae infrA preBbiterini», dim cam b&lnAmo <»nfecto et aliu 
cum oleo purinimo, ot vonil nd oum regionariua Mcundn» et 
«ooepit Kb eo empulUui "' cum bftlnamo invoIutA oum mafortdo 
nirico : et de ipso pooit super so«pul& Bimstra cupuii acum qui 
earn roceptorne e>t ; nmUitcr r«c«f»t oun nigioneriu• primuK 
Λ rogioiuino "" Mcuido. Dfltnde aubdiMXiDa• regionarius ut 
itfcbidiaoouue ioin cutoello etAne aiiuilit«r reoepit eum «t 
vadot ante poutificom et sCal ante eum cum ampollo. St 
cxalnb in «aid pnntifex tribu» vicdbua, vt faciciu «raoem «upor 
earn, diveiulo : In nomine Patnt et Filti tt Spinlnt taneli. Et 
Hoquitur beoedictio decAntaudo «cut at Vtre diyiuaii. Ipsa 
«xplotas revoouitur ampulbe per ordioom •icnb acoopcinint. 
Similiter et alia ampulU oum oleo pnriiuiiuu portatur ante 
pootiflcem ab alio diaoooo, ttiuut euperius ; ct al^t iu earn t«r, 
uout aupra. Deinde bcnedicit earn eccroto, et itcrum revocat 
Bam ad miajuva, per ordioem, sicut superiu». Dcindc oommuiiic»t 
euactiu clems eeu «t populi. Mina oompleto, dicit diaeouas : 
Iu, miwa tat. El reaerMmtur aancta αβψιβ in Gra»tinuiii. 


for» VL ΡατακβΜΜ. 

Media noobe eurj^endum est; aoc more tolito Dtm» i» 
adjitloriMn hkum tieo invitAtorinm diouatur. Villi. pMlmi 

(I) ampoIUii 
^ ηοηκΜίΜΜ• 

■ Xhi> i• tbo nxd »ηΜ/ι•μ. 


cum ftntlpbonis el reepooeotib ; leotiooe• til. do liuaexit«doaa 
liieremiae, bractotas&nctiAuglutiiu'" do pealmo Ι.ΧΙΠ., 
tr«« de apottolo, ubi «it m) A«bno• : Feetinrwuu erffty im/redm 
tn iUam rwjiutm. Rt non dtcit Olorta neo In ρβ&Ιιαϊβ qm in 
raponHoriiK ; aec lector petit beii(>diooioaem, sed aicut superiiu. 
8ed tiiQtuiD inohoftb od luatutinum antiphoiu in prime pa a h nc^ 
luU lamp&dft de parte dextra, in MoiiDdo psAlmo d« parte 
einistn ; similiter per omne» ptftlmoit luqae VL aut VH., «at 
in finem eriuigelii, reurretor ftbeooow luqiio in i)*bb»te 

Ipsa BDtem dio, hor» V., procodit od eocleelam otani• den• 
el infpwlilur arohidiactmini eum alus diaooaibne in sMfwio ΐΛ 
indutml se pl&netoa fuHcaa, et e^^diuntnr de ncnuio, «t dno 
cerecwUtA nntc ipnum cum cc^rcin iM:ceuM)i, et Teniniit &st« 
»lt«rae. OncuUntur altnri? ct vadunl ad eedem pODtifici• 
eecundum cooeuetudinom. D«iiide aunuit «rchidiwuDiui sub• 
diacoQO ut legstur lecoio prima. Sequilor r^epoiuonuiD Dwdite 
audivi ; doindo alia leccio, et eequitur troctos Qvi AeMtoi. 
Doiado Ingilur pneeio DomLoi socunduni Joluumem, Hoc expleto 
fMtttllit aocerdos de parte sinietra preebJterii "" in partem dextrvm 
altaris iofru ihronum et didt oroeiones BoUempnM. Dcinde 
revertuntnr proshiteri p«r titul* *ua, ot bora ηοαα tam da 
leotionibiu quan reapoiuiariis vel eTa&geliam sen et onodoim 
■ollemnea fooiuot dmililer, et adoroat Mnoboiu cniceni «t 
coDUQUQicsutur oiuDee. 


Ordo ijtialitcr In Sabbato tancto ajfewium ai. 

Media iioct« inrgendum est^ et oictit enporiu tajcavimna lu 
fiat, oxcopto in liunLDaribua, eed tantum una lompoda MOOBcUtvr 
propter legendoiD. 

(■) IlL de pl• 
(11) praiUUr, 



Poet boo vero, die ilia, octnvn horn <U«el prooeilit Ad ecolMUm 
omnifl clerua ecu et omuis populmt, et ingredilur urvhidUooaui 
io «Mrario com slue dinconibua et tnutent ao eicvt in dio Bitnct*. 
Et Mgrodiunbur dc sncrwio it Αολπ fnculiw nnt« ipeos noconso'" 
portantcB s subdiaoono^ et v«iiiunt λλΙκ nltiiro duoooi, oacnlantiir 
ipeuni et radunt ad eedeni poutitiuU, et ipai rabdiMotii stent 
retro altare, teneittes focolaa usque dum compleiilur IectioDes> 
Deindo «nnnit nrchidiocoou* nbdi«oono rogiotuu-io iit logntur 
lectio prima, lii greoo idre in lutino, Doinde pukllit «aoordo• 
infra tlironuin In dextn parte altarie el dint Oramu», et diaconuN 
FUclamtu ggnaa, ot poet pnnlulum dicit Letate. ΫΧ seqoitur 
oracio Den* ψιί mirabilitrr ereatli hominm. Dmndo aocuntur 
leotionMi nt unntio» sen «t orncione*•, taio grec« quam lαtinι^, 
Hlout ordinoiti habent, 

Leotiombaa expletie, egredinotur de ecelema qoae a]^ellatur 
Constantiniana et deeoendit arcbidiaoocns cum aIuk dia<^oDtbuβ, 
et iiuuui faculaa ante ipso*, uaqne in nacrnriuni qui cat juxta 
fontea, et tbi expect&ut pootiiloem. Et duin adveuerit, quaodo 
jubet, dioit ad quartuin do soola : IntraU. Et iucboant laetanlA 
ante fontee, repetentea t«r. Qui dum dixerint Agvui Dei, egre- 
ditur poDtifex de naorario cum diaoonibu», et ipMc faonlaa 
ante ipaTiiti usque ad fontea. Letania espleta, dicit Oemimia 
vdhUeam, doinde Or»m«J, et seqnittir oratio bis verbis : Omnipoteiw 
tempiiene Detu, aoetto piaatatt» luae mytteriis. Deindo eoqilitur 
benedictio hit verbin : Devt <jui invi'ihili pottntia, decantando 
dont pretatione. UbI ducerit: Diniemlal in λαηΰ plniiudiitetit 
/onti*, ponQDt faculas ipeaa infra fontee. Benedicciono conpletat 
aocipit pontifex criama cum oloo mixto in vase ab archidiacooo, 
et aiporgit Mjn per nu^dium ftMitis in tributt partibue, et reaeplt 
vas arehidiaoonua de nianu pontiiicie et reddit earn acholitho 
qui enm detullt. Bt pontifos aspargit ouni manu de ipaa eqon 
super populum. 

El vadtt ad locum ubi baptiwre debet, et diaeoni intrant 
iafm ioDtee, qui denomioati sunt ad bapttKanduin, cam liDdaJta 
In pedibua, MU et «ubdiaconi exuti planitae suae. Deinde 
accipiuDt lubtliaconi intaatee et traduot od diaconea et dioconi 

(ί) anceoM. 


λΛ ponttGoom. ISt poutifcx IxtptiiAt i^oontoe Toluerit. Eb fta&i 
preebtter infrA fontes feoit orucein (Is oleo ezorciuto in v«rtkM, 
tenentee ipsoe inf&nbea mbdiacoDi, et reddeotes per ordiiMni, 
■tout iiceoponint. 

Deind« rnrertitar pontifttx in conugnftlorio «t ftrehidiacoetn• "" 
cum ipeo. et ipe^ f»oul&ii ftnte emu. Et αΐίϊ (Uaooai Klmat λΛ 
iMpttntnHum. ΙΐΙ veetiantur infantes nb ipete qui nwoepernnt 
«M d• iotttv, et ipsi portnnt eoe in coneignitkirium, et M*nt per 
ordiaem, muouli in ditxtrn pftrte ct frminiko in stiufttim. Bt 
■urf;it poDtifes a hckIo ile oondgiMtori» rt nwiit in dextrun 
purWin mosculonim, dioendo OTMioDMn ei tangendo «φίΐ« 
ipiiorum do mann ; nmilitor «t td feminn•. Dtinde veoit 
«ulxltiicmtUM cum crUmn in vue nrgcnteo; Btal ad lUilWiili 
poutificiii et puutίΓ<^x ruvertit ad InTanbes prioree eb fadt qt n at M 
de trrUinft l-uth police in fronlilniB ipaarum, dic«ndo : in nomine 
Palri» et Filii ft Spiritus tancli, pax libt. Bimtlitor et ad 

Dein<)e i«Tertilur ponttfex in sncrttriuni i)ul eat Jnxta 
Uironum, et ίρβηκ foculas nnte ίρβαπι, Et stat onns de ecnta 
«ote eum ; et dum ei placnerit, dicit : /ntrato. Kt incho&nt 
tetania hoc ordine, ϊ<1 est priiiin VII. vicibu* repeUint. SititiUtftr, 
flMitO intonrallo, dum Juaaeril puntifex, dicunt t«rtia letAnia, 
Ur repetanl. Kt dnm dixerint Ayntu Dei, «greditur pootifcat 
<la Murario et dinooni com jpeo, hinc ot tndo, et duoe faimhw 
onto eum portantnr aI> eis qui om portaTontDt ad ftmtM. Bt 
vMttens ante altant, stat in^linnto mpit«, oaqoe rluro repetnot 
Kjfrie eietttm; et oeoulatur altere ot diaeoni lumiliter, hinc 
et inde. Deinde reTcrtit ad sodem raaro, et ipu nnbdiaooiit 
rcgionarii tenctit ipnas ftwubu retro altare, dextra tevaqne. Bt 
(licit pontif<!X Gloria in exeetei» Dm, Soquitur ormUo, inde l(<ctio 
«t AUfluia, Onifitemm Ditmino Η troctuii Laudale DomfnuwL• 
Kt ipua uocte non pwulit ofTcrtorium nee .i^i»iu Dei doc antl- 
phona nd oonuuunio&em. lit communicnt onmia popnlaa, ara 
el tnftuitea qui in tpm nocto baptiiati Mint, eimilibH' naque in 
ootavaa paaobae. 

Ipsa iiflcte, omnee proabiteri oardinale• son ibi ttaut, sed 

(i) OTohidiMiooi. 



iiQuitquiiitiuo por tttulum sutim fecit nuuR et li*beb lic«Diiain 
•wdere in eede et dic«re OMa in ^xcMm Dto. Kt trMmoittit 
Uftuequieque pre&biter miutsioiuu-iuiii do tjtulo euo od eucledun 
Bilvatoris, et expeot&nt ibi uiique duiu fruDgilnr sjiiiot•, h«bent«N 
MCniD oorposKloK. Et venit oblftbioD*ritu .labdUMonux, et dnt 
eb d» sanota quod poQlifex oonseonvit, eC recipiuat ea io 
L-orpoinlfta, ot ravertitur unuBquiaqao im] titulnm euum et tntdit 
BanotA proebitoro. El da ipsa facit cniccm super owliwro et 
pomt in eo ot dint Dominas voErucui». El mmnuiuowit ooum, 
«ivat raperius. 

Et dicit diaooniu lie, Hiua nt. 

In vigUia Pont«coste sicut in Sabbato isancto iln agendum 
Mt ; itcil tnntutii una Intanin «il fontem et alia pro int{roita] ; 
ofTertoriuiu seu Allduia v^l luitipbana ad eoannuniamora ucnt 
Qontiiiot in uDtifoaariain. 

In ipm nocLc .-Bincta ItoMirructioaiii, pMt gallorum «onto 
BurgeDduiii eit. Et dum veneHnl ad ecdeaiam el oraverint, 
iMCulnnt 8e invicem uiuu silentio, D«nde dicll Detu m adjit• 
lorium mean). Soquitnr invitnlorium cum AJloluia : ««quonlur 
m. penlmi onm Allduia : Benin• nr, Qtian fmutitnaU geiUee, 
Domine, qvid mitUijJicali «uni, Sequltur versus, et onition«ni 
dat proilHter. Deiiido »ccuntur III. lecUuue& «t rMpottaoria 
tutidem, prima lectio de Aotibua apoatvloruni ; indfl Mouuda ; 
terlia lie umiliu ad ipaum diem perttneutJum, Hequitur matu- 
tinuni cum AUnluia. 

Infra Albtui Piuiduus tint pmilmtM per nooMrno Loponuntur 
per tingulan nijcloa u«|ue lu Oc-taviin Funcbae, id eat, feria II*, 
Cum invvamn. Verba mea, Duminu n« ιΉ /wore (no; icri• III', 
Domiim Deue t»eue, Vomnv Dotnimia noef«r, I» Domino confido ; 
fori» IlII•, Satvum me far Doiuiite, f/iw/ueyuo Domine, Di^it laW- 
ptan» ; teriu V*, Domine ψ'ϊ* habit-ibit, Coneerva me Domiite, Eztituii 
Domine ! ieriu VI*, Caeli enarraml, Exaudiat le Dominut, Domine 
in mrlule lua; ubbato, Domini ett terra, Ad U Domine ImoW, 
^Hdioa me Domine. In dominica vor» Ootabn• Pueliae vigiliam 
planain tuoiunb, iduut mua eat, cum Villi. leotiaikibM et totU«B 



Οπιο qualiter in dfdimada Ptueke rnque in «aUalo da ABna 
Bftpera cathbrabitur. 


In primls Domiiiic-n Kftnctn, lior» ηοπΑ, coavDoit «coin 
epiacopii, preelutem et diucouibua in ccclesw nwjora qiue tdi 
cathulic», at k loo» cracilixi iucipignt Cij/rit tUito» ct reniniUJ 
OMijiie λΛ idt&re. AHcenilentibue dMoonlbas Id potum, cyiseofi 
ol pn-Hbiiori Klntuuntur locu •χιίβ in presbjtcno cl• Mocto uit• 
idUre tMt,' Finito Chgrtt tteittm, naamX uchidiutiiitw primq 
ecolae, et Ule, inoUnans se UU, biclpit AIMma cum pealmo Dia^ 
Domiuiu Dotmno meo. Hoc oxploto, itemm uinuit «rohidueoond 
Mouado vrl cui voloorib d•' ncolo, Kid ct uninibt» incipieatibttl 
boo mode proecnpit et dieit iteruui Alleluia cum ρίΛΐηιο CXl 
Sequibnr poet bunc primua flcolne cum pnntpbouutie iiHt«ntibg| 
AUcluia nt rupondent puritphouLite. Suquitur Hubdbuoaiu com 
Isfuilibue vereum iAitni'nu^ reyuani demre tWuif ; et mpoodeal 
pftnphoaistae Alleluia ; item ver&iim Parata tfit* l*a Detu, «4 
aoqoitur AlUliiiix u pnrapbontetia ; item versum Bl^iutrwA 
fiitmina Domino, ot rotiqua. Post boa venuK ulutBb ρηπκΜ 
■ooIjh) archidiMono, t^t lUo annueute luciplt AUtlitia cum mtlaj 
diftn, Btmnl cmn infantibus. Qua expleta raqMDdvnt panu 
phooist• prim» Allelnia ot Unitur. Pout hanc incipit AUtlni^ 
tArdns de ecrjia in psalmo CXL ; po>t huno Bocguitur AUebtiu 
urdiuc quo !Kipnt : AUtluia. Patria ixrelnrm ; vemu Atf^eimvri 
H«oo «xpletaon, ordinen quo eapi-a, indpit nivhidiAConua id 
•nmgolio aatiphonam Saio φιοά Jfsum queritit ermfixum. Ipgj 
OXpletA, dioit ancerdoa oratiooem. I 

Dtia dtHtceudil ad fontes psallendo iuttipliofl&m h die num 
reetitme meae, quam ut flnicrint inclioatvr Aurluia; pMllitO^ 
paatmu^ ΟΧΠ, IpAo expleto, neqnitw ΑΒΛιϊλ, Ο Kfrud 

■ I imdentAiul Uie twditig to be •( mncAim hhC* oiUtr* ttmt. 



ebiuileuMn mprfpriitn, «t acqaitiir AlMnia η wntonbua; item 
rerauB Ce gar ettereoten tin wuiunmi tit;* et linitur ordine qao 
impra. Poet bftnti aoquiLur duoODU eecsndoa^' in ev&n^Uun 
•ntiphoaiMit l'«nile et vidiHe lociua ; deande eequilur oratio a 

Et tuncTtulunl ad luuictnii] Andreani ad Craoem, c»ncat«* 
antipbonnin Vidi atpiam tgrtvlienlem de tmnpUi, Poat hiMio 
dicitur Allebua oom pealmo CXJIt. Quo finilo, primus sool«e 
iuL'ipit Altauia, FrnM taatUema» Domino, rorsus Pnocee p tati» 
faaem ejue. Poat huic diuit dinoontm in ovuig«Uo notiphoaJUi 
Cilo eunlet dicite diteipvlia eji"; ddnde aoquitur ornlk» λ 

Detude deececdont pruiiftiiui eceleaUe od oooulnta, iaritAote 
DoUkrio vioedommi, eb Inbet ter. de greoo UiU| de pActin uda, de 
proeittiiii)& [on*]. Poetquam bibcriut, oouiee prasbitori et Kholiti 
per ιΙο^ιιΙαΒ tituloa rixlcunt od fadendA• vMpen•, et IbE blbtmt 
dp dato presbitero. 

Hrc ratio por totam obdotuaditm seiT&bitur ueqan in dotniniui 


Quaudo let«JiU nttjor debet flrri, ndnuntuit earn diaooooa in 
statioiio oathoUca et didt: ■'FeriK tale wniento, oollecta in 
bncUioK bwti illina, stntio in bailie» <wncti illiiiK." Et raipondet 
omnia dernit : " Deo grntiA•." Dio"" nnatuta, oolliglt μ oinnt• 
clorus vel omnia populua iu eocleaia supn^amdicta ; ot ingrodittir 
ponlifox in uncrano, seu ct diaooni, ot induunt «o planitos ftucas. 

(ΐ) McuodnoB. 
(ii) Dwnde. 

' TIiMO ue Ibc Ant iratda i>t tctm I and S of PmId 9$: "Ό Κή^ντ 


Et «tut ηηαβ de soola aate poatiflcem Η dioit : " Intnt^k" Bb 
inofaoftnt nntiphoD»m od introitnm. Bt ftnteeedit obUttaaariae 
oum dtiobuH mmht in mnnu ncortniuw, «t ponit ro« rvtro ■Itera, 
ekut moe est. Et egreditur pimttfex ric tuicrnrio evm djaooni- 
bu( ot tbimiiunasterium, porUuito''' «lua nubdiooimo t«iapnrit«. 
I>uin tnuirit per ecol*, jnbet ut dic»tar Olorio. Ki ««nit u)t« 
altare^ eC inoliiMb u wl ovwdonera, a«qn<' dniii dicit vermu m1 
rvpetandtini, eb auricit »b oruUone, oiouUtnr »ltAf«, «t dLwoiii 
siniiKUir, hiuc et ίοΊβ. Ipsa antlpbona expleta, Don dicit «OoU 
Kj/rie Wvuxm, «t pontifox, «Tars nnto Altnr», Aspicioo* populotn, 
didl i>i>nHaN« tt^eum ot Oremut, eb diacoaiu FJfflames gmtutt 
et facto intorvallo, dioit LevaUi. Et dicit pontifox nratiooMD. 
Ipsa expleta, annuit Boolae"" nt tnehoet antipbnaam. Et 
interim egrcdiuntur omnea de βοοίββϊβ, PriinittiB eaim pauperee 
de χηηοΊοχίο, cum craoo lignoa piota, domando Kgrit «Mmni, 
dettule CkritL. -le^KM, inile Chrttle aiM hm, deindft 8a»eto Maria 
era i/ro nobiM, ot cetenw, Et poet φβΟΜ egndiaater crncw VH. 
stacjooariaa, portttntD• ah KtnuraforoK, haheD» in uaiw]aac|U4 HI. 
aooensoe oereoa. Doindo sucunlur t-piacopi vol pnnbiteii ot «ub- 
diiKMHli, deindo pontifex cum diacooibue et duo cnicce ante earn, 
portaates λ snbdtaooiubiu ot timianuMteria portantur a "'fnrifm- 
ariia eodonM, «t ecoU )K>!it prmtiiiceiTi paalleuilo, et ' duin com• 
pleta ooa repetunt preebitori vel eabdiacoai qui aatecedunt 
pontificem : et adpropinquant^ie ooclooa prima, iocboutt Ue- 
taniam. Et interim <lum rlixerint laetania ad for«B «editnam, 
ΊαΙίΛΐ pontifez, Hacortlotes rol «linconi ia ocdena nd orntiooeni 
et revortunt od Bcolam. Fit percompletam letaniain, tlidt pooti- 
fax Dominvt vobiitum nt Oremut; et dlaoonns FUetamat genrnt; 
et pi«t pnululum Lnate. Et i>e(|uitur oralii a poatUke. Oro- 
tiiHi•- «xpleta, aunoit ut dicatur alia antiphona, Himiliter faciaal• 
per omuein eccleeiani ubi oooaootudo o«t. 

Cum autoni adpropiuquaveriut atriutn eodenae ubi sUttio 
dcnunliata est, annait pontifcx in socrario et diaooni cuio ipao. 

(i) portant «am «ubifiacaoi, 
(ii) aoola. - 

A eompl 



Ει scoIa ooiDptet letttnl» tnfra prwl^erlum, Ogrie eleiaom 
repeteate• t«r, deinde Ohritte nudi not, Sameta Xaria, era fro 
nobit, lanetae Petrc, tanetae Pauli, tanettte jlftdrea*, faae(4 
Johanne*, tanele SUphaar. lanete Laurtmti, vot uncto illi in 
Cttjiu eoolesfao nlau eelcbnui<Ia cut ; dcJnde OnMt taneli ortnt 
pn noKt. Propiliii» eeto, pare« nobi* Dontine. PropitUit «to, 
libera dm Ikmimt. Ah tmai mate» libera ru)t Doninu. Per enotm 
loam libem no» Domine. Pefcatorr», le mgamut, a-tAi tiM. FUiiu 
Dei, le rogatatu, aadi not. ϋΙ paeem doaet, le ro^amn» avdi a<M. 
Et Agmu IM, onmio. ter ropotoatea, D^ido ΟλτΜ« amii no», 
Kj/rie Wmjon, buttum ter ; et oompletum ηΛ. 

Fa ipHn die duo cenoctnte prooednnt «nte pontilicetn «t 
nun dicit ticoU Ogrie tieifo» pout luitipltoniuti, nnque pontifex 
eioria in cawefaji Dm. 


Ordo qualiUr in Μΐκία αίφιβ apo»totiea neat, id ett beati Petri 

ecelfia, ffrlie UmporHm* t/rdinallo fit, iptoA ah ortkodoxia 

fialntms inttilnlitm rtt, id at inente jiriiHO, 777/., Γ77., X,, 
hoc eii in XII. UettvHe$, 

Prtioitiu onim, eecoadA feria in cbdflmBda, qanodo XII. 
lectioDM ddnat fi«rt, roc«t pontifux ettictou, et Juntat Ante 
eum Buper reliquiiis uoL-torutu, udataute priiuioereo et «ecuodi- 
cario ot «rcliidiaoono ot archipreebitoro et oui volucrit d« ΙΠΙ.** 
capitolft quod ouooneti prohibent. Deinde UU, ferw, statio 
in eocleaia sancte Dei geuetricis Meriaa ; et procedont eleoti 
sou et omnia clems, uont moa est, horu VI. Rt iochoat tcoU 
■ntifbna nd iotroitum. Et pwllit wtoerdoK Monndnm oonsofto- 
tudioem Ad kltare, ot dicit Dominu» wAiteum el Orevwu ; et 
diMonue FUetamu» genua ; ot po«t pftululimi Letale. Et dicit 

f.) IIL 


IBCmiilin onitioDOni t% nxpOQcliuint onioei Amp». Rt atsnt 
mIocU in prcabyterio, induti pUnitM. Drande Moeiuitt scrini- 
sritu in nmbonem et dioit: In nomtW Domini noelri /««■ CirwCL 
8i iffiluT v«l aliijuit qui contra λαι n>c« e^iqvid tcit d* 
cnnmMi obnjw aubitatioM tsuat st dicat ; tanto μ^πκμΙο 
«ΗΗΐίοΜ* not. Et boo bcrtto npotit «t ddceiidit de Mnbaiie. 
Et psalUt nibdinconus et legit lectJonem; ei Mquitor racpon- 
sorium. El ϊρΛΟ oompleto pealUt itemm ucenloe et dicit Oremm» 
tt wquitur oratio, leotio ot nwpoiuonum ; dcindo evsngeliotn, 
et Domplent ιηΪΑ'« aiout mo* est. 

TLferiA v«tuoiitv,iitacioKd SanutosApoatoloe. Et proccdotit 
oniDee, tam clenu ([uuni el electi, bora VI. Pcwl nntipboBom 
ad iutroitum psrvUit saoordt» ct dicit oratiotiAiii. Et iteiOm 
nrinJAriu» in nmbono sicut Hnpru eb dicit ul "-' supra t«rtio. 
Ueindfl legitur teoUo et sequitnr reeponeoriuin et cat«nt ; «t 
oomplent αίββα. 

Sftbbato autein veniiinte in XII. teolioQM, statio ad beatum 
Fetrum apoatoluiu. Procetlit pontifex bora VII. «t αοααίλ 
cloruM, Ism protbiteri (}UAm diaoooi et electi. Oeiiule qiumdo 
jabet poDtifex iociiOBt ecola aotipbonatD mI iotruitutn, et 
procedil pootifox dr incrario, et diAoanJ, et cerecetAte, aicnt 
mo• G«t ; el iisuulatt> allura pulUt ad wdein, >leut moe eet. 
Et dun conplcTcrit ecola Kt/rlr rlriton, dic'it pootifex : AomAhh 
vM»aum; deb Onmtu; et diaoouiu: Fltxlanuu genea; et poet 
paululuio ; Leealt. Kt dat pontifex orationem, at legitur lectio 
et eeqnitur raBpoDeorium. Siinilitvr ^it per omnea Icwtione•. 
Kt scquitur bcoedidio et Apovtolo et tructo. Ipea oxpleta, 
■tanb aelecti in prosbyterio, bidati dalruatlCTa et campagea In 
pedibue. Kt Tocat poatlfex vocae magna aaamquoi&qDe per 
DiHDiu& ipsofum od «edem, et dicit: Talit pr«ώitβr reyionit 
Ifrliite, titulo latt, iUf. Et dmnrendnt diacono» et ducit uana- 
quemcjue ad aedem pontilicia, et slatuii eos ante aeum, aloal 
vocati sunt ab ip«o, restiti omnoe daUnaticas el oaa^agea, 
stnntea inoUoato capite. Et dut pootifex orntlooem atcut 
coDlinet in SacraniBntonim. 

Ipm explctn, dcsccndunt ίρ«ί i\m preaUteri fntori euit 

(ij dicit ut] ilidtur. 




ajite alLve, et diACom cjui ordiiiAli saot stAot ad Uttia pontifiois 
juxta eedem. Kt nrubidiivcooutt indiiit ororioa et pliuiil&s ad 
preebit«roB, et«iu mate «Hiire, et Iteram dnoit eos ante ponti- 
ficem, ot »CL•- ipiunt orationem preebiterii '" ab ipeo. Ipm expli^ta, 
ducit eos archidwconu• onoiiluido por ordinem «pUoopo•, deiade 
preebiteros ; et ntnnl in οφιιΐ, aupra oinuea prMbiteroe, per 
ordinem, siuut voonU ntmb s pontiSoe, eodom dio. Dmsdo 
ofTeruul poQtiCci ante omnce preebiteroe et oommuuiouit similiter 
ciodeia die ante onrnc». Et accipit unosquieque a pontilico 
(irtuata oblatn dc altnra, undo ct comiDumcat XL. diobiu. 

HtlisKA cocplcta, aiot porati manaionarii do tituli* ipaottun 
cum cereoetata et thimiamateriJa ; et prooeduat de eocI«eiA 
bcftli Petri apestoli "" unuequioquo in titulo mo, hnbens uaaa- 
■juiiique pnrnnj'nifam presbittrrum Mcum ; et ntralorcs uiissi a 
poniiflue duo ante eum ountee et teoentes caballo utun treno 
hinc et inde, et clamant voce magna : Tali preebiiero tali» tandu» 
eUgit t Kt rcspoixlunt mansionarii ipsum uaque in titulo ipeiua. 
ΈΛ, vodit poit eum Kwiillitrius ipsius, fncicndu a«limonnum, ot 
cum perveneril ad c)ct'l<»iijun, ponitur eedcs Utud altore, el 
babet ibi Hoeutiam aedere eodcm die et in vigilia pawliac 
UAtum «t dioore Gloria in tvceleii Deo, Similiter paranimfax 
preabitni- tUt a latere ipaiue et Ingib eraagelinm In ambooe. 
Deinde pretbilcr nupradiotua ""' facit miusa. Kt compleia ca, 
uegroditur de ecclcoui et epulat cum amicis «uie. In alia rero 
dine dofort pontiuci prmbitcr X, oci-c», nimilitcr vt nrchi- 

Similiter et diaconi babent stratoroe dominicos duoa, qui 
antecedtint eos clamando et dioondo : Tali diaeono eanciae Pttnti 
eleijil ! El nvpondit ounctua cleriLt, qui eum aequilur, aimiUter 
uttque LD domuffl auam. £t ipse a^ulat com amicis huia. 

(ίΰ) supm diotat OM• 

478 cimisTiAs worship: rre obigis and etolvtiox. 


Inapil ad rrlfjHia* lavanHai «ιΉ atduccn^aa teu 

Intrant cs&torei anUpboaaasa Boee foptbu nwrotJiVwi '" Judi- 
cium ; pealmua FkadmuMta efM. Diolt Gloria, dcindo 
Simt trot, vnnu» Sient Uteiantium ommum noHrvm, Flnit* aatfriii 
aDtiphono, levat opi«ca[>iLa irt l>rAchift sua Unteo deenper pateo» 
ot mittit ibi reliquiae ct rlpmpor cot^ertas oloejiioo^ et stutoitant 
duo diAConi hrnchin epiNcopi, Μ tone dab primana OFaUoneio. 
Kt post completoiii oratioiieut, acoendunt oonxa ct egrediantar 
cum ipsifl ob turnbula vam thymiania, et cantor Incboat antipbonMHi 
Cnmjtteunditale cscibiti». Si autom m louginqua fuerit ad duceii- 
dam dicdt pialmum mm antlphonam. 

Adprupiuqutuitoe autem prope ecdesin, bciunt '■"**iiiim. 
et ououDeudat episcopua i-eliquiaa ad pm(bit«rOB Con•*' rrcilnifi. 
et reraatieni ibi cum ccrtti« ot turibulu, faoicntea iaeUniain. 

Et tunc epinoppuit intnit ία ccolceiam solus, <Λ fadt omii^ 
iastnusenlo aqua exoTuisAta, larat altaro cum «pongia et noa 
nitbuafc chriama. Et ezib**" eplaoopus foras et dat or»tionam 
eecondo. Et tunc dn «qua oxoroizata. quod reraaoet aaperxet 
Bup6r populuLO. Et mox aperiantur januae eoolestae, et iatnt 
onironua popoluK cum lactaoia. l-^ta laotaoia, dat tertiam 

Ipia expleta, incboat oantor antipbonam Saeerdoe ma^ae, 
foa^fan «umini D^, inffredoru lemptam Domini et tuttiae paei/teat 
fro Kttnte po^uli offvnt Deo twt. uic eet etam dUM dedJeatiori» 
eanetorvm Domini Dei tui. Faalmaa ; OaudeU jutti πι Donino ; 
Gtoria, Sieut erat. Et exuena te episoqpiu pUaitam luam Μ 
condit reliqidaa ipso solue. Qnaa dun pemeril, castor toehoat 
aatiphouom 8ab allare Domitti aeda aecfpittie, inUnxdile pro 

(i) Rt COD popiuui cnstodi. 

(tl) &IU. 

(iu) esit ct epiiooptu. 



uohie pfr quem meriueta. PeiUnium : Beali inatOculali lAmdia " 
pnallb usque dum condite fuerinb Γβ1ίΐ|αϊβ. Et wibeistoat cum 
Hilentiv nihil ca.iuint«« 

+ lit Accipit cpivcopOB chriemA ot tMigit per quMbaaf an- 
^iloa loci ubi rnli(|uiiM^ pooitMi fnerint, niiiiilitudiiiom uruciit, 
ol ilicit : /n nonune Patris et FUU et Spiritue »ameli pajs libi. 
Hi rMpondib onudB populiu: Stciua tpirilu too. 8ίυ «militor 
(M ill cguatbuor comiu Attaris «mdeto «eruxmufii rcpvtit por 

Hi» oxpUitie ioduit w opiioopiu plAnitaoi Guam Λ prooe- 
dant lovitn άο κηβηιηο cum votUt oltnm el oooperiunb «Jtero 
unn cum epiecopo, eb dut ipse ombiuueoi «d oonaeor&ndaiii &ltitre 
wu ipen reclimenba, deinde omne miiustarinm Altari», βίτβ 
pal«[uuii vol craootn. 

Ueo omaiA expletA iotrnb qjiboopoa ία «ttorario et voalt 
inAtuioiutrias cum oeroo eccenao Ante episcopuiu eb petit 
OTAtioDenj eb dicib : Jube, domne, beuwiietre. £b dicil t^iaoopo* : 
Inliiininet Domiiuu domum -auain in eem.pii«nmm. Kb raspoD- 
deut onmee: Am^ti, Eb sic lU-'ceaduntur a muDBioDuriie caodele 
in oocleeia. Ut inci|ub cantor Anbiphoniuii ad introituni. Kb 
prooedit «])ϊβι.'οραιι do wicrArio cum ordinibu• ucris, aicub nioe 
est, et cclebratur mienaruiu BoUenuuA aicub in Sacraiuontcrum 


Orio qwiUt«r in Purifiealione tcnetae Mariat a^tvltm «f. 

tpM AuUini die, AuroTA meoeodeDtc, procedonb omnm de 
mdvenAB dlaoonLu aiv» dr tEtutin onni letAniA + vel utti- 
pbcoM paallendo, et oeroii uocensA purt&ubaa omne• in inAtiilnu 
per turmoe mine, eb vcoiunb in twcleaia E&ncti Adrimii 
luarlym ot oxpcctenb ponlificom. Intorim ingreditur pontifex 
«ACTATio et induib so vcetimenbi» nigra, et diAooai similiter 

(i) tAmdiim. 

480 CHBIffrtAN WOHSHrP; TT8 OHIOIN AKD Kvonjrro». 

pttuutAH induunt oignuL Oeuide lnLnuit oninee «nte poB• 
tiucem et nocipiunl e.h «o singnU wree. His oxploti•. 
inchcut «coU Mitiphonam Ejeurgi• Domine. adja^a «Ml Bt 
dicto tenu ngtiKiilur pontiftix d« MCnrio oum dwoooibiu 
dextrd )ev*quB et kitnuil pontJiex icoU ut dicutor Oloria. 
Ueinde MCMidpne anie &Ιιαγθ, inolinaDB ac ad orfttiooMD 
n«i|u>! dani inchoat κι:ο)η vonum ad trfuU-ntioui, «nrgit Λ 
orationc, *nlutnl altnro et dUooni" niinilitor liinc el indCk 
Ipea antiphona expleCa, non diotl euolu Chjfrte ekitom, aed 
pontifdx etKDs Ante tiltnre dicit Dominut mbueam, deinde 
OreiMi», «t din«onuii Merf'tmuii ^enua ; et fkcto laterrallo 
■licit iteruin LeraU. Kt dnl pontifnx oration^ni. 

Interim ogredinntvr cratOfl Vlt., portuitur ftb «tsuraCaro 
ptoinixti oum populo. Dcinde prenbiteri τβΐ ■ubduooni*' 
dednda |Kintifex cum dlnoonibuB ; eb duo eerea acoensa aate 
euui portatur et thiiuiam*etoniiiii λ subdincooo «t fluae crnon 
MQto ipnuiu. Deiode Bubflvquitur »ιχ>Ια ponlificoiii pwUlc&do 
imtiphtina.t. Dnm finit tiooU notiphcnuun, rapetib cloroc qui 
MttAoedit poatieceiD. 

Cum anteiD adpropinqunvorint atrium muiuIm Dei gene• 
tricU e«jcleiia«,""' iunuit poni.ifox twuln ut dioittur tetuu», re• 
pet«atw ter vIciMim. PMtquAin nntom ingreditur poatifex 
in eooleum vitdit in SAcriLrio cum diwooibiu eau et ontera» 
elenis vndit nnU: «Itnrfl et pcrcomplet Ictani» «koi Blibi 
scriptum est. Dun inchokt booIa