(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Chronicle of Lanercost, 1272-1346 : Translated, with notes"

THE CHRONICLE OF LANERCOST 



GLASGOW 

PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS BY 

ROBERT MACLEHOSE & COMPANY LTD. FOR 

JAMES MACLEHOSE AND SONS, PUBLISHERS 

TO THE UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW 

MACMILLAN AND CO. LTD. LONDON 

THE MACMILLAN CO. NEW YORK 

MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA TORONTO 

SIMPKIN, HAMILTON AND CO. LONDON 

BOWES AND BOWES CAMBRIDGE 

DOUGLAS AND FOULIS EDINBURGH 

MCMXIII 



1 




c 



-- 



X 

c 
o 



THE CHRONICLE OF 
LANERCOST 



1272-1346 



TRANSLATED, WITH NOTES, BY THE RIGHT HON. 

SIR HERBERT MAXWELL 

BARONET 







GLASGOW 
JAMES MACLEHOSE AND SONS 

PUBLISHERS TO THE UNIVERSITY 






057 




Preface 

QTUDENTS of English and Scottish history in the thirteenth 
^ and fourteenth centuries have so long been familiar with the 
record known as The Chronicle of Lanercost that an English trans- 
lation may seem to be a superfluity. But, whereas the tendency 
of modern education is to exchange the study of the classics for a 
diversity of other subjects reputed to be of greater utility, it 
is certain that a far smaller proportion of educated persons can 
read Latin easily in the twentieth century than could do so before 
that flexible language had ceased to be the common medium 
of scientific and literary intercourse. Now the writer or writers 
of this chronicle indulged in so many digressions from formal 
narrative, thereby casting so many sidelights upon the social 
conditions of his time, that an English translation may prove 
convenient for such readers as lack time for arduous historical 
research. 

The Latin text was edited from the oldest extant MS. 1 by 
the late Joseph Stevenson with his usual acumen and fidelity, 
and printed for the Maitland and Bannatyne Clubs in 1839. 
' The whole Chronicle,' wrote Stevenson in his preface, ' as it 
now stands has been reduced to its present form, about the 

British Museum, Cottonian MSS. Claudius D. vii. 
V 



PREFACE 

latest period of which it treats, by a writer who had before him 
materials of a varied character and of unequal merit.' In this 
form it has been appended as a continuation to Roger de 
Hoveden's Annals. 

In Stevenson's opinion there is no warrant for attributing the 
origin of this chronicle to the Priory of Lanercost. He judged 
from internal evidence that it was written by a Minorite Friar 
of Carlisle. That evidence has been analysed afresh by 
Dr. James Wilson, who has contributed an introductory chapter 
vindicating the claim in favour of the Augustinian Priory of 
Lanercost as the source of the chronicle. It still remains 
somewhat perplexing that an Austin Canon, or a succession of 
Austin Canons, should have been at the pains exhibited in this 
chronicle to exalt the renown of the Franciscan Order of 
Mendicants. The entire work covers the period from 1201 to 
1346. The translation now presented only extends over the 
reigns of Edward I. and II. and part of the reign of Edward III., 
a period of perennial interest to Scotsmen, who, however, must 
not be offended at the bitter partisanship of a writer living just 
over the Border. 

In preparing the translation for the press I have had the 
advantage of the literary acumen and historical erudition of Mr. 
George Neilson, LL.D., who, by undertaking the tedious task of 
reading my MS., has steered me clear of many pitfalls and pulled 
me out of others into which I had fallen. 

HERBERT MAXWELL. 

MONREITH, 

1st March, 1913. 



List of Illustrations 

LANERCOST PRIORY 

COAT OF ARMS OF LANERCOST PRIORY - 

LANERCOST PRIORY CHURCH, FROM THE SOUTH-EAST 

DURHAM CATHEDRAL, FROM THE RIVER WEAR 

HEXHAM ABBEY CHURCH, EAST END 

FACSIMILE OF PAGE 208 b OF MANUSCRIPT (reduced) 



PAGE 

- Frontispiece 

Title page 

24 

48 

136 

164 



LANERCOST PRIORY CHURCH, FROM DRAWING BY T. HEARNE, 
F.S.A. 1780 --------- 



168 



CARLISLE CATHEDRAL, FROM DRAWING BY T. HEARNE, F.S.A. 

1802 - - 176 

HEXHAM ABBEY CHURCH, CHANTRY CHAPEL OF PRIOR ROW- 
LAND LESCHMAN, ob. 1491 - 332 



Vll 



ERRATA 

Page 29, note i, Mr. Cleland Harvey has proved to me that Ecclesia de Bothanis 
de Laodoma, being dedicated, as the chronicler mentions, to S. Cuthbert, cannot 
be Abbey S. Bathans in Berwickshire, but was the parish church of S. Bothans in 
Haddingtonshire, mentioned in A.D. 1176 in the Register of the Priory of S. 
Andrews as Ecclesia Sancti Eothnn'i in Decanatu Laodonie. On izth April, 1421, it 
was erected by the Bishop of S. Andrews into a college for a provost and four 
chaplains, which was broken up during the Reformation, and the ancient title of 
the parish was altered to that of Yester or GifFord. 

Page 95, note i, read 'probably mostellum, a little tub.' 

Page 170, note 3, read 'The Comte de Bar, who married Eleanor, daughter 
of Edward I.' 

Page 332, line 16, for 'shattered the bones' read ' broke the gates.' 






Authorship of the Chronicle of 
Lanercost * 

By the REV. JAMES WILSON, Dalston, Cumberland 

THE authorship of the Chronicle of Lanercost, when the 
manuscript first came within the cognisance of literary 
men, was unhesitatingly ascribed to the canons of the house which 
bears its name, and such origin does not appear to have been 
doubted till the transcript in the Cotton collection was printed in 
1839 as a joint-production of the Bannatyne and Maitland Clubs 
under the care of the Rev. Joseph Stevenson. 

Nothing is known of the history of the manuscript of the 
Chronicle (Cotton MS. Claudius D. vii.) before the sixteenth 
century, when it came into the possession of Sir Henry Savile, who 
published his Scriptores post Bedam in 1596. There is little doubt 
that the manuscript belonged to him before it passed into the 
collection of Sir Robert Cotton. Not only is there a printed label 
bearing Sir Henry's name pasted on the fly-leaf, but traces of 
perusal by him may be ascertained from annotations in the margin. 
For example, the phrase ' in comitatu Roberti de Sabuil ' on 
folio 97 is underlined in the text, and a note is placed in the 
margin to call attention to the early occurrence of the name. 

1 The references in footnotes, when not otherwise stated, apply to the pages of 
this translation. 

ix 



AUTHORSHIP OF THE 

Indications are not wanting on several folios that the manuscript 
was used by students and that attempts were made to disclose the 
constituent parts of the compilation. 

The whole manuscript, which is bound in one volume, com- 
prises 242 vellum leaves or 484 folios, arranged in double column 
w and written in a hand apparently of the fourteenth or early 
fifteenth century. There is some evidence that the hand varies, 
but not perhaps more than may be ascribed to different sessions 
by the same writer. In the later portions of the manuscript, say 
from folio 66, which represents the year 1181, a new style of 
rubric and illumination begins. Perhaps a uniform style should 
not be assumed for any large sections of the narrative. The 
scribe did not always finish his folio before commencing the next. 
Several columns are blank, occasionally a whole folio. In one 
instance at least, he had just commenced a new folio (fol. 101) 
under the year 1190, but before he had proceeded far down the 
first column and had written ' Deinde Rex Anglic,' he stopped 
and commenced a new folio with the same words. When he had 
reached folio 2i b , the end of the introductory portions, he laid 
down his pen with the pious sentiment, * finite libro benedicamus 
Domino,' leaving a whole leaf blank before he resumed. The 
abrupt ending of the manuscript has tempted some late student 
to remark that ' videtur hoc exemplar esse imperfectum.' It may 
be added that he was not the last to hold a similar opinion. 

Students of the manuscript were under no delusion about its 
authorship. In various places the legend ' historia canonici de 
Lanercost in comitatu Northumbrie' is met with, which may be 
taken as the unauthorised interpolation of the reader. The 
owners, however, may be justly regarded as responsible for the 
index and table of contents, though not made at the same date or 
by the same person. The ' elenchus contentorum ' appears to be 
the earlier. Referring to the beginning of the continuous narra- 
tive on folio 23, apart from the fragments with which the Chronicle 



CHRONICLE OF LANERCOST 

is prefaced, we have ' Larga Anglic historia composita per canonicum 
de Lanercost in comitatu Northumbrie que descendit ad tempora 
Edwardi tertii.' The ignorance of the geography of Cumber- 
land, which placed Lanercost in the neighbouring county, is very 
welcome, inasmuch as it shows that the compiler of the elenchus 
was not a local antiquary prejudiced in favour of the Lanercost 
authorship. 

It is difFerent, however, with the index at the end of the volume, 
the writing of which appears to be in a later hand, perhaps about 
the close of the seventeenth century. The compiler of the index 
was not only a north-countryman interested in northern history, 
but he held decided views on the authorship. In fact, the index 
was made for the sole use of historical students of the Border 
counties, but especially of the county of Cumberland. It em- 
bodies the principal local references, notably those relating to the 
priory of Lanercost and the barony of Gillesland, with very little 
reference to occurrences elsewhere except when they affected that 
neighbourhood. The index is entitled, * Ex manuscripto per 
quemdam canonicum de Lanercost infra baroniam de Gillisland 
in comitatu Cumbrie composita.' In referring the reader to the 
visitation of the priory of Lanercost by the Bishop of Carlisle 
in 1281, which will be discussed presently, the index-maker 
remarked that ' constat fol. 206 authorem libri esse canonicum 
de Lanercost.' The compiler of this addition to the volume 
appears to have had no doubt about the authorship. 

The first writer who printed portions of the manuscript, so far 
as we have ascertained, was Henry Wharton, librarian at Lambeth, 
who extracted from it the references to Bishop Grosteste of Lincoln, 
and published them in 1691 in the Anglia Sacra (ii. 341-3). The 
heading of the chapter indicates Wharton's view of the author- 
ship : * Vita Roberti Grosthed, ex Annalibus de Lanercost, in 
Bibliotheca Cottoniana, Claudius D. 7.' But in the preface he 
has given a more positive opinion. * Among the unprinted 



XI 



AUTHORSHIP OF THE 

chronicles,' he says, 1 ' the author of the Annals of Lanercost has 
commemorated (celebravif) Bishop Robert the most fully : I have 
therefore appended his account of Robert's life. The Annals of 
Lanercost are extant from the coming of the Saxons to the year 
1347, exceedingly copious (valde prolixi\ in the Cotton Library. 
The monastery of Lanercost is situated in the county of Cumberland 
near the borders of Scotland. Its annals were written by several 
persons in succession, as appears at the year 1245, where the writer 
states that he had committed to the earth the Elect of Glasgow.' 

The value of the compilation was known to Dr. William 
Nicolson, Bishop of Carlisle (1702-1718), whose literary activities 
entitle him to rank among the laborious scholars who adorned 
the age in which he lived. Writing with his customary precision 
in 1708, he referred to 'the jingling rhyme on the building of 
the Roman Wall in the Chronicle of Lanercost 2 (MS. in Bibl. 
Cott. Claudius D. vii. fol. 14%)' and spoke of 'the learned Canon 
Regular who was the author of the Chronicle.' The same prelate 
had no misgivings about the authorship in 1713, when he urged 
Humfrey Wanley, the famous librarian of the Earl of Oxford, 3 to 
publish ' a Chronicle by some of the Canons of Lanercost in this 
diocese,' a manuscript ' in the Cotton Library, Claudius D. vii.' 
It was probably owing to the well-deserved reputation of Bishop 
Nicolson as a scholar of exceptional critical ability that the author- 
ship had not been called in question till the publication of the 
manuscript by the Scottish Clubs. 

Planta, when making a catalogue of the Cottonian collection in 
1 80 1 for the Record Commission, accepted the traditional author- 
ship without demur. His account of the contents of the Chronicle 
is taken almost wholly from the elenchus contentorum of the 
Cotton manuscript. The introductory fragments are resolved 

1 Anglla Sacra, ii. pref. xvii. 

2 Stukeley's Diaries and Letters (Surtees Soc.), ii. 62. 

3 Cfiron. de Lanercost, pp. xv-xviii. 

xii 



CHRONICLE OF LANERCOST 

into nine sections, which take up. the first 21 folios of the manu- 
script, as already noticed. The Chronicle itself, beginning on 
folio 23, is described 1 as *a history of the affairs of the kings of 
the Britons and the English from Cassibelanus to 1346, extracted 
by a canon of Lanercost in the county of Cumberland from 
William of Malmesbury, Henry archdeacon of Hereford, Gildas, 
Geoffrey of Monmouth and Helinand.' Though we cannot 
accept the sources here indicated, the statement is useful as 
expressing the opinion of the authorities of the Record Com- 
mission on the authorship in 1801. It was not till Stevenson 
had printed the manuscript that the origin of the Chronicle was 
ascribed to a Minorite friar of Carlisle. 

As the manuscript bears no title, and as nothing is known of 
its early history, a discussion of the probable authorship must rest 
wholly on internal evidence. But it is difficult to make an exposi- 
tion of the evidences intelligible to students of the printed text, 
owing to Stevenson's treatment of the manuscript. He regarded 
the portion issued by the Scottish 2 Clubs ' as a continuation to 
the Annals of Roger of Hoveden, beginning where the work of 
that writer terminates without a break of any description.' For 
this reason he started his edition of the Chronicle on folio i"j2 b in 
the middle of the column, where the transcriber or author left no 
mark to indicate a new work. Opinions may differ on the wisdom 
of such a step, but no authority for the arbitrary division is recog- 
nised in the manuscript. For our own part, we prefer the state- 
ment of Bishop Stubbs 3 that a copy of Hoveden was * used as 1 
the basis of the Lanercost Chronicle,' that is, of the unprinted t 
portion embracing folios 23-172. Students of the manuscript 
will agree with the Bishop rather than with the Editor. 

Though the question of sources does not arise, it may be 

1 Catalogue of the MSS. in the Cottonian Library, p. 197. 

2 Chronicon de Lanercost, p. iii. 

3 Roger de Hoveden (R.S.), i. pref. Ixxxiii. 

xiii 



AUTHORSHIP OF THE 

permissible to notice a few incidents in order to show the author's 
historical equipment independent of his use of the exemplars he 
had before him. Few of the chroni :lers, except the historians of 
Hexham, mention the battle of Cli heroe in 1138 and the sub- 
sequent proceedings at Carlisle for the alleviation of the atrocities 
of warfare. Certainly Hoveden has left these matters unrecorded. 
But our author on folio 6o b has meditated on that period to some 
purpose. ' William, son of Duncan, nephew of King David,' he 
narrates, ' vanquished the English army in Craven at Clitheroe, 
slaying very many and taking numerous prisoners. At the same 
time Alberic, a monk of Cluny, then Bishop of Ostia and Legate 
of the Apostolic See, who had been sent by Pope Innocent to 
England and Scotland, came to King David at Carlisle and 
reconciled (pacificavii) Bishop Adelulf to King David and restored 
him to his own (proprie] See, as also John Bishop of Glasgow. 
tn addition he obtained from King David that in the feast of 
St. Martin they should bring all the English prisoners to Carlisle 
and there give them their freedom. When this was done that 
city was not inappropriately called Cardolium, which means carens 
dolore, because there captivitas Angkrum caru.it dolore' If this 
account is laid alongside what is known from other sources of 
the incidents of 1138, it will be observed how little the author 
followed the textual phraseology of the Hexham writers. 1 The 
etymological adaptation of Cardolium to suit the happy incident 
appears to be quite new to history. 

Another passage, indicative of his independence of Hoveden, 
raises a question of considerable interest in the literary history of 
England and Scotland. So important is the text that it must be 
reproduced in the original. 

Eodem anno, videlicet, anno domini m c ij, Rex Henricus primus, ut 
dicitur, per consilium et industriam Matildis regine, constituit canonicos 

1 Priory of Hexham (Surtees Soc.), i. 82-3, 98-9, 117-21. 
xiv 



CHRONICLE OF LANERCOST 

regulares in ecclesia Karleolensi. Quidam vero presbiter, ad conquestum 
Anglic cum Willelmo Bastardo veniens, hanc ecclesiam et alias plures et 
aliquas villas circumiacentes, pro rebus viriliter peractis, a rege Willelmo in 
sua susceperat, Walterus nomine. Henricus [episcopatum x ] sancte Marie 
Karleolensis^ fundavit et non multo post in pace quievit. Cuius terras et 
possessiones Rex Henricus dedit canonicis [Rex H. underlined for deletion] 
regularibus et priorem eorum primum Adelwaldum, iuvenem quidem etate 
sed moribus senem, priorem sancti Oswaldi de Nosles constituit, quern 
postea corrupte Adulfum vocabant. 

It is true that this statement is made in the form of a note at 
the bottom of folio 58% but it is not the interpolation of a sub- 
sequent writer. The note is introduced in the same hand and 
with the same ink as the text in a place reserved for it. The 
position on the folio only shows that the statement was not in 
the exemplar the scribe was following for that portion of the 
narrative. Its resemblance to the famous passage 2 in the Scoti- 
chronicon (i. 289) on the foundation of the priory of Carlisle will 
be recognised. 

Other passages in the manuscript tell the same tale. The 
compressed account on folio 5i a of William the Conqueror's 
visit to Durham, his foundation of the castle there, his attempted 
profanation of the tomb of St. Cuthbert, and his meticulous flight 

1 There has been an erasure here in a very contracted text, but perhaps of only 
one letter. A late hand has interlineated ecclesiam. As the bishopric was founded 
only a few years before King Henry's death, episcopatum was probably in the 
scribe's mind. The sentence has been misplaced : it should have been written 
at the end of the passage. 

2 If Abbot Bower of Inchcolm added this note to Fordun's work, as it is 
generally believed, from what source is it likely that the superior of a Scottish 
Augustinian house should have obtained such local information ? The state- 
ment in the Scotlchronicon that the priory of Carlisle was founded in 1102 
was supposed to be unsupported till within recent years. It has now the 
countenance of an English as well as a French Chronicle. See Hist. MSS. 
Com. Report, vi. 354. 

xv 



AUTHORSHIP OF THE 

beyond the Tese, shows indebtedness to Simeon of Durham as 
well as to Hoveden. It is not necessary to multiply proofs of 
Bishop Stubbs' statement that the earlier portion of the manu- 
script is based on the Chronicle of Roger of Hoveden, and not a 
mere continuation of it, as Stevenson has suggested. In not a 
few instances the author has shown his independence by addition, 
omission, and compression. 1 

That Hoveden was the basis of the compilation for the twelfth 
century every student of the manuscript will acknowledge. From 
this circumstance alone we get an important sidelight on the 
authorship. It is stated in the manuscript on folio 103, under 
the year 1190, that David, brother of William King of Scotland, 
married blank, sister of Ranulf earl of Chester, and on folio 157 
in the list of the bishops assembled in London in 1199 occurs 
the name of blank. Archbishop of Ragusa. Thanks to the masterly 
collation of the Hoveden manuscripts by Bishop Stubbs, we can 
identify from lacunae like these the actual text of Hoveden that 
the author of our chronicle had before him. It was the Laudian 
copy now in the Bodleian, where alone these two omissions in 
the same manuscript are found. The interest, however, is not 
confined to this point. The Laudian copy has on its fly leaves 
transcripts of four documents, all relating to Carlisle. These 
show, as Bishop Stubbs 2 remarked, that the manuscript 'was at 
one time, and that probably a very long time, in possession of 
either the city or the Bishop of Carlisle/ But as one of these 
deeds is a letter from Henry VI. to Bishop Lumley, dated 

1 The same discretion, used by the author when dealing with the Chronicle of 
Melrose as his exemplar, will be observed if a collation is made of the early pages 
of Stevenson's printed text with the corresponding passages of that chronicle. 
The author appropriated whole slices of the Chronicle of Melrose when they 
suited his purpose. He did the same with Hoveden for the twelfth century, but 
perhaps with more frequency and freedom. 

2 Roger de Hoveden (R.S.), i. pref. pp. Ixxiv-lxxx. 

xvi 



CHRONICLE OF LANERCOST 

23rd November, 1436, * de custodia ville et castri Karlioli,' we 
need have no hesitation in ascribing the ownership of the manu- 
script to that prelate, who was then warden of the Western 
March. It probably formed part of the episcopal library at 
Rose Castle. The deeds of this nature, inserted in it, just cover 
the period of the episcopal residence there up to Bishop Lumley's 
day. This identification, so far as our inquiry is concerned, 
localizes the production of our chronicle to the district of Carlisle, 1 
the area of the bishop's jurisdiction. 

Turning now to Stevenson's printed text, and especially to that 
portion of it translated by Sir Herbert Maxwell, when we are 
approaching the floruit of the author, no reader can help feeling 
that, like works of this nature, the Chronicle is a compilation 
from various sources, and that the materials, which make up the 
narrative, are of unequal historical value. It cannot be said that 
the compiler was a skilled artist in the use of his sources. There 
is no attempt to write continuous history, though a fair semblance 
of chronological arrangement has been maintained. Duplicate 
entries are frequent, many of which have been pointed out by 
the translator, and need not be repeated here. This repetition is 
evidence enough, if nothing else existed, that the Chronicle at 
this period was *> sort_ofjournal or literary scrap-book for the 
purpose of jotting down historical events as information had 
reached the authorities. An entry was made from perhaps im- 
perfect knowledge, either from a written source or oral intelligence : 
later details arrived or a fuller account was found, and a more 

1 But it does far more than this. The scholar, who undertakes to identify the 
sources of the chronicle on the lines of those issued in the Rolls Series, will have 
to define its relationship to the Cronica de Karleolo, compiled for Edward I. in 
1291 by the canons of Carlisle, as well as to Bishop Lumley's copy of Hoveden. 
It will be an interesting study, and will result in the probable discovery that the 
Carlisle copy of Hoveden was lent to the canons of Carlisle in 1291, as well as to 
the canons of Lanercost. 

b xvii 




AUTHORSHIP OF THE 

extended record of the incident was afterwards made without 
expunging the previous entry. In most of the duplicate passages 
it will be found that the second carries with it more particulars 
than the first. 

The method of the compiler comes into view in the manipula- 
tion of his sources about 1290. In dealing with the plutocrat l of 
Milan, ' it pleases me,' he says, ' to add in this place what ought 
to have found a convenient place in the beginning of the eighth 
part, forasmuch as it happened at that time, although I did not 
receive timely notice of this matter.' Passages of this sort furnish 
some evidence that the work was not undertaken and carried out 
by the same person at the period in which the story draws to a 
close. But if the printed portion of the Chronicle was mainly 
compiled from written sources, to which assumption there is much 
antagonistic evidence, the duplicate passages offer indubitable 
proof of the writer's unskilfulness in his craft. 

There is strong reason for believing that the body of the 
Chronicle was not put together in or after 1346. In various 
passages noticed by the translator, contemporary allusions are 
made at long distant periods quite incompatible with a single 
authorship after the close of the work. A few instances must 
suffice. Under 1293 there is recorded a story 2 from Wells about 
* what I know to have happened nine years ago ' to a ^prebendary 
of that church. c This event,' the chronicler relates, ' took place 
in the year ( 1 9 March, 128 5-6) when Alexander, King of Scotland, 
departed this life, and was told to our congregation by a brother 
who at that time belonged to the convent of Bristol.' There is 
no reasonable doubt that the entry was made in the year to which 
it refers when the story came to hand. Another incident, not 
included in this translation, is equally conclusive. It is well 
known 3 that Nicholas of Moffat was made archdeacon of Teviot- 
dale in 1245, and though twice elected Bishop of Glasgow he 

1 P. 67. 2 Pp. 101-102. 3 Dowden, Bishops of Scotland, pp. 304-6. 

xviii 



CHRONICLE OF LANERCOST 

died unconsecrated in 1270. With this neglected churchman the 
author of this portion of the Chronicle was so familiar, that he 
says he officiated at his funeral. 1 Contemporaneous allusions like 
these go a long way to show that the compilation was built up 
continuously, period by period, and cannot be the work of a single 
compiler in the middle of the fourteenth century. 

But it is not so easy to form a definite opinion of the nature of 
the institution responsible for the continuous production of such 
a work. It seems to be agreed that the Chronicle emanated from 
some religious house on the English side of the Border. The tone 
of the composition in its acrimonious hostility to Scottish interests 
betrays its English origin : the historical setting of the narrative 
is similarly conclusive of its localisation to the Border counties. 
The ecclesiastical colour of the incidents cannot be mistaken : the 
lightning of the churchman coruscates on every page. As these 
general considerations will be conceded, the difficulty lies in the 
identification of the particular religious house in which the work 
was done. 

It was a bold and praiseworthy venture of Stevenson to cut 
himself adrift from the traditional view that the Chronicle 
emanated from the priory of Lanercost, and to suggest the Grey- 
friar House in Carlisle as the more probable source. With much 
acumen has he marshalled his evidence, and with all the modera- 
tion of conviction has he defended his own discovery. Without 
going over in detail the formidable list of evidences in support of 
the Minorite_3uthorship. it may be here acknowledged that no 
critical student can fail to be impressed with the cogency of his 
arguments. The narrative bristles with the exploits and virtues 
of the Friars Minor. One would think that it was specially 
composed in glorification of that Order. The passages are 
too numerous for special discussion: they are all of the same 
character : on every occasion, in season and out of season, 

1 Cfiron. de Lanercost, p. 53. 
xix 



AUTHORSHIP OF THE 

the merits of the brothers of St. Francis are lauded to the 
skies. 

While this much is admitted without reserve, the weak side of 
Stevenson's proposition, as it would seem, presents itself when he 

attempts to identify the Franciscan habitation in which he locates 

- " *^- .*** ** -"^ ^~"~. ^^^"^ ^^^ 

the Chronicle. If the work is~due to Minorite authorship, internal 
evidence gives little encouragement to make Carlisle the head- 
quarters of the particular congregation that gave it birth. So 
much of the narrative is taken up with affairs, political and 
ecclesiastical, in the neighbourhood of that city, that the editor was 
constrained, as it may be permissible to believe, to fix on that 
place, in spite of the evidence, as the local habitation. The over- 
whelming evidence for a Greyfriar authorship is more conclusively 
in favour of Berwick than of Carlisle. 

It will be observed that the references to this Mendicant Order 
are for the most part very general. News about the Order came 
from all points of the compass in the shape of prattle and legend : 
in very few instances can it be said to be local. When local news 
protrudes itself, the scene is at Berwick or elsewhere, not at 
Carlisle. Some specific instances of the compiler's connexion 
with Berwick are very striking. In his vision * after Mass on the 
Lord's Day in 1296, 'as I was composing my limbs to rest,' he 
saw an angel with a drawn sword, * brandishing it against the 
bookcase in the library, where the books of the friars were stored, 
indicating by this gesture that which afterwards I saw with my 
eyes, viz. the nefarious pillaging, incredibly swift, of the books, 
vestments and materials of the friars.' 

At the following Easter King Edward sacked Berwick, when a 
most circumstantial account is given of the siege and slaughter. 
' I myself,' the chronicler 2 adds, * beheld an immense number of 
men told off to bury the bodies of the fallen.' The description 
of the siege of Berwick by Bruce in 1312 is equally personal and 

'Pp. 132-3- Pp- 134-5- 



CHRONICLE OF LANERCOST 

explicit. It is unmistakably the account of an eye-witness. The 
Scottish scaling-ladders, he says, 1 were of wonderful construction, 
' as I myself, who write these lines, beheld with my own eyes.' 
Personal testimony 2 is again advanced in the description of the 
battle at the same town in 1333. If the authorship is exclusively 
the work of the Minorites, its localisation, on the face of the 
evidence, must be transferred from Carlisle to Berwick. The 
former place supplies no local or personal touches to the narrative 
beyond a few isolated facts, with little bearing on the authorship, 
which can be explained in another way. 

But a new order of things is introduced when we approach the 
local affairs of the priory of Lanercost. Their prominence in the 
Chronicle after 1280 can scarcely be explained without assuming 
that the author or successive authors were connected with the 
house, or had some annals or domestic memoranda of the institu- 
tion at hand. The internal affairs of the priory loom largely in 
the narrative. It is not merely great events touching the place, 
like those of Berwick, that are recorded, events known to fame 
and of general interest, but the UocaL colour is more clearly 
manifested by incidental remarks, quite undesigned, let fall as it 
were by chance, known to very few and of no particular concern, 
which betray the locality. No external writer could be the 
mouthpiece of such minute intelligence, nor is it likely, had it 
come to his knowledge, that he would have thought it worthy 
of record. Some of these incidental allusions will be noticed 
later on. 

Without following Stevenson throughout his category of 
allusions to Lanercost, it may be here said that the influence of 
the canons on the authorship is not to be estimated by a single 
incident or a number of incidents of a general nature, but by the 
particular attention which the compiler or compilers gave to that 
house as compared with similar institutions or localities in the 

!?. 201. 2 Pp. 278-80. 

xxi 



AUTHORSHIP OF THE 

Border district. No other place or immediate neighbourhood has 
had the same search-light from the author's pen thrown upon 
it. One of these incidents evidently puzzled Stevenson, and 
though he tried valiantly to make it fit his hypothesis, it must be 
acknowledged that he has grievously failed. The year 1280-81 
was memorable in the annals of the house. It signalised a victory 
for the canons in the local baronial court : witnessed a gracious 
visit of King Edward and Queen Eleanor : and brought Ralf of 
Ireton, the new Bishop of Carlisle, on a visitation of the priory. 
In the record of these events we have, it is true, no gushing or 
embroidered narrative, but we have particulars in abundance to 
connote the interested spectator. The very day on which the 
J local court declared the immunity of the canons from manorial 
taxation is recorded : l the canonical dress of the prior and his 
brethren, when the royal party was received at the gate of the 
priory, and the nature of the royal bounty are duly described. 
The contents of the King's game-bag, which helped to get Steven- 
son out of his difficulty, need give no trouble. It was naturally 
recorded on hearsay evidence, and was thrown in with the account 
of the royal visit on the gossip of the community. 

The Bishop's visitation of the convent has even more personal 
notice. It took place on 22 March, 1281 : he was met at the 
gate like the King and Queen : he first gave the benediction and 
then the kiss of peace to all the brethren : after his hand had been 
first kissed he gave them a kiss on the lips. Then the Bishop 
entered the chapter-house and preached : the very text of his dis- 
course has been preserved. At the conclusion of the sermon, he 
proceeded with his visitation, the object of his presence there, * in 
which we were compelled (coacti sumus),' says 2 the narrator, * to 
accept new constitutions.' It is only candour to say that Stevenson 
misunderstood the procedure of an episcopal visitation of an 
Augustinian house. It had nothing to do with a general vis ; .ta- 

1 Pp. 23-4. * P. 25< 



XX11 



CHRONICLE OF LANERCOST 

tion of the diocese. It was when the pi-caching was ended that 
the visitation began inquiry into the mode of doing divine ser- 
vice, ministrations in their parochial churches, their conduct of the 
secular affairs of the community, the hearing of complaints and 
the adjusting of irregularities. Other visitations of Lanercost are 
on record, and the mode of procedure is well known. The 
graphic touches of the simple narrative could only come from one 
who took part in the function and who could describe its succes- 
sive phases with ceremonial exactness. 

On the previous page of the printed book, but on the same 
folio of the manuscript, another personal allusion, overlooked by 
Stevenson, is equally conclusive against Minorite authorship. On 
24 October, 1280, the narrator 1 tells that 'a convocation was 
held in Carlisle Cathedral by Bishop Ralf, and a tenth of the 
churches was granted to him by the clergy for two years accord- 
ing to the true valuation, to be paid in the new money within a 
year : wherefore we pzid(sofoimus) him in all twenty-four pounds.' 
The writer of [this passage was clearly subject to ecclesiastical 
taxation, whereas the friars, having no material resources except 
the actual buildings they inhabited, were exempt from episcopal 
subsidies and all kinds of assessment. It was different with the 
canons, who bore their share of such impositions in common with 
tRe parochial clergy. The special assessment here mentioned was 
a subsidy granted to an incoming Bishop by the clergy, parochial 
and collegiate, of his diocese. The poet of the Chronicle gave 
vent to his feelings about the exaction in pungent metre : 

Poor sheep, bereft of ghostly father, 
Should not be shorn : but pampered rather. 
Poor sheep ! with cares already worn, 
You should be comforted, not shorn. 
But if the shepherd must have wool, 
He should be tender, just and cool. 2 

*P. 23. 2 Pp. 23-4. 

xxiii 



AUTHORSHIP OF THE 

If the amount of the subsidy be compared with the value of 
the revenues of Lanercost, as assessed for taxation ten years 1 
afterwards, no doubt will be entertained that the sohimus of the 
record exactly tallies with the taxable capacity of the canons of 
that house. 

Though Stevenson was sincere in his exposition of the Laner- 
cost evidence, 2 and enumerated some of the most conspicuous 
allusions to it in the Chronicle, he has omitted one of the most 
important, as evidential of the interested onlooker, the account 
of the pillage of the priory by King David cum diabolo in 
1346, the year in which the Chronicle ends. The touch of 
personal indignation in his description of the Scottish King is 
only of a piece with the account of the arrogance of his soldiery 
in the devastation of the sanctuary : they threw out the vessels 
of the church, plundered the treasury, smashed the doors, 
stole the jewels and annihilated everything they could lay 
hands on. 8 

It is not, however, in the record of great events, likely to attract 
general attention, but in the trifles of language and incident, where 
the student will find his embarrassment if he quarrels with the 
traditional authorship. The phraseology touching Lanercost, from 
its first introduction to its last mention, presupposes the local 

1 Taxatio Ecclesiastica (Rec. Com.), pp. 3 1 8-20. 

2 In fact, Stevenson missed the significance of all the Lanercost allusions. For 
example, the chronicler has much to say about Macdoual's doings in Galloway in 
1307, including the capture of Bruce's two brothers and the decapitation of the 
Irish kinglet and the lord of Cantyre, and the sending of the spoils, quick and 
dead, to King Edward at Lanercost. But he did not tell that the spoils were first 
exhibited to the Prince of Wales, then sojourning at Wetheral near Carlisle, on 
their gruesome pilgrimage to the King (Register of Wetherhal, p. 402, ed. /. E. 
Prescott). The inference is obvious. 

8 Chron. de Lanercost^ p. 346. 

xxiv 



CHRONICLE OF LANERCOST 

resident. One word only is used to designate a journey to that 
place. In 1280 King Edward and Queen Eleanor came (venerunt) 
to Lanercost : in 1281 Bishop Ireton came (venit) : in 1306 King 
Edward came (venif) : in 1311 King Robert came (venif) with a 
great army : and in 1346 King David and his rascal rout came 
(venerunt) to the priory of Lanercost and went off (exierunf) by 
way of Naworth Castle. Though the narrator is liberal in his use 
of the word in expressing locomotion, he frequently interlards the 
usage with ' went ' (adivii) or * passed ' (transivif) in respect of 
other places. But so far as Lanercost is concerned there is no 
variation : always came, never went, as if the author was resident 
there. 

The migration of brothers from one house to another, an inci- 
dent of infinitesimal interest outside an ecclesiastical enclosure, is 
not without instruction. The house from which the brother was 
transferred is never mentioned. The reticence is such as might be 
expected if the narrator was an inmate. In all cases, so far as we 
have observed, intercommunication was restricted to Augustinian 
communities. Nicholas of Carlisle was sent in 1281 to reside at 
Gisburn * and became an inmate (professus est) there. Incidental 
allusion to another migration is more significant still. In 1288 we 
are told that brother N. de Mor received the canonical habit, and 
in 1 307 that he was sent by the Queen to Oseney, another Augus- 
tinian house. 2 But it is not stated in what house he took the 
canon's profession nor from what house he was transferred to 
Oseney. The nature of the profession, however, predicates the 
ranon and not the friar.. But when we know that Queen Margai 
spent quite half of the latter year at Lanercost, the veil falls from 
the transaction. Similar mystery hangs over the conventual apos- 
tacy of John of Newcastle, who took the monastic habit in the 
neighbouring Cistercian house of Holmcultram. In this instance 
there is no mention of transference, but the renunciation of his 

J P. 28. 2 P P . 55, 181. 



XXV 



AUTHORSHIP OF THE 



poet 



that 



to mend h,s 

Wn of the local chronicler 

lso lated incidents ft 



effusions, always &* or Henry, or Henry e 

quoted under the name of Bro her H ^, ^ he was first 

o. Few readers wdl gamsay Aesugg 

and 



Henry hit off the situation thus: 



.. 

of ^ ba g when he revealed the wtfw 

The poet let the cat out of he bag ^ ^ ^^ 

JS employed r ^/ ^ undesig ned coincidences 
habit. Perhaps the most st nkmg ^^^^ occurs hl s 

nnnlied by Henry's muse m favour chronicler m the 



in rare words, that 

2 p. 52 
ip. 28. 

xxvi 



CHRONICLE OF LANERCOST 

garcifer was slain on one of his moonlight expeditions, the same 
word was used by one of the canons of that house in his sworn 
depositions touching a local dispute. Richard, the cook of 
Lanercost, alleged on oath that a garcifer in the kitchen, after- 
wards chief cook, had oftentimes gone with the canons to the vale 
of Gelt to receive the disputed tithes. 1 If this is a mere linguistic 
coincidence, accidents of this kind seem only to happen at Laner- 
cost. 

In 1300 Henry de Burgo, canon of Lanercost, was the bearer 
of a gift from Edward I. to the high altar of that church 2 : on 
14 March, 1303-4, Henry, canon of Lanercost, appeared as 
proctor for his house in an act before Archdeacon Peter de 
Insula of Carlisle 3 : he was elected prior about 1310, and died in 
1315.* As Henry rose in favour among his brethren, and as 
years lent gravity to his demeanour, it may be permissible to 
assume that his versification took a similar turn. His rhymes 
between 1280 and 1290 may be regarded as his best for piquancy 
and fun. After his elevation to the priorate, verses in his name 
cease in the Chronicle, and verses with any pretension to local 
colour vanish altogether after his death. 

No discussion of authorship would be complete without refer- 
ence to the prominence in the Chronicle given to the lords of 
Gillesland. No franchise, ecclesiastical or secular, receives such 
attention. In fact the descent of the lordship in the family of 
Multon is not only unique in the territorial history of the Border 
counties, but it is singularly accurate. No other lordship has 
mention of its successive owners. This feature is so obvious that 
it needs no elaboration. It is odd that Stevenson should have 
singled out one of those references as incompatible with the 
Lanercost authorship, whereas the very mention of a paltry 

1 Chartulaiy of Lanercost, MS. xiii. 10. 

2 Liber Quof. Carder. (Soc. of Antiq.), p. 40. 
3 Chartulary of Lanercost, MS. xiv. u. 4 P. 216. 

xxvii 



AUTHORSHIP OF THE 

suit l in the court of Irthington, the capital messuage of Gillesland 
in 1280, would seem to suggest the opposite. Though the local 
verdict was of immense interest to the canons, a glorification 
of the victory over their neighbour and patron, which Stevenson 
expected, would have been imprudent, not to say dangerous, if 
the record had ever met his eye. The canons of Lanercost were 
well aware of the power of their patrons over them, as we know 
from the history of that house. 

From another quarter a charge of inaccuracy has been brought 
against the chronicler for his account of the territorial descent of 
Gillesland. In the same year, we are told, 2 died ' Thomas de 
Multona secundus,' then lord of Holbeach. It is unlikely, says 
the objector, that a canon of Lanercost should have fallen into 
this mistake, as the Thomas de Multon, who died at that time, 
was the third and not the second who was lord of Gillesland. 
The objection wholly fails, inasmuch as the Thomas de Multon, 
who came between the Thomas primus and the Thomas secundus 
in the family tree, was never lord of Gillesland at all, his mother, 
through whom the barony came to that family, having outlived 
him. 3 Misinterpretation of disjointed entries in this Chronicle 
has led to much confused chronology. The account * of the 
espousal of the heiress of the last of the Multons in 1313 and her 
subsequent rape from the castle of Warwick by the first of the 
Dacres of Gillesland is so picturesque in detail that scholars have 
worried themselves over the exact meaning of some of its 
phraseology. 

How came the Chronicle to be so full of Lincolnshire news ? 
After describing the avarice of the canons of Markby in 1289, 
some features of which he had hesitation to explain in detail, the 
narrator states that he was unwilling to believe the story till he 
had the particulars from the lips of a nobleman 5 who lived not 

1 P. 23. 2 P. in. 3 Fine Roll, 12 Edw. I. m. ii. 

* P. 205. 5 Pp. 56-8. 

xxviii 



CHRONICLE OF LANERCOST 

more than three miles from the place under discussion. Who 
was this nobleman ? Can there be a doubt that Thomas de 
Multon, lord of Holbeach, who lived in that neighbourhood, was 
retailer of the news ? In keeping with this we have the accounts 
of sundry occurrences in Lincolnshire, some of them of little 
interest beyond the ambit of the county, the communication of 
which may be ascribed to that family. 

In holding an even balance between the rival claims to author- 
ship, the geographical and business relationships of Lanercost 
should not be omitted. The situation was on one of the high- 
ways between England and Scotland. To this circumstance alone 
may be ascribed many of the sufferings it endured. There was 
no religious house in Cumberland that was more frequently 
burned by the Scots, and no district that underwent more pillage 
than Gillesland. In times of peace Scotsmen came into England 
by the Maiden Way, the old Roman highway from Roxburgh to 
Cumberland and the valley of the Eden, for the purpose of trade, 
as did Fighting Charlie in the days of the Wizard of the North. 
In recording one of these raids, the chronicler shows how much 
Lanercost occupied his mind when he tells that the Scots passed 
near the priory of Lanercost on their return to Scotland. 1 

By reason of its business connexions the house had unrivalled 
opportunities for gathering news relating to the Border districts. 
Apart from the advantages of its geographical situation, the 
canons had property in Carlisle, Dumfries, Hexham, Newcastle, 
and Mitford near Morpeth. From 1202 they were obliged to 
attend the yearly fair of Roxburgh on St James' Day to pay a 
pension to the monks of Kelso, issuing from the church of 
Lazonby, in Cumberland, in which they had a joint interest. 
Some of their property in Carlisle and Newcastle, not to speak of 
Dumfries, lay alongside the friaries of the Minorites in these 
towns. The direct road from Lanercost to Berwick, a town which 



. 211. 
xxix 



AUTHORSHIP OF THE 

figures largely in the narrative, passed near Roxburgh and 
through Kelso, 1 and if a return journey was made to visit their 
Northumberland estates, Berwick would inevitably be a halting- 
place. It will be seen, therefore, that within the area of the 
Lanercost connexions many of the scenes depicted in the printed 
portion of the Chronicle took place. 

If it be admitted that the Chronicle bears evidence of con- 
tinuous production as the work of more than one author, the 
presumptions in favour of Lanercost are difficult to set aside. 
The canon of an Augustinian priory belonged to his house : he 
was the member of a corporation with historic succession : like a 
family, his house inherited ancestral traditions. If attachment 
to the house of his profession was a feature of his rule, the direct 
opposite was the characteristic of the friar's calling. The friar did 
not belong to a house : local detachment was his glory : his 
individuality was lost in his province. He was a wanderer, a sort 
of parochial assistant, who went about from place to place under 
the Bishop's licence to give clerical help where required. Like 
John Wesley in his palmy days, the friar was incapable of localisa- 
tion : the world was his parish. In addition, the Austin canons 
in the North of England had a well-deserved reputation as 
patrons of learning and students of history, for which their 
constitution well fitted them. Nearly half of their houses in the 
North produced chronicles, the value of which is appreciated at 
the present day. Who is not acquainted with the work of John 
and Richard of Hexham, Alan Frisington of Carlisle, William of 
Newburgh, Peter Langtoft, Walter of Hemingburgh, John of 
Bridlington, Stephen Edeson of Wartre, Walter Hilton of Thur- 
garton, George Ripley, and Robert the Scribe, scholars who shed 
lustre on the Augustinian institute in Northern England ? The 
Chronicle of Lanercost betrays many symptoms of learning and 
scholarship in agreement with Augustinian traditions. It requires 
1 Britannia Depicta (1720), pp. 160-162. 

XXX 



CHRONICLE OF LANERCOST 

a robust faith to predicate in the mendicant friar a knowledge of 
Beda, Chrysostom, Ambrose, Justin Martyr, Gregory, and 
Augustine, leaving out the Theodosian Code, 1 as the quotation 
is in some doubt. Whatever imperfections the composition may 
contain, and nobody wishes to conceal them, the authors may 
reasonably be acquitted of ignorance of patristic learning. 
Literary touches of various forms brighten up the dull catena of 
miracle and legend. 

In the light of what has been already stated, it would be 
hazardous to offer a dogmatic view of the authorship of the 
Chronicle, but it seems quite reasonable to hold that the pre- 
ponderance of evidej^aJkitQurs thf* Anpjfifrininn house. In the 
early vicissitudes of the friars in the Border counties, oppor- 
tunities for undertaking and continuing such a work simply did 
not exist. The sources of the Chronicle, so far as they can be 
conjectured, are a strange mixture of written .Jihtfiry and nral 
^ale. Many of the stories there recorded, some of them being in 
glorification of the Mendicant Orders, were taken down from the 
lips of a narrator. An Augustinian house with the geographical 
advantages of Lanercost was well adapted to serve as an emporium 
of news, and the ubiquitous friars, who often assisted the canons 
in parochial administration, were convenient agents to collect the 
supply. But the corpus of the Chronicle, taken as it exists in 
manuscript, was compiled from written sources, and the insti- 
tution from which it emanated was well supplied with some of 
the best materials for the period to which it relates. 

JAMES WILSON. 

1 The phrase, teste theodocto, which puzzled Sir Herbert Maxwell (p. 128), 
should be compared with teste Ezechiele (p. 126) and teste Chrysostomo (p. 135) as 
clearly correlative. Stevenson should have printed theodocto as a proper name, 
but the spelling is probably corrupt. The print, however, corresponds with the 
text of the manuscript. The quotation savours of the style of the Theodosian 
Code. 



XXXI 



THE CHRONICLE OF 
LANERCOST 

REIGN OF EDWARD I. 



A FTER the Church's three years widowhood, as it was 
called, 1 when all men were laughing at the 

5 A.D. 1272. 

College of Cardinals, the Archdeacon of Liege, who 
had accompanied [our] Lord Edward in his journey to the 
Holy Land, was elected Pope, and was named Gregory the 
Tenth. He sat for four years and ten days, and the seat 
was vacant for ten days. In the third year of his pontificate 
he held a solemn council at Lyons of five hundred bishops, six 
hundred abbots and three thousand other prelates, for the good 
of the Church and especially of the Holy Land, which he 
desired to visit at another time ; at which council, among many 
other excellent acts, it was decreed that whensoever the name 
of Jesus should happen to be heard in church, every head, 
whether of layman or cleric, should be bowed, or, at least, 
every one should do adoration in thought. 

lr The Papal throne was vacant for two years and nine months, 1268-71. 
A j 



THE CHRONICLE OF 
v 

The Greek official delegates were present with the Patriarch 
at this Council, and solemnly affirmed, by singing in their 
own language, the creed of the Holy Spirit proceeding both 
from the Father and the Son, to which [doctrine] they had 
not assented previously to that time. There were present also 
Tartar delegates, asking on behalf of their own people for 
teachers of the Christian faith, in token whereof they returned 
to their own [country] having been catechised and baptised. 

In this Council .the Orders both of Preachers and Minorites 
were approved and confirmed for the Colleges of Mendicants. 
But it would be a long matter to mention all the good things 
which were settled there. 

And so in the year of the Consecration of this Pope, there 
arose, as is reported, a great dispute in the Curia over 
the election of William Wishart, 1 many of them raising 
so many objections that the Head of the Church himself, 
having examined the objections set forth in writing, vowed by 
Saint Peter that if a moiety of the allegations were brought 
against himself, he never would seek to be Pope. At length, 
by intervention of the grace and piety of Edward, he 
[Wishart] was consecrated under the Pope's dispensation. 
For the sake of example I do not hesitate to insert here what 
befel him later when he applied himself to his cure. Indeed, 
it is an evil far too common throughout the world that many 
persons, undertaking the correction of others, are very negligent 
about their own [conduct], and, while condemning the light 
offences of simple folk, condone the graver ones of great men. 

There was a certain vicar, of a verity lewd and notorious, 

1 To the see of St. Andrews in 1271. 
2 



LANERCOST 

who, although often penalised on account of a concubine whom 
he kept, did not on that account desist from sinning. But 
when the bishop arrived on his ordinary visitation, the wretch 
was suspended and made subject to the prelate's mercy. Over- 
come with confusion, he returned home and beholding his 
doxy, poured forth his sorrows, attributing his mishap to the 
woman. Enquiring further, she learnt the cause of his agita- 
tion and became bitterly aware that she was to be cast out. 
' Put away that notion,' quoth she to cheer him up, * and t 
will get the better of the bishop.' 

On the morrow as the bishop was hastening to his [the 
vicar's] church, she met him on the way laden with pudding, 1 
chickens and eggs, and, on his drawing near, she saluted him 
reverently with bowed head. When the prelate enquired 
whence she came and whither she was going, she replied : 
* My lord, I am the vicar's concubine, and I am hastening to MS. 
the bishop's sweetheart, who was lately brought to bed, and 
I wish to be as much comfort to her as I can.' This pricked 
his conscience ; straightway he resumed his progress to the 
church, and, meeting the vicar, desired him to prepare for 
celebrating. The other reminded him of his suspension, and 
he [the bishop] stretched out his hand and gave him absolu- 
tion. The sacrament having been performed, the bishop 
hastened away from the place without another word. 2 

About this time there departed this life a certain prebendary 
of Howden church named John, a man of honourable life, 

1 Pulta = broth, pap or porridge, seems to have been used in the plural just as 
' porridge ' and ' brose ' are so used in Lowland Scots at this day. 

2 Quasi mutus. 

3 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

passing his days modestly and without ostentation, skilled in 
astrology, given to hospitality and works of mercy. He began 
[to build] a new choir to the church at his own expense, and 
foretold that the rest should be finished after his death ; which 
[saying] we [now] perceive more clearly in the light ; for, 
having been buried in a stately tomb in the middle of the choir 
itself, he is revered as a saint, and we have beheld, not only 
in the choir, but the wide and elaborate nave of the church 
completed through the oblations of people resorting [thither]. 

In the same church there lived at that time another master, 
called Richard of Barneby, a true and pure man, who, having 
surrendered his private means, was residing at Gisburn in 
return for his money. 1 He was formerly well known in the 
kingdom of Scotland as a cleric of the religious community of 
Kelso. On leaving that kingdom he commended his nephew, 
who is still living, to Sir Patrick Edgar, knight, for education and 
service. After a lapse of years, at the above-mentioned time, he 
ended his life in a fatal manner, when his nephew in Scotland, 
[feeling] his bed shaken, was putting on [his] garments or shoes. 
And behold, a bird of the size of a dove, but differing in 
appearance by its variety of colour, entered by the chimney of 
the house and attacked the said youth with its wings, striking 
him with so much noise, that the people in the kitchen wondered 
at the sound of blows, and the lad [thus] belaboured sat still 
as though stunned. This [the bird] did thrice, retiring each 
time to the beams of the roof. After about the space of a 

1 Perhendebaty a verb form from perendinus, the day after to-morrow. 

There was a canonry at Gisburn, in Yorkshire, valued, says Matthew Paris, 
'at 628 poundes yearlye.' 

4 



LANERCOST 

month had elapsed, the youth went *on business to Kelso, and 
on drawing near, heard all the bells of the monastery sounding. 
Entering within the walls, he asked what was the cause of 
bell-ringing. * Do you not know,' they said, * that your uncle, 
our clerk, has died at Gisburn, on such and such a day and 
hour ? The abbot received the news yesterday, and to-day is 
commemorating him.' 

What lesson such an apparition was intended to convey, let 
him who readeth explain. 

In the same year Richard King of Germany died. 

In the same year died the Earl of Cornwall, brother of 
King Henry of England. 1 

In the same year Friar Robert of Kilwardby, of the Order 
of Preachers, was consecrated Afl&bishop ojCanterbury. 

Boniface Archbishop of Canterbury died, and in his place was 
elected the Prior of Holy Trinity ; but on coming before the 
Sacred College his election was quashed, and his dignity 
conferred by the Pope upon Robert of Kilwardby, 
Prior Provincial of Preaching Friars in England. This person, 
a man of honourable life, a doctor of divinity, devoted to the 
study of God's Word, ruled and corrected the clergy as firmly 
as the laity, as his treatise on heresy and his condemnation of 
Oxford show by themselves. 2 

1 These two entries refer to one and the same person, viz. Richard, Earl of 
Cornwall, brother of Henry III., elected King of the Romans by four out of 
seven electors in 1257 ; but the minority having elected Alphonso X. of Castile, 
Richard failed to establish his authority, and returned to England in 1260. 

2 Excellent work, no doubt ; but it had been better if, when appointed 
Cardinal-Bishop of Porto and Santa- Rufina in 1278, he had not removed all the 
registers and political records of Canterbury to Italy, whence they never returned. 

5 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

Also at this time King Henry of England, devout servant of 
God and the Church, departed from this world, on the feast day 
of Saint Edmund, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1 after he had ruled 
over England fifty-six years and four months. He was buried 
at Westminster, and the absence of his son 2 caused the corona- 
tion to be deferred. 

In the time of this Henry a boy named Hugh was crucified in 
Lincoln by impious Jews, in derision of Christ and Christians, 
nor were they able to conceal him by any device. 

Now in the beginning of King Henry's reign, Louis, son of 
the King of France, invaded England with Frenchmen at the 
instigation of some people of the country, as has been aforesaid ; 
but afterwards intestinal war broke out at Lincoln between the 
English and French, where the French were beaten and Thomas 
Count of Perch was slain with many others. But the son of the 
King of France narrowly escaped in great terror, wherefore after 
his escape some Frenchman composed this rhyme : 

' Enthroned in La Rochelle, our king never quails 
Before Englishmen armed, for he broke all their tails.' 3 

To which an Englishman replied thus : 

' Lincoln can tell and the French King bewails 
How the rope bound his people to Englishmen's tails.' 4 

This King Henry in his youth, at the instigation of Peter, 
Count of Brittany, crossed the channel to Brittany to recover the 

1 zoth November, 1272. 2 On the last Crusade. 

3 Rex in Rupella regnat, et amodo Bella 

Non t'tmet Anglorum, quia caudas fregit eorum. 
The taunt of Angl'i caudati is ancient and well known. 

4 Ad nostras caudas Francos, ductos ut alaudas, 
Perstrinxit restis superest Lincolnia testis. 

6 



LANERCOST 

territory owned and lost by his predecessors ; but failing 
altogether of success in his undertaking, returned [home] luckless 
and empty-handed. 

In truth, whereas diligence in evil seldom has a good issue, it 
pleases one to relate an instance rather for the sake of justice 
than from ill-will to an individual. Queen Margaret of Scotland, 
deeply distressed by her various trials, chiefly by the death of her 
father 1 and by anxiety about the return of her brother, 2 went 
forth one beautiful evening after supper from Kinclavin to take 
the air on the banks of the Tay, accompanied by esquires and 
maidens, but in particular by her confessor, who related to me 
what took place. There was present among others a certain 
pompous esquire with his page, who had been recommended to 
him by his brother in the presence of his superiors. And as they 
were sitting under the brow of the bank, he [the esquire] went 
down to wash his hands, which he had soiled with clay in playing. 
As he stood thus bending over, one of the maids, prompted by 
the Queen, went up secretly and pushed him into the river-bed. 

* What care I ? ' cried he, enjoying the joke and taking it 
kindly, * even were I further in, I know how to swim.' 

Wading about thus in the channel, while the others applauded, 
he felt his body unexpectedly sucked into an eddy, and, though 
he shouted for help, there was none who would go to him except 
his little page-boy who was playing near at hand, and, hearing 
the clamour of the bystanders, rushed into the deep, and both 
were swallowed up in a moment before the eyes of all. Thus 
did the enemy of Simon and satellite of Satan, who declared that 
he had been the cause of that gallant knight's destruction, perish 

1 Henry HI. 2 Edward I. who was on his journey home from the Crusade. 

7 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

in sight of all ; and the matron, led away unduly by affection 
MS. for her parents, 1 received rebuke for her selfish love, and showed 
herself before all men wounded to the heart by overpowering 
anguish. 

FROM THE BEGINNING OF THE WORLD 6470 YEARS. 

In beginning the eighth part of our work and, as it were, the 

peace of our age with a new king, I deem it meet to put this 

foremost in our desires, that, as the renewer of the old Adam, 

seated in the paternal throne, said ' Behold, I make all 

things new, so he (the king) may induce new growth of 

virtues [to spring] in the Church, and that new joys may be 

bestowed upon us through the king and in time following, 

whereof now we have undertaken to treat. 

Accordingly, messengers were sent to the Council assembled, 
as aforesaid at Lyons, whereat the heir of England attended, 
urging him to return to his country and restore the condition 
of the desolate realm. Returning accordingly to England in the 
same year, being thirty-five years and two months of age, he 
was received in most honourable manner by the whole nation, 
[and] was solemnly anointed and crowned on the I4th of the 
kalends of September 2 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Brother 
Robert of Kilwardby. The nobles of the land attended the 
ceremony with a countless multitude, redoubling the display of 
their magnificence in honour of the new king. But my lord 
Alexander King of Scotland, who attended with his consort and 

1 Or spoilt by the undue affection of her parents \nimis affectu parentum seductd\. 
The construction of the last paragraph and the moral are alike obscure. 

2 i gth August, 1274. 

8 



LANERCOST 

a train of his nobility, exceeded all others in lavish hospitality 
and gifts. 

Before the date of this coronation, Robert of Stichell, Bishop 
of Durham, died on his return journey from the Council, about 
two days' journey on this side of Lyons. He had besought 
from the Pope letters and license for his resignation, [because] 
he disliked to be mixed up in worldly trouble. In dying, 
however, he suffered the greatest remorse of conscience because 
he had deprived the burgesses of Durham city of liberty of 
pasture, and bestowed it upon those who needed nothing. 
Therefore in proof of penitence and in token of his desire for 
reconciliation with St. Cuthbert, he gave his ring to his confessor 
to be carried to the shrine of the saint, vowing that, should he 
recover health, he would annul that gift. 

In this year Margaret, Queen of Scotland and sister of the 
King of England, died on the fourth of the kalends of March. 1 
She was a woman of great beauty, chastity, and humility three 
[qualities] seldom united in one individual. When her strength 
was failing many abbots as well as bishops collected to visit 
her, to all of whom she refused entrance to her chamber; nor 
from the time that she had received all the sacraments from her 
confessor, a Minorite Friar, until her soul passed away, did 
she admit any other to discourse, unless perhaps her husband 
happened to be present. She left behind her three children 
Alexander and David and a daughter Margaret, all of whom 
followed their mother in a short time, owing, it is believed, to 
the sin of their father. 

1 Feb. 27, 1274, or, according to our reckoning 1275 ; but in the Calendar 
then prevailing in Britain the year began on 25 March. 

9 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

Richard of Inverkeithing, Bishop of Dunkeld, departed from 
the world, treacherously poisoned, as is affirmed, and it is 
believed by many that the aforesaid Queen [perished] 
in the same manner. For, after the death of the 
aforesaid man, a certain [fellow] author of this plot, 1 drawing 
near to death, declared that he had sold poison in this place 
and that, and that a full bottle thereof still remained in Scotland. 
And seeing that the movables of bishops dying in that kingdom 
devolve upon the king, he [the Bishop of Dunkeld] only and 
one other named Robert de la Provender, Bishop of Dublin, 
whom we remember above all others, so made a virtue of 
necessity at the point of death by distributing their goods, that 
they left scarcely anything to satisfy the cupidity of royal 
personages. 

About the same time in England there lived in Hartlepool 
William Bishop of Orkney, an honourable man and a lover of 
letters, who related many wonderful things about the islands 
subject to Norway, whereof I here insert a few lest they should 
be forgotten. He said that in some place in Iceland the sea burns 
for the space of one mile, leaving behind it black and filthy 
ashes. In another place fire bursts from the earth at a fixed 
time every seven or five years and without warning burns 
towns and all their contents, and can neither be extinguished 
nor driven off except by holy water consecrated by the hand of 
I a priest. And, what is still more wonderful, he said that they 
can hear plainly in that fire the cries of souls tormented therein. 

In the same year there [fell] a general plague upon the whole 
stock of sheep in England. 

1 Hujus confectionis. 
10 



LANERCOST 

In this year, on the seventh day of the month of October, 
the King of Scotland's fleet steered into the port of Ronalds- 
way. Straightway Lord John de Vesci and the king's chief 
men with their forces, landed on Saint Michael's Isle, 1 the 
Manxmen being arrayed for war under Godred the son of 
Magnus, whom shortly before they had made their king. But 
the nobles and chieftains of the King of Scotland sent to treat 
for peace with Godred and the people of Man, offering them 
the peace of God and of the King of Scotland, provided they 
would desist from their most foolish presumption and submit 
in future to the king and his chief men. But as Godred and 
certain of his perverse counsellors would not agree to the 
treaty of peace, on the following day before sunrise, when 
the shades were still upon the land and the minds of foolish 
men were darkened, a conflict took place and the wretched 
Manxmen, turning their backs, were terribly routed. 

Pope Gregory died and was succeeded by Innocent the Fifth, 
a native of Burgundy, whose previous name was Peter of 
Taranto, of the Order of Preachers. He was formerly 
Doctor in Holy Writ, then Archbishop of Lyons, and 
afterwards Cardinal of Ostia. He sat but for five months and 
two days and the seat was vacant for eighteen days. To him 
succeeded Adrian the Fifth, and sat for one month and nine days. 
He suspended the constitution of my lord Gregory regarding the 
election 2 of Cardinals, intending to substitute another. After 

1 Near Castletown, Isle of Man. S. Michael, having been set to guard the gate 
of Eden after the expulsion of Adam, is commonly the patron of extra-mural 
churches and of islands, such as Mont-Saint-Michel and S. Michael's Mount. 

2 De incluslone. 

ii 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

him in the same year John the Twenty-first was elected, formerly 
called Peter the Spaniard. He sat for eight months and one 
day, and the seat was vacant for twenty-eight days. Through 
want of attention he altogether destroyed the constitution which 
his predecessor had suspended. Expecting greatly to prolong 
MS. his life, for he excelled in skill as a physician, he caused a 
new vault to be built at Viterbo, supported by a single column. 
In this [vault] when it fell, whether by treachery, as some say, 
or by accident, he alone was crushed, and, having received the 
sacraments, he survived for six days ; and, albeit he was a 
physician, he did not heal himself. 

There lived in Rome about this time a certain very rich 
man, notoriously a usurer, who, although often admonished for 
his sin, died at length excommunicate. His friends having 
assembled, preparation was made for his sepulture, and, in 
accordance with the customs of his country, he was placed 
on an open bier adorned with all his garments, and carried to 
the place of the Minorite Friars in the Capitol, the Church 
of S. Maria in the Ara Coeli, which used to be the chamber 
of Octavian, to be buried there. The Rector of the Friars 
there would not permit the wrong to be done of burying 
a vessel of Satan, a person excommunicated by the Pope, 
within the sacred walls ; [so] his [the dead man's] insolent 
friends [and] poor dependents forced the priest to the altar, 
so that he should begin the mass by their command, [while] 
they opened the pavement of the church to dig a grave. 
And lo ! an enormous parti-coloured wolf appeared at the 
door of the church, and, showing no fear of so great a 
gathering, seized the corpse in the presence of them all, and 

12 



LANERCOST 

carried it out of the church without hindrance from anybody ; 
nor is it known to this day what became of a hair of its 
head. 1 This was reported by one who was present in the 
church at the time. 

Nicholas the Third, who was previously called John of 
Gaeta, a Roman by birth, was created Pope and sat for 
four years. He was so devoted to the blessed 
Francis that he caused to be painted above the 
altar in his chapel Saint Nicholas drawing him to heaven 
and St. Francis pushing him from behind. Also he caused 
the general chapter of the brethren of Assisi to be sum- 
moned to his presence in Rome by the Cardinal Legate, 
whereat he [the Pope] personally attended. Besides this he 
issued a famous bull, expounding the rule of Saint Francis 
[a bull] so glorious as would [have] amazed all previous ages. 

At this time Robert de Coquina 2 was created Bishop of 
Durham, being a monk of that house. 

Also, Philip King of the French marched with a picked 
army against Spain, no doubt for the following reason. The 
eldest son of the King of Spain 3 had married the King of 
France's sister [Blanche], and, having had two sons by her, 
was carried off by an early death before his father. That 
father, utterly unmindful of [his] dead [son] endeavoured to 
supplant the sons of the defunct [prince] by putting forward 

1 Quo vel capillus capitis devenerit: an idiomatic phrase which I do not 
recognise. 

2 History repeats itself: the present Dean of Durham is the Very Rev. G. 
W. Kitchin, D.D. 

3 Ferdinand, son of Alfonso X. of Castile, killed in battle with the Moors, 
1275. 

13 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

the surviving brother. When the King of Aragon became 
aware of this, he had the boys brought [to him] and took 
care of them in one castle, while his mother passed the 
time with [her brother] the King of France. Roused by this 
[proceeding], the King of Castile (who is the principal lord 
of Spain) determined to break into the castle where the boys 
were guarded. [The King of France] having advanced in 
this manner with an immense army three days march into 
Spain to the aid of the King of Aragon and the boys, [his 
people] could find nothing to sustain life, [so they] returned 
within their frontier. 1 ,/ 

I shall insert here as a joke a certain anecdote made 
known to me by Sir Robert of Roberstone, one of the King 
of Scotland's knights, which at my request he related before 
many trustworthy persons. The said noble gentleman owned 
a town in Annandale, in the diocese of Glasgow, which he 
let in farm to the inhabitants thereof. 

These people, waxing lewd through their wealth and giving 
way to wantonness, on leaving the tavern, used to violate each 
other's wives or seduce each other's daughters, and by such 
practice would frequently replenish the archdeacon's purse, and, 
by repeating the offence, they were almost continually upon his 
roll. But when the landlord required the rent of his farm, they 
either pled poverty or besought delay.* That kindly and just 
man said to them 'Why should you not pay me my annual 
rent, any less than my other tenants ? If [the land] is let to 
you at too dear a rent, I can reduce it ; if you are unable to 
cultivate it, give it back to me.' 

1 Ora concluil. 



LANERCOST 

' No, my lord,' quoth a comical fellow among them with a 
loud laugh, * none of these things which you mention is really 
the cause ; but our incontinence is so great, and it exhausts 
us so much, that it re-acts both upon us and upon you, 
our lord.' 

Thereupon the landlord said ' I make this law among you, 
that any man who commits adultery shall relinquish my land 
forthwith.' 

Taking alarm at this and deterred by the penalty, they 
refrained from illicit intercourse, applied themselves to labour and 
agriculture and began to make money unexpectedly, although 
day by day their names disappeared from the Archdeacon's list. 1 
And when he [the. Archdeacon] enquired one day why he did not 
find the men of that village [entered] in his list, it was explained 
to him what the landlord had laid down as a law for them. 
He was indignant at this, and, meeting the knight upon 
the road one day, exclaimed with a haughty countenance 
' Pray, Sir Robert, who has appointed you either Archdeacon 
or official ? ' 

Sir Robert denied [that he was either one or other], whereupon 
the Archdeacon replied * Undoubtedly you exercise that office 
when you coerce your tenants by penal laws.' ' I made a rule 
about my lands, not about offences,' said Sir Robert ; ' but you 
absorbed the rents of my farms [in exactions] for the discharge 
of crimes. I perceive that so long as you can fill your purse, it 
does not concern you who gets the souls ! * 

1 In rotulo Officialis, i.e. the Archdeacon in his capacity as episcopal judge in 
the consistorial court, the nature of which office is explained in the preface 
to Liber Officialis S. Andrce, published by the Abbotsford Club in 1845. 

15 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

After this the assessor of crimes and lover of transgressors held 
his peace. 1 

At this time began the first war in Wales by King Edward, 
with whom Llewellyn made peace, having paid the king 50,000 
pounds of silver. 
u A scutage was again imposed in England. 

Brother Robert [of Kilwardby] my lord Archbishop of 
Canterbury, having been summoned to the Curia, 
there to be made a cardinal, Friar John of Peckham, 
Provincial Minister of the Minorite Friars of England, who, 
after [occupying] the chair of Paris and Oxford, where he pre- 
sided in the faculty of Theology de Quolibet, was summoned 
to the Curia and exalted the reputation of the science of 
divinity and of his own Order ; and, after a couple of years of 
controversy which he sustained mostly every day against sundry 
heretics, dissipating their arguments and answers, he was pro- 
claimed Archbishop of Canterbury by Pope Nicholas in a public 
oration on [the day of] the Conversion of Saint Paul, 2 having 
been previously appointed. How humbly, sincerely, and indus- 
triously he afterwards discharged that office, tongues do testify 
and consciences applaud. 

Also in this year Robert Wishart, Bishop of Glasgow, effectus ; 3 
he survives in health to the present time. But in October 

MS. Robert de Chalize, Bishop of Carlisle, died ; [he was] eager for 
fo. 191 

1 It is significant of the condition of the church at this time, that a story like 
this should be repeated as a joke causa ludi not by a layman, but by a cleric. 

2 25th January, 1278-9. 

3 The meaning of effectus is obscure. He was made Bishop of Glasgow in 1271 
and died in 1316. Either the chronicler has mistaken the year, or the word 
should be affectus, i.e. sick. 



LANERCOST 

the honour of God, philanthropic and ready in Urbanity ; the 
world may testify without our assurance how bountiful and 
liberal he was. He used often to relate, in reproach of himself, 
what at this day may often be repeated in rebuke of others. 

1 1 used to be,' said he, ' physician in ordinary to the Lady 
Eleonora, mother of the king, and another cleric, whose affection 
was dear to me, served as notary. It came to pass that our 
noble mistress, wishing to reward [our] services, bestowed upon 
me a benefice of one hundred marks and upon him one of thirty 
marks a year. Having been promoted, impelled by conscience, 
he soon determined to serve God exclusively, and, having 
obtained license and left the court, applied himself entirely to 
the cure of the souls committed to him. I [however], bound 
down by habit, adhered to the vanity which I had undertaken. 
As years went by a longing stirred me for the absent one that 
I might enjoy the sight and conversation of him whom I bore in 
my mind, and, having obtained leave, I started to go to him, and 
found him on the Lord's day performing the dominical office in 
the church. He was astonished [to see] me ; I embraced him, 
and the affairs of God having been performed, we proceeded 
to his dwelling to refresh our bodies. While we rested and 
rejoiced, there came to us some who brought the offerings of the 
neighbours, and he, for my pleasure, added to the delicacy of the 
dishes. And as we left the table I asked this man how he was 
able to live upon such an income. " Perfectly," quoth he, " and 
every day as you have seen to-day ; I am neither embarrassed 
by debts, nor am I diverted from ruling [my] parish." " Your 
income," said I, " is a very modest one, but mine is ample ; and 
in the court of my mistress I am maintained in her general 
B 17 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

expenses, nor do I profit at all from the fruits of my church." 
To which the other replied piously, with a bland smile 1 " Do 
you know that God is a faithful friend ? " " Undoubtedly," said 
I, " I understand [that]." " This is the character of a faithful and 
true friend," he replied, " that he is all in all to him who loves 
him truly. Wherefore, as I think, God is with me because I 
give myself up to perform his service ; but it is otherwise with 
you, so he is not with you." 1 

To him [Bishop Robert] succeeded Ralph, Prior of Gisburn, 
a shrewd and provident person, but somewhat covetous, who 
turned the visitation of the churches into a whirlpool of 
exactions, and extorted from honest priests at their anniversaries 
throughout his diocese an unfair tax for building the roof of the 
principal church of his see. 

At this time the coinage was changed ; pennies and farthings 
were made round, and Jews were hanged for clipping coins. 
In the same year Robert, Lord Bishop of Carlisle, lost the 
presentation to the church of Rothbury. 

In the same [year], on the morrow of All Souls, the Itinerant 
Justiciaries sat in Carlisle to wit, Sir John de Vallibus, 2 Sir John 
de Metyngham, Sir William de Seaham, and Master Thomas de 
Suttrington. 

In the same [year], on the day of S. Lucia Virgin, 3 the canons 
of Carlisle elected as bishop Master William de Rothelfeld, Dean 
of York, who utterly declined [to take] office ; wherefore on the 
following day they elected as bishop my lord Ralph, Prior of 

1 Caste subridens et catholics respondent. 

2 Vaus, which, by an ancient clerical error, is now written Vans. 

3 1 3th December. 

18 



LANERCOST 

Gisburne. To which the king would not give assent, being 
angry with the Prior and Chapter of Carlisle because they had 
twice elected without license ; wherefore my lord Ralph betook 
himself to the Roman Court. 

Walter, Archbishop of York died, an elegant cleric, chaste, 
sociable and free handed, but fretful and feeble because of 
his corpulence. To him succeeded William of Wyke- 
ham, 1 who, on the contrary, was lean, harsh and 
niggardly, but certainly so far as could be known out of 
doors, just in judgment and most tender of conscience. For, 
as I shall set forth later, according to the rules set by the 
holy fathers, it is held and ordained that diocesans and their 
monks shall be visited by the metropolitan. Concerning which 
matter Walter, his [Wykeham's] predecessor twice informed him 
who presided over that church of his coming ; but, when he was 
proceeding on his perambulation, the Prior of Durham cunningly 
inveigled him out of the city to his own lodgings, [where] 
he might divert him from his purpose by more sumptuous fare 
and by oblations. On arriving there he [Bishop Walter] did 
not yield to the stratagem, but performed the ordinary 
visitation, so that if they had anything to plead for them- 
selves or anything upon their conscience to be lightened, they 
should not delay putting it before him. But as they 
responded neither in law nor prudence, but closed the 
windows of the church and even shut the public gates of 
the city [against him], he set a chair for himself in the open 
space before the gates, in official vestments addressed the 
populace with words of life, and, explaining the object of his 

J Not the famous founder of Winchester College, who was not born till 1324. 

'9 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

coming and pronounced sentence of excommunication upon the 
rebels. This gave rise to troubles, lawsuits and expenses which 
are not yet settled, even in the days of his successor. 

At this time there died l at Morebattle William Wishart, Bishop 
of S. Andrew's, and was buried at his see ; to whom succeeded 
William Fraser, king's chancellor also, who still survives. 

In the same year died Walter Giffard, Archbishop of York, 
of good memory ; and in the same year Oliver was consecrated 
Bishop of Lincoln on S. Dunstan's day. 2 

Item a great fire at S. Botolph's at fair time. 

Item in the aforesaid year began the second war in Wales by 
Llewellyn and his brother David. 

At midsummer there took place the burning of Norwich 
Cathedral, and nearly all the convent, from the following cause. 

While we consider how poverty is the guardian of 
A.D. 1280. ..... ,, . _ . 

holiness, it is equally certain that affluence is the 

mother of insolence, and that, as Daniel prophesied of Anti- 
christ, of all things wealth destroys most men. Accordingly the 
monks [of Norwich], enriched by their possessions, and puffed 
up in spirit, deposed their prior, a virtuous, but aged, man, and 
elected a haughty youth, who forthwith multiplied for himself 
stables and carriages, not even denying himself a lodging for his 
whore within the walls of the convent, after the example of 
infatuated Solomon. And, forasmuch as deep calleth unto 
deep, and sin leads on to further sinning, so this presumptuous 
prior infringed the liberties of the burgesses in the matter of 

l Recessit e seculo. 

2 2 ist October. This is one of the duplicate passages tending to show that 
the chronicle was compiled from several sources. 

20 



LANERCOST 

their property and pasture. The community being roused 
[thereby], there followed waste of money, wrath of minds and 
strife of words. It grew at length to this, that they prepared to 
fight against each other, and, while the Prior's men in the church 
tower had prepared Greek fire to discharge upon the town, and MS. 

fo. I Q I 

those on the other side were striving to set fire to the abbey 
gates (strong as they were and richly wrought), those stationed 
within assembled to defend them, when a fire broke out which, 
being foolishly neglected, first consumed the bell-tower, and then 
the entire church with all its contents ; which notwithstanding 
they continued fighting fiercely outside and burning houses. 
Thus did the heedlessness of this rash Prior lead to the dishonour 
of the Creative Trinity, and later to the sacrifice in a horrible 
death of many citizens by royal justice. 

At this time the King of Norway died, leaving as successor 
his son called Magnus ; l who hearing that the King of Scotland 
had an amiable, beautiful and attractive 2 daughter, a virgin, of 
suitable age for himself (being a handsome youth of about 
eighteen years), could not rest until a formal mission, divines 
as well as nobles, had been sent twice to obtain her as his 
spouse in marriage and consort on the throne. But before I 
bring to an end the narrative of this marriage, let me relate to 
the praise of God and his servant, what was told by one of 
the emissaries about his king [to show] to what height human 
affection may be carried. 

The father of this king being deeply attached to the religion 
of S. Francis, encouraged the [Franciscan] brethren above all 
others, and interested himself diligently in their schools of sacred 
1 Eric II. (Magnusson). Morigerosam, cf. Lucretius, iv. 1277. 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

theology, where, also, he set up for himself a mausoleum. It 
happened that the Queen brought forth her first-born on the said 
saint's day, 1 to the shame rather than to the joy, of the realm, 
[for it] resembled more the offspring of a bear than a man, as it 
were a formless lump of flesh. When this was announced to the 
king, strong in faith, he said, ' Wrap it in clean linen and place 
it on the altar of S. Francis at the time of the celebration.' 

Which having been fulfilled, when they came at the end of 
the service to take away what they had placed there, they 
found a lovely boy crying, and joyfully returned thanks to 
God and to the saint. This [child] having grown up, sought 
the damsel in marriage, as aforesaid ; and, although the union 
was very distasteful to the maiden, as also to her relations 
and friends (seeing that she might wed elsewhere much more 
easily and honourably), yet it was at the sole instance of her 
father, the king, that the bargain was made that he should give 
her a dowry 1 7,000 merks, primarily for the contract of marriage, 
but secondarily for the redemption of the right to the Isles. 

On the morrow of S. Laurence 2 she embarked at . . . 3 
with much pomp and many servants, and after imminent peril 
to life which they ran on the night of the Assumption of the 
Holy Virgin, 4 at daybreak on the said festival they lowered 
their sails at Bergen. Shortly afterwards she was solemnly 
crowned and proclaimed before all men by a distinguished 
company of kinsmen. She comported herself so graciously 
towards the king and his people that she altered their manners 
for the better, taught them the French and English languages, 

1 1 6th July. 2 nth August; but the year was 1281 not 1280. 

3 Blank in MS. 4 i5th August. 

22 



LANERCOST 

and set the fashion of more seemly dress and food. He only had 
one daughter by her, who survived her mother but a short time. 

On the day before the nones of October 1 [occurred] the 
translation of the blessed Hugh Bishop of Lincoln, which 
translation Master Thomas de Bek was the means of obtaining 
and liberally discharged all expenses. On the same day he was 
consecrated Bishop of S. David's by Friar John of Peckham, 
of the Order of Minorites, Archbishop of Canterbury, in the 
presence of Edward King of England and his Queen. 

From the beginning of the world 6080 years, to wit, in 
the year of our Lord 1280, on S. Mark the Evangelist's 
day, 2 it was decided in the court of Irthington that an attach- 
ment upon the elemosynary land of the prior and convent of 
Lanercost was null and void. 

Item My lord Ralph came to England about Ascension 
Day, 3 consecrated as Bishop of Carlisle by the Roman 
Court. In the same year, on Thursday the ninth of the calends 
of November, 4 a convocation was held by my lord Bishop Ralph 
in the principal church of Carlisle, and there was granted to 
him by the clergy a tithe of the churches for two years accord- 
ing to their actual value, to be paid in the new money within 
a year, wherefore we paid him in all twenty-four pounds. 
Wherefore H 5 said as follows about that transaction : 

' Poor sheep j bereft of ghostly father; 
Should not be shorn ; but pampered rather. 



1 6th October. 2 251)1 April. 3 3oth May. 4 24th October. 

5 Perhaps the chronicler himself. Dr. James Wilson identifies this Brother H. 
with Henry de Burgo, who became Prior of Lanercost in 1310. Verses cease 
to appear in the chronicle after 1315, the year of Prior Henry's death. 

23 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

Poor sheep ! with cares already worn, 
You should be comforted; not shorn. 
But if the shepherd must have wool, 
He should be tender, just and cool.' l 

In the same year my lord . . . 2 received the canonical dress, 
on the day of St. Agapitus Martyr. 3 

In the same year, on the third of the Ides of September 4 my 
lord Edward King of England and Queen Eleanor came to Laner- 
cost, and the prior and convent met them at the gate in their capes. 5 
Item, the king presented a silken robe, and the king in his hunting 
took, as was said, two hundred stags and hinds in Inglewood. 

At that time some box of a certain page was broken [into], 
whereat H. said as follows: 

'A pilfered chest yields shameful booty, 
The thief, when caught, must learn his duty ; 
Ill-gotten gains return no profit, 
Who steals his wealth makes nothing of it.' 6 

About the same time a certain young fellow was killed, about 
whom H. said : 

'William, poor fellow, has proved by his fate, 
He is wanting in prudence who stays out too late.' 7 



1 Grex desolatus, pastor e dlu viduatus, 
Sic cito fonder e, non indiget, immof overt ; 
Grex desolatus t nimis hactenus extenuatus, 
Jam com/or tairi debet t non excoriari. 
Sed si pastor oves habeat tender e necesse, 
'Debet ei pietas, modus et moderamem inesse. 
2 Blank in MS. 3 i8th August. 4 nth September. 

6 Res, cista fracta, surreptafuit male nacta; 
Juste surreptus fuerat male census adeptus; 
Finiturfoeda prave saepissime praeda ; 
Raro dives erit thesaurum qui male quaerit. 

7 Garcifer occisus Willelmus testificatur 

Quod non est sapiens nimium qui nocte vagatur. 
24 



5 In Caff is. 



LANERCOST 

In the same year, on Sunday, the eleventh of the Kalends 
of April, 1 Ralph, Lord Bishop of Carlisle, first came to Laner- 
cost on a visitation, and the monks met him in the manner 
described above for the king, and afterwards he gave [them] 
benediction, and received all the brethren to the kiss of peace, 
and after his hand had first been kissed, he gave them a kiss 
on the lips ; and having himself entered the chapter house, 
he preached, saying * Behold I myself shall require.' The 
preaching being finished, he proceeded with his visitation, in 
which we were compelled to accept new constitutions. 

Martin the Fourth, a native of Touraine, succeeded to Pope 

Nicholas, and sat for four years. In his time, Peter, 

. A ' D - 1281. 

King of Aragon, took Sicily, having expelled Charles, 

and held it against all the power of the Pope and of the King 
of France, a crusade made against him taking little effect. 

This [Pope] was named Simon, and was sent as special legate 
to France, but particularly to Paris, to allay discord among the 

scholars ; for Satan had sown among them something of a Ms - 

. fo. I 9 
schism, and every nation was striving for the highest place in 

the university. The legate having arrived and hearkened to the 
controversy, promulgated the law that the English had priority 
in that university ; for, said he, Baeda went to Rome, and, 
coming to Paris, held classes before anybody else, founding 
sacred theology upon the gospel of S. John, and, by first teaching 
regularly, opened the way to all other sciences after him. 2 

He [the Pope], being under vows to S. Francis, on the 

1 22nd March. 

2 The Legate's ruling may have been right, but his argument was wrong, for 
Bede himself tells us that he never was out of England. 

25 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

feast of Pentecost, without any suggestion (unless it were that 
of the Holy Ghost), decreed and bestowed upon [the Franciscans] 
by his plenary power the privilege of preaching the word of 
God, and hearing the confessions of all and sundry, not without 
[exciting] the wonder of many and the indignation of great 
persons. For at that time the friars in various provinces had 
been prohibited by twenty-one bishops from the exercise of the 
aforesaid [offices]. When he was dying he directed that he 
should be buried at the feet of S. Francis ; nevertheless, contrary 
to his wishes, he was interred at Viterbo. 

At this time the King of England, intending to hunt in parts 
of Westmorland, prepared to set out for Gascony [provisioned] 
with all kinds of game, because Gaston de Biern, once loyal, 
but now a rebel, drawing back from his allegiance. In a short 
time he forced them [to desist] from their rash purpose, and 
returned home. 1 

It happened in the same year that two Minorite Friars of the 
convent of Dumfries were travelling the country of Annandale 
to preach at the holy Nativity of the Lord. 2 Howbeit, there 
was near where they passed the steward of a certain church and 
overseer of the rector's glebe, who, being oppressed with 
infirmity, felt obliged to make confession, but, intending not to 
do so honestly, concealed twenty gold pieces 3 which he had 

1 This passage must have been misplaced by the compiler. King Edward did 
not go to Gascony in 1281, and the reference is probably to his expedition in 
1 286-89, though the facts are very inaccurately stated. 

2 Christmas. 

3 Solidos. The term in late Roman coinage denoted a gold piece, the older 
aureus ; but in this place it may have signified * shillings.' 

26 



LANERCOST 

embezzled from his master. Having received from his master 
the rector instructions to prepare the house for his coming, the 
sick man quitted the hall wherein he had lain until that 
time, and moved into a wattled barn, where a single girl 
ministered to the needs of his ailment. But one of these nights 
when these [two] were resting apart, jthere came some satellites 
of Satan, who entered the house about cock-crow, lit a fire, 
placed upon it a cauldron, and poured in water to heat it. A 
little afterwards two of these devils were sent to the bed of the 
sick man, lifted him out, soused him in the boiling water, 1 and 
then bound him dripping to the cross-beam of the house, tearing 
him with their nails, and jeering at him! with 'Take that 
for the twenty pieces of gold.' This was done three times in 
succession, the woman all the time witnessing the punishment 
and listening to the accusation. Having perpetrated the cruelty 
which God permitted, his tormentors carried the wretched man 
back to bed. Then one of them exclaimed ' What shall be 
done to that woman lying there ? ' To whom the leader replied, 
* That water is not suitable for her. She is the priest's whore, 
and hotter water will suit her better.' 2 

When he said this, they all departed ; and the woman went 
to the sick man, and asked with trembling how he was, who 
answered her ' You beheld my torments ; need you ask how I 
am ? but, for the fear of God, let a priest come to me, and 
seek safety for yourself.' 

Therefore when it was light she went a distance of five miles 

1 Lixa aqua. 

2 The meaning seems to be that devils are afraid of hot water, as explained 
by one of them in an episode described in the Chronicle, ad ann. 1257- 

27 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

to Annan, where, having confessed herself, she found plenty of 
hot water. 

In this year Sir John of Newcastle took the monk's dress at 
Holmcultram, upon which H. observed : 

'With altered habit, habits too must alter, 
Much need that John with sin no more should palter. 
Unless to mend his ways he doth not fail, 
White gown and snowy cowl will nought avail.' 1 

In the same year Sir Nicholas of Carlisle was sent to reside 
at Gisburn, and became a monk there. 

The Friars of the Cross who inhabit the land of Robert de 
Chartersborough, and raise pleasant buildings there, 
having carried architectural work 2 through the middle 
of the church, were preparing for themselves a lower choir, 
where lies the body of that just man, leaving the lower part 
to pilgrims, [who come] thither in order to perform vigils and 
burn candles. The spirit of the just man resented this and a 
tremendous flood, such as no man there remembers, carried 
the waters of the Nidd into the upper part and the middle of 
the church, destroying the vaulted work in the night, and [the 
spirit of the just man, Robert] allowed [the friars] to stand 
together, not as his masters but as his comrades, on the pave- 
ment which was raised only a little [above the flood]. 3 

1 Mutatis pannis mutetur vita Johannis 
Ut melioretur et ei constantia detur. 
Si tibi sit pulla capa, forte, vel alba cuculla 
Et virtus nulla, merces tibi non datur ulla. 

2 Arvali opere in Dr. Stevenson's edition, which Mr. Neilson reasonably 
suggests is a misreading of arcuali. 

3 This passage is very obscure : but Mr. Neilson has elucidated it by revising 
the punctuation, and showing that aqua de Nith is not the Scottish Nith but 
the Yorkshire Nidd. 

28 



LANERCOST 

About the same time the rector of the church of Bothans 1 
in Lothian caused the woodwork of his choir to be carved 
during Lent, to the honour of S. Cuthbert, whose church it is 
and for the credit of the place. But when the work was finished, 
on the vigil of the Saint, 2 while the rector was worrying himself 
about how the scaffolding, made of huge, rough beams, which 
the workmen had erected on the ground, could be removed so 
that it should be no impediment to the celebration, one of the 
workmen went up and loosed the upper lashings so that the 
supports threatened to fall down. And while the artizan was 
at a loss how to get down, suddenly the whole scaffolding 
collapsed, carrying him with it. A great shout arose, for the 
men supposed that he was crushed [to death], seeing that he 
had fallen upon a stone pavement ; [but], on removing the 
beams they found the man not a bit the worse, even making 
fun of it with his rescuers. Thus did the Saint renew his 
ancient miracles [performed] at the time of his translation in 
the scaffolding of vaulted building. 

About this time, in Easter week, the parish priest of Inver- 
keithing, named John, revived the profane rites of Priapus, 
collecting young girls from the villages, and compelling them to 
dance in circles to [the honour of] Father Bacchus. When he 
had these females in a troop, out of sheer wantonness, he led 
the dance, carrying in front on a pole a representation of the 
human organs of reproduction, and singing and dancing himself 
like a mime, he viewed them all and stirred them to lust by 
filthy language. Those who held respectable matrimony in 
honour were scandalised by such a shameless performance, 

1 Abbey S. Bathans. 2 igth March. 

29 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

although they respected the parson because of the dignity of 
his rank. If anybody remonstrated kindly with him, he 
[the priest] became worse [than before], violently reviling 
him. 

And [whereas] the iniquity of some men manifestly brings 
them to justice, [so] in the same year, when his parishioners 
assembled according to custom in the church at dawn in 
Penance Week, at the hour of discipline he would insist that 
certain persons should prick with goads [others] stripped for 
penance. The burgesses, resenting the indignity inflicted 
upon them, turned upon its author ; who, while he as author 
was defending his nefarious work, fell the same night pierced 
by a knife, God thus awarding him what he deserved for his 
wickedness. 

In the same year Sir Hugh of Ireland obtained a license to 
enter stricter religion in his country ; but in the same year 
he suffered rejection because of discord between the Prior and 
the Convent. Wherefore H. remarked : 

' What profits it to leap and thus to fall ? 
No son of man prevails to conquer all. 
Better, sometimes, to halt than forward press ; 
Virtue may profit e'en from ill success. 
A change of scene proves often no bad leech ; 
One hankers less for what seems out of reach.' l 

In the same year Henry de Burgh was arrested at Durham 

1 Quid prodest facere saltum et sic resilire ? 
In nullo genere genus est quod circuit omne. 
Sed quando tantum est casus causa salutis ; 
Robur virtutis passum dat saepe gravamen. 
Est medicinalis mutatio saepe localis; 
Res minus optatur prope si non esse sciatur. 

3 



LANERCOST 

and confined for three days in the castle because of an execution 
which he had performed for the Archbishop of York, wherefore 
he wrote to Master R. Avenel as follows : 

* Robert ! if legates pass their way 
With privilege, as all men say, 
Then let me out this very day 
From prison walls wherein I stay. 
Cloisters, not towers like these, befit me, 
Thus prison rules the harder hit me ; 
Wherefore to pray your grace permit me, 
Command my jailors to demit me. 
God's House to all should aye be free 
To come and go. I cannot see 
Why I, who canon am professed, 
Should thus in person be oppressed ; 
The benefit we clergy boast of 
Is what at present I lack most of. 
Guiltless I languish in this cell. 
God help me ! Who dost all things well.' 

Hugh de Burgh 1 wrote thus to the Archbishop : 

* O Primate of York ! 'twas for you that I paid 
With my freedom in Durham. They did me upbraid, 
And maltreat my person. My servants departed 
And left me the victim of men evil-hearted. 
Three days I remained in that horrible tower, 
Forbidden to leave it, alone hour by hour. 
Holy Sire ! if you do not avenge such an outrage, 
Nor clergy nor brethren can brook it without rage. 
Thus study to rule us, upholding the law, 
Keeping good men in safety and rebels in awe.' 

In the same year Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, was captured in 
a skirmish and beheaded incontinently. 2 

1 Henry and Hugh must have been the same monk. 

2 He was slain in the field. 

31 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

On the day following the feast of S. Agnes, 1 the King of 
Scotland's son, Alexander, was taken from this world, 
being only twenty years of age, dying on his birthday, 
changing the rejoicing for his birth into lamentation for his 
death ; forasmuch as, had he lived, he would have been the 
light of his country and the joy of his kindred. He was 
carried off in Cupar-in-Fife by a lingering illness, with which 
he suffered a degree of mental aberration ; [but], coming to 
his senses late on Thursday evening, he foretold regarding his 
death, on the morrow at sunrise should set the sun of Scotland ; 
and for King Edward of England he said : ( My uncle shall 
fight three battles ; twice he will conquer ; in the third he will 
be overthrown.' These things I learnt from information of 
those who were with him when he died, whereof one was a 
knight and his tutor, the other was rector of the church and 
his priest. 

In like manner his sister, the Queen of Norway, took the 
way of death in the following month of February, only thirty 
days later, in order that God's long-suffering should by many 
afflictions soften to a proper [degree of] penitence 2 the heart of 
the father through whose wrong doing these things came to pass. 3 

In the unlucky course of that year, the Welsh nation, unable 
to pass their lives in peace, broke over their borders on Palm 
Sunday, carrying fire and sword among the people engaged in 

1 He died on 2 8th January. St. Agnes' day is the zist, which was his 
birthday. 

^Patientia, which Mr. Neilson suggests may be a misreading for penitentia. 

8 Certain clerics never wearied of imputing to Alexander III., the best king that 
the Scots ever had, responsibility for all the calamities which befel both his country 
and his family. 

3 2 



LANERCOST 

procession, and even laid siege [to some places] ; whose Prince 
Llewellyn, deceived (more's the pity !) by the advice of his 
brother David, fiercely attacked his lord the King ; as we read 
written about Christ, ' him whom I loved most hath set himself 
against me.' For the King had given his own niece, only 
daughter of the Earl of Montfort, a lady of noble birth 
[endowed] with the ample possessions of her father, in marriage 
to Llewellyn, by whom he had two sons. But David was 
so much in the king's confidence that he got himself appointed 
guardian of his [the King's] head in place of the great David 
ap Udachis. 1 And forasmuch as nothing is so deadly as 
an enemy within the household, he persuaded his brother 
to rebel, trusting after the act to conciliate the king by 
his [David's] proved devotion. Having therefore raised an 
army, the King went in person to Wales, accompanied by 
gallant men ; where, albeit at great expense and loss of men, 
he first occupied the land of Anglesey [which was] fertile, 
abounding in all good things. Which [island] he divided 
among English farmers, removing the Abbey of Aberconway 
and founding it elsewhere ; but in that place 2 because of its 
suitability he built a town, a castle and a spacious harbour, the 
ditch surrounding the castle with the tide. 

At this time the head of Llewellyn, who had been slain by 
the treachery of his own people, was sent to the King, although 
he would not have approved of this being done. 3 However, it 

1 Obscure. Stevenson's edition reads vice magni 'David apud achis, which is 
unintelligible. 

2 At the mouth of the Conway. 

3 The fate of Llewellyn ap Gruffudd has been briefly noted already ad ann. 
1282. 

c 33 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

was taken to the Tower of London, and fixed upon a stake. 
Arising out of these events, the King took proceedings against 
the traitor David ; for, having returned to Hereford, he 
intended to revisit the seat of his government, when fresh 
rumours reached him that the author of perfidy could not desist 
from adding to his iniquity. The King therefore resumed the 
campaign, and, determined to exterminate the whole people of 
that nation, he caused them to be beset by land and sea in the 
district of Snowdon with a great fleet, so that by famine he 
might crush those stoney hearts which relied upon [safety in] 
stones and rocks. 

MS. At length [David], having been conquered through privation, 
surrendered, and the King sent him forward to the Tower 
of London with wife and children ; and, having built Flint 
Castle, received the common people to mercy, having appointed 
his own bailiff's and [made] many new laws. He also 

^ possessed himself of the ancient and secret treasures of that 
people, [dating], as is believed, from the time of Arthur ; 
among which he found a most beautiful piece of the 
Holy Cross, carved into a portable cross, which was the 
glory of their dominion and [carried] the presage of their 
doom. Which [cross], it is said, Helena kept after the 
Invention as a special portion, and brought with her when 
she returned to Britain with her husband. The Welsh had 
been accustomed to call it, after the fashion of their own 
language, ' Crosnaith.' 

Thus the King returned from the said campaign about the 
Nativity of the Glorious Virgin, 1 bringing with him as proof of 

1 8th September. 
34 



LANERCOST 

his triumph the ensign of salvation of the human race ; and, 
with a great procession of nobles, bishops and clergy, brought 
that monument of our redemption to London to be adored 
by the citizens. 

David's children were condemned to perpetual imprisonment, 
but David himself was first drawn as a traitor, then hanged as 
a thief; thirdly, he was beheaded alive, and his entrails burnt 
as an incendiary and homicide ; fourthly, his limbs were cut 
into four parts as the penalty of a rebel, 1 and exposed in four 
of the ceremonial places in England as a spectacle ; to wit the 
right arm with a ring on the finger in York ; the left arm in 
Bristol ; the right leg and hip at Northampton ; the left [leg] 
at Hereford. But the villain's head was bound with iron, lest 
it should fall to pieces from putrefaction, and set conspicuously 
upon a long spear-shaft for the mockery of London. Just as 
the holy Jeremiah composed metrical dirges for the desolation 
of Judaea, so the Welsh nation composed a heroic elegy upon 
the death of their Prince and the desolation of their nation, 
at the end whereof they always commemorate David with 
curses, forasmuch as he was the author of this misfortune, 
whereon H. spoke these lines : 

' David of Wales, a thief and traitor, 
Slayer of men, of Church a hater, 
A fourfold criminal in life 
Now dies by horse, fire, rope and knife. 
The ruffian thus deprived of breath 
Most meetly dies by fourfold death.' 2 

1 Depellatoris, probably an error for debellatoris. 

2 David Walensif, equus, ignis, funis et ensis, 
Infelix, fatum ftbi dant reds et cruciatum. 
Es nece quadrifida -far, proditor ac homicida, 
Hostis et ecclesiae debes de jure perire. 
35 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

In the same year, John, Prior of Lanercost, resigned, for 
whom adequate provision was granted and confirmed under the 
seal of Bishop Ralph. 1 In the same year, on the morrow of the 
Assumption of the Blessed Mary, 2 Simon of Driffield was 
elected Prior. 

Item, in the same year, on the fifth of the Ides of January, 3 
William, Archbishop of York, was translated, whose translation 
was procured and the expenses thereof borne by Sir Antony Bek, 
who, in the same [year], was consecrated Bishop of Durham, in 
the presence of the King and chief men of the country. 

In the same year, Edward the Fifth, son of Edward the 
Fourth, was born at Carnarvon. 4 

At the feast of Holy Trinity, 5 Robert de Coquina, Bishop of 

Durham, died, and when he was about to be interred in the 

chapter house of that place, those who were making 

A.D. 1284. ... r i i 

the grave impinged upon the tomb or a bishop 
unknown to them, Turgot, who had been Prior of Durham, 
and afterwards Bishop of St. Andrews in Scotland, but returning 
to Durham, ended his life in that place. By this time he had 
lain in the depth of the earth eight score and nine years, yet 
he was not only found entire in his body, but also in his vest- 
ments, the diggers having accidentally broken the case con- 
taining his pastoral staff. Having therefore shown the unchanged 
remains of this venerable man to several persons, they filled in 

1 Ralph de Ireton, Bishop of Carlisle. 

2 1 6th August. 3 Qth January. 

4 The chronicler reckons the Saxon kings named Edward in the list of English 
kings. 

6 4th June. 

36 



LANERCOST 

the place with the earth that had been thrown out, and prepared 
elsewhere a grave befitting such remains. 

We have seen this man, about whose funeral we are now 
speaking, in life bountiful enough and merry, also quite facetious 
enough at table. It occurred to me once to extract a meaning 
from his sport, by way of example. For instance, he kept 
in his court, after the custom of modern prelates, as some 
relief from their cares, a couple of monkeys an old and a 
young one. One day at the end of dinner, desiring to be 
refreshed by amusement rather than by food, [the bishop] 
caused a silver spoon with whitened almonds to be placed in 
the enclosure of the younger monkey, the bigger one being 
kept away [from it]. She [the little monkey], seeing the 
coveted food, and wishing to avoid being despoiled by the 
bigger one, made every endeavour to stuff all the contents 
of the spoon into her left cheek, which she managed to do. 
Then, just as she thought to escape with the spoil, the 
older monkey was released, and ran to her, seized the right 
cheek of the loudly screaming little one, drew out all that was 
stuffed into the left cheek, as if out of a little bag, and refreshed 
itself, until not a single [almond] was left. Everybody who saw 
this burst out laughing, but I perceived therein an image of the 
covetous of this world, calling to mind that proverb of Solomon 
in the twenty-second [chapter] : ' He that oppresseth the poor to 
increase his riches, shall himself give to a richer man and come 
to want.' 1 

At the feast of All Saints in this year, Alexander, King of 

1 The vulgate here differs in sense from the authorised version, where the 
passage runs, 'and he that giveth to the rich.' 

37 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

Scotland, took a second wife, Yoleta by name, daughter of the 
Comte de Dreux, to his own sorrow, and to the almost perpetual 
injury of his kingdom, as will be repeatedly made clear. 

In the same year [a son] was born to King Edward at 
Carnarvon in Snowdon, upon whom was bestowed his father's 
name on S. Mark the Evangelist's day. 1 

During that war in Wales a bridge of boats was made in 
the place called Menai, that is, between Snowdon and Anglesey> 
where Sir William de Audley, Lucas Tanay, Roger de Clifford 
and many others, old and young, were drowned. 

In the same year there was granted to my lord the King 
of England a twentieth of all the churches of England. 

Pope Martin departed from this world, to whom succeeded 

Honorius the Fourth, who sat for two years. Feeble 

and gouty, he was made Pope from [being] Cardinal, 

and being able neither to walk nor stand, made for himself a 

revolving chair. On the day of his consecration, one of the 

cardinals made these verses upon him at the instance of certain 

brethren : 

1 They place a wretched hulk in Peter's seat, 
Maimed of both hands and lamed in both his feet.' 2 

Howbeit, he did one good thing in publicly reproving [all] false 
apostles, orbanibulos and ribald persons who had started in the 
city itself without authority from the Roman see, and in issuing 
MS. written orders that if any such persons were apprehended, they 
should first be warned to relinquish their sect and enter the 
cloister of holy religion, and if they did not comply with this, 

1 25th April. 

2 Ponitur in Petr'i monstrum miserabile sede, 
Mancus utroque manu, truncus utroque pede. 

38 



LANERCOST 

they should be handed over to the public authority. In 
connection with this a certain trustworthy burgess of Hartle- 
pool declared on his return from Rome that he knew of a dozen 
of these fellows being beheaded in one day. Two of them 
also were arrested in Berwick, with their wives and children, 
and were found to be carrying long daggers at their hips 
and purses full of silver. 

In the course of this year King Alexander of Scotland was 
removed by sudden death from the world after he had reigned 
thirty-six years and nine months. He departed from the world 
on the fourteenth of the kalends of April, 1 late on Monday 
night, being the vigil of S. Cuthbert, Bishop and Confessor, 
the liberties and bounds of whose Bishopric he [Alexander] 
had violated for three years past. And whereas it was held 
by the superior [clergy] 2 that the Lord would remove from 
the world both his children and his wife during his own 
lifetime for his chastisement, and [whereas] that did not cause 
him to reform, any one may perceive how there was fulfilled 
in him holy Job's prophecy, which saith : ' God will visit 
upon his children the sorrow of the father, and when he has 
accomplished [this] he shall know it.' 

Of a truth it was foretold to him by just men that the 
Lord had shaken His sword against him, that He had bent 
and made ready His bow against him, and had prepared many 
arrows against him, etc. Besides all this there was repeated 
in the province throughout the whole of that year a fatal saying 
by the Scots, that at that time should come the Judgment Day, 
at which many trembled and a few scoffed. 

1 1 gth March. 2 Superior il>us, perhaps meaning 'old people.' 

39 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

In December preceding, next before these [events], under 
the sign of Capricorn, many terrible thunderings were heard 
and lightning was seen, which, in the opinion of wise men, 
presaged the overthrow of princes, who were [thus] warned 
to take heed to themselves. But whereas all these and other 
warnings were of no avail to enlighten his [Alexander's] mind, 
God punished him by the means He appointed. For he 
[Alexander] used never to forbear on account of season or 
storm, nor for perils of flood or rocky cliffs, but would visit, 
not too creditably [both] matrons and nuns, virgins and 
widows, by day or by night as the fancy seized him, some- 
times in disguise, often accompanied by a single follower. On 
that very day, then, when judgment was imminent (though 
he suspected it not) there arose such a mighty tempest that 
to me and most men it seemed disagreeable to expose one's 
face to the north wind, rain and snow. On which day, he 
[Alexander] was holding a council in the lofty Castrum 
Puellarum l with a great assembly of the nobles of the land> 
for the purpose of replying to the emissaries of the King of 
England, who were due at Norham on the third day [after] 
with the bodily presence of Thomas of Galloway, whose release 
from prison was besought at that time by Sir John de Baliol, 
the son of the older Baliol. 

When they had sat down to dinner, he [Alexander] sent 
a present of fresh lampreys 2 to a certain baron, bidding 
him by an esquire to make the party merry, for he should 
know that this was the Judgment Day. He [the baron], 
after returning thanks, facetiously replied to his lord : * If 

1 Edinburgh. 2 De murena recenti. 

40 



LANERCOST 

this be the Judgment Day, we shall soon rise with full 
bellies.' 

The protracted feast having come to an end, he [Alexander] 
would neither be deterred by stress of weather nor yield to 
the persuasion of his nobles, but straightway hurried along 
the road to Queensferry, in order to visit his bride, that is to 
say Yoleta, daughter of the Comte de Dru, whom shortly 
before he had brought from over the sea, to his own sorrow 
and the perpetual injury of the whole province. For she was 
then staying at Kinghorn. Many people declare that, before 
her engagement beyond the sea, she had changed her dress in 
a convent of nuns, but that she had altered her mind with the 
levity of a woman's heart and through ambition for a kingdom. 

When he arrived at the village near the crossing, the ferry- 
master warned him of the danger, and advised him to go 
back ; but when [the King] asked him in return whether he 
was afraid to die with him : * By no means,' quoth he, ' it 
would be a great honour to share the fate of your father's son.' 
Thus he arrived at the burgh of Inverkeithing, in profound 
darkness, accompanied only by three esquires. The manager 
of his saltpans, a married man of that town, recognising him 
by his voice, called out : * My lord, what are you doing here 
in such a storm and such darkness ? Often have I tried to 
persuade you that your nocturnal rambles will bring you no 
good. Stay with us, and we will provide you with decent 
fare and all that you want till morning light.' ' No need for 
that,' said the other with a laugh, 'but provide me with a 
couple of bondmen, to go afoot as guides to the way.' 

And it came to pass that when they had proceeded two 

41 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

miles, one and all lost all knowledge of the way, owing to 
the darkness ; only the horses, by natural instinct, picked 
out the hard road. While they were thus separated from 
each other, the esquires took the right road ; [but] he, at 
length (that I may make a long story short), fell from his 
horse, and bade farewell to his kingdom in the sleep of Sisara. 
To him Solomon's proverb applies : ' Wo unto him who, 
when he falls, has no man to raise him up.' He lies at 
Dunfermline alone in the south aisle, buried near the presbytery. 
Whence [comes it] that, while we may see the populace bewail- 
ing his sudden death as deeply as the desolation of the realm, 
those only who adhered to him most closely in life for his 
friendship and favours, wet not their cheeks with tears ? 

But, whereas a chronicle which strews its course with 
extinguished cinders will be deemed too dry, I shall here 
relate, to the praise of the incorrupt Virgin, what befel 
on the Annunciation 1 immediately after this event. In that 
kingdom there is a village called Stanehouse 2 on this side of 
the burgh of Stirling, wherein a farmer, not sufficiently respect- 
ing the feast of the Conception of the Son of God, 3 went 
to the plough, yoked his team, and, having set his own son 
to drive the animals, began to plough the turf. But as the 
oxen did not go fast enough, and by avoiding [the yoke] drew 
a crooked furrow, the obstinate fellow cried to his son to goad 
them, and shouted curses on the beasts. At length, wrought 
into a fury, he seized a plough staff, and, meaning to deal a 

I 2$th March. 2 Stenhouse in Larbert parish. 

3 I.e. the Annunciation. Father Stevenson, confusing it with the Conception 
of the Virgin, noted it as 8th December. 

42 



LANERCOST 

heavy blow on the restive one of* the oxen, he aimed amiss, 
and struck the head of his own son, who fell dead. Thus he 
became the murderer of his own offspring, an outlaw from his 
own people, obnoxious to the Author of Salvation, and the 
betrayer of his own [cause]. 1 

After so evil a fate as the death of their king, the magnates MS. 
of the realm of Scotland, adopting sound counsel 
for themselves, elected from the prelates as well as 
the nobles, Guardians of the Peace for the community, until 
such time as it should be made clear by deliberation what 
person should be accepted for such rule. They governed the 
country for six years, transacting the affairs of the people, 
and, before all, of the Lady Queen, widow of Alexander, 
assigning a portion as her terce. But she, resorting to 
feminine craft, was pretending to be pregnant, in order to 
cause patriots to postpone their decision, and that she might 
more readily attract popularity to herself. But just as a woman's 
cunning always turns out wretchedly in the end, so she dis- 
quieted the land with her pretences from the day of the King's 
death till the feast of the Purification, 2 nor would she admit 
respectable matrons to examine her condition ; [and], in order 
that she might return ignominy upon those from whom she 
had received reverence and honour, she determined to deceive 
the nation for ever by foisting on herself the child of another. 
She caused a new font to be made of white marble, and she 

J It was by tales like these, diligently circulated, that the clergy terrified 
their flocks into due observance of holy days ; but in this instance the moral 
had been more apparent if the punishment had fallen upon the impious 
father instead of the innocent son. 

2 2nd February. 

43 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

contrived to have the son of a play-actor to be brought [to 
her] so that it might pass for hers ; and when as many as 
collected to dance by license [in honour of] so important an 
accouchement had come to Stirling (the place where the 
aforesaid lady was staying) at the time for her to be brought 
to bed (which she herself had arranged beforehand), her fraud 
was detected and revealed by the sagacity of William of Buchan, 
to the confusion of all present, and to all those willing to trust 
her who heard of it afterwards. 1 Thus did she, who was first 
attracted from over the sea only by the prospect of wealth 
and was united to the King in marriage, depart from the 
country with shame. That I have said so much about the 
fidelity of women is my reason for adding another instance in 
a different matter. 

Four years before this time there befel something else which, 
out of reverence for God's name and worship, must not be 
concealed. Certain scholars, residing at Oxford for the purpose 
of study, yielded themselves to sleep one of these days after 
supper. One of them, less careful about his comfort than 
the rest, but as merry and lively as the rest, went to his usual 
bed in some upper chamber. About midnight his companions 
were alarmed to hear him shouting, striking and gnashing his 
teeth, and roused their fellow-lodgers. Hastening to his bed- 
side they found the man speechless, behaving as if on the 
point of death ; but, which is very wonderful, his whole body 
presented such a horrible appearance that you would have 
believed him to be a filthy Ethiopian rather than a Christian. 
And so, as all of them thought that his peril was urgent, 

1 For confodere in Stevenson's text read confidere. 
44 



LANERCOST 

one of them of more fervid faith than the others, exclaimed : 
* Let one of us begin the holy gospel of God according to 
John, and I hope it will relieve the sick man.' Whereupon 
the others, stimulated by faith, began to recite the holy gospel 
in parts, because they did not know the whole. of it ; and lo ! 
the evil spirit having gone out of him, in the hearing of them 
all, shook to the ground the great stone stair which led to 
the door of the chamber, leaving after his exit such a stench 
that they almost thought they would be suffocated. The sick 
man, however, restored to life by the sound of the holy words, 
shortly afterwards returned from the sooty appearance to his 
natural looks. This was related by a trustworthy person who 
was among them, and saw, heard and noted [the occurrence], 
and first of all pronounced [the words of] the gospel. 

In the same year, on the sixth day of the week before the 
nativity of S. John the Baptist, 1 there occurred at Bywell, 
near Newcastle, something which ought to be remembered. 
There was in that place a married man, steward to the Lady 
of Vallnor, who under cover of his office had acquired many 
things dishonestly, and enriched himself from the property of 
others. Arriving at the close of life, he was advised by a 
priest that, among other things to be settled by the dying 
man, he should provide out of his property for the redemption 
of his soul. The one firmly insisted upon this, and the other 
on the contrary denied it, besides swearing falsely that he had 
nothing to make a will about, and could scarcely be persuaded 
to bestow sparingly part of each of his different kinds of 
property, saying : * Whatever is over I commend to Satan.' 

1 1 gth June. 
45 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

After the close of his life, while his body was being carried 
to the church, and the funeral feast was being made ready 
in the house for the neighbours by the son and the servants, 
suddenly fire burst out from his house, which was towards 
the western part of the town, and consumed the whole build- 
ings on either side of the street, following the body towards 
the east so swiftly that the mass to be celebrated for him 
could scarcely be fully performed, nor could the wretched 
corpse be committed to the grave with the proper rites. Nay, 
but the devouring flame even consumed two large and beautiful 
parish churches, all their contents being burnt, one [being] 
S. Peter's, where he [the dead man] was committed to the 
earth, the other, S. Andrew's. And inasmuch as the wind 
had increased in violence, a ball of fire crossed the adjacent 
river and reduced to ashes two villages distant half a league. 
These facts were known to the whole country, and to myself 
also, who shortly afterwards beheld the traces of conflagration, 
and was instructed very fully about the event by the 
inhabitants. 1 

About the same time, or a little before, it happened in 
Lunedale, in the diocese of York, that a certain widower, who 
was called Clerk of the Chapter, was accused, and falsely, by 
a certain woman, of having plighted troth 2 with her in youth 
upon oath, as she pretended. The clerk, however, being 
summoned, denied it altogether, although freely confessing that 
when he was young and lustful he had committed common 

1 Bywell, on the North Tyne, consists of two parishes, Bywell-St. Andrew's 
and Bywell-St. Peter's, the churches being close together and locally known as 
the White church and the Black church respectively. 

2 Praestita. 

46 



LANERCOST 

fornication with her. But he was deemed by all his acquain- 
tances so worthy of credit that he could by no means assent 
to the falsehood. Therefore a day was assigned for the 
woman to prove her charge ; while the Episcopal judge, as 
well as the Dean and the rest, urged the clerk not to conceal 
the truth from them, and they themselves would provide means 
of escaping [the consequences]. He, on the contrary, became 
ever more immoveable, declaring and swearing that the affair 
was not otherwise [than he had stated]. At last, after many 
precautions and delays, the woman was brought up with the 
witnesses for her, and the duties of episcopal judge in this 
part of Lancashire were committed to a certain rural vicar 
who had formerly been Dean. And because he hesitated to 
accept the oath offered, believing it to be an afterthought, 
he publicly requested all present that they would unite in 
repeating before God the Lord's Prayer, so that He should 
grant them on that day that they should not proceed with 
an unjust cause. At this moment the woman, kneeling down, 
stretched out her hand to the book, when suddenly she fell 
upon the bosom of the said vicar, as if composing herself to 
sleep. But the vicar, thinking that she was trying to cajole MS - b 
him by such wanton behaviour (for she was beautifully adorned), 
said : * Get up ! why do you lie down thus ? Finish what you 
have begun.' But when she gave no sign of feeling or move- 
ment, he raised her in his hands, and showed to all [present] 
that she was dead. He who told me this had it from the 
lips of the vicar who held the chapter. 

In this year the Welsh again brought upon themselves mis- 
fortune, provoking afresh a royal expedition against themselves ; 

47 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

and David himself, author of the mischief, was taken and 
slain (as you will find in the ninth chapter). 1 

At this time on the vigil of S. John the Baptist, 2 William of 
Wykeham, Archbishop of York, came to Durham for a visita- 
tion, where he suffered an undignified repulse, not only from the 
monks but from the laity also, so that he thought he must appeal 
to arms. Which insult God beheld from on high, and, albeit 
he is slow to vengeance, yet he afterwards vindicated [himself] 
through Antony, 3 who afterwards visited them severely enough. 

In the same year, on All Souls Day, the body of Thomas, 
first Lord of Multon, was moved. 4 

In the same year John Peckham, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
attacked vigorously the preaching friars 5 upon the unity of form. 

At the octave of the Epiphany, 6 Antony Bek, King's Clerk, 

was consecrated Bishop of Durham in presence of my 

lord the King and the Queen and almost all the nobility 

of the land, not without great searching 7 of conscience as to what 

kind [of person] should be appointed Christ's vicar and suffragan 

of His church. 

On the following day, with the utmost rejoicing, they trans- 
N lated the relics of Archbishop S. William 8 enclosed in a costly 

1 See page 34 antea. 2 23rd June. 3 Antony Bek, Bishop of Durham. 

4 Translatum. Corpus domin't Thonue de Multona primi. The title dominus is 
ambiguous ; sometimes it means a feudal lord, sometimes, merely an honorary 
prefix to a cleric's name. 

5 Prefdicaciter in Stevenson's text is probably a misreading for preedicatores . 
Peckham supported the doctrine of unity of form of Christ's body in the 
Eucharist, and was actively promulgating it at this time. 

6 1 3th January. 7 Singultus. 

8 William Fitzherbert, Archbishop of York, d. 1154, canonised in 1227. 

48 




DUKHAM CATHEDRAL 

FHOM THE RIVKR WAR 



LANERCOST 

shrine, who when living was profligate for a time, but turned 
himself resolutely to righteousness. 

About the same time, as he himself informed me, there 
lived at Rome a certain Minorite Friar of English birth, who, 
in travelling round the places of the saints, arrived one day 
after dinner at a house of virgins consecrated to God, erected 
in honour of S. Agnes. After he had inspected the church 
thereof, he found an old cardinal sitting with his [clergy] 
behind the high altar ; who, the boards fixed to the back of 
the altar having been removed, was contemplating, for the 
strengthening of his faith, the body of the martyr without a 
taint of corruption consecrated to God ; because this [cardinal] 
was perfectly faithful to God. When he had bedewed his 
face plentifully with tears, he uncovered the virgin [martyr's] 
countenance, which was hidden under a black veil, and beheld, 
with all [the others], the youthful features as it were of one 
sleeping, showing no hollows except at the point of the nose, 
and also the shoulders and fingers as flexible as they may be 
seen in a man lately dead and not long passed away. In addition, 
the arms and the body, which was not larger than that of a 
girl of twelve years old, were clothed with a tunic of some 
unknown white material, so fine [in texture] that none who 
beheld it could doubt that it was the raiment brought to her 
from heaven by angels. 1 But if any one should be at the 
pains to collect the records of early times, he will find that 
there were then completed one thousand years from the time 
of her martyrdom. These things therefore I have described 

1 The reference is to the miraculous robe which was brought to Agnes by 
angels when she was exposed naked in a brothel. 
D 49 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

in order that the reader may note by what a distance God 
separates the incorruptible sons of corruption from the sons of 
iniquity. 

In the same year John Romanus returned consecrated by 
the Roman court. 1 

In the same year King Edward of England sailed across to 
Gascony. 

Nicholas the Fourth was created Pope after Honorius, and 
sat for four years, one month and twenty days. He 
was formerly called Jerome, being a Minorite Friar 
and Minister General of the Order, [and] Cardinal of La 
Sabina. As Head of the Church he displayed such humility 
as to discharge the guards 2 which his predecessors had for the 
protection of their persons, and caused jesters' bladders to be 
carried before him. So sincere a friend also was he of poverty 
that he entirely abandoned the suits of wealthy persons to his 
colleagues, and specially reserved for himself the suits of the 
poor. He granted privileges very seldom, and even these 
were insignificant ; but he was most earnest in raising funds 
for an expedition to the Holy Land, wherefore he decreed 
that a sexennial tithe should be collected in every parish 
church for that purpose. 

Because of the fame of this [Pope's] justice, the afore- 
said Lord Archbishop of York hastened to his Court to 
lay before him the case of his church, and on the journey 
was struck down by fever at Pountenei and died, feeling 
that the thing in his life which he chiefly regretted was 
that he had received and consecrated an unworthy [Prior of] 

1 As Archbishop of York, 1285. 2 Clavarios. 

5 



LANERCOST 

Durham. 1 It is affirmed by very many persons that the truth 
of his life manifests itself in miracles at the place where 
he lies, and it is said to possess special benefit for fever 
patients. 

My lady Eleanor, mother Queen of England, now, for Christ's 
sake, despised the withering flower of this world wherein she 
had formerly delighted, and on the feast of the Assumption 
was made a nun at Amesbury, where she had already dedi- 
cated her own daughter to God. For love of her my lord the 
King, her son, increased the wealth of that house with large 
rents. 

In the same year Risamaraduc, one of the most noble men 
of Wales, began hostilities against royalists, and especially the 
English. Wherefore my lord the King of England expended 
15,050 pounds of silver upon infantry alone, besides the expenses 
of the nobles. He [Risamaraduc] was ultimately captured and 
drawn at York. 

At this time the wall of Castle Droslan fell and crushed Sir 
William de Michens and the Baron of Stafford. 

In the same year a certain esquire named Robert Chamberlain, 3 
with his accomplices, set on fire the booths of tradesmen at 
S. Botulph's, 4 and, as the fire spread, he burnt down a great 
part of the town and the church of the Preaching Friars ; and 
while the tradesmen exerted themselves to put out the fire 
so as to save their goods, they were slain by the said esquire 
and his people, and their goods were plundered. 

Alluding to his controversy with Antony Bek over the subjection of 
Durham to the see of York 

2 1 5th August. 3 or Chambers, sc. Camerarius. Boston. 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

There was such abundance of crops in England this year 
that a quarter of wheat was sold in some places for twenty 
pence, in others for sixteen and [in others] for twelve. 

In the same year the Carmelite Friars changed their habit 
at Lincoln on the day of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross. 1 

MS - Sir John de Vesci died and was buried at Alnwick. 
fo. 195 

In the same year there abode with us William Greenrig, 

who used to eat neither flesh nor fish ; about whom H. said : 

' You may not seek the monkish dress to wear, 
Who cannot feed yourself on common fare ? ' 2 

Also about a certain malefactor, H. : 

* For the sinner who fears not the keys of St. Peter, 
Than death at the stake what reward can be meeter ? ' 3 

On the vigil of the Lord's Ascension 4 the church of Gisburn 
in Cleveland was burnt by an unfortunate accident. 

A.D. 1288. 

For the plumber to whom was committed the duty of 
repairing the roof of the church had been employed in making 
good some defects about the bell tower. He had carelessly put 
a fire which he had for heating his tools near the timbers of the 
church, and when he went down to the lower buildings of the 
monastery had taken no heed to the danger. As the monks, 
having performed their solemn litanies, were returning through 

1 1 4th September. 

^Vivere sub vests non quaeras canonical!, 
Commune more qui nequis, fiortor, all. 

3 Qui se dant sceleri, claves Petrique vereri 

Nolunt, terreri debent de morte rogi. 

In these couplets H.'s prosody is even more shaky than usual, at least 
according to classical standards. 
4 5th May. 

52 



LANERCOST 

the fields and houses, fire broke out suddenly in the upper 
part of the tower, and as there was no remedy at hand, only a 
few valuables were got out and many thousand marks' worth was 
burnt. 

There happened also something else to enhance the honour of 
S. Francis, which at that time had not become sufficiently well- 
known to the northern part of the English province. 1 A certain 
burgess in the town of Newcastle, who is alive at this day, 
Alexander Furbur [by name], contracted such a severe hot 
dropsy that he was given up by the physicians, and, from the 
swelling of his body, presented the appearance of a great tun, 
while his legs were beyond the compass of any leggings. This 
man, constrained between dread of praying and love of his 
children, 2 being ill-prepared to meet death, brought himself 
round to seek God's pardon and the help of the saints. By 
advice of his friends he caused himself to be measured 3 with 
various saints upon whose assistance his hope more fully relied. 
And whereas he felt relief from the power of none of them, he 
made a vow to S. Francis that he would personally visit his 
tomb, if through his help he should recover the health he 
desired. In that very moment, therefore, he was affected by 
a flow of water so continuous that it never ceased running for ' 

1 Of Franciscans. The ' English province ' was early divided into two parts, 
one being Scotland, the other England. Monumtnta Frandscana R.S. i. 32-3. 

2 Inter timorem precaminum et amorem pignorum. 

3 Menstirari : a common form of invoking a saint's help. A string with which 
the saint's body had been measured was passed round the forehead of the sick 
person (see Camden Society's Rishanger, p. 152). Other explanation occurs in 
a late edition of Ducange, to the effect that a candle of the height of the sick 
person was placed in the saint's shrine. 

53 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

the rest of that day and the whole of the following night, so 
that it sufficed to fill a very large tub. Hence the skin of 
his body became so loose through loss of flesh that, to the 
neighbours who gathered to view him he would stretch out his 
skin like a garment, and it seemed as if he could make himself 
leggings about his shins out of his own hide. Having thus 
recovered some degree of strength, straightway he set out upon 
a journey piously to fulfil his vow, and shewed forth the praises 
of God's saint in presence of many persons, returning home 
happy and healthy, having many witnesses, including myself, to 
this event. 

On the other hand, I will relate something that may instruct 
posterity how great is the difference between God's service and 
worldly vanity. There lived at that time in the diocese of 
Glasgow a young cleric, strong and handsome, and beneficed out 
of the patrimony of Christ ; but, as is to be deplored, more 
concerned in mind about getting into the company of rich men 
than about the cure of souls. He who neglects his own [soul], 
despises or vilifies that of another. And so this vain man, 
called Adam Urri, learned as a layman in lay law and dis- 
regarding God's precepts against Ulpian's Pr<etorialiaJ- used to 
employ the laws for litigation, lawsuits for quibbling, the statutes 
of the Emperors for pecuniary gain. But when he had become 
advanced in years and had become notorious for his villainy, 
and was endeavouring to involve the affairs of a certain poor 
widow in his toils, the divine mercy arrested him, chastising his 
body with a sudden infirmity and enlightening his mind so 
that he should discern more of hidden things and discourse of 

1 Roman law. 
54 



LANERCOST 

another life. For, lying in bed for four days and having made 
confession, he altered his intention of wronging the widow, 
foretold the day of his death, vehemently condemned the court 
of pleaders, and ordered his servant to come quickly to him, 
adding that just as he himself would go first on the Saturday, 
so he [the servant] would follow next Monday, just as the 
event turned out in the end. 

At that time King Edward was staying in Gascony, and 
on a certain day when he and the queen, having met together 
in a chamber, were sitting conversing upon a couch, a flash of 
lightning entered a window behind them, and, passing between y 
them, killed two domestics who were standing in their presence, I 
they themselves remaining wholly unhurt. All the rest who 
were present were amazed on beholding what had happened, dis- 
cerning that a miracle had not been wanting for the royal safety. 

At this time on the fourteenth of the kalends of August, 1 
Brother N. de Mor received the canonical habit. The 
Dominical letter was then C. 

In the same year many of those who burnt Botelstane 2 
were hanged. 

The King of England returned from the lands of Gascony, 

whither he had gone to put down the sedition among 

' A.D. 1289. 
the people of Bordeaux. For, having received there 

an embassy from Scotland urgently beseeching him that he 
would deign to assist them in their leaderless condition, and 
that he would take charge of their realm until they should 
succeed in getting a prince regularly elected, he set out with 
them to his native land, where he soon heard grave complaints 

1 I Qth July. 2 Boston. 

55 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

about the corruption of the justiciaries of the province, who, 
in the king's absence, and blinded by bribes, had betrayed 
the justice of their country. Moreover, there were in collusion 
with them, 1 enfeoffed knights or beneficed clergy, whose 
misdeeds, when detected, brought much treasure into the royal 
store, that the Solomon's precept should be observed, who 
says in the twenty-second of Proverbs : ' He who oppresseth 
the poor to increase his own wealth, shall himself give to a 
j richer man and come to want.' Those, then, that are greedy 
of fame and rob the poor, when they are adjudged punishment 
for the deeds they have done, lose also what they appeared 
justly to possess. This happened manifestly to these [persons], 
although I am unable to state the fine [inflicted upon] all of 
them, yet I know that one of them, a rector of Holy Church, 
paid to the king upwards of thirty pieces 2 of silver and as 
many carucates of land. 

MS. k Concerning the Jews, I will relate an instance of their injustice 
occurring at this time, which may be of no small service to 
posterity against the crime of perjury and fraud. 3 In upper 
Lindsey, then, there is a priory, in the place called Marchby, 
occupying long and broad pastures for feeding stock, not 
altogether by exclusive right, but sharing with their neighbours 
a common liberty by gift of the patrons. But whereas avarice, 
[which is] in the minds of all men of the present day, endeavours 
to make all common [lands] private property, the aforesaid 

1 Or ' frequently ' ; communiter. 

2 Bigatus is a synonym for the Roman denarius =%\d. ; but the term bigatas 
evidently represents a far larger amount here. 

3 Pervasionis. 

56 



LANERCOST 

monastery brought an action in London to the prejudice of all 
their neighbours, the suit having been suborned and the judges 
bribed. But as they [the commoners] defended their cause at 
great legal expense, the matter was at length submitted to the 
verdict of twelve. But they [the jury] casting aside all reverence 
for God and the truth, and perpetrating fraud for the sake of 
favour, adjudged the ground to be freehold of the said 
monastery, and they [the monks] caused a great part of the 
land to be ploughed in token of seisin. But, on the other 
hand, God did not allow His name to be usurped with im- 
punity, and he sowed the furrows of unrighteousness with the 
infamy of the act. For the twelve jurymen began to be steadily, 
but gradually, removed from the world, and ever as they were 
removed they were submitted to a terrible yoke. For during 
about two years afterwards there appeared in that country a 
fiery plough, glowing like hot brass, having a most foul fiend 
as driver, who drove the dead men, harnessed in that manner, 
to the ground where he had incited them to guile when living. 
Many persons beheld these wretches clearly, committed to the 
plough like oxen, always at the hour of noon, and this, I 
imagine, was done because it is at such an hour men most 
assiduously press litigation 1 before the judges. Those coming 
to behold the spectacle were warned to be careful for their 
safety ; nor did they know 2 for whom were reserved those 
yokes which they perceived to be empty. Howbeit, after these 
years Alan of Hotoft, the spiritual advocate of the said prior 
in this suit, and the contriver of the fraud which it is not 
expedient to explain in detail, was seen plainly before [men's] 

1 Pretoria negofia. 2 Innotescebant. 

57 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

eyes after his death driving and guiding the said plough ; and 
repeatedly addressing many of them, he explained to them the 
reason for that punishment, and implored urgently that the 
judgment which had been pronounced might be revoked, if in 
compassion they proposed to mitigate the punishment of these 
[persons]. Although all this was made public throughout the 
province, yet was I unwilling to believe it easily, until I heard 
particulars of the truth from the lips of a certain nobleman, 
who lived not more than three miles from the place in question. 

At this same date King Edward gave his daughter, the Lady 
Joan of Acre, in marriage to Gilbert Earl of Gloucester, with 
great celebration, that the bond of love should be more strongly 
knit. Also in the same year the king gave his second daughter 
Margaret to John, son and heir of the Duke of Brabant. 

In the same year John Romayn was created Archbishop of 
York, a man of mean birth but sufficiently distinguished in 
science ; in fact he was an eminent authority in dialectics and 
theology. 1 

The clipping of coins which was detected at this time rendered 
the new coinage necessary, which is now current ; but forasmuch 
as the Jews were afterwards found to be the perpetrators of 
clipping both the old coins and the new, besides being authors 
of all kinds of crime usury, rapine, sacrilege, theft (which is 
excessively common among them), and corrupters of the Christian 
faith they were all proscribed in accordance with the advice of 
Parliament, unless they either professed the faith of the Church 

1 Already recorded ad ann. 1286, whereas the consecration took place in 1285. 
This is another indication, were one required, of the chronicle having been 
compiled from several different sources. 

58 



LANERCOST 

or supported themselves exclusively by manual labour. Besides, 
there was a day appointed for their clearing out of the realm, 1 
so that those [who should be found] within the bounds of 
England after the day of S. John the Baptist 2 should suffer 
penalty. 

On the feast of S. Bartholomew, 3 Patrick Earl of Dunbar, 
departed this life at Whittingehame, a man whom we have seen 
to be addicted to many vices, but who was mercifully forgiven 
by God on his deathbed. His body rests in the church of 
Dunbar, lying buried on the northern side. 

Also, Duncan Earl of Fife, was cruelly slain on the Saturday 
preceding the Nativity of the Virgin. 4 He was the chief 
Guardian of Scotland for the time. As a young man he was 
cruel and greedy beyond all that we commonly have seen, 
abstaining from no injustice whereby he could minister to his 
avarice. And when curses without number had accumulated 
upon him, and enmities provoked by his deeds had been 
deservedly roused against him, he was slaughtered on horse- 
back by his own men and kinsfolk as he was travelling along 
the king's highway to Parliament, and was buried in Cupar 
Abbey. 5 He had recently married the Lady Joan, daughter of 
the Count of Gloucester, who being with child at the time 
of her husband's murder, afterwards bore a son who still lives, 
bearing his father's name by hereditary right. 

1 Limltatce eliminationis. 2 24th June, 1290. 

3 24th August. 4 i oth September. 

5 He was murdered at Petpollock, 25th September, 1288, by Sir Patrick 
Abernethy and Sir Walter Percy, but Sir Hugh Abernethy was the real instigator. 
Moray of Bothwell took him and Percy. Sir Hugh was imprisoned for life in 
Douglas Castle, Percy was executed, and Sir Patrick Abernethy escaped to France. 

59 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

About the same time something marvellous happened in 
England near Richmond, 1 in a village which is called Dalton. 2 
Whereas this place lies close up to the forest, and pasture 
abounds there for cattle, a certain man of advanced age, John 
Francis by name, being too careless in his [conduct], had fallen 
into serious neglect of the faith. For when his neighbours 
sought the precincts of the church for the sacred office of the 
Lord's day, and refreshed the spirit of devotion by the sacra- 
ment, this brutish man was in the habit of hurrying off to 
inspect his beasts, turning his back upon the church and 
traversing hill and dale. So, having wandered into the wilds 
one Lord's day, he penetrated to a remote spot full of the 
powers of the air, who were all of small stature like dwarfs, 
with hideous faces, falsely imitating in the garb of an abbot the 
sacred vestments of the church, and following one superior to 
the rest, as though he were invested with sacerdotal authority. 
They summoned the astonished and deluded layman, insisting 
that he should hear the Lord's day service. They began with 
laughter in place of song, and with a wretched murmur 

MS - instead of a chant, together with a clever subtlety of a kind 
fo. 196 

to uproot the faith of a layman. At last it came to the time, 

as it seemed, for the aspersion of water, when the leader went 
round and besprinkled all his comrades in iniquity as a punish- 
ment for their guilt. But coming to the living man last in 
order to besprinkle him, he assailed the fool, not with spray 
but with blows, so that to this day he [Francis] knoweth not 
whether he was struck by drops of water or by stones ; but 
this was afterwards ascertained on the testimony of many persons 

1 In Yorkshire. 2 In Topcliff parish near Thirsk. 

60 



LANERCOST 

that he was bruised over his whole bo'dy by the blows of volleys 
of stones, so thoroughly was he found to have been pelted by 
such a hurtful shower. Further, when he beheld these seducing 
spirits rising bodily as if about to fly away, he seemed to feel 
a force compelling him to fly away with them as they departed. 
But by means of grace he recovered himself, and, terrified by 
his imminent peril, he recalled to memory by degrees as he 
was able the passion which the Lord endured ; and, as often 
as he began to fly, recalling to memory Christ's passion, he 
clung to the earth, and, grasping the turf and lying prone on 
the ground, strengthened, his faith until the spirits of iniquity 
had all departed. And so, when he had reached home, lain 
down in bed and described the event to friends who visited 
him, during eight days following he strove to fly, until by 
truthful confession he set right the infidelity of his mind. For, 
as he confessed, suddenly and at certain times, when these 
spirits presented themselves to him in the air, he stretched 
himself upwards as if he were about to fly, had he not been 
held down by the main force of his servants. 

On the top of other ills, in this year the city of Tripoli in 
Syria, which was girt about with three walls, was lost by 
reason of the sins of Christians. The Saracens took possession 
thereof, together with many tenements of the Templars and 
Hospitallers, many knights being killed there. I leave to be 
remembered by posterity two notable things in the course of 
this affair. 

On one of those days, while the citizens, besieged by the 
enemy, were deliberating how they might escape slaughter, 

there was present among them a Minorite Friar, an English- 

61 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

man by birth, well known for his courage. Perceiving that 
their minds were in panic, he ascended a high place, and, 
setting forth the word of God, he endeavoured to kindle their 
hearts with boldness to attack and firmness to endure ; but the 
populace on the other hand, demoralised by despair, greeted 
him with derision, saying, * Thou who boldly advisest us to 
be brave, wilt flee like a dastard when thou beholdest a spear. 
For see, the enemy have made an assault : they are storming 
the walls ; show what you can do in such a strait, while we 
look on !' 

Fired by faith he straightway seized the greater cross, which is 
wont to be displayed freely before the people, and, gripping it in 
his arms, placed it on his shoulder, and going before the armed 
ranks bade them stoutly follow him though he was unarmed ; 
and he led the way most impetuously to the breach where the 
enemy had broken in. But the purblind Gentiles, beholding a 
ragged man carrying a crossed beam against them, contemp- 
tuously cut him down. First they struck off his left arm, 
which notwithstanding he quickly changed the cross to the 
other shoulder, [whereupon] they cut off his remaining arm, and 
throwing his body to the ground, trampled it to pieces under 
the hoofs of their horses. Thus did he who had vowed to 
bear the cross of Christ, who thirsted after the cross in his 
pilgrimage, and preached the cross in time of siege, earn a 
triumph through the cross in martyrdom. Many of the faithful, 
inspired by his example, and preferring to die bravely rather 
than cravenly, went out voluntarily against the enemy, and, 
committing to the Lord the issue of the matter, were either 

slain or taken, becoming a sacrifice for Christ. 

62 



LANERCOST 

Now there was in that city a convent of nuns, into which, 
as into other places, the enemy forced their way, carrying off 
everything they found there, [and] either killing or violating 
God's handmaidens. But there was a matron of the nuns, 
charming in person, still more distinguished by faith and bearing, 
who, when captured, fell by lot to the share of a certain 
Emir ; 1 and because of her beauty, and in the hope that she 
would change her religion, she was kept alive. And when that 
Gentile, attracted by her beauty, meditated betrothing to himself 
the bride of Christ, and to this end reiterated kisses and 
embraces, this wise virgin called to mind that carnal love was 
brief and brittle ; and in order to beguile the attention of her 
lover, and that she might escape through martyrdom to her 
true spouse, she sweetly said to the lover ' If I am to have 
you as my dear husband, I wish to secure you against the 
peril of death. I know the words of a potent charm of 
power, which, if you will learn from me and repeat faithfully 
when in difficulty, you will be preserved from all harm.' 

The ignorant man approved of the proposal, desiring eagerly 
to be instructed by her skill; whereupon Luceta, for that was 
the virgin's name, replied : ' That you may test for certain the 
virtue of the charm I spoke of, I will begin to chant before 
you the sacred words; and you, having drawn your sword, 
will attempt, if you can, to cut my throat.' When he heard 
this, he shuddered, declaring that he would on no account do 
such a thing. In reply, she said : * Yes, but you can safely do 
it, if you love me, and thereby you will have proof of my 
teaching.' Therefore, impelled by the tenderness of his love, 

1 Cujusdam admirandi. 
63 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

for he did not wish to displease her, he obeyed her by drawing 
his sword, and when she, bending her head, began to repeat 
in a low voice * Ave Maria ! ' he struck his sword into her 
neck, cutting off her head and throwing her body to the 
ground. Thus was Luceta, a daughter of the light, joined to 
the ministry of the heavenly lights and to the brightness of 
the eternal light to which she had devoted herself. There- 
upon, in consequence, this barbarian would fain have stabbed 
himself for grief, when he beheld his love so cheated and 
what cruelty he had wrought. One who well knew the virgin's 
face and conversation afterwards consigned her to the tomb, 
MS. [namely,] my Lord Hugh, Bishop of Biblis, 1 of the Order of 
Minorite Friars, whose episcopal see and city were destroyed 
in that devastation, and we beheld the worthy bishop himself 
remaining two years in England under favour of King Edward. 
These things have I briefly noted about Tripoli as I received 
them. 

As to the rest, the friar above-mentioned, who has encouraged 
many others to martyrdom by his example, had been for a 
considerable time warden of a monastery in Oxford. Being 
distressed once by the scarcity of food among the brethren, when 
the service of vespers was being offered one [evening] before the 
image of the cross he commended the sons 2 under his charge to 
the Father of Mercies. In that very night there appeared to a 
countryman of that district in his sleep a terrible apparition, 
reproving him thus with piercing words for his hardness : 
* Thou foolish and stingy man ! thou never ceasest to be 
vigilant in piling up thy heaps of pence, and carest not to 

1 Episcopus Biblinensis. 2 Fittos, i.e. the friars. 

64 



LANERCOST 

afford help to my servants who are vigilant in prayer in that 
place [and are] in want. Arise quickly, on peril of your head, 
and see that they receive relief according to my commands ! ' 
The country farmer rose without delay, and taking his way 
through the dark shades of night, he stood at dawn knocking 
at the gate of the friars. When the janitor, not without amaze- 
ment, asked what he wanted, he stated that he wished to speak 
with the master of the place. The other, supposing him to be a 
master of the schools, replied : ' I dare not knock at his private 
door 1 so early in the morning, when he is applying himself to 
study what he has to read.' But the layman said : * I demand 
[to see] him who has authority of ruling in this house.' When 
[the warden] was brought to him, he [the farmer] begged him 
civilly that he would deign to show him the church and the 
altars. When he entered he began straightway to behave like 
a scrutator in going round, muttering to himself. ' It is not 
thou,' quoth he, * nor thou.' Coming at last before the 
crucifix, to which the warden committed him [the farmer] and 
his. ' Of a truth,' exclaimed the man, * thou art he who hast 
appeared to me this night and shown me what I ought to do ! ' 
The meaning of the above-mentioned revelation being thus made 
manifest ' If there is anything,' said he turning to the warden, 
* which I can do to assist thy Mother, make it known to me 
at once.' * Surely,' replied the other, * we have a payment of 
ten marks due to creditors in the town, if you deign, sir, to come 
to our help in this.' ' Gladly,' exclaimed the farmer, * will I 
pay the whole at once.' The friars, wondering at the country- 
man's spirit, praised God as their provider. 

1 Ostiolum. 
E 65 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

The Bishop of Biblis afore-mentioned, a person of honourable 
life and a man skilled in many things, imparted in conversation 
many edifying things while he lived in our province. He used 
to say that he had known a German knight who, having entered 
the Holy Land upon a pilgrimage, forasmuch as he was ignorant 
of the position of the holy places where the Saviour of the world 
went about working out our salvation in the heart of the land, 
sent for a native of that country and took him into his following 
for hire ; from whom he extracted an oath that he should serve 
him faithfully and conduct him in his search for the sacred foot- 
steps of Christ round all the places wherein, on the authority of 
the Holy Gospel, human devotion might show forth any praise 
of the Lord's work. The bargain having been struck, the 
servant fulfilled it without guile, the knight setting forward with 
a light heart. Examining here and there the venerable memorials 
of the acts of Christ, they arrived after many days, according to 
historical order, to the place of the Lord's ascension, where his 
footsteps still remain impressed upon the dust. 1 Then did the 
servant claim to be discharged of his oath, saying : ' See, my 
lord, hitherto I have pointed out to your pious desire the stations 
of Christ upon earth ; what remaineth beyond I cannot do, seeing 
that here he took flight into heaven.' When he heard this the 
knight burst into tears, with groaning of the heart, and prostrated 
himself on the ground, placing his mouth in the dust that he 
might obtain hope from the Eternal Love. Rising erect at 
length and gazing to heaven with streaming eyes : ' O God,' said 
he, ' Thou didst undergo in this land a pilgrimage of labour and 

1 Mandeville (0^.1372) states that in his time the imprint of the left foot still 
remained on the stone. 

66 



LANERCOST 

sorrow for my salvation, and I, coming hither out of love for 
Thee, have followed the ways of Thy holy journey up to this 
place ; even as I believe that Thou didst here leave the world and 
go to the Father, so command that here my soul may be received 
into peace.' Thus saying, he paid the debt of nature and went 
to rest in Christ. 

The aforesaid bishop related another thing, how that between 
the place of Olivet (where the Lord replied to the chiding Jews : 
* If these should hold their peace, the very stones will cry out') 
and the gate of Jerusalem (which he entered for his passion^' 
seated upon an ass), you could not lift a pebble and break it 
without finding within it the likeness of a human tongue, that, as 
is evident, the Creator's word may be fulfilled. 

It pleases me to add in this place what ought to have found 
a convenient place in the beginning of this eighth part, for- 
asmuch as it happened at that time, although I did not receive 
timely notice of this matter. Now there lived in the city of 
Milan a celebrated man named Francis, abounding in riches, 
intent upon usury, and, which is worst of all things, con- 
tumaciously disdaining to pay tithes to God and the Church. 
The rector of the parish, taking no notice for a while in hopes 
of amendment, at length became so incensed by this [conduct] 
that he pronounced sentence [of excommunication] against him, 
and demanded without delay papal letters confirmatory of the 
published sentence. But while the rebel was biting his lips and 
uttering threats, one of these days, he invited the parson of the 
church, half in spite and half in jest, to dine with him. The 
other declined this, unless he would comply with the commands 

of the Church. ' Suspend the sword of sentence for the nonce,' 

67 



MS. 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

said he [Francis], ' and come, so that I may be able to confer 
reasonably with you.' When they had sat down to a splendid 
banquet, having the servants in attendance to wait upon them, 
fo. 197 the man of wavering faith said : ' Sir rector, why should I care for 
the vexation of your sentence, seeing that I possess all that you 
behold, and soundness of heart to book ? But if you would 
compel me to believe that your malediction can avail to do me 
hurt, curse that white bread placed before you, that I may see 
what virtue may be in your authority.' Whereupon, while the 
man of the Church was disquieted in conscience as being un- 
worthy because of his own character, and the other as a reprobate 
insisted, lest the faith should suffer reproach, he stretched forth 
his hand, trusting in the goodness of God, and said boldly, ' On 
behalf of Almighty God and by authority of the most high 
Pontiff, I place thee, oh bread, prepared for the use of that rebel, 
under the ban of anathema ! ' No sooner was this spoken than 
the bread displayed a smoky hue and the cracks of staleness. 
When the impenitent l man saw this, he exclaimed in terror : 
* Since you have shown sufficiently what you can effect by cursing, 
I now beg that you will show me what power you have in 
absolving.' Then the ecclesiastic, made more confident through 
the grace granted to him, by the same power restored the bread 
to its original appearance. The layman, in consequence, im- 
mediately feeling sorrow and devotion said : ' How long is it, sir 
father, that I have defrauded God and the Church, yea, and my 

own soul also, of what was due in tithes ? ' * ' ' 

said the other. ' Then,' said he [Francis], ' I offer satisfaction 

1 Imperitus in Stevenson's teit, probably a misreading for impenitent. 

2 Blank in original. 

68 



LANERCOST 

for my rebellion ; moreover I entreat for solemn absolution in 
presence of the clergy, and I now endow the church over which 
you preside with an annual rent of twenty marks.' This said, 
they both rise from table and hasten to the parish church ; and 
the bells being rung, 1 clergy and people hurry in, and, when the 
occasion has been explained, the priors of the Church perform the 
desired absolution. At that very hour, certain clerics, who after- 
wards informed me of the circumstances, travelling from Scotland 
to Bologna, entered the city. Dismounting from their horses 
they hastened thither 2 still fasting, to witness and marvel [at 
the event]. 

In the same year died Alan de Mora, about Eastertide, and 
Sir John of Galloway, formerly Prior of Lanercost. 3 

In the same year died Dervorgilla 4 de Balliol, about whom 

Thy peace, oh King of Kings ! may we implore 
For noble Dervorguilla, now no more ? 
Give her among the sacred seers a place, 
Uniting Martha's faith with Mary's grace. 
This stone protects her and her husband's heart, 
So closely knit not even death could part. 6 

These verses are inscribed upon her tomb. In the same year 

1 Personatis campanis, 2 To the church. 

3 Resigned with a pension 1283, ob. 1289. 

4 Daughter and co-heiress of Alan, Lord of Galloway, married John de 
Balliol the Elder, and was mother of John Balliol, King of Scots. She built 
Sweetheart Abbey (Abbada Dulds Cordis) in her husband's memory, causing 
his heart to be embalmed and placed in a 'cophyne' of ebony and silver 
which she kept constantly beside her. When she died in 1290 it was buried 
beside her according to her instructions. 

5 In Dervorvilla moritur sensata Sibilla, 
Cum Marthaque pia contemplativa Maria. 
Da Dervorvilla requie, Rex summe, potiri 
Quam tegit iste lapis cor pariterque viri. 
69 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

[1293] died John of Kirkby. In the twenty-first year of the 
king's reign, about the feast of S. Michael, 1 the king's daughter, 
Eleanor, was given in marriage to Henry, Comte de Bar, by 
whom he had a son, Edward, and a daughter whom Earl 
John de Warenne took to wife. 

In the same year there was granted to King Edward of 
England a half of their goods by the clergy, a sixth by the 
citizens, and a tenth part by the rest of the people as a 
subsidy for his war in Gascony. 

In this year there was a great scarcity of victual in England, 
and the suffering poor were dying of hunger. 

In the twenty-fourth year of this king's reign (1296), his 
daughter Elizabeth was married to John, son of the Count 
of Holland, at whose death Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of 
Hereford, married her. 

At the same time Pope Boniface bestowed the archbishopric 
of Dublin upon William de Hopume, giving him indulgence 
to be consecrated by any Catholic bishop wheresoever he chose. 
This William was Provincial Prior of the Order of Friars- 
Preachers and a Master in Theology; he was jocund in speech, 
mild in conversation, sincerely religious, and acceptable in the 
eyes of all men. Having travelled with the king to Flanders, 
he there received the rite of consecration from my Lord 
Antony of Durham, by whose mediation on the part of the 
English and the Duke of Brittany's on the part of the French, 
a truce was arranged between the kings. 

[The chronology of these later paragraphs has been dislocated 
in compilation.] 

1 29th September. 
70 



LANERCOST 

There happened on Christmas day something to which I 
give a place here by way of a joke, and for the sake of 
an old saw that gamblers and loose livers always come to 
poverty. Now there was in the parish of Well, in the 
district of Richmond, 1 a careful, but profligate cleric, 
proctor for the rector. He kept unlawful company with the 
pretty daughter of a certain widow in the village, keeping her 
privately in the house of the absent parson, seeing that there 
was nobody who could restrain him from doing so. But 
when his bed was set in the great upper chamber of the 
mansion, his master's steward arrived unexpectedly, coming to 
this northern region to collect the rents of the churches, 
whereof, being at once ecclesiastic and King's chaplain, he had 
too many. The proctor, being obliged to make way for the 
steward, set about moving his bed ; but, for the life of him, 
he could not think where to hide his bedfellow that she might 
not be seen. He placed her, therefore, in a secret, strong and 
vaulted, but narrow, cell under the entrance to the upper 
chamber, where he used to keep the rents and valuables of 
the church, because of the security of the place. The girl, 
when she beheld around her plenty of cash, nor could expect 
in any other way to provide a competency for herself, thrust 
into her bosom a bag containing ten marks, and pretending 
that she required to withdraw, 2 requested the proctor, whom 
she called privily, to allow her to go out. He, suspecting 
no deceit, allowed this daughter of guile to depart ; and on 
the morrow when he was obliged promptly to render account 
and acquit himself of what he had received, he found himself 
x ln Yorkshire. 2 Simulate ventris necessitate. 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

cheated by his whore, in consequence whereof he lost his 
appointment. 

On the festival of S. Agnes an illustrious woman, the Lady 
Dervorguilla, ended her long life, relict of Sir John de Balliol, 
a woman eminent for her wealth and possessions both in England 
and Scotland, but much more so for goodness of heart, for she 
succeeded as daughter and heir of the illustrious Alan, sometime 
Lord of Galloway. She died at a great age at Castle Barnard, 
and was buried at Sweetheart in Galloway, 1 a Cistercian monastery 
which she herself built and endowed. 

At the following Easter it happened in the city of Paris that, 
although the holy decrees of God's church declare that Christians 
fo. i97 b shall not consort with Jews nor do them service, a certain 
woman, a daughter of Eve [and] handmaid to some Jews, being 
about to go to church on the holy day of the Lord's resurrection, 
adorned herself specially for the honour of God. Her master 
saw her and, perceiving her purpose, said *Dost thou intend 
to go to church after the manner of Christians and take part 
in the vain ceremonies of your superstition ? ' As she did not 
deny it, he came nearer to her, commended her kindly, and 
freely promised to reward her if she would consent to keep the 
Lord's body, which she was to receive, uneaten until she 
returned home, so that she might show him what it was that 
the Church worshipped. The wretched woman agreed, being as 
flexible as a reed ; and while she was attending the service, the 
enemy of Christ caused a multitude of Jews to be assembled, 
and, having revealed to them the impiety he intended, caused 

1 Duguer, i.e. Doux coeur or Dulc'is cordis, so named by her because her 
husband's heart was there enshrined. 

72 



LANERCOST 

them all to await the return of the foolish woman. He ordered 
the upper table to be cleared and spread with a better cloth, 
and, when the mother of sacrilege arrived, he bade her place 
what she carried upon the white linen. When she obeyed the 
will of the wicked man, he, as if performing a legal ceremony, 
drew out a knife in sight of them all, and, exclaiming 
* Behold what Christians call their God, and which we crucified ! ' 
struck what had the appearance of bread so violently that he 
thumped his arm on the table. Immediately there burst forth 
jets of blood, staining the table, the cloth, the hand, the knife 
and the garments of the bystanders, the flow of gore being 
more copious than from a human wound All of them fled, 
terrified by the incident and seeking to hide themselves for fear 
of death, leaving the author of the crime alone with his house- 
hold. He, after the manner of men, suspected some trick, and 
tried to wash himself with water ; but directly the blood 
touched anything, it made it, not only bloody, but soaked in 
blood ; as with the table linen, so with the knife. At last, 
thinking to hide in a deep well the crime he had attempted, with 
wicked hands he plunged the Lord's Body, which makes the 
guardian angels tremble, into the abyss. But in vain, for it 
continued indestructible, floating on the surface of the water, 
which was now turned into blood, and causing the spring which 
had been flowing at the bottom, to fill the whole well to the very 
top. The gore increased its flow, turning all things that it reached 
into blood. The news having gone abroad, the wicked fellow 
was apprehended and, having been tried by the clergy, was 
remitted to the royal authority. 1 Each of them suffered 

1 That is to the secular arm for punishment. 
73 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

judgment, for the woman was burnt to death. Friar W. 
Herbert, however, an eyewitness, tells another story, saying 
that the woman repented, went to the bishop, related the fact 
and was saved ; but the Jew was drawn, hanged and burnt 
because he refused to believe. 

After these things, at the beginning of winter, King Edward 
proposed to sojourn in the northern parts of England, so that 
he might more readily communicate with the council of the Scots, 
and that his presence might strengthen the weaker parts of 
the frontiers of his realm. Setting forth, therefore, for this 
purpose with the Queen-Consort, his children and the court, 
and arriving near Lincoln, on the festival of the holy apostles 
Simon and Jude, 1 his wife departed this life. Her mournful 
obsequies caused the King to return speedily to London, where 
[her remains] received a place of sepulture in Westminster, 
with great ceremony and a notable assembly of nobles. 

In this year the meek S. Francis revived the memorable 
truth of his acts of old, in order to spread the knowledge of 
himself in England. For there were living together about three 
miles from Oxford a young and well-born couple, in the fifth 
year after they had entered the marriage bond ; and as they 
were without offspring, they deplored themselves as if already 
half dead, despairing of an heir to succeed them. But the lady, 
yearning with desire for offspring, and laying the absence thereof 
to account of her transgressions, forthwith, impelled by faith, 
sought the sacrament of confession in Oxford, and laid open her 
life to one of the Order of Minorites. And when with tears 

1 2 8th October. The Queen did not die till 2 8th November, which date 
is correctly given in the duplicate entry on page 60. 

74 



LANERCOST 

she deplored her barren state and explained the love her husband 
bore her, the confessor, moved by piety and calling to mind 
the acts of the holy father, advised her to commend herself to 
S. Francis by a vow, and thereby, as he firmly believed, her 
desire would not be disappointed. The woman agreed immedi- 
ately, and vowed that for the rest of her life she would abstain 
from all food except bread and water on the vigil of the saint, 
if through his merits she should obtain the wished-for fruit of her 
womb. She did according to her vow in the first year, and 
conceived, and before the return of the saint's festival she was 
delivered safely of two male twins, and thenceforward suffered 
no more from her former trouble. 

For variety of matter may here be told what happened about 
this date in Cunninghame, a district of Scotland, which may 
frighten publicans and be a check upon tipplers. There was 
then, and still survives (albeit a changed man) a certain country- 
man in the said district, William by name, a man possessed of 
means, but inclined to stuff his belly with more than he ought. 
In truth, how slothful gluttony renders a working man ! This 
one was in the habit of sneaking away from his own cottage, 
and in another village, as he could not have it at home, he 
would spend the means of other men in carousals 1 and drink, 
until he was checked by the divine hand in the following 
manner. 

He was sitting alone by the hearth in the house of a certain 
publican, gulping down rather than drinking the beer he had 
bought, all the inmates of that house being busy in outdoor 
occupations, when there appeared to the fool an exceedingly 

1 Symbolis. 
75 



MS. 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

hideous likeness of a spirit of the air seated opposite him, 
with a foul body, ghostly countenance, fiery eyes and of terrific 
dimensions. The disciple of Bacchus shuddered at the sight, 
but being bolder through drink, which makes even the unwarlike 
pugnacious, accosted him with an enquiry whose satellite he might 
be, or what business he had to be there. The other haughtily 
disregarding these questions, asked with a laugh who was the 
bold fellow who did not recognise him as the owner of a 
fo. 198 house in that place, who for thirty years past had held the 
foremost place among the topers of that same tavern. 'And 
that I may not deceive you,' said he, * come and see what I 
have stowed up from the gluttony of spendthrifts.' The other 
crossed the hearth without delay and beheld beside the spirit 
of deceit an open vessel crammed with abominations so 
filthy, that they almost drove the foolish fellow crazy. ' These 
which you see,' said the minister of evil,' I have collected 
from the vomit of thy companions in your revels.' Having 
his conscience thus awakened, although, as Solomon said, he 
had not felt the rod, and forewarned of the impending 
danger, William voluntarily made a vow to the Lord that he 
would never in any circumstances taste malt liquor again for 
the rest of his life, which [vow] he keeps inviolable at this 
day to the wonder of all his former acquaintance. He bears 
witness to all men of what he saw with his own eyes, and he 
told what is stated above to two trustworthy and religious 
men, with whom I am well acquainted. 

The solemn obsequies of the Queen having been performed, 
whereat John Archbishop of York was present, between whom 

and the Bishop of Durham the King had endeavoured without 

76 



LANERCOST 

success to establish peace, the Archbishop, having sought and 
with difficulty obtained licence, crossed the channel on the 
festival of All Saints 1 to go to Rome, and did so accordingly, 
and was honourably received by the leading men of the city 
and their retainers. Here he pled for the liberty and ancien 
rights of his church in the presence of the Pope ; but how far 
he succeeded is not yet fully known. 

Eleanor, Queen of England, died on the 4th of the Kalends 
of December, 2 at Harby. Her entrails were interred in the 
mother church of Lincoln on the fourth of the nones of 
December, 3 and on the fourth of the ides of December, 4 her 
body was buried at Westminster, and on the day before the 
ides 6 her heart was buried at the [church of] the Preaching 
Friars of London ; whereupon Henry de Burg wrote [as 
follows]. 

% O reader pause and pray : ' Dear Christ, allow 
No ill to vex her who is laid below ! ' 
How brief's the human span this Queen bears witness ; 
Pray for her soul, and mend thine own unfitness. 
Nor birth nor worth nor wealth nor strength availeth 
To ward off death, which over all prevaileth. 
Mourn not too long : thou canst not by much weeping 
Bring back her soul who in this tomb lies sleeping ; 
But pray that she abide with Christ in glory, 
While here below her virtues live in story. 
Long live the King, and prosper in achievement ! 
Would'st thou record the year of his bereavement ? 
Write once a thousand and a hundred thrice, 
Add them, and from the total take five twice. 
Also the month and day thou must remember, 
Queen Alianora died on fifth November. 6 

1 ist November. 2 28th November. 3 2nd December. 

4 loth December. 5 izth December. 6 Wrong ; it was the z8th. 

77 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

Pope Nicholas the Fourth died on Easter Eve 1 after he 
had sat for four years and one month ; and the Church 
was without a head for three years and more ; where- 
fore all was revoked that the Archbishop (who was returning 
home) had obtained by his presence at the Curia during two 
diets. 

It happened also by God's permission on the same Easter 
Eve that Acre, a city of Galilee, which for so long had alone 
withstood by supernal protection the fury of the infidels, was 
taken and utterly destroyed, owing undoubtedly to the corrupt 
life of its citizens which wrought the ruin of the papal troops 
and also to the false and craven faith of the spiritual fathers, 
as the result of this affair clearly proves. All this [tends], as is 
believed, to the desolation of the Church in future and also 
to aggravate the ascendency of the infidels, because it [Acre] 
was the last domicile of the Catholic Church in Asia, the 
sanctuary for all pilgrims and the chief market for merchants. 
Now whereas this city was a mercantile emporium as much for 
Christians as for Saracens, the traffic being by ships on one 
side and by beasts of burden on the other, whereof these people 
stood in no little want, and as access and return was secured 
by a truce, the knights whom the Pope commanded to remain 
there until the coming of the crusaders, 2 used to behave cruelly 
to the Saracen traders, either by seizing their goods without 
payment or treating their persons with indignity, transgressing 
the law of kindness as if in zeal for the Christian law. When 

1 22nd April. 

2 On 1 4th October, 1290, King Edward announced his intention to set upon 
another crusade, and received from Pope Nicholas IV. six years' tithes from 
England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales (Feederd). 

78 



LANERCOST 

this was reported to the Sultan he civilly demanded of the Priors 
that, for the protection of the city, they would refrain from 
molesting his people and that they would hand over the wrong- 
doers to himself; or, if they preferred it, that they would 
execute justice upon these men according to their own law. 1 
When this proposal had been made thrice to them, 2 and they 
continued to put the matter off, fearing, perhaps, to inflict 
punishment on the foreigners, there was sent at first a strong 
body of armed men, either to avenge the breaking of the truce 
or to execute the malefactors who should be surrendered to them. 
And when they laid siege to the city, not more than 15,000 men 
made a sortie against 100,000 of the enemy, and at the first 
onset cut down many of them, forced them to fly from the walls 
for about three mile, and took captive about five thousand of the 
rearmost fugitives. They performed this exploit before Palm 
Sunday. 3 The enemy, therefore, having had a taste of this 
bravery, increased their army so that it amounted to 300,000 
light troops, investing the city once more and shooting so hotly 
against it that, as one who was there informed me, you might see 
the little arrows which they call { locusts ' flying in the air 
thicker than snowflakes. Those, then, who were in command 
upon the walls, perceiving that they could not hold the town for 
long against so many foes, determined by common counsel to 
make confession and receive the communion, penitently imploring 
help for their arms from the Lord, and that all should sally forth 
on the day of our common redemption, with ranks arrayed and 

1 An unusual example of fair criticism of the Paynim, by a Christian clerical 
writer. 

2 The Priors of the Templars and Hospitallers. 3 1 5th April. 

79 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

the prisoners set in the van, and adventure their lives for the 
Author of life. And when they had so resolved with undaunted 

MS. 

fo. i98 b hearts and kindled faith, they sent to the Patriarch, who was in 
the place, that they might accomplish under his authority and with 
his blessing the purpose which they had begun. He, broken in 
spirit and depending on the advice of perfidious persons, replied 
that none should attempt this, nor open any of the city gates 
under pain of excommunication. Thus it came about that 
those who were outside, rendered more daring by what had 
happened, redoubled their bitter insults ; until, when the city had 
been taken, their patriarch and pastor indeed their very idol 
was the first to take flight with the other nobles and owners 
of great wealth ; and it is said that those defended themselves 
longest who had no desire on earth but to have justice and 
poverty. About a thousand of the religious were slain in the 
city with the common people, incalculable treasure was plundered, 
and so many arms of different kinds and such lots of jewels were 
divided as spoil as exceeded all the booty that the Saracens had 
won hitherto. Whereat they may greatly marvel who know that 
God had not changed, but had been alienated by transgression ; 
for He had promised that his servants should possess every place 
upon which they set foot ; and yet He utterly deprived the 
worshippers of Christ of that land whereon he set his holy 
footsteps and gave it to the persecutors of the Church. 

At that time King Edward, travelling to the northern districts 
for reasons above described, celebrated the Lord's Pasque 1 at 
Newcastle. For the glory of his renown, throughout the whole 
of his journey, he expended vast sums in oblations in monasteries, 

1 22nd April. 
80 



LANERCOST 

immense and unheard of charities in the streets ; so much so 
that many persons of means, attracted by so liberal a distribution, 
blushed not to pose as paupers, although in the law courts they 
were at pains to show that they were others than paupers. 

And when he had observed the Holy Pentecost 1 at Berwick, 
having after the festival of Holy Trinity 2 clearly shown from 
many and different chronicles, both of Scotland and England, 
what rights he and his predecessors possessed in Scotland, he was 
acknowledged Lord Paramount of all Scotland by unanimous 
consent of the nobles, 3 homage being done to him by all, and 
the sign manual of all being confirmed by their seals. The 
homage of the nobles was done in these words : 

* Forasmuch as we have all come to the faith of the noble Prince, Sir Edward 
King of England, we promise for ourselves and our heirs, so far as that is within 
our power, that we shall be loyal and serve you loyally against all men who may 
live and die ; and that so soon as we know of anything to the detriment of the 
king or his heirs, we shall oppose it to the best of our power. To this we bind 
ourselves and our heirs, which we have sworn upon the Holy Gospels. Moreover, 
we have done fealty to our Lord the aforesaid King in these words, each one for 
himself: " I will be faithful and loyal, and bear faith and loyalty to King Edward 
of England and his heirs, with life and limb and earthly honour against all men 
who may live and die." ' 4 

He held this saisin peaceably until the creation of King John 
[Balliol], and he appointed his constables in all the castles and 
lands belonging to the King of Scotland. 

He received there the news of the death of the queen, his 
mother, who died on the festival of S. John the Baptist. 5 

1 ioth June. 2 i7th June. 8 Norham, 5th June [Rymer's Faedera], 

4 Given by the chronicles in what purports to be the original Norman French : 
but it is incomplete and incorrect. The date was I3th June, 1291. 

5 24th June. 

F Si 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

From the day of her conversion l until her death, besides 
other liberal charities, she caused five pounds of silver to be 
bestowed upon the poor every Friday of the week, for the 
furtherance of her prayers and in adoration of the wounds of 
Christ. Forasmuch, therefore, as the king desired to be 
present at all the stages of her obsequies, her body was solemnly 
prepared and embalmed with spices, the funeral being deferred 
until the Assumption of the glorious Virgin. 2 But when her 
body was committed to the earth with much pomp, King 
Edward, with his own hand, gave his mother's heart, enshrined 
in gold, to her near relative, the Minister-General of the 
Minorite Friars for the time being in the Provinces, with these 
words : 

' I commit to thee, as the nearest in blood to my mother, the 
dearest treasure I have ; and do thou lay it up honourably with 
thy brethren in London, whom she herself loved most of all in 
the world.' 

At the festival of S. Michael 3 there was such rain over the 
whole of England and such floods as caused great trouble not 
only to farmers, but especially to travellers, because of the miri- 
ness and wetness of the roads. In many places also the lightning 
and thunder were extraordinary, whereof I shall here note an 
instance, known to not a few, and related to me by one who 
was there and saw. 

There is a country village called Staveley, near Chesterfield, 
containing a stately parish church, wherein, while the priests 
were performing the service on the first Sunday after the feast 

1 She died a nun at Amesbury, in Wiltshire. 

2 1 5th August. 3 2 gth September. 

82 



LANERCOST 

of Angels suddenly, about the first hour of the day, the air 
became thick and dark, and by a single stroke of lightning 
much damage was caused all at once. For the lightning, entering 
from the east part of the choir by a window towards the north, 
defiled everything it touched along the northern wall with a 
black smoke, splitting the stones and loosening the joints of the 
couples. It killed one priest and injured the other in such 
manner that he lived afterwards as a cripple for not more than 
two years. Turning south at the end of the chancel, it blackened 
all the right side of the image of the glorious Virgin over the 
altar, and did to death a certain cleric who was kneeling in prayer 
at the right end [of the altar], having there performed his mass, 
so suddenly that it turned that part of his body which was 
nearest the wall from head to foot, together with his garments, 
into something like pitch, the rest of him remaining entire. 
Thence crossing westward to the bell-tower, which, with its 
roof, was all of stone, it shattered the cross-beams with a loud 
crash, and easily swept away the stone dowel with its great iron 
spike. Such mysteries as these deserve to be shrewdly investi- 
gated at leisure and to be gravely considered. 

In the same year King Edward the Fourth, son of Henry 
the Third, in the course of investigating upon whom the kingdom 
of Scotland should devolve by hereditary right, decreed that any 
one who claimed the aforesaid kingdom by hereditary right, MS. 
should set forth his case so that he should have justice. The 
pleadings between them took place before the responsible deputies 
of the kingdoms of England and Scotland. 

Concerning a certain Earl of Chester named Ranulph : this 
earl had a certain sister named Matilda, who had been married 

83 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

to David, the King of Scotland's brother. 1 This Matilda had 
by her lord David one son, who was called John, and three 
daughters Margaret, the eldest, Isobel, the second, and Ada, 
the third and youngest. 2 Margaret afterwards was married to 
Alan, Earl of Galloway, 3 who, by the aforesaid Margaret, begat 
one daughter, who was called Dervorguilla, afterwards married 
to Sir John de Balliol, whose son was Sir John de Balliol, who 
claimed and obtained the kingdom of Scotland, because his 
maternal grandmother was the eldest daughter of King David, 4 
who left no male surviving issue. 

Isabella, the second daughter 4 of King David, was given in 
marriage to a certain Earl of Carrick, who was called Robert 
de Brus, 6 who also claimed the kingdom of Scotland in right 
of his wife, who was the second daughter of King David. 

Ada, third and youngest daughter of the aforesaid king, was 
given in marriage to Henry de Hastings, father of John de 
Hastings, who claimed the kingdom in right of his mother. 

But the aforesaid King Edward, having been informed ot 
this, caused forty responsible persons to be elected for both 
realms to wit, England and Scotland, twenty for one and 
twenty for the other, and directed them to examine the afore- 
said question and other papers bearing on it, and to decide 

1 David, Earl of Huntingdon (1143-1219), third son of Prince Henry, second 
son of David I., King of Scots. 

2 She had three sons and four daughters. 

3 He was not an earl (comes}, but a lord (dom'mui). 

4 Really the grand-daughter. 

5 He was not Earl of Carrick, but fifth Lord of Annandale. It was Robert 
de Brus, seventh Lord of Annandale, who became Earl of Carrick in right of 
his wife. 

84 



LANERCOST 

which of the aforesaid [competitors] had the better right to the 
kingdom of Scotland ; and, that they might do this more thor- 
oughly and assuredly, he gave them time for deliberation from 
the feast of blessed John the Baptist 1 until the feast of S. 
Michael. 2 When they reached that date, they determined that 
Sir John de Balliol had the better title to the kingdom of Scotland, 
and that it fell to him by right. When he heard this, my lord 
Edward, by common consent of the nobles and of the majority 
of the deputies, conferred the kingdom of Scotland upon Sir 
John de Balliol, who did homage. 

In the same year Eleanor, formerly Queen of England and 
mother of King Edward, died, a nun, at Amesbury, and was 
there honourably interred. Her^Jieart was buried in London 
on the feast day of S. Andrew 3 and birthday of the said Eleanor; 
on which day all the archbishops, bishops, abbots and other 
dignitaries of the church, earls and many others were assembled. 

In the same year, after Easter, Edward, King of England, held 
a Parliament at Norham, in the nineteenth year of his reign, 
concerning the affairs of the realm of Scotland, where the suze- 
rainty of Scotland was adjudged to him and unanimously conceded 
by all the magnates of the aforesaid realm elected for this matter 
and closely examined upon oath, having touched the sacred 
gospels. 

The land that groaned so long without a king 
May now a joyful restoration sing ; 
The folk whom anarchy did once oppress 
Do now an honourable prince possess, 
Able and anxious to redress all wrongs. 
Scotia, distraught by lawlessness too long, 
Is now, by English Edward's guidance, strong. 

1 24th June. 2 zgth September. 3 3Oth November. 

85 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

Strong and at peace ; each chief hath sheathed the sword, 
Which he had drawn against his neighbour lord. 
Let Scotia prosper, while, from o'er the border, 
King Edward shields the cause of law and order. 

In the same year, on the kalends of March, 1 died my lord Ralph 
of good memory, sometime [Bishop] of Carlisle ; and the see being 
vacant Master John of Nassington 2 was sent to Carlisle, etc. 

In the same year a provincial council was held at York by com- 
mand of the Pope, concerning the recovery of the Holy Land and 
the union of the Templars and Hospitallers. 

Item, in the same year there was granted by my lord Nicholas, 
the Pope to Edward the Fourth, King of England, a tithe to be 
levied for six years upon all the goods temporal and ecclesiastical 
of all religious persons and upon all the spiritual goods of all the 
clergy, according to actual value [ascertained] upon oath through- 
out all England. 

When the lawful inheritance of the kingdom of Scotland had 

devolved, after many pleadings and mature discussions, 

to Sir John de Balliol in preference to the rest of the 

competitors for the honour of governing the people of Scotland, 

on the appointed day, to wit that of S. Andrew the Apostle, 3 he 

was raised to the kingly seat at Scone, with the applause of a 

multitude of people assembled, the King of England's attorneys 

also taking part, and he set out for England to make personal 

acknowledgement of the honour he had received and perform 

the homage of fealty. 

At this time Ralph, Bishop of Carlisle, departed this life at 
Linstock. 4 For being greatly fatigued by a long journey which 

1 ist March. 2 In Northamptonshire. 

3 3oth November. * In the parish of Stanwix, Cumberland. 

86 



LANERCOST 

he made in deep snow, returning from the parliament of London, 1 
he bled himself [on arriving] in the aforesaid episcopate, and when 
he was liberally refreshing his body, he desired to sleep. In his 
slumber the vein burst, and before he could be attended to he 
took leave of human affairs, deluged in blood and deprived of 
speech. 

Also on the festival of the Purification 2 my lord John of 
Peckham, Archbishop of Canterbury, died, who from the time of 
his consecration had abstained from eating meat, would have none 
but coarse garments and bed-clothes, surpassed all his associates 
and the ministers of his chapel in vigils and prayers, so that often he 
would light the lamps and candles with his own hands, and would 
not disdain other menial offices. Master Robert of Winchelsea, 
Archdeacon of East Anglia and doctor of theology, was elected in 
his place, whose consecration was delayed because the Apostolical 
See was vacant. Also on the Sunday within the octave of the 
Ascension of our Lord, which, in that year, fell on the third of 
the kalends of June, 3 the city of Carlisle was burnt, so that the loss 
of the bishop was followed by the desolation of the people in this 
manner. Just as it is declared in Holy Writ that the ruin of the 
people was caused by evil priests, which the Saviour confirmed 
by the cleansing of the temple, and as the aforesaid see [of Carlisle] 
was weakened by many vices, so that, as holy Job made observa- 
tion, the heavens should reveal the iniquity of the people and the 
earth should rise up against them, [so] God caused a disturbance MS. 
of the air, of the sea and of fire during the space of one day and 

1 Held on the morrow of the Epiphany, 1292. 2 2nd February. 

3 This is the 3oth May, but the real date of that Sunday was i8th May. 
Hemingburgh gives S. Dunstan's day, igth May, as the date of the fire. 

87 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

night, and, what is more, there was an exercise of human malice. 
For such a furious wind arose as destroyed all vegetation, and 
either overthrew travellers afoot or on horseback or drove them 
easily out of their right course. There was also such a tremend- 
ous inroad of an unusually high tide as to overflow the ancient 
landmarks of the country [in a degree] beyond all memory of old 
people, overwhelming beasts pasturing along its shores and de- 
stroying the sown crops. Satan even caused the son of a certain 
man x to set fire to his father's house outside the town at the west 
end of the cathedral church, and this, escaping notice at first, soon 
spread over the whole town, and, what is more, it speedily con- 
sumed the neighbouring hamlets to a distance of two miles beyond 
the walls, and afterwards the streets of the city, with the churches 
and collegiate buildings, none being able to save any but very few 
houses. The fire, indeed, was so intense and devouring that it 
consumed the very stones and burnt flourishing orchards to the 
ground, destroyed animals of all kinds ; and, which was even 
more deplorable, it burnt very many human beings of different 
ages and both sexes. I myself saw birds flying about half burnt 
in their attempt to escape. 

The valuable contents of warehouses and treasuries were wasted 
there ; but, which was more striking than the rest, the price of the 
timbers, glazing and stalls [of the cathedral] which a brigand rather 
than a high priest 2 had extorted from the purses of stipendiary 
priests, earning thereby ill-will and malediction ; so that the 
flames devoured the sepulchre of that wicked extortioner, but the 

1 The son is said to have done so in revenge for being disinherited. 

^Prtedo non prcesul, referring to Bishop Rafe de Ireton. For the offence given 
by his exactions see under the year 1280. 

88 



LANERCOST 

bounds of his predecessor, Robert de Chalix, remained uninjured 
in every part. 1 

In the same year Pope Nicholas the Fourth died on Holy 
Thursday. 2 

In the same year Rismaraduc, one of the nobles of Wales, a 
traitor to the King of England, was judicially drawn at York on 
the morrow of the Holy Trinity, 3 and was hanged for three days 
and nights at Knaresmire. 

The kings of Scotland are bound to make submission to their 
overlord, the King of England and his heirs, as is proved from 
the time of King Edward named the Elder, and can still be learnt 
from deeds and papal bulls. 

Charter of William^ King of Scot/and. 

' In a charter made by William King of Scotland to John King of England it 
is set forth that William King of Scotland granted to his dearest lord John, King 
of England, that he [John] should arrange a marriage for Alexander his [William's] 
son wherever he wished, as for his liege man, so long as he [Alexander] was not 
disparage thereby. 4 Item, that whatsoever might happen to John, the said King 
William and his son Alexander, should keep faith and loyalty to his [John's] son 
Henry, as to their liege lord, against all mortals, and shall help him to hold the 
kingdom for him according to their powers, saving always the allegiance whereby 
they are bound to King John. Given in the thirteenth [year] of the reign of 
King John.' 5 

Among the papal bulls for the kings of England it is found 
that Pope Honorius the Third calls the King of England lord of 
the King of Scotland, who was waging war wickedly against his 
lord himself, and is therefore placed under the bond of excom- 
munication. 

1 Hemingburgh states that the incendiary was taken and hanged. 

2 3rd April. Fleury gives the date as Good Friday. 3 2nd June. 

*I.e, that the marriage should befit his rank. 5 Fcedera^ A.D. 1212. 

89 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

' Item : Gregory the Ninth saith that long ago a friendly compact was made 
between Henry the Second, grandfather, and John, father, of Henry King of 
England on the one part and William King of Scotland on the other, whereby the 
said William and Alexander, son of the aforesaid King of Scots, made allegiance 
and homage to the grandsire, the father and the same king, binding their suc- 
cessors, the earls and barons of Scotland, to perform the same to the kings of 
England themselves ; and, should the terms of the compact not be observed, 
[then] the earls and barons of Scotland should adhere to the kings of England. 1 

' Item : Gregory writes to the Archbishop of York and the Bishop of Carlisle 
to admonish and persuade the King of Scotland to keep to the aforesaid amicable 
compact. 2 

' Item : Gregory writes to the King of Scotland, addressing him as liege-man of 
the King of England, [desiring him] to keep his oath of allegiance and expressing 
surprise that he is not keeping it by spending more in honour of the King of 
England.' 8 

On the day of S. George the Martyr, 4 my lord John of Halton 
was elected Bishop of Carlisle. 

Verses on the Burning of Carlisle. 

'Twas in the jocund month of May 
That fair Carlisle in ashes lay. 
Ah, wretched city ! hard's thy fate, 
Swept by the flames from gate to gate. 
Of stately buildings none, alack ! 
Remain, except the Friar's Black. 
Organ and bells and tuneful choir 
But serve to mourn this dreadful fire. 
May'st thou yet see a brighter morrow ! 
Christ hear our prayer and ease our sorrow. 

In the same year, on the morrow of All Souls, 5 the Itinerant 
Justiciaries sat in Carlisle ; to wit, Sir Hugh de Cressingham, Sir 
William de Ormesby, and the others associated with them. 

1 25th September, 1237 (Faedera). 2 4th January, 1235 (Faedera). 

3 27th April, 1231 ; 4th January, 1235. 4 23rd April. 

5 3rd November. 

90 



LANERCOST 

Christ's holiness renewed in his servant S. Anthony, confessor 

and doctor, the accustomed miracles, whereof I was 

A.D. 1293. 
informed by the letter of an Anglican friar of the same 

convent, who was present and beheld them, and whose letter I here 
insert in its order. 1 

* One of the friars of the Minorite order, by birth a 
Parmesan, by name Bernardinus, of good enough family, 
young and strong, healthy and active a fortnight after Easter, 
was suddenly deprived of voice, sight and speech, and suffered 
such difficulty in breathing as only to blow out the smallest 
candle with difficulty. His parents and brethren decided to 
send him, thus crippled, as speedily as might be for the 
advice of the doctors of Lombardy. However, after being 
thus disabled for three days and having hastily begun his 
journey, he recovered his sight, although the use of his MS. 
tongue and power of breathing showed not the least improve- 
ment. The most celebrated medical men failing either to 
detect the cause of the illness or to apply a remedy (albeit 
they tried cautery in various ways), sent him away without 
any hope [of recovery]. But as the memorial services of S. 
Anthony were being held in the neighbourhood, the invalid, no 
doubt divinely inspired, obtained by signs and nods license from 
his minister to go with the rest of the friars of his province to 
Padua, where the saint reposeth. Arriving there on the fourth 
day before the festival should be celebrated on the Sabbath, the 
friars of the convent were profoundly affected, weeping to behold 
such a fine young fellow as dumb as a statue. On the morrow 

J S. Anthony of Padua lived 1000 years after S. Anthony, the founder of 
monasticism, and died in 1231. 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

the sufferer devoutly repaired to the place of the shrine, 1 
wherein the saint is set, when it happened that the Most 
High glorified his saint, so that about evening of the same 
day there came upon the invalid as he prayed there a certain 
commotion of his entrails, not without excruciating pain. 
Overcome by this, he left the shrine and vomited something 
filthy and, as it were, sulphurous. Feeling thereafter that he 
could breathe [freely], but that he had not yet recovered the 
use of his tongue, he took some tablets and gave them to 
a friar whom he met, after writing on them that he believed 
he would be able, through help of the Holy Father, to read 
the epistle on the morrow. Then hastening again to the 
shrine, accompanied by three friars, after waiting a little while he 
recovered the use of his tongue. Immediately a number of friars 
collected, who, when they beheld what had been done, with 
streaming eyes united in praising the Lord and [His] saint. Then 
there was a gathering of the villagers, in whose presence he who 
had been healed, standing in a high place in front of the shrine, 
began in a loud voice [to chant the] Sahe regina, etc. When the 
antiphone of the blessed S. Anthony had been solemnly sung, the 
minister took up the subject and preached a sermon, making 
known the circumstances of the miracle. 

* But when the report of the miracle spread abroad, some people, 
through their shortsighted infirmity, threw doubts upon the 
divine goodness, declaring that there had been no miracle but 
[only] an imposture by the friars, since he who had been cured 
was a stranger. Wherefore, lest the bounty of the divine conde- 
scension should be brought into contempt, a second manifestation 

1 Archa. 
92 



LANERCOST 

followed, which, in proof of good faith, was attested by the formal 
oaths of clergy, of magistrates and of knights, and also by the 
evidence of six parsons. 

' Well, at dawn of the vigil of the festival [there came] a certain 
lay brother of the nuns of the monastery of the Order of S. Ber- 
nard, who had been a lay brother at Padua for five-and-thirty 
years, or thereby, and was deaf and dumb from his birth, and, 
which is more remarkable, was wholly destitute of a tongue, 
besides being ignorant of every form of speech. Only by means 
of eyesight and signs and nods he lived with the others, being 
employed as a baker. Beholding the crowd of people assembling 
from all parts, as is the custom, in honour of the saint, he 
could obtain no leave from the abbess to repair to the saint's 
shrine, although he earnestly besought it. Then, when he 
had sorrowfully composed himself to sleep, about midnight 
there came to him, as he declared, a Minorite friar, stout, of 
lofty stature and of middle age, who wakened him by touching 
him and said : u Dost thou desire to be cured ? Rise and go 
to the shrine." 

* He arose at once and struck a light, [but] when he looked for 
him who had appeared to him, he could not find him. Taking 
for granted that it was another lay brother of his monastery, he 
hastened faithfully to fulfil the saint's command ; but, on arriving 
at the church, he was unable to get in, because, being entirely 
filled with the women performing the vigil of the saint, it was 
closed under an armed guard, as is the custom every year. 
Being forced of necessity to remain outside, he entered at the 
first stroke of dawn, and did not leave the shrine until the solemn 
mass was finished. Then he went out to breakfast with the friars, 

93 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

as the clergy, priests and especially the Regulars, wherever they 
may have come from, usually do. 

' The meal being over, he returned to the shrine, around which 
there remained a constant throng ; and, when the service of 
Nones was finished, at the rest hour he began to sweat copiously 
and to suffer severe pains, so that he seemed about to faint. 
Then he felt in his head, between his ears, a great cleaving and 
violent dragging at his ears, and suddenly he began to speak, 
although he had never learnt [to do so]. There was such a 
multitude of men there, and the gathering increased so much, 
because the healed man was well known to everybody, that, 
although the doors were strong, they were scarcely fit to withstand 
the violence of the worshippers, so that the whole place was filled 
with shoutings within and without, and oripilationem 1 was brought 
upon the slanderers of the preceding miracle. There was among 
them a certain youth named Cambius, of the Roman province, 
but a native of Bologna, who had been sent by his minister to 
consult the Bolognese doctors about a rupture from which he 
suffered terribly. This youth, taking account of the grace be- 
stowed upon others and glowing again with fervid faith, when he 
neither was able nor dared to join the women collected in the 
crypt, being prevented both by modesty and by the crush, followed 
the example of the woman with the bloody flux. He touched 
the stones of the shrine with his hand, which he thrust into his 
bosom and touched the seat of his trouble. He then felt the 
parts which had fallen out to be replaced in their proper position 
by following his hand, and the rupture to be comfortably healed. 

' In the same city there was a little two-year-old boy named 

1 Meaning doubtful. 
94 



LANERCOST 

Thomas, son of one of our fellow-townsmen, who had been care- 
lessly left by his mother near a mascellum * half full of water. 
Falling into the water, head and body [were immersed] to the 
waist, with his feet in the air, the boy was drowned. The 
mother, after she had attended to one of her husband's shoes, 
recollected the boy, and when she had looked everywhere for 
him, found him at last in the water, as cold and stiff as a log. 
Horror-struck, she was not sparing in screams ; the neighbours 
were roused and hurried in from all parts, and the wretched MS. 

fo 200^ 

woman showed them the body of the dead boy. The [boy's] 
father or grandfather, employed at that time within the walls 
of our church and in the saint's service, made hasty arrange- 
ments with some friars for the funeral. Now when the spec- 
tacle 2 was over, after having been on view until dusk, some of 
the neighbours advised the parents to have recourse with con- 
fidence to the favour of SS. Francis and Antony. The 
grandfather then vowed to give the boy's weight in corn, and 
to keep the vigils of the said saints fasting, and to travel in 
person to the dispensation of S. Francis, if the boy should be 
restored to life. No sooner had the vow been uttered, than 
suddenly the boy began to vomit a great quantity of water, 
and was restored to life and health.' 

These things [are recorded] without hope of reward for the 
glory of the saints and the edification of posterity. 

In this year war broke out at Dieppe in Neustria, 3 

A.D. 1293. 

when the citizens of that place inhumanly attacked 

1 Literally 'a shambles.' 2 ? Of the boy's corpse. 

8 An archaic term, indicating the ancient Prankish realm between Meuse 
and Loire, roughly corresponding with modern Normandy. 

95 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

our people of the Cinque Ports 1 with slaughter and rapine 
at the instance of an agitator, nay and what is more, [they 
were] encouraged by the ambition of their prince, to wit 
Charles, brother of the King of France, who had conceived 
hatred for our people, because he could not supplant his own 
brother in that kingdom, whom it was King Edward's policy 
to support in this district. So, in order that he might make 
more evident the venom which he had conceived, he subjected 
pilgrims and scholars to many afflictions, even putting some 
poor people to death on the gallows and hanging beside them 
live dogs to which he likened them. 2 And when these hostilities 
had grown to such a pitch that the Cinque Ports people attacked 
the inhabitants of Dieppe with sword and fire the King [of 
France] issued an order in council that all scholars from our 
side of the sea, Scots as well as English, should clear out of 
France. The same [edict] closed Paris to burgesses coming 
from beyond the sea, but this was not carried into effect. He 
even dared, bad Christian that he was, to consult a soothsayer 
as to what harm might happen from the ill will now engendered 
against England ; and when the soothsayer replied that nothing 
could prevail against that kingdom so long as it was under 
the protection of a Lady of great majesty and a noble ecclesiastic, 
it is said that he put him to death by way of fee. No wise 
man may entertain a doubt that the diabolic art indicated in 
metaphor 3 that Lady who, according to John of Damascus, is 

1 Portuenses. 

2 This insult is charged against the Norman seamen in a contemporary state 
paper. In the margin is sketched a gallows whereon hang some Englishmen, 
alternated with dogs. 

3 Per antinomiam. 

96 



LANERCOST 

ruler of all things, being Mother of the Creator. In whose 
honour I insert here something which happened at that time, 
which I received on the oath of a religious man in the parish 
of Aysgarth near Richmond. 

A certain countryman of blameless life worshipped the blessed 
Mother of God with devout mind, and was for seven years 
or more under the spiritual guidance of the aforesaid person. 
Certain fellows, banded together and burning with cupidity, 
robbed him of three oxgangs of his farm, 1 thinking that he 
was helpless in his own defence. Deeply distressed by his 
misfortune, he prayed devoutly to his protectress, and brought 
an action at York against the evildoers. Having obtained 
little success there because the palms [of the court] had been 
well greased, 2 and preferring to die rather than be beaten, he 
took his case to be pled in London. Arriving there with 
much difficulty and with scant means, he laid his weary limbs 
to rest in an empty and cold house at the end of a street 
on this side of London, incessantly and with tears imploring 
the Queen of Mercy, that she would deign to have compassion 
upon him in his just cause, vowing that thenceforward he would 
always distribute a yearly allowance of wheat among the poor 
in her honour at the feast of the Purification, which was then 
at hand. And when sleep had wholly deserted him because 
of the emptiness of his stomach, the anxiety of his mind and 
the narrowness of his bed, the Holy Mother of God appeared, 
as he often used to swear, to the disconsolate wretch, shining 
with dazzling brilliancy and attended by two companions. She 
was encompassed by marvellous lights, intellectual he used to 

1 Tres bovata* = 39 acres. 2 Proffer manus inunctas. 

G 97 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

call them, without doubt the angelical powers ; for as such 
they were revealed to the simple rustic, as they stood around 
the Queen of Virgins. 

Addressing the countryman * Thou hast put thy trust in 
me,' said she, ' and behold, to-morrow through my aid, thy 
land shall be restored to thee. Moreover thou shalt return 
home whole and unhindered, so that thou shalt not even bruise 
thy foot with travelling.' 

All that the Mother of the Word of God promised was 
fulfilled straightway ; and one night, after he had returned 
home, the Mother of Consolation deigned once more to appear 
to him as he was quietly sleeping. ' In like manner,' said 
she, ' as thou seest that I have performed what I promised, 
and quickly attended to thy prayer, so do thou firmly believe 
me ready to attend to all those who invoke me with sincere 
affection.' This statement is in accord with what the saints 
have declared about the Mother of Mercy, in whom [the 
Saviour], coming from on high, rested bodily during nine 
months in the bowels of mercy for our salvation. 

But I will add yet another [instance] bearing upon this matter, 
which happened to take place some thirty years ago or more. 

A few years ago there was in London a certain vicar of 
the church of Dalmeny, Sir James [by name], who used to 
discourse to many persons what he had experienced of the 
Blessed Virgin. In his youth, as he said, he was a scholar 
of Cambridge, sharing board and bed with a comely English 
youth who was called William Wilde, because he was not only 
playful and tuneful, but also too much given to wantonness. 1 

1 An interesting example of a surname originating in a personal trait. 

98 



LANERCOST 

He [James] used to worship the glorious Virgin in a devout 
spirit, attending her office, exercising himself at her services in 
songs and prayers, and, as he trusted that she would obtain 
pardon for him, calling her, in the usual phrase, the Mother 
of Mercy. 

Now one night, as he was reposing beside his comrade 
aforesaid, he seemed to be hurried off towards the east by 
two malignant monsters who were about to cast him into a 
vast fire which he saw before him. Looking back, however, 
he beheld a company of the blessed coming like priests in 
exceedingly white raiment and with shining faces, one of whom 
cried in a loud voice : * Bring him back whom you are 
carrying away, that he may be examined. It is not justice 
that one who has not been sentenced by the judge should 
suffer punishment.' Returning then with his enemies, he MS. 
[James] was taken in charge by the senate of saints, and was 
brought trembling before a handsome and dignified man of 
lofty stature, whom he understood to be a protector from 
his tormentors, who were vociferously accusing him. Then, 
after one of the adversaries had declaimed from a long roll, 
covered with black characters, setting forth all his [James's] 
misdeeds, however many, in an exact manner, the just judge 
asked him whether he wished to say anything in his defence. 
James, through remorse of conscience, made no answer at all, 
whereupon the malicious persecutor exclaimed : * Just judge, 
do not take from us him whom thou perceivest to be rightly 
our prisoner ? ' But the Creator of man turning graciously 
towards the prostrate [James] said : ' Look around carefully 
and see whether among my attendants there be one who may 

99 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

be willing to offer intercession for thee.' He, casting his eyes 
over the whole host, which, as he said, seemed to consist only 
of male beings, could not see her whom he most earnestly 
longed for, the Mother of Mercy. Straightway the dire 
sentence was pronounced, and he was being violently dragged 
away to cruel torments, when in the background he beheld 
again a choir of virgins, brightly shining and rejoicing with 
gladsome praise, of whom the Mistress, more refulgent than 
the rest, commanded the party that was leaving to halt. 
When he beheld her he humbly invoked the Queen of Mercy, 
imploring that she would deign to pity him in such dire 
extremity, reminding her of the hope, devotion and labour 
he had given to her service. ' Thou hast incurred a sentence/ 
quoth the Mother of Clemency to him, * which cannot be 
revoked. What would'st thou that I should do for thee ? ' 
* O Lady,' said he, ' if more may not be done, help me in this 
that I may be given the libel of the accusation against me.' 
The Empress of Heaven, assenting immediately, laid hold of the 
adversary, and, seizing from him the document, restored it to 
the hands of the petitioner, saying, ' It is now necessary that 
thou delete what is written.' 

In all this he [James] moved his body so uneasily trembling, 
sweating and muttering as to awaken and cause no little terror 
to the comrade beside whom he lay, who failed to rouse him 
from his dreadful moaning either by poking him or shouting 
at him, until, the aforesaid vision having come to an end, he 
[James], like one returning from a great distance, began to ask 
his comrade where he was or whence he had come. At length, 
when his comrade told him how he had been behaving in his 



IOO 



LANERCOST 

sleep, James then and there describecf to him in turn all that he 
had seen, exhibiting in his fist as testimony the very roll which 
the Virgin had seized from the demon, though he would never 
show to anybody what was written therein. Also he started 
immediately at daybreak on the morrow and, confessing himself 
with tears, obliterated all that Satan had written. Thenceforward 
he practised such extreme penitence by denying his flesh all 
indulgence and keeping fasts, that the austerity of his life caused 
religious men to blush. * 

Now, whereas virtue shines clearer by contrast with vice, it 
may be permitted to put in writing what I know to have 
happened nine years ago. In the west of England, about twelve 
miles from Bristol, there dwelt in the country town of Wells (a 
church which is divided into portions for secular canons) a certain 
prebendary, whose life I know not how to describe otherwise than 
by means of an observation by S. Augustine, who said that he 
who lived well could not die amiss. When God in His good 
pleasure had numbered his days, He permitted him to be 
grievously afflicted, and later on, as the disease increased, He sent 
some Minorite friars to be at hand for his assistance. They, 
indeed, having been informed beforehand by rumour about the 
invalid, met on their journey a messenger who explained his 
master's condition to them. When they arrived at his house and 
ascended to the attic where he lay in order to comfort him, the sick 
man declined or hesitated to take the medicine they had brought, 
desiring them to go down to the hall and refresh their bodies 
with food, seeing that they must be fatigued. Also he kept with 
him, as his whole household, a boy to assist him and do his 
bidding, and, when the others had begun their meal, he bade this 



101 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

boy bring him out of the open chest which stood opposite [his 
bed] a silver bowl which he would find within, full of silver and 
gold. When this was brought to him and placed in his lap, he 
stared at it with startled and fixed gaze, and, thrusting in his 
hand, attempted, as if smitten with mania, to thrust the yellow 
metal into his mouth, biting and sucking it as if it had an 
exquisite flavour. Then the simple lad beside him rushed in 
horror down to the hall, crying for help because his master, like 
a lunatic, would not stop devouring coins. The friars, running 
up in haste, found the whole chamber swept and the corpse of the 
defunct thrown on the bare ground, stripped naked and darker 
than lead. Moreover it bristled from head to heel with coins 
stuck in it, just as cooks stick lard into all parts of meat for 
roasting when they wish to make it more toothsome. This event 
took place in the year when Alexander King of Scotland departed 
this life, and was told to our congregation by a friar who belonged 
at that time to the convent of Bristol. And so was fulfilled in 
this wretch the saying of the holy Job in the twentieth chapter, 
* he shall vomit the riches he has devoured, and God shall draw 
them out of his belly,' et cetera. 

There happened in this year [1293] a great scarcity of victual, 
so much so that in many places a quarter of wheat was sold for 
thirty shillings. 

At the same time Gilbert Earl of Gloucester, who had married 
King Edward's daughter, the Lady Joan of Acre (so called 
because she was brought to light in that place when her father 
was a pilgrim in the Holy Land), having had a son by her, 
immediately made over the whole of his English property to the 
royal hands in such manner that he [the King] should endow his 



102 



LANERCOST 

infant grandson out of his bounty, while the earl undertook the 
office of guardian till the end of his life. 

Early in the morning of Saturday next before the feast of 
S. Margaret virgin, 1 as I was travelling with my scrip, we beheld 
in the east a huge cloud blacker than coal, in the midst whereof 
we saw the lashes of an immense eye darting fierce lightning into 
the west ; whence I understood that Satan's darts would come 
from over the sea. Sure enough on the Sunday following, 2 there 
began and continued throughout the night over the whole of the 
west part of the diocese of York, thunder and lightning so MS. 
prodigious that the dazzling flashes followed each other without 
intermission, making, as it were, one continuous sunlight. Not 
only men were terrified and cried aloud, but even some domestic t 
animals horses for certain. In some places houses were burnt \ 
or thrown down, and demons were heard yelling in the air. 

On the feast of All Saints, Henry of Galloway, a bishop 
beloved of God, departed this life ; to whom succeeded Master 
Thomas of Daltoun, who was consecrated at Ripon on the feast 
of the Assumption of the most blessed Virgin. 

Also on Sunday following the feast of S. Martin 3 the daughter 
of Robert Earl of Carrick was married to Magnus King of 
Norway. 4 

1 nth July. 2 1 2th July. 3 I th November. 

4 Isobel, eldest daughter of Robert Earl of Carrick, and sister of King Robert I., 
married Eric (not Magnus) King of Norway, whose first wife was Princess 
Margaret of Scotland. It has been commonly alleged that Isobel married first 
Sir Thomas Randolph, Great Chamberlain to Alexander III., and she bore to 
him Thomas Randolph, afterwards Earl of Moray. But, as Sir James Balfour 
Paul has pointed out, she cannot have been old enough to be the mother of 
Randolph, who witnessed John Balliol's fealty to King Edward in 1292. The 
Rev. J. Anderson suggests that Randolph's mother was a daughter of the Earl of 

103 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

In the same year there was intestine naval war between the 
English and the French at Saint-Mathieu in part of Brittany, 
where the French lost two hundred and fourteen vessels and 
six thousand and sixty men ; l but on the English side only 
three men perished. 

Item, Friar John of Peckham, Archbishop of Canterbury died, 
and holy Robert of Winchelsea was elected to the Archbishopric 
of Canterbury. 

Item, the Comte de Bar was married to Eleanor, daughter of 
King Edward. 2 

On the Saturday before Palm Sunday, which in that year 

fell on the fourth of the Ides of April, 3 there took 
A.D. 1294. 

place in Lothian an event most marvellous, enough 
I in itself to warn wise persons that it is evil spirits that stir up 
\ tempests, and also to teach the ignorant that, according to the 
teaching of the saint, in every act and at every step thy hand 
should make the sign of the cross. 4 

Verily, on that day, when crowds gathered in the town of 
Haddington from various districts to attend the market, a young 
fellow with an equally young wife came thither with his neigh- 
bours from a distance of six miles 5 to buy some necessaries. 
But there occurred such a dense fog and driving snow as struck 

Carrick by a former marriage. See the Scots "Peerage sub vocibus Moray and 
Carrick. 

1 This somewhat startling disparity of numbers is confused in Stevenson's 
edition by a misplaced comma. Franci ducentas naves amiserunt, et quatuor- 
decim et sex millia hominum et sexaglnta. The comma should be placed after 
quatuordecim. 

2 She was the widow of Alphonso, King of Aragon. 

8 April 10. 4 Tertullian, de Corona militari, c. iii. 5 Ad sex miliaria distant. 

104 



I 



LANERCOST 

with dismay the countenances of all who beheld it. Having 
done their business [the couple] were returning home about mid- 
day, and the wife, who was a hale and hearty [young woman], 
riding on the horse behind her husband's saddle. On arriving 
at a rivulet about half a mile from their house in the town of 
Lazenby, 1 she persuaded her husband to let her alight from the 
horse and follow on foot, while he went forward to the house 
and ordered a fire to be kindled against the cold. He consented, 
out of love for his wife ; and no sooner was she left alone than 
suddenly she encountered by the side of the stream an evil spirit, 
of a pale countenance, but presenting the "appearance of a girl 
scarce seven years old. This [creature], seizing the woman by 
the left hand with a hand like a horse's hoof, tore the flesh off 
her arm and flung her, terrified, into the water ; then, as she 
struggled to rise, it dealt her such a gash between the shoulders 
that a man's fist might easily be thrust into the wound, and as 
it cruelly handled [the woman], who resisted with all her might, 
it made some parts of her body black and blue, and other parts 
deadly pale, tearing off the flesh, as was said, and as those who 
saw and touched her have testified to me. 

The husband, wondering why she tarried, galloped back [to 
her], and, finding his wife almost in a swoon, placed her on the 
horse and took her home. Strengthened through confession and 
by extreme unction, she showed to all who visited her the humour 2 
and extravasated blood, and departed this life on the second 
week day following. 

1 Villa de Laysynbi not identified. 

3 Serif -m, in Stevenson's edition ; perhaps a misreading for serum ; but perhaps 
leriem, i.e. a relation of the facts. 

105 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

About the same time, King Edward, having been summoned 
to present himself in person before the French, caused suitable 
arrangements to be made at Amboise for his reception ; but, 
on receiving letters from privy friends warning him to beware of 
being made prisoner, and not to cross the sea, he abandoned his 
intention ; and on the feast of the Lord's Ascension, 1 contrary to 
every form of justice, he was deprived of all his lands and 
holdings beyond the sea, as being liable to forfeiture. Also, the 
King of France 2 issued interdict against the King of England's 
brother, the Lord Edmund, who had married Queen Mary, 3 
relict of the King of Navarre, that he should not cross the 
frontiers of the French. Moreover, he tyrannously withheld 
from the said Queen Mary, 4 mother of his own wife and royal 
consort, the terce which belonged to her as her portion of the 
kingdom of Navarre, unless she would consent to desert her 
husband (as he in vain expected her to do), and consent to live 
in foreign parts. 5 But Gascony, wholly escheated by this pro- 
ceeding, was consigned for custody and defence to the haughty 
Charles, brother of the King, about whom it has not yet become 
known how he succeeded. From this time began the interdict of 
entry to travellers, and of the purchase of wool and hides from 
England, and much inconvenience in consequence. Then the 
Cluniac monks were banished from our borders, and in one day 
at the same hour, throughout the whole province, an inventory 
was made and vouched for of the treasures, as well in the houses 
of the clergy as in the churches cathedral, urban and rural. 

1 zyth May. 2 Philip IV., le Bel. 

3 Her name was not Mary, but Blanche. 4 That is, Blanche. 

6 That is, foreign from England. 

1 06 



LANERCOST 

The Lord Edmund had three sons by that lady Queen 1 the 
eldest being Thomas Earl of Lancaster, 2 the second Henry Earl 
of Leicester, 3 and a third who remained in France with his sister. 

In this year, Friar John of Darlington, of the Order of 
Preachers, confessor of the late King Henry, was appointed 
collector of tithes in the realm of England by papal authority. It 
was by his learning and industry that the great Concordances, 
which are called Anglican, were published. The same was 
afterwards made Archbishop of Dublin by papal appointment. 
In the same year (1294) the miserable Welsh, formerly almost 
done for, rebelled for a third time, having made Madoc, the 
bastard son of the last Llewellyn, their prince. Having destroyed 
three castles, they betook themselves to Snowdon, numbering, as 
is reported, about eighteen thousand. King Edward marched 
against them ; although he could speedily have brought them 
to subjection by force, yet, forasmuch as they never dared 
to meet him in the open, he prudently weakened their resistance 
by gradually occupying Anglesey and other lands, which he was 
able to lay waste within the space of one month. 

On the commemoration day of S. Paul, 5 Celestinus the Fifth 
was created Pope, who, albeit illiterate, was the priest and con- 
fessor of his predecessor. Before his election, he had acquired a 
false reputation for sanctity, because, being grieved for the death 
of the [late] Pope, he had devised and sought after religion for 
himself. But, having been created [Pope], he had no intention fo 2 ' 02 

1 Edmund, fourth son of Henry III., married secondly Blanche, Queen-dowager 
of Navarre. 

2 Beheaded in 1322. 3 Succeeded his brother as Earl of Lancaster. 

4 John, Lord of Beaufort, d.s.p. 5 3Oth June. 

107 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

of acting by the advice of his college, wherefore he betook himself 
from Rome to Naples. Here he added ten to the number ot 
cardinals, and began many innovations. In his time the Sicilians 
deposed Charles because of his tyranny, but not before the Pope, 
with certain cardinals at Naples, when they failed to conciliate 
James of Aragon, fulminated a terrible sentence against him and 
the Sicilians who supported him. 1 

/ Then, after the feast of S. Peter ad Vincula 2 there happened 
/ a sudden stupendous flood in the river of Scotland called Teviot, 
i prognosticating future events at hand, such as we have witnessed 
\before our eyes. For the waters of the Teviot suddenly waxed 
without much rain, overflowing bridges and lofty rocks, sweeping 
away the mill below Roxburgh Castle and others, besides every- 
thing else that was in their way. Also, the flood broke down 
the bridge of Berwick, and threw down a tower, even overthrow- 
ing all the piers of masonry, and many of the people who were 
crossing [the bridge] were washed away to sea. 

iji^H-Also on the feast day of S. Matthew the Apostle there was 
held in London a council of the clergy and a. parliament of the 
people, when the ecclesiastics granted to the king a moiety of 
their revenues as subsidy for his expedition, and the laity 
[granted] the third penny of their goods. 

Item, the Welsh rose and did much damage. On hearing of 
this, Edward King of England, unwilling to imbrue his hands 

1 The French Pope Urban IV. bestowed Sicily in 1264. upon Charles, Count 
of Anjou. The massacre of the French, known as the Sicilian Vespers, took place 
in 1282, and it was Frederick, not James, of Aragon, who was crowned king of 
Trinacria in 1296. But as Pope Celestine V. resigned in the year of his election 
1294, the chronicler has confused the dates. 

2 ist August (Lammas). 

108 



LANERCOST 

with blood, commanded his forces not to injure any of them 
from Septuagesima ! till Easter, 2 and then again to the following 
feast of S. Lawrence. 3 Their prince having been betrayed and 
taken, the whole of Wales was restored to its allegiance ; for the 
king imprisoned about five hundred of their nobles, who were 
given as hostages, in various castles of England. 

At the feast of All Saints 4 despatches were received by King 
Edward from Sir John de St John and Sir John de Bretagne, and 
the other nobles who had sailed with them for the defence of 
Gascony, announcing that they had fared successfully, having 
inflicted defeats on the enemy and captured fortresses wherein 
they were able to protect themselves. 

About the same time, many ships, in numbering two hundred 
and four score, which had been sent by the King of Spain to the 
coast of France, were driven by the violence of storms into 
various parts of England. These were splendidly equipped for 
war, and heavily freighted with arms, gold, wax, bitumen, timber, 
and poles. The men of the Cinque Ports having attacked them 
at great risk to themselves, made a great booty of the lot. 

Also on the said festival there departed this life one who was 
illustrious in name, but not in character, Bovo de Clare ; not, as 
is said, very ' clear ' in his death or reputation, 6 inasmuch as he 
held innumerable churches and misgoverned those which Christ 
had committed to his trust, for he was careless in his office of 
guardian, disdaining the cure of souls, wasting the revenues 
of the churches, and having so little regard for the Bride of 
Christ as [to be indifferent] whether the Church should receive 

1 30th January. 2 3rd April. 8 loth August. 4 ist November. 

6 * Clear ' that is * illustrious ' : the play is on the word clarus. 

109 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

enough from her own revenues [to keep] the necessary vestments 
whole and clean. This might be proved by many flagrant 
instances, whereof I will record one as an example. 

In the famous church of Symunburne, over which he presided, 
on Easter Day I saw pleated withies, smeared with fresh cow- 
dung, in place of the panel over the high altar, and this, although 
the church is rated at seventy marks ! Moreover, so wasteful 
and wanton was he, that he sent to the dowager Queen of France 
for her jewellery, a lady's coach of matchless workmanship body 
and wheels being wholly wrought in ivory, and all the fittings 
that should have been ironwork were made of silver, down to the 
smallest nail, the housings, down to the smallest cord by which it 
was drawn, being of gold and silk. The cost, it is said, amounted 
to three pounds sterling, but the scandal to a thousand thousand. 

At the festival of S. Lucia, 1 Pope Celestinus called together the 
college of cardinals, and, with the unanimous assent of all, decreed 
and ordained that it should be lawful for any pope or cardinal to 
renounce his dignity should he wish to do so. Immediately after 
this declaration he resigned the pontifical dignity in their presence. 
Then Charles 2 caused to be read the Gregorian constitution de 
inclusione? and caused a house to be prepared for each of the 
cardinals, allowing only ten feet [of space] and one servant 
[apiece]. But, in compliance with the constitution, he waited ten 
days for three new cardinals who had not yet arrived ; and, when 
these were present on Christmas eve, he shut them all in. Then 
they all committed their authority in the creation of a new pope 
to the said Celestine in this wise that he should nominate four 

1 i3th December. 2 Charles of Anjou, King of Naples. 

3 Prescribing the manner of the conclave. 

no 



LANERCOST 

of the cardinals, who, acting for all the rest, should elect the new 
pope, and that they [the other cardinals] should acknowledge 
him as elected by themselves to the supreme pontificate. He 
[Celestine] agreed, and nominated Benedict de Gaytan with three 
others, who unanimously chose Benedict. A native of Anagni, 
now known as Boniface the Eighth, he was ordained on the 
morrow .of the Circumcision, 1 and ordered his predecessor to be 
arraigned on a charge of heresy. The latter fled in fear to Sicily. 

On the vigil of Christmas a few Englishmen, allied with the 
natives and with some of the King of Aragon's men, recovered 
by force of arms a great part of the land of Gascony, and on the 
day of the Circumcision 2 Bayonne was restored to their possession, 
whereupon the English sent to the King of England as a com- 
plimentary offering fifty ship-loads of wine. 

In the same year on the day before the Ides of February, 3 
Thomas, second of Multon, died, being at the time Lord of 
Holbeach. 

Item, on S. Dunstan's day 4 died that most noble lady of pious 
memory, Dame Matilda of Multon, Lady of Gilsland, mother of 
the aforesaid Thomas. 

The Lord Robert de Brus, a noble baron of England as well 
as of Scotland, heir of Annandale, departed from this 
world, aged and full of days. He was of handsome 
appearance, a gifted speaker, remarkable for his influence, and, 
what is more important, most devoted to God and the clergy. 
He passed away on Caena Domini. 5 It was his custom to enter- 
tain and feast more liberally than all the other courtiers, and was 

1 2nd January, 1295. 2 ist January, 1295. 3 i2th February, 1295. 
4 igth May. 5 i2th May. 

in 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

most hospitable to all his guests, nor used the pilgrim to remain 
outside his gates, for his door was open to the wayfarer. He 
rests with his ancestors at Gisburne in England, but it was in 
Annan that he yielded up his spirit to the angels, the chief town 
of that district, which lost the dignity of a borough through the 
curse of a just man, in the following way. Some time ago 1 there 
fo. zo2 b lived in Ireland a certain bishop and monk of the Cistercian 
Order, a holy man named Malachi, who, at the command of 
the Captain-General of the Order, hastened to that place 2 where 
also he died and rests in peace, remaining famous by his tokens. 3 
When he died the holy Bernard, who was present, preached 
with tears an exceedingly mournful sermon, which I have often 
seen. 4 

Now this bishop, beloved of God, when he had crossed over 
from the north of Ireland and, travelling on foot through 
Galloway with two of his fellow-clerics, arrived at Annan, 
enquired of the inhabitants who would deign to receive him to 
hospitality. When they declared that an illustrious man, lord 
of that district, who was there at the time, would willingly 
undertake that kindness, he humbly besought some dinner, 
which was liberally provided for him. And when the servants 
enquired of him, seeing that he had been travelling, whether 
they should anticipate the dinner hour or await the master's 
table, he begged that he might have dinner at once. 

Accordingly, a table having been dressed for him on the north 
side of the hall, he sat down with his two companions to refresh 
himself; and, as the servants were discussing the death of a 

1 About the middle of the lath century. 2 Clairvaux. 

3 Or ' images ' (signis). 4 It is preserved among S. Bernard's works. 

112 



LANERCOST 

certain robber that had been taken, who was then awaiting the 
sentence of justice, the baron entered the hall, and bade his 
feasting guests welcome. 

Then the gentle bishop, relying entirely upon the courteousness 
of the noble, said c As a pilgrim, I crave a boon from your 
excellency, [namely] that, as sentence of death has not hitherto 
polluted any place where I was present, let the life of this culprit, 
if he has committed an offence, be given to me.' l 

The noble host agreed, not amiably, but deceitfully, and 
according to the wisdom of this age, which is folly before God, 
privily ordered that the malefactor should suffer death. When 
he had been hanged, and the bishop had finished his meal, the 
baron came in to his dinner ; and when the bishop had returned 
thanks both to God and to his host, he said ' I pronounce the 
blessing of God upon this hall, and upon this table, and upon all 
who shall eat thereat hereafter.' 

But, as he was passing through the town, he beheld by the 
wayside the thief hanging on the gallows. Then, sorrowing in 
spirit, he pronounced a heavy sentence, first on the lord of the 
place and his offspring, and next upon the town ; which the 
course of events confirmed ; for soon afterwards the rich man 
died in torment, three of his heirs in succession perished in the 
flower of their age, some before they had been five years in 
possession, others before they had been three. 

When the said Robert [de Brus] was informed of this, he 
hastened to present himself in person before the holy man 
beseeching pardon and commending himself to him, and thence- 

1 Early Christian bishops had the privilege of remitting sentence of death on 
criminals. 

H 113 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

forth paid him a visit every three years. Also, when in his last 
days he returned from a pilgrimage in the Holy Land, 1 where 
he had been with my lord Edward, he turned aside to Clairvaux 
and made his peace for ever with the saint, providing a perpetual 
rent, out of which provision there are maintained upon the 
saint's tomb three silver lamps with their lights ; and thus, 
through his deeds of piety he [de Brus] alone has been buried 
at a good old age. 2 

Six days before Palm Sunday, 8 came Charles, brother of the 
King of France, to Rioms, whither part of the English had 
retreated. Now, he came about midnight with 6000 horse and 
innumerable foot against 400 horse and 7000 foot ; and after he 
had attacked the city, which was stoutly defended, for fifteen 
days, they 4 sallied forth on the advice of a certain old man, 
gave battle to the enemy and, selling their lives dearly, perished. 
And thus twelve English barons were taken prisoners, one of 
them being a traitor ; of whom hereafter. 

In the same year the Scots elected twelve peers, by whose 
counsel the kingdom should be governed. 

Where no man due obedience feigns 
To laws of half a dozen reigns, 
The people suffer grievous pains. 

The Scots craftily sent envoys to the King of France [con- 
spiring] against their lord, King Edward of England to wit, 
the bishops William of S. Andrews and Matthew of Dunkeld, 
and the knights John de Soulis and Ingelram de Umfraville, to 

1 In 1273. 

2 Mr. George Neilson has dealt fully with this interesting legend and its 
confirmation in Scots Lore, pp. 124-130. 

3 2 1 st March. 4 The English. 

114 



LANERCOST 

treat with that king and kingdom against the English king and 
kingdom. The aforesaid envoys took with them a procurator, 
endeavouring to bring about war. So after the report had 
reached the ears of my lord the King of England, he was very 
angry (and no wonder !), and sent repeatedly to the King of 
Scotland, commanding him to attend his parliament in accordance 
with his legal obligation both for the kingdom of Scotland and 
for other lands owned by him within the English realm. But 
he [John Balliol] utterly refused to attend, and, which was 
worse, began assembling a large army to withstand the King of 
England. 

On Monday in Passion week, 1 Sir John Comyn of Buchan 
invaded England with an army of Scots, burning houses, slaugh- 
tering men and driving off cattle, and on the two following days 
they violently assaulted the city of Carlisle ; but, failing in their 
attempt, they retired on the third day. Hearing of this the 
King of England sent an expedition against the Scots at Berwick, 
and in Easter week, to wit on the third of the kalends of April, 2 
that city was taken by the king, its castle also on the same day, 
and about seven thousand men were put to the sword. 

On the octave of the Apostles Peter and Paul, 3 the magnates, 
prelates and other nobles of the kingdom of Scotland having 
assembled, a solemn parliament was held at Stirling, where by 
common assent it was decreed that their king could do no act 
by himself, and that he should have twelve peers, after the 
manner of the French, and these they then and there elected and 
constituted. There they pronounced forfeiture of his paternal 
heritage upon Robert de Brus the younger, who had fled to 

1 z6th March, 1296. 2 3Oth March, 1296. 8 6th July. 

"5 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

England, because he would not do homage to them. Also they 
forfeited his son in the earldom of Carrick, wherein he had been 
infeft, because he adhered to his father. They insultingly refused 
audience to my lord the Earl of Warenne, father-in-law of the 
King of Scotland, and to the other envoys of my lord the King of 
England ; nor would they even allow so great a man, albeit a 
kinsman of their own king, to enter the castle. 

Also they then decided upon active rebellion and to repudiate 
the homage done to King Edward, devising how they should enter 
into a treaty with the King of France so that they should harass 
England between them, he with his fleet by sea, and they by land, 
and thus, as they believed, should overcome her. 1 

Upon this God began to make many revelations to his servants, 
whereof we perceived the truth in the following year. For at 
break of day on the sixth of the kalends of August, 2 the whole 
firmament seemed to a certain cleric in Lothian to be overcast 
with clouds, the wind blowing from the north-east ; and presently 
fo. 203 he perceived red shields coming from the same quarter, charged 
with the arms of the King of England, which, keeping together, 
united at the top and joined at the sides, covered the whole 
expanse of the sky with their multitude. Now while he was 
marvelling at this with anxious countenance and confused thoughts, 
he saw in a little while a white and beautiful person appear in the 
very same region, seated upon an ass's colt, who, approaching 
exceedingly swiftly and appearing quite nude, displayed the tokens 
of our salvation on his extremities and side, dropping blood. 
When the other perceived this, he worshipped on bended knees, 
and so the vision vanished. 

a The treaty is printed in Rymer's Fezdera^ ii. 695. 2 271)1 July. 

116 



LANERCOST 

In confirmation of this I will record another vision which a 
simple citizen of Haddington beheld about the same time. 
In this wise : he saw, as he stated, a raging fire, coming from 
the southern quarter of the firmament, suddenly precipitate itself 
upon Berwick, where it miserably consumed all things. After- 
wards, travelling through the centre of Lothian and devastating 
everything till it came to an arm of the sea. When it reached 
that, it ascended again to the sky and returned to the south 
by the same way it came. 

In this year the only son and heir of Sir William de Vesci, 
a comely youth, was taken from the light of this world between 
Easter and Pentecost ; upon whose death the boy's tutor, a certain 
knight of Scotland, Sir Philip de Lyndesey, son of Sir John, fell 
into sore melancholy, and, following the melancholy, contracted 
a mysterious malady, took to his bed at Beverley, and, being 
miserably racked by the violence of fever for eight days, entirely 
lost the power of speech, took no notice of those who visited him, 
and seemed to be bereft of his bodily senses. Yet he took food 
daily like a maniac from those who put it before him, lying down 
again after receiving it, and remaining as if asleep. Saint Cuthbert 
the bishop, commiserating his affliction, appeared plainly to him 
as he lay on the eighth day and accused him of neglect, saying 
'Thou hast deserved the illness which thou hast contracted, for 
the place which was assigned to me by thine ancestors, and the 
hermitage which I inhabited of old (the chapel of Innippauym l 

: Not identified. Perhaps on the Headshaw Burn in Lauderdale, where is 
Channelkirk, near Holy Water Cleuch and St. Cuthbert's Well. Here the 
saint, still bearing his Irish name Mulloch, served as a shepherd lad and saw 
visions, before he was received by Prior Boisil at Old Melrose, and submitted to 
the tonsure. 

117 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

situated on thy land) thou hast allowed to fall into neglect, and 
from a habitation of holy men to become a stable for brute beasts. 
But let thy errors of the past be forgiven thee ; when thou hast 
recovered health be thou careful to repair the ruins of my place 
and to cleanse its defilement.' 

Then he [Lyndesey] immediately recovered his speech, and, 
before anything else, returned thanks to the saint and craved 
pardon for his lack of diligence. While he lived safe and 
sound, he often testified to listeners what he had seen. 

At this time also there befel a great calamity to the students of 
Oxford, so much so that many of them died suddenly, and in a 
single day sixteen corpses or more were carried into one church. 

Something equally horrible and marvellous happened then in the 
West of Scotland, in Clydesdale, about four miles from Paisley, 
in the house of a certain knight, Sir Duncan de Insula, 1 which 
may serve to strike terror into sinners and foreshow the 
appearance of the damned in the day of the last resurrection. 
Now there was a certain fellow wearing the garments of holy 
religion who lived wickedly and died most wretchedly, being 
bound by sentence of excommunication on account of certain acts 
of sacrilege committed in his own monastery. Long after his 
body had been buried, it vexed many in the same monastery 
by appearing plainly in the shade of night. This child of 
darkness proceeded to the house of the said knight in order to 
disturb the faith of simple persons and terrify them by molesting 
them in broad daylight, or, more probably, by a secret decree of 
God, that he might indicate by such token those who were 
implicated in his misdoing. Having then assumed a bodily shape 

1 Delisle. 
118 



LANERCOST 

(whether natural or aerial is uncertain," but it was hideous, gross 
and tangible) he used to appear at noon-day in the dress of a 
black monk and settle on the highest parts of the dwellings or 
store houses. 

And when men either shot at him with arrows or thrust 
him through with forks, straightway whatever was driven into 
that damned substance was burnt to ashes in less time than 
it takes to tell it. Also he so savagely felled and battered 
those who attempted to struggle with him as well-nigh to 
shatter all their joints. 

Now the knight's eldest son, an esquire of full age, was 
especially troublesome to him in this kind of fighting ; and 
one evening, when the father was sitting with the household 
round the hearth, this malignant creature came in their midst, 
throwing them into confusion with missiles and blows. All 
the rest having taken to their heels, the esquire attacked him 
single-handed ; but, most sad to say, he was found on the 
morrow slain by the creature. Wherefore, if it be true that 
a demon has no power over anybody except one who leads 
the life of a hog, it is easy to understand why that young 
man came to such an end. 1 

On the festival of the Nativity of the Glorious Virgin 2 the 
King of France gave orders to a numerous fleet which had 
been equipped that it should sail with all speed to burn up 
England ; but through the divine protection and the care of 

1 It is not so easy to understand how Christianity retained its ascendancy among 
reasonable beings, when its doctrines were enforced by such gross and unscrupulous 
falsehoods as those with which this chronicle abounds. 

2 8th September. 

119 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

the Queen of Mercy (to whose succour, as is recorded above, 
the island is committed) the fleet was so severely buffeted by 
gales in a sudden tempest that it only regained the shores of 
France with the greatest difficulty. And when two cardinals 
had crossed to England as mediators of peace, and had obtained 
assurance from the King of France 1 that his people would do 
no injury to the English in the meantime, he [the King of 
France] was not afraid to break faith, and, cruelly venting his 
anger upon those who had escaped shipwreck, by his brother's 
advice put many of them to death. Then he re-issued his 
command, forced the rest of them to sea again, warning them 
with threats on no account to return unless they brought with 
them to Paris the glorious relics of S. Thomas, archbishop and 
martyr. Then they set out once more upon the waves of 
the sea, which they seemed to cover with their multitude ; 
nevertheless, none of them all ventured to land upon the coast 
of England, except only the crews of two galleys, according 
to what one told me who was there and with his eyes saw 
what happened. The first of these [galleys], more strongly 
manned than the rest, surprised the town of Dover and easily 
overcame it with sword and fire, but in the end derived no 
advantage from their success, for the inhabitants gathered out 
of the villages and took possession of the shore, killing them all 
to the number of 220, and divided the spoil among themselves. 
The other [galley] also landed at Hythe, having on board nine 
score armed men with steel caps ; these the men of the Cinque 
Ports attacked with two vessels only and put them all to death 
in less time than it would take to bake a single biscuit. 

1 Rex Gal/iarum, usually referred to as Rex Francitf. 
120 



LANERCOST 

And whereas it is declared in holy writ that evil counsel shall 
fall upon him who deviseth it, just so there took place at that 
very time a fraudulent conspiracy among the princes of France. 
For he who, as has been described, 1 contrived that twelve barons, 
his comrades, should be taken by guile, was now plotting 
against the person of the King of England himself and his fo. 
kingdom. This deceitful spy, assuredly sent by the King of 
France, came to England feigning to be an escaped prisoner, and, 
in order to hide his bitter malice, pretended that he was willing 
to lay bare to our people the designs of the French. Accordingly, 
having been admitted to the parliament of London, and after he 
had investigated the secret affairs of the country, he took two 
servants and hastened to the coast, intending to cross over. 
But one of these servants, detesting the wickedness of his master, 
happening to meet a member of the [royal] household, revealed 
to him the malicious intentions of the traitor. { Go,' said he, 
1 and tell the king without delay that we are hurrying away to 
cross over, in order to betray England.' 

This man delivered the message ; the villain was overtaken 
and arrested, and, having been brought back, confessed his 
treachery, and, as a just reward, was drawn and hanged. 

Now this man was a knight, by name Thomas de Turberville, 
whom the Lord troubled at that time, because he endeavoured to 
bring trouble upon England. 2 

1 See the account of the fall of Rioms, p. 278 supra. 

2 The chronicler delights in puns which do not bear translation into English : 
* Thomas de Turbew'/^, quern extuibavif Dominus . . . quonlam nisus est turbationem 
inducere Anglice? Various documents relating to the spy Turberville are printed 
in the appendix to Stevenson's edition of The Lanercost Chronicle (pp. 481-487), 
including a letter from Turberville to the Provost of Paris, which was intercepted. 

121 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

After this, on the sixth of the Nones of October, 1 Master 
Robert of Winchelsea, doctor of sacred theology, who before his 
creation had been Archdeacon of Canterbury, but now was 
Archbishop of the same seg, returning home with the cardinals 
from Rome, was received to his diocese honourably by the king, 
and was enthroned with great pomp in the presence of many 
nobles. 

In like manner, as we know that it is truly written, that evil 
priests are the cause of the people's ruin, so the ruin of the 
realm of Scotland had its source within the bosom of her own 
church ; because, whereas they who ought to have led them [the 
Scots] misled them, they became a snare and stumbling-block of 
iniquity to them, and brought them all to ruin. For with one 
consent both those who discharged the office of prelate and those 
who were preachers, corrupted the ears and minds of nobles and 
commons, by advice and exhortation, both publicly and secretly, 
stirring them to enmity against that king and nation who had so 
effectually delivered them ; declaring falsely that it was far more 
justifiable to attack them than the Saracens. Certain mercenary 
[priests] also, not really pastors, pretending to be dealers in wool, 
had crossed over to the country of the French at the preceding 
feast of S. Lawrence, 2 commissioned by their people to disclose 
this nefarious plot to the king [ot France]. These were the 
Bishops of S. Andrews and Dunkeld, who, according to the 
prophetic saying, ' delighted the king by their wickedness and 
princes by their fraud.' For, not long afterwards, they succeeded 

Turberville paid for his treachery on the gallows. His case is dealt with also by 
Hemingburgh, Walsingham, and in Flares Historiarum. 

1 2nd October. 2 loth August, 1294. 

122 



LANERCOST 

in making them believe their falsehoods, and sent letters by their 
servants announcing that the King of France was most favourably 
inclined towards them, and that a huge fleet was setting sail with 
a large force of men, and with arms, horses and provender. 
In corroboration whereof the Bishop of S. Andrews sent in 
advance to Berwick many new and valuable arms, and also most 
sumptuous pontifical vestments, all which we know were seized 
and taken by the Bishop of Durham's sailors in the very mouth 
of that port. 

Also, to confirm what was said by the holy Job ' the vain 
man is puffed up by pride, and thinketh himself to be born as 
free as a wild ass's colt,' this foolish people, yielding credence 
to these rumours, turned fiercely upon all the English found 
within their borders, without regard to age or sex, station or 
order. For the authority of the Church, which was very 
oppressive, decreed that those rectors and vicars of churches who 
were of English origin should be ousted and expelled from the 
country by a given date ; also the stipendiary priests were sus- 
pended and were sentenced to expulsion with their clerical 
compatriots. Moreover, the royal authority ejected monks from 
their monasteries, and unseated those who were in high office ; 
it even forced laymen out of their own houses, confiscating under 
royal sasine or taxing the goods found therein. Also the biting 
tongues of certain evil men, who either could not or dared not 
do injury by force, composed ballads stuffed with insults and 
filth, to the blasphemy of our illustrious prince and the dis- 
honour of his race ; which, though they be not recorded here, 
yet will they never be blotted from the memory of posterity ; 

for by their aforesaid insolence and oppression they meant nothing 

123 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

less than this that just as the cry of the children of Israel in 
Egypt reached the Most High, and he saw their affliction and 
came down to set them free, so would it now come to pass in 
these our days. That which the revelations described above 
portend, was also made clear in an open vision manifested at 
Berwick to the eye of sense before Christmas following. For 
verily as some little children were hurrying off together to school 
in that same city to be taught their letters, at break of day, as 
is usual in the winter season, they beheld with their natural eyes 
(as they afterwards assured many persons) beyond the castle, 
Christ extended upon the likeness of a cross, bleeding from his 
wounds, and with his face turned towards houses of the city. 
Time coming was soon to show whatsoever chastisement that 
[vision] indicated. 

Also on the night of All Saints * the Holy Lord of the Saints 
destroyed and cast away the ships of the perjured French, under 
guise of helping them, so as he might show that their expedition 
was against himself and his people ; and this in the following 
way. For, as the perfidious French (who, as is aforesaid, had 
suffered reverse already), devised among themselves that, on such 
a solemn anniversary, neither those dwelling on the coast of the 
English sea, nor the men of the Cinque Ports would care to 
miss the church services, they adopted another foolish project, 
after the example of proud Nichanor, who commanded the troops 
to arm and the king's business to be transacted on the Sabbath 
day. And so, preparing in the dead of night to cross the deep 
sea, while they avoided human observation they incurred divine 
judgment ; for, intending to make a descent upon an unsus- 

1 ist November. 
124 



LANERCOST 

pecting people, suddenly they discovered these were safe in the 
protection of the saints. A fearful storm sprang up from the 
hand of the Lord, which immediately deranged and scattered 
them, sending every one on board of those nine score ships to 
the bottom of the sea, so that not one survived to tell the tale 
to his children. 

King Edward was warned by these and other events that 
he was threatened with war in front and rear ; and when 
both the parliament of the nobles of Scotland and the council 
of prelates were to assemble in Edinburgh, he, endeavouring 
to win the goodwill of these ingrates, demanded through an 
emissary that they would hand over to him shortly four 
of their castles overlooking the frontier of the realm, to wit, 
Berwick, Roxburgh, Jedworth and Edinburgh, for the protec- 

MS. 

tion of the natives against invasion by foreigners. This they fo. 204 
refused unanimously and obstinately, just as they had refused 
all previous demands, declaring that they were in no need of 
any aid. 

The Cardinals also, who had spent all their means in their 
long journey requested of the clergy of Scotland through 
emissaries a moderate grant of money, which should hardly 
exceed one farthing l from each of the churches to be taxed. But 
in refusing the assistance demanded, they [the Scots clergy] made 
this reply, that these Pillars of the Church had not crossed land 
and sea in the service of the Church, but in that of King 
Edward's realm. And whereas we know that it is written that 
wickedness proceedeth from the wicked, they did all these things 
in order to achieve their hateful design by tokens, since they 

1 Assem unam. 

I2 5 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

could not do so by arms, imagining that the dominion of King 
Edward could be extinguished by them. To whom applies that 
saying of S. Gregory While they loosed the shoe-string they 
tied a knot. Indeed it turned out for them as it did for Zedekiah, 
according to Ezekiel, who saith c But he rebelled against him in 
sending his ambassadors into Egypt that he might give him horses 
and much people. Shall he prosper ? Shall he escape that doeth 
such things ? Or shall he break the covenant and be delivered ? ' 

Gilbert, the great Earl of Gloucester, died after the festival 
of S. Lucia, 1 a man prudent in council, puissant in arms and 
most spirited in defence of his rights. For when the aforesaid 
King required of [him] and all his tenants to show by what 
warrant each one held possession, Gloucester, drawing his sword 
in presence of the King and nobles in London, delivered this 
reply : c Behold my warrant ! by which right thou, oh King, 
holdest from conquest by thine ancestors two feet of English soil ; 
and I possess the third foot from my forefathers.' Thus the 
curiosity of the inquirer was repelled. 2 

Now, in order to take up the thread of the narrative I have 
begun, the knights and esquires who had been associated with the 
bishops with the above-mentioned mission to France, returned on 
the festival of SS. Vincentius and Anastatius 3 disappointed and 
with nothing to report ; while those horned ones remained 
behind, 4 after the fashion of many modern dignitaries, who, 

1 1 3th December. 

2 This writ of Quo tvarranto was issued in October, 1274, and caused much 
discontent by its inquisitorial character. The story attributed to Gloucester in 
the text is told elsewhere of the Earl of Warenne. 

3 22nd January. 

4 Cornutis illis retro resldentibus, a contemptuous allusion to the mitred bishops. 

126 



LANERCOST 

either out of craven fear for their own skins or sensual indulgence 
of their own bellies become, not feeders of the flock but feeders 
on them. 

Indeed there was pressing need for these Scots to return home, 
seeing that they found victuals to be very dear in France and 
were sensible of shortage of cash in their own purses ; nor could 
they after their arrival [in France] find any creditor from whom 
they could borrow, nor was there given them even one ship 
wherein they could make the return voyage. When therefore 
these needy persons met with certain easterling mariners 1 prepar- 
ing to sail for Scotland and found that the agent of some 
Edinburgh burgess was about to consign his merchandise to the 
said skippers, they obtained by favour (seeing that they had not 
the money) a passage for themselves and their people, promising 
to pay the fares so soon as they should be landed in Scotland. 
Thus did the Lord confound those who fled to the Chaldeans 
(that is to the ferocious people, whence the Franks obtained their 
name) 2 who boasted about their ships, so that those who purposed 
to invade the coast of England with an innumerable fleet might 
count themselves lucky in obtaining a single pinnace of their own. 
Moreover, when they landed at Berwick, they showed this favour 
to their fellow-countryman, whose merchant-factor they had in 
their company, that all his merchandise was seized, to the value 
of nine score of marks or more. But they brought this news 
from France, that the King of Norway had been dead for some 
time, leaving no heir of his body, and that his brother, who 
had been Count before that, had taken the daughter of the 

l Marinariisde orientafi fatria, i.e. from the Baltic. 
2 The etymology of ' Frank ' is suggested *s=fcrox. 
127 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

Count of Clermont as wife and consort at the instance of the 
nobles. 1 

Deluded by these follies, they sought still other safety in false- 
hood. For, according to theological testimony, 2 'vain hope 
is the snare of the foolish man and ignorant fellows rely on 
dreams ; ' although these men heard that the Pope was mediating 
for peace between the French and English, they pretended and 
even announced in their own country that the King of France 
had declared that he would not agree to peace unless under a 
treaty embracing the Scots as well as his own people : whereas in 
truth, when the peers were assembled at Cambronne on Quadra- 
gesima Sunday, 3 there was nobody present who put in a single 
word for them [the Scots], according to what was told me with 
his own lips by a certain noble, who attended there daily on 
behalf of the King of England ; nay, he heard many persons 
execrating that very nation as deceitful and ungrateful for the 
benefits they had received from King Edward. 4 

In consequence of dreams of this nature, all bailiffs received 
orders at the beginning of Lent 5 that they should seize for the 
use of the King of Scotland all goods belonging to the English 

1 Eric II. (father of the Maid of Norway, who succeeded Alexander III. as 
Queen of Scots) did not die till 1299, when he was succeeded by his brother 
Haco V. 

2 Teste theodocto, a hybrid word for which I know of no authority. 

3 2Oth February. 

4 All this is purely partisan fiction. On 23rd October 1295 the Scottish 
plenipotentiaries concluded a treaty of offensive and defensive alliance with the 
King of France, each country binding itself not to make peace witn England 
unless the other were included (Faedera), When truce between England and 
France was struck in October 1297, Scotland was not included. 

5 1 6th February. 

128 



LANERCOST 

throughout the realm wheresoever they might be found, and that 
they should store them in the castles and other safe places ; also 
that all these men 1 were to be bound by a fresh oath to hold 
fast and stand firm with the people of the country in every 
emergency. They considered that such an oath would be bind- 
ing ; declaring, on the other hand, most preposterously that their 
own oath to King Edward had been made under compulsion, and 
therefore might be broken under compulsion. 

Accordingly a wapinschaw was held and account being made of 
those who were capable of military service, all who had power, 
wealth, arms and strength were warned to be ready to assemble at 
Caldenley 2 on the Sunday in Passion Week. 3 

Herein thou mayest clearly perceive that what the sage 
wrote was exactly fulfilled ' The universe will fight for him 
against the madmen.' For, as if the elements were taking 
vengeance upon the enemies of the truth, there is no doubt that, 
from that time forth, snow, rain and easterly winds from the 
district where their army [was] began to prevail to such a degree 
that others dwelling in the towns and in timbered houses 4 were 
smitten with alarm, so that half-naked men could only avoid the 
severity of the cold under rocks and cliffs, thickets and trees. 
And like as they had broken their plighted faith, so in turn they 
carried sword and fire into the English borders in Passion Week, 6 
whereby the others [the, English] in retaliation attacked Lothian fo. 204 b 
by sea on the vigil of Palm Sunday, 6 burnt the seaside towns and 

l l.e. Englishmen. 

2 ? Caddonford on the Tweed. 3 27th March. 

4 'Domibus laqueatis. 5 zyth March 2nd April. 

e 26th March. According to these dates, the English seem to have been the 
aggressors. 

I 129 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

inflicted great damage upon them. Thou mightest see on the 
holy day of Good Friday and the vigil of Easter the presage 
of that double carnage which took place twice afterwards on 
a Friday ; for a cloud, undoubtedly of wrath, overshadowed 
Lothian, so thick, so wet and so evil-smelling that it concealed 
everything at a distance of ten paces from the view of those 
passing through it. This having changed in the evening to a 
tearing wind and drenching rain throughout the night and the 
following day, made the roads so bad for travellers as to weary 
people looking out o' window. 

It was reported at this time that John, Archbishop of York, had 
died in distant parts, in whose place Henry of Newark, dean of 
that church, was elected. 

At the same time we received news that in Easter week l there 
had been a most terrible conflict in Gascony. For the French 
from one side and the citizens of Bordeaux from the other 
attacked the English, and while many were slain, and many were 
wounded, our people kept the upper hand so well that the enemy 
turned tail, and, besides those taken prisoners, thirty principal 
nobles 2 were done to death and interred in the place of the Friars 
Minor. Moreover the fleet of the Cinque Ports which had been 
sent out there, returned home in its full number and with all well. 
Part of the said city [Bordeaux] was taken by our people on that 
occasion, to wit, the outer wall, the army being commanded by my 
lord Edmund, brother of King Edward, with the Earl of Lincoln 
and others, who, it is said, would have finished the business then 

1 3rd gth April. 

2 Mobiles signlferi : literally ' standard bearers,' but here probably the allusion 
is to their pennons or banners. 

130 



LANERCOST 

and there, had not arrears of pay forced them to disband the 
army. When King Edward, who was then at Stirling, was 
informed of these things, he directed that plenty of both corn and 
money should be sent to them. In consequence we beheld on the 
festival of the Nativity of S. John 1 envoys coming from Gascony, 
both clerics and very many secular knights, to announce that the 
English had occupied the whole country and were all safe and 
sound. 

Here endeth the eighth book and the ninth beginneth. 

Applying now our mind as well as our pen to the ninth division of 
this work, which, both in order to avoid being tedious 
and because of the beginning of a new period, requires 
a new book to be begun, we bear in mind first and foremost this 
most wise precept of the most holy Gregory, who saith ' The 
power of the wicked is as the flower of the grass, because their 
carnal glory fadeth while yet it flourisheth, and while they boast 
of it among themselves suddenly it is brought to an utter end.' 
That this befel the Scots 2 in the year of our Lord MCCXCVJ (which, 
by the way, was leap year) is shown by their manifest arrogance. 
Notwithstanding that in past ages they have always been subject 
to the English sceptre (although they often rebelled and spurned 
the prince assigned to them, and also many times did not only 
exclude Saxons from the King's Council and service but also 
expelled them from the land, as the above quoted chronicles 
testify), they now relapsed into callous hatred, and, after the 
expulsion of all the courtiers whom my lord John, their King, had 

1 24th June. 

2 Albanactii, latinised form of the Gaelic Albannach. 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

brought with him, they committed a fresh crime by preventing 
him, who was the head of the people, from performing any act of 
state or from going wherever he wished, confining him like a fugitive 
under guard night and day, so that he was not allowed to attend 
a conference * to which he was summoned by King Edward, nor 
could he make known to him [Edward] his good will. Moreover, 
trusting vainly, as aforesaid, to allies and arms, they constrained 
the King and his children to stay at home and to take the field 
for war ; and for this reason, seizing corn and cattle and other 
provender in all quarters, they repaired their castles, fortified 
Berwick, the principal seaport and town of the kingdom, and 
brought foreign auxiliaries thither, paying no heed to the divine 
wrath which was impending over them, whereby they were 
collected as sheep for the slaughter and were consecrated at 
Easter for the day of massacre. 

At last, when they ought to have learnt to fear God through 
the disaster of their prince 2 so lately deceased, whom God smote 
dreadfully for all their sakes, and afterwards gave the nation itself 
ten years for repentance, which they misused in their pride, 
adding daily worse and worse transgression, no remedy remained 
but that declared by the wise man * destruction must needs 
overtake those who practise tyranny.' Whereof I, a sinner, 
who write these facts, received by the Lord's revelation the 
following token. 

Now shortly before the impending misfortune, after mass on 
the Lord's day, as I was composing my limbs to rest and courting 

1 King John attended King Edward's Parliament in May, 1 294, but refused a 
summons to attend Edward in his expedition to Gascony (zgth June). 

* Alexander III. 

132 



LANERCOST 

sleep with closed eyelids, I beheld a winged man [clothed] all 
in white whom I recognised at once as an angel, holding a 
drawn sword in his right hand, proceeding from one end of the 
house to the other, and brandishing the sword in a menacing 
manner against the book-cases of the library, where the books of 
the friars were stored, indicating by this gesture that which 
afterwards I saw with my eyes, [namely,] the nefarious pillaging, 
incredibly swift, of the books, vestments and materials of the 
friars. Thus the life of just men often suffers injury for the 
punishment of transgressors, and by the affliction of the former 
the latter are purified. 

But before we investigate the course of history whereon we 
have embarked, in the same leap year, 1 on the festival of S. 
Matthew the Apostle, 2 the Apostolic and just man Pope Boniface, * 
being in the second year of his pontificate, issued the letter 
decretal Adperpetuam reimemoriam, etc. ^reproving the insatiable r. 
and rapacious cupidity of princes ever intent upon extorting 
property from the Church, and threatening laymen who should 
transgress with severe excommunication and interdict. He sub-t 
jected all ecclesiastics impartially to deposition and deprivation \ 
who should dare to bestow upon princes any gift, subsidy, loan 
or tax upon the revenues of the church without the consent of 
the apostolic see. Also on the fourth of the kalends of April 3 in 
the same year he issued another edict Ad perpetuam rei memoriam 
most salutary for souls, directing generally and without dis- 
tinction that all ecclesiastics whatsoever, charged with the cure of 
souls, should reside regularly as pastors in their [respective] 

1 la eodem die btsextili, probably a slip for anno. 

2 2 ist September. 3 zgth March. 

133 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

offices and localities ; adding this punishment for delinquents, 
that whosoever was found to absent himself for a whole month 
from the church assigned to him, should be deprived of his 
benefice. 

Just as the Scripture uttered by God declareth that ' upon 
the evildoer shall fall his own device, nor shall he know 

MS. 

fo. 205 whence it cometh upon him,' so that illustrious man Robert 
de Ros, the owner of much land, thinking to secure prosperity, 
broke faith and joined the King of England's enemies, betraying 
his secrets to them and promising them support. When 
this was found out, the King solemnly observed the thanks- 
giving services on Easter day 1 at his castle of Wark, and tried 
to persuade the head men of Berwick to surrender, promising 
them safety in their persons, security for their possessions, 
reform of their laws and liberties, pardon for their offences, 
so that, had they considered their own safety, they would not 
have slighted the proffered grace. But they, on the contrary, 
being blinded by their sins, became more scornful, and, while he 
waited for three days, they gave no reply to so liberal an offer ; 
so that when he came to them on the fourth day, addressing them 
personally in a friendly manner, they redoubled their insults. 
For some of them, setting themselves on the heights, bared their 
breeches and reviled the king and his people ; others fiercely 
attacked the fleet which lay in the harbour awaiting the king's 
orders and slew some of the sailors. Their women folk, also, 
bringing fire and straw, endeavoured to burn the ships. The 
stubbornness of these misguided people being thus manifest, the 
troops were brought into action, the pride of these traitors was 

1 25th March, 1297. 
134 



LANERCOST 

humbled almost without the use of force and the city was occupied 
by the enemy. Much booty was seized, and no fewer than 
fifteen thousand of both sexes perished, some by the sword, others 
by fire, in the space of a day and a half, and the survivors, 
including even little children, were sent into perpetual exile. 
Nevertheless this most clement prince exhibited towards the dead 
that mercy which he had proffered to the living ; for I myself 
beheld an immense number of men told off to bury the bodies of 
the fallen, all of whom, even those who began to work at the 
eleventh hour, were to receive as wages a penny a piece at the 
King's expense. 

These events took place on the third of the kalends of April, 
being the Friday in Easter holy week, a penalty exacted by 
God corresponding to the crime. For it was on the Friday in 
Passion week that a detachment of the Scottish army made their 
first incursion into England, devastating with slaughter and fire 
some country villages and the monastery of Car ham ; yet these 
very citizens, perjured and hardened in evil-doing, feared not to 
receive at Easter the communion of perfect love in fraternal hatred 
to their own perdition. Whence it may be assumed as proved 
that ' day unto day uttereth speech ' that is, punishment, and 
* night unto night ' that is, the penal scourge upon wickedness, 
indicates knowledge of sin. Besides, as Chrysostom bears witness 
[although] wickedness is sometimes overcome by reason, it is 
never so checked in those who sin by deliberate intent and not 
through ignorance. Thus these madmen added fresh insolence 
to their folly, and on the sixth of the Ides of April 2 invaded the 
bounds of England in two columns, and ravaged different districts 

1 3oth March. 2 8th April. 

135 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

thereof; the men of Galloway, led by the Earl of Buchan [went] 
through Cumberland, the whole band of young knights and 
fighting men l forcing their way through Redesdale. In this raid 
they surpassed in cruelty all the fury of the heathen ; when they 
could not catch the strong and young people who took flight, 
they imbrued their arms, hitherto unfleshed, with the blood of 
infirm people, old women, women in child-bed, and even children 
two or three years old, proving themselves apt scholars in atrocity, 
in so much so that they raised aloft little span-long children pierced 
on pikes, to expire thus and fly away to the heavens. They burnt 
consecrated churches ; both in the sanctuary and elsewhere they 
violated women dedicated to God, as well as married women and 
girls, either murdering them or robbing them after gratifying their 
lust. Also they herded together a crowd of little scholars in the 
schools of Hexham, and, having blocked the doors, set fire to 
that pile [so] fair [in the sight] of God. Three monasteries of 
holy collegiates were destroyed by them Lanercost, of the Canons 
Regular ; and Hexham of the same order, and [that] of the nuns 
of Lambley 2 ; of all these the devastation can by no means be 
attributed to the valour of warriors, but to the dastardly conduct 
of thieves, who attacked a weaker community where they would 
not be likely to meet with any resistance. 

Forasmuch as it is God alone who can bring the best out of the 
worst, I shall here relate two matters for the sake of edification, 
because perfidious persons desire under the cloak of Christianity, 
to be esteemed like righteous ones, not in reality, but in 
appearance. This may be easily proved about these [Scots] ; 

1 Tota virtus tyronum etjuvenum. 

2 Lambley-upon-Tyne, a convent of Benedictine Nuns near Haltwhistle. 

136 




HEXHAM ABBEY CHURCH 

KAST KND 



LANERCOST 

for whereas they knew that they had acted most wickedly towards 
the aforesaid nuns, at the last they sought out a priest who should 
celebrate mass for them. He, induced, as I suppose, more by 
fear than any other motive, performed the sacred office as far 
as the Confectio, but when he was about to handle and consecrate 
the bread, suddenly it vanished. Wishing to conceal his shame, 
he took another host intending to consecrate it, but it disappeared 
between the fingers which held it. All those present, beholding 
the priest's temerity rebuked and understanding the vengeance of 
God, fled from the place conscious of their guilt. 

Again, in the church of Hexham, which was built by that 
illustrious bishop of the Lord, S. Wilfrid, there were placed 
of old several shrines, enclosing relics of the holy fathers, whereof 
the holy Beda describes the merits and effects in De Gestis 
Anglorum. That very church, carved with Roman work, was 
dedicated by the ministry of S. Wilfrid 1 to the honour of 
S. Andrew, the meekest of the Apostles and the spiritual patron 
of the Scots. And although both the dignity of the saints and 
respect for the pious friars ought to have been a defence against the 
irreverent, yet these madmen aforesaid neither had any regard for 
these things nor felt any dread of all-seeing God, but with 
barbarous ferocity committed the consecrated buildings to the 
flames, plundering the church property stored therein, even 
violating the women in that very place and afterwards butchering 
them, sparing neither age, rank nor sex. At last they reached such 
a pitch of iniquity as to fling contemptuously into the flames 

1 Son of a Northumbrian thegn ; Bishop of York, died A.D. 709. It was 
Wilfrid's successor, Bishop Acca, who according to Beda, collected the relics of the 
saints and their legends. 

137 



/ 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

the relics of the saints preserved in shrines, tearing off them 
the gold or silver plates and gems. Also, roaring with laughter, 
they cut the head off the image of S. Andrew, a conspicuous 
figure, declaring he must leave that place and return to his own 
soil to be trodden under foot. 

About the same time a voice was heard in the high heavens by 
trustworthy ears, calling thrice for vengeance upon the unrighteous 
nation. How this reached the divine ears will be made 
clear by the misfortunes which were shortly to befal that 
people. For as these cowardly fellows were hastening home, 
impelled by divine vengeance they adopted a further counsel 
of foolishness, whereby in separate columns one part of their 
fo. 205 b army occupied the narrow pass into Lothian, the other, the 
passes bordering on Teviotdale, so as to threaten the march of an 
English force should it attempt to pass beyond them, when they 
would attack it upon both flanks. In accordance with this plan, 
on the eleventh of the kalends of May l the Earl of Mar and 
others came before Dunbar with the chosen candidates for knight- 
hood, intending to have that fortress as a base. After they had 
plundered the neighbourhood and burnt the town, they laid 
siege to the castle. Now as there was no proper garrison in the 
place, the countess, with her slender household and the earl's 
brother, defended it for two days. But the enemy, pretending 
that the earl was a traitor through his having joined the cause of 
the King of England in order to keep faith, persuaded the lady 
to surrender honourably ; and so, at dawn of the fourth day 2 
they entered the castle, 3 having as commander a man renowned in 
war and expert in arms, Sir Richard Siward. And when they 

1 2 1 st April. 2 2 5 th April. 3 Municipium. 

138 



LANERCOST 

had crowded in, like sheep into a pe*n, straightway they were 
beleaguered before evening by land and sea, as though God had 
assembled them as a sacrifice for their enemies. When it was 
known that they were besieged, summons was issued to all parts 
of Scotland for an early muster to relieve the besieged and a day 
was fixed at the beginning of May for hostilities in the field. I 
Nor was it only the secular arm [that was raised] but also the 
ecclesiastical arm drew a poisoned sword, ordering, under pain of 
suspension, that all in charge of parishes should on every Lord's 
day in the presence of the people fulminate solemn denunciation 
of the Prince of England and the Bishop of Durham, the clergy f 
chanting Deus laudem ne fa. Thereafter many ordained priests 
are known to have taken part in the war, not only by exhortation, 
but also by wielding arms. 

Howbeit, forasmuch as the truth ever remains invincible, 
although the uneasy conscience will always imagine dire events, 
when they perceived the flower of their youth and the main part 
of their army confined within the walls, they determined to put 
an end to the siege by a sudden assault and so to unite the 
relieved garrison with their own forces. Therefore on the fifth 
of the kalends of May, 1 at the ninth hour of Friday (which thus 
a second time proved unlucky for them) when the Earl of 
Warenne and barely a fifth part of the King's army were preparing 
to go to bed, they showed themselves boldly on the brow of a 
steep hill, provoking their enemy to combat. And although their 
columns were in close order and strong in numbers, before it 
was possible to come to close quarters [with them], they broke up 
and scattered more swiftly than smoke, the fiercest of them being 

1 2 yth April. 
139 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

first in flight. Yet their foot-soldiers would have stood firm had 
not the knights showed their heels so readily ; and because 
victory consisteth not in the multitude of a host, but cometh from 
Heaven, thou mayest discern in that conflict what the Lord 
promised to his chosen people ' They come,' said He, ' against 
thee by one way, and they flee in ten ways.' 

In this manner there were slain not less than ten thousand 
rebels, and several tonsured [priests] were found among the dead ; 
yet upon the English side, not one man fell, except a single 
foolhardy knight. It is evident that the Supreme Truth, who 
said that He had come into the world to set a man against his 
own father, decided the issue of this combat, which was waged 
against the truth ; for there you might see in the same people a 
son bearing arms against his father, and a brother putting his 
neighbour to the sword. 

After this, justice was directed against the besieged. For they 
had lighted on the tower of the castle a signal beacon, informing 
the relieving force when they might surprise [the enemy] and at 
what moment they should deliver the assault. Therefore some 
[of the English] having been set to work with a will to dig mines, 
others to throw up earthworks from which they could forcibly 
breach the castle wall, the garrison fell into a panic, and straightway 
surrendered on the morrow to the royal will. There were 
captured there and sent into captivity in divers parts of England, 
among the nobility, four earls Mar, Menteith, Atholl and Ross, 
besides six score and fourteen others, among whom there were 
several barons, twenty knights, and eighty esquires. Also, three 
hundred foot-soldiers were taken there whom the King had no 

wish to detain, but set them free after receiving their parole ; 

140 



LANERCOST 

also he granted them safe conduct to whatever place outside the 
neighbourhood of the camps they would go to, which greatly 
contributed to the credit of his clemency, even from the lips of 
his enemies. 

At this agitating time the Lord Bishop of Durham caused to 
be seized all the lands which Sir John de Balliol held of the fee 
of S. Cuthbert ; and upon these lands at Castle Barnard he 
caused a prisoner of the same John [aged] eighty-eight, to be 
brought out of filth, had him shaved, gave him a change of 
clothing and set him at liberty, besides restoring to him the lands 
of which he had been deprived. All these things go to prove 
the Christian mercy of the English, who despite the response 
of ill-disposed people, returned good for evil gratuitously. 

In the same year Pope Boniface made a decree and caused it to 
be promulgated, that anniversary services 1 should be celebrated 
throughout the universal Church of Christ on the feast of every 
apostle and evangelist and also of the four doctors. Also he 
issued another decree against dogs returning to their vomit, that 
none of the Preaching or Minorite friars, nor of the Hermits of 
S. Augustine, nor yet of any of the Mendicant friars, should 
furnish any assistance to any election, postulation, provision, or 
call at his own instance in any contest for any promotion beyond 
the ministry of his own Order. And especially, if the Masters, 
Ministers or Priors of their General Orders or of their inferior 
prelates should proceed by license or assent without spiritual 
sanction of the Papal See, he [Pope Boniface] pronounceth such 
action to be null and void, whether [it be done] knowingly or 
ignorantly, no matter by whom it may have been accepted. On 




1 Duplicia. 
141 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

account of this, as I suppose, one of the clergy, humorous enough 
but vastly indignant, composed the facetious verses inserted 
below, and privily affixed them to the door of his Holiness the 
Pope's chamber. And these are the verses : 

Once known as Benedict, we Boniface invoke ; 
Both names are seemly, may they be the cloak 
Of thy good works in piety and blessing, 
Rightly thy conduct in St. Peter's chair expressing. 
But if with wrongs and curses thou afflict us, 
We'll call thee Malefac and Maledictus ! l 

On the feast of S. Barnabas the Apostle 2 there happened a 
memorable instance of the untrustworthiness of the Welsh. 

While my lord King Edward was besieging with a great 
A.D. 1296. 

army the lofty castle of Edinburgh, huge machines for 

casting stones having been set all round it, and after he had 
fo. 206 violently battered the castle buildings for the space of three days 
and nights with the discharge of seven score and eighteen stones, 
on the eve of the festival named, he chose a certain Welshman, 
his swiftest runner, whom he reckoned most trustworthy, com- 
mitted to him many letters and, having provided him with 
money, ordered him to make his way to London with the 
utmost dispatch. This man was named Lewyn (as befitted his 
fate 3 ), which in English is pronounced Lefwyn. Now, going 
straight to the tavern, he spent in gluttony all that he had 

1 Papa 'Bonifacius modo, sed quondam Benedictus, 
Notnina bina bona, tlbi sit decorus amlctus. 
Ex re nomen habe benedic, benefac, benedictus; 
Aut haec perverte maledic, malefac, maledictus. 

2 nth June. 

3 There is here some play on the name which is not apparent to modern wits. 

142 



LANERCOST 

received for travelling expenses. Egrly on the morning of the 
vigil, being Sunday, 1 he made himself a laughing-stock to the 
English by ordering his comrade to carry his shield before him, 
declaring that he was not going to leave the place before he had 
' made an assault upon the garrison of the castle. Presenting 
himself, therefore, with a balista before the gates, he cried upon 
the wall guard to let down a rope to him, so that, having been 
admitted in that manner, he might reveal to them all the secrets 
of their enemy. The constable of the castle, as he informed me, 
was taking the air when this rascal intruder was brought before 
him, holding out in his hand the case with the royal letters. 

' Behold, my lord,' said he, * the secrets of the King of 
England ; examine them and see. Give me also part of the 
wall to defend, and see whether I know how to shoot with a 
balista.' 

But when the others would have opened the letters, their 
commander forbade them to do so, and straightway, standing 
on a high place, called loudly to men passing that they were 
to make known in the king's court that one of their deserters 
had proposed to those within [the castle] that they should 
perpetrate a deceit, to which he [the constable] absolutely 
declined to consent for honour's sake. 

Sir John le Despenser attended at once to this announce- 
ment, and to him the traitor was lowered 2 on a rope, with 
the letters intact, and the manner of his [Lewyn's] capture was 
explained to the king when he got out of bed. Now that 

1 Mane dlei festi literally * early on the feast day,' but as S. Barnabas's day fell 
on a Monday in that year, we must read ' Early on the morning of the vigil.' 

2 Demittimur in Stevenson's edition, probably a clerical error for dcmittitur. 

143 




THE CHRONICLE OF 

prince greatly delighted in honesty. * I gratefully declare to 
God,' quoth he, * that the fidelity of that honourable man has 
overcome me. Give orders that henceforth no man attempt to 
inflict injury upon the besieged, and that no machine cast a stone 
against them.' 

Thus the king's wrath was soothed, for he had previously 
vowed that they should all be put to death. So sleep came to 
the eyelids of those who had watched for three days, many of 
them having vowed that, for security, they would so continue 
while alive. On the morrow, by the royal indulgence, the 
besieged sent messengers to King John [Balliol] who was 
staying at Forfar, explaining their condition and demanding 
assistance. But he [John] being unable to relieve them, gave 
leave to each man to provide for his own safety. 

But let me not be silent about the punishment of the afore- 
said traitor, Lewyn. He was taken, tried, drawn and hanged 
on a regular gibbet constructed for his crime. This tale I 
have inserted here in order that wise men may avoid the 
friendship of deceivers. 

Pending the report of the messengers, King Edward raised 
the siege and marched with a small force to Stirling, where he 
found the castle evacuated for fear of him, the keys hanging 
above the open doors, and the prisoners imploring his mercy, 
whom he immediately ordered to be set at liberty. And so, in 
the king's absence, after fifteen days siege, the Maidens' Castle 1 
was surrendered into the hands of Sir John le Despenser, a place 
whereof it is nowhere recorded in the most ancient annals that it 
had ever been captured before, owing to its height and strength. 

1 Castrum Puellarum, one of the names for Edinburgh. 
144 



LANERCOST 

It was called Edwynesburgh of old after its founder, King 
Edwyn, who, it is said, placed his seven daughters therein 
for safety. 

Now when it had been laid down by the Scots to their king 
[John] that he was neither to offer battle nor accept peace, but 
that he should keep in hiding by constant flight, King Edward, 
on the other hand, strengthened his resolve that neither the 
ocean should bear him [John] away, nor the hills and woods 
hide him. Rather than that, having him surrounded by land 
and sea at Kincardine, he compelled him to come to Montrose, 
subject to King Edward's will and judgment. There he re- 
nounced his kingly right, and, having experience of dishonest 
counsellors, submitted to the perpetual loss both of his royal 
honour in Scotland and of his paternal estates in England. For, 
having been sent to London with his only son, he led an honour- 
able, but retired life, satisfied with the funds allotted to him from 
the king's exchequer. By divine ordinance these things were 
accomplished on the morrow of the translation of S. Thomas the 
Martyr, 1 in retribution for the crime of Hugh de Morville, from 
whom that witless creature 2 [John] was descended ; for just as 
he [Morville] put S. Thomas to death, so thereafter there was 
not one of his posterity who was not deprived either of his 
personal dignity or of his landed property. 

Also on the same day 3 fell the anniversary of my lord, 
Alexander, 4 formerly King of Scotland, who descended from 
the other daughter of the illustrious Earl David, besides 
whom there proceeded from that sister no legitimate progeny 

1 8th July. 2 Acephalus. 3 8th July. 

4 i.e. Alexander II., who died 8th July, 1249. 
K 145 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

of the royal seed to her King Edward, 1 who alone after William 
the Bastard became monarch of the whole island. It is clear 
that this succession to Scotland [came] not so much by right 
of conquest or forfeiture as by nearness of blood to S. Margaret 
whose daughter, Matilda, Henry the elder, King of England, 
married [and became] heir, as is shown by what is written above. 
On the same day as the abdication King Edward gave a 
splendid banquet to the nobles and commons ; but inasmuch 
as in this life sorrow is mingled with rejoicing, the king received 
on that day news of the death in Gascony of his brother, my 
lord Edmund, a valiant knight and noble, who was genial and 
merry, generous and pious. It is said that his death was brought 
about by want of means, because he had with him a large body 
of mercenaries and but little ready money. He left two sur- 
viving youths, Thomas and Henry, his sons by the Queen of 
Navarre ; of whom the elder took in marriage with her entire 
inheritance the only daughter of my lord Henry, Earl of Lincoln, 
who then possessed the earldoms of Lancaster and Ferrers in 
right of his father, and those of Lincoln and Salisbury in right of 



MS. 

fo. 2o6 b his wife. 



About the same time there came an astonishing and unpre- 
cedented flood in the Seine at Paris, probably a presage of things 
to come, such as is described above as having happenecTln the 

1 Qui ex alter a germanafilia descendit David illustris comitis, ultra quern non pro- 
cessit ex ilia sorore legitima soboles regalis seminis regi suo Edwardo. It seems im- 
possible to make sense from this passage. Probably something has dropped out 
or become garbled. ' The illustrious Earl David ' might either be King David I., 
who was Earl of Northumberland, and reigned in Cumbria and Strathclyde till 
he succeeded his brother, Alexander I., or King David's third son, who was Earl 
of Huntingdon. 

146 



LANERCOST 

Tweed. 1 For of a sudden, while men Were not expecting it, and 
were taking their ease in bed, the floods came and the winds blew 
and threw down both the bridges of the city in dep water with 
all upon them, which consisted of the choicer houses, superior 
merchandise and brothels of the costlier class; and, just as in the 
Apocalypse, all this wealth was ruined in a single hour, together 
with its pleasures and luxury, so that the saying of Jeremiah may 
be most aptly applied to them, that the iniquity of the people ot 
Paris was greater than the sin of the people of Sodom, which was 
overwhelmed in a moment, nor could they avail to protect it. 2 

It is quite certain that this people had given such offence to 
the Lord that they suffered punishment, not only for their own 
transgression, but because of the corruption of their nation, 
the consequence of whose pride is to undermine obedient faith 
throughout the world. Having the appearance of piety, they 
deny the power thereof; they make a mockery of the sacraments ; 
they blaspheme with sneers the Word of Life made flesh by a virgin 
mother ; they boast of their iniquity more openly than did Sodom ; 
and, as said by the Apostle Jude, they defile the flesh, they spurn 
authority, and they blaspheme majesty. 3 These things did the 
Virgin of virgins, as I consider, intend to avenge terribly she 
who, dwelling between the river banks of that city, has wrought 
so many signs of salvation for that people, especially in quenching 
the fires of hell, wherein no one worthy of her protection remains 
abandoned beyond the ninth day. 

1 P. 1 08 ante. 

2 History repeated itself in the inundation of Paris during the winter 1909-10. 

3 The severity of the chronicler's censure may be traced to its source in the 
riendly relations between France and Scotland. 

147 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

In honour of the Glorious Virgin I will relate what took place 
at an earlier time, in the tenth year of King Edward's reign ; at 
least it was then made manifest, but not yet completed by the 
actual events. Now, that turbulent and distracted nation, I mean 
the Welsh, thinking to wreak their long-standing spite upon the 
| English, ever incur severer penalty for their wickedness. Thus 
when led by a certain David, they were endeavouring to kindle mis- 
chief in the realm of King Edward, and to turn his friendliness 
into hostility, that energetic prince [Edward] mustered a force and, 
marching against the enemy at Worcester, commended himself 
and his troops, with many oblations and consecrations, to the 
keeping of the Glorious Virgin. Immediately the Queen of 
Virtues granted the petition of the suppliant, and, appearing 
one night to a cleric named John, of the Church of S. Mary 
of Shrewsbury, as he was sleeping, with her own hand laid upon 
his bosom a closed letter fastened with a seal. Also she com- 
manded him c Rise early, and carry for me the letter I have given 
thee to King Edward who is quartered at Worcester. Thou 
mayst be sure he will not withhold from thee a suitable reward/ 

On awaking he actually found the letter exactly according to the 
vision. He remembered the mission commanded to him, but 
bethought him of his own humble degree and hesitated to take 
the journey. 

The command was repeated to him and a reward was added. 

He had a beloved comrade (a certain cleric J , named de 

Houton, who, being still alive in the Minorite Order, constantly 
describes the course of this incident) to whom he said : 

* I beg that you will bear me company as far as Worcester, for/ 

I have some business to attend to at the king's court.' 

148 






LANERCOST 

But, whereas he never mentioned the sacred declaration ot the 
Blessed Virgin, his friend refused his request, not being aware 
what reason there was for it. The Virgin, footstool of the Holy 
Trinity, appeared for the third time to her sluggish servant, re- 
proached him for disobedience, and as a punishment for his neglect 
foretold that his death would be soon and sudden. Terrified at 
this, he made his will, appointed executors, charging them to 
forward the heavenly letter with the utmost haste, and then 
expired suddenly. 

Nobody could be found who would dare to present himself to 
the king's notice except an insignificant tailor ; who, however, was 
graciously received by the king, and did not retire with empty 
hands. But when the king, by the hearth in his chamber, had 
mastered the contents of the letter, he knelt thrice, kissing the 
ground and returning thanks to the Glorious Virgin. 'And 
where,' cried he, * is that cleric who brought this dispatch, and 
whom the Virgin's word commends to me ? ' 

The substitute having informed him that the messenger was 
dead, the king was much grieved. As to what the Queen of 
Glory promised to him, he was not fully informed, except this, 
that then and ever after he should successfully prevail over his 
enemies ; and from that day to this he has observed a solemn fast 
on bread and water every Saturday, through love of his protectress. 
Moreover, he began to build in London a costly and sumptuous 
church in praise of the same Mother of God, which is not yet 
finished. 

But let me return to my theme. After the abdication of John 
de Balliol, as has been described, King Edward caused it to be 

announced that, throughout his progress, no man should plunder 

149 






THE CHRONICLE OF 

or burn, and further, that a fair price should be paid for all neces- 
sary supplies. He marched forward into Mar to the merchant 
town of Aberdeen, where some cunning messengers of the King 
of the French, detained in some port, were taken and brought 
into the king's presence, having many duplicate letters addressed 
to the King of Scots as well as to his nobles. Although he 
[King Edward] would have paid them out for their guile, he 
restrained those who would do violence to these men, and, 
having restored to them the letters which had been discovered, 
he sent them by rapid stages to the neighbourhood of 
London, that they might see and converse with the king of 
whom they were in search, and telling him what they had 
found, might return by another way to the country whence 
they came. 

With kingly courage, he [King Edward] pressed forward into 
the region of the unstable inhabitants of Moray, whither you will 
not find in the ancient records that any one had penetrated since 
Arthur. His purpose was to explore with scattered troops the 
hills and woods and steep crags which the natives are accustomed 
to count on as strongholds. With what piety and frugality he 
performed all these things, let his pardons, condescensions, 
bounties and festivals testify. Having brought all that land into 
subjection he returned to Berwick on the octave of the Assump- 
tion 1 where the homage of the people of Alban 2 was repeated to 
my lord the King of England and his son and successor ; also it 
was renewed again by a charter with all the seals of the nobles, 
which remains confirmed by a solemn oath made in touching two 

MS. 

fo. 207 pieces of the Lord's cross. But that ceremony of swearing, not 
1 22nd August. *i.e. Scotland. 



LANERCOST 

being imbued by the faith of those who performed it, was worth- 
less to them, as their open acts made manifest in the following 
year. 

Now something very pleasing to our people took place through 
the aid of the Glorious Virgin on the day after the Assumption. 1 
After the men of the Cinque Ports had conveyed some knights 
and foot-soldiers bound for Gascony, they encountered on the high 
sea three hundred vessels bound from Spain to France with much 
valuable cargo. Our people, who had but four score vessels, 
attacked them and put them all to flight, capturing out of that 
fleet eight and twenty ships and three galleys. In one of the 
galleys they found sixty score hogsheads of wine. In celebration, 
therefore, of that victory accorded them by God, they forwarded 
part of the wine to the knights campaigning in Gascony, bringing 
the rest to London for consecration, whereof my informant drank 
some, a man of truthful conversation and learned in religion. 
Events of this kind ought to be plainly described to those who 
delight in vanities, and, having no experience of heavenly matters, 
lightly esteem intercourse with the higher powers. For few may 
be found in our age who deserve to share the sweetness of divine 
revelation, not because of God's parsimony, but because of the 
sluggishness of the spiritual sense. 

Now in this year there happened to a certain holy virgin, 
long consecrated to the life of an anchorite, a revelation which 
ought not to be passed over in silence. In the district of Shrews- 
bury, about six miles from the town, there dwelleth that holy 
woman, Emma by name, who is accustomed to receive visits from 
holy men ; and at the festival of S. Francis 2 (which is observed 
1 1 6th August. 2 1 6th July. 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

rather on account of the merit of the saint than of the Order itself, 
whose dress she weareth), on the vigil of the saint she admitted 
two friars of that order to hospitality. At midnight, the hour 
when the friars are accustomed to sing praises to God, the holy 
woman rose from her bed, remembering in her pious heart 
that on such a feast day a similar obligation lay upon her who 
had become a recluse, and how much honour was shown to the 
saint throughout the divers regions of the world. Kindled in 
spirit by these [thoughts], she called her handmaid and told her 
to bring a lamp for the morning praise. The lamp having been 
brought and placed twice upon the altar of the oratory, a sudden 
gust extinguished it, so that not a spark of light remained. Now 
the patron of that church is the Herald of Christ and more than a 
prophet, 1 to whom the recluse was bound by more than common 
love, and, as will be shown presently, had experienced much 
intimacy with the friend of Christ. Therefore, while she was 
wondering why her lamp should be extinguished, she beheld a 
ray of heavenly light coming through the window of his oratory, 
which was next the church, which, surpassing the radiance of the 
sun, beautified with a heavenly lustre the features of her maidens, 
who lay in a distant part of the house, notwithstanding that the 
maidens themselves were weeping because of the abundance of the 
celestial illumination. The Prior 1 came in that he might bear 
witness about the light, so that all men might believe through him. 
The lamp was burning, shedding light and reassuring the 
astonished woman. ' Behold,' said he, ' thou wilt presently have 
a mass.' That saint, as often as he appeared to this handmaid of 
Christ, held in his hand a roll as a token and badge of his office, 

1 S. John the Baptist. 



LANERCOST 

wherein was contained in order the holy gospel of God * In the 
beginning was the Word.' 

After the declaration of the Baptist there followed immediately 
such a transcendent radiance as would rather have stunned than 
stimulated human senses, had they not been sustained by grace ; 
in which [radiance] appeared, with a wonderful fragrance, the 
Mother of Eternal Light, environed by a brilliant tabernacle, in 
token, as I suppose, that He who created her would find rest in 
her tabernacle ; and four of the Minorite Order bore her company 
in her propitious advent, of whom the chief was S. Antony, an 
illustrious preacher of the Word, and with him were three 
others, natives of England, famed either by their lives or by 
their wisdom. 

The Queen of the World took her place, as was proper, over 
the holy altar of the choir ; the others prepared themselves to 
perform the mass. Then S. Antony led off in vestments ot 
indescribable [richness], and the others sang with such marvellous 
sweetness and thrilling melody, that many blameless persons in 
a distant part of the town wondered at the harmony, not knowing 
whence it came. 

Now the introitus of the mass was this, pronounced in a loud 
voice * Thou art the King of Glory, O Christ ! ' and what 
follows, as far as Te ergo quis famulis and subveni quos pretioso, 
et caetera. The woman remembered that this was thrice repeated, 
but the collect and epistle and the other parts of the mass she 
could not so well recollect. And when she asked what were the 
names of these persons, and inquired of the holy Baptist why 
S. Francis was not present, she received this answer c Upon this 
his festival he himself has to intercede with God for numerous 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

persons who are invoking him as a new saint, therefore he was 
unable to come on this occasion.' 

At the time of preparing the sacred mystery in the aforesaid 
mass, S. Antony elevated the Host with great dignity and 
honour, whereat the holy Virgin 1 prostrated herself with the 
others devoutly and low. At the close of the office, the Queen 
of Mercy descended gently to the sister, 2 and comforted her 
with heavenly converse and confidences, besides touching her 
beads 3 with her blessed hand. But whereas those who die in 
the sweet odour of Christ may be reckoned unhappy above all 
others, while some ignorant persons may cavil at the divine 
revelations accorded to this humble woman, to show what a 
slander this is against the Lord, the forerunner of Christ said 
as he departed : ' Inquire of those who sneer at divine bene- 
factions whether the Evil Spirit can perform such sacred 
mysteries, and rouse the friars who are slumbering here, to 
whose senses thou mayest exhibit the light wherewith we have 
purified this dwelling.' 

The holy woman immediately performed his bidding, and 
from the third cockcrow almost until the morning light 
they [the friars] beheld with their eyes the whole interior of 
the church illumined with celestial radiance. One of them, 
desiring to know the source of this light, looked through the 
window of the church, and saw what seemed to be a burning 
torch before the image of the blessed Baptist, who was the herald 
of Eternal Light. 

1 It is not clear whether the reference is to the Mother of God or to 
Emma herself. 

2 Ad sponsam. 8 Numera/ia devotionis. 

154 



LANERCOST 

I will relate something else that happened to this holy soul, 
worth listening to, in manner as 1 heard it from those to whom 

MS. 

she related it. While she was yet very young and a novice in fb. 207^ 
the discipline of Christ, she still sometimes experienced carnal 
impulses, and was deluded by tricks of the devil ; yet she could 
not be overcome, because she always had the Forerunner of the 
Lord as a guardian against the wiles of the Deceiver. Accord- 
ingly when she lay sick with a pain in her side, it happened that 
John the Saint of God foretold that the serpent would appear to 
her in disguise, and he placed in her mouth an exorcism which 
should dispel the illusion. No sooner had the saint departed, 
than Satan appeared without delay in the guise of a certain 
physician, announced his profession and promised a speedy cure. 
' But how,' said he, * can I be certain about the nature of your 
ailment ? Allow me to lay my hand on the seat of your pain.' 

The maiden persisted in declining these and other persuasions, 
and exclaimed : ' Thou dost not deceive me, oh Lord of Iniquity ! 
wherefore I adjure thee by that sacred saying of the gospel " the 
Word became flesh " that thou inform me who are the men 
who hinder thee most.' < The Minorites,' said he. When she 
asked him the reason he replied 'Because when we strive to 
fix arrows in the breasts of mortals they either frustrate us 
entirely by their opposition, or else we hardly hit our mark.' 
Then said she * You have darts ? ' * Undoubtedly,' quoth he, 
* [darts] of ignorance, and concupiscence and malice, which we 
employ against men, so that they may either fail in their actions, 
or go wholly to the bad, or conceive envy of the righteous/ 
Then she said * In virtue of the Word referred to, tell me how 
much the said proclamation of the gospel hindereth your work.' 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

Then the Enemy, groaning heavily, replied 'Woe is me that I 
came here to-day ! The Word about which thou inquirest is 
so puissant that all of us must bow the knee when we hear it, 
nor are we able afterwards to apply our poison in that place.' 

Since mention has been made here of the protection of S. 
Francis being faithfully invoked, I will allude here to two in- 
cidents which took place in Berwick, about three years before 
the destruction of that town. That same city was formerly so 
populous and busy that it might well be called a second Alexan- 
dria, its wealth being the sea and the waters its defence. In 
those days the citizens, having become very powerful and devoted 
to God, used to spend liberally in charity ; among other [objects] 
out of love and reverence they were willing to provide for the 
Order of S. Francis, and alloted a certain yearly sum of money 
from the common chest for the honourable celebration of every 
festival of the blessed Francis, and further for the provision 
of clothing for the poor friars dwelling in their city, whereby 
they fulfilled the double object of charity, and of performing 
devout service to the saint who began life as a trader, 1 expecting 
that even in the present [life] greater profits from trading would 
be the result of their costly piety. Nor did their conjecture play 
them false nor their hope deceive them, seeing how they in- 
creased in riches ; until, as [the hour of] their expulsion drew 
nigh, they were persuaded by the suggestion of certain persons 
of corrupt mind (who became the source of calamity, not only 
to these citizens, but indeed to their whole country) first to 
diminish their accustomed charity and then to reduce it by one 

1 Ex mercatore converse. S. Francis was the son of an Italian merchant trading 
with France, whence the son's name, Francesco. 

156 



LANERCOST 

half. But whereas Sir John Gray, knight as well as burgess, 
who had departed this life many years before, was the promoter 
of this charity, God warned the populace of their imminent 
danger in manner following. 

In the year preceding the Scottish war there appeared unto 
Thomas Hugtoun, a younger son of the said knight, the vision 
of his father, lately deceased, among the bands of holy friars in a 
certain abode of delight, and similar in carriage and dress to the 
rest of the Minorites. And, while he recognised the figure of his 
father but marvelled because of the change in his condition, the 
following reply was made to his perplexed meditations. ' Thou 
marvellest, my son, because thou never didst hitherto behold me 
attired in the dress of the Minorites ; yet thou must learn hereby 
that I am numbered by God among those in whose society I have 
taken most delight. Go thou, therefore, instead of me to our 
neighbours in Berwick, and summon them publicly on behalf ot 
God to revive and restore that charitable fund which I had begun 
to expend in honour of the blessed Father Francis ; otherwise, 
they shall speedily experience, not only the decay of their worldly 
possessions, but also the dishonour of their bodies.' 

Roused from his sleep, Thomas immediately described to his 
townspeople the revelation made to him, urging them to mend 
their ways. As they paid no heed to him, events followed in 
order confirming the vision ; for first their trade declined, and 
then the sword raged among them. 

Something else happened testifying to cause and effect and to 
the honour of the saint. One of these burgesses, deploring the 
disrespect paid to the saint, offered to provide at his own expense, 
the things necessary for the saint's festival ; which thing he had 

'57 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

no sooner undertaken than he was struck with a grievous malady 
affecting his whole body, pronounced by all the physicians to be 
incurable. Then the friars having persuaded him to put his trust 
in the saint and to hope for recovery, he directed that he should 
immediately have all the limbs of his body measured in honour 
of the saint, and in less time than it takes to tell it, he sat up 
healed, complaining of nothing except a headache. ' And no 
wonder ! ' exclaimed his wife, smiling, ' for his head is the only 
part of him we left unmeasured.' The line having been 
applied again, immediately he was freed from all pain. The 

same individual, being delivered a second time, is in good 

health at the present time, while his fellow-citizens were cut 

in pieces by the sword ; and all this through the merits of 
S. Francis. 1 

On the morrow of the Epiphany 2 the clergy assembled in 
London to hold council upon the answer to be returned to my 
lord the king, who had imposed a tax of seven pence upon the 
personality of laymen, while from the clergy he demanded twelve 
pence in the form of a subsidy ; which was agreed to reluctantly, 
the clergy declaring that, while they would freely submit to the 
royal will, they dared not transgress the papal instruction. 3 And 
thus all the private property and granaries of the Archbishop of 
Canterbury were confiscated by the king's authority, even to the 
palfreys reserved for the primate's riding ; to all of which this 
virtuous man patiently submitted. Also, all ecclesiastics were 

1 See under the year 1285 for another instance of the cure by measuring for 
S. Francis. 

2 yth January. 

*i,e. the Bull of zgth Feb., 1295-6 Clericos la'icos. The papal sanction was 
required for any tax upon the clergy. 



LANERCOST 

deprived of the king's protection, and all their movables given M s. 
over to the hands of laymen. Yet was this inconsiderate action ' 2 
speedily checked by the hand of God ; for there occurred two 
calamities on the vigil of the Purification, 1 [namely] a defeat ot 
our people in Gascony, where Sir John de Saint-John 2 and very 
many others of our countrymen were captured ; also stores pro- 
vided for them, and shipped, were sunk in mid-ocean. When 
this news was published, bringing much matter of grief to king 
and country, a certain just, grey haired man, drawing conclusion 
from a similar event, told me what I repeat here. 

* In the time,' said he, * of Henry the father of Edward, when 
something similar had been executed in ecclesiastical affairs 
throughout the province, on pretext of aid to those who, resisting 
the affection of beloved wives and children, had long before set 
out to rescue the Holy Land from the Saracens, it happened that 
Bishop Robert Grosstete of Lincoln, [a man] beloved of God, was 
to perform solemn ordinations at Huntingdon during Lent. One 
of the Minorite Order, who still survives greatly aged at Don- 
caster, was present there, received ordination, witnessed the 
course of events, and describes what took place in the following 
manner. 

' After mass was begun,' said he, ' and the bishop was seated 
on his throne, he who had to read out the names of those who 
were to be ordained and presented to the bishop, came forward 
with the roll ; and whereas he was very slow in reading out the 
list, the bishop leaned his head upon the side of the seat, and fell 

1 1st February. 

2 The King's Lieutenant of Aquitaine. The actual date of his capture was z8th 
January. He was released after the treaty of 1'Aumone in 1 299. 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

asleep. Those, however, who were near him, bearing in mind 
his fasting and vigils, interpreted the prelate's repose as an omen ; 
and it was manifest when he awoke how wakeful had been his 
mind during sleep. For after the clergy had waited wondering 
for some time longer, he was gently awakened by a certain 
secretary, and, as he opened his eyes * Eh, God ! ' he exclaimed, 
' what great evils has this extortion from the Church of God en- 
tailed upon the Christians fighting with the Saracens for the rights 
of God. For in my sleep I beheld the overthrow of the Chris- 
tian host at Damietta and the plunder of treasure unjustly 
collected.' 

The confirmation of this oracle followed in a few months, when 
the sad news arrived of the slaughter of my lord J. Longspee and 
others, whereof thou mayst read above. 1 

Thus spake my informant : it is to be feared what may 
happen to funds collected by such pillaging. Nevertheless, the 
king did not abate the tax ; yea, he commanded that inquisition 
be made, so that in whatsoever place, whether occupied by monks 
or other persons, should be found hoards of gold or silver, brass, 
wool, cups, spoons, or other utensils, they should be rendered into 
royal possession by marks and inventory ; all which was after- 
wards carried out on the morrow of S. Mark's day. 2 

Holy Writ saith that ' vain are all men in whom is not the 
wisdom of God'; whereof verily the present times afford proof. 
For we know that in these days there hath been found a certain 

1 See the Chronicle of the year 1249, where the defeat and capture of S. Louis 
is recorded. In that passage Longespee is called illustris comes de Longa Spata. 
Excuse for somnolence might have been found in the bishop's advanced age, he 
being then in his 75th year. 

2 z6th April. 

1 60 



LANERCOST 

member of that ancient and accursed sect the Ambigehses, named 
Galfrid, who led astray many from the faith and hope of salvation, 
as he had learnt from others. For he entered houses and clandes- 
tinely taught about destiny and the constellations, disclosing thefts 
and mischances, so that in the estimation of weak-minded persons 
he was reputed to be something great, whereas in reality, he was a 
most nefarious necromancer. Also he took care to dwell and 
spend his nights apart, and to lie where he could often be heard 
as it were, giving questions and answers to divers persons. He 
used to make light of the doctrine of God and to ridicule the 
sacraments of the church ; for it was ascertained that during six- 
teen years he would neither partake of the Holy Communion nor 
witness it, nor afterwards when he was mortally sick did he even 
deign to be confessed. This wretched man's errors having fre- 
quently been exposed by Holy Church, he was forced to flee 
through divers countries and districts, all men driving him forth, 
even John of Peckham himself, Archbishop of Canterbury, inter- 
dicting him from remaining within the bounds of his diocese, until 
at length he stopped at the monastery of Stone in Staffordshire, 
being received into hiding rather than to hospitality. After he 
had spent his execrable life there for a long time, he fell at length 
into a last illness, and not even then would he cease to cling to the 
devil who appeared to him, or to say 'Now thinkest thou to 
have me ? or that I will come with thee ? nay verily, for I will by 
no means do so.' But on the day of the Purification of the 
Blessed Virgin l this infamous man was being constrained to leave 
the world in deadly torment, when two of the Order of Minorites 
turning aside thither stood beside his bed, urging him beseechingly 

1 2nd February. 
L 161 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

and gently that he would confess, assuring him of the mercy and 
grace of God ; but he persisted in turning a deaf ear to the counsels 
of salvation. And when they perceived by his breathing that 
he must speedily give up the ghost, they cried aloud in his ears, 
bidding him at least invoke the name of the Lord Jesus for the 
sake of mercy. They continued their clamour, persisting in 
shoutings, yet he never fully pronounced that sweet name, but 
only with his last breath he twice said feebly, ' Miserere ! ' and so 
bade farewell to this life. 

At the beginning of Lent so great was the scarcity in Rome, 
that the citizens, knowing that the stores of the church were laid 
up in the Capitol, broke into the same, and plundered the corn 
and salt which they found, forcing their way in with such violence 
that sixty of them were crushed to death, after the manner of the 
famine of Samaria. 1 And because the Pope appointed a certain 
senator against their will, with one accord they would have set fire 
to the papal palace and attacked the Father of the Church, had it 
not been for the exertions of a certain cardinal, who assuaged their 
madness and caused the Pope to alter his decision. 

On the very day of the Annunciation 2 the council assembled 
again in London [to decide] what they would give freely to 

my lord the king. But certain of the prelates without 
A.D. 1297. 

the knowledge of the archbishop, had pledged them- 
selves to submit to the secular authority, with whom the Abbot 
of Oseney was implicated. When he had presented himself 

MS. 

fo. 2o8 ban d tne archbishop had kissed him, he [the archbishop] was 
informed by the clergy that the abbot, contrary to the will of the 
church, had seceded from the unity of the clergy. The arch- 
Mi. Kings vii. 17. 2 2$th March. 
162 



LANERCOST 

bishop therefore called him back and rebuked him, revoking 
the kiss which he had given him in ignorance. He so terrified 
the transgressor by the words of just rebuke that, retiring to 
his lodging in the town, he suffered a failure of the heart ; 
and, while his attendants were preparing a meal, he bade them 
recite to him the miracles of the Glorious Virgin, and departed 
this life before taking any food. There seems to be repeated 
in this man the story of Ananias, who was rebuked by Peter 
for fraud in respect of money. 

Hardly had a period of six months passed since the Scots 1 
had bound themselves by the above-mentioned solemn oath of 
fidelity and subjection to the king of the English, when the 
reviving malice of that perfidious [race] excited their minds to 
fresh sedition. For the bishop of the church in Glasgow, whose 
personal name was Robert Wishart, ever foremost in treason, 
conspired with the Steward of the realm, named James, 2 for a 
new piece of insolence, yea, for a new chapter of ruin. Not 
daring openly to break their pledged faith to the king, they 
caused a certain bloody man, William Wallace, who had formerly 
been a chief of brigands in Scotland, to revolt against the king 
and assemble the people in his support. So about the Nativity 
of the Glorious Virgin 3 they began to show themselves in 
rebellion ; and when a great army of England was to be 
assembled against them, the Steward treacherously said to them 
[the English] ' It is not expedient to set in motion so great a 

1 Albanacti. 

2 Father of Walter Stewart who, by his marriage with Marjory, daughter of 
Robert I., became progenitor of the Stuart dynasty. 

8 8th September. 

163 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

multitude on account of a single rascal ; send with me a few 
picked men, and I will bring him to you dead or alive.' 

When this .had been done and the greater part of the army 
had been dismissed, the Steward brought them to the bridge 
of Stirling, where on the other side of the water the army 
of Scotland was posted. They [the Scots] allowed as many of 
the English to cross the bridge as they could hope to overcome, 
and then, having blocked the bridge, 1 they slaughtered all who 
had crossed over, among whom perished the Treasurer of 
England, Hugh de Cressingham, of whose skin William Wallace 
caused a broad strip to be taken from the head to the heel, to 
make therewith a baldrick for his sword. 2 The Earl of Warenne 
escaped with difficulty and with a small following, so hotly did 
the enemy pursue them. After this the Scots entered Berwick 
and put to death the few English that they found therein ; for the 
town was then without walls, and might be taken as easily by 
English or Scots coming in force. The castle of the town, 
however, was not surrendered on this occasion. 

After these events the Scots entered Northumberland in 
strength, wasting all the land, committing arson, pillage, and 
murder, and advancing almost as far as the town of Newcastle ; 
from which, however, they turned aside and entered the county 
of Carlisle. There they did as they had done in Northumber- 
land, destroying everything, then returned into Northumberland 
to lay waste more completely what they had left at first ; and 
re-entered Scotland on the feast of S. Cecilia, Virgin and Martyr, 3 

1 Ponte obturato. 

2 Other writers say the skin was cut up into horse-girths. 

3 2znd November. 

164 






I, 



of nilRtUft 



cfrotftjj <. f n fcrasn 
ftdrnvmtmt Kruocaju^ 
*>mftft$p c ofntlu qpfctn > 
*ttm tf trme c-T >>*i# nt 
tnArfcn mftil &et>jpi&vi 
vtk tytcui ccrt><?n<> teftin refine mcttt- 
ckettte* tttftiOa JpatCf qx * wirncfn 

ecmari ^c^nt * . 
meter eubtto er'^arluoc 
h)>ftt- 




f erona rtmiRr *"-ni 



tft ac reit i Cimmce .U^f 4k ^UA if fa 
pft. Abtcnaa Rejf r xftt> e^rrae, 
eif co* 4; tfe 



*> afrwcn 
iiuciirrCi"irw <f ic . 



ftu xpr dapft trttttt <* *flff *m 
quo *c dUwmnrtt fitdrtsn 
chi^loj! aftnfftnr' til 
ao <aut* ^finite m^cnnl aattr. ^amytt 
Oil eaf Claftucn*^ afniotmc > Rob* 
"V^ttartT *cn^> T>&dc ^rm' a! wucftflUo 
trc nw iQtolr rvonfl tj fHtnrt' OiUft 



vnnniitur 7>nitcri&- ta OW Hf th- |Xft- reref " 
fti fnril a Koto&.nvU npuctiuc eacti now t 
vtUrt wOiuTctfir ii*vIMJi1^d6)n<ro?n i facet* ". 
>il\4 hmrt* nr'tiww ftottttnurt uc mifdia i-captfl 
iu i fror Fiictrfr. brMu vil 



law n <f Rcgc mflirflfe ferunt 




no ouitffiit rtimfl mubmi 
ciV |autoevt 



uA -' 



-t pmtc 
cta 



go Uer 



on^rn cnfl l <tfmc9 

lanae ciiafit (ji^Ccntn ifr coe &&, 
If Rb from MI fifii^in a 
i^aurv* Anghiwe <l% Jiicttifr fibi o 
U-tv trndew mircwi i 
^W ! ft>irau IC '-v>5cnTib< nV a Ctorf 
' 



_ 

ia(hmtc ftia* me<&ift t^tRcftnc0 -iijotw 
n>tA tveifcit Percvflp<rt>"vinftt>i oomcaftn/ 
d\nftiit t comitwii ^/rrli -mfiw 



of 



luflr ^rrKo{vcrt>iite* C2cnb)?fc' 
roc rtite^tmftffcnr^riaeto flriglmevirftmctf* 



i nn ctlftc lft TtOifC mf SegC fiu? f 
i t-clttr c" f^n^' ,+ nnrittjcfeqJrf 
cctu T nHmnn ta c ccctfeirvfte twc wllrr 
to eftmi f'ffue f t u>* Wentj- ni 



r^i>mln ioiKcan) if* r f we pfkicrvr 

fl" rtrmim itngi' quctar t 



* T'nli- it^vnnb i lr- ttnl' f flihoe \m". > 
V. i^" fi.i 



i iifB'*rt icncPiCT^r 



fttttw 



i punter iW \tmtua cofnkl 1 



|rc cu r tiui* .Anflm fliC' * 
u A tnttrc eVco ecomiie atttc 



LANERCOST 

without, however, having been able as yet to capture any castle 
either in England or Scotland. 

Now before Lent in that year 1 the earls and barons of 
England prepared themselves for war against the Scots, in the 
absence of the king, who was in Gascony, and came upon them 
unawares at Roxburgh Castle, which they were then besieging 
with only a weak force. Being informed of the approach of the 
English, they took to flight at once ; but the earls remained some 
time at Roxburgh, but afterwards with one accord turned aside to 
Berwick and took that town. Howbeit, after the earls had left 
Roxburgh, the Scots came by night and burnt the town, and so 
they did to the town of Haddington, as well as to nearly all the 
chief towns on this side of the Scottish sea, 2 so that the English 
should find no place of refuge in Scotland. Thus the army of 
England was soon compelled to return to England through lack 
of provender, except a small force which was left to guard the 
town of Berwick. 

When the Scots heard of the sudden and unexpected 
retreat of the English after Easter, 3 they set themselves down 
before the castles of Scotland which were held by 
the English, to besiege them with all their force, and 
through famine in the castles they obtained possession of them 
all, except Roxburgh, Edinburgh, Stirling, and Berwick, and a few 
others ; and when they had promised to the English conditions 
of life and limb and safe conduct to their own land on sur- 
rendering the castles, William Wallace did not keep faith with 
them. 

Meanwhile, truce was made between the King of France and 

1 1 297-8. 2 Firth of Forth. 8 6th April. 

165 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

the King of England, and the king returned to England, and 
finding how the Scots had risen in his absence, he assembled an 
army and directed his march towards Scotland, and having entered 
that country, he passed through part thereof. 

So on the festival of the blessed Mary Magdalene l the Scots 
gave him battle with all their forces at Falkirk, William Wallace 
aforesaid being their commander, putting their chief trust, as was 
their custom, in their foot pikemen, whom they placed in the 
first line. But the armoured cavalry of England, which formed 
the greater part of the army, moving round and outflanking them 
on both sides, routed them, and, all the Scottish cavalry being 
quickly put to flight, there were slain of the pikemen and 
infantry, who stood their ground and fought manfully, sixty 
thousand, according to others eighty thousand, according to 
others one hundred thousand ; 2 nor was there slain on the 
English side any nobleman except the Master of the Templars, 
with five or six esquires, who charged the schiltrom of the Scots 
too hotly and rashly. 

Having thus entirely overcome the enemies of our king and 
kingdom, the army of England marched by one route to the 
Scottish sea, 3 and returned by another, in order to destroy 
all that the Scots had spared before. But on the approach of 
winter the king dismissed the nobles of England to their own 
estates, and undertook the guard of the March himself with 

1 22nd July. 

2 Walsingham estimates the loss of the Scots at 60,000, Hemingburgh at 
56,000 both preposterous figures, far exceeding the total of Wallace's forces. 
The only trustworthy data whereby to estimate the English losses is found in the 
compensation paid by King Edward for 1 1 1 horses killed in the action. 

3 Firth of Forth. 

166 



LANERCOST 

a small force for a time. But before Christmas he returned to 
the south, having disbanded the aforesaid guards upon the 

March. 

VERSES. 

Berwick, Dunbar, and Falkirk too 
Show all that traitor Scots can do. 
England exult ! thy Prince is peerless, 
Where thee he leadeth, follow fearless. 1 

PRAISE OF THE KING OF ENGLAND. 

MS. 

The noble race of Englishmen most worthy is of praise, fo. 209 

By whom the Scottish people have been conquered in all ways. 

England exult ! 

The Frenchmen break their treaties as soon as they are made, 
Whereby the hope of Scotsmen has been cheated and betrayed. 

England exult ! 

O disconcerted people ! hide yourselves and close your gates, 
Lest Edward should espy you and wreak vengeance on your pates. 

England exult ! 

Henceforth the place for vanquished Scots is nearest to the tail 
In clash of arms. O England victorious, all hail ! 

England exult ! 2 



1 VERSUS. 

Berwike et Dunbar, nee non Variata Capella, 
Monstrant quid valeant Scottorum perfida bella. 
Princeps absque pare cum sit tuus, Anglia, gaude ; 
Ardua temptare sub eo securius aude. 

COMMENDATIO REGIS ANGLIA. 

Nobilis Anghrum gens est dignissima laude, 
Per quam Scottorum plebs vincitur Anglia gaude ! 
Feeder a Francorum sunt frivola, pleenaque fraude, 
Per quam Scottorum spesfallitur Anglia gaude ! 
Gens confusa pete latebras ac ostia claude, 
Edwardus ne te videat rex Anglia gaude ! 
In bettis motis pars contigit ultima caudee 
Devictis Scottis superatrix Anglia gaude ! 
167 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

OF THE IMPIETY OF THE SCOTS. 

O Scottish race ! God's holy shrines have been defiled by thee, 

His sacred temples thou hast burnt, O crying shame to see ! 

Think not that thou for these misdeeds shalt punishment avoid, 

For Hexham's famous sanctuary polluted and destroyed. 

The pillaged house of Lanercost lies ruined and defaced ; 

The doers of such sacrilege must cruel vengeance taste. 

Let irons, fire, and famine now scourge the wicked race, 

With whom henceforth nor fame nor faith nor treaty can have place. 

The Scottish nation, basely led, hath fallen in the dust ; 

In those who forfeit every pledge let no man put his trust. 1 

OF WILLIAM WALLACE. 

Welsh William being made a noble, 2 
Straightway the Scots became ignoble. 
Treason and slaughter, arson and raid, 
By suff'ring and misery must be repaid. 3 



DE IMPIETATE SCOTTORUM. 

Per te fee data loca sancta Deoque dlcata ; 
Templaque sacrata, sunt, proh dolor ! igne cremata. 
Esse nequiverunt destructio damnaque multa 
Ecclesice Celebris Haugustaldens'is inulta. 
Desolata domus de Lanercost mala plura 
Passafuit,fiet de talibus ultio dura. 
Ferrum, flamma, fames venient tibi, Scotia, digne, 
In qua fama, fides, fcedus periere maligne. 
Sub duce degenero gens Scotica degeneravit, 
Qu<? famam temere,faedus, qua fidem violavit. 

2 Wallace is usually honoured by the knightly prefix ' Sir ' ; but there is 
no record of his receiving knighthood. 

DE WILLELMO WALEYS. 

Postquam Wilklmus Wallensis nobilitavit, 
Nobilitas prorsus Scottorum degeneravit. 
Proditio, cades, incendia, frausque rapine? 
Finiri nequeunt infelici sine fine. 
168 




FROM DRAWING BY T. HEARNf, F.S.A. 1780 



LANERCOST 



About the feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Mary the King 
of England married the Lady Margaret, sister of the 
King of France, whereby the [two] kings became 
friends. 1 

In the same year died Oliver, Bishop of Lincoln, and Henry 
of Newark, Archbishop of York. Master John of Alderby 
succeeded Oliver, and Henry of Corbridge, Doctor in Theology 
[succeeded Henry in the see of York]. 

About the same time Pope Boniface wrote to the King of 
England demanding that he should hand over to his custody 
John de Balliol, whom he was keeping under restraint, and the 
King complied with the Pope's demand in obedience to the 
Roman Curia. 2 

In the same year the Pope issued the statute beginning Super 
cathedram, et cetera, to promote concord between the prelates 
of the Church and the Orders of Preaching and Minorite 
Friars. 

The King prepared an army for an expedition into Scotland, 
and during that march the Queen was delivered of her first-born 
son Thomas, in the northern parts about Brotherton, 
from which town the son there born derived his sobriquet. 
Howbeit the King did nothing remarkable this time against the 
Scots whose land he entered, because they always fled before him, 
skulking in moors and woods ; wherefore his army was taken 
back to England. 

1 8th September. 

2 John de Balliol was committed to the custody of Sir Robert de Burghesh, 
constable of Dover Castle, who took him to Whitsand and delivered him to the 
Papal nuncio. (Fcedera.) 

169 




A.D. 1300. 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

In the same year William of Gainsborough, an Englishman, 
was summoned to the Curia, as reader in theology at the palace 
before the Cardinals ; upon whom, after the lapse of two years, the 
Pope bestowed the bishopric of Worcester. 

In the same [year] about the feast of S. John the Baptist, 1 my 
lord Edward King of England came to Carlisle with the nobles 
and great men of England. With him came Sir Hugh de Vere, 
and he stayed a while at Lanercost, and thence the King marched 
through the district of Galloway as far as the Water of Cree. 
Also he took the castle of Caerlaverock, which he gave to Sir 
Robert de Clifferd, and he caused many of those found within the 
castle to be hanged. ^ ^^ 

This, the sixth year of Pope Boniface, was the year of Jubilee. 

In Rome each hundredth year is kept as jubilee ; 

Indulgences are granted and penitents go free. 

This Boniface approved of and confirmed by his decree. 2 

In the same year as above a formal embassy arrived at the 
Roman Curia from the King of England : to wit the Earls of 
Seland, Lincoln, and Bar, 3 the Bishop of Winchester, Sir Hugh le 
Spenser, Galfrid de Genevilla and Otto de Grandison, knights ; 
and the Archdeacon of Richmond and John of Berwick, clerics. 4 

1 24th June. 

2 dnnus centenus Romee semper jubilee us ; 
Crimina laxantur, cut paenitet is fa donantur ;\ 
Hoc declaravit Bonifacius et roboravit. 

8 Barensis : which might be from Sara, the Latinised form of Dunbar : but 
there is no record of Sir Patrick 'with the blak berd,' 8th Earl of Dunbar, being 
employed on this mission, although he was certainly in King Edward's service at 
this time. 

4 This embassy was sent to counter the Scottish mission earlier in the year. 
The chronicler's list of names does not exactly correspond with that set 

170 



LANERCOST 

The ambassadors of France were as "follows the Archbishop of 
Narbonne, the Bishop of Auxerre, the Counts of Saint- Paul and 
Boulogne, Pierre de Flota, and others. 

In the same year was born Thomas of Brotherton, son of 
King Edward. 

[Here follows in the Chronicle the famous letter of Pope 
Boniface VIII. to Edward I., in which he claims that ' the 
Kingdom of Scotland hath from ancient time belonged by un- 
doubted right ' to the Church of Rome, commands King 
Edward to desist from any attempt to infringe upon jts_ indepen- 
dencepto release the Bishops of Glasgow and Sodor, and other 
clerics whom he had imprisoned, and to submit within six months 
to the Papal judgment all documents and other evidence which 
he may be able to produce in support of any claim he may 
have upon the kingdom of Scotland or part thereof. 

The spirited reply from King Edward's Parliament of Lincoln,' 

1 2th February, 1300-1, indignantly rejecting the Pope's claim to 

interfere in the temporal affairs of the kingdom, is also transcribed 

at length in the Chronicle ; but, as it is given in Fcedera and 

, elsewhere, it is not necessary to repeat it here.] 

At the beginning of summer the king assembled an army 
against the Scots and placed one part of the force under command 
of my lord Edward, his son by his first wife and Prince of Wales, 

forth in King Edward's letter to Pope Boniface (Rymer's Faedera), which 
included John, Bishop of Winchester ; Friar William of Gainsborough ; Gerard, 
Archdeacon of Richmond ; John of Berwick, Canon of York ; Amadis, Earl of 
Savoy (Sabaudiae) ; Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln ; Sir Galfrid de Genevill, 
Sir Galfrid Russell, Sir Otto de Grandison, Sir Hugh le Despenser, Sir Amaneus, 
lord of le Breto ; Master Reymund, vasatensem of Arnald de Rama ; and Peter, 
Canon of Almeric of S. Severin's of Bordeaux. 

171 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

and under command of divers nobles of England who were in 
his company, and these entered Scotland on the west ; but [the 
king] kept the other part with himself and entered by 
Berwick. The Scots, however, dared not fight with 
either army, but fled as they had done the previous year. 
Howbeit they took some fine spoil from the English and did 
much other mischief; wherefore the king, considering that 
whatever he gained in Scotland during the summer he would lose 
in winter, decided to spend the whole winter at Linlithgow and 
elsewhere in Scotland, and did so. The Scots were brought far 
nearer subjection by that occupation than they had been before. 

In the same year the Queen bore another son named Edmund, 
and after her purification joined the king in Scotland. 

Also in these times fresh dispute took place between the Kings 
of France and England about the land of Gascony, but at last 
they came to an agreement after the truce had been renewed 
several times. 

In the same year 

BISHOP BONIFACE, servant of the servants of God, to his venerable brother 
in Christ the Archbishop of Canterbury, greeting and apostolic benediction. 
Not without cause do we hold it to be very grave and most contrary to 
our wishes that prelates of the Church, who are under obligation through 
the nature of the pastoral office to set an example to others of praiseworthy 
conduct, presume with damnable audacity to proceed by uneven ways 
to nefarious actions, and, giving themselves the rein, do not shrink from 
perpetrating deeds whereby the Divine Majesty is offended, his glory 
disparaged, their own salvation endangered, and the minds of the faithful 
are unsettled by a grave scandal. 

Wherefore we are actuated by becoming motives and exhort [thee] 
to consider advisedly how we may apply the speedy remedy of this 
warning, for the correction or punishment of the excesses of the prelates 
themselves, as justice requires. 

172 



LANERCOST 

For indeed we have learnt by trustworthy report, whicrr has now many 
times been brought to our hearing, that Walter de Langton, Bishop of 
Coventry and Lichfield, forgetful of pastoral integrity, unmindful of his 
own salvation, careless of good fame, and, as it were, the destroyer of 
his own honour, has not feared to perpetrate, nor does he cease from 
committing, deeds as wicked as they are atrocious, and so nefarious that 
they must either produce disgust with horror in those who hear about 
them or else cause a loathing of such abomination; wherefore we do 
not consider it meet either to describe them now in these letters or to 
relate them by word of mouth. Wherefore, being unwilling, as indeed we 
ought to be, to wink at such things as offend God and scandalise men 
if they receive encouragement from the truth, we must proceed by careful 
consideration to inflict deserved punishment upon these persons, lest they 
gain strength through lapse of time. In accordance, therefore, with the 
law as we perceive it and have decided to enforce, we have issued these 
apostolic scripts, strictly enjoining upon thy fraternity that, in the virtue of 
obedience, thou shalt without delay cause the said bishop to be summoned 
under our authority, either by thyself, or by another, or by others, to appear 
in person before us, within the space of three months, counting from the day 
of this citation, on pain of deprivation of the pontifical office (which we will 
that he shall incur ipso facto should he prove disobedient in this matter), to 
submit humbly and effectually to our decrees and precepts and those 
of the apostolic see upon all and several matters set forth, and upon any 
others which may happen to be brought forward or objected against him. 

Take thou care in thy letters, describing the course of events, to inform 
us fully and faithfully of the day on which thou receivest these presents, 
the citation and its form, and whatsoever thou doest in this matter. 

Given at the Lateran, on the 8th of the Ides of February, 1 in the sixth 
year of our pontificate. 

The French, desiring unjustly to subdue the Flemings to 
themselves, invaded that country with an army on several 

occasions : but the Flemings, boldly encountering on 

A.D. 1302. 
foot the mounted force, inflicted upon them much 

slaughter and won some marvellous victories, killing notables and 

X 6th February, 1300-01. 
173 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

nobles of France, to wit, the Counts of Artois, of Eu, of Boulogne, 
of Albemarle ; and lords, to wit, Jacques de Saint-Paul, Godefroie 
de Brabayne and his son, Jean de Henaud, lord of Teyns, Pierre 

MS. 

fo. 2ii de Flota and Jean de Bristiach, barons ; and many other knights, 

[with] upwards of 20,000 men, of whom 3,500 were men-at-arms. 1 

y About the Ascension of our Lord 2 the King of England came 

with an army against the Scots ; but they dreaded lest he should 

remain with them not only in summer but in winter ; 

wherefore all the nobles of Scotland were compelled to 

come before him, and he received them to his peace. He remained 

in the country until the Nativity of the Glorious Virgin. 8 

In the same year Pope Boniface declared the King of the 
Teutons 4 to be Emperor ; and this he did, as was said, for the 

1 This was the battle of Courtray, nth July, 1302, memorable as the first 
occasion when infantry, fighting in the solid formation afterwards adopted by the 
Scots, successfully withstood the onslaught of armoured cavalry. It caused as much 
sensation in military circles of the fourteenth century as did the introduction of 
breech-loading rifles by the Prussians in the war with Austria in 1866. 

2 1 6th May. 8 8th September. 

4 Albert I., Duke of Austria. 'The Holy Roman Church and the Holy 
Roman Emperor are one and the same thing in two different aspects. ... As divine 
and eternal, the head of Catholicism is the Pope, to whom souls have been 
entrusted ; as human and temporal, the Emperor, commissioned to rule men's 
bodies and acts' (Bryce's Holy Roman Empire). \ The reference in the text is to a 
speech made by Pope Boniface on 3Oth April, 1303, in which he reminded the 
King of France that, like all other princes, he must consider himself subject to the 
Roman ^Emperor. 'Let not the pride of the French rebel which declares that it 
acknowledgeth no superior. They lie : for by law they are, and ought to be, 
subject to the King of the Romans and the Erriperor.' Boniface had previously 
declined to recognise Albert I. as Emperor because he had but one eye and was 
the reverse of good-looking (fit homo monoculus etvultu sordido, non potest esse imperator) : 
and when Albert's envoys waited upon him in 1 299, Boniface exclaimed ' Am I 
not Pontiff ? Is not this the chair of Peter ? Am I not able to guard the rights 
of the empire ? I am Caesar I am Emperor ! ' 

174 



LANERCOST 

humiliation of the King of France and the French. But the 
King of France and the men of his realm, clerics as well as laity, 
wrote many lengthy complaints against the Pope, and pledged 
themselves to prove all that they wrote. 

But in the meantime the Pope, whom all the world feared as a 
lion because of his wisdom and courage, was captured and 
imprisoned by the Colonnas, because he had expelled cardinals wh'o 
were of their kin from the College of Cardinals and made them 
incapable of holding any degree or dignity in the Church. In the 
following October 1 he died, whether by a natural death or, as is 
more probable, through grief. Within a few days Cardinal 
Nicholas, of the Order of Preachers, was appointed in his place, 
and was named Benedict the Eleventh ; and because it appeared 
to him that the aforesaid statute of Boniface had been issued to 
the detriment of the aforesaid two Orders, and was too much in 
favour of prelates, he quashed it and issued a new one, which 
begins thus Inter cunctas, etc. And he died in the same 
year on the festival of S. Thomas the Martyr, 2 and was succeeded 
(though not immediately after his death) by the Archbishop of 
Bordeaux, who was named Clement the Fifth, from whose 
the Roman Curia has been removed to Avignon. 

On the festival of S. Hieronymus 3 Thomas of Corbridge died, 
and William of Greenfield succeeded him in the arch- 
bishopric. Shortly before this, to wit, about the 
Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 4 the King returned from 
Scotland to England, having received the Scots to his peace. 

William Wallace was captured by a certain Scot, to wit, 
Sir John de Menteith, and was taken to London to the King, and 
1 1 303. 2 7th July. s 30th September. 4 8th September. 

175 



time^ 
\ 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

it was adjudged that he should be drawn and hanged, beheaded, 

disembowelled, and dismembered, and that his entrails should 
be burnt ; which was done. And his head was exposed 
upon London Bridge, his right arm on the bridge of 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, his left arm at Berwick, his right foot at 

Perth, and his left foot at Aberdeen. 

The vilest doom is fittest for thy crimes, 
Justice demands that thou shouldst die three times. 
Thou pillager of many a sacred shrine, 
Butcher of thousands, threefold death be thine ! 
So shall the English from thee gain relief, 
Scotland ! be wise, and choose a nobler chief. 1 

In the same year, on the fourth of the Ides of February, to wit, 
on the festival of S. Scholastica virgin, 2 Sir Robert Bruce, Earl of 
Carrick, sent seditiously and treacherously for Sir John Comyn, 
requiring him to come and confer with him at the house of 
the Minorite Friars in Dumfries ; and, when he came, did slay 
him and his uncle Sir Robert Comyn in the church of the Friars, 
and afterwards took [some] castles of Scotland and their wardens, 
and on the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin next following 3 was 
made King of Scotland at Scone, and many of the nobles and 
commonalty of that land adhered \to him. 

fo. 2ii b When the King of England heard of this, he sent horse 
and foot to Carlisle and Berwick to protect the Border. But 

1 Sunt tua demerita misero dignissima fine, 
Esque pati dignus necis infortunia trinee ; 
Qui vastare soles sacras hostiliter <zdes, 
Et nimis atroces hominum committere c&des, 
Turpiter occisus, Anglos non amodo Icedes ; 
Si sapis ergo duci tali te, Scotia, tie des. 

2 loth February, 1305-6. 

3 25th March, 1305-6. The real date of the coronation was the 271)1. 

176 



MS. 



o 
S 

O 

5 F 

on 

M t" 1 

* W 
H 



a > 

> H 

jo hi 

Z p-l-i 

M W 

O 




LANERCOST 

because the men of Galloway refused to join the aforesaid 
Robert in his rebellion, their lands were burnt by him, and, pur- 
suing one of the chiefs of Galloway, he besieged him in 
a certain lake, but some of the Carlisle garrison caused A ' D> I3 6 ' 
him to raise the siege, and he retreated, after burning the engines 
and ships that he had made for the siege. 1 

But those who were in garrison at Berwick, to wit, Sir Robert 
Fitzroger, an Englishman who was warden of the town, and Sir 
John Mowbray, Sir Ingelram de Umfraville, and Sir Alexander de 
Abernethy, Scotsmen, with their following, over all of whom Sir 
Aymer de Valence was in command all these, I say, entered 
Scotland and received to the King of England's peace some of 
those who at first had been intimidated into rebellion with Sir 
Robert. Him they pursued beyond the Scottish sea, 2 and there 
engaged him in battle near the town of St. John (which is called by 
another name Pert), killed many of his people, and in the end put 
him to flight. 3 

Meanwhile the King of England, having assembled an army, 
sent my lord Edward, his son aforesaid (whom he had knighted in 
London together with three hundred others), and the Earl of 
Lincoln, by whose advice the said lord Edward was to act, in pursuit 
of the said Robert de Brus, who had caused himself to be called King. 
When they entered Scotland they received many people to peace 
on condition that they should in all circumstances observe the law ; 
then marching forward to the furthest bounds of Scotland, where 
the said Robert might be found, they found him not, but 

1 This does not coincide with anything that is known of Bruce's movements 
after his coronation. 

2 1.e. the firths of Forth and Clyde. s 2 6 th j une> , ^ o6 

M 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

they took all the castles with a strong hand. But they hanged 
those who had part in the aforesaid conspiracy, design and 
assistance in making him king, most of whom they caused first to 
be drawn at the heels of horses and afterwards hanged them ; among 
whom were the Englishman Christopher de Seton, who had 
married the sister of the oft-mentioned Robert, and John and 
Humphrey, brothers of the said Christopher, and several others 
with them. Among those who were hanged were not only simple 
country folk and laymen, but also knights and clerics and pre- 
bendaries, albeit these protested that, as members of the Church, 
justice should be done to them accordingly. 1 Then Sir Simon 
Fraser, a Scot, having been taken to London, was first drawn, then 
hanged, thirdly beheaded, and his head set up on London Bridge 
beside that of William Wallace. They also took to England and 
imprisoned the Bishop of S. Andrews, whom the King of England 
had appointed Guardian of Scotland, and who had entered into 
a bond of friendship with the said Robert, as was proved by letters 
of his which were found ; also the Bishop of Glasgow, who had 
been principal adviser in that affair, and the Abbot of Scone, who 
assisted the aforesaid Robert when he was received into royal 
honour. Howbeit in the meantime Robert called de Brus was 
lurking in the remote isles of Scotland. 2 

Throughout all these doings the King of England was not in 

1 Benefit of clergy, i.e. to be dealt with by ecclesiastical authority. 

2 Fabyan and some other English writers state that Bruce spent this winter in 
Norway. It is usually believed that he spent it in the island of Rachrin, off 
the coast of Antrim. This belonged to Bysset of the Glens, to whom orders were 
sent from King Edward in January, 1 306-7, to join Sir John de Menteith and 
Sir Simon de Montacute with his ships * to put down Robert de Brus and destroy 
his retreat in the Isles between Scotland and Ireland.' Bain's Calendar, iii. 502 

178 



LANERCOST 

Scotland, but his son, with the aforesaid army. But the King was 
slowly approaching the Scottish border with the Queen, by many 
easy stages and borne in a litter on the backs of horses on account 
of his age and infirmity ; and on the feast of S. Michael l he 
arrived at the Priory of Lanercost, which is eight miles from 
Carlisle, and there he remained until near Easter. 2 Meantime his 
kinsman, the Earl of Athol, who had encouraged the party of the 
said Robert to make him king, had been captured, and by command 

MS. 

of the King was taken to London, where he was drawn, hanged, fb. ^\^ 
and beheaded, and his head was set upon London Bridge above 
the heads of William Wallace and Simon Fraser, because he was 
akin to the King. 

After this, on the vigil of S. Scholastica virgin, 3 two brothers of 
Robert de Brus, Thomas and Alexander, Dean of Glasgow, and 
Sir Reginald de Crawford, desiring to avenge themselves upon the 
people of Galloway, invaded their country with eighteen ships and 
galleys, having with them a certain kinglet of Ireland, and the 
Lord of Cantyre and other large following. Against them came 
Dougal Macdoual (that is the son of Doual), a chief among the 
Gallovidians, with his countrymen, defeated them and captured all 
but a few who escaped in two galleys. He ordered the Irish 
kinglet and the Lord of Cantyre to be beheaded and their heads to 
be carried to the King of England at Lanercost.* 

Thomas de Brus and his brother Alexander and Sir Reginald de 
Crawford, who had been severely wounded in their capture by 
lances and arrows, he likewise took alive to the King, who 



September. 

2 26th March, 1 307. His writs are dated from Lanercost till 4th March, 1 306-7. 

3 loth February, 1306-7. 4 Bain's CaL Doc. Scot. ii. 1905. 

179 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

pronounced sentence upon them, and caused Thomas to be drawn 
at the tails of horses in Carlisle on the Friday after the first Sunday 
in Lent, 1 and then to be hanged and afterwards beheaded. Also 
he commanded the other two to be hanged on the same day and 
afterwards beheaded ; whose heads, with the heads of the four 
others aforesaid, were set upon the three gates of Carlisle, and the 
head of Thomas de Brus upon the keep of Carlisle. Nigel, the 
third brother of Robert, had been hanged already at Newcastle. 

About the same time a certain cardinal named Peter came 
to England, sent a latere from my lord the Pope to establish peace 
between the King of France and the King of England ; and it 
so happened that both my lord the King and my lord the said 
cardinal entered Carlisle on Passion Sunday. 2 Then in the 
cathedral church on the Wednesday following my lord cardinal 
explained the object of his legation before a very great number of 
people and clergy, and showed them the excellent manner in which 
my lord the Pope and my lord the King of France had agreed, 
subject to the consent of the King of England to wit, that my 
lord Edward, son and heir of the King of England, should marry 
Isabella, daughter of the King of France. When this had been 
said, uprose William of Gainsborough, Bishop of Worcester, and 
on the part of the King briefly informed my lord cardinal and all 
who had come thither of the manner of Sir John Comyn's 
assassination, praying that he would deign to grant some 
indulgence for his soul, and that he would pronounce sentence 
of excommunication upon the murderers ; whereupon the legate 
liberally granted one year [of indulgence] for those who should 
pray for the said soul so long as he [the cardinal] should remain in 

1 1 7th February, 1306-7. 2 I9th March, 1306-7. 

180 



LANERCOST 

England, and for one hundred days afterwards. Then straightway, 
having doffed his ordinary raiment and donned his pontificals, he 
denounced the murderers of the said Sir John as excommunicate, 
anathematised, and sacrilegious, together with all their abettors, 
and any who offered them counsel or favour ; and expelled them 
from Holy Mother Church until they should make full atone- 
ment ; and thus those who were denounced were excommunicate 
for a long time throughout all England, especially in the northern 
parts and in the neighbourhood where the murder was committed. 

On the following Friday, in the same place, peace was pro- 
claimed between the said kings by the Archbishop of York, 
and [it was announced] that the King of England's son was 
to marry the King of France's daughter, accordingly as had been 
previously decreed by my lord Pope Boniface. 

In the same year, about the feast of S. Matthew the Apostle, 1 
the most noble King Edward being laid up at Newbrough near 
Hexham, his consort the illustrious Margaret Queen of England, 
came to the house of Lanercost with her honourable household. 
And my lord the King came thither on the vigil of S. Michael 2 
next following, and remained there nearly half a year. And on 
the first day of March 3 they left the said monastery for Carlisle, and 
there -he held a parliament with all the great men of the realm. 

In the same year Friar N. de M or was sent by the Queen to 
Oseney. 

On Easter Day 4 the aforesaid Dungal 6 was knighted by the 

1 2 ist September. 2 2 8th September. 3 1306-7. 4 26th March. 

5 Dungal or Doual, one of the Pictish chiefs of Galloway, head of a powerful 
clan of the same blood as the M'Doualls of Lorn. The lands of Logan in 
Wigtownshire are still held by his descendants. 

181 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

King's hand ; and in the same week Sir John Wallace was captured 

and taken to the King at Carlisle, who sent him to London, that 

he should there undergo the same doom as his brother 

William had suffered. Howbeit, notwithstanding the 

' terrible vengeance inflicted upon the Scots who adhered to the 

j party of the aforesaid Robert de Brus, the number of those willing 

*- . > / 

to establish him in the realm increased from day to day. 1 
Wherefore the King of England caused all the chief men of 
England who owed him service to attend at Carlisle with the 
Welsh infantry within fifteen days after the nativity of S. John the 
Baptist. 2 But alas ! on the feast of the translation of S. Thomas, 
Archbishop of Canterbury and Martyr, 8 in the year of our Lord 
aforesaid, this illustrious and excellent King, my lord Edward, 
son of King Henry, died at Burgh-upon-Sands, which is distant 
about three miles to the north from Carlisle, in the thirty-sixth 4 
year of his reign and the sixty-seventh of his age. Throughout 
his time he had been fearless and warlike, in all things strenuous 
and illustrious ; he left not his like among Christian princes for 
sagacity and courage. He is reported to have said to the Lord 
before his death : Have mercy upon me, Almighty God ! Ita 
veraciter sicut nunquam aliquem [ ] 5 nisi tantum te, Dominum 
Deum meum. 

Messengers were sent in haste to my lord Edward Prince of 
Wales, his son and heir, who arrived at Carlisle on the eleventh 
day, to wit, on the festival of S. Symphorosa, 6 and on the next day 

1 In this sentence is well expressed the national character of the Scots they are 
willing to be led but will not be driven. 

2 8th July. 3 7t h j u i y> 4 R ea n y t h e thirty-fifth. 

6 The verb here is wanting in the original, which leaves the sense doubtful. 
6 1 8th July. 

182 



MS. 



LANERCOST 

he went to Burgh to mourn for his father, with the nobles of the 
land and prelates of the Church, who were assembled there in 
great number. 

On the following day, to wit, on the festival of S. Margaret, 
Virgin and Martyr, 1 he received at Carlisle Castle fealty and 
homage from nearly all the chief men of England, who were 
assembled there for the expedition to be made into 
Scotland, and was proclaimed king. Thus Edward 
the younger succeeded the elder, but in the same manner as 
Rehoboam succeeded Solomon, which his career and fate were to 
prove. Meanwhile, the obsequies and funeral rites of his father 
were being arranged, and when these were ready, the corpse 
was taken to Carlisle, and so on to the south, liberal offerings 
in money and in wax being made for it in those churches byfo. 2iz b 
which it passed, most of all in those where it rested for the 
night. The new king, and Antony Bek, Bishop of Durham 
(who had previously been ordained by the Pope Patriarch of 
Jerusalem), accompanied the corpse through several days' journey, 
together with the nobles of England and a great multitude of 
Secular and Regular clergy ; and afterwards the king returned 
to Carlisle to arrange for the expedition into Scotland ; and 
thither came to him first Patrick, Earl of Dunbar, and made 
homage and fealty to him. 

On the vigil of S. Peter ad Vincula 2 he moved his army into 
Scotland in order to receive homage and fealty from the Scots, 
as he had forewarned them, having summoned by his letters all 
the chief men of the country to appear before him at Dumfries, 
there to render him the service due. Afterwards he divided 
1 zoth July. 8 3 ist July. 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

his army into three columns to search for the oft-mentioned 
Robert ; but, this time, as formerly, he was not to be found, so 
they returned empty-handed to England after certain guardians 
had been appointed in Scotland. 1 

Meanwhile there came in great pomp to the king a certain 
knight of Gascony, Piers de Gaveston by name, whom my lord, 
the elder Edward, had exiled from the realm of England, and 
in accordance with the unanimous advice of parliament had caused 
solemnly to swear that he would never re-enter England ; this 
because of the improper familiarity which my lord Edward the 
younger entertained with him, speaking of him openly as his 
brother. To this fellow, coming by the new king's command to 
join him while he was still in Scotland, the king gave the noble 
earldom of Cornwall and the Isle of Man, and preferred him 
in affection to all the other nobles of the country, whether of his 
own kin or otherwise. When this was done, the whole of 
England murmured against the king, and was indignant against 
the aforesaid Piers. Moreover, the new king apprehended 
Walter de Langton, my lord Bishop of Chester, a man as worthy 
as any in the realm, who had been treasurer to his [Edward's] 
father until his death, and imprisoned him in Wallingford 
Castle. 2 He did this, as was alleged, because the said bishop 
had been prime mover in advising that the aforesaid Piers 
should be exiled from the realm in the time of his [Edward's] 

1 Aymer de Valence was appointed guardian of Scotland on 28th August, but 
he was superseded on 8th September by John de Bretagne, Earl of Richmond. 
In this may be traced the influence of Piers de Gaveston, no friend to de Valence, 
whom, because of his swarthy complexion, he nicknamed ' Joseph the Jew,' a 
term of special opprobrium in the fourteenth century. 

2 In Berkshire. 

184 



LANERCOST 

father. He also caused many other leading men, who had been 
with his father, to be dismissed from their offices, and viler and 
worse men to be appointed. Howbeit, he had some cause for 
punishing the bishop, because, as was said, he found in his posses- 
sion more of the treasure which he had collected under his 
[Edward's] father than was in his father's treasury after his death. 

Later, after the feast of S. Michael, 1 the king held his parliament 
at Northampton, and there confirmed the gift of the said earldom 
[of Cornwall], and allowed the bishop to remain in the aforesaid 
castle [of Wallingford], which was at that time the castle of 
Piers himself; and after the parliament he went to London 
with the clergy and people, and caused his father to be interred at 
Westminster among the kings ; for since the day of his death his 
body had been kept above ground in the abbey of Walsingham. 
- While all these affairs were being transacted, Robert Bruce, 
with his brother Edward and many of his adherents, was moving 
through Scotland wherever he liked, in despite of the English 
guardians, and chiefly in Galloway, from which district he 
took tribute under agreement that it should be left in peace ; 
for they were unable to resist him because of the large number 
of the people who then adhered to him. 

About the same time died Friar William of Gainsborough, 
Bishop of Worcester, beyond the sea, when returning from 
the court of France, whither he had been sent to arrange the 
king's nuptials. He lies at Beauvais among the Minorite Friars. 
Almost all his household died there with him, whence it was 
believed that they had perished by poison. 

1 29th September. Mortem in Stevenson's text ought manifestly to befestum, for, 
as the Rev. Dr. James Wilson has reminded me, archangels are immortal ! 

185 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

Later, about the feast of the chair of S. Peter, 1 the King of 
England sailed across to France, and with solemnity and great 
state married his wife Isabella, daughter of the King of France, 
at Boulogne, as had been arranged in the presence of her father 
and the leading men of that country, and of many from Eng- 
land. He brought her back to England, and was crowned in 
London. The people of the country and the leading men 
complained loudly at his coronation against the aforesaid Piers, 
and unanimously wished that he should be deprived of his 
earldom ; but this the king obstinately refused. The murmurs 
increased from day to day, and engrossed the lips and ears 
of all men, nor was there one who had a good word either for 
the king or for Piers. The chief men agreed unanimously 
in strongly demanding that Piers should be sent back into exile, 
foremost among them being the noble Earl of Lincoln and 
the young Earl of Gloucester, whose sister, however, Piers 
had received in marriage by the king's gift. 2 

About Easter 8 the king held a parliament, in which it was 

unanimously declared that the said Piers should be banished 

within fifteen days from all the lands which are under 

A.D. 1308. 

the King of England's dominion. Howbeit the king, 
though he gave verbal assent to this, did not in fact keep faith, 
any more than in some other things which he promised, and 
Piers remained in England. Wherefore about Pentecost the 

1 zznd February, 1307-8. 

2 Margaret de Clare, the king's niece, being daughter of his elder sister, Joan of 
Acre. The marriage took place on 1st November, 1307, although Walsingham 
says it was after Gaveston had been appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, 1 6th 
June, 1308. 

8 1 4th April. 

1 86 



LANERCOST 

earls and barons, with horses and arms and a strong force, 
came to Northampton, where the king was staying at that time 
with the said Piers, and there at length it was arranged by 
force and fear that he should immediately be sent back into exile, 
in the manner aforesaid, and the Pope's excommunication was 
procured upon him in the event of his ever after re-entering 
England. But while it was decreed that he should embark at 
Dover and have an annuity for life of ^200 sterling for himself and 
100 for his wife, if she were willing to leave the country 
with him, the king secretly caused him to sail to Ireland with 
his wife, furnishing him with letters to the effect that, wheresoever 
he should go within the lands of the King of England, he should 
be received with the glory and honour due to the person of 
the king himself. Also he gave him, as was said, such precious 
and valuable articles as he could find in his treasury, and also 
he gave him many charters sealed with his great seal, but in 
blank, whereon Piers might write whatever he chose ; and 
accordingly he was received in Ireland with great glory. 

In all these proceedings no one in the kingdom supported the 
king, except four persons, to wit, my lord Hugh le Despenser, fo. 213 
baron, Sir Nicholas de Segrave, Sir William de Burford, and 
Sir William de Enge, against whom the earls and barons rose, 
demanding that they should be banished as deceivers of the king 
and traitors to the realm, or else that they should be removed 
immediately and utterly from the king's presence and council. 

About the same time, grievous to relate, the Master of the 
Order of Templars, with many brethren of his order, publicly 
confessed, as was said, before my lord the King of France and 

the clergy and people, that for sixty years and more he and 

187 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

his brethren had performed mock-worship before a statue of 
a certain brother of the Order, and had trodden the image of 
the Crucified One under foot, spitting in its face, and that 
they had habitually committed sodomy among themselves, and had 
perpetrated many other iniquities against the faith. On account 
of which all the Templars in France were apprehended and 
imprisoned, not undeservedly, and their goods were confiscated, 
and the same was done in England, pending what the Pope and 
the clergy should decide what should be done with them. 

Meanwhile, taking advantage of the dispute between the King 
of England and the barons, Edward de Brus, brother of the oft- 
mentioned Robert, and Alexander de Lindsey and Robert Boyd 
and James de Douglas, 1 knights, with their following which they 
had from the outer isles of Scotland, invaded the people of 
Galloway, disregarding the tribute which they took from them, 
and in one day slew many of the gentry of Galloway, and made 
nearly all that district subject to them. Those Gallovidians, 
however, who could escape came to England to find refuge. But 
it was said that the King of England desired, if he could, to 
ally himself with Robert de Brus, and to grant him peace 
upon such terms as would help him to contend with his own earls 
and barons. Howbeit, after the feast of S. Michael 2 some kind 
of peace and agreement was patched up between the King of 
England and his people, on condition that the king should do 
nothing important without the advice and consent of the Earl of 
Lincoln ; but from day to day the king, by gifts and promises, 
drew to his side some of the earls and barons. 

1 First mention of ' the good Sir James,' son of Sir William ' le Hardi.' 

2 zgth September. 

1 88 



LANERCOST 

About the beginning of the following Lent 1 an embassy was sent 
to the King of England by order of the Pope and at the instance 
of the King of France, desiring him to desist from attacking the 
Scots, and that he should hold meanwhile only what he possessed 
at the preceding feast of S. James the Apostle ; 2 and likewise an 
embassy was sent to Robert de Brus desiring him to keep the 
peace, and that meanwhile he should enjoy all that he had 
acquired at the preceding feast of the same S. James, and no 
more ; and that the truce should endure until the festival of 
All Saints next to come. 3 But Robert and his people restored 
nothing to the King of England of that which he had wrongously 
usurped between the said feast of S. James and the beginning of 
Lent aforesaid ; rather were they continually striving to get 
more. 

In the summer the king held his parliament at Northampton ; 
whereat, contrary to the hope of all England, the said Piers de 
Gaveston, through privy procurement of the king 
beforehand, was confirmed as formerly in the earldom 
of Cornwall, with the assent of the earls and barons, on condition 
that he should have nothing in the kingdom except the earldom. 
For already, before the aforesaid parliament, the sentence of 
excommunication pronounced by my lord the Pope against the 
said Piers in England had been suspended for ten months, and all 
Englishmen were absolved from whatever oath they had taken in 
any manner affecting the said Piers ; and meanwhile he received 
license to return from Ireland to England, and obtained in 
parliament the earldom of Cornwall as before. 

1 1 2th February, 1308-9. 2 25th July, 1308. 

3 ist November. 

189 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

But in the aforesaid parliament there was read a fresh sentence 
of excommunication pronounced against Robert de Brus and 
against all who should give him aid, counsel, or favour. 

Now about the feast of All Saints, 1 when the said truce was 
due to expire, the King of England sent Sir John de Segrave and 
many others with him to keep the march at Berwick; and to 
defend the march at Carlisle [he sent] the Earl of Hereford and 
Baron Sir Robert de Clifford, Sir John de Cromwell, knight, and 
others with them. But a little before the feast of S. Andrew 2 
they made a truce with the oft-mentioned Robert de Brus, and he 
with them, subject to the King of England's consent, until the 
twentieth day after Christmas, 3 and accordingly Robert de Clifford 
went to the king to ascertain his pleasure. On his return, he 
agreed to a further truce with the Scots until the first Sunday in 
Lent, 4 and afterwards the truce was prolonged until summer ; for 
the English do not willingly enter Scotland to wage war before 
summer, chiefly because earlier in the year they find no food for 
their horses. 

About the feast of the Assumption 6 the king came to Berwick 

with Piers, Earl of Cornwall, and the Earl of Gloucester and the 

Earl of Warenne, which town the King of England 

A.D. I3IO. 

had caused to be enclosed with a strong and high wall 
and ditch ; but the other earls refused to march with the king by 
reason of fresh dispute that had arisen. But he [the king] 
advanced with his suite further into Scotland in search for the oft- 
mentioned Robert, who fled in his usual manner, not daring to 

1 ist November. 2 3oth November. 

8 I4th January, 1309-10. 4 8th March, 1309-10. 

5 1 5th August. 

190 



LANERCOST 

meet them, wherefore they returned to Berwick. 1 So soon as 
they had retired, Robert and his people invaded Lothian and 
inflicted much damage upon those who were in the king of 
England's peace. The king, therefore, pursued them with a 
small force, but the Earl of Cornwall remained at Roxburgh with 
his people to guard that district, and the Earl of Gloucester 
[remained at] Norham. 

After the feast of the Purification 2 the king sent the aforesaid 
Earl of Cornwall with two hundred men-at-arms to the town 
of S. John beyond the Scottish Sea, 3 in case Robert de Brus, who 
was then marching towards Galloway, should go beyond the said 
sea to collect troops. But the king remained on at Berwick. 
The said earl received to peace all beyond the Scottish Sea, as far 
as the Mounth. After the beginning of Lent 4 the Earls of 
Gloucester and Warenne rode through the great Forest of 
Selkirk, receiving the foresters and others of the Forest to 
peace. 

About the same time died the noble Henry, Earl of Lin- 
coln, who was Guardian of England in the king's absence, 
in place of whom the Earl of Gloucester was elected with 
the king's consent, and therefore returned from Scotland to 
England. 

In the same year died Antony Bek, Patriarch of Jerusalem and fb. 2 1 3 
Bishop of Durham (Patriarch, however, only in name), and was 
buried with great solemnity in the cathedral church of Durham, 

1 This Fabian strategy was very exasperating to the chronicler, but it was 
the means whereby Bruce won and kept his kingdom. 

2 2nd February, 1310-11. *I.e. Perth, beyond the Firth of Forth. 

4 24th February, 1310-11. 

191 



MS. 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

at the northern corner of the east end ; in which church none had 
hitherto been buried save S. Cuthbert. 1 

To him succeeded Richard of Kelso, a monk of that monastery 
[Durham], soon after Easter, 2 and was consecrated at 
York by the archbishop on the feast of Pentecost. 3 

In the same year my lord Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, came to 
the king in Scotland, to do homage for the earldom of Lincoln 
which had come to him through his wife after the death of the 
aforesaid earl. But, forasmuch as the king was in Berwick, the 
earl was advised not to go before him outside the realm to render 
homage, neither would the king come across the river to him ; 
wherefore there was much apprehension of civil war in England, 
because the earl, having four other earldoms besides that of 
Lincoln, threatened to return immediately with one hundred 
knights whom he had brought with him (without taking account 
of foot-soldiers besides), and to enter upon the lands of the said 
earldom whereof he had offered homage to the king, who had 
declined to receive it. But by God's influence the king followed 
wiser counsel, crossed the water of Tweed, and came to the earl 
at Haggerston, about four miles from Berwick, where they 
saluted each other amicably and exchanged frequent kisses. 
Although hitherto they had been much at discord because of 
Piers de Gaveston, yet [that person] came thither with the king ; 
but the earl would neither kiss him, nor even salute him, whereat 
Piers was offended beyond measure. 

1 Considering the effusive eulogy or scathing criticism passed by the chronicler 
upon other deceased dignitaries of the Church, it is strange that he should have 
nothing to say about the character of this most redoubtable prelate. 

2 i ith April. 8 30th May. 

192 



LANERCOST 

In the same year the Templars of England were tried upon the 
aforesaid crimes with which they were charged by inquisitors sent 
by my lord the Pope, all of which they denied at York, but three 
of them pled guilty to them all in London. 

Forasmuch as the king, two years before, had granted in a 
certain parliament, and confirmed by establishing it under his 
great seal, that he would submit to the authority of certain 
persons, earls and bishops, 1 partly for councillors (for he was not 
very wise in his acts, though he may have spoken rationally enough), 
and likewise partly for the better governance of his house and 
household, and that the term of two years should be given them 
for dealing with these matters and deliberating, which time had 
now elapsed, therefore the Guardian of England and the nobles of 
the land sent forward envoys to the king in Scotland about the 
feast of S. Laurence, 2 humbly beseeching that it would please him 
to come to London and hear in parliament what they had 
ordained for his honour and the welfare of his realm. Wherefore 
the king, unwillingly enough, went to London, where all the 
great men of the realm were assembled, and in that parliament 
the said ordainers announced publicly what they had ordained, 
and these were approved by the judgment of all as being very 
expedient for the king and realm, and specially so for the com- 
munity and the people. Among these [ordinances] it was decreed 
now, as it had been frequently before, that Piers de Gaveston 

1 These Lord Ordainers were the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishops of 
London, Salisbury, Chichester, Norwich, S. David's and Llandaff; the Earls 
of Gloucester, Lancaster, Lincoln, Hereford, Pembroke, Richmond, Warwick 
and Arundel ; the Barons Hugh de Vere, William le Mareschal, Robert Fitz 
Roger, Hugh Courtenay, William Martin, and John de Grey. 

2 loth August/ 

N 193 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

should depart from the soil of England within fifteen days after 
the feast of S. Michael the Archangel, 1 never to return, nor 
should he thereafter be styled nor be an earl, nor be admitted 
to any country which might be under the king's dominion ; and 
sentence of excommunication was solemnly pronounced by the 
Archbishop of Canterbury upon all who should receive, defend, 
or entertain him in England after the aforesaid fixed limit of 
time. He himself, confident that he had been confirmed for life 
in his earldom, albeit he was an alien and had been preferred to 
so great dignity solely by the king's favour, had now grown 
so insolent as to despise all the nobles of the land ; among whom 
he called the Earl of Warwick (a man of equal wisdom and 
integrity) ' the Black Dog of Arden.' When this was reported 
to the earl, he is said to have replied with calmness : ' If he call 
me a dog, be sure that I will bite him so soon as I shall perceive 
my opportunity.' 

But let us have done with him [Piers] till another time and 
return to Robert de Brus to see what he has been about mean- 
while. The said Robert, then, taking note that the king and all 
the nobles of the realm were in such distant parts, and in such 
discord about the said accursed individual [Piers], having collected 
a large army invaded England by the Solway on Thursday before 
the feast of the Assumption of the Glorious Virgin, 2 and burnt all 
the land of the Lord of Gillesland and the town of Haltwhistle 
and a great part of Tynedale, and after eight days returned into 
Scotland, taking with him a very large booty in cattle. But he 
had killed few men besides those who offered resistance. 

About the feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, 3 Robert 

1 1 3th October. 2 I2th August. 3 8th September. 

194 



LANERCOST 

returned with an army into England, directing his march towards 
Northumberland, and, passing by Harbottle and Holystone and 
Redesdale, he burnt the district about Corbridge, destroying 
everything ; also he caused more men to be killed than on the 
former occasion. And so he turned into the valleys of North and 
South Tyne, laying waste those parts which he had previously 
spared, and returned into Scotland after fifteen days ; nor could the 
wardens whom the King of England had stationed on the marches 
oppose so great a force of Scots as he brought with him. How- 
beit, like the Scots, they destroyed all the goods in the land, with 
this exception, that they neither burnt houses nor killed men. 

Meanwhile the Northumbrians, still dreading lest Robert should 
return, sent envoys to him to negotiate a temporary truce, and 
they agreed with him that they would pay two thousand pounds 
for an exceedingly short truce to wit, until the Purification of the 
Glorious Virgin. 1 Also those of the county of Dunbar, next to 
Berwick, in Scotland, who were still in the King of England's 
peace, were very heavily taxed for a truce until the said date. 

In all these aforesaid campaigns the Scots were so divided 
among themselves that sometimes the father was on the Scottish 
side and the son on the English, and vice versa ; also one brother 
might be with the Scots and another with the English ; yea, even 
the same individual be first with one party and then with the MS. 
other. But all those who were with the English were merely 
feigning, either because it was the stronger party, or in order to 
save the lands they possessed in England ; for their hearts were 
always with their own people, although their persons might not 
be so. 

1 2nd Feb., 1311-12. 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

From the feast of S. Michael 1 until the feast of S. John 
Lateran, 2 Pope Clement held a council at Vienne 3 with the 
cardinals and three patriarchs and one hundred and thirty arch- 
bishops and bishops, and abolished the Order of Templars so that 
it should no longer be considered an Order. Also he caused 
many new constitutions to be enacted there, which were compiled 
in seven books in the time of his successor, John XXII. 

Now let us return to Piers. That oft-mentioned Piers de 
Gaveston left England and went to Flanders within the time 
appointed him, to wit, within fifteen days after the feast of 
S. Michael. 4 But whereas in Flanders he met with a reception far 
from favourable (through the agency of the King of France, who 
cordially detested him because, as was said, the King of England, 
having married his daughter, loved her indifferently because of 
the aforesaid Piers), to his own undoing he returned to England, 
but clandestinely, through fear of the earls and barons ; and the 
king received him and took him with him to York, where they 
plundered the town and country, because they had not where- 
withal to pay their expenses. For the earls and barons had 
ordained, and enforced execution thereof after the return of the 
said Piers, that the king, who would not agree with his lieges in 
anything, should not receive from his exchequer so much as a 
half-penny or a farthing. 5 The king, then, fearing lest the earls 
and barons should come upon him there, took Piers to Scar- 
borough with him ; but he who was then warden of the castle 6 
refused to allow, on any account, the king to enter accompanied 

1 29th September, 1311. 2 6th May, 1312. 3 In Dauphiny. 

4 1 2th October. 5 Obolum nee quadrantem. 

6 Henry de Percy, First Lord Percy of Alnwick, 1272-1315. 

196 



LANERCOST 

by Piers, wherefore the king turned aside with him to Newcastle, 
and there, as at York, they plundered the town and country. 
When Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, heard this, being most hostile 
to the said Piers, he marched secretly and suddenly through the 
wooded parts of England, avoiding the high roads, about the feast 
of the Invention of the Holy Cross. 1 

In the same year the said Robert de Brus, King of Scotland, 2 
came with a great army in the month of August to the 
monastery of Lanercost, and remained there three days, making 
many of the canons prisoners and doing an infinity of injury ; 

but at last the canpns^were set at liJ^erty-by-^iirHsslfL^. > , 

"The said Earl [of Lancaster] entered Newcastle with a large 
body of men-at-arms in order to seize the said Piers, according 
to what had been ordained by the earls and barons; 

A.D. 1312. 

but it so happened that the king and he had gone to 
Tynemouth, which is about six miles from Newcastle, and, hearing 
that the earl was after them, they embarked in an open boat and 
made for Scarborough, and were then received there. But the 
king, having dismissed Piers there and Henry de Beaumond 
(likewise an alien) with some others for the defence of the castle, 
left them and went to Knaresborough Castle, and thence forward 
to York, thinking thereby to cause the siege of Scarborough to 
be raised if the castle should be besieged ; but he failed to effect 
what he wished. For the Earl of Lancaster, hearing that the 
king and Piers had separated, and that Piers was in the castle, 

1 3rd May. 

2 This is the first time the chronicler admits King Robert's regal rank. But 
neither he nor any of his successors ever called themselves King of Scotland ; they 
were Kings of Scots., 

197 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

attacked it most vigorously, so that very shortly Piers was 
forced to surrender himself. This, however, he did upon terms 
which, as I have not heard them, I have not written. Having 
surrendered, he was committed to the custody of Sir Aymer de 
Valence, Earl of Pembroke, who had ever before been his chief 
enemy, and about the feast of the nativity of John the Baptist, 1 
in the absence of Aymer de Valence, he was beheaded on the 
high road near the town of Warwick by command of the Earl of 
Lancaster and the Earl of Warwick. 

On the third of the nones of July, 2 on the vigil of the octave 
of the Apostles Peter and Paul was a new moon, 3 and an eclipse 
of the sun about the first hour of the day, 4 and the sun appeared 
like a horned moon, which was small at first and then larger, 
until about the third hour it recovered its proper and usual size ; 
though \sometimes it seemed green, but sometimes of the colour 
which it usually has. 

Now, while the aforesaid things were getting done with Piers, 
the march of England had no defender against the Scots, and 
therefore they rendered tribute to Robert in order to have peace 
for a while. Meanwhile, however, the Scots burnt the town of 
Norham, because the castle did them great injury, and they took 
away men as prisoners and also cattle. 

When the king heard of the slaughter of the oft-mentioned 
Piers, he flared up in anger, and gave all his thoughts to the 
means whereby he might avenge himself on the slayers. 

My lord Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, then attached 
himself to the king, chiefly because the said Piers had been 

1 24th June. The actual date of decollation was igth June. 2 $th July. 

3 Luna tricesima, i.e. the thirtieth lunation. 4 6 a.m. 

108 



LANERCOST 

committed to his custody and had . been killed without his 
knowledge. It was said also that the Earl of Warenne and 
some others joined the king's party against the Earl of 
Lancaster. Xherefore the king caused his parliament to be , uu^'' ^ /' 

~ *- . & , W" ^ f ^ ff^ 

summoned in London, in case he could there_seizc_thc earl, 

the sons of two 



EdwardLaiidJEidniund. 1 But this was not unknown to the earl, 
wherefore he gathered to himself out of his five earldoms a 
mounted force so strong and numerous that he had no fear of 
the king's party, and he came to London for the parliament. 
When the king heard this he dissimulated, nor would he attempt '** 
anything against him, but prolonged the parliament from day to 
day in order tqjrex_h^JXajtK^ * 



and.baronsjwho had come to his aid and for the confirmation of 
the aforesaid ordinances. But the Earl of Gloucester and the 
Earl of Richmond were mediators of peace between the opposing 
parties, albeit they were not able to pacify them. 

When Robert de Brus heard of this discord in the south, 
having assembled a great army, he invaded England about the 
feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, 2 and burnt the 
towns of Hexham and Corbridge and the western parts, and took 
booty and much spoil and prisoners, nor was there anyone MS. 
who dared resist. While he halted in peace and safety near 
Corbridge he sent part of his army as far as Durham, which, 
arriving there suddenly on market day, carried off all that was 
found in the town, and gave a great part of it to the flames, 

1 Lancaster was Edward II.'s first cousin, being the son of Edmund * Crouch- 
back.' 

2 1 5th August. 

199 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

cruelly killing all who opposed them, but scarcely attacking the 
castle and abbey. The people of Durham, fearing more mischief 
from them, and despairing of help from the king, compounded 
with them, giving two thousand pounds to obtain truce for that 
bishopric until the nativity of John the Baptist ; l which, however, 
the Scots refused to accept unless on condition that they might 
have free access and retreat through the land of the bishopric 
whensoever they wished to make a raid into England. The 
Northumbrians also, fearing that they would visit them, gave 
them other two thousand pounds to secure peace until the 
aforesaid date ; and the people of Westmorland, Copland, and 
Cumberland redeemed themselves in a similar way ; and, as they 
had not so much money in hand as would pay them, they paid a 
part, and gave as hostages for the rest the sons of the chief lords 
of the country. Having achieved this, Robert returned to 
Scotland with his army. 

* Meanwhile a cardinal legate came to England with my lord 
Louis, brother of my lord the King of France, to effect concord 
between the king and the earls and barons; but they did not 
succeed, although they spent many days in attempting to bring 
about agreement. 

In winter, about the feast of S. Martin, to wit, on the feast 
day of S. Bricius, 2 a first-born son was born and was named 
Edward, like his father and grandfather. 

Now the oft-mentioned Robert, seeing that thus he had the 
whole March of England under tribute, applied all his thoughts 
to getting possession of the town of Berwick, which was in the 
King of England's hands. Coming unexpectedly to the castle 

1 24th June, 1313. 2 i3th November. 



200 



LANERCOST 

on the night of S. Nicholas, 1 he laid ladders against the walls and 
began to scale them ; and had not a dog betrayed the approach 
of the Scots by loud barking, it is believed that he would quickly 
have taken the castle and, in consequence, the town. 

Now these ladders which they placed against the walls were of 
wonderful construction, as I myself, who write these lines, beheld 
with my own eyes. 2 For the Scots had made two strong ropes as 
long as the height of the wall, making a knot at one end of each 
cord. They had made a wooden board also, about two feet and 
a half long and half a foot broad, strong enough to carry a man, 
and in the two extremities of the board they had made two holes, 
through which the two ropes could be passed; then the cords, 
having been passed through as far as the knots, they had made 
two other knots in the ropes one foot and a half higher, and 
above these knots they placed another log or board, and so on to 
the end of the ropes. They had also made an iron hook, 
measuring at least one foot along one limb, and this was to lie 
over the wall ; but the other limb, being of the same length, 
hung downwards towards the ground, having at its end a round 
hole wherein the point of a lance could be inserted, and two rings 
on the two sides wherein the said ropes could be knotted. 

Having fitted them together in this manner, they took a strong 
spear as long as the height of the wall, placing the point thereof 
in the iron hole, and two men lifted the ropes and boards with 
that spear and placed the iron hook (which was not a round one) 
over the wall. Then they were able to climb up by those wooden 
steps just as one usually climbs ordinary ladders, and the greater 
the weight of the climber the more firmly the iron hook clung 
1 6th December. 2 Fide occulata conspexl. 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

over the wall. But lest the ropes should lie too close to the wall 
and hinder the ascent, they had made fenders round every third 
step which thrust the ropes off the wall. When, therefore, they 
had placed two ladders upon the wall, the dog betrayed them as 
I have said, and they left the ladders there, which our people 
next day hung upon a pillory to put them to shame. And thus 
a dog saved the town on that occasion, just as of old geese saved 
Rome by their gaggle, as saith S. Augustine in de Civitate Dei y 
book iii. chapter 4, de magnis^ and Ambrose in Exameron in Opere 
>uint<e Diet. 

Robert, having failed in his attempt on Berwick, marched 
with his army to the town of S. John, 1 which was then still in 
the King of England's hands ; and he laid siege thereto, and on 
Monday of the octave of Epiphany 2 it was taken by the Scots, who 
scalecj. the walls by night on ladders, and entered the town through 
the negligence of sentries and guards. Next day Robert caused 
those citizens of the better class who were of the Scottish nation 
to be killed, 3 but the English were allowed to go away free. But 
the Scottish Sir William Oliphant, who had long time held that 
town for the King of England against the Scots, was bound and 
sent far away to the Isles. The town itself the Scots utterly 
destroyed. 

About the day of S. Peter in cathedra [ ] 4 Master 

Robert of Winchelsea, Archbishop of Canterbury, died ; in whose 
room Master Thomas of Cobham, Doctor of Theology, was 
elected; but at the kjug!s request the archbishopric was conferred 
by the Pope upon my lord Walter Reynald, Bishop of Wor- 

1 Perth. 2 roth January, 1312-1 3. 

8 And English too, according to Fordun, ch. cxxix. 4 Blank in original. 



202 



LANERCOST 

cester, a man almost illiterate, and, in public opinion, unworthy 
of any degree of dignity both on the score of his mode of life 
and his [want of] learning. Behold ! what evils the king wrought 
among the clergy (besides the confusion he brought upon his 
people) when he procured the appointment of such a man to be 
Primate of all England ! However, as he had hindered the 
election made of Master Thomas, he obtained his appointment as 
Bishop of Worcester. 

_^-&&er- the^feast^of the-Natmfy~6t S. "Jc*B-the"Ba^tt^- when^- - 
the English truce on the March had lapsed, Robert de Brus 
threatened to invade England in his usual manner. The 

A.Di I 3 I 3. 

people of Northumberland, Westmorland and Cumber- 
land, and other Borderers, apprehending this, and neither having 
nor hoping for any defence or help from their king (seeing that he MS. 
was engaged in distant parts of England, seeming not to give them 
a thought), offered to the said Robert no small sum of money, 
indeed a very large one, for a truce to last till the feast of 
S. Michael in the following year. 2 

All this time the body of Piers de Gaveston remained above 
ground unburied with the Friars Preachers of Oxford, who daily 
said for his soul a placebo, a dirige, and a mass with nones, 
receiving from the king half a mark for their trouble. 

In the same year about the feast of the Assumption of the 
Blessed Virgin 3 the Emperor 4 was poisoned, as was said, by a 
certain monk. 

After the feast of S. Michael 5 the king caused the earls and 
barons to be summoned to parliament in London, and there an 

1 24th June. 2 29th Sept., 1314. 3 I5th August. 

4 Henry VII., Count of Luxembourg. 5 29th September. 

203 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

agreement, such as it was, was made between them on Sunday 
next before the feast of S. Luke, 1 and they made to him such an 
humbling and obeisance as befitted a king, which afterwards they 
did not observe. 

Now at the beginning of Lent 2 the Scots cunningly entered the 
castle of Roxburgh at night by ladders, and captured all the castle 
except one tower, wherein the warden of the castle, Sir Gillemin de 
Fiennes, a knight of Gascony, had taken refuge with difficulty, 
and his people with him ; but the Scots got possession of that 
tower soon afterwards. And they razed to the ground the whole 
of that beautiful castle, just as they did other castles which they 
succeeded in taking, lest the English should ever hereafter be able 
to lord it over the land through holding the castles. 

In the same season of Lent they captured Edinburgh Castle in 
the following manner. In the evening one day the besiegers of 
that castle delivered an assault in force upon the south gate, 3 
because, owing to the position of the castle there was no other 
quarter where an assault could be made. Those within gathered 
together at the gate and offered a stout resistance ; but mean- 
while the other Scots climbed the rocks on the north side, which 
was very high and fell away steeply from the foot of the wall. 
There they laid ladders to the wall and climbed up in such 
numbers that those within could not withstand them ; and thus 
they threw open the gates, admitted their comrades, got posses- 
sion of the whole castle and killed the English. They razed 
the said castle to the ground, just as they had done to Roxburgh 
Castle. 

1 Sunday, I4th October. 2 z8th February, 1313-14. 

* It was really the east gate. 

204 



LANERCOST 

Having accomplished this success, they marched to Stirling and 
besieged that castle with their army. 

In the same year died Sir Thomas de Multan, Lord of Gilles- 
land, on the sixth of the kalends of December, 1 leaving an only 
daughter as his heir, named Margaret, whom Robert de Clifford, 
son of Robert of the same name, married at Hoffe 2 in the seventh 
year of her age, he himself lying on his bed. And in the life of 
the said Robert, Ralph de Dacre, son of Sir William de Dacre, 
married the same Margaret, having a right to her through a 
contract concluded between Thomas de Multan, father of the 
said Margaret, and William de Dacre, before her former marriage. 

On Tuesday after the octave of Easter, 3 Edward de Brus, 
Robert's brother, invaded England by way of Carlisle with an 
army, contrary to agreement, and remained there three 
days at the bishop's manor house, to wit, at Rose, 
and sent a strong detachment of his army to burn the southern 
and western districts during those three days. They burnt many 
towns and two churches, taking men and women prisoners, and 
collected a great number of cattle in Inglewood Forest and 
elsewhere, driving them off with them on the Friday; 4 they 
killed few men except those who made determined resistance; 
but they made attack upon the city of Carlisle because of 
the knights and country people who were assembled there. 
Now the Scots did all these wrongs at that time because the men 
of that March had not paid them the tribute which they had 
pledged themselves to pay on certain days. Although the Scots 
had hostages from the sons and heirs of the knights of that 

1 26th November. 2 Near Appleby. 

8 1 6th April. * igth April. 

205 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

country in full security for covenanted sums, yet they did 
not on that account refrain from committing the aforesaid 
wrongs. 

Now about the feast of Pentecost 1 the King of England 
approached the March of Scotland ; also the Earl of Gloucester, 
the Earl of Hereford, the Earl of Pembroke, and the Earl of 
Angus, Sir Robert de Clifford, Sir John Comyn (son of the 
murdered John), Sir Henry de Beaumont, Sir John de Segrave, 
Sir Pagan de Typtoft, Sir Edmund de Mauley, Sir Ingelram 
de Umfraville, with other barons, knights, and a splendid and 
numerous army, if only they had had the Lord as ally. But the 
Earl of Lancaster and the other English earls who were of his 
party remained at home with their men (except those with whom 
they were bound in strict obligation to furnish the king in war), 
\ because the king as yet had refused to agree with them or to 
perform what he had promised before. And whereas when his 
noble father Edward went on a campaign in Scotland, he used to 
visit on his march [the shrines of] the English saints, Thomas 
of Canterbury, Edmund, Hugh, William, and Cuthbert, offering 
fair oblations, commending himself to their prayers, and also 
bestowing liberal gifts to monasteries and the poor, this [king] 
did none of these things ; but marching with great pomp and 
elaborate state, he took goods from the monasteries on his 
journey, and, as was reported, did and said things to the prejudice 
and injury of the saints. In consequence of this and other things 
it is not surprising that confusion and everlasting shame overtook 
him and his army, which was foretold at the time by certain 
religious men of England. 

1 z6th May. 
206 



LANERCOST 

Thus before the feast of the Nativity of S. John the Baptist, 1 
the king, having massed his army, advanced with the aforesaid 
pomp towards Stirling Castle, to relieve it from siege and to 
engage the Scots, who were assembled there in all their strength. 
On the vigil of the aforesaid Nativity 2 the king's army arrived 
after dinner near Torwood ; and, upon information that there 
were Scots in the wood, the king's advanced guard, commanded 
by Lord de Clifford, began to make a circuit of the wood to 
prevent the Scots escaping by flight. The Scots did not interfere 
until they [the English] were far ahead of the main body, when 
they showed themselves, and, cutting off the king's advanced MS. 
guard from the middle and rear columns, they charged and killed 
some of them and put the rest to flight. 3 From that moment 
began a panic among the English and the Scots grew bolder. 

On the morrow an evil, miserable and calamitous day for the 
English when both sides had made themselves ready for battle, 
the English archers were thrown forward before the line, and the 
Scottish archers engaged them, a few being killed and wounded on 
either side ; but the King of England's archers quickly put the 
others to flight. Now when the two armies had approached very 
near each other, all the Scots fell on their knees to repeat Paternoster^ 
commending themselves to God and seeking help from heaven ; 
after which they advanced boldly against the English. They had 
so arranged their army that two columns went abreast in advance 
of the third, so that neither should be in advance of the other ; 

1 24th June. 2 23rd June. 

3 This is a very inaccurate account, obviously from confused hearsay, of 
de Clifford's repulse by young Randolph. The true narrative is given best in 
Gray's Sca/acronica. 

207 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

and the third followed, in which was Robert. 1 Of a truth, when 
both armies engaged each other, and the great horses of the 
English charged the pikes of the Scots, as it were into a dense 
forest, there arose a great and terrible crash of spears broken and 
of destriers wounded to the death ; and so they remained without 
movement for a while. Now the English in the rear could not 
reach the Scots because the leading division was in the way, nor 
coulu they do anything to help themselves, wherefore there was 
nothing for it but to take to flight. This account I heard from a 
trustworthy person who was present as eye-witness. 

In the leading division were killed the Earl of Gloucester, Sir 
John Corny n, Sir Pagan de Typtoft, Sir Edmund de Mauley and 
many other nobles, besides foot soldiers who fell in great numbers. 
Another calamity which befel the English was that, whereas they 
had shortly before crossed a great ditch called Bannockburn, into 
which the tide flows, and now wanted to recross it in confusion, 
many nobles and others fell into it with their horses in the crush, 
whik others escaped with much difficulty, and many were never 
able to extricate themselves from the ditch ; thus Bannockburn 
was spoken about for many years in English throats. 

[Here follows a long dirge in Latin hexameters, which will not 
repay translation.] 

The king and Sir Hugh le Despenser (who, after Piers de 
Gavestcn, was as his right eye) and Sir Henry de Beaumont 
(whom he had promoted to an earldom in Scotland), with many 
others mounted and on foot, to their perpetual shame fled like 

1 This again is not correct. The Scots order of battle was three columns or 
' schiltromes ' in the first line, supported by the fourth commanded by King 
Robert. 

208 



LANERCOST 

miserable wretches to Dunbar Castle, guided by a certain knight 
of Scotland who knew through what districts they could escape. 
Some who were not so speedy in flight were killed by the Scots, 
who pursued them hotly ; but these, holding bravely together, 
came safe and sound through the ambushes into England. At 
Dunbar the king embarked with some of his chosen followers in 
an open boat for Berwick, leaving all the others to their fate. 

In like manner as the king and his following fled in one direc- 
tion to Berwick, so the Earl of Hereford, the Earl of Angus, Sir 
John de Segrave, Sir Antony de Lucy and Sir Ingelram de Umfra- 
ville, with a great crowd of knights, six hundred other mounted MS. 
men and one thousand foot, fled in another direction towards 
Carlisle. The Earl of Pembroke left the army on foot and saved 
himself with the fugitive Welsh ; but the aforesaid earls and 
others, who had fled towards Carlisle were captured on the way 
at Bothwell Castle, for the sheriff, the warden of the castle, 1 who 
had held the castle down to that time for the King of England, 
perceiving that his countrymen had won the battle, allowed the 
chief men who came thither to enter the castle in the belief that 
they would find a safe refuge, and when they had entered he took 
them prisoners, thereby treacherously deceiving them. Many, 

1 Sir Walter Gilbertson. A full list of the officers and garrison is given in 
King Edward's Wardrobe Accounts. In this, as in many other details, Barbour is 
singularly accurate. 

The Erie of Hertfurd fra the melle 

Departyt with a gret menye, 

And straucht to Bothwell tok the vai, 

That then in the Ingliss mennys fay 

Was, and haldyn as place of wer. 

Schyr Waltre Gilbertson was ther 

Capitane, and it had in ward. The Brits, ix. 582. 
O 209 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

also, were taken wandering round the castle and hither and thither 
in the country, and many were killed ; it was said, also, that 
certain knights were captured by women, nor did any of them get 
back to England save in abject confusion. The Earl of Hereford, 
the Earl of Angus, Sir [John] de Segrave, Sir Antony de Lucy, 
Sir Ingelram de Umfraville and the other nobles who were in the 
castle were brought before Robert de Brus and sent into captivity, 
and after a lengthy imprisonment were ransomed for much money. 
After the aforesaid victory Robert de Brus was commonly called 
King of Scotland by all men, because he had acquired Scotland 
by force of arms. 

About the same time died King Philip of France. 1 
Shortly afterwards, to wit, about the feast of S. Peter ad 
Vincula, 2 Sir Edward de Brus, Sir James of Douglas, John de 
Soulis and other nobles of Scotland invaded England by way of 
Berwick with cavalry and a large army, and, during the time of 
truce, devastated almost all Northumberland with fire, except the 
castles ; and so they passed forward into the bishopric of Durham ; 
but there they did not burn much, for the people of the bishopric 
ransomed themselves from burning by a large sum of money. 
Nevertheless, the Scots carried off a booty of cattle and what men 
they could capture, and so invaded the county of Richmond 
beyond, acting in the same manner there without resistance, for 
nearly all men fled to the south or hid themselves in the woods, 
except those who took refuge in the castles. 

The Scots even went as far as the Water of Tees on that 
occasion, and some of them beyond the town of Richmond, but 
they did not enter that town. Afterwards, reuniting their forces, 
1 29th Nov., 1314. 2 ist August. 



210 



LANERCOST 

they all returned by Swaledale and other valleys and by Stane- 
moor, whence they carried off an immense booty of cattle. Also 
they burnt the towns of Brough and Appleby and Kirkoswald, 
and other towns here and there on their route, trampling down 
the crops by themselves and their beasts as much as they could ; 
and so, passing near the priory of Lanercost, they entered 
Scotland, having many men prisoners from whom they might 
extort money ransom at will. But the people of Coupland, 1 
fearing their return and invasion, sent envoys and appeased them 
with much money. 

Qnjhe_day^a.fterJ:he feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Mary 
the King of England's parliament opened at York, wEcreat tEe ^ 
king and the Earl [of Lancaster] with his adherents came "to ah 
agreement, and all of them approved of the ordinances above men- 
tioned, which wereTonfirmed by the seals of the king and tire-earl. 

Now~aboiif the" feast of S. Michael 3 the Earl of Hereford, who 
had married the King of England's sister, returned from Scotland, 
and in exchange for him were released the Bishop of Glasgow, the 
Earl of Mar (who had been reared in England), and the wife, 
sister, and daughter of my lord Robert de Brus. 4 Howbeit, the 
Earl of Mar, having arrived at Newcastle, refused to go with 
them into Scotland, preferring to remain in England. From day 
to day sundry prisoners were released from the hands of the 
Scots, but only through very heavy pecuniary ransoms. About 

1 A ward of southern Cumberland. 

2 9th September. 3 zgth September. 

4 Queen Elizabeth was maintained at the king's charges during her captivity. 
In the year 1312-13 her expenses amounted to 125 53. 2d. (Wardrobe Accounts, 
5 Edward II.). 

211 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

the feast of our Lord's birth l the Earl of Angus was released, 
also Sir John de Segrave, and a little later Sir Antony de Lucy. 

About the feast of the Epiphany the illustrious King of France 
died, not having reigned a full year. 2 

Meanwhile the Scots occupied both north and south Tynedale 

to wit Haltwhistle, Hexham, Corbridge, and so on towards 

Newcastle, and Tynedale did homage to the King of Scots and 

forcibly attacked Gillesland and the other adjacent districts of 

England. 

At this time also the Scots again wasted Northumberland ; but 
from the aforesaid Nativity of Our Lord until the Nativity of 
S. John 3 the Baptist the county of Cumberland alone paid 600 
marks in tribute to the King of Scots.^ 

The Scots, therefore, unduly elated, as~rhuch by tKetr victory 
in the field as by the devastation of the March of England and 

the receipt of very large sums of money, were not 
A.D. 1315. ..,,.... r 

satisfied with their own frontiers, but fitted out ships 

and sailed to Ireland in the month of May, to reduce that 
country to subjection if they could. Their commanders were my 
lord Edward Bruce, the king's brother, and his kinsman my lord 
Thomas Randolf, Earl of Moray, both enterprising and valiant 
knights, having a very strong force with them. Landing in 
Ireland, and receiving some slight aid from the Irish, they captured 
from the King of England's dominion much land and many 
towns, and so prevailed as to have my lord Edward made king 

1 25th December. 

2 The date is wrong, Philip IV. died 2Qth November, 1314, Louis X. died 
5th June, 1316 June instead of January. 

3 2 5th December, 1314-241}! June, 1315. 

212 



LANERCOST 

by the Irish. Let us leave him reigning there for the present, 
just as many kinglets reign there, till we shall describe elsewhere 
how he came to be beheaded, and let us return to Scotland. 

The Scots, then, seeing that affairs were going everywhere in 
their favour, invaded the bishopric of Durham about the feast of 
the Apostles Peter and Paul, 1 and plundered the town of Hartle- 
pool, whence the people took to the sea in ships ; but they did 
not burn it. On their return they carried away very much booty 
from the bishopric. 

Also, a little later in the same year, on the feast of S. Mary 
Magdalene, 2 the King of Scotland, having mustered all his forces, 
came to Carlisle, invested the city and besieged it for ten days, 
trampling down all the crops, wasting the suburbs and all within 
the bounds, burning the whole of that district, and driving in a 
very great store of cattle for his army from Allerdale, Copland, 

and Westmorland. On every day of the siege they assaulted one MS. 

fo. 2 1 6^ 
of the three gates of the city, sometimes all three at once ; but 

never without loss, because there were discharged upon them from 
the walls such dense volleys of darts and arrows, likewise stones, 
that they asked one another whether stones bred and multiplied 
within the walls. Now on the fifth day of the siege they set up 
a machine for casting stones next the church of Holy Trinity, 
where their king stationed himself, and they cast great stones 
continually against the Caldew gate 3 and against the wall, but 
they did little or no injury to those within, except that they 
killed one man. But there were seven or eight similar machines 
within the city, besides other engines of war, which are called 
springalds, for discharging long darts, and staves with sockets for 

i 29th June. 2 22nd July, 3 On the west of the town. 

213 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

casting stones, which caused great fear and damage to those out- 
side. Meanwhile, however, the Scots set up a certain great 
berefrai like a kind of tower, which was considerably higher 
than the city walls. On perceiving this, the carpenters of the city 
erected upon a tower of the wall against which that engine must 
come if it had ever reached the wall, a wooden tower loftier than 
the other ; but neither that engine nor any other ever did reach the 
wall, because, when it was being drawn on wheels over the wet 
and swampy ground, having stuck there through its own weight, 
it could neither be taken any further nor do any harm. 

Moreover the Scots had made many long ladders, which they 
brought with them for scaling the wall in different places simul- 
taneously ; also a sow l for mining the town wall, had they been 
able ; but neither sow nor ladders availed them aught. Also they 
made great numbers of fascines of corn and herbage to fill the 
moat outside the wall on the east side, so as they might pass over 
dry-shod. Also they made long bridges of logs running upon 
wheels, such as x being strongly and swiftly drawn with ropes might 
reach across the width of the moat. But during all the time the 
Scots were on the ground neither fascines sufficed to fill the moat, 
nor those wooden bridges to cross the ditch, but sank to the depths 
by their own weight. 

Howbeit on the ninth day of the siege, when all the engines 
were ready, they delivered a general assault upon all the city gates 
and upon the whole circuit of the wall, attacking manfully, while 
the citizens defended themselves just as manfully, and they did the 
same next day. The Scots also resorted to the same kind of 

1 A siege engine which was constructed to contain men, who, when the sow was 
wheeled up to the wall, should proceed to sap the foundation under shelter. 

214 



LANERCOST 

stratagem whereby they had taken Edinburgh Castle ; for they 
employed the greater part of their army in delivering an assault 
upon the eastern side of the city, against the place of the Minorite 
Friars, in order to draw thither the people who were inside. But 
Sir James of Douglas, a bold and cautious knight, stationed him- 
self, with some others of the army who were most daring and nimble, 
on the west side opposite the place of the Canons and Preaching 
Friars, where no attack was expected because of the height [of the 
wall] and the difficulty of access. There they set up long ladders 
which they climbed, and the bowmen, whereof they had a great 
number, shot their arrows thickly to prevent anyone showing his head 
above the wall. But, blessed be God ! they met with such resist- 
ance there as threw them to the ground with their ladders, so that 
there and elsewhere round the wall some were killed, others taken 
prisoners and others wounded ; yet throughout the whole siege no 
Englishman was killed, save one man only who was struck by an 
arrow (and except the man above mentioned), and few were 
wounded. 

Wherefore on the eleventh day, to wit, the feast of S. Peter ad 
Vincula, 1 whether because they had heard that the English were 
approaching to relieve the besieged or whether they despaired of 
success, the Scots marched off in confusion to their own country, 
leaving behind them all their engines of war aforesaid. Some 
Englishmen pursuing them captured John de Moray, who in the 
aforesaid battle near Stirling 2 had for his share twenty-three 
English knights, besides esquires and others of meaner rank, and 
had taken very heavy ransom for them. Also they captured 
with the aforesaid John, Sir Robert Bardolf, a man specially 
1 1st August. 2 Bannockburn. 

215 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

ill-disposed to the English, and brought them both to Carlisle 
Castle ; but they were ransomed later for no small sum of 
money. 

In the octave of the Epiphany 1 the King of Scotland came 
stealthily to Berwick one bright moonlit night with a strong force, 
and delivered an assault by land and by sea in boats, intending to 
enter the town by stealth on the waterside between Brighouse and 
the castle, where the wall was not yet built, but they were man- 
fully repulsed by the guards and by those who answered to the alarm, 
and a certain Scottish knight, Sir J. de Landels, was killed, and Sir 
James of Douglas escaped with difficulty in a small boat. And 
thus the whole army was put to confusion. 

About the same time, on the morrow of the Conception of the 
Blessed Mary, 2 my lord Henry de Burgh, Prior of Lanercost, died, 
and was succeeded by Sir Robert de Meburne. 

About the feast of the Nativity of S. John the Baptist 3 
the Scots invaded England, burning as before and laying 
waste all things to the best of their power; and so they went as 

far as Richmond. But the nobles of that district, who 
A.D. 1316. 

took refuge in Richmond Castle and defended the 

same, compounded with them for a large sum of money so that 
they might not burn that town, nor yet the district, more than 
they had already done. Having received this money, the Scots 
marched away some sixty miles to the west, laying waste every- 
thing as far as Furness, and burnt that district whither they had 
not come before, taking away with them nearly all the goods of 
that district, with men and women as prisoners. Especially were 

1 i4th January, 1315-16. It was full moon. 2 gth December. 

8 24th June. 

216 






LANERCOST 

they delighted with the abundance of iron which they found 
there, because Scotland is not rich in iron. 

Now in that year there was such a mortality of men in MS. 
England and Scotland through famine and pestilence as had not 
been heard of in our time. In some of the northern parts of 
England the quarter of wheat sold for forty shillings. 

After the Scots had returned to their own country, their King 
Robert provided himself with a great force and sailed to Ireland, 
in order to conquer that country, or a large part thereof, for his 
brother Edward. He freely traversed nearly all that part of it 
which was within the King of England's dominion, but he did 
not take walled towns or castles. 

About the same time died Master William de Grenefeld, 
Archbishop of York, to whom succeeded my lord William de 
Meltoun ; who, albeit he was one of the king's courtiers, yet led 
a religious and honourable life. Also in the same year there 
died my lord Richard de Kellow, Bishop of Durham, to whom 
succeeded my lord Louis de Belmont, a Frenchman of noble birth, 
but lame on both feet, nevertheless liberal and agreeable. He 
was appointed by the Pope, as was reported, because of a deceitful 
suggestion, whereby the Pope was led to believe that he [Louis] 
himself would hold the March of England against the Scots. 

After the feast of S. Michael, 1 the Earl of Lancaster with his 
adherents marched toward Scotland as far as Newcastle in com- 
pliance with the king's behest; but the king declined to follow 
him as they had agreed upon together, wherefore the earl marched 
back again at once ; for neither of them put any trust in the 

other. 

I 2$th September. 
217 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

In the month of October in that year, in the night after the 
day of S. Remigius, 1 and rather more than an hour after mid- 
night, there was a total eclipse of the moon, and the whole moon 
was hidden for the space of one hour. 

About the same time a certain knight of Northumberland, to 
wit, Sir Gilbert de Middleton, seized and robbed two cardinals 
who had landed in England not long before, because they came 
in the company of the aforesaid Louis de Belmont in order to 
consecrate him Bishop of Durham, as had been commanded by 
the Pope. 

Also at the same time a certain knight of Richmond county, 
to wit, Sir John de Cleasby, having gathered together a number 
of malefactors and rogues, rose and devastated the district, 
plundering, robbing, and wasting, at his own and his people's 
pleasure, just as Sir Gilbert was doing in Northumberland with 
his accomplices and rogues. But, by God's ordinance, both of 
them were soon taken. Sir John was put to his penance, 2 because 
he refused to speak when brought before the justiciaries, and he 
soon afterwards died in prison. Sir Gilbert, after [suffering] 
other punishments, was cut into four quarters, which were sent 
to different places in England. 

About Pentecost 3 the King of Scotland returned to his own 
land from Ireland. In the same year before noon on the sixth 

day of September there was an eclipse of the sun. 
A.D. 1317. 

After the feast of S. Michael 4 the Pope sent a bull 

to England wherein he advised a truce between England and 

1 ist October. 2 Positus est ad pcemtentiam mam. 8 22nd May. 

4 zgth September. This is the famous bull which King Robert refused to 
read, as described by the Cardinals in their letter to the Pope (printed in Fcedera 

218 



LANERCOST 

Scotland to last for two years after the receipt of the said bull. 
Now the English received the said bull with satisfaction, both on 
account of the dissension between the king and the Earl of 
Lancaster and because of excessive molestation by the Scots 
arising out of the said dissension, and they hung the bull 
according to the Pope's command in the cathedral churches 
and other important places. But the Scots refused to accept it, 
and paid it no manner of respect, and therefore came deplorably 
under the sentence of excommunication delivered by the Pope 
and contained in the said bull. 1 

In the middle of the said truce Pope Clement the Fifth died, 
and Pope John the Twenty-second was elected. 

On the second day of the month of April, in mid-Lent, about 
midnight on Saturday, the Scots treacherously took the town 
of Berwick through means of a certain Englishman, Peter of 
Spalding, living in the town, who, being bribed by a great sum 
of money received from them and by the promise of land, 
allowed them to scale the wall and to enter by that part of the 

and given in abstract by Lord Hailes, ii. 74). The Pope's letter contained the 
following apology for not addressing Robert as king. * Forasmuch as the matter 
of dispute regarding the kingdom of Scotland is still pending between thee and 
the aforesaid king [of England], we cannot with propriety address to thee the 
name of the royal title, and thy wisdom will not take it amiss that we have 
omitted to name thee as King of Scots in the same letters; especially as the 
council of our brethren would by no means sanction a denomination of that 
kind: nor would thy mother the Roman Church, who weigheth all her course 
and actions in the balance of equity, be doing according to her practice if she 
interfered between disputants to the detriment of either.' 

J The sentence of excommunication is printed in Fcedera. King Edward 
obtained it from the Pope by representing to him that King Robert and Edward 
Bruce were the only obstacles to his undertaking a crusade as recommended by 
the Council of Vienna. 

219 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

wall where he himself was stationed as guard and sentry. After 
they had entered and obtained full possession of the town, 
they expelled all the English, almost naked and de- 
spoiled of all their property ; howbeit, in their entrance 
they killed few or none, except those who resisted them. 

Also the castles of Wark and Harbottle, to which they had 
already laid siege, were surrendered to them in that season of 
Lent, 1 because relief did not reach them on the appointed day. 
Also they took the castle of Mitford by guile, and subdued 
nearly the whole of Northumberland as far as the town of 
Newcastle, except those castles which have not been mentioned 
above. Howbeit the castle of the town of Berwick defended itself 
manfully against the town, but at length capitulated through 
want of victual. 

About the same time there arrived in England for the first 
time the seventh book of Decretals, and the statute of Pope 
Boniface VIII. was renewed Super cathedram et cetera dealing 
with the relations between prelates of the churches and the 
Orders of Preachers and Minorites, and the statute of Pope 
Benedict XI. was revoked, because it seemed to be too much in 
favour of the Friars. Also there came the decree of Pope 
John XXII., under a bull and with the addition of severe penalty, 
that no cleric should have more than one church ; whereas before 
that time a single rector or parson of a church could accept and 
hold as many churches as different patrons might be willing to 
confer upon him, notwithstanding that each such church depended 
upon his ministrations alone. During the whole of that time 
these two cardinals remained in England. 

1 In illo tempore inedio. 



220 



MS. 

b 



LANERCOST 

In the month of May the Scottish army invaded England 
further than usual, burning the town of Northallerton and 
Boroughbridge and sundry other towns on their march, pressing 
forward as far as the town of Ripon, which town they despoiled 
of all the goods they could find ; and from those who entered 
the mother church and defended it against the Scottish army they 
exacted one thousand marks instead of burning the town itself. 

After they had lain there three days, they went off to Knares- 
borough, destroying that town with fire, and, searching the woods 
in that district whither the people had fled for refuge with their 
cattle, they took away the cattle. And so forth to the town of 
Skipton in Craven, which they plundered first and then burnt, 
returning through the middle of that district to Scotland, burning 
in all directions and driving off a countless quantity of cattle. 7 
They made men and women captives, making the poor folks 
drive the cattle, carrying them off to Scotland without any 
opposition. 

In the same year, about the Nativity of the blessed John the 
Baptist, 1 there arrived in Oxford a certain unknown and ignoble 
individual, who, establishing himself in the king's manor (where 
the Carmelite Friars now dwell), made claim to the kingdom of 
England, alleging that he was the true heir of the realm as the 
son of the illustrious King Edward who had long been dead. 
He declared that my lord Edward, who at that time possessed 
the kingdom, was not of the blood royal, nor had any right to 
the realm, which he offered to prove by combat with him or 
with any one else in his place. When this was reported the 
whole community became excited and greatly wondered, certain 

1 24th June. 

221 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

foolish persons yielding adherence to this fellow, all the more 
readily because the said lord Edward resembled the elder lord 
Edward in none of his virtues. For it was commonly reported 
that he [Edward II.] had devoted himself privately from his 
youth to the arts of rowing and driving chariots, digging pits and 
roofing houses ; also that he wrought as a craftsman with his 
boon companions by night, and at other mechanical arts, besides 
other vanities and frivolities wherein it doth not become a king's 
son to busy himself. 1 So when the said report reached the king, 
who was then at Northampton, he commanded that this man 
should be brought before him. When he came, the king 
addressed him derisively ' Welcome, my brother ! ' but he 
answered 'Thou art no brother of mine, but falsely thou 
claimest the kingdom for thyself. Thou hast not a drop of 
blood from the illustrious Edward, and that I am prepared to 
prove against thee, or against any one else in thy room.' 

When he heard these rough words, the king commanded that 
he should be imprisoned as guilty of lese-majesty, and took 
counsel with his advisers what should be done with him. After 
a few days, when the council had been held and a very large 
number of the people had been assembled, he was brought before 
the king's steward sitting in judgment, who asked the said man 
before the people what was his name. He answered that he was 
called John of Powderham. Whereupon the steward straightway 
pronounced sentence upon him, saying * John of Powderham, 
whereas, either by the most wicked counsel of some other, or 

1 When John XXII. became Pope he addressed a long letter to Edward II. 
rebuking him for his fondness for light and boyish pursuits, and reminding him 
that, now he was king, he should put away childish things. 

222 



LANERCOST 

out of the iniquity and device of thine own heart, thou hast dared 
falsely and presumptuously to usurp and claim for thyself the 
right of inheritance of the realm of England, and whereas thou 
hast no right in that realm, but art an ignoble and unknown 
man, I pronounce upon thee as doom that thou be first drawn 
at the heels of horses, and secondly be hanged on the gallows, 
and thirdly be burnt.' 

When this sentence had been pronounced and horses had been 
brought up to draw him, he, seeing none of the succour at hand 
which had been promised to him, and perceiving that he had 
been deceived, he besought a hearing for the love of God the 
Lord of Heaven. Having obtained a hearing he began to relate 
how a certain evil spirit 1 had appeared to him in dreams on 
various occasions before that time, and had promised him carnal 
pleasures and many other things that he desired ; and always 
those things which that spirit promised him came to pass shortly 
afterwards. On one occasion as he was going to walk abroad 
alone in the fields, a certain man met him, who, after some 
little familiar conversation, asked him ' Wouldst thou become 
rich ? ' When he replied in the affirmative, the other enquired 
further whether he would like to be King of England. And 
when he, greatly wondering, replied that he would like to reign if 
that were by any means possible, the other said to him ' I, who 
now appear to thee in the likeness of a man, am that spirit which 
hath often before this appeared to thee in dreams ' ; and then 
he added ' Hast thou ever found me untruthful ? Have I 
not fulfilled in act all that I promised thee in words ? ' He 

l Spiritus Domini, in Stevenson's edition, probably a misreading for spirittts 
demonis. 

223 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

answering said ' I have found no falsehood in thee, but all that 
thou hast promised thou hast faithfully fulfilled.' Then said the 
other * Nor shalt thou find me faithless now. Do homage unto 
me and I will cause thee to reign. And if the king, or any 
one else in his name, will offer to fight thee for the realm, I will 
assist thee and cause thee to conquer.' 

Whereupon he made homage to him, who said ' Go to Oxford, 
taking with thee a dog, a cock and a tom-cat ; enter the king's 
manor, and there publicly claim thy right to the realm of England, 
and I will cause the hearts of the people to turn to thee, foras- 
much as King Edward is by no means deeply beloved by the 
people.' 

And when he [John] had related these things * Thus did 
that evil spirit beguile me, and behold ! I die a shameful death.' 
After this confession had been listened to, he was immediately 
drawn to the gallows, hanged there and afterwards burnt. Where- 
fore let everybody beware of the devil's falsehood and his cunning, 
nor pay any heed to the dreams which he may dream, according 
to the precept of Jeremy the prophet, as is said in the Book of 
Wisdom c Dreams excite the unwary, and as one who catcheth 
at a shadow and pursueth the wind, so is he who taketh heed to 
the deceptive visions of a dream.' 

In the same year, about the feast of the Nativity of the Blessed 
Virgin, 1 the Cardinals, who then were still in England, wrote to 
all the prelates of England that in every solemn mass on ordinary 
days as well as festivals, they should thrice denounce Robert de 
Brus, with all his counsellors and adherents, as excommunicate ; 
and, by the Pope's authority, they proclaimed him infamous and 

J 8th September. 
224 



LANERCOST 

bereft of all honour, and placed all his lands and .the lands of all 
his adherents under ecclesiastical interdict, and disqualified the 
offspring of all his adherents to the second generation from hold- 
ing any ecclesiastical office or benefice. Also against all prelates 
of Scotland and all religious men, whether exempt or not exempt 
from episcopal jurisdiction, who should adhere to the said Robert 
or show him favour they promulgated sentence of excommunica- 
tion and interdict, with other most grievous penalties. Howbeit 
the Scots, stubbornly pertinacious, cared nothing for any excom- 
munication, nor would they pay the slightest attention to the 
interdict. It is not to be wondered at, therefore, that afterwards MS. 
the weighty vengeance of God, in the appearance of a true heir 
of the realm, visited so rebellious a people, whose head (I will 
not call him king, but usurper) showed such contempt for the 
keys of Holy Mother Church. 

Let us now hear what happened to his brother Edward in 
Ireland. Within fifteen days after the feast of St. Michael, 1 
he came to the town of Dundalk with his Irish adherents and a 
great army of Scots which had newly arrived in Ireland to enable 
him to invade and lay waste that land and [to harass] the King of 
England's people to the best of their power. But by God's help, 
nearly all these were killed by a few of the commonalty, excepting 
only those who saved themselves by flight ; for they were in 
three columns at such a distance from each other that the first 
was done with before the second came up, and then the second 
before the third, with which Edward was marching, could render 
any aid. Thus the third column was routed, just as the two 
preceding ones had been. Edward fell at the same time and was 

1 That is, 'i4th October, the actual date of the battle of Dundalk, 
p 225 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

beheaded after death ; his body being divided into four quarters, 
which quarters were sent to the four chief towns of Ireland. 
About the feast of the Nativity of S. John the Baptist the 
Christians were defeated by the Saracens in Spain. 1 

A.D. 1319. 

Also in the same year a permanent agreement, as 
was thought, having been come to between the king and the 
Earl of Lancaster, they entered Scotland together, with a large 
army, about the feast of the Assumption of the Glorious Virgin, 
and set themselves to attack the town of Berwick, and almost 
scaled the wall in the first assault delivered with great fury, 
which when those within the wall perceived, many of them fled 
to the castle; but later, when the English slackened their attack, 
the inhabitants regained courage and defended themselves with 
spirit, manning the walls better than before and burning the sow 2 
which had been brought up to the wall to mine it. 

Meanwhile my lord Thomas Randolf, Earl of Moray and Sir 
James of Douglas, not daring to encounter the King of England 
and the earl [of Lancaster], invaded England with an army, 
burning the country and taking captives and booty of cattle, and 
so pressed as far as Boroughbridge. When the citizens of York 
heard of this, without knowledge of the country people and led 
by my lord Archbishop William de Meltoun and my lord the 
Bishop of Ely, with a great number of priests and clerics, among 
whom were sundry religious men, both beneficed and mendicant, 
they attacked the Scots one day after dinner near the town of 
Mytton, about twelve miles north of York ; but, as men un- 
skilled in war, they marched all scattered through the fields and 
in no kind of array. When the Scots beheld men rushing to 

1 At Granada, on 24th June. 2 See note to p. 214, supra. 

226 



LANERCOST 

fight against them, they formed up according to their custom in 
a single schiltrom, and then uttered together a tremendous shout 
to terrify the English, who straightway began to take to their 
heels at the sound. Then the Scots, breaking up their schiltrom 
wherein they were massed, mounted their horses and pursued the 
English, killing both clergy and laymen, so that about four 
thousand were slain, among whom fell the mayor of the town, 
and about one thousand, it was said, were drowned in the water 
of Swale. Had not night come on, hardly a single Englishman 
would have escaped. Also many were taken alive, carried off to 
Scotland and ransomed at a heavy price. 1 

When the King of England, occupied in the siege of Berwick, 
heard of such transactions in his own country, he wished to send 
part of his forces to attack the Scots still remaining in England, 
and to maintain the siege with the rest of his people; but by 
advice of his nobles, who objected either to divide their forces or 
to fight the Scots, he raised the siege and marched his army into 
England, expecting to encounter the Scots. But they got wind 
of this and entered Scotland with their captives and booty of 
cattle by way of Stanemoor, Gilsland and those western parts. 
Then the king disbanded his army, allowing every one to return 
home, without any good business done. 

But the excommunicate Scots, not satisfied with the aforesaid 
misdeeds, invaded England with an army commanded by the 
aforesaid two leaders, to wit, Thomas Randolf and James of 
Douglas, about the feast of All Saints, 2 when the crop had been 

1 This affair was called ' the Chapter of Mytton ' because of the number of 
clergy engaged. 

2 1st November. 

. 227 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

stored in barns, and burnt the whole of Gilsland, both the corn 
upon which the people depended for sustenance during that year 
and the houses wherein they had been able to take refuge ; also, 
they carried off with them both men and cattle. And so, 
marching as far as Borough under Stanemoor, they laid all 
waste, and then returned through Westmorland, doing there as 
they had done in Gilsland, or worse. Then, after ten or twelve 
days, they fared through part of Cumberland, which they burnt 
on their march, and returned to Scotland with a very large spoil 
of men and cattle. 1 

Howbeit, before the Nativity of our Lord, the wise men of 
both nations met, and by common consent arranged a truce 
between the kingdoms, to last for two years, and that truce was 
proclaimed on the march on the octave of the Nativity of our 
Lord. 2 

At the same time the plague and the murrain of cattle which 
had lasted through the two preceding years in the southern 
districts, broke out in the northern districts among oxen and cows, 
which, after a short sickness, generally died ; and few animals of 
that kind were left, so that men had to plough that year with 
horses. Howbeit, men used to eat cattle dying in the aforesaid 
manner, and, by God's ordinance, suffered no ill consequences. 
At the same time sea fishes were found dead on the shores in 
great multitude, whereof neither man nor other animal nor bird 
did eat. Also in the southern parts of England the birds fought 

1 These incessant raids provide very monotonous reading ; but nothing short of 
constant repetition could give any adequate notion of the horror and cruelty of 
this kind of warfare, or of the utterly defenceless condition into which the 
lamentable rule of Edward II. allowed the northern counties to fall. 

2 1st January, 1320. 

228 



LANERCOST 

/ 



most fiercely among themselves, and were found dead in great 
numbers ; and all these three [phenomena] seem to have happened 
either in vengeance upon sinners or as omens of future events. 

About the feast of S. Michael l a mandate came from the Pope 

f 

for the denunciation of Robert de Brus as excommunicate with 
all who held intercourse with him. This, however, was 

A.D. I32O. 

no addition to the sentence pronounced before ; and he 
[Robert] paying no attention thereto, remained as obstinate as 
ever. 

All lepers who could be found in nearly all parts across 
the sea as far as Rome, were burnt ; for they had 

A.D. 1321. 

been secretly hired at a great price by the Pagans to 

poison the waters of the Christians and thereby to cause their 

death. 

In summer of the same year Humfrey de Bohun, Earl of 
Hereford, Sir John de Mowbray, Sir Roger de Clifford, with 
many other barons, knights, esquires and a great force of other 
horse and foot, entered the March of Wales, and speedily took 
and occupied without opposition the various castles of Sir Hugh 
Despenser the younger, who was, as it were, the King of England's 
right eye and, after the death of Piers de Gavestoun, his chief 
counsellor against the earls and barons. These castles they 
despoiled of treasure and all other goods, and put keepers therein 
of their own followers ; also they seized the king's castles in those 
parts, and although they removed the king's arms and standard 
from the same, they declared that they were doing all these things, 
not against the crown, but for the crown and law of the realm of 
England. But all these things were done by advice and command 

September. 
229 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

of the Earl of Lancaster. These earls and barons were specially 
animated against the said Sir Hugh because he had married one of 
the three sisters among whom the noble earldom of Gloucester 
had been divided, and because, being a most avaricious man, he 
had contrived by different means and tricks that he alone should 
possess the lands and revenues, and for that reason had devised 
grave charges against those who had married the other two sisters, 
so that he might obtain the whole earldom for himself. 

The aforesaid [knights], then, holding the castles in this manner 
and prevailing more and more against the king from day to day, 
in the following autumn they, as it were, compelled the king to 
hold a parliament in London and to yield to their will in all things. 
In this parliament Sir Hugh Despenser the younger was banished 
for ever, with his father and son, and all their property was con- 
fiscated. 

Now after the Epiphany, 1 when the truce between the kingdoms 
lapsed, the Scottish army invaded England and marched into the 
bishopric of Durham, and the Earl of Moray remained at Dar- 
lington. But James of Douglas and the Steward of Scotland went 
forward plundering the country in all directions, one of them 
raiding towards Hartlepool and the district of Cleveland, the 
other towards Richmond. The people of Richmond county, 
neither having nor hoping to have any defender now as formerly, 
bought off the invaders with a great sum of money. This time 
the Scots remained in England a fortnight and more ; and when 
the northern knights came to the Earl of Lancaster at Pontefract, 
where he usually dwelt, ready to fight against the Scots if he would 
assist them, he feigned excuse ; and no wonder ! seeing that he 

*6th January, 1322. 
230 



LANERCOST 

cared not to take up arms in the cause of a kirig who was ready 
to attack him. 

Howbeit, as time went on, the king, through the efforts of 
some of his adherents, drew to his party by large gifts and 
promises the citizens of London and other southerners, earls as 
well as barons and knights. And he granted leave for the said 
two exiles to return, 1 received them to his peace> and caused this 
to be publicly proclaimed in London. 

When this report was received, the party of the Earl of 
Lancaster besieged the king's castle of Tykhill with a large army ; 
and thus war was declared and begun in England, and the enmity 
between the king and the earl was made manifest. 

When, therefore, the whole strength of the king's party south 
of Trent was assembled at Burton-upon-Trent, some 60,000 
fighting men, in the second week of Lent, about the feast of the 
Forty Martyr Saints, 2 the Earl of Lancaster and the Earl of 
Hereford (who had married the king's sister) attacked them with 
barons, knights and other cavalry, and with foot archers ; but 
the earl's forces were soon thrown into confusion and retired 
before the king's army, taking their way towards Pontefract, 
where the earl usually dwelt. The king followed him with his 
army at a leisurely pace, but there was no slaughter to speak of 
on either side ; and although the earl would have awaited the 
king there and given him battle, yet on the advice of his people 
he retired with his army into the northern district. 

Now when that valiant and famous knight, Sir Andrew de 
Harcla, Sheriff of Carlisle, heard of their approach, believing that 
they intended to go to Scotland to ally themselves with the Scots 

1 The Despensers. 2 loth March, 1322. 

231 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

against the King of England, acting under the king's commission 
and authority, he summoned, under very heavy penalties, the 
knights, esquires and other able men of the two counties, to wit, 
Cumberland and Westmorland, all who were able to bear arms, 
to assemble for the king's aid against the oft-mentioned earl. 
But when the said Sir Andrew, on his march towards the king 
with that somewhat scanty following, had spent the night at Ripon, 
he learnt from a certain spy that the earl and his army were 
going to arrive on the morrow at the town of Boroughbridge, 
which is only some four miles distant from the town of Ripon. 
Pressing forward, therefore, at night, he got a start of the earl, 
occupying the bridge of Boroughbridge before him, and, sending 
his horses and those of his men to the rear, he posted all his 
knights and some pikemen on foot at the northern end of the 
bridge, and other pikemen he stationed in schiltrom, after the 
Scottish fashion, opposite the ford or passage of the water, to 
oppose the cavalry wherein the enemy put his trust. Also he 
directed his archers to keep up a hot and constant discharge upon 
the enemy as he approached. On Tuesday, then, after the third 
Sunday in Lent, being the seventeenth of the kalends of April, 1 
the aforesaid earls arrived in force, and perceiving that Sir Andrew 
had anticipated them by occupying the north end of the bridge, 
they arranged that the Earl of Hereford and Sir Roger de Clifford 
(a man of great strength who had married his daughter) should 
advance with their company and seize the bridge from the pikemen 
MS. stationed there, while the Earl of Lancaster with the rest of the 
" cavalry should attack the ford and seize the water and the ford 
from the pikemen, putting them to flight and killing all who 

1 1 6th March, 1322. 
232 



LANERCOST 

resisted ; but matters took a different turn. For when the Earl 
of Hereford (with his standard-bearer leading the advance, to wit, 
Sir Ralf de Applinsdene) and Sir Roger de Clifford and some 
other knights, had entered upon the bridge before the others as 
bold as lions, charging fiercely upon the enemy, pikes were thrust 
at the earl from all sides ; he fell immediately and was killed with 
his standard-bearer and the knights aforesaid, to wit, Sir W. 
de Sule and Sir Roger de Berefield ; but Sir Roger de Clifford, 
though grievously wounded with pikes and arrows, and driven 
back, escaped with difficulty along with the others. 

The Earl [of Lancaster's] cavalry, when they endeavoured to 
cross the water, could not enter it by reason of the number and 
density of arrows which the archers discharged upon them and 
their horses. This affair being thus quickly settled, the Earl of 
Lancaster and his people retired from the water, nor did they dare 
to approach it again, and so their whole array was thrown into 
disorder. Wherefore the earl sent messengers to Sir Andrew, 
requesting an armistice until the morning, when he would either 
give him battle or surrender to him. Andrew agreed to the earl's 
proposal ; nevertheless he kept his people at the bridge and the 
river all that day and throughout the night, so as to be ready for 
battle at any moment. 

But during that night the Earl of Hereford's men deserted and 
fled, because their lord had been killed, also many of the Earl of 
Lancaster's men and those of my Lord de Clifford and others 
deserted from them. When morning came, therefore, the Earl of 
Lancaster, my Lord de Clifford, my Lord de Mowbray and all 
who had remained with them, surrendered to Sir Andrew, 
who himself took them to York as captives, where they were 

233 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

confined in the castle to await there the pleasure of my lord 
the king. 

The king, then, greatly delighted by the capture of these 
persons, sent for the earl to come to Pontefract, where he remained 
still in the castle of the same earl ; and there, in revenge for the 
death of Piers de Gaveston (whom the earl had caused to be 
beheaded), and at the instance of the earl's rivals (especially of 
Sir Hugh Despenser the younger), without holding a parliament 
or taking the advice of the majority, caused sentence to be pro- 
nounced that he should be drawn, hanged and beheaded. But, 
forasmuch as he was the queen's uncle and son of the king's 
uncle, the first two penalties were commuted, so that he was 
neither drawn nor hanged, only beheaded in like manner as this 
same Earl Thomas had caused Piers de Gaveston to be beheaded. 
Howbeit, other adequate cause was brought forward and alleged, 
to wit, that he had borne arms against the King of England in 
his own realm ; but those who best knew the king's mind declared 
that the earl never would have been summarily beheaded without 
the advice of parliament, nor so badly treated, had not that other 
cause prevailed, but that he would have been imprisoned for life 
or sent into exile. 

This man, then, said to be of most eminent birth and noblest 
of Christians, as well as the wealthiest earl in the world, inasmuch 
as he owned five earldoms, to wit, Lancaster, Lincoln, Salisbury, 
Leycester and Ferrers, was taken on the morrow of S. Benedict 
Abbot l in Lent and beheaded like any thief or vilest rascal upon 
a certain hillock outside the town, where now, because of the 
miracles which it is said God works in his honour, there is a great 

1 22nd March, 1321-22. 
234 



LANERCOST 

concourse of pilgrims, and a chapel has been built. In the afore- 
said town Sir Garin de 1'Isle, a king's baron, also was drawn and 
hanged, and three knights with him. But the aforesaid Sir 
Andrew [de Harcla] was made Earl of Carlisle for his good 
service and courage. 

Besides the decollation of the most noble Earl of Lancaster at 
Pontefract, and the slaying of the Earl of Hereford and two 
knights at Boroughbridge, eight English barons, belonging to the 
party and policy of the earl and his friends, were afterwards drawn 
and hanged, as I have been informed, and one other died in his 
bed, it is believed through grief. Four others were taken and 
immediately released ; ten others were imprisoned and released 
later. Also fifteen knights were drawn and hanged ; one died in 
his bed, and five escaped and fled to France ; five were taken and 
released at once, and sixty-two were taken and imprisoned, but were 
released later. O the excessive cruelty of the king and his friends ! 1 

In addition to all these aforesaid, the following barons were 
taken with the earl at Boroughbridge and in the neighbour- 
hood : Sir Hugh de Audley, 1 who owned a third part of the 
earldom of Gloucester, Sir John Giffard, 2 Sir Bartholomew de 

1 Sir Hugh de Audley of Stratton Audley, youngest son of James Audley or 
de Aldithley of Heleigh, co. Stafford: created baron by writ in 1321. After 
being taken at Boroughbridge he was confined in Wallingford Castle, whence he 
is said to have escaped and afterwards to have been pardoned. His second son, 
Hugh, was created baron by writ during his father's life, 1317. He also was 
taken at Boroughbridge, but was pardoned and summoned again to parliament in 
1326. He was created Earl of Gloucester in 1336-37. He married Margaret de 
Clare, Countess of Cornwall, widow of Piers Gavestoun. 

2 Sir John Giffard, called le Rycb, of Brimsfield, Gloucestershire, was son of 
that John Giffard who took prisoner Llewelyn, Prince of Wales, and beheaded him in 
1282. He was Constable of Glamorgan and Morgannoe Castles, and was hanged 
at Gloucester. 

235 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

Badlesmere, 1 Sir Henry de Tyes, 2 Sir John de Euer, 3 Sir William 
Touchet, 4 Sir Robert de Holand, 5 Sir Thomas Maudent. 6 Now 
Sir John de Mowbray 7 and Sir Roger de Clifford, 8 were drawn and 

1 Sir Bartholomew de Badlesmere in Kent, summoned as baron by writ 1309-21 ; 
hanged at Canterbury, 22nd April, 1322. His wife Margaret, aunt and 
co-heir of Thomas de Clare, refused to admit Queen Isabella to the royal castle of 
Leeds (Kent) in 1321, was besieged there, and, having been taken on nth 
November, 1321, was imprisoned in the Tower, but was afterwards released. 

2 Sir Henry de Tyes of Shirburn, Oxon., baron by writ, 1313-21, was 
beheaded. He was brother-in-law of Sir Warine de Lisle. 

3 Sir John de Euer. I find no baron summoned under this name till 1 544, 
when Sir William Eure or Evers of Wilton, co. Durham, appears as Lord Eure, 
Baron of Wilton. His father and he were successive Wardens of the East Marches, 
and his son and grandson Wardens of the Middle Marches. 

4 Sir William Touchet was probably the same who was summoned as baron by 
writ, 1299-1306. He belonged to Northamptonshire, and subscribed the famous 
letter to the Pope in 1301 as Willielmu* Touchet dominus de Levenhales. 

5 Sir Robert de Holand, co. Lancaster, baron by writ, 1314-21. He married 
Maud, 2nd daughter of Alan, Lord Touche of Ashley, and acted as secretary to 
Thomas, Earl of Lancaster ; but, having failed to support him in his rebellion, he 
was taken by some of the earl's adherents near Windsor as late as 1328, and 
beheaded on 7th October. 

6 Sir Thomas Maudent. There is no trace of a baron of this name in 
Edward II. 's parliaments ; though Sir John Mauduit of Somerford Mauduit, 
Wilts., was summoned in 1342 to Edward III.'s parliament. 

7 Sir John de Mowbray of the Isle of Axholme, co. Lincoln, had done 
excellent service in the Scottish war. That he was concerned in Lancaster's 
rebellion is one of the many proofs of the despair which the best men in the realm 
entertained of any good coming from Edward II. He was Warden of the Marches 
and Sheriff of Yorkshire in 1312-13, and was hanged at York in 1322. But there 
was no attainder, and the present Lord Mowbray claims, as 24th baron, to be the 
senior of his degree. 

8 Sir Roger de Clifford of the county of Hereford, son of Sir Robert killed at 
Bannockburn. According to some accounts, he was alive in the reign of 
Edward III. He was the second baron : the present Lord de Clifford is the 26th 
baron. , 

236 



LANERCOST 

hanged at York with Sir Jocelyn de Dayvile, a knight notorious 
for his misdeeds ; but Sir Bartholomew de Badlesmere was taken 
near Canterbury, and was there drawn, hanged and beheaded. 
Sir Henry Tyes was drawn and hanged in London, each of them 
in his own district for their greater disgrace, except the aforesaid 
Sir Hugh de Audley and others. Also there were imprisoned at 
York about sixty-seven knights, but most of these afterwards 
obtained the king's pardon. 

After this the king held his parliament at York, and there 
Hugh Despenser the elder, sometime exiled from England, was 
made Earl of Winchester. - 

About this time the question was raised and discussed in j 
various consistories and before the Pope, whether it was heresy to 
say that Christ owned no private property nor even anything in 
common ; the Preaching Friars held that it was [heresy] and the 
Minorite Friars that it was not, chiefly on the strength of that 
decretal in Sextus Exiit qui seminat. Of the cardinals and 
other seculars, some held one opinion, others another. 

The king mustered an army in order to approach Scotland about 
the feast of S. Peter ad Vincula ; l hearing of which Robert de 
Brus invaded England with an army by way of Carlisle 

A.D. 1322. fo. 

in the octave before the Nativity of S. John the 
Baptist, 2 and burnt the bishop's manor at Rose, 3 and Allerdale, 
and plundered the monastery of Holm Cultran, notwithstanding 
that his father's body was buried there ; and thence proceeded to 
waste and plunder Copeland, and so on beyond the sands of 
Duddon to Furness. But the Abbot of Furness went to meet 
him, and paid ransom for the district of Furness that it should 

1 ist August. 2 lyth June. 3 About seven miles from Carlisle. 

237 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

not be again burnt or plundered, and took him to Furness Abbey. 
This notwithstanding, the Scots set fire to various places and 
lifted spoil. Also they went further beyond the sands of Leven 
to Cartmel, and burnt the lands round the priory of the Black 
Canons, 1 taking away cattle and spoil : and so they crossed the 
sands of Kent 2 as far as the town of Lancaster, which they burnt, 
except the priory of the Black Monks and the house of the 
Preaching Friars. The Earl of Moray and Sir James of Douglas 
joined them there with another strong force, and so they marched 
forward together some twenty miles to the south, burning every- 
thing and taking away prisoners and cattle as far as the town of 
Preston in Amoundness, which also they burnt, except the house 
of the Minorite Friars. Some of the Scots even went beyond 
that town fifteen miles to the south, being then some eighty miles 
\within England ; and then all returned with many prisoners and 
cattle and much booty ; so that on the vigil of S. Margaret 
Virgin 3 they came to Carlisle, and lay there in their tents around 
the town for five days, trampling and destroying as much of the 
crops as they could by themselves and their beasts. They re- 
entered Scotland on the vigil of S. James the Apostle, 4 so that 
they spent three weeks and three days in England on that 
occasion. 

The King of England came to Newcastle about the feast of 
S. Peter ad Vincula, 5 and shortly afterwards invaded Scotland 
with his earls, barons, knights and a very great army ; but the 

1 Austin Canons. 

2 The river Kent, between Westmorland and Lancashire whence Kendal takes 
its name, i.e. Kent dale. 

3 1 2th July. 4 24th July. 6 1st August. 

238 



LANERCOST 

Scots retired before him in their usual way, nor dared to give 
him battle. Thus the English were compelled to evacuate 
Scottish ground before the Nativity of the Glorious Virgin, 1 
owing as much to want of provender as to pestilence in the 
army ; for famine killed as many soldiers as did dysentery. 

After the retreat of the King of England the King of Scotland 
collected all his forces, both on this side of the Scottish sea 2 and 
beyond it, and from the Isles and from Bute and Arran, 3 and on 
the day after the feast of S. Michael 4 he invaded England by the 
Solway and lay for five days at Beaumond, about three miles from 
Carlisle, and during that time sent the greater part of his force to 
lay waste the country all around ; after which he marched into 
England to Blackmoor 5 (whither he had never gone before nor 
laid waste those parts, because of their difficulty of access), having 
learned for a certainty from his scouts that the King of England 
was there. The king, however, hearing of his approach, wrote 
to the new Earl of Carlisle, 6 commanding him to muster all the 
northern forces, horse and foot, of his county and Lancaster, that 
were fit for war, and to come to his aid against the Scots. This 
he [Carlisle] did, having taken command of the county of Lan- 
caster, so that he had 30,000 men ready for battle ; and whereas 
the Scots were in the eastern district, he brought his forces by 
the western district so as to reach the king. But the Scots burnt 

1 8th September. 2 The Firths of Forth and Clyde. 

8 De Brandanis : the Atlantic was known as Brcndanicum mare. 

4 3Oth September. 

5 Blakehoumor, Blackmoor in the North Riding, the old name of the moorland 
south of Cleveland. 

6 Sir Andrew de Harcla. 

239 




THE CHRONICLE OF 

the villages and manors in Blackmoor, and laid waste all that they 
could, taking men away as prisoners, together with much booty 
and cattle. 

Now my lord John of Brittany, Earl of Richmond, having 
been detached with his division by the king to reconnoitre the 
army of the Scots from a certain height between Biland Abbey 
and Rievaulx Abbey, and being suddenly attacked and surprised 
by them, attempted by making his people hurl stones to repel 
their assault by a certain narrow and steep pass in the hill ; but 
the Scots forced their way fiercely and courageously against them ; 
many English escaped by flight and many were made prisoners, 
including the aforesaid earl. Justly, indeed, did he incur that 
punishment, seeing that it was he himself who had prevented 
peace being made between the realms. 

When this became known to the King of England, who was 
then in Rievaulx Abbey, he, being ever chicken-hearted and 

ckless in war and having [already] fled in fear from them in 
Scotland, now took to flight in England, leaving behind him in 
the monastery in his haste his silver plate and much treasure. 
Then the Scots, arriving immediately after, seized it all and 
plundered the monastery, and then marched on to the Wolds, 
taking the Earl [of Richmond] with them, laying waste that 
country nearly as far as the town of Beverley, which was held to 
ransom to escape being burnt by them in like manner as they 
had destroyed other towns. 

Now when the aforesaid Earl of Carlisle heard that the king 
was at York, he directed his march thither in order to attack the 
Scots with him and drive them out of the kingdom ; but when 

D ' 

he found the king all in confusion and no army mustered, he 

240 



LANERCOST 

disbanded his own forces, allowing every man to return home. 
The Scots on that occasion did not go beyond Beverley, but 
returned laden with spoil and with many prisoners and much 
booty; and on the day of the Commemoration of All Souls 1 they 
entered Scotland, after remaining in England one month and 
three days. Wherefore, when the said Earl of Carlisle perceived 
that the King of England neither knew how to rule his realm nor 
was able to defend it against the Scots, who year by year laid it 
more and more waste, he feared lest at last he [the king] should 
lose the entire kingdom ; so he chose the less of two evils, 
and considered how much better it would be for the community 
of each realm if each king should possess his own kingdom freely 

MS, 

and peacefully without any homage, instead of so many homicides fo. 220 
and arsons, captivities, plunderings and raidings taking place 
every year. Therefore on the 3rd January [1323] the said Earl 
of Carlisle went secretly to Robert the Bruce at Lochmaben and, 
after holding long conference and protracted discussion with him, 
at length, to his own perdition, came to agreement with him in the 
following bond. The earl firmly pledged himself, his heirs and 
their adherents to advise and assist with all their might in main- 
taining the said Robert as King of Scotland, his heirs and successors, 
in the aforesaid independence, and to oppose with all their force all 
those who would not join in nor even consent to the said treaty, 
as hinderers of the public and common welfare. And the said 
Robert, King of Scotland, pledged himself upon honour to assist 
and protect with all his might the said earl and all his heirs and 
their adherents according to the aforesaid compact, which he was 
willing should be confirmed by six persons each [kingdom] to be 

1 1st November. 
Q 241 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

nominated by the aforesaid king and earl. And if the King of 
England should give his assent to the said treaty within a year, 
then the King of Scots should cause a monastery to be built in 
Scotland, the rental whereof should be five hundred merks, for 
the perpetual commemoration of and prayer for the souls of those 
slain in the war between England and Scotland, and should pay 
to the King of England within ten years 80,000 merks of silver, 
and that the King of England should have the heir male of the 
King of Scotland in order to marry to him any lady of his blood. 

On behalf of the King of Scotland my Lord Thomas Randolf, 
Earl of Moray, swore to the faithful fulfilment of all these con- 
ditions without fraud, and the said Earl of Carlisle in his own 
person, touching the sacred gospels ; and written indentures 
having been made out, their seals were set thereto mutually. 

Now the Earl of Carlisle made the aforesaid convention and 
treaty with the Scots without the knowledge and consent of the 
King of England and of the kingdom in parliament ; nor was he 
more than a single individual, none of whose business it was to 
transact such affairs. But the said earl, returning soon after from 
Scotland, caused all the chief men in his earldom to be summoned 
to Carlisle, both regulars and laymen, and there, more from fear 
than from any liking, they made him their oath that they would 
help him faithfully to fulfil all the things aforesaid. But after all 
these things had been made known for certain to the King and 
kingdom of England, the poor folk, middle class and farmers in 
the northern parts were not a little delighted that the King of 
Scotland should freely possess his own kingdom on such terms 
that they themselves might live in peace. But the king and his 

council were exceedingly put out (and no wonder !) because he 

242 



LANERCOST 

whom the king had made an earl so lately had allied himself to 
the Scots, an excommunicated enemy, to the prejudice of the 
realm and crown, and would compel the lieges of the King of 
England to rebel with him against the king ; wherefore they [the 
king and council] publicly proclaimed him as a traitor. So the 
king sent word to Sir Antony de Lucy that he should endeavour 
to take him [Harcla] by craft ; and if he should succeed in doing 
so by any means, the king would reward him and all who helped 
and assisted him. Therefore Sir Antony, taking advantage of a 
time when the esquires 1 of the aforesaid earl and his other 
people had been scattered hither and thither on various affairs, 
entered Carlisle Castle on the morrow after S. Matthew the 
Apostle's day, 2 as if to consult with him as usual upon some 
household matters. With him went three powerful and bold 
knights, to wit, Sir Hugh de Lowther, Sir Richard de Denton, and 
Sir Hugh de Moriceby, with four men-at-arms of good mettle, 
and some others with arms concealed under their clothing. 
When they had entered the castle, they were careful to leave 
armed men behind them in all the outer and inner parts thereof 
to guard the same ; but Sir Antony, with the aforesaid three 
knights, entered the great hall where the earl sat dictating letters 
to be sent to different places, and spoke as follows to the earl : 
' My lord earl, thou must either surrender immediately or defend 
thyself.' He, perceiving so many armed knights coming in 
upon him on a sudden, and being himself unarmed, surrendered 
to Sir Antony. 

Meanwhile the sound arose of the earl's household crying 
' Treason ! treason ! * and when the porter at the inner gate tried 
1 Armigcri. 2 2$th February, 1322-23. 

243 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

to shut it against the knights who had entered, Sir Richard de 
Denton killed him with his own hand. Nobody else was killed 
when the earl was arrested, for all the earl's men who were in the 
castle surrendered and the castle was given up to the aforesaid 
Sir Antony. But one of the earl's household ran off to the pele 
of Highhead and informed Master Michael, the earl's cousin (an 
ecclesiastic) of all that had been done at Carlisle. Michael went 
off in haste to Scotland, and with him Sir William Blount, a 
knight of Scotland, and sundry others who had been particular 
friends of the earl. Then a messenger was sent to the king at 
York, to announce to him the earl's arrest and all that had taken 
place, that he might send word to Sir Antony how he wished the 
oft-mentioned earl to be dealt with. 

Meanwhile, to wit, on the morning after his arrest, the earl 
made confession to the parish priest about his whole life, and 
afterwards, before dinner on the same day, to a Preaching Friar, 
and later to a Minorite Friar, and on the following day to the 
Warden of the Minorite Friars each and all of these about the 
whole of his life, and afterwards repeatedly to the aforesaid 
Minorite ; all of whom justified him and acquitted him of 
intention and taint of treason. Whence it may be that, albeit he 
merited death according to the laws of kingdoms, his aforesaid 
good intention may yet have saved him in the sight of God. 

On the feast of S. Cedda Bishop 1 (that is, on the sixth day 

after the earl's arrest), there arrived in Carlisle from the king a 

number of men-at-arms, with whom was the justiciary Sir Galfrid 

fo. 2zo b de Scrope, who on the next day, to wit, the 3rd of March, sat in 

judgment in the castle, and pronounced sentence upon the earl as 

1 2nd March, 1322-23. 
244 



LANERCOST 

if from the mouth and in the words of the king, condemning him 
first to be degraded and stripped of the dignity of earldom by 
being deprived of the sword given him by the king, and in like 
manner of knightly rank by striking off from his heels the gilded 
spurs, and thereafter to be drawn by horses from the castle 
through the town to the gallows of Harraby and there to be 
hanged and afterwards beheaded ; to be disembowelled and his 
entrails burnt ; his head to be taken and suspended on the Tower 
of London ; his body to be divided into four parts, one part to 
be suspended on the tower of Carlisle, another at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, a third at Bristol and the fourth at Dover. 1 

When this sentence was pronounced the earl made answer : 
' Ye have divided my carcase according to your pleasure, and I 
commend my soul to God.' And so, with most steadfast counten- 
ance and bold spirit, as it seemed to the bystanders, he went to 
suffer all these pains, and, while being drawn through the town, 
he gazed upon the heavens, with hands clasped and held aloft 
and likewise his eyes directed on high. Then under the gallows, 
whole in body, strong and fiery in spirit and powerful in speech, 
he explained to all men the purpose he had in making the afore- 
said convention with the Scots, and so yielded himself to undergo 
the aforesaid punishment. 2 

1 It appears from the Parliamentary Writs (ii. 3,971) that the destination of 
the earl's quarters was to Carlisle, Newcastle, York and Shrewsbury. 

2 It is not difficult to discern in this most tragic fate of a gallant knight the 
influence upon the king of men who were jealous of Harcla's rapid rise. Harcla 
had been appointed by the king to treat with King Robert : he agreed to little 
more than what the king two months later was obliged to concede at Newcastle 
in fixing a truce for thirteen years. The terms of Harcla's indenture with King 
Robert are given in Bain's Cal. Doc. Scot. iii. 148. 

245 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

The king made ample recognition to Sir Antony and the 
others who arrested the earl, to wit Sir Antony de Lucy 
[received] the manor of Cockermouth, Sir Richard de Denton 
the village of Thursby close to Carlisle, Sir Hugh de Moriceby 
of part of the village of Culgaythe, being the part belonging to 
the aforesaid Earl Andrew, Sir Hugh de Lowther [ . . . ],* Richard 
de Salkeld the village of Great Corby. 

Before Christmas came the bull of my lord Pope John 

XXII. Cum inter nonnullos, wherein he pronounced it to be 

erroneous and heretical to affirm obstinately that our 

A.D. 1323. 

Lord Jesus Christ and his apostles possessed no private 
property even in common, since this is expressly contrary to Scrip- 
ture ; and likewise that consequently it is heretical to affirm 
obstinately that the Lord Jesus Christ and his apostles had no 
legal right to those things which Holy Scripture testifies that they 
possessed, but only actual use of them, and that they had not the 
right to sell or give away those things, or of themselves acquiring 
other things, which aforesaid things Holy Scripture testifies to 
their having done, because such use of them would have been 
illegal. Friar Michael, Minister General, appealed against this 
finding of the Pope, wherefore the Pope had him arrested, as is 
explained below, in the year 1328. 

In the same year, about the feast of the Ascension of the Lord 2 
Sir Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, and Sir Hugh 
Despenser the younger, with four other official personages, came 
to Newcastle-on-Tyne on the part of the King of England ; and 
on the part of the King of Scotland came my lord Bishop of 
S. Andrews and Sir Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray, and four 

1 Blank in original. 2 5th May. 

246 



LANERCOST 

other duly authorised persons, to treat for peace between the 
kingdoms, or, at least, for a prolonged truce, and, by God's will, 
they speedily agreed upon a truce for thirteen years fully reckoned. 
When this was made public about the feast of S. Barnabas the 
Apostle, 1 that truce was ratified and proclaimed in both kingdoms, 
on condition, however, that, because of the excommunication of 
the Scots, neither people should buy of or sell to the other, nor 
hold any intercourse with each other, nor even go from one king- 
dom to the other without special letters of conduct. For the 
granting of such letters and licenses three notable persons for 
England and three persons for Scotland were appointed on the 
marches of the aforesaid kingdoms, and patrols were set on the 
marches to watch lest anyone should cross the march in any other 
manner. 

With the bull of Pope John, whereof mention was made in the 
preceding year, came four other bulls from the same ; one revok- 
ing the decision conveyed in that Decretal Exiit quod 

AD. 1324. 

seminal, lest anyone should twist it into different and 
injurious meanings, and that none might disparage the rule or 
state of the Minorite Friars. Another, beginning Cum ad con- 
ditorem canonum^ lays down that none can have simple usufruct 
without legal right of user, because use cannot be separated from 
possession in things consumed in the using. The third is lengthy, 
beginning >uia quarumdam^ wherein it is laid down that the 
Pope can decree and do all the aforesaid things, and the arguments 
of those who declare he cannot are dealt with. There is a fourth, 
wherein it is ordered that the four preceding bulls be read in the 
schools in like manner as the other letters decretal. 

1 lith June. 

247 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

The new King of France l invaded Gascony and other lands of 
the King of England beyond the sea, because the King of England 
would not go and pay him the due and accustomed homage for 
the lands which he held in that kingdom. So the King of England 
sent his brother-german, my lord Edmund, Earl of Kent, to Gas- 
cony with an army for the defence of his lands. 

On the feast of All Saints in the same year died my lord Bishop 
Prebendary of Carlisle at the manor of Rose ; in place of whom 
my lord William de Ermyn was elected by the canons on the 
morrow of Epiphany following ; 2 but the election did not take 
effect, because Master John de Rose, a south-countryman, was 
consecrated Bishop of Carlisle by the Pope in the Curia on the 
first Sunday in Lent. _^ _ { -^L _^ 

The Pope excommunicated my lord Louis, the Duke of 
Bavaria's son, who had been elected Emperor ; but Louis formally 
summoned [the Pope] to a council, undertaking to prove that 

AaS* 

fo. 221 he was a heretic aye, an arch-heretic, that is a prince and doctor 

of heretics ; and through the clergy whom he had with 

11 ""him he answered all the arguments which the Pope 

put forward on his part. Now the clejrgy and people of all Ger- 

^^-^ *^ ^- 

many and Italy drew more each day to the Emperor's side, and 
unanimously approved of his election, and crowned him, first with 
the iron crown at Milan, 3 secondly with the silver crown at 
Aachen, and thirdly he was crowned afterwards with the golden 
crown in the city of Rome, having been very honourably received 

1 Charles IV. * yth January, 1 324-5. 

3 In 1327. From this it appears that this part of the chronicle was not written 
quite contemporaneously ; but, as was the usual custom, compiled from informa- 
tion recorded in various monasteries. 

248 



LANERCOST 

by the Romans. Many battles were fought between the Pope's , 
army and the Emperor's, but the Pope's side was generally beaten. 1 

In the same year the King of England sent his consort the 
queen to her brother, the King of France, hoping that, by God's 
help, peace might be established between himself and the King of 
France through her, according to her promise. But the queen 
had a secret motive for desiring to cross over to France ; for 
Hugh Despenser the younger, the King's agent in all matters of 
business, was exerting himself at the Pope's court to procure 
divorce between the King of England and the queen, and in 
furtherance of this business there went to the court a certain man 
of religion, acting irreligiously, by name Thomas de Dunheved, with 
an appointed colleague, and a certain secular priest named Master 
Robert de Baldock. These men had even instigated the king to 
resume possession of the lands and rents which he had formerly 
bestowed upon the queen, and they allowed her only twenty 
shillings a day for herself and her whole court, and they took 
away from her her officers and body servants, so that the wife of 
the said Sir Hugh was appointed, as it were, guardian to the 
queen, and carried her seal ; nor could the queen write to any- 
body without her knowledge ; whereat my lady the queen was 
equally indignant and distressed, and therefore wished to visit her 
brother in France to seek for a remedy. 

When, therefore, she had arrived there she astutely contrived 
that Edward, her elder son and heir of England, should cross over 
to his uncle, the King of France, on the plea that if he came and 
did homage to his uncle for Gascony and the other lands of the 
king beyond the sea, the King [of France] would transfer to him 

1 The Papal Court during these years was at Avignon. 
249 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

all these lands from the King [of England] ; and he [Prince 
Edward] was made Duke of Aquitaine. But when he wished to 
appoint his men and bailiffs in those lands to take seisin thereof, 
the King of England's men, who had been in possession hitherto 
of those lands and certain cities, would not allow it. Hence arose 
disagreement between the King of England's men and those of 
his son, the duke. 

Meanwhile it was publicly rumoured in England that the 
Queen of England was coming to England with her son, the duke, 
and the army of France in ships, to avenge herself upon Sir Hugh 
Despenser, and upon his father, the Earl of Winchester, by whose 
advice the King of England had caused the Earl of Lancaster, the 
Queen's uncle, to be executed, and upon the said Master Robert 
de Baldock and upon sundry others, by whose most pernicious 
counsel the King of England, with his whole realm, was controlled 
in everything. For this reason the king ordered that all the 
harbours of England should be most carefully guarded. 

But there were contradictory rumours in England about the 
queen, some declaring that she was the betrayer of the king and 
kingdom, others that she was acting for peace and the common 
welfare of the kingdom, and for the removal of evil counsellors 
from the king ; but it is horrible to tell what was done by the 
aforesaid evil counsellors of the king. 

Public proclamation was made in London that if [the queen] 

herself or her son (albeit he was heir of the realm) should enter 

England, they were to be arrested as enemies of the 

A.D. 1326. 

king and kingdom. Meanwhile it was said that a very 
large sum of money was sent to sundry nobles and leading men 

in France, to induce them to cause the Queen of England and her 

250 



LANERCOST 

son to be arrested by craft and sent over to England. Some of 
them, bribed with the money, endeavoured to do this, but she 
was forewarned by the Count of Hainault or Hanonia and saved. 
Then there was a treaty made, under which her son, Duke of 
Aquitaine and heir of the realm of England, should marry the 
daughter of the aforesaid count, provided that with his army he 
assisted the queen and her son, the duke, to cross over to England 
in safety : which was duly accomplished. 

In the same year, on Wednesday next before the feast of the 
Dedication of the Church of S. Michael the Archangel, 1 she 
landed at the port of Harwich, in the east of England, with her 
son, the duke, and Messire Jehan, brother of the Count of 
Hainault or Hanonia, and my lord Edmund, Earl of Kent, the 
King of England's brother, and Sir Roger de Mortimer, a baron 
of the King of England, who had fled from him previously to 
France to save his life, and sundry others who had been exiled 
from England on account of the Earl of Lancaster. They had 
with them a small enough force (for there were not more at the 
outside than fifteen hundred men all told), but the Earl Marshal, 
the King of England's brother, joined them immediately, and 
my lord Henry, Earl of Leicester, brother of the executed Earl of 
Lancaster ; and soon after the other earls and barons and the 
commonalty of the southern parts adhered to them. They pro- 
ceeded against the king because he would not dismiss from his 
side Sir Hugh Despenser and Master Robert de Baldock. 

Meanwhile, however, the people of London, holding in detesta- 
tion the king and his party, seized my lord the Bishop of Exeter, 
the king's treasurer, whose exactions upon their community 

1 24th September. 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

in the past had been excessively harsh, and who was then 
in London, and, dreadful to say, they beheaded him with great 
fo. 22 i b ferocity. Thereafter, having assembled the commonalty of the 
city, they violently assaulted the Tower of London, wherein were 
at that time the wife of the aforesaid Sir Hugh, and many State 
prisoners, adherents of the aforesaid Earl of Lancaster. Some 
townsmen within, to whom custody of the Tower had been 
entrusted, hearing and understanding all the aforesaid events, 
and seeing their fellow citizens fiercely attacking the Tower, 
surrendered it to them, with everything therein, both persons 
and property. But they appointed as warden thereof the king's 
younger son, my lord John of Eltham, who was in the Tower, a 
boy about twelve years old, for the use of his mother and brother, 
handing it over to him with a strong armed garrison. 

Shortly afterwards Sir Hugh Despenser the elder, Earl of Win- 
chester, was captured, and drawn at Bristol in his coat of arms (so 
that those arms should never again be borne in England), 1 and 
afterwards hanged and then beheaded. After a short interval the 
Earl of Arundel 2 was captured likewise. He had married the 
daughter of Sir Hugh the younger, and had been, with Hugh, 
one of the king's counsellors. He was condemned to death in 
secret, as it were, and afterwards beheaded. Meanwhile all who 
were captives and prisoners in England on account of their 
adherence to the oft-mentioned Earl of Lancaster were released, 
and the exiles were recalled, and their lands and heritages, whereof 
they had been disinherited, were restored to them in full ; where- 

1 Having been thereby irremediably dishonoured. Nevertheless, they are borne 
at this day by Earl Spencer. Winchester was about 90 years old when executed. 

2 Edmund Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel (1285-1326). 

252 



LANERCOST 

fore they joined the party of the queen and her son eagerly and 
gladly. 

During all these proceedings my lord the Earl of Leicester, 
Sir Roger de Mortimer, and Messire Jehan of Hainault, were 
pursuing with their forces the king, Sir Hugh Despenser, and 
Master Robert de Baldock to the west, lest they should embark 
there and sail across to Ireland, there to collect an army and 
oppress England as they had done before. Also, the aforesaid 
lords feared that if the king could reach Ireland he might collect 
an army there and cross over into Scotland, and by the help of 
the Scots and Irish together he might attack England. For 
already, alarmed at the coming to England of the French and 
some English with the queen, the king had been so ill-advised 
as to write to the Scots, freely giving up to them the land and 
realm of Scotland, to be held independently of any King of 
England, and (which was still worse) bestowed upon them with 
Scotland great part of the northern lands of England lying next 
to them, on condition that they should assist him against the 
queen, her son, and their confederates. But, by God's ordaining, 
the project of Achitophel was confounded, the king's will and 
purpose were hindered, nor were he and his people able to cross 
to Ireland, although they tried with all their might to do so. 

The baffled king's following being dispersed, he wandered 
houseless about Wales with Hugh Despenser and Robert de 
Baldock, and there they were captured before the feast of S. 
Andrew. 1 The king was sent to Kenilworth Castle, and was there 
kept in close captivity. Hugh was drawn, hanged, and beheaded 
at Hereford ; his body was divided into four parts and sent to 

1 3oth November. 
253 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

four cities of England, and his head was suspended in London. 
But Baldock, being a cleric, was put to his penance in Newgate 
in London, and died soon after in prison. 

After Christmas, by common advice of all the nobles of 
England, a parliament was held in London, at the beginning 
whereof two bishops Winchester and Hereford were sent to 
the king at Kenilworth, begging him humbly and urgently on 
the part of my lady the queen, of her son, the Duke of Aquitaine, 
and of all the earls, barons, and commonalty of the whole country 
assembled in London, that he would be pleased to come to the 
parliament to perform and enact with his lieges for the crown of 
England what ought to be done and what justice demanded. 
When he received this request he utterly refused to comply 
therewith ; nay, he cursed them contemptuously, declaring that 
he would not come among his enemies or rather, his traitors. 
The aforesaid envoys returned, therefore, and on the vigil of the 
octave of Epiphany 1 they entered the great hall of Westminster, 
where the aforesaid parliament was being held, and publicly recited 
the reply of the two envoys before all the clergy and people. 

On the morrow, to wit, the feast of S. Hilary, the Bishop 
of Hereford preached, and, taking for his text that passage in 
Ecclesiasticus ' A foolish king shall ruin his people ' dwelt 
weightily upon the folly and unwisdom of the king, and upon 
his childish doings (if indeed they deserved to be spoken of as 
childish), and upon the multiple and manifold disasters that had 
befallen in England in his time. And jall_thejpepplejanswered with 
one voice ' We will no longer have this man to reign over us.' 

Then on the next day following the Bishop of Winchester 

1 I zih January, 1326-7. 



LANERCOST 

preached, and, taking for his text tfyat passage, in the fourth of 
Kings ' My head pains me ' he explained with sorrow what 
a feeble head England had had for many years. The Archbishop 
of Canterbury preached on the third day, taking for his text 
' The voice of the people is the voice of God,' and he ended by 
announcing to all his hearers that, by the unanimous consent of 
all the earls and barons, and of the archbishops and bishops, and 
of the whole clergy and people, King Edward was deposed from 
his pristine dignity, never more to reign nor to govern the people 
of England ; and he added that all the above-mentioned, both 

uc 

laity and clergy, unanimously agreed that my lord Edward, his f . 222 
first-born son, should succeed his father in the kingdom. 

When this had been done, all the chief men, with the assent 
of the whole community, sent formal envoys to his father at 
Kenilworth to renounce their homage, and to inform him that 
he was deposed from the royal dignity and that he should govern 
the people of England no more. The aforesaid envoys were two 
bishops, Winchester and Hereford ; two earls, Lancaster and 
Warren ; two barons, de Ros and de Courtney ; l two abbots, 
two priors, two justiciaries, two Preaching Friars, two Carmelite 
Friars. But at the instance of my lady the queen, Minorite 
Friars were not sent, so that they should not be bearers of such 
a dismal message, for he greatly loved the Minorites. 2 Then 
there were two knights from beyond Trent, and two from this 

1 William 3rd Baron de Ros, d. 1343, and Hugh de Courtenay afterwards ist 
Earl of Devon, d. 1340. The present Baroness de Ros is 2$th in descent from 
William, and the present Earl of Devon is directly descended from Sir Philip de 
Courtenay, grandson of Hugh, ist Earl. 

2 Quia Mtnores multum amabat; it is not clear whether it was the hapless king or 
the queen who loved the Minorites. 

255 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

side of Trent ; two citizens of London and two from the Cinque 
Ports ; so that altogether there were four-and-twenty persons 
appointed to bear that message. 

Meanwhile public proclamation was made in the city of 
London that my lord Edward, son of the late king, was to 
be crowned at Westminster upon Sunday, being the vigil of 
the Purification of the Glorious Virgin, 1 and that he would there 
assume the diadem of the realm. Which took place with great 
pomp, such as befitted so great a king. 

On the night of the king's coronation in London, the Scots, 
having already heard thereof, came in great force with ladders 
to Norham Castle, which is upon the March and had been very 
offensive to them. About sixteen of them boldly mounted the 
castle walls ; but Robert de Maners, warden of the castle, had 
been warned of their coming by a certain Scot within the castle, 
and, rushing suddenly upon them, killed nine or ten and took 
five of them alive, but severely wounded. This mishap ought 
to have been a sign and portent of the ills that were to befal 
them in the time of the new king. 

Howbeit, this did not cause them [the Scots] to desist in the 

least from their long-standing iniquity and evil habits ; for, 

hearing that the King of England's son had been 

crowned and confirmed in the kingdom, and that his 

father, who had yielded to them their country free, together with 

a large part of the English march, had been deposed and was 

detained in custody, they invaded England, before the feast of 

S. Margaret Virgin and Martyr, 2 in three columns, whereof 

one was commanded by the oft-mentioned Earl of Moray, another 

1 1st February, 1326-7. 2 zoth July. 

256 



LANERCOST 

by Sir James of Douglas, and the third by the Earl of Mar, 1 
who for many years previously had been educated at the King 
of England's court, but had returned to Scotland after the capture 
of the king, hoping to rescue him from captivity and restore him 
to his kingdom, as formerly, by the help of the Scots and of 
certain adherents whom the deposed king still had in England. 
My lord Robert de Brus, who had become leprous, did not 
invade England on this occasion. 

On hearing reports of these events, the new King of England 
assembled an army and advanced swiftly against the Scots in 
the northern parts about Castle Barnard and Stanhope Park ; 
and as they kept to the woods and would not accept battle in the 
open, the young king, with extraordinary exertion, made a flank 
march with part of his forces in a single day to Haydon Bridge, 
in order to cut off their retreat to Scotland. But, as the Scots 
continued to hold their ground in Stanhope Park, the king 
marched back to their neighbourhood, and, had he attacked them 
at once with his army, he must have beaten them, as was 
commonly said by all men afterwards. Daily they lost both 
men and horses through lack of provender, although they had 
gathered some booty in the country round about ; but the affair 
was put off for eight days in accord with the bad advice of certain 
chief officers of the army, the king lying all that time between the 
Scots and Scotland ; 2 until one night the Scots, warned, it is said, 
by an Englishman in the king's army that the king had decided 
to attack them next morning, silently decamped from the 
park, and, marching round the king's army, held their way 

1 Donald, 8th Earl of Mar in the ancient line (1300 ? 1332). 

2 Inter eos et Scottos, an obvious error for Scotiam. 

R 257 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

to Scotland ; and thus it was made clear how action is endangered 
by delay. 

One night, when they were still in the park, Sir James of 
Douglas, like a brave and enterprising knight, stealthily penetrated 
far into the king's camp with a small party, and nearly reached 
the king's tent ; but, in returning he made known who he was, 
killed many who were taken by surprise, and escaped without 
a scratch. 1 

When the king heard that the Scots had decamped he shed 
tears of vexation, disbanded his army, and returned to the south ; 
and Messire Jehan, the Count of Hainault's brother, went back 
with his following to his own country. But after the king's 
departure, the Scots assembled an army and harried almost the 
whole of Northumberland, except the castles, remaining there a 
long time. When the people of the other English marches saw 
this, they sent envoys to the Scots, and for a large sum of money 
obtained from them a truce to last till the following feast of 
Pentecost. 2 

About the same time a certain friar of the Order of Preachers, 

i by name Thomas of Dunheved, who had gone more than two 

years before with the envoys of the king, now deposed, to the 

pfS 

fo.U22 b court of my lord the Pope to obtain a divorce between the king 
and the queen, albeit he had not obtained his object, now 
travelled through England, not only secretly but even openly, 
stirring up the people of the south and north to rise for the 

1 The above was known hereafter as the campaign of Weardale, remarkable, says 
Barbour, for two notable things never before seen, viz. (i) ' Crakis' of weir,' 
i.e. artillery ; (2) crests worn on the helmets of knights (The Brus, xiv., 168-175). 

2 22nd May, 1328. 

258 



LANERCOST 

deposed and imprisoned king and restore the kingdom to him, 
promising them speedy aid. But he was unable to fulfil what 
he promised ; wherefore that foolish friar was arrested at last, 
thrown into prison, and died there. 

The deposed king died soon after, either by a natural death or 
by the violence of others, and was buried at Gloucester, among the 
monks, on the feast of S. Thomas the Apostle, 1 and not in London 
among the other kings, because he was deposed from reigning. 

Meanwhile ambassadors were appointed between the kingdoms 
of England and Scotland to arrange a temporary truce or confirm 
the former truce for thirteen years, or to come to any treaty 
for a perpetual peace if that could be done. 

About Christmastide the aforesaid Messire Jehan, brother of 
the Count of Hainault, returned to England, bringing with him 
Philippa, daughter of the said count, whom the King of England 
married with great pomp at York shortly after, to wit, on Sunday 
in the vigil of the Conversion of Paul the Apostle. 2 

In the same year died the King of France without heir born of 
his body, just as his brother had died before him. When the 
King of England heard of his uncle's death without an heir, and 
holding himself to be the nearest rightful heir to the throne 
of France, fearing also, nevertheless, that the French would not 
admit this, but would elect somebody else of the blood (which 
they did immediately, to wit, the son of Charles, uncle of their 
deceased king), acting on the pestilent advice of his mother 
and Sir Roger de Mortimer (they being the chief controllers of 
the king, who was barely fifteen years of age), he was forced 

1 zist December. Edward II. died on 2ist September. 

2 4th January, 1327-8. 

259 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

to release the Scots by his public deed from all exaction, right, 
claim or demand of the overlordship of the kingdom of Scotland 
on his part, or that of his heirs and successors in perpetuity, 
and from any homage to be done to the Kings of England. He 
restored to them also that piece of the Cross of Christ which 
the Scots call the Black Rood, and likewise a certain instrument or 
deed of subjection and homage to be done to the Kings of 
England, to which were appended the seals of all the chief men of 
Scotland, which they delivered, as related above, to the king's 
grandsire, and which, owing to the multitude of seals hanging to 
it, is called ' Ragman * by the Scots. But the people of London 
would no wise allow to be taken away from them the Stone 
of Scone, whereon the Kings of Scotland used to be set at their 
coronation at Scone. All these objects the illustrious King 
Edward, son of Henry, had caused to be brought away from 
Scotland when he reduced the Scots to his rule. 

\Also, the aforesaid young king gave his younger sister, my 
lady Joan of the Tower, in marriage to David, son of Robert 
de Brus, King of Scotland, he being then a boy five years old. 
All this was arranged by the king's mother the Queen [dowager] 
of England, who at that time governed the whole realm. The 
nuptials were solemnly celebrated at Berwick on Sunday next 
before the feast of S. Mary Magdalene. 1 

The King of England was not present at these nuptials, but 
the queen mother was there, with the king's brother and his 

A.D. 1328. dder Sister and m y lords the Bish ops of Lincoln, Ely 

and Norwich, and the Earl of Warenne, Sir Roger de 

Mortimer and other English barons, and much people, besides 

1 1 7th July. 
260 



LANERCOST 

those of Scotland, who assembled in great numbers at those 
nuptials. The reason, or rather the excuse, for making that 
remission or gratuitous concession to the Scots (to wit, that they 
should freely possess their kingdom and not hold it from any 
King of England as over-lord) was that unless the king had first 
made peace with the Scots, he could not have attacked the French 
who had disinherited him lest the Scots should invade England. 

'To all Christ's faithful people who shall see these letters, Edward, by the 
grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Aquitaine, greeting 
and peace everlasting in the Lord. Whereas, we and some of our predecessors, 
Kings of England, have endeavoured to establish rights of rule or dominion 
or superiority over the realm of Scotland, whence dire conflicts of wars waged 
have afflicted for a long time the kingdoms of England and Scotland : we, 
having regard to the slaughter, disasters, crimes, destruction of churches and 
evils innumerable which, in the course of such wars, have repeatedly befallen 
the subjects of both realms, and to the wealth with which each realm, if united 
by the assurance of perpetual peace, might abound to their mutual advantage, 
thereby rendering them more secure against the hurtful efforts of those conspiring 
to rebel or to attack, whether from within or from without : We will and grant 
by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors whatsoever, with the common 
advice, assent and consent of the prelates, princes, earls and barons, and the 
commons of our realm in our parliament, that the kingdom of Scotland, within 
its own proper marches as they were held and maintained in the time of King 
Alexander of Scotland, last deceased, of good memory, shall belong 1 to our dearest 
ally and friend, the magnificent prince, Lord Robert, by God's grace illustrious 
King of Scotland, and to his heirs and successors, separate in all things from the 
kingdom of England, whole, free and undisturbed in perpetuity, without any kind 
of subjection, service, claim or demand. And by these presents we renounce and 
demit to the King of Scotland, his heirs and successors, whatsoever right we or our 
predecessors have put forward in any way in bygone times to the aforesaid kingdom 
of Scotland. And, for ourselves and our heirs and successors, we cancel wholly and MS. 
utterly all obligations, conventions and compacts undertaken in whatsoever manner fo. 223 
with our predecessors, at whatsoever times, by whatsoever kings or inhabitants, 
clergy or laity, of the same kingdom of Scotland concerning the subjection of the 
realm of Scotland and its inhabitants. And wheresoever any letters, charters, deeds 

1 Remaneat. 
261 



THE CHRONICLE OF 



compacts of this nature, we will that t 

effect and void, and of no value ~* * time, we have 



The same King Edward of England granted other 
wherein he declared that he expressly and wholly withdrew from 
every suit, action or prosecution arising out of processes or 
sentences laid by the Supreme Lord Pontiff and the Cardmal- 
legates, Sir Joceline the priest, and Luke the deacon, against 
the said Lord Robert, King of Scotland, and the inhabitants of its 
kingdom, and would henceforth be opposed to any renewal ot 
the Pope's processes. In testimony whereof, el coetera. 
tp be observed that these notable acts were done in the sixte 
yea* of the king's age. 

In the same year, tejte&JOd^SS& of Rome, chiefly at 
instigation of Louis of Bavaria (who had been elected Emperor), 
deposed Pope John XXII. (whose seat was then in Avignon in 
the kingdom of France) after the ancient manner, because they 
held aU the cardinals who were with the Pope to be supporters of 
heretical wickedness, and because of divers manifest heresies which 
they publicly laid to his charge, and obliged themselves to prove 
solemnly, in writing, by time and place, whatever was charged against 
him. Then they elected a Pope (if that ought to be called an 
election where no cardinal was present), a certain friar of the Order 
of Minorites by name Peter of Corvara, who, after his election (such 
i William, ist Baron Zouche (i 276-1 352) ancestor of the i $th and present baron. 



LANERCOST 

as it was) was called Nicholas the Fifth. And the said Lord 
Louis, with the whole clergy and people of Rome, decreed that 
thenceforward neither the said John, who was called Pope, nor 
his predecessor Clement, should come near the city of Rome, 
where was the seat of Peter, the chief of the Apostles ; and 
further, that if any future Lord Pope should leave the city of 
Rome beyond two days' journey according to common compu- 
tation, and not return within one month to the city or its 
neighbourhood, the clergy and people of Rome should be 
thereby entitled to elect another as Pope, and when this had 
been done he who should so absent himself should be straightway 
deposed. 

In the same year Friar Michael, Minister-General of the 
Minorite Order, was arrested by Pope John at Avignon, and 
received his injunction that, upon his obedience and under pain 
of excommunication he should not depart from his [the Pope's] 
court unless by license received and not assumed. This notwith- 
standing, he did depart in the company of Friar Bona Gratia 
and Friar William of Ockham, 1 an Englishman, being supported 
by the aid and armed force of the Emperor and the Genoese 
who took him with his companions away by sea, wherefore the 
Pope directed letters of excommunication against them because 
of their flight ; but [this was] after he had made proclamation 
under the hand of a notary public before he [Michael] should 
depart from the court, which proclamation, beginning Innotescat 
universis Christi fidelibus, he afterwards published throughout Italy 
and Germany, and it was set upon the door of S. Paul's church 
in London about the Feast of All Saints. 

1 Doctor singularis et invincibilis, born at Ockham in Surrey, c. 1275, d- J 349- 

263 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

Note that the deliverance of the Chapter General of the 

Minorite Friars assembled at Paris in the year of Our Lord 
MCCCXXVIIJ was as follows ' We declare that it is not heretical, 
but reasonable, catholic and faithful, to say and affirm that Christ 
and his apostles, following the way of perfection, had no property 
or private rights in special or in common.' But Pope John XXII. 
pronounced this deliverance to be heretical, and as the Minister- 
General defended it, he caused him to be arrested by the Court. 

My lord Robert de Brus, King of Scotland, died a leper ; he 

had made for himself, however, a costly sepulchre. His son, 

David, a boy of six or seven years, succeeded him. He 

had married the sister of the King of England, as has 

been explained above ; but he was not crowned immediately, 

nor anointed, although his father had obtained [authority] from 

the [Papal] Court for such anointing of the Kings of Scotland in 

future. 1 

In the same year, on the i6th day of March, my lord Edmund 
of Woodstock, Earl of Kent, the king's uncle and son of the late 
illustrious King Edward the son of Henry, was taken at Win- 
chester as a traitor to the king, and there before many nobles of 
the realm acknowledged that (both by command of my lord the 
Pope and at the instigation of certain bishops of England, whom 
he named expressly, and by advice of many great men of the 
land, whom he also named and proved by sure tokens, and 
especially at the instigation of a certain preaching friar of the 

'The bull conveying this right is dated at Avignon on the Ides of June, 1329. 
The Bishops of Glasgow and S. Andrews were directed to exact from King Robert 
and his successors an oath that they would preserve the immunity of the ecclesias- 
tical order and extirpate heretics. 

264 



LANERCOST 

convent of London, to wit, Friar Thomas of Dunheved, who 
had told the said earl that he had raised up the devil, who 
asserted that my lord King Edward, lately deposed, was still 
alive, and at the instigation of three other friars of the aforesaid 
Order (to wit, Edmund, John and Richard) he intended to act, 
and did act with all his power, so that the said Lord Edward, the 
deposed king, should be released from prison and restored to the 
kingdom, and that for such purpose my lord the Pope and 
the said lord bishops and nobles aforesaid had promised him 
plenty of money, besides advice and aid in carrying it out. 

In consequence of this confession, the said Edmund, Earl of 
Kent, was condemned to death and was cruelly beheaded. More- 
over, it was said that his death was procured chiefly through the 
agency of Sir Roger de Mortimer, Earl of March, who at that time 
was more than king in the kingdom, forasmuch as the queen- 
mother and he ruled the whole realm. The bishops, also, and 
the other nobles who were the Earl of Kent's advisers andjy 
promoters of the aforesaid business were severely punished. 
And the aforesaid Preaching Friar was delivered to perpetual fb. 223** 
imprisonment, wherein he died, as has been described above. 
But the marvel is that the said friar, or any other very learned 
person, should trust the devil, seeing that it is said by God in 
the holy gospel according to John that he is a liar and the 
father, that is the inventor, of lies. My lord Thomas de Wake, 
a baron and faithful subject of England and loyal to the realm, 1 
and sundry other Englishmen, fearing the cruelty and tyranny of 

1 Ancestor of Sir Herewald Wake of Courteenhall, Northampton. The Wakes 
claim to be of Saxon descent, and this Thomas or his father was first summoned 
as a baron of Parliament in 1 295. 

265 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

the said Earl of March, crossed over to France until such 
time as they should see better conditions and more peace in 
the realm. 

In the same year the Scottish friars obtained a certain Vicar of 
the Minister-General and were totally separated from the friars of 
England. 

About the teast of S. Luke the Evangelist, 1 the king held a 
parliament at Nottingham, whereat the said Earl of March was 
privily arrested by order of the king and taken 
thence to London, and there on the vigil of S. Andrew 
the Apostle next following 2 in parliament was condemned to 
death, and on the evening of the same day was drawn and hanged 
on the gallows, where he hung for three days, being afterwards 
taken down and buried at the Minorite Friars. 3 The charge upon 
hich he was condemned is said to have been manifold that he 
seemed to aspire to the throne that it was said that he himself 
had caused the king's father to be killed, or at least had been 
consenting to his death that he had procured the death of the 
aforesaid Earl of Kent that it was through him and the Queen- 
mother that the Scots, so far as in them lay, had gained the 
kingdom of Scotland, free and independent of the lordship of 
England for ever, without having to do homage to the Kings of 
England, thereby causing serious detriment to the heritage of the 
King and Crown of England that there was a liaison suspected 
between him and the lady Queen-mother, as according to public 

1 1 8th October. 2 29th November. 

8 But the king's letter is extant, directing that the body should be delivered to 
the widowed Countess and her son Edmund for interment with his ancestors at 
Wigmore. 

266 



LANERCOST 

report. There was hanged also OH account of the aforesaid earl 
one Symon of Hereford, formerly the king's justiciary. 

Now the lady Queen-mother, seeing the earl's death and 
hearing the charge upon which he was condemned, took alarm 
on her own account, as was said, assumed the habit of the Sisters 
of the Order of S. Clare and was deprived of the towns and 
castles and wide lands which she possessed in England. Howbeit 
she enjoyed a competent and honourable sufficiency, as was 
becoming for the king's mother. 

Meanwhile the son and heir of the Earl of Arundel, my lord 
Thomas le Wake, Sir Henry de Beaumont, 1 Sir Thomas de 
Rosslyn, Sir Fulk Fitzwarren, Sir Griffin de la Pole, and many 
others, who had been exiles in France, returned to England, 
and their lands were restored to them, with all that the 
king had received from these lands during the time of their 
exile. 2 

In the same year the new Pope came to the old one and was 
received to favour, on condition that he should not leave the 
curia, and there he remained till the day of his death, when 
the Pope caused him to be buried with ceremony. 

In the same year a son named Edward was born to my lord 
King Edward the Third. 

1 Ancestor of Sir George H. W. Beaumont of Coleorton Hall, Ashby-de-la- 
Zouch. This Henry was styled consanguineus regis, and was summoned as a baron 
of Parliament, 4th March, 1 309. 

2 Some of these lands were in Scotland, over which Edward III. had resigned 
all claim by the Treaty of Northampton. But it was stipulated in that treaty 
that these lords should receive back their Scottish possessions, a condition that the 
Scottish Government was not in a position to fulfil. Hence all the subsequent 
trouble about the Disinherited Lords. 

267 



About the feast of S. Andrew l David, son of the late Robert 
de Brus, was anointed and crowned King of Scotland at Scone, 
and it was publicly proclaimed at his coronation that he 
claimed right to the kingdom of Scotland by no heredi- 
tary succession, but in like manner as his father, by conquest 
alone. 

In the same year died my lord Thomas Randolph, Earl of 
Moray, who had been appointed Guardian of Scotland until 
David should come of age ; wherefore Donald, Earl of Mar, 
was elected to the guardianship of Scotland, notwithstanding 
that he had always hitherto encouraged my lord Edward de 
Balliol to come to Scotland in order to gain the kingdom by 
his aid ; but when he found himself elected to the guardianship 
of the realm, he deserted Edward and adhered to the party of 
David. 

On the feast of the Holy Martyrs Sixtus, Felicissimus and 

Agapetus, to wit, the sixth day of the month of August, the 

aforesaid Sir Edward de Balliol, son of the late Sir John 

of that ilk, King of Scotland (having first taken counsel 

privately with the King of England, and bringing with him the 

English who had been disinherited of their lands in Scotland, and 

the Frenchman, Sir Henry de Beaumont, who had married the 

heiress of the earldom of Buchan, and who was in England ; 

bringing also with him my lord the Earl of Athol, 2 who had 

been expelled from Scotland, 3 and the Earl of Angus 4 and the 

1 3Oth November. 

2 David of Strathbogie, I ith earl in the Celtic line. 

3 He is noted in Fordun (cxlvii.) as one of the disinherited lords. 

4 Gilbert de Umfraville, 4th earl in the English line. 

268 



LANERCOST 

Baron of Stafford, 1 and a small force of English mercenaries) took 
ship and invaded Scotland in the Earl of Fife's land near the town 
of Kinghorn, effecting a landing where no ship had ever yet been 
known to land. The whole force did not exceed fifteen hundred, 
all told ; or, according to others, two thousand and eighty. Oh 
what a small number of soldiers was that for the invasion of a 
realm then most confident in its strength ! No sooner had they 
disembarked than the Earl of Fife 2 attacked them with 4000 
men ; but he was quickly repulsed, many of his men being killed 
and the rest put to flight. So my lord Edward and his men 
remained there in peace without molestation that night and the 
following day, but on the third day they marched as far as the 
monastery of Dunfermline. 

On the day following the feast of S. Lawrence the Martyr 3 
they marched to the Water of Earn, where the Scots from the 
other side of the river came against them with 30,000 fighting 
men. But on that day they would not cross the water to the 
English, nor would the English cross over to them ; but the 
English, having held council, crossed the water in the night and 
fell upon the Scottish infantry, of whom they killed 10,000, put 
to flight the others unarmed, and pursued them. And when they 
returned in the morning light, believing that the armed men had 
run away in the same manner, behold ! they were confronted by fb. 224 
the Earl of Mar, Guardian of Scotland, having in his following 

1 Ralph, Lord de Stafford, created Earl of Stafford in 1351. He was one of 
Edward III.'s ablest officers. 

2 Duncan, loth Earl of Fife (1285-1353), who, although he often changed 
sides, is distinguished as having been the first to sign the famous letter to the 
Pope in 1320, declaring the independence of Scotland. 

3 nth August. 

269 



MS. 




THE CHRONICLE OF 

the Earls of Fife, of Moray, 1 of Menteith, 2 of Atholl (whom the 
Scots had created), 3 and Sir Robert de Brus, Earl of Carrick, son 
of the late Sir Robert de Brus their king, but not born in 
wedlock. 4 They were formed in two great divisions, with twelve 
banners displayed on the hard ground at Gledenmore, 5 about two 
miles from S. John's town. 6 They began to fight at sunrise and 
the action lasted till high noon ; but my lord Edward was 
strengthened by God's protection and the justice of his cause, 
so that the Scots were defeated chiefly by the English archers, 
who so blinded and wounded the faces of the first division of 
the Scots by an incessant discharge of arrows, that they could 
not support each other ; so that, according to report, of that 
whole army, scarcely a dozen men-at-arms escaped, but that all 
were killed or captured, and that the number of killed and 
prisoners was 16,000 men. Howbeit in the first onset, when 
nglish and Scots were fighting with their spears firmly fixed 
against each other, the Scots drove back the English some 
twenty or thirty feet, when the Baron of Stafford cried out : 

1 Thomas, 2nd Earl, of Moray, succeeded his father on zoth July and was 
killed on i2th August. 

2 Murdach, 8th Earl of Menteith in the Celtic line. 

3 David of Strathbogie having been forfeited in 1314, King Robert bestowed 
the earldom on his brother-in-law, Sir Neil Campbell (d. c. 1316). The earl 
named in the text was Sir Neil's son John, who was killed next year at Halidon 
Hill. 

4 There is confusion here. David (afterwards King of Scots), was created Earl 
of Carrick previous to his marriage in 1328 to Princess Joan of England. After- 
wards, in 1332 or 1333, Alexander, natural son of Edward Bruce, Earl of Carrick 
(brother of King Robert I.), was created Earl of Carrick and was killed soon after 
at Halidon Hill. 

6 Dupplin Moor. 6 Perth. 

270 



LANERCOST 

* Ye English ! turn your shoulders instead of your breasts 
to the pikes.' And when they did this they repulsed the Scots 
immediately. 

There was also much advantage in what a certain English 
knight said that day, who, perceiving that the fighting was very 
severe on both sides, cunningly cried out : * Cheer up, Englishmen ! 
and fight like men, for the Scots in rear have now begun to fly.' 
Hearing these words the English were encouraged and the Scots 
greatly dismayed. One most marvellous thing happened that 
day, such as was never seen or heard of in any previous battle, 
to wit, that the pile of dead was greater in height from the earth 
toward the sky than one whole spear length. 

Thus, therefore, in this battle and in others that followed there 
fell vengeance upon the heads of the Scots through the Pope's _\ 
excommunication for breach of the aforesaid truce, and through 
the excommunication by the cardinal and the Anglican Church 

because of the support and favour shown to Robert the Bruce 

9* 

after the murder of John Comyn. 

My lord Edward caused all the slain aforesaid to be buried at 
his expense. Having, therefore obtained this truly marvellous 
victory aforesaid, they entered S. John's town and abode there to 
rest themselves. 

Now on the feast of S. Francis the Confessor, to wit, the fourth 
day of the month of October, my lord Edward was created King 
of Scotland at the Abbey of Scone according to the custom of 
that kingdom, with much rejoicing and honour. In which solemn 
ceremony it is said that this miracle took place, namely, whereas 
there were in that place an immense multitude of men and but 

slight means of feeding them, God nevertheless looked down and 

271 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

multiplied the victuals there as he did of old in the desert, so that 
there was ample provision for all men. 

Meanwhile the Bishop of Dunkeld came to the king's place, 
and undertook to bring over to the king all the bishops of 
Scotland, except the Bishop of S. Andrews. The Abbots of 
Dunfermline, of Cupar-in-Angus, of Inchaffray, of Arbroath and 
of Scone came to peace also ; and likewise the Earl of Fife with 
thirteen knights, to wit, David de Graham, 1 Michael de Wemyss, 
David de Wemyss, Michael Scott, 2 John de Inchmartin, Alexander 
de Lamberton, John de Dunmore, John de Bonvile, William de 
Fraser, W. de Cambo, Roger de Morton, John de Laundel and 
Walter de Lundy. But the other chief men of Scotland who had 
been deserted, seeing the king in the unwalled town of S. John, 3 
as it were in the heart of the kingdom with such a small force, 
assembled in great numbers and besieged him. When the people 
of Galloway, whose special chieftain was the king, 4 heard this they 
invaded the lands of these Scots in their rear under their leader 
Sir Eustace de Maxwell, and thus very soon caused the siege to 
be raised. Upon this Earl Patrick, and the new Earl of Moray by 
the Scottish creation, 5 with Sir Andrew de Moray, 6 and Sir Archi- 

1 Sir David Graham of Kincardine and Old Montrose, afterwards one of the 
plenipotentiaries for the release and ransom of David II. in 1357 ; lineal ancestor 
of the Duke of Montrose. 

2 Of Balwearie, ancestor of the Scotts of Ancrum, etc. 8 Perth. 

4 Edward Baliol inherited the lordship of Galloway through his father John 
and his grandmother Devorguila, daughter and co-heiress of Alan, last of the 
Celtic Lords of Galloway. 

5 John, 3rd and last Earl of Moray in this line, 2nd son of Thomas Ran- 
dolph, ist Earl, killed at Neville's Cross, 1346. 

6 Son of the younger Andrew de Moray (killed at Stirling in 1297) and after- 
wards Regent of Scotland. See Bain's Calendar, ii. pp. xxx.-xxxi. 

272 



LANERCOST 

bald Douglas, 1 having collected an army, invaded and burnt 
Galloway, taking away spoil and cattle, but killing few people, 
because they found but few. And for this reason the Scots and 
the men of Galloway were long at war with each other. 

Meanwhile the king strengthened and fortified S. John's town, 
appointing the Earl of Fife with his men as garrison there, while 
he with his army rode about and perambulated the country beyond 
the Firth of Forth, and then returned. But before he got back, 
the Scots, by stratagem and wiles, had captured the Earl of Fife 
and burnt S. John's town. 

Now after the king's return and when he had arrived at 
Roxburgh on the feast of S. Calixtus, to wit, the fourteenth day 
of the month of October, he dismissed his army in the town 
and went himself, for the sake of greater quiet, with a small 
retinue, to be entertained in the Abbey of Kelso, which is on 
the other side of the town bridge. But when the said Sir 
Andrew de Moray heard this, with other knights and troops, 
he continually dogged the king and his people in order to harass 
them. They broke down the bridge between the king and his army 
by night, so that they might capture him with his small following 
in the abbey, or kill him if he would not surrender to them. 
But the king's army hearing of this repaired the bridge with utmost 
speed ; and some of them, not waiting till this was done, plunged 
into the great river armed and mounted, swam across and 
pursued the flying Scots for eight miles, in which pursuit many fo. 
were killed and others captured, among whom was the aforesaid 
Sir Andrew de Moray, Guardian of Scotland since the death of 

1 Regent of Scotland, youngest brother of the * Good Sir James.' Killed at 
Halidon Hill, 1333. 

s 273 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

the Earl of Mar, and a certain cruel and determined pirate called 
Crab, who for many years preceding had harassed the English by 
land and sea. Both of them were sent to the King of England 
that he might dispose of them according to his will. 1 Howbeit 
this Crab, having been granted his life by the King of England, 
became afterwards a most bitter persecutor of his people, because 
of the ingratitude of the Scots of Berwick, who, at the time of 
the siege of that town refused afterwards to ransom him and even 
killed his son. But Sir Andrew de Moray was ransomed after- 
wards for a large sum of money. 

About the feast of S. Nicholas the Bishop, 2 the King of England 
held a parliament at York, to which the King of Scotland sent 
my lord Henry de Beaumont, Earl of Buchan, and the Earl of 
Atholl, and many others with them, to negociate and establish 
good peace and firm concord between my lord the King of 
England and himself; and this business, by God's ordinance, was 
carried to a prosperous conclusion, as will be shown anon. 

But meanwhile the new young Earl of Mar (by the Scottish 
creation), 3 and the steward of Scotland, and Sir Archibald Douglas, 
having assembled a strong troop of men-at-arms on the iyth of 
the kalends of January, to wit, the ninth day before Christmas, 
came secretly early in the morning to the town of Annan, which 
is on the march between the two kingdoms, where the King of 

1 John Crab, a Flemish engineer, served Walter the Steward well in the defence 
of Berwick in 1319 (see Bain's Catalogue, iii. 126, Maxwell's Robert the Bruce, 
pp. 266-268, Barbour's Brus, c. xxx.). 

2 6th December. 

3 Thomas, gth Earl of Mar, can have been but an infant at the time. The 
reference is to the Earl of Moray. 

274 



LANERCOST 

Scotland aforesaid was staying with the small force he kept 
together, intending to remain there over Christmas. They found 
the king and his people in bed, like those who were too confident 
in the safety secured through many different victories already won, 
and they rushed in upon them, naked and unarmed as they were 
and utterly unprepared for their coming, killing about one hundred 
of them, among whom were two noble and valiant Scots, to wit, 
Sir J. Moubray and Sir Walter Comyn, whose deaths were deeply 
lamented, 1 but the king afterwards caused them all to be buried. 
Meanwhile the king and most of the others made their escape, 
scarcely saving their persons and a few possessions which they 
carried with them across the water into England. Of the Scots, 
as was reported, about thirty were killed in the brave defence 
offered by the naked men aforesaid. 2 

The king therefore came to Carlisle, and there kept his 
Christmas in the house of the Minorite Friars, receiving money 
and gifts and presents which were sent to him both from the 
country and the town ; for the community greatly loved him 
and his people because of the mighty confusion he caused among 
the Scots when he entered their land, although that confusion had 
now befallen himself. 

At the feast of S. Stephen Protomartyr, 3 the king departed 
from Carlisle into Westmorland, where he was honourably 
received, and he stayed with my Lord de Clifford at his 

1 Sir Henry Balliol, Edward's brother, was also among the slain. 

2 The chronicler does not here allude to an allegation made by both Heming- 
burgh and Walsingham, viz. that Douglas in this exploit broke a truce which he 
and March had made with Edward Balliol for the safety of their own lands. 

3 2 6th December. 

275 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

expense, to whom he granted Douglasdale in Scotland (which 
formerly had been granted to his grandfather in the time of 
the illustrious King Edward the son of Henry), provided that 
God should vouchsafe him prosperity and restoration to his 
kingdom. After that he stayed with his near relative the Lady 
de Gynes at Moorholm, 1 from whom he received gifts of money 
and jewels and promised that, if he should prosper, he would 
give her wide lands and rents in Scotland to which he was 
hereditarily entitled of old. 

After the aforesaid overthrow of the king and his expulsion 
from the realm, forasmuch as Sir Archibald Douglas had been 
the prime mover in planning and prosecuting the said overthrow 
of the king (albeit that expulsion may be attributed to the Earl 
of Moray as being of nobler rank and more powerful) they 
treacherously captured my lord the Earl of Fife when he was 
travelling beyond the Scottish sea, because he was true to the 
King of Scotland and put him in prison, making Archibald 
guardian of the realm of Scotland. 2 In course of time, however, 
Archibald afterwards released the earl from prison and granted 
him lands beyond the Scottish sea, so that he should have the 
earldom. 

Now it is held by many people that the said overthrow and 
expulsion, inflicted upon the king at that time, were really to 
his advantage, enabling him to know what men of the realm 
would be faithful to him ; but many of his former adherents 

1 This lady died in 1334, leaving extensive estates to her son William. 

2 This Archibald Douglas (there were many of that name) was the youngest 
brother of the good Sir James. He was known as < The Tineman,' because he 
lost so many battles. 

276 



LANERCOST 

utterly deserted him after his expulsion ; whence he also learnt 
to be more careful in dealing with the Scots, and look better 
after his own safety. 

On the tenth day of March following, 1 to wit, on the morrow 
of the Forty Holy Martyrs, being the season when, as Scripture 
testifieth, kings were wont to go forth to war, the King of 
Scotland, 2 supported by a strong armed force of English and 
some Scots, entered Scotland directing his march towards Berwick, 
and there applied himself and his army to the siege of that city, 
which was well fortified. My lord the Earl of Atholl, being 
young and warlike, raided the neighbouring country with his 
following and supplied the army with cattle ; also the ships of 
England in great number brought plenty of victual, and closely 
maintained the blockade by sea. The Scots, seeing the king 
re-enter his realm with so great an army, dared not risk an 
engagement with him, but invaded Northumberland, slaying and 
burning, carrying off prey and booty, and then returned to 
Scotland. 

Also on the twenty-second day of the aforesaid month of 
March, to wit, on the morrow of S. Benedict, they invaded 
Gillesland by way of Carlisle, slaying and burning in the same 
manner, carrying off cattle and booty, and on the following day 
they returned. 

* MS. 

On the next day, to wit, on the vigil of the Annunciation of fo. 225 
the Glorious Virgin, Sir Antony de Lucy, having collected a 
strong body of English Marchmen, entered Scotland and marched 
as far as twelve miles therein, burning many villages. But as he 
was returning on the following day with the booty he had taken, the 

1 1 332-3. 2 Edward Balliol. 

277 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

Scottish garrison of Lochmaben attacked him near the village of 
Dornock at the Sand Wath, to wit, Sir Humphrey de Boys and 
Sir Humphrey de Jardine, knights, William Baird and William 
of Douglas, notorious malefactors, and about fifty others well 
armed, together with their followers from the whole neighbouring 
country. They charged with one intent and voice upon the 
person of Sir Antony, but, by God's help and the gallant aid 
of his young men, these two knights aforesaid were slain, together 
with four-and-twenty men-at-arms. William Baird and William 
of Douglas were captured, and all the rest fled disgracefully. No 
Englishmen were killed, except two gallant esquires, to wit, 
Thomas of Plumland and John of Ormsby, who had ever before 
been a thorn in the eyes of the Scots. Their bodies were straight- 
way taken to Carlisle on horses and honourably interred. Sir 
Antony, however, was wounded in the foot, the eye and the 
hand, but he afterwards recovered well from all these wounds. 1 

On the same day of the Annunciation, 2 which was the first day 
of the year of our Lord MCCCXXXIIJ, the Scots were defeated in 
Northumberland, and likewise others near the town of 
Berwick. Now when the King of England heard that 
the Scots had thus invaded his land and done all the evils afore- 
said, notwithstanding that he had not yet broken the peace and 
concord arranged between himself and David, son of Robert the 
Bruce, who had married his sister who was with him [David] 
in Scotland, he approached Berwick about the feast of the apostles 

1 See a paper, by Mr. George Neilson, on The Battle of Dornock, in the Transactions 
of the Dumfries and Galloway Antiquarian Society, 1895-6, pp. 154-158. 

2 25th March, which was New Year's Day according to the Calendar then in 
vogue. 

278 



LANERCOST 

Philip and James, 1 to make war upon the Scots in aid of his kins- 
man, the King of Scotland. 2 With him were his brother-german, 
my lord John of Eltham, 3 and many other noble earls, barons, 
knights, esquires, and 30,000 picked men. The King of Scot- 
land was still maintaining the siege of the said town ; and on the 
octave of the Ascension of our Lord, 4 both kings delivered a 
violent assault with their army upon the said city ; but those 
within resisted so strongly, and defended themselves so manfully, 
by means of the strength and height of the wall (which the father 
of the King of England had caused to be built while the town 
was in his possession), that the English could not obtain entrance 
against them ; nevertheless, they maintained the siege without 
interruption. After dinner, on the fourteenth of the Kalends of 
August, to wit, on the vigil of S. Margaret, virgin and martyr, 6 
the Scots came up in great strength (to their own destruction) 
in three columns towards the town of Berwick, against the two 
kings and their armies occupied in the siege, who, however, were 
forewarned and prepared against their coming. Now the Scots 
marching in the first division were so grievously wounded in the 
face and blinded by the host of English archery, just as they 
had been formerly at Gledenmore, 6 that they were helpless, and 
quickly began to turn away their faces from the arrow flights and 
to fall. And whereas the English, like the Scots, were arrayed in 
three divisions, and the King of Scotland 7 was in the rear division, 

* ist May. 

2 The chronicler continues thus to designate Edward Balliol, although King 
David had never been deposed. Moreover, the kinship between the two Edwards 
was exceedingly remote. 

3 Second son of Edward II. and Earl of Cornwall. 

4 zoth May. 5 i9thjuly. 6 Dupplin. 7 Edward Balliol. 

279 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

so the Scots diverted their course in order that they might first 
meet and attack the division of him who, not without right, 
laid claim to the kingdom. But, as has been explained, their 
first division was soon thrown into confusion and routed by his 
[Balliol's] division before the others came into action at all. And 
like as the first division was routed by him [Edward Balliol], so 
the other two were shortly defeated in the encounter by the other 
English divisions. The Scots in the rear then took to flight, 
making use of their heels ; but the English pursued them on 
horseback, felling the wretches as they fled in all directions with 
iron-shod maces. On that day it is said that among the Scots 
killed were seven earls, to wit, Ross, 1 Lennox, 2 Carrick, 3 Suther- 
land, 4 and three others : 6 twenty-seven knights banneret and 
36,320 foot soldiers fewer, however, according to some, and 
according to others, many more. Among them also fell Sir 
Archibald de Douglas, who was chiefly responsible for leading 
them to such a fate ; and, had not night come on many more 
would have been killed. But of the English there fell, it is 

said [ ] 6 

Before the Scottish army arrived at Berwick a certain monk 
who was in their company and had listened to their deliberations 
exclaimed in a loud voice * Go ye no further but let us all turn 

1 Hugh, 4th Celtic Earl of Ross. 

2 Malcolm, $th Earl of Lennox in the Celtic line. He was one of the earliest 
to espouse the cause of Bruce in 1 306. 

3 Alexander de Brus, natural son of Edward, Earl of Carrick. 

4 Kenneth, 3rd Earl of Sutherland. 

5 The Earls of Menteith and Athol made up six : there is no record of a 
seventh. 

6 Blank in original. 

280 



LANERCOST 

back, for I behold in the air the crucified Christ coming against 
you from Berwick brandishing a spear ! * But they, like proud 
and stubborn men, trusting in their numbers, which were double 
as many as the English, hardened their hearts and would not 
turn back. This story was told by one of the Scots who had been 
knighted before that battle, and who was taken prisoner in the 
same and ransomed. He added that whereas before the battle 
there were two hundred and three newly-made knights, none 
escaped death but himself and four others. 

Now on the day after the battle the town of Berwick was 
surrendered to my lord the King of England on this condition 
that all its inhabitants should be safe in life and limb with all 
their goods, movable and immovable, subject, however, to the 
rights of any petitioner. Also Earl Patrick surrendered the castle 
of the town to my lord the King of England, on condition that 
he should retain his earldom as formerly, and he made oath that 
for ever after he would remain faithful to the king's cause. 
Therefore the King of England entered the town and castle and 
took possession of them for himself and the crown of England 
for all future time, together with the county of Berwick and the 
other four counties of Scotland next the March (to be named 
presently), according to the convention formerly made between 
him and the King of Scotland, 1 when the King of Scotland had 
been expelled from his kingdom, and the King of England 
pledged himself and his people to restore the kingdom to him ; fo. 22^ 
and he 1 promised and confirmed it by a charter that he would 
hold the kingdom of Scotland from him, as from a Lord Para- 

1 Edward Balliol. See Bain's Calendar, iii. pp. 200, 201. 
281 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

mount, in like manner as his father had held it from his [Edward 
III.'s] grandfather. 

The king appointed my lord Henry de Percy warden of the 
castle and town, and Sir Thomas Gray, knight, 1 under him. He 
made William de Burnton Mayor of the town, who had previously 
been Mayor of Newcastle. The king also commanded that three 
justiciaries should come there, to wit, Sir William de Denholm, 
knight, Richard de Embleton, Mayor of Newcastle, and Adam de 
Bowes, to make inquest as to what Englishmen had been disin- 
herited in the town of Berwick, and at what time, and to restore 
their houses and lands to them. 2 

When these matters had been settled satisfactorily, the king 
returned to England about the feast of S. Lawrence, 3 and the 
aforesaid justiciaries coming to Berwick, performed the duties 
assigned to them ; but, whereas the clergy of the town had given 
great offence to the king during the siege, all the clergy of 
Scottish birth were expelled according to his instructions, and 
English clergy brought in to replace them. 4 

Note, that when the Scottish friars had to leave the convent 
of Berwick and two English friars were introduced, the Scots 
provided them with good cheer ; and while some of them enter- 
tained them at dinner with talk, others broke open the wardrobe, 
collected all the books, chalices and vestments, packed them in 

1 Father of the author of Scalacronica. 

2 All these appointments, except that of William de Burnton, may be seen in 
Rotuli Scotitf, i. 256-7. 

3 loth August. 

4 The writs expelling the Scottish friars are printed in Rotuli Scotia, i. 258. 

282 



LANERCOST 

silken and other wrappings, and carried them off, declaring that 
all these had been gifts from my lord Earl Patrick. 1 

Now it must not pass without mention how, before warlike 
operations were undertaken against Berwick, an offer was made 
to David, son of my lord Robert de Brus, whom the Scots had 
anointed as their king, that he might come in safety to the King 
of Scotland 2 to renounce the kingdom in his favour, whereupon 
he [Edward] would straightway grant him all the lands in Scot- 
land which his father or grandfather had at any time possessed in 
Scotland. But he [David], being a boy of about nine years, 
acting on the advice of his council, utterly refused that offer, and, 
after the aforesaid battle, hearing sinister rumours about disaster 
to the Scots, betook himself with his people to Dunbarton castle 
as a secret place of safety. 

Meanwhile, on the morrow of the octave of the Nativity of the 
Glorious Virgin, 3 the King of Scotland 4 held a parliament at 
S. John's town 5 in Scotland, wherein he utterly revoked and 
quashed all the deeds and grants of my lord Robert de Brus, 
who had forced himself treacherously and violently upon the 
throne, ordaining and commanding that all that he [Robert] had 
granted away should be restored to such of the original and 
true heirs who had not borne arms against him in the aforesaid 
wars. [To the widows of those who] 6 had fought and been killed 

1 Ninth Earl of Dunbar, and second or fourth Earl of March (1282-1360). 
During his sixty years' tenure of the earldom he changed sides very often, giving 
shelter to Edward II. in his flight from Bannockburn ; but the invasion of Scot- 
land in 1334, when the English did not spare his own lands, finally sent him over 
to the cause of Scotland. 

2 Edward Balliol. 3 iyth September. 4 Edward Balliol. 6 Perth. 

6 Hiatus in original. 

283 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

he did not give their terce, but charitably and graciously granted 
them a fifth part only, on condition that they should not marry 
again except by his special license or command. 

In the same year died Master John de Ross, Bishop of Carlisle, 
who was taken away for burial in the south of England, whereof 
he was a native. Sir John of Kirkby, canon regular of Carlisle, 
succeeded him in the bishopric. 

Also in winter of the same year died my lord Louis de 
Beaumont, Bishop of Durham, and was buried there in the 
monk's choir under a great, remarkable and beautiful stone. 
In his place the monks of Durham elected one of their con- 
fraternity, Sir Robert of Greystanes, a man in every respect 
worthy of such a dignity and a doctor of sacred theology. When 
he came before the king and besought his grace for the baronies 
and lands belonging to the bishopric, the king received him 
graciously enough ; but in the end replied that he had sent his 
own clerk, Master Richard de Bury, 1 Doctor in Theology, to 
the court of my lord the Pope upon certain important affairs of 
the realm, and that among other things he had requested him 
that Richard might be made Bishop of Durham ; but, in the 
event of his not obtaining what he asked from the Pope then 
he would willingly grant him [Robert] all the grace he craved. 

This reply notwithstanding, that monk went before his Arch- 
bishop of York, was consecrated by him, was afterwards installed, 
received the submission of the clergy of the diocese, and performed 
other acts pertaining to the office of bishop. 

1 Richard Aungerville (1281-1345), better known as Richard de Bury, a great 
scholar and patron of learning, author of Philobiblon. At the dissolution of the 
monasteries, some of his books went to the Bodleian and others to Balliol College. 

284 



LANERCOST 

After this, the aforesaid Master Richard returned from the 
Pope's court bringing with him to England a bull wherein it was\ 
set forth that the Pope had granted him the bishopric of 
Durham, and that he might be consecrated by any bishop 
whom he should choose. And consecrated he was in England, 
but not by the Archbishop of York. Thus were there two 
bishops consecrated for one bishopric ; but one of them, to wit 
the monk, shortly after went the way of all flesh ; whereby 
Master Richard remained as Bishop of Durham, and held a most 
solemn festival on the day of his installation, to wit, the fifth day 
of June in the year 1334. My lord the King of England was 
present, also the Queen, my lord King Edward of Scotland, two 
English earls, to wit, the king's brother the Earl of Cornwall and 
the Earl of Warenne, four Scottish earls, the Archbishop of York, 
the Bishop of Carlisle and a great multitude of clergy and people. 

On the nineteenth day of the said month, to wit, on the feast 
of the Holy Martyrs Gervase and Prothasius, the King of Scot- 
land came to Newcastle-on-Tyne, accompanied by the Earls of 
Atholl, 1 Dunbar, Mar 2 and Buchan, and there in presence of the 
two English earls aforesaid, four Scottish earls, the archbishop, 
the aforesaid bishops and an almost innumerable multitude of 
clergy and people, the same Edward de Balliol, King of Scotland, fo. 226 
performed his homage to my lord Edward the Third, King of 
England, in token of holding the kingdom of Scotland from him 
as Lord Paramount, and so from his heirs and successors for all 

'David of Strathbogie, nth Celtic Earl of Atholl (1309-1335). 

2 Thomas, gth Earl of Mar in the Celtic line, son of the Regent, must have 
been a small boy in 1332, for he was still a minor when his mother died 
in 1 347-8 and Edward III. appointed his stepfather, William Carsewell, to be 
his guardian (Rot. Scot. i. 708). 

285 



MS. 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

time. And whereas the same King of England had assisted him 
in reclaiming and possessing his said realm of Scotland, whence 
for a season he had been expelled by the Scots, and had supplied 
large funds [for that purpose], the King of Scotland ceded to him 
the five counties of Scotland which are nearest to the English 
March, to wit, the counties of Berwick and Roxburgh, Peebles and 
Dumfries, the town of Haddington, the town of Jedburgh with 
its castle, and the forests of Selkirk, Ettrick and Jedworth, so 
that all these should be separated from the crown of Scotland 
and annexed to the crown of England in perpetuity. 1 Thus there 
remained to the King of Scotland on this side of the Scottish sea 2 
nothing but the other five counties, to wit, Ayr, Dunbarton, 
Lanark, Stirling, and Wigtown in Galloway beyond the Cree. 
All these aforesaid things were publicly confirmed by oath, script 
and sufficient witnesses, and after they had been duly settled, the 
king returned to England. 

Howbeit after a short lapse of time, to wit, about the feast of 
S. Mary Magdalene, 3 the Earl of Moray newly created by the 
Scots, the Steward of Scotland, Lawrence of Abernethy and 
William de Douglas, who had been taken by the English earlier 
and ransomed, having gathered a great force of Scots, raised 
rebellion against the king, 4 and violently attacked the Galwegians 
who adhered faithfully to him. Also they attacked others of 
Scotland who dwelt in the aforesaid five counties subject at that 
time to the King of England, and levied tribute from them. 
Also a certain knight of Galloway, Dugald de Macdouall, who 

1 In the deed of surrender Dumfries and Linlithgow are included (Fardera, 
1 2th June, 1334). 

2 The Firth of Forth. 3 22nd j uly 4 Edward Balliol. 

286 



LANERCOST 

had always hitherto supported the King of Scotland's party, 1 was 
persuaded for love of his newly- wedded wife to raise the 
Galwegians beyond the Cree against the king and against others 
on this side [of the Cree], 2 who offered strong resistance ; and 
thus they mutually destroyed each other. 

About the same time came the Lord of Brittany to England, 
to render his homage to my lord the King of England for the 
earldom of Richmond after the death of John of Brittany, earl of 
the said town. 

Meanwhile David, whom the Scots had formerly anointed as 
their king, and who had remained in the strong castle of 
Dunbarton, betook himself to France, and did homage to the 
King of France, so that he should hold his realm from him as 
from a Lord Paramount, on condition that he should assist him 
in recovering his kingdom from the aforesaid Kings of England 
and Scotland. Rumour of this being spread through Scotland, 
the number of Scots in rebellion against their king 3 increased 
daily, so much so that before the feast of S. Michael, 4 nearly the 
whole of Scotland rose and drove the king to Berwick, which 
belonged to the King of England. Even the Earl of Atholl, who 
had borne the chief part in bringing the King of Scotland to his 
kingdom, now deserted him, and the Earl of Dunbar did the same 

1 And who soon returned to it, as appears from a deed printed in Rotuli Scotite, 
i. 608, showing that Macdouall had rejoined the English party in May, 1341. 

2 The river Cree (Gaelic, Criche, a boundary) divided Eastern Galloway (now 
the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright) from Western Galloway or Wigtownshire. The 
people of Eastern Galloway adhered to the Balliols, whose principal messuage 
was at Buittle. 

8 Edward Balliol. 4 29th September. 

287 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

to the King of England, to whom he was bound by oath. 1 Then 
the whole of Scotland rose as one man, except the Galwegians on 
this side of Cree and except the Earl of Buchan, who was not of 
Scottish birth and whom they kept in captivity. When the King 
of England heard this, he called parliament together in London, 
arranged for an expedition against Scotland, and before the feast of 
All Saints 2 arrived with an army at Newcastle-on-Tyne, where he 
remained until the feast of the holy Martyr and Virgin Katharine. 3 
Then he entered Scotland, coming to Roxburgh, where he repaired 
the castle, which had been dismantled, as his headquarters. 

On the fourth day of December of the same year Pope John 
XXII. died at Avignon, to wit, in the eighth year from his 
creation. A certain monk Albur 4 succeeded him in the ponti- 
ficate, and was named my lord Benedict XII. Now my lord 
John, his predecessor, had determined many questions during his 
lifetime and had affirmed certain doctrines not in accord with 
all the opinions of the doctors nor, apparently, consonant with 
the Catholic faith, especially in declaring that souls that had passed 
through purgatory could not behold God face to face before the 
day of judgment. Wherefore in presence of the cardinals before 
his death he publicly revoked that saying, and all those things 
which he had said, pronounced or determined which did not 
savour of the truth, and by a bull under his hand. . . . 6 

1 The cession of Scottish territory was too much for the stomachs of these 
gentlemen. 

2 ist November. 8 25th November. 

4 A Cistercian ; sometimes called < the White Cardinal.' 

5 Nonnulla desunt. This was the bull Benedictus Deus, defining the beautiful vision, 
declaring that the faithful departed do see God face to face before the re-union of 
soul and body. 

288 



LANERCOST 

On the third day after Christmas next following the King of 
England searched the forest of Ettrick with his men ; but the 
Scots did not dare to give him battle, keeping themselves in 
hiding. Wherefore my lord the King of England sent the King 
of Scotland, who was with him there, and the Earl of Warwick 
and the Earl of Oxford with their people, and certain barons and 
knights with all their people, to Carlisle, in order to protect that 
western district from the Scots. But on their march they turned 
aside to Peebles and those parts to hunt the Earl of Moray and 
other Scots who they were informed were thereabouts. How- 
beit these [Scots] took to flight, so the English burnt and wasted 
everything on their march, and arrived thus at Carlisle. 

After the Epiphany of our Lord l the forces of the counties of 
Lancaster, Westmorland and Cumberland assembled by command 
of the King of England at Carlisle under the King of Scotland 2 
and the earls and barons of England who were there ; whence 
they all marched together into Scotland, destroying such towns 
and other property as they came upon, because the inhabitants 
had fled, and afterwards the King of Scotland returned to 
Carlisle. 

Meanwhile the King of England, hearing that some of his 
subjects were holding meetings in secret as if they were plotting 
rebellion against him, returned to England with a very small 
following disguised as traders, in order to ascertain the truth ; 
and in a short time all matters were peacefully settled by God's 
help. 

MS. 

About the feast of S. Matthew the Apostle 3 the King of fo. 226* 
France's envoys came to the King of England to negotiate some 

1 6th January, 1334-5. 2 Edward Balliol. 8 241)1 February, 1334-5 
T 289 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

treaty of peace with the Scots ; but they did not fare very success- 
fully in their mission. 

[There is inserted here an instrument in Norman French, given 
under the hand of Edward III., ist March, 1335, setting forth 
the terms upon which Edward Balliol was to hold the kingdom of 
Scotland under the King of England as Lord Paramount.'] 

In the same year, after the death of Pope John XXII., there 
were affixed to the door of the church of Minorite Friars in 
Avignon four placards, two greater and two less, no doubt by 
Friar Michael of Cesona and his adherents ; which Michael the 
said Pope John had removed from the office of Minister-General 
of the Order of Minorites and had excommunicated. The title 
of the greater placards was c The Appeal of Friar Michael of 
Cesona against James of Caturco to the Catholic Pope next 
to be created.' And the title of the two lesser placards was 
'Declaration that Friar Gerard Odo 1 is not Minister-General 
of the Order of Minorites ' ; for it was the person formerly 
known as James of Caturco whom the Order appointed to be 
Minister-General, in compliance with the will of the said Pope 
John. 2 

On the feast of the Ascension of the Lord 3 the King of 
England held his parliament at York, and made arrangements 

for his expedition against Scotland. Thus about the 
A.D. 1335. 

feast of the Nativity of S. John the Baptist, 4 he came 

1 Called in French Gerard Eude. 

2 This bitter dispute is told at length in L. Wadding's Annales Minorum, ad ann. 
1328-1334. 

2 5th May. 4 2 4 th June. 

290 



LANERCOST 

with his army to Newcastle-on-Tyne, whither came to him the 
King of Scotland 1 from Carlisle with his people, and there it 
was arranged that the King of England, his brother the Earl of 
Cornwall, the Earl of Warwick, the Earl of Lancaster, the Earl 
of Lincoln, the Earl of Hereford, with all their retinues, and the 
Count Juliers from over the sea (who had married the sister of 
the Queen of England and had come to support the king with 
a splendid following), should march to Carlisle and there enter 
Scotland on the twelfth day of the month of July. But the King 
of Scotland, 1 the Earl of Warenne, the Earl of Arundel, and my 
lord Henry de Percy, a very wealthy baron, all being near of kin 
to the King of Scotland, were to remain with their retinues at 
Berwick and to enter Scotland in like manner on the aforesaid 
day. This was carried out as it had been arranged. Each king 
entered Scotland by a different route ; nor did they find anyone 
so bold as to resist the force of either of them. Wherefore they 
freely marched through all the land on this side of the Forth and 
beyond it, burning, laying waste, and carrying off spoil and booty. 
Some of them, especially the Welsh, spared neither the clergy nor 
their monasteries, plundering regulars and seculars impartially. 
Also the seamen of Newcastle burnt a great part of the town 
of Dundee, with the dormitory and schools of the Minorite 

MS. 

Friars, carrying away their great bell ; and they burnt one friar fb. 227 
who formerly had been a knight, a man of wholly pure and holy 
life. The bell they exposed for sale at Newcastle, where it was 
bought by the Preaching Friars of Newcastle for ten marks, 
although one party had no right to sell it and the other none 
to buy. 

1 Edward Balliol. 
291 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

Meanwhile my lord Guy Count of Nemours beyond the sea, 
kinsman of my lady the Queen of England, came to England 
with seven or eight knights and one hundred men-at-arms, to 
assist the King of England against the Scots, although the king 
did not stand in the smallest need of his assistance. Passing 
through England to join the king at Berwick, which was in 
possession of the King of England, he took certain English guides 
to show him the way. But while he was on the march towards 
Edinburgh, the Earls of Moray and Dunbar and William Douglas, 1 
having been informed of the coming of the aforesaid count, way- 
laid him in ambush with a strong force, attacking him twice or 
thrice in the same day. But he and his party made a manful 
defence, and arrived at Edinburgh on the same day after a march 
of many miles. There, however, they surrendered, it is said, 
through want of provender. But when the Scots learnt that he 
was the Count of Nemours, through whose country they had 
often to pass in travelling to lands across the sea, they held 
neither him nor his knights nor his men-at-arms to ransom, but 
allowed him to return free to England with all his men, exacting, 
however, from him a solemn oath that neither he nor his people 
would ever bear arms against the Scots. But they made prisoners 
of all the English who were with him, and killed some of them. 
The Earl of Dunbar and William Douglas escorted them back to 
England, but the Earl of Moray and his men returned after these 
events. 

1 Son of Sir James Douglas of Lothian. Born about 1300, he became chiefly 
instrumental in recovering the ceded counties for King David. He was known as 
'the Knight of Liddesdale ' and 'the Flower of Chivalry,' and was killed in 1353 
by William 1st Earl of Douglas, who detected him in treasonable negotiation with 
the English. 

292 



LANERCOST 

It came to pass by chance that the English garrison of Rox- 
burgh undertook a plundering expedition into these parts; hearing 
of which, the Earl of Moray, being in the neighbourhood with his 
force, attacked them vigorously. But they made manful defence 
and defeated him, taking him a prisoner to England, and so at 
last he was brought to Nottingham. The English cared but little 
for the capture of the Count of Nemours, considering it a mighty 
piece of presumption that he should have dared to enter Scotland 
in time of war with so slender a force. 

While these things were happening, the King of France and 
the King of Bohemia had fitted out seven hundred and fifteen 
ships to harass the southern parts of England with armed parties 
in the cause of the oft-mentioned David de Brus, who had done 
homage for the kingdom of Scotland to the King of France, in 
order that the King of England, hearing that his country was 
invaded by foreigners in the south, should desist from molesting 
the Scots in the north. 

The aforesaid ships appeared first off the town of Southampton, 
eight of them seizing the harbour, while the men in two ships 
invaded the dry land, burning two unimportant villages on the 
coast. But the people of that district, forewarned of their coming, 
got between them and their ships, and their seamen captured those 
who remained in the two ships. The other six ships took to the 
open sea in flight, nor was any more seen in those parts of all the 
aforesaid ships, save one, which, having 300 armed men on board, 
made the land near Portsmouth and did some burning on the 
shore, but of all these men not one got back to his own country. 

At last the Scots, feeling themselves beaten and wholly unable 
to resist the kings, came in to peace about the feast of the 

293 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

Assumption of the Glorious Virgin j 1 the Earl of Atholl 2 being 
among the first at the instance and by persuasion of the 
earl, 3 whose daughter he had married. Howbeit, Patrick of 
Dunbar, the Earl of Ross, 4 Sir Andrew de Moray (a wealthy 
baron), and Maurice of the same [name], William de Douglas, 
William de Keith, 5 and some other nobles of Scotland with their 
retainers, did not come into the peace, but, assembling many 
others, committed much injury upon those who had accepted 
peace. The Lord's day next before the feast of S. Andrew the 
Apostle 6 was appointed at their own request as the day for 
coming into peace, if they were willing, but very few presented 
themselves. Indeed, while the Earl of Atholl was occupied in 
besieging Kildrummie Castle beyond the Scottish sea in the cause 
of the King of Scotland, 7 the aforesaid Earls of Dunbar and Ross 
arched upon him with all those who adhered to their party, in 
order to force him to raise the aforesaid siege, and an encounter 
took place between them. In the end, many Scots who were with 
the Earl of Atholl having taken to flight, either through panic or 
treachery, the earl himself was killed together with a few others 
who remained in the field with him to the end. 8 William de 
Douglas, who was one of the chief actors in this affair, was made 
Earl of Atholl by the Scots. 9 

1 1 5th August. 2 David of Strathbogie, last of the Celtic Earls of Atholl. 

3 He married Katherine, daughter of Sir Henry de Beaumont, titular Earl of 
Buchan. 

4 William, 5th Earl of Ross and Lord of Skye, d. 1372. 

5 Second son of Sir Robert de Keith, who commanded the Scottish horse at 
Bannockburn. 

6 26th November. * Edward Balliol. 8 Cf. Bain's Cal. Doc. Scot. iii. 1221. 
9 Douglas, who conveyed the earldom to Robert Stewart (afterwards Robert II.) 

in 1341, does not seem to have ever assumed the title. 

294 



m 



LANERCOST 

The King of Scotland 1 remained" during the whole of that 
winter season with his people at Elande, in England, because he 
did not yet possess in Scotland any castle or town wherein he 
could dwell in safety. But the King of England remained in the 
north, and kept his Christmas at Newcastle-on-Tyne. But soon 
after the Epiphany of the Lord, 2 being much grieved because of 
the death of the aforesaid earl [of Atholl], he issued summons for 
the assembling of an army to quell the said earls and their power. 
But in the meantime there came to the King of England at 
Berwick envoys from the Pope and my lord the King of France 
to arrange some kind of peace or a temporary truce. The 
English army was assembled, when, by consent of the king andfo. 
the King of Scotland, 3 a truce was struck between the kingdoms 
until the middle of Lent, 4 when there should be a parliament 
in London, certain articles and demands having been drawn up, 
whereby peace might be restored if the parties could come to agree- 
ment in the meantime ; if not, then the war should be renewed. 
This truce was struck about the Purification of the Glorious Virgin ; 6 
the first and most important demand being on the part of the 
Scots, that there should be a fresh investigation by learned and 
impartial men of both realms as to who had the strongest claim 
to the kingdom of Scotland to wit, Edward de Balliol or David 
son of Robert de Brus, or whether David should succeed Edward 
in the kingdom if he [Edward] should not have an heir born of 
his body. It had been adjudged, however, after manifold and 
long controversy among the people and clergy that the inheritance 
of the kingdom of Scotland went to Sir John de Balliol, the father 

1 Edward Balliol. 2 6th January, 1336. 3 Edward Balliol. 

4 loth March, 1336. 5 2nd February, 1336. 

295 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

of Edward, because he was descended from the elder sister (as has 
been explained above in the year of our Lord 1292), notwith- 
standing that Sir Robert de Brus was the senior in equal degree 
from the line as the Lady Devorguilla, mother of the aforesaid 
John de Balliol, and Sir Robert was male heir in that female [line], 
because neither in England nor Scotland doth the inheritance of 
the kingdom run according to the laws of the Empire. 

During this parliament the aforesaid Maurice de Moray by 
treachery slew Sir Godfrey de Ross, a Scottish knight, the King 
of Scotland's 1 sheriff of Ayr and Lanark, because he had killed 
his brother in fair fight. Wherefore in the said parliament no 
terms of peace were arranged, owing to the pride of the Scottish- 
partisans. 

At Christmas in the same year, my lord Philip, son and heir of 
the King of Aragon, and brother of Lady Sanxia, Queen of Sicily, 
took the habit of a Minorite Friar in the convent of Naples, with 
great solemnity, my lord Robert, King of Sicily, preaching in 
the mass of his (Philip's) taking the habit, and the lady Queen 
Sanxia serving at table. Mention is made above (1292) about 
the admission of the King of Aragon and other kings and sons of 
kings to the same Order. 2 

Before the feast of Ascension the king sent the said King of 
Scotland 3 to Scotland, and with him sundry earls, to wit, Lan- 
caster, Warwick, Oxford and Angus, and barons and 
A.D. 1336. 

an army ; but he himself remained in the south. 
Meanwhile the Scottish knight, Sir John de Stirling, the King of 

1 Edward Balliol. 

2 No such mention is made in the chronicle as it has come to us. 

3 Edward Balliol. 

296 



LANERCOST 

England's governor of Edinburgh Castle, hearing that the Earls 
of Dunbar, Fife and Sutherland were besieging with an army the 
castle of Cupar in Fife (in the hands of the King of England and 
the King of Scotland), beyond the Scottish sea, took with him 
forty men-at-arms of the garrison of his castle and eighty archers 
and other men, crossed the firth secretly, set fire one morning to 
a couple of villages near the aforesaid castle, and suddenly 
attacked those who were besieging the castle. When they saw 
the neighbouring villages in flames, a body of men charging 
fiercely upon them, and those in the castle making a sortie, they 
took to instant flight, abandoning their siege engines, arms, stores, 
and all that they had ; for they thought that the aforesaid English 
earls, of whose approach they had been well informed, had sud- 
denly arrived with their army. Sir John hotly pursued them 
with his party, reinforced by those in the castle, killing those 
whom he could catch, and driving the others away. Afterwards 
he returned, seized their baggage, and burnt their engines. After 
this successful exploit, he marched back to Edinburgh. 

Throughout all these transactions the King of France was 
fitting out warships and preparing an army of his own kingdom, 
besides the King of Bohemia and his mercenary troops, with 
stores and arms, in aid of the Scots against their true and rightful 
king, my lord Edward de Balliol, and against his kinsman the 
King of England, who was his ally and defender, supporting him 
in all ways, and this because David, son of the late Sir Robert de 
Brus, had done homage to him [King Philip] as holding his king- 
dom (if he could obtain it) from him as Lord Paramount. This 
action of the King of France was not concealed from the King of 

England ; wherefore, as, although young, he was able and war- 

297 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

like, he sent word inviting them to come freely, if they would, to 
land in England, and allotted to them a space of four-and-twenty 
miles wherein to rest their forces unmolested until the day of 
battle should be fixed, after which each should abide by the fortune 
which should befal him. But whereas the king [of England] is 
lord of the sea, possessing far more ships than all other Christian 
princes, the seamen of England undertook on peril of their heads 
that, if the foreigners made good a landing, they should never 
afterwards enjoy the use of a single one of their ships ; wherefore 
the king should do his best against them on land, because at sea they 
would never afterwards return to their own country in their ships. 
And the sailors most vigilantly watched all approaches by sea. 

Soon after Pentecost J the King of Scotland 2 entered Scotland, 
\ crossed the Scottish sea to the town of S. John (which is called by 
another name Perth), which he found to have been burnt by the 
Scots, because they dared not await his coming there. But he 
repaired it with his troops, surrounding it with a solid mud wall 
and a deep ditch as the headquarters of the English. 

About the feast of St. Barnabas the Apostle 3 the King of 
England, who hitherto had been waiting in the south to see 
whether any French ships should happen to land in those parts, 

MS. 

fo. 228 came to Newcastle with a very small following, boldly entered 
Scotland with them, not without danger, and reached Perth. 
Having waited there for a short time, he took part of the army 
and marched beyond the Scottish mountains, burning Aberdeen 
and other towns, taking spoil and destroying the crops which 
were then nearly ripe for harvest, trampling them down with 
horses and troops, nor did he meet with any resistance. 

1 i gth May. 2 Edward Balliol. 3 i ith June. 

298 



LANERCOST 

About the Ad Vincula of S. Peter l the king's brother, my lord 
John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall, came from the south with the 
men of Yorkshire, whom the men of Northumberland went to 
reinforce, and likewise Sir Antony de Lucy with the men of 
Cumberland and Westmoreland, and they all marched together 
into Carrick and the western parts of Scotland which were not in 
the king's peace, laying them waste as much as they could, 
burning and carrying away splendid spoil, but the people of the 
country fled before them. Howbeit William de Douglas hovered 
craftily on the skirts of the English army, inflicting upon it all 
the injury he could ; but the army quickly marched back with 
the plunder to its own country, the Earl of Cornwall taking his 
column to Perth to meet the king, who had just come back from 
beyond the mountains. Nevertheless the king did not remain 
long in Perth, but, having dismissed the King of Scotland 2 and 
his people, marched with a detachment of his army to Stirling in 
the west country, where in place of the ruined castle he caused a 
fort to be built a pele, as it is called in English. But whereas he 
had spent a great deal, not only upon the army under his command, 
but also upon the King of Scotland's army, which he maintained 
entirely at his own expense, therefore he commanded a council or 
parliament 3 to be held at Nottingham in order that he might 
demand an aid for recovering both past and future expenditure 
from all the people of his realm. In which council or parliament 
there was granted to him the fifteenth penny from the community 
of the country, and a tenth from the cities, the boroughs and the 

1 ist August. 2 Edward Balliol. 

3 The chronicler seems doubtful what was the exact nature of this assembly, 
whereof the proceedings were not entered in the Parliamentary Roll. 

299 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

clergy, during six years to come, providing that what was due by 
the clergy might be discharged by the payment within a year to 
come of one mark on every sack of wool. 

Meanwhile, sad to say, the said Earl of Cornwall died at Perth 
within the octave of the Nativity of the Glorious Virgin, 1 and was 
carried to England for burial. 

The king, taking account of what was the common opinion of 
experienced men, that the land of Scotland could never be con- 
quered unless in winter, marched with his army to Both well 
Castle and those western parts about the feast of S. Luke the 
Evangelist. 2 When the men of those parts heard of his sudden 
and unexpected coming, not being strong enough to resist him 
they submitted to his peace, more through fear than for love. 
He received them to peace, repaired the said castle which the 
Scots had formerly destroyed and abandoned, and he left a garrison 
there. Howbeit William de Douglas, hovering about the army 
with his following, killed some of the king's men from time to 
time. 

Meanwhile the Baron of Stafford, a very accomplished soldier, 
marching with his following to join the king, passed through 
Douglasdale, which had not come into peace, and carried away 
much spoil therefrom. 

The King of England returned to England before Christmas, 
and the King of Scotland 3 remained throughout the winter at Perth 
with an extremely modest following. 

At the beginning of Lent 4 following the king held his parlia- 
ment in London, at which six new earls were created in addition 
1 1 5th September. 2 1 8th October. 

8 Edward Balliol. * 5th March, 1337. 

300 



LANERCOST 

to the old ones, to wit, Sir Henry, s6n of the Earl of Lancaster, 
was made Earl of Derby ; Sir Hugh de Audley Earl of 
Gloucester ; Sir William de Bohun, brother germane of the Earl 
of Hereford [became] Earl of Northampton ; Sir William de 
Montagu Earl of Salisbury ; Sir William de Clinton Earl of 
Huntingdon ; Sir Robert de Ufford Earl of Suffolk ; and Sir 
Edward, 1 elder son of the king, was made Duke of Cornwall, 
which since the time of the Britons never had been a dukedom, 
but only an earldom. 

Now the Scots, being aware that the King of England and the 
nobles of the country were in distant parts, assembled and 
besieged Bothwell Castle which the king had lately repaired ; and 
because the aforesaid Sir Robert de Ufford, to whom, as well as 
to the warden, that castle had been committed by the king, was 
absent at the time, the castle quickly surrendered to the Scots 
upon these terms, that all those therein should be secure in life, 
limb and all their possessions, and receive a safe-conduct to 
England : all which was done. 

Also at that time the Scots seized several towns and fortresses 
in the land of Fife, and thereafter once more destroyed the 
wretched Galwegians on this side of Cree like beasts, because they 
adhered so firmly to their lord King Edward de Balliol. 

It was also decided in the aforesaid parliament of London that, 
whereas the King of France had taken and occupied certain of the 
King of England's towns and castles in Gascony, especially the 
province of Guienne, one army should be sent to Gascony and 
another to Scotland, at a suitable time, and that the king should 

1 The Black Prince, who was then but six years old. The Prince of Wales 
still bears the title of Duke of Cornwall. 

301 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

remain in England. My lord William Montagu, Earl of 
Salisbury, was appointed to command the expedition to Gascony, 
with certain earls as arranged ; and my lord the Earl of Warwick, 
was appointed to command the expedition to Scotland, represent- 

MS. 

fo. 228 b ing the person of my lord the King of England, and with him 
marched all the nobles between Trent and Scotland. 

After Easter, 1 however, the King of England sent for the King 
of Scotland, 2 who came to him in England for reasons to be 
explained presently. 

In the same year Friar Peter, jPatriarch, of Jerusalem, the 
Pope's . legate to the Holy Land to negotiate with the Sultan for 
restoration of the Holy Land to the Christians, reported thus 
that the Sultan with the assent of all his people was prepared to 
restore to the Christians the whole of the Holy Land and whatso- 
ever they had at any time possessed oversea which was known to 
appertain to the spiritual power, and this gratuitously and without 
payment of any kind, so that they [the Christians] might have 
possession of the Lord's sepulchre, and the stable, and all the 
oversea churches, with oblations, tithes, and all rights belonging 
to them, and that their prelates should exercise spiritual authority 
in them, according to the custom in churches, and that they 
should hold and dispose of these and all the other holy places at 
their will, and might solemnly celebrate the divine office in them 
with open doors, administer to their people the sacraments and 
all sacramental rites and ecclesiastical sepulture, and freely preach 
the Word of God in churches and cemeteries, make wills, build 
houses without defences round the holy places, rebuild, add to and 
construct afresh ruined churches in any place. But that neither 

March, 1337. 2 Edward Balliol. 

302 



LANERCOST 

prayers nor price, fear nor favour would induce him to give up 
the kingdom of Jerusalem neither the city nor any town, castle, 
house, field, garden, gate, nor a foot of ground which he or his 
predecessors had hitherto taken from the Christians, so far as 
pertaineth to the temporality, jurisdiction, dominion, property, 
expenditure or revenue. But it pleaseth him that all Christians 
who wish to do so should come to the Holy Land and to all his 
dominion freely to travel and trade, to go, to stay or to return, 
and that pilgrims should be free from all tribute. Also he is 
willing reasonably to abate the tax upon traders, so that they 
may not be oppressed, but rather encouraged. All the aforesaid 
grants he offereth upon this condition, that my lord the Pope 
shall revoke all the sentences and writings promulgated against 
merchants going thither to trade. And thus he concedeth all the 
aforesaid [points] from his own free will and not ours. 

Now about the feast of the Lord's Ascension, 1 the Scots, 
seeing that they had captured Bothwell Castle, assembled in great 
numbers and laid siege to Stirling Castle ; but met there 
with a stout defence. The King of England, being 
occupied in distant parts, when he heard of that siege, hastened at 
high speed by day and night to Stirling Castle, believing that the 
Scots would offer him battle. But when the Scots heard of this, 
they raised the siege and would not meet him, wherefore he 
returned immediately to England. 

About the same time Sir Eustace de Maxwell, a knight of 
Galloway and lord of Carlaverock Castle, false to the faith and 
allegiance which he owed to my lord the King of England, went 
over to the Scottish side (notwithstanding that the King of 

May. 
303 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

England had just provided him with a large sum of money, flour 
and wine for the greater security of his castle) and caused the 
Galwegians on this side of Cree to rise against the king, using 
similar authority to that which he had formerly employed for the 
king. 1 

Dunbar Castle 2 at that time was still in the hands of Earl 
Patrick, having been neither besieged nor taken by the English, 
the whole of the surrounding district of Lothian, although it was 
then in the King of England's peace, paid each week one mark to 
those within the castle, more, it is thought, out of fear lest it 
should be forced from them than from love. Also Dunbarton 
Castle was still in the hands of the Scots, and a few small towns. 

About the feast of SS. Peter and Paul 3 three Scottish knights 
who had been with the King of Scotland 4 came to England ; to 
wit, Sir Geoffrey, Sir Alexander and Sir Roger de Mowbray, and 
were arrested and imprisoned ; for they were accused of having 
endeavoured their utmost to persuade the King of Scotland to 
break faith and allegiance to the King of England, and to put his 
trust in the Scots, regardless of the homage he had done to the 
king. The King of Scotland affirmed that this was so, making 
this grave accusation against them, and announced it to the King 
of England when he came to England. 

When the king heard that Sir Eustace de Maxwell had joined 
the Scots, he gave his castle 5 to the Lord of Gillesland, who, 

1 Or perhaps * serving the king the same baseness as he had practised before.' 
De consimili servitio servierat regi ante. 

2 Comes de Dunbar in Stevenson's edition ought obviously to read Castrum de 
Dunbar. 

3 zgth June. 4 Edward Balliol. 

5 Carlaverock, which, however, is not in Galloway, but in Nithsdale. 

34 



LANERCOST 

having assembled a force of English, invaded Galloway and burnt 
his [Maxwell's] lands, driving off cattle, wherefore the Scots 
retaliated by invading England in force by way of Arthuret. On 
the third day, before the feast of S. Lawrence, 1 marching towards 
*he east, they burnt about twenty villages, taking prisoners and an 
immense number of cattle ; but, having met with some opposition 
from the men-at-arms who were in Carlisle and the surrounding 
country, and having lost some of their men, they returned on the 
same day into Scotland. 

About the feast of the Assumption of the Glorious Virgin, 2 
two Scottish ships returning from France were taken at sea by the 
English, wherein were my lord Bishop of Glasgow, many ladies, 
soldiers and arms and 30,000 pounds of silver, besides charters, 
conventions and indentures which had been concluded between the 
King of France and the Scots. The men were either killed or 
drowned in the sea ; but my lord Bishop of Glasgow 3 and some of 
the said ladies, refusing through excessive vexation to eat or drink 
or accept any consolation, died at sea before reaching the land and 
their bodies were buried at Whitsand in England. The other 
things which were in the ships were preserved for disposal by my 
lord the king. 

Now in the beginning of September, when the Scots were 
reaping their harvest, my lord the Earl of Warwick, repre- 
senting in all respects the person of the King of England and 
maintaining his state, invaded Scotland by way of Berwick, with fo. 229 
the barons, knights, esquires, and troops drawn from all places on 

1 yth August. 2 1 5th August. 

3 John de Wischard, consecrated in 1325, not to be confounded with Bishop 
Robert Wischard, the strenuous supporter of Robert Bruce. 
U 305 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

this [north] side of Trent. At the same time the noble baron 
Sir Thomas Wake, lord of Liddel, my lord de Clifford, and my 
lord of Gillesland, invaded Scotland by way of Carlisle, together 
with my lord Bishop of Carlisle, taking with them the men of two 
counties, to wit, Westmorland and Cumberland. Within two 
days they formed a junction with the Earl of Warwick's army, as 
had been previously arranged between them ; and so they marched 
together into Teviotdale, Moffatdale, and Nithsdale, driving off 
cattle and burning houses and corn, which had then been stored in 
the barns ; but they killed few men, indeed they found hardly 
any. But Sir Antony de Lucy, taking with him a detachment of 
the army, turned aside into Galloway killing, plundering, laying 
waste all that he could find to the best of his power, returning 
afterwards to the main body. And whereas, because of the exces- 
sive rain and flooded rivers they could not advance into Douglas- 
dale and to Ayr and those parts as had been intended, on the 
twelfth day they all returned to Carlisle. 1 On that occasion the 
King of Scotland 2 remained in England and was not with them. 

Five days later, however, hearing that the Scots had led an 
expedition to the east in order to plunder Coquetdale and Redes- 
dale, they marched together against them ; but they lingered too 
long, for the Scots had re-entered their own land before they 
could overtake them. Howbeit the Scots lifted but few cattle, 
because the people had been forewarned of their coming, and had 
removed their cattle to distant parts. But they did some burn- 

1 The chronicler refrains from attributing the floods to the direct interposition 
of the Almighty in favour of the Scots, as undoubtedly he would have done if a 
Scottish invasion of England had been cut short in like manner. 

2 Edward Balliol. 

306 



LANERCOST 

ing, and would have done much more had not the Earl of 
Angus, lord of Redesdale, 1 offered them bold resistance with his 
small force. 

About the middle of October the Scots invaded England again 
by way of Carlisle, and on the first day marched round that town 
towards the east, showing off before the town in three bands, on 
the chance of any one or more daring to come out and engage 
them. But whereas there was not in the town at that time 
sufficient troops to oppose such a strong force, some archers and 
a few others went out to harass them in the field. Of these they 
made no account, but marched round the town, and, having 
burnt the hospital of S. Nicolas in the suburbs, they went off the 
same day to the manor of Rose, because they held my lord Bishop 
of Carlisle, who owned that manor, in utmost hatred through his 
having marched against them in war, as has been described above. 
Therefore they destroyed that place, and everything else on their 
march, with fire. But in that first night of their coming into 
England, Sir Antony de Lucy beat up their quarters and severely 
harassed them. Next day, however, the Scots burnt the villages 
throughout Allerdale, and detached part of their force against 
Copeland to lift cattle. But on the third day, to wit on the vigil 
of S. Luke, 2 the noble barons, Lord de Percy and Lord de Nevill, 
came to the relief of the district with their following of men-at- 
arms ; although, as described above, they came too late, although 
the leading men had written to them to move with speed, because 

1 Gilbert de Umfraville, 4th Earl of Angus in the English line. He inherited 
the title from his great-grandfather, a powerful Northumbrian baron, who married 
Matilda, Countess of Angus in her own right, in 1243. 

2 1 7th October. 

307 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

the Scots had sent their booty and wounded men before them into 
Scotland, the armed troops following soon after. For they had 
lost a great number of their men, among whom the brother of 
William de Douglas 1 was taken alive and brought to Carlisle 
Castle. Howbeit it had been commonly, but secretly, reported 
for a long time that a certain noble in the north country was 
unduly favourable to the Scottish side, and that he did on that 
occasion, as on other occasions, inform them beforehand at what 
time they might safely invade England with their army, and 
afterwards sent them word when they should leave it. Which, if 
it be true, may God make known to king and country these 
cunning traitors. 

About the feast of All Saints the Scots mustered and laid siege 
to Edinburgh Castle, in the absence of Sir John de Stirling, 
warden of that castle. Hearing this, my lord Bishop of Carlisle 
and Sir Rafe de Dacre, lord of Gillesland, assembled the forces 
of the counties Westmorland and Cumberland, to relieve that 
siege, and at Roxburgh there joined them my lord the King of 
Scotland 2 and Sir Antony de Lucy with their forces which they 
had brought from Berwick, and so they marched together to 
Edinburgh, broke up the siege, put the Scots to flight, and re- 
established Sir John de Stirling, by birth a Scot, for the safer 
custody of the King of England's castle. Somewhat later, how- 
ever, when he went forth with his people from the castle to take 
some booty, he was captured by William de Douglas and taken 
to Dunbarton Castle, as will be shown presently. 

Now after the aforesaid feast of All Saints the King of England 
sent ambassadors to France to arrange peace with the King of 

1 The Knight of Liddesdale. * Edward Balliol. 

308 



LANERCOST 

France, offering to the said king for free possession of the 
land of Guienne, just as he held the other parts of Gascony, that 
his elder son, the heir of England, should take a wife from the 
King of France's family, whom that king should accordingly give 
him in marriage, and that the King of France should possess the 
land of Gascony with all its revenues for seven years, and after 
seven years should restore it without dispute to the King of Eng- 
land, as formerly. Further, that the King of England should 
accompany the King of France, with one thousand men-at-arms, 
to the Holy Land against the Saracens. These, I say, were the 
conditions offered by the King of England to the said king, 
but that proud and avaricious person rejected them all, wherefore fo. 
frhe King of England prepared to fight him, hiring and making 
alliance with the^ollowing^ nobles oversea as his mercenaries, to 
wit, my lord the JEmperor Louis, who jwai_then._King_of Germany 
and- Duke of Bavaria, and had married the Queen of England's 
sister, and was at dire enmity with the King of France*:^ item, the 
Duke of Brabant, son of the King of England's maternal aunt ; 
item, the Count of Hainault, the queen's brother-german ; item, 
the Count of Guelders, who had married the King of England's 
sister ; item, the Count of Julers, the Queen of England's uncle ; 
item, the Archbishop of Cologne ; item, the Count of Treves ; l 
item, the Dauphin de Vienne ; item, my lord William de Chalons ; 
item, my Lord de Faukemounde. The emperor had 50,000 
helmed men under arms, the Duke of Brabant 15,800, the 
Count of Guelders 20,000, the Count of Hainault 15,000, 

1 Sic in Stevenson's edition, but further on he is referred to as Bishop of Treves. 
In fact he was Archbishop, and, as Chancellor of Burgundy, was one of the Electors 
of the Empire. 

39 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

the Count of Julers 5,000, the Archbishop of Cologne 4,000, 
the Bishop of Treves 2,000, the Dauphin of Vienne and my 
lord William de Chalons 15,000, my lord de Faukemounde 
3,000 ; in all, 129,000 helmed men. 

The Count of Artois-Arras, whom the King of France had 
expelled from his country and of whose lands he had taken 
possession, was in England at that time under protection of the 
king, who treated him courteously in all respects. 

The King of England sent to the aforesaid lords across the sea 
my lord William de Bohun Earl of Northampton, the Earl of 
Huntingdon, and the Earl of Suffolk, with 15,000 men-at-arms, 
archers and spearmen. Also he sent the Bishop of Lincoln with 
14,000 sacks of wool to defray the wages of the troops for the 
meantime. Afterwards there were granted to him in the next 
parliament in London 20,000 sacks of wool of the English mer- 
chants for the fitting out and supporting his war. He himself 
purchased from the English merchants one sack out of every two 
sacks of prime wool for half a mark, and inferior wool at less price 
and value ; for he was obliged to spend an almost incalculable sum 
for the maintenance of so great an army. Thus it was said that 
he spent a thousand marks a day, according to others two thou- 
sand pounds. 

It so happened that my lord William aforesaid and the other 
earls with the army, encountered in their voyage over sea eighty 
French ships, which they captured and disposed of at will. The 
brother of the Count of Flanders was found in these ships and 
taken to the King of England, who received him with so much 
honour, setting him free, that peace was made between England 

and I Flanders. But when they arrived in a certain town of 

310 



LANERCOST 

Flanders, they found armed men who gave thejn battle, but were 
soon put to flight by the English archers. Then they raised the 
surrounding district to fight our people, but some of them were 
again put to flight, and some took shelter in a certain church ; and 
because, trusting in the strength of the place, they refused to 
surrender, the English set the church afire, and they were burnt 
in the church. 

After Christmas two cardinals came to England, sent by my 
lonj,thp .Pope to the King of England in order by God's grace to 

X^^ **-> ) 1" 

make peace between him and the King of France. 1 They had 
first been to the King of France and had heard all that he desired. 
Therefore the King of England commanded that all the arch- 
bishops, bishops and nobles of the country should be summoned 
to a parliament in London, which was to begin on the morrow of 
the Purification of the Glorious Virgin. 2 But meanwhile, pending 
whatever might happen about the said peace, he sent my lord 
William de Montagu Earl of Salisbury, the Earl of Gloucester, 
the Earl of Derby, three barons, de Percy, de Nevill and de 
Stafford, and the Earl of Redesdale, with 20,000 men, to the 
King of Scotland 3 in Scotland, commanding them to besiege 
closely and effectively the castle of Dunbar the castle of Earl 
Patrick, traitor alike to himself and the kingdom because it was 
irksome and oppressive to the whole district of Lothian, as has 
been explained above. 

Close siege, therefore, was laid to the castle : those inside were 
surrounded by a deep trench, so that they could not get out ; 

J The bull with which they were provided is set forth in Raynaldi, A.D. 1337, 
! 5- 

2 3rd Feb., 1338. * Edward Balliol. 

3" 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

wooden houses were constructed before the gate, and pavilions or 
tents were set up for the lodging of the chief persons in the army. 
Meanwhile it happened that Sir John de Stirling, warden of 
Edinburgh Castle, going forth with the intention of lifting some 
booty, was captured by craft by Sir William de Douglas and a 
large party which he had brought with him ; [Stirling] himself 
and two or three knights and about twenty men at arms [being 
captured], of whom some were killed and some were taken alive 
and brought to Edinburgh Castle by William de Douglas and his 
people. When they arrived there, William summoned the castle 
to surrender, promising faithfully if those within would do so 
that both Sir John whom they had captured and all those who 
were outside the castle with him, as well as all those within the 
castle, should preserve life and limb and all their goods, and a 
safe-conduct to go whither they would ; but that if they refused 
to do so, he declared that he would cause Sir John to be drawn 
there at the tails of horses, and afterwards to be hanged on gallows 
before the gate, and all those who were prisoners there with him 
to be beheaded before their eyes. But those who were within 
made reasonable and conciliatory reply, saying that that castle was 
a fortress of the King of England, and that, let what might befal 
Sir John and the others with him, they would not surrender it to 
Douglas or any other living man unless at the king's command. 
When William heard this, he did not carry his threat into effect, 
but sent all those prisoners to Dunbarton Castle, because there 
MS . was no other good castle in possession of the Scots at that time 
fo. 230 exce p t that an( j Carlaverock Castle, belonging to the traitor Sir 
Eustace de Maxwell, who afterwards killed the knight Sir Robert 
de Lauder, the most intelligent man among the Scots. 

312 



LANERCOST 

When my lord William de Montagu who was besieging 
Dunbar Castle, heard of these events, he took a strong force and 
came to Edinburgh, appointed another warden of the castle with 
a sufficient garrison to hold and defend it, and then he returned 
with his men to the siege of [Dunbar] Castle. 

In the following Lent 1 Sir Andrew de Moray, Guardian of 
Scotland, died in his bed of dysentery, as some say ; others, 
however, declared that he mounted an unbroken colt which 
threw him from the saddle, that one of his feet caught in the 
stirrup, and thus he was dragged by his foot and leg to death. 
The Steward of Scotland was chosen Guardian in his place. 

Dunbar Castle held out stoutly and made a gallant defence, 
in despite of the close siege ; and whereas the Countess of 
Dunbar, 2 who was in chief command of the castle, was sister 
of the Earl of Moray, he had been taken in Scotland, carried 
off to Nottingham Castle in England, and there placed in ward, 
as mentioned above, [to await] the King of England's pleasure. 

In the same year my lord Pope Benedictus XII. commanded 
that twelve wise and discreet friars of the Order of Minorites, 
should be chosen to regulate discipline, together with the 
cardinals, certain bishops and masters of theology; 8 which was 
done accordingly. The constitution having been considered 
approved, my lord the Pope placed them in a bull, and sent 
them in the bull to the Captain General that they should be 
scrupulously observed throughout the whole Order ; howbeit he 
willed not that the rule of the Friars nor their other constitutions 
should be modified in any respect. Now the said bull contained 

1 25th Feb.-i2th April, 1338. 2 " Black Agnes." 

8 The true date was in November, 1336. 

313 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

nine-and-twenty minor chapters, wherein, among other things, it 
is provided that the custodians and wardens of the said Order 
shall be canonically elected. 

After Easter 1 the said Earl [of Moray] was taken back to 
Scotland, on the chance that his sister would surrender her castle 
in order to save his life ; but she replied that the castle 
belonged to her lord and had been committed to her 
custody, nor would she surrender it except at his command ; and 
when the besiegers told her that then her brother should die, she 
answered them * If ye do that, then shall I be heir to the 
earldom of Moray,' for her brother had no children. Howbeit 
the English would not do what they had threatened, but [decided] 
rather to take him back to England and keep him in ward, as 
before. 

Forasmuch as the King of France refused to agree to any good 
and reasonable terms of peace, the King of England directed his 
journey to France, and undertook himself a campaign with the 
aforesaid nobles in his pay. He took with him from England a 
great army of helmed men, archers and spearmen, in addition to 
those whom he had sent already with my lord William Earl of 
Northampton, which, as was commonly said, amounted in all to 
30,000 men. 

When the Scots perceived that the King of England was 
preparing himself to make war against the King of France, they 
besought a truce from him, and truce was granted them by the 
king to last a year from the next feast of S. Michael, provided, 
however, that if the King of England at any time within that 
term should feel dissatisfied with the truce granted, he might 

1 1 zth April. 



LANERCOST 

break it at his pleasure. But whereas the king, as aforesaid, 
determined to cross the sea, my lord William de Montagu and 
the other earls engaged with him in besieging the said castle 
of Dunbar, being unwilling that he should incur any danger 
without them, whom he had promoted to such high rank, granted 
truce to those within the castle, on condition that during the truce 
no change should be effected either around the castle, within the 
castle, nor in the buildings built by the English outside (albeit 
this condition was not afterwards observed) ; and so they returned 
to the king in England. 

The king embarked with the aforesaid army at Portsmouth, 
about the middle of the month of July, a little before the feast 
of S. Mary Magdalene 1 in the year of the Lord aforesaid. Also 
the lady Queen of England went with him, in order that she 
might have intercourse with her kindred and friends beyond the 
sea. After the king had crossed, the Flemings left the King of 
France and adhered to him. 

Shortly after the departure of the King of England across the 
the sea, the King of Scotland 2 entered Scotland with a small 
following, the truce granted to the Scots notwithstanding, and 
there remained for some time at Perth. 

[Here follows Edward IH.'s letter to the Court of Rome , the people 
of France, etc., setting forth his complaint against King Philip, etc. 
It is printed in Fcedera as if issued on fth or 8th February, 1340, but 
Father Stevenson observes that the Lanercost chronicler is probably right 
in assigning it to a date (not mentioned in the chronicle] soon after King 

1 22nd July. The actual date was 1 6th July, and the port of embarkation 
was Orwell, not Portsmouth (Fcedera). 

3 Edward Balliol. 

315 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

Edward's arrival in Flanders. The original draft was destroyed by 
fire among some of the Cottonian MSS.] 

In the year of the Lord one thousand three hundred and thirty 
[ I"' J - I* 1 Edward the third after the Conquest, King of England, 
crossed the sea against the King of France, [having] with him 
Queen Philippa, the Earls of Derby, Northampton and Salisbury, 
and a large army. He landed at Antwerp, where he did not 
meet such good faith among his German allies as the Germans 
had promised to his envoys ; but he remained there a year and 
more, exposed, with his people, to great dangers and at excessive 
cost, accomplishing nothing of importance except that he travelled 
to [visit] the Duke of Bavaria, 2 by whom he was received with 
honour. After a conference had been held, he was appointed 
Vicar of the Empire. 3 

When Pope Benedictus XII. heard thereof he wrote to him a 
letter of rebuke for having made a treaty with the enemies of the 
Church, in the following terms. 

[Here follow the Pope's letters dated from Avignon, according to the 
chronicler, ist November, 2jrd December, 1338, I2th October, 1339 ; 
but there is considerable confusion in the chronology of this fart of the 
Annals, and the dates do not correspond with those given in Fcedera^ 
where these letters may be found. However, the exact sequence of the 
correspondence is not of much moment. The Pope remonstrates with 
King Edward for entering into alliance with the Emperor, who is 

1 Blank in original. This passage seems to be taken from another chronicle. 

2 The Emperor Louis. 

3 Walsingham (i. 223) states that Louis desired that Edward should kiss his 
foot on appointment, but that Edward refused, on the ground that he was an 
anointed king. 

316 



LANERCOST 

excommunicated, for his proceedings against the Bishop of Cambrai, for 
assuming the title of Vicar of the Empire. He denies that he granted 
the tenths to the King of France to aid him against the King of England, 
and offers to mediate in person between the two kings."] 

The King of England sent to the said Pope by his ambassadors 
a letter justifying his alliance and declaring his just dealing with 
the realm of France. During the king's absence two cardinals, 
accompanied by the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of 
Durham, crossed ^he sea to promote the peace of the kings and 
their kingdoms. Having endured many hardships and perils, 
even under protection of the aforesaid cardinals, and having 
suffered from famine while remaining in Paris and Arras until 
the month of November, without effecting anything towards the 
peace of the kings and their kingdoms, they returned to the King 
of England in Brabant. 

In the year of the Lord one thousand three hundred and thirty 
[ J, 1 while the king was in Brabant, the Scottish leaders 

broke the truce they had accepted, inflicting much injury 

A.D. 1339. 

both by sea and land upon the English and their con- 
federates in Scotland. 

Early in July, Cupar Castle and the county of Fife were 
surrendered to William de Douglas, who had returned from 
France to Scotland with a strong armed force. Thence the 
aforesaid William marched to Perth with Earl Patrick and French 
mercenaries, laid siege thereto, and within five weeks, without 
much fighting, received the surrender of that town from its 
governor, to wit, Sir Thomas de Houghteryth. After the 
surrender, taking with them the booty obtained there, they 

1 Blank in original. 
317 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

embarked on the sea with a company of both French and Scots, 
and perished in a sudden storm which arose at sea. 

In the same year, on the third day before the feast of 
the Assumption of the Glorious Virgin, 1 a marvellous flood 
came down by night upon Newcastle-on-Tyne, which 
broke down the town-wall at Walkenow for a distance of six 
perches, where 1 60 men, with seven priests and others, were 
drowned. 

At the same time the King of England (the Duke of Brabant 2 
having left him), invaded the realm of France at the end of 
September with a large army, and carrying his arms against the 
district of Cambrai, he caused it to be burnt. On the feast of 
S. Michael 3 he entered Vermandois, where he had been informed 
the King of France was lying with his army, intending to give 
him battle. And on the appointed day of battle, to wit the 
morrow of S. Luke the Evangelist, 4 the King of England, having 
been assured that the King of France was willing to fight, took 
up his appointed position, distant about two leagues from the 
King of France, and waited there a whole day. But as the 
King of France and his army did not come to battle, as he had 
promised, the King of England, after mature deliberation, marched 
back into the duchy of Brabant. Howbeit he traversed parts 
of France with his army, killing, plundering, and burning over 
a space eight-and-twenty miles broad and sixty miles long, to 

1 1 4th August. 

2 The chronicler names the Duke of Bavaria, but that is evidently wrong. 
The Emperor Louis was Duke of Bavaria. Brabant, however, did not desert 
Edward. 

3 29th Sept. 4 1 9th October. 



LANERCOST 

wit, in the counties of Cambrai, Vermandois, Meuse, Tierache, 
Blois, Artois and La Flamengria. 1 

After the King of England returned from his expedition, 
many of his troops, English as well as German, returned to their 
homes ; but the Earls of Derby, Northampton, Salisbury and 
Suffolk remained with him. At this time my lord Pope Bene- 
dictus XII. sent two cardinals to the King of England to convey 
his paternal exhortation that peace or truce should be concluded 
with the King of France. The King of England wrote to him 
in reply setting forth the grievances, injuries and annoyances he 
had endured from Philip, who was in occupation of the realm of 
France, and who had declined to negotiate reasonably with him 
either about a truce or a peace, which if he would do, he [King 
Edward] would be ready to come to reasonable agreement with 
him. 

[Here follows a long letter from King Edward to the Pope, setting 
forth his grievances against King Philip, the advances he had made to 
him from time to time, Philip's refusal of his offers and the many 
injuries he had received from him. Printed in Fcedera, 8th February. 
Also a declaration to the people of France as to the King of England's 
title to the crown of France and his intentions in regard to the same. 
Printed in Fcedera^\ 

Meanwhile, the King of England, having prepared to sail back 
to England, being entreated by the community of Flanders, 
remained several weeks at Ghent, where the Flemings acknow- 

1 Father Stevenson observes that the general narrative of King Edward's 
operations in this campaign is confirmed by an eye-witness, Johannes Hocsemius, 
a canon of Liege, whose history covers the period 1251-1348, and was printed at 
Liege in 1630. 

319 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

ledged him as rightful heir, King and Lord of France, and swore 
fealty and homage to him as to the rightful King of France. 
In compliance with their suggestion and advice the King of 
England assumed the title of King of France and the arms of 
each realm, to wit, of England and France, whereof he claimed 
dominion, and entitled himself King of England and France, 1 in 
consequence of which he caused public letters given at Ghent to 
be displayed and published throughout England and France, and 
he besought the Supreme Pontiff for letters of absolution for the 
invasion of the realm of France. After which, with the consent 
and advice of the Flemings and the Duke of Brabant, he sailed for 
England with the Earls of Salisbury and Suffolk, leaving Queen 
Philippa in Flanders. After his departure William de Montagu 
was captured on the frontier of Flanders by some of the King of 
France's army and placed in prison. 

In the same year on the sixth of the Ides of March, 2 my lord 
Henry de Beaumont died at Luthburg and was buried in the 
Abbey of Valle Dei on the morrow of S. Gregory the Martyr. 3 

In the year of the Lord MCCCXXX [ ] 4 died William de 

Meltoun, Archbishop of York, and was committed to the tomb 
on the morrow of S. Gregory. 5 My lord William de la Zouche 
succeeded him. 

King Edward, the third of England after the conquest and first of 
France, held his parliament in London, demanding and obtaining 

1 The title of King of France was retained by the Kings of England and Great 
Britain until A.D. 1801, when it was discontinued and the lilies of France were 
removed from the royal arms. 

2 loth March, 1340. s I3t h March. 

4 Blank in original. 5 ^^ March, 1340. 

320 



LANERCOST 

a large subsidy from clergy and people in aid of [the wars] against 
France and Scotland, taking a ninth of all produce from 

A.D. I34O. 

the people and a triennial tenth from the clergy, in 
recognition of which welcome concessions my lord the King of 
England and France granted and published a new charter, ratified 
the liberties of the Church in England and also renewed many, as \ 
is contained at length in his charter. In the same parliament he 
decreed and specially confirmed by his charter that, in regard of 
the claim which he made to the realm of France as rightful heir, 
king and lord, devolving upon him by the death of his uncle my fb. 
lord Charles King of France, the realm of England should in no 
respect be subject to the realm of France, neither through him 
nor any his successor whatsoever, but that as regardeth divine 
things the succession and liberties should remain freely and totally 
separate. Parliament having ended he assembled a fleet and sailed 
for Flanders from the port of Orwell on the day before the eve of 
S. John the Baptist l (which in that year was a Thursday), with a 
few nobles, to wit, the Earls of Derby, Gloucester, Northampton 
and Huntingdon, and only a few other nobles. Arriving off the 
coast he was informed that the fleet of Philip de Valois, at that 
time occupying the realm of France, was in hostile array with a 
great force of Normans and French to attack him and his people. 
He sent forward the Bishop of Lincoln and Sir Reginald de 
Cobham to Sluys to stir up the Flemings (as they themselves had 
proposed) to fight the King of France's fleet on the morrow. On 
the morrow, therefore, to wit the vigil of S. John the Baptist, 
about the ninth hour, he prepared for battle, and, albeit he had no 
more than 147 ships against the immense fleet of the French, by 

1 22nd June. 
x 321 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

God's grace he obtained the victory he hoped for, killing, drown- 
ing or capturing 30,000 of the French. But on the English side 
they killed but some four hundred men, with four noble knights, 
to wit, Sir Thomas de Mouhermere, Thomas de Latimer, John 
Butler and Thomas de Poynings. 1 

After this victory the King of England and France remained at 
sea for three days, and then landed in Flanders, all men shouting, 
* Long live the King of the French and of England ! Blessed is 
he that cometh in the name of the Lord ! ' And although they 
had been some little incensed with him by reason of his long stay 
in England (the queen remaining in Ghent exposed to many risks, 
together with her English there who were in Flanders supporting 
the King of England and France) yet all those afflicted with king's 
evil who came near him were immediately made whole by his 
touch. 

After this, the King of England and France, having rested in 
Ghent and held counsel with his people, marched with a strong 
force to Tournay and laid close siege to that city, to relieve which, 
Philip de Valois, occupying the kingdom of France, assembled a 
large army. To him the King of England and France wrote from 
the siege works, sending [the letters] by his ambassadors, giving 
him a triple alternative to wit, that, as a means of deciding the 
dispute between himself and the aforesaid Philip, they two them- 
selves should fight a duel for the settlement of their rights ; or 
that Philip [should choose] one hundred of the most valiant 
knights of France, Philip himself being one of their number, and 
Edward [should choose] as many English knights, Edward him- 

1 Confirmed by an entry in the Close Rolls, but the date was 24th June 
(Fcedera). 

322 



LANERCOST 

self being one of their number, and thus the slaughter of Christian 
people might be avoided. Or again, should neither of these 
[proposals] be agreeable to the aforesaid Philip, then, after receiv- 
ing the aforesaid letters of the King of England and France, let 
him appoint a certain day for battle between power and power 
before the city of Tournay to which he [Edward] had laid siege ; 
so that God who removeth kingdoms and establisheth them should 
make justice manifest through whichever of the three plans might 
be chosen, and bring the conflict to an end. 

When Philip received this letter and understood the alter- 
natives, he would not reply to King Edward about his 
proposals because the letter had not been addressed to him 
as King of France ; but he wrote back to the King of England 
and France to effect that whereas he had unreasonably and 
injuriously invaded the realm of France and had rebelled against 
him to whom he had done homage, he [Philip] proposed to 
expel him from his kingdom for the honour of the realm and 
welfare of the people. 1 

Meanwhile, during these transactions, seeing that the aforesaid 
Philip dared not encounter the King of England and France in 
any manner, and that the funds required by the King of England 
for maintaining the siege were far short of what was necessary, a 
truce between him and the aforesaid Philip was agreed to through 
the mediation of the cardinals ; whereupon the king suddenly 
came to England and [imprisoned] the warden of the Tower of 
London, to wit, Sir Nicholas de Beche (who was also guardian of 
the king's son), Sir John de Pulteney, William del Pole, and 
several other knights and justiciaries, as well as some clerks of the 
1 Edward's challenge and Philip's refusal are printed in Fcedera. 

323 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

Treasury. 1 A serious dispute had arisen between him [King 
Edward] and John de Stratford, Archbishop of Canterbury ; all 
of which was caused by their not having supported him with 
proper funds when he was going to war, but frustrated his just 
right and purpose. 

While these things were going on, David de Brus, returning 
from France to Scotland, and collecting an army, wasted 
Northumberland with sword and fire as far as the river Tyne, 
returning home without any opposition. After this he 2 marched 
to Scotland and kept Christmas at the Abbey of Melrose in 
Scotland, where he was exposed to much danger by cunning 
assaults of the Scots, losing several of his men, and he retreated 
to England without [performing] any notable exploit. 

Preceded by certain nobles, the King of England invaded 
fo. 239 Brittany, where he took several castles and fortresses by storm, 
closely besieging the city of Vannes, which he would have taken 
within a few days, had not a truce for three years and more been 
struck at the earnest mediation of my lord the Supreme Pontiff 
and by the intervention of the two cardinals, which truce proved 
to be rather a betrayal than a settlement. 

[Here follow the terms of truce at great length. They are not in 
Fadera.~\ 

In the same year the King of England incurred many dangers 
in returning from Brittany to England, especially from flashes of 
lightning and unprecedented storms, whereby nearly all his ships 
were scattered from him and several were sunk in the sea. How- 

1 Sir Nicholas de la Beche must have cleared himself, for he was appointed 
Seneschal of Gascony, 2oth July, 1343 (Fadera}. 

2 King Edward. 

3 2 4 



LANERCOST 

belt it is said that not one of the sailors or soldiers was so cheerful 
amid these storms and dangers as himself, who ever remained 
fearless and unperturbed through them all ; whence he was 
delivered by God's grace and the Blessed Virgin's intercession 
(whom he always had invoked and chosen as his peculiar patron 
in all dangers), and so was happily carried to that part of the 
kingdom of England which he desired. 

The truce in Brittany having been concluded, several nobles 
of England assembled at Carlisle under my lord Bohun 1 Earl of 

Northampton, in order to fortify Lochmaben ; but they 

A.D. 1344. 

went no further, as the Scots gave leave that the afore- 
said castle should be peacefully fortified. 

In the same year the King of England held a round table of 
three hundred knights and as many ladies at Windsor, for which 
immense expense was incurred as befitting the royal dignity. 

The King of England on the eve of the kalends of July 2 went 
to sea at Sandwich with a large army for the protection of his 
people, and kept at sea with the aforesaid army until 
the ninth of the kalends of August, 3 and then returned 
to the kingdom of England at Sandwich, without performing any 
notable exploit. 

In the same year, while [the king] was at sea, the Flemings, 
who were then believed to be faithful to the King of England, 
attacked [ ]* at Ghent and cruelly put him [?] to death. 

In the same year the Scots with a large force invaded England 
by way of Carlisle on the eighth of the kalends of November, 6 and 
also burnt Gillesland and Penrith in Cumberland, with the adjoining 

1 Wowen in MS. 2 3Oth June. * 24th July. 

4 Blank in original. 5 25th Oct. 

325 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

villages ; but as they suffered from hunger, they returned without 
any gain to themselves or much loss to us. 

Afterwards, on the eighteenth of the kalends of January, 1 
certain nobles invaded Scotland in revenge for the deeds they had 
endured, and, having burnt Dumfries with many adjacent villages, 
returned to England without much gain or loss on their part on 
the fifteenth of the kalends of the same month. 2 

In the month of July, David King of Scots entered England 
under the banner of the Earl of Moray, harrying Cumberland, 

the hills of Derwent and the moor of Aldstone, 3 with 
A.D. 1346. 

slaughter and fire, and returning to Scotland with great 

droves of cattle without [sustaining] any loss to his army. 

In the same month of that year Edward, renowned and illus- 
trious King of England, sailed from Portsmouth with fifteen 
hundred ships and a great force of soldiers upon an expedition 
against the King of France to vindicate the inheritance which was 
his, due to himself ancestrally and through his maternal uncle. 
On the twelfth of the same month he landed at la Houge in 
Normandy, whence he marched to Caen, sacking the city to the 
bare walls thereof, killing and capturing many knights and an 
immense number of soldiers. 

* Edward, by the grace of God King of England and France and Lord 
of Ireland, to the honourable Father in God William, by the same grace 
Bishop of York, Primate of England, Greeting. 

'Forasmuch as we know well that you would wish good news from us, 
we make known to you that we arrived at la Hougue near Barfleur on 
the 1 2th July last, with all our people safe and sound, praise be to God, 
and remained there while our troops and horses disembarked and our troops 

1 1 5th Dec. 2 1 8th Dec. 

3 Not to be confused with Alston in Lancashire. 
326 



LANERCOST 

were being victualled, until the following Tuesday ; on which day we 
marched with our army to Valognes, where we took the castle and the 
town ; and then on our march we caused the bridge of O<?, which our 
enemy had destroyed, to be rebuilt, and we passed over it and took the 
castle and town of Carentan, whence we held the straight road to the town 
of Saint-L6. We found Herbert bridge near that town broken down, in 
order to prevent our crossing, so we caused it to be repaired, and next day 
we took the town. Then we pressed forward to Caen without halting for 
a single day from the hour that we left la Hougue until we arrived there. 

' And so soon as we had gone into quarters at Caen, our people began to fo. 
deliver assault upon the town, which was very strongly fortified and garri- 
soned with about 1600 soldiers, besides about 30,000 common people armed 
for its defence, who fought very well and boldly, so that the mellay was 
very hot and lasted a long time. But, praise be to God, the town was 
taken by storm in the end without loss to our people. 

'There were taken there the Comte d'Eu, Constable of France, the 
Chamberlain Tankerville (who on that day had been proclaimed a Marshal 
of France), of other bannerets and chevaliers about one hundred and forty, 
and a great crowd of esquires of the wealthy burghers. Also there perished 
many noble chevaliers and gentlemen and a great number of the com- 
monalty. 

' And our fleet, which kept in touch with us, has burnt and laid waste 
the whole seacoast from Barfleur as far as the Fosse de Colleville near 
Caen, and likewise has burnt the town of Cherbourg and the ships of la 
Havre, so that either by us or our people there have been burnt one hundred 
or more great ships and other vessels of the enemy. 

* Wherefore we beg that you will devoutly return thanks to God for the 
exploit which he has enabled us to perform, and continually beseech him 
that he will grant us further success ; also [we desire] that you write to 
the prelates and clergy of your province that they act in like manner, and 
that you ratify these events to our people in your district, for their comfort, 
and that you apply yourself diligently to resist our enemies of Scotland by 
all the means in your power for the safety of our people in your parts, for 
which we rely confidently upon you. 

4 Forasmuch as we have already obtained the assent of all our principal 
officers, who show themselves to be of excellent spirit and willingness 
we have firmly resolved to press forward with all our might against our 

327 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

adversary, wheresoever he may be from day to day, and our firm hope is in 
God that he will assure us good and honourable [results 1 ] of our enterprise, 
and that you will shortly receive good and agreeable news of us. 

' Given under our privy seal at Caen, the 30th day of July, in the 
twentieth year of our reign in England.' 

Hereafter the province of Bayeux surrendered voluntarily, 
fearing lest it should suffer in the same manner, whence he 
[King Edward] pursued his march as far as Rouen, wasting all 
around with fire and sword. He took possession without any 
resistance of all the great villages through which he passed ; he 
captured castles and fortifications, even the strongest, without 
difficulty and with very small attacking columns. At that time 
the enemy was in Rouen with a very strong armed force, and, 
notwithstanding his superiority in numbers, he caused the bridge 
over the Seine to be broken lest the King of England should reach 
him. And so it was all the way to Paris on one side of the 
Seine the King of England plying fire and sword, and on the 
other side the King of France breaking down and fortifying all 
the bridges of the Seine, to prevent the King of England crossing 
over to him ; nor would he dare anything for the defence of his 
people and realm, although he could have crossed the Seine, but 
fled towards Paris. 

When the King of England reached Poissy, he found the bridge 
broken and guarded by 1000 knights and 2000 cross-bowmen, 
so that it might not be repaired to enable the King of England 
to cross. But the King of England, having killed the guards, 
speedily repaired the bridge, and crossed over with his army. 
Then he proceeded through Picardy to Ponthieu ; his enemy 
followed him to Crecy-en-Ponthieu, where, on the seventh of 

1 Blank in original. 
328 



LANERCOST 

the kalends of September, 1 by the help of the Lord, he defeated 
his enemy in a great battle. For the action began on the afore- 
said day, to wit, the Saturday after the feast of S. Bartholomew, 
and continued until noon on the following day, and was brought 
to a close, not by human, but by divine, power. Among those 
slain and captured there were the King of Bohemia 2 and the King of 
Majorca, also the Duke of Lorraine, the Archbishop of Sens and 
[the bishop of] Nimes, 3 the Comte d'Alen^on, who was the King 
of France's brother, the Abbot of Corbeil, besides the Count of 
Flanders, the Comte d'Albemarle [?], 4 the Comte Sauvay, the 
Comte de Blois, the Comte de Mont Villiers, the Comte de 
Sainiers and his brother, the Prior-in-chief of the Hospital of 
Jerusalem, the High Lord of Rosenburg and chief man in all 
France after the King, the Vicomte de Turnas, the Lord de 
Morles, the Lord of Righou, the Lord of Saint- Vinaunt, and 
many other knights and esquires. More than 20,000 were killed, 

1 26th August. 

2 Froissart describes thus the death of this gallant old King Charles of Bohemia. 
'Having heard the order of battle, he enquired where was his son the lord Charles. 
His attendants answered that they did not know, but believed he was fighting. 
The king said to them "Gentlemen, you are all my people, my friends and 
brethren in arms this day ; wherefore, as I am blind, I beseech you to lead me so 
far into the battle that I may deal one blow with my sword." The knights replied 
that they would lead him forward at once ; and, lest they should lose him in the 
mellay, they fastened all the reins of their horses together, and put the king at their 
head, that he might gratify his wish. They advanced against the enemy ; the king 
rode in among them and made good use of his sword. He and his companions 
fought most gallantly ; but they pressed forward so far that they were all killed ; 
and on the morrow they were found on the ground, with their horses all tied 
together.' (Froissart, ch. cxxii.). 

3 Archieplscopui Senonensis Neminensis. Nimes was not an archiepiscopal see. 

4 Comes Daumarle. 

329 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

and people without number of other nations ; many were captured 
and imprisoned, King Philip [saved himself] by flight in arms. 

After this the King of England undertook the siege of Calais, 
which was from old time most hurtful to the English. 

Blessed be the Lord God of Israel ! who hath visited and 
redeemed his people and raised up a horn of salvation for us in 
the house of David, from our enemy ! 

In the same year, that is 1346, to wit on the vigil of S. Luke 
the Evangelist, 1 from the root of iniquity in Scotland sprang a 
stem of evil, from which tree certain branches broke forth, bear- 

MS. 

fo. 241 ing, I trow, a crop of their own nature, the buds, fruit and foliage 
of much confusion. For in those days there went forth from 
Scotland the sons of iniquity, persuading many people by saying, 
' Come, let us make an end of the nation of England, so that their 
name shall no more be had in remembrance ! ' And the saying 
seemed good in their eyes. Wherefore on the sixth day of 
October, the Scot assembled, children of accursed Belial, to raise 
war against God's people, to set a sword upon the land, and to 
ruin peace. David, like another Ahab deceived by an evil spirit 
[ ], 2 strong men and eager and most ready for war, earls, 

barons, knights and esquires, with two thousand men-at-arms and 
20,000 commonalty of the villages, who are called ' Hobelers ' 
among them, and of foot soldiers and archers it was calculated 
there were ten thousand and more. Impelled by pride and led by 
the devil, these invaded England with a lion-like rush, marching 
straight upon the fortress of Liddel. Sir William of Douglas 
arrived with his army at the said fortress in the morning, and 
David in the evening, laid siege thereto on the aforesaid day. 

1 1 7th October. - Words missing in original. 

33 



LANERCOST 
i 

For three days running they lay there in a circle, nor did they 
during the said days allow any attacks to be made on the threat- 
ened 1 fortress. But on the fourth day, having armed themselves 
before sunrise with spears, stones, swords and clubs, they delivered 
assaults from all quarters upon the aforesaid fortress and its 
defenders. Thus both those within and without the fortress 
fought fiercely, many being wounded and some slain ; until at 
length some of the Scottish party furnished with beams and house- 
timbers, earth, stones and fascines, succeeded in filling up the 
ditches of the fortress. Then some of the Scots, protected by 
the shields of men-at-arms, broke through the bottom of the walls 
with iron tools and many of them entered the said fortress in this 
manner without more opposition. Knights and armed men 
entering the fortress killed all whom they found, with few excep- 
tions, and thus obtained full possession of the fortress. 

Then Sir Walter de Selby, governor of the fortress, perceiving, 
alas ! that his death was imminent and that there was no possible 
means of escape for him, besought grace of King David, imploring 
him repeatedly that, whereas he had to die, he might die as befitted 
a knight, and that he might end his last day in the field in com- 
bat with one of his enemies. But David would not grant this 
petition either for prayer or price, being long demented with 
guile, hardened like another Pharaoh, raging, furious, goaded to 
madness worse than Herod the enemy of the Most High. Then 
the knight exclaimed, ' O king, greatly to be feared ! if thou 
wouldst have me behold thee acting according to the true kingly 
manner, I trust yet to receive some drops of grace from the most 
felicitous fountain of thy bounty.' 

1 Prslibato. 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

O, infamous rage of this wicked king ! Alas ! he would not 
even allow the knight to confess, but commanded him to be 
beheaded instantly ; and he had hardly ceased speaking when 
those limbs of the devil, the tyrants torturers who were standing 
by, carried out in act what he had ordered in speech. And thus 
these evil men, shedders of blood, wickedly and inhumanely 
caused human blood to flow through the field. Wherefore shortly 
after God poured forth upon them abundantly his indignation. 
Thus, therefore, did these wretches, ut alteri filn> bragging over 
the fate of a just man, stamp their feet and clap their hands, and 
they marched forth rejoicing, horse, foot and men-at-arms, David 
and the devil being their leaders. 

Coming then to the priory of Lanercost, where dwell the 
canons, venerable men and servants of God, they entered 
arrogantly into the sanctuary, threw out the vessels of the temple, 
plundered the treasury, shattered the bones, stole the jewels, and 
destroyed as much as they could. Thence these sacrilegious men 
marched by Naworth Castle and the town of Redpath, and so the 
army arrived in Tynedale. But the English of the Carlisle dis- 
trict had a truce with the Scots at that time, so that in that march 
they burnt neither towns nor hamlets nor castles within the 
bounds of Carlisle. David then came to Hexham Priory, where 
the Black Canons dwell, and, as is to be deplored, on that occasion 
and on others David utterly despoiled the aforesaid priory ; for 
the Scottish army lay there for three whole days, and David took 
delight in burning, destroying and wrecking the church of God. 

Not this the David whom the Lord 

To honour did delight ; 
But quite a different David who 

To Christ did show despite. 
332 




HP:XHAM ABBEY CHURCH 



CHANlfKY CHAPEI, OF PRIOR ROWLAND LESCHMAN. OB. 1491 



LANERCOST 

He proved his evil kind when he 

God's altar did defile ; 
Blacker his guilt when to the flames 

He gave the sacred pile. 1 

It was, then, not David the warrior, but this David the defaecator 
who, for some reason or other, strictly ordered that four northern 
towns should not be burnt, to wit, Hexham, Corbridge, Darlington 
and Durham, because he intended to obtain his victual from them 
in the winter season ; but a certain proverb saith, ' The bear 
wanteth one way and his leader another.' Wherefore, although 
the man himself had laid his plans, we were patiently hoping for 
something different. 

The Scots marched from Hexham to the town of Ebchester, 

1 Non tamen tile David quern Christum sanctificavit, 
Sed erat ille David qui Christum inhonoravit. 
Quod bene probavit cum super altare cacavit ; 
Sed plus peccavit quando sacra temp la cremavit. 

The reference is to an accident which, it was alleged, happened to the infant 
David at his baptism. It is characteristic of the monkish spite against everything 
Scottish that this little mishap was made the subject of unseemly reproach 
throughout King David's reign. The following lines, which will not bear 
translation, and seven others which I do not care to quote even in the 
original Latin, occur in a monkish poem on the Battle of Neville's Cross. ({Political 
Poems and Songs of the i,f.th Century, vol. i. p. 48. Rolls Series. 1859.) 

Dum puerum David praesul baptismate lavit, 
Ventrem lavavit, baptisterium maculavit. 
Fontem fcedavit in quo mingendo cacavit ; 
Sancta prophanavit, olei faeces reseravit. 
Brus nimis emunxit, cum stercore sacra perunxit, 
Se male disjunxit, urinae stercore junxit. 
Dum baptizatur altare Dei maculatur, 
Nam super altare fertur mingendo cacare, 
Fac singularis puer hie caelestibus aris 
Optulit in primis stercora foeda nimis. 
333 



MS. 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

ravaging all parts of the country. Thence, praised be God! they 
fo. 24i b crossed toward the wood of Beaurepair l for our deliverance and 
their confusion. David abode in the manor of Beaurepair, sending 
forth his satellites in all directions, bidding them drive off cattle, 
burn houses, kill men and harry the country. In like manner as 
[that other] David seized the poor man's lamb, although he him- 
self possessed sheep and oxen as many as he would ; wherefore, 
according to Scripture, his son died ; so did [this] David, a root 
of iniquity, believing himself like another Antiochus, to possess 
at least two kingdoms, 2 suddenly attack towns and hamlets, inflict 
injury upon the people, gather spoil, destroy houses, carry women 
into captivity, seize men and cattle, and, worst of all, command 
churches to be burnt and books of law to be thrown into the 
flames, and thus, alackaday ! did he hinder work in the vineyard of 
\the Lord. He caused, I say, a great slaughter of men, and, uplifted 
in pride, he declared that he would assuredly see London within a 
very short time ; which purpose the Searcher of Hearts caused to 
fulfil his fate. 3 Thus this most cruel David was ill at ease, being 
inspired by the devil and destitute of all kingly grace through his 
exceeding moroseness. 

Who can describe the pride of old men ? Scarcely can any one 
now living reckon up the scourges of the feeble mourners, the 
groanings of the young people, the weariness of the weepers, the 
lamentation and wailing of all the humbler folk ; for thus [the 
Scripture] had been actually fulfilled, 'A voice is heard in Rama, and 
would not be comforted.' Goaded by memories sad and joyful 4 

1 Now Beaupark. 2 i Maccabees, ch. i. 

8 Ad suumfortunum disposuit implere, appears to be a misreading of suam fortunam. 
4 Prat memoris stimulojam dolens gattdendo, seems to be a corrupt reading. 

334 



LANERCOST 

I shall not waste time in many words, but pass on briefly to the 
course of events. Every husband uttered lamentation, and those 
who were in the bonds of matrimony mourned cheerlessly ; young 
and old, virgins and widows, wailed aloud. It was pitiful to hear. 
Little children and orphans, crying in the streets, fainted from 
weeping. Wherefore when the [arch] bishop of York beheld the 
extreme grief of the people together with the lamentations of the 
commonalty, he, like, for instance, that other noble priest, 
the mourning Mattathias, with his five sons, Abaron and Apphus, 
Gaddis, Thasi and Maccabeus, did not take to flight like a mer- 
cenary, but like a good shepherd went forth against the wolves 
with Sir Henry de Percy, Sir John de Mowbray, Sir Rafe de 
Neville, Sir Henry de Scrope and Sir Thomas de Rokeby, and 
chose out of the north men prudent and apt for war, in order to 
deliver his sheep from the fangs of the wolves. He went to 
Richmond, and lay there several days with his army; but my 
lord de Percy, with many other valiant men from all parts 
remained on watch in the country. 

The [arch] bishop, then, moved out of Richmond with his "/ 
army on the day before the Ides of October, 1 and directed his 
march along the straight road to Barnard Castle, and on the 
morrow he and the other commanders reckoned up their force of 
men-at-arms, cavalry, foot-soldiers and fighting men upon a 
certain flat-topped hill, near the aforesaid castle. Also the leaders 
did there set their army in order of battle, etc., as was proper. 
They arranged themselves in three columns, whereof Sir Henry 
de Percy commanded the first, Sir Thomas de Rokeby the second, 
and the [arch] bishop of York the third a wise father, chaste and 

1 1 4th October. 
335 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

pious, shepherd of his flock. These men marched cautiously to 
the town of Auckland, in no spirit of haired as Cain [felt] when 
he slew Abel, nor inflated with any such ^pride as Absolom's who 
hung in the tree, putting their trust, not in swords, helmets, 
lances, corselets, or other gilded armour, but only in the name of 
Christ, bent upon no invasion but only upon resisting the invaders. 
Pitching their tents in a certain beautiful woodland near the afore- 
said town, the English army spent the whole night there. 

At dawn next morning, that is on the vigil of S. Luke the 
Evangelist, 1 William de Douglas rode forth from the Scottish 
army with 500 men to harry the country and gather spoil. Thus 
the Scots seized their prey in the early morning, but in the evening 
the English divided the spoil. 

On that morning, while the Scots were plundering the town of 
Merrington, suddenly the weather became inclement, with thick 
fog. And it came to pass that when they heard the trampling of 
horses and the shock of armoured men, there fell upon them such 
a spasm of panic that William and all those with him were utterly 
at a loss to know which way to turn. Wherefore, as God so 
willed, they unexpectedly stumbled, to their astonishment, upon 
the columns of my lord the Archbishop of York and Sir Thomas 
de Rokeby, by whom many of them were killed, but William and 
two hundred with him who were on armoured horses, escaped for 
the time, but not without wounds. Then Robert de Ogle, who 
is of great strength and not without skill in the art of war, 
followed them over hill and dale, killing many of the enemy with 
his own hand, and would not stop until beside a great pool in a 
certain deep woodland glen his charger, being utterly at a stand- 
Myth October. 
336 



MS. 



LANERCOST 

still, was quite unable to go further. Now came William, greatly 
heated, to the Scottish army, crying aloud with much excitement, 
c David ! arise quickly ; see ! all the English have attacked us.' fb. 242 
But David declared that could not be so. ' There are no men in 
England,' said he, ' but wretched monks, lewd priests, swineherds, 
cobblers and skinners. They dare not face me : I am safe 
enough.' But they did face him, 1 and, as was afterwards evident, 
they were feeling his outposts. 

'Assuredly,' replied William, 'oh dread king, by thy leave thou 
wilt find it is otherwise. There are diverse valiant men [among 
them] ; they are advancing quickly upon us and mean to fight.' 

But just before he spoke two Black Monks came from Durham 
to treat with David for a truce. ' See,' said David, ' these false 
monks are holding conference with me guilefully. For they 
were detaining me in conclave in order that the English army 
might attack us while we were thus deceived.' 

He ordered them, therefore, to be seized and beheaded at once ; 
but all the Scots were so fully occupied at the time that the monks 
escaped secretly, serene and scatheless, footing it home without 
any loss. 

On that day David, like another Nebuchadnezzar, caused the 
fringes of his standard to be made much larger, and declared 
himself repeatedly to be King of Scots without any hindrance. 
He ordered his breakfast to be made ready, and said that he 
would return to it when he had slain the English at the point of 
the sword. 2 But soon afterwards, yea very soon after, all his 

1 Sed ilium respexit, should be respexerunt. 

2 Reminding one of Napoleon's taunt to Soult on the morning of Waterloo. 
* Parceque vous avez ete battu par Wellington vous le regardez comme un grand 

v 337 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

servants had to hurry, allowing the food to fall into the fire. 
Thus David, prince of fools, wished to catch fish in front of the 
net, and thereby lost many and caught but few. Therefore he 
failed to carry out the plan he had laid, because, like Aman and 
Achitophel, that which he had prepared for us befel himself. So 
David, having reckoned up his forces, called the Scots to arms 
the folk that were eager for war and were about to be scattered ; 
and like Jabin against Joshua, he marshalled three great and strong 
columns to attack the English. He set Earl Patrick over the 
first division ; but he, like an ignorant fellow, refused to lead the 
first line, demanding the third, more out of cowardice than 
eagerness. 1 The Earl of Moray forthwith undertook his [Earl 
Patrick's] duty, and so held chief command in the first division 
of the army, and afterwards expired in the battle. With him 
were many of the valiant men of Scotland, such as the Earl of 
Stratherne, the Earl of Fife, John de Douglas, brother of William 
de Douglas, Sir Alexander de Ramsay, 2 and many other powerful 
earls and barons, knights and esquires, all of one mind, raging 
madly with unbridled hatred against the ^English, pressing forward 
without pause, relying on their own strength, and, like Satan, 
bursting with over-weening pride, they all thought to reach 
the stars. 

King David himself commanded the second division not, 
however that David of whom they sang in the dance that he 

general. Et, moi, je vous dis que Wellington est un mauvais general, que les 
Anglais sont de mauvaises troupes, et que ce sera I* affaire d'un dejeuner? 

1 This seems to be the meaning of the passage, whence some words have probably 
dropped out. Serf ipse, strut sciolus abnegans principium fat postulavit. 

2 He means Sir William de Ramsay. Sir Alexander had been starved to death 
by ' the Flower of Chivalry ' in Hermitage Castle. 

338 



LANERCOST 

had put ten thousand to flight in battle, but that David of 
whom they declared in public that his stench and ordure had 
defiled the altar. With him he took the Earl of Buchan, 1 
Malcolm Fleming, Sir Alexander de Straghern (father and son 
without the holy spirit), 2 the Earl of Menteith, 3 and many others 
whom we do not know, and whom if we did know, it would be 
tedious to enumerate. In the third division was Earl Patrick, 
who should have been more appropriately named by his country- 
men ' Non hie.' 4 He was late in coming, but he did splendidly, 
standing all the time afar off, like another Peter ; but he would 
not wait to see the end of the business. In that battle he hurt 
no man, because he intended to take holy orders and to celebrate 
mass for the Scots who were killed, knowing how salutary it is to 
beseech the Lord for the peace of the departed. Nay, at that 
very time he was a priest, because he led the way in flight for 
others. 5 

1 There was no Earl of Buchan at this time. Sir Henry de Beaumont was 
recognised as Earl in 1312 in right of his wife, a niece of John Comyn, last Earl 
of Buchan in the Comyn line ; but Sir Henry died in 1340, and his son, Sir John, 
never claimed the title. 

2 Sir Malcolm Fleming of Cumbernauld was created Earl of Wigtown in 1341. 
The name of his son is not known. Sir Malcolm survived him, and was succeeded 
in the earldom by his grandson Thomas. 

3 Sir John Graham, Earl of Menteith in right of his wife, who inherited from 
her uncle Murdach, eighth earl in the Celtic line, killed at Dupplin Moor in 
1332. John Earl of Menteith was taken prisoner at Neville's Cross and executed 
in London in March, 1347. 

4 Patrick, gth Earl of Dunbar. In Stevenson's text the sense of this pleasantry 
is marred by the misplacement of a comma after p atria. The passage should rum 
Comes Patrik, sed melius vocaretur de patna non hie. 

5 Another sarcasm, which cannot be rendered in English, the play being on the 
words Presbyter and prabuit iter. 

339 



THE CHRONICLE OF 

His colleague was Robert Stewart j 1 if one was worth little the 
other was worth nothing. Overcome by cowardice, he broke his 
vow to God that he would never await the first blow in battle. 
He flies with the priest [Earl Patrick], and as a good cleric, will 
assist the mass to be celebrated by the other. These two, turning 
their backs, fought with great success, for they entered Scotland 
with their division and without a single wound ; and so they 
led off the dance, leaving David to dance as he felt inclined. 

About the third hour the English army attacked the Scots not 
far from Durham, the Earl of Angus 2 being in the first division, 
a noble personage among all those of England, of high courage 
and remarkable probity, ever ready to fight with spirit for his 
country, whose good deeds no tongue would suffice to tell. 

Sir Henry de Percy, like another Judas Maccabeus, the son of 
Mattathias, was a fine fighter. This knight, small of stature but 
sagacious, encouraged all men to take the field by putting himself 
in the forefront of the battle. Sir Rafe de Neville, an honest and 
valiant man, bold, wary and greatly to be feared, fought to such 
effect in the aforesaid battle that, as afterwards appeared, his blows 
left their marks upon the enemy. Nor was Sir Henry de Scrope 
behindhand, but had taken his post from the first in the front of 
the fight, pressing on the enemy. 

In command of the second division was my lord the Archbishop 

i of York, who, having assembled his men, blessed them all, which 

devout blessing, by God's grace, took good effect. There was 

1 King David's nephew and heir-presumptive : afterwards Robert II. 

2 Gilbert de Umfraville, 4th Earl of Angus in the English line, g.-grandson of 
Matilda, who succeeded to the earldom from her uncle Malcolm, 5th and last 
earl in the Celtic line 

340 



LANERCOST 

also another bishop of the order of Minorite Friars, who, by way 
of benediction, commanded the English to fight manfully, always 
adding that, under the utmost penalty, no man should give quarter fb. 242* 
to the Scots ; and when he attacked the enemy he gave them no 
indulgence of days from punishment or sin, but severe penance 
and good absolution with a certain cudgel. He had such power 
at that time that, with the aforesaid cudgel and without confession 
of any kind, he absolved the Scots from every lawful act. 

In the third division Sir John de Mowbray, deriving his name 
a re, was abounding in grace and merit. His auspicious renown 
deserves to be published far and wide with ungrudging praise, for 
he and all his men behaved in such manner as should earn them 
honour for all time to come. Sir Thomas de Rokeby, like a 
noble leader, presented such a cup to the Scots that, once they 
had tasted it, they had no wish for another draught ; and thus he 
was an example to all beholders of how to fight gallantly for the 
sacred cause of fatherland. John of Coupland dealt such blows 
among the enemy that it was said that those who felt the weight 
of his buffets were not fit to fight any longer. 

Then with trumpets blaring, shields clashing, arrows flying, 
lances thrusting, wounded men yelling and troops shouting, the 
conflict ended about the hour of vespers, amid sundered armour, 
broken heads, and, oh how sad ! many laid low on the field. The 
Scots were in full flight, our men slaying them. Praise be to the 
Most High ! victory on that day was with the English. And 
thus, through the prayers of the blessed Virgin Mary and Saint 
Cuthbert, confessor of Christ, David and the flower of Scotland 
fell, by the just award of God, into the pit which they themselves 
had dug. 



THE CHRONICLE OF LANERCOST 

This battle, therefore, as aforesaid was fought between the 
English and the Scots, wherein but few Englishmen were killed, 
but nearly the whole of the army of Scotland was either captured 
or slain. For in that battle fell Robert Earl of Moray, 1 Maurice 
Earl of Stratherne, together with the best of the army of Scotland. 
But David, so-called King of Scotland, was taken prisoner, together 
with the Earls of Fife, of Menteith, and of Wigtown, and Sir 
William of Douglas and, in addition, a great number of men-at- 
arms. Not long afterwards, the aforesaid David King of Scots 
was taken to London with many of the more distinguished 
captives and confined in prison, the Earl of Menteith being there 
drawn and hanged, quartered, and his limbs sent to various places 
in England and Scotland. But one of the aforesaid captives, to 
wit, my lord Malcolm Fleming, Earl of Wigtown, was not 
sent to London by reason of his infirmity, but, grievous to say ! 
was allowed to escape at Bothall through the treachery of his 
guardian, a certain esquire named Robert de la Vale, and thus 
returned to Scotland without having to pay ransom. 

After the aforesaid battle of Durham, my lord Henry de Percy 
being ill, my lord of Angus and Ralph de Neville went to Scotland, 
received Roxburgh Castle on sure terms, patrolled the Marches 
of Scotland, exacting tribute from certain persons beyond the 
Scottish sea, received others to fealty, and returned to England, 
not without some losses to their army. 

(Explicit Chrmiitott fo |Catim00t. 



x His name was not Robert, but John. He was second son of Thomas Randolph, 
1st Earl of Moray, and succeeded his brother Thomas as 3rd Earl in 1332. 



INDEX 



Aberconway, abbacy of, - - 33 
Aberdeen, Edward I. at, 150; 

burning of, - - 298 

Abernethy, Sir Alexander de, - 177 

Abernethy, Laurence of, - - 286 

Acre, fall of, - 78 

Adrian V. chosen Pope, - - 1 1 

Albemarle, Count of, - - 1 74 
Alderby, John of, chosen Bishop of 

Lincoln, - 169 
Alexander III. attends coronation 

of Edward I., 8 ; marries, 38 ; 

death of, - 39 
Alexander, prince of Scotland, death 

of, - 32 

Allerdale laid waste by Scots, - 237 

Amboise, - - 106 
Amesbury, 51, 85 

Anglesey, - - 33, 107 
Angus, Gilbert de Umfraville, Earl 

of, 206, 209-212, 268, 307, 340, 342 

Annan, story of bishop visiting, - 112 
Annandale, story of Dumfries Friars 

in, - 26 

Apparitions, 4, 57, 60, 64, 75, 97, 118 

Appleby burnt by Scots, - - 211 

Applinsdene, Sir Ralf de, - - 233 
Ara Coeli, Church of S. Maria in 

the, - 12 

Aragon, James of, - - 108 

Aragon, Philip of, - - 296 

Artois, Count of, - 174, 310 
Arundel, Edmund Fitzalan, Earl 

of, beheaded,- - 252 



Athol, David de Strathbogie, Earl 

of, joins Edward Balliol, 268 ; 

deserts him, 287 ; death of, - 294 
Atholl, John Campbell, Earl of, at 

battle of Dupplin, - - 270 

Atholl, John de Strathbogie, Earl 

of, captured at Dunbar, 140 ; 

executed in London, - 179 

Auckland,- - 336 

Audley, Sir Hugh de, taken prisoner 

at Boroughbridge, - - 235 

Audley, Sir Hugh de, the younger, 

made Earl of Gloucester, - - 301 
Audley, Sir William de, drowned, 38 
Auxerre, Bishop of, - 171 

Avenel, Robert,- - 31 

Avignon, papal see transferred to, 175 
Aysgarth, miracle at, - - 97 

Badlesmere, Sir Bartholomew de, - 237 
Baeda, - 25 

Baird, William, captured, - - 278 
Baldock, Robert de, 249 ; cap- 
tured and executed, - 253-254 
Balliol, Edward de, defeats Scots 
at Dupplin Moor, 270-271 ; 
crowned at Scone, 271 ; at Rox- 
burgh and Kelso, 273; defeated 
at Annan, 274 ; at Carlisle, 275 ; 
in Westmorland, 275-276 ; 
besieges Berwick, 277 ; joined 
by Edward III., 279 ; at Hali- 
don Hill, 280; holds Parliament 
at Perth, 283 ; at Durham and 



343 



INDEX 



Newcastle, 285 ; driven by Scots 
to Berwick, 287 ; at Carlisle, 
289 ; invades Scotland, 291 ; 
concludes truce, 295 ; enters 
Scotland, 296, 298 ; remains in 
England, 304 ; raises siege of 
Edinburgh, 308 ; enters Scot- 
land, - - 315 
Balliol, Sir John de, 40 ; kingdom 
of Scotland conferred on, 85 ; 
his lands seized, 141 ; surrenders 
his kingdom, - - 145 
Barnard Castle, - 72, 141, 257 
Bannockburn, battle of, - 207, 208 
Bardolf, Sir Robert, captured and 

ransomed, - 2 1 5 

Bar, Henry, Comte de, - 70, 104 
Barneby, Richard of, - 4 

Bathans, Abbey Saint, miracle at, - 29 
Bayonne recaptured by English, - 1 1 1 
Beaumond, Henry de, - 197 

Beaumont, or Belmont, Louis de, 
elected Bishop of Durham, 217; 
his death, - 284 

Beaumont, Sir Henry de. See 

Buchan, Earl of. 

Beaumond, near Carlisle, - 239 

Beche, Sir Nicholas de, imprisoned, 323 
Bek, Antony, Bishop of Durham, 

36, 48, 70, 183, 191 
Bek, Thomas de, Bishop of St. 

David's, - 23 

Benedict XI. appointed Pope, - 175 
Benedict XII., Pope, 

288, 311, 313, 316, 319 
Berefield, Sir Roger de, - - 233 
Bergen, - - 22 

Bernardinus, Friar, miraculous re- 
covery of, - - 91 
Bernard of Clairvaux,- - 112 
Berwick, Edward I. acknowledged 
at, 8 1 ; flood at, 108 ; sack of, 
115, 135 ; apparition at, 117 ; 
Bishop of St. Andrews sends arms 
to, 123; vision seen at, 124; 
Edward I. demands surrender 
of, 125 ; Edward I. receives 



homage at, 150; incidents at, 
156; entered by Scots, 164; 
retaken by English, 165 ; Ed- 
ward II. at, 190 ; saved from 
capture, 200 ; Robert Brus at, 
216; taken by Scots, 219; capi- 
tulates, 220 ; besieged by Ed- 
ward II., 226; by E. Balliol, 
277 ; by Edward III., 278 ; 
marriage of David Bruce at, 
260; surrender of, 281 ; Scot- 
tish clergy expelled from, 282; 
county of ceded to Edward III., 
286 ; Edward Balliol driven by 
Scots to, 287 ; Edward Balliol 
invades Scotland from, 291 ; Guy, 
Count of Namur at, 292 ; Earl 
of War wick at, - 305 

Berwick, John of, - - 170 

Beverley, St. Cuthbert appears at, 

117; Scots at, - 240 

Biblis, Hugh, Bishop of, - - 64 
Biern, Gaston de, - 26 

Blackmoor, Scots at, - - 239 

Blanche of Navarre marries Ed- 
mund, brother of Edward I., - 106 
Blount, Sir William, - - 244 

Bohun, Sir William de, made Earl 

of Northampton, - - 301 

Bologna, - 69, 94 

Bonvile, John de, - - 272 

Boniface, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, death of, 5 
Boniface VIII., Pope, 70, 1 1 1 ; 
decrees of, 133, 141, 169; 
demands custody of John de 
Balliol, 1 69 ; cites Bishop of 
Lichfield, 172 ; acknowledges 
Albert I., 174 ; death of,- - 175 
Boulogne, marriage of Edward II. 

at, 186 

Boulogne, Count of, 171 ; killed 

in Flanders, - - 174 

Boroughbridge burned by Scots, 

221 ; battle of, - - 232 

Bordeaux, Archbishop of, See 
Clement V. 



344 



INDEX 



Bordeaux, part of, taken by English, 1 30 
Boston, - 55 

Bothwell Castle, English nobles 
captured at, 209 ; taken by 
Edward III., 300 ; surrendered 
to Scots, - 301 

Botelstane. See Boston. 
Bowes, Adam de, - 282 

Boys, Sir Humphrey de, - - 278 
Boyd, Sir Robert, invades Gallo- 
way, - - 1 88 
Brabant, John III., Duke of, 58, 309 
Brabayne, Godefroie de, - 174 
Bretagne, Sir John de, - 109 
Brittany, Count Peter of, - 6 
Bristiach, Jean de, killed at 

Courtray, - 174 

Brotherton, Thomas, son of Ed- 
ward I. born at, - - 169, 171 
Brough burnt by Scots, - - 2 1 1 
Bruce. See Brus. 
Bruce, David, marries Edward III.'s 
sister, Joan, 260 ; succeeds to 
throne, 264; coronation of, 
268 ; retreats to Dumbarton 
Castle, 283 ; does homage to 
King of France, 287, 297 ; 
Kings of France and Bohemia 
send fleet to assist, 293 ; returns 
to Scotland, 324 ; invades Eng- 
land, 326 ; captures Fort of 
Liddel, 330 ; plunders Lanercost 
Priory, 332 ; destroys Hexham 
Priory, 332 ; at Neville's Cross, 337, 342 
Brus, Alexander de, Dean of 

Glasgow, - - 179, 1 80 

Brus, Edward de, invades Galloway, 
188 ; invades England, 205, 210; 
invades Ireland, 212; death of, 225 
Brus, Nigel de, hanged at New- 
castle, - - 180 
Brus, Robert de, the elder, his 
claim to Scottish throne, 84 ; 
buried at Gisburne, - 112 
Brus, Robert de, deprived of his 
heritage, 115; slays Robert and 
John Comyn at Dumfries, 1 76 ; 



crowned at Scone, 176 ; returns 
to Scotland, 177; in Western 
isles, 178; receives tribute from 
Galloway, 185 ; excommuni- 
cated, 190 ; invades Lothian, 
191 ; invades England, 194, 195, 
199, 200, 237 ; at Lanercost, 
197 ; besieges and takes Perth, 
202 ; defeats English at Ban- 
nockburn, 207 ; release of his 
wife, sister and daughter, 211 ; 
besieges Carlisle, 213-215; at- 
tempts to surprise Berwick, 216; 
invades Ireland, 217; interdict 
upon, 225 ; makes treaty with 
Earl of Carlisle, 241 ; a leper, 
257 ; death of, - - 263 

Brus, Thomas de, defeated, cap- 
tured, and executed, - 179, 180 

Buchan, Sir H. de Beaumont, Earl 
of, 206, 208 ; returns from exile, 

267 ; accompanies E. Balliol, 

268 ; envoy to York, 274 ; 
death of, - 320 

Buchan, Comyn, Earl of, - - 136 
Buchan, Earl of, with King David, 339 
Buchan, William of, - - 44 

Burton-on-Trent, - - 231 

Burgh-on-Sands, - 182 

Burgh, Henry de, imprisonment of, 

at Durham, 31 ; lines by, 77 ; 

death of, - 216 

Burgh, Hugh de. See Burgh, 

Henry de. 
Bury, Richard de, elected Bishop 

of Durham, - - 285 

Burford, Sir William de, - - 187 
Burnton, William de, Mayor of 

Berwick,- - 282 

Butler, Sir John, Death of, - - 322 
Bywell, - - 45 

Caen, sack of, - - 326 

Caerlaverock Castle, - - 170, 304 
Caernarvon, Edward II. born at, 36, 38 
Calais, siege of, - - 330 

Caldenley, wapinschaw at, - - 1 29 



345 



INDEX 



Cambo, W. de, - - 272 

Cambronne, assembly at, - 128 

Cambius, cure of youth named, - 94 
Carham, monastery of, burnt, - 135 
Carlisle, Earl of. See Harclay, Sir 

Andrew de. 

Carlisle, Itinerant Justiciaries at, 
1 8, 90; burnt, 87 ; attacked by 
Scots, 115 ; Edward I. at, 170, 
181 ; Edward I. sends troops to, 
176 ; Edward II. at, 182, 183 ; 
Earl of Hereford at, 190; Ed- 
ward Balliol at, - - 275, 289 
Carlisle, Sir Nicholas of, - - 28 
Carrick, Robert de Bruce, Earl of, 270 
Carrick, Robert, Earl of, his 
daughter marries King of Nor- 
way, - - 103 
Cartmel, - - 238 
Castrum Puellarum. See Edinburgh. 
Cattle plague in England, - - 228 
Celestinus V., Pope, - - 107, no 
Chalize, or Chalix, Robert de, 

Bishop of Carlisle, - - 16-18,89 
Chalons, William de, - - 309 

Chamberlain, Robert, sets fire to 

Boston,- - 51 

Charles, brother of Philip IV., 96, 106 
Chartersborough, Robert de, - 28 
Chester, Ranulph, Earl of, - - 83 
Cinque Ports, - - 96 

Cinque Ports, men of, capture 

Spanish ships, - 109 

Clairvaux visited by R. de Brus, - 1 14 
Clare, Bovo de, death of, - - 109 
Cleasby, Sir John de, - -218 

Clement V., Pope, 

175, 189, 196, 218, 219 
Clermont, Count of, - - 128 

Cleveland, district of, - - 230 

Clifford, Sir Robert, afterwards 
Lord de, is given Caerlaverock 
Castle, 170 ; sent to Carlisle, 
1 90 ; marries Margaret de Mul- 
tan, 205 ; joins campaign against 
Scots, 209 ; entertains E. Balliol, 
275 ; invades Scotland, - - 306 



Clifford, Roger de, drowning of, - 38 
Clifford, Sir Roger de, - 229, 233 
Clinton, Sir William de, made 

Earl of Huntingdon, - - 301 
Cluniacs, banishment of, - 106 

Clydesdale, apparition in, - 118 

Cobham, Sir Reginald de, - - 321 
Cobham, Thomas of, - - 202, 203 
Coinage, change in, - - 18 

Cologne, Archbishop of, allied with 

Edward III., - - 309 

Commission appointed to decide 

title to Kingdom of Scotland, - 85 
Comyn, Sir Walter, death of, - 275 
Comyn, Sir John, invades Eng- 
land, 115; joins campaign 
against Scots, 206 ; killed at 
Bannockburn, - 208 

Concordances, Anglican, - 107 

Copeland, - 2 3 7 

Coquina, Robert de, Bishop of 

Durham, - 13, 36, 37 

Corbridge, - 195, 199, 312 

Corbridge, Henry of, - 169, 175 

Cornwall, Duchy of, created, - 301 
Cornwall, Richard Plantagenet, 

Earl of, death of, - 5 

Cornwall, John, Earl of, 

252, 279, 299, 300 
Corvara, Peter of. See Nicholas V. 
Council at Lyons, - - 1, 8 

Coupland, John of, - - - 341 
Crawford, Sir Reginald de, - 179, 180 
Crecy, battle of,- - 328-330 

Cressingham, Sir Hugh de, 90 ; 

killed at Stirling Bridge, - - 1 64 
Cromwell, Sir John de, - 190 

Crosnaith, or the Holy Cross, - 34 
Cunninghame, apparition at, - 75 
Cupar Castle, - - 297,317 

Dacre, Sir Rafe de, - - 205, 308 

Dacre, Sir William de, - 205 

Dalton, near Richmond, - - 60 

Daltoun, Thomas of, - - 103 

Dalmeny, James of, - - 98 

Damascus, John of, - 96 



346 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Darlington, Earl of Moray at, - 230 
Darlington, Friar John of, - 107 

David, a Welsh chieftain, - - 148 
David ap Udachis, - ~ 33 

David, prince of Wales, - 20, 33, 35 
Day vile, Sir Jocelyn de, hanged, - 237 
Denton, Sir Richard de, - 243, 246 
Denholm, Sir William de, - - 282 
Derby, Earl of, besieges Dunbar, - 311 
Derby, Earldom of, created, - 301 

Dervorguilla, - 69, 72, 84 

Despenser, Sir Hugh, the elder, 

Earl of Winchester, 170, 187,208,230 

2 3'> 2 37> 253 
Despenser, Sir Hugh, the younger, 

229, 230, 231, 246, 253 
Despenser, Sir John le, - 143 

Dieppe, war at, - ~ 95 

Douglas, Sir Archibald, invades 

Galloway, - - 273 

Douglas, Sir Archibald, at the 

camisade of Annan, - 274 

Douglas, Archibald (Tineman), ap- 
pointed Guardian of Scotland, - 276 
Douglas, Sir James de, 

210, 215, 226, 227, 230, 257, 258 
Douglas, William (Knight of Lid- 

desdale), - - 292 

Douglas, John de, - 338 

Douglas, William de, 

278, 286, 294, 299, 300, 308, 317 
Douglas, Sir William de, at Liddell, 
330 ; surprised, 336 ; taken 
prisoner, - 342 

Dornock, - 278 

Dover, attacked by French, - -120 
Dreux, Count de, - - 38 

Driffield, Simon of, - 36 

Droslan, Castle, - -51 

Duddon, - - 237 

Dumfries, 26, 176, 183, 286, 326 

Dunheved, Thomas de, 249, 259, 265 
Dunkeld, Bishop Matthew of, 114, 122 
Dunmore, John de, - - 272 

Dundee, burning of, - - 291 

Dundalk, battle of, 225 

Dungal. See Macdoual, Dougal. 



fAGE 

Dunfermline, E. Balliol at, - - 269 

Dunbar, Countess Agnes of, courage 
of, - 314 

Dunbar, - - 138, 139, 209, 311 

Dunbar, Patrick, Earl of, opposes 

peace, - - 294 

Dunbar, Patrick, Earl of, deserts 

Edward Balliol, - - 287 

Dunbar, Patrick, seventh Earl of, 

death of, - 59 

Dunbar, Patrick, ninth Earl of, does 
homage to Edward II., 183 ; 
invades Galloway, 272 ; takes 
oath of fealty to Edward III., 
281 ; captures Count de Ne- 
mours, 292 ; besieges Perth, 217; 
as Neville's Cross, - 338 

Dupplin Moor, battle of, - - 270 

Durham, Bishop Antony of. See 
Bek, Antony. 

Durham, Henry de Burgh im- 
prisoned at, - 3 1 

Durham, - - 48, 199 

Earn, Water of, - 269 

Ebchester, - 333 

Edgar, Sir Patrick, - 4 

Edinburgh Castle, surrendered to 
Edward I., 144 ; taken by Scots, 
165, 204 ; siege of, - 308 

Edinburgh, council at, 40 ; Parlia- 
ment at, 125 ; name of, - - 145 
Edmund, brother of Edward I., 

106, 107, 146 
Edwynesburgh. See Edinburgh, 

derivation of name of. 
Edward (Black Prince), birth of, 

267 ; made Duke of Cornwall, - 301 
Edward I., coronation of, 8 ; war 
in Wales, 16 ; second war in 
Wales, 20 ; present at consecra- 
tion of Bishop of St. David's, 23 ; 
visits Lanercost, 24 ; subdues 
rebellion of Gaston de Bierne, 
26 ; captures Anglesey, 33 ; cap- 
tures David at Snowdon, 34 ; his 
son Edward born, 36, 38; goes to 



347 



INDEX 



Gascony, 50 ; sends expedition 
to Wales, 51 ; returns from 
Gascony, 55 ; marriages of his 
daughters Joan and Margaret, 
58 ; his queen Eleanor dies, 74, 
77 ; at Newcastle, 80 ; receives 
homage from Scots, 81 ; com- 
mission appointed by, 84 ; con- 
fers kingdom of Scotland on 
Balliol, 85 ; tithe granted by 
Pope to, 86 ; his title to homage, 
89 ; summoned by Philip IV., 
106 ; war in Wales, 107 ; takes 
Berwick, 115; demands castles 
from Scots, 125 ; at Stirling, 
131 ; at Wark, 134 ; takes town 
of Berwick, 135 ; besieges Edin- 
burgh, 142 ; occupies Stirling, 
144 ; John Balliol surrenders 
kingdom to, 145 ; death of his 
brother Edmund, 146 ; defeats 
Welsh at Worcester, 148 ; at 
Berwick, 150; in Gascony, 1 65 ; 
\returns to England, 166 ; at 
Falkirk, 166 ; marries Margaret 
of France, 1 69 ; takes Caerlave- 
rock Castle, 1 70 ; letter of Pope 
Boniface to, 171 ; enters Scot- 
land, 172 ; makes peace with 
Scots, 1 74 ; sends soldiers to 
guard Border, 176; at Laner- 
cost, 1 79, 1 8 1 ; dies at Burgh- 
on-Sands, 182 ; buried at West- 
minster, 

Edward II., birth of, 36, 38 ; 
attacks Scots, 171 ; success in 
Scotland, 177, 178 ; treaty with 
Isabella of France, 180, 18 1 ; at 
Carlisle, 182 ; imprisons Bishop 
W. de Langton, 184; at North- 
ampton, 185, 189; buries his 
father, 185 ; marriage and coro- 
nation of, 1 86; sends. Piers de 
Gaveston to Ireland, 187 ; and 
Earl of Lincoln, 188 ; at Ber- 
wick, 190 ; at Scarborough, 
Newcastle and York, 196, 197 ; 



and Earl of Lancaster, 199 ; 
eldest son Edward born, 200 ; 
secures appointment of W. Rey- 
nold, 202 ; holds Parliament in 
London, 203 ; invades Scotland, 
206 ; Bannockburn, 207, 208 ; 
flight to Dunbar and Berwick, 
208, 209 ; throne claimed by 
John of Powderham, 221 ; be- 
sieges Berwick, 227 ; recalls 
Despensers, 231; condemns Earl 
of Lancaster, 234; at York, 237; 
invades Scotland, 238; flight from 
Rievaul, 244 ; sends A. de Lucy to 
take Earl of Carlisle, 243 ; refuses 
homage to Charles IV., 248 ; 
sends queen to France, 249 ; 
prisoner at Kenil worth, 253 ; 
refuses request of Parliament, 
254; deposed, 255; death of, - 259 
Edward V. See Edward II. 
Elande, - - 295 

Eleanor of Castile, - 74, 77 

Edward III., birth of, 200 ; joins 
Isabella in France, 249 ; made 
Duke of Aquitane, 250 lands 
at Harwich, 251; coronation of, 
256; proceeds against Scots, 257; 
marries Philippa of Hainault, 
259 ; renounces lordship of Scot- 
land, 260; letters patent of, 261 ; 
holds Parliament at Nottingham, 
266 ; birth of his son Edward, 
185 267 ; holds Parliament at York, 

274; at Halidon Hill, 279-280; 
five Scottish counties ceded to, 
281, 286; Edward Balliol does 
homage to, 285 ; at Roxburgh, 
288 ; returns to England, 289 ; 
holds Parliament at York, 290 ; 
invades Scotland, 291 ; at New- 
castle, 295 ; his message to 
Philip VI., 298 ; at Perth, Stir- 
ling and Bothwell, 299-300 ; 
holds Parliament in London, 
300 ; at Stirling, 303 ; sends 
terms of peace to France, 308- 

348 



INDEX 



309 ; Pope sends envoys to, 3 1 1 ; 
his truce with Scots, 314 ; joins 
army in France, 314-315 ; his 
French campaign, 318,319,320; 
holds Parliament in London, 
320; defeats French fleet, 321 ; 
besieges Tournay, 322 ; returns 
to England, 323 ; truce with 
France, 324; holds Round Table 
at Windsor, 325 ; takes Caen, 
326 ; letter to Archbishop of 
York, 326-328 ; defeats French 
at Crecy, 328 ; besieges Calais, - 330 
Eleanor of Castile, - 2 4>77 

Eleanor, daughter of Edward I., 

marries Comte de Bar, - 70, 104 
Eleanor of Provence, - - 51, 82, 85 
Elizabeth, daughter of Edward I., 

marriages of, - - 70 

Eltham, John of. See Cornwall, 

Earl of. 

Embleton, Richard de, - 282 

Emma, vision of nun named, - 151 
Enge, Sir William de, supports 

Edward II., - - 187 

Eric, King of Norway, marries 

daughter of Earl of Carrick, - 103 
Eric II., marries daughter of Alex- 
ander II., - 21, 22 
Ermyn, William de, proposed as 

Bishop of Carlisle, - - 248 

Eu, Count of, killed in Flanders, - 174 
Euer, Sir John de, execution of, - 236 
Exeter, Bishop of, seized and be- 
headed, - 252 

Falkirk, battle of, - - 166 

Famine in England, - 70 

Faukemounde, William de, allied 

with Edward III., - - 309 

Fiennes, Sir Gillemin de, - - 204 
Fife, Duncan tenth Earl of, mur- 
der of, - 59 
Fife, Duncan twelfth Earl of, de- 
feated by E. Balliol, 269, 338, 342 
Fitzroger, Sir Robert, defeats Bruce 
at Perth, - - 177 



Fitzwarren, Sir Fulk, returns from 

exile, - - 267 

Flanders, the French invade, - 173 
Fleming, Malcolm. See Wigtoun, 

Earl of. 

Flint Castle, built by Edward, - 34 

Flota, Pierre de, - 171, 174 

Forfar, John de Balliol at, - - 144 
Francis, John, marvellous occurrence 

to, - 60 

Francis of Milan, account of, - 69 

Franciscans, privileges bestowed on, 26 
Fraser, William, made Bishop of 

St. Andrews, - - 20 
Fraser, Sir William de, - 272 
Fraser, Sir Simon, taken and exe- 
cuted, - - 178 
French, invasion of England by, 119, 124 
Furness, - -216, 238 
Furbur, Alexander, miraculous cure 
of, - 53 

Gaeta, John of. See Nicholas III. 

Gainsborough, William of, Bishop 
of Worcester, - 170, 1 80, 185 

Galloway, Alan Earl of, marriage 
and descendants of, - 84 

Galloway, Bishop Henry of, death 
of, - 103 

Galloway, Sir John of, death of, - 69 

Galloway, Thomas of, - 40 

Galfrid, death of, - - 161 

Gascony, - - 106, 159, 165, 248 

Gaveston, Piers de, returns to 
Edward II., 184 ; earldom of 
Cornwall, 184 ; banishment of, 
1 86; in Ireland, 187, 189; at 
Berwick, 190; occupies Perth, 
191 ; sentenced, 193 ; at York, 
196-197; execution of, - - 198 

Gaytan, Benedict de. See Boni- 
face VIII., - - in 

Genevilla, Galfrid de, member of 
embassy to Rome, - 170 

Germany, King Richard of. See 
Cornwall, Earl of. 

Giffard, Sir John, execution of, - 235 



349 



INDEX 



Giffard, Walter, Archbishop of 

York, death and character of, 19, 20 
Gillesland, Lord of. See Dacre, 

Rafe de. 

Gilsland, - 212, 227, 228, 277, 325 
Gisburn, - - 4,28,52,112 

Glasgow, Bishop Robert Wishart of, 

163, 178, 211 
Gledenmore. See Dupplin Moor, 

battle of. 
Gloucester, Gilbert seventh Earl 

of, 58, 102, 126 

Gloucester, ninth Earl of, 

1 86, 190, 191, 199, 206, 208 
Gloucester, Sir Hugh de Audley 

made Earl of, 301 ; besieges 

Dunbar, - 311 

Gloucester, Edward II. buried at, 259 
Godred, King of Man, - 1 1 

Graham, David de, - - 272 

Gray, Sir John, of Berwick, - 157 

Gray, Sir Thomas, - - 282 

Grandison, Otto de, member of 

embassy to Rome, - 170 

Gregory X., Pope, - i, n 

Greenfield, William of, Archbishop 

of York, - 175, 217 

Greenrig, William, - - 52 

Greystanes, Robert of, elected 

Bishop of Durham, - - 284 

Grosste'te, Robert, Bishop of Lin- 

coln, dream of, - - 159 

Guelders, Count of, allied with 

Edward III., - 309 

Gynes, Lady de, entertains E. 

Balliol, - - 276 

Haddington, - 104, 117, 165, 286 
Haggerston, - - 192 

Hainault, William II., Count of, - 309 
Hainult, Jehan de, 251, 253, 258, 259 
Halidon Hill, battle of, - 279-281 
Halton, John of, elected Bishop of 

Carlisle, . O 

Haltwhistle, - 
Harbottle, 
Harby, - 



Harcla, Sir Andrew de, 

231-233, 235, 241, 244, 245 

Hartlepool, 10, 213, 230 

Harwich, Queen Isabella lands at, 251 

Hastings, Henry de, - 84 

Haydon Bridge, - 257 

Henaud, Jean de, killed in Flanders, 1 74 

Henry III., 6 

Herbert, Friar W., - - 74 
Hereford, Bishop of, 254 ; attacks 

king with E. of Lancaster, - 231 

Hereford, Edward I. at, 34 
Hereford, Humphrey de Bohun, 

fourth Earl of, 70, 190, 206, 208, 

209,211, 229, 231, 233 

Hereford, Symon of, execution of, 267 
Hexham, burning of, by Scots, 1 36, 

137 ; by Brus, 199 ; occupied by 

Scots, 212; sack of Priory by 

Scots, - - 332 

Hoffe, near Appleby, - 205 

Holand,Sir Robert de, execution of, 236 
Holland, John Count of, marries 

daughter of Edward I., - 70 

Holmcultram, - - 28, 237 

Holystone, - 195 
Honorius IV., Pope, - 38, 89 
Hopume, William de, Archbishop 

of Dublin, - - 70 

Hotoft, Alan de, - 57 

Houghteryth, Sir Thomas de, - 317 

Houton, J de, - - 148 

Howden, John of, - 3 
Hugh, a boy named, crucified by 

Jews, - 6 
Hugh, Bishop of Biblis, - 64, 66 

Hugh, Bisliop of Lincoln, - - 23 

Hugtoun. Thomas, vision of, - 157 
Huntingdon, W. de Clinton, Earl 

of, - 3 10 

Huntingdon, Earldom of, created, 301 

Huntingdon, ordinations at, - 159 

Hythe, French defeated at, - 120 



194, 212 

195, 22O 
- 77 



Iceland, wonders of, - 
Inchmartin, John de, - 
Innippauym, chapel of, 



10 

- 272 
117 



35 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Innocent V. elected Pope, - - 1 1 
Insula, Sir Duncan de, son of, killed 

by demon, - 119 

Inverkeithing, - 29, 41 

Inverkeithing, Richard of, Bishop 

of Dunkeld, death of, 10 

Ireland, Sir Hugh of, - - 30 

Ireton, R. de, Bishop of Carlisle, 

dies at Linstock, - 86 

Irthington, - - 23 

Isabella, daughter of Philip IV., 

treaty of marriage with Edward II., 

180,181 

Isabella, wife of Robert de Brus, - 84 
Isabella, Queen, marriage of, 186 ; 

escapes to France, 249 ; lands at 

Harwich, 251 ; at marriage of 

Joanna and David Bruce, 260 ; 

became Sister of S. Clare, - 267 

Isle, St. Michael's, - 1 1 

Jardine, Sir Humphrey de, - 278 

Jedburgh, - - 125, 286 

Jerome. See Nicholas IV. 

Jerusalem, - 67, 303 

Jews, crucify boy named Hugh at 

Lincoln, - 6, 1 8, 58 

Joan, daughter of Count of Glouces- 
ter, - - 59 

Joan, daughter of Edward I., mar- 
ries Earl of Gloucester, - - 58 

Joan, daughter of Edward II., 

married to David Bruce, - 260 

John of Gaeta. See Nicholas III. 

John, Prior of Lanercost, 36 

John of Shrewsbury, vision of cleric 

named,- - 148 

John XXL, Pope, election and 

death of, 12 

John XXII., Pope, succeeds Clem- 
ent, 196, 219, 220, 246, 247, 262, 

288, 290 

Julers, Count of, allied with 
Edward III., - - 309 

Justiciaries, Itinerant, sit at Carlisle, 18, 90 



Keitl, William de, 



294 



Kellow, Richard de, Bishop of 
Durham, death of, - - 217 

Kelso, - 4, 273 

Kelso, Richard of, elected Bishop 
of Durham, - - 192 

Kenilworth, Edward II. prisoner at, 

2 53 255 
Kent, Edmund Plantagenet, Earl of, 

248, 251, 265 

Kent, river, - - 238 

Kildrummie Castle, - - 294 

Kilwardby, Robert of, Archbishop 

of Canterbury, - 5, 8, 16 

Kincardine, John de Balliol at, - 145 
Kinclavin, accident at, - 7 

Kinghorn, - 41, 269 

Kirkby, John of, Bishop of Car- 
lisle, - - 70, 284 
Kirkoswald, burnt by Scots, - -211 
Knaresborough, - - 197,221 
Knaresmire, Risamaraduc hanged 

at, - 89 

Lamberton, Alexander de, - - 272 
Lambley, destruction of convent of, 1 36 
Lancaster, Thomas Plantagenet, 
Earl of, birth of, 107 ; pays 
homage, 192 ; enters Newcastle, 
197 ; captures Gaveston, 198 ; 
does not join against Scots, 206 ; 
marches towards Scotland, 217; 
invades Scotland, 226 ; at Bur- 
ton-on-Trent, 231 ; surrenders, 
233 ; beheaded, 234 ; burnt 
by Scots, - - 238 

Lanercost, Edward I. at, 24, 170, 
179, 181 ; Bishop Ralph de 
Ireton visits, 25 ; vision of friar, 
133; destruction of monastery, 
136 ; Robert de Brus at, 197 ; 
sack of, - 332 

Langton, Walter de, - - 172,184 
Landels, Sir J. de, - - 216 

Latimer, Sir Thomas de, death of, 322 
Lauder, Sir Robert de, killed by 

Sir E. de Maxwell, - - 312 
Laundel, John de, - - 272 



INDEX 



Lazenby, unidentified town near 

Haddington, - - 105 

Leicester, Henry Earl of, 107 ; 

joins Queen Isabella's forces, 251, 253 
Lepers, burning of, 229 

Lewyn, Welshman named, 142, 144 
Lincoln, Henry de Lacy, Earl of, 

170, 177, 1 86, 1 88, 191 
Lincoln, Hugh of. See Hugh. 
Lincoln, Oliver, Bishop of, death of, 1 69 
Lincoln, - - 6, 74 

Lindsey, Alexander de, invades 

Galloway, - - 188 

Linlithgow, Edward I. winters at, 172 
Linstock, death of Ralph, Bishop 

of Carlisle, at, 86 

L'Isle, Sir Garin de, execution of, 235 
Llewellyn, prince of Wales, 

16, 20, 31, 33 

Lochmaben, - - 278 

London, council of clergy in, 158, 162 
London, Parliaments held in, 

108, 203, 300, 320, 321 
Lothian, district of, 104, 116, 129, 191 
Louis IV., Emperor, - - 248 

Louis V., Emperor, - - 309 

Louis VIII. of France, 6 

Louis X., death of, - 212 

Louis, brother of King of France, 200 
Lowther, Sir Hugh de, - 243, 246 
Lucy, Sir Antony de, capture of, 
209; release of, 212; arrests 
Earl of Carlisle, 243 ; receives 
manor of Cockermouth, 246 ; 
expedition against Scots, 277, 
278 ; invades Scotland, 299, 
306, 308 ; harasses Scots in 
England, - 307 

Luceta, story of, at Tripoli, - - 63 
Lundy, Walter de, - - 272 

Lunedale, - - - 46 

Luthburg, H. de Beaumont dies at, 320 
Lyndesey, Sir Philip de, illness of, 117 
Lyons, Council of, - - I, 2, 8 



Macdoual, Dougal, - 179, 181,287 
Madoc, rebellion of, in Wales, - 107 



Magnus of Norway. See Eric II. 

Maiden's Castle. See Edinburgh 
Castle. 

Malachi, Irish bishop named, - 112 

Maners, Robert de, defends Nor- 
ham, - - 256 

Mar, Donald, twelfth earl 0^211,257,268 

Mar, Gratney Earl of, captures 

Dunbar Castle, - - 138, 140 

Marchby, dispute respecting com- 
mon fields of, 56 

Margaret, daughter of Henry III., 7, 8, 9 

Margaret, sister of Philip IV., 1 69, 1 7 2, 1 8 1 

Margaret, daughter of Edward I., 

marries Duke of Brabant, - 58 

Martin IV. elected Pope, 25 ; 

death of, - - 38 

Mary, Queen of Navarre. See 
Blanche. 

Matilda, wife of David, Earl of 

Huntingdon, - - 84 

Maudent, Sir Thomas, execution of, 236 

Mauley, Sir Edmund, joins cam- 
paign against Scots, 206 ; death 
of, - 208 

Maxwell, Sir Eustace de, 272 ; 
goes over to Bruce, 303 ; slays 
R. Lauder, - - 312 

Meburne, Sir Robert de, elected 

Prior of Lanercost, - 216 

Melrose, Edward III. at, - 324 

Meltoun, William de, Archbishop 

of York, - 217, 226, 320 

Menai, bridge of boats at, - 38 

Menteith, Murdoch Earl of, at 

battle of Dupplin, - - 270 

Menteith, Alexander Earl of, cap- 
tured at Dunbar, - 140 

Menteith, John Graham Earl of, 

339 342 
Menteith, Sir John de, captures 

William Wallace, - - 17$ 

Merrington, - ~ 33^ 

Metyngham, Sir John de, - - 1 8 
Michael, Friar, Minister-General 

of Minorites, arrest of, 263, 290 
Michens, Sir William de, death of, 51 



352 



INDEX 



Middleton, Sir Gilbert de, robs 

two cardinals, - 218 

Milan, - 67 

Minorites, Order of, - -2, 290, 3 1 3 
Miracles, 12, 22, 29, 44, 49, 53, 60, 91, 

93, 94, 95 

Mitford, - - - 220 

Mouhermere, Sir Thomas de, 

death of, - - 322 

Montagu, Sir William de, made 

Earl of Salisbury, - 301 

Montrose, John de Balliol abdicates 

at, - 145 

Mor, N. de, sent to Oseney, 55, 181 
Mora, Alan de, death of, 69 

Moray, Edward I. explores, - - 150 
Moray, John de, - 215 

Moray, Maurice de, - - 294, 296 
Moray, Sir Andrew de, 2 7 2, 2 7 3, 294, 313 
Moray, Thomas Randolph Earl of, 

212, 226, 230, 242, 246, 268 
Moray, Thomas Randolph second 

Earl of, - 270 

Moray, John Randolph third Earl 

of, 292, 293, 338, 342 

Morebattle, death of Bishop Wishart 

at, - 20 

Moriceby, Sir Hugh de, takes part 

in arrest of Earl of Carlisle, 243 ; 

reward of, - - - 246 

March, Roger de Mortimer Earl 

of, 251,253,259,260,265,266 

Mortimer, Sir R. de. See March, 

Earl of. 

Morton, Roger de, - - 272 

Morville, Hugh de, - - 145 

Moubray, Sir J., killed at Annan, 275 
Mowbray, Sir Alexander de, - 304 
Mowbray, Sir Geoffrey de, - - 304 
Mowbray, Sir John de, assists 

Archbishop of York, - 335, 341 
Mowbray, Sir John, defeats Bruce 

at Perth, - 177 

Mowbray, Sir John de, expedition 

into Wales, 229 ; surrenders, 

233 ; execution of, - 236 

Mowbray, Sir Roger de, - - 304 



PACE 

Multan, Sir Thomas de, Lord of 
Gillesland, death of, - 205 

Multon, Matilda de, Lady of Gils- 
land, death of, - 1 1 1 

Multon, Thomas, first Lord of, 48 

Multon, Thomas of, second Lord 
of Holbeach, death of, - - in 

Mytton, battle of, - - 226 

Naples, Celestinus V. at, - - 108 
Narbonne, Archbishop of, member 

of French embassy to Rome, - 171 
Nassington, John of, made Bishop 

of Carlisle, - - 86 

Nemours, Guy Count of, captured 

by Scots, - 292 

Neustria, - 95 

Neville's Cross, battle of, - 335-342 
Neville, Sir Rafe de, 

37, 3 8 , 335, 340, 342 
Newark, Henry of, Archbishop of 

York, - - 130, 169 

Newbrough, Edward I. at, - - 181 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, miracle at, 
53 ; Edward I. at, 80 ; Scots 
approach, 164, 220 ; Nigel Bruce 
hanged at, 180 ; Edward II. at, 
197,238; Earl of Mar at, 2ii ; 
Earl of Lancaster at, 2 1 7 ; Edward 
III. at, 285, 288, 291, 295 ; 
flood at, 318 ; truce made at, 246 
Newcastle, Sir John of, - - 28 
Nichanor, - 124 

Nicholas III., election of, - 13 

Nicholas, Cardinal, appointed Pope. 

See Benedict XI. 

Nicholas IV., Pope, - 50, 78, 86, 89 
Nicholas V. elected Pope, - - 263 
Nidd, inundation by, - - 28 

Norham, - 40, 85, 191, 198, 256 

Northallerton, burned by Scots, - 221 
Northampton, Earldom of, created, 301 
Northampton, W. de Bohun Earl 

of, 310, 316, 319, 321, 325 

Northampton, 185, 187, 189, 259, 260 
Northumberland, invaded by Scots, 

164, 212, 277, 324 



353 



INDEX 



Norway, King of, death of, - - 127 

Norway, Queen of, death of, - 32 

Norwich, Cathedral of, burnt down, 20 

Nottingham, - - 266, 293, 299 

Ockham, William of, - - 263 

Ogle, Robert de, - 336 
Oliphant, Sir William, taken prisoner 

by Scots, - 202 

Olivet, - 67 

Oliver, Bishop of Lincoln, 20 

Orkney, William Bishop of, - 10 

Ormesby, Sir William de, 90 

Ormsby, John of, - 278 

Orwell, Edward III. sails from, - 321 
Oseney, Abbot of, rebuke and death 

of, 1 62- 1 63 ; N. de Mor sent to, 1 8 1 
Oxford, impostor at, 

44, 64, 65, 74, 1 1 8, 221 

Padua, lay brother of, cure of, - 93 

Paisley, apparition near, - - 118 
. Paris, - 72, 146 

t Peckham, John of, Archbishop of 

Canterbury, . 1^24^48,87, 104^161 

Peebles, county of, ceded toEdward 

HI., - 286 

Pembroke, Aymer de Valence Earl 
of, commands at Berwick, 177 ; 
with Edward II., 198 ; against 
Scots, 206 ; escapes after Bannock- 
burn, 209 ; and truce with Scots, 246 

Penrith, burnt by Scots, - - 324 

Percy, Sir Henry de, at Neville's 
Cross - - 335, 34O , 342 

Percy, Henry de, - 282, 308, 311 

Perch, Thomas Count of, killed at 

Lincoln, 6 

Pert. See Perth. 

Perth, Robert Bruce defeated near, 
177 ; Piers de Gaveston at, 191 ; 
taken by Robert Bruce, 202 ; 
Edward Balliol at, 271, 272, 
2 9 8 3 T 5 ; burning of, by Scots, 
273 ; Parliament at, 283 ; Edward 
III. at, 298 ; Earl of Cornwall 
dies at, 300 ; besieged by Douglas, 317 



PAGE 

Peter, Count of Brittany, - 6 

Peter, Cardinal, sent as messenger 
to England by the Pope, - - 180 

Peter, King of Aragon, captures 

Sicily, - ~ 2 5 

Peter, Patriarch of Jerusalem, nego- 
tiates with Sultan for Holy Land, 302 

Peter of Taranto. See Innocent V. 

Peter the Spaniard. See John XXI. 

Philip III., invasion of Spain by, 13 

Philip IV., war with England, 55, 
70; his fleet defeated, 104; 
seizes Edward I.'s French posses- 
sions, 1 06 ; fleet defeated, 119, 
1 20 ; his spy Turberville, 121 ; 
fleet destroyed by storm, 1 24 ; 
letters to J. Balliol, 150 ; sister 
Margaret marries Edward I., 
169 : disputes about Gascony, 
172 ; defeated in Flanders, 173 ; 
complains against Pope, 175; 
his daughter Isabella marries 
Edward II., 180, 181, 186 ; 
requests to Pope, 189 ; death of, 210 

Philip VI., receives homage of David 
Bruce, 287 ; sends envoys to 
Edward III., 289 ; sends fleet 
against England, 293 ; sends 
envoys, 295 ; prepares to invade 
England, 297 ; successes in Gas- 
cony, 301 ; and Edward III., 
308; Cardinals sent to, 311; 
rejects terms of peace, 314 ; 
letters to Pope concerning, 317, 
319 ; his fleet defeated, 322; 
makes truce with him, 323 ; 
retreats towards Paris, 328; de- 
feat and flight of, - - 330 

Philippa, Queen, accompanies Ed- 
ward to France, 316 ; in Ghent, 322 

Philippa (of Hainault), marriage of, 
to Edward III., 259 ; at instal- 
lation of R. de Bury, - 285 

Plumland, Thomas of, death of, - 278 

Pole, Sir Griffin de la, returns from 
exile, - - 267 

Pole, William del, imprisoned, - 322 



354 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Pontefract, - 230, 234, 235 

Pountenei, - 50 
Powderham, John of, claims the 

throne, 222 ; executed, - - 224 

Poynings, Sir Thomas de, death of, 322 

Praetorialia, - - 54 
Preachers, Order of, approved and 

confirmed at Council of Lyons, - 2 

Preston in Amoundness, - - 238 
Provender, Robert de la, Bishop of 

Dublin, - 10 

Pulteney, Sir John de, imprisoned, 323 

Queensferry, - - 41 

' Ragman Roll,' the, - - 260 

Ralph, Prior of Gisburn, Bishop of 

Carlisle, - 1 8, 23, 86 

Ramsay, Sir Alexander de, - - 338 
Randolf, Thomas. See Moray, 

Earl of. 

Redesdale, - 136, 195 

Redesdale, Earl of, besieges Dunbar, 3 1 1 
Reynald, Walter, Archbishop of 

Canterbury, - - 202, 255 

Rheims, English besieged in, - 114 
Richard, King of Germany. See 

Cornwall, Earl of. 

Richmond, Archdeacon of, - - 170 
Richmond, John eighth Earl of, 

199, 240, 289 

Richmond (Yorkshire), 210, 216, 230, 335 
Richmond, John ninth Earl of, 

does homage to Edward III., - 289 
Rievaulx Abbey, Edward II. at, - 240 
Rioms. See Rheims. 
Ripon, - - 103, 221, 232 

Risamaraduc, rebellion and fate of, 

51 ; execution of, - 89 

Rismaraduc. See Risamaraduc. 
Roberstone, Sir Robert of, - - 14 
Rokeby, Sir Thomas de, 335, 336, 341 
Romayn, John, Archbishop of York, 

5? 58, 77 
Rome, miracles at, 12, 49 ; famine 

in, - 162 

Ronaldsway, battle of, 1 1 



NVM 

Rood, the Black, restored to Scots, 260 
Ros, Robert de, - 134 

Rose, 205 ; burning of bishop's 

manor at, - - 237 

Rose, John de, Bishop of Carlisle, 

248, 284 

Ross, William Earl of, - 140 

Ross, John de, Bishop of Carlisle, 

death of, - 284 

Ross, Sir Godfrey de, death of, - 296 
Ross, William fifth Earl of, - - 294 
Rosslyn, Sir Thomas de, returns 

from exile, - - 267 

Rothbury, church of, - - 18 

Rothelfeld, William de, refuses ap- 
pointment as Bishop of Carlisle, 18 
Rouen, - - 328 

Roxburgh Castle, besieged by Scots, 
108, 165, 203, 288, 342 ; 
Edward I. at, 125 ; Piers de 
Gaveston at, 191 ; Edward Bal- 
liolat, 273; given up to English, 342 
Roxburgh, county of, ceded to 
Edward III., - - 286 

Saint Botolph's, fire at, - 20 
Saint-Paul, Count of, member of 

French embassy to Rome, - 171 
Saint-Paul, Jacques de, killed at 

Flanders, - - 174 
Saint-John, Sir John de, 109 ; 

captured by French, - in, 9 

Saint-Mathieu, naval battle at, - 104 
Salisbury, W. de Montagu Earl of, 

301, 302, 311, 313, 315, 316, 319, 

320 
Salkeld, Richard de, receives Great 

Corby, - - 246 

Sanxia, Queen, - - 296 

Scarborough, - - 197 

Scott, Michael, - - 272 

Scone, Abbot of, imprisoned, - 178 
Scone, stone of, kept in London, 

86, 176, 260, 268, 271 
Scrope, Sir Galfrid de, condemns 

Earl of Carlisle, - - 244 

Scrope, Sir Henry de, - 335, 340 



355 



INDEX 



Scutage imposed, 
Seaham, Sir William de, - 
Segrave, Sir John de, 190, 206, 209, 
Segrave, Sir Nicholas de, supports 

Edward II., - 
Seine, the river, in flood, 
Seland, Earl of, member of embassy 

to Rome, 

Selby, Sir Walter de, death of, 
Selkirk, Forest of, 
Seton, Christopher de, taken and 

executed, 
Seton, Humphrey de, taken and 

executed, 

Seton, John de, taken and executed, 
Shrewsbury, vision of nun near, - 
Sicily, taken by Peter, king of 

Aragon, 

Sicily, Charles of, deposed, - 
Sicily, Robert, king of, 
Simon of Driffield, elected Prior 

of Lanercost,- 

Simon, sent as Legate to France, - 
Siward, Sir Richard, - 
Skipton-in-Craven, burnt by Scots, 
Snowdon, - 34, 

Southampton, - 

Soulis, John de, - 114, 

Spain, - 151, 

Spalding, Peter of, treachery of, - 
Spenser, Sir Hugh le. See Dis- 
penser, Sir H. 
Stafford, Baron of, death of, - 
Stafford, Lord Ralph de, - 268, 
Stanehouse. See Stenhouse. 
Stanemoor, - 211, 227, 

Stanhope Park, - 
Staveley, church of, struck by 

lightning, 

Stewart, James, at battle of Stirling, 

163, 

Stewart, Robert, - 286,313, 
Stenhouse, occurrence at, 
Stirling, Parliament at, 115 ; 

Edward I. at, 131, 144 ; 

battle of Stirling, 164; taken 

by Scots, 165 ; siege of, 205, 



PAGE PAGE 

1 6 303 ; Edward II. proceeds to, 

1 8 207 ; fortified by Edward III., 299 

212 Stirling, Sir John de, - 296, 308, 312 

Stichell, Robert of, Bishop of Dur- 
187 ham, death of, - - 9 

146 Stone, monastery of, in Stafford- 
shire, - 161 
170 Straghern, Sir Alexander de, - 339 
331 Stratford, John de, Archbishop of 
191 Canterbury, dispute between 

Edward III. and, - - 324 

178 Stratherne, Earl of, killed at 

Neville's Cross, - - 338, 342 
178 St. Andrews, Bishop of, 122, 123 ; 
178 imprisoned, - 178 

151 St. Andrews, Bishop William of, 

goes as envoy to France, - - 114 
25 St. John. See Perth. 
1 08 Suffolk, Robert dc Ufford made 
296 Earl of, 301 ; sent to France, 

310; remains in Brabant, - 319 
36 Sule, Sir W. de, killed at Borough - 
25 bridge, - 233 

138 Surrey, J. de Warenne fifth Earl 
221 of, 70, 1 16 ; takes Dunbar, 139 ; 

107 escapes after battle of Stirling, - 164 

293 Surrey, J. de Warenne sixth Earl 
210 of, accompanies Edward II., 
226 190 ; at Selkirk, 191 ; joins 

220 king's party, 199 ; announces 
deposition to, 255 ; at marriage 
of D. Bruce, 260 ; at Durham, 
51 285 ; proceeds to Scotland, - 291 

311 Suttrington, Master Thomas de, - 18 
Swale, the river, - 227 

228 Swaledale, - 211 

257 Sweetheart Abbey, burial of Der- 

vorguilla de Balliol at, 72 

82 Symunburne, church of, - - no 

164 Tanay, Lucas, drowning of,- - 38 
340 Taranto, Peter of. See Innocent V. 
42 Tartars. See Lyons, Council of. 

Tay, river, 7 

Templars, - 187, 193, 196 

Teviot, flood of, - 108 

Thomas, recovery of child named, 95 

356 



INDEX 



Thunderstorm, great, - - 103 
Torwood, near Stirling, - - 207 
Touchet, Sir William de, execu- 
tion of, - 236 
Tournay, siege of, - - 322 
Tower, surrender of the, - - 252 
Treves, Count of, allied with 

Edward III.,- - 309 

Tripoli, fall of, - 61 

Turberville, Thomas de, - -121 

Turgot, Bishop of St. Andrews, - 37 

Tyes, Sir Henry de, - - 236 

Tykhill, castle of, besieged, - - 231 

Tynemouth, Edward II. at- - 197 

Typtoft, Sir Pagan de, - 206, 208 

Udachis, David ap, - ~ 33 

Ufford, Sir Robert de. See Suffolk, 

Earl of. 
Ulpian's Praetorialia. See Prae- 

torialia. 
Umfraville, Sir Ingelram de, 

114, 177, 206, 209 
Urri, Adam, story of, - - 54 

Valence, Aymer de. See Pem- 
broke, Earl of. 

Vale, Robert de la, - - 342 

Vallibus, Sir John de, - 18 

Vannes, siege of, - 324 

Vere, Sir Hugh de, - - 170 

Verses, on Scots, - 167-168 

Vesci, Lord John de, - II, 52 
Vesci, Sir William de, death of heir of, 117 

Vienne, Council of, - - 196 

Vienne, Dauphin de, - - 309 
Visions, - 133,148,151,157 

Viterbo, - 12, 26 

Wake, Thomas le, - 265, 267, 306 
Wales, wars in, - 16, 20 

Wallace, Sir John, capture and 

execution of,- - 182 

Wallace, William, defeats English 
at Stirling, 164 ; invades Eng- 
land, 164 ; defeated at Falkirk, 
1 66 ; captured, 175 ; executed, 176 



Wallingford, - - 184 

Walsingham, Edward I.'s body at, 185 
Warenne, Earl of. See Surrey, 

Earl of. 

Wark, - - 134, 220 

Warwick, Thomas Earl of, - 302, 305 
Warwick, Guy Earl of, - 194, 198 
Wells, prebendary of, curious 

death of, - - 101 

Well, story about priest at, - - 71 
Welsh, rebellion of, - - 108 

Wemyss, David de, - - 272 

Wemyss, Michael de, - - 272 

Westminster, - - 74, 77, 185, 256 
Whittingehame, - 59 

Wigtown, M. Fleming Earl of, 339, 342 
Wilde, William, - 98 

William, Archbishop of York, trans- 
lation of, - 36 
William, Bishop of Orkney, - - 10 
William, King of Scotland, Char- 
ter of, - 89 
Winchelsea, Robert of, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, 

87, 104, 122^2** I9^,_202 

WinchesteF,Tfishop of, 170, 254 

Windsor, Round Table at, - - 325 
Wischard, John de, Bishop of 

Glasgow, dies at sea, - - 305 
Wishart, Robert, Bishop of Glas- 
gow, - 16, 163, 178, 211 
Wishart, William, Bishop of St. 

Andrews, - - 2, 20 

Worcester, Edward I. at, - - 148 
Wykeham, William of, Archbishop, 19, 48 

York, John Archbishop of, - - 130 
York, Provincial Council at, 86 ; 
Rismaraduc hanged at, 89 ; Ed- 
ward II. and Gaveston at, 196, 
197; Parliament at, 211, 237, 
274, 290 ; Edward III. married 
at, - 259 

Yoleta, Queen, at Kinghorn, 41, 44 



Zouche, W. de la, Archbishop of 
York, - - 32 



357 



GLASGOW : PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 
BY ROBERT MACLEHOSE AND CO. LTD. 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 



DA Ghronicon de Lanercost 

220 The Chronicle of 

C57 Lanercost