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■ ' ■ — -^— ■■ i«i ■ 

Multa renafcentur qua jam cecidere. — HoR. 





By C. Stewart \Sf Co. Printtn t« tht Univerjity ; 









1 HE " Alphabetical Explanation of hard and 
difficult words in Gawin Douglas *s tranjlation of 
Vir^iPs jEneis** by the celebrated gjjddiman, 
may be confidered as the ground-work of this 
Gloflary j while, at the fame time, all the 
befl Gloflaries of the Scottifh and old Englifli 
languages have been carefully confulted. Re- 
courfe has alfo been had to foine of the beft 
Teutonic, Anglo-Saxon, and Scandinavian dic- 
tionaries, in one or other of which, almoft every 
old Scottifh word is to be found, with nearly the 
fame fignification. Under the Teytonic are 
comprehended the various dialeds ufed in Bel- 
gium or the Netherlands, and in the North-weft 
of Germany The Anglo-Saxo n, as every one 
knows, is the antient language of England j and 
Vol. IV. A the 

the Scan dinavian comprehends the languages oi 
Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Iceland. The 
whole of thefe are, indeed, but v ariou s dialects 
of the fame language ; fo that the fame Scottilh 
word is frequently to be found in all of them, 
with only fome flight variation of the orthogra- 
phy. It appears, however, that the Scottilh dia- 
led has a much greater affinity with the Anglo- 
Saxon and with the Teutonic or Belgic than 
with any of the Scandinavian dialects j and, with 
refpeft to the two firft, it appears that a cognate 
word is more readily difcovered in t he Teu tonic 
cli6lionary_gf J^yjan than in the Anglo-Saxon ot 
Lyf. The origin or caufe of this affinity war 
lirft pointed out in 1742 by Sir John Clerk ot 
Pennycuik, in " An Enquiry into the antient lan- 
guage of Britain ;'* a paper intended for the Phi- 
lofophical Society of Edinburgh, and printed on- 
ly within thefe few years in the Bibliotheca To- 
pographica. This being a voluminous work, 
and in the hands of few, a confiderable part of 
the following curfory obfervations Ihall be 
given in the words of Baron Clerk's Enquiry. 
The purpofe of them is nothing more than to 
fubmit to the reader a conjecture with refped to 
the origin of the appellatives Pidi, Caledonii, and 
Scotti ; a conjefture which, if not probable, is at 
leaft new. As, unhappily, we have not any mo- 
numents of the Lowland Scottifh of an older 


( ii! ) 

date than the thirteenth centurjr, it is chiefly by- 
means of the etymology of appellatives that we 
can form any rational conjefture concerning the 
antient inhabitants and language of the country. 
If it could be afcertained that the Caledonii of 
Tacitus Were a German or Belgic people, and 
that the names of Caledonii and Pi6li denoted 
not only the fame people, but were derived from 
words having the fame fignification ; and, at the 
fame time, that this fignification exprefled one of 
the mod remarkable circumftances in their mode 
of life ; while, on the other hand, the appella- 
tive Scotti was derived from a word indicating a 
contrary way of living, fome light might be 
thrown on a fubjeft of no fmall importance in 
the antient hiftory of North Britain. The prin- 
cipal arguments which are ufed by Sir John 
Clerk and Mr Pinkerton to prove the German 
or Teutonic origin of the Caledonians are the 
following : 

Cacfar, in his fifth book of commentaries, 
(" de Bello Gallico,") hath thefe words ; « Bri- 
tanniae pars interior ab iis incolitur quos natos 
in infula ipfa memoria proditum dicunt ; mari- 
tima pars ab iis qui prsedse ac belli inferendi 
caufa, ex Belgio tranfierunt ; et nominibus civi- 
tatum appellantur, quibus orti ex civitatibus eo 
pervenerunt, et bello illati ibi remanferunt, atque 
ngros colere caeperunt. i^c.'* i. e. The inland part 


C ir ) 

of Britain is poffeffed by thofe who are reported 
to have been produced in the island itfelf ; and 
who fow no corn, but live upon milk and flefh ; 
the maritime part, by thofe who have pafled from 
Belgic Gaul, and are almoft all called by the 
names of thofe cities from which they had their 
original. After they had made war, they conti- 
nued there, and began to cultivate the ground. 
He elfewhere informs us, *' Belgas effe ortos a 
Germanis,** that the Belgae fprung from the 
Germans j or, in other words, they were Ger- 

Ptolemy, who wrote his geography of Britain 
in the fecond century, places the Belgse in the 
fouth parts of England, viz. in Somerfetlhire, 
Hamplhire, and Wiltfhire, and afcribes to them 
chiefly two cities j one of them fuppofed to be 
Bath or Wells, and the other Winchefter. 

From that antient treatife called Notitia Im- 
perii, written before the invafion of the lafl Sax- 
ons in the fifth century, it appears that the littus 
SaxonUum was particularly taken care of by the 
Romans j being placed under the authority of a 
Magiftrate who was called Comes littoris Saxo- 
nici. We have there alfo an account of feveral 
offices, fub difpofitione comitis Hi tons Saxonici in 
Britannia ; and fo are not left to doubt that thefe 
fliores were inhabited by a race of people from 
Germanv, whom the Romans confidered as a 


( * ) 

vety confiderable part of the inhabitants of Bri- 

Tacitus, fpeaking of the Suevi and Aeftyi, 
(populi Pruflias, et Livonias, Suevi, Pomeraniae, 
et provinciarum finiiimarum,) fays, " quibus ri- 
tus habitufque Suevorum linguae Britannicas pro- 
prior ;** i. e. that the Suevi, (a German people 
between the Kibe and the Viftula,) fpoke a lan- 
guage which refembled that of the Britifli. 

The fame writer, in his life of Agricola, fays, 
** Rutilae Caledoniam habitantium comae, magni 
artiis, Germanicam originem afleverant, fermo 
haud multo diverfus ;" i. e. the red hair and 
large limbs of thofe inhabiting Caledonia afliire 
us of their German origin j their language being 
alfo not much different.*' It is not indeed cer- 
tain that Tacitus himfelf was ever in Britain, or 
that he wrote from his own proper knowledge ; 
but being the fon-in-law of Agricola, the Roman 
General there, and having lived long in Belgic 
Gaul as procurator, he had great opportunities 
of intelligence. Befides, among the auxiliary 
troops in Agricola's army, there were whole co- 
horts of Batavi and Tungri, who are defcribed 
by Tacitus himfelf as Germans ; confcquently 
they mufl have been able to recognife their mo- 
ther tongue when they heard it fpoken by tlie 


C v! ) 

That thefe Caledonians were the fame people 
who in the following century were called Pidts, 
appears from a paffage in Eumenius. In his ora- 
tion fpoken (A. D. 296) upon the viftory of 
Conftantius over Aileclus, he ufes the following 
words : " Adhoc natio etiam tunc rudis, et foli 
Britannij Piftis modo, et Hibernis, alTueta hoUi- 
bus adhuc feminudis, facile Romanis armis fig- 
nifque ccfierunt ; i. e. Moreover, the nation he 
(Julius Csefar) attacked was then rude ; and the 
Britons, ufed only to the Pifts and Irilh as ene- 
mies, and being yet themfelves Ixit half naked, 
eafily yielded to the Roman arms and enfigns. 
And again, in the year 310. " Neque enim ille 
vot tantifque rebus geftis, non dico Caledonum, 
aliorumque Pidorum, frlvas et paludes, fed nee 
Hiberniam proximum, neg Thulen ultimam, nee 
ipfas, fi quse funt, Fortunatorum infulas, digna- 
tur acquirere, &c. j" i. e. For, by fo many and 
fo great adions, he deigns not to acquire, I will 
not fay the woods and mar flies of tbe Caledonians 
and other Pids, but Ireland, which lies nigheft, 
&c. ; from this paflage it appears almod unquef- 
tionably that the Caledonians were Pit^s ; and 
that the Hibernj were a differeilt race of men. 

Under the year 364, Ammianus Marcellinus^ 
iifes thefe words : " Pidi, Saxonefque, et Scotti, 
et Attacotti, Britannos serumnis vexavere conti- 
nuis." The Pifts and Saxons, and Scots and 


{ vii ) 

Auacots vexed the Britons with continual bai-afl- 
ments : And under the year 368 he fays, " Eo 
tempore Pidi in duas gentes divifi, Dicalcdonas 
et VeO:uriones, itidemque Attacotti, bellicofa ho- 
minum natio, et Scotti per diverfa vagantes, muU 
ta populabantur ;'* i. e. At this timp the Picts, 
divided into two nations, the Dicaledonac and 
Vedturiones, as ^Ifo the Attacots, a warUke na- 
tion, and the Scots, wandering divers ways, ra- 
vaged many parts. Thefe notices are immediate 
and prefent ; not retrofpeftive, as tliat of the 
Pifts by Eumenius ; and afford a flrong proof 
that the Caledonians and Pi<its were one and the 
fame people ; al(b, according to Sir John Clerk, 
that the Saxons here mentioned were inhabitants 
of fome part of Britain ; and laflly, that the 
Scotti per diverfa vagantes are the fame people 
who are mentioned by Eumenius under the name 
of Hiberni ; in after times called the wil J or luan- 
dering Scots, in contra-diflm£lion to the civilized 
Scots or Vefturiones, who are placed by Richard 
of Cirenceller, in Fife, Angus, &c. 

To come to Britifh authors ; — x'Vdomnan, 
who about 690, wrote the life of Columba, men- 
tions that he had an interpreter between him and 
the PiOs. Columba was an Iriflmian ; fo that 
the PiQs could not be Gael or Hiberni • and c- 
ven from this they \^'ou1lI feem not Cumri or 
antient Britons, for we fmd Patrick, a Cumraig, 
preached to the Irifli without an interpreter, as 


C vlli ) 

may be feen In the many large lives of him, 
where not a word of an interpreter is mention-^ 

Bede, who wrote about the year 730, defcribes 
the Pi6ls as a people who came from Scythia ; 
or from the South of Scythia, according to the 
Saxon Chronicle ; and it is commonly under- 
ftood that the Scythia of Bede is the Germany 
of Tacitus. If the Scythia of the Saxon Chro- 
nicle fliould rather mean Scandinavia, we may 
confider the mother country of the Pidts to have 
been fomewhere at no great diftance from the 
mouth of the Baltic. Here it is proper to men- 
tion, that Bede fays there were, in his time, (be- 
fides the Latin,) four languages fpoken in Brir 
tain, -viz. Anglorum, Britonum, Scotorum et 
Piftorum ; i. e. Anglo Saxon or Old Englifh ; 
Britifli or Welch ; Scottifh or Hibernian ; and 
Pi6li(h or the language of the Veduriones : And 
Nennius, about the year 850, gives us the fame 
information ; *' In Britannia prius habitabant 
quatuor gentes, Scoti, Pidi, atque Saxones et 
Britones j" in both of which enumerations, the 
Anglo-Saxons, and Britifli of the South of BrI-, 
tain are oppofed to the Pids and Scoti, or Hi- 
bemi of the North. Thus it feems probable, 
that long before the arrival of the Saxons under 
Hengift; in the fifth century, the whole Eafliera 
parts of Britain were inhabited by a people oi 


( >^ ) 

German or Teutonic origin ; and that the 
language of the Ve£luriones, or of Pechtland, 
differed but little from that of the littora Saxo- 
nies, or Eallerji parts of England j probably not 
faore than at prefent. 

The Saxons, of Vandalic origin, are mention- 
ed by Ptolomey as a people of Germany, near 
the Cherfonefus Cimbrica, or about the mouth 
pf the Elbe ; and in all probability bore that 
name before any of them emigrated into Britain. 
But neither of the two names of the German 
people who inhabited the Eaftem parts of Scot- 
land, feems to have been ufed by any antient na- 
tion of the Continent ; nor has any fatisfadory 
account be^i given of the origin of thefe 

Thefe people, in the Saxon Chronicle, and in 
King Alfred's tranflation of Bede's Ecclefiaftical 
Hiftory, are uniformly called, (not Pi£ki or Picki, 
but) Peohtas, Pyhtar, and Peahte-theod, (that is 
Peoht people); by the vulgar, to this day, all over 
Scotland, Peyhts ; by the antient Welch writ- 
ers, Phicbtied ; and by the Irifh and Gaelic, 
Cruithneachd. As the language of the Anglo- 
Saxons differed little from that of the Pids, the 
name given to the latter by the Anglo-Saxons 
probably comes neareft to that ufed by the peo- 
ple themfelves. And, if they called themfelves 
by fuch a name as Peohtas, the circuraflance 

Vol. IV. B to 

( '^ ) 

to be mentioned below authorifes a conjecture 
that they alTumed this appellation from the 
ftriking difference between their mode of life 
;ind that of the Scotti or Hiberni, their neigh- 
bours to the Weftward. It has alfo been fhewn 
that, as far back as the time of Julius Caefar, the 
inhabitants of the interior, or rather perhaps the 
"Weftern parts of England, did not fow corn, but 
lived upon milk and flefh ; and that in the year 
368, the Scotti are defcribed as " per diverfa va- 
gantes/' i. e. a people who led a wandering 
life ; which feems to imply that they lived much 
in the fame manner as the anceflors of the 
Welch i that is, not by raifmg of corn, but up- 
on animal food. And it is remarkable, that the 
name which they gave to the Peyht-folk figni- 
fies alfo in their language wheat ; fo that Cruit/j- 
tieacbt, without any llretch of meaning, feems to 
fignifyy^a'^rj of wheat, or people who fubfijtcd up", 
on corn. 

The key to the explanation of the term Pecht- 
iheod, or Pccht-people, is probably the initial fyl- 
Jable of the names of all fuch places in Scotland 
as begin with Pit or Pitten ; as Pit-fligo, Pit- 
ferran, Pit-medie, Pit-illock, Pit-arow, Pit-liver ; 
Pitten-crief, Pitten-weym, Pitten- dreich. This; 
initial Pit has every appearance of being the 
fame with the Belgic Paecht or Pacht, which in 
|he didionaries of Wachter and Kilian is exr 


jilained villa, cohnia ; and may perhaps be near- 
ly allied with the Latin Pagus, i. e. victis ubi mul- 
ta edificia rujiica funt conjunSla. In the fame 
diftionaries we alfo find the compofite Am- 
bachten or Ampaechten, (the plural of Am-bacHt 
or Am-paecht,) thus explained ; " ejufmodi in 
civitatibus corpora dicuntur quae unum fibi le- 
gunt, cujus au£loritatem perinde atque capitis 
fui vcnerantur. Hinc apud Flandros quatuor 
pagi funt, aut potius unus pagus in quatuor re- 
giones divifus, cujus fmgulae partes am-bachtcn 
vocantur : qifod diligenter notandum, ne quis o- 
pinetur hoc vocabulo mechanicam artem fignifi- 
care, quod quidam fermonis fui nimis rudes opi- 
nantur. Ambachten funt collegia artijicum in ci- 
vitafibus." In conformity with this explanation 
of Paccht and Am-pacht, Kil-an makes this lafl 
fynonimous with the Teutonic Ghilde, which he 
explains, focietat contributionum, fjfcenium^fyjfitiay 
fhr atria yfodalit as, corpus. 

If, then, the Caledonians or Paecht theod were 
a German people, as Tacitus defcribes them, it 
feems not^ improbable that thefe terms Pascht, 
and its compofite Am- bacht, or Am-paecht, were 
the origin of the modem Fit or Peth ; both of 
them fignifying a 'village or town inhabited by in- 
corporated citizens , fuch as artificers, hufband- 
men, merchants, &c. who might find it their in- 
tereft to aflbciate in this manner, either for the 


( *ii ) 

purpofe of mutual defence, or of carrying on 
their various occupations to the befl advantage ; 
a mode of hfe which mufl have differed extreme- 
ly from that of their neighbours the Scotti, per 
diverfa vagantes, who perhaps chofe to live more 
at large, and to fubfifl: upon the produce of their 
herds of cattle, or by the means of fifliing and 

Of all the various occupations or profellions 
of thefe ajfociated viliagersy it is natural to fup- 
pofe that none would be more refpeftable or nu- 
merous than the clafs of hufbandmen. Accord- 
ingly, in the di£tionaries already mentioned, we 
find Psechter and Pachter explained colonus, 
eondudtor, prsbdii rullici conductor, i. e. huf- 
bandman or farmer ; in early times, perhaps, a 
perfon who contributed one or more oxen to the 
number which was deemed neceffary for culti- 
vating a ploughgate of land, or fifty acres. 

Every one knows that hufbandmen were an- 
tiently little better than Haves to the great Ba- 
rons or Land-holders. Accordingly, we find 
in the fame didionaries the term Am-pachter ex- 
plained " ambadus, cliens, vafallus ;" and in 
the Gothic Gofpels of Ulphilas Andbahtos, ufed 
for " mihifler," (John xviii. i8.) It is proba- 
ble, indeed, that the Latin word ambadus is de- 
rived from the Belgic am-pachter. It is thus uf- 
ed by Caefar : ** ut quifque (GallornmJ eft ge- 


f xlii 5 

iiere copilfque ampliflimus, ita plurimos circa fe 
ambados clientefque habet.'* And of this word 
ambadus, Feftus fays, " lingua Gallica fervus 
dicitur ;** to which quotation is added by Wach- 
ter, " quod de lingua Galliss, Belgicae intelli- 
genduni," And we have the teftimony of Cse- 
far, " Belgas ejfe ortos a Gernianis,'* that the Bel- 
gae fprung from the Germans ; and of Strabo, 
that the manners of the Belgae and Germans 
were quite the fame. The Anglo-Saxon term 
eorrefponding nearly with the Belgic Am-pacbicr 
and Latin Ambadus appears under the form of 
Am-biht-men, and is explained miniflri, fcrvientes, 
ftipatores, fatellites, pediflequi. 

It thus appears that all thefe words, viz. Paecht 
or Pacht, Paechterr or Pachter, Ambacht or Am- 
piht, Ambachteh, and Ambiht-men are of one 
and the fame family ; all of them fignifying ei- 
ther a village containing ajfociated ciiizensy or the 
inhabitants of ajfociated villages. To the fame 
clafs of words, 1 have no doubt, we may refer 
not only the initial Pith or Pit in the names of 
places, but the appellation of Pehts or Pids^ by 
which the inhabitants of the greater part of 
North Britain were difUnguifhed, from the third 
to the t^velfth century. The literal meaning of 
the word was probably no more than the inhabi- 
tants of ajfociated villages ; and accordingly, in 
the Saxon Chronicle, they are fometimes called 

' Peht-. 

Pebi-ihcod ', from Bdg. pacbt, villa, colonia, pa- 
gus ; or ampacht, coitio fodalium, collegiumy 
fodalitas ; and theod, gensj populus ; and their 
country Peht-land, Peth-land and Pet-land ; now 
corrupted to Pentland. 

It is worthy of obfervation, that almoft all 
thofe places in Scotland which have the initial 
fyllable Peth or Pitt are fituated within twenty 
itiiles of the fea, or of a navigable river ; from 
which it may be inferred that they were among 
the firft built villages or towns in North Bri- 
tain ; probably a thoufand years older than any 
fuch villages among the wandering Scotti. Thus 
living among, or in the vicinity of a people who 
did 720/ affociate in villages, or did not even con- 
flruct houfes, but fheltered themfelves in woods 
and caves, it was natural for the Belgi to diftin- 
guifh themfelves by a name which was defcrip- 
tive of their fecial mode of life. 

This etymology of Peht-theod or Peychtes, 
and Peht-land or Peth-land, will not be invali- 
dated by the circumftance that in the vicinity of 
fome of thefe places, beginning with Peth ox Pitt, 
there are coalleries j whence it might be inferred 
that the narhes are derived from the coal-pits. 
Places thus named are chiefly between the friths 
of Forth and Murray. In this extenfive diftricl 
there are no collieries, except a few in the very 
Southern extremity ; and thefe are probably of 


( XV ) 

a much later date than the names of the places. 
And in other parts of Scotland where coal pits 
abound, we find no name of a place beginning 
with Pit. It is not, therefore, likely that this 
can be the origin of the name. The Scottifh terra 
is not coal-pit, but coal heugh. 

From the fit nation of thefe places beginning 
with Pit, it may be conje«5l:ured that the friths of 
Forth and Murray were originally the bounds of 
the Pidifli dominions or Peth land on the South 
and North ; and that the Pifbs occupied chiefly 
the arable land adjoining to the coaft or naviga- 
ble rivers. Here they carried on the bufmefs of 
agriculture ; and hence, by their neighbours the 
Scotti, they were called Crutheneihd or fowerx 
of wheat. And it is a circumftance worth men- 
tioning, that the Highland labourers who annu- 
ally come down to aflift the Lowlanders in cut- 
ting down their crop, call them at this day by a 
name equivalent to the Strangers. 

But, although Belgic pachts or villages were 
fcattered over the whole coafl; between the coun- 
ties of Clackmannan and Nairn, the principal, if 
not the earliefl: domain of the Peychts feems to 
have been the counties of Fife, Angus, and 
Carfe of Gowrie ; the chief regal feats, (if the 
term regal can wiih propriety be ufed,) being at 
Forteviot and Abernethy. In this diftrid Rich- 
ard of Cireiiceltcr places the Vecturiones ; by 


C xvi J 

which name the Southern Pids are diftinguifhed 
jn the fourth century from the Di-Caledonii, or 
Picts along the coall to the Eaflward of the Mur- 
ray frith ; or from the county of Nairn round 
perhaps to Aberdeen. That this term Vec- 
turiones is derived from the fame fource, can 
fcarcely admit of a doubt ; it being well known 
that the labials P , B, and V or F are inter- 
changeable in almoft every language ; and, in 
conformity with this principle, that the Welch 
name for the Pi6ls is Phichtiad or Fichtied. 

Another antient name of the country inhabitr 
ed by the Vefturiones was Foth-ryk or Fothrev. 
This feems alfo a Belgic, not a Scandinavian 
word, fignifying the kingdom of the Barons, or 
that part of the country which particularly a- 
bounded with caftles or feats of the Pidifh no- 
bility ; from Teutonic Voght, (or according to 
the Scandinavian orthography, Fogd,) prasfedus, 
toparcha, prsefedtus arcis ; and r/V, regnum. Ac- 
cording to Mr Macpherfon, in his Geographical 
Jlliistrations of Scottijh History, Fothric contained 
the upper part of Fife-lhire, with Kinrofs-fhire, 
and the pariflies of Clackmannan and Muckard ; 
being the parts which were mod expofed to the 
inroads of the Angli and other enemies on the 
South ; and therefore in greateft want of caftles 
and ftrong holds to impede their progrefs. The 
name is fomctimes indeed written Forthric ; and 


( xvii ) 

hence Lord Hailes derives it from Forth ; but 
this form of the word is probably a corruption ; 
and even the name of the river may be derived 
from the fame fource. In the Sw^edilh we find 
Foegderi explained praefedlura, jurifdidlio, to- 
parcha ; and Forteviot was antiently written Fo- 
ther as well as Forthar. In the fame part of the 
country there are alfo various other na^mes of 
places beginning with Fotb or Fod. King Ken- 
neth, the fon of Malcolm, was killed at Fother- 
kern, (now Fetherkern,) and it is not unlikely 
that the name of Fife belongs to the fame clafs 
of words. To conclude thefe obfervations on 
the etymology of the appellations of Peht-theod 
and Peth-land, I fhall only add, that there feem 
to be no fuch words as thofe above mentioned, 
VIZ. pacht, pacbitr, am-pabt, &c. in the Danifii 
or Swedifh languages ; and that, if the deriva- 
tion here fubmitted to the reader (hould be with- 
out foundation, it is a remarkable circumftance 
that the appellation Caledona, denoting the fame 
Belgic people, appears to be fynonimous in ori- 
ginal, or literal . fignification, with the words 
from which the name of Pechts has been deriv- 

In the Conftifutions of Charlemagne, and in 
the antient laws of the Longobards, the term uf- 
ed for a guildry or incorporated body of citizens, 
was Geldonia^ or, as it might fometijtnes be pro- 

VoL.. IV. C nounced. 

( ^y**^ ) 

nounced, Keldonia, from the Teutonic verb geh 
ten^ alfo written kelten^ folvere, mutuo dare, red- 
dere rem pro re; ditiAgelt, fuppofed to fignify ori- 
ginally " vices, et quaslibet res cum alia commu- 
tata." This affords room for a conjefture that 
the Caledonians of Tacitus were not only the 
fame people with the Peht-theod or Pids, but 
that their name was literally fynonimous in all 
refpeds. The root of this term Geldonia occurs 
in the Gothic gofpels of Ulphilas, Luke xii. 14, 
us-gildan, et fra-gildan, reddere ; and may have 
exifted in the language of the Germans or Belgi 
long before his time. Now. if the inhabitants; 
of the pahts, pitts or villages were, as Tacitus 
reprefents ihem, a people who fpoke nearly the 
fame language, it fecms not improbable that one 
of the names by which they diftinguifhed them- 
felves from the Scotti " per diverfa vagantes,** 
might be the Geldonich or Keldotiich, which the 
Romans could fcarcely latinize by any other 
word than Caledonii. If there be any truth 
in this conjefture, the appellation of Geldonii or 
Caledonii could never denote the Scotti, or inha- 
bitants of the hilly part of the country j but on- 
ly thofe who affociated together in villages or 
towns in the more fertile parts of the country. — « 
Had the word been of Gaelic, Irifli or Welch 
origin, fome appearance of it might have been 
expe^ed to remain in one or more of thefe lan- 
guages r, 

( 3ciX ) 


guages ; but no veftige of that kind is to be 
found. Some have conjeftured that the term 
Caledonii is derived from the Welch kelydhon, or 
" woods." But certainly no part of North Bri- 
tain abounded more with woods than the dif- 
tri£ts of Teviotdale, Selkirk, Peebles, and La- 
nark J and yet the name of Caledonians was ne- 
ver given to their inhabitants, but was peculiar 
to the people of Peht-land or Peth-land. The 
appellation feems then to have originated among 
themfelves ; and from them to have pafled di- 
reflly to the Romans. 

It now remains to offer a conjefture with re- 
fpeft to the origin of the appellation of Scoiti. — 
The name is unknown in the Gaelic language, 
and is firfl mentioned by Ammianus vlarcelli- 
iius,' A. D. 360. " In Britanniis cum Scotorum 
Piftorumque, gentium ferarum, excurfus, &c.*' 
where " it is joined with that of Pifti, as Hi- 
berni had been fixty-four years before by Eu- 
menius.** Hence it may be inferred, that Hi* 
berni and Scotti were fynonimous. Under the 
year 364 they are again mentioned thus by the 
fame writer : " Pi6H, Saxonefque, et Scotti et 
Attacutti, Britannos srumnis vexavere conti- 
nuis." And tinder 368, ** Eo tempore Picti in 
duas gentes divifi, Dicaledonas et Ve^turiones, 
itidemque Attacotti, bellicofa hominum natio, et 
Sc9tti per diverfa vagantes, &c.** At this time 


the Pi£ts, divided into two nations, the Di-Cale- 
donas and Vefturiones, as alfo the Attacots, a 
warlike nation, and the Scots, wandering about 
from place to place, ravaged many parts. Here 
the words " per diver/a vagantes'* are defcrip- 
tive probably of the general charafter of the 
Scotfi ; as in fubfequent times they were called 
the wandering, or wild Scots ; and Gildas men- 
tions them as coming from the North weft to 
invade the Britons, as the Pids came from the 
North. Without entering into the queflion. 
Whence, or at what time the Scotti came into 
North Britain, there can be no doubt that the 
people here defcribed by Ammianus, and per- 
haps alfo by Gildas, were the mhabitants of the 
mountainous parts of Scotland, to the North of 
the Clyde, and Weft of Peht-land ; it being in- 
credible that Argyle-fhire and the head of Perth- 
fhire fhould, in the fourth and fifth centuries, be 
inhabited by Cruthenachd, or Jbivers of wheat, 
or by a people who were accuftomed to aflbciate 
together in towns or large villages. In the maps 
of antient North Britain, no veftige appears of 
any fuch places. And if that part of Scotland 
had been entirely uninhabited, the wandering 
Scotti, it is probable, inftead of returning to Ire- 
land, after the feafon of depredation was at an 
end, would have taken pofleffion of it as a 
country that was fuitable to their mode of life j, 


and where they could always be ready to join 
their allies the Pi£ts at a moment's warning. The 
mountanous part of North Britain mufl there- 
fore have been inhabited in the time of Ammia- 
nus either by the Scotti or the Atta-Cotti ; both 
of whom are confidered as the fame with the 
Hiberni of Eumenius. 

It feems alfo not unlikely that Scotti and Cottl 
were originally the fame word ; ar^ that Atta 
is merely a di{tin£Uve prefix, denoting fome qua- 
lity, or relative fituation of territory. The quef- 
tion then comes to be. Whether Scotti or Cotti 
be the original form of the name ? It is well 
known, that in the Northern languages the S 
has frequently been prefixed to words that ori- 
ginally were written with an initial C or K. — 
Thus the Englilh fcratch is formed from the 
Teutonic krat-::, ; Jhort from hrt ; Jklender from 
kleyner ; fcop, now fliop, from ap ; fcrapc from 
krabben ; Jkreigh from kraeycren ; and in many 
other inftances. I therefore am inclined to give 
the preference, in point of antiquity, to the form 
of Cotti^ and to believe that this appellation has 
been given to them by their Belgic neighbours, 
as a nickname denoting fome remarkable cir- 
cumftance in their manners, or mode of life. It 
is beyond a. doubt that mankind, in a certain 
ftage of civilization, mull have Iheltered them- 
felves chiefly in caves and dens 3 and it is well 


( xxii ) 

known that Scotland abounds with lurking pla- 
ces of this kind, both natural and artificial, more 
than any other country in the world. A great 
number are defcribed in the Stati/iical Account. — ■ 
Some of them are of immenfe extent ; " capable 
of lodging five or fix hundred people." Some 
are fcooped out among rocks ; others are con- 
ftruded below ground in the plains ; and thefe, 
without the a:^ftance of arches, which tends to 
evince their high antiquity. In fome of them 
are found large quantities of peat or of wood 
afhes, with fragments of rude earthen vefifels,' 
and other houfehold implements ; fometimes a- 
round the entrance of them confiderable ftrata 
of bones and oyfler Ihells, as in New Holland j 
and in moft cafes, divided into, or confiding of 
a variety of feparate apartments. What can we 
conclude from this", but that thefe caves had 
ferved the inhabitants of the country for regular 
and common dwelling places ? A Belgic nation 
obtaining a fettlement, in a country thus inha- 
bited, might naturally call the Aborigines by a 
name ddcriptive of this extraordinary circum- 
ftance. Iri the Belgic or Teutonic didionaries, 
we find Kot (or Cott) explained " cavus, ca- 
vum, caverna, fpelunca, cubile ferarum, latibu- 
lum." From this was probably formed the 
nickname of Cotti, i. e. the inhabitants of the 
raves ; — ^an appellation fo natural and appofite, 


( atxiii *) 

that one might have been furprifed if the Belgas 
had called them by any other name. « he cha.ige 
from Cotti to Scotti might take place in the iame 
manner as in the other inftances above-men- 
tjoned. The Belgic article, correfponding to 
the, might be Je, as in the Anglo-^axon, or fa 
in the Gothic ; fo that 5^ Cottigh would fignify 
the inhabitant of a cave ; and this, to a Roman 
ear, might found Scottish or Scotti That the 
antient Britons did occafionally lodge in the 
fame manner, is reported by Bede, who repre- 
fents them as '* making excurfions from the 
mountains, caves, and woods," againfl their ene- 
mies the Pids, and Irifj rovers, (Hiberni graffa- 
tores. J Even among the Germans, the art of 
building houfes of (tone feems to be compara- 
tively a modem invention. Inftead of the phrafe 
*' built his hoiife upon a rock," Ulphilas ufes, 
** timbered his houfe upon a ftane." In coun- 
tries, therefore, where the ufe of inftruments of 
metal was little, or not at all known, and while 
the forefts were filled with wolves and other fa- 
vage animals, it was impoflible for the human 
race to exift in any other manner than in caves. 
So late as in the fourteenth century, Scotland is 
defcribed as " generally void of trees, and more 
abundant in favages than in cattle. Even in the 
Lowlands, the houfes of the common people 
have four or five pofis to lupport the turf walls, 


f xxiv ) 

and a roof of boughs ; three days fufficed to c- 
red the huinble rhanfion." " The commonalty, 
fays a contemporary author, have abundance of 
flelh and fifli, but eat bread as a dainty " If fuch 
was the fituation of the Lowlanders in the four- 
teenth century, what mufl have been that of the 
Highlanders, i. e. the Scotti and Atta-Cotti in 
the fourth ? — Probably the obfervation which 
Sir Will:am Petty makes with refped to the I- 
rilh may with equal juftice be applied to the abo- 
'riginal inhabitants of North Britain. ** There 
is, at this day, no monument or valid argument 
to fhow that, when they were firft invaded, they 
had any flone houfing at all ; any money, any 
foreign trade, any learning j nor geometry, af-, 
tronomy, anatomy, painting, carving ; nor any 
kind t)f manufafture ; nor the lead ufe of navi- 
gation, or the art military.*' Nearly in the fame 
fituation, according to Icelandic writers, appear 
to have been the antient inhabitants of Norway, 
" who fled from the open day, and lived in the 
folitudes and clefts of the rocks ; who fed on 
human flefii, and clotlied themfelves in the raw 
fkins of wild beads." Thus alfo are defcribed 
the Atta-Cotti by St. Jerome, an eye-witnefs : — 
*' Cum ipfe idolefcentulus in Gallia viderim At- 
ta-Cottos, gentem Britannicam humanis vefci 
carnibus j et cum per filvas porcorum greges, et 
armentorum pecudumque reperiant, paftoruni 


nates et feminarum papillas folere abfcindere ; et: 
has folas ciborum delicias arbitrari.** 

The fame horrid accufation is maintained a- 
gainft the antient Hibemi by various Roman au- 
thors ; and no lefs againfl the primitive inhabi- 
tants of the Scottifli caves by vulgar tradition.— 
The Gaelic word for ** cave" is uaigh, and that 
for " a giant" uaigher ; i. e. the inhabitant of a 
cave. The fafeft retreats would thus be occupied 
by the mod powerful individuals, whofe ftature 
and rapacity of courfe would be magnified by 
the terrors of thofe who lurked in the open 
woods and wilds around them. 

In this ftage of fociety the language of the 
Gotti or Scotti mufl have been very confined : 
And, as the Welch borrowed a great number of 
words from the Romans and Belgi of South Bri- 
tain, fo the Scotti appear to have borrowed 
words of the fame nature from the Pehts or Bel- 
gi of the North, Thofe who are converfant in 
the various Teutonic dialects, will immediately 
perceive this upon looking into a Gaelic vocabu- 
lary, where the words are arranged according to 
the nature of things, qualities, arts, &c. Proba- 
bly the whole difference between the Welch and 
Gaelic may be accounted for upon this princi- 
ple. The number of original Britifli words in 
each may be nearly equal ; but the Gaelic, it is 
reafonable to fuppofe, may contain more Teuto- 

Vol. IV. D nic 

( xxvl ) 

nic words than the Welch ; and this again more 
Latin terms than are to be found in the language 
of the Scotti. At one period they were mofl 
probably the fame ; but in the time of Bede, 
(A. D. 730.) they were accounted different lan- 
guages ; and the Piftifh different from both. 

This laft pofition has, however, been flrenu- 
ously controverted by various eminent writers, 
■who, difregarding the authorities of Tacitus, 
Bede, the Saxon Chronicle, &c. contend that the 
Pi£ts were not of Teutonic or Belgic, but of 
Welch origin ; or, in other words, that they 
fpoke nearly the fame language with the Welch. 
One of their principal arguments is founded up- 
on a paffage in Bede, wherein he fays, that a 
town in Scotland at the Eaft end of the Pi£ts 
wall, was, in the language of the Pi£ts, called 
PeanfaheL And Nennius adds, that its name in 
theBritifli for Welch J tongue was Pengaaul; "^s 
nearly the fame word," fays Mr Ritfon, " as the 
flighteft difference of diale£t, or corruption of 
orthography will allow ; from pen, head, and 
Lat. njallum, wall ; which latter word both Pifts 
and Britons had adopted from the Romans, ei- 
ther from having no fynonimous word in their 
own language, or none at lead applicable to a 
fortification of that nature." But it fo happens 
that both parts of the name are pure Belgic or 
German J or at leaft as near to that language as 


( xxvii ) 

to the antient Britifh ; namely //'««, explained by 
Wachter fumm'ttas ; and vail or wall, niurus e 
cefpitibus ; and accordingly the Saxons called it 
Pennultun., that is Pitnual-toun. All that can be 
gathered from this lemark of Bede is, that the 
inhabitants of Peht land in his time, (as at pre- 
fent,) fometimes ufed/for iv or wh. 

Another objedion to this view of the Pidlifh 
origin is, that in the twelfth century the men of 
Galloway were Pifts ; and that thefe Galloway 
men continued to fpeak the Celtic language till 
within the eighteenth century. The weight of 
this obje£tion refts chiefly upon the authority of 
Irvine, who in his Nomenclatura bijioria Scotica, 
fays, that in his time, (about 1650,) the Gaelic 
Albanich was fpoken much in the Rinnsof Gal- 
loway; and upon that paffage in Buchanan 
where he treats of Galloway : '* Ea magna ex 
parte patrio fermone adhuc utitur.** By this 
conjiderable part he probably means very li.tle 
more than the trad which within feventy years 
after his time was particularly fpccified by Ir- 
vine, namely the Rinns, a peninfula to the Weft 
of Loch Ryan and the bay of Glenluce; and 
perhaps fome finall portion of the hilly part of 
the country. 1 he vicinity of this peninfula to 
Ireland, or fome other circumflance of fituation 
might occafion its being inhabited by people who 
fpoke the Gaelic language. But this is only a 


( xxvlii ) 

fmall part of what was antiently called Gallovidia. 
All the country to the Eaftward of the peninfu- 
la, or from Wigton to the mouth of the Solway, 
appears to have been inhabited antiently by a 
Saxon or Belgic people : firfl, " from the motes 
wrhich are extremely numerous through all that 
province. Camps alfo, in the Anglo Saxon 
fafhion arc not unfrequent. But what is chiefly 
remarkable, and at the fame time mod unequi- 
vocal, is, that the feats here occupied by the 
Angles, while Galloway was'fubjeft to the Nor- 
thumbrian fway, are ftill diftinguiftied by the 
name of Ingle/ions. Of thefe Ingle/ions there is 
one almofl in every parifh along the coaft, and 
commonly for fourteen or twenty miles back- 
wards into the interior country. Near each Ing- 
lefton is ufually a Boor- land ; and there are alfp 
feveral Ceorl-tons and Granges. In fhort, the 
names of places contigupus to the fea coaft are 
generally Anglo-Saxon." Whether Galloway, 
as would feem from Bede, was inhabited by Pidts 
in the 5th century, is of no confequence. It is 
fufEcient that the people \vhQ imppfed thefe 
names were of Teutonic, not of Britifti ori- 
gin. Befides, we are informed in exprefs terms 
by William of Malmefbury, that the Pi£ls, with 
the Scots, fome time before their union under 
Kenneth, invaded Gallpway, upon the decay of 
the Bernician kingdom : And from the Poly- 
chrcnicon we learn, " they were the Pids alone 


( xxix ) 

tJiat feized on Galloway and took it from the 
Saxons ;" immediately, perhaps, upon the fub- 
verfion of their government in Peht-land; or they 
may have been tranfplanted thither by Alexander 
the firft, or David the firft, as Malcolm the 
fourth in 1 1 59 ^*as obliged, on account of their 
turbulent difpofition, to difperfe thofe of Mur- 
ray Into different parts of the kingdom, and plant 
that country with new inhabltimts. 

Another objeclion to the German origin of the 
Pifts, it feems, is that " the names of the Pi6lilh 
fovereigns have no refcmblance to thofe in any 
Gothic lift.'* To this it may be anfwered, that 
the Picls appear to have been a colony of ftran- 
^crs whom the indigenous inhabitants permitted 
to fettle among them, partly for their own conve- 
niency or accommodation ; and that the princes 
who were appointed to rule over tlicm may have 
been of the Scottilh, Hot of Pidlifii race. But the 
objedion would require to be made with greater 
precifion ; by pointing out what lifts are alluded 
to. To me it rather appears that the names in 
the lift of ScottiP) kings have little or no refcm- 
blance to the Gaelic language ; and that it would 
be no diflicult ta(k to trace many of them, as 
well as of the Pidlfti, to a Gothic fourcc. Sec 
a fpcclmen of fuch derivauonsin Mr Pinkcrton's 
Enquiry into the antient hiftory of Scotland, 
Vol, n. p. 1^'. Fvcn the rir.n cs Vc^^inning villi 


( XXX ) 

Mac have a clofe affinity with the Gothic 7nag- 
us, filius, puer ; the final fyllable being merely a 
variable termination, as appears from the Anglo- 
Saxon form of the word, ynag. 

Mr Pinkerton, in the work juft now mention- 
ed, has alfo exhibited the Gothic origin of vari- 
ous initial and final fyllables in the names of 
places in Scotland. The moft remarkable of 
thefe are ; — Strath, from streke, plaga, regio ; 
strecksn^ extendere ; or strat, via, the tra6i (Lat. 
traftus) or way of the river. Aber, from Goth. 
tifar, trans, fuper ; Ang.-Sax. vfer, fuperior, al- 
tior, ulterior, poftcrior, ferior ; or bergh, raons, 
collis ; quafi, y-bergh. Bal, of the fame fignifi- 
cation with the initial Fad or Foth, from old 
Flemifii bael, prssfedus, adminiftrator, toparcha, 
provinciae prasfectus, prseter, judex ; et admini- 
ft ratio tutelse , quafi, the reftdence of the Super in- 
tend ant. Inver^ from Teut. vaeren, ire, tendere,^ 
proficifci ; quafi, in-fare or entrance : Or it may 
. fometimes fignify iiiner, inmost, within. 1 he Pitts 
or Fithens, we have feen, from Teut paht, villa, 
vicus, pagus. The Fors, (contr. of Father,) per- 
haps from Teut. voght, or Sc2Lnd. fogd, fynonimous 
with Bal, prsefeftus provinci^ five arcis, judex. 
The Kim may be from 'J eut. kien, pinus, teda, 
a place of fir trees, Kil, from Teut, gilde, a lo- 
ciety or corporation. Achter, from Teut. achter, 
retro, poft, pone, a tergo, behind, beyond, far- 

( xxxi ) 

ther. Ach, from Teut. ach, elementum aquae ; 
acha, flumen,' et omnis aqua fluens ; in affinity 
with Lat. aqua. Wick^ from Teut. iviick^ perfu- 
gium ; littus curvum, flatio fecura, ubi conjun- 
Qioribus aedificiis habitatur, caftrum. Nefs, from 
Teut. ncfe, promontorium. V/eeme, (plural 
Weemys,) , from Teut. weenie^ domus parochi, 
sedes curionis ; flaminia, domus flaminis. When 
the Laity built houfes and towns, and the Reli- 
gious retired to folitudes, the word came to fig- 
nifjr caves. Ben, fynonimous with Teut. phin, 
fummitas. Dun, nearly with Teut. duynne^ mons 
arenarius, agger marinus. Carfe, from Illandic 
or old Teut. kier, palus, lacus. j^rd, from Teut. 
arden, fylva ; whence ardon, habitare ; primo- 
rum hominum habitacula in fylvis, (ut funt fere 
domicilia Gallorum, qui plerumque filvarum ac 
fluminum petunt propinquitates. Cafar de B. 
Gall J Kern or Cairn, from Teut. kermen, la- 
mentari, ejulare ; Swed. kerm, pluteus ; quafi, 
a place cf lamentation. Tor^ from Teut. thor, 
coliis, turris, difficilis. Even the appellation of 
Albamch, by which the defccndants of the Scotti 
at this day diflinguifh themftlves, is evidently 
Teutonic, from alp, mons So alfo may be the 
nvLvne Crut/jcneicbd, applied to the Pifts both'of 
Scotland and Ireland; from 'leut. grurse or krutsr, 
far comminutum, frufta farris hordeacei, grana 
hordei contrita. An adjective formed from this 


( xxxii ) 

ftibftantive by a Teutonic people, would be gruf-'' 
fenigh or krutzsnigh, in procefs of time Cruthc^ 
Tieichd ; that is, people who lived upon prepared ve- 
getable food. Britain itfelf, or, as it is more an- 
tiently written, Bertane^ may be derived from 
Teut. berg, mons -, ge-Bergbten, montes. Thus 
it feems probable that the names of villages were 
impofed by a Teutonic people who had made 
fome progrefs in civilization ; or at leaft were in 
die habit of erefting fuch habitations. 

Before we leave this fubje£t, it may not be 
improper to mention an obfervadon which has 
occurred with refped: to one of the antient names 
of Edinburgh ; viz. Mayden cast le ; tranllated 
by Turgot, Fordun, and others, Castrum puclla- 
ruifii or the castle of maidens. Turgot fays that 
Queen Margaret, the wife of Malcolrtt the third, 
died at the Castrum puellarum ; and the defcrip- 
tion which he gives of it correfponds exadly 
with that of the caftle of Edinburgh, " Some 
antiquaries imagine that the Scots termed it the 
Maiden castle, becaufe the Piftifh princefles were 
kept there; but this, as obfervcd by Lord Hailes, 
is irreconcileable with the idea of an Englilli- 
province extending to Edinburgh. It would 
have been flrange policy indeed to have kept the 
princelTes upon the very frontier of another Idng- 
dom, asin a place of fafety.'* That Edinburgh 
was fo fuuated, we have the teftimony of John 


( xxxili ) 

•f Wallingford, who mentions it as at the nor^ 
^bern extremity of Northumberland, Caftrum pu- 
ellaruni, however, according ro Mr Pinkerton, 
is a mere tranflation of Dumfries^ or Dim-Fres, 
from Goth, dun, caftellum, urbs ; and fru^ or 
fre, virgo nobilis. This, he adds, " was the 
name given by the Pids, while the Cumri of 
Cumbria called the fame place Abernith, as it 
ftands at the mouth of the Nitb." By what an- 
tient author Dumfries is called Abernitb, does not 
appear. I rather incline to think that both of 
thefe names fignify Edinburgh. That this for- 
tiefs was called Caftrum puellarum, or Maydyn 
castle, at a very early period, is clearly evim:e4 
t)y charters of David the Firft ; by the Chroni- . 
cle of Melrofe under the years 1 1 80 and 1 255 j 
by Matthew Paris, p. 907, " puellarum caftrum, 
quod vulgariter dicitur Edenburc ;*' and by the 
chronicles of Fordun, Wynton, and Harding. 
And Mr D. Macpherfon, in bis illuftrations of 
Scottifli hiftory, remarks, that the origin of 
Boyce's pretty fancy of converting this fortrefs 
into a boarding fchool for young ladies of the 
Pichtifti royal and noble families, is probably to 
be found in the following paflage, from the Chro- 
nicle of Lanercoft, ** Rcdditum eft castrum pu- 
ellarum in manu J. Difpcnfatoris ; locus, qui 
nufquam in antiquis geftis legitur prius expug- 
nari, propter fuam cminentiam et firmitatem, qui 
a conditore fuo monarcho Edwyno Edwyneftjurgh 
Vol. IV. E didus 

( xxxiv ) 

didus eft antiquitus, ubi, ut didiur, feptem filias 
fuas pofuit confervandas." The date of this Chro- 
nicle is not mentioned j nor is if of any impor- 
tance. It would be more defu*able to know whe- 
ther Turgot, confeflbr to Queen Margaret, the 
confort of Malcolm Canmore, wrote Maydyn- 
castie^ or Castrum Puella^um. Be this how 
it may, the term Mayden appears to have no 
concern with the Latin puellce ; but is doubt- 
lefs a genuine Gothic word j the participle 
paft of the verb maitan, explained in the 
gloffaries of Stiernhielm, Junius, and others, 
fcindere, confcindere, abfcindere, prsefecare, 
concidere ; where alfo we find feveral compo- 
fites from the fame verb, and of fimilar fignifi- 
cation ; as in Luke iv. 1 9. fra-letan ga-maidans, 
dimittere confrados : xiv. 13. ga-maidans, haU 
tans, blindam, debiles, claudas et csecos. John 
xviii. 10. afmai-maify abfcidit : Bi-maiian, cir- 
cumcidere. Matthew v, 30. af-mait tho, erue 
eam': vii. 19. us-maitada, excidetur. Mark ix. 
43, af-mait //>o, abfcinde illam: xi. 8. maimaitun, 
concidebant, vel casdabant ; in which laft, the 
correfponding word in the old Belgic Teftament 
is ^^ Jheden." 

The literal fignification, therefore, of Mayden 
castle. I conceive to be, a castle upon a hill which 
appears as if it were fnedded, cut, or hewed down, 
mons abfcifTus, rupes amputata ; precifely the 
iiame with Sneddeii-castle, or Snedchi-hergh. This 


( xxxr ) 

feothic word maitan, abfcindere, anlputar6, id 
one of thofe few of which there feems no veftige 
in the Teutonic, Saxon, or Scandinavian dia- 
leds. Hence we have in the appellation Mayden" 
casile^ a kind of prefumptive proof that the lan- 
guage of Ulphilas was fpoken in North Britain 
when that name was given to the fort which 
was afterwards called Snedden callle, and Edin- 
burgh. In all the modern dialeds of the Gothic 
language, the place of this word maitan is fupplied 
by the verb to fried y and its derivatives. 

Under the article Snawdoun in the Gloflary, 
a conjedure is offered that Sneddenbergh, or 
Snawdon caftle, may for fome time have been 
called Nedden or Nethcn-bergb, as the Englifh 
Snottingham has now become Nottingham. I 
had not then attended to the diverfity of opinion 
which has long prevailed among our befl antiqua- 
ries concerning one of the places called by antient 
hiftorians Abernttbyriy Abernethi^ and Aburnethige- 
In the hiflories of Ingulphus, Florence of Wor- 
cefler, and others, we find that William the con- 
queror in 1072 " invaded Scotland by land, 
while his fleet feconded the operations of his ar- 
my. Malcom the Third met htm at a place 
called Aberrithi or Abernethyn, concluded a 
peace, gave hoftages, and did homage /* (pro- 
bably for the lands which he held in England.) 
It is highly improbable, fays Lord Hailes, that 
Abernethy, on the fouth bank of the river Tay, 


( XXXVl ) 

fhould be here intended. That place lies diftanf 
from any rout which fo prudent a commander 
as William would have taken in an expedition 
againll Scotland. He might indeed have come 
to Abernethy, had he invaded Scotland by fea, 
and landed in the frith of Tay j but of that there 
is no appearance. The SaXon Chronicle de- 
fcribes the march of William as by land through 
a known paflage inter Scotland, and mentions 
the fleet as merely fubfervient to the expedition 
by land. Hence it is probable that William, 
with his land forces, would keep generally with- 
in a few miles of the fea ; and, if fo, the natural 
place for an interview between the two kings 
was fome where in the vicinity of a navigable 
river, and on the confines of the two kingdoms, 
where twenty years afterwards he propofed to do" 
homage, ubi reges Scotorum erant foliti reditu- 
dinem facere regibus Anglorum. Goodall con- 
jeftures that this Aburnethige may imply a 
place, fuch as Dumfriesy at the confluence of the 
rivers Nith and Solway, or Eden. But that 
William entered Scotland by the Eaft marches 
is probable, not only for the reafon above-men- 
tioned, but frbm a paflage in Matthew of Weft- 
minflier, which informs us that William " re- 
turned from Scotland per Cumbriam** by the 
way of Cumberland. Lord Hailes thinks ih$ 
Tine in Eafl; Lothian might, with fome proprie- 

( xxxvil ) 

ty, be termed Abernith'u With great defeferic^^ 
to fuch refpeftable authorities, it fee;ns more 
probable thut this .^bumethige, or Abur-nsthyn^ is 
no other than Edinburgh ; quufi, Gbe-Burgh-L^e- 
ihen^ or Tbwgbnithin ; of which N?t/jen-burgb is 
merely a tranfpofition ; being at the fame time 
an abbreviation of Snedden-burgh ; from fnedden 
or fniiden^ amputare, abfcindere ; and bergh, or 
ghe-berghy mons, locus editus five munitus. 

Again, if A-Bur-Nethyn be Nethenburgh, one 
might naturally expeft to find ftill fome earlier 
mention of it. Accordingly,^ in various antieift 
Chronicles, under the year 685, we are inform- 
ed that Egfrid, king of Northumbria, was de- 
feated and flain in a battle with the Pi«5ls at 3 
place within their territories, among rugged hilh^ 
and near the north fea^ The Annals of Ulfter 
call the place Duin-Necktain, vel Caftrum Ncc- 
tani : Simon of Durham, stagnum Nfchtani : — 
The Chronicle of Lindisfarne, Nedanes-mere. — 
The confequences of this battle are thus defcrib- 
ed by Bede and other antient writers r " From 
" which time the hope and virtue of the king- 
" dom of the Angli began to meU and flow 
" backward : For the Pifts recovered the land 
" of their pofleflion, (terram pojfcjjionis fu^z,) 
" which the Angli had held : Trumwenc, a 
" Northumbrian bilhop, who a few years before 
•* bad been appointed toprefklc over ( fome part 

" of) 

( xxxtiii ) 

** cf) the Pidtifh territory, was obliged to make 
** his efcape precipitately from his feat at Aber- 
*' corn ; and the Saxons never (again) fent a 
*' devouring tax-gatherer (amhronem) to exaft 
" tribute of the Pi£ls." The circumftance of 
the Bifliop*s feat being at Abercorn, a few miles 
weft of Edinburgh, feems to imply that his ju- 
rifdiftion extended over the country only on the 
fouthern bank of the Forth ; that is, probably^ 
the counties of Linlithgow, Edinburgh, and 
Haddington; conflituting the terra Pidorum^ 
within which Roger of Chefter places Edin- 
burgh ; the hills to the fouth of this city being 
alfo ftill called the PehtJand or Fentland hills. 
The whole circumftances of this piece of hiit ory 
feem to point unequivocally to Edinburgh. The 
north fea of the Saxon Chronicle, the ftagnum 
Nechtani of Simon of Durham, and the Kedanes- 
mere of the Lindisfarne Chronicle may denote 
the frith cf Edinbvrgb ; and the " angustias in- 
accefforum ?nontium'^ of Bede, the rocky hills in 
its neighbourhood. Mr Macpherfon, however, 
in his Geographical illustrations of Scottijly history y 
conjeftures Dun-Nechtain to be the fmall loch 
at Dunnachtan in Badanach, or Loch Nean at 
the foot of Ben Varn, and near Ben Garu in A- 
thol ; near both of which, it feems, there are 
■monuments of battles. But furely it is impro- 
bable that a Northumbrian army, in the month 


( xxxix ) 

of April or May, could penetrate through foN 
efts and. formidable defiles fo far north as Bada- 
nach ! Goodall, on the other hand, fuppofes 
Dun-NcchtLiin to be a loch or mofs at Nenthoni 
in Roxburghfhire j and Heftor Boyce places it 
in Galloway. As Abernethy or Abernethyn is 
frequently mentioned as a principal feat of the 
Pidilh kings, we may reafonably fuppofe that it 
was one of the ftrongeft holds in their kingdom; 
a charafter which is more applicable to Dun- 
Nethan or Burgh -Nethan than to Abernethy on 
the banks of the Tay. The Pidifh Chronicle, 
written about 1020, fays that /Jburncibige was 
built by a king of the Pids in the year 458 ; 
and that the name of the king was Nethan or 
Nedanius ; fo called perhaps from the name of 
the hill or caftle. The regifter of St. Andrews 
places the building of Aburncthyn under the 
year 600 j but ftill it was during the reign of a 
King Nei/jan, and the authority of the former 
is no way inferior to that of the latter. Be this 
how it may, it feems highly probable that Dun- 
Nechtanoi the Annals of UUter, the Gaelic Dun- 
Jidan, an/d ^burgh Nethyn or Abernethigh of 
Ingulphus," Florence of Worcefter and Diceto, 
are the fame with SnvdJen burgh or Sncdden 
caftlc ; and that thefc do not mean the prcfent 
Sneddon or Stirling, but Edinburgh ; from the 
■ ^ircumflance of its having alio been called J\/<7/- 


( xl ) 

den-castle f a name of the fame literal fignifica*. 

In every attempt of this nature, the principal 
difficulty is to account for the introdudion of 
French words ; or, as Tyrwhit expreffes it, of 
that compound language " in which, though 
<^' the fcheme and formation are in a great mea- 
*' fure Saxon (or Bclgic,) a large proportion of 
" the elements n French." To this it may be 
anfwered, that the greater part of thefe elements 
may have been borrowed not dire£i:ly from the 
French, but from the Latin language j and pro- 
bably would have been adopted into the Anglo- 
Belgic as well as the Scoto Belgic nearly about 
the (aqie period, although no fuch event as a 
Norman conquell h;id ever taken place. The 
greater part botli of the Scottifh and Englifli 
clergy in early times were probably educated in 
!f ranee. It therefore ought to be no matter of 
furprife that the language of Barbour and Win- 
ton is found to contain a confiderable number of 
French, or rather of Latin words. So does alfo 
the language of Belgium in the fixteenth century, 
as appears from the Di6lionaries of Kilian, &c. 
While the Belgic and Anglo Saxon literati were 
daily mrking acceffions to their written language 
from the French and Latin, we cannot fuppofe 
that the iklgic dialed of Pehtland would re- 
main ftationar,y. We are indeed afiured of the 


( =^li ) 

contrary, by the well known elegiac fonnet on the 
death of Alexander the Third, A. D. 1285, 
compofed proba!)ly by a contemporary poet, and 
preferved in Winton*s Chronicle : 

Quhen Alyfandyr oure King i^es dede. 

That Scotland led in luve and le. 
Away wcs fons of ale and brede, 

Of wyne and wax, of gamyn and gle : 

Our golde wcs changyd in to lede. 

Cryft, born in to virgynjte. 
Succour Scotland and remede. 

That flad us in perplexyte. 

Chiefly, perhaps, through the means of fuch 
(hort compofitions as this, the colloquial dialed 
would be gradually improved both in Scotland 
arid England: And the attempt which was itiade 
to introduce the French language into the latter 
kingdom, inftead of promoting the improvement 
of that dialed, would probably ferve to retard it* 
Tyrwhit obferves, that ."" even before the Nor- 
*' man conqueft, the language of France had 
** been introduced into the court of England, 
" and from thence among the people. 1 he ac- 
" count which Ingulphus gives of »his matter 
" is, that Edward the Confeffor having been e- 
" ducated at the court of his uncle Duke Rich- 
** ard the Second, and having refided in Nor- 

VoL. IV. F « mandy 

( 3cKI ) 

** mandy many years, became almosi a French 
" man. Upon his return from thence, and ac- 
*< ceflion to the throne of England in 1043, ^^ 
" brought over with hirn a number of Nor- 
" mans, whom he promoted to the higheft dig- 
«' nities ; and, according to Ingulphus, under 
" the influence of the King and his Norman fa- 
" vourites, the whole nation began to lay afide 
" their Englilh fafliions, and in many things to 
" imitate the manners of the French. In parti- 
" cular, he fays exprefsly, that all the Barons in 
" their courts or houjholds began to /peak French^ 
^^ as a great piece of gentility. At the revolution, 
" 1066, the language of the Norman conqueror 
** was interwoven with the new political fyftem, 
** and the feveral eftabliihmcnts which were 
•' made for the fupport and fecurity of the one, 
" all contributed in a greater or lefs degree to 
** the diffufion and permanency of the other. — 
*' In particular, from the very beginning of his 
" reign, all ecclefiaftical preferments, as faft as 
" they became vacant, were given to Normans. 
*« The convents alfo were ftocked with foreign- 
" ers, whom the new Abbots invited over from 
" the Continent, partly perhaps for the pleafure 
" of their fociety, and partly in expectation of 
'* their fupport againft the cabals of the Anglo- 
** Saxon Monks." " Sethe Normans come 
" firft into Engelond," fays a contemporary au- 

( xliu ) 

thor " gentllmen children beeth taught to fpeke 
** French from the tyme that they beeth rokked 
** in her cradel ; and uplandifche men alfo wil 
" liken himfelfe to gentilmen, and fondeth with 
" great befynefs for to fpeke French." At that 
time, learning was in a great meafure confined 
to the clergy ; and the moft eminent fcholars 
were educated at the Univerfity of Paris. Hence 
ah the beft authors chofe to write in French, 
which was undoubtedly, fays Warton, a great 
impediment to the cultivation and progreflive 
improvement of the vernacular -language. Ano- 
nymous French poems and fongs, written about 
that time, are innumerable in every library j 
while fcarcely one is to be found in the antient 
language of the country. Amufement was thus 
provided for readers of rank and didindion ; 
while the language of the common people re- 
mained flationary, from the circumflancc of its 
being for two hundred years deprived of one of 
the moft powerful means of improvement. Dur- 
ing the whole of this time, the Scoto-Belgic of 
Pehtland, experiencing no fuch interruption, 
would continue (we may reafonably fuppofe; in 
a progreflive ftate of im.provement, partly from 
the increafe of learning, and partly from the 
extenfion of commerce ; fo that, from the be- 
ginning of the twelfth, to the middle of the 
fourteenth century, the Scoto-Belgic was proba- 

( xliv ) 

bly a more pollfhed language than that of South 
Britain. Hence the poem of Barbour's Bruce, 
but more particularly the Fables of Robert 
Henryfon approach nearer to modem language 
than the compofitions of any contemporary Eng- 
lifh author : And hence alfo it may be, as ob- 
ferved by Dr. Robertfon, that the letters of fe- 
veral Scottifh Statefmen in the fixteenth century 
are not inferior in elegance, or in purity, to thofe 
of the Englifh minifters \vith whom they corref- 
ponded. W Patten, Londoner, in the preface 
to his hiftory of the Duke of Somerfet's expedi- 
tion into Scotland 1547, recommending an u- 
nion of the two kingdoms, fays, *' feparate by 
feas from all other nations, in cuftoms and con- 
ditions little differing, in jhape and language no- 
thing at alU* 

Indeed, the diflerence between them probably 
never was greater than what we find at prelent 
between the dia lefts of Yorkfhire and Devcn- 
ihire, or of any two Englifh counties lying at a 
diftance from one another. An intelligent per- 
fon, therefore, who is well acquainted with al- 
mofl any one of the provincial dialefts of Eng- 
land, can find no difficulty in underflanding 
what is called the Scottifh language. That wliich 
all over Britain was the written language of the 
fourteenth century, became the colloquial of 
the fifteenth j while that which was the collo- 

( xlv ) 

quial of the fame century, had doubtlefs been 
the clafTical of the thirteenth. For the dialed 
which is now called Scottijh, we are indebted to 
a few writers, of depraved tafle, about the end 
of the feventeenth, and beginning of the eigh- 
teenth centuries ; who, inflead of contributing, 
like Drummond of Hawthomden, to the im- 
provement of the written language of their coun- 
try, chofe to pen elegies on pipers, and dying 
fpeeches of hounds and horfes, in the familiar 
dialeds of the meaneft vulgar. If a native poet 
of Yorkfhire, about the fame period, had adopt- 
ed the like abfurd praftice, his compofitions, 
bating fome flight difference in the orthography, 
might equally have been termed Scottijh. This 
colloquial dialed of the feventeenth century 
feems to correfpond nearly with the written lan- 
guage of Gawin Douglas, ftripped of the words 
which he and one or two contemporaries had 
thought proper to borrow from the French and 
LAtin. Lifle, in the preface to his ** Ancient 
Monuments in the Saxon tongue" fays that he 
improved more in the knowledge of S.ixon by 
the pcrufal of Douglases Virgil, than by that of 
** all the old Englifli he could find, poetry or 
profe ; divers of which were never yet publifh- 
ed ; becaufe /'/ was neercr the Saxon and farther 
from the Norman," — ^which amounts to this, 


( xlvi ) 

that the colloquial words and phrafes ufed by 
Douglas were pure Anglo-Belgic. 

The flight difference between Scottifh and 
Englilh, in the pronounciation, and confequent- 
ly, of the orthography, feems not worthy of any 
particular attention. But it is neceflfary to re- 
mark, that in many of the antient Scottifli, as 
well as Englifh poems, where the lines in gene- 
ral contain ten fyllables, the meafure does not, 
as in modern poetry, depend upon the divifion 
of the lines into a fixed number of feet. In the 
poems alluded to, the number frequently varies ; 
and the fyllables do not follow in order accord- 
ing to the modern rythm of a fhort and a long 
fyllable alternately, or of a long and two fhort 
repeated. The meafure feems rather to be re- 
gulated by the divifion of the time required for 
recitation of the line, into portions like mufical 
phrafes ; not neceflarily equal in the number of 
fyllables, but requiring an equal period of time 
for their pronunciation. And it appears alfo 
that thefe portions correfpond uniformly with 
what muficians call common time^ or four in a 
bar ; each line being adapted either to one or 
two bars. For example, in the firft lines 
of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, the rhythm may 
be exhibited in the following manner, (without 
regard to the elevation or depreflion of the 
voice :) 


( xlvii ) 

— ti f -• Inf-ir^EE^zz 


When that A - pril with his (hoares fote. 


The dronghte of March hath per-ced to the rote. 


And ba-thcd ev-rj veine in fwich li- cour» 


Of which ver - tue en - gen - dred is the flour. 

Whan Ze - phi - rus eke with his fote brcthe. 

En • fpi • red hath in eve • rj holt and heath. 


( xlviii ) 

The ten - der crop - pes, and the young fonne, 


w — w 


Hath in the ram his halfe courfe y - ronne. 


And fmale fou-les ma - ken me - lo - die, 


That fie - pen all night with o - pen eye. 

So pri - keth hem na - ture in her co.ra-ges. 

That Ion - ger folk to gong on pil - gri-ma-g«s. 

. . The 

( xlix ) 

The tranflation of the ^neid by BIfhop Dou- 
glas feems to be compofed according to the fame 
laws of metre. Take for inftance a few of the 
firfl lines : 


There was an an-cieat cie-te, hecht Car-tage, 


Quham hynis of Tyre held in - he - ri . tagc. 

In - e • mie till I - ta-lie Handling fair and plane, 


The mouth of lang Ti - bcr o - ver forgane. 

li^pppg f;p 

Mich - ty of no - bil - lis full of fcules fere. 
Vol. IV. G And 

( 1 ) 

And maift ex - pert of craf - tj fait of were. 

That thefe, and thoufands of other irregular 
lines in the iEneid were meant to be recited as 
modern heroic verfes, appears incredible. Per- 
haps the firft lines of ten fyllables, which were 
uniformly capable of being read in this manner, 
appeared in the verfion of the pfelms by Stern- 
hold and Hopkins ; as the 50th, 83d, iioth, 
and 124th. — And yet, from the mufic with 
which they are joined, there is room to doubt if 
the verfifier had any fuch intention : For exam- 
ple, that of pfalm 1 1 oth : 


The Lord moft high un - to my Lord thus fpake. 




Sit thou now down, and reft at my right hqnd, 


^n p"Ti "R "^ ^ "1 T "^- r* ' 1^ '^~ T ^ 1— 

Un - til that I thine c - ne - mies do make 

A ftool, 

( li ) 

A ftool, to be where - on thy feet maj iland. 

Had this pfalm been intended to be recited in 
the manner of heroic verfe, it feems probable 
that the meafure, not to fpeak of alterations ne- 
ceffary in .the harmony, would have been regu- 
lated nearly thus : 


The Lord mod high un - to xay Lord thus fpoke. 



Sit thou now down, and refl at mj right hand. 


Un - till that I thind e • ne - mics do make 


A flool, to be where - on thy foot may ftand. 


C IS ) 

The order in which the flow and quick notes 
are difpofed in the mufic of this pfalm, feems to 
throw light upon the nature of old Scottifh and 
Enghfli rhythm ; particularly in thofe poems 
which cpnfift chiefly of lines of ten fyllables ; 
fuch as the tranflation of the ^ncid by Gawirj. 
Douglas, Henry's life of Wallace ; the greater 
part of the works of Chaucer, &c. A very flight 
knowledge of mulic will enable the reader to 
perceive the difference between that rhythm and 
the iambic, in which almoft all modern poetry 
is compofed j and which is exhibited in the a- 
bove variation, not of the fucceflion of the notes, 
but of their accentuation or relative value. The 
rhythm of antient poems appears uniformly to 
have been regulated according to that meafure 
which in mufic is called common time ; that of 
modern comppfitions, by triple time. In the 
former, a fliort note is never found fingle, or 
placed between two long ones : In the latter, 
the cafe is precifely the reverfe ; the motion of 
the fyllables, in point of uniformity, refembling 
that of a pendulum j while that of the antient 
or Saxon rythm may be faid to refemble the 
beating of a drum, in various or irregular num- 
bers of ftrokes, but in common time. 

The manner of reciting a noted pentameter 
line, according to modern or iambic meafure, 
?nay be thus exhibited : * 

■ And 

And ten fhort words oft move in one dull line. 

But, if the fame line had been written by 
Douglas, Chaucer, or Pierce Ploughman, it 
would have been recited by the author proba- 
bly thus : 


And ten Ihort words oft move in one dull line. 
Or thus. 


And ten fliortwovds oft move in one dull line. 

Here the regularity of the antient meafure 
would not have been effentially injured, although 
one or two more Ihort words had cither been ad- 
ded to, or taken from the line : 


And then joti'll find ten fliort wordi . •"** 

Oft move iu one dull hne. 


Or, by taking away one fyllable : 


And tea {Ijort words move in one dull line. 

According to this kind of rhythm, I conjec- 
ture that ahnoft all Englifh poetry antecedent to 
the year '540, ought to he recited; otherwife, 
the reader will be fhocked perpetually with feem- 
ing irregularities, when in fad there are none ;-—=■ 
irregularities which he will attempt in vain to 
redify, by contraclion qg- divifion of fyllables. — 
That Chaucer, Blind Harry, and Douglas, had 
any plan or intention of writing verfes of five 
iambic feet, or a lliort and a long fyllable placed 
alternately, appeals as unlikely as that a modern 
mufician ihould compofe a piece of mufic in 
which the bars fliould uniformly confift of five 
crotchets. 1 yrwhit, and various other eminent 
critics, have been not a little puzzled in attempt- 
ing to afcertain what it was that conltituted 
Anglo-Saxon poetry, fmcc " we do not difcover 
in the fpecimens preferved by Hickes any very 
ftudied attempts at alliteration, nor the embel- 
lilhment of rhyme, nor metre depending on a 


( Iv ) 

fixed and determinate number of fy liable s, not* 
that marked attention to their quantity which 
Hickes fuppofcd to have conflituted the diftinc- 
tion between verfc and profc.'* " To a modern 
reader," fays Mr Ellis, " it will certainly ap- 
pear that there is no other criterion but that 
which is noticed by Tyrwhyt, namely-, a great- 
er pomp of dldion, and a more Jiatcly kind oj 

viarch : Or a more artificial ohfcurity of Jlyle ; 

not fo much for the purpofe of varying the ca- 
dence of their verfe, as with a view to keep the 
attention of their hearers upon the flrctch.** — 
Neither of thefe fuppofitions is fatisfadoiy. Thr 
mechanifm and fcheme of Anglo-Saxon verfifi- 
cation feem to depend entirely ujfcn quantity ; 
by which is meant the length of time employed in 
reciting the line ; without any other regard to the 
number of fyllables than that the longeft line 
jfhall not contain nwre than twice the number of 
the (horteft con*efponding line ; and that both 
the longeft and ihorteft fhall be capable of being 
recited within the fame portion of common 
time ; which portion mud either be one com- 
pleat bar, or tivo. One of the moft irregular 
pafiages in the ode on Athelftan's victory, A. D. 
038, may be thus- exhibited : 


( 1" ) 

Swilc thaer eac fe fro - da. 
Mid flearae to - ihon his cyth - the. 

Nordh Co'a - llan - ti - nus. 

Har Hil - de rinc. 

'That JSf — ^So there eke the prudent. 

With flight came to his countrVa' 
The Northern Conflantine, 
The hoary Hilderinc. 

Nearly alfo in the following manner may have 
been recited by far the moft antient fpecimen of 
Anglo-Saxon poetry. It has been handed down 
to us'in King Alfred's tranflation of Bede*s hif- 
tory, Book IV. Chap. 24. and appears to have 
been compofed about the year 660. 


( Ivii ) 

Fragment oj" the genuine CAEDMON ; perhaps near' 
ly the fame language with the Pi6lo-Belgic. 

Nu we fccoJon he-ri-gean Heo-fon rices weard. 



Me - to - des mihte and hi§ mode ge . thank,. 


Wcora wul-dor fa^der fwa he wun-dra ge-hwses. 



Ece drih - ten ord* on-fteald he je - reft fcop. 


Ear - than bear-num heo - fon to rofe. 

Vol. IV. 




Ha - Ug fcip - pend tha mid - dan geard, 

Mon-cyn-nes weard ece Dnh • ten aef - ter teode. 



Fi - rnga. fol -> dan, Frea oel - mih - tig. 
Tran/lated thus. 

Now fhall we praife the Governour -of the heavenly 

kingdom , 
The power of the Creator ; and render thanks for his 

kindnefs ; 
And for the deeds of the Father of glory ; the Lord 

who wonderfully 
Exifted from the beginning ; he firft of all framed 
The facred heavens as a covering to the' children of 

the earth : 
Then he, the prote(9:or of mankind, Lord eternal, 
And God Almighty, ordained the earth for man's ha- 


- In the fame kind of meafure are almoft all the 
popular rhymes which ftiU continue to be re- 

( lix ) 

peated by children in their ring-dances ; fuch 


Vm Willie Waftel 
Here in my caftel, &c. 
I've a cherry, I've a chefs, 
I've a bonny blue glafs, &c. 

generally fung to the notes here placed under the 
Fragment of the genuine Caedmon. Perhaps alfo 
the boafted influence of antient Greek mufic 
ought to be afcribed to the various modes and 
artful management of this kind of rhythm, rather 
than to the fubdivifion of the fcale into half and 
quarter tones, or to any fuperior excellence in 
the melody or harmony. 

Thefe obfervations alfo afford a prefumption 
that the popular Scottifh airs in common time, and 
efpecially in this particular kind of rhythm, fuch 
as Hey now the day daws^ John come kifs me now, 
and the Flowers of the Forest^ are of higher an- 
tiquity than thofe in treble or minuet time, as 
Vll never leave thee, Waly, waly, up the bank, and 
Our auld gudeman. 

The original words of the firft of thefe having 
long been fuppofed to be loft, I was happy to 
find them in a MS collection of poems, chiefly 
by Montgomery, in the College Library of E- 
dinburgh From its being mentioned by Gawin 
Douglas in 1 5 1 2 as a favourite fong among the 
vulgar, we may fuppofe it to be as old as the 
reign of James the Third : Tradition fay^ of 
Robert the Bruce. 


( 1* ) 


Haj ! now the day dauis, 

j_-j.-j.— j _ -g-^ 

The jo - lie cok crauis. 


Now ihrouds the fhauis 


Throw Na - ture a - none. 


The thiff ,- el cok crjis 


-- ^ 

On lo - vers wha Ijis, 


( lii ) 

Now fkail 





The night is 

near gone. 

The feilds ourflouis 

With gouans that grouis, 

Quhair lilies lyk louis, 

Als rid as the rone. 

The turtril that treu is, 

"With nots that reneuis, 

Hir hairtie pcrfeuis. 

The night is ncir gone. 

Nou hairtis with hynds 

Conforme to thair kynds ; 

The turflis thair tynds 

On grand quhair thay grone, 
Nou hurchonis with hairs 
Ay paffis in pairs, 
Quhilk deuly declairs. 

The night is neir gone. 

The fefone excellis 

Thrugh fueetnes that fmellis, 

Nou Cupid compcUis 

Our hairts echone. 


On Venus wha vaiks. 
To mufe on our maiks. 
Syne fing for thair faiks, 

The night is neir gone* 

All curageous knichtis 
Aganis the day dichtis. 
The breift- plate that bricht Is, 

To feght with thair fone. 
Tlie ftoned deed ftampis 
Throw curage and crampis. 
Syne on the land lampis ; 

The night is neir gone. 

The freiks on fcildis. 

That wight waponis weildis. 

With Ihjning bricht fheildis, 

As Titan in trone. 
StifF fpeirs in reifts, 
Over curfor's creifts, 
Ar brok on thair breifts ; 

The night is neir gone. 

So hard ar thair hittis. 
Some fueyis, fome fittis. 
And fome perforce flittis 

On grand quhill they gronc. 
Syn grooms that gay is. 
On blonks that bray-is. 
With fuords affayis. 

The night is neir gone. 


( Ixiii ) 

The Editor has only to add, that, except in 
thofe inftances where a word occurs but once in 
the courfe of the work, he has thought it unne- 
ceffary to affix references from the gloflary to 
the text. In general, the explanation is fuffi- 
ciently eftablifhed by the cognate words ; and 
there are in this volume many words which do 
not occur in the text. The Gloflary now offer- 
ed to the public has indeed fome claim to be con- 
fidered as a D idlionary of the antient languag e of 
Scotjand. It may, at' leafl, alleviate the la- 
bour of others. And if hereafter he fhall have 
difcovered that any remarkable words have ef- 
caped his obfervation, he propofes to fupply fuch 
omiffions in an Appendix, to be delivered gratis 
to thofe who are in poffeflion of the work. In 
all probability, he may, at the fame time, find it 
necelfary to correct fome erroneous explanations. 
That there fhould be no fuch, in a Gloifary of 
fix thoufand words, is not to be expected. 




J^r A e. one, only ; abbreviation of the Sax. a«^, unus. 
.'Vbad, A^a^e, Bade, delay ^ tarrying ; tarried ; from 

Teut. heyden, manere. [Qoth. beidan, expedtare.] 
Abaitmentis, amufements ; becaufe, fajs Ruddijhan, 

they abate or mitigate our cares or forrows. 
Abandoun, to bring under fubjeBion, to Juhdue ; quaji 

y-bandoun from Sax. ge-bindan. Teut. ghe-bandig- 

hetty ligare, domare. [Goth, bandia, vinftus.] 
Abandown, At abandown. At bandown, at random^ at 

liberty ; from Fr. abandon, handon. 
Abate, Vol. I. 19, event, adventure, 
Abays, Abaw, to abajh, to confound ; alfo to make 

a low abeyfance. Fr. aba'ijfer, 
Abee, alone, q. y-bee, remain in the fame Hate. 
Abit, abide, await. 

Abitis, 0\yiX.°,y fervice for the dead. Lat. 
Abjure, to ahfolve. Lat. 

Ablis, Abil, ^J[j[ig.s, perhaps, if able, q. d. able fo. 
AboTie , Abovyn, above. Teut. boven, fupraj quafi^^<?- 

hoven, or y-boven. 
Abrede, Brade, to publifh, or fpread abroad: alfo to 

prefs, drive, ox force. Sax. abrcedan^ propalare ; ex- 

erere, Itringere, avellere. 
Abfteky], obfiacle. 

Ab-Thane, Abthane, up, or upper Thane ; fee Thane. 
Abulye, Habulye, to drefs, to equipp, or arm. Fr. ha~ 

AbulyMeiment, habiliment^ harnefs^ armour. Fr. habi- 

Vol, IV. A Abufion, 

Ab. Af. 

Abufion, ahufe. 
•— rAbj^ to abide y or fuffer. Teut. heyiden ; Dan. hieVy ex« 

peftare, fuftinere ; alfo, to dwells from Sax. bye, ha- 

bitatio ; byan, habitare. 
Abj, quaji Y'by, to buy. 
Acberfpyre (fpoken of malt) to fpring at both ends, 

and thereby, fays Skene, *' to ftiute out all the thrift 

^nd fubftance." According to a Lancafhire Glofla- 

ry, ackerfprit fignifies '* a potatoe with roots at both 

ends." Teut. achter, poll, retro ; & fprote, fprit, 

germen, germinatio. 
Achil for Athil, noble. Sax. aethel, nobilis. 
Actendit, expl. afforded. 
'—•Aftoune, a quilted ieathern covering for the lody. O. 

)tv. nuqueton. 
Adjutorie, aid. Lat. 
A-dow, Of dow, of worth. Teut. deghe, virtus, de- 

cus, bonum aliquid. See Dow. 
„„A^drgd, afraid. Sax. adred, timuit. 
j^xed, downright Fr. adroit 
Adreich, A-drigh, behind, at a diflance behind. Teut. 

traeghy tardus. Skinner miftakes the meaning of 

the word, and fo derives it from Sax. drafe, expulfio. 
Adrefs, to order, to frame. Fr. addreffer. 
Adrefly, expertly ^ with good addrefs. Fr. 
~" Afgld, EfFald, Ane fald, ingenuous ,'without guile, fingle- 

AfFeir, Effere, Fere, Yc\r, appearance, fhew,equippment. 

Sax. faergh ,■ Swed. farg ; Teut. verwe, color. 

Fere or Eliere of weir, ^ew of war. 
Affeir, Effair, affairs, huftnefs ; AfFeired, hufed. Fr. 

Af^irs, EiTeris, Affciring to, belongs to, relates to, is 

proper, becomes : from the Fr. affera?it, of the fame 

iignificatlon ; and nearly allied to the Lat. refcrt, 

\QKiXX\.Jagrs, utilis, appofitus.] 
Affroitlie, affrightedly. 
Affy, to confide. Fr. 

Aftcrings, the lafi drawn part of a cow\s milk. [Theot. 
■ afterin, pofterior.} 


Af. Al. 

After-hend, afterwards^ next after. Teut. achter-aen, 

After- clapj e^vil confequence. [Teut. achterhlap^ difFa- 

Affyrm, Afferme, to fupporti to ejlablijh. Fr. 
Agaj^e, againji. Sax. agen, 

Aggrege, to aggravate. Fr. aggreger. 

Aggrife, to affright^ attack. Sax. agrifan, horrere. 

Agill, AchWy noble. Sax. aethel. 

Aiglet, tagged point. Fr. efguillette, q. d. aculeata. It 

is alfo explained a jewel in one''s cap. Fr. aigrette. 
Aik, oak. Ackyn, oaken. Sax. ac^ quercns. 
Ayi, own. Sax. agen. Goth. «»Zf«, proprius. 
Air, early. Sax. rt^r. Goth, air^ prima luce, prius ; 

whence it alfo fignifies before^ fame time ago. 
Air, heir. 

Air, oar. Sax. ar. Ifl. aar^ remus. 
Air, hair, ufed for a thing of no value. 
Airt, point of the compnfs ; perhaps equivalent to ward 

in compofition. Sax. weard, verfus ; Or, from Ir. 

airdf a coaft or quarter. 
Aifement, Ayfyament, Eafement, eafe^ convenience^ ad- 
vantage. Fr. aife. 
.4it> oaty oaten. 
Aizles, Eifles, glowing hot cinders. Teut. nfche^ cinis. 

Swed. eldy ignis, q. afh-elds. See Eldin. 
Alaguft, explained y«/^/<:jo//. 
AM^Cyf eld, f eld of growing corn. T exit, acker. Goth. 

akrs, ager. 
Alake, nlack^ alas ; according to the Lane. Glonarj, 

a oTtke, all I love. 
Alanerly . Allennarlie, alone, only, exclujively. Teut. 

alleenlick, folum, tantum. 
AJawe, below. 

Alb, white garment, a furpliee. Lat. 
lAld, old. Teut. aid, antiquus. 
Alege, to abfolve front allegiance. Fr. al-leger. 
Algate, Algatis, all ways, every way i fenaper, omnino, 

nihilominus. See Gate. 
Alite, a little. 


Al. Atrf. 

Alkin, all kind, every fort. 

Allaris, allies, confederates. 

Allennarlie. See Alanerly, alone. 

Aikr, elder tree. J-tAx-^ 

Aller, altogethef. Teut. -allery omnium ; allerley^ om-* 

nigenus. Goth. alliSf omnino. 
All-hallows, All faints day. Sax. ealra halgena-mcefjif 

omnium fanftorum feftum. 
Allj2W, Lowe, to applaud, or approve. Allow, for Ilotve. 

AWo-witypraifedy commended. Yr. allcuer. Snx.Jcfian. 

Ifl. lofa, laudare. 
Almorie, Aumry, cup-hoard. Teut. almaris. Fr. or- 

maire, armarium, repofitorj of utenfils. 
Almous, Amufs, alms. Teut. & Sax. aelmejfe. [Goth# 

armahairtitha, eleemofyna.] 
Almoufeir, almoner. See Almous. 
Alrifche. See Elrifche, hideous. 
Allryn, explained all in progrefs. Teut. allerhandey om* 

Alryne feems to mean the top of a turret or hill, 
Als^ as, alfo. Teut. als ; ficut. 
T^^i^Xth, inflantly. Sax. fvoyth, vehementer, whence 

Aluterlie, AUuterly, altogether^ utterly, wholly. O. Fr. 

Alycht, enlighten. Sax. leohtan, accendere. 
Amaille, Anmaille, quichfilver, or a mixture of quick- 

filver with fome other metals or femi-metals. 
Ambyfett, hefet, lay in ambufh. Sax. ymh, about. 
Ameis, Ameys, Amefe, mitigate, or appeafc. Fr. amu- 

fer ; or, according to Ruddiman, from Fr. emmatir, 

cohibere, reprimere. 
Amene , pleafant. Lat. ameenus. 
Amerand, Emerant, green^ verdant j from the colour 

of the emerald. 
Ameris, Amberys, emlers. 
Amit, admit, omit. 
Amorettis, heads of quaking grafs, or fkakers. Fr. 

According to Mr Tytler, love-knots or garlands. 
Amorat, enamoured. Fr. 
Amlhack, noofe,faflemng. See Hamfchakel. 

Amy rale. 

Am. .1. Ap. 

Amyrale, admiral. Fr. & Belg, from Lat. Barb, ad-^ 

miralis feu adm'ir alius, 
Amyte , amity ^friendjhip. Fi. 
>*»-An, Andj^//". Ifl aeriy fi. 
Anarne, call over the names. 

Ancleth, Hancleth, ankle. Sax. ancleow, q. d. aen^ 
clauive^ talus. 
i—q Aiieath . beneath. 

Aug , one, the fame. Sax. an. Gotb. «//?/, unus. It 
was ali o much j jXsdJiQI,the_y ^^^^^ ^> *"*^ foi^etimes 
as a verb, to he at one^ to agree. 
Anelyd, incited, excited. Sax. analan, incitare. 
~— Anent, concerningy about. 

— --Anens, Anenft, ever againjl j from Sax. nean, prope, 
Anerly, only 

Angel, a gold coin of i os. value. 
Anherd, Annerd, adhere. Fr. aherdre. 
Ankerfaidel, III. 429. anchorite, hermit. Sax. ancer- 
fetle, ancborefis. The fame Saxon word alfo figni- 
fies the prow of a fliip, or fhip's head, prora. 
Ankerftock, a large loaf made of rye flour ; quafi on 
anchorite"* s fock, or fupply for fame length cf time ; 
or fo called perhaps from fome fancied refeniblance 
to the ftock of an anchor. 
Anlace, dagger. Theot. anela'z, anale^e, adiumbare, vel 

adlaterale telum ; from leiz, lalus, ad latus, juxta. 
' Anter . Aunter, adventure. 
Anterous, Aunterous, adventurous. 
Anteteume, Anti-tune, antiphone, or reponfe^ alternate 

Anyng, union. 111. ening. 
Anjs, nffes. Fr. 
j_nys, Anis, once, oner's. 

A per fe , Lat. ufed for uriique, mafch'efs ferfcf?, or 
thing ; cui nihil fimile, like the letter A by itfclf, 
which has the firft place in the Alphabets of moft 
languages, perhaps from its being more cafily pro- 
nounced than any othe.r letter. 
A^^ju, fcarcely y hardly, with diffxuUy. Fr. a-pctve. 
Apirfmart, poignant, froward^ rcugh. Fr. ofpre, and 
^%.fmeortf cruciatus. 


Ap. I As. 

Apert, hrijl^frecy hold. Fr. 
Aporte, deportment, conduB. Fr. apport. 
ApplciSfJatif/y, content. 
Appoifit, compofed. 
.-W^ragne, ?ifpider. Lat. aranea. 
Ar, oar. Sax. are Ifl. aar, remus. 
Aras, Arrace, to fei^ie ox /natch. Fr. arracher. 
Arajne, arrayed. 

Arblafter. See Aublafter, crofs-haw. 
Arc, Ark, targe chejl. Sax. arc. Goth. arka. 
AreiT?, to reach to. Sax. areccauy aflVqfli. 
Areffis, arrace, tapejlry. 

Argone, Argue, cenfure, call in qiiejlion, quarrel ahojitj 
Argh, Airgh, tardy ^ backward, Jlow. Theot. arg^ 

inutilis, ignavus, titnidus. Teut. trncgh, tardus. 
Arglinels, Archnefs, tardinefs, hackwardnefs. See 

Arit, tilled. Teut. aeren, arare. 
-«^Arles, Arle-penny, earnejl jnoney. Fr. arret. Belg. 
ar-penning. Swed. arlig, fincerus. Lat. arrha. 
Armony, harmony. 
Armjn, Armouris, arms. Fr. 
Arnit, Ernyt, earth-nut, bulbocafianum. 
Arfey-verfej, topfy-turvy, heels over head. 
Afs, Affis, njhes. Teut. 

ArtailYe . Artellye, artillery ^ weapons of offence ; as 
botus and arrows before the invention of cannon. Fr. 
ar tiller ie. 
. Arts and Jury, fcholajiic fcienccs and law. 
' AjTejJEn-e,y^cr, maik left by afore. Dan. arr, cicatrix. 
Arred, Erred, cicatrifed. Dan. arred. 
Arreik, to reach to. Sax. areccan. 
Artow, art then. 
Afk, newt, an animal of the lizard kind. Fr. afcs- 

"tabe, flellio. 
Afs, Ais, nfhes. Teut. as vel (fch, cinis. 
AlTecurat, affured. Lat. 
Aflil-trie, axle-tree. Teut. as, axis. 
Allege, bejiege,jiege. 
AficHob j ^l , engage. Affemble, engagement. 


As. ■ Av. 

Aflblye, Aflbilie, Aflbylie, ahfolve^ acquit. Lat. abfoU 

Aflbinye, Aflbnie, excufcy ejjoign ; alfo to acquit. Fr. 

Afpjne, Helping, Joining. See Hefp. 
ASyth,/atisfa3ion; tofatisfy. Gael, ^z/i', peace ,• or 

rather Sax. ge-Jothiaiiy to footh, 
Aftabil, efiahlijhy fettle. 

Aftalit, enjlalledyjiationed. Sax.^^a//, ftatus, ftatio. 
Aftart, Altert, to fpring fuddenly ^ to run away quickly^ 

to leap. Sax. ajliriariy amovere, commovere. 
A^exSyJiars. Fr. ajire. Lat. ajirum. 
Aftit, ratheryfooner ; q. d. as tidey as foon. 
Aftound, ajloniedy ajlonifhed. Sax. Jluniariy obtundere. 
Aftrene. See Auftrcne, aujiere. 
At, that. Dan. &c. 
Atanis, at once. 

Atchefon, explained two thirds oj" a penny. 
~Athe, Aith, oath. Sax. ath. Goth. aith. 
Athel, Aethil, noble, illujirious. Sax. aethel^ nobilis, 
Athil-mcn, nobles. Sax. 
Attaychit, attached, fajlened. Fr. attache. 
'Attamie, human Jheleton. O. Teut. atum, fpiritus. 
Attour, Atoure, q. d. out over, beyond, exceeding ; mor e- 

. Attyr, Atry, grim, with a threatening afpe&. Sax. atcr, 

virus, venenum. Lat. ater, vel atrox. 
Attyrcope, malignant per/on, fpider, po'fonous infeEi. 

Sax. attercoppa, aranea, from Sax. ater, veneuuni. 

Teut. eyter, pus, fanies, & cop, koppe, aranea. 
Atys/Ajts. oats. Sax. af^, avena, lolium. 
Ava, of all, at all. 
^XaJi£?i advance, promote. 
Avenand , affable, convefiient. Fr. advenant. 
Aveaantis, affable perfons. Fr. 
"*■ ^^Z£r» p^o^^g^-' fjoffy ^^^ horfe. Lat. barb, averia, equi j 

from O. Teut. aver, haverie^ bona mobilia, 
Averyle, April. 

Averus, avaricious. Lat. avarus. - • 


Av. ' Au. 

A villous, Avvillous, III. 147. dehafedy degenerate. Fr, 
— Aunme. See Almrie, cup-hoard. 

Avouterie, Advouterie, adultery. O. Fr. avoutrie. 
Avyfet, bethoughty behaved, conduced. Avyfement, 
confultation. Fr. avifc^ from Teut. witfeTty inflruire, 
..-A.W, to owu, to be owner of. Sax. agan. Goth, aigatt j 

poflidere, habere, obtinere. 
'-Aw, to owe. HI. eg aa, debeo. 

- Awail, A wall, to fall bnchivard^ or tumble down hill. 
Ajwalt_£heep, one that has fo fallen^ and cannot recover 

itfelf. Fr. avaller. 
Awbercheouii, habergeon^ coat of mail. Fr. 
Awblafler, Alblafter, crofs-bow, crofs-bow men. Fr. 

arbalejlier, arhalejlei arcubalifta. 
AvLchty property, pojfejji on. Sax. <cht. Goth, aigtns i 
pofieflio, peculiutn, opes, fiibftantia. 
"^ Audit, owned, appropriated, po^Jfed. See Aw, to be 
owner of. 
— A u dit, ought. 

./Vuc ht, Auchten, eight. Teut. ahtu. Goth, ahta, 06I0. 
Auchtene, eighteen. Auchtfum, about eight. Aucht- 
and, eighth. 
Awent, perhaps Avent, expl. refrefh. 
Awerty, perhaps Aveitj, experienced. Fr. adverti. 
,,*-Auld, old. Teut. aid, alt. 
Awie, hall. Ifl. haull, aula, 
Aume, Alme, allum. 
Awmon, Hewmon, helmet. 
Awmous, a fur cap. O. Fr. from Teut. muts. 
•x^Awne, beard of oats, or other grain. Goth, ahand, pa» 

.^ Aunter, Aventure, adventure. Auntyris, advent,ures. 
Aunterous, adventurous, \unterin, Aunteryns, j&fr- 
advcnture, by chance yfortuitoujly. Fr. aventure. 
Auncetour. anceflor. 
Awpes, Whaups, curlews. 
Aureat, golden, polifoed. Lat. 
^^ Awfiu n, A\v{omz, fnghtf nil, horrible. See Ug-fum. 
Aullie; Auftrie. See Auftrene, auflere. 


Aw. Ba. 

Awftrene, Alftrene, Aftrene, aujiere, feverey Jlern. 
Teut. hals-Jlerrighy obftinatus, durae cervicis. Sax. 
Jiyrn. Lat. aujierus. 

Autane, Hautane, haughty. Fr, hautain, Goth, hauhs, 

Awyn, Awin, own. Szx.agen. Goth aighiriy aihtij pro- 
~ pnus. 

Axis, ojks. 

Axes, Ackfys, ague ; fuppofed to originate from Fr. 
acces de fievre j but rather perhaps from the Sax. 
aeke^ doiov -f OT^ egejisy horror, teiror. Goth. a^V, 
—Ay, ever. 

^^-dolly, Eildollie, Oyl-dolie, Vol. III. p. 34i,fome 
kind of oil perhaps for curing wounds? Sax. ele^ ole- 
um, and dolghf vulnus; but this feems very doubtful. 
i^. Ayn4ii? gT breathing. Aynding ftede, breathing place. 

Dan. aander^ to breath. Swed. andcy anhelitus. 
' ' Ayont, beyond. Sax. a-gheondy ultra, trans. 

Ayjament, accommodation. Fr. aifance. 


Bab IE, halfpenny ; according to Mr Pinkerton and o- 
thers, corrupted fi'om Fr. bas-piecey which, they fay, 
was the original name of this coin, on account of 
the bafe quality of the billon or metal of which it 
was made. The word is mentioned in Knox's hif- 
tory of the reformation, and appears to be as ancient 
as the time of James the Fifth, when its value was 
three Scottifh pennies. 

Babyis, babes. 

Bad, Baud, offered. Bad him, madi him an offer of. 
See Bid, to offer. 

Bad, Baud, invited. See Bid, to invite. 

Bad, Baud, commanded, ordered. See Bid. 

Bade. See Abade, delay. 

Bade, Baid, place of refdence, or abode : alfo dwelty 
quafi byed, from Sax. bycy habitatio ; by an, habi- 
tare. ' 

Vol. IV. B Badlyng, 

Ba. Ba. 

Ba^ilyn^, perhaps evH dlfpofed perfon. See Baudling. 

Badnjftie, perhaps barrennefi, 

Baggtt hots, JlaUion ; fo named from Fr. baguette. 

Bagrie, fame as Bhiidrie, trajhy trumpery. 

Bag-ftanis, tejl'ides. 

Bailis, Bales, ybrrijxyj, misfortunes. Sax. heal, malum. 

Bailis, Bales, Bale-fyres, now by corruption hone-fires, 

Y)zn. haal. Sax. hae/ Sc haeljj/r, rogus, pyia. In 

O. Engl, hale-wood fignified wood for making the 

Bain, Bane,,^(j/ff. Sax. ban. 
Baiid, bard, rhimer, poet ; of Celtic origin, the word 

being found nearly under the fame form, and with 

the fame fignification, in all the various diale£ts of 

that language ; as alfo, hnr, carmen. 
Bairdis, trappings, particularly of hoifes. See Baird. 
Baith, both. Sax. bathiva. Goth, bai, ambo. 
Baird, to array, or equipp. Bairdyt, dreJfed,.caparifQ!i • 

ed. Teut. barderen, Fr. harder, phalerare, or- 

Bair-man, bankrupt, fubftantia omni nudatus. 
Bairiie, Barne, Berne, child, young per/on. Sax. beam. 

Goth, barn, infans, puer, puella. 
Bairn- ty me, the whole children of one looman. Sax. 
. beam-team, proles. 
Bait, to feedytopafiurc. BaitTiud, pq^uring. Sax. batav, 

Bak, Bauk, ^r?/, vefpertilio. 
Baklter, ^/it'r. IH. 

Jiakkin, \\-\^.mcv\, folloivers, attendants. 
Bald, bold. Sax. bald, audax. 
iialei!, whale bone. Lat. halena. , 
Balker, an officer of the cufioms, or infpeSior at a fea 

Ballingcre, Ballyngare, a kind of fioop or long-boat. 
Ikillit, ballad ; the origin uncertain, although fome 

derive it from Lat ballare, faltare ; between which 

and the Fr. ballit^ there is, however, a manifeft afli- 

nity. See Barly-break. 
Balow, Bak'low, hv/h. An ingenious etymologift has 


Ba. - . Ba. 

fancied the latter to be Fr. has ! h loup, hufh ! 
there's the wolf ! " 

Ban, to curfcy to excommunicate. Sax. ahannan. Swed. 
bannay denuntiare. 

Band of a hill, the top or funtmit ; fo called perhaps 
from its hent appearance. 

Bancouris, tapejlry covers for tables, benches, 8cc. Fr. 
banquier. As a diminutive, or rather a variation of 
hinksy it alfo fignifies bunkers, i. e. benches or feats in 
a window recefs, or in the wall. 

Bandoun, prifon, confinement, bondages. Tout, band, 
banden, Goth, bandios, vincula j bandia, captivus, 
vinftus ; bindan, vincere, ligare. " To her bandon" 
occurs in Chaucer, and is explained by Junius 
to her voluntary fervice, as in O. Fr. a fon ban- 
don. In a Norman- Saxon ballad publiihtd bv Mr 
Ritfon, ** in hire bandoun,'' is expl. at her com- 
mand ; but this fpecies of Saxon dialedl was proba- 
bly never much known in Scotland. 

Bandfler, binder, he who binds up the corn into fkeavcs. 
Teut. [Goth, banjia, horreum.] 

Bane See Boun, ready. 

Baneoure, Banerer, bearer of the banner. Teut. biiiier- 
heer, dominus proecipui figni, baro. Belg. band, ha- 
niere, fignum militare. Goth, bandwo, fignum 

Bang, Jevere blow ; alfo to beat feverely. Sw. banha, 
bangia, pulfare. Teut. henghelen, iuflibus cs&dere. 
Goth, banios, plagas. 

Bangfttr, ^zxigx^ev, ferocious quarrelf owe fellow, front 

Bannow, Bannock, a thinnijh loaf -of a circular form ,- 
commonly made of barley-meal. I eut. io/. Swed. 
builu^ panis rotundus ; & nauw, Te(lrJ(5lus, parens, 
fordidus, q. bol-naw. Gael, bonnach. 

Banrent, Banneret, a knight or chief who in war was 
entitled to difplay his arms on a ** ba/mer" or dif 
ting4iijhing flag in the King's army. The ceremot.y 
of his creation took place commonly in the field uri- 
der the royal llandard. 

Barbul ye. to diJlraSt, to perplex. I'r. br.rbou'iUer. 

B^rdis. See Bairdis, trappings. 


Ba. — ...-^ Ba. 

Bargane, a •wrangling or contending, a Jhirmijh or hat- 

Baji^ane, to wrangle , to quarrel, ox fight. 

Barganeris, wranglers, combatants, fighters. Fr. bar' 
guigner, licitari ; where the Latin word correfponds 
better than the French with the Scottifh bargane. 
Teut. balghen, altercari, decertare, confligere ; or, it 
may have the fame origin with Wrangle or Argone, 
See alfo Barrat. 

Barla-fummil, Barly-fa', an exclamation for a truce by 
one who has fallen dotvn in wreftling or play ; ac* 
cording to Ruddiman, from Fr. parley, and whom- 
mil, (whelm,') in the Aberdeenfhire dialect, fommil. 
Montgomery, in one of his unpublifhed poems, fays 
to his miftrefs, ** then barla-cheis, or barla-chois 
advyfe ;" that is, as it would feem from the con- 
text, then confider whether you will keep me cha- 
cing after you, or at once declare me the objeft of 
your choice. This tends, in fome degree, to confirm 
Ruddiman's conje6lure, but is not fatisfa61ory. It 
is not unlikely that the meaning of barly in this 
and in the following article may be the fame, what- 
ever be the derivation. 

Barly-brake, Barli-break, explained a ring dance, cho- 
rus circulaiis. If this definition be corredt, the ori- 
gin muft be different from that fuggefted by Ruddi- 
man in the preceding article ; at leaft, no analogy 
feems difcoverable. Perhaps it may be found in the 
Celt, bar, carmen, and lay or leod, populus, val- 
gus : break may be fynonimous withyrfa^. 
Barmekyn, Barmkyn, Bermkin, the outermofi fortifi- 
cation of a cafile. Teut. barm, agger, coacervatio 
lapidum aut terrae ; & kina, fiffura, a rude wall fur- 
niflbed with apertures. This feems alfo to have 
been the original, although not the modern fignifica- 
tion of the Fr. harbacane. See Barraifs. 
Barm-hors, probably a horfe for carrying out dung to 
the field ; vulgarly a muck-horfe. 1 eut. barme, faex, 
Barnage, Barne, baronage, inhabitants of a barony, vaf 
fals of a baron, from Teut. bar, fuperior, dominus, 


15a Bs. 

iierus. Barony or Baronry is flill ufed In the fatnft 

fenfe. i 

Barraifs, Barris, Barrace, limitSy hounds^ barrier, fpact 

of ground where combatants were inclofed. O. Fr. 

barra. Teut. barre, feptum, repagulum \ barren^ 

includere, nearly allied to Barmekyn or Barnkyn. 

Barrat, trouble, forrow. Ifl. barrata, lis, contentio, 

^"which fome have fuppofed to be alio the origin of 

Sc. bargane, wrangle. 
Bartan e. Britain. Bartanye, Bretagnh 
Balk. See Halk, dry and rough to the tajie. Tetit. 
BaiTyn-raip, rope made of prepared rnfbes, or coarfe 

hemp. Teut. biefe, or biendfe, j uncus, fcirpiis. 
Baflynit, Bafnyt, helmet. Fr. bqfflnct, galea. 
Balmy t, (cow,) white faced ; from O. Eng. baufyn, a 

Balle, to beat. See Ballon. 
Ballon, baton, Jioff. Teut. hafi. Snx. bat. 111. &c. 'vir" 

Batablc, Baitable, debateable, of which the property is 
doubtful, or liable to be contended for. Fr. batable^ 
pugnabilis. Teut. battin, batuere. 
Batch, cretv^ company. Fr. bauche, a layer or courfe of 

flones for building. 
Bate, boat. Bate-wafd, boat-man, boat-keeper. 
Battle, Bawt y, name commonly given to a dog. [Theot. 

handt, canis paftoralis, vmcuiis alTuetus.] 
fiattie-bummel, Bommel-bautie,y?w^Avo//, booby. Here 
' is a notable fund of etymological amufemeat. imo, 
it may be called an alliterative corruption or aug- 
mentation of the Teut. hot muyl, hoino ftolidus, from 
hot, hebes, and ct?/^/, mulus. 2do. it may be derived 
from the fame Teut. bot^ and hommele, fucus, (^.fiu" 
pid drone, ^tio. As Blaitie-bum occurs in the fame 
fenfe, the derivation may be from Teut. blait, vani- 
loquus, bardus, gloriofus, and bomme, tympanum, q. 
enipty boajier. Lallly, from the Fr. bat, and Teut. 
booTU'Woll, cotton, q. bag of cotton. 
Batt^yle, battle, war ; divi/ion of an army ; clofe by 
•one ajiothtr. Hike men in order of battle, "^i'liit. batalie, 

certamcn • 

fia. ■ B^. 

t:ertamen ; batualia, exercitationes gladiatorum, vel 

militum. Theot. batting ferire, percutere. 
Battellit, embattled, furrounded with battlements. Bat- 
tailing, battlement. See Battayle. 
Batts, Botts, cholic. Teut. 
B^ubard, larboard. Fr. bajbord^ left fide. The fame 

word is alfo explained whore. 
Bauch, ^^^, feeble fjillj/y flat. Teut. (contemptuouf- 

ly,) balgh, puer. 
Baudling, Badling, 7nean perfon, boor. Theot. baudeling^ 

cafarius ; hodel^ cafa, aedicula. 
Baugie, badge. 
Bawdekyn, bodkin. 
Bawdekin, a fort of rich cloth or tapeflry. Teut. halda>- 

kin^ tedium pretiofum fuper menfas, &c. 
Bawdreik, a pendant necklace. 
Bauk,^/7r, bar y f mall beam. Teut. balk, trabs. 
Bayne, explained a fort of fur \ perhaps from Teut. 

baey, levidenfa. 
Bazed, Bumbazed, confounded. Teut. baefen^ delirare, 

oberrare, vagari. 
Be, by. Sax. 
Becht, tyedjfaflenedy as with a withy, or band of twigs; 

from Teut. bieghen, fledlere. 
Be-coft, cofl. Be-dyit, dyed. Be-dettit, indebted^ See. 
fiedes, leadsy fpherulae prxcatorise. Sec the manner of 

ufing beads in prayer. Vol. III. p. 242. 
Bedes-man, Beid-man, devotee, interceffor, one whofc 

duty it is to pray for his benefaBor \ from Sax. hi' 

dan. Teut. bidden. Dan. beder, orare. Teut. bedeler, 

Bedelvyt, Bedel vyn, delved, digged, buried. See Delf. 
Bedene, immediately^ in a fhort time ; quafi, by then, 

Irom Teut. dan. Goth, than, tunc. 
Bedewit, diie^ owing, or owed, indebted. 
Bedovyne, Bcdoyf, befmeared. Belg. be-dauwen, to be- 
dew or fprinkle. 
Bedler, Beddyl, beadle, meffenger or officer belonging to 

a court of law, or college. 
Bedrel, bed-rid. O. Teut. bet-bred, leftus morlbundi. 
jBeevit, perhaps erroneoufly for Beerit, born. 


Be. Be. 

Bee?, fanciful conceptions ; in the fame way as the 
Swedes ufe 'worm ; wurmaktig, whimfical, having a 
worm in the head. See Hazed. 
Beild, Beld, image, model. Sax. hilith. Teut. beeld^ i- 

mago, ftatua, exemplum. 
Beijd, Beld, fjelter, refuge ; quafi beheiled, covered o- 
ver ; from Teut. heltn, celare, velare ; behelete^ iu- 
Beforn, before. 

Beft, q. be-offedy put off, beat off. 
Be-gaik, beguile. Teut. he-ghecherty deridere, ludibrio 

Begarit, lacedy Jlreakedy Jlriped. Teut. be-gaeden, ador- 

nare, decorare. 
Begger-bolts, a fort of darts or miffle weapons. The 
word is ufed bj James VI. in his Battle of LepantOy 
to denote the weapons of the forceats^ or galley 
35e-_gouth, Be-goude, began. Teut. be-ghinneny inci- 

^c- grvitlWy drowned in tears. See Greit. 
! ^hecht . Behete, corruptedly Beheift, promife\ perntif- 

Jion. Sax. hatan, promittere, permittere. 
Beilc, to hajk in the fun, or before the fire. Teut. baec- 

keren, excalcfacere, apricari. 
l^%\x\ , , Benc , comfortable , in good circumjlances ; origi- 
nally perhaps well lodged, from Sax. bye^ habitatio. 
Beinge, to beck, to bow. Teut. biegen, geniculare. 
Beir, iieje, to bray, ba%vl,fnort, neigh. Teut. beren, fe- 

rociter clamare, more urforum. 
Beirth, Byrtfie, burden, incumbrance, charge. Dan. 
byrde, byrth. Swed. boerda, onus. Goth, hairan, 
portare, ferio. 
Bgifiyn., the firji milk of a coiv after calving. Teut. 

biejly b'tefi-milck, coloftrum. 
Beit, Bete, /o help, fupply, increafe. Sax. betan. Teut. 
beteren, lueliorare, emendare. It alfo occurs in the 
fenfe of abate. 
Bekk, Beak, to curtfey. Teut. biegen, in curvare, flec- 
tere, fle6ti ; bocken, indiuare f<^ 


Be. Be. 

Betch, explained jnonfier ; perhaps the fame with Elf» 
Beld, fought, contended. See Bell j alfo barked. Teut. 
^bellen, latiare. 7 

Beld, hcild. Teut. C-^.. ''^ 

Bele. See Bale,j?'a/;;<'. 
Be lenes, leans or keeps to a Jide. 
Bell^ to fight. Teut, helghen. Lat. 3^//5, bellan, fight- 

Bellical, warlike. 

Eemiig tyme, pairing time^ the feafon when animals de^ 
fire to couple. According to Ruddiman, from Fr» 
belieVy a ram; q. rojnming time. 

Beltjne, Beltane, May daj/y (or in fome parts of the 
country the 2d of May,) which in former times was 
celebrated as a feftival over a great part of weflein 
Europe. Charlemagne, when he impofed new 
names upon the months, called May wonne-maendy 
menfis amoenitatis & gaudii. If the word Beltyne 
be of Teutonic origin, it feems to have nearly the 
fame figuification ; from Teut. baelen. Dan. bceler^ 
or beyler, Swed. 3^/«, amare, operam dare amori^ 
fcortari. Teut boel, aniafius, amafia ; boelfchapy a- 
mor ; — & tiin for tiid, tempus, as it is not uncom- 
monly written in fome of the northern dialefts . 

'J'hofe, on the other hand, who conceive the word 
to be originally Gaelic or Celtic, derive it from 
Baal or Bel'muSy the bun, in honour of vvhom the 
Druids are faid to have celebrated a feftival on the 
iirft of May ; and Gael. /;>//, fire, i. e. the fires of 
Baal. In this language, however, the word feems 
to be occafionally written Beul-tighuy which, it is 
faid, could not have happened if the latter part of it 
iignified "fire." In the fame tongue a more probable 
<;Ierivation might be found perhaps in beolus^ vegeta- 
tion J ox billiog, the leaf of a tree, and tighin, com- 
ing ; or tine for tim, time. On the firft; of May, 
fays Bourne in his " Popular Antiquities," tlie juve- 
nile part of both fexcs were wont to rife a little af- 
ter midnight and walk to fome neighbouring wood, 
where they broke down branches from the tree^, 
and adorned them with ncfegays and crowns of 


Se. Be. 

flowers. When this was done, they returned with 
their booty about the rifing of the fun, and made 
their doors and windows to triumph in the flowerv 
fpoil. The after part of the day was chiefly fpent 
in dancing round a May-pole, which being placed 
in a convenient part of the village, Hood there, as it 
were, confecrated to the Goddefs of Flowers with- 
out the leaft violation oflfered it, in the whole circle 
of the year. This ufage, fays Borlafe in his account 
of Cornwal, is nothing more than a gratulation of 
the fpring feafon ; and every houfe exhibited a pro- 
per fignal of its approach, to teftify their univerfal 
joy at the revival of vegetation." Schilterus in his 
Gloflarium Teutonicum, under the article Betlidy 
furniflies an etymology of this difficult word confi- 
derably diflferent from any of thefe, and by no means 
unlikely to be the true one. He does not mention 
where Betlid is to be found, but informs us that in 
an authentic account de Epifcoporum exfequiis, 
(Ann. 816,) the following expreffion occurs, " & 
XXX. diebus, canonicis horis, expleto fynaxeos & fep- 
tem heltidum. Pater noftcr pro eo cantetur, &c."— 
Schilterus here produces good reafons for rendering 
beltidum, pfalmorum \ and fuppofes the word to 
have been originally het-lidum or betlied, from Theot. 
bet or bedey preces, fie lied, cantio, q. petitionary 
fongs. (Thus far Shilterus.) Now, Beltane, or as 
our celebrated antiquary would make it, Betlied time, 
co-incides almoft exaftly with Rogation week or 
Crofs week, when fupplications were made with great 
folemnity for the blefling of God upon the fruits 
of the earth ; & in facris aedibus non iimul et unam 
nielodiam, fed fingulae fingulam per choros fepara- 
tim canunt ; et quamcunque fuavius cantare facer- 
dotes cognofcuiit, illi ex veteri more aliquot vini 
conchos dari adjudicant. (y. Boemus Auhanus, p. 
269.) The beginning of May being thus fo parti- 
cularly diftinguiflied by public exhibitions of fing- 
ing, (chiefly pfalms or petitionary hymns, we may 
prefume, from the nature of the feftival, and the 
fuperintendency of the priefts,) it feems not impro- 
VoL. IV. C bable 

Be. Be» 

bable that the ngtne of Prayer-Jinging-time^ in Teat, 
Bet-lied-tide, by abbreviation Belt-tid, might be gi- 
ven to thofe three days which came afterwards to 
be called in Scotland Beltane. See Taanles. 
Bfllomy, Bellaniie, expl. boon companion. Fr. 
Btlly-blind, the name of a childifh fport, otherwife 
called hide and Jeek, Probably the firft part of the 
word may have undergone fome corruption. 
Bdyye, Blive, hy and by, in procefs of time. Norm. 

Sax. bi/ive, protinus. 
Begies, Bemys, trumpets. Bemyng , rejounding ; from 

Sax. beam, tuba. 
Ben, imier apartment, q. be-in. Teut. blnnan^ intus ; 
binnen-kamer^ locus fecretior in penetralibus domus. 
The fpeaker or objeft of difcourfe, fuppofed to be 
in the kitchen or fome other outward apartment. 
Bendis, bands, ribbands, fillets. Teut. band, ligamen- 

tum. Goth, handiy vinculum. 
Benk, Bynk, bench, feat. Teut. banck. Dan. benck, 
fcamnum ; whence banquet — '* vetus mos Franco- 
rum, remota menfa, in fcamnis inebriari." 
Benfel, bang, to bong, or beat. Teut. benghelen, fufti- 

Bennyfoun, Benefon, benediBion, blefjing. Fr. beniffon. 
Benfliie, explained hairy'' s wife. [Theot. ben%, diabo- 

lus, from bann, bannitus, excommunicatus.} 
Bent, a kind of coarfe grafs, afield covered with conrfc. 
grafs, barren upland incapable of improvement. Teut.. 
^V;/r//f, j uncus, fcirpus. ^xcxxX. juncus a jungendo, ita 
biendfe a binden, ligare. 
Berber, barberry. Lat. berberis. 
Bere. See Beir, violent outcry ; alfo ufed as a verb. 

Berand, crying aloud. 
Bergane. See Bargane,^^^/. 
Berhedis, explained bears heads ; and bare heads. 
Berial, Beile, Beryel, the beryl fione, ox fhining like the 

Bertand. See Bir, whizzing, or whirring noife. 
Bertane, Bartane, Brettane, Britain^ 
Berth, explained vigour, [lil. & Swed. haerde, rage.} 
See Bir. 


fie. Bi. 

Bertre, q. Bere-tre, hier, Teut. baerCf feretrum. 
Berun, blood-beruriy i. e. hlood-Jhot ; from Theot. hc" 

ren, exhibere ; birin, parit ; or bernen, inflammare. 
Befandis, byzants. 

l^efejk, befeech. Teut. ver-faeken, folicitare. 
, Be-fene, adorned. Well be-fene,yrt!/V to the fight. 
Befene, bufy, cccupiedf aSiive. Fr. befongne, bufinefs. 
Befmottrit, be-fpattered. Sax. befmytan^ maculate. 

Goth, bi-fmait, unxit. 
Befyne, Bjfene, Bjfim, whore, baud. Teut. baejinne^ 

Betacht, Betaught, delivered^ committedy recommended. 

Sax. be-taecan, tiadere. 
Bethleris. See Beidlers, beadles, mejfengers. 
Betrayfit, Betrefyt, betrayed. Betry^fSj, betrays. 
Betrumpe, to deceive. Teut. trompen, fallere ; trompCy 

.crembalum, a thing of no value. 
Bevel, to Jlant off in hewing \ from Teut. bettghely cur- 

vatura ; beughelen, arcuare. 
Beverand,yZ>/ji/Ǥ', nodding. Teut. beven, contremere. 
Beuch, Bew, bough. Beuchit, Bewit, having boughs or 

branches ; alfo bowed, crooked, Teut. 
Beuk, book. Teut. boeck, liber. 
Beuk, did bake. Teut. 
Bg.w, good. Fr. beau. 
Be wafFjt, Be-waiffit, Be-wavyt, VriW« 3;/, or on the 

waves 'y toffed about y from Teut. be-weghen, com- 

movere ; waeghey flu£lus. 
Be-went, by-gone, by-pajl. See Wend. 
Be-wit, known. Teut. wittigheny fignificare, prxnun- 

Be-wry, furroundedy wreathed about , q. be-wreathed ,- 

alio to pervert or d'ljiort. 
Bid, to offer. Teut. biedea, ofFerre, priebere. 
Bid, to invitBy to command. Teut. bidden. Goth, bidian, 

rogare, precari, poftulare. 
Bid, Boot, mujiy ought ,• q. be-ought. 
Bjde, to dwell, to abide ; from Teut. beyde, manere. 
Big, barley. Dan. bygy hordeum. 
Big, to build. Sax. bicgan. Dan. bygger, condere. Big- 

gyns, buildings. Goth, bauan, xdificare. 


^I «. BI. 

Big, large^ chiefly in refpea of height. [Fris. baeg, al- 

tus ; q. bi'heg.'\ 
Bigly* ^^^g^t bulky ; from Big. 
Biggonet, linen cap, mutch, bonnet ; dimin. of O. Eng. 

biggin, from Fr. beguin, velum capitis. 
Bikker, wooden dijh. Dan. begere. Teut. hekery pocu- 
^lum. Matth. x. 42. 
Bilge, Bulge, gibbojity, the /welled or protuberant part. 

Sax. bolged, tumidus. 
Billit, billed ; " braid billit ax," axe with a bread 

face ; from Sax. bille, roftrum, promufcida, acifcu- 

lum ; or, according to Ruddiman, Jhod with iron, 

from Sax. bill, chalybs, arma. 
Bink. See Benck, bench, feat of judgment. 
Bing, ^inne, a temporary incloj'ure or repofitory made 

of boards, twigs, or Jlraw ropes for containing grain, 

orfuch like. Teut. benne, quafi bende vel binde. Sax* 

hinne, praefepe. Dan. bing, cumera , all from Goth. 

bindan, ligare. 
Birr, Beir, noife made by the flight of birds or of an 

arrow. Birrzad, flying fwiftly with a noife ; ex fono 

jBird, damfel, bride. Sax. hridde, puUus ; bryd, fponfa. 

Goth, bruths, nurus. 
Birk, birch. Teut. berck, betula. 
Birle, to drink heartily^ to carroufe, to expend in drink" 

ing s perhaps from Sax. birlian, haurire. 
Birn, to burn, tofhine. Goth, hrinnan, ardere. 
Birn, a burnt mark. 
Birns, thejialks of half burnt heather. 
Birneift, hurnified, polifljed, fcraped. Fr. 
Birnye, Byrnie, corflet, habergeon. O. Fr. hrugne, bru- 

nie, thorax, lorica. It may alfo fignify a helmet, from 

Sax. brynn, galea. 
Birfle, to porch, to harden by heat. Fr. brufler. 
£irfys, briflles. Birffand, trifling up. Birffie, briflly. 

Dan. byrfl, feta. 
B.irth. See Beirth, burden. 
Bifm, Byifm, abyfs, deep pit. Fr. abyfme. 
Bifmyng, Byifming, expl. guzzler, fot. 
Bifmyre, Byfmere, expl. bawd ; q. blijfomer or blyth- 


Bi n. 

Jumer, catuliens. To go a bliflbming, catulire, (^1/- 

nius.) Sax. blithjiarif laetari, gaudere. Ifl. bliida, 

blandities ; or connefted perhaps with Teut. baefmne, 

arnica. Ruddiman offers Sax. bi-fmer^ contumclia ; 

& bi-fmerian, polluere. 
Bjttil, beetle. 
Bla, blue, of a colour between black and blue^ livid. Teut. 

blauw. Theot. blae^ carfius, lividus. 
Bia, Blaucht, wan, Teut. bleych, pallidus ; from Hey, 

Black-mail, Black-money, Black-rents, fum of money 

paid annually to a per/on of name and power allied 

with mofs~troopers or robbers, for proteStion. See 

Bladder, Blather, to fpeak inarticulately, to Jiammer, 

Teut. blaeteren, blaterare. 
Blain, mark left by a pujlule. Sax. blegene. 
Blairand, roaring, crying. Teut. blaeren, mugire. 
B,\zit, fjame-faced, bajhful. Teut. blaet. blax. 
Blaitie-bum. See Battie- bummel, ^/77/>/^^o«. 
Blan, ceafed, or has ceafed. See Blin, to ceafe. 
Blanchart, Blanchyt, white, bleached. Theot. hleichen, 

Blandit, blended. 

Blaflerand, blujlering. Teut. blaejent, flare. 
Blaw, to blow. Blawn, blown. Sax. blawan, flare. 
Ble, BHe, colour, complexion. Sax. bleoh, color. 
Bledoch, butter-milk. Gael. 

Bleivyt, fu^ufed with tears. See Blairand, crying. 
Bki^, Blyfe, blaine. Sax. blafe, fax. Theot. blafma, 
Blent, Blenkt, viewed, glanced, (uno obtutu) ; JJjone. 

Teut. blinken, fplendere. Theot. blich fiure, ignis, 

Blip, Blyn, to ceafe. Blynt, ceafed. Sax. blinnan, cefTa- 

re ; alfo blind. 
Blink, a light or Jhining of /hort duration, Teut. Sec 

Blithe. See Blythe, chearful. 
Bloik, mifchiei'Gus contrivance, ill turn. Teut. bluagi, 



BI. Bo. 

]BTotik, txplzined J?eed. 

Blout, naked, deferted. Belg. Moot. Theot. hlot^ nudus. 
Blude, Blod, blood, kindred. Goth, bloth, fanguis. 
Blunket, pale blue ; perhaps zny faint or faded colour ; 

quafi blanched. ^ 

Blunkit, Blinkyt, injured by mtftnanagement, or byfome 

fnifchie'vous contrivance. See Lunkyt. 
Bljth, Blithe, Bleith, chearful, merry. Sax. bleithe. 

Teut. bliide, laetus, hilaris. Ifid. blidhniffu. Goth. 

bleiths, mifericors, delicise. 
Bol, Boal, little arnorie or clofet. 
Bode, offer from a buyer to a feller, tender. Teut. beO'^ 

dauy offerre. See Bud. 
Bodin. See Bowdin, provided. 
Bodle, fxth part of a penny Englijh ; fo called from 

Bothwel, the mint-mafter. 
Bodum, bottom. Teut. bodem, fundum, fundus. 
Bod-word, Boid-worde, Bod wart, mejjage. Sax. & 

Belg. hode. Swed. hu, nuncius. 
Body, (contemptuouflj or familiarly,) perfon. Teut. 

bede, famulus, famula. 
Bodyis, Boddice, a woman'' s corfet. 
Bogil, apparition. Teut. bokene. Ti^x\.fpoegil, fpedlrum, 

phantafma, larva. Matth. xiv. 26. According to 

Ruddiman, from Fr. gobeline. 
Bois. See Bofs, hollow. 
Boift, Boaft, to threaten, to frighten with menacing words 

or gefcure. [Sax. beotian, minare.] 
Boit, boat, butt or ca/k. 

Bok, Bowk, to reatchy to belch. Sax. bealcan, ruftare. 
Boldynit, Boulnyt, Bowdenit, fwelled, tumid. Boldy- 

nznd,fwelling. Bolnys, /wells. Teut. bolghe, fluc- 

tus maris, unda. Dan. bulner^ to fwell. 
Bolme, pole, beam. Belg. boom, arbor. 
Bolnyt. See Boldynit, tumid. 
Bone, boon, gift, grant. Sax. 
Bonk, bauk. 

'Sony, prefty, handfome, bearitiful i^ may perhaps have 

" lome affinity with Swed. bona, recolere ; & Dan. bo- 

,' nery to make clean ; or Teut. boelinne, arnica, ama- 

fia, q. boelnigh, amabilis. See Bowdin. 


Bo. Bo. 

Borch, Boigli, Bo^jow, fecurity, baUy pledge, pawn, 
Teut. ^or^/jf, ndejuifor, compromiffor. Theot. horgy 
borgen, fidem habere, fidem dare. 
Bordeil, brothel. Teut. bordeel, proftibulum. 
Bos, Bofs, Boifs, hollow, Teut. huyfe^ fiflula, tubus. 
Boffis, large leathern bottles. O. Fr. bouts. 
Boft. See Boift, to threaten. 

^ot, ^j^Stand, hut^ ivithouty eiicept. Teut. moreover. '^ 
Bote. See Bute, compenfationy amerciament. 
Botlefs, BjAJicles, what cannot be remedied^ unavailing. 
Botinys, bujkins. Fr. botine^ cothurnus. 
Bow, joi<?. Teut. 

Bow of ky, a fold of cows. See Boucht. 
Bowbert, idle, laizie ,• alfo dajlardy coward^ drone. 

Teut. bollaerd, homo futilis, fabulator. 
Rojticht, Bnght, fold, fmall Jheep-fold. Teut. hucht, 
bocht, feptum, arvum inclufum. It is alfo ufed as a 
Bowdin, Bodin, Bowyn, ^c>\xn,furnijhed, provided, ar- 
rayed, equipped, armed. Teut. hoedel, hoel, fupellex, 
dos, facultates. Bonn as a diftindl word, according 
to Ruddiman, from Sax. abunden, expeditus ; and this 
from bindan, ligare. See Boun. 
Boukis, bodies, carcafes. Boukit, bulky ; from Teut. 

hayck, venter., 
Bow-kail, cabbage ; q. bol-kail ; from Teut. bol^ 

Boukeiu, a wajhing ofcloathes. Theot, buchan, lavare ; 

boocken, tudere, pulfare, batueve. 
'^^y going y molting i <\. bowing, now bending. Whi- 
ther are you boun ? Whither are you bowing or betld^* 
ing your way ? See Bowdin. 
Bounit, tended, went. Fr. bondir, to hound, to move 
quickly J perhaps allied to Sax. fundan, adire. See 
Found. Ruddiman refers it to Sax. abunden 8c bin- 
dan, ligare ; and fo explains it prepared, arrayed. 
Bountith, extra wages or compenfatioti, what is given 

from " bounty^'' bejides what is due by contraii. 
Bour, retired apartment. Teut. buer, cafa, tugurium. 
Sax. bure, Dan. huur, conclave. 


Bo. Br. 

l^oux'ili, ajinali bower, OT hut. See Bour. Bourach is 

elfewhere explained c/qfe together, in a heap, ring, or 


Bourd, Borde>y^, mod, Teut. boerde, jocus, fcomma. 

Boufe, to drink plentifully. Teut. buy/en, poculis in- 

Bowflowre, explained an injlrument of war. 
J^Qwfum, pliant, yielding, accommodating, hearty, blyth* 
Sax. boufum, traftabilis, flexibilis ; hoc a bugan^ 
Bowj, Bowie, tub. 

BoWt, holt, arrow. Teut. lout, fagltta capitata. 
Bowtyt, bolted, f prang, darted. 
Bojis, wood, f eut. bofcb, filva. 
B^tour, expl. bittern. 

Bra, Brae, Bray, fde of a hill, declivity. Teut. hergh, 

mons. Ruddiman hefitates between Sax. bracan, 

conterere \ and Fr. braye, un fauffe braye, voce caf- 

trenfe, qua fuccinftum valli fignificatur. 

Brade, Braid, ^A-oW, j5>fl^e«?, intelligible. Goth, braid. 

"^ee Abrade. 

Brade, Braide, to brod or brog, to force, drive, impell, to 

produce or occajion a fudden motion ; to Jlart. Hence 

it has been expl. to affault, to awake. Scand. brod, a 

Iharp point. Sax. a-brcedan, exerere. 

Brades, refemhles, appears like \ from Swed. brae^ indo- 

lem vel formam gerere. 
Brag-wort, mead, a beverage made from the dregs of ho- 
ney. Wei. bragod. 
^r?ard,frJifprouting of corn. Sax. brord, fruipentum 

Braik, brag. 
Brai^thfuU, vioknt, fharp, wrathful; from Ifl. baerde„ 

Braithlie, Braithfully, wrathfully. 
Brak, Brake, brakkijfh,falt. Teut. brack, falfus. 
Hx^nd, fword. 
Brander, Brandreth, gridiron. Teut. brander, brand- 

roede, fulcrum focarium. 
"Br^nAevyn, brandy. Teut. ^r/T;/i:/i(;fV/?, vinum caufticum, 
vel ardens. 


Brane-wod, wood for burning. Teut. bern-hout, bren^ 
hout, lignum inflammabile. [Dan. braende-torfy turf 
for fuel.] 

Brane-wod, brain-mad. See Wod, mad. 

Bran, aew, fire new, quite new (according to H. Tooke,) 
as from the fire. Teut. brand-niew, recens ab offi- 
cina ; or rather from Teut. brauwe^ comptus, bellus, 
ornatus ; q. braw-neiv. 

Brangillis, brandifhes^Jhakes. Fr. branler^ vibrare. 

Brangill, Brangle, to wrangle, to contend, or quarrel ; 
feems to be only a variation of vrangle, wrangle, the 
former being Hill a common manner of pronouncia- 
tion. [Fris. wranten, wrantlen, muffitare, litigare. 
Teut. hrabbelen^ rixari, altercari.] 

Br^jik, to drefs gayly, to bedeck. Teut. proncken, ador- 
nare, oftentare fe ; braggheren, lenociniis fuperbire ; 
braggaerd, homo bullatus, elegans. 

Branks, a rude kind of bridle without bitts. [Gael, bran" 
gas, a halter.) 

Braferis, bracers, bracelets, bandages. Fr. embra/fir. 

Bratchet, BratchzTt, filly Jiripling. Teut. broedfel, pul- 
lus ; or q. vretchet, little wretch. 


Brattis, rags, poor apparel. Sax. bratt, panniculus. 

Brattle, noife,fuch as that which is made by a horfe can- 

'^ering ; alfo ufed as a verb. 

Braw, gay, bedi%ened. Teut. brauwe, ornatus, bellus. 
Hence it is ufed tolignify, excellent, or excellently. 

Brecham, Breyghim, horfe collar ; may have originat- 
ed from Teut. berghen, fervare, falvare, tueri. The 
Gael, braighdean, is probably alfo bof rowed from it. 

Breckans, ^rakens, ferns ; perhaps from Sax. brack. 
Teut. 'vrack, vilis, rcjiculus. [Gael, ratthneach, fili- 
ces.] So called, according to Skinner, becaufe they 
are brittle. See Brokill. 

Breder, Brether, brethren. Teut. broeder, frater. 

Bree, Brie, Broe, broth, foup, Teut. hriif puis, pul- 

Breive, letter, poetn, a writing. Teut. brief fcheda, e- 
Vol. IV. D Breid, 

Br. Br. 

Breid . fuhjipence^ aUmenty allowance of bread. Theot. 

bfoetban, prieftatio certa de pane ; from brod^ pro- 

prie fragmen panis. 
Brelkkis, breeches. Theot. hruche^ braccjc. Tatian. 

brualjabe, crumena, zona, balteus. 
Breme, hoty furious. Teut. bremen, ardere defiderio. 
^iGnnmgy biirytingy fever, preternatural heat. Brent, 

burnt ; from Theot. brinnen. Goth, brinno^ febris. 
Brent brow, high upright fore-head. Swed. brant. Dan. 

ranir, prseceps, upright, ftraight up. 
Bretts, Britons, BritiJ]} people. 
Brettjs, fortif cations. O. Fr. bretefche, from Teut. 

bryttigan^ occupare. 
Brcj, to terrify. Sax. bregan, terrere. 
Briddis, birds. Sax. brid, pullus. 
Bricht, young woman. In the fame fenfe are lifed the 

epithets clear and fair ; yet this may be only a va- 
riation of ^rzVip. Goth. ^arVA^, clarus. 
Brie , (eye) brow. Theot. brawo, palpebra. 
Brig, Brigue, bridge. Sax. brug. 
Brim. See Breme, ^^rc^. 
Hrin t. See Brent, burnt. 
Briffel. See Birfle, to parch. 
Briffal], brittle. Otfrid. bru^zi, fragilitas. 
Brif s, Briz^ to prefs, or comprefs. Theot. brejjen, pre- 

inere, exprimere. 
Brith for Frith, peaccy amity, friend/hip. Teut. 
Brittyn, Brytti n, expl. to kill, to facrifce. 
Briture, perhaps err. foi Oritoure, oratory. 
Broch, Brotch, a narrow piece of wood or metal tofup" 

port the Jlomather ; alfo a clafp or breaji-pin. 
Brochen, o at -ineal pottage, water gruel. Gael, 
lirod, Brog, fjarp point. Swed. brodd, clavus calceij 

nail,fparrow bill. 
Broddit ftaff, Jlaff with a Jharp point at the extremity. 

See Brod. 
Brodeme]!, br^od, offspring. Teut. broeden, fhcubare. 
Brog. See ]ivoA, Jharp point ; alfo a rude kind offjoe^ 
Brogh, Bruch . luminous circle round the fun or moon j 

from Teut. bcrghen, abfcondere. 


Br. Br. 

Brok, what is broken, remnant f fragments. Theot. brttchf 

Brok, badger. Sax. broc, taxus, meles. 

Brokaris, baiuds, pimps ; according to Skinner, quad 
procurers. Others derive it from breaks decoquere, 
quoniam foli decoftores ad banc artem ollm admifli 
funt. Ritdd. 

BrokHl, Bruckile, brittle. Belg. brokel, fragilis. Goth. 
bnkan, frangere. 

Brofe, fat broth poured upon oat meal. Teut. bruys, 
fpuma, fcum. 

Browdin, Broddyn, incited^ hurried or hurrying on, ea- 
ger. " Brodding the oxen," pricking them forward \ 
from brody a point in the end of the goad :' according 
to Ruddiman, from brood, becaufe all creatures are 
fond of their young. 

Browdyn, Broddyn, clotted, defiled, foul, filthy ; from 
Teut. brodde, fordes, turpitudo. 

B rowdy n, Broddyn, embroidered ; q. embroydened. Fr. 

Brouliment, Bruliment, broil, fray, quarrel. Fr. 

Brounyis, a kind of Fairies ov fpirits ; now become fo 
rare, fays Ruddiman, that not one is to be found to 
tell us the reafon of their name. " Perhaps, conti- 
nues he, their hard labour, (for they were meri; 
drudges,) made them of a tawny ov brow?i coloui, as 
their kindred may have been named Fairies from 
their fairnefs." It feems not unlikely, however, that 
the name of Brounyis may have fome affinity with 
Swed. bry, vexare, turbare ; or have been originally 
fynonimous with the Scand. diverghs or dwarfs, a 
clafs of fairies who were famous for the manufadory 
oi brands or /words ; q. bruniers ; from Swed. bryni,-.^ 
enlis ; bryna, cote acuere. See Roun. 

Brpwftare, q. Brewfter, brewer. 

Bru, Broe. See Bree, broth. 

Brude, child, yoking man, fon. 

Brudy, broody, prolifick ; both from Teut. brueden, \n- 

Bruise, to pojjefs, enjoy. Teut. bruycken, uti, frui. 
"'"'Hieot. bruch, ufus. 


Br. Bu. 

Bruke, Brook, to hear^fuffer^ or endure. 

Brukkil. See Brokil, brittle. 

Brufe, Broofe, tumultuous race at a country wedding ; 
commonly from the houfe of the bride to that of the 
bridegroom. Teut. broefen^ to rufh like a hurri- 

Brufit, expl. embroidered. Biufury, embroidery. 

Brute, report, fame. Fr. bruit. Theot. gibreitany pub- 

Biydal, marriage feajl. Teut. bruyd-loft, brydloppa. 
Tat. brutloufti, convivium nuptiale. According to 
another derivation, bride-ale. 

Brjbour, rafcaly thief. Fr. bribeur, difhonefl beggar. 

Brjnftane, q. burning fl one, fulphur j now corrupted to 

Bub, Bob, blajlyjlorm. 

Buckie, the name of afhellfi/hy afeafnmil. 

Buks, Boks, corner teeth ; whence buck-teeth. 

Bud, bribe, gift, proffer. See Bute. 

Budge, a bow. Teut. booghe, arcus. 

Budge, to move, perhaps originally to bow or bend i 
from Teut. buyghen, fleftere, arcuare ; of which 
Boun maj be the participle ; q. bowing, budging, or 
bending, analogous to the common cxpreflion " bent 
his way." Fr. bouger, movere. 

Buge, Bouge, explained lambs fur ; whence perhaps 

Bugill, bull, bullock, ox. 

Bugil, bugle-horn. Gael, buaigheal, tranflaled a cow's 
hufl ; bnachail, cow-herd, fhepherd. Notwithftand- 
ing this apparent analogy, it is not unlikely that 
the derivation may be from Teut. boghel, curvatura, 
Buith, booth, fhop. Theot. bothe, taberna mercatoria. 
Buift, Boift, box. Fr. boiJJe. Swed. boeffa. Teut. buffe, 

Buit. See Bute, compenfation, 

Buller, to move like the tide when it meets with rejijl'^ 
'^Tmce. Bullerand, welteri?ig. Swcd. buller, llrepitus, 
tumult J bulra, to boil ; from Teut. bolghe, fiu£lus 


Bu. ' ■! . Ba. 

Bulling, Buling, boiling. See Bulle.r. 

Bumniil, Bombell, drone-bee , idle fellow. Teut. bom' 

mele, fucus. See Battie-botnmel. 
Bumbaized. See Baized, confounded^ foolifh-looking. 
Bumbard, cannon, bomb. It is alfo expl. filly or idle 

fellow. See Bummil. 
Bumbee, the large field, or humble bee. Teut. bommele. 
Bundin, hound. Goth, hundans vinclus. 
Bun-wand, perhaps bull-wand, bull-rufh, or loch-reed. 
Bun-wede, bind weed. 
Bunker. SeeBancour,^xW if«r^ ox feat. 
Burdinfeck, {corrup. Ybur-piananfeca,) '* the thift of 
fa meikill meat as ane man may bear upon his back in a 
fack.^'* Skene. The original was probably T-bur~ 
Eurd ^alane, expl. folitary bird. Were the word, how- 
ever, to be read burdal-ane^ a very different, and 
perhaps the true meaning might be conjeftured ; 
from Fr. bordell, (originally) domuncula. 
Burde. See Brude, child, fon. 
^ Burdoun, pike-fiaff, broggit-fiaff, pilgrim's faff. Fr. 
bourdon. See Brod. 
Burdoun, drone of a bag-pipe. Fr. bourdon, bombi- 

latio, utriculi canori majortubus. 
Burdowyis, according to Andro Hart's edition of Bar- 
bour, burgeffes ; poflibly, however, it may iignify 
men armed with bnrdouns cr pikes ; from old French 
hourdonnafjes, hollow lances. 
Bure, bore, did bear. Teut. 

Burell, Bureile, Burlie, hoorifh, rufiic, rough. Theot. 
huren, rullici It v\-\2iy yMoix^vixij eminent, confpicuous. 
Teut. hurltch, excelfus, excellens. 
Burgeon, bud,fjoot. Fr. 

Burlie-man, -one of a bur ough jury ; quafi, burrough- 
*luw man, or perhaps hoor-law-man ; from Theot. 
baur, rullicus. 
Burn, brook. Sax. buT-n, rivus. G'Oth. brunna, fons. 
Burneis, Birneis, to /crape or poii^/h, to burnijh. 
Buniet, of U brown colour. Fr. brunette. 
Burrie, (Burry dog, Vol. L p. loi.') plaint if ; perhaps 


Bu. By. 

injured or aggrieved. Fr. hour^ boorifh. Explained 
by Lord Hailes rough. See Burell. 

Bus, Bufk, bujh. Theot. bufch, bofcus, filva. 

B uf(jie menty amhujh^ party lying in ambujh. 

Bufk , Bufs, to drefsy array ^ cquipp ; originally perhaps 
to deck nvith flovjers or bujhes. Dan. bii/k, bum. 
Swed. bujhay vibiunus, flores. 

Buft, Booft, tar mark upon Jheepy coniinonly the ini- 
tials of the proprietor's name. 

Buue ous, Buftuous, boijierousy unpoiijhedy fierce^ huge, 
leut. bii/ier, immanis, ferus. 

But. See Bot, without. 

Butiene, booty. Teut. buyten, praedari. 

B uttand b en, outer and inner apartment ; i. e. be-out 
and be-inT Butt denotes commonly the kitchen ; out- 
ivard from the room, but yet within the houfe. But, 
ufed in the kitchen, denotes that part of the cott- 
houfe which ferves for a byre or ftable. Teut. buy- 
ten, extra, foras. 

Bute, Bolt, Beit, giji, inducement, bribe, fatisfaElion^ 
compenfiition, remedy. Theot. biijfe or butte^ poena 
parti liefse & privato debita, reftitutio damni. 

Buttok mail, expl. /oot^ kind of rent paid to the church. 

By, befides^ beyond i unlefs^ except. 

B} ce, baizey a fort of warm nvoollen cloth of open tex- 
ture^ flannel. Teut. 

J Byde . abide, Jiop, taj-ry. See Abade. 

By gh c, ^1^' n 1 'J and, crown ; from Teut. buyghen^ fleftere. 

Byke, Bv k,fwarm, band, troop. See Batch. 

Bynge, to curt fey. 

Byfene. See Befyne, luhore. 

Byfmere. See Bifmyre, bawd. 

Byfming. See Wiimyng, gusuzJing fot. 

Byfprcnt, Be-fpread, o^'^r-^rea//. Belg. b^-Jprenghetr, 

"Ryfiji, Bizz, hifs ; ex fono. 

By fly. Befie, bufy. Teut. befg, occupatus. 

'RyUouT, boiflerous perfon. See Bufteous. 

Ca. Ca. 


Ca, Caw , call, to call ; alfo to drive or force \ '\\\ this 

lenle correfponding with Swed. kora, agere. 
Cabir, rafter,^ Gael, cabar, a lath. 
Cace, Cais, chance , accident. Fr. cas. 
Cache , Caiche, to catch ; alfo to Jketchy tofs or throw, 
Cadows, caddaSf fcrapings of linen rags. G •::1. cadas; 
cotton. Fr. crt^rt/, appears to have nearly the fame 
Cag, keg, f mall barrel. Swed. kogge, cadus. 
Cagear, Cadyer, Cadge r, a carrier ; from Swed. ikorgc, 
a creel, q. corger. Kuddiman makes it ketcher, be- 
caufe his wares are much ketched or tofled about ia 
the carriage. 
Cahutis, fmall apai tments, private clofets. Teut. kaiute^ 
a cabbin. Expl. alfo by Ruddiman ivindings and 
turnings ; from Fr. cahot, the rut of a cart wheel. 
Caid^ie, Caidihigh, froHcifome, wanton. Dan. kaad, 
incontinent ; haad-hed^ lechery. '1 eut. hoddigh^ fa- 
cetus, jucundus. 
Caif, cave, chiff.; tame, q. captivus. 
Cail, Kale, cole'LVort^ cabbage ; alfo broth containing ei- 
ther of thefe or other pot herbs. Dan. kucil^ braf- 
Q2i\k,fiitchyfljarp pain in the fide. Teut. koech^oh^xuz- 

tio hepatis. 
Caikfumler, an opprobrious appellation applied to fuch 
a perfon, as is defcribed in Vol. III. p. 2 20-. It is 
alfo expl. toad-eater, fynonimous with Teut. koeck- 
eter, naftophagus. 
Caim, comb, Teut. kain, peften. 
Caim, crefi. Teut. kam, crifta,. apex. 
Caip, cope, cover, the uppermoft of any thing. Teut. 

kappCy culmen, proje<5lura, Sec. 
Caip, to hep or catch. Teut. kippev, intercipere, ca- 
pe re. 
Cald, cold. Dan. Ifl. & Goth. kald. 


Ca. Ca. 

Caller, Callour, cool^frejh. Ifl. kalldur^ frigidus. 

Gal lant , hoy, lad. Fr. galand^ nebulo. [Teut. kaljant, 

Calfaj, cawfey, Jireety pavement. Teut. kaj/ie, via 

Calfiiterd ((hips), perhaps caulked^ ovh^ixing the /earns 
done over with fonae ub61uous fubftance. Lat. 

Cammerage, cambrick. Teut. kameriick-daek. 

Cammerage, party belonging to, or occupying the fame 
chamber. ' 

Campiojn, Kemper, champion, hero. Teut. kampioen. 
Dan. hamper. Sax. kempa, athleta. 

Campj, boldy brave, heroicall. Teut. kamperlick, ath- 

Camfcho, Camfchol, (Camow,) Jlat-nofed, having m 
dijiorted or ill proportioned countenance Teut. camuys- 
achtigh, flat-nofed. Gawin Douglas ufes Camy alfo 
in the fenfe of rugged, afper. [Celt, cam curvus.] 

Camftairie, riotous, quarrelfome ; q. gram-Jiirrigh ; 
from Teut. gra?n, afper, iratus ; and Jiieren, infti- 

Camy, Camow. See Camfcho, ill proportioned. 

Can, for Gan, began ; fo alfo in the fame fenfe Could, 
for goud or begoud. 

Cankerrit, Cankert, /)i3^«t7^^, crabbed i redius f^r- 
kered, from Cark. 

Cannikin, little cann o'c fmall vej/el. 

Canois, Canos, gray, gray-haired, white. Fr. 

Canny, mild, gentle, well-doing, prudent, cautious ; ori- 
ginally perhaps the fame with candid; or analo- 
gous to ganand. See Gane. 

Cant, canty, lively, merry. [Sax. cantic, canticum.] 

Cj-SL.ViX.Q\., fragment. Teut. kanteel. Fr. efchantillon. 

Cantel, head. feut. kant, fummitas. 

Canteleins, Cantropes, incantations, charms. 

Cap, cup. Swed. happe, poculum. 

Cappit, captious, ill-natured ; alfo ufed for Schappit, 
Jfhaped ; for Skappit, efcaped ; and for Keppit, met 
with, encountered, fci%ed; according to Mr Pinker- 
ton, 7?«/»/V/. 


ca. — — c^. 

Gap, Chappe, Coape, Kaip, mantle, cloaky loofe linen 
frock or gown •without Jleeves, commonly worn by 
- ecclefiaftics. Swed. kappoy pallium. 

Caprowfie, Chaproufie, a Jhort cloak furntjhed with a 
hood, Swed. karpus. Teut. kapruyn, cucullus hu- 
meralis. The latter part of the Sc. word may, how- 
ever, have fome reference to the colour. 

Capufchyne, capuchin, cloak. Teut. kappotien, kappoot- 
keuy palla muliebris. 

Capyl, Kapyl, horfe, mare. O. Fr. kaval^ equusj. Gael. 
capul, equa. Lat. 

Cappernytie, per/on of a captious temper. 

Caryl, fongy tofing. C^Talyngisy Jinging by a number of 
voices. Fr. garioller, cantillare. 

Carde, Caird, tinker, vagrant artifan. Gael, ceard, ori- 
ginally perhaps a maker or mender of wool cards. 

Care, to rake up, to fearch for. Swed. kara, colligere. 
Teut. karen, eligere. 

Cark, fordidnefs, avarice. Teut. karig. Swed. karg^ 
fordidus, parcus ; karghety avaritia. Sax. care, cura. 
It is alfo ufed for cargo. 

Carkat, necklace, carkanet. Fr. carcant, monile. 

Carl, Karle, clown, rujlic. Teut. kaerle, rufticus, ho- 
mo ; vir fortis & ftrenuus, qualem fuifle Carolum 
primum Saxones (cribunr. Hence he was called 
Karle magnus, latinized to Carolus. The term Carl 
always implies an advanced period of life. 

Carling, woman y old woman. See Carl. 

Carlyk, Carlich, vulgar, unpolifhed. Sax. ceorlic. 

Carlyngs, expl. peaje boiled on Care-funday ; the firfl 
before Palm-Sunday. 

Carne, Kairn, (Gael.) a rude monument; a heap of 
ftones, piled up commonly on the top of mountains. 
Swed. karm, pluteus, repofitory. 

Carp to /peak or write with acutenefs, or in a fatirical 
manner ; to recite, to talk. [Lat. carpo^ 

Carrail, the town of Crail in b'yfe-fhire. 

Cartis, cards. Teut. kaerte, charta luforia. 

Carvel, Kervel, a kind of boat ovjloop. Teut. kareveel, 
navis veftoria. 
Vol. IV. E Garybald, 

Ca. Ca. 

Carybald, Cn^rryhzldf grumbli/ig or crabbed oldfclhxv, 
Svved. knarrog, furly. Dan.Jknurpotte, old grumbler. 
Teut. knarreriy ftridere, frendere, grunnire. 

Cafer, Kaefar, Cicfar, emperour, king. 

Calfyo, Caften, cajl, fallen j annulled, from Fr. eajffer^ 

Cait, ybwr. Swed. kajiy quatuor. 

Caftis, contrivances, efforts^ arts. Swed. kajla, immutarj. 

Caftellan, keeper of a cajile. Caftellwart, govenK^r of a 

Caftocks,^?^/^^ of cole-worts or cabbage ; q. kale-falks^ 

Cateing, defiring the male. Lat. catulire. 

Catheiyns. See ^zxki&x^xit^^ Jiurdy beggars. 

Catluke, Catcluke, yellow, or birds foot trefoil i fo 
called from a fancied refemblance to the claw or foot 
of a cat. Rudd. 

Catouris, caterers, providers. Teut. kater, oeconomus. 

Catjve, caitiff. Teut. katiif mifer, pauper ; q. d. cap- 
tivus vel cattivus. 

Cave, tofeparate corn from the claff. Teut. kaiien, even- 
tilate paleas. 

Cavie, hen-coop. Teut. kevie, cavea, cage. 

Cavillis, now comnnonlj pronounced Keuls, lots ; alfo 
expl. refponfts of oracles. Teut. havel, fors in divi- 
fione bonorum, funis fortis vel diftributionis. This 
latter definition of Kilianus feems formed for the 
purpofe of introducing the " funis" or cable^ which 
probably had no concern in the bufinefs. Ruddiman 
fuppofes the word to be fynonimous with Sax. kea- 
wel, a bafket ; from which the lots may have been 
drawn, as they were by the Romans from an urn. 
He alfo mentions the Lat. Barb, camlla Cclavicula) 
i. €. talus, Teut. hote, " quo crus pedi jungitur : 
hae autem cavillie feu tali antiquitus videntur apud 
noftrates in ufu fuifle pro fortibus." In this way 
keuls feem to be the»fame with cutis, which Ruddi- 
man defines cuttings of fir aw. See Cutts. 

Cauf, chaff. Teut. kaff, palea. 

Cawpes, -Calpcs, a kind of blach-mail; defined by Skene 
" aue gift quhilk a man gives to his tnaifter, or to 
onie other man that is great in power and authori- 


Ca. Ch. 

tie, for prote£lion againft free-booters." He off^s 
no conjefture with refp€<5t to the derivation. Per- 
haps it has fome affinity with the Gael, calpach, a 
young cow, which may have been a common affeff- 
ment, or rate of aflurance. Theot. gaba^ donum, tnu- 
nus i gabely douarium, vefligal. 

Cawk, chalk. Teut. kalck^ caJx. 

Cave], Kavel, quarrelfome fellow. Teut. kiivery alterca- 
tor. Mr Pinkerton defines it fcoundr el. 

Cedule, Schedule, copy, draught. Fr. 

Celfitude, highnefs. Lat. 

Cenfingfjumigating with incenfe ; quafi, incenfing. 

Chaftis, cheeks, chops, jaws. Swed. ke/t, maxilla. 

ChafFery, Chap-wares Jhop-wares, articles of merchant 

Chakkis, gnafhes, fnaps, fnatches ; ex fono. 

Chalmer-glew, chamber-glee, chambering, fecret wanion- 
nefs. See Glew. 

Chalous, perhaps for Chalouns, calves. Teut. ial-jen^ 

Champ, to chop. Teut. happen, incidere. 

Chancy, that hath a good chance, lucky, 

Chanoun, canon, canonicus. 

Chap, to knock. Teut. happen, incidere. 

Chap, Chop.^o/). '^•scu.fceop, gazophylacium. 

Chapes, Chaps, cii/lomers, young fellows. 

Chapes, fhapes, cufloms. ** According to the chapes of 
the country ;" (Regiam Majeftatem,) according to 
the fafhions, forms, or fhapes of the country. 

Chappin, chopin, a meafure of two EnglifJj pints. Fr. 

Chapit, Chaipyt, efcaped. 

Char, Chair, Schair,'Skair, to fhear, cut, or pierce, 
^^e-ax.fcheren. Dan.yJE-^rf, tonderc, csedere. 

Char, a-Char, on Char, a-jee, on the hinges, half ffjtt. 
Teut. harre, cardo^ 

Charris, turns as a door upon the hinges. 

Charbukil, carbuncle. 

Chard, Schaird, Q\\-i\r^\., fljearcd. See Cliar. 

Charie, ty.^\. format, wary. Sax.f<?rtr;^,fcllicitus. Teiit. 

karigh, tenax, parcus. 
Charle-wayne, Charl- wan, the confellalion Urfa Major. 


Ch Ci. 

Ghafty, chaflife. Chaftiand, chajiijtng. 

Chat th6, hang thyfelf. Cant, chat^ gallows. 

Chattels, ^oo^j-, moveables^ originally cattle \ the Fr, 
chatel and Belg. kateyly being at one period fynoni- 
mous. Sax. ceatta, things. 

Chaud-melle, rencounter ^ broil. Fr. 

Cheis, choofe. Teut. hefeny eligere. 

Chekere, chefs board. Fr. echecs. TtuX.. fchach fpllyXn- 
dus regius, live, Indus latrunculorum. 

Chekere, exchequer. Fr. efchiquier. 

Chenye, Cheinye, chain. Fr. chaine. 

Chepand, Cheipand, chirping, fqueaking with a fmall 
i3oice ; ex fono, 

Chefoun, Cheflbun, blame. O. Fr. enchoifonner. 

Chevelrus, courageous , devoted to chivalry ; from Fr. 
chevalerie, ordo, fortitudo, decor equeftris, 

Chevifance, acquijition ; from achieve. 

Cheveron, expl. armour for the front of a horfe. Fr. 

Chide. See Schyde, to fplit or cleave. 

Chield, young fellow, lad ; commonly ufed with a 
view of difparagement, if no epithet is coupled with 
it ; whereas, in its more ancient form of Child it 
denotes a young gentleman or knight, correfponding 
with infans in the times of Chivalry. Teut. kind, puer. 

Chirk, Jirg, to make a grating noife. Sax. cearcian, 

Chirle, Chirm, to chirp like a fparrow. Sax. cyrm, 

Chirt, to fquirt ox fend forth fuddenly . 

Cholle, j'ole, Jaw, cheek. O. Eng. chawes, maxillae. 

Choller, double chin. 

Chymmeris, Chymmis, feems to mean trowfers, or 
breeches. [Fi.j'ambiere, leg-harnefs.] 

Chymmis, Chymes, houfes or cottages flanding fepa- 
rately. Teut. hammeys. Dan. hiemmes. Fr. hameauXf 
hamlets. According to Ruddiman, from Fr. chemife^ 

Chymour, expl. a cymar, a light gown. 

Chyne, Kyne, cows ,• fo written for the fake of allite- 

Ciiirews, Ciftews, Ciflertian monks. 


Gl. — CK 

Clag, Klag, complaint. Teut. klagte^ incufatio. 

Clag, to clogf to adhere. Claggy, unBuous matter which 

has the power of adhering. 
Claggok, a dirty wench ; hejmotted with mire. Teut. 

claddegat, puella fordida. 
Clahynne, clan, tribe. Goth, klahain, parvuli. 
Claik-geefe, barnacles^ '* anas beinicla." Lin. See H. 

Bojce's account of tliem Vol. II. p. 69. 
Clairty, Clartj, Cl.atty, clotted, clogged with mire. 

Teut. klottert, coagulatus. Sax. cleoty pittacium. 
Clais, cloathes. Sax. clathaSy vefles. 
Clank,^firr/> blow, or the noife thereby produced. Teut. 

klanck, clangor, fonitus. 
Clatter, to talk idly. Teut. klatereny ftrepere. 
Claucht, fei'xed fuddenly^ as a hawk feizes with its 

claws ; from Teut. klawe, unguis. See Cleik. 
Claver, clover. Teut. klaver^ trifoliuna. 
Claver, to talk nonfenfe. Ger. klaffen, garrire, efFutire ; 

^/<^^r, nugator. Teut. knahhelen, altercari, muffitare. 
Cleid, cloathe. Cled, cloathed. Cleiding, Cleithing, 

cloathing. Teut. kleedy veftes ; kleeden, veftire. 
Cleik, hooh of crooked metal ; alfo to catch as with a 
• hook. Teut. i/^j/<?;/, inuncare. 
Q\e.\r^fair otie, young woman. 
Cleket, the catch or faflening ; in O. Eng. a key. 
Clekk, to hatch or breed. Teut. klocken. Sax. cloccan^ 

glocire. Clekkin, broody progeny. 
Cleip, Clyp, Clepe, to name or call. Sax. clepian. 
Clene, Clein, quite^ entirely. 
Clergie, Clairgy, learnings i. e. a knowledge of reading 

and writing. In England, if a perfon convidled of 

felony could read a portion of the Pfnlter, ut cleri- 

cus, he was pardoned ; which privilege was called 

** benefit of clergy." 
Clerk, priefly learned man, one who could read and write. 

Teut. klerkf clericus, fcholatlicus. 
Cleuchis, Clewis, oppojite rugged banks. Sax. cliith, 

cautes, collis ; dough, rima vel filTura ad mentis cli- 

vum vel declivum. 
Clever, to climb. Teut. klaveren, furfum reptare. 
Cleyng, for Cleyding or Cleiding, cloathing^ drefs. 


CI Co. 

Clint, hard orjlinty rocks. QXintyyJlinty. Sax. clynCf 

metallum, mafla. 
Clippie, talkative woman. [Teut. klepely lingua cainpa« 

nac, lingua loquax.] 
Clippis, corruption of eclipfe. 
Clippis, embraces^ holds faji ; a pair of hooks or grap- 

pling irons linked together. Sax. clippan^ ample^i. 
Clock, to cluck. Teut. kkckett, gloeire. 
Clok, beetle ; fo called from its fhining like a bell. 

Sax. eluega, campane. Teut. klocke^ aes campanum. 
Clofby Clofe, Cloce, inclofure^ narrow way, Teut. 

kluyftj claufura, locus angufle conclufus. 
Clowis, i/flWJ-. See Cluf. 
Clovvit, Clewit, made of clews^ woven. Teut. klouwe^ 

Clowis. See Cleuchs, rugged banks. 
Cloude for Clout, rag. Sax. clut^ pittacium* 
Cloys, cloifler. Teut. kluyfe^ clauftrum. 
Clud, cloud. Cluddj, cloudy. Cluddit, clouded ,- q. cO" 

agulated. [Teut. klottereny coagulari ; klotte, maffa.^ 
Cluf, Cloif, Cluve, hoof claiv ; frotn Teut. kluyve, 

Clure, Clour, fwelling occajioned hy a flroke on the 

head. Teut. knorrCy tuberculum, nodus. It is alfo, 

but rarelj, ufed in the fenfe of dimple. 
Clute, half of the hoof of any hifulc ate d animal. See 

Clum, Clamb, did climb. Clummen, climbing. Teut. 
Co-'uxcWt, forced. Lat. 
Cockernony, woman's head-drefs. 
Cod f pillow. Sax. codd, pera. 
Cod- v^' sir, pillow-Jhp ; from Cod; & Sax. luair, rejti- 

Coffc, expl. cheat ; from Fr. covin. 
Ccffe, to purchafcy to trade. Teut. kcopen, emere, mer* 

cari. Goth, kaupothy Lii. xix. 13. negotiamini : 

whence to cowp. 
Cofl'e, (Pedder,) hawker, pedlary petty dealer. Teut. 

koop-vaerder, mercator peregrinus. 
Coffing, coffer ; from Sax. coff?j xc\ cofa, cavea ; c[. 



Co. Co. 

Cog, mtlhing-pail. [Ger. knuchy vas cavum. Tyz(\.iaag, 

a trough. Teut. koggen, celox, cymbula.] 
Cogle, to Jhake, as when placed in an unjieady pofiure, 

Teut. koeghely globus. 
Coif, Cove, ca've. Teut, kouwe, cavea. 
Coil, coal. Teut. ^ 

Coifche, coach. Fr. cache. Teut. hoetfe. 
Collatioun, conftrence^ interview. Lat. 
Collj, C>o\\ty,Jhepherd'*s dog. < 

Combuve, hurn^ injiame, Lat. 
Commend, commentary. Lat. 
Commendis, benefices *' in commendum^ Lat. 
Comparge, lineage^ kindred. Fr. corn-par age. 
Compleue-fong, Compline, the laji of the canonical 

hours, or from nine to twelve o^clock at night. Fr. 

Complex ioun, conneBions, ajfociotesy party. Lat. 
Con, expl. the fquirrel ; and tranfl.yr»ar?Af. 
Conablc, pojjthle ; q. can-able. 
Condjt, letter of fiife conduct ; alfo conduit^ P^'jff'^S^- 

Teut. rondayt. 
Gonfits, fweet-meats. Teut. ionfiit, confc6lura- 
Conneis, Vol. IIL p. 457. perhajys paj/ports ^ from 

Fr. conge ; q. conjeys. 
Conftrie, Confiftory, ecclefiaflicnl court. 
Contake, contefi. O. Eng. conteck, conteke. 
Contirmont, backward, contrary way. Fr. 
Contrer, expl. mif chief. 

Convjne, Covyne, agreement^ paBion, convention. Lat, 
Conqueft, acquifition^ acquired by force, fraud, or i/h- 

Convoy, tricJk, to bring to pafs, to perfuade. Fr. con- 

vier, invitare, perfuadere. 
Coop, large cart. [Teut. kopf dolium, navigium.]} 
Cop, Coh,Jpider, Jelfifij TjiaHgnant fellow. Teut. kopy 

Cop, cup. Teut. lop, fcyphus ; alfo a coffin. See 

Copill, to join y to unite. Teut. hoppelcn, neflere. 
Copper, cup-bearer ; fron^ cop, cyphus. 
CoxdiH'!n:\\, funeral fongytnoNrnfol cry. Gael, coronach^ 


Cd. Co. 

Covbie . raven. Fr. corheau. 

Corbulye, a khid of leather. Fr. cuir-bouUley fine drelT- 

ed leather. 
Corce. See Cors, crofs^ body. 
Cordenouris, Jhoe-niakers. Belg. kordewaemer^ futor. 

Cordowan, expl. Cordova or Spanijh leather; may alfo 
mean tanned leather ^ from^ Teut. touwen, coria perfi- 
cere, the term cordoxvati being ftill commonly appli- 
ed to a particular part of the tanned hide of a horfe. 
Probably the Scottifh cordwainers dealt but little in 
Spanifh or Morocco leather. 

Corfe, Crufe, Cruve, hut, temporary Jhade ; q. cour- 
hof. See Cour. 

Cor mundum, the Jirji words of a Roman Catholic 

Corncraik, land rail ; from its cry of craik or crex. 

Cors , crof, market place. Swed. kors, crux, 

Cors, human body after death. Lat. 

Cors-prefant, a mortuary or funeral gift to the church; 
in recpmpenie, as was pretended, for any tithes that 
liad been omitted or with-held by the deceafed ; fy- 
nonimous withO. Eng. foul Jlott ov foul-portion. 

Corfly, large bodied ; from Cors. 

Corwyn, Covvyn, a kind of leather. See Cordowan. 

Cos, Cofs, to barter or exchange. Sax. ceofan^ eligere ; 
q. to choofe alternately . 

Qo^,fnugy quiet, free from interruption. Fr. coy, quietus. 

Cofie, warm, comfortable. [Fr. coufjineux, pulvinatus.] 

Coftay, to coajl, to fail or go by the fide of. 

Coftlyk, cojlly, magnificent. Teut. koftelick. 

Cole, cottage. Teut. i(?^, cafa, tugurium ; kutt, tegu- 

Cotter, cottager, pojfijjor of a cote or cottage. 

Cotys, coats, pettycoats. Fr. cotte, a coat or frock. See 

Covanis, fuppofed to mean guefls. 

Covatyfe, covetoufnefs. Fr. convsitife. 

Coven t, recovered. 

Couchir, inlaid, %vas delivered. Fr. 

Coudie, Quiddy, fmall wooden chamber-pot.. 

Could, did; fometimes apparently for begoud, began^ 


Co. Cn 

Coalpit, expl. /eized on. [Fr. cueillir^ carpere.] 

Counter, encounter ; to encounter. 

Coup, cup ; alfo a fort of lua^gon. Teut. 

Cour, to crouch, to fit crouching. Fr. couver. Wei. 

cwrrian, in talos defidere* 
Courche, covering for the head. Fr. couvre-chef. 
Courers, Curers, covers, [difhes.] 
Couth, Couthie, affable, complacent. Sax. cuth, cutha^ 

notus, familiaris. 
Cow, a cutting or fiip of a plant or diminutive- fhruh ; 

alfo to cut or crop. Fr. couper. 
Cow, to intimidate, to keep under. Ifl. kuga, fubjugare, 

fupprimare ; whence perhaps Cowart, coward. 
Cowar, collar, neck-lace^ chain. 
Cowclink, harlot, loofe vcoman. [Teut. kocklitKkj ju- 

Cow-hubby, auhward fellow, one who hobbles or moves 

about like a cow. Teut. hobben,^-At2ive, motare. Ac- 
cording to Ruddiman, the word fignifies cow-herd, 

from Scot, hobby, coarfe apparel. 
Cownand, Counant, covenant. Fr. convefiant. 
Gowndyt. See Condyt, fafe conduB. * 

Cowp, to exchange or barter. Teut. koopen, mercari. 
Cowp, to overturn, to overfit. 

Cow-fchot dow, ring dove. Sax. cufceote, palumbus. 
Coy, quiet, fnug. Fr. koy, quietus; whence Cofh. 
Coydjoch, Coidyoch, an oppr obrious name applied to a 

woman ; perhaps witch. Gael, callleach, old woman. 
Crack, to converfe, to chat, to hoafl. Fr. craquer^ ftre- 

Cracklins, refufe of tallow. [Teut. hard bifult.^ 
Craig, crag, neck, throat. Teut. hraeghe, ingluvies. 
Craik, to importune. Teut. hrackeelen, litigare, altercari. 
Crait, large bojket, hamper. Teut. kratte, corbis. 
Crame, Craim, a merchants booth, fhop or fall. Teut. 

kraem, cadurcum, taberna live capfa rerum vena- 

Cramerie, Craimery, mercerie, goods for fale. Teut. 

kraemerie, merx. 
Crammafie, crimfon ox fcarlet cloth. Teut. krammefiittt 

veftis purpurea, oftrina, coccinea. 

Vol. IV. F Cramp, 

Cr. Cr. 


Cramp, Crample, to ramp^ cUmh, or curriike tendrils. 
Fr. grhnper. ; . 

Crank, infirm^ iveak, in bad condition. Teut. kranck^ti" 

Crap, Crappin, crop'Jlomach. Teut. kropy ingluvies. 

Citap, did creep. 
~ Crote. bee Crait, hajket. 

Craw , to crow ; Crawin, crswed. Teut. kraeyen, cor- 

Craw, crow. Teut. kraeye, comix. 

Crawdoun, Cravant, Craven, an infamous name un- 
derjlood to mean a coward. In a criminail trial by 
battle the vanquifhed perfon declared his fubmiffion 
by pronouncing aloud the word Craven. If the ac- 
cufed was reduced to this neceffity, he was deemed 
guilty, and immediately hanged. If the accufer, he 
was declared infamous. The word may be derived 
irom Sax. crajian. Ifl. krejia, poftulare ; &. Scand. 
ande, anima, fpiritus. 

Creil, bajketf hamper ; to place in a hafket or hamper. 
Ir. kril^ corbis, area. 

Creis, Crefs, to curl^ rumple^ wrinkle. Creifit, rumpled^, 
wrinkled. Teut. kroefen, crifpaie. 

Creifit, craved, cra^y^ lohimJicaL Teut. he-hroefen^ e- 

Creifche, corr. ol greafe, Fr. groijpy pinguedo. 

Ctine, tojhrink. Teut. kleyneren, diminuere. 

Cripp«l, Curpil, crnpper. Teut. kroppier^ poftilena. 

Cro, (Regiam Majeftatem) expl. ajjythement. Celt, croy 
cows. [Svved. cronay corona.] 

Crok, old exve. Crokkys, old ewes. Teut. kroongie, 
ovis rejecula, cadaver. O. Eng. crojie. 

Crok, to fuffer decay from age. See the preceding arti- 
cle. The derivation, however, may be from Teut. 
krocheny gemere ; or krcken, curvare. 

Cronie, tippling cotnpanion. [Teut. krcegheUj potare, 
inebriari ; kroegher, caupo.] 

Crounar, Crownei', coroner. 

Crounel, little crown ; dimin. of Croun. 

Croup, berry. Craw-croopr^, crow-berrys. Sax. crop, 
11 va. 


Cr. — Cu. 

Croufs, bjl:I, confident, Fr. courronce. 

Crowdie, thick gruel. [Teut. kruydt, herba."] 

Crojne. See Crune, to Jing in a low tone. 

Grucll, keeriy injlexible. 

Cruells, hings evil. Fr. ecrouelles, flruma. 

Cruke, Crook, chain with a hook at the loiver end. 

Cruke-trie, beam upon which the crook is fnfpended over 
a izitchenjire. 

Crumtuie, navie of a cow. 

Crufie, cracibley melting pet ; alfo latnp. Swed. irus^ 

Crune, to hum or ^ng in a low tone. Teut. kronen, ge- 
mere. Ifl. krina^ ejulare, mugire. 

Cruves, hurdles, ufed in rivers for the catching of fifli. 
Teut. korf, hamper. 

Cruve, hovel, poor habitation. Swed. krype, cafa. 

Cryle, dwarf. Teut. kr'iel, parvulus, pumilus. 

Cubiculair, chamber- companion, per Jon belonging to the 
bed- chamber. Fr. 

•Cuck-ftule, Cogg-ftule, Cucking-ftool, the pillory, Jlool 
of repentance ', or, more properly, a Jlool upon which 
petty offenders were firjl Jecurely placed, and after" 
wards immtrfcd in water, commonly fome {linking 
pond. This chair of penance was alfo called th^ 
timbrel or trebucbet ; and by iht ^Tixons Jcea If ng- 
Jlole, fella urinatoria in qua rixofas mulieres, Sec — 
The origin of the more modern term is probably to 
be found in the Teut. kolcken, ingurgitare, from kolck, 
gorges, vorago, vortex. 

Cuchill, expl. a grove ox Jpecial place of refidence ; from 
^x. couche, ledus, fedes. 

Cuddie, afs ; originally perhaps a diminutive of Cowt. 

Cude, frolichjomc. Belg. kout, prattling, jefting. 

Cudeigh, bribe, prejent. Gael, cuid, a (hare, or part. 

Cuitchouris, gamejiers, gamblers ; ^'io Jmugglers, t'hofc 
who lie in wait to cairy on fome fecret trade. Fr. 
coucheur ; or perhaps frbin Te\U. lute, talus, a cu- 
bical bone ufed as a die, 

Cullum, Galium, vagina ; alfo a part of the bowels. 
Lat. Barb. 

Cullage, habit, figure, o\ fmipe nfbotdy ; probably corr. 


Cu. Cu. 

from colour. According to Lye, from Hib. culaigh, 

veftis, veftitus. 
Culmes, or Culmez, expl. a culmujlj or cluh» Swed. 

iiil-peec, a knotty cudgel. 

" To mak debate lie held in til his hand, 
Ane rural club or culmez in ftede of brand." 

G. Doug- 
Cul reach, ** a cautioner left be him quha repledges a 

man fra ane court to his awin court,^ as a fecurity 

that juftice Ihall be done to the complainer j corrup- 
tion of Sax. gildan-redd, arrha. 
Culroun, cullion, rafcal, one of the rabble, contemptible 
fellow. Fr. couille, expl. a lubberly coward; and the 

common termination roun. q. v. 
Culye, Cullye, to cully, to impofe upon, to ** gull.'''* 
Cummer, Kimmer, gojjip. Fr. compere^ commcre. 
Cummer, encumbrance ; to encumher. Fr. ^encomhrcr, 
Cun, to tnjle. Swed. kccnna, guftare. 
Cun, to give or acknowledge. Swed. keehna^ & Sax. cuU' 

natty agnofcere. 
Cun, to know, to learn, to teach. Sax. & Goth, kunnan, 

fcire, nofcere, cognofcere, agnofcere. Swed. kunnig, 

peritus j whence perhaps Canny. 
Cunnand, knowing, intelligent. Goth, kunnandsy fciens. 
Cunning, covenant ; from Fr. convenir, to bargain. 
Cunye, coin. Fr. coigner, fignare monetam. 
Cunye, Coyne, corner. [ Fr. coin, angulus.] 
Curling, a game played on the ice, in fome refpe£ls rc» 

fembling Quoits. 
Curlurous, expl. churiifl}, 
Curne, a grain of corn; ufed for a firtall parcel, Teut. 

korn. Goth, kaurno, granum. 
Currough, a Jkiff or canoe. Gael, currachan. The 

Teut. karrake is defined " navis majoris genus." 
Curs, to excom?nunicate. Curling, excommunication. 
Curtil, ex'pl.jluttijh. See Clarty. 
Cure, carCy anxiety, trouble. Lat. 

Curie, abbreviation of inquiry ; alfo ufed for curing. 
Curfchcjjgurche, head-drefs, kerchief; Fr. couvrechef 
Curloure, CuffarCffallion. Fr. courjtery charger. 


Cu. — Cu. 

Cullroun, pitiful fellow ; literally, perhaps, a taylor 
of the lowed order, a botcher. Fr. coujiourier ; or 
q. cuiJlre-rouTif from Fr. cuiftrCf a college pedant, 
and the common termination roun. 

Cutts, lots. To draw cutts, to draw lots ; from Teut. 
kote, talus, aflragulus. Lat. Barb, cavilla, a fmall 
cubical bone, which feems to have been much ufed 
in gambling and other affairs of chance, before the 
invention of dice. According to Ruddiman, Cutts 
are fo called from their being commonlj cuttings of 
ft raw. 

Cutchouris. See Cuitcheouris, gamblers. 

Cute, ankle. [Tent, kuyte^ fura.] 

Cuttie, y2;or^, little. Gael, cutag, a Ihort fpoon. 

Ontty-gnn, Jbort tobacco pipe. 

Cutty-ftule, JIool of repentancey ajhort-legged fiool. 

Cutty, Kittie, wanton wench. Swed. katig, fly, cun- 
ning. Gael, cutagy a young, or (rather) little girl. 

Cufche, Cuffe, expl. armour for the thighs ; from Fr. 
^ cui//e. 

Cuvine. See Covyne, combination, covenant. 


Da. .... Da. 


1l)a, doe. Sax. da, dama femella. 

Dablet, Daiblet, perhaps imp of hell deviPs get ox 

Daffin, -Dafferyjyoo/ijr)', play y play'ing ; <{' gnffiuy from 
Tent. gabbereUf nugari, jocari j or gachdeity cachin- 

T>^h, playful, foolijh, mad. See Dafiln. Junius would 
feem to connect tbefe words with Dan. doffuefi, ig.. 
navus, iners. torpid us, between the primary fenfe of 
which {dcnf^ and tlje Scot, fignification, there cau 
be no analogy. See Dowf. 

Dag, thick fog, mijl. Dan. taag, 

Dagonis for Dragounis, dragons. 

Daigh, Daeuch, dough. Teut. de£ghy farina fuba^ia. 

Daimen, expl. rare, now and then. 

Dainte, kindnefs, hojpital'ity . See Daintith. 

Daintith, dainty, delicacy, rarity. O. Fr. dain^ dejica- 
tus. Sax. ihaniatiy madid'are, madefacere. 

Daif. Deve, to deafen. Teut. doof, furdus. 

Daiiit, Daifenit. See Dofenit, damaged^ decayed. 

Daker, Dockar, to toil as in job work, to labour. Sc? ' 
Daig, from which it probably has been formed. 

Dale. Ste ViQ\Q, part, divfion, or difiriB of a country ^ 
as Tweed-dale, Annan- dale, &c. from Teut. deyl, 
pars, partitio ; correfponding with ^^LX.fcire, fhare. 
Or perhaps, according to Ruddiman, valley, plain, 
efpecially on the fde of a river ; from Teut. dell, 
vallis, lacuna, lacus ; in fome of thefe diftridls, 
however, not many valleys are to be foiind. 

Dams, game of draughts. Fr. dames. 

Dammyfs, Dammeis, damage. Fr. dommage. 

Dampnc, to damn or condemn \ a fpecies of orthogra- 
phy which was common in the Latin of the middle 

Dan, Lord, Sir ; equivalent to the Span. Don, and O- 
Fr. Daw, allfrom Lat. dominus. 

Dander, to faunter about in a Ifilcfs manner. Fr. dan- 
diner. Teut. danten, ineptirc. 


Da. De; 

Danders, the aJJjes from a fmitJj s JJjop. Goth, tand'uvtj. 

Dang,Jirucl-y overcame, drove. See Ding.- 

Danfkjn, Dcvii/h. 

Dant, Dantcn, to tame or fuh due. Danted, Dantenit, 
tamed, Jiihdiied. Duntenit liors, a horfe that has beta 
broke. Fr. donter, domare, tra<Elare. 

Dantoun, expl. to daunt ox' affright. See Danf. 

Darg, days-xvorky tajk ; contracted from day-voarl. 
Tcut. dagh-wercky penfum, ■ - ' ^^"'^ 

Dargeis, Dergeis, dirges, funeral fojigs ; fronti the fre- 
quent repetition of the Lat. dirige in the burial- fer- 
vice. Dirge is aUo ufed for moral poem. 

Dafs, that part of a hay Jlack nvhicli is cutting doivn 
for immediate 7/fe ; fo called perhaps frora its refem- 
blance to a Deifs or feat. . 

Daver, Daifer, tojiun with a bloiv on the head. Teut. 
daveren, contremere, contremifcere. Ifl. doffc, ilu- 

Dave], Devel, expl. a funning bloiu. See Daver. 

Daw, fuggard, la%y idle pcrfon ; from Teut daghen^ 
prorogare in alium diem ; o^. a pofponer. Accordinjj; 
to Ruddiman, from dowy, dull. 

Daw, to daxvn. Teut. daghen, diefcere. 

Dawache of land, a plough-gate, or as much as could 
conveniently be laboured in a feafon by an eight oxen 
plough. It i'eems to have been common for eight 
hufoandmen to club an ox a piece to make up this 
formidable draught. Dawache fcems evidently con- 
nedled v/ith J'eut. daghwand, modius agri ; verfus, 
id quod uno die arari aut verti poteil ; from dagh^ 
dies ; & xvenden, vertere. 

Dawt, Daute, to fondle or rherijh. Dan. d.rgger, to 
nourrjh or bring up. 

TiAwtie, favourite. Dan. dccgge, a darling. 

Dayis darling ; Vol. 11. p. 154. perliaps darling of my 
days. [Tcut. duyfe, concubina ] 

Days, Daes does. See Da, dama femella. 

De, die. Deand, dying. Deit, died. 

Debait, 3tf///f, to fight. Fr. JfAi/, pugna. 

Debonare, courteous, gentle. Fr. 


De. De. 

Decoir, to decorate. Fr. 

Dedal, Dede, Deith, death ; the firft, q. dead-ill. 

Dedeinje, to deign ; the de being here a fuperfluous 

Ded^Inje, to, difdain. Fr. dedaigner. 

Dee, TiQ.y^ dairy-maid^ fjoufe keeper. Swed. deya, ceco- 
noma. Sax. theowe, famula, ferva, ancilla. 

Deface, to confound or difgrace. 

Uef aid, Jaded, dijgraced. Fr. de/hit, fine colore. 

Defound, to pour down. Lat. defundere. 

Ticge^, gra'ue, compofed. Y)egQ\i\\e,fedately. IjZX. di- 

Deje£l, to throw out, to difplace. Lat. 

Deil, devil ; from Lat. diaholus. 

Deir, Dere, to annoy, injure, wrong, trouble^ vex. O. 
Teut. deren, deyren, nocere, officere, obeire, iirgere. 

Deir, Dcre, injury, wrong, anfioyance, dijirefs. O, Teut. 
dere, iiocuitientum, difplicentia. 

Deir. See Dere, to pity, 

Deir, expl. by Mr Pinker ton daring. 

Deis, a long 7naJJ'y feat or bench, furni/hed with a backf 
and deftined for the ufe of the principal perfonages 
at an entertainment. Before the deis, upon a railed 

- or {lightly elevated part of the floor, was placed the 
great dining table, which. by Chaucer and other an- 
cient writers is frequently alfo cabled the deifs, — 
LalUy, the word was confined, particularly by the 
French, to the canopy fdais) which was fufpendcd 
over the whole of the table and benches. It is not 
eafy to determine which of thefe was the original 
fignification of the word ; — probably the firfl, as 
deift continues ft ill to be the name given to a long 
feat huilt againjl a wall, and alfo to that part of a 
hay-ftack which is cutting down for daily ufe, from 
its refemblance to a feat of that defcription. In ci- 
ther Teutonic dialefts, however, the word is more 
frequently defined tcthle ; and the origin, in either of 
the two fenfes, may perhaps be found in the Teut. 
doofe, or Dan. de ejke, a chcft, which in early times 
might ferve, as at prefent in cottages, cither for a 


De. — De. 

feat or a table. The Fr. dais^ canopy, is derived 
by Wachter from Teut. decken, operire. 

Dele,y^«rf, divijion, part. Teut. deyl, deely pars, par- 
titio, diftributio. Goth, dail^ pars. According to 
Bede, ufed in this fenfe by the Brit. Scots of his 
time. The word, however, is evidently of Teutonic 
origin, and probably belonged to the Peyhts. 

Dele, to deal or divide. Goth, dailjan, dividere, dare. 

Deleirit, for deliriousy which had not then been formed* 

Delf, Delfe, grave. Zel. delve, fovea. 

Delfe, to delve or dig, to bury. Teut. delven, fodere, 
defodere, infodere, inhumare. Delfen, Dolven, delv- 
ed, buried ; from Zel. delve, dilve, fovea. 

Deliver, Delyver, to deliberate, to determine. Dely- 
ve ranee, deliberation, determination. Fr. deliberer^ 

Deliverly, refolutely, fpeedily, nimbly. Fr. delibcrey 

Demayne, domain. O. Fr. demayene, dominium. 

Demane, Demayn, to dwell, to remain. Lat. manere. 

Demane, Demayn, to maltreat, injure ; from Teut. 
mancken, mutilare ; manck, mancus. 

Deme, dame, mother ; in a quarrel, mijirefs,jade. 

Deme, to cenfure, to condemn, to pafs judgment on. Teut. 
aoeman, cenfere, judicare, daranare ; doeme^ judi- 

Yi^vai^X., judged, cenfured. See Deme. 

i)emplter, Deimfter, officer who pronounced the judg- 
ment of a court of law. Teut. doemer, judex. 

Demelle, engagement^ rencounter, joining in battle. Teut.- 
mellen, conjungi. 

Ti&x^,fpruce, gaudy, neatly drejfed. [Dan. dynniker^ to 
whiten or plaifter.] 

Denude, to diveji. Lat. 

Dene, Dean, dell, any low Jituation, efpccially if co- 
vered with trees or brufhwood ; which, before the 
country was cleared, was frequently the cafe be- 
tween two oppofite banks. The meaning is now 
more contradled in Den ; from Teut. dell, lacuna. 

Dent, Dint, dimple ; alfo expl. engraven. See Dint. 

Dens-men, perhaps Danes or Danijh pirates. 

Vol. IV. G Depairt, 

De. De. 

Depairt, to dtjirihute. Fr. departir, diftribuere* 

Bepefche, Depeche, to difpatch. 

peplome, to unfeather. Fr. plumer. 

Deray, merriment, noife, dlfordery tumult. Fr. defroy, 

in oppofition to arroy, equipage, order ; arroyery 

ordinare, in oidinem digerere. 
Dere. See Deir, hurt ; with fevertil other fignifica- 

Dere, any untamed quadruped. Teut. dler, animal, bef- 

tia, fera. 
Dere, Deir, to pity. Teut. deren, miferari, mifereri. 

Deir me, miferet me tut. 
Derene. See Derejne, contejl ; to contend. 
Dereyne, Derene, Derenye, conteji, decijion j to con^ 

tend, to decide a controverfy by force or argument, 

Fr. defrener. 
Derf, n6iive, vigorous, bold. Swed, dierf. Ifl. diarfuVy 

audax ; dierji, prefumptuoufly. Teut. derven, au- 

dere, audaciam adhibere ; from Deir, fera. 
Derfly, vigoroujly^ boldly. See Derf. 
Dergat, target /jhield. Sax. targa, clypeus. 
Ticxn, JoUtude,fecrecyf private. Sax. dyrUy dearn, occul- 

tus, fecretus. 
Dern, to hide, to retire. Sax. dearnan, occultare. Gaw. 

Douglas has derne or dereync, in the fenfe of be- 
Dert, Vol. I. p. 51. perhaps earth or foil. 
Defcans, defcant, a term in mufic. 
Dcfmelle, Dyfmelle. See Demelle, conteji, 
Deftrenyeit, expl. diJlraBed. 
Det-bund, q. Death-bound, predejiinated, bound by 

fate ; alfo fimply indebted, or duty bound. Fr. dette. 
Detrufe, expl. to detraR. 
Deval, Devail, Awail, to defend, to hurry down, to 

fall. Fr. devalery avaler. Lat. B. devallare, defcen- 

dere, from vrJlis ; as mcntrcy montare, afcendere, 

from mona. 
Devail, Devald, to ceafe or fop. Without devald, (ov 

devalding,) ivithout ceaftng. Devald*, ceafes ; q. de-^ 

fails \ from Fr. defaillirf defici alifjua re. 


De. Di. 

Devc, to render deaf by noife, to deafen. 

\ye.vj{^y device^ appointment^ ^^g^<^y > ^^^ ^o ^iJpofe of. 
Fr. devifer. 

Devyfe, to tell, to narrate ; analogous to Teut. wiif- 
mahen^ injicere aliquid in animum ,• or rather he- 
wiizenj docere, oftentare. 

Devode, q. Devoid, to empty, or draw forth. 

Deyligate, beautiful. Dan. deylig^ formofus ; deyliglied^ 

Dicht, Dycht, prepared^ dreffed, made ready ^ equipped^ 
harneffed, furntfhed. Sax. dihtan, parare, inltruere ; 
adihtode^ difpolitus, compofitus, compofuit. Hence 
it is alfo ufed in the fenfe of compofed ox arranged 
a ffeechy difcourfey ox poem , correfponding with Teut. 
dichteiiy fententiam dicere, componere carmen, dic- 

Dicht, Djcht, to wype off najlinefs, to cleanfe ; from 
the fame arigin with the preceding. 

Dichtings, that which is wiped off\ alfo the refufe. 

Dilatio-un, Dellatioun, delay. Lat. 

Dilp, expl. dawy a tattdry huj/y. [Swed. dilka, ama- 

Din, noife. Ti'm^orxiy noify . Ifl. dyn, tOno; dunde, to;iui. 

Ding, worthy, honourable. Lat. dignus. 

Ding, to Jirike, beat, throw, overcome in any kind of 
competition. Sax. dencgan. Swed. denga, tundere, ful- 
tigare, to bang or thump. Teut. dwinghen, cogere, 
urgere, domare. According to Ruddiman, from Sax. 
thringen, urgere, premere. See Thring. 

Dink, corr. abbreviation oi decken, decked. See Denk. 

Dinle, Dynnel. See Dirling, thrilling. The word is al- 
fo ufed in the lenfq of tingle. 

Dint, Dunt, blow. Dyntis dour, hard blows. Dint alfo 
iignifies the impreffton made by a blow. Sax. dynty 

Dinmont, Dimment, a wedder initi fecond year, or ra- 
ther from the firft to the fecond fliearing. The word 
has perhaps fome reference to the number of teeth ; 
from Teut. tandy dens, vel diieUy augeri ; & mond, 


jpird. Gird, a blow ^ alfo to attack. Sec Gird. 


Di. Bo. 

i^'irdnm, peril/ous J)/ay, noijy fporty uproar, fquahhle ; 

from Dird ; or perhaps literally deirdum^ from Teut. 

deren, nocere. [Gael, durdan^ is expl. a groaning 

Dirk. See Durk, dagger. Teut. dolchy fica. 
Dirling, thrilling^ piercing, Jbarp. Swed. drilla, perfo- 
rate, terebraie. Sax. thyrl^ foramen; alfo ufed for 

Dis, doei. Dif-na, dees not. 
Difcrefs, difcretion. 

Difcourers, difcovereriyfcouts. Fr. defcouvreur. 
Difeis, dijpleafurey vexation ; q. dij-eaftnefs. 
Diflieryfoun, difinheriforiy dijinheriting. Fr. dejheranccy 

hxredis defedlio. 
Disjoine, Desjune, hreakfuji. O. Fr. desjune, jentacu- 

Rifpend, expend. Difpenfe, expence. Lat. 
Difpituoufly, tmpitifully, 'without mercy. Fr. defpitcux, 

ad indigtiationcm facilis. 
Dillrenye, Diftrayn, to fei^e (gooAs) for the benefit of 

a creditor ; alfo, to dijlraB. 
Difty-meiller, expl. meal made of the lafl of the crop ; 

perhaps q. dujiy-melder. 
Ditt, to flop up- (a hole.) Dan. digter, tetter^ the fame. 
Tiht^jf bi/l of enditement or acciifation ; from Teut. 

dichteny diftare, commcntari. 
Divet, a turf of an oval formy and thin all round the 

edge ; from Delve. 
DocbJy, expl. duly^ but may alfo mean, in an able 

Docht, Dought, could. See Dow, to be able. 
Docht, Dought. See Dow, worth, confequence, value. 
Dochtie, Dowghtie, poiverful, valiant^ iiorthy. Sax. 

dohtig, fortis, ilrennus, nobilis. Teut. deghelick, ex- 

imus, infignis, honcftus. See Dow, ^/V-/«j. 
Dochter, Dother, daughter. Mtnt. dochtery filia. 
Dodge, to jog or trudge along. Teut. doggen. 
Doft. See Daft, merry, mad. 
Dole, a large piece. See Dele 
X)o\tnt,forrowful,forry. Lat. 


Do. Do. 

Dolf, Dowff, dully heavy, wanting fpirit. Dan. doffuen^ 
defes, ignavus. Ifl. doffe, llupor. 

Dolly, Dully, Doolie, Dowie, dolefull, dull, melancho" 
ly. Fr. dueily dolor. 

Dollyn, Dolfen, buried. See Delf, to bury. 

Dolp. See Dowp, bottom. 

Dolpbyne, Dauphin^ eldeft fon of the King of France. 

Dominie, parfon^ minijier ; from Lat. dominus. 

Done, before a verb, forms the preterite tenfe ; as 
Done roun, rouned or whifpered. 

Dongyn, Dinged, driven, forced. See Ding. 

Donk, danky 7noiJi. Teut. taggy ros. 

Donfie, dujice-likey dull, Jlupid. Dan. duncare, homo 

Dont, Dount, See Dint, hlow,Jlroke. 

Doop, Doup, to dip, to irnmeife in water, to haptije. 
The Dooper, the hapttj}. Teut. doopen, mergere, im- 

Dornyke, domafk, variegated curtains, carpets, &c. o- 
riginally made at 1'oiirnny. 

Dons, ft of fulkineft . See Dorty. 

Tioxty, peeviJJjyfulky . Teut. trotfgh, tortigh, contume- 
lious, arrogant ; trotfen, torten, to provoke. 

T)oxtjntk,fulkinefs, pecvifonefs, pride. See Dorty. 

Dortour, dormitory, bed-chamber, apartment containing 
a number of beds. Fr. dortoir, dormitorium. 

Dote, to imagine, rave, or aB idly. Teut. dotten, deli- 

Double, copy of a writing. 

Doublit, bent, bowed down, laid douhle. 

Douch-fpere, Douze-Per, the twelve, or pevhaps one of 
the twelve peers of France, who were appointed to be 
privy counfellors to the King ; or may allude to 
King" Arthur's twelve knights. 

Douce, Douls, dccefit, fedate, fleady, refpeflahlc, wor- 
thy. Fr. doux, fuavis. 

Donk, to duck, to dive. Teut. ducken, conquinifcere. 

Doun-thring, to fling down, to pull down. See Thring. 

Doure, hard, inflexible, fullen. Lat. durus. 

X)out, danger f f^f) apprchenfion, Fr. 


Bo. Dr. 

Dow, Du, dove, pigeon. Theot. douuc, columba. 
Dow, can. Downa, q. Dow not, cannot , am or is unci" 
hie to. Dowht, could. Dowglitna, could not. Teut. 
doghen^ deughen. Theot. diuhen, douchen, dohen^ 
prodelTe, ci-efccre, decere, valere, probum efl'e, in 
pretio efie. 

Dow, worth, avail, value. Teut. doogh, commoduin, 
lucrum, virtus, decus, potentia, valor. In Belg. it 
alfo fignifies falus, fanita?, vigor. " Nocht o' dow, 
of no value, or nothing of worth. 

Dowf,y«^, void of animation or energy, q. deaf. 

Dow]efs, (more commonly) Thowlefs or Thawlefs, 
void of energy. Swed. dugloes, good for nothing. 
See Dow. 

Dowerit night (Gaw. "Doxig.^ gloomy or fable coloured 
night ; from Teut. doof-verwe, color furdus vel au- 
fteius. See Dowf & Fere. Or, according to Ruddi- 
man, dull, heavy, weary, drowfy, from Scot. Du:r, 
obftupefacere ; which feeras nearly allied to Dover, 
to fluraber ; from Teut. doofworden, or Yy^n.doever, 
furdefcere. That he was not, however, quite fatis- 
iied with this derivation, appears from his mention- 
ing laftlj doivy, dull; q- made heavy. 

Dowf, dull, void of nnirnution. Teut. doof, furdus. 

Powfart, heavy ov fupid fellow ; from Dowf, [Teut. 
doofhout, lignum cariofum. Swed. dufwen, marci- 

Dowp, Dolp, hcliom, lower extremity, end ; q. depth ^ 
from Goth, diups, profundus. 

Dowy, Dovvic, dull or melancholy from folitude ; pro- 
bablj' the fame with dully. See Dollj ; or from 
Dowf, q. dow fie. 

Dovering, f umbering, in a (late between fleeping and 
waking ; from Teut. doiif-wcrden, furdefcere. 

Do J tit, "Dc'illcd, fupid, ftperatiuated; from Sax. dol. 
fatuus. Engl. dolt. 

Dczenit, Daizjt, chilled, decayed, hnpctent ; rather per- 
liaps from Teut. eyfen, gelare, than from the ufual 
derivation duyfelen, attonitum fieri. 

Drable, Dragle, to trail in the m'rs ; q. drecUe, from 
Teiit. drcck^ fordcs. 


Df. Dh 

Drakkyt, Drawkyt, ah/orbed^ attraBed, drew iip, 
Teut. trecken. Ifl draga, trahere. It is alfo ufed in 
a pafllve fenfe for drenched or foaked. 
Draff, brewers grains. Teut. draf, glumcC grani decoSi^ 

excuffum fedimentum. 
Dram, dljcontented, forrowful, fad; flightlj corrupted 
from Teut. gram, afper, iratus, ftoraachofus. Ac- 
cording to Ruddiman, from Hib. dro7?iham^ ringere ; 
or from Ifl. dramb, fuperbia, faftus ; drnmblnatm\ 
faperbus ; *' becaufe difcontent and melancholy ge- 
nerally arife from pride." 

Dram-lyke, probably the fame with Dram, difcontent-' 
edy frroivfuL 

Drame ; " Induris bot ane drcrnie^'' endures but as u 

Drammock, Drummock, meal and water, commoHly 
underftood to be mixed raw ; q. crammock. 

Drap, drop. Dtappieyfma// drop. 

Drawk. See Drakkyt, abforbed, drenched. 

Dre, Drie, to fuffer^ to endure, or feel. Sax. ihroivian, 
pati, from threa, affliftio, inflidio. 

Dreich, flow, hefitutlngy la%y, tedious. A-dr* ich, be- 
hind, at fame di fiance behind. Teut. fraegh, tardus, 
ignavus, rel'es, dt-fes. 

Dreiffland, Dribbland, drivelling, dropping in fmall 
quantity. Teut. druppelen, ftillare ; drooppi'l-pi£i, 

Dreik, dirt, excrement. Teut. dreck, fordes, ftercus. 

Dreip, to drop. Teut. druypen, ftillare. 

Drene, drain, fpout, conduit. 

Drefs, to apply, to manage. Fr. 

Drevill, Dnvel, to /lumber, to flcep unfundty. Teut. 
revelen, errare auimo. 

Drew, drop ; as Grew for Greek, &c. 

Dribble, to fall Jloivly in drops. See Dreifland. 

Drighten, God, Lord Sax. drihten. 111. drottin, domi- 
nus; according to Wachter, from Teut. drotna, do- 
minare ; drot, populus. See Dtotes, nobles. 

Dring, drudge, f lave ^ t7iean wretch. Thus it is alfo ex- 
plained nnfer, covetous perfn. Da:i. 5: Svved. dre:jgt 




fervus, famulus ; whence perhaps the termination 
roun, as in Culroun, Cuftroun, &c. q. v. 

Droddum, expl- the breech. 

Droggis, drugs in the fenfe of fweet meats. Fr. dro- • 

Droich, Dreich, dwarf. Teut. dwergh, nanus, pjg- 
meus, homuncio. 

Drotes, nobles, knights. Swed. drotty heros. Teut. 
drut, draut, fiidelis, cbarus, amicus. O. Fr. drut, 

Droukyt, drenchedj foaked. Sax. on drugunge, in aquo- 
fo. According to Ruddiman, from Douk. 

•Droure, Drowrie, gift, prefent^ love token ; perhaps a 
corruption of Teut. trow-rincJk, annulus pronubis, 
from trowe, fidelitas. Goth, triggwo, pa£tum. O. 
Fr. drurie, druerie, ami tie, fidelite, amour. Ruddi- 
man fuppofes the word to be the fame with dowry y 
or dower, Fr. douaire. 

Drum, ridge, or, (as fome would rather have it,) th^ 
hack of a rnountaiti. Gael. 

Drumly, muddy, difurbed. Teut. turbelen. 'Fr. trou- 
ble. ' 

Drumacke, Dramack, meal atid water mixed raw. 

Drunt, Strunt, pet, ill humour ; from Swed. drtmt, e- 

Drjnt, drenchedj drowned. Sax.//r/z;iC«a, madidus. See 

i)ualm, Dwalmyng, fwoon, fainting, fit. Teut. he- 
dwelmt, defeftus animo, exanimatus, exanimatio. 
According to Ruddiman, the fame ^^ith qualm ; from 
Sax. cwealm, mors. 

\)xxh,f mall pool of water. fSwed Jy, palus.] 

Dubl'aris, fiy.^\. pewter difhes of large fi^e. 

Duddis, Duds, rags^ 

Duddie, ragged, in rags, tattered. Gael, dudach^ rag- 

Duddroim, a perfon in rags ; alfo expl. a fpeBre. See 

Dnle, dole, pain, grief mmtrnlng. DvLleMy doleful. Fr. 
deuil, trilHtia. 


Du. I I Dy. 

Dule, Dool, the goal at football or golf as it was an- 

ciently played \ originally a mound of earth. Tent. 

doely aggefta terra in quam fagittarii jaculantur fa- 

gittas. The mark was called the doel-pinne^ fcopus. 

O. Eng. toyle fignified the tilt or mark aimed at in 

Dully. See Dolly, melancholy^ dreary. 
Dulfe, Dilfe.y^fl weed. 
Dung, Dungen, beaty overcome. See Ding. 
Dungeroun, dungeon ; of old, the highejl part of a caf- 

tle. Fr. donjon ; the derivation not known. 
Dunner, Dunder, to make a noife like thunder. Teut. 

donder. Swed. dundra^ touare. 
Dunt, heavy blow upon an elafi'tc or reffing body. Sax. 

dynty id, us. 
Dark, Dirk, dagger, properly concealed dagger. Teut. 

dolcky fica ; from Swed. dolia, celare, occultare. 
Durken, Deirken, expl. to affright ; (\. eirken, from 

Dufch, to f ally to fall upon ; nearly the fame with dajh, 

from Dan. dajiy a bloWy or attack. 
Dufchet, Duffie, a fort of mufical injirumenty probably 

the doucete of Lydgate, or duuced of Chaucer ; from 

Lat. dttlcis, as in later times dulcimer. In Gael, duis 

fignifies " the drones of a bag- pipe," and doaghadb 

" finging.'* 
Duftie-fute, ** ane pedder or cremar qiiha has na cer- 

taine dwelling place quhere he may dicht the dufifrom 

his feet .'^ Skene. 
Dwine, to pine, to decay. Dwining, confumption. Teut. 

diviinen, tabefcere, attennari. 
Dyke, wall of earth orjlone. Teut. diick, agger -adver- 

fus inundationes. [Sax. die, folia, ditch.] 
Dyker, a builder of earthen walls. See Dyke. 
Dynd for Dant, tofubdue or tame. See Danton. 
Dynle, to dingle, to tingle or tinckle, to produce a tingling 

found. Teut. tingelen. 
Dyne, Dean, den, retired Jhtltered place. 
Dyale, to thrill. Dynland, thrilling, piercing. See 

Dynn, noife. Sax. dyn, tonus, fonus. 

Vot. IV. H Dynait, 

Dj. Ec. 

Dynnit, Vol. I. p. 201; perhaps he-diwed. Szx.ihw^a/tf 

lavare, ungere. According to Mr Pinker ton, y>r/. 
Djocie, diocefe. 

Dyfmel. See Demelle, fqitabble. Fr. 
Dyte, to endite or accufe. Fr. enditer. 
Dyvour, debtor^ bankrupt. Fr. Lat. Celt. 


E, Ee, eye^ 

Eak, Eke, Eik, to increafe. Sax. eacan. Goth, aukatij 

Ear. See Are, to till. 

'E.zvA, earth. Teut. aerde. Goth, airthoy terra. 
Eard-faft,^,rif£? /// the ground or earth. Sax. eard-fcejley 

Eardit, buried, laid in the earth. Sax. 
Earding, Erddyn, earthquakey thunder. Sax. earthdyn. 

Teut. aerdbevinge, fuccuffio. 
Eargh, Ergh. See Airgh, tardy. Theot. arg. 
Earlifch. See Elrilch, hideous. 
Earm, Yearm, to tea%e or importune in the whining 

manner of a mendicant. TeUt. jrw, pauper. Goth. 

arman, mifereri. 
Earne, to coagulate. Dan. gaerj yeafl , gaerendcy fer- 

Earnbliter, expl. the fnipe. The latter part of the word 

(bliter) may be a corruption of bittern^ if this be not 

rather the trtie meaning of the term. 
Eavers, (Reg. Maj.) beajls or cattle. See Aver. 
Efaatement. See \hi\tmtT\tj /port, pleafure. 
Echil, Ethil, &c. high, noble. See Ethil. 
Echeris, ears of corn. Sax. cehher. GertD, aehr, fpica. 
Echt, ought. See Awe. 
Eelilt, Eyelaft, (Eye-lett,) expl. deformity, what hurts 

the eye ; and accordingly it is alfo ufed to fignify a 

hreak in a page, the beginning of a paragraph y or r«- 

ther of a feElion or chapter ; from Sax. l(eitan, 

impedire, obftare. 
Eens, even as. 


Ef. — El. 

Kffetluous, affeBionate. 

Effeir, Eft'ere, appearance. See Feir, 

EfFeiris. See Affeiris, belongs to. 

Efreft, rfieft,/r/?, chief. 

Eft, after, hinder part. Sax. eft, poft. 

Eft, oft, often. Eft-fyis, often-times. Szx.fthe, vice. 

Efter-hend, q. after-thence, aftervjards. 

Eftfone, yoo« after, in a fhqrt time. 

Egg, to incite, to fir up. Sax. eggian. Dan. egger, 

Swed. eggia, irritate. 
Eidant, Eithant, Ithand, Ythand, bufy, diligent, unre- 

mittingy perfevering. Ifl. «W«^, diligentia. Sa.x- getheon, 

gethean. Teut. gedeyen, proficere, vigere, crefcere, 

Eider doun, the fmaller feathers of any kind of birds. 

Teut. edder, aves. 
Eik, Ilk, each, Teut. elc\. Sax. elc, anufquifque, om- 

Eik, Eke, alfo. Sax. eac. Goth, auk, etiam. 
Eik, to add to or increafe. Goth, aukan, augere. 
Eild, age. Sax. eald, fenex, vetus. It is alfo ufed in 

the fenfe of barren \ Eild cow, one that yieldeth no 

Eildeins, of the fame age ; from Eild. 
Eiry, ^iv'xe, fearful through folitudey in dread of fpec- 

tres. Ifl. eggur. Goth, agis, metus, timor, formido. 
Eith, Ejth, Eth, eafy. Either, Eirar, eafer, Eithly, 

eafly. Sax. eath. facilis. 
Elbok, elbow. Teut. elle boge. 
Eldaris, ancejlors. Sax. eldran, progenitqres. 
Eldering, Eilderyn, old, growing old, elderly, 
^]d£?LiheT, grand-father ; nKo father-in-law. Eldmo- 

der, mother-in-law, 
Eldyng, materials for f re, as coal, peat, turf, &c. Dan. 

ild. Swed. eld, ignis, pabulum ignis. 
Elf-fhot, bewitched ; from Sax. Elf, dcemon ruflicusy or 

Fairy \ ufed by Chaucer for witch, 
Elke, expl. a kind of yew. See 33. Henr. 8. c. 9. 
I^liis, Ellys, already, heretofore^ otberwife. Sax. ellis, 



El Eo. 

Elrifcbe, Elrick, Erlifche, Eorlifch, hideous, ivild, 
ghojily y alfo expl. lonefomey un-inhabited except by 
Elves ; perhaps quafi elfrijh or elfijh, from elf\ or 
from Sax. galdrygea, incantator ; q. yaldryfch. 

YXijxXyJhoemaker's awl. Teut. el/fenCy fubula. 

Elwand, Our Ladies Elwand, the conftellation called 
Orion's girdle. 

Eljte, eleB. O. Fr. elites ele£lus. 

Emaille, Amaillc, an enamelling, 

Embrovved, embroidered. 

Erne, Eyme, uncle ; but feems applied chiefly to rela' 
tives by the mother'' s Jide ; to her father as well as to 
her brother. Sax. earn, avunculus, avus, pater ma- 
tris. Teut. opnty patruus, frater patris ; avunculus, 
pater matrts ; confanguineus. 

Emeraut, green, verdant ; from the colour of the Emc' 

Emmerodes, the piles, heemorrhoides. Gr. 

Empefche, to hinder, to obJlruEl. Fr. empefcher. 

Emprys, Empryis, enterprife. Fr. 

Enach, (Reg. Maj.) expl. by Skene, ane mendis or fu" 
tisfaStioH for ane fault, crime or trefpafs ; as, gif the 
maifter lyis with the wife of his bondman, the fer- 
vant therefore fall be put to liberty, and fall receave 
na uther enach. The word may have fome affinity 
with Gael, eiric, ranfom money. 

Enbufchment, ambuJJj ; from O. Fr. emhoifer, emhof- 
quer, to be flickered in a wood ; alfo explained a 
kind of ivarlike machine, fimilar to the Roman tef~ 

Enchefon, caufe, pccujion ; from Fr. fZ'f o/>, cadere ; al- 
fo ^Tn^l. fault, crime. 

End, Eynding. See Aynd, a breathing place. 

Enday, end day, day of diath. 

Endfundejng, Ane fundying, a he-numbing. See Fund- 

Endlang, Endlangis, along. Goth, and, per ; & lang^ 

Endored, expl. heaped. 

Ene, Ein, eyes. Belg. oogen, oculi. 

Engaigne, cx^H.Jpile. 


En. I Ef, 

Engjne, ingenuity, craft, wit. Lat. 
JF-nherd, adhered, to adhere, to approve, Lat. heerere. 
Enkerlj. See Inkerly, egerly, mercifully. 
Enlacit, (erronouflj) Enlakit, entangled, Fr. 
Enfeinyie, badge, fgn^ ijoord of war. Fr. enjeigne^ lig- 
Entallye, to cut out, to form ; from Fr. taUler, fecare, 

Entendement, underjianding, intention^ true meaning. 
En tone, Intone, to tune, to infpire, 
Entres. entry. Fr. entre. 
Erd. See Eard, to interr. 
Ere. See Are, to plow, to till, 
Ergh, Erch. See Airgh, tardy. 
Ermefyne, Arnnefine, expl. taffety. 
£r-nut, earth-nut, root of the bulbocaftanum. 
Erlis, Eiles, Erie-penny, earnefi money. Lat. arrha, 

Erne, engle, nfprey. Sa^. earn^ aquila^ 
Erft, heretofore. 
Ertand, perhaps prompt in aBion. [Sax. aerthon, an- 

tea, priufquam. Gael, aird inntin, high (Spirit.]] 
Ery. See YXxj, fearful. 
Efcamb, Excarab, to exchange. ItaJ. camhiare, permu- 

Efcambion, the aB of excambing or exchanging. 
Efchele (Efchel-trym) a pfirticular manner in which the 
divijions of an army or regiment were difpofed. It is 
alfo ufed to denote one of thefe divifjons, and plu- 
rally the whole army. Fr. efhielle. 
Efches, Affis, ajhes, 
Kfcheve, Efchew, to atchieve. 
Efe, to make eafy, or accommodate. 
Efementis, accommodations. Fr. aifements. 
Effning, concepUon, the principal mean of conception. 

[Sax. efne, mafculus.] 
Eflbnyie, Efloinye, to cxcvfe, O. Fr. excinc. 
Eftait, condition, fituation, rank \ alfo chair of fate. 
Eller, oyfler. Teut. oejier. 

Eftler, afilar, free flnne ; but whether it fignificd ori- 
ginally hivon or unhewn, fcems uncertain. Fr ajji/e. 


Et Ey. 

Ethils, Athils, Haithils, nobles, noblemen. Sax. etheL 
Teiit. edel, nobilis, nobili genere ortus ; which by 
Wachter is derived from atta, pater. Verelius, 
however, tranflates adalman, maritus lagitimus ; a- 
dalkona, uxor legitinra ; and adcilkonu barn, liberi 
legitimi ; from wliich it would appear that the wor4 
edel may be compounded oi tv, or ee, lex ; cid, jus ; 
and dseleriy didribuere, judicare ; q. lawgivers. 

Etion, expl. kindred, gencahgy. [Ifl. ^«, genus. Wei. 
eddyl, cognatio, gens."! 

Etling, ainiy intention ; from Ettil. 

Ettil, to intend, propofc^ or aim at. Scand. at netla, def- 
tinare, defignare. 

Ettir-cop. See Any vco^c, fpitefjil ivretch. 

Euar, Ewer, pot, flaggon. Fr. ayguiere^ a laver. 

Euder, cx'^\./corching heat. Fr. ardiur, ardor. 

Eul-cruik, (Bur. Laws,) perhaps the largeji crook, or 
that which was ufed at Chriftrriafs or Yule. 

Eweft, expl. neare^, moji contiguous, towards. [Sax. 
nyhjla, proximus.] 

fcveyr, Evir, Evour, Eyoure-bane, ivory. Fr. 

Evil-payit, perhaps for Evil-thayit (or thewit) ilU 

Exem, Exame, to examine. 

Exercitioun, exercife, praSiice, exeriiop. 

Expres, altogether, wholly. 

Extre, axle-tree.. Belg. axe, axis. 

Eyme. See Erne, uncle. 

Eyndil toJufpeB, to be jealous of. Eyndling, jealoufy, 
Jiifpicicn ; perhaps q. in^telling ,• nearly a-kin to 
Inkling, fl« obf cure private hint. Teut. een-kallingef 

Eyne, Eene, Eychcn, eyes. 


ta. L. Fa. 


VAf/oe, enemy. Sax. Jah, inimicus. 

Fa, trap for mice or rats. Sax.y^a//, decipulus. 

Fade, to taititj to corrupt^ to deform' Fr. 

Fadge, a large fat loaf or batinock ; commonly of bar- 
ley meal, and baked among afhes. In a Lancalhire 
Gloflary, Fadge is explained a burden. Fr. faix^ o~ 
nu3. [t)a.n. Jiolde-iage, panis fubcineritius ; q.fced- 

Ydidav, father. Teixt.faeder, vader. Sax. Dan. & Swed. 
fader. laZt. pater. Goth. atta. G^cl.aacher. 

Fagald, Faggelt,yfl^^o;, bundle^ parcel. Fr. 5c. Celt. 

Faik, Feck, a confderable quantity y the greater part ; 
probably from Tent, veeh, opes, bona. 

Faik, fold or corner of a plaid^ a plaid niihe^ ferving 
the purpofe of a fatchell or bag ; from Fr. faque, 
facculus. [Teut. ^o^^Z't', jun61io, jundlura.] It is 
fometimes alfo ufed to fignify the plaid itfelf, parti- 
cularly a fmall plaid -J and lallly, as a verb, to fold 
or infold, correfponding, as would feem, with Teat- 
voeghen, adaptare, acconimodare, coraponere. 

Faik, to become weary , to fag ; fiom Iwat.fatigo. 

Faik, Faikit, occur jn the fenfe of Vaik, Vaikir, i. c. 
become or became vacant. 

Faikles, Fecklefs, weak, deficient in power. A probable 
derivation might be formed from the Teut. fickc, 
ala ; but the true one may rather be found perhaps 
in Teut. yt'o/', opes, &c. Faikfull, Feckfow is fome- 
times ufed iu the oppofite fenfe, large, powerful^ vi- 

Fail for Feil, many, great, often, very. Tent, veel, mul- 
tus, numerofus, frequens, copiofus.^ Sax. thearlc, 
multum, valde, vehementer. 

Fail, Feal, a fquare piece of fod. Fail- dyke, a wall 
built of fod ; from Field. Teut. veld, folum, fuper- 


Fa. ■ Fa. 

Fallje, to fail'y nearefl to which are the Swed. feeta, 
& Yv.faillrr. 

Fairin, a prcjcnt in a fair or market ; of the fame family 
with Sax. feohern^ gazophylacium, (^veohy bona, 
opes ; &c erriy locus,) a trame or fhop ; from 
which are defcended probably fnirj and Fr. foire^ 
rather than from the 'LaSX. feria:. 

Y^iitViX cofeature ; alfo behaviour ^ dexterity ; from Feat. 

Fald, Feld, Fell, open pajlure ground, open f eld. In the 
latter form it denotes barren mountains. 

Fald, FaUid,^^if/>-/o/^, ot finull inclofedjield }, q.Joi?- 
letf. S^yL.falced^fietta; fiomy^Z', inimicus, (wolf 
or fox,) & Icetan, impedire, ob(tare ; origtually 
made of planks. Sax. Letta, afl'eres. Or perhaps 
quafi fie-haldy a place for holding Jie oxjkecp. See 

Fi;Id, Fauld, to fold, to Jhut up in a fold. The Saxon 
huf-bondmen were obliged commonly fo fold their 
Iheep upon the fields of the land lord, for the bene- 
fit of the dung; which fervitude was called y^//i/^««:^. 

Falfet, faljhood. Tcut. Scand. 8cc. nearly the fame. 

Fait. See Faut, indigencCy extreme want. 

V^TCitffoam. Sax.y^z?/, fpuma. 

"JPzxticW y farn'ily, race. clan. Yx.famille. 

Fand,ybz/W, did find. Teut. 

Fang, Thwang, Whang, cord, rope ; the coil or bend of a 
rope s hence alfo noofc, trapy and the talons of a bird. 
Sax. fang, captura, captus ; from thwarig, corrigia, 
ligamentum. Teut. vangh^ varick, decipula, tendi- 

Fang to catch, in the manner a horfe is caught in the 
field, by means of an extended rope ; to furround or 
gather in, to fei%e, to feciire. Tt- ut. vanghen, com- 
prehendere, apprehendere, injicei'e manus, manicas, 
catenas. See Infang. Hence, fays Ruddiman, new- 
fangle, catching at novelties. 

Fannoun, a fcnrf worn on the left arin by an officiating 
priej}. Yx.fanon, tranflated a fanncl or maniple. 

Fantoun, c\^\.faiitnjiic ; ^\io fintotn. 

Farand, Farrcnt, hefcemingj becomings behavifg. Swed. 


Fa. Fa. 

fara ilhy to behave unkindly. Hence Auld-farrand, 
behaving like a grown up perfon. 

Farand man, a Jlra?iger ox pilgrim ; from Sax. far an, 

Fard, Farde, Faird,ybrc^, hlajly weight. Yx.fardeau^ a 
burden, load, or weight ; or perhaps from Teut. ^a- 
erdigh^ promptus. 

Fard, Faurd, favoured^ coloured^ c ample xioned. Dan. 
Jarver. Swed. Jerga, tingere ; Jergad, coloured, dy- 
ed. Teut. varwey color. 

Fardel, bundle. Yx.fardeau, onus. 

Fardie, Feardie, expeditiousy handy, expert. Teut. vaet" 
digh, promptus, agilis j from Fare. 

Fare, Fair, to go, to pafs. Fure, Fame, iventy pajfed. 
Teut. vaeren, tendere, proficifci, vehi, petere locum 
aliquem. ^z'x.. faran, ire. 

Fare, journey^ "voyage, expedition, road. Sax. faer, 
grefius, profeftio, iter. 

Fare, behaviour, to behave. Sw&d. fara. See Farand. 

Farefolkis.yij/nVj-, el/s, or elves ; probably from Teut. 
vieren, feriare, feriari, feftos dies agitare, feftos ex- 
truere ignes, otiari, q. merry-making or holiday-folks. 
. It is not unlikely, however, that the name may have 
fome affinity with Teut. vaerende vrowet Dryas, 
Hamad ryas,fyl varum dea; from Teut. vaeren, profi- 
cifci, vehi, quafi homines vagantes vel peregrinantes. 

Farnetickels, Farntickles.yr^ci/ej-. 

Farrach, expl. Jlrength, fuhjlance. 

'F^lts, to farce or cram. Yx.farcir. 

Fary, Fiery-fary, confufion, tumult. 

Fas, ufed by Gaw. Douglas ioxhair. Szx.feax, capilli. 

Fafch, Fafh, to trouble, vex, dijlurb. Fr. fafcber, alicui 
moleftiam creare. 

Fafcheus, Faftieys, troublefome, vexatious. Yx.fafcheux, 
moleftus, acerbus, gravis. 

Fafchoun,y«Ar^2o«, a kind of fword. Yx.faucbon. 

Faflens-even, Faftrins-even, the eveniug before Lent. 
Teut. vajien-daghy the day before Vajiency tempus 
quadragefimale. Goth, fijian, jejunare. 

.Fafioun, Y2S^yoviX\, fajhion. Fx.facon. 

Fafl'ounit, Yzv^ionlffajhioned. 

Vol. IV. I Fauch, 

Fit. -i;.— ^ Fe. 

Fauch, Faw, Fauth, Fallow, of a light red or bay rd- 
lotir. Fr.Jative, flavus. 

Fauch t, Faught, didjight, Gct.Jbchte. 

Faut, Fait, vjant, extreme indigence. Teut. faut^ de- 

Fax, (Gaw. Doug.^y^c^. \x.^.faccia^ fades. 

Fay, Y^y^truth^ faith ^fidelity y confidence. O. Fr. fey. 

¥-dynd,fond ; alfo for Fond, to dejire eagerly. 

Fe, Fee, Fey, Y\e,fheef>. Teut. -vee^ veech. ^^ix.feoh. 
Swed. fae. Goth, fachus, pecus, pecuaiia, armcn- 
tum, divitiie, opes, & univerfa fubftantia. Hence, 
according to Ruddiman, Fee, merces, prjemium, wa- 

Feator, Faytor, deceiver. Fr. 

7echta.rh,fightersy foldiers. Teut. vechter^ pugnator,. 
praeliator. Some have conjectured, with no fmall 
degree of probability, that the Peyhts, if a Teutonic 
people, might have diftinguifhed themfelves by this 
appellation, which the Saxons afterwards pronoun- 
ced and wrote Peohtar, and the Welch Fitchid. See 

Feck & Fecklefs. See Faik & Faikles. 

Fedderum, Fedderome,. Fedderonn, quaii feathering, 
wings ; the plural of Teut. feder, pluma, penna. 

Fee, Fey, Fie, on the verge of death, under a fatality. 
Ft. fee. Teut. veygh, moribundus, morti propinquus, 
qui praefentem mortem evadere non poteft. Swed, 
fegj fato imminens. 

Feidom, the fiate of being fee. 

Feid, Feyde, Fede, feud, enmity. Teut. veyde^ veede, 
vied, odium, inimicitise, bellum. 

Feil, Fele, many, often, fever al. Teut. vele, veel. Sax. 
feala, multi, multum, plures. 

Feil, Feill, knovcledge, confcioufnefs, fenfe ; from Teut. 
voelen, fentire, fapere. 

Feir, Fere, EfFere, EfFeir, drefs, accoutrements, appear- 
mce. Feir of Were, fljevo of war. Swed. ferg. 
Teut. verwe, color. 

Feirs of the year, average price of the different hinds of 
corn, for a year ; from Fr. feur, teltimatio venali- 
um, pretii conftitutio ; offcurer, annonse vcnali pre- 


Fe:, — _ Fe. 

tium edicere ; foy^ fides, becaufe the affeurcrs were 
fworn to give a juil judgment. 
Feird, 'E&xd. fourth. Swed.Jierde. Teut. vierde., quar- 


Feits, Feets. See Theets, traces. 

Fele. See Feil, many, great, very. 

Fele-fjis, many times.. See Hyis. 

FeUfJkm, hide. Teut. ve/, *' pellis,*' cutis, exuviae,.ter- 

Fellon, Felloun, expl. cme/f from Fell. It may, how- 
ever, mean only great or exce/^ivef from Feil. 

Fellwell, right luell^ very well. See Feil, very. 

Felterit, Jeltedy matted^ united without weaving. Fr. 

Femynitie, woman-hood \ c^. feminality . Lat. 

Fend, Jlnft, livelihood ; to earn a livelihood. \0. Fr. 
viafider, vefci, pafci.] 

Fenefter, Fyniiter, window. Lat. Feneftra. 

Ferd. See Y&itd^ fourth. 

Ferde, fared, went. See Fare, to go. 

Fere, companion, comrade. Sax. gefera, focius, comes. 

Fere. See Feir,^^xu, appearance, array. 

Fere, (Gaw. Douglas,) expl. entirely, wholly j rfither 
perhaps y^^«/ri/j/. See Fure. 

Feriat, out of term, holiday. Teut. vieren, feriari, oti- 
ari ; whence alfo Fairies, fometimes called Ferters, 
quafi merry-making or holiday folks. See Fare- 

Ferie, Feiry, cautious. Ferilie, Feirylic, cautioufly, 
Teut. vaerlick, timendws. 

Feris. See AfFeiris, EfFeiris, becomes, thereto belongs, 

Ferle, Fardle, the quarter of a thin large oaten cake ; q, 
feird-dule, fourth fharc. 

Ferlie, wonder, flrange objeB ; alfo to wonder ,■ per- 
haps c^. fair 'like, from the gew-gaws expofed to fale 
at a fab". 

¥tvviiQ,Jirm, to make firm. Lat. 

Fern, Fame, gone, fared. See Fare, to go. 

F^rn, Fearn, a prepared gut, fuch as the firing of a mu-^ 
ficjl infirument. Sax. ?^<r/7/?,inteftiuum. 


Fe. Fe. 

Fern-yeir, Farne-yer, the year that is gone^ lajl yeav. 
See Fare, to go. 

Ferray, forage. Yx.fourrage^ pabulum. 

Y ex ttzt, Jerry -man, boatman. 

TcTTjy to farrow, to bring forth young. 

Ferter-lyk^ fairy-/ike. See Fare-folkis. 

Fery, Feirie, fre/h, vigorous ; nearly fynonimous with 
Fardie ; q. v. alfo cautious. See Ferie. 

Fet to fetch ^ pur chafe, prepare. Sax.y^/w/7, adducere, 

Fetous, Fete,y^a/, neat, trim. O. Vx.faiBis. 

Fetouflie, Fetufly, neatly^ trimly ,• from Fetous. 

Fettil, expl. cafe, condition, energy, poiver,J}rength. 

Fetyl, expl. to join clofely. SdiX. fetel, citigulum. 

Feu, fee. Fr. fef, a fpecies of tenure, the nature of 
which is universally known. The word, in all thefe 
three forms, is an abbreviation of the Lat. barb. 
feudum or fodum, the original meaning of which 
was certainly neither more nor lefs than bondage or 
Jlavery. But here a queJlion arifes, which, to this 
hour, has never received a fatisfaclory folution ?^ 
AVhence comes Feudum ? After all the elaborate 
inquiries of Spelmaii, Wachter, Stiernhielm, Gro- 
tius, Hottoman, Sec it may perhaps be deemed pre- 
fumption in me to anfwer, — From the Sax. theudom 
or theowdom. The word is tranflated by Lye, fef- 
vitium, fervitus, mancipatio. Sax. Chron. ueorvld, 
theudom, fieculare fervitium ; thcudofn niman, fervi- 
tium exigere ; ge-fread cf ealle theudom, liheratos ab 
orani feryitio. Pfalm 103. v. 15. wyrta theoivdome 
manna, \\txh^% fervituti hominum — Caedmon. ne 
ivolde theoivdom tholian, noluit fevvitutcqi pati.— • 
Exod. I. V. 14. mid celcon theovcdome, cnxn omnigena 
fervitute ; Boet. S. I. on heora theoivdome heon, iu 
eorum famiilatu elfe. Thofe writei-s who had oc- 
cafion to mention the word in Latin, took the libei- 
' ty to write fudt/m inftead of theudum^ there being, 
in fa£l;, no fuch found as th in that language. Ihen- 
dom is from the Sax. iheow, fervus, manccps ; or the 
verb thevjian, between which -and the Soottifla veib 
to feu, in its original iignification, there is alio a ve- 
ry linking concfpondence. Lye tranflates it i. fer- 


Fe. Fi. 

v4re, in fervitutis ftatu miniflrare ; fervire tanquam 
miles. 2do. in fervitutem redigere, mancipare. — 
In what manner were the contemporary writers in 
Latin to exprefs this word thcowan ? As they had 
converted theudom mXo feudum ox feodum ^ they iifed 
the fame libei-ty with the verb by converting it 
into feodarey from whence were formed, feodalisy 
feudatonusy and many more of the fame kind. 

Although, however, the words thew and theudom 
came thu§ to be changed to feu and feudome, fome 
veftige of the antient form was to be found, until 
very lately, in charters from the crown. See 
Theme. It may be proper to mention that Spel- 
rnan brings feudum from S^x.feob, pj.-cii=, opes, Cby 
him traiillated alfo) flipcndium, (luafi feo-had, ordo 
& flatus ftipendiarius ; Wachter and Stiernhielni 
from T^Vil.fodeny nutrire ; foda, aliraentum ; Gro- 
tius from feo, ftipcndium &. od, fiibftantia, fundus, 
pofleffio ; Obertus from l^'^Z. fides or fdehtas ; Hot- 
toman (com feed (feud) bellum ; Guyet fromfdum, 
beneficium ; and an anonymous etymologilt hom the 
firft letters of the words '* Fidelis ero domino vcro 

Fewlume, fuppofed by Ruddlman to mean a Jparro'-jj 

Fewter, Futer, (Gaw. Douglas,) " They fcxcter fute 
to fute," i. e. fays Ruddiman, their feet are intan^- 
Jed or y^/^rf/3? together ; from Yv.feutre^ pannus co- 
-aftilis. Sax. felt. 

Teure, furrow in cornfields. Sax. 

V&viiy, fealty. O. Fr. feaulte \ from Lat. 

Fey. See Fee, under a futalHy. 

Icyhal, foaly of which it fcems to be a Celt, corrup- 

Fidder. See Fudder, loady large parcel, Teut. 

Fidge. See Fyke, to fidget abouty like one who has the 

Fierdy, ty.^\. fierce, fi out. See Fardie. 

Fillok, Filly, a young mare j alfo in a derifory way, a 
girl ox young- IV IV :fn. 


Fi Fi. 

Filybeg, a lilt or JJjort petticoat. G7ie\. JUleadh-beg, Vu 
.^ terally a little plaid. 
Fine, end. ^tXt.Jin. hzt.^/iis. 
Finey, Fainy,^/;a//y. 

Fippil, to ivhunper or Job, to utier a plaintive foundy to 
behave unmanlike. ijaii.Jlipper, to fhed tears, to cry. 
Svved. ficper, a filly fellow j fUpa^ plorare. 
Firron, Farrcn, of pine tree. Sax. furh-vudu. Teut. 
iiuyren-hout, pinus, abies. Jt is worthy of notice, 
that the Teut. word 13 commonly placed among the 
derivatives oifuyr, ignis ; fo thatj^V feems to have 
fignified orignally^rf-iyoo^. 
Firth, Friths au arable farm ; exteiifve cultivated felds, 
or perhaps any fecure place of rejidence or poffefftons 
within a wood. The word feems to be merely a 
variation of the O. F,ngl. or Sax. worthy praedium, 
fundus. ** O'er iirth and fell," over cultivated and 
pajiure fields. Skinner tranflates this expreffionyi"'Z/e 
per fylvatn^ five per ca?npumy but upon what authori- 
ty I cannot difcover. For, although the Sax. frith 
and grifh tranilated ^^ pax,"" (and alfo ufed iov fane- 
tuary^ are evidently the fame word, with the fame 
^derivatives in the fame fcnfe, it is not thereby af- 
.certained that either of them fignified a wood \ on 
the contrary, in various inflances frith appears in a 
ftate of contra-diftinftion to wood ; as, 
He had both hallys and boury?, 
ir-jihes., fayr forefls wyth floury s. 

Romance lif Emare. 
3y forcft, and hj fry the. Ibid. 
When thei fing loud infrithe, or in foreft. 

\. Chaucer. 

It is aimoft needlefs to remind the reader that Eng- 
lifh f ithj jefiuarium, has no connection whatever 
with the word under confideration, either in its 
meaning or derivation. The termination y^ir^i may, 
however, in fome inflances be a corruption or vari- 
ation oifrt-hf particularly in the name of a place 
not fituated near a river. 
FiiTil, Fillle. to rujik, to fir i e:: fono. 


Fit, ¥jtt,Jongf ^ort poem ; more comtnonlj ufed for 
a divifion or portion of a poem. Sax. Jittey canti- 
YWy foot. Fit-les, footles. Fitty, Futty, expeditious. 
Fittinment, expl. footings eflablifhment^ concern. Vulg, 
Fit (led, the print of the foot ; from Stead. 
FlafF, to flap, as a bird doth its wings. 
Flagairies, gewgaws, vagaries., 

Flaggis, Y\71lUc\\X.s, fudden hlufls of wind, or of wind and 

rain. Flaggis of fjre, flafhes of fire ; from Teut. 

iflaeghe, procella, tempeftas. Gvichflaiche, a blaft of 


Flain, plane, arrow. Flanys, arrows., fagitta, 

jaculum. Goth.fein, hafta. 
Flain, Flane, having the Jkin pulVd off. Sax. flean, ex- 

Flakes, Plates, hurdles, fnch as are nfed in Ihecp mar- 
kets for making fmall inclofures. Teut. vlaecf'^,. 
Flamit. See Fleme, to hanifh. 
Flane. See Flain, arrow. 

Flap, flap, blow, the found thcrehy produced. 
Flat, to flatter. 
Flaught,^«/Z'. See Flaggis. 

Flaughts, handfuUs ; corr. of claughts from claws. 
Flajt, Flate, did fly te, folded. See Fljte. 
Flatlings,^^//),', lying flatly. 
Flaw. See Flaggis, blafls ; alfo, did fly. 
¥lavie, yellow. lLa.t.flivt/s. 
¥\a.nchtcr, flaying. See Flain. 

Flauchter-feal, long turf cut with aflnughterfpadc. 
Flauchter-fpade, a fpade for fl tying ox paring off the 

furface of the ground. See Flain. 
Flaughtbred, expl. hrijhly, fiercely ; rather perhaps the 
fame with Bellj-flaught, fir etched flit on the 
Flawkertis, expl. gaiters, hootSj armour for the legs. 
Fie, Fley, Fieg, to frighten. Fleit, frightened. Sax. 
flion, fugare ; flyge, fuga ; or rather from Fr. cf- 


Fl Fl. 

Fledgear, Fledgeour, a niaher of arrows ; ivova Fr. 

Jlechcy fagitta. 
Fleich, to flattery to coax. YW\c\izx\d.y flattery ^ coaxing. 

Teut. vleydeiiy blandiri, adulari, aflentari. 
Fleim. See Fleme, to hanijh. 

Fleit, to run from. Teut. vlieteriy fluere, abundare. 
Flekker, Flikker, to flutter, tofhake, properly, accords 

ing to the manner in which a bird moves its luing?. 

Teut. flaggheren^ vlicheleny volitare. 
TlekkytjJpotted^fjUeci/edy from Teut.flec/^, macula. 
Fleme, Fleim, to hanifh or expell, to drive away. Sax. 

flymaUy in exilium mittere, ex legem reddere. 
Flendris, ¥lendcts,fplinters, pieces ; quaHfl/idula:, from 

Yr.fendre, or L.2.t. flndere, to fplit. 
Fleoure, Yleuve, fme//y odour, commonly in a bad fenfe» 

Yv. flair, odor, " flavour." 
Flefchour, butcher, Teut. vleefch-houwer, carnifex. 
Flete. See Fleit, to flow, to float. Y\ei, floated. 
Flewet, expl. afmart blow. [Yr.fleau, flagellum.]} 
Fleukes, Flouks, floundersyjo/es. 
Fley. See Fie, to terrify. 
Flikker. See Flekker, to flutter. 
Fling, to throw, to kick, toflrike backward, like a horle 

with his hind-feet, [^wedi.flenga, percutere ; or it 

may originally have lignified only to thiow darts or 

javelins ; from Sax. flan, jaculum.] 
Flilk, to move about in an idle manner, to frijk. 
Flitcher. See Flekker, toflutter. 
Flitt, to remove^ particularly in the fenfe of from one 

dwelling place to another. Dan.^/^r, commigro. 
Flocht,yfi7r, terror, anxiety ; from Fleg, to terrify. 
Flodder, Flottir, to overflow, to befmear, or bejputter.. 

Dan. flyder, demano ; flod, inundatio- 
Floudht, flight, did fly or flutter. 
Fludder, eyi^\.frotick. 
Flum, (Gaw. Douglas,) flood, in the feufe of flumert 

ingenii, a fpeat of language. 
Flume or Y\t\xm&, phlegm. 

Flung, baflled, deceived ; q. thrown off i from Fling. 
Flureis, Flurys, to flourifh or bloom. 
Flufch, a pool. Sd.x.flcwfa, fluxus, piofluvium. 


Fl. Fo. 

FIjrand, ^xt^\. JJeeringf flaunting. Szx.fleardiany nugjfrl.' 

Fljte, Flite, to fcoldy to chide, to rally. Sz^i.flitanydK- 
putare, jurgari, contendere. Tcut.yiuyten, mentirii 
mendacio ludos aliqui facere. 

TlytcTyOne addi£led to fcolding. Sax.7?//fr, rabula. 

Yodiyto generatCyOX to ufe the means. ScsLndi Jceda, gig- 
nere, futuere. . ^ 

Fodge, Fadge, large bannocks Sax.yoc^, panis fub-cinere 

Fode, Foode, perhaps leader, chieftain. Swed. fogde. 
Teut. voht, voghty prsefeftus ; qui provinciam regis 
vel magnatis alicujus gubernandam fufeepit ; praetor, 
&c. Probably the mod antient form of the word is 
the Sax. theodn, gubernator, nearly allied to, if not 
the fame ^\xh.,thegn, thanus. This -word foode oc- 
curs in the prophetic legend of Thomas the Rhymer,- 
St. 26 and ^6. See Vol. III. p. 132, where, how- 
ever, it has been rafhly and un-neceffarily altered to • 
hrude. • 

¥og,.mofsi FoggSLge, after grafs. 

Fon, Fonner, to fondle, to- embrace. 

Fond, to defire enrneflly. ^?i^. fundiani avide expetere. 

Fond, Found, went ; from Sax. fundan, adire. 

Fonding, Fanding, effort, endeavouring. 

Fone,foe.f ; q. foen, the plural of foe. 

For fa mekill, forafmuch. 

For-beft, expl. baffled', q. fore huffed', from '^t.huffc- 

Forbeiraris, Forberis, ancejiors, forefathers, 

For-bodin, ill fated, unhappy, unlucky. Teut. veur- 
bode, prasfagium. 

For-breift,yo?v part of a coat or vefl. Teut. vcuir^lforfty^^ 

For-by, hejides, beyond^ over and above ,• Teut." veur- 
bit, trans, pra^ter, ultra. 

Forbye, along in front, along before^ 

For-byfning, prototype, exemplar. Sax. omen. 

Forceats, flaves, galley flaves. Fr. forceat. 

Forcy, Forfy, Forty, violent. Teut. fortfigb, audax. 

Fordel, the firfl place ; the fore moft or heft fhare ; from 
Vol. IV. K For-dele, 

To, Fo. 

For-dek, to wafle ; as tf^ to difirihute or part with tod 
many Jhires. See Dele. 

For-do verit, Fordowerit, (Gaw. Douglas,) overtoihdt 
exhaujied with fatigue. See Dover. 

Fordwartis^fl^??/!?^^, agreements, conditions. Sax. for- 
ward. Te«t. feur-waerdey q. d. feur-woord^ fore- 
word, paftam, faedus, conventum. 

For- dull, to make dull, or fad. 

For-djnn, to make a great noife, to echo, to refound. See 

Fore-fpeaker, advocate. Szth. fore-fpecca^ prolocutor. 

Fore-ltam, the fern or prow of a fjyip, prora ; hence it 
alfo ^gm^i&sfore-head. 

For-fairn, decayed, wafled, exhaujied. Sax. for'faren. 
Teut. vervaeren, perire, evanerc, evanefcere. 

Forfalt, Forfault, to forfeit ; from Fr. forfaire, forif- 
facere. The fame word is alfo explained, lojl, ex- 

Forfet, expl. ruin ; may rather mean perhaps offence^ 
tranfgrefjion. Yx.forfaiB, mifdeed. See f'orfalt. 

l^ov-^ilX-tn, feverely folded. See Fljte. 

For-fochin, fatigued or exhaufled with fghting, or with 
any violent exercife. 

For-gadder, to meet, to encounter. Teut. vcr-gadercn, 

For-gane , For^enft, over againfi, oppofite to. 

Forge, uW^ towards, met ; corr. from fured, went. 

For-headie, cenforious. Scand. foerhada, ludibrio ha- 

For how, toforfakey toahajidow, from Scand. for -h^fua, 
fuperhabere, eontemnere. 

For-howar, defertcr. See For-how. 

For-Iane, to give or grant. Scand. forleena, conce- 

For-lane, all alone, quite alone. 

For-lay, to lie in ambujjj. Teut. verlaeghen, infidiari. 

For-leit, Forlete, to abandon, to quit, to forfake, to give 
over, to relinquifh. Teut. vcrlaeten, relinquere, de- 
folare. Goth, fraletan, dimittere. 

For-leith, to loath^ to abhor. Sax. lathian^ deteftari. 


Fo. -... . . . Fo. 

For-loppin, fugitive, vagabond, renegndoc, Teut. vcr- 

loopen, transfugere, vagari. See Lowp. 
Vov-Xove, forlorn. Teut. ver-loren, perditus ; from loor^ 

melancholicus, triftis. 
For-lyne, lay fnfully with. Scand. foerligga, vitiofe 

For-mekil, very great. See Mekil. 
Forne, Forrow, To-forne, before, formerly, heretofore. 

Scd.x\d.for/i, prseteritus, antiquus. 
Foroutin, Forowtjn, without. SAX.for-utan, fine. 
YoY-pn, fourth part of a peck. 
¥orvay, forage, plunder. Fr.fourrage. 
Forraj-, to forage, to over- run. Fr.forer. 
Forret, corrup. offore-head, front. 
For-rew, to repent exceedingly. For-rwyd, repented ex- 
ceedingly. See R.ew, to repent. 
Forrow, before. 
Forrow, Farrow, barren, that yields no milk ; perhaps 

q. fallow. 
For-fpeak, to injure by immoderate praife. For-fpoken, 

bewitched, &c. See Forefpeaker. 
For-ftaw, to underjlund. Swed. forflae. Dan. forflaar. 

Teut. verfaen, intelligere. 
Forfj. See Fortj, violent. 
Forlhi, For-thy, bj corruption For-quhj, becaufe, for 

this reafon that. Sax. fortha, quia, propterea. in 

moil cafes the point of interrogation after ** for 

quhy" is erroneous. Not for-thy, not for all 

For til. For to, to. 
For tilles, fortrefs, fortalics. 
For-thynk, to difiurbt to fll with petplexing thoughts. 

^zyi. for-thcncant diffidcre. 
Foity, Forfy, violer,t,Jicrce. TcMt. fortfgh, audax. 
For-wakyt, exhauficd by lying long awake. It might 

alfo lignify i3U7/^r//iv/; from Teut. ver-wecken, fuf- 

lor-way, expl. to wander, to go afltay, to err. It may 

alfo fignify to get before upon a road, or to way-Jay. 

Scajid. faerivaeg, prrecurrere, ut alteri infidias ftru- 



Fq. Fr. 

For.worthin, umvorthy^ "g^yt hateful. 

For-yet, For-yhet, to forget. Foryettin, Far-yhottyti, 

For-yeild, repay y reward, and by confeq. to furnifh ; 

iVom Sax. gildan^ folvere. 
Fofs, " ane pit or fowfte^ quhairin wemen condemxiit 

for theft fuld be drownit." Skene. 
l^oHeTy pf ogefiy. Scznd.fojier, partus, progenies. 
Foftel, Voftell, veffel^Jhip. 
Fotch, /o fhftot change the cattle in a plough, [^Swcd. 

forka, urgere ; fortgaiig, fucceffus.] 
Fouchtyn,yb«j|'^^. Teut. fohten. 
Found, Fond, to go j alfo went, marched. Sax. fundan, 

Fpune, belonging to fawns. 
Foufome, clumfy^ hoyden-wfe ; c^. foulfoine . 
Foufy, Fowfie, ditch. Yx.foffe. 
Fow, Vol. II. p. 256. perhaps knap-Jack. \Jir.fouillouff 

a bag or fcrip.] According to Mr Pinkerton, a cluh. 
Fow,yi///, drunk' 
Fowth, Fouth, fullnefs, plenty, abundance ,• from Fow, 

fully qazd fulth, as wealth from wea/y to choole. 
Foy, a treat given to friends by one who is going abroad. 

Teut. defoy geven. 
Foyn, Foynzee, the wood martin or beech martin \ a 

kind of pole-cat ; muftela feu viverra quaedam lep- 

tentrionalis, muflela foenaria. Fr. fouine, martes. 
Foyfoun, YcyiiXXi, fuhjicuice, fapy Jirength. 
^oT.yyfpungy,foft. Teut. voosy voofgy fpongiofua. 
Fra, Fray {niod ) fi3.e,from. 
!Frak, Frack, freight, cargo, Teut. vracht, Swed. 

frakt, vedio, yetliira ; naulum, portorium. 
Frak, nimble, fwift. Frakax, nimbler yfwifter. Fracklie, 

ninthly, fwiftly, fpeedily. 
Frak, to move fiviftly, to glide, to flaffj. Ruddinian 

brings y>-^i from Sax. fraecy profugus ; or from 

Teut. vrachty vectio. See Flaggis. 
I^rais, Frafe, to vfe more words or '* phrafes*'' than are 

necejjaryy to provoke with idle palaver. [Goih.frai- 

fan, tentare.] Frais is A^o ufed by Ghw. I^ouglas 


Fr. ■ Fr. 

in the fenfe of to crojh or to make a crajhing noife ; 
from Swed./ra/a, crepitare. 
Fraift, ex)pl.Jlrive, try. \OoX\\.fratfan^ tentare.] 
Frait, Fray it, afraid, frightened. 

Frane, Frayn, to enquire^ to ajkj to dejtre. Franand, 

ajkingj defiring. 'lent, vraeghen, Goth, fraihuan, in- 

terrogare, quxrere. The word alfo occurs as an ab» 

breviation of refrain. 

'Frznchis fan^Iurjrjff afy/um. Fr,francJjife j iKo liber-' 

olity^ generofity. 
Frate, (Gaw. Douglas,) noifcy crackingy fuch as th? 
noife made bj two cables rubbing againfl one ano- 
ther with violence. 
Fratit, expl. vorought. 
F'rature, Fraterie, Fratcr-houfe^ dining apartment in a 

monajiery. Lat. 
Fraucht. See Frack, cargo. 
Frawart, Fraw full, /ro'UJflr^, cr of s^ untoward '^ ({.from- 

ward. ^z.x. framveard. 
Frzy'ity afraid ; alio, engaged in tumu/t. Fr, 
Fve, excellent^ bountiful. Freidom, generofty^ liberality. 

Frely, liberally. 
Fre, expl. lady. [Swed.yrj/, matrona.] 
Freik, Freke, yc/Zoit; ,• but more commonly petulant or 
forward young man* Scand. fraeck^ tumidus, info- 
lens ; alacer, ftrenuus ; from whence, according to 
Jhre, the name of Franks. Scand. reke^ athleta. 
Freinyie, yr/«g-f. 
Freith, to prote&y to help ; from the fame origin with 

Firth, viz. Sax.frithian, protegere ; fritb, pax. 
Fteils,fuperfitious fayings or proverbs -, perhaps from 
Scand. fraegdf fa ma, rumor ; or quafi frights, as 
hath been conjeftured. 
lpTG\egc,freedoff2y power, privilege. Sa-K.freoleta, liber- 

Frelye, expl. powerful, ^zx.freolicy liberalis. 
Fremmyt, Fremit, Frem'd, flrange, foreign. Teut. 
vremd. Sax. fremd, peregrinus, alienus, extrancus, 
q. d. ver-kcymd, longe a patria five demo ; -vel a 
bcand.y/aw, ab, ex. \J\^h,frap!nthiarcr, peregrinus. 


Fr. Fu. 

Frenchlj, gcneroujly, frankly ; from Fr. franc, Inge^ 

Frenfum, q. d. Freindfome,yr:V/;i/;/. Sc^ndi, frandfami, 

Fret, a hand. Yr.fnt^ a virrol ; alfo expl. decked. Jn 

all thefe fenfes, the derivation may be from Sax. 

thredf filura, as fearn (inteftiimm) from theartn. 
Freth, to lihcraic. See Firth or Frith. 
Frewch, Yxwih.^ hritde. ^zzw^.f-cvhi^ friabilis. 
Frilt, Freft, credit, refpite, trujh Tent, frijl, mora^ 

Frith. See Firth, an arable far?}:. Sec. 
Fritte, perhaps for Frith, refuge, protcBion. 
Fiodj, expl. cunnhig ; {\. fraudy. 
Frog, vpper coat^ frock, ^x.froc, fcapulare. 
Frugge, Rug, a coarfe ivoolcn countcrpa?ie or bed-cover. 

See Frog. 
Frufch. See Freuch, hrittle. 
Fnifched, expl. hurtled ; alfo brake. 
Fruftir, unavailing ; alfo to reader ufcltfs. Lat. 
Frjiic, perhaps ^;c/c>2/r, prowifs ; from Teut. vrouiCj^ 

Itrenuus, fortis, animofus. 
'^xx, fr Jot, ox four pecks \ quafj, a f riot full. 
Fud, > udc, the tail, (commonly of hares or rabbits.) 

Sicamb. fut, futte. Cimb. fudy pudenda. l^.Jud, 

Fuddcr. See Futhir, a cart Iqad. Teut. vocder, vehes. 
Fuge, Fugle, fugitive. Lat. 
Ym{h,feiiibed, broiight ; pret. o^ fetch. 
Fulye, manure, dung. Teut. vuyligheyd, fordes. 
^\\\ye\X, defied ; ^io found guilt y . See Fulye. 
Vninzxt, pole-cat, Jitlimart ; ^i. foul- martin, with which 

animal Walton couples the frichat, probably the 

iveafel. Teut. fret. 
Tavae, favour, rtUfh. Yx.fumer. 
F"umler, Caik-fumler, expl. a turn-cake ox parofte; or 

perhaps a niggardly fellow ; one who hides, whelms, 

or fumlcs his cake, that nobody muy partake of it. 
Twrxxy, foamy ; from Teut. faum, froth. 
Fund. See Fdund,^ %v£nt. Fundun, marching. ' 

Fandy n, eflabUjljcd, fettled, founded. 


Fundjng, Fundying, benumbing^ numhnefs ; nearly the 
fame with foundering. Teut. ghe-wondt^ faucius. 

Furk, Yxxxch?:, gallozvs. Lat. barb. Furca. 

Fure, Fuir, Jared, went. See Fare, to go. 

Fure, Jjrm, Jrejb, found, in good plight. Swed. foo-y 
fanus, bene habens ; unfoer^ixS.'cvaM.s. On fute fure, 
fou7id in the feet. 

YvLVty fur, furrow. Teut. vorne, fulcus. 

Fure-dayis, Foor dais, late in the afternoon. S^x.forth- 
dagesy die declinante. The fame word might, how- 
ever, fignify before day light; from Teut. veur-dagh, 
tempiis antelucanum. 

Fut\ot,frlot y according to Skinner, (^.feird, ot fourth 
lot of fome larger meafare. 

Furm, Form, long fent or bench. So.x.fyrmthn. 

Furthy, ready J or forward of fpeech, frank. 

Fuft, expl. by Lord Hailes roajled •■, <\. fu%%ed. 

Fnte-ha.nd, foot-guards ; fo called in the time of James 
the Fifth. 

Fute-hett, Fut-hait, warm purfuity hard at the heel', 
with a hot-foot. 

Fute-pack, a pack which can be carried hy a man on 

Futhir, Fudder, indefinite large quantity or number ; 
according to Skene, 128 Hones ; — to Ray, i6c3 
pounds ; — to Blount, about a tun. Teut. <vocdt\' , 
vehes, a cart-load. 

Fyke, to fidge or fidget about. Teut. fitkcn, fricarc. 

Fykes, an itching in the fundament. 

Fyleyfowl. lyan.fuyl. Goth, fugle, avis. 

Fyn«?, end, extremity, height. Lat. Celt. 

Fynift, bounded, terminated. 

Fyppil. iSee Fippil, to whimper. 

Fyre-fangit, fei%ed by fire. See Fang. 

F yre-flauch t. fiafly of lightning. See Flaggis,_^.^rj'. 

Fyve-h\vayfive, about five. 


Ga Ga. 


Ga, to go. Gais, goes. Gaid, Yeid, ivent. 

Gab, the mouth. Dan. kiebc, maxilla, mandlbula. 

Gab, GafF, Gabble, to talk idly^ to pratCy to gihe. 
Swed. gahhoy irridere. Teut. gabbercjt, nugari, jo- 

Gabber, zV/<? talker. See Gab. 

Gabbj, Gabband, loquacious, talkative. 

Gaberlunyie-man, a begging pedlar who went about the 
country with a load of trumpery in a bajket or wal- 
let, upon his loin ; quafi, a gabe7-t'loined man ; from 
Fr. gabarrey originallj a wider boat covered with 
leather. See Gabert. 

Gabert, a large bark for carrying goods y a lighter. Fr. 
gabarrc, garrabot, from Lat. carabus, parva fcapha, 
ex vimine fafta, contexta corio. 

Gad, goad. Dan. & Sax. gad^ ftimulus, aculeus. 

Gaddyr, to gather. Gadryd, gathered. Teut. gaderen, 

Gade, Yeid, went. Goth, iddia^ ivit. 

Gad- wand, along rod with ajharp point at the end, for 
driving yoke oxen. See Gad. 

Gaffer, garrulous or talkative perfon. See Gab. O. 
Engl, gaffer was, however, a refpedful appellation, 
equivalent to good father, or perhaps to Sax. gefere, 

Gail, Gale, to pierce, as with a loud and fhrill noife. 
111. at gala, aures obtundere. 

Gainyng, (O. EngJ.) Gainage, the flock upon a farm, a 
perfo?i's capital. Sax. ge-ahnian, pofliders, q. oiunijig 
or property. It might alfo fignifj the utenjils. See 
Gane, toferve. 

Gaift, ghojl. Sax. Swed. 6cc. gajl, fpe^lrum. 

Gait, road, f reel. Swed. gata. Ulph. gatuo, platea. 

Gait, goats ; as Iheep denotes the plural as well as the 
lingular nntnber. Sax« ^r/, capri. 


Gsi. -^— Ga. 

Gair. SeeGare, a narrow Jlip of fertile grafs : Alfo ra* 
pacious ; from Swed. karrigy avarus. 

Gairtone berrjis. See Garten berries, bramble ber-*' 

Gaizlings, q. Goflings, j/(?««^ g^^f- 

Gale, Gail, to fingy to call in the manner of a bird. 
S"wedi ga/d. H^iVi.galer. Ifl. ^a/Z^r, cantare. 

Gallafches, wooden fhoes^ pair of clogs, fir ong fhoes ha- 
ving part of the upper leather double. Fr. galo- 
gi es, 

Gaines, Galmen, affythmenty a fine paid in goods or 
money to the relations of a perfon who had been 
flain bj. culpable homicide, or in a fudden fit of mad- 
nefs ; may perhaps have fome aflinity with 1(1. gaily 
galiUf gainings infanus, furens ; galnas, infanire ; ga- 
hnfkapy infania ; q. payment for one's madnefs. Or not 
improbably may be a corruption of Ganyeild, re- 
compence. \\^. gilldey aeftimium hominis ; algillde,- 
aequalis talio ; gilldingy seftimatio.] 

Galore, Gilore, plenty y great plenty. Gael, guloir, e^ 

Galy, expl. reel; tLhhrev. of galliard, a quick dance. 

Galyeard, Gaillard, brijk, fprightlyy lively y chearful, 
Fr. gaillard^ alacer; vividus, hilaris ; from Sax. gah 
Teut. geil, libidinofus, luxurians, falax, petulans. 

Galyeardlie, gallantly. 

Gam, game. Gammys, games. 

Gammys, Gams, gums. Teut. gaum, palatum. 

Gambettis, gambols, the flouffling and flinging of an a-, 
gile dancer. Fr. gambade, crurum jactatio ; fronl 
jambe, crus^ 

Gamefons, Gamyfouns, armour for the breafl and bel- 
ly ; Mr Pinkerton {?ijsfor the- legs. Fr. gamboifon\ 
anciently wambafia, a horfeman's quilted coat. 

Gamountis, //»z3j, all below the waifl. It is alfo ufed 
in the fame fenfe with Gambettis. 

Gan, began ; fometimes written Can.- 

Qane, gone. See Gang, to go. 

Gane, mouth, throat ,• (lightly varied from Teut. 
gaum, palatum. Ruddiman here adduces Sax. gin, 
Vol. IV. L Gant, 

Ga. Gj. 

Gant, to yawn ; perhaps from Gan^, mouth. 

Gane, Gain, to fervcy to fuffice, or be fufficient Jon 
Ganand, fervin^, fufficient for ; tMcx^ feafonabh ^fHtt- 
able to. Swed. gagna, gena^ prodeffe ; gen, utilia. 

Ganeft,7iV/^, mojl fuitahle \ quafi, tnoji guinancl. Swed. 
gagnelig, commodus, utilis. 

Gang, to gOy to walk. Gaid, went. Ttnt, gaen. Gotliv 
gaggan, ire. 

Gangaris, /eeL 

Gangarel, a/lit. gr. for Hangrail ; alfo a child heghming 
to walk. Swed. 

Ganfald, Ganfell, expl. afsvere rebuke. 

Gantreis, Jlands for ale barrels \ q. gitrn-trees^ from 

, lian. gaerende, fermenting. See Gosn, a wooden 

Ganye, Gainye, Genyie, Gayayhe, arrow^ dart^ j-ave- 
lirt. Ifl. gana, prseceps nio, pernix volare. [Teut. 

. ganfey anler, " goofe wing." J Mr Macpherfon refers 
it to Ir. gaine, reed, caiie. 

Ganyeild, requital^ recompencey due reward^ perhaps 
from gauy i. e. again^ &. gildan, folvere. Engi. _y<V/r/. 
The Scots Law term galnes, is probably a corrup- 
tion of this word. 

Gappoks, Gappoks of Ikate, gobbet s^ ntorfdsy pieces of 
Jkate ; from Gab^ mouth. 

Gar, to caufe, to force. Garrand, caujing, forcing.^ 
Gart, caufedy forced, Dati. gior. Swed. giora^ fe- 

Garde vyance, cabinet, buttery. Fr. g<tf'd de liLmdes. 

Gardy, the arm. Gardeis, Gardis, the arms ; ''becaufe 
they ferve as guards to the body." Hence Garde- 
brace, armour for the arm. Fr. 

Gare, Gair, afpot ox Jlip of tender fertile grafs on a 
barren mountain ox heath. ^£Qxxti gaer^ maturus, per- 

, coftus. 

Gare, (Gaw. Dougla?, pro!. 8.) coarfe. Gare woll, 
w6ol of inferior quality. See 31. Edw. III. cap. 8/ 
& expl. lana vilior. it may have been wool laid a- 
fide to be given to " beggars," according to the 
common cuftom. \Ji&\\X. giteren, aggregate, colli- 


Ga. — L^ Ge. 

Oare, Gair, folicitousy rapacious ; from Swed. karrigj 

^irigy avarus. 
Garnifon, garrtfon, a party or body of men, in which 
fenfe the Lat. pr^fidium is alfo often taken. Dan. 

Garni fli, to garrifon, or Jill a fort ivith men. 

.G.Ririte, top of a hill, a watch tower. Fr. garitef pro- 
pugnaculi turris, perfugiurn. 

Garritour, watchman, whether he be placed on the top 
of a houfe or a hill. 

Garfon, attendant. Fr. garcon^ boy, ftripling. 

Gart, caufed, forced. Se:e Gar, to caufe. 

Gartens, garters. Fr. from Swed. giorda, cingere. 

Garten-berries, Lady garten berries, bramble berries^ 
rubus fru6licofus ; perhaps from Sax ge-werdan, 
nocere, lieder^. 

Gzxih, garden, yardy or inclofure. S2.X. g£ard. Swed. 
gaord, fepimentum j giorda, cingere. 

G'iQxtfedate, fagac'totis. ¥1. fagace, from Lat. 

.Gaffie, Gaucie, plump. [O. Fr. gauffee, jucunda.] 

jGailrel, Caftrel, a kind ofhawke. Fr. cercerelle. 

Gate. See Q^XtyJireet, road, manner, method, 

Gatt, got, begot. Sax. 

Gaude, (Gaw. Douglas,) a cunning tric^, a ridiculous 
prank ; from Fr. gaudir, jocari. 

Giiiikie, id.'e wanton girl, foolifh per fen. See Gowk. 

fjzyXtx, jailer y from Fr. ^ Celt, geol, career. 

^ayfened, Gyfened, become haky from want of moif 
ture. S\ve6. gijina^ gifna, to ikrivk. Wcl. gwyjien, 
aridus ; gijla, ficcare, arefacere. 

Gearking, vajn. See Geek, to deride. 

Geek, to affume fcornful airs, to deride, to mode, to jilt. 
Teut. gecken, be-ghecken, deiidcre. 

Geeks, Gekks,^^wj of derifon. See Geek. 

Ged, the fifli called a pike. 

Ged-ftafF, (Gaw. Douglas,) a fed, (river,) or Jed- 
burgh Jiaff, thus mentioned by Major ; ♦* Ferrum 
chalybeum 4 pedibus longum in robufti ligni extre- 
me Jeduardienfes artifices ponunt, &c. The phtafe 
'' Jeihart ftaffs and Kelfcf rungs" is ftill common. 


Ge. ■■ . Gi. 

<Jee, jit of fichnefs ; laXiofulky Jit. Tcut. ^hichte, ner- 
vorum refolutio, 

Qeig, Jeig, Jirg, to make a noife like that of a cart wheel 
in want of greafing ; ex fono. 

Geil-pokkis, expl.Jelljf bags. Fr. 

Geir, Gear, goods, effeSlt, money ^ wealth ; anciently ap- 
parel, accoutrements , Sax. geara, bona, veftitus, fa- 
cultates, artium inllrumenta, &. alia qusevis utenfi- 
lia. According to Rudcliman, from Sax. gearfian^ 
(meaning gearcian) parare, prseparare. 

Geillis, Geftes, exploits, aclions, adventures ; but more 
commonlj the hiflories of them. Lat. res-gejice, or 

Geiftis, Geftes, yo/y?j of^foor, 

Geit for Cheit^ cheat. 

Gemmel, twin, twins, Lat. gemelli. 

Gent, Gend, gentile, neat, elegant, n)aln,faucy, mce j al- 
fo a perfon of honourable birth, or of honourable con- 

Gentles, people of honourable birth. Fr. gentil. 

Gentrice, Gentrys^ honourable birth, honourable conduSl. 
Fr. gentilleffe. 

Gers, grafs. Gerfy, groffy. Sax. Teut. Scand. &c. 

Gerfum. See Giaflum, entry-money. Sax. 

Gefning, Geftning, Gueftning, hofpitality, hofpitnhle 
reception, ^zs.. gyjl-fele. I'ii.. gijlning, hoi-^xiwxva \ 
from gejl, hofpes. 

Gefts. See Geifts, exploits, narratives of exploits. 

Get, Jett, fudden motion or fpring ; to walk with a 
proud gait. Yx.jetter. 

Gethornis, Gythornis, G'WXexnes, guitars ; alfo written 
.Citerns, Citherns ; all from Lat. cithara. 

Gett. See Gait, goats. 

Gett, Get, Gete, child, offspring ; now ufed only in a 
contemptuous way ; alfo begot. 

Gettis, get ye. 

Gettling, a young child ; dimin. of Gfett. 

Gie,give. Gies, gives. Gied,gave. Gifn, Gene, ^Z- 

,Gif, if Sax. gif fi i from gifan, dare, q. d. given. 


Gi. Gi. 

Giglet, Gill at, a merry or laughing girl; from Gigle, 

to laugh. Sax. 
Gil, hole^ cavern ; perhaps fiom Scand. vel 111. gia, hi- 
atus mentis. 
Gild, clamour, convivial noije, liter ally jelling. Belg. 

ghillenp ftridere ; whence Lane, gill-hootcr, an ovvl. 
Gile-fat, the vat or vejjel in which malt liquor is b> eu-~ 

ed ; perhaps from ii^.n. gaer, jeaft. 
Gil], Gil, fuppofed to mean fometimes child in the 
ancient fenfe of young gentleman ; but more fre- 
quently perhaps the fame with Gael, gille, a man- 
Gillie, hoy, lad, man-fervant ; a derifory diminutive of 

Gill, quafi chieldle. 
Gillie-gapou£,yi/i////6 j/ow«^ fellow, one who is always 

gaping at wonders. See Gill. 
Gilt, money. Teut. gelt. Sax. & Goth, gild ; whence 

Gilty, Gilted, golden, gilded ; from Sax. gyldan. 
Gim, Jim, Gimp, Jimp, tight, neat, trim,Jlender, hand- 

fome, well drejfed. 
Gimmer, a ewejheef> in its fecond year, cr from the fir Jl 
to the fecond fhearing, ^'wed. gimmer. \^.. gimhur, 
gemhel, ovicula ; gumfe. aiies j q. gome, vel inaritus 
Gimmcr-lamb, the lamb of a gimmer ; alfo ewe lamh, 

i. e. female lamb. 
Gin. See Gyne, ingenuity. 
Gin, if ; q. d. gien or given. See Gif. 
Gird, a hoop, commonly made of a hazel rod. Sax. 
^<rr^, viiga. Dan. ^j/r^f, cyngiilum. Goth, gairda, 
Gird, to heat with a rod, to flrike, to pierce, (Gaw. 
Douglas,) hence alio, to contend with Jharp vjords in 
jeft or in earneft. 
.Gird, a flroke, blow, a tricky a circumvention, accord- 
ing to Ruddinian, quafi, going af'out one. 
Girdel, Girdle, G riddel, a bake-Jlone, or thin circular 
plate of iron upon which cakes arc baked; corr. of 
gridiron, craticula, which is iiow iifcd in a more 
confined fenfe ;, from I''r. gredUhr, to fcorch, to 


Cf. Gl. 

broil, to crumple with heat. Swed. griffel^ pala, cuj 
imponitur paiiis, furno iiiferendas; a ^/vf ^.'/«, panenf 
.coquere ; didum fullle gr<edjcL 

Girdyng, Gyvihyn, girth, furaiigle. See Gird. 

Girg, Jirg, to make a creaking notfe. 

Giro, a fnare or gin. 8wcd. gam, (yarn,) rete. 

Girnell, a corruption pi granary. Fr. grenier. 

Girnell, to hoard up in gra?iarics. 

Girth, Girthol. fanduary, place of refuge ; from Sax. 
grith, Cthe fame with frith,) pax ; grith hrec, C'antl 
frith-brcc,') a breach of the peace, Swed. grid, pax^ 
vitse ir.embrorumque incolumitas ; whence Engl. 
greet. Grith is alfo ufcd by Chaucer (ov peace, bkin- 
iier derives girthol from Sa::. geard, habitaculum, 
regio ; & bal, falvus, vel halig. fatidus. The Sax. 
geard is. however, nothing more than yard or inch' 
fure \ from Swed. giorda, cingere. 

Gife, gu'i/e, m<inncr ; in compofition wife ; as in like- 
wife. Fr. guf, modus, ratio. 

Gifl-irroe, Giil'arne, accor.ling to Skene, a hand-ax, a 
halhert, a hHl. Span. & Lat. bifarmay from its hav- 
ing two faces or edges. Fr. gitifarme. 

Cits, Gide, attire^ night gown. Fr. gife^ cxpL Icc- 

Glad, Glaid, (provincially Gleg,) fpoken of doors, 
locks, bolts, Sic. which gofnoothly, eafly, or loofely* 
Teut. glaty lajvis, glaber ,• glutten^ poliie. 

Glade, GWi'i, glided, prjfcdfwiftly. ' 

Gladfum, Gledfum, ch$arful, hoppy^ gladdening. 

Cilaiks, cheat, deceit, trick. 

Claiks, a kind oi pusn'zle or idle pcftime for ot:c perfon. 
Gleek was formerly the name of a gan;e at cards ; 
, hence perhaps glaiks came to ligiiify any kind of a- 
Arufement. Sa.^. glig. ludibriuin, gaudium, mufica. 
Goth, laikon, ludere. Mr Pinkerton explains glaik'^; 
a vjandaring light refe^lfd from a mirror ; but in 
this fenfc it fcv^ms to be provincial. 

Glaikin, Glaiking, play, idlenefs, wantonncfs. See 

Glaikyt, idle, thoughtlefs.foolif]i^ v:cintQn. Lord Katies 
ad'd?, capriciam^^s': Gir.iks. 


Gl. — — Gl. 

Glaifter, Glafter, to bawl ox barh^ to fcold. Fr. glaflif 
or glcttir, latrare i'eut. lajiereu, vituperare, impio- 

bare, int'amare. 
Glar, Glare, mud, niyre. Fr. glalrc, flimc* 
Glaumer, deception of fight hy rmans of a f pell \ pro^ia- 

bly from the attraftive powers of laniher or amber ; 

or from Fr. lambeLner, to deceive or delude. []lfi. 
glamer, la;titia.] 
Glave, Glaive, yiro/Y/. Fr. glaive, gladlus. 
Glebcj Gleib, portion of land allotted to the clergy. 

Gled, a kite, or hawk. S^x. glida, miltrus. 
Glcde, Gleul, a very f mall five ^ a /park, ofjirc. Gledcs, 
. Q\^\i.°>y hot embers. Sax.gled, pruna. 
Glede, Gleid, Gleit, toJlAne, to appear brightly^ to ap^ 

pear. Sa^f. 
Gleg, Clegg, a gad-fly. Dan. klaeg, t.>banus. 
Gleg, acute, Jharp, ready. iSee Gla<l, readily. 
Gleire, the white of aa egg: Fr. glaiye. Sax. glnerc, 

pellncidnm quidvis. 
Gle men, min/irels, tnuficians, fiddlers , pipers. Snx.gllg^ 

man, niuficus, hillrio. 
Glen , a norroio valley between mountains. ^-^xiA. glean?!. 

(_'l'eut. glend, fepes. Swed. Ingn, calm.] 
Glengore, Grandgore, perhaps for Gland-gore, venere,ii 

difeafe, lues venerea. See Vol. I. p. ^,12.. 
Glent, to glance. Glenting, leering. Svvcd. glatt, ni- 

Gleuin, Glevin, to gloiv. Teut. glacyen. Svved. gloa, 

luceie ; gla, lux. 
Glew, ^A-^, mirth, ff-ort. Chamber-glcw, chamherirg 

or wanivnucfs. Sax. glivcy vel glig^ gaudium, fact- 

tia, &c. 
Gleyd, oA/ or iro'^-o//^ horf or geUi/ij. Sax. gy::f, 

Glied, G\ecd,f2uint eyed; perhaps from Tout, gherer, 

Umis oculis afpiccie, quaii a/o-fjv/. 
Gliik, afiiiht view. See Glilt. 
GVift, gltflen^d. 'TtMt. gllnfleren, candere. 
Glitt, 'O^aiery humour. Teut. '■'i^'d-w^ffert 


Gl. Go. 

Gloff, expl. the JJjock felt in plunging into water. Swed. 

GlofFed, Jhiveredi 

Glois, metr. gr. for glafs. 

Gloaiing, Gloaming, Glowming, twilight. Sax. glom- 

7}iungy crepufculuxn. 
Gloppe, yo?. Swed. gloj), fataus, ftultus. 
Glofe, Glofs, comment^ expofition. Lat. 
Glotnir, Glotnyt, clotted ; from Teut. klcttere^, coa- 

Glotnnyt, Glotjnit, Jhining, fparkling ; from Scand, 

glatty nitidus ; gloed, prima. 
Glow v,Jiaring look ; to Jlare. Gouldman has Glow or 

Glout, p2tulis oculis afpicere. Scand. glo, attentis 

oculis videre. Tent, gluercn, limis oculis afpicere. 
CrXoy^Jlranv. Teut. glitye, ftramen arundinaceum. 
Glum, gloomy, fulky, dark, menacing. [Teut. glum, tur- 

Glunch, to hang the brow and grumble ; from Glum. 
Gnap, ts make a noife like that of a grafs-hopper ; alfo 

to eat. Teut. knnhhelen, morfitare, frendere. 
Gnarre, a hard knot in ivood. Teut. knorre, tubercu- 

Gnarr, Gnurr, Nurr, tofnarle, to make a fnarlingnoifo. 

Teut. guorren, grunnire. 
Gnib, Glib, ready, quick. 
Gnidge, Nidge, to pinch, to comprefs, tofquee%e ; frora 

Goan, expl. a wooden dijh ; perhaps a variation of 

Cann, or Tun. 
Gob. See Gab, mouth. Fiis. goh-flik, a fpoon. 
Gods-pennj, Ajles, Erie penny, earnefl mone\. Teut. 
Goif, (Gaw. Douglas,) to behold, hok, ga%e ; q. d. to 
flare with open tnouth. [Teut. oog-hefj'en, to lift up 

the eyes. ] 
Goilk. See Gowk cuckoo, foolifh per f on. 
Gome, man, warrior. Sax. & Goth. £;7/;V;7(7, vir, homo. 
Gomrell, Gamfrell, thoughtlef or foolijh perfon. Fr. 

goimpre or goinfre. 
Gonyell, Oo'mye\,fooli/lj felloiv. 
Good-man, Gude-man, hufband, mafler of the hotfe. 
Good- wife, Gnde-wvfe, mifrefs of the houfe. 


Go. Go. 

Gorbel, to gobble or fwallow greedily like young nejllingsa 
O. Fr. gohery avide deglutire. Ir. goh^ roftrum. 

Gorblings, Gorlings, nejUings \ q. gobblers. See Gor- 

Gore, to kill, to devour ; according to Shakefpear, to 
Jlaby to pierce ; from Sax. gore^ fanguis. 

Gore, a triangular Jlip of land, or of cloth. See Gare. 

Gorge, Gorgit, the throat. Fr. gorge, & grogette, jugu- 

Gorgoul, fuppofed to mean the grifin. 

Gormand, gluttonous. Fr. gourmand, gulofus. 

Golle, abbrev. oi gofjip. Sax.^ god-fbbe, cognntiis. 

Govand, Goifand, gazing, faring, looking fedfafly* 
See Goif. 

Governale, government. Fr. gowvernail, governance, 

Gowand, Gowan, properly field daify, but applied to 
many other wild plants. See Goulis. 

Gowd, gold. Teut. goud, aurum. 

Gowdfpink, gold-finch. Teut. goudfincke, aurivittis. 

Gowk, Goilk, cuckoo ; a foolifj fellow. Goukis, 
is alfo explained by Ruddiman, expeBs foolifjly ; in 
confirmation of which, he adduces Fr. gogues, jollity, 
glee, light-heartednefs. 

Gowk, Guk, is alfo ufed to denote the cry of the cuc- 

Gov/kjt, foolifj ;' from Gowk. 

Gowl, Goule, to growl, to fold, to howl ov yell. 

Gowpin, what can be held by the hands extended in con" 
taB. Ifl. ^o«/>«, manus concava. 

Goule, the throat ox jaws. Fr. gueule, gula. 

Goulis, in the language of Heraldry, red. Fr. 

Goulis, Goulans, gule-weed, chryfanthemum fegetum ; 
quail goldins. See Gule. 

Goul-maw, Gormaw, the gull, a fea bird. 

Goufly, wafe, deflate, empty, dark aud frightful; may 
be referred perhaps to the fame origin viixh gastly 
and goistly ; — becaufe timorous people, fays Ruddi- 
man, fancy that ghofls frequent fuch places as 
woods, caves, dens, old ruinous buildings, which the 
Romans therefore called horrcntia. 
Vol. IV. M Graff, 

Gr. Gr. 

CJraff, QrajF, gtave ; alfo to hury. 

GraggU, <ivraked, excommunicated, configned to perdi- 
tion. Sax. ivracany exulare. 
Grainter, deeper of a granary. See Girnell. 
Graip. See Grip, grtffin, 
Graith, harnefs, accoutrements , utenfthy injlruments ^ 

from Sax. ge-rcedian, parare, apparare, to graitbe. 
Gram, trouble, tumult, wrath ; hence alfo explained 

the breast or bofom^ Teut. & SvtQd. gram, iratus. 
Gram, ireful!, warlike. Gramell, most warlike. Teut. 

gram, llpmachofus, afper. 
Grane, Grain, groan, to groan. 
Grane, Grain, a branch. Granes, branches, the tines or 

prongs of a fork. Dan. & \^, grein, ramus, Swed. 

gran, abies. Upl. green, viridis. 
Granit, having grains or branches, forked. See Grane. 
Granit, in- grane, of a fear let or crimfon colour. Ital. 

hi Spa. grana. 
Grange, corn farm, the buildings pertaining to a corii 

farm, particularly the granaries. Fr. grange. 
Granfler, GrandAiir, grandfather, great grandfather. 
Grape, to grope. Sax. grapian, palpare, attre£lare. 
Grape, a trident fork for cleaning fiables. 
Graflill, Griffel, ReilTel, to rufile, to make a rufling or 

crackling noife. Fr. grejiller. 
Grave, grove, a thick ivood. O. Eng. greve, a bufli. 
Gray , gr ay headed per fon ; a.i Fair, ior fair one ', Auld 

for old one, &c. 
Qre, Grie, degree, prize, vi£iory. Fr. gre, 
Greance, agreement. 
Gredins, Gied[ncs,Jhabby fellows. Fr. gredln, hommc 

de neant. 
Gregioun, Grew, Greek, or Grecian. 
Greif, (Gaw. Douglas,) expl. offence, fault. 
Greis, GrQ\&s, greaves, armour for the legs. Fr.greves,. 

tibialia ferrea. 
Gieit, t9 cry, or Jhed tears. Gret, Grat, cryed. Sax. 

grctan. Goth, greitan, clamare, plorare, liere. 
Greke, Greking, peep, peeping, break of day. Swed. 

gry, lucefcere, to dawn. 
Grendes, expl. grandees. 


Gr. Gr. 

Grene, Grein, to deftre earnejlly^ to long for. G rein- 
ing, anxious dejire ; from Teut. greydeny avere, ap- 

jGres, gray colour. Fr. gris. 

Greflum, Gerfome, Graffum, premium paid by ti tenant 
at the commencement of a new leaft. Sax. gcerfuma^ 
praemiutn, compenfatio ; quafi ready money ; from 
gearo, pafatiiS. 

GvetQ, grit, fund, gravel. Teut. 

Qretumly, greatly ; q. d. greatfofnely. 

Greve, Gr^ifF, Greive, Reve, Reif, overfeer, bailiff. 
Sax. ge-refa, prsefedlus, decurio, exadlor, publica- 
nu5. Teut. graef prxfes, judex \ quafi, grauw^ 
gray headed man, fenior, fenator. Hsncc Jbire-greve 
or yberif. 

Greve. See Grave, grove, wood. 

Grew, Greek, Greek language. 

Grewe, gray bound, properly greW'hoand. lH. grey, 

Greyfe. See Agrife, to firrify. 

Grilk, expl. cuti. 

Grilfe, aji/h, apparently of the falmon fpecies. 

Grip, Graip, griffin, vulture. Swed. grip. Lat. gryps. 

Grippil, (Gaw. Douglas,^ expl. by Ruddiman, tough, 
tenacious; perhaps rather the fame as Thrippil or 
Throple, to entwine, to interweave, to entangle. 

Griflill. See Graffill, to rustle, or make a crackling or 
rattling noife. Fr. grefiller. 

Grozi, four-pence sterling. Teut. 

Grokar, fharper ; originally perhaps ufurer, Scand^ 
ocker, ockrare. 

Grofells, goofeberries. Fr. groifelles. 

Grots, Jhell'd oats. Teut. j^r^w^, grana hordei. Swed. 
groet, puis. 

Oroue, Growe, a fit of Jhuddering. Teut. groutv, hor- 

Groue, Growe, to fhudder, to he feixed with a fudden 
fright or apprehepjion, to tremble in a fight degree. 
Teut. grouivelen, horrete, pavere. 

Groulome, GrowuS| horrible f frightful. See Groue. 


' r 

Gy. ^. Gy. 

Gylxnir. See Gimmer, a ewe in her fccoiid year. 

Gyli-fatt, Keel-vat, (in Brewing,) expl. the cooling 
vat or tub. 

Gymp, Jimp, Gjm, Jim, neat, pretty handfome. 

G/n, expl. the lock or holt of a door. Ruddiman thinks 
it may figaify the door itiell', from Sax, gir.. Wei. 
gyn^ rift us. 

Gyrd, expl. quichflep. 

Gyrd. See Gird, /<? heat^ throw or pierce. 

Gyve, circling, turning round. Fr. girer, to whirl or 
twirle about. 

Gyre carling, expl. a woman in a majk ; or an old wo- 
man who has the charaBer of being a Jorcerefs ; fo 
called perhaps from her pretending to form magical 
circles around her. See Gyre. The fame word i§ 
alfo expl. gianfs wife. 

Gyrfe. See Gers, grofs. 

Gyrth, Gird, to furround. See Gird, a hoop. 

Gyrtht. ^te G'ni]\,fanBuary. *' Gif ane mau within 
" fancluarie craves the King*s peace, and ane other 
" roar, be evil zeale and parpofe lifts up his neive 
*' to fliik him, he fall pay to the King four kye, 
** and to him quhom he wald have ftriken, ane kow : 
•*' And gif he gives ane bloxv, nocht drawing blude, 
*' he fall pay fix kye to the King, and twa to the 
" man : And gif he fells him with his neive, he fall 
** give to the King thirty kye, and fall alfo affithc 
** the freinds of the defundl." Stat. William cip. 5. 

Gys, Gyis, Gile, mqfqueradc, maJk ; abbrev. of dif'> 

Gylart, a per/on difguifed, n mummer. 

Gyfen. See Gayfen, to become leaky. 

Gyte, Gide attire. 

Gyte, madyfrolickjome. 


Ha. . Ha. 


HaBIL, abk,Jiii qualified ; alfo, to fit or qualify. Fr. & 

Habirgeoun, Habirjhone,^or/ coat of mail. Teut. halx, 

coUum ; & lergtti, tegere. 
Habble, Gabble. See Gab to talk idly. 
Habound, abound. Haboundance, abuudatice. 
Hace, Hais, hoarfe. Sax. has, raucus. 
Hach, Hack, to cough voluntarily. 

Had, to hold ov keep. Haddin, holding, the quant ii^} 
which can he held or contained. Haldin is alfo ufed 
for charter. 
Haddir, heather, heath. Sax. Teut. &c. 
Haddir bells, the heath hlojfom. 
Hafand, heavingy lifting up. Goth, hofian^ IcvarCy tol- 

Haffat, Halfett, yi^/^ of the head. Haffatjs, temples. Sax. 

heafod. Dan. hnfvet. Goth, haubith^ caput. 
Hag, broken tnojfy ground ; alfo, a wood 'iL'hich has been 
cut doivn, and again inclofed for future grovjth. Teut. 
ghe-hechty ligneum fepibxis ciicunifcvjijiuin. 
Hagabag, refufe of any kind. 
Haggeis, minced meat boiled in a bag. Sax. ga-hacca. 

Belg. hackfel, farcimen. 
Hagil, to life a great deal of ujelefs talk in making a 
bargain. Teut. hakeuy implicarc j halikeleny balbu- 
HagU-bargain, one ivho (lands upon trtfUs in maVwig a 
bargain. Teut. huchelinghey difficuliates, hafitaiio. 
See Hagll. 
HaiF, Hafe, have. Haifing, havi/ig. 
Haifings, Havingis, manners, behaviour ; quafi, bckav- 

ings. [Teut. I:ebbi?ighe, habitudo.] 
Hail, Hale, Hailfome, Helfome, whole, healthy. 
Haims. See Hamcs, a fort of collar for horfcs ov 


Ha. Ha. 

Hain, Hane, tofwue^ to keep from heing ufed ov confumed^ 
Tcut. heytien, fepire, obvallare. 

Hair. See Har, hoary, hoar'froj}. 

Hais. See Hace, hoarfe. 

Hait, hot. Teut. heet, fervidus, acris, catullcns. 

HaJth, for Faith, a petty onth. 

Halch. See Hauch, plain by the fide of a river. 

Hald, Hauld, holdy habitatiotty dwelling y place of fhelleVy 
for tr eft. 

Jiale, hidl. Sax. heal. Teut. halle^ attla. 

Hale-fkarth, wholly fife, altogether found, free from fo 
rnuch as Sijkart ox f cratch. 

Hale- war, Hale- ware, all without exception, the whole, 

Haldin, Halfiingis, Haliindale, half, half-grown, almojl. 
Teut. halvelinghy dimidiatim, tere. 

Hallan-fliaker, a beggar in rags, a tatterdemallion, or 
rnggamiifjin i from Fr. haillons, rags. Allan Ram- 
fay defines the word, n xvretch who faiids trembling 
by the hallan wall, which he erroneoufly defcribes as 
being without the houfe, or out of doors. 

Hallen, Hallan-wa, a cottage partition wall of fod, 
which extended from one lide of the (foor rather 
more than halfway acrofs the houfe, and ferved to 
divide the family apartment from that which was' 
referved for the domeftKi animals. Hence probably 
it was calieu a halflin or hallan wall. Againrt the 
inner fide of it was placed the fire, which leads to 
another conjefture that the name originally may 
have fignfied the fire-wall or oTcn-wall, from Teur. 
hael, furnus, clibauus, (tranfiated aKo) ficcus, ari-' 
dus, which agrees compleatly with the parched 
withered appearmce of a hallan-wall. I obferve 
Hailen alfo explainedyZw/f^?-. 
llallow-e'en, All-hallow- even, the vigil of All-Saints 
day ; originally, it would feem, a kind of harveft- 
hom.e felHvity, celebrated on, or about, the Lifl day ^ 
of Oftober. From a proper attention to feed and 
culture, the harveft is now fomewhat more early. 
Halok, Halayke, Halokyt, or Hallacht queen, light, 
watiton wench ; feems nearly the fame with glaiJckyt. 
[Goth, laikar?, luderc.J 


Ha. Ua. 

Hals, Haufe, the throaty the neck. Teut. & Iff. halsf 
coll am. 

Hals, Haufe, to embracey to Jalute. Haljft, emhraced, 
faluted. Teut. halfen, injicere brachia collo. 

H .Ifing, Hunting, /a/utation. See Hals, to embrace, 

Haltand. Hawtand, haughty^ high-minded. Haltandlie, 
Hawtandlie, haughtily. Fr. haultain, hautai/iy luper- 
bus, airogans. 

Halye, Halj, (vitiouflj Halyhag,) holy. Sax. halig. 

Halj-how, Sely-how, holy, or fortunate hood ; the 
film or membrane which envelopes the head of a 
child in the womb. When found upon the head of 
a new born infant, it was fuppofed to be an infalli- 
ble prefage of good fortune. 

Haly-rude, holy crofs. See Rude. 

Halyft, feemingly for HaUyt, /aluted. 

Hamald, Haimylr, homely, domejiic, of home growth or 
manufaBure. Skene writes it haimhaldy quafi held 
at home. 

Hamely, Hamly, homely, in the fenfe of friendly y free, 

Hames, Hammys, Pair of Haims, a fort of collar, for*' 
draught horfes or oxen, to which the traces are faf- 
tened. [See Teut. hamme, numella, fetters, to which, 
they bear fome flight refemblance.]] 

Hamit. See Hamald, home-bred. 

Ham-fchakel, Habfhaikel, Hobfliakle, to fajlen the head 
of a horfe or cow to one of its fore-legs, to prevent 
its wandering too far in an open field. [Teut. hamme^ 
poples, numella.] 

Ilam-foken, Haim-luken, the crime of entering a man's 
houfe without his invitation^ and of there afjaulting 
him. Teut. heym-foecken, invadere violenter alicujus 
domum ; from heym, domus, habitaculum ; and 
foechen, perfequi. This feems alfo to have been the 
original fignification of the Englifli term hamfohen^ 
fince the word hamfure was very commonly ufcd in 
the fame fenfe, and doubtlefs was formed from Sax. 
faran, ire, proficifci ; quafi home-going. It may be 
added, if hamfoken be not properly and originally a 
crime, but as Spclman would have it, the privilege 
Vol. IV. N or 

Ha. Ha. 

or freedom of a mart's own hoiife, the meaning of art 
expreflion, in ancient Englifh charters " ut quietus 
fit de hamfoca,'' is doubtful. 

Hancleth, anckle. Sax. ancleoiv, talus. Lane, ancliff. 

Hand-falHng, a fort of temporary marriage^ formerly 
not uncommon in fome of the fouth-weftern parts 
of Scotland. See Pennant. Shakefpeare ufes the 
word in the fenfe of hold^ cujlody. 

Hand-habend, in poffejjlon ofjiolen goods. 

Hand-ftafF, the name of a conjlellation, probably Orion* i 
fword. Alfo, that part of ajlail which is held by the 

Handwarp, the city ef Antwerp ; thus written by Sir 
D. Lindfay. 

Hand-while, vulg. Hanla-while, afhort time. 

Hangarell, Hangrell, an implement of the Jiable, vpon 
which bridles^ halters^ &c. are hung ; commonly a 
llout branch of a tree, with a number of remaining 
Humps of fmaller branches. [Teut. hangfel, ha- 

Hank, tofajlen or tye. Teut. hencken^ fufpendere. 

Hank, (of yarn,) a coil, Ifl. haunky funiculus in forma 
circuit coUigatus. 

Hans in kelder. Jack in the cellar ; vulgarly ufed for 
a child in the womb. Teut. hansy Johannes vel focius^ 
& kelder, cellarium. 

Hanfell, gift, the first money taken, or benefit received, 
upon any particular occafion, fuch as the commence- 
jnent of a new year ; quafi hand-fell, from Sa.K.fellan, 
daic, tribuere. Wei. honfel. Teut. hanfeel, llrena, 
jiew year's gift ; or rather perhaps from Teut. hans, 
focius, hanfe, focietas ; and feelen, ligare fune ; vel 
feghelen, figillare. [Goth, hunfi, facrificium, the eu- 
charifl or confecrated bread See Houfel.J 

Hanfell, expl. earnefi. 

Hantyll, quantity y number ; q. hand-full. 

Hanzel-flip, expl. uncouthly drefi, ugly fellow. 

Hap , to cover up. Happit, covered^fcreened ; originally 
~tKe fame with Heap. 


Ha. Ha. 

Happer, happer (of a mill.) Sax. hopper abalket. 
Haque, Hagg, harquebufs. Teut. haeck^ minor bom- 

barda, fclopus uncinatus. 
Haquebut, Hackbutt, a kind of mujquet. 
Har, hoarfroft, nipping fog ; fo called from its gray or 

whitifli colour. Sax. har, canus ; alfo expl. a cold 

eajlerly nvind. 
Har, Hare, Hair, hoary, fharp, nipping; fometimes in 

the fenfe of harfh^ or rough to the tafle, [Gael, garbh, 

gnrg, afper.] 
Harbry. See Herbry, harbour, &c. 
Hardiment, hardynefs, courage, boldnefs, Fr. 
Hardys, Hards, the coarfeft of the flax after drefjing. 

HsLtdiynyfacking ov fack cloth, made of the hards. 
Hare. See Har, hoary, hoar ff'ofi, cold eaJJerly 

Harle, to trail or drag through the mud, or over rough 

Harlots, of old fignified fcoundrels ; or, according to 

Chaucer, low male drudges ; in which fenfe the word 

had probably fome connexion with Sax. hyra^ mer- 

cenarius ; [&. leod, popuius.] 
Harlry, honourable ; quafi harlrick, from Sax. eorf<^ 

heroicus ; heor, dominus. 
Harmefay, (Rhymer's Prophecy, St. 53.) probably 

may fignifyya/<?, out of danger ; q. harm-fafe. 
Harmis, forrows, troubles, indignation. Sax. hearm^ 

damnum. Fris. harm, triflis, dolens. 
Harnis, brains. Teut. heme, cerebrum. Goth. Gofp. 

Marc. 15. 22. huairneins flaths, place of fkulls. 
Ham-pan, Hardy n-pan,y^w//, head. Teut. herne-panne, 

cranium, q. d. patella cerebri. 
Harn-fheet, Harden-ftieet, coarfe linen cloth made from 

the hards or refufe of flax. 
Harro, Harrow, an exclamation of encouragement to pur- 

fuit^ much the fame with halloo. Fr. haro. 
Harro, expl. a furrow ; alfo expl. to harry. 
Harlk, Hars, harflj, bitter, four, rough. 
Harft, Herft, harvefl. Teut. herfjl, autumnus. 
Hart, to hearten or encourage. Teut. herten^ animare. 


Ha. Ha. 

Hart, to Jlun hy a Jlroke on the hreajl. Teut. herten\ 
transfigere pe6lora. 

Hartly, heartily^ hearty. 

Hart-fare,^f^ at heart. Teut. hert-feery cordolium. 

HaryagG, Hairyche, herd (of cattle), a colled ive 
word ; as of ilieep we fay a hirfell or flock, of dogs 
a pack. Sax. herige^ turma. O. Fr. hara% or harelle, 
a troop or herd. 

Hafart, Hafard, Hafert, expl. old gray-pate, dotard ; 
alfo of a gray colour. [111. haera, cani.J 

Hafartour, gamejler. Fr. ha-zarder, teflerarlas. 

Y{'^^o%^, a great befom^ or any luch thing made of 
ruflies, hair, &c. 

Hate, Hat, Hett, Hatyne, named^ was called; preter. 
of Sax, hatan or hatan. Teut. heeten^ vocare, ap- 

Haterent, Heytrent, corr, of hatred. 

Hathil. See Ethil, noble. 

riatter, tojhatter. 

Hattir, Haltir, expl. mapple, acer. 

Haubrek, Haubrick, coat of mail. Fr. hauherg^ hauhert. 

Hauch, Haugh, valley or level ground on the Jide of a 
.^running water. Teut. auwe, ager, pratunn ; or, ac- 
cording to Ruddiman, froni hallow, hollow, as faugh 
from fallow. 

Hauch, Heigh, an interjefllon equivalent to ha. 

Haufe. See Hals, nech, throat. 

Haver, oats. Haver-meal, oat-meal. Teut. haver ^ ave- 
na, bromos. 

Havere), chattering half-witted perfon\ quafi, iiabhler 
or gabbler y q. v. 

Haves, have ; alfo expl. goods or effe£is. 

Haw, fea-colouredy of a pale colour between blue and 
green ; from Swed. haf mare. Ruddiman fuggefts 
a derivation from hawsy the fruit of the haw- 

Hawk, a kind of hook for drawing out dung from a 
cart. [Swed. hahe, uncus.] 

Hawkyt, having one or more white fpotSy white ftced^ 
Jlreaked • 

Hawkyt, choptj broken into chinks. 


He. He. 

HaU'tane, Haltane, haughty, Fr. haufaint. 

Hayrfchip . See W^\xic\\\^^ plunder. 

He, Hie, high. Heiar, higher s alfo, to fet on highy to 

He and He, every one. 
Heal, nvhole ; alio, to conceal. See Heild. 
Hearkening, quafi Heartening, encouragement. See 

Heary, a conjugal appellation equivalent to my dear. 
Hecht. See Hate, named. 

Hecht. See Heycht, promife, command y promifcd, threa- 
Heck, hay-rack. Swed. heck, prsefepe. 
Heckle, to tecfze, alluding to the manner of operation 

of a heckle. 
Hedeles, Headles, a part of a weaver'* s loom. 
Hede-llikkis, expl. a [pedes of artillery. 
Hede-werk, hcad-ach. Sax. ware, dolor. 
Hedj-pere, of equal Jiature or age ; from head and Fr. 

pair, par. 
Heeze, to ra'ife or lift up tuith dij^culty. 
Heezy, hoijing or hoifling. ■ 
Heft, to nccujlom to live in a place. Teut. hnften, mo- 

rari, figere, aptando conneflere ; ge-hecht, pratum 

fepibus circumfcriptum. 
Heftit, accumulated, as milk that has not been drawn 

from the animal in due time. 
Heich, high. Heicht, hight. 
Heicht, to raife^ to extoll. Heichtyt, raifed. 
Heicht, Height, protnifed, engaged, threatened ; alfo, 

Heid-geir, head drefs. See Geir. 
Pleidyt, he.-headed, Heidyn, he-hending. 
Heild, Heill, Hele, to cover up, to conceal, to proteEJ, 

to fave, to defend. Sax. helan, tegere. 
Heill, to heal or cure. Sax. 
Hcillj, Helie, highly. Sax. 
Heily, e.y.y\.flly ; probably a corruption. 
Heir, Here, lotd^ majler. Sax. hera, major. Dan. here, 



He, He. 

Heirfchip, plunder or devnjlation hy nti army ; equiva- 
lent to Sax. here-renf, tnilitaria fpolia, here^ exercitus. 

Heiryald, Heriald, Herezeld, Hereceild, j/?«^ ot premium 
paid to a fuperior on the death of a vajjlil ; com- 
monly, among the lower ranks, the heji aughty aver, 
or article of moveable goods, as a horfe, cow, blan- 
ket, or flieet. Sax. &. Teut. her-ge-waede, vel here- 
gcat, hominii introduclorium, mortamentum. The 
inoft natural derivation of the word feems to be 
from Teut. heery dominus ; & gildan, folv-cFe. But 
Spelman and others bring it from Teut. heer, exer- 
citus, quafi provifion for war, or a tribute rendered to 
the lord of a manor for his better preparation for 
war. Bj the laws of Canute, it appears that, at 
the death of a landholder, " fo many horfes and 
arms were to be paid as in his life-time he was o- 
bliged to keep for the king's fervice." Sax. here' 
gyld, militaretributum, 

Heis, Heys, a lifting up ; alfo, to lift up, to hoife. Sax. 
heahfian. Fr. haujfer, elevare, attollere. 

Heift, promife, threatening, command. See Heycht. 

llekkil, heckle, an inflrument ufed in the drejjing of 

Hele, health, healthy. Sax. hael, falus. 

Helraftok, the helm of a Jhipy ^ubernaculum. 

Helter-flcelter, in rapid lonfufon. 

Hempy, " one for whom the hemp grows.''^ 

Hend. See Heynd, trained up, educated, taught. 

Hender, hinder, by-pajl. Hendermar, hindermofl. Telit, 
hinden, hinder, poft. 

Hen-wyfe, 'doornail nxho takes (are of tie hens. Hen- 
wyffis of Venus, haivds. 

Henfe-man, Heinfman, domejiic fervant ; from Sax. 
hincy domefticus, famulus ; or Teut. hende, vicinus, 
prope J q. d. a fervant who attends clofely upon his 
mafter ; either of which feems preferable to ano- 
ther explanation (by Dr. Percy) quafi haunch-man, 
from Teut. hencke, coxa. In the fame language we 
find haens-hooft, tranflated delator, quadruplator, qui 
ut gallus ijjaen) fuo cantu diem & tempeftates nun- 


He. He. 

tiat, Ita fecreta aliorum prodit ; & henne, homo iin- 
bellis, muliebri animo. See Heynd. 
Henfour, Henfure, perhaps one who had been trained to 
the ufe of arms. See Heynd : Or^ one who was expert 
in making Jiake and ryce fences ; from Teut. heytien, 
fepire, obvallare. A hajiie henfour might th^i 
have an affinity with the expreffion tlill commonly 
ufed to denote extraordinary rapidity, '* like a maa 
cutting ryce or brufhwood." 
Hent, Hynt, caught, feiz^ed, took^fnatched. Sax. hente^ 
capuit ; hentavj capere, rapere. Chauc. heniers, 
Hep-thorne, Hipp-thorne, rofa filveftris. 
Herbere, arbour, grove, fhruhbery. Lat. arboretum ; 
alfo, ajlower garden, or place where many plants and 
herbs grow naturally. Lat. herbarium. 
Herbry, harbour, lodging, e}itertainment. Teut. her- 
berghe, diverforium, caupona, manfio ; from her- 
publicus, communis ; & berghen, fervare, falvare, 
tueri. This word is given by Ruddiman as the o- 
rigin of Herbere, arboretum vel herbarium, q. d. 
domicilium arboreum. 
Herd, one who tends fheep or cattle ; alfo, to tend /keep 

or cattle. Sax. heard, paftor, cuflos. 
Herds. See Hards, coarfeflax. 

Here, Lord, chief, leader, mafier. Teut. herr, heer, do- 
Herefchip, Heirifchip, Hairfliip, plunder, wajle, expen- 
diture. See Heirfliip. 
Here-yeftreen, the night before Infl, or before yefier- 

iiight. Fr. hier. 
Herezeld, Heryeld. See Y{q\xj^^, fine paid to afuperi- 

or on the death of a vrijfal. 
Herle, fome kind of bird, perhaps a heron. 
Hers. See Hais, hoarfe. 
Herie, Harry, to plunder, rob, or ruin. Sax. herian^ 

vaftare, prxdari j from herge or here, exercitus. 
Heroner, expl. by Skinner that kind of hawk which 

7nakes herons his quarry. 
Herit, harveji. Belg. heifji. 



He He. 

Hefe. See Hecze, to lift with difficulty. 

Help, that which catches the holt of a door. 

Hefp, a certain quantity of yarn. 

Heft, expl. command^ injunBion. 

Hething, Haithing, q. oathing, fwearing^ curjitig, haji' 

"^nJng. The fame word (in Dougl. Virgil) *' drive to 
hething" is expl. by Ruddiman to traverfe the coun- 
tryy quafi to go a heathing ; \. e. through unfrequent- 
ed places. The word hethen is elfe where df fined 
mockery t and thus may be the fame with booting ; 
, but neither of them appears fatisfaftorj. 

Hett, Hait, hot. 

Heuir, Heure, Hure, whore. Teut. hoere. Sax. hor^ 
meretrix. Goth, horos, adulteri. 

Heuch, WcWfJiecp banky commonly underjloodto be fome- 
what broken or rocky ; and covered^ at Icuji in part, 
with wood ; feems to have forae affinity with Teut. 
hooghy altus, profundus, arduus ; heve, elevatio ; or, 
according to Ruddiman, with Sax. heafan, elevare_, 
attollere. See Cleuchis, cliffs. 

Hevid, Hevyd, HeufHd, head ; a.Uo beheaded. 

Hevit, Hewit, heaved, lifted up, raifed. 

Hew hue, colour^ appearance. Hewit, coloured. Sax. 
^ve, fpecies, color. 

Hewmond, helmet. 1(1. hilma, obtegere ; &. mond, 

Heycht, Hecht , promifcd, threatened. Sax. ge-hccht^ 
promiiius ; hatan, promittere. Tout, hsiffcn, heten, 

Heylit, covered up, concealed ; pret. of to hele or hyll. 
Sax. helan, celare : hence hell. 

I ley n . See Hain , tofave. Winter-heyning was com- 
monly underflood to be from i ith November to 23d 
April. Summei-heyning, vice vcrfi. 

Heynd, Hend , docile^ traBahle, educated, trained up, 
exercifed, expert, Jkilful ; feems to have fome con- 
nexion with the Sax. hynden , claffis, tribus, q. oiie 
who_lia.d attached himfclf to fomejnUi.taxydafs or 
j^Iaciation. Hyndenus, homo fcil. qui alicujus fo- 
da'iitatis particeps erat ; from ge-innian, prarflare, 
inferre j or gc-hynan, humiliare. Heynd, according 


Hi. _ Ho. 

to tills derivation, appears alfo to fignify courteous ^ 
affable, polite, 

l^ichis, expl. hatches. 

Hiddilis, Hiddlingis, in a hidden or fecret manner ; hid^ 
ing places. 

Hiddermare, hitherward, more this ^vay. 

Hiddirtill, Hiddirtillis, hitherto. 

Hidduous, Hidwyfs, hideous, terrible. Fr. hideux. 

Hie, Hj, He, hajief to hajie, to make hajle. Sax. bigaUy 

Hingare, necklace ; q. hanger, pendant. 

Hint, hold or grip. See Hent, caught. 

Hirn, a fecret corner, a place of retreat or retirement^ a 
den. Sa^jc. cern^ ern^ locus, frequentius autem locus 

Hirple, Cripple, to go as if lame. Teut. hippelen, fal- 
tare, fubfilere. 

Hirfell (of iheep), a flock j frotn Fr. hara% or harelle. 
Sax. herd, grex. 

Jlirfell, Hurile, to move one^s felf in a fitting or lying 
poflure ; to move "without the common ufe of the limbs. 
According to Ruddiman, to flide forward with a 
ruflling noife ; from Sax. hyrflan, frigere, znurmu- 

Hirll, explained by Ruddiman a door-hinge, or, (more 
correftly,) perhaps the threfholdf it being reprefent- 
ed in one inftance by Gaw. Douglas as of " mar- 
bill." [Teut. herd-Jlad, pavimenti^m fub camino ; 
q. d. a flagged pavement to correfpond with the 
range of the great door.] 

Hirft, a knoll or little hill. Ruddiman explains it, a 
bare and hard part of a hill. 

Hirfl, afmall wood. Sax. hyrjl, fylva. 

Hifly, expl. dry, chapt, barren. 

Hite, Hyte. See Gyte, mad, giddy. 

Ho, the lingular of Hofe, flockings. 

HO} metr. gr. Hone, an interjeEHqn commanding to de- 
sist or leave off. But ho, or But hone, without stop- 
ping ; alfo beyond all bounds. 

Hobelers, ligbt-horfcmcn ,• alfo expl. light armed men. 
Vol. IV. O Hobynis, 

Ho. Ho. 

Hobynis, light luar-horfes, 

Hoble, to cable or mend in a bungling manner. 

Hog, ajheepf male or female, in the fecond half of the 
first year. 

Hoggers, expl. conrfe stockings without feet. 

Hogmanay", an exclamation ufed hy the poor people 
who go about begging on the last day of the year ; 
fignifying, it would feem, / wijh you all manner of 
feJHve happinefsy (^or good cheer^ with a keen appe- 
tite ; nearly connefted with the vulgar Teut. phrafe, 
** met heuge ende meughe eten," cum voluptate & 
appetitu edere ; or " teghen heuge ende meughe 
drincken," invito ftomacho bibere. Or it may 
' be perhaps a corruption of another well known 
Teut. or rather Sax. phrafe, viz. hogen-hyne, or 
houlkenhyne, fignifying own domestic fervant. By 
the ancient laws of England, a ftranger who lodged 
only one night in the houfe of a landlord or huf- 
bandman, was called uncuthman;^n\^t.&,gueste ; 
thrid nighte, hogen-hytie^ own domellic ; after which, 
the mafter of the houfe became accountable for his 
mlfdeeds. Upon alms-giving days, fuch as the laft 
or firft of the year, a poor fupplicant might deem it 
a perfualive to charity to call out at the door of the 
wealthy, hogen-hyne, equivalent to ** pray remem- 
ber your old domellic fervant.'* The procefs of the 
corruption either from this phrafe or from heuge 
ende meughe, to hogmanay, is more natural and Am- 
ple than many others which could be adduced. — Or 
it feems, laftly, not improbable, that Hogmanay 
may have fome connexion with the Scand. hoeg-tid, 
a term applied to Chriftmas and various other fefti- 
vals of the church. Teut. hoghe-tijd^ geniale tem- 
pus, Icetus dies, quafi bog-tide-day. Lamb, in his 
notes to the poem of Flodden-field, fuggefts a deri- 
vation from Greek hagia-mene, the holy moon, i. e. 
December, the exclamation being ufed only on the 
laft day of that month. 
Hoi, How, low, hollow, deep. Teut. hoi, cavus, abdi- 


Ho. Ho. 

Holme, Howme, low ground Halle to be overflovoed hy 
water ; alfo, an tjland. Swed. holme^ infula, qualis 
in fluviis effe folet. Item, a forma infolae ita voca- 
tur area, fepibus a reliquo fundo feparata. 

Hoik, Howk, to dig, to make hollow. Swed. holka, ca- 
vare. See Hoi, cavus. 

Holkis, Howks, a difeafe of the eye. Teut. hol-ooghe^ 

Holt, ivood, forest. Teut. hout. Sax. holt, fylva, lig- 
num. Wood is perhaps only a corr. of Holt. 

Holt, high ftuation, top of a hill, a height. Fr. hault, 

Holyne, commonly explained the holly tree. There is, 
however, fome reafon to believe that it fometimes 
fignified the yew tree. Teut. holen-tere is alfo tran- 
flated fambucuSf elder-tree. 

Holing, Hofen, hofe, stockings. Swed. hofor^ tibialia. 

Horn, Hem, them. Sax. heomy illos. 

Hone, delay. See Ho. 

Honeft, honourable, generous, liberal. 

Hool, Heal, expl. to conceal. See Heild. 

Hope, fmall bay. Ifl. hop, large pond. 

Hoft, Hoift, to cough. Teut. hoefien^ tuffire. 

Hoftay, to befiege. O. Fr. bostoyer. 

Hoftilleris, inn-keepers. See Vol; H. p. 389. 

Hotching, fhaking, moving the body up and down in an 
aukward manner. Fr. hocher. 

Hotch-potch, a difh of mutton or lamb broth, and dif^ 
ferent forts of vegetables, ferved up ivith the meat in it, 
cut into pieces. Teut. hutfpot. Fr. hochepot. 

Hove, Huf, to remain, delay, or stay ; in the fame 
fenfe as Gaw. Douglas ufes dwell for tarry; and we, 
to dwell upon afubfeEl. Hovand, hovering ; from Sax. 
hof domus cum folo & horto. Teut. hoveuy to make 
good cheer. 

Hove, to heave, to fwell. 

Houk, expl. to heap. 

Houl, How, the hull or body of afhip. 

Houlat, owl. Fr. houlette. 

Hour is, morning prayers^ the bell for morning prayers. 


Ho Hu. 

Houfel, Houzle, the Eucharifi, or rather the conjecrat" 
ed bread. Sax. hufel, hujl, hujul, panis eucharifticus. 
Goth. ^a«y?, facrificium. As a verb, the word alfo 
lignified either to admimjler or to receive the facra- 
ment of the Euchar'tjl. According to Skinner, from 
hojiiolu ; to Jhre, from Scand. hunan^ oflferre. 

Houfluris, horfe mantles. Fr. houfeaux. 

Hout. See Holt, a wood ; alfo a hill. 

How, hollow \ the lovcer part betivixt oppoftte hanhs^ the 
bottom of a dean. 

How, Hoe, a hood or night cap ; a nvreath or garland. 
Teut. huiivey reticulum, capillare, vitta. See Haly- 

Howd, to float i [Dan. hav, mare.} 

Howdy, midwife ; the origin of the word unknown \ 
if it be not from Ifl. iody puerperium ; iodfoty dolo- 
res puerperii ; iordgumma, (redlius,) iodgumma, ob- 
fletrix. Theot. odan^ pariendus. 

Howf, a commpdious place for tarrying in. See Hove. 

Howis, Hochs, houghs. 

Howk. See Hoik, to dig. 

How met, a little cap or cowl. See How. 

Howms, holmsy plains on a river fide. See Holme, 

How-towdie, young ben or chicken. 

Howjn, Hovyn, expl. baptised. 

Hoj, to urge or incite. 

Hubbil-fchow, confufton, confufed racket. Teut. 

Huddone, Huddum, expl. a kind of whale. Bifhop 
Douglas tranflates the hzi. pri/lis of Virgil bj this 

Huddroun, a perfon in a flovenly drefs, hideous or ugly, 

Huddrj,y?o<yf«/j?, diforderly, taudry. 

Hude-pyke, mifer. 


Huly, Hooly, flowy flowly, Icifurely. Huly and fair, 
foft and fair, paulatim ; from ho, delay. 

Hund, to incite^ to encourage. 

Hunder, Hundreth, hundred. 

Uune, Hone,^(j/>, delay. 

Hungin, hung, hanged. 

Hunker, Hounkir. See Hurkill, to crouch. 


Hu Hy. 

Hurcheoun, hedge hog. Fr. herijjon, 

Hurdeis, hips, buttocks. 

Hurkill, Hurdle, to crouch, to Jit in a lent coniracied 
pojiure. Swed. huka, inclinatis clunibus humi incu- 

Hurl J, expl. lajl. 

Hurlie-hacket,7?/Jiw^ down a precipice ^ a kind of child- 
ifli fport. 

Hurlls, expl. woods. Sax. 

Huftand, hujhandman ; one who, for the privilege of 
a houfe, and the ufe of a few acres of land, {a huf* 
band-land,') was bound to render certain fervices to 
the proprietor, fuch as tilling his ground, reaping 
his crop, entertaining poor travellers, &c. To this 
day, a farmer's cottar or cottager who, inftead of 
paying rent, engages to be a reaper iii harveft, is 
faid to be bund or bound for his houfe y afid in Old 
Englifti, a hous-band was alfo termed a hous-fasten 
or land-fasten. The Dan. and Swed. bo7ide, ruilicus, 
agricola ; bond-folk, peafantry, are probably from 
the fame fource, rather than from the Bclg. howen, 
agricolari; alfo expl. sedificare, ftruere, architedlari ; 
jn this fcnfe equivalent to Sax. hyan. Dan. hoe. 10. 
hua. Scot, bigg, &c Goth, bauan, habitare, conftruerc 
fedem ubi habites ; all of which are from Teut. boo^ 
gan, fleftere, to conflruft dwellings with boughs or 
branches ; analagous to the expreilion of Ulphilas. 
timrida ra%n fein ana stalna, he timbred or built his 
houfe upon a rock. 

Hufband-land, according to Skene, **Jix acres of fok 
and fyith land,'^ i. e. about the eighth paVt of a 
plough gate, or ** an ox in the plough." 

Huffil, (Gaw. Douglas,) to make a rustling or chtJlAr.g 

Hufsyf-lkape, hufwfery. 

Huttock, a fmall hood or hat ; dimin. of hude, 

Huve. See Hove, to hover or halt. 

Hyne, Hynd, domejlic^fervant. Sax. hine^ domefticus, 
fprvus, famulus. [Teut. hinne, parum homo, homo 
imbellis. According to Kilianus, quali hen-man.l 

Hyne, hence ; alfo expl. young man. See Hvne. 


Hy Ja. 

Hynk, haste away. 

Hyne, hind. Teut. hinde^ cerva. 

Hynt. See Hent, caught. 

Hypocras, Hippocras, an aromatick wine. Fr. hepocras, 

Hyrfale. See Hirfell, ajkck. 

Hyrft. See Hirft. 


Jab, Jag, to pricky to pierce as with a pin or dart. 

Ja.g,jac^ or hunter Ja/hioHf (of boots j^ from Tent. Jag" 
hen, agitare feras. 

Jaip, Jape, to Jeer, mod, or beguile ; probably a corr. 
of Teut. gecken, deridere ; or from Fr. javioler, to 
gabble 'or prate. 

Jaiperie, Japery, buffoonery. See Jaip. 

Jaipers, Japers, buffoons, jesters. See Jaip. 

Jakkis, ^?icks,Jhort coats of mail. Teut. j'acie, tunica, 
prsetexta toga. 

Jak-men, men in armour, or dreffed in coats of mail. See 
Jakkis, Jhort coats of mail. 

Jangle and jack, to tattle and trifle away the time. See 

Janglour, clamorous talker, quarrelfome perfon, juggler. 
Yv. jongleur, ^ewt. jancken, gannire, latrare.J 

Jarg, Jirg, to Jound like a door on the hinges. Swed. 
jerga, femper eadena obgannire, ut folent aniculse 

Jaudie, a pudding of oat-meal, and hogs lard, with oni- 
ons and pepper, inclofed in a fow's flomach, former- 
ly ufed as a fupper dilh at entertainments given by 
the country people on Failrens Even. 

Javel, Jafel, Jefwell, ^rrt/w^ or chattering fellow. Fr. 
ja'violeur. See Jaip. 

Javelloiir,yrt!i/?r. Fr. 

Jauk, to work in a trifing or idle manner. 

jaw,* Jawe, a wave or billow. To Jaw, to dafh, in the 
manner of waves againji the flsorc ; or aftively, to 
throw out ; perhaps from Swed. haif, mare. 


Ja. I Im. 

Jawpes, the f pray or drops of water that are forced in~ 

to the air by repercuJ/ioUy tempest^ or otherwife^ hoW' 

ever fmall the quantity maybe. To Jawpe, ^tj hefpatter 

ivith water. See Jaw. 
Ice-Ihogles, icicles. Teut. iiskekel, ftiria, gelicldiura. 
Icb, /. Teut. ichf ick. Goth. ik. Lat. ego, 
Ichone, each oncy every one. 
Icker, ear of corn. See Echeris. 
Ident, Ydent, Eidant, diligent, Swed. h Ifl. idin^ labo- 

riofus ; idner men, homines induftrii. 
Jee, to move to a ftde. 
Jelly, Jelly, man, expl. a man of integrity. 
Jereflouris, Geraflouris, gillijlowers. Teut. gheroffely 
^ caryophyllea. 

Jer-oe, expl. a great-grandchild. See Oe. 
Jeft. See Geft, aEtiony exploit^ adventure ; or the history 

of any fuch. Lat. 
Jett up and down, to flaunt about y or from place to place, 

Fr. jettery jadtaie. 
I-fere, la fere, in company , together. Sax. fere^ fo- 

Jibe, taunt, jest, mock. 

Jink, to efcape fromy (as by turning a corner.) 
Jinker, a gay fprightly girly a nv^g. 
Jizzen-bed, child-bed^ To be ia jizzen, to ly in. See 

Il-fard, ill favoured. Ill fawlie, ill-favour edly. 
Ilk, Ilka, each. Sax. aelc^ eicy unufquifque. Ilk ane, 

each one, every one. 
Jlk, the fame. Sax. j/f, idem. Of that ilk, of the 

fame, i. e. when a perfon's firname and title are the 

Ill, He, Yle, ijle Fr. 
lll-willie, malevolent y envious y fpiteful. 
I-lore, Elore, lost ; as an exclamation wo is me ! from 

Teut. loor, melancholicus. 
Imbrevv, expl. to engrofs i quaii imbrief. 
Immanent, remaining. Lat. 
Impefche, to hinder ov prevent. Fr. empefcher, 
Importabill, iutolerable, utifuppor table. Lat. 
jmpryve, to dijprovc. Impriving, dif proving. 


In In. i 

Inchfjrnall ijiand. Gael. /w/i/j, infula. 

Incend, to kiridle. Incendyt, kindled. Lat. 

Inclufe, to incloje^ to include. Lat. 

Inconrinent, instantly, without delay. Lat. 

Indil, See Eindil, to fufpeB. 

Inding, unworthy. Lat. indignus. 

Indole, indolent, i?;n6iive. 

Indure^ to harden, 

Infanii^, to catchy to inclofe, to fold in ; from Fang. 

Infang thief feems to hav^e fignified originally a perfon 
who committed theft ^ and thereafter was caught y 
ivithin the jurifdi^lion of his own proper lord ; la- 
tro captus, de hominibus fuis propriis, faifitus de 
latrocinio ; and Outfang-thefe, o '•'■ fora (foreign) 
thtfi quha cums fra an uther maris land or jurifdic* 
tion^ Both thefe terms, however, came, in procefs 
of time, to denote the power or privilege of the lord 
or baron to Jit as judge and to decide upon the refpec- 
tive cafes cf theft committed within his jurifdlEiion. — ■ 
And latterly, the wovAfang appears in fome cafes to 
have been transferred from the aB of catching or 
apprehending, (undoubtedly its true meaning,) to 
the circumjlance of the folen goods being found in pof- 
fefjlon of the thief ^ fur which there feems to be no 
good authority. 

Infare, in-road. Sax. infaer, ingreflus. See Fare, to go. 
Alfo ufed to fignify feaji at in going, ^Teut. in-voer, 

Ingan, cnioft. Ft. oignon, cepe. 

Ingent, huge, large. Lat. ingens. 

Ingill, Ingle, fre, f re-place ; the derivation of the 
word unknown ; if it be not from Lat. igfiis, which 
feen<s rather improbable. See Taanles, 

Ingrave, expl. to cut out. 

Ingyne, ability, capacity, genius^ ingenuity. 

Ingyre, (Gaw. Douglas,) expl. to bring in^ to ihrufl in, 
to infinuate ; from Fr. ingerer. 

Inherd^ See Arvherd, approved, adhered to. 

Inkirlie, expl. eagerly, fervently, pafjionately ; accord- 
ing to Ruddiman, corrupted from Fr. en caur } 


In. Jo. 

finzdyrom the heart, as per queer from par Cceur, hy 

heart. [Dan. ynkfoniy merciful, compaflionate.] 
Inlak, Inleck, the quantity deficient. A peck of in-lak, 

a peck deficient. 
Inlake, to be deficient, to come fijort of meafure^ weight, 

or number ; alfo died. 
Inn, to bring in, (particularly corn to the barn-yard.J) 

Teut. innen, colligere, recipere. 
Innermare, more inwards. So alfo hithermare, nether- 
mare, forthirmare, fiscc. 
Innouth, within. Teut. innighy interior. [Sax. innoth, 

Innys, houfe^ lodgiitgi. Sax. inne, domus. 
f nrin, to incur ; from Eng. run, currere. 
Infight, houfehold furniture, v\x\g2iv\y plent/hing. 
Jnfolence, diffolutenefs, loofenefs of manners ; in th« 

fame fenfe as dijfolution is ufed by Atterbury. 
Infpraich, probably ywr«//«r^. See Spraucherie. 
Infprent, didfpring in, did leap in. 
Infyle, to encompaf s , fur round, or infold. 
Intak, expl. contraB ; alfo contraBion. 
Intertrik, (Gaw. Douglas,) expl. to cenfure, to criti" 

Intermell, to intermingle. See Mell, to mingle. 
Intromit, to intermeddle. 
Intrufs, to intrude. 
|nvaird, Inwaird, to put in ward, to imprifon ; alfo /«- 

Inwith, downwards, declivity, defcent ; alfo expl. witht 

in. Teut. innigh, interior. 
Inyet, Injett, to pour in ; from Yvjetter. 
Jo, fweet-heart, friend j feemingly a contradllon of 

JogiU, tojogg ox fhake from fide to fide. Teut. fchocke^ 
len, vacillare. 

John J St. John to borrough, or to borgh. St. John be 
your fecurity or guardian. St. John's crofTes, pofis 
ereBed, (perhaps in crofs form,) hy the road fide for 
the direBion of travellers ; — in allufion to John the 
Baptift, " who was the preparer of the way'* for 
the Meffiah. 
Vol. IV. P Joktaleg, 

Jo Ju. 

joktaleg, a vulgar word for a large folding hnife, 
Jolie, prettyy handfomey merry. Jolelj, prettily. Fr. 

Jonet, Jennet, Spanijh horje. Teut. ghenette. 

Jonette, afpecies of lily. Fr. jaulnettCy caltha paluilris. 
Teut. jannette, jennettey narciffus, lychnis filvef- 

Jone, June, to join. Jonjngy jun£iion. Jonys, joins. 

Jorneye, a days worky an engagement or battle. Vr.jour' 
nee ; alfo an expedition^ in the fame way as the Ro- 
man authors ufe dies. 

Jow, Jew, juggler. 

Jow, Jowl, to ring or toll a large hell by the motion of 
its tongue. Burns, however, obferves, that the word 
** includes both the fwinging motion and the pealing 

Jowis, the jaws. Sax. ceolcy the jole or jowl. 

Jouk, to bend the body forwards^ to incline the head 
with a view to efcapefome injury ; by confequence to 

Joukery-paukery, jugling and pawky tricks. 

Joyfs, Joce, to enjoy ; Fr.jouir. 

Irie. See ^hjy fearful through folitude. 

Irons, irefuly wrathfuly angry. Lat. 

Irfche, Erfche, Irijh. Irytchnc, people of Ir elands 

Ifchawinj^oiy/i ,• quail y-fhown. 

Ifche, ifjucy pqffage outward. 

Ifillis, Ifels, Ifles, red hot embers, half confumed fire, 
Ifl. eyfa, cinis ignitus fcintillans. 

likiebae, ufquebaugh, corruptly whijky ; an Irifh wor4 
fignifying the water of life. 

Iftabill, Iftable, to ejiahlifh, Jftablyt, fixedy calm, at 

Ithand. See Eidant, bufy^ unremitting. 

Ithandlie, bujtlyy vigoroujly ; from Ithand. 

Jundie, Junnie, to jog or fhake (a veflel containing li- 

Jupee, Jeup, w/'^f or ^r^fl/ ^oflff . T!z\xi.juype. 

Jupert, Juperty, jeopardy. 

Jury, Jewry, Jewijh people. 

Jufly re, Juftrie, jujiice qyre^ court ofjufice. 


Ju. ■ Ea. 

Juxters, JokcRcrs, joiers, 

]nte. Jour or dead liquor. 

Iwis, I wis, truly, furgljf. Teut. 

Jymp. See Gimp, Render, tight. Teut. j'entf bellus, 

Jjmpis, quirks. 
Izle. See IfiUis, hot cinders. 


Ka, Kae. Teut. ka, kae, graculus. 

Kaber, rafter. Celt, ceihry ceber, cabar, tignum. 

Kaif. See Cafe, tame. 

Kail. See Cail, colewort. Kail-runt, the Jlem of the 

Kain. See Kean, rent. 

Kair, care. Ulph. Job. lo. 13. «i kar ijl, non eft cura. 

Kame, Kemb, cotnbf to comb. Teut. iemmen, peftere. 
Karnes, combs, honey-combs. 

Kappercailzie, cod of the wood ; a fpecies of grous as 
large as a turkey, now extinft in Scotland. 

Karle. See Carle, rufiic. 

Karris, fmall carts with tumbrel wheels. Teut. karrCf 

Katherines, Ketberjns, Catherins, Kettrin, explained 
by Skene fornars, (fojourners,) or Jiurdy beggars ; 
free-booters. In the notes to Ware's Hibernia arc 
found thefe words, " Catherani, Irifh ; Keathern, a 
company, vulgarly kerns ; fignified originally a band 
of foldiers, but is now taken in a contemptuous 
fenfe." Although the word feems thus to be of 
Irifh extraftion, fomething like a family refemblance 
may be traced between it and the Teut. ketter, 
feftator, confeftator ; ketten, ketfen, feftari, confeftari, 
multum & continuo fequi, curfitare, difcurrere,- 
quafi, hunting about for fubjijience, without following 
any regular profemon ; vagabonds. Some appear- 
ance of the word is to be found in moft of the Teu- 

Ka Ke. 

tonic dlalefts ; in the Swediih particularly, with {| 
very bad meaning. See Ketrail. 

Kavel, Cavil, an opprobrious appellation of doubtful 
meaning, perhaps noify quarrelfome fellow ; from 
Teut. kiinJer, rixator, altercator, litigator ; or may 
have fome allufion to Capuly equus, as a young wo- 
man is contemptuoufly called a filly or fiUock. 

Kavels, Keivels, Keulis. See Cavillis, lots^Jhares. 

Kean, Kain, rent, Teut. ken-penninck^ auftor amentum, 
tributum quod vafallus fingulis annis bcneficii ag- 
nofcendi caufa pendit, an acknowledgment of depen- 
dence i from Teut. kennen, agnofcere. Kean or Kain 
hens, hens paid as an additional rent. 

Kebbis oi Kebbit ewes, thofe which have brought forth 
immaturely, or have been prevented accidentally from 
rearing a lamb. [Teut. kippen^ parere.]] 

Kebbuck, cheefsy large cheefe. 

Kedgie. See Qzidigiey frolic kfome. 

Kekle, Gigle, to laugh. Teut. kaeckelen^ garrire. 

Keik, tofpy cunningly, to peep. Belg. kiicken, Dan. iii- 
ger, vide re, fpedlare. 

Keiking-glas, looking glafs, mirror, 

Keil, red ochre, ruddle f one, a fort of red chalJt. 

Kelchin, the name given in the ancient laws of Scotland 
to a particular f pedes of affythmetd ; from Theot* 
kelten. Teut. gelden, compenfare, folvere. 

Kele, Kelis, Kelit, to kill, kills, killed. Belg. kelen, jugu- 
lare, trucidarc ; kele, guttur. 

Kcll, a caul, hood, or veil ; now commonly ufed for 
the top or crown of a woman's cap. Teut. kouel, 
cucullus, capitium. Ruddiman makes reticulum the 
primary fignification of " kell," the old tranflators 
of the Bible having ufed " kal" in that fenfe. 

Kelpys, Kelpies, expl. a fort of mifchievous fpirits, faid to 
haunt fords and ferries at night, efpecially in ftorms. 

Kelt, expl. cloth with a freeze, commonly made of na- 
tive black wool. 

Keltyj Keltic, a large hwnper. Teut. ghelte, poculum 
majus. Vide Stat. Hift. Vol. XVIII. p. 473. 

Kemp, to strive, contend, fght. Sax. kempen. Teut. 
kampen, dimicare. The word is flill ufed to denote 
the contending of reapers in harveft. 


K>. Ki. 

Kemper, contender ^fighter. Teut. kempe. Belg. & Ifl^ 
kaempevy bellator ; whence probably, fays Ruddiman, 
the ancient Cimbri took their name; 
Kemple, a load or about forty bottles of straw. 
Ken, to know. Swed. kaenna. Dan. kiende, cognofcere* 
Kennetis, hounds ; perhaps a diminutive from Lat. cants. 
Kenfie, Kenfour, expl. alert young man. Sax. cene^ acer. 
Kenfpeckle, oj" an uncommon orjingular appearance. 
Kent, a longjiaffy fucb as fliepherds ufe for leaping o- 

ver ditches. 
Kepp, to catch, intercept. Teut. keppen, captare. 
Ker-caik, a fmall cake made of jlour with eggs, Sec. 
Ker-handit, left handed. Gael, cearr, awkward. 
Kerf, to carve. Kerfyt, carved. Teut. kerfen. 
K-erh, Cutie, a tra£i of low fertile ground. Id. i/or ker^ 
lacus, palus ; kiorr^ lacunse, paludes, loca depreffa 
& palultria. In a traft of this kind, a piece of rif- 
ing ground is called an inch^ or ijland. 
Ketch-pillaris, Jharpers ; probalil , , fays Lord Hailes, 

a corruption of Fr. gafpilleurs, fpendthrifts. 
Kethat, expl. cajfocky robe. 

Ketrail, heretick. Teut. kettery ketfer. Swed. kcettare, 
hiereticus, fchifmaticus, fedlator, confeftator. The 
Swed. word is alfo defined qui contra naturam pec~ 
cat ; uti apud Gallos bougres ; i. e. ** Bulgari appel- 
labantur olim communi nomine omnes hzeretici, at- 
que etiam qui infami libidine fe polluebant." 
Kett, carrion, carcafes of JJjeep that have died from dif- 
eafe or accident. Alfo expl. a matted hairy fleece of 
Kevie, hen-coop. Teut. kevie, aviarium. 
Kewis, fs.^\. Jit feafon of addrefs. 
Keuls. See Cavillis, lots. 

Yityi^x, Emperor. '2ifi\g.keyfer. Goth. kaifar. Lat. Ccefar. 

Kilt, filibeg, a Jhort pettycoat, part of the Highland 

drefs s fometimes the plaid is worn tucked round 

the body like a petticoat ; this is called breacan an 

felimh, or a belted plaid. 

Kilt, to tuck up. Dan. op-kilter, fuccingere ; kilter, cin- 

gere. \fjOX\\.fai ganimis in kiliheitii L. i. '^\^. conci- 

^ies in utero.] 


Ki. Kn. 

Klmmer. See Cummer, comrade^ g^ffip' Fr- 

Kin, kindred^ of the fame nature. 

Kink, immoderate Jit of laughter ; to laugh immoder- 
ately. Sax. cinean, hiare. Goth, kinnus, maxilla. 

Kinning, coneys rabbit. Teut. koniin, cuniculus ; iih" 
fjefi, gignere. Goth, keinatty germinate. 

Kinrent, Kinret, kindred. Teut. kindereity proles. Ifl. 
kiinji. Goth, kurty generatio. 

Kinrjk, Kjnrike, kingdom. Teut. koning-riichy reg- 
num ; koninghy rex, a ksfmen, fcire ; quod rex vera 
magica fcientia imbutus efle debeat. 

Kip topfjbarp top of a hill. Sax. cuep. 

Kipper, dried falmony particularly thofe which have been 
killed late in the feafon. The word may poffibly have 
feme connexion with Teut. kippeUy ova excludere. 

Kirk, church. Sax. cyrcy templum; from being Ihut up 
as in a prifon. Goth, karkar. Lat. career. 

Kirn, churny to churn. Sax. cernany agitare butjrum. 
KirnftafF, churnflaff. Kirneny familiarity. 

Kirnell, battlement. Fr. creneaun, muri pinnae. 

Kirtil, Kirtj], Kirtle, originally a girdle or fhort petti- 
coat y but more commonly a jacket, fhort gowny or 
luai/l-coat. Fr. courtibauty curtum tibiale, a fort of 
fhort petticoat, reaching only a few inches below 
the knees, ftill known in fome parts of France. Sax. 
cyrtel, tunica. Goth, gatrd, zona. 

Klft, chejl. Teut. kifiey cifta. Ifl. kifa. 

YLxtchyUy fomewhat to eat with bready as butter or rheefe. 

Kith, acquaintanccy circle of acquaintance. Teut. i/>, 
{kondj notus. 

Kitrale. See Ketrail, heretic. Teut. ketter. 

Kittie, Kitty, loofe wenchyfrolickfome girl. Swed.kaiigy 
fly, cunning. Goth, kalkic, meretrices. 

Kittil, Kittle, to tickle ; ticklijhy difficult. Teut. kittelen, 

Kleck. See Clekk, to breed or hatch. 

Klippert, afhorn or clipped fheep. 

Knaggim, offerfive tafle. Mod. vulg. 

Knakkie,y^rf?w«J, ready in thought and exprefjion. 

Knap, Knaip, Kxiaif,yfrt'^«?. ^Q\g. knape. ^^^.cnapa^ 
puer, fervns, 


Kn Kj. 

Knappare, hoory country fellow. See Knap. 

Knap-fekk, bag for holding •viSiuals. Teut. inap-facif 
viatoria pera ; from knappen^ edere. 

Knap-fcha, Knap-fcull, emi^l.Jleel bonnetf bead piece. 

Knarry-bald, Carj-bauld, niggardly bald-pate ; from 
Swed. knarrogy peevifh, furly. Teut. knarren, ftri- 
dere. See alfo Knarry. 

Kneef, keen. Kneefeft, keenejl. Ifl. 

Knitch, bundle, trufs, nitch. 

Knitchell, dimin of Knitch, a f mall bundle. 

Knoit, l:^oytfJlight Jharp Jiroke ; tojlrike floarply^ but 
flightlyy to fmite. 

Knoofd, Noofyt, bruifedwith the knees, or perhaps nieves. 

Knorry, Knarry, knotty^full of knobs ^ or gnarres. 

Know, KnoUe, Now, little hill. 

Knycht, Knecht, commandery captain ; originally boy, 
fervant. Teut. knechtj fervus, famulus, minifter, 
puer, cliens, miles. 

Kow, expl. goblin. See Cow, to intimidate, 

Kryle, Croyl. See Cryle, dwarf. 

Kryne. See Cryne, tojhrink. 

|Cy, cows. Belg. hoe, koeye, vacca. 

Kyldes, Culdeis, a kind of clergy ; fo called probably 
from Teut. gilde, guide, collegium, contubernium ; 
quafi guldighs, gyld-br others, or a fraternity of reli- 
gious men. Theot. kelten, gelten, dare, folvere ; & co- 
lere, facrificare, q. d. in pretio habere ; gulden, or 
^kulden) gildonia, conventus, collegia in quibus area 
communis, in quam fymbola feu colleftse, fgelda) 

Kyle, expl. a chance. See Cavils, lots. 

Kylc,fmall rick of hay ; to put up hay in fmall ricks. 

Kyfle-ftane, Keifyl-ftane, aflint-flone. Teut. kefelfeen, 

Kyftlefs, tajlelefs. Teut. kofl^ cibus. Goth, kaufeith, 

Kyn-bote, compenfation for the Jlaughter of a kinfman. 

Kyte, the belly. 

Kythe, Kyith, to appear: 

IfZ, La, 

Lach. See Lag and Laycb, to delay. 

Lachter, Latchter, letcher, libidinous fellow . 

Lachter, Lawchter, broody the eggs laid at one breeding f 

bairn-iiem. [Teut. legh-tiidy the time of laying.] 
Ladefterne. See Leid-fterne, leading-Jlar. 

Ladroun, Lathroun, la^y knave ; probably a variation 
of Lurdane, if not from Teut. ledig^ otiofus, defes, 
fapinus ; and the common termination roun. See 
Ladry. [Fr. ladre, literally elephantiacusy but a com- 
mon term of reproach. ] 

Ladry, moby idle multitude. See Ladroun. Or perhaps 
from Sax. leod, populus. 

Lag, to delay f to (lay or linger behind. Sax. Jlawian, 
piger efle. 

Lagger, Laigger. See Dragle, from which it feems to 
be corrupted, to be-fpatter or be-tnire. Ruddiman 
has various conjeftures about this word ; from Sax. 
lago, aqua ; or from lam, lutum, and gara^ gurges ^ 
or from Ir. lathach, kladach^ caenum, limus. 

Laggert, encumbered^ retai ded ; frotn Lag. 

Laich, Laigh, Leuch, low. 

Laif, Lave, the remainder y the remaining people or things. 
Sax. la/y lafcy reliquum, reliquioe. 

Laif. loaf. Teut. leaf. Sax. hlcef Goth, hlaifsy pa- 

' nis. 

Laig, to wade ; qu. to leg ; or may have perhaps fome 
connexion with Sax. lago, lagu, aqua. 

Laigynes, the projeBing part of thejlaves at the end of 
a cdfk ; elfewhere expl. the angle between the Ji4^ 
and bottom of a wooden vejfel. Swed. 

Laiglin, milking pail. [^Lat. lagena.] 

Laik, Lake, Lak, want. Teut. laehe, defeftus. 

Lain, alone. Nane but hir lain, none but herfelf. 

Lair, Lare, bog, mire. To lair, to flick in the rmrt* 
Lairie, a little mire. [^Sax. leger, locus decubitus, lo- 
cus fepulturse.] 


La. i-.i. La. 

Lair, Lare, Lere, learning, education. Tcut. leer. 

Lairbar, expl. dirty fellow. 

Laird, Lard, anciently Lord, feudal Superior^ Prince ; 
now landed gentleman under the degree of knight ; 
proprietor of land, or of a houfe, as fuch. The Scot- 
tifh word, as in mofl cafes, is nearer than the Eng- 
lifh to the original Sax. hlaford, or Ifl. lavardm-y 
dominus ; which Jhre derives from Ifl. lad, terra, 
folum, & warda, cuftodire ; Stiernhielm from hlaf 
panis & waerd, hofpes, tutor, patronus ; Junius 
from hlaf, & Sax. ord, initium, origo. 

Laith, loth, reluSiant ; alfo, to loath or abhor. Laith- 
ful, hafhful^Jheepifh. ^z^.laethe, tardus. 

Laithlie, Laithful, loathfome, fqualid. Sax. lathlice. 
Teut. leedelick, faedus, turpis, deformis. 

Laithles, Laitlefs, unmannerly, unpolijhedf rude. See 

Laits, manners, gejlures, hehaviour. Teut. laet^ geftus, 
habitus, vultus, oftenfio, flatus ; laeten, apparere. 
Ifl. lat. Swed. later, mores, geflus. 

Jjaittandlie, latently, infecret. ■* 

Lak, Lack, to depretiate, to vilify, to traduce. Teut. 
laecien, vituperate, detrahere alicui ; lack, vituperi- 
um, detraftio. IJence it is alfo ufed to fignify re^ 
proach, difgrace ; .and by Gaw. Douglas as an ad- 
jeftive for bad, hafe. Lakker, ivorfe. Lakkeft, 
nuorfl. This, howeyer, may be a corruption of law, 

Lak, expl. lamentation. 

Lake- wake, the watching of a dead body, a fort of con- 
vivial entertainment which commonly was given to 
the friends of the deceafed a night or two before 
the burial ; from Teut. Hick, funus, cadaver homi- 
nis. Sax. lie, corpus ; and Teut. luaecken, vigi- 

Lallandis, Lawlandis, low-lands, the Jouth and eajl parts 
of Scotland, where a dialeft of the Gothic or 
Teutonic language has prevailed probably for thefe 
two thoufand years, in contra-diftindion to the 
Vol. IV. Q^ Helands 

La. —..•mmmmm La. 

Helands or Highlands ; tl^at is, the weftern parts of 

the country, inhabited by the defcendants of the an- 
cient Gael. 
Lampit, a kind of JhellfiJIj. 
Lance, to dart^ tofpring, to move with agility. Fr, lan- 

cevy fe immittere. 
Land, expl. a clear level place in a wood ; perhaps the 

fame with Lownd or I^ownd place, ajhelteredplace. 

[^Fr. lande. Wei. lawnty planities inter arbores.] 
Landbirflr, (Gaw. Douglas,) explained the noife and 

roaring of the fea towards the fhore^ as t^ e billows 

hteak or burfl on the ground, Ruddiman thinks he 

has heard Land-birth ufed in the fame fenfe. 
Land-lowper, a fir anger y a perfon who cannot fettle in 

any one country orfituation. Teut. land-looper^ mul- 

tivagus, vagabundus, circuitor. 
Lands of leal, expl. death. 
Landwart, the country ; of or belonging to the inland 

part of a country. To landwart, fjnonimous with 

Lang, longf to long or defire earneflly. Teut. langhen^ 

Langcl, to entangle. See lAngcXyfhocmaher's, twine. 
Lang-ere, Lang-gere, Langjre, long ere now, long ago ; 

from Teut. eer, prius ; being a compleat inverfio^ 

of the Engl, erelong. 
Langorious, affeBied with langour. 
Langfum, tedious. Teut. lang-faem^ lentus, tardus. 
Lang-fyne, longfence^ long ago. 
Lang-kail, winter cole-worts. Lang-kail broth, colewort 

Lankie, tally fender perfon. [Teut. langh'lenter^ Ion- 

Lap, did lowp or leaped. See Lowp. 
Lape, Laip, to lap as a dog. Teut. lappeny lingere. 
Lappert-milk, milk become clotted by long keep'mg or o- 

ther caufes ; (lightly corrupted from Teut. klotter- 

melcky or klobber-faen, lac coagulatum. 
J^apron, a young rabbit. Fr. lapreau. 
Lapwing, the green plover or te-whit. 
Lardun, Lardner, larder. Hand, lardiere. 


i,a. La. 

Lare, Lair, place of reft. Sax. legery decubitus. 
Lareit, Lawryt, Loretto^ the name of a manfion-houfe 

at the eaft end of MulTelburgh, where there was for- 

merlj a chapel belonging to the abbey of Dun- 
fermline. See Vol. 111. p. 74. 
Large, (Gaw. Douglas,) free. Go large, go at large ^ 

or voith a free courfe ; alfo, liberal in giving. 
Larges, Lerges, liberality^ generojtty. Fr. 
Lafche, (Gaw. Douglas,) weary y lazy^Jlacky lingering, 

Fr. lafche, languidus, enervatus. 
Lat, to permit ; alfo, to hinder y to retard. 
Latch, duby mire. Teut. lache, colle6lio aquarum. 
Late, (fpoken of iron,) to deprive it of elaflicity and 

temper, fo that it may eafily be bent, like lead, 
Lattoun, Latten, a mixt kind of metal, Mr Tyrrwhit 

fays, of the colour of brafs. Ifl. laatun, brafs. Gaw. 

Douglas ufes the word lattoun for eleBrum, a metal 

compofed of filver and gold. Fr. laiton. 
Lauch, law, privilege. Sax. liih, lex. To lauch, to pof- 

fefs in a legal manner. 
Lauchful, lawful. See Lauch. 

Lauchtfor Qt\si\ictiX., fei%ed, caught hold of took or taken. 
Lauchtane, ^fl/f / perhaps from Sax. /cr^^w, plumbeus. 
Laud, Lawit, Laid, lay-men, in contra-diftinftion to 

the clergy ; unlearned or common people. Sax. leod^ 

populus, vulgus. 
Lave, remainder. Sax. lafe. Goth, laiba, reiiduum, re- 

Laverock, now contrafted to lark ,• as lafard or laford, 

dominus, to lord or larde. Sax. 
Lavyfd. See Laird, Iprd. 
Law, to low or bellow. 
Law, humble, low ; to humble or abafe. 
Law, a hill with rather an eafy afcent. Sax. lawe, col- 

Lawing, tavern bill, the reckoning. Lawing free, fcot' 

free. Goth, laun, remuneratio. 
Lawte, Lawtie, Lawtith, Laughtie, loyalty^ fidelity, 

lawfulnefsyjujiice, honour. O. Fr. leaute. 
Laurere, the laurel or bay-treet Fr. laurier. 
Lay, to allay or alleviate. 


' La. • ' le. 

Lay, (Gkiw. Douglas,) latv. But lay, without h%a, 

Chaucer has the word in the fame fenfe. 
Laych, to delay ; of which it may be an abbreviated 

corruption, if not from Teut. Uggheriy manere ; or 

Fr. lacheVy laxare. 
Layke, Laik, lake, a paint of a deep red colour ; expl. 

z\[o paint or colour of any kind. 
Layke, to f port or make game. Goth, laikan, exultare. 
L^ynder, expl. laundrefs. Fr. lavandiere. 
Layne, Leyne, to recline ; by confequence to tarry or 

remain. Swed. Icena, reclinare. 
Layne, (Stat. 113. A. D. 1581,) probably linen, 
Laynere, Jlrap, thong. Fr. laniere. Swed. lengior, 

Layr. See Lare, place of reji. 
Laytis. See Laits, behaviour, carriage. 
Le, law. O. Fr. ley, lex. Leful, lawful. 
Ilj^, fhelter, tranquillity . Swed. lae, ly. Ifl. hie, hlie, lo- 
cus tempeftati fubduftus. 
Leche, heich, furgeon, phyfician. Sax. Icec, Icece. Goth. 

lek, medicus. 
Leche, Leich, to cure. Sax. Icecnian, fanare, mederi. 
Lede. ^q& lj&\di, man, perfon. l^^Axs, folk, people. Sax. 

leod, populus, vulgus ; popularis, civis. 
Lede-flern, the north pole. Teut. leyd-flerre, cynofura, 

nrfa minor, ftella polaris. 
Ledefman, Ladifman, Leidfman, pilot. Teut. looifman ; 

quafi, the heaver of the lead. Teut. lootf plumbum. 
Leepit, expl. meagre, thin. 
Lees me on, Luse mie on, pleafed am I with. See Leif, 

gratus. In Kilianus we find rleuer, amabo, fodes, 

obfecro, hlandientis particula ; and in the old play 

of Damon and Pithias, " Aloyfe, aloyfe ! expl, how 

pretty it is .'" 
Leet, ///?, a chofen number from which an eleEiion of one 

or more is to he made. Fr. 
Lcet, expl. enrol, fix, faflen ; alfo, to give ones fuffr age 

or vote. 
J^ege, Liege, Liege-raan, fubjeB bound in allegiance ; 

alfo, liege lord, fuperior ; quafi, lord of the liege-men^ 

or leod-men, from Sax. leod, gens, civis, popularis. 


Le. ■ Le. 

Leid, marty perfon. Sax. leode^ popularis, civis ; appa- 
rently the fame with Liegeman. 
Leid, language i more generally the latin langjtage. 

Sax. laden, Latinns. 
Leif, leave^ permijjion ; to leave, to live, to believe. 
Leif, Lief, dear, wHlirig, plenfed, agreeable. Liefer, Le- 
ver, Leuer, more willingly, with greater pleafure, ra~ 
ther, in preference. Teut. lief carus, gratus, preti- 
Leiful, Leveful, Leful, lawful ; 2\[o friendly. 
Leil, Lele, loyal, true, faithful, jujl, right. Unlele lawis, 

unjuji laws ; contr. from Fr. loyal, fidus. 
Leim. See Leme, to gleam, to fhine. 
Leind, Leynd, Lane, to fop, flay, dwell, or remain. 

Swed. linna, linda, ceffare. Goth, ajiinna, dlfcedere. 
Leipit, expl. meagre, thin, loving the fre. See Lepe. 
Leis, to arrange, to lay in order. Goth, lifan, congre- 
Leifche, to Injh, to fcourge. 
Leift, expl. appeafed ; q. d. leafed j from Teut. leffchen, 

extinguere ; (fitim^ levare. 
Leifter, a kind of harpoon or three pronged- dart for 

Jirikingfjh. Teut. el-fcheere, eel-fpear. 
Leifyng, lie, lying, malicious faljhood. Sax. leafung. 
Leit. expl. to fuppofe, to think. Sax. LetaUf arbitfari, 

Leit, did let, permitted j alfo hindered. Teut. Scand. &c. 
Leit. See Leet, lijl. 

Leithry, Leothrie. See Ladry, mob, crowd. 
Lekk, Leik, to leak, to fpring a leak. Teut. leclen, 

Lemane, Lemman, fweetheart, miflrefs, darling, male 
or female. Gael, leannan. [Teut. lief dileftus, ca- 
ms ; & man, pro homine, f^minam a;que notante ac 
virum.] According to Ruddiman,from Fr. I'aimant, 
& Vaimante, anfiiafius, amafia. 
Lemanry, Lemmanrie, Lamenrie, illicit love. See Le- 
mane, fweet-heart. 
Leme, to gleatn ox^jine. Sax. leomany luceve ; lepma, 

Lend, loin. Swed. laend, Iambus. 


l,c. — — Le. 

Lene. See Leind, to Jlopy to rejly or tarry, 

Lenno, child. Gael, leanabhy infans. 

Lenth,'/o lengtheriy to protra6i. 

Lentroun, Lentjre, Lenten, time of Lenty the fprlng. 

Sax. lengten. 
Lenye, (Gaw. Douglas) expl.^w, thirty Jlender. Sax. 

lanigy tenuis ; or hlaeney macer. 
Leomen, expl. leg ; rather perhaps^fl/?* 
Lepe, Leip, to warm, to parboil. 
Lepjr, leprofy ; per/on affii&ed with leprofy^ 
Lere, to learriy to teach. Lerand, learning. Teut. leeren, 
Lergnes. See Larges, bounty^ 
Les, Les than, unlefsy lejl. 
Left, lajiingy duratiotiy delay.. 

Lefouris, Lefuris (Gaw. Douglas), expl. pajlures ; 
from Sax. laefwcy pafcuum ; or the empty /paces be- 
tween rows of trees, from Fr. lais^ or layes^ of nearl j 
the fame fignification. 
Lefum, lawful. See Le, law, 
Lefum, Leifome, agreeable^ acceptable, pleafing ; q. d. 

leifsome, or lovefome. 
Lefyng. See Leifyng, lying. 
Leth, hatred, difgust. Sax. Icetthe. 
Let les, without hindrance. » 

Letteis, (Stat. 71. A. D. 1457.) fcemlngly yjrar/^^ 

Letteron, Letryne, Latron, writing dejk, writing table. 

Fr. lutrin. 
Leuch, Leugh, liughed. 
Leuer, Lever, rather. See Leif, willing. 
Leveful. See Lefufn, lawful, &c. 
Levere, delivery^ distribution ; probably alfo donation, 

bounty. [Fr. livrer, to confer on, to yield over.] 
Leveraire, probably. ^o«<7/w//, or privilege granted in re^ 
ward for fervices performed. Leveraires, alfo expl. 
armorial bearings, colours in heraldry. 
Levin, lightning, fiajh of fire. Teut. laeye, flamma, 
flammae, lumen , whence alfo IjOWCy fame. Ruddi- 
man hefitate^ between Sax leoma, Inx ; glowan, can- 
dere ; and hlifian, hlifigan, rutilare. 


Le. ■ Li. 

Levingis, expl. ioins ; alfo lungs. 

Lew, Lewe-warm, luke-warm. Teut. iaw&. Theot, 

Icewe, tepid us. 
Lewar. See Leuer, rather ,- from Leif, willing. 
Lewdring, expl. moviug heavily. See Lidder. 
Lewit, unlearned, ignprant, rude. Sax. Ictwede, laicus ; 
leode, popularis, civis, vulgus. Chaucer frequently 
ufes the word in the fenfe of lay-man. 
Ley, lea J witilled arable ground. Sax. ley. 
Leynde, Leind, Lende, to lean, reji, tarry , lodge ; alfo, 
to ceafe. Swed. lana, reclinare ; linda^ linnoy celTare, 
Lib, to cajlratt. Libbyt, cnjlrated. Teut. luhhen^ virilia 

execare ; lubber, caftrator. 
Libbert, leopard ; in heraldry, a lion, the original fig- 

nification of the word {leo pard.^ 
Libel, tybel, fmall book, tra6i, ejfay, poem, indiSiment, 

Lat. libellus. 
Liberos, children. Lat. 

Licam. See Lycarae, human body while in life, 
Licent, a licentiate. 

Licht, chenrful, merry. Lychtnis, chearfuhief^. 
Lichtar, Lychter, lighter, delivered of a child. 
Lichtia, Lychtnis, the lungs. Teut. lichte. 
Lichtly, Lychtlie to undervalue, to flight, or defpife. 
Lick, to lafh, whip, or beat, to overcome. 
Lidder, Lythir, fluggfh, lifilefs. Sax. lythre^ lither,{oi., 
didu?, ignavus, malus ; alfo loathfotne, from O. Fr. 
ladres, lepers. 
Lift, Lyft, the firmament. Sax. lyfta. Teut, locht^ 

Ligg, to lye, to linger, Ifl. ligg. Sax. liggan. Teut. //g-- 

ghai. Goth. /i^fl«, jacere, recumbere,manere. 
Likand, grateful, acceptable, pleafing, 
Lills, the holes of a wind inflrument. 
Lilt, a chearful tune or melody. 
Lilt, tofing chearfully. 
Lime, glue. Teut. Him, gluten. 

Limitouris, a kind of begging friars, whofe licence o 
commilllon corfincd them to fell indulgenczes, bef 

Li Li. 

&c. within certain prefcribed limits^ called their li- 

Limmer, Lymmer, ajlrumpety a voorthlefs per/on^ male 
or female. [ Teut. lymen^ limis tueri, tranfverfis ocu- 
lis tueri. Swed. lymmel^ bardus.] 

Lin, tojlopy to ceaje. Swed, I'mna^ ceffare. See Leynde. 

Lin. See Lyn, a cleugh. 

Ling, a hind of coarje grafsy or rather a /pedes of rnjjj 
which grows on heaths and mountains. In Iceland, 
and in various parts of Biitain, it iignifies heath or 

Ling, line, Jirait forwards. 

Lingel, twine, Jhoemctkers thready Fr. UgneuL 

Linnet, Linged, litit-feed. 

Lmk, to do a thing quickly ; moft commonly fpoke of 
fpinning. See Linkome. 

Linkie, a clever girl, one who trips lightly along. 

Linkome, Lynkum, Lincum, linen. Linkome twyne, 
linen yarn. Ifl. linkynnur, lenis, mitis, mollis, flexi-* 
bills, " forte a Itnea vel lineo filo, quod illo nihil lit 
fequacius aut tradlabilius." Dan. linklade. Swed. 
linnetyg, linen or linen-cloth ; likwara, veftis inte- 
rior. Teut. lint ken, vitta, txnia, a fillet or ribband 
for binding up the hair ; commonly, we may fup- 
pofe of linen. The primary or more common fig- 
nification alfo of the Teut. laecken feems to be lin- 
teum, pannus linteus, rather than pannus laneus ; 
us Kilianus makes it fynonimous with doeck; and 
thi^ again with liinwaet, linteum ; i. e. cloth made 
from flax. Various annotators, however, contend 
that /iwiowf fignifies cloth (or linen yarn) manufac- 
tured at Lincoln. See Vol. II. p. 368 

Lintwhite, corr. of linnet. Sax. 

Lipperis, Lopperis, (Dougl. Virgil) expl. the white 
water of broken waves, or on the tops of waves. Lip- 
per'ing, footing upon and difcolpuring the waves ; pro- 
bably from Lopper, as if the fea were curdled. 

Lipper fifh, (Tpoken of falmon,) perhaps leper or lep- 
rous, unhealthy. 

Lippin, to truf, to lean tOy depend. Lyppinyt to, de- 
pended upon. 


Li, ...i...... Lo* 

Lire, Lyre, the fiejhy or mufcular parts of the hodyi 
Sax. liruy lacerti, fura, pulpa, vifcum ; alfo expl. 
complexion^ colour, Fr. 
Lirk, a wrinkle ; alfo to wrinkle or be contraBed. Ifl, 
lerkn^ contrahere, adftringere. 

Lilki the flank y the grdin, or inner part of the thigh, 

Lifs, remijjion or abatement^ efpecially of any acute dif- 
eafe. Fr. & Sax. li[fey renliffio, ceifatio. 

Liftly, Lyftlie, willingly. Sax. lifilice, fat, fatls. 

Lite, Lyte, little^ fmally few. Sax. lyt, lyte^ parum, 

"Lixh., joint. Sax. tith^ artus, articulus. 

Lithe, Lyth, have patience ! Teut. liiden^ fufferre. 

Lithe, to thicken (pulfe or gruel.) Sax. lithian^ miti- 

Lithernes, Lythernes, floth. Sax. lythre. 111. latur, 

. fl^SSi/^y good for nothing. 

Litt, to dye or tinge. Littyt, dyed, coloured. Swed. lettai 

Littfter, dyer ; from Litt. Ifl. litunar-madury tin£tor. 

Live, life. Eterne on live, eternally in life, immor- 

Liveray-nleal, a certain quantity of oat-meal allowed 
for fubfflence to fervants who are not maintained in 
their ma/ler's houfe. See LyfFeroch. 

LiOan, Loaning, a wide vacant piece of ground clofe by 
or leading to a farm houfcy where the cows are com- 
monly milked. 

Loaue, to praife. See "Loms, praifeth. 

Loch, Lough, lake. Celt. loch. Sax. luh^ lacus. 

Lock, a f mall quantity y as of meal. 

Lodifman. See Ledifman, pilot. 

Loft, On loft, aloft, on high. Dan. lofftery attoUere. 

Loif, Lofe, to praife. Teut. & Ifl. lof praife^ honoun 
See Louis. 

Lokkerand, curling. Lokkerlt, curled. " When your 
hair is white, you would have it lockering." Prov. 
fpoken of one who is immoderate in his deftres. 

Lokkeris, curled locks of hair. See Louk. 

Lokker gowan, globe flowery trollius. Teut. loken, 

Loll, to howl in the matiner of a cat. Scand. 

Vol, IV. R LoUerdy, 

Lo. ■ Lo. 

Lolkrdy, Lorrardry, Lowlardy, het-efy, the doctrine of* 
the Lollers or Lollards. Teut. lollaerdy muffitator, 
muffitabundus ; lollen, muffitare, numeros non verba- 
canere. [Teut. loreriie, impoltura, fraus ; lorer, 
impoltor, fraudator ; loren, fraudare aliquem.] An 
old explanation of Lollard is a breaker of fajling daysy 
' a runnagate. 

Lome, Loom, properly vejfel^ as a tub or di/h\ but fig- 
nifies alfo implement^ utenftl, or injirument in gene- 
ral. Sax. loma^ utenfilia, fupellex. 

Lompnit, Lonit, hedge-roxoed. 

Lonjeoure, a la^y or loitering felloiv. Fr. longard. 

Lopperit, Lopperand. See Lappert, coagulate, 

Loppin, did leap. See Lowp, to leap ; alfo hurjl, 

Lorel, cunning deceiver ^ cheating fellow. Teut. lorer^ 
impoftor, fraudator. See Lowrie. 

Lorimer, ioxva^xXj faddler ; now a maker ofbitSy/purs^ 
bic, Fr lormier. 

Lome, ruined, dejiroyedy vndone, Teut, loren. Sax. /^o» 
ra?iy perditus. 

Los, Lous, praife. See Louis, praifeth. 

Lolin. Tevit. luy fen y pediculos capere, venari. 

Lolingere, afintterer. Fr. /o2f;;^^r, adulator ; alfo ufed 
by Bilhop Douglas for a loiterer. 

Loveit, Lovyte, loving fuhjeEi. Ifl. lofdar, viri, mili- 

"Loue, to prai/e or commend, hou'it, praifed. Louingis, 
praifes. Louabill, laudahlcy commendabky praife-nvor" 
thy. Fr. louer,; from Teut. louen^ i. e. lof geven^ 
laudare, collaudare, commendare, laudibus tollere ; 
lof, laus. 

Louk, Lukk, tojhut upy to inclofe. TUt^t. loheny luychn^ 
claudere, obferare. 

Loun, downy fellowy rogue^ or cunning rnfcal ; -alfo 
loofe woman. Teut. loen, homo ftupidus, bardus, in- 
fulfus. Sax. luHy egenus. 

Loune, Lown, Lownd., wellfheltered, calm^ without wind 
or wave. Ifl. lundr., fylva. Swed. /«/§•«, calm ; Jiilla 
lugn. Hark calm. Goth, analeughn, occultum. 

Loundir, a fever e blow ; to beat with fever e blows. 

Loundrer, lu9:y fellow ; q. hurdancr. See Lourdane. 


Lo. 1 1 ■■.! Lu> 

iioupe, to wreath or wind about, as with a cord. 

JL.oupe, Lowp, to leap ox jump. Teut. loopeuy falire. 

^joupe, Lowp, to burji open. Luppin, Loppin, btirjl 

Ijourdane. See Lurdane, indolent Jliiggijh fellovo. 

IjQurdneSf fur ly temper. Fr. lourdife. 

Loure, to lurky to boiv down ; q. to lower. 

iiowrie, a nickname which has been commonly given 
to the.foxy at leaft as anciently as the time of James 
the Third. See the poems of Robert Henryfoun, 
Vol. I. p. loo ; probably from Tent, lorer^ frauda- 
tor ; loreriie, fraus ; lore^ illecebra. 

iiowryd, Louryth, exp\.Jur/j, ungracious. Teut. leure, 
vinum acinaceum. Fr. lourd, pr.£gravis. 

jLout, to bow or bend the body forwards, to cringe ; by 
confequence to Jalute or do honour to ; perhaps, fays 
Ruddiraan, from low ; q. d. lowed. 

IjOW, ajlame, a hla%e ; alfo to flame. Swed. & Ifl. loga^ 
laugr. Fris. lochene^ flamipa. Goth, liugjan, lu- 

Lown. See Loune, calm. 

liUcken, joined clojely to one another. See Louk, to 
JJjt4t up. 

Xiuf, Lufe, love, to love. LufFaris, lovers. 

^ufe, Loof, the palm or hollow of the hand. Swed. lofwe, 
vola manus. Ulph. lofamflohun inuy volis percutie- 
bant eum. Mar. 14. f^^. 

Lufray, (Levere,) bounty ; perhaps from Teut. lieferny 
dare, prebere, ofFerre. See Lyfferoch. 

Lug, ear, handle ; perhaps from Sax. locca, caefaries, 
the hair which grows on the cheek. 

Luggie, a vejfel with a handle. 

Lukkie, grandmother, old woman- 

Lum, chimney vent. Sax. leom, lux ; fcarcely any other 
light being admitted, excepting through this hole i^ 
the roof. Or, the word may be only a variation of 
Teut. leem, kleye, terra argillacea, a principal mate- 
rial in the formation of a cottage chimney vent. 

Lumitors, Lymitors. See Limitouris, begging friars* 

Lunkyt (water), hot^ but not boilings leiv-ivarm. Dan. 


Lo. ' Lo. 

Lollcrdy, Lorrardry, Lowlardy, herefy^ the doftrine ot 
the Lollers or Lollards. Teut. lollaerd^ muffitator, 
muffitabundus ; lollen, muffitare, numeros uon verba 
canere. [Teut. loreriie, impoftura, fraus ; lorer, 
impoltor, fraudator ; loren^ fraudare aliquem.] An 
old explanation of Lollard is a breaker of fajling days^ 
a runnagate . 

Lome, Loom, properly vejfely as a tub or dijh\ but fig- 
nifies alfo implementy utenfil, or injtrument in gene- 
ral. Sax. loma^ utenfilia, fupellex. 

Lompnit, Lonit, hedge-rowed. 

Lonjeoure, a la'zy or loitering fellow. Fr. longard. 

Lopperit, Lopperand. See Lappert, coagulate, 

Loppin, did leap. See Lowp, to leap ; alfo burjl. 

Lorel, cunning deceiver ^ cheating fellow. Teut. lorer^ 
impoftor, fraudator. See Lowrie. 

Lorimer, ioxTaciiy faddler ; now a maker ofhitSffpurs^ 
he. Fr lormier. 

Lome, ruined, dffiroyedy undone. Teut, loren. Sax. /eo* 
ran^ perditus. 

Los, Lous, praife. See Louis, praifeth. 

Lolin. Tent, luyfen, pediculos capere, venari. 

Lofingere, a flatterer. Fr. /o!Xf;/^^r, adulator ; alfo ufed 
by Bilhop Douglas for a loiterer. 

Loveit, Lovyte, loving fubjeEl. Ifl. lofdar, virl, mili- 

TiOue, to prai/e OT commend. Lionh, praifed. Louingis, 
praifes. Louabill, laudable, commendable, praife-njoor" 
thy. Fr. louer,; from Teut. louen, i. e. lof geven^ 
laudare, collaudare, eommendare, laudibus tollere ; 
lof laus. 

Louk, Lukk, tojhut up^ to inclofe. TeMt.loken, lujcken, 
claudere, obferare. 

Loun, clown, fellow, rogue, or cunning rofcal ; -alfo 
loofe woman. Teut. hen, homo ftupidus, bardus, in- 
fulfus. Sax. Uin, egenus. 

Loune, Lown, Lownd, wellfheltered, calm^ without wind 
or wave. Ifl. lundr^ fylva. Swed. lugu, calm ; Jlilla 
lugn, ftark calm. Goth, analaughn, occultum. 

Loundir, a fever e blow ; to beat with fever e blows. 

Loundrcry la fny fellow ; q. lourdnner. See Lourdane. 


Lo. I . Lu. 

iioupe, to voreath or wind about, as with a cord. 

l.oupe, Lowp, to leap ox jump. Teut. loopen, falire. 

iioupe, Lowp, to burjl open. Luppin, Loppin, hurjl 

Lourdane. See Lurdane, indolent Jlitggijh fellow. 

Ltour dries yjhr/y temper. Fr. lourdife. 

Loure, to lurky to boiv down ; q. to lower. 

iLowrie, a nickname which has been commonly given 
to the.foxy at leaft as anciently as the time of James 
the Third. See the poems of Robert Henryfoun, 
Vol. I. p. loo ; probably from Tent, lorer^ frauda- 
tor ; /ore r He, fraus ; /ore, illecebra. 

Jjowryd, Louryth, expl.Jur/j, ungracious. Teut. leure, 
vinum acinaceum. Fr. lourd, praegravis. 

jLout, to bow or bend the body forwards, to cringe ; by 
confequence to falute or do honour to ; perhaps, fays 
Ruddiman, £rom low ; q. d. lowed. 

jLow, aflame^ a bla^ie f alfo to flame. Swed. & 111. loga^ 
laugr. Fris. lochene^ flamnoa. Goth, liugjan^ lu- 

Lown. See Loune, cnlm. 

Lucken, joined clojeljr to one another. See Louk, to 
JJout up. 

Luf, Lufe, lo've, to love. LufFaris, lovers. 

^ufe, Loof, the palm or hollow of the hand. Swed. lofwe^ 
vola manus. Ulph. lofamflqhun inuy volis percutie- 
bant eum. Mar. 14. 65. 

Lufray, (Levere,) bounty ; perhaps from Teut. liefern, 
dare, prebere, ofFerre. See Lyfferoch. 

Lug, eary handle ; perhaps from Sax. locca, caefaries, 
the hair which grows on the cheek. 

Luggie, a vejfel with a handle. 

Lukkie, grandmother ^ old woman- 

Lum, chimney vent. Sax. leomy lux ; fcarcely any other 
light being admitted, excepting through this hole i^ 
the roof. Or, the word may be only a variation of 
Teut, leem, kleye, terra argillacea, a principal mate- 
rial in the formation of a cottage chimney vent. 

Lnmitors, Lymitors. See Limitouris, begging friars, 

Lunkyt (water), hotf but not boilings lew'warm. Dan. 


Lu. Ly* 

\j\XTiif flame, blaze ; alfo matib~rope. Swed. luntOy funis 
igniarius ; iuntor^ old books, as if they were good 
for nothing but lighting the fire. 

Lunyie, loin. 

Lurdane, Lourdane, Lourdant, idle, indolent, good-for^ 
nothing fellow, Fr. lourdin, from Teut. luyaerd, pi- 
ger, defidiofus, vappa, murcidus, ignavus homo^ 
male feriatus ; ley, fugitans laborem. 

Lurdanry, la%inefs, idlenefs,Jloth. Teut. luyerdiie, pigri- 
tia, ignavia, fegnities, defidia. Fr. lourderie. 

Luiking, Leuflcing, abfconding. Teut. luyfchen^ lati- 

Luftie, delightfuly genial. Teut. lujligh, deledtabilis, lu- 
culentus, vegetus. 

Xiuftheid, amiablenefsi lovelinefs. Teut. lujiigheyd^ amoe- 

Lute, 'Lt.nXyJluggard ; probably from Lurdane, 

Lute, Leut, permitted ; from Let. 

Lut-cock, the name of a dance. 

Luthe, remained. See l^ythc^Jhelter, 

Lutherie, Luferie, /«/?. See Luf. 

Lyame, a Jlring, cord, or thong. Fr. lien^ vinculum. 

Ly art, grey haired, hoary ^ or having a mixture of grey 
hairs. Fr. 

Lycame, Lykkam, Licum, Licham, body. Teut. licbf^ 
aem. Sax. lichama, lichoma^ corpus animatum, vi- 
Vum ; a Goth, leik, corpus; & ahma, fpiritus. This 
word is alfo found in the Swed. Dgn. and Id. dia- 

J.yfFeroch, Vol. IIL p. 232. or according to the MS, 
Laverock, m^Uahy dinner, mefs ; probably adop- 
ted from Teut. lifwara, vcl liifwara, cibaria ; /?"//• 
voeren, cibus, alimentum ; if it does not rather fig- 
nify liveringSf (O. Eng.) fkin-puddingf, fatifages.. 
Teut. leverlincks, tomacula. The term Livery-ineal, 
i. e. oat-meal allowed for fubfiftence, is probably 
from the fame Teut. Hifwara or Uifvoerenf rather 
than from the Fr. livrer^ to deliver. 

Lykand, grateful, acceptable , if it pleafes. To your 
Jykand, at your pie afure, 

Lyk-waik, Lich-wayk. See Lake-wake. 


ILymouris, Lymmourls, limmers orjhafts of a cart or 

carriage. Fr. limon. 
Ljmmar. See lAvcwci^ryJirumpety &c. 
Lymmit, expl. hired ; perhaps from Sax. lean, ftipen- 

dium, merces. [Fr. liefiy vinculum.] 
Ljn, Lynd, explained by Ruddiman a precipicey deuy or 

cataraSl, into which water Jails with a great noife ; 

ab Sax. hlynn^ fonus, torrens ; hlynnan, fmare : or 

from the Ir. /m, a pool or pond. It alfo fi gailies 

(I think, more commonly) two oppojite contiguous 

cliffs or heitghs covered with hrujhwood. Teut. linckf^ 

fiflura. See Linn. 
Lynd, expl. a teille or lime tree. Teut. lindcy tilia, phi- 

ly ra. Under the lind, under the lime-tree, i. e. in the 

•woods. See Teille. 
Lynzellis. See Lingels, JJjoemakers thread. Fr. ligrsul. 
Lyre. See Lire, fiejh. 
Lyft, the hem ox felvedge of garments. Teut. /«/?, lim- 

Lyte, Elyte, to eleB. 

Ly the, to thicken or render gelatinous. Sax. llihe. 
Lythe, fhelter, Jhade, fttuation proteBed from the fun* 

Sax. lithsy quieS' 
JLythar. See \AMQ.XjfluggiJhy najly. 


Ma. . Mjj, 


' Ma, Mae, moe^ more. 
Mace (Gaw. Douglas), rod^ cluh^ baton. Fr. mnjjue. 
Mack, q. make, forty kind. 
Macrell, bawd, pimp. Teut. maeckelaer^ proxeneta .• 

macckilerejfe, conciliatrix ; from maecken^ conciliare. 

With flight variations, the word is found in Fr. Da- 

nifh, &c. 
Mad, Maud, plaid, blanket; perhaps originally the fami^ 

with rent, mattey itorea. 
Magil to mangle. I'eut. wflfr/e^», caftrare. 
Mags, H fmaL perquijite paid to carters by their majlers 

cuftomers. O. Fi. muguutfZ pocket oi wallet; quafi^ 

pockc't money 
Malioun, Mahomet ; alfo tifed for the Devil. 
Maigh, Mach,yb?? in law. Teut. maeghe. cognatus, ag- 

natus. Angl. Bor. My meaugh, my wife's brother^ 

ox fifier's hiifband. in the fame manner, as various o- 

ther names of confanguinitj and affinity are fre- 
quently confounded. \%z.y;.. mceg. Goth, magus. Celt, 

mac, fllius.^j 
Maik, mt^fch, confort, mate, equals Maikles, matchlefs, 

that hath not an equal. 8 wed. make. Teut. maet, 

maetketiy collcga, sequalis cpmpar. 
Ma:k, Makk, to compofe verfes. Teut. maecken^ facere, 
' condere ; or perhaps fr'>m maeten, modulare ; maete 

van denfanck, modi, moduli, menfura cantus j quafi, 

to match or meafure verfes. 
Mfijkar, Makkar a poet, compofer of verfes. 
Mail, Male, a df colour ed f pot ; alfo, tc difmlour or 

fiuin. Teut. mael, macula ; maelen, pingere. 
Mail, Male, tribute^ rent. a v. ' .,' ', veftigal, ftipendi- 

uni (fragmentum.) Fr, maille. obolus. 
M ai ii ; J g , a f- >'m ; from M a J I , rent. 
Mail-menj Mailleries, farmers^ perfons who pay rent. 


Ma. Ma. 

Mailzies, Mailjies, the plates or links of which a coai 
of mail is compofed. f'eut. mnelie orbiculus, hamus, 
fibula, annulus ; alfo expl. eylet holes. 
Main, Maining, moan^ lamentation. »Sax. 
Mains, the farm houfe and offices upon that part of the 

Barony contiguous to the mutifion-houfe. 
Mair, Mare, mayor ^ chief magi/lrate of a city. 
Mairattour. See Mare-attour, moreover. 
Mais, makes y as tais for takes. 
Maifchlech. See Maffal, mixed corn. 
Maifoun, houfe. Fr. maifon^ dnmus. 
Mailt, mojlf greateji. Goth, maijlsy major, magis, plus. 

Alfo for almoji ; maifta, almojl had. 
Maifter, chief principal. Mailler-ftreet, chief or prin-^ 
cipal Jireet. Maifter-ke j, key that will open xill the 
locks of a chefl of drawers or fuch like. 
Maifter, to overcome^ to execute fame difficult tafk. 
Maiflerfull, proud, tyrannical, incontrollahle. 
Maiftery, Maiftry, ^o^l;fr, viBory, pre-eminence, fupet i- 

ority ; from Teut. meejier, magifter. 
Mait, Mate, confounded, overcome, defeat, wearied. 

Teut. & Fr. mat, defelTus, deviftus. 
Mak, Makdomej^fl^f-, manner, fajhion. 
Mak,Yo make. See Mack, to compofe verfef. 
Maklj, Maiklj, evenly, equally. See ISIaik. 
Makdome, fame as Mak, Jhape. 
Mal-eis, trouble, uneafinefs, diforder. Fr. mal-aife, q. c. 

malum otium. 
Maling, malignant* 
Mallhure, Mallewre, trouble, mlfery, misfortune. Fr. 

Mallewrus, unhappy, mifrable. Fr. malheureux. 
Maltalent, ill will. 
Maljfoun, Malefone, Malifon, malediBion, curfe. O. Fr, 

malediffon, malediftio. 
Malvafie, Mavefie, (Malmafie,) fome kind of fmalt 
fweet wine, in imitation of true Malmfey. Teut. mal" 
vafege, vinum arvifium, Creticum, Chium, Monem- 
bafites. Fr. malvefe j from Malvafia, a city of 


Ma. ■ Ma; 

Malvete, malice. O. Fr. malvetie. 

Mammonrie, expl. idolatry , worjhip offalfe gods ; ra- 
ther perhaps riches or avarice ; from Mammon. 

Man, male-fervant. Ifl. man, fervus ; & ferva, puella, 
arnica, concubina. 

Mandmentis, commandment s, orders. Fr. mandement. 

Mandrit, expl. tamed. [Theot. radeny fuadere.] 

Mane, main, might or force. Ifl. magn, vis, potentia y 
magan, poffe. 

Mane. See Main, moaUy lamentation. 

Mane-breid, Breid of mane, probably almond bifcuit^ 
cakes mixed with hruifed almonds or other fvueef 
kernels ; according to Cotgrave. pain d'*amande, or as 
Chaucer writes it, pain de maine. Promptuarium 
Parvulorum explains Payne mayne, panis vigoris ; 
that is, according to Mr Pinkerton, bread made of 
the fineft flour, with milk and eggs j mayne from 
Ifl. magn, vis, potentia. 

Maneir, manner ; alfo expL manour-houfe. 

Mang, Mank, Mangzie,; defeB, huri^ mark left By a hurt 
or fore. Teut. mencke, mutilatio, laefio. 

Mangerie, Manjory, a feafi or banquet. Fr. mange^ 

Mangit, Menyeit, viaimed, marred, confounded, weaken- 
ed by extreme care, forrow, flripes or toil. Teut. 
maficken^ mutilare, deficere, deeflTe ; alfo expl. becomi 

Mangle, to fmooth linen cloaihes by paj/ing through a 
roliingprefs. Teut. matighelen, levigare, complanare, 
polire (lintea.) 

Manjory. See Mangerie, afeajl. 

Mannace, Maneifs, to ti eat, to handle, to ufe in anj 
manner, good or bad. Fr. menager \ alfo expl. to me- 
nace or threaten. Fr. menacer. 

Manred, expl. followers ; probably connefled with 

Man-rent, obligation to fuppott by force of arms, hom- 
age ; equivalent to Teut. manfchap, fides cliente*. 

Manfvveir, to perjure. Manfwering, perjury. Mane- 


Ma. . Ma. 

Avorn, perjured. Sax. man, fcelus, probrum, &tfwe» 
rian, jurare. 

Manfwete, calm, meek, polite, well-bred. Lat. manfuetus, 

Manfwetude, mildnefs, politenefs. Lat. 

Manfjs, manjion boufes, habitations. Lat. manere. 

Mant, tojlammer in fpeech. [Teut. mancken, membro 
aliquo neceflario diminuere.J 

Manteil, Mantjle, mantle, a mantelet or covering. Teut. 

Manys, a manfe or manjion-houfe ; or perhaps the fame 
with Mains, a Jmall arable farm. 

Mapamond, a map of the tuorld. Fr. 

Marbre, Marbyr, Marvyl, marble. Fr. marbre. 

Marche, a land mark. Marchis, boundaries ; fometimes, 
taken for the lands or territories, correfponding with 
Teut. mar/fe. Fr. marche, regio, ora, terra ; whence 
the name of a diftrift in Scotland called The Mers. 

Marchett, (Reg. Maj.) a compojition or acknowledgment 
paid by afokeman or villain to his feudal fuperior for 
permtfjion to give away his daughter in marriage ; o- 
rigiiially perhaps in cafes only where the bride was 
given away to a ftranger, becaufe a transfer of this 
kind deprived the Lord of a certain quantity of live 
Hock. Marchett alfo fignified a fine paid to the Lord 
by a fokeman or villain when his unmarried daughter 
happened to be debauched. Skene, following an an- 
cient tradition, defines Marchett a right of the Lord 
of the ground to have the fir fi night of ilk married wo- 
man within his barony ; and Van Loon, an antiqua- 
ry of Holland, upon the fame kind of authority, 
mentions " the redemption paid for the recht des 
" eerfian nachts, called by the French le droit de cut- 
** lage, jus prima noftis ; a cuftom which was 
*' known among the Frifons, as alfo in many places 
** of Germany, England, and Scotland." Van Loon, 
however, fuppofes this fine to have been a redemp- 
tion of an inconvenient ecclefialHcal canon, which 
ordained that all new married perfcfns, out of re- 
fpe(5l for the facerdotal benedidlion, eadem nofte in 
virginitate permaneant ; that the bride-groom might 
employ that interval in prayer. The origin of the 
Vol. IV. S word 

Ma. Ma. 

word Marchett, merchetUy is probably to be found in 

the Teut. margh or mergh^ medulla, q. d. mergh' 

hood ; or nicer e, merch, puella, virgo, which amounts 

to nearly tlie fame. 
Mare attour, Maii-attour, moreover. 
Marefs, Meries, a morafs. Fv. marais. 
Margareit, a pear/. Yv. margariton. The fame word 

in O, Engl, fignifies a daijy. Fr. marguerite, bellis. 
Mark, Merk, image ^ piBure ; imprej/ion, as of a feal. 
Marrow, match, fellow, equal; alfo confort, ajfociate, 

accomplice ; often ufed for things of the fame kind, 

and of which there are two, as of fhoes, gloves, 

hands, feet, &c. Hence the verb Marrow, to pair i 

perhaps from Fr. mariee, a Ipoufe. 
Marrowlefs, without a fellow ; that cannot be equalled^ 

Marfchal, upper fervant. Sax. masre, fummus ScfchalJ^^ 

miniiler. See Mor. 
Mart, Mars, the god of war. 
Martlet, more commonly Mertrick, a kind of large 

weefelf which bears a rich jur. See Mertrick. 
Martynmes, ^t. Martin'' s mafs-day, iith Nov. O. S. 
Marynal, Marynail, mariner. 
Mafe, Mais, expl. to doubt, to he confounded or hevnil- 

Malk, to majh. Mafkin-fat, majhing vat. 
Maffal, Malhlum, Meffil, Meflin, mixed corn, fuch as 

barley and peafe, wheat and rye. Fr. mejlange^ mef- 

lee, a mixture. Teut. maefe, macula. 
Mafialie, mnffy, bulky ; alfo mafjily, hugely. Teut. 
Maftis, majliff. Fr. maflin, mploffus canis. 
Mat, Met, Mot, Myt, may, might. 
Matalent, Maltalent, malice, rage, fury. Fr. 
Mate, Mait, overcome, difcomfted. Teut. mat, defeflus. 
Materis, matrons. Lat. matres, mothers. 
Mattis, Meatis, mates. Teut. maet, focius. 
Maught, Macht, might, power. Teut. maght, macht, 

poteftas, potentia, vis ; whence, fays Kilianus, 

maeghd, virgo, puella ; ficut virgo latine a viridiore 

five validiore cttate dicitur, 


Ma. Me. 

Maughtlefs, Machtles, void ofjlrength pr energy. 
Maugre, infpite of. Maw-gre, Maugrof, ill-will^ def- 

pite ; alfo expl. dlf countenance , 
Mauk, maggot. Swed. matk^ vermis. 
Maukin, Malkin, a hare^ a cat ; or whatever hears a 

refemblance to the Jur of Jiich animals. Gael, maig- 

heach, lepus. O. Eng. merkin, pabes mulierrs. 
Maun, Maund, hajket, bread hajhet. Teut. mande, cor- 

Maun, Mon, muji. Maunna, muji not. 
Maut, Mawt, malt. Theot. malz^ hordej^oi madefac- 

Mauvitey, malice. O. Fr. malvetie, 
M'civjs, mavis, thrufh. Fr. mauvis, or mavaux. 
Maw, to mow or cut with a/cythe. 
^awmentis, Mawmettis. idols, falfe gods ; according 

to Ruddiman, from Mahomet y the Turkifh prophet, 

quafi Mahomets. 
Mawmetrie, Mawmentry, the worfhip of falfe gods. 
JMay, a maid, a young woman. Ifl. & Dan. mei Swed. 

moe, moi. TtnX. maeghd. Goth, magath, mavi, x'lrgo. 
'M.d.y^ moe, more in number. M.ayr, greater. Mayll, /wo^, 

greateji part. 
Mayn, main, might, power, Jlrength. Ifl. magn, vis, 

Mays, Mais, makes ; as Tays, Tais, takes. 
Maytynes, matines or morning prayers. 
Mazer-difh, Ezar-difh, expl a drtnhing cup of mapple, 

Teut. mafer, tuberculum aceris aiboris. 
Meafe, mefs, " i. e. to make up the number four.''* 
Medwarts, meadow-fweets, or queen of the meadows. 
Hflegir, niggardly, ^eg^rnes, parcimony ¥r. maigre. 
Meld, Mede, reward, meed ; alfo meritorious fervice, 

Teut. miede, merces, prsemium. 
Meidful, Medful, laudable, worthy of reward. 
Meis. See Mefe, to mitigate, reduce, or [often. 
Meifit, (rathei peihaps Melted or Meithed) , wf/ij/r/r^//; 

from Meith. 
Meith, limit, mark.fgn. Fr. metes. 
Meithnefs, expl. extreme heat ; ^\{o foft weather. 
Meit-ryfe, where there is plenty of meat. See Ryfe. 


Me. Mc. 

Meklil, Mykle, Mukle, great, much ,• appears with 

flight variations in moft of the Teut. dialeds. Goth, 

& Ifl. mikUy magnus, multum. 
Mel, to /peak. Swed. maeJa. Goth, mathliajiy loqui. 
Melder, a parcel of corn grinded at one time ; in Doug. 

^irg\\fJlour fprinkled with fait on the facrifce, mola 

falfa ; from Lat. moloy to grind, q. d. molitura. 
Mel], a mallet or beetle. 
Melle, contejiy battle. Mell, to contend or fght. Fr, 

mellecy certamen, praelium. Hence the law term 

chaudmelle, Lat. barb, melletvm. 
Melle, to meddlcy to interfere. Fr. meter. 
Melt, the milt ovfpleen. Teut. 
Meltith, a mealj a refrefhineiit. Teut. mael-tiidy convi- 

Membronis, wings ; from Lat. membrana. 
Memmit, fuppofed to mean vtatched. 
Memorie, memorandum^ memorial. 
Mends, Amends, revenge, fatlfaBion. Fr. amende^ e- 

Mene, Mane, moan, lamentation. 
Mene, Meyne, tofhew, to make known, to treat of. 
Mene, Mean, to indicate pain or lamenefs, to walk or 

move as if lame ; alfo to moan. Teut. mincken, to go 

lame, or to limp. 
Mene, Mejne, mediate, intermediate : alfo commui. 

Swed- men, publicus. 
Mene-bread. See Mane-bread, expl. almofid cakes. 
Meng, Menge, to mix, to mingle. Teut. menghen, mif- 

cere, diluere, variare. 
Menivere, a fort of white fur. Fr. menu •uer, ou verk, 

*• the fur called minever ; alfo the animal which 

bears it," faid to be a native of Ruffia. 
Mens, Mends, fatisfaSlion. One to the mends, one more 

than was bargained for. See Mends. 
Menfe, Menfk, urbanity, decency, difcretion, modefly, 

moderation ; nearly of the fame fignification with, if 

not a contraftion from, Teut. menfchelickheyd, huma- 

nitas ; from menfcb, homo. Sax. menmfc, huma- 

Mcnfe, Menik, to. grace, to decorate. 


Me. __,«— Me» 

Mensfull, Menfkful, modejiy moderate; difcreety delicate-; 

from Menfe. 
Menflefs, vidifcreet^ immoderatey greedy ; from Menfe. 
Menftral, Minftrel, mujiciati, harper, piper ^Jiddler. Fr. 
menejlrier. j[Teut. mintie, amatio, amor venerius ; & 
Jlieren, agere, inftigare, ducere.] 
Menftral fie, niujic, injlrumental niufiC. 
Meiit, Meint, mixed, mingled ; from Meng, to mix. 
Menye, yor^Tf ox forces, men, a body of men, retinue^ ad- 
' hcrents, domejiics. Teut. menighte, multitudo, ag- 
men, cater va, vis ; menigh, multus. Fr. mefnie, fa- 
Menje, Menze, to maim, to hurt, to render unable to 
fight. Teut. mencken, mutilare, mancum reddere. 
See Mank. 
Merch, Mergh, marrow. Teut. mergh, medulla. 
Mere, march, limit, border. Swed. maere, limes. 
Mere, Mejre, the fea. Fr. mer. Celt, mor, muir. Lat. 
mare ; whence, fays Ruddiman, the Morini or Are- 
morici have their name, q. d. maris accolje. 
Mere-mayd, mermaid, a kind of Syren, or fabulous fea 

monfier, half woman, half fiili. 
Mere-fwine, cx-g\. fea f wine, porous marinus. Fr. mar' 

fouin. Swed. mar-fwin, phocaena. 
Merk, mark, at prefent a nominal coin, value is. i^d. 

Merk-fchot, fuppofed the diflance between the bow 

Merle, black-bird. Fr. merle, raerula, 
Mertrik, Martlet, martin, a kind of large weefcl, ivkich 

bears a rich fur, a fable. Teut. tnarder, martes, 
Merwys, Myris, Merris, mans, cotfoundt. 
Mery^ expl. faithful, ej^e^lnal See Mor, great. 
Mes, mafs, the Roman Catholic liturgy or common pray- 
er ; more particularly, the communion fcrvice, or of- 
fice of the eiicharifl. The word appears, nearly in 
the fame form, in all the languages of weflern Eu- 
rope, and probably has been adopted from one of 
the fentences or phrafes by which the mafs-fervicc 
is ufually concluded, viz. '* Ite, milla eft," i. e. I 


Me. MI. 

prefume, mifla eft hojliola^ (vel oblatio), corrupted 
by the Anglo-Saxons into houfel. This valedidlion 
is trnnflated bj Becon, in his Reliques of Rome, 
** You may now go home ; for the Avholefome facri- 
*' fice for mankind is fent up or offered unto God." 
Voffius and others have Jaboured to make this word 
m'tjfa equivalent to mijjio, or dimijjio, the fending a- 
way the catechumens before the communion of the 
Lord's fuppcr ; but this explication is liable to va- 
rious objedlions ; and particularly does not feem to 
accord with the refponfV of the people ** Deo gra- 
tias." A better way of compleating the valedi£lion 
would be thus — rriijpi eji concio, which might anfwer 
either for the prayers or the congregation. The 
fame word is aHb very commonly explained Jejluniy 
which h fuggerted another meaning of mijfa, viz. 
!•• miffio ciborum, 

Mes John, the par/on of the parijh. 

Mefe, Meis, to mitiga e^ apf^^ ;fe, or /often. Meiyt.fof- 
tcned ; probably from Fr. atvufer. 

IViei"c-l, leprous perfon. Fr. mefel &(. tnefeau \ from Teut, 

Meflin, Muflin. See .•' aflal, mixed corn. 

Me flip, a f mall dog, a lady^s dog ; from Teut mej/^nf 

Mefurabill, moderate, within meafure. 

Methis, Me V this, marks,land-marksf boundaries , limits. 
Lat. victa. 

jNIetis (Gaw. Douglas), expl. meet, animis obfervan- 
tur ; or rather dreamy reprefent, fancy , in which fenfe 
Chaucer ufes the word ; from Sax, inetan, pin- 

Mett, a meafurcy either of length or capacity ; alfo to 
meafure. Teut. meten, metiri. 

iVIey. See May, a maid ox young woman. 

Mid-eard, the earth. Sax. middan-eard. Goth, midjun- 
gardy mundus, oibis terrarum. 

Midding, dung-hill ; Dan Sax. /«iW^//r^, fterquillnium ; 
perhaps from Sax. mucg^ acervus ; & dincg^ ftercus, 
quafi, a liioiv of dung. 

Midges, gnats, f mall fites. Theot. mucca^ culex. 

Midle, Medle, to mix, Fr. meflcr, mifcere. 


Mi. ML 

Midwart, Amidwart, towards the middle. 

Migarnes, meagernejs^ or niggardlynefs. See Megin 

Mikle. See Mekill,^rffl/, bulky. 

Millie, Milk-fyth, a m'llk-Jlra'mery q. a m'llk-Jleve. 

Mill, Mull, a fnuff-boxj ox fnuff-horn. 

Mini, printy affeSiedly coy. 

Minnj, i7iothery mammy. Teut. minne^ nutrix. 

Minnyng daies, minding or commemoration days, S\Ved. 

minnat. Sax. ^tf/wj/«a«, rrieminifle. 
Minfing mate, perhaps mefs-mate ; from menfa. 
Mint, attempt ; to attempt^ to try^ to aim at. Sax. ge-. 

myntedy ftatutus, depolitus, prcemeditatus. 
Mirk, Merk, Mark, dark. Ifl. myrkr. Scand. moerh^ 
morcky obfcurus. Sax, mirce, tenebrx, career. [Lat. 
Mirknefs, darknefs. 

^\xky , fmirkingy fmiling, merry. See Smirky. 
Mis, Mi/s, MySyJailure in duty^ faults, what is amify, 
offences. Teut. misy mffe, erratum, malum ; deliqui- 
um, defeftus. 
Mis-aventure, misfortunCy mis -adventure. See Mifli- 

Mii-doubt, to douhtyfufpeBy or dijhelieve. 
Mis-farne, Misfairn, expl. mi/managed j may alfo mean 
behaved improperly, or unlawfully ■% offended. Sax. 
misfaran, ofFendere, errare. To which may per- 
haps be added mis-carried. Teut. mis vacren, male 
evenire, perire. See Mis-fur. 
Mis'fur, Mys-fure, mifcarried ; from I'eut. mis-vaercuy 
male evenire, deviare, q. A.mis-fared ; iXioun found, 
un healthy, infirm, q. un-fure ; from Svved. furey fa- 
nus, firmus ; wan-fur e, infirm us. 
Mis-grugled, expl. rumpled, roughly handled. 
Miihanter, Mifchanter, difafier, mifchatice. Fr. mif- 

aventure ; quafi, mis-annter, infortunium. 
Mifharrit. perhaps Mis-fcheirit, hollow and fhattcred, 

like the trunk of a large old tree. See Schere. 
Mis-ken, to let alone, to pafs without ohferving, to ne- 

glcB ; alfo to mis- know, or be ignorant of. 
Mis-leiiit, mifchievouSy unmannerly . Sax. mis-Jar. 


Mi. Mo. 

Mia-maight, put out offorts, mis-marrowecl, mls-fnatch- 

ed'; from Scand. make^ focius. 
Mis-fetting, uuhesoming.' Teut. mis-fettenj male difpo- 

Miffive, a letter or ep'ijlle. Fr. from Lat. 
Mifslie,yb/iVflrj/j from fome perfon or thing being a- 

n^ii^ing or abfent. k' 

Mifter, need^ Jlrait^ necejjity^ occajion ; alfo to neecl^ to 

require. O, Fr. mejlier. 
Mis-trow, Mis-tryft, to mijlrujl^ to fufpecl^to difbelieve. 

Teut. mis trowx^en, Ifl. mijlruay diffidere, male fi- 

dere. , 
Miftryft, to break an engagement with. See Tryft. 
MitUn?, Mjttens, woollen or worjled gloves. Fr. 
Moblys, Meubles, moveable or houjhold goods. Fr. 

Moch, Mowe, a heap. Sax. mucg, acervus. 
Mochre, to heap up ; from the fubftantive Moch. 
Mochrand, avaricious ; from Moch, a heap. 
Mochrer, Mukerar, a covetous perfon, or one who care- 
fully hoards up money. See Okjr & Okyrer. 
Mocht. See Macht, might, 
"^lodyvy mother. Teut. moeder^ mutter Sc modder. Dan. 

& Swed. moder. Ital. & Span, madre. Sax. mothor. 

Goth mader. Lat. mater. 
Modjwart, Mowdywart, a mole. Dan, muld-warp. 

Teut. maulwerf, talpa. 
Mold, the ground or earth. Sax. molde^ pulvis, humus, 

fabulum. See Mule. 
Mollettis, the boffes or ornaments of bridles. Fr. moletle^ 

the rowel of a fpur ; mullet^ a term in heraldry for 

a Jlar off-lie points. 
lSl-^'\ Mun. See Maun, muf. Goth. muna. 
Mone, the moon. Sax. mona, mena, Swed. moane. Goth. 

mana^ luna. 
Mono's or Monys cruke, ufed by Bp. Douglas iot full 

vioon ; crule for circle. 
Moneth, w?(?/7/)?'. Sax &. Goth. zwowa^A, menfis. 
Monteil, mount. Ital. ino?iticello, parvus mons. 
Montur, a f addle horfc. Fr. /-vo//f;//v, jumentum . 


Mo. Mo. 

Monj, many ; as onj for any. Goth, moneg. 

Monyplics, a part of the inteftines of Sattle. 

Monyfs, to admonijh. Monyffingis, admonitions. 

Mools, Meals, the earth of the grave. Tent. mul. Goth* 
mulda, pulvis. 

Mools, Meuls. See MxiXes^ flippers. 

Mooter. See Multure, g^ift tnill-tolL 

Mor, great. Gael. mor. O. Engl, more, magnus. 
Swed. moor, Celebris, famofus. Sax. mare, magnus, 
excelfus, fummus, illuftris, clarus, inlifrnis. 

Moreis, Morys, Moris, Moorijh dance. Span, morifco^ 

Moriane, expl. dingy, Scand. morcii obfcuruSj q. /«or- 

Morn, the next day, to-morrbiv. Teut. morghen. Goth. 
maurgin, eras, craftino. 

Mort-fundyit, extremely cold, as cold a? death. SeeFun- 
dyt, benumbed ; from Fr. fondre, q. d. fays Ruddi- 
man, ready to fall ovjink down for cold. 

Mort-mumblingis, />rflj)?^rj- muttered for the dead. 

Mofe, Mofs, a marfh or boggy place ; alfo a heath 
where peats can be digged, ieut. mofe, mitffa, palus. 

Mofs-troopers, banditti who inhabited the marfhy coun- 
try of Liddifdale, and fuhfijied chiefly by rapine* Peo- 
ple of this defcription in Ireland were called Bog- 
trotters, apparently for a firailar reafon. 

Mot, Myt, Mat, may, might, mufl. 

Mot, Mote, Moat, a little hill -with a flat top ; for the 
moft part artificial ; fo called from Swed. & Sax. 
mot, conventus, concilium, an affembly or meeting, a 
court of judicature ; or a place convenient for fuch 

Mote. See Mute, tojpeak, to harangue, to argue, 

MotViG, full of motes or atoms. S^x. mot. 

Mou-band, to articulate (cramp or difficult words.) 

Mouir, (Mure), fuppofed to mean gentle, mild, gra- 
cious. Swed. moer, mollis. 

Moule, to become mouldy. Moulyt, Mouldit, mouldy, 

Mounth, hill, mountain. Lat. mons. 

Moup, to nibble f or eat with a quick mfltion of the jaws. 
Vol. IV. T Moutit, 

Mo. Mu. 

'M.onUtf fcantyy bare^ like a bird in mouting time. 
Mow, a heap, a pile or hingy as of unthreflxed corn* 
Sax. mowey acervus. 

Mowdiwart. See Moldiart, ptole. Dan. 
Mowenccy expl. motion^ progrefs ; q. movence. 

Mowis, mouths^ mocks, fportyjefl^ Mowar, mocker, 

Moy, Moye, gentle, mild, foft, eafy. Teut. moy, 
compttis, ornatus, elegans. Vx. mol or mou. Swed. 
moer, mollis. 

Moyen, Mo wen, means y contrivahceSy influence , inter eft ^ 
power. Fr. moyen, ratio, facultas. 

Moyle, Main, mule. Teut. ;w«y/, muyl-efe^l, muyl'dier^ 

Mojne. See Mone, moon. 

Muek, Mullock, dung. Sax. meox, ftercus. Teut. 
moock-fack, venter animalium ; alfo to dung ; and ta 
remove dung, to clean. Swed. mocka^ ftabula, purgare. 

.Muck-midding, dung-hill. See Midding. 

Muckle. See Mekill, great. 

Muddle, to drive, heat, or throw. Teut. mutfen, mutilare. 

Mudy, expl. penftve, fad, melancholy .■ Jeut. moede^ 
muedcy laffus, defeffus ; moedigh, lenis, lentus, mitis. 
It may alfo fignify courageous, bold, hardy ; from 
Teut. moedigh, animofus, acer, alacer. 

"Mu'is,- heaps, parcels. See Moch &. Mow. 

Mukerar. See Mochrcr, mifer, iijurer. 

Mulde-mete, the loft meat that a perfon eats before 
death. To give one his mulde meat, i. e. to kill him f 
Swed. multen, putridus ; multna, to raioulder. 

Mules, Moolie i[heels,) chilblains. Fr. mules. 

Mulettis, expl. ornaments tin bridles. 

Mull, a promontory. Ifl. muli, a fteep bold cape. 

Mullis, Mulis, Muilis, chamber or night flippers ; com- 
monly made of fine cloth or velvet, and ornamenied 
according to the rank or quality of the peifon who 
wore them. Teut. muyl. Fr. mule ; from Lat. mul- 
leus, fandalium, calceamenti genus alta folo. 

Multiplication, alchemy, tranf mutation ofbafe metal in- 
to gold. 

Multure, the grifl or millers fee for grinding corn. Fr. 
wouturey q. d. molitura. 


JVlu. . Mu. 

Mumping, ufing Jignificnnt gejiuresy mumming. TeuV 
mttmmeny mommium five larvam agere j to frolic in 
dilguife ; momme, larva, perfona. 
Mundie, expl. pitiful f on of the earth ; dimin. of man, 
MunyeoD, minion. Fr. mignon. 
Muralyeis, wails, for ttf cations. Fr. murailk. 
Murdrefar, murderer ; alfo a large cannon. 
Mure ^ Muir , a heathy or flat piece of ground covered 

with heather. Sax. mor. ericetum, mons. 
Murgeon, to mock by making mouths. Teut. morkcUn^ 

grunnire ; morre^ os cum promentibus labris. 
Murle, Muller, to moulder ^to crumble. Yi2iX\. fmuller. 
Murling, Morthling, Mart, the Jhin of a young lamby or 

of a fheep foon after it has been fhorn. See Murth. 
Murmour to regret, to mourn. 
^urth, Morth, murder. Teut. moord. Longobard- 

morth. Scand. mord^ mors violenta, csedes homici- 

JVIofardry, mujing, drtaming. Fr. mufardie ; from mu- 

fery or Teut. muyfeuy abdita magno filentio mquirere, 

(mures tacite quaerere.^ * 
Mufe-web, Mous-wob, cobweb i from Fr. moufche, q. 
- fly-net. 
jMulkane, moj/y, covered with mofs. Teut. mofachtigb^ 

mufcofus ; mosy mufcus. 
Mullin kail, expl. broth made of barley and greens. 
IVIuflaling, Muflal, Mjffal, a veil or kerchief covering 

part of the face^ and tied under the chin ; from Fr. 

emmufelery to muffle up y emmufele, a term in Heral- 

dxjyfrenatus ; moufJelinCy muflin. 
Muft, mouldinefs ; q. mofjed ; from Teut. moSy mufcus. 
Mutch, a coif G^c capy female head-drefs. Teut. mutfe^ 

pileus, pileum, mitra, vitta. 
Mutckin, a meafure equal to an Englijh pint ,• quafi, 

mett-kan ; from Teut. meten^ meteUy metiri, & canny 

vas ; or perhaps corrupted from Teut. kommtken^ 

(chumkinj vafculum. 
^ute, Mote, to plead^ to argue. Sax. mo//fl«, difputare, 

rem agere. See Mot, the primary meaning of which 

was probably a place for holding any kind of popular 

ajfembly. [Teut. muyten, to mutter.] 


Muthe, exhaujied with fatigue. Swed. mod. Teut, 
moedey mude, maty defelTus. 

Mjddil. See Midle, to mix. Fr. 

]VJjd^ii or Middil-eard. See Mid-eard, the earth ; perr 
haps fo called, fajs Ruddiman, becaufe this world 
has been confidered as a middle-Jlate betwixt non- 
entity and a future life. 

Mjddis, midjl. Mydlaft, middlemost. 

Myis, mice ; and fo Myir for mirey Myil for mihy &c. 

Myith, expl. to mix ; perhaps alfo to mett. See Meith. 

Mykil, Muckle. See Mekill, great. 

Mylnare, miller. Swed. mcelnarey molitor. 

ISlly xiy /mailer y lefs. Ifl. minne. Lat. minus. 

Mynde, Myne, to undermine^ to overturn^ 

Mynge, Menge. See Meng, to mingle, 

Mynour, miner. Fr. mineur. 

Mynt. See Mint, attempt. 

Myrit, Merrit, confoundedy Jiupijied ; perhaps from 
T&wt. fmooreny fubmergere, fuffocare : or, according 
to Ruddiman, from Sax. myrrany (probably the 
fame word,) profundere, perdere. 

Myrk, dark. Myrknefs, darknefs. See Mirk. 

Mys. See M\&y faults y defeBs. 

JS/ljs-dGmingy Jalfe judgment, calumny. SeeDemg. 

Myfel, lifiper or leprous (falmon.) See Maffal^ 

Myftar, Myftir. See Milter, luant^ need, 

Mythe. See Meith, marky limit. 

My the, to mett or meafure. Fr. 


Na. .—.....-i. Ne. 


Na, Nor, than. 

Nackettis, Nicketts, fmall notches ; alfo markers a% 

tennis or other games. Fr. naquet. 
Nackie, acute or clever in the minutm ofhujinefs^ or ir^ 

fmall affairs, 
'^^iypud. mulieh, expl. Angl. a fort of tufted fea-hudf 
Naig, nag, gelding. Fris. negghe^ equus pumilus. 
Nakynge, naked. Ifl. nakenn., nudus. 
Namekouth, famous, well known. Sax. namkuthe, q. 

nomine feu fama notiflimus. See Couth. 
Nanjs, Nanes, nonce, purpofe, occafion \ probably of 
ecclefiaftical origin ; with fome reference to the time 
of eating the chief meal, and to the prayers which 
were then recited, viz. the Nonnes, or Mifla, in the 
fenfe of immiffio ciborum. '• Something for the 
none s^^ fome article of provifon for the entertainment^ 
" quod olim celebrari foleat ex dbnis a populo mif- 
fis." Vojius. 
Nar, nigher, nearer. 
Narr, Nearr, Nurr, to fnarle. as dogs. Teut. knarren, 

Nas, na was, was not. 
Nate, Note, ufe, hufnefs. Teut. nutten, uti, fiui. He 

would note it, i. e. he would need or ufe it. 
Nately, Naithly. neatly. 
Nathles, not the lefs, neverthelefs. 
Naven, Navyne, navy.fhipping. 
Ne, to neigh as a horfe. See Nikker. 
Neaty, expl. very identical. 
^eh,j/harp point, beak. Teut. nehhe, roftrum. 
Nece, niece^ grand- daughter, a lineal female defendant^ 

though after many generations. 
Nechyr. See Nikker, to neigh. 
Nedd, to knedd. Teut. kneden. 

NefFul, Neflfu' neive-full, handfull ; from neifov neive, 
the lift. ]fl. nefe, knefe. Dan. naeve^ nefve. 


Kc Ni. 

Neldder, Neddyr, adder. Sax. nedder, ferpens. Gotk, 

nadr^ vipera, hydrus. 
Ne^d-force, necejjlty, compuljlon. 
Ne'd-fyre,^/v produced hy fr'tBion, 
Neidlingis, Nedelingis, necejjarily ^ of neajjity. 
Neif, Neef, expl. difficulty^ doubt. Teut. m^e^ difficills, 

Neir, Nere, to approach ,- 2\io tp prefs hard upon. Ifl, 

ny, urgeo. 
Neirs, Neres, corruptly Eres, kidneys^ reins. Teut. 

niere, ren j nieren^ rjenes. 
Neis, Neez, Ne , nofe, promontory. Scand & Sai. nefe^ 

nafus, promontorium. Ir. neas^ a hill ; alfo, t^ 

fneeze. Teut. niefen^ fternuere. 
Neis-thyrle, Nefthrylle, mjlril. Sax. thyrely foramen, 
I ^eifty Neyft. Neft , nigheft^ next. 
Nether, Zoi^^r. Nethermoft, lovoeji. Teut. neder^ infra j 

nederjlcy infimus. 
Nethermare, farther down or below. See Nether. 
Nfthrin?, opprejjion, injury. See Nidder, 
Niiuk, nook^ corner. [ Teut. nocke, crena, a notch.] 
Neuo, Nevo, grand/on, nephew. Fr. neveu, nepos ; i^ow 

commonly ufed for the brother ox Jijler^s fon. 
Nevell, a blow with the nieve otfjl. 
Nevin, Neuin, corr. of tiame. *" 

Ntw'd, Newit, expl. opprejpd, kept at under. Se? 

Newfangil,y^«f/ of novelties ; from Fang, to catch. 
Newit, expl. in-wrought. 
Newis, NewySj Newous, parfimonious . Sax. hneawy te- 

nax ; hneawneffe^ tenacitas. Swed. noga^ parcus \ 

nyfsy avarus. 
Newlingis, very lately ; alfo expl. at firfl, 
Newmoft, ?iethtrmojly lowef, 
Newth, (Ncw^. bene:)th. 
Neych, Nygh, Nyh, to approach. Nyht, Niht, ap-, 

proached. Teut. naecken^ att'ngere. Goth, nequba. 
Nick, to chpty to circumvent. See Nackettis. 
Nick, Auld Nick, the devil. Swed. necken, daemon a- 



NI. ^d. 

Nickett. See Nackettis, fvudl notches. 
Nidderit, Nitheryt, injured^ marred or Jlunted in 
growth ; alfo expl. kept in, plagued. Jlraitenedyjlarv- 
ed. Sax. nidan, urgere ; nyded, coa£lus. Teut. ver- 
nederen, hutniliare, deprimere j ver nedert, abjedus< 
Swed. nidOf damno afficere. Goth, ruith, invidia, 
Nidge, Knidge, to prefs hard, to fquee%e. Sax. nidan. 
NifFer, NeifFer, to exchange or barter^ to offer or to take 

one of two concealed in the *' nieves^ 
Nif-naffing, trijiing. 
Nig-Tiaes, expl. trifles, trinkets. 

Nilcker, Nichar, to neigh like a horfe, to laugh immode- 
rately. Fris. negghe, equus pumilus. Sax. hncegan^ 
Nild, expl. out'witted. 
Nip, Jmall piece, a hit, that which is nipped off; from 

Teut. niipen, interprimere, conftringere. 
Nirles, a morbid eruption Jimilar to the meajles. 
Noblay, nobility. Fr. nohleffe. 
Nocht, not. 

Nok. See Neuk, angle, corner. Teut. node, crena. 
Nokket, a refrejhment between breakfaji and dinner j 

perhaps nooji cate, or cake. 
Nokkys, the nocks, notches or nicis of hows or arrows. 
Teut. nocke, incifura fagittae quse nervum admittit. 
Nokkit, notched, having notches ; alfo knocked. 
Noll, head, crown of the head. Sax. knol. 
Nold, would 7iot, q. no-would. 

Nonne, nun, religious woman. The words nonnux 
for a monk, and nonna, a nun, are as old as the days 
of St, Jerome and Arnobius, but the derivation un- 
Nonne, noon, mid-day. This word, at different perloJ;?^ 
feems to have been applied to different houis of the 
day. By the Italian, French, and Anglo-Saxon ec- 
clefiafties, who followed the Jcwifli manner of com- 
putation, Nona, or Non, was ufed to denote the ninth 
hout both of day and night, correfponding with our 
fhree o'clock. ,At this hour of the day they cat 
' their 

No. Mu. 

their principal meal, and offered up certain prayers 
called the Nonnes, at other- times Miffci, or the 
M.afs. Tyrrwhit, however, explains None, (as ufed 
by Chaucer,^ the ninth hour of the natural day ^ nine 
o'clock in the morning \ the hour of dinner. Perhaps 
the prayers called the nones were, in Chaucer's time, 
recited three hours before inftead of three hours af- 
ter mid-day. Be this how it may, the Sax. word 
JSTow appears no where to fignify any other hour 
than three o'clock ; and therefore, in its prefent ac- 
ceptation, muft be comparatively modern. Noney 
fays Cotgrave, is in fummer about four o'clock in 
the afternoon, in winter about two. See Pryme. 

Nor, than. 

Norlich, Knurlich, a lump or hard fwelling occafioned 
by a blow, a knurl or Hour. Teut. knor^ nodus. 

Normans, Norwayis, Norwegians or Snvedes, Scandina~ 
vians, q. north men ; from whom Normandy in 
France took its name. 

Norfe, belonging to the Normans or Scandinavian t. 
Norfe tung, Scandinavian language. 

Not, know not \ contr. from no wot. 

Not, fometimes ufed for nought or nothing. 

Note, Nate, to ufe, to have octajion for. Sax. noiian, 
Scand. wy/a-, uti, frui. 

Notis, ufesypurpofes. See Note, to ufe. 

Notour, notorious. 

Now, Know, knoll, little hill. Theot. nollo, coUis , nol- 
len^ colli bus. 

Nowellis, Novellis, newsyfrejh intelligence. 

Nowt, Nolt, neat-cattle. Scand. & Fenn. ?iauti boves. 
Sax. neat, nyten, niten, pecus, jumentum ; nearly re- 
lated to Scand. nytu vel nyttia, uti, frui. 

Nowthird, Nolt-heard, a keeper of neat cattle. 

Nowthyr, Nothir, neither, not. Sax. nowther. 

Noy, to annoy, vex, or trouble. Swed. noga, liedere. 

Noyis, Noys, annoyances, injuries. 

Noyt, to frike as with a f mall flick, 

Nuckle, exp). new-calved cows. 

Numeft, neathmofi, nethermoji ; in contra-diftinftion to 
Umeft, uppermoji^ 


Nu.- Ny. 

Nummyn, to tahcy to carry away. Teut. Sax. & Goth. 
nemen, niman^ capere. Engl, to nitnm. 

Nuryce, niirfe. Fr. nourriffe^ nutrix. Swed. naray a- 
lere : & fervare, falvare ; Nerigendj falvatoris no- 
men ; correfponding with the Sax. Hcelendy from 
hcelarty fanare, falvare ; fcil. qnoniam, " he fothlice 
hjs folc hal gedeth fram hyra fynnutn." 

Nycht. See Neyht, approached^ came nigh. 

Nychted, drew towards night. ** It is not lefum, (fay 
the antient Laws of Scotland), to travel in time of 
nicht, except for thir caufes, viz. to bring ane preift 
to ane lick man, <5r to carry corns to the myln, or to 
return therefra ; or for gudes laitly ftoln or tint." 

Nygar, negro. Fr. negre* 

Nymphis X2LgG,fmor lymphatkuSy vel uterinus, 

Nynd, ninth. Goth, niunda. 

Nyte, to deny. Nyt. denied. 111. neitOf negare. 

Nyte, to noyt or /mite, to ftr'ikejmartly. Swed. nudda, 
leviter attirigere. 111. hnudla, digitis prenfarc. 

V0L..IV. U O 

Ob. Oe. 


O, of, in. 

ObedjentIarie,y5^^fl^flf« under canonical obedience ; al* 
fo expl. a church officer. Fr. 

Obeyfe, Obefe, to obey. Fr. obeis. 

Obeyfand, obedient. Fr. oheijfnnt. 

Obfufque, to darken. Fr. offufquer. 

OhliO:, Jiipulated, promifedy obliged, fuhjeSicd. Obi jfjrng, 
obligation. Fr. 

Oblive, oblivion, forgetfulnefs. Fr. oubli. 

Obfervaunce, refpeEi, duty. Fr. 

Obtemper, to yield to. Fr. obtempere, obeis. 

Ochiern, defined by Skene, *' ane name of dignity and 
of ane freeholder ; who appeiris to be f equal ho- 
nour and preheminence with the fon or daughter of 
an Thane, qiiha baith hes the like marcheta, viz. 
twa kids, or twelve pennies. And the un-lawe 
quhilk the king may take fra ane Thane is fex kye, 
and fra ane Ochiern fiftene fcheip or fex fchillings.'* 
The title originally might fignify lord' of an ijland, 
from Sax. aege. Hib. oghe, infula ; & Scand. & 1 eut. 
herre, vel Sax. hearra, dominus. 

Ochre, Occour. See Okyr, ufury, 

Ocht, ought, any thing. 

OSiane, the ocean, the fea, 

Odibill, Odible, odious, hateful, Lat. 

Odour, (Gaw. Douglas), expl. nafinefs ^ filth . 

Odyr, Udyr, other, fecond; alfo expl. each other. Goth, 
anthar, alter, alius. 

Oe, Oy, grand-child, grand-daughter ; feems to have 
fome affinity with Teut. moeme, neptis ; moeye, ma- 
tertera, matris foror ; & araita, patris foror ; moyen 
dochter, confobrina, materterae filia ; moyen kinderen, 
fobrinij the fame want of precifion prevailing here 
as in other appellations of confanguinity. 

Oethes. See Aithis, oaths. 


Of. Or. 

Of, throughy frontf by. Teat, qf^ ab, de. 

Of before, forvierly., in times paji. 

Offerandis, oblations. Fr. offrande, 

Off-ftraik, didjlrike ox f mite off. 

Oft-fyis, Oft-fythes, oft-times^ often. See Syis. 

Ogertful, expl. nice^ fqueamijh ; perhaps fromOkyruf- 

ed for wealth, quafi, purfe-proud. [Sax. og, horror, 

timor.] See Ugfum. 
Oifillis, blackbirds. Sax. ojle^ meriila. 
Oift, Olt, hojl, army. Fr. q/l, exercitus. 
Okyr, Ochre, Occour, ufury. Teat, oecher, ufura, fge- 

nus ; woeckeren, ufuram exercere ; oecken. Goth. 

aukan, augere, to eke or add. 
©kyrer, Ochrer, ufurery mifer. Teut. ivoecherery iifura- 

Olye. See Oyhle, oil. Ole-doly, faid to be the fimc 

with Ayl-dolly, and to fignify fimply fvoeet oily ia 

contra-diftinftion to whale oil. Fr. huile douce. 
Olyphant, elephant. Teut. olefnnt. Sax. olfand. 
Omnigatherene, univerfalj:olle6iion. 
On, one, an. 

On, Wone, expl. wane, ear or carriage. Teut. wagen. 
On-ane, Onone, anon, quickly. 
On bread, abroad, wide open, largely^ On cais, by 

chance. On dreich, at a dijlance. On flocht, m fuf- 

pence, <\. fluttering ; and fo in various other inftances. 
On-dantyt, wild, untamed^ not trained. Fr. indomte. 
On-eith. See \5wt\i\\, fcarcely, not eaftly. 
On hie, fpeedily, apace. See Hie. 
On loft, aloft, above, on high, loud, 
On-tray, to betray. 
On-walowyd, Un-wallowit, unfaded. See Walow, to 

fade. In the Scottiih dialed, the particle on corref- 

ponds univerfally with the Engl, negative particle 

Ony, any. Onykin, any kind of. 
Onys, once. 

Optene, to obtain ; in old charters optinco. 
Or, ere, elfe, before, before that^ rather than. 
Oratoir, Oratouie, Oratory, a place of worfhtp, whe- 

ther public or private j a clofet. Fr. oratoircj facel- 

lum ; 

Or. Ot. 

lum ; alfo, according to Bp. Douglas, the place from 
whence oracles or refponfes were gfuen, 

Ordal, Ordele, judicial trial by fire^ water or combat ; 
according to Kilianus and others, final judgment ; 
from Teut. oor, vel over, fupra, fuperior, omnino ; 
& deel, judicium. Theot. ordelen, urdela^ difcernere 
& dijudicare rem quamvis, etiam extra judicium. 
According to Regiam Majefiatentn, in a cafe of trea- 
fon, *' where batell is lawfullie declined, on account of 
age or infirmity, by him quha is accufed, he is ob- 
lifled to acquite and clenge himfelf be the judgment 
of God, that is, be hote iron, gif he be ane frie man ; 
or, be water, gif he be ane hufbandman." Jhre de- 
fines ordeluy liti finera imponere ; ur finem rei impo- 
fitum notat ; & delay litigare. 

Ordinance, array. Fr. 

Orere, Ourere, expl. arrear,fall back. Fr. 

Orfeverie, Orphray, Orphany, gold work, gold embroid' 
ery. Fr. orfevrerie ; from Lat. aurifaber. 

Orlege, Orlagere, Orliger, a clock, dial, or any machine 
that Jhews the hours. Fr. horloge, from Lat. 

Orpit, expl. proud, haughty ; alfo humourfome (capri- 
cious) and pettijh. Sax. or~mod, fine mente, amens, 

Orrow, Orra, (a perfon or thing), not in immediate em- 
ployment. Orrow man, a day labourer ; probably a 
corr. of Swed. udda, impar, q. an odd man or thing ; 
if not from Scand. cere, nummi minuti fpecies, a me- 
tallo cereo, quo cOnftabat, ita difti ; quafi, one who ac- 
cepted of a little money for his work, inftead of being 
fed and cloathed by his mafter. The fame Scand, 
word fignifies alfo, according to Jhre, any kind of 
moveables, particularly houlhold furniture or uten- 
fils ; which agrees with the application of the Scot- 
tiih word /a /^/;2^^j in its fecondary fenfe. Orra has 
. an appearance of affinity with Forra or Forrow 
(cow,) qm^ fallow. 

Ofan, hofanna. 

Ofzil, the thrujh or black-bird. Ofillis, oufels. Sax. ofie, 

Othir, Owthir, either j fecond, 


Ov. _— . Ou, 

Over-by, expl. to pur chafe pardon. 
Overling, Juperior, paramount ; oppos. to underling. 
Ouereft, Overeft^^r/?, greatejl^ q. overmoji. 
Oughtlins, Ochtlins, in the leaji ; from Ought. 
Ouk Owke, Oulke, week. Sax. uca^ hebdomas. 
Ouklie, Owklj, weeJk/j. 
Oup, Oop, to Join by hooping. See Loup- 
Our, Owr, Oure, Ouer, over, oppojite, beyond^ after. 
Omv -come, fur plus. Ouercunimjne, overcome. 
Our-fett, perhaps the fame with Our fret, expl. on^er- 
fpread, decked over^ embellijhed. Sax. fraetvoan^ or- 
nare. [Swed.yf^^/a, colligare.] 
Our-fleit, to overjlowy to over-run. See Flelt. 
Our-gang, to over-run. Our-gane> over-run^ pafl ; alfo 

expl ^aept under. See Gang. 
Our-hall, to over.hauly to enquire into, or treat of. 
Our-harle, expl. overcame ; rather to overcome. See 

Our-heild, Ouerhede, to cover over. See Heild. 
Our-hie, to overtake. Our-hude, expl. over-run, went 

Our-hippit, pcjfed or leaped over ; q. d. over-hopped. 
Our-lard, over-lord, fuperior. See Laird. 
Our-lay, cravat. 
Our-lay'it, fmothered, opprejfed. 
Our-loftis, the decks or orlops of fhips ; q. d. fuprema 

navis contabulatio. 
Our-lowp, Owr- lop, an occafonal trefpafs of cattle on a 

neighbouring pajlure. Sax. ofer-leopan. tranfire. 
Our-man, Overs-man, third arbiter y fuperior. 
Ourn, to adorn. Fr. orner. Lat. 
Our-raucht, over^reached, over-took. See Kaucht. 
Our-reik, to reach ov f retch over. See Reik. 
Our-fet, tired out, overcome ; alfo to hinder or re- 

Our-ikaile, to diffufe or over-fpread. See Skaile.' 
Our-fyle, Our-fylde, covered over, to conceal, or cover \ 

to beguile, or circumvent ; to furround. See Sjle. 
Our-tho^t, Ouerthortore, athwa*'t, acrofs. 
Our-tyrve, to turri up fide down. Ifl. tyrva. 
Our-volvit, turned over, revolved. Lat. 
Our-welterand; cvertkrowing, weltering over. 

Our- word, 

OvL. -i Oy. 

Our-word, burthen (of a fong,) words or phrafe often 

repeated, »■ 

Oury, Oiirie, Urle, having jhe hiir on end^ llkeahorfe 

overcome with cold. ^Fj. herij}e.'\ By confequencc 

Jhtveringy drooping 
Ok'/iTen oxen OwiTen-bow, a j/o-f^. 
Out, 0\xl\y, fully, eompleatly, altogether. 
Gut-an'e, except , q. d. out taken. 
Out-brade, to fiart out, to burji out ; alfo drew out, un- 

foeathed. See Brade. 
Out-buUerand, gujhing out, huhling forth. See Bullei'. 
jOut fang theit'. See Infang theif. 
Out-gatis, ways to get out. 
puth, out, ahove^ over, Outhmaft. Sec Ummefl, upper^ 

Out- home, horn of a Jentinel or vDatchman to found a 

larm ; the fummoning to arms by the found of a horn. 
Out-Uiik, Out lack, the fuperabundant quantity in weight 

or meafure. 
Out-lair, Outler, out-Iyer, a horfe, ox, or eow nothoufed 

in winter. 
Out-owre, over, beyond. 

Oai-quent, fpent, extinguijhed. See Queinth. 
Out- rake, an expedition, an out-ride. See Raik. Alfb 

an extenfive open pailnre for Jheep or cattle. 
Out-r'-cd, to difentangle, to extricate ; alio explained j?^ 

Oul-ihinii'd, deformed in the leg-hones. 
Out-light, out-door furnitu e or utenfils. Outfight ancj 

In-fight plenniihing, goods within and without doors. 
Out-ftriking, cutaneous eruption. 
Out-wayl, outcast, refufe. See Wale, to feleB. 
Out- with, without, out of, (extra); fo written to dif- 

tingu'fh it from without, fine. 
Ox-ee, the Tom- tit, a bird. 

Oxtar, arm-pit. Sax. oxtan. Tent, oxel^ axilla. 
Ove. Sei' Oe, gmnd-child, v-rnnd daughter. 
Ovhle, 0;ie, Ulle oil. Teut olie. Goth, alewe, olium. 

See Olie. 
Ovhnt. at.oint. Fr oindre, ungere. 
O;' '.-. Ui^c oven. Swed. 
Ojs, Ois, ufe, custom J to ufe. 

Pa. Pa. 


Pa, pay, 

P^, Paw ; perhaps contr. from Pavene, a Spanijh dance. 

Pace, Pas, Easter^ or Pafch. 

Pack, Paft, stock, fortune^ capital. Tcut. pack. 

Pack, gangf parcel of people ; nearly the fame with 

Padde, Padclow, Paddoick,yro§-. Dzn. paddej rana. 

Paddow-hair, the first down upon nestlings. Teut.padde- 

V^AAovf-Tt^Ay Jrog-fpawtt. Teut. padde-rech. 

Paddow-ftool, mujhroom, Ttxit. padde-stoel^ boletus. 

PadelJ, Puddil, a ftnall leathern hag or ivallet for con- 
taining a pedha's wares. Teut. buydel, bulga, cru- 
mena, facculus, marfupium j hence probably Ped- 
lar. See Pedder. 

Padyane, expl. pageant. 

Page, a boy. Fr. page, petit garcon. 

Paiks, chastifementy a drubbing. \Q..piacka. Swed. picl^a, 
minutis i6libus tundere. 

Pairles, FevleSy paralytic affeRion, palfy. Ga.el. pairlis. 
¥r. paraly/ie paralyfia. 

Paift, Paft, repast. 6. Fr. paistre. 

Paitlait, Patelet, Partlait, a kind of ruff" for wearing a- 
bout the necks either of men or women \ qu^{\ paitra- 
lette i from Fr. poitral, (peftorale,) antilena, a co- 
ver for the neck and breall. 

Palice, a palace ; fometimes ufed for a city or town, as 
the Lat. arx, by the poets. 

Pall, ufed by Bp. Douglas for any rich or fine cloth, 
particularly purple. Scznd. pell, panni fcrici genus. 
Theot phellcf pannus pretiofus ; pfeller, purpura. 
Fr. palle^ poile. 

Pallach, expl.yix/ andjhort ,• round as a hall 


Pa. Pa. 

Pall at, Pallet, the head, the crown of the head or fcutt % 
perhaps a dimunitive oi poll, q. A. pallet. Whatever 
be the derivation, fays Ruddiman, I much incline to 
think that the Engl, pate and Scot, pallat are origi- 
nally the fame. 
Pallioun, Palione, Pailleoun, a pavilisn or tent. Gael. 
& \x. paiUiun. Fr. pavilion. It feems alfo to fignify 
fome kind of large mantle ox Jheet . Swed. pell, auleum 
Pallyour, Pailleour, Pallart, whoremonger^ libidinous 

fellow. Fr. paillardf fcortator. 
Pallyaidry, whoredom. Fr. paillardife, impudicitia. 
Palmer, a devout pilgrim. IQ.. palmare, from palm, con- 

tus, fuftib, correfponding with bourdon, q. v. 
Pamplette, Pamplerte, Pamphelet, (Vol. I. p. 324, 
mis-printed Pamprette) a plump young woman ; a di- 
minutive formed from Teut. pampoelie, mulier crafla. 
Pand, pawn, pledge ; alfo to pledge. 
Pane, Payne, to take pains, to exert (himfelf.) Alfo 

endeavour, labour. Fr. 
V^ng^ to cram. Swed. pung. Goth, jl)//^^, crumena. 
Pannel, culprit or malefaSior at the bar. 
Panfe, to think, to meditate, O. Yx. panfer. 
Pantand, breathing, living. 

PantoufFels,yfl«(ffl/x. Texxt. p«ntoffel, crepida, fandali- 
um ; pantoffel hont, fuber. Fr. & Ital. almoft the 
fame. Swed. /o^/. Ifl ?(7/>/rt, " proprie notat /a- 
bulam (inquit Jhre) pedibus fuppofitam, qualibus 
utebatur antiquitas. Exteri fyllabam addunt," — 
Pant is probably Theot. bant, vincula ; whence 
hinden, ligare. Another derivation is from the fame 
hant and Teut. hoof en, hoefen, hufen, unguljc, q. ar- 
tificial hoofsfajlened to the feet. 
Pantounis, Pantons, Jlippers ; probably contr. from 

Pape, Paip, the Pope. Fr. pape. Lat. papa. 
Papelarde, hypocrite. Yx. pnpelard. 
Papingay, Papingo, the bird called a popinjay or par- 
rot. Teut. Fr. &cc. papegay, pfittacus, c^. papagal- 


i>a. _— fa, 

Varage, parentage^ kindredy quality. Fr. parage^ p'ii* 
raige. Of hie parage, of great valuCf of high qua" 

Parald, Perald, apparelled^ drejfed. 

Paramour, afweet-heart or lover (of either fex.) 

Pardonar, a fellow who went about felling the Pope*s 
pardons and indulgencies. 

I*are, to empair^ lefjon, or diminifh. 

Paregale, Perigal, Peregall, equal. Fr. from Lat. q. 
percequalis ; or from patr^ par & egaly like the Lat. 

Parifjr, to make equal, to compare ; alfo expl. to pro* 

Park, to perchy to Jit down. Fr. perchery s'affeoir. 

Parlour, Parlure, converfation^ debate ; from Fr. par- 

Vnroche, pari/h. hzt. parochia^ 

Parrok, a very Jmall inclofute. Sax. pearroCy faltus, 

Parfellit, e^-pl.Jiriped. 

Parfementis, Perfementis, (Gaw. Douglas), expl. li- 
very coats wrought with divers colours, or over-laid 
with galoons or laces ; from Fr. pafjemens. Or Par- 
fementis may fignify, fays Ruddiman, partitions or 
divijions ; from Fr. partiment or partiffement. 

Parfenere, Parcener, partner, poriioner, co-heir, 

Partan, the flieU fifh called a crab. Gael. 

Particate, expl. by Skene ane rutd of land, 

Partifman, partaker, Jharer ; q. partfman. 

Parties, Pairtlcs, impartial, taking no part orfde^free, 

Parure, trimming, ornament. Fr. 

Pas, Pafche, Pais, Pes, Pafq, Paik, time of Eafler. Gr, 

Pas, (Winton), expl. divifton of a book. 

Pafe, Pais, to poife, to lift with difficulty. Pafit, Payfit, 
weighty, heavy, heaped. Pafand, Payfand, heavy, pon- 
derous ; from Fr. pefer, ponderofum effe. 

Pafementis, borders of lace. Yx. paffement, textilis lim- 
bus, vitta. See Parfementis. 

Paffingeoure, paffage-boat, ferry-boat. 

Vol. IV. X Paflance, 

Pa. Pe. 

Paflance, paJlime,fport, play. Fr. pajfetemps. 

Pat, the pret. of the verb, to put. 

Patten, the cover of the Chalice ufed in the Mafs. Lat. 

Patrellis, (Paytrellis), pi. oi poitrelly petrell, or breajl' 
leather of a draught horfe ; probably alfo fome de^ 
fenfive covering for the neck of a vjar horfe. Fr. poi- 
tral ; q. d. Lat. peciorale. Hence by corruptioa 
Paitlet, a ruff. 
Patteraris, repeaters of pater-noflers ; thofe who are OC' 
cupied in the offices of religion ; formed from the firfl: 
word of the Lord's prayer in Latin. Chaucer ufes 
the verb to patter in the fame fenfe. 
Pavene, Pavyne, Pavie, Pailvan, a grave danccy " where- 
in the women in turning round form their train in- 
to a wheel like the tail of a peacoci." Fr. pavon. 
Pauis, Pais, expl. weight ; from Fr. pefer. The for- 
mer, however, according to Ruddiman, may fignify 
a pavife or large Jhield. Fr. pavois. 
Pauchtie, expl. proud, haughty ; alfo naughty. 
Paukie, ^, cunning, artful; but without any unfair 

intention. [Teut. bats, the fame.] 
Paukis, tricks, 'toilei. See Picht. 
Pawne, Pavone, Pawine, peacock. Fr. pavon. 
Pax, a fmall crucifix ; ordained by Pope Leo IL ta be 
carried about in church and kifled by the people ; 
in allufion to the words, " My peace I give unto 
Pay, to hire. Pay it, hired. Teut. pay en. 
Pay, to heat or chajiife. Payis, Payehis, Paiks, chq/lifc' 

ment. Wei. pwyo, to ftrike. Swed. pi^h, fuflis. 
Payne, Paynim, pagan, heathen. Fr. payen, peganus. 
Payntit ; printed erroneoufly for paytent, patent. 
Pearl in, edging or border of thread-lace. 
Peafint, worihlefs perfon. See Befyne, whore, baud. 

[Gael, pea/an, diminutive fellow.] 
Peax, peace ; piece. 

Pech, Peygh, to puff ox breathe thick ; ex fono. 
Peddir, Pether, a merchant, a pedlar, " or cremar quha 
beirb ane pack or creame upon his bak ; called a 
beirar of the puddil by the Scottifmen in the realm 


Pe. Pe. 

of Polonia, qiihairof I faw, fays Skene, a greate 

multitude in the town of Cracowia, A. D. 1569." 
Pee-wyt, the green plover or lapwing ; fo called from 

its note. Teut. pie-wyt, vanellus. 
Peet-mow, the drofs or duji of broken peats, 
Peggral, Pygrall, (corrup. from beggar i q. Beggral,) 

heggarly^ pitiful, petty. 
Peil, Peir, matchy equal \ as in the phrafe •* fliew me 

the peil of that." Fr. pair. 
PeiJ, Pele, /»;'/<?, Jlrong boldy fort, originally, it would 

feem, of a conical form ; from Teut. piiLe, fedes, me- 

ta, pyrarais. 
Peild, bald ; q. peeled ; from Peil, to rob. Fr. piller. 
Peilour, Pellour, Pillour, one who acquires by pilling or 

plunder ,• from Fr. piller^ diripire. 
Peir, quay, wharf ; corrup. of Yeilffortif cation. 
'Peirles, peerleff, not tp be equalled, incomparable. Fr. 
Peirs, ajiy colour ; or a colour between red and blue. O, 

Yx. perSyperfe, cgefius, glaucus. 
Peifs, Pefs, Peife, to appeafe, calm, or affwage. O. Fr. 

paifer ; and that from Lat. pacare. 
Pellet, Pellot, a fheep fkin, particularly after the wool 

has been taken off. Fr. pelletier from Teut. pelt%. 
Pellet, Pellock, a pellet, bullet^ or ball. Fr» pelote, pi- 

Pelth, wealth, riches, goods ; perhaps from Fr. piller , 

to plunder ; as Jiealth from Ileal, and wealth from 

weal or wail, eligere. 
Peltrie, Pelthrie, trajh, goods of little value ; from 

Swed. paltor ; or a diminutive fprmcd from Pelf or 

Pelure, expl. cojll^ fur. O. Fr. pelts, fine fhort wool, 

fuch as that of lambs. 
Pen, a high mountain. Gael, beann ; from Theot. & C. 

3rit. pen, ben, ban, fan, altus, excelfus, fummitas, 
^ caput, dominus ; whence perhaps banner &c pennon ; 

alfo Goth. Fan,' deus, dominus. 
Pend, a dungeon, or apartment with a vaulted roof of 

fione. Fr. pente. As the fituation of a d^mgeon was 
originally on the top of a caftle, the name of Pend is 


Pe. ■ . Pe. 

probably of the fame origin with Pen, a high moun* 

tain. \JLzt. pinna. '\ 
Pend, Pendle, pendant ; from Lat. pendere. 
Pendicles, dependencies ; from Lat. pendere. 
FenneVf penca/e. Fr. 
Penny-mail, a trijling acknowledgment paid annually to 

the Lord of the Manor. 
Penown, pennant y a fmall banner ^ dijlinguijhed mark in 

a battle. See Pen. 
Pens, Pans, Pance, to meditate^ to hefttate. Fr. penfer. 
Penfeil, fame with Penown, penon, fmall flreamer. 
Penfy, conceited, offered ; alfo cn^X. Jinical, foppijiy. 
Penurite, penury ^ want- Lat. penuria ; q. d. penuritas. 
Pepe, Peip, a fmall voice ; alfo ufed as a verb. Fr. pe* 

pier^ pipire, pipilare, to peip or cheipe. 
Perbreik, Perbraik, (Gaw. Douglas), ejcpl. to break or 

fhatter ; perhaps from Fr. pour^ pro ; q. d. pro' 

fra&usy i. e. quafi frafta vel femifra£la, as par~boil4 

for half-boild, (or part-boild.) 
Percais, Percace, On cace, by chance. Lat. per cafum. 
Perconnon, Percunnance, expl. condition. If fo, it may 

be conne£led with Park, to perch. 
Perde, verily,' truly, furely. Fr. pardieu, per deum. 
Pere, peer, equal. Hedy pere, of equal flature. Ff , 

Pere, to pour in fmall quantity, as through a quill. 
Peregal. See Paregale, equal. Fr. 
Perfay, verily, truly. Fv.parfoy, per fidem. 
Perfurniftj Perforneift, Perfurmift, performed, accom^ 

plijhed, compleated. Fr. parfournir, aliquid explere. 
Perk, ^ar^, inclofure. Teut. perck, feptum, circus. 
Perlis. See "PziAes, the polfy. Theot. per li. 
Peronal, (in a contemptuous manner,) young girl. O, 

Fr. perronnelle. 
Perqueir, accurately, perfeBly, regularly ; q. by heart* 

Ft. par cceur ; or perhaps /i^r quire, by book. 
Perre, apparel ; by abbreviation. Lat. 
Perfowne, Peifoune, parfon, Teut. perfoony pallor pa- 



Pc P£. 

Pertelote, Partelote, proper name given to a hen. Se^ 
Paitlet, a ruff. 

Pertrik, Paitryke,^ar/r/V^^. Fr.perdrix. Teut. per- 
triis. Lat. perdix. 

Pertrublance, extreme trouble^ perturbation. Fr. ^^r- 

Pes, Pefe, peace^ homage ^ obedience ; alfo piece. 

Vete,peat ; q. pii-Jewelf from Tcut. ^«^, lacuna, palus, 
Pete-pot, hole out of which peats have been dug. 

Pettle, to nourijh or cherijh (fuch as a lanjb or any <v 
ther fondling,) from Pet. 

Pettle, (in fome counties) the plough Jinff. 

Pevage, Pevis, Pevich, Pevefs, peev'ijh ; or rather bafe,^ 
malicious^ cowardly ; alfo niggardly, covetous. Pc- 
vagely, carelefsly., Jlevenly. The origin of the wor4 
feems uncertain. 

Pewtane, Putane, whore. Fr. putain, 

Philabeg, the Jhort petticoat worn by Highlanders injlead 
of breeches. See Kilt ^c Filyb»g ; in addition to which 
may be offered, \^. fela^ fcela^ tegere. 

Phioll, (Dougl. Virgil), expl. a cupola or round vault' 
ed tower ; according to Ruddiman, from Fr. fiole, a 
vial ; as cupola is faid to come from Lat. cupa or 
cuppa, a large cup, which it refembles. 

Pibiochs, certain marches '^k. martial tunes which are pe- 
culiar to the Highlanders, and performed on the hag- 
pipes. Gael, piobaireachdf literally piping j piob, bag- 

f'^^- ... 
Tick, pitch. Picky, pitchy, like pitch. Tcut.pec/^. Lat. 


Pick- maw, a bird of the gull kind. (Larus ridibundus, 

Picht, Pycht, attached, fxed, fettled ; [Teut. pachten^ 
to take in leafe, to farm.] Alfo expl. having gold^ 
ftlver, ot precious fiones fet into (any thmg), Jludded. 

Piete, pity, compafjion, clemency ; from Fr. pitie, miferi- 
cordia. lyax.pius, which Bifliop Douglas commonly 
renders pitiful, i. e. full of pity, and compacient, 
compaffionate ; from which it appears that the Eng- 
\\^\pity ^nd piety were originally the fame. 

Pietuous, Pietuus, Pituus, />rV^ci.';, lamentable. 

PI. Pi. 

J*ig, Pyg, earthen pitcher ; has perhaps fome aflinity 

with Sax. heagf arm ilia, quafi, a broad hoop with a 

hottom. Teut. hauch^ venter ; hugen vel pogen, flec-r 

tere in concavum vel convexum : whence alfo 

Piggeis, (Dougl. Virgin), expl. JlagSy Jlreamers ,• or 

perhaps ropeSy cables ; from Fr. pQge^ or pogge^ *' the 

fheat or cable that fa,ftens the main yard on the right 

hand of the fhip." 
Pike, to pick out or choofe ; alfo tp pick or peck. 
Pilchis, gowns made ofjkin^. Sax. pylche, toga pcUicea : 

•* whence furplice, c^m^i fur -pilch." 
Pilis, Pjlis, doiufi, or Joft and tender hairs which firjl 

appear on the faces cf young men. Gyrs )^yYiSy fmall 

leaves or tops of grafs new fprung. Teut. piil^ hair. 
Pilloyyh erj the covering of a pillow, ^te. Wair. 
pin, pinnacle^ extreme point in height. Teut. pinne. Lat. 

pinna ; item, fcopus. 
Pine, Vyndjpain, grief punifhment. "Tent, piine, crux, 

dolor, pena, labor, opera. Fr. peine. 
Pine, Pyne, to take pains. He pyned himfelf, he nfed 

his hefl endeavours, Teut. piinsn^ operara dare, ela- 
. borare, adniti. 
Pingil, to flrive^ contend, labour, or work hard ,• apjia- 

rently the fame with Pine, to take painsy from Teut. 

TmntTS, formerly a part of a woman's head-drefsyohind 

of lappets. 
Pinfell, Pynfell, a fag or fireamer. Fr. penoncel, pen- 

nonceaUy frorh pennon, pinnatum fcutum, vexillum- 

Pirn, Pyrn, that part of a fpinning wheel' upon which 

the yarn is rolled up ; hence it alfo fignifies the yarn 

in that fate ; probably from its refembling « />far in 

fhape. Swed. /)^f ro«. Wei. ji^r^w, pyrum. 
Pirnit, Pyrnit, Pyrnie, friped accidentallyy or without 

intention, from inequality of the yarn. 
PifTance, /)OU'i?/*. Piflant, /(Otf^/yi//. Fr. puiffance & 

Pitail, rabble J dregs of the people. [Fr. putaile.l 

PI. I'o. 

rhh^Jlrengthy might, force. Sax. pithoy medulla. 

Viihy^Jiroftg, vigorousy energetic. 

Placads, Plakkarts, advertifemenfs, proclamations* 

Teut. plackaety decretum, infcriptio, profcriptio. 
Plage, region^ quarter y point. 1j2.X.. plaga. 
Plaid, Plad, Pled, a worjled blanket of tartan colour 
worn as a kind of mantle. Q^&l. plaid. Swed. plugg. 
Plaidin, flannel^ woollen blanket. 
Planet, Vol. II. p. 48..erroneoufl7 for Plat, model. 
VX-aX, fiat, flatly y downright, clofe. ¥r. plat. 
Plat, Hevjnny's plat, expl. the frame of the heavens ; 

setherei orbes, Crather the expanfe.') 
Plat, model, perfeB model. Teut. plat, exemplar. The 
word is now converted, with a flight variation in 
the fenfe, to plan, both in Fr. and Englifli. 
Playfere, (erroneouflj perhaps^ Playftere, playfellow, 

companion. See Fere, companion. 
Pled, Vol. I p. 324. perhaps private corner. Gael. 
plaid \s expl. amhujh. Swed. & V&wt.plaggy ftratum. 
Plede, Pleid, controverfy, difpute ,• c^. pleading. 
Plene, Plenyie, to complain. Plent, complaint. Fr. 
Plennyfs, to furnifh, to flock (a farm), from Lat. ple^ 

nus, q. A. plenare. 
Plennyffing, furniture. Outfight and Tnfight plenrtj^fT^ 
ing, utenfils (as of hnftandry) and houfhold furniture . 
Plefance, pleafurcy delight. Fr. plaifince. 
Pleugh, View, plough ; alfo the conflellation called t/r- 

fa major. 
Plouk, pimple ; corr. from Sax. pocca. 
Plowfter, to toil in mud or filth ; q. pool fir. 
Ploy, a jovial party ^ 
Pluck, the lungs, liver, and heart of a fl^eep. Teut. 

plugge, res vilis & nullius valoris. 
Plunkit, Blunkit. See Lunkit, in had condition. 
Plycht, evil condition, adverfity, mifchance, Hv/ed.plicktt 

Pbdemakrell,Pode makrell,^/if^j/ hau4; from Fr.puite, 

meretrix & maquerelle., lena. 
Podley, a fmallfifh. (Gadus viren^, Linn.) 
Poift, Puill, to urge, to pufh. ¥r. pouj/er. 
Pok, Poke, Polk, a bag otfack. 


i»o. po. 

l*ok-puds, hag-puddings^ dumplings ; the lovers of fuchj 
Pol, Pujl, to pruncy to trim. Polit, drejfed^ handled. 
Policie, Politic, the ornamented ground about a manjion- 

houfe ; from Fr. poltr^ excolere. 
Pomells, globes, q. apples ; from Fr. pomeau. 
Ponjhe, )^oy\\r\eyJightyJkirmiJ7j. O. Fr. pongneor^ one 

who fights with a pike. 
Ponnyis, weight, inHuenee. Teut. pondigh, ponderofiis ; 

pond-geldf exadiio in fingulas libras. 
Populand, Popling, bubbling up with fome degree of 
■■ noife, like boiling tuater. 
Port, Payntit as a portj erroneoufly tranfcribed for 

poytenty i. e. patent as a gate- way. 
Port, generic name for a lively tunej as the ** horfe- 

mans port." Gael. 
Portage, baggage, cargo, Fr. portage. 
Porteous, Portus, Portuas, roll of indiBments foK the 

yujlice Ayre ; alfo a breviary or prayer hook ; a 

portoun or manual. Fr. portees j q. d. les lilies por- 

tees, les hettres portees. 
Porturit, pourtrayed, painted. Fr. from Lat. 
Pofe, Pois, money in Jlore ; that whieh is laid up or 

pofed ; from Fr. pofer, feponere. 
Pofs, Poufe, to pujh't alfo to prefs fuddenly. Yi. poufjer^ 

from IjtkX. pulfare. 
Pollul, to eleSi a p erf on for hifhop who hi not in all points 

duly eligible. Poftulat, one who has been fo elecled. 
Pot, Pott, pit, dungeon ; alfo a pond, a deep place in a 

river, a viofs-hole from whence peats have been dig- 

ged. [Lat. puteus."] 
Potent, a large walking fa^ with a head in crofs form, 

Fr. potence, a crutch. 
Poteftatis, higher powers, rulers, great men. 
Pottingair, apothecary, one who deals in herbs, called in 

Fr. potagerie. Or the word may be, not imbrobably, 

a corruption of apothecary ; from Gr. 
Pottyngrie, the goods or craft of an apothecary ; his 

foch ox /kill in potagerie. 
Poveral, expl. wretched rabble ; (\. pauvraille. 
Pou, Pu, to pull. Pow, pollf the head. 


Po Pr. 

Poulaile, Pulail, expl. poultry. The fame word, how- 
ever, is alfo written Fewal. (^Barh, Bruce. ^ 

Pounfe, Punfe, Pulch, to cut^ carve, or engrave, Fr. 
poinfonner, from poinfon, pugiunculus. 

VoMvix.^ impoverijhed. ^ourtle, poverty. Fr. 

Poufte, Poufture, power, Jlrength ,- from O. Fr. pojle, 
or the infinitive pojfe ufed for potejlas or potent'ta. 
Hence the law term liege poufle, full ftrength. 

Powne, Poune, Powin, a peacock. Fr. paon. 

Pownie, a little horfe. Fr. poulain-, a colt ; q. poulnie. 

Tovf-fowdie, Jheep'bead broth ; q. poll fodden. 

Powt, Polt, ajlight ox feeble blow. 

Pojnd, Pund, Pind, to fei%e formally and detain cattle 
or goods till ranfomed. Sax. pennan, ovili inclu- 

Pojndar, Pundar, one who is employed to fevze cattle in 
trefpafs : tMq a forejler. 

Poyntalis, fichs with %vhich mujicians play upon fuch 
injiruments as the dulcimer ; from Fr. pointille ; un- 
de et virili membro nomen eft , q. d. pun&alus. 
Chaucer ufes the word for a writing pin, ftylus ; 
and Bilhop Douglas for a dagger. 

Practik, Prattik, Prattique, praBice, execution, art, (as 
of war.) Prattikes, bj contraftion Pretts, tricks ^- 
(of Law or Leger-de-maiH.^ Fr. & Id. from prett" 
vik, fallax. Tcut. praSIiicke, aftrologie. 

Prang. See Pang, to cram. Teut. prangen. 

Prattis, Pretts, abbrev. of Prattikes, tricks. Or rather 
from Teut. pratte, fallacia, argutia. He play'd him 
a prett, heferved him a trick. See Praftik. 

Pray, Spray, ^yj^.fhrub ,- alfo perhaps branch. 

Precell, to excell oxfurpafs. Lat. 

Precince, ^rm/j^j- (of aprifon.) Lat. 

Preclair, celebrated, excellent, illtijlrious. l^zt. praclar us. 

Preif, Pree, to tajie, to examine by tafling, to try ; alfo 
to prove. Teut. proeven, labris primoribus Uttingere. 

Preis, Pres, to make a violent effort, to endeavour or ef~ 
fay, to prefs. 

Preis, Pres, croud, army, battle, tumult. 

Prek, Prik, to gallop, to ride atfullfpeed; ix om prick, 
to fpur ; caufa pro cfFcdlu. 
Vol. IV. y Prene, 

Pi. Pr. 

Prene, pin ; ufed for a thing of no value. 

Prete, Preft, ready. Fr. from Lat. prajio. 

Prettis, Pretts. See Pratts, tr'tch. Teut. pratte, perU. 

Price, Preis, Pris, prize ; being originally the fame 
with price, from Fr. prix^ pretium ; alfo high ejli- 
matioTiy glory, praife. 

Prig, to importune a lower rate or price from the deal- 
er ; to haggle for a penny. Teut. preken^ orationem. 
habere ; q. d. to preach over the bargain. 

Prik, Perk, /)^rc^, long pole. 

Princes, princefs. Pryncehad, princely quality. 

Prifar, Pryfer, apprijer, valuer. Fr. prifeur. Lat. barb. 
pretiare, prettator. 

Privatie, Private, privacy. Fr. privaute. 

Proheme, preface, prologue. Gr. 

Pro-nevew, expl. great grand/on. 

Propine, gift, prefent. Fr. prop'me, drink-money, from 
Lat. propino, 

Proporte, to declare^Jlgnify, mean. Lat. barb, propor- 
tare ; whence the Engl, purport, 

Proppis, (Doug. Virgil), expl. wedges. 

Propyrticj corr. oi propriety. 

Prow, honour, reputation, profit. Fr. preux, faithful, 
honourable, full of prowefs ; proueffe, fortitude. 
Teut. proue, diarium, fportula. 

Prowit, Prov/de, powerful. O. Fr. prud, equivalent to 
Lat. probus. O. Swed. prud, magnificent. 

Prunyie, to deci, trim, or adorn ,• from Fr. brunir, po- 

Pryme, Hour of Pryme, fix o"^ clock in the morning, the 
firfl hour, according to the antient mode of compu- 
tation among ecclefiallics. Cotgrave explains Prime, 
four o"* clock in the morning in fummer, and eight in 
winter, nearly correfponding with fun-rife. The fe- 
ven canonical hours or dated times for prayer, as 
appointed by the canons of Elfric were, L Uht-fang, 
antelucanus cantus, i. e. ad tertiam a media node 
horam. IL Prim-fang, cantus matutinus, prima 
fcil. hora diei (Judeorum.) IIL Undern-fatig, can- 
tus tertianus i undern-tid, tertia hora Judeorum; 

under n 

Pr. I Pa. 

nndertt metCy matutina refeftlo, jentaculum. TV. 
Mid-daeg-fangy cantus meridianus, i. e. ad horatn 
diei fextam Judeorum. V. Nonfangy (fometimcs 
called MiJJay) cantus nonalis, ad horam diei nonam 
(Judeorum) i. e. the third hour after mid-day. VI. 
JEfen-fang, cantus vefpertinus, or vefpers, fix o'- 
clock in the evening ; called alfo the Pryme of night. 
VII. Niht-fangy cantus nodturnus, afterwards called 
eomplene ; probably nine o'clock. Notwithftanding 
this explicit arrangement, Tyrrwhyt explains 
Prime, the firft quarter of the artificial day, or from 
fix to nine in the morning ; and the editor of Hoc- 
cleve's poems, reftrifts the meaning to the laft part 
of that period. 

Pryme, (Dougl, Virg.) expl.^//r,j/?//^y«//; perhaps, 
fays Ruddiman, from h^t. premo. 

Puddie, Puddy, expl. a kind oj" cloth. 

Puddil, according to Skene, feems to fignify a pedlar^s 
pack ; or rather perhaps a hag or nuallet for contain* 
ing his wares. See Padell. 

VvHAtx, powder, Yx.pouldre. 'Pnldery t,Jprinkled, mix- 
ed ; tanquam pulvere infperfus. 

Pumice-fret, /io///Z>f^ with pomicejlone. Yx.frotter. 

Pundelane, Podlayne ; probably early rujiick ; q. pu- 
tail-ane ; from Fr. pitaulty of the fame fignification. 

Puneiffioun, punijhment ; from Puneifs, to punijh. 

Vxxxijiyfmall party. Fr. poignee (de gens) handful. 

Purches, to procurcy to acquire. Fr. pourchas, emolu- 
mentum ; alfo expl. attempt. 

Pure, Peur, poor ; to iwpoverijh. 

Purfillit, emhroideredy ornamented (^ahout the edges.) 
Fr. pourfilery bombycinum auro intexere. 

Purfillit, quafi Purfillit, Jhort-hreathed and fat ; from 
Purfy. Fr. pouj/ify fufpiriofus. 

Purtith, Puretyth, poverty. 

Purvay, to provide, to prepare, Fr. pourvoiry providere. 
The Engl, purvey is ufed in a more limited fenfe. 

VvLtviTtxiCc, fore fghty fore- caji, provijion. 

Pufown, Vn^oynCy poifon. 

Put, to throw a heavy Jlone above-hand i formerly a 


Pu. Py. 

common amufement among country people. Fr, 

Putaill, Pitail, rabble ^ idle followers of an army. Fr. 
Putain, Pewtane, loofe woman. Yx. putain, meretrix. 
Puteour, Pewteor, whoremonger ; from Fr. 
Pyat, mag-pie. Gael, pigbead. O. Eng. payannat. 
IPyfer, to whine or complain without a caufe. 
7 jkhtf having Jharp iron points ox pikes. 
Pyke-thank, Pick-thank, a flatterer^ one who curries 

favour with another by fecret informations. 
Pyle-fat, erroneoufly for Gyle or Kele-fat, a brewing 

Fjlgxjne, pilgrim. Fx.pelegrin. 

Pyllioun, a pack-faddle. Gael, pillean. [Lat. pulvinus."] 
Pyne, to vex, grieve, or torment. Teut. piinen. 
Pyfalit, Pyfal-bandyt, fecured againjl coition. 
Pyfent, Befynt, Pyfcnt limmer, light luoman. Theot, 

pifontiu, lafciviens. 
Pyftyl, Piftill, epiflle, ajhort lefjon. Lat. 


Qu. I I. Qu. 


QuAiF, coify head-drefs^ cover y or covering. Teut. ioyffe^ 

Quaikis, (Bifliop Douglas), expl. the inarticulate found 
produced by the breathing of a perfon "who is cleaving 

wood, or employed in any fuch labour. [Lat. quax' 

are ; vel ex fono.] 
Quair, quire, book. 
Qualim, ruiuy deJiruElion. Sax. cwealm mors. See 

Quandary, brown Jludy. 
Quat, Quyte, to quit, ridy free^ pay^ difcharge^ ah- 

Quavir, quiver. Quaverys, quivers. 
Queets. See Kutes, ankles. Teut. 
Queint, curious^ neat, artful ; alfo grange, wonderful.. 

Ft. cointy elegans, ** comptiis." 
Queints, voiles^ devices. [O. Fr. cointes^ QueintifTe 

in Chaucer is explained excejjive trimnefs, cunning. 
Queinth, to quench^ in the lenfe of to compofcy fettle^ or 

calm. Quenthing, Quenting, compojing, pacifying; 

alfo quenching, extingutjhing. 
Queir, Quair, choir. 
Quel, Quell, to kill. Sax. cwellan. Dan. quaelltr, occi- 

dere, ftrangulare. [Teut. quellen^ cruciare, exagi- 

tare.] Quell is alfo expl. to yell. 
Queme, exaBly^ fitly, clofely. Teut. bequceniy aptus, 

commodus 5 be-qucemlicky commode, apte ; whence 

Quent. See Queint, cKr/ow/. Quentifs, ^//fzW/?^. 
Quentacenfours, dabblers in Alchemy. 
Quere, exa6ily, plainly ; contr. from Perqueir. 
Querele, complaint. Lat. querela. 
Quern, hand-mill. Teut. queme. Dan. hand-quern. 

Sax. cweorn. Ifl. kuern, Goth. quairUf mola ma- 



Qu. — Qtf. 

Querrell, Quarel, a quarry. Fr. quarriere, 

Querrell, Quarrel, a darty an arrow. Fr. quarreau. 
Lat. barb, quadrelluniy the bolt of a crofs-bow ; fo 
called from the fhape of its head. 

Quert, (Vol. I. p. i8i.) /»r//b«, any place of confine', 
ment ; perhaps alfo JanHuary \ abbrev. from Sax. 
cwertar, career. 

Qiiefl, (fpoken of hounds), to open or cry. Fr. quejler, 
[ Teut. quifleriy inutiliter efFundere.] 

Quey, Quj, Queock, a young cow. Swed» quiga, ju-» 
venca ; dimin. of Teut. koeye, vacca. 

Queych, a wooden dr'tnhing-cup. Ger. kelch. Dan. halk, 
Theot. kelih, poculum, Teut. gheltCy poculum ma". 
jus. Lat. cal'tx. 

Queyne, Quean, young woman ; but not always, as 
Junius would have it, with an implication of vice. 
With flight variations, this word is found in all the 
northern languages ; from Goth. queWt quen, quino, 
mulier, uxor. 

Queynt, QnjxiXh^pud. tnulteb. Ch. que'tnt. Swed. quidy 
qned. Ifl. quidur. Saj^. cwid\ from Goth, quithy u- 
terus, matrix. In a few inftances, this form of the 
wrod has been adopted, after the example of Chau- 
cer, inftead of the vox nefanda in the moderi^ 

Quha, Quho, ivho. The ufe of ^uh inftead of Wh^ or 
Hwy is a curious circumftance in Scottifti orthogra- 
phy, and feems to be borrowed immediately, or at 
firft hand, from the Gothic, as written by Ulphilas 
in the fourth century. In his Gothic Gofpels, com- 
monly called l^he Stiver Book, we find about thirty 
words beginning with a chara£ler (O with a point ill 
the center), the power of which has never been exaft- 
ly afcertained. Junius, in his Gloflary to thefe Gof- 
pels, affigned to it the power and place of :^«; Stiern- 
hielm and others have confidered it as equivalent to 
the German, Scandmavian, and Anglo-Saxon Hw ; 
and laftly, the learned Jhre, in his Suio-Gothic 
Gloflary, conjeftures that this charafler did not a- 
grec in found with either of thefe, but " fonum inter 

Qu Qn. 

<&», & qu medium habuifle videtur." Unluckily htf 
purfues the fubjedl no farther, otherwife he could 
fcarcelj have failed to fuggeft the Scotrifh ^uh ; 
particularly as a great proportion of thefe thirty 
Gothic words can be tranflated into Scottifti by no 
other words but fuch as begin with thefe three let- 
ters ; ex. gr. Goth, qua or hwa^ Scot. quha. Goth. 
quii or h'vois^ Scot, quhats, (cujus.) Goth. qua%uh 
or hwa^iuhy Scot, quhafo, quhafoever . Gpth. quathro 
or hwathro, (unde), Scot, quhar-frae or quhair^ 
thrae. Goth, quan oxhwariy Scot.quhan. Goth, quar 
or hwary Scot, quhar or quhair. Goth, quadre^ qua- 
tkar, or hwadre, hwatharl Scot, quhider, quhether. 
Goth, queila or hweila, Scot, quhil or quhyle. Goth. 
quileiks or hwileiks, Scot, quh'ilk. Goth, quhait or 
hwait, Scot, quheat. Goth, qneit or hweit, Scot, quhite. 
When thefe Gothic words, therefore, come to be a- 
gain mentioned, it will be no great innovation, upon 
the authority of Jhre, to adopt fome middle found 
between the qu and hw. But, notwithftanding of 
its ftriking co-incidence with the Scottilh quh, to a- 
void any charge of hypothetical partiality, a diffe- 
rent element or combination of letters fliall here be 
affumed, viz. Gw, a found which appears to furnifli 
an apology for Ulphila's having coined a letter un- 
known in the Greek and Ro'man alphabets ; a found 
too which occurs not unfrequently in the antient 
language of Germany ; ex. gr. gw^ire, verus ; 
gwal/ichi, potentia, gloria, (this word ferves in fome 
degree to dire£t us to the found, it being alfo writ- 
ten cuolichiy) gvjalUchon, glorificare ; gwerf, fymbo- 
lum, conjeftio ; gwiurtpro, ignitorum. When this 
harfh found gave way almoft every where to the hw, 
(and at leafl in one inflance to qu,^ the charader 
which Ulphilas had invented to exprefs it, fell of 
courfe to be laid afide. In Scotland alone the found 
was preferved, and appeais to this day under the 
form of ^ub. 

A learned friend obferves, that, this Gothic charac- 
ter " appears to be the antient ^olic Digamma af- 

j^ rated 

Qu Qa. 

pirated In pronunciation. The exaft found of the 
digamma is not properly afcertained, but, from the 
letters into which it would appear to have been af- 
terwards refolved in the progrefs of the language, 
it may be conjeftured that the original found of it 
was a pretty ftrong JV ; this, with an afpirate, 
would be exa£lly the old Scotch qub^ and the Gothic 
chara£ler of Ulphilas. If, as has been fuppofed 
with confiderable probability, the Gothic tongue 
was from the fame ftem as the antient Pelafgic, 
(the root of the Greek,) it is not to be wondered at, 
that the fimple Gothic, which had undergone few 
changes by the progrefs of civilifation, fhould re- 
tain to a very late period this letter, though it was 
gradually fuperfeded in fome of the more refined 
dialefts that fprung from the fame fource." 

** May it not be conjedlured alfo, that this letter is 
derived from the Hebrew j^in ? The old form of that 
letter is fuppofed to referable an eye or fountain, an 
objeft well denoted by the Gothic charafter of Ul- 
philas. The pronunciation of the Hebrew Ain is a 
matter of great difpute ; but, if we fuppofe it to be 
an afpirated O, that before an A founds almoft the 
fame as our W, or the Scotch ^ub.^* 

Quhack, afevere blow ; alfo to hack or cut, 

Quhail, ivhale. Sax. & Scarid. hiuale. 

Quhame, whom. Goth. Gofp. du gxvamma, ad quem. 

Quhan, w/:en. Goth, gwaji, Lat. quando. 

Quhaing, Quhing, thctig^ cord. Sax. thwcmg, lorum. 

Quhais, ivhofe. [Goth, givais, cujiis.J 

Qiihang, a 'nrge, or rather a long face. See Quhaing. 

Qnhaup, Quhaip, a cut lew ; ex fono. 

Q^hvixe, Onh^iv, luhere, whiiher. GotU. givar. Lat. 
quo. John H. 34. gvcar laghidedun in ? quhare Inyed 
ye him ? 

Quhafo, whoever. Goth. ^■a'i7i5£;^, quifqtie. Mar. vi. 7. 
tunns gwa%uh, duos quofque. 

Qiihat, what. Goth, gwn, gwathar^ quid. 

(Viihalkyn, Qiihatten, what k'wd of? [Swcd. huadav. 
Goth. giv:iihiv:-i^ quomodo.] 

•i ■ Qjha've, 

Qa Qu. 

Quhawe, Gaw, quagmire. 

Quheil, wheel. Sax. hweol^ rota. 

Quheife, Quheifle, to make a noife in breathing, like an 

afthmatic perfon. Sax. hvoeofan. 
Quheite, Quhete, nvheat. Goth, gwaitety triticum, fru- 

menti granum. John x. 24. 
Quhelm, to overwhelm. Ifl. hilma, obtegere. 
Quhene, Quhune, Quhoync, a fmall number, a fevj» 

Teut. weynigh, pauci. ' 

Quhew, to whijile ; the noife produced by fomething 

pajjing through the air with 'uetocity ; ex fono. 
Quhey, whey Sax. hwegy ferum la£tis. 
Quhid, to whijk ox Jkip about. 
Quhidder, to move about quickly upon an axis, tike the 

arms of a wind-mill. 
Quhig, an inferior fort of whey. See Quhey. 
Quhile, while, until, a f pace of time. Goth, gweila, mo- 
mentum, fpatium temporis. 
Quhilk, which. Goth, gweleiks. Lat. qualis ; from 

gue, cui ; & leiks, fimilis ; which has the appearance 

of being the origin alfo of the Latin term. 
Quhilom, fame time ago, heretofore ; commonly alfo 

written umquhile. Sax. hwilon, quondam ; quafi, 

while-yane or gane ; from Goth, gweila, tempus. 
Quhine, Quhyne, to whine, to lament. Goth, quainon, 

dolere, lugere, plangere. Dan. quiner, to fqueak. 

Swed. quida, ejulare. Ifl. kuida, malum metuere. 

Armor, queini. Ir. cuinum, nearly of the fame fig- 

Quhinge. See Quhine, to whine or lament. 
Quhinger, Quinyear, hanger, dagger. 
Quhins, whins, fur%e. [Wei. chwyn, noxia herba fua 

fponte fuccrefcens. Gael, guin, Iharp pain ; guineach, 

prickly fores.] 
Quhinnis, Quhynnis,^o//^j, teflicles. 
Quhip, to whip, to flrike fuddenly or quickly. Sax. 

hweopan, flagellare. 
Quhip, Wipp, Wipe, to bind about. Goth, wippianf 

coronare, pratexere. 
Quhippis, crowns y garlands. Goth, waipf, coronae. 
Quhippel. See Fippel, to whimper. Dan. 

Vol. IV. Z Quhir. 

Quhlr. See Quhidder and Bir, of the fame fignifica-* 

Quhow, Whow, how ! as an Interjeftion. 

Quhoyne, Quhune. See Quhene, a fmall number. 

Quhraiken, Whlrkened, fuffocatedy querkened ; with 
fome relation probably to Sax. cwertetiy career j or 
]fl. kyrkia^ fuffocare. 

Quhrjne, to murmur^ to whine. See Quhine. 

Quhyflel, to exchange^ as a guinea for its value in fil- 
ver. Teut. luijjelen. Fris. wixelen. Swed. waxla, 
permutare, numtno majores pretii accept© minutam 
pecuniam per partes reddere. 

Quhyflelar, a changer of money ,• alfo a white bonnet, 
i. e. a perfon employed privately to raife the price 
of goods fold by auftion. Teut. wijfeler^ qui quseftum 
facit faenerandis permutandifque pecuniis. Both the 
verb and noun occur in the Scottifli A£ts of Parlia- 

Quhyte, to cut (wood) with a inife or whittle. 

Quhyte, hypocritical^ difjemhling under the colour of 
candour ; as a man is faid to h& fair fpohen \ literal- 
ly white, from Goth, gweit, albus. 

Quhyt-ftainis, Quhit-ftanys, whetjlones^ 

Quhyttrit, a weafel i probably from Teut. wittern, 
odorare, odorari, oderem fpargere. 

Quytterand, Quhitterand, warbling ; alfo moving quick- 
ly ^ as the wings of a bird, or the tongue of a ferpent. 
[Teut. quettereuy to fpeak with a glib tongue.] 

Quinter, a ewe in her third year ,• quafi, twtnter, be- 
caufe her fecond year is compleated. 

Quod, Quoth, /aid, fays. Theot. quad, ait, dicit, dixit. 
Goth, quitan, dicere. 

Quok, did quake, trembled. 

Quy. See Quey, a young cow. 

Quyte, to abfolve, to difcharge, or pay. 

Quyte-claim, to renounce or difown. 


Ha. .1 Ra. 


Ra, Rae, a roe. Rais, Raes, roes. Swed. rae, cerva. 

Ra, Rea, the fail yard. Teut. ree. Ifl. raa, antenna. 

Rabandis, Raibandis, the fmall lines which make the 
fail fafi to the yards. Angl. bj corruption roh- 

Rabil, a diforderly or confufed train. Swed. rahhus^ tu- 

Rachis, Ratchis, hounds. Sax. raecc. Ifl. rakke, ca- 

Rad, Radd, /3/r^/J, terrified. Dan. r«f^£, timorous. 
Swed. rcedas^ timere ; rceddn, terrere, terrefacere. 

Rad, Redd, to (idvife ; alfo fubftantively for advice, 
Scand. rada^ confilium alicui dare. Goth, raginan. 
Scand. & Sax. ned, confilium. 

^a.d. judged, condemned. Sax. araddan, decernere. 

Rad, Rade, rode, did ride. Ifl. reid. 

Rade, Raid, Rode, expedition, invafion, or inroad. Sax. 
rade, invafio, infultus, irruptio. 

Rade, Raid, road for fhips. Teut. reed, fl.atio navium. 

Rade. See Ray, violent, harfh, wild. 

Raddour, violence, luildnefs. See Reddour. 

Raddoure, Radnefs,y^flr, timidity. Dan. raedhed. 

Raffal, RafFel, doe or huck-fkin ; q. rae-fell. See Fell, 

P.aflPan, raving or roving, noify, jovial. 

Ragmen, Ragment, a written account, difcourfe or po- 
em, a rhapfody, a colleftion full of variety. Rag- 
mans row, defined by Ruddiman, *♦ a colleftion of 
all thofe deeds in which the nobility and gentry of 
Scotland were tyiannically conftrained to fubfcribe 
allegiance to Edward I. of England, anno 1296 ; and 
which were more particularly recorded in four large 
rolls of parchment, confifting of thirty-five pieces 


Ka, I Ra. 

joined together, kept in the tower of London ; and, 
for the moft part, extant in Prynne's third vol. of 
Colleftions. The word, as ufed bj Bifhop Douglas 
and others, feems to correfpond with the Ital. ragi- 
otiamento ; a difcourfe or argunaent." But, it may be 
aiked, (with Juflice Barrington,) What hath a dif- 
courfe or argument to do with fuch a lift of names 
as the Ragman's row ? Tliis learned commentator 
explains the Engl, ragman^ a blank recognifance en- 
tered into by perfous who were threatened with 
profecutions, and who being thus in the King's 
power, might be looked upon as utterly ruined, and 
in rags. He acknowledges this, however, to be ra- 
ther a whimfical derivation. Mr. Macpherfon thinks 
it may be a corr. of Lat. pergamenumt parchment. 
Perhaps rather from Sax. areccean^ enumerare. 
Teut. rekey coUeftio, reparatio, inftrudio, ordo, fe- 
ries ; & man^ fcelus. 

Raid, (Raird), adventure, atchievement, piece ofhufinefs^ 
See !|lade. 

Raif, to rave, to /peak incoherently. 

Raif. See Refe, to rob or plunder. 

Raik, Rayk, a walk, range, or courfe. Sheep raik, a 
Jhe^p pajiure or walk. A long raik, a conftderable 
length of way. See next article. 

Raik, Rake, Rayk, to walk, to range^ or rove about ; 
to travel. To raik on raw, to go ox proceed in order. 
Rakand home, going homeward with a long Jlep. 
Swed. reka, vagari, expatiari ; racka, curfiiare. 

Rail, a woman's jacket, or fome fuch part of a woman's 
drefs ; called alfo a collar-body. 

Rainfe, Rynfe, to rinfe or clean (a veffel or bottle.) 
Goth, hratnjan, mundare. 

Raip, rope. Goth, raip, corrigia, vinculum. 

Raith, expl. quarter ef a year / perhaps corr. of feird 
or Jeirth, fourth. 

Raith, Raithlie, quickly, hajlily. Teut. rade, repenti- 

nus. Goth, rather, facilis. Thus the Engl, fay 

" Rath fruit" for early fruit. ** Rath wine," that 

which is made of grapes gathered before full matu- 

' rity ; hence rather, potius, i, e. citius. 


Rak, Rack, Rauk, Rawk, Rolk, a fogy thick mijiy or 

drizlitig rain. Sax. racu. Dan. raekiay pluvia, unda, 

humor. Teut. ?oof>&, vapor. The word alfo fignifies 

the vifcous humour in fore eyes. 
Rale, Reck, care ; to care for. Sax. reCf cura ; reccan. 

Swed. rekoy & Tfl. rakiuy curare. Hence Rak is alfo 

ufed for account^ mattery reckoning. 
Rak, Rakket, blowy box on the ear. Ifl. rek^ pello. 
Rakk, Wrack, wreck. Swed. raky bona naufragorum 

in littus ejefta. 
Rakket, See Rippet, noifcy tumult ; alfo expl. hlow, 

box on the ear. 
Raklefs, Recklefs, carelefsy rafh. Sax. recceleasy ne- 

Rakle-handet, Hand- raky 1, fame with Raklefs, raf). j 
Rakligence, Racklefsnefs, careleffnefs . 
Ralis, Raylis, expl. nets ; perhaps from Teut. raveleny 

'^^'iSyfpritigs, gujloes forth y or runs. [Fr. roulery to 

Rame, to Jhout, cry oloudy roar. Sax. hreamaUy cla- 

mare ; whence Engl, rame or ream, loud weeping. 

Probably this word may have fome connexion with 

.the recitation of antieiit metrical legends. 
"Kammdyfyrubsyfrnall boughs or branches. O. Fr. ra- 

Rammafche, colleSled. Fr. ramaffSy colleclus, 
Rammel, a mixture of common hear and barley. 
Rammekins, a difj made of eggs, cheefe, and crums of 

hready mixed in the manner of a pudding. 
Ramp, Stramp, to trample. Dan. trampe, calcare. 
Rampage, to prance about in a fury ; fi'om Ramp. 
Rander, to render. Fr. rendre, fo pronounced. 
Randoun, the fwift courfcy flight, or motion of any 

thing. Fr. randon, profluvium ; alfo to gallop ox run y 

to mcvefwftly. O. Fr. ran doner. 
Rands, ^rffl^j of different colours.]yt, freaked ov 

friped. Swed. rand, linea ; randyt tygy pannus vir- 

gatus ; whence perhaps tartan.^ 
Randy, low worthlefs noify perfon, itfamous fcoldery 

impudent flurdy beggar ; in the plural number, 


crommonly coupled with tinkers. [Teut. rattdetiy tO 
Rane, Rayne, Rain, to cry the fame thing over and O' 
ver. Prov. ** You're like the gowk, you have not 
a rane but one." Ifl. hryn, exclamare. See Rame. 
Rang, reigned ; paft t. of Ring, to reign. 
Rangald, Ringald, Rangle, rabble, mob, crowd, multi- 
tude ; q. thrnngle ; from Sax. thrang, turba ; 
thringan, comprimere. According to Ruddiman, 
*' from Engl, ran or run, and gild, fodalitium ; q. d. 
the running together, or concourfe of people : Or from 
ring, becaufe fuch crowds commonly (land in a ring 
or circle. Teut. ringelen, gyrare." The word may 
have fome affinity with Ifl. raun, injuria ; rangur, 
iniquus. In Barbour it fometimes alfo fignifies rank 
ot condition, as *' of fmall rangale," of low rank. 
Range, (Gaw. Douglas), a company (of hunters.) 
Ranle-tree, Rantle-trie, Ran-tree, the name oi a parti- 
cular hiam in the roof of a cottage ; probably the 
roof- tree, from which the cruik or crook chain is 
, fufpended. See Rantrie. 

Rautrie, Rown-tree, the mountain afh ; efteemed a pre- 
fervative againft witch-craft ; whence the name ; 
Teut. rufie, & ifl. allruna, magus, maga. 
Ranungard, Ranygald, clamorous quarrelfome perfon ; 

from Randy; alfo expl. renegado. 
Ranys, loud repetitions of the fame thing, See Rane. 
Raplock, Raplock, Roploch, coarfe woollejt cloth ; 
made from the worfl: kind of wool, home-fpun, and 
not dyed. O. Engl, ray feems to have nearly the 
fame fignification. Swed. rrt/>/> indicat colorem qui 
inter flavum &. caefium medius efl:. Lat. ravus. Teut, 
rouive laken, rough cloth. 
Rare, Rair, to roar. Sax. raran, fremere, rugire. 
Rafch, to dafh or clafh. Rafchis, fubftantively the clafjj- 

ing of arms ; ex fono. 
"Rafch, rujh. Sax. rife, fcirpus. Goth, raus, aVundo. 
Rafe, Race, to pull ov pluck (out.) Fr. aracher. 
Rat, a f cratch, a furrow ; alfo to make deep fcratches, 
traEis, or imprefjions, as by dragging fome fliarp 
point along the ground. Fr. grater. Teut. krati><,eu, 
fcalpo, frico. Swed. rad^ linea, oido, 


Ra. Rd. 

Katt, Ratt ryme, a poem, or verjes repeated hy rote* 

Fr. par routine. 
Rattouns, Rattons, rats. Teut. ratons. 
Rauchtis, Rattis,^j//owf ; the plural of Raucht, raftf 
ov frame of wood. Teut. racker^ lidlor. Dan. recke^ 
Rauchtyr, injirument of torture. See Rauchiis. 
Raucht, reached ; as taught from teach. 
Ravellyt, Reulit, entangled. Teut. ravelenj intricare. 
Rauk, hoarfe. Fr. rauque. Lat* raucus. 
Rauk, Rax, to Jireatch, to draw out in length or breadth, 
Rauking, eajily Jlreatched. Teut. recken. Goth, ra- 
kian^ tendere, extendere, expandere. 
Raw, a row or rank. On raw, in order. 
Raxes, kitchen implements upon which the fpit is fupport- 

ed ; andironsy racks. 
^"^J i Jongy poem ; from rhyme ^ as Grew for Greek. 
Ray, Ree, rude^ mady wild. To go ray, to go mad ; 
f^om^Sax. rethy ferox, fsevus, infeftus ; whence red- 
wodcy ftark-mad. 
Rayayt, expl. terrified \ fame with Rad. See Ray. 
Rayne. See Rane, to hatp on the fame Jlring. 
Reak, Reik (out) to rigg or equippy to adorn. 
Real, royal. Sp. Realte, Reawte, Ryawte, royalty. 

Ream, cream ; to Jkim off the cream. Ifl. riomCy flos 

Reawis, Royis, kings y royal perjonages. Fr. roy. 
Rebald, Ribauld, rafcaly ruffian. Fr. rihauld. 
Rebaldale, Rybald dale, rafcally company. 
Rebaldie, Rybaldy, vulgarity of converfation. 
Rebeck, a mujical injirument. Fr. 
Rebut, Rebute, to repulfsy refufey difcourage. ¥t. rehu- 

ter, repellere, rejicere. 
Recerfe, to fcarch carefully. Fr. re-chercher. 
Reck. See Rak, care, to care. 
Recollis, colle£iionSy records. Fr. recueil- Lat. reeoU 

Recordar, a/mall common flute. 

Recriant, recreanty cowardly, crying out for mercy ; " a 


Re. Re. 

word of fuch infamy, that Glanville avoids the very- 
naming of it." Fr. 

Recule, to recoyl or give away, Fr. reculer, 

Recure, to recover. 

Recuvcrance, recovery ; from Recure, to recover. 

Red. See Rad, advice^ to advife. Will of rede, confilii 

Red, Redd, Rede, to unravel^ to feparatey to clear aivay* 
Swed. rcedceoy liberare ; rcedioy & Ifl. rydioy terram 
incultam excifis arboribus demtifque faxis ad cultum 
redigere ; figuratively, to compofe quarrels. Hence 
Redding blow or Redders part, viz. a blow or ha- 
tred from both parties. 

Reddour, Raddoure, violence^ vehemencyy Jluhhornneft . 
Fr. roideur, impetus ; which has probably fome af- 
finity with Sax. rethnejjey ferocitas, faevitia ; reth- 
mody afper animi. 

Rede, to dready to entertain apprehenjions. Fr. redouter. 

Redomit ; expl. houridy encircled ; and hence bedeckt, 

Redreft, redeemed. 

Red-wod, Reid-wude, raging mad. Sax. reth. Ifl. 
reidcy ferox, afper ; & Sax. wody infanus. 

Ree, a fmall riddle larger than thejieve ,• alCo ufed as a 

Ree, light headedy cra%y ; like a perfon not quite reco- 
vered from drunkennefs ; nearly the fame with Ray. 
Sax. hreohy ferus animo. 

Refe, Reif, the itch, fcurvy. Sax. hreo/e^ fcabies, fca- 
biofus ; whence Rough. 

Refe, Reif, Reve, now Greve, or Grieve, overfeer, 
correfponding with Engl, bailiff; originally a col- 
leBor ov fuperintendant of the King^ s revenue within a 
particular diJlriB ; according to Spelman, from Sax. 
reajian or ge-reajian, rapere. See Greve. This word 
is alfo expl. by Lord Hailes, robber. 

Refe, Reif, Reive, to rob, to pillagCy to force away. 
Sax. reajian. Teut. raffen. Goth, raubiany rapere, 
fpoliare. Swed. raf^ vulpes. Reft, robbed or hereafo 
ed of, 


Re. Re. 

Rcfe,-Reif, Reifery, rohheryy raplney plunder, pillage. 

Sax. reaf, fpolia. 
Refell, to refute^ to repell. 
Refer, Rever, Reiver, rohhevy plunderer by fea or land. 

Sax. reajere, raptor. 
Refer, ts retute, to rehearfe. Lat. refero. 
Refrane, Refranyhe, to rejirain, O. Fr. refraigmr. 
Refute, refuge. Yv.fuite, flight. 
Regale, the privilege now called a regality. 
Regiment, rukyfyjlem of rules. Lat. 
Regrattour, regrater, forejialler. Fr. rc-grateur, qui 

iterum fcalpit. 
Regulere, rule, pattern^ archetype. Lat. 
Rehatoure, (GaW. Dougl.) feems to mean mortal enc" 

my ; from Fr. rehair^ to deteft. 
Reik, Reke, ^ek,fmoke. Sax. rec. Ifl. reikr, fumus. 

Goth, riquisy tenebrge. Teut. riecken, halare, fpi- 

rare; whence AuldReikie, a nickname of Edinburgh, 

Alfo ufed as a verb. 
Reik, a blow ; variation of Rak ; q. v. The fame 

word is alfo ufed for to reach. Teut. retken, expot- 

Reik, Rink, race, courfe. ^ace, forte (inquit Skinner) 

a Belg. rennen, q. d. rence, elifo propter euphoni- 

am «. 
Reiklefs. See Rackiefs, carelefs^ raJJj. 
Reile, Rele, to roll. To gar one's ene reil, to tnaie bis 

eyes roll or rowl. 
Reile, a quick dance performed commonly by three or four 

perfons ; probably from Teut. ra'ueleny circumcur-. 

fare, concurfare, intricare. 
Reime, expl. to fquall, to roar j with an allufion per- 
haps to the manner in which metrical legends were 

recited. See Rame. 
Reird, dm ; alfo to call out aloud, to fpeak loudly. 

'R.eitdit,refounded. Sax. reordian, loqui, fermocinari: 

fubftantively noife, uproar, clamour. Sax. reord, 

fernio, loquela. 
RcilTel, to adl in a nofy manner. Teut. ryjfelen, ftre- 

VoL. IV. A a pere, 

Re. Re. 

pere, flrenitare ; like a man hewing down ryfs of 

Reifl, tojland rejlive^ tojiop ; originally the fame with 

Reift, a prop or fupporter. Reiftis, door hinges. 
Reiftyt. See Rilert, dried by the heat of the Jire^ or of 

the fun. 
Rek. See Reik,^«oi^. Sax. rec. 
Rek. See Rak, to care for, or regard ; alfo to reach. 
Religioun, Religious, religious orders, religious foundam 

Releifch, to releafe, to let go, or fet at large, Fr. re- 

Releve, to return with freJJj vigour, to renew, to reco- 
ver in Jlrength ; alfo to raife, to promote. Ff . rele- 

Relyie, to rally. Relyit, rallied. Fr. rallier. 
Remanand, lajling^ permanent. Lat. 
Reme, to throw up a cream, or white frothy to foam. 

Remand tais, (Gaw. Dougl.), foaming bowl. Sax^ 

ream^ cremor. 
Remede, remedy ; alfo to heal or relieve. Fr, 
Ketnorcfe, ;f(? recoiled, to remember, Ccommonly with re» 

gret^ to caufe remorfe. Fr. 
Remyllis, expl. blows. 

Renegate, renegado, apojlate from Chriflianity. 
Reng, Ring, reign, to reign. Lat. regno. 
Renge, Reyng, government, rule, reign. 
Rengye, Rcnye, the rein of a bridle ; alfo to bridle. 
Renk, Rene, man, per/on. Sax. rink, homo ; from 

recke, athleta. 
Renk, Rink, a courfe or race. To rink up and down, 
to run about. Swed. re^rna, currere ; renna till rings, 
haftiludium exercere ; rekuy vagari. According 
to Ruddiman, from Teut. rencken, fledlere ; " as the 
word properly lignifies a tour, a compafs, or wind- 
ing, and not going fir aight on." 
Renfe, Rhenifh. 

Renye; ApiUrenye, a common name ior fouthern-wood 
in feveral of the northern counties of Scotland j the 


Re Re. 

origin of the term unknown, if it be not a corrup- 
tion of the Fr. name abrotatif Lat. abrotanum^ q. a- 
hrO'tainyey apel-trainye^ Sec. This may perhaps be 
the meaning of Apill-renyeis, (Vol. I. p. 377.) 
where it is explained;, as by Lord Hailes, Jirings of 

Repair, refort^ company ,• alfo to return. \0. Fr. r^- 

Reparrell, to repair or refit. Fr. repare'iller. 

Repaterit, Repatirrit, fedy took refrejhment. Fr. rt' 

Re-plege, in the words of Skene, ** quhen ony man, 
be vertue of his awin jurifdiftion, reduces to his 
awin court, his awin n[ian, fra ony uther mannis 
court, and leaves ane pledge or cautioner behind 
him for due adminiftration of juftice." See Cul- 

Repudy, quali, repudiative,for the ptirpofe of divorcing. 
Fr. repudier. 

Refewyt, i. e. Refevyt, referved ; q. refaved. 

Refp, Rifp, a kind of coarfe grafs^ or rufh. Sax. rifc^ 
fcirpus. Ruddiman miftakes the meaning entirely. 

Refpirature, Re-fpiratour, re-infpirer. Fr. rtfpirateiir. 

Reflet, a place of refuge^ refidence^ abode. To refett, 
to receive, barbour, or entertain ; from Fr. recepte^ 

Refurfe, to rife upy to fpring tip. Lat. refurgere. 

Rethor, rhetorician^ orator. Rethorie, eloquence. 

Rethnas, exp\. prey ? (]Sax. rethnej/e, ferocitas.] 

Retour, Retowre, to return, to make a return (m writ- 
ing.) Fr. retour. 

Retreand, expl. retreating ; by abbr. or corr. 

Retreit, to refcindy to reverfe. Fr. retraSter ,• alfo to re^ 
fume the confideration of. 

Reuk, Rauk,/o^, mifly vapour. See Rak and Reik. It 
may alfo iignify odour y flavour^ fo^^^^t good or bad ; 
from Teut. reucky rauchy evaporatio ex materia fe- 
miufta, five odorifera fit, necne. 

Reunde, Roond, a fhred of cloth. Ifl. & Teut. rand, 
margo, exttemitas. 


Re. Re. 

Reunde, Roond, to grindf to produce a dtfagveeahle noife, 
as by grinding. 

Rew, to pity, to have compaffion. Sax. hreowan^ mife- 
reri. The word fignifies now to repent. 

TXQy,Jlreet, a line, a row. Fr. rj/f, via, platea. Teut. 
reihe, ordo ; row or Scott, raw. 

Rewaird, portion, patrimony. Reward, in Chaucer, 
fignifies regard, as in the phrafe, ** in regard of.'* 

Rewelynis, Rullions^ Rillings, in the days of Biiliop 
Douglas, figriiiied a kind of brogues ov JJjoes made of 
undreffed hides, with the hair on them. Originally 
they might be only broad thongs or ftripes of raw 
Ijide rolled about the feet, quafi, rollings ; unlefs we 
were to fuppofe the term to be a corruption of Fr. 
poulaines, i. e. fouliers a poulaine, a l^ind of rt^de 
landals made of horfe leather ; from poulain, a colt,' 
q. prulains. The brogues now commonly in ufe, o- 
therwife called fingh foled fhoes, are wholly of the 
fame material, imperfedly tanned. 

RewmB.-ff-rt//;/, kingdom. O. Fr. reaume. 

Rewth, Reuth, Ruth, pity, compafjion. Sax. hreowe,^ 

Rewthfull, Reuthfull, compaJJionate,full of pity. 

Rewthlefs, Reuthles, unmerciful, cruel, harflj. 

Rewfcand, expl. rouzing. 

Reve. See Refe, Reif, /ieword, overfeer. 

Revele, revelling, merry making ; properly, joining in 
intricate dances i ivoai Tent, ravelen. Skmner and 
Ruddiman derive it from Fr. reveiller, becaufe re- 
vels ^re commonly performed in the night. See 

Revengeans, revenge, vengeance. 

Rever. See Refere, robber, pirate. Revery, 7-olbery. 

Revcrs, rovers, a term ufed in fliooting with the bow 
and arrow. 

Revery, noife, din ; the crackling and roving motion 
of flames ; with allufion perlraps to Revelry ; ac- 
cording to Ruddiman, from Fr. refverie, raving. 

Reveftre, a chapel or clofet. Fr. revcflitr. Jlngl. vejlry^ 


Ri. Ri. 

where the facred veftments are kept. Reveft, toi 
cloath ; perhaps with a change of drefs. Fr. reve- 

Riach, expl. dun^ ill-coloured. Swed. rnpp, ravus. 

Rial, Ryal, royal. Ryawte, royalty, l^iolyie, princely 

Rib, to turn the foil with the plough in an itnperfe£i 
manner ; q. to ripp. 

Ribbalddale, Rebald-dale, worthlefs clafs of people^ rah~ 
hie. Ifl. rihbalder, the? fame. See Rebald, ruffian. 

Rice^ Rys, Ryfs, branches of ha^el, or fitch like ; bram- 
ble btifhes, twigs of trees. Tcut. rys, virga, 
lus ; virgulta, farmenta, ramalia. This word is of- 
ten confounded with refh or refjjes, ruflies, of quite 
a different origin. 

Richtwis, now perverted to righteoiir. Sax. riht-wis, 
fapiens, right wife, 

Richt vow, juf now. Richt {wa,ju/lfo. 

Rickettis, (redlius Rickellis), finull heaps ; dimin. of 
Rick or Ruck, cumulus. 

Rife, common, plentiful. Teut. riif. Sax. ryfe. Swed. 
rif frequens, largus, copiofus. 

Rife, Ryffe, to rive, tear, rend. Ryffen, riven^ tern. 

Rift, to belch. Lat. e-ruBare. 

Rigging, the top or upper part of the roof. Sax. hricg, 
taftigium, dorfum ; whence it alfo fignifies hack or 

Rigg-widdy, the rope or chain by which a cart is fup- 
ported upon the horfes rigg or back ; originally a 

Higgling* the male Cof any beaft) that lias but one tcf- 
ticle. Engl, ridgelmg. 

Rike, Ryke. potetit, rich. Sax. rvc. Swed. rik. ]fl. 
rikur. Goth reiks, potens, validus, fortis ; dives, 
.opulentus. This feems to be the natural order of 
the fignification, " comme ceux, qui avoient le plus 
de force, amaflerent par leur brigandage le plus de 

Rikkel, Rickle, Ruckle, a fmall heap. Teut. richel, 


RI. ^ Ro. 

repagalum. Sax. rica^ acervus ; hreac^ cumulus j 

alfo to heap up, or gather into heaps. 
Ring, reign, kifigdoniy region ; alfo to reign. 
Ring-fangis, probably the tunes of the ring-dances ; or 

fuch as were lung hj a number of people Handing 

in a ring. 
Ringle-eyed, expl. having iveak blue eyes ; or rather 

fuch as have a greater proportion of white than u- 

Rink. See Renk, race ; alfo a circle round the goal in 

the game of curling. Rink-roume, place of tour- 
Riot, routjfenjlingy banqueting, innocent mirth. 
Rip, Reip, a handful of unthrefhed corn. 
Ripe, tojiir, tofearch^ to probe^ to examine, Teut. rep- 

peUf movere, agitare. 
Rippet, fame with Rakket, tmnulty dijlurhance. 
Ripples, a weaknefs in the back and reins. 
Rifeit, Rizer'd, dried ox parched in the heat of the fun,. 

Fr. reffare, burnt up with drouth ; rejforer, to dry 

by the heat of the fun. 
Rifp. See Refp, a kind of coarfe grafs. 
Roche, rock. Fr. rocher. 
Rockat, a furplice or loofe upper garment. Swed. rack- 

lin, veftis linea facerdotum, quse propriis fuperin- 

duitur. Fr. rochet. Teut. rock, veftis exterior. 
Rocklay, a coarfe cloak or mantle ; q. d. rough-cleid. 

It may alfo fignify a mourning cloak or garment. 

Teut. rouw-kleed, veftimentum funebre, from rouwe, 

Rode, Rood, Rude, the crofs, or, according to Junius, 

the image of Chriji on the crofs. Sax. rode, crux. 

The word tree is frequently added, as rode-.tree. 

Rode or Rood-day, holy-crofs day ; by fome expl. 

the beginning of the fummer quarter ; but days which 

bear this name are to be found in different times of 

the year. 
Roik. See Rauk, a thick mij} ox fog, 
Roifc, cxT^].fream. 


Ro. Ro. 

Kok, d'ljlaff. Swed. rohy colus, , 

Rokk, to move alternately from onejtde to the other. Iff, 
hroky cum impetu quodam movere. The Engl, rock 
is ufed in a reftri£led fenfe. 
Rolding, perhaps for rollings or rowting. 
Role, to row (a boat.) Rollaris, rowers, remiges. 
Romanis, Romans, hijloryy relation of events^ real or 
imaginary j now reftrifted to works of invention, 
Fr. roman. 
Rome-rakaris, thofe who raiked or trudged in pilgrim^ 

age to Rome^i and brought home pretended relichs. 
^onCy Jiin ; faid to mean Jheep-Jkin drejjed fo as to ap- 
pear like goat-Jliin. [Gael. ro«, feal, fea-calf. Swed. 
rone, boar.] The fame word is alfo eXpl. path. 
Rondel, a Jong or poem which ends as it begins. Teut. 

rondeely carmen rhjthmicum orbiculatum. 
Ronk, rankf thick, as a plentiful field of corn. 
Ronnys, Ronys, rofe-hnjbes, brambles, briars. Fr. ronce, 
rubus. The word alfo occurs in the ling. numb. 
Ronne, rofe-bujh, 
Roploch. See Raplock, coarfe cloth, or perhaps wool. 
Rofeir, rofe-bujh, arbour of r of es. Fr. rofier. 
Rofet, rofin. Fr. refine, from Lat. refina. 
Rouk, to lie clofe, to crouch. 
Roule, to roll, (as balls upon a plain furface.) Fr.- 

Roume, Rowme, a farm. Goth, rcms, fpatiofus. 
Roun, a common termination in nieknames, as in wald- 
roun, cuft-roun, &c — perhaps from Teut. rune, 
Ifl. alrune, magician. Sax. rz/wf-c/rp/z/g-, myfteriorum 
callidus ; from Goth, runa, myfterium \ or Teut. 
ruyn, cantherius, fpado ; analogous to the mannfr* 
in which are frequently ufed colt, fiUyt &c. 
Roun, Round, to whifper. Teut. ruynen. Sax. runian. 
Swed. runa, fufurrare, in aurem muffitare. Hence 
it alfo fignifies to prepare. 
Round, Reund, a fired or remnant. 
Roundal. See Rondel, a fong ox poem of a particular 


Ro. Ru. 

^koundel, a round table. [Teut. rondell, fcutum mi- 
Rouners, Rounders, whifpers. See Roun. 
Rounge, to gnaw. Fr. ronger, rodere. 
Roungs, Rungs, Jiout cudgels, rude pieces of wood. 

Teut. rancke, ramus longe fe extehdens. 
Roup, Rowp, Roop, tojhout, to cry aloud. Teut. roeptn^ 

tollere vocem, clamitare. 
Roup, Rowp, auSlion, a manner of fale. Teut. roepy 

Roup, Roop, hoarjenefs, as if bj clamouring. 
Rouplock, rough or coarfe cloth. See Raplock, the 

Rouft, ruj}. Rouftj, rujly. Teut. roejl & roejligh. 
Roufl, much the fame with Roup & Rout, to cry with 

a rough voice. 
Rout, Rowk, Rouft & Roup, all nearly the fame. The 

Sax. hrutan lignifies to fnort ox fnore injleeping. The 

Scott. Rout, to roar or bellow in the manner of cattle j 

ex fono. 
Rout, Rowt, crowd, multitude, army. Teut. rot, tur- 

Routh, rowing (a boat.^ Routhis, flrokes ox pulls of 

the oar ; from KoWy as giouth from grow. 
Row, to roll, to wrap, to wind (up.) 
Rowan, Rowing, q. Rolling, wool as it comes from the 

cards. To caft a rowan, to bear an illegitimate child. 
Rowan, a roan horfe ; alfo expl. a jade. Fr. rouen. 
Rowklay. See Rocklay, long coarfe cloak. 
Rowth, rotigh, roughntfs, plenty. [Teut. ruyth, hifpidus 

herbis.] fn the laft fenfe, it may be from Rife, 

Rovvy, Rowie, Roy, King Fr. roy. Gael. ri. 
Royd, Roid, rude, coarfe. Lat. 
'R.oytt, waggfh, wild, extravagant ; q^. de-royed, from 

Fr. defrayer, or des-arroyer, pertiirbare. See Deray. 
Rub, to rob ox plunder, Rubbar, robber. 
Rubeatour, Rubiature, robber ; from which the word 

fecms to be formed in macaroni ilile. Ital. rtiba- 



Ru. Ru. 

Ruck, rickjjiack^ (as of haj or corn.) Sax. ricg, acer- 

Rude. See Rode, the holy crofs. 
^n^Q^JlrongiJlout, fierce. 
Rude, Rode, countenance ^ the hlujjj of youth and modejlyy 

the glow of complexion. Sax. rudu^ vultus. Scand. 

rode, rubedo. 
Rug, to tear ox pull with force ^ to plunder. Teat, rucken^ 

to fnatch or pull awaj. 
Ruifs. See Rufe, to commend highly. 
Rullions. See Rewelynys, thin flooes of untanned^ or 

half-tanned leather. 
-^umbyl, Rummjl, to make a roaring noife^ to bellow 

Ruramys, fame with Rumbyl, to hellow. 
Rummyfs, Rummage, to fearch by turning overy or 

tofftng things about. £Teut. ruyfmuyfeny flrepere, per- 

Rumpill, the rump, or rump hone. 
Rumpillis, diforderly folds (of a garment.) Teut. 

gherimpelfgrimple, fcruta, damaged cloathes. 
Runches, a common weed among corn, raphanus rapha- 

niftrum. Lin. 
Rung. See Roung, rude flick or cudgel. 
Runkill, Runkillis, writiklesy to wrinkle, to damage by 

dtfordering. "Yewt. fronckele, ruga ; fronckelen, ru- 

Run-rig, burgh or farm lands, where the property is 

held in alternate ridges ; fometimes called Rig and 

Runt, trunk of a tree, the flem of fuch a plant as cab- 
bage ; from Root. 
Runt, bullock, an aged draught ox, of the largeft Scot- 

tifh or Welfh breed. Teut. rund, bos. 
Rufe, to extoll, prnife, or commend highly. III. hroofun, 

commendatio. Dan. roefglcde^ jadlantia. Toom rufe, 

empty boajl. 
Ruther, notfe, outcry ,• from Roar. 
Rutilland, croaking in the manner of a raven. Teut. 

ro/f/f//, grunnire, murmurare ; ro^f/, murmur rau- 


Vol. IV. B b Rutt^ry, 

Ru. Ry. 

Ruttery, lechery ; of the fame origin with Rut, 

Ruve, Roove, to rivet ; from Engl, groove. 

Ryal, Rial, royal. Ryalte, royalty. 

Rybbaldy, vulgarity. See Rebaldy. 

Rybie, ruby t precious Jlone, 

Ryder, a gold coin worth about fifteen Jhillings . 

Ryd-hand, Red-hand, (fpoken of a robber or murder, 

er), talten in the fa£i ; q. luith bloody hand. 
Ryff. See Rife, plentiful^ abundant. Other words that 

are fometimes £pelt with Ky are to be found under 

RyfFart, RcifFart, radipj. Fr. rat/art^ rifart, raphanuS,. 


Sa. Sj 


Sa, toJhoWf expofe^ exhibit^ to fay. 

Sac, Sak, one of a Barfiiis privileges. See Sok. 

Sacre, Saker, Sacrify, to confecrate. Fr. facrer. Lat. 

Sad, ferious, grave, fleadyy jufl ; abbreviation of Teut* 
fatigh^ temperans, modeftus, placidus. 

Saft, tranquil, quiet^ at reji. Teut. faft^ fuavis, mol- 

Saiklefs, Sakles, guiltlefs, innocent, free. Szx..facleas^ 
fine culpa ; fac, & Teut. faecke, caufa, lis, contro- 
verfia. l^.faka, laedere ; from which it would ap- 
pear that the original meaning of the woid was 
hartnlefs. Perhaps the latter part of the term Haim- 
fuken may be connefted with this 111. word rather 
than with Teut. soeken, to seek. , 

Saikyrs (andHalf-faikyrs) aj^^aVj o/fTfl/iwo/r; perhaps 
figuratively from O. Vr.facre, a fpccies of-liawk. 

Sail, to affail or aJTault. Fr. ajjailler. 

Saim, Same, tallow, fat, particularly that of a hog. 
S^x.feime, febum. Teut. seem, mel. 

Sa\p,/oap. Sax. & Dzn.fcepJ 

Sair, very, much. Teut.feer, valde, multilm. 

Sairjybr^-, forely. Sax. far. Swed.faer, dolor. 

Salt, feat, bench. Lords of the fait, lords of the bench, 
or as formerly written, bini. 

Sakket, fatchel or little hag ; dimin. of Sack. 

Saklefs. See Saiklefs, innocent. 

Sale, Sail, hall, chamber, parlour. Teut. file, aula. 

Salt, exorbitant, grievous, troublefome. [Teut.y2j/««, fa- 

Salt, affault, affailed. Fr. ajailler. 

S^luHfJaluted, ivelcomed. hat. fa/utare. 

Salut, health, fafety, profperity. Yx.falut*. hat.falus. 

Sa-meki],/o mtich. See Mekill, ^r^^^ 


Sa. Sa. 

Samin, Samyn, the fame^ together. Goth, famariy (i- 

Sanft Johne to borowe, may St. John be your protec' 

tor. Teut. horghe, fidejuiror. 
Sand blind, pur-blind ^Jhort-Jtghted. 
Sane, to fay. Teut. fegghen^ dicere, narrare. 
Sane, Seyn, to blefs^ to conf cerate. TewX.. feghtnen^ be- 

nedicere. God fane you, Godt feghen, Deus benedi- 

cat ; alfo to heal, to preferve. l^Vit.fanare. 
Sangf fong, didjing., Teut. Sax. Zccfang, cantus. 
Sanguane, Sangujne, red, or having the colour of blood. 

Sanorous, expl.favoury ; ^evhs-ps favorOus. 
SappSt fops, bread foaJked in fome nourifhing liquid. 
Sare, Sar, to four, to mount, ov advance upwards, Sarys, 
f oars, mounts. Szvd, foared. Szviznd, mounting. Sar- 

raly, loftily. 
Sark. See Strk, fhirt,fhift. 
Sary, forry, forrowful, fad. 
Safyne, Seifin, investiture. Fr.y^ij/i"/-, arripere. 
Sate, an omifjion, trefpafs, mif carriage , flip. 'Pt.faut, a 

leap or jump, 
Sauch, Saugh, a willow or fallow tree. O. Fr.faulx, 8c 

fahuc. \j,'^X.. falix . 
Saucht, Saught, peace, quiet. Sax. feht, amicitia, pax, 

paftum, faedus. Tewt.faecht, zaht, tranquillus, pa- 

cificus ; faechten, mitigare, mollire. The Scottifh 

word is alfo ufed as an adje£live, and a verb ; fome- 

times written Saglitil. 
Siiuchtning, Saughning, agreement, pacification ; fron\ 

Sauf, Saulf, ^2i\?,fafe, to fave ; except. 
?izniQ,falvc, ointment ; £rom hat. falvus. 
Saule-prow, benefit of foul. See Prow. 
Saur, favour, to favour badly. Ifl. faur, fordes, fter- 

Saut-fat,^}/// ci/p, ox filt-holder ; from Vat. 
Saw, a faying, proverb. Teut. faeghe. Sax. & Swed. 

faga, narratio, di6lio. Teut. feghen, dicere. Lat. 

Sa. ■ Sc. 

feco,fequo ; unde refequor, refpondeo. S^yzTj/psak- 

er, author. 
Saw, tofow. Teut. Jaeyen, ferere. 
Sajnd, Send, mej/age. Sayndis-man, mejfenger. Sec 

Scale. See Skail, to Jcatter^ to fpilly as by dropping 

without intention. 
Scalkit, chalked^ whitened as with chalk. 
Scarpens, thinfoledjhoei, pumps. Fr. efcar.pines. 
Scar, Skard^ that part of ajieep hill from which the foil 

or furface has been wqfloed away by torrents. 
Scart, Skarth, htrmophrodite ; according to Skinner, 

from the appearance of the female part, c^.fcratch. 
Scarth, a f pedes ofcorvorant^ Pelecanus, Carbo Lin. 
Scaup, a f mall bare knoll. 
Scaythe. See Skaith, lojs^ damage^ injury. 
Scellerar, keeper of the cellar. 
Schaif,yZ'frt/', quiver (of arrows.) 
Schaikers, Schakeris, thin leaves of gold orjthcr hang-- 

ing loofe. 
Schairn, Scharne, dung of cattle. Sax. fcearn, Dan. 

fknrn. "Fv'is.fchtrny flercus, fimetum. 
Schald,^rt//ou'. "Schaldis, fhallow parts, 
Schalk, knight ; ox\^\x^'3\\y fervant. Teut. fchalk\, fer- 

vus a fuprema ad infimam conditionem." 
Schamon, (JPeblis at the piny), probably fjjow man^ 

fhaw mony one who amufed the country people witli 

mufic and dancing, or fuch like. Mr Pinkerton ex- 
plains this word falmon. 
Schangan, Shangic, a cloven fick tied to the tail of a 

Schanks, (in feme parts of the country,) ftockings, 

Schankers, the women who knit them. 
Schape, Schap, to promife, or have a promifng appear- 
ance, to fet abou*, to preparey to form a plan. Teut. 

fchaffen, agere, negotiari. 
Schaie, to cut ox flic e down, as a loaf. See Scheir. 
Schathmont, Schaftment, Shafmet, a meafute oi fx 

inches in length ; or, as commonly exprefled, the f/i 


Sc. ^d. 

nuith the thumb turned vp. ^2iJi. fcacft mund, femU 
pes ; fcaeft^ cufpis, & viund, extremitas palmte. 

Schaups, Swaiips, expl. empty hujks ,- rather young pods, 
as of peafe. 

Schaw, a thick wood or grove, (upon a declivilj.) 
Swed.y^o^. Hih. Jheaghas, filva. 

Schawaldowris, (according to the editor of Win- 
ton's Chron.) *' wanderers in the woods, fubiill- 
ing bj hunting j" from /chaw, filva ; & Sax. heal^ 
dan, tenere ; q, people who held or heft by the woods. 
Ttut.fchavuyt, nebulo, furcifer. Mod. iicot.Jhavy- 
ter. The primary fenfe of the Teut. word is an owl. 
Knyghton has Jhavaldres, which feems the fame 
word. Schawald, to wander about idly. 

Schawmes, Schawms, mvjical horns, crooked trumpets, 
(litui.) Teut. yc/jfl/«jfy, tibia gingiina. Fr. chains 
mea, from Lat. calamus. 

Schavelingis, expl. vagabonds. See Shatvaldouris. 

Schavj, Skavie, wodcy i. e. mad ; from the fanie 

Shed, to divide or ftparate ; alfo divided ur feparatcd. 
Schede of the croun, divijion of the hair on the crown 
of the. head. Teut.fchieden, feparajle, diftinguere. 

Scheir, Schere, to cut, to flic e into two or rnore parts. 
Teut. fchieren, dividcre, parti ri ; wljence Shears, 
fcijjhrs. ■ ^ 

Scheir, Schere, to cut or pierce. Teut. fcheuren, dif- 
rumpere, lacerare ; fcheure, ruptura, hiatus. 

Scheld, Schei]d,^?V/<f. TLWt.fchild, clypeus ; fchilde- 
ren, depingeie. 

Schelnum, Scheltron, Schelteroun, afqundron, column, 
or part of an army ; a com pa B body of foldlers ; from 
Fr. echelle, turma ; qi'-afi, echellirone ; as from Lat. 
Earb. fquadro, fquadrcne. 'i he origin of the Fr. 
eclellc is the Lat. ^zx^i. fcala, or (as it is fometimes 
written) y^^/rrt ; from the Tg\xx. fchaar, fcheel, or 
fcheydcl, a divifion. Mr Ritfon explains Scheltron 
** a body of foot in a compact circle ; fo called, it 
*« would feem, from the appearance of their 
« fliield:," 


Sc. . .11 ,,i . Sc, / 

Sclielty, ajmall horfe or mare, 

Schene, luflref brightnefs. Ttut, fcbim, fplendor, nitor, 

candor, jubar. 
Schcne, brightyjhiningy clear ^ beautiful. Teut. fchiinigb, 

fplendens, nitens. 
Schene, toJlAne. Teut.Jchiinenf fplendere, fulgere, di- 

lucere, rutilare, corufcare. 
Schent, Schendit, Scheiikh, conjounded. Tent. /chenden, 

vitiare, poUuere, violare. 
Scherald, expl. a gree/i turfy q. new fhorn, or cut out. 

See Scheir, to f lice. 
Schere, Sere, (Sare,) very^ great, very many. Teut. 

feery valde, maxime. 
Schere, Scherand, the cleavings loin, or groin. Schere 

bone, OS pubis. 
Scherene, expl. Syren, mermaid. 
Schewe, CScheve), fhoved, thrujl forward. " Belg, 

fciiven, protrudere, propellere." 
•Schewre, expl. to divefi, tofhuffie off. See Schire. 
Schidis, Schydis, chips, fplinters of wood, fire-brands. 
Tent, fcheyden, feparare, disjungere, deiitnere. [Lut, 
Schidit, cloven, cut in pieces. See Schidis, 
Schildernc, a bird (fit for the table) ; fpecies un- 
Schill,^r///. Teut. y^-^r^j, clamor ; alfo chill. 
Schir, Schyr, Schyir,yfr, lord. Ssx.fcir, clarus, illuf- 
tris : Or, as others will have it, from figora, viftor, 
triumphans ; compounded, according to Verftegan, 
ai ftge, vidoria ; & heorra, dominus. Augudine in- 
forms us, that in his time the Gothic beggars ia 
Rome ufed the words " armai, Sihor,*' which he 
explains miferere, domine ; and in Olaus Wormius we 
find Ifl. Siar in the fame fenfe. Whatever may be 
the origin of the Fr. fieur, we can fcarcely fuppofe 
that thefe Teutonic words have any relation to the 
Lat. fenior. If none of thefe fliould prove fatis- 
faftory, the term may ftill be accoui^ted for, by 
the Sax. fe, articulus praepofitivus, q. fe heorra, 

dominus ; 

Sg. Sc. 

dominus ; as in y& htelend^ falvator ; fe fader^ 
pater; fe hrydguma, fponfus. The title of Schir, 
as particularly mentioned bj Sir David Lindfay, was 
frequently given to churchmen, even of inferior 
rank. It is not improbable that the Yr.Jieur may be 
from the fame origin with the S^x.Jtgora. 

Schire, to pour off the thinner or lighter part of any li- 
quid mixture ; alfo expl. clean^ thin, fpoken of the 
part which has been poured off. Gaw. Douglas has 
Birnand fchire for burning brightly. Sa.^.fcir,fcyrf 
purus, limpidus, lucidus. SwQd. J^t^ra, purgare. 

Scho, Sche,^^. Sax.y^o. heo. Swed.yiv. Goth. yo, 
hsec, ilia. 

Schog, tofhake (a heavy body.) 

Schoir, to threaten, to mahs a threatening noife, to ufe 
threatening gefiuresy to command filence. SvicdL. fkorrciy 
reprehendere. Germ, fchnarren, fonum ftriduluni 
edere ; fchnarchen^ minas fpirarc. [Ital. fcorare, 

^choue, fhoes. Tent, fchoen ; hand-schoen, gloves. 

Schort, to recreate.ot amufe, to fhorten, or jnake time 
appear /hort. 

Schotr, Schote, thefhutter of a window. 

SehottlCy /mall drawer, bolt of a door. 

Schought ;, covered up. See Seu. 

Schouris, forrows^ affliSfions, terrors. Swed. forg. 
Goth, faurg, <erumna, dolor. Teut. forghe, cura, 
folicitudo ; fchouw, terriculum, terriculamentum ^ 
&c pavidus, confternatus. 

Schouting, Crying, in-lying, child hearing. 

Schow, to dri'-je forward, or to drive away ay frighten- 
ing. Tent, fchuwen, defugere, fugitare. 

Schowd ; expl. to waddle in going. 

Schowing ; expl.fhoving, thrufling up, ov forward. 

Schrcw, to curfe. Schrew me, may evil befall me. Teut. 
hefchriyen, fafcinare, to bc-witch. 

Schrewis, villains. 

Sehriff, Schryve, to make confefjion, Szx. fcrifanf delic- 

s torum confeffioaes cxigere. 


S'c. — - Sc. 


Stht-yft, auricular confejfion. Sax. fcrift ; from Lat. 
fcrihere ; q. d. piena prjefcripta ; vel quoniam fc. 
eorum qui confeffi fiint nomina olini in catalogo 
fcribebantur feu adnotabantur. 

Schudder, Schouder, (Gaw. Douglas), to rejiji^ to op;- 
pofe or with (land ; q. d. to Jet ofies Jlooulder agaitiji. 

Schule, ^\\nWc\,JJjovel. '^twX. fcheuffel. 

Schune, Schwne, Sojne, (fuppofed, by Mr Macpher- 
fon, to mean,) he opprejjed ivith care or grief ; from 
Fr. foin. 

^c\\\x-^,Jhnped, formedy fajhioned. Sec Schape, to form 
a plan. In this manner the pret. tenfe is frequently 
formed ; as Schuke, didjhahe ; Schnvci Jbea red. 

Schurling, Shorling, the Jkin of a floeep that has hecji 
lately Jhorn or clipped. 

Schute, to pujly. T&wX.. fchutten^ propellere. 

Sclandyr, y?aW<rr. O. Fr. efclandir. 

Sclave, Sklave,^<7i^f. Fr. efclave. 

Sclent, Sklent, tojlant or turn to a fide. 

Scoggy, Scokkjjfyadyyfull offhadcs. See Skug,^^^- 
•• dow. 

Scoll, healthy profperityy fuccefsy proteBion\ literally 
fliield. SviGd. Jkoldy Jhiol, clypeus, fcutum, tegmen ; 

• yZ^/«, tegere. Dan. y^/o/<f, defence, prote<5^ion ; de- 
iigns, intentions. On the memorable day of Gow- " 
rie's Confpiracy, the King, when he was leavins^ 
the company to go up flairs, defired them "to drink 
his/coll" in his abfence. 

Scone, Skone, a thin bannock of wheat four. Swed. 
Jiona, parcere. 

Score, a line mode by fcratching or engraving, Scorit, 
marked by a line. 

Scorp, Skarp, Skropp, Skripp, Skrypp, to derideyjihc, 
or fnecr. Scorppit, Skroppit, Skrippit, derided y 
fneered, ufed cantemptuous gefures. Y^-aw, Jkrabcy a re- 
proof ox rebuke. Swed. JkraeppOy ja£tare fc, gloriari ; 
Jkraeppy jadlatio, oftentalio ; Jkrafa, nugari, ferma- 
cinari. Lat. crepare^ gloriari. See Schoir, to ufe 
threatening gefures ; from Swed. yl^crra, fonum ftri- 
VoL. IV. C c dulum 


Sc. — — — Sc. 

dulum edere ; nearly correfponding with the Scotf. 

verb to hoijl. 
Scot, Skott, a certain county or burgh ajfejfment or tax. 

S^x./cGt. Swed.Jiatt^ tributum. Goth. JkattanSf 

pecuniam ; whence ^\\oX.X.yJhare. 
Scoutard, eyi\)\.fculker. Swed. sJ^utta, curfitare. Ifl. 

siiotr, celer, feftinas. 
Scowp, Scowth, Scouff, great room ox f pace ^ ** /cope."** 
Scowder, to dry ox parch by placing in a vehement heat. 

Teut. ichoude^ caminus, fumarintn ; schouden^ cale- 

Scowrie, having an appearance as if dried or parched ; 

alfo luajled ; from Scowder. 
Scrab, crab apple. 
Scrimp, Skrimp, to deal sparingly zvith. To fkrimp 

one in his meat, to hunger him ; alfo adjeftivelj for 

narrow, sparing, contraBed, Jhort. Teut. krimpen, 

diminuere, contrahere, decrefcere. 
Scripture, Skrewtoir, escritoir. Fr. escriptoire. 
Scrogg, oldjlunted bujh, as of thorn. Scroggy, Jitll of 

eld Jiunted trees or buJJjes. Sax. scrobby frutex ; 

whence ^r«5. 
Scrufe, Skrufe, scurf. Sax. scurf fcables. ' 

Skryke, Skrygh, shriek, to shriek. Dan. skriige. Swed.. 

skrtia, frequentative of skria, to cry. 
Scrynoch, Scroinoch, noife, tu?nult. iJwed. JkraUy cla:- 

mor ftridulus. 
^cxyvayxiy Jkirmish, Jkirmisloing, TtMX.. fchirmen, pugi- 

Scuds, brijk beer, a cup of foaming ale. 
Scuff, to touch JUghtly by a quick motion ; nearly the 

fame with scudd, to move svjiftly. 
Scug, Skug, shelter, ta shelter either from sun or wind ; 

literally shadow, and to shade. Swed. Jkugga. Dan.- 

fkygge^ umbra. Ifl. J^ygga, obumbrarej skyggd, 

tegmen, defenfio. 
Scull, fhallow bajket, cradle ; from Swed. skaol, lanx, 

Scull-duddry,yc(rmVn/»c/i. [Swed. skoraktighet.'] 


Sc. .ii M i .■ Sc. 

Scumm, Skumm, to skim or glide along the surface of 

the wateVy or through the air. Fr. escumer. 
Scunner, Skunner, Spouner, to shudder from disgufly to 

loath on account of some filthy appearance ; merely a 

variety of shudder. 
Scurl, Skurle, scahy scale ; dim. of Skurf, q. scurfel. 
Se, seat ^ place of refidence ; from Lat. sedes, 
Seculair, temporal, of the laity. Fr. <& Lat. 
Scge, a man. Segeis, men. Sax. secg^ miles, vir flre- 

nuus, illuftris ; *' by a poetical fynecdoche ufed fim- 

ply for man^'* in which fenfe it occurs repeatedly in 

Dougl. Virgil , and in Pierce Ploughman's Vifions, 

contemptuoufly. See Segg. 
Sege, afeaty a throne. Segeis, seats. Yx.fiege ; alfo to 

set or place ; to hefiege. 
3ege, to say, speak, recite. Dan.^p-^, dicerc. 
f>^ggi Bull fegg, a hull that has been gelt at full age, a 
foul thick' necked ox, having the appearance of a 

Seggis, sedges. Sax. secg, carex, gladiolus. 
Scile, Sele, happiness, prosperity. Sax. sari, & selth, 

bonum, felicitas. Sele and wele, health and happi^- 

Seily, Sely, happy, harmless, fimple, innocent, poor ("in 

fpirit.) Teut. saligh, beatus, felix, pauper ; quod 

beati fint pauperes fpiritu, fcripturae teflimonio. 

Sax. & Goth, sely bonus. See Unfel, unhappy, 
Seina, resemhlancey likeness^ appearance. 
Seindel, Sendil, Sendle, seldom ; perveriion of Teat. & 

Sax. selden, raro, rarenter. 
Seir, Sere, very. Teut. seer, valde ; alfo cxpl. sure, 
Seirfe, Seifter, to search. Fr. chercher, quaerere. 
Seis, to settle, fix, give full pofjefjion. 
Seiftar, thefijtrum, a muiical inftrument. 
Seitis, (Dougl. VirgilJ, feems to fignify plants^ herbs, 

ox flower-plots. &?LX.fetene, planta ; fetme, propagi- 

Selabill, q. Seilful, happy. See Seil. 
Selch, Selcht, afeal^ ox fea coif, ^nx.fele, phoca, vitu- 

lus marinus. 


S^. Sc. 

tielcoudi, Selkouth, /IrangCj uncommon^ unufual. Sax, 

felcuth, rarus, infolitus ; q. A. feld (or Jeldom) cuth, 

raro notus. 
Seldvn, Selwjn, Sellan, ^tjn(i<A,feldom. Sax. feldon, 

raro. See Seindel. 
Self, foiiietimes ufed for the fame. The felf, or The 

felvin, for it-felf. G^th. Jt/bin, ipfum \ fdhay ipfc. 
Sel],y^i? / behold I [Gael. /^d/, videre.] 
Selwyn, Seluynj Selfin,y^^, the fame, 
Sellat, afoldier^s helmet or head-piece. Fr. salade. 
Selyni^iSfJimplicitj>, happiness. See Seilj. 
Semblant, semhlajice, appearance. Fr. semhlant. Semble^ 

hojli engaged. 
Sembyl, Shanabel, to dijiort, to make a wry mouth. Fr. 

semhler. h^t.jimulo. 
Sempyl, ignoble, belonging to the vulgar ; in contradifr 

tindion to Gentle^ honourable. 
^i:n,Jtnce, seeing. Sen iynt.Jince that time. 
Sen, Senye, Jillh, najiiness. Lat. sanies. 
Sence, Seiife, Cence, contr. from, incence. 
•Send, viefflige. Ifl. sende, nuncius, mandatum. 
^tnCyJight ; alfo to see or be seen. 
Sennoun, Sennint, corr. of f new. Sennlntj, jTull offt- 

Senthis, hence ; literally perhaps always after, that ,• 

from Sax. fin^ femper, perpetuo ; & thisy hoc, banc. 
Senye, Senyhe, Seingny, synod; and fometimes, it 

would feem, senate. Teut. seyne, an alTembly of 

"Senye, Senyhe,^^«, enjtgn,fiandardy difiingu'ifloing mark 

in war, pass-word. Fr. enseigne. 
Senye, Senyhe, s^ed^ progeny. Lat. semen, 
Senye, Senyhe. See Sen, corrupted matter. 
Senyeory, Senyhowry, dominion^ lordfhip, powcry seig- 
niory. Fr. seigneurie, dominiunij ditio, mancipium. 
Sepplynis, Syplynis, Suplynis, twigs, branches ; q. 

saplings ; or perhaps from souple, pliant. See Sou- 

Serpj Sarc, a sere j alfb adjeflively sore, painful. 


Sere. See Seir, very, excejjivey greatly. Gaw. Douglas 
feems to ufe it for several or many. 

Seremons, Serimouns, ceremonies^ by corruption. 

Serf, to serve ; alfo for Diferf, to deserve. 

Sergeant, Serjant, inferior officer in a court of jujlice. 
Fr. sergenty apparitor, viator. 

Serge, a lampy torchy taper y wax candle. Fr. ciergey ce- 
reus or cerea. 

Sermond, conversation, talk. Lat. sermo. 

Serpliath, Serplath (of wool,) eighty Jiones ; literally 
what is contai?ied in a pack ; from Fr. sarpilliere ; 
q. d. sartce pelles. 

Serviottis, Servytes, Serviters, towelsy table napkins. 
Yx.ferviettey mantilia, raantile. 

Servitour, Servitor, y^-rt^^wi?. ^t.ferviteury fervus. 

Sefs, tax ; abbrev. of afjeffiment. 

Set, to he-fety to way-lay. Swed. & Ifl. fatta^ inlidias 
ftruere, infidere. 

Set, Sit, to becomcy tofuit. Swed. fata^ prodelTe, juvare ; 
q. d. to affifl the appearance y or increafe the utility. 
Sxtelig, conve?iiens. 

Set, Sett, cotijiitution, form of government. Swed. ft tt, 
modus, ratio ; fettOy con venire. This word is com- 
monly derived from Teut. ficht, mollis, mitis, i. e. 
foft ; correfponding nearly with Swed. fackta, tran- 
quillus, pacificus, tvhich feems to be quite a diffe- 
rent race of words. 

SeX^fnare for catching animals. Swed. fata, 

Setterel, expl. thick madcy dwnrfifo. 

Sewchy furrow, gulphy ditch. \j3X. fulcus ; v^.fulch. To 
feuch the fe, tt plotigh the main. 

Sevyn fternes, the conjiellntion called the Pleiades. 

Sewane, (Biihop Douglas), fame kind of confeBion or 
fweeC-meat } perhaps from Fr. echaude, cruftulum 
Sewar, one ivho phues the difhes upon a great mai^s ta- 
ble i from Fr. affeoury or affeoir, to fet or place , ef- 
cuyers trevchanis, as the French call them. 

^cy,S2iy, ajpiy, examination. Yi.effay, tMo to ajjayy 
attempt, or try. 


Se. . Si. 

Seyle. See Sail, happinefs. 

Scyne, to fee ;• as Sayne for fayy Fleyne for Jke, Beno 
for he. 

Seyne, Sayne, to blifs or confecrate \ to make thejign of 
the crofi. T!e\xt. feyneUy feghenetiy bene precari, bene- 

oejnity ionz, fignal hlafi or found. See Senye, 

Sh ; various woids beginning with thefe letters arc to 
be found under Sch. 

Shan, expl. poor^ flly, pitiful. 

Shargar, expl. a tueakly child. 

Shaws, the foliage of turnips ^ or fuch like. 

Sheimach, a hind of pack faddlf ; fame with Sunks. 

She!, Schel, Vol. II. p. 163, flrumpet. Teut. fcheely 
ftraba ; fcheucke, meretrix. 

Shiel, Shieling , a hut or hovel ; from Sax.fcHdanftc- 
gere, protegere. Swed. fkiul, tegmen ; skoga-skiul, 
latibulum in filva. 

Shilpit, of a fickly white colour, pale, bleached by ftck- 
neft. [Swed. skaell, infipidus, aquofus.] 

Shirt, ivild muflard. Braffica napus. 

Shotabout,y?r/j{>^^ of various colours. 

Shught, Schught, expl. covered^ funk ; (\.feuchtd. 

Sib, Sibb, nearly related in confanguinity , a-kin. Sax. 
fiby fybh, pax, adoptio, confanguineus ; ftbbo, cog- 
nati ; fibbe-mathey cognationis flatus. To this fami- 
ly belongs, perhaps, a remarkable word, viz. the 
Gothic fiponeis, which Ulphilas ufes conftantly for 
difcipulus ; moft of the difciples of Jefus Chrift be- 
ing his near relations. From the fame root may 
fpring tlie Engl, god-fib, goffip, corapater, comma- 
ter. The Anglo-Saxons, however, did not adopt 
this idea in theli: tranflation of the Gofpels, but uf- 
ed the term looming cnilt. Junius refers the Goth. 
fponeis, difcipulus, to the Teut. ftipen, ftillatim ve- 
luti pcrmanando ptoluere, humeftare, mollire, ma- 
cerare. The Iflandic word for difciple is laerefwein ^ 
the Swediih, laer-jungar. 

Sic, Sik,y«f^. Sic- wife, on fuch wife. Sic like, fuch 


SI. Sk. 

Side, hanging /ow, reaching low. Sax. Jid, Jide^ latus, 

amplus, fpatiofus ; fide & wide^ late & fpatiofe. 
Sidlings, declivity ; dimin. of Side (of a hill,) 
Siege, a feat ox place of refidence. ¥v,fiege. 
Signifer, the zodiack, or bearer ofthefignt. 
Sigonale, a f mall parcel or quantity. 
Sike, Syke, a little rill or rivulet. Sax. fichj fulcus a- 

SikkeT,fure,/ecure. Sikk&rly^/ecurely. Tcnt.fekeri 

Jjnt. fecurus. 
Sikkin, Sik kind,y^<:^ hind of. 
Silit, at a diflance. Silit reft, companions at a dijlatice. 

Teut. fchillenj dillare. 
SWYiSy logs J plank ty pieces of wood. Tent, fuyle. Sax. 
fylf pila, columna, poftis, fulcimentum, bafis j hence 

ground-fill or threjjjold } Scottice^ file. 
Sillyr, Siller, expl. canopy ; may be from Tent, fchi/y- 

len. Swed. ^^ia, occultare, latitare. ^cott. to fyle i 

Sinaele, expl. a gram, afmall quantity. 

Sing, tofinge. Szx.fiengan. Tent, fenghen, iiflulare. 

Single, Sindle, the fmall parcel of corn picked up by a 
gleaner in harvefi ; probably from Swed. fyn^ necef- 
fitas ; & del, j>ars ; q. poor man's share. 

^mgnXatyfelfiJhj without regard for others. 

8ipe, Sype, to leak, to pafs through in fmall quantity. 
Tent. fiipen, ftillare, manare, fluefe. 

Sithes, Sythes, corrup. of chives. 

Site, Syte, expl. forrow^ grief, afili&ion ; rather per- 
haps horror ; a Vrh.faeghe, honor, inetus; 


Skaft", merriment^ diver/ion ; originally ]peihzps feafiinig. 
See SkafFerie. 

Skafferie, Skafrie, pillagey rapine, acquifition by fraud ; 
alfo the contents of a larder or pantry. Swed. skafferi, 
cella penuaria. Dan. skaffer, curare, procurart?. 
Swed. skafl, wild fruit. 

Skail, SkaJe, tofcatter, to fpill ; alfo to dfperfe, tofepa- 
rate. [Swed. skitla, skilia, skala^ felHnanter currere j 
feparare, in tenues lamines diflilire.] 


Sk. Sk. 

Skaiplarie, Skaplarie, fcapulary, a fort of cloak wot-a. 
bj the Monks. Fr. scapulaire^ fcapulare. 

Skaith, Skathe, injury^ damage^ hurt, loss. SaX. 
sceatke. TeuL schaedcy schnde. Swed. siada, dam- 
num, noxa. 

Skaitherie, different kinds of loss or damage. 

Skaithlefs.yrf^ of damage^ injury^ or loss. 

Skaithly, Skathelie, mischievous person. 

Skaiverie. See Skafferie, />;7/i!7^^, rapine. 

Skair, BtkviVQy Jhare ; from Sax. scyran^ partire. 

Skale, Skail, a skimming dijh, or 'uejfel of that form arid 
ftze. Originally, perhaps, ajhell might be ufed for 
Ikimming milk. Teut. schale. Sax. sceale. Swed. 
skala. The Gael, scala is expl. a bowl oi bafon. 

Skant, Scant, scarccy scarcity. 

bkar, Sker, timorous, eafily frightened ; alfo fubftan- 
tively an ohjeB of terror. [Swed. skall, fonus.] 

Skar, Sker, to affright or f right j originally perhaps 
the fame with Schoir ; from Swed. skorra, fonum 
llridulum edere. 

Skar, Sker. See Scar, a feep hare declivity'. Swed. 
skar. Sax. carr, rupes, fcopolus. 

Skarlct, /)7/r/)/? ,• or, it would feem, any bright colour. 

Skart, Scarth, corvorant, pelicnnus carho. 

Skart. See Scart, hermaphrodite. 

Skaup, Scaup, dry bare eminence. 

Skeibalt, W7ra« worthless fellow. Dan. skahhals. 

Skeich, Sky^h, skittifh, timorous^ apt to fiart afide. 
rSwed. siicelg, obliquus, tranfverfus.] 

Skeil, a washing tub. 

Skeldrake, Skaill drake, a bird of the duck species. 

Skelf, shelf. 

Skellat, rattle used by common criers. Swed^ shcella, no- 
la, tintinnabulum ; shall, fonitus. 

Skcllochs, the various kindf of wild mufnrd. 

Skelly, squint looh. Swed. shcrlg, obliquus, tranfverfus. 
Alfo ufed as a verb, to look a-wry. 

Skellyis, (Gaw. Douglas), cxpl. sharp ox ragged rocks. 
Skelly jpen, or SkeiUy p«;n, a pencil of soft ff ate. 


Sk. Sk. 

kelp, a hlow. Skelping, lashingf beatings switching s 

alfo walking quickly. 
Skelr, expl. having the seams unript. 
Skepp, a ki7id ofhajhet^ fuch as is ufed for a bee-hive^ 

Teut. fchepely a bufliel or corn meafure. Swed. 

skieppa, menfura aridorum ; vas, quo inter ferendum 

utuntur agricoliE. [Gael. Jcailp^ a hollow cave ; 

fceip, a bee-hive.] 
Sker. See Skar, with various fignifications. 
Skew, the Jlanting extremity of a roof where it joins the 

Skinkle, tofparkle^ to shine. Swed. skina, Goth. shei~ 

nan, fulgere, aflfulgere. 
Skippare, Skipper, majier of a ship. Teut. f chipper , 

O. Swed. skipare. 
Skink, rich foupy nourishing liquor. Dan. skenche. Sax. 

fcencan^ propinare ; fcenc^ potus, poculum. 
Skirl, to shriek, to cry with a shrill voice ; a Swed. 

skria, vociferari. 
Skill, allit. gr. for Kill, chejly box, coffer. 
Skit, Skyt, expl. tofy out hajiily. Sa.^. fcytan, irruere. 
SklefF, eIfb,JhalloWf like a Ikimniing difli, or Sieil. 
Sklender iox Jlender^ feeble, f mall. 
Skly, to fide, (as upon the ice.) See ^\\di,fippery. 
Skodge, a female drudge about the kitchen. 
Skonn. See Scone, a thin bantwck, commonly of wheat 

or rye. 
Skonfyfh, Scoinfifli, tofcken by offenfve fmell. 
Skott. See Scot, ajjeffment, tax, tribute. Goth, fkatt. 
Skowrie. See Scowrie, dry and dirty ^ ragged and 

Skrabs, Scrobs. See Scroggs, oldfuntedbufjes. 
Skraik,ycrf<?f^ ; to fcreech, in the manner of a heron 

to shriek. Swed. skrika, freq. of skria, vociferari. 
Skreid, to tear or rend ; alfoo long piece torn off. Teut 

Jcbrcoden, mutilare, decurtare, prxfecare ; fchroode 

Skreigh, Skreik, or Greik of day, break of day ; per- 
haps corrup. from gray. Swed. gry, lucefcere •, q 

%ray day- light. 

Vol. IV. Dd Skreive 

Sk ^ SI. 

Skreive, to glide fwiftly along. Swed.yZr/Va, leni mofii 

provehi. [Dan. Jlraever, to ftride.] 
Skrinkyt, Skrinkie, as ifjhrunk, too little, contraBed. 
Skropp. See Scorp, to deride^ to ufe contemptuous gef' 

Skruntj, quafi shrinked. See Skrinkyt. 
Skrj. See Skreigh, to cry with a harsh voice. 
Skrjmmorie, (Vol. I. p. 399.) frightful, filing with 

terror. Swed. ftraemay terrefacere. Ifl. skrymf^ 

fpeftrum. Teut. fchroom, fchrooming^ horror ; 

fchroomfel, terriculamentum. 
Skule (of fifli, particularly herringsj a shoal. Sax. 

fceola, multitudo. 
Skule, a difeafe in the mouth of a horfe. Teut. fchuylf 

morbus quo palatum & gingivse equorum prse nimio 

fanguine intumefcunt. 
Skull, Skeil, a vej/tl, a tub, pot or bowl ; alfo a crate^ 

afjallow basket. Swed. /kdel^ lanx, patera. 
Skurriour, idle vagrant fellow, vagabond ; alfo the fame 

with Difcurriour, fcout or light horfeman ; from 

Lat. difcurrere. [Swed.y^wri, nebulo.] 
Skurryvage, vagabond i from Lat. vagor Zcfcurra. 
Skyll, reafon, motive. Dan. skiel, the fame. 
Sla, tojlay. Slw, Sleuch, few. Goth. fakan, percu- 

Sla, S\2L€y foe-tree. ?)2f%..fa, prMnum filveftre. 
Slade, expl. by Ruddiman a den or valley. Sax. fad, 

via in montium convallibus. See Slak. 
Slaiger, to waddle in the mud. See Slairg* 
Slaik, Sleeky t, feek, fmooth ; alfo cunning, foothing. 

Texkt. fey ckf planus & aequus ; whence Slate. 
Slaik, Slake, afippery kind of fea-weed. See Slike^ 
Slairg, Slerg, to he-daub ; from Teut. fiick, csenum, 

lutum ; Jliikighy caenofus, lutofus. 
Slak, Slake, a low piece of ground among hills, or be^ 

itveen the top and bottom of a hill ; according to 

Ruddiman, " a gap or narrow pnfs between two hills^ 

a valley or ghn. Teut faech, laxus, remiflus," q, d. 

a remifjion in the a/cent. 
Slang, didfing ,• alfo expl. a kind of cannon. 
Slap, breach/in a wall ; properly in a fake and rice 

fence ; 

SI. SI. - 

fence ; from 'YQxA.Jlap, vietus, fluidus, witheredy de- 

Slate, expl. /o wz/tf ,' alfo (fpoken of hounds) to Jet 

Sleeth, Sleuth, expl. Jloven. [Sax. Jleuth, pigritla.] 
Perliaps it may rather have fome allufion to the 
Ttnt. Jlock, helluo, vorax ; q. glutton. 

^leevelefs errand, according to Skinner, lifelefs er- 

Sleperye, bleeperie, Jleepy, caufmg Jleep. lUtvX. Jlaepe^ 
righ, fomniculofus. 

Sleuth.hund, Sli^ch-hund, a hlood-hound. Teut. ^o^T/^, 
canis vorax & rapax ; in its primary fenfe, gula, 
gurges, vorago, helluo. Sleuth-hund has alfo been 
explainedybo?^ or true hound, from its having been 
,erroneoufly written by an Jlnglifh author, futhovnd. 
Both the dog and its name are of Gelder-land ori- 

Slew, Slew fyre, (Bp. Doijglas,) Jlruck fire. Sax. 
jlean^ percutere, collidere. 

Slid, Sliddry, Jlippery. Tent. ^icht, planus, aequus ; 
Jlidderen, prolabi ; Jledde, ti aha, trahea. 

Slike, Slyke,y7/wf, mud. Tent. Jliici, caenum, luteum ; 
whence Slaiger, to fuaddle or trail in mud. 

Slim, fiight, not to be depended upon. 

bhp, a certain quantity of yarn, as it comes from the 

Slockn, Slokin, to quench or extinguijh. Texxt.Jlacienf 

Slogg, Slagg, Jlough, quagmire. Sloggy, marjhy,jlimy. 
[Sax. 7^0^, concavum; lub, lacus.] Slaggis or Slaggs, 
alfo expl. gujis of wind ; perhaps erroneoufly for 
Flaggs, q. V. 

Slonk, ^InnkiJIoughf quagmire ; alfo as a verb, to ftnk 
in mud. iLayxX.Jleyncke, lacmia, fovea. 

Sjop. See Slap, a breach in a ivaU or hedge ; alCo as a 
verb, to hack or hew down. 

Siorp, to fup greedily. Teiit.JIorpen, forbeo. Slorping 
is alfo ufed for taudry. Slorping huflie, a girl who 
i^f"ggij^h drejfed. 


SI. Sm. 

Slot, the bolt of a door. Tent. Jluyt, peflulus ; JIuyte/i, 

to Ihut. 
Slotter, to pnfs the time JluggijlAy ^ to loiter ^ to slumher." 

Teut. sloderen, flacceffere ; whence Slattern and 

Sloung, Slung, a sling. 

Slouan, Sluan, abbrev. of Sleugh-hund, hlood-hcund. 
Slug-horne, properly (it may be fuppofed) the fame 

with Oat-horn, Jignal or fummoning horriy q. v. 

Kuddiman explains it " a watch word, token, or 
Jign^"* by which the Scottilh Chiefs aflembled and 

diftinguifiied their followers ; and fometiines ufed 

figuratively for a peculiar property or quality that 

feems inherent in thofe of one family or race. Pro- 
bably from Sax. slegCy clades ; slethe^ pugna ; c^. d. 

coruu bellicum. 
Slufli, a dirty plaJJjf fuch as melted fnow. Tent. Jliich 
Slype, a kind of/mall sled or sledge. 
Smaddit, Maddit, he-dauhed^ fmutted. See Smott. 
Smaik, Smait, Smatchet, Jtlly pitiful fellow. Teut. 

fmeeckery adulator, affentator, blandiloquus. 
Smaill, expl. beautiful^ clear complexioned. [Fr. email, 

florum cepia, varius color.] 
Smattis, probably the fame with Swatts, new ale. 

Teut. fmets, naufeam provocans nimia dulcedine. 
Smay. See Smaik, contemptible person. 
Smeir, to anoint^ to besmear. Teut. smeeren. Sax. sme- 

ran, ungere. 
Smergh, Smeargh, marrow, pith, sense, vigour of body 

or mind ; from Teut. mergbe, (with the afpirate j-), 

medulla ; whence Marie. 
Sfficrghlefs, Smearlefs, injipid, feeble, pithless, awkward, 

defcicnt in bodily or mental powers. 
Smeth, smooth. Sax. smeth^ xquus, planus. 
Smewy, expl. savory. Tent, fmaeckelick, grati faporis. 
Smiddy, Smethy, a smith's workfjop ; from Teut. smid, 

snied, faber ferrareus. 
Smikker, to smile in a seducing fnanner. Teut. smeech- 

elen, blandiri, blanditias dicere. 
Smitt, to infeB. Teut. smcttan, commaculare ; smettc^ 

macula ; a fabris ferrariis tranflatum. 


Sm. 'I '• Sn. 

Smittle, infeSious. Teut. smettelicky contagiofus. 
Smore, Smoor, Smure, to smothery to over-load^ fo as 
to fmother or deitioy. Teut. smooren, i'uiFocare, ex- 
tinguere ; smore, fumus. 
Smott, smut, Jlain, mark. Teut. smette, macula \ alfo 

as a verb, to mark with paint, tar, or fuch like. 
Smout,y^/r, clear, soft f mild. Sax. smolt, ferenus, pia- 

cidus, tranquillus. 
Smowts, Smelts, Smeults, according to Skene, young 

Smugly, amorous, sly, being at the fame time well 

drejjed. Teut. smeeckelick, blandus, blandc. 
Smure. See Smore, to smother. Teut. 
Smy, paltry fellow ; from Dan. smyer, to faivn, or 
flutter. See Smaik, of which this feems to be an ab- 
Snack, acute, accurate, Jharp in huf.nefs or coniierfalion-, 
with fome affinity to /natch, the origin of which 
feems to be unkno^vn. Snack is alfo ufed as a verb, 
to f nap or bite fuddenly, as a dog. {[Teut. fnauxv^ 
fcomma, didum amarum, fermo amarus, latratus, 
malediftum ; (\. fnauwick.^ 
Snzw,fnoiu. Sz\. fnaiv. Goth, fnaiws. Lat. nix. 
Snawdon. See Sneddon, Stirling caflle. 
Sneck, Snekk, loch, or rather yb/«^ rude faflening of ci 

Sned, to prune, to cut of!', (as the branches of a tree), 
to drefs by lopping off ufehfs excrefcencies ; originally, 
it would feem, to hew ov poVJh; from Teut. fniiden, 
fculpere, ca:Lire, fcindere. 
Snedd, 'i^n&x.\\c,JJjaft, handle, as of a fcythe. 
Sneddon, Sneddon. caftle, Snowdon, an old name of 5"///- 
ling cnflle ; and fo called by the people in its neigh- 
bourhood at tliis day, as Edinburgh is called Old 
Reikie. William of Worcefter, an antient Englifli 
author, (about 1440), mentions Striveling, alias 
Snowdon-'ivcjl-cajlle ; and in later times Sir David 
Lindfr^y gives it the fame appellation (See Vol. If. 
p. 95.) The name of Sneddon, or Sneddoun, was 
probably aflumed from the appearance of the rock 
ppon which the callle is f tviated, viz.. a fneddcn or 


6n. —I . Sn. 

fnodden rock See Sued, to he%v down or lopp of. Saif. 
fnidan, fecare, refccare, dolare. Odnd.Jhide, abfcin-. 
dere, which correfponds exactly with the appear- 
ance of the precipice. In the Saxon Chronicle un- 
der the years 922 and 924, the city of Nottingham 
is called Snotingham ; originally perhaps Snoding- 
ham, which, according to the defcription of the place, 
feems to be derived irom the fame kind of origin. 
This leads to a new etymology of Edinburgh. If 
Stirling was Snoden, or Snedin-west-castie , we may 
fafely prefume that thfj-e was alfo an Eaji Snedin- 
caftle ; i. e. a caftle of iimilav appearance, to the 
Eaftward of Stirling: And, iince Nottingham was 
formerly Snoilngham, it is not impoffible that E- 
dinburgh, iji early times , was Snedinberg. After 

, iimdergoing, like Snotingham, the elifion of 5, it might 
i'or fome time be Nedinbergh ; and at this period the 
Gaelic name Dun-Aidan may have been formed. In 
the courfe of time, Nedenburg, (Galilee^ Dun-Aidan 
or Dun-Neden), may have given way to Edinburgh, 
the initial N being omitted as in the word udder or 
ferpcnt. Sax. nedder. Eirs from nlercn, renes. 

Siicg, Snagg, fame with Sncd, to cut or break down. 

Sneiih, ("Bp. Dougl.) feems to vaciitifnow vjhite ; per- 
liaps from Tent, ftieeachtigh, niveus. Ruddiman 
mentions the Mih.Jheidh, ftraight. 

SneWiJharp, piercings bitter. [Teut.Jhel, celer, acer.] 

Snifter, to draw or ftiuff up frequently the watery bu" 
rnonr of the nofe ; fubftantively, any thing which af- 
feEis the ftnfe of fmelling with ftidden violence. 

Snod, triwf neat, tight, handfome, every thing fuperfla- 
ous being lopped off 5 from Sned, abfcindere. 

Snoid, Snude, ^^"ii'i?/, ribband for binding up the hair. 
S^^./nod, vilta. 

Snoif, To fnoif the fpindle, to whirl or turn it round in 

jSnoik, Snoke, Snowk, to fmell, to f cent, as a dog when 
the game is before him. 'Y^vX.fnutten, to fnuff. 

Suurle, to con)raB, in the manner of hard twilled 
yarn j from Tevit. kncrrc, tuberculum ; q. knurle. 


Sn. ■■ ! ) '■■ ' . So. 

Sniive, to go about idly^ like a hungry dog fearchlng 

for fomcthing to eat. 

Snyb, Snib, to fnip or cut ojfy to check, I ^'aS\. fnih you 

from that, i. e. cut off the means hy which you might 

he able y 8cc. from Texy.t.fnippen, praecidere, prjefecare- 

Snyppand, hipping. Teut. Jnippen van koudc, to nip 

with cold. Angl.Jheap. 
Hnyihf fnuff. Snyihtn box, fnuff box. 
Sock, Sok, according to Skene, the poxver, authority^ 
cr liberty with which a Baron was endowed to admi" 
nijler juflice and execute laws within his own barony ; 
curia domini, lignifying the ward or juridical terri- 
tory as well as the privilege. In old charters from 
the Crown, it was commonly coupled with Sac ; 
which^ if not the fame with Sock, probably meant 
the power of levying fines within the Barony ; from 
Swed.y«yf, muldla quae reatum fequitur. The ori- 
ginal meaning of the word Sock is lefs underftood. 
Brafton defines it " locus privilegiatus ; libertas, 
immunitas ; afylum, fanftuarium, refugium." See- 
comannus opponitur militi, qui tenet per fervitium 
militate ; whence it has been fnppcfed that the 
tetm Soc or Soccage had fome reference to the Jock 
ov plough y and was properly applicable ** qulien the 
tennent was bound and obliflied to cum with hi^ 
pleuch to teil and labour ane part of the Lordis 

Soddin, boiledyfod; preterite of Secth. 

Soddis, Sods, a kind of pack f addle. \^Xq,\xX.. faecht., mol- 

Sodroun, Sudmun, Siitheron, Englijhmnn ; 
BilTiop Douglas for Englif} (language.) 

Sodrun-wood. See Reinye, Apil-reinye, ahrotanum. 

Soith, truBy truths truly. Sax. sothy verus, vera. 

Solace, recreation, diverfon^ sport. Lat. 

Solan-gufe, the fea bird called a gnjtnet ; from Swed. 
solaude, lingering, loitering, fottiili ; part of the verb 
soeliiy procrailinare, pras defidia moras neftere. It 
may be thought ridiculous even to mention the vuU 
gar idea of the bird hatching its egg by placing 
one foot or sole upon it. 


So. ■! So. 

Sold, Sotvd, expl. a weight or ingot , \. c. a great fuf?i ; 

from Teut. foldy foud, ftipendium, premium niili- 

tare ; whence yb/^;<'r. 
Soldan, Sowdan, the Sultan. The foldan of Surry, the 

full an of Syria. 
Solempne, Solempnjt, Jolemuy pompous ^ fnagnificenti 

Sgliift, tofolicit, to advife, to perfuade. Lat. 

Solp, Sowp, to focky to drench. Solpit in forrow, over- 

come with for row. T!G.ut.foppen, jntingere. 
Solje, tofolve; alfo abbrev. of AJfoilye^ q. v. Solyeing, 

folving, folutton^ nhfolving. 
Son, fun. 1 eu.t. f on, fonne, T' Phaebus. 
Sonk, a green turf a feat made of green turf. [S^X. 

for.g^ (tratum, quod difcumbentibus fubilernatur.] 
Sons, lucky thriving, p; ofptrity, wealth ; according to 
Lord Hailes, hojpkality. Teut. fanfe^ augmentum, 
Sonlie, thriving, plumps in good condition. 
Sonye, to effoin or effonyey to excufe. 
Sope, Sowp, (Bp. Dougl.) expl. a cloud or hcapy a 

troop y company or croud of any thing. 
Sope, Sowp, to he overcome as with feep \ fiom Lat. 
fopor Scfopitus ; alio to he drenched. Sowpyt, drench- 
ed. See Solp, tofoih ; and Sipe, to ou%e out, as irom 
a cafk of liquor. [Sax.75"^««, macerare.] 
Sord, to defile. Sorded, defiled. Li^l.fordidus. 
Sore, Soar, a forrel, light red, or red mixed with tvhite* 

Vr.fautey fub-rufus. 
Scrkand, Chorkand, making a noife like that of the feet 

in nvctfijoes andfockingst 
Horn, to fojourny to make a tedious vifit ; according to 
Skene, to obtain hoard and lodging hy force. Fr. fc' 
jcurnery commoraii. 
Sornar, one who obtains or retains his board and lodging 
without the ceremony of invitation ; a fiurdy beg- 
Sorp, the fame with Sopc, So^, to be drenched. 
Sort, a company ; quafi, qffortmeiit. 

Sofs, noife made by the fall of fo7?iething heavy and foft ; 
ex fono. 


So. So. 

^oCfingy cramming. Sofs; alarge dijhofjiummery. Fr. 

Soflbrye, ufed by Bp. Dougl. for forcery. 

Sotter, to JimmeTy to boil Jloivly^ hut longer than e- 

Soiich, Sugh/ noife or founds as of mufic at a didance ; 
alfo ufed as a verb, with a correfponding fenfe. 

Soudland, Sowdin-land, Sultan landy Turkey. Fr. 

Souf, to whijlk in a low tone ; ex fono. 

Soulis, Soles, corrupt, oijwivefs. 

Soum, Sum, (of fheep, with a reference toi their paf- 
ture), commonly ten. The law term '* fouming and 
rooming," in the divifion of commons, has probably 
a connexion with this ; qua^, to allot ground in 
proportion to the number oi Joums ufually kept on 
the common. A cow was reckoned a foum, and i. 
horfe two. 

Sounye, care^ folicitude. Yr.foin. 

Soup, to /iveep. Soupings, /weepings. 

Souple, Sweeple, ajlail; or, more properly, that part 
of ajlail which Jirikies the corn, in contra-diftinftion 
to the hand-ftafF. , 

Sourakkis, Souraks, yorrt/. Tetit.y//j'r/z»jf, acetofa. 

Souid, expl. to raife. Lat. furgere. 

?>outev, Jhoemaher. Lat. 

Sow, expl. to pierce. In Winton it probably means 
Jleep ; <* fow fare," Jlecp for ever, ^wt^./ofwoj dor- 

Sow, n long hay JJack ; alfo a military machine ufed 
formerly in fieges ; fo called probably from its 

^oviCQy flummery ; fuch as trofe, fouens, or oat-meal 

Soxvens, flummery^ made of the duft of oat meal re- 
maining among the feeds ; from Teut. fchouwen^ 
fchouden^ to fcald, c^.Jhoudens or fcaldings. 

Sowl-bell, the tolling of a hell, ahout the time of a per- 
fon^s deceafe^ to warn the people to pray for the paf- 
ftng foul. Hence it was alfo called the pafltng 
Vol. IV. E e Sowm, 

So. . Sp. 

Dowm, chain hy whtch the plough is drawn. [SweJ, 

Jom, commilTiira.] 
Sowtheran. See Sodoroun, Englijhman. 
Soj, ufed for Szy,fc'a ; and for Scy, to fee. 
Spacier, to lualk. Texxt. Jpacieren, ambulare ; whence 

Engl. Pace. 
Spae, Spay, to foretell or divine. Spaying, Spa'ing, di-. 

vitiation^ augury. Ifl. fp^e. Dan. fpncer, vaticinari. 

Tent, fpceheny indagare, videre. Scapd. 8c Ozlt.fpuy 

oculus ; whence Engl.^^. 
Spae-man, Spa- man, ybr/«nf teller, Tian. fpaaman. Ifl. 

fpaamadur^ propheta. 
Spail, ^^■aXcy a fmall chip or Jhaving of wood. Swed. 

fpcely fegmen. See Spald. 
Spair, a slit. [Ttut. fperren, to ftretch open ; fperring 

des mondtSy a gaping of the mouth.] 
Spait, Spate, a torrent of rain, floods inundation. 

[T^nt.Jpuyt, fpoelte. Sax. fpeyte^ fipho, fiphon ; q. 

d. a ivater-fpout.'] 
Spald, Spaul, thefhoulder. Spiel or Spule hznc yfhoulder 

or blade-hone. Fr. efpaule. ** Reading the fpeal or 

fpule-hancy^ antiently a common mode of divination. 

Span-new, quite new ; literally,, according to Mr H. 

Tooke, fhining new ; from Teut. fpange, fpangle. 

*' Spick and fpan new" rather means new, point and 

head ; from Jpiike, point, and fpanghe^ the poliihed 

head of a nail. 
Span, to expand, to fl retch out. 'Yexxt.fpatwen, tendere, 
Spane, Spean, to wean. Teut. fpenen, fubducere lac, 

abla^tare ; fpene, fpinne, lac muliebre. Qoih.fpini, 

mamma, papilla. 
Spang, a leap, a jump ; alfo as a verb, to jump or leap 

with ela/iic force. See Span, tojlretch out. 
Spank, tofpnrkle or JJjine. Teut. fpange, lamina. In 

fome inftances the derivation feems rather from 
fponnen, tendere, extendere ; as "fpanking horfe." 
Spaynhc, Spauifh. Spanyeaitis, Spanyalis, Spaniards. 
Spanyfis, feems expanded fowers. Fr. efpanouijfement, 

the full blowing of a flower. 
Spar, to bar, to faflen with bolts or bars. 


Sp. Sp. 

Sparpell, tofcatfer, to difperfe. Fr. efparpillcr. 

Speal, Spei], to climb up. [Sax. Jpild, prjccipitmm, 

praecipitantia, temeritas ; periculi plenus."] 
Speanlie, expl. wife. Teut.Jpabe, fapientia. See Spae, 

to foretell. 
Specht, nvood pecker ox green-peah. Tent. Jpecbt, picus 

Speen, expl. driving ftiow, drift; (perhaps from the 

found, as of a large fpinning wheel.) 
Speidfull, proper^ expedient, necejfary to injure fpeed or 

Speir, Spere, tonjkyto make inquiry. \^.fpir, interrogo; 

fpurde, interrogavi. %-wed. fpceria, quserere, invefti- 

gare. Spere is alfo explained a fmall hole in the wall 

of a houfe for the purpofe of receiving and anfwering 

enquiries from Jirangers. See Spair, a chink. 
Spelder, tojlretch wide open. ^Teut.Jpliiten, hiulcum 

Speldings, Speldimgs, fmall f/h (as liaddocks) fir etch' 

ed open and dried in the fun. 
Spelk, to re-join by means of bandages. Szx.Jpelcean. 

Teut. Jpalcken, accomtnodare ferulas membris frac- 

tis ; fpalke^ ferula. 
^p^^ narrative i zMo play, fport. Sax.^^/, hiftoria, 

rumor. Teut. fpell, ludus, lufus, ludicrum. 
Spens, Spence, the pantry or apartment where provi- 

fions are kept. Fr. defpenjv, cella penaria. 
Spenfer, Spenfare, butler, keeper of the fpenfe, q. v. 
Spere, ioxfphere. Lat. ^zxh.fpera. 
Spill, Spyll, /o csrr//^/. Spylt, corrupted. Tewt.fpillen, 

vitiari, confumere. 
Spirling, a fmall fifh called in England a Jpratt. 
Spittal, abbrev. of hofpital ; alfo written Spittal- 

Splent, armour for the legs, made perhaps of fplents or 

fplinters of wood. 
Spleuchan, a tobacco pouch. Gael. 
Splore, expl. a noify frolic ^ a rout or riot. 
Spourtlit, Spurtled, Sprutillit,^o«f-i, fpeckled, freck- 

Sp. — Sp. 

ted. Tent, fproetelf lentigo, macula fubrufFa aut pul- 
la, a freckle. 

Spraich, Sprach, Spreich, (Bp. Dougl.) expl. howling, 
fcreamingy lamentable crying. 

Spraings, Sprayingis, Sprangs, expl. long Jlrypes or 
ftreaks of different colours ; rather perhaps the va- 
riegated compartments of tartan ; as would appear 
Irom the phrafe " fprangit faik," commonly un- 
derftood to mean tartan plaid. See Spray, yj) ;-/{;/. 

Spray, ^njrj-, bufj^es, fmall branches, iizx. Jpra-Cf vir- 
gultum, farmentum, virga, ramulus. From this 
word Riiddiman deduces Spraings ; as the Lat. vir- 
gata fagula, (tartan plaids), from virga. 

Spraygherie, Spraughery, trafh^ goods or articles of 
fmall value ; with an allufion to the manner in which 
they have been procured| viz. by Spreith or pillage. 
Conf. Spray f fmall branches. 

Spreich, Spreith, (Bp. Dougl.) expl. prey, booty, plun- 
der y pillage ; probably the lame, as Ruddiman thinks,, 
with Engl. ^rf-y. ¥r. proye. Armor, preidh. Lat. 
prada. [Gael, fpreidby cattle.] Hence perhaps 

Sprck\edf fpeckledyfpotted. See Sproutilllt. 

Sprent,^r/«^. Back fprent, ^arf/f j^rm^ ; alfo ufed as 
the preterite of the verb tofpring ; and fubftantive- 
ly for a leapyjump, or throw. 

Sprent, Jprinkled ; from ItwX.. fprengen^ fpargere. 

Sprett, Spretts, a kind of coarse grast or rufhes, 

Spreul, to sprawl, to scramble. 

Spring, a quick tune on a mufical inftrument. 

Springald, huge cross-low for floooting javelins or large 
arrows. Teut. springael, springhel, catapulta, balifla, 
machinae bellicje genus. Fr. espringallc. 

Springald, a youth or flripling ; q. springing. 

Sproty sproot, small branchy twig. Teixt. sproete, vir- 

Sprulh, neat, clean, well dreffcd, ** spruce.^* 

Spulye, spoil, rapine ; alfo to plunder. Fr. 
Spunk, watch J (fulphuratum.) Swed. spinga, fegmcB- 


Sp. . ■ St. 

turn ligni tenuius. Spunk of fire, a very stnalljire \ 

corr. from spark, 
Spunkie, Will o^ the wisp, a kind of meteor.' 
Spurtil, dfpattle wherewith things that boil are Jlirred. 

Teut. fpatel^ rudicula, fpathula ; expl. by Lord 

Hailes, ajlat iron for turning cakes. 
Spjce, self-conceit f degree^ small quantity ; alfo pungent 

aromatic seed. 
?f^y\e,Jlakeypalisadoe; vav. ol pile. 
Spynifl (rofe), prickly. Fr. spineux. 
Spjnnand for Spannand,y?rf/<r/&/«^. See Span. Expl. 

bj Ruddiman, running^ gliding ; bj a metaphor ta- 
ken from spinning. Bp Douglas has alfo Spjnne- 

rand nearly in the fame fcnfe. 
Squad, a crew or party ,• from squadron, 
^qmre fjiraighty even, perpendicular. 
Squatter, tojluiter in water^ as a duck. Swed. sqwatra, 

conferiim dejicere. 
Squifli, to eat in the manner of a person who has no teeth f 

(to squeeze.) 
Squyare, squire, gentleman not knighted, armour hearer. 

Fr. escuyer. 
Stabill,^«//o«. Lat. Jiahulum \ alfo as a verb, to efla- 

blifh, to settle. 
Stad, Stead, a place, afituation, a set of houses belonging 

to a farm, an on-fiead. Fute ftedis^ foot-steps, tra£i 

or print of the feet. Sec iitcad, far m-ho7ife. 
Staffage, Staffifch, obstinate, obdurate, dry in the mouth, 

or not cafly swallowed, like peafe meal bannocks ; 

from Teut. j/;V^ rigidps, duvus ; stief-hals, obftina- 

tus. Ruddiman derives it from Ital. stnffegiare, to 

lofe the flirrup, or be difmounted. 
Stage, a degree or step. Stagis, stairs. Ff, estage. 
Staigh, Steigh, to gorge, to eat plentifully, to feast. 
Teut. stouwen, stauen, acervaie, accumulare, com. 
pefcere ; vel sechen, conviviare, compotare ; stcvg- 

hen, ft agnate. 
Staik, to walk ; properly, to walk Softly nvtth long steps. 
Sax. staelcan, pedctentim ire,.grallari. 


St. St. 

Stalce, to place, fetthy or fix ; to fcii'isfy ; corr. from 
Teut. Jlaedettj ftabilire ; in ftatu collocare ; q. to 
Stal, Sta!it, Staw, ftole, didjleal. 

Stale, StBil, (Bp. Dougl.) expl. a divi/ton of ati army, 
a battalion ; or rather tbe place where it is drawn 
up ; a place where men may ly in amhujh. See Stell, 
a place ofJJjelier. 
Stall, Stell, to place or fet in order. See Stell. 
Stalwart,7?ro;/^ y alfo valiant, courageous ; as Wicht is 
applied nc5t only to animate beings, but to caftles, 
walls, &c. Hickes explains it magnanimous, heart of 
feel ; from Sax. fel-fcrhth, chalybei animi liomo, 
live fortis. 
Stam, the fern or heak of afhip. Steile ftammyt, haV" 

ing their ferns armed with feel. 
Stanche, to abate, quench, afwage, pacify. Fr. ef anchor. 

^v^.fanch is more reftri(fled in meaning. 
Stand, a fituation, a place af timed or allotted for fand- 
ing in, as a (land in a maiket ; alfo what is placed 
infuch aftuation, as cattle, goods, &c. 
Stand, a barrel (upon end) for holding water, or prOf 

"oifions. G2iii\. fannadh, a tub. 
Stang, a long pole or piece of woodVikc the Ihaft of a 
carriage. i\[.faung. Dan fang, hafta. 'Teut.fange^ 
ramus. " To ride the Itang" is a kind of punilh- 
ment which has been frequently defcribed. The 
fame word alfo fignifies^iff^, and to f ing. 
Stank, a deep ditch with fanding water ; a pond or pool. 
Arm. fane. Gael. Jicwg. Fr. efang. Lat. fag- 
Staneries, Stanryis, (Vol. I. p. 434.) probably fmall 
pools, fuch as thofe which remain on the fea fhore 
at low water ; and which are called in O. Engl.^^^- 
7iei ; from Teut. feyghen, ftagnare. Ij^t.fagnum ; 
q. fngneries. Ruddiman explains it, the gravel or 
fmall fones thrown out on the banks of rivers, or on 
the fea fhore ; c[\x?^£\,fandirSf or thofe which remain 
beyond the flowing of the tide, or current of the 


St. St- 

Stanners, (Complaint of Scotland, expl. by the editor) 
the rough projeBing stones on the Jhore of f.e fea, on 
the banks of rivers, and on the braes oj" burns. This 
tvord appears, from the text and from the or- 
thography, to be eflentially different from the pre- 
ceding, both in fenfe and derivation. 

Stap, stave. To take a flap out of your blkker, to re- 
duce thejize of your dijh. [Teut. stap, baculus.] 

Stant, (Bp. Dougl.^ for Stent, tajk, bound, limit j alfo 
iov Jituated, placed, fxed ; from Stand. 

Stare, (Bp. Dougl.) probably for Sture, strong, rough, 
hoarfe ; q. v. 

Startle, Stertle, tofcamper about, as cattle flung by the 

Staw, to furfeit, to produce a loathing. See Staigli, to 
gorge, to f II plentifully. Staw is alio uied for stoky Sc 

Staving, walking inconjtderately. Stavering, staggering. 
[Teut. daveren, contremere. See Daver, to stun.'] 

Staumrel, half-witted, one who is incopabld of exprejjing 
his meaning. 

Stay, steep, rif?ig precipitoujly. Teut. steygh, acclivus, 
leviter afcendens. 

Stead, Stede, Steading, farm houfe with dependencies. 
Dan. stcd. Id. jtadur. Goth, s tat, urhs. iia\. sted.i, 
locus. Ifl. stada, llatio. 

Steadlefs, Stedeles, without a fixed fituation, wJthotit be' 
ing confined to a place. See Stead &. Stad. 

Sted, stead, horfe. Sax. & Ifl. stada, equus. 

Steif, ?)X.Q\Q. firm, firmly fxed. Teut. stief tirmas, fla- 
bilis ; stiiven, firmare, firmum reddeie. 

Steik, stitch, job, piece of work. 

Steik, toJJjut or clofe. 'reut. steien, claudere ligneis cla- 
vis ; alfo to stick, stab, ox pierce. 

Steil, handle. SteiU of a barrow ox •\^^o\x^, the handle:, 
Teut. steel, caudex, fcapus. 

Steil-bow, a term denoting a particular mannc of let' 
ting a farm on leafe ; the leading condition of which 
was, that the fodder of the out-going crop fhouKl 
not be carried ofl' from the farm. It is probable, 


St. — St. 

that in cafes of this kind, not only the implemejita 
of hufbandrj, but the whole flock of the farm be- 
longed originally to the proprietor of the land ; 
aud that the farmer was merely a confidential per- 
fon who paid a certain fum annually to the proprie- 
tor inflead of rendering an account of the neat pro- 
duce. The word is derived from Teut. stellen, in- 
ftruere, conftituere, collocare & bouwy meffis. 

Sieip, to stoop ; alfo tofoak, fas in water.) 

Steir, to stir, to mo'Ve. Teut. stiereriy agere. 

Stell, a fnfe Jit nation^ a place ofjhelter. Teut. stell^ lo- 
cus tutus. In old writings. Stall or Stail. 

Stend, Stendle, to stride, to move with long strides. Fr. 
estendre ; alfo ufed iubllantively for a stride or long 
' step. 

Stent, to extendy to stretch out. Fr. estendre ; alfo to 
stint, stopy ov^ceafe ; becaufe, fays Ruddiman, when 
any thing is ftretched to its full length, it is, as it 
were, ftinted or ftopt, that it can go no farther. 

Stent, extenty a burrow tax, according to the extent of a 
perfon's bufinefs. 

Stenye, to sting ; as in " confcience stenyies if he 

Stenye, to stain or fully. Stenyt, stainedyfitllied. 

Step in age, old, or drawing to age: 

Stere, to rule or govern. Sax. styran. Ifl. stiurany gu- 
bernare ; alfo ufed fubflantivety for government. 
From this verb, according to Kennet, is derived the 
word Sterling. 

Stere-burd, star-hoard- Sterifman, steerjman ; from 
Teut. stiery clavus, gubernaculum. 

Sterf, to die, or be killedy by whatever kind of death ; 
to starve, or he starved hy hunger or cold. Teut. ster 
veil, raori, interire, occidere, occumbere. 

Sterk, Stark, strongs robust, valiant. Teur. stercky for- 
tis, validus, infraflus, robuftus, potens. 

Sterlyng, Eaflerling, oj" or belonging to the lower parts 
of Germany, or countries immedi*itely to the east- 
ward of Great Britain. See Stere, ty rule. 


St. St. 

Sterne, Starne, a star. Sternys, stars. Teut. & Sax. 
stern^ ftella. Goth, stairtwns, stellx. Mar. xiii. 23. 
The Lat. astrum and stella feem of the fame ori- 

Steugs, Stugs, dartSf JJjort rusty nails. Teut, stuk, 
tormentum, telutn. [-Goth, stikoy pun6lum tempo- 

Stevin, tune, melody, found, the voice. Sax. stefney vox, 
fonus. Gawin Douglas ufes Stevin alfo for the 
mouth ; and " to ftevin" for proras feu rostrum oh- 
•vertere ; from Teut. sieve, prora, pars anterior na- 
vis 5 all which, according -to Ruddiman, feem to be 
clofelj connedled. 

■Stew, vapour , fmoke, fumes y cloud of dust. Teut. stof, 
pulvis, pulvifculus. 

Stewatt, a perfon in a state of violent perfpiratton ; from 
Stew, Vapour. Teut. stove, hypocauftum. 

Stilp, expl. to stalk, to walk ; var. of Stilt. 

•Stimiket, emitted offenfve vapour, belched. 

Stimpart, expl. the eight part of a Winchester hufhel. 
(huitieme part ?) 

Sting. See Stang, a pole, a pike. Teut. stanghe. To 
carry off " fting and ling," i. e literally with long 
poles or bearers, and fhoulder belts ; entirely, whol- 

Stingifdynt, (Reg. Majes.) a fpecies of Blond-wit, or 
amerciament for the effujion of blood. Stingis-dynt 
feems literally a blow with a long pole. See 

Stirk, a cow or bullock in the fecond year. Sax. styrc, 
juvencus, juvenca. Teut. stier-kalf, 

fitirkin, (Bp. Douglas), feems stricken, struck, wound- 
ed. " Sche wandris as the ftirkin kind," i. e as the 
ivounded deer. Ruddiman will have it q. stirk 

Stirrah, stout bgy. 

Stith, Styth, stt^, strong, steady. Sax. stith, duius, ri- 
gidus, aufterus, afper. 

Stok and horn, a fhepikrd^s pipe^ made of a reed fixed 
in a fmall horn. 
Vol. IV. F f Stok 

St St. 

Stok fwerd, (BIflaop Douglas), expl. a stiff" or strong 
fword i rather perhaps a long fmall pword. Fr. estoc^ 

enfis longior, verututn. Douglas alfo ufes Stokkis, 

which Ruddiman explains daggers^ rapiers : And 

Stokkit, Stokyn, ybr stabbed, sticked. 
Stokker, to stagger, Stokkerand aver, staggering 

Stole, (according to the editor of Winton), an orna- 
ment hung on the priesfs breast^ or perhaps the long 

robe called in Lat. orarium, ftola facerdotalis. 
Stpll, Stell, Stall, Still, place ofjafety ; to place in fafety. 

Douglas ufes Stolling place for a proper fit uatlon or 

strong post. 
Stonie, Stonyfs, to astonijh. Stonift, afioniJJjedf QOU" 

founded. Fr. estonner^ obftupefaccre ; whence Stun. 
Storar, Storour, overfer^ intendant of the herds and 

JlockSf wild or tame. 
Store, sheepy cattle. Store hiXVdyfheep farm. 
Stott, to rebound^ as a hand-ball. Teut. stooUn^ pellere, 

Stott, bullock ; more commonly, a young bullock, Swed. 

stot, juvencus. Chaucer ufes Stot in the fenfe of 

young horfe. 
Stove, a vapour or exhalation. Teut. stove y a hot-houfe, 

hypocauftum j alfo to emit vapour. Teut. stoveii^ ca- 

Stou, to cut or crop. Stouipgs, young branches cr opt from 

the main stock, as of cole worts. 
Stouk, teiiy or more commonly twelve fheaves of corn 

fet up fo as to rejist rain. [Swed. shock, a clufter.] 
Stound, a fmall fpace of time, a moment or instant, 

Teut. fond, fund, tempus, hora, fpatium, momeiji. 

Stound, a f.itch or fhooting pain. [Ifl. styn, doleo , 

stunde, dolui.] Chaucer ufes Stounds for forrows. 
Stound, (Peblis at the Play), feems stayed or remained 

at home. 
Stour, Stowre, tumult, battle. O. Fr. estour. Ifl. styr, 

bellum. Sax. steorian, turbare, movere ; whence 

i|ie fame word is ufed to fignify dwt in motion ,• or 


St. ^ St. 

which has been in motion. Tctlt. stoufy pulvis. Gael. 

Stour, to run or gallop, to move quickly. 
Stoure, a long pole or fpear. [Teut. steuwery ful- 
Stouth, Stowth, stealthy fecrecyy privacy ; in the fame 

fenfe that the h^it.furtum is fometimes iifed by the 

Stouthrief, theft accompanied with violence, houfe-breai- 

ingy &c. See Reif,- to rob. 
Stown, stolen, stole ; from Sta, to steal. 
Stovfpy pitcher, cann,Jlaggony tankard. Teut. stoops MX- 

na, congius. Sax. stoppa, eadus. 
Stoyt, to stammer infpeech, to stutter. 
Straitis, Straits, a kind of coarfe woollen clothy or kerfey. 

In the poem of Chrift's kirk on the green, this 

■word is commonly fuppofed to mean leather from 

the straits of Gibraltar. 
Strak, Sfraik,7?r«(rife, didjlrike ; "Aiojlroke, blow. Stra- 

kings, Straikings, the refufe of jlax, or cleth made 

from it. 
Stramaris, Stremouris, fireamersy top-Jlags. See Stre- 

Stramp, Strample, to trample. To tramp cloaths, to 

trample upon them in a tub of water. Swed. stampa. 
Strand, rivulet, f mall brook or running ivater ; in oppo- 

lition to Stanryis, or Jlanding water. How this 

word happens to differ fo widely in meaning from 

the 'E.n^. frand, is not clear. 
Strath, a plain of fame conftderable extent on a rivet Jide\ 

as Strath or btrat-Clyde, the fiat ground along the 

river Clyde ; probably from Lat. tra£luSy region, 

country ; or T!cnt.Jlrekey plaga, regio, traBu.s -yJlreC" 

ken, extendere. 
Straucht, Jirait ; alfo ^retched; as Raucht for reach* 

ed ; with which it feems to be nearly allied. 
Stravaig, to roam or wander. Itsl.firavagare. See Vaig. 
Stray, Strae,7?ra'u;. bzx.Jre. 
Strayk, Straik, to firoke, or touch with a gentle fliding 

motion. Teut. Jlreikenf leviter attret^are. Straik, 


St. Sir. 

Straiked or Streiked meafure (of corn), exa£i men" 
fure^ m oppofition to heaped ; alfo, in this fenfe, as a 
verb, to adjiift ; from Swed.^W/^rt, menfurare. 

Streik, tojlrctch^ to ufe^ or begin to ufe^ as to ftreik the 
hooks, to begin hnrveji. Tent, Jlrecke/ti extendere. 

S tr e 1 1 ch , Jirick , nffeBed. 

Stremouris,7?/-frtwzfrj. See Vol. I. p. 4^3, where the 
reader may judge for himfelf whether the poet 
means the Northern lights, or merely the ftreams of 
light which precede the rifing of the fun. 

Strenth, cajile/jlrong hold^ a place fortified by nature or 

Strenye, tojlrain or fprain. [Fr. efiraindre.'] 

Strefs, prejjing dij/icultyt prejfure^ dijlrefs ; alfo to dif- 
trefs or trouble, 

Strefs, ancient mode of taking tip accufation for the CiV'- 
cuit Courts. See Tryft. 

Strinkil, Strenkle, var. oifprinkle^ to fcatter, 

Strommel, tojlumble. Tt-xxX.. Jlriemelen, to ftagger. 

Strone, Stroan, to fpout forth as a water pipe. Teut. 
Jiroomen, fluere ; whence Strand, a f mall rill, 

Stront, ^\.x\xx\X.^ pei^fulky or fallen ft ; originally per- 
haps ft of objiinate idlenefs. Conf. Teut. trouwant, 
fcurra, ludio ; or trots, irritamentum, infultatio, 
contumelia ; trotfen, irritare, laceflere ; trotfgh, con- 
tumeliofus, faftofus. To take the ftrunt, to be petted 
or out of humour. 

Strontlie, pettifjlj,fullertlf. [Teut. trt^tfgh, contumc- 
liofus, faftofus.] See Stront. 

Strounge, harfj ; efpecially to the tafte, as a floe. 

Stroup, Stroop,^o«/, as of a tea kettle. S-wed.fri/pc. 
la.frnp, gutter, gula. Teut. storte ; whence throat. 

StroWff rife, fquabble ; from Teat, fiooren, turbaie» 

Stroy, abbrev. of deftroy. Lat. dejlruere. 

Strynd, See Strand, a rivulet , fpring of water. 

Strynd, Stryne, race^ kindred, offspring. Sax. frynd, 
ftirps, genus ; flrinan, gignere. 

Studdy, Stuthy, Stithy, anvil. Ifl. Jledia^ incus. Sax. 
fidhy rigidus, durus. 

Stuff", to fill ivith men, StwH^t, filed with men. 


St. ■ Sa". 

f?>t\x\th, Jealtb. Goth. Ji/an, furare. 

Sturdy, a difeafe common tojheep ; a luater in the headj 

or vertigo. \T^Q\xt.. Jlooren, vertere.] 
Sture, Stoor, aujlerey- roughs harjhy Jliff, Jifong^ robust. 
Teut. stuer. Lat. austerust ferox, horridus, tor- 
Sturt, Sturten, trouhle, disturhancf, vexation y mi/chief. 

Fr. torty injuria. Dan. styrty pugna. 
Style, degree, high degree^ rank, palm. SaX. stigele, gra- 

dus, fcala. 
S^yT ne ^ a hlinkyfmallest appearance cf light. Snx.Jcimay , 
- fulgor ; " lyteWne /eiman leohtes,'' parvam corufca- 

tionem lucis. 
Styte, Stot, to walk injirmlyy like a perfo^;i in li<|«or. 
Subchetts, dubioufly expl. viBuals. 
SvihAytyfuhjea. hzt.fubdifus. 
Saccure y Succor yfugar, Teut. fuyciery izCchaTam. Fr. 

Sucquedry, prefumption ; from O. Fr. furcuideve ; hod 

^fury fuper ; & cuideTy agitare, imaginari. 
Suddil, Sudle, to foil y to tarnijh. Yx.fouiller. 
Suellleg, expl. heat, a burning fever, ^zx.fnvtlly ufti'o, 

tumor, peftis ; fwellany tumere, turgere. 
^\x&{^\\ctyft(fficiency. Yx.fuffifancey idonea copia. 
S\i\ye,foil, country, land, ground, hat.folum. 
Sulyeart, clear, bright, brilliant, glittering. HJh. fhilfer, 

fplendens, rutilus ; foilierachdy fplendor, fulgor. 
Sumdel, Sum <iei\e, fomewhaty a little. 
Sumphion, a mufcal instrument ; fame perhaps with O. 
Engl, fymphonie, which feems to have been a kind 
of tambour or drum. 
San^^tSyfomething (to eat), q. d.fum quhats. 
Sunkis, Sunks^ n hind of pack faddle, reaching farther 

down on the horfes fides than Sods. 
Sunyeis, ElTunyeis, excufes. Fr. exoiue. 
Suppede, to afjist. \/!it. fuppeditare . 
Suppowel,yJ//i^/y, auxiliaries, forces ; alio as a verb to 
fupport or qfjist. Vr.fupplcer. Chaucer h^isfi/ppo- 
raile, expl. upholder, which feems to come from Lat. 


Su. ~~~~. Sw. 

Supprys, Supprels, to cpprefs^ to hear dawH. 

Snr novfuCfJirnaTne. Fr./urnom, 

Surry, Syria. Soldan of Surry, Sultan of Syria. 

Surngine, Syrurgiane, oy«r^er>/z; chirurgeon. ¥t. chi- 

Surs, (Bp. Dougl.^ expl. a hajly riftng, ox flight up ' 
wards; ivom hzt. furfum ox furger e . 

Sufly, carey anxiety, trouble. Vv.fouci, follicitudo ; alfo 
ufed as a verb, to care. I fufly not, / care not. 

SntCy /weet. 

Suth, truth. Suthfaft, truflyj ejlahlijhed in truth. Suth- 
lie, Soolhlich, /r«/j>, in truth, ^^i^i./oth^ verus ijoth- 
lice, vere. 

Swa, yo. Goth.yj/a, fie, ut, ficut. 

Swable, to bent (with a long (lick.) 

Swage, to ajpjoage. Tent, fwighten, fedarc, pacafe, 

Swaif, Swyve, to embrace, tokifs^ futuere. hat. Juaviariy 
to kifs. 

Swaits, SwattSj Jmall beer. S^x./watany cerevifia. 

Swak, Thwack, Jhock,Jiroke vjith a cudgel ; to flrihe ; 
alfo to throw or caji with force ; ex fono. 

Swale, faty plump ; (^.fwelled ; ufed in the fame fenfe 
by Chaucer. 

Swankie, Jwainy young matty wooer ; probably from 
Dan. fwang, fwanky meagre, flender, thin. Teut. 
fwanghery gravida, priegnans, facta ; fwancieuy a- 
gere. Sslx. fwang, operarius ; fwangrer, to impreg- 

SwznySy fwainSypeafants. Sax.fwein, puer, fervus, mi- 

Swap, Swaup, jo««^ pea-cod, a tali slender young per- 
fan. [J^zn. fvangy flender.J 

Swapp, to exchange. 

Sware, Swyre, Squhyre, the neck ; alfo a feep pafs o- 
ver a chain of mountains. Sax. fiJceor, collum, cer- 
vix, columna. 

Swarf, Swairf, Swerf, to faint, to fwoon away Sax. 
fweorcian, caligare ; fweorc, caligo, nubes ; accord- 
ing to Ruddiman, from Tcut. fwervcn, errare, va- 
gari ; or perhaps fwiicken, labafcere, dsficere. 


Sw. ■ Sw. 

Swart, /warthy, hlach. Tent./ivarty nlger, ater, piceus. 

Goth, fwarts, fufcus, niger. 
Swattc, pret. of the verb to/weaf. 
Swath, Swathe, the grafs ivhich is cut by a fey the at one 
Jiroke. S^:s.. fwathcy fciffio, rafura. Tcut. yiy^r/^, fee* 

ni Itriga, ordo demiffi foeni. 
Swee, to incline or hend to ajide. \^. fueigia, incurvare. 

Swed. fwiga^ loco cedere. Teut. luegghen, movere. 

Douglas has Swecht for weight, hurdctiy force ; as 

Spurge for purge, Strample for trample, &c. 
Sweir, Swere, la'zy, hackivard, slow. Six. /were, defes, 

Sweirnefs, Swernefs, sloth, la%i7iejs, hackwardnefs. 
Sweit, life. iSax.fwai, fanguis.] 
Swelly, to fuialkw. Teut. fwelghen, vorare, glutlre. 

Swelliaris, swallonvers. See Swelth, a gulph. 
Swelt, to he choaked or suffocated, to die. Teut. swelten, 

dcficere, languefcere, fatifcere. Sax. sweltan, mori. 
Swelth, a gulph or whirl pool. Tent, sweigh, fauces, 

gula, frumen. 
Swene. See Sweven, to swoon, to dream. 
Swengeour, Sweyngeout, expl. fout nvencher, one ivho 

roarrn about after the girls; from Teut. swenie, virgo, 

juvencula 5 fwentfen, vagari. Dan. fvoangrer, gig- 

nere. Or, according to Ruddiroan, corrupted from 

O. Zngl. fvoinker, labourer. Sax. fwancan, labo- 

rare. Sec Swik, tofoften. 
Swerth-back, a bird ; fpecics unknown. The name 

feems to denote the colour. 
Swetheryke, kingdom of Sweden. See Ryke, iing^ 

Swevin, SwGvyn,feep, a dream. Sax. fw(fen. Dan. 

foffn, fomnium. » 

Swevin to fleep, to dream. Sax. fxtfiany fvcefnian, 
fomniare, fopire. \^.fof, dormire. [Lat. vtXkt.fop" 

nus, for fomnus.] 
Swidder, S wither, dcukt., heftation ; alfo as a verb to 
doubt or hcftate Tewt.fwieren, vibrare, vagari, in 
gyrum verti ; fwier, vibratio, gyrus. 
Swik, to affwngey allay, o^foftesi. T^ixt, fwichten, fe- 
dare, pacare. 


Sw. ' Sy. 

S-xv'i]k.,/uch. Szx..fwylc. Goth. /u>a-/«i, talis j from 

leik, fimilis. 
Swink, Swirk, hard labour ; alfo as a verb, to labour 
• hard. ta.x./ivincari, laborare, fatigare, vexare. 
3vfi^per, quid, /ivift, nimble. Swipperly, /wi/ilj. Sax. 

fwtpan, verrere, and poetically qito agere. [Teut. 

fiueepe, flagellum.] 
^wirl, a 'johirling motion, as of wind or driving fnow } 

or the remaining appearance offuch a motion. Tcut. 

fwier, gyrus, circumvolutio j alfo as a verb to whirl 

about. Tcut. /wieren, circumvolvi. 
Swirlie, Jull of knots or circumvolutions, as in various 

kinds of wood ; from Swirl, circumvolvi. 
Swith, Swyth, Swyith, injiantly, quickly. Als fwyth, 

asfoon. Swith away i begone quickly. Szx.Jkuithe, 

Swoich, Swouch, Souch, ojound^ a report. ^"X^i. fvoege^ 

fonus, clangor ; f-megan, fonare. 
Swonk, expl. tofwim. Svf onkznd, /wimming. [Teut. 

fwencken, fluftuare, labare, vibrare, quatere.] 
Sworl. See Swirl, a whirling motion., &c. 
^wy]^t fraud, impojlure. lH.Jui/k. "D^u. suig &c swinie, 

a trick. 
Swykful, SvijrikfQ], fraudulent. Dan. suigagtig. 
Swyre, Squhyre. See Sware, ajieep pafs over a chain 

of mountains ; expl. by Ruddiman, the top of a 

Swy ve, Sweyve. See Swaif, to have carnal connexion 

Sybow, Seybow, young or small onion. Teut. ci- 

Sj'is, Syith, times. Oft-fyis, & Felefyis, many times, 

frequently. Hax.Jith, tempus, vicis. 
Syle, to blindfold or hood-wink ; to deceive. Overfylde, 

covered over. Swed. Jkyla, occultare. Teut. schuylen. 

'Ds.n.Jkyle. Ifl.y^?o/tt, latitare. Swed.y5&y«. Lat. ri?- 

lare, tegere ; nearly allied to Sax. helan. See Heild, 

io cover vp. Syle is alfo explained to surround or ^«» 

Syle, to f rain or pass through aflrainer. 


Sj — p— Sy; 
Sjrnde, to tva^^ to clean from tome remaining impurl- 

Syne, afterwards^ thereafter^ then. Teut. Jind, pofty 
poftquam, inde pollea. The cprrefponding Saxon 
word, according to Ruddiman, is fttthan or syttban ; 
whence the O. Engl, f thence, now by abbreviatioa 
fmce. Neither of thefe, however, agrees with the 
Scottiih lyne^ but with Sen-fjme, ever after that 

Sync. See Sejne, to bliss or consecrate, 

Synopare, Cjnoper, cinnabar. 

Sjpe. See Sipe, to ouze or pass through in sinall quan^ 
tity ; fpoken of liquid. 

Sjpins, that which has ouxed through, Cfrom a veilel 
containing liquor.) 

Sjte, punifhment ; alfo cxpl. sorrow* Teut. suchte, do- 
lor, languor, morbus. 

Sjthyn, Sen-fjne, ever after that time, Se« Sync. 

Vot. IV. G g Ta, 

r» , „ Ta. 


TAi fo* Tane, The ancj one of two. So*, te arte. Ta 
and Tane likewife occur in the fenfe of take and ta- 
keriy as Ma for make-. So alfo Tais for taket. 

Taanles, Bleazes, large fir^s,bailfirei ov bonefires , from 
Gael. /itf/fw, fire. Svred, tanda. Svx. tynan. Goth. 
tandiarty accendere. Ifl* tungl^ fidus, luna. Efton. tuTi" 
geiy toriis ; whence perhaps Ingle, large fire. The 
cuftom of kindling large fires or Taanlea, at Mid- 
fnmmer, was formerly coinmon in Scotland, as in o- 
ther countries, and to this day ie continued all along 
the ftrath ol Clyde. " On fome nights a dozen or 
more of them may be feen at one view. They are 
moftly kindled on rifing ground, that they may be 
feen at a greater diftance." 

Tabart, Taberd, Talbert, loofe upper garment^ worn 
chiefly by ecclefiaftics. Upon thofe which were uf- 
ed by knights, their armorial bearings were com- 
monly reprefented in embroidery. Teut. tahhaerd^ 

Tabetlefs, expl. without Jlrength. 

Taljles, the name of a game j perhaps drafts^ or chefs, 

Tache, hlemijh. Fr. tache. 

Tack, Tak, leafe. Teut. taecke^ penfum, a charge or «n- 
dertaking. See Aft 1 459, the firft in Europe which 
rendered tenants fecure in their poffeffions. 

Tagle, Taigle, to retard, tojiopy to delay. Teut. taggen, 

Tail, talcyjlory. Teut. taelcy fermo. 

TaiJyeve, Tirryvie, violent ft of pafjion. See Ter- 

Tailyies,y7zVw, as of meat, loaf bread, &c. Fr. tailler, 
to cur, flice, hack j from Teut. talie^ incifura, cae- 
fura ; alfo entails. 


Ta. Ta. 

Tals, Tafs, howl^ a fmall dram cup. Fr. taffe. 

Tais, tojlretcbyjlraiuy or extend ; to pull thejlring of a 
bow ; hence to adjujl. Teut. teefetiy trahere, veJli- 
care, vellere, carpere. Wolteefeny rainutatim expli- 
care lanam, to teefe wool. Tjt, pulled, drew. 

Takill, arrow. Wei. taccl^ fagitta j tacclan, ornamenta 
fagittas j taccluy ornare ; tacdvs, ornatas. [ Teut. 
taeckelen de fche-peity adornare naves.^ 

Takynnar, one who portends from Jtgns or tokens. 

Talbart. See Tabart, gowriy toga. 

Talent, propenfity^ eagernefs. Fr. talent, cnpido. 

Tallon for Tallow, to cover with tallow or with a mix- 
ture of pitch and tallow. Yt. 

Tangle, afea weed. Swed- tang.^ alga marina. 

Tangs, Tejngs,/»azr of tongf. Teut. tanghe^ forceps. 

Tape, to make a little go a great way, to ufefparingly. 

Tapettis, tapejlry. Teut. tapiit^ tapetum ; whence per- 
haps Belg. 6c Eng. carpet. 

Tappit-hen, crejied hen ; pewter quart meafure^ fo called 
frona the knob on the lid. 

Tarans, expl. children who have died before baptifm. 

Targets, tatters. Swed. iargady tore or torn. 

Tarlochis, enchanters^ magicians ; properly tourlochis'^ 
from Teut. ioouerer, incantator, maleficus, magus } 
toouererfsf toouerinne, incantatrix, faga, lamia ; toou- 
eren, fafcinare. The termination loch in this, as in 
many other words, fignifies like. Goth, leiks, iimi'- 

Tarrow, to take pet ; to turn away from, or refufe, 
meat peevifhly ; to pretend to loath, to €at with 
feigned loathing ; from Teut. taergh, tardus. See 

Tartan, crofs.-Jiriped or chequered, cf various colours^ 
in the manner of Highland plaids. Fr. tiretaine, 
forte de droguet ; linfey-woolfy. 

Tartane, tertian^ as Tartane fever, ague. 

Tarveal, expl. fretful, difcontented ; alfo as a verb, to 
plague or vex. -^wed. tarfwa^ opus habere } tarf 
neceflitas.] See Torfel, to pine away. 

Tafleis, (erroneoufly printed TafteisJ, taffels, 


Ta Te. 

Tafg, Tas. See Tais, cup. Fr, tajje. 

Tate, Tatt, Teat, lock of hair or tuoolf commonly mat- 

ted. Sax. ge-tead^ connexus, uaitus. 
Tatb, the luxuriant grafs which rifes in tufts where the 
dung of cattle has been depqfited. Sax. ge-tead^ excita- 
tus, nutritus j ge-tyhth, traxit. Tathis, tufts ; alfo 
teats or locks. See Tate. 
Tatty, hanging in tatts or matted locks. See Tate. 
Tauch, Taulch, tallow. Fris. talghe. Dan. talge^ febnrn, 

Tau pie, ybo/^ ivench. Dan. tadbegaas. 
Taw, to pull, to lay hold of to tumble about. 
Tawbern, Tawburn, tabour^ drum. Fr. tambour. 
Taweal, ex^l. fatigue, perhaps from travail. 
Tawis, Taws, a whip or fcourge ; commonly a flip of 
tanned leather divided at the farther extremity intq 
fmaller thongs. 
Tay, toe. Tayis, Tays, toes. 

Teat, afmall lock, as of hair, wool, &c. See Tath. 
Ted, to fcatter. In King Alfred's tranflation of Bede, 
*' land getead^* is tranflated terra praparata. But 
this may rather be the origin of Tath, q. vid. 
Teddir, Tethir, rope, commonly made of hair. 
Teicheris, (Gaw. Douglas), expl. drops of devi j forte, 

(fays Ruddiman), from Fr. tacher, to fpot ? 
Teille-trec, the Hme tree. Lat. tilia. 
Teir, wajie, fatigue. Teh ful, fatiguing. Fr. tare. 
Teis, ropes ; of the fame origin with En^l. verb tQ 

Telis, tills ; alfo corruption of dwells, 
Teme. See Toom, empty, to empty. 
Tempane, Tympane. drum, tabour. Lat. tympanum. 
Tcnchis, (G. Douglas), taunfSf tauntings. Fr. tencer, 

Tene, vexation, grief anger, trouble. Sax. teon, calum- 
nia, molellia, injuria, calamitas ; alfo as a verb, to 
grieve, to irritatef vex, or trouble ; teonan. Fland. 
ientn, irritare, conviciari. 
Tene-waryit, cppreffed with affli6iion. See Tene, and 
Warie, 7o curfe. 


Te Th. 

Tent, attention^ notice, care ; to attend to^ to take care of, 

Lat. attendere. 
Tent. See Stent, tojlretch out. Fr. eflendre, 
Tepe, Taip, to prolong, to make a little go a great way. 
Ter, tar. Teut. terre, pix fluida. 
Terce, Tierce, the third part, or widow* s Jhare of her 

hujhand^s moveables. Fr. tiers. 
Tercelet, Terfall, the male hawk or eagle. See Terfc. 
Tere, Teir. See Deir, injury, distrefs. 
Termagant, ptarmigan, the name of a well known bird 

which inhabits rocky mouptains in the northern 

parts of Scotland. 
Tern, for Stern, ferce. 

Terrane, Tirrane, oppreffor ; alfo expl. tyrannical. 
Terrane, reproachful nanie for a pajjionate brawling 

child. [^Teut. taran, hillrix,] 
Terfe, Tearfe. Teut. teers, hafta membri virilis ; vo- 

cabulum Teutonibus olim honeftum, nunc temporis - 

vero obfca;num. 
Tetand, Teeting, corr. from Belg kiichsn, to peep ox 

Teug, Tug, the rein or rope of a halter. Teut. teugel, 
habena, lorum, retinaculum. Ifl. tog^ funis, a tow. 

Tejnd, tenth, tithe ; alfo as a verb, to draw the tenths 
(of produce), figuratively, to diminifrin number ot 
value, to mar. 

Tha, Thay, thefe. Sax. thnege, illi. 

Thak, Thack, thatch, ruJJo or straw coi^ering of a roof. 
Sax, thac, tectum faeneiim ; feu cujufvis generis, 
Teut. duck, arundo. See fheik. 

Thane, an old title of honour or dignity, equal in rank, 
'fays Skene, *' to the fon of an Earl ; — ane Free bal- 
der holding his lands of the /T/V/g- /" — according to 
Fordun, a levier of the King*s rents. The word 
Tbegn is found in moft of the Northern languages, 
but moft frequently in the Anglo-Saxon ; and is uf- 
ed in the various fignifirations of fervus, mini/ler ; 
exa£ior, dijcipulus ; fervus mihtaris, miles, Jatelles, 
eques ; princeps, optimas, pnmas, Jatropa, dominus. — 
The learned Jhfe makes the primary f.'nfe of Thegf/, 


Th, Th. 

vir probus, praeftans, ftrenuus ; correfpondlng with 
Fris. thegeman, from deghe, virtus, probitas; whence 
perhaps the Irifli tig'hearna, dotninus, and Lat. dig- 
nus. If fo, we fcarcely wouid have met with yfe/e 
thegnas, mall fervi j hon-thegn^ qui circa equos mi- 
tiillrat, &c. It is probable that, when the word 
was njoft in ufe, every landholder was a Thane who 
was infeft with Theme, q. vid. ** Edward, (the 
** Confeffor), grete mine Bifceops, and mine Eorles, 
** and all min^ Thegnes on than fliiren, (jhatjhire), 
*' whcr mine preites in Paulus minifter habband 
land, &c." [Teut. degen-man, miles ; degen, glacUus, 
enlis.] Ab-Thane occurs only in Scottifli writings, 
and is explained bj Fordun, a chief Thane ; by Ma- 
jor, (upon a vague expreflion o( ^ovdnn), /enejca//us 
in infuhs qui regios pro'oentus collegit ; and by others. 
Up or Upper "Thane. It is rather difficult, however, 
to conceive that the Ab-Thane of Kinghorn was a 
greater perfonage than the Thane of Fife. Mr Pin- 
kerton contends, and with a greater appearance of 
probability, that Ab-Thane is Abbot-Thane, a Thane 
who was alfo an Abbot ; analogous to Abba-Comi- 
tes, explained by Du Cange, abbates quifimul erant 
comites. Various other Thanes are mentioned, as 
Mes-Thane, Sax. tnajje-thegn, facerdos j and VVo- 
ruld- Ihane, Sax. woruld-thegny Thanus laicus feu 
fecularis. The derivation of Ab Thane from the 
Hebrew abbas ^ pater ; quali, chief of the Thanes 
feems altogether abfurd. 

Thane, not well ronjled^ half-roq/led. Sax. thartf madif 
dus, humidus. 

Thankfully, willingly. Sax. thanc-full, contentus, 

Thayn, 'Vh^m, pane ofglafs. 

The, Thics thigh. 

Theik, to thatch. Sax. thecan^ tegere. Tetlt. dechen^ 
tegcre, operire, veftire. From this laft is probably 
aerived the Engl, verb to deck. 

Theme, expl. by Skene, " the power of hewing fervants 
andjla-oes. Unto all Barronnes infeft with theme, 
their bondmen, with their bairnes, gudes and geir 


Th Th. 

properlie perteinis, fwa that they may dlfpone there- 
upon at their pleafure/* It feems to be an abbre- 
viation of Sax. thewe-doniy fcrvitium, from the verb 
theowiany mancipare, in fervitutem redigere ; thew, 
fervus ; thegen lage^ Thani jus, privilegium ; the- 
nungy comitatus, fatellitium, clientum turba, famu- 
litium. Theme is alfo ^xpl. team, offspring. 

Thcmys, /ervants or Jlaves attached to the land\ plural 
of Sax. iheoiVf fervus ; on theowum micele aehta^ in. 
fervis multas ppffeffiones. 

Theodome, Thewdome, (Chaucer, Thedom), thrift, 
fuccefs. Sax. thean. Teut. dyden or thliden, proficere, 

Therm, Tharme, gut. Sax. thearm. Teut. darm, intef- 
tinum ; now more commonly Fearn. 

Thetes, Theets, or Feets, traces, wherewith horfes 
draw a carriage. 

Theuis nek, the cry of the lapwing ; ex fono. 

Thewis, qualities, dijpofitions ; originally cujioms, regU" 
lations, manners^ ceremonies. Sax. theaw, inftitutum, 
confuetudo, mos, lex. 

Thewit, expl. difpofed -, i. e. well ox ill inclined ; from 
Thewis in the lenfe of qimlities, manners. 

Thewles, Thievelefs, Thawlefs, fuggijh, inaSiive, un- 
thrijty. See Dowlefs. Alio tx^L cold, forbidding; 
i. e. void of good fenfe or manners. See Thewis. 

Theyrs, expl. tiers or yard arms of a veffel. 

Thick, intimate .^ familiar ; as in the fame fenfe are uf- 
ed great and throng. 

Thiftwis, thievijh. Thiftwifly, thieviJlAy. 

Thig, to beg, to colhB a little fupply of money or goods 
upon fome extraordinary occnfion. Sax. thicgean. 111. 
thiggia, accipere. 

Thir, thefe. In fome cafes there feems no correfpond- 
ing Englifh word ; as ** Thir Ihillings (which I 
hold concealed in ray hand) are better than thefe 
upon the table." 

Thirl, hondfervant. Sax. & Ifl. thrael, fervus ; alfo 
the territory thirled or bound to a particular 


Th. -. Th. 

Thirl, to drill or bore. Sax. thirlian, perforate; thyrely. 

forcimen ; alfo to furl (the fails.) 
Thirlage, Threllage, Thirledome, thraldom^ fervittidef 

bondage ; q. thrallage. Sax. & Ifl. thrnely fervitus. 
Thirled, bound to fome fervitudcy fuch as grinding the 

corns at a particular mill. Sax. thrall^ fervitus. 
Tho, then J at that time ; contradled from Sax. t bonne , 

Thocht, though y altho*y tho*. 

Thole, Tholl, more commonly Toll (in charters from 
the crown), expl. by Skeen, cujloniy or that privi- 
lege of a Baron which exempts him and his vaffals 
from paying cuftom upon goods fold or bought 
■within the Barony. Bradon interprets it to he at 
liberty as well to take as to be free from Toll or cuf- 
Thole, to fuffery to endure. Sax. tholian. Goth, thulatiy 
ittxt.y tolerare, pati. Goth, thuldu, patiar j tbulaina, 
Thole-mude, Thoilmude, patient or patiently. 
Thoucht, fmall matter. A thoucht lefs, fomevohat 

Thor, durancCy confinement. Swed. thory career. 
Thowlefs. See Dowlefs. 

Thraif, Thrave, twenty four ; properly, the flraw of 
twenty-four fheaves of corn. Brit. Drefuj twenty- 
four. Sax. threafy manipulus. Swed. trafwey acer- 
vus fegetum. 
Thraw, a fhort /pace of timcy a little nvhiley a trice. 
Sax. thrahy curfus temporis, tempus. Goth, thra- 
giany currere. 
Thvzn^ pangy agony. Sax. threay affliftio, inilidllo. 
Thraw, to twifi. Thrawin, mis-fbapedy a-wry ; hence 
?i[[o perverfef of a crooked difpojiiion. Sax. thrawariy 
Thrawart, Thrawin, crofsy crofs-grainedy perverfc, 
(torvus), from Thraw, torquere. According to 
Ruddiman, from fraward. 
Thraw-cruk, an injlrument for twi/ling hayy &c. into 


Tli. — Th. 

Thfeip, Threpe, vehement affirmation, dijpuiatioh, con^ 
tif/ued argument, pertinacious averment, 

Threip, Threpe, to affirm with vehemence, to aver bold- 
ly, to argue Jlrenuoujly. Sax. threapiah^ redar- 

Threfiim, threefold, conjifling of three. 

Threfwald, threfhold. Sax. therfcwold, litnen. 

Threte, throng, crowd, heap. Sax. threat, turba, turma^ 

Threte, to crowd into, to prefs into ; from Sax. threat^ 

Thretrs. expl. pairs. *< His ftedis yokkit war in thre- 
tis." ' G. Douglas. Rather perhaps the fame with 
Thetes, traces. 

Threttj-fum, thirty ; alfo expl. fome thirty, about 
thirty i 

Thrid and Tein, a method of letting arable ground for 
the third and tenth, or two fifths of the produce. 

Thrimle, fame with Thirl, to drill, to bore, to prefs 
through with difficulty. Sax. thyrlian i alfo expl. 
to ivrejlle, to fumble. 

Thring, to fling, throw, thrufl, pujh. Sax. thringan, 
thriccan, premere, comprimere, urgere, trudere, 

Thrift, to thrufl, to prefs upon, to opprefs, to com" 

Throeh, Thruch, a fheet of printed paper, as a news 
paper is fometimes called a /)r«i^,- from Teut. druck^ 
pfeflura, preflus, compreffio^ 

Throll, a hole, properly, a hole made by drilling or bor- 
irig. See ThrilL 

Throwgang, thorough-fare. Sax. thurh, per, trans. 

Thruch-rtane, Thruch, tomb-flone (placed horizontally.) 
Sax. thruh, farcophagus ; which has been conceiv- 
ed to have fome affinity with the preceding thurh^ 
per, trans ; and with Sax. dure, oftium } if not alfo 
with Thruch, a fheet of printed paper. The co-in- 
cidence, however, feems to be merely accidental. 

Thrung, did thring, flung, threw. See Thring. 

Thrunland, rollings tumbling about j q. trundling. 
Vol. IV. H h Thryn.fald, 

Th. Tiv 

Thryn-fald, three-fold. Thxyis, thrice. 

Thud, llovi^ ^l(\Jii /iorm ; or the found produced by any 

of thefe. 
Thura-fteii, a covering for the thumb, as the finger of a 

Thuort, othwarf. A-thuort, about, here and there. 
Thwaing, thong. Sax. thwang. 
Thwyttel, whittle. Sax. hwitel, cultellus. 
Thwjtten, Whytten, cut with a knife. Sax. huyvooden 

me, formarunt me. 
Thjne, thence. Teutu dan, inde, poflea, tura. 
Ticht, Tycht, Tyte, right, straight, strait-wayf, direSi- 

ly. See Tyte. 
Ticht, Tycht, Tyte, tight, neat ; from Sax. tian, vin- 

cire, ligare ; quafi, tied, 
Tickatts, placards, advertifements. O. Fr. etiquette. 
Tid, Tyde, time. Sax. Ifl. Swed. &c. tid, tempus. 
Tid, Tyde, happened, fell out. Sax. tidan, contin- 

Tifty^oo^ condition^ state of health, trim ; has prdbaMy 

fome connexion with Toft, q. v. 
Tike, Tyke, a dog, cur. Ifl. tiik, tiig. Swed. tik, cani- 

Til, Till, to, unto, with. Swed. till. Ifl. tit'. 
Tilt, account of, tidings. 

Timbrell, Tumbrell, expl. by Skene, ane hind of tor- 
ment as^ stocks or jogges, quhairwith craftes-men, fik 
as brenvsters ar purttfhed ; f^ms to be the fame with 
Cuck-fl^ule, q. vid. In England it was alfo called 
the thewe. 
Tine, Tyne, to lofe. Ifl. /);«?, amittere. 
Tine, Tynde,^o kindle. Dan. tende. Sax. tendan. Goth, 
tandjare, acceildere ; whence perhaps Ingle, large 
Tmfale, Tynfail, lofs, forfeiture ; from Tine, to lofe. 
Tirl, Tirr, Tirf, to strip, to uncover. Fr. tirer. 
Tirleis, lattice work. 
Tirlleifl, Tirlleft, trelUfed, latticedj having grates.. Fr. 

treillis^ cancelli, tranfemia. 
Tifchcj Tyfche, Tifchey, Af/f,^»r<//^,-7fl/^. Yv. tifu, a 


Ti. r- To. 

fort of broad ribbon, or fillet ; from Teut. tq/pche, 
iejchcy marfupium, crumena, mantica, purfe ; fyno- 
nimous with the Swed. gicerdel & Goth, gairda^ 
zona ; nih in gairdos aiz, neque in zona aes. Mar. 
6. 8. 

Tite, 'I'y^^j Ji^atched j [frona Sax. ge-tiorty trahere, li- 

Titlene, hedge-narrow. Ifl. tyitlingtir, pafler. 

Titter, rathery fooner ; the compar. of Tjte, ready y 

Tittj, childifli pronounciation oijister. 

Tocher, portiony dowry. Sax. tteean, betjecan, traderc, 

To-cum, To-gang, coming to, encountery meeting, ac- 

^odi,fox ; {(3 called perhaps on account'of its deftruc- 
tive rapacity among the flocks of (heep j from Teut. 
dood. Swed. & Dan. doced. Ger. tod, mors. Before 
the country was cleared of wood, when foxes were 
plenty, and flieep fcarce, this animal mud have been 
well entitled to the appellation of the destroyery or 
death. Tod Lowrie feems nothing more than the 
dreary or doleful fox, as he is ftill commonly called 
from Teut. treurighy mjcftus, dolens, dolendus. 

Toddy, Tother, the other. 

Todle, to walk with ajhort unsteady step, like a perfon 
in liquor, or a youfig child. 

To- fall, a f mall building tunnexed to the wall of a larger 

Tohy expl. a place nvhere a manjton-houfe hath stood; 
locus arboribus minufculis fonfitus ; q. d. a tuft of 

Tolbuith, prifon ; originally exchequer j from Sax. & 
Teut. toly veftigal, cenfus, & boede. dpmus. 

Too-fall, Toofai of the night, dew-fally time of the dew 
falling ; from Teut. douw, ros. It is explained by 
Lamb, " hefore night fall ; an image drawn from a 
i"ufpended canopy, dropped fo as to cover what is 


To. Tr. 

Toolye, Tuilye, to nurestle^ to fight, Teut. tuyly labor, 

Torfel, Torchel, to pine away^ to die. Ifl. thurka. Swed. 
toriat ficcare, abftergere, afefcere. Ifl. tborr^ aridus, 

Torfeir, vexation, injury ^ mif chief ; nearly allied to 
Torfel, to pine aivay ; or perhaps to Sax. steorfa, 
clades, ftrages. See Tarveal, to plagtte or vex. 

Tort, injury, lurongy trouble. Fr. tort, injuria. 

Tofche, tight, neat. [Fr. toufe, clipped, polled, pared 
round.] G. Douglas renders " cara pinus" a tofche 
fir tree, which feems not to agree with the common 

Tofcheo4erach, Tochederauch, expl. by Skene, an of- 
fict or juriJdiBion, not unlike to ane Baillierie,Jpecial- 
ly in the Ifies and Hielands ; or, as others will have 
it, the office of a public profecutor. Gael. 

Touk, a tug, pull, draught, fit to. Sax. teogan. Teut. 
tucken, trahere. G. Douglas ufes the Word i-f the 
i'enfe of stroke, blow, Touk of drum, beat of 

Touk, to tuck, to fasten ; variety of Stick. 

Toufle, to rumple, to put into diforder, Touflie, Toufie, 
dif ordered. 

Tout, Toot, found of a horn ; tofotmd a horn j alfo to 
drink largely. 

Tow, Towm, rope. Teut. touvj, funis, Swed. toem, 

Towmiint, Towmon, corr. of tiuelte'inonth. 

Toy, an oldfafhion of female head drefs. 

Trachil. See Drable, to trail in the mire. 

Trad, track, courfe in travelling or in failing. 

Trag^tis, Tregettis, Tregets, tricks, deceits, decepthns ; 
feemingly a pervierfion of tragedies, both in ortho- 
graphy and meaning ; unlefs we were to fuppofe it 
to have been foimed from the Fr. tricoterie, treach- 
ery, deceit ; alfo narrative poems. 

Traik, difaster, mifchief trouble, plague, lofs, damage ; 
commonly ufed now for the carcafes of fheep ivhich 
have died by difeafe or accident. Sax. treg^ vexatio, 


Tr. ..n Tr. 

tributatio, damnum ; striCf (the fame word with the 
afpiration), piaga, peftL. 

Traiftis. See Strefs, a mode of taking up accufations. 

Tramort, dead body^ corps ; from Lat. mors. 

Tramp, Stramp, to tread withforcey to trample. Swed. 
trampa pu, concuicare. 

Tramsy the poles ox Jhafts of a cart. ^x. trameau, a 

Tranoyiu, Tranownt, Tranent, to pnfs^ to march fud~ 

Tranfmew, to tranjmute or change. Fr. tranfmuer. 

Trantlims, injignificant trifles or articles offurniturf, 

Trappouris, I'rappours, trappings. 

Trat, Fiot, old woman, one who has trotted^ or trudged 
about for a long time. Teut. traty grefTus ; t ratten f 
gradi. Rudd'man thinks it has fome affinity with 
Teut. tateren^ titubare, balbutire, to fpeak with j^ 
fhrill voice. See Trattillis. 

Tratoury, Tray, treachery ; from Traitour, Betray, 
&c. ' ' 

Trattillis, Tattles, idlefiories, old women'' s fables. 

TxayllciSffupporters. Fr. treil/is, a latticed frame for 
fupporting Vine trees. 

Treit, Trete, to entreat. Tretabyl, eafy to be entreat- 

Treitcheour, treacherous per/on. Fr. tricheur. 

Trellyeis, Trelyeis, curry-combs. Fr. etrille. 

Trenchman, ex^]. train-bearer ; rather perhaps r^jfr- 
ver ; from Fx. trencher^ fcindere j (or interpreter.^ 
Fr. trucheman. 

Trene, Trey n , of tree, wooden. Sax. trtowen, lig- 

Trentallj afervice of thirty majfes, upon as many diffe- 
rent day Sf for the benefit of a departed foul. Fr. 

Treft. See I rail! , trnfi, trufiy. 

Treflis, trefiles. Fr. treJleaUy iripus, tripoda. 

Treules, "^rxowAefs, faithlefs; truthlefs^falfe. 

Trevifli, Triffyfli, aflall, or rather the partition between 
twojlalls. Fr. tref trovaifon. 

Trewage, tribute. O. Fr. truage. 


Tr. r- Tr. 

Trews, troughs. Dan. trou^ alveus ; alfo truce or peace. 

Trews, vejiy hcfe a/id breeches of one piece. Hib. triusy 
tr'mjan, laccae braccae. Gael, triuhhnsy trowfers. 

'J!rc\\ji,prote6l€d by a truce, aff'uredy in confequence 
of an engagement to be true and taiihful. 

Trig, neaty tight, tricked up. £Dan. tryg, fafe, fe- 

Trinle, Trindle, to trundle or roll. 

Trinfsh. Trinch, to cut or carve ; to hacky to kill. Fr. 

Trippis,J?o<:/5f. Fr. troupeau ,• from Sax. trep^ grex, 

Trill, //6?. Lat. tri/lis. 

Trocks, toys^ trinkets. To trock, to barter or exchange 
goods of/mall value. 

Trone, throne. Fr. trone. Teut. trpone, thronus. 

Trone, expl. the pillory. Swed. torn, prifon ; /org, the 
market-place. Trone feems alfo to have fignified the 
public balance or beam, and fcales for weighing the 
niore common articles of I'ubfi'lence ; according to 
Skinner, from I'eut. droneuy troneUy nutare, vacil- 
lare, vibrare. 

Tropljs, a flrange corr. of troops. 

Trowcour, Trucour, Trewker, ofie who deals in barter- 
ing, a trucker ; from Trocks, trinkets. 

Tro- wending, nvandering to and fro. 

Trublie, troubled, muddy. Fr. trouhlcj fame with 

TrufHs, tricks, deceits. To truff, tojleal. 

^inWs, fame kind of childijh amufement ; perhaps that; 
whir.h Kilianus defcribes under the Teut. word 
drillc, mola ex nuce cava, quam puerili filo traje£lo 
verfant ; q. d. nux verfatilis, nux terebrata. 

Trump, to deceive, to cheat. Trumpit, deceived. Teut. 

Trumpe, a trifle, a thing of fmall value. Trompes, 
trumpery, goods ox furniture of little value, trafh. Fr. 
tromperie, fallacy, delulion, over-reaching. 

Trumpouris, deceivers, cheats ; q. d. pedlars who have 
cnly trumpery to difpofe of. See Trumpe. 


Tr. Ty. 

Ttyne, Trayne, treachery , deceit. Sax. tregiafty vexaie. • 

Trjnfch. See Trinfch, to cut off. Fr. trencher. 
'rryft, appointffient to meet ; to make an appointment to 
meet. Sax. iruijjian, fidem dare. Id. treyjle. Swed, 
trcejia. Tryftell trie, tryjiing tree^ or appointed place 
of meeting in aforejl. 
Tuay, Twaj, two. 
Tuffing, Toffin, Coflin, Jiuffing of toiv, or the refvfe of 

flax ; wadding ; itova Tow. , 

Tuillye, conteJl,flrife. 

Tulcliin, Tulchan, a calvi s Jkin fluffed with flraw, and 
prefented to a cow to make her yield her tfiilk ; budget. 
Tume, empty y hollow, vain. Swed. torn, vacuus. 
Tume, Teme, to empty, to pour or throw out. 
Tuquheit, Tuechit, the lapwing ,' an ijnitation of its 

Tarcais, Turkifh ; may alfo fignify the turquoife^ a pre- 
cious ftone. Fr. 
Tureomes, Vol. II. p. i68. clotted fllth ; perhaps from 

Teut. drcecky fordes. l^^t. Jiercus. 
Turdion, a /pedes of galUard or gay dance. Fr. tordit/n.' 
Turkes, pincers, nippers. Armor, turqucs. Fr. tire-clou ; 

or corr. abbrev. of Teut. trek tang, forceps. 
Turnay, Turney, to contend or flght in a tournttmeut-- 

Fr. tournois. 
Turn-pyk, the winding flairs of a tower. 
Tufche. See Tifche, girdle, belt, purfl. 
Tute-movvit, having prominent lips. 
Twa, two. Twal, twelve. 

Twiche, to touch. Twichand, touching, concerning. 
Twinter, Quinter, a ewe in her third year^ or after 

" two winters.'** 
Twiflj twig, branch. Teut. twifl, ramalia. 
Twyne , Twinne, to part with, to be feparated ; q. d. 

to be made twain. 
Twyners, 'Ywjxw-j^, pincers, nippers. 
Tyd, time,feafon. Sax. tidy tempus, opportunitas. 
Tyde, to betide, to happen. Sax. tidan^ contingere, acci- 


Ty. -4_ Tjf. 

Tjdy, well made i handfome, proper in appearance. Teut. 

tiidigJjf maturus, oportunus. Ifl. tydr^ obfequens, 
applicabilis, amicus. 
Tyift, Tyft, to entice, allure^Jiir up. Fr. attifer. 
Tymbrell, Tymbret, Tymber, the crejl of a helmet. 

Fr. timbre. Teut. timmer ; a term in heraldry of the 

fame import. 
Tymme r. TyjQbour, tambour., drum. Tymraer weycht, 

fuch a •weicht or Jieve as could anfnver the purpofe of 

a drum. See Weycht. 
Tympanis, drums, tambours. Lat. 
Tyndis, Tynes, the horns of a hart^ properly the tines 

of the horns. Harrow-tynes, the teeth of a harrow. 

8 wed. harf-tinnar. Jfl. tinne, dens. Teut. tinne^ 

T^ne, to lofe. Tynt, lofl. Ifl. tyne^ perdere ; tyndcy 

perdidi ; iyndur^ perditus. [|Swed. t'jna of o'onfumi, 

to wafte, to confume.] 
Tyne, to diminijh, to marr ; literally, to draw tht teind, 

or tenth of 
Tjr\£t]yTiui?i\&, lofs, forfeiture ; from Tyne. 
Tyrr, Tyrl, Tirle, ^«//, thronVfJirip, dranv. 
Tyrryt, Tyrlit, Tirrytf fript naked. Fr. tirer^ triihere. 
Tyflyre^ cafe^ rover. Lat. te^a. 
Tyt fnatched quickly^ feized quickly, drew or pulled 

Tyte, Als tyte, have the fame meaning in G. Douglas 

v/ith fiuithj and alsfwyth, viz. injlantl^y quick foon. 

Ifl. /z«, promptus. ^ 


XJd. Un. 


Uder, Uddyr, other'; nearer to the Fr. autre than to 
mod of the Northern correfponding words. Sax. o- 
ther. Swed. & Teut. under. Lat. alter. 

^5g, to detejl on account of horrid appearance or quality. 
Goth. ogan. 111. ugga, metuere, timere. 

Ugfum, hideous , frightful y horrible. Ugfumnefs, hide., 
oufnefs ; from Sax. oga^ horror, txmor. 

Umaft, Ummeft, upmofly uppermof. Sax. ufemefi, fu- 
premus, fummus. The Umall clais claimed bj the 
prieft at a funeral was probably the fbeet which co- 
vered the body. 

Umbedraw, to withdraw. ^mbedrew, withdrew ; 
** the initial particle um or un having here an i«ten- 
flve fignification, as in un-loofe^"* and in various o- 
ther inilances. 

Umberaucht, (Umberauftit), expl. ^«3«r<7^^; or ra- 
ther /A«o/(?,/)«r/«^(:/; q. raucht. 

IDmberforow, hardy, finny not eajily to be injured. Teut. 
on-heforghty or on-bekommefty free of care ; beforgeriy 

Umbefchew, (^p. Dougl.) to efchew or avoid. 

Umbefet, befet round about, furrounded. Umbefettis, 
attacks, fets upon. Ifl. um, om, about. 

Umbefiege, Umbefege, to bejiege, to lay fiege to on all 

Umbethought, duely conftdered-, revolved in the mind. 

Umquhil, Umquhyle, by Mr Macpherfon, (editor of 
Winton's Chronicle,) and by Mr Pinkerton, expl. 
fometimes. But more commonly it is ufed in the 
fenfe oi fometime ago, of old, and adjecflively for late, 
deceafed. See Quhilom ; from which Umquhyle feems 
to be fornied by a tranfpofition of the fyllables. 

UnabayiTit, Unabafyt, undaunted, without ffjame. 

Uncorne, (Gaw. Dougl.) expl. wild oats. To fow his 
\oi., IV. I i uncorn. 

Va. Un. 

uncorn, io put an end to his youtJjful foLlies. fSwed. 

ugn. Goth. auIjHy oven, fornax, furnus ; q. d. to 

fow corn which had been baked in an oven or dried 

in a kiln.] 
jjncredyble, incredulous^ unhelievingy who will not be-^ 

lieve ; as Vengeabil for bringing vengeance or mif- 

Uncunnandnefs, want of knowledge or /kill. 
XJncutJi, now Unco, unktiown^ Jirange. Sax. uncuth, 

incognitas, alienus ; alfo very \ as Unco glad, very^ 

or unujually glad. The meaning of the woid is now 

confiderably changed. 
Undegell, raj}], imprudent ^ untimely. See Degeft- 
Undeipj^/i/Zo-u;. Undeipis,7Z»a//oat;/)/afw. Teut. ond'up. 
Undemit, Un-demtnjt, un-cenfured ; from S'.xx. dcmauy 

cenfere, judicare. 
Under-gore, in ajlate oj" leprous eruption. 
Under-lout, tojloop or fuhmity to befubdued, to he fub' 

je6i. See Lout. 
Uuder-ly, to undergo, to ly under^ tqfuffer. 
Undo, to explain^ unfold y wiravely dtfclcfe. 
Une, oven. Swed. ugn^ omn. Goth, auhn, fornax. 
Undocht, a filly weak perfon^ a coward. See Douchtj. 
Uneith, Uneth, Uneift, and with other flight varia- 
tions, not eajtlyy fcarcely. Sax. uneithe, vix. Sep 

Un-erdit, unburied ; from Erde, to bury. 
Unfery, infrm, ina£iive, heavy. See Ferie & Ferj. 
Unforlatit, not forfaken, frejht new. See Forleit. 
Unfrend, enemy ; as Lat. inimicus from in-amictts. 
Unganand, unfty not becoming. See Gane, to beftffficient 

Un-gearit, fame with DifplcniJIiedy f ripped, robhed, 

emptied. See Gtlr, goods, furniture. 
Uit-halfit, not fainted ; from Halfe, to falute. 
Un-heilded, uncovered. See Heild, to cover up. 
Unirkyt, unwearied ; a-kin to the Engl, impeis. verb, 

*» it irketh me," tadet. 
Unlaw, a fine ox fated legal amerciament paid in money 

or goods for tranjgrejjion of the law j from o«, pri- 

vativa particula, & law or lauch, lex. 


Un. Un. 

t?u-lcful, Un-leil, unlawful. See Leful, lawful. 

ITii-leif, unpleafant^ ungrateful. Teut. lief, gr^tus, caruS. 

Un-lufTum, (Un-lftufum^, un-lovely, un-kindly ; q. w/z- 
. love/ome. 

Unpylalit, at liherty, loofe. See VyizVw.^ fecured S^c. 

Un-qutiit, (Bp. Dou^l.) not enquired after. 

Un-rebutit. not reptdfcdy not overcoine ; from Ff. rebuter, 
to repulfe, to difcourage. 

Unrule ; Abbot of Unrule, a kind of temporary Maf 
ter of Revels, whofe office it was to Inperintend and 
regulate the fpbits which were exhibited for the en- 
tertainment of the common people at the higher 
feftivals, particularly at Yule or the Kalends of Ja- 
nuary. Hence in England he was called the Chrifl- 
mas Lord, or Abhot of Mis-rule. In Scotland, it is 
probable that perfons of this defcription were ap- 
pointed, as in England, not only at the Colleges and 
principal religious houfes, but in every borough or 
market town, ("where, it appears, they were chofen 
by the magiftrates), and at the feats or caftles of the 
greater Bar6ns. ** To the Chriftenmaffe Lord, fays 
Polydore Virgil, all the houfliold and familie, with 
the tnafler himfelf, miill be obedient ; the office ha- 
ving its origin in that equality which the fervants 
were fulifered to enjoy in common with their maf- 
ters at the antient Saturnalia which were cele- 
brated at the fame feafon of the year." The appel- 
lation is probably co-eval wiih the Englifb lan- 
guage ; and the office itfelf, with the eftabliihment 
of Chriftianity. In a decree of Pope Innocent I. 
A. D. 408, we find thefe words, which evidently 
allude to fome fuch perfons as the Abbots of Un- 
rule : *' Prieterea, frequenter quidam ex fratribus 

^ noftris, curiales vel quihvflihet puhlicis funBionihus 
occupatos clericos facere contendunt, &c.— -Conftat eos 
in ipfis muniis etiam voluptates exhibere, quas a 
Diabolo inventas efle non eft diibium ; et ludorum 
lel viunerum apparatibus praejfe, &c." The 27th 
Canon of a General Council held in the fame year, 
fets forth that •• thofe feafls which are oblerved in 


Un. Un. 

many places, and which arc borrowed from Gentile 
or Pagan error, ought to be prohibited, efpecially 
Unce in fome cities men fear not to keep them even 
upon the principal holjdays, and in the very 
churches : On which days alfo, they ufe moft wick- 
ed dances through the villages and ftrcets ; fo that 
the honour of the matrons, and the modefty of num- 
beilefs women are aflaulted with lafcivious injuries." 
And, by the G. Counc. A, D. 614, *» it is declared 
to be unlawful, upon the Kalerids of January, (or 
Chr'i/imas Holiday s^^ to make any filthy plays, 
(yecola vel cervula^^ &.C." Alfo from the 16th 
Canon of the 8th Gen. Counc. A. D. 867, we learn 
that " it was an annual cuftom in Princes courts to 
attire fome lay-man in epifcopal robes, who in the 
tonfure and other ornaments fhould a£t the part of 
a Biiliop, &c." all which proceedings are cenfured 
and prohibited under fevere penalties. The fame 
cenfures and prohibitions are repeated from century 
to century down to the time of the Reformation. 
'Ihefe Holiday fports, even in the earlieft periods, 
feera to have been generally of a dramatic nature, 
from the manner in which die aftors are mentioned 
in the contemporary Councils ; for example, " co- 
micos aut viros fcenicos ; — de agitatoribus five thea- 
tricis ; — fpeftacula fecularia ; fcenicis atque hiltrio- 
jiibus ; fpeftacula theatrorum ; hiftriones ac turpi- 
tudinibus fubjecli peifonse ; eo3 qui dicuntur mi- 
mos, &c," — all which expreffions occur in ecclefiaf- 
tical Conftitutions before the year 680. Had it not 
been for the A£l 61. 1555, we fliould fcarcely have 
known that the cuftom of ele6ling a Lord of Un- 
reafon had ever been obferved in Scotland. That 
A61: alone is, however, a fufficlent evidence. 

tJn-faucht, dijlurhedy difordered, troubled. See Saucht, 

Un-fel, unhappy, unluckyy mifch'ie'uous ,• alfo expl. ill- 
luck ^ misfortune. See Sely, happy ; from Coih.felf 
bonus ; unfe/y malus. 

Unfeily, Un-filly, Un-faul, fame with Unfel, unhappy. 


Un m. 

tJn-ionfy, tviluc^jf ; mifchievons. ?iQe Sons , profperify. 

Untellybill, Un- tellable, unfpeakable, infandus. 

Unthrifty, ufed bj Bp. Douglas for unfriendly^ i. c. 
who oppcfed your thrift ox prof perky. 

\5n\.xtX.-d}Qy\\,'mexorahle ; who cannot be prevailed upon 
by intreaty. Fr. intraitable. 

Un-warnift, univarved. Un-warneftly, unwarily^ 

Un-waryit, not acciirfed. See Wary, to damn. 

Un-\vemmyt, Un-wennyt, utfpotted, unjlained, without 
hleniifh \ from Sax. wem^ wemtJie, macula, labes, now 
wane or wayn, a morbid tumour. 

Un-vverd, misfortune, fad fate^ ruin; from wefd or 
weird, chance, fate. 

Un-witting, Un-\vittinlie, not knowing, unadvifedly, 
rafjjly ; from Teut. nveten, fcire. 

Un-wroken, un-reijenged ; from Wroik, to vent or exe- 
cute vengeance. 

Up-a-land, at a difance from the fea, in the countrv, 

Up-buller, to boil or throxv up ; to fpring up, in the 
manner of a well. 

Up-he, Up-heis, to lift up or exalt. Up-heit, exalted, 
Up-hefir, raifcd up, exr^lted. 

Up-rend, to render or give up ; q. to up-rendet. 

Up fet, infurreBion, mutiny. Swed. upp-fat. 

Up-welt, threw vp. See Welt. 

Up-wreile, to raife or lift up with difficulty. See Wreil. 

Ure, chance, luck, *' as we fay good luck, bad luck ; 
but without any addition, generally underftood of 
good fortune,''^ O. Fr. & Arm. cur, hap, luck, for- 
tune, chance. 

Uiifum, Eiryfum, fearful, fr -m being in a ftat? of 
difmal folitude ; afraid of holagoblins. See Eiry. 

Ute ranee, Outrance, de/iruLiiin, [Fr. cultrav.ce, extre*. 
mitr, excefs.] 


Wa. Va. 

V. w. 

Wa, Wae, Way, nvoy forrowy forrowful. 

Wzchls, Jentinels. Wache-cr j, pafs-ivord. 

Wacht. See Waught, to /will. 

Wad, "^TLgi^t pledge y pawn. Wadds, a youthful amufe- 

ment wherein much ufe is made of pledges. Wad, 

Wage, alfo as a verb to wager. Sax. wal^ pigniis. 
Waddin, y?ro«^ ,- like two pieces of iron beat into o:jc. 

See Weld. 
Wadfet, a contraci by •which a debtor mahes over his 

land to his creditor ^ to be redeemed on payment of the 

debt ; alfo as a verb, to alienate lands or tenements 

under reverjion ; from iVady pignus, and Set, lo- 

Waf, Waif, Waith, wanderings that has no owner ^ that 

has been founds and not likely to be claimed. Fr. 

qttaife, beftia erratica. Ifl. vo/af wofa^ oberrare. 
Wageour, Vageoiir, Vager. a mercenary foldier 5 from 

Wage, Jiipendiumy as Soldier or Soldat from Germ. 

foldy merces, ftipendium. 
Waide, to penetrate ^ pojjefs, or employ (one's thoughts.) 
Waif, Waf, a hajly motion ; alfo to move orjhake. Sax. 

ivflfiany vacillare, fludluare. 
Vaig, Vag, to roam or wander. Teat, waeghen, wacg- 

helen^ movere, moveri, hue illuc volvere, motitare. 

Henee Stravaig. 
Waigle, t9 move inn tottering or unjleady manner. Tent. 

vcneghelcnf hue illuc volvere. 
Vaik, Vake, Waik, to be vacant or unoccupied, fpoken 

of an office or benefice. Olherwife, it may fignifj 

to play or make merry ^ to fpend the time idly ; alfo to 

wait, to watch, to ponder, or Jludy. Teut. waeckerr, 

lucubrare, elucubrare. Lat. vacare. 
Vaikans, Vacains, time of vacation. 

Va. , Wa. 

Vail, Wail, a valley. Valis, valleys. 

"VVail, Awail, Awale, to go ox fall down ; to carry one's 

felf down. See Awail. 
Wail, expl. the wale or ivnil of a JJjip ; i. e. " the out- 
mod timbers in a fliip's fide, on which men let their, 
feet, when they clamber up." 
Wail, Weal. See Wale, to pick out or choofe ; and vvllh 

various other fignifications. 
Vailje quod vailye, happen luhat may, at all adventure, 
be the ijfue whnt it may. Fr. vaille que vaille, valeat 
quantum valeie poteit. 
Waim, Vame, '^xomh, belly. 

Wain, Wane, the conflellation called Charles's wain or 
waggon. Tcut. waeghen^ jSeptentriones, Ai6los, fi- 
dus fimile plaufiro. 
Waipen-fliaw, Wappinfliaw,y?»(?u' of arms or weapons, 
a fort of milita) y review ; " fwa that by learning of 
ordour and bearing of their weapons in time of 
peace, men may be the mair expert to put them- 
felves in order haiftylie in time of need." Teut. 
ivapenfchouwing^ armiluftrium. The firft time that 
Wupinfchaw is mentioned in the Scottifli Statute 
book, is under the reign of William the Lion, or a- 
bout the year 1200. " Itcm^ it is (latute;, that Wa- 
pinfchaw fal be keiped and haldin — He quhahas fif- 
tene pond land, or fourtie marks worth in move- 
able goods, fall have ane horfe, an habergeon, ane 
knapifkay Cor helmet) of iron, ane fword, aue dag- 
ger. He quha hes fourtie fchilling land or mair, 
xmtill ane hundreth fchilling laud, fall have ane bow 
and arrowes, ane dagger, and ane knife. — He qulia 
has les nor foui tie fchilling land, fall have ane hand 
axe, ane bow and anows ; And all others quha 
may have armour, fall have ane bow and arrows 
out-with the forreft ; and within the forreft, ane 
bow, ane pyle. The 60th Statute of James ]. A. D. 
J 425 J and the 3111 of James IV. A. 1). 1491, are 
nearly the fame with refpe6l to the articles cf ar- 
mour : Thofe of James II. and HI. are of a more 
fjeneral nature. The 91(1 of James V. A, D. 1540, 

Wa Wa. 

is the firft which contains particular orders with re- 
fpcd to the mode of arrangement : It ordains that 
the ScherifFs, Magiflrates, &.c. with the King's 
Commiflloners, at every Weaponfchawing, after en- 
rolling the names, fall chiiifc ane able man for eye- 
rie parochin, or maa, as it is of greatnefs, quha fai be 
Cajitaine or Captaines to the Cumpanies of the 
faidis parbchinis, and fall learn theoi to gang in or- 
dourc, and beare their weapons, and fall conveene 
their faidis Cumpanies twife at the leaft in the 
monethes of Maj, Jnne, and July, and there exerce 
them in maner forefaid." The A61 fpecially pro- 
vides, that *' na maner of weapons be admitted in 
IVeopofiJchawirigs bot fpeaxcs, pikes, ftark and lang, 
of fax eines of length, Leith axes, halbardes, hand- 
bows and arrows, croce bowes, culveringx, and twa 
handed fwords." An A£l of the next Parliament, 
held in the fame year, viz. March 14th 15^0, fets 
forth, that " becaufe the fchot of gunnes, hagbuttes, 
and uther fmall aitaillarie, no we commonly ufed iu 
all cunttles, is fa fellofl, and un-efchewable to the 
pith and high courage of noble and valyieant men, 
ttc. It is therefore ordained, that every landed man 
fall have ane hagbutte (or fmall cannon^ of founds 
(iaji metaV) with calms, {luouldsy) bullettes and pil- 
lockes of lead or iron, with powder convenient 
thereto, for everie hundrcth pound oi \zndi thathehes 
of new extent : And he that has bot ane hundreth 
mark land, fall have twa culverings, (Jarge muJJiets r) 
And ilk man havaiid fourtie pound land, fall have 
ane culvering with calms, leade and powder gain- 
and thereto, with treaftes, {treajles or tripods,) to be 
at all times ready for fchutting of the faid hagbuttes, 
&c. And that everie Kirkman furnifh fik-Lke ar- 
taillarie to be fchawin at W enpon-fchawings , after 
the availe and quantity of their temporal landes : — 
That Ladies of conjunct fte and life- rent fall furnifli 
effeirand to the quantity of their living: And every 
merchant who exported goods to the extent of a 
Lajf, was ordered to bring home hagbuttes uf 


Wa. W5. 

<:focherf, (Fr. de la croct} or maa, as his pack may 

furnifh, or elfe as meikle metall as will make the 

faides l)agbuttis, with powder effeirand thereto. A 

lubfequent ftatute (unpubliflied) ordains that *' the 

greater towns fliould mak carts of weir, and in ilk 

cart twa gunnis." 
Vaiit, Waift, luajlet defolatCy empty ; and figuratively, 

vain^ as the Lat. inanis. 
Wair, Ware, to expend^ fpoken not only of moneys but 

of timeyfacultiesy &c. Dan. iveria, vendere ; quafi^ 

to exchange money for wares. Swed. wara. Sax. wa- 

rUf mercimentum, mere* 
Waird, confinementy priforiy ward or cujlody. Tcut. 

%vaerde, cuftodia ; alfo to imprifon. Teut. ivaerden^ 

cuftodire, obfervare, defenderc. 
Wait, Vait, to know. I wait not, or wait well, / know 

noty or know well. Teut. luetenf fcire, cognitum ha- 
bere. Swcd. weta. 
Waiter, water. Teut. luaeter, aqua. Sax. water. Goth. 

Waith, expi. danger. See Waf, wandering. 
Waithman, expl. wanderer y hunter ; alfo ivatchman. 
Wak, Walk, moijl ; alfo cloudsy ivairy clouds. Teut. 

wacky tepidus, humidus, madens, liquidus ; wack 

wedevy cselum uvldum, aer humidus. 
Wak, Wauk, to drefs woollen cloth by thickening ity &c. 

Swed. walka. 
Wak, Vak. See Vaik, Waik, to he unoccupied, &c. 
Wake, to wander. Ifl. vacka. Lat. vagor, 
Vaken, Waken, toroufe. Vaknyd, Waknyd, roufed. 

Teut. wecken, excitare e fomno. 
Wakryfe, Vaikryfc, wakeful, not difpofed to fleep ; 

flightly corrupted from Teut. waeckigh, infomnis^ 

Walaway, Waladay, an interjciiion of grief or pity. 

Sax. wela wa, eheu, proh dolor. 
"^TiX^y the plain y the ground. Sax. woA/, planities. Ifl. 

wolly campus. 
Wale, Wail, the hefl, the privilege of picking out the befi. 

Teut. nvaeUy optio, eledlio. 

Vol. IV. K k Wale^ 

Wa. W». 

Wale, Wall, Weal, Wjle, to pick out^ either the befi 
or worft ; but more commonly to choofe; that which 
is left behind, or the refufe being termed the out- 
ivales. Germ, ivelen. Goth, nualian. Swed. ivcelia, 
eligere. Ifl. vel, eligo ; valde^ elegi j valenn, eleftus. 
Teut. waif/p, optic, eledtio. This verb does not ap- 
pear in the Belgic or Anglo-Saxon. 

Wale, Wail, to avail. Walis, avails. 

Wales, (Reg. Maj.) for Walls, ivellsy confecrated 
ivells, to which people went in pilgrimage. 

Walgeous, Valgeous, (Barb. Bruce,) expl. galant. 

Walkin, fame with Vaken or Waken, to roufe or a- 
ivake. Y-walkynnjt, roufed or anvakedj alfo to 
•watch. Walkrife, luatchfuly infomnis. 

Wall, a -wave. Wallis, tuaves. Teut. nualley unda, 
fluftus, abyflus, profundum. Douglas has Wally i€ 
for the fea full of loaveiy mare fluftivagum. 

Wall. See Weld, to join by beating together. 

Wallop, to move fwiftly^ and with ?nuch agitation of the 
body or deaths ; doubtlcfs of the fame origin with 
Engl, gallopy and Fr. galloper ; G. being frequently 
changed into J^, and e contra, as in guard to waird. 

Wallow, to nviiher or decay. Wallowing, withering, 
pining away, fading. Sax. wealowian, exarefcere. 
[^Theot. ualy flavus.] 

Wally, expl. chofen^ beautiful^ large. Wally-djs, gew- 

Wally-drag, outcafi, refufe ; nearly the fame with Out- 
wale j and probably from the fame origin. 

Walroun, wizard, forcerer, witch. Ifl. allruna, magus. 
Theot. alruna, mulier faga, feu fatidica, from rune, 
fecretorum confcius vel confcia ; and the intenfive ^ 
particle all, q. d. admodum fapiens. 

Walfh, Wailih, Wairfli, infipid, waterifh, without fait. 
Teut. walghigh, naufeofus ; walghen, naufeare ; 
lualghe, naufea. 

Walfhnefs, Werflinefs, inftpidity ofiafle. 

Waltir. See Weltir, to roll, tofs, or tumble, 

Wamb, Wame, womb, belly. Goth, wctmbay venter. 
' Wamfler, expl. debauchee. 


Wa. "Wa. 

Wamlll, Wamble, to move in a writhing mannery as a 

ferpent upon its belly ; from Wame, luomhy belly. 
Wan, did luon. Wan before, got before. 
Wan-cafe, unenfmefs^ trouble, vexation. 
Wan-couth, (^Bp. Douglas,) Uncouth, Jlrange. 
Wand, poivery dominion. Thus in Reg. Majes. " The 

wife is under her huiband's wand and power," fub 

virga maiiti fui ; from nvand or fcepter, the badge 

of dignity and power. 
Wander, fame with Wandreth, forronvy mijhap. 
Wan-dought, puny y feeble. 
Wandreth, Wanreth, expl. unenfinefsy trouble, vexation y 

from Teut. negative particle ivan, un ; & rouiue, 

vel rejly quies ; feems nearly allied to Wan-rufe, q. 

Wandyft, Vandyft, corr, oi vanijhed ; exp\. failed. 
Wane, habitation, place of abode. Wanys, dwellings ; in 

O. Engl, authors, Wone and Wones. Teut. woon, 

habitatio, habitaculum. See Won, to dwell. 
Wane, Wein, opinion, prejudice. Swed. waen, opinio 

incerta, fufpicio, fpes. 
Vane-organys, expl. the temple arteries. 
Wangrace, q. Un-grace, 'wickednefs, want of grace ; in 

the fenfe of goodnefs or virtucy as ufed by Shake- 

Wangyle, Vangile, contr. of Evangile, ^oy^!'^^- 
Wan hap. Van-hap, misfortune ; q. un- hap, un-luck, 
Wan-hope, (Bp. Dougl.) ^x^. vain hope. [Teut. wan- 

hope, defperatio.] 
Wan-las, inter jeBion of grief or pity. 
Wan-luck, misfortune, ill lucky q. un-luck. 
Wan-reek, mtjchance, ruin. [Teut. wan-raecky cafns 

Wan-rufe, uneafy, dlfquieted, perverfe ; from Teut. 

reouwgy quies. See Wanreth, probably the fame 

Wan-ruly, diforderlyy unruly. 
Wan-fchaipen, deformed. Teut. wanfchaepeny\n{oxva\5f 

Wan- thrift, extravagance ; q. tn ihriftynefs. 


Wa. Wa. 

"Wan-trow, to dijlrujl. Teut. wan-tr^uv^ttiy diffidere. 
Wan- weird, unhappy fate^ hard fortune. See Weirdy 

fatCy dejl'tny. 
Wan-wyt, nuant of knoivledge. Teut. wanwete. 
Wap, Wip, Oup, to bind around. Goth, wtppia, coi- 

Wap, Whap, Quhap, tojlrike or beat. [Teut. wnpper^ 

VilzTy cautioui, prudent f wary. Warrer, more cautious. 

Ifl. vary cautus. 
War, worje ; alfo as a verb, to overcome. Warris, over^ 

Ward. See Waird, cujiody, keeping. In Law, the cuJ}o- 

dy of a minor ^y his Over-lord. Ifl. vard. Fr. 

Ward, divifion of an army or campy a battalion or bri- 
gade. Wardour is ufed apparently with the fam^ 

Ward and warfel, cxT^X.fecurityfory pledge. 
Warden, the name of a particular kind of pear. 
Ware, War, hard, fnvirly. War nott, hard knott in a 

tree, Teut. weer, callus, nodus, tuber. 
Ware, to take care of or look well to. Swed. war a. 
Ware, Were, defence y price of redemption. 
V/AiCy/ea weed or wrack. In Northuuiberland weir or 

tvaar ; in Thanet ifland, wore or woor. Sax. war, 

alga marina. 
Warefone, Warjfon, remedy f recovcryy reward. Fr. 

Wark, Wyrk, work, to work. Sax. wircan. Gof.\i. 

waurkyan, opus. 
Wark-lume, tool or in/irument to work with. Sec 

Warlie, Warliefl:, expl. wary, tuojl luary ; ratlier per- 
haps w or Idly y mojl worldly. 
Warlow, Warlogh, '^^xXo^^yfoothfayer^ fortune-teller y 

forcerer. The derivation uncertain ; perhaps from 

Sax. wyrdy eventus, fortuna; Sclaer, doce, dodlrioa; 

laeredy doftus ; quafi, wyrd-lare or ivarlore. Or a 

corruptiom of Walroun, (q. vid.) with fonae flight 


Wa. Wa. 

difference in the meaning. Conf. Ifl. nvalwa, (valva), 
maga, faga ; originally the fame with ivalkyrioy 
Parca, Othini miniftra, qux in prxliis praefens pro 
lubito vitae vel morti pugnantes dcftinavit ; ively 
eligere. See Warwolf. 
Warnys, Vainjs, tofurnijh^ to garnijh or provide, Fr. 

Warp, Varp, to thronuy to utter or exbrefs. Teut. 
iverpeuy nver^enf jacere, abjicefe. Warpir, Warpid, 
is alfo ufed bj Bilhop Douglas for furroundedy 
W ^rtzndy fcairityy fafety, Jhelter. Nearly in the fame 

fenfe as the law term Warrandice. 
Warray, expl. to make war upon. 
Warren, * arreo, Firron, the pine tree. See Firron. 
Warfet, (Foreft Laws, i. 2.) a particular kind of dog % 

probablj' a pointer* 
Warwolf, according to an antieiTt vulgar idea, a per/on 
transformed to a luolf. Tent, lueer tuolf. Swed. 
•waruify lycanthropus ; hoc eft, qui ex ridicula vulgi 
opinione in lupi forma no6lu obambulat. Goth. 
imir, vir ; & ulf, lupus. It is not unlikely that 
Warloch may be a corruption of this word. 
'^Wary, Warye, to curfe, to revile, Sax. wirian^ wirghiany 

maledicere, malignari, execrari. 
Vaffalege. WafTallage, iWo/zr, jirou'f^/jr, noble atchieve- 
mentSf glory ; becaufe lands were given originally to 
Vaflals for military fervice ; particularly to thofe 
who had fignalized themfelves by their valour, — 
Vajfal Q'^vae thus to be accounted a title of honour, 
in the fame way as knight, and the Lat. miles. The 
fame word is alfo ufed to denote a Baron'*s rctinne 
or body of armed vajfals ; nearly fynonymous with 
I^aronage or Baronry ; i. e. the inhabitants of the 
Waftels,. Waftel or Waflel-bread, probably fugar hif 
cuit or plumb-cnke ; expl. in the Diftionaries cakes 
of ivhite bread for foppmg in the WnJJel-bovi'ly i. e. a 
large cup or bowl, out of which the Anglo-Saxons, 
j^t their public entertainments, drank healths to one 

another j 

Wa. Wa. 

another ; and which is faid to have received its name 
from two Saxon Words, — Wci:s hal, or rather Hal 
nveesy falve, vel fis falvus, q. well may you be ! Matt. 
27 29. *' Hal nv Its thu^ yuJea Kyning .'" ave, Rex 
Judeorum ! The fame phrafe, in the Saxon Gof- 
pels, is alfo written beo hal i as in Matt. 26. 49. ; 
& Mar. 5. 34. Thomas de la Moor, in his life of 
Edward II. informs us, that Wivfs-haile, and Drtnc- 
haile, were the ufual phrafes of quaffing amongft the 
cailieil (Saxon) mhabitants of this ifland. Waflel 
or Waflail is commonly underflood to fignify a li- 
quor made of apples^ f^'S^^ ^"'^ ^^' » fuch as young 
women were in ufe to carry about and prefent to 
their friends on the vigil of the New-year ; a cuf- 
tom which is ftill kept up in various parts of the 
country. This explanation of the word induces a 
fufpicion that Waflel may have fome affinity with 
.Sax. ivt^f delicia, dapes ; loijlfullian, epulari, con- 
viviari ; 'wijlfully frugibus ad viftum abundans ; or, 
with 111. weijfla vel iveitjla, hofpitatio, convivium. — 
To which may perhaps be added Swed. tuaxel. Ifl. 
luixly viciffitudo, ordo quo alterum alteri fuccedit ; 
quail, circling boivl, i. e. handed about from one to 
another. Some readers may prefer one or other of 
thefe to the firfl-, notwithftandmg its being appa- 
rently fupportod by the flory of Vortigern and Ro- 
wena, which has been fo frequently quoted from 
Verftegan and GeoiFry of Monmouth. The Saxon 
damfel, at the command of her father Hengift, whp 
had iuvited the Britilli King to a banquet, came in 
the prefence with a bowl of wine and welcomed him 
in thefe words, Wees heil, Hlaford Kyning. Vorti- 
gern, by the help of an interpreter, anfwered, Drinc 
heil; and, according to Robert of Gloucefter, (the 
verfifier of Geoffry,) 

Kufte here, and fitte here adoune, 

and glad drouke here heil, 
And th.t was tho in this land, 

the verft uashail. 


V7a. We. 

As in language of Saxojne, that 
we might ever iwite, 
. And fo well he paith the folc about, 
that he is not yut vorgute. 

Waftel-bread, or Waftels, has alfo been derived £i6m 
the Fr. gateau, originally gajleau ; called in Picaidy 
ounJleL Lat. Barb, yajlellum^ collyra, placenta, ant 
fimile quid. Thefe, however, may have fome affinity 
with the iiax. and Theot. tuijley cibus, epuiae, dapes. 

Wat, Wate, Weit, ivetf to wet. Sax. ivaetOy humidus , 
tuictan, humeftare. 

Wate, Wat, to know. Watis, knows ; variation of 
Engl Wot. 

Watling-Ilreet, ufed by Blfliop Douglas for a conjlel- 
lat'toii, or rather for the mi/^y lu jy. , The confular 
way fo called requires no explanation. 

Wauch, Wouch, m'tfchief, evil, (w;?.) Sax. ivohg^ ma- 

Waucht, Wauch, to quaff or drink in large draughts ; 
probably from ^^eych', a drinking cup. [Teut. •z'rt- 
fen, infundere in vas, implere vas.] 

Wauk, Waik, to watch. Teut. waecken^ vigilare. 

Wauk, to drefs woollen cloth by making it thick and 
ftnooth. Swcd. wilka. Tc-ut. walcken, prcflare, volu- 
tare, ut folent qui fulloniam exercent. 

Waul, tojlarey to lookjlernly with open eyes. 

Waver, to wander or become waff. See Waf, wandeV" 

Wavingeour, Wauengour, vagahoiid^ fugitme. 
Waward, ^'^ award, van guard ^ fir ft divifion of an army. 
Wavvys, Wavys, waves. Teut. waeghe, fluftus, unda. 
V ay age, Waiage, journey by land or water. Fr, 

Wayming, feems to lignify bewailing. 
We, Wee, little, a little. Teut. lueinii^h, parvus, of 

which it feems an abbreviation. 
Weaven, expl. a moment or injlant ; alfo called a jif~ 



We. We. 

Weary, luretcheJ, curfed ; as the weary or weari/u/ 
fox ; probably fiom Warie, to curfe. 

Wecht, Weicht, an utenfil in the form ofajteve, ivith a 
leather bottom, but without holes, refembling the head 
of a drum. Timmer wecht, a tamhwr xvccht or 

Wed. See W^d, pledge, nvad-Jet or mortgage^ 

Wcldir-glim, clear Jlty^ near the horizon ; fpoken of 
objeds feen in the twilight or dulk \ as " between 
him and the wedder-glim, or weather-gleam, i. e. 
between him and the light of the ikj ; from I eut/ 
weder, ccclum ; and gleam ; weder-licht, corufca- 

vVede, to rage, to proceed ox behave furioujly. Sax. we~ 
dan, furere, teftuare. 

Wed-fie, wage, reward, recompence ; perhaps fome pay- 
ment of the nature of inter ejl of money. 

Wedojv, widow. Wedowhede, Wedohede, widowhood* 
Goth, wjduws. Wei. gweddw. 

Weid, Wede, ajici ox fnioting fit. 

Weik, corner, angle, as Weik of the eye. Swed. ogon- 
wik, angulus oculi ; wik, finus maris, callellum. 
Teut. wii^, perfugium, &c. In the fame way is uf- 
ed wei^ of the mouth. 

Weil, Wele, Feil, prefixed to adjectives, very, exceed- 
ing ; commonly ufed in a good fenfe, as fere in a 
bad. Both of them are leprefented by the Gothic 

"WeU, Wele, whirl-pool ; q. wheel. Wells, forges, bil- 
lows. Sax. weal, 'ortex aquarum. 

Weils me, hlej]ing or blejjingt, I wijh good Inch. 

Wein, Wene, to think, to believe, to cxpeB. Tent, wa- 
nen. Goth, wengan, opinati, opinionem habere ; 
waen, opinio, prcefumptio. W'enys, vefiges or markt 
ly which one guejjes about the way; f:om the fame 

Weir, Vere, Wair, the fpring. Ifl. vor. Lat. ver. 

Weir, Weer, to drive or to ietp (aut or in.) Teut. 
wcersn^ propulfaie, defendcre, avertcre ; weer, fepi- 


We. Ve. 

mfcntum, propugnaculutn. Hence Weir, a fence 
made acrofs a river. 

Weir^ Were, war. Weiring, Weryng, warring. 
Weirlie, itiffr/z/v. V eve oi v/cvq, complexion of war. 
But -wcTQy free from dijlurbance. See Feir, colour. 

Weird, Werde, fate^ dejiiny. Sax. wyrd, fatum, for- 
tuna, rerum ordo ; verbum, fc. quod fatus eft, five 
dilcrevit Deus ; wyrdas, fata, Parcae ; alfo as a verb, 
to determine or pre-direEi. to foretell. Sax. wyrde, 
fiet ; & weordan. Teut. werden, fieri, efle. 

Weld, Weild, to weild, rulcy manage ; to have in one's 
power. Weild he his will, if he obtain his defre. 

Weld, Well, Wall, to force, to beat tivo or more pieces 
of red- hot metal into one piece. £Sax. ivellan, furere, 

Well, tofpring or rife up, like boiling water. Sax. weal' 
Ian, erumpere. 

Welfche. See Walfh, Wairfh, infipid, luith out fait. 

Welt, fame with Welter, to tumble, tofs, roll, or throw, 
Teut. wellen, ivelteren, volvere, volutare, verfare. 

Wekh, Veltht, Walth, welfare, abundance of any- 
thing. Teut. welde, opes, opulentia. Sax. ivceledi, 
wealthy ; wcela, opes ; wealas, fervi, mancipii ; the 
root of which maybe the Goth, walian, eligere ; 
quafi, a fufficiency to choofe from. See Wale, to 

Wencufs, Vencufs, to vanqu'ifh. Wencuffit, vanqui/h-- 

Wend, to go ; alfo -went, did go. . Sax. ivendan, ire, 
venire, procedere. Teut. wfw^^n, vertere. The only 
part of this verb which is ftill retained in the Engl, 
language, is the prseterite went. 

Venerial, mercenary. Venerianis, mercenaries. Lat. 

Yenefum, venemous. Teut. veniinigh, venenofus. 

Went, vent, way, paffage \ the courfe or Jiate of af- 
fairs. [Fr. vente, a cleft ; venelle, a fmall ftreet. See 

Ventale, V entaill, a hole or vent ; the breathing part 
of a helmet, a vijor. Fr. ventaile. 
Vol. IV. LI Venuft, 

Ve. Wc. 

Venuft, beautiful, pleafant. Lat. venujius. 

Were, redemption, power of redemption, price of redemp" 
tion, or fine, pecuniary fatisfaBion. Teut. zvere, 
Initio. Were, But were, in Bifliop Douglas, is ex- 
plained bj Ruddiman, without doubt or delay, truly, 
a Sax. lucere, cautio. In fome of the inftances 
quoted, it rather feems equivalent to without diflur- 
hance ; and may be the fame with war^ or a cor- 
ruption of the Fr. heurt, conflift or encounter. 

Were, for Ure, chance^ fortune, hap. It feems alfo to 
have been ufed in the fame fenfe with the Fr. heur, 

• hora, {limitation to an hour.') And occurs as a va- 
riation of Weir in all the various fignifications. 

Verement, truth, verity. 

Vergers, orchards. Fr. verger, from Lat. viridarium. 

Weriour, hack-hitery flanderer, fecret enemy. [Sax. 
' werian^ execrari, maledicere ; I'oerg, weriga, mali- 

Werklome. See Wark-lume, a tool to work with. 

"Verlot, fervant, groom, valet. O. Fr. varlet, now valet, 
puer, minifter. Ifhis word, in O. Engl, was com- 
monly ufed in a good fenfe for yeoman. 

"^^vvci, fnake,fer pent, adder ; q. worm. 

Vernage in veres, exhilerating liquor in glajjes. 

Wernoure, (Bifhop Douglas,) a covetous wretch, a 
mifer ; probably from Teut. gheerigh, cupidus ; 
gheeren, gheren, cupere, colligere ; the G or Gh be- 
ing frequently changed to IV. According to Rud- 
diman, from Sax. weornian, flaccefcere, decrefcere, 
" becaufe a mifer Jiarves himfelf to enrich his 

Verray, Werray, true ; derived, by Skinner, from the 
Fr. vray. Lat. verus. 

Vers, Wers, worfe. V^rft, Werft, worfi ; alfo over- 
came or worjled. 

Werfh. See Walfli, infpid, without fait. 

Wei fill, Warfle, to wrejlle oi fruggle. Teut. werfelen, 
reluftari, reniti, obniti. 

Wery, Werry, to fquee%e to death, to frangle or worry. 
Teut. weurgeUf fuffbcare, jflrangulare. 


We Wi. 

Weftlin, wejlern. Teut. voejleriy wefielick^ occidenta- 

. lis. 

Wefy, 'V^^ji Vizzie, a correB mew ; as a verb, to fpy 
narrowly or correEily^ to objer've, to mark. Alfo to 
vijit ; from PV. i)'ifer^ videre. 

Wet-fchod, with wetjhoes. 

Veu^, expl pert. See Vogie, vain. 

Weyand, Weymenting, laf/ienting ; from the fame o- 
rigin with Engl, wo ; corruptly weygh or iveugh. 

Weyff, Weif, woven. Weiffed, weaved. 

Veyton, (Weyton), expl. the whitlen treCy or water 

*^* Wh : Moft of the words which in modern ortho- 
graphy begin with thefe letters, are to be found un- 
der Quh. 

Whiles, yb/«e/iW/. 

Whilky, contradled from the Gael, or Irifti ufquehaughy 
a well known fpirit ; uifc or uifcey aqua ; & heatha^ 

WhommeJ, Quhemie, to- turn jipjide down, as a cup or 
tub ; corr. of Whelm. Ifl. wllma. 

Whorl, a round perforated piece of wood put upon a 
fpindlcy to give it a proper weight. Teut. 'voordel. 

Wicht, Wycht, Jlrotig and vigorous, powerful^ ai:iive% 
brave. Swed. wigy potens, hello aptus, qui arma per 
ietatem aut vires ferre poteft ; alacer, agilis ; quid- 
quid in fua natura validum firmumque eft. Hence 
it is applied to things inanimate as well as animate ; 
as caftles, wine, &.c. and is ufed by Chaucer for 
fy>i/t' Sax. wig-licy bellicofus ; wig-man, wibga, 
wiga, bellator, miles ; wig, bellum. 111. wig, ca- 

Wicht, Wycht, a man or per/on. Sax. wiga, homo, 
vir, praefertim vero prjeftantior aliquis : Or, accord- 
ing to Ruddiman, from Sax. wiht, creatura, animal, 
res. Teut. wicht, homo fceleratus, infans, puer. 

Wichtlie,^o«^/y, vigorously, intrepidly. 

Widdfndreme, Vl\<^dir\m,fuddengujl of pajjion without 
apparent caufe ; alfo expl. all of a fudden, with a 
%<engcance. See Wod, mad. 


Wi. Wi, 

Widder-fchjmnis, the contrary way, perverfely, con- 
trary to the apparent courfe of the fun. 'Ye.vX.iueder^ 
contra ; & fonne, fol ; q. wederfonne-wfe ; alfo 
contrary to the general courfe ox pofition. [_Teut. we- 
der-fegghen, contradicere.] 

Widdie, withy ^ rope made of willow twigs. To deferve 
a widdie, to deferve the gallows. Teut. wiede, falix, 
vimen, reftis, funis. Sax. withigy falix. Goth, wi' 
than, conneftere. 

"Widdifow, Viddeful, a wrathful per/on ; alfo as an ad- 
jeftive ; from Teut. woedigh, furiofus, furibundus ; 
ivoed, furor, infania : (woeder^ tyrannus.) Another 
explanation of Widdifow is knave ; quafi, one whp 
deferves a widdy. 

Widdrom, contr. of Widdendreme,^^ of rage. 

"Wildings, wild fruit. Teut. wild'breed^ ferina, caro 
ferina, cervina, aprugna ; <^ totifque nbn elixis car- 
nibus proceres & heroes vefci folent." 

Wilfjer, Willfyre, wild-fre^ as the light proceeding 
from the glow-worm, rotten wood, &c. Teut. wild- 
vier, ignis filveftris. 

Wilk, Whilk, afmalljhellfijh. Sax. a periwinkle. 

Wilkyt, in an old edit, of Barbour's Bruce, for wick" 

Will, wildy unfrequented^ hew'ilderedy wandering. To 
go will, to flray or wander. In fome inftances it 
feems to mean impatiently defring ; as Will of rede, 
impatient for advice ; which Ruddiman explains, 
perhaps better, inops confilii. Swed. wild^ animus 
vel favore vel odio occupatus. 

Will-fuUie, with good will. 

Wilfum, quafi. Wild fome, lonely^ folitaryy wander- 

Wimple, to involve, to hecome or to render intricate. 

Wimpled, intricate. Teuj:. wimpeleny involvcre, im- 

Wimple is alfo expl. ornament for a ladfs head. Teut. 

Wiijdle, to make up (ftraw or hay) into windlings or 


Wi. Wi. 

bottles. Teut. ivindelen, fafciis vel fafciolls invol* 

Windflaucht, with impetuous motiotty as if driven by the 

Winfreed, expl. raifed from the ground. 
Winklot, young girl i dimin. of luench ; from Sax, 

wencle, ancilla, filia. 
Winle-ftraes, the dry Jlalks or Jiems of unculti'vatfd 

grafs. Sax. windel-JireoiVy calamus, ex quo confici- 

untur fportoe ; windcl^ fporta, corbis ; contextum 

Winraw, hay or peats put together in long thin heaps 
for the purpofe of being more eqjily dried. See 

Winfum, Winfome, agreeable^ ^^S^S^^S^ p^^^fant, mer- 
ry. Teut. won-faem. Sax. uiivfumy jocundus, Isetus, 

amaenus, gratus ; fuavis, dulcis ; voyn. Teut. 'ivonne, 

ivu/ine, gaudium. 
Winze, expl. an oath. [Teut. ixenfch, imprecatio.^ 
Wipp, to fm round or encircle^ as with a wreath or 

cord. Goth, vippia, corona. 
Virmet, Wirmet, i^ormivood. 
Virrok, Wirrock, dijlortedj or contraEled by injury or 

callofty. Sax. wearrig, ivearriht, callofus, nodofus. 

Teut. nveerf callus, nodus, tuber ; wedery contra ; 

whence War-nott, a knott in wood. 
Wirrj-carl, Wirry-cow, bugbear ; a perfon who is 

dreaded as a bugbear ; from Wirry or Virrie, to 

Wife, to turn or incline. Sax. wifiatiy docere, inftruere, 

dirigere, gubernare. Teut. wiifeny monftrare, often- 

Viforne, expl. fpeBre^ wizard, majk. 
Wifs, Wis, to know. Will, kneiv. Sax. wijjan, fcire, 

intelligere. Ic wijl that, novi quod, / %viji that. 
Wiflclers Whilllers. See Quhyfl'eler, a money changer. 

Alfo expl. a deceiver, fiitterer. 
WifTil. See Quhiflyl, to exchange. Teut. iviffelen. 
Wiflin, Wizen, to become decayed or wajlcd; from heat, 


Wi. Wo. 

to wither. Wiflinnet, dried^ ivithered, decayed. Sweci. 

ivifna. Sax. weofniariy for 'Weof many tabefcere, mar- 

Wify, \'\{yy to cofijider. SeeVefyftoJpj'. ^ 

AVitand, Wjtand, blamifig ; alfo expl. regrathig. 
"Wife. Wyte, blame ; alfo as a verb, to blame. Sax, 

ivitan, imputare, afcribere ; "ycite, plaga, malum. 
Withy. See Widdy, a rope of willow twigs. 
Withfay, to gain-fay ; from Teut. nveder, contra. 
Withthy, expl. with t is, provided ; analagous to For- 

thi, becaufe. 
Vittel, q. Viflual, grain. In the plural, any kind of 

Witter, Wittering, a hint, rumour^ itidicaiiony Jign, or 

caufe of knowledge. Swed. ivitra, notum facere, in- 

dicare. 111. ivittrafi, apparere. Sax. ivitende, fciens, 

fcientes, ivittitig. 
Witter, the barb of a hook ; perlxaps from Teut. nveder ^ 

contra, adverfus. Swed. nvidrig, contrarius. 
Witter, expl. throat; feemingly from Lat. guttur ; 

alfo as a verb, tofght, to fall foul of one another. 
Wlonk, Vlonk, gaudily drejfed perjon. Sax. "wlonce^ 

ivlofnce, pompa, fpleridor, arrogantia, fuperbia ; ad- 

jedively fplcndidus, elatus ; whence Engl. Flounce, 

to adorn, &c. 
Wlonkeft, niofl gaudy, hefl drefjed ; confcious of attraSi" 

ing great attention. See Wionk ; to which may be 

allied the Teut. /o»f/ff//, limis obtueri, leviter obli- 

quare oculos ; lo/ick, afpedlus limus. 
Wob, 'web. Wobfler, weaver. Germ, ijuvpp. Teut. 

"\^^od, Wode, Wude, mad. Sax. nuod, demens, infauus. 

Teur. ivcedey infania, furor, rabies. Goth, ivods, fu- 

riofus. Wod- wraith, literally the fame with Red- 

wod, madly enraged. Wod-brym, ira xftuans ; — 

" whence, according to Ruddiman, the name of the 

God Woden," i. e. the furious Mars. 
Wode, Woid, Vode, void ; alfo to void or empty, 
Wodroifs, expl.favoge, wild. See Wod, mad. 


Wo. — . Wo. 

Wode-wail, Wood weele, expl. a bird of the thrujh 

hind ; rather perhaps a wood-lark. 
Vogie, bonjlfult vain, njfuming. 
Woik, did fly or ivander. Fr, <voguer^ natare, navigare; 

ufed by Bifiiop Douglas for the Lat. vcigor. See _ 

Vaig, to roam or ivander. 
Woiftar, fame with Voufter, hoajler ; from Voiift. It 

feems the fame with Wajlour in Piers Plowman. 
Wok, Woik, ijceek. Sax. nvuca, vca. Dan. tige, fepti- 

mana. Goth, luik, ordo, feries. 
Woker. See Okyr', ufury, Wokerer, ufurer. 
Womenting, Wuymenting, lamentingy lamentation ; 

from Wo ; and Mene, to complain or moan. 
Worn pie. Hee Wimple, to involve. 
Won, to dwell or refide. Wonnyng, dwelling, dwelling- 

place. Teut. woonen, wonen, habitare, manfionem 

habere ; woon^ habitatio, habitaculum. 
Won, Win, to make (hay), to dry Jo as to render fit 

for ftoring up. Teut. winnen, colere, colligere fruc- 

tus terrje ; quieftum faceie. Swed. winna, laborare. 
Wone, "Wonde, Jlop, hefttution, difficulty ; of the fame 

origin with Won, to dwell. 
Wonnys, Wynnys, Wynnings, Wzncs, placer of habi- 
Wonnyt, fometimes ufed for wounded. 
Worchen, expl. wroughty work. The fame word might 

alfo fignify choaked,Jlrangled; from Teut. worghcn, 

Wort, to rejeEl or put ajide as uf clefs, ao a horfe is faid 

to Ivor this fodder. See Wortis. 
Worth, Wourth, to become, to nvax. Worthyn, Wour- 

thyn, waxed, bccom^ nvere made. Teut. werden, 

worden, fieri, effici, fore. 
'Woxt'is, herbs, plants, weeds. Sax. wyrt, herb;', planta, 

olus. Teut. ivorte, radix. Hence Wortis or Worts 

alio fignifies the refi/fe /f hay, f rate, the weeds, which 

cait'e refufe to eat. 
Wofche, Woofch, Weefli, wajhed, did wufj. 
Wotlinkis, ufed for nvetiches ; perhaps a diminutive of 

Vlonkis or Wloukis, ^a/'/y drejfed girls, 


Wo. \Vt. 

"Woubit, Oubit, one of thoCe worms which appeal* as 
if covered with woo/. 

WoufF, luolf. Voffis ivches. 

Wouk, awake, aivaked. 

"Wounder, to wonder ; alfo wonderful, wonderfully, eX" 
tremely, admirably, very. 

Woundring, a wonderful thing, a monjler. Sax. wun- 
dring, admi ratio. 

Wourde, Wourthe, became, waxed, was made. See 
Woith, to become. 

Wourfum. See 'Wutfum, putrid matter. 

Vouft, Wowft, to boajl ; of which it feems to be mere- 
ly a variety. Wouftand, boajiing. 

Voullaris, Wouftouris, ^o^^rj- ; from Vouft. 

Wout, Vout, countenance ; probably from Lat. vultus* 

Wow, an interjeiiion of admiration. 

Wow, to woo or court. Sax. wogan, nubere. Wowaiis, 

Wowf, mad. 

Wown, Woun, ivont, cufom. ; alfo ixccujlomed. 

Vowt, vault. Fr. VQute. 

Woyne, Wynne.yoj, happinejs. Teut. wonne, gaudiura. 
See Winfome, chearful. 

Woyne, expl. difficult fituaiion, difficulty. Swed. wonda. 
difficultas. Woyne might alfo fignify habitation, place 
of refidence. See Wane and Wonnyng. 

Wra, (Bilhop Douglas,) expl. company, fociety ; a Fr. 
fray, fry, fperma pifcium : Or fiom Sax. wraeth, 

Wrabil, (Bilhop Douglas,) Wurble, Warble, to clnm^ 
ber or crawl about. [^Teut. ivervelen, worvelen, gy- 
ros agere, in orbem verfare.], 

Wrach, Ratch, a hound, or perhaps dog of any f pedes. 
Sax. recce, canis. 

Wrachis, (Bp. Dougl.) erroneoufly to appearance for 
Wrathis, /^/VzVj-, ghojls. 

Wrack, ill gotten wealth. See Spraugherie. 

Wrack, Wrak, Wraik, wrech, ruin, dcJlruBion. Goth. 
bhekjai. Lu. 8. 23. Swed. wagrek, bona naufrago- 
rum, c|u:e inhumana confuetudo olim primo occu- 


Wr. — Wr. 

^antl vel littoris domino addicebat •, from ivagt fluc- 
tus & reka, ejicere. 

Wraighly, tardily, with too much ivarinefs^ untoivard- 
ly i fame with Airghly. See An g\\, tardy. 

Wraik, revenge^ vengeance, anger. Teut. ivraecke, vin- 
didla, ultio ; alfo as a verb, to infliBy to give vent to. 
Teht. ivrekcny lureke doen, vindicare, ukifci ; ultio- 
nem facere ; whence Wraikful, revengeful. 

Wraith, Wairth, . Wcrth, ghojl^ or exa& likenefs of a 
perfori, fuppofed by the vulgar to appear ffjortly he- 
forcy or foon after death. The derivation appearing 
uncertain, I Ihall mention a few, words which may 
perhaps have fome affinity with it. Sax. wathy va- 
gatio, flu£luatio. Teut. nvaery verus, and raed or 
radty confilium. Wyrd, fatum ; ** eall thios wan- 
driende wyrd, the we W^r^ hatath," totus hie vagus 
ordo rerum quem nos fatum vocamus ; warda, cufto-. 
dire, curare. Sax. hwurfy illufio, error ; hwyrfan, 
redire, convertere, variare, errare, mutare ; hwurfon 
hi eft to hamey reverfi funt poftea domum. Sax. ivrath, 

Wrak ; fame probably with Frak, expl. j^oc^' of goods 
or cargo. Sax. fracht. Tewt, vrachty vehes, veftio, 

Vran, Vrain, wren ; ftill ^ common pronunciation. 

Vrang, Wrang, wrong, injury. Vrangwis, wrorigous. 
Swed. wrangwisy perverfus. 

Wrappit, entangledy entwined ; perverfion of warped. 

Wratacks, expl. dwarfs ; authority unknown. 

Wreath (of fnow), fnow colleBed into a heap by the 

Wreil, (Bp. Dougl.) expl. to wriggle or turn about ; 
from which, according to Ruddiman, it feems cor- 

Wrekar, a revenger ; from Wraik, to revenge, &c. ; al- 
fo written Wrok, Wroik, both as a veib and fub- 

Wreuch, wretchednefs. So Wregh is ufed for wretch ,• 
merely by corruption. / 

Wrink, Wrynk, intricacy, difficulty. Wrynkis, tricks^ 
windings. Teut. wroncky fimultas. 
Vol. IV. M m ' Wrong, 

Wr. Yy. 

Wrong, ivrurig ; alfo contended with violence. Teut. 

uringben, torquere, premere. 
W'orfum, Wourfum, putrid matter. Sax. worms^ pus, 

putredo, I'anies ; ge-wurfmedf fuppuratus. 
Wy, Wy<iy many perjofi. S\ved. wig, adultus, vir po- 
tens. Sax. iviga, miles, but poetically for cujul'cun- 
que conditionis vir. See Wicht, of the fame origin. 
Wjfe, Wyif, woman (pafl middle age,) married or 
jingle. Sax & Swed- wif, mulier, Ixmina ; accord- 
ing to Jhre, from wij" or hwify calantica, a woman's 
hood or kerchief J as in O. Swed gyrdel^ cingulum 
& lindOf baltheus, are ufed for man and luoman. So 
alfo hatt and hcetta^ pileus & vitta. 
Vjlde, vile. 

Wyle- cote, Wylie coat, a flannel or woolly under-vefl ,• 
forte, fays Ruddiman, becaufe by its not being feen, 
it does as it were cunningly or flyly keep men 
warm ; fignifies alfo ajhort under petticoat. 
Wynd, narrow flreet. I'his word, as applied in Edin- 
burgh, has been fuppofed to mean literally a nvay in 
(to the city.) See Went, pajfage. 
"Wynfch, wench y maid. Sax. wcenfel. 
Wynfick, expl. prudence ^ greedy deftre of gain. 
Wyppis, wreaths, garlands ; alfo to wreath about or 

entwine. See Wipp, to Jurround. 
Wyr, arrow. 

Wyren, made of wire ; as Trene from tree. 
Wyrfchip, manhood, dignity ; from Goth. wair. Lat. 

Wys, Wyifs, ^tt//^, manner, form. 
Wyfe. See Wife, to incline^ put, or introduce. 
Wyfl'on, Wyfant, Wizzon, /^f jrw/Ze/. 
Wyfure, ivifdom. WyfTare, wifer. 
Vyte, Wyte. See Wite, to blame. 
Wytenonfa, expl. trembling, chattering. 
Vythoutyne, Withouten, without : So Sulden for 
fhouldy and Warren, for were. 


Ya. Ya. 


Under this letter are placed all thofe words which are 
commonly found in print with an initial Zinftead of 
the Saxon G, whofe power in thefe inftances was 
uniformly Gh. Year was formerly written gear, 
pronounced ghear ; yellow, gealow or ghealew^ ,• 
Yule, geol or gheol ; yeaft, geji or gheji ; young, 
geong or gheong ; yearn, gairn or ghatrn ; yard, 
geard or gheard ; yield, gild or ghi/d ; yea, gea or 
ghea ; yet, git or ghity Sic. I'his alteration of or- 
thography from the Saxon charadler denoting G^ 
to the vowel T, (which was thereby converted into 
a confonant,) could not take place all at once. On 
the contrary, it is natural to fuppofe, that in fome 
parts of the country, the G might continue to be uf- 
ed for many years after it had given way to the new 
confonant Tin the Southern parts of the ifland. In 
Scotland particularly, where Norman influence was 
not fo powerful as in England, the Saxon charadler 
maintained its ground, down to the leventeenth cen- 
tury. Its figure, however, being nearly the fame 
with a black-letter or manufciipt Z ; and the prin- 
ters haying no fuch charafter in their founts ; 
while at the fame time they might confider the con- 
verfion of T" into a conlonant as an unwarrantable 
innovation, the letter Z was fubftituted in its place 
in many of the early printed books j firll, we may 
fuppofe, in black letter, and afterwards in white or 
Roman : Hence, in the fixteenth century, it came to 
be written in its Ihort form, or without a tail, and 
at laft, in more inftances than one, to be pronounc- 
ed as if it actually had been s or z. This fpecies of 
orthography, however, although common, was not 
univerfal. In fome of the moft antient MS. copies 
of Winton^s Chronlchy and Barbour^s Brticey the 
words year^ yearn^ youngs &.c. are written yhear, 
yhearriy yhing^ &c. which afcertains the pronouncia- 
tion beyond a doubt. 



From the fame kind of refcmblance, the printers? 
fell into a fimilar miftake with refpe^l to the Saxon 
Charaftcr denoting th ; inftead of which, they ufed 
the letter T, as in yair for thair^ yame for theitiy &c. 
Alfo before fome words, efpccially verbs and parti- 
ciples, the letter T'i% found as a feparable prepofi- 
tion, correfponding with the Sax. Gf, or Tcut. Ghe. 
Thefe, when Scottifli, are placed under the next let- 
ter of the word. They occur more frequently in 
Gawin Douglas than in any other Scottifh poet, but 
the words are for the moft part Englifli. It was 
probably in thefe inftances that the Saxon G firft 
gave way to the letter J ; ae in Y-bounden, for ge^ 
honden ; Y-clepit for ge-clcpit ; Y-broken for ge- 

Ya, Ye, yea, yes^ ay ; alfo for interj. ha I 

Yaff, to bark or yelp ; to prate. See Yaup. 

Yr.ld, YdXd'm, yieldy did yield. S^x. gildnn, folvere. 

Yald, nCtivey vigorous ; perhaps from Sax. ield^ barren. 

Yalloch, Yelloch, a Jloout, cry or yelling \ probably from 
the fame origin with Gale, tojing ; viz. Swed, galaf 
cantare. Conf. Belg. gilleri, llridere. 

Y'allow, yellow. Sax. gealew, flavus, luteus. 

Yame, them. See obfervations on the letter T. 

Yammer, tojbriek, yell, to complain loudly^ and peevijh- 
ly> to groan. Germ, jammercuy plangeire ; jammer^ 
lufliis, plandlus. S's.-k. geomrian. hat. gemers. 

Y^'ap, Yape, hungry ; metaphorically, Z>ai;/«^ a longing 
defire for any thing, very ready ; probably fi'om gape, 
or at leaft from the fame, origin ; qv\2i(i, gaping. 

Yar, Yare, alert, ready. See Gate. 

Yarm, to beg with pertinacioJis ohjiinacy ; to ** harp 
upon the fame firing." \i\.Jarm, ejulatum. 

Yarn, Yharn, Yairn, to defirc eagerly ; ufed by Gaw. 
Douglas for carefully, diligently. S3.x.georn, diligens, 
feduhis, (erins ; gheornian. 'Teat, gheeren. Goth- 
gftirnin, dcfidcrave, cnpere. 

Y^arn-windlcs, yarringhs, a fort of reel from which 
hariks of yarn are wound into clews. Sax. gearn-'Win- 
del, har])cdone, rhombus.* 

Yair, fame -with Gnarr or Nurr, tofnarlc. 


Ya. Yh. ' 

Yate, Yett, Yhate, gate. Teut. gat. Sax. gdaf^ porta 
oftium, janua. The Englifh have retained the origi- 
nal pronunciation. 

Yaup, to yelp ; more commonlj denotes the inceflanC 
crying of birds. See Gale, nearlj of the fame ligni- 
fication from Swed. gala, cantare. 

Yed, expl. to contend or nvr angle, 

Yede, Yeid, Yude, Yheid, Yhude, went ; preter. of 
Ga, to go ; from Tcut. gaen, ir6. Now more com- 
monly pronounced gade. Norm- Sax. gede, geden. 
Semi-Sax. iede, ieden. Ang\.-Sa.x. geode, geoden, ihat, 
ibant. Ifl. ood, ivi ; ved, eo. Lat. vado. 

Yeild, age ; alfo adjefltively for ofd. Sax. eald, fenex, 
vetus. See Eild. 

Yeildans, Yealings, born in the fame year ^ co-eval. 

Yeld, Eild, barren^ that gives no milk ; of the fame ori- 
gin with the preceding. 

Yere-ftrene, the night before lafl. So alfo Yere-faren- 
year, the year before lafl ; Yere-yefterday, &c. from 
Teut. are, prius. 

Yerk,"'*o bind tightly, as with a fmall cord. Sax. ger~ 
dan, cingere, accingere ; alfo ufed in the fame fenfe, 
and probably from the fame origin with Ysi^.jerh. 

Yern-blitter, expl. the bird called afnipe. 

Yefk, Yeifk, to hiccup^ to belch^ Sax. geoxa, geoxung, 
. fingultus. 

Yether, the mari left by tight binding, as with a fmall 

Yett, Yet, to pour out or forth. In-yett, to pour in. 
Teut. '^hieten, fundere. 

Yhald, prseter. of the verb to yield, fometimes written 
yheld ; horn S^is.. gildan. Goth, gilda, folveic. 

Yfere, together. [Szx.. gefera, focius.] 

Yeme, Yim, to keep. See Yhemar, keeper. 

Yhemar, (Barb. Bruce,) keeper ; from Sax. gynian, 
cuftodire, curare : gy mene, gyming, c\xr^. M. gnuf?ia, 
curare, animum attendcre ; geima, cuftodire. Swed. 
goemin, qui res fuas probe cuftodit. In affinity witli 
thefe, perhaps may be the O. Engl, garninev, q. over- 
feer ; alfo Sc. HameSj horfe-coUav. 


Yh. Yu. 

YTiemfale, (Wint. Cliron.) keeping, charge, cuftody. 
Ifl. geimjla ; from geynia, cuftodire ; (fubducerf, 
occultare ; goemaftg undan, fefe abfcendere.) 

Yherne, eager, keen, earnejl. See Yarn, to dejtre eagerly. 

Wxil, yet, moreover. Sax. git. 

Yholdin, yielded; przeter. of Thnld, to j'ield. 

Yhone, yon, yonder, thofe at a dijlance. Sax. gon. 

Yhouthade, Youthed, youth. 

Yhuman, yeoman ; according to Junius, from Fris. ga, 
or gae, pagus, vcus lufticus ; gaeman, incola ejuf- 
dem pagi, correfponding with Scot, poriioner, the 
owner of a fmall piece of land. 

Yhyng, Yhing, Ying, jof/;/^. Szx.geong. 

Yill, a/e. Yill-wife, or brovvlter-vvife, a ivoman ivho 
breued and fold ale. 

Yiftrene, Theftrein, yejlermght. Teut. ghijieren, he- 
ilerno die. 

Yonde, Yhond, Yound, yonder. Yont, A-yont, he- 
yond, behind. 

Yongling, a youth. See Yhyng, young. 

Yore, Yarc, ready ^ acute. Jharp, alert. Sax. genrwian, 
parare. Tt\xt. ghieren, avide petere. See Gare, fo- 
licitous, rapacious. 

Youk, itch. Teut. ieuckte. Sax. gictha, libido fcal- 
pendi ; alfo as a veih.j'enchn, pvurire. 

Yule, Ghule, Yool, Chrijlmas, the day on which the 
nativity of Jefus Chrill is celebrated. Sax. geol t, • 
geoholfgcohd dag. Swed, Jul. Dan.y///^-, feA-um nati- 
vitatis domini. The literal meaning of Yule- day 
feems to be the fiflival of the Sun ; from Goth, nil, 
(Mark I. 32.), Armor. 8c Corn, hioul or hiaul, 
fol ; or, as explained by Bede, converfio Solis in 
auclum diei, i. e. the retro-gradation of the Sun ; at 
which time the Grecnlanders ftill keep a Sun fcaft 
to tellify their joy at the return of that great lumi- 
nary to the Northern hemifphere. Bede alfo inform-; 
lis, that in Britain, before the introdudion of Chrif- 
tianity, the year commenced upon the day which is 
now called Yule or Chrillmas ; and that, on the 
preceding evening a great feflival was celebrated, 


Yo. Ya. 

under the name of Madre-nack^ ('>r the night of 
mothers), "as we imi^^^iue,'' coniinuci h,:, * ob 
caufam ceremoniaruni quas in ea pervgiles agebant." 
See Abbot of Unreafon. In Ifl.udic poetry, the bun 
io called fagra hivel^ pulcra rota, tnt fair or fplen- 
did wheel ; in affinity with which may be mei;tio!i- 
ed the Cambr. Brit, chiuyl, veriib. Sax. axvyhan, 
revolvere. TenX.. vjylen or wel-en, voiveie j andiUe 
antient cuftom of painting the idol of the Sun with 
a wheel on his breaft. The learned Hickes, liowever, 
inclines rather to derive this Saxon word gcol or 
yule from the Scandinavian of/, cerevifia (^gi. mcto- 
nymice^ convivium, compctatio. But if this had 
been the ti:.ue etymology, the Saxon term would ra- 
ther have been geala from ealla, of the fame fignifi- 
cation with the Scandinavian eel. The French call 
the fame day nouel^ which feems not to correfpond 
with either of thefe, and is accordingly derived, by 
Menage, from the Lat. natalis. The modern terms 
Solftice and Tropic, tend, however, in fome degree, 
to confirm Bede's explanation. 

" Our forefathers," fays Bourne, in his Ant'iquitatesy 
Vulgnres, '* when the comiron devotions of Chriftmas 
Eve were over, and night was coming on, v/ere 
wont to light up candles, and to lay a log of an un- 
common fize of wood upon the fire, which they 
termed a Tule clog. Thefe were to illuminate the 
houfe, and turn the nijfht into day ; cuftom^ 
in fome meafure, is ilill kept up in the Northern 
parts ; and feems to have been ufeii as an emblem 
of the return of the Sun, and the lengthening of the 
days. The continuing of it. after the introcludlioiV of 
Chriflianity, may have been intended for a fymbol 
of that Light wlach lightened tl^e Gentilt-; ; .vhith 
turned them Irtfn' dark rt Is to light, and from the 
power of Satan unto God." 


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