Skip to main content

Full text of "Chronicle of Scottish poetry; from the thirteenth century, to the union of the crowns: to which is added a glossary"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 

•ir- :-T ■ ^ 

* * 

V • 

€^10iiS>0^'€%>C- 7^ 







T(^ WmCta IS ADDEt) .' 



MuUa renafcentur qua jam cecidere, — HoR, 





By C. Stetvart \S^ Co, Printers to the Uniiurjlty ; 



_ • 





X HE " Alphabetical Explanation of hard and 
difficult words in Gawin Douglases tran/Iation of 
Virgil's JEneis** by the celebrated Ruddiman, 
may be confidered as the ground- work of this 
Gloffaryj while, at the fame time, all the 
bed Gloflaries of the Scottifli and old Englilh 
languages ;have been carefully confulted. Re- 
courfe ha§ alfo been had to fome of the beft 
Teutonic, Anglo-Saxon, and Scandinavian dic- 
tionaries, in one or other of which, almoft every 
old Scottifh word is to be found, with nearly the 
lame fighification. Under the Teutonic are 
comprehended the various dialefts ufed in Bel- 
gium or the Netherlands, and in the North- weft 
of Germany. The Anglo-Saxon, as every one 
Jcnows, is the antient language of England ; and 
Vol. IV. A the 


.• •. 

( « ) 

the Scandinavian comprehends the languages of 
Denmark, Sweden, Norway ,^ and Iceland. The 
whole of thefe are, indeed, but various dialeds 
of the fame language ; fo that the fame Scottifh 
word is frequently to be found in all of them, 
with only fome flight variation of the orthogra- 
phy. It appears, however, that the Scottifh dia- 
led has a much greater affinity with the Anglo- 
Saxon and with the Teutonic or Belgic than 
with any of the Scandinavian dialefts ; and, with 
refpeft to the two firfl, it appears that a cognate 
word is more readily difcovered in the Teutonic 
dictionary of Kilian rhaii in the Anglo-Saxon of 
Lye. The origin ot caufe of this affinity %was 
firfl pointed out in 1742 by Sir John Clerk 01 
Penny cuik, in " /^w Enquiry into the antient lari- 
gtiage of Britain ;^* a paper intended for the Phi- 
lofophical Society of Edinburgh, and printed on- 
ly within thefe few years in the Bibliotheca To- 
pographica. This being a voluminous work, 
and in the hands of few, a confiderable part of 
the following curfory obfervations fhall be 
given in the words o^ Baron Clerk's Enquiry. 
The purpofe of them is nothing more than to 
fubmit to the reader a conjecture with refpeft to 
the origin of the appellatives P/5/, Caledoniiy and 
Scotti J a conjecture which, if not probable, is at 
leafl new. As, unhappily, we Jiave not any mo- 
•numents of the Lowland Scottifh 6f an older 
• date 

( iii ) 

5ate thai! the thirteenth century, it is chiefly by 
means of the etymology of appellatives that we 
tan form any rational conjefture concerning the 
antient inhabitants and language of the country. 
If it could be afcertained that the Caleddnii of 
Tacitus were a German or Belgic people, and 
that the names of Caledmii and Piili denoted 
not only the fame people, but were derived from 
words having the fame fignification ; and, at the 
fame time, that this fignification expreifed one of 
the mod remarkable circumflances in their mode 
of life ; while, on the other hand, the appella- 
tive Scotti was derived from a word indicating a 
contrary way of living, fome light might be 
thrown on a fubjeft df no fmall importance iii 
the antient hiftory of North Britain. The prin- 
cipal arguments which are ufed by Sir John 
Clerk and Mr Pinkerton to prove the German 
or Teutonic origin of the Caledonians are the 
following : 

Caefar, in his fifth book of commentaries, 
(" de Bello Gallico^'') hath thefe words ; " Bri- 
tanniae pars interior ab iis incolitur quos natos 
in infula ipfa memoria proditum di^unt } mari- 
tima pars ab iis qui prasdse ac belli inferendi 
caufkj ex Belgio tranfierunt ; et nominibus dvi- 
tatum appellantur, quibus orti ex civitatibus eo 
pervenerunt, et bello illati ibi remanferunt, atque 
agros colere caepeiunt, &c.*' i. e. The inland pari 


( iV ) 

of Britain is poffeflfed by tbofe who afe reported 
to have been produced in the island itfelf ; and 
who fow no corn^ but live upon milk and flelh ; 
the maritime part, by thofe who have paffed from 
Belgic Gaul, and are almoft all called by the. 
names of thofe cities from which they had their 
original. After they had made war, they conti- 
nued there, and begjan to cultivate the ground. 
He elfewhere informs us, *' Belgas effe ortos a 
Germanis,*' thsit the Belgae fprung from the 
Germans ; or, in other words, they were Ger- 

Ptolemy, wjio wrote his geography of Britain 
' in the fecond century, places the Belgss in the 
fouth parts of England, vi^. in Somerfetfhire, 
Hamplhire, and Wiltfliire, and afcribes to them 
chiefly two cities j one of them fuppofed to be 
Bath or Wells, and the other Winchefter. 

From that antient treatife called Notitia Im- 
perii, written before the invafion of the laft Sax^ 
ons in the fifth century, it appears that the littus 
Saxonicum was particularly takisn care of by the 
Romans ; being placed under the authority of a 
Magiftrate who was called Comes littoris Saxo- 
nici. We have there alfo an account of feveral 
ofiices, fub difpolitione comitis littoris Saxonici in 
Britannia ; and fo are not left to doubt that thefe 
(hores were inhabited by a race of people from 
<&ermanv, whom the Romans confidered as a 


( V ) 

very confiderable part of the inh^itants of Bri- 

Tacitus, fpeaking of the Suevi and Aeftyi, 
(populi Pruffiae, et Livoniae, Suevi, Pomeraniae, 
et provinciarum finitimarum,) fays, ** quibus ri- 
tus habitufque Suevorum linguse Britannicae pro- 
prior J*' i. e. that the Suevi, (a - Gtrnjan people 
between the Elbe and the Viftula,) fpoke a lan- 
guage which refembled that of the Britifli. 

Ilie fame writer, in his life of Agricola, fays, 
** Rutilae Caledoniam habitantium comae, magni 
artus, Germanicam briginem afleverant, fermo 
haud multo diverfus ;" i. e. the red hair knd 
large limbs of thofe inhabiting Caledonia affure 
us of their German origin ; their language being 
alfo not much difFerent.'* It is not indeed cer*. 
tain that Tacitus himfelf was ever in Britain, or 
that he wrote from his own proper knowledge ; 
1>ut being the fon-!n-law of Agricola, the Roman 
General there, and having lived long in Belgic 
Gaul as procurator, he had great opportunities 
of intelligence. Befides, among the auxiliary 
troops in Agricola*s army, there were whole co- 
horts of Batavi and Tungri, who are defcribed 
by Tacitus himfelf as Germans ; confequently 
they muft have been able to recognife their mo- 
ther tongue when they heard it fpoken by the 



C ^* ) 

That thefe Caledonians were the fame peopfe 
who in the following century were called Pifts,' 
appears from a paffage in Eumenius. In his ora- 
tion fpoken (A. D. 296.) upon the viftory of 
Conftantius over Alledus, he ufes the following 
words : '' Adhpc natio etiam tunc rudis, et foli 
Britanni, Pidis modo, et Hibernis, affueta hofti- 
bus adhuc feminudis, facile Ronianis armis fig- 
nifque cefferunt ; i. e. Moreover ^ the nation he 
(Julius Caefar) attacked was then rude ; arid the 
Britons, ufed only to the Pifts and Iriffi as ene- 
mies, and being yet themfelves but half naked, 
eafily yielded to the Roman arms and enfigns. 
And again, in the year' 310. " Neque enim ilfe 
tot tantifque rebus geftisj non dico Caledonum, 
aliorumque Piftorum, filvas et paludes, fed nee 
Hiberniam proximum, nee Thul^n ultimam, nee 
ipfas, fi quasi funt, Fortunatorum infulas, digna- 
tur acquirere^ &c. j'* i. e. For, by fo many and 
fo great aftions, he deigns not to acquire, I will 
not fay the woods and marfhes of the Caledonians 
and other Piils^ but Ireland, which lies nigheft, 
&c. 5 from this paffage it appears almpft unquef- 
tionably that the Caledonians were Pifts ; anji 
ijiat the Hiberni were a different race of men. 

Under the year 364, Ammianus Marcellinus 
ufes thefe w6rds : *' Pifti, Saxonefque, et Scotti^ 
et Attacotti, Britannos aerumnis vexavere conti- 
nuis/* The Pifts and Saxons, and Scots and 


( vii ) 

Attacpts vexed the Britons with continual harall^ 
jnents : And under the year 368 he fays, ** Eq 
tempore Pi£ti in duas genres divifi, Dicaledonas 
et Vefturiones, itidemque Attacotti, bellicofa hx>- 
minum natio, et Scotti per diverfa vagantes^ mul- 
ta populabantur ;** i. e. At this time the Pifts, 
divided into two nations, the Dicaledonae and 
Ve£turioi^es, as alfo the Attacots, a warlike na- 
tion, and the Scots, wandering divers ways, ra- 
vaged inany parts. Thefe notices are immediate 
and prefent ; not retrofpeftive, as that of the 
Pifts by Eumenius ; and afford a ftrong proof 
that the Caledonians and Pids were one and the 
fame people ; alfo, according to Sir John Clerk, 
that the Saxons here mentioned were inhabitants 
of fome part of Britain; and laftly, that the 
Scotti per diverfa vagantes arc the fame people 
who are mentioned by Eumenius under the name 
of Hiberni ; in after times called the wild or wan^ 
dering Scots^ in contra-diftinftipn to the civilized 
Scots or Vefturiones, who are placed by Richard 
of Cirencefter, in Fife, Angus, &c. 

To come to Britifli authors ; — Adomnan, 
who about 690, wrote the life of Columba, men- 
tions that he had an interpreter between him and 
the Pifts. Columba was an Irifliman ; fo that 
the PiSs could not be Gael or Hiberni : and e- 
ven from this they would feem not Cumri or 
antient Britons, for we ''find Patrick, a Cumraig, 
preached to the Irifh without an interpreter, as 


'( vm ) 

jtnay be feen in the many large lives of him. 
where not a word of an interpreter is mention- 

Bede, who wrote about the year 73o,defj:ribes 
,the Pifts as a people who came from Scythia ; 
pT from the South of Scythia, according to the 
Saxon Chronicle ; and it is commonly under- 
ftood that the Scythia of Bede is the Germany 
of Tacitus. If the Scythia of the Saxon Chro- 
nicle fhould rather mean Sca'ndinavia, vjre may 
cOnfider the mother country of the Pifts to have 
been fomewhere at no great diftance from the 
mouth of the Baltic. Here it is,proper to men- 
tion, that Bede fays there were, in his time, (be- 
fides the Latin,) four languages fpoken in Bri- 
tain, viz. Anglorum, Britonum, Scotorum et 
Pid:orum ; i.e. Anglo Saxon or Old Englifli; 
Britifh or Welch ; Scottifli or Hibernian ; and 
Pidifh or the language of the Vefturiones •.- And 
Nennius, about the year 850, gives us the fame 
information; " In Britannia prw habitabant 
quatuor gentes, Scoti, Pifti, atque Saxones et 
Britones ;" in both of which enumerations, the 
Anglo-Saxonsr, and Britifti of the South of Bri- 
tain are oppofed to the Pids and Scoti, or Hi- 
berni of the North. Thus it feems probable, 
that long before the arrival of the Saxons under 
Hengifl in the fifth century, the whole Eaftern 
parts of Britain were inhabited by a people ot 


( be ) 

German or Teutonic origin ; and that the 
language of the Vefkuriones, or of Pechtlahd, 
differed but little from that oJF the littora Saxo- 
mca, or Eaftern parts of England ; probably not 
more than at prefent. 

The Saxons, of Vandalic origin, are mention* 
ed by Ptolomey as a people of Germany, near 
the Cherfonefus Cimbrica, or about the mouth 
of the Elbe ; and in ajl probability bore that 
name before any of them emigrated into Britain. 
But neither of the two names of the German 
people who inhabited the Eaitem parts of Scot- 
land, feems to have been ufed by any antient na- 
tion of the Continent ; nor has any fatisfa£lory 
account been given ef the origin of thefe 

Thefe people, in the Saxon Chronicle, and in 
Eling Alfred's tranflation of Bede*s Ecclefiaftical 
Hiftqry, are uniformly called, (not Pifti or Picki, 
but) Peohtas, Pyhtar, and Peahte-theod, (that is 
Peohf people) ; by the vulgar, to this day, all over 
Scotland, Peyhts ; by the antient Welch writ- 
ers, Phichtied ; and by the Irifh and Gaelic, 
Crtdthneachd. As the language of the Anglo- 
Saxons jdiffered little from that of the Pifts, the 
name given to the latter by the Anglo-Saxons 
probably comes neareft to that ufed by the peo- 
ple themfelves. And, if they called themfelves 
by fuch a name as Peohtas, the circumftance 

Vo^. IV/' B tp 


to be mentioned below authorifes a conjedura 
that they afTumed this appellation from the 
ftriking difference between their mode of life 
and that pf the Scotti or Hiberni, their neigh- 
bours to the Weftward. It has alfo been fhewn 
that, as far back as the time of Julius Csefar, the 
inhabitants of the interior, or rather perhaps the 
"Weftem parts of England, did not fow com, but 
lived upon milk and fiefh ; and that- in the year 
368, the Scotti are defcribed as " per diverfa va- 
gantes,'' i. e* a people who led a wandering 
life i which feems to imply that they lived mucl^ 
in the fame manner as the anceftors of the 
Wekh i that is, not by raifmg of corn, but up- 
on animal food. And it is remarkable, that the 
name which they gave to the Peyht-folk figni- 
fies alfo in their language wheat ; fo that Cruith' 
neacht, without any ilretch of meaning, feems to 
figmSy /owen of wheat y or peoj^e who fubftjied up' 
on com. 

The key to the explanation of the term Pecht- 
ibeodj or Pecht-peopk^ is probably the initial fyl- 
lable of the names pf all fuch places in Scotland 
as begin with Pit or Pitten ; as Pit-fligo, Pit- 
ferran, Pit-medie, Pit-illock, Pit-arow, Pit-liver ; 
Pitten-crief, Pittenweym, Pitten-dreich. This 
initial PiJ has every appearance of being the 
fame with the Belgic Paecht or Pacht, which in 
the diftionaries of Wachter and Kilian is ex* 


< « ) 

{>lamed villa^ colonia ; and may perhaps be near- 
ly allied with the Latin Pagus^ i. e. vicm uhi muU 
ta edijicia rujlica funt conJunHa. In the fame 
diftionaries' we alfo find the compofite Am« 
bachten or Ampaechten, (the plural of Am-bacht 
or Am-psBcht',) thus explained \ " ejufmodi in 
civitatibus corpora dicuntur quae unuqi fibi le- 
gunt, cujus auftoritatem perinde atque capitis 
fui venerantur. Hinc apud Flandros quatuor 
pagi fant> aut potms unus pagus in quatuor re- 
giones divifus, cujus fingulse partes anubachten 
Yocantur : quod diKgenter notandum, ne quis o- 
pinetur hoc vocabulo mechanicam artem fignifi- 
care, quod quidam fermoni^ fui niiriis rudes opi- 
nantur. Ambachtcn funt collegia artificum in ci- 
'viUrtifhis** In conformity with this expfanation 
of Psecht and Am-pacht, Kalian makes this laft 
fynonimous with the Teutonic Ghilde, which he 
explains, yjfi^/TT cmtributionum^fyfceniUm^fyJfttia^ 
fhrdtriaifidalitds^ corpus. 

If, then, the Caledonians orPaecht-theodwere 
a German people, as Tacitus defcribes them, it 
ieems not improbable that thefe terms Paecht, 
and its compofite Am-bacht,'or Am-psecht, were 
the origin of the modem Pit or Feth ; both of 
them fignifying a village or town inhabited by in^ 
corp9rated citizens ^ fuch as artificers, hufband- 
men, merchants, fcc, who might find it their iri- 
iereft to affociate in this manner, either for the 


( di ) 

j^urpofe of mutual defence, or of carrying on 
their various occupations to the bed advantage ; 
a mode of life which, muil have diflfered extreme-^ 
ly from that of their neighbours the Scotti, per 
diverfa vagantes, who perhaps chofe to live more 
at large, and to fubfift upon the produce of their 
herds of cattle, or by the means of fiihing and 

Of all the various occupations or profeflions 
of thefe officiated villagers j ic is natural to fup- 
pofe that none would be more refpedable or nu- 
merous than the clafs of hufbandmen. Accord?- 
ingly, in the didionaries already mentioned, we 
find Paechter and Pachter explained colonus, 
conduftor, praedii ruftici conduftor, i, e. huf- 
bandmto or farmer ; in^arly times, perhaps, a 
jperfon who contributed one. or more oxen to the 
number which was deemed neceflary for culti- 
vating a ploughgate of land, or fifty acres* 

Every one knows that hufbandmen were an- 
tiently little better than Haves to the great Ba- 
rons or Land-holders. Accordingly, we find 
in the fame didionaries the term Am-pachter ex- 
plained " ambafilus, cliens, vafallus -" and in 
the Gothic Gofpels of Ulphilas Andbahtos, ufed 
for " minifler,'* (John xviii*. 1 8,) It is proba- 
ble, indeed,^ that the Latin word ambadlus is de- 
rived from the Belgic am-pachter. It is thus uf- 
ed by Csefar : « ut quifque (Gallorum) eft ge- 


( xSu ) 

^re' copiifque ampliiliinus, ita plurimos drca fe 
ambaSos clientefque habet." And of this word 
ambadusj Feftus fays, " lingua Gallica fervus 
dicicur j*' to which quotation is added by Wach- 
ter, ^^ quod de lingua Galiiae, Belgicae intelli- 
gendum,*' And we have the teftimony of Cae- 
far, ** BeJgas ejfe ortos a Germanis/* that the Bel- 
gse fprung from the Germans ; and of Strabo, 
that the manners of the Belgsc and Germans 
were quite the fame. The Anglo-Saxon term 
correfponding nearly with the Belgic Am-pachter 
and Latin Ambadus appears under the form of 
Am-bihi-menj and is explained miniftri, fervientes, 
ilipatores, fatellites, pediiTequi. 

It thus appears that all thefe words, viz. Paecht 
or Pacht, Psechter or Pachter, Ambacht or Am- 
piht, Ambachten, -and Ambiht-men are of one 
and the fame family ; aU of them fignifying ei- 
ther a village containing ajfociated citizens^ or the 
inhabitants of ajfociated villages. To the fame^ 
claffr of words, I have no doubt, we may refer 
not only the initial Pith or Pit in the names of 
places, but the appellation of Pehts or PiSls^ by 
which the inhabitants of the greater part of 
North Britain were diftinguiftied, from the third 
to the twelfth century. The literal meaning of 
the word was probably no more than the inhabi- 
tants of ajbciated villages / and accordingly, in 
the Saxon Chronicle, they are fometimct* called 


... » 

PehUtheod\ from Belg, /^^A/, villa, colonia, pa?- 
gus ; or ampachi^ coitio fodalium, collegium, 
fodalitas ; and theod^ gens, populus ; and their 
country Peht-land, Peth-Iand and Pet-land ; now 
corrupted to Pentland. 

It is worthy of obfervation, that almoft all 
thofe places in Scotland which have the initial 
fyllable Peth or Pitt are fituated Within twenty 
miles of the fea, or of a navigable river ; from 
which it may be inferred that they - were among 
the firft built villages or towns in North Bri^ 
tain ; probably a thoufand years older than any 
fuch villages among the wandering Scoitu Thus 
Kving among, or in the vicinity of a people who" 
did not affociate in villages, or did not even con- 
ftruft houfes, but fheltered themfelves in woods 
and caves, it was natural for the Belgi to diftin- 
guifh themfelves by a name which was defcrip. 
tive of their focial mode of life- 

This etymology of Peht-theod or Peychtesy 
and Peht-land or Peth-la!id, will not be invali-' 
dated by the eircumftance that in the vicinity of 
fome of thefe places, beginning with Peth or Pitt^ 
there are coalleries ; whence it might be inferred 
that the names are derived from the coalpits. 
Places thus named are chiefly between the friths 
of Forth and Murray, In this extenfive diftrfft 
thei^ are no collieries, except a few in the very 
Southf!m extremity ; and thefe are probably of 

fi much later date than the names of the places* 
And, in other parts of Scotland where coal pits 
abound, we find no name of a place beginning 
with Pit. It is not, therefore, likely that this 
can be the origin of the name. The Sosltifh term 
is not coaji-pit, but coal heugb. 

From the fituation of thefe places beginning 
with Pit, it may be conjedured that the friths of 
Forth and Murray were originally the bounds of 
the Pi&ifh dominions or Peth land on the South 
and North ; and that the Pids occupied chiefly 
the arable land adjoiniiag to the coaft or naviga- 
ble rivers. Here they <^rried on the bufinefs of 
agriculture ; and hence, by their neighbours the 
Scotti, they were called Crutheneihd or fcnvers 
of wheat. And it is a circumftance worth men- 
tioning, that the Highland labourers who annu- 
ally come down to affift the Lowlanders in cut- 
ting down their crop, call them at this day by a 
name equivalent to the Strangers. 

But, although Belgic pachts or villages were 
fcattered over the whole coaft between the coun- 
ties of Clackmannan and Nairn, the principal, if. 
not the earlicft domain of the Peychts feems to 
have been the counties of Fife, Angus, and 
Carfe of Gowrie ; the chief regal feats, (if the 
term regal can with propriety be ufed,) being at 
Forteviot and Abemethy. In this diftrid Rich- 
jjrd of Cirencefter places the Vecluriones y by 


( xvi ) 

which name the Southern Pifts are diftinguifiicd 
in the fourth century from the Di-Caledonii, o|? 
Pifts along the coaft to the Eaftward of the Mur- 
ray frith ; or from the coujity of Nairn roun4 
perhaps to Aberdeen. That this term Vecr 
turiones is derived from the fame fource, can 
fearcely admit of a doubt j it being well known 
that the labials P , By and F or i^ are inter^ 
changeable in almoft ^very languag'e ; and, in 
conformity with this principle, that the Welch 
name for the Pifts is Phichtiad or Fichtied. 

Another antient name of the country inhabit- 
ed by the Vefturiones was Foth-ryk or Fothrev. 
This feems alfo a Belgie, not a Scandinavian 
w;ord, fignifying the kingdom of the Barons, or 
that part of the country which particularly a- 
bounded with caftles or feats of the Piftifh no- 
bility 'j from Teutonic Vo^ht^ (or according to 
the Scandinavian orthography, Fogd,) prsefeftus, . 
toparcha* praefeftus arcis ; and r/V, regnum. Ac- 
cording to Mr Macpherfon, in his Geographical 
Illustrations of Scottijh History, Fothric contained 
the upper part of Fife-lhire, with Kinrofs-fhire, 
and the parifhes of Clackmannan and Muckard ; 
being the parts which were moft expofed to the 
inroads of the A'ngli and other enemies on the 
South ; and therefore in greateft want of caftles 
and ftrong holds to impede their progrefe. The 
name, is fometimes indeed written Fort brie ; and 


( xvK ) 

li«Dic€ Lord Hailes derives it from Forth ; :^ut 
this form of the word is probably a corruption ; 
;and even the name of the river may be derived 
from the fame fburce. In the Swedifh we find 
F$egderi explained praefedura, jurifdidlio, to- 
parcha ; and Forteviot was andently written Fo- 
Uier as well as Forthar. In the fame part of the 
country- there are alfo various other names of 
places b^inniag with Foth or Fod. King Ken- 
jaeth, the fon of Malcolm, was killed at Fother- 
Item, (now Fetherkem,) and it is not unlikely 
that the name of Fife belongs to the fame claf^ 
of words. To conclude thefe obfervations on 
>the etymology of the appellations of Peht-theod 
and Peth-land, I ihall only add, that there feem 
to be no fuch words as tfaofe above-mentioned, 
viz. pacht^ p^}jter^ ^m-paht, &c. in the Danifli 
or Swediih languages ; and that, if the deriva- 
tion here fubmitted to the reader fliould be with- 
out foundation, it is a remarkable- circumftance 
that the appellation CaUdona^ denoting the fame 
Belgic people, appears to be fynonimous in ori- 
ginal, or literal fignification, with the words 
from which the name of Pechts has been deriv« 

In the Conftitutions of Charlemagne, and in 
4he antient laws of the Longobards, the term u£- 
ed for a guildry or incorporated body of citizens, 
was Qeldoniaj or, as it might fometimes be pro- 

VoL, rV. C nounced^ 

( *xviii ), 

flounced, Keldoniaj from the Teutonic verb''^^A 
ien^ alfo written kelten^ foLvere, mutuo dare, red- 
dere rem pro re; ^ndgejfj fuppofed to fignify ori- 
ginally " vices, etquaelibet res cum alia commu- 
tata.** This aflfords room for a conjefture that 
the Caledonians of Tacitus were not -only the 
fame people with the Peht-theod or Pifts, but 
that their name was literally fynonimous in all 
refpeOis. The root of this term Geldonia occurs 
in the Gothic gofpels of Ulphilas, Luke xii. 1 4* 
us-gildarij et fra-gildan^ reddere ; and may havei 
exifted in the language of the Germans or Belgi 
long before his time. Now, if the inhabitants 
of the pahtsj pitts or villages were, as Tacitus 
reprefents ihem, a people who fpoke nearly the 
fame language, it fecms not improbable that one. 
of the names by which they diftinguifhed themr 
felves from the Scotti " per diverfi vagantes,'* 
might be the Geldonick or Keldonichy ■ which the 
Romans could fcarccly latinize by any other, 
word than Caledqnii. If there be any truth 
in this conjefture, the appellation of Geldonii or, 
Caledonii could never denote the Scotti^ or inha- 


bitants of the hilly p^rt of the country ; but on- 
ly thofe who affociated together in villages or 
towns in the more fertile parts of the country.— 
Had the word beeji of Gaelic, Irilh or Welch 
origin, fome appearance of it might have beei\ 
expdfted to remain in one or more of thefe^ Ian,- 


( xix ) 

^uag^ ; but no veftige of that kind is to* be 

found. Some have conjectured that the term 
Caledonii is derived from the Welch kelydhorij or 
** woods." But certainly no part of North Bri- 
tain abounded more with woods than the dif- 
trifts of Teviotdale, Selkirk, Peebles, and La- 
mu*k ; and yet the name of Caledonians was ne- 

. ver given to their inhabitants, but was peculiar 
to the people of Peht-land or Peth-land. The 
appellation feems then to have originated among 
themfelves ; and from themrto have pafled di- 
rectly to the Romans. 

It now remains to offer a coiijefture ti^ith re- 
fpefl to the origin of the appellation of Hcotti, — 
The name is unknown in the Gaelic language, 
tod is firft mentioned by Ammianus viarcelli- 
nus, A. D. 360. " In Britanniis: cum Scotorum 
Piftorumqtie, gentium ferarum, excurfus, &c.'' 
SirhercL " it is joined with that of Pifti, a« Hi- 
bemi had been fixty-four years before by Eu- 
menius." Hence it may be inferred, that Hi^ 
bemi and Scotti were fynonimous. Under the 
year 364 they are again mentioned thus by the 
fame ^writer : " Pifti, Saxonefque^ et Scotti et 
Attacotti, Britannos serumnis vexavere conti- 
nuis.*' And under \68, " Eo tempore Pidli in 
duas gentes divifi, Dicaledonas et V^ftUriones, 

- itidemque Attacotti, bellicofa hominum natio, et 
S4;otti per diverfa vagantes, &c/* At this time 


' the Pids, divided into two nations, the Di-Cale- 
donae and Vefturiones, as alfo the Attacots, a 
Warlike nation, atid the Scots, wandering about 
from plaee to- place, ravaged many parts* Here 
rile words " pet diverfa vagantes^* are defcrip- 
tive pTobaWy of the general charafter of the 
Sctati ; as in fubfeqilent times they were called 
the wandering, or vAld Scots ; and Gildas men- 
dons them as coming from the Nxwth weft to 
invade the Britons, as the Pifts^ came from the 
North. Without entering into the queftion. 
Whence, or at what time the Sbotti came into 
North Britain, there can be no doubt that the 
people heriB defcribed by Ammianus, and per- 
haps alfo by Gildas, were the inhabitants of the 
mountainous parts of Scotland, to the North of 
the Clyde, and Weft of Peht-land ; it being in-^ 
credible that Argyle-^flare and the head of Perth- 
fiure ihould, in the fourth and fifth centuries, be 
inhabited- by Criithenachd, or fow^rs of wheafy 
or by a pfebple who were aCcuftomed to aflbciate 
together in toWns <^r large villages. In the maps 
of antient North Britain, no veftigc appears of 
any fuch places. And if that part of Scotland 
hid been entirely uninhabited, the wandering 
Scottr, it is probable, inftead of returning to Ire- 
land, after the feafon of depredation was at an 
end, would have taken poffeflion of it as a 
country that was fuitable to their mode of life ; 


ind where they could always be ready to joia 
their allies the Pids at a moment's warning. The 
mountanous part of North Britain mud there* 
fore have been inhabited in the time of Ammia- 
nus either by the Scotti or the Atta-Cotti ; both 
of whom are considered as the fame with the 
Hiberni of Eumenius. 

It feems alfo not unlikely that Scotti and Cotti 
were originally the fame . word ; and that Atta 
h merely a diftin^ve prefi?^, denoting fome qua- 
Kty, or relative iituation of territory. The quef- 
tion then comes to be,. Whether Scotti or Cotti 
be the original form of the name ? It is well 
known, that in the Northern languiages the S 
has frequently been prefixed to words that ori- 
ginally were written with an initial C or K.— • 
Thus the Englife /cratch h formed from the 
Teutonic krafz ; Jbort from hrt ; Jklend^r from 
kUyner ; fcop^ now (hop, from cop ; /crape from 
krabben j fkreigh from kraiytren ; and in many 
other inftances. I therefore am inclined to give 
the preference, in point of antiquity, to the form 
6f Coitij and to believe that this appellation has 
been given to them by their Belgic neighbours, 
as a nickname denoting fome remarkable cir- 
cumftance in their nianiiers, or mode of life. It 
is beyond a dotibt that mankind, in a certain 
ftage of dvili^auon, muft have ftieltered them- 
fehres chiefly in caves and dms \ and it is well 


( jam ) 

iaiown that Scotland abounds with lurking pid-? 
C6S of this kind, both natural and artificial, more 
than any other country in the wbrld. A grejit 
number are defcribed in the Statijlicat Account. — 
Some of them are of iramenfe extent ; " capable 
of lodging five or fix hundred people/* Some 
are fcooped out among rocks ; others are con- 
ftrufted below ground in the plains ; and thefe, 
without the affiftance of arches, which tends to 
evince their high antiquity. In fome of them 
are found large quantities of peat or of woqd 
afhes, with fragments of rude earthen veflels, 
and other houfehold implements ; fometime^ a* 
round the entrance of them confiderable ftrata 
of bones and oyfter Ihells, as in New Holland ; 
and in moft cafes, divided into, or confiding of 
a variety of feparate apartments. What can we 
conclude from this, but that thefe caves had 
ferved the inhabitants of the country for regular 
and common dwelling places ? A Belgic nationr 
obtaining a fettlem^nt, in a country thus inha- 
bited, might naturally call the Aborigines by a^ 
name defcriptive of this extraordinary circum- 
ftance. In the Belgic or Teutonic didtionaries, 
we find Kot (or Cott) explained " cavus, ca- 
vum, cavema, fpelunoa, cubile ferarum, latibu^ 
lum/* From this was probably formed the 
nickname of Cotti, i. e. the inhabitants cf tfje 
caves ; — an appellation fo natural and appofite> 


( xxiii } 

that one might have been furprifed if the Belg» 
bad called them by any other name. The change 
from Cotti to Scotti might take place in the fame 
manner as in the other inftances above-men- 
tioned. The Belgic article, corrcfponding to 
ihe^ might be Je^ as in the Anglo-Saxon, or fa 
in the Gothic ; So that Se Cottigh would fignify 
the inhdbitant of a cave ; and this, to a Roman 
ear, might found Scottigh or Scotii. That the 
antient Britons did occafionally lodge in the 
fame manner, is reported by Bede, who repre- 
fents them as " making excurfions from the 
^mountains, caves^ and woods,'* againft their ene- 
mies the Pifts^ and Irijli rovers^ CHiberni grajfa- 
tores. J Even among the Germans, the art of 
bmlding houfes of ftone feems to be compara- 
tively a mpdern invention. Inftead of the phrafe 
f* built his houfe upon a rock,'* Ulphilas ufes, 
?' Umbered his houle. upon a ftane/* In coun- 
tries, therefore, where the ufe of inftruments of 
metal was little, or not at all known, and while 
the forefts were filled with wolves and other fa- 
vage animals, it was impoffible for the human 
race to exifl: in any other manner than in caves* 
So late as in the fourteenth century, Scotland is 
defcribed as " generally void of trees, and more 
abundant in favages than iuv cattle. Even in the 
Lowlands, the houfes of the common people 
have four or five pofis to fupport the turf walls, 


C xxiy ) 

and a roof of boughs ; three days fufficed tq $• 
reft the humble manfion." *' The commonalty, 
fays a contemporary author, have abundance of 
flefb and fifh, but eat bread as a dainty " If fuch 
yras the fituation of the Lowlanders in the four- 
jeenth century, .what muft have been that of the 
Highlanders, i. e. the Scotti and Atta-Cotti* in 
the fourth? — Probably the obfervation which 
Sir William Petty makes with refpefl: to the I- 
rifli may with equal juftice be applied to the abo- 
riginal inhabitants of North Britain. *' There 
is, at this day, no monument or valid argument 
to fhow that, when they y/ere firft invaded, they 
had any ftone houfing at all ; any money, any 
foreign trade, any learning ; nor geometry, af- 
tronomy, anatomy, painting, carving ; nor any 
kind of manufafture ; nor the leaft ufe of navi- 
gation, or the art military.*^ Nearly in the fame 
fituation, according to Icelandic writers, appear 
to have been the antient inhabitants of Norway^ 
*' who fled from the open day, and lived in the 
folitudes and clefts of the rocks ; who fed on 
human flefh, and clothed themfelves in the raw 
ikins of wild beafls." Thus alfo are defcribed 
the Atta-Cotti by St. Jerome, an eye-witnefs : — 
f * Cum ipfe idolefcentulus in Gallia viderim At- 
ta-Cottos, gentem Britahnicam humanis vefci 
carnibus ; et cum per filvas porcorum greges, et 
armentorum pecudumque reperiant, paftorum 


( aocv. ) 

Hates et ferhinarum papillas folere abfcindere ; et 
has folas ciborum delicias arbitrari.*' 

The fame horrid accufation is maintained a- 
gainft the antient Hibemi by various Roman au- 
thors ; and no lefs againftf the primitive inhabi- 
tants of the Scottifti caves by vulgar tradition.—^ 
The Gaelic word for ** cave*' is uaigh, and that 
for *^ a giant** tmigher ; i. e. the inhabitant of a 
cave. The fafeft retreats would thus be occupied 
by the moft powerful individuals, whofe ftature 
and rapacity of courfe would be magnified by 
the terrors of thofe who lurked in the open 
wood^ and wilds around'them. 

Iri this ftage of fociety the language of ' the 
Cotti or Scotti mtift have been very confined : 
And, as the Welch borrowed a great number of 
words from the Romans and Belgi of South Bri- 
tain, fo the Scotti appear to have borrowed 
words of the fame nature from the Pehts or Bel- 
gi of the North, Thofe who are converfant in 
the various Teutonic dialefts, will immediately 
perceive this upon looking into a Gaelic vocabu- 
lary, where the words are arranged according \o 
' the nature of things, qualities, arts, &c. Proba- 
bly the whole diflference between the Welch and 
Gaelic may be accounted for upon tljis princi- 
pie. The number of original Britifh words in 
each may be nearly equal ; but the Gaelic, it is 
reafonable to fuppofe, may contain more Teuto- 

VoL. IV, D niq 

C xxvi ) 

IMC words than the Welch ; and this again more^ 
Latin terms than are to be found in the languages 
of the Scotti. At one period they were moft 
probably the fame ; but in the time of Bede, 
(A. Dr 730.) they were accounted different lan- 
guages ; and the Piftifh different from both. 

This laft pofition has, however, been ftrenu- 
ously controverted by various eminent writers^ 
who, difregarding the authorities of Tacitus^ 
Bede, the Saxon Chronicle, &c. contend that the 
Pifts were not of Teutonic or Belgic, but of 
Welch origin ; or, in other words, that they 
fpoke nearly the fame language with the Welch. 
One of their principal arguments is founded up- 
on a paffage in Bede, wherein he fays, that a 
town in^ Scotland at the Eaft end of the Pi^s 
Wall, was, in the language of the Pifts, called 
PeanfaheL And Nennius adds, that its name in 
the Britifh Cor Welch J tongue was Pengaaul; *' asr 
nearly the fame word,'* fays Mr Ritfon, " as the 
flighteft difference of dialeft, or corruption of 
orthography will allow; from.penp head, and 
Lat. vallumy wall ; which latter word both Pifts 
and Britons had adopted from the Romans, ei- 
ther from having no fynonimous word in their 
own language, or none at lead applicable to a 
fortification of that nature.*' But it fo happens 
that both parts of the name are pure Belgic or 
German ,; or at leaA as near to that language ^& 

. to 

( xxvii ) 

to the antient Brldfli ; namcly//«;^, explained by 
^Wachter fummitas ; and vail or ivall^ murus e^ 
cefpitibus ; and accordingly the Saxons called it 
PennidttWy that is PimvaUloun. All that can be 
gathered from this remark of Bede is, that the 
inhabitants of Pehtland in his time, (as at pre* 
fent,) fometimes ufed/for w or wh. 

Another objedion to this view of the PicUfii 
origin is, that in the twelfth century the men of 
Galloway were PiQ:s ; and that thefe Galloway 
men continued to fpeak the Celtic language till 
within the eighteenth century. The weight of 
this objeftion refts chiefly upon the authority of 
Irvine, who in his Nomenclatura hijioria Scotica^ 
lays, that in his time, (about 1650,) the Gaelic 
Albanich was fpoken much in the Rinns of Gal- 
loway; and upcm that paffagc in Buchanan 
where he treats of Galloway : '' Ea magna ex 
parte patrio fermone adhuc utitur.^* By this 
conjiderable part he probably means very liitle 
more than the traft which within feventy years 
after his time was particularly fpecified by Ir- 
vine, namely the Rinns, a peninfula to the Weft 
of Loch Ryan and the bay of Glenluce ; and 
perhaps fome fmall portion of the hilly part ,qF 
the country, 'ihe vicinity of this peninfula to ' 
Ireland, or fome other circumftancc of fituation 
might occafion its being inhabited by people who 
fpoke .the Gaelic language* But this is only a 


( xxviii ) 

finall part of what was antiently called Gallovidia^ 
All the country to the Eaftward ef the peninfur 
la, 6r from Wigton to the mouth of the Solway , 
appears to have been inhabited antiently by a 
Saxon or Belgic people : firft, *' from the motes 
which are extremely numerous through all that 
province. Camps alfo, in the Anglo Saxon 
fafhion are not unfrequent^ But what is chiefly 
remarkable^ and at the fame time moll unequi- 
vocal, is, that the feats here occupied by the 
Angles, while Galloway was fubjeft to the Nor- 
thumbrian fway, are ftill diftinguiftied by the 
name of Inglejlonsi Of thefe Inglejions there is 
one almoft in every pari(h along the coaft, and 
commonly for fourteen or twenty miles back- 
wards into the interior country. Near^each Ing- 
lefton is ufually a Bvor land ; and there are alfo. 
feveral Ceorl-tons and Granges, In fhort the 
names of places contiguous to the fea coaft are 
generally Anglo-Saxon/* Whether Galloway, 
as would feem from Bede, was inhabited by Pifts 
in the 5th century, is of no confequence. It is 
fufficient that the people who impofed thefe 
names were of Teutonic, not of Britifli ori- 
gin. Befides, we are informed in exprefs terms 
by William of Malmefbury, that the Pifts, with 
the Scots, fome time before their union . under 
Kenneth, invaded Galloway, upon the decay of 
the Bernician kingdom : And from the Poly- 
chronicon we learn, " they were the Kfts alone 


( xsdx ) 

that feized on Gallo^ray and took it from th^ 
Saxons ;'' immediately, perhaps, upon the fubr 
verfion of their government in Peht-land ; or they 
may have been tranfplanted thither by Alexander 
the firft, or David the firft, as Malcolm the 
fourth in 1 1 59 was obliged, on account of their 
turbulent difpofition, to difperfe thofe of Mur* 
ray into different parts of the kingdom, and plant 
that country with new inhabitants. 

Another obje^on to the German origin of the 
Pifts^ it feems, is that '* the names of the Pidifh 
fovereigns have no refemblance /o thofe in any 
Gothic lift." I o this it may be anfwered, that 
the Pifts appear to have been a colony of ftran- 
gers whom the indigenous inhabitants permitted 
to fettle amoAg tjiem^ partly for their own conve* 
niency or accommodation ; and that the princes 
who were appointed to rule over them may have 
,been of the Scottifh, not of Piftifh race. But the 
objeffa'on would require to be made with greater 
precifion ; by pointing out what lifts are alluded 
to. To me it rather appears that the names in 
the lift of S.crJti/h kings have little or no refem- 
blance to the Gaelic language ; and that it would 
be no difficult tafk to trace many of them, a$ 
well as of the Piftifti, to a Gothic fource. See 
a fpecimen of fuch derivations in Mr Pinkerton's 
Enquiry into the antient hiftory of Scotland, 
Vol., II. p, 163. Even the names beginning with 


( XXX • ) 

^ac have a clofe affinity with the Gothic ^77/2^^ 
nsy filius, puer ; the final fyllable being merely a 
Variable termination, as appears from the Anglo- 
Saxon form of the word, mag. 

Mr Pinkerton, in the work juft now mention- 
ed, has alfo exhibited the Gothic origin of vari- 
ous initial and final fyllables in the names of 
places in Scotland. The moft remarkable of 
thefe are ; — Strath, from streke, plaga, regio 5 
sfrecken, extendere ; or stratj via, the traB (Lat. 
traftus) or way of the river. Abcr, from Goth, 
ttfar, trans, fupcr ; Ang.-Sax. ufer, fuperior, aU 
tior, ulterior, poftcrior, ferior ; or bergh, mons, 
cotlis ; quafi, y-bergh. Bal, of the fame fignifi- 
cation with the initial Fod or Fotb, from old 
Flemi{h bael, praefeAus,adminiftrator, toparcha, 
provincisc prsefeftus, praeter, judex -, et admini- 
ftratio tutelse , quafi, the refidence of the Superin- 
tendant. Inn)erj from Teut. vaeren, ire, tendere, 
proficifci ; quafi, in fare or entrance : Or it may 
fometimes fignify inner, inmost, within. The Pitts 
or Pithens, we have feen, from Teut paht, villa, 
vicus, pagus. The Fcrs^ (contr. of Fother,) per- 
haps from Teut. voght, or ^Q2XiA,fogd, fynonimous 
with Bal, praefeflus provincial five arcis, judex. 
The Kins may be from Teut, kien, pinus, teda, 
a place of fir trees. Kil, from Teut, gilde, a lo* 
ciety or corporation. Achter, from Teut. achter, 
retro, poft, pone, a tergo, behind, beyond, fer- 


( xxxi 7 

dier. Achy from Teut. ach^ elementum aquae ; 
acha^ flumen, et omnis aqua fluens ; in affinity 
with Lat. aqua. Wickj from Teut. wiick^ perfvN 
gium ; littus curvum, ftatio fecura, ubi conjun- 
ftioribus sedifjfiis habitatur, caftrum. Nefs^ from 
Teut. nefe^ promontorium. Weemc^ (plural 
Weemys,) from Teut. weenie^ domus parochi, 
scdes curionis ; flaminia, domus flaminis. When 
the Laity built houfes and towns, and the Reli-* 
gious retired to folitudes, the word came to fig- 
nify caves. Ben^ fynonimous with Teut. pinrij 
liimmitas. Durij nearly with Teut. duynyie^ mons 
arenarius, agger marinus. Carfe^ from Iflandic 
or old Teut. kiery palus, lacus. Ard^ from Teut. 
arderiy fylv^ ; whence ardon^ habitare ; primo* 
rum hominum habitacula in fylvis, (ut funt fere 
domicilia Gallorum, qui plerumque filvarum ac 
flurtlinum petunt propinquitates. Cafar de jB. 
Gall. J Kern or Caini, from Teut. kennen^ la- 
mentari^ ejulare; Swed. kerm^ pluteus; quafi, 
iP place cf lamentation. Tor^ from Teut* H^or^ 
colliSy turris, difficilis. Even the appellation of 
Albanichy by which the defcendants of the Scotti 
at this day diftinguifli themfelves, is evidently 
Teutonic, from alp^ mons- So alfo may be the 
name Crutheneichd^ applied to the Pifts both of 
Scotland and Ireland; from T tut. grutse or krutse^ 
far comminutum, frufta farris hordeacei, grana 
bordei contrita. An adjedive formed from this 


f xxadi 3 

lubllantiYe by a Teutonic people, would hegrur- 
fenigh or krutzenigbj in proeefs of time Cruthe^ 
neichd ; that hj people who lived upon prepared ve*' 
getable food. Britain itfelf, or, as it is more an- 
tiently written, Bertane^ may be. derived from 
Teut. berga nions ; ge-Berghten, montes. Thus 
it feems probable that the names of villages were 
impofed by a Teutonic people who had made 
Ibme progrefs in civilization ; or at leaft were in 
the habit of erefting fuch habitations. 

Before we leave this fubjeft, it may not be 
improper to mention an obfervation which has 
occurred with refpedt to one of the antient nanies 
of Edinburgh ; viz. Mqyden castle ^ tranflated 
by Turgot, Fordun, and others. Cast rum puella-^ 
Tum^ or the castle cf maidens. Turgot fays that 
Queen Margaret, the wife of Malcolm the third/ 
died at the Castrum pnellarum y and the defcrip- 
tion which he gives of it correfponds exaftly 
with that. of the caftle of Edinburgh. " Some 
antiquaries imagine that the Scots termed it the 
Maiden castle , becaufe the Pidiftr princefTes were 
kept there; but this, as obferved by Lord Hailes, 
is irreconcileable with the idea of an Englifl> 
province extending to Edinburgh. It would 
have been ftrange policy indeed to have kept the 
princefles upon the very frontier of another king- 
dom, as in a place of fafety.*' Ihat Edinburgh- 
was fo fituated, we have the teftimony of John . 


( xzsiii ) 

ef Wallingford, who mentions it as ai the norm 
ihern extremity of Northumberland^ Caftrum pu- 
ellarum, however, according to Mr Pinkerton, 
is a mere tranflation of Dumfries^ or Dun-Fresj 
from Goth, dun^ caflellum, lirbs ; and frUj or 
frej virgo nobilis. This, he adds, " was the 
same given by the Pids^ while the Cumri of 
Cumbria called the fame place Abemithj as it 
ftands at the mouth of the NithJ^ By what zn^ 
tient author Dumfries is called Jbernithj does not 
appear* I rather incline to think that both of 
thefe names fignify Edinburgh. That this for- 
tiefs was called Caftrum puellarum, or Maydyn 
castle J at a very early period, is clearly evinced 
by charters of David the Firft ; by the Chroni- 
cle of Melrofe under the years i i8o and 1.255 j 
by Matthew Paris, p. 907, " puellarum caftrum, 
quod vulgariter dicitur Edenburc ;." and by the 
chronicles of ^ Fordun, Wynton, and Harding. 
And Mr D» Macpherfon, in his illuftrations of 
Scottifh hiftory, remarks, that the origin of 
Boyce^s pretty fancy of converting this fortrefs 
into a boarding fchool for young ladies of the 
Pichtifli royal and noble families, is probably to 
be found in the following paflage, from the Chro* 
nicle of Lanercoft, '* Redditum eft castrum pu- 
ellarum in manu J. Difpenfatoris ; locus, qui 
nufquam in antiquis geftis legitur prius expug- 
nari, propter fuam eminentiam et firmitatem, qui 
a conditore fuo monarcho Edwyno Edwyneft}urgh 
Voi-. IV. E diau% 

( xxadrv ) 


didul eft antiquitus, ubi, ut dicitiir, feptem filias 
fuas pofuit Gonfervandas/' The date of this Chro- 
nicle is not mentioned ; nor is it of any impor- 
tance. It would be more' defirable to know whe- 
ther Turgot, confeffor to Queen Margaret, the 
confort of Malcolm Caiynore, wrote Maydyn- 
castte^ or Casirum Fuellamm* Be this how 
It may, the term Mayden appears to have no 
^concern with the Latin puelUt ; but is doubt- 
lefs a genuine Gothic word ; the participle; 
paft of the verb maitatij explained in the 
gloflaries of Stiernhielm, Junius, and others, 
jfcind^e, confcindere, abfcindere, praefecare, 
concidere ; where alfo we find feveral compo- 
fites from the fame verb, and of fimilar fignifi- 
cation ; as in Luke iv. 19. fraletan ga-maidans^ 
dinuttere confraftos : xiv. 13. ga-maidansy haU 
tanSy bUndansj debiles, claudas et caecos. John 
xviil* I o. afmai-maiij abfcidit : Bi-^maiian^ dn'^ 
cumcidcre^ Matthew v* 30. afrmait tha^ erue 
cam : vii. 19. us-maitaday exddetur. Mark ix» 
43 • nf-mait tho^ abfcinde illam: xi &. mai maifim^ 
^onddebant, vel caedabant ; in which laft, the; 
correfponding word in the old Belgic Teftament 
is ^^ fneden^^ 

The literal fignification, therefore, of Mayden 
castle J I conceive to be, a castle upon a hill which 
appears as if it nvere fneddedy cut^ or hewed down^ 
mons abfciffus, rupes amputata; precifely the 
fame with Snedden^casfley or Snedden-bergh. This 


( ^tkv ) 

Oothic '^ord maitan^ abfcindere, amputate, 
one of thofe few of which there feems no veftige 
m the Teutonic, Saxon, or Scandinavian dia- 
lefts. Hence we have in the appellation Mayden^ 
castle^ a kind of prefumptive proof that the lan- 
guage of Ulphilas was fpoken in North Britain 
when that name was given to the fort which 
was afterwards called Snedden caftle, and £din^ 
burgh. In all the modem diale£b of the Gothie 
language, the place of this word maitan is fupplied 

by the verb tofriedj and its derivatives. 

Under the article Snawdoun in the Gloffary^ 

a conjefture is ojSered that Sneddenbergh, or 
Snawdon caftle, may for fome time have been 
called Nidden or Nethen^bergh^ as the Englilh 
Snotdngbam has now become Nottingham. I 
had not then attended to the diveriity of opinion 
which has loii^ prevailed among our beft antiqua* 
iries concerning one of the places called by antient 
hiftorians Abemeihyn^ Aberneibu and Aburnethige. 
In the hiftories of Ingylphus, Florence of Wor- 
fcefterj and others, we find that William the con- 
queror in 1072 " inva<Jed Scotland by land, 
while his fleet feconded the operations of his ai*- 
my. Malcom the Third met him at a place 
called Abefnithi or Abernethyrif concluded a 
peace^ gave hoftages, and did homage V* (p^o* 
bably for the lands which he held in England.) 
It is highly improbable, fays I^qy^ Hailes, that 
Abemethy, on the fouth bank of the river- Tay, 

/ fhould 


( xxxvl ) 

ihould be here intended. That place lies diflaili 
from any rout which fo prudent a commander' 
as William would havp taken in an expedition 
againfl: Scotland. He might indeed have come 
to Abernethy, had he invaded Scotland by fea, 
and landed in the frith of Tay ; but of that there 
is no appearance. The Saxon Chronicle de- 
fcribes the march of William as by land through 
a knorwn parage into Scotland, and mentions 
the fleet as merely fubfervient to the expedition 
by land. Hence it is probable that William, 
with his land forces, would keep generally with- 
in a few miles of the fea ; and, if fo, the natural 
place for an interview between the two kings 
was fome where in the vicinity of a navigable 
river, and on the confines of the two kingdoms^ 
where twenty years afterwards he propofed to do 
homage, ubi reges. Scotorum erant foliti reftitu- 
dinem faccre regibus Anglorum, Goodall con- 
jeftures that this Aburnethige may imply a 
place, fuch as Dumfries, at the confluence of the 
rivers Nith and Solway, or Eden. But that 
William entered Scotland by the Eaft marches 
is probable, not only for the reafon above-men- 
tioned, but from a palTage in' Matthew of Weft- 
minfter, which informs us that William " re- 
turned from Scotland per Cumbriam^ by the 
way of Cumberland. Lord Hailes thinks the 
Tine in Eaft %.othian might, with fome proprie- 

^ ^ :!txxvii ) 

ty, be termed Abernithi. With great deference 
to fuch refpedable Authorities, it feems more 
probable that this Aburnethige^ or Abur-netbyn^ is 
no other than Edinburgh ; quafi, Ghc-Burgh-Nc^ 
iheriy or Tburghnithin \ of which Ncthen-burgb ig 
merely a tranfpofition ; being at the fame time 
an abbreviation of Snedden-burgb ; from fnedden 
or fniiden^ amputare, abfeindere ; and bergh^ or 
ghe-berghj mons, locus editus five munitus. 
* Again, if A-Bur-Nethyn be Neihenburgh^ one 
might naturally expe£k to fiftd ftill fome earlier 
mention of it. Accordingly, in various antient 
Chronicles, under the year 685, we ^re inform- 
ed that Egfrid, king of Northumbria, was de- 
feated and ilain in a battle with the Pids at a 
place within their territories^ among rugged hills^ 
and near the north fea^ The Annals of Ulfter 
call the place Duin-Nechtain^ vel Caflrum Nee* 
tani : Simon of Durham, stagnum Nechtani : — 
The Chronicle of Lindisfarne, NeQanes^mere*^^ 
The confequences of this battle are thus defcrib- 
ed by Bede and other antient writers : *' From 
*« which time the hope and virtue of the king- 
** dom of the Angli began to melt and flow 
«* backward : For the Picls recovered the land 
^* of their po^eflion, (terram pojfejjtonis fua.J 
** which the Angli had held : Trumwene, a 
>* Northumbrian bifliop, who a few years before 
** had been appointed to prefide over (fome part 

" of} 

( xxxtiii ) 

^ of J the PifHfli territory, was obliged to miake 
*^ his efcape precipitately from liis feat at Aber- 
** coril; and the Saxons never f again) fent ^ 
•* devouring tax-gatherer Cambronem) to exaflk 
^* tribute of the Pifts/' The circumftance of 
the Biihop's feat bemg at Abercorn, a fe\^ mile^ 
weft of Edinburgh, feems to imply that his ju- 
rifdiftion extended over the country only on thd 
* foutnem bank of the Forth ; that is, prob^tblyj 
the counties of Linlithgow, Edinburgh, and 
Haddington; conflituting the terra Pi^oruni; 
within which Roger of Chefter places Edin- 
burgh ; the hills to the fouth of this city being 
alfo ftill called the Pehtland or Pentland hills. 
The whole circumftances of this piece of hi/lory 
feem to point unequivocally to Edinburgh. The 
north fea of the Saxon Chronielie, the ftagnunt 
Nechtani of Simon of Durham, and the TSe£lanes^ 
mere of the Lindisfame Chronicle may denote 
the frith of Edinburgh ; and the '* angustias in- 
accejforum montium^^ of Bede, the rocky hills in 
its neighbourhood. Mr Macpherfon, however^ 
in his Geographical illustrations of Scottijh history j 
conjeftures Dim-Nechtain to be the fmall loch 
at Dunnachtan in Badanach, or Loch Nean at 
the foot of Ben Varn, and near Ben Garu in A- 
thol ; near both of which, it feems, there are 
niouiiments of battles. But furely it is impro- 
bable that a Northumbrian armv, in the month 


( :spadx ) 

pf April or May, could penetrate through fot* 
efts and formidable defiles fo far north as Bada* 
nach ! Goodall, on the other hand, fuppofes 
Dun-Nechtain to be a loch or mofs at Nenthorn 
in Roxburghfhire ; and Hedtor Boyce places it 
in Galloway. As'Abernethy or Abernethyn is 
frequently mentioned as a principal feat of the 
Piftiih kings, we may reafonably fuppofe that it 
was one of the ftrongeft holds in their kingdom; 
a character which is more applicable to Dun- 
Nethan or Burgh-Nethan than to Abernethy on 
the banks of the Tay. The Piftifli Chronicle, 
written about 1020, fays that Aburndhige was 
built by a king of the Pi£ls in the year 458 ; 
and that the name of the king was Nethan . or 
Ne£lanius ; fo called perhaps from the name of 
the hill or caftle. The regifter of St. Andrews 
places the building of Aburnethyn under the 
year 600 ; but ftill it was during the reign of a 
King Nethan J and the authority of the former 
is ^o way inferior to that of the latter. Be this 
bow it may, it feems highly probable that Da»- 
.Nechtan of the Annals of Ulfter, the Gaelic Dmi^ 
Aidan^ and JEburgh Kethyn or Abernethigh of 
Ingulphus, Florence of Worcefter and Diceto, 
are the fame with Snedden burgh or Snedden 
caftle ; and that thefe do not mean the prefent 
Sneddon or Stirling, but Edinburgh ; from the 
prcumftance of its having alfo been called Mai^ 



( xl ) 

den-castlcj a name of the fame literal lignificahf 

In every attempt of this nature, the principal 
difficulty is to account for the introduftion of 
French words ; or, as Tyrwhit expreffes it, of 
that compound language '* in which, though 
the fcheme and formation are in a great mea- 
fure Saxon (or Belgic,) a larg-e proportion of 
*^ the elements is French," To this it may be 
anfivered, that the greater part of thefe elements 
may have been borrowed not direftly from the 
French, but from the Latin language ; and pro*. 
bably would have been adopted into the Anglo- 
Belgic as well as the Scoto Belgic nearly about 
the fame period, although no fuch event as a 
Norman conqueft had ever taken place. The 
greater part both of the Scottifli and Englifli 
clergy in early times were probably educated iij 
France. It therefore ought to' be^ no matter of 
furprife that the language of Barbour and Win- 
ton i& found Jo contain a confiderable number of 
French, or rather of Latin words. So does alfo 
the language of Belgium in tp.e fixteenth century, 
as appears from the Diftionaries of Kalian^ &c. 
While the Belgic and Anglo baxon literati were 
daily m :king acceffions to their written language 
from the French and Latin,, we cannot fuppofe 


that the iielgic dialed of Pehtland would re- 
main ftationary* We are indeed affured of the 


( xK ) 

liontraiy, by tKe welt known elegiac fonnet on die 
death of Alexander the Third, A. D. 1285^ 
tompofed probably by a contemporary poet, and 
l^feferved in Winton's Chronicle : 

Quhea AJylandjr oure Ring wes dede^ 

That Scotland led in luve and Id^ 
Awaj wes fens of ale and brede. 

Of wyae and wax^ of gamjm and gle : 

Cur golde wes changyd in to lede. 

Cryft^ born in to virgynyte. 
Succour Scotland and remede. 

That (lad us in perplexjte* 

Chiefly^ perhaps, through the means of fuch 
ihort compofitioiis as this, the colloquial dialed 
iffonli be gradually improved both in Scotland 
and £ngland : And the attempt which was made 
to introduce the French language into the latter 
kingdom, inftead of promoting the improvement 
of that dialed, would probably ferve to retard it. 
Tyrwhit obferves, that *• even before the Nor- 
^* man coriqueft, the language of France had 
** been introduced into the court of England, 
*• and from thence among the people. The ac- 
^ count which Ingulphus gives of this matter 
, ^ is, tfet Edward the Confeffor having been e- 
** ducated at the court of his uncle Duke Rich- 
*^ ard the. Second, and having refided in Nor- 

VojL. IV, F « mandy 

** mandy many years, became almost a French 
*' man^ Upon his return from thence, and ac* 
** ceffion to the throne of England in 1043, ^® 
** brought over with him a number of Nor- 
** mans, whom he promoted to the higheft dig- 
^^ nities ; and, according to Ingulphus, under 
*^ the influence of the King and his Norman fe- 
^' vourites, the whole nation began to lay afide 
** their Englilh fefliions, and in many things to 
** imitate the manners of the French. In parti- 
*« cular, he fays exprefsly,. that all the Barons in 
^* their courts or hdufholds began to /peak French j 
^* as a great piece of gentility. At the revolution, 
** 1066, the language of the Norman conqueror 
** was interwoven with the new political fyftem, 
** and the feveral eftabllfhments which- were 
*' made for the fupport and fecurity of the one, 
*^ bU contributed in a greater or kfs degree to 
** the difFufion and permanency of the other.— 
"In particular, from the very beginning of his 
*^ reign, all ecclefiaftical preferments, as feft as 

they became vacant, were given to Normans. 

The convents alfo were flocked with foreign* 
** crs, whom the new Abbots invited over from 
*^ the Continent, partly perhaps for the pleafure 
" of their fociety, and partly in expectation of 
** their fupport againft the cabals of the Anglo- 
** Saxon Monks/' " Sethe Normans come 
^ firft into Engelond,*' fays a contemporary au- 


Aor, ^^ gehtilmen children beeth taught to fpds:e 
*^ French from the tyme that they beeth rokked 
^^ in her cradel ; and uplandifche men alfo wil 
f^ liken himfelfe to gentilmen, and fondeth with 
^* great befynefs for to fpeke French/* At that 
time, learning was in a great meafure confined 
to the clergy ; and the mod eminent fcholars 
were educated at the Univerfity of Paris. Hence 
all the beft authors chofe to write in French, 
which was undoubtedly, fays Warton, a great 
impediment to the cultivation and progreflive 
improvement of the vernacular language. Ano- 
nymous French poems and fongs, written about 
that time, are inpumerable in every library; 
while fcarcely one is to be found in the antient 
language of the country. Amufement was thus 
provided for readers of rank and diftinftion ; 
while the language of the common people re* 
mained ftationary, from the circumftance of its 
being for two hundred years deprived of one of 
the moft powerful means of improvement. Dur- 
ing the whole of this time, the Scoto-Belgic of 
Pehtland, experiencing . no fuch interruption, 
would continue (we may reafonably fuppofe^ in 
a progreflive ftate of improvement, partly from 
the increafe of learning, and partly from the 
extenfion of commerce ; fo that, from the be- 
ginning of the twelfth, to the middle of the 
fourteenth century^ the Scoto-Belgic was proba- 


C xUv ) 

bly a more polifhed langugge thaa that of Sotidi 
Britain. Hence the poem of Barbour's Bruc^ 
but more- particularly the * Fables of Robert 
Henryfon approach nearer to modem language 
than the compofitions of any contemporary Engr 
lifh author : And hence alfo it may be» as ob* 
ferved by Dr. Robertfon, that the letters of fe« 
veral Scottifli Statefmen in the fiKteenth qentury 
are not inferior in elegance, or in purity, to thofe 
of the Englifh miniilers ydth whom they corr^ 
ponded. W. Fatten, Londoner, in the preface 
to his hiflory of the Duke of Somerfet's expedi- 
tion into Scotland 1547, recommending an u* 
nion of the two kingdoms, fays, *^ fepan^te by 
feas, from all other nations, in cuftoms and con- 
ditions little differing, in Jhape and language nor 
thing at ali:^ 

Indeed, the difference between them probably 
never ,was greater than what we find at prefent 
between the dialeifts of Yorkfhire and Devon- 
fliire, or of any two Engliih counties lying at a 
diflance from one another. An intelligent per- 
fon, therefore, who is well acquainted with aU 
moft any one of the provincial dialefts of Eng- 
land, can find no difficulty in underflanding 
what is called the Scottilh language. That which 
all over Britain was the written language of the 
fourteenth century, became the colloquial of 
the fifteenth j while that which was the collo- 

qmal oi the fame century, had doubtlefs been 
the claffical of the thirteenth. For the diale£fc 
which 18 nov called Scottijh^ we are indebted to 
a few writers, of depraved tafte, about the end 
pf the feventeenth, and beginning of the eigh* 
teenth centuries ; who, inftead of contributing^ 
like Drununond of Hawthornden, to the im- 
provement of the written language of their coun- 
try, chofe to pen elegies on pipers, and dying 
fpeeches of hounds and horfes, in the familiar 
dialeds of the meaneft vulgar. If a native poet 
pf Yorkfliire, about the fame period, had adopt- 
ed the like abfurd pra£lice, his compofitions, . 
bating fome flight diflference in the orthography, 
might equally have been termed Scottijh. This 
colloquial dialed of the feventeenth century 
feems to correfpond nearly with the written lan- 
guage o^ Gawin Douglas, ftripped of the words 
which he and one or two contemporaries had 
thought proper to borrow from the French and 
Latim Lifle, in the preface to his '^ Ancient 
Monuments in the Saxon tongue,** fays that he 
improved more in the knowledge of S:iXon by 
ike perufal of Douglases Virgil^ than by that of 
^* all the old Englifh he could find, poetry or 
profe ; divers of which were never yet publifh* 
cd J becaufe it was neerer the Saccon and farther 
|rpm the Norman ,'* — ^w^hich amounts to this, 



that the colloquial words and phrafes ufed hj 
Douglas were pure An^lo-Belgic^ 

The flight difference between Scottifh and 
Englifh, in the pronounciation, and confequent- 
ly, of the orthography, feems not worthy of any 
particular attention. But it is neceflary to re- 
mark, that in many of the antient Scottifh, as 
well as Englifli poems, where the lines in gene^ 
ral contain ten fyllables, the meafure does not^ 
as in modem poetry, depend upon the divifion 
of the lines into a fixed number of feet. In the 
poems alluded to, the number frequently varies ; 
and the fyllables do not follow in order accord- 
ing to the modern rythm of a fhort and a long 
jfyllable alternately, or of a long and two fhort 
repeated The meafure feems rather to be re- 
gulated by the divifion of the time required for 
lecitation of the line, into portions like mufical 
phrafes ; not neceflarily equal in the number of 
fyllables, but requiring an equal period of time 
for their pronunciation. And it appears alfo 
that thefe portions correfpond uniformly with 
what muficians call common time, or four in a 
bar ; each line being adapted either to one or 
two bars. For example, in the firft lines 
of Chaucer^s Canterbury Tales, the rhythm may 
be exhibited in the following manner, (without 
regard to the elevation or depreflion of the 
voice :) 


( Xlvfi ) 

When that A - pril with bis fhoares fote^ 

The dronghte of March hath per-cei to the rote^ 

And ba-thcd ev-ry veine in fwich li- couc, 

Of which ver - tue en - gen - dred is the flour. 



Whan Ze- phi -rus pke with his fote brethe. 

En - fpi - red hath in eve - tj holt arid heath. 


( xlviii ) 

The ten - der crop - pes, and the yoting fonne^ 

Hsith in the ram his balfe eoi^rfe j - ronne^ 

^fc^»— — »My— i^'M'^''— ^»^y««— ^Mp^M* .^BI^i^Bii— — «i.»«.^»«jN»««M»— ».«.^i— «»l«»««»».^»»^,»»^ 

And finale fou-les ina - ken zne - lo - die^ 

That fie - pen all night with o - pen eye. 

So pri - keth hem na - ture in her co-ra-ges. 

«ifc « i ^i 

P*-—- E""^|^ \^ .^,^,^[ZII- { ,„ L i,.■ 

l M III- • 

That Ion - ger folk to gong on pil - gri-ma-g«s. 


*&xe tranflatioD of die iEndd by.Bifhop rkiii- 
gks fe^as to be cerapofed according to the fame 

la\r8 of metre. Take for i 
&tSt lines : 

a few of the 

There vfis an an-cie&t cie-tij hecht Car*tage^ 

(J|uham hjmis of Tyre held iidi « ke • ri « tage» 

In - ^ • mie till I - ta-lie ftand-ing fair ai^d plane^ 

The mouth of lang Ti * ber o * ver for-gan^ 

Mich - tj of no - bil - lis full of fciiletf fere^ 

Vol. IV. And 

( J ) 

And maifl ex - pert of €raf - ty fait of were. 

That thefe, and thoufands of other Irregular' 
lines in the -ZEneid were meant . to be recited as 
modern heroic verfes, appears incredible. Per- 
haps the firft lines ofitenfyllables, which were 
uniformly capable of being read in this mannet, 
appealed in the verflon of the pfalms by Stern- 
hold and Hopkins ; as the 50th, 83d, iioth, 
and 1 24th.'r-And yet, from the mufic with 
whi A diey are' joined, there is room to doubt if 
the verfiff fer had aity fuch intention : For exani- 
ple, that of pfalm 1 1 oth : 

TSe Lord irioft high nti - to iny Lbrd thus fpake. 

^ M Il-l4- 

ou how down, "^"d reft at rby right hand^ 

''' IJn • til that r thine e - ne - mies do make 


.- '\ 

« ,-• ' 



ll 1 

TTii ,1 

A fiool^ to be where - on thj feet maj ftand. 

Had this i^m been intended to be recited in 
tlie manner of heroic verfe, it feems probable 
that the meafure, not to fpeak of alterations ne- 
ceflary in the harmony, would have been regu- 
lated nearly thus : 



The Lord mofl: high on • to my Lord thus fpoke. 


Sit thou opw down, and reft at my right hand. 


Un - till that I thine e - ne - mies do make 


A (tool, to be wh^re . on thy foot mar ftand. 


( »a ) 

The order in txrhich the flow and quick notes 
9re difpofed io the mufic of this {^afan, feems tq 
throw light upon the nature of old Scottifh and 
Ehglifh rhythm ; particularly in thofe poem$ 
which confift chiefly of lines of ten fyllables ; 
ffich as the tranflation of the JEneid by Qawin 
Douglas, Henry's life of Wallace i the greater 
part of the works of Chaucer^ &c. A very flight 
knowledge of mufic will enable the reader to 
perceive the difference between that rhythm and 
the iambic, in which almoft all modern poetry 
is compofed ; and which is exhibited in the a- 
bove variation, not of the fucceffion of the notes, 
but of their accentuation or relative value. The 
rhythm of anticnt poems appears uniformly to 
have been regulated according to that meafure 
which in mufic is called common timei that of 
modern compofitions, by tri^e time. In the 
former, a fliort note is never found fingle, or 
placed between two long ones : In the latter, 
the cafe is precifely the reverfe j the motion of 
the fyllables, in point of uniformity, refembling 
that of a pendulum j while that of the antient 
or Saxon rythm may be faid to refemble the 
beating of a drum, in various or irregular num- 
bers of ftrokes, but in common time. 

The manner of reciting a noted pentameter 
line, according to modem or iambic meafure, 
may be thus exhibited : 


( K» ) 

And ten ihort words oft move in one dull line. 

But, if the fame line had been written by 
Douglas, Chaucer, or Pierce Ploughman, it 
would have been recited by the author proba^ 
l^ly thus : 

And ten fliort words oft move in one dull line. 

Or thus, 


And ten ihort 'v^otds oft move in one dull liue. 

Here the regularity of the antient meafure 
would not have been efientially injured, although 
one or twa more ihort words l^d either been ad- 
ded to, or taken from the line : 

' — "-p — TS — ^ 

And then youUl find ten fhort words 


move in one dull line. 


( l^ ? 

Or, by taking away one fyllable : 


4^nd tep il^ort words move ia one dull line. 

According to this kind of rhythm, I conjec- 
ture that almoftall Englifh poetry antecedent tQ 
the year 1540, ought to be recited ; otherwife, 
the reader will be fhocked perpetually with feera- 
ing irregularities, when in fa^ft there are none ;-^ 
irregularities which he will attempt in vain to 
reftify, by contradtion or divifion of fyllables.— ^ 
That Chaucer, Blind Harry, and Douglas, had 
any plan or intentipn of writing verfes of five 
iambic feet, or a fhort and a long fyllable placed 
alternately, appears as unlikely as that a modern 
mufician fhould compofe a piece of mufic in 
which the bars fhould uniformly confift of five 
crotchets. Tyrwhit, and various other eminent 
critics, have been not a little puzzled in attempt- 
ing, to afcertain what it was that conftituted 
Anglo-Saxon poetry, fihce "we do. not difcover 
in the fpecimens preliervqd by Hickes any very 
itudied attempts at alliteration, nor the embel- 
liftiment of rhyme, nor metre depending on a 


C Iv ) 

fixed and determinate number of fyllables, noj* 
that marked attention to their quantity which 
Hickes fuppofed to have cQnftituted the diftinc- 
tion between verfe and profe." ** To a modern 
reader,** fays Mr Ellis, '' it will certainly ap- 
pear that there is no other criterion but that 
which is noticed by Tyrwhyt, namely, a grcaU 
er pomp of di^ion, and a more Jlately kind of 

march : '^Or a more artificial obfcurity ofjiyle ; 

not fo much for the purpofe of varying the ca- 
dence of their verfe, as with a view to keep the 
attention of their hearers upon the ftretch.'* — «. 
Neither of thefe fuppofitions is fatisfaftory. The 
mechaniftn and fcheme of Anglo-Saxon verfifi- 
Cation feem to depend entirely upon quantity ; 
by which is meant the length of time employed in 
reciting the line ; without any other regard to the 
number of fyllables than that the longeft line 
Ihall not contain more than twice the number of 
the fhortefl correfponding line ; and that both 
the longeft and (horteft fhall be capable of being 
tecited within the fame portion of common 
time ; which portion muft either be one com- 
pleat bar, or two. One of the moft irregular 
paffages in tjie ode on Athelftan*s viftory, A. D- 
938, may be thus exhibited : 


C Ivi ) 

-p , p ~ „ .. 

Swilc thaer eac fe fro - da. 


Mid fleame co - mon , his cyth « the^ 

■• ■>■■■»• aaKl^rtaaKHi^lMMSiBaMMBaKiaMiBMtOTMi^HVB >«■•«« ^iMi 


Notdh Con - ftan - ti - 



^3==F= E 

Har Hil - de rinci 

That iV,— -So there eke the plriidcnt^ 

With flight ca'm6 to his countrjr. 
The Northern Conftantine^ 
The hoary Hilderinc^ 

Nearly alfo in the following manner may have 
been recited by far the moft antient fpecimen of 
Anglo-Saxon poetry. It has been handed down 
to us in King Alfred's tranflation of Bede's hif- 
tory , Book IV. Chap. 34. and appears to have 
been compofed about the year 660. 


( Ivu ) 

Fragment of the genuine CAEDMON ; perhaps near* 
ly the fame language with the Pifto-Belgic. 

r c c U ^" -^TT^ ^E 

Nu we fceo-lon he-ri-gean Heo*fon rices weard^ 

Me - to - des mihte and his mode ge • thank. 


\^corc wul-dor fae-der fwa he wun-dra ge-hwaes. 

Ece drih - ten ord on-fleald he ae - reft fcop. 


Ear - than bear«.num heo « fon to rofe. 

Vol. IV. 



( Iviii ) 


Ha - lig fcip - pend tha mid - dan geard. 


Mon-cjn-nes weard ece Drih - ten aef - ter teode^ 


Fi - rum fol - dan, Frea xl • mih - tig. \ 

Trariflated thusy 

Now fhall we praife the Governour of the heavenly 
kingdom , 

The power of the Creator ^ and render thanks for his 
kindnefs ; 

And for the deeds of the Father of glory ; the Lord 
who wonderfully 

Exifted from the beginning ; he firft of all framed 

The facrcd heavens as a covering to the children of 
the earth : ' 

Then he, the protedor of mankind, Lord eternal, 

^nd God -Almighty, ordained the earth for man's ha- 

In the fame kind of meafure are almofl all the 
popular rhymes '^vhich ftill continue to be re- 


peated by children in their ring-dances ; fuch 


I'm Walie Waftel 
Here in mj cailel, &c. 

I've a chcny, I've a chefs, 
I've a bonny blue glafs, &c. 

generally fung to the notes here placed under the 
Fragment of the genuine Caedmon, Perhaps alfo 
the boafte^ influence of antient Greek mufic 
ought to be afcrlbed to the various modes and 
artful management of this kind of rhythm, rather 
than to' the fiibdivilion of the fcale into half and 
quarter tgnes, or to any fuperior excellence in 
the melody or harmony. 

Thefe obfervations alfo afford a prefumption 
that the popular Scottifh airs in common time, and 
efpecially in this particular kind of rhythm, fuch 
as Hey now the day daws^ ^ohn come kifs me now^ 
arid the Flowers of' the Forest ^ are of higher an- 
tiquity than thofe in treble or minuet time, as 
ril never leave thee^ Waly^ waly^ up the bnnk^ and 
Our auld gudemdn. 

The original words of the firft of ^thefe having 
long been fuppofed to be loft, I was happy to 
find them in a MS. colleftion of poems, chiefly 
by Montgomery, in the College Library of E- 
dinburgh. From its being mentioned by Gawin 
Douglas in 1 5 1 12 as a favourite fong among the 
vulgar, we may fuppofc it to be as old as the 
reign of James the Third : Tradition fays, of 
Kobert the Bruce. 


C hi jf 

fiAT KOW rnz DAY DAt^»* 

■ # iiii r 


ft ■ 

Haj! now the daj dauis. 

r J J j : 



jo • lie cok crauisy 




Now fhrouds 



Throw Na - ture a - none. 








wha Ijisy 


( ^ y 

Now ikail - lis the ikjis. 

The night is neat gone* 

The fciilds ourflouis • 
With gouans that grouisj 
Quhair lilies lyk louis^ 

AIs rid as the rone. 
The turtill that treu is. 
With nots that reneuis, 
Hir hairtie perfeuis. 

The night is neir gone. 

Nou hairtis with hynds 
Cdnforme to thair kjnds ; 
The turffis thair tjnds 

On grund quhais thay grone, 
Kou hurchonis with hairs 
Aj paiBs in pairs, 
Quhilk deulj declairs 

,*^ The night is neir gone. 

The fefone excellls 

Thrugh fueetnes that fmellis, 

Nou Cupid compos 

Our hairts echone. 


i ^ i 


tfa Venus wha vaiks. 
To mufe on our maiks. 
Syne ling for thair faiks, 

The night is neir gonc^ 

All curageous' knichtis 
Aganis the day dichtis. 
The breift-plate that bricht is, ^ 

To feght with thair fonc* 
The ftoned deed ilampis 
Throw curage and' crampis, 
Syne on the land kmpis ;% 

The night is ncit goneii 

The freiks on feildis. 

That wight waponis weildis. 

With fliyriing bricht flieildis, 

As Titan in tfonev 
Stiff fpeirs in reifts,, 
Over curfor's creifts, 
Ar brok on thair breills j' 

The night is lieir' gone. 

60 hard ar thair hittis, 
Some fueyis, fome fittis. 
And fonie perforce flittis 

On grand quhill they gt'one. 
Syn grooms that gay is, 
On blonks that bray-is. 
With fuords affavis. 

The night is neir ?one, 



( l»ii ) 

The Editor has only to add, that, except h^ 
,thofe inftances where a word occurs but once in. 
the courfe, of the work, he has thought it unne- 
ceflary to affix references from the gloflary to 
jhe text. In general, the explanation is fuffi- 
ciently eft;abliflied by the cognate words ; and 
there are in this vqlume many words which do 
Aot occur in the text. The Gloflary now oflfer- 
ed to the public has indeed fome claim to be con- 
.fidered as a Diftionary of the antient language of 
Scotland. It may, at leaft, alleviate the la- 
bour of others. - And if hereafter he fliall have 
difcovered that any remarkable words have ef- 
caped his obfervation, he propofes to fupply fuch 
omifGons in an Appendix, to be delivered gratis 
to thofe who are in poffeffion of the work. In 
all probability, he may, at the fame time, ftnd it 
neceffary to correft fome erroneous explanations. 
That there Ihould be no fuch, in a Gloflary of 
iix thoufand words, is not to be expeded. 




J\, Ae^ one, only; abbreviation of the Sax. one, unus. 
Abady Abade, Bade, delay ^ tarrying; tarried; from 

Teut. hey den, manere. [Goth, heidan, expeftarc] 
Abaitmentisy amufements \ becaufe, fajs Ruddiman, 

thej abate ox mitigate our cares or forrows. 
Abandoun, to bring under fubje&ion, to fuhdue \ quqfi 

y-bandoun from Sax. ge-bindan, Teut. gbe-bandig" 

ben, ligare, domare. [Goth, bandia, vinftus.] 
Abandown, At abaadowdi. At bandown, at random^ at 

liberty ; from Fr. abandon, bandon. 
Abate, Vol. I. 19, event, adventure. 
Abays, Abaw, to abajb, to confound ; alfo to make 

a low abeyfance. Fr. ahaijfer* 
Abee, alone, ^. y-bee, remain in the fame ftate. 
Abit, abide, await. 

Abitis, Ohit% ^ fervice Jor the dead. Lat. 
Abjure, to abfolve. Lat. 

Ablis, Abil, A\Ains, perhaps, if able, q. d. able fo. 
Abone, Abovyn, above. Teut. boven, fupra; quafi^^^- . 

boven, or y-bov^n, 
Abrede, Brade, to publi/b, or fpread abroad*, alfo to 

prefs, drive, 01 force. Sax. abradan^ pjropalare -, ex- 

erere, ft ringer e, avellcre. 
Abftekyli obflaclei 

Ab-Thane, Abthane, up, or upper Thane ; fee Thane. 
Abuly^, Habulye, to drefs', to equipp, or arm. Fr. io- 

Abuljeiment, habiliment^ harnefsy armour. Fr. habi» 


You IV. A Abufion, 

Ab. i^_ Af» 

Abj, to alddiy or fuffer. Teut, heyden ; Dan. bier, ex-- 
peftare, fuftinere ; alfo, to dwell, from Sax. bye, ha- 
_- bitatio ; byan^ habitare. 

Abj, quqfi Y'bjr, to buy. 

Acherfpyre (fpok^n of malt) to /firing at both ends^ 
and thereby, fays Skene, *< to (hute out all the thrift 
and fubftance." According to a Lancaljiire Glofla- 
rj, ackerfprit fignifies ** a potatoe with roots at both 
ends." Teut. achter, poft, retro ; & fprote, ffirit^ 
germen, germinatio. 

Achil for Athil, noble. Sax. aetheL npbilis. 

Actendit, expl. afforded. 

Aftoune, a quilted leathern covering for the body* Q. 
Fr. auqueton. 

Adjutorie, aid. Lat. 

A-dow, Of dow, of worth. Teut. deghe^ viftus, de- 
cus, bonum aliquid. See Dow. 

Adrad, afraid. Siax. adred^ timuit. 

Adred, downright. Fr. adroit. 

Adreich, A-drigh, behind^ at a dijlance behind. Teut. 
traeghy tardus.^ Skinner miftakes the meaning of 
the word, and fo derives it from Sax. drafe^ expulfio. 

AAx^is^ to order ^ to frame. Yx.addrejfer. 

Adreflj, expertly^ with good addrefs. Fr. 

Afald, Efiald, Ane fald, ingenuous, without guile, fingle^. 
minded. * 

Affeir, Effere, Fere, Feir, appearance ^fhew^ equlppment. 
Sax. faergh ; Swed. farg ; Teut. verWe, color. 
Fere or Efiere of weir, Jhew of war. 

Affeir, Effair, affairs, bufinefs; Affeired, bujied. Fr. 

Affeirs, Efferis, Affeiring to, belongs to, relates to, is 
proper^ becomes : from the Fr. offer ant, of the fame 
fignification ; and nearly allied to the. Lat. refert. 
[Goth.y^^rj, utilis, appofitus.] 

Affroitlie, affrightedly. 

Affy, to confide- Fr. 

Afterings, the lajl drawn part of a cow's milk. [Theot. 
afterin, pofteVior.J 


A£ Al. 

A&er-hend, afterwards^ next after. Tcut. athter^ain^ 

After- dap, evil conjequence. [Tent, achterklap^ diffa- 

Knjxm\ AfFerme, tofupport^ to ejiabli/b. Fr. 
Agayne, againjlm Sax. agen. 

Aggrege, to aggravate. Fr. aggreger, 
Aggrife, to affright^ attack. Sax. agrifariy horrcre. 
Agill, Achil, noble. Sax. aetbel. 
Aiglet, tagged point. Fr. efguiltette^ q. d. aculeata; It 

is alfo explained a jewel in one*s cap. Fr. aigrette. 
Aik, oak, A.ckjn, oaken. Sax. ac, quercus. 
Ain^ own. Sax. agen. Goth, aibny proprius. 
Air, early. Sax. aer. Goth, air^ prima luce, prius ; 

whence it alfo fignifies before^ fome time ago. 
Air, heir. 

Air, oar. Sax. ar, Ifl. aar^ remus. 
Air, hairy ufed for a thing of no va;lue. 
Ajrt, point of^e compafs ; perhaps equivalent to ward 

in compofition. Sax. weard^ verfus : Or, from Ir, 

airdy a coaft or quarter. 
Aifement, Ayfyament, Ekfeinent, eafe\ convenience^ ad" 

vantage. Fr. aife. 
Ait, 3aty baten. 
Aizles, Eifles, glowing hot cinders. Teut. afcbe^ cinis. 

Swed. eldy ignis, q. ajh-elds. See Eldini^ 
Alagufi, explained yif/^/«V)«. 
Akyvcyfeld^feld of growing corn. Teut. acker. Goth. 

akrSy ager. 
Alake, aLck^ alas ; according to the Lane. Gloffary, 

a 0* like J all 1 love. 
Alanerlj, Allennarlie, alone, only, exclufively. Teut. 

alleenlick, folum, tantum* 
A lawe, below. 

Alb, white garment, a furplice. Lat. 
Aid, old. Teut. aid, antiquus. 
Alege, to abfolve from allegiance. Fr. aUleger. 
AlgaJe, Algatis, all ways, every way i femper, omnino, 

nihilominus. See Gate. 
Alitc, a little. 


Al. ' Am. 

Alkin, all iind^ every fort, 

AUaris, allies^ confederates. 

Allcmnarlie. See Alanerljr, alone. 

Ailer, elder tree* 

Aller, altogether. Tent, aller^ omnitim ; allerley^ oinf^ 

nigenus. Goth, allts^ bmnino. 
AlUhallows, All faints day* Sax. ealra halgena-maffij 

omnium fanAorum feftum. 
Allow, Lowe, to applaud^ or approve^ Allow, for Howe* 

AMovj'ity praifedf commended. ¥r, allover. Szx. lofian. 

111. lofa^ laudare. 
Almorie, Aumry, cup^loard. Teat, almaris. Fr. ar-^ 

moire y arfnariutn, repofitory of uteniils. 
Almous, Amufs, alms. Teut. & Sax. aehneffe. [Goth* 

armahairtithaj cleemofyna.] 
AJmoufeir, almoner. See Almous* 
Alrifche. See Elrifche, hideous. 
AUryii, explained all in progrefs. Teut. allerhandey cm- 

Alryne feems to mean the top of a turret or hilL 
Als, aSy alfo. Teut. als ^ ficut. 
Alfwyth, inflantly. Sax. fwythy vehementer, whence 

Aluterlie, AUuterly, altogether j utterly ^ wholly. O. Fr. 

Alycht, enlighten. Sax. leohtan, accendere. 
Amaille, Anmaille, quickfilvery or a mixture of quick-* 

filver with fome other metals or femi-metals. 
Ambyfett, hefet^ lay in amhvfh. Sax. ymh^ aboikt. 
Ameis, Ameys, Amefe, mitigate^ or appeafe. Fr. amu-' 

fer ; or, according to Ruddiman, from Fr. emmattr^ 

cohibere, reprimerc. 
'^ Amene, pleafant. Lat. ameenus. 
Amerand, Emerant, green^ tferdant / from the colour 

of the emerald, 
Amerisi Amber^s, embers. 
Amit, admity omit. 
Amorettis, heads of quaking grafs^ or fhakers. Fr. 

According to Mr Ty tier, love-knots or garlands. 
Amorat, enamoured. Fr. 
Ajnlhack, noofe^ fiftening^ Sec Hamfchakel , 


Am.' Ap. 

Amyrale, admiral. Fr. & Belg. from Lat. Barb, a^ 

miralis feu admiralius, 
Amyte, amity ^ friend/hip . Fi. 
An, And, if. Ifl aen^ fi. 
Aname, ^^7/ over the names. 
Ancleth, Hancleth^ ankle. Sax. ancleow^ q. d. aeiru 

ciawu^f talus. 
Aneath, beneath. 

Ane, one, the fame. Sax. an. Goth, aias^ unud. It 
was aUb muck ufed for the article a, and fometimes 
as a verb, /o ^^ at one, to agree. 
Aneljd, incited, excited. Sax. antslan^ incitare. 
Anent, concemingf about. 

Anens, Anenft, 9ver againft ; from Sax* nean, pxope, 
Anerly^ only. 

Angel, a gold coin of los. value. 
Anherd, Annerd, adhere. Fr. aherdre. 
Anker faidel. III. 429. anchorite, hermit. Sax. anceV" 
' fitle, anchorefis. The fame Saxon word alfo figni- 

fies the prow of a fliip, or ihip'5 head, prora. 
Anker ftock, a large loaf made of rye flour ; quali an 
anchorite* s floch^ or fupply for fome length of time ; 
or fo called perhaps from fome fancied refemblance 
to the {lock of an anchor. 
Anlace, dagger. Theot. anela^, anale%e, adlumbare, vcl 

adlaterale telum ; from lez, latus, ad latus, juxta. 
Anter, Aunter, adventure. 
Anterous, AuTittvous^ adventurous, 
Anteteume, Anti*tune, antiphonS, or reponfe, alternate 

Anyng, unions Ifl. ening* 
Anjs, a^es. Fr. 
Anys, Anis, once, one^s. 

A per fe, Lat. ufed for unique^ matchlefs perfon, or 
thing ; cui nihil fimile, like the letter A by itfelfy 
which has the firft place in the Alphabets of moft 
languages, perhaps from its being more eafiljr pro- 
nounced than any other letter. 
Ap^Ljiiffcarcely, hardly, with difficulty. Fr. a-peine. . 
Apirfmart, poignant, frpward, rough* Fr. af^re, and 
S^^.fmeort, cruciatus. 


Ap. ■ As: 

Apert, Irijkyfree^ hold. Fr. 

Aporte, deportment^ conduB. Fr. apporti ^ 

A^pp\e\SfJatisfyy content. 

Appoifit, compo/ed. 

Aragne, ^fpider. Lat. araneai 

Ar, oar* SaXi are Ifl. aar^ remiis. 

Aras, Arrace, to fei^e otfnatch, Fr. arracher^ 

Arayne, arrayed. 

Arblafter* See Aublafter^ crofs-how. 

Arc, Ark, large cheji. Sax. arc. Goth, arhoi 

Areik, to reach to. Sax. areccan^ affequi. 


Argonc, Argue, cenfurey call in quejlion^ quarrel about ^ 

Argh, Airgh, tardy ^ backward^ Jlow. Theot. arg^ 

inutilis, ignavus, timiduj. Teut. traegh^ tardus. 
Arghnels, Archnefs, tardinefs^ backwardnefs. See 

Arit, tilledi Teuti aeren^ arare. 
Aries, Arle-penny, earnejl money. Fr. arres. Belg* 

ar^penning. Swed. arlig^ fincerus* Lat. arrba. 
Armony, harmony. 
Armyn, Armouris, arms. Fr. 
Arnit, Ernyt, earth-nut ^ bulbocaftanum. 
Arfej-verfej, topfy-turvy^ heels over head*. 
Afs, Affis, ajhes. Teut. 
Artailjc, Ar telly e, artillery y 'weapons of offence ; as 

bows and arrows before the invention of cannon. Fr. 

Arts and Jury, Jcholaftic fciences and law. 
Arre, Erre,y^^r, mark left by afore. Dan. err, cicatrix. 
Arred, Erred, cicatrifed. Dan. arred. 
Arreik, to reach to. Sax. areccan. 
Artow, &:rt thou. 
Afk, newt, an animal of the lizard kind. Fr. afca-^ 

labcy flellio. 
Afs, Ais, ojhes. Teut. as vel afchy ciois. 
Affecurat, ajfured. Lat. 
Aflil-trie, axle-tree. Teut. aSy axis. 
Affege, befiegCyftege. 
Affembyl, engage. Affemble, engagement. 


As. . II . Av» 

Aflolj6, AiToiliCy AS6jli6, ahfolve^ acquit. Lat. ahfol^ 

Affoinye, AffoAie, excufe^ ejffoign ; alfo to acquit, ^r* 

Afpjne, Wti^^ixsg^faftning. See Hcfp. 
ASythf/atis/a&ionf tofat'isfy. Gael. ^^^, peace ; or 

rather Sax. ge^fothian^ to footh, 
Aftabil, eftahlijj^ fettle. 

Aftalit, enjlalledyjlatiomd. &^x.JleaU^ ft^US, ilatio. 
Aftarty Aftert, to fprlng Juddenly^ to run away quickly^ 
' to hap. Sax. ajliriarij atnoYcre, commovere. 
A&etSf^ars. Fr. q/lre. Lat. ajlrum. 
Aftity rathevyfooner ; <j. d. as tide^as foon. 
Afioundy ajioniedy afionijbed. Sax. Jiunian^ obtunderc, 
Aftrene. See Aiiftrene, aujiere. 
At, ihat. Dan. &q. v 

Atanis, at once. 

Atchefpn, explained two thjrds of a penny. 
Athe, Aith, oath. Sax. ath. Goth. aitb. 
Athel, Aethil, noblcy illujlrious. Sax. aetl^el^ nobills. 
Athil-men, hoiks. Sax." 
Attaychit, attached^fajiened. Fjr. attache. 
Attamie^ human Jkelet on. O. Teut. atum ^{^ititxxs. 
Attour, Atoure, q. d. put over, beyorid, exceeding -, more-r 

Attyr, Atry, grim^ with a threatening afpeEi. Sax. ater, 

virus, venenum. \aX. ater^v^atrox. 
Attyrcope, malignant per/on^ fpider^ poifonous infeB. 

Sax. attercoppa^ airanca, from Sax. ater^ venenum. 

Teut. ^yter, pus, fanies, & cop^ koppe^ aranea. 
Atys, Aits, oats. Sax. ate, avena, lolium. 
Ava, of all^ at alh 
Avaoce, advance^ promote > 
Avenand, affable^ convenient. Fr. advenant. 
Avenantis, arable perfons. Fr. 
Aver, plough horfe^ bad horfe. Lat. barb, averia, equi ; 

from O. Teut. aver, haverie, bona mobilia. 
Averyle, j^pril. 
Averus, avaricious. Lat. a varus. 


Av. — — — All* 

A^iUouSy AwilloQs^ III. 147. dehaftd, degmerai^^ VVf 

Aumrie. See Almrie, cup^board, 
Avouterie, Advouterie, adultery.. O. Fr. avoutrie. 
Avyfet, he th ought f behaved^ conduced. Avyfement, 
confuhatiqn* Fr. avtfe, from Teut. wii/en, inllruire* 
Aw, to owTiy to be owner of. Sax. agan. Goth, aigan y 

poJOBdere, habere, obtinere. 
Aw, to owe. Ifl. eg aa^ dcbeo. 

Awail, Awall, to fall backward^ or tumble down hUi^ 
Await fheep, one that has fo fallen^ and cannot recover. 

ttfelf, Fr. avaller. 
^wbercheoun, habergeon^ coat of mail, Fr. 
^wblafter, Al blatter, crofs-bowt crofs-bow men* Fr^ 

arbalefier, arbalefle^ arcubalifta. 
Aucht, property^ pojffejjion. Sax, abt. Goth, aigitts ; 

pofleflio, peculium, opes, fubftantia.. 
Audit, owned, appropriated^ poffeffed. See Aw, to be. 

owner of. 
Aucht, ought. 

Aucht, Auchten, eight. Teut. ahtu. Goth, ahta^ o&o. 
Auchtene, eighteen. Auchtfum, about eight. Aucht- 
and, eighth, 
Awent, perhaps Avent, expl. refrejh. 
Awertj, perhaps Averty, experienced. Fr. adverti. 
Auld, old, *reut. aid, aft. 
Awle, hnll. Ifl. haull, aula. 
Aume, Alme, allum, 
Awmon, Hewmon, helmet. 
Awmous, a fur cap. O. Fr. from Teut. mutt. 
Awne, heard of oats, or cnher grain. Goth, ahand^ pa^ 

Aunter, Aventure, adventure, Auntyris, adventures. 
Aunterous, adventurous, \unterin, Aunteryns, j&^r- 
adventurcy by chance, for tuitoufly. Fr. aventure. 
Auncetour, ancefior^ 
Awpes, Whaups, curlews, 
KxixcsX, golden^ polifhed, Lat. - 
Ajv/uin, Avjion\Q,frightfull, horrible. See Ug-fum. 
Auftic^'Auflrie. See Auftrene, auflere. 


Aw. — — . Ba. 

Awftrene, Alftrene, Aftrene, aufiere^ f^^^y Jlern. 

Teut. hals-Jlerrigby obftinataSj duras cervicis. Sax, 
Jlyrn. Lat. aufterus. 
Autane, Hautane, haughty. ¥r. bautain. Goth, baubs, 

Awyni Awin, Qwn, Szx.agen, Goth aighin, aihn, pro- 

Axis, a/ks. 
Axes, Aokf js, ague ; foppofed to originate from Fr. 

acces de fievre i but rather perhaps from the Sax. 

aeie^ dolor ; or, egefis, horror, terror. Goth, agis, 

Ay, ever, 
Ayl-doUj, Eildollic, Oyl-dolie, Vol. Ill, p. 34f,fome 

kind of oil perhaps for curing wounds ? Sax. ele, ole- 

utn, and doigh, yulnus; but this feems very doubtful. 
Aynding, breathing. Aynding ftede, breathing place. 

Dan. aander, to breath. Swed. ande, anhelitus. 
Ayont, beyond. Sax. a-^gbeondy ultra, trans. 
Ayfament, accommodation. Er. aifance. 


Babie, halfpenny ; according to Mr Pinkerton and o- 
thers, corrupted from Fr. has-pieccy which, they fay, 
was the original name of this coin, on account of 
the bafe quality of the billon or metal of which it 
was made. The word is mentioned in Knox's hif- 
tory of the reformation, and appears to be as ancient 
as the time of James the Fifth, when its value wa» 

, three Scott iih pennies. 

Babyis, babes. 

Bad, Baud, offered. Bad him, made htm an offer of^ 
See Bid, to offer. 

Bad, Baud, invited. See Bid, to invite. 

Bad, Baud, commanded^ ordered. See Bid. 

Bade. See Al)|ide, delay. 

Bade, Baid, place of rejidence^ or abode : alfo dwelt, 
quafi byedy from Sax. bye, habitatio ; byan, habir 
Vol. IV, B Badlyng, 

Ba* Ba-. 

B%d\yngy pQvh2L]^s evil diff>o/ed perfon. See Baudling;. 

Badnyftie, perhaps harrennefs, 

Baggit \iOTSy Jlallion ; fo named from Fr. baguette, 

Bagrie, fame as Blaidrie, trajhy trumpery. 

Bag-ftanis, tejl'ides. 

Bailis, Bales^ybrrtpiuj, misfortunes* Sax. healy malum. 

Bailis, Bales, Bale-fyres, now by corruption ^o^^^r^i". 
Dan. haul. Sax. hael & haelfyr, rogus, pyra. In 
0» Engl. Imle-wood fignified wood for making the 

Bain, Bane,.^<3/«^. Sax. ban., 

Baird, bard^ rhimer, poet ; of Celtic origin,, the word 
being found nearly under the fame form, and with 
the fame fignification, in all the various dialects of 
that language ; as alfo, bar^ carmen. 

Bairdis, trappings^ particularly of horfes. See Baird. 

Baith, both. Sax. bathwa. Goth, baiy ambo. 

Baird,. to array ^ or equipp. Bairdyt, drejfed^ caparifon • 
ed. Teut. barderen. Fr. barder^ phalerare, or- 

Bair-man, bankrupty fubftantia omni nudatus. 

Bairne, Barne, Berne, child y, young per Jon. Sax. beam. 
Goth. barUy infans, puer, puella. 

Bairn tyme, the whole children of one woman. Sax.. 
beam-team^, proles. 

'RdXtytofeedytopaJlurc. B^itzndy pa^uring. S^x, batan, 

Bak, Bauk, bat^ vefpertilio. 

Bakller, baker. 111. 

Bakkin, B2i\L''WLcny foUowerSy attendant s . 

Bald, bold. Sax. baldy audax., 

Balen, whale bone, Lat. balena. 

Bzilker, an officer of the cujlomsy or infpeElor at a fea 

Ballingere, Ballyngare, a kind of Jloop or long-boat. 

Ballit, ballad ; the origin uncertain, although fome 
derive it from Lat ballare^ faltare ; between which 
and the Fr. ballit^ there is, however, a manifeft affi- 
nity. See Barly-hreak. 

Balow, Balelow, hrtfh. An ingenious etymologift has 


Bd. m Eft. 

•fancied tbe latter to be Fr. has ! le lovp, boflil 
there's the wolf ! 

£an, to curfty to excommunicate. Sax. ahannan. Swed. 
"ianna, denantiare. 

Band of a hill, tbe top or fummit ; fo called perhaps 
from its hent appearance. 

Banconris, tapejiry covers for tables j bencbes, &c. Fr. 
banquier. As a diminutive^ or rather a variation of 
binksy it alfo fignifies bunkers ^ i. e. bencbes ov feats in 
a window recefs, or in the wall. 

Bandoun^ prifon^ confinement^ bondage, Teut. handy 
banden, Goth, bandios^ vincnla ; bandia, c?.pi\v\is^ 
vindus ; ^i/r^«, vincere, ligare. " To her bandon" 
occurs in Chancer, and is explained bj Junius 
to ber voluntary fervice, as in O. Fr. a fon ban^_ 
don. In a Norman- Saxon ballad publifhcd bj Mr 
Ritfon, ** in hire bandoun/' is expl. at ber com^ 
mand ; but this fpecies of Saxon dialed was proba* 
blj never much known in Scotland. 

Bandfler, binder ^ be wbo binds up tbe corn into Jbeai'cs, 
Teut. [Goth, hanftay horreum.] 

Bane See Boun, ready • 

Baneoure, Banerer, bearer of tbe banner. Teut. hancr^ 
beery dominus prxcipui figni, baro. Belg. hand^ha^ 
nierCy figpum militare. Goth. bandwOy (ignum. 

Bang, fevere blow ; alfo to beat feverely. Sw. batik a^ 
bangiay pulfare. Teut. bengbeleny luflibus caedere. 
Goth. banioSy plagas. 

Bangfter, Y^zngi^tiy ferocious quarrelfome fellowy from 

BannoWy Bannock, a tbinnifb loaf of a circular form-; 
commonly made of barley- meal. I eut. boL Swed. 
builds panis rotundus ; & nauw, reftridus, parcu?, 
fordidus, q. bol-naw. Gael, bonnach. 

Banrent, Banneret, a knigbt or cbief wbo in war was 
entitled to difplay bis arms on €i " banner'*'* or dif 
tinguifbing flag in tbe King's army, 'llic ceremony 
of his creation took place commonly in the field un- 
der the royal rtandard. 

Barbulye, to diflraBy to perplex, Fr, barbouiller. 

Bardis. See Bairdis^ trappings. 


fia. " fia* 

fiargane^ a wrangling or conteffding, a Jkirmijb or hat* 

Bargane, to wrangle ^ to quarrel, ox fight. ^ 

Barganerisy wranglers, combatants, fighters. Fr. fer- 
guigner, licitari ; where the Latin word correfponds 
better than the French with the Scotti02 bargane. 
Teut, balghen, altercari, decertare, confligere ; or, it 
may have the fame origin with Wrangle or Argohe, 
See alfo Barrat. 

Barla-fummily Barly-fa% an exclamation for a truce by 
one who has fallen down in wreftling or plaj ; ac- 
cording to Ruddiman, from Fr, parley, and whom" 
mil, (whelm,") in the Aberdeenihire dialed, fommiU 
Montgomery, in one of his unpubliihed poems, fays 
to his miflrefs, " then harla^cheis, or barla-chois 
advyfe ;" that is, as it would feem from the con- 
text, then confider whether you will keep me cha* 
cing after you, or at once declare me the obje& of 
your choice. This tends^ in fome degree, to confirm 
Ruddiman's conjefture, but is not fatisfadory. It 
is not unlikely that the meaning of barly in this 
and in the following article may be the fame^ what* 
ever be the derivation. 

Barly-brake, Barli-break, explained a ring dance, cho- 
rus circular is. If this definition be cor reft, the ori- 
gin muil be different from that fuggefted by Ruddi-' 
man in the pieceding article ; at leafl^, no analogy 
feems dlfcoverable. Perhaps it inay be found in the 
Celt, bar, carmen, and lay or leod, populus, vul<« 
gus : break lazj be fynonimous v/ith fireak. 

Barmekyn, Barmkyn, Bermkin, the outer mq/i fortifi" 
cation of a cafile. Teut. barm, agger, coacervatio 
lapidum aut terrae ; 3c kina, fiiTura, a rude wall fur<» 
nifhed with apertures. This feems alfo to have 
been the original, although not the modern fignifica- 
tion of the Fr. harbacane. See Barraifs. 

Barm-hors, probably a horfe for carrying out dung to 
the field ; vulgarly a muck-horfe. Teut. barme, (xx^ 

Barn age, Barne, baronage, inhabitants cf a barony, vafi' 
fals qf a baron, from Teut. bar, fupcrior, domini9^| 


berus. Barcm; or Baronrj is ftill ufed in the fame 
Barraifs, Barris, Barrace, litnitSy bounds^ barrier^ fpace 
of ground where combatants were inclofed. O. Fr* 
harra. Teut. barre^ feptum, repagulum > barren^ 
iocludere, nearly allied to Barmekjn or Barnkjn. 
Barraty trouble^ farrow. Ifl. barratOy lis, contrntio, 
. which fome have fuppofed to be alfo the origin of 
Sc. barganey tvrangle, 
Bartane« Britain. Bartanye, Bretagne. 
Baik. See Hafk, dry and rough to the tajle. Teut. 
Bafiyn-raipy rope made of prepared rujhesy or coarfe 

hemp. Teut, biefe^ or biendfe^ juncus, fcirpus. 
BaiTynit, Bafnyt; helmet. Fr, baffinct^ galea, 
BaiTnjty (cow,) white faced ; from O. Eng. baufyny a 

Bafte, to heat. See BaAon. 
Bafton, hatoHy fiaff^ Teut. hafi. Sax. bat. Ifl. &c« ^ir* 

Batable, Baitable, dehateable^ of which the property is 
doubtfuly or liable to be^ contended for. Fr. batable, 
pugnabilis. Teut. battin^ batuere. 
Batch, crewy company. Fr. bauche, a layer or courfe of 

flones for building. 
Bate, boat. Bate-war<J> boat^many boat-keeper. 
Battle, Bawty^ name commonly given to a dog. [Theot. 

bandty canis paftoralis, vinculis affuttus.] 
Battie-bun^mel^ Boraracl-bautie,y?fw/)/(?/o;7, booby. Here 
is a notable fund of etymological amufemeut. imo. 
it may be called an alliterative corruption or aug- 
mentation of the Teut. botmuyly homo flolidus, from 
hoty hebes, and «rfy//, mulus. ido. it maybe derived 
/from the fame Teut. bot^ and hommehy fucu?, q^^fu- 
^ pid drone. "3tio. As Blaitie-bum occurs in the fame 
fenfe, the derivation may be frpm J eut. hlaity vani- 
loquus, bardus, gloriofus, and bomnie, tympanum, q. 
empty boajler. Laftly, from the Fr. bat^ and Teut. 
ioomm^wolly cotton, q. bag of cotton. 
Battayle, battUy war ; divifion of an army ; clofe by 
•&ne another y like men in order of battle. Ttnt. batalie, 

certamen $ 

tertamen ; batualia, esercitationes gladiatomiDy tel 

mill turn. Theot. hattin, ferire, percuterc. 
Battellit, emhattiedy furrounded with battlements. Bat* 

tailing, battlement. See Battajle. 
Batts, BottSy cbolic, Teut* 
Bauburd, larboard. Fr. bajhord^ left fide. The fame 

word is alfo explained whore. 
Bauchy "^TiM^y feeble yfiUy^ fiat. Teut. (contemptuouf- 

Ij,) balghy puer. 
Baudlingy Badling, mean perfon^ boor. Theot. baudelingy 

cafarins ; hodely cafa, aedicula. 
Baugie, badge. 
Bawdekyn, bodkin. 
Bawdekin^ a fort of rich cloth or tapefiry. Teut. balda^ 

iiny te£tum pretiofum fuper menfas, &c. 
Bawdreik, a pendant necklace, 
Bauk,^^7r, bar^f mall beam, Tetit. balh^ trabs. 
Bajne, explained a fort of fur \ perhaps from Teut. 

baeyj levidcnfa. 
Bazedy Bumbazed, confounded. Teut. baefen^ delirare, 

oberrare, vagari. 
Be, by. Sax. 
Becht, tyedyfajlenedy as with a withy, or band of twigs; 

from Teut. bteghenj fledlere. 
Be-coft, coj}. Be-djit, dyed, Be-dettit, indebted. Sec, 
BedeSy heads, fpherulae prsecatorise. Sec the manner of 

ufing beads in prayer. Vol. III. p. 242. 
Bedes-man, Beid-man, devotee, interceffor, one whojk 

duty it is to pray for his benefaBor ; from Sax..^/- 

dan, Teut. bidden, Dan. beder, orare. Teut. bedeler, 

Bedelvyt, Bedel vyn, delved, digged, buried. See Delf. 
Bedene, immediately, in a Jhort time ; quafi, by then, 

from Teut. dan, Goth, than, tunc. 
Bedcwit, due, owing, or owed, indebted. 
Bedovyne,, Bedoyf, befmeared, Belg, be-dauwen, to be* 

dew or fprinkle. 
Bedler, Beddyl, beadle, meffenger or officer belonging to 

a court of law, or college, 
Bedrel, bed-rid, O, Teut. beUbred, ledhus moribundi. 
Beevit, perhaps erroneoufly for Beerit, born. 


Be. II Bci 

Bees, fanciful conceptions ; in the fame waj as the 
Swedes ufe worm ; wurmaktigy whimficaly haviog a 

wotm In the he^d. See Bazed. 
Beildy Beld, image, model. Sax. bilitb, Teut. beeld, i« 

magOy ilatua, exemplum. 
Beildy Beld, Jhelter^ refuge ; quafi bebeiledy covered o- 

ver ; from Teut. bekn, celare, velare ; bebeletey in- 

Beforn, before, 

Beft, q. be-offedy put off, beat off. 
Be-gaik, beguile. Teut. be^ghecbeUy detidere, liidibrio 

Begarit, lacedyfreahedy Jlriped. Teat, be-gaeden^ ador« 

nare, decofare. 
Begger-bolts, a fort of darts or mifJiU weapons. The 

word is ufed by James Vi. in his Battle of Lepanto^ 

to denote the weapons of the forceats^ or gallej 

Be-gouth, Be-goude, began. Teut. be-ghinneny inci- 

Be-gruttin, drowned in tears. See Greit, 
Behecht, Behete, corruptedlj Beheift, promifi^ permif 

Jion. Sax. hatany promittere, permittere. 
Beik, to bajk in the funy or before the fire. Teut. baec-' 

kereny excalefacere, apricari. 
Bein, Bene, comfortabUy in good circumfiances ; origi- 
nally perhaps well Ibdgedy from Sax. byey habitatio. 
Beinge, to becky to bow. Teut. biegeny geniculare. 
Beir, Bere, to brayy bavilyfnorty neigh. Teut. berai^ fe- 

rociter clamare, more urforum. 
Beir thy Bjrthe, bur deny incumbrance y charge. Dan. 

byrdcy bjrth. Swed. boerdoy onus. Goth, bairany 

portare, ferre. 
Beiftyn, the firfl milk of a cow after calving. Teut.. 

biefiy biefi-melchy coloftrum. 
Beit, Bete, to belpy fupplyy increafe. Sax. betan^ Teut. 

betereny tneliorare, emendare. it alfo occurs in the 

fenfe of abate. 
Bekk, Beak, to curtfey. Teut. biegen, in curvare, flee- 

tere, fledti ; bocheny inclinarc &. 


Be. ■ I Be. 

Belch, explained monfter ; perhaps the fame with Elf. 

Beld, /bi/^/6/, contended^ See Bell ; alfo barked, Teut. 
hellen^ latrare. 

Beld, bald. Teut, 

Bele, See Bale,j4jOT^, 

Be lenes, leans or keeps to a Jide* 

Bell, to fight, Teut, belghen, Lat. belloy tellan, fight- 

Bellical, warlike. 

Belling tjme, pairing time^ the feafon when animals de^ 
fire to couple. According to Ruddiraan, frona Fr, 
beliery a ram ; q. ram?ning time, 

Beltjne, Beltane, May day^ (or in fome parts of the 
country the 2d of May,} which in former times was 
celebrated as a feflival over a great part of weftein 
Europe. Charlemagne, when he impofed new 
names upon the months, called May wonne-maend^ 
menfis amoenitati? & gaudii. If the word Beltyne 
be of Teutonic origin, it feems to have nearly the 
fame fignification ; from Teut, baelen. Dan. bteleTy 
or beyler, Swed. bala^ amare, operam dare amori, 
fcortari. Teut hoel^ amafius, amafia; boelfchap^ a- 
mor ; — & t'tin for tiid^ tempus, as it is not uncom- 
monly written in fome of the northern diale&s.— ^ 
Thofe, on the other hand, who conceive the word 
to be originally Gaelic or Celtic, derive it from 
Baal or Bdinus^ the Sun, in honour of whom the 
Druids are faid to have celebrated a feflival on the 
iirft of May ; and Gael, tien^ fire, i, e. the fires of 
Baal, In this language, however, the word feems 
to be occafionally written BeuUtighn^ which, it is 
faid, could not have happened if the latter part of it 
iignified "lire." In the fame tongue a more probable 
derivation might be found perhaps in beolus^ vegeta- 
tion ; or hilliogy the leaf of a tree, and tighin^ com- 
ing J or tine for tiwy time. On the firft of May, 
fays Bourne in his *« Popular Antiquities," the juve- 
ajje part of both fexes were wont to rife a little af- 
ter midnight and walk Co fome neighbouring wood, 
/ where they broke down branches from the trees, 
and adorned them with nofegays and crowns of 



Be. Be. 

flowers. When this was done, thej returned with 
their booty about the rifing of the fun, and made 
their doors and windows to triumph in the flowery 
fpoil. The after part of the day was chiefly fpent 
in dancing round a May-pole, which being placed 
in a convenient part of the village, flood there, as it 
were, confecrated to the Goddefs of Flowers with- 
out the lead violation oflfered it, in the whole circle 
of the year. This afage, fays Borlafe in his account 
of Comwal, is nothing more than a gratuktion of 
the fpring feafon ; and every houfe exhibited a pro- 
per fignal of its approach, to teftify their univerfal 
joy at tbt revival of vegetationJ^ Schilterus in his 
Gloflarium Teutonicum, under the article Betlid^ 
fumifbes an etymology of this difficult word coiifi- 
deraUy diflPerent from any of thefe, and by no means 
unlikely to be the true one. EEe does not mention 
where Betlid is to be found, but informs us that in 
an authentic account de Epifcoporum exfequiis, 
(Ann. 8 1 6,) the following expreffion occurs, ** & 
XXX. diebus, canonicis horis, expleto fynaxeos & fep« 
tern beltidufHy Pater nofter pro eo cantetur, &c."— 
Schilterus here produces good reafons for rendering 
heltidum^ pfalmorum \ and fuppofes the word to 
have been originally het-lidum or bet lied y fiomTheot. 
het or bede^ preces, £c liedy cantio, q. petitionary 
fonga. (Jlius far Shilterus.) Now, Beltane^ or as 
our celebrsCted antiquary would make it, Betlied time, 
co-incides almoft exaftly with Rogation week or 
Crofs week, when fupplications were made with great 
folemnity for the bleffing of God upon the fruits 
of the earth ; &c in facris sedibus non iimul et unam 
melodiam, fed fingulse fingulam per choros. fepara* 
tim canunt ; et quamcunque fuavius cantare facer- 
dotes cognofcunt, illi ex veteri more aliquot vini 
conchos dari adjudicant. (y. Boemus Aubanus^ p. 
269.) The beginning of May being thus fo parti- 
cularly dtftinguKhed by public exhibitions of fing- 
ing, (chiefly pfalms or petitionary hymns, we may 
prefume, from the nature of the feitival, and the 
fuperintendency of the priefis,) it feems not ^mpro- 
VoL. IV. C bable 

Be. Be^ 

babk th'at the name of Prayer^Jinging-time^ in Tellt^ 
Bet-lied- tide, bj abbreviation Belt-ttdy might be gi- 
ven to thofe three days which Qame afteirwards to. 
be called in Scotland Beltane, See Taanles. 

Kellomy, Bellaraie, expl. boon companion, Fr. 

BtUy-blind, the name of a childifli fport, other wife 
called bide and Jeek, Probably the firft part of the 
word may have undergone fome corruption* 

Belyve, Blive,. Z'j/ and by^ in procefs of time. Norm. 
Sax. bi/ive^ protinus. 

I^emcs, Bemys, trumpets, Benjyng, rejounding ; from 
Sax. beaniy tuba* 

Ben, inn^r apartment ^ q. be-in^ Teut. binnan^ intus ; 
binnen-kamer^ locus fecretior in penetralibus domus. 
The fpeaker or objeft of difcourfe, fuppofed to be 
in the kitchen or fome other outward apartment. 

Pendis, bands, ribbands, Jillets. Teut. band^ ligamen- 
tum. Goth, handif vinculum. 

Benk, Bynk, bench, /eat. Teut. band. Dan. benc^, 
fcamnum ; whence banquet^ — " vetus mos Fjjapco- 
rum> remota menfa, in fcamnis inebriari.'' 

Benfel, bang^ to bang, or beat. Teut. benghelen^ fuflir 

Bennyfoun, Benefon, benedi&ion, blejjing. Fr. benijfon. 

Benfhie, explained tatry'^s, wife. [Theot. ben%, diabo- 
lus, from bann^ bannitus, excommunicatus.] 

Bent, a kind of coarfe grafs, afield covered with coarje 
grafs, barren upland incapable of improvement. Teut. 
^/V;/^, juncus, fcirpus. ^icnt June us a jungendo, ita 
biendfe a binden, Ugare. 

Berber, barberry. Lat. berberis. 

Bere. See Beir, violent outcry ; alfo ufed as a veijb, 
Betand, crying aloud. 

Bergane. See Bargane,^^^^. 

Berhedis, explained bears heads ; and bare heads. 

Berial, Beile, Beryel, the beryl fione^ ovfhining like tl^ 

Per rand. See Bir, whizzing y or whirring noife. 

Bertane, Bartane, Brettane, Britain. 

Beith, explained vigour. [Ifl. & Swed. baerde, ra^^-} 
See Bir. 


Be. ■ Bi. 

Bertre^ q. Bere-tre, i/Vr. Tcut. baere, ferctnim. 
Berun, blood^berun^ i. e. blood-Jbot ; from Theot. be^ 

ren^ exhibere ; birin^ parit ; or bernen^ inflammare. 
Befandis, by%ants, 

Befeik, befeecb, Tcut. ver-faekeUy folicitare. 
Be-fene, adorned. Wdl l>e-fene,yrt/> to tbejigbt. 
BefenCy bufy, occupied^ aBive. Fr. befongne^ bufincfs. 
Befmottrit, be-fpatteredl Sax. befmytan^ macula re. 

Goth, bufmait^ unxit. ' 

Befyne, Bjfene> Bjfim, wbore^ baud. Teut. baejinne^ 

•Betacht, Betaught, delivered^ commit tedy recommended. 

Sax. be-taecatis tradere. 
Bethleris. See Bfeidlers, beadles ^ mejfengers. 
Betrayfit, Bctrefyt, betrayed. Betryfs, betrays. 
BetrumpCy to deceive. Teut. trompen^ fallere \ trompCy 

crembalutn, a thing of no value. 
Bevel, tojlantoffin hewing % from Teut. beughel^ cur- 

vatura ; beughelen^ arcuare. 
Beverand,^/ii/«^, nodding. Teut. beven^ contremere. 
Bench, Bew, bough. Beuchit, Bewit, having boughs or 

branches ; alfo bowed^ crooked. Tcut. 
Seuk, book. Teut. boeck^ liber. 
Beuk, did bake, Teut. 
Bew, good. Fr. beau. 
Be wafiyt, Be-waiffit, Be- wavy t, driven by^ or on tie 

waves ; toj/ed about ; from Teut. be^weghen, com- 

movere ; waeghe, fludlus. 
Be- went, by-gsne, by~pajl. See Wend. 
Be-wit, known. Teut. wittighen^ fignificare, prscnua- 

-fie-wry, furroundedy wreathed about 4 q. be-^wreatbed ; 

alfo to pervert or dtjlort. 
Bid, to offer. Teut. bieden^ offerre, prsebere. 
Bid, to invite y to command. Teut. bidden. Goth. hidlaUy 

rogare, precari, poftulare. 
&d, Boot^mw^, ought ; q. besought. 
Bide, to dwelly to abide ; from TeiK. beyde, manere. 
Big, barley. Dan. byg^ hordeum. 
Big, to build. Sax. bicgan. Dan. bygger^ condere. £!g« 

gyns, buildings. Goth, bauan^ xdificafc. 

Si. «.— ^ Bi. 

Big, large^ chiefly in refpeft of height. [Fris. haeg, al- 

ttts ; q. buh9gJ\ 
Bigljr, l^g^f bulky ; from Big. 
Biggonet, linen cap^ mutch, bonnet ; dimin. of O. Eng. 

biggin, from Fr. beguin, velum capitis. 
Bikker, wooden dj/b. Daa. begere. Tcut. beker^ pocu- 

lum. Matth. x. 42. 
Bilge, Bulge, gibbqfity, tiefwelled or protuberant part. 

Sax. bolged, tumidus. 
Billity billed y " braid billit ax/' ii;c« wfV/t a broad 

face ; from Sax. biUe^ roftrum, promufcida, acifcu- 

lum ; or, according, to Ruddimao, Jbod with iron, 

from Sax. bill, chaljbs^ arma. 
Bink. See Benck^ bench, feat of judgment. 
Bingy Binne, a temporary inclofure or repqfitory made 

of boards, twigs, or Araw ropes for containing grain, 

orfuch Hie. Teut; oenne, qiiafi aende yel binde. Sax. 

binne, prsefepe. Dan. bing, cumera , all from Goth. 

bindan^ ligare. 
Birr, Beir, noife made by the flight of birds or of an 

arrow. BiTTznAffying fwifily with a noife ; ex fono 

Bird, damfel, bride. Sax. ^ri^i^, pullus ; bryd, fponfa. 

Goth, bruths, nurus. 
Birk, birch. Teut. berck, betula. 
Birle, to drink heartily^ to carroufe^ to expend in drini-- 

*f^g > perhaps from Sax. birlian, haurire. 
Birn, to burn, tojhine. Goth, brinnan, ardere. 
Birn, a burnt mark. 
Birns, theflalks of half burnt heather. 
Bimeift, hurnifhed, polifhed, f craped. Fr. 
Birnye, Byrnic, corjlet, habergeon. O. Fr. brugne, brU" 

nie, thorax, lorica. It may alfo fignify a helmet, from 

Sax. brynn, galea. 
Birfle, to parch, to harden by heat. Fr. hrujler. 
Birfys, brifles. Birffand, triftling up. Birffie, brijlly. 

Dan. byrfl^ feta. 
Birth. See Beirth, burden. 
Bifm, Byifm, ahyfs, deep pit. Fr. abyfme. 
Bifmyng, Byifming, expl. guzzler, fot. 
Bifmyre, Bjfmere, expl. bawd ; q. blijffomer or blyth" 

, fimer, 


fumer^ catallens. To go a bliflbmiag, Gatulnr, (7** 
mus.^ Sax. hSthfiam^ Isuriy gaudere. Id. hSudm^ 
blaodides ; or coime&ed perhaps with Teat, hoe/immep 
arnica. Ruddiman offers Sax. bufmer^ cootomciia ; 

& bi'fmeriany pollnere. 
Bittii, hettle. 
Bky blue^ of a colour between blmck amd blme^ livid. Teut. 

blauw. Theot. blae^ cxfiu.^ lividus. 
Bla, Blaucfaty tiMut. Teut. bleycb, pallidns ; from bley^ 

Black-maily filack-monej, Blapk-rents, fum of money 
paid annually to a perfon of name and power allied 

with mofs^troQpers or robbers, for proteiHon. Sec 

Bladder, Blather, io fpeak inarticulately, to Jlammer. 

Teut. blaeteren, blaterare. 
Blain, mark left by a pujlule* Sax. blegene. 
Blairand, roaring, crying, Teut. blaeren, raugire. 
^h.\t^ Jbame-facedy bajhful. Teut. ^/ia«^. blax. 
Blaitie-bum. See Baitie*bummel,^i»/»i^/o». 
Blan, ceafed, or bas ceafed* See Blin, to ceafe, 
Blancharty Blanch jt, wbite, bleacbed Theot. bleichen^ 

Blandit, blended* 

Blafterand, blujlering, Teut. blaefcnt, flare. 
Blaw, to blow. Blawn, blown. Sax. blawan, flare. 
Bl^y Blie, colour^ complexion. Sax. bleob^ color. 
Bledochy butter^milk. Gael. 
TSitit^t, fuffufed witb tears. See Blairand, crying. 
Bleis, Bljfe, blaze. Sax. blafe, {ax. Theot. blafma^ 

Blenty Blenkty viewed, glanced^ (uno obtutu) \ fbont. . 

Teut. blinten, fplendere. Theot. blicb fiure^ ignin, 

BHd, BljD, to ceafe. Bljotf ceafed. Sax. blinnan, «efla- 

re ; alfo blind. 
Blinky a ligbt or fbining of jbort duration, IWttt. ftff 

Blithe. See Bljthe* cbearfuU 
BkMk, mifcUriaus contrr»ance^ HI turn* Tmt^ hhmgi, 


EI. — .i^-. Bdw 

JKonk, tx^l^lncijteed. 

Blouty nakedy deferted, Belg. ^/oo/. Theot. i/oJ^, nudus; 
Blude, Blod^ bloody kindred. GrOth. Moth^ fanguis. 
Slunkety pale blue ; perhs^s 2lx\j faint or faded cohur \ 

quafi blanched. 
Blunkit, Blinkyt, injured by mif management y or hyfottie 

mifchie'bous contrivance. See Lirnkyt^ 
Bljth, Blithe, Bleith, cbearful^ merry. Sax. blekhr. 

Teut. bliidey laetusi, hilaris. Ifid. blidbnijjfa. Goth. 

bleitbsy mifericors, delicise. 
Bol, Boal, little amorie or clofet. 
Bode, offer from a buyer to a feller ^ tender. Teut, heo^ 

dan^ of]ferre. See Bud. 
Bodin. See Bowdin, ^row//e^/. 
Bodle, fixth part of a penny Englijh i fo called from 

Bothwel, the mint-mafter. 
Bodum, bottom. Teut. bodem, fandutn, fundus. 
Bod-word, Boid-worde, Bodwart, f^effage. Sax. & 

Belg. bode. Swed. huy nuncius. 
Sodjy (contemptuoufly or familiarly,) perfon. Teut. 

hede, famulus,, famula. 
Bodyis, Boddice, a woman's eorfet. 
Bogiiy apparition.. Tent, bokene. Dsin.Jpoegily {peSirntOy 

phantafma, larva. Matth. xiv. 26. According to 

Ruddiman, from Fr. gobeline. 
Bois. See Bofs, hollow. 
Boift, Boaft, to threateUy to fright en with metiacing words 

or gejlure. [Sax. beotian, minare.} 
Boit, b&aty butt or cajk* 

Bok, Bowk, to reatchy to belch ^ Sax. bealcan^ ru6lare. 
Boldynit, Boulnyt, Bowdenit, fwelledy tumid. Boldy- 

iiTindy /welling. 'RolnySy fwelU. Teut. bolghe^ flud- 

tus mariS) unda. Dan. bulnery to fwellv 
Bolme, poky beam. Belg. boom^ arbor. 
Bolnyt.. See Boldynit, tumid. 
Bone, boony gifty grant.. Sax. 
Bonk, bauk. 
Bony, pretty y handfomcy beautiful ; may perhaps havi 

fome affinity with Swed. honay recolere ; & Dan. hO' 

ner^ to make clean ; or Teut. boelinney arnica,' amar 

fia, q. boelnighy amabilis. See Bowdin. 


Bo. P Bq« 

Borch, Boigh, Borrow, fecurityy baii^ p^^^g^^ pawju 
Teut. borgbe, fidejuffor, compromifTor. Theot, borg^ 
horgen, fidem habere, fidem dare. 
Bprdeil, brotbeL Teut. bordeely proftibulum. 
Bq^ Bofs, Boifs, bollow^ Teut, buyfe^ fidula, tubus* 
Boffis, large leatbern bottles, O. Fr. bouts. 
Boft. See Boifl, tQ threaten, 

B©t, Botand, but^ without^ except. Teut. moreo'oer* y 
Bpte. See Qute^ cprnpenfatioriy amerciament. 
Botlefsy Buteles, what cannot be remedied^ unavailing^ 
Botinjs, bujkins. Fr. botine^ cothurnus. 
l&owy yoie. Teut. 

Bow of ky, a fold of cows. See Boucht. 
Bowbert, idle^ lai^ie ; alfo dajlard^ coward^ drone ^ 

Teut. bollaerdy homo futilis, fabulator. 
Boucht, Bught, foldy fmali Jheep-fold. Teut. bucht^ 
hochty feptum^ aryum inclufum. It is alfo ufed as a 
3owdin, Bodin, Bowjrn, 'RoxiViy furni/bed^ provided^ ar^ 
rnyedy equipped^ armed. Teut. boedel^ hoel^ fupelleXn 
dos, facultates. Boun as a diftindt word, according 
to I^uddiman, from Sax. ahundeuy expeditus; and thisi 
fram hindan^ ligare. See Boun. 
QouHis, bodies^ carcafes. Boukit, bulky ; from Teut, 

baycky venter. 
Bow-kail, cabbage ,* fj. boUkail ; from Teut. bol^ 

Boukein, a wajhing ofi^loathes. Theot. huchen^ lavare ; 

boockeny tudere, pulfare, batuere, 
]^oun, goings moving £ q. bowings now bending^ . Whir 
ther are you boun ? Whither are you bowing or bend^ 
ing your way ? See Bowdin. 
Bqunit, tended^ went, Fr. bondir^ to bounds to move 
quickly \ perhaps allied to Sax. fundan^ adire. See 
Found. Ruddiman refers it to ^^^. abundvn & bin- 
dan, ligai'e ; and fo explains it prepared, arrayed. 
Bountith, extra wages or compenfation^ what is given 
. . from " bounty^'* befdes what is due by contraB. 
Bout, retired apartment. Teut. buer^ cafa, tugurium* 
Sax- bure, Dan. buur. conclave. 


Bo. ■ ■ Br. 


Boniik, a /mall Bower, or but. See Bour. Bourach U 

elfewhere explained clo/e together, in a heap, ring, or 

Bourd, Borde, jV/?, mod, Tcut. boerde, jocus, fcomtna* 
Boufey to drink plentifully. Teut. buy/en, poculis in- 

Bowftowre, explained an inJlrumeM of war. 
Bowfunii pliant, yielding, accommodating, hearty, biytb. 

Sax. boufum, traftabilis, flexibilis \ hoc a bugan, 

Bowj, Bowie, tub, 

Bowt, bolt, arrow, Teut. bout, fagitta capitata. 
Bowtjt, bolted, firang, darted. 
Boy is, wood, Teut. bofchy filva. 
Boytour, expl. bittern. 
Bra, Brae, Bray, Jide of a hill, declivity, Teut. bergh, 

mons. Ruddiman hefitates between Sax. bracdn, 

conterere ; and Fr. braye^ un faufje braye, voce caf- 

trenfe, qua fuccin£lum valli fignificatur. 
Brade, Braid, broad, patent, intelligible^ Goth, braid. 

See Abrade. 
Brade, Braide, to brod or brog, to force, drvoe,impell^ to 

produce or occafion a fudden motion ; to fart. Hence 

it has been expl. to affault, to awake. Scand. brod, a 

iharp point. Sax, a-hradan, exerere. 
Brades, refembles, appears like -, from Swed. brae, indo-* 

lem vel formam gerere. 
Brag- wort, mead, a beverage made from the dregs of ho* 

ney, Wei. bragod, 
'Ri^iT^,f rji fpr outing of corn. Sax. brord, frumentum 

Braik, brag. 
BraithfuU, violt?it, Jharp, wrathful-, from Id, baerde, 

Braithlie, Braitbfully, wrathfully. 
Brak, Brake, brakkijh,falt, Teut* brack, falfus. 
Brand, yii;or^. 
Brander, Brandreth, gridiron, Teut. brander, brand-- 

roede, fulcrum focariuro. 
Brandevyn, brandy, Teut. brandwiin^ vinum caufticuai} 

vel ardens. 


Bt. — ~. Br. 


Brane-wody wood for burning. Tent, herm-homt, hrtm*^ 

houtf lignum ioflammabile. [Dan. hraemde^tor/y turf 

for fiid.] 
Brane-wod, hrtin^mad. See Wod, mad. 
Bran newyjire new, fuUg new (according to H. Tooke,) 

as from the fire. Tent. hrand^mUw^ recens ab offi- 

cina ; or radier from Tent, hramwe^ oomptos, bdluSy 

omatus \ q. hrano-new. 
Brangillisy hraMdi/bts^jHLkes* Fr. hranler, vibrare. 
Brangilly Brangle^ to wrangU, to contend, or quarrel ; 

feems to be onlj a variation oivr angle, wrangle^thc 

lormer being ftiU a common manner of pronooncia- 

tion. [Fris. wranten, wrantlen, muf&tare, litigarc. 

Teut. hrahhelen^ rixari, altercari.] 
Blank, to drefs g^jljy to heded. Teat, pronchen, ador- 

nare, oftentare fe ; hraggheren, lenocinii« fuperbire ; 

braggaerd, homo boUatnSy elegans. 
Branks, a rude kind of bridle %vithout bitts. [Gael, bran^ 

gasy a halter.} 
BraferiSy bracers, bracelets, bandages, Fr. emhraffir. 
Bratchet, V^TZtch2xt,Jilly^ripling. Teut. broedfel, pul- 

lus ; or q. vretcbet, little wretch. 

BrattiSy rags, poor apparel. Sax. bratt, pannicolus. 
Brattle, noife,fucb as tbat wbicb is made by a borfecan* 

tering ; alfo ufed as a verb. 
Brawy gay, bedizened. Teut. brauwe, omatus, bellus. 

Hence it is ufed to fignifj, excellent, or excellently. 
Brecham, Brejghim, borfe collar ; maj have origmat* 

ed from Teut. bergben, fervare, falvare^ tueri. The 

Gael, braigbdean, is probablj alfo borrowed from it. 
BreckanSy Brakens, ferns ; perhaps from Sax. brack. 

Teut. vracif vilis, rcjiculus. [Gael, raithneacb, fili- 

ces.]| So called, according to Skinneri becaufe they 

are brittle. See BrokiU. 
Breder, Brether, brethren. Teut. broeder, frater, 
Bree, Brie, Broe, brotb, foup. Teut. brU, puls^ puL- 

Breive, letter, poem, a writing. Teut. brief fcheda, e« 


Vol. IV. D Breid, 

Br. Br. 

Bi^eid, fuhjljlence^ aliment^ allowance of bread* Theot* 
broethafiy prxflatio certa de pane ; from brod^ pro- 

prie fragmen panis. 
Breikkis, breeches, Theot. hruche^ braccse. Tatian.^ 

bruahahey crumena^ zona, balteus. 
Bremc, hot ^ furious, Teut. bremeriy ardere defidcrio. 
Bienning, burnings fever ^ preternatural heat. Brent, 

burnt ; from Theot. hrinnen, 'Goth. brinnOy febris. 
Brent brow, high upright for e^head. Swed. brant, Dan. 

rankty praeceps, upright, ftraight up. 
Bretts, Britons y Britifh people. 
Erettys, fortif cations. O. Fr. bretefche^ from Teut^ 

hryttigaUy occupare. 
Brej, to terrify. Sax. hr^gan^ terrere. 
Briddis, birds. Sax, brid^ pull us. 
Bricht, young woman. In the fame fenfe are ufed the 

epithets clear and fair ; yet this may be only a. va* 

riation of ^r/W*?. Goth. ^a;ri&/, clar us. 
Brie, (eye) brow* Theot. brawo, palpebra. 
Brig, Brigue, bridge. Sax. brug. 
Brim. See Breme,^^rr^. 
Brint. See Brent, burnt, 
Briflel. See Birfle, to parch, 
Briffall, brittle. Otfrid. bruzzi^ fragilitas. 
Brifs, Brizr, to prefs, or comprefs, Theot. brejfen^ pre- 

mere, exprimere. 
Brith for Frith, peace^ amity ^ friendfhip, Teut. 
Brittyn, Bryttin, cxpl. to killy to facrifice, 
Briture, perhaps err. foi Oritoure, oratory, 
Broch, Brotch, a narrow piece of wood or metal tofup^ 

port the Jlomacher ; alfo a clafp or breaji-p'm, 
Brochen, oat-meal pottage, water gruel. Gael. 
' Brod, Brog, fharp point, Swed. brodd^ clavus calcei^ 

naily fp arrow- bill. 
Broddit ftaff, fiaff with a fharp point at the extremity. 

See Brod. 
Brodemell, brood, offspring, Teut. hroeden, incubare. 
Brog. See l^todiyjharp point ; alfo a rude kind ofjhoe. 
Brogh, Bruch, luminous circle round the fun or moon y 

from Teut. borghen, abfcondere. 


Br. — — . Bf. 

Brok, vjbat is traJhwy rtmnoKt^^agmints . Theot. bmck^ 

Broky badger. Sax. hraCy taxas, meles. 

Brokarisy hav^dsj pijmpj ; according to Skinner, qaad 
procurers. Others derive it from break ^ dccoqaerc , 
quoniam foli dccodores ad banc artem olim ;idinilll 
funt. Rudd. 

Broki]ly Bmckiley ^r£r/i4f. Belg. ^r?ir/y fragilis. Gv>tii. 
brikan^ frangeie. 

Brofe, fat broth pcmred upom oat meaL Teut. hruyty 
fpumay fcum. 

Browdin, Broddjny incited^ hurried or hurrying otyCi- 
ger. ** Brodding the oxen,'* pricking them forward ; 
from brod, a point in the end of the goad : according 
to Ruddiman, from brood, becaufe all creatures arc 
fond of their young. 

Browdjn, Broddjn, dotted, defiled, foul, filthy ; from 
Teut. brodde, fordes, turpitudo. 

Browdyn, Broddyn, embroidered ; q. embroydened. Fr. 

Broulimenty Bruliment, broil, fray, quarrel. Fr. 

Brounjis, a kind of Fairies o^fptrtts ; now become fo 
rare, fays Ruddiman, that not one is to be found to 
tell us the reafon of their name. ** Perhaps, conti- 
nues he, their hard labour, (for they were mt-rc 
drudges,) made them of a tawny or brown coloui, a;* 
their kindred may have been named Fairies from 
their fairnefs." It feems not unlikely, however, tliai 
the name of -firow/i^w' may have fomc aflinity with 
Swed. bry, vexare, turbare ; or huve been origiMMlly 
fynonimous with the Scand. dwerghs or dwurf^, u 
clafs of fairies who were famous for the maitiiiu^loi / 
of brands or /words j q. brunt er s ; from Swcd» hyfihi, 
enfis ; bryna, cote acuere. See Roun. 

Browftare, q. Brewfter, brewer. 

Bru, Broe. See Bree, broth. 

Brude, child, young man, fan. 

Brudy, broody ^prolifick ; both from 'IVur, l^rupthft, iii- 

Bruise, to pojfefs, enjcy. Teut, hruyfluti^ M^f, U\k\ 
Theot. bruchf ufus* 

Br. ^i-n-i. Bu; 

Bruke, Brook, ta htar^fuffer^ or endun. 
Brul^il* See Brokil, brittle, 

Brufe, Broofe, tumultuous race at a country wedding ; 
commonly from the houfe of the bride to that of the 
bridegroom. Teut. broefeny to ruih like a hurri- 
Brufit, expl. embroidered. Biufurj, embroidery. 
Brute, report^ fame. Fr. bruits Theot. gibreitan, pub- 

Brydal, marriage feajl. Teut. bruyd4oft^ brydloppa. 
Tat. brutlouftif convivium nuptiale. According to 
another derivation, bride^ale. 
Brjbour, rafcal^ thief. Fr. bribeur, diihoneil beggar. 
Brjnftane, q. -burning flone^fulpbur \ now corrupted to 

Bub, Bob, bkfl^Jlorm. 
Buckie, the nana of afhellfifb^ afeafnmil. 
Buks> Boks, corner t^eth ; whence buck-teeth. 
"Bxxd^ bribe^ giftt prqffer. See Bute. 
Budge, a bow. Teut, booghe^ arcus. 
Budge, to move, perhaps originally to bow or bend ; 
from Teut. buygben, flefterc, arcuare ; of which 
Boun maj be the participle ; q. bowings budging, or 
bending, analogous to the common expreffion ^^ bent 
his waj," Fr. bouger, movere. 
Buge, Bougc, explained lambs fur ; whence perhaps 

Bugill, bull, bullock, ox. 

Bugil, bugle-horn* Gael, buaigheal, tranflaled a cow^s 
hufl ; buachail, cow-herd, fliepherd. Notwithfiand- 
ing this apparent analogy, it is not unlikely that 
the derivation may be from Teut. boghel, curvatura, 
Buith, booth, Jhop. Theot. bothe, taberna mercatoria. 
Buift, Bpift, Ao«. Fr. boife. Swed. boeja. Teut. buje, 

Buit. See Bute, compenfation. 

BuUer, to move like the tide when it meets with refijl^ 
ance. Bullerand, weltering. Swed. buller, ftrepitus, 
tumult; bulra^ io boil \ from Teut. bolghe, fluflus 


Bo. I Ba« 

BttUingy Bulingi boiling. See Bailer. 

Bummil, Bombelly drone-bee^ idle ftUow. Teut. bom^ 

mele^£ucus* See fiattie-bommel. 
Bumbaized. See Baized, confounded^ fooliJb'Jooiing* 
Bumbardj i^annoft, bomb^ It is alfo expL Jilly or idle 

Jellow, See Bummil. 
Bumbee, the large Jield^ or humble bee. Teut. bommele. 
Bufidin, bound. Goth, bundans. vin6lus. 
Bun-wandy perhaps bull-^wand, bulUruJh^ or loch^reed. 
Bun-wede, bind^^eed. 
Bunker. Se^'R^ncowtyJixed bench ov feat. 
Burdinfecky {corrup. Ybur-pananfeca,) •* the thift of 
fa meikill meat as arte man may bear upon his back in a 
fackJ^ Skene. The original was probably T^bur^ 
Burd-alane, expl. folitary bird. Were the word, how«- 
ever, to be read burdal-ane, a very different, and 
perhaps the true meaning might be conjectured ; 
from Fr. bordello (originally) domuncula. 
Burde. See Briide, cbUd^fon. 
Burdoxxn^ Jtike-^aj] brhggtt-Jlaffj pilgrim* i flaff. Fr. 

bourdon. See Brod. 
Burdoun, drone of a bag^pipe. Fr. bourdon^ bombi- 

latio, utriculi canori majortubus^ 
Burdowyis, according to Andro Hart's edition of Bar« 
hour, burgejfes ; pof&bly, however, it may fignify 
men armed with burdouns Or pikes ; from old French 
bourdonnajfesy hollow lances. 
Bure, bore J did bear. Teut. 

Burell, Bureile, Burlie, boorifb^ ruflic^ rough. Thcot. 
buren^ rufticl It may alfo figoify eminent^ confpicuout* 
Teut. bur Itch f excel fu8, excellens. 
Burgeon^ bud, fifoot. Fr. 

Burlie»man, one of a burough jury ; quafi, burroughs 
law man ^ or perhaps boor^law^man ; from Tlufot. 
haur, rudicus. 
Bum, brook. Sax. burn^ rsvus, Goth« brunna^ fbni, 
Bumeis, Bimeis, to fcrape oxpolifh^ to hurn\/b, 
Burnet, of a brvwn colour. Fr. brunHte, 
Burrie^ (Burry dog. Vol. L p. loi .') pluintif $ ftrhf^f% 


Bu. i". ■ By* 

injured or aggrieved. Fr. Aotfr, boorifh. Explained 
by Lord Hailes rough. See Burell. 

Bus, Bulk, hu/b. Theot. bu/cb^ bofcus, filva. 

Bufchementy amhujhy party lying in amhujh, 

Bufk, Bufs, to drefsy arfay>, equipp \ originally perhaps 
to deck with Jlowers or bujbes. Dan. bujk, bufli. 

. Swed, bujkay viburnus, flores. 

Buft, Booft, tar mark upon Jheepy commonly the ini- 
tials of the proprietor's name. 

Bufleous, BuftuouSy hoijterousy unpolijhedy fierce^ huge. 
Teut. biifter^ immanis, ferus. 

But. Sec Bot, without. 

Butiene, booty. Teut. buyten^ preedari. 

Butt and ben, outer mnd inner apartment ; i. e. be-out 
and be-in. Butt denotes commonly the kitchen ; out^ 
ward from the room, but yet within the houfe. Buty 
ufed in the kitchen, denotes that part of the cott.- 
houfe which ferves for a byre or ftable. Teul. buy^ 
ten J extra, foras. 

Bute, Boit, Beit, gift^ inducement^ bribe, fatisfaBiony 
€ompenfationy remedy. Theot, buj/e or butte, pcena 
parti Isefse & privato debita, reftitutio damni. 

Buttok mail, expl.yb/w^ kind of rent paid to the churchy 

By, bejidesy beyond ; unlefs^ except. 

Byce, bai%ey a fort of warm woollen cloth of open tex' 
ture^ flannel. Teut. 

Byde, abide, flop, tarry. See Abade. 

Bygbe, garland, crown ; from Teut. buyghen^ fleftere. 

Byke, Byik, fwarm, band, troop. See Batch. 

Bynge, to curtfey. 

Byfene. See Befyne, whore. 

Byfmere. See Bifmyre, bawd. 

Byfming. See Bifmyng, gu%%Jingfot. 

Byfprent, Be-fpread, over-fpread. Belg. be-fprenghen, 

Eyfs, Bizz, hifs ; ex fono. 

By fly, Beiie, bufy. Teut. beftg, occupatus. 

Byflour, boiftcrous perfon. See Bufteous. 

Ca. — — — . Ca. 


Ca, Caw, cally to call ; alfo to drive or force ; in this 

fenfe correfponding with Swed. kora^ agere. 
Cabir, rafter, Gael, cabar^ a lath. 
Cace, Cais, chance^ accident. Fr. cat. 
Cache, Caiche, to catch ; alfo to ketch^ tofs or throw, 
Cadows, caddaSf fcr apings of linen rags* Gael, cadas^ 
cotton. Fr. cadaSy appears to have nearly the fame 
Cag, kegy f mall barrel. Swed. kogge^ cadus.- 
Cagear, Cadjer, Cadger, a carrier ; from Swed. korgc^ 
a creel, q, corger. Ruddiman makes it ketcher', be- 
caufe his wares are much ketched or tofled about in 
the carriage. 
Cdhutisyfmall apaf tments, private clofets. Teut. kaiute^ 
a cabbin. Expl. alfo by Ruddiman windings and 
turnings ; .from Fr. cahot, the rut of a cart wheel. 
Caidgie,'Caidfhigh, frolicifome, wanton. Dan. Jkaad, 
incontinent 5 kaad-hedy lechery. '1 eut. koddighy fa- 
cetus, jucundus. 
Caif, cavcy chaff ; tame^ q. captivus. 
Gail, Kale, coleworty cabbage ; alfo broth containing ei- 
ther of thefe or other pot herbs. Dan. kaalj braf- 
lica. ^ 
Ci2L\^yfiitchyJljarp pain in the fide. Teut. idvri, obftruc- 
- tio hepatis. 

Caikfumler, an opprobrious appellation applfed to fuch 
a perfon, as is defcribcd in Vol. III. p. 220. It is 
alfo expl. toad-eatery fynonimous with Teut. koeck^ 
etery naftophagus. 
Caim, comb. Teut. kamy pe6len. 
Cairn, crefl. Teut. haniy crifla, apex. 
Caip, copCy cover y the uppermoft of any thing. Teut. 

happcy culmen, projedura, &c. 
Caip, to kep or catch. Teut. kippeny intercipere, ca- 

Cald, cold. Dan. W. & Goth. kald. 


Caller^ Callour, cool^frejh. Ifl. kalldur^ frigidus^ 

Gallant, boy, lad. Fr. galand, nebulo. [Teut. kaUant^ 

Calfay, cawfey^ Jlreet, pavement. Teut. kajjte, via 

Calfuterd (fiiips), perhaps caulked, or having the Jeam^ 
done over with fome unfluous fubftance. Lat. 

Gammerage, cambrkk. Teut. kameriick^daek* 

Gammerage, party belonging to, or occupying the fdme 

Campiouny Kemper, champion, hero. Teut. kampioen. 
Dan. hamper. Sax. hempa^ athleta. > 

Camp J, hold, brave, heroicall. Teut. hamper lick, ath« 
letice. • 

Gamfcho, Camfchol, (Camow,) flat-nofed, having a 
dijlorted or ill proportioned countenance. Teut. camuys" 
achtigh, fiat-nofed. Gawin Douglas ufes Gamy alfo 
in the fenfe of rugged^ afper. [Celt, cam curvus.] 

Camftairie, rio^ozf/, quarrelfome ; q. gram-^irrigh y ^ 
from Teut. gram, afper, iratus j and Jlieren, infti- 

Gamy, Gamow. See Gamfcho, ill proportioned. 

Gan, for Gan, began ; fo alfo in the fame fenfe Goiild, 
for goud or hegoud. 

Cankerrit, Cankert, pajfionate, crabbed ; reflius cor- 
ker ed, from Cark. 

Cannikin, little cann ox f mall vejffel. 

Canois, Ganos, gray, gray-haired, white. Fr. 

Ganny, mild, gentle, well-doings prudent, cautious ; ori- 
ginally perhaps the fame with candid j or analo*. 
gous to ganand. See Gane. 

Cant, canty, lively^ merry. [Sax. cantic, canticum.] 

C^ntely Jragment. Teut. kanteel. Fr. ejchantillon. 

Cantel, head. Teut. kant, fummitas. 

Ganteleins, Can tropes, incantations, charms. 

Cap, cup. Swed. kappe, poculum. 

Cappit, captious^ ill-natured', alfo ufed for Schappit, 
Jhaped', iov S\i2Li^^\t, efcaped *, and for Keppit, met 
with, encountered, fet^ed ', according to Mr Pinker-, 
ton, Jlupid* 


Ca. -i— — Ca. 

Capp Chappe, Coape, Kaip> mantle^ cloai, ioo/e linea 
frock or gown without Jleeves^ commonlj worn by 
ecdefiaftics. Swed. kappa^ pallium. 

Caprowfie, Chaproufie, a Jbort cloak furmjbed with a 
hood* Sw£<L karpus, Teut. kapruyn^ cucullus hu- 
meralis. The latter part of the Sc. word may, how- 
ever, have fome reference to the colour* 

Capulch jne^ capuchin, xJoak. Tent. kapptitieUy kappoot* 
ken, palla muliebris. 

Capj], Kapyly horfe, mare. O. Fr« kaval, equus. Gael. 
caput, eqiuu Lat. 

Capperny tiej perfon of a captious temper* 

Csxjl^fong, tofing. iC^nziyngis^J^gifig by a number of 
voices. Fr. garuJkr, cantiUaxe. 

Carde, Caird, tinker, vagrant artifan. Gael, ceari, ori- 
ginallj perhaps a maker or mender of wool cards. 

C9xc,to rake up^ to fear ch for. Swed. kara, colligere. 
Teut. iiTT^Af eligere. 

Carky fordidhefs, avarice. Teut. karig. Swed. karg^ 
fordidus, parens ; karghet, avaritia. Sax. care, cura. 
It is alfo ufed for cargo. 

Garkat, necklace, carkanet. Fr. carcant, monile. 

Carl, 'Karle, clown, ru/lic. Tent, kaerlcy rufticus, ho- 
mo ; vir fortis & ftoenuus, qualem fuifle Carolum 
primum Sazones Icribunt. Hence he was called 
Karle magnus, latinized to Carolus. The term Carl 
always implies an advanced period of life. 

Carlingy woman, old woman. See Carl. 

Caxljky Carlich, vulgar, unpoli/bed. Sax. ceorlic. 

Carljngs, expl. peafe boiled on Care-funday ; the firft 
ibdbre Palm-Sundaj. 

Came, Kaim, (Gael.) a rude monument ; a heap of 
ficMies, piled up comnoonly on the top of mountains. 
Swed. karm, pluteus, repofitorj. 

Carp to fpeak or write with acutenefs, or in a fatirical 
manner ; to recite, to talk. [^Lat. carpo.l^ 

Carrail, the town of Crail i/t Fyfefbire. 

Cartisy cards. Teut. haerte, charta luforia. 

Carveli Kenwl, a kind of boat ovjloop. Teut. karevetl, 
navis veftoria. 
Vql, IV. E Carybald, 

• da. ' Ck* 

Carybaldy Cn^LrryhzU^ grumbling or crabbed old fellow* 
Swed. knartog^ furljr. Dan. knurpottey old grumbler^ 
Teut, knarreriy (Iridere^ frendere, grunnire, 
Cafer, Kaefar^ Caefar, emperouTy king. 
Caffjn, Caften, cafi^ fallen ; annulled, from Fr. cajfer, 

Caft,ybttr. Swed. ^fiai^, quatuor. ^ 
Caftis, contrivances^ efforts, arts, Swed. kafta^ immutarr. 
Gaftellan, keeper of a cqftle. Caftellwart, governor of a 
- cafle. 

Caftocks,^fl/ij of cole^worts or cabbage ; q. kaleflalhs* 
Gateing, dejiring the male, Lat. catulire* 
Catheryns. See ^SjaXYk^r^nts^ fur dy beggars, 
Gatluke, Gatcluke, yellow^ or birds foot trefoil.; To 
called from a fancied refemblance to the claw or foot 
of a cat. Rudd, 
Catourisy caterers, providers. Teut. hater ^ QBConomus» 
Catyve, caitiff, Teut. katiif, mifer, pauper ; q. d. cap- 

tivus vel cattivus. 
. Gave, tofeparate corn from the chaff, Ttwt, haven ^ cven- 

tilate paleas. 
Cavie, hen-coop, Teut. kevie^ cavea, cage. 
Gavillis, now commonly pronounced Keuls, lots ; alfo 
expl. refponfes of oracles, Teut. havel, fors in divi- 
fione bonorum> funis fbrtis vel diftributionis. This^ 
latter definition of Kilianus feems formed for the 
purpofe of introducing the ** funis" or cable^ which 
probably had no concern in the bufinefs. Ruddiman 
fuppofes the word to be fynonimous with SaK. hea- 
wely a baiket ; from which the lots mzf have been 
drawn, as they were by the Romans from an urn. 
He alfo mentions the Lat. Barb, cavilla Cclavicula) 
i. e. talus, Teut. hote^ " quo crus pedi jangitur : 
hse autem cavillx feu tali antiquitus videntur apud ' 
Boftrates in ufu fuiffe pro fortibus." In this way 
heuls feem to be the fame with cutis^ which Ruddi- 
man defines cuttings of fir aw. See Cutts. 
Cauf, chaff, Teut. haffy palea. 

Gawpes, Calpes, a kind of blach-maihy defined by Skene 
" ane gift quhilk a man gives to his maifter, or to 
onie other man that 16 great in power and author!- 


^e, for protedion againft free-booters.** He offers 
no conje&nre with refpeA to the derivation. Per- 
iiaps it has fome affinitj with the GaeL calpach^ a 
young cow, which maj have been a common afleff- 
menty or rate of aiTurance. Theot. gaba^ donum, mu« 
nus} gabelj donarioiDy vefligal. 

Cawk, cbalk. Teut. lalch^ calx. 

Cavel, Kavel, quarr elf ome fellow. Teut. kiiver, alterca* 
tor, Mr Pinkerton defines \X. fcoundrel. 

Cedule, Schedule, copy^ draught. Fr. 

Celfitudeji highnefs. Lat. 

"Ccn^ng, fumigating with incenfe\ quafi, incenfing, 

ChaftiSy cheeks^ chops^jaws. Swed. heft^ maxilla. 

Chafferj, Chap-wares fbcp^waresy articles of merchant 

Chakkis, ^nafhes^ fnaph fnatches ; ex fono. 

Chalmer-glew, chamber'glee, chambering yfecret wanton^ 
nefs. See Glew. 

Chalous, perhaps for Chalouns, calves. Teut. kaherr^ 

Champ, to chop, Teut. happen^ incidere. 

Chancy, that hath a good chance^ lucky. 

Chanoun, canon^ canon'tcus. 

Chap, to knock. Teut. happen^ incidere. 

Chap, Chopv^o^* S^n.fceopy gazophjlacium. 

Chapes, Chaps, cuflomersy young fellows. 

Chapes^ fhapes^ cufioms. ** According to the chapes of 
the country ;" (Regiam Majellatem,) according to 
the fafhionsy forms ^ or fhapes of the country. 

Chappin, chopin^ a meafyre of two Englifh pints. Fr. 

Chapit, Chaipyt, efcaped. 

Char, Chair, Schair, Skair, to fhear^ cuty or pierce". 
Teut.fcheren. Dsm. Jkare, iondcrCy cxdcre. 

Char, a-Char, on Char, a-jee, on the hinges, half fljtit. 
Teut. harrCy cardo. 

Charris, turns as a door upon the hinges. 

Charbukil, carbuncle. 

Chard, Schaird, Chziry t, fh eared. See Char. 

Charie, expl.ybriz?^/, ix^iiry. &^x.cearig,{{)\\Wiiw%. Tri>r. 
karigh, tenax, parens. 

Charle-wayne, Charl- wan, the ccnfltllalion Urfa Major. 


Chaftyp chaftife. Chaftfamd, chqfiifiHg. 

Ghat th6, ii^iMr^ thyfelf. Gsmt. cA>#y gdloWs. 

Ghattelsy^ooi^y moviahks^ orighially catth'y the Fr« 
* chatei imd Belg. kaieyl^ !>eing alt oiie p^rk)d fytic^i- 
xnou». Sax. eeattai thingd. 

Chaud-melle, rencountef^ artriL Fr. 

Cheis, cboqfe. Teut* kiefm^ eligerc. 

Ghekere, cbefi board. ¥t. eehecs. Ttut, fcbacbjj^il^ lu- 
dus regiusy five, Indus latrdnculorum. 

Chekere, excbequer, ¥t, e/cbiguier* 

Chenj^, Cheiny6, cbatn. Fr. cbatne. 

Chepandi Cheipand, chztpifig^ fqueahing wttb a fmaU 
voice ; Hx fork). 

Ghefoiiti, Chefibufiy hhme, O. Fr. encboi/ontter. 

Ghevelrus, courageous^ devoted to cbivalry ; from Fr. 
cbevalerie, drda/ fdrtitudd, decor equeftris. 

Ghevifahc^y ae^uijfitioff ; from achieve. 

Gheveron, expl. armour for tbe front of a botfe. Fr. 

Chide. See l^hjrde. toj^kt or cleave. 

Chieldy young fellow^ lad ; commonly ufed lirith a 
view of difparag^ttlenty if no epithet is Cotipled Ivith 
it ; whereas, in its more sncietit for m of Child it 
denotes a young gentleman or knigbt^ cotrefpbnding 
with infans in the times of Chiv^lty. Teiit. ktndf puer. 

Chirk, Jirg^ to make a grating noife. Sai. cearcian^ 

Chirle, Chirin, to cb'trp like a Jparroiv, Sax. cyrm^ 

Chirt, to f quirt qt fend fortb fuddefily. 

ChoUey J ole,jaiVf cheek. O. Eng. chawes^ maxillae. 

Ch oiler, double cbin. 

Chymmeris, Chymmis, feems to mean trowfers^ ot 
breeches . [Fi . jambiere^ kg-h arnefs . ] 

Chymmis^ Chymes, houfes or cottages flanding fepa^ 
rately. Teut. bammeys. Dan. biemmes^ Fr. bafneaux^ 
hamlets. According to Ruddiman, from Fr. cbemife^ 

Chymour, expl. a cymar^ a light gown. 

Chyne, Kyne, cows ; fo written for the fake of allite- 

Ciftrews, Ciftews, Cifertian monks. 


CL a. 

Chg, Klag, complaimi. Tent, tlagie^ incufatio. 

Clag, to clog, to adhere* Clagg]^, unBuous matter vahlch 

has the fewer of adhering. 
Claggok, a dirty wench ; hefmotted with mire. Teat. 

claddegat, puella fordida. 
Qahjnoe, elanf tribe. Goth. ilaiasH, parvuli. 
Claik^geefcy barnacles^ *' anas bemicla.'' Lin. See H. 

Bojce's account of them Vol. II. p. 69. 
Clairty, Clartf^ Clatty, clotted, clogged with mire. 

Tent, ilottert, coagolatns. Sax. cleot, pittacium. 
Glaisy <hathes. Sax. clathas, veftes. 
Qthjolk^Jharp blow, or the neife thereby produced. Teut. 

klanck, clangor, fonitus. 
Clatter, to talk idly. Teut. ilateren, ilrepere. 
Clauchty feis&ed fuddenly, as a hawk feizes with its 

claws ; from Teut. klawe, unguis. See Cleik. 
Claver, clover. Tent. Haver, trifolium. 
Claver, to talk non/en/e. Ger. klaffen, garrire, effutire ; 
klaffer, negator. Tent, knahhelen^ altercari, muilitare. 
Cleidy ctoathe. Cled^ cloathed. Cleiding, Cleithing, 

chathing. Teut. kleed, veftes ; kleeden, v eft ire. 
Cleik, hook of crooked metal ; alfo to catch as with a 

hook. Teut. kleyen, inuncare. 
Cleir,^^r one, young woman. 
Cleket, the catch or fajlening ; in O. Eng. a key. 
Qekk, to hatch or breed. Teut. klocken. Sax. cloccan^ 

glocire. Clekkin, brood, progeny. 
Qeip, Cljp, Clepe, to name or call. Sax. clepian^ 
Clene, Clein, quite, entirely. 

Clergie, Clairgy, learning, \.t. a knowledge of reading 
and writing* In England, if a perfon convided of 
ielonj could read a portion of the Pfalter, ut cleri- 
cus, he was pardoned ; which privilege was called 
•« benefit of clcrgj.** 
Clerk, prieft, learned man, one who could read and write, 

Teut. klerk, clericus, fcholafticus. 
Cleuchis, Clewis, oppojite rugged banks. Sax. cluth^ 
cautes, o^lis ; dough, rima vel filTura ad montis cli- 
▼um vel declivum. 
Clever, to climb. Teut. klaveren, furfum reptare. 
Clejng, for Cleyding or Cleiding, chathing^ drefs. 


CL ■ Co. 

CKnt, hard or flinty rocks. C^mtj^ flinty. SaX. cfynt^ 

metallum, mafia. 
Clippie, talkative woman, [Teut. klepelj lingua campa- 

nae, lingua loquax.] 
Clippis, corruption of eclipfe. 
Glippis, embraces^ holds fafl \ a pair of hooks or grap-^ 

pling irons linked together. Sax. clippan^ ample&i. 
Clock, to cluck. Teut. klochen^ glocire. 
Clok, beetle ; fo called from its fliining like a bell. 

Sax» clucgOy campane» Teut. klocke^ aes campanum. 
Clofs, Clofe, Cloce, inclofure^ narrow way. Teut. 

kluyfe^ claufura, locus angulle cbnclufus. 
Clowis, claws. See Cluf. 
Clowit, Clewit, made of ckws^ woven. Teut. tlouwe, 

Clowis.., See Cleuchs, rj^^^^J ^flr«i&*. 
Cloude for Clout, rag. Sax. clut, pittacium^ 
Cloys, cloifler. Teut, kluyfe^ clauftrum. 
duA^ cloud. Qludidijy. cloudy. Gluddit, clouded; q. «>- 

agulated. [Teut. klotteren, coagulari ; klotte^ mafia.} 
Cluf, Cloif, Cluve, hoof claw -^ from Teut. kluyve, 

dure. Clour, fwelUng occafloned by a flrohe on the 

head. Teut. knorre, tuberculuro, 'nodus. It is alfo> 

but rarely, ufed in the fenfe of dimple. 
Clute, half of the hoof of any bifulcated animal. See 

Clum^ Clamb, did climb, Clummen, climbing. Teut. 
Co-ar6lit,ybrr/'^. Lat. 
Coekernony, womarCs head-drefs. 
Cod, pillow. Sax. codd, pera. 

Cod-wair, pillow-flip ; from Cod j & Sax. wair, reti- 
GofFe, expl. cheat ; from Fr. ^oirni. 
Coffe, to pufchafe^to trade. Teut. koopen^ emere, mer- 

cari. Goth, kaupothy Lu. xix. 13, negotiamini : 

whence to cowp. 
GofFe, (Pedder,) hawker, pedlar, petty dealer. Teut. 

koop-vaerder, mercator peregrinus. 
Cofiing, coffer ; from Sax. coffe ^ Tel cofa, cavea \ q. 



Co. Ca. 

Cog, milhing'patL [Get. haucb^ vas cavum. Dan. JtaAg^ 

a trough. Teut. koggen, celox, cymbula.] 
Cogle," to Jhake^ as when placed in an unfieady poJlur€* 

Teut. koegbel, glot)us. 
Coif, Cove, cave. Teut. kouwey cavea. 
Coil, coaL Teut. 

Coifche, coach. Fr. coche. Teut* hoetfe, 
CoUatioun, conference^ interview. Lat. 
Coll J, CoYLey^Jbepherd^s dog. 
Combure, burny inflame. Lat. 
Commend, commentary. Lat. 
Commendis, benefices ** in commendum.^^ Lat. 
Conjpargc, lineage^ kindred, Fr. corn-par age. 
Complene-fong, Compline^ tbe laji of tbe canonic^ 
bours^ or from nine to twelve o^clock at night. Fr, 
complie. . 
Complexioun, \onneBionSy affociates^ p^^^y* Lat. 
Con, expl. tbe fquirrel ; and tv^nQ. Jciurus. 
Conablc, pofjihle ; q. can^able. 
Condjt, letter of fafe conduB ; alfo conduit^ p^ffctg^* 

Teut. condayt. 
Con^tSyfweet-meats. Teut. konfit^ confcftura, 
Conneis, Vol. IIL p. 457. perhaps paffports \ from 

¥r, conge ; <\. conj'eys. 
Conftrie, Confiftorj, ecclejiaflical court. 
Contake, contefl. O. Eng. conteck^ contehe. 
Contirmont, backward^ contrary way. Fr^ 
Contrer, expl. mifcbief. 

Convyne, Covyne, agreement ^ paBion^ convention. LaJ. 
Conqueft, acquijition^ acquired by force^ fraud^ or ifi- 

Convoy, tricky to bring to pafs, to perfuade. Fr. ^on^ 

viery invitart, perfuadere. 
Coop, large cart* [Teut. io/^.doUum, navigium.J 
Cop, Coh, Jpider, Jelfifh malignant fellow. Teut* hop^ 
' araneus. 
Cop, cup. Teut. Jkopy fcyphu.s j alfo a coffin. See 

Copill, to joiny to unite. Teut. koppekn^ neftere. 
Copper, cup'bearer ; from copy $:yphus. 
Cor^nkch, funeral fong^ mournful cry. Gael, coranach. 


Co. I I Co^ 

Corbie, raven. Fr. corbeau. 

Corbulye, a kind of leather* Fr. cuir^iouilie, fiac drefll 

ed leather. 
Corce. See Cors, rro/r, iod^. 

Gordenouris, Jboe^makers. Belg. kordewaenier^ futor. 
Cordowan, expl. Cordova or Spani/h leather \ maj alfo 
nuean tanned leather^ from Teut. touweny coria perfi- 
cere, the term cordowan being ilill commonly appli- 
ed to a particular part of the tamied hide of a luxfe. 
Probably the Scottiih xordwainers dealt but little ia 
Spaniih or Morocco leather. 
Corfe, Crufe, Cruve, hut^ temporary Jbade ; q. cour-* 

hof. See Cour. 
Cor muudumy the Jirft words of a Rotaan Catholic 

Corncraik, land rail ; from its cry of craik or crex* 
Cors, crofsy market place, Swed. kors^ crux. 
Cors, human body after death. . Lat. 
Cors-prefant, a mortuary or funeral gift to the church -y 
. in recompe^fe, as was pretended, for any tithes that 
had been omitted or with-held by the deceafed ; fy- 
nonimous with O. Eng, foul Jhott ox foul-portion* 
Corfly, large bodied ; from Cors. 
Corwyn, Corvyn, a kind of leather. See Cordowan. 
Cos, Cofs, to barter or exchange. Sax, ceofan^ eligere ; 

q. to choofe alternately. 
Coihy fnugf quiet y free from interruption. Fr. coy^ quietus. 
Coiie, warwy comfortable. [Fr. coujjineux^ pulvinatus.] 
Coftay, to coafiy to fail or go by thefde of. 
Coftlyk, cojlly^ magnificent. Teut. kqftelick. 
Cote, cottage, Teut. io/, cafa, tugurium ; kutt, tegu- 

men turn. 
Cotter, cottager y pojfejfor of a cote or cottage. 
Cotys, coats J pettycoats. Fr, cotte, a coat or frock. Sec 

Covanis, fuppofed to mean guejis. 
Covatyfe, covetoufnefs. Fr. conv$itife.. 
Coverit, recovered. 
Couchit, inlaidy was delivered. Fr, 
Coudie, Quiddy, fmall wooden chamber-pot. 
Could, t/zW; fometimes apparently for begoud, began. 


Co. Cr. 

Coulpit, expl. Jei^d on. [Fr. cueiUir^ carpcrc] 

Counter, encounter ; to encounter. 

Coup, cup ; alfo a fort ofwa^on. Teut. 

Cour, to crouch y to Jit crouching. Fr. couver. Wei. 

cwrrian, in tales defidere. 
Courche, covering/or the head. Fr. cowore-chef. 
GourerSy Curers, covers^ [diihcs.] 
Couth, Couthie* affable y complacent. Sax. cuth^ cutha^ 

notus, familiaris. 
Cow, a cutting or Jlip of a plant or diminutive fbruh ; 

alfo to cut or crop. Fr. couper. 
Cow, to intimidate^ to keep under. Id. huga^ fabjugare, 

fupprimare ; whence perhaps Cowart, cjward. 
Cowar^ collar, neck^lace, chain. 
Cowclink, harlot y loofe woman. [Teut. kocklinck^ ju- 

Cow-hubby, auhward fellow ^ one who hobbles or moves 

about like a cow. Teut. hobben^ faltare, motare. Ac« 

cording to Ruddiman, the word fignifies cow^herd, 
• from Scot, hobby ^ coarfe apparel. 
Cownand, Counant, covenant. Fr. convenant. 
Cowndyt. See Condytyfafe conduB. 
Cowp, to exchange or barter. Teut. koopen^ mercari. 
Cowp> to ^vertUrtty to overfet. 

Cow-fchot dow, ring dove. Sax. cufceote^ palumbus. 
Coy, quieiyfnug. Fr. Itoy^ quietus ; whence Cofh. 
Coydyoch, Coidyoch, an opprobrious name applied to a 

woman ; perhaps witch. Gael, cailleach^ old woman* 
Crack, to converfe^ to chat, to boajl. Fr. craquer^ ftre- 

Cracklins, refufe of tallow. [Teut. hard bifcuit.J 
Craig, crag, neck, throat. Teut. kraegbe, ingluvies. 
Graik, to importune. Teut. krackeelen, litigare, altercari» 
Crait, lafge bajkety hamper. Teut. kratte, corbis. 
Crame, Craim, a merchant's booth, Jhop ox flail. Teut, 

kraem, cadurcum, taberna five capfa rerum vena- 

Cramerie, Craimery, mercer ie, goods for fale, Teut. 

kraemerie^ roerx. 
Crammafie, crimfon ixtfcarUt cloth. Teut* krammefiin^ 

veftis purpurea, oftrmay coccioea. 

Vol. IV. F Cramr, 

Cr. ■ Cr. 

Cramp, Craajple, to ramp, climh^ ot curl like tendrUu. 
Fr. grimper, 

Grank, infirm^ weak, in bad condition* Teut. ir^/iri^, in- 

Crap, Crappin, cropyjlomach. Teut. krop, ingluviea. 

Crap, did'creep. 

Crote. See Crait, bajket. 

Craw, to crow j Crawin, crowed. Teut. kraeyen^ Qor-^ 

Craw, crow. Teat, kraeye^ corni^. 

Crawdoun, Cravant, Cravein,. an infamous name un-^ 
derjlood to mean a coward. In a criminal tris^l bjr 
battle the vanqiiiflied perfon dexdared his fubmiffion 
by pronouncing aloud the word Craven, If the i^c- 
cufed was reduced to this necefiitj, he was deemed 
guilty, and immediately hanged. If the accufer, he 
was declared infamous. The word m9.y be derived 
from Sax. crajian^ Id. krefia^ poftularc ; & Scand. 
ande, anima, fpiritus^ 

Creil, hajket, hamper ; to place in a hafltet or hamper. 
It. krtl, corbis, arq^« 

Greis, Crefs, to curl, rumple, wrinkle. Creifit, rumpled, 
wrinkled. Teut. kroefen, crifpaie. 

Creifit, crained, cra%y, nvhimjical. Teut. be- kroefen^ c- 

Greifchc, corr. oi greaJe.'Fr. graij/}, pinguedo. 

Grine, tojbrink. Teut. kleyneren, diminiiere. 

Cripp«l, Curpil, crupper. Teut. kroppier, poflilena. 

Gro, (Regiam Majeftatem) expl. aJTythement. Celt, cro, 
cows. [Swed. crona, corona.] 

Cvok, old ewe. Crokkys, old ewes. Ti^eut. kroongie, 
ovis rejecula, cadaver. O. Eng. cro7ie^ 

Crok, iofuffer decay from age. See the preceding arti- 
cle. The derivation, however, may be from Teut. 
krocben, gemere ; or krqken, curvare. 

Cronie, tippling companion. [Teut. kroeg hen ^^ pot^re, 
inebriari •, kroegher, caupo.] 

Crounar, Crowner, coroner. 

Crounel, little crown ; dimin. of Croun. 

Croup, berry. Craw-croops, crow-berry s% Sax. crofy 


Crowdic, tbkk gnteL £Teiii. Krwun. hsrbs^* 
CrojUe. See Cnxar, tcfin^ ia c /mz tnm^ 

Cmells, i^tgs «& Fr. ecruitelk:, 

Crake, Crook, t^m wA a hooi at tht hrstrr ."Kc. 

Crtike-triey beam i^s luhLi the crintk i^J\ 'Tienat^ c'Z^- 
a kitchen fite^ 

X]!ftimmie, name ^ a rp%'. 

Cnifie, crmcUfie, mehimg pta ; alls ismf- Sfr«d. krus^ 

tCnine, to hmm or Jimg im a inr Ur,f, Tcut. Iri^UTf^ gr« 

' mete. Ifl. hia^, cjnlare, Kiiir'^- 

Cmvcs, hurdles^ oM in riTcrs for the catching of fifli. 
Tent, iofj^ hamper. 

Cruvc, hovel, poor iabkaiioti. Swed, krrp^^ cafa. 

Cryle, dwarf. Teot. In^, parvulus, pumilus. 

Cabjculair, cbamher-companioH^ p^rfom Monging to tbt^ 
hed'cbamfur. Fr. 

Cuck-ftule, Cogg-fttde, Cucking-flool, tbt pillory ^Jfo^f 
of repentance ; or, more properly, a^fiooi upoH whicb 
petty offenders were Jirjt fecurely placed^ nnd ff/)rr- 
wards immerfed in watery commonly fomc fl Inking 
pond. This chatr of penance was alfo called the 
iimhrelot trehucbet ; and by the Saxonn fttnffifig- 
Jlohy fella urinatoria hi qua rixofee mulicre^i &Ci— • 
The origin of the more modern term \% probwhly In 
be found in the Tent, kolcken^ ingtirgharei fniiii kuh t, 
gorges^ vorago, vortex. 

Cuchill, expl. a grove ov fpecial place of rp/ifUttr^ 9 fi ufl$ 
Fr. coticbe^ le6^us, fedes. 

-Cuddie, afx ; originally perhaps a difrtirMI»lv*» '/f ^''/w* 

Cude, frolichfome. Belg. kout^ prdttUttj/f ifUih^i 

Cudeigh, bribe, prefent. Gael, rufd, » ihitt«i, *tf f^9* 

fCuiichovLxiSy gamefleriy gamhlft 4 / ^SU* Imttft^lfn^^Si^A^ 
who He in wait io cziry tm iout^ i^f* t^* hf*4^ P^ 
coucbeur ; or perhaps ir'pm T*'*^'- ////^^ ^Anif 1^ ^-H 
bical bone uftrd a» a 4f^. 

Culluro, Calloro, ^a^in^ ^ ^(o // ////y/ /// ///♦ //vW^ 
Lat. Barb* 

Cullage, bahU^fr^re^ ^/^ //////^ ofh^fdff , y/v^'-W/''/^' 


Cn. Co. 

from colour. According to Lje, from Hib» cmlaigh^ 
veftis, vefiitus. 
Calmes, or Ciilmez» expl. a culmu/b or club. Swed.. 
kuUpac, a knotty cadge! . 

^* To mak debate he held in til Jib hand, 
Ane rural clab or culmez in ftede of brand.'' 

G. Doug* 

Culrcach, ** a cautioner left he him quba repledgei a 

man fra ane court to bis awin court ^^ as a fccurity 

that jnftice fhall be done to the complainer ; corrupt 

tion of Sax. gildan-redd^ arrha. 
Culroun, cuUion^ rafcal^ one of the raUlCf contemptibly 
fellow, Fr. couilU, expl. a lubberly cqward ; and the 

coo^mon termination roun. q. v. 
Culye, CuUye, to cully ^ to impofe upon^ to " gulL 
Cummer, Kimmer, gojfip, Fr. compere^ commere. 
Cummer^ encumbrance ; to encumber. Fr. encombrer. 
Gun, to iqfte, Swed. kanna^ guflare. 
Cun, to gi^e or acknowledge. Swed. hanna. & Sax. cunr 

nan, agnofcere. 
Cun, to know, to learn, to teach. Sa::^. & Goth, kunnan, 

fcirc, nofcere, tognofcere, agnofcere. Swed. kunnig, 

peritus ; whence perhaps Canny. 
Cunnand, knowings intelligent. Goth, kunnands, fciens. 
Cunning, covenant ; from Fr. convenir, to bargain. 
Cuny^, coin. Fr. coigncr, fignare monetam. 
Cunye, Coyne, corner. [Fr. coin, angulus.] 
Curling, a game played on the ice, in fome refpefts re- 

fembling Quoits. 
Curlurous, expl. churll/h. 
Curne, a grain of corn; ufed for a f mall parcel. Teut. 

korn. Goth, kaurno, granum., a Jhiff or canoe. Gael, currachan. The 

Teut. karrake is defined *^ navis majoris genus." 
Curs, to excommunicate. Curling, excommunication. 
Curtil, ^xi^l.jluttijh. See Clarty.' 
Cure, care, anxiety^ trouble. Lat. 
Curie, abbreviation of inquiry \ alfo ufed for curing. 
Curfche, Curche, bead-drefs, kerchief-, Fr. couvrechef. 
Curfourc, CnS^rcyJlallion. Fr. courjier, charger. 


Co. . Ca. 

CuftrouD, pitiful fellow ; literally, perhaps, a taylor 
of the lowed order, a hotcher. Fr. cou/lourier ; or 
q. cuiftre-roun, from Fr. cui/lre^ a college pedant, 
and the common termination roun. 

Cutis, lots. To draw cntts, to dranv lots ; from Tent. 
iotCy talus, aflragulus. Lat. Barb, cavilla^ a fmall 
cubical bone, which feems to have been much ufed 
in gambling and other affairs of chance, before the 
invention of dice. According to Ruddiman, Cutts 
are fo called from their being commonlj cuttings of 

CutchouTis. See Cuitcheouris, gamblers. 

Cute, ankle. ['Feut. huyte^ fura.] 

Guttie,^orr, little. Gael, rutag^ a fliort fpoon. 

Cutty-gun, fbort tobacco pipe. 

Cutty-llule, ^ool of repentance^ a fbort 'legged floof. 

Cutty, Kittie, wanton wench. Swed. katigy fly, cun- 
ning, Gael, cutagi a young, or (rather) little girl. 

Cufche, Cuffe, expl. armour for the thighs ; from Fr. 

Cuvine. See Covme, comhinationy covenant. 


Da. -..—«.-. Da, 


3DA9 dqe. Sax. da^ dama fetnella. 

Dablct, Daiblet, perhaps imp of hell deviPs get ox 

'J)affin, DafFery, y^o/fry, p^y^ ploytHg s q, gaffin^ from 
Teut. gabber etiy nugari, jocari ; or gacbelen, cachiiif- 

jy^Sty playful, foolijh, mad. See Daffin. Junius would 
feem to conned thefe words with Dan. doffuen^ ig- 
navus, iners, torpidus, between the primary fehfe caf 
which {deaf) and the Scot, Signification^ there casi 
be no analogy. See Dowf. 

Dag, thick fogy mijl. Dan. taag. 

Dagonis for Dragounis, dragons. 

Daigh, Daeuch, dough. Teut. deegh^ fariQa fubafla^ 

Dai men, ex pi. rare^ tiow and then. 

Dainte, kindnefs^ hofpitality. See Daintith^ 

Daintith, dainty ^ delicacy y rarity. O. Fr dain^ dqlicv 
tus. Sax. th.enian, madidare', ma^facere. 

Daif, Deve, to deafen, Teut. doof furdus. 

Dailit, DaiTenit. See Dofenit, damaged^ decayed. 

Daker, Dockar, to toil as in job-work^ to labour. See 
Darg, from which it probably has been formed. 

Dale. See Dele, ^^//^ di'uijton, or diJiriB of a country^ 
as Tweed-dale, Annan- dale, .&c. from Teut. deyl^ 
pars, partitio ; correfponding with ^^.yL.fcire, (hare. 
Or perhaps, according to Ruddiman, valley^ plain^ 
efpecially on the fide of a rrjer ; from Teut. delly 
vail is, lacuna, lacus ; in fome of tUefe diflrids, 
however, not many "d alleys are to be found. 

DaUiS, ga?ne of draughts Fr. dames. 

Dammyfs, Dammeis, damage. Fr. do?nmag£. 

Dampne, to damn or condemn \ a fpecies of orthogra- 
phy which was common in the Latin of the middle 

Dan, Lord, Sir ; equivalent to the Span. Don, and O. 
Fr. Daw, all from Lat dominus., 

Dander, to faunter about in a lijilefs mamier,. Fr. dan^ 
diner. Teut. dantcn^ ineptirc. 


Da. ^ De. 

Danders, the ajhes from, ci fmith\s Jbop^ Goih • tandias^ 

D2iVig^Jlruck^ overcame^ drove. See Ding. 
Danlkjn, Danijb. 
Dant, Dan ten, to tame or fubdue, Danted, Dantenit, 

tamed, Jubdued, Dantenit hors, a borje that has been 

broke, Fr. donter^ domare, tra6lare. 
Dantoun, expl. to daunt or offright. See Dant. 
Darg, dayS'Worky tajk ; contracted fvoui day-wark* 

Tcut. dagh'Werck^ penfutn. 
Dargeisy Dergeis, dirges^, funeral fongs ; from the f re-i 

quent repetition of the Lat. dirige in the bunal-fer- 

vice. Dirge is alfo ufed for moral poem. 
Dafs, that part of a hay Jiack which is cutting down 

for immediate ufe \ fo called perhaps from its refem- 

blance to a Deifs or feat.. 
Daver, Daifer, to fun with a blow on the head. Teut. 

^/a^^r^«, contremercy^contremifcerc. Ifl. doffe, flu- 

Davel, Devel,-expl. aftunrung blow. See Daver. 
Daw, fluggard^ lazy idle perfon-, from Teut daghen^ 

prorogare in aliumdiem; i\.^po/lponer. According 

to Ruddiman,.from dowy^ dull. 
Daw, to dawn. Teut. daghen, diefcere. 
Dawache of laftd, a pJough-gate^ or as much as could 

conveniently be laboured in a feafon by an eight oxem 

plough. It feenis to have been common for eight 

hufbandnp.en to club an ox a piece to make up this 

formidable draught. Dawache feems evidentlj con- 

neded with Teut. daghwandy. modius agri ; verfus^ 

id quod uno die arari aut v^rti poteft ; from dagh^ 

dies ; & wenden, v^rtere. 
Dawt^ Daute, to fondle or cherify. Dan. dagger^ to 

nourifh or bring up. 
' Ty3.vf tic, favourite. Dan. dargge, a darling. 
Dajis darling ; Vol. II. p. 154. perhaps darling of my 

days, [Teut. duyfe, concubina ] 
Days, Daes. does. See Da, dama femella. 
De, die. Deand, dying. Deit, died. 
Debait, battle y to fight. Fr. dehaty pugna. 
Oehonare^ courteous, gentle, Fr. 


Decoir, to decorate. Fr. 

Dedal, Dede, Deith, death ; the firil, q. dead-ill. 

Dedeinje, to deign \ the de being here a fuperfluou^ 

Dedeinye, to difdain. Fr. dedaigner. 
Dee» Dey, dairy 'tnaidy boufe keeper, Swed. deya^ oeco- 

noma. Sax. tbeowe, famula, ferva, ancilla. 
Deface^ to confound or difgrace. 
"Dehidffadedy di/graced, Ff. defait, fine colore. 
Defoundy to pour down, Lat. defundere, 
DegcH, grave, to^po/ed. UcgcQlief/edately, Lat. ^;«* 

Deje£l, ^o throw out^ to difplace, Lat. 

Dei], devil i from Lat. diaholus. 

Deify Dere, fo annoy ^ injure ^ wrdngy trouble ^ vex. 0# 
Teut. deren, deyren, nocere, officere, obeffe, urgere. 

Dcir, Der^, injury^ wrong, annoyance, dijlrejs. O* Teut* 
dere, nocumentum, difplicentia. 

Deir. See Dere, to pity, 

Deir, expl. by Mr Pinkerton daring. 

Deis> a long fnajjy feat or bench, furnifhed with a baci^ 
and deftined for the ufe of the principal perfonagcs 
at an entertainment. Before the deis, upon a raifed 
or (lightly elevated part of the floor, was placed the 
great dintrtg table, which bj Chaucer and other an- 
cient writers is frequently alfo called the dcifs, — 
Lallly, the word was confined, particularly by the 
French, to the canopy (ddis) which Was fufpended 
over the whole of the table and benches. It is not 
eafy to determine which of thefe was the original 
fignification of the word ; — probably the firfl, as 
deiff continues ftill to be the name given to a long 
feat built againji a wall^ and alfo to that part of a 
hay-ftack which is cutting down for daily ufe, from 
its rcfemblance to a feat of that defcription. In o- 
ther Teutonic dialeds, however, the word is more 
frequently defined table ; and the origin, in either of 
the two fenfes, may perhaps be found in the Teut. 
doofc, or Dan. de ejke, a cheft, which in early times 
might ferve, as at prefent in cottages, either for a 



feat or a table. The Fr. dais^ caoopj, is derivel 
bj Wachter from Teat* dtcken^ operire. 

Dele,^i3rr^, divifion^ part. Teut, deyl^ deei^ pars, par- 
tition diflributio. Groth. dml^ pars. According to 
Bede, ufed ia this fenCe bj the Brit. Scots of his 
time. The word> however, is Evidently of Teutonic 
origin^ and probablj belonged to the Peyhts. 

Dele, to deal or divide. Goth, dailjan^ dividere, dare* 

Deleirit, £or delirious^ which had not then been £oraied« 

Delf^ Delfc, grave. ZeL delve^ fovea. 

I>el£e, to delve or dig^ to bury. Tent, delven^ fodere, 
defodere, infodere, inhumare. Delfieo, Dolven^^^fA^- 
ed^ buried ; from ZeL dehot^ dtlve^ fovea. 

Deliver, Deljver, to deliherate^ to determine^ Dely- 
veraoce, dfUberation, deterndmation. Vr. deliberer^ 

jDdiverlj, refobttelyy- Jj^eedtly^ mmbly. Fr. delibere^ 

Demajne, domain. O. Fr. dtmayene^ dominium. 

Demane, Demajn, to dwells to revtain. Lat. manere. 

Demane, Demajrn, to maltreat^ injure ; from Teut. 
Ptanckefff mntilare ; mancky mancus. 

Deme, dame^ mother ; in a quarrel, mi^refs^jade. 

Deme,^ to cen/ure^ to eondemn^ to paft judgment on. Teut. 
dsemany cenicre, judicare, damoacc > doeetu^ judi- 

jyempty judged f cenfured. See Deme^ 

Dem'piler, Deimfler, ojficer who pronounced the judg* . 
ment of a court of law. Teut. doemer^ jiidex. 

Demelle, engagement^ rencounter ^joinitig in battle. Teut. 
meilen, conjongi. 

T^enk^Jpruce^ gaudy ^ neatly dreffed. ^Dan. dynmker^ to 
whiten or plaifter.] 

Denude, to ^vefi. Xat. 

Oene, Ij>eaa, dell^ any low ftuation, efpeciallj if co** 
v«red with trees or bruiliwood ; which, before the 
country was cleared, was frequently the cafe be- 
tween two oppofite banks. The meaning is now 
laore contraded in Den \ from Teut. dell^ lacuna. 

Dent, Dint, dingle ; alfo expl. engraven. See Dint. 

^ena^men, perhaps Danes or Danifb pirates. 

Vol. IV. G Depairt, 

De. De. 

Depaitty to diftribute, Fr. departir^ diftribuere. 

D6pefchey Depeche, to difpatcb. 

Deplome, to unfeather. Fr. plumer, 

Deray, merriment^ noifty diforder, tumult. Fr. defroy^ 

in oppofition to arroy^ eqaipage, order y arroyer^ 

OFdinare^ in oidinem digerere. 
Dere. Sec Deir, hurt ; with feveral other fignifica- 

X)eie, any untamed quadruped. Teut. dier^ animal, bef- 

tia, fera. 
Dere, Deir, to pity. Teut. deren^ miferarij mifereri, 

Deir me^ miferet me. tut. 
Dereae. See Dereyne, conteft ; to contend. 
Dereyne^ Derene, Derenje, contejly declfion ; to conh 
, tendj to decide a controverfy by force or arguments 

Fr. defrener. 
Derf, a^tive^ vigorous^ bold. Swed. dierf. Ifl. diarfor^ 

audax ; dierjfiy prefumptaouflj. Teut. derven, au- 

dere, audaciam adhibere ^ from Deir^ fera. 
Derflj, vigorou/iy^ boldly^ See Derf. 
Dergat^ target yjbield. Sax. targa^ clypem*. 
TiQXTiy Jolitude^fecrecyf private. Sax. dyrn^ dearn^ oceul- 

tus, fecretus, 
Dem, to hidcf to retire. Sax. dearnan^ occultare. Gaw» 

Douglas has derne or dereyne^ in the fenfe of be-* 

Dcrt, Vol. I. p. 51. perhaps earth ox foiL 
Pefcans, defcant^ a term in mufic. 
Dcfmelle^ Djfmclle. See Demelle,. conteji. 
Deftrenyeit, expL diJlraEied. 
Det-bund, q. Death-bound, predejlinatedy bound by 

fote ; alfo fitoplj itidehtedy or duty bound. Fr. dette. 
Dctrufe, ex pi. to detraEi. 
Deval, Dcvail, Awail, to defcendy to hurry down^ to 

foil. Fr. devalery avaler. Lat. B. devallarcy defcen- 

dere, from vallis \ as montre, montare, afcendere, 

from mons, 
Devally Devald, to ceqfe or Jlop. Without devald^ (or 
devalding,) without ceqfing. Devalds, ceafes ; q. de^ 

fmls ; fiom Fr. defoiUir^ defici aliqua re. 

De. Di. 

Dcvc, to render deaf by wdfe^ to deafen. 

Devjfe^ device, afpoimtmemi^ ^gocy ; alio to difpoje of. 

Fr. devijfr. 
Devjfe, to teU^ to narrate ; aDalogons to Tent, wiif 

nutkenj injicere aliqiiid in animBm ; or rather &r. 

wiixen, docere, oflentare. 
Oevode, q. Devoid, to empty ^ or dravo farth^ 
DejligatCy beautiful. Dan. deyVig, formofus ; dejiighed, 

picbty Djdit, prepared^ dreffed, made ready ^ equipped^ 

barnejfid, furnijbed. Sax. dihtan, parare, initmece ; 

adibtodej difpofitus, compofitus, compofoit. Heoce 

^t is alio iifed in the fenfe of compofed or arranged 

afpeecb, difcourfe, ox poem ^ cor ref ponding with Teat. 

dicbteuj feotentiam dicere^ componere iiarmeo, die- 
Dicht, Djcht, Jo wype off naftinefs, to cleanfe ; from 

tthe fame .origin with the preceding. 
Dicbtings, that which is wiped off\ aUb the refufe, 
I^ilatioun, Dellatioun, delay. Lat. 
Dilp, expl. daw, a taudry bujjy. [Swed. dilka, ama- 

DiOy noife. Dinfom^ noify. lil. dyn, ^ono ; dunde, tonui . 
lUngy woriffy^ honourable. Lat. dignus. 
Dingy to fhrihe^ heat, throw, overcojne in any kind of 

competition. Szx. dencgan. Swed. i^ffr^/i^tondere, fuf- 

.tigare, to l>ang or th9mp. Tent, dwi/tghen, cogere, 

urgere, domare. According to Rnddiman, firom Sax. 

ihringen, urgere, premere. See Thring. 
Dink, corr. abbreviation of decken, decked. See Denk. 
Dinle, Djnnel. See Dirling^ thriUwg. Thej^rord is al- 

fo u(ed in the ienfe of tingle. 
Dint, Dunt, blow. Djntis dour, hard blows. Dint alfo 

.fignifies the imprejjion made by a blow. Sax* dynt, 

Dinmont, Dimment, a wedder in its fecond year, or ra- 
ther from the iirft to the fecond {hearing. The wjcm d 
has perhaps feme reference to the number of teeth ; 
from Teut. tand, dens, vel diien, augeri ; & mond^ 


vir4, Gird^ a blow ; alfo to attacJk. See Gird- 


Di. Do. 

Dirdnm, perillous p/af, noify fport^ uproar^ fquabble ; 

from Dird ; or perhaps litendlj deirdum^ from Teut, 

deren, nocere. [Gael, durdan^ is expl. a groaning 

Dirk. Sec Durk, dagger. Teot. dokky fica. 
Dirling, thrilltngj piercings Jbarp^ S«ired. drillaf perfo- 

raie, terebraie. Sax. thyri, foran^en 5 alfo ufcd for- 
; tu^ng. . 

DiSy does, Dif-na^ does not, 
Di&fcfs, difcretion, 

li)i£Dcuirers, dijbxxverwri^fcouti, Fn defccfu^reur. 
DxfeiS} dijpkafure^ venation ; q. dif^afinefs, 
DiffaerjfouOy difinberifon^ dtfinberiting. Fr. dejherance^ 
. hxredis defe^io. 
Disjoins, Desjunej breakfqfi. O, Fr. desjune^ jentacu- 

Difpend, expend, Difpenfe, expence, Lat. 
Difpituoufly, unpitifidly^ without mercy, Fr. defpiteux^ 

ad indignationem facilts. 
Diftrenye, Diftrayn, to feixe (goods) for the benefit of 

a creditor ; alfo, to di/^mft. 
Difty-raeiller, expl. meal made of the laji of the crop ; 

perhaps q, dufty^melder. 
Ditt, tojlop up (a hole.) Dan. digter, tetter^ the fame. 
Dittay, hill of enditement or etccufation ; from Teutf 

dichteti^ di^are, commentari. 
Divet, a turf of an oval form^ and thin all round the 

edge ; from Delve. 
Docbly, expl. duly^ but may alfo mean, in an abl^ 

Docht^ Dough t, coutd^ See Dow, to he able, 
Docht, D ought. See Dow, worth , confequencey ^alue, 
Dochtie, Dowghtie, ^ouvr////, valiant^ worthy. Sax. 

dohtig^ fortis, ftrenuus, nobilis. Teut. degheJici, ex- 

imus, infignis, honeftus. See Dow, Wr/i/j. 
Dochter, Dother, daughter, Tcut. dochter^ filia. 
Dodge, to jog or trudge along, Teut. doggen. 
Doft. See Daft, merry, mad. 
Dole, a large piece. See Dele 
D oleii t, forroufulf forry . La t . 


Do. _— Do. 

Dolf» Dowff, dull^ heavy f ^ufanting/pirit. Dan. dojffuen^ 
dcfes, igoavus. Ifl. aoffe, ftupor. 

D0U7, Dullj, Doolie, Dowie, dolefully duU^ mclancho^ 
ly. Fr. dueily dolor. 

Dolljn, Dolfen, buried. See Delf, to hury^ t; 

Dolp. See Dowp, bottom, 

Polphjne, Dauphin^ eldeft fon of the King of France. 

Dominie, par/on^ fninifier ; from Lat. dominus. 

Done, before a verb, forms the preterite tenfe ; as 
Done roun, rouned or whifpered. 

Dongjn, Dinged, driven^ forced. See Ding. 

D<Hik^ danif moift. Teut. taggy ros. 

Donfie, dwice-ltke, dull, Jlupid, Daa. duncai^, homo 

Dont, Dount, See Dint, hlow^Jlrohe, 

X)oop, Doup, to Spy to immerfe in watery to baptife. 
The 'Doo^Tythe haptijl, Teut. doopeuy mergere, im- 

JJornyke, damajky variegated curtains^ carpets^ &c. o- 
riginallj made at T^ournay, 

'DoTtSyjfit offulkinefsp See D.orty. 

Jioxtj J peevijby fulky » Teut. trotjighy tortighy contume- 
lious, arrogant ; trotfetiy torteUy to provoke. 

'DoTljnei&yfulikinefsypeevi/hnefsy pride. See Dorty. 

Dortour, dormitory^ bed-chamber y apartment containing 
a number of beds, Fr. dortoir^ dormitorium. 

Dote, to imagine^ rave, or ail idly. Teut. dotteny deli- 

Double, copy of a writing, 

Doublit, benty bowed downy laid double, 

Pouch-fpere, Douz-c-Per, the twelvey or perhaps one of 
the twelve peers qf France y who were appointed to be 
privy counfellors to the King ; or may allude to 
King Arthur's twelve knights. 

Douce, DoUfs, deceuty fedate^ Jleadyy refpeBabky icor- 
thy. Fr. douxy fuavis. 

Douk, to ducky to dive. Teut. duckeny conquiuifcere. 
Poua*thring, to fling downy to pull down. See Thrinf^. 

Don re, hardy inflexibley fullen, Lat. durus, 

J^out^ danger^ fear^ apprekenfion, Fr. 


Bo. Dr. 

DoWfUu, dove, pigeon. Theot. ^otrv^, columba. 

Dow, cart. Downa, q. Dow «ot, cannot, am or is uma- 
He to. Dowht, could. Dowghtna, could not. Teut, 
doghen^ deughen. Theot. diuben^ doucben^ dohen^ 
prodefle, crefcere, decere, vs^ere, pjrobum effc, ia 
pretio effe. 

DoWy wortb, avail, value. Teut. doogb, commodum^ 
lucrumi virtus, decus, potentia, valor. In Belg* it 
alfo figniiies falup, fanitas^ viggr. ** Nocht o' 4ow^. 
of no value y or notbing ofv^rtb. , 

powf^yif^, %joid of animation or energy ^ q. deaf 

Dowlefs, (more commonlj) Thowlefs or Thawlefs, 
fvoid of energy^ Swed. duglpes^ good for nothing. 
See Dow. 

33owerit night (G-aw. Doug.) gloomy or fable coloured 
nigbt ; from Teut. doofverwe, color furdus vel aur 
ilerus. See Dowf & Fere. Or, accoi;ding to Ruddi- 
xHan, dull, beavyy weary ^ drowfy, from hcot. Duir, 
^bflupefacere ; which feems nearly allied to Dover ^ 
to dumber ; from Teut. doofworden^ or Dan. doever, 
furdefcere. That he v^ as not, however, qaite fatis^ 
iicd with this derivation, appears froni his mention^ 
ing laftly dewy, duU\ q. made heavy. 

Dowf, dully void of animation. Teat, doof, furdus. 

i;)owfart, heavy ox fivpid fellow ; irom Dowf. [Teut. 
doof Lout, lignum cariofum. Swed. dufwen^ marci- 

Dowp, Dolp, hcttom^ lower extremity ^ end ; q, deptb^ 
from Goth, diups^ profundus. 

Dow J, Dowie, dull or melancholy from foUtude \ pro- 
bably the fame with dully. See D0II7 j or from 
Dowf, q. dowfie. 
^Dovering, flumheringy in a ilate between fleeping and 
waking ; from Teut. dowf-wcrden, furdefcere. 

Dojtit, IdoWtt^y fupid, fuperanuated\ from Sax. dol^ 
■ fatuus Engl. dolt. 

Dczenit, Daizjt, cbilled, decayed, impotent ; rather per- 
haps from Teut. eyfeny gelare, than from the lafual 
derivation duyfeleUy attonitum fieri. 

Drable, Diagle,./o ^r«/7/» //&^ mire -y q. drecile, from 
Teat, drcxk, fordes. 


Ht. Df. 

I)rakkjty Drawkyt, ahforhed^ attraBed^ drew up-* 
Teat, trecken, Ifl draga, trahereT It is alfo ufed in 
a palGve fenfe for drenched ovfoaked. 
Draff", brewers grains, Teut. draf^ glurtnae grani deco&i^ 

excufTum fedimentum. 
Dram, dijcontentedfforrowfuly fad ;^ flightly" corrupted 
from Teut. gram^ afper, iratus, fiomachofus« Ac- 
cording to Ruddiman, from Hib. dramham^ ringere ; 
or from Ifl. dramh^ fuperbia, f aft us ; dramhlaatur^ 
fuperbus ; ^^ becaufe difcontent and melancholy ge- 
nerally arife from pride.'* 

Dram-lyke, probably the fame with Dram, difcontent" 

Drame ; ** Induris bot ane drame^^ endures but as a 

Drammocky Drummock, meal and water ^ commonly 
underftood to be mixed raw ; q. cratnmock. 

DrsLp^drof* Dr^ppie^fmall dr<fp, 

Drawk. See Drakkyt, abforbedy drenched. 

Dre, Drie, tofuffer^ to endure ^ or feel. Sax. throwian^ 
pati, from tbrea^ affii^io, infliftio. 

Dreich, floWy hejitatingy lazyy tedious, A-dreicb, le^ 
hindy at^fome diftance behind, Teut. traegb^ tardus, 
ignavus, refes, defes. 

Dreiffland, Dribbland, drivelling^ dropping in fmnll 
quantity, Teut. druppelen^ ftillare ; drooppel-pijc^ 

Dreik, dirty excrement, Teut.^r^ri, fordes, flercus. 

Dreip, to drop, Teut, druypen^ ftillare. 

Drene, drainyfpout, conduit, 

Drefs, to apply ^ to manage. Fr. 

Drevill, Drivel, to flumher^ to fleep unfoundJy.- Teut. 
reveleny errare animo. 

Drew, drop ; as Grew for Greek, &c. 

Dribble, tofallflowly in drops. See Dreifland* 

Drighten, God^ Lord Sax. drihten, Ifl. drottin^ domi- 
nus ; according to Wachter, from Teut. drotna^ do- 
minare ; drot, populus. See D rotes, nobles, 

JDringj drudge yfla'oe^ mean wretch. Thus it is alfo ex- 
plained >7?//fr, covetous perf on, Dan. & Swed. dreng^ 


Dr Du. 

fervus, famulus j whence perhaps the termiiMttion 
roufif as in Gulroun, Cuftroun^ &c. q. v. 
Droddum^ expl the breech. 
Droggis, drugs in the fenfe of fweet meats. Fr. 4^0- 

Droich, Dreich, dwarf. Teut, dwergb, nanus, PJg- 

meus, homuncio. 
DroteSy noblesy knights. Swed. droit, heros. Teut, 

drut^ drauty fiidelis, charus, amicus. O* Fr. drutf 

Drbukyt, drenched^ foaked. Sax. on drugunge^ in a<}tio« 

fo. According to Ruddiman, from Douk. 
Droure, Drowrie, gifty prefent^ love token ; perhaps a 

corruption of Teut. trow^rinchy annulus pronubis, 

from trowCy fidelitas. Golh. triggwoy pa6tum« O. 

Fr. druriey druerUy amitie, fidelity, amour. Ruddi- 

man fuppofes the word to be the fame with d{rv^y^ 

or dower. Fr. douaire. 
Drum, ridgey or, (as fome would rather have it,) the 

hack of a mountain. Gael. 
Drumly, muddy^ dijlurbed. Teut* turbelen, Fr. trou* 

Drumacke, Dramack, meal and water mixed raw. 
Drunt, Strunt, pety ill humour- ; from Swed. drunt^ e- 

Drjnt, drenchedy drowned. Sax. druncnay madidus. Sec 

Duahn, Dwalmyng, fwoony faintingy ft. Teut. ^- 

dwelmty defedlus aiiimo, exanimatus, exanimatio. 

According to Ruddiman, the fame with qualm ; from 

Sax. ewe aim, mors. 
T^xs^y f mall pool of water . [Swed ^, pahis.] 
Dublaris, cx^\. pewter difhes of large f^e. 
Duddis, Duds, rags^ 

Duddic, raggedy in ragSy tattered, Gael, dudachy rag- 
Duddroun, a perfon in rags ; alfo expl. a- fpeBre. See 

Dale, dohy paiuy grief fnourning, Duleful, doleful. Fp. 

deuily trilHtia. 


Du. .M Dj. 

Dule, Dool, the goal at fodthall or golf as it was an* 

ciently played ; originallj a mound of earths Tent. 

doely aggeda terra in quam fagittarii jaculantur fa- 

gittas. The mark was called the doeUpinne^ fcopus. 

O. Eng. toyle fignified the tilt or mark aimed at in 

Dullj. See Doll J, melancholy^ dreary. 
Dulfe, Dilfe, y^j weed. 
Dung, Dungen, heaty overcome. See Ding. 
Dungeroun, dungeon ; of old, the highejl part of a Caf- 

tle. Fr. donjon ; the derivation not known. 
Duiincry Dunder, to make a noife like thunder. Teut. 

donder. Swed. dundra^ tonare. 
Dunt, heavy blow upon an elajiic or rejij^ing body. Sax. 

dynt, i&us. 
Durk^ Dirk, dagger^ properly concealed dagger. Teut. 

dolck, fica ; from Swed. dolia, celare, occultare. 
Durken, Deirken, expl. to affright ; q. eirken, from 

^iry, fearful. 
Dufeh, to fall, to fall upon ; nearly the fame with dajh, 

from Dan. da/k, a blow^ or attack. 
Dufchet, Duffie, a fort of mujical inflrumenty probably 

the doucete of Lydgate, or douced of Chaucer ; from 

Lat. dulcis, aa in later times dulcimer. In Gael, dui^ 

fignifies " the drones of a bag- pipe," and doaghadh 

" finging." 
Duftie-futc, *' ane pedder or cremar quha has na cer^ 

taine dwelling place quhere he may dicht the duflfrom 

his feet ^^ Skene. 
Dwine, to pine, to decay. Dwining, confumptian. Teut. 

dwiinen, tabefcpre, attenuari. 
Dyke, wall of earth or fl one. 'YtMt. diick, agger adver. 

fus inundationes. [Sax. die, foffa, ditch.^ 
Dyker, a builder of earthen walls. See Dyke. 
D^nd for Dant, tofuhdiie or tame. See Danton. 
Dynle, to dingle^ to tingle or tinckle^ to produce a tingling 

found. Teut. iingelen. 
Dyne, Dean, den, retired fheltered place* 
Dynle, to thrill. Dynland, thrilling, piercing. See 

Dynn, noife. Sax. dyn, tonus, fonus. 

Vol. IV. H Dynnit, 

Py. ^1 Ee. 

Djnnltjj Vol. I. p. 20i.perhap3i^-rf£i4;^^. S:xk. tBwe/tn'y 

lavftre, ungere. According to Mr Pinker ton, y^^. 
Dyocie, dioceje, 

Dyftneh See Demelle, fqnahhle. Fr. 
Dyte, to endite or accufe, Fr. enditer. 
Dyvour, debtor^ bankrupt, Fr. Lat. Celt. 


E, Ee, eye, 

Eaky Eke, Eik, to increafe. Sax. eacan. Goth, auhan^ 

Ear. See Are, to till, 

'Ezrdy earth. Tent, aerde. Goth, airthaj terrz. 

'E,ZTd-h,&,^xed in the ground or earth. Sax. eard-fafie^ 
fitus. __ 

Eardit, Fitried^ laid in the earth. Sax. 

Earding, Erddyn, earthquake^ thunder. Sax. earthdyn. 
. Teat, aerdbevinge^ fuccuffio. 

Eargh, Ergh. See Airgb, tardy, Theot* arg, 

Earlifch. See Elrifch, hideous, 

Earnii Yearm, to teaze or importune in the whining 
manner of a mendicant. Teut. arm, pauper. Goth. 
armany mifereri. 

Earne, to coagulate, Dan. gaer^ yeaft , gaerende^ fer- 

Earnbliter, expl. the fnipe. The latter part of the word 
(bliter) may be a corruption of bittern, if this be not 
rather the true mteaning of the term. 

Eavers, (Reg. Maj.) beajls or cattle. See Aver.^ 

Ebatement. See M)o.itmti\tfJport,pleafure, 

Echil, Ethil, &c. high, noble. See EthiL ^ 

Echeris, ears of corn. Sax. cchher. Germ, aehr, fpica. 

Echt, ought. See Awe. 

Eelitty Eyelaft, (Eye-lett,) expl. deformity^ what hurts 
the eye ; and accordingly it is alfo ofed to fignify a 
hreak in a page, the beginning of a paragraph, or ru" 
ther of a feBion or chapter ; from Sax. Icettan^ 
impedire, obftare. 

Eens, even ^.f, 


Ef. El. 

Effeftuous, ajffeBionate. 

Effeir, EfFerc, appearance. Sec Feir. 

EiFeiris. See Affeiris, belongs to. 

Efreft, l'fieft,/r/?, chief. 

Eft^ after ^ hinder part. Sax. efty po(L 

Eft, oft J often. Eft-fjris, of ten* times. Szx.fthe, vice. 

Efter-hend, q. after^thence^ afterwards. 

Eftfone,ybo« after ^ in a Jhort time. 

Egg, to incite f to Jlir up. Sax. eggian. Dan. egger, 

Swed. eggia^ irritare. 
Eidant, Eithant, Ithand, Ythand, hufy^ diligent^ unre^ 

mittingf perfevering, Ifl. idne^ diligentia. Szx. getheqn, 

gethean. Tcut. gedeyen^ proficere, vigere, crefcere, 

Eider doun, the fmaller feathers of any Jkind of birds, 

Teut. eddery aves. 
Eil/, Ilk, each. Teut. elck. Sax. elc^ unufquifque, om- 

Eik, Eke, alfo. Sax. eac. Goth, aui^^ etiam. 
Eik, to add to or increafe. Goth, aukan, augere. 
Eild, age. Sax. eald, fenex, vetus. It is alfo ufed in 

the fenfe of barren ; Eild cow, one that yieldeth no 

Eildeins, of the fame age ; from Eild. 
Eiiy, 'EAr'ie^ fearful through folitude, in dread of f pec '• 

tres. Jfl. eggur. Goth, dgis^ metus, timor, fortnido. 
Eitb, Ey th, Eth, eafy. Either, Eirar, eajier. Eithly, 

eajily. Sax. eath. facilis. 
Elbok, elbow. Teut. elle boge. 
Eldaris, ancejlors. Sax. eldran^ progenitpres. 
Eldering, Eilderjn, old^ growing oldj elderly. 
lEidf^Lthex, grand-father ; zKo father-in-law. Eldmo- 

der, mother-in-law. 
Eldyng, materials for fire , as coaly peat, ^^Kfy ^^* Dan. 

ild. Swed. eldy ignis, pabulum ignis. 
Elf-fliot, bewitched ; from Sax. Elf, damon ruflicusy or 

Fairy ; ufed by Chaucer for witch. 
Elke, expl. a kind of yew. See 33. Henr. 8. c. 9. 
^11 is, Ellys, already, heretofore, otherwife. Sax. ellis, 



El. — -— i«. £n, 

Eirifche, El rick, ErllfcheJ Eorlifch, hideous^ wild, 
ghojlly ; alfo expl. /o«(/(>ifi^, un-inhublted except by 
Elves ; perhaps quafi elfrijh or eljijby from e1f\ or 
from Sax. galdrygea^ incantator ; q. yaldryfch, 

'SXiyn^Jbqemaker*! awl. Teut. elffenCf fubula. 

Elwandy Our Ladies Elwand, the cooAellatloti calle4 
Orion* s girdle, 

Elyte, ele&. O. Fr. elite, eleftus* 

Emaille, Amaille, an enamelling. 

Embrowed, embroidered, 

Eme, Eyme, uncle ; but feems applied chiefly to rela^ 
lives by the motber*,sJide ; to her father as well as to 
her brother. Sax. earn, avunculus, avus, pater ma- 
tris. Teut. oo/w, patruus, frater patris; avunculus,^ 
pater matris ; confanguineus. 

Emerant, green, verdant ; from the colour of the Emc' 

Emmerodes, the piles, bcemorrhoides, Gr. 

Empefche, to binder^ to x>bfiru^. Fr. empefcher. 

Emprys, Empryis, enterprife. Fr. 

Enach, (Reg. Maj.) cxpl. by Skene, ane mendis or fa^ 
tisfaEtion for ane fault, crime or trefpafs ; as, gif the 
maifter lyis with the wife of his bondman, the fer* 
vant therefore fall be put to liberty, and fall receave 
«a uther enach. The word may have fome affinity 
with Gael, eiric^ ranfom money. 

Enbufchment, ambujh ; from O. Fr. emboifer, embof 
query to be fheltered in a wood ; alfo explained a 
kind of warlike machine^ limilar to the Roman tef- 

Enchefon, caufe^ occajion j from Fr. cheoir, cadere ; al- 
fo QX^l, faulty crime. 

End, Eynding. See Aynd, a breathing place. 

Enday, end dayy day of death. 

Endfundeyng, Ane fundying, a be^numhing. See Fund- 

Endlang, Endlangis, along. Goth, and^ per ; & langy 

Endored, expl. heated. 
Ene, Ein, eyes. Belg. oogen^ oculi, 
Engaigne, jexpl. ffite, 


En. Ef. 

Engjne, ingenuity, crafty wit. Lat, 

Enherd, adhered, to adhere^ to approve. Lat. htcrere. 

Enkerlj. See lokerly, egerlyy mercifully* 

Enlacity (erronoufly) Enlakit, entangled. Fr. 

Enfeinjie, hadge^Jign^ word of war. Fr. enfeigne^ Cg- 

Entailye, to cut out, to form ; from Fr. tailler^ fecare, 

Entendement, underflanding^ intention^ true meaning. 
Entone, Intone, to tune ^ to infplre. 
Entres. entry. Fr. entre. 
Erd. See Eard, to inter r^ 
Ere. See Are, to plow^ to till. 
Eigh, Erch. See Airgh, tardy. 
Ermefyne, Armefine, expl. tqffisty. 
Er-nut, eartb-nuty root of the bulbocaftanum. 
Erlis, Eilcs, Erie-penny, earnejl money. Lat. arrha^ 

Erne, eagle^ cfprey. SaK. earn^ aquila. 
Erft, heretofore. 
Ertand, perhaps .prompt in a£lion. [Sax. acrthon^ en- 

tea, priufquam. Gkiel. aird inntin^ high fpirit.] 
Ery. See YAvy, fearful. 
Efcamb, Excamb, to exchange. Ital. cambiare, permu- 

Efcambion, the aSt of excamhing or exchanging. 
Efchele (Efchel-tryro) a particular manner in which the 
divijions of an army or regiment were difpofed. It is 
alfo ufed to denote one of thefe divifions, and plu^ 
rally the whole army. Fr. efchielle. 
Efches, Affis, afhes. 
Efcheve, Elchew, to atchieve. 
Efe, to make eafy^ or accommodate. 
Efementis, accommodations, Fr. aifemcnts. 
Eflhing, conception^ the principal mean of conception. 

[Sax. efncy mafculus.] 
Effonyie, Eflbinye, to txcufe. O, Fr. exoine. 
Eftait, condition^ fit uatlon^ rank \ alfc chair of fate, 
Efter, oyfler. Tcut. oejier. 

Eftler, afJjlary free flone ; but whether it fignified ori- 
ginally bewT! or tir.heivTij fcems uncertain. Fr. ojjile. 

- Ethils, 

Et. Ey. 

Ethils, Athils^ Haithiis, nobles^ noblemen. Sax. etheL 
Teut. edel^ nobilis, nobili genere ortus ; which hj 
Wachter is derived from atta, pater. Verelius, 
however, tranflates adalmany maritus legitimus ; a-^ 
dalkonoy uxor legitima ; and adalkonu barn^ liberi 
legitimi ; from which it would appear that the word 
edel may be compounded of cey or ee^ lex ; eid^ jus ; 
and deeleUy diftribucre, judicare ; q. lawgivers, 

^tion, expl. kindredy genealogy. [Ifl. {etty genus. Wei. 
eddy I y cognatio, geos."] 

Etling, aiwy intention ; from Ettil. 

Ettil, to tntendy propofe^ or aim at, Scand. at atla^ def- 
tinare, defignare. 

Ettir-cop. See Attyrcoi^c^ /pit eful wretch, 

Euar, Y.vitT^ poty flaggon. Fr. ayguierey a larer. 

Euder, expl, /core bing beat. Fr. ardeury ardor. 

Eul-cruik, (Bur. Laws,) perhaps the largejl crooky or 
that which was ufed at Chriftmafs or Yule. 

Eweft, expl. nearejly moji contiguous^ towards, [^Sax. 
nyhjlay proximus.] 

Eveyr, Evir, Evour, Evoure-bane, ivory, Fr. 

jEvil-payit, perhaps for Evil-thayit (or thewit) illr 

Exem, Exame, to examine. 

Exercitioun, exercifcy praBice^ exertion, 

Expres^ aliogethcry wholly. 

Extre, axle-tree. B^lg. axCy axis. 

Eyme. See Erne, uncle 

Eyndii. tofuJpeEfy to be jealous of. Eyhdling, jealoufy^ 
fufpicion ; perhaps q. in.-telling ; nearly a-kin to 
Inkling, an obf cure private hi;it, Teut, een-kallinge^ 

Eyne, Eene, Eychcn, eyes. 


Fa. ■ Fa, 


V Ay foe, erumy. Sax. fah^ inimicus. 

Fa, trap for mice or rats. Sd.x.fea//, dccipulus. 

Fade, to taint^ to corrupt^ to deform, Fr. 

Fadge, a large flat loaf or ban nock ; commonlj of bar-* 
lej meal, and baked among afhes. In a Lancalliirc 
Gloflary, Fadge is e'xplained a burden. Fr. faix\ o- 
nus. [t)zn. Jkolde^iage, panisfubcineritius ; q.fced* 

'Fz.diTy father. Teut.faeder^ vader. Sax. Dan. & Swed.- 
fader. Lat. j&dr/^r. Goth. atta. Gdiel. aacher. 

Fagald, Faggelt,yi^^o/, bundle, parcel. Fr. &. Celt. 

Faik, Feck, a conjiderable quantity, the greater part ; 
probably from Teut. veeh, opes, bona. 

Faik, fold or corner of a plaid ^ a plaid nuke^ ferving 
the purpofe of a fatchell or bag ; from Fr. faque, 
faccttlus. [[Tent, voeghe, jun6\io, junftiira.] It is 
fometimes alfo ufed to fignify the plaid itfclf, parti- 
cularly a fmall plaid \ and laftly, as a verb, to foil 
or infold, correfponding, as would feem, with Tear. 
ioeghen, adaptare, accommodare, componere. 

Faik) to become weary y to fag ; from XuZX.fitigo. 

Faik, Faikit, occur in the fenfc of Vaik, Vaikir, i. c* 
become or became vacant. 

Faikles, Fecklefs, weak, deficient in power ^ A probable 
derivation might, be formed from the i eut. fucke, 
ala ; but the true one may rather be found perhaps 
in Teut.y>oi>, opes, &c. Faikfull, Feckfow dis fome- 
times ufed ia the oppofite fcnfe, large, powerful, vi^ 

Fail for Feil, many, great , often, very. Teut. veel, mul- 
tus, numerofus, frequens, copiofus. Sax. thearlt, 
multum, valde, vehementer. 

Fail, Feal, a f quart piece of fod. Fail* dyke, a wall 
built of fod ; from Field. Teut. veld, folum, fuper- 



Fa. ■ Fa. 

Failye, to fail \ neareft to which are the Swed. feelaf 
& Yv.faillir. 

Fairin, a prefent in a fair or market; of the fame family 
with Sax. feohern, gazophylacium, {yeoh^ bona, 
opes ; & erfZy locus,) a crame or fhop ; from 
which are defcended probably fair^ and Fr. foire, 

- rather than from the l^^t.ferice, 

¥ziture, feature ; alfo behaviour, dexterity ; from Feat. 

Faldj Feld, Fell, open pajlure ground, open field. In the 
latter form it denotes barren mountains. 

Fald, Fauld,^^^^-/b/^, ox fmall inclofed field \ ^,foe^ 
lett. ^^yi.faladi^fletta\ from fahy inimicus, (wolf 
or fox,) & Icetan, impedire, obftare ; oiiginallj 
made of planks. Sax. laetta, afferes. Or perhaps 
quafi fie bald, a place for holding fie oxfhecp. See 

Fald, Fauld, to fold, to fiyut up in a fold. The Saxon 
huf-boiidmen were obliged commonly to fold their 
fiieep upon the fields of. the land lord, for the bene- 
fit of the dung; which fervitude was cdllcdfaldgang, 

Falfet, fal/hood. Teut.Scand. &c. nearly the fame* 

Fait. See Faut, indigence, extreme want, 

¥^me,foam, Sax.yi/«, fpuma. 

FumoU, family, race, clan. Yx.famille. 

Yzxidy founds did find. Teut. 

Fang, Thwang, Whang, cord^ rope ; the coil or lend of a 
rope ; hence alfo noofe, trap, and the talons of a bird* 
Sax. fang, captura, captus ; from thwang, corrigia, 
ligamentum. Teut. vangh, vanck, decipula, tendL- 

Fang, to catchy in the manner a horfe is caught in. the 
field, by means of an extended rope ; to furround or 
gather in^ to f€i%e^ to fecure, Teut. vanghen, com- 
prehendere, apprehendere, injicere man us, manicas, 
catenas. See Infang. Hence, fays Ruddiman, new* 
fangle, catching at novelties. 

Fannoun, a fcarf worn on the left arm by an ofilciating 
priefi. Yx.fanon, tranflated a fanncl or maniple. 

Fantoun, ^^^.fantafiic; Mofantom. 

Farand, Farrent, befeefiiitig, becoming, hthaving, Swed. 


Fa. Fa. 

fara Uh^ to behave unkindly* Hence Auld-farrand^ • 

behaving like a grown up perfon. 
Farand man, a Jtranger or pilgrim ; from Sax. faran^ 

Fard, Farde, Faird,ybrc^, ^l^ft^ weight. Fr.Jhrdeau^ a 

burden, load, or weight j or perhaps from Teut. va- 

erdigb^ prompt U3. 
Fard, Faurd, favoured, calouredy complexioned, Dan. 

farver. Swed, /erga, tingere ; Jergad, coloured, djr- 

ed- Teut. varwe, color. 
Fardel, bundle. Ft. Jardeau^ onus. 
Fardie, Feardie, expeditious, handy ^ expert. Teut. vaer^ 

digh, promptus, agilis j from Fare. 
Fare, Fair, to go, to pafs. Fure, Fame, nuent, pajjed, 

Teut. vaeren, tendere, proficifci, vehi, petere locum - 

aliquem. ^9CL. farcui, ire. 
Fare, journey, voyage, expedition, road* Sax. faer^ 

grefius, profe&io, iter. 
Fare, behaviour, to behave. Sw^.Jara. Sec Farand. 
FarefalkiSj^/r/^j", elfs, or elves ; probably from Teut. 

vieren, feriare, feriari, feftos dies agitare, feftos ex* 

true re ignes, otiari, q. merry-^making or holiday "folks. 

It is not unlikely, however, that the name may have 

fome affinity with Teut. vaerende vrowe, Dryas, 

Hamadryas, fyl varum dea ; from Teut. vaeren^ profi-^ 

cifci, vehi, cj^uafi h&mines vagsuites veil peregrinantes. 
Farnetickels, Farntickles,y*"^ci^j» 
Farrach, expl. flrength,fubjlance. 
Fars, to farce or cram. Yx.farcir. 
Fary, Fiery-fary, confufion, tumult. 
Fas, ufed by Gaw. Douglas for hair. Szx.feax, capilli. 
Falch, Fafli, to trouble^ vex-, diflurh. Fr. fafcher^ alicui 

moleftiam creare. 
Fafcheu^, Faiheys, trovhlefome, vexatious. Ft.fafcheux, 

moled us, acerbus, gravis. 
F2i(ckiO\xxi, falchion, a kind of fword. Fx.fauchon. 
Faftems-eyen, Faftrins-even, the evening before Lent. 
. Teut. vajien-daghy the day before Vafiene, tempus 

quadragefimale. Goth, f aft an, jejunare. 
Faflbun, Faffyoun,y?j/8>/e>«. Fx.facon. 
Faffounit, Fs.w{ont,fafhioned. 

Vol. IV. I ' -[ Fauch, 

Fa Fe. 

Fauch, Faw, Fauth, Fallow, of a light red or lay co* 

lour, Yt.fawoe^ flavus. 
Fattctlty Faufght^ didr fight. Cf^x.foichte. 
Fauty Fait, want^ extreme indigence* Teut. faut^ de- 

Fax, (Gaw. Doug.^^r^. Yx.'dX^faccia^ facies. 
Fay, Fey, truths faith , fidelity ^ confidence. O. Fr. fey* 
Faynd,yb«/// alfo for Fond, to defire eagerly. 
¥et¥eCfVey^¥i€,Jheep» Tent, vee, veech, S^Xmfeoh* 

Swed. fae, Goth, fachus, pecus, pecuaxia, armen- 

turn, divitise, opes, & univerfa fubftantia. Hence,. 

accordiog to Ruddiman, Fee^ merces, premium, wa* 

Feator, Faytor, deceiver, Fr. 

Fechtzris^fighters, foldiers. Teut. vechter^ pugnator« 
praeliator. Some have conje&ured, with no fmall 
degree of pfobabilitj, that the Peyhts, if a Teutonic 
people, might have diftinguiihed themfelves by this 
appellation, which the Saxons afterwards pronoun- 
ced and wrote Peohtar,. and the Welch Fitcbid. See 
Peyhts-. • 

Feck & Fecklefs. See Faik & Faikles, , 

Fedderum, Fedderome, Fedderoun, qxiafi featherings 
wings ; the plural of Teut. feder, pluma, penna. 

Fee, Fey, Fie, on the 'serge of death, under a fatality. 
Yx.fee. Teut. veygh^ moribundus, morti propinquus, 
qui prsefentem mortem evadere non poteft. Swed.. 
feg, fato imminens. 

Feidom, thefiate of being fee. 

Feid, Feyde, Fede, feud^ enmity. Teut. veyde^ veede, 
viedy odium, inimicitiae, helium. 

Fell, Fele, many, often ^f ever al. Teut. veUy veel. Sax. 
fealay multi, multum, plures. 

Feil, Feill, knowledge ^ eonfcioufnefs^ fenfe ; from Teut.. 
voeleny fentire, fapere. 

Feir, Fere, Effere, Efifeir, drefs, accoutrement s, appear^ 
ance. Feir of Weve, fkew of war. Swed. ferg. 
Teut. verwCf color. . 

Feirs of the year, average price of the different hinds of 
€orn, for a year ; from Fr. feur, seitimatio venali- 
um, pretii conftitutio ; affenrer^ annonae venali pre- 



Fe, Fc. 

tium edicere ; foy^ fides, bccaufc the affeurers were 
fworn to give a juft jadgment. 

Feird, Ytx^. fourth. S^td.Jierde. Teut. vierde, quar- 

Feits, Feets. See Theets, traces, 

Fele. See Feil, many^ g^^^^^ '^'^^y* 

Fele-fyis, many times. See Sjis. 

VfMjJkin^ bide. Teut. vel^ •• pcUis/* cutis, exuvix, ter- 

Fellon, FeUoun, expl. cruel, from Fell. It may, how- 
ever, mean only great or exceffive^ from Feil. 

Fell well, right toell^ very wett. See Feil, very. 

Felterit, Jelted^ matted^ united without weaving. Fn 

Feroynitie, woman-hood ; <{.JeminaKty* Lat. 

Fend, Jhtfty livelihood ; to earn a livelihood. \0. Fr. 
viandery vefci, pafci.] 

Fenefter, Fynifter, window. I^at. Feneftra. 

Ferd. See Fttrd^Jourtb. 

Ferde, fared^ went. See Fare, to go. 

Fere, companioUy comrade. Sax. ^^r^tfocius^ com^s. 

Fere. See Feir,^/&Mc;, appearance y array. 

^ere, (Gaw. Douglas,) expl. entirely wholly \ ratfher 
perhaps /ecurity. See Fure. 

feriat, out of term^ holiday, Teut. vieren^ fcriari, oti- 
ari ; whence alfo Fairies^ fometimes called Ferters^ 
quafi merry-making or holiday folks. See Fare- 
folkis. ' 

Ferie, Feiry, cautious. Ferilie, ^eirylic, eautiou/ly. 
Teut. vaerlicky timendus. 

Feris. See AfFeiris, Effeiris, becomes ^ thereto belongs. 

Ferle, Fardle, the quarter of a thin large oaten cake ; q. 
feird'daUy fourth fliare. 

Ferlie, wonder, Jirange ohjeB ; alfo to wonder ; per- 
haps ^.fair-Ukey from the gew-gaws expofed to falc 
at ajair. 

fcTxne^Jirm^ to make firm. Lat. 

Fern, Fame, gone, fared. See Fare, to go. 

Fern, Fearn, a prepared gut ^fuch as the firing of a mu/^ 
Jical infirument. Sax« therm, inteftinum. 


Fe. Fe. , 

Fern-yeir, Farne-yer, the year that is^one, lafi yeavm 

See Fare, to go, 
Ferray, forage, Yx.fourrage^ pabulum. 
Y^rx^2iXy ferry ^many boatman. 
Ferry, to farrow, to bring forth young, 
YcTierlykyfairy^like, See Fare-folkis. 
Fery, Feirie, fre/hy vigorous ; nearly fynonimous with 

Fardie ; q. v. alfo cautious. See Ferie, 
Y^t to fetch f purchafe^ prepare, S?LX,fetiany adducere« 
Fctous, YttCf featy neat^ trim, O, Yt.faiSiis^- 
Fetoufliej^ Fctufly, neatly ^ trimly ; from Fetous. 
Fettil, expl. cafe^ condition^ energy^ ponuer^ fir ength, 
Fetyl, expl. to join chfely, S2iyi, fetel^ cingulum. 
Feu, fee, Fr. fify a fpecies of tenure, the nature of 
•which is univerfally known. The word, in all thefe 
three forms, is an abbreviation of the Lat. barb. 
feudum or fodumy the original jxieanin^ of which 
was certainly neither more nor lefs than bondage or 
Jlavery, iBut here a queftion arifes, vhich, to this 
hour, has never received a fatisfaflkory folution ?— ^ 
Whence comes Feudum ? After all the elaborate 
inquiries of Spelman, Wachter, Stiernhielm,' Gro- 
tius, Hottoman; &c. it may perhaps be deemed pre- 
fumption in ihe to anfwer, — From the Sax. theudom 
or theowdom. The word is tranflated by Lye,' fer- 
yitium, fervi.tus, paancipatio. Sax» Chron. weoruld 
theudomy faeculare fervitium ; theudom nimaUy fervi- 
tium exigere ; g^ freed of ealle theudom y liberates ab 
omni fervitio. Pfalm 103. v. 15. 'wyta theoivdome 
mannoy herbas fervituti ))ominum. — Caedmon. ne 
wolde theowdom tholian, noluit fervilutem pati. — 
!Lxod. I. v. 14. mid celcon /Z>^oii;^o/»^, cum omnigena 
fervitute ; Boet. 5. i. on heora theowdome beon^ iii 
corum famulatu efie. Thofe writers who had oc- 
caiion to mention the word in Latin, took the liber- 
ty to write feudum inllead of theudum, there being, 
in iTidiy no fuch found as th in that language, 'l.heu^ 
dcm is from the Sax. theoWy fervus, manccps ; or the 
veib thewiauy between which and the Scottifh verb 
tofeUy in its original fignification, there is alfo a \^-^ 
ly ftriking corrcfpondence. Lye tranflaies it i. fcr- 


Tc Fi. 

rire, in fervitutis ftatu miaiftrare ; fcrvire tanqaam 
miles. 2do. in fervitutem redigere, mancipare— 
In what manner were the contemporary writers in 
Latin to exprefs this word theowan ? As they had 
converted tbeudom into feudum ox feodumy they ufed 
the fame liberty with the verb by converting it 
into feodart^ from whence were formed, feodalisy 
JeudatoriuSf and many more of the fame kind. 

Although, however, the words thew and tbeudom 
came thus to be changed to feu and feudome^ fome 
veftige of the antient form was to be found, until 
very lately, in ^ charter^ from the ciown. Sec 
Theme, ft may be proper to mention that Spel- 
ihan \ix\x\g^ feudum from Sjix. /?<?/&, pccus, opes, (by 
him tranj^at^d alfo) ftipendium, quali f co-La J, ordo 
& ftatus flipendiarius ; Wachter and Siiernhitlm 
from Teut.fodeny ^utrire ; foda^ alimentum ; Gro- 
tiiis from feo^ flipendiiim & d/f, fubftantia, fundus, 
polTeilio ; Obertus from "L^t.fdes or fuU lit as ; Hot- 
toman horn feed (feud) bellum ; Guyet from fdtdm, 
beneficium ; and an anonymous etymologill from the 
firft letters of the words ** Fidelis ero domino vero 

Fcwlume, fuppofed by Ruddiman to mean a ffiarrow 

Fewter, Enter, (Gaw. Douglas,) " They fewter fute 
to fute," i. e. fays Ruddiman, their feet are intanj(- 
led or feltred together \ from Yr.feutre, paniuis co- 
a^ilis. Sax. fe/t. 

TcuTCyfurrtnu in cornfields. Sax. 

Fevfty^ fealty, O. Fr. feuulte ; from Lat. 

Fey. See Fee, under a fatality. 

Feyhal, foal^ of which it feems to be a Celt, corrup- 

Fidder. See Fudder, load^ large parcel. Teut. 

Fidge. See Fyke, to fidget ahout^ like one who has the 

Fierdy, tx^\. fierce ^fiotit. See Fardle. 

Fill ok, Filly, a young mare j ulfo in a derifory way, a 
virl or younp woman. 


Fi Fi. 

Filybeg, a kilt or Jhort petticoat. Gzt[.Jilleadb»beg^ U^ 

terally a little plaid. 
Fine, end. (Z€it.Jin. laZU^nis, 
Finey, Tainy^Jiaally. 

Fippilj to whimper or Jioi, to utter a plaintive Jbtrnd^ to 
behave unmanlike. D^r\.^ipper^ to flied tears, to crj, 
Swed. Jleper^ a filly fellow ; fUpdy plorare, 
Firron, Farrcn, of pine tree. Sax, furhvudu. Teut, 
^uyren-hout^ pious, abies. It is worthy of notfce, 
that the Teut, word is commonly placed* among the 
derivatives oifuyr^ ignis ; fo that^r feems to have 
fignified orignally ^r^-«;oo^,j 
Firth, Frith, an arable farm ; ext^nftve cultivjated fields^ 
or perhaps any fecure place of rejidence or pojffejjion^ 
within a wood. The word feems to be merely a^ 
variation of the O, Engl, or Sax, worthy prsDdiumw 
fundus. ** O'er firth and fell," over cultivated and 
pajlure fields. Skinner tranflates this expreflion^^/c 
per fylvam i Jive per fampum^ but upon what authori- 
ty I cannot difcover. For, although the Sax. fritk, 
and grith tranflated ** pax,^' (and alfo ufed iov fane- 
tuary^ are evidently the fam^ word, with the fame 
derivatives in the fame fcnfe, it is not thereby af- 
certained that either of th^m fignified a wood; oil 
the contrary, in various inflances frith appears in ^ 
llate of contra-diflinftion to wood ; as, 
He had both hallys and bourys, 
Irythes^ £^yr forefts wyth flourys. 

Romance of Emare*, 
By foreft, and hjfrythe. Ibid. 
When thei fing loud infrithey or in foreft. 

It is almoft needlefs to remind the reader that Engr 
lifli friihy reftuarium, has no conneftion whatever 
with the word under confideration, either ip its 
meaning or derivation. The terminationyjr^/may, 
hoviever, in fome inftances be a corruption or vari- 
ation of j^r/Z>, particulaily in the name of a place 
not fituated near a river. 
Fiffil, Fiftle, to rujlle^ tojlir ; ex fono. 


Fi FI. 

Tit, Tjttf/ongt Jbort poem ; more commonly ufed for 

a di'O'tJion or portion of a poem. Sax. Jitte, canti- 
Titf /hot, Fit4es, footles. Fitty, Putty, expeditious. 
Fittinment^ exphjooting, ejlahlijbment, concern* Vulg. 
Fitfted, the print of the foot ; from Stead. 
£la£r, to flap, as a bird doth its wings. 
Fl^airieSf gewgaws, vagaries. 
Flaggis, ¥\2i\xchts^fuddef^bla^s of windy or qfxvindand 

rain, Flaggis of fyre, flajhes of fire ; from Teut. 

vlaeghe^ procella^ tempeftas. G^d.fiaiche, a blall of 

^lain, Flane, arrow. Flanys, arrows. S2ix.fian, fagitta, 

jacolum. Goth, fiein, hafta. 
Flain, Flane, having the Jkin puWd off. Sax. flcan^ ex- 

flakes, Flatcs, hurdles, fuch as are ufed in (heep mar- 

kcts for making fmall inclofures. Teut. vlacck^ 

Flamit. See Fleme, to hantjh. 
Flane. See Plain, arrow. 
Flap, flap, blow, the found thereby produced. 
Flat, to flatter, 
Flaught,7fo/&. See Flaggis. 

Flaughts, handfulls ; corr. of claughts from clav. •-. 
Flayt, Plate, didflyte^fcolded. See Flyte. 
Flatlings,^///y, lying flatly. 
Flaw. See Flaggis, hlafts ; alfo, did fly. 
¥\z,v/e, yellow. L^t. flavus. 
Flauchter,^7^i«^. See Plain. 

Flauchter-feal. long turf cut with aflauglter fpade, 
Flaachter-fpade, a fpade for fliying or paring off thr 

furface ef the ground. See Plain. 
. Flaughtbred, expl. hriflily, fiercely ; rather perhaps I he 

fame with Belly*flaaght^ flr etched flit on ti.i: 

Flawkertis, cxpl. gaiters, boots, armour for the Irgu 
Fie, Fley, Pleg, to frighten. Fleit, frightened. S«ix. 

fUon, fugare ; flyz^t ^«*g* > *'*" rather from Fr, ef 


Fl FL 

Fledgear, Fledgeour, a maker of arrows / from Fr,. 

flecbcy fagitta. 
Fleich, to flattery to coax. Fleichand,^^//^ry, hoaxing, 

Tcut.-^lejfdeny blandiri, adulari, aflentari. , 

Fleim. See Fleme, to hanijb. 

Fleit, to run from. Teut. ^^lietetiy fluere, ahundare, 
Flekker, Flikker, to flutter ^ tojbakey properly, accord- 
ing to the manner in which a bird moves its wingf, 

Teut. flagghcreny vlichehn^ ^folitare^ 
Tlekkjtfjpotted^fpec^led'y from Teut, flecJ^, macula. 
Fleme, Fleim, to hanifb or expeUy to driv£ away, Sax» 

flyman^ in exilium mittere, ex legem reddere. 
Flendris, ¥lendQTS,Jp /inters^ pieces ; quafi^Ww/^r, from^ 

Fr.fsndrCy or la^it. flndere^ to fplit. 
Flcoure, FlcuTc^ fmeliy odour, commonly in abadfenfcv 

Tv. flair y odor, ** flavour." 
Flefchour, butcher, Teut. vleefch^houwer^ carnifex. 
Flete. See Fleit, toflowy to float, Vlctyfloated, 
Fie wet, expl. afmart blow, [Ft.fleau, flagellum.J 
Fleukes, Flowksy flounders yjoles. 
Flej. iSee Fie, to terrify, 
Flikker. See Flekker, to flutter. 
Fling, to throw, to kicky toflrike hackwurdy like a Tiorfe 

with his hind- feet. [Swed.yZp«^<7, percutere ; or it 

may originally have lignified only to throw darts or 

javelins ; from Sax.^a;/, jaculum.] 
riiils:, to move about in an idle manner y tofrijk, 
Flitcher. See Flekker, to flutter, 
Flitt, to remove^ particularly in the fenfe of from one 

dwelling place to another. Dan.^^/^r, commigro. 
Flocht,yiv7r, teirory anxiety ; from Fleg, to terrify, 
Flodder, Flottir, to overfloiVy to hefmeafy ox befpatter„ 

D^n.flyder, demano ; flod^ inundatio. 
Tloucht y flight f did fly or flutter^ 
Fludder, expl.fro/ick, 
Fium, (Gaw. Douglas,) floody in the fenfe of flurnen 

ingenii, a f peat of language. 
Flume or Fleume, />Z>/(?^w. 

Flmig, bafliedy deceived ; q, thrown off ; from Fling. 
Flureis, Flurys, to flour ifh ox bloom, 
Flufchj a pool, ^•3iy.,fle%vfay flnxus, piofluvium. 

. Flynd, 

^ ' 

Ti. ■• Bo. 

'FljfBXidiytx^X.Jleeringi flaunting, Stx.fleardian^ nugari^ 

Fljte, Flite, toJcoM^ to chide, to rally, ^TiSi.flitan, dif- 
putare, jorgari, contendere. Ttixufluyten, mentiri, 
mendacio ludos aliqui facere. 

YlyttXyOne addiSed, to fcolding, Sax.^/Vf^, rabula. 

Fod, to generate, or to ufe the means. Scand. fceda, gig- 
nere, futoere, 

Fodge, Fadge, large bannock, S^x.^oca, panis fiib-ciaere 

Fode, Foode, perhaps leader, chieftain. Swed. fogde. 
Tc»t. voht, voght, pr?e£eAus ; qoi prorinciam regis 
vel magnatis alicujus gubemandam fufcepit ; praetor,* 
&c.> Probably the moft antient form of the word is 
the- Sax. theodn, giibemator, nearly allied to, if not 
the fame with, /^^«, thanu?. This "^ord foode oc- 
curs in the prophetic legend of Thomas the Rhymer, 
St. 26 and ^6. See Vol. IIF. p. 132, where, how- 
ever, it has been raifaly and un»neceffarily altered to 

Fog, tnofs, Foggage, after grafs. 

Fbn,.Fonner, tsi fondle, to embrace.- 

Fond, to defire earneftly. Sax. fundian, avide expetere. 

Fond,, Found, v}ent\ from Sax. y5r»^/r,adire. 

Fonding, Fanding, eff&rt,. endeavouring. 

Tone,. foes ; g. foen, the plural of foe.^ 

For fa mekitl, forafmucb. 

For-beft, expl. baffled ; q. fore buffed ; from Fr. buffe. 

Forbeiraris,>Forbcris, ancefots, forefathers. 

For-bodin, ill fated, unhappy, unlucky, Teut. veur» 
bode; prsefagium. 

For-breift,^r^ part of a coat or tfefl. Teut. veur-^borflp 

For-by, befideSy. beyond, over and above ; Tent, veur^- 
bii, trans, prseter, ultra. ^ 

Forbye, along in front, along before. 

For-byfning, prototype, exemplar. Sax. omen. 

Forceats, Jlaves, galley flaves. Fr. forceat. 

Totcy^ Forfy, Forty, violent. Teut. fortfigh, audax. 

Fordel, the firjl place / theforemofl or befl fhare ; from 
Dele. . 

• Vol. IV. K For-dele, 



For-dele, to wafle \ a3 if, to diftribute or part with tad 

manyjbarts. See Dele. 
For-dovcrit, Fordo werit, (Gaw. Douglas,) overtoiled, 

exhaujled with fatigue. See Dover. 
Fordwartisi paSIions, agreements, conditions. Sax. Jbr-i 

ward, Teut. /etir^waerde, q. d. feur^woord, jTore'^ 

wordy pa^um, faedus, conventum. 
Tor dull, to make duil, or /ad, 
For-djnn, to fnahe a great noife, to echo, to refound. See 

Fore-fpeaker, advocate, S2JL,fore^fpeecay prolocutor* 
Fore-ftam, the Jtem ov prow of a Jbip^ prora ; hence it 

alfo &.gm&^sfore*bead. 
For-faim, decayed, wafted, exhatifted. .Sax. for-faren^ 

Teut. vervaeren, perire, cvanere, cvanefcere. 
Forfalt, Forfault, to forfeit ; from Fr. forfaire, forif« 

facere. The fame word is alfo explained) lofl, e;c- 

Forfet, expl. ruin ; may rather mean perhaps offence^ 

tranfgrejffion. Yx,forfaiBy mifdeed. See Forfalt. 
^oX'^ilteny fever elyfcolded. See Flytc. 
For-fochin» fatigued or exhaujled with fighting, or with 

any violent exercife, ^ 

For-gadder, to meet, to encounter, Teut. ver^gaderen, 

For-gane, Forgenft, over againft, oppqfite to. 
Forge, went towards, met ; corr. irowifured, went. 
For-headie, cenforious, Scand. foerhada, ludihrio ha- 
For how, toforfakey toabandon\ from SQ2indi,for-'hafua, 

fuperhabere, contemnere. 
For-bowar, deferter. See For-how. 
For^lane, to give or grfint, Scand. forlana, conce- 
de re. 
For- lane, all alone, quite alone, 

For-lay, to lie in amhufb, Teut. verlaegheny infidiari. 
For-leit, Forlete, to abandon, to quit, to forfahe, to give 

over, to relinquifh. Teut. verlaeten, relinquere, de- 

• folate. GoXh. fraletan, dimittere. 
For-leith, to lodth^ to abhor. Sax. lathiany deteftari. 


Fo. Fo. 

For-loppin, fugitive^ vagabond^ renegadoe. Teut. v^r- 

hopen^ transfugere, vagari. Sec Low p. 
YovAoxCy forlorn, Teut. ver-bren, perditus ; from loor, 

melancholicasy triftis. 
For-lyne, /ay Jinfully wftb. Scand. foerltgga^ vitiofe 

For-mekil, 'oery great. See Mekil. 
Forne, Forrow, To-forne, before^ formerly , heretofore, 

Scand. ybr»y prseteritus, antiquus. 
Foroutin, Forowtyn, without. S?LX.f>r^utan, fine. 
YoTpity fourth part of a peck. 
¥ 0TX2Lj^ for age f plunder. Hx.fourrage. 
Forraj, to forage^ to over- run. Yv.forer. 
Forret, cortup. oi fore-heady front. 
For-rew, to repenf exceedingly. For-rwyd, repented ^x- 

ceedingly. See Rew, to repent. 
Forrow, before. 
Forrow, Farrqw, barren^ that yields no milk ; peihaps 

q. fallow. 
For-fpeak, to injure by immoderate praife. For-fpokeOj, 

bewitched^ &c. See Forefpeaker. 
For-ftaw, to underfland. Swed. forjtae. Dan. forflaar. 

Teut. verfaen^ intelligere. 
Forfj. See Forty, violent, 
Forthi, For-thy, by corruption For-quhy, becaufe^ for 

this reafon that. Sax. fortha^ quia, propterea. In 

znoft cafes the point of interrogation after ^ for 

quhy" is erroneous. Not for-thy^ not for alf 

Fpr tiJ, For to, to. 
FortilleSi fortrefs, fortalice. 
For-thynk, to diflurb^ to fill with perplexing thoughts^. 

Szx. for-thencany diffidere. 
Foity, Fbrfy, violent y fierce. Hcnt. fortfigby audax. 
For-wakyt, exhaufied by lying long awake. It miglit 

alfo fignify awakened ; from Teut. ver^weckeny fuf- 

For-way, ex pi. to wander y to go afltayy to err. It may 

alfo fignify to get before upon a roady or to way 'hay* 

Scand. facrwaegy praecurrcre, ut alteri infidias ftru- 



Fo Fr. 

For-worthin, unworthy^ i/^/y, hatefuL 

For-yet, For-yhet, to forget. Foryettin, For-jfhottyn, 

For-yieild, repay y reward^ and by confe<j. to furnijb ; 

from Sa^.^'/i^fr, folvere. 
Fofs, " arte pit or fowfie^ quhairin wemen condemnit 

for theft fuld be drownit." Skene. 
'Fol\cTy progeny. Scznd.Jh/lerf paitus, progenies. 
Foflel, Voftell, vejfel.jhip. 
Fotch, to Jhift or change the cattle in a phugh. [Swed. 

forha^ urgere ; fortgang^ fuccefius.] 
Fouchty n, ybw^i&^. Teut. Jfohten. 
Found, Fond, to go ,• alfo went^ marched^ Sax. fundan^ 

Foune, behnging to fawns. 
Foufome, clumfy^ hoyden^wife ; c^.foulfome. 
Foufy, Fowfie, ditch. Yt.foJJe. 
Fow, Vol. II, p. 236. perhaps knap-Jack. \VT.fouilloufe^ 

a bag ot fcrip.] According to Mr Finkcrt'on, a club. 
FoWyfuily drunk* 
Fowth, Fouth, fullnefsy plenty^ abundance ; from Fow, 

full ; quafi fulthy as wealth from weal^ to choofe. 
Foy, a treat given to friends by one who is going abroad. 

Teut. defoygeven. 
Foyn, Foynzee, the wood maftin or beech martin ; a 

kind, of pole- cat \ muftela feu viverra qusedam lep. 

tentnonalis, muflela fpenaria. Fr. fouine^ mart^s. 
Foyfoun, Y^ytvLUyfuhflance^fapy Jirength. 
Yo'Ljyfpungyyfofi. Teut. voos^ *if0ojigy fpongiofus, 
Fta, Fray (mod ) YvzCyfrom. 
JFrak, Frack, freight, cargo, Teut. vracht. Swed. 

frakt, veftio, Ventura ; naulum, portorium. 
Frak, nimble^ fwift, Frakar, nimhUr^fwifter. Fracklie, 

nimbly y fwiftly, fpeedily, 
Frak, to move fwrftly, to glide ^ to fiajh. Ruddinrian 

brings frak from Sax. fraec^ profugus ; or from 

Teut. vrachty veclio. See Flaggis. 
Frais, Frafe, to ufe more words or *^ phrafes^^ than are 

necejjaryy to provoke with idle palaver, \Go\h.Jfrai» 

favy tentare.] Frais is alfo ufed by Gaw. Douglas 


Fr. , Ft. , 

in the fenfe of to crajb or to make a crajbing noifi j 
from Sw ed.jraja, crepitare. 

Fraift, expLj^rive, try. [Goth.^raj/jii, tentarc] 

Frait, Fray It, afraidy frightened. ' 

Frane, Frajn, to enquire^ to ajk^ to dejire* Franand, 
ajking^ dejtring. .Teut. vraegben. Goth, fraibnan^ in- 
terrogare, qosereie. The word alio occurs as an ab- 
breviation of refrmn. 

^YVLnQhisfanBuary^afylum. Yr.franchife; Aio liber ^ 
alUy^ generojity. 

Frate, (Gaw. Douglas,) noife^ crackings fuch as the 
noife made by two cables rubbing agaiuft one ano- 
ther with violence. 

Fratit, expl. wrought. 

Frature, Fratericy Frater-boufe^ dining apartment in a 
monajltry. Lat. 

Fraucht. See Frack, cargo. 

Frawart, Fraw full, /reward, crofs^ untoward '^ c^. fronts 
ward. Szx. Jramveard. 

Frayit, a/raid ; alfo, engaged in tumult. Fr. 

Fre^ excellent^ bountiful, t reidom, generojtty^ liberality. 
Frelj, liberally. 

Fre, expl. lady. [Swed.yrw, matrona.] 

Freiky FrekCf fellow ; but naore cotamonlj petulant or 
forward young man. Scand. fraecb, turoidus, info- 
lens ; alacer, ftrenuus ; from whence, according to 
Jhre^ the name of Franks. Scand. reie, athleta. 

FTGinyie, fringe. 

Freith, to proteB^ to help ; from the fame origin with 
Firth, viz. S^if..fritbian^ protegere ; fritby pax. 

FxeitSf fuperjiitious fayings ox proverbs ; perhaps from 
Scand. fraegd^ fama, rumor j or quafi frights ^ as 
hath been conjectured. 

Frelege, freedom ^ power ^ privilege. Sax. freoleta^ liber- 

Frelye, expl. powerful. Szyi,freoIic^ liberalls. 

Fremmyt, Fremit, Frem'd, flrange^ foi eign. Tent. 

, vremd. Sax. fremd, peregrin us, alienus, cxtraneus, 

q. d. ver^heymdy longe ?. patiia fivt' demo ; \t\ a 

^^znd.framf ab, ex. Vl^h^framathiana^ peregriniis. 


Fr. -: Fu. 

Frenchiy, generouflyy frankly ; from Fr. franc^ inge*r 

Frenfum, q, d. Yt^va^ioxsi^^ friendly. Sc^nd. frand/iemr, 

Fret, a band, Fc.fyet^ a virrol ; alfo expl. decked. In 

all thefe fenfes, the derivation may be from Sax. 

thredy filum, as fearn (inteftinum) from thearm, 
,Preth, to liberate. See Firth or Frith. 
Frewch, Fru(h, brittle. Scand.^^izf, friabilis. 
i^rift, Freft, credit^ refpite^ trujln TeutJ frifl, piora^ 

Frith. See Firth, (?« arable f army Sec. 
Fritte, perhaps for Frith, refuge^ prote£lioti, 
piody, expl. cunning ; c^.fraudy. 
Frogi upper coat^ frock, Fr, jfrocy fcapulare. 
Frugge, Rug, a coarfe woolen counterpane or he^cqve7\ 

See Frog. 
Frufch. S6e French, brittle, 
Frufched, expl. buttled ; alfo broke, 
Fruftir, unavailing ; alfo to render ufelefs, Lat. 
Fryn.e, perhaps valour y prowefs ; froin Teut. vrome^ 

llrenuus, fortis, animofus. 
Fki^ fr let, or four pecks \ quafi, a f riot full, 
Fud, Tude, the tail, (commonly of hares or rabbits.) 

iSicamb. fut^ fuite, Cimb. fudy pudenda. \^,fud^ 

Fuddcr. See Futhir, a cart had, Teut. voedery vehes. 
Fugc, FvLgiti fugitive, Lat. 
Fuiihjfetihedy brought ; piet. oi fetch, 
Fulye, ma7iure, dung, Teut. vvyligheydy fordes. 
f ulyeit, ^r/'^'A?/^; ^^o found guilty. See Fulye. 
Fuviizrty pole -cat, fu2imart \ c^, foul-martin y with which 

animal Walton couples the frichatj probably the 

weafel. 'Wwi.fret, 
FumQyfavcury relijh, Fx,fu7ner, 
Fumler, Caik-fumler, expl. a turn-cake or parafte\ or 

perhaps a niggardly fellow ; one who hides, whelmg, 

or fumles his cake, that nobody may partake of it. 
Fnmjy foamy ; from Teut, faumy froth. ^ 

Fund. See round, went. Fundun, marchirg, 
Fundyn, eftalfJJjcdy fettled, founded, 


Fa. ¥f. 

Fundjng, Fandjing, benumbing^ numhnefs ; nearly tfid 
fame with foundering. Teut. ghe^-wondt^ faacius. 

Fuik, Fuiche, gallows, Lat. barb. Furca. 

Fare, Fuir, Jared^ went. See Fare, to go. 

Fare, firm^ frejhy founds in good plight, Swed. foer^ 
fanus, bene habens ; unfoer^ infirm us. On fute fare, 
found in the feet, 

Yxxre^ fur y furrow, Teut. vorne^ fulcus. 

Fure-dayis, Foor dais, late in the afternoon. Szx.forth-^ 

^ dageSf die declinante. The fame word might, how- 
ever, fignif J before day light ; from Teut, veur^dagh^ 
tempus antelucanum. 

^VLxloXyfrlot ; according to Skinner, ^.feirdy or fourth 
lot of fome larger meafure. 

Farm, Form, long feat or bench, S^Ti,fyrmtha. 

Yurthyy ready y or forward of fpeechy frank, 

Fuft, expl. bj Lord Hailes roajied ; q. fu9i^ed, 

Fnte'h^ndy foot-guards ; fo called in the time of James' 
the Fifth. 

Fute-hett, Fut-hait, warm purfuity hard at the heelsy 
with a hot-foot, 

Fute-pack, a pack which can be carried by a man on 

Puthir, Fudder, indefinite large quantity or number ; 

according to Skene, 128 ftones ; — to Ray, i6od 

pounds; — to Blount, about a tun. Teut. vocdcr, 

vehes, a cart-load. 

Fyke, tojidge or fidget about, Tcnt.fickeny fricare. 

Fykes, an itching in the fundament. 

Fyleyfowl, D2Ln,fuyl, Goth, fugloy avis. 

Fyne, endy extremity, height, Lat. Celt. 

Fynift, bounded, terminated. 

Fyppil. See Fippil, to whimper, 

Fyre-fangit, feis&ed by fire. See Fang. 

Fyre-flaucht-,^^/^ of lightning. See ¥\^gy3,fii/hch 

Fyve-fum,^i'f, about five. 


Ga. — i— — . Ga. 


Ga, to go. G^i^f goes. Gaid, Yeid, went. 

Gab, the moutb. Dan. kiebcf maxilla, mandibula. 

C^Jab, GafF, Gabble, to talk idly^ to prate^ to gibe. 

Swed. gabboi irridere. Teut. gabber en^ nugari, jo- 

Gabber, idle talker. See Gab, 
Gabby, Gabband, loquacious^ talkative. 
Gaberlun jie-man, a begging pedlar who went abeut the 

country with a load of trumpery in a bajket or wal" 

let, upon his loin j quafi, a gabert*loined man ; from 

Fr, gabarre, originally a wicker boat covered wifh 

leather. Sec Gabert. '' 

Gabert, a large bark for carrying goods, a lighter. iPt. 

gabarre, garrabot, from Lat. carabus, parva fcapha, 

ex vimine fafta, contexta corio. 
Gad, goad. Dan. & Sax. gad^ ftimulus, aculeus. 
Gaddyr, to gather. Gadryd, gathered. Teut. gaderen, 

Gade, Yeid, went. Goth, iddia^ ivit. 
Gad-wand, ^z /o/zg" rod with ajharp point at the end, for 

driving yoke oxen. See Gad. 
Gaffer, garrulous or talkative perfon. See Gab. O. 

Engl, gaffer was, however, a refpe^lful appellation, 

equivalent to good father, or perhaps to Sax. gefere, 

foci us. 
Gail, Gale, to pierce, as with a loud and (hrill noife. 

Id. at gala, aures obtundqre. 
Gainyng, (O. Engl.) Gainage, the flock upon a farm, a 
■ performs capital. Sax. ge-ahnian, poffidere, q. owning 

ov property. It might alfo fignify the utcnjils. See 

Gane, toferve. 
Gaift, ghofl. Sax. Swed. ^c. gajl, fpeftrum. 
Gait, road,Jir€et. Swed. gata. Ulph. gaiuo, platea. 
Gait, gcats ; as flicep denotes the plural as well as the 

fingular number. Sax. get, capri. 


64. ^^'^ — Ga. 

Gair. SeeO^rCi a narrow flip of fertile p^afs : Alfo ra^ 
pacious ; ffodoi S^lired. karrig^ avarus. 

Gftktoiie berryk. See Gatten berries, iramble ber^ 

G^iztiogi, q. Gofltfajs, yoimg geefi. 

Gale, Gail, tojing^ to call intbe manner tf a iird. 
Swedv gala. Dan. gakr^ IfL. gallary cantare. 

Gallafcbes, wooden Jboes\ pair of clog^ fhrong fhoes ha* 
ving part of the upper leather doMe. Fr. gato-* 

Gaines, Galmen, ajfyibmtnt^ a fine paid in> goods or 
monej to the illations of 1 -ptrtfon whb had bcea 
flainbjculpabte homictde, or in a fudden fit of inad- 
nlsfe \ ntaf perhaps have fome affinity with Ifl. g(dly 
galin^ gainings infanus, furens ; galnas, infanire ; ga^ 
^enJ^finftLni^i q.pajmeinfori)ii9f's^adnefs. Or not 
hnprobabty may be a corruption of Ganyeild, rf- 
coMpen^e.. \^. gitlde^ aeftimiutn hoooiiflis ; algillde^^ 
aequalis talib ; gillding^ xftrmatio.3 

Gaftort, G^o^ie, pl^^y> g^^at pfeHty* Gad. gu'loir, -e- 

Galy, ^kpL reel ; -abbrev* ni gaHiarS^^ a quick dtfhce. 

Galyeard, Gaillard, brijky fprightly, lively ^ i^hturfuL 
Fr. gaiUard^ alaeer, vividus, hilaris ; from Sax. gaL 
Teut. geily libidinofus, lixxurians, fsdax, petulans^ 

Galy^ardlie, ^llanily. 

Gan), gtwtei G^tntnys^giftntSt . 

GammySy Gams, gums. Teut. gaum, palatum. 

Gamb^tis, gamholsj ihefbujfiing tmd fRnging of an a- 
g^e dancer. Fr. gambade, crurtrm jaftatio ; from 
yambe, crus. 

Gamefons, Gamyfouns, armour for the breajl and hel^ 
ty ; Mr Pinberton inysfor the legs. Fr.gamboifon, 
anciently Wis^^^y a liorfeman's qig^ilted coat. 

Gamountis, limbs, all below the wa0m It is alfoiifed 
in the £^me fenfe with Giambettis. 

Gani began ; fdmetitnes Written Can* 

Gane, gone. See Gang, to go. 

Gatfe, mouth, throat ; flightly varied from Tcuf. 

* gdum, palatum. Ruddiman here adduces Sax. gin^ 
Vol. IV. L Gant; 

Ga. — Oa. 

Gant, to yawn ; perhaps from Gane, mouth. 

Gane, Gain, to Jerve^ to fuffice^ or be fuffictent fan 

Gzxk^ndiyferving^fujfficientfor ; 2M0 y feafo>iable^fuit^ 

able to, Swcd. gagna, g^^^t prodeffe ; gen^ utilis. 
G^nQ&y fit tejly mojl fuitahle 'j quafi, moji gainand* Swedv 

gagneligy commodus, utilis. 
Gang, to go^ to walk. Gaid, went. Ttut. gaen. Goth. 

gaggan, ire. 
Gangaris, fieet. 
Cahgarel, alltt. gr. for tiangrail ^ alfa a child beginning 

to walk. Swed. 
Ganfaldy Ganfelli expl. a fever e rebuke. 
Gantr^is, Jlands for ale barrels \ q. garn-trees^ fEOfa 

Dan. gaerende, fermenting. See Goan, a wooden 

Ganye, Gainye, Genyie, Gaynyhe, arrow, dart, jave* 

lin, Ifl. gana, praeceps ruo, pernix volare. [Teut. 

ganfsy anfer, *' goofe wing.*'] Mr Macpherfon refers 

it to Ir. gaine^ reed, cane. 
Ganyeild, requital^ recompence, due reward \ perhaps 

fronn gan^ i. e. again, & gildan, folvcre. Engl, yield. ' 

The Scots Law term galnes^ is probably a corrup- 
tion of this word. 
Gappoks, Gappoks of fkate, gabbets, morfelsy pieces of 

Jkate ; from Gab, mouths 
Gar, to caufcy to force. Garrand, caufing, forcing. 

Gart, caufedf forced. Dan. gior. Swed. giora, fa. 

Gardevyance, cabinet, buttery. Fr. gard de viandes. 
"Oardy, the arm. Gardeis, Gardis, the arms ; ^'becaufe 

they ferve as guards to the body." Hence Gaide^ 

brace, armour for the arm. Fr. 
Gare, Gair, afpot ox flip of tender fertile grafs on a 

barren mountain or heath. Teut. gaer, maturus, per- 

coftiis. - 

Gare, (Gaw. Douglas, prol. 8.) coarfe. Gare woll, 

wool of inferior quality. See 31. Eclw. III. cap. 8. 

& expl. lana vilior. It may have been wool laid a- 

fide to be given to " beggars," according to the 

common cuftom. [Teut. gueren^ aggregare, colli-* 
- gere.] 


Ga. ■ Ge. 

Oare, Gair, folicitous^ rapacious ; from Swed. karrigy 

girigy avarus. 
Oarnifon, garrifon^ a party or body of men^ in which 

fenfe the Lat. prafidium is alfo often taken. Dan. 

Gamifli, to garrifon^ or Jill a fort with men. 
Garrite, top of a hill, a watch tower. Fr. garite^ pro- 

pugnaculi turiis, perfugium. 
Garritour, watchman, whether he be placed on the top 

of a houfe or a hill. 
Garfon, attendant. Fr. garcon^ 1>07> ftripling. 
Gart, caufed, forced. See Gar, to caufe. 
Gartens, garters. Fr. from Swed. giorda, cingere. 
(Garten-berries, Lady garten berries, bramble berries^ 

rubus frudicpfus \ perhaps from Sax. ge^werdan, 

nocere, laedere. . 
Gzrthf garden, yardf or inclofure. Svlx. geard. Swed. 

gaord, fepimentum ; giorda, cingere. 
G^^,fedate,fagaclous. Yv.fagace, from Lat. 
GaiEe, Gaucie, plump. [O. Fr, gaujjee, jucunda.J 
Gaftrel, Caftrel, a ktnd ofhawke. Fr. cercerelle. 
Gate. See Qz\X,Jlr^fty roftd, manner, method. 
Gatt, got, begot. Sax. 
Gaude, (Gaw. Douglas,) a cunning trick, a ridiculous 

prank ; from Fr. gaudir, jocari. 
Gaukie, idle wanton girU foolifb perfon. See Gowk. 
G^y\tT, jailer ; from Fr. & Celt, geol, career. 
Gajfened, Gjfened, become leaky from want of moif 

ture. Swtd. gi/ina, gifna, to {hrink. Wti. gwy^en, 

aridus ; gi/ia^ ficcare, arefacere. 
Gearking, vain. See Geek, tq deride. 
Geek, to ajfume fcornful airs, to deride, to mock, to jilt » 

Teut. gecken, be^ghecken, deiidere. 
Geeks, Gekks,^^«j of derifion. See Geek. 
Ged, the fifli called a pike. 
Ged.ftaff, (Gaw. Douglas,) a Jed, (river,) or Jed^ 

burgh faff, thus mentioned by Major : ** Ferrum 

chalybeum 4 pedibus longum in robuili ligni extre- 

mo Jeduardienfes artifices ponunt, &c. The phiafe 

*' Jethart ftaffs and Kelfo rufigs" is ftill common. 


Gc. ■ Gi. 

Gecp fit of Jielntfs ; ^ofuOtyfit^ .Teut. ghiehte^ ncr- 

.vorum refolutio. 
G«jg» J^'g> Jirg, t0 make a notfe like that tfu <:art whetl 

in want of greafing ; ex fooa. 
Geil-pokkis, tx^. jelly bags. Ft. 
,Geir, Gkar, gaodsy effeQu money ^ v>eolib \ aocientl]^ a>- 

parely accoutrements. Sax. geara^ bona, veftitua, fa*- 

cultates, artium inftrumenta, S^ alia qusevis utenli- 

lia. According to Ruddiman* bom oz:s.. gearfianf 

(meaning gearcian) parare, ptxparare. 
Geiftis, Ge(les« exploits^ anions, ad^^ntures ; but more 

commonlj the ffjfiories of them. Lat. res^gefla^ or 

Geiftis, Ge&ts^jotJIs ofafioor. 

Geit for Cheit, cheat. 

Gemmely twin^ twins^ Lat. gemellL 

Gent, Gend, gentile y neat^ efegant^ vnin.y fancy ^ nice ; al- 

fo a perfon of hongurabk birth, or qf honourable cpn^ 

G entlQS, peoffe qf honour able birth. Fr. gentH, 
Gentrice, Gentrjs, honourable birth, honour^^ble coniuB. 

Fr. gentilleffe. 
GcrSy grafs. G^rij ^ grafjy . Sax. Teut. Scand. &c.. 
.Gcrfum. See Giaflum, entry ^money. Sax. 
Gefning, Geftning, Gueftning, hofbitality^ hofpitabU 

reception. Sax. gyf-fsle* Ifl. ilfining^ l^ofpitii^m ^ 

from gefty hofpe$. 
Gefts. See Geifts, exploits j^ narratiixes of exploits. 
Get, Jett, fudden motion or fpring ; to walk with a 

proud gait, Yr.jetter^ 
Gethornis, Gythornis, Gitternes^ guitars ; alfo written 

Citerns, Citherns ; all fron> Lat* cithara. 
Gett. See Gait, gpats. 
Gett, Get, Gete, child, offspring ^ now \xU^ only iq ci 

contemptuous way ; alfo b^gct. 
Gettis, get ye. 

Gcttling, a young child s dimin. of Gett. 
Cie, give. Qies, gives. Gi^d, gave, Gifn^ Gei^e, ^*- 

Gif, if. Sax. gfy fi 5 from gifan^ dajre, q. d, given. . 


Gi Gi. 

Giglct, GiUat,^ merry or laughing girl-, from Gigle, 
to laugh. Sa^c. 

Gily hole, cavern ; perhaps fiom Scandt vel Ifl» gioj hi- 
atus mpQtis. 

Gild, clamour y cotivivial noife^ Xxttx^j yeUing. Belg. 
ghiUeUf ilridere ; whence Lane, gill^hootety an owl. 

Gile-fat, the ttat or vej/ll in which malt liquor is brew^ 
ed ; perhaps from Dan. gaer^ yeaft. 

Giliy Gil| fuppofed to mean fometimes child in the 
ancient fenfe of young gentlemqn ; but more fre- 
quently perhaps the fame with Gael, gille, a man- 

Gillie, boy, lady man-fervant \ a derifory diminutive of 
Gill> quail chieldie. 

G\\\i&'-g2L^Q\x^^JooliJh young fellow^ one who is always 
gaping at wonders. See Gill. 

Gilt, money, Teut. gelt. Sax. & Goth, gild ; whence 

Gilt J, Gilted, golden y gilded ; from Sax. gyldan. 

Gim, Jim, Gimp, Jimp, t'tght, neat, trim,Jlendery hand-, 
fome^ well drejfed' 

Gimmer, a ewejbeep in its fecond year , or from the firji 
to the Jecond Jhe awing, Swtd, gimmer, W, gimbur, 
gembely ovicula j gumfe, aries ; q, gome, vel maritus 

Ginnm^r^lamb, the lamb of a gitnmer ,• alfb eive lamb, 
i. e. female lamb. 

Gin. See Gyne, ingenuity. 

Gin, if } q. d., gien or given. See Gif. 

Gird, a hoop, commonly made of a hazel rod. Sax. 
gerdi vi^ga. Dan. gyrde, cyngulum. Goth, gairda, 

Gird, to beat with a rod, to flrike^ to pierce^ (Gaw.- 
DouglaSj) hence alfo, to contend with fbarp words m 
jeft or in earned. 

Gird^ a Jlroke^ blow \ a tricky a circumvention, accord- 
ing to Ruddiman, ^u<^&> g<^i*^g alout one. 
Qirdel, Gif die, G riddel, a bake-Jfone, or thin circular 
plate of iron upon which cakes are baked \ corr. of 
grrdiroftf cratlcula, which is now ufed in a mor^ 
confined fenfe ; from Fr. grediller, to fcorch, to 


Gi. CI 

broil, to crumple with heat. Swed. griffely pala, cu| 
imponitur pani3, furno inferendus; 2Lgradday paneqc^ 
coquere ; didum fuifle gradfeL 

Girdjng, Qyrthyjf\, girtb^Jurci/jgle, See Gird. 

Girg, Jirg, to make a creaking noife. 

Girn, a fnare or gin, Swed. garn^ (yarn,) rete. 

Girnell, a corruptioaof ^r<i««rj, Bv, grenier. 

Girnell, to board up in granaries. 

Girth, Girth ol. fanEiuary^ place of refuge ; from Sax. 
grithy Cthe fame with ftithy) pax ; grith breCy (fand 
ft'ith'hrec^ a breach of the peace. Swed. grid, pax^ 
vitae membrorumque incolurnitas ; whence Engl. 
greet. Grith is alfo ufed by Chancer iov peace, bkin- 
iier derives girthol frqm Sax. geard^ habitaculum, 
regio ; Sc ha/, falvus, vel ha/ig, fanftus. The Sax. 
geard is, however^ nothing more than yard or inclo- 
fure ; from Swed. giordn, cmgere. 

Gi£e, gaifc 9 manner; in compofition.w^ *; as in like- 
wife. Fr. ^w//^, modus, ratio. 

Giflarme, Giffarne, according to Sk^ne,'- a hand-ax, a 
halhert, a hilL Span. & Lat. bifarmuy from its hav- 
ing two faces or edges. Fr. guifarme. 

Gite, Gide, attire, night gou/i. Fr, gife, expl. lec- 

Glad, Glaid, (provincially Gleg,) fpoken of doors^ 
locks, bolts, 5cc. which go fmoothlyyeq/ily, or loofely. 
Teut. glat, Isevis, glaber ; glatten, polire. 

G\2l6.q, Q\'<i\dy glided^ pfjfedfwiftly. 

Gladfum, Gledfum, ch earful, happy, gladdening. 

Glaiks, cheat, deceit, trick. 

Glaiks, a kind Cii pu%%le or idle pqjlime for one perfon. 
Gleek was formerly the name of a game at cards ; 
hence perhaps glaiks came to fignify any kind of a- 
mufement. ^^.is.. glig, ludibrinm, gaudium, mufica. 
(joth. laikan, ludere, Mr Pinkertpn explains glaiks 
<t wandering light rejleBed from a mirror ; but in 
this fenfe it feems to be provincial. 

Glaikin, Glaiking, play, idlenefs, wantonnefs^ See 

Glaikyt, idle, thov^htlefsyfpolijb, u^anton. J^ord Hailes 
adds, capricious. See Glaiks. 


61 Gl. 

Glaifter, Glafter, to bawl qr barh^ to fcold, Fr. glajiir 
,or glatir^ latrare. Teut. lajieren^ vituperare, impio- 

bare, infamare. 
Glar, Gl2re,'7«wi/, myre. Fr. glairey flinie. 
Glaumer, deception ofjight by means of a f pell \ proba- 
bly from the attractive powers of lamher or amber \ 

or from Fr. lambeliner^ to deceive or delude. [Ifl. 

glamer^ Ixtitia.] 
Glave, Glaive, yiyor^. Fr. glaive^ gladius. 
Glebe, Gleib, portion of land allotted to the clergy^ 

Gled, a kitey or hawki Szx.glida, mil\nis« 
Glede, Gleid, a very f mall Jire^ a fpark ofjirc, Gledes, 

G\t\^%y hot embers, Sax.^/p^, pruna. 
Glede, Gleid, Gi^it^tofbine^ to appear brightly^ to ap- 

pear. Sax. 
Gleg, Clegg, a gad'fiy. Dan. hlaeg^ tabanus*, 
Gl^gy acute yjharpy ready. See Glad, readily. 
Gleire, the white of an egg. Fr. glaire. Sax. glaere, 

pellucidum quidvis. 
Gle-men, min/irels, mujlcians ^ fiddlers ^ pipers 4 S^LX^glig'^ 

maiiy rauficus, hillrio. 
Glen, a narrow ij alley between mountains. Gztl» gleann. 

[^Ttnt. glend, fepes. Swed. lugn^ calm.] 
Glengore, Grandgore, perhaps for Gland-gore, venereal 

dfeafcyhxe^ venerea. See Vol. I. p. ^44. s 
Glent, to glance. Glen ting, leering. Swtd. glatt^ ni- 

CJeuin, Glevin, /o ^/oit;. Il^mX.. gloeyen. Swed. gloaf 

lucere' ; gla^ lux. 
Glew, glee^ mirth ^ fport. Chamber-glew, chambering 

or wanionnefs. Sax* gliwj vel glig^ gaudium, facc- 

tia, &c. 
Gleyd, old or worn-out horfe or gelding. Sax. gylie^ 

G\\^^yG\t^^, f quint eyed \ perhaps from Teut gloerer^ 

limis oculis arpicere, quafi glo-eyd. 
Gliik, a fight view. See Glift. 
Gli(^f gli/lened. Ttut. glitferen^ candere.^ 
Glllti watery humour. Teut. glied-MonJJer.. 



Gl. Go. 

Gloff, expl. the Jboch felt in plunging into wdter. Swtd. 


Glois, metr. gr. for glafs. 

Gloming, Gloamtng, Glowming, twilight. Sax. glom- 

mungi crepafculutti. ^ 

Gloppe,yof. SWed. glop, fatiius, ftultus. 
Glofe, Glofs, comment^ expqfition. L^t. 
Glotnit, Glotnjt, clotted; from Teirt. ihttertny coa- 

Glotnnyt, Glotjiiir, Jhiningj fpariting ; froYn Scand. 

glatty nitidus \ gloed^ pruna. 
Clowr, faring look ; fojlare, Gouldman has Glow or 

Glout, patulis oculis afpicere. Scand. gh, attentis 

oculis videre. Teut. glueren, limis oculis afpicCTe. 
G\oy^Jlraw» Teut. glttye, ftramen arondinaceum. 
GXvLxn^ gloomy if ulky^ dark, menacing, [Teut. gitdm, tur- 

Glunch, to hang the brow and grumble ; frotti Glum. 
Gnap, to-make a noife like that of a grafs-hopper ; alfo 

to eat. Teut. knabbelen^ morfitare, frendet^. 
Gnarre, a hard knot in ivood, Teut. knorre, tubercu- 

Gnarr, Gnurr, Nurr, to fnarle^ to make afnarlingnofv, 

Teut. gnorreuy grunnire. 
Gnib, Glib, ready, quick, 
Gnidge, Nidge, to pinchy to comprefs, tofqttee%e ; from 

Goan, expl. a wooden diflo ; perhaps a variation of 

Cann, or Tun. 
Gob. Sec Gab, mouth, Y ns, goh-Jlik, a fpoon. 
Gods-penny, Aries, Erie- penny, earnefl money, Teut. 
Goif, (Gaw. Douglas,) to behold^ look^ gaze ; q. 'd. to 

flare with oten mouth, [Teut. oog-^heffen, to lift up 

the eje6. j 
Goilk. iSee Gowk, cuckoo ^ foolfh perf on. 
Gome, man^ warrior. Sax. & Goth, guima^ vir, homo. 
Gomrell, Ganifrell, thoughtlefs or foolifh perfon. Fr. 
' goimprc or goinfrc, 
Gonyell, GoinjclyfooU/h fellow. 
Good-man, Gude-man, hufbhndy mafler of the houfe. 
Good- wife, Gude-'Wyfe, inifrefs of the houfe. 


Go. I Co. 

Gorbel, to gobble or fwallow greedtiy like young neJUingfi 

O, Fr. goberj avide deglutire. Ir. gob^ roftriim. 
Gorblings, Gorltngs, nejilings ; q. gobblers. See Gror- 

Gore, to killy to devour ; according to Shakefpear, to 

fiab^ to pierce ; from Sax. gore^ fanguis. 
Gore, « tritmgular flip of land^ or of clotb. Sec Gate. 
^^%^f Gorgit, the throat. Fr. gorge^ & grbgette^ jugu- 

Gorgoul, 'Aippofed to mean the griffin. 
Gormand, gluttonous. Fr. gourmand^ guloTus. 
Goflej abbrev« oi gojfip. ^il. god-fibbe^ oognatus. 
Govand, Goifand, ga^ing^ fl^^^^^y looking fledfaftlyi 

Sec Goif. 
Governale, government. Fr. gouvemeul^ governance, 


Gowand, G<yvvan, properljr field daify^ "but applied to 

many other wild plants. See Goulis. 
G^wd, goldi, Tctiti goudy an rum. 
Gowi.fptak, gold-finch. Teut. goud-finche^ aurivittis. 
Gowk, GoUk, cuckoo ; a foolijb fellow. Goukis, 

is a^fo explained by Ruddixnan, expe&s foolijhly ; in 

confirmation of which, he adduces Fr. gogues, jollity, 

glee, light-heartedncfs. 
Gowk, G uk, is alfo ufed to denote the cry of tie cuc^ 

Gow'kjtyfooliflf ; from Gowk. 
Gowl, Goule, to growl y tofcoldyto howl ox yell. 
Gowpin, what can be held by the hands extended in cort^ 

taB. Ifl. goupn^ manus concava. 
Goulc, the throat ox jaws. Fr. gneuley gula. 
Goulis, in the language of Heraldry, red. Fr. 
Goulis, Qoxi\2inSy gule-weedy chTyfenthemum fegetum'; 

quafi goldins. See Gule. 
GouUmaw, Gormaw, the gully a fea bird. 
Goufty, wajley defolatey empty y dark aud frightful \ may 

be refer^'cd perhaps to the fame origin with gastly 

znd goiftly ; — becaufr timorous people^ fays Ruddi- 

man, fancy that ghofts frequent fuch places aa- 

woods, caves, dens, old ruinous bailding8| which the 

Romans therefore called hohrentia* 

Vol. IV. M . Graff, 

Gr. Gr. 

Graff, Graif, grave ; alfo to bury. 

Graggit, 'wrecked^ ex communicate d, conftgned to perdi-* 

tion. Sax. wracan^ exulare. 
Grainter, keeper of a granary. See Girnell. 
Graip. See Gripy grrfin^ 
Graith, harnefs^ accoutrements y utenjds^ inflruments \ 

from Sax. ge-radian^ parare, apparare, to graithe. 
Gram, trouble y tumult ^ ivratb ; hence alfo explained 

the breast or bofom. Teut. & Swed. ^r^fw, iratus. 
Gram, irefull^ warlike. Grameil, most warlike. Teut. 

granty ftomachofus, afper. 
Grane, Grain, groan^ to groan. 

Grane, Grain, a branch. Granes, branches^ the tines or 

prongs of a fork. Dan. & Ifl. grein^ ramus. Swed. 

gran^ abies. Upl. gran^ viridis. 

Granit, having grains or branches ^ forked. See Grane. 

Granit, in grane, of afcarlet or crimfon colour. Ital. 

bi Spa. grana. 
Grange, corn far my the buildings pertaining to a corn 

farwy particularly the granaries. Fr. grange. 
Granller, Grandfhir, grandfather^ great grandfather. 
Grape, to grope. Sax. grapian, palpare, attre6lare. 
Grape, a trident fork for cleaning flahles. 
Graffili, GrifTel, Reiflel, to rufiiey to make a rujlling or 

crackling noife. Fr. grefller. 
Grave, grovey a thick ivood. O. Eng. greve^ a bufli. 
Gray, gray headed perfon ; as Fair, iox fair one ; Auld 

for old one, &c. 
Gre, Gric, degreey prixe, vlBory. Fr. gre. 
Greance, agreement. 
Gredins, GiedaneSyfhahbyfelioics. Fr. grediuy homme 

de neant. 
Gregioun, Grew, Greek, or Grecian. 
Gre if, (Gaw. Douglas,) expl. offence^ fault. 
Greis, Qxeye^^ greaves ^ armour for the legs. Fr. greveSy 

tibialia ferrea. 
Greit, to cryy ox fbed tears, Gret, Grat, cryed. Sax. 

gretah. Goth, greitan, clamare, plorare, Here. 
Greke) Greking, peepy peeping, break of day. Swed. 

gry^ lucefcere, to dawn. 
Grendcs, expl. grar^decs, 


Gr. ! — Gr. 

Grenc, Grein, to- dejire earnefily^ to long for, Grcin- 
ing, anxious dejlre ; from Teut. greyden^ avcrc, ap- 

Gre^^ gray colour. Fr, gr is. 

Greflum, Gerforae, Graffiim, premium paid by a tenant 
at the commencement of a new leafe. Sax. gccrfuma^ 
prsemiuiDy cpmpenfatio ; quafi ready money ; from 
gear J par at us. 

G rete, grit^ fand^ gravel. Teut . 

Gretumly, greatly ; q. d. greatfomely. 

Greve, GreifF, Greive, Reve, Reif, over Jeer ^ bailiff. 
Sax. ge-refa^ praefedus, decurio, exaftor, publica- 
nus. Teut. graef prxfes, judex ; quafi, grauw, 
gray beaded man, fenior, fpnatpr. Htnce Jbire-gr^ve 
or Jheriff. 

Greve. See Grave, grove^ wood. 

Grew, Greek, Greek language. 

Grewe, gray bound, properlj grew^hound. Ifl. grey^ 

Greyfe. See Agrife, to terrify. 

Grills, expl. cuts. 

Grilfe, afijhy apparently of the falmon fpecies. 

Grip, Graip, griffin^ vulture. Swed. grip. Lat. gryps. 

Grippil, (Gaw. Douglas,^ expl. by Ruddiman, tough ^ 
tenacious \ perhaps rather the fame as Thrippil or 
Throple, to entwine, to interweave^ to entangle. 

Griffill. See Graflill, to rustle, or make a crackling or 
rattling noife. Fr. grejiller. 

Gro2Xy four^pence sterling. Teut. 

Grokar, Jharper ; originally perhaps ufurer. Scand. 
ocker, ockrare. 

Grofells, goofeberries, Fr. groifelles. 

Grots, JbelPd oats, Teut. ^n/f/^, grana hordci. Swcd. 
groet, puis. 

Groue, Growe, a fit of fhuddering. Teut. grouw, hor- 

JGroue, Growe, to fhudder, to be fei%ed with a fudden 
fright or apprehenfion, to tremble in a flight degree. 
Teut. grouwelen, horreie, paverc. 

Groufome, Growus, horrible ^ frightful. See Grouc. 


Gr. ^ — Gu. 

Grouncby Gruntfch^ to grudge^ to murmur^ to gnwthle^ 
to exprefs difpleafure by protruding the mouth like 
the fnout of a pig. Teut. grynfen^ os ducere, os 
depravare vel diflorquere \ alfo, to dig like a 

Growgrarne, Grogram, a fort of woollen cloth. Fr. 

Grub tlie vines, to handle or manage the vines, Dan. 
he-greheTy to underfland. To grub may alio mead 
to plant y or perhaps to graft the vines ; froD& Teut. 
greban* Goth, graban^ fodere : or Belg greffiart, 
Irilh grufaniy infererc. 

Omch^y grudge yfcrupkf fnurmur. ¥r* gruger* 

Grufe^ Groufe, On gioufe, A-groufe, lyifrg flat with 
the face downwards, Ifl. grufitCy prontis ; Hggia a 
gruvay pronus jacere. Swed. grufva^ fodiua, a mine; 
grufkarly a miner ; gropy fovea, pil^ pit->fall. Goth» 
groboy fovea, fpelunca* 

Grufelings, groveling. See Grufe, and Grupe. 

Grume, groom, man. Teut. gome, homo. 

Grumlie, See Drumlie, muddy. [Fr. troublee.'\ 

Grumph, to grunt like a fow. Imit. 

Gv\iv.din^JharpyJharpened\ from Kng. grind. 

Grun, Grune^ ground. Sax. gruftd. 

Grunye, Gruntle, fnouty nofe. Fr. groin de pourceaUy 
roflrum fuis. 

Grunig, expl. a furly morofe countenance. 

Gvxi'pGy fewer y ditch, Swed. gropy fovea ; SaXr groepty 
latrina, fcrohs. 

Grys, a pig. Swed. & Ifl. gvisy grySy porcellns. 

Gucke, Gukk, to play the fool. See Gowk. 

Gude, wealthy fubfiancey goods. 

Gude-fchir, GxxtQh^Vy grandfather. Skene defigns Mat- 
thew Earl of Lennox, the father of Lord Darnley, 
the Gude fchyr of James VL In all other n^mes, 
however, of confanguinity or affinity, where the 
Englifli ufe fiep or in laWy we nfe goody as Gude- 
father, Gude-brother, Gude-fon, &c. 

Gud-dame, Qu^zm^y grandmother. 

Gadget. See Gyfert; mummer, 


Go* I. Gj. 

Gadlynis, Gudlingis, feems to mean fotne kind of hafi 
metal for mixing illegally with gold. [Teut. gujcbeU 
werky prxftigise \ guychelen, dexteritate quadam de- 

Guerdoan, Gnerdone, reward^ recompenc^. Fr. 

Guff, GoSffool, Fr. goj^^' Teut. gvyghy ftupid. 

Gukkow, toe cuckoo. Teut. guck-gauck. J ft. gattiur, 

Gukkyt. See Gawkyt, fooUfh. 

Gule, yellow, bwed. gul^ vel gol, flavus. 

Gulc, Guilde, corn marigold^ cryfanthemum fegetuni ; 
called ia ^vi^zxA gang^fiovner or Rogation flower^ bc- 
caufe it '^ cammoatj in full blow about Rogation 
week. Skene explains Guildc, (Lat. manaleta,) 
** ane perniciotts herbe, or rather ane wide, quhilk 
** being in the lands pertaining to ane farmorer, ai d 
** he will not clenge the land therof, he may be pu- 
" niffed, as he quho convoyes ane hoaft of enemies 
•' into his awifter's land. And ilk bondman have^ 
** ^nd guiid within the land, fall pay to his maifter 
*' ane mutton (muConem) for ilk ftocke thereof." 
Stat. Alex. II. cap. 18, 

GoUie, large hnfe^ 

Gulfach, Galfet, the jaundice. Swed. gutfot. Teuf. 
geelfuchte^ ifterus 5 q. yellow Jicknefs. 

Gum» tniftp wipour ; perhaps^ fays Ruddiman^ from 
Lat. gummiy gum^ the vifcous matter that flows from 
certain trees> as thefe vapours are exhaled from the 

Gumption, ^oo^yJ«/^. Ifl. ^<32/;7?, cura, attentio. Theot. 
goutnilosy qui fine cura eft. Lane. Glofs. gauniy to 
underftand ; gaumlefe^ fenfelefs. 

Gurd, Gourd, Gurge, tojlop in the manner of ice in a 
river ; perhaps from Latin regurgitare, 

Gurly, or Gourlie weddir, y?or/77y, rough weather. 

GuHy to taflBy tofmell; for the vulgar fometimes con- 
found thefe two fenfes, and ufe them promifcuoufly. 

Gy^t^ gouty any infirmity in the feet', 

Gy, to guide y to dirc6f, to move, ' 

Gyl, the proper name Giles. Sanft Gyl, or Geil, St. 
Giles, the tutelar i*aiat of Edinburgh. ' 


Gy. Gy. 

G^lmir. See Gimmer, a ewe in her fecond year. 

Gyll-fatt, Keel-yat, (in Brewing,) expl. the cooling 
ivat or tub, 

Gymp, Jimp. Gym, Jim, ne at y pretty handfome, 

Gyii, expl. the loch or holt of a door, Ruddiman thinks 
it may fignify the door itfelf^ from Sax. gin, Wei. 
gyn^ riftus. 

Gyrd, expl. quicli Jlep, 

Gyrd. See Gird, to heat^ throw or fierce. 

Gyre, circling^ turning round. Fr. girer, to w'hirl or 
twirle about. 

Gyre carling, expl. a womnn in a majk ; or an old wo- 
man who has the charaBer of being a forcerefs ; fo 
called perhaps from her pretending to form magical 
ciicles around her. See Gyre. The fame word is 
alfo expl. giant'* s wife. 

Gvrfe. See Gers, grafs. ' 

Gyrth, Gird to furround. See Gird, a hoop. 

Gyrtht. See Givxh^ funBuary . «< Gif ane mau within 
" fancluarie craves the King's peace, and ane other 
•' man be evil zealc and puipofe lifts up his neive 
** to fliik him, he fall pay to the King four kye, 
** and to him quiiom he wald have ftriken. ane kow : 
** And gif he gives ane blow, nocht drawing blude, 
** he fall pay fix kye to the King, and twa to the 
*^ man : And gif he fells him \vith his neive, he fall 
'* give to the thirty kye, and fall alfo affitbc 
** the frcinds of the detundt.'* Stat. William, cap. 5^ 

Gys, Gyis, Gife, mafqueradey maJk ; abbrev. of d^f 

G yfart, a per/on dfguifcd, a mummer. 

Gyfen. See Gayfen, to become leaky, 

Gyte, Gidc, at i ire. 

Gyte, madyfrclickfomc. 



F - 



Haddt'btr T- ^''"^- Sax T "^'^^ 

Jere, S' ''Jt"'g up. q^^, , 

«3g. -5/-.i^« ,«^^ '^'- Goth. ^^^^^^^ •^^. ^'■z^///,.^. s 

y^^ borfc, or 


Ha. Ha. 

Hain, Hane, tofavey to keep from being ufedor confumei* 
Teut. heyneriy fepire, obvallare. 

Hair. See Har, hoary^ hoarfrojl. 

Hais. See Hace, boarfe. 

Hait, bot, Teut. beet^ fervidus, acris, catulicns. 

Haith, for Faith, a petty oatb. 

Halch. See Hauch, plain by thejide of a ritur, 

Hald, Hauld, boldy habitation^ dwelling-place of Jbelter^ 

Hale, ball. Sax. heal. Teut. halie^ aula. 

llale-ikarth, wholly fafe- altogether found ^ free from fo 
much as ^fkart ox f cratch. 

Hale- war, Hale- ware, all without exception^ the whoh* 

Halflin, Halflingis, Halfindak, half half-grown^ almofli 
Teut. halvelingh- dimidiatim, fer6. 

Hallan^fhaker, a beggar in rags- a tatter demallhm- or 
raggamiiffin ; from Fr. haillons^ rags. Allan Ram- 
fay defines the word, n wretch who fands trembling 
by the hallan wall- which he erroneotifly defcribesas 
being without the houfe, or out of doors^ 

Hallen, Hallan-wa, a cottage partition wall of fody 
which extended from one fide of the door rather 
more than half way acrofs the houfe, and ferved to 
divide the family apartment from that which was 
referved for the domeftic animals. Hence probably 
it was called a halflm or hallan wall. Againft the 
inner fide of it was plr»ced the fire, which leads to 
another conjeclure that the name originally may 
have fignfied the fire-wall or oven-wall, from Teur. 
hael^ furnus, clibanus, (tranflated alfo) ficcus, ari- 
dus, which agrees compleatly with the parched 
withered appear;ince of a hallan-walL I obferve 
Hallen alfo explaincd^c'/;f(?r. 
Hallow-e'cn, All-hallow-even, the vigil of All-Saints 
day f originally, it would feem, a kind of harveft- 
home feftivity, celebrated on, or about, the la/l day 
of 06lober. From a proper attention to feed and 
culture, the harveft is now fomewhat more early, 
llalok, Halayke, Halokjt, or Hallacht queen, light, 
wanton wench ; feems nearly the fame with glaikhyt. 
[Goth, laikanj ludere.] 


Hals, Haufe, the throat, the neck. Teut. & 111. half, 

Hals, Haufe, io embrace, to falute. Haljft, embraced, 
faluted. Teut. halfen, iojicere brachia collo. 

Halfing, li2Lii&ng,/aIutation. See Hals, /o* embrace. 

Haltandf Hawtand^ haughty, high-minded. Haltandlie^ 
Hawtandlie, hatightilj. Ft. haultain, hautain, fuper- 
bus, arrogans. 

Halje, Haly, (vitioufly Halyhag,) holy. Sax. halig. 

Halj-hoWy Sely-how, holy, or fortunate hood ; the 
film or metDbrane whieh envelopes the head of a 
child in the womb. When found upon the head of 
a new born infant, it was fuppofed- to be an infalli-i 
ble prefage of good fortune. 

Halj-rude, holy crofs. See Rude. 

Halyft, feemingly for liMjt,/aluted. 

Hamald, H^imjlt, homely, domejltc, of home growth or 
fnanufa6lure4 Skene writes it hatmhald', quafi held 
ett homt. 

Hamely, Hamly, homely y in the fenfe of friendly, free^ 

Haines, Hamnays, Pair of Haims, a fort of collar, for 
draught horfes or cxen, to which the traces are faf 
tened. [See Teut. hamme, numella, fetters, to whicb 
they bear fome flight refemblance.] 

Hamit. See Hamald. home-bred. 

Hatn^fehakel, Habfbaikel, Hobfhakle, tofafen the head 
of a horfe or cow to one of its fore* legs, to prevent 
hs wandering too far in an open field. [Teut. hamme^ 
poples, numella.] 

Httm-foken, Haim-fuken, the crime of entering a man^s 
houfe without his invitation, and of there ajjaulting 
him. Teut. heym-foechen, invadere violenfer alicujus 
domum y^ from heym, domus, habitaculum ; and 
foecken^ perfequi. This feems alfa to have been the 
original fignification of the Englilh term hamfoken, 
fince the word hamfare was vety commonly ufed in 
the fame fenfe,. and doubtlefs was formed from Sax# 
faran, ire, proficifci ; qufifi home-going. It may be 
added, if hamfoken be not properly and originally a » 
crime, but as Spelman would have it, the privilege 
You IV. N of 

Ha Ha. 

or freedom of a marCs ov)n h^uje^ the aieaning^ of an 

expreffion, in ancient Englifli charters " ut quietu» 

fit de hamfoca^'^ is doobtfal. 

Hanclethy./7/2t'il/?. Sax* ancleow^ talus. Lane, aneliff. 

Hand-fail ii]g> a fori of temporary tnarriiige^ fornfterly 

not uilGommoa in fome of the fouth-weftern parts 

. of Scotland. See Pennant. Shakefipeare ufes the 

word in the fenfe of holdj cujlody. 
Hand-habend, in pojjfeffion offlolen goods, 
Hand-ftaff, the name of a conftellatii^n^ probably Orion s 
fw^ofd* Alfoy th(U part of afiail wbieh is held by the 
Handwarp^ the city tf Ant^werp ; thus written by Sir 

D. Lindfay. 
Hand-while^ vulg. Hanla-while^ afbort time, 
Hangarell, Hangrell, an implement of the fiable^ upon 
which Bridles^ halters^ &c. are hung ^ commonly a 
ftout branch of a tree» with a number of remaining 
flumps of f mailer branches. QTeut. hangfel^ ha- 
Hank, to fa/ten or tye, Teut. hencken^ fufpendere. 
Hank, (of yarn,) a coil. Id. baunk^ funiculus in forma 

circuli coUigatus. 
Hans in kelder. Jack in the cellar ; vulgarly ufed for 
a child in the womb, Teut. hans^ Johannes vel focius; 
& kelder^ cellarium. 
Hanfell, gift^ the first money takeny or benefit received^ 
upon any particular occafion^ fuch as the commence- 
ment of a new year ; quafi hand-fell^ from S^^^fellan^ 
daie» tribuere. Wei. honfeL Teut. hanfeel, ftrena^ 
new year's gift ; or rather perhaps from Teut. hans^ 
focius^ hanfe, focietas ; and feelen^ ligare fune ; vel 
. feghelen^ figillare. [Goth, hunfiy facrificiumi the eu- 

charift or confecrated bread. See Houfel.j 
Hanfell, ex pi. earnefi, 
Hantyll,. quantity^ number ; q. hand-full. 
Hanzel-flip, expl. uncouthly drefiy ugly fellow. 
Hapy to cover up, Happit, cover ed^ fcreened ; originally 

the fame with Heap. 


Ha Ha. 

Happer, bapper (ef a mill.) Sax. bapper. a baflut. 
Haque, Hagg, barquehufs. Teat, batchy minor bom- 

barda, fblopus uncinatus. 
Haqaebot> Hackbott, a kmd9fmujquet. 
Har, boarjrojff mppingfog ; fo called from its gray or 

whitiih colour. Sax. bar^ canus ; alfo expL a cold 

eqfteriy wind, 
Har, Hare, Hair, boary, Jbarp^ nipping ; fometimes ia 

the fenfe of barjb^ or raugb to tbe tqfte. [Gael, garbb^ 

garg, afper.] 
Harbry, See Herbrj, barbour, &c. 
Hardiment, bardynefs^ courage ^ boldnefs. Fr. 
Hardjs, Hards, tbe coar/ejl of tbe flax after drejfing. 

lA»t^jXiy fading Qvfack clotb^ made of the hards. 
Hare. See Har, boary^ boar frofl^ cold eaflerly 

Harle, to trail or drag througb the mud^ or over rough 

Harlots, of old fignified fcoundrels ; or, according to 

. Chaucer, low male drudges \ in which fenfe the word 

had probably fome conneftipn with Sax. byra^ mer* 

cenarius ; [& l^od^ popnlus.] 
Harlry, honourable ; quafi barlrici, from Sax. eorlir, 

heroicus ; beor, dooainus. 
Harmefay, (Rhymer's Prophecy, St. 53.) probably 

may fignifyyi/i?, ot^ of danger ; q. barni-fafe. 
Harmis, forrows^ troubles^ indignation. Sax. bearm, 

dacruitLm. Fris. barmy triflis, dolen9« 
Harnis, brains, Teut. berne, cerebrum, Goth. Gofp. 

Marc. 15. 22. huairneinijflatbi, place of ikuUs. 
Ham-pan, Hardyn-pan,y^«///, head. Teut. btrnempannc^ 

cranium, q d. patella cerebri. 
Ham-Iheet, Harden-lbeet, coarfe linen cloth made from 

the bards or refufe of flax. 
Harro, Harrow, an exclamation of encouragement topur* 

fuit, much the fame with halloo, Vr, haro^ 
Harro, expL a furrow \ alfo irxpl. to harry, 
Harik, Hars, harfbj hitter, f our ^ rough, 
Harfl, Herft, barvejl. Teat, berfjl^ fiutttmfiit0« 
Hart, to hearten or encourage, Itut* hetttn^ WiilllAfir' 


Ha : Ha. 

Hart, to Jlun hy a Jlrohe on the hreafi. Teut. herten^ 
transfigere pe6tora. 

Hartlj, heartily^ hearty. 

Hart-fare,7^fit at heart. Teut. bert-feer^ cordolium. 

Haryage, Hairyche, herd (of cattle), a coUefiivc 
word ; as of fheep we fay a hirfell or flock, of dogs 
a pack. Sax. herige, turma. O, Fr. hara% or harelle^ 
a tioop or herd* 

Hafart, Hafard, Hafert, expl. old gray-pate^ dotard \ 
alfo of a gray colour. [Ifl. haera, cani. J 

Hafartour, gamejler. Fr, ha^arder^ tefferarius. 

Haflbck, a great hefom^ or any luch thing made of 
ruffaes, hair, &c. 

Hate, Hat, Hett, Hatyne, named^ was called ; pretcr. 
of Sax. bat an or batan, Teut. bee ten ^ vocare, ap- 

Haterent, Heytrent, corr. of hatred. 

Hathil. See Ethil, noble ^ 

Hatter, tojbatter. 

Hattir, Haltir, expl. mapple^ acer. 

Haubrek, Haubrick, coat of mail. Fr. hauberg^ bauhert. 

Hauch, Haugh, valley or level ground on the fide of a 
running water. Teut. auwe, ager, pratum ; or, ac- 
cording to Ruddiman, from hallow^ bollowy as fau^h 
from fallow. 

Hauch, Heigh, an inter jeB'ton equivalent to ba. 

Haufe. See Hals, neck, throat. 

Haver, oats. Haver- meal, oat^meal. Teut. haver ^ a ve- 
na, bromos. 

U ^ver el y chattering half-witted perfon; quafi, babbler 
or gabbler f q. v. 

Haves, have ; alfo expl. goods or effeBs. 

Haw, fea-coloured^ of a pale colour between blue and 
green ; from Swed; haf mare. Ruddiman fuggefts 
a derivation from baws^ the fruit of the haw- 

Hawk, a hind of hook f^ir drawing out dung from a 
cart. [Swed. bake^ uncus.] 

Hawkyt, having one or more white fpots, white faced^ 

Hawkyt, chopty broken into chinks. 


He He. 

Hawtane, Haltane, haughty. Fr. hatttaine. 

Hayrfchip. See Heirfchip, pignder. 

US, Hie, high, Heiar, higher ; alfo, to Jet on high^ ta 

He and He, every one. 
Healj ivbole ; aKo, to conceal. See Heild. 
Hearkening, quafi Heartening, encouragement. See 

Heary, a conjugal appellation equivalent to my dear, 
Hecht. See Hate, named. 
Hecht. See Hejcht, promtfe^ command'^ promifed^ tbrea~ 

Heck, hay-rack. Swed. beci^ praefepe. 
Heckle, to teaze^ alluding to the manner of operation 

of a heckle. 
Hedeles, Headles, apart of a weaver'* s loom, 
Hede-ftikkisy ex pi. a fpecies of artillery. 
Hede-wcrk, head-ach. Sax. warc^ dolor. 
Hedj-pere, of equal Jlature or age ; from head and Fr. 

pair, par. 
Heezc, to ratfe or lift up nviib difficulty. 
Heezy, hoifng or hoijling. 

Heft, to accuftom to live in a place. Teut. hnften^ mo- 
rari, figere, aptando conne£iere j ge*hecht^ pratnm 
fepibus circumfcriptum. 
Heftit, accumulated, as milk that has not been drawn 

from the animal in due time. 
Heich, high. Heicht, light, 
Heicht, to raife, to extoll, Heichtyt, raifed, 
Heicht, Height, promifed^ e^g<»g^dy threatened ; alfo, 

Heid-geir, head drefs. See Geir. 
Heidyt, be-headed^ Heidyn, bc-beading, 
Heild, Heill, Hele, to cover up, to conceal, to proteB^ 

to fave, 40 defend. Sax. helan, tegere. 
Heill, to heal or cure. Sax. 
Heilly, Helie, highly. Sax. 
Heilj, zxyl.Jilly ; probably a corruption. 
Heir, Here, lord, majler. Sax. hera, major. Dan. here, 


Heirfchip, plunder or devajiation by an army ; equiva* 
lent to Sax. here^reafy militaria fpolia, bere^ exercitus* 

Heirjald, Heriald, Herezeld^ Hereceild^^i^f or premium 
paid to a fuperior on the death of a vajffal ; com- 
monly, among the lower ranks^ the hefi aught^ aver^ 
or article of moveable goods^ as a horfe, cow, blan- 
ket, or flieet. Sax. & Teut. ber-ge^waede^ vel here^ 
geat, hominii introduftorium, mortamentum. The 
mod natural derivation of the word feems to be 
from Teut. heer^ dominus ; & gildan, folvere. But 
Spelman and others bring it from Teut. heer^ exer- 
citus, quad provifionfor ivar^ or a tribute rendered to 
the lord of a manor for his better preparation for 
war. Bj the laws of Canute, it appears that, at 
the death of a landholder, ** fo manj horfes and 
arms were to be paid as in his life-time he was o- 
bliged to keep for the king's fcrvice.'* Sax. bere^ 
gyld, militarc tributum. 

Heis, Hejs, a lifting up ; alfo, to lift up, to hoife. Sax. 
heahjtan, Fr. haujfer^ elevare, attollere. 

Heift, promifey threatening^ command. See Hejcht. 

liekkil, Z'^vZ'/p, an infltument ufed in the dr effing of 

Hele, healthy healthy. Sax. hael, falus. 

Helmftok, the helm of a f>ipy gubernaculum. 

Helter-ilcelter, in rapid confufon, 

Hempy, " one for whom the hemp gro%vs,^^ 

Hend. See Heynd, trained up^ educated^ taught, 

Hender, hinder ^ hy-pajl, Hendermar, hindermojl, TeUt. 
hinden^ hinder y poft. 

Hen-wyfe, woman who takes care of f e hens. Hen- 
wyflis of Venus, bawds, 

Ilt^nfe-man, Heinfman, domefhic fervant\ from Sax. 
hiney domefticus, famulus ; or Teut. hendcy vicinus, 
prope \ q. d. a fervant who attends clofely upon his 
mafter ; either of which feems preferable to ano- 
ther explanation (by Dr. Percy) quafi haunch-matiy 
from Teut. henckey coxa. In the fame language we 
find haens^hoofty tranflated delator, quadruplator, qui 
ut gall us (Jjac?i) fuo cantu diem & tempeftates nun- 


He. He, 

fiat, ita fecreta aliorum prodit ; 8c benne, homo ita^ 
bellisy muliebri animo. See Heynd. 
Henfour, Henfure, perhaps one who had bsen trained t9 
the ufe of arms. See Heynd : Or, one who was expert 
in making Jlake and ryce fences \ from Teut. heynen, 
fepire, obvallare. A hajiie henfour might thus 
have an affinity with the ezpreflion flill commonly 
ufed to denote extraordinary rapidity, •* like a man 
cutting ryce or brufhwood.** 
Hent, Hynt, caught^ fei%edy tooh^fnatched. Sax. hente^ 
capuit ; bentan, capere, rapere. Chauc. henters, 
rap tores. 
Hep-thome, Hipp^tborne^ rofa filveftris. 
Herbere, arbour^ grove, JbrMery, Lat. arboretum ; 
alfo, a flower garden^ ox place where many plants and 
herbs grow naturally, Lat. herbarium, 
Herbry, harbour, lodging, entertainment, Teut. her- 
berghe, diverforium, caupona, maniio ; from her- 
publicuSy communis ; & berghen, fervare, falvare, 
tueri. This word is given by Ruddiman as the o- 
rigin of Herbere^ arboretum vel herbarium, q. d. 
domicilium arboreum. 
Herd, one who tends fljeep or cattle ; alfo, to tend jheep 

or cattle. Sax. beord, pador, cu{):os. 
Herds. See Hards, coarfeflax. 

Here, Lord^ chief, leader^ mafter, Teut. herr, heer^ do- 
Herefchip, Heirifchip, Hair(hip, plunder^ wajle, expen- 
diture. See Heirfhip. 
Herc-yeft^cen, the night before hjl, or before yeflcr-* 

nigbt.^^, hier, 
Herezeld, Heryeld. See HQiryM^fn^ paid to afupivi-^ 

or on the death of a vaffal, 
Herle, fome kind of bird, perhaps a heron. 
Hers. See Hais, hoarfe, 
Herie, Harry, to plunder, rob, or ruin. Sax. herian, 

vaftare, prxdari ; from herge or here, exercitus. 
Heroner, cxpl. by Skinner that kind of hawk which 

makes herons his quarry, 
Herft^ barvejl, Belg. herf/l. 


He- He- 

ttefe. See Hceze, to lift with difficulty. 

Hefp, that which catches the bolt of a door, 

Hefp, a certain quantity of yarn. 

Heft, expl. command^ injunition, 

Hething, Haithing, q. oathing^ fwearing^ curjingy ban- 
ning. The fame word (in Dougl. Virgil) "drive ta 
hething" is expl. by Ruddiman to traverfe the coun-- 
try^ quad to go a heathing; \, e. through unfrequent- 
ed places. The word hethen is elfe where defined 
mockery y and thus may be the fame with hooting ; 
but neither of them appears fatisfaftory. 

Hett, Hait, hot, 

Heuir, Heure, Hure, whore^i Teut. hoere. Sax. hor^ 
meretrix. Goth, horos^ adulteri. 

Heuch, Yi^Wf^eep bank^ commonly underjlood to be fame* 
what broken or rocky ; and co'ueredj at leajl in part, 
with wood ; feems to have fome affinity with Teutr 
hooghy altus, profundus, arduus ; heve^ elevatio ; or, 
according to Ruddiman, with Sax. heafian^ elevare, 
attollere. See Cleuchis, cliffs, 

Hevid, Hevyd, Heuffid, head ; alfo beheaded, 

Hevit, Hevvit, heaved, lifted up^ raifed. 

Hew hue, colour ^ appearance, Hewit, coloured. Sax. 
heve^ fpecies, color. 

Hewmond, helmet, Ifl. hilma, obtegere ,- & mondy 

Heycht, Hecht, promifed, threatened. Sax. ge-hecht^ 
promiffus ; hatan, promittere. Teut. heiffen, hetcn^ 

Heylit, covered up, concealed; -^xzX., ^i to hde ox hyll. 
Sax. helany celare : hence hell, jl, 

Heyn. See Hain, tofave, Winter-heyning was com-» 
monly underftood to be from nth November to 23d 
April. Summet-he/ning, vice verfa, 

Heynd, Hend, docile^ traBahle, educated^ trained up, 
exercifed, expert ^ Jkilful \ feems to have fome con- 
nexion with the Sax. hynden, clafiis, tribus, q. one 
who had attached himfelf to fome military clafs or 
aflbciation. HyndenuSy homo fcil. qui alicujus fo- 
dalitatis particeps erat ; from ge-intiian, proeftarey 
inferre j or ge^hynariy humiliare. Heynd, according 


HL Un 

to this derivation, appears alio to fignifjr courteous, 
affable, polite, 
Hichis, expl. batches. 
HiddiliSy Hiddlingis, tn a bidden or frcret manner ; bid^ 

ing places, 
Hiddermare, hitberward, more this way, 
HiddirtiU, Hiddirtillis, hitherto. 
^idduous, Hidwyiis, hideous, terrible, Fr. hideux, 
'Hie, Hj, He, bqj^e, to hajle, to make bajlt* Sax, bigan^ 

}iixi:g3iT€, necklace^ q. banger, pendant. 
Hint, hold or grip. See Hent, caught, 
Hirn, afecret comer, a place of retreat or retirement, a 
den. Sax. tern^ em, locus, frequentius autem locus 
Hirple, Cripple, to go as if lame, Teut, hippelen, fal- 

tare, fubfilere. 
Hirfell (of iheep), a flock \ from Fr, haraz or harelle. 

Sax. herd^ grex. 
^irfel], Hurfle, to move one^s felf in a fitting or lying 
pofure ; to move without the common ufe of the limbs, 
. According to Ruddiman, to flide forward with a 
ruflling noife 5 from Sax. hyrflan, frigere, murmu- 
pirft, explained bj Ruddiman a door-hinge, or, (more 
corredUj,) perhaps the threfhold, it being reprefent- 
cd in one inftance by Gaw. Douglas as of " mar- 
biU." [Teut. herdflad, pavimentum fub camino ; 
q. d. a flagged pavement to correfpond with the 
range of the great door.] 
Hirft, a knoll or little Kill, Ruddiman explains it^ a 

bare and hard part of a hill, 
Hifft, afmall wood. Sax. hyrjl, fylva. 
Hifty, expl. dry, chapt, barren, 
Hite, Hjte. See Gjte, mad, giddy. 
Ho, the Angular of Hofe, Jlockings, 
Ho, metr, gr. Hone, an interjeBion commanding to de^ 
sist or leave off. But ho, or But bone, without stop- 
ping-, ^{o beyond all hounds, 
Hobelers, ligbt^borfemen ; alfo expl. light armed men. 
Vol. IV. O Hobynis, 


- * 

Hobynisy Sght war-bar/es. 

Hoble, to c^k or mend in a bungling manner. 

Hog, ajbeepf male or female^ in the fecond half of the 
fi^st year* 

Hoggers, cxpL coarfe stockings without feet. * 

Hogmanay, an exclamation ufed hy the poor people 
who go about begging on the last day of the year ; 
fignifjing, it would feem, / wijhyou all manner of 

* ffti'oe happinefs^ (or good cheer ^ with a keen appe* 
tite; neajpij conneSed with the vulgar Teut. phrafe, 
'^ met heuge ende meughe eten," cum voluptate & 
appetitu edere ; or *' teghen heuge ende meughe 
drincken," invito ftomacbo bibere. Or. it maj 
be perhaps a corruption of another well known 
Teut. or rather Sax* phrafe, viz. hogen-hyne^ or 

. houUenhyney fignifjing own domestic fervant. By 
the ancient laws of 'England, a ftranger who lodged 
onlj one night in the houfe of a landlord or huf- 
bandman, was called uncuthman ; twa m^tty gueste ; 
thrid nighte, hogen^hyne^ own domeftic ; after which> 
the matter of the houfe became accountable for his 
mifdeeds. Upon alms-giving days, fuch as the laft 
or firft of the year, a poor fupplicant might deem it 
a perfuaJive to charity to call out at the door of the 
wealthy, bogen^hyne^ equivalent tq " pray remem- 
ber your old domeftic fervant." The procefs of the 
corruption either from this phrafe or from heuge 
ende meughe^ to hogmanay^ is more natural and (im- 
ple than many others which could be adduced. — Or 
it feems> laftly, not improbable, that Hogmanay 
may have fome conneftion with the Scand. hoeg^tid, 
a term applied to Chriftmas and various other fefti- 
vals of the church. Teut. bogbe-tijd, geniale temr 
pus, Ixtus dies, quafi hog-tide-day. Lamb, in his 
notes to the poem of Flodden-field, fuggcfts a deri- 
vation from Greek hagia'mene^ the holy moon, i. e. 
December, the exclamation being ufed only on the 
laft day of that month. 
Hoi, How, &u', hollow, deep. Teut. hoi, cavus, abdi- 


Uolme, Howme, low ground liable to be overflowed if 
water ; alfo, an ijland* Swed. holme^ infala, qualu 
in fluviis efle folet. Item^ a forma infulse ita voca« 
tur aiea, fepibus a reliquo fundo feparata« '^^ 

Holky Howk^ to iig^ to make hollow. Swed. boUa^ ca« 
vare« See Hoi, cavus, 

Holkis, Howksy a difeafe of the eye* Teut* hoUooghe^ 

Holt, wood^ forest. Teut. bout* Sax* bolty fylva, lig* 
num. Wood is perhaps only a corr. of Holt. 

Holty high fituationy top of a hilly a height. Fr. bault. 

Holyne, commonly explained the holly tree* There is, 
however, fome reafon to believe that it fometimcs 
fignified the yew tree. Teat, bokn-tere b alfo tran* 
dated famhucusy elder-tree. 

Hofing, Hofen, bofe^ stockings. Swed. bofor, tibialia* 

Horn, Hem, them. Sax* beom, illos* 

Hone, delay. See Ho. 

Honeft, honourable^ generous y liberal. 

Hool, Heal, expl. to conceal. See Heild. 

Iiope,fmall bay. Ifl. hop, large pond. 

Hoft, Hoiit, to cough* Teut. boeflen^ tuilire* 

Hoftaj, to befiege. O. Fr. hostoyer. 

HofiiUeris, inn-ieepers. See Vol. H. p. 389. 

Hotching, fBakingy moving the body up and down in an 
aubward manner. Fr. bocber. , 

Hotch-potch, a difb of mutton or lamb broth, and dif-^ 
ferent forts of vegetables yfervei up with the meat in ii^ 
cut into pieces. Teut. hutfpot. Fr. bocbepot. 

Hove, Hnf, to remaiuy delay , or stay-y in the fame 
fenfe as Gaw. Douglas ufes dwell ror tarry; and we^ 
to dwell upon afubjeB. Hovand, hovering ; from Sax. 
hof, domus cum folo & horto. Teut. boven, to make 
good cheer. 

Hove, to heave y to f well* 

Houk, expl. to heap. 

H011I9 How, the hull or body oflnflnp* 

Honlat, owl. Fr. houlette. 

Hooris, morning prayers^ the bell for morning prayers. 


Ui, Ha. 

Hoafel, Houzle» the Eucharift^ or rather the confecrai* 
id breadl Sax. bufel^ huflj hujul^ panis eucharifticus. 
Goth, hunjl^ facrificium. As a verb, the word alfo 
fignified either to adnunijler or to receive the facra" 
ment of the Eucharift, According to Skinner, from 
hojliola \ to Jhre, from Scand. hunan^ ofiferre. 

HouiTurisy horfe mantles^ Fr. houfeaux* 

Hout. See Holt, a wood ; alfo a hill. 

Howv hollow ; the lower part betwixt oppojite banhs^ the 
bottom of a dean. 

How, Hoe, a hood or night cap ; a wreath or garland, 

, Teut. huiiife, reticulum, capillare^ vitta. See Halj* 

Howd, to float ; [Dan. haVy mare.] 

Howdy, midwife ; the origin of the word unknown ; 
if it be not from Ifl. iod^ paerperium ; iodfot, dolo« 
res puerperii ; iordgummoj (reftius,) iodgumma^ ob- 
ftetrix. Theot. odan^ pariendus. 

Howf, a commodious place for tarrying in^ See Hove. 

How is, Hochs, houghs, 

Howk. See Hoik, to dig. 

Howmet, a little cap or cowl. See How. 

Howms, holmsy plains on a river fide. See Holme. 

How-towdie, young hen or chicken. 

Howyn, Hovyn, expl. baptised. 

Hoy, to urge or incite. 

Rubbil-fchow, confufton^ confufed racket. Teut. 

Huddone, Huddum, expl. a kind of whale, Bifliop 
Douglas tranflates the \aX. prijiis oi Virgil by this 

Huddroun, a perfon in a flovenly drefsy hideous or ugly^ 

Jinddvy^JIovenlyy diforderljy, taudry. 

Hude-py ke, mifer. 

Uuie, Jhell. 

Huly, Hooly, fow^ Jlowlyy leifurely. Huly and fair, 
foft andfuir^ paulatim ; from ho^ delay. 

Hund, to incite y to encourage, 

Hunder, Hundrcth, hundred. 

Hune, Hone,^o/», delay, 

Hungin, hung^ hanged. 

Hunker, Hounkir. See Hurkill, to crouch. 


Hurclieoun, hedge bog. Fr. berijjon, 

Hurdeis, hips^ buttocks-* 

Hurkill, Hurdle, to crouch^ to Jit tn a Bent contraQed 
pofture* Swed* bukoy inclinatis clunibus humi incii- 

Hurlj, cxpl. loft. 

Hurlie-hacket,^wl/>7f down a precipice^ a kind of cbild- 
ifli fport. 

Hurftsy expl. woods. Sax. 

Hufbandf hujbandman ; one wbo, for the privilege of 
a houfe, and the ufc of a few acres of land, {a buf" 
band^land^ was bound to render certain fervioes to 
the proprietor, fuch as tilling his ground, reaping 
his crop, entertaining poor travellers, &c. To this 
day, a farmer's cottar or cottager who, inflead of 
paying rent, engages to be a reaper in harveft, is 
faid to. be bund or bound for his houfe / and in Old 
Englifh, a hous*band was alfo termed a hous-fasten 
or land-fasten. The Dan. and Swed. bonde^ rufticus, 
agricola; bond-folk^ peafantry, are probably from 
the fame fource, rather than from the Belg. bowen^ 
agricolari; alfo expl. sedificare, ftruere, architeftari ;^ 
in this fenfe equivalent to Sax. byan* Dan. hoe» lil. 
bua, Scot, biggy & Goth, bauan^ habitare, conftruerc 
fedcm ubi habites ; all of which are from Teut. boo* 
gan^ fleftere, to conftruft dwellings with houghs or 
branches ; analagous to the expreffion of Ulphilas, 
' thnrida ra%nfein ana staina, he timbred or built his 
houfe upon a rock. 

Hufband-land, according to Skene, ^^Jix acres of /ok. 
and fyith land^^ -i. e. about the eighth part of a 
plough gate, or " an ox in the plough." 

Huflil, (Gaw. Douglas,) to make a rustling or claJlAng 

Hufsyf-flcape, hufwlfery, 

Huttock, afmall hood or hat ; dim in. of hude^ 

Huve. See Hove, to homer or halt, 

Hyne, Hynd, domeJUc^ fervant. Sax. hincy domefticus, 
fervus, famulus. [Teut. hinne^ parum homo, homo 
imbellis. According to Kilianus, quafi hen-man.^ 

Hyne^ hence ; alfo expl. young man. Sec Hyne. 


Hy. Ja. 

Hjnk, hastt away. 

Hjne^ bind. Teat, htndcy cerva. 

Hynt. See Hent, caught. 

Hypocras, Hippocras, an aromatkk wine* ¥r. bepocras. 

Hyrfale. See HirfeU, aJlocL 

Hyrft. Sec Hirft. 


Jab, Jag, to prici, to pierce as with a pin of dart. 
J^gnjack or hunter fq/bion^ (of boots ;) from litVLt.jag* 

hen^ agitare feras* 
Jaip, Jape, to jeer^ mock^ or beguile ; probably a corr. 

of Teut. gecken, deridere ; or from Fr. javioler, to 

gabble or prate. 
Jaiperie, Japery, buffoonery. See Jaip. 
Jaipers, Japers, buffoons ^jesters. Sec Jaip. 
Jakkis, Jacks,^cr/ coats of mail. Teat. jacJke, tunica, 

praetexta toga. 
Jak«men, men in armour ^ or drejjed in coats of mail. See • 

Jakkis, fhort coats of mail. 
Jangle and jack, to tattle and trifle away the time. See 

Janglour, clamorous talker ^ quarrelfome perfon^ j^gg^^^' 

Yv. jongleur, ^tnt. jancken, gannire, latrare.] 
Jarg, Jirg, to Jound like a door on the hinges, Swed. 

jergQy femper eadem obgannire, ut folent aniculse 

Jaudie, a pudding of oat-mealy and hogs lard, with oni' 

ons and pepper y inclofed in a fow^s flomach^ former- 
ly ufed as a fupper difti at entertainments given bj 

the counlrj people on Faftrens Even. 
Javel, Jafel, Jef well, j^r^/z/TP- or chattering fellow. Fr. 

jamoleur* See Jaip. 
Javellour,ym*/?r. Fr. 
Jauk, to work in a trifling or idle manner. 
Jaw, Jawe, a wave or billow. To Jaw, to dafh, in tie 

manner of waves again/l the fhore ; or aftivclj, to 

tl:r:w out s perhaps from Swed. hauf mare. 


Ja, ■ tm. 

Jawpes, thejpray or dropi of water that are forced in- 
to tie air by repercuffon, tempest^ or otbervjifif bow- 
ever fmati the quantity maybe. To Jawpe,fo be/patter 
•ujith water. See Jaw. 

Ice-fliogles, iciclet. Teut. tiiieie/, ftiria, gelicidium. 

Ich, /. Teat, icb, id. Goth. ii. Lat. ego. 

Ichone, each atie, every one. 

Icker, ear of earn. ' See Echeris. 

Ident, Ydent, Eldant, diligent. Swcd, & III. idin, labo* 
riofus ; idner men, homines induftrii. 

Jee, to move to a fide. 

Jelly,, expl, a man of integrity. 

Jereflouris, Geraflouris, gillijlowers. Feut. gberoftl, 

Jer-oe, expl. a great-grandcbiid. See Oe. 

Jeft. See Geft, aSlion, exploit, adventure ; or the history 
of any fuch. Lat. 

Jett up and down, to fiaunt about, or from place te place. 
Fr. jetter, jaftare. 

I-fere, In fere, in company, together. Sax. fere, fo- 

Jibe, taunt, jest, moci. 

Jink, to efcapefrom, (as by turning a corner.) 

Jinker, a gayfprigbtly girl, a loag. 

Jij^zen-bed, cbild-bed. To be ia jizzen, to ly in. See 

H-fard, ill favoured. Ill fawlie, ill-favouredly. , 
Ilk, Ilka, each. Sax. aelc, etc, unufquiftiue. Ilk ane, 

each one, every one. 
lik, tbe fame. Sax. ylc, idem. Of that iik, of the 

fame, i. c. when a perfoa's firname and [itle are the 

Ill, He, Yle. ijle. Fr. 
lU'willie. malevolent, envious, fpiteful. 
I-lore, Eiore, lost ; as an exclamation wo is me .' from 

Teiit, loor, melancholicus. 
Tmbrew, expl. to engro/s ,- quafi imbrief, 
Immanenr, remnining. Lat. 
Impefciie, to binder ox prevent. Fr. empef^^hfr. 
I "1 nor lab ill, iatolerjble, un/uppottable. Lat. 
■vve, to dijproi'c. Impriviiig, difproving. 


In. . Xiu 


Inchf/fttollifiafui. G^. iams,in{vL\z. 

Incend, to kindle, Incendyt, kindled. Lat; 

Inclufe, to inclofe^ to include. Lat. 

Incoottnent, instantly, without delay. Lat. 

Indily Inkil. St^ TSAndW, to fufpe£t, 

Inding, unworthy, Lat. indlgnus. 

Indole^ indoleniy ina&ive* 

Indure, to harden. 

Infang) to catch, to inclofe^ to fold in ; from Fang. 

Infang thief feems to have fignified originally a per/on 
who committed iheft^ and thereafter was caught, 
within the JurifdiSlion of his own proper lord ; la- 
tro captus, de hominibus fuis propriis, faifitus de 
latrocinio; and Outfang-thefe, a **fora (foreign) 
thefe quha cums fra an uther matins land or jurifdk^ 
tionJ*^ Both thefe terms, however, came, in procefs 
of time, to denote the power or privilege of the lord^ 
or baron to Jit as judge and to decide upon the refpec-^ 
tive cafes of theft committed within his jurifdiSion. — 
And latterlj, the word fang appears in fome cafes to 
have been transferred from the aB of catching or 
apprehending , (undoubtedly its true meaning,) to 
the circumjlance of the flolen goods being found in pof 
fejjion of the thief ; for which there feems to be nQ 
good authority. 

Infare, in^road. Sax. infaer, ingreffus. "See Fare, to go. 
Alfo ufed to fignif x' feaf at in going. [Teut. in-voer^ 

Ingan, onion. Fr. oignon^ cepe. 

Ingent, huge^ large. Lat. ingens. 

Ingill, Ingle, fire, f re-place ; the derivation of the 
word unknown ; if it be not from Lat. ignis, which 
feems rather improbable. See Taanles. 

Ingrave, expl. to cut out, 

Ingyne, ahility.y cap. city, genius^ ingenuity, 

Ingyre, (Gaw. Douglas,) expl. to brin^ in^ to thrujl in, 
to infinuatc ; from Fr. ingerer, 

Inhcrd. See Anherd, approved, adhered to. 

Inkirlie, expl. eagerly, fervently, pafjionately \ accord- 
ing to Ruddiman, corrupted from Fr. en caur ; 


In. — — Jo. 

qvLzCi/rom the heart, as per queer frompar caur, hy 
heart. [Dan. ^«i^z«, merciful, compaffionate.] 

Inlak, Inleck, the quantity deficient, A peck of in*lak^ 
a peck deficient, 

Jnlake, to he deficient^ to come Jhort of meafure^ weighty 
or number ; alfo died. 

Inn, to bring in^ (particularly corn to the barn-yard.^ 
Teut. innen, colligere, recipere. 

Inner mare, more inwards. So alfo hithermare, nether- 
mare, forthirmare, Sec. 

Innouth, within. Teut. innigh, interior. [Sax. innoth, 

Innys, houjhy lodgings. Sax. inne, domus. 

Inrin, to incur ; from Eng. rtf«, currcre. 

Infight, houf eh old furniture y vulgarly plenijhing, 

Jnfolence, dijffobitenefs y loofenefs of manners ; m the 
fame fenfe as diffolution is ufed by Atterbury. 

Infpraich, probably yi/r«/V«/r^« See Spraucherie. 

infprent, didfpring in^ did leap in, 

Infyle, to encompafs^ furround^ or infold, 

Intak, expl. contraSf ; alfo contra6iion, 

Intertrik, (Gaw. Douglas,) expl. to cenfure, to critic 

Intermell, to intermingle. See Mell, to mingle. 

Intromit, to intermeddle, 

Intrufs, to intrude. 

Invaird, Inwaird, to put in ward, to imprifon ; alfo in* 

Inwith, downwards^ declivity, defcent ; alfo expl. with-m 
in, Teut. innighy interior. 

Inyet, Injett, to pour in % from Yr.jetter. 

Jo, fweet'heart, friend j feemingly a contraftion of 

Jogill, tojogg (ivJhahefrom.Jide to fide. Teut. fchoche*, 
len, vacillare. 

John ; St. John to borrough, or to borgh. St, ^ohn he 
your fecuriiy or guardian. St. John's croffes, po/is 
ereBedy (perhaps in crofs form,) by the road Jide for 
the dire & ion of travellers ; — in allufion to John the 
Baptiil, *i who was the preparer of the way** for 
^e MefSah. 
Vol. IV. P Joktale^, 

Jo. Jo, 

Joktalegy a yulgar word for a large foUmg imfi. 
Jolic, pretty^ htrndfome^ merry. Joldy, prettily. Fr. 
JoDcty Jennet, Spamjb borfe. Teat, gbenettt. 
JonettCy afpecies of lily. Fr. jaubutte^ caltha poluftris, 

Tent, janmttey jcmutu^ Qarciflas, Ijchnis filveCr 

JoDCy June, tdjom, Jonjngp junSion* ^aajSyjoins. 
Jornejc, a days worky am engagement or battle. Yt^jmr-^ 

nee ; alfo an expedition^ in the fame waj as the Ror 

man anthers ufe dies. 
Jow, Jew, juggkr. 
Jow, Jowl, to ring or toll a large hell bj the motion of 

its tongue. Bums, however, ohferves, that the word 

*^ includes both the fwinging motion and the pealing 

found.*' , 
Jowis, the jaws. Sax. ceole^ the jole or jowl. 
Jouk, to bend the body forwards^ to incline the heacf 

with a vietu to efcapefome injury \ bj confequence to 

Joukery-paukery, jugling and pawky tricks. 
Toyfs, Joce, to enjoy ; Fr.jouir. 
Irie. See 'Eat j, fearful through folitude. 
Irons, irefuly wrathful^ ongry. Lat. 
Irfche, Erfche, Irifj. IxyichTie^ people of Ireland. 
Ifchawin,^oit;« ; quafi y^Jhown. 
Ifche, ifjue^ P^JP^E^ outward. 
IfiUis, Ifcls, Ifles, red hot embers^ half confumed Jire^ 

Id. eyfay cinis Ignitus fcintillans. 
likiebae, ufquebaughy corruptly whijky ; an Irifh word 

fignifying the ihater oflf». 
Iflabill, Iftable, to ejlablijh. Iftablyt, fixed^ calm^ at 

r*Ji. ... 
Ithand. See Eidant, bufy^ unremitting. 

Ithandlie, bujtly^ vigoroujly ; from Ithand. 
Jundie, Junnie, to jog or fhake (a veflel containing li- 
Jupee, Jcup, wide or great coat. Tt\it. juype. 
Jupert, Juperty, jeopardy. 
J"rj, Jewry, Jewi/h people. 
Juftyrc, Juilrie ^ ju^ice ayre, court ofjujlice. 


attars, JokeAetSf joierf. 

utc. Jour or dead liquor, 

WIS, I WIS, truly, foreif. Tent. 
Jjmp. Sec Gimp, JUndtr^ tight. Tcut. Jent^ belliM^ 

Jjmpis, quiris. 
Izle. See IfiUis, hot cinder fn 


ItA, Kae. Teut. ka, ia^f graculas* 

Kaber^ rafter. Celt. ceiBr^ ceber, cahar^ tignum* 

Kaif. See Cafe» tame. 

Kail. See Gail, colewort. KaiUrunt, the fiem of the 

Kain« See Kean^ rent^ 

Kair, care. Ulph. Job. lo. 13^ fu tar ift^ non eft cura. 

Kame, Kemb» comb, to combi Teut* iemtneHf peAere, 
KameSy combs, honeycombs. 

Kappercail^tie^ cock of the wood ; a fpecies of grous as 
large as a turkey, now extinft in Scotland^ 

Karle. See Carle, rujlic. 

JElarris, fmall carts with tumbrel wheels. Teut. karre^ 

Katherines, Ketheryns, Catberioi/ Kettrin, explained 
by Skene fornars, (fojourners,) or fturdj beggars ^ 
freeJfooters. In tbe notes to Ware*ft Hibernia are 
found thefe words, *' Catherani, Iriih ; Keathem, a 
company, vulgarly kerns ; fignified originally a band 
of JoldierSy but is now taken in a contemptuous 
fenfe.*' Although the word feems thus to be of 
Iri(h extraftion, fomething like a family refemblance 
may be traced between it and the Teut. ietter^ 
feAator, confeAator; hetten, ket/en^ fedari, confedari^ 
multum & continuo fequi, curfitare, difcurrere'/ 
quafi, hunting about for Jvibjijlence, without following 
any regular profeffion ; vagabonds. Some appear^ 
Mice of the wOrd » to be found in moft of the Tea-* 



KsK KCr 

tonic dialeds ; in the Swedifh particularlj, with A 
very bad meaning. See Ketrail. 

Kavely Cavil> an opprobrious appellation of doubtful 
naeaning, perhaps noi/y quarrelfome fellow ; from 
Teut. iiivery rixator, altercatori litigator ; or may 
have fome allufion to Capul, tquus, as a young wo- 
man is contemptuoufly called a filly or fiUock. 

Kavels, Keivels, Keulis. See Cavillis« lots;Jhares. 
" Kean, Kain^ rent. Tent. ken~penninck^ audoramentum, 
tributum quod vafallus fingulis annis beneficii ag« 
nofcendi caufa pendit, an acknowledgment of depen- 
dence ; from Teut. kennen^ agnofcere. Kean or Kain 
henSy hens paid as an additional rent. 

Kebbis or Kebbit ewesy tbofe which have hrought forth 
immaturely^ or hdve been prevented accidentally from 
rearing a lamb. [Teut* kippen^ parere.J 
. Kebbuck, cheefe^ ^^rg^ cheefe. 

Kedgie. See Czidgie, frolicifome. 

Kekle^ Gigle, to laugh. Teut. iaeckelen^ gatrire. 
] Keik, tofpy cunningly ^ to peeps Belg. hiicken. Dan* Hi' 
ger^ videre, fpe&are. 

Keiking-glas, looking glafs^ mirror. 

Keily red ochre ^ ruddle JtonCy a fort of red chalk* 

Kelchin, the name given in the ancient laws of Scotland 
to a particular fpecies of affythment ; from Thcot, 
kelten. Teut. geldeur compenfare, folvere. 

Kcle, Kelis, Kelit, to kill, kills^ killed^ Belg. kelen^ jugu- 
lare, trucidare ; hele^ guttur. 

Kcll, a caul, hood, or veil ; now commonly ufed for 
the top or crown of a woman's cap. Teut. kouely 
cucuUus^ caprtium. Rnddinran' makes reticulum the 
primary fignification of " kell,'* the old tranflators 
of the Bible haying ufed " ksd" in that fenfe. 

Kelpys, Kelpies, expl. a fort ofmifchievousfpirits, faid to 
haunt fords and ferries at night, efpecially in ftorms. 

Kelt, expl. cloth with a freeze^ commonly made of na- 
tive black wool. 

Kelty, Keltic, a large bumper. Teut. ghelte, poculum 

majus. Vide Stat. Hift. Vol. XVII I. p. 473. 
Kemp, to strive, contend^ figbt. Sax. hempen. Teut. 
kampetjf dimicare. The word is ftill ufed to denote 
the contending of reapers in harveft, 


Kemper, contender ^ fighter. Teut. hempe, Belg. & 1(1- 
kaemper^ bellator ; whence probably, fays Ruddiman, 
the ancient Cimbri took their name. 
Kemple, a load or about forty bottles of straw. 
Ken^ to know. Swed. kaenna. Dan. hiende^ cognofcere* 
Kennetis, bounds ; perhaps a diminutive from Lat. cants. 
Kenficj Kenfour, expl. alert young man. Sax. cene, acer. 
Kenfpeckle, of an uncommon orfingular appearance. 
Kent, a long fluffs fuch as fliepherds ufe for leaping o- 

ver ditches. 
Kepp, to catch J intercept. Teut. heppen^ captare. 
Ker-caiky afmaU cake made of flour with eggs. Sec. 
Ker>handit, left handed. Gael, cearr, awkward. 
Kerf, to carve. Kerfyt, carved. Teut. kerfen. 
Kerfs, Carfe, a traSl of low fertile ground. Ifl. kior^ ker^ 
lacus, palus ; kiorr^ lacunse, paludes, loca deprefTa 
& paluftria. In a trad of this kind, a piece of rif- 
ing ground is called an inch or ifland. 
Ketch-pillaris, fijarpers ; probably, fays Lord Hailes*, 

a corruption of Fr. gafpilleursy Spendthrifts. 
Kethat, expl. caffocky robe. 

Ketrail, heretick. Teut. ketter^ ketfer. Swed. kcettare^ 
hsereticus, fchifmaticus, feftator, confe^lator. The 
Swed. word is alfo defined qui contra naturam pec» 
cat ; uti apud Gallos bougres ; i.e. ** Bulgari appel- 
labantur olim communi nomine omnes hseretici, at- 
que etiam qui infami libidine fe poUuebant." 
Kett, carrion, carcafes of fheep that have died from dtf 
eafe or accident. Alfo expl. a matted hairy fleece of 
Kevie, hen-coop. Teut. kevie, aviarium. 
Kewis, e%\\. Jit feafon of addrefs. 
Keuls. See Cavillis, lots. 

Kejkr, Emperor. Belg. kejfer. Goth. iaifnr. Lat. Cafar. 

Kilt, filibegy a fljort pettycoat^ part of the Highland 

drefs ; fometimes the plaid is worn tucked round 

the body like a petticoat ; this is called breacan an 

felimhy or a belted plaid. 

Kilt, to tuck up. Dan. op-kilter y fuccingere ; kilter y cin- 

' . gere. \Ctoi\a.fai ganimis in kilthein^ L. i. 31. conci-- 

pies ^n utero.3 


Ikimmer. See Cttmrner, comrade^ gpjjip* l^t4 

Kin, kindred^ of the fame nature. ' 

Kink, .immoderate fit of laughter ; to laugh immode^^ 

ately. Sax. cinean^ hi^re. Goth, iinnus, maxilla. 
Kinnlngt coney ^ rabbit. Taut, koniin, cunicalus / ii&- 

nen, gignere. Groth. keinan^ germinare. 
Kinrent, Kinret, kindred. Tout, iinderent proles. Ifl. 

kiin/i, Goth, kun^ geaeratio. 
Kinrjrk, Kynrikc, kingdom, Teut^ ioning-riici^ reg- 

num ; koninghy rex, a konnen^ fcire ; quod rex vera 

magica fcientia imbutus eiTe debeat. 
Kip top^fharp top of a hill. Sax. cuep* 
Kipper, dried fahnon^ particularly thofe vohich have been 

killed late jfl the feafon. The word may poffibljr haye 

fome conne6lion with Teut- kippen, ova exfcludere. 
Slirk, church. Sax. cyrc, templum; from being (hut up 

as in a prifon. Goth, karkar, Lat. career. 
Kirn, churn^ to churn. Sax. cernafty agitard batyrum. 

KimilafF, churnflaff. Kirncn , familiarity, 
Kirneir, battlement, Fr. creneauxy muri pinnae. 
Kirtil, Kirtjl, Kirtle," originally a girdle or fhort petti* 

coat ; but more commonly a jacket^ fhort gown, or 

waift'Coat. Fr, courtibauty curtum tibiale, a fort of 

fhort petticoat, reaching only a few inches below 

the knees, ftill known in fome parts of France. Sax. 

cyrtel^ tunica. Goth, gaird^ zona. 
Klft, chefi, Teut. kijie^ cifta. Ifl. kijla, 
Kitchyiif fomewhat to eat ivith bread, as butter or chcefe. 
Kith, acquaintanccy circle of acqitaintance. Teut. kity 

i kond) not us. 
Kitrale. See Ketrail, heretic, Teut. ketter. 
Kittie, Kitty, loofe wenchyfrolickfome girl. Swed.kaiigy 

fly, cunning. Goth, kalkie, meretrices. 
Kittil, Kittle, to tickle ; tickljJJjy difficult. Teut. kitielen^ 

Kleck. See Clekk, to breed or hatch. 
Klippert, afJjorn or clipped fheep, 
Knaggim, offenjlve tajie. Mod. vulg. 
^wd^fiisAty facet icusy ready in thought and exprefjion* 
Knap, Knaip, ^^^ciiyfervant, Belg. knape, S2iX..cnapay 

puer, fervus. 


Knappare, boqr, country Jellovo. See Knap, 
Knap-fekk, bag for holding viSuah. Teut. kmp'faci^ 

viatorin pera ; from inafipta, edcrc 
Koap-fcha, Knap-fcull, e%pl. Jitel bonnet, beadpiice. 
^narry-bald, Cary-bauld, niggardly bnld-pate ; froiq 

Swed. inarrog, peevifli, furly. Teul. knarren, ftri* 

dere. See slfo Knarrj. 
Kneef, ketn. Kneefeft, kettttfl. 111. 
Knitch, bundle, trii/s, ttitcb, 
Knttchell, dimin of Koitch, a f malt bundle. 
Knoit, 'HajX.,JUghtJharfJlreie \ toflrihe jharply, but 

Knoofd, Noofyt, bruifedwitb the kneei, or perhaps nieves. 
Knorry, Knarry, knotty, full of knob i, or gnarres. 
Snow, Knolle, Now, little hill. 
Knychr, Knecht, commander, captain ; originally boy, 

fervant. Teut. tnecht, fervas, famulus, minifler, 

puer, cltcOG, miles. 
Kow, cspl. goblin. See Cow, /o ititimidate, 
Kryk, Croyl. See Cryle, divarf, 
Kryne. See Crync, tsjbrini. 
Ky, cQwt. Belg. he, ioeye, vacca, 
]Cjide9, Culdeis, a kind of clergy ; fo called probahly 

iiom'Ve-at. giide, guide, collegium, contuberniunn ; 

t\ua& guldigbi, gyid-bt others, or a fraternity afreli- 

gioas men. Theot. kelten, gelten, d»re, folvere ; & co- 
. leie, facrificHre, q. d. in pretio habere; gulden, or 

^hilden) gildonia, CoDventus, collegia in quibus area 

communiB, in quam fymbola fcu coUeftEe, fgelda) 

Kyle, espl. a chance. See Cavils, lots. 
Kyle, fmaH rick of hay ; to put np hay in fmall ricks. 
Sjfle-ftane, Keifyl-ftane, afUnt-Jltm. Teut. kefeljleen, 

Kyfllefs, taftekfs. Teut. kojl, cibus. Goth, iaufeiih, 

guftabit. ' 

Kyn-bote, compevfation for thejlaughter of a hinfman, 
ICytc, the belly. 
Kylhe, Kyitti, ta apptar. 

I-»# ' -• 'i lfi7 


Lach. See Lag and Laych, to dehy* 

Lacbter, Latchter, letcher^ libidinous fellow. 

Lachter, Lawchter, brood, the eggs laid at one breeding f 

bairn-teem, [Teut, legb-tiid, the time of laying.] 
Ladefterne. See Leid-derne, leading^^ar, 
Ladroan, Lathioun^ lazy knave ; probably a variatioa 
of Lurdane^ if not from Teut. ledig^ otiofus^ defes, 
fupinus ; and the eommon termination roun* See 
Ladry. [Fr. ladre^ literally ^lefhantiacus, but a com- 
mon term of reproach.] 

Ladry, moby idle multitude, See Ladroun. Or perhaps 
from Sax. leod, populus. 

Lag, to delay y to Jlay or linger behind* Sax. Jlawian^ 
piger effe. 

Lagger, Laigger. See Dragle^ from which it feems tq 
be corrupted, to he-fpatter or be-mire* Ruddimaa 
has various conjedlures about this word; from Sax. 
lago^ aqua; or from lam^ lutum, and^^r^, gurges % 
or from Ir. lathachy kladach^ csenum, limus* 

Laggert, encumber edy reta? ded ; from Lag^ 

Laich, Laigh, Leuch, low, 

Laif, Lave, the remainder ^ the remaining people or thingSj^ 
Sax. lafy Icife^ reliquum, reliquiae. 

Laif, loaf. Teut. leaf Sax. hlaf Goth, hlaifs, pa-* 
nis. . 

Laig, to wade ; qu. to leg ; or may have perhaps fome 
conneftiou with Sa:j. lagOy lagUj aqua. 

Laigynes, the projecting part of thefave^ at, the end of 
a cajk ; elfe where expl. the angle between the fide 
and bottom of a wooden vejfel. Swed^ 

"Lziglin^ mi/king pail, [hzt, lagena.] 

Laik, Lake, Lak, want. Teut. laeke^ defe£tus. 

Lain, alone. Nane but hi r lain, none but herfelf 

Lair, Lare,. hog^ mire. To lair, to flick in the f^ire^ 
Lairie, a little mire. [Sax. leger^ locus decubitus, lo- 
cus fepulturae.] 


%tt. I La. 

Lair, Lare, Lere, learnings education. Teut. Iger. 

Lairbar, expl. dirty fellow. 

Lairdy Lard, anciently Lord^ feudal Superior^ Prince ; 
now landed gentleman under the degree of knight ; 
proprietor of land, or of a houfe^ as fuch. The Scot- 
tiih word^ as in mofl cafes, is nearer than the £ng- 
Jifli to the origioal Sax. hlaford^ or Ifl. lavardnr^ 
dotninus ; which Jhre derives from Ifl. lad^ terra, 
folum, & warda^ cuflodire ; Stiernhielm frooi Iflof 
panis & waerd, hofpes, tutor, patronus ; Junius 
from hlaf Sc Sax. ord^ initium, origo. 

Laith, lotb, reluSiant ; alfo, to loath or abhor. Laith- 
ivA^hafiiful^fbeepi^. Sax. /a^^i&^, tardus. 

Laithlie, Laithfulx loathfomey fqualid. Sax. lathUce. 
Teut. leedelicky fasdus, turpis, deformis. ' 

LaithleSi Laitlefs, unmannerly, uupolifbedf rude. See 

Laits, manners^ gefiuresy heha^imir. Teut. laet^ geilus, 
habitus^ yultus, oftenfio, Aatus^ laeten^ apparere. 
Ifl. lat, Swed. later ^ mores, geftus. 

Laictandlie, latently ^ infecret. 

Lak, Lack, to depretiatey to vilify^ to traduce. Teut. 
laeckenj vituperare, detrahere alicui ; lack, vituperi- 
um, detraftio. Hence it is alfb ufed to fignify re^ 
proach, di/grace ; and bj Gaw* Dauglas as an ad- 
jeftive for bad^ bafe. Lakker, ^orfe. Lakkeft) 
ivorjl. This, liowever, may be a corruption of laWp 
low. • ■ 

Lak, expl. lamentation. 

jLake-wake, the watching of a dead body, a fort of con« 
vivial entertainment which commonly was given to 
the friends of the deceafed si night or two before 
the burial ; from Teut. Hick, funus, cadaver homi- 
nis. Sax. /iV, corpus ; and Teut. tvaeckeny vigi- 

Lallandis, Lawlandis, low-lands ^ the Jouth andeajt parts 
of Scotland^ where a diale£t of the Gothic or 
Teutonic language has prevailed probably for thefe 
two thoufand years^ in contra-diilindion to the 
YoL. IV- (^ Helands 

La. .—-_ La«r , . 

Helands or Highlands ; that is, the wefiern parts of 

the country, inhabited by the defcendants of the an- 
' cientGael. 
Lampit, a kind ofjbellfijb. 
Lance, to darty tofpring^ to move with agility. Fr. Ian* 

cevj fe imraittere. 
Land, expl. a clear level place in a wood ; perhaps the 

fame with Lownd or Lownd place, ajbelteredplace. 

[Fr. lande. Wei. lawnty planities inter aibores.]] 
Landbirft, (Gaw. Douglas,) explained the rioife and 

roaring of the fea towards the Jhorey as t^e billows 

hreak or hurji on the ground. Ruddiman thinks he 

has heard Land'hirth ufed in the fame fenfe. 
Land-lowper, a Jlr anger ^ a perfon who cannot fettle in 

any one country orftuation, Teut. land^looper^ mul- 

tivagus, vagabundus, circuitor. 
Lands of leal, expl. death. 
i,2.ndvr^TU the country ; of or belonging to the inland 

part of a country. To landwart, fynonimous with 

Lang, longy to long or dejire earnejlly. Tevit. langhen^ 

Langcl, to entangle. See h\ngclyf?oemal'er^s twine. 
Lang-ere, Lang-gere, Langyre, long ere nowy long ago ; 

from Teut. eer^ prius ; being a compleat inverfion 

of the Engl, erelong. 
Langorious, offered with langour, 
Langfum, tedious. Teut. lang-faem^ lentus, tardus. 
Lang-fyne, longfince^ long ago. 
Lang-kail, ii;/;7/^r cole-worts. Lang-kail broth, colewort 

Lankie, tally fender perfon. [Teut. langh-lenter^ lon- 

Lap, did lowp or leaped. See Lowp. 
Lapc, Laip, to lap as a dog. Teut. lappen^ lingere. 
Lappert-milk, milk become clotted by long keeping or o- 

tker caufes ; {lightly corrupted from Teut. Hotter* 

inelcky or klobber-faenf lac coagulatum. » 
Lapron, a young rabbit. Fr. lapreau. 
Lapwing, the green plover or te-whit. 
Lardun, Lardner, larder, Fland. lardiere, 


La. — — I^a* 

Larci LsLit^ place of reft. Sax. leger^ decubitus. 

Lareit, Lawryt, Loretto^ the nam^ of a manlion-houfe 
at the eaft end of Muffelburgh, where there was for- 
merly a chapel belonging to the abbey of Dun- 
fermline. See Vol. 111. p. 74. 

Large, (Gaw. Douglas, J free. Go large, go at large ^ 
or with a free courfe ; alfo, liberal in giving, 

Larges, Lerges, liberality y generojity. Fr. 

Lafche, (Gaw. Douglas,) weary ^ la%yyjlacky lingering. 
Fr. lafche^ languidus, enervatus. 

Lat, to permit ; alfo, to hinder ^ to retard. 

Latch, duhy mire. Teut. lache^ coUedio aquarum. 

Late, (fpoken of iron,) to deprive it of elaflicity and 
temper y fo that it may eafily be bent, like lead. 

Lattoun, Lat ten, a mixt kind of metaly Mr Tyrrwhit 
fays, of the colour of brafs. ^fl. laatun^ brafs. Gaw. 
Douglas uies the word lattoun for ele6irum, a metal 
compofed of filver and gold. Fr. laiton. 

Lauch, law y privilege. Sax. Lh^ lex. To lauch^ to pof 
fefs in a legal manner. 

Lauchful, lawful. See Lauch. 

Laucht for Claucht,y^22;^J, caught hold of took or taken. 

Lauch tane, j&^jZ? ; perhaps from Sax. laden^ plumbeus. 

Laud, Lawit, Laid, lay-men^ in contra-diftiudtion to 
the clergy ; unlearned or common people. Sax. leody 
populus, vulgus. 

Lave, remainder. Sax. lofe. Goth, laiba^ refiduum, re- 

Laverock, now contrafted to lark ; as Infard or lafordy 
dominus, to lord or larde. Sax. 

Lavyrd. See Laird, /or^/. 

Law, to low or bellow. 

Law, humble y low ; to humble or abofe. 

Law, a hill with rather an eafy afcent. Sax. lawe^ col- 

Lawing, tavern bill, the reckoning. Lawing free, foot" 
free. Goth, launy remuneratio. 

Lawte, Law tie, Lawtith, Laughtle, loyilty^ fidelity y 
lawfulnefsyjujiiccy honour. O. Fr. leaute. 

Laurere, the laurel or bay^tree. Fr. laurier. 

Lay, to allay or alleviate * 


Lay, (Gatr. Dougltd,) Aw, Buflay, mtiout hn^^ 

Chancer has tbt word in the fame fenfe. 
Lajch, to' delay ; of wkieh it may be an abbreviated 

corra^mon, it not from Teut« liggben, manere ; or 

Fr, lacbety laxare. 
Layke, Laik, laief a paint af a deep red cohur ; exjJ. 

alfo^afW or colour of any kind. 
Lajke^ to /part or make game. Goth. Imkan^ exnltare. 
L'tjnder, expl. Icnmdrefs. Fr. tavandiere* 
Lajne, Leyne, to recline ; by confeqtteoce to tarry or 

remain. Swed. lanoi reclinare. 
Layne, (Stat. 113. A. 0. 1581,) probaoly linen. 
Laynere, Jlrapy thong. Fr. laniere^ Swed. lengior, 

Layr. Seels^re^ place of refl!. 
Laytis. See Laits, hehaviouTf carriage. 
L^, law. O. Fr. lev^ lex. Lefiil, lawful. 
lA^Jheltery tranquillity. Swed. lae^ ly. Ifl. hle^ bS^ lo- 
cus tempeftati fubdudns. 
Leche, lieichy /urgeon, phyfician. Sax. lite, lace. (joth. 

teiy medicus. 
Leche, Leich, to cure. Sax. Icecnian^ fanare, mederi. 
Lede. See Leid, man^ per/on. Ledis^yo/I, people. Sax. 

leody populus, vulgus ; popularis, civis. 
Lede-fterny the north pole. Teut. leyd-JlerrCy cytaofara, 

iirfa minor, ftella polaris. 
Ledefman, Ladifman, Leidfman, pilot. Teut. loot/man ; 

quafi, the heaver of the lead. Teut. loot, plumbum. 
Leepit, expl. meagre, thin. 
Lees me on, Luse me on,pleafed am I with. See Leif, 

grains. In Kilianus we find lieuery amabo, fodes, 

obfecro, blandientis particula ; and in the old play 

of Damon and Pithias, " Aloyfe,^ aloyfe ! expl. how 

pretty it is /" 
Leet, iJ/l, a chofen number from which an eleSHon of one 

or more is to be made. Fr. 
Leet, expl. enroll fix ^fajlen ; alfo, to give ones fuffrage 

or vote. 
Lege, Liege, Liege*many fuhjcR hound in allegiance ; 

ajfo, liege lord^fuperior ; quafi, lord of the liege^meUt 

or leod-men^ from Sax. leod^ gens, civis, popularis. 


lieid, man^ per/on^ Sax. Itodij popnlaris, civis ; appa« 
rentlj the fame with Liegemaa. 

Leidy language; more generally the latin language. 
Sax. Iteden^ Latinus. 

Leif, leave f permij/ion ; to leave y to live, to believe. 

Leify Liefy d^ar^ willing^ pleafed^ agreeable. Liefer, Le- 
ver, Leuer, more willingly ^ with greater pleafure^ ra- 
ther^ in preference, Teut. lief cams, gratus, preti- 

Leiful, Levefnl, Leful, lawful ; ^Mo friendly. 

LeilyLele, loyal^ true ^ faithful^ jujl^ right. Unlele lawis, 
unjufl laws ; contr. from Fr. loyal^ fidus. 

Leim. See Leme, to gleam^ tojhine. 

Leindy Leynd, Lane, to Jtopf flay^ dwells or remain. 
Swed. linna^ linda^ ceflare. Goth. ajUnna^ difcedere. 

Xfeipir, expl. meagre ^ tbin^ loving the fire. See Lepe. 

Leisy to arrange^ to lay in order. Goth, lifan^ congre- 

Leifche, to lafb^ tofcourge. 

Leifty expl. appeafed; q. d. leafed ; from Teut. leffchen^ 
extinguere ; (fitim^ Icvare. 

Leifter, a kind of harpoon or three pronged dart for 
flrikingfijh. Teut. el-fcheere^ eel-fpear. 

Leifjng, licy lyings malicious faljhood. Sax. leafung. 

Leit, expl. to fuppofe^ to think. Sax. l^tan^ arbitrari, 

Leit, did lety permitted ; alfo hindered. Teut. Scand. &c. 

Leit. See Leet, lif. 

Leithry, Leothrie. See Ladry, mob^ crowd. 

Lekky Leik, to leak^ to fpring a leak. Teut. lecken, 

Lemane, Lemman, fweetheart, fnijlrefs^ darling y male 
or female. Gael, leannan. [Zleut. lief diled:us, ca- 
ms ; & maUy pro hominey fiieminam seque not ante ac 
virum.] According to Ruddiman, from Fr. Vaimant^ 
Sc Paimante, an^fius, amafia. 

Lemanry, Lemmanrie, Lamenrie^ illicit love. See Le- 
' mane, fweet-heart. 

Leme, to gleam or fhine. Sax. leoman^ luccre ; homa^ 

Lend, kin. Swed. laend^ lumbus. 


tie. ., Le^ 

Lenc. See Leind^ toftop^ to refty or tarry, 

LenaOy cbUd^ Gael, leanabby infans. 

Lenthy to Ungtben^ to protraSi. 

Lentroun, Lentyre, Lenten^ time of Lent, tbe fpririg. 

Sax, lengten* 
Lenye, (Gaw. Douglas) expl.^«^, tbin, Jlender. Sax. 

lanigt tenuis ; or blaeney macer. 
Leomen, expl. leg ; rather perhaps ^/&a//» 
Lepe, Lcip, to warm, to par ML 
Lepyr, leprofy ; perfon affiiBed with leprofy* 
Lerc, to learns to ttacb. Lerand^ learning. Teut. leeren. 
Lergnes. S^e Largts, bounty • 
LeSy Les than, unlefs, lejl, 
Leit^ lajllng^ duration^ delay* 
Lefouris, Lefuris (Gaw. Douglas), expl. pajlures i. 

from Sax. lafwe, pafcuum ; or tbe empty /paces be^ 

tween rows of trees, from Fr. lais or layes, of nearly 

the fame fignification. 
Lefum, lawful. See Le, law. 
Lefum, Lrifome, agreeable, acceptable, pleajing ; q. d. 

leifsome^ or lovefome, 
Lefyng. See Leifyng, lying. 
Lerh, hatred^ difgust. Sax. Icettbe. 
. Let les, without hindrance. 
Letteis (Stat. 71.. A. D. 1457.) fcemingly yr^rA'/ 

Letteron, Letryne, Latron, writing dejk, writing table. 

Ft. lutr'tn 
Leuch, Leuf^h, laughed. 
Leuer, Lever, rather. See Leif, willing. 
Leveful. See Lefum, lawful, &c. 
Levere, dcll'-jcry^ distribution ; probably alfo donation, 

bozmty. [Fr. llvrerji^o confer on, to yield over.] 
Leveraire, probably donation, or privilege granted in re^ 

ward for fcrvices perfortned. Leveraires, alfo expl. 

armorial hi' a rings, colours in heraldry. 
Levin, lightning, flaJJj of fire. Teut. lacye, flamraa, 

flauinis2, lumen , whence alfo 'Lowc^ flame, Ruddi- 

man liefitate-. between Sax leoma^ lux j glowan, can- 

dere ; and hlifia?iy hlifigcnj rutilarc, 


tevingis, cxpl. loins ; alfo iungs. 

Lew, Lewe-warm, luke-warm. Teut. lawe. Thcot,. 

la we J tepid us. 
Lewar. See Leuer, rather ; from Leif, willing. 
Lewdring, expl. moving heavily. See Lidder. 
Lewit, unlearnedy ignorant^ rude. Sax. lawediy laicns ; 
leode^ popularis, civis, vulgus. Chaucer frequently 
ufes the word in the fenfe of lay man. 
Ley, lea^ untilled arable ground. Sax- ley. 
Leynde, Leind, Lende, to lean^ rejly tarry ^ lodge ; alfo, - 
to ceafe. Swed. Icena^ reclinare ; lindoy linnay ceffare^ 
Lib, to cajlrate. Libbyt, cnflrated. Teut. luhhen^ viriHa 

execare ; lubber^ caftrator. 
Libbert, kopard ; in heraldry, a lion^ the original fig-* 

nification of the word (Jeopard.^ 
Libel, Lybcl, f mall booh ^ tra&y ^Jp^y^ poem^ indtBment^ 

Lat. libellus. 
Liberos, children* Lat. 

Li cam. See Lycame, human body while in life. 
Li cent, a licentiate. 

Licht, cbearfuly merry. Lychtnis, chenrfulnefs. 
Lichtar, Lychter, lighter ^ delivered of a child. 
Lichtis, Lychtnis, the lungs. Teut. lichte. 
Lichtly, Lychtlie: to undervalue ^ to flighty or defpife. 
Lick, to lajhy whip^ or heat^ to overcome. 
Lidder, I jythir, Jluggijh, lijilefs. Sax. lythrejithery^or- 
didus, ignavus, malus ; 7\io loathfome, from O. Fr, 
ladresy lepers. 
Lift, Lyft, the firmament. Sax. lyfta. Teut. locht^ 

Ligg, tolyey to linger. Ifl. hgg. Sax. Viggan. Teut. //§r- 

ghen, Goth, ligan^ jacere, recumbere, manere. 
Likand, gratefuL acceptable^ pleafmg. 
Lills, tl^e holes of a wind injlrument. 
Lilt, a chearful tune or melody. 
Lilt, tofing chear fully. 
. lAme, glue. Teut. Him, gluten. 
Limitouris, a kind if begging friars, whofe licence of 
* ' CQmmiflion confined them to fell indulgencies, be^ , 

ficc. within certain prefbnbcd Umks^ called their lU 

Limmer, Lymmer, aftrumpet^ a wortbU/s pirfon^ male 
or female. [ Teat, lymen, limis tueri, tranfver&9 ocu* 
lis tueri. Swed. lymnul^ bardas,^ 

Lin, tojiop^ to ceafe. Sw^d* linnay ceffare. See Leynde. 

Lin. See Ljn, a cleugh. 

Ling» a kind of coarfe grafi^ or rather a /pedes ofrujb 
which grows Of) heaths and mountains. In Iceland^ 
and in various parts of Biitain, it fignifies heath or 

Ling, litte^Jlrait forward^. 

Lingely twine ^Jhoemahers thread. Fr. lignetd. 

Linget, Linged, Itnt-feed. 

Link, to do a thing quickly \ moft commonly fpoke of 
fpinning. SeeLinkome. 

Xinkie, a clever girl, one who trips lighth along^ 

Li&kome, Lyokuro, Lincum^i men. Lmkome twjme^ 
linen yarn. Ifl. linkynnur^ lents, mitis, mollis, |[exi« 
bills, ** forte a tinea vel lineo fio^ quod illo nihil fit 
fequacius aut tradabilivis." Efah. linkUde. Swed, 
linnet ygy linen or linen- cloth ; likwara^ veftis inte- 
rior. Teut. lintken^ vitta^ taenia, a fillet or ribband 
for binding up the hair \ commonly, we may iup* 
pofe 0/ linen. The primaiy or more common fig« 
nification alfo of the Teut. laecken feems to be lin« 
teum/ pannus linteus, rather than pannus laneus ; 
as Kilianus makes it fynpnimous with doeck; and 
thir again with liinwaet^ linteum ; i. e. cloth made 
from fla^. Various annotators, however, contend 
that linkome fignifies cloth (or linen yarn) manufac- 
tured at Lincoln. See Vol. II. p. 368. 

Lintwhite, corr. of linnet. Sax. 

Lipperis, Lopperis, (Dougl. Virgil) expl. the %uhit^ 
%vater of broken waveSy or on the tops of waves. Lip-* 
peiing, foatmg upon and dif colouring the waves ; pro* 
bably from Lopper^ as if the fea were curdled. 

Lipper fiih, ('fpoken of falmon^) perhaps leper or A^« 

• rousy unhealthy. 

Lippin, to truft^ to lean toj depend. Ljrppinyt to, de^ 
pe^ded upon. 


Life, Lyre, the Jkjhy or mufcular parts of the lodyi 

Sax. liroy lacerti, fura, pulpa, vifcum ; alfo expl. 
. tdmplexion^ cotour, Fr. 
Lirk, a wrinkle ; alfo to wrinkle or be contraBed* Ifl. 

lerka^ contrahere, adftringere, 
Lift, the flank ^ the groin ^ or inner part of the thigh, 
Lifs, remijjton or abatement ^ ejpecially of any acute dif» 

eajh. Fr. & Sax. liffiy remimo, cellatio. 
Liiilj, Lyftlie, willingly. Sax. li/llice^ fat, fatis. 
Lite, Lyte, little^ fntally few, Sai. lyt^ lyie^ parum^ 

Uixh^ joint Sax. //VA, artus, articulus. 
Lithe, Ljth, have patience ! Teut. liiden, fufferre. 
Lithe, to thicken (pulfe or gruel.) Sax. lithian^ miti- 

Lithernes, Lythernes, floth. Sax. tythre, Ifl. latur^ 

fluggi/hf good for nothing, 
Litt, to dye or tinge, Littyt, dyed^ coloured. Swed. letta: 
Litrfter, dyer \ ftoin Litt. Ifl. litunar-madur^ tinftot. 
Live, Ife. Eteme on live, eternally in life^ immor'^ 
, tal. 
Liyeray-ifieal, a certain quantity of oat^meal allowed 

for fubfjience to fervants who are not tHaintained in 

their mqfter^s houfe. See Lyfferoch. 
Loan, Loaning, a wide vacant piece of ground clofe by 

or leading to a farm houfe^ where the cows are com:« 

itioflly milked. 
"Lomeytopraife. Se^ IjOniSy prai/eth. 
Loch, Lough, lake, Celt. loth. Sax. luh, lacus. 
Lock, a /mall quantity , as of meal. 
Lodifman. Sefe Ledifman, pilot. 
Loft, On loft, atoft^ on high. Dan. lofier, attoHere. 
Loif,*Lofe, to praifei Teut. & Ifl. lofpraifsy hondur, 

Se6 Louis. 
Lokkerand, curling: Lokkerit, curled, '* When jour 

hair is white, you would have it lockering." Prov. 

fpoken of one who is immoderate in his deftresi 
Lokkeris, curled locks of hair. See Louk. 
Lokker gowan, globe flcfwer, trollius. Teut. loken^ 
^ cldudere. 
Loll, to howl in the manner of a cat 4 Scand. 

Vot. IV. R Lollcrdy^ 

Lo. ■ I I Lb#- 

Lollerdy, Lorrardry, Lowlardy, ierefy^ the doftrmc of 
the Lollers or Lollards. Teut. loUaerd^ muifitator, 
muflitabundus ; lolleriy muflitare^ numeros non verba 
caneie. [Teut. loreriie^ impofturay fraus ; lorer^ 
impoftor, fraudator ; loren^ fraudare aliquem.] An 
old explanation of Lollard is a breaker offaJHfig dajs^ 
a runnagate, 

Lome, Loom, properly vej/il^ as a tub or di/h\ but (ig- . 
nifies alfo implement ^ utenftl^ or inftrument in gene-^ 
ral. Sax. toma^ utenfilia, fupeUex. 

Lompnity Lonit, hedge^rowed. 

Lonjeoure, a la%y or loitering feUov>. Fr, lengard* 

Lopperit^ Lopperand. See Lappert, coagulate. 

Loppin> did leap* See Lowp, to leap ; alfo burjl. 

Lorel, cunning deceiver, cheating fellow. Teut. lorer^ 
impoilor^ fraudator. See Lowrie. 

Lorimer, iotmciij faddler ; now a maker ofbitSjfpurSj 
&c. Fr lormier^ 

Lome, ruined^ defiroyed^ undone^r Teut. loren.. Sax. ho^ 
rany perditus. 

Los, Lous, praife. See Louis, praifeth. 

Lolin. Teut. luyfen^ pediculos capere, venari. 

Lofingere, a flatterer, Fr. lo^enger^ adulator / alfo ufedf 
by Bifliop Douglas for a loiterer, 

Loveit, Lovyte, hving JubjeB^ Ifl. lofdar^ viri, mill-' 

Loue, to prai/e or commend* Louit, praifed. Louingis, 
praifes, Louabill, laudable^ commendable ^ praife'ivor-^ 
thy. Fr. louer ; from Teut. louen, i. e. lof geven^ 
laudare, coUaudare,. commendare, laudibus tollere ; 
/o/J laus. 

Louk, Lukk, toflnit upy to inclofe. Teut. lokenj luychen^ 
claudere, obferare. 

Loun, downy fellow y rogue ^ or cunning rafcal ; alfo 
loofe woman. Teut. loen^ homo ftupidus, bardus, in- 
fulfus. Sax. ///;?, egenus. 

Loune, Lown, Lownd, wellfljeltered, calm^ without wind 
or wave. 111. lundr^ fylva. Swed. lugny calm ; ftilh 
lugUy ftark calm. Goth, analaughny occultum. 

Loundir, afevere blow ; to beat with fever e blows. 

Loundrer, la%y fellow s q- lourdaner. See Lourdane. 


LO. ^^mmmm^m LU. 

liODpe, to wreath or win// about, as with a cord. 

ioupe, Lowp, to leap or Jump. Teut. loopen^ falire. 

Xoupe, Lowp^ to hurft open. Luppin, Loppin, burjl 

Lpurdane. See Lurdane, indolent Jluggijb fellow. 

iiOurdnes,yttr/)> temper. Ft. lourdife. 

Xioure, to lurk^ to bow down ; q. to lower. 

Lowrie, a nickname which has been commonlj given 
to thefoxj at leaft as anciently as the time of James 
the Third. See the poems uf Robert Henrjfoun, 
VoL I. p. ICO ; probably from Teut. lorer'^ frauda« 
tor ; ioreriijs^ frays ; lore^ illecebra. 

Lowrjrd, Louryth, tiL^X./urly, ungracious. Teut. leure, 
vinum acinaceum. Fr. lourd, praegravis. 

Lout, to bow or bend the body forwards^ to cringe ; by 
confequence tofalufe or do honour to ; perhaps, fays 
Ruddlman, from low ; q. d. lowed. 

ZjOW, afiame^ a blaze ; alfo to flame. Swed. & Ifl* hga^ 
laugr. Fris. lochene, flamma. Goth, liugjan, lu- 

Lown. See Loune, calm. 

Lucken, joined clofely to one another. See Louk, to 
Jhut up. 

Luf, Lufe, love^ to love. Luffaris, lovers* 

Lufe, Loof, the palm or hollow of the hand. Swed. hfwe^ 
vola manus. Ulph. lofamflohun ina^ volis percutie^ 
bant eum. Mar. 14. 65. 

Lufray, (Lever^,) bounty ; perhaps from Teut. liefern, 
dare^ prebere, offerre. See Lyfferoch. 

Lugy ear^ handle ; perhaps' from Sax. locca^ caefaries^ 
the hair which grows on the cheek. 

Luggie; a vejjel with a handle. 

Lukkie, grandmother^ old woman. 

Lum, chimney vent. Sax. leom^ lux ; fcarcely any other 
light being admitted, excepting through this hole in 
the roof. Or, the word may be only a variation of 
Teiit. leem^ kleye, terra argillacea, a principal mate- 
rial in the formation of a cottage chimney vent. 

Lumitors, Lymitors. See Limitouris, begging friar Sm 

Lunkyt (water), hot^ but not boilings levj^ivarm, Dan. 

t • ■ 

IjXintfJlame^bla^i ; sl^ matcb^ope. Swed* /tf«/a, funis 
igniarius ; luntor^ old books, as if thej were good 
for nothing bat lighting the fire. 

Lunjie, loin. 

Lurdane, Lourdane, Lourdant, idle^ if^olent^ good^for'^ 
nothing fellow. Fr. lour4ffit from Teut, luyaerdf pi- 
ger, defidiofus, vappa, murcidus, ignavus homo, 
male feriatus ; ley^ fugitans laborem* 

Lurdanry, lazinefs^ idlen^SyJlotb. TenU luyerdiie^ pigri- 
tia, ignavia, fegnities, defidia. Fr. lourderie. 

Luiking, Leufking, abjconding. Teut. luyfchen^ lati- 

Lullie, delightful, genial. Teut. Itffligb^ deledabilis, lu- 
culentus, vegetus. 

Luftheid, afhiablenefsi lov^linefs. Teut. luftigheydi amqp* 

Lute, Lfiutfjluggard ; probably from Lurdane. 

Lute, Leut, permitted ; froip Let. 

I^ut.cock, the name of a dqnc^. 

Luthe, remained. See luyxht^Jhelter. 

Lutherie, Luferie, lujl. See Luf. 

Lyame, a fringe cord^ or thong. Fr. Vten^ vinculum. 

Ljart, grey haired^ hoary, or having a mixture of grey 
hairs, Fr. 

Ljcame, Ljkkam, Licum, Licham, body. Teut. /jVA- 

aem. Sax. lichama^ Hchoma^ corpus animatum, vi- 

vum ; a Goth, leiky corpus ; & ahma^ fpiritus. This 

' word is alfo found in the Swed. Dan. and Id. dia* 


LjflEeroch, Vol. III. p. 232. or according to the MS. 
Laverock, viBuals^ dinner ^ mefs ; probably adop- 
ted from Teut. lifwara^ vel liifwara^ cibaria ; liif 
voerens cibus, alimentum ; if it does not rather fig- 
nify liverings^ (O. Eng.) Jkin-puddingSy faufages. 
Teut. lever lincks^ tomacula. The term Livery- mealy 
1, e. oat-meal allowed for fubfiftence, is probably 
from the fame Teut. liifwara or liifvoeren, rather 
than from the Fr. livrer^ to deliver. 

Lykand, grateful^ acceptable ; if it pleafes. To your 
lykand, at your pleafure, 

Lyk-waik, Lich-wayk, See Lake-wake. 


Lymouris, Lymmouris, Bmmers orjbafts of a cart vr 
carriage. Fr. limon. 

Ljmmar. See lAmmtr, Jlrutf^et, &c. 

Ljmmit, expl. hired ; perhaps from Sax. /eafj^ ftipen- 
dium, merces. [Fr. /rVn, vinculam.] 

Ljiiy Ljndy explained by Kuddiman a precipice^ den^ or 
cataraBy into which water falls with a great noije : 
ab Sax. b/yna, fonus, torrens ; hlynncn^ fonare : or 
from the Ir. tin^ a pool or pond. It alfo iignifies 
(I think more commonly) two oppofte contiguous 
cliffs or heughs covered with brujhwood. Teut. lincke^ 
fifiura. See Linn. 

JLynd, expl. a teille or Itm^ tree. Teut. linde^ tilia, phi- 
lyra. Under the Und, under the linte^ree^ i. e. in tb^ 
woods. See Teille. 

Lynzellis. See Lingels, Jboemakers thread. Fr. ligneuU 

Lyre. See Lire, fiejb. 

JLyfty the hem ov fe hedge of garments. Teut. liijl^ lim«> 

Lyte, Elyte, to eleB. 

Ly the, to thicken or render gelatinous. Sax. lithe, 

^ythe, Jbeher^ Jhade^ fttuation proteSled from the fun* 
Sax. lithsy quies. 

Pjfk^x. gee hiddQV,fuggiJb, nafy. 



Jjla. ' ■ ■ ■ M* 


Sf Ay Mae, pto£, more. 

Mace (Gaw. Douglas), rod, club, baton. Fr. maffue, 
Macky q. makes fort, kind. 

iMacrelly haivd, pimp. Teut. maeckelaer, proxeneta^- 
fnaeckelerejffhy conciliatnx ; from maecken, conciliare. 
With flight variations, the word is Cound in Fr. Da^- 
ni(h, &c. 

Mady Maudy plaid, blanket \ pexhaps originally the fame 
with Teut • tie, llorea. 

Magil to mangle. { eut. maecien, caft^are. 

^lags, a /ma// perquiftte paid to carters by their majlers 
£uliom€rs. O. Fi . magai^t, a pocket or' wallet j quafi, 

Mahoun, Mnhomet ; alfo ufed for the Devil. 

Maigh, Mach, yb« in law, Teut. maeghe^ cognatus, ag- 
natus. Angl. Bor. My meaugh, my wife^s brother, 
or fijier's h:ijband in the fame manner as various o- 
ther names of confanguinijj and affinity are fre- 
quently confounded. [Sax. mceg. Goth, magus. Celt. 
mac^ filius.] 

^aiky mjtch. covfortj mate^ equn/. Maikles, matchlefs, 
that hath not an equa'. Swed. make. Teut. maet^ 
mretkefi^ collega, aiqualis compar. 

^aiky Makk, to compofe verfes. Teut. maecken^ facere, 
condere ; or per Laps from maeteny modulare ; maete 
van denfanck'y modi» moduli, menfura cantus ; quafi^ 
to match or meafure verfes. 

Maikar, Makkar. a poet, compofer of verfes. 

Mail, Male, a df coloured fpot ; alfo, to dif colour or 
flain. Teui. mael^ macula ; maelen^ pingere. 

Mail, Male, trihute^ rent. a v. ?/»./. veftigal, ftipendi- 
um (fragmentum.) Fr. maille. obolus. 

Mailing, a farm ; from Mail, rent. 

I^ail-men, Maiileries, farmers, perfons who pay rent. 


Mft. — — — . Ma/ 

Mailzles^ Mailyiesy the plates or linh of ivbkb a cdat 
of mail is compo/ed, Teut. maelie, orbiculus, hamus^ 
fibula, annulus ; alfo expl. eylet boles. 
Main, Maining, moan, Jamentation. Sax. 
Mains, the farm houfe and offices upon that part of the 

Barony contiguous to the manfion^houfe, 
Mair, Mare, mayor, chief magi fir ate of a city. 
Mairattour. See Mare-attour, moreover. 
Mais, makes, as tdis for takes. 
Maifchlech. See Maflfal, mixed corn. 
Maifoun, houfe. Ft. maifon, domus« 
Maift, moft, greatejl. Goth, maifts, major, magis, plus. 

Alfo for almojl ; maifta, almojl had. 
Maifier, chief , principal. Maiiler-ftreet, chief or prin- 
cipal flreet. Maifter-key, key that will open all the ' 
locks of a chejl of drawers orfuch like. 
Maifter, to overcome, to execute fo me difficult tajk. 
MaifterfuU, proud, tyrannical, incontrollable. 
Maiftery, Maiftry, power, viBory, pre-eminence, fupef i- 

ority ; from Teut. iw^^^r, magifter. 
Mait, Mate, confounded, overcome, defeat, wearied. 

Teut. & Fr. mat, defeflus, deviftus. 
Mak, 'M.2isAomt,Jhape, manner, fafhion. 
Mak, to make. See Mack, to compofe verfes. 
Makly, Maikly, evenly, equally. See Maik. 
Makdome, fame as Mak, fhape. 
Mal-eis, trouble, uneajinefs, dtforder. Fr< maUaife^ q, d, 

malum otium. 
Maling, malignant* 
Mallhure, Mallewrc, trouble^ ^fery, misfortune. Fr. 

Mallewrus, unhappy, miferable. Fr. malheureux. 
Maltalent, ill will. 
Malyfoun, Malefone, Malifon, malediBion, curfe. O. Fr. 

malediffon, malediftio. 
Malvafie, Mavefie, (Malmafie,) fome kind of f mall 
fweet wine, in imitation of true Malmfey. Teat, mal^^ 
vafege, vioum arvifium, Creticum, Chium, Monem- 
bafites. Fr. malvefie ; horn Malvafia, a city of 


« # 

MalTetd, maUce* O. Fr. malvetie. 

Mammcmrie, expl. idolatry ^ worjinp offalfe gods ; ra« 

ther perhaps riches or avarice ; from M amnaoir. 
Maii| male-fervant. Id. man, fervns ; & ferva^ puella'f' 

arnica, concubina. 
Mandmentisy commandmeniSf orders^ Fr. manAment. 
Mandrit, expl. tamed. [Theot. radeUy faadere.]] 
Mane, main^ might or force. lii. magn^ vis, potentia ; 

magan^ pofTe. 
Mane. See Main, tdoanj lamentation. 
Mane-breid, Breid of mane, ^rohMj alntond Hfcuti^ 

cakes mixed with hrtnfed ahnondt or other fwM 

kernels ; according to Cotgravev pain d^amande, or as^ 

Chaucer writes it, pain de maine, Protnptuarium 

ParvuloTum explains I^jme majne, panis vigoris ^ 

that is, according to Mr Pinkerton, bread made of 

the fineft flour, with milk and eggs \ mayne itovx 

Ifl. magny vis, potentia. 
Maneir, manner ; alfo expl. manour^houfe. 
Mang, Mank, Mangzie, defeBy hurt, mark left by a hurt 

or fore. Teat, mencke, mutilatio, lasfio. 
Mangerie, Manjory, a feaji or banquet. Fr. manges 

Mangit, Men jeit, maimed^ marred^ confounded^ weaken" 

ed by extreme care^ forrow^ Jlripes or toil. Teut. 

mancken^ mutilare, ,deficere, deefle ; alfo expl. become 
Mangle, to fmooth linen cloatbes by pajjing through a 

roUv'gprefs. Teut. manghelen^ levigaie, complanarcy 

polire (lintea.) 
Manjory. See Mangerie, afeaji. 
Mann ace, Maneifs, to treaty to handle ^ to ufe in any 

manner y good or bad. Fr. menager \ alfo expl. to me^- 

nace or threaten. Fr. menacer. 
Ma-. red, expl. followers ; probably connefled with 

Man -rent, obligation to fuppott by force of arms, hom^ 

age ; equivalent to Teut. manfchap^ fides cliente- 

Manfweir, to perjure. Manfwering, perjury. Mane* 


Msi ■■ ' ■■ Mm. 

m ^ 

iVorn, perjured^ Sax. man^ fcelus, probraniy Jkfwi^ 
riafiy jurare. 

Manfwete, calniy meek^ polite ^ well- bred. Lat. manfuetus^ 

Manfwetude, mUdnefsy politenefs. Lat. 

Manfys, man/ion boufesy habitations, Lat. manere. 

Mant, tojlammer in fpeecb. £Tcut* mancken^ membro 
aliquo neceflario diminuere.] 

Manteil, Mantjle, mantle^ a mantelet or covering. Teut* 

Man js, a manfe or manjion-boufe ; or perhaps the fame 
with Mains, a f mall arable farm. 

Mapamondy a map oftbe ivorld. Fr. 

Marbre, Marbyr, Marvjl, marble* Fr. marbre. 

Marche, a land mark. Mafchis, boundaries ; fooietinaes, 
taken for the lands or territories^ correfponding with 
Teut. marffe. Fr. marchey regio, ora, terra ; whence 
the name of a diftri6l in Scotland caUed The Mers. 

Marchett, (Reg. Maj.) a compojttion or acknowledgment 
paid by afokeman or villain to bis feudal fuperior for 
permiffion to give away his daughter in marriage ; o- 
rigiivally perhaps in cafes onlj where the bride was 
given away to a ftranger, becaufe a transfer of this 
kind deprived the Lord of a certain quantity of live 
ftock. Marcljiett alfo fignified a fine paid to the JLord 
by a fokeman or villain when his unmarried daughter 
happened to be debauched. Skene^ following an an- 
cient tradition, defines Marchett a right of the Lord 
of the ground to have thefrft night of ilk married w0* 
man within his barony ; and Van Loon^ an antiqua-^ 
rj of Holland, upon the fame kind of authofitj, 
mentions ** the redemption paid for the recht des 
** eerflan nachts, called bj the French le droit de cul" 
** lage^ j us primse no^is ; a cuftom which was 
^* known among the Frifons, as alfo in many places 
" of Germany, England, and Scotland." Van Loon^ 
however, fuppofes this fine to have been a redemp- 
tion of an inconvenient ecclefiaf^ical canon, which 
ordained that all new married perfons, out of re- 
fpeft for the facerdotal benedid:ion, eadem nofle in 
virginitate pcrmaneant ; that the bride-groom might 
employ that interval in prayer. The origin of the 
Vol. IV. S . word 

Ms* ■! Bb» 

. -WotiL.MnrcheHy mercheta^ is probably to be £9tuidiil 
' the Tent, margh or mergb^ medulla^ q. d« mirgln 

hood ; or nutre^ mercb^ puelk, virgo^ which amounts 

to nearly the fame. 
Mareattour, Maii-attour, moreover • 
Marefsy Merres^ a morafu Fr. marais. 
Margareic, a pearL Fr*. margariton^ The fame word 

kt 0» Engl, fignifies a daify. Fr. marguerite^ bellisi. 
Mark^ Merk, image^ piSure / imprejffionf as of a feal.. 
Marrow, match ^ feUow^ equals alfo comfort ^ affoctaU^ 

accomplice ; often ufc^ for things of the fame kin^ 

and of which there are two, as of fkoes, gloves^ 

htodsy feet, &c. Hence the verb Marrow, to pair '^ 

perhaps from Fr. mariee, a ipoufe. 
Marrowlefs, without a Jelhw / that cannot be equalled^ 
. incon^arahkm 
Marfchal, upper fervant* Sax. maere, fanomus ifcfchaUj 

minifter. See Mor* 
Mart, Mars^ the god of war • 
Martlet, more commonly Mertrick, a hnd of hfgi 

weefel^ which bears a rich fur. See Mertrick. 
Martynmes, St. Martin's mafs^day^ nth Nov. O. S. 
Marynal, Marynail, mariner. 
Mafe, Mais, expU to doubt ^ to be confounded or hevjil" 

Mafk, to majh. Maikin-fat, majhing vat. 
MafTai, Maflilum, Mefiil, Meflin, mixed corn, fuch as 

barley and peafe, wheat and rye. Fr. mejlangey mef' 

lee^ a mixture. Teut. maefe, macula. 
Maflalie, majfy^ bitlky ; aKo majjily^ hugely. Teut. 
Maftis, majiiff, Fr. maJHuy mololTus canis. 
Mat, Met, Mot, Myt, may^ might. 
Matalent, Maltalent, malice ^ ^^g^rfnry. Fr. 
Mate, Mait, overcome^ difcomfited. Teut. maty defcffus* 
Materis, matrons. Lat. matres, mothers. 
Mattis, Meatis, mates. Teut. maet, focius. 
Maught, Macht, mighty power. Teut. maght, macbt^ 

poteftas, potentia, vis ; whence, fays Kiliaou^ 
maeghd^ virgo, puella ; ficut virgo latin^ a viridiore 

five validiore ectnte dicitur. 


Ma. — ..^ Me. 

Maughtlefsy Machtles, void ofjlrength or energy, 
Maugre, infpite of. Maw-gre, Maugrof, ilUwillf def- 

pite ; alfo expl. dif countenance, 
Mauk, maggot. Swed. mati^ vermis. 
Maukin, Malkin, a hare^ a cat ; or whatever bears a 

refemhlance to the fur of Juch animals, Gael, maig" 

heachy lepus. O. Eng. meriin, pubes mulieris« 
Maun, Maund, Tfajket, bread bajket. Teut. mande^ cor- 

Maun, Mon, mujl, Maunna, muji not. 
Maut, Mawt, malt. Theot. mal^^ hardeum madefac- 

Mauvitey^ malice. O. Fr. malvetie. 
Mavys, mavisy thrufb. Fr. mauvis^ or mavaux. 
Maw, to mow or cut with afcythe, 
Mawmentis, Mawmettis, idols y falfe gods ; according 

to Ruddiman, from Mahomet, the Turkifli prophet^ 

quafi Mahomets. 
Mawmetrie, Mawmentry, the worjhip of falfe gods. 
May, a maid, a young woman. Ifl. & Dan. mei. Swed. 

moCy moi. Teut. maeghd. Goth, magath^ mavi^ virgo. 
"Mzj^ moey more in number, ^^jx^ greater. lS/L2ij&,,mq^, 

greatefi part. 
Mayn, main, mighty power , Jlrength. Ifl. magny vis, 

Mays, Mais, makes ; as Tays, Tais, takes* 
Maytynes, matines or morning prayers, 
Mazer-difli, Ezar-difli, expl a drinking cup of mapple. 

Teut. mafery tuberculum aceris arboris. 
Meafe, mefsy " i. e. to make up the number four,'*'^ 
Medw^rts, meadow-fweetSy ov queen of the meadows. 
Megir, niggardly, MegzrneSy par cimotiy , Fr. maigre, '. 
Meid, Mede, reward, meed ; alfo meritorious fgrvicei 

Teut miedcy merces, prsemium. 
Meidful, Medful, laudable, worthy of reward, 
Meis. See Mefe, to mitigate, reduce y ot f often, 
Meifit, (rather peihaps Meited or Meithed) , wi^a/ifr^//; 

from Meith. 
Meith, limit, mark^fgn, Fr. metes, 
Meithnefs, expL extreme heat ; ^Xiofoft weather, 
Meit-ryfe, where there is plenty ofmeqt. See Ryfe. 


Me. Mfe* r 

MckiU, Mykle, Mukle^ grtat^ much ; appears with 

flight variations in moft of the Tent.dtal^&s. Goth. 

& Id. tniiil^ magnus, multum. 
Mel, to /peak* Swed. maeia. Goth, matbiiaft, loqui. 
Melder, a parcel of corn grinded at one time ; in Doug. 
y^ivgiXyJlour fprinkled with fait on the facrifice^ mola 

falfa ; from l^at. moloy to grind, q. d. mqlkura. 
MeUy a maJlet or beetle. 
Me]]e, conteji^ battle. Mell, to contend ox fight. Fr. 

melkej certamen, prselium. Hence the law term 

chaudmelle^ Lat. barb, melletum. 
Melle, to meddle^ to interfere.^ Fr, meter* 
Melt, the milt or fpleen. Teut. 
Meltith, a meal^ a refrejhment^ Teut. mael-tiid^ convi- 

Membroiiis, wings ; from Lat. membrana* 
Memmit, fuppofed to mean matched. 
Memorie, memorandum^ memorial. 
Mends, Amends, revenge^ fatisfaSfion. Fr. amende^ e- 

Mene, Mane, moan^ lamentation. 
Mene, Meyne, tojhew^ to make known ^ to treat of, 
Mene, Mean, to indicate pain or lamenefs^ to walk or 

move as if lame ; alfo to moan. Teut. mincken, to go 

lame, or to limpi 
Mene, Meyne, mediate, intermediate : alfo common. 

Swed. meny publicus. 
Mene-bread. See Mane-bread, expl. almond cakes. 
Meng, Menge, to mix^ to mingle. Teut. menghen^ mif- 

cere, diluere, variare. 
I^Ienivere, a fort of white fur. Fr. menu ver, ou verk^ 

*« the fur called minever ; alfo the animal which 

bears it," faid to be a native of Ruflia. 
Mens, Mends, fatisfaBion. One to the mends, one more 

than was bargained for. See Mends. 
Menfe, Menlk, urbanity^ decency, difcretion, modejly, 

moderation ; nearly of the fame fignification with, if 

not a contradlion from, Teut. nienfchelickheyd, htima- 

nitas ; from menfchy homo. Sax. metimfc, huma- 

Mcpfe, Menflj, to grace ^ to decorate.- 


Me. — i.-^ Me« 

MensfuU, Menikful^ modeft^ moderate ^ difcreet^ delicate; 

from Menfe. 
Menflefs, tnd'ifcreet^ immoderate^ greedy ; from Menfe. 
Menftral, Minftrel, mujiciany harper^ piper y fiddler. Fr. 
menefirier. [Teut. minne^ amatio, amor venerius ; & 
filer en, agere, inftigare, ducere.] 
Menftral fie, viufic^ infirumental muftc, 
Ment, Meint, ?nixedy mingled ; from Mcng, to mix. 
^xtTiy€. force ox forces ^ men^ a body of men y retinue , ad» 
herentSy domefilcs. Teuc. menigJStey niultitudo, ag- 
men, caterva, vis \ menlghy multus. Fr. mejnley fa- 
Menye, Menze, to maimy to hurt^ to render unable to 
fight. Teut. mencken, mutilare, mancum reddere. 
See Mank. 
Merch, Mergh, marrow. Teut. mergh^ medulla. 
Mere, marchy limit y border^ 8 wed. iiiaere^ limes. 
Mere, MQyxtythe fea. Fr. mer. Celt, mory mulr. Lat. 
mare 'y whence, lays Ruddiman, the Morlnl or Arc- 
7norici have their name, q. d. maris accolic. 
Mere-mayd, w^r///^?/V/, a hind of Syren, or fabulous fea 

monfiery half woman, half fiili. 
Mere-fwine, gx^\. fea f wine y porcus marinus. Fr. marm 

Jouln. Swed. mar-fwlny phocacna. 
Merk, marky at prefent a nominal coin, value is. i|d. 

Merk-fchot, fuppofcd the difiance between the bow 

Merle, black^blrd. Fr. merky merula, 
Mertrik, Martlet, marthiy a kind of large weefel, wJnch 

hears a rich fury a fable. Teut. niardery martes. 
Merwys, Myris, Merris, marrsy confounds. 
Mery, qx^L faithful, effectual- See MoVy great. 
Mes, mafs, the Roman Catholic liturgy or common pray^ 
er ; more particularly, the communion fer'UH e ^ or ofo 
fice of the eucharlfi. The word appears, nearly in. 
the fame form, in all the languages of weftern Eu- 
rope, and probably has been adopted from one of 
the fentences or phrafes by whix:h the mafs-fervice 
is ufually concluded, viz. <* Jte^ miflh eft," i. e. I 


prdume, mifla eft boftiola^ (vel oblatio), cormptdl 
Oj riie Anglo-Saxons into houJeU This valedidion 
is tranflated by Becon, in 'his Reliques of Romet 
'* You may now go home ; for the wholefome facri- 
*' fice for mankind is fent up or offered unto God.'' 
VoiHus and others have laboured to make this i^^'ord 
fn\ffa equivalent to mijjioy or dimiffioy the fending a« 
vray the catechvmens' before the communion bf the^ 
Lord^s fupper ; but this explication is liable to va- 
rious objections ; and particularly does not feem to 
accord with the refponfe of the people *^ Deo gra- 
tias." A better way of compleating the valediftion 
would be thus — m^a eft cdncio^ which might anfwer 
either for the prayers or the congregation. The 
fame word is alfo very commonly explained feftum^ 
which has fuggeftad another meaning of miffa^ vi^« 
iiiimiffio ciborum. 

Mcs John, the par/on of the parijh. 

JVfcfe, Meis, to mitigate, apptafe^ or /often. Mtfytfjo/^ 
tened ; probably fronq Fr. amufer 

Mefel, leprous per/on. Fr. me/el & mefeau ; from Tent. 

Meflin, Mafl'n. See N.affal, mixed corn, 

Meffin, a f mall dog a lady*s dog ; from Teut. meyffen^ 

Mefurabill, moderate, within meafure. 

Methis, Me^thjs, marks ^land-marks ^boundaries ^limits. 
Lat. meta^ 

Metis (Gaw. Douglas), expl. meet^ animis obfervan- 
tur ; or rather dreamy reprefenty fancy ^ in which fenfe 
Chaucer ufes the word ; from Sax« metan^ pin- 

Mctt, a meafurey either of length or capacity ; alfo to 
meafure, Teut. meten^ metiri. 

Wey. See May, a maid or young woman, 

Mid-eard, the earth. Sax. middan-eard.- Goth, midjun" 
gardy mundus^ orbis terrarum. 

Midding, dung-hill ; Dan. Sax. fwiV/^/z/j^, fterquiliniuro j 

- perhaps from 5ax. mucgy acervus ; & dincgy ftercvs. 
quafi, a mow of dung. 

Midges, gnats yfmall flies. Theot. muccay culpx. 

Midle, M.edle, to mix. Fr. mejler^ mifcere, 


Mi Mf . 

MidWftrty Amidwart, towards the middle. 

Migamesy meagernejs^ or niggardlynefs. See Megir/ 

Mikle. See Mekill^^r^^, bulky. 

Milfie, Milk-fyth| a milk^Jif'ainer^ q. a milk-Jieve. 

Mill, Mull, afnt^'hoxy ox fnuff-born. 

Mim, prim^ nffe&edly coy. 

Minn^y mother f mammy. Teut. minne^ nutrix. 

Minnjrng daies, minding or commemoration days. Swed* 

minnas. Sax. gemynan^ meininifi*e. 
Miniing mate, perhaps mefs^mate ; from men/a. 
Minty attempt ; to attempt^ to try^ to aim at. Sax. ge^ 

myntedy ftatutus, depofitus, praemeditatus* 
Mirk, Merk, Mark, dark. Ifl. myrkr. Scand. moerty 
morchy obfcurus. Sax. mirce, tenebrx, career. £Lat. 
Mirknefs, darine/s, 

yLxrkjyfmirkingyfmilingy merry. See Smirky. 
Mis, Mifs, 'MiySy failure in duty^ faults ^ what is amifs^ 
offences. Teut. mis^ miffe^ erratum, malum ; deliqui- 
um, defedus. 
Mis-aventure, misfortune y mis^adventure. See MiiB- 

Mi- -doubt, to doubt yfufpeBy or dijhelieve. 
Mis- fame, Misfairn, expl. mifmanaged ; may alfo mean 
behaved improper ly, or unlawfully t offended. Sax^ 
mis-farauy offendere, errare. To which may per- 
haps be added mis-carried. *Teut. mis-vaereny male 
evenire, perire. See Mis-fur. 
Mis- fur, Mys-fure, mifcarried ; iTom'Vtxxt.miS'Vaeren^ 
male evenire, deviare, q. d.mis-fared \ i\io un fouttdy 
un healthy y infirm^ q. un-fure ; from bwed. furey fa- 
nus, firmus ; wan-fur e^ inlirmus. 
Mis-grugled, expl. rumpled^ roughly handled. 
Miihanter, Mifchanter, difajlery mifchance. Fr. mif^ 

aventure ; quafi, mis-aunlery infortunium. 
Mifliarrit, perhaps Mis-fcheirit, hollow and Jhattered, 

like the trunk of a large old tree. See Schcrc. 
Mis- ken, to let alone y to pafs without obferming^ to w- 

gleEi ; alfo to mis- know y or be ignorant of 
Mis-leiiit, mifchifvouSf unmannerly. Sax. mis^lar, 


Mi Ub. 

Mis*maighty j6ir/ out of forts ^ fnis'marrowed^ tnls-match'* 

ed ; from ocand. make^ focius. 
Mis-fettingy unbecoming. Teut, misfetten^ male difpo* 

Mii&ve, a letter or epiflle. Fr. from Lat. 
Milslie,yb//tory, from feme perfon or thing being a- 

mi(&ng or abfent. 
Miftcr, need^ fir ait ^ ^cejjtty^ occafion ; alfo to needy te 

require. O. Fr. mefiier. 
Mis-trow, Mis-tryft, to mijhuftj tofufpeB^ to diJbeUeve. 

Teut. mlf'trouwen. Ifl. mtftrua^ diffidere, male fi- 

Miftryftj to break an engagement with. See Try ft. 
M ittans, Myttens, wooUen or worjled gloves. Fr. 
Moblys, Meubles, moveable or houjbold goods. Fr. 

Moch, Mo we, a heap. Sax. mucg^ acervus. 
Mochre, to heap up ; from the fubftantive Mocll'. 
Mochrand, avaricious ; from Moch, a heap. 
Mochrer, Mukerar, a covetous perfon^ or one who care* 

fully hoards up money. See Okjr & Okjrer. 
Mocht. See Macht might. 
Modjr, mother. Teut. moeder^ mutter & madder. Da?>. 

& Swed. moder. Ital. & Span, madre. Sax. mother. 

Goth mader. Lai. mater. 
Modywart, Mowdj^^rt, a mole. Dan. muld-warp, 

Teut. maulwcrf talpa. 
Mold, the gruutid or earth. Sax. moldcy pulvis, humus, 

fabulum. See Mule. 
Mollettis, the bojjes or orname7iif of bridles. Fr. molette^ 

the rowel of a fpur ; mulltty a term in heraldry for 

a flar of fiiic points. 
Men, Mun. See Maun, mtijl. Goth. muna. 
Mone, the moon. Sax, mona^ incna, Swed. moane. Gotlu 

maiia^ luna. 
Motive's or Monys cruke, uCt^d by Ep. Douglas iox full 

7710071 ; cruhe for circle. 
Moneth, Tftonth, Sax. & Goth, monath^ menfis. 
Monttil, mount. Ital. monticcUo^ parvus mons. 
Montur, a f addle horfe. Fr. mo7Jtiirey jumentum . 


Mo. ■ Mo. 

Mony,. many ; as ony for any, Goth, moneg. 
Mony plies, a part of the intefiines of cattle, 
Monyfs, to admonijh, Monyffingis, admonitions, 
'Mools, Meahytbe ear tb of the grave. Tent, mul, Goth. 
mulda^ pulvis. 

Mools, Meuls. See Mnlts^ Jlipperf, 

Mooter. See Multure, gri/I, mill'tolL 

Mor, great, Gael, mor, O. Engl, more^ magnus. 
Swed. moor^ Celebris, famofus. Sax. mare^ magnus, 
excelfqs^ fummus, illullris, clarus, infignis. 
- Moreis, Morys, Moris, Moorifb dance. Span, tnorifcoy 

Moriane, expl. dingy, ^cand. morcky obfcurus, q. mor-- 

Morn, the next day, to-morrow, Teut. morghen, Goth. 
maurgin^ eras, craftino. 

Mort-fundyit, extremely told, as cold af death, SeeFun- 
dyt, benumbed ; from Fr. fondre^ q. d. fays Ruddi- 
man, ready to fall ovjink down for cold, 

Mort-mumblingisj^rfl[^fr/ muttered for the dead, 

Mofe, Mofs, a marjb or boggy place ; alfo a heath 
where peats can he digged, Teut. mofe^ mt{lfay palus. 

Mofs-troopers, banditti who inhabited the marjhy coun^ 
try of Liddifdale, and fubfifted chiefly by rapine. Peo- 
ple of this defcription in Ireland were called ^o^- 
trottersy apparently for a (imilar reafon. 

Mot, Myt, Mat, may^ mighty mufl. 

Mot, Mote, Moat, a little hill with a flat top \ for the 
moft part artificial ; fo called from Swed. & Sax. 
moty conventus, concilium, an affembly or meetings a 
court of judicature ; or a place convenient for fuch 

Mote. See Mute, tojpeahy to harangue^ to argue, ^ 

^oXtity full of motes ox atoms, SdiX. mot, 

Mou-band, to articulate (cramp or difficult words.) 

Mouir, (Mure), fuppofed to mean gentle, mild, gr ac- 
etous, Swed. moer^ mollis. 

Moule, to become mouldy, Moulyt, Mouldit, mouldy. 

Mounth, hillj mountain, Lat. mons, 

Moup, to nibble J or eat with a qi^ick motion of the jaws. 

T " Moutit, 

MoaUt,y2:/m#f 9 bare^ like a bird in mouting timi^ 

Mow, a htapf a pile or lAng^ as of unthreflied ooi^# 
Sax. movoe^ aceryus. 

Mowdiwart. See Moldiart, molt. Dan. 

Mowence, ezpl. motion, progrtfs ; q* movfiKV. 

Mowisy mouths^ mocksyfport^jeft. Mowar, mactit. 

Moy, Moye, gentk, ^ildf foft, eafy. Tent, mof, 
comptusy omatosy elegans. Fr. mol or mou^ Swedw 
matr, mollis. 

Mojen, Mowen, fiaanSf contrivances, influfnce, tnttrtfi^ 
power. Fr. tnoyen, ratio, facnitas. 

Mojle, Muill, mule. Tent, mujl^ muyl^efel, muyUiur^ 

Mojne. See Mone, moon. 

Mnck, MnlkKki dung. Sax. meox, ftercns. Tent* 
moock'-faci, venter animalium ; alfo to dung ; and to 
remove dung, to clean. Swed. mocka, ftabula^ purgarer 

Muck*midding, dung'bUl. See Midding. 

Muckle. See Mekill, ^^A/. 

Muddle, to drive, beat, or tbrow. Tent, mutfen, mutilareir 

Mudy, expl. penfive, fad, melancholy. Tent, moede^ 
muede, laflus, defefius ; moedigh^ lenis, lentus, mitis. 
It maj alfo fignif j courageous^ bold, hardy ; frodl 
Teut. moedigi, animofuSy acer, alacer. 

Muisy heaps f parcels. Sec Moch & Mow. 

Mukerar. See Mochrcr, mi/er, ufurer. 

Mulde-mete, the lajl meat that a per/on eats before 
death. To give one his mulde meat, i. e. to kill him / 
Swed. multen^ putridus ; multna^ to moulder. 

Mules, Moolie (heels,) chilblains. Fr. mules. 

MulectiSy expl. ornaments on bridles. 

Mull, a promontory, Ifl. muli, a fteep bold cape. 

Mu}^is» Mulis, Muilis, chamber or night flippers ; com- 
monly made of fine doth or velvet, and ornamented 
according to the rank or quality of the peifon who 
wore them. Teut. muyl. Fr. mule ; from Lat. «wA 
leusy fandalium, calceamenti genus alta folo. 

Multiplication, alchemy, tranfmutation ofbafe metal in* 
to gold. 

Multure, the grift or millers fee for grinding com. Fr. 
mouture, q. d. molitura. 


Ma. Miju 

Mvunping, ^fing JigmJUant gefiures^ mumming. Teut* 
mummen, mommium five larvatn agere ; to frolic in 
difguife ; momme,- larva, perfona. 
Mundie, ezpl. pttifplfon of the earth ; dimin. of man. 
MunyeoD, minion, Fr, mignon. 
Muralyeis, walls ^ fortifications. Fr. muraille. 
Murdrefar, murderer j alfo a large canuon. 
Mure, Muir, a heathy or flat piece of ground covered 

with heather. Sax. mqr. ericetumy nioris. 
MuFgeon, to mod hy mining mouths. Teut, morkelen^ 

gninnire ; morre^ os cum proipentibus labris^ 
Murle, Muller, to moulder^ to crumble. D2iti. fmuller. 
Murlingy Morthling, Murt, the Jkin of a young lamb^ or 

of ajheep foon after it has heenfhorn. See Murth, 
Murmour, to regret^ to mourn* 
Murth, Morth, murder. Teut. moord. ]Longobard. 

morth. Scand. mord^ mors violenta, caedes homici- 

Mufardrjy mufing^ dreaming. Fr. mufardie \ from mu^ 

fer^ or Teut. muyfen^ abdita magno filentio mquirere, 

(mures tacite quaerere.^ 
Mufe-weby Mous-wob, cobweb i from Fr. moufche^ q. 

Mufkane, mojfy^ covered with mofs. Teut, mofachtigh^ 

mufcofus ; mos^ mufcus. 
Muflin kail, expl. broth made vf barley and greens. 
Mufialing, Mufial, MjiTal, a veil or kerchief covering 

part of the face^ and tied under the chin i from Fr. 

emmufeler^ to muffle up ; emmufele^ a term in Heral- 
dry, yr^iw/^/ ; moufjeline^ muflin^ 
Muft, mouldinefs ; q. moffed ; from Tent, mos^ mufcus* 
Mutch, a coifoT capy female hecuUdrefs. Teut. mutfty 

pileus, pileum, mitra, vitta. 
Mutckin, a meafure equal to an Englifb pint ; quafi^ 

mett^kan ; from Teut. meten^ meten^ metiri, & cann, 

vas ; or perhaps corrupted from Teut. kommeken^ 

^chumkin) vafculum. 
Mute, Mote, to pUad^ to argue. Sax. motia% difputare^ 

rem agere. See Mot, the primary mfaning of which 

was probably a place for holding any kind of popular 

ejffhably. [Teut. muyten^ to mutter J 


Mu. M/. 

Muthe, exhaufled -uiilh fatigut. Swed. mod. Teut. 
moedc, mude, mat, defeffus. 

Myddil. See Midle, to mix. Fr. 

Myddil or Middil-eard. See Mid-eard, the earth ; per- 
haps fo called, fajs Ruddiman, becatife this world 
has been conlidered as a middh-Jlati betwixt Don- 
cntity and a future life, 

Myddis, midji. Mydlaft, mtddhmast. 

Myis, mice ; and fo Myir for mire, Myil for mile, &c. 

Myith, expl. to mix ,- perhaps alfo to mett. See Meith. 

Mykil, Muckle. See Mekill, great. 

Mylnare, miller. Swcd. malnare, molitor. 

Myn,/maller, lefs. Ifl. minne. Lat. minus. 

Mynde, Myne, to undermine, to overturn. 

Myoge, Menge. See Meng, to mingle. 

Mynour, miner. Fr. mineur. 

Mynt, See Mint, attempt. 

Myrit, Mcrrit, confounded, Jlupified ; perhaps from 
Teat, /mooren, fubinergere, fuffocare : or, according 
to Ruddiman, from Sax. myrran, (probably th^ 
fame word,) profundere, perdere. 

Myrk, dark. Myrktiefs, darinefs. See MiA. 

Mys. See Mis, faults, defeat. 

Mys-deming, falfe judgment, calumny. See Deme. 

Myfel, Upper or leprous (falmon.) See Maffal. 

Myftar, Myftir. See Mifter, -ujant, need. 

Mythe. See Meith, mari, limit. 

Mythe, to mett or meafure. Fr. 


Ka Ke; 


Na, Nor, than. 

Nackettis, Nicketts, fmall notches ; alfo markers at 
tennis or other games. Fr. naquet. 

Nackie, isrrt/^^ or clever in the minutice ofhujtnefsj or iV? 
fmall affairs, 

T^^^Jfud. mulieb, expL Angl. ajort of tufted fea^hud* 

Naig, nagy gelding, Fris. negghe^ equus pumilus. 

Nakjnge, naked. Ifl. nakenn^ nudus. 

Namekouth, famous^ well known. Sax. namkuthe^ q. 
nomine feu fama^otiflimus. See Couth. 

Nanys, Nanes, nonce^ purpofe^ occafion ; probably of 
ecclefiaftical origin ; with fome reference to the time 
of eating the chief meal, and to the prayers which 
were then recited, viz. the Nonnes, or Mifla, in the 
fenfe of immiffio ciborum. *• Something for the 
none s J '* fome article of provijxon for the entertainment^ 
** quod olim celebrari foleat ex donis a populo mif- 
fis." Vofjius. 

Nar, nighery nearer. 

Narr, Nearr, Nurr, to fnarle as dogs. Tent, knarren^ 

Nas, na waSy was not. 

Nate, Note, ufe^ bufinefs. Teut. nutten^ uti, fiui. He 
would note it, i. e. be would need or ufe it. 

Nately, Naithly, neatly. 

Nathles, not the lefs^ neverthelefs. 

Naven, Navyne, navy^fhipping. 

Ne, to neigh as a horfe. See Nikker. 

Neaty, expl. very identical. 

li^^hyfharp pointy beak, Teut. nebbe^ roftnim. 

Nece, niece ^ grand- daughter ^ a lineal female defcefidantf 
though after many generations. 

Nechyr. See Nikker^ to neigh, 

Nedd, to knedd. Tent, kneden. 

]NefFul, Neffu' neive-full, handfuH ; from neifov nfivp^ 
the fift. Ifl. nefe^ kncfe. Dan. nacve^ mfve, 

Ncid'U< ^ 

Neidder, Neddjr, adderk Sax. nedder^ ferpens* GodjU. 

nadr^ vipera^ hydrus. 
Neid-force, neceffityt compu^ion* 
J^tiA-iji^fire pTdduced byfriBionm 
Neidlingis, N^elingis, mceJfarUy^ ^necejjity. 
Neify Neef^ expL difficulty^ doubt. Teat, noje^ d^cills^ 

Neir, Nere, to approach / alfo to pr^fi hard upon. 111. 

«y, urgco. 
Neirs^ Neres, corruptly Eres, kidneys^ remsm Tcilt, 

nierey ren ; mtren^ renin. 
Neis, NeeZy Nes, nofe^frnmQntwy. Scatid & Ssup mfi^ 

nafusy promontoriom. Ir. mas^ n hill^ aUb, t% 

fneeze. Teut. mefen^ ftemuere. 
Neis-thyrle^ Nefthrylle, mfiril^ jSax* thyrel^ forameli* 
Neift, Neyft, Neft, nightfty next. 
Nether, lower. Nethermoft^ lowfi^ Teut. mder^ infra; 

nederjle^ infimus. 
Nethermare,^r^i^ iovm or hehwm See Nether, 
Nethringy oppreffion, injury. Soe Nidder. 
Neuk, noohf corner. [ Teut. nocke% crenai a notch.]) 
Neuo, Nevo, grandfoUy nephew. Fr. neveu, nepos ; now 

commonly ufed for the brother ov Jijlei^ s Jon. 
Nevell, a blow with the nieve oijift. 
Nevin, Neuin, corr. of name. 
New*d, Newit, expl. opprejjed^ kept at under. Sec 

Newfangil,yj«// of novelties ; from Pang, to catch. 
Newit, expl. in^wrought. 
Newis, Newys, iJ ewouSy parfimonious. Sax. hneaw, tCm 

nax; hneawnej/e, tenacitas. Swed. noga, parcvSi 

nyfsy avarus. 
Newlingis, very lately ; alfo expl. atftrfl. 
Newmoft, nether mojfy lowefl. 
Newth, (New^, beneath. 
Neych, Nygh, Nyh, to approach. Nyht, NIht, ap* 

proached, Teut. naecken^ attingere. Goth, nequha. 
Nick, to cheats to circumvent. See Nackettis. 
J^ick, Auld Nick^/i^ devil. Swed. necken, daemon *• 



Iti , Ntf. 

t^cktftti See Nackettis, fmaU notches, 
Nidderit, Nitherjt, injured^ marred or Jiunted id 
growth ; alfo expl. kept ifr, plagued^ flraitened^JlarV' 
€d. Sax. ftidan, urgere ; nydedy coadus. Teut. ver-* 
n^^/i^r/zr^humiliare, deprimere ; ver-tudertj abjedus^ 
Swed* mda^ damno afficere. Goth, neith^ invidia, 

Nidge, Knidge, to prefs bard, to fquee%e^ Sax. nidan. 

Niffer, Neiffer, to exchange or barter, to offer or to take 
one of two concealed in the ** nieves.'** 

Nif-naffing, trifling. 

Nig-naes, expl. trifles,, trinket/. 

Nikker, Nichar, to neigh like a horfe, to laugh immode* 
rately. Fris. negghe, equus pumilus* Sax. hnagaOf 

Nild, expl. out-witted. 

Nipy Jmall piece^ a bit, that which is nipped off ; from 
Teut. niipen, interprimere, conftringere. 

Nirles, a morbid eruption Jimilar to the meajles. 

Noblay, nobility. Fr. nobleffe. 

Nochty not. 

Kok. See Neuk, angle, corner. Teut. node, crena. 

Nokket, a refrejhment between breakjafl and dinner ; 
perhaps nooncate, or cake. 

Nokkys, the nocks, notches or nicks of bows or arrows4 
Teut. nocke^ incifura fagittae quse nervum admittit. 

Nokkity notched, having notches ; alfo knocked. 

Nolly bead, crown of the head. Sax. knol. 

Nold, would not, q. no'would. 

Nonne, nun, religious woman. The words nonnu^s 
for a monk, and nonna^ a nun, are as old as the days 
of St. Jerome and Arnobius, but the derivation un- 

Nonne, noon, mid-^day. This word, at different perio Is, 
feems to have been applied to different hours of the 
day. By the Italian, French, and Anglo-Saxon ec- 
cleiiaAics, who followed the Jewifh manner of com- 
putation, Nona, or Non, was ufed to denote the ninth 
hour both of day and night, correfponding with our 
three o'clock. At this iionr of tl\e day they eat 


Ko. Nu. 

their principal mea], and ofTered up certain prajerd 
clllcd the ■Noimes, at other times Mijfa, or the 
Map, Tyriwhit, however, explains Xone, (as ufed 
by Chaiicer,_) the ninth hour of the natural day, nine 
o'cloL't in the morning ; the hour of dinner. Perhaps 
the prayers called the nones were, in Chaucer's time, 
recited three hours before inftead of three hours af- 
ter mid-day. Be this how it may, the Sax. word 
iVoi'i appears nowhere to fignify any othtr hour 
than- three o'clock ; and therefore, in its prefent ac- 
ceptation, mull be comparatively modern. None, 
fays Cotgrave, is in fummer about four o'clock in 
the afternoon, in winter about two. See Pryme. 

Nor, than. 

Norlich, Knurlich, a lump or bard fmelling occafioned 
by a blaix-f a knurl or Hour. Teut. kn6r, nodus. 

Normans, Norwayis, Norivegians or Swedes, Scandina^ 
vian.', q. north men ; from whom Normandy in 
France took its name. 

Norfe, to the Normant or Scandinavianu 
Ntirfi; tung, Scandiiiatiian hingnage. 

Not, (now not ; contr. from no wt. 

Not, fometimes ufed for nought or nothing. 

Note, Nate, ta u/e, to have occajion for. Sax. nutian, 
Scand. nyta, uti, froi. 

Notis, ufes, purpofes. See Note, to u/e. 

Notour, notorious. 

Now, Know, knoll, little hill. Theot. ttolk, coUis , nol- 
len, coUibus. 

Nowellis, Novellis, newt,/refb intelligence. 

Nowt, Nolt, neat-cattle. Scand. & Fenn. naut, boves. 
■ Sax. neat, nyten, tiiten, pecus, jumentum ; nearly re- 
lated to Scand. nyta vel nyttia, uti, frui. 

Nowthird, Nolt-heard, a keeper of neat cattle. 

Nowthyr, Nothir, neither, nor. Sax. nowther. 

Noy, to annoy, vex, or trouble. Swed. noga, Isedere. 

Noyis, Noys, annoyances, injuries. 

Nnyt, tojiriie as.with afmallfUci, 

Nuckle, esp). new-Calved cows. 

Numeft, neathmofl, nethcrmfi ; in contra-diftinftion to , 
Umeft, vppermoji, 


No. N7. 

» * 

Nummjn, to take, to carry awof. Teut. Sax. & Goth. 
nemen, niman, capere. £ngl. to nimm. 

Nuryce, nurfe. Fr. nourriffi, nutf ix. " Swed. nara, a« 
lere : & fcrvare, falvare ; Nerigend, falvatoris no- 
men ; correfponding with the Sax. Halend, from 
halan, fanare^ falvare ; fcil. quoniam, *' he fothlice 
lijs folc hal gedeth fram hjra fjnnum." 

Njcht. See Neyht, approached^ came nigh. 

Nychted, drew towards nights ** It is not lefum, (fay 
the antient Laws of Scotland), to travel in time of 
hicht, except for thir caufes^ viz. to bring ane preift 
to ane fick man, or to carry corns to the myln, or to 
return therefra ; or for gudes laitly ftoln or tint." 

^ygari negro. Fr. negre. 

Nymphis r^Lge^Juror lymphaticus, vel uterinus. 

Nynd, ninth. Goth, munda* 

Nyte, to deny. Nyt. denied. Ifl. neita, negare. 

Nyte, to noyt or /mite, to Jlrile fmartly. Swed. nudda^ 
leviter attingere. Ifl. hnudla, digitis prenfare. 

Vol. IV. U O 

Ob. N Oef. 



Of of, in. 

Obtdjentizrie, fufragan under canonical ohedienee ; ^IL^ 
fo expl. a church officer* Fr. 

Obeyfc, Obefc, to obey. Fr. oheis^ 

Obejfandt obedient. Fr. obeijffant. 

Obfufque, to darken. Fr. offufquer. 

ObiiiVy flipulatedj promifedf obliged ffubjeBed. Oblyfyng, 
obligation. Fr. 

Oblive, ohlivion^forgetfidnefs. Fr. oubli* 

Obfervaunce, rejfpeEt^ duty. Fr. 

Obtemper, to yield to. Fr. obtempere^ obeis. 

Ochiern, defined by Skene^ <' ane name of dignity and 
of ane freeholder ; who at>peiris to be of equ^ ho« 
aour and preheminence with the fon or daughter of 
an Thane, quha baith hes the like marcheta^ viz. 
tw^ kids, or twelve pennies. And the un-lawe 
quhilk the king may take fra ane Thane is fex kye, 
and fra ane Ochiern fiftene fcheip or fex fchillings." 
The title originally might fignify lord of an ijland^ 
from Sax. aege. Hib. oghe^ infula \ & Scand. & TeuU 
herrcy vel Sax. hearra^ dominus. 

Ochre, Occour. See Okyr, ufury. 

Ocht, oughty any thing. 

Oftiane, the ocean y the fea* 

Odibill, Odible. odious^ hateful. Lat. 

Odour, (Gaw. Douglas), expl. naflinefs^ filth. 

Odyr, Udyr, other ^fecond\ alfo expl. each other. Goth. 
anthavy alter, alius. 

Oe, Oy, grand'Childy grand-daughter ; feems to have 
fome affinity with Teut. moemey neptis ; moeye^ ma- 
tertera, matris foror ; & amita, patris foror ; moyf^ 
dochter^ confobrina, materterae filia j moyen kindereny 
fobrini j the fame want of precifion prevailing here 
as in other appellations of confanguinity, 

Oethes. See Aithis, oaths^ 

. Of, 

Of. Or. 

Of» through^ fronts hy. Teut. of^ ab, de. 

Of before, formerly y in times pafl. 

Offer and isy oblations, Fr. offrande* 

Off'.ftraik, didjlrike ov fmite off* 

Oft-fyis, Oft-f7thes,-o//-f//wtf/, often. See Syis. 

Qgertful, expl. nice^ fqueamijh ; perhaps fromOkyruf- 

ed for wealthy qus^fii purfe proud. [Sax. og^ horror, 

timor.] See Ugfum. 
Oifillis, hlackhirds. Sax. ojle^ merula. 
Oift, Oft, bofij army. Fr. qft^ exercitus. 
Qkyr, Ochre, Occour, ufury. Teut. oecker^ ufura, fae- 

nus ; woeckeren^ ufaram exercere ; oecken. Goth. 

aukan^ augere, to eke or add. 
Okyrer, Ochrer, ufurer^ mifer. Teut. woeckerer^ ufura-* 

Plye. See Oyhl6, oil. Ole-doly, faid to be the fime 

with Ayl-doUy, and to fignify limply fweet oily in 

contra-diftin&ion to whale oil. Fr. hjiile douce^ 
Olyphant, elephant. Teut. olefant. Sax. olfand. 
Omnigatherene, unitJerfal ccUeE^on. 
On, one, an. 

On, Wone, expl. ivane^ car or carriage, Teut. wagen. 
On-ane, Onone, anon, quickly. 
On bread, ahroady wide open^ largely > On cais, by 

chance. On drcich, at a diftance. On flocht, infuf" 

pence y <\. fluttering ; and fo in various other ioftances. 
On-dantyt, wild^ untamed^ not trained. Fr. indomte. 
On-eith. See \Jn&\%hy fcarcely^ not eafdy. 
On hie, fpeedily^ apace. See Hie. 
On loft, aloft^t ahove^ on high, loud^ 
On-tray, to betray. 
On-walowyd, Un-wallowit, unfaded. See Walow, to 

fade. In the Scottifh dialed, the particle on corref- 

ponds univerfally with the Engl, negative particle 

Ony, any. Onykin, any kind of. 
Onys, once. 

Optene, to obtain ; in old charters optineo. 
Or, ere, elfe^ before^ before thatf rather than. 
Oratoir, Oratouie, Oratory, a place of worfbip^ wh)S« 
ther pxiblic or private ; (* clofet* Fr. oratoir e, facel- 


Or. ■ Ot. 

lum ; alfo, according to Bp. Doaglas, the place from 
whence oracles or rejponfes were given. 

Ordal, Ordele, judicial trial by fire^ water or combat ; 
according to Kilianus and others, final judgment \ 
from Teat, oor, vd over^ fupra, fuperior, omnino ; 
& deely judicium. Theot. ordeleny urdela^ difcernere 
& dijudicare rem quamvis, etiam extra judicium. 
According to Regiam Majefiatemy in a cafe of trea- 
fon, '^ where batell is lawfullie declined, on account of 
age or infirmity, by him quha is accufed, he is ob- 
liged to acquite and clenge himfelf be the judgment 
of God, that is, be bote iron, gif he be anefrieman; 
or, be water, gif he be ane hufbandman." Jhr6 de- 
fines ordeloy liti finem imponere \ ur finem rei impo« 
fitum notat ; 8c dela^ litigare. 

Ordinance, array. Fr. 

Orere, Ourere, expl. arrear^fall back, Fr. 

Orfeverie, Orphraj, Orphany, gold wori, gold embroid-^ 
ery. Fr. orfevrerie ; from Lat. aurifaber. 

Orlege, Orlagere, Orliger, a clocks dial, or any machine 
thatjhews the hours. Fr. horloge, from Lat. 

Orpit, expl. proud, haughty ; alfo humourfome (capri- 
cious) and pettijh. Sax. or^mod, fine mente, amens. 

Orrow, Orra, {a per Jon or thing), not in immediate em* 
ployment. Orrow man, a day labourer ; probably a 
corr. of Swed. udda, impar, q. an odd man or thing ; 
if not from Scand. cere, nummi minuti fpecies, a me- 
tallo cereo, quo conftabat, ita difti ; quafi, one whoaC" 
cepted of a little money for his work, inftead of being 
fed and cloathed by his mailer. The fame Scand. 
word fignifies alfo, according to Jhre, any kind of 
moveables, particularly houfhold furniture or uten- 
fils ; which agrees with the application of the Scot- 
tifli word to things in its fecondary fenfe. Orra has 
an appearance of affinity with Forra or Forrow 
(cow,) quafi yiz/&iy. 

Ofan, hofanna. 

Ofzil, the thrujh or black-bird. OfiUis^ ou/els. Sax. ojle, 

Othir, Owthir, either-, fecond. 



Ov. —_» Oiu 

Over-by, exjJ. io purchafe pardon. 

Overhxigt fuperior^ paramount ; oppos. to underling, 

Ouercft, Overeft, jfr^, greateft^ q. overmoft. 

Oaghtlins, Ochdins, in the leaji ; from Ought. 

Ouk, Owke, Oolke, week. Sax. uca^ hebdoxnas. 

Ouklie^ Owkly, weekly. 

Oup, Oop, to join by hooping. See Loup- 

Our, Owr, Oure, Ouer, over^ oppojite^ beyond^ after. 

Oiir»comc,Jurplus. Ouercummjne, overcome. 

Our-fett, perhaps the fame with Our-fret, expl. over- 

fpreadj decked over, embellijhed. Sax. fraetwan^ or- 

nare. [Swed.^///^7, colligate.] 
Our«fleit, to overflow, to over-run. See Fleit. 
Our- gang, to over^run. Our-gane, over^run, paft ; alfo 

expL kept under. See Gang. 
Our-hall, to over^haul, to enquire intOy or treat of, 
Our-harle, expl. overcame ; rather to overcome. See 

Our-heild, Ouerhede, to coyer over. See Heild. 
Our-hie, to overtake. Our-hude, expl. over-^run^went 

Our-hippit, pajfed or leaped over ; q. d. over-hopped. 
Our-lard, over-lord^ fuperior. See Laird. 
Our-lay, cravat. 
OviV A.'Ay It, f mothered, opprejfed. 
Our-loftis, the decks or orlops of fhips ; q. d. fuprema 

navis contabulatio. 
Our-lowp, Owr- lop, an occafional trefpafs of cattle on a 

neighbouring paflure. Sax. ofer-leopan, tranfire. 
Oi;ir-man, Overs-man, third arbiter, fiiperior. 
Ourn, to adorn. Fr. orner. Lat. 
Our-raucht, over-reached, over-took. See Raucht. 
Our-reik, to reach ox Jlretch over. See Reik. 
Our-fet, th'ed out, overcome ; alfo to hinder or /y- 

Our-fkailc, to diffufe or over-fpread. See Skaile. 
Our-fyle, Our-fylde, covered over, to conceal, or cover \ 

to begu'de, or circumvent', to fur round. See Sjle. 
Our-thort, Ouerthortore, athwart, acrofs. 
Our-tyrve, to turn upftde down. Ifl. tyrva. - 
Our-volvit, turned over, revolved. Lat. ^ 
Our-weltcrand, evert!: rowing, iveltering over. 

Oar- wordy hurthen^ (of a foiig,) m)ords ox phrafe o/ief^ 

Oury, Oorie, Urie, having the hair on endy like aliorfe 

overcome with cold. [Fr. herijffeJ\ Bj confeqaence 

Jbivering^ drooping, 
Owflen, oxen. Owffen-bow, a yoke. 
Out, OmxXj^ fully y compleatly^ altogether. 
Out-ane, except ; q. d. out taken. 
Oat-bradCy toftart out, to hurji out \ alfo drew out^ un* 

Jheathed. See Brade. 
Out-bullerand, gujbing out, bubling forth. See BuUer. 
Out- fang theif. See Infang theif. 
Out-gatisy ways to get out^ 
Outh, outf above f over^ Outhmai]^. See Ummeft, upper^ 

Out- home, horn of a Jentinel or pitchman to found a ' 

larm ; the fummoning to arms by the found of a horn* 
Out-laik, Out-]ack| the fuperabundant quantity in weight 

or meafure. 
Out-lair, Outler, out^lyeVf a horfe^ ox^ or cow, not houfei 

in winter. 
Out-owre, over^ beyond. 
Oxxt'^VLtntj fpenty extinguijhed. See Queinth. 
Out-rake, an expedition^ an out-ride. See Raik, Alfft 

an extenjive open pajiure for Jheep or cattle. 
Out- redd, to dif entangle y to extricate ; alfo explained^ 

Out-fliinn'd, deformed in the leg-hones, 
Out-fight, out'door furniture or utenjils. Out-fight and 

In-fight plenni filing, goods within and without doors. 
Out-ftr iking, cutaneous eruption. 
Out-wayl, outcast <i refufe. See Wale, to feleB. 
Out-with, liithouty^ out of^ (extra) ; fo written to dif-* 

tinguifh it from without^ Jlne. 
Ox-ee, the Tom-tit ^^ a bird. 
Oxtar, arm-pit. Sax. oxtan. Teut. oxel^ axilla. 
Oye. See Oe, grand-child, grand- daughter. 
Ojhle, Olie, Ulie, oil. Teut. olie. Goth, alewe, olium. 

See Olie. 
Ojhnt, anoint. Fr. oindre, ungere. 
Oyne, Une, oven. Swed. 
Oys, Ois, ufe, custom, to uje. 

Pai. - Pa. 


Pa, pay. 

Pa, Paw ; perhaps contr. from Pavene, a Spflnijb datur* 

Pace, Pas, Eafter, or Pajci. 

Pack, Paft, stocky for tune y capital. T! cut. pack. 

Pack, gang^ parcel of people ; nearly the fame with 

Padd6, Paddow, Paddoick, /ro^. 'Dslti. padde, rana. 

Paddow-hair, the first down upon nestlings, TGUt.paddc" 

Tsiddow-Tcddyf rog'Jpa*iJun, Teut. padde^reck. 

Paddow-ftool, mujhroom, Teut. padde-stoel^ boletus. 

Padell, Puddil, a fmall leathern bag or wallet Jor con^ 
taining a pedlra^s wares, Teut. buydely bulga, cru- 

. mena, faccalus, marfupium j hence probably Ped- 
lar. See Pedder. 

Padyane, exp\. pageant. 

Page, a boy. Fr. page, petit garcon. 

Paiks, chastifementy a drubbing, lH.piacka, Svfed, picia, 
minutis idibus tundcre. 

Fairies, Perles, paralytic affeSliony palfy, Gael, pair lis. 
Fr. paral^tCy paralyfis. 

Paift, Paft, repast. O. Fr. paistre, 

Paitlait, Patelet, Partlait, a kind of ruff for wearing a* 
bout the necks either of men or women \ quafi paitra-* 
letu s from Fr. poitral, (peftorale,) antilena, a co- 
ver for the neck and breail. 

Palice, a palace ; fometimes ufed for a city or town, as 
the Lat. arx, by the poets. 

Pall, ufed by Bp, Douglas for any rich or fine cloth^ 
particularly purple. Scand. pelly panni ferici genus. 
Theot phelle^ pannus pretiolus ; pfeller^ purpura. 
Fr. pallcy poile, 

Pallach, expl.yi/ andfioort y round as a ball 

, Pallat, 

Pa. — ^ Pa. 

Pallat, Pallet, the bead, the crown of the bead or fcull ; 
perhaps a dimuaitive oi poll, q. A.poUet. Whatever 
be the derivatioOy Xays Ruddiman, I much incline to 
think that the Engl, pate and Scot, pallat are origU 
nally the fame. 
Pallioun, Palione, Pailleoun, a pavilion or tent. Gael. 
& Ir.pailliun, Fr. pavilion. It feems alfo to fignify 
fome kind of large mantle oxjheet. Swed. pell^ auleum 
Pall jour, Pailleour, Pallart, whoremongerj libidinous 

fellow. Fr. paillardf fcortator. 
Pallyardry, whoredom. Fr. paillardife^ impudicitia. 
Palmer, a devout pilgrim. 1&. palmare, from palm, con- 

tus, fuftis, correfponding with bourdon, q. v. 
Pamplette, Pamplerte, Pamphelet, (VoL I. p. 324* 
mis-printed Pamprette) a plump young woman ; a di- 
minutive formed from Tcut. pampoeUe, mulier crafia. 
Pand, pawn, pledge ; alfo to pledge. 
Pane, Payne, to take pains, to exert (himfelf.) Alfo 

endeavour, labour. Fr. 
Pang, to cram. Swed. pung. Goth, pugg, crumena. 
Pannel, culprit or malefdBor at the bar. 
Panfe, to think, to meditate. O. ¥t. panfer* 
Pantand, breathing, living. 

PantoufFels,y2z«^/f. TtVLt. pantoffel^ crepida, fandali- 
um ; pantoffel bout, fubel^v Fr. & Ital. almoll the 
fame. Swed. toffel. Ifl tapla, " proprie notat ta-* 
bulam (inquit Jhre) pedibus fuppoiitami qualibus 
utebatur antiquitas. Exteri fyUabam addunt*"- — 
Pant is probably Theot. bant, vincula ; whence 
hinden, ligare. Another derivation is from the fame 
bant and Teut. hoofen, hoefen, hufen, ungulae,^ q. flr- 
tificial hoofsfajlened to the feet. 
Pantounis, Pan tons, Jlippers ; probably contr. from 

Pape, Paip, the Pope. Fr. pape. Lat. papa. 
Papelarde, hypocrite. ¥v. papelard. 
Papingay, Papingo, the bird called a popinjay or par- 
rot. Teut. Fr. ^z. papegay, pfittacus, q. papagal* 


Pa^ ■ Pa* 

Parage, parentage^ kindredy quality. Fr. parage^ pa^ 
raige. Of hie parage, of great value, of high qua-i 

Parald, Perald, apparelled^ drejfei. 

Paramour, afweet^heart or lover (of either fex.) 

Pardonar, a fellow who went about felling the Popis 

pardons and indulgencies. 
Pare, to empair, leffon^ or diminjjb, 
]?afegale, Perigal, PeregaJl, equal, fr. from Lat. q. 
percequalis ; or from pair^ par & egal^ like the Lat^ 

Parif J, to make equal, to compare ; alfo expl. to prO'^ 

te£i. • 

Park, to perch^ to Jit down, Fr. percber, s'aiTeoir. 
Parlour, Parlure, converfation, debate ; from Fr. par^ 

IP^TOche, pari/h. hzt, parochia, 
Parrok, a very fmaU inclofure. SiLK, pear roc, faltus, 

Parfellit, exyi.friped. 

Parfementis, Perfementis, (fcaw. Douglas), expl. /i- 
. very toats wrought with divers colours, or over^laid 

with galoons or laces ; from Fr. pajfemens. Or Par- 

femeiitis may fignify, fays Ruddiman, partitions or 

divijions ; from Fr. partiment or partijfement. 
Parfenere, Parcener, partner, portioner, co-heir. 
Partan, the iheU fiih called a crab, Gael. 
Particat^, expl. by Skene ane ruid of land, 
Partifman, partaker^ Jbarer ; q. partfman. 
Parties, Pairtlcs, impartial, taking no part orjide^free. 
Parure, trimming, ornament, Fr. 
Pas, Pafche, Pais, Pes, Pafq, Paik, time of Eafler, Gr, 

Pas,»(Wmton), expl. divifton of a book, 
Pafe, Pais, to poife^ to lift with difficulty. Pafit, Payfitj 

weighty, heavy, heaped, Pafand, Payfand, heavy, pon-^ 

derous ; from Fr. pefer, ponderofum effe. 
Pafementis, borders of lace, Vr. pajjiment, textilis lim- 

bus, vitta. See Parfementis. 
Paffingeoure, paffage^boat, ferry-boat. 

Vol. IV. X Pattance, 

Fa Pe. 

Paflance, paftimt,/port, play. Fr. pajfstemps. 

Pat, the pret. of the verb, to pat. 

Patten, tbr cover of the Cbaiice uftd in the Mafs. Lw, 

Patrellis, (Paytrellis), pi. oi pailre//, petrel/, or breajl' 
leather of a draught borft ; probablj alfo fomc dt- 
fenfve covering fir the neck of a '^ar horfe. Fr. poi- 
trali (J, d. Lat. pe6lorale. Hence by corruptioit 
Paitlet, a ruff. 

Patreraris, repeaters of patcr-naflen ; thofe who are oc- 
cupied in the offices of religian ; formed from the firit 
Word of the Lord's prayer in Latin. Chaucer ufes 
the verb to patter in the fame fenfe. 

Pavene, Pauyne, Pavie, Pauvan, a grave dance, " where- 
in the Women in turning round form their train in- 
to a wheel like the tail of apeacocl." Fr. pavon. 

Pauis, Pais, expl. weight ; from Fr. pefer. The for- 
mer, however, according to Ruddiman, may fignify 
a pavife or large fbietd. Fr. pavois. 

Pauchtie, expl. proud, baugbty ; alfo naughty. 

Paukie, Jly, cunning, artful; but without any unfair 
intention. [Teut. bats, the fame.j 

Paukis, trieki, -wile!. See Picht. 

^awne, Pavone, ^vi'me, peacock. Fr. pavon. 

Pax, a fmall crucifix ; ordained by Pope Leo IL to be 
carried about in church and killed by the people ; 
in allulion to the words, " My peace I give unto 

Pay, to hire. P»yit, Inrtd. TenLfayen. 

Pay, to beat or chafiife, Payis> Paychis, Paiks, chqfiife- 
ment. Wei. /Ti'_^», to ftrike. Swed. ^«i, fullis. 

Payne, Paynim, pagan, heathen, Fr. payen, peganus. 

Payhtil ; printed erroneoufly iax pay tent, patent. 

Fearlin, edging or border of tbread-lace. 

Pcafint, worihltfs perfon. See Befyne, whore, baud. 
[^Gael. peafan, diminutive fellow.] 

Te^x, peace; piece. 

PechfVeygh, to puff or breathe thick ; ex fono. 

Peddir, Pether, a merchant, a pedlar, " or cremar quha 

betrs ane pack or crcame tipon his bak ; called a 

btiraf of the puddil by the ScottifmeQ in the realm 


Pe. — - Pc 

of Polonla, i^inhairof I faw, fays Skene, a greate 

multitude in the town of Cracowia, A. D. 1569." 
Pec-wyt, the green plover or lapwing ; fo called froni 

its note« TeiJt, pie-wyt^ yanellus. 
Peet-mow, the drofs or dujl of broken peats ^ 
Peggral, Pygrall, (corrup. from heggar ,- q, Beggral,) 

beggarly y pitiful^ petty. 
PeiJ, JPeir, match, equal; as in the phrafe " fhew me 

the peil of that.'* Fr. pair. . 
Peil| Pele, pile, Jlrong hold^ fort^ originally, it would 

feem, of a conical form ; from Teut. pule, fedcs, me« 

ta, pyramis. 
PcUd, bald ; cj. peeled \ from Peil, to rob. Fr. pilUr. 
Peilour, Pellour, Pillour, one who acquires by pilling or 

plunder ; from Fr. pilUr, diripire. 
Peir, quay, wharf; corrup. of Veil, fortification, 
Peirles, peerlefr, not to be equalled, incomparable. Fr. 
Pjeirs, ajky colour ; or a colour between red and blue. O. 

Fr. pers, perfe, c^fius, glaucus. 
Pci&, Pefs, Peife, to appeafe, calm, or affwage. O. Fr, 

pi^ifer ; and that from Lat. pacare. 
Pellet, Pellot, a Jheep Jkin, particularly after the wool 

has been taken off. Fr. pelletier from Teut. pelt%. 
Pellet, Pellock, a pellet, bt^liet, or ball. Fr. pelote^ pi- 

Pelth, wealth, riches^ goods \ perhaps frpm Fr. pilUr, 

to plunder j as Jlealtb from ileal, and wealth from 

weal or wail, eligcre. 
Peltrie, Pelthrie, trq/b^ goods <f little value ,• fronqi 

Swed. paltor ; or a diminutive formed from Pelf or 

Pclure, expl. cojlly fur. O. Fr.pelh, fine fhort wool, 

fuch as that of lambs. 
Pen, a high mountain. Gael, beann j from Theot. & C. 

Brit, pen^ ben, ban, fan, altus, excelfus, fummita*, 

caput, dominus ; whence perhaps banner & pennon ; 

alfo Goth. Fan, deus, dominus. 
Pend, a dungeon^ or apartment with a vaulted roof of 

Jione. Fr. pente. As the fituation of a dungeon was 

originally on the top of a caftle, the name of Fend is 


Pe. Pe. 

probably of the fame origin wicli Pen, a high moum 

tain. [Lat./inna.} 
Pend, Pendle, pindant ; from Lat. pcnihre. 
Pendicles, dependencies ; from Lat. pendere. 
Vennei, penc/i/e, Fr. 
Fenny-mail, a tricing ackneivledgnient paid annually to 

the Lord af the Manor. 
Venovjii, peaiiant, a /mall tanner, diftiiiguijbed mark vt 

It battle. See Pen. 
Pens, Pans, Pance, to meditate, to bejitate. Fr. ptnfer. 
Penfeil, fame with Penown, ^enon, fmall ftreamer. 
Penfy, conceited, nffeSltd ; alfo e:tp\. Jiriical, /oppi/h. 
Venunte, penurj, want ~ Lat. penuria ; <\. A. penuritai^ 
Pepe, Peip, a fmall voice ; aifo ufed as a verb. Fr. pe' 

pier, pipire, pipilare, to peip or cbeipe. 
Perbreik, Perbraik, fGaw. Uouglas), expl. to break or 

Jbatter ; perhaps from Fr. pour, pro ,- q. d. pro- 

fraiius, \. e. quafi frafta vel femifrafla, s.s par-boitd 

for half-boUd, (or part-boild.) 
Percais, Percace, On cace, by chance. Lat. per cafum. 
Perconnon, Percunnance, expl, condition. If fo, it maj 

be coniieaed with Park, to perch. 
Perde, verily, truly, furely, Yx.pardieu, per deum. 
pere, peer, equal. Hedy pere, of equal flature. Fr. 

Pere, to pour in fmall quantity, as through a quill. 
Peregal. See Paregale, equal. Fr. 
Perfay, verily, truly. Yt.parfoy, per Mem. 
Perfurnift, Perforneift, Pcrfurmift, performed, accom- 

plifhed, ampleated, Fr. parfourrtirj aliquid explere, 
Perkj^ari, inclofure. Teut. ^ffci, feptum, circus. 
Perlis. See Pairles, ?ie /ifl^. Theot. ^w-ii. " 
Peronal, (in a coatemptuoua manner,) young girl, O, 

Perqueir, accurately, perfe^ly, regularly ; q. iy heart, 

Ft. par cicur ; or perhaps ^^r quire, by book. 
VeiTt, apparel ; by abbreviation. Lat. 
Perfowne, Perfoune, parfon. Tcut. perfooit, paftor par 



Pc PL 

Pertelote, Partelote, proper name given to a hen. See 

Paitlet, a ruff. 
Pertrik, Y2\Xx^]sjt^ partridge. Yx.perdrlx. Tent, per^ 

triis. Lat. perdix. 
Pertrublance, extreme trouble^ perturbation. Fr. par-m 

Pes, Pefe, peace^ homage ^ obedience ; alfo piece. 
Pete, peat ; q, pit-Jewel^ from Teut. put, lacuna, palus. 

Pete-pot, hole out of which peats have been dug. 
Pettle, to nourijh or cherijb (fuch a? a lamb or any o- 

ther fondling,) from Pet. 
Pettle, (in fonae counties) the plough Jl off. 
Pevage, Pevis, Pevich, "Pexehy peevifi ; or rather bafe^ 
malicious^ cowardly ; alfo niggardly ^ covetous. Pe- 
vagely, carelefsly^ JUvenly. The origin of the wor4 
feems uncertain, 
Pewtane, Putane, whore. Fr. putain. 
.Philabeg, the Jhort petticoat worn by Highlanders injiead 
of breeches. See Kilt & Filjb#g ; in addition to which 
may be offered, l^.felayfala^ tegere. 
PhioU, (Dougl. Virgil), expl. a cupola or round vaults 
ed tower ; according to Ruddiman, from Fr. Jiole^ a 
vial ; as cupola is faid to come from Lat. cupa or 
cuppa y a large cup, which it refembles. 
Pibroch s, certain marches or martial tunes which are pe* 
culiar to the Hi^landerSy and performed on the bag'- 
pipes. G2ie\, piobaireachd flitcT ally piping ; piob, ^^g- 
Pick, pitch. Picky, pitchy ^ like pitch. Teut. pecJ^. Lat. 

Pick- maw, a bird of the gull kind, (Larus ridibundus, 

Picht, Pycht, attached, fxedy fettled \ \Yt\3X. pachten^ 
to take in leafe, to farm.] Alfo expl. laving gold, 
fiver ^ ov precious Jlones fet into (any thing) y Jludded. 
Piete, pityy compafJioUy clemency ; from Fr, pitiSy miferi- 
cordia. Lat. piusy which Bifliop Douglas commonly 
renders pitiful, i. e. full of pity, and compacient, 
compaffionate ; from which it appears that the Eng- 
Wihpity :ind piefy were originally the fame. 
Pietuous, Pictuus, Fitnus^ pit eousy lamentable. 


Pi. Pi. 

J, PyjN tarthin pitcher ; has perhaps fame aiHoit^ 
with Sax. £m|;, armilla, quafi, a broad hoop with a 
bottom' Teut. bauck, venter ; bugen vel pogen, fleo 
tcre in concavuai vel convexum : whence alfo 
Piggcis, (Dougl. Virgil), espl. fiigs, Jlriamen ; or 
perhaps rapei, tables ; from Vi. poge, or pogge, " the 
Iheat or cable that fallens the main yard on the right 
hand of the fliip." 
Pike, to pici out or choofe ; ftlfo to pki ar peck. 
Pilchis, gowns made offiiiu. Sax. pylcbe, toga pellicca : 

" whence furplice, qMsSi Jitr-pUcfi." 
Pilis, Pylis, dawn, or Jhft and temler hairs -which firfi 
appear on the fores ^ young men. Gyrs pyVis, /malt 
/eaves or top's of grafs new fprung. Tent, piil, hair. 
Pillowber, /i&e covering ofapilkv:. See Wair. 
Pin, pinnacle, extreme paint in height , Teut. pinne. Lat, 

pinna ; item, fcopus. 
Pine, PynCfpain, grief, punifhment. Teut. piine, cruXi 

dolor, pena, labor, opera. Fr. peine. 
Tine, Vyne, ta taie pains. He pyned himfelf, he iifei 
his bejl endeavours. Ttut- piinen, opeTam 4arc, ela. 
borare, adniti. 
Fiiigi), to Jlrtve, contend, labour, or work hard ; appa- 
rently the fame with Pine, to take pains, from Tent, 
"Pioacts, formerly a part of 9 vioman^s i/ead~dre/s,aiind 

Ptnfell, Pynfell, a flag 01 flreamer. "Pi, ptnencel, pen- 
nonceau, from pennon, pinnatum fcutum, vexillmni 
Pirn, Pyrn, that part ef a fpinning wheel upon -which 
the yarn is rifled up ; hence it alfo fignifies the yanf 
in that fate ; probably from its refembling o /car in 
fliape. Swed. perron. Wei. pergn, pyrum. 
Pirnit, Pytnit, Pyrnie, Jlriped accidentally, or without 

intention, from inequality of the yarn, 
Pijrance,/>(!Wfr. Vmant, powerful, fr. puiffance Sc 

Fitail, rabble, dregs of the people. [Vt, putaik.'} 



fithfjlrength, migh^f force. Six. pitha^ tfiedullsl^ 

f'lihj ^Jlrongf vigorous^ energetic* 

Placadsj Plakkarts^ advertifements^ proclamations* 

Teut. plackaety decretum^ infcriptio, ptofcriptio. 
JPlage, region^ quarter ^ point, LaU plaga. 
Plaid, Plady Pfed, a worjled blanket of tartan colotir 

worn as a kind of mantle, Gzeh plaid, Svred, plagg,i 
Plaidin, ftannel^ woollen blanket. 
Planet, Vol. II. p. 48. erroncouflj for Plat, mode!. 
Vl^t^flat, flatly f downright, chfe, Fr, plat. 
Plat, Hevjmny's plat, expl. the frame of the heavens j 

setherei orbes, Crathcr the expanfe.^ 
Plat, model, perfeSl model, Teut. plat, exemplar. The 
" "Word is now converted, with a flight variation ia 

the fenfe, to plan^ both in Fr. and Englifh. 
Playfere» (erroneoufly perhaps^ Playftere, p/ayfelloWp 

companion. See Fcve, companion. 
Pled» vol. I p. 324. perhaps private comer, Gael. 

plaid IS expl. ambvfb. Swed. & Teut.plagg, ilratum, 
Plede, Pleid, controverfy, d^fpute / q. pleading. 
Plene, Plenyie, ta complain, Plent, complaints Fr. 
Plennyfs, to furnifh^ to floch (a farm), from Lat. pie* 

nus, q. d, plenare, 
Plennyffing, furniture. Outfight and Infight plennyff- 

ing, utenftls (as of hufbandry) and houfhold furniture , 
Plcfance, pleafure^ delight, Fr* plaifance, 
Pleogh, Plew, plough ; alfo the cbnftellation called »/•- 

fa major, 
Vlonk, pimple ; corr* from S^x,pocca, 
Plowfter, to toil in mud or filth ; q. pool-fir* 
Ploy^ a jovial party. 
Pluck, the lungs, liver, and heart of a fheep, Teut# 

plugge, res vilis & nullius valoris. 
Plunkit, Blunkit. See Lunkit, in bad condition, 
Plycht, evil condition^ adverfity^ mif chance. Swed. plicht^ 

Podemakrell,Eode makrell^^Ai&y baud-, fromFr, putte, 

meretrix & maquerelle^ lena. 
Vodltj, afmallflfb, (Gadus virens^ Linn.) 
* Poift, Puift, to urge, to pufh, Fr. povffer, 
Pok, Pok^^ Polk^ a bag ovfacin 


. Po Pc 

k-puds, bag-puddiagi, dumplings ; the lovers of fttdi 
Yq\, Puy], to prune, to trim. Polit, dreJhJ, bandied. 
Policie, Politic, the ornamenteJ ground about 'a manfion' 

boufe ; from Fr. polir, excolere. 
Pomells. ghbti, q. applis ,- from Fr. pomean. 
Ponjhe, Vojhne, ^fight, Jlirmi/k. 6. Fr. pongneor, one 

who fights with a pike. 
Ponnyis, weighl, inluence. Teut. pondigh, ponderofus ; 

pond-geld, exaiElio in fingulas libras. 
Papuland, Popling, bubbling up with fame degree of 

"oife, like boiling ivaler. 
Port, Payiitit as a port; erroneoudy tranfcribed for 

paytent, i. e, patent as a gate- way. 
Port, generic name for a lively tune, as the " hoifc 

mans port." Gael. 
Portage, baggage, cargo. Fr. portage. 
Porteous, Portus, Portuas, roll of indiBments for the 

Jujiice Ayre ; alfo a breviary or prayer book ; a 

portoun or matiuali Fr. porteet ; q. d, les liftes por- 

tees, lesheures porters. 
Porturit, pourtrayed, painted, fr. from Lat. 
Pofe, Pois, msney in fore ; that which is laid iip or 

pofed ; from Fr. pofer, feponere. 
Pofs, Poufe, (0 >/^ j a\Io to prefs /uddenly. Yx.poujjer, 

from L^t. pu/fare. 
!Poftul, to eha a perfon for bifiop wba is not in all points 

duly eligible. Poftulrft, one ivho has been fo eleSled. 
Tot, ^ott, pit, dungeon i alfo n pand, a deep place in a 

river, a mofs-hale from whence peats have been dig- 
ged. [Lat. putcus.'] 
Potent, a large -walUngJlaff with a head in crcfs farmt 

Fr. potcnce, a crutch. 
Poteftatis, higher powers, rulers, great theit. 
Pottingair, apothecary, one who deals in herbs, called in 

Fr. potagerie. Or the word may be, not imbrobablj, 

a corruption o£ apothecary ; from Gr. 
Pottyngric, the goods or craft of an apothecary ; hk 

foci orjkill in pstagerie, 
Poveral, expl. wretched rabble ; q. pauvrail.'e. 
Pou, Pii, to ptilh Vow, poll, the head, 


^otilaile, Polaili expl.pouUrfi The fami^ word^ IioW« 

ever, is alfo written Fiwah {Bdrbk Bruce*) 
Pounfe, Punfe, Palch, to cut, carve^ or engrave. "Eii 

poinfonner, from poinfon^ pagiuneolus. 
Pouritj impovirijhed* Pourne^ poverty . Fr. 
Poufte, Pouftiire, power^ Jlrength ,• from O. Ffj pofil^ 

or the infinitive pojfe ufed fer poteftas or potential 

Henee the law term liege poufte^ fuU fti^ength. 
Powne, Poune^ Powin, a peacock. Fr. paon^ 
Pownie, a little horfe, Fr. poulain^ a colt ; q. poulnie^ 
iPovr-fovrdit^Jbeep'-beadbrotb; q.pollJbddeH. 
Pdwt, Polt, ajlight ov feeble blow* 
Poynd, Pund, Pind, to fei%e formally and detain cattle 

or goods till ranfomed^ Sax. perman^ ovili indii- 

Pojndar, Pundar, one who is employed to feisie cattle in 

trifpqfs i alfo aforefler. 
Pqjntalls, flich with which tnuficians play tipon fticb 

i^ftrumtnts as the dulcimer ; from Fr. pcmtille / un-^ 

de et virili membro nomen eft , q« d* punBalus. 

Chaucer ufes the word for a writing pin^ ftjlus \ 

and Bifhop Douglas for a dagger^ 
Plrattiky Prattik, Prattique, praBice, execution^ arty (as 

of war.) Prattikea, by contradion I^retts, tricks^ 

(of Law or Leger-de-main.^ Fr* & Ifl. from prett^ - 

njti^ fallaXi Teut. praBiichey aftrologie. 
Prang. See Pang, to cram. Teut. prangen. 
Prattis, Pretts, abbrev. of Prattikes, tricks. Or rather 

from Teut. pratte^ fallacia, argutia. He play'd him 

a prett, heferved him a trick. See Praftik. 
Pray, Spray, ^iL^l.Jbrub ; alfo perhaps branch^ 
Precell, to excell or furpafs, Lat. 
"PrecincCy precinBs (of a prifon.) Lat. 
Preclair, celebrated, excellent, iUuftrious. lAt. pneciarUs. 
Preif, Pree, to tafle, to examine by tqfting, to try ; alfo 

to prove. Teut.^o^^«, labris primoribus attingere. 
Preis, Pres, to make a violent effort, to endeavour or ef 

fay, to prefs. 
Preis, Pres, croud, army, battle^ tumult. 
Prek, Prik| to gallop, to ride atfuUf^edi from prtck^ 

to fpur ; caufa pro effcAu. 

Vol. IV. Y Prene, 

P-t Pr, 

Prffne, tin ; ufed for a thing of no value. 

Preie, Prcft, ready. Fr. from Lat. pr-ejo. 

Prettis, Prctls. Sec Pratts, tricks. Teut. prallc, perte. 

Price, Preis, Pris, prize ; being originaDj- the fame 
with ;>/7i-f, from Fr. jir/'i', pretium ; alfo high efli~ 
matioN, giory, praife. 

Pfigi to importune a lovier rale or prtc» from the deal- 
er ; lo ixigglejar a penny, T cut. preien, orationem 
habere ; q, d. to preach ever ibe bargain. 

Prik, Perk, perch, loifg pole. 

Viiaces, pnticeft. Vtynceh^, princely quahiiy. 

Prirar, Pryfer, cpprijer, valuer. Vv.pri/eur. Lat. barb.- 
preliare, preiiator. 

Privatie, Privatfi, privacy. Fr. privautt. 

Vroheme, prejiice, prologue. Gr, 

Prci-revew, txp\. great grntid/oa. 

Propinc, gift, prefent. Fr, pr^ipine, drink-money, frorn 
Lat. prepino. 

■pToportc, lo declare, Jignijy, mean, Lat. barb. />re;fjr- 
tare ; whence the Engl, ^wr^orf. 

Proppis, (Doug. Virgil), expl. vieilges. 

Propyrtie, corr. oi propriety. 

Prow, honour, reputation, profit. Fr. preux, faithful, 
honouraTile, full of prowefs ; prouejje^ fortitudo. 
Teut. ^roB*, diarium, fportula. 

Prowit, Prowde, ^(MUfr/w/, O. Yx.prud, equivalent to 
Lat. probus. O. Swed. prud, magnificent. 

Prunyie, to ded, trim, or adorn ; from Fr. brumr, po^ 
■ Pryme, Hour of Pryme, Jix o^cloci in the morning, the 
Jirjl hour, according to the antient mode of compu- 
tation among ecclefiaflics. Cotgrave explains Prime, 
four o''claci in the morning in fummer, and eight in 
winter, nearly correfponding v>kh/un~ri/e. The fe- 
ven canonical hours or ftated times for prayer, as 
appointed by the canons of Elfric were, L Uht-fongy 
antelucanus cantus, i. e. ad tertiam a media node ~ 
lioram. II. I'rim-Jeing, cantus matutinus, prima 
fcii. hora diei (Judeorum.) IIL Undertt-fang, can- 
tus tcrtianus ; undern-iid, tertia hora Judeorum ; 

Er- — =— • Pa. 

mndern mett^ matotioa xe^Siu« jentaculum. IV. 
Mid'daegfang^ cantas meridianus, i. e. ad horam 
(liei fextam Judeorum. V. Noufang^ (fometimes 
called Mijfaj) caritus nonalis, ad horam diei nonam 
(Judeorum) i. e. the third hour after mid-day. VI. 
J^f^ii-fangy cantus velpertmus, or yefpers, fix o'- 
clock in the evening ; called alfo the Pry me of night. 
VII. Niht'/ang^ cautvis noaurnus, afterwards c^Ied 
^omplene ; probably nine c^ clock. Notwithftanding 
this explicit airangementi Tyrxwhyt explains 
Prime, the firft guaxter of the artificial day, or from 
fix to nine in the morning ; and the editor of Qoc- 
cleve's poems, reftridts the inegning to the laft part 
of that period- 

Pryme, (I>ougl, Virg.).expl,/&,/z^/^/^,- perhaps, 

' fays Ri^ddiman, from Vox. premo. 

Puddic, Puddy,.expL a kindif clqth. 

Puddil, according to Skene, feems to (igjiify apediar'^s 
pack ; or rather pe];iiaps a J)ag ox wallet fir contain^ 
ing hh wares. See PadcU. 

Pulder, />ox(;^^r. Yv.pouldre. VvldiQXjX^fprinkledy mix" 
ed ; tanquam pulvere infperfus. 

Pumice- fret, polijbed with pomicejlone. Fr. frotter. 

Pundelane, Podlayne ; probably early ruftick ; q. pu* 
tail ane ; from Fr. pitault, of the fame fignification. 

Puneifiioun, punijbment ; from Puneifs, to punijb, 

VvLTiyQyf mall party. Fx.poignee (de gens) handful. 

Purches, to procure^ to afguire. Fr. pourchas^ emolu- 
mentum ; alfo expl. attempt. 

Pure, Peur, poor ; to impoverijh. 

Purfillit, embroidered^ ornamented (about the edges.) 
Fr, pourJileTy bombycinum auro intexere. 

Purfillit, quafi Purfillit, Jhort^breathed and fat ; from 
Purfy. Fr. poujjify fufpiriofus. 

Purtith, Puretyth, poverty. 

Purvay, to provide , to prepare. Fx. pourvoirfpiovidexe^ 
The Engl, purvey is ufcd in a more limited fcnfe. 

fuxvi^ncCy fire fghtfjore cajly provtjion. 

Pufown, Pufoync, poifin. 

f ut, to throw a heavy Jlone abovi'hand ; formerly a 


Pa :Pj. 

coinnioii amufement among countrj people. Fr. 

Putaill, Pttail, rabble, idle followers of an army. Fr. 
Putain, Pewtane, loofe -woman. Vr.putain, meretrix. 
Puteour, Pewtcor, whoremonger ; from Fr. 
VjAt, mag-pie. G^tV pighead. O. Eng. payanriat. 
Pjfer, ta whine or complain witboat a cauje. 
yyVXifha-vingJharp iron points or pHts. 
Pyke-lhank, Pick-thank, a Jlatterer, one wha curriej 

fa-oour •uiith another by fecret ir formations. 
Pylc-fat, erioneoully for Gyle or Kele-fat, a brewing 

Fylgryne, pilgrim. Vt.pelegrin. 

PyUioua, a paik-//iddh. G^el, pilleaa. [Lm. puhinus.'j 
Pyne, (o v/k, grieve, or torment. Tcut. piinen. 
Pyfalit, Pjfal-bandyt, fecured ogatttfi coition. 
Pyfcnt, Befynt, Pyrcnt limmer, light •axman. Theot, 

pifontiu, lafciviens. 
Pyftyl, Piftill, epi/lle, ajhert leffon. l^at. '— 


Qit. Qs. 


QpAiFy roj^ head'drefs^ cover, or covering. Teut. ioyffe^ 

(^aikis, (Bifhop Douglas), expl. the irinrticulate found 
produced by the breathing of a per/on who is cleaving 

wood^ or employed in anj fuch labour. [Lat. ^»a:v- 

are ; vel ex fono.] 
Quair, quire^ book^ =*-^. 
Qualim, ruin^ deJlruBion. Sax* cwealm mors. See 

Quandary, hrownjludy. 
Quaty Quyte, to quit, rid, free, pay, difcharge, ab^ 

Quavir, quiver. Quaverys, quivers. 
Queets. See Eutes, ankles, Teut. 
Queint, curious, neat, artful ; alfo Jlrange, wonderful^ 

Fr. coint, elegans, ** comptus.*' 
QueintSy wiles, devices. [O. Fr. cointes."] 'Queintific 

in Chaucer is explained excejjive trimnefs^ cunning. 
Queintb, to quench, in the fenfe of to compofe, fettle, or 

calm. Quenthing, Quenting, compojing, pacifying ^ 

alfo quenching^ extingut/bing* 
Queir, Quair, choir. 
Quel, Quell, to kill. Sax. cwellan. Dan. quaelUr, occi« 

deie^ ftrangulare. [Teut. queUen, cruciare, exagi^ 

tare.] Quell is alfo expl. to yell. 
Queme, exaBly, fitly, ctofely. Teut. be-quant, aptus^ 

commodus ; be^quicmlick, commodd^ aptd ; whence 

Quent. See Queint,,rirrfafr/. Q^entAi%,quiintHifs» 
Quentacenfours, dabblers in Alchemy. 
Quere, exaSly^ plainly / contr. from Perqueir* 
Querele, complaint. Lot. querfla. 
Quern, hand-mill. Tent, queme. Dan* hand^quern. 

Sax. cweorn. lA. iuern. Goth* quair ftp mola m»- 



QaeiTc'J, Qurd, a qturrj. Ft. ijsurritrt. 

QueTTcU, Qaarrel, a dart, aa arrme. Ft, qiurreau, 
LaZ. barb, quadrtllua, the bolt of a dols-bon ; fo 
called from tbc (bapc of its hcjd. 

Quert, (Vol. I. p. 161.) prifor., any phct of coiiJint~ 
ntut I perhaps alfo fsa/iujtj; abbrcv. from Sai, 
txoertar, career. 

Qaefi, (fpokcn of hoonds}, to eptn or erjf. Fr. ^utfier. 
[Teat, quifien, inadiiar eSnndcre.J 

Qoejr, Qpj, Qaeock, a pmtg ^aui. Swed. juiga, ju. 
Tcoca ; dimin. trfTeai. iaeje, vacca. 

Qnejcb, a tvooJ^a Jrimiixg.aip, Ger. krlcb. Dan.idA. 
Theot. itlih, pocBlum, J eut, ghdu, poculum ma> 
JDS. Ijax. caiix. 

Qvejat, Qoeao, jvi«g woman ; bnt not slwafs, aS 
Junios would have it, with un implication of vicct 
Witb flight variations, this wprd is found in :U1 the 
northern languages ; from Goth, quein, quen, qtano^ 
mulier, uxor. 
~ Quejnt, Quyatb, pud. mmHth. Ch. que'uit. Swed. qui4, 
qaed. IQ. qttidur. Sax. euiid; from Goth, gaitb, u- 
icrus, matris. In a few inflai:ces, this form of the 
vrrod has been adopted, after the example of Chaii. 
cer, iofterid of the vox nefanc^ in the ntoderu 

Quha, Quho, Wjc. The ufe of ^uh inftead of IVh, or 
ffu.; is a curious circum (lance m Scoliifli orthogra- 
phy, and Teems to be borrowed immediately, or at 
firli hand, from the Gothic, as written by Ulphilas 
in the fourth century. In his Gothic Gofpels, com- 
monly called Tie Stiver Jiooi, we find about thirty 
words beginning with a chaia^er (O with a point in 
the center), the power of which has never been exact- 
ly afcertained. Junius, in his Gloffary to thefe Gof- 
pels, affigned toit the power and place of ,^; Stlem- 
hielm and others have confidered it as equivalent to 
the German, Scandinavian, and Anglo-Saxon Hw ; 
and hiftly, the learned Jhre, in his Suio-Gothic 
Gloirary, conje^uies that this charaAer did. not a- 
gree in found with either of thefe, but ^' fonnm inter 

hu, Sc qu medium habuiiTe videtur.'' Unluckilj he 
purfues the fubjed: no farther, otherwile he could 
"fcarcely have failed to fuggeft the Scottifli ^ub ; 
particularly as a great proportion of thefe thirty 
Gothic words can be tranflated into Scottifli by no 
other words but fuch as begin with thefe three let- 
ters ; ex. gr. Goth, qua or bwa^ Scot. quha. Goth. 
quis or bwisy Scot, qubaisy (cujus.) Goth. qua%ub 
or hwa%ub^ Scot, qubafoy qubnfoever. Goth, quatbro 
or bwatbro, (unde), Scot, qubar-frae or qubair- 
tbrae. Goth, quan or bwan, Scot.quban, Goth, quar 
or bwarf Scot, qubar or quhair. 6oth. quddre^ qua^ 
thar^ or bwadr^, bwatbar^ Scot, quhider^ quhetber* 
Goth, queila or biveila, Scot, quhil or qitbyle, Goth. 
quileiks or bwileiksj Scot. qubilJk. Goth, qubait or 
hwaitj Scot, qubeat. G^th, queit or bweit^ Scot, qubite* 
When thefe Gothic words, therefore, come to be a- 
gain mentioned, it will be no great innovation, upon 
the authority of Jhr6, to adopt fome miidle found 
between the qu and bw. But, notwithftanding of 
its ftriking co-incidence with the Scottifli qub^^to a- 
void any charge of hypothetical partiality, a diffe- 
rent element or combination of letters flaall here be 
aflumed, viz. Gtt, a found which appears to furnifli 
an apolog3t for Ulphila's having coined a letter un- 
known in the Greek and Roman alphabets ; a found 
too which occurs not unfrequently in the antient 
language of Germany ; ex. gr. gwaire^ verus ; 
gwallichii potentia, gloria, (this word ferves in fome ' 
degree to direft us to the found, it being alfo writ- 
ten cuolicbiy) gwallichofij glorificare ; g^^rf^ fymbo- 
lum, conjeftio ; gwiurtero^ ignitorum. When this 
harfli found gave way almoft every w^ere to the bwy 
(and at leaft in one in (lance to ^«,) the charader 
which Ulphilas had invented to exprefs it, fell of 
courfe to be laid afide. In Scotland alone the found 
was preferved, and appear s to this day under the 
fbtm of J^>&. 

A learned friend obferves, that this Gothic charac- 
ter *« appears to be the antient ^olic Digamma af- 


Oh <y. 

pirated in pronnnciation. The cxafl found of thii 
digamina is not pvoperly afcercaincd, but, from the 
letters into which it would appear to have been af- 
terwards rcfolved in the ptogrefs of the language, 
it may be conjeftured that ihe original found of it 
was a pretty ftrong W,- this, with an arpiraie, 
would be exaflly the old Scotch gab, and the Gothic 
charafter of Ulphilas. If, as haa been fuppofed 
with confiderable probability, the Gothic tongue 
was from the fame Hem as the aniient Pelafgic, 
(the root of the Greek,) it is not to be wondered at, 
that the finnple Gothic, which had undergone few 
changes by the progrefs of civilifatjon, Jhould re- 
tain to a very late period this letter, though it was 
gradually fuperfcded in fotnc of the more lefined 
dialefls that fprung from the fame fource." 

"May it not be conjeftured alto, that this letter is 
derived from the Hebrew j^in ? The old form oElhat 
letter is fuppofed to referable an eye or fountain, an 
objefl well denoted by the Gothic charaifter of Ul- 
philas. The pronunciation of the Hebrew Ain is a 
matter "of great difpute ; but, if we fuppofe'it to be 
an afpirated O, that before an A founds almolt the 
fame as our W', or the Scotch ^b." 

Quhack, ajivere blow ,■ alfo to hack or cut. 

Quhail, -whale. Sai. & Scand. hwole. 

Quh^me, mho/a. Goth. Gofp. du gwamma,^ quenii 

Quhan, when. Goth, givan. Lat, quatido. 

Quhaing, Quhing, thong, cord. Sax. thwang, loium. 

Quhais, luhofe. [Goth, g-waii, cujus.) 

Quhang, a large, or rather a longjlice. See Quhaing. 

Quhaup, Quhaip. a curlew ; ex fono. 

Quhare, Qiihair, where, whilher. Goth. gwar. Lat. 
quo. John II. 34. gwar laghidedun in ? quhare lajid 
ye him ? 

Qahafo, whoever. Goth, gionxuh, quifque. Mar. vi. 7* 
tuans gwazah, duos quofque, 

Quhat, what. Goth, gwa, gwathar, quid. 

Quhatkyn, Quhatten, what iind of? [Swed. huadati. 
Goth, gwaihwa, quomodo.^ 


Qa. • Qtt. 

Qohawe, Gaw, quagmire, 

Quheil, wbeeL Sax. hweol^ rota. 

Quheife, Quheifle, to make a noife in breathing, like an 

afthmatic perfon. Sax. hweofan. 
Quheitc, Quhcte, wheat. Goth, gwaitei, triticum, fru* 

xnenti granuxn. John x. 24. 
Quhelm, to overwhelm. Ifl. hilmaf obtegere. 
Quhene^ Quhune, Quhoync, a fmaU number, a fewm 

Teut. weynigb^ pauci. 
Quhew, to whtflle ; the noife produced by fomething 

paffing through the air with velocity ; ex fono. 
Qahejy whey Sax. hweg, ferum la£tis. 
Quhid, to whijk ov Jkip about. 
Quhidder, to move about quickly upon an axis, like the 

arms of a wincUmill. 
Quhig, an inferior fort of whey. See Quhey. 
Quhile, while ^ until, a f pace of time. Goth, gweila, mo- 
mentum, fpatium temporis. 
Quhiliw, which. Goth, gweleiks. Lat, qualis ; from 

gue, cui ; & leiks, iimilis ; which has the appearance 

of being the origin alfo of the Latin term. 
Quhilom, fome time ago, heretofore ; commonly alfo 

written umquhile. Sax. hwilon, quondam ; quafi, 

while^yane or gone ; from Goth, gweila^ tempus. 
Quhine, Quhjne, to whine, to lament. Goth, quainon, 

dolere, lugere, plangere. Dan. quiner, to fqueak. 

Swed. quida^ ejulare. Ifl. kiiida, malum metuere. 

Armor, queini. Ir. cuinum, nearlj of the fame fig- 

Quhinge. See Quhine, to whine or lament. 
Quhinger, Quinyear, hanger^ dagger. 
Quhins, whins, fur%e, [Wei. chwyn, noxia herba fua 

fponte fuccrefcens. Gael, guin^ fliarp pain ; guineacbf 

prickly fores.] 
Quhinnisy Quhynnis,^o/j^j, tejlicles. 
Quhip, to whip, to flrike fuddenly or quickly. Sax. 

hweopan^ flagellare. 
Quhip, Wipp, Wipe, to bind about. Goth, wippian, 

coronare, prajtexere. 
Quhippis, crowns, garlands. Goth, waipt, coronae. 
Quhippel. See Fippcl, to whimper. Dan, 

Vol. IV. Z QjJiU. 

Quhir. See Quhidder and Bir, of the fame iignific»- 

Quliow, Whow, how ! as an intetjeflion, 

Qiihoyne, Quhtinc, See Qtihene, a/mail number. 

Quhraiken, Whirkened, fuffocaUd, queriened ; with 
fome relation probably to Sax. cwerten, career ; or 
Ifl. kyriia, fuffocai-e. 

Quhryne, to murmur^ to whine. Se« Quhme. 

Qiihyllel, to exchange, as a guinea for its valua in fil- 
ver. Teut. iL'iJJiUn. Fris. wixchn. Swed. wa^^k, 
permutare, nummo majores pretii accepto minutam 
pecutiiam per partes reddere. 

Quhyffelar, a changer of money ,- alfo a VL'hiu hennd, 
i. c, a perfon employed privately to raifc the price 
of goods fold by auftion, Teut. iiyiffiler, qui quseltuin 
facit fseneiandis permutandifqne peeuniis. Both the 
verb and noun occur in the Scottiih Afls of Parlia- 

Quhyte, to cut (wood) luith a knife or wbiftle. 

Quhyte, hypBCriiicai, di^cmbling imder the colour of 
candour ; as a man is faid to he fiiiy Jfoien ; literal- 
ly vihit*, from Goth, gvieit, albus. 

Quhyt-llainis, (^bit-ftanys, wheljhmei. 

Quhyttrit, a weafel ; probably from Teat, wilerit, 
odorare, odorari, oderem fpargere. 

Quytterand, Quhitt«ratid, viarhling; aKomcvu^^Vi- 

' iy, as the wi-ngs of a bird, or the tongue of a fcrpenl. 
[Teut. qnetttren, to fpoak with a glib tongue.] 

Quinter, a ruie in her third year ; quafi, twiater, bo- 
caufe her fecood year is com[^ated. 

Quod, d^aoth, faid, fayj. Theot. quad, ait, dicit, dixit 
-Goth. fuitatt,^iiceTe. 

Quok, did qtiaie, trembled. 

Quy. See Quey, a young cow. 

Quyte, to abjolve, to difcharge, ot pay. 

Quyte.clftim, to renottnce ox dtfewn. 

Ka. ■ ^' 


Ra, Rae, a roe* Rais, Raes, roes. Swed. rae^ cerva. 
Ra, Ikt^i the fail yard. Teut. ree. Ifl, r<Mi, antenna. 
Jl^bandis, Raibandisj^ /&^ yka// Unes which make the 
V yii/ y^ io ^i^ yards. Angl. by corruption r«i- 

Rabil, a diforderly ox confufed traitu Swed. rahbus^ tu- 

Jlachis) Ratchisy pounds. Sax. r/7^r^. III. raike^ ca« 

Jlad^ Radd^ afraid^ terrified. Dan, ra^^, timorous. 
Swed. radas^ timere ; radda, terrere, terrefacere, 

Rad, Redd, to advife j alfo fubftantivcly for advice, 
Scand. rada^ conlilium alioui dare. Goth, raginan. 
Scand. & Sax. ned^ confilium. 

"^"dA. judged^ condemned. Sax. araddan^ decernere. 

^ad, Rade, rode^ did ride. Ifl> reid. 

Rade, Raid, Rode, e^apedition^ invajton^ or inroad. Sax. 
rade^ invafio, infultus, irruptio. 

Rade, Raid, road for Jhips. Teut. reed% ftatio naviuin. 

ilade. See Ray, violent ^ harjb, wild. 

Raddour, violence^ wildnefsm See Reddour. 

Raddoure, Radnefs^y^^jr, timidity. Dan. raeihed. 

Rafial, Rafiel, doe or buci-Jkin ; <j. roe-fell. See Fell, 

Raffan, raving or roving ^ noify, jovial. 

Ragmen, Ragment, a written account^ difcourfe orpO' 
em, a rhapfody^ a collcftion full of variety. Rag- 
mans row, defined by Ruddiman, *' a colle&ion of 
all thofe deeds in which the nobility and gentry of 
Scotland were tyiannically conArained to fubficribe 
allegiance to Edward I. of England, annp 1296 $ and 
which were more particulat ly recorded in four large 
i'olHs of parchmenti confiftiog of tbirty.five pieces 


joined together, kept in the tower of London ; and, 
for the moil part, extant in Prynne's third tgA. of 
Colleftions. The word, as ofed bj Biihop Dou^as 
and others, feems to correfpond with the Ital. ragi^ 
onamento ; a difcourfle or argument." But, it may be 
aiked,. (with Juftice Barrington,) What hath a dif- 
courfe or argument to do with fuch a Gft of names 
as the Ragman*i row ^ This learned commentator 
explains the Engl, ragman^ a blank recognifance en- 
tered into bj perfons who were threatened widi 
profecutions, and who being thus in the King's^ 
power, might be looked upon as utterly ruined, aD4 
m rags. He acknowledges this, however, to be nu 
ther a whimiical derivation. Mr. Macpherfon thinks 
it may be a corr. of Lat. pergamemtm^ parchment* 
Perhaps rather from Sax. areccean^ enumerare, 
Teut. rektf colleftio, repsuratio, inftruftio, ordo, fe^ 
ries ; Sc man^ fcelus. 

Raid, (Raird), adventure^ atcbtevement apiece ofbufinefit 
See Rade. 

Raif, to rave^ to /peak incoherently. 

Raif • See Ref e, to rob or plunder* 

Raik, Rayk, a walk, range, or courfe. Sheep raik, a 
Jbeep pafture or walk. A long raik, a conftderalh 
length of way. Sec next article. 

Raik, Rake, Rayk, to walk, to range, or rove about ; 
to travel. To raik on raw, to go ov proceed in order. 
Rakand home, going homeward with a long Jiepn 
Swed. reka^ vagari, expatiari ; racka, curfitare. 

Rail, a woman^s jacket, or fome fuch part of a ivoman's 
drefs ; called alfo a collar 4)ody . 

Rainfe, Rynfe, to rinfe or clean (a veffel or bottle.) 

• Goth, hrainjan, mundare. 

Raip, rope. Goth, ra'tp, corrigia, vinculum. 

Raith, expl. quarter of a year ; perhaps corr. of feird 
oxjeirth, fourth. 

Raith, Raithlie, quickly, hajlily. Teut. rade, repenti- 
nus. Goth, rather^ facilis. Thus the Engl, fay 
«* Rath fruit" for early fruit. *VRath wine,*' tha^ 
which is made of grapes gathered before full matu<? 
rity : hence rather, potius, i. e. citius. 

» . •»f 

!Rak, Rack, Rank, Rawk, Roik, a fog^ thick mijt^ or 
mdr idling rain. Sax. racu, Dan. raekia, pluvia, unda^ 

humor. Teut. ; oock^ vapor. The word alfo fignifies 

the vifcous humour in fore eyes. 
Raky Reeky care ; to care for. Sax. rec^ cura ; reccan^ 

Swed. rehay & Ifl. rakia^ curare. Hence Rak is alfo 

ufed for account^ matter y reckoning. 
Rak, Rakket, blow^ box on the ear. 111. reky pello. 
Rakky Wrack, wreck. Swed. rak, bona naufragorum 

in littus ejefta. 
Rakket. See Rippet, noife^ tumult ; alfo expl. hlow^ 

box on the ear. 
Raklefs, Recklefs, carelefsy rafh. Sax. recceleas^ nc«p 

Rakle>handet, Hand-rakyl, fame with Raklefs, rafh* \ 
Rakligence, Racklefsnefs, careleffnefs. 
Ralis, Rajlis, expl. nets ; perhaps from Teut. ravelen, 

'R.diiSyfpringSy gufhes forth y or runs. [Fr. roulery to 

Rame, to fhout^ cry aloudy roar. Sax. hreamany cla- 

mare ; whence £ngl. rame or ream^ loud weeping. 

Probably this word may have fome connexion with 

the recitation of antient metrical legends. 
K^mme], Jhrubsyfmall boughs or branches. O. Fr. ra-. 
• milles. 

Rammafche, colleEled, Fr. ramajfcy colleftus. 
Rammel, a mixture of common hear and barley. 
Rammekins, a difh made of eggSy cheefsy and crums of 

bready mixed in the manner of a pudding. 
Ramp, Stramp, to trample, Dan. trampe, calcare. 
Rampage, to prance about in a fury ; from Ramp. 
Rander, to render. Fr. rendre^ fo pronounced. 
Randoun, the fwift courfcy flighty or motion of any 

thing, Fr. randony prolluvium ; alfo to gallop or run^ 

to mcvefwftly. O. Fr. randoner, 
Ik^xi^s^flreaks of different colours. K^ndyt.flreaked or 

flriped, Swed. randy linea ; randyt tygy pannus vir- 

gatus ; whence perhaps tartan. 
Randy, low worthlefs noify perfon^ infamous fcolder^ 

impudent flurdy beggar ; in the plural number. 

commonlj coupled with tiiAerSn [Tent, ramknf t^ 
rave.3 • 

Rane, Rayne, Rain, to cry tbe fanu thing ov$r and(h 
ver. Prov. " You're like the gowk, you have not 
a rane but one.** IQ. hryn, exclatnare. See Racne. 
Rangy reigned ; pad t. of Ring, to reign* 
K^agald, Ringaldy Rangle^ rabble f meb, crowds pnJti^ 
tude ; q. tbrangU ; from Sax. thrang^ turba \ 
thringan^ comprimere. According to Ruddiman^ 
** from Engl, ran or rutij and gUdy fodalitium f q« d^ 
the running together, or eoncourje of people : Or froiQ 
ringy becaufe fuch crowds commonly fiand ia a ring 
or circle. Tcut. ringelen, gyrare,** The word may 
have fome affinity with Ifl. raun^ injuria ; rangur^ 
iniquua. In Barbour it fometimes alfo Itguifies rank 
or condition p as *^ of friiall rangale/' ofhw rank. 
Range, (Gaw. Douglas), a company (of hunters.) 
Ranle-treCyRantle-trie, Ran^tree, the name ofrnparti* 
cular beam in the roof of a cottage ; probably tht 
roof tree y from which the cruii or crook chain is 
fufpended. See Rantrie. 
Rantrie, Rt)wn-tree, the mountain ajb ; efteemed a pre- 
fervative againft witch-craft; whence the name ^ 
Teut. rune^ & ill. allruna^ magus, maga. 
Ranungardy Ranygald, clamorous quarrelfome per/on ; 

from Randy; alfo ex pi. renegado^ 
Ranys, loud repetitions of the fame thing. See Rane. 
Raplock, Raplock, Roploch| coarfe woollen cktb \ 
made from the worft kind of wool, home-fpun, and 
not dyed. O. Engl, ray feems to have nearly the 
fame fignification. Swed. rapp indicat colorem qui 
inter flavum & caefium medius eft. Lat. ravus. Teut? 
rouwe laken, rough cloth. 
Rare, Rair, to roar. Sax. raran, fremere, rugire. 
Rafch, to dq/h or clajh. Rafchis, fubftantively theclajh* 

ing of arms ; ex fono. 
Rafch, rujh. Sax. r//r, fcirpus. Goth, raus^ arundo. 
Rafe, Race, to pull or pluck (out.) Fr. aracher. 
Rat, a fcratch, a furrow ; alfo to make deep fcratcbes, 
tra&Sy or imprefjlonsy as by dragging fome Ibarp 
point along the ground. Fr. grater. Teut, kratze/h 

fcalpo, frico. Svced. rad^ linea, ordo, 


Ila. ', — Ke« 

TSisLttf Ratt ryme, a poem, ar ver/es repeated hy rf^te, 

Fr. par routine. 
Rattounsy Rattons, rats, Teut. ratons. 
Rauchtisy K^XXhs^ galloivs '^ the plural of Raucht, raft^ 
ox frame of ivood, Teut. r acker, liftor- Dan. reck^, 
Rauchtyr, injlrument of torture. See Rauchlis. 
Raucht, reached \ diS taught from teach. 
Ravellyt, Reullt^ entangled, Teut. ravekn, intricare. 
Rauk, hoarfe. Fr. rauque. Lat» raucuf. 
Rauki Rax, to Jlreatchy to draw out in length or breadth » 
Rauking, ^ajily Jlreatched, Teut. recken. Goth. *•«- 
kian, tendere, extendere, expandere. 
Raw, a row or rank. On raw, in order. 
Raxes, kitchen implements upon which the /pit is fupport" 

ed ; afulironsy racks. 
^^J y fong, poem ; from rhyme y as Grew for Greek. 
Ray, Ree, rude, mad, wild. To go raj, to go mad ; 
from Sax. reth, ferox, fsevus, infeftus ; whence red^ 
wode, ft ark-mad. 
Rayayt, expl. terrified ; fame with Rad. See Ray. 
Rayne. See Rane, to hatp on the fame firing. 
Reak, Reik (out) torigg or equipp, to adorn. 
Real, royal. Sp. Realte, Reawte, Ryawte, royalty. 

Ream, cream \ to fikim off the cream. Ifl. riome, flos 

Reawis, Roy is, kings, royal per fonnges. Fr^ ray'. 
Rebald, Ribauld, rafcal, ruffian, Fr. ribatM. 
Rebaldale, Rybald dale, rafcally company. 
Rebaldie, Rybaldy, vulgarity of converfation. 
Rebeck, a mufical infirument. Fr. 
Rebut, Rebute, to repulfe, refufe, difcourage, Fr. rehu^ 

ter, repellere, rejicere. 
Recerfq, to fear ch carefully. Fr. re-chercher. 
Reck. See Rak, care, to care. 
RecoUis, colleBicms , records. Fr. recueiU L«t. recoU 

Recordar, afmall common flute. 

Recriant, recreant, cowardly ^ crying out for mercy ; ** a 


. ^vord of fdcb infiunj^ that Glanville avoicb ttte fefy. 
naming of it.'V Fr. - ' '*. 

Recule, to ncoyl or give avkxy, Fr. reculer* ' . . 

Recure, /^ ncovtr* 

Recuvcrance, recovery \ from Recure, to recover • 

Red. See Rad, advice^ to advife^ Will of rede^ confilli 
expprs. . 

Redy Reddy R^it^ to unravel^ tofeparate^ to clear avioj* 
Swed. radaaf liberare ; radia, & Ifl. rydia^ terram 
inciiltam excifisacboribusdemtiCjuefaxisad cultum 
redigere; figurativelji ^o^o/a^o/Sf-jrirarr^/i. Henc^ 

Redding blow or Redders part^ viz. a blow or ij- 

tredfrom both parties, 
Reddour, Raddoure, violence, vehemency^ Jtubbormuje. 

Fr. roideur^ impetus ; which has piobably fome af* 

finitj with Sax. retbnejje^ ferocitas, fsevitia ; retb* 

modi sifper animi. 
Rede, to dread, to entertain apprebenfions* Fr.. redouter* 

Dan. ^ 
Redomit ; expl. bound, encircled ; and hence bedeckt. 
Redrefty redeemed. 
Red-wody Reid-wude, raging mad. Sax. reth. Ifl. 

reidey ferox, afper ; & Sax. wod, infanus. 
Ree, a fmall riddle larger than tbejieve ,• alfo ufed as a 

Ree, light headed^ crazy ; like a perfpn not quite reco- 
vered from drunkennefs ; nearlj the fame with Ray. 

Sax. hreohy ferus animp. 
Refe, Reif, the itch, fcurvy. Sax. hreo/e^ fcabies, fca- 

biofus ; whence Rough. 
Refe, Reif, Reve, now Greve, or Grieve, overfeer^ 

correfponding with Engl, bailiffs originally a col* 

leBor ov fuperlntendant of the King^s revenue within a 

particular diJlriB ; according to Spelman, from Sax. 

reajian or ge-reajian. rapere. See Greve. This word 

is alfo expl. by Lord Hailes, robber. 
Refe, Reif, Reive, to rob^ to pillage ^ to force away. 

Sax. reajian. Teut. raffen. Goth, rauhian^ rapere, 

fpoliare. Swed. raf vulpes. Reft, robbed or hereof* 

ed of. 


Kefe, Reify Reifery, robbery^ rapine^ plunder^ pittagil 

Sax* reqf, fpolia. 
Refell, to refute^ to repelL 
Refer, Reverj Reiver, robber^ plunderer by fea or land* 

Sax. reafefe^ raptor, 
jRefer, to reiate^ to rebearfe. Lat, refero. 
Refrane, Refranjh6, to rejirain. O, Fr. refraigner* 
Refute, refuge. Yx.fuitey flight. 
Rcfgale, the privilege now called a regality. 
Regiment, rule^fyftetn of rules. Lat. 
Rcgrattour, regrater^ foreflaller. Fr. re^grateur^ qui 

iterum fcalpit. 
Regulere, rule^ pattern^ archetype, Lat. 
Rehatoure, (Gaw. Dougl.) feems to mean mortal ene^ 

my ; from Fr. rehatr^ to deteft. 
Reik, Reke, 'Kt^^fmoke. Sax. rec. 111. reihry fumus. 

Goth, riquisy tenebrae. Teut. riecien, halare, fpi« 

rare; whence AuldRelkie^ a nickname of Edinburgh. 

Alfo ufed as a verb. 
Reik, a blow ; variation of Rak ; q. v. The fame 

word is alfo ufed for to reach. Teut. retkeiiy expor-^^ 

Reik, Rink, race^ courfe.' Kzce^ forte (inquit Skinner) 

a Belg. renneUf q. d. rence^ elifo propter cuphoni*- 

am n. 
Reiklefs. See Racklefs, carelefs^ rajb* 
Reile, Rele, to roll. To gar one's ene reil, to mate his 

eyes roll or row/. 
Reile, a quick dance performed commonly by three or four 

perfons ; probably from Teut. r^ti^/f/r, circumcur* 

fare, concurfare, intricare. 
Reime, expl. to fqualU ^o. roar ; with an allufion per** 

haps to the manner in which metrical legends were 

recited. See Rame.. 
Keird, din ; alfo to call out aloud, to Jpeai loudly. 

Reirdit, refounded. Sax. reordian, loqui, fermocinari : 

fubftantivelj noife, uproar, clamour. Sax. reord, 

fermo, loquela. 
Reiflfel, to aSI in a noify manner. Teut. ryffelen, ftrc- 
' Vol. IV. A a .pere, 

Re Re. 

pcrc, ftrenttare ; like a man hewing down ryfi 6* 

Reift, tofiand rejiive, iajlop ,- originally the fame with 

Reift, a prop ax fupporler. Reiftis, door hinges, 
Reiftjt. See Rifert, driid by the heat of the fire, or o/" 

the fun. 
Rek, See Reik, /moie. Sax. rec, 
Rek, See Rak, to care far, or regard; alfo to reach. 
Religioun, Religious, religious orders, religious founda' 

'Kelciich, lo releafe,ii> let go, or fti at large. Fr. r&> 

Releve, to return with frefb vigour, to renew, ta reco- 
ver in ftrength ; alfo to raife, to promote. Fr. relt- 

Relyic, to rally. Reljit, rallied. Fr. rallier. * ' 

^emsin&nd, lajling, permnneiit . Lat. ■' 

Reme, to throw up a cream, or white froth, to foaa. 

Remand tais, (Gaw. Dougl.), foaming bowl. SaXi 

Remede, remedy ; alfo to heal or relieve. Fr. 

Remorde, to recolleSlt to remember^ Ccommonly with rt- 
grtt,) to caufe remorfe. Fr. 

RemjUis, expl. blows. 

Renegate, renegado, apoflate from ChrtfUamty. 

Ileng, Ring, feign, to reign. Lat. regno. 

Renge, Reyng, government, rule, reign. 

Rengye, Renye, the rein of a bridle ; alfo to bridle. 

Renk, Rene, man, perfon. Sax. rink, homo ; from 
reche, athleta. 

Renk, Rink, a courfe or race. To rink up and down, 
to ran about. Swed. renna, currere ; renna till rings, 
haftiludium exercere ; j'eka, vagari. According 
to Ruddiman, from Tcut. rencken, fleftere ; " as the 
word properly fignifiea a tour, a compafs, cr wind' 
ing, and not going freight on." 

Renfe, Rhenijh. 

Reny^; Apil-reny6, a common name ioT foulhern-vioid 

in feveral of the northern counties of Scotland ; the 


Re. ■ Re. 

origin of the term unknown, if it be not a corrup- 

tion of the Fr. name abrotan, Lat. abrotanum^ q. a« 

hro^tainye^ apehiratnye^ &c. This may perhaps be 

the meaning of Apill-renyeis, (Vol. I. p. 377.) 

where it is explained, as bj Lord Hailes, firings of 

Repair, reforty company ; alfo to return. [O. Fr. r^- ^ 

ReparrcU, to repair or refit. Fr. repareiller. 
Repaterit, Repatirrit, fed^ took refrejhment. Fr. re^ 

Re-plege, in the words of Skene, ^< quhen ony man, 

be vertue of his awin jnrifdiftien, reduces to his 
. awin court, his awin man, fra ony uther manni? 
' pourt, and leaves . ane pledge or cautioner behind 

him for due adminiftration of juflice." See Cul. 

Repudy, quafi, repudiatlve^for the purpofi of dmorcing. 

Fr. repudier. 
Refewyt, i. e. Refevyt, referred ; q. refaved. 
]^.efp, Rifp, a hind of coarfe grafs^ or rufi). Sax. rifc^ 

fcirpus. Ruddiman miflakes the meaning entirely. 
Refpirature, Re-fpiratour, re-infpirer. Fr. refpirateur^ 
RefTet, a place of refuge^ refidence^ abode. To refctt, 

to receive f harbour y or entertain ; from Fr. recepte^ 

Refurfe, to rife up^ to fpring up. Lat. refurgere. 
Rethor, rhetorician^ orator. Rethorie, eloquence. 
Rethnas, cxpl. prey ? [Sax» rethneffe^ ferocitas.] 
Retour, Retowre, to return^ to make a return (in writ- 
ing.) Fr. ret our. 
Retreand, expl. retreating ; by abbr. ox corr. 
Rejtreit, to refcind^ to reverfe. Fr. retraBer ; alfo to re-- 

fume the confideration of 
Reuk, Rank, fogy mifiy vapour. See Rak and Reik. It 

may alfo fignify odour^ fiavour^ fmelly good or bad ; 
. from Teut. reuciy rauch, evaporatio ex materia fe- 

miufta, five odorifera fit, necne. 
ISLeunde, Roond, a fired of chtb. Ifl. & Teut. rand, 
• margo, extremitas* 


K*.-, R* 

Rennde, Roond^ to grind, to pi^oducea ^Jagfteahk wi/o, 
at by grinding. 

Rew, to pity, to have ompafflon. Sax. hreovian, mifev 
reii. The word fignifies now to repent. 

Rew,_^r«(, a /inf, a row. Fr. rw, via, platea. Teut. 
rfiie, ortio ; roiit or Scott, raiu. ' 

Rewaird, portion, patrimony. Reward, in Chancer^ 
figniJies regiird, as in the phtafe, *' in regard of." 

Rewelynis, RuUions, Killings, in the days of Bilhop 
Douglas, fignified a kind of broguei atjboes made of 
midrtjftd hides, with the hair on them. Originally 
tliey might be only broad thongs or ftripes «f raw 
hide ro/!ed about the feet, quafi, roUingt ; unlefs we 
were CO fuppofe the term to be a corruption of Fr. 
pmlaines, i. c. fouliers a poalaine, a kind of rnde 
landals made of horfe leather; from poUlain, a colt, 
q. prulaint. The brogues now commonly in ufe, o- 
therwife called Jingle fated Jboes, are wholly of the 
fame material, imperfedlly tanned. 

Rcwme, realm, kingdom. O. Fr. reaame. 

Reivth, Reulh, Ruth, pity, compajlon. Sax. hreotoe, 

Rewthfnll, Reuthfull, compqfflonate, full of pity. 

Rewthlefs, Reuthles, unmerciful, cruel, harjh. 

Rewftand, expl. routing. 

Reve. See Refe, Reif, Jieward, overfeer. 

Revele, rtvelting, merry making ; properly, joining iii 
intricate dances ; from Tent, ravelen. Skinner and 
Riiddiman derive it from Fr. reveiller, becaufe re- 
vels are commonly performed m the night. See 

Revengeans, revenge, -vengeance. 

Rever. See Refere, robber, pirate. Revery, robbery. 

Revers, rovers, a term ufed in fliooting with thebow 
and arrow. 

Revery, noije, din ; the crackling and roving motion 
of flames; with allufion perhaps to Revelry i ac- 
cording to Ruddiman, from Fr. re/verie, raving. 

V^evedve, a chapel OT clo/et. Fr. revrjitr. Engl. ■zr^yJry, 
where ■ 

nhere the fiicred vefttncnts are kept. Revcft, t« 

ctoatb ; perhaps with a change of drcfs. Fr. reve- 

Rtach, expl. dtm^ ill-coleured, Sived. rapp, ravus. 
R.iat, Ityal, royal. Ryawti, royalty. Rioljfe, priaceiy 

Rib, /o -turn the /oil with the plough in an imptrJtCi 

Ribbalddale, Rebald-dale, ■a.'orthlefs clafs ofpc^U, rah- 
bit. Ifl. ribbalder, the fame Sec Kebald, ruffian. 

Rice, Rjs, Ryfs, branches o/baxel, or Juch like ; hram- 
ble bujhei, twigs of trees. Tcut. rys, virga, furca- 
Ju9 ; virgulta, farmenta, ramalia. This word is of- 
ten confounded with rcjb ot rejhes, ruflies, of quite 
a dif&rent origin. 

Richtwis, now perverted to rigbteaur. Sax. ribl-wis, 
fapiens, right ■u.-l/i. 

Richt navf.juji now. Richt i-fia.,jujl fa. 

Rickettis, {rcftius Rickeliis), Jmall heaps ; dimin. of 
Rick or Rack, cumulus. 

Kife, common, plentiful. Teu t. r/i/l Sax. ry^, Swed. 
rif, frequens, laigua, copiofus. 

Rife, Ryffe, tg rive, tear, rend. Ryffen, riven, tern. 

Rift, to belch. Lat. e-ruBare. 

Rigging, the top or upper part of the reef. '■ Sax. hricg, 
faAigiutn, dorfum ; whence it alfo ^gnifies bacJk of 

Rigg-widdj", the rope or chain by which a cart is fup- 
ported upon the borfes rigg or back ; originally a 

Rising, the male (oi any beafl:) that has but one tef-. 
tide, Engl, ridgeling. 

ULike, "iyke, potent, rich. Sax. rr^- Swed. Wi. 1(1. 
riiur, Goth, reiis, potens, validua, fortis ; dives, 
J opulentus, This feems to be the natural order of 
the Signification, " comme ceux, qui avoient le plus 
de force, amaGTerent par Iciir brigandage le plus de 

Jtikkel, Rjckle, Ruckle, a fmall heap. Tcut. richel, 

' . . repagulum. 

lU. --— Ro.' 

repagDluin. Sas. riea, acervus ; hrtae, cumulus } 

alfo It! heap up, at gather into heaps. 
Ring, reign, iingdom, region ; alfo to reign. 
Ring-fangis, probably the tunes of the ring-dances ; or 

fuch as were Aing by a number of people Handing 

in a ring. 
Ringle-eyed, expl. having laeak blue eyes ; or rather 

fuel) as have a greater proportion of white than U- 

Rink. See Reok, race ,- alfo a circle round the goal in 

the game of curling., place of tourr 

Riot, roiil,Je,i/liiig, hanqueting, innocent mirth. 

Rip, Reip, a handful of unthrefbed cern. 

Ripe, to flirt tojearch, to prcbe, to examine. Teut. rtp- 

pen, movere, agitarc. 
Rippet, fame with Rakket, tumult, diflurhance. 
Ripples, a wenknefs in the back and reint. 
Rifett, Rizer'd, dried or parched in the heat of the fun. 

Fr. reffure, burnt up with drouth ; refforer, to dry 

by [he heat of the fun. 
Rifp. See Refp, ,. kwd cf carfe graj,. 
Roche, roci- Fr. rocher, 
Rockat, afurplice or loofe upper garment. Swed. rack~ 

lin, veftis liiiea facerdotum, quse propriis fupcrin- 

duitor. Fr. rochet. Teut. roch, veftis exterior. 
Rocklay, a coarfe cloak or mantle ; q. d. rough-cleid. 
■ It may alfo Cgnify a mourning cloak or garment,^ 

Teut. rouw'tleed, vdlimentum funebre, from reuwe, 

Rode, H ood, Rude, the crofs, or, according to Junius^ 

the image of Chri/i on the crofs. Sas. rode, crux. 
. The word tree is frequently added, as rode-tree, 

Rode or Rood-day, holy-crofs day i by fome expl. 

the beginning of the fummer quarter ; but days which 

bear this name arc to be found in different times of 

the year. 
Roik. See Rank, a thick mifi or fog. 
Roife, expl./raM. 


K.O. — — — Ko. 

Rok^ dt/laff. Swed. roif colas. 

Rokky to move alternately from one fide to the other* Ifl* 
hroky cum impetu qnodam movere. The Engl, rock 
is ufed in a reflriAed fenfe. 
Roldingy perhaps for rollings or rowting. 
Role, /o row (a boat.) Rollarisi, rowers, remiges. 
Romanis, Romans, hi/lory, relation of events, real ot 
imaginary ; now reftnfted to works of invention. 
Fr. roman, 
Rome-rakaris, thofe who raiked or trudged in pilgrim" 

age to Rome, and brought home pretended relicis. 
Rone, Jkin ; faid to mean fheep-Jkin drefjed fo as to ap^ 
pear like goat-Jkin. [Gael, ron, feal, fca-calf. Swed. 

rone^ boar.] The fame word is alfo expl. path. 
Rondel, a fong or poem which ends as it begins, Teut. 
. rondeel, carmen rhythmicum orbiculatum. 
Ronk, rank, thick^ as a plentiful field of corn. 
Ronnys, Ronys, rofeJ)uJhes, brambles, briars. Fr. ronce^ 

rubus. The word alfo occurs in the fing. numb. 

Ronne, rofe-bufh. 
Roploch. See Raplock, coarfe cloth, or perhaps wooL 
Rofeir, rofe-hvjh^ arbour of r of es, Fr. rofier. 
Rofet, rojin. Fr. refine, from Lat. refina. 
Rouk, to lie clofe^ to crouch. 
Roule, to roll, (as balls upon a plain furface.) Fr. 

Roume, Rowme, a farm. Goth, roms, fpatiofus. 
Roun, a common termination in nicknames, as in wald- 

roun, cuft-roun, &c. — perhaps from Teut. rune. 

Ifl. alrune, magician. Sax. rune- crcef tig ^ myfteriorum 

callidus ; from Goth, runa, myfterium \ or Teut. 

ruyn, cantherius, fpado ; analogous to the manner 

in which are frequently ufed colt^ fiHy^ &c. 
Roun, Round, to whifper. Teut. ruynen. Sax. runian. 

Swed. runa, fufurrare, in aurem mufiitare. Hence 

it alfo fignifies to prepare. 
Round, Reund, afijred or remnant. 
Rouijdal. See Rondel, a fong ox poem of a particular 



ko ftd. ^^ 

Roundel, a round tahlf. [Teut. randeU, rcutum irjw 

Houners, Rounders, ■wbifperi. See Roun- 

Rounge, to gnaw. Fr. ranger, rudere. 

Roiings, Rungs, Jioiit cudgels, rude pieces of wood. 

Teut. rancke, ramus l(,uge fe estendens. 
Roup, Rowp, Roop, iojhoiit, to cry aloud. Teut. reepen, 

tollcre vocem, clamitare, 
Roup, Rowp, aullian, a manner of fale. TeUC. roep, 

Roup, Roop, hoarfenefs, as if by clamouring. 
Rouplocli, rough or coerfe cloth. See Raplock, iht 

Rouft, rufl. Roufty, rvly. Teut. roejl & roejligh. 

Rouft, much the fame with Roup h. Rout, to cry with 
a rough vaice. 

Rout, Rowk, Rouft & Roup, all nearly the fame. The 
Sax, briitan iignifies lojnorl o^ fmre injleeplng. The 
Scott. Routj to roar oi bsllain in the meiniicr af cattle -, 

Rout, RowC, crowd, multitude, army, Teut, re/, tur- 

Routh, rowing fa boat.) Routhis, Jlroies or pulh of 

the oar ; from Row, as giouth from grow. 
Row, to roll, to -ibrap, to wind (up.) 
Rowan, Rowing, q. Rolling, wool at it comes from the 

curds. To call a rowan, to henr an illegitimate child. 
Rowan, a roan horfe ; alfo expl. a jade. Fr. rsuen. 
Rowklay. See Rocklay, long coarfe cloak, 
Rowth, rough, roughnefs, pUnty. £Teut. ruyth, hifpidus 

herbis,] In the laft fenfe, it may be from Rife, 

Rowy, Rowie, Roy, Kii^g. Fr. roy. Gael. ri. 
Royd, Roid, rude, coarfe. Lac. 
Royet, wciggijb, wild, extravagant ; ^. de-royed, from 

Fr. defrcyr, or des-arroyer, perturbare. See Deray. 
Rub, to rob or plunder. Rubbar, rshbcr. 
Rubeatour, Rubiature, robber ; from which the word 
■ feems to be formed in macaroni ftile. Ital, ruha- 



Ruck^ riciyjlaci^ (as of hay or corn.) Sax. ricg, acer- 

Rude. See Rode, the holy crofs. 
Rude, Rode, countenance i the hl^fh of youth and modejly^ 

the glovo of complexion. Sax. r^Jz/, vultus. Scaud. 

rode, rabedo. 
Rug, to tear or pull withforce^ to plunder. Teat, rucken,^ 

to fnatch or pull away. 
Ruifs. See Rufe, to commend highly. 
Rullions. See Reweljrnys, thin fboes of untanned^ or 

half-tanned leather. 
Rumbyl, Rummy 1^ to make a roaring noife^ to bellow 

RummySy fame with Rumbyl, to bellow. 
Rummy fs. Rummage, to fearch by turning over^ or 

tofftng things about. [Teut. ruyfmuyfen^ llrepcre, per- 

Rumpill, the rump^ or rump bone. 
Rumpillis, diforderly folds (of a garment.) Teut. 

gherimpel^ grimple^ fcruta, damaged cloathes. 
Ranches, a common weed among corn^ raphanus rapha- 

niflrum. Lin, 
Rung. See Roung, rude flick or cudgel. 
Runkill, Runkillis, wrinkles^ to wrinkle ^ to damage by 

df ordering. Teut. fronckele, ruga j fronckelen^ ru- 

Run-rig, hurgh or farm lands ^ where the' property is 

held in alternate ridges ; fometimes called Rig and 

, Runt, trunk of a tree, the flem of fuch a plant as cab-- 

hage ; from Root. 
Runt, bullock, an aged draught ox, of the largeft Scot- 

tifli or Welfli breed. Teut. rund, bos. 
Rufe, to extolly praif^^ or commend highly. Ifl. hroofun, 

commendatio. Dan. roefglede, jadantia. Toom rufe, 

empty hoajl. 
Ruth^r, noife^ outcry ; from Roar. 
Rutilland, croaking in the manner of a raven. Teut. 

ro/^/<p//, grunnire, murmurare^ ro/^/^ murmur rau- 


Vol. IV. B b Ruttery , 

Ru. Ry- 

Ruttery, lechery ; of the fame origia with Rut. 

Ruve, Roove, to rivet ; from Engl, groove, 

Ryal, Rial, royal. Ryalte, royalty, 

Rybbaldy, vulgarity. Sec Rebaldy. 

Rybie, r«^^, precious Ji one, 

Ryder, a gold coin worth about fifteen Jhillings , 

Ryd4iand, Red-hand, (fpoken of a robber or murder- 
er), taken in the faB ; q. with bloody hand, 

Ryff, See ¥a{^^ plentiful, abundant. Other words that 
arc fometimes fpelt with Ry are to be -found under 

RyfFart, ReifFart, radijij. Fr. raifart^ rifart, raphanus. 



^i Sa. 


&A, toJhoWf ^xpofe, exhibit^ to fay • 

Sac, Sak, one of a Bar oris privileg'es.. See Sok. 

Sacre, Saker, Sacrify, to confecrate. Fr. facrer, Lat. 

Svidf ferious, grave, fieady, jufl ; abbreviation of Teut. 
fatigh^ temperahsy modeflus, placidus. 

Saft, tranquil, quiet ^ at refi. Teut. faft^ faavis, mol- 

Saiklefsy SdkleSf guiltlefs, innocent, free. S^x.facleas, 
fine culpa ; fac, & Teut. faecke, caufa, lis, contro- 
verfia. \{[,fa/ka, tedere ; from which it \¥ould ap- 
pear that the original meaning of the woid was 
h'armlefs. Perhaps the latter part of the term Haim- 
fuken may be connefted with this Ifl. word rather 
than with Teut. soeken, to seek, 

Saikyrs (andHalf-faikyrs) ^i^^r/W ©/"ra/i^o/i; perhaps 
figuratively from O. Yx.facre, a fpecies of hawk. 

Sail, to affail or afjault, Fr. affailler, 

Saim, Same, tallow, fat, particularly that of a hog. 
^'x^n.feime, febum. Teut. seem, mel. 

Saip^/^^. Sax. & Dan, fiep. 

Sair, very, much. Teut.y^^r, valde, multum. 

S^AX, fore y for ely. Szx.far. Sv/ed. faer, dolor, 

Szit, feat, hench» Lords of the fait, lords of the bench ^ 
or as formerly written, bink. 

SMiet, faichel or little bag ; dimin. of Sack. 

Saklefs. See Saiklefs, innocent. 

Sale, Sail, ball^ chamber, parlour, Teut, fale, aula. 

Salt, exorbitant, grievous^ troublefome, \Xe\xX. fatan, fa* 

Salt, affault, affailed. Fr. affailler, 

^2d\A,Jaluted, welcomed, \j:aX,falutare, 

S^lxit, health, fafety,profperity. YT,falut. L^it, falus. 

Sa-mekil,yo much. See MekUl, ^^^r. 





Samin^ SamjOi ibi fame, togither. Gotb« faiHuai^ fi^ 

Sana Johne to borowe» may Su John be your profit^ 

tor. Tcut. borgbe, fidejunbr. 
''Sand Wind, pur- blind, Jbort':fighied. 
Sane, to fay. T!e{it. feggben^ dicere, narrare. 
ISanCy Scyn, to blefs^ to confeerai: T^x^Jighiitenp be- 

nedicere. God fimc yet>, GodifegheHy Dras benedi- 

cat ; alfo to heitl, to prtjnrvi. \kt.fimar€. 
Sang, fong^ did^ng. ,Te\xt. Sax. 8cc»/angf cwttiis. • 

SanguaoCy Sangajoiv^^^y ^^ having Hf^ isobur of blood* 

Sonorous, expl.^^rt^Mrrjii; iptrhxf% favotous*^ 
Sapp8,y9^/y bread foaked infome nouri/bing liquid. 
Sare, Sar, to four ^ tomoimtf ox adstamee vf/^pords. Strjs, 
foarf, mounts* SsLvi^foared, Sariaody mounting* SaT'- 

raly, loftily. 
Sark. Sec S^rk, Jiirt,JS^Ji. ■ ■ , 

S^fn^t Sei&Tif investiture. Vr.fa^^ztriptre* 
Sate, an omiffifm^ trifpafsy mtfcarriage^^Jlip. Yt.faui^ a 

leap or jump.. 
Sauch, Saugh, a willow ox falkv) tree. O. Yx.faulx^ & 

fabuc. 'LaX.falix. 
Saucht, Saogbty peace ^ quiet. Sax. feht^ amicitia, pax, 

paflum, faedus» Teut.faecbt^ zaht^ tranquillas* pa- 

cificus'; faechten, mitigare, mollire. The Scottilb 

V70id is alfo ufed as an adjeAive, and a v6rb ; fome- 

timcs written Saghtil. 
Sauchtningi Saughning, agreement, pacification / from 

Sauf, Saulf, SM^fafe^ tofave ; except. 
S2L\xiGyfalve, ointment ; from htit. falvus. 
Saule-prow, benefit of foul. See Prow. 
Saur, favour, to Javour badly. Ifl. faur, fordes, fter- 

Saut-fat, fait cup^ ox falt-holder ; from Vat. 
Saw, a faying, proverb. Teut. faegbe» Sax. & Swed« 

fogd^ narratio, diftio. Teut. fegben^ dicere. Lat. 




fecOyfequo\ unde refequori refpondeo. Szyzr, ^gai^' 
er^ author. 
Saw, tofiv). HtxsX. faeyen^ ferete. 
Sajndy Send^ tn^age, Sajndis-man, mej/inger. See 

Scale. See Skail, to fcatter^ to fpilly as by dropping 

without intention. 
Scalkity chalked^ whitened as with chalk. 
ScBjrpens, thinjoledyhoes^pu)nps. Vr. ef car pines. 
Scar, Skard, that part of ajleep hill from which the foil 

orfurface has been wafhed away by torrents. 
Scart^ Skarth, htrmophrodite ; according to Skinner, 

frona the appearance of the female part, c\^.fcratch. 
Scatth, afpecies of corvorant^ Pelecanus, Carbo Lin, 
Scaupy a fmall bare knoll. 
Scajthe. See Skaith, lojsy damagey injury. . 
Scellerar, keeper of the cellar. 
Schz\fy fbeaf quiver (of arrow?.) V 
Schaikers, Schakeris, thin leaves of gold or fiver haf^g-^ 

ing loofe, 
Schairn, Scharnc, dung of cattle. Sax. fcearn. Dan. 

Jharn, ¥t\s. fchern^ flercus, fimetuna. 
Schald,^fl//o^* Schaldis, fhallow parts. 
Schalky knight ; ox\giT\2Mj fervant. Teut. fchalk^ fer- 

vus a fuprema ad infimam conditionem. 
Schamon, (JPeblis at the play^y probably fjjow man^ 

fhaw mon, one who amufed the country people with 

mufic and dancing, or fuch like. Mr Pinkerton ex- 
plains this word falmon. 
Sch^ngan, Shangie, a cloven fick tied to the tail of a 

Schanks, (in fonnie parts of the country,) flockings, 

Schankers, the women who knit them. 
Schape, Schap, to promifcy or have a promifng appear^ 

ancey to fet abouf\ to prepare ^ to form a plan. Teut. 

fchaffeUy agere, negotiari. 
Schaie, to cut or Jlice down^ as a loaf. See Scheir. 
Schathmont, Schaftment, Shafmet, a meafuie of^Ar 

inches in length ; or, as commonly exprcffed, the fiji 


Sc. i f Sci 

'with the ihumb turned vp. Sar. fcaeft-muhd^ ktnU 
pes ; fcaeft^ cufpis, & mund^ extrcmitas palmae. 

Schaups, Swaupsy cxpl. empty bujhs ; rathet young pods j 
&s of peafe. 

Schawy a thick wood or grove ^ (upon a dedivitj.) 
Swed.^o^. Hih.JbeaghaSf^lvz,. 

Schawaldowris, (according to the editor of Win- 
ton's Chron.) *• wanderers in the woods ^ fubfift- 
ing bj hunting ;" from fchaw^ filva ; & Sax. heaU 
dany tenure ; ^.people who heWox kept by the woods* 
Tent, fchavuyt^ nebulo, furcifer.^ Mod. bcot.Jhavy- 
ter. 1 he primary fcnfe of the Teut. word is an owL 
Knyghton has Jhavaldres^ which feems ths fanie 
word. Schawald, to wander about idly. 

Schawmes, Schawms, mujical horns^ crooked trumpets''f 
(litui.) 'X^xM.fchalmey^ tibia gingrina. Fr. cbaht-^ 
tneay from Lat. calamus. 

Schaveh'ngis, expl. vagabonds. See Shawaldouris. 

Schavj, Skavie, wode^ i. e. mad ; from the £atne 

Shed, to divide or feparate ; alfo divided t-r feparated, 
Schede of the croun, divifion of the hair on the crdwti 
of the head. Taui./chiedcri, feparaie, diftinguere. 

5chcir, Schere, to cut, to Jlice into two or more parts, 
'1 cut. JchiertTiy dividere, partiri ; whence Shears, 

Schcir, Schere, to rut ox pierce, Teut. fcheuren^ dif- 
vun:?pere, lactrare ; fthturey rnptura, hiatus. 

Scheld, SchciId,^iV/«i. Ti^wt. /child , clvpeus ; fchilde^ 
re?iy depingeie. 

Schclrrum, Scheltron, Schelteroun, afqvadron^ column^ 
or part of an army ; acompaB body of Johllcrs ,* from 
It. echelle, turma ; quafi, tchelitrcne ; as from Lat. 
Barb, fquadro^ Jquadrone, 'i he origin of the Fr. 
echtUe is the Lat. Barb.yr^/r/, or (as it is fometimes 
written) yr^rrt ; from the TquX, fchaar, fcheel, or 
fcheydely a divifion, Mr Ritlbn explains Scheltron 
'* a body of foot in a conipad: circle ; fo called, it 
" would fccm, from the appearance of their 
'' fliield.^;' 


5cbdty, aJmaU horfe or mare, 

$cheney lujlrey brigbtnefs. Teut. /cbtin, fplendor, nitor, 
candor, jubar. 

Schene, brigbt^Jbining^ clear y beautiful. T eut. /chiinigb^ 
fplendensy nitens. 

Schene, tojbine, Teut. /cbiinen, fplendere, fulgere, di- 
lucere, rutilare, corufcare. 

Schenti Schendit, Schenkit, confoidnded. Tcut./cbenderjjf 
vitiare, polluere, violare. 

^cheraldy expl. a green turf\ q. new JborUy or cut out. 
See Scheir, tojlice. 

Inhere, Sere, (Sare,) *ueryy great, *uery many. Teut, 
feery valde, maxime. 

Schere, Scherand, tbe cleaving, loin, or groin, Schere 
bone, OS pubis. 

Scherene) expl. Syren, mermaid. 

Schcwe, CScheve), Jboved^ tbrujl forward. '* Belg. 
fciiveny protrudere, propellere." 

Schcwre, expl. to diveft, {ojljuffle off. See Schire. 

Scbidis, Schydis, chips, fplinters of wood, f re-brands. 
TtVLt. fcheyden, feparare, disjungere, dciimere. [Lat. 

Schidit, cloven^ cut in pieces. See Schidis. 

Scbilderne, a bird (fit for the table) ; fpecies un- 

Schill,^r/7/. _Tcut. fcbrey, clamor ; alfo chill, 

Scbir, Schyr, Schjir,^r, lord. Ssx.fcir, clarus, illuf^ 
tris : Or, as others will have it, from fgora, vidlor, 
triumphans ; compounded, according to Verftegan, 
oi fge, vidoria ; &. beorra, dominus. Auguftine in- 
forms us, that in his time the Gothic beggars ia 
Rome ufed the words " armai, Sihor," which he . 
explains miferere, domine ; and in Glaus Wo r mi us we 
find Ifl. ^iar in the fame fenfe. Whatever may be 
the origin of the Fr. Jteur, we can fcarcely fuppofe. 
that thcfe Teutonic words have any relation to the 
Lat. feniqr. If none of thefe fliould prove fatis- 
fadory, the term may ftill be accounted for, by 
the Sax. fe, artigulus prsepofitivus, q. fe beorra,^ 

domiuus ; 

dominus ; as in ^ bitlend, falvator $ /e faden^ 
pacer ; fe hrydguma^ fponfus. The title of Scbirji 
as particularly mentioned by Sir David Lindfajr, was 
frequently given to churchmen, even of inferior 
rank. It is not improbable that the Vr.Jteur may be 
from the fame origin with the SvLX.Jlgora. 

Schire, to pour off" the thinner or lighter part of any lu 
quid mixture ; alfo expl. r/?a/f, thin^ fpoken of the 
part which has been poured off. Gaw. Douglas has 
Birnand fchire for burning brightly. Sslx. /cir, Jcyr, 
purusy limpiduSy lucidus. Swtd. Jk^era, purgare. 

Schoy Sche,^tf. Sax.y^o. heo. Swed.yff. Goth*yo, 
hjBc, ilia. 

Schog, tojhdke (z, heavy body.) 

Schoir, to threaten^ to make a threatening noife, to ufe 
threatening gejluresy to command JUence. Swed. Jkorroy 
reprchendere. Germ, fchnarren^ fonum ftridulum 
edere; fchnarcien, minas fpirare. [Ital. fcorare, 

Schone, Jboes. Teut. fchoen ; hand-schoeiiy gloves, - 

Schort, to recreate or amufe^ to Jhorten^ or make tim^. 
appear /hart. 

Schott, Schote, the Jhutter of a window, 

8chottle, [mall drawer y holt of a door, 

Schought ; expl.yw;z/&, covered up. See Seu. 

Schouris, forrows^ njffliBionSy terrors, Swed. forg, 
Goth, faurg, serumna, dolor. Teut. forghe^ cura, 
folicitudo ; fchouwy terriculum, terriculamentum ; 
& pavidus, confternatus. 

Schouting, Crying, in^lying^ child hearing, 

Schow, to drive forward^ or to drive away by frighten^ 
ing, Ttnt.fchuwen^ defugere, fugitare. 

Schowd ; expl. to waddle in going, 
' Schowing ; expl^Jhoving, thrujling up, or forward. 

Schrew, to curfe, Schrew me, may evil befall me. Teut. 
hefchnyen^ fafcinare, to be- witch. 

Schrewis, villains, 

SchrifF, Schryve, to mah confejjion. y>?CL, fcrifany delic- 
torum confeffiones exigere. 


Sc. — _« Sc. 

Schrjft, auricular cmfeffion. Sax. fcrift ; from Lat. 

fcribere ; q. d. paena prsefcripta ; vel quoniam fc. 

eprum qui confeffi funt nomina olim in catalogo 

fci:ibebantilr feu adqotabantur. 
Schudder^ Schoudery (Gaw. Douglas), to refijl^ to op'- 

pofe or wfthfiand; q. d. to fet one^s Jhoulder againjl. 
Schule, Sh,uffel,>ov^/. T^Mt. fcheuffiL . 
SchuQe^ JSdhwne, Soyne, (fuppofedy bj Mr Macpher- 

fon, to ,mean,) he o^reffe^, ivith care or grief ; from 

¥v.foiH. , 
SA\xip J Jbaped^ formed^ fajbioned* See Schape, to form 

apl^iii In this manner .the pret. tenfe is frequently 

formed ; as Schuke, didjhake ; Schnre^ foeared, 
Scburlingy Shorling, the Jkin of a fbeep that has heeh 
" lately fborn or clipped. 
JSch^te^ t$p^[i^• Tt\it» fchutten^ propellere. 
SchkndyT,Jlander» O. ,Fr. efclandir, 
Sclave, Sid^vt^flave. Fr. ef clave. 
Sclent, Sldent) tojlant or turn to ajtde. 
JScoggy , . 8cokky , fhady^ full ofjbades. See Skug, Jha^ 

Scolly health, profperity^ fuccefsy proteBion\ literally 

/hield. Svred. Jkoldjjfkiplj clypeus, fcutum, tegmen ; 
Jkyiay iegtVQ, Dsm. Jkioldy defence, protedion ; de- 
iignS| intentions. On the memorable day of Cow- 
rie's .Confpiracy, the King, when he was leaving 
the company to go up flairs, defired them ** to drink 
hi5 jfrd.//" ,in his abfence. 

Scone, Skone, a thin bannock of 'ivheat four, Swed. 
Jkonoy pareere. 

ScorCi a line piade by fcratching or engraving. Scorit, 
marked by a line* 

Scorp, Skarp, Skropp, Skripp, Skrypp, to deride ^ jibe, 
or fneer. Scorppit, Skroppit, Skrippit, derided^ 
fneered, ufed contemptuous gefures. "Dzxi. Jhrabe, are-^ 
proof or rebuke. Sv/ed.Jkraeppay ja&are fe, gloriari ; 
Jkraepp^ jaftatio, oftentatio ; Jkrafa, nugari^ fermo- 
cinari. Lat. crepare^ gloriari,. See Schoir, to ufe 
threatening geflures ; from Swed.y^^rr^, fonum ftri- 
VoL. IV. Cc dulum 

Se. ■ St. 

dulam edcfre ; nearly correfponding with the Scotts 

verb to boift. 
Scot, Skott, a certain county or burgb affej/ment or tax. 

S2LX,/cot. Svfcd. Jiatt, tributum, Goth. Jkattans^ 

pecuniam ; whence Shott,^/irr» . 
Scoutard, ^xpX.fculker. Swed. siutta, curfitare. HI. 

skiotr^ celer, feftinus. 
Scowp, Scowth, Scouff, great room otfpace^ ^^ fcope? 
Scowder, to dry or parch by placing in a vehement heat. 

Teut. ichoude^ caminus, fumarium ; schoudeh^ cale- 

Scowrie, having an appearance as if dried or parched i 

alfo luajted ; from Scowder. 
Scraby crab apple. 
Scrimp, Skrirop, to deal sparingly with.. To fkrimp 

one in his meat, to hunger him ; alfo adjedivelj fof 

narrow^ sparing^ contraBed, Jhort. Teut, krimpen^ 

diminuere, contrahere, decrefccre. 
Scripture> Skre^ioif, escritoir. Fr. escriptoire. 
Scrogg, oldjlunt'ed bujh^ as of thorn. ^(^ioggf^^fiiU of 

old Jiunted trees or bujhes. Sax. scrobb, frotex; 

Scrufe, Skrufe, scurf Sax. scurf fcabies. 
Skryke, Skrygh, shriek, to shriek, Dan. x>^//^^. Swed. 

ikrikay frequentative of skria, to cry. 
Scrynoch, Scroinocb^ noife, tumult. Swed. Jkran^ cla- 
mor ftridulus. 
Scrymy n, Jkirmi^h, filrmishihg, Teut. Jchirmen^ pugi- 

Scutle, hrijh leer^ a cup of foaming ale. 
SciifF, to touch Jlightly by a quick motion ; nearly the- 

fame with scuddy to move swiftly, 
Scug, Shug, shelter, to shelter either from sun or wind ; 

literally shadow, and to shade, Sv/td, Jkugga. Dan. 

JkyggCy imibra. Ifl. Jl^ygga^ obumbrare ; skyggd, 

tegmen, defcnfio. 
Scull, ffoallow bajket, cradle ; from Swed. skaol, lanx, 

Scull-duddry^yc/r;^/Vrt/m. [Swed. skoraktighet,'\ 


S^, ■ < ■ Sc. 

^nmtny Skumm, to jkim or glide along the surface of 
the watfr, or through the air. Fr. escufner. 

Scanner, Skunner, iSconner, to shudder from disguji^ to 
hath on atcount ^ som^ f^^^y appearance \ merely a 
variety of shudder. 

Scurly Skurle, scah^ scale ; dim. of Skurf, q. scurf el, 

Se, seat ^ place of refidence ; from sedes. 

Seculair, temporal^ of the laity. Ff . & Lat. 

Scge, a man. Segeis, men. S^x. secg, milesi vir ftre- 
liuus« illyftris ; ** by a poetical fynccdocbe ufed Am- 
ply for man^^ in which fqnfe it occurs repeatedly in 
Doug]. Virgil , and in Pierce Ploughman's Vifions, 
con tern ptuoufly. See Segg. 

Sege, qfeaty a throne. Segeis, seats. Yr.Jtege ; alfo to 
set or place ; to hefiege. 

Scg^, tp say^ speahy recite. I^an._^^, dicere. 

Segg, Bull iegg, a hull that has, been gelt at full age^ a 
foul thick 'necked ox, having the appearance of a 

Seggis, sedges. 5^x. sec^^ carex, gladiolus. 

Seile, Sele, happiness , prosperity. Sa5c. saely & selth^ 
bonum, felicitas. $ele and wele, health and happi- 

Seily, Sely, happy , harmless^ fmple^ in/iocent^ poor ("in 
fpirit.) Teut. salighy bejatus, feliz, pauper ; quod 
beati fint pauperes fpiipitu, fcriptur^ tcftimonip. 
Sax. & Goth, sely bonus. See Unfel, unhappy. 

i^eim, resemblance, likeness, appearance. 

Seindel, Sendil, Shn&e, seldom ; perverfion of Tent^b & 
Sax. selden, jzTO, rarenter. 

Seir, Sere, very. Teut. seet;, valde ; alfo expl. sure. 

Seirfe, Seifter, to search. Fr. chircher, quaerere. 

Seis, to settle, fx, give full pqffefjion. 

Seiftar, thejifirum, a mufical inftrument. 

Seitis, (Dougl. Virgil^, feems to fignify /j/jf;//, herbs, 
oxjlovcer'plots. ^^x. fetene, plant a j fetine, propagi- 

Selabill, q. Seilful, happy. See Seil. 

^elch, Selcht, afeal, or fea calf S^x.ffle, phoca> vitUf 
lus marinuS. 


8e. I •' I S9. 

Selcouthy Selkouthy ftrange^ unconiinon^ unufUaU Sa^, 
felcuth^ raru9^ infolitus ; q. d.feld (or Jeldom) cutb^ 

raro notus. 
Seldjn, Selwjn, Seilan^ SejTidel, fpldom. Sax. felicn^ 

raro. See Seindel* 
Self, fome times ufed for the fame* The felf, or The 

felvin, for it -f elf, Gtldti. filhirt^ ipfatn y Jtlba^ ipfe. 
Sell,y^^/ behold! [Gael.y^i^/, videre.] 
Sclwjn, Seluyn, Selfin,yj'^ the fame. 
Sellat, a foldier* s'helmet or head^piece. Fr, saldde. 
iytlyn^tSfJimflicitj^, happiness. See Seity. 
Secnblanty semblance ^ appedrance. Fr. semhlant. S^rsAA^^ 

hofls engaged, 
Sembyl, Shambel, to difert, to male a wry mouth, Fr, 

semhier, LiZt,Jimulo, 
Sempyl, igaohle, belonging to the vulgar ; in contmdiff 

tindion to Gentle, honourable. 
Sen, fnce^ seeing. Sen fyne.fnfe that time. 
Sen, Senye,^//^, nqftiness, Lat. sanies, 
Sence, Senfe, Ccnce, contr,- from incence. 
Send, tncffiige, Ifl. sende, nuncius, mandatnm. 
Sene,^^i&/ ; alfo to see or be seen, 
Scnnoun, Sennint, corr. oijinew, Sennlnty, full of ft" 

Senthisy hence ; literally perhaps always after that ; 

from Sax. fn, femper, perpetuo \ & this, hoc, banc. 
Senye, Senyhe, Seingny, synod ; and fomctimes, it 

would feero, senate, Teut, seyne, an aflembly of 

Senye, Senyhe,^^«, enfignyjlandard, diflingufjhing mark 

in war, pass word, Fr. enseigne, 
Senye, Senyhe, seedy progeny. Lat. semen, 
Senye, Senyhe. See Sen, corrupted matter, 
Senyeory, Senyhowry, dominion^ lord/hip, power, seig^ 

niory, Fr. seigneuriey dominium, ditio, mancipium. 
Sepplynis, Syplynis, Suplynis, twigs,^ branches ; q. 

saplings ; or perhaps from souple, pliant. See Sou- 
Sere, Sare, a sore ; alfo adjtftiyely sore^ painful. 



Sere. See SeiTf very ^ excejive, greatfy* Gaw, Dooglaiy 

feems^ to ufe it for several or many, 
SeremonSy Serimoiinsy ceremonies^ by corruption. 
Serf, to serve, ; alfo for Diferf, to deserve. 
Sergeant, Seijant, inferior officer in a court of jujiice^ 

Fr. sergenty apparitor, viator. 
Serge, a lamp, torch, taper, wax candle. Fr. cierge, ce- 

reus or Cerea. 
Sermond, conversation, talk. Lat. sermo. 
gerpliath, Serplath (of woolyj eighty Jlones ; literally 

what is contained in a pack / from Fr. sarpilliere ; 

q. d. sartapelles. 
Scrviottis, Servytes, Serviters, towels, table napiins^ 

Fr.Jerviette, tnantitia, mantile. 
Servitour, Servitor ^ /ervant. ftfferviteur, fervus. 
S^{s, ^ax ; '2hhrev. of Ojfflffment. 
Set, to he-fet, to way^laj, Swed. & If}, fatta, infidias 

ftruere, infidere* 
Set, Sit, to become^ tofuii, Svfti.ftta, prodeffe, juvare ; 

q. d. io ajjljl the appearance, or increafe the utility. 

Sxtelig, conveniens. 
Set, Sett, conJlitutfon,forni of government. Swcd.f^tt, 

modus, ratio ; fatta, cpnvenire. This word is com- 
monly derived from Teut. facht^ mollis, mitis, i, e. 

foft*, correfponding nearly with Swed, fackta, tran- 

qnillus, pa'cificus, which feems to be quite a diffe- 

re|it race of words. 
Set, fnate for catching animals. Svfed.fatfi. 
Setterel, expt. thick inade, dwarf Jb» 
SevLch, furroio, guJph, ditch. "LdX. /ulcus ; q.fulch. To 

feuch the fe, t9 plough the main. 
Sevyn. fternes, the conftellation called the Pleiades. 
Sewane, (Bifliop Douglas), fome kind of confe£iion or 

fweet-medt ; perhaps from Fr. echaude, cruftulum 

Sewar, one <vho places the dijhes upon a great mnn^s ta^ 

ble ; from Fr. afjiour, or affeoir, to fet or place ; if- 

cuyers trenchants^ as the French call them. 
Sey, Say, affay, exannnation, Fr. eJPay\ alio io ajjay, 
\ ^ttmpt, or try. 


3e« ■■ J I Sie 

Seyle. See Seil, bapplnefs* 

Seyne. to fee ; as Sayne for fay, Flcync iot JUe^ BeOQ 
for be. . 

Seyne, Sayne, to blifs or confecrate ; to make theflgn of. 
the crofs, H^mU ftynen, feghencn^ beac precari, bene- 

Bpjiiiity iont^fignal blafl or found. Sec Senye. 

Sh ; various words beginning with thefe letters are tQ 
be found under Sch, 

Shan, expl. poor^ ftUy^ pitiful. 

Shargar, expl. a weakly child. 

Shaws, the foliage ofturnips^ or fuch like. 

She2ma;:h, a kind ofpackjaddle ; fame with Sunks. 

Shel, Schel, Vol. II. p. 163, flrumpet, Teut, fcbeel^ 
flraba j fchcuche^ merctrix. 

Shiel, Shieling, a hut or hovel ; from ?i^7i. fcildan^Xjt-^ 
gere, protegere. Swed. fkiuly t^gmen ; skoga-skiul, 
latibulum in iilva. 

Shilpit, of a felly white colour, pale, bleached by fcl' 
nefu [Swed. shaelly iniipidus, aquofus.] 

Shirt, wild tnuflard. BrafCca napus. 

%Shot- about, Jlriped of various colours. 

Shught, Sch ugh t, expl. covered^funk ; q.feucLed. 

Sib, Sibb, nearly related in confanguinity, a-kin. Sax. 
fiby fybb^ pax, adoptio,' confanguineus ; fibbo, cog- 
nati ; fbbe-mcethe, cognationis flatus. To this fami- 
ly belongs, perhaps, a remarkable word, viz. the 
Gothic Jiponeisy which Ulphilas ufes conftantlj for 
difcipultis ; moft of the difciples of Jefns Chrift be- 
ing his near relations. From the fame root may 
fpring ^the Engl. ^0^;/?^, goffip, comparer, comma- 
ter. The Anglo-Saxons, however, did not adopt 
this idea in their tranfktion of the Gofpels, but ul- 
ed the term leoming cnV.t, Junius refers the Goth. 
fponeisy difcipulus, to the Teut. ftiperiy ftillatim ve- 
liiti pcrmanando proluere, humedlare, mollire, ma- 
cerarc. The Iflandic word for difciple is laere fwein ; 
the Swedifli, laer-jiingar. 

Sic, Sik^yivrr. Sic- wile, on fuch wife. Sic like, fuch 


Si Sk. 

Side, hanging iow, reaching low. Sax. Jid, fidcy latdsi 

amplua, fpadofus ; fide & wide, late 8? fpatiofe. 
Sidlings, declivity ; dimin. of Side (of a hill.) 
SiegCy a feat or place of refidence. ¥r»fiege. 
Signifetj the zodiack^ or bearer ofthefigns. 
Sigonale, afmaU parcel or quantity. 
Bike, Syke, a little rill or rivulet. Sax. fich, fiilcus a* 

SikJker, Jure, fecure. Sikkerly, fecurely. Tcut, feker. 

Sikkin, Sik kmAjfuch hind of. 

Sility at a diflance. Silit reft, companions at a dijlance. 
' Teut. fchillehy diftare. 

Sillisy logs, plank r, pieces of wood. Teut. fuyle. Sax. 
Jyl, pila^ columna, poftis, falcimentilmi hs£s ; hencfe 

ground-fiU or ihrejbold i Scottic€,yS/?. 
SiUyr, Siller, expl. canopy ; raaj be from Tent, fchuy^ 

ten. Swed.ykylai oceoltare, latitare. Scott, tojyie ; 

t^. V. 
Sinacle^ expl. a grain, a fmall quantity. 
Singt tofinge. ^^2^^. fangan. Tent, fenghen^ uflulare. 
Single^ Sindle, the fmall parcel of corn picked up by a 
^ gleaner in harvefi ; probably from Swed. fyn, necef- 

fitas ; & del, pars ; q. poor man^s share. 
Singular, y^^/^, without regard for others. 
Sipe, Sype, to leak, to pafs through in fmall quantity, 

Texxt.fiipen, flillare, manare, fluere. 
Sithes, SyUies, corrup. oi chives. 
Site, Syte, expl. forrow, grief, ojfiiBion ; rather per- 
haps horror ; a Fxis, faeghe, honor, metus. 
Skaff, merriment, diverfton ; originally ^eihzpsfeqfii/fg. 

See SkafFerie. 
Skafferie, Skafrie, ////<flfF^, rapine, acquifition by fraud ; 

alfo the contents of a larJer or pantry. Swed. skaffefi^ 

cella' penuaria. Dan. skaffer, curare, procurare. 

Swed. skafl, wild fruit. 
Skail, Skale, tofcatter, tofpill\ alfo to dif^erfe, tofepau 

rate. [Swed. skcela, skilia, skala^ feftinanter currere ; 

feparare, in tenues lamines dif&lire.] 


• ■ •• — 

Skaiplarie^ Skaplarie, fcapularj^ a Tort of cloak worn 

by the Monks. Fr. scapulaire\ fcapulare. 
Skaithy Skathe, injury^ damage^ burtf loss, -Sax^ 

sceathe. Teut schaedcp schade* Swed. Aaifri, dsm- 

nuin* noxa. 
Skaitherie, different linds of toss or damage • 
Skaithlefs, yr^^ of damage ^ injury^ or loss, 
Skaithljy Skathelie, misibievous person. 
Skaiveric. See Sk^erie, /i^^^» rapine, 
Skair, S\(i2iVt^Jbare ,- from Sax. scyran^ partire. * 
Skalci Skail, a skimming difb^ or veJJH of that form and 
Ji%e. Originally, perhaps, afbeU might he nfed for 

ikimming milk. Teut. schale. Sjax. sceale* S\<red. 

skala* The Gael, scala is expL a bolvl oi bafon^ 
Skanty Scanty scarce ^ scarcity* 
Skar, ^tx^ timorous^ eafily Jrigbten^d ; alfo fubftan- 

tively an objeB of terror, [5jved. sialic fonus.] 
Skar, Sker, to affright or fright ; originally perhaps 

the fame -with Schoir \ from Swed. shorra^ foQom 

ilridulum edere. 
Skar, Sker. Sec Scar, a Jteep hare declivity. Swed. 

skar. Sax. carr^ rupes, fcopolus. 
Skarlct, /)tfr/)/(P ,* or, it would feem, any bright colour. 
Skart, Scarth, corvorant^ pelicanus carlo. 
Skart. See Scart, hermaphrodite . \ 

Skaup, Scaup, dry bare eminence. 
Skeibalt, mean worthless fellow. Dan^ siahhals* 
Skeich, Skygh, skittifhy timorous^ apt to flart ajtde. 

[Swed. shalg^ obliquus, tranfyerfus*] 
Skeil, a washing tub. 

Skeldrake, Skaill drake, a bird of the dud species. 
Skelf, shelf. 

Skellat, rattle used by common criers. Swed. skcella, no- 
la, tintinnabulum ; siall, fonitus. 
Skellochs, the various kinds of wild mufiard. 
Skelly, ysquint look, Swed. shalgy obliquus, tranfverfus. 

Alfo ufed as a verb, to look a- wry. 
Skellyis, (Gaw. Douglas), expl. sharp ov ragged rocks. ^ 

, Skelly pen, or Skeilly pen, a pencil of softflate. 

. Skelp, 

Sk. Sk. 

kelpy a blow. Skelping, lashings beatings switching ; 

alfo walking quickly, 
Skelty expl. having the seams unript, 
Skepp, a kind ofhajkety fuch as is ufed for a beehive* 

Teut. fchepel^ a buihel or corn meafure. Swed. 

shappOy menfura aiidotum ; vas, quo Inter ferendum 

utuntur agricolae; [Gael, fcatlp^ a hollow cave ; 

Jceipy a bee-hive.] 
Sker. See Skar^ with various fignifications. 
SkeWy thejlanting extremity of a roof where it joins the 

gavel. ' 
Skiokl^y tojparkle^ to shine. Swed. siina. Goth, jiei'* 

natty fulgere, affulgere. 
Skippare^ Skipper, mqfler of a ship. Teut. f chipper * 

O. Swed. skipare. 
Skink, rich foup^ nourishing liquor. Dan. siencke. Sax. 

fcencan^ propinare ; fcency potus, poculum. 
Skirl, to shriek) to cry with a shrill voice \ a Swed. 

skriay vociferari. 
Skift, ajliti gr. for Kift, chejl^ tbx^ coffer^ 
Skit, Skyt, expl. to fly out haflily. ^2CSL. fcytan^ irruere. 
Skleff, ebbyjhallow'y like a ikimming dilb^ or Skeil. 
Sklender iov flendery feeble yf mall. 
Skly, toflidcy (as upon the ice.) See Slidy flippery. 
Skodge, a female drudge about the kitchen. 
Skonn. See Scone, a thin bannock, commonly of wheat 

6t rje. 
Skonfyfh, Stomfifli, toficlen by offenflve fmell. 
Skott. See Scot, ajfeffmenty taxy tribute. Goth, fliatt. 
Skowrie. See Scowrie, dry and dirty, ragged and 

Skrabs, Scrobs. See Seroggs, oldflunted btf/besi 
S)ss2,i]iiyf Creech ; to fcreech^ in the manner of a heton ; 

to shriek. Swed. skrika, freq. of skria, vociferari. 
Skreid, to tear or rend ; alfo a long piece torn off. Teut. 

fcbrooden, mutilare, deeurtare, praefecare \ fchroode, 

Skreigh, Skreik, or Greik of day, break of day ; per- 
haps corrup. from gray. Swed. gry, lucefcere ; q. 

gray day-light. 

Vox.. IV. D d Skrcive, 

3k SI. 

Skreive, to glide fwiftly along. Svrtd. Jkridd, leni mofa 

provehi. [Dan. Jkraever, to ftride.] ' 

Skrinkjt) Skrinkicy as ifjhrunk^ too little^ contra&ed. 
Skropp. See Scorp, to deride^ to ufe contemptuous gef^ 

Skrunt jy quafi shrinked. See Skrinkyt. 
Skrj. See Skragh, to cry with a harsh voice. 
Skrymmorie, (Vol. I. p. 399.) frightful^ filling with 

terror. Swed. Jkraema^ terrefacerc. Ifl. skrymjlf 

fpedrum. Tcut. Jchroom^ Jchrooming^ horror ; 

/chroomfelf terriculamentum. 
Skule (of fifb, particularly herrings^ a shoal. Sax. 

fceola^ multitudo. 
Skule, a difeafe in the mouth of a horfe. Teut. fchuyl, 

morbus quo palatum & gingiyae equorum prae nimio 

fanguine intumefcilnt. 
Skullj Skeil, a vej/il^ a tuh^ pot or bowl ; alfo a crate y 

aJhaUow basket, Swed. Jkcel^ lanx, patera. 
Skurriour, idle vagrant fellow ^ vagabond ; alfo the fame 

with Difcurriour, fcout or light horfeman ; froov 

Lat. difcurrere. [Swed.y^ttri, nebulo.] 
Skurryvage, vagabond ; fromJLat. vagor ^fcurra. 
Skyll, reafoHy motive, Dan. skiel^ the fame. 
Sla, tojlay, Slw, Sleuch, Jlew, Goth. Jlakan^ percu- 

Sla, ^\2iCyJloe'tree^ S2.X. JIa, prunum filveftre. 
Slade, expl. by Ruddiman a den or valley. Sax. Jlad^ 

via in montium convallibus. See Slak. 
Slaiger, to waddle in the tnud. Sec Slairg. 
Slaik, Sleekyt, Jleek, fmooth ; alfo cunnings foothing, 

^^vX, Jleycky planus & aequus ; whence Slate. 
Slaik, Slake, a flipper y kind offea-weed. See Slike. 
Slairg, Slerg, to be^dauh ; from Teut. fliick^ csenum^ 

lutum ; Jliikighy caenofus, lutofus. 
Slak, Slake, a low piece of ground -among hills ^ or he-> 

tween the top and bottom of a hill ; according to 

Ruddiman, *' a gap or narrow pafs between two hills, 

a valley or glan. Tent flaeck, laxus, remiflus," q. d. 

a remijfion in the afcent. 
Sang, did fling ; alfo expl. a kind of cannon. 
Slap, breach in a wall ; properly in a flake and rice 

fence , 

SI. a. 

fence ; from ^^\iX..Jlapj victus, fluidus, wtberedj <fr- 

Slate, expl. to wipe ; aUb (fpoken of hounds) to fet 

Sleethy Sleuth, expl. Jloven, [Sax. Jleuth^ pigritia.] 

Perhaps it may rather have fome allufion to the 

TeMt.Jlocky heliuOy vorax ; q. glut ten. 
Sleevelefs errand^ according to Skinner^ lifelefs rr- 

Sleperye, bleepferie, fieepy^ caujing Jteep. Tent. Jlaepe* 

righy fomniculofus. 
51euth.hund,*Sluch-hundy a btood^hound, Teut. Jlocky 

canis Torax & rapax ; in its primary fenfe, eula, 

gurgeSy vorago, helluo. Sleuth-hund has alfo been 

explained ydof£ or true hound, from its having been 

erroneoufly written by an Engliih author, futhound. 

Both the dog and its name are of Gelder-land ori- 
SleWj Slew fyre, (Bp. Douglas,) Jlruch fire. Sax. 

Jlean^ percutere, collidere. 
Slid, Sliddry, fiippery. Tent, fiicbt^ planus, aequus ; 

JliddereUy prolabi ; Jledde, traha, trahea. 
Slike, Slyhc^JIime^ mud. Tcnt.Jliick, caenum, luteum ; 

whence Slaiger, to waddle or trail in mud. 
Slitny Jligbty not to be depended upon. 
Slip, a certain quantity of yafrn^ as it comes from the 

Slockn, Slokin, to quencb or extinguijb. ^exit.Jlteckeni 

Slogg, Slagg,^o»^A, quagmire. Sloggy, marjbyyjlimy. 

[Sax.^o^, concavum; luby lacus.] Slaggis or Slaggs^ 

ilfo expl. gufts of wind ; perhaps erroneoufly for 

flaggs, q. V. 
Slonk, Slunk,^oflrg-i, quagmire ; alfo as a verb, tofinit 

in mud. Tcwt.fieynckey lacund, fovea. 
Slop. See Slap, a breach in a nvall or hedge ; alfo as a 

verb, to hack or hew down, 
SloTpy to /up greedily. Tent, fiorpen, {orheo. Slorping 

is alfo ufed for taudry. Slorping huffie, a girl who 


Slot, the bolt of a door. TtVLt.Jluyt^ peffulus ; JL^yien^ 

to ihut. 
Slotter, to pafs the time Jluggtjbly^ to loiter^ to slumber. 

Teut. sloderetif flacceiTere ; whence Slattern and 

Sloi^ng, Slung, a sling. 

Slouan, Sluan, abbrev. of Sleugh-hund, blood-hound. 
Slug*horne, properly (it maj be fuppofcd) the fame 

with Out^horn, Jignal or fummomng born, q. v. 

Kuddiman explains it *^ a watch word^ token, or 
Jign^^ by which the ScottiQi Chiefs aifembled and 

diilinguifhed their followers.; and fogietimes ufe4 

figuratively for a pecuUar property or quality that 

feems inherent in thofe of one family or race. Pro- 
bably from Sax. slege^ clades ; sletbe, pugna ; q. d. 

cornu bellicum. 
Sluifa, a dirty plajb, fuch as melted fnpw. H^vX.Jliick, 
Slype, a kind offnmll sled or sledge. 
Smaddit, Maddit, be^daubed, fmutted. See Smott. 
Smaik, Smait, Smatchet, Jilly pitiful fellow. Teut. 

fmeecker, adulator, aiTentator, blandiloquus. 
Smaill, expl. beautiful, clear complexioned. [Fr. email, 

florum cepia, varius color.J 
Smattis, probably the fame with Swatts, new ale. 

Teut. fmets, naufeam provocans nimfa dulcedine. 
Smay. See Smaik, contemptible person. 
Smeir, to anoint, to be^smear. Teut. smeeren. Sax. sme^ 

ran, ungere. 
Smergh, Smeargh, marrow, pith, sense, vigour of body 

or mind ; from Teut. merghe, (with the afpirate j), 

medulla ; whence Marie. 
Smerghlefs, Smearlefs, injipid, feeble, pithless, awkward, 

deficient in bodily or mental powers, 
Smeth, smooth. Sax. smeth, jequus, planus. 
Smewy, expl. savory. Ttnt. fmae eke lick, grati fapovis. 
vSmiddy, Smethy, a smithes workjljop ; from Teut. sjnid, 

smedy faber ferrareus. 
Smikker, to smile in a seducing manner. Teut. smeeck* 

elen, blandiri, blanditias dicere. 
Smitt, to infeB. Teut. smettan^ cpmmacularc ; smette, 

^acula J a fabris ferrariis tranflatum. 


Sm* «>M«i^aM Siu 

Smittky ififeBious* Teut. smettelick, contagiofas. 
Smore, Smoor, Stnure, to smotberf to over^load^ fo as 
to fmother or deitioj. Teut. smooren, fufibcare, ex* 
tioguere ; smore^ ftimus. 
Smott, smut^ Jlain^ mark. Teut. smette^ macula ; alfo 

as a verb, to mark with paint, tar, or fuch like. 
Soiouty^ir, clear ^ ^oft^ mild. Sax. smolt^ ferenus, pla« 

cidus, tranquillus. 
Smowts, SmoltSy Smeults, according to Skene, young 

'Smuglj, amorous y sly^ being at the fame time nvell 

drejffed. Teut. smeeckelick, blandus, blande. 
Smure. See Smore, to smother. Teut. 
Smj, paltry fellow ; from Dan. smyer^ to fawn^ or 
flatter. See Smaik, of which this feems to be an ab- 
jSnack, acute ^ accurate ^fl^arp in bu/inefs or converfaiion\ 
with fome affinity to fnatch^ the origin of which 
feems to be unknown. Snack is alfo ufed as a verb, 
to Jnap or hite fuddenly^ as a dog. [Teut. fnauw^ 
fcomma, didum amarum, fermo amarns, latratus, 
maledidum ; q./nauwick.'\ 
Snaw,yiiow. ty^n. /naw. Goth. Jhaiws. Lat. nix, 
Snawdon. See Sneddon, Stirling cajile. 
Sneck, Snekk,' lock^ or rather ybw^ rude fajlening of a 


Sned, to prune ^ to cut off^ (as the branches of a tree), 

to drefs by lopping offufelefs excrefcencies ; originally. 

It would feem, to bew ot poli/b; from Teut. fniide/tp 

fculpere, cxbre, fcindere. 

Snedd, Snethe, fbaft, bandle, as of a fcythe. 

Sneddon, Sneddon-caille, Snowdon, an old name oiStlr* 

ling Cflfile ; and fo called by the people in its ncigh- 

' bourhood at this day, as Edinburgh is called Old 

Reikie. William of Worcefter, an antient Englifh 

author, (about 1440), mentions Striveling^ alias 

Snowdon-wefl-caflle ; and in later times Sir David 

Lindfay gives it the fame appellation (See Vol. If. 

p. 95.) The name of Sneddon, or Sncddoun, was 

probably aflbmed from the appearance of the rock 

ppon which the caflle is fuuated, vix. a fnedden or 



Sn. ■ n So. 

fnodden rock See Saed, to bew down or lopp off. Sa^^ 
fnidan^ fecare, refecare, dolare. 0\.irA. fnide^ abfcin- 
dere, which correfpond^ exa6llj with the appear- 
ance of the precipice. In the Saxon Chronicle un- 
der the years 922 and 924, the citj of Nottinghain 
is called Snotingbam \ originally perhaps Snoding'' 
bam^ which, according^ to the defc^iption of the place, 
feems to be derived from the fame kind of origin. 
This leads to a new etymology of Eldinburgh. If 
Stirling was Snoden^ or Snedin^west-castle, we may 
fafely prefume that there was alfo an Eaft Snedin* 
.cadle ; i. e. a caftle of iimilar appearance, to the 
Eadward of Stirling : And, fince Nottingham was 
formerly Snotingham, it is not impoflible that £« 
dinburgh, in early times , was Snedinberg. After 
undcrgoing,likeSnotingham» th,e eliiion of 5, it might 
for fome time be Nedinbergh ; and at this period the 
Gaelic name Dun-Aidan may have been formed. In 
the courfe of time, Nedenburg, (^GalJice, Dun-Aidan 
or Dun-Neden), tnay have given way to Edinburgh, 
the initial N being omitted as in the word adder ^ov 
ferpcnt. Sax. rtedder. Eirs from niereny renes. 

Sncg, Snagg, fame with Sned, to cut or break down» 

Sncith, (Bp. Dougl.) feems to mcsinffiow wbite ; per- 
liaps from Teut. fneeachtigb^ niveus. Ruddiman 
mentions the Hih, /neidb, ftraight. 

SneWyJbcirpy piercing, bitter. [TGut./ttel, celer, acer.] 

Snifter, to draw or fnuff up frequently tbe watery bu" 
mour oj tbe nofe ; fubllantively, any tbing lubicb af 
feBs tbe ftnfe of fmetllng witbfudden violence* 

Snod, triniy neat^ tigbty bandfome^ every thing fuperflu- 
ous being lopped off; from Sned, abfcindere. 

Snoid, Snude, fillet^ ribband for binding up tbe bair, 
S^x.ffiody vilta. 

Snoif, To inoif the fp indie, to whirl or turn it round in 

Snoik, Snoke, Snowk, to fmelly to f cent ^ as a dog when 
the game is before him. li^vx/fnutteny to fnuff. 

Snurle, to contrary in the manner of hard twifted • 
yarn ; from Teut. kncrre^ tuberculum ) q. knurle, 


on. •— — — So. 

Snuve, to ^0 about idlj^ like a hungry dog fearcliing 

for fomething to eat. 

Snjb, Sniby tofnip or cut off^ to check, I (hallyJw^ you 

from that, i. c. cut off the means by which you might 

be ahle^ 6tc. from T^wl.fnipperij prseciderc, praefecare^ 

Snyppand, nipping, Teut. fnippen van koude^ to nip 

with Cold. PiXi^» fneap, 
Snyfti,y5iwj^ Snyfhen hoxyfnuffbox. 
I^ock, Sok, according to Skene, the power ^ authority j 
or liberty with which a Baron was endowed to admi^ 
nijier juflice and execute laws within his own barony ; 
curia domini^ fignifying the ward or juridical terri- 
tory as well as the privilege. In old charters from 
the Crown, it was conmionly coupled with Sac ; 
which, if not the fame with Sock, probably meant 
the power of levying fines within the Earony ; from 
S'wed.faky mul6la quae reatum feq^uitur. The ori- 
ginal meaning of the ^ord Sock is lefs underRood. 
Bra£lon defines it •• locus privilegiatus ; libertas, 
immunitas ; aiylum, fandluarium, refugium." Soc- 
comannus opponitur militi, ^ui tenet per fervitium 
militare \ whence it has been fuppofed that the 
term Soc or Soccage had fome reference to the fock 
or plough f and was properly applicable •* quhen the 
tennent was bound and obliihed to cum with his 
pleuch to teil icnd labour ane part of the Lordis 
Soddin, hoiledjfod; preterite of Secth. 
Soddis, Sods, a kind of pack faddle, [Teut. faecht^ mol- 

Sodroun, Sudroun, Sutheron, Englijhman ; ufed by 

Bifhop Douglas for EngUJJ^ (language.) 
Sodrun-wood. See Reinye, Apil-reinye, abrotanum, 
Soith, trucy truths truly. Sax. soth^ verus, verc. 
Solace, recreation^ diverjion^ sport. Lat. 
I^olan-gufe, the fea bird called a gannet ; from Swed. 
solandcy lingering, loitering, fottifh ; part of tlie verb 
soela^ procraftinare, prse defidia moras neftere. It 
may be thought ridiculous even to mention the vul- 
gar idea of the bird hatching its egg by placing 
one foot or sole upon it, 


So. Sd. 

Soldi Sowdy expl. a weight or ingot^ i. e. a griai furfl j 
from Tent. Jbldf /oud, ftipendiuin, premium mili- 
tare; VfYitnct foldier, 
Soldan, Sowdan, the Sultan. The foldan of Surry, the 

fultan of Syria, 
Solempne, Solempnyt, folerhn^ pompous^ magnificenii 

Sol ill, tofoUcity to advife^ to perfuade* Lat. 
Solp, Sowp, tofock^ to drench. Solpit in forrow, over- 

come with forrow. Teut. foppen, intingere. 
Solje, tofolve ; alfo abbrev. of AJfoilye^ q. v. Solyeing, 

folvingy foiutionf abfolving. 
Son^Jun. 7 eut. yb«,yb««^, Titan, PhaebuSi 
Sonk| a green turf a feat made of green turf. [Sax. 

fong^ ilratum^ quod difcumbentibus fubfternatur.] 
Sons, luck^ thriving^ profptrvtjy wealth ; according to 
Lord IJailes, hqfpitality. Teut. fanfe^ augmentum, 
profperitasi ^ 

Soniicy thriving^ plumps in good condition^ 
Sony6, to effoin or effonye^ to excufe. 
Sope, Sowp, (Bp. Doftgl.) expl. a cloud or heap^ a 

troopy company or croud of any thing. 
Sope, Sowp, to be overcome as with fleep ; fiom Lat* 
fopor ^ fopitus ; alto to be drenched. Sovipyt^ drench- 
ed. See Solp, to fork ; and Sipe, to ou^e out^ as from 
a calk of liquor. [Sax.j^/?rt;7, macerare.] 
Sord, to defile. Sorded, defiled, h2Li,fordidus, 
Sore, Soar, nforrel, light red, or red mixed with white* 

Fr.faurcy fub-rufus. 
Sorkand, Chorkand, making a noife like that of the feet 

in wetfhoes andfiockings, 
Sorn, to fojourny to make a tedious vifit ; according to 
Skene, to obtain hoard arid lodging by force. Fr. fe* 
JGurnery commorari. 
Sorn a r, one who obtains or retains his board and lodging 
without the ceremony of invitation ; a flurdy beg^ 
Sorp,.the fame with Sope, Sowp, to be drenched. 
Sort, a company ; quafi, affortment. 
Sofs, noife mode hy the fall of fomething heavy and f oft ; 
ex fono. 

' SofSng, 

S6. i-* So. 

SoflSagj cramming. Sofs, a large dt/b of flummery. Pr. 

Soflbrye, ufed by Bp. Dougl. for forcery. 

Setter, to fimnur^ to boil ftovjly^ hut longer than e- 

Soiich, Sugby noife or founds as of muficat a diflance ; 
alfo ufed as a verb, with a correfponding fenfe. 

Soudlandy Sowdin-land, SuHan tand^ Turkey. Fr« 

Souf, to whi/lle in a low tone ; ex fono. 

Soulis, Soles^ corrupt, oifwiveh. 

Soum, Sum, (of flieep, with a reference to their paf- 
ture),- commonly ten. The law term ** fouming and 
roomingi" in the divifion of commons, has probably 
a connexion with this ; quafly to allot ground in 
proportion to the number of toums ufuialfy kept oil 
the common. A cow was reckoned a foum, and a 
horfe two. 

Sounje, care, J&licitudej Yr.Jotfi. 

Soup, to /weep. Soupings, /weepings. 

Souple, Sweeple, /I j2^ifV; or, more properly, that part 
of a flail which flriies the corUy in contra-diftin^ioil 
ta the hand-ftaffl 

Sourakkis, Souraks,ybrr^/. Tent.fuyringj acetofa* 

Soutd, expl. to raife. Lat. furgerci 

^oysXtXyflsoemaker. Lat. 

Sow,, cxpl. to pierce. In Winton it probably means 
fleep ; " fow fare,'* fleepfor ever. Svftd.Jofwa, dor- 

Sow, a long hay fiaci y alfo a military machine ufed 
formerly in Jtegef ; fo called ' probably from its, 

Sowc^, flummery ; fuch as brofe^ foutns^ or oat^meal 

Sovr^Ti^i flummery^ made of the duft of oat meal re-^ 
maining among the feeds ; ftom Teut. fchouwen^ 
fchouden^ to fcald> ({.fioudens ox foldings. 

Sowl-bell, th^ tolling of a hell, about the time of a per* 

fotis deceafe^ to warn the people to pray for the paf 

fing foul. Hence it was alfo called the pajjing 


Vol. IV. E c Sowm; 

^^ -'-- 

So. I Sp, 

Sowm, chain hy which the phugb is drawn. [Swed. 

/om^ ^bmmiflura. j 
Sowtheran. Sec Sodoroun« Englijbman. 
Soy, ufed for S2Lj^fea ; and for Sey, to fee. 
Spacicr, to walk, Tcut. Jpacieren, ambulare ; whence 

£agl. Pace. 
Spae, Spay, to foretell or divine. Spaying, Spacing, A- 

vination^ augury. Vi. fpa. Dan. fpacer^ vaticinari. 

'YtMt. fpcehen^ tndagare, videre. Scand. & Celt.^f/> 

oculus ; whence lE^^./py. 
Spae-man, Spa-inan,ybr/&xr^ teller. "D^lb. Jpaaman. .lit. 

fpaanrndur^ propheta. 
Spail, Spalei ajmail chip or Jhaving of wood. Swed. 

fpitli fegmen. See Spald. 
Spair, a slit. [T^Xit. fperrtn^ to /Iretch open j fp^rring 

des mondts, a gaping of the mouth.l 
Spait, Spate, a torrent of rain, floods inundation. 

^^mX.. fpuyt^ fpoelte. Sax. fpeyte^ fipho, liphon ; q. 

d. a water'fpout,'] 
Spald, Spa uly thefhoulder. Spiel or Spule bane,^/&Mf£&r 

or hlade-hone. Fr. efpaule. •* Reading the fpeal or 

fpule^battCy^ antiently a common mode of divination. 
Span-new, quite new ; literally, according to Mr H. 

Tooke, Jhining new ; from Teut. fpange^ fpangle. 

** Spick and fpan new" rather means new^ point and 

head; from Jpiike, pointy 2Lnd fl)anghe, the polifhed 

head of a nail. 
Span, to expand^ toflretch out. Ttut. fpannen, tendere. 
Spane, Spean, td weari. Teut. fpenen^ fubducere lac, 

ablaftare ; fpene^ Jpinne^ lac muliebre. Goth.^/zri, 

mamma, papilla. 
Spang, a lenp^ a jump ; alfo as a verb, to jump or leap 

with elajlic force. See Span, toflretch out. 
Spank, tofparkle or fhine. Teut. fpange, lamina. In 

feme inflances the derivation feems rather from 

fpanneuy tendere, extendere ; as " fpanking horfe.'* 
Spaynhe, Spafijjh. Spanyeaitis, Spanyalis, Spaninrds. 
Spanyfis, feems eacpandedjlowers. Fr. efpanouiffement^ 

the full blowing of a flower. 
Spar, to bar, to f aft en with holts or bars. 


Sparpell, tofcaUer^ to dtfperfe. Fr. efparpilUr. 

Spealy Speil, to climb up. [Sax. ffild, praecipitiuno, 

praecipitantiay temeritas ; pcricuh plenus."] 
Speanlie, cxpL wife. Ttuujpahe, fapientia. See Spae, 

Spechty woodpecker or greenrpeaL Teut^ Jpecbt, picus 

Speen, expl. driving /tfow^ drift ; (perhaps from the 

found, as of a large fpinning wheel.) 
SpeidfuU, proper, expedient, necejfary to infure fpeed or 

Spcir, Spcre, toaJk,to make inquiry* l&.Jpir, interrogo; 

fpurde, interrogavi. %vitd, fp€eria, quserere, invefli- 

gare. Spere is alfo explained a fmall holt in the wall 

fif a houfefor the purpofe of receiving and anfwering 

enquiries from Jlrangers. See Spair, a chink, 
Spclder, tojiretch wide ^pen. \1lzvX. Jpliiten% hiulcum 

Speldings, Speldiing3,yf^a//^^ (as haddocks) ftretch^ 

ed open and dried in the fun. 
Spelk, to re 'join by means of bandages, ^xsn.fpelcean. 

Teut. Jpalcken, accommodare ferulas membris frac- 

tis J fpalke, ferula. 
Spell, narrative i Mo play, fport. ^^yi.fpel, hiftorla, 

rumor. Tt\xUfpell, ludiis, liifus, ludicrum. 
Spens, Spence, the paltry or apartment where provi^ 

jions are kept. Fr. defpenfe, cella penaria. 
Spenfer, Spenfafe, butler, keeper ofthefpenfe, q. v. 
Spere, hvfphere. Lat. Barb.j^^rfl. 
Spill^ SpyD, /o rorr«/^. Spjlt, corrupted. Tent, fpil/en, 

' vitiari, confumere. 
Spirling/ a fmall fifh called in England a fpratt. 
Spittal, abbrev. of hofpital ; alfo written Spittal- 

houfe. ' - 

Splenty armour for the legs, made perhaps of fplents or 

fplinters of wood. 
Spleuchan, a tobacco pouch. Gael. 
Splore, expl. a noify frolic, a rout or riot. 
Spourtlit, Spurtled, Sprutillit,^pW^i, fpeckled, freck- 

Sp. I Sp. 

led. TtVLt. fproetel, lentigo^ macula fubruSa aut pul- 
la, a freckle. 

Spraich, Sprach, Spreich, (Bp. Dougl.) expl. bowlings 
/creaming^ lamentable crying. 

Spraings, Sprajingis, Sprangs, expl. long Jlrypes or 

Jlreaks of different colours ; rather perhaps tie va^ 

riegated compartments of tartan ; as would appear 

from the phrafe " fprangit faik," commonlj un* 

derftood to mean tartan plaids See Sprzy^Jprigs. 

SpT2iJ,JprigSt bu/bes, fmall brancbes, Sax.^r^r, vir- 
gultum, farmentum, virga, ramulus. From this 
word Ruddiman deduces Spraings ; as the Lat. vir- 
gata fagula, (tartan plaids)* from virga. 

Spraygherie, Spraughery, trajb^ goods or articles of 
fmall value ; with an allufion to the manner in which 
they have been procured, yi^. by Spreith or pillage. 
Conf. Spr?iy, fmall branches. 

Spreich, Spreith, (Bp. Dougl.) expl. prey^ booty ^plun* 
der y pillage y probably theiame, as Ruddiman thinks, 
v^ith Engl, j^r^j. ¥r. proye. Armor, preidb. Lat. 
prada. [Gael, fpreidb^ cattle.] Hence perhaps 

^prtklc^^ fpeckled^fpotted. See Sproutillit. 

Sprentj^r/;;^. Back fprent, hackfpring\ alfo ufed as 
the preterite of the verb tofpring ; and fubftantive- 
ly for a leap , jumpy or ibrGtU' 

Sprcnt y Jprinkled i from T cut. Jprengen^ fpargere. 

Sprett, Spretts, a kind of coarse gras f or rufbes. 

Spreul, to sprawly to scramble. 

Spring, a quick tune on a niufical inftrument, 

Springald, buge cross^how for fbooting javelins or large 
arrows, Teut. springael, sprirtgbely catapulta, balifta, 
roachinse bcUicse genus. Fr. espringalle. 

Springald, a youtb ovflripliftg ; q. springing. 

Sprot, sprooty small brancby twig* Teut. sprcete, vir- 

Sprufli, neaty clean, well dreffedy " spruce J* 

Spuly^, spoily rapine ; alfo to plunder. Fr. 

Spunk, niatcby (fulphuraturo.) Swcd. spingOy fegmc«- 



Sp. .1 St. 

turn ligni tenuius. Spunk of fire^ a very small Jin % 

corr. from spark. 
Spank ie^ Will o* the wisp, a kind of meteor. 
Spur til, afpattle wherewith things that boil are Jlirred. 

Teut. fpately rudicula, fpathula ; expl. bjr Lord 

UaileSy ajlat iron for turning cakes ^ 
Spjcc, self-conceit, degree, small quantity ; alfo pungent 

aromatic seed, 
Spylc,^aike,palisadoe; yar, o[ pi/e, 
Spynift (rofe), prickly. Fr. spineux. 
Spy nn and for Spannand,^r^/rj&//fg-. See Span. Expl. 

by Ruddiman, running, gliding ; by a metaphor ta* 

ken from spinning. Bp Douglas has alfo Spynne- 

rand nearly in the fame fcnfe. 
Squadj^ a crew or party ; from squadron. 
iiqusLTC,Jlraight, even, perpendicular. 
Squatter, to f utter in water, as a duck. Swed. sqwatra^ 

confertim dejicer* 
Squifhy to eat in the manner of a person who hastto teeth ^ 

(to squeeze.) 
Squyare, squire, gentleman not knighted, armour hearer, 

Fr, escuyer. 
i3tabill,^/»//o«. Lat. Jiahulum \ alfo as a verb, to ejla* 

hlifb, to settle. 
Stady Steady a place, ajituation, a set of houses belonging 

to a farm, an on-Jlead. Fute fledis, footrsteps, tra£i 

or" print of the feet. See Ste^di,farm*houfe. 
StaiFagey Stafiifch, obstinate, obdurate, dry in the mouth, 

or not eqfily swallowed, like peafe meal bannocks ; 

from Teut. stief rigidus, durus ; stiefhals, obflina- 

tus. Ruddiman derives it from Ital. staffegiare, to 

lofe the ftirrup, or be difmounted. 
Stage, a degree or si^p. Stagis, stairs. Fr. c stage. 
gtaigh, Steigh, to gorge, to eat plentifully, to feast. 

Teut. stouwen^ stauen, acervaie, accumulare, com* 

pefcere ; vel sechen, conviviare, compotare ; stet^^ 

hen, llagnare. 
jStaik, to walk j properly, to walk softly nvith long steps. 

Sax^ staelcan, pedetentim \vc, grallari. 


St. — — St. 

Stake, to place, fettle, or fix ; to fatUfy ; corr. from 
Teut. Jlaeden, ftabilire ; in (latu collocare ; q. to 

Stal, Stalit, Staw,y?o/^, didJleaL 

Stale, Stail, (Bp. Dougl.) expl. a dtvifion of an army, 
a battalion ; or rather the place where it is draivif 
up ; a place where men mayfly in amhujh. See Stell, 
a place ofjbeher. 

Stall, Stell, to place ot fet in order. See Stell. 

Stalwart,^row^ ; alfo valiant, courageous ; as Wicht is 

applied not only to animate beings, but to cafiles, 

walls, 3cc. Hickes explains it magnanimous, heart of 

fleel ; from Sax. fleUferhth, chalybei animi homo, 

five fortis. 

Stam, theflem or beak of afhip. Steile (lammjt, hav^ 
ing their flems armed withjleel. 

Stanche, to abate, quench, ajjwage, pacify, Fr, eflancher. 
^T\g\.flancb is more reft rifted m meaning. 

Stand, afituation, a place qfjumed or allotted for fland" 
iftg in^ as a fland in a market ; alfo what is placed 
in fnch afituation, as cattle, goods, &c. 

Stand, a barrel (upon end) for holding water, or pro^ 
vijions, G^ioi, flannadh, a tub. 

Stung, a long pole or piece of %vood like the ihaft of a 
carriage. \{l,Jlaung. Dan j?^;??*, hafta. T^qvlI, flange, 
ramus. " To ride the ftang" is a kind of punifli- 
nient which has been frequently defcribed. Thq 
fame word alfo fignifiesj?i/7^, and iofiittg. 

Stank, a deep ditch with fianding water ; a pond orppoL 
Arm. flatic, Gael, fiang, fr, ejlang, Lat. fiag" 

Staneries, Stanryis, (Vol. I. p. 434.) probably fmaU 
pools, fuch as thofe \yhkh remain on the fea Ihore 
at low water ; and which are called in O.[,fiag' 
nes ; from Teut. Jleyghen, ftagnare. hsit. flagnum ; 
q. flagneries, Ruddiman explains it, the gravel or 
fmall flones thrown out on the banks of river t, or or\ 
the fea fJjore ; quz{i,fandtrs, or thofe which remain 
beyond the flowing of the tide, or current of the 


St. — — 2.1^ 

StannerSy (Complwnr of S£xrt]»T>d, expS. \j t^ editor} 

the rtmgb fn^eSit^ itomrs oe thg fi/ort ^f /I/ fta^ tm 
• the hauks of rivtrsy amd on the hrmti ofhurms, Tiiis 

Word appears, from the text aiid from the or- 

thographj, to be cfirnriaTlj di&rent fiom the pre- 

cediDgy both in ilenfe and derrrsticui. 
Stap, stave. To take a ixap oat of jonr Hkker, /e r^- 

i/iMV thejm ofjomr difb. [^Teot. j^, bacolns.J 
Stant, ^Bp. DongLJ for Strut, tajk^ boMnd^ limit ; alio 

ioTfituatei^floixd^ fixed i fkomStaad. 
Stare, (Bp. DoogL) pxobaUj lor Stnre, strongs ^oagh^ 

boarfe ; q. v. 
Startle, Stertle, to /camper abQUt^ as cattle Hung bj tlic 

Staw, to/urfeit, to produce a loathing. See Staigh, io 

gorge^ tofiOpltutifuOj. Staw is alTo nfbd for //^j^, & 

Staving, walking inctmfideratelj. Stavering, staggering. 

[Teut. daveren^ cootremere. See Daver, /? //iv/i .J 
Staamrel, half^vcitted^ one tcho is isuapable of expre£ing 

his meamng. 
Stay, steeps rifiag precipitoufly. Teat- steygh^ acclivos, 

leviter afceodens. 
Stead, Stede, Steading, farm houfe with dependencies. 

Dan. sted. Id. stadur. Goth, stat^ urbs. Sax. stedn^ 

locus. Id. stada^ fiatio. 
Steadied, Stedeles, without afxedftuation, without he* 

ittg confisud to a place» See Stead & Stad. 
Sted, steady horfe. Sax. & 1(1. stada^ equas. 
Steif, Stcv^.frmfjir7nljfxed. Teut. ///^ firm us, fta- 

bilis ; sfiiven, firmare, firmum reddeie* 
Steik, stitch^ job, piece of work. 
Steik^ tojbut or clofe. Teut. stehen^ claudere ligneis cla« 

vis ; :dfo to jticJk, stab, or pierce. 
Steil, handle. Steils of a barrow or plough^ the lanJh. . 

Teut. steely caudex, fcapus. 
Steil-bow, a term denoting a particular tnannei' of let^ 

ting afann on leafe ; the leading condition of which 

was, that the fodder of the out-going crop fhould 

not be carried off from the farm. It is probable, 


St. ■ St. 

that in Cafes of this kind, not only the implements 
of hafbandrj, but the whole flock of the farm be* 
longed originally to the proprietor of the land , 
aud that the farmer was merely a confidential per- 
fon who paid a certain fum annually to the proprie- 
tor inflead of rendering an account of the neat pro- 
duce. The word is derived from Teiit* stellen, in- 
flruere> conflituere, collocare & bouw^ mefEs. 

Sicipy to stoop ; alfo to/oak, (as in water.) 

Steir, to stir^ to move. Tent, stieren^ agere. 

S telly a fafe Jituation^ a place ofjhelter. Tent, s telly lo- 
cus tutus. In old writings^ Stall or Stail. 

Stendy Stendle, to stride^ to move with long strides. Fr. 
esigndre ; alfo ufed iubllantively for a stride or long 

Stent, to extend^ to stretch out. Fr. estendre ; alfo to 
stint f stopf or ceafe ; becaufe, fays Ruddiman, when 
any thing is flrefched to its full length, it is, as it 
were, flinted or flopt, that it can go no farther. 

Stent, extent i a burrow taxy according to the extent of a 
perfon's bufinefs. 

Stenye, to sting ; as in •* confcience stenyies if he 

Stenye, to stain or fully. Stony t, stainedyfullied. 

Step in age, oldy or drawing to age. 

Srere, to rule or govern. Sax. styran. Id. stiurariy gu- 
bernare ; alfo ufed fubftantively for government. 
From this verb, according to Kennet, is derived the 
word Sterling. 

Stere-burd, star-hoard. Sterifman, steerfman ; from 
Teut. stiery clavus, gubernaculum. 

Sterf, to dicy or he killedy by whatever kind of death ; 
to starve^ or he starved hy hunger or cold. Teut. ster* 
vetXy mori, interire, occidere, occumbere. 

Stork, Stark, strongs rohust^ valiant. Teut. stercky for- 
tis, validus, inf radius, robuftus, potens. 

Sterlyng, Eafterling, of or belonging to the lower parts 
of Germanyy or countries immediately to the east' 
ward of Great Britain. See Store, to rule. 


St* ■«-IM»M> St. 

Sterne, Starnei a star. Sternjs, stars. Tcut. & Sax. 
stern^ ftella. Goth, stairnons, Stellas. Mar. xiii. 23. 
The Lat. astrum and Stella feem of the fame ori- 

^teugs, StugSy d(iriSf Jbort rusty nails. Teut* stuk^ 
' tormentum, telum. [Goth, stika^ punftum tempo- 

Stevin, tutie^ melody, founds the voice. Sax. stefne, vox, 
fonus. Ga win ' Douglas ufes Stevin alfo for the 
mouth ; and *' to ftevin" for proras feu rostrum ob^ 
vertere ; from Teut. steve, prora, pars anterior na- 
vis ; all which, according to Ruddiman, feem to be 
clofeljr connefted. 

3tew, vapour^ fmohe^ fumes ) cloud of dust. Teut. stof^ 
pulvis, pulvjfculus. 

Stewatt, a perfon in a state of violent per fpiration ; from 
Stew, vapour. Teut. stove ^ hjpocauflum. 

Stilp, expl. to stalky to walk ; var. of Stilt. 

Stimikety emitted offenjive vapour^ belched. 

Stimpart, expl. fbe eight part of a Winchtster hufhel. 
[buitieme part ?) 

Sting. See Stang, a polfj a pike. Teut. stanghe. To 
carrj off ** fling and ling," i. e. literally with long 
poles or bearers^ and fhoulder belts ; entirely^ whoU 

^tingifdjnt, (Reg. Majes.) a fpecies of Bhud-wit^ or 
amerciament for the effufion of blood. Stingis-dynt 
feems literally a blow with a long pole. See 

Stirk, a cow or bullock in the fecond year. Sax. styrc^ 
juvencus, juvenca. Teut. stier^kaif. 

Stirkin, (Bp. Douglas), feems stricken^ struck^ wound- 
ed. ** Sche wandris as the ftirkin kind," i. e. as the 
wounded deer. Ruddiman will have it q. stirk 

Stir rah, stout boy. 

Stith, Styth, stiffs strongs steady. Saic. stithy duius, ri- 
gidus, aufierus, afper* 

Stok and horn, a fhepherd^s pipe, made of a reed fixed 
in a fmall horn. 
Vol. IV. Ff Stok 

St. St. 

Stok fwcrd, (Blfhop Douglas), expl. a stiff or sirofjg 

Jiuord ; rzthcr perhaps a long f mall fwor J. Yi.estoc, 

ends longior, verutum. Douglas alfo ufes Stokkis, 

which Ruddiman explains daggers^ rapiers : And 

Stokkity Stokyn,ybr stabbed^ s ticked. 

Stokker, to stagger* Stokkerand* aver, staggering 

Stole, (according to the editor of Winton), an orna- 
ment hung on the pries fs breast^ or perhaps the long 
robe called in Lat. orarium, ftola faccrdotalis. 
Stoll, Stell, Stall, St\\\, place offafety-y to place in fafety 
I)ouglas ufes StoUing place for a proper Jituation or 
strong post, 
Stonie, Stonjfs, to astonijh. Stonift, astonijbedy con- 
founded. Fr. estonner^ obftupefacere ; whence Stun. 
Storar, Storour, overfeer, intendant of the herds and 

flocksy wild or tame. 
Store, sheep y cattle. Store izxvcLyfbeep farm. 
Stott, to rebound^ as a hand-ball. Teut. j/oo/^ pelle re, 

Stott, bullock ; more commonlj, a youngbullock. Swed. 
stot^ juvencus. Chaucer ufes Stot in the fenfe of 
young horfe. 
Stove, a vapour ov exhalation. Teut. j/oi/f, a hot-houfe, 
hjpocauitum ; alfo to emit vapour. Teut. stoveny ca- 
Stou, to cut or crop. ^towmgZy young branches crept from 

the main stocky as of coleworts. 
Stouk, ieuy or more commonly twehe Jheaves of corn 

fet up fo as to rejist rain. [Swed. skocky a clufter.] 
Stound, a fmall fpCLce of time, a moment or instant, 
Teut. Jlondy fund, tempus, bora, fpatium, momen- 
Stound, a Jlitch or ffjooting pain. [Ifl. styuy do]eo, 

stumic^ dolui.] Chaucer ufes Stounds for forrows. 
Stound, (Peblis at the Play), feems stayed or remained 

at home, 
Stour, Stowre, tumult, battle. O. Fr* estour. Ifl, styr, 
bellum. Sax. steorian, turbare, movere ; whence 
\he fame word is ufed to fignify dust in motion; or 


St. St. 

ivlilch has been in motion. Tcut. ^touf, pulvis. Gael. 

Stour, to run or gallops to mave quickly. 
Stoure, a long pole or fpear. [Teut. iteuwtr, ful- 

Stouth, Stowth, stealth, fecrecy, privacy ; in the fame 
. fenfe that the hzt.Jurtum is fometimes ufed hj the 

Stouthrief, theft accompanied with violence, houfe-hreak" 

ingy &c. See Reif, to rob. 
Stown, stolen, stole ; from Sta, to Heal. 
Stowp, pitcher, cann,Jlaggon, tankard. Teut. stocp^ ur- 

na, congius. Sax. stoppa, cadus. 
Stojt, to stammer in fpeech, to stutter. 
Straitisy Straits, a kindofcoarfe woollen cloth, or lerfey. 

In the poem of Ch rift's kirk on the green, this 

word is commonlj fuppofed to mean leather from 

the straits of Gibraltar. 
Strak, Straik,^rj/fi, didjlrihe ; 2M0 ftroie, blow. Stra- 

kings, Straikings, tbe refuje of flax, or cloth made 
from it. 
Stramaris, Strcinouris, flreamers, top-flags. See Stre- 

Stramp> Strampte, to trample. To tramp cloaths, to 

trample upon them in a tub of water. Swed. stampa. 
Strand, rivulet, f mall brook or running water ; in oppo- 

fition to Stanrjis, or landing water. How this 
.word happens to differ fo widelj in meaning from 

the YAi^yJlrand, is not clear. 
Strath, a plain offome conftder able extent on a river fide \ 

as Strath or Strat-Clyde, the flat ground along the 

river Clyde ,• probably from Lat. traBus, region, 

country ; or T^Mt.Jlreke, plaga, regio, trlxSlus 9 free- 

Jken, extendere. 
Straucht, Jfrait ; alfo flretched ; as Raucht for reach*^ 

ed ; with which it feems to be nearly allied. 
Stravaig, to roam or wander. XxsX.flravagare. See Vaig. 
Stray, Strae,.^rflxi;. %2ji.Jlre. 
Strayk, Straik, to Jlroke^ or touch with a gentle fliding 

motion* Teut. Jireiken^ leviter attreftare. Straik, 


St. ■ ■• ■ St. 

Straiked or Streiked meafure (of corn) » exaS mect^ 
fure^ in oppofition to heaped ; alfo, in this fenfe, as a 
verb, to adjujl ; from Sv/ed, Jiriiay nsenfurare. 

Streik, tojlretchy to u/e^ or begin to ufcy as to ftfeik the 
hobksy to begin harveJI. TtuX^Jirecken^ extendere. 

Streitch,>^riVi, qfe&ed. 

Strcmouris, Jlreamers. See Vol. I. p. 433, ^here the 
reader may judge for himfelf whether the poet 
means the Northern lights^ or merely the ftreama of 
light which precede the rifing of the fun. 

Strenth, caflle^ftrong hotd^ a place fortified by nature or 

Strenye, tojlrain ox fprain. [Fr. eftraindre.'] 

Strefs, prejjjing difficulty^ prejffure^ diftrefs ; alfo t(k dif-: 
trefs or trouble. 

Strefs, ancient mode of tqiing up accufation for the Ctf-' 
cuit Courts, See Tryft. 

Strinkil, Strenkle, var. oifptinkle^ tofcatter. 

S trommel, to fumble. TcMUjlriemelen, to ftagger. 

Strone, St roan, to fpout forti as a water pipe. Teut.' 
Jiroomeny fluere ; whence Strand , a f mull rill, 

Sttonty Stxunt^ pet, fuiky or fullen fit ; originally per- 
haps fit of obftinate idlenefs. Conf. Teut. trouwant^ 
fcurra, ludio ; or trots^ irritamentum, infultatio^ 
contumelia ; trot/en^ irritare, laceffere ; trotfighy covi' 
turheliofus, faftofus. To take the ftrunt, to be petted 
or out ofhufnour, 

^Uor\\S\^y pettifioly^fulknly. [Teut. tfotfigh^ contume- 
liofus, faftofus.] See Stront. 

Strounge, harfi? ; efpecially to the tafte, as a floe. 

Stroup, i^iv 00^, fpout ^ as of a tea kettle. Sv^ed. firnpe. 
\^,Jirup, gutter, gula. Teut. storte ; whence throat, 

StToWyJirifey/quahble ; from Teat, fiooren^ turbare. 

otroy, abb rev. of deflroy, Lat. dejlruere, 

Strynd, See Strand, a rivulet yfpring ofwateK. 

Strynd, Stryne, race, kindred^ offspring. Sax. firyndy 
llirps, genus \ firinan^ gignere. 

Studdy, Stuthy, Stithy, anvil, Ifl. fedia^ incus. Sax. 
Jlidhy rigidus, durus. 

StuiF, to fill %viih men, StwSit, filled with men, 


St. sa. 

^tulth, ^ealtb. Goth» jUIan, furare. 

Sturdy, a difeafe common tojheep ; a water in the head^ 

or vertigo, [Teut. Jlooren^ vertere.] 
Sture, Stoor, aujlere^ rough^ harjh^ Jl'ifft J^rong^ robust, 
Teut. stuer, Lat. austerusj ferox, horrid us, tor- 
Sturt, Sturten, trouble, disturbance^ vexation, mifchief, 

Fr. tort^ injuria. Dan. styrty pugna. 
Style, degree, high degree, rank, palm. Sax. stigele, gra- 

dus> fcala. 
Sty me, a blink, fmallest appearance of light, SsiX.Jcitna, 
fulgor ; ** IjXeUne/ciman leohtes/' parvam corufca- 
tionem lucis. 
Styte, Stot, to walk infirmly, like a perfon in liquor. 
Subchetts, dubioufly expl. viBuals, 
&vi}ai.jt, fubje&, JaZt./ulfditus, 
SvLCtuT€,Succ2ir, Jugar. Teut, /uycker, faccharum. Fr. 

Sucquedry, prefumption ; from O. Fr. Jurcuidere ; hoc 

^fur, fuper ; & cuider, agitare, iraaginari. 
Suddil, Sudle, to foil, to tarnijh.. Yx,fouilleri 
Suellieg, expl. heat^ a burning fever, &2i\,fwell, uftlo,: 

tumor, peftis ; fwellan, tumerc^ turgere. 
SviSi£2inzQ,fujfficietiCy, Yx.fuffifance, idonea copia. 
%\Ayc,foil, country, land ^ ground, h2it, folum, 
Sulyeart, clear, bright^ brilliant, glittering, Y{\h,f oilier^' 

fplendens, rutilus ; f oilier achd, fplendor, fulgor. 
Sumdel, Sum deWe, fomewhat, a little, 
Stimphion, a mufical instrument ; fame perhaps with O. 
Engl, fymphonie, which fcems to have been a kind 
of tambour or drum, 
SvLiik.Qts,fomething (to eat), q. d,fum quhats, 
Sunkis, Sunks^ a kind of pack faddltj reaching farther 

down on the horfes fides than Sods. 
Sunyeis, EfTunyeis, excufes, Fr. exoine, 
Suppede, to afRst, liA?it,fuppeditare, 
Supj^owe\,f apply, auxiliaries,- forces ; alfo as a verb to 
fupport or a^ffist, YT,fuppleer, Chaucer h^s J uppo. 
raile, expl. upholder, which feems to come from Lat. 


Su. _ Sw. 

SupprjSy Suppreis, to opprefs^ to bear down. 

SvLTnownCf^rname. Yx,furnoin, 

Surrj, Syria. Soldan of Surry, Sultan of Syria. 

Surrigine, Syrurgiane, afurgeon ; chirurgeon. Fr; chl- 

Surs, (Bp. Dougl.^ expl. a hajly riftng^ ox Jllght up- 
wards; ivotti'Lt2LX..furfumoxfurgete. 

Sufly, care, anxiety^ trouble. Yr./ouci, foUicitudo ; alfo 
ufed as a verb, to care. I fufly not, / care not. 


Suth, trutb. Suthfaft, trujly^ eflabli/bed in truth. Suth- 
lie, Soothlich, truly y in truth. Szx,.Joth, yerus yfoth^ 
lice^ vere. 

Swa,ya. Goth.yi^, fie, ut, fidut. 

Swable, to beat (with a long (lick.) 

Swage, to ajpwage. Tcxit. Jwighten, fedare, pacare. 

Swaif, Swyve, to embrace, tokifs, futuere. hzLjuaviari, 
to kifs. 

S waits, SvfTittSy/fnall beer. S^lx, Jwatan, cerevifia. 

Swak, Thwack, Jhock,Jlro\e with a cudgel ; tojlrike ; 
alfo to throw or cajl withjhrve ; ex lono. 

Swale, fat ^ plump i c\,f welled ; ufed in the fame fenfe 
by Chaucer. 

Swankie, fwain, young inan^ wooer ; probably from 
Dan. fwangy fwank, meagre, ilender, thin. Teut, 
fwangher, gravida, pritgnans, fjcta •, fwanchen^ a- 
gere. ^2.yi, fwangy operarius ; fwangrer^ to impreg- 

^vf2L\\ys, f wains, pea f ants. S^ix.fwcin, puer, fervus, mi- 
ni iter. 

Swap, Swzup, young pea- cod, a tall slender young per-, 
fan, [ly^in.fwangy flender.] 

Swapp, to exchange. 

Swaie, Swyre, Squhyre, the neck ; alfo a feep pafs o- 
ver a chain of mountaifis. Sax. fweor, lolium, cer- 
vix, columna. 

Swarf, Swairf, Swerf, to faint, to fwoon away. Sax. 
fweorcian, caligare ; fweorc, caligo, nubes ; accord- 
ing to Ruddiman, from Teut. fw erven, errare, va- 
gari 5 or perhaps fwiicken^ labafcere, deficere. 


Sw. — — ^ Sw. 

Sw2it,/warthyf block. Teut.yii/flr/, niger, atcr, picens, 

GoXh.fwartSf fufcus, niger. 
Swattc, pret. of the verb tofwea*. 
Swathy Swathe, the grafs nubich is cut by m fcythe at ome 
Jlroke* ^2Ji.fwathcy fcifSo, rafura. '}Lt\xt.fwadey fx- 
ni ilriga, ordo demifli focni. 
Swee, to incline or bend to ajide. lH.Jueigitj^ incurvare. 
Swed. /"iviga, loco cedere. Teut. iveg^hcw, nioverc. 
Douglas has Swecht for weight, burden^ force ; as 
Spurge for purge y Strample for trample, &c. 
Sweir, Swcre, /flzy, backward^ slow. S?lx. /iveref defes, 

Sweirnefs, Swernefs, sloth f la%ine/s, backiuirdnefs. 
.Sweit, li/e. [Szx.Jkvai, fagguis.] 
Swellj, to fwallonv. Teut. Jwelghen^ vorare, glutirc. 

Swelliaris, swall&wers. See Swelth, a gulph, 
Swelt, to he choaked or suffocated , to die, Teut. siveltea, 

deficere, languefcere, tatifcere. Sax. sweltan, mori. 
Swelth, a gulph or whirl pool. Teut. swelghj fauces^ 

gula, frumen. 
• Swene. See Swcven, to swoon , to dream. 
Swengeour, Sweyngeoui, expl. Jlout nvenchery one who 
roanii about after the girls; from Teut. swente, YirgOp 
juvencula ; fwintfen^ vagari. Dan. fwangrer, gig- 
nere. Or, according to Ruddiman, corrupted from 
O. Engl, fwinkery labourer. Sax. fwancan^ labo- 
rare. See 8wik, to f of ten. 
Swerth-back, a bird ; fpecies unknown. The name 

feems to denote the colour. 
Swetherjke, kingdom of Sweden. See Ryke, king^ 

Swevin, Svrcvjriyjleepy a dream. Sax. fwefen. Dan. 

foffn^ fomnium. 
Swevin to flcep, to dream. Sax. fwefian^ fwefiiany 
fomniare, fop\re. \{[.fof dormire. [Lat. ant. fop» 
nusy for fomnus.] 
Swidder, Swither, doubts hefttation ; alfo as a verb to 
doubt or hejitate, Teut. fwiereUf vibrare, vagarj, in 
gyrum verti ; fwier, vibratio, gyrus. 
Swik, to affvoge, allay ^ or f of ten. Teut, fwichten, fc- 
dare, pacare. 


Siv. -i—— i*. Sy. 

E9fi\kf/ucb. SvLX./wjlc. Goth. /zx;«-/<f/i, talis ; from 

ieik, iimilis. 
Swink, Swirk, hard labour ; alfo as a verb, to labour 

bard. Stun, fwincatu laborarc, fatigare, vexare. 
SwlppeTy quick f /wjftf fiimlle» Swippcvlj^/wiftlf. Sax. 

fwipan^ verrerc, and poetically r/Vo ^^^r^. [Teut. 

fweepey flagellum.] 
Swirl, a whirling motion^ as of wind or driving fnow ; 

or the remaining appearance offuch a motion. Teut. 

fwier^ gyrus, circumvolutio ; alfo as a verb to whirl 

about, 'Teut. Jwieren, circumvolvi. 
Swirlie, Jull of knots or circumvolutions, as in various 

kinds of wooil \ from Swirl, circumvolvi. 
Swith, Swjth, Swyith, infianfly, quiclily. Als fwyth, 

asfoon. Swith away I begone quickly. Sax. y«;/Vi^, 

Swoich, Swouch, Souch, a found, a report. S^LX.fwegff 

fonus, clangor ; fwegan, fonaie. 
Swonk, expl. tofwitn. Sw onk^Lnd, fwimming. [Teut. 

fnvenckeny fluftuaie, labare, vibrare, quatere.] 
Swoil. See Swirl, a whirling motion^ &c. 
Swjk, fraud, impojlure. U.fuik. Dan. suig & snvinkf, 

a trick. 
Swj'kfu], Swynkful^yr^z//^/;//^///. Dan. suigagtig. 
Swjre, Squhyre. See Sware, afeeppafs over, a chain 

of mountains ; expl. by Ruddiman, the top of a 

Swyve, S>*eyve. See S waif, to have carnal connexion 

Sybow, Seybow, young or small onion. Teut. «- 

bo lie. 
Syis, Sjith, times. Oft-fyis, & Felefyis, many times^ 

frequently. ^'^:^.fith^ tempus, vicis. 
Syle, to blindfold or hood-ivink ; to deceive. Overfylde, 

covered over. Swed. Jkyla^ occultare. 1 eut. schuylen. 

jy^n.ykyle. 111. yX/c/^, lati tare. Swcd.Jkya. Lat. r^- 

/are, tegere ; nearly allied to Sax. helan. See Heild, 

to cover vp. Syle is alfo explained to surround or en^ 


Syle, tojirain ov pass through aflrainer. 


Sy* ■ Sy. 
Sjnde, /o wa/b, to clean Jrom some remaining impurim 

Sjne, a/temvardf^ tbereafier^ then. Teut. ^W, poft^ 
poftqaam, inde poilea* The correfponding Saxon 
wordy accordingto Ruddiman, is Jitthan or sytthan ; 
whence-the O. £ngl.^/i&^iir^, now by abbrcviatioa 
Jin^ei Neither of thefe, however, agrees with the 
Scottiih syne^ but with Sen-fjne, ever after that 

S jne. See Seyne, to bUss or consecrate. 

Synopare^ C^oper^ cinnabar. 

Sype. See Sipe^ to ousse or pass through in small fuan* 
tity ; fpoken of liquid. 

Sypios^ ibc^ nuAicb has ouzed througbp (itom a veflel 
contaioiiig liquor.) 

Sjte, purti/bment ; aUb expl. sorrow. Teut. sucbte, do- 
lor, languor^ moilius. 

Sytfayn, Sen-fy&e, ever after that time. Sec Syne, 

Vol. IV. G « Ta, 

Ta. 1', 



Ta, for Tane, The ane, one of two. Sax. te aae. T» 
and Tane likewife occur in the fenfe oi take and la- 
ken^ as Ma for make. So alfo Tais for takes. 

Taanles, Bleaxes, large fires^ bailfires or bonejires ; from 
Gael, teine^ fire. Swed. ttenda. Sax. tynan. Goth* 
iafldian^ accendere. Ifl. tungl^ fidus, luna. Efton. /irn- 

■ gel, ton is ; whence perhaps Ingle, large fire. The 
cuftom of kindling large fires or Taanles, at Mid- 
fummer, was formerly common in Scotland, as in o- 
ther countries, and to this day is continued all along 
the ftrath of Qyde. *^ On fome nights a dozen or 
more of them may be feen at one view. They are 
moftly kindled on rifing ground, that they may be 
feen at a greater diftance.'* 

Tabart, Taberd, Talbert, loofe upper garment^ worn 
chiefly by ecclefiaftics. Upon thofe which were uf- 
cd by knights, their armorial bearings were com- 
monly reprefented in embroidery. Teut. tahhaerdy 

Tabctlefs, expl. without fir ength. 

Tables, the name of a game ^ perhaps drafts ^ or chefs. 

Tache, blemi/h. Fr. tache. 

Tack, Tak, leafe. Teut. taecke, penfum, a charge or w«- 
dertahing. See Aft 1 459, the firft in Europe which 
rendered tenants fecure in their poiTeflions. 

Tagle, Taigle, to retard , tofiopy to delay. Teut. taggen, 

Tail, tale y for J. Teut. taelcy fermo. 

Tai]yeve, Tirryvie, violent fit of pajjion. See Ter- 

Tailyies, ^/Vf J, as of meat, loaf bread, &c. Fr. tailler^ 
to cut, flice, hack ; from Teut. talie^ incifura, cae- 
fur a } alfo entails, 


Ta. — — Tfl. 

Tais, Tafs, Sowl, a f mall dram cup* Fr. tajfe. 

Tais^ to Jlretchyjirain\ or extend ; to pull tbejlring of a 
bow \ hence to oil/u/l, Ttr^y tee/en ^ trahere, velli- 
care, vellcre, carpere. Wolteejin^ minutatim expli- 
care lanam, to teefe wooL Tjt, pulled^ drew, 

TakiU, arrow, Wcl. taccl^ fagitta ; tacclan^ ornamenta 
fagittas*, tacclu, ornate i tacclus^ ornatus. [Feot. 
taeckelen defcbeptn^- adornare naves.] 

Takynnar,; one who portends from Jigns or tokens. 

Talbart. See Tabart, gown^ toga. 

Talent, propenftty^ eagernefs, Fr. talent^ cupido. 

T^Uon for Tallow, to cover with tallow or with a mix* 
tare of pitch and tallow. Fr. . 

Tangle, afea weed, Swed. tangy alga inarina. 

Tangs, Tejngs, pair of tongs, Teut. tanghe^ forceps. 

Tape, to make a little go a great way^ to ufefparingly, 

Tapettis, tapejlry, Teut. tapiit^ tapetam ; whence per- 
haps Belg. 6c £ng. carpet, 

Tappit-hen, crefled hen ; pewter quart meafure^ fo called 
from the knob on the Hd. 

Tarans, expl. children who have died- before baptifm. 

Targets, tatters, Swed. targad, tore or torn. 

Tarlochis, enchanters, magicians ; properly tourlochis, 
' from Teut. ioouerer, incantator, maleficus, magus ^ 
toouererfe, toouerinne, incantatrix, faga, lamia ; toou-* 
eren, fafcinare. The termination loch in this, as in 
many other words, fignifies like, Goth, leiks^ fimi- 

ITarrow, to take pet ; to turn away from, or refufe, 
. meat peevifhly) to pretend to loath, to eat with 
feigned loathing ; from Teut. taergh^ tardus. See 

Tartan, crofs-Jiriped or chequered, of various colours^ 
in the manner of Highland plaids* Fr. tiretaine, 
forte de droguet ; linfey-woolfy, 

Tartane, tertian, as Tartane fever, ague, 

Tarveal, expl. fretful, dif con tented ; alfo as a verb, to 
plague or vex. [Swed. tarfwa, opus habere ; tarf^ 
neceflitas.] See Torfel, to pine away, 

Tafleis, (erroncoufly printed TafteisJ^ taffels* 


Ta. ■ Te. 

Tafs, Tas. See T%is, cup. Fr. tq^. 

Tate, Tatt^ Tent, lock dfhair pr 'loool, commonly mai* 

ted* Sax. ge-teudf conacznSy unitos. 
Tath| the Utaunant grafi nahich rtfes in tufti 'where the 

dung of cattle has been depqfited. Sax. ge^tead^ excita- 

tu8» nutritus i ge^tyhtb^ tng^it. Tathis^ tufu ; alfo 

teats or lochs* See Tate. 
Tattj, banging in tatts or matted lochs. See Tate. 
Tauch, Taiil^f tulbw. Fris. talgbe, Dan. talge^ febaif)| 

Taupie, ybo/^ wench. Dan. taahegaas. 
Taw, f pvll^ to lay bold of t& tumble about. 
Tawberni Tawburn, tabour^ drum. Fr. tambour. 
Taweal, eiLj^. fatigue^ perhaps from travail. ^ 
Tawis) TawS) a whip or fcourge ; commonlj a flip oC 

tamied leather divided at the farther extremity intQ 

fmaller thongs. 
Tay, toe. Tayis, Tays, toes. 
Teat» a f mall lock ^ as of hairi wool, &c. SeeTath. 
Ted, to fcatter. In King Alfred's tranflatioa of Bede» 

^^ land getead^^ is tranflate^ terra prseparata. Bat 

this may rather be the origin of Tath, q. yid. 
Xeddir, Tetbir, r^, commonly made of hair. 
Teichcris, (Gaw. Douglas), expl. drops of dew y forte, 

(fajs Ruddiman), from Fr. tacher, to fpot ? 
TeiUe-trec, the lime tree. Lat, iilia.^ 
Teir, wa/lcy fatigue^ Ten £\xl, fatiguing. Fr. tare. 
Teis, ropes ; of the fame origin with Engl, verb to 

Telis, tills ; alfo corruption of dwells* 
Teme. See Toom, empty^ to empty, 
Tempane, Tympane, druw^ tabour, Lat. tympanum, 
Tenchis, (G. Douglas), taunts^ tauntings, Fr. teficer, 

Tene, vexaiiony g^^^f ^^^^> trouble. Sax. teon^ calom- 

nia, moleftia, injuria, calamitas» ; alfo a« a verb, io 

gri^vCy to irritate^ vex^ or trouble ; teonan, Flasd. 

tenen^ irritare, conviciari. 
Tene-waryit, opprejfed with affliBion. See Tene, and 

Warie, te curje. 


Te. — — — Tb. 

Tent, aUntiiaih notice^ care ; to attend to, to take care of, 

Lat* attendfre* 
Tent. See Stent, tojlretch out. Fr. effendre. 
Tepe, Taip; to proiong^ to make a Httle go a great way. 
Ter, tar» Teut. terre^ pix fluida. 
Terce, Tierce, >A^ third party or widow^s Jbare of her 

hujhand*s moveables. Fr. iters. 
Tercelet, Tcrfall, the male hansik or eagle. See Terfe. 
Tcre, Tcir. See Deir, injury ^ distrefs. 
^ermagant, ptarmigan^ the name of a well known bird 

which inhabits rockj mountains in the northern 

parts of Scotland. 
Tern, for Stern, ^^rf^. 

Xertane, Tirrane, opprejffor ; alfo expl. tyrannical. 
Terrane, reproachful name .for a pqffionate brawling 

child. [Tent, taran^ hillrix.] 
l*erfe, Tcarfe. Teut. teers^ hafta membri virilis ; vo- 

cabulum Teutonibus olim honeftum, nunc temporis 

vero obfcsenum. 
Tetand, Teeting, corf, from Belg. kiichen, to peep or 


Teug, Tug, the rein or rope of a halter. Teut. teugel^ 
habena, lorum, retinaculu^^i. lil. tog^ funis, a tow. 

Tejnd, tenth, tithe ; alfo as a verb, to draw the tenths 
(of produce), figuratively, to diminijb in number or 
value, to mar. 

Tha, Thaj, thefe. Sax. thaege, ilH. 

Xhak, Tback, thatch, rujh or straw covering of a roof. 
Sax. thac, tedum faeneum ; feu cujufvis generis. 
Teut. dock, arundo. See Theik. 

Thane, an old title of honour or dignity, equal in rank, 
fays Skene, •* to the fon of an Earl ; — ane Free hal'- 
der holding his lands of the iT/V/^ /'—according to 
Fordun, a levier of the King'*s rents. The word 
Thegn is found in moft of the Northern languages, 
but moil frequently in the Anglo-Saxon ; and is uf- 
ed in the various lignifications of fervus, minifler ; 
exaBor, difcipulus ; fervus militaris, miles, fateltes, 
gques ; prittceps, optimas, primas, fatropa, dominus,..^ 
Tbe karned Jhre makes the primary fenfe of Thegn, 

Th. ■ Th. 

vir probus/ prseftans, ftrenuus ; correfponding Pfit% 
Fris. thegeman, from degbe^ virtus> probitas-, whenc? 
perhaps the Irifh tig-bearna^ dominus, and Lat. digr 
nus. If fo, we fcarcely would have met with yfek 
thegnas, mali fcrvi ; hors-thegn, qui circa equos mi- 
niftraty &c. It is probable that, when the word, 
was moft in ufe, every landholder was a Thane whp 
was infeft with Theme, q. vid. ** Edward, (the 
*' Confeflbr), grete mine Bifceops, and mine Eorles^ 
*' and all minp Thegnes on than fliiren, {thatjbire)^ 
^* wher mine preftes in Paulus minifter habband 
land, &c.*' ([Teut. degen-man, miles ; degen, gladius, 
eniis.] Ab-Thane occurs onlj in Scottiih writings, 
and is explained by Fordun, a chief Thane ; by Ma- 
jor, (upon a vague expreifion of ¥oTd}Xtk)fJeneJcallus 
in in/ulis qiii regios proventui eollegit ; and by others^ 
Up or Upper Thrne. It 4s rather difficult, however, 
to conceive that the Ab-Thane of Kinghom was a 
'greater perfonage th^n the Thane of Fife. Mr Pin- 
kerton contends, and with a greater abearance of 
probability, that Ab-TUane is Ahhot-Thane^ a Thane 
who was alfo an Abbot ; analogous to Abba-Comi- 
tes, explained by Du Cange, ahbaies quijimul erant 
fotnites. Variovis other Thanes are mentioned, as 
Mes-Thane, Sax. m^rj/e-thegn^ facerdos ; and Wo- 
ruld- fhane, Sax. v^oruld-thegn^ Thanus laicus feu 
fecularis. The derivation of Ab-Thane from the 
Hebrew ahbca^ pater ; quail, chief of the Thanes 
feems altogether abfurd. 

Thane, not well roqfted^ half-roajled. Sax. thaUy madl^ 
dus, humidns. 

Thankfully, willingly. Sax. thanc-full, contentus, 

Thayn, Thain, pane of glafs. 

The, Thie, thigh, 

Theik, to thatch. Sax. thecany tegere. Teut. deepen, 
tegere, operire, veftire. From this laft is probably 
derived the Engl, verb to d^ck. 

Theme, expl. by Skene, ** the power of having fervants 
andjlaves. Unto all Barronnes infeft with tbeme^ 
their bondmen, with their bairnes, gudes and geir 


Th. -. Tb. 

V pf operlle perteinis, f^a that they may difpone there- 
upon at their pleafure/' It feems to be an abbre- 
viation of Sax. tbewi'doM, fervit-ium, from the verb 
tbeowian, mancipare, in fervitutem redigere ; tbew, 

fervus ; thegen lage^ Thani jus, privilegium ; the^ 

ftungy comitatus, fatellitium, clientum turba, famu- 

litium. Theme is alfo cxpl. team, offspring, 
Thtmys, Jervants otjlaves attached to the land; plural 

of Sax. theowy fervus ; on tbeotvum micele aebta, iti 

fervis multas pofiefliones. 
Theodome^ Thewdbme, (Chaucer, Thedom), thrift, 
fuccefs. Sax. thean. Teut. dyden or tbiiden, proficere, 

Therm, Tharme, gut. Sax. thearm, Teut« darm, intef- 

tinum ; now more commonly Fearn. 
Thetes, Theets, or Feets, traces, wherewith horfes 

draw a carriage. 
Theuis nek, the cry of the lapwing ; ex fono. 
Thewis, qualities, difpqfitions ; originally cujloms, regu-* 

lations, manners, ceremonies. Sax. theaw, inititutum, 
^confuetudo, mos, lex. 
Thewit,expl. difpofed\ i. e. well ot ill inclined ; from 

Thewis in the lenfe of quaUties^ manners. 
Thewles, Thievelefs, Thawlefs, Jluggijh, inaBive, un* 

thrifty. See Dowlefs. Alfo expl. cold, forbidding ; 

i. e. void ofgoodfenfe or manners. See Thewis. 
Theyrs, expl. tiers or yard arms of a vej/el. 
Thick, intimate^ familiar ; as in the fame fenfe are uf- 

ed great and throng. ' 
Thiftwis, thievifb. Thiftwifly, thievijbly. 
Thig, to beg, to colleB a little fupply of money or goods 

uponfome extraordinary occnjion. Sax. tbicgean. 111. 

tbiggia, accipere. 
Thir, thefe. In fome cafes there feems no correfpond- 

ing Englifli word; as ** Thir ihillings (which I 

hold concealed in my hand) are better than thefe 

upon the table." 
Thirl, bondfervant^ Sax. & Ifl. thrael, fervus ; alfo 

the territory thirled or bound to a particular 



Thirl, to iritt or bore. Sax. tbirfiam, perforate ; ii^eff 

fbrcimen ; (the (ails.) 
Thirlage, Threllage, Thirledomei tbrMom^ fervituiti 

bondage ; q. tbraUage. Sax« & Ifl. tbrael^ ferritos. 
Thirledy bound to fonu Jirvitude^ fuch as grindiag the! 

corns at a particular mill. Sax. thrall^ ferritos. 
Tho^ tbent at that tinu / contraAed from Saau tbomu, 

Thochty tbougb, akbtf^ tbo\ 
Thole, ThoUy more cominealy Toll (in ehafters fiom 

the crown), expl. by Skeen^ ciiftom^ or that priri* 

lege of a Baron which exempts him and his xralTals 

from paying cuftom upon goods fold or bottgbt 

within the Barony. Brafton interprets it h be at 

liberty as weii to taJke, as to be free from Toll or euj-* 

Thole, to fuffer^ to endure. Sax. tboHan. Goth, tbulant 

ferre, tolerare, patL Goth. tbtJdUt patiax ; thdamaf 

Hiole^mude, Thoilmudei patient or patientif* 
Thoucht, fmall matter » A tbeacht l^ii^ fomewSat 

Thor, durance^ confinement. Swcd. tbor^ career. 
Thowlefs. See Dowlefs. 
Thraif, Thrave, twenty-four ; properly, the Jlrofw of 

twenty-four Jbeaves of corn. Brit. Drefa^ twenty- 
four. Sax. tbreaf manipulus. Swed. trafwe, acer- 

▼us fegetum. 
Thraw, a Jhort /pace of time^ a little ivhile^ a trice. 

Sax. thrah^ curfus temporis, tempus. Goth, tbra^ 

gian, currere. 
Thraw, pangy agony. Sax. threa^ affliftio, inili&io. 
Thraw, to twifi, Thrawin, mis-Jbaped, a^wry ; hence 

alfo perverfcf of a crooked difpojition. Sax. tbrawan, 

Thrawart, Thrawin, crofs, crofs^grainedf perver/e, 

(torvus), from Thraw, torquere. According to 

Ruddiman, from fraward. 
Thraw-cruk, an tnfrument for twifiing hay^ &c. into 


I Threip, 

Th. - tik. 

Threip, Tbrepe, v tie m na ^JfU awrirf, S^miatiom^ M^ 

Threip, ThrepCy U qfirm mkh veiememce^ Umverhold^ 
fyn to orgtu firemMGMflj. Sue ArtmfiaM^ redar- 

ThHfoiiiy ibree-foli^ c e m f ifih^ ^ Arte. 
Threfwaldy threJboU. Sax. Sberfcmollj limen. 
, Threte, throngs crowd, heaf. Sax, thread, toilMly tnrma, 

Threte, to crowd imto, to frefs into ; from Sax. threat^ 

Threris, eirpl. /^r/. ^ His fie£s jokkit wat in dire- 

tis/' G. Douglas, Rather perhaps die iame iridi 
' 'JTictcs, traces. 
Thierty-fnniy thirtj ; aUb expL fome thirty, about 

Thrid and Teiii» a nuediod of lefdog arable ground Cdt 

' tbe third and tenths or tnvo fifths of the prodoce* 
Thrimle, fame with Thirl, to drill, to bore, to prefs 

through with SJiculty. Sax. ibjrUasi, ; alio cx^. 

to wrejlle^ to fumble. 
Thling, to flings throw t thruft^pujh. Sax. thriagam, 

tbriccan, premere, comprimere^ nrgere, tmdefe^ 

Thrift, to thrujl, to prefs upon^ to f^frtfs, to com^ 

ThJroch, Thmcb, a Jbeet of printed paper ^ as a news 

pap^t is fometimes call^ a print; fronfk Tent, druth, 

prefiuta, pteflTiu, compreffio. 
TliroU, a hole^ properly, a hole made by drilling or dor-» 

ing. See Thrill, 
llirowgang, thorough-fate. Sax. thurhy per, trans. 
Thmch-ftane, Thruch, iofnb'Jtone (placed horizontally.) 

Sax. thruh, farcophagus ; which has been conceiv- 
ed to have fome affinity with the preceding thurb, 

per, trans ; and with Sax. dufe^ oftium ; if not alfo 

with Thruch, a Jbeet of printed paper. The co-in- 

cidence^ however, feems to be merely accidental. 
Throng, did tbring^ flunky threw. See Thring. 
Thrunlatid, rollings tufHdling about ; q. trundling. 

Vol, IV. H h Thryn-feld, 

Th.^ ■ I I III Tir . 


Thryn-fald, threes/old. Thryis, thrice. 

Thud, blowy ^l^fti ftorm ; or the /ound produced by any 

of thefe. 
Thum-fleil, a covering for the thumbs as the finger of a 

•Thuorty athwart, A-thuort, about ^ here and there. 
Thwaing, thong. Sax. fhwang. 
Thwjttel, whittle. Sax. hwitel^ cultellus. 
Thwjtten, Whyttcn, cut -with a kni/e. Sax. huywoden 

me^ formarunt me. 
Thyne, thence. Teak ian^ inde, poftea, turn. 
Ticht, Tycht, Tyte, rights straight ^ strait^ways^ direS" 

ly. See Tyte. 
Ticht, Tycht, Tyte, tight^ neat ; from Sax. tian, vin- 

cire, ligare ; qu;ili, tied. 
Tickatts, placards^ advertifements. O. Fr. etiquette. 
Tid, Tyde, time* Sax. Ifl. Swed. &c. tid^ tetnpus. 
Tid, Tyde, happened^ fell out. Sax. tidan^ contin- 

Tift, good condition^ state of healthy trim > has probaUy 

fome connexion with Toft, q. v. 
Tike, Tyke, a dog, cur. Ifl. tiiJ^, tiig. Swed*. tii, cani- 

Til, Till, tOf unto^ with. Swed. tUl. Ifl. til. 
Tilt, account of tidings. 
Timbrell, Tumbrell, expl. by Skene, one kind of tor^ 

ment as stocks or joggeSy quhairwith craftes^men^ Jik 

as bronvsters ar punifhed ; feenjs to be the fame with 

Cuck-flule, q. vid. In England it was alfo called 

the thewe. 
Tine, Tyne, to lofe. Ifl. t^ne^ amittere. 
Tine, Tynde, to kindle. Dan. tende. Sax. tendan. Goth. 

tandjare, accendere ; whence perhaps Ingle, large 

Tinfale, Tynfail, lofsy forfeiture ; from Tine, to lofe. 
Tirl, Tirr, Tii*f, to stripy to uncover. Fr. tirer. 
Tirleis, lattice work. 
Tirlleifl^, TiiUeft, trelUfed^ latticed^ having grates. Fr. 

treillisy cancelli, tranfenna. 
Tifche, Tyfche, Tifchey, belt ^ girdle^ fafb. Fr. tiffu^ a 


Ti To. 

fort of broad' ribbon, or fillet ; from Teut. tajfche^ 
teffcbe^ niarfupium) crumena, manticay purfe ; fjno- 
nimous with the Swed. gieerdel & Goth, gairda^ 
-zona ; nih in gairdos aiz, neque in zona ses. Mar. 

Tite, Tjt, fnatched ; [from Sax. ge^thn, trahere, li- 

Titlene, hedge-fparrow. Ifl. tyttlingur, paffer. 

Titter, rather^ fooner ; the compar. of Tyte, ready ^ 

Titty, childifli pronounciation oijister. 

Tocher, portion^ dowry. Sax, taean, betsecan, tradere, 

To-curo, To-gang, coming tOj encounter^ meetings acm 

^od^Jox i fo called perhaps on account of its dcftruc- 
tive rapacity among the flocks of flieep ; from Tent. 
dood. Swed. & Dan. doted, Ger. tody mors. Before 
the country was cleared of wood, when foxes were 
plenty, and iheep fcarce, this animal mud have been 
well entitled to the appellation of the destroyer^ or 
death. Tod Lowrie feems nothing more than the 
.dreary ox doleful fox\ as he is ftill commonly called 
from Teut. treurigh^ mseftus, dolens, dolendus. 

Toddy, Tother, the other. 

Todle, to walk with ajhort unsteady step^ like a p^rfon 
in liquor, or a young child. 

To- fall, a f mall building annexed to the wall of a larger 

Toft, expl. a place where a manfion^houfe hath stood; 
locus arboribus minufcjilis fonfitus ; q. d. a ttft of 

Tolbuith, prifon ; originally exchequer ; from Sax. & 
Teut. to\ ve&igal, cenfus, & hoede^ domus* 

Too-fall, Toofal of the night, dew^fallf time of the dew 

falling ; from Teut. douw^ ros. It is explained by 

Lamb, •* before night fall ; an image drawn from a 

fufpended canopy, dropped fo as to cover what is 



To. -. Tr. 

Toolye, Tuilye, to wreitle, to fight* Teut. iuyl^ Jabor, 

Torfel, Torchel, to pine away, to die, Ifl^ tburia, Swed. 

torka, iiccace, abllergere^ arefcere. }i}. d^orr^ aridus» 

Torfeir, vexation, injury, nufchuf ; nearly allied to 

Torfcl, to pine away ; or perhaps to Sax. steorfa, 

cladesy flrages. See Tarveal, to plague or vex. 
Tort, injury, wrong, trouble* Fr. /or/, iDJuna. 
Tofche, tight^ neat. [Fr, toufe, clipped, polled, pared 

round.*] G. Douglas renders ^' cara pinus" a iofcbe 

fir-tree, which £eems not to ^gree with the coifimon 

1 ofcheoderach, Tochederauch, ^xpl. by 31^ene, an of' 

fice or jurifdiFHon, not unlike to ane BaiUierie,Jpeciah 

ly in the \fles and Hiela^ds ; or, as others will have 

it, the office of a ppi)lic p-ofecutor. G^el. 
Tpuk, a tugf pull, draught, /ft to^ Sax. teqgan. Teut. 

tucken, tcanere. G. Douglas ufes ithe WQf4 in the 

lenfe of stroke^ blow. Tpuk of druqai beift of 

Touk, to tuck, tofastcii ; variety of Stidi. 
Toufle, to rumple, to put into diforder. Touflie, Toufie, 

Tout, Toot, found of a born ; to found a born ; alfp ta 

drink largely. 
Tow, Towm, rope, Teut. touw, funis. Swed. tomi 

Towmunt, Towmon, corr. of twehe^month. 
Toy, an oldfajhum €f female head drefs, 
Trachil. See Drably, to trail in the mire. 
Trad, track, courfe in travelling or in failing, 
'IVagetis, Tregettis, Tregets, tricks, deceits, deceptions ; 

feemingly a perverfion pf tragedies, both in ortbo- 

graphy and meaning ; unlcfs we were to fupppfe it 
to have been foimed frona the Fr. tricoterie, treach- 
ery, deceit ; alfo narrative ppems. 
Trails, d faster, mijchief trouble, plague, lofs, damage ; 
commonly ufed now for the carcafes of Jbeep whicb 
have died by difeafe or accident. Sax. treg, vexatio, 


Tr. ...., Tr. 

trjbutatio, 4^nuxn ; strtc^ (the £iine word with the 

ajTpiration), plaga, peftis. 
TraiftJs. $.ee Strefs, a mode of taking t^ accufations. 
Tramprt^ dead hody^ corps ; from I^t. mors. 
Tramp, Stramp, to tread with forces to trample. Swed. 

trampapa^ cooculcare. 
^ r zms^ tie poles or Jbafts of a cart:, Yt. trameau^ a 

Tranoynt, Tranownt, Tranentj to pofs^ to march fud' 

denly. ^ 

TriEinfmew> to tranjmute or change. Ft. tranfptuer. 
TrantlimSy infignifcant trifles or articles of furniture. 
Tjrappouris, IVappours, trappings. 
Xrat, Ti4>t, old woman, one who has trotted^ or trudged 

about for a long time. Teut. trat^ greifiis ; tratten^ 

gradit Jladdiman thipks it has fome affinity with 

Teut. tateren^ tit^bare, b^butire, to fpeak with a 

flirill voice. See Trattilli$. 
Tratoury, Tray, treachery ; from Traitour, Betray, 

Tr?it;tiUi^, Xattles, idlefiories^ old women^s fables. 
T^rzyWtis, fupporters. Fr, treil/is, a latticed frame for 

fupporting Vine trees. , 
Tj^eit, Trete, to entreat. Tre^abyl, eafy to he entreat" 

Treitcheour, treacherous perfon. Fr. tricheur. 
TrdlyeUy Trelyeis, curry-combs. Fr. etrille. # 
Trenchman, expl. train-bearer ; rather perhaps car^ 

ver ; from Fr. trencher ^ jGcindere ; (or interpreter*), 

Fr. trucheman, 
Tr.ene, Treyn, of trpe^ wooden* Sax. tr^oyjen^ lig- 

Trentall, afervice of thirty mqffisy t^pon as many differ 

refit day s^ for the benefit of a departed foul. Fr, 
Treft. See 1 raift, trufi^ trufiy. 
Trejdis, trejlles. fr. trefleau^ tripus, tripoda. 
Txeules, TrQw*\ei»,faithlefSi truthUfs^falfe. 
Trevilh, Trjffyih, aftaU^ or rather the partition between 

twojtalls. Fr. tref, travaifon. 
T^ewage, tribute, O. Fr. tmagf^ 


Tr. Tr. 

Trews, troughs. Dan. trou^ alvcus ; alfo truce ox peace. 
Trews, vejl^ bofe and breeches of one piece, Hib. trius^ 

triufan^ laccx braccae« Gael, triubhas, trowfers. 
Trew jd, protected by a truce, ajfuredy in confequence 

of an engagement to be true and faithful. 
Trig, neat^ ttght^ tricked up, [Dan. tryg^ fafe, fe- 

Trinle, Trindle, to trundle or roll, 
Trinfsh, Trinch, to cut or carve ; to hack, to kill. Fn 

Trippisj^cif. Fr. troupeau ; from Sax. trep, grex, 

Trift,/fi. laX.trifiis. 
Trocks, toys^ trinkets. To trock, to barter or exchange 

goods of f mall value. 
Trone, throne. Fr. trone. Teut. troone^ thronus. 
Trone, expl. the pillory. Swed. torn^ prifon ; torg, the 

market-place. Trone feems alfo to have figniiied the 

public balance or beaniy and fcales for weighing the 

more common articles of fubfiflence \ according to 

Skinner, from i'eut. dronen, tronen, nutate, vacil- 

lare, vibrare. 
Tropin's, a flrange corr. o£ troops. 
Trowcour, Trucour, Trewker, one who deals inbarterr 

ifjgy a trucker ; from Trocks, trinkets. 
Tro- wending, ivandering to and fro, 
Trublie, troiibledy muddy. Fr. trouble^ fame witl;i 

TruiTis, tricks, deceits. To truff, to Jleal. 
T^v\x\is^fome kind of childijh amufement ; perhaps that 

which Kilianus defcribes under the Teut. word 

dnlle^ mola ex nuce cava, quam puerili filo trajeftp , 

verfant ; q. d. nux verfatills, nux terebrata. 
Trump, to deceive^ to cheat. Trumpit, deceived. Teut. 

Trumpe, a trifle, a thing of fmall value. Trompes, 

trumpery, goods or furniture of little value, trafh. Fr. 

tvoviperie, fallacy, delufion, over-reaching, 
Trumpouris, deceivers, cheats ; q. d. pedlars who have 

onlj trumpery to difpofc of. See Trumpe. 


Tr. ■ Tf . 

Tryne, Trayne, treachery, deceit. Sax. tregian^vtTLztCt 

Trynfch. See Trinfch, to cut off, Fr. trencher. 
Tiyft, appointment to meet ; to make an appointment to 
meet. Sax. truijfftan^ fidem dare. Ifl. treyfie. Swed. 
trafla. Tryftell trie, trying tree^ or appointed place 
of meeting in aforejt. 
Tuaj, Twaj, two. 
Tuffing, TofBn, CofEn, fluffing of tow, or the refufe of 

flax ; wadding ; from Tow. 
Tuillye, conteji^jlrife. 

Tulchin, Tulchan, a calvi s Jkin fluffed with JlraWy and 
prefented to a cow to make her y if Id her milk ; budget. 
Tume, empty ^ hollow^ vain^ Swed. tomy vacuus. 
Tume, Teme, to empty ^ to pour or throw out. 
Tuquheit, Tuechit, the lapwing ; an imitation of its 

note. «^ 

Turcais, Turhijb ; may alfo fignify the turquoifcy a pre- 
cious ftone. Fr. 
Turcomes, Vol. II. p. i68. clotted filth ; perhaps from 

Tcut. dracky fordes. \AX..ftercus. 
Turdion, a /pedes of galliard or gay dance, Fr. tordion, • 
Turkes, pincers^ nippers. Armor, turques. Fr. tire^clou ; 

or corr. abbrev. of Teut. trek tang, forceps. 
Turnay, Turney, to contend or fight in a tournament. 

Fr. tournois. 
Turn-pyk, the winding fiairs of a tower. 
Tufche. See Tifche, girdle^ heltj purft. 
Tute-mowit, having prominent lips. 
Twa, two. Twal, twelve. 

Twichc, to touch. Twichand, touching, concerning. 
Twinter, Quinter, a ewe in her third year, or after 

" two winters.'** 
Twift, twig, branch. Teut. twift, ramalia. 
Twyne, Twinnc, ta part withy to be feparated ; q. d. 

to be made twain. 
TwjntTS,.TwynrySy pincers, nippers. 
Tyd, ttme,feafon. Sax. tid, tempus, opportunitas. 
Tyde, to betide, to happen. Sax. tidan, contingere, acci- 


Ty. •• ■ Tp 

Tyiy, wen made^ hartd/ome, proper in appear arici, Tcuf. 

titdigh^ maturus, oportunus. Ifl. tydr^ obfequetiB, 

applicabilisy amicus. 
Tyift, Tyft, to entice^ allure^ fiir up. Fr. atiipr. 
TjmbrcU, Tymbret, Tymbi^r, the crejl of a hitffkl* 

Fr. timhr^. Tcut, titnmer / a term in heraldty of the 

fame import. 
Tymmer, Tymbour, tambour^ drum. Tyttimer weycht, 

fucb a weicht or Jieve as could anfwer the putpofe of 

a drum. See Weycht. ' , 

TympaniSf drums^ tambours. Lat. 
Tyndis, Tynes, the horns of a hart^ properly the tiHes 

of the horns. Harrow-tyncs, the teeth of a han^ow. 

Swed. harftlnnar. Ifl. tifine^ dens. Teut. tinrie^ 

Tyne, to lofe. Tydt, lofl. Ifl. tyi^t^ perder^ ; tynie^ 

perdidi ; tyndur^ perditus. []Swed. tyna af cohfuchi, 

to wafte^ to confume.] 
Tyne, to dimimjb^ to marr ; literally, to draw the teifid, 

or tenth of 
Tynfel, Tinfale, loff^fdrfeiture ; frotn Tyne. 
Tyrr, Tyrl, Tirle, />«///, throw, Jlripy draw. 
Tyrryt, Tyrlit, Tirryt^ fript naked, Fr. tirer^ trahere. 
Tyftyre, cafe, co'uer, Lat. tefla, 
Tyt, fnntched quickly, fet%ed quickly^ drew or pulkd 

Tyte, Als tyte, have the fame meaning in G. Douglas 

v/ithfwiih, and als fwyth^ vi^. ivjlantly, quick foon. 

Ifl. titt, promptus. 


Vd. Un. 


Oder, Uddyr, other ; nearer to the Fr, autre than to 

inoft of the Northern correfponding words. Sax. o- 

ther, Swed. & Teut. ander, Lat. alter, 
Ug, to dcteft on account of horrid appearance or quality. 

Goth. ogan. Ifl. i/^^/i, metuere, timere. 
Ugfum, hideous ^/right/iil^ horrible. Ugfumnefsi bide^- 

oufnefs ; froni Sax. oga^ horror, timor. 
Umaft, Ummeft, upmojl^ upper mojl. Sax. ufemejl^ fu- 

premus, fummns. The Umaft clais claimed by the 

priefl at a funeral was probably the Jheet which co» 

vered the body,. 
UmbedraWf to yoithdram, Umbedrew, withdrew ; 

** the initial particle um or un having here an intcn- 

five fignificationi as in un-loofe^^ and in various o- 

ther inftances. 
Umberaucht, (JUmberauflit), expl. emhara£trd\ or x^'- 

ihtx fmote^ purfued \ q. raucht, 
.Umberforow, bardy^Jirnii not eafily to be injured. Teut. 

on»befarghty or on^hekomrnerty free of care ; beforgen^ 

Umbefchew, (Bp. Dougl.) to efchew or avoid. 
Umbefet, be/et round about, furrounded. Umbefettis, 

attacks^ fets upon. Ifl. um^ onty about. 
Umbefiege, Umbcfege, to bejiege, to lay Jlege to on all 

Umbethought, duely confidered^ revolved in the mind. 
JJmquhil, Umquhyle, by Mr Macpherfon, (editor of 

Winton's Chronicle,) and by Mr Pinkefton, expl. 
fometimes. Bat jnore compionly it is ufcd in the 

fenfc of fometime ago^ 'ofold^ and adjeftively for late^ 

deceafed. See Quhilom ; from which Umquhylc feem^s 

to be formed by a tranfpofition of the fyllables« 
Unabayflit, Unabafyt, undaunted, without Jbame. 
Uncorne, (Gaw. Dougl.) expl. wild oats. To fow his 

Vol. IV. I i uacorn. 

uncorn, (o put an end to bis youthful follies. [Swed. 

ugn. Goth, auhn^ oven^ forhax, fumus ; q. d. to 

fow com which had been baked in an oven or dried 

in a kiln.] 
(Jncredyble, Incredulous^ unhelievingy who will not be* 

lieve ; as Vengeabil for bringing vengeance or mif« 

Uncuni^andnefs, want of knowledge or JkilL 
Uncuth, now Unco, unknown^ Jlrange. Sax. uncutb, 

incognitas, alienus ; alfo very ; as Unco glad, very^ 

or unufually glad. The meaning of the word is now 

confiderablj changed, 
Undegefty rajb^ imprudent^ untimely. See Dcged. 
Undeip,^/j/fow. }5ii^t\]^iSyJballow places. Teut. ondiep. 
Undemit, Un-demmyt, un^cenfured ; from Sax. derfum^ 

cenfere, judicare. 
Under-gore, in ajiate of leprous eruption. 
Under-lout, tojloop or fuhmit^ to befubdued^ to be fub* 

jeB. See Lout. 
Under-ly, to undergo^ to ly under ^ tofuffer. 
Undo, to explain^ unfold^ unravel^ difcloje. 
Uue, oven. Swed. ugn^ omn. Goth, aubn^ fornax. 
Undocht, aftlly weak perfon^ a coward. See Douchty, 
Uneith, Uneth, Uneiil, and with other flight varia-p 

tions, not eajily^ fcarcely. Sax. uneithe^ vix. See 

Un-erdit, unburied ,• from Erde, to bury. 
Unfery, infirm^ inaBive, heavy. See Ferie & Fery. 
Unforlatit, notjorfaken^frejh, new. See Forleit. 
Unfrend, enemy ; as Lat. inimicus from in- amicus. 
Unganand, unjity not becoming. See Gane, to befufficient 

Un-gearit, fame with DifplenJjJjed^ Jlripped^ rohhedy 

emptied. Sgg Gcir^ goods, furniture. 
Un-halfit, notfaluted ,• from Halfe, to falute. 
Un-heilded, uncovered. See Heild, to cover up. 
Unirkyt, unwearied ; a-kin to the Engl, impers. verb, 

«' it irketh me," tcedet. 
Unlaw, a fine ov fated legal amerciament paid in money 

or goods for tranfgrejjion of the law ; from on^ pri- 

valiva particula, & law or lauchy lex. 


iJn — tJfl. 

l?n-leful, Un-lcil, unlawful. See Leful, /atu/&/. 

TJn-lei£, Unpleafant^ uhgratefuL Teut. lief^ gratus, cafiiS; 

Un-luffam, (Un-l?eufuin ji un^lovely^ un^kindly ; q. «/«- 

Un-pyfalit, ai liherty^ loofe.. Sec Pjfalit, yfrj/r^d' &c. 

Un-quirit, (Bp. Dougl.) «o* enquired after. 

Un-rebutit, not repuifedy not overconie ; from Fr. rebuter^ 
to repulfe, to difcourage. 

Unrotle ; Abb6t of tJnriile, a kind 6f temporary Maf 
ter of Reveisy whofe office it was to fuperintend and 
regulate the ipoxts which were exhibited for the en- 
tertainment of the common people at the higher 
feftivalsy particularly at Yule or ttie Kalends of Ja- 
fitiary. Hen<e in England he was called the Cbrift^ 
mas Lordy or Abbot of Mis^ruk. In Scotland, it is 
probable that perfons of this defcription were ap- 
pointed, as in England, not Only at the Colleges and 
principal religious hotffes, but in every borough or 
market town, Cwhere^ i't appears, they wete chofen 
by the magiftrates)^ and at the feats or caftles of the 
grcatei^ Batons. ' " To the Chrifitenmaile Lord, fays 
Polydore Virgil, all the houfliold and familie, with 
the mailer himfelf, muff be obedient ; the office haw 
ving its origin' in that equality which the fervants 
were fuffered to enjoy in common with their maf- 
tefs at the antient Saturnalia which were cele*^ 
brated at the fame feafon of the y^ar.'* The appel« 
lation is probably co-eVal with the Engliih lan- 
guage ; and the office itfelf, with the eftablifhm^nt 
of Chriftianity . In a decree of Pope Innocent I. 
A. D. 408, we find thefe words, which evidently 
allude to fome fuch perfons as the Abbots of Un<- 
rule : «* Prafeterea, fr^uenter quidam ex fratribus 
noftris, curiales vel quibujlibet publidy funBiombns 
occupatos clericos facere cantendunt, &c.«— Conflat eos 
in ipiis muniis etiam voluptates exhibere, quas a 
Diabolo inventas eife non e(l dubium ; et ludorum 
vel munerum apparatibus preeej/e^ &c." The 27 th 
Canon of a General Council held in the fame year, 
fctjj forth that *« thofe feafts which are oblerved in 


Un — Un. 

many places, and which are borrowed from Gentile 
or Pagan error, ought to be prohibited, efpeciaUj 
fince in fome cities men fear not to keep them even 
upon the principal holjdays^ and in the very 
ch arches : On which days alfo, they ufe moft wick- 
ed dances through the villages and ftreets ; fo that 
the honour of the matrons, and the modefty of num* 
beliefs women are aflaulted with lafcivious injuries.'^ 
And, by the G. Counc. A. D. 614, ** it is declared 
to be unlawful, upon the KaUnds of January^ (or 
Chrifimas Holidays)^ to make any nlthy plays, 
(vicola vel cervula\ &c.*' Alfo from the i6th 
Canon of the 8th Gen. Counc. A. D. 867, we learn 
that *' it was an annual cuftom in Princes courts to 
attire fome lay-man in epifcopal robes, who in the 
tonfure and other ornaments ihould ad the part of 
a Bifhop, &c." all which proceedings are cenfured 
and prohibited under fevere penalties. The. (ame 
cenfures and prohibitions are repeated from century 
.to century down to the time of the Reformation^ 
Thefe Holiday fports, even in the earlieft periods, 
feem to have been generally of a dramatic nature, 
from the manner in which the adtors are mentioned 
in the contemporary Councils ; for example, " co- 
micos aut viros fcenicos ;— de agitatoribus five thea- 
tricis ;-^fpe6lacula fecularia ; fcenicis atqVie hillrio* 
nibus ; fpedlacula theatrorum ; hiflriones ac turpi- 
tudinibus fubjecli perfonse ; eos qui dicuntur mi- 
mos, &c." — all which expreffions occur in ecclefiaf- 
tical Conditutions before the year 680. Had it not 
been for the Aft 61. 1555, we fliould fcarcely have 
known that the cuftom of elefting a Lord of Un- 
reafon had ever been obfervcd in Scotland. That 
A6b alone is, however, a fufficient evidence, 

(Jn-faucht, dijlurhedy dif ordered^ troubled. See Saucht, 

Un-fel, unhappy ^ unluciy, mifchienwus ; alfo expl. ill' 
lucky misfortune. See Sely, happy y from CoiYi.fel, 
bonus ; unfel^ malus. 

tJnfeily,Un. filly, Un-faul, fame with Unfel, unhappy* 


Un Ut. 

Un-fonfy, unlucky ; mifcbigvous. See Sons^ projfi^ritj. 
Untelljbill, Un-tdlable, unfpeakabie^ infandus. 
Unthrifty, ufed bj Bp. Douglas for unfriendly^ u e, 

who oppcfed jour thrift or profpertty, 
Uotretabjll, inexorable ; who cannot he prevailed upzn 

by intreaty. Fr. intr ait able, 
Un-wamift, un'-jcamed. Un- warneftlj, unwarily. 
Un-warjit, not accurfed. See Warj, to damn* 
Un-wemmjt, Un-wennyt, un/potted^ unftained^ without 

hlejnifb \ from Sax. wem^ wemme^ macula^ labes^ now 

wane or wuyn^ a morbid tumour. 
Un-werd, misfortune^ fad fate^ ruin ; from werd or 

weird f chance J fate. 
Un-wittingy Un-wittinlie, not knowings unadvifedly^ 

rafbly ; from Teut. weterjy fcire. 
Up-wroken, un-revenged ; from Wroik, to vent or f.\r- 

cute vengeance, 
Up-a-land, at a ^diftance from the fea^ in the coujitf\\ 

Up*buller, to boil or throw up j to fpring up^ in the 

manner of a well, 
Up-he, Up-heis, to lift up or exalt. Up-hcit, extilteJ, 

Up-hefit, raifed up^ exalted. 
Up- rend, to render or give up j q. to up-rendtT. 
Up fet, infurreSiion, mutiny. Swed. uppfat. 
Up-welt, threw up. See Welt. 

Up-wreile, to raife or lift up with difficulty. See Wrril. 
Ure, chance y luck^ ** as We fay good luck, bad luck ; 

but without any addition, generally under ftood of 

good for tune. '^^ G. Fr. & Arm. ear, hap, luck, for- 

tune^ chance. 
Urifum, Eiryfum, fearful^ from being in a ftate of 

difmal folitude } afraid of hobgoblins. See Eiry. 
Uterance, Outrance, deflruBion. \Yt. oultrance^ extre- 
mity, excefs.] 


Wa. ~..i_ Va. 

V. w. 


Wa, Wae, Way, wo^forraw^forrowfui, 
WachlSf /entinels, Wache-crj, pq/s»word» 
Wacht. See Waught, to /will. . / 

Wad, WzgCf pledgCf pawn, Wadds, a yoqthful amufe'- 

xnent wherein much ufe is made of pledges. Wad, 

Wage, alfa as a verb to wager. Sax. wa^, pignus. 
Waddin,^rofr^ ; like two pieces of iron beat into one. 

Sec Weld, 
Wadfet, a contraB by which a debtor makes over his 

land to his creditor^ to be redeemed on payment of the 

debt ; alfo as a verb, to alienate lands or tenements 

under reverjion ; from Wad^ pignus, and Sety lo- 

Waf, Waif, Waith, wanderings that has no owner, that 

has been founds and not likely to be claimed. Fr, 

quaife^ beftia erratica. Ifl. vofay wofa, oberrare. 
Wageour, Vageour, Vager. a mercenary foldier j from 

Wage, Jlipendium^ as Soldier or Soldat from Germ. 

told^ merces, ftipendium. 
Waide, to penetrate^ P^JJ^py ^^ employ (one's thoughts.) 
Waif, Waf, a hajly motion ; alfo to move oxjhake. Sax. 

wnjian^ vaciliare, fluftuare. 
Vaig, Vag, to roam or wander^ Teut. waeghen^ waeg^ 

helefjy movere, moveri, hue illuc volvere, motitare. 

Hence Stravaig. 
Waigle, to move in a tottering or unjleady manner. Teut. 

waeghelen, hue illuc volvere. 
Vaik, Vake, Walk, to be vacant or unoccupied^ fpoken 

of an office or benefice, Otherwife^, it may fignify 

to play or make merry ^ to fpend the time idly \ alfo to 

waitf to watchy to ponder, or Jludy. Teut. waeckepy 

lucttbrare, elucubrare. Lat. vacare. 
Vaikans, Vacains, time of vacation. 



Vail 9 Wail, a valley. VaHs, valleys . 

Wail, Awail, Awale, to go or fall dawn ; to carry on^f 

felfdown. Sec A wail. 
Wail^ expl. tbe wale or nDtalof aflnp ; i. e. *' the oat- 
raofl timbers in a fhip's fide, oa which men fet their 
feet, when thej clamber op.'* 
Waily Weal. See Wale, to pick out or cboofe ; and with 

various otberfignificadons. 
Vail J e quod vailje, happen nvbat may^ at all adventure^ 
be the ijfue what it may. Fr. vaille que vaille^ valeat 
quantum valere poteft. 
Waim, Vame, womb, belly. 

Wain, Wane, tbe confteUation called Cbarleit wain or 
waggon. Teut. waegben, Septentriones, Aiclos, fi. 
dus fimile plauftro. 
Waipen-ftaw, Wappinfhaw,^/&fif; of arms or weapons^ 
a fort of militaiy review ; " fwa that bj learning of 
ordoui and bearing of their weapons in time of 
peace, men may be the mair expert to put them« 
• felves in order haiftjlie in time of need." Teut. 
nvapenfcbouwing^ armilufiriam. The firft time that 
Wapinfcbaw is mentioned in the Scottiih Statute 
book, is under the reign of William the Lion, or a- 
bout the year 1200. ** Item, it is ilatute, that Wa^ 
pinfibaw fal be keiped and haldin — ^He quha has fif- 
tene pond l^d, or fourtie marks worth in move, 
able goods, fall have ane horfe, an habergeon, ane 
knapifkay (^ox helmet) of iron, ane fword, ane dag- 
ger. He quha hes fourtie fchilling land or mair, 
untill ane hundreth fchilling land, fidl have ane bow 
and arrowes, ane dagger, and ane knife. — He quha 
has les nor fouitie fchilling land, fall have ane band 
axe, ane bow and arrows : And all others quha 
may have armour, fall have ane bow and arrows 
out- with the forreft ; and within the forreft, ane 
bow, ane pyle. The 60th Statute of James 1. A. D. 
1425 ^ and the 31ft of James IV. A. D. 1491, are 
nearly the fame with refpefi to the articles of ar- 
mour : Thofe of James II. and 111. are of a more 
general nature. The 91ft of Jaracs V. A. D. i j^o, 
► is 

WsL Wa, 

is the firft which contains particular orders with re*^ 
{\yt6i to the mode of arrangement : It ordains that 
the SchcrifFs, Magilt rates, &c. with the King's 
O.nimiflioners, at every Weaponfch awing, after en- 
rol! na the names, fall chuife ane able man for ev^- 
^ '.' 'Miochin, or maa, as it is of greatnefs, quha fal be 
i''.apt;-i:)o or Captaines to the Cumpanies of the 
t'uivlU pui. chinis, and fall learn -them to gang in or- 
cloi::c. '.'lid beare their weapons, and fall conveene 
\\\i*\r faidis Cumpanies twife at the lead in the 
roonethes of May, June, and July, and there excrce 
them in maner forcfaid." The Aft fpecially pro- 
vides, that *' na maner of weapons be admitted in 
Weapovfcbawirigs hot fpeares, pikes, ftark and lang, 
of fex elnes of length, Leith axes, halbardes, hand- 
bows and arrows, crocebowes, culverings^ and twa 
handed fwords." An Aft of the next Parliament, 
held in the fame year, viz. March 14th 1540, fcts 
forth, that " becaufe the fchot of gunnes, hagbuttes, 
and iiiher fmall aitaillarie, nowe commonly ufed in 
nil cuntries, is fa fellon, and un-efchewable to the 
)>ith and high courage of noble and valyieant men, 
^c. It is therefore ordained, that every landed man 
lall have ane hagbutte (or fmall can?ion) of founde 
i^cajl uietal) with calms, (vwuldsy) bullet tes and pil- 
lockes of lead or iron, with powdei convenient 
thereto, for everie hundreth pound oil'SLndi thathehes 
of new extent : And he that has hot ane hundreth 
mark land, fall have twaculverings, {large mujhets f) 
And ilk man havand fourtie pound land, fall have 
ane culvcring with calms, leade and powder gain- 
and thereto, with treaftes, (jnajles or tripods y) to be 
at all times ready for fchutting of the faid hagbuttes, 
^c. And that everie Kirk man furnifli fik-like ar- 
taillarie to be fchawin at Weapon-fchawings^ after 
the availe and quantity of their temporal landes :-^ 
I'hat Ladies of conjunft fee and life-ient fall furnifli 
efFeirand to the quantity of their living : And every 
merchant who exported goods to the extent of a 
JmJI^ was ordered to bring home twa hagbuttes of 


Wa. Wa. 

erochertj (Yr/de la croc,^ or maa, as his pack raikf 

furnifli, or elfe as meikle metall as will make the 

faides hagbuttis, with powder effeirand thereto. A 

fubfequent ftatute (unpubliihed) ordains that " the 

greater towns Ihould mak carts of weir^ and in ilk 

cart twa gunnis." 
Vaiil, Waift, nvajiey defolate^ empty ; and figuiatively, 

vain^ as the Lat. tnanis, 
Wair, Ware, io expend^ fpoken not only of money ^ but 

of time y faculties y &c. Dan. iveria, vendere ; quafi^ 

to exchange money for wares. Swed. war a. Sax. wa^ 

ruy mercimentum, mere. 
Waird, confinement^ prifon^ ward or cujlody. Teut. 

nvaerdcy cuilodia ; alfo to tmprifon. Teut. waerden^ 

cuftodire, obfervare, defenderc. 
Wait, Vait, to know, I wait not, or wait well, / inow 

not^ or know welL Teut, weten, fcire, cognitum ha- 
bere. Swed. weta. 
Waiter, water, Teut. waeter, aqua. Sax. water, Goth. 

Waith, expl. danger. See Waf, wandering, 
Waithman, expL wanderer, hunter ; alfo watchman. 
Wak, Walk, moift ; alfo clouds ^ watry clouds, Teut. 

wack, tepidus, humidus, madens, liquidus ; wad 

weder, caelum uvidum, aer humidus. 
Wak, Wauk, to drejs woollen cloth by thickening it^ Scd 

Swed. walka, 
Wak, Vak. See Vaik, Waik, to be unoccupied, &c. 
Wake, to wander, Ifl. vacka, Lat. vagor, 
Vaken, Waken, to roufe, Vaknyd, Waknyd, roufed, 

Teut. wecken, excitarc e fomno. 
Wakryfe, . Vaikryfc, wakeful^ not difpofed to Jleep ; 

(lightly corrupted from Teut, waeckigh^ infomnis, 

Walaway, Waladay, an interjeBion of grief or pity*, 

Sax. wela w<7, eheu, proh dolor. 
WM, the plain jfthf ground. Sax. 'm;^/^, planities. Ifl* 

ivoliy campus. 
^ Wale, Wail, the befi, the pri^uilege of picking out the bejt, 

Teut. waele^ optio, ele6l:io. 

Vol. IV. Kk . Wale, 

Wa. ■■ , Wa. 

Wale, Wail, Weal, Wjle, to pick out, cither the bell 
or worft \ but more commoolj to choofe \ that which 
is left behind, or the refufe being termed the oui^ 
'Wales, Germ. nueUn. Goth. %ualian* Swed. ivalia^ 
eligere. Id. vel, eligo ; valde, elegi -, valenn, eleftas. 
* Teut. nvaeliy optio, eledio. This verb docs not ap- 
pear in the Belgic or Anglo Saxon. 

Wale, Wail, to avail. Walis, avails. 

Wales, (Reg. Maj.) for Walls, ivells, confecratei 
iVells, to which people went in pilgrimage. 

Walgeous, Valgeous, (Barb. Bruce,) expl. galant. 

Walkin, fame with Vaken or Waken, to roufe or «* . 
nuaie, Y-walkynnjt, roufed or av)aied\ alfo to 
watch. Walkrife, watchful^ infomnis. 

Wall, a wave. Wallis, waves. Teat. Hvalle, unda, 
fluSus, abyflus, profundum. Douglas has Walljr f& 
for thefeafultof tvaves, mare fluSivagum. 

Wall. See Weld, to join hy heating together. 

Wallop, to move fwtftly, and with much agitation of the 
hody or cloaths ; doubtlefs of the fame origin with 
Engl, gallop, and Fr. galloper ; G. being frequently 
changed into W, and e contra, as in guard to waird. 

Wallow, to wither or decay. Wallowing, withering, 
pining aiuay, fading. Sax. wealowian, exarefcerc. 
[Theor. ualy flavus.] 

Wally, expl. chofen, beautiful^ large. Wally-dys, gew- 

Wally-drag, outcaji, refufe ; nearly the fame with Out- 
wale ; and probably from the fame origin. 

Walroun, wi%ardy forcer er, witch. Ifl. allruna^ inagus. 
Theot. alruna^ mulier faga, feu fatidica, from rune^ 
fecretorum confcius vel confcia ; and the intenfive 
particle ally q. d. admodum fapiens. 

Walfli, Wailih, Wairfh, inftpid, waterijhy without fait, 
Teut. walghigh, naufeofus ; walghen, naufeare ', 
walghcy naufea. 

Walfhnefs, Werflincfs, inftpidity oftajie. 

Waltir. See Weltir, to roll, tofs, or tumble. 

Wamb, Wame, womb, belly. Goth, wambaj venter. 

Wamfier, expl. debauchee. 


Wa. ■ I ■ Wa. 

Wamill, Wamble, to move in a writhing manner^ as a 

ferpent upon its belly ; from Wame, womb, helly. 
Wan, did won. Wan before, got before, 
Wan-cafe, uneqfinefsy trouble^ vexation. 
Wan-couth, ^Bp. Douglas,) Uncouth, Jlrange. 
Wand, power ^ dominion. Thus in Reg. Majes. " The 

wife is under her hufband's wand and power,'* fub 

virga mariti fui 9 from wand or fcepter, the badge 

of dignity and power. 
Winder, fame with Wandreth, forrow^ mijhap. 
Wan-dough t, puny ^ feeble. 
Wandreth,.Wanreth, expl. uneafinefs, trouble, vexation; 

from Tent, negative particle wan, un ; & rouwe, 

vel reft, quies j feems nearly allied to Wan-rufe, q. 

Wandyft, Vandyft, corr. of vanijhed ; cxpi. Jailed, 
Wane, habitation, place of abode. Wanys, dwellings ; in 

O. Engl, authors, Wone and Wones. Teut. woon^ 

habitatio, habkaculum. See Won, to dwell, 
"JVane, Wein, opinion, prejudice. Swed. waen, opinio 
• incerta, fufpicio, fpes. 
Vane-organys, expl. the temple arteries, 
y^^angrace, q. Un-g^ace, wickednefs, want of grace j in 

the fenfe of goodnefs or virtue, as ufed by Shake- 

Wangyle, Vangile, contr. of Evangile, gofpel. 
Wan hap. Van-hap, misfortune ; q. un^hap^ un^luch. 
Wan-hope, (Bp. Dougl.) expl. vain hope* [Teut. wan^ 

hope, defperatio.] 
Wan-las, interjection of grief ox pity. 
Wan-luck, misfortune, ill luck, q. un-luck. 
Wan-reek, mtfchance, ruin, [Teut. wan-raeci, cafus 

Wan-rufe, uneafy, difquietedy perverfe ; from Teut. 

feowipe, quies. See Wanreth, probably the fame 

Wan-ruly, difqrderly, unruly, 
Wan-fchaipen, deformed, Teut. wanfchaepen, informis, 

W^n- thrift, extravagance s SI- ^nthriftynefs, 


Wa. — . Wfe. 

Waa-trow, to dijirujl. Tcut, wan-tromveny diffiderc. 
Waa-weirdy ufibappy fate^ bard fortune. See Weird, 

fate^ deJHny*. 
Wan-wyt, want of knowledge. Teut. wan^wete. 
Wap, Wip, Oup, to bind around* Goth, wippia^ co- 

Wap, Whapf Quhap, tojlr'the or heat. [Tcut. wapper^ 

War, cautious f prudent^ wary. Warrer, more cautious. 

Ifl. var^ caatus. 
War, worfe ; alfo as a verb, to overcome. Warris, over" 

Ward. See Waird, cujiody^ keeping. In Law, the cup* 

dy of a minor by bis Over^hrd. Ifl. vard. Fr. 

Ward, divifion of an army or campy a battalion or bri- 

gade^ Wardour is ufed apparendj with the fam^ 

lignification. ' 

Ward and warfel, %ju^\.fecurity for y pledge. 
Warden, tbe name of a particular kind of pear. 
Ware, War, hardy fwirly. War nott, hard knott in a 

tree. Teut. lueer, callus, nodus, tuber. 
Ware, to take care of or look well to. Swed. wara. 
Ware, Were, defence y price of redemption. 
W:ireyfca weed or wrack. In Northumberland weir or 

waar 'y in Thanet ifland, luore or woor. *Sax. waVy 

alga marina. 
Warefone, Waryfon, remedy y recovery y reward. Fr. 

Wark, Wyrk, nuork^ to work. Sax. wircan. Goth. 

waurhyaUy opus. 
Wark-lume, tool or injlrument to work with. See 

Warlie, Warlieft, expl. wary, mojl wary ; rather per- 

, haps Ivor Idly, moji worldly. 
Warlow, Warlogh, y^dLx\ock.yfoothfayery fortune-teller , 

forcerer. The derivation uncertain ; perhaps from 

Sax. wyrdy eventus, fortuna; &&^r, doce, dodlrinaj 

laered^ dodtus ; quaC, wyrd-lare or warlore. Or a 

corruption of Walroun, (q. vid.) with fome flight 


<K2Ference in the meaning. Conf. Ifl. tuil'wa^ (valva), 
maga, faga ; originallj the fame with %aalijria, 
Parca, OthinI miniftra, quae in prxliis praefens pro 
lubito vitae vel morti pugnantes defiinavit; %ccl^ 
eligere. See Warwolf. 
Warn js, Varnjs, tofurnijb^ ta garnijb or provide. Fr. 


Warp, Varp, to throrv^ to utter or exprefs. Tent. 

IV er pen J iverffen/yasxx^y abjicere. Warpit, Warpid, 

is alfo ufed bj Bifhop Douglas for furrounded^ 


Vf^LVTSdi'di^feairitY^fafetyyJbelter. Nearly in the fame 

fenfe as the law term Warrandice. 
Warraj, expl. to make ij^ar upon* 
Warren, ^ arren, Yirrony the pine tree. See Firron. 
Warfet, (Foreft Laws, 1.2.) a particular kind of dog ; 

probabl J a pointer* 
Warwolf, according to an antient vulgar idea, a per/on 
transformed to a ivolf. Tcut. iveer *wolf. Swed, 
ivarulf 1 jcanthf opus ; hoc eft, qui ex ridicula vulgi 
opinione in lupi forma no£lu obambulst. Goth, 
vair^ vir ; & ulf^ lupus. It is not unlikclj that 
Warloch may be a corruption of this word. 
Wary, Warye, to curfe^ to revile. Sax. ivirian, ivlrghian^ 

maledicere, malignari, execrari. 
Vaffalcge. WalTallage, valour ^ prowefs^ noble atchieve^ 
mentSf glory ; becaufe lands were given originally to 
Vaffals for military fervice ; particularly to thofe 
who had fignalized themfelves by their valour.-— 
Vajfal came thus to be accounted a title of honour, 
in the fame way as knight ^ and the Lat. miles. . The 
fame word is alfo ufed to denote a Baron's retinue 
or body of arm^d vojfals ; nearly fynonymous with 
Baronage or Baronry ; i. e. the inhabitants of the 
Waftels, Waftel or Waffel-bread, probably fugar bif- 
cuit or plnmb^cahe ; expl. in the Diftionaries cakes 
of nvhite bread for fopping in the Wajfel-bcwl, i. e. a 
large cup or bowl, out of which the Anglo-Saxons, 
fat their public entertainments, drank healths to one 

another j 

Wa. — Wa. . 

another ; and which is faid to have received its name 
froffl two Saxon Words, — JVies hal^ or rather Hal 
iu€tff falve, vcl (is falvus, q. well may you he I Matt. 
a?- 29. ** Hal nuits tbuy yudea Kyning /" ave. Rex 
Judeonim ! The fame phrafe^ in the Saxon Gof- 
pels, is alfo written beo hai ; as in Matt. 26. 49. ; 
& Mar, 5- 34. Thomas de la Moor, in his life of 
Edward II. informs us, that Wtitfi-haile^ and Drtnc^ 
batle^ were the ufual phrafes of quaffing amongft the 
earlieA (Saxon) inhabitants of this ifland. Waflel 
or Waflail is commonjj underllood to figuifj a It' 
quor made of apples^ ft'gor ^^ ole ; fuch as young 
women were in ufe to carry about and prefent to 
Jtheir friends on the vigil of the New-year j a cuf- 
tom which is ftill kept up in various parts of the 
country. This explanation of the word induces a 
fufpicion that Wafiel may have fome affinity with 
Sax. ivifi, deliciae, dapes ; iviJlfuUian^ epulari, con- 
\ iviari ; iviftfull^ frugibus ad viftum abundans ; or, 
with Ifl. weijla vel loeitjla^ hofpitatio, convivium.— 
To which may perhaps be added Swed. nvaxeL Ifl. 
^uixly viciflitudo, ordo quo alterum alteri fuccedit ; 
ca.iii, circling hoivl^ i. e. handed about from one to 
another. Some readers may prefer one or other of 
thefe to the firft", notwithftandmg its being appa^ 
rently fupported by the ftory of Vortigern and Ro- 
wena, which has been fo frequently quoted from 
^'^erftegan and GeofFry of Monmouth. The Saxon 
damfel, at the command of her father Hengift, who 
had invited the Britifli King to a banquet, came in 
the prcfence with a bowl of wine and welcomed him 
in thefe words, Wees heil^ Hlaford Kyning. Vorti- 
gern, by the help of an interpreter, anfwered, Drinc 
he'll', and, according to Robert of Gloucefter, (the 
veriifier of GeofFry,) ■ 

Kufte here, and fitte here adoune, 

and glad droiike here heil. 
And th< t was tho in this land, 

the verft nvasbail. 


V/a We. 

As in language of Saxojme, that 

we might ever iwite. 
And fo well he paith the folc about^ 

that he is not jut vorgute. 

Waftel-bread, or Waftels, has alfo been derived fiotm 
the Fr. gateau, originally gqftesu ; called in Picard/ 
otsqfteL Lat. Barb, vajlellum, colljrra, placenta, aut 
fimile quid. Thefe, however, majr have fome affinitj 
with the Sax* and Tbeot. wijle, cibus, epulae, dapes. 

Wat, Wate, Weit, wrf, to wet. Sax. waeta^ humidus , 
ivittan, hume^are. 

Wate, Wat, to know, Watis, knows ; variation of 
^ngl. Wot. 

Watling-ftreet, ufed bj Bifhop Douglas for a confleh 
lation, or rather for the milky wiy. The confular 
waj fo called requires no explanation. 

Wauch, Wouch, mtfcbief, evil, (w5.) Sax. wobg^ ma- 

Waucht, Wauch, to quaff or drink in large draught t ; 
probably from ^ueycb, a drinking cup. [Teut. va'^ 
ten, infnndere in vas, implere vas.] 

Wauk, Waik, to watch. Tent, waecken^ vigilare. 

Wank, to drefs woollen cloth by making it thick and 
fmootb* Swed. wcdka. Teut. walcken^ prcflare, volu- 
tare^ ut folent qui fulioniam exercent. 

Waul, tojlare, to lookjlernly with open eyes. 

Waver, to wander or become waff. See Waf, wander ^^ 

Wavingeour, Wauengour, vagabond^ fugitive. 

Waward, Vaward, van guard, Jirjl divijicn 0/ an army, 

Wawys, Wavys, waves. Teut. waeghe, flu6tus, unda, 

Vayage, Waiage, journey by land or water^ Fr# 

Wayming, feems to fignify bewailing. 
We, Wee, little, a little. Teut. weini^h, parvus, of 

which it feems an abbreviation. 
Weaven, expl. a moment or inftant f alfo called a jif-. 



Wc Wc 

Weary, lurftcheJ, curfed ; as the weary or vitariful 

fox ; probablj fiom Wane, to cmrfe, 
Wecht, Wcicht, an utenfil in tht firm ofajieve^ %x:ith a 

leather bottom, but tLttbout boies, refembling the head 

of a drum. Timmer wecht, a tambour wecht or 

Wed. See Wad, pledge ^ wad^fet or mortgage. 
Weidir-glicn, clear Jhjy near the horizon ; fpoken of 

objefts feen in the twilight or duik \ as ** between 

him and the wedder-glim, or weather-gleam^ i. e. 

between him and the light of the ikj ; from I eut. 

wedery caelum ; and gleam ; weder-licht, corufca- 

Wede, to rage, to proceed or behave fir ioujly. Sax. we^ 

dan^ fiirere, xfluare. 
Wed- fie, wage, reward^ recompence ; perhaps fome pay- 
ment of the nature of inter ejl of money, 
Wedow, widow. Wedowhede, Wedohede, widowhood, 

Goth, widttws, Wei. gweddw. 
Weid, Wede, ajick or fainting ft. 
Weik, corner y angle ^ as Weik of the eye. Swed. ogon- 

wikf angulus oculi ; wik, finus maris, cattellum. 

Teut. ivitl\ perfugium, &c. In the fame way is uf- 

ed weiJ^ of the mouths 
Wti], VVele, Fell, prefixed to adjcdlives, 'uery^ exceed^ 

ing ; commonly ufed in a good fenfe, as fere in a 

bad. Both of them arc leprefented by the Gothic 

Weil, Wele, whirl- pool ; q, wheel. Wtlis, furges, bll^ 

lozvs. Sax. '■juealy vortex aquarum. 
Weils me, hleJfiTig or blejjing^^ I ivijh good luck. 
Weill, Wcnc, to think, to believe , to expeSi. Teut. zi^a^ 

ncju Goth. ive?igan, opinari, opinionem habere ; 
^ ivje7i, opinio, pra:fumptio. Wenys, vefiigis or marht 

Z^V which one guejjes about the way ; from the fame 

origin. - 
Weir, Vcre, Wair, the firing, ifl. vor, Lat. i;cr, 
Weil, Weer, to drive or to keep (cut or in.) Teut. 

iveercn^ propulfaie, defendcre, avertere ; iveer^ fepi- 


We. — Vc. 

mentum^ propugnaculutn. Hence Weir, d fenci 
, made acrofs a river » 
Weir, Were, war. Weiring^ Werjng, warringi 

Wcirlie, warlike. Fere of were, complexion of war* 

^vX vtex^y free from dijlurhance. See Feir, ro/oi/r. 
Weird, Werde, faie^ , dejiiny. Sax. wyrdy fatum, for- 

tuna, rerum ordo ; verb'utn, fc. quod fatus eft, five 

difcrevit Deus ; wyrdas^ fata, Parcae ; alfo as a verb, 

to determine or pre-dire^i io foretell. Sax. wyrde, 

fiet ; & weordan. Teut. iverden^ fieri, efle. 
Weld, Weild, to weild, ru/e, manage ; to have in one^s 

power. Weild he his will, if he obtain his dejiire. 
Weld, Well, Wall, to force y to beat two or more pieces 

of red-hot metal into one piece. [Sax. wellan, furere, 

Well, tofpring or rife up, like boiling water. Sax. ^(;^^7^ 
. lany erumpere. 

Welfche. See Walfli, Wairfh, infipid^ without fait. 
Welt, fame with Welter, to tumble^ tofsy roily or throw. 

Teut. welleny welteren^ volvere, volutare, verfare. 
Welth, Veltht, Walth, welfariy abundance of any 

thing. Teut. welde, opes, opulentia. Sax. waledi^ 

wealthy ; woeloy opes ; wealas^ fervi, mancipii ; the 

toot of which may be the Goth, waliany cligcre ; 

quafi, a fufficieticy to choofe from. See Walt, to 

Wencufs, Vencufs, t6 vanquijh. Wencuflit, vanqui/h^ 

Wend, to go ; alfo wenty did go. Sax. tJOindan, ire, 

venire, procedere. Teut. wenden^ vertere. The only 

part of this verb which is ftill retained in the £ngL 

language, is the preterite went. 
Venerial, mercenary. Venerianis, mercenaries. Lat* 

Venefum, venemous. Teut. veniinighy venenofus. 
Went, vent^ wayy paffage ; the courfe or Jlate of af 

fairs.. [Fr. ventCy a cleft ; venellcy a fmall ftreet. See 

Ventale, V entaill, a hole or ^ent ; the breathing part 

of a helmet, a vi/or. Fr. ventaile. 

Vol. IV. L 1 Venuft, 

Ve. — W«. 

Venufti beautiful^ pleafant. Lat. venuflus. 

Were, redemption^ power of redemption^ price of redemp^ 
tioHf or fiae^ pecuniary fatufaBion, Teut. were^ 
luitio. Were, But were^ in fiifhop Douglas, is ex- 
plained bj Ruddiman, without doubt or delay ^ truly; 
u Sax. Wirre, cautio. In feme of the inflances^ 
quoted, it rather feems equivalent to without dijlur^ 
hance ; and maj be the fame with war^ or a cor- 
ruption of the Fr. beurt, conflidb or encounter. 

Were, for Ure, chance, fortune^ hap. It feems alfo to 
have been ufed in the fame fenfe with the fr. heur^ 
hora, {limitation to an hour.') And occuri as a va- 
riation of Weir in all the various figmfications. 

Verement, truth ^ v^erity^ 

Vergers, orchards. Fr. verger ^ from Lat. viridarium. 

Weriour, baci^iter^ Jlanderer, fecret enemy. [Sax.^ 
werian, execrari| maledicere ; , werg, weriga, mali- 

Wcrklomc. See Wark-lume, a tool to work noith. 

"Verlotf /ervant, groom^ valet. O. Fr. variety now valet ^ 
puer, minifter. This word, in O. Engl, was com- 
monlj ufed in a good fenfe for yeoman. 

^ Qvm, fnake, ferpent^ adder ; q. worm. 

Vernage in veres, exhilerattng liquor in glajfes, 

Wernoure, (Bifliop Douglas,) a covetous wretch, a 
mifer ; probably from Teut. gheerigh, cupidus ; 
gheeren, gheren^ cupere, colli gere ; the G or Gh be- 
ing frequently changed to W. According to Rud- 
diman, from Sax. weorniany flaccefcere, decrefcere,. 
** becaufe a mifer Jlarves himfelf to enrich his 

Verray, Werray, true ; derived, by Skinner, from the 
Fr. vray. Lat. verus. 

Vers, Wers, worfe. Verft, Werft, worjl ; alfo over- 
came or worjied. 

Werfti. See Walfh, injipid^ without fait. 

WerfiU, Warfle, to wrejile ox firuggle. Teut. werfelen^ 

reluftari, reniti, obniti. 
Wery, Werry, to fquee%e to death^ tojlrangle or worry. 
Teut. weurgen, fuffocare, flrangulare. 


Wc Wi. 

Wcftlln, weftern, Teirt. weften^ 'wejlelick, occidental 

Wefy, Vefy, Vizzie, a correB view ; as a verb, to fpy 
narrowly or rorreBly^ to obferve^ to mark. Alfo to 
vifit'y from'Fr. v//^r, videre. 

Wet-fchod, with wetjhoes. 

Veug, expl. pert. See Vogic, vain. 

Weyand, Weymenting, lamenting ; from the fame o- 
rigin with Engl, wo ; corruptly weygh or weugb. 

WeyfF, Weif» woven. Weiffed, weaved. 

Veyton, (Wcyton), expl. the whitten tree, or water 

*** ^^ • ^^^ °f ^^^ words which in modern ortho- 
graphy begin with thefe letters^ are to be found un- 
der Quh, 

Whiles, fometimes. 

Whiiky, contra^ed from the Gael, or Irifli ufquebaugh, 
2. well known fpirit j ui/c or ui/ce, ^qna, ; & Beatha, 

Whommel, Quhemle, to turn upfide down, as a cup or 
tub ; corr. of Whelm. Ifl. wilma. 


Whorl, a round perforated piece of wood put upon a 
fpindle^ to give it a proper iveight, Teut. wordel. 

Wicht, Wycht, flrong and vigorous, powerful^ a&ive, 
brave. Swed. wig, potens, bello apt us, qui arm a per 
%tatem aut vires ferre poteft ; alacer, agills ; quid- 
quid in fua natura validum firmumque eft. Hence 
it is applied to things inanimate as well as animate ; 
as caftles, wine, &c. and is ufed by Chaucer for 
fwift. Sax. wig' lie, bellicofus ; wig^man, wihga, 
wiga, bellatori miles ; wig, helium. Ifl. wig, c8b« 

Wicht, Wycht, a man or perfon. Sax. wiga, homo, 
vir, prafertim vero prseftantior aliquis : Or, accord- 
ing to Ruddiman, from Sax. wiht, creatura, animal, 
res. Teut. wicht, homo fceleratus, infans, puer. 

Wichtlie., J?o«^/y, vigorously ^ intrepidly* 

Widdendreme, Widdrim, Judden gu^ ofpafjion without 
apparent caufe ; alfo expl. all of a fudden, with a 
veng£ance. See Wod, ma^d. 


Wi Wi. 

Widder-fchynoisi the contrary way^ perverfely^ cou^ 
trary to the apparent courfe of the fun. Teut. «;#Ar, 
contra ; & fonne^ fol ; q. weder fonne^VJtfi \ alfp 
contrary to the general courfe ot pofition. [Teut. we^ 
der-fegghen^ contradicere.] 

Widdic, withy ^ rope made of willow twigs. To dcfcrve 
a widdie, to deferve the gallows, Tcut. wiedf, falix, 
vimen, refiis, funis. Sax. witbig, falix. Goth, wi^ 
than, connedtere. 

WiddifoWy Viddeful, a wrathful perfon ; alfo as an ad- 
jeftive ; from Teut. woedigh, furiofus, fiiribundus^ 9 
woedy furor, infania : (woeder^ tjrannus.) Another 
explanation of Widdifow is knave ; quaii^ one who 
deferves a widdy. 

Widdrom, contr. of Widdendreme,^/ of rage. 

Wildings, wild fruit. Teut. wildbr^, ferina»^caro 
ferinai cervina, aprugna ; ** totifque non elixis ear- 
nibus proceres & heroes vefci folent." 

Wilfyer, Willfjre, wild-fre^ as the light proceeding 
from the glow-worm^ rotten wood, &c« Teut. ^i/tf« 
viery ignis filveftris. 

Wilk, Whilk, afmallfhellfifh. Sax. a periwinkle. 

Wilkjt, in an old edit, of Barbour's Bruce, for wick- 

Will, w'lld^ unfrequented^ bewilder edj wandering. To 
go will, to fir ay or wander. In fome indances it 
feems to mean impatiently dejiring ; as Will of rede, 
impatient for advice ; which Ruddiman explains, 
perhaps better, inops confilii. Swed. wild^ animus 
vel favore vel odio occupatus. 

Will-fullie, with good will. 

Wilfum, quafi, Wild feme, lonely y folitaryy wander- 

Wimple, to involve y to become or to render intricate. 

Wimpled, intricate. Teut. wimpelen, involvcre, im- 

Wimple is alfo expl. ornament for a ladys head. Teut. 

Windle, to make up (flraw or hay) into windlings or 


Wi Wi, 

bottles, Teut. windeletip fafciis vel fafciolis invoU 

Windilauchty with impetuous motion^ as if driven bj the 

Winfreed, expl. raifed from the ground, 
Winklot, young girl ; dimin. of wench ; from Sax, 

wencle^ ancilla, filia. 
Winle-ftraes, th^ dry Jlalks or Jletns of uncultivated 

grafs, 8ax. windel-jlreonvy calamus, ex quo conficir 

untur fportse ; windel, fporta, corbis ; contextun^ 

Win raw, hay or feats put together in long thin heaps 

for the purpofe of being more eajily dried, Se^ 

"^infum, Winfome, agreeable y engaging ^ pleafant^ mer^ 

ry, Teut. won-Jaem. Sax. win/urn^ jocundus, Isetus, 

amaenus, gratus ; fuavis, dulcis ; %pyn, Teut. wonne^ 

wunne, gaudium. 
Winze, expL an oath. \Tt\xt, «.'tf«/r^, itpprecatjio.] 
Wipp, to fur round or encircle y as witli a wreath o|? 

cord. Goth, 'vippi^i^ corona. 
Virmet, Wirraet, wormwood, 
yirrok, Wirrock, di/lorted, or contraSled by injury or 

callojity. Sax. wearrig^ wearriht, callofus, nodofus. 

Teut. weery callus, nodus, tuber 5 w^der, contra j 

whence War-nott, a knott in wood, 
Wirry-carl, Wirrycow, bugbear ; a per/on who is 

4readed as a bugbear ; from Wirrj or Virrie,. to 

Wife, to turn or incline. Sax. wiftaUy docere, inftruere, 

dirigere, gubernare. Teut. wiifeuy monftrare, oilen- 

Viforne, expl. fpeBrCy wi%ardy majk, 
Wifs, Wis, to know. Will, knew. Sax. wijffany fcire, 

intelligere. Ic wijl that^ novi quod, 1 wijt that, 
Wjffclers, Whiftlers. See Quhyffeler, a money changer, 

Alfo expl. a deceiver y flatterer, 
Wiffil. See Quhiflyl, to eogchange, Teut. wjjfelen, 
Wiffin, Wizen, to become decayed or wajied\ from heat, 


Wi. Wo. 

to wither. Wiflinnet, dried^ withered^ decayed, Swe4* 

nvifnan Sax. weofnian^for^vseofman^ tabeu^ere, mar* 

Wifj, Vify, to confider. See Vefj, tofpy, 
Witand, Wytand, blaming ; alf(i expl. regrating. 
Wite, Wyte, blame ; alfo as a verb, to blame. Sax, 

nvitan, imputare, afcribere *, wite. plaga} malum. 
Withy. See Widdy, a rope of willow twigs. 
Withfay, to gain-fay ; from Teut. loeder^ contra. 
Withthy, expl. with t is ^ provided ; analagous to For* 

thi, becaufe. 
Vittel, q. Viftual, grain. In the plural, any hind of 
• food. 
Witter, Wittering, a hint^ rumour ^ indication ^ fgf^f of 

caufe of knowledge. Swed. witra, notum facere, in- 

dicare. Ifl. wittrnjl^ apparere. Sax. witende, fciens, 

fcientes, witting. 
Witter, ihe barb of a hook ; perhaps frotn Teut. iveder^ 

contra, advcrfus. Swed. ividrigf contrarius. 
Witter, expl. throat; feemingly from Lat. guttur ; 

alfo as a verb, tojight, to fall foul of one another. 
"Wlonk, Vlonk, gaudily drejfed' perjon. Sax. wlonce^ 

ivlcence^ pom pa, fplendor, acrogantia, fuperbia ; ad- 

je6lively fplendidus, clatus j whence Engl. Hounce, 

to adorn, &c. 
Wlonkeft, moji gaudy, hejl drefjed; confcious of attraB" 

ing great attention. See Wlonk ; to which may be 

allied the Teut. loncken, limis obtueri, leviter obli- 

quare oculos ; lonck, afpeftus limus. 
Wob, web. Wobfter, weaver. Germ, wupp, Teut* 

Wod, Wode, Wude, mad. Sax. wod, demens, infanus, 

Teut. nvocde, infania, furor, rabies. Goth, wods, fu- 

riofus. Wod-wraith, literally the fame with Red- 

wod, madly enraged. Wod-bryro, ira aeftuans ;— . 

** whence, according to Ruddiman, the name of the 

God Woden," i. e. the furious Mars. 
Wode, Woid, Vode, void ; alfo to void or empty. 
Wodioifs, Q\]A.favage, wild. See Wod, mad. 

Wode. wail. 

Wo* — — Wo.. 

Wode-wail, Wood weele, expl. a bird of the thrujb 

kind \ rather perhaps a wood-lark, 
Vogie, boqftfulf vain, ajjuming. 
Woik, didjly or wander, Fr. voguer, natare, navigare y 

Bfed bj Bilhop Douglas for the Lat. vagor. See 

Vaig, to roam or wander. 
Woiftar, fame with Voufter, boajler ; from Vouft. It 

feems the faoie with Waftouf ia Piers Plowman. 
Wok, Woik, week. Sax. wuca, uca, Dan. uge^ fcpti- 

raana. Goth, wik, ordo, feries. 
Woker. See Okyr, ufury, Wokerer, ufurer. 
Womenting, Waymenting, lamenting, lamentation ; 

from Wo ; and Mene, to complain or moan, 
Womple. See Wimple, to involve. 
Won, to diuell or rejide, Wonnjng, dwelling, dwellings 

place, TevLt. woonen, wonen, habitare, maniionem 

habere ; woon, habitatio, habitaculum. 
Won, Win, to make (hay), to dry fo as to render Jit 
. forjloring up, Teut. winnen, colere, coUigere fruc- 

tus terrse ; quxftum faceie. Swed. winna, laborare. 
Wone, Wonde, Jiop, hefitation, difficulty ; of the fame 

origin with Won^ to dwell, 
Wonnys, Wynnys, Wynnings, Whines, placet of habi^ 

Wonnyt, fometimes ufed for wounded, 
Worchen, expl. wrought, work. The fame word might 

alfo fignify choaked,Jl tangled \ from Teut* worghen, 

Wort, to reje^ or put qfide as ufelefs, as a horfe is faid 

to wort his fodder. See Wort is. 
Worth, Wourth, to become, to wax, Worthyn, Wour- 

thyn, waxed, become, were made, Teut. werden, 

worden, fieri, effici, fore. 
Wortis, herbs, plants, weeds. Sax. wyrt, h^rbn, planta, 

olus. Teut. worte, radix. Hence Wortis or Worts 

alfo iignifies the refufe ofhay,Jlraw, the weeds which 

cattle refufe to eat, 
Wofche, Woofch, Weefli, wajhed, did wajh, 
Wotlinkis, ufed for wenches ; perhaps a diminutive of 

Vlonkis or Wlonkis, gaily drejjid girls ^ 


Wo. — Wr. 

WonVit, Oabil, one of diofe worms which appear a^ 

if coTcrcd with voo/. 
Wouff, miolf, Voffis. vysives, 
Wooky awake^ awaked. 
Woonder, to wonder ; aKo wtrnderful^ w^ndtrftdlj^ /*- 

tremelj^ admirably, K>erj, 
WoundriDg, a womdjcrful things a monficr. Sax. tf »»- 

dring, admiratio. 
Wourdc, Wonrthc, hicamcy tvaxed^ was made. See 

Woith, to become. 
Wourfum. Sec Wurfnm, putrid matter, 
Voiifl, Wowft, to boafl\ of which it feems to be mere- 

\j a varietj, Wouftand, hoajilng. 
Vouftaris, WouftourJs, hoafters ; from Vouft. 
Wout, Voot, countenance ; probably from Lat. vultus: 
Wow, an inter jeBion of admiration. 
Wow, to ^uoo or court. Sax. wogan, nubere. Wowaiis, 

Wowf, mad, 

Wown, Wonn, n*cnt, cujlom ; alfo accufiomed. 
Vowt, vault. Fr. voute. 
Woyne, Wjnne.y^;', bappinejs, Teut. 'wonne, gaudium. 

See Winfome, chearfuL 
Woyne, expl. difficult fttuation^ difficulty. Swed. wonda. 

driFiCultas. Woyne might alfo lignify habitation ^ place 

r,f refidctice. See Wane and Wonnyng. 
Wra, (Bifhop Douglas,) expl. company, fociety ; a Fr. 
ffciy, frVf fperma pifcium : Or fiom Sax. ivracth^ 

Wrabil, (Biftop Douglas,) Wurble, Warble, to clam- 

her or craivl about, [Teut. nuervelcn, ivorvelen, gy- 
ros agere, in orbem verfare.]) 
Wracl), Ratch, a houndy or perhaps dcg of any f pedes. 

Sax. rtcce^ canis. 
Wrachis, (Bp. Dougl.) erroneoufly to appearance for 

W ra th i s , fpirits_y ghojls , 
Wrack, ill gotten wealth. See Spraugherie. 
Wrack, Wrak, Wraik, wrecky rainy deJlruBion. Goth. 

biickjai, Lu. 8. 23 Swed. wagreky bona naufrago- 

lum, qnx inhumana confuetudo dim prin>o occu- 
pant i 

Wr. Wr. 

|ianti vel littoris domino addicebat ; from V)ag^ fluc-^ 
tus & reka^ ejicere. 

Wraighly, tardily ^ with too much nvarinefs^ untdoard" 
ly ; fame with Airghly, Sec Airgh, tard^. 

Wraik, revenge^ vengeance^ anger. Tent, wraecke^ vin- 
difla, ultio ; alfo as a verb, to injtiil^ to give vent to. 
Teut. wrekerty wreie doen^ vindicare, ulcifci ; ultio- 
nem facere ; whence Wraikful, revengeful. 

Wraith, Wairth, Wcrth, ghojiy or exah likenej^ of a 
per/on, fuppofed bj the vulgar to appear Jhortly A/- 
fore, or foon after death. The derivation appearing 
uncertain, I ftiall mention a few words which may 
perhaps have feme affinity with it. Sax. wath^ va- 
gatio, fluftuatio. Teut. waer, verus, and raed or 
radty confilium. Wyrd, fatum i ** eall thios wan* 
driende wyrd, the we Wyrd hatath," totus hie vagus 
ordo rerum quem nos fatum vocamus ; warda^ cuKlo- 
-dire, curare. Sax. hwurf^ iHufio, error ; bwyrfan^ 
redire, converterc, variare, errare, mutare ; hwurfon 
hi eft ta hame, reverfi funt poftea j^omum. Sax. wrath, 

Wrak J fame probably with Frak, cxpl. Jhci of goods 
or cargo. Sax. fracht. Teut. vracbt, vehes, veftio, 

Vran, Vrain, wren ; ftill a common pronunciation. 

Vrang, Wrang, wrongs injury. Vrangwis, wrongoui. 
Swed. wrangwiSf perverfus. •' ' 

Wrappit, entangled^ entwined; perverfion of watpeJh 

Wratacks, expL dwarfs ; authority unknown^ 

Wreath (of fnow), fnow coUeBed into a bsap by th% 

Wreil, (Bp. Dougl.) cxpl. to wriggh or turn about $ 
from which, according to Ruddimim, it feems cor- 

Wrekar, a revenger ; from Wraik, to revenge^ &ۥ ; al- 
fo written Wrok, Wroik, both as a verb and fttb« 

Wreuch, wretchednefs. So Wregh is ufcd for wretch 4 
merely by corruption. 

Wrink, Wrynk, intricacy^ difficulty. Wrynl^is, tricks^ 
windings. Teut. wroncb, fimultas. 
Vol. IV. M m "^t^xv^. 

Wr - Vy. 

Wrong, wrung ; alfo contended^ with violence. T«ut. 
wringben^ torquere, premere, 

Wurfum, Wourfum, putrid matter. Sax. worms^ pu^, 
putredo, I'anies ; ge^wurfmed^ fuppuratus. 

Wy, Wje', neatly perfon. Swed. wig*, adultus, vir pti- 
tens. Sax. wiga^ miles, but poetically for cujafcun- 
que conditionis vir. See Wicht, pf the fame oi igin. 

Wjfe, Wyif, wotn(in (paft middle age,) married or 
Jingle^ Sax. & Swed. wif^ mulier, fsemina ; accord'- 
ing to Jhre, from wif or hwif^ calantica, a woman's 
hood or kerchief J as in O. Swed. gyrdel, cingulum 
& iinda^ baltheus, are ufed for man and woman. So 
alfo hatt and batta, pileus 8>c vitta. 

Vjlde, vi/e, 

jVjle.cote, Wylie coat, a jlannel or woolly under-vejl ; 
forte, fays Ruddiman, l^ecaufe by its not being feen, 
. it docQ as it were cunningly or flyly keep men 
warm ; fignifies alfo ajbort under petticoat, 

Wynd, narrow Jireet. 'J'his word, as applied in Edin- 
burgh, has been fuppofed to mean literally a w«^ in 
(to the city.) See Went, paj/age, 

Wynfch, zuencb, maid. Sax. wcenfel, 

"VVynfick, expl. prudence agreed, deftre of gain, 

Wyppis, wreaths^ garlands ; alfo to wreath about or 
entwine. See Wipp, to furround, 

Wyi', arrow, 

Wyren, made of wire ; as Trene from tree, 

Wyrfchip, manhood, dignity ; from Goth, wqir, Lat, 

Wjs, Wyifs, ^f/{/^, manner, Jorm, 

Wyfe. See Wife, to incline, put, or introduce, 

Wyflbn, Wyfant, Wizzon, the gullet. 

Wyfure, wifdom, Wyffare, wifer, 

Vyte, Wyte. See Wite, to blame, 

Wytenonfa, expl. trembling, chattering, 

Vytboutyne, Wi-tbouten, without : So Suldeu for 
fhould, and Warren, for were. 


Ya. — Ya. 


Under this letter are placed all thofe words which are 
cooimonlj found in print with an initial Zinilead of 
the Saxon G, whofc power in thefe inftances was 
uniformly Gh, Year was formerly vfr'itten. gear, 
pronounced ghear ,• yellow, gealow or ghealew ,• 
Yule, geol or gbeel \ yeaft, geji or gheji ; young, 
geong or gheong ; ytivn^ gflirn or ghairn v yard, 
geard or ghear d ; yield,, gild or ghild y yea, gea or 
ghea ; yet, git or ghit^ &c. This alteration of qr- 
thography from the Saxon charafter denoting Gh 
to^the vowel T", (which was thereby converted into 
a confonant,) Could not take place all at once. .On 
the contrary, it is natural to fuppofe, that in .fome 
parts of the country, the G might continue to be uf- 
.^e,^iox many years after it had given way to the new 
..-coi^fonant 2" in the Southern parts of the ifland. In 
, Scotland particularly, where Norman influence was 
not fo powerful as in England, the Saxon charafter 
maintained its ground, down to the fe van teen th cen- 
tury. Its figure, however, being nearly the fame 
with a black-letter pl"m«nafciipt Z ; and the prin- 
ters having no fuch cbarafler in their founts ; 
while at the fame time they might confider the con-i- 
Verfibn of T. into a confonant as an unwarrantable.' 
innovation, the letter 2> was fubftituted in its place 
in many of the early printed books j firft, w6 may 
fuppofe; in black- letter, and afterwards in white or 
Roman .* Hence, in the iixteentb century, it came to 
be written in its fliort form; or without a tail, and 
ftt laft, in more inflances than one, to be pronounc- 
ed as if it ^ftually had been s or «. This fpecies of 
orthography, however, although common, was n6t 
univerfal. In fome of the moll antient MS. copies 
of WintorCs Chronicle^ and Barbour^s Bruccy the 
words year^ yearn^ youngs &Ci are written ybear^ 
yheartiy yhing^ &c which afcertains the pronouncia- 
lion beyond a doubt. 


Ya rt. 

From the fame kind of refemblance, the printers 
fell into a (imilar miftake with refpeft to the Saxon 
charafter denoting tb ; infiead of which, thej ufed 
the letter 2", as in yair for tbair, yame for them, &c. 
Alfo before fome words, efpeciallj verbs and parti- 
ciples^ the letter 7* is found as a feparable prepofi- 
tion, correfponding with the Sax. Ge, or Teut. Gbe. 
Thefe, when Scottifhi are placed under the next let- 
ter of the word. They occur more frequently in 
Gawin Douglas than in any other Scottifh poet, but 
the words are for the moft part Engliih. It was 
probably in thtfe inftances that the Saxon G firft 
gave way to the letter 2" ; as in Y-boun?den, for ge^ 
bonden j Y-clepit for ge-clepit ; Y-broken for ge* 

Ya, Ye, yed^yety ay \ alfo for intcrj. ba I 

Yaff, to bark or yelp ; to prate* See Yaup. 

Yald, Yaldin, yields did yield. Sax. gildan^ folvere. 

Yaldy a^ive, vigorous ; perhaps from Sax. ield^ barren* 

Yalloch, Yelloch, ajbout^ cry ov yelling \ probably from 
the fame origin with Galey tojing \ viz. Swed. gala^ 
cantare. Conf. Belg. gillen, flridere. 

Yallow, yellow* Sax. gealewy flavus, luteus. 

Yame, tbem. See obfervations on the letter 2*. 

Yammer, tojhriek^ yelly to complain loudly^ and peemjh" 
lyy to groan. Germ, jammeren^ plangere ; jammer, 
ludius, planilus. Sax. geomrian, Lat. gemere. 

Yap, Yape, hungry ; metaphorically, i&^vi«^ a longing 
defirefor any things very ready ; probably frora gape, 
01 at leaft from the fame origin ; quafi, gaping, 

Yar, Yare, alert y ready. See Gate. 

Y'arm, to beg ivith pertinacious ohfiinacy ; to ^* harp 
upon the fame firing.'^ Ifl.yflrrw, ejulatum. 

Yarn, Yharn, Yairn, to dejire eagerly ; ufed by Gaw. 
Douglas iox carefully y diligently * Sax. ^^or«, diligens, 
fedulus, ferius ; gkeornian. Teut. gheeren. Goth. 
gairnany defiderare, cupere. 

Yarn-windles, yarringlcSy a fort of reel from ivbich 
banks of yarn are wound into clews. Sax. gearn^win^ 
dely harpedone, rhombus. 

Yair, fame with Gnarr or Nurr, tofnarle. 


Ya. . Vh. 

Yate, Yett, Yhate, gate. Teut. gat. Sax. geat, porta 
oftium, janua. The Engliih kave retained the origi# 
' nal pronunciation. 

Yaupy to yelp ; more commonlj denotes the inceflant 
crying of birds. See Gale, nearly of the fame figni- 
fication from Swed. gahy cantare. 

Yed, expl. to contend or v^angle, 

Yede, Yeid, Yude, Yheid, Yhude, went ; preter. of 
Ga, to go ; from Teat, gaen^ ire. Now more com* 
monly pronounced gade. Norm-Sax. gede, geden. 
Sethi-Sax. iede^ ieden, Angji.-S^^x. g'eoje, geoden^ ibat, 
ibant. Ifl. eod^ ivi y vedy eo. Lat. vado, 

Yeild, age ; alfo adjedively for ofd. Sax. eald, fenex, 
vetus. See Eild. 

Yeildans, Yealings, born in the fame year y co^evaL 

Yeld, Eild, barren^ that gives no milk ; of the fame ori- 
gin with the preceding. 

Yere-ftrene, the night before lafl. So alfo Yere-faren- 
year, the year before lafi ; Yere-yeftcrday, &c. from 
Teut. are, prius. 

Yerk, to bind tightly, as with a fmall cord. Sax. ger^^ 
dan, cingere, accingere ; alfo ufed in the fame fenfe, 
and probably from the fame origin with Engl.y^ri. 

Yern-blitter, expl. the bird called afntpe. 

Yelk, Ycjik, to hiccups to belch. Sax geoxa, geoxung, 

Yether, the mark left by tight bindings as with a fmall 

Yett, Yet, to pour out or forth. In-yett, to pour in. 
Teut. ghieten, fundere. 

Yhald, praeter. of the verb to yields fometimes written 
yheld; from Sa>x. gildan. Goth, gilda, folvere. 

Yfere, together. [Sax. gefera, focius. j 

Yeme, Yim, to keep. See Yhemar, keeper. 

Yhemar, (Barb. Bruce,) keeper ; from Sax. gyman^ 
cuftodire, curare : gymene, gyming, cura. Ifl. gauma^ 
curare, animum attendere ; geima, cuflodire. Swed. 
goemin, qui res fuas probe cuftodit. In affinity with 
thefe, perhaps may be the O. Engl, gammer, q. over^ 
feer ; alfo Sc. Hames^ horfe-collar. 


Tl»» ■ Td; 

Ybetnfale, (Wint. Ckroo.) jkaping^ ^h^rg^t ct^hify* 
III. giimfia $ froiqi. giyma^ caftodire ; . (fubducere, 
occultare ; gotmajig undan^ fefe abfoeodere.) 

Yheroe, tager^ ian^ eitnu/l. See Yaro, U dg/lrt eagerly^ 

Yhit^ vet, morgaver. Sax. jf£f. 

YholcfiOy yielded i pnoter. of TiaU, to yield. 

Yhone, yon, ytrnder^ tbqfe at a SftoHce. Saxi. g6n^ 

Y^ovitlkudc, itonthtd, fouthi. , * ^ 

YhumaDy yeoman ; according to Janitts^.from Fris. ga^ 
or gae, pagus, vicus xufiicos ; gaeman^ incola ejaf- 
d^m paff i, correfpondinig witji Scot, portioner^ the 
* owner ot a faiall piece, of land. . . 

Yhj^ig, YhingrYing^jfoirif^. Sax.^p«^. 

Yill, ale. Yill-wife, or browfter*wx£e^ a womaft wba 
brewed and fold ale. 

Yiftrene, Theftrem, yefternigbt. - Teut, gbifieren, he* 
fternodie. , 

Yonde« Yhond, Yoiind, yonder. Yont, A^Tpnt, be-^ 

t^yond, bebind* 

Ypnglingy a youtb. See Yhjng, young. 

Yore, Yare, ready ^ aciUe^Jbarpy alert, Ssix. gearwian^ 
parare. Teut. ghieren, avide peter e. See Gare, Jo" 
liciiouSy rapacious. 

Youk, itch, Teut. ieuckfe. Sax; gictba, libido fcal- 
pendi; alfo as zvcvb^jeuckenj ^rutire. 

Yple, Ghule, Yool, Chriftmas^ the day on whicK the 
nativity of Jefus Chrift is celebrated,. Sax. geola^ 
geoholfgeohd dag. Swed.^w/. Dan-y/z/c-, feftum nati- 
yitatis domini. The literal meaning of Yule-dajr 
feems to be the Jejiival of tke Sun ; from Goth. ////, 
(Maj^k I. 32.), Armor. & Cqrn. hioul or hiaulf 

' fol ; or, as explained by Bedet converfio Solis in 
auftum diei| I. e the retro-gradation of the Sun ; at 
which time the Greenlanderd ftill keep a Sun fealt 
to telUfy their joy at the return of that gr^at lumi- 
nary to the Northern hemifphere. Bede aMb informs 
lis, that in Britain, before the introduftionof Chrjf- 
tianity, the year commenced upon the day whjph is 
now called Yule or Chriftmas ; and that, on the 
preceding evening a great feftival was celebrated, 


Yu. Yu. 

under the name of Mtedre^nack^ (or the night of 
mothers), *^ as we imagine,*' continues he, ** ob 
caufam cercmoniarum quas in ea pcrvigiles agebant." 
See Abbot of Unreafon. In Iflandic poetry, the Sun 
is called fagra hwel^ pulcra rota, the fair or fplen- 
did wheel j in affinity with which may be mention- 
ed the Cambr. Brit, chwyl^ verfio. Sax. awylian^ 
revolvere. Teut. wylen or wellen^ volvere ; and t*be 
antient cuftom of painting the idol of the Sun with 
a whepl on his breaft. The learned Kicked, however, 
inclines rather to derive this Saxon word geol o'z 
yule from the Scandinavian oely cerevifia (& melo- 
nymicej convivium, compctatio. But if this had 
been the true etymology, the Saxon term would ra- 
ther have been geala from ealla^ of the fame fignifi- 
cation with the Scandinavian eel. The French call 
the fame day nouely which feems not to correfpond 
with either of thefe, and is accordingly derived, bj 
Menage, from the Lat. natalis. The modern terms 
»Solftice and Tropic, tend, however, in fouie degree, 
to confirm Bede-s explanation. 

" Our forefethers," fays Bourne, in his Ant'iquitates^ 
VulgareSy *' when the common devotions of Chrillmas 
Eve were over, ^nd night was coming on, were 
wont to light up candles, and to lay a log of an un- 
common fize of wood upon the fire, which they 
termed a Tule clog. Thefe were to illuminate the 
houfe, and turn the night into day ; which cuftom, 
in fome meafure, is flill kept up in the Northern 
parts ; and feems to have been ufed as an emblem 
of the return of the Sun, and the lengthening of the 
days. The continuing of it, after the introdudion of 
Chriftianity, may have been intended for a fymbol 
of that Light which lightened the Gentiles ; which 
turned them frOm darknefs to light, and from the 
power of Satan unto God."