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Full text of "The Chronicles of Froissart"

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THE 

CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



» 



Ct)c (globe (goition 

THE 

CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 

TRANSLATED BY 

JOHN BOURCHIER, LORD BERNERS 



EDITED AND REDUCED INTO ONE VOLUME 

BY 

G. C. MACAULAY 

FORMERLY FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE 



irXiou ijixLcrv Travros 



MACMILLAN AND CO., Limited 

NEW YORK : THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 
1904 

A II rights reserved 




NOV 1 1948 



First Edition 1895. R ej>r inted zZgg, 1904 



PREFACE 



The present volume is intended to supply what can hardly be said to exist 
already, a popular Froissart for English readers. This is an aim which needs 
no apology. Every one ought to read Froissart, but nevertheless, considering 
the difficulties which stand in the way, it is hardly surprising that a very large 
number of educated persons should be in the position of Henry Morton in Old 
Mortality^ obliged by sincerity to say ' No,' if the question, ' Did you ever read 
Froissart ? ' should be put to them. And yet he is recommended to the reader 
on so many grounds besides the rather doubtful one suggested by Claver- 
house. Not to mention the charm of the narrative as narrative, we must 
admit that there is no school of history like reading the record of chroniclers con- 
temporary with the events which they relate, and of all such chroniclers Froissart 
is surely the most readable. It has been the fashion with some historians to 
depreciate his authority, and it is possible, doubtless, to convict him of num- 
berless inaccuracies and of some serious misrepresentations ; but the good 
faith of the writer is unquestionable, and if we consider the extent of his 
narrative, embracing, as he says, England, France, Spain, Portugal, Scotland, 
Flanders, and the adjoining countries, and the difficulty of obtaining news, 
which compelled the chronicler himself to travel far and wide and to collect 
information from the mouths of those who had taken part in the events, we 
shall be rather surprised at the general trustworthiness of the Chronicles than 
at their particular errors. Their authority for a student of history in regard to 
this or that series of events depends upon a variety of circumstances which it 
would not be proper to discuss in this volume. For some parts the chronicler 
is dependent on his predecessor, Jean le Bel, for others he is himself a con- 
temporary authority; and naturally far greater weight attaches to his narrative 
of events in France, Flanders and Hainault, than in England, Spain and the 
East. But the real value of the work is as a picture of manners, a drama in 
which the personages are living characters and not mere historical names, 
and the chronicler himself moves among them, not the least real and living, 
Let it be admitted that the narrative of events is full of inaccuracies in detail, 
yet how characteristic it is of the times. Take for example the story of the 
first campaign against the Scots (due originally to Jean le Bel). What a 
chronicle of mismanagement and helplessness : and yet it is told as the most 
natural thing in the world, and we cannot doubt that whatever inaccuracies 
it may contain are mere mistakes of ' topography,' as Fielding might say, and 
that the narrative is thoroughly typical of fourteenth century warfare in a 



VI THE CHRONICLES OE EROISSART 

difficult country. They go up hills and down dales, not knowing whither they 
go nor where the enemy is, and this not in an enemy's country but in their 
own. They leave all the baggage and provisions behind them at midnight in 
a wood, to be picked up by any one who may chance to find them. When they 
at length discover the enemy, they cannot bring him to an engagement, and he 
comes and goes as he pleases. Finally he departs unfought with, and they con- 
sider the campaign at an end, having suffered terribly for weeks from hunger, wet 
and weariness. All this is told in the most graphic manner and without a word 
of blame to any one. Or again, as characteristic of that combination of pitiless 
cruelty with knightly sport, of which the most chivalrous characters were capable 
in that age, take the story told by Froissart of the sack of Limoges. ' It was 
great pity to see the men, women and children that kneeled down on their knees 
before the prince for mercy, but he was so inflamed with ire that he took no 
heed to them, so that none was heard, but a'll put to death as they were met 
withal, and such as were nothing culpable : there was no pity taken of the 
poor people, who wrought never no manner of treason, yet they bought it 
dearer than the great personages, such as had done the evil and trespass ' ; 
and then shortly afterwards it is related how the prince passing by in his litter 
stayed to see the gallant defence made by three French knights, ' and beheld 
them gladly and appeased himself in beholding them,' and granted them their 
lives when they surrendered. There is pity expressed by the chronicler for 
the poor people who had done nothing and made no resistance, but the prince 
is still for him 'the flower of chivalr3^' These examples are types of his 
representation of war, and we cannot doubt that they are true types. And it 
is the same with every other department of human action. His pages breathe 
the spirit of the times to which they belong, and let them contain what inac- 
curacies they may, they are a truer picture of the period than any modern 
historian with all his researches, or any modern historical novehst with all his 
genius and imagination could present to us. In reading Froissart we are 
reading the true history of the fourteenth century and breathing the very air of 
that age of infinite variety, in which the knight errant appears side by side 
with the plundering adventurer, and in which the popular movements in 
Flanders, France and England sounded the first notes of alarm to feudal 
oppressors, while the schism of the papacy prepared the way for religious 
revolution. 

The difficulties which stand in the way of the reader of Froissart are, first, 
the vast extent of the Chronicles and their rambling and disconnected 
character, and secondly, so far as the English reader is concerned, the want 
of a satisfactory translation ; for though the language of the original is by no 
means difficult, yet it is not every one who is prepared to face the unfamiliar 
forms and spelling of fourteenth-century French. The existing English ver- 
sions are two in number, one of the early sixteenth and the other of the early 
nineteenth century. The first is vigorous and spirited, but full of inaccuracies 
of text and translation and of irregularities of style, and also disfigured by 
many misprints and by the utter corruption of many proper names ; the other 
is respectable and commonplace, with far fewer blunders, though by no means 
faultless in this respect, but certainly not in any sense alive with the spirit of 
the original. A new translation is evidently desirable ; but on the whole it 
seems safer to attempt the task of editing a portion of the older of the exist- 
ing versions, which can hardly be said as yet to have been even corrected for 
the press. 



PREFACE Vil 



The translation of Froissart by Lord Berners is established as an English 
classic, and many generations of EnglishYnen have made their acquaintance 
with the Chronicles through it. At the same time, though it has been re- 
printed in the present century, it is only to be obtained at a rather high price 
and in a somewhat inconvenient form. An edition of the whole translation 
would require far more space than the single volume to which I am limited 
would afford, but there is some consolation for the omissions which the plan 
of this work renders necessary. Froissart is one of those authors of whom it 
may be said in a certain sense that the half is more than the whole. The 
student of history indeed would not willingly spare a single page, but the effect 
^f the whole narrative will often gain considerably by the omission of the less 
important gests of arms, which interfere with the flow of the main current of 
the story, and we may perhaps also consent to spare from a popular edition 
the history of some of the events that lay remote from the chronicler's own 
field of observation, as the chapters relating to the English expedition to 
Portugal and Galicia, which are called by a good authority * les plus confus et 
les plus inexacts de toute I'ceuvre historique de Froissart,' and the events in 
England in the latter years of Richard II., in relating which he is admittedly 
very inaccurate. By such omissions* as these the exuberant bulk of the 
Chronicles may be reduced, and the more interesting and important parts of 
them may be more satisfactorily presented to the reader. In many cases the 
omissions are such as to give greater continuity to the story ; but in order 
to indicate clearly what has been omitted, as well as to supply any links that 
may be required for the understanding of the narrative, summaries have been 
inserted of that which is left out, varying in length according to the importance 
of the matter dealt with and its more or less direct bearing upon that which is 
given in full. Notwithstanding therefore the very considerable extent of the 
omissions, the result is not a series of extracts, but a continuous history. The 
fact that a larger proportion is omitted of the second volume than of the first 
is due to the greater dififuseness of the Chronicles in the later period : the first 
volume includes the events of more than fifty years, the second those of 
only fifteen. 

The portion of Lord Berners' translation which is here edited is given as in 
the text originally printed, with the following exceptions : — First, the spell- 
ing has been modernised. Secondly, the misprints, errors of punctuation 
and such mistakes as seem likely to be mere slips of the pen or oversights 
have been corrected, a matter which is naturally made much easier by the 
possibility of referring to the original French text that was used by the trans- 
lator. Mention has been made of these numerous corrections only where they 
are at all doubtful or raise any point of special interest, but where additional 
words are inserted they are enclosed in square brackets. Thirdly, proper 
names have been brought to an intelligible and tolerably consistent form. 
What this means can only be appreciated by those who are familiar with the 
mass of corruption and confusion which is exhibited by the manuscripts and 
early editions of Froissart in regard to this point, and with the considerable 
addition to the chaos for which our translator and his printers are responsible : 
but a task which would otherwise have been hopeless has been rendered com- 
paratively easy by the labours of modern French editors, and above all by the 
invaluable index of proper names appended to Kervyn de Lettenhove's edition. 
In many cases proper names have been given in their correct forms, so far 
as that can be ascertained, but those which appear in an English dress, such 



7' HE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



as Walter Manny or Bertram of Guesclin, have not necessarily been made 
French again, and it has been thought well to retain well-known geographical 
names such as Bretayne, Burgoyne, Galice, Pruce, Gaunt, etc., rather than 
to substitute for them their modern equivalents. 

With the exception of the changes above indicated, no alteration has been 
made in the text of the translation : the style, with all its strange irregularity 
and carelessness, remains unchanged, the mistakes of translation are repro- 
duced, to be corrected only in the notes, if they are sufficiently important, and 
the division into chapters and headings of chapters are as the translator made 
them, reproducing from the early printed editions the divisions made by the 
copyists of a certain class of MSS. In the notes, where reference is made to 
■ ' the original ' or ' the French text,' what is meant is the text which the trans- 
lator had before him, and wherever in the notes a rendering is substituted for 
that of the translator without further remark, it is meant as a more exact 
rendering of that particular text. In cases where a difference of reading comes 
in that fact is carefully stated, and the expressions 'true text' or 'better text ' 
refer to the readings of modern critical editions based on the best MSS. The 
notes are for the most part confined to such points as have been here referred 
to, and touch upon the substance of the history only very occasionally and 
where points of special interest arise. As regards the French text from which 
the translation was made, all that need be reported will be found in the Intro- 
duction dealing with Lord Berners and his translation. 

The headings of the pages and the dates will sei-ve to facilitate reference, 
and the glossary is intended not only to explain such words as need explana- 
tion, but also to set forth in a convenient form the chief characteristics of the 
translator's diction. Lord Berners' Froissart is an important English prose 
text, and extensive as is the use which has been made of it by the editors of the 
' New English Dictionary,' it is probable that even they may glean something 
from this new edition. In that part of the great lexicon which has already 
been published our glossary might have supplied them with the new words 
'bidaus,' 'cinquantenier' and 'countersingle,' and with the phrase 'to be beaten' 
in the sense of 'to fight,' with new meanings of 'anger' (verb) and 'assister,' 
with earlier instances than any which they have quoted of the use of ' carriage ' 
in the sense of ' vehicle,' and with valuable additional quotations for ' again ' 
{i.e. in ' comparison with '), ' assised ' and ' closing.' 

As regards obligations to other writers, the chief acknowledgment is due 
to Kervyn de Lettenhove, whose magnificent edition of Froissart, with its 
index (or rather dictionary) of proper names and glossary, I have had con- 
stantly by my side. For a large part of the first book I have also used the 
unfinished edition of Luce. For the facts connected with the life and descent 
of Lord Berners I am indebted chiefly to Dugdale {Baronage of England) ^^ to 
the memoir given by the editor of the reprint of 1812, and to the introduction 
prefixed to the edition of ' Huon of Bordeaux,' edited for the Early English 
Text Society by Mr. S. L. Lee. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Introduction 

Title-page of the lirst volume . 
Preface of the translator 
Prologue of sir John Froissart 
Predecessors of king Edward III 
The queen of England in France, 1326 
Queen Isabel in Hainault 
Expedition to England 
Execution of the Spencers 
Accession of Edward III. 
War with the Scots, 1327 
Marriage of Edward III. 
Death of Robert Bruce 
Philip of Valois crowned, 1328 
Battle of Cassel 
Homage of Edward III. 
" War with the Scots, 1332 
Edward's designs on France 
Jaques d'Arteveld 

> Battle of Cadsand 
Edward III. Vicar of the Empire 
War with France 
Siege of Cambray 
Edward III. enters France 
The hosts at Buironfosse 
The French in Hainault 
War on the frontiers, 1339-40 
Battle of Sluys 
Council of Vilvorde 
Siege of Tournay 
Edinburgh castle taken, 134 1 
Events during the siege of Tournay 
Siege of Tournay raised, 1340 
War in Brittany, 1341 
War with the Scots, 1341 
The king and the countess of Salisbury 
War in Brittany, 1342 . 
*-The order of the Garter founded 
The earl of Derby in Gascony, 1 345 
Capture of La Reole . 
Death of Jaques d'Arteveld 
Siege of Aiguillon, 1346 
Expedition of Edward III. to France 



346 



PAGE 

xiii 

xxvii 

xxviii 

I 

3 

5 

7 

9 

10 

12 

13 

25 

26 

29 

29 

31 

35 

39 

40 

42 

45 

47 

48 

51 

52 

56 

58 

61 

64 

65 
66 
68 
70 
72 
73 

82 
83 
87 
88 

91 
93 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



Edward III. in Normandy 
Capture of Caen 
The English near Paris 
Passage of the Somme 

— Battle of Crecy 
m- Siege of Calais 

Invasion of England by the Scots 

Battle of Nevill's Cross 

Betrothal of the earl of Flanders 

Surrender of Calais, 1347 

The chaplet of pearls, 1350 

Death of king Philip, 1350 

Expeditions of the prince of Wales, 1355-56 
7~ Events before the battle of Poitiers 
L- Order of the two hosts . 
L Mediation attempted . 
) - Battle of Poitiers 
^ Return of the prince to Bordeaux 

— Government by the three estates in France 
Disturbances in Paris . 
The Jacquerie, 1357 
Death of Etienne Marcel 
Peace of Bretigny, 1 360 
Battle of Brignais, 1361 
The Companies, 1361-62 
Accession of Charles V. 
Battle of Cocherel, 1364 
Coronation of Charles V. 
Battle of Auray 

End of the wars in Brittany, 1364 
Don Peter of Castile . 
Henry the bastard 
Flight of don Peter, 1366 
Don Peter at Bordeaux 
Council at Bayonne 
The companies quit Spain 
Preparations for the expedition to Spain 
Passage of the mountains, 1367 
Preparations of king Henry 

The prince at Navaretta 

Letter of the prince of Wales . 

Battle of Najara 

After the battle of Najara 

Return of the prince from Spain 

Deliverance of Bertrand du Guesclin . 

Discontent in Gascony, 1368 . 

War renewed in Spain 

Battle of Montiel 

Capture of don Peter . 

The prince of Wales summoned to Paris 

Renewal of war, 1369 . 

Sir John Chandos and the earl of Pembroke 

Death of queen Phihppa 

Death of Chandos 

Limoges given up to the French, 1370 



CONTENTS 








XI 


PAGE 


Sack of Limoges by the English ..... 201 


Bertrand du Guesclin constable 








203 


Death of the prince of Wales, 1376 . 








205 


Deathof Edward III., 1377 . ... 








206 


Affairs of the Church, 1377 








207 


Election of Urban VI., 1378 . 








209 


War with the king of Navarre 








210 


Peter de Bournazel at Sluys 








213 


Affairs of Flanders, 1379 








214 


Election of Clement VII., 1378 








217 


The queen of Naples and the pope 








219 


Sir John Hawkwood . 








221 


John Lyon at Ghent . 








222 


The white hoods at Ghent, 1379 








225 


Burning of the castle of Wondelghem . 








231 


Alliance of Bruges and Ghent . 








232 


Death of John Lyon . 








233 


War in Flanders . . 








234 


Wreck of Arundel's ships, 1379 








235 


The earl of Flanders at Ghent . 








236 


Surprise of Oudenarde . 








239 


War renewed in Flanders, 1380 








241 


Expedition of Buckingham to France . 








242 


Battle near Roulers 








243 


Siege of Ghent .... 








245 


Defeat of Arnold de Clerck 








247 


PhiUp d'Arteveld captain, 1 381 








248 


Wat Tyler's rising 








250 


The commons at Blackheath . 








253 


The commons in London 








255 


Death of Wat Tyler . 








259 


Punishment of the rebels 








261 


Death of Grutere and Bette at Ghent, 1382 








263 


Famine in Ghent 








. 265 


Conference at Tournay. 








. 267 


Speech of Philip d'Arteveld . 








. 269 


March of the Gauntois towards Bruges 








271 


Victory of the Gauntois 








273 


Bruges taken .... 








274 


Escape of the earl of Flanders . 








277 


Siege of Oudenarde 








279 


French intervention 








281 


The flying hart 








282 


French expedition to Flanders . 








. 284 


Before the battle of Rosebeque 








284 


Battle of Rosbeque, 1382 








. 289 


After the battle of Rosebeque . 








290 


The French king's return to Paris 








292 


English sympathy with the Flemings . 








294 


Crusade of the bishop of Norwich, 1383 








296 


The bishop of Norwich in Flanders 








. 298 


Death of the earl of Flanders . 








302 


Title-page of the second volume 








307 


Preface of the translator 








308 


Froissart's journey, 1388 








309 



Xll 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



The prince of Wales in Bigorre 

P'roissart's journey 

The duke of Anjou in Bigorre, 1373 

Froissart's journey 

Foix and Armagnac 

Gaston de Foix 

His son's death 

Peter of Beam . 

The bascot of Mauleon 

Household of Gaston de Foix . 

War in Portugal, 1385 . 

Battle of Aljubarrota . 

Story of the lord of Corasse 

Affairs of the Church . 

Affairs of Portugal 

The French fleet at Sluys 

Capture of the constable de Clisson 

Events of the years 1386-88 . 

The Scots invade England 1388 

Battle of Otterburn 

After the battle of Otterburn . 

Affairs of Juliers and Gueldres . 

Peace between England and France 

Entry of queen Isabel into Paris, 1389 

Visit of the king of France to Avignon 

The king of France in Languedoc 

Wager of the king with the duke of Touraine 

Death of Urban VI. . 

Affairs of the Church, 1389 

Expedition to Africa, 1390 

Peter de Craon 

Attack on the Constable, 1392 

French expedition to Brittany . 

Madness of the king of France 

Dance of savages 

Death of pope Clement 

Froissart in England, 1395 

Debate in the Privy Council, 1395 

Irish affairs 

Expedition to Turkey, 1396 

Battle of Nicopoli 

Mission of Jaques de Helly 

Return of the French prisoners 

Affairs of the Church . 

The pope besieged at Avignon 

Conferences about the state of the Church 

Death of the duke of Lancaster 

The earl of Derby lands in England 

Capture of Richard II. 

Richard 11. brought to London 

Execution of the king's advisers 

Abdication of Richard 

Coronation of Henry IV. 

Death of Richard II., 1400 

Glossary 



INTRODUCTION 

ON LORD BERNERS AND HIS TRANSLATION 

The translation of the Chronicles of sir John Froissart ' out of French into our maternal 
English tongue,' made by John Bourchier, lord Berners, at the command of king Henry 
the eighth, is undoubtedly an English classic. It is not only one of the most extensive 
and important texts of English literature during the period of the formation and 
development of a native prose style, but it has been also the means by which English- 
men have chiefly become acquainted with the former exploits of their countrymen and 
the ' noble adventures of feats of arms done and achieved in the wars of P'rance and 
England,' as registered in the Chronicles of Froissart. As a translator he was first in 
the field and held his ground unchallenged until the present century. His version is 
full of faults, and the author of it was neither a sound French scholar nor sufficiently 
master of his literary tools to write lucid or grammatical English ; but it has merits 
which go far to atone for its defects. It was made by a man who could enter into the 
spirit of the original, though often at fault in the letter, a man who had himself taken a 
part both in war and in politics, and who, though capable when left to himself of the 
worst kind of style, was content when translating to reproduce to the best of his power 
the simplicity and vigour of his author, and this at a time when the ideals of the middle 
ages had not wholly passed away and before the pure well of fourteenth-century English 
had been very seriously defiled. For these reasons his version has been by many 
regarded as representing Froissart better than a more accurate translation in the modern 
style. As is observed by a French critic, ' la traduction de lord Berners presente, pour 
les Anglais, a raison de la naivete de son vieux langage, un charme presqu' egal a celui 
du texte original de Froissart.' 

I 

Before entering upon the criticism of this translation it is proper to state shortly 
what is known of its author. John Bourchier, or Bourgchier, lord Berners, or (as it was 
often written) Barnes, belonged to a family which was of great distinction and import- 
ance. The founder of its fortunes had been Robert Bourchier, Chancellor of England 
in the year 1340, and the first layman who held that office. This Robert Bourchier 
accompanied Robert d'Artois into Brittany in 1342, was with Edward III. in the cam- 
paign of 1346, and was present at the battle of Crecy (vol. i. chs. 91 and 128 of this 
translation). His son, John Bourchier, fills a certain place in the Chronicles of Frois- 
sart. He is mentioned as distinguishing himself at the siege of Dinan in 1342, he was 
present at the battle of Auray (i. 226), he accompanied the prince of Wales to Spain, 
he Mas shipwrecked with Arundel (i. 356), and he was in the expedition of Thomas of 
Woodstock, then earl of Buckingham, in 1380 (i. 361). Afterwards, when in the year 
1384 the burgesses of Ghent requested the king of England to appoint a governor for 
them, John Bourchier was sent with the title of 'reward (rewaert) of Flanders,' the 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 




same style which had been used by Philip van Arteveld (i. 447 and ii. i, etc.). This 
post he held for rather more than a year, and then returned in consequence of the 
reconciliation of Ghent with the duke of Burgundy (ii. 18-20). His son Bartholomew 
is mentioned by Froissart as made knight before Saint-Omer by the earl of Buckingham 
in 1380 (i. 361). 

This Bartholomew died without male issue and the barony of Bourchier passed 
eventually to the descendants of his younger brother. William Bourchier, son of this 
younger brother, married in 1419 Anne, daughter of Thomas of Woodstock, youngest 
son of Edward III., and in the same year was created earl of Eu in Normandy. This 
William earl of Eu had four sons and a daughter. The sons were — ( l ) Henry earl of Eu, 
afterwards viscount Bourchier, and finally earl of Essex ; in 1449 associated with others in 
a commission to govern Calais for five years, and in 1454 lord Treasurer of England : 
(2) William lord Fitzwarren : (3) Thomas, who became archbishop of Canterbury and a 
cardinal, Chancellor of England in i486 : (4) John, who married Margery, widow of 
John Ferreby and heiress of sir Richard Berners of West Horsley, Sussex, was sum- 
moned to parliament as a baron in 1455 by the designation of John Bourchier de 
Berners, chevalier, and was commonly called lord Berners, though before this time there 
was perhaps no barony of Berners. This John Bourchier fought for Henry VI. at the 
first battle of St. Albans in 1455, but afterwards with the rest of his family he became 
attached to the house of York, and was appointed by Edward IV. constable of Windsor 
Castle. His eldest son, Humphrey, married Elizabeth Tylney, and was killed fighting 
for Edward IV. at the battle of Barnet in 147 1, leaving one son, the subject of this 
notice, then a child not more than four years old, and two daughters, Margaret and 
Anne. Three years later, on the death of his grandfather, the boy succeeded to th^ 
title and estates. 

John Bourchier, lord Berners, the future translator of Froissart, was born either in 
1467 or 1469, and probably grew up under the guardianship of Thomas Howard, after- 
wards duke of Norfolk, to whom his mother was married some few years after his 
father's death. ^ He was made a knight of the Bath in 1477, being then at most tei 
years old, on the occasion of the betrothal of the king's second son, the young duke ol 
York (afterwards murdered in the Tower), to Anne, daughter and heiress of John Mow- 
bray, duke of Norfolk. He was educated at Oxford, probably at BalHol College, anc" 
afterwards travelled abroad, where he may probably have been during the troubles of 
the reign of Richard III., which took place while he was still quite young. Whatevei 
line he individually might have taken owing to his connexion with the Howards, it 
evident that the behaviour of Richard III. had alienated the rest of the Bourchier family 
from his cause ; and we find that several members of it gave assistance to the earl oi 
Richmond. One, if not two, of lord Berners' uncles had taken part in the insurrection 
of Buckingham ; one of them, Thomas Bourchier, fought for Richmond at Bosworth 
field ; and finally the ceremony of coronation on the accession of Henry VII. was per- 
formed by cardinal Bourchier, then archbishop of Canterbury, the great-uncle of lorct 
Berners. 

The services thus rendered were requited by the favour of Henry VII., in which 
naturally lord Berners shared. He was first summoned to parliament by the style of 
'John Bourgchier lord of Berners' in the iith year of Henry VII., having been previ-. 
ously employed at the siege of Boulogne in 1492. Some authorities say that he distin- 
guished himself in putting down the insurrection of 1497, but this is perhaps a mistake, 
arising from confusion between lord Berners and his uncle Thomas Bourchier. On the 
accession of Henry VIII. he became a favourite with the king and was employed in vari- 
ous military enterprises. In 1513 we find him as captain of the pioneers at the siege 
of Terouenne, where he did good service, especially in the recovery of a gun, which had 
been left behind on the road by negligence and had nearly fallen into the hands of the 

1 Besides the connexion formed by the marriage marriage of John Mowbray, third duke of Norfolk, 
of his mother with Thomas Howard, who succeeded with the great-aunt of Lord Beners. He himsell 
to the dukedom, there was an eariier kinship by the afterwards married a Howard. 



INTRODUCTION XV 



French. In 1514, on the occasion of the marriage of the king's sister Mary with Louis 
XII. , lord Berners was one of those who gave attendance upon her to Abbeville. Shortly 
afterwards he was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer for life. 

In 1 5 18 a special embassy was sent to the Spanish court to congratulate Charles V. 
on his accession and to endeavour secretly to detach him from the interests of France. 
For this important mission the archbishop of Armagh and lord Berners were selected. 
Several of the original despatches sent by the ambassadors are extant among the Cotton 
MSS. in the British Museum. The first report was favourable, but changes took place 
in the views of Wolsey as regards the French alliance, and from some of the despatches 
it is evident that he was dissatisfied with the doings of the envoys. In the month of 
August lord Berners fell seriously ill, and did not recover his health during his stay in 
Spain. For this reason they would have desired to return by land, but they were so 
ill supplied with money for their expenses, that they were compelled to come back by 
the nearest way. They took leave of the Spanish court in January 15 19 and took ship 
at Saint Sebastian.^ 

Lord Berners with his wife attended the king at the Field of the Cloth of Gold, and 
on July 2nd 1520 he was thanked by the Privy Council for an account of that ceremonial 
which he had forwarded to them. Towards the end of the year 1520 he was appointed 
to the post of deputy of Calais, one of the most important offices of trust under the 
crown. Here he seems to have remained for the rest of his life, busying himself partly 
in strengthening the fortifications, as we learn from his letters to Wolsey, and here it 
was that he chiefly found leisure for literary pursuits, being debarred, it seems, by the 
state of his health from active military service. In the latter part of his life he must 
have been somewhat embarrassed in money matters, partly perhaps owing to some law- 
suits in which he had been involved, and he was a debtor to the crown at the time of 
his death to the extent of at least ^^500. Henry VIII. was anxious to secure payment 
out of his estate, and when the deputy lay on his death-bed, the king set agents at Calais 
to watch over his personal effects. Lord Berners died on the i6th of March 1532-33, 
and was buried in the church of Saint Mary at Calais. All his goods were immediately 
placed under arrest, and an inventory taken, which exists still in the Record office. 
Among his effects were eighty books, chiefly French and Latin, but the titles unfortu- 
nately are not given. 

He was married to Catherine, daughter of John Howard, duke of Norfolk, 
apparently the sister-in-law of his mother, by whom he had two daughters, Mary and 
Jane. He left also several illegitimate children. 

Besides the translation of Froissart he made several other translations : as * The 
Hystorye of the moost noble and valiaunt Knyght Arthur of lytell Brytayne,' translated 
from the French. No copy of the early editions of this is known to exist. It was 
republished in 1814 by Utterson from a seventeenth-century edition. 

'The Castel of Love,' translated from the Spanish at the instance of the lady 
Elizabeth Carew. Of this there is a copy in the British Museum supposed to have been 
printed about 1540, but probably this was not the first edition. 

' The ancient, honorable, famous and delightful Historie of Huon of Bourdeux, 
enterlaced with the Love of many Ladies,' translated from the French at the desire of 
the earl of Huntingdon. One copy only exists of an early edition and that without 
date (being imperfect at the beginning and the end), but supposed to be of the year 
1534. It has been edited by Mr. S. L. Lee for the Early English Text Society. 

*The Golden boke of Marcus Aurelius,' translated from the French at the desire of 
his nephew, sir Francis Bryan. This is a translation from a French version of the well- 
known work by Guevara. The first edition bears the date 1534. It became very 

1 In one of the despatches the ambassadors good game to teach men to fly. My lord Berners 
report that at Saragossa the king joined in the answered that the Frenchmen learnt it well beside 
national exercise of casting canes,' that is, hurling Guingate at the journey of Spurs.' These de- 
javelins and galloping away in Parthian fashion, .spatches will be found summarised in Brewer's 
'whereof the French ambassador said it was a 'Letters and Papers of the reign of Henry VIII.' 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



popular and went through many editions before North published his ' Dial of Princes,' 
from the same original slightly expanded, in 1557. 

Lord Berners is said also to have composed a treatise ' of the duties of the inhabitants 
of Calais,' which has been perhaps rightly identified with ' Ordenances for Watch and 
Ward of Calais, ' printed with other documents relating to Calais for the Camden Society in 
1846; and a comedy called *Ite in vineam meam,' which was sometimes acted in the 
great church at Calais after vespers. This last is not extant. 

Some remarks may be here made on this list of works before passing on to the main 
subject of this Introduction. The translator's prologue to the romance of ' Arthur of 
Little Britain ' closely resembles in some respects the preface to the translation of 
Froissart, but it is written in a much simpler style and is more humble in its pretensions. 
The writer declares that he cannot render the work into ' fresh, ornate, polished English,' 
because of his insufficiency in * the facundious art of rhetoric,' and that he is but a learner 
of the language of French. The style of the preface to Froissart is much more formed 
and testifies to a terrible progress in the art of rhetoric, as it was then conceived, nor 
does the translator any longer speak of himself as ignorant of French. On the whole 
we may perhaps assume that * Arthur of Little Britain ' was his first considerable work 
in literature. 

The Froissart may probably have come next, and then the ' Castle of Love ' and 
' Huon of Bordeaux. ' The * Golden Book of Marcus Aurelius ' was the work of his 
last years, though he was not apparently occupied upon it, as has been sometimes stated, 
during the very last week of his life. The colophon of this book states that it was * ended 
at Calais the tenth day of March ^ in the yere of the reigne of our soveraygne lorde 
kyng Henry the VIIL the xxiii.,' that is 1531-32, a full year before the translator's death. 
I have not seen a copy of the first edition, nor do I know where one is to be found, and 
it is possible that it may contain the reading xxiiii. (as stated by Mr. Lee), though 
Dibdin reports otherwise; but certainly in the edition of 1535, and in subsequent 
editions so far as I know, it is xxiii. In any case, however, the book does not seem 
to have been printed in the translator's lifetime, and no doubt it was published by sir 
Francis Bryan, himself afterwards a translator of Guevara. At least twelve editions of 
this book are recorded between 1534 and 1560, and there can be no doubt that the 
credit of making Guevara known in England must be assigned to lord Berners rather 
than to North. It has been suggested therefore that the ' Golden Book ' and not the 
' Dial of Princes ' was the real father of what is called Euphuism in England : but it is 
vain to attempt to trace Euphuism, except in a very restricted sense, to the influence of 
any single book, and it will soon be acknowledged that the translators of Guevara 
were no more really responsible than Lyly for a style which had developed simultaneously 
in all the neighbouring countries. If nothing else could be adduced to shew that the 
tendency existed already in English literature, the prefaces to lord Berners' Froissart, 
written before he could possibly have read Guevara, would be enough to prove it. 

II 

In his translation of Froissart's Chronicles, lord Berners no doubt found a truer 
satisfaction than in any of his other works. His delight was in history rather than in 
fiction : it is history which alone in his judgment 'complecteth all profit,' moving us to 
emulate the example of those who have been before us, with the prospect of ourselves 
becoming an example to those that shall come after. There is a real enthusiasm, 
visible through the artificiality of the rhetoric, in his praise of history, and he evidently 
desired that the narratives with which he dealt should have at least the semblance of 
truth. In the prologue to ' Arthur of Little Britain ' he naively lets his readers into 
the secret that he undertook to translate the book before he had read it, and declares 
that as he advanced with his task he had been so staggered by the * unpossibilities ' of 
the story, that he had thought to have left and given up his labour. However, he had 
1 It is a curious coincidence that the translation of Froissart also was finished on the loth of March. 



INTRODUCTION xvii 



consoled himself with the reflection that divers other ' noble histories ' in which the 
deeds of famous knights of old were related, se,emed to our understanding not less 
incredible, and that the first author of the book had probably devised it ' not without 
some measure of truth or virtuous intent.' Just so we may conceive that he was enticed 
into attempting ' Huon of Bordeaux ' by the specious semblance of history which the 
first part of that romance presents, and that ' the instant desires of his nephew, Francis 
Bryan, knight,' that he would translate the 'Golden Book of Marcus Aurelius,' may 
have been powerfully seconded by the pretence, which the author made and long 
maintained, that it was all genuine history. 

Be this as it may, the translation of Froissart's Chronicles was uiidertaken, as already 
stated, at the command of the king. The first volume was * Imprinted at London, in 
Fletestrete, by Richard Pynson, printer to the kynges noble grace, and ended the xxviii. day 
of January, the yere of our lorde mdxxiii.' (that is 1523-24) : the second volume was 
finished at Calais the loth day of March in the i6th year of the reign of king Henry 
VIII. , and printed as before by Richard Pynson, the printing being ended on the last day 
of August in the year 1525. Pynson issued at least two editions of the book, but with 
the same date and imprint. It was also printed by William Myddylton, ' in Fletestrete, 
at the signe of the George,' without date, but the title-page and imprint of this (prob- 
ably unauthorised) edition have the words * of the church of England and also of Ire- 
lande in earth the supreme heade ' added- to the king's title, proving its date to have 
been at least as late as 1533. Of this edition I have seen only one volume, the copy in 
the British Museum being made up with the second volume of one of Pynson's, but a 
note in the Grenville copy of Pynson's edition states that there exists an issue of the 
whole book printed by Myddylton. Myddylton's edition, so far as I know it, is a line 
for line reprint of Pynson's, but executed in a very much inferior style. P^inally the 
book was republished in 181 2, under the superintendence of E. V. Utterson, in the form 
of a tolerably accurate reprint of Pynson's first edition, with a few notes on mistranslated 
passages and many emendations of proper names, given on the authority of the lately 
published translation by Johnes. Of these last many are not to be relied upon, and it 
should be remarked that by an oversight the black-letter title-page printed for the first 
volume is that of Myddylton's edition and not Pynson's.^ 

With the exception of some correction of the punctuation, which remains, however, 
exceedingly defective, this last publication reproduces designedly all the errors of the 
original edition. These, which are sufficiently numerous to leave the reader often in 
doubt about the true 'sentence of the matter,' consist of two classes, those which pro- 
ceed from the translator himself or the French text which he used, and those for which 
he is indebted to his printers. It is pretty clear that the translator did not take the 
trouble to revise his own proofs, indeed such mechanical work would no doubt in that 
age be considered as belonging solely to the printer. Many of the errors are obviously 
due to misreading of the translator's handwriting, as * Beamon ' for ' Beauieu ' (vol. i. ch. 
3), 'creylles' for 'oreylles' (i. 17), ' Issodnii ' for 'Issodun' (i. 21), 'drewe' for * drove' 
(i. 44), ' their grefe ' for ' them grace ' (i. 56), ' the kyng harde noyse ' for ' the kyng 
harde masse' (i. 124), ' Muquateners ' for ' Cinquanteners ' (i. 349), 'Dunce' for 
•Dunoe' (ii. 206), 'mylke' for 'myllet' (ii. 215), and very many more, including a 
curious case where, the translator having written no doubt, ' as at that tyme sir Johan 
Warnes was capitayne of Calays ' ( Warnes being a corruption in the French text of 
d'Ewrues, i.e. d'Evreux), the printer has substituted the name most familiar to himself in 
connexion with that office, and we read ' as at that tyme sir Jphan Bernes was capitayne 
of Calays,' that is, no other than our translator himself, translated for the occasion into 
the fourteenth century (ii. 157). The mistakes of punctuation are still more numerous, 
and are often such as to destroy the whole sense of the passage. Of these various 
errors very few have as yet received any correction, so that the present may be said 
to be the first attempt to give a thoroughly readable text of any considerable portion 
of the book. 

Lord Berners had certainly some qualifications which might have been expected to 



xvill THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 

fit him for his task as translator of Froissart. In such families as his, if in any, the 
tradition of the age of chivalry was likely to be still alive. The Chronicles which he 
translated are full of the deeds of his ancestors, for we must remember that he was 
descended not only from the Bourchiers, but also from Edward the third and from his 
son Thomas duke of Gloucester, whose grandson was the grandfather of our translator ; 
so that it may fairly be said of him, ' les gloires de son pays etaient aussi pour lui des 
gloires domestiques ' (Lettenhove, i. 3, 457). He was a man of the world quite as much 
as a man of letters : he had travelled in various countries and had been engaged in 
important service both of war and of diplomacy. Finally he had found leisure for his 
literary task in a post which of all others carried with it most associations of the period 
of which the Chronicles give us so living a picture. Calais was the prize won on the 
field of Crecy, the gate by which the English entered France, the vital point on which 
negotiations for peace so often turned, the town of the world which the English loved 
best, ' for as long as they be lords of Calais, they said, they bare the keys of France 
under their girdle ' (ii. 1 79). In the position of captain of Calais, a post which had been 
also to some extent associated with his family in former times, he could hardly fail to have 
a sense of the living reality of the conflicts of which Froissart wrote the chronicle and in 
which his ancestors had taken a leading part. Add to this finally that his lifetime began 
within seventy years of the latest events chronicled by Froissart, and that the English 
language of his day was not yet very much altered from that of the fourteenth century. 

Against these considerations must be set several disadvantages, of which some 
arise from defects personal to the translator, others belong to the times in which he 
lived. The absence of the means for anything like a critical study of Froissart's 
Chronicles reduced the translator to a text of his author which in many respects is very 
unsatisfactory ; and this corruption of the French text is really responsible for many of 
the apparent blunders of translation, as will be sufficiently pointed out in the notes to 
this edition. Then again, the undeveloped state of English prose style at the beginning 
of the sixteenth century threw unusual difficulties in the way of so extensive a work, 
difficulties with which the literary ability of the translator was hardly competent to 
grapple successfully. In fact it is evident that he had not a sufficient literary training 
for his task, and he shews a certain gentlemanly indifference to accuracy both in his 
rendering of the French and in his style of expressing himself in English. It is of these 
disadvantages and defects and of the manner in which they appear in the translation that 
I propose now to speak, and first of the French text from which the version was made. 

At the time when the work of translation was being done there existed at least five 
printed editions of the Chronicles — (i) the editio princeps, printed at Paris for Antoine 
Verard, without date, probably about 1495 ; (2) another edition published by the same, 
probably about 1497; (3) an edition printed by Michel Lenoir, Paris, 1505; (4) an 
edition published by G. Eustace and F. Regnault,^ Paris, 1513; {5) an edition by A. 
Verard, F. Regnault and J. Petit, Paris, 1518 : all are in 4 volumes, small folio, and 
are printed in Gothic letters, and they not only all represent the same text, but the later 
editions are printed page by page from the earlier, with only the most trifling alterations 
or corrections, so that Denis Sauvage was justified in saying that for critical purposes 
they are equivalent to a single edition.^ As regards the first book, where alone the 

1 That is, some copies bear the name of Regnault. V^rard's editions have ' Haneskerly,' which is re- 

2 It may be of some interest to determine by produced by the translator, while Lenoir has 
means of the slight variations that exist, which ' Kanerly ' : and finally for the distinction between 
particular one of these editions was used by the the two editions of Verard \ye may quote vol. i. ch. 
translator. The evidence chiefly depends upon 125, where all the other editions, including V^rard's 
variations in the form of proper names: for ex- first, have 'larsin' or 'larcin,' while V6rard's second 
ample, the edition used by the translator had the has 'darsin,' on which the translator has founded 
reading 'dongport' for ' ung port' in vol. i. fol. 5 an absurd mistake. Such evidence as this tends 
(vol. i. ch. 10 of the translation), a reading ex- to shew that the translator used V^rard's second 
hibited only by the early editions of Verard and by edition, but the variations in these early issues are 
that of Lenoir : in vol. i. ch. 112 the translator has so trifling that they may be regarded for most pur- 
' Mauleon,' which is given by the two early editions poses as the same. 

of Verard but not by Lenoir or the rest : in i. 221 



INTRODUCTION xix 



difference of redactions is of serious importance, the text represented by these editions 
belongs to that which is called by Kervyn de Lettenhove the second redaction, that is 
the class to which by far the greater number of existing MSS. are referred ; but of this 
it is a considerably abridged copy. 

The text is of course not a critical one, that is, it was printed apparently from a 
single manuscript without comparison with others, and the result is that it contains a 
considerable number of corruptions, especially of proper names. That lord Berners 
should exercise much criticism upon it was perhaps not reasonably to be expected, but 
it is certainly surprising that he should have let pass without Correction so many mis- 
takes about the names of places which must have been perfectly familiar to him, and 
that he sometimes even introduces corruptions of such names, which were not in his 
French text. For example, he has not only acquiesced in the reading ' Poictou,' or as 
he calls it * Poyters,' for * Ponthieu ' in the letters patent of vol. i. ch. 24, where he must 
surely have known that Ponthieu and Montreuil were the places spoken of, but he has 
actually changed * Ponthieu ' into Poictou in some other places, e.g. i. 247, where the 
name occurs in connexion with the towns of Abbeville, Saint-Valery and Crotoy, with 
the position of which the captain of Calais must certainly have been well acquainted. 
The case is much the same with the English names. In a few cases he has made 
corrections: he rightly gives *Shene'for 'Renes' (i. 314), *Brendwode' (Brentwood) 
for ' Brehoude' (ii. 200), and ' Edenborowe' for * Haindebourg,' and he has sometimes 
given the names of well-known English families in a more correct form ; but these cases 
are rather the exception. * Mombray ' for * Mowbray ' must surely be a misprint, but 
'Pennefort' and *Penbruges' for 'Pembroke,' *Canoll' for *Knolles,' *Caureirfor 
* Calverley,' ' Quenfort ' for * Oxford,' ' Volengy ' and ' Bouligney ' for * Buckingham ' (a 
bad case, for the person in question is Thomas of Woodstock, the translator's ancestor) 
and many others, are forms which an Englishman who had any knowledge of the history 
might be expected to correct ; and such names as ' He of Vbyque' for ' Isle of Wight,' 
'Brendpest' for *Kent, Essex,' *Aude' for 'Tweed,' 'Germeney' for 'Yarmouth,' 
need not have been left unreformed. There are also cases in which the translator has 
made matters worse by unfortunate attempts at correction, as where he writes * Hull ' 
for * Heulle ' (ii. 239), the correction required being * Henley.' His attempts to correct 
the text where proper names are not involved are even less successful, as will be 
seen in the notes to this edition. 

As the copyists of the manuscripts often thought themselves at liberty to abridge the 
French text, so the translator still further abridges in his version. As an example of 
the extent to which this double process is sometimes carried we may take the description 
of the English order before the battle of Poitiers. The full text of the second redaction 
as given from the best MSS. in Lettenhove's edition (vol. v. p. 411) is as follows : — 

En ces parolles que Ii rois de France disoit et monstroit a ses gens pour yaus enco- 
ragier, revinrent Ii iiii chevalier dessus nommet, et fendirent le presse et s'arrest^rent devant 
le roy. L^ estoient Ii connestable de France et Ii doi marescal et grant fuison de bonne 
chevalerie, tout venu et arrest^ pour savoir comment on se combateroit. Li rois demanda 
as dessus dis tout en hault : ' Signeur, queles de vos nouvelles ? ' II respondirent : ' Sire, 
bonnes ; si ards hui, se il plaist k Dieu, tme belle joumde sus vos ennemis. ' ' Tele I'espdrons- 
nous k avoir par le grasce de Dieu, ' ce respondi Ii rois. ' Or nous dittes le maniere de 
leur convenant et comment nous les porons combatre.' Adont respondi messires Eustasses 
de Ribeumont, sicom je fui enfomids, poiu- tous ; car il Ten avoient pryet et cargiet, et 
dist ensi : ' Sire, nous avons veu et consid6r6 vos ennemis : si poeent estre par estimation 
ii"i hommes d'armes, iiii^n arciers et xv^ brigans.' ' Et comment gisent-il?' dist Ii rois. 
' Sire, ' respondi messires Eustasses, ' il sont en tres-fort liu, et ne poons veoir, ne imaginer 
qu'il n'aient fait que une bataille ; mes trop bellement et trop sagement Font il ordonn^, 
et ont pris le lone d'un chemin fortefyet malement de haies et de buissons, et ont vesti 
celle haie, d'une part et d'aultre, de leurs arciers, telement que on ne poet entrer, ne 
chevaucier en leur chemin, fors que parmi yaus : si convient-il aler celle voie, se on les 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



voet combatre. En celle haie n'a que une seule entree et issue, ou espoir iiii hommes 
d'armes, ensi que ou chemin, poroient chevaucier de fronch. Au coron de celle haie, entre 
vignes et espines, oil on ne poet aler, ne chevaucier, sont leurs gens d'armes, tout k piet, 
et ont mis leurs gens d'armes tout devant yaus, leurs arciers a mani6re d'une herce : dont 
c'est trop sagement ouvr^, ce nous samble, car qui vodra ou pora venir par fait d'armes 
jusques k yaus, il n'i entera nuUement, fors que parmi ces arciers, qui ne seront mies l^gier 
k desconfire.' 

The text of the a^ove passage in Verard's edition, from which the translation was 
made, is this : — 

En ce point revindrent les trois nobles chevaliers dessus nommez, lesquelz fetidirent la 
presse et approcherent le roy, qui leur demanda des nouvelles. Messire Eustace de Ribau- 
mont si respondit pour tous, car ses compaignons ten avoient prii, et dist : ' Sire, nous 
avons regard^ les Anglois, si peuvent bien estre par estimacion deux mille hommes d'armes, 
quatre mille archiers et quinze cens brigans. Si sont en ung tres fort lieu, et ne povons 
ymaginer quilz ayent fait que une bataille. Mais moult saigement I'ont ordonn^e, et ont 
prins le long du chemin fortiffi^ durement de haye et de buyssons, et ont vestue celle haye 
d'une partie de leurs archiers tellement qu'on ne pent entrer ne chevaucher en leur chemin 
fors que parmy eulx. Si convient-il aller celle voye qui les veult combatre. En celle haye 
n'a que une seulle entree ne yssue, ou espoir quatre hommes d'armes ainsi que au chemin 
pourroyent chevaucher de front. Au bout de celle haye, entre vignes et espines, ou Ton ne 
peut aller ne chevaucher, sont leurs gens d'armes tout k pied, et ont mis tout devant eulx 
leurs archiers en maniere d'une herse, qui ne seroit mye legi^re chose a desconfire.' 

The words in italics are those which are omitted by the translator. Altogether it 
will be seen the passage is reduced to about half its original length, but it must be 
noticed that it is only in the first book (that is, vol. i. chs. 1-3 17 in the English version) 
that the French text had been abridged to this extent. In the remainder of the 
Chronicles the text which the translator followed was one which had been but very 
slightly shortened by omissions. 

As regards the accuracy of the translation we must not expect a very high standard. 
The translator has not, he says, followed his author word by word, and it is not part of 
the plan of the present edition to correct the translation like a schoolboy's exercise. 
But setting aside the cases where a deviation from the true sense is due to corruption of 
the French text,^ there remain a considerable number of downright mistranslations, the 
result either of carelessness or blundering. For example, he translates ' despecer les 
chaussees ' into ' cut short their kirtles ' (i. 80) ; ' povres gens I'amonterent premiere- 
ment, et meschans gens le tuerent en le parfin,' 'poor men first mounteth up, and un- 
happy men slayeth them at the end ' (i. 115); 'le roy de France les avoit advancez,' 
*the French king followed him' (i. 159) ; 'depuis cent ans,' 'in a hundred year after' 
(i. 270) ; 's'il est qui fait, il est qui dit,' ' if it be as he doth, it is as he saith ' (i. 387) ; 
'se fist sire et roy du pays dont elle se clamoit dame,' 'was lord and king of the country 
called Daure ' (ii. 42) ; ' il la garda d'estre prinse,' ' he kept himself sure enough from 
taking' (ii. 167) ; 'qu'on I'oublia en France,' 'that he forgat France' (ii. 174) ; ' pour- 
tant qu'il les avoit avancez,' * because he was advanced by their means ' (ii. 229). In 
most of these cases, as in others which might be quoted, the blunders arise simply from 
ignorance of French : but there are also mistakes which are due to mere carelessness, 
as when he renders 'unze fils' 'a son' (i. 307), and repeatedly mistranslates the names 
of the days of the week, making 'jeudi' 'Tuesday' and 'mardi' 'Wednesday' {e.g. i. 
152, 220, 222). That he had no special knowledge of older French words and forms is 
clear from his not understanding such words and expressions as ' esclistre,' 'juper,' 'se 

1 Without reference to the translator's French ally suppose that ' the fourth part ' in ch. 382 (where 

text it is impossible to say for certain in any single the true reading of the French is 'les quatre 

instance whether the mistake is that of the transla- pars ') must be a mistake of the same kind. In 

tion or not. "To take a single example : the reader, this instance, however, he would be wrong, for 

having found in vol. i. ch. 381 the words 'bien les the translator's French text gave here 'la quarte 

trois pars ' translated ' the third part,' would natur- part.' 



INTRODUCTION xxi 



deviser,' 'jangle,' 'se delivrer de ' (ii. 153), 'se clore' (ii. 197). On the whole it must 
be concluded that lord Berners had an insufficient knowledge of the language which he 
undertook to translate and was not a sound French scholar even judged by the standard 
of his own time, and we have already noticed the humility with which he speaks of his 
own attainments. At the same time it may be observed that in several passages he has 
given a more correct rendering than his modern competitor. For example in i. 325, 
where Johnes says : ' The queen was not very far advanced in pregnancy ; but the 
doctors had forbidden her bathing,' etc., Berners more rightly gives : ' The queen being 
in childbed was not well at ease, and her physicians had defended her in any wise 
that she should not enter into no bain.' Again, in i. 403 Johnes has this : ' But some 
imagine the king would not have interfered in the matter, if it had not been for the 
intrigues of the duke of Burgundy ; for if nothing had been done, he would have annexed 
Flanders to the crown of France by some means or other ; for the earl of Flanders was 
not enough in his favour to induce him to exert himself in his aid.' Nothing could be 
much worse than this either as regards correctness or style, while Berners is both 
accurate and spirited : ' But some thought that if king Charles had lived still till that 
time, that he would have done nothing, and if he had, men supposed that he would 
thereby [have] annexed the county of Flanders to the crown of France : for the earl of 
Flanders was not so well in his grace that he would have done anything for him, without 
he had well known why.' Finally: * If the Turks and Tartars have frequently hurt 
Christendom, the Genoese felt it not, ' where Berners correctly gives : * The Turks and 
Tartars should do much damage to Christendom, if the Genoways were not ' (ii. 40). 
A few more passages might be added, but certainly not enough to justify the remark 
which has been made, that the older version is the more accurate as well as the more 
spirited of the two. 

The English style of lord Berners is partly correspondent to the looseness of transla- 
tion which has been noticed. It has no claim whatever to purity or accuracy, and the 
manner of expression is often intolerably careless. Sentences are begun, broken off, 
begun again, and after all never ended ; verbs are left without subjects and relatives 
without antecedents : grammatically the style is often hopeless ; it is the style of a man 
who has not sufficient command over the language in which he writes to express clearly 
that which he means to say, who struggles with a material of which he is not master. 
Let us take a few examples out of many of this formlessness of style, to justify that which 
has been said, and the sentences quoted may serve also as specimens of the spelling 
used in the original edition : — 

' And whan these knightes and other men of armes knewe the wyll and answere of king 
Dapeter, wherby they reputed hym right orgulus and presumptuous, and made all the hast 
they myght to auaunce, to do hym all the hurte they coulde. So they all passed,' etc. (i. 229). 

' Ye haue harde right well here before, howe the kyng of Nauer, who hadde to his 
wyfe the frenche kynges suster, for the loue of the one and of the other, it was sayd and 
purposed, that the herytage of the chyldren of the kyng of Nauer, the whiche was fallen 
to them by the ryght of their mother, yt the french kyng their vncle, by the succession of 
his suster, ought to haue power therof in name of the chyldren, seyng the chyldren were in 
his kepynge, wherby all the lande that the kynge of Naver held in Normandy shulde be in ye 
french kynges hand, as long as his nephewes were within age. Of all these maters, ' etc. (i. 327). 

' For ye knowe howe the puissaunce of the prince of Wales and of Acquitayne put 
kynge don Peter, your cosyn, into possession of all these herytages and land es closed within 
Spayne, and afterwarde by a journey of batayle y*^ don Henry had at Nauntuell agaynst don 
Peter, who there loste all agayne, and don Henry put in possession as he was before ' (ii. 33). 

' It can nat be said but that the knightes of Fraunce, of Bretayne, of Burgoyne and of 
Byerne, but that^ right valiantly fought' (ii. 34). 

' Ye haue well herde here before how sir Peter of Craon, who was a knyght of great 

1 The omission of ' they ' is not an accident or a misprint, but a regular feature of the style, in imita- 
tion perhaps of old French. 



xxii THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 

lygnage ; but he was farre out of the frenche kynges grace and the duke of Thourayns : if 
he dyd so moche to cause them to be displeased with him, he dyd yvell. Ye have herde 
also howe he was gone into Bretayne,' etc. (ii. i8i). 

For these enormities and for many more of the same kind our translator alone is 
responsible : the style of the original author is almost always lucid and fluent, and it cer- 
tainly gives no excuse for the confusion and obscurity of expression which we have noted. 
It is going much too far therefore to speak, as some have done, of this translation as a 
model of English prose, written in a style simple and direct, but at the same time 
flexible and mobile, with artistic combinations of the Romance and Teutonic elements 
of the language. It has many merits, as we shall presently see, but it is not a model 
of style. Nor can it be pleaded for the writer that the age had not yet learnt to express 
itself clearly in prose. The generation before that of our translator had made a very 
great advance ; the style of Mallory's Morte Darthur (this also a translation, or series of 
translations, from the French) is excellently adapted to its purpose, and for directness 
and lucidity Caxton is a far better writer than Berners. 

But enough has been said of the faults of the work that is before us : it remains to 
speak of its merits. The writer has the qualities of his defects. If he is not properly 
speaking a man of letters, he is on that account the more familiar with courts, embassies 
and statecraft. He has seen battles and taken part in the conduct of sieges, and he 
knows the language of politics and of diplomacy. This, it cannot be denied, is some 
qualification for translating Froissart. Again, having no formed style of his own, he is 
more apt to follow the style of the original than to attempt to improve upon it : and 
this is in fact his greatest merit. He has not attempted to produce an original work in 
the guise of a translation : not only the matter but to a great extent the manner is that of 
the original, while at the same time the English is idiomatic enough to avoid the sugges- 
tion of a foreign source. It is true that under any exceptional stress his powers of clear 
expression break down, as we have seen, but ordinarily he flows along happily enough, and 
gives us very often no bad reproduction of the style of Froissart. If we wish to know of 
what he was capable in this matter of style when left to his own guidance, we have only to 
read the preface of the translator, prefixed to the first volume of the work. It is difficult to 
conceive anything more unKke the style of the translation than this stilted performance, 
with its regular balance of clauses and its absurd arrangement of synonyms in triplets : e.g. 
*for whan we (beynge vnexpert of chaunces) se, beholde and rede the auncyent actes, gestes 
and dedes, howe and with what labours, daungers and paryls they were gested and done, 
they right greatly admonest, ensigne and teche vs howe we maye lede forthe our lyues : 
and farther, he that hathe the perfyte knowledge of others' ioye, welthe and highe pros- 
perite, and also trouble, sorowe and great aduersite, hath thexpert doctryne of all 
parylles ' : with much more of the same kind, in regard to which he is justly afraid 
that if he should write all that he would on the subject, he should ' too sore torment ' his 
reader. It is, however, only the sense that he ought to write something impressive in a 
good literary style that drives him to his stilts : he comes down from them as soon as he 
has something practical to say, either about his reasons for translating Froissart, his 
methods of naming persons, countries and cities, or his reckoning of miles and leagues. 
All this he expresses in a simple conversational manner, as of one gentleman explain- 
ing things to another ; and when his work of translation begins, he resigns himself 
willingly to the guidance of his author, whose narrative he reproduces with the spirit of 
one to whom it is a living drama and not an unreal pageant. It is this fresh vitality of 
the story, combined with the simplicity of the rendering, that constitutes the redeeming 
merit of the translation, a merit sufficient to cover a multitude of defects. Add to this 
a certain vigorous picturesqueness of phrase, which is certainly not to be found in the 
work of his modern rival, and a diction not too far removed from the time of his author, 
English enriched with that admixture of French M^hich had been incorporated with it 
in the fourteenth century, but not overloaded with new foreign importations, such as an 
unskilful translator might be tempted to introduce. 



INTRODUCTION 



As examples of graphic and forcible expression we may take a few passages here and 
there, quoting also the modern translation, not because it is specially bad, but as giving 
an average standard for comparison : — 

' The horses whan they felt ye sharpe arowes, they wolde in no wyse go forward, but 
drewe abacke, and flang and toke on so feersly, that many of them fell on their maisters ' 
(i. 162). 

The modern rendering is : ' The horses smarting under the pain of the wounds made 
by their bearded arrows, would not advance, but turned about, and by their unruliness 
threw their masters.' 

' Gylbert answered and sayde, Holde thy pease, fole, for whan I wyll, with ye erle's 
puyssance, all the whyte hattes shall be cast downe ; and suche there be that bereth them 
nowe, that here after shall haue no nede of any hatte ' (i. 349). 

Johnes has : ' Gilbert replying said : Hold thy tongue, fool ; whenever I please, with 
the assistance of my lord, I can put down these white hoods ; and some of them who 
now wear them will not in a short time have heads to put them on. ' 

Again : ' [He] caste about his eyen, and the firste thynge he sawe was a Sowe, the greattest 
that euer he sawe, and she semed to be so leane and yuell fauoured, that there was nothyng 
on her but the skynne and the bones, with long eares and a longe leane snout. The 
lorde of Corasse had marueyle of that leane Sowe, and was wery of y^ sight of her, and 
comaunded his men to fetche his houndes, and sayd, Lette the dogges hunt her to dethe 
and deuoure her' (ii. 37). 

The modern translator says : ' Casting his eyes about, the first thing he observed was 
an immensely large sow ; but she was so poor, she seemed only skin and bone, with long 
hanging ears all spotted, and a sharp-pointed lean snout. The lord de Corasse was dis- 
gusted at such a sight, and calling to his servants said, Let the dogs loose quickly, for I 
will have that sow killed and devoured. ' 

And finally : ' The constable defended hymselfe valyauntly with that wepyn that he had ; 
howebeit, his defence hadde vayled hym but lytell, and the great grace of god had nat ben ; 
styll he sate on his horse tyll he had a full stroke on y° heed, with whiche stroke he fell fro 
his horse ryght agaynst a bakers dore, who was vp and busy to bake breed, and had left 
his dore halfe open, whiche was happy for the constable ; for as he fell fro his horse he fell 
agaynste the dore, and the dore opened, and he fell in at the dore, and they that were a 
horsebacke coulde nat entre after hym, the dore was to lowe and to lytell. . . , Thus syr 
Olyuer of Clysson was lefte in this case, as a man halfe deed and more, in the bakers house, 
who was sore abasshed whan he knewe it was the constable : as for his men, had lytell 
hurte, for syr Peter and his men loked for nothynge but to haue slayne the constable. 
Than syr Olyuers men assembled togyther, and entred into the bakers house, and there 
founde their mayster, sore hurte on the heed, and the blode rennynge downe by his vysage, 
wherwith they were sore abasshed, and good cause why : there they made great com- 
playntes ; fyrste they feared he had ben deed. Anone tydinges hereof came to the kynges 
lodgynge, and it was sayde to the kynge, as he was goynge to his bedde : Ah, syr, we 
canne nat hyde fro you the great myschiefe that is now sodenly fallen in Parys. What 
myschefe is that ? quod the kynge. Syr, quod they, your constable syr Olyuer of Clisson 
is slayne. Slayne, quod the kynge ; and howe so, and who hath done that deed ? Syr, 
quod they, we canne nat tell ; but this myschefe is fallen on hym here by in the streate of 
saynt Kateryn. Well, quod the kynge, light vp your torches ; I will go and se hym ' 
(ii. 181). 

' The constable parried the blows tolerably well with his short cutlass ; but his defence 
would have been of no avail, if God's providence had not protected him. He kept steady 
on horseback some time, until he was villanously struck on the back part of his head, 
which knocked him off his horse. In his fall he hit against the hatch of a baker's door, 
who was already up to attend to his business and bake his bread. Having heard the 
noise of horses on the causeway and high words, the baker had, fortunately for the con- 
stable, half opened the hatch ; and sir OUver, falling against it, burst it quite open and 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



rolled into the shop. Those on horseback could not follow him, as the entrance was 
neither wide nor high enough, ' and so on. 

The version of Johnes is quoted in these passages not because it deserves scorn- 
ful treatment, but simply to shew that in all these cases, as in others which might 
be found on every page, the older translator has the advantage. The work done 
by Johnes was very respectable, and he was the first to call attention to an im- 
portant class of manuscripts, with variations and additions which had not before been 
publicly noticed, but we cannot doubt about the comparative merits of the two versions, 
notwithstanding the superior accuracy of the later one. Let ' them that default find ' 
do as the translator prays them to do and endeavour to amend where need shall be. 
There is no doubt that the book was popular with those to whom it was addressed, and 
that it was truly a pleasure to the noble gentlemen of England ' to se, beholde and rede 
the highe enterprises, famous actes and glorious dedes done and atchyued by their valyant 
aunceytours. ' It has also remained among the monuments of the English language, 
and if not exactly a masterpiece, it has seemed nevertheless more successful than any 
other version in rendering the charm and simplicity of the original text. 



THE FIRST VOLUME 



tiolutn of 0ic 31o!jaa jfcoj^^art: of tlje cronpcle^ of (£1x9:'. 

lanDe, jfraunce, »)papne, ^Bortpngale, »)Cotlantie, Bretapne, 

Jflautier^, anti otljer placet atiiopapnge^ '^Trangflateti out of 

jfrenc^e into our maternal enfflp^g^lje tonp bp 3|oljan 

Bourcljfer, fenigljt, lorDe Berner^: Sit tlje comauntie= 

ment of oure moo0t tjiglje redouted 0ouerapne 

lortie fepng: i^enrg tlje WL^ kpno: of 

(Englantie anti of jfraunce anU Ijiff^ De= 

fender of tl)e cljri^ten faptlje, etc^ 



THE PREFACE OF JOHN BOURCHIER, KNIGHT, 

LORD BERNERS, 

TRANSLATOR OF THIS PRESENT CHRONICLE 

What condign graces and thanks ought men to give to the writers of histories, 
who with their great labours have done so much profit to the human fife. 
They shew, open, manifest and declare to the reader by example of old 
antiquity, what we should enquire, desire and follow, and also what we should 
eschew, avoid and utterly fly ; for when we (being unexpert of chances) see, 
behold and read the ancient acts, gests and deeds, how and with what labours, 
dangers and perils they were gested and done, they right greatly admonish, 
ensign and teach us how we may lead forth our lives : and farther, he that 
hath the perfect knowledge of others' joy, wealth and high prosperity, and also 
trouble, sorrow and great adversity, hath the expert doctrine of all perils. 
And albeit that mortal folk are marvellously separated both by land and water, 
and right wondrously situate, yet are they and their acts (done peradventure 
by the space of a thousand year) compact together by the histographier, as it 
were the deeds of one self city and in one man's life : wherefore I say that 
history may well be called a divine providence ; for as the celestial bodies 
above complect all and at every time the universal world, the creatures therein 
contained and all their deeds, semblably so doth history. Is it not a right 
noble thing for us, by the faults and errors of other to amend and erect our 
life into better ? We should not seek and acquire that other did ; but what 
thing was most best, most laudable and worthily done, we should put before 
our eyes to follow. Be not the sage counsels of two or three old fathers in a 
city, town or country, whom long age hath made wise, discreet and prudent, 
far more praised, lauded and dearly loved than of the young men.'' How 
much more then ought histories to be commended, praised and loved, in 
whom is included so many sage counsels, great reasons and high wisdoms of 
so innumerable persons of sundry nations and of every age, and that in so long 
space as four or five hundred year. The most profitable thing in this world 
for the institution of the human life is history. Once the continual reading 
thereof maketh young men equal in prudence to old men, and to old fathers 
stricken in age it ministereth experience of things. More, it yieldeth private 
persons worthy of dignity, rule and governance : it compelleth the emperors, 
high rulers and governours to do noble deeds, to the end they may obtain 
immortal glory : it exciteth, moveth and stirreth the strong, hardy warriors, 
for the great laud that they have after they ben dead, promptly to go in hand 
with great and hard perils in defence of their country : and it prohibiteth 
reprovable persons to do mischievous deeds, for fear of infamy and shame. 



PREFACE OF LORD BERNERS XXIX 

So thus through the monuments of writing, which is the testimony unto virtue 
many men have been moved, some to build cities, some to devise and estab- 
blish laws right profitable, necessary and behoveful for the human life, some 
other to find new arts, crafts and sciences, very requisite to the use of man- 
kind. But above all things, whereby man's wealth riseth, special laud and 
cause ought to be given to history : it is the keeper of such things as have 
been virtuously done, and the witness of evil deeds, and by the benefit of 
history all noble, high and virtuous acts be immortal. What moved the strong 
and fierce Hercules to enterprise in his life so many great incomparable 
labours and perils ? Certainly nought else but that for his merit immortality 
might be given to him of all folk. In semblable wise did his imitator, noble 
duke Theseus, and many other innumerable worthy princes and famous men, 
whose virtues ben redeemed from oblivion and shine by history. And whereas 
other monuments in process of time by variable*, chances are confused and 
lost, the virtue of history, diffused and spread through the universal world, 
hath to her custos and keeper it (that is to say, time) which consumeth the 
other writings. And albeit that those men are right worthy of great laud and 
praise, who by their writings shew and lead us the way to virtue, yet never- 
theless the poems, laws and other acts that they found, devised and writ ben 
mixed with some damage, and sometime for the truth they ensign a man to 
lie ; but only history, truly with words representing the acts, gests and deeds 
done, complecteth all profit : it moveth, stirreth and compelleth to honesty ; 
detesteth, irketh and abhorreth vices ; it extolleth, enhanceth and lifteth up 
such as ben noble and virtuous ; depresseth, poistereth and thrusteth down 
such as ben wicked, evil and reprovable. What knowledge should we have of 
ancient things past, an history were not, which is the testimony thereof, the 
light of truth, the mistress of the life human, the president of remembrance 
and the messenger of antiquity ? Why moved and stirred Phalerius the king 
Ptolemy oft and diligently to read books ? Forsooth for none other cause, 
but that those things are found written in books that the friends dare not shew 
to the prince. Much more I would fain write of the incomparable profit of 
history, but I fear me that I should too sore torment the reader of this my 
preface ; and also I doubt not but that the great utility thereof is better known 
than I could declare ; wherefore 1 shall briefly come to a point. Thus, when I 
advertised and remembered the manifold commodities of history, how bene- 
ficial it is to mortal folk, and eke how laudable and meritorious a deed it is 
to write histories, fixed my mind to do something therein : and ever when this 
imagination came to me, I volved, turned and read many volumes and books 
containing famous histories ; and among all other I read diligently the four 
volumes or books of sir John Froissart of the country of Hainault, written in 
the French tongue, which I judged commodious, necessary and profitable to 
be had in English, sith they treat of the famous acts done in our parts, that is 
to say, in England, France, Spain, Portugal, Scotland, Bretayne, Flanders and 
other places adjoining ; and specially they redound to the honour of English- 
men. What pleasure shall it be to the noble gentlemen of England to see, 
behold and read the high enterprises, famous acts and glorious deeds done 
and achieved by their valiant ancestors ? Forsooth and God, this hath moved 
me at the high commandment of my most redoubted sovereign lord king 
Henry the VIII., king of England and of France, and high defender of the 
Christian faith, etc., under his gracious supportation, to do my devoir to trans- 
late out of French into our maternal English tongue the said volumes of sir 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



John Froissart ; which chronicle beginneth at the reign of the most noble and 
valiant king Edward the third, the year of our Lord a thousand three hundred 
and twenty-six,^ and continueth to the beginning of the reign of king Henry 
the fourth, the year of our Lord God a thousand and four hundred ; the space 
between is threescore and fourteen years ; requiring all readers and hearers 
thereof to take this my rude translation in gre. And in that I have not followed 
mine author word by word, yet I trust I have ensued the true report of the 
sentence of the matter ; and as for the true naming of all manner of person- 
ages, countries, cities, towns, rivers or fields, whereas I could not name them 
properly nor aptly in English, I have written them according as I found them 
in French ; and though I have not given every lord, knight or squire his true 
addition, yet I trust I have not swerved from the true sentence of the matter. 
And thereas I have named the distance between places by miles and leagues, 
they must be understood according to the custom of the countries whereas 
they be named, for in some place they be longer than in some other : in Eng- 
land a league or mile is well known ; in France a league is two miles, and in 
some places three ; and in other country is more or less : every nation hath 
sundry customs. And if any fault be in this my rude translation, I remit the 
correction thereof to them that discreetly shall find any reasonable default ; 
and in their so doing I shall pray God to send them the bliss of heaven. — 
Amen. 

\ %\\x<^ Eittiet!) t!)e preface of 0ir go^aii Bourc^ier, fenigljt, 
lortje Bertier^, tranislatour of tji^ present cron|?cle: anO 
tierafter folotoet^ t^e table,^ toitt) all tlje cljapitergf a0 t^ep 
0tantie lit t!)e bofee va ortier, from one to four Ijuntireti, fgftie 
ann one, tDl)icIje \st in number <Z^^<^^ anti 1L% cfjapiter^. 

1 A correction of ' sixteen.' and instead of it a table is given above of the pages 

2 The table of chapters is omitted in this edition, in the present volume. 



THE 



CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



CHAPTER I 

Here beginneth the prologue of sir John 
Froissart of the Chronicles of France, 
England and other places adjoining. 

To the intent that the honourable and 
noble adventures of feats of arms, done and 
achieved by the wars of France and Eng- 
land, should notably be enregistered and 
put in perpetual memory, whereby the prewe 
and hardy may have ensample to encourage 
them in their well-doing, I, sir John Frois- 
sart, will treat and record an history of 
great louage and praise. But, or I begin, 
I require the Saviour of all the world, who 
of nothing created all things, that he will 
give me such grace and understanding, that 

II may continue and persevere in such wise, 
that whoso this process readeth or heareth 
may take pastance, pleasure and ensample. 
It is said of truth that all buildings are 
masoned and wrought of divers stones, 
and all great rivers are gurged and as- 
sembled of divers surges and springs of 
water ; in likewise all sciences are extraught 
and compiled of divers clerks ; of that one 
writeth, another peradventure is ignorant ; 
but by the famous writing of ancient authors 
all things ben known in one place or other. 
Then to attain to the matter that I have 
enter prised, I will begin first by the grace 
of God and of the blessed Virgin our Lady 
Saint Mary, from whom all comfort and 
consolation proceedeth, and will take my 
foundation out of the true chronicles some- 
time compiled by the right reverend, 
discreet and sage master John le Bel, 



sometime canon in Saint Lambert's of 
Liege, who with good heart and due dili- 
gence did his true devoir in writing this 
noble chronicle, and did continue it all his 
life's days, in following the truth as near 
as he might, to his great charge and cost 
in seeking to have the perfect knowledge 
thereof. He was also in his life's days 
well beloved and of the secret council with 
the lord sir John of Hainault, who is 
often remembered, as reason requireth, 
hereafter in this book, for of many fair and 
noble adventures he was chief causer, and 
by whose means the said sir John le Bel 
might well know and hear of many divers 
noble deeds, the which hereafter shall be_ 
declared. Truth it is that I, who have 
enterprised this book to ordain for pleasure 
and pastance, to the which always I have 
been inclined, and for that intent I have 
followed and frequented the company of 
divers noble and great lords, as well in 
France, England and Scotland, as in divers 
other countries, and have had knowledge/, 
by them, and always to my power justly 
have enquired for the truth of the deeds of 
war and adventures that have fallen, and 
especially sith the great battle of Poitiers, 
whereas the noble king John of France 
was taken prisoner, as before that time I 
was but of a young age or understanding.^ 

1 This extraordinary sentence does not at all re- 
present the original, which may be thus translated : 
'True it is that I who have enterprised to set in 
order this book, have for pleasure, which hath 
ever inclined me thereto, frequented the company 
of divers noble and great lords, as well in France 
as England, Scotland and other countries, and 

e 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



Howbeit, I took on me, as soon as I came 
from school, to write and recite the Said 
book,^ and bare the same compiled into 
England, and presented the volume thereof 
to my lady Philippa of Hainault, noble 
queen of England, who right amiably 
received it to my great profit and advance- 
ment. And it may be so that the same 
book is not as yet examined nor corrected 
so justly as such a case requireth ; for feats 
of arms dearly bought and achieved, the 
honour thereof ought to be given and truly 
divided to them that by prowess and hard 
travail have deserved it. Therefore to 
acquit me in that behalf, and in following 
the truth as near as I can, I, John Froissart, 
have enterprised this history on the foresaid 
ordinance and true foundation, at the 
instance and request of a dear lord of mine, 
Robert of Namur, knight, lord of Beaufort, 
to whom entirely I owe love and obeisance, 
and God grant me to do that thing that 
may be to his pleasure. Amen. 



CHAPTER II 

Here speaketh the author of such as were 
most valiant knights to be made mention 
of in this book. 

All noble hearts to encourage and to shew 
them ensample and matter of honour, I, 
sir John Froissart, begin to speak after 
the true report and relation of my master 
John le Bel, sometime canon of Saint- 
Lambert's of Liege, affirming thus, how 
that many noble persons have ofttimes 
spoke of the wars of France and of England, 
and peradventure knew not justly the truth 
thereof, nor the true occasions of the first 
movings of such wars, nor how the war at 

have had acquaintance with them. So I have 
always to my power justly enquired and demanded 
of the wars and adventures," etc. The translation 
given by Johnes is equally incorrect. 

1 The better reading is, 'a rimer et k ditter les 
guerres dessus dites.' The translator seems to 
think that the book presented to queen Philippa 
was a first edition of this history; but Froissart 
draws a distinction between that book (which may 
probably have been in verse) and the present work, 
undertaken at the instance of Robert of Namur. 
Lower down, where the translator has, ' it may be 
so that the same book is not as yet examined nor 
corrected so justly as such a case requireth,' the 
author meant to say that perhaps that book was 
not so carefully composed as it should have been. 



length continued : but now I trust ye shall 
hear reported the true foundation of the 
cause, and to the intent that I will not 
forget, minish or abridge the history in 
anything for default of language, but rather 
I will multiply and increase it as near as I 
can, following the truth from point to point, 
in speaking and shewing all the adventures 
sith the nativity of the noble king Edward 
the III., who reigned king of England ai^d 
achieved many perilous adventures, and 
divers great battles addressed, and other 
feats of arms of ^eat prowess sith the year 
of our Lord CJoT-McecitxvL, that this 
noble king was crowned in England : for 
generally such as were with him in his 
battles and happy fortunate adventures, 
or with his people in his absence, ought 
right well to be taken and reputed for 
valiant and worthy of renown ; and though 
there were great plenty of sundry person- 
ages that ought to be praised and reputed 
as sovereigns, yet among other and princi- 
pally ought to be renowned the noble 
proper person of the foresaid gentle king, 
also the prince of Wales his son, the duke 
of Lancaster, sir Raynold lord Cobham, 
sir Gaultier of Manny ^ of Hainault, knight, 
sir John Chandos, sir Franck of Hale and 
divers other, of whom is made mention 
hereafter in this present book because of 
their . va lianj — prowess ; for in all battles 
that they were in7n!tJ§t commonly they had 
ever the renown, both by land and by sea, 
according to the truth. They in all their 
deeds were so valiant that they ought to 
be reputed as sovereigns in all chivalry ; \ 
yet for all that, such other as were in their 
company ought not to be of the less value 
or less set by. Also in France in that time 
there were found many good knights, 
strong and well expert in feats of arms ; for 
the realm of France was not so discomfited 
but that always there were people sufficient 
to fight withal, and the king Philip of 
Valois was a right hardy and a valiant 
knight, and also king John his son, Charles 
the king of Bohemia,^ the earl of Alen9on, 
the earl of Foix, sir Saintre, sir Arnold 

1 The form 'Manny' for 'Mauny' is retained 
throughout. 

2 The king of Bohemia is called Charles by 
Froissart, but his name was in fact John. In his 
latest redaction (Vat. MS.) Froissart states when 
relating the battle of Crecy that he was rebaptized 
as Charles. 



PREDECESSOJ^S OF EDWARD III. 



[d'Audrehem, sir Bouciquaut, sir Guichard] 
d' Angle, the lords of Beaujeu, the father 
and the son, and divers other, the which 
I can not their names, of whom hereafter 
right well shall be made mention in time 
and place convenient to say the truth and 
to maintain the same. All such as in cruel 
battles have been seen abiding to the 
discomfiture, sufficiently doing their devoir, 
may well be reputed for valiant and hardy, 
whatsoever was their adventure. 



CHAPTER III 

Here the matter speaketh of some of the 
predecessors of king Edward of England. 

First, the better to enter into the matter 
of this honourable and pleasant history of 
the noble Edward king of England, who 
was crowned at London the year of our 
Lord God mcccxxvi., on Christmas- 
day, living the king his father and the queen 
his mother, it is certain that the opinion of 
Englishmen most commonly was as then, and 
oftentimes it was seen in England after the 
time of king Arthur, how that between two 
valiant kings of England there was most 
commonly one between them of less 

. sufficiency both of wit and of prowess : and 
this was right well apparent by the same 
king Edward the third ; for his grand- 
father, called the good king Edward the 
first, was right valiant, sage, wise and hardy, 

V adventurous and fortunate in all feats of 
war, and had much ado against the vScots, 
and conquered them three or four times ; 
for the Scots could never have victory nor 
endure against him : and after his decease 
his son of his first wife, who was father to 
the said good king Edward the third, was 
crowned king and called Edward the second, 
who resembled nothing to his father in wit 
nor in prowess, but governed and kept his 
realm right wildly, and ruled himself by 
sinister counsel of certain persons, whereby 
at length he had no profit nor land, as ye 
shall hear after ; for anon after he was 
crowned, Robert Bruce king of Scotland, 
who had often liefore given much ado to the 
said good king Edward the first, conquered 
again all Scotland, and brent and wasted a 
great part of the realm of England, a four 
or five days' journey within the realm at two 
times, and discomfited the king and all the 



barons of England at a place in Scotland 
called Stirling, by battle arranged the day 
of Saint John Baptist, in the seventh year 
of the reign of the same king Edward, in 
the year of our Lord Mcccxiv. The 
chase of this discomfiture endured two days 
and two nights, and the king of England 
went with a small company to London : 
and on mid-lent Sunday in the year of our 
Lord Mcccxvi. the Scots won again the 
city of Berwick by treason ; but because 
this is no part of our matter, I will leave 
speaking thereof. 



CHAPTER IV 

Here mine author maketh mention of the 
parent of this good king Edward the 
third. 

This king Edward the second, father to 
the noble king Edward the third, had two 
brethren, the one called [the earl] marshal, 
who was right wild and diverse of condi- 
tions, the other called sir Edmund earl 
of Kent, right wise, amiable, gentle and « 
well beloved with all people. This king 
Edward the second was married to Isabel, 
the daughter of Philip le Beau king of 
France, who was one of the fairest ladies k 
of the world. The king had by her two 
sons and two daughters. The first son 
was the noble and hardy king Edward the 
third, of whom this history is begun. The 
second was named John, and died young. 
The first of the daughters was called Isabel, 
married to the young king David of Scot- 
land, son to king Robert de Bruce, married 
in her tender yongth by the accord of both 
realms of England and Scotland for to 
make perfect peace. The other daughter 
was married to the earl Raynold, who 
after was called duke of Gueldres, and he 
had by her two sons, Raynold and Edward, 
who after reigned in great puissance. 



CHAPTER V 

Hereafter beginneth the occasion whereby 
the war moved between the kings of 
France and England. 

NOMT sheweth the history that this Philip 
le Beau king of France had three sons and 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



a fair daughter named Isabel, married into 
England to king Edward the second ; and 
these three sons, the eldest named Louis, 
who was king of Navarre in his father's 
days and was called king Louis Hutin, the 
second had to name Philip the Great or the 
Long, and the third was called Charles ; 
and all three were kings of France after 
their father's decease by right succession 
each after other, without having any issue 
male of their bodies lawfully begotten. 
So that after the death of Charles, last 
king of the three, the twelve peers and 
all the barons of France would not give 
the realm to Isabel the sister, who was 
queen of England, because they said and 
maintained, and yet do, that the realm of 
France is so noble that it ought not to go 
to a woman, and so consequently to Isabel, 
nor to the king of England her eldest son : 
for they determined the son of the woman 
to have no right nor succession by his 
mother, since they declared the mother 
to have no right : so that by these reasons 
the twelve peers and barons of France by 
their common accord did give the realm of 
France to the lord Philip of Valois, nephew 
sometime to Philip le Beau king of France, 
and so put out the queen of England and 
her son, who was as the next heir male, as 
son to the sister of Charles, last king of 
France. Thus went the realm of France 
out of the right lineage, as it seemed to 
many folk, whereby great wars hath moved 
and fallen, and great destructions of people 
and countries in the realm of France and 
other places, as ye may hereafter [see]. 
This is the very right foundation of this 
history, to recount the great enterprises 
and great feats of arms that have fortuned 
and fallen. Sith the time of the good 
Charlemagne king of France there never 
fell so great adventures. 



CHAPTER VI 

Of the earl Thomas of Lancaster and 
twenty-two other of the great lords and 
knights of England, that were beheaded. 

The foresaid king Edward the second, 
father to the noble king Edward the 
third, on whom our matter is founded, 
this said king governed right diversely his 



realm by the exhortation of sir Hugh 
Spencer, who had been nourished with 
him sith the beginning of his yongth ; the 
which sir Hugh had so enticed the king, 
that his father and he were the greatest 
masters in all the realm, and by envy 
thought to surmount all other barons of 
England ; whereby after the great dis- 
comfiture that the Scots had made at 
Stirling great murmuring there arose in 
England between the noble barons and 
the king's council, and namely against sir 
Hugh Spencer. They put on him that 
by his counsel they were discomfited, and 
that he was favourable to the king of 
Scots. And on this point the barons 
had divers times communication together, 
to be advised what they might do, whereof 
Thomas earl of Lancaster, who was uncle 
to the king, was chief. And anon when sir 
Hugh Spencer had espied this, he pur- 
veyed for remedy, for he was so great 
with the king and so near him, that he 
was more beloved with the king than all 
the world after. So on a day he came to 
the king and said, 'Sir, certain lords of 
your realm have made alliance together 
against you, and without ye take heed 
thereto betimes, they purpose to put you 
out of your realm ' : and so by his mali- 
cious means he caused that the king made 
all the said lords to be taken, and their 
heads to be stricken off without delay, 
and without knowledge or answer to any 
cause. First of all sir Thomas earl of 
Lancaster, who was a noble and a wise, 
holy knight, and hath done sith many 
fair miracles in Pom fret, where he was 
beheaded, for the which deed the said 
sir Hugh Spencer achieved great hate in 
all the realm, and specially of the queen 
and of the earl of Kent, brother to the 
king. And when he perceived the dis- 
pleasure of the queen, by his subtle wit 
he set great discord between the king and 
the queen, so that the king would not see 
the queen nor come in her company, the 
which discord endured a long space. Then 
was it shewed to the queen secretly and to 
the earl of Kent, that without they took good 
heed to themselves, they were likely to be 
destroyed, for sir Hugh Spencer was about 
to purchase much trouble to them. Then 
the queen secretly did purvey to go into 
France, and took her way as on pilgrim- 



I 



THE QUEEN OF ENGLAND IN FRANCE, 1326 



5 



age to Saint Thomas of Canterbury, and 
so to Winchelsea, and in the night went 
into a ship that was ready for her, and her 
young son Edward with her, and the earl 
of Kent and sir Roger Mortimer, and in 
another ship they had put all their purvey- 
ance, and had wind at will, and the next 
morning they arrived in the haven of 
Boulogne. 



CHAPTER VII 

How the queen of England went and com- 
plained her to the king of France her 
brother of sir Hugh Spencer. 

When queen Isabel was arrived at Bou- 
logne, and her son with her and the earl 
of Kent, the captains and abbot of the 
town came against her and joyously re- 
ceived her and her company into the 
abbey, and there she abode two days : 
then she departed and rode so long by 
her journeys that she arrived at Paris. 
Then king Charles her brother, who was 
informed of her coming, sent to meet her 
divers of the greatest lords of his realm, 
as the lord sir Robert de Artois, the 
lord of Coucy, the lord of Sully, the 
lord of Roye and divers other, who 
honourably did receive her and brought 
her into the city of Paris to the king her 
brother. And when the king saw his 
sister, whom he had not seen long before, 
as she should have entered into his chamber 
he met her and took her in his arms and 
kissed her, and said, ' Ye be welcome, 
fair sister, with my fair nephew your son,' 
and took them by the hands and led them 
forth. The queen, who had no great joy 
at her heart but that she was so near to the 
king her brother, she would have kneeled 
down two or three times at the feet of the 
king, but the king would not suffer her, 
but held her still by the right hand, de- 
manding right sweetly of her estate and 
business. And she answered him right 
sagely, and lamentably recounted to him 
all the felonies and injuries done to her 
by sir Hugh Spencer, and required him 
of his aid and comfort. When the noble 
king Charles of France had heard his 
sister's lamentation, who weepingly had 
shewed him all her need and business, 



he said to her : ' Fair sister, appease your- 
self, for by the faith I owe to God and to 
Saint Denis I shall right well purvey for 
you some remedy.' The queen then 
kneeled down, whether the king would 
or not, and said : * My right dear lord 
and fair brother, I pray God reward you.' 
The king then took her in his arms and 
led her into another chamber, the which 
was apparelled for her and for the young 
Edward her son, and so departed from 
her, and caused at his costs and charges 
all things to be delivered that was behoveful 
for her and for her son. After it was not 
long, but that for this occasion Charles 
king of France assembled together many 
great lords and barons of the realm of 
France, to have their counsel and good 
advice how they should ordain for the 
need and besynes of his sister queen of 
England. Then it was counselled to the 
king that he should let the queen his sister 
to purchase for herself friends, whereas 
she would, in the realm of France or in 
any other place, and himself to feign and 
be not. known thereof; for they said, to 
move war with the king of England, and 
to bring his own realm into hatred, it were 
nothing appertinent nor profitable to him 
nor to his realm. But they concluded that 
conveniently he might aid her with gold 
and silver, for that is the metal whereby \\ 
love is attained both of gentlemen and of ' 
poor soldiers. And to this counsel and 
advice accorded the king, and caused this 
to be shewed to the queen privily by sir 
Robert d 'Artois, who as then was one of the 
greatest lords of all France, 



CHAPTER VIII 

How that sir Hugh Spencer purchased that the 
queen Isabel was banished out of France. 

Now let us speak somewhat of sir Hugh 
Spencer. When he saw that he had drawn 
the king of England so much to his will, 
that he could desire nothing of him but it 
was granted, he caused many noblemen 
and other to be put to death without 
justice or law, because he held them 
suspect to be against him ; and by his pride 
he did so many marvels, that the barons 
that were left alive in the land could not 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



bear nor suffer it any longer, but they 
besought and required each other among 
themselves to be of a peaceable accord, and 
caused it secretly to be known to the 
queen their lady, who had been as then at 
Paris the space of three year, certifying 
her by writing, that if she could find the 
means to have any company of men of arms, 
if it were but to the number of a thousand, 
and to bring her son and heir with her into 
England, that then they would all draw to 
her and obey her and her son Edward, as 
they were bound to do of duty. These letters 
thus sent secretly to her out of England, 
she shewed them to king Charles her 
brother, who answered her and said : ' Fair 
sister, God be your aid, your business shall 
avail much the better. Take of my men 
and subjects to the number that your friends 
have written you for, and I consent well to 
this voyage. I shall cause to be delivered 
unto you gold and silver as much as shall 
suffice you. ' And in this matter the queen 
had done so much, what with her prayer, 
gifts and promises, that many great lords 
and young knights were of her accord, as 
to bring her with great strength again into 
England. Then the queen, as secretly as she 
could, she ordained for her voyage and 
made her purveyance ; but she could not 
do it so secretly but sir Hugh Spencer 
had knowledge thereof. Then he thought 
to win and withdraw the king of France 
from her by great gifts, and so sent secret 
messengers into France with great plenty 
of gold and silver and rich jewels, and 
specially to the king and his privy council, 
and did so much that in short space the 
king of France and all his privy council 
were as cold to help the queen in her voyage 
as they had before great desire to do it. 
And the king brake all that voyage, and 
defended every person in his realm on pain 
of banishing the same, that none should be 
so hardy to go with the queen to bring her 
again into England. 

And yet the said sir Hugh Spencer 
advised him of more malice, and be- 
thought him how he might get again 
the queen into England, to be under the 
king's danger and his. Then he caused 
the king to write to the holy father the 
pope affectuously, desiring him that he 
would send and write to the king of 
France, that he should send the queen his 



wife again into England ; for he will acquit 
himself to God and the world, and that it was 
not his fault that she departed from him, 
for he would nothing to her but all love and 
good faith, such as he ought to hold in 
marriage. Also there were like letters 
written to the cardinals, devised by many 
subtle ways, the which all may not be 
written here. Also he sent gold and silver 
great plenty to divers cardinals and prelates, 
such as were most nearest and secretest 
with the pope, and right sage and able 
ambassadors were sent on this message ; 
and they led the pope in such wise by their 
gifts and subtle ways, that he wrote to the 
king of France that on pain of cursing he 
should send his sister Isabel into England 
to the king her husband. 

These letters were brought to the king 
of France by the bishop of Saintes, whom 
the pope sent in that legation. And when 
the king had read the letters, he caused 
them to be shewed to the queen his sister, 
whom he had not seen of long space before, 
commanding her hastily to avoid his realm, 
or else he would cause her to avoid with 
shame. 

CHAPTER IX 

How that queen Isabel departed from France 
and entered into the Empire. 

When the queen heard this tidings, she 
knew not what to say nor what advice to 
take ; for as then the barons of the realm 
of France were withdrawn from her by the 
commandment of the king of France, and 
so she had no comfort nor succour, but all 
only of her dear cousin sir Robert de 
Artois ; for he secretly did counsel and 
comfort her as much as he might, for other- 
wise he durst not, for the king had de- 
fended him. But he knew well that the 
queen was chased out of England and also 
out of France for evil will and by envy, which 
grieved him greatly. Thus was sir Robert de 
Artois at the queen's commandment ; but 
he durst not speak nor be known thereof, 
for he had heard the king say and swear that 
whosoever spake to him for the queen his 
sister should lose his lands and be banished 
the realm ; and he knew secretly how the 
king was in mind and will to make his 
sister to be taken, and Edward her son 



QUEEN ISABEL IN HAINAULT 



and the earl of Kent and sir Roger Mor- 
timer, and to put them all in the hands of 
the king and of sir Hugh Spencer. Where- 
foie he came on a night and declared all 
this to the queen, and advised her of the 
peril that she was in. Then the queen was 
greatly abashed, and required him all 
veeping of his good counsel. Then he 
said : ' Madam, I counsel you that ye 
depart and go into the Empire, whereas 
there be many great lords, who may right 
well aid you, and specially the earl Guil- 
liam of Hainault and sir John of Hainault 
his brother. These two are great lords 
and wise men, true, drad and redoubted 
of their enemies. ' Then the queen caused 
to be made ready all her purveyance, and 
paid for everything as secretly as she 
might, and so she and her son, the earl of 
Kent and all her company departed from 
Paris and rode toward Hainault, and so 
long she rode that she came to Cambresis ; 
and when she knew she was in the Empire, 
she was better assured than she was before, 
and so passed through Cambresis and 
entered into Ostrevant in Hainault, and 
lodged at Bugnicourt, in a knight's house 
who was called sir d'Aubrecicourt, who 
received her right joyously in the best 
manner to his power, insomuch that after- 
ward the queen of England and her son 
had with them into England for ever the 
knight and his wife and all his children, 
and advanced them in divers manners. 

The coming thus of the queen of England 
and of her son and heir into the country of 
Hainault was anon well known in the 
house of the good earl of Hainault, who 
as then was at Valenciennes ; and sir John 
of Hainault was certified of the time 
when the queen arrived at the place of sir 
d'Aubrecicourt, the which sir John was 
brother to the said earl Guilliam, and as 
he that was young and lusty, desiring all 
honour, mounted on his horse and departed 
with a small company from Valenciennes, 
and came the same night to Bugnicourt, 
and did to the queen all honour and rever- 
ence that he could devise. The queen, 
who was right sorrowful, began to declare 
(complaining to him right piteously) her 
dolours ; whereof the said sir John had 
great pity, so that the water dashed in his 
eyen, and said, * Certainly, fair lady, 
behold me here your own knight, who shall 



not fail you to die in the quarrel. I shall 
do the best of my power to conduct you 
and my lord your son, and help to bring 
you into your estates in England, by the 
grace of God and with the help of your 
friends in that parts : and I and such other 
as I can desire shall put our lives and 
goods in adventure for your sake, and shall 
get men of war sufficient, if God be pleased, 
without the danger of the king of France 
your brother.' Then the queen would 
have kneeled down for great joy that she 
had, and for the good-will he offered her, 
but this noble knight took her up quickly 
in his arms and said : ' By the grace of 
God the noble queen of England shall not 
kneel to me ; but, madam, recomfort your- 
self and all your company, for I shall keep 
you faithful promise ; and ye shall go see 
the earl my brother and the countess his 
wife and all their fair children, who shall 
receive you with great joy, for so I heard 
them report they would do.' Then the 
queen said : * Sir, I find in you more love 
and comfort than in all the world, and for 
this that ye say and affirm me I thank you 
a thousand times ; and if ye will do this ye 
have promised in all courtesy and honour, 
I and my son shall be to you for ever 
bound, and will put all the realm of 
England in your abandon ; for it is right 
that it so should be.' And after these 
words, when they were thus accorded, sir 
John of Hainault took leave of the queen 
for that night, and went to Denaing and 
lay in the abbey ; and in the morning after 
mass he leapt on his horse and came again 
to the queen, who received him with great 
joy. By that time she had dined and was 
ready to mount on her horse to depart with 
him ; and so the queen departed from the 
castle of Bugnicourt, and took leave of the 
knight and of the lady, and thanked them for 
their good cheer that they had made her, 
and said that she trusted once to see the 
time that she or her son should well re- 
member their courtesy. 

Thus departed the queen in the company 
of the said sir John lord Beaumont, who 
right joyously did conduct her to Valen- 
ciennes ; and against her came many of the 
burgesses of the town and received her right 
humbly. Thus was she brought before the 
earl Guilliam of Hainault, who received 
her with great joy, and in likewise so did 



8 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



the countess his wife, and feasted her right 
nobly. And as then this earl had four fair 
daughters, Margaret, Philippa, Jane and 
Isabel, among whom the young Edward 
set most his love and company on Philippa, 
and also the young lady in all honour was 
more conversant with him than any of her 
sisters. Thus the queen Isabel abode at 
Valenciennes by the space of eight days 
with the good earl and with the countess 
Jane de Valois. In the meantime the 
queen apparelled for her needs and busi- 
ness, and the said sir John wrote letters right 
afFectuously unto knights and such com- 
panions as he trusted best in all Hainault, 
in Brabant and in Bohemia, and prayed 
them for all amities that was between them, 
that they would go with him in this enter- 
prise into England ; and so there were 
great plenty, what of one country and other, 
that were content to go with him for his 
love. But this said sir John of Hainault 
was greatly reproved and counselled the 
contrary both of the earl his brother and of 
the chief of the council of the country, be- 
cause it seemed to them that the enterprise 
was right high and perilous, seeing the 
great discords and great hates that as then 
was between the barons of England among 
themselves, and also considering that these 
Englishmen most commonly have ever great 
envy at strangers. Therefore they doubted 
that the said sir John of Hainault and his 
company should not return again with 
honour. But howsoever they blamed or 
counselled him, the gentle knight would 
never change his purpose, but said he had 
but one death to die, the which was in the 
will of God ; and also said that all knights 
ought to aid to their powers all ladies and 
damosels chased out of their own countries, 
being without counsel or comfort. 



CHAPTER X 

How that the queen Isabel arrived in England 
with sir John of Hainault in her company. 

Thus was sir John of Hainault moved in his 
courage and made his assembly, and prayed 
the Hainowes to be ready at Hal, and the 
Brabances at Breda, and the Hollanders 
to be at Dordrecht at a day limited. 
Then the queen of England took leave of 



the earl of Hainault and of the countess, and 
thanked them greatly of their honour, feast 
and good cheer that they had made hsr, 
kissing them at her departing. Thus this 
lady departed and her son and all her 
company with sir John of Hainault, who 
with great pain gat leave of his brothel, 
saying to him : ' My lord and brother, I 
am young and think that God hath pur- 
veyed for me this enterprise for mine 
advancement. I believe and think verily 
that wrongfully and sinfully this lady hath 
been chased out of England, and also her 
son. It is alms and glory to God and to 
the world to comfort and help them that be 
comfortless, and specially so high and so 
noble a lady as this is, who is daughter to 
a king and descended of a royal king ; we 
be of her blood and she of ours. I had 
rather renounce and forsake all that I have 
and go serve God over the sea and never 
to return into this country, rather than this 
good lady should have departed from us 
without comfort and help. Therefore, dear 
brother, suffer me to go with your good-will, 
wherein ye shall do nobly, and I shall 
humbly thank you thereof, and the better 
thereby I shall accomplish all the voyage.' 
And when the good earl of Hainault had 
well heard his brother, and perceived the 
great desire that he had to his enterprise, 
and saw well it might turn him and his 
heirs to great honour hereafter, said to 
him : ' My fair brother, God forbid that 
your good purpose should be broken or let : 
therefore in the name of God I give you 
leave ' ; and kissed him, straining him by the 
hand in sign of great love. 

Thus he departed and rode the same 
night to Mons in Hainault with the queen 
of England. What should I make long 
process ? They did so much by their 
journeys that they came to Dordrecht in 
Holland, whereas their special assembly 
was made. And there they purveyed for 
ships great and small, such as they could 
get, and shipped their horses and harness 
and purveyance, and so commended them- 
selves into the keeping of God and took 
their passage by sea. In that company 
there were of knights and lords, first sir 
John of Hainault lord Beaumont, sir 
Henry d'Antoing, sir Michael de Ligne, 
the lord of Gommegnies, sir Perceval 
de Semeries, sir Robert de Bailleul, sir 



EXPEDiriOISt TO ENGLAND, 1326 



Sanses de Boussoit, the lord of Vertaing, 
the lord of Potelle, the lord Villers, the 
lord of Hennin, the lord of Sars, the 
lord of Bousies, the lord of Aubrecicourt, 
the lord of Estrumel, and sir Wulfart of 
Ghistelles, and divers other knights and 
squires, all in great desire to serve their 
master. And when they were all departed 
from the haven of Dordrecht, it was a fair 
fleet as for the quantity, and well ordered, 
the season was fair and clear and right 
temperate, and at their departing with the 
first flood they came before the dikes of 
Holland ; and the next day they drew up 
their sails and took their way in coasting 
Zealand ; and their intents were to have 
taken land at Dongport ; ^ but they could 
not, for a tempest took them in the sea, that 
put them so far out of their course that they 
wist not of two days where they were : of 
the which God did them great grace, for if 
they had taken land at the port whereas 
they had thought, they had been all lost, 
for they had fallen in the hands of their 
enemies, who knew well of their coming, 
and abode them there to have put them all 
to death. So it was that about the end of 
two days the tempest ceased, and the 
mariners perceived land in England and 
drew to that part right joyously, and there 
took land on the sands without any right 
haven or port at Harwich, as the English 
chronicle saith,^ the 24th day of September, 
the year of our Lord Mcccxxvi., and so 
abode on the sands three days with little 
purveyance of victual, and unshipped their 
horses and harness, nor they wist not in 
what part of England they were in, other 
in the power of their friends or in the 
power of their enemies. On the fourth day 
they took forth their way in the adventure 
of God and of Saint George, as such 
people as had suffered great disease of cold 
by night and hunger and great fear, whereof 
they were not as then clean rid. And so 
they rode forth by hills and dales on the 

1 This name is a false reading in the text which 
the translator followed, a corruption of the words 
*ung port.' 

2 The statement from the ' English chronicle' that 
they landed at Harwich on the 24th of September 
1326 is due to the translator. The English chronicle 
to which he refers here and also in chaps. 18, 19, 20, 
etc., is evidently Fabyan's iVifw Chronicles of Eng- 
land and France, or Concordance of Histories, 
printed by Pynson in 1516. The reference here is 
to p. 429. 



one side and on the other, till at the last 
they found villages and a great abbey of 
black monks, the which is called Saint- 
Edmund, whereas they three days refreshed 
themselves. 



CHAPTER XI 

How the queen of England besieged the king 
her husband in the town of Bristow. 

And then this tiding spread about the 
realm so much, that at the last it came to 
the knowledge of the lords by whom the 
queen was called again into England. And 
they apparelled them in all haste to come 
to Edward her son, whom they would have 
to their sovereign lord. And the first that 
came and gave them most comfort was 
Henry earl of Lancaster with the wry 
neck, called Tort Col, who was brother to 
Thomas earl of Lancaster, beheaded as ye 
have heard herebefore, who was a good 
knight and greatly recommended, as ye 
shall hear after in this history. This earl 
Henry came to the queen with great com- 
pany of men of war, and after him came 
from one part and other earls, barons, 
knights and squires, with so much people 
that they thought them clean out of perils, 
and always increased their power as they 
went forward. Then they took counsel 
among them that they should ride straight 
to the town of Bristow, whereas the king 
was, and with him the Spencers. The 
which was a good town and a strong, and 
well closed, standing on a good port of the 
sea, and a strong castle, the sea beating 
round about it. And therein was the king 
and sir Hugh Spencer the elder, who was 
about ninety of age, and sir Hugh Spencer 
his son, who was chief governour of the 
king and counselled him in all his evil 
deeds. Also there was the earl of Arundel, 
who had wedded the daughter of sir Hugh 
Spencer, and divers other knights and 
squires repairing about the king's court. 
Then the queen and all her company, 
lords of Hainault, earls and barons, and 
all other Englishmen, took the right way 
to the said town of Bristow, and in every 
town whereas they entered they were re- 
ceived with great feast and honour, and 
always their people increased ; and so long 
they rode by their journeys that they arrived 



THE CHRONICLES OP PI^OISSART 



at Bristow, and besieged the town round 
about as near as they might : and the king 
and sir Hugh Spencer the younger held 
them in the castle, and the old sir Hugh 
Spencer and the earl of Arundel held 
them in the town. And when the people 
of the town saw the great power that the 
queen was of (for almost all England 
was of her accord), and perceived what 
peril and danger evidently they were in, 
they took counsel among themselves and 
determined that they would yield up the 
town to the queen, so that their lives and 
goods might be saved. And so they sent 
to treat with the queen and her council in 
this matter ; but the queen nor her council 
would not agree thereto without she might 
do with sir Hugh Spencer and with the 
earl of Arundel what it pleased her. 

When the people of the town saw they 
could have no peace otherwise, nor save 
the town nor their goods nor their lives, 
in that distress they accorded to the queen 
and opened the gates, so that the queen 
and sir John of Hainault, and all her 
barons, knights and squires, entered into 
the town and took their lodgings within, 
as many as might, and the residue without. 
Then sir Hugh Spencer and the earl of 
Arundel were taken and brought before the 
queen, to do her pleasure with them. Then 
there was brought to the queen her own 
children, John her son and her two 
daughters, the which were found there in 
the keeping of the said sir Hugh Spencer, 
whereof the queen had great joy, for she 
had not seen them long before. Then the 
king might have great sorrow and sir 
Hugh Spencer the younger, who were fast 
enclosed in the strong castle, and the most 
part of all the realm turned to the queen's 
part and to Edward her eldest son. 



CHAPTER Xn 

How that sir Hugh Spencer the elder and the 
earl of Arundel were judged to death. 

When the queen and her barons and all 
her company were lodged at their ease, then 
they besieged the castle as near as they might. 
The queen caused sir Hugh Spencer the elder 
and the earl of Arundel to be brought forth 
before Edward her son and all the barons 



that were there present, and said how that 
she and her son should take right and law 
on them according to their deserts. Then 
sir Hugh Spencer said, ' Madam, God be 
to you a good judge and give you good 
judgment,^ and if we cannot have it in this 
world, I pray God we may have it in 
another.' Then stept forth sir Thomas 
Wake, a good knight and marshal of the 
host, and there openly he recounted their 
deeds in writing, and then turned him to 
another ancient knight to the intent that 
he should bring him on that case fauty,^ 
and to declare what should be done with 
such persons, and what judgment they 
should have for such causes. Then the 
said knight counselled with other barons 
and knights, and so reported their opinions, 
the which was, how they had well deserved 
death for divers horrible deeds, the which 
they have commised, for all the trespass 
rehearsed before to justify to be of truth ; ^ 
wherefore they have deserved for the 
diversities of their trespasses to have judg- 
ment in three divers manners — first, to be 
drawn, and after to be headed, and then 
to be hanged on the gibbet. This in like- 
wise as they were judged so it was done 
and executed before the castle of Bristow in 
the sight of the king and of sir Hugh Spencer 
the younger. This judgment was done in 
the year of our Lord Mcccxxvi., on Saint 
Denis' day in October 

And .after this execution the king and the 
young Spencer, seeing themselves thus be- 
sieged in this mischief, and knew no comfort 
that might come to them, in a morning be- 
times they two with a small company entered 
into a little vessel behind the castle, thinking 
to have fled to the country of Wales. But 
they were eleven days in the ship, and en- 
forced it to sail as much as they might ; but 
whatsoever they did, the wind was every day 
so contrary to them by the will of God, that 

^ This should be, 'God give us a good judge 
and good judgment ' ; but Verard's edition, from 
which the translation was made, has 'vous' for 
'nous.' 

2 This appears to mean, ' To the intent that he 
should find him guilty on the charge ' (' fauty ' for 
'faulty'); but the original means, 'To the intent 
that he should declare upon his fealty (fiiault^) 
what should be done with such persons,' etc. 

3 Or rather as follows : ' That the accused had 
well deserved death for divers horrible deeds which 
they had heard in that place rehearsed, and held 
them for true and manifest.' 



TH& SPENCERS EXECUTED 



every day once or twice they were ever 
brought again within a quarter of a mile 
to the same castle. 

At the last it fortuned, sir Henry Beau- 
mont, son to the viscount Beaumont in 
England, entered into a barge and certain 
company with him, and spied this vessel 
and rowed after him so long that the ship 
wherein the king was could not flee fast 
before them, but finally they were over- 
taken, and so brought again to the town of 
Bristow and delivered to the queen and her 
son as prisoners. 

Thus it befell of this high and hardy 
enterprise of sir John of Hainault and his 
company. For when they departed and 
entered into their ships at Dordrecht, they 
were but three hundred men of arms ; and 
thus by their help and the lords in England,^ 
the queen Isabel conquered again all her 
estate and dignity, and put unto execution 
all her enemies, whereof all the most part 
of the realm were right joyous, without it 
were a few persons such as were favourable 
to sir Hugh Spencer and of his part. 
And when the king and sir Hugh Spencer 
were brought to Bristow by the said sir 
Henry Beaumont, the king was then sent 
by the counsel of all the barons and knights 
to the strong castle of Berkeley, and put 
under good keeping and honest, and there 
were ordained people of estate about him, 
such as knew right well what they ought 
to do ; but they were straitly commanded 
that they should in no wise suffer him to 
pass out of the castle. And sir Hugh 
Spencer was delivered to sir Thomas Wake, 
marshal of the host. And after that the 
queen departed and all her host toward 
Ixmdon, which was the chief city of 
England, and so rid forth on their jour- 
neys, and sir Thomas Wake caused sir 
Hugh Spencer to be fast bound on the 
least and leanest ^ horse of all the host, and 
caused him to wear on a tabard such as 
traitors and thieves were wont to wear. 

1 'And the lords in England,' is added by the 
translator. 

2 This is a correction of the words 'best and 
leviest,' which I take to be a misprint for ' lest and 
lenest.' The original is *sur le plus petit et le plus 
maigre cheval.' In what follows the translator has 
added the explanation, ' such as traitors and thieves 
were wont to wear,' which is certainly wrong, for 
Froissart says it was a tabard with the arms that 
sir Hugh Spencer was wont to bear, put upon him 
here in derision. 



And thus he was led in scorn after the 
queen's route throughout all the towns as 
they passed, with trumps and canayrs to 
do him the greater despite, till at the last 
they came to the city of Hereford,^ whereas 
the queen was honourably received with 
great solemnity and all her company, and 
there she kept the feast of All Saints with 
great royalty, for the love of her son and 
strangers that were there. 



CHAPTER XIII 

How sir Hugh Spencer was put to his 
judgment. 

When this feast was done, then sir Hugh 
Spencer, who was nothing beloved, was 
brought forth before the queen and all the 
lords and knights, and there before him in 
writing was rehearsed all his deeds, against 
the which he could give no manner of 
answer. And so he was then judged by 
plain sentence, first to be drawn on an 
hurdle with trumps and trumpets through 
all the city of Hereford, and after to be 
brought into the market-place, whereas all 
the people were assembled, and there to be 
tied on high upon a ladder that every man 
might see him ; and in the same place there 
to be made a great fire, and there his privy 
members cut from him, because they re- 
puted him as an heretic and so deemed, and 
so to be brent in the fire before his face ; 
and then his heart to be drawn out of his 
body and cast into the fire, because he was 
a false traitor of heart, and that by his 
traitor's counsel and exhortation the king 
had shamed his realm and brought it to 
great mischief, for he had caused to be 
beheaded the greatest lords of his realm, 
by whom the realm ought to have been 
sustained and defended ; and he had so 
induced the king that he would not see the 
queen his wife nor Edward his eldest son, 
and caused him to chase them out of the 
realm for fear of their lives ; and then his 
head to be stricken off and sent to London. 
And according to his judgment he was 
executed. Then the queen and all her 
lords took their way toward London, and 
did so much by their journeys that they 

1 Froissart evidently thought that Hereford was 
on the way from Bristol to London. 



li 



THE CHkOmCLES Of PROISSART 



arrived at the city of London, and they of 
the city with great company met them and 
did to the queen and to her son great 
reverence, and to all their company, as 
they thought it best bestowed. 

And when they had been thus received and 
feasted the space of fifteen days, the knights 
strangers, and namely sir John of Hai- 
nault, had great desire to return again into 
their own countries, for they thought they 
had well done their devoir and achieved 
great honour, and so took their leave of the 
queen and of the lords of the realm : and 
the queen and the lords required them to 
tarry longer a little space, to see what should 
be done with the king, who was in prison ; 
but the strangers had so great desire to 
return into their own countries that to 
pray them the contrary availed not. And 
when the queen and her council saw that, 
they yet desired sir John of Hainault to 
tarry till it was past Christmas, and to 
retain with him such of his company as 
pleased him best. The gentle knight 
would not leave to perform his service, 
but courteously granted the queen to tarry 
as long as it pleased her, and caused to 
tarry such of his company as he could get : 
that was but a few, for the remnant would 
in no wise tarry, whereof he was displeased. 
When the queen and her council saw that 
they would not abide for no prayers, then 
they made them great cheer and feasts. 
And the queen made to be given to them 
plenty of gold and silver for their costs and 
services, and did give great jewels to each 
of them according to their degrees, so as 
they all held themselves right well content. 
And over that they had silver for their 
horses, such as they would leave behind 
them, at their own estimation without any 
grudging. And thus sir John of Hainault 
abode still with a small company among the 
Englishmen, who always did him as much 
honour as they could imagine, and to all 
his company. And in likewise so did the 
ladies and damosels of the country ; for 
there were great plenty of countesses and 
great ladies [and] gentle pucelles, who 
were come thither to accompany the queen. 
For it seemed well to them that the knight 
sir John of Hainault had well deserved the 
cheer and feast that they made him. 



CHAPTER XIV 

The coronation of king Edward the third. 

After that the most part of the company 
of Hainault were departed and sir John 
Hainault lord of Beaumont tarried, the 
queen gave leave to her people to depart, 
saving a certain noble knights, the which 
she kept still about her and her son to 
counsel them, and commanded all them 
that departed to be at London the next 
Christmas, for as then she was determined 
to keep open court, and all they promised 
her so to do. And when Christmas was 
come, she held a gteat court. And thither 
came dukes,-'^ earls, barons, knights, and all 
the nobles of the realm, with prelates and 
burgesses of good towns ; and at this 
assembly it was advised that the realm 
could not long endure without a head and 
a chief lord. Then they put in writing all 
the deeds of the king who was in prison, 
and all that he had done by evil counsel, 
and all his usages and evil behavings, and 
how evil he had governed his realm, the 
which was read openly in plain audience, 
to the intent that the noble sages of the 
realm might take thereof good advice, and 
to fall at accord how the realm should be 
governed from thenceforth. And when all 
the cases and deeds that the king had done 
and consented to, and all his behaving and 
usages were read and well understanded, the 
barons and knights and all the counsels ^ 
of the realm drew them apart to counsel ; 
and the most part of them accorded, and 
namely the great lords and nobles with the 
burgesses of the good towns, according as 
they had heard say and knew themselves 
the most part of his deeds. Wherefore 
they concluded that such a man was not 
worthy to be a king, nor to bear a crown 
royal, nor to have the name of a king. 
But they all accorded that Edward his 
eldest son, who was there present and was 
rightful heir, should be crowned king instead 
of his father, so that he would take good coun- 
sel, sage and true, about him, so that the realm 
from thenceforth might be better governed 

1 Froissart says nothing about dukes here. 

2 The French word is ' consul/, ' (or ' consauls '), 
which elsewhere in this passage is rightly rendered 
' burgesses,' as just below, ' avec les consuiz des 
bonnes villes.' 



ACCESSION OF EDWARD III. 



13 



than it was before, and that the old king 
his father should be well and honestly kept 
as long as he lived, according to his estate. 
And thus as it was agreed by all the 
nobles, so it was accomplished ; and then 
was crowned with a crown royal at the 
palace of Westminster beside London the 
young king Edward the third, who in his 
days after was right fortunate and happy 
in arms. This coronation was in the year 
of our Lord MCCCXXVi., on Christmas- 
day, and as then the young king was about 
the age of sixteen ; and they held the feast 
till the Conversion of Saint Paul following, 
and in the meantime greatly was feasted 
sir John of Hainault and all the princes 
and nobles of his country, and was given to 
him and to his company many rich jewels. 
And so he and his company in great feast 
and solace both with lords and ladies tarried 
till the Twelfth day. ^ And then sir John of 
Hainault heard tidings how that the king 
of Bohemia and the earl of Hainault his 
brother and other great plenty of lords of 
France had ordained to be at Conde^ at a 
great feast and tourney that was there cried. 
Then would sir John of Hainault no longer 
abide for no prayer, so great desire he had 
to be at the said tourney, and to see the 
earl his brother and other lords of his 
country, and specially the right noble king 
in largess^ the gentle Charles king of 
Bohemia. When the young king Edward 
and the queen his mother and the barons 
saw that he would no longer tarry, and 
that their request could not avail, they gave 
him leave sore against their wills, and the 
king by the counsel of the queen his mother 
did give him four hundred marks sterlings 
of rent heritable to hold of him in fee, to 
be paid every year in the town of Bruges, 
and also did give to Philip of Chateaux, his 
chief esquire and his sovereign counsellor, 
a hundred mark of rent yearly, to be paid 
at the said place, and also delivered him 
much money to pay therewith the costs of 
him and of his company, till he come into his 
own country, and caused him to be con- 
ducted with many noble knights to Dover, 
and there delivered him all his passage free. 
And to the ladies that were come into 

1 ' Jusques au jour des Roys.* 

2 Conde-sur-Escaut. 

'•* ' Le plus noble roy en largesse ,' the most 
noble and liberal king. ' 



England with the queen, and namely to the 
countess of Garennes, who was sister to 
the earl of Bar, and to divers other ladies 
and damosels, there were given many fair 
and rich jewels at their departing.^ And 
when sir John of Hainault was departed 
from the young king Edward, and all his 
company, and were come to Dover, they 
entered incontinent into their ships to pass 
the sea, to the intent to come betimes to 
the said tourney ; and there went with him 
fifteen young lusty knights of England, to 
go to this tourney with him and to acquaint 
them with the strange lords and knights that 
should be there, and they had great honour 
of all the company that tourneyed at that 
time at Conde. 

CHAPTER XV 

How that king Robert de Bruce of Scotland 
defied king Edward. 

After that sir John of Hainault was 
departed from king Edward, he and the 
queen his mother governed the realm by 
the counsel of the earl of Kent, uncle to the 
king, and by the counsel of sir Roger 
Mortimer, who had great lands in England 
to the sum of seven hundred pounds of rent 
yearly. And they both were banished and 
chased out of England with the queen, as 
ye have heard before. Also they used 
much after the counsel of sir Thomas 
Wake, and by the advice of other who 
were reputed for the most sagest of the 
realm. Howbeit there were some had 
envy thereat, the which never died in 
England, and also it reigneth and will 
reign in divers other countries. Thus 
passed forth the winter and the Lent season 
till Easter, and then the king and the queen 
and all the realm was in good peace all this 
season. Then so it fortuned that king 
Robert of Scotland, who had been right 
hardy and had suffered much travail against 
Englishmen, and oftentimes he had been 
chased and discomfited in the time of king 
Edward the first, grandfather to this young 

1 This should be : ' And the ladles . . . 
especially the countess of Warren, who was sister 
to the earl of Bar, and divers other ladies, gave 
him great abundance of fair and rich jewels at his. 
departing.' The countess of Warren was daughter 
of Henry earl of Bar and of Eleanor, sister of 
Edward I. 



14 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



king Edward the third, he was as then 
become very old and ancient, and sick (as 
it was said) of the great evil and malady,^ 
When he knew the adventures that was 
fallen in England, how that the old king 
Edward the second was taken and deposed 
down from his regaly and his crown, and 
certain of his counsellors beheaded and put 
to destruction, as ye have heard herebefore, 
then he bethought him that he would defy 
the young king Edward the third, because 
he was young and that the barons of the 
realm were not all of one accord, as it was 
said : therefore he [thought] the better to 
speed in his purpose to conquer part of 
England. And so about Easter in the year 
of our Lord Mcccxxvii. he sent his de- 
fiance to the young king Edward the third 
and to all the realm, sending them word 
how that he would enter into the realm of 
England and bren before him as he had done 
beforetime at such season as the discom- 
fiture was at the castle of Stirling, whereas 
the Englishmen received great damage. 

When the king of England and his 
council perceived that they were defied, 
they caused it to be known over all the 
realm, and commanded that all the nobles 
and all other should be ready apparelled 
every man after his estate, and that they 
should be by Ascension-day next after at 
the town of York, standing northward. 
The king sent much people before to keep 
the frontiers against Scotland, and sent a 
great ambassade to sir John of Hainault, 
praying him right affectuously that he would 
help to succour and to keep company with 
him in his voyage against the Scots, and 
that he would be with him at the Ascension- 
day next after at York, with such company 
as he might get of men of war in those 
parts. When sir John of Hainault lord 
of Beaumont heard the king's desire, he 
sent straight his letters and his messengers 
in every place whereas he thought to 
recover or attain to have any company of 
men of war, in Flanders, in Hainault, in 
Brabant, and in other places, desiring them 
that in their best apparel for the war they 
would meet him at Wissant, for to go over 

1 ' La grosse maladie,' which is commonly ex- 
plained to mean leprosy, but Scheler in the 
supplement to his Froissart glossaiy says ' epilepsy, 
referring to ^ ' morbus grossus ' in Du Cange. 
Another reading here is 'gouttes.' 



the sea with him into England. And all 
such as he sent unto came to him with a 
glad cheer, and divers other that heard 
thereof, in trust to attain to as much honour 
as they had that were with him in England 
before at the other voyage. So that by 
that time the said lord Beaumont was 
come to Wissant, there was ready ships for 
him and his company, brought out of 
England. And so they took shipping and 
passed over the sea and arrived at Dover, 
and so then ceased not to ride till they 
came within three days of Pentecost to the 
town of York, whereas the king and the 
queen his mother and all his lords were 
with great host tarrying the coming of sir 
John of Hainault, and had sent many before 
of their men of arms, archers and common 
people of the good towns and villages ; 
and as people resorted, they were caused to 
be lodged two or three leagues oif, all 
about in the country. And on a day thither 
came sir John of Hainault and his company, 
who were right welcome and well received 
both of the king, of the queen his mother, 
and of all other barons, and to them was 
delivered the suburbs of the city to lodge 
in. And to sir John of Hainault was 
delivered an abbey of white monks for him 
and his household. There came with him 
out of Hainault the lord of Enghien, who 
was called sir Gaultier, and sir Henry 
lord d'Antoing, and the lord of Fagnolle, 
and sir Fastres du Roeulx, sir Robert de 
Bailleul, and sir Guilliam de Bailleul his 
brother, and the lord of Havreth, chatelain 
of Mons, sir Allard de Briffeuil, sir Michael 
de Ligne, sir John de Montigny the younger 
and his brother, sir Sanses de Boussoit, the 
lord of Gommegnies, sir Perceval de 
S emeries, the lord of Beaurieu and the 
lord of Floyon. Also of the country of 
Flanders there was sir Hector of Vilain, 
sir John de Rhodes, sir Wulfart de 
Ghistelles, the lord of Straten, sir Gossuin 
de la Moere : and divers came thither of 
the country of Brabant, as the lord of Duffel, 
sir Thierry of Walcourt, sir Rasse de Gres, 
sir John de Kesterbeke, sir John Pyliser, 
sir Giles de Coterebbe, the three brethren 
de Harlebeke, sir Gaultier de Huldeberg 
and divers other : and of Hesbegnons^ 

1 The translator found ' Behaygnons ' (Bohe- 
mians) in his edition and has reproduced it, but it is 
clearly wrong. Hesbaing is in the district of Liege. 



IVA/^ WITH SCOTLAND, 1327 



15 



there was sir John le BeP and sir Henry 
his brother, sir Godfrey de la Chapelle, 
sir Hugh d'Ohey, sir John de Libyne, sir 
Lambert d'Oupey, and sir Gilbert de 
Herck: and out of Cambresis and Artois 
there were come certain knights of their 
own good wills to advance their bodies : so 
that sir John of Hainault had well in his 
company five hundred men of arms, well 
apparelled and richly mounted. And after 
the feast of Pentecost came thither sir 
Guilliam de Juliers, who was after duke of 
Juliers after the decease of his father, and 
sir Thierry of Heinsberg, who was after 
earl of Loos, and with them a right fair 
rout, and all to keep company with the 
gentle knight sir John of Hainault lord 
Beaumont. 



CHAPTER XVI 

The dissension that was between the archers 
of England and them of Hainault. 

The gentle king of England, the better 
to feast these strange lords and all their 
company, held a great court on Trinity 
Sunday in the Friars,^ whereas he and the 
queen his mother were lodged, keeping 
their house each of them apart. At this 
feast the king had well five hundred knights, 
and fifteen were new made. And the 
queen had well in her court sixty ladies and 
damosels, who were there ready to make 
feast and cheer to sir John of Hainault and 
to his company. There might have been 
seen great nobless [in serving] plenty of 
all manner of strange victuals. There were 
ladies and damosels freshly apparelled, ready 
to have danced if they might have leave. 
But incontinent after dinner there began a 
great fray between some of the grooms and 

1 This is John le Bel, canon of Saint Lambert's 
in Liege, on whose chronicle this early part of 
Froissart's history is founded. He was therefore 
an eye-witness of the events of this campaign. In 
the account which follows of the affray at York 
some MSS. have this addition : 'There sir John le 
Bel, canon of Liege, upon whose chronicles and on 
whose relation of this and of other events I have 
founded and ordered this book, was in great peril : 
for all unarmed he was among them for a long 
time, and arrows were flying on all sides, and he 
himself was wounded by them and also divers of 
his companions, nigh unto death.' 

2 ' En la maison des Freres Mineurs.' 



pages of the strangers and of the archers of 
England, who were lodged among them in 
the said suburbs ; and anon all the archers 
assembled them together with their bows, 
and drove the strangers home to their 
lodging. And the most part of the knights 
and masters of them were as then in the king's 
court ; but as soon as they heard tidings of 
the fray, each of them drew to their own 
lodging in great haste, such as might enter. 
And such as could not get in were in great 
peril, for the archers, who were to the 
number of three thousand,^ shot fast their 
arrows, not sparing masters nor varlets. 
And it was thought and supposed that this 
fray was begun by some of the friends of 
the Spencers and of the earl of Arundel's, 
who were put to death before by the aid 
and counsel of sir John of Hainault, as ye 
have heard before, [who] as then perad- 
venture thought to be somewhat revenged 
and to set discord in the host. And so 
the Englishmen, that were hosts to these 
strangers, shut fast their doors and windows 
and would not suffer them to enter into 
their lodgings : howbeit some gat in on the 
back side and quickly armed them, but 
they durst ifot issue out into the street for 
fear of the arrows. 

Then the strangers brake out on the 
back side, and brake down pales and 
hedges of gardens, and drew them into a 
certain plain place and abode their com- 
pany, till at the last they were a hundred and 
above of men of arms and as many unhar- 
nessed, such as could not get to their 
lodgings. And when they were assembled 
together, they hasted them to go and suc- 
cour their companions, who defended their 
lodgings in the great street. And as they 
went forth, they passed by the lodging of 
the lord d'Enghien, whereas there were 
great gates both before and behind, open- 
ing into the great street. And the archers 
of England shot fiercely at the house, and 
there were many of the Hainaulters hurt, 
and the good knight Fastres de Roeulx and 
sir Perceval de Semeries, and sir Sanses 
de Boussoit, these three could not enter in 
to their lodgings to arm them, but they did 
as valiantly as though they had been 
armed. They had great levers in their 
hands, the which they found in a car- 
penter's yard, with the which they gave 
1 A better reading is 'two thousand.' 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



such strokes that men durst not approach 
to them. They three beat down that day, 
with such few company as they had, more 
than sixty ; for they were great and mighty 
knights. Finally the archers that were at 
the fray were discomfited and put to chase, 
and there was dead in the place well to the 
number of three hundred. And it was said 
they were all of the bishopric of Lincoln. 

I trow God did never give more grace and 
fortune to any people than he did as then 
to this gentle knight sir John of Hainault 
and to his company. For these English 
archers intended to none other thing but to 
murder and to rob them, for all that they 
were come to serve the king in his busi- 
ness. These strangers were never in so 
great peril all the season that they lay, nor 
they were never after in surety till they were 
again at Wissant in their own country. 
For they were fallen in so great hate with 
all the archers of the host, that some of the 
barons and knights of England shewed 
unto the lords of Hainault, giving them 
warning that the archers and other of the 
common people were allied together to 
the number of six thousand to the intent 
to bren or to kill them in their lodgings 
either by night or by day. And so they 
lived at a hard adventure ; but each of 
them promised to help and aid other, and 
to sell dearly their lives or they were slain. 
So they made many fair ordinances among 
themselves by good and great advice, where- 
by they were fain oftentimes to lie in their 
harness by night, and in the day to keep their 
lodgings and to have all their harness ready 
and their horses saddled. Thus continu- 
ally they were fain to make watch by their 
constables in the fields and highways about 
the court, and to send out scout-watches a 
mile off to see ever if any such people were 
coming to themward, as they were in- 
formed of, to the intent that if their scout- 
watch heard any noise or moving of people 
drawing to the city-ward, then incontinent 
they should give them knowledge, whereby 
they might the sooner gather together, each 
of them under their own banner in a 
certain place, the which they had ad- 
vised for the same intent. And in this 
tribulation they abode in the said suburbs 
by the space of four weeks, and in all that 
season they durst not go far from their 
harness nor from their lodgings, saving a 



certain of the chief lords among them, who 
went to the court to see the king and his 
council, who made them right good cheer. 
For if the said evil adventure had not been, 
they had sojourned there in great ease, for 
the city and the country about them was 
right plentiful. For all the time of six 
weeks that the king and the lords of Eng- 
land and more than sixty thousand men of 
war lay there, the victuals were never the 
dearer ; for ever they had a pennyworth 
for a penny, as well as other had before 
they came there, and there was good wine 
of Gascoyne and of Alsace, and of the 
Rhine, and plenty thereof, with right good 
cheap as well of pullen as of other victuals ; 
and there was daily brought before their 
lodgings hay, oats and litter, whereof they 
were well served for their horses and at a 
meetly price. 



CHAPTER XVn 

Here the history speaketh of the manner of 
the Scots and how they can war. 

And when they had sojourned three weeks 
after this said fray, then they had know- 
ledge from the king by the marshals of the 
host, that the next week every man should 
provide for carts and charettes, tents and . 
pavilions, to Ue in the field, and for alii 
other necessaries thereto belonging, to thej 
intent to draw toward Scotland. And 
when every man was ready apparelled, the 
king and all his barons went out of the] 
city, and the first night they lodged sij 
mile forward. And sir John of Hainault] 
and his company were lodged always as] 
near the king as might be, to do him thej 
more honour, and also to the intent that] 
the archers should have no advantage ofj 
him nor of his company. And there the j 
king abode two days and two nights, tarry- 
ing for all them that were behind, and to 
be well advised that they lacked nothing. 
And on the third day they dislodged and 
went forward till they came to the city of 
Durham, a day's journey within the country 
called Northumberland, the which at that 
time was a savage and a wild country, full 
of deserts and mountains, and a right poor 
country of everything saving of beasts, 
through the which there runneth a river 



IVA/^ WITH THE SCOTS, 1327 



17 



full of flint and great stones, called the 
water of Tyne. And on this river standeth 
the town and castle of Carlisle, the which 
sometime was king Arthur's, and held his 
court there oftentimes. Also on that river 
is assised the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
in the which town was ready the marshal 
of England with a great company of men 
of arms, to keep the country against the 
Scots : and at Carlisle was the lord Here- 
ford and the lord Mowbray, who were 
govemours there, to defend the Scots the 
passage ; for the Scots could not enter into 
England, but they must pass this said river 
in one place or other. The Englishmen 
could hear no tidings of the Scots till they 
were come to the entry of the said country. 
The Scots were passed this river so privily, 
that they of Carlisle nor yet of Newcastle 
knew nothing thereof, for between the said 
towps it was twenty-four Enghsh mile.^ 

iThese Scottish men are right hardy and 
sore travailing in harness and in wars. For 
when they will enter into England, within 
a day and a night they will drive their 
whole host twenty-four mile, for they are 
all a-horseback, without it be the trandals 
and laggers of the host, who follow after 
afoot. The knights and squires are well 
horsed, and the common people and other 
on little hackneys and geldings ; and they 
carry with them no carts nor chariots, for 
the diversities of the mountains that they 
must pass through in the country of North- 
umberland. They take with them no pur- 
veyance of bread nor wine, for their usage 
and soberness is such in time of war, that 
they will pass in the journey a great long 
time with flesh half sodden, without bread, 
and drink of the river water without wine, 
and they neither care for pots nor pans, for 
they seethe beasts in their own skins. They 
are ever sure to find plenty of beasts in the 
country that they will pass through : there- 
fore they carry with them none other pur- 
veyance, but on their horse between the 

1 In the original, 'twenty-four English leagues.' 
The actual distance in a straight line is over fifty 
miles. The translator, in spite of what he says in 
his preface on the subject, has not taken any pains 
to distinguish the leagues or miles of different 
countries, and translates the word ' lieue ' by 
' mile ' or ' league ' indifferently, not only in Eng- 
land, where he seems to think that miles and leagues 
are the same, but also in France, where he admits 
that they are different. 



saddle and the panel they truss a broad 
plate of metal, and behind the saddle they 
will have a little sack full of oatmeal, to 
the intent that when they have eaten of the 
sodden flesh, ^ then they lay this plate on 
the fire and temper a little of the oatmeal ; 
and when the plate is hot, they cast of 
the thin paste thereon, and so make a 
little cake in manner of a cracknell or 
biscuit, and that they eat to comfort withal 
their stomachs. Wherefore it is no great 
marvel though they make greater journeys 
than other people do. And in this manner 
were the Scots entered into the said country, 
and wasted and brent all about as they 
went, and took great number of beasts. 
They were to the number of four thousand 
men of arms, knights and squires, mounted 
on good horses, and other ten thousand 
men of war were armed after their guise, 
right hardy and fierce, mounted on Little 
hackneys, the which were never tied nor 
kept at hard meat, but let go to pasture in 
the fields and bushes. They had two good 
captains, for king Robert of Scotland, who 
in his days had been hardy and prudent, 
was as then of great age and sore grieved 
with the great sickness ; but he had made 
one of his captains a gentle prince and a 
valiant in arms called the earl of Moray, 
bearing in his arms silver, three oreillers 
gules;- and the other was the lord William 
Douglas,^ who was reputed for the most 
hardy knight and greatest adventurer in all 
the realm of Scotland, and he bare azure, 
a chief silver."* These two lords were 
renowned as chief in all deeds of arms and 
great prowess in all Scotland. 

1 Froissart says, 'When they have eaten so 
much of the cooked flesh that their stomachs seem 
weak and feeble, they set this upon the fire,' etc. 
The original has * une grant piece plate,' which 
the translator makes into a plate of metal, but the 
better reading is ' plate pierre,' a flat stone. 

2 ' Ung escut d'argent a trois oreilles de gueules': 
'oreilles' for 'oreillers,' i.e. pillows. 

3 Froissart calls him William throughout, but 
his name was in fact James, as the chronicler, who 
claims personal acquaintance with the Douglas 
family and had stayed at Dalkeith castle, ought to 
have known. 

4 The better text adds ' et trois ^toiles de gueules 
dedens I'argent.' 



i8 



THE CHRONICLES OF PR 01 SS ART 



CHAPTER XVIII 

How the king of England made his first 
journey against the Scots. 

I When the king of England and his host 
had seen and heard of the fires that the 
vScots had made in England, incontinent 
was cried alarm, and every man commanded 
to dislodge and follow after the marshals' 
banners, f^hen every man drew to the 
field ready apparelled to fight. There was 
ordained three great battles afoot, and to 
every battle two wings of five hundred rnen 
of arms, knights and squires, and thirty 
thousand other, armed and well apparelled, 
the one half on little hackneys and the 
other were men of the country afoot, sent 
out of good towns at their wages ; and 
twenty-four thousand archers afoot,^ beside 
all the other rascal and followers of the 
host. fAnd as these battles were thus 
ordered, so they advanced forward, well 
ranged and in good order, and followed the 
Scots by the sithe of the smoke that they 
made with burning ; and thus they followed 
all that day till it was near night. Then 
the host lodged them in a wood by a little 
river side, there to rest and to abide for 
their carriage and purveyances.f'And at that 
day the Scots had brent and wasted and 
pilled the country about within five mile ^ of 
the English host ; but the Englishmen 
could not overtake them. And the next 
day in the morning all the host armed them 
and displayed their banners on the field, 
every man ready apparelled in his own 
battle, and so advanced without disordering 
all the day through mountains and valleys ; 
but for all that they could never approach 
near to the Scots, who went wasting the 
country before them. There were such 
marishes and savage deserts, mountains and 
dales, that it was commanded on pain of 
death that none of the host should pass 
before the banners of the marshals. J| And 

. when it drew toward the night, the people, 

1 The meaning of the original is that each of the 
three divisions (or battles) had two wings of five 
hundred men-at-arms on horseback, and altogether 
there were eight thousand fully armed men, knights 
and squires, thirty thousand other armed men, some 
mounted and some on foot, sent by the good towns, 
and twenty-four thousand archers. 

2 The translator renders ' lyeue ' by ' mile ' 
throughout this narrative. 



horse and carriage, and namely the men 
afoot, were so sore travailed, that they 
could not endure to labour any further that 
day. And when the lords saw that their 
labour in following the Scots was in vain, 
and also they perceived well, though the 
Scots would abide them, yet they might 
take their field in such a place or on such a 
hill that they could not fight with them, 
without it were to their great damage and 
jeopardy, then was it commanded in the 
king's name by the marshals that the host 
should take their lodging for that night, 
and so to take counsel and advice what 
should be best to do the next day. So the 
host was lodged in a wood by a river side, 
and the king was lodged in a little poor 
abbey : his men of war, horse and carriage 
were marvellously fortravailed. And when 
every man had taken his place to lodge 
there all night, then the lords drew them 
apart to take counsel how they might fight 
with the Scots, considering the country that 
they were in : for as far as they could 
understand, the Scots went ever forwards, 
all about burning and wasting the country, 
and perceived well how they could not in 
any wise fight with them among these 
mountains without great peril or danger, 
and they saw well also they could not over- 
take them : but it was thought that the 
Scots must needs pass again the river 
Tyne homeward ; therefore it was detei' 
mined by great advice and counsel that al 
the host should remove at midnight, and tc 
make haste in the morning to the intent tc 
stop the passage of the river from the Scots 
whereby they should be advised ^ by forci 
either to fight with them, or else to abidi 
still in England to their great danger an< 
loss. 

And to this conclusion all the host wa 
accorded, and so supped and lodged as wel 
as they might that night, and every mai 
was warned to be ready at the first sounc' 
ing of the trumpet, and at the second bk 
every man to arm him without delay, aniP 
at the third every man quickly to mount on 
their horses and to draw under their own 
standard and banner ; and every man to 
take with him but one loaf of bread, and to 
truss it behind him on his horse. It wa 
also determined that they should leav^ 

1 'Advised' here seems to mean 'brought 
resolve.' 






WAR WITH THE SCOTS, 1327 



19 



behind them all their loose harness and all 
manner of carriages and purveyances, for 
they thought surely to fight with the Scots 
the next day, whatsoever danger they were 
in, thinking to jeopard, either to win or to 
lose all. And thus it was ordained and so 
it was accomplished : for about midnight 
every man was ready apparelled ; few had 
slept but little, and yet they had sore 
travailed the day before. As great haste as 
they made, or they were well ranged in 
battle the day began to appear. Then they 
advanced forward in all haste through 
mountains, valleys and rocks, and through 
many evil passages without any plain coun- 
try. And on the highest of these hills and 
on the plain of these valleys there were 
marvellous great marshes and dangerous 
passages, that it was great marvel that much 
people had not been lost, for they rode ever 
still forward and never tarried one for 
another ; for whosoever fell in any of these 
marshes with much pain could get any aid 
to help them out again, so that in divers 
places there were many lost, and specially 
horse and carriages ; and oftentimes in the 
day there was cried alarum, for it was said 
ever that the foremost company of their 
host were fighting with their enemies, so 
that the hindermost weened it had been 
true ; wherefore they hasted them over 
rocks and stones and mountains with helm 
and shield ready apparelled to fight, with 
spear and sword ready in hand, without 
tarrying for father, brother or companion. 
And when they had thus run forth often- 
times in the day the space of half a mile 
together toward the cry, weening it had 
been their enemies, they were deceived ; 
for the cry ever arose by the raising of harts, 
hinds and other savage beasts that were 
seen by them in the forward, after the which 
beasts they made such shouting and crying, 
that they that came after weened they had 
been a-fighting with their enemies. 

_ Thus rode forth all that day the young 
king of England by mountains and deserts 
without finding any highway, town or 
village. And when it was against night 
they came to the river of Tyne, to the same 
place whereas the Scots had passed over 
into England, weening to them that they 
must needs repass again the same way. 
Then the king of England and his host 
passed over the same river with such guides 



as he had,^ with much pain and travail, for 
the passage was full of great stones. And 
when they were over, they lodged them that 
night by the river side, and by that time 
the sun was gone to rest, and there was but 
few among them that had either axe or 
hook, or any instrument to cut down any 
wood to make their lodgings withal ; and 
there were many that had lost their own 
company and wist not where they were. 
Some of the footmen were far behind and 
wist not well what way to take ; but such 
as knew best the country said plainly they 
had ridden the same day twenty -four 
English miles, for they rode as fast as they 
might without any rest, but at such passages 
as they could not choose. All this night 
they lay by this river side, still in their 
harness, holding their horses by their reins 
in their hands, for they wist not whereunto 
to tie them. Thus their horses did eat no 
meat of all that night nor day before : they 
had neither oats for forage for them, nor 
the people of the host had no sustenance of 
all that day nor night, but every man his 
loaf that he had carried behind him, the 
which was sore wet with the sweat of the 
horses ; nor they drank none other drink 
but the water of the river, without it were 
some of the lords that had carried bottles 
with them ; nor they had no fire nor light, 
for they had nothing to make light withal, 
without it were some of the lords that had 
torches brought with them. 

In this great trouble and danger they 
passed all that night, their armour still on 
their backs, their horses ready saddled. 
And when the day began to appear, the 
which was greatly desired of all the whole 
host, they trusted then to find some redress 
for themselves and for their horses, or else 
to fight with their enemies, the which they 
greatly desired to the intent to be delivered 
out of the great travail and pain that they 
had endured. And all that day it rained 
so fast that the river and passage was 
waxen great and risen so high, that or it 
were noon there might none pass the 
passages again ; wherefore they could not 
send to know whereas they were, nor where 
to have any forage or litter for their horses, 
nor bread nor drink for their own susten- 

1 'Passed over the said river by fording.' The 
translator mistakes the meaning of the words '^ 
gu6s,' as he does also elsewhej-e, 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



ances ; but so all that night they were fain 
to fast, nor their horses had nothing but 
leaves of trees and herbs : they cut down 
boughs of trees with their swords to tie 
withal their horses and to make themselves 
lodges. And about noon some poor folks 
of the country were found, and they said 
how they were as then fourteen mile from 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and eleven mile from 
Carlisle, and that there was no town nearer 
to them wherein they might find anything 
to do them ease withal. And when this 
was shewed to the king and to the lords of 
his council, incontinent were sent thither 
horses and sumpters to fetch thence some 
purveyance ; and there was a cry in the 
king's name made in the town of Newcastle, 
that whosoever would bring bread or wine 
or any other victual should be paid there- 
fore incontinent at a good price, and that 
they should be conducted to the host in 
safe-guard ; for it was published openly 
that the king nor his host would not depart 
from the place that they were in, till they 
had some tidings where their enemies were 
become. And the next day by noon such 
as had been sent for victual returned again 
to the host with such purveyances as they 
could get, and that was not over much, and 
with them came other folks of the country 
with little nags charged with bread evil 
baken in panniers, and small poor wine in 
barrels, and other victual to sell in the host, 
whereby great part of the host were well 
refreshed and eased. 

And thus they continued day by day the 
space of eight days, abiding every day the 
returning again of the Scots, who knew no 
more where the English host lay than they 
knew where they were ; so each of them 
were ignorant of other. Thus three days 
and three nights they were in manner with- 
out bread, wine, candle or light, fodder or 
forage, or any manner of purveyance, either 
for horse or man : and after the space of 
four days a loaf of bread was sold for six- 
pence the which was worth but a penny, 
and a gallon of wine for six groats that was 
worth but sixpence. And yet for all that, 
there was such rage of famine that each 
took victuals out of other's hands, whereby 
there rose divers battles and strifes between 
sundry companions ; and yet beside all 
these mischiefs it never ceased to rain all 
the whole week, whereby their saddles, 



Id 

I 



panels and countersingles were all rottei 
and broken, and most part of their hors^ 
hurt on their backs : nor they had m 
wherewith to shoe them that were unsh( 
nor they had nothing to cover themselv^ 
withal from the rain and cold but gree: 
bushes and their armour, nor they 
nothing to make fire withal but green 
boughs, the which would not burn because 
of the rain. In this great mischief they 
M^ere all the week without hearing of any 
word of the Scots, upon trust they should 
repass again into their own countries thej 
same way or near thereabout ; whereb; 
great noise and murmur began to rise in th 
host, for some said and laid it to others' 
charge that by their counsel the king an( 
all they were brought into that danger, 
and that they had done it to betray the 
king and all his host. Wherefore it was 
ordained by the king and by his council 
that the next morning they should remove 
the host and repass again the river about 
seven mile thence, whereas they might pas; 
more at their ease. Then it was crie< 
throughout the host that every man shouh 
be ready apparelled to remove the next da; 
betimes : also there was a cry made tha 
whosoever could bring to the king certaii 
knowledge where the Scots were, he tha 
brought first tidings thereof should have fc 
his labour a hundred pounds [of] land t< 
him and to his heirs for ever, and to b 
made a knight of the king's hand. 

When this cry was made in the host 
divers English knights and squires to th 
number of fifteen or sixteen, for covetisi 
of winning of this promise, they passec 
the river in great peril and rode fort" 
through the mountains, and departed eacl 
one from other, taking their adventure 
The next morning the host dislodged an< 
rode fair and easily all the day, for the^ 
were but evil apparelled, and did so mucl 
that they repassed again the river with 
much pain and travail, for the water was 
deep because of the rain that had fallen, 
wherefore many did swim and some were 
drowned. And when they were all over, 
then they lodged the host ; and there 
they found some forage, meadows and fields 
about a little village, the which the Scots 
had brent when they passed that way. 
And the next day they departed from 
thence and passed over hills and dales all 



Vy'A/? WITH THE SCOTS, 1327 



day till it was noon, and then they found 
some villages brent by the Scots, and there- 
about was some champaign country with 
corn and meadows, and so that night the 
host lodged there. Again the third day 
they rode forth, so that the most part of 
the host wist not which way, for they knew 
not the country nor they could hear no 
tidings of the Scots. And again the fourth 
day they rode forth in like manner, till it 
was about the hour of three, ^ and there 
came a squire fast riding toward the king 
and said : ' An it like your grace, I have 
brought you perfect tidings of the Scots 
your enemies. Surely they be within three 
mile of you, lodged on a great mountain, 
abiding there for you ; and there they have 
been all this eight days, nor they knew no 
more tidings of you than ye did of them. 
Sir, this that I shew you is of truth, for I ap- 
proached so near to them that I was taken 
prisoner and brought before the lords of 
their host ; and there I shewed them tidings 
of you, and how that ye seek for them to the 
intent to have battle. And the lords did 
quit me my ransom and prison, when I had 
shewed them how your grace had promised 
a hundred pounds sterling of rent to him 
that brought first tidings of them to you ; 
and they made me to promise that I should 
not rest till I had shewed you this tidings, 
for they said they had as great desire to 
fight with you as ye had with them : and 
there shall ye find them without fault.' 

And as soon as the king had heard this 
tidings, he assembled all his host in a fair 
meadow to pasture their horses ; and be- 
side there was a little abbey, the which was 
all brent, called in the days of king Arthur 
le Blanche Lande.^ There the king con- 
fessed him, and every man made him ready. 
The king caused many masses to be sung 
to housel all such as had devotion thereto ; 
and incontinent he assigned a hundred 
pounds sterling of rent to the squire that 
had brought him tidings of the Scots, ac- 
cording to his promise, and made him 
knight [with] his own hands before all the 
host. And when they had well rested 
them and taken repast, then the trumpet 
sounded to horse, and every man mounted, 

1 'Jusque a heure de tierce,' which of course 
would be nine o'clock in the morning, not three 
o'clock, as the translator has it. They arrived within 
sight of the Scots * about mid-day ' on the same day, 

2 The abbey of Blanckland, south of Hexham. 



and the banners and standards followed 
this new-made knight, every battle by 
itself in good order, through mountains and 
dales, ranged as well as they might, ever 
ready apparelled to fight ; and they rode 
and made such haste that about noon they 
were so near the Scots that each of them 
might clearly see other. 

And as soon as the Scots saw them, they 
issued out of their lodges afoot, and or- 
dained three great battles in the availing 
of the hill, and at the foot of this moun- 
tain there ran a great river full of great 
rocks and stones, so that none might pass 
over without great danger or jeopardy ; 
and though the Englishmen had passed 
over the river, yet was there no place nor 
room between the hill and the river to set 
the battle in good order. The 'Scots had 
stablished their two first battles at the two 
corners of the mountain, joining to the 
rocks, so that none might well mount upon 
the hill to assail them, but the Scots were 
ever ready to beat with stones the assail- 
ants, if they passed the river. And when 
the lords of England saw the behaving and 
the manner of the Scots, they made all 
their people to'alight afoot and to put off their 
spurs, and arranged three great battles, as 
they had done before, and there were made 
many new knights. And when their 
battles were set in good order, then some 
of the lords of England brought their 
young king a -horseback before all the 
battles of the host, to the intent to give 
thereby the more courage to all his people, 
the which king in full goodly manner 
prayed and required them right graciously 
that every man would pain them to do 
their best to save his honour and common 
weal of his realm. And it was commanded 
upon pain of death that none should go 
before the marshals' banners, nor break 
their array without they were commanded. 
And then the king commanded that they 
should advance toward their enemies fair 
and easily ; and so they did, and every 
battle went forth in good array and order 
a great space of ground, to the descending 
of the mountain whereas the Scots were. 
And this the English host did to the intent 
to see if their enemies would break their 
field or not, and to see what they would 
do ; but they could not perceive that they 
were about to remove in any wise : they 



22 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



were so near together that they might 
know each other's arms. Then the host 
stood still to take other counsel. And 
some of the host mounted on good horses 
and rode forth to skirmish with them and 
to behold the passage of the river and to 
see the countenance of their enemies more 
nearer. And there were heralds of arms 
sent to the Scots, giving them knowledge, 
if that they would come and pass the river 
to fight with them in the plain field, they 
would draw back from the river and give 
them sufficient place to arrange their 
battles either the same day or else the 
next, as they would choose themselves, or 
else to let them do likewise and they would 
come over to them. And when the Scots 
heard this, they took counsel among them- 
selves, and anon they answered the heralds, 
how they would do neither the one nor the 
other, and said, ' Sirs, your king and his 
lords see well how we be here in this realm 
and have brent and wasted the country as 
we have passed through, and if they be 
displeased therewith, let them amend it 
when they will, for here we will abide as 
long as it shall please us.' 

And as soon as the king of England 
heard that answer, it was incontinent cried 
that all the host should lodge there that 
night without reculing back. And so the 
host lodged there that night with much 
pain on the hard ground and stones, always 
still armed. They had no stakes nor rods 
to tie withal their horses, nor forage, nor 
bush to make withal any fire. And when 
they were thus lodged, then the Scots 
caused some of their people to keep still 
the field, whereas they had ordained their 
battles ; and the remnant went to their 
lodgings, and they made such fires that it 
was marvel to behold. And between the 
day and the night they made a marvellous 
great bruit, with blowing of horns all at 
once, that it seemed properly that all the 
devils of hell had been there. Thus these 
two hosts were lodged that night, the 
which was Saint Peter's night in the begin- 
ning of August^ the year of our Ix)rd 
MCCCXXVII. 

And the next morning the lords of Eng- 
land heard mass and ranged again their 
battles as they had done the day before ; 
and the Scots in like wise ordered their 
1 St. Peter in Vinculis, ist August. 



battles. Thus both the hosts stood still in 
battle till it was noon. The Scots made 
never semblant to come to the English 
host to fight with them, nor in like wise 
the Englishmen to them ; for they could not 
approach together without great damage. 
There were divers companions a-horsebackj 
that passed the river, and some afoot, to 
scrimmish with the Scots, and in likewise! 
some of the Scots brake out and scrim- 
mished with them ; so that there were 
divers on both parties slain, wounded and^ 
taken prisoners. And after that noon wa 
past, the lords of England commandec 
every man to draw to their lodging, for 
they saw well the Scots would not fight^ 
with them. 

And in like manner thus they did three 
days together, and the Scots in like case 
kept still their mountains. Howbeit there 
was scrimmishing on both parties, and 
divers slain and prisoners taken. And 
every night the Scots made great fires an(i 
great bruit with shouting and blowing oi 
horns. The intention of the Englishmen was 
to hold the Scots therein manner as besiegec 
(for they could not fight with them there- 
as they were), thinking to have famished 
them. And the Englishmen knew well bj 
such prisoners as they had taken that the 
Scots had neither bread, wine nor salt, noi 
other purveyance, save of beasts they hac 
great plenty, the which they had taken ii 
the country and might eat at their pleasure 
without bread, which was an evil diet, foi 
they lacked oaten meal to make cak( 
withal, as is said before ; ^ the which diel 
some of the Englishmen used when the] 
had need, specially borderers when the] 
make roads into Scotland. 

And in the morning the fourth da] 
the Englishmen looked on the mountair 
whereas the Scots were, and they coulc 
see no creature, for the Scots were departec 
at midnight. Then was there sent mera 
a-horseback and afoot over the river to^ 
know where they were become ; and about 
noon they found them lodged on another 
mountain, more stronger than the other 
was, by the same river side, and where 
there was a great wood on the one side, 
to go and come secretly when they list. 
Then incontinent the English host dis- 

1 Froissart says only that they did not object to 
this diet provided they had oatmeal. 



IVA/^ WITH THE SCOTS, 1327 



23 



Icdged, and drew to that part, embattled 
in good order, and lodged them on another 
hill against the Scots, and ranged their 
battles and made semblant to have come 
to them. Then the Scots issued out of 
their lodges and set their battles along the 
river side against them ; but they would 
never come toward the English host, and 
the Englishmen could not go to them, 
without they would have been slain or 
taken at advantage. Thus they lodged 
each against other the space of eighteen 
days ; and oftentimes the king of England 
sent to them his heralds of arms, offering 
them that if they would come and fight 
with him, he would give them place suffi- 
cient on the plain ground to pitch their 
field ; or else let them give him room and 
place, and he assured them that he would 
come over the river and fight with them : 
but the Scots would never agree thereto. 

Thus both the hosts suffered much pain 
and travail the space that they lay so near 
together : and the first night that the 
English host was thus lodged on the second 
mountain the lord William Douglas took 
with him about two hundred men of arms 
and passed the river far off from the host, 
so that he ^Yas not perceived, and suddenly 
he brake into the English host about mid- 
night crying, 'Douglas ! Douglas ! Ye shall 
all die, thieves ^ of England ! ' and he slew, 
or he ceased, three hundred men, some in 
their beds and some scant ready ; and he 
strake his horse with the spurs and came 
to the king's own tent, always crying 
• Douglas ! ' and strake asunder two or 
three cords of the king's tent and so 
departed, and in that retreat he lost some 
of his men. Then he returned again to 
the Scots, so that there was no more done : 
but every night the English host made 
good and sure watch, for they doubted 
making of skryes ; and ever the most 
part of the host lay in their harness ; and 
every day there were scrimmishes made, and 
men slain on both parties : and in conclu- 
sion, the last day of twenty-four, there was 
a Scottish knight taken, who against his 
will shewed to the lords of England what 
state and condition the Scots were in : he 

1 The translator found ' larron ' in his text, but 
a better reading is ' baron ' : ' Ye shall all die, ye 
English barons ' ; or with ' Engles ' alone, ' Ye 
shall all die, ye English.' 



was so sore examined that for fear of his 
life he shewed how the lords of Scotland 
were accorded among themselves that the 
same night every man should be ready 
armed, and to follow the banners of the 
lord William Douglas, and every man 
to keep him secret. But the knight could 
not shew them what they intended to do. 
Then the lords of England drew them to 
council, and there it was thought among 
them that the Scots might in the night 
time come and assail their host on both 
sides, to adventure themselves either to 
live or die, for they could endure no longer 
the famine that was among them. Then 
the English lords ordained three great 
battles, and so stood in three parties with- 
out their lodgings, and made great fires, 
thereby to see the better, and caused all 
their pages to keep their lodgings and 
horses. 

Thus they stood still all that night 
armed, every man under his own standard 
and banner ; and in the breaking of the 
day two trumpets of Scotland met with 
the English scout -watch, who took the 
trumpets and brought them before the king 
of England and his council, and then they 
said openly, * Sirs, what do ye watch 
here ? Ye lose but your time, for on the 
jeopardy of our heads the Scots are gone 
and departed before midnight, and they 
are at the least by this time three or four 
mile on their way ; and they left us two 
behind to the intent that we should shew 
this to you.' Then the English lords said 
that it were but a folly to follow the Scots, 
for they saw well they could not overtake 
them : yet for doubt of deceiving they 
kept still the two trumpets privily, and 
caused their battles to stand still arranged 
till it was near prime. And when they 
saw for truth that the Scots were departed, 
then every man had leave to retray to 
their lodging, and the lords took counsel 
to determine what should be best to do. 
And in the meantime divers of the English 
host mounted on their horses and passed 
over the river, and came to the mountain 
whereas the Scots had been ; and there 
they found more than five hundred great 
beasts ready slain, because the Scots could 
not drive them before their host and because 
that the Englishmen should have but small 
profit of them. Also there they found 



24 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



three hundred cauldrons made of beasts' 
skins with the hair still on them, strained 
on stakes over the fire, full of water and 
full of flesh to be sodden, and more than a 
thousand spits full of flesh to be roasted, 
and more than ten thousand old shoes 
made of raw leather with the hair still 
on them, the which the Scots had left 
behind them ; also there they found five 
poor Englishmen prisoners, bound fast to 
certain trees, and some of their legs broken.^ 
Then they were loosed and let go : and 
then they returned again, and by that time 
all the host was dislodged : and it was 
ordained by the king and by the advice of 
his council that the whole host should 
follow the marshals' banners and draw 
homeward into England. And so they did, 
and at the last came into a fair meadow, 
whereas they found forage sufficient for 
their horses and carriages,^ whereof they 
had great need, for they were nigh so 
feeble that it should have been great pain 
for them to have gone any further. The 
English chronicle saith that the Scots had 
been fought withal, an sir Roger Mortimer, 
a lord of England, had not betrayed the 
king ; for he took meed and money of 
the Scots, to the intent they might depart 
privily by night unfought withal, as it 
may be seen more plainly in the English 
chronicle, and divers other matters, the 
which I pass over at this time and follow 
mine author.^ 

And so then the next day the host dis- 
lodged again and went forth, and about 
noon they came to a great abbey two mile 
from the city of Durham ; and there the 
king lodged, and the host there about in 
the fields, whereas they found forage suffi- 
cient for themselves and for their horses. 
And the next day the host lay there still, 
and the king went to the city of Durham 
to see the church, and there he offered.^ 
And in this city every man found their 
own carriages,^ the which they had left 

1 Or (according to a better text) 'and two {or 
two others) who had their legs broken.' 

2 Froissart says simply ' horses.' 

3 This statement about Roger Mortimer is an 
addition by the translator from Fabyan's Chronicles. 

^ In the original we have : ' Then the kin^ did 
fealty to the church of Durham and to the bishop 
{or bishopric), and also to the burgesses, for he had 
not done it as yet.' 

5 Throughout this passage 'carriages' is a 
translation of ' charois,' ' charettes,' or some similar 



thirty-two days before in a wood at mid- 
night, when they followed the Scots first, 
as it hath been shewed before ; for the 
burgesses and people of Durham had found 
and brought them into their town at their 
own costs and charges. And all these 
carriages were set in void granges and 
barns in safe-guard, and on every man's 
carriage his own cognisance or arms, where- 
by every man might know his own. And 
the lords and gentlemen were glad when 
they had thus found their carriages. 

Thus they abode two days in the city of 
Durham, and the host round about, for 
they could not all lodge within the city ; 
and there their horses, were new shod. 
And then they took their way to the city 
of York, and so within three days they 
came thither ; and there the king found 
the queen his mother, who received him 
with great joy, and so did all other ladies, 
damosels, burgesses and commons of the 
city. 

The king gave licence to all manner of 
people, every man to draw homeward to 
their own countries. And the king thanked 
greatly the earls, barons and knights of 
their good counsel and aid that they had 
done to him in his journey ; and he retained 
still with him sir John of Hainault and all 
his company, who were greatly feasted by 
the queen and all other ladies. Then the 
knights and other strangers of his company 
made a bill of their horses and such other 
stuff as they had lost in that journey, and 
delivered it to the king's council, every 
man by itself; and in trust of the king's 
promise, sir John of Hainault lord Beau- 
mont bound himself to all his company that 
they should be content for everything com- 
prised in their own bills within a short 
space : for the king nor his council could 
not so soon recover gold or silver to con- 
tent their desires ; but he delivered them - 
sufficient by reason to pay all their small 
charges and to bring them home withal 
into their own countries ; and anon after 
within the same year they were paid for 
everything they could desire. Then they 
of Hainault bought little nags to ride at 
their ease, [and sent back] their lackeys and 
pages and all their harness and baggages 
by water in two ships that was delivered to 

word, and means carts for the baggage and not the 
baggage itself. 



MARRIAGE OF EDWARD III., 1328 



25 



them, the which ships with their stuff 
arrived at Sluys in Flanders. And sir 
John of Hainault and his company took 
their leave of the king, of the old queen, 
of the earl of Kent, of the earl of Lancaster 
and of all the other barons, who greatly 
did honour them. And the king caused 
twelve knights and two hundred men of 
arms to company them, for doubt of the 
archers of England, of whom they were not 
well assured, for they must needs pass 
through the bishopric of Lincoln. 

Thus departed sir John of Hainault and 
his rout in the conduct of these knights, 
and rode so long in their journey that they 
came to Dover, and there entered into the 
sea in ships and vessels that they found 
ready there apparelled for them. Then the 
English knights departed from thence, and 
returned to their own houses ; and the 
Hainowes arrived at Wissant, and there 
they sojourned two days in making ready 
their horses and harness. And in the 
meantime sir John of Hainault and some 
of his company rode a pilgrimage to our 
Lady of Boulogne ; and after they returned 
into Hainault, and departed each from 
other to their own houses and countries. 
Sir John of Hainault rode to the earl his 
brother, who was at Valenciennes, who 
received him joyously, for greatly he loved 
him, to whom he recounted all his tidings, 
that ye have heard herebefore. 



CHAPTER XIX 

How king Edward was married to my lady 
Philippa of Hainault. 

It was not long after but that the king and 
the queen his mother, the earl of Kent his 
uncle, the earl of Lancaster, sir Roger 
Mortimer and all the barons of England, 
and by the advice of the king's council, 
they sent a bishop ^ and two knights ban- 
nerets, with two notable clerks, to sir John 
of Hainault, praying him to be a mean that 
their lord the young king of England might 
have in marriage one of the earl's daughters 



1 This should be: 'And the other barons of 
England who had continued to be of the council of 
the king sent a bishop,' etc. Or according to a 
better text, ' took advice to marry him. So they sent 
a bishop,' etc. 



of Hainault, his brother, named Philippa ; 
for the king and all the nobles of the realm 
had rather have her than any other lady, 
for the love of him. Sir John of Hainault 
lord Beaumont feasted and honoured 
greatly these ambassadors, and brought 
them to Valenciennes to the earl his brother, 
who honourably received them and made 
them such cheer, that it were over long 
here to rehearse. And when they had 
shewed the content of their message, the 
earl said, ' Sirs, I thank greatly the king 
your prince and the queen his mother 
and all other lords of England, sith they 
have sent such sufficient personages as ye 
be to do me such honour as to treat for the 
marriage ; to the which request I am well 
agreed, if our holy father the pope will 
consent thereto ' : with the which answer 
these ambassadors were right well content. 
Then they sent two knights and two 
clerks incontinent to the pope, to Avignon, 
to purchase a dispensation for this marriage 
to be had ; for without the pope's licence 
they might not marry, for [by] the lineage 
of France they were so near of kin as at 
the third degree, for the two mothers were 
cousin - germans issued of two brethren. ^ 
And when these ambassadors were come to 
the pope, and their requests and considera- 
tions well heard, our holy father the pope 
with all the whole college consented to this 
marriage, and so feasted them. And then 
they departed and came again to Valen- 
ciennes with their bulls. 

Then this marriage was concluded and 
affirmed on both parties. Then was there 
devised and purveyed for their apparel and 
for all things honourable that belonged to 
such a lady, who should be queen of 
England : and there this princess was 
married by a sufficient procuration brought 
from the king of England ; and after all 
feasts and triumphs done, then this young 
queen entered into the sea at Wissant, and 
arrived with all her company at Dover. 
And sir John of Hainault lord Beaumont, 
her uncle, did conduct her to the city of 
London, where there was made great feast, 
and many nobles of England, and the 



1 "Hie meaning is that the kinship came by the 

relationship of both to the house of France. The 

mother of Edward was daughter of Philip the Fair 

and the mother of Philippa was daughter of Charles 

I of Valois. 



26 



THE CHROmCLES OF FROISSART 



queen was crowned. And there was also 
great jousts, tourneys, dancing, carolling 
and great feasts every day, the which en- 
dured the space of three weeks. The 
English chronicle saith this marriage and 
coronation of the queen was done at York 
with much honour, the Sunday in the even 
of the Conversion of Saint Paul, in the year 
of our Lord mcccxxvji. In the which 
chronicle is shewed many other things of 
the ruling of the realm, and of the death of 
king Edward of Caernarvon, and divers 
other debates that were within the realm, 
as in the same chronicle more plainly it 
appeareth : the which the author of this 
book speaketh no word of, because per- 
adventure he knew it not ; for it was hard 
for a stranger to know all things.-^ "But 
according to his writing this young queen 
Philippa abode still in England with a 
small company of any persons of her own 
country, saving one who was named Watelet 
of Manny, who abode still with the queen 
and was her carver, and after did so many 
great prowesses in divers places, that it were 
hard to make mention of them all. 



CHAPTER XX 

How king Robert of Scotland died. 

And when that the Scots were departed by 
night from the mountain, whereas the 
king of England had besieged them, as ye 
have heard herebefore, they went twenty- 
two mile through that savage country with- 
out resting, and passed the river of Tyne 
right near to Carlisle; and the next day 
they went into their own land, and so de- 

1 The reference is to Fabyan, p. 439. It maybe 
noted that the inaccuracy here was corrected in 
Froissart's final revision, where he says that the 
young queen after landing came to Canterbury and 
thence by Rochester and Dartford to Eltham, 
where she was met by the bishop of Durham, who 
had espoused her by procuration, and many lords 
and ladies. Here sir John of Hainault parted from 
her and returned, and she passed on to London, and 
without making any stay there proceeded north- 
wards to York. Here she was received by the 
young king and his mother, and the marriage was 
celebrated by the archbishop of York in the 
cathedral on the day of the Conversion of Saint Paul, 
1327 (1328). The king was then seventeen years 
old, and the young queen not quite fourteen. At 
Easter they came to London and Windsor, where 
great festivals and jousts were held.— Vat. MS. 



parted every man to his own mansion. 
And within a space after there was a peace 
purchased between the kings of England 
and Scotland ; and as the English chronicle 
saith, ^ it was done by the special counsel of 
the old queen and sir Roger Mortimer ; for 
by their means there was a parliament 
holden at Northampton, at the v/hich the 
king being within age granted to the Scots 
to release all the fealties and homages that 
they ought to have done to the crown of 
England, by his charter ensealed, and also 
there was delivered to the Scots an indent- 
ure, the which was called the Ragman, 
wherein was contained all the homages and 
fealties that the king of Scots and all the 
prelates, earls and barons of Scotland ought 
to have done to the crown of England, 
sealed with all their seals, with all other 
rights that sundry barons and knights ought 
to have had in the realm of Scotland. And 
also they delivered to them again the black 
cross of Scotland, the which the good 
king Edward conquered and brought it 
out of the abbey of Scone, the which was 
a precious relic ; and all rights and interests 
that every baron had in Scotland was then 
clean forgiven. And many other things were 
done at that parliament to the great hurt 
and prejudice of the realm of England, 
and in manner against the wills of all the 
nobles of the realm, save only of Isabel the 
old queen and the bishop of Ely and the 
lord Mortimer : they ruled the realm in 
such wise, that every man was miscontent. 
So that the earl Henry of Lancaster and sir 
Thomas Brotherton, earl marshal, and sir 
Edmund of Woodstock, the king's uncle, 
and divers other lords and commons were 
agreed together to amend these faults, if 
they might. And in that meantime the 
queen Isabel and sir Roger Mortimer 
caused another parliament to be holden at 
Salisbury, at the which parliament sir Roger 
Mortimer was made earl of March against all 
the barons' wills of England, in prejudice 
of king and his realm, and sir John of 
Eltham the king's brother was made earl 
of Cornwall. To the which parliament 
the earl Henry of Lancaster would not 
come, wherefore the king was brought in 
belief that he would have destroyed his 

1 The whole of this which follows down to the 
words ' follow mine author ' is inserted by the 
translator from Fabyan. 



DEATH OF ROBERT BRUCE, 1329 



27 



person ; for the which they assembled a 
great host and went toward Bedford, 
whereas the earl Henry was with his com- 
pany. Then the earl marshal and the earl 
of Kent, the king's uncle, made a peace 
between the king and the earl of Lancaster, 
on whose part was sir Henry lord Beau- 
mont, sir Fulke Fitz-Warin, sir Thomas 
Rocelin, sir William Trussel, sir Thomas 
"Wither and about a hundred knights, who 
were all expelled out of England by the 
counsel of queen Isabel and the earl 
Mortimer : for he was so covetous, that he 
thought to have the most part of all their 
lands into his own hands, as it is more 
plainly shewed in the English chronicle, the 
which I pass over and follow mine author. 
The foresaid peace, which was purchased 
between England and Scotland, was to 
endure three year ; and in the meantime 
it fortuned that king Robert of Scotland 
was right sore aged and feeble : for he was 
greatly charged with the great sickness, so 
that there was no way with him but death. 
And when he felt that his end drew near, 
he sent for such barons and lords of his 
realm as he trusted best, and shewed them 
how there was no remedy with him, but he 
must needs leave this transitory life, com- 
manding them on the faith and truth that 
they owed him, truly to keep the realm and 
aid the young prince David his son, and 
that when he were of age they should obey 
him and crown him king, and to marry him 
in such a place as was convenient for his 
estate. Then he called to him the gentle 
knight sir William Douglas, and said before 
all the lords, * Sir William, my dear friend, 
ye know well that I have had much ado 
in my days to uphold and sustain the right 
of this realm ; and when I had most ado, I 
made a solemn vow, the which as yet I 
have not accomplished, whereof I am right 
sorry : the which was, if I might achieve 
and make an end of all my wars, so that I 
might once have brought this realm in rest | 
and peace, then I promised in my mind to 
have gone and warred on Christ's enemies, ad- 
versaries to our holy Christian faith. To this 
purpose mine heart hath ever intended, but 
our Lord would not consent thereto ; for I 
have had so much ado in my days, and now 
in my last enterprise I have taken such a 
malady that I cannot escape. And sith it 
is so, that my body cannot go nor achieve 



that my heart desireth, I will send the 
heart instead of the body to accomplish 
mine avow. And because I know not in all 
my realm no knight more valiant than ye 
be, nor of body so well furnished to accom- 
plish mine avow instead of myself, therefore 
I require you, mine own dear especial 
friend, that ye will take on you this voyage, 
for the love of me, and to acquit my soul 
against my Lord God. For I trust so 
much in your nobleness and truth, that an 
ye will take on you, I doubt not but that 
ye shall achieve it, and declare then shall I 
die in more ease and quiet, so that it be 
done in such manner as I shall declare unto 
you. I will that as soon as I am trespassed 
out of this world, that ye take my heart out 
of my body and embalm it, and take of my 
treasure, as ye shall think sufficient for that 
enterprise, both for yourself and such com- 
pany as ye will take with you, and present 
my heart to the Holy Sepulchre, whereas 
our Lord lay, seeing my body cannot come 
there : and take with you such company 
and purveyance as shall be appertaining to 
your estate. And wheresoever ye come, 
let it be known how ye carry with you the 
heart of king Robert of Scotland at his 
instance and desire, to be presented to the 
Holy Sepulchre.' 

Then all the lords that heard these words 
wept for pity : and when this knight sir 
William Douglas might speak for weeping, 
he said: 'Ah, gentle and noble king, a 
hundred times I thank your grace of the 
great honour that ye do to me, sith of so 
noble and great treasure ye give me in 
charge ; and, sir, I shall do with a glad 
heart all that ye have commanded me, to 
the best of my true power, howbeit I am 
not worthy nor sufficient to achieve such a 
noble enterprise.' Then the king said, 
*Ah, gentle knight, I thank you, so that 
ye will promise to do it.' 'Sir,' said the 
knight, * I shall do it undoubtedly by the 
faith that I owe to God and to the order of 
knighthood.' 'Then I thank you,' said 
the king, ' for now shall I die in more ease 
of my mind, sith that I know that the most 
worthy and sufficient knight of my realm 
shall achieve for me that which I could 
never attain unto.' And thus soon after 
this noble Robert de Bruce king of Scot- 
land trespassed out of this uncertain world, 
and his heart taken out of his body and 



28 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



embalmed, and honourably he was interred 
in the abbey of Dunfermline in the year of 
our Lord God Mcccxxvii., the seventh day 
of the month of November.^ 

And when the springing- time began, 
then sir William Douglas purveyed him of 
that which appertained for his enterprise 
and took his ship at the port of Montrose 
in Scotland, and sailed into Flanders, to 
Sluys, to hear tidings and to know if there 
were any nobleman in that country that 
would go to Jerusalem, to the intent to 
have more company. And he lay still at 
Sluys the space of twelve days or he de- 
parted, but he would never come a-land, 
but kept still his ship, and kept always his 
port and behaviour with great triumph, 
with trumpets and clarions, as though he 
had been king of Scots himself; and in 
his company there was a knight banneret 
and seven other knights of the realm of 
Scotland, and twenty-six young squires and 
gentlemen to serve him ; and all his vessel 
was of gold and silver — pots, basins, ewers, 
dishes, flagons, barrels, cups and all other 
things ; and all such as would come and 
see him, they were well served with two 
manner of wines and divers manner of 
spices, all manner of people according to 
their degrees. 

And when he had thus tarried there the 
space of twelve days, he heard reported 
that Alphonso king of Spain made war 
against a Saracen king of Granade. Then 
he thought to draw to that part, thinking 
surely he could not bestow his time more 
nobly than to war against God's enemies : 
and that enterprise done, then he thought 
to 'go forth to Jerusalem and to achieve 
that he was charged with. And so he 
departed and took the sea toward Spain, 
and arrived at the port of Valence the 
great. 2 Then he went straight to the king 
of Spain, who held his host against the 
king of Granade Saracen, and they were 
near together, on the frontiers of his land. 

1 This date should be 7th June 1329. Froissart 
adds that the earl of Moray died almost immedi- 
ately after, but the corruption of the text made the 
statement unintelligible to the translator, who there- 
fore omitted it. It is in fact inaccurate. Note 
that the William Douglas of this story is really 
James Douglas. 

2 Valenza in Aragon, called ' Valence le grant ' 
to distinguish it from Valence in Dauphine and 
from Valencia in Portugal. 



And within a while after that this knight 
sir William Douglas was come to the king 
of Spain, on a day the king issued out into 
the field to approach near to his enemies. 
And the king of Granade issued out in 
like wise on his part, so that each king 
might see other with all their banners 
displayed. Then they arranged their battles 
each against other. Then sir William 
Douglas drew out on the one side with all 
his company, to the intent to shew his 
prowess the better. And when he saw 
these battles thus ranged on both parties, 
and saw that the battle of the king of 
Spain began somewhat to advance toward 
their enemies, he thought then verily that 
they should soon assemble together to fight 
at hand strokes ; and then he thought 
rather to be with the foremost than with 
the hindermost, and strake his horse with 
the spurs, and all his company also, and 
dashed into the battle of the king of 
Granade, crying, ' Douglas ! Douglas ! ' 
weening to him the king of Spain and his 
host had followed, but they did not ; where- 
fore he was deceived, for the Spanish host 
stood still. And so this gentle knight was 
enclosed, and all his company, with the 
Saracens, whereas he did marvels in arms, 
but finally he could not endure, so that he 
and all his company were slain. The 
which was great damage, that the Spaniards 
would not rescue them. 

Also in this season there were certain 
lords that treated for peace between Eng- 
land and Scotland. So that at the last 
there was a marriage made and solemnised 
between the young king of Scotland and 
dame Joan of the Tower, sister to king 
Edward of England, at Berwick, as the 
Enghsh chronicle saith,i on Mary Maudlin 
day, the year of our Lord Mcccxxviii., 
against the assent of many of the nobles 
of the realm. But queen Isabel the king's 
mother and the earl Mortimer made that 
marriage ; at the which, as mine author 
saith, there was great feast made on both 
parties. 

1 The addition from the 'English chronicle' is 
from the words ' on Mary Maudlin day ' to ' that 
marriage.' — Fabyan, p. 439. 



PHILIP OF V A LOIS CROWNED, 1328 



29 



CHAPTER XXI 

How Philip of Valois was crowned king of 
France. 

King Charles of France, son to the fair 
king Philip, was three times married, and 
yet died without issue male. The first of 
his wives was one of the most fairest ladies 
in all the world, and she was daughter to 
the earl of Artois. Howbeit she kept but 
evil the sacrament of matrimony, but brake 
her wedlock ; wherefore she was kept a 
long space in prison in the castle Gaillard, 
before that her husband was made king. 
And when the realm of France was fallen 
to him, he was crowned by the assent of the 
twelve douze-peers^ of France, and then 
l^ecause they would not that the realm of 
France should be long without an heir 
male, they advised by their counsel that 
the king should be remarried again ; and 
so he was, to the daughter of the emperor 
Henry of Luxembourg, sister to the gentle 
king of Bohemia ; w^hereby the first 
marriage of the king was fordone, between 
him and his wife that was in prison, by the 
licence and declaration of the pope that 
was then. And by his second wife, who 
was right humble, and a noble wise lady, 
the king had a son, who died in his young 
age, and the queen also at Issoudun in 
Berry. And they both died suspiciously, 
wherefore divers persons were put to blame 
after privily. And after this, the same 
king Charles was married again the third 
time to the daughter of his uncle, the lord 
Louis earl of Evreux, and she was sister 
to the king of Navarre, and was named 
queen Joan. And so in time and space 
this lady was with child, and in the mean- 
time the king Charles her husband fell 
sick and lay down on his death-bed. And 
when he saw there was no way with him 
but death, he devised that if it fortuned 
the queen to be delivered of a son, then he 
would that the lord Philip of Valois should 
be his governour, and regent of all his 
realm, till his son come to such age as he 
might be crowned king ; and if it fortuned 
the queen to have a daughter, then he 
would that all the twelve peers of France 
should take advice and counsel for the 
further ordering of the realm, and that 
1 Froissart says simply ' les douze pers.' 



they should give the realm and regaly to 
him that had most right thereto. And so 
within a while after the king Charles died, 
about Easter in the year of our Lord 
Mcccxxviii., and within a short space 
after the queen was delivered of a daughter. 

Then all the peers of France assembled 
a council together at Paris, as shortly as 
they might conveniently, and there they 
gave the realm by common accord to sir 
Philip of Valois, and put clean out the 
queen Isabel of England and king Edward 
her son. P'or she was sister-german to 
king Charles last dead, but the opinion of 
the nobles of France was, and said and 
maintained that the realm of France was 
of so great nobless, that it ought not by 
succession to fall into a woman's hand. 
And so thus they crowned king of France 
Philip Valois at Rheims on Trinity Sunday 
next after. 

And anon after he summoned all his 
barons and men of war, and went with all 
his power to the town of Cassel and laid 
siege thereto, in making war against the 
Flemings, who rebelled against their own 
lord, and namely they of Bruges, of Ypres, 
and of [the] Franc ; for they would not 
obey the earl of Flanders, but they had 
chased him out of his own country, so that 
he might not abide in no part thereof, but 
only in Gaunt, and scantly there. These 
Flemings were a sixteen thousand, and had 
a captain called Colin Dannequin,^ a hardy 
man and a courageous. And they had 
made their garrison at Cassel, at the wages 
of divers towns in Flanders, to the intent 
to keep the frontiers there about ; but ye 
shall hear how the Flemings were discom- 
fited, and all by their own outrage. 



CHAPTER XXII 

Of the battle of Cassel in Flanders. 

And on a day they of the garrison of 
Cassel departed out to the intent to have 
discomfited the king and all his host. And 
they came privily without any noise in 
three battles well ordered, whereof the first 
battle took the way to the king's tents, 
and it was a fair grace that the king had 
not been taken, for he was at supper, and 
I Nicholas (or Clais) Zannequin. 



30 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



all his company, and thought nothing of 
them. And the other battle took the 
straight way to the tents of the king of 
Bohemia, and in manner they found him 
in like case. And the third battle went to 
the tents of the earl of Hainault, and in 
like wise had near taken him. These hosts 
came so peaceably to the tents, that with 
much pain they of the host could arm them, 
whereby all the lords and their people had 
been slain, an the more grace of God had 
not been : but in manner by miracle of 
God these lords discomfited all three 
battles, each battle by itself, all in one 
hour, in such wise that of sixteen thousand 
Flemings there escaped never a person,^ 
captains and all were slain. And the king 
and lords of France knew not one of 
another, nor what they had done, till all 
was finished and achieved ; for they lay in 
three sundry parties one from another : but 
as for the Flemings, there was not one left 
alive, but all lay dead on heaps, one upon 
another in the said three sundry places. 
And this was done on Saint Bartholomew's 
day the year of our Lord Mcccxxviil. 

Then the Frenchmen entered into the 
town of Cassel and set up the banners of 
France. And the town yielded them' to 
the king, and also the town [of] Poperinghe 
and of Ypres, and all they of the chatelainy 
of Bergues, and then they received the earl 
Louis their lord, and sware to him faith 
and loyalty for ever. Then after the king 
and his people departed and went to Paris, 
and he was much honoured and praised 
for this enterprise and aid that he had done 
to his cousin Louis earl of Flanders. 
And thus the king was in great prosperity 
and every day increased his royal estate ; 
for, as it was said, there was never king in 
France 'that held like estate as did this 
king Philip of Valois. 



CHAPTER XXIII 

How the earl of Kent and the earl Mortimer 
in England were put to death. 

This young king Edward of England was 

1 Another text of Frolssart says, ' Of all these 
sixteen thousand Flemings there escaped but one 
thousand,' In any case the exaggeration is very 
great. The loss on the Flemish side was probably 
less than four thousand. 



governed a great space, as ye have heard 
before, by the counsel of the queen his 
mother and of Edmund of Woodstock 
earl of Kent, his uncle, and by sir Roger 
Mortimer earl of March. And at the last 
envy began to grow between the earl of 
Kent and the earl Mortimer, insomuch 
that this earl Mortimer informed so the 
young king by the consenting of the old 
queen Isabel his mother, bearing the king 
in hand, that the earl of Kent would have 
empoisoned him, to the intent to be king 
himself, as he that was next heir-apparent 
to the crown; for the king's younger 
brother, who was called John of Eltham,^ 
was newly dead. And then the king, who 
gave light credence to them, caused his 
uncle the earl of Kent to be taken and 
openly to be beheaded, without any manner 
of excuse to be heard ; wherewith many of 
the nobles of the realm were sore troubled 
and bare a grudge in their hearts toward 
the earl Mortimer : and according to the 
English chronicle ^ the earl suffered death 
at Winchester, the tenth day of October, 
the third year of the king's reign, and lieth 
buried at the Friars in Winchester. But, 
as mine author saith, within a while after, 
as it was reported, queen Isabel the king's 
mother was with child, and that by the 
earl Mortimer, whereof the king was in- 
formed, and how the said Mortimer had 
caused him to put to death the earl of Kent 
his uncle without good reason or cause, for 
all the realm reputed him for a noble man. 
Then by the king's commandment this earl 
Mortimer was taken and brought to Lon- 
don ; and there before the great lords and 
nobles of the realm was recited by open 
declaration all the deeds of the said Mor- 
timer. Then the king demanded of his 
council what should be done with him; and 
all the lords by common assent gave judg- 
ment and said, ' Sir, he hath deserved to die 
the same death that sir Hugh Spencer died.' 
And after this judgment there was no dila- 
tion of sufferance nor mercy, but incon- 
tinent he was drawn throughout London 
and then set on a scaffold and his members 
cut from him and cast into a fire, and his 
heart also, because he had imagined trea- 
son, and then quartered, and his quarters 

1 A correction for 'John a Gaunt.' 

2 The references are to Fabyan, p. 441 and 
thereabout. 



HOMAGE OF EDWARD III. 



31 



sent to four of the best cities of the realm, 
and his head remained still in London. 

And within a little space after, the king 
commanded, by the advice of his council, 
that the queen his mother should be kept 
close in a castle, and so it was done ; and she 
had with her ladies and damosels, knights 
and squires, to serve her according to her 
estate, and certain ladies assigned to her to 
maintain therewith her noble estate all 
days of her life ; but in no wise she should 
not depart out of the castle, without it 
were to see such sports as was sometime 
shewed before the castle gate for her re- 
creation. Thus this lady led forth her life 
there meekly, and once or twice a year the 
king her son would come and see her. 
The English chronicle sheweth divers other 
considerations why the earl Mortimer 
suffered death, the which was on Saint 
Andrew's even in the year of our Lord a 
thousand three hundred and twenty-nine, 
the which I pass over and follow mine 
author. 



CHAPTER XXIV 

Of the homage that king Edward of Eng- 
land did to the king of France for the 
duchy of Guyenne. 

And after that the king had done these 
two executions, he took new councillors of 
the most noblest and sagest persons of his 
realm. And so it was, about a year after 
that Philip of Valois was crowned king of 
France, and that all the barons and nobles 
of the realm had made their homage and 
fealty to him, except the young king of 
England, who had not done his homage 
for the duchy of Guyenne, nor also he 
was not summoned thereto, then the king 
of France by the advice of all his council 
sent over into England the lord d'Aubigny, 
the lord Beausault, and two notable clerks, 
masters of the parliament of Paris, named 
master Simon of Orleans and master Peter 
of Maisieres. These four departed from 
Paris and did so much by their journeys 
that they came to Wissant, and there they 
took sea and arrived at Dover, and there 
tarried a day to abide the unshipping of their 
horses and baggages ; and then they rode 



forth so long that they came to Windsor, 
whereas the king and the young queen of 
England lay : and then these four caused 
to be known to the king the occasion of 
their coming. The king of England for 
the honour of the French king his cousin 
caused them to come to his presence and 
received them honourably ; and then they 
published their message. And the king 
answered them how that the nobles of his 
realm nor his council was not as then about 
him, but desired them to draw to London, 
and there they should be answered in such 
wise, that of reason they should be con- 
tent. And so they dined in the king's 
chamber, and after departed and lay the 
same night at Colebrook, and the next day 
at London. 

It was not long after but that the king 
came to his palace of Westminster, and all 
his council was commanded to be there at 
a certain day limited. And when they 
were all assembled, then the French ambas- 
sadors were sent for, and there they declared 
the occasion of their coming and delivered 
letters from their master. Then the king 
went apart with his council to take advice 
what was best for him to do. Then was it 
advised by his council that they should be 
answered by the ordinance and style of his 
predecessors, by the bishop of London. 
And so the Frenchmen were called into 
the council-chamber. Then the bishop of 
London said, * Lords that be here assem- 
bled for the king of France, the king's 
grace my sovereign lord hath heard your 
words and read the tenour of your letters. 
Sirs, we say unto you that we will counsel 
the king our sovereign lord here present, 
that he go into France to see the king your 
master, his dear cousin, who right amiably 
hath sent for him : and as touching his 
faith and homage, he shall do his devoir in 
everything that he ought to do of right. 
And, sirs, ye may shew the king your 
master that within short space the king of 
England our master shall arrive in France 
and do all that reason shall require. ' 

Then these messengers were feasted, and 
the king rewarded them with many great gifts 
and jewels ; and they took their leave and 
did so much that at last they came to Paris, 
where they found king Philip, to whom 
they recounted all their news, whereof the 
king was right joyous, and specially to see 



32 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



the king of England his cousin, for he had 
never seen him before. 

And when these tidings were spread 
abroad in the realm of France, then dukes, 
earls and other lords apparelled them in 
their best manner ; and the king of France 
wrote his letters to king Charles of 
Bohemia his cousin and to the king of 
Navarrfe, certifying them the day and time 
when the king of England should be with 
him, desiring them to be with him at the 
same day : and so they came thither with 
great array. Then was it counselled the 
king of France that he should receive the 
king of England at the city of Amiens. 
And there to make provision for his coming 
there was chambers, halls, hostelries and 
lodgings made ready and apparelled to 
receive them all and their company, and 
also for the duke of Burgoyne, the duke 
of Bourbon, the duke of Lorraine and sir 
John of Artois. There was purveyance for 
a thousand horse, and for six hundred 
horse that should come with the king of 
England. 

The young king of England forgat not 
the voyage that he had to do into France ; 
and so he apparelled for him and his com- 
pany well and sufficiently: and there de- 
parted out of England in his company two 
bishops, beside the bishop of London, and 
four earls, the lord Henry earl of Derby, 
his cousin-german, son to sir Thomas earl 
of Lancaster with the wry neck, the earl 
of Salisbury, the earl of Warwick and the 
earl of Hereford, and six barons, the lord 
Raynold Cobham, the lord Thomas Wake, 
marshal of England, the lord Percy, the 
lord Manne^ and the lord Mowbray, and 
more than forty other knights ; so that the 
king and his company were about a thou- 
sand horse : and the king was two days in 
passing between Dover and Wissant. Then 
the king and his company rode to Bou- 
logne, and there tarried one day. This 
was about the mid of August the year of 
our Lord God a thousand three hundred and 
twenty-nine. 

And anon the tidings came to king 
Philip of France how the king of England 
was at Boulogne. Then the king of 
France sent his constable with great plenty 
of knights to the king of England, who 

1 This name, which the translator writes 
'Manny,' perhaps stands for ' Mohun.' 



as then'was at Montreuil by the sea-side,^ 
and there was great tokens of love and 
good cheer made on both parties. Then 
the king of England rode forth with all 
his rout, and in his company the constable 
of France ; and he rode so long that they 
came to the city of Amiens, whereas king 
Philip, and the king of Bohemia, the king 
of Mallorca and the king of Navarre were 
ready apparelled to receive the king of 
England, with many other dukes, earls 
and great barons; for there was all the 
twelve peers of France ready to feast and 
make cheer to the king of England, and 
to be there peaceably to bear witness of 
the king of England's homage. There 
was the king of England nobly received, 
and thus these kings and other princes 
tarried at Amiens the space of fifteen 
days. 

And in the mean time there were many 
words and ordinances devised ; but as far as 
I could know, king Edward of England 
made his homage to the king of France all 
only by word, and not putting his hands 
between the king of France hands, nor 
none other prince nor prelate limited for 
him : nor the king of England would not 
proceed any further in doing any more con- 
cerning his homage, but rather he was de- 
termined to return again into England. And 
there was read openly the privileges of 
ancient time granted, [in] the which was de- 
clared in what manner the king should do 
his homage, and how and in what wise he 
should do service to the king of France. 
Then the king of France said, ' Cousin, 
we will not deceive you : this that ye have 
done pleaseth us right well as for this pre- 
sent time, till such time as ye be returned 
again into your realm, and that ye have 
seen under the seals of your predecessors 
how and in what wise ye should do.' 

And so thus the king of England took 
his leave and departed from the king of 
France right amiably, and of all other 
princes that was there, and returned again 
into England, and laboured so long that he 
came to Windsor, where his queen received 
him right joyously, and demanded tidings 
of king Philip her uncle and of her lineage 
of France. The king shewed her all that 
he knew, and of the great cheer and honour 
that he had there, and said, in his mind 
1 Montreuil-sur-Mer. 



HOMAGE OF EDWARD III., 1329 



33 



there was no realm could be compared to 
the realm of France. 

And then within a space after the king 
of France sent into England of his special 
council the bishop of Chartres and the 
bishop of Beauvais, the lord Louis of 
Clermont, the duke of Bourbon, the earl 
of Harcourt and the earl of Tancarville, 
with divers other knights and clerks, to the 
council of England, the which was then 
holden at I^ondon, for the performance of 
the king of England's homage, as ye have 
heard before. And also the king of Eng- 
land and his council had well overseen the 
manner and form, how his ancient prede- 
cessors had done their homage for the 
duchy of Acquitaine. There were many as- 
then in England that murmured and said 
how the king their lord was nearer by true 
succession of heritage to the crown of 
France than Philip of Valois, who was as 
then king of France. Howbeit, the king 
and his council would not know it nor 
speak thereof as at that time. Thus was 
there great assembly, and much ado how 
this homage should be performed. These 
ambassadors tarried still in England all that 
winter, till it was the month of May follow- 
ing, or they had answer definitive. How- 
beit, finally the king of England by the 
advice of his council and on the sight of his 
privileges, whereunto they gave great faith, 
was determined to write letters in the 
manner of patents sealed with his great 
seal, knowledging therein the homage that 
he ought to do to the king of France, the 
tenor and report of the which letters patents 
followeth : — 

* Edward, by the grace of God king 
of England, lord of Ireland, and duke of 
Acquitaine, to them that these present letters 
shall see or hear send greeting. We would 
it be known that as we made homage at 
Amiens to the right excellent prince, our 
right dear cousin, Philip king of France, 
and there it was required by him that we 
should knowledge the said homage, and to 
make it to him expressly, promising to bear 
him faith and troth, the which we did not 
as then, because we were not informed of 
the truth ; we made him homage by general 
words, in saying how we entered into his 
homage in like manner as our predecessors, 
dukes of Guyenne, in times past had entered 
into the homage of the king of France for 



that time being ; and sith that time we have 
been well informed of the truth : therefore 
we knowledge by these presents that such 
homage as we have made in the city of 
Amiens to the king of France in general 
words was and ought to be understanded 
this word, liege man ; and that to him we 
owe to bear faith and troth as duke of 
Acquitaine and peer of France, earl of 
Ponthieu and of Montreuil.^ And to the 
intent in time coming that there should 
never be discord, for this cause we promise 
for us and our successors, dukes of Acqui- 
taine, that this homage be made in this 
manner following. The king of England, 
duke of Acquitaine, holdeth his hands 
between the hands of the king of France, 
and he that shall address the words to the 
king of England, duke of Acquitaine, shall 
speak for the king of France in this 
manner : Ye shall become liege man to the 
king, my lord here present, as duke of 
Guyenne and peer of France, and to him 
promise to bear faith and troth : say "Yea." 
And the king of England, duke of Guyenne, 
and his successors, saith ' ' Yea. " And then 
the king of France receiveth the king of 
England, duke of Guyenne, to this said 
homage as liege man, with faith and troth 
spoken by mouth, ^ saving his right and all 
other. And furthermore when the said 
king entereth in homage to the king of 
France for the earldom of Ponthieu and 

1 The translator has made sad work here. It 
should be : ' We make it known hereby that when 
we did homage at Amiens to the excellent prince 
our dear lord and cousin Philip king of France, 
it was said and required of us on his part that we 
should acknowledge the said homage to be liege 
homage, and that in doing the said homage we 
should promise expressly to bear faith and loyalty 
to him ; the which thing we did not as then, because 
we were not informed of the truth. And we did 
homage then to the king of France in general 
words, saying that we entered into his homage as 
our predecessors, dukes of Guyenne, had formerly 
entered into the homage of the kings of France 
that then were. And after being well informed ol 
the truth, we acknowledge bj^ these presents that 
the said homage . . . was, is and ought to be 
understanded for liege homage, and that we owe to 
bear faith and loyalty to him, as duke of Acquitaine 
and peer of France, and earl of Ponthieu and 
Montreuil. And we promise henceforth to bear 
faith and loyalty to him.' It is surprising that lord 
Berners, familiar as he must have been with the 
true names, should have allowed ' Ponthieu ' to be 
printed as ' Poyters ' throughout this document. 

2 ' A la foi et a la bouce,' that is, ' homage de foi 
et de bouche,' according to the usual forms. 



34 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



of Montreuil, he shall put his hands between 
the hands of the king of France for the 
said earldom. And he that shall speak for 
the king of France shall address his words 
to the king and earl and say thus : Ye 
shall become liege man to the king of 
France, my lord here present, as earl of 
Ponthieu and Montreuil, and to him pro- 
mise to bear faith and troth: say "Yea." 
And the king, earl of Ponthieu, saith 
'* Yea." Then the king of France receiveth 
the king and earl to this said homage, by 
his faith and by his mouth, saving his right 
and all other. And after this manner it 
shall be done and renewed as often as 
homage should be done. And of that we 
shall deliver, and our successors, dukes of 
Guyenne, after these said homages made, 
letters patents sealed with our great seal, if 
the king of France require it : and beside 
that we promise in good faith to hold and 
to keep effectuously the peace and concord 
made between the kings of France and 
the kings of England, dukes of Guyenne,' 
etc. 

These letters the lords of France brought 
to the king their lord, and the king caused 
them to be kept in his chancery. 



CHAPTER XXV 

How the lord sir Robert of Artois was chased 
out of the realm of France. 

The man in the world that most aided 
king Philip to attain to the crown of 
France was sir Robert earl of Artois, who 
was one of the most sagest and greatest 
lords in France, and of high lineage ex- 
traught, from the blood royal, and had to 
his wife [the] sister - german to the said 
king Philip, and always was his chief and 
special companion and lover in all his 
estates. And the space of three year all 
that was done in the realm of France was 
done by his advice, and without him no- 
thing was done. And after it fortuned that 
this king Philip took a marvellous great 
displeasure and hatred against this noble- 
man sir Robert of Artois, for a plea that 
was moved before him whereof the earl of 
Artois was cause. ^ For he would have won 

1 This should be : ' Whereof the earldom of 
Artois was cause, the which the said sir Robert 



his intent by the virtue of a letter that he 
laid forth the which was not true, as it was 
said : wherefore the king was in such dis- 
pleasure, that if he had taken him in his 
ire, surely it had cost him his life without 
remedy. So this sir Robert was fain to 
void the realm of France and went to 
Namur, to the earl John his nephew. 
Then the king took the earl's wife and her 
two sons, who were his own nephews, John 
and Charles, and did put them in prison, 
and were kept straitly, and the king sware 
that they should never come out of prison 
as long as they lived : the king's mind 
would not be turned by no manner of 
means. 

Then the king in his fury sent hastily to 
the bishop RaouP of Liege, and desired 
him at his instance that he would defy and 
make war against the earl of Namur, with- 
out he would put out of his country sir 
Robert earl of Artois. And this bishop, 
who greatly loved the king of France and 
but little loved his neighbours, did as the 
king desired him. Then the earl of 
Namur sore against his will caused the 
earl of Artois to avoid his land. 

Then this earl sir Robert went to the 
duke of Brabant, his cousin, who right 
joyously received him and did him great 
comfort : and as soon as the king of 
France knew that, he sent word to the 
duke that if he would sustain, maintain or 
suffer the earl of Artois in his country, he 
should have no greater enemy than he 
would be to him, and that he would make 
war against him and all his to the best of 
his power with all the realm of France. 
Then the duke sent the earl of Artois 
privily to Argenteul, to the intent to see 
what the king would do further in the case : 
and anon the king knew it, for he had spies 
in every corner. 

The king had great despite that the duke 
should so deal with him ; and within a 
brief space after the king purchased so by 
reason of his gold and silver, that the king 
of Bohemia, who was cousin-german to the 
duke of Brabant, and the bishop of Liege, 
the archbishop of Cologne, the duke of 
Gueldres, the marquis of Juliers, the earl 

would have won by,' etc. The translator mistook 
* la comte' for 'le comte,' as he has several times 
done elsewhere. 

1 Aoul (or Adolf) de la Marck, 



PVA/^ WITH THE SCOTS, 1332 



35 



of Bar, the lord of Loos, the lord Fau- 
queniont and divers other lords were 
allied together all against the duke of 
Brabant, and defied him and entered with 
a great host into his country by Hesbaing, 
and so came to Hanut, and brent twice 
over the country whereas it pleased them. 
And the king of France sent with them the 
earl of Eu his constable, with a great host 
of men of arms. 

Then the earl William of Hainault sent 
his wife, sister to the king, and his brother 
sir John of Hainault lord Beaumont into 
France to treat for a peace and sufferance 
of war between the king and the duke of 
Brabant. And at last the king of France 
with much work consented thereto, upon 
condition that the duke should put himself 
utterly to abide the ordinance of the king 
of France and of his council in every matter 
that the king and all such as had defied 
him had against him ; and also within a 
certain day limited to avoid out of his 
:;ountry theearlof Artois : and to make short, 
all this the duke did sore against his will. 



CHAPTER XXVI 

How king Edward of England took the town 
of Berwick against the Scots. 

Ye have heard herebefore recited of the 
truce between England and Scotland for 
the space of three year. And so the space 
of one year they kept well the peace, so 
that in three hundred year before there was 
not so good peace kept. Howbeit king 
Edward of England was informed that the 
young king David of Scotland, who had 
wedded his sister, was seized of the town of 
Berwick, the which ought to appertain to 
the realm of England : for king Edward 
the first, his grandfather, had it in his 
possession peaceably. Also the king was 
informed that the realm of Scotland should 
hold in chief of the crown of England, and 
how the young king of Scots had not done 
as then his homage. Wherefore the king 
of England sent his ambassade to the king 
of Scots, desiring him to leave his hands 
off the town of Berwick, for it pertaioed to 
his heritage ; for kings of England his 
predecessors have been in possession there- 
of: and also they summoned the king of 



Scots to come to the king of England, to 
do his homage for the realm of Scotland. 

Then the king of Scots took counsel how 
to answer this matter ; and finally the king 
answered the English ambassadors and said, 
' Sirs, both I and all the nobles of my realm 
marvel greatly of that ye have required us 
to do : for we find not anciently that the 
realm of Scotland should anything be 
bound or be subject to the realm of England, 
neither by homage or any other ways : nor 
the king of noble memory our father would 
never do homage to the kings of England, 
for any war that was made unto him by any 
of them : no more in like wise I am in will 
to do. And also king Robert our father 
conquered the town of Berwick by force of 
arms against king Edward, father to the 
king your master that now is ; and so my 
father held it all the days of his life as his 
good heritage : and so in like manner we 
think to do to the best of our power, How- 
beit, lords, we require you to be means to 
the king your master, whose sister we have 
married, that he will suffer us peaceably to 
enjoy our franchises and rights, as his an- 
cestors have done herebefore, and to let us 
enjoy that our father hath won and kept it 
peaceably all his life days : and desire the 
king your master that he would not believe 
any evil counsel given him to the contrary. 
For if there were any other prince that 
would do us wrong, he should aid, succour 
and defend us for the love of his sister, 
whom we have married.' Then these am- 
bassadors answered and said, * Sir, we have 
well understanded your answer. We shall 
shew it to the king our lord in like manner 
as ye have said. ' And so took their leave 
and returned into England to the king, with 
the which answer the king of England was 
nothing content. Then he summoned a 
parliament to be holden at Westminster, 
whereas all the nobles and wise men of the 
realm were assembled, to determine what 
should be best to be done in this matter. 

And in this meantime sir Robert earl of 
Artois came into England, disguised like a 
merchant, and the king received him right 
joyously and retained him as one of his 
council, and to him assigned the earldom 
of Richmond. 

And when the day of the parliament ap- 
proached, and that all the nobles of the 
land were assembled about Eondon, then 



36 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



the king caused to be shewed the message, 
and how he had written to the king of 
Scots, and of the answer of the same king. 
Wherefore the king desired all the nobles of 
his realm, that they would give him such 
counsel as should appertain to the saving 
of his honour and right. And when they 
were all assembled in council, they thought 
that the king might no longer bear by his 
honour the injuries and wrongs that the 
king of Scots did him daily : and so they 
reported their advice to the king, exhorting 
him to provide for his force and strength of 
men of war, to attain thereby the town of 
Berwick, and to enter into the realm of 
Scotland in such wise, that he should con- 
strain the king of the Scots to be joyful to 
come and do his homage to him. And so 
all the nobles and commons of the realm of 
England said they would gladly and will- 
ingly go with him in that journey. And of 
their good wills the king thanked them 
greatly, and desired them to be ready ap- 
parelled at a day assigned, and to assemble 
together at Newcastle-upon-Tyne. And 
then every man went home and prepared 
for that journey. 

Then the king sent again other ambassa- 
dors to the king of Scots his brother-in- 
law, sufficiently to summon him ; and if he 
would not be otherwise advised, then the 
king gave them full authority to defy him. 
And so the day of the assembly of the king's 
host approached, at the which day the king 
of England and all his host arrived at New- 
castle-upon-Tyne, and there tarried three 
days for the residue of his host that was 
coming after. And on the fourth day he 
departed with all his host toward Scotland, 
and passed through the lands of the lord 
Percy and of the lord Neville, who were 
two great lords in Northumberland, and 
marched on the Scots. And in like wise so 
did the lord Ros and the lord Lucy and 
the lord Mowbray. Then the king and all 
his host drew toward the city of Berwick, 
for the king of Scotland made no other 
answer to these second messengers, but as 
he did to the first ; wherefore he was openly 
defied and summoned. 

And so the king of England and his host 
entered into Scotland ; for he was counselled 
that he should not tarry at siege at Berwick, 
but to ride forth and to burn the country, 
as his grandfather did. And so he did j in 



which journey he wasted and destroyed all 
the plain country of Scotland, and exiled 
divers towns that were closed with dikes 
and with pales, and took the strong castle 
of Edinburgh and set therein a garrison ; 
and so passed the second river in Scotland, 
under Stirling, and ran over all the country 
thereabout to Scone, and destroyed the good 
town of Dunfermline ; but they did no evil 
to the abbey, for the king of England com- 
manded that no hurt should be done thereto : 
and so the king conquered all the country 
to Dundee and to Dumbarton, a strong castle 
standing on the marches against the wild 
Scots, whereas the king of Scots and the 
queen his wife were withdrawn unto for 
surety. For there were no Scots that would 
appear afore the Englishmen ; for they were 
all drawn into the forests of Gedworth, the 
which were inhabitable, and specially for 
them that knew not the country ; wherein 
all the Scots were, and all their goods, and 
so they set but a little by all the remnant. 
And it was no marvel though they were thus 
driven, for the king their lord was but fifteen 
year of age, and the earl of Moray was but 
young, ^ and the nephew of William Douglas 
that was slain in Spain was also of the same 
age ; so as at that time the realm of Scot- 
land was dispurveyed of good captains. 

And when the king of England had run 
over all the plain country of Scotland and 
tarried there the space of six months, and 
saw that none would come against him, 
then he garnished divers castles that he had 
won, and thought by them to make war to 
all the other. Then he withdrew fair and 
easily toward Berwick, and in his returning 
he won the castle of Dalkeith, pertaining to 
the heritage of the earl Douglas. It was a 
five leagues from Edinburgh, and therein 
the king set good captains and then rode 
small journeys till he came to Berwick, the 
which is at the entry of Scotland. And 
there the king laid round about his siege, 
and said he would never depart thence till 
he had won it, or else the king of Scots to 
come and to raise his siege perforce. 

And within the town there were good 
men of war, set there by the king of Scots. 
Before this city there were many assaults 
and sore scrimmishes nigh every day ; for 
they of the city would not yield them up 
simply, for always they thought to be res- 
1 ' Plus jeune,' says Froissart. 



CAPTURE OF BERWICK, 1333 



37 



cued : howbeit there was no succour ap- 
peared. The Scots on mornings and nights 
made rnany skryes to trouble the host, but 
little hurt they did ; for the English host 
was so well kept that the Scots could not 
enter but to their damage, and oftentimes 
lost of their men. 

And when they of Berwick saw that no 
comfort nor aid came to them from any part, 
and that their victuals began to fail, and 
how they were enclosed both by water and 
by land, then they began to fall in a treaty 
with the king of England, and desired a 
truce to endure a month : and if within the 
month king David their lord, or some 
other for him, come not by force to raise 
the siege, then they to render up the city, 
their lives and goods saved, and that the 
soldiers within might safely go into their 
country without any damage. 

This treaty was not lightly granted ; for 
the king of England would have had them 
yielded simply, to have had his pleasure of 
some of them, because they had held so 
long against him : but finally he was con- 
tent by the counsel of his lords. And also 
sir Robert of Artois did put thereto his 
pain, who had been all that journey with 
the king, and had shewed him always how 
he was next inheritor to the crown of France. 
He would gladly that the king should have 
made war into France, and aleft the wars 
of Scotland. So his words and others in- 
clined greatly the king to condescend to 
the treaty of Berwick ; so this truce and 
treaty was granted. Then they within the 
city sent word to their king in what case 
they stood ; but for all that they could find 
no remedy to raise the siege ; so the city 
was delivered up at the end of the month, 
and also the castle ; and the marshals of the 
host took possession for the king of Eng- 
land, and the burgesses of the city came and 
did their fealty and homage to the king, 
and sware to hold of him. Then after the 
king entered with great solemnity and tarried 
there twelve days, and made a captain there 
called sir Edward Balliol : and when the 
king departed, he left with the said knight 
certain young knights and squires, to help 
to keep the lands that he had conquered of 
the Scots and the frontiers thereof. 

Then the king and his people returned 
to London, and every man into their own 
countries ; and the king went to Windsor, 



and sir Robert of Artois with him, who 
never ceased day nor night in shewing the 
king what right he had to the crown of 
France : and the king hearkened gladly to 
his words. 

Thus in this season the king of England 
won the most part of the realm of Scotland, 
who had many expert knights about him : 
among other was sir William Montague 
and sir Walter of Manny ; they were hardy 
knights and did many deeds of arms against 
the Scots. And the better to have their 
entry into Scotland, they fortified the 
bastide of Roxburgh and made it a strong 
castle, and sir William Montague did so 
well in all his enterprises that the king 
made him earl of Salisbury and married 
him nobly. And also the lord of Manny 
was made of the king's privy council and 
well advanced in the court. 

True it was that some of the knights 
of Scotland did ever the annoyance they 
could to the Englishmen, and kept them 
in the wild country among marishes and 
great forests, so that no man could follow 
them. Some season the Englishmen fol- 
lowed them so near, that all day they 
scrimmished together ; and in a scrimmish 
this said lord William Montague lost one 
of his eyen. In the said forest the old king 
Robert of Scotland did keep himself, when 
king Edward the first conquered nigh all 
Scotland, for he was so often chased that 
none durst lodge him in castle nor fortress 
for fear of the said king. And ever when 
the king was returned into England, then he 
would gather together again his people, and 
conquer towns, castles and fortresses, just 
to Berwick, some by battle and some by 
fair speech and love. And when the said 
king Edward heard thereof, then would 
he assemble his power and win the realm 
of Scotland again. Thus the chance went 
between these two foresaid kings. It was 
shewed me how that this king Robert 
won and lost his realm five times. So this 
continued till the said king Edward died 
at Berwick. And when he saw that he 
should die, he called before him his eldest 
son, who was king after him, and there 
before all the barons he caused him to 
swear that as soon as he were dead, that 
he should take his body and boil it in a 
cauldron, till the flesh departed clean from 
the bones ; and then to bury the flesh and 



38 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



keep still the bones ; and that as often as the 
Scots should rebel against him, he should 
assemble his people against them, and 
carry with him the bones of his father : for 
he believed verily that if they had his bones 
with them, that the Scots should never 
attain any victory against them. The which 
thing was not accomplished ; for when the 
king was dead, his son carried him to 
London, and there he was buried.^ 



CHAPTER XXVII 

How king Philip of France and divers other 
kings made a croisey to the Holy Land. 

Now let us return to our first purpose. 
When king Philip returned from Paris, 
after that the king of England had been 
there, ^ he went to visit his realm ; and in 
his company the king of Bohemia and the 
king of Navarre, with many dukes, earls 
and lords, for he held great estate and 
noble. So he rode through Burgoyne 
till he came to Avignon, where he was 
honourably received of pope Benedict and 
of all the college, and did him as much 
honour as they could : and he tarried a 
long space there, and was lodged at Ville- 
neuve without Avignon. In the same season 
the king of Aragon came to the court of 
Rome, and there was great cheer and feast 
made at their meeting, and there they were 
all the Lent season. And in that season 
tidings came to the court of Rome, that the 
enemies of God were greatly strong, and 
had nigh conquered all the realm of Rasse, 
and taken the king there, who was before 
become Christian, and made him to die by 
a great martyrdom ; and also these infidels 
sore did menace Christendom. And on 
the Good Friday the pope himself preached 
of the passion of God before these kings, 
exhorting them to take on them the cross 
against the Saracens ; so that the French 
king moved with pity took on him the 
cross, and desired the pope to agree thereto. 
The pope accorded and confirmed it with 
his absolution de pena et culpa, clean con- 
fessed and repentant.^ So thus the king 

1 Froissart adds : * Wherefore mischief befel him 
after, as ye have heard.' 

2 The original does not imply that the king of 
England had visited Paris. 

3 * Then the pope granted and confirmed it, with 



took on him this voyage, and with him the 
king Charles of Bohemia, the king of 
Navarre, and king Peter of Aragon, with 
many dukes, earls, barons, knights and 
squires, and also the cardinal of Naples, 
the cardinal of Perigord, the cardinal 
Blanc, and the cardinal of Ostia. And 
anon after, this croisey was preached and 
published abroad in the world, the which 
tidings was great pleasure to many lords, 
and specially to such as were in mind to 
dispend their season in deeds of arms. 

When the French king and these said 
lords had been a certain space with the 
pope and had devised and confirmed their 
enterprise, then they departed from the 
court and took their leave ; and the king of 
Aragon went into his country, and the 
French king in his company, till they 
came to Montpellier, and there tarried a 
certain space. And there king Philip of 
France made a peace between the king of 
Aragon and the king of Mallorca, and 
then returned into France by small journeys 
at great dispense, and visited his towns and 
castles, and passed through Auvergne, 
Berry, Beauce and Gatinois, and so came 
to Paris, whereas he was received with 
great feast and glory. At that time France 
was rich, in great puissance and in good 
rest and peace : there was no war spoken of. 

This croisey thus taken by the French 
king, whereof he was as chief, there were 
divers lords in sundry countries by great 
devotion took on them the same. The 
French king made the greatest apparel for 
his voyage that ever was seen, either in 
Godfrey de Boulogne's days or any other, 
and had prepared in certain ports, as at 
Marseille, Aigues-Mortes, at Nar bonne, 
and about Montpellier such a number of 
vessels, ships, carracks and galleys, suffi- 
cient to pass over sixty thousand men of 
arms with all their purveyances, well pro- 
vided of biscuit, wine, fresh water, salt 
flesh, and all other things necessary for 
men of war, to endure three years, if need 
were. 

And the French king sent certain mes- 
sengers to the king of Hungary, desiring 
him to be ready and to open the passages 

condition that he would absolve from pain and 
fault those who should truly confess themselves and 
repent, the king of France first and also all those 
who shouli go with him on this holy voyage.' 



EDWARD'S DESIGNS ON FRANCE, 1337 



39 



of his country to receive the pilgrims of 
God. The king of Hungary was glad 
thereof, and said how he was all ready. 
In like wise the French king sent to the 
king of Cyprus and also to the king of 
Sicily and to the Venetians. In like 
manner they answered that they were 
ready to obey, and the Genoways and all 
they on the river of Genes. ^ And also the 
king sent the great prior of France to the 
isle of Rhodes to prepare all things necessary 
in those quarters, and they of the Rhodes 
accorded with the Venetians to provide 
things necessary in the isle of Crete, the 
which was under their seignory. Briefly, 
every country was ready prepared to receive 
the pilgrims of God. There were more 
than three hundred thousand persons that 
took on them the cross to go in this noble 
voyage over the sea. 



CHAPTER XXVIII 

How king Edward was counselled to make 
war against the French king. 

In this season, when this croisey was in 
great forwardness, for there was no speak- 
ing but thereof, sir Robert of Artois was 
as then in England, banished out of 
France, and was ever about king Edward : 
and always he counselled him to defy the 
French king, who kept his heritages from 
him wrongfully : of the which matter the 
king oftentimes counselled with them of 
his secret council, for gladly he would 
have had his right, an if he wist how ; and 
also he thought that if he should demand 
his right and it refused, what he might do 
then to amend it ; for if he should then sit 
still and do not his devoir to recover his 
right, he should be more blamed than 
before. Yet he thought it were better to 
speak not thereof, for he saw well that by 
the puissance of his realm it would be hard 
for him to subdue the great realm of 
France, without help of some other great 
lords either of the Empire or in other places 
for his money. 

The king oftentimes desired counsel of 
his chief and special friends and councillors. 
Finally, his councillors answered him and 

1 That is, the Riviera of Genoa. 



said, ' Sir, the matter is so weighty and of 
so high an enterprise, that we dare not 
speak therein, nor give you any counsel. 
But, sir, this we would counsel you to do : 
send sufficient messengers, well informed 
of your intention, to the earl of Hainault, 
whose daughter ye have married, and to 
sir John of Hainault his brother, who hath 
valiantly served you at all times ; and desire 
them by way of love that they would coun- 
sel you in this matter : for they know better 
what pertaineth to such a matter than we 
do. And, sir, if they agree to your intent, 
then will they counsel you what friends ye 
may best make.' The king was content 
with this answer, and desired the bishop of 
Lincoln to take on him this message, and 
with him two bannerets and two doctors. 
They made them ready and took shipping 
and arrived at Dunkirk, and rode through 
Flanders till they came to Valenciennes, 
where they found the earl lying in his bed 
sick of the gout, and with him sir John 
his brother. They were greatly feasted, 
and declared the cause of their coming, 
and shewed all the reasons and doubts that 
the king their master had made. Then 
the earl said, ' As help me God, if the 
king's mind might be brought to pass, I 
would be right glad thereof : for I had 
rather the wealth of him that hath married 
my daughter than of him that never did 
nothing for me, though I have married his 
sister ; and also he did let the marriage of 
the young duke of Brabant, who should 
have married one of my daughters : where- 
fore I shall not fail to aid my dear and well- 
beloved son the king of England. I shall 
give him counsel and aid to the best of my 
power, and so shall do John my brother, 
who hath served him or this. Howbeit he 
must have more help than ours ; for Hai- 
nault is but a small country as to the regard 
of the realm of France, and England is far 
off to aid us.' Then the bishop said, ' Sir, 
we thank you in our master's behalf of the 
comfort that ye give us : sir, we desire you 
to give our master counsel, what friends he 
were best to labour unto to aid him.' 
' Surely,' said the earl, ' I cannot devise a 
more puissant prince to aid him than the 
duke of Brabant, who is his cousin-german, 
and also the bishop of Liege, the duke of 
Gueldres, who hath his sister to his wife, 
the archbishop of Cologne, the marquis 



40 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



of Juliers, sir Arnold de Baquehem and 
the lord of Fauquemont. These lords be 
they that may make most men of war in 
short space of any that I know : they are 
good men of war, they may well make ten 
thousand men of war, so they have wages 
thereafter : they are people that would 
gladly win advantage. If it were so that 
the king my son, your master, might get 
these lords to be on his part, and so to 
come into these parts, he might well go 
over the water of Oise and seek out king 
Philip to fight with him.' With this answer 
these ambassadors returned into England to 
the king and reported all that they had 
done, whereof the king had great joy and 
was well comforted. 

These tidings came into France and 
multiplied little and little, so that king 
Philip's enterprise of the said croisey began 
to assuage and wear cold, and he counter- 
manded his officers to cease of making of 
any further provision, till he knew more 
what king Edward would do. Then king 
Edward ordained ten bannerets and forty 
other knights and sent them over the sea 
to Valenciennes, and the bishop of Lincoln 
with them, to the intent to treat with the 
lords of the Empire, such as the earl of 
Hainault had named. When they were 
come to Valenciennes, each of them kept a 
great estate and port, and spared nothing, 
no more than if the king of England had 
been there in proper person, whereby they 
did get great renown and praise. They 
had with them young bachelors, who had 
each of them one of their eyen closed with 
a piece of silk : it was said how they had 
made a vow among the ladies of their 
country, that they would not see but with 
one eye, till they had done some deeds of 
arms in P>ance : howbeit they would not 
be known thereof. 

And when they had been well feasted at 
Valenciennes, then the bishop of Lincoln 
and part of his company went to the duke 
of Brabant, who feasted them greatly and 
agreed and promised to sustain the king of 
England and all his company in his country, 
so that he might go and come armed and 
unarmed, at his pleasure, and to give him 
the best counsel he could. And also, if 
the king of England would defy the French 
king, that he would do the same, and enter 
into the country of France with men of war, 



so that their wages might be borne, to the 
number of a thousand men of arms. 

Thus then the lords returned again 
to Valenciennes, and did so much by 
messengers and by promise of gold and 
silver, that the duke of Gueldres, who was 
the king's brother-in-law, and the marquis 
of Juliers, the archbishop of Cologne and 
Waleran his brother, and the lord of 
Fauquemont came to Valenciennes to speak 
with these lords of England before the earl 
of Hainault and the lord John his brother. 
And by the means of a great sum of florins, 
that each of them should have for them- 
selves and for their men, they made promise 
to defy the French king and to go with the 
king of England when it pleased him, with 
a certain men of war ; promising also to 
get other lords to take their part for wages, 
such as be beyond the river of Rhine and 
be able to bring good numbers of men of 
war. Then the lords of Almaine took 
their leave and returned into their own 
countries, and the Englishmen tarried still 
with the earl of Hainault, and sent certain 
messengers to the bishop of Liege and 
would gladly have had him on their party ; 
but he would never be against the French 
king, for he was become his man and 
entered into his fealty. King Charles of 
B(5hemia was not desired, for they knew 
well he was so firmly joined with the 
French king by reason of the marriage of 
John duke of Normandy, who had to wife 
the king's daughter, whereby they knew well 
he would do nothing against the French 
king. 

CHAPTER XXIX 

How that Jaques d'Arteveld governed all 
Flanders. 

In this season there was great discord 
between the earl of Flanders and the 
Flemings : for they would not obey him, 
nor he durst not abide in Flanders but in 
great peril. And in the town of Gaunt 
there was a man, a maker of honey, ^ called 

1 ' Qui avolt este brasseur de miel,' ' who had 
been a brewer of mead.' It seems probable that 
Jaques d'Arteveld, who belonged to the craft of 
weavers and exercised like his father the dis- 
tinguished trade of a cloth-merchant, inscribed him- 
self as ' brasseur ' only in order to conciliate the 
support of the 'petits metiers.' 



JAQUES D'ARTEVELD 



41 



Jaques d'Arteveld ; he was entered into 
such fortune and grace of the people, that 
all thing was done that he devised : he 
might command what he would through all 
Flanders, for there was none, though he 
were never so great, that durst disobey his 
commandment. He had always going with 
him up and down in Gaunt sixty or four- 
score varlets armed, and among them there 
were three or four that knew the secretness 
of his mind, so that if he met a person that 
he hated or had him in suspicion, in- 
continent he was slain : for he had com- 
manded his secret varlets, that whensoever 
he met any person and made such a sign to 
them, that incontinent they should slay him, 
whatsoever he were, without any words or 
reasoning ; and by that means he made 
many to be slain, whereby he was so doubted, 
that none durst speak against anything 
that he would have done, so that every man 
was glad to make him good cheer. And 
these varlets, when they had brought him 
home to his house, then they should go to 
dinner where they list, and after dinner 
return again into the street before his 
lodging, and there abide till he come out, 
and to wait on him till supper-time. These 
soldiers had each of them four groats 
Flemish by the day, and were truly paid 
weekly. Thus he had in every town 
soldiers and servants at his wages, ready 
to do his commandment and to espy if 
there were any person that would rebel 
against his mind, and to inform him thereof: 
and as soon as he knew any such, he would 
never cease till they were banished or slain 
without respite. All such great men, as 
knights, squires or burgesses of good towns, 
as he thought favourable to the earl in any 
manner, he banished them out of Flandei-s, 
and would levy the moiety of their lands to 
his own use and the other half to their 
wives and children. Such as were banished, 
of whom there were a great number, abode 
at Saint-Omer's.-^ 

To speak properly, there was never in 
Flanders nor in none other country, prince, 
duke nor other that ruled a country so 
peaceably so long as this Jaques d'Arteveld 
did rule Flanders. He levied the rents, 
winages and rights that pertained to the 

1 The original says ' abode at Saint-Omer for the 
most part and were called les avoUes or les outre- 
avolUs.'' 



earl throughout all Flanders, and spended 
all at his pleasure without any account 
making. And when he would say that he 
lacked money, they believed him, and so 
it behoved them to do, for none durst say 
against him : when he would borrow any- 
thing of any burgess, there was none durst 
say him nay. 

These English ambassadors kept an 
honourable estate at the town of Valen- 
ciennes : they thought it should be a great 
comfort to the king their lord, if they might 
get the Flemings to take their part. Then 
they took counsel of the earl in that matter, 
and he answered that truly it should be one 
of the greatest aids that they could have ; 
but, he said, he thought their labour in that 
behalf could not prevail without they get 
first the good -will of Jaques d'Arteveld. 
Then they said they would assay what they 
could do ; and so thereupon they departed 
from Valenciennes and went into Flanders, 
and departed into three or four companies ; 
some went to Bruges, some to Ypres, and 
some to Gaunt : and they all kept such port 
and made so large dispense, that it seemed 
that silver and gold fell out of their hands ; 
and made many great promises and offers 
to them that they spake to for that matter. 
And the bishop with a certain with him 
went to Gaunt, and he did so much, what 
with fair words and otherwise, that he gat 
the accord of Jaques d'Arteveld and did 
get great grace in the town, and specially 
of an old knight that dwelt in Gaunt, who 
was there right well beloved, called the 
lord Courtrisien,^ a knight banneret, and 
was reputed for a hardy knight and had 
always served truly his lords. This knight 
did much honour to the Englishmen, as a 
valiant knight ought to do to all strangers. 
Of this he was accused to the French king, 
who incontinent sent a strait command- 
ment to the earl of Flanders, that he 
should send for this said knight, and as 
soon as he had him, to strike off his head. 
The earl, who durst not break the king's 
commandment, did so much that this 
knight came to him at his sending, as he 
that thought none evil : and incontinent he 
was taken, and his head stricken off ; where- 
of many folks were sorry and were sore 
displeased with the earl, for he was well 
beloved with the lords of the country. 
1 Sohier de Courtray. 



42 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



These English lords did so much that 
Jaques d'Arteveld divers times had together 
the counsels of the good towns ^ to speak 
of the besynes that these lords of England 
desired, and of the franchises and amities 
that they offered them in the king of 
England's behalf. So often they spake of 
this matter, that finally they agreed thatthe 
king of England might come and go into 
Flanders at his pleasure. Howbeit they 
said they were so sore bound to the French 
king, that they might not enter into the 
realm of France to make any war, without 
they should forfeit a great sum of florins : 
and so they desired that they would be 
content with this answer as at that time. 
The English lords returned again to Valen- 
ciennes with great joy. Oftentimes they 
sent word to the king of England how they 
sped, and ever he sent them gold and silver 
to bear their charges and to give to the lords 
of Almaine, who desired nothing else. 

In this season the noble earl of Hainault 
died, the sixth day of June the year of our 
Lord Mcccxxxvri., and was buried at 
the Friars in Valenciennes. The bishop of 
Cambray sang the mass : there were many 
dukes, earls and barons, for he was well 
beloved and honoured of all people in his 
life days. After his decease the lord 
William his son entered into the counties of 
Hainault, Holland and Zealand, who had 
to wife the daughter of duke John of 
Brabant, and had to name Jahane. She 
was endowed with the land of Binche, the 
which was a right fair heritage and a pro- 
fitable ; and the lady Jahane her mother 
went to Fontenelles on I'Escault, and there 
used the residue of her life in great devotion 
in the abbey there, and did many good 
deeds. 

CHAPTER XXX 

How certain nobles of Flanders kept the isle 
of Cadsand against the Englishmen. 

Of all these ordinances and comforts that 
the king of England had got on that side 
of the sea, king Philip of France was well 
informed of all the matter, and would 
gladly have had the Flemings on his part. 

1 'Consulz des bonnes villes,' i.e. deputies repre- 
senting them. It is the word used for the burgesses 
in the EngHsh parliament, see chap. 14. 



But Jaques d'Arteveld had so surmounted 
all manner of people in Flanders, that none 
durst say against his opinion ; nor the earl 
himself durst not well abide in the country, 
for he had sent the countess his wife and 
Louis his son into France for doubt of the 
Flemings. 

In this season there were in the isle of 
Cadsand certain knights and squires of 
Flanders in garrison, as sir Ducre^ of 
Halewyn, sir John de Rhodes and the sons 
of Le Trief ; they kept that passage against 
the Englishmen and made covert war, 
whereof the English lords being in Hainault 
were well informed, and how that if they went 
that way homeward into England, they should 
be met withal to their displeasure : where- 
fore they were not well assured. Howbeit 
they rode and went about the country at their 
pleasure ; all was by the comfort of Jaques 
d'Arteveld, for he supported and honoured 
them as much as he might. And after 
these lords went to Dordrecht in Holland, 
and there they took shipping to eschew the 
passage of Cadsand, whereas the garrison 
was laid for them by the commandment of 
the French king. So these English lords 
came again into England, as privily as they 
could, and come to the king, who was right 
joyous of their coming ; and when he 
heard of the garrison of Cadsand, he said 
he would provide for them shortly ; and 
anon after he ordained the earl of Derby, 
sir Walter Manny and divers other knights 
and squires, with five hundred men of arms 
and two thousand archers, and they took 
shipping at London in the river of Thames. 
The first tide they went to Gravesend, the 
next day to Margate, and at the third tide 
they took the sea and sailed into Flanders. 
So they apparelled themselves and came 
near to Cadsand. 



CHAPTER XXXI 

Of the battle of Cadsand between the 
Englishmen and the Frenchmen. 

When the Englishmen saw the town of 
Cadsand before them, they made them 
ready and had wind and tide to serve them. 
And so in the name of God and Saint 

1 'Ducre' .seems to be a title. The person in 
question is called by Froissart ' Messires Jehans 
dit Ducres de Halluin.' 



BATTLE OF CADS AND, 1337 



43 



George they approached, and blew up their 
trumpets and set their archers before them 
and sailed toward the town. They of 
Cadsand saw well this great ship ^ approach : 
they knew well that they were Englishmen, 
and arranged them on the dikes and on the 
sands with their banners before them, and 
they made sixteen new knights. They 
were a five thousand men of war, good 
knights and squires : there was sir Guy of 
Flanders, a good and a sure knight, but he 
was a bastard, and he desired all his com- 
pany to do well their devoir ; and also 
there was sir Ducre de Halewyn, sir John 
de Rhodes, sir Giles Le Trief, sir Simon 
and sir John of Brugdam, who were 
there made knights, and Peter of Ingel- 
munster, with many other knights and 
squires, expert men of arms. 

The Englishmen were desirous to assail 
and the Flemings to defend. The English 
archers began to shout and cried their 
cries, so that such as kept the passage were 
fain perforce to recule back. At this first 
assault there were divers sore hurt, and the 
Englishmen took land and came and 
fought hand to hand. The Flemings fought 
valiantly to defend the passage, and the 
Englishmen assaulted chivalrously. The 
earl of Derby was that day a good knight, 
and at the first assault he was so forward 
that he was stricken to the earth ; and then 
the lord of Manny did him great comfort, 
for by pure feat of arms he relieved him up 
again and brought him out of peril, and 
cried, * Lancaster for the earl of Derby ! ' 
Then they approached on every part ; and 
many were hurt, but more of the Flemings 
than of the Englishmen, for the archers shot 
so wholly together,^ that they did to the 
Flemings much damage. 

Thus in the haven of Cadsand there was 
a sore battle : for the Flemings were good 
men of war, chosen out by the earl of 
Flanders to defend that passage against the 

1 * Ceste grosse navire. ' Froissart uses 'navire' 
in its older meaning, i.e. * fleet.' 

2 ' Qui continuelment traioient,' 'who shot with- 
out ceasing.' It was the rapidity of the shooting 
that made the long-bow so fatal a weapon, as com- 
pared for example with the cross-bow. The author 
in his last revision says : ' The cross-bowmen shot as 
best they might, but the English set nothing by it, 
for archers are much more rapid in shooting than 
cross-bowmen.' Villani, speaking of the English 
archers, says that they shot three arrows for one 
of the cross-bows. 



Englishmen ; and of England there was the 
earl of Derby, son to the earl Henry of 
Lancaster with the wry neck, the earl of 
Suffolk, sir Raynold Cobham, sir Louis 
Beauchamp, sir William Fitz-Warin, the 
lord Berkeley, sir Walter Manny and 
divers other. There was a sore battle and 
well foughten hdnd to hand : but finally the 
Flemings were put to the chase, and were 
slain more than three thousand, what in the 
haven, streets and houses. Sir Guy the 
bastard of Flanders was taken ; and sir 
Ducre de Halewyn and sir John de 
Rhodes were slain, and the two brethren of 
Brugdam, and sir Giles de Le Trief and 
more than twenty-six knights and squires ; 
and the town taken and pilled, and all the 
goods and prisoners put into the ships, and 
the town brent. And so thus the English- 
men returned into England without any 
damage. The king caused sir Guy bastard 
of Flanders to swear and to bind himself 
prisoner, and in the same year he became 
English, and did faith and homage to the 
king of England. 



CHAPTER XXXII 

How king Edward of England made great 
alliances in the Empire. 

After this discomfiture at Cadsand tidings 
thereof spread abroad in the country, and 
they of Flanders said that without reason 
and against their wills the earl of Flanders 
had laid there that garrison ; and Jaques 
d'Arteveld would not it had been otherwise : 
and incontinent he sent messengers to 
king Edward, recommending him to his 
grace with all his heart, counselling him to 
come thither and to pass the sea, certifying 
him how the Flemings greatly desired to 
see him. 

Thus the king of England made great 
purveyances : and when the winter was 
past, he took the sea, well accompanied 
with dukes,^ earls and barons, and divers 
other knights, and arrived at the town of 
Antwerp, as then pertaining to the duke 
of Brabant. Thither came people from all 
parts to see him and the great estate that 
he kept. Then he sent to his cousin the 
duke of Brabant, and to the duke of 
1 The original has no ' dukes. ' 



44 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



Gueldres, to the marquis of Juliers, to the 
lord John of Ilainault, and to all such as 
he trusted to have any comfort of, saying 
how he would gladly speak with them. 
They came all to Antwerp between Whit- 
suntide and the feast of Saint John. And 
when the king had well feasted them, he 
desired to know their min'ds, when they 
would begin that they had promised, re- 
quiring them to despatch the matter briefly. 
For that intent, he said, he was come 
thither and had all his men ready, and how 
it should be a great damage to him to defer 
the matter long. These lords had long 
counsel among them, and finally they said, 
* Sir, our coming hither as now was more 
to see you than for anything else. We be 
not as now purveyed to give you a full 
answer : by your licence we shall return to 
our people and come again to you at your 
pleasure, and then give you so plain an 
answer that the matter shall not rest in us.*^ 
Then they took day to come again a 
three weeks after the feast of Saint John. 
The king shewed them what charges he was 
at with so long abiding, thinking when 
he came thither that they had been full 
purveyed to have made him a plain answer, 
saying how that he would not return into 
England till he had a full answer. So 
thus these lords departed, and the king 
tarried in the abbey of Saint Bernard ; and 
some of the English lords tarried still at 
Antwerp to keep the king company, and 
some of the other rode about the country in 
great dispense. The duke of Brabant 
went to Louvain, and there tarried a long 
time, and oftentimes he sent to the French 
king, desiring him to have no suspicions to 
him, and not to believe any evil information 
made of him ; for by his will, he said, he 
would make none alliance nor covenant 
against him; sayingalso that the king of Eng- 
land was his cousin-german, wherefore he 
might not deny him to come into his country. 
The day came that the king of England 
looked to have an answer of these lords : 
and they excused them, and said how they 
were ready and their men, so that the duke 
of Brabant would be ready for his part, 
saying that he was nearer than they, and 
that as soon as they might know that he 
were ready, they would not be behind, but 
at the beginning of the matter as soon as 
he. Then the king did so much that he 



spake again with the duke, and shewed him 
the answer of the other lords, desiring him 
by amity and lineage that no fault were 
found in him, saying how he perceived well 
that he was but cold in the matter, and 
that without he were quicker and did other- 
wise, he doubted he should lose thereby the 
aid of all the other lords of Almaine through 
his default. Then the duke said he would 
take counsel in the matter ; and when he 
had long debated the matter, he said how he 
should be as ready as any other, but first 
he said he would speak again with the 
other lords : and he did send for them, 
desiring them to come to him whereas they 
pleased best. Then the day was appointed 
about the mid of August, and this coun- 
cil to be at Hal, because of the young earl 
of Hainault, who should also be there, and 
with him sir John of Hainault his uncle. 

When these lords were all come to this 
parliament at Hal, they had long counsel 
together. Finally they said to the king of 
England : ' Sir, we see no cause why we 
should make defiance to the French king, 
all things considered, without ye can get 
the agreement of the emperor, and that he 
would command us to do so in his name. 
The emperor may well thus do, for of long 
time past there was a covenant sworn and 
sealed, that no king of France ought to 
take anything pertaining to the Empire ; 
and this king Philip hath taken the castle 
of Crevecoeur in Cambresis and the castle 
of Arleux in Palluel, and the city of 
Cambray ; ^ wherefore the emperor hath 
good cause to defy him by us. Therefore, 
sir, if ye can get his accord, our honour 
shall be the more. ' And the king said he 
would follow their counsel. 

Then it was ordained that the marquis 
of Juliers should go to the emperor, and 
certain knights and clerks of the king's, 
and some of the council of the duke of 
Gueldres ; but the duke of Brabant would 
send none from him, but he lent the castle 
of Louvain to the king of England to lie 
in. And the marquis and his company 
found the emperor at Nuremburg and 
shewed him the cause of their coming. 
And the lady Margaret of Hainault did all 
her pain to further forth the matter, whom 

1 A better reading is, ' and divers other heritages 
in the said county of Cambresis,' without any 
mention of the city of Cambray. 



EDWARD III. VICAR OF THE EMPIRE, 1338 



45 



sir Louis of Bavaria, then emperor, had 
wedded. And there the marquis of Juliers 
was made an earl,^ and the duke of 
Gueldres, who before was an earl, was 
then made a duke. And the emperor gave 
commission to four knights and to two 
doctors of his council to make king Edward 
of England his vicar-general throughout all 
the Empire, and thereof these said lords 
had ^struments public, confirmed and sealed 
sufficiently by the emperor. 



CHAPTER XXXIII 

How king David of Scotland made alliance 
with king Philip of France. 

In this season the young king David of 
Scotland, who had lost the best part of his 
land and could not recover it out of the 
hold of the Englishmen, departed privily 
with a small company and the queen his 
wife with him, and took shipping and 
arrived at Boulogne, and so rode to Paris 
to king Philip, who greatly did feast him, 
and offered him of his castles to abide in 
and of his goods to dispend,. on the 
condition that he should make no peace 
with the king of England without his 
counsel and agreement ; for king Philip 
knew well how the king of England 
apparelled greatly to make him war. So 
thus the king there retained king David 
and the queen a long season, and they had 
all that they needed at his cost and charge ; 
for out'of Scotland came but little substance 
to maintain withal their estates. And the 
French king sent certain messengers into 
Scotland to the lords there, such as kept 
war against the Englishmen, offering them 
great aid and comfort, so that they would 
take no peace nor truce with the king of 
England, without it were by his agreement 
or by the accord of their own king, who 
had in like wise promised and sworn. 

Then the lords of Scotland counselled 
together, and joyously they accorded to his 
request, and so sealed and sware with the 
king their lord. Thus this alliance was 
made between Scotland and France, the 

1 The translator follows an inferior reading. 
It should be : * And then the marquis of Juliers 
was made marquis of Juliers, who before was earl 
of Juliers.' 



which endured a long season after : and 
the French king sent men of war into 
Scotland, to keep war against the English- 
men, as sir Arnold d'Audrehem, who was 
after marshal of France, and the Lord of 
Garencieres, and divers other knights and 
squires. The French king thought that 
the Scots should give so much ado to the 
realm of England, that the Englishmen 
should not come over the sea to annoy him. 



CHAPTER XXXIV 

How king Edward of England was made 
vicar-general of the Empire of Almaine, 

When the king of England and the other 
lords to him allied were departed from the 
parliament of Hal, the king went to 
Louvain and made ready the castle for his 
abiding, and sent for the queen to come 
thither, if it pleased her ; for he sent her 
word he would not come thence of an whole 
year, and sent home certain of his knights 
to keep his land from the Scots. And the 
other lords and knights that were there still 
with the king rode about the realm of 
Flanders and Hainault, making great dis- 
pense, giving great rewards and jewels to 
the lords, ladies and damosels of the 
country, to get their good-wills. They 
did so much that they were greatly praised, 
and specially of the common people, because 
of the port and state that they kept. 

And then about the feast of All Saints 
the marquis of Juliers and his company 
sent word to the king how they had sped ; 
and the king sent to him that he should be 
with him about the feast of Saint Martin; and 
also he sent to the duke of Brabant, to know 
his mind where he would the parliament 
should be holden; and he answered at Herck 
in the county of Loos, near to his country. 
And then the king sent to all other of his 
allies that they should be there. And so 
the hall of the town was apparelled and 
hanged as though it had been the king's 
chamber ; and there the king sate crowned 
with gold, five foot higher than any other, 
and there openly was read the letters of the 
emperor, by the which the king was made 
vicar-general and lieutenant for the emperor, 
and had power given him to make laws and 
to minister justice to every person in the 



46 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



emperor's name, and to make money of 
gold and silver. The emperor also there 
commanded by his letters that all persons 
of his Empire and all other his subjects 
should obey to the king of England his 
vicar, as to himself, and to do him homage. 
And incontinent there was claim and answer 
made between parties, as before the emperor, 
and right and judgment given. Also there 
was renewed a judgment, and a statute 
affirmed, that had been made before in the 
emperor's court ; and that was this, that 
whosoever would any hurt to other should 
make his defiance three days before his 
deed, and he that did otherwise should be 
reputed as an evil-doer and for a villain's 
deed. And when all this was done, the 
lords departed and took day that they should 
all appear before Cambray three weeks after 
the feast of Saint John ; the which town 
was become French. 

Thus they all departed and every man 
went to his own. And king Edward, as 
vicar of the Empire, went then to Louvain 
to the queen, who was newly come thither 
out of England with great nobleness and 
well accompanied with ladies and damosels 
of England. So there the king and the 
queen kept their house right honourably all 
that winter, and caused money, gold and 
silver, to be made at Antwerp, great plenty. 
Yet for all this the duke of Brabant left 
not, but with great diligence sent often 
messengers to king Philip, as the lord 
Leon of Crainhem, his chief counsellor, 
with divers other, ever to excuse him ; for 
the which cause this knight was oftentimes 
sent, and at the last abode still in the French 
court with the king, to the intent always to 
excuse him against all informations that 
might be made of him : the which knight 
did all his devoir in that behalf. 



CHAPTER XXXV 

How king Edward and all his allies did defy 
the French king. 

Thus the winter passed and summer came, 
and the feast of Saint John Baptist ap- 
proached ; and the lords of England and 
of Almaine apparelled themselves to ac- 
complish their enterprise : and the French 
king wrought as much as he could to the 



contrary, for he knew much of their intents. 
King Edward made all his provision in 
England, and all his men of war, to be 
ready to pass the sea incontinent after the 
feast of Saint John ; and so they did. Then 
the king went to Vilvorde, and there made 
his company to be lodged, as many as 
might in the town and the other without 
along on the river side in tents and pavilions: 
and there he tarried from Maudlin-ticfe till 
our Lady day in September,^ abiding weekly 
for the lords of the Empire, and specially 
for the duke of Brabant, on whose coming 
all the other abode. And when the king 
of England saw how they came not, he 
sent great messengers to each of them, 
summoning them to come as they had 
promised, and to meet with him at Mechlin 
on Saint Giles' day, and then to show him 
why they had tarried so long. 

Thus king Edward lay at Vilvorde and 
kept daily at his cost and charge well to 
the number of sixteen hundred men of 
arms, all come from the other side of the 
sea, and ten thousand archers, beside all 
other provisions ; the which was a marvel- 
lous great charge, beside the great rewards 
that he had given to the lords, and beside 
the great armies that he had on the sea. 
The French king on his part had set 
Genoways, Normans, Bretons, Picards and 
Spaniards to be ready on the sea to enter 
into England as soon as the war were opened. 

These lords of Almaine at the king of 
England's summons came to Mechlin and 
with much business. Finally they accorded 
that the king of England might well set 
forward within fifteen days after ; and to 
the intent that their war should be the 
more laudable, they agreed to send their 
defiances to the French king — first the 
king of England, the duke of Gueldres, 
the marquis of Juliers, sir Robert d'Artois, 
sir John of Hainault, the marquis of 
Meissen, the marquis of Brandebourg, the 
lord of Fauquemont, sir Arnold of 
Baquehem, the archbishop of Cologne, sir 
Waleran his brother, and all other lords 
of the Empire. These defiances were 
written and sealed by all the lords except 
the duke of Brabant, who said he would do 
his deed by himself at time convenient. To 
bear these defiances into France was charged 
the bishop of Lincoln, who bare them to 
1 i.e. from 22nd July to 8th September. 



JVAJH WITH FRANCE 



47 



Paris and did his message in such manner 
that he could not be reproached nor 
blamed : and so he had a safe-conduct to 
return again to his king, who was as then 
at Mechlin. 



CHAPTER XXXVI 

How sir Walter of Manny after the defiances 
declared made the first journey into 
France. 

In the first week that the French king was 
thus defied, sir Walter Manny, as soon as 
he knew it, he gat to him a forty spears 
and -rode through Brabant night and day, 
till he came into Hainault and entered into 
the wood of Blaton, as then not knowing 
what he should do. But he had shewed 
to some of them that were most priviest 
about him, how he had promised before 
ladies and damosels or he came out of 
England, that he would be the first that 
should enter into France, and to get either 
town or castle, and to do some deeds of 
arms. And then his intent was to ride to 
Mortagne and to get it if he might, the 
which pertained then to the realm of 
France : and so rode and passed the wood 
of Blaton, and came in a morning before 
the sun-rising to Mortagne, and by adven- 
ture he found the wicket of the gate open. 
Then he alighted with his company and 
entered in, and did set certain of his com- 
pany to keep the gate, and so went into 
the high street with his pennon before him 
and came to the great tower, but the gate 
and wicket was fast closed. And when the 
watch of the castle heard the brunt and saw 
them, he blew his horn and cried, 'Treason ! 
treason ! ' Then every man awoke and 
made them ready, and kept themselves still 
within the castle. Then sir Walter of 
Manny went back again and did set fire in 
the street joining to the castle, so that there 
were a threescore houses brent and the 
people sore afraid, for they weened all to 
have been taken. Then sir Walter and 
his company rode back straight to Conde 
and there passed the river of Hayne. Then 
they rode the way to Valenciennes and 
coasted on the right hand and came to 
Denain, and so went to the abbey, and so 
passed forth toward Bouchain, and did so 



much that the captain did let them pass 
through by the river. 

Then they came to a strong castle per- 
taining to the bishop of Cambray, called 
the castle of Thun, the which suddenly 
they took, and the captain and his wife 
within. And the lord Manny made a 
good garrison and set therein a brother of 
his called sir Giles Manny, who afterward 
did much trouble to the city of Cambray, 
for the castle was within a league of the 
town. Then sir Walter Manny returned 
into Brabant to the king his sovereign 
lord, whom he found at Mechlin, and there 
shewed him all that he had done. 



CHAPTER XXXVII 

How that after the said defiances made the 
Frenchmen entered into England. 

As soon as king Philip knew that he was 
defied of the king of England and of his 
allies, he retained men of war on every side, 
and sent the lord Galois de la Baume, a 
good knight of Savoy, into the city of 
Cambray, and made him captain there, and 
with him sir Thibalt de Moreuil and the 
lord of Roye, so that they were, what of 
Savoy and of France, a two hundred spears. 
And king Philip sent and seized into his 
hands the county of Ponthieu, the which 
the king of England had before by reason 
of his mother : and also he sent to divers 
lords of the Empire, as to the earl of Hai- 
nault his nephew, to the duke of Lorraine, 
the earl of Bar, the bishop of Metz, the 
bishop of Liege, desiring them that they 
would make no evil purchase against him 
or his realm. The most part of these lords 
answered how they would do nothing that 
should be against him ; and the earl of 
Hainault wrote unto him right courteously 
how that he would be ready always to aid 
him and his realm against all men, but 
seeing the king of England maketh his war 
as vicar and lieutenant of the Empire, where- 
fore, he said, he might not refuse to him 
his country nor his comfort, because he 
held part of his country of the emperor. 

And as soon as sir Hugh Quieret, sir 
Peter Behuchet^ and Barbevaire, who lay 

1 The true name is Nicholas Behuchet : Froissart 
has probably confused him with his brother. 



48 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



and kept the straits between England and 
France with a great navy, knew that the 
war was open, they came on' a Sunday in 
the forenoon to the haven of Hampton, 
while the people were at mass : and the 
Normans, Picards and Spaniards entered 
into the town and robbed and pilled the 
town, and slew divers, and defoiled maidens 
and enforced wives, and charged their 
vessels with the pillage, and so entered 
again into their ships. And when the tide 
came, they disanchored and sailed to Nor- 
mandy and came to Dieppe ; and there de- 
parted and divided their booty and pillages. 



CHAPTER XXXVni 

How king Edward besieged the city of 
Cambray. 

The king of England departed from 
Mechlin and went to Brussels, and all his 
people passed on by the town. Then 
came to the king a twenty thousand 
Almains, and the king sent and demanded 
of the duke of Brabant what was his 
intention, to go to Cambray or else to leave 
it. The duke answered and said that as 
soon as he knew that he had besieged 
Cambray, he would come thither with 
twelve hundred spears, of good men of war. 
Then the king went to Nivelle and there 
lay one night, and the next day to Mons in 
Hainault ; and there he found the young 
earl of Hainault, who received him joy- 
ously. And ever sir Robert of Artois was 
about the king, as one of his privy council, 
and a sixteen or twenty other great lords 
and knights of England, the which were 
ever about the king for his honour and 
estate, and to counsel him in all his deeds. 
Also with him was the bishop of Lincoln, 
who was greatly renowned in this journey 
both in wisdom and in prowess. Thus the 
Englishmen passed forth and lodged abroad 
in the country, and found provision enough 
before them for their money ; howbeit some 
paid truly and some not. 

And when the king had tarried two days 
at Mons in Hainault, then he went to 
Valenciennes ; and he and twelve with him 
entered into the town, and no more persons. 
And thither was come the earl of Hai- 
nault and sir John his uncle, and the lord 



of Fagnolle, the lord of Werchin, the lord 
of Havreth and divers other, who were 
about the earl their lord. And the king 
and the earl went hand in hand to the great 
hall, which was ready apparelled to receive 
them ; and as they went up the stairs 
of the hall, the bishop of Lincoln, who 
was there present, spake out aloud and 
said : * William bishop of Cambray, I 
admonish you as procurer to the king of 
England, vicar of the Empire of Rome, that 
ye open the gates of the city of Cambray ; 
and if ye do not, ye shall forfeit your lands 
and we will enter by force.' There was 
none that answered to that matter, for the 
bishop was not there present. Then the 
bishop of Lincoln said again : ' Earl of 
Hainault, we admonish you in the name of 
the emperor, that ye come and serve the 
king of England his vicar before the city 
of Cambray with such number as ye ought 
to do.' The earl, who was there present, 
said, 'With a right good will I am ready.' 
So thus they entered into the hall, and the 
earl led the king into his chamber, and 
anon the supper was ready. 

And the next day the king departed and 
went to Haspres, and there tarried two 
days and suffered all his men to pass forth ; 
and so then went to Cambray and lodged 
at Iwuy, and besieged the city of Cambray 
round about, and daily his power increased. 
Thither came the young earl of Hainault 
in great array, and sir John his uncle, and 
they lodged near to the king, and the duke 
of Gueldres and his company, the marquis 
of Meissen, the earl of Mons, the earl of 
Salm, the lord of Fauquemont, sir Arnold 
of Bakehem, with all the other lords of the 
Empire, such as were allied with the king 
of England. 

And the sixth day after the siege laid 
thither came the duke of Brabant with a 
nine hundred spears, beside other, and he 
lodged toward Ostrevant on the river of 
I'Escault, and made a bridge over the water 
to the intent to go from the one host to the 
other. And as soon as he was come, he 
sent to defy the French king, who was at'' 
Compiegne, whereof Leon of Crainhem, 
who had always before excused the duke, 
was so confused, that he would no more 
return again into Brabant, but died for 
sorrow in France. 

This siege during there were many 



SIEGE OF CAMBRAY, 1339 



49 



skirmishes ; and sir John of Hainault and 
the lord of P'auquemont rode ever lightly 
together, and brent and wasted sore the 
country of Cambresis. And on a day these 
lords, with the number of five hundred 
spears and a thousand of other men of war, 
came to the castle of Oisy in Cambresis, 
pertaining to the lord of Coucy, and made 
there a great assault : but they within did 
defend them so valiantly, that they had no 
damage ; and so the said lords returned to 
their lodgings. 

The earl of Hainault and his company 
on a Saturday came to the gate toward 
Saint -Quentin's, and made there a great 
assault. There was John Chandos, who 
was then but a squire, of whose prowess 
this book speaketh much, he cast himself 
between the barriers and the gate, and 
fought valiantly with a squire of Verman- 
dois called John of Saint-Disier : there was 
goodly feats of arms done between them. 
And so the Hainowes conquered by force 
the bails, and there was entered the earl 
of Hainault and his marshals, sir Gerard of 
Werchin, sir Henry d'Antoing and other, 
who adventured them valiantly to advance 
their honour. And at another gate, called 
the gate Robert, was the lord Beaumont 
and the lord of Fauquemont, the lord 
d'Enghien, sir Walter of Manny, and their 
companies, made there a sore and a hard 
assault. But they of Cambray and the 
soldiers set there by the French king 
defended themselves and the city so 
valiantly, that the assaulters won nothing, 
but so returned right weary and well beaten 
to their lodgings. The young earl of 
Namur came thither to serve the young 
earl of Hainault by desire, and he said he 
would be on their part as long as they 
were in the Empire, but as soon as they 
entered into the realm of France, he said, 
he would forsake them and go and serve 
the French king, who had retained him. 
And in likewise so was the intent of the 
earl of Hainault, for he had commanded 
all his men on pain of death, that none of 
them should do anything within the realm 
of France. 

In this season, while the king of Eng- 
land lay at siege before Cambray with forty 
thousand men of arms, and greatly con- 
strained them by assaults, king Philip 
made his summons at Peronne in Verman- 



dois. And the king of England counselled 
with sir Robert d'Artois, in whom he had 
great affiance, demanding of him whether 
it were better for him to enter into the 
realm of France and to encounter his ad- 
versary, or else to abide still before Cam- 
bray, till he had won it by force. The 
lords of England and such other of his 
council saw well how the city was strong 
and well furnished of men of war and 
victuals and artillery, and that it should 
be long to abide there till they had won 
the city, whereof they were in no cer- 
tainty ; and also they saw well how that 
winter approached near, and as yet had 
done no manner of enterprise, but lay at 
great expense. Theri they counselled the 
king to set forward into the realm, whereas 
they might find more plenty of forage. 
This counsel was taken, and all the lords 
ordained to dislodge, and trussed tents and 
pavilions and all manner of harness, and so 
departed and rode toward Mount Saint- 
Martin, the which was at the entry of 
France. Thus they rode in good order, 
every lord among his own men ; marshals 
of the English host were the earl of 
Northampton and Gloucester and the earl 
of Suffolk, and constable of England was 
the earl of Warwick. And so they passed 
there the river of I'Escault at their ease. 

And when the earl of Hainault had ac- 
companied the king unto the departing out 
of the Empire, and that he should pass the 
river and enter into the realm of France, 
then he took leave of the king and said 
how he would ride no further with him at 
that time, for king Philip his uncle had sent 
for him, and he would not have his evil 
will, but that he would go and serve him in 
France, as he had served the king of Eng- 
land in the Empire. So thus the earl of 
Hainault and the earl of Namur and their 
companies rode back to Quesnoy. And 
the earl of Hainault gave the most part of 
his company leave to depart, desiring them 
to be ready when he [should] send for 
them, for he said that shortly after he 
would go to king Philip his uncle. 



so 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



CHAPTER XXXIX 

How king Edward made sir Henry of 
Flanders knight. 

As soon as king Edward had passed the 
river of I'Escault and was entered into the 
realm of France, he called to him sir Henry 
of Flanders, who was as then a young 
squire, and there he made him knight, and 
gave him yearly two hundred pounds ster- 
ling, sufficiently assigned him in England. 
Then the king went and lodged in the 
abbey of Mount Saint -Martin, and there 
tarried two days, and his people abroad in 
the country ; and the duke of Brabant was 
lodged in the abbey of Vaucelles. 

When the French king at Compiegne 
heard these tidings, then he enforced his 
summons, and sent the earl of Eu and of 
Guines his constable to Saint-Quentin's, to 
keep the town and frontiers there against 
his enemies, and sent the lord of Coucy 
into his own country, and the lord of Ham 
to his, and sent many men of arms to 
Guise and to Ribemont, to Bohain, and the 
fortresses joining to the entry of the realm ; 
and so went himself toward Peronne. 

In the mean season that king Edward 
lay at the abbey of Mount Saint- Martin, 
his men ran abroad in the country to Ba- 
paume and near to Peronne and to Saint- 
Quentin's. They found the country 
plentiful, for there had been no war of a 
long season ; and so it fortuned that sir 
Henry of Flanders, to advance his body 
and to increase his honour, [went] on a 
day with other knights, whereof sir John 
of Hainault was chief, and with him the 
lord of Fauquemont, the lord of Berg, 
the lord of Bautersem, the lord of Cuyk 
and divers other to the number of five 
hundred : and they avised a town there- 
by, called Honnecourt, wherein much 
people were gathered on trust of the for- 
tresses, and therein they had conveyed all 
their goods ; and there had been sir 
Arnold of Baquehem and sir William of 
Duvenvoorde and their company, but they 
attained nothing there. 

There was at this Honnecourt an abbot 
of great wisdom and hardiness ; and he 
caused to be made without the town a 
barrier overthwart the street, like a grate, 
not past half a foot wide every grate, and 



he made great provisions of stones and 
quicklime, and men ready to defend the 
place. And these lords, when they came 
thither, they lighted afoot and entered to 
the barrier with their glaives in their hands, 
and there began a sore assault, and they 
within valiantly defended themselves. 
There was the abbot himself, who received 
and gave many great strokes : there was 
a fierce assault : they within cast down 
stones, pieces of timber, pots full of chalk, ^ 
and did much hurt to the assailers : and 
sir Henry of Flanders, who held his glaive 
in his hands, and gave therewith great 
strokes. At the last the abbot took the 
glaive in his hands and drew it so to 
him, that at last he set hands on sir 
Henry's arm, and drew it so sore that he 
pulled out his arm at the barrier to the 
shoulder and held him at a great advan- 
tage, for an the barrier had been wide 
enough, he had drawn him through ; but 
sir Henry would not let his weapon go for 
saving of his honour. Then the other 
knights strake at the abbot to rescue their 
fellow : so this wrastling endured a long 
space, but finally the knight was rescued, 
but his glaive abode with the abbot. And 
on a day, when I wrote this book, as I 
passed by I was shewed the glaive by the 
monks there, that kept it for a treasure.^ 

So this said day Honnecourt was sore 
assailed, the which endured till it was 
night, and divers were slain and sore hurt. 
Sir John of Hainault lost there a knight of 
Holland called sir Herman. When the 
Flemings, Hainowes, Englishmen and Al- 
mains saw the fierce wills of them within, 
and saw how they could get nothing there, 
withdrew themselves against night. And 
the next day on the morning the king de- 
parted from Mount Saint - Martin, com- 
manding that no person should do any hurt 
to the abbey, the which commandment 
was kept. And so then they entered into 
Vermandois, and took that day their 

1 'Chaulx,' i.e. 'quicklime.' 

2 The fuller text has it as follows : ' But his 
glaive abode with the abbot by reason of his great 
prowess, who kept it many years after ; and it is 
still, as I believe, in the hall of Honnecourt. It 
was there assuredly at the time when I wrote 
this book, and it was shewed to me on a day when 
I passed that way, and I had relation made to me 
of the truth of the matter and of the manner how 
the assault was made ; and the monks kept it still 
as a great ornament." 



EDWARD III. ENTERS FRANCE 



51 



lodging betimes on the mount Saint- 
Quentin in good order of battle : and they 
of Saint -Quentin's might well see them, 
howbeit they had no desire to issue out of 
their town. The foreriders came running 
to the barriers skirmishing, and the host 
tarried still on the mount till the next day. 
Then the lords took counsel what way 
they should draw, and by the advice of the 
duke of Brabant they took the way to 
Thierache, for that way their provision 
came daily to them, and were determined 
that if king Philip did follow them, as 
they supposed he would do, that theii 
they would abide him in the plain field 
and give him battle. 

Thus they went forth in three great 
battles : the marshals and the Almains had 
the first, the king of England in the 
middleward, and the duke of Brabant in 
the rearward. Thus they rode forth, 
brenning and pilling the country, a three 
or four leagues a day, and ever took their 
lodging betimes. And a company of 
Englishmen and Almains passed the river 
of Somme by the abbey of Vermand, and 
wasted the country all about : another com- 
pany, whereof sir John of Hainault, the lord 
of P'auquemont and sir Arnold of Baquehem 
were chief, rode to Origny-Saint-Benoiste, 
a good town, but it was but easily closed : 
incontinent it was taken by assault and 
robbed, and an abbey of ladies violated, 
and the town brent. Then they departed 
and rode toward Guise and Ribemont, and 
the king of England lodged at Boheries, 
and there tarried a day, and his men ran 
abroad and destroyed the country. 

Then the king took the way to theFlamen- 
gerie,^ to come to Leschelle in Thierache ; 
and the marshals and the bishop of Lincoln 
with a five hundred spears passed the 
river of Oise and entered into Laonnois, 
toward the land of the lord of Coucy, and 
brent Saint-Gobain and the town of Marie, 
and on a night lodged in the valley beside 
Laon : and the next day they drew again 
to their host, for they knew by some of 
Iheir prisoners that the French king was 
come to Saint- Quentin's with a hundred 
thousand men, and there to pass the river 
of Somme. So these lords in their return- 
ing brent a good town called Crecy and 

1 La Flamengerie, dep. Aisne. 



divers other towns and hamlets there- 
about. 

Now let us speak of sir John of Hainault 
and his company, who were a five hundred 
spears. He came to Guise and brent all 
the town and beat down the mills : and 
within the fortress was the lady Jane, his 
own daughter, wife to the earl of Blois 
called Louis : she desired her father to 
spare the heritage of the earl his son-in- 
law, but for all that sir John of Hainault 
would not spare his enterprise. And so 
then he returned again to the king, who 
was lodged in the abbey of Fervaques, 
and ever his people ran over the country. 

And the lord of Fauquemont with a 
hundred spears came to Nouvion in Thie- 
rache, a great town ; and the men of the 
town were fled into a great wood and had 
all their goods with them, and had fortified 
the wood with felling of timber about 
them. The Almains rode thither, and there 
met with them sir Arnold of Baquehem 
and his company, and so there they assailed 
them in the wood, who defended them as 
well as they might ; but finally they were 
conquered and put to flight ; and there 
were slain and sore hurt more than forty, 
and lost all that they had. Thus the 
country was over-ridden, for they did what 
they list. 



CHAPTER XL 

How the king of England and the French king 
took day of journey to fight together. 

The king of England departed from 
Fervaques and went to Montreuil, and 
there lodged a night, and the next day 
he went to the Flamengerie and made 
all his men to lodge near about him, 
whereof he had more than forty thousand : 
and there he was counselled to abide king 
Philip and to fight with him. 

The French king departed from Saint- 
Quentin's, and daily men came to him 
from all parts, and so came to Buironfosse. 
There the king tarried, and said how he 
would not go thence till he had fought 
with the king of England and with his 
allies, seeing they were within two leagues 
together. And when the earl of Hainault, 
who was at Quesnoy ready purveyed of 



52 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



men of war, knew that the French king 
was at Buironfosse thinking there to give 
battle to the Englishmen, he rode forth 
till he came to the French host with five 
hundred spears, and presented himself to 
the king his uncle, who made him but 
small cheer, because he had been with his 
adversary before Cambray. Howbeit the 
earl excused himself so sagely, that the 
king and his council were well content. 
And it was ordained by the marshals, that 
is to say by the marshal Bertrand and by 
the marshal of Trie,^ that the earl should 
be lodged next the English host. 

Thus these two kings were lodged be- 
tween Buironfosse and Flamengerie, in 
the plain fields without any advantage. I 
think there was never seen before so goodly 
an assembly of noblemen together as was 
there. 2 When the king of England, being 
in the Chapel of Thierache,^ knew how 
that king Philip was within two leagues, 
then he called the lords of his host together 
and demanded of them what he should do, 
his honour saved, for he said that his inten- 
tion was to give battle. Then the lords 
beheld each other, and they desired the 
duke of Brabant to shew first his intent. 
The duke said that he was of the accord 
that they should give battle, for otherwise, 
he said, they could not depart, saving their 
honours : wherefore he counselled that they 
should send heralds to the French king to 
demand a day of battle. Then an herald 
of the duke of Gueldres, who could well 
the language of French, was informed 
what he should say, and so he rode till 
he came into the French host. And then 
he drew him to king Philip and to his 
council and said, ' Sir, the king of Eng- 
land is in the field and desireth to have 
battle, power against power.' The which 
thing king Philip granted, and took the 
day, the Friday next after, and as then 
it was Wednesday. And so the herald 
returned, well rewarded with good furred 
gowns given him by the French king and 
other lords because of the tidings that he 
brought. So thus the journey was agreed, 

1 The marshals of the French host were Robert 
Bertrand and Matthieu de Trie. 

2 In the fuller text it is observed that there were 
in the French army four kings, France, Bohemia, 
Navarre and Scotland. 

3 La Capelle-en-Thi^rache, a village in the de- 
partment of Aisne. 



and knowledge was made thereof to all the 
lords of both the hosts, and so every man 
made him ready to the matter. 

The Thursday in the morning there were 
two knights of the earl of Hainault's, the 
lord Fagnolle and the lord of Tupigny, 
they mounted on their horses and they two 
all only departed from the French host and 
rode to aview the English host. So they 
rode coasting the host, and it fortuned that 
the lord of FagnoUe's horse took the bridle 
in the teeth in such wise, that his master 
could not rule him ; and so, whether he 
would or not, the horse brought him into 
the English host, and there he fell into the 
hands of the Almains, who perceived well 
that he was none of their company and set 
on him and took him and his horse. And 
so he was prisoner to a five or six gentle- 
men of Almaine, and anon they set him to 
his ransom. And when they understood 
that he was a Hainowe, they demanded of 
him if he knew sir John of Hainault, and he 
answered, 'Yes,' and desired them for the 
love of God to bring him to his presence, 
for he knew well that he would quit him 
his ransom. Thereof were the Almains 
joyous, and so brought him to the lord 
Beaumont, who incontinent did pledge him 
out from his master's hands ; and the 
lord of Fagnolle returned again to the 
earl of Hainault, and he had his horse 
again delivered him at the request of the 
lord Beaumont. Thus passed that day, 
and none other thing done that ought to 
be remembered. 



CHAPTER XLI 

How these kings ordained their battles at 
Buironfosse. 

When the Friday came in the morning, 
both hosts apparelled themselves ready, 
and every lord heard mass among their 
own companies and divers were shriven. 

First we will speak of the order of the 
Englishmen, who drew them forward into 
the field and made three battles afoot, and 
did put all their horses and baggages into a 
little wood behind them, and fortified it. 
The first battle led ^ the duke of Gueldres, 

1 Perhaps a misprint for 'had.' The original 
is 'eut.' 



THE HOSTS AT BUIRONFOSSE 



53 



the marquis of Meissen, the marquis of 
Brandebourg, sir John of Hainault, the 
earl of Mons, the earl of Salm, the lord of 
Fauquemont, sir William of Duvenvoorde, 
sir Arnold of Baquehem and the Almains ; 
and among them was twenty-two banners 
and sixty pennons in the whole, and eight 
thousand men. The second battle had the 
duke of Brabant and the lords and knights 
of his country — first the lord of Cuyk, the 
lord Berg, the lord of Breda, the lord 
of Rotselaer, the lord of Vorsselaer, the 
lord of Borgneval, the lord of Schoonvorst, 
the lord of W itham, the lord of Aerschot, 
the lord of Gaesbeck, the lord of Duffel, 
sir Thierry of Walcourt, sir Rasse of Gres, 
sir John of Kesterbeke, sir John Pyliser, 
sir Giles of Coterebbe, sir Walter of 
Huldeberg, the three brethren of Harle- 
beke, sir Henry of Flanders, and divers 
other barons and knights of Flanders, who 
were all under the duke of Brabant's 
banner, as the lord of Halewyn, the lord 
of Gruthuse, sir Hector Vilain, sir John 
of Rhodes, sir Wulfart of Ghistelles, sir 
William of Straten, sir Gossuin de la 
Moere, and many other : the duke of 
Brabant had a twenty-four banners and 
eighty pennons, and in all a seven thousand 
men. The third battle and the greatest 
had the king of England and with him his 
cousin the earl of Derby, the bishop of 
Lincoln, the bishop of Durham, the earl 
of Salisbury, the earl of Northampton, and 
of Gloucester, the earl of Suffolk, sir 
Robert d'Artois, as then called earl of 
Richmond, the lord Raynold Cobham, the 
lord Percy, the lord Ros, the lord Mow- 
bray, sir Lewis and sir John Beauchamp, 
the lord Delaware, the lord of Langton, the 
lord Basset, the lord Fitzwalter, sir Walter 
Manny, sir Hugh Hastings, sir John Lisle, 
and divers other that I cannot name : among 
other was sir John Chandos, of whom much 
honour is spoken in this book.^ The king 
had with him twenty -eight banners and 
ninety pennons, and in his battle a six 
thousand men of arms and six thousand 

^ In the later revision the writer says : ' I, 
Froissart, writer of these chronicles, more than 
once heard the gentle knight sir John Chandos say 
that he was made knight by the hand of the king 
Edward of England on this Friday that the assembly 
was at Buironfosse ; and since that he was more 
valiant than any other who took arms on the side 
of the English, I make mention of this here.' 



archers ; and he had set another battle as in 
aTwing, whereof the earl of Warwick, the 
earl of Pembroke, the lord Berkeley, the 
lord Multon and divers other were as chief, 
and they were on horseback.^ Thus when 
every lord was under his banner, as it was 
commanded by the marshals, the king of 
England mounted on a palfrey, accompanied 
all only with sir Robert d'Artois, sir Raynold 
Cobham and sir Walter of Manny, and 
rode along before all his battles, and right 
sweetly desired all his lords and other that 
they would that day aid to defend his 
honour. And they all promised him so 
to do. Then he returned to his own battle 
and set everything in good order and com- 
manded that none should go before the 
marshals' banners. 

Now let us speak of the lords of France, 
what they did. They were eleven score 
banners, four kings, six dukes, twenty-six 
earls, and more than four thousand knights, 
and of the commons of France more than 
sixty thousand. The kings that were there 
with king Philip of Valois was the king of 
Bohemia, the king of Navarre, and king 
David of Scotland : the duke of Normandy, 
the duke of Bretayne, the duke of Bourbon, 
the duke of Lorraine and the duke of 
Athens: 2 of earls, the earl of Alengon 
brother to the king, the earl of P'landers, 
the earl of Hainault, the earl of Blois, the 
earl of Bar, the earl of Forez, the earl of 
Foix, the earl of Armagnac, the earl 
Dolphin of Auvergne, the earl of Joinville, 
the earl of Etampes, the earl of Vendome, 
the earl of Harcourt, the earl of Saint-Pol, 
the earl of Guines, the earl of Boulogne, 
the earl of Roucy, the earl of Dammartin, 
the earl of Valentinois, the earl of Auxerre, 
the earl of Sancerre, the earl of Geneva, 
the earl of Dreux ; and of Gascoyne and of 
Languedoc so many earls and viscounts, 
that it were long to rehearse. It was a 
great beauty to behold the banners and 
standards waving in the wind, and horses 
barded, and knights and squires richly 
armed. The Frenchmen ordained three 
great battles, in each of them fifteen 
thousand men of arms and twenty thousand 
men afoot. 

1 The original says : ' So these remained on 
horseback to support those battles which should 
waver, and were as a rear-guard.' 

2 The name of the duke of Burgundy is omitted. 



54 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



CHAPTER XLII 

How these two kings departed from 
Buironfosse without battle. 

It might well be marvelled how so goodly 
a sight of men of war so near together 
should depart without battle. But the 
Frenchmen were not all of one accord : 
they were of divers opinions : some said it 
were a great shame an they fought not, see- 
ing their enemies so near them in their own 
country, ranged in the field, and also had 
promised to fight with them : ^ and some 
other said it should be a great folly to fight, 
for it was hard to know every man's mind, 
and jeopardy of treason ; ^ for, they said, 
if fortune were contrary to their king, as to 
lose the field, he then should put all his 
whole realm in a jeopardy to be lost ; and 
though he did discomfit his enemies, yet 
for all that he should be never the nearer 
of the realm of England, nor of such lands 
pertaining to any of those lords that be 
with him allied. 

Thus in striving of divers opinions the 
day passed till it was past noon ; and then 
suddenly there started an hare among the 
Frenchmen, and such as saw her cried and 
made great bruit, whereby such as were 
behind thought they before had been fight- 
ing, and so put on their helms and took 
their spears in their hands ; and so there 
were made divers new knights, and specially 
the earl of Hainault made fourteen, who 
were ever after called knights of the hare. 
Thus that battle stood still all that Friday ; 
and beside this strife between the council- 
lors of France there was brought in letters 
to the host of recommendation to the French 
king and to his council from king Robert 
of Sicily, the which king, as it was said, 
was a great astronomer and full of great 
science. He had oftentimes sought his 
books on the estate of the kings of England 
and of France, and he found by his astrology 
and by the influence of the heavens, that if 
the French king ever fought with king 
Edward of England, he should be discom- 
fited : wherefore he, like a king of great 

1 Or rather, ' and also having followed them to 
the intent that they should fight with them ' 

2 ' For he {i.e. the king) knew not each man s 
mind, nor whether there were any treason.' 



wisdom and as he that doubted the peril of 
the French king his cousin, sent oftentimes 
letters to king Philip and to his council, 
that in no wise he should make any battle 
against the Englishmen, whereas king 
Edward was personally present. So that, 
what for doubt, and for such writing from 
the king of Sicily, divers of the great lords 
of France were sore abashed ; and also 
king Philip was informed thereof. How- 
beit, yet he had great will to give battle ; 
but he was so counselled to the contrary, 
that the day passed without battle, and 
every man withdrew to their lodgings. 

And when the earl of Hainault saw that 
they should not fight, he departed with all 
his whole company and went back the same 
night to Quesnoy. And the king of Eng- 
land, the duke of Brabant and all the other 
lords returned and trussed all their baggages, 
and went the same night to Avesnes in 
Hainault. And the next day they took 
leave each of other ; and the Almains and 
Brabances departed, and the king went 
into Brabant with the duke his cousin. 

The same Friday that the battle should 
have been, the French king, when he came to 
his lodging, he was sore displeased because 
he departed without battle. But they of his 
council said how right nobly he had borne 
himself, for he had valiantly pursued his 
enemies and had done so much that he had 
put them out of his realm, and how that the 
king of England should make many such 
viages or he conquered the realm of France. 
The next day king Philip gave licence to 
all manner of men to depart, and he thanked 
right courteously the great lords of their aid 
and succour. Thus ended this great journey, 
and every man went to their own. The 
French king went to Saint-Omer's, and sent 
men of war to his garrisons, and specially 
to Tournay, to Lille, and to Douay, and to 
the other towns marching on the Empire. 
He sent to Tournay sir Godemar du Fay 
and made him captain there and regent of 
that country thereabout, and he sent sir 
Edward of Beaujeu to Mortagne ; _ and 
when he had ordered part of his business 
then he drew toward Paris. 



I 



EDWARD TAKES THE ARMS OF FRANCE 



55 



CHAPTER XLIII 

How king Edward took on him to bear the 
arms of France and the name, to be called 
king thereof. 

When that king Edward was departed 
from the Flamengerie and came into Bra- 
bant and went straight to Brussels, the 
duke of Gueldres, the marquis of Juliers, 
the marquis of Brandebourg, the earl of 
Mons, sir John of Hainault, the lord of 
Fauquemont, and all the lords of the 
Empire, such as had been at that journey, 
brought him thither to take advice and 
counsel what should be done more in the 
matter that they had begun. And to have 
expedition in the cause they ordained a 
parliament to be holden at the town of 
Brussels, and thither to come was desired 
Jaques d'Arteveld of Gaunt, who came 
thither with a great company, and all the 
counsels of the good towns of Flanders. 
There the king of England was sore desired 
of all his allies of the Empire that he should 
require them of Flanders to aid and to 
maintain his war, and to defy the French 
king and to go with him whereas he would 
have them ; and in their so doing he to 
promise them to recover Lille, Douay and 
Bethune. 

This request was well heard of the 
Flemings, and thereupon they desired to 
take counsel among themselves : and so 
they took counsel at good leisure, and then 
they said to the king : ' Sir, or this time ye 
have made to us request in this behalf : sir, 
if we might well do this, saving your honour 
and to save ourselves, we would gladly do 
this ; but, sir, we be bound by faith and 
oath and on the sum of two millions of 
florins in the pope's chamber, that we may 
make nor move no war against the king of 
France, whosoever it be, on pain to lose 
the said sum and beside that to run in the 
sentence of cursing. But, sir, if ye will 
take on you the arms of France and quarter 
them with the arms of England and call 
yourself king of France, as ye ought to be 
of right, then we will take you for rightful 
king of France and demand of you quit- 
tance of our bonds, and so ye to give us 
pardon thereof as king of France : by this 
means we shall be assured and dispensed 



withal, and so then we will go with you 
whithersoever ye will have us.' 

Then the king took counsel, for he 
thought it was a sore matter to take on 
him the arms of France and the name, and 
as then had conquered nothing thereof, nor 
could not tell what should fall thereof, nor 
whether he should conquer it or not ; and 
on the other side, loth he was to refuse the 
comfort and aid of the Flemings, who 
might do him more aid than any other. 
So the king took counsel of the lords of the 
Empire and of the lord Robert d'Artois 
and with other of his special friends ; so 
that finally, the good and the evil weighed, 
he answered to the Flemings that if they 
would swear and seal to this accord, and to 
promise to maintain his war, how he would 
do all this with a good will, and promised 
to get them again Lille, Douay and 
Bethune : and all they answered how they 
were content. 

Then there was a day assigned to meet 
at Gaunt, at which day the king was there, 
and the most part of the said lords, and all 
the counsels generally in Flanders. And 
so then all these said matters were re- 
hearsed, sworn and sealed ; and the king 
quartered the arms of France with England, 
and from thenceforth took on him the name 
of the king of France, and so continued 
till he left it again by composition, as ye 
shall hear after in this book. And so at 
this council they determined that the next 
summer after they would make great war 
into France, promising to besiege the city 
of Tournay ; whereof the Flemings were 
joyful, for they thought to be strong enough 
to get it, and that once gotten, they believed 
shortly after to win again Lille, Douay and 
Bethune, with the appurtenances pertaining 
or holden of the earl of Flanders. 

Thus every man departed and went home : 
the king of England went to Antwerp, and 
the queen abode still at Gaunt and was 
oftentimes visited by Jaques d'Arteveld 
and by other lords, ladies and damosels of 
Gaunt. The king left in Flanders the earl 
of Salisbury and the earl of Suffolk : ^ they 
went to Ypres and there kept a great 
garrison and made sore war against them 
of Lille and thereabout. And when the 

1 Not really the earl of Suffolk but his eldest 
son : he is called earl of Suffolk also in the account 
of his capture at Lille, chap. 46. 



56 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



king's ships were ready, he took the sea 
and so sailed into England and came to 
London about the feast of Saint Andrew, 
where he was honourably received. And 
there he had complaints made hii^ of the 
destruction of Hampton, and he said that 
he trusted or a year longer that it should be 
well revenged. 



CHAPTER XLIV 

How the Frenchmen brent in the lands of 
sir John of Hainault. 

Now let us speak of king Philip, who 
greatly fortified his navy that he had on 
the sea, whereof sir Quieret, Behuchet and 
Barbevaire ^ were captains ; and they had 
under them a great retinue of Genoways, 
Normans, Bretons and Picards. They did 
that winter great damage to the realm of 
England : sometime they came to Dover, 
Sandwich, Winchelsea, Hastings and Rye, 
and did much sorrow to the Englishmen, 
for they were a great number, as a forty 
thousand men. There was none that could 
issue out of England, but they were robbed, 
taken or slain ; so they won great pillage, 
and specially they won a great ship called 
the Christofer, laden with wools, as she was 
going into Flanders, the which ship had 
cost the king of England much money, 
and all they that were taken within the ship 
were slain and drowned ; of the which 
conquest the Frenchmen were right joyous. 
The French king then sent and wrote to 
the lord of Bosmont, the lord of Vervins,^ 
to the vidame of Chalons, the lord John 
de la Bove, the lord John and Gerard of 
Lor, that they should make an army and 
to ride into the lands of sir John of Hainault, 
and to burn and destroy there as much as 
they might. They obeyed, and gathered 
together to the number of five hundred 
spears ; and so in a morning they came 
before the town of Chimay and gathered 
together there a great prey ; for they of 
the country thought that the Frenchmen 
would not have come so far, nor to have 
passed the wood of Thierache. So the 

1 Hugh Quieret, Nicholas Behuchet and Pietro 
Barbavara. 

2 'To the lord of Bosmont and Vervlns': his name 
was Jean de Coucy. 



Frenchmen burnt the suburbs of Chimay 
and divers other villages thereabout, nigh 
all the land of Chimay except the for- 
tresses : then they went to Aubenton in 
Thierache and there divided their booty. 

In the same season the soldiers of Cam- 
bray came to a little strong house without 
Cambray, called Relenghes, pertaining to 
sir John of Hainault ; and a bastard son of 
his kept the house with a fifteen soldiers 
with him : so they were assailed a whole 
day together, and the dikes were so frozen, 
that a man might well come to the walls ; 
and so they within trussed all that they 
had and about midnight departed, and set 
fire themselves on the house. The next 
day, when they of Cambray came thither 
again and saw how it was brent, they did 
beat down all that stood. And the captain 
of the house and his company went to 
Valenciennes. 

Ye have well heard before how sir 
Gaultier of Manny took the castle of Thun 
and set therein a brother of his called 
Giles of Manny : he made many skirmishes 
with them of Cambray, and did them much 
trouble. And so it happened on a day that 
he went from his garrison with a sixscore 
men of arms and came to the barriers of 
Cambray. And the brunt was so great, that 
many armed them within the city and came 
to the gate whereas the skirmish was, 
whereas sir Giles had put back them of 
Cambray. Then they issued out, and 
among the Cambreses there was a young 
squire, a Gascon, called William Marchand, . 
who went out into the field well horsed, 
his shield about his neck and his spear in 
his hand. And when sir Giles of Manny 
saw him, he rode fiercely to him ; and 
there sir Giles was stricken through all his 
harness to the heart, so that the spear went 
clean through his body, and so he fell to the 
earth. Then there was a fierce skirmish, 
and many stricken down on both parts ; 
but finally they of Cambray obtained the 
place and drove away their enemies, and 
took with them sir Giles of Manny, hurt 
as he was, and so brought him to Cambray 
with great joy. Then incontinent they dis- 
armed him and did get surgeons to dress 
his wound, for they would gladly that he 
might [have] escaped ; but he died the next 
day after. Then they determined to send 
his body to his two brethren John and 



THE FRENCH IN HAINAULT 



57 



Thierry, who were in the garrison at Bou- 
chain in Ostrevant ; for though that the 
country of Hainault at that time was in no 
war, yet all the frontiers toward France 
were ever in good await. So then they 
ordained a horse litter right honourably 
and put his body therein, and caused two 
friars to convey it to his brethren, who 
received him with great sorrow. And they 
bare him to the Friars at Valenciennes, and 
there he was buried ; and after that the two 
brethren of Manny came to the castle of 
Thun and made sore war against them of 
Cambray in counteravenging the death of 
their brother. 

In this season captain of Tournay and 
Tournesiswas sir Godemar du Fay, and of 
the fortresses thereabout ; and the lord of 
Beaujeu was within Mortagne on the river 
of I'Escault, and the steward of Carcas- 
sonne was in the town of Saint-Amand, 
sir Aymar of Poitiers in Douay, the lord 
Galois de la Baume and the lord of 
Villars, the marshal of Mirepoix and the 
lord of Moreuil in the city of Cambray. 
And these knights, squires and soldiers of 
France desired none other thing, but that 
theymightenterintoHainaultand toroband 
pill the country. Also the bishop of Cam- 
bray, who was at Paris with the king, com- 
plained how the Hainowes had done him 
damage, brent and overrun his country, 
more than any other men. And then the 
king gave licence to the soldiers of Cam- 
bresis to make a road into Hainault. Then 
they of the garrisons made a journey and 
were to the number of six hundred men of 
arms. And on a Saturday in the morning 
they departed from Cambray, and also they 
of la Malmaison rode forth the same day, 
and met together and went to the town of 
Haspres, the which was a good town and a 
great, without walls. The people there 
were in no doubt, for they knew of no war 
towards them. So the Frenchmen entered 
and found men and women in their houses, 
and took them, and robbed the town at 
their pleasure, and then set fire in the town 
and brent it so clean, that nothing re- 
mained but the walls. Within the town 
there was a priory of black monks, with 
great buildings beside the church, which 
held of Saint-Vaast of Arras. ^ The French- 

1 The latest revision has here : ' In the church of 
Haspres they honour Saint Agaire, who is a very 



men also robbed the place and brent it to 
the earth, and with all their pillage they 
returned to Cambray. 

These tidings anon came to the know- 
ledge of the earl of Hainault, who was 
abed and asleep in his lodging, called the 
Salle ; and suddenly he rose and armed 
him, and called up all such knights as were 
about him : but they were lodged so abroad 
that they were not so soon ready as the earl 
was ; who without tarrying for any person 
came into the market-place of Valenciennes 
and caused the bells to be sowned alarum. 
Then every man arose and armed them, 
and followed the earl their lord, who was 
ridden out of the town in great haste and 
took the way toward Haspres : and by 
that time he had ridden a league, tidings 
came to him how the Frenchmen were de- 
parted. Then he rode to the abbey of 
Fontenelles, whereas the lady his mother 
was, and she had much ado to rappease 
him of his displeasure, for he said plainly 
that the destruction of Haspres should 
dearly be revenged in the realm of France. 
The good lady his mother did as much as 
she could to assuage his ire, and to excuse 
the king of that deed. 

So when the earl had been there a certain 
space, he took leave of her and returned 
to Valenciennes, and incontinent wrote 
letters to the prelates and knights of his 
country to have their advice and counsel in 
that behalf. And when sir John of 
Hainault knew hereof, he took his horse 
and came to the earl his nephew ; and as 
soon as the earl saw him, he said, *Ah, 
fair uncle, your absence hath set the French- 
men in a pride.' ' Ah, sir,' quoth he, * with 
your trouble and annoyance I am sore dis- 
pleased : howbeit in a manner I am glad 
thereof. Now ye be well rewarded for the 
service and love that ye have borne to the 
Frenchmen. ' Now it behoveth you to make 
a journey into France against the French- 
men. 'Ah, uncle,' quoth the earl, 'look 
into what quarter ye thhik best and it 
shall be shortly done. ' So thus the day of 
parliament assigned at Mons came, and 

cruel saint and much to be feared, and they have 
the remains of the saint within the church, which is 
a provostry ruled by the monks of Saint-Vaast of 
Arras. The provost had taken such care, that the 
shrine of Saint Agaire and the reliquary and the 
richest ornaments of the church he had caused to be 
brought with him to Valenciennes.' 



58 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



thither resorted all the counsel of the 
country, and also of Holland and Zealand, 
There were divers opinions : some would 
that certain sufficient persons should be 
sent to the French king, to know if he 
were consenting to the hurt done in 
Hainault, or by what title he should make 
war into the earl's land without any de- 
fiance : and some other would that the earl 
should be revenged in like manner as the 
Frenchmen had begun. Howbeit finally, 
all reasons debated, it was thought that the 
earl could do no otherwise, but to make 
war into France. And it was ordained 
that the earl should make his defiance to 
the French king, and then to enter by 
force into the realm of France ; and to 
bear these defiances was ordained the abbot 
Thibalt of Crespin.^ So then the letters of 
defiance were written and sealed by the 
earl and by all the nobles of the country. 
Then the earl thanked all his lords and 
other of their good comfort and of their 
promise to aid to revenge him against the 
Frenchmen. 

The abbot of Crespin came into France 
and brought these defiances to king Philip, 
who made light thereof and said how his 
nephew was but an outrageous fool, and 
how that he was a merchant to have his 
country brent. ^ The abbot returned to the 
earl and to his council and shewed how he 
had sped ; and then the earl prepared for 
men of war in his country and in Brabant 
and in Flanders, so that he had a great 
number together : and so set forward 
toward the land of Chimay ; for the earl's 
intent was to go and bren the lands of the 
lord of Vervins and also Aubenton in 
Thierache. 



CHAPTER XLV 

How the earl of Hainault took and destroyed 
Aubenton in Thierache. 

They of Aubenton doubted greatly the 
earl of Hainault and sir John his uncle ; 
and so they sent for some aid to the great 
bailly of Vermandois, and he sent to them 

1 Not 'Saint Crispin' as given by the trans- 
lator. 

2 'Qu'il marchandoit bien de faire ardoir son 
pays. 



I 



the vidame of Chalons, the lord Bosmont, 
the lord de la Bove, the lord of Lor, and 
divers other to the number of three hun- 
dred men of arms, and so they repaired the 
town in certain places, and determined to 
abide the Hainowes and to defend the 
town, the which was a great town and full 
of drapery. ^ The Hainowes came on a 
Friday, and lodged near to Aubenton, and 
advised the town to see on what quarter it 
were most best to be taken ; and in the 
morning they approached in three wards, 
their banners before them right ordinately. 
and also their cross-bows. The earl of 
Hainault led the first battle, and with him 
great number of the knights and squires of 
his country : his uncle sir John of Hai- 
nault had the second battle, whereas he had 
plenty of men of war : the third had the 
lord Fauquemont with a good number of 
Almains. And so thus every lord was 
under his own banner, and there began a 
sore assault, and the bows began to shoot 
both within and without, whereby divers 
were sore hurt. The earl and his company 
came to the gate : there was a great assault 
and a sore skirmish: there the vidame of 
Chalons did marvels, and he made at the 
gate three of his sons knights. But finally 
the earl and his company conquered the 
bails, and by force made their enemies to 
withdraw into the gate. And also at the gate 
toward Chimay was sir John la Bove and 
sir John Bosmont : there was also a cruel 
assault ; they within were fain to withdraw 
in at their gates and to leave the barrier, 
and the Hainowes won it and the bridge 
also. There was a sore assault, for such 
as were fled and entered within went up 
on the gate and cast down bars of iron, 
stones, pots full of quicklime, whereby 
many were sore hurt. A squire of Hai- 
nault received such a stroke with a stone on 
his targe, that it was cloven clean asunder 
with the stroke and his arm broken, so 
that it was long after or he was whole. 

The Saturday in the morning there was 
a great assault, and they within did their 
devoir to defend themselves ; but finally 
the town was won by force and their pales 
and defences broken. And first entered 
into the town sir John of Hainault with 
his banner with great crying and shouting ; 
then the vidame of Chalons withdrew him 

1 i.e. a town in which much cloth was made. 



H^J/^ ON THE FRONTIERS, 1339-40 



59 



and his company into the place before 
the minster, and there made semblant to 
defend himself as long as he might endure. 
But the lord of Vervins departed without 
order, for he knew well that sir John of 
Hainault was sore displeased with him, so 
that he thought, if he had been taken, that 
no ransom should have saved his life. And 
when sir John of Hainault knew that he 
was departed, that had done so much dis- 
pleasure in his land of Chimay, he pur- 
sued after him; but the lord of Vervins 
fled fast and found the gate of his town 
open, and so entered in : and sir John of 
Hainault pursued him just to the gate with 
his sword in his hand ; but when he saw 
that he was escaped, he returned again to 
Aubenton : and his men met certain of the 
lord Vervin's men, as they followed their 
master, and there they were slain without 
mercy. The earl and his company fought 
sore with them that were by the minster; 
and there the vidame of Chalons did 
marvels in arms, and so did two of his 
sons; but finally they were all slain, there 
escaped none but such as fled with the 
lord of Vervins, but all were slain or 
taken, and a two thousand ^ men of the 
town, and all the town robbed and pilled, 
and all the goods sent to Chimay, and the 
town brent. 

And after the burning of Aubenton the 
Hainowes went to Maubert- Fontaine, and 
incontinent they won it, and robbed and 
brent the town, and also the town of 
Aubigny, and Signy the great, and Signy 
the little, ^ and all the hamlets thereabout, 
the which were more than forty. Then 
the earl went to Mons, and gave leave to 
his men of war to depart, and thanked 
them in such wise, that they were all well 
content. Then anon after the earl went to 
make a sure alliance with the king of Eng- 
land, to be the more stronger in his war 
against the Frenchmen. But first he made 
his uncle sir John of Hainault chief master 
and governour of Holland and Zealand : 
and sir John lay still at Mons atid provided 
for the country, and sent to Valenciennes, 
to comfort and aid them, the lord Antoing, 
the lord of Wargny, the lord of Gorn- 
megnies and sir Henry of Houffalize ; and 

1 A better reading is * two hundred.' 
- Signy-l'Abbaye and Signy-le-Petit. 



the steward of Hainault with a hundred 
spears to the town of Landrecies;^ and to 
Bouchain three brethren, Almains, called 
Conrad ; and to Escaudeuvres sir Gerard 
Sassegnies ; and into the town of Avesnes 
the lord of Fauquemont. And thus he 
did into every fortress on the frontiers of 
France. 



CHAPTER XLVI 

How they of Tournay made a journey into 
Flanders. 

When the French king knew how the 
Hainowes had brent the country of Thie- 
rache, taken and slain his knights, and 
destroyed the good town of Aubenton, then 
he commanded the duke of Normandy his 
son that he should make a journ^ into 
Hainault, and bring the country into that 
case that it should never be recovered 
again. Also the king ordained the earl of 
risle, Gascon, who was as then with the 
king at Paris, that he should make a 
voyage into Gascony as his lieutenant, and 
to make war to Bordeaux and to Bordelois, 
and to all the fortresses that held of the 
king of England. And also the French 
king enforced his great navy that he had 
on the sea, and commanded them to keep 
the bounds of Flanders and not to suffer 
the king of England to pass over the sea 
into Flanders, on pain of their lives. 

And when the French king understood 
that the Flemings had made homage to 
the king of England, he sent unto them a 
prelate under the colour of the pope, shew- 
ing them that if they would return and 
knowledge themselves to hold of him and 
of the crown of France, and to forsake the 
king of England, who had enchanted them, 
then he said he would pardon them of all 
their trespasses, and would quit them of 
the great sum of money that they were 
bound unto him by obligation of old time, 
and also to give them many fair franchises. 
And the Flemings answered how they 
thought themselves right well assoiled and 
quitted in anything that they were bound 

1 The fuller text says that the seneschal of 
Hainault was sent to Maubeuge, the marshal of 
Hainault to Quesnoy, and the lord of Potelles to 
Landrecles. 



6o 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



to the king of France. Then the French 
king complained to pope Clement the 
sixth, ^ whereupon the pope did cast such 
a sentence of cursing, that no priest durst 
sing or say there any divine service ; 
whereof the Flemings sent a great com- 
plaint unto the king of England, who to 
appease them sent them word, that when 
he came over the sea, he would bring 
priests out of his country to sing masses, 
whether the pope would or not, for he 
said he had privilege so to do : and so by 
that means the Flemings were somewhat 
appeased. 

And when the French king saw that he 
could not turn the Flemings from their 
opinion, then he commanded them of the 
garrisons of Tournay, Lille, and Douay and 
other to make war on the Flemings and 
to overrun the country. And so sir John 
de Roye and sir Matthew de Trie, marshal 
of France, and sir Godemar du P^ay, and 
divers other lords made an army of a thou- 
sand men of arms and three hundred cross- 
bows, what of Tournay, Lille and Douay. 
And so in an evening they departed from 
Tournay, and by that it was day in the 
morning, they were before Courtray. By 
that time the sun was up, they had gathered 
together all the cattle thereabout ; and some 
of them ran to the gates, and slew and hurt 
divers that they found without. And then 
they returned without any damage and 
drove before them all their preys, so that 
when they came to Tournay, they had 
more than ten thousand sheep and as many 
swine, beeves and kine, whereof the Flem- 
ings were sore troubled. 

Then Jaques d'Arteveld sware that it 
should be dearly revenged ; and incontinent 
he commanded the good towns of Flanders, 
that their men of war should be wdth him 
before Tournay at a day assigned : and he 
wrote to the earl of Salisbury and to the 
earl of Suffolk, who were at Ypres, that 
they should be there at the same. And so 
against the day limited he went out of 
Gaunt and came to a place between Oude- 
narde and Tournay called the Pont de Fer, 
and there he lodged and tarried for the 
earls of England and for them of the Franc 
of Bruges. The said two earls thought for 

1 The pope at this time was in fact Benedict 
XII. : Clement VI. became pope in 1342. 



their honour the enterprise should not be 
delayed by them, and so sent to Jaques 
d'Arteveld promising him not to fail to be 
at the day appointed. And so on a day 
they departed from Ypres with a fifty spears 
and a forty cross-bows, and went toward 
the place whereas Jaques d'Arteveld abode 
for them. And as they passed by the town 
of Lille, they were perceived ; and they of 
the town issued out with a fifteen hundred 
men afoot and a-horseback, and M'ent in 
three parts, to the intent that the earls 
should not scape them.^ So these two earls 
rode forth by the guiding of sir Waflard de 
la Croix, who had kept long war against 
them of Lille, and he knew all the ways of 
the country and as then was at Ypres ; and 
so he came forth with these earls to be 
their guide and he had well guided them. 
And they of Lille had newly made a great 
dike, whereas there was never none before : 
and when sir Waflard had brought them 
thither and saw how the way was newly 
stopped, he said to the earls of England, 
' Sirs, I see well we cannot pass without 
the danger of them of Lille : wherefore 
I counsel, let us turn again and take 
some other way.' Then the lords said, 
*Nay, sir Waflard, it shall never be said 
that we will go out of our way for fear of 
them of Lille; therefore ride on before : we 
have promised Jaques d'Arteveld to be with 
him this day.' And so the Englishmen 
rode forth without fear. Then sir Waflard 
said, * Sirs, ye have taken me in this viage 
to be your guide, and I have been with 
you all this winter in Ypres, whereof I am 
much bound to you. But if they of Lille' 
issue out upon us, have no trust that I will 
abide them, for I will save myself as soon 
as I can ; for if I were taken, it should cost 
me my life, the which I love better than 
your company.' Then the lords did laugh 
at him and said, * Well, an if it be so, we 
hold you well excused.* And as he im- 
agined, so it befell ; for or they were ware, 
they were in danger of the French bush- 
ment, who cried, 'Stop, sirs, for ye shall 
not pass this way without our licence,' and 

1 In the original : 'As they rode and were con- 
strained to pass by the town of Lille, their coming 
was known in the town. Then they of the town 
armed themselves secretly and set forth from their 
town to the number of fifteen hundred afoot and 
a-horseback, and they set themselves in three bush- 
ments, so that they might not escape them.' 



BATTLE OF SLUYS, 1340 



61 



so began to shoot and to run on the Eng- 
lishmen. And as soon as sir Waflard saw 
the manner, he had no list to ride any 
further, but returned as soon as he might 
and gat himself out of the press ; and the 
two earls fell in the hands of their enemies 
like fishes in a net, for they were closed 
round about in a narrow strait passage 
among hedges, bushes and dikes, so that 
they could scape no manner of way for- 
ward nor backward. So when they saw 
that they were so hardly bestad, they 
alighted afoot and defended themselves as 
well as they might, and did hurt divers of 
them of Lille : but finally their defence 
could not avail them, for ever new fresh 
men of war came on them. So there they 
were taken by force, and with them a 
young squire of Limousin, nephew to pope 
Clement, called Raymond, who after that he 
was yielded prisoner was slain for covetise 
of his fair harness and fresh apparel. 

These two earls were set in prison in the 
hall of Lille and after sent to the French 
king, who promised to them of Lille a great 
reward for the good service that they had 
done him. And when Jaques d'Arteveld, 
who was at Pont de Fer, knew those tidings, 
he was sore displeased, and so ceased his 
enterprise for that time and returned again 
to Gaunt. 



CHAPTERS XLVII-XLIX 

SUMMARY.— The duke of Normandy 
invaded Hamault at Easier, 1340. He 
burnt many villages, but failed to take any 
fortresses except the castle of Escatideuvres, 
which was surre?tdered to him with great 
suspicion of treason. 

The cotcnty of Hainault suffered much 
from the garrisons of Lille ami Douay. 
Meamvhilethe eai-l was gone to England and 
thefi to the e?fiperor Louis of Bavaria. Sir 
Johti of Hainault asked for aid from the earl 
of Bj-abatit atid from Jaques dArteveld. 

The duke of Normandy laid siege to 
Thun-t Evesque. The earl of Hainault 
came to relieve it, and the duke of 
Normandy sent word to king Philip at 
Peronne. Ph Hip sent twelve h undred spears, 
serving himself with them ' as a soldier,' 
that is, taking no command, because he had 
taken oath not to levy war on the Empire. 



The earl of Hainault received an addition 
of sixty thousand Flemings to his army, and 
offered battle, which the French refused. 



CHAPTER L 

Of the battle on the sea before Sluys in 
Flanders between the king of England 
and the Frenchmen. 

Now let us leave somewhat to speak of 
the earl of Hainault and of the duke 
of Normandy, and speak of the king of 
England, who was on the sea to the intent 
to arrive in Flanders, and so into Hainault, 
to make war against the Frenchmen. This 
was on Midsummer-even in the year of our 
Lord MCCCXL., all the English fleet was 
departed out of the river of Thames and 
took the way to Sluys. And the same 
time between Blankenberghe and Sluys on 
the sea was sir Hugh Quieret, sir Peter 
Behuchet and Barbevaire, and more than 
sixscore great vessels, beside other ; and 
they were of Normans, bidaus, Genoways 
and Picards about the number of forty 
thousand : there they were laid by the 
French king to defend the king of England's 
passage. The king of England and his 
came sailing till he came before Sluys : and 
when he saw so great a number of ships 
that their masts seemed to be like a great 
wood, he demanded of the master of his 
ship what people he thought they were. 
He answered and said, * Sir, I think they 
be Normans laid here by the French king, 
and hath done great displeasure in England, 
brent your town of Hampton and taken 
your great ship the Christofcr.* *Ah,' 
quoth the king, ' I have long desired to 
fight with the Frenchmen, and now shall I 
fight with some of them by the grace of 
God and Saint George ; for truly they have 
done me so many displeasures, that I shall be 
revenged, an I may.' Then the king set 
all his ships in order, the greatest before, 
well furnished with archers, and ever 
between two ships of archers he had one 
ship with men of arms ; and then he made 
another battle to lie aloof, with archers, to 
comfort ever them that were most weary, if 
need were. And there were a great number 
of countesses, ladies, knights' wives and 
other damosels, that were going to see the 



62 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



queen at Gaunt : these ladies the king 
caused to be well kept with three hundred 
men of arms and five hundred archers. 

When the king and his marshals had ordered 
his battles, he drew up the sails and came 
with a quarter wind to have the vantage 
of the sun, and so at last they turned a little 
to get the wind at will.^ And when the 
Normans saw them recule back, they had 
marvel why they did so, and some said, 
* They think themselves not meet to meddle 
with us, wherefore they will go back.' 
They saw well how the king of England 
was there personally, by reason of his 
banners. Then they did apparel their fleet 
in order, for they were sage and good men 
of war on the sea, and did set the Christofer, 
the which they had won the year before, to 
be foremost, with many trumpets and instru- 
ments, ^ and so set on their enemies. 

There began a sore battle on both parts : 
archers and cross-bows began to shoot, and 
men of arms approached and fought hand 
to hand : and the better to come together 
they had great hooks and grappers of iron, 
to cast out of one ship into another, and so 
tied them fast together. There were many 
deeds of arms done, taking and rescuing 
again, and at last the great Christofer was 
first won by the Englishmen, and all that 
were within it taken or slain. Then there 
was great noise and cry, and the English- 
men approached and fortified the Christofer 
with archers, and made him to pass on 
before to fight with the Genoways. This 
battle was right fierce and terrible ; for the 
battles on the sea are more dangerous and 

1 The original text says : ' They came with the 
wind on their quarter to have the advantage of the 
sun, which as they came was in their faces. They 
bethought them that this might damage them much, 
and therefore they turned a little out of their course 
till they had the wind at will.' But the true reading is, 
' till they had it {i.e. the sun) at their will.' It must 
be supposed that they were coming over before a 
west wind, for which they would probably have 
waited. On this course they would have the sun 
directly in their faces at prime, when the battle 
began ; and perceiving this they avoided the dis- 
advantage by changing their course, so as to have 
the wind on their right quarter and so come in from 
the nprth-west instead of directly from the west. To 
do this they would have to sail first some little way to 
ihe northward, and it was this movement that caused 
the Normans to think that they were retiring. 

2 In the better text the Christofer is said to be 
filled with cross-bowmen and Genoese, and the 
'trumpets and instruments' are mentioned only in 
general as sounded upon the advance of the fleet. 



fiercer than the battles by land : for on the 
sea there is no reculing nor fleeing ; there is 
no remedy but to fight and to abide fortune, 
and every man to shew his prowess. Of a 
truth sir Hugh Quieret, and sir Behuchet and 
Barbevaire were right good and expert men 
of war. This battle endured from the morn- 
ing till it was noon, and the Englishmen 
endured much pain, for their enemies were 
four against one, and all good men on the sea. 
There the kingof England was a noble knight 
of his own hand ; he was in the flower of 
his yongth : in like wise so was the earl of 
Derby, Pembroke, Hereford, Huntingdon, 
Northampton and Gloucester, sir Raynold 
Cobham, sir Richard Stafibrd, the lord 
Percy, sir Walter of Manny, sir Henry of 
Flanders, sir John Beauchamp, the lord 
Felton, the lord Bradestan, sir [John] 
Chandos, the lord Delaware, the lord of 
Multon, sir Robert d'Artois called earl 
of Richmond, and divers other lords and 
knights, who bare themselves so valiantly 
with some succours that they had of Bruges 
and of the country thereabout, that they 
obtained the victory ; so that the French- 
men, Normans and other were discomfited, 
slain and drowned ; there was not one that 
scaped, but all were slain. 

When this victory was achieved, the king 
all that night abode in his ship before 
Sluys, with great noise of trumpets and 
other instruments. Thither came to see 
the king divers of Flanders, such as had 
heard of the king's coming. And then the 
king demanded of the burgesses of Bruges 
how Jaques d'Arteveld did : they answered 
that he was gone to the earl of Hainault 
against the duke of Normandy with sixty 
thousand Flemings. And on the next day, 
the which was Midsummer day, the king 
and all his took land, and the king on foot 
went a pilgrimage to our Lady of Ardem- 
bourg, and there heard mass and dined ; 
and then took his horse and rode to Gaunt, 
where the queen received him with great 
joy ; and all his carriage came after, little 
and little. Then the king wrote to the 
earl of Hainault and to them within the 
castle of Thun, certifying them of his 
arrival ; and when the earl knew thereof, 
and that he had discomfited the army on 
the sea, he dislodged and gave leave to all 
the soldiers to depart, and took with him 
to Valenciennes all the great lords, and 



COUNCIL OF VILVORDE 



63 



there feasted them honourably, and specially 
the duke of Brabant and Jaques d'Arteveld. 
And there Jaques d'Arteveld openly in the 
market-place, in the presence of all the lords 
and of all such as would hear him, declared 
what right the king of England had to the 
crown of France, and also what puissance 
the three countries were of, Flanders, Hai- 
nault and Brabant, surely joined in one 
alliance. And he did so by his great wisdom 
and pleasant words, that all people that 
heard him praised him much, and said how 
he had nobly spoken and by great experience. 
And thus he was greatly praised, and it was 
said that he was well worthy to govern the 
county of Flanders. 

Then the lords departed, and promised 
to meet again within eight days at Gaunt, 
to see the king of England ; and so they 
did. And the king feasted them honour- 
ably, and so did the queen, who was as 
then newly purified of a son called John, 
who was after duke of Lancaster by his 
wife, daughter to duke Henry of Lancaster. 
Then there was a council set to be at 
Vilvorde, and a day limited. 

CHAPTER LI 

How king Robert of Sicily did all that he 
might to pacify the kings of France and 
England. 

When the French king heard how his 
army on the sea was discomfited, he dis- 
lodged and drew to Arras, and gave leave 
to his men to depart till he heard other tid- 
ings ; and sent sir Godemar du Fay to 
Tournay to see that there lacked nothing. 
He feared more the Flemings than any 
other, and sent the lord of Beaujeu to Mor- 
tagne to keep the frontiers against Hainault: 
and he sent many men of war to Saint- 
Omer's, to Aire and to Saint-Venant, and 
purveyed sufficiently for all the fortresses 
fronting on Flanders. 

In this season there reigned a king in 
Sicily called Robert, who was reputed to be 
a great astronomer, and always he warned 
the French king and his council, that in no 
wise he should fight against the king of 
England ; for he said it was given the king 
of England to be right fortunate in all his 
deeds. This king Robert would gladly 
have seen these two kings at a good accord ; 



for he loved so much the crown of France, 
that he was right sorry to see the desola- 
tion thereof. This king of Sicily was at 
Avignon with pope Clement and with the 
college there, and declared to them the 
perils that were likely to fall in the realm 
of France by the war between the said two 
kings, desiring them that they would help 
to find some means to appease them : where- 
unto the pope and the cardinals answered 
how they would gladly intend thereto, so 
that the two kings would hear them. 



CHAPTER LII 

Of the council that the king of England and 
his allies held at Vilvorde. 

At this council holden at Vilvorde were 
these lords as followeth : the king of Eng- 
land, the duke of Brabant, the earl of 
Hainault, sir John his uncle, the duke of 
Gueldres, the earl of Juliers, the marquis 
of Brandebourg, the marquis of Meissen, 
the earl of Mons, sir Robert d'Artois, the 
lord of Fauquemont, sir William ofDuven- 
voorde, the earl of Namur, Jaques d'Arte- 
veld, and many other great lords, and of 
every good town of Flanders a three or 
four personages in manner of a counsel. 
There was agreement made between the 
three countries, Flanders, Brabant and 
Hainault, that from thenceforth each of 
them should aid and comfort other in all 
cases. And there they made assurance 
each to other, that if any of them had to do 
with any country, the other two should give 
aid, and hereafter if any of them should be 
at discord one with another, the third should 
set agreement between them : and if he were 
not able so to do, then the matter should be 
put unto the king of England, in whose 
hands this matter was sworn and promised, 
and he to agree them. And in confirmation 
of love and amity they ordained a law to 
run throughout those three countries, the 
which was called the law of the companions 
or allies.^ And there it was determined 

1 This should be : ' They ordained that coins 
should be struck to run in all the three countries, 
which be called companions or allies.' The trans- 
lator has been misled by the expression ' faire une 
loys ' (' loys' meaning ' standard of coinage '). In 
chap. 29 we are told that Jaques d'Arteveld's attend- 
ants had each day * quatre compagnons ou gros de 
Flandres' for their wages. 



64 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



that the king of England should remove 
about Maudlin-tide after, and lay siege to 
Tournay ; and there to meet all the said 
lords and theirs, with the powers of all the 
good towns : and then every man departed 
to their own houses, to apparel them in 
that behal£ 



CHAPTER LIII 

How the king of England besieged the city 
of Tournay with great puissance. 

The French king after the departure of 
these lords from the council of Vilvorde 
he knew the most part of their determina- 
tion. Then he sent to Tournay the chief 
men of war of all France, as the earl of Eu, 
constable of France, the young earl of 
Guines his son, the earl of Foix and his 
brethren, the earl Aimery of Narbonne, 
sir Aymar of Poitiers, sir Geoffrey of Charny, 
sir Gerard of Montfaucon, the two mar- 
shals, sir Robert Bertrand and sir Matthew 
de Trie, the lord of Cayeu, the seneschal 
of Poitou, the lord of Chatillon, and sir 
John of Landas, and these had with them 
valiant knights and squires. They came to 
Tournay and found there sir Godemar du 
Fay, who was there before. Then they 
took regard to the provision of the town, 
as well to the victuals as to the artillery and 
fortification ; and they caused to be brought 
out of the country thereabout wheat, oats 
and other provision. 

Now let us return to the king of England. 
When the time approached that he and his 
allies should meet before Tournay, and that 
the corn began to ripe, he departed from 
Gaunt with seven earls of his country, eight 
prelates, twenty-eight bannerets, two hun- 
dred knights, four thousand men of arms, 
and nine thousand archers, beside footmen. 
All his host passed through the town of 
Oudenarde, and so passed the river of I'Es- 
cault and lodged before Tournay at the gate 
called Saint-Martin, the way toward Lille 
and Douay. Then anon after came the 
duke of Brabant with more than twenty 
thousand men, knights, squires and 
commons ; and he lodged at the bridge of 
Rieux by the river of I'Escault between 
the abbey of Saint Nicholas and the gate 
Valenciennois. ■■■ Next to him came the earl 
1 That IS, the gate leading towards Valenciennes. 



of Hainault with a goodly company of his 
country, with many of Holland and Zealand ; 
and he was lodged between the king and 
the duke of Brabant. Then came Jaques 
d'Arteveld with more than sixty thousand 
Flemings, beside them of Ypres, Pope- 
ringhe, Cassel, Bergues ; and they were set 
on the other side, as ye shall hear after. 
Jaques d'Arteveld lodged at the gate Sainte- 
Fontaine : the duke of Gueldres, the earl 
of Juliers, the marquis of Brandebourg, the 
marquis of Meissen, the earl of Mons, the 
earl of Salm, the lord of Fauquemont, sir 
Arnold of Baquehem and all the Almains 
were lodged on the other side, toward Hai- 
nault. Thus the city of Tournay was en- 
vironed round about, and every host might 
resort each to other, so that none could 
issue out without spying. 



CHAPTER LIV 

SUMMARY.— During the siege of Tour- 
nay the earl of Hainault rode into France 
and burnt some villages. The Flemings 
made assaults on Tournay frotti the river, 
but won nothing. 



CHAPTER LV 

How the Scots won again great part of Scot- 
land while the siege was before Tournay. 

Now it is to be remembered how sir William 
Douglas, son of William Douglas' brother, 
who died in Spain, and the earl Patrick, 
the earl of Sutherland, sir Robert of Versy,^ 
sir Simon Eraser and Alexander Ramsay, 
they were captains in such part of Scot- 
land as was left unwon by the Englishmen. 
And they had continued in the forest of 
Gedeours the space of seven year, winter 
and summer, and as they might they made 
war against the Englishmen being there in 
garrison. Some time they had good ad- 
venture and some time evil : and while the 
king of England was at siege before Tour- 
nay, the French king sent men of war into 
Scotland, and they arrived at Saint John's 

1 Kervyn de Lettenhove makes it probable that 
this name, which frequently occurs among those of 
the leading barons of Scotland, is Froissarl's cor- 
ruption of Erskine. 



EDINBURGH CASTLE TAKEN, 1341 



65 



town. And they desired the Scots in the 
French king's name, that they would set on 
and make such war in the realm of England, 
that the king might be fain to return home 
to rescue his own realm, and to leave up 
the siege at Tournay : and the French king 
promised them men and money to aid them 
so to do. And so the Scots departed out 
of the forest of Gedeours and passed through 
Scotland, and won again divers fortresses, 
and so passed the town of Berwick and the 
river of Tyne, and entered into the country 
of Northumberland, the which sometime 
was a realm. There they found great plenty 
of beasts, and wasted and brent all the 
country to Durham : then they returned by 
another way, destroying the country. In 
this voyage they destroyed more than three 
days' journey into the realm of England, and 
then returned into Scotland and conquered 
again all the fortresses that were holden by 
the Englishmen, except the city of Berwick 
and three other castles, the which did them 
great trouble. They were so strong, that 
it would have been hard to have found any 
such in any country : the one was Stirling, 
another Roxburgh, and the third the chief 
of all Scotland, Edinburgh, the which castle 
standeth on a high rock, that a man must 
rest once or twice or he come to the highest 
of the hill ; and captain there was sir 
Walter [of Limoges, brother to sir Richard] 
Limousin, who had before so valiantly kept 
the castle of Thun against the Frenchmen. 
So it was that sir William Douglas de- 
vised a feat, and discovered his intention 
to his companions, to the earl Patrick, to 
sir Simon Fraser and to Alexander Ram- 
say, and all they agreed together. Then 
they took a two hundred of the wild Scots 
and entered into the sea, and made pro- 
vision of oats, meal, coals and wood ; ^ and 
so peaceably they arrived at a port near to 
the castle of Edinburgh. And in the night 
they armed them and took a ten or twelve 
of their company, such as they did trust 
best, and did disguise them in poor torn 
coats and hats, like poor men of the 
country, and charged a twelve small horses 
with sacks, some with oats, some with 
wheat-meal and some with coals ; and they 
did set all their company in a bushment in 

1 'De charbon et de feuvre,' but the true reading 
is 'de charbon de feuvre,' i.e. charcoal for smiths' 
forges {faber). 
F 



an old destroyed abbey thereby, near to 
the foot of the hill. And when the day 
began to appear, covertly armed as they 
were, they went up the hill with their 
merchandise. And when they were in the 
mid way, sir William Douglas and sir 
Simon Fraser, disguised as they were, went 
a little before and came to the porter and 
said : ' Sir, in great fear we have brought 
hither oats and wheat-meal ; and if ye 
have any need thereof, we will sell it to you 
good cheap.' ' Marry,' said the porter, * and 
we have need thereof; but it is so early, 
that I dare not awake the captain nor his 
steward. But let them come in and I shall 
open the outer gate.' And so they all en- 
tered into the gate of the bails : sir William 
Douglas saw well how the porter had the 
keys in his hands of the great gate of the 
castle. Then when the first gate was 
opened, as ye have heard, their horses with 
carriages entered in ; and the two that 
came last, laden with coals, they made 
them to fall down on the ground-sill of the 
gate, to the intent that the gate should not 
be closed again. And then they took the 
porter and slew him so peaceably, that he 
never spake word. Then they took the 
great keys and opened the castle gate : 
then sir William Douglas blew a horn and 
did cast away their torn coats and laid all 
the other sacks overthwart the gate, to the 
intent that it should not be shut again. 
And when they of the bushment heard the 
horn, in all haste they might they mounted 
the hill. Then the watchman of the castle 
with noise of the horn awoke, and saw 
how the people were coming all armed to 
the castle-ward. Then he blew his horn 
and cried, ' Treason ! treason ! Sirs, arise 
and arm you shortly, for yonder be men of 
arms approaching to your fortress.' Then 
every man arose and armed them and came 
to the gate ; but sir William Douglas and 
his twelve companions defended so the 
gate, that they could not close it : and so 
by great valiantness they kept the entry 
open, till their bushment came. They 
within defended the castle as well as they 
might, and hurt divers of them without ; 
but sir William and the Scots did so much, 
that they conquered the fortress, and "all the 
Englishmen within slain, except the captain 
and six other squires. So the Scots tarried 
there all that day, and made a knight of 



66 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



the country captain there, called Shuon 
Wisbey, and with him divers other of the 
country. These tidings came to the king 
of England before Tournay. 



CHAPTER LVI 

Of the great host that the French king 
assembled to raise the siege before Tournay. 

Ye have heard before how the king of 
England had besieged the city of Tournay 
with more than six score thousand men of 
arms,- with the Flemings. And because 
the victuals within the city began to minish, 
the French lords within caused to avoid 
out of the town all manner of poor people, 
such as were not furnished to abide the 
adventure of the siege. They were put 
out in the open day, and they passed 
through the duke of Brabant's host, who 
shewed them grace, for he caused them to 
be safely brought to the French host at 
Arras, whereas the king lay. And there 
he made a great assembly of men of his 
own country and part out of the Empire.^ 
Thither came to him the king of Bohemia, 
the duke of Lorraine, the earl of Bar, the 
bishop of Metz and of Verdun, the earl of 
Montbeliard, sir John of Chalons, the earl 
of Geneva, the earl of Savoy and the lord 
Louis of Savoy his brother. All these 
lords came to serve the French king with 
all their powers. Also thither came the 
duke of Bretayne, the duke of Burgoyne, 
the duke of Bourbon, the earl of Alen^on, 
the earl of Flanders, the earl Forez, the 
earl Arniagnac, the earl of Blois, sir 
Charles of Blois, the earl of Harcourt, 
the earl Dammartin, the lord Coucy, and 
divers other lords and knights. And after 
came the king of Navarre with a goodly 
number of men of war out of the country 
in France that he held of the French king, 
and thereby he came to serve him : also 
there was the king of Scots with a certain 
number appointed to him. 

CHAPTERS LVII, LVIH 

SUMMARY. — The king of France with 
his army moved up from Arras towards 

1 The person spoken of is of course king Philip, 
Taut the translator has made the passage obscure by 
omissions. 



Tournay. Two German knights of the 
garrison of Bouchain riding abroad with 
five - and - twenty spears routed and ^ dis- 
trussed' certain French soldiers of Mortagne, 
who were returning with booty. 

Sir William de Bailleul and sir Wa- 
flard de la Croix with a body of Hainaulters 
crossed the Pont-h- Tressin and attacked the 
French encampment. They were routed^ 
chiefly by sir Robert de Bailleul, brother of 
sir William ; and sir Waflard de la Croix 
being taken prisoner "Jvas put to death by the 
men of Lille. 



CHAPTER LIX 

How the earl of Hainault assailed the for- 
tress of Mortagne in Picardy by divers 
manners. 

Of this deed that sir Robert Bailleul had 
done the French king was right joyous. 
And within a season after the earl of 
Hainault, sir John his uncle, and the 
seneschal of Hainault with a six hundred 
spears, Hainowes and Almains, departed 
from the siege of Tournay. And the earl 
sent to them of Valenciennes, that they 
should come and meet with him before 
Mortagne, and to come between le Scarpe 
and I'Escault to assail Mortagne. And 
they came thither in great array, and 
brought with them great engines. The 
lord of Beaujeu, who was captain within 
Mortagne, greatly doubted assaulting, be- 
cause the fortress stood near to the river 
and near to Hainault, as on all parts : 
therefore he caused twelve hundred piles to 
be driven in the river, to the intent that 
no passage should be that way. Howbeit 
for all that, the earl of Hainault and the 
Hainowes came thither on the one side, 
and they of Valenciennes on the other part, 
and incontinent they made an assault and 
approached the barriers ; but there were 
such deep trenches, that they could not 
come near. Then some advised to pass 
the river of le Scarpe, and so to come on the 
side toward Saint-Amand, and to make an 
assault at the gate toward Maulde ; and as 
they devised, a four hundred passed the river. 
So then Mortagne was closed in three 
parts ; the weakest side was toward Maulde ; 
howbeit there was strength enough. To 



EVENTS DURING THE SIEGE OF TOUR NAY 



67 



that part came the lord Beaujeu himself to 
defend it, for he feared none of the other 
sides. He had in his hand a great glaive, 
sharp and well steeled, and above the blade 
there was a sharp hook of steel, that when 
he gave his stroke, the hook should take 
hold ; and look, on whom that it fastened, 
he came to him or else fell in the water : by 
that means the same day he cast into the 
water more than twelve, at that gate the 
assault was fiercest. The earl of Hainault, 
who was on the other side, knew nothing 
of that assault : he was arranged along the 
river side of I'Escault and devised how 
they might get out of the river the piles by 
force or by subtilty ; for then they might 
come just to the walls. They ordained to 
make a ship and a great engine to draw out 
the piles, each one after other : their car- 
penters were set awork and the engine 
made in a ship ; and the same day they of 
Valenciennes raised on their side a great 
engine and did cast in stones, so that it sore 
troubled them within. Thus the first day 
passed and the night in assailing and de- 
vising how they might grieve them in the 
fortress ; the next day they went to assault 
on all parts ; and the third day the ship 
was ready and the engine to draw out the 
piles, and then did set awork to draw them 
out ; but there were so many and such 
labour in the doing, or they could draw 
out one, that they were weary of that craft, 
and the lords would they had never begun 
it, and so commanded to cease their work. 
On the other part within Mortagne there 
was a cunning master in making of engines, 
who saw well how the engine of Valen- 
ciennes did greatly grieve them. He raised 
an engine in the castle, the which was not 
very great, but he trimmed it to a point ; ^ 
and he cast therewith but three times ; the 
first stone fell a twelve foot from the 
engine without, the second fell nearer, and 
the third stone hit so even that it brake 
clean asunder the shaft of the engine with- 
out. Then the soldiers of Mortagne made 
a great shout. So thus the Hainowes could 
get nothing there. Then the earl said how 
he would withdraw and go again to the 
siege of Tournay : and so they did, and 
they of Valenciennes returned to their 
town. 

1 ' L'attempra bien et a point ' : that is, he ad- 
justed it to a nicety. 



CHAPTERS LX, LXI 

SUMMARY.— The earl of Hainault ap- 
pointed the men of Valenciennes to meet him 
before Saint- Amand. When they arrived^ 
they attacked the fortress without success and 
were mocked by those within, who said, 
* Go away and drink your good ale ! ' ^ 
They departed a7id next day the earl came 
from Tourftay and took the town by batter- 
ing down part of the abbey walls. 

Another day the earl entered France and 
burnt the abbey of Marchiennes. 

Meanwhile the siege of Tournay continued, 
and some said the duke of Brabant allowed 
victuals to pass into the town. 

In an attack on the French camp by 
certain knights of Almaine and Hainault 
the lord Charles of Montmorency was taken 
prisoner. 



CHAPTER LXn 

How the Flemings were before Saint-Omer's 
during the siege. 

Now let us shew of an adventure that fell 
to the Flemings, of the which company 
there were captains sir Robert d'Artois 
and sir Henry of Flanders. They were in 
number a forty thousand, what of the towns 
of Ypres, Poperinghe, Messines, Cassel 
and of the chatelainy of Bergues ; all these 
Flemings lay in the vale of Cassel in tents 
and pavilions, to counter - garrison the 
French garrisons, that the French king had 
laid at Saint-Omer's, at Aire, at Saint- 
Venant and in other towns and fortresses 
thereabout. And in Saint-Omer's there 
was the earl Dolphin of Auvergne, the 
lord of Chalen9on, the lord of Montaigu, 
the lord of Rochfort, the viscount of 
Thouars, and divers other knights of 
Auvergne and Limousin. And in Aire 
and Saint -Venant there were also many 
soldiers, and oftentimes they issued out and 
skirmished with the Flemings. 

On a day four thousand ^ went to the 
suburbs of Saint-Omer's and brake down 

1 ' Allez boire vostre god-ale, allez ! ' a scoffing 
allusion to their alliance with the English. 

2 That is, of the Flemings ; but the better reading 
is 'environ troi mille.' 



68 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



divers houses and robbed them. The fray 
anon was known in the town, and the lords 
within armed them and their company and 
issued out at another gate. They were a 
six banners and a two hundred men of arms 
and a six hundred footmen, and they came 
by a secret way on the Flemings, who were 
busy to rob and pill the town of Arques 
near to Saint -Omer's. There they were 
spread abroad without captain or good 
order : then the Frenchmen came on them 
in good order of battle, their banners dis- 
played, crying, ' Clermont ! the Dolphin 
of Auvergne ! ' wherewith the Flemings 
were abashed and beaten down by heaps ; 
and the chase of them endured two leagues, 
and there were slain a four thousand and 
eight hundred,^ and a four hundred taken 
prisoners and led to Saint -Omer's. And 
such as fled and scaped returned to the 
host and shewed their companions their 
adventure : and at last tidings thereof came 
to their captains, sir Robert d'Artois and 
sir Henry of Flanders, who said it was 
well employed, for they went forth without 
commandment or captain. 

And the same night, or it was midnight, 
the Flemings lying in their tents asleep, 
suddenly generally among them all there 
fell such a fear in their hearts, that they 
rose in great haste and with such pain, that 
they thought not to be dislodged time 
enough. They beat down their own tents 
and pavilions and trussed all their carriages, 
and so fled away, not abiding one for 
another, without keeping of any right way. 
When these tidings came to their two 
captains, they rose hastily and made great 
fires, and took torches and mounted on 
their horses, and so came to these Flemings 
and said : * Sirs, what aileth you ? Do you 
want anything? Why do you thus fly 
away ? Be you not well assured ? Return 
in the name of God ! Ye be to blame thus 
to fly, and no man chase you.' But for all 
their words every man fled the next way to 
their own houses. And when these lords 
saw none other remedy, they trussed all 
their harness in waggons and returned to 
the host before Tournay, and there shewed 
the adventure of the Flemings, whereof 
every man had marvel : some said they M^ere 
overcome with fantasies. 

1 The better reading is, ' of the three thousand 
there were slain eighteen hundred.' 



CHAPTER LXIH 

How the siege before Tournay was broken 
up by reason of a truce. 

This siege endured a long season, the space 
of eleven weeks three days less ; and all 
that season the lady Jane of Valois, sister 
to the French king and mother to the earl 
of Hainault, travailed greatly, what on the 
one part and on the other, to have a respite 
and a peace between the parties, so that 
they might depart without battle. And 
divers times she kneeled at the feet of the 
French king in that behalf, and also made 
great labour to the lords of the Empire, and 
specially to the duke of Brabant and to the 
duke of Juliers, who had her daughter in 
marriage, and also to sir John of Hainault. 
So much the good lady procured with the 
aid and counsel of Louis d'Agimont, who 
was well beloved with both parties, that it 
was granted that each party should send 
four sufficient persons to treat on some good 
way to accord the parties, and a truce for 
three days : these appointers should meet 
in a little chapel standing in the fields called 
Esplechin. At the day appointed these 
persons met, and the good lady with them : 
of the French party there was Charles king 
of Bohemia, Charles earl d'Alen9on, brother 
to the French king, and the bishop of 
Liege, the earl of Flanders and the earl 
of Armagnac. Of the English party there 
was tlie duke of Brabant, the bishop of 
Lincoln, the duke of Gueldres, the duke 
of Juliers and sir John of Hainault. And 
when they were all met, they made each to 
other great salutations and good cheer, and 
then entered into their treaty. And all 
that day they communed on divers ways of 
accord, and always the good lady of Valois- 
was among them, desiring affectuously all'j 
the parties, that they would do their labour, 
to make a peace. Howbeit the first day] 
passed without anything doing, and so theyj 
returned and promised to meet again the] 
next day ; the which day they came together 
again in the same place and so fell again 
into their treaty, and so fell unto certain 
points agreeable ; but it was as then so 
late, that they could not put it in writing as 
that day ; and to make an end and to make 
perfect the matter if they might, the third 



THE SIEGE OF TOURNAY RAISED, 1340 



69 



day they met again, and so finally accorded 
on a truce to endure for a year between all 
parties and all their men, and also between 
them that were in Scotland, and all such as 
made war in Gascoyne, Poitou and in 
Saintonge ; and this truce to begin the 
fortieth day next ensuing, and within that 
space every party to give knowledge to his 
men without mal-engine ; and if such com- 
panies will not keep the peace, let them be 
at their choice : but as for France, Picardy, 
Burgoyne, Bretayne and Normandy, to be 
bound to this peace without any exception : 
and this peace to begin incontinent between 
the hosts of the two kings. Also it was 
determined that both parties in each of their 
names should send four or five personages 
as their ambassadors and to meet at Arras, 
and the pope in like wise to send thither 
four, and there to make a full confirmation 
without any mean.^ Also by this truce 
every party to enjoy and possess all and 
everything that they were as then in posses- 
sion of. 

This truce incontinent was cried in both 
hosts, whereof the Brabances were right 
glad, for they were sore weary with so long 
lying at the siege : so that the next day, as 
soon as it was daylight, ye should have seen 
tents taken down, chariots charged and 
people remove so thick, that a man would 
have thought to have seen a new world. 
Thus the good town of Tournay was safe 
without any great damage : howbeit they 
within endured great pain ; their victuals 
began to fail, for, as it was said, they had 
as then scant to serve them a three or four 
days at the most. The Brabances departed 
quickly, for they had great desire thereto : 
the king of England departed sore against 
his mind, if he might have done otherwise ; 
but in manner he was fain to follow the 
wills of the other lords and to believe their 
counsels. And the French king could 
abide no longer thereas he lay, for the evil 
air and the weather hot : so the Frenchmen 
had the honour of that journey,- because 
they had rescued Tournay and caused their 
enemies to depart. The king of England 
and the lords on his party said how they 
had the honour, by reason that they had 

1 ' And that which these parties should ordain, 
the two kings should hold and confirm without any 
exception taken.' 

■^ 'And so the Frenchmen thought on their part 
that they had the honour,' etc. 



tarried so long within the realm, and 
besieged one of the good towns thereof, 
and also had wasted and burnt in the 
French country, and that the French king 
had not rescued it in time and hour, as he 
ought to have done, by giving of battle, 
and finally agreed to a truce, their enemies 
being still at the siege and brenning his 
country. 

Thus these lords departed from the siege 
of Tournay, and every man drew to his own. 
The king of England came to Gaunt to the 
queen his wife, and shortly after passed the 
sea, and all his, except such as should be at 
the parliament at Arras. The earl of Hai- 
nault returned to his country and held a 
noble feast at Mons in liainault, and a 
great joust, in the which Gerard of 
Werchin, seneschal of Hainault, did joust, 
and was so sore hurt, that he died of the 
stroke : he had a son called John, who was 
after a good knight and a hardy, but he 
was but a while in good health. The 
French king gave leave to every man to 
depart, and went himself to Lille, and 
thither came they of Tournay, and the 
king received them joyously and did shew 
them great grace : he gave them freely their 
franchise, the which they had lost long 
before, wherewith they were joyous ; for 
sir Godemar du Fay and divers other knights 
had been long governours there : then they 
made new provost and j urates according to 
their ancient usages. Then the king de- 
parted from Lille to go to Paris. 

Now then came the season that the 
council should be at Arras : and for pope 
Clement thither came in legation the 
cardinal of Naples and the cardinal of 
Clermont, who came to Paris, whereas the 
king made them mucli honour, and so 
came to Arras : for the French king there 
was the earl of Alen9on, the duke of 
Bourbon, the earl of Flanders, the earl 
of Blois, the archbishop of Sens, the bishop 
of Beauvais and the bishop of Auxerre : 
and for the king of England there was the 
bishop of Lincoln, the bishop of Durham, 
the earl of Warwick, sir Robert d'Artois, 
sir John of Hainault and sir Henry of 
Flanders. At the which treaty there were 
many matters put forth, and so continued 
a fifteen days and agreed of no point of 
effect. For the Enghshmen demanded, 
and the Frenchmen would nothing give, 



70 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



but all only to render the county of Pon- 
thieu, the which was given with queen 
Isabel in marriage with the king of 
England. So this parliament brake up 
and nothing done, but the truce to be 
relonged two years longer : that was all 
that the cardinals could get. Then every 
man departed, and the two cardinals went 
through Hainault at the desire of the earl, 
who feasted them nobly. 



CHAPTER LXIV 

Now speaketh the history of the wars of 
Bretayne. and how the duke died without 
heir, whereby the dissension fell. 

When that this said truce was agreed and 
sealed before the city of Tournay, every 
lord and all manner of people dislodged, 
and every man drew into his own country. 
The duke of Bretayne, who had been there 
with the French king, as well furnished as 
any other prince that was there, departed 
homeward ; and in his way a sickness took 
him, so that he died : at which time he had 
no child, nor had never none, by the 
duchess, nor had no trust to have. He 
had a brother by the father's side called 
earl of Montfort, who was as then living, 
and he had to his wife [the] sister to the 
earl Louis of Flanders. This said duke 
had another brother, both by father and 
mother, who was as then dead ; and he 
had a daughter alive, and the duke her 
uncle had married her to the lord Charles 
of Blois, eldest son of the earl Guy of 
Blois, that the same earl had by the sister 
of king Philip of France, who as then 
reigned, and had promised with her in 
marriage the duchy of Bretayne after his 
decease. For he doubted that the earl 
Montfort would claim the inheritance as 
next of blood, and yet he was not his 
proper brother - german, and the duke 
thought that the daughter of his brother- 
german ought by reason to be more near 
to the inheritance after his decease than 
the earl Montfort his brother. And be- 
cause he feared that after his decease the 
earl of Montfort would take away the 
right from his young niece, therefor 
married her with the said sir C' 
Blois, to the intent that king Phj^IiOl^cle 




to her husband, should aid to keep her 
right against the earl Montfort, if he 
meddle anything in the matter. 

As soon as the earl Montfort knew 
that the duke his brother was dead, he 
went incontinent to Nantes, the sovereign 
city of all Bretayne ; and he did so much 
to the burgesses and to the people of the 
country thereabout, that he was received 
as their chief lord, as most next of blood to 
his brother deceased, and so did to him 
homage and fealty. Then he and his wife, 
who had both the hearts of a lion, deter- 
mined with their counsel to call a court 
and to keep a solemn feast at Nantes at a 
day limited, against the which day they 
sent for all the nobles and counsels of the 
good towns of Bretayne, to be there to do 
their homage and fealty to him as to their 
sovereign lord. 

In the mean season, or this feast began, 
the earl Montfort with a great number of 
men of war departed from Nantes and 
went to Limoges ; ^ for he was informed 
that the treasure that his father ^ had 
gathered many a day before was there kept 
secret. When he came there he entered 
into the city with great triumph, and did 
him much honour, and was nobly received 
of the burgesses, of the clergy and of the 
commons, and they all did him fealty as to 
their sovereign lord ; and by such means 
as he found, that great treasure was 
delivered to him : and when he had tarried 
there at his pleasure, he departed with all 
his treasure and came to Nantes to the 
countess his wife. And so there they 
tarried in great joy till the day came of the 
feast, and made great provisions against the 
same. And when the day came and no 
man appeared for no commandment except 
one knight, called sir Herve de Leon, a noble 
and a puissant man ; so they kept the feast a 
three days as well as they might with such 
as were there. Then it was determined to 
retain soldiers a-horseback and afoot, and so 
to dispend his great treasure to attain to his 
purpose of the duchy and to constrain all 
rebels to come to mercy. So soldiers were 
retained on all sides and largely paid, so that 
they had a great number afoot and a-horse- 
back, nobles and other of divers countries. 

?he late duke of Brittany had been viscount of 
by right of his first wife, 
true reading is ' frere.' 



WA/? IN BRITTANY, 1341 



71 



CHAPTER LXV 

How the earl of Montfort took the town and 
castle of Brest. 



CHAPTER LXVI 

How the earl of Montfort took the city of 
Rennes. 



CHAPTER LXVn 

How the earl Montfort took the town and 
castle of Hennebont. 

SUMMAR V. — TAe earl of Montfort re- 
ceived the surrender of Hennebont, Vannes, 
Auray and other places, several being gained 
by the influence of Hervi de Leon, 



CHAPTER LXVni 

How the earl Montfort did homage to the king 
of England for the duchy of Bretayne. 

SUMMAR Y. — The earl of Montfort passed 
over to England a7id catne to Windsor, where 
he was well received by the king and 
queen. He offered to do homage for the 
duchy of Brittany, fearing that the French 
king would support Charles of Blois. The 
king of England thought that he might more 
profitably enter France from Brittany than 
from Flanders, and accepted the homage, 
promising to defend hi?n against every man, 
the French king or other. The earl then 
returned to Brittany. 



CHAPTER LXIX 

How the earl Montfort was summoned to 
be at the parliament of Paris at the request 
of the lord Charles of Blois. 

SUMMARY.— Sir Charles of Blois, con- 
ceiving himself to be the rightful inheritor 
of Brittany by reason of his wife, came to 
Paris and complained to king Philip against 



the earl of Montfort. Philip summoned the 
earl to Paris, and he came with some four 
hundred horse. He appeared before the 
king and the peers of France, and denied 
having done homage to Edward III. for the 
duchy of Brittany, but maintained his pre- 
tensions, submitting at the same time to the 
judgment of the king. He was ordered not 
to quit Paris for fifteen days and promised 
to obey, but when he returned to his lodging 
he * sat and imagined many doubts,^ and 
finally left Paris secretly and returned to 
Brittany. 



CHAPTER LXX 

How the duchy of Bretayne was judged to 
sir Charles of Blois. 

SUMMARY. — The French king was dis- 
pleased when he knew that the earl of 
Montfort was so departed. When the day 
came for judgment to be given, the peers and 
great barons decided that the duchy of Brit- 
tany belonged clearly to the wife of Charles 
de Blois. Sir Charles of Blois desired his 
cousin the duke of Normandy, his uncle the 
earl of Alenfon, with the duke of Burgundy, 
the duke of Bourbon and other lords present, 
to go with him into Brittany, and they 
departed to make them ready. 



CHAPTER LXXI 

The lords of France that entered into 
Bretayne with sir Charles of Blois, 

SUMMARY — The lords who have been 
mentioned assembled at Angers and pro- 
ceeded to Ancenis, and so entered Brittany 
and took Champtoceaux. They then went 
towards Nantes, where the earl of Montfort 
was, and laid siege to it. 

Skirmishes occurred divers times at the 
barriers, and on one occasion the men of the 
city commanded by Herve de Leon suffered 
heavy loss. Herve de Leon was blamed by 
the earl and was much displeased thereby. 



72 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



CHAPTER LXXII 

How the earl Montfort was taken at Nantes, 
and how he died. 

As I heard reported, there were certain 
burgesses of the city saw how their goods 
went to waste both without and within, 
and had of their children and friends in 
prison, and doubted that worse should 
come to them after ; then they advised and 
spake together secretly, so that finally they 
concluded to treat with the lords of France, 
so that they might come to have peace and 
to have their children and friends clearly 
delivered out of prison. They made this 
treaty so secretly, that at last it was agreed 
that they should have all the prisoners 
delivered and they to set open one of the 
gates, that the French lords might enter to 
take the earl of Montfort in the castle, 
without doing of any manner of hurt to the 
city or to the inhabitants or goods therein. 
Some said this was purchased by the means 
and agreement of sir Herve de Leon, who 
had been before one of the earl's chief 
counsellors. Thus as it was devised, so it 
was done : in a morning the French lords 
entered and went straight to the castle and 
brake open the gates, and there took the 
earl of Montfort prisoner and led him clean 
out of the city into their field, without doing 
of any more hurt in the city. This was the 
year of our Lord God MCCCXLI., about the 
feast of All Saints. 

Then the lords of France entered into 
the city with great joy ; and all the bur- 
gesses and other did fealty and homage to 
the lord Charles of Blois as to their right 
sovereign lord ; and there they tarried a three 
days in great feast. Then sir Charles of 
Blois was counselled to abide there about 
the city of Nantes till the next summer ; 
and so he did, and set captains in such 
garrisons as he had won. Then the other 
lords went to Paris to the king and de- 
livered him the earl of Montfort as prisoner. 
The king set him in the castle of Louvre, 
whereas he was long, and at last, as I 
heard reported, there he died. 

Now let us speak of the countess his 
wife, who had the courage of a man and 
the heart of a lion. She was in the city of 
Rennes when her lord was taken, and how- 



beit that she had great sorrow at her heart, 
yet she valiantly recomforted her friends 
and soldiers, and shewed them a little son 
that she had, called John, and said : ' Ah ! 
sirs, be not too sore abashed of the earl my 
lord, whom we have lost : he was but a man. 
See here my little child, who shall be by the 
grace of God his restorer, and he shall do 
for you all ; and, I have riches enough ; ye 
shall not lack ; and I trust I shall purchase 
for such a captain, that ye shall be all re- 
comforted. ' When she had thus comforted 
her friends and soldiers in Rennes, then 
she went to all her other fortresses and 
good towns, and led ever with her John her 
young son, and did to them as she did at 
Rennes, and fortified all her garrisons of 
everything that they wanted, and paid 
largely and gave freely, whereas she 
thought it well employed. Then she 
went to Hennebont, and there she and her 
son tarried all that winter. Oftentimes 
she sent to visit her garrisons, and paid every 
mqn full well and truly their wages. 



CHAPTER LXXni 

How the king of England the third time 
made war on the Scots. 

SUMMARY.— The Scots had taken again 
divers fortresses from the English, and 
had laid siege to Stirling. So soon as 
Edward returned, he rode towards Scotland 
and assembled his army at York. The 
Scots assaulted Stirling with more urgency 
and compelled the garrison to surrender. 
Edxvard moved on to A^ewcastle-upon-Tyne, 
where he ivas much in want of provisions, 
because his ships we7'e scattered by tempest 
and now winter was at hand. The Scots, 
being but fezu and without a head, sent to 
make a truce with Edwa7'd ; and it ivas 
agreed that they should send messengers to 
king David, and if he came not to defend 
his realm within the month of May follow- 
ing, they should yield them to the king of 
England. The king of England returned 
and disbanded his host. 

Meajtwhile, without knowing of these 
messengers, king David -set sail from 
France and landed in Scotland. 



WAJi WITH THE SCOTS, 1341 



73 



CHAPTER LXXIV 

How king David of Scotland came with a 
great host to Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

SUMMARY.— King David was received 
with great joy and gathered a great host. 
They marched into England, leaving Rox- 
burgh and Berwick aside, and came to 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Here an attack was 
made upon them from the town and the earl 
of Moray was taken prisoner. The Scots 
assaulted the toivn to no purpose. 



CHAPTER LXXV 

How king David of Scotland destroyed the 
city of Durham. 

SUMMARY.— The Scots left Newcastle 
and came to Durham, mad at having lost 
the earl of Moray. Sir John Nevill, cap- 
tain at Newcastle, rode within five days 
from thence to Chertsey, where the king lay, 
and brought a report of the Scots. The 
king ordered a general levy to defend the 
realm, and himself hastened northward. 
Meanwhile the Scots took Durham by 
assault and destroyed it utterly, with the 
churches, putting to death men, women and 
children, and not sparing monks, prelates or 
canons. 



CHAPTER LXXVI 

How the Scots besieged a castle of the earl 
of Salisbury's. 

SUMMARY. — King David drew toxvard 
Carlisle and passed by a castle of the 
earl of Salisbtiry's,^ whereof sir William 
Montague, nephew to the earl of Salisbury, 
was captain. This sir William Montague 
attacked the rear -guard of the Scots and 
carried off some of their phmder, wherefore 
an assault was made on the castle. There 
was within the noble cotintess of Salisbury, 
who was reptited for the sage st and fairest 
lady of all England. Her husband, as %ve 
have heard, had been taken prisoner before 

1 Probably Wark castle, but the whole of this 
narrative is very unhistorical. 



Lille in France. This lady comforted 
them greatly within, 'for by the regard of 
such a lady and by her szveet comforting a 
?iian ought to be worth two men at need.^ 
After the first day it was proposed to send 
for aid to king Edward, who lay at York, 
atui sir William Montague himself offered 
to ride thither, and passed through the host 
of the Scots by night. After several days of 
fruitless assaults the king of Scots was ad- 
vised to depart, for fear lest the king of Eng- 
land should come thither, and the Scots 
retired to the forest of Jedworth. 



CHAPTER LXXVH 

How the king of England was in amours 
with the countess of Salisbury. 

The same day that the Scots departed 
from the said castle, king Edward came 
thither with all his host about noon, and 
came to the same place whereas the Scots 
had lodged, and was sore displeased that 
he found not the Scots there, for he came 
thither in such haste, that his horse and 
men were sore travailed. Then he com- 
manded to lodge there that night, and said 
how he would go see the castle and the 
noble lady therein, for he had not seen her 
sith she was married before : then every 
man took his lodging as he list. And as 
soon as the king was unarmed, he took a 
ten or twelve knights with him and went 
to the castle, to salute the countess of 
Salisbury and to see the manner of the 
assaults of the Scots and the defence that 
was made against them. 

As soon as the lady knew of the 
king's coming, she set open the gates and 
came out so richly beseen, that every man 
marvelled of her beauty and could not cease 
to regard her nobleness, with her great 
beauty and the gracious words and coun- 
tenance that she made. When she came 
to the king, she kneeled down to the earth, 
thanking him of his succours, and so led 
him into the castle to make him cheer and 
honour, as she that could right well do it. 
Every man regarded her marvellously : the 
king himself could not withhold his regard- 
ing of her ; for he thought that he never 
saw before so noble nor so fair a lady. 
He was stricken therewith to the heart 



74 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



with a sparkle of fine love that endured 
long after : he thought no lady in the world 
so worthy to be beloved as she. Thus they 
entered into the castle hand in hand : the 
lady led him first into the hall and after 
into the chamber, nobly apparelled. The 
king regarded so the lady, that she was 
abashed : at last he went to a window to 
rest him, and so fell in a great study. 
The lady went about to make cheer to 
the lords and knights that were there, and 
commanded to dress the hall for dinner. 
When she had all devised and commanded, 
then she came to the king with a merry 
cheer, who was in a great study, and she 
said : * Dear sir, why do ye study so for ? 
Your grace not displeased, it appertaineth 
not to you so to do. Rather ye should 
make good cheer and be joyful, seeing ye 
have chased away your enemies, who durst 
not abide you. Let other men study for 
the remnant. ' Then the king said : ' Ah ! 
dear lady, know for truth that sith I entered 
into the castle, there is a study come to 
my mind, so that I cannot choose but to 
muse ; nor I cannot tell what shall fall 
thereof: put it out of my heart I cannot.' 
' Ah, sir,' quoth the lady, ' ye ought always 
to make good cheer to comfort therewith 
your people. God hath aided you so in 
your business, and hath given you so great 
graces, that ye be the most doubted and 
honoured prince in all Christendom ; and 
if the king of Scots have done you any 
despite or damage, ye may well amend it 
when it shall please you, as ye have done 
divers times or this. Sir, leave your musing 
and come into the hall, if it please you : 
your dinner is all ready.' ' Ah ! fair lady,' 
quoth the king, * other things lieth at my 
heart, that ye know not of : but surely the 
sweet behaving, the perfect wisdom, the 
good grace, nobleness and excellent beauty, 
that I see in you, hath so sore surprised 
my heart, that I cannot but love you, and 
without your love I am but dead.' Then 
the lady said : ' Ah, right noble prince, for 
God's sake mock nor tempt me not. I 
cannot believe that it is true that ye say, 
nor that so noble a prince as ye be would 
think to dishonour me and my lord my 
husband, who is so valiant a knight and 
hath done your grace so good service, and 
as yet lieth in prison for your quarrel. 
Certainly, sir, ye should in this case have 



but a small praise, and nothing the better 
thereby. I had never as yet such a 
thought in my heart, nor I trust in God 
never shall have, for no man living. If 
I had any such intention, your grace ought 
not all only to blame me, but also to punish 
my body, yea and by true justice to be 
dismembered. ' ^ 

Therewith the lady departed from the 
king and went into the hall to haste the 
dinner. Then she returned again to the 
king and brought some of his knights with 
her, and said : ' Sir, if it please you to 
come into the hall, your knights abideth 
for you to wash : ye have been too long 
fasting.' Then the king went into the 
hall and washed, and sat down among 
his lords, and the lady also. The king 
ate but little ; he sat still musing, and as 
he durst he cast his eyen upon the lady. 
Of his sadness his knights had marvel, for 
he was not accustomed so to be. Some 
thought it was because the Scots were 
scaped from him.^ 

All that day the king tarried there and 
wist not what to do. Sometime he imagined 
that honour and truth defended him to set 
his heart in such a case, to dishonour such 
a lady and so true a knight as her husband 
was, who had always well and truly served 
him. On the other part love so constrained 
him, that the power thereof surmounted 
honour and truth. Thus the king debated 
in himself all that day and all that night. 
In the morning he arose and dislodged all 
his host and drew after the Scots, to chase 
them out of his realm. Then he took 
leave of the lady, saying, * My dear lady, 
to God I commend you till I return again, 
requiring you to advise you otherwise than 
you have said to me. ' ' Noble prince, ' quoth 
the lady, ' God the Father glorious be 
your conduct, and put you out of all villain 
thoughts. Sir, I am and ever shall be 
ready to do your grace service to your 
honour and to mine.' Therewith the king 
departed all abashed ; and so followed the 
Scots till he came to the city of Berwick, 
and went and lodged within four leagues 
of the forest of Gedeours, whereas king 

1 ' Mon corps punlr, justlcier et desmembrer.' 

2 The celebrated game of chess, in which the 
king purposely loses a valuable ring to the countess, 
which she sends back to him on his departure, is 
only found in the (so-called) first redaction. 



tVAR IN BRITTANY, 1342 



75 



David and all his company were entered, 
in trust of the great wilderness. The king 
of England tarried there a three days, to 
see if the Scots would issue out to fight 
with him. In these three days there were 
divers skirmishes on both parties, and 
divers slain, taken and sore hurt among 
the Scots. Sir William Douglas was he 
that did most trouble to the Englishmen : 
he bare azure, a comble silver, three stars 
gules. 



CHAPTER LXXVIII 

How the earl of Salisbury and the earl 
Moray were delivered out of prison by 
exchange. 

In these said three days there were noble- 
men on both parties that treated for a peace 
to be had between these two kings ; and 
their treaty took such effect, that a truce 
was agreed, to endure two year, so that 
the French king would thereto agree ; for 
the king of Scots was so sore allied to the 
French king, that he might take no peace 
without his consent. And if so be the 
French king would not agree to the peace, 
then the truce to endure to the first day of 
May following. And it was agreed that 
the earl of Moray should be quit for his 
prisonment, if the king of Scots could 
do so much, to purchase with the French 
king that the earl of Salisbury might in 
like manner be quit out of prison ; the 
which thing should be done before the 
feast of Saint John Baptist next after. 
The king of England agreed the sooner 
to this truce, because he had war in France, 
in Gascoyne, in Poitou, in Saintonge, in 
Bretayne ; and in every place he had men 
of war at his wages. Then the king of 
Scots sent great messengers to the French 
king, to agree to this truce. The French 
king was content, seeing it was the desire 
of the king of Scots. Then the earl of 
Salisbury was sent into England, and the 
king of England sent incontinent the earl 
Moray into Scotland. 



CHAPTER LXXIX 

How sir Charles de Blois with divers lords 
of France took the city of Rennes in 
Bretayne. 

SUMMARY.— Sir Charles of Blois re- 
mained at Nantes for the winter, and then 
laid siege to Rennes. The countess of Mont - 
fort, who was at Hennebont, sent to get help 
from the king of England, who sent sir 
Walter of Manny with a body of men of 
arms and three thousand archers, but they 
were detained for sixty days on their passage 
by contrary winds. Meanwhile the burgesses 
of Rennes yielded up their town in the 
beginning of May MCCCXLII. 



CHAPTER LXXX 

How sir Charles de Blois besieged the 
countess of Montfort in Hennebont, 

When the city of Rennes was given up, 
the burgesses made their homage and fealty 
to the lord Charles of Blois. Then he was 
counselled to go and lay siege to Henne- 
bont, whereas the countess was, saying that 
the earl being in prison, if they might get 
the countess and her son, it should make an 
end of all their war. Then they went all 
to Hennebont and laid siege thereto, and 
to the castle also, as far as they might by 
land. With the countess in Hennebont 
there was the bishop of Leon in Bretayne, 
also there was sir Ives of Tresiguidy, the 
lord of Landemau, sir WiUiam of Cadoudal, 
and the chatelain of Guingamp, the two 
brethren of Quirich, sir Henry and sir Oliver 
of Spinefort, and divers other. When the 
countess and her company understood that 
the Frenchmen were coming to lay siege to 
the town of Hennebont, then it was com- 
manded to sound the watch-bell alarm, and 
every man to be armed and draw to their 
defence. 

When sir Charles and the Frenchmen 
came near to the town, they commanded to 
lodge there that night. Some of the young 
lusty companions came skirmishing to the 
barriers, and some of them within issued out 
to them, so that there was a great affray 5 
but the Genoways and Frenchmen lost more 



76 



THE CHRONICLES OF FRO IBS ART 



than they won. When night came on, 
every man drew to their lodging. The next 
day the lords took counsel to assail the 
barriers, to see the manner of them within ; 
and so the third day they made a great 
assault to the barriers from morning till it 
was noon. Then the assailants drew aback 
sore beaten and divers slain. When the 
lords of France saw their men draw aback, 
they were sore displeased, and caused the 
assault to begin again more fiercer than it 
was before, and they within defended them- 
selves valiantly. The countess herself ware 
harness on her body and rode on a great 
courser from street to street, desiring her 
people to make good defence, and she 
caused damosels and other women to cut 
short their kirtles and to carry stones ^ and 
pots full of chalk to the walls, to be cast 
down to their enemies. 

This lady did there an hardy enterprise. 
She mounted up to the height of a tower, 
to see how the Frenchmen were ordered 
without : she saw how that all the lords and 
all other people of the host were all gone 
out of their field to the assault : then she 
took again her courser, armed as she was, 
and caused three hundred men a-horseback 
to be ready, and she went with them to 
another gate, whereas there was none 
assault. She issued out and her com- 
pany, and dashed into the French lodgings, 
and cut down tents and set fire in their 
lodgings : she found no defence there, but 
a certain of varlets and boys, who ran away. 
When the lords of France looked behind 
them and saw their lodgings afire and heard 
the cry and noise there, they returned to 
the field ci'ying, ' Treason ! treason ! ' so 
that all the assault was left. 

When the countess saw that, she drew 
together her company, and when she saw 
she could not enter again into the town 
without great damage, she took another 
way and went to the castle of Brest, the 
which was not far thence. When sir Louis 
of Spain, who was marshal of the host, was 

1 A curious mistranslation. Froissart says : ' She 
made the women of the town, ladies and other, 
take up the pavement of the streets (despecer les 
chaussees) and carry stones to the battlements to 
cast upon their enemies.' The translator has 
confused ' chaussees' and ' chausses,' and so got the 
idea of cutting short the kirtles. In the next clause 
'chalk' is his translation of ' chaulx vive,' 'quick- 
lime. ' 



come to the field, and saw their lodgings 
brenning and saw the countess and her 
company going away, he followed after her 
with a great number. He chased her so 
near, that he slew and hurt divers of them 
that were behind, evil horsed, but the 
countess and the most part of her company 
rode so well that they came to Brest, and 
there they were received with great joy. 

The next day the lords of France, who 
had lost their tents and their provisions, then 
took counsel to lodge in bowers of trees 
more nearer to the town ; and they had 
great marvel when they knew that the 
countess herself had done that enterprise. 
They of the town wist not where the 
countess was become, whereof they were in 
great trouble, for it was five days or they 
heard any tidings. The countess did so 
much at Brest that she gat together a five 
hundred spears, and then about midnight 
she departed from Brest, and by the sun- 
rising she came along by the one side of the 
host, and came to one of the gates of 
Hennebont, the which was opened for her, 
and therein she entered and all her company 
with great noise of trumpets and canayrs ; 
whereof the French host had great marvel, 
and armed them and ran to the town to 
assault it, and they within ready to defend. 
There began a fierce assault and endured 
till noon, but the Frenchmen lost more than 
they within. At noon the assault ceased : 
then they took counsel that sir Charles de 
Blois should go from that siege and give 
assault to the castle of Auray, the which 
king Arthur made, and with him should go 
the duke of Bourbon, the earl of Blois, the 
marshal of France sir Robert Bertrand, and 
that sir Herve de Leon, and part of the 
Genoways, and the lord Louis of Spain and 
the viscount of Rohan, with all the 
Spaniards, should abide still before Henne- 
bont : for they saw well they could have no 
profit to assail Hennebont any more ; but 
they sent for twelve great engines to Rennes, 
to the intent to cast into the town and castle 
day and night. So they divided their host, 
the one still before Hennebont, the other 
with sir Charles of Blois before Auray. 

They within Auray were well fortified and 
were a two hundred companions, able for to 
maintain the war ; and sir Henry of Spine- 
fort and sir Oliver his brother were chief 
captains there. A four leagues from that 



fVA/^ IN BRITTANY, 1342 



77 



castle was the good town of Vannes, 
pertaining to the countess, and captain 
there was sir Geoffrey of Malestroit. Not 
far thence also was the good town of Dinan ; 
the chatelain of Guingamp was captain 
there : he was at Hennebont with the 
countess, and had left in the town of Dinan 
his wife and his children, and had left there 
captain in his stead Raynold his son. 
Between these two towns stood a strong 
castle pertaining to sir Charles de Blois, and 
was well kept with soldiers, Burgoynians : 
captain there was sir Gerard of Malain,^ 
and with him another knight called Pierre 
Porteboeuf. They wasted all the country 
about them and constrained sore the said two 
towns, for there could neither merchandise 
nor provision enter into any of them but in 
great danger. On a day they would ride 
toward Vannes, and another day toward 
Dinan ; and on a day sir Raynold of 
Guingamp laid a bushment, and the same 
day sir Gerard of Malain rode forth and 
had taken a fifteen merchants and all their 
goods, and was driving of them towards 
their castle, called Roche- Piriou, and so 
fell in the bushment. And there sir 
Raynold of Guingamp took sir Gerard 
prisoner and a twenty-five of his company, 
and rescued the merchants and led forth 
theirprisoners to Dinan, whereof sir Raynold 
was much praised and well worthy. 

Now let us speak of the countess of 
Montfort, who was besieged in Hennebont 
by sir Louis of Spain, who kept the siege 
there ; and he had so broken and bruised 
the walls of the town with his engines, so 
that they within began to be abashed. And 
on a day the bishop of Leon spake with sir 
Herve of Leon his nephew, by whom, as it 
was said, that the earl Montfort was taken. 
So long they spake together, that they agreed 
that the bishop should do what he could to 
cause the company within to agree to yield 
up the town and castle to sir Charles de 
Blois, and sir Herve de Leon on the other 
side should purchase peace for them all of 
sir Charles de Blois, and to lose nothing of 
their goods. Thus the bishop entered again 
into the town : the countess incontinent 
doubted of some evil purchase. Then she 
desired the lords and knights that were 
there, that for the love of God they should 
be in no doubt ; for she said she was in 
1 The author calls him 'uns bons escuiers.' 



surety that they should have succours with- 
in three days. Howbeit the bishop spake 
so much and shewed so many reasons to 
the lords, that they were in a gi-eat trouble 
all that night. The next morning they 
drew to council again, so that they were 
near of accord to have given up the town, 
and sir Herve was come near to the town 
to have taken possession thereof. Then 
the countess looked down along the sea, 
out at a window in the castle, and began 
to smile forgreat joy that she had to see 
the succours coming, the which she had so 
long desired. Then she cried out aloud 
and said twice : ' I see the succours of 
England coming.' Then they of the town 
ran to the walls and saw a great number of 
ships great and small, freshly decked,^ 
coming toward Hennebont. They thought 
well it was the succours of England, who 
had been on the sea sixty days by reason of 
contrary winds. 



CHAPTER LXXXI 

How sir Walter of Manny brought the 
Englishmen into Bretayne. 

When the seneschal of Guingamp, sir Ives 
of Tresiguidy, sir Galeran of Landernau, and 
the other knights saw these succours coming, 
then they said to the bishop : * Sir, ye may 
well leave your treaty,' for they said they 
were not content as then to follow his 
counsel. Then the bishop said : ' Sirs, then 
our company shall depart, for I will go to 
him that hath most right, as me seemeth.' 
Then he departed from Hennebont and de- 
fied the countess and all her aiders, and so 
went to sir Herve de Leon and shewed him 
how the matter went. Then sir Herve was 
sore displeased, and caused incontinent to 
rear up the greatest engines that they had 
near to the castle, and commanded that they 
should not cease to cast day and night. 
Then he departed thence and brought the 
bishop to sir Louis of Spain, who received 
him with great joy, and so did sir Charles 
of Blois. 

Then the countess dressed up halls and 
chambers to lodge the lords of England that 
were coming, and did send against them 

1 ' Bien bastillies,' well provided with battlements 
or bulwarks. 



78 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



right nobly. And when they were aland, 
she came to them with great reverence 
and feasted them the best she might, and 
thanked them right humbly, and caused 
all the knights and other to lodge at their 
ease in the castle and in the town, and the 
next day she made them a great feast at 
dinner. All night and the next day also 
the engines never ceased to cast ; and after 
dinner sir Gaultier of Manny, who was 
chief of that company, demanded of the 
state of the town and of the host without, 
and said : ' I have a great desire to issue 
out and to break down this great engine 
that standeth so near us, if any will follow 
me.' Then sir Ives of Tresiguidy said 
how he would not fail him at this his first 
beginning, and so said the lord of Lander- 
nau. Then they armed them, and so they 
issued out privily at a certain gate, and 
with them a three hundred archers, who 
shot so wholly together that they that kept 
the engine fled away ; and the men of arms 
came after the archers and slew divers of 
them that fled, and beat down the great 
engine and brake it all to pieces. Then 
they ran in among the tents and lodgings 
and set fire in divers places and slew and 
hurt divers, till the host began to stir : then 
they withdrew fair and easily, and they of 
the host ran after them like mad - men. 
Then sir Gaultier said : ' Let me never be 
beloved with my lady, without I have a 
course with one of these followers ' ; and 
therewith turned his spear in the rest, and 
in likewise so did the two brethren of 
Levedale and the Hase of Brabant, sir 
Ives of Tresiguidy, sir Galeran of Lander- 
nau and divers other companions. They 
ran at the first comers : there might well 
a been legs seen turned upward. There 
began a sore meddling, for they of the host 
always increased, wherefore it behoved the 
Englishmen to withdraw toward their for- 
tress. There might well a been seen on 
both parties many noble deeds, taking and 
rescuing. The Englishmen drew sagely to 
the dikes and there made a stall, till all 
their men were in safeguard ; and all the 
residue of the town issued out to rescue 
their company, and caused them of the 
host to recule back. So when they of the 
host saw how they could do no good, they 
drew to their lodgings, and they of the 
fortress in like wise to their lodgings. 



Then the countess descended down from 
the castle with a glad cheer and came and 
kissed sir Gaultier of Manny and his com- 
panions one after another two or three 
times, like a valiant lady. 

CHAPTERS LXXXII-LXXXVI 

SUMMARY.— The French abandoned the 
siege of Hennebont and retired to Auray. 
The castle of Conquest was taken by the 
French and retaken the next day by sir 
Walter de Majtny. 

The French took Dinan, Guerande, 
Auray and Vannes. Sir Walter de 
Manny defeated sir Louis of Spain at 
Quiniperle. Carhaix was surrendered to 
sir Charles of Blois, who then returned 
to the siege of Hennebont. There he was 
joined by sir Louis of Spain, who was 
much angered by the defeat at QuimperlL 



CHAPTER LXXXVII 

How sir John Butler and sir Hubert of 
Frenay were rescued from death before 
Hennebont. 

On a day sir Louis of Spain came to the 
tent of sir Charles de Blois and desired of 
him a gift for all the service that ever he 
had done, in the presence of divers lords 
of France. And sir Charles granted him, 
because he knew himself so much bound 
to him. ' Sir,' quoth he, ' I require you 
cause the two knights that be in prison in 
Faouet to be brought hither, that is to say 
sir John Butler and sir Hubert Frenay, 
and to give them to me, to do with them 
at my pleasure. Sir, this is the gift that I 
desire of you : they have chased, discomfited 
and hurt me, and slain my nephew Alphonso. 
I cannot tell how otherwise to be revenged 
of them, but I shall strike off their heads 
before the town in the sight of their com- 
panions. ' Of these words sir Charles was 
abashed and said : * Certainly with right a 
good will I will give you the prisoners, 
sith ye have desired them ; but surely it 
should be a shameful deed to put so to 
death such two valiant knights as they be, 
and it shall be an occasion to our enemies 
to deal in like wise with any of ours, if they 



IVA/^ IN BRITTANY, 1342 



79 



fall in like case ; and we know not what 
shall daily fall ; the chances of war be 
divers : wherefore, dear cousin, I require 
you to be better advised.' Then sir Louis 
said : * Sir, if ye keep not promise with me, 
know ye for truth that I shall depart out of 
your company and shall never serve nor love 
you again, while I live.' 

When sir Charles saw none other boot, 
he sent to Faouet for the two knights, and 
in a morning they were brought to sir 
Charles of Blois' tent : but for all that he 
could desire, he could not turn sir Louis of 
Spain from his purpose, but said plainly that 
they should be beheaded anon after dinner, 
he was so sore displeased with them. 

All these words that was between sir 
Charles and sir Louis for the occasion of 
these two knights, anon was come to the 
knowledge of sir Walter of Manny by cer- 
tain spies, that shewed the mischief that 
these two knights were in. Then he called 
his company and took counsel what was best 
to do. Some thought one thing, some 
thought another, but they wist not what 
remedy to find. Then sir Gaultier of 
Manny said : * Sirs, it should be great 
honour for us, if we might deliver out of 
danger yonder two knights : and if we put 
it in adventure, though we fail thereof, yet 
king Edward our master will can us much 
thank therefor, and so will all other noble 
men that hereafter shall hear of the case. 
At least it shall be said how we did our 
devoir. Sirs, this is mine advice, if ye will 
follow it, for me thinketh a man should well 
adventure his body to save the lives of two 
such valiant knights : mine advice is that 
we divide ourselves into two parts, the one 
part incontinent to issue out at this gate and 
to arrange themselves on the dikes, to stir 
the host and to skirmish : I think that all 
the whole host will come running thither. 
And, sir Aymery, ye shall be captain of that 
company, and take with you a six thousand 
good archers and three hundred men of 
arms. And I shall take with me a hundred 
men of arms and five hundred archers, and 
I will issue out at the postern covertly and 
shall dash into the host among the lodgings 
behind, the which I think we shall find as 
good as void. I shall have such with me 
as shall well bring me to the tent of sir 
Charles de Blois, whereas I think we shall 
find the two knights prisoners ; and I en- 



sure you we shall do our devoir to deliver 
them, ' This device pleased them all, and 
incontinent they armed them, and about 
the hour of dinner sir Aymery of Clisson 
issued out with his company and set open 
the chief gate towards the host, and some 
of them dashed suddenly into the host, 
and cut down tents, and slew and hurt 
divers. The host was in a sudden fray, 
and in haste armed them and drew towards 
the Englishmen and Bretons, who fair and 
easily reculed back. There was a sore 
skirmish, and many a man overthrown on 
both parties. Then sir Aymery drew his 
people along on the dikes within the bar- 
riers, and the archers ready on both sides 
the way to receive their enemies : the noise 
and cry was so great, that all the whole 
host drew thither, and left their tents void, 
saving a certain varlets. 

In the mean season sir Gaultier of Manny 
and his company issued out at a postern 
privily and came behind the host, and en- 
tered into the lodgings of the French lords ; 
for there were none to resist them, all were 
at the skirmish. Then sir Gaultier went 
straight to sir Charles of Blois' tent, and 
found there the two knights prisoners, sir 
Hubert of Frenay and sir John Butler, and 
made them incontinent to leap upon two 
good horses that they brought thither for 
the same intent, and returned incontinent 
and entered again into Hennebont the same 
way they issued out. The countess re- 
ceived them with great joy. 

All this season they fought still at the 
gate. Then tidings came to the lords of 
France how the two knights prisoners were 
rescued. When sir Louis of Spain knew 
thereof, he thought himself deceived, and 
he demanded which way they were gone 
that made that rescue ; and it was shewed 
him how they were entered into Hennebont. 
Then sir Louis departed from the assault 
and went to his lodging right sore dis- 
pleased : then all other left the assault. In 
the retreat there were two knights that ad- 
ventured themselves so forward, that they 
were taken by the Frenchmen, the lord 
Landernau and the chatelain of Guingamp, 
whereof sir Charles of Blois had great joy, 
and they were brought to his tent, and there 
they were so preached to, that they turned 
to sir Charles' party and did homage and 
fealty to him. 



8o 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



The third day after all the lords assembled 
in the lord Charles' tent to take counsel, 
for they saw well that Hennebont was so 
strong and so well fortified with men of war, 
that they thought they should win but 
little there ; and also the country was so 
wasted, that they wist not whither to go 
to forage ; and also winter was at hand : 
wherefore they all agreed to depart. Then 
they counselled sir Charles of Blois that he 
should send new provisions to all cities, 
towns and fortresses, such as he had won, 
and noble captains with good soldiers to 
defend their places from their enemies ; and 
also if any man would treat for a truce to 
Whitsuntide, that it should not be refused. 



CHAPTERS LXXXVIII-XC 

SUMMARY. — The town of Jugon was 
betrayed to sir Charles of Blois by a rich 
burgess. 

A truce was ?nade, and the countess of 
Montfort passed over into England. 

A feast and jousts xvere held in London 
in honour of the countess of Salisbury. 

The king of England sent Robert of 
Artois with a force of men of ar?ns and 
archers to aid the countess of Montfort. 
The lord Louis of Spain and the Ge7ioese 
waited for him on the sea about Guernsey. 



CHAPTER XCI 

Of the battle of Guernsey between sir Robert 
d' Artois and sir Louis of Spain on the sea. 

Sir Robert d'Artois earl of Richmond, 
and with him the earl of Pembroke, the earl 
of Salisbury, the earl of Suffolk, the earl 
of Oxford, the baron of Stafford, the lord 
Spenser, the lord Bourchier, and divers 
other knights of England and their com- 
panies were with the countess of Montfort 
on the sea, and at last came before the isle 
of Guernsey. Then they perceived the 
great fleet of the Genoways, whereof sir 
Louis of Spain was chief captain. Then 
their mariners said : ' Sirs, arm you quickly, 
for yonder be Genoways and Spaniards that 
will set on you.' Then the Englishmen 
sowned their trumpets and reared up their 



banners and standards with their arms and 
devices, with the banner of Saint George, 
and set their ships in order with their 
archers before : and as the wind served 
them, they sailed forth. They were a 
forty-six vessels, great and small ; but sir 
Louis of Spain had nine greater than any 
of the other and three galleys. And in the 
three galleys were the three chief captains, 
as sir Louis of Spain, sir Charles and sir 
Ayton,^ and when they approached near 
together, the Genoways began to shoot 
with their cross-bows, and the archers of 
England against them : there was sore 
shooting between them and many hurt on 
both parties. And when the lords, knights 
and squires came near together, there was 
a sore battle : the countess that day was 
worth a man ; she had the heart of a lion, 
and had in her hand a sharp glaive, where- 
with she fought fiercely. 

The Spaniards and Genoways that were 
in the great vessels they cast down great 
bars of iron and pieces of timber, the which 
troubled sore the English archers. This 
battle began about the time of evensong, 
and the night departed them, for it was very 
dark, so that one could scant know another. 
Then they withdrew each from other and 
cast anchors and abode still in their harness, 
for they thought to fight again in the morn- 
ing. But about midnight there rose such 
a tempest, so horrible, as though all the 
world should have ended. There was 
none so hardy but would gladly have been 
aland : the ships dashed so together, that 
they weened all would have riven in pieces. 
The lords of England demanded counsel of 
their mariners, what was best to do : they 
answered, to take land as soon as they 
might ; for the tempest was so great, that 
if they took the sea, they were in danger of 
drowning. Then they drew up their 
anchors, and bare but a quarter sail, and 
drew from that place. The Genoways on 
the other side drew up their anchors and 
took the deep of the sea ; for their vessels 
were greater than the English ships, they 
might better abide the brunt of the sea ; for 
if the great vessels had come near the land, 
they were likely to have been broken. And 
as they departed, they took four English ships 
laded with victual and tailed them to their 

1 Louis de la Cerda, called d'Espagtie, Charles 
Grimaldi and Ayton (Antonio) Doria. 



IFAI? IN BRITTANY, 1342 



8r 



ships. The storm was so hideous, that in 
less than a day they were driven a hundred 
leagues from the place where they were 
before. And the English ships took a 
little haven not far from the city of Vannes, 
whereof they were right glad. 



CHAPTERS XCII-XCIV 

SUMMARY.— The English laid siege to 
Vannes and took it by assault. 

The countess of Montfort zvent with sir 
Walter de Manny to Hennehont : the earls 
of Salisbury and Pembroke laid siege to 
Rennes ; and sir Robert d'Artois remained 
at Vannes. 

Sir Herve de Leon and the lord Clisson 
recovered Vannes, and sir Robert d'Artois 
7vas wounded in the defence. After staying 
for a time at Hennebont, he set sail for 
England and there died. The king of 
England, to avenge his death, landed with 
an arjtiy tiear Vannes, and laid siege to the 
tozvn. 

Charles of Blois sent for aid to the French 
king. The king of England left a force 
before Vannes and went on to Nantes. 
There also he left a part of his army and 
returning laid siege to Dinan. 



CHAPTER XCV 

How sir Hervd of Leon and the lord Clisson 
were taken prisoners before Vannes. 

While the king of England was thus in 
Bretayne, wasting and destroying the 
country, such as he had lying at siege 
before Vannes gave divers assaults, and 
specially at one of the gates. And on a 
day there was a great assault and many 
feats of arms done on both parties. They 
within set open the gate and came to the 
barriers, because they saw the earl of 
"Warwick's banner and the earl of Arundel's, 
the lord Stafford's and sir Walter of 
Manny's, adventuring themselves jeopard- 
ously, as they thought : wherefore the lord 
Clisson, sir Herve of Leon and other 
adventured themselves courageously. There 
was a sore skirmish : finally the Englishmen 
were put back : then the knights of Bretayne 
G 



opened the barriers and adventured them- 
selves, and left six knights with a good 
number to keep the town, and they issued 
out after the Englishmen. And the Eng- 
lishmen reculed wisely, and ever fought as 
they saw their advantage. The Englishmen 
multiplied in such wise that at last the 
P'renchmen and Bretons were fain to recule 
back again to their town, not in so good 
order as they came forth. Then the 
Englishmen followed them again, and 
many were slain and hurt. They of the 
town saw their men recule again and 
chased : then they closed their barriers in 
so evil a time, that the lord Clisson and sir 
Herve of Leon were closed without, and 
there they were both taken prisoners. And 
on the other side the lord Stafford was gone 
in so far, that he was closed in between the 
gate and the barriers, and there he was 
taken prisoner, and divers that were with 
him taken and slain. Thus the Englishmen 
drew to their lodgings, and the Bretons into 
the city of Vannes. 



CHAPTERS XCVI-XCIX 

SUMMARY. — The king of England 
took Dinan by assault.^ In the meantime 
sir Louis of Spain kept the sea and did much 
damage to the English ships. 

The duke of Normandy, the earl of Alen- 
(on, the duke of Bourbon and many other 
lords came to Nantes to help Charles of 
Blois. The king of England sent for his 
force which lay before Nantes to come to 
Vannes. 

The duke of Normandy came up from 
Nantes and lay over against the king of 
England at Vannes. The kivgof Etigland 
sent for them that lay at siege before Rennes. 
The two hosts lay one against the other till 
it 7vas well onward in winter. Then by 
means of two cardinals sent by the pope 
Clement VI. a truce was agreed to for three 
years. 

The lord Clisson was exchanged for the 
lord Stafford, but on suspicion of treason he 
was shortly after piit to death by the French 

1 From Froissart's last redaction, with which 
lord Berners was not acquainted, we know that 
the captain of the town was n\ade prisoner by the 
young knight John Bourchier, ancestor of our 
translator. 



82 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



king, and so also were some other lords of 
Brittany and Normandy. The lord Clisson 
had a son called Oliver, who went to the 
countess of Montfort and her son, who was 
of his age. 



CHAPTER C 

Of the order of Saint George, that king 
Edward stablished in the castle of 
Windsor. 

In this season the king of England took 
pleasure to new re-edify the castle of Wind- 
sor, the which was begun by king Arthur, 
and there first began the Table Round, 
whereby sprang the fame of so many noble 
knights throughout all the world. Then 
king Edward determined to make an order 
and a brotherhood of a certain number of 
knights, and to be called knights of the Blue 
Garter, and a feast to be kept yearly at Wind- 
sor on Saint George's day. And to begin 
this order the king assembled together earls, 
lords and knights of his realm, and shewed 
them his intention : and they all joyously 
agreed to his pleasure, because they saw it 
was a thing much honourable and whereby 
great amity and love should grow and in- 
crease. Then was there chosen out a certain 
number of the most valiantest men of the 
realm, and they sware and sealed to main- 
tain the ordinances, such as were devised ; 
and the king made a chapel in the castle of 
Windsor, of Saint George, and stablished 
certain canons there to serve God, and 
endowed them with fair rent. Then the 
king sent to publish this feast by his heralds 
into France, Scotland, Burgoyne, Hainault, 
Flanders, Brabant, and into the Empire of 
Almaine, giving to every knight and squire 
that would come to the said feast fifteen 
(lays of safe-conduct before the feast and 
after : the which feast to begin at Windsor 
on Saint George day next after in the year 
of our Lord mcccxliv., and the queen to 
be there accompanied with three hundred 
ladies and damosels, all of noble lineage 
and apparelled accordingly. 



CHAPTER CI 

How the king of England delivered out of 
prison sir Herv6 of Leon. 

While the king made this preparation at 
Windsor for this said feast, tidings came to 
him how the lord Clisson and divers other 
lords had lost their heads in France, where- 
with the king was sore displeased, inso- 
much that he was in purpose to have served 
sir Herv6 of Leon in like case, whom he 
had in prison ; but his cousin the earl of 
Derby shewed to him before his council such 
reasons to assuage his ire and to refrain 
his courage, saying, ' Sir, though that king 
Philip in his haste hath done so foul a deed 
as to put to death such valiant knights, yet, 
sir, for all that blemish not your nobleness : 
and, sir, to say the truth, your prisoner 
ought to bear no blame for this deed ; but, 
sir, put him to a reasonable ransom.' 

Then the king sent for the knight 
prisoner to come to his presence, and then 
said to him : ' Ah, sir Herve, sir Herve, 
mine adversary Philip of Valois hath shewed 
his felony right cruel, to put to death such 
knights, wherewith I am sore displeased : 
and it is thought to us ^ that he hath done it 
in despite of us ; and if I would regard his 
malice, I should serve you in like manner, 
for ye have done me more displeasure, and 
to mine in Bretayne, than any other person. 
But I will suffer it and let him do his worst, 
for to my power I will keep mine honour ; 
and I am content ye shall come to a light 
ransom, for the love of my cousin of Derby, 
who hath desired me for you, so that ye 
will do that I shall shew you.' The 
knight answered and said : ' Sir, I shall do 
all that ye shall command me.' Then 
said the king : ' I know well ye be one of 
the richest knights in Bretayne, and if I 
would sore press you, ye should pay me 
thirty or forty thousand scutes. But ye 
shall go to mine adversary Philip of Valois, 
and shew him on my behalf that, sith he 
hath so shamefully put to death so valiant 
knights in the despite of me, I say and will 
make it good he hath broken the truce 
taken between me and him ; wherefore also 
I renounce it on my part and defy him from 
this day forward. And so that ye will do 

1 * It seems to some of our party.' 



THE EARL OF DERBY IN GASCONY, 1345 



83 



this message, your ransom shall be but ten 
thousand scutes, the which ye shall pay and 
send to Bruges within fifteen days after ye 
be past the sea : and moreover ye shall say 
to all knights and squires of those parts, 
that for all this they leave not to come to 
our feast at Windsor, for we would gladly 
see them, and they shall have sure and safe 
conduct to return fifteen days after the 
feast.' ' Sir,' said the knight, *to the best 
of my power I shall accomplish your 
message, and God reward your grace for 
the courtesy ye shew me, and also I humbly 
thank my lord of Derby of his good-will.' 

And so sir Herve of Leon departed from 
the king and went to Hampton, and there 
took the sea, to the intent to arrive at 
Harfleur ; but a storm took him on the sea, 
which endured fifteen days, and lost his 
horse, which were cast into the sea, and sir 
Herve of Leon was so sore troubled that he 
had never health after. Howbeit at last he 
took land at Crotoy, and so he and all his 
company went afoot to Abbeville, and there 
they got horses : but sir Herve was so sick 
that he was fain to go in a litter, and so 
came to Paris to king Philip and did his 
message from point to point : and he lived 
not long after, but died as he went into his 
country in the city of Angers : God assoil 
his soul. 



CHAPTERS CII-CVI 

SUMMARY.— On the day of Saint George 
the king held his feast at Windsor^ to which 
cavie knights of divers countries^ but none 
from France. 

The king sent the earl of Derby to go into 
rascony, and with him the earls of Pefnbroke 
md Oxford, sir Walter de Manny and 
others. The king sent sir Thomas Dag- 
worth into Brittany and the earl of Salis- 
bury itito Ireland. 

The earl of Dej-by came to Bordeaux ; 
and meanwhile the lord de Visle gathered 
the lords of the French party together and 
they resolved to hold the passage of the river 
at Bergerac.^ 

The earl of Derby rode to Bergerac and 
took the town, the French lords departing 
to la Reole. Leaving Bergerac the earl of 

1 Froissart calls the river the Garonne, but it is 
the Dordogne, 



Derby conquered many fortresses in upper 
Gascony, and then returned to Bordeaux. 

The earl de Visle laid siege to Auberoche, 
which had been captttred by the earl of 
Derby. The garrison endeavoured to send 
a messenger to Bordeaux, but he was inter- 
cepted and shot back into the town from an 
engine. 



CHAPTER CVn 

How the earl of Derby took before Auberoche 
the earl of I'lsleand divers other earls and 
viscounts to the number of nine. 

All the matter of taking of this messenger 
with the letter and necessity of them within 
Auberoche was shewed to the earl of Derby 
by a spy that had been in the French host. 
Then the earl of Derby sent to the earl of 
Pembroke, being at Bergerac, to meet with 
him at a certain place : also he sent for the 
lord Stafford and to sir Stephen Tombey, 
being at Libourne, and the earl himself, 
with sir Gaultier of Manny and his com- 
pany, rode towards Auberoche, and rode 
so secretly with such guides as knew the 
country, that the earl came to Libourne 
and there tarried a day abiding the earl of 
Pembroke. And when he saw that he 
came not, he went forth, for the great 
desire that he had to aid them in Auberoche. 
Thus the earl of Derby, the earl of Oxford, 
sir Gaultier of Manny, sir Richard Hastings, 
sir Stephen Tombey, the lord Ferrers and 
the other issued out of Libourne and rode 
all the night, and in the morning they were 
within two little leagues of Auberoche. 
They entered into a M'ood and lighted from 
their horses and tied their horses to pasture, 
abiding for the earl of Pembroke, and there 
tarried till it was noon. They wist not 
well then what to do, because they were 
but three hundred spears and six hundred 
archers, and the Frenchmen before Aube- 
roche were a ten or twelve thousand men ; 
yet they thought it a great shame to lose 
their companions in Auberoche. Finally 
sir Gaultier of Manny said : * Sirs, let us 
leap on our horses and let us coast under 
the covert of this wood, till we be on the 
same side that joineth to their host, and 
when we be near, put the spurs to the 
horses and cry our cries. We shall enter 



84 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



while they be at supper and unware of us : 
ye shall see them be so discomfited, that 
they shall keep none array,' 

AH the lords and knights agreed to his 
saying : then every man took his horse and 
ordained all their pages and baggage to 
abide still thereas they were. So they rode 
still along by the wood, and came to a little 
river in a vale near to the French host. 
Then they displayed their banners and 
pennons and dashed their spurs to their 
horses, and came in a front into the French 
host among the Gascons, who were nothing 
ware of that bushment. They were going 
to supper, and some ready set at their meat : 
the Englishmen cried, * A Derby, a Derby ! '^ 
and overthrew tents and pavilions, and 
slew and hurt many. The Frenchmen 
wist not what to do, they were so hasted : 
when they came into the field and assembled 
together, they found the English archers 
there ready to receive them, who shot so 
fiercely, that they slew man and horse and 
hurt many. The earl of I'lsle was taken 
prisoner in his own tent and sore hurt, and 
the earl of Perigord and sir Roger his uncle 
in their tents : and there was slain the lord 
of Duras [and] sir Aymar of Poitiers, and 
the earl of Valentinois his brother was 
taken : every man fled that might best, but 
the earl of Comminges, the viscount of 
Caraman and of Villemur and of Bruniquel, 
and the lord de la Bard and of Terride, and 
other that were lodged on the other side of 
the castle, drew back and went into the 
fields with their banners. The Englishmen, 
who had overcome all the other, dashed in 
fiercely among them : there was many a 
proper feat of arms done, many taken and 
rescued again. When they within the castle 
heard that noise without and saw the 
English banners and pennons, incontinent 
they armed them and issued out, and rushed 
into the thickest of the press : they greatly 
refreshed the Englishmen that had fought 
there before. Whereto should I make long 
process ? All those of the earl of ITsle's 
party were nigh all taken or slain : if the 
night had not come on, there had but few 
scaped. There were taken that day, what 
earls and viscounts to the number of nine, 
and of lords, knights and squires taken so 
that there was no English man of arms but 
that had two or three prisoners. This 

1 The French is ' Derbi, Derbi, au comte ! ' 



battle was on Saint Lawrence night, the 
year of our Lord mcccxliv. ^ The English- 
men dealt like good companions with their 
prisoners and suffered many to depart on 
their oath and promise to return again at a 
certain day to Bergerac or to Bordeaux. 

Then the Englishmen entered into Aube- 
roche, and there the earl of Derby gave a 
supper to the most part of the earls and 
viscounts prisoners, and to many of the 
knights and squires. The Englishmen gave 
laud to God, in that that a thousand of 
them had overcome ten thousand of their 
enemies and had rescued the town of Aube- 
roche and saved their companions that were 
within, who by all likelihood should have 
been taken within two days after. 

The next day anon upon sun-rising thither 
came the earl of Pembroke with his com- 
pany, a three hundred spears and a four 
thousand archers. Then he said to the earl 
of Derby : ' Certainly, cousin, ye have done 
me great uncourtesy to fight with our 
enemies without me : seeing that ye sent 
for me, ye might have been sure I would 
not fail to come.' * Fair cousin,' quoth the 
earl of Derby, ' we desired greatly to have 
had you with us : we tarried all day till it 
was far past noon, and when we saw that 
ye came not, we durst not abide no longer ; 
for if our enemies had known of our coming, 
they had been in a great advantage over us ; 
and now we have the advantage of them. 
I pray you, be content, and help to guide 
us to Bordeaux.' So they tarried all that 
day and the next night in Auberoche ; and 
the next day betimes they departed, and 
left captain in Auberoche a knight of 
Gascony called Alexander of Chaumont. 
Thus they rode to Bordeaux and led with 
them the most part of their prisoners. 



CHAPTER CVIII 

Of the towns that the earl of Derby won in 
Gascoyne, going toward the Reole. 

SUMMARY. — The earl of Derby win- 
tered at Bordeaux and in May 1345 ^joined 

1 The date is wrong : it was in 1345, as also 
this whole campaign, and probably on the 21st of 
October. St. Lawrence is loth August. 

2 The earl of Derby did not winter at Bordeaux 
but continued his operations. La Reole was taken 
towards the end of 1345. 



THE EARL OF DERBY IN GAS CO NY, 1345 



85 



the earl of Pembroke at Be^-gerac and so on 
towards la Reole. Sainte-Bazeille submitted 
and la Roche Meilhan was taken by assault: 
Mons^gur was besieged for Jifteen days and 
tJun a truce was agreed to with the captain 
there, to see if the king of France would 
send aid tuithin a month. Aiguillon 
surrendered, for which the captain of it 
was charged with treason and hanged at 
Toulouse. Castelsagrat was taken by assault. 



CHAPTER CIX 

How the earl of Derby laid siege to the 
Reole, and how that the town was yielded 
to him. 

Thus the earl of Derby came before the 
Reole and laid siege thereto on all sides, 
and made bastides in the fields and on the 
ways, so that no provision could entei" into 
the town, and nigh every day there was 
assault. The siege endured a long space. 
And when the month was expired that 
they of Segur should give up their town, 
the earl sent thither, and they of the town 
gave up and became under the obeisance of 
the king of England : the captain, sir Hugh 
Badefol, became servant to the earl, with 
other that were within, upon certain wages 
that they had. The Englishmen, that had 
lien long before the Reole, more than nine 
weeks, had made in the mean space two 
belfries of great timber with three stages, 
every belfry on four great wheels, and the 
sides towards the town were covered with 
cure boly to defend them from fire and from 
shot, and into every stage there were 
pointed an hundred archers. By strength 
of men these two belfries were brought 
to the walls of the town, for they had so 
filled the dikes that they might well be 
brought just to the walls. The archers in 
these stages shot so wholly together, that 
none durst appear at their defence without 
they were well pavised ; and between these 
two belfries there were a two hundred men 
with pick -axes to mine the walls, and so 
they brake through the walls. Then the 
burgesses of the town came to one of the 
gates to speak with some lord of the host. 
When the earl of Derby knew thereof, he 
sent to them sir Gaultier of Manny and the 



baron of Stafford ; and when they came 
there, they found that they of the town 
would yield them, their lives and goods 
saved. 

[When] sir Agot des Baux, who was 
captain within, knew that the people of the 
town would yield up, he went into the 
castle with his company of soldiers ; and 
while they of the town were entreating, he 
conveyed out of the town great quantity of 
wine and other provision, and then closed 
the castle gates and said how he would not 
yield up so soon. The foresaid two lords 
returned to the earl of Derby shewing him 
how they of the town would yield them- 
selves and the town, their lives and goods 
saved. Then the earl sent to know how 
the captain would do with the castle, and 
it was brought word again to him how he 
would not yield. Then the earl studied a 
little and said : * Well, go take them of the 
town to mercy, for by the town we shall 
have the castle.' Then these lords went 
again to them of the town and received 
them to mercy, so that they should go out 
into the field and deliver the earl of Derby 
the keys of the town, saying, ' Sir, from 
henceforth we knowledge ourselves subjects 
and obeisant to the king of England ' : and 
so they did, and sware that they should 
give no comfort to them of the castle, but 
to grieve them to the best of their powers. 
Then the earl commanded that no man 
should do any hurt to the town of Reole 
nor to none of them within. 

Then the earl entered into the town and 
laid siege round about the castle, as near as 
he might, and reared up all his engines, the 
which cast night and day against the walls, 
but they did little hurt, the walls were so 
strong of hard stone : it was said that of 
old time it had been wrought by the hands 
of the Saracens, who made their works so 
strongly that there is none such nowadays. 
When the earl saw that he could do no 
good with his engines, he caused them to 
cease : then he called to him his miners, to 
the intent that they should make a mine, 
under all the walls, the which was not soon 
made. 



86 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



CHAPTER CX 

How sir Walter of Manny found in the town 
of the Reole the sepulchre of his father. 

While this siege endured and that the 
miners were a-work, the lord Gaultier of 
Manny remembered how that his father was 
slain going a pilgrimage to Saint James, 
and how he heard in his youth how he 
should be buried in the Reole or thereabout. 
Then he made it to be enquired in the town, 
if there were any man could shew him his 
father's tomb, he should have a hundred 
crowns for his labour : and there was an 
aged man came to sir Gaultier and said : 
' Sir, I think I can bring you near to the 
place where your father was buried. ' Then 
the lord of Manny said : ' If your words be 
true, I shall keep covenant and more.' 

Now ye shall hear the manner how the 
lord Gaultier's father was slain. It was 
true that sometime there was a bishop in 
Cambresis, a Gascon born of the house of 
Mirepoix : and so it fortuned that in 'his 
days there was at a time a great tourneying 
before Cambray, whereas there were five 
hundred knights on both parties. And 
there was a knight Gascon tourneyed 
with the lord of Manny, father to sir 
Gaultier, and this knight of Gascoyne was 
so sore hurt and beaten, that he had never 
health after, but died. This knight was of 
kin to the said bishop ; wherefore the lord 
of Manny was in his indignation and of all 
his lineage. A two or three year after 
certain good men laboured to make peace 
between them, and so they did : and for 
amends the lord of Manny was bound to 
go a pilgrimage to Saint James. And so 
he went thitherward ; and as he came forby 
the town of Reole, the same season the earl 
Charles of Valois, brother to king Philip, 
lay at siege before the Reole, the which as 
then was English, and divers other towns 
and cities, then pertaining to the king of 
England, father to the king that laid siege 
to Tournay : so that the lord of Manny, 
after the returning of his pilgrimage, he 
came to see the earl of Valois, Avho was 
there as king. And as the lord of Manny 
went at night to his lodging, he was watched 
by the way by certain of them of the lineage 
of him that the lord of Manny had made 
his pilgrimage for, and so without the earl's 



lodging he was slain and murdered, and no 
man knew who did it. Howbeit they of ! 
that lineage were held suspect in the matter, I 
but they were so strong and made such ; 
excuses, that the matter passed, for there 
was none that would pursue the lord of 
Manny's quarrel. Then the earl of Valois 
caused him to be buried in a little chapel in | 
the field, the which as then was without the ( 
town of Reole ; and when the earl of 
Valois had won the town, then the walls 
were made more larger, so that the chapel 
was within the town. 

Thus was sir Gaultier of Manny's father 
slain ; and this old man remembered all this 
matter, for he was present when he was 
buried. Then sir Gaultier of Manny went 
with this good aged man to the place 
whereas his father was buried, and there 
they found a little tomb of marble over him, 
the which his servants laid on him after he 
was buried. Then the old man said : ' Sir, 
surely under this tomb lieth your father.' 
Then the lord of Manny read the scripture 
on the tomb, the which was in Latin, ^ and 
there he found that the old man had said 
truth, and gave him his reward. And 
within two days after he made the tomb to 
be raised and the bones of his father to be 
taken up and put in a coffer, and after did 
send them to Valenciennes in the county of 
Hainault, and in the Friars there made 
them to be buried again honourably, and 
did there his obsequy right goodly, the 
which is yet kept yearly. 



CHAPTER CXI 

How the earl of Derby won the castle of the 
Reole. 

Now let us return to the siege about the 
castle of the Reole, the which had endured 
eleven weeks. So long wrought the miners 
that at last they came under the base court, 
but under the donjon they could not get, for 
it stood on a hard rock.^ Then sir Agot 

1 ' Then sir "Walter of Manny caused the inscrip- 
tion, which was in Latin, to be read by a clerk of 
his.' 

2 ' So long wrought the miners . . . that they 
came beneath the castle and so far forth that they 
cast down a low court (^-^rt^ tower) in the outer cir- 
cuit of the castle, but to tbe_ main tower of the 
donjon they could do no ill, for it was masoned upon 
rock, of which no bottom could be found.' 



CAPTURE OF LA R^OLE, 1345 



87 



des Baux their captain said to his company : 

* Sirs, we be undermined, so that we are in 
great danger.' Then they were all sore 
afraid, and said : Sir, ye are in a great 
danger, and we also, without ye find some 
remedy : ye are our chief and we will obey 
you truly. We have kept this house right 
honourably a long season, and though we 
now make a composition, we cannot be 
blamed. Assay if ye can get grant of the 
earl of Derby to let us depart, our lives and 
goods saved, and we to deliver to him this 
castle.' 

Then sir Agot descended down from the 
high tower and did put out his head at a 
little window and made a token to speak 
with some of the host. Then he was de- 
manded what he would have : he said he 
would fain speak with the earl of Derby or 
with the lord of Manny. When the earl 
knew thereof, he said to the lord of Manny 
and the lord Stafford : ' Let us go to the for- 
tress and know what the captain will say.' 
Then they rode together, and when sir Agot 
saw them, he took off his cap and sainted 
them, each after other, and said : * Lords, 
it is of truth that the French king sent me 
to this town to defend and to keep it, and 
the castle, to my power ; and ye know right 
well how I have acquit myself in that be- 
half, and yet would if I might : but always 
a man may not abide in one place. Sir, 
if it will please you, I and all my com- 
pany would depart, our lives and goods 
saved, and we shall yield unto you the 
fortress. ' 

Then the earl of Derby said : ' Sir Agot, 
ye shall not go so away : we know right 
well we have so sore oppressed you, that we 
may have you when we list ; for your fortress 
standeth but upon stays. Yield you simply, 
and we will receive you. * Sir Agot said : 

* Sir, if we did so, I think in you so much 
honour and gentleness, that ye would deal 
but courteously with us, as ye would the 
French king should deal with any of your 
knights. For God's sake, sir, blemish not 
your nobleness for a poor sort of soldiers 
that be here within, who hath won with 
much pain and peril their poor living, whom 
I have brought hither out of Provence, of 
Savoy, and out of Dauphiny. Sir, know for 
truth that if the least of us should not come 
to mercy, as well as the best, we will rather 
sell our lives in such wise that all the world 



should speak of us. Sir, we desire you to 
bear us some company of arms, and we 
shall pray for you.' 

Then the earl and the other two lords 
went apart and spake together. They spake 
long together of divers things : finally they 
regarded the truth of sir Agot, and con- 
sidered how he was a stranger, and also they 
saw that they could not undermine the 
donjon, [and so] they agreed to receive them 
to mercy. Then the earl said to sir Agot : 
* Sir, we \/ould gladly to all strangers bear 
good company of arms. I am content that ye 
and all your company depart with your lives 
saved, so that you bear away nothing but 
your armour. ' ' So be it, ' quoth sir Agot. 
Then he went to his company and shewed 
them how he had sped. Then they did on 
their harness and took their horses, whereof 
they had no more but six. Some bought 
horses of the Englishmen, the which they 
paid for truly. Thus sir Agot des Baux 
departed from the Reole and yielded up the 
castle to the Englishmen, and sir Agot and 
his company went to Toulouse. 



CHAPTERS CXII, CXIII 

SUMMARY. — The earl of Derby took 
Monpezat by assault^ and Castelnioron by 
strategy. Thence he departed and took Ville- 
franche and other toxvns and castles^ and 
received the submission of Angoulime.^ 
Finally he retired to Bordeaux for the 
winter. 



CHAPTER CXIV 

How sir Godfrey Harcourt was banished out 
of France. 

In this season sir Godfrey of Harcourt 
fell in the indignation of the French king, 
who was a great baron in Normandy and 
brother to the earl of Harcourt, lord of 
Saint-Saviour the Viscount and divers other 
towns in Normandy : and it was said all 
was but for envy, for a little before he was 
as great with the king and with the duke 
of Normandy as he would desire ; but he 
was as then openly banished the realm of 

1 The capture of Angouleme is omitted in Frois- 
sart's last revision, and seems in fact to be imaginary. 



88 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



France, and if the king could have got him 
in his ire, he would have served him as he 
did sir Oliver of Clisson, who was be- 
headed the year before at Paris. This sir 
Godfrey had some friends, who gave him 
warning secretly how the king was dis- 
pleased with him. Then he avoided the 
realm as soon as he might, and went into 
Brabant to the duke there, who was his 
cousin, who received him joyfully. And 
there he tarried a long space and lived of 
such revenues as he had in Brabant ; for 
out of France he could get nothing : the 
king had seized all his lands there of 
Cotentin, and took the profit thereof him- 
self. The duke of Brabant could in no wise 
get again this knight into the king's favour, 
for nothing that he could do. This displea- 
sure cost greatly the realm of France after, 
and specially the country of Normandy ; for 
the tokens thereof remained a hundred 
year after, as ye shall hear in this history. 



CHAPTER CXV 

Of the death of Jaques d' Arteveld of Gaunt. 

In this season reigned in Flanders in great 
prosperity and puissance Jaques d'Arteveld 
of Gaunt, who was as great with the king 
of England as he would desire : and he 
had promised the king to make him lord 
and heritor of Flanders, and to endow his 
son the prince of Wales therewith, and to 
make the county of Flanders a dukedom. 
For the which cause about the feast of 
Saint John Baptist, the year of our Lord 
God MCCCXLV., the king of England was 
come to Sluys with many lords and knights, 
and had brought thither with him the 
young prince his son, on the trust of the 
promise of Jaques d'Arteveld. The king 
with all his navy lay in the haven of Sluys, 
and there he kept his house, and thither 
came to visit him his friends of Flanders. 
There were great councils between the 
king and Jaques d'Arteveld on the one 
party and the counsels of the good towns 
of Flanders on the other party ; so that 
they of the country were not of the agree- 
ment with the king nor with Jaques d'Arte- 
veld, who preached to them that they 
should disherit the earl Louis their own 
natural lord, and also his young son Louis, 



and to enherit the son of the king of Eng- 
land ; the which thing they said surely they 
would never agree unto. And so the last 
day of their council, the which was kept in 
the haven of Sluys in the king's great ship, 
called the Katherine, there they gave a 
final answer by common accord, and said : 
' Sir, ye have desired us to a thing that is . 
great and weighty, the which hereafter I 
may sore touch the country of Flanders | 
and our heirs. Truly we know not at this 
day no person in the world that we love 
the preferment of so much as we do yours ; 
but, sir, this thing we cannot do alone, 
without that all the commonalty of Flanders 
accord to the same. Sir, we shall go home, 
and every man speak with his company 
generally in every town, and as the most 
part agree, we shall be content : and within 
a month we shall be here with you again 
and then give you a full answer, so that 
ye shall be content.' The king nor Jaques 
d'Arteveld could as then have none other 
answer : they would fain have had a short 
day, but it would not be. So thus departed 
that council, and every man went home to 
their own towns. 

Jaques d'Arteveld tarried a little season 
with the king, and still he promised the 
king to bring them to his intent ; but he 
was deceived, for as soon as he came to 
Gaunt, he went no more out again. For 
such of Gaunt as had been at Sluys at the 
council there, when they were returned 
to Gaunt, or Jaques d'Arteveld was come 
into the town,' great and small they as- 
sembled in the market-place; and there 
it was openly shewed what request the 
king of England had made to them by 
the setting on of Jaques d'Arteveld. Then 
every man began to murmur against Jaques, 
for that request pleased them nothing, and 
said that by the grace of God there should 
no such untruth be found in them, as 
willingly to disherit their natural lord and 
his issue, to enherit a stranger : and so 
they all departed from the market-place, 
not content with Jaques d'Arteveld. 

Now behold and see what fortune fell. 
If he had been as welcome to Gaunt as he 
was to Bruges and Ipres, they would [have] 
agreed to his opinion, as they did ; but he 
trusted so much in his prosperity and 
greatness, that he thought soon to reduce 
them to his pleasure. 



DEATH OF JAQUES D'AKTEVELD, 1345 



89 



When he returned, he came into Gaunt 
about noon. They of the town knew of 
his coming, and many were assembled 
together in the street whereas he should 
pass. And when they saw him, they 
began to murmur, and began to run together 
three heads in one hood and said : ' Behold 
yonder great master, who will order all 
Flanders after his pleasure, the which is 
not to be suffered.' Also there were words 
sown through all the town, how Jaques 
d'Arteveld had nine year assembled all 
the revenues of Flanders without any count 
given, and thereby hath kept his estate, 
and also sent great riches out of the country 
into England secretly. These words set 
them of Gaunt on fire, and as he rode 
through the street, he perceived that there 
was some new matter against him, for he 
saw such as were wont to make reverence 
to him as he came by, he saw them turn 
their backs toward him and enter into 
their houses. Then he began to doubt ; 
and as soon as he was alighted in his lodg- 
ing, he closed fast his gates, doors and 
windows. This was scant done but all 
the street was full of men, and specially of 
them of the small crafts : there they assailed 
his house both behind and before, and the 
house broken up. He and his within the 
house defended themselves a long space, 
and slew and hurt many without ; but 
finally he could not endure, for three parts 
of the men of the town were at that assault. 
When Jaques saw that he was so sore 
oppressed, he came to a window with great 
humility bare-headed, and said with fair 
language : ' Good people, what aileth you ? 
Why be you so sore troubled against me ? 
In what manner have I displeased you ? 
Shew me, and I shall make you amends at 
your pleasures.' Then such as heard him 
answered all with one voice : * We will 
have account made of the great treasure of 
Flanders, that ye have sent out of the way 
without any title of reason.' Then Jaques 
answered meekly and said : * Certainly, 
sirs, of the treasure of Flanders I never 
took nothing : withdraw yourselves patiently 
into your houses and come again to-morrow 
in the morning, and I shall make you so 
good account, that of reason ye shall be 
content.' Then all they answered and 
said : ' Nay, we will have account made 
incontinent ; ye shall not scape us so : we 



know for truth that ye have sent great 
riches into England without our knowledge : 
wherefore ye shall die.' When he heard 
that word, he joined his hands together, 
and sore weeping said : ' Sirs, such as I 
am ye have made me, and ye have sworn 
to me or this to defend me against all 
persons, and now ye would slay me without 
reason. Ye may do it an ye will, for I 
am but one man among you all. For 
God's sake take better advice, and remember 
the time past, and consider the great graces 
and courtesies that I have done to you : ye 
would now render to me a small reward 
for the great goodness that I have done to 
you and to your town in time past. Ye 
know right well, merchandise was nigh 
lost in all this country, and by my means 
it is recovered : also I have governed you 
in great peace and rest, for in the time of 
my governing ye have had all things as ye 
would wish, corn, riches, and all other 
merchandise.' Then they all cried with 
one voice : * Come down to us, and preach 
not so high, and give us account of the 
great treasure of Flanders that ye have 
governed, so long without any account 
making, the which pertaineth not to an 
officer to do, as to receive the goods of 
his lord or of a country without account.' 

When Jaques saw that he could not 
appease them, he drew in his head and 
closed his window, and so thought to 
steal out on the back side into a church 
that joined to his house : but his house 
was so broken, that four hundred persons 
were entered into his house ; and finally 
there he was taken and slain without mercy, 
and one Thomas Denis gave him his death- 
stroke. Thus Jaques d'Arteveld ended his 
days, who had been a great master in 
Flanders. Poor men first mounteth up 
and unhappy men slayeth them at the 
end.^ These tidings anon spread abroad 
the country : some were sorry thereof and 
some were glad. 

In this season the earl Louis of Flanders 
was at Termonde, and he was right joyous 
when he heard of the death of Jaques 
d'Arteveld his old enemy : howbeit yet 
he durst not trust them of Flanders, nor 
go to Gaunt. When the king of England, 
who lay all this season at Sluys abiding 

1 'Poor men first raised him up and evil men 
slew him at the end.' 



90 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



the answer of the Flemings, heard how 
they of Gaunt had slain Jaques d'Arteveld 
his great friend, he was sore displeased. 
Incontinent he departed from Sluys and 
entered into the sea, sore threatening the 
Flemings and the country of Flanders, and 
said how his death should be well revenged. 
Then the counsels of the good towns of 
Flanders imagined well how the king of 
England would be sore displeased with 
this deed : then they determined to go and 
excuse themselves, specially they of Bruges, 
Ypres, Courtray, Oudenarde and of [the] 
Franc. They sent into England to the 
king for a safe -conduct, that they might 
come to their excuse : the king, who was 
as then somewhat assuaged of his dis- 
pleasure, granted their desire. Then there 
came into England men of estate out of 
the good towns of Flanders, except of 
Gaunt. This was about the feast of Saint 
Michael, and the king being at Westminster 
beside London. There they so meekly 
excused them of the death of Jaques 
d'Arteveld, and sware solemnly that they 
knew nothing thereof till it was done ; if 
they had, he was the man they would have 
defended to the best of their powers ; and 
said how they were right sorry of his death, 
for he had governed the country right 
wisely ; and also they said that though they 
of Gaunt had done that deed, they should 
make a sufficient amends, also saying to 
the king and his council that, though he 
be dead, yet the king was never the farther 
off from the love and favour of them of 
Planders in all things except the inherit- 
ance of Flanders, the which in no wise 
they of Flanders will put away from the 
right heirs ; saying also to the king : * Sir, 
ye have fair issue, both sons and daughters. 
As for the prince of Wales your eldest son, 
he cannot fail but to be a great prince 
without the inheritance of Flanders. Sir, 
ye have a young daughter, and we have a 
young lord, who is heritor of Flanders ; 
we have him in our keeping : may it please 
you to make a marriage between them 
two, so ever after the county of Planders 
shall be in the issue of your child. ' These 
words and such other appeased the king, 
and finally was content with the Flemings 
and they with him ; and so little and 
little the death of Jaques d'Arteveld was 
forgotten. 



CHAPTER CXVI 

Of the death of William earl of Hainault, 
who died in Frise, and many with him. 

In the same season the earl William of 
Hainault, being at siege before the town of 
Utrecht, and there had lien a long season, 
he constrained them so sore, what by 
assaults and otherwise, that finally he had 
his pleasure of them. And anon after in 
the same season, about the feast of Saint 
Remy, the same earl made a great assembly 
of men of arms, knights and squires of 
Hainault, Flanders, Brabant, Holland, 
Gueldres and Juliers ; the earl and his 
company departed from Dordrecht in Hol- 
land with a great navy of ships, and so 
sailed towards Frise ; for the earl of Hai- 
nault claimed to be lord there : and if the 
Frisons had been men to have brought 
to reason, the earl indeed had there great 
right ; but there he was slain, and a great 
number of knights and squires with him.^ 

Sir John of Hainault arrived not there 
with his nephew, for he arrived at another 
place ; and when he heard of the death of 
his nephew, like a man out of his mind he 
would have fought with the Frisons, but 
his servants, and especially sir Robert of 
Glennes, who as then was his squire, did 
put him into his ship again against his will. 
And so he returned again with a small com- 
pany and came to Mount Saint Gertrude* 
in Holland, where the lady his niece was, 
wife to the said earl, named Joan, eldest 
daughter to the duke of Brabant : and then 
she went to the land of Binche, the which 
was her endowry. Thus the county of 
Hainault was void a certain space, and sir 
John of Hainault did govern it unto the 
time that Margaret of Hainault, mother to 
the duke Albert, came thither and took 
possession of that heritage, and all lords 
and other did to her fealty and homage. 
This lady Margaret was married to the lord 
Louis of Bavier, emperor of Almaine and 
king of [the] Romans. 

1 This defeat was at Staveren in September 

1345- 

2 Gertruydenberg. 



SIEGE OF AIGUILLON; 1346 



91 



CHAPTER CXVII 

How sir John of Hainault became French. 

Anon after, the French king entreated and 
caused the earl of Blois to entreat this lord 
John of Hainault to become French, pro- 
mising to give him more revenues in France 
than he had in England, to be assigned 
where he would himself devise. To this 
request he did not lightly agree, for he had 
spent all the flower of his youth in the 
service of the king of England, and was 
ever well beloved with the king. When 
the earl Louis of Blois, who had married 
his daughter and had by her three sons, 
Louis, John and Guy, saw that he could 
not win him by that means, he thought 
he would assay another way, as to win 
the lord of Fagnolle, who was chief com- 
panion and greatest of counsel with the lord 
John of Hainault; and so they between 
them devised to make him believe that they 
of England would not pay him his pension, 
wherewith sir John of Hainault was sore 
displeased, so that he renounced his service 
and good-will that he bare to the king of 
England. And when the French king 
knew thereof, incontinent he sent sufficient 
messengers to him, and so retained him of 
his council with certain wages, and recom- 
pensed him in France with as much or 
more than he had in England. 



CHAPTER CXVIII 

Of the great host that the duke of Normandy 
brought into Gascoyne against the earl of 
Derby. 

SUMMAR V. —Near the end of the year 
1345 the duke of Normandy gathered a 
great host at Totilotise^ and after Christmas 
they rode forth. They took Miremont and 
Villefranche^ and laid siege to Angouleme. 



CHAPTER CXIX 

How John Norwich scaped from Angou- 
leme, when the town was yielded to the 
Frenchmen. 

SUMMARY.— John of Norwich, who was 
captain at Angouleme^ seeing that he could 



not hold out, asked for a truce to last 
for the day of the Purification, and this 
being granted he and his company rode 
openly away through the French host, and 
came to Aiguillon. Angoulhne surren- 
dered, and the duke of Normandy went to 
Aiguillon. 



CHAPTER CXX 

How the duke of Normandy laid siege to 
Aiguillon with a hundred thousand men. 

The duke of Normandy and these lords of 
France did so much that they came to the 
castle of Aiguillon. There they laid their 
siege about the fair meadows along by the 
river able to bear ships, every lord among 
his own company and every constable by 
himself, as it was ordained by the marshals. 
This siege endured till the feast of Saint 
Remy : there were well a hundred thousand 
men of war, a-horseback and afoot : ^ they 
made lightly every day two or three assaults, 
and most commonly from the morning till 
it was near night without ceasing, for ever 
there came new assaulters that would not 
suffer them within to rest. The lords of 
France saw well they could not well come 
to the fortress without they passed the 
river, the which was large and deep. Then 
the duke commanded that a bridge should 
be made, whatsoever it cost, to pass the 
river: there were set awork more than 
three hundred workmen, who did work 
day and night. When the knights within 
saw this bridge more than half made over 
the river, they decked ^ three ships, and 
entered into them a certain, and so came 
on the workmen and chased them away 
with their defenders ; and there they brake 
all to pieces, that had been long a-making. 
When the French lords saw that, then they 
apparelled other ships, to resist against 
their ships, and then the workmen began 
again to work on the bridge, on trust of their 
defenders. And when they had worked 
half a day and more, sir Gaultier of Manny 

1 The number is reduced to 60,000 in the latest 
revision of the first book, where the siege of Aiguil- 
lon is called * le plus biau siege qui oncques les 
guerres durant de France et d'Engleterre euist este 
fait ne tenu ens ou roiaulme de France.' It lasted 
in fact only till 20th August. 

- 'Fisent apparillier.' 



92 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



\ 



and his company entered into a ship, and 
came on the workmen and made them to 
leave work and to recule back, and brake 
again all that they had made. This busi- 
ness was nigh every day; but at last the 
Frenchmen kept so well their workmen, 
that the bridge was made perforce: and 
then the lords and all their army passed 
over in manner of battle, and they assaulted 
the castle a whole day together without 
ceasing, but nothing they won ; and at 
night they returned to their lodgings : and 
they within amended all that was broken, 
for they had with them workmen enough. 

The next day the Frenchmen divided 
their assaulters into four parts, the first to 
begin in the morning and to continue till 
nine, the second till noon, the third to even- 
song time, and the fourth till night. After 
that manner they assailed the castle six days 
together : howbeit they within were not so 
sore travailed, but always they defended 
themselves so valiantly, that they without 
won nothing, but only the bridge without 
the castle. Then the Frenchmen took 
other counsel: they sent to Toulouse for 
eight great engines, and they made there 
four greater, and they made all twelve to 
cast day and night against the castle ; but 
they within were so well pavised, that 
never a stone of their engines did them any 
hurt : it brake somewhat the covering of 
some houses. They within had also great 
engines, the which brake down all the 
engines without, for in a short space they 
brake all to pieces six of the greatest of 
them without. 

During this siege oftentimes sir Walter 
of Manny issued out with a hundred or six 
score companions, and went on that side 
the river a-foraging, and returned again 
with great preys in the sight of them with- 
out. On a day the lord Charles of Mont- 
morency, marshal of the host, rode forth 
with a five hundred with him, and when 
he returned, he drave before him a great 
number of beasts that he had got together 
in the country to refresh the host with 
victual : and by adventure he encountered 
with sir Gaultier of Manny. There was 
between them a great fight and many over- 
thrown, hurt and slain : the Frenchmen 
were five against one. Tidings thereof 
came unto Aiguillon : then every man that 
might issued out, the earl of Pembroke first 



of all and his company; and when he 
came, he found sir Gaultier of Manny 
afoot enclosed with his enemies, and did 
marvels in arms. Incontinent he was 
rescued and remounted again, and in the 
mean season some of the Frenchmen 
chased their beasts quickly into the host, 
or else they had lost them, for they that 
issued out of Aiguillon set so fiercely on 
the Frenchmen, that they put them to the 
flight and delivered their company that 
were taken and took many Frenchmen 
prisoners, and sir Charles of Montmorency 
had much work to scape. Then the 
Englishmen returned into Aiguillon. 

Thus every day almost there were such 
rencounters beside the assaults. On a day 
all the whole host armed them, and the 
duke commanded that they of Toulouse, of 
Carcassonne, of Beaucaire should make 
assault from the morning till noon, and 
they of Rouergue, Cahors and Agenois from 
noon till night ; and the duke promised, 
whosoever could win the bridge of the gate 
should have in reward a hundred crowns. 
Also the duke, the better to maintain this 
assault, he caused to come on the river 
divers ships and barges : some entered into 
them to pass the river, and some went by 
the bridge : at the last some of them took 
a little vessel and went under the bridge, 
and did cast great hooks of iron to the 
drawbridge, and then drew it to them so 
sore, that they brake the chains of iron that 
held the bridge, and so pulled down the 
bridge perforce. Then the Frenchmen 
leapt on the bridge so hastily, that one 
overthrew another, for every man desired 
to win the hundred crowns. They within 
cast down bars of iron, pieces of timber, 
pots of lime, and hot water, so that many 
were overthrown from the bridge into the 
water and into the dikes, and many slain 
and sore hurt. Howbeit the bridge was 
won perforce, but it cost more than it was 
worth, for they could not for all that win 
the gate. Then they drew aback to their 
lodgings, for it was late : then they within 
issued out, and new made again their draw- 
bridge, stronger than ever it was before. 

The next day there came to the duke two 
cunning men, masters in carpentry, and 
said : ' Sir, if ye will let us have timber 
and workmen, we shall make four scaffolds 
as high or higher than the walls.* The 



EXPEDITION OF EDWARD II L, 1346 



93 



duke commanded that it should be done, 
and to get carpenters in the country and 
to give them good wages : so these four 
scaffolds were made in four ships, but it 
was long first, and cost much or they were 
finished. Then such as should assail the 
castle in them were appointed and entered ; 
and when they were passed half the river, 
they within the castle let go four martinets, 
that they had newly made to resist against 
these scaffolds. These four martinets did 
cast out so great stones, and so often fell on 
the scaffolds, that in a short space they 
were all to broken, so that they that were 
within them could not be pavised by them, 
so that they were fain to draw back again, 
and or they were again at land one of the 
scaffolds drowned in the water, and the most 
part of them that were within it ; the which 
was great damage, for therein were good 
knights, desiring their bodies to advance. 

When the duke saw that he could not 
come to his intent by that means, he caused 
the other three scaffolds to rest. Then he 
could see no way how he might get the 
castle, and he had promised not to depart 
thence till he had it at his will, without 
the king his father did send for him. Then 
he sent the constable of France and the 
earl of Tancarville to Paris to the king, 
and there they shewed him the state of the 
siege of Aiguillon. The king's mind was 
that the duke should lie there still, till he 
had won them by famine, sith he could not 
have them by assault. 



CHAPTER CXXI 

How the king of England came over the sea 
again, to rescue them in Aiguillon. 

The king of England, who had heard how 
his men were sore constrained in the castle 
of Aiguillon, then he thought to go over 
the sea into Gascoyne with a great army. 
There he made his provision and sent for 
men all about his realm and in other places, 
where he thought to speed for his money. 
In the same season the lord Godfrey of 
Harcourt came into England, who was 
banished out of France : he was well 
received with the king and retained to be 
about him, and had fair lands assigned him 
in England to maintain his degree. Then 



the king caused a great navy of ships to be 
ready in the haven of Hampton, and caused 
all manner of men of war to draw thither. 
About the feast of Saint John Baptist the 
year of our Lord God mcccxlvi., the king 
departed from the queen and left her in the 
guiding of the earl of Kent his cousin ; and 
he stablished the lord Percy and the lord 
Nevill to be wardens of his realm with [the 
archbishop of Canterbury,] the archbishop 
of York, the bishop of Lincoln and the 
bishop of Durham ; for he never voided his 
realm but that he left ever enough at home 
to keep and defend the realm, if need were. 
Then the king rode to Hampton and there 
tarried for wind : then he entered into his 
ship and the prince of Wales with him, and 
the lord Godfrey of Harcourt, and all other 
lords, earls, barons and knights, with all 
their companies. They were in number a 
four thousand men of arms and ten thousand 
archers, beside Irishmen and Welshmen 
that followed the host afoot. 

Now I shall name you certain of the lords 
that went over with king Edward in that 
journey. First, Edward his eldest son, 
prince of Wales, who as then was of the age 
of thirteen years or thereabout,^ the earls of 
Hereford, Northampton, Arundel, Corn- 
wall, Warwick, Huntingdon, Suffolk, and 
Oxford ; and of barons the lord Mortimer, 
who was after earl of March, the lords John, 
Louis and Roger of Beauchamp, and the 
lord Raynold Cobham ; of lords the lord of 
Mowbray, Ros, Lucy, Felton, Bradestan, 
Multon, Delaware, Manne,- Basset, Berke- 
ley, and Willoughby, with divers other 
lords ; and of bachelors there was John 
Chandos, Fitz-Warin, Peter and James 
Audley, Roger of Wetenhale, Bartholomew 
of Burghersh, and Richard of Pembridge, 
with divers other that I cannot name, P'ew 
there were of strangers : there was the earl 
Hainault,^ sir W^ulfart of Ghistelles, and 
five or six other knights of Almaine, and 
many other that I cannot name. 

Thus they sailed forth that day in the name 
of God. They were well onward on their 
way toward Gascoyne, but on the third day 
there rose a contrary wind and drave them 

1 He was in fact sixteen ; bom 15th June 1330, 

2 Probably 'Mohun.' 

3 The usual confusion between 'comt^' and 
'comte,' It means, *of the county of Hainault 
there was sir Wulfart of Ghistelles," etc. 



94 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



on the marches of Cornwall, and there they 
lay at anchor six days. In that space the 
king had other counsel by the means of sir 
Godfrey Harcourt : he counselled the king 
not to go into Gascoyne, but rather to set 
aland in Normandy, and said to the king : 
* Sir, the country of Normandy is one of 
the plenteous countries of the world : sir, 
on jeopardy of my head, if ye will land 
there, there is none that shall resist you ; 
the people of Normandy have not been used 
to the war, and all the knights and squires 
of the country are now at the siege before 
Aiguillon with the duke. And, sir, there 
ye shall find great towns that be not 
walled, whereby your men shall have such 
winning, that they shall be the better 
thereby twenty year after ; and, sir, ye may 
follow with your army till ye come to Caen 
in Normandy : sir, I require you to believe 
me in this voyage.' 

The king, who was as then but in the 
flower of his youth, desiring nothing so 
much as to have deeds of arms, inclined 
greatly to the saying of the lord Harcourt, 
whom he called cousin. Then he com- 
manded the mariners to set their course to 
Normandy, and he took into his ship the 
token of the admiral the earl of Warwick, 
and said how he would be admiral for that 
viage, and so sailed on before as governour 
of that navy, and they had wind at will. 
Then the king arrived in the isle of Coten- 
tin, at a port called Hogue Saint-Vaast.^ 

Tidings anon spread abroad how the 
Englishmen were aland : the towns of 
Cotentin sent word thereof to Paris to king 
Philip. He had well heard before how the 
king of England was on the sea with a 
great army, but he wist not what way he 
would draw, other into Normandy, Bretayne 
or Gascoyne. As soon as he knew that the 
king of England was aland in Normandy, 
he sent his constable the earl of Guines, 
and the earl of Tancarville, who were but 
newly come to him from his son from the 
siege at Aiguillon, to the town of Caen, 
commanding them to keep that town against 
the Englishmen. They said they would do 
their best : they departed from Paris with 
a good number of men of war, and daily 
there came more to them by the way, and 
so came to the town of Caen, where they 
were received with great joy of men of the 
1 Saint-Vaast-de la Hogue. 



town and of the country thereabout, that 
were drawn thither for surety. These lords 
took heed for the provision of the town, the 
which as then was not walled. The king 
thus was arrived at the port Hogue Saint- 
Vaast near to Saint-Saviour the Viscount ^ 
the right heritage to the lord Godfrey of Har- 
court, who as then was there with the king 
of England. 



CHAPTER CXXn 

How the king of England rode in three 
battles through Normandy. 

When the king of England arrived in 
the Hogue Saint -Vaast, the king issued 
out of his ship, and the first foot that he 
set on the ground, he fell so rudely, that 
the blood brast out of his nose. The 
knights that were about him took him up 
and said : ' Sir, for God's sake enter again 
into your ship, and come not aland this 
day, for this is but an evil sign for us.* 
Then the king answered quickly and said : 
' Wherefore ? This is a good token for me, 
for the land desireth to have me.' Of the 
which answer all his men were right joyful. 
So that day and night the king lodged on 
the sands, and in the meantime discharged 
the ships of their horses and other baggages : 
there the king made two marshals of his 
host, the one the lord Godfrey of Harcourt 
and the other the earl of Warwick, and the 
earl of Arundel constable. And he or- 
dained that the earl of Huntingdon should 
keep the fleet of ships with a hundred men 
of arms and four hundred archers : and also 
he ordained three battles, one to go on his 
right hand, closing to the sea-side, and the 
other on his left hand, and the king himself 
in the midst, and every night to lodge all in 
one field. 

Thus they set forth as they were ordained, 
and they that went by the sea took all the 
ships that they found in their ways : and so 
long they went forth, what by sea and what 
by land, that they came to a good port and 
to a good town called Barfleur, the which 
incontinent was won, for they within gave 
up for fear of death. Howbeit, for all that, 
the town was robbed, and much gold and 
silver there found, and rich jewels : there 
1 Saint-Saqveur-le-Vicomtc. 



EDWARD III. IN NORMANDY 



95 



was found so much riches, that the boys and 
villains of the host set nothing by good 
furred gowns : they made all the men of the 
town to issue out and to go into the ships, 
because they would not suffer them to be 
behind them for fear of rebelling again. 
After the town of Barfleur was thus taken 
and robbed without brenning, then they 
spread abroad in the country and did what 
they list, for there was not to resist them. 
At last they came to a great and a rich 
town called Cherbourg : the town they won 
and robbed it, and brent part thereof, but 
into the castle they could not come, it was 
so strong and well furnished with men of 
war. Then they passed forth and came to 
Montebourg, and took it and robbed and 
brent it clean. In this manner they brent 
many other towns in that country and won 
so much riches, that it was marvel to reckon 
it. Then they came to a great town well 
closed called Carentan, where there was 
also a strong castle and many soldiers 
within to keep it. Then the lords came 
out of their ships and fiercely made assault : 
the burgesses of the town were in great fear 
of their lives, wives and children : they 
suffered the Englishmen to enter into the 
town against the will of all the soldiers that 
were there ; they put all their goods to the 
Englishmen's pleasures, they thought that 
most advantage. When the soldiers within 
saw that, they went into the castle : the 
Englishmen went into the town, and two 
days together they made sore assaults, so 
that when they within saw no succour, they 
yielded up, their lives and goods saved, and 
so departed. The Englishmen had their 
pleasure of that good town and castle, and 
when they saw they might not maintain to 
keep it, they set fire therein and brent it, 
and made the burgesses of the town to 
enter into their ships, as they had done with 
them of Barfleur, Cherbourg and Monte- 
bourg, and of other towns that they had 
won on the sea-side. All this was done by 
the battle that went by the sea-side, and by 
them on the sea together.^ 

Now let us speak of the king's battle. 
When he had sent his first battle along by 

1 Froissart is mistaken in supposing that a divi- 
sion of the land army went to these towns : Barfleur 
and Cherbourg were visited only by the fleet. Ac- 
cording to Michael of Northburgh, who accom- 
panied the expedition, Edward disembarked 12th 



the sea-side, as ye have heard, whereof one 
of his marshals, the earl of Warwick, was 
captain, and the lord Cobham with him, 
then he made his other marshal to lead his 
host on his left hand, for he knew the issues 
and entries of Normandy better than any 
other did there. The lord Godfrey as mar- 
shal rode forth with five hundred men of 
arms, and rode off from the king's battle as 
six or seven leagues, in brenning and exil- 
ing the country, the which was plentiful of 
everything — the granges full of corn, the 
houses full of all riches, rich burgesses, carts 
and chariots, horse, swine, muttons and 
other beasts : they took what them list and 
brought into the king's host ; but the sol- 
diers made no count to the king nor to none 
of his officers of the gold and silver that they 
did get ; they kept that to themselves. 
Thus sir Godfrey of Harcourt rode every 
day off from the king's host, and for 
most part every night resorted to the king's 
field. The king took his way to Saint-Lo 
in Cotentin, but or he came there he lodged 
by a river, abiding for his men that rode 
along by the sea-side ; and when they were 
come, they set forth their carriage, and the 
earl of Warwick, the earl of Suffolk, sir 
Thomas Holland and sir Raynold Cobham, 
and their company rode out on the one side 
and wasted and exiled the country, as the 
lord Harcourt had done ; and the king ever 
rode between these battles, and every night 
they lodged together. 



CHAPTER CXXni 

Of the great assembly that the French king 
made to resist the king of England. 

Thus by the Englishmen was brent, ex- 
iled, robbed, wasted and pilled the good, 
plentiful country of Normandy. Then the 
French king sent for the lord John of Hai- 
nault, who came to him with a great number : 
also the king sent for other men of arms, 
dukes, earls, barons, knights and squires, 
and assembled together the greatest number 
of people that had been seen in France a 
hundred year before. He sent for men 
into so far countries, that it was long or 

July and remained at Saint-Vaast till the i8th, and 
meanwhile the fleet went to Barfleur and Cherbourg. 
The army arrived at Caen on the 26th. 



96 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



they came together, wherefore the king of 
England did what him Hst in the mean 
season. The French king heard well what 
he did, and sware and said how they should 
never return again unfought withal, and 
that such hurts and damages as they had 
done should be dearly revenged ; wherefore 
he had sent letters to his friends in the 
Empire, to such as were farthest off, and 
also to the gentle king of Bohemia and to 
the lord Charles his son, who from thence- 
forth was called king of Almaine ; he was 
made king by the aid of his father and the 
French king, and had taken on him the 
arms of the Empire : the French king de- 
sired them to come to him with all their 
powers, to the intent to fight with the king 
of England, who brent and wasted his 
country. These princes and lords made 
them ready with great number of men of 
arms, of Almains, Bohemians and Luxem- 
burgers, and so came to the French king. 
Also king Philip sent to the duke of Lor- 
raine, who came to serve him with three 
hundred spears : also there came the earl 
[of] Salm in Saumois, the earl of Sarrebruck, 
the earl of Flanders, the earl William of 
Namur, every man with a fair company. 

Ye have heard herebefore of the order of 
the Englishmen, how they went in three 
battles, the marshals on the right hand and 
on the left, the king and the prince of Wales 
his son in the midst. They rode but small 
journeys and every day took their lodgings 
between noon and three of the clock, and 
found the country so fruitful, that they 
needed not to make no provision for their 
host, but all only for wine ; and yet they 
found reasonably sufficient thereof.^ It was 
no marvel though they of the country were 
afraid, for before that time they had never 
seen men of war, nor they wist not what 
war or battle meant. They fled away as 
far as they might hear speaking of the Eng- 
lishmen,^ and left their houses well stuffed, 
and granges full of corn, they wist not how 
to save and keep it. The king of England 
and the prince had in their battle a three 
thousand men of arms and six thousand 
archers and a ten thousand men afoot, be- 
side them that rode with the marshals. 

1 Or rather, 'thus they found reasonably suffi- 
cient provisions.' 

2 That is, they fled as soon as they heard their 
coming spoken of. 



Thus as ye have heard, the king rode 
forth, wasting andbrenning the country with- 
out breaking of his order. He left the city 
of Coutances^ and wentto agreat town called 
Saint-Lo, a rich town of drapery and many 
rich burgesses. In that town there were 
dwelling an eight or nine score burgesses, 
crafty men. When the king came there, he 
took his lodging without, for he would never 
lodge in the town for fear of fire : but he 
sent his men before and anon the town was 
taken and clean robbed. It was hard to 
think the great riches that there was won, 
in clothes specially ; cloth would there have 
been sold good cheap, if there had been 
any buyers. 

Then the king went toward Caen, the 
which was a greater town and full of drapery 
and other merchandise, and rich burgesses, 
noble ladies and damosels, and fair churches, 
and specially two great and rich abbeys, one 
of the Trinity, another of Saint Stephen ; 
and on the one side of the town one of the 
fairest castles of all Normandy, and captain 
therein was Robert of Wargny, with three 
hundred Genoways, and in the town was 
the earl of Eu and of Guines, constable of 
France, and the earl of Tancarville, with a 
good number of men of war. The king of 
England rode that day in good order and 
lodged all his battles together that night, a 
two leagues from Caen, in a town with a 
little haven called Austrehem, and thither 
came also all his navy of ships with the earl 
of Huntingdon, who was governour of them. 

The constable and other lords of France 
that night watched well the town of Caen, 
and in the morning armed them with all 
them of the town : then the constable 
ordained that none should issue out, but 
keep their defences on the walls, gate, 
bridge and river, and left the suburbs void, 
because they were not closed ; for they 
thought they should have enough to do to 
defend the town, because it was not closed 
but with the river. They of the town said 
how they would issue out, for they were " 

1 That is, he did not turn aside to go to it. 
Froissart says, ' He did not turn aside to the city 
of Coutances, but went on toward the great town 
of Saint-Lo in Cotentin, which at that time was very 
rich and of great merchandise and three times as 
great as the city of Coutances.' Michael of North- 
burgh says that Barfleur was about equal in import- 
ance to Sandwich and Carentan to Leicester, Saint- 
Lo greater than Lincoln, and Caen greater than any 
city in England except London. 



CAPTURE OF CAEN {July 26) 



97 



strong enough to fight with the king of 
England, When the constable saw their 
good wills, he said : * In the name of God 
be it, ye shall not fight without me. ' Then 
they issued out in good order and made 
good face to fight and to defend them and 
to put their lives in adventure. 



CHAPTER CXXIV 

Of the battle of Caen, and how the 
Englishmen took the town. 

The same day the Englishmen rose early 
and apparelled them ready to go to Caen.^ 
The king heard mass before the sun-rising 
and then took his horse, and the prince 
his son, with sir Godfrey of Harcourt 
marshal and leader of the host, whose 
counsel the king much followed. Then 
they drew toward Caen with their battles in 
good array, and so approached the good 
town of Caen. When they of the town, 
who were ready in the field, saw these three 
battles coming in good order, with their 
banners and standards waving in the wind, 
and the archers, the which they had not 
been accustomed to see, they were sore 
afraid and fled away toward the town with- 
out any order or good array, for all that the 
constable could do : then the Englishmen 
pursued them eagerly. When the constable 
and the earl Tancarville saw that, they took 
a gate at the entry and saved themselves ^ 
and certain with them, for the Englishmen 
were entered into the town. Some of the 
knights and squires of France, such as knew 
the way to the castle, went thither, and the 
captain there received them all, for the 
castle was large. The Englishmen in the 
chase slew many, for they took none to 
mercy. 

Then the constable and the earl of Tan- 
carville, being in the little tower at the 
bridge foot, looked along the street and saw 
their men slain v/ithout mercy : they doubted 
to fall in their hands. At last they saw an 
English knight with one eye called sir 

^ This was 26th July. Edward arrived at Poissy 
on i2th August : Philip of Valois left Paris on the 
14th : the English crossed the Seine at Poissy on 
the i6th, and the Somme at Blanche-taque on the 
24th. 

2 ' Set themselves for safety in a gate at the entry 
of the bridge.' 
H 



Thomas Holland, and a five or six other 
knights with him : they knew them, for 
they had seen them before in Pruce, in 
Granade, and in other viages. Then they 
called to sir Thomas and said how they 
would yield themselves prisoners. Then 
sir Thomas came thither with his company 
and mounted up into the gate, and there 
found the said lords with twenty- five knights 
with them, who yielded them to sir Thomas, 
and he took them for his prisoners and left 
company to keep them, and then mounted 
again on his horse and rode into the streets, 
and saved many lives of ladies, damosels, 
and cloisterers from defoiling, for the 
soldiers were without mercy. It fell so 
well the same season for the Englishmen, 
that the river, which was able to bear ships, 
at that time was so low, that men went in 
and out beside the bridge. They of the 
town were entered into their houses, and 
cast down into the street stones, timber 
and iron, and slew and hurt more than five 
hundred Englishmen, wherewith the king 
was sore displeased. At night when he 
heard thereof, he commanded that the next 
day all should be put to the sword and the 
town brent ; but then sir Godfrey of Har- 
court said : 'Dear sir, for God's sake 
assuage somewhat your courage, and let it 
suffice you that ye have done. Ye have 
yet a great voyage to do or ye come before 
Calais, whither ye purpose to go ; and, sir, 
in this town there is much people who will 
defend their houses, and it will cost many 
of your men their lives, or ye have all at 
your will ; whereby peradventure ye shall 
not keep your purpose to Calais, the which 
should redound to your rack. Sir, save 
your people, for ye shall have need of them 
or this month pass ; for I think verily your 
adversary king Philip will meet with you to 
fight, and ye shall find many strait passages 
and rencounters ; wherefore your men, an 
ye had more, shall stand you in good stead : 
and, sir, without any further slaying ye shall 
be lord of this town ; men and women will 
put all that they have to your pleasure.' 
Then the king said : ' Sir Godfrey, you are 
our marshal, ordain everything as ye will.' 
Then sir Godfrey with his banner rode 
from street to street, and commanded in 
the king's name none to be so hardy to put 
fire in any house, to slay any person, nor to 
violate any woman. When they of the 



98 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



town heard that cry, they received the 
Englishmen into their houses and made 
them good cheer, and some opened their 
coffers and bade them take what them Hst, 
so they might be assured of their Hves ; 
howbeit there were done in the town many 
evil deeds, murders and robberies Thus 
the Englishmen were lords of the town 
three days and won great riches, the which 
they sent by barks and barges to Saint- 
Saviour by the river of Austrehem,^ a two 
leagues thence, whereas all their navy lay. 
Then the king sent the earl of Huntingdon 
with two hundred men of arms and four 
hundred archers, with his navy and prisoners 
and riches that they had got, back again 
into England. And the king bought of sir 
Thomas Holland the constable of France 
and the earl of Tancarville, and paid for 
them twenty thousand nobles. 



CHAPTER CXXV 

How sir Godfrey of Harcourt fought 
them of Amiens before Paris. 



with 



Thus the king of England ordered his 
business, being in the town of Caen, and 
sent into England his navy of ships charged 
^yith clothes, jewels, vessels of gold and 
silver, and of other riches, and of prisoners 
more than sixty knights and three hundred 
burgesses. Then he departed from the 
town of Caen and rode in the same order 
as he did before, brenning and exiling the 
country, and took the way to Evreux and 
so passed by it ; and from thence they rode 
to a great town called Louviers : it was the 
chief town of all Normandy of drapery, 
riches, and full of merchandise. The 
Englishmen soon entered therein, for as 
then it was not closed ; it was overrun, 
spoiled and robbed without mercy : there 
was won great riches. Then they entered 
into the country of Evreux and brent and 
pilled all the country except the good towns 
closed and castles, to the which the king 
made nofie assault, because of the sparing 
of his people and his artillery. 

On the river of Seine near to Rouen there 
1 Frolssart says that they sent their booty in 
barges and boats ' on the river as far as Austrehem, 
a two leagues from thence, where their great navy 
lay.' He pakes no mention of Saint-Sauveur here. 
The river in question is the Orne, at the mouth of 
which Austrehem is situated. 



was the earl of Harcourt, brother to sir 
Godfrey of Harcourt, but he was on the 
French party, and the earl of Dreux with 
him, with a good number of men of war : 
but the Englishmen left Rouen and went 
to Gisors, where was a strong castle : they 
brent the town and then they brent Vernon 
and all the country about Rouen and Pont- 
de-l'Arche and came to Mantes and to 
Meulan, and wasted all the country about, 
and passed by the strong castle of Rolle- 
boise ; and in every place along the river 
of Seine they found the bridges broken. 
At last they came to Poissy, and found the 
bridge broken, but the arches and joists lay 
in the river : the king lay there a five 
days : in the mean • season the bridge was 
made, to pass the host without peril. The 
English marshals ran abroad just to Paris, 
and brent Saint - Germain in Laye and 
Montjoie, and Saint - Cloud, and petty 
Boulogne by Paris, and the Queen's Bourg •?■ 
they of Paris were not well assured of them- 
selves, for it was not as then closed. 

Then king Philip removed to Saint-Denis, 
and or he went caused all the pentices in 
Paris to be pulled down ; and at Saint- 
Denis were ready come the king of Bohemia, 
the lord John of Hainault, the duke of 
Lorraine, the earl of Flanders, the earl of 
Blois, and many other great lords and 
knights, ready to serve the French king. 
When the people of Paris saw their. king 
depart, they came to him and kneeled down 
and said : ' Ah, sir and noble king, what 
will ye do? leave thus this noble city of, 
Paris ? ' The king said : * My good people, 
doubt ye not : the Englishmen will approach] 
you no nearer than they be.' 'Why so,] 
sir ? ' quoth they ; ' they be within these two] 
leagues, and as soon as they know of your] 
departing, they will come and assail us ;] 
and we not able to defend them : sir, tarry] 
here still and help to defend your good city j 
of Paris. ' ' Speak no more, ' quoth the king, 
' for I will go to Saint-Denis to my men of 
war : for I will encounter the Englishmen and 
fight against them, whatsoever fall thereof.' 
The king of England was at Poissy, and 
lay in the nunnery there, and kept there 
the feast of our Lady in August and sat in 
his robes of scarlet furred with ermines ; 
and after that feast he went forth in order 
as they were before. The lord Godfrey of 
1 Bourg-la-Reine. 



THE ENGLISH NEAR PARIS, 1346 



99 



Harcourt rode out on the one side with five 
hundred men of arms and thirteen ^ hundred 
archers ; and by adventure he encountered 
a great number of burgesses of Amiens a- 
horseback, who were riding by the king's 
commandment to Paris. They were 
quickly assailed and they defended them- 
selves valiantly, for they were a great number 
and well armed : there were four knights of 
Amiens their captains. This skirmish 
dured long : at the first meeting many were 
overthrown on both parts ; but finally the 
burgesses were taken and nigh all slain, and 
the Englishmen took all their carriages and 
harness. They were well stuffed, for they 
were going to the French king well ap- 
pointed, because they had not seen him a 
great season before. There were slain in 
the field a twelve hundred. 

Then the king of England entered into 
the country of Beauvoisis, brenning and exil- 
ing the plain country, and lodged at a fair 
abbey and a rich called Saint-Messien * near 
to Beauvais : there the king tarried a night 
and in the morning departed. And when 
he was on his way he looked behind him 
and saw the abbey a-fire : he caused incon- 
tinent twenty of them to be hanged that 
set the fire there, for he had commanded 
before on pain of death none to violate any 
church nor to bren any abbey. Then the 
king passed by the city of Beauvais without 
any assault giving, for because he would 
not trouble his people nor waste his artil- 
lery. And so that day he took his lodging 
betime in a little town called Milly. The 
two marshals came so near to Beauvais, 
that they made assault and skirmish at the 
barriers in three places, the which assault 
endured a long space ; but the town within 
was so well defended by the means of the 
bishop, who was there within, that finally 
the Englishmen departed, and brent clean 
hard to the gates all the suburbs, and 
then at night they came into the king's 
field. 

The next day the king departed, bren- 
ning and wasting all before him, and at 
night lodged in a good village called Grand- 
villiers. The next day the king passed by 
Dargies : there was none to defend the 

1 A better reading is ' twelve.* 

2 Commonly called Saint - Lucien, but Saint- 
Maximianus (Messien) is also associated with the 
place. 



castle, wherefore it was soon taken and 
brent. Then they went forth destroying 
the country all about, and so came to the 
castle of Poix, where there was a good 
town and two castles. There was nobody 
in them but two fair damosels, daughters to 
the lord of Poix ; they were soon taken, 
and had been violated, an two English 
knights had not been, sir John Chandos 
and sir Basset ; they defended them and 
brought them to the king, who for his 
honour made them good cheer and de- 
manded of them whither they would 
fainest go. They said, 'To Corbie,' and 
the king caused them to be brought thither 
without peril. That night the king lodged 
in the town of Poix. They of the town 
and of the castles spake that night with 
the marshals of the host, to save them and 
their town from brenning, and they to pay 
a certain sum of florins the next day as 
soon as the host was departed. This was 
granted them, and in the morning the 
king departed with all his host except a 
certain that were left there to receive the 
money that they of the town had promised 
to pay. When they of the town saw the 
host depart and but a few left behind, then 
they said they would pay never a penny, 
and so ran out and set on the Englishmen, 
who defended themselves as well as they 
might and sent after the host for succour. 
When sir Raynold Cobham and sir Thomas 
Holland, who had the rule of the rear- 
guard, heard thereof, they returned and 
cried, ' Treason, treason ! ' and so came 
again to Poix-ward and found their com- 
panions still fighting with them of the town. 
Then anon they of the town were nigh all 
slain, and the town brent, and the two 
castles beaten down. Then they returned 
to the king's host, who was as then at 
Airaines and there lodged, and had com- 
manded all manner of men on pain of 
death to do no hurt to no town of Arsyn,^ 
for there the king was minded to lie a day 
or two to take advice how he might pass 
the river of Somme ; for it was necessary 
for him to pass the river, as ye shall hear 
after. 

1 A mistranslation. The original is ' [il avoit] 
defFendu sus le hart que nuls ne fourfesist rien a le 
ville d'arsin ne d'autre cose,' ' he had commanded 
all on pain of hanging to do no hurt to the town by 
burning or otherwise.' The translator has taken 
' arsin ' for a proper name. 



100 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



CHAPTER CXXVI 

How the French king followed the king of 
England in Beauvoisinois. 

Now let us speak of king Philip, who was 
at Saint- Denis and his people about him, 
and daily increased. Then on a day he 
departed and rode so long that he came to 
Coppegueule, a three leagues from Amiens, 
and there he tarried. The king of England 
being at Airaines wist not where for to pass 
the river of Somme, the which was large 
and deep, and all bridges were broken and 
the passages well kept. Then at the king's 
commandment his two marshals with a 
thousand men of arms and two thousand 
archers went along the river to find some 
passage, and passed by Longpre, and came 
to the bridge of Remy,^ the which was well 
kept with a great number of knights and 
squires and men of the country. The Eng- 
lishmen alighted afoot and assailed the 
Frenchmen from the morning till it was 
noon ; but the bridge was so well fortified 
and defended, that the Englishmen de- 
parted without winning of anything. Then 
they went to a great town called Fountains 
on the river of Somme, the which was clean 
robbed and brent, for it was not closed. 
Then they went to another town called 
Long-en- Ponthieu ; they could not win the 
bridge, it was so well kept and defended. 
Then they departed and went to Picquigny, 
and found the town, the bridge, and the 
castle so well fortified, that it was not likely 
to pass there : the French king had so well 
defended the passages, to the intent that 
the king of England should not pass the 
river of Somme, to fight with him at his 
advantage or else to famish him there. 

When these two marshals had assayed in 
all places to find passage and could find 
none, they returned again to the king, and 
shewed how they could find no passage in 
no place. The same night the French 
king came to Amiens with more than a 
hundred thousand men.. The king of Eng- 
land was right pensive, and the next morn- 
ing heard mass before the sun-rising and 
then dislodged ; and every man followed 

1 Pont-a-Remy, corrupted here into 'bridge of 
Athyne.' 



the marshals' banners, and so rode in the 
country of Vimeu approaching to the good 
town of Abbeville, and found a town there- 
by, whereunto was come much people of 
the country in trust of a little defence that 
was there ; but the Englishmen anon won 
it, and all they that were within slain, and 
many taken of the town and of the country. 
The king took his lodging in a great 
hospital ^ that was there. The same day 
the French king departed from Amiens and 
came to Airaines about noon ; and the] 
Englishmen were departed thence in the 
morning. The Frenchmen found there 
great provision that the Englishmen hac 
left behind them, because they departed ii 
haste. There they found flesh ready or 
the broaches, bread and pasties in the 
ovens, wine in tuns and barrels, and the 
tables ready laid. There the French king, 
lodged and tarried for his lords. 

That night the king of England was lodged 
at Oisemont. At night when the two mar- 
shals were returned, who had that day over- 
run the country to the gates of Abbeville and 
to Saint-Valery and made a great skirmish 
there, then the king assembled together hi? 
council and made to be brought before him 
certain prisoners of the country of Ponthiei 
and of Vimeu. The king right courteously 
demanded of them, if there were any amonj 
them that knew any passage beneath Abbe- 
ville, that he and his host might pass ovei 
the river of Somme : if he would shew hii 
thereof, he should be quit of his ransom^ 
and twenty of his company for his love. 
There was a varlet called Gobin Agac< 
who stepped forth and said to the king; 
' Sir, I promise you on the jeopardy of mj 
head I shall bring you to such a place, 
whereas ye and all your host shall pass the 
river of Somme without peril. There be 
certain places in the passage that ye shall 
pass twelve men afront two times betweei 
day and night : ye shall not go in the wate: 
to the knees. But when the flood cometh, 
the river then waxeth so great, that no mat 
can pass ; but when the flood is gone, th< 
which is two times between day and nighty 
then the river is so low, that it may b< 
passed without danger both a-horsebaci 
and afoot. The passage is hard in the 
bottom with white stones, so that all youi 
carriage may go surely ; therefore th< 

1 That is, a house of the knights of Saint John. 



PASSAGE OF THE SOMME {Aug. 24) 



lOI 



passage is called Blanche-taque. An ye 
make ready to depart betimes, ye may be 
there by the sun-rising. ' The king said : 
« If this be true that ye say, I quit thee thy 
ransom and all thy company, and moreover 
shall give thee a hundred nobles.' Then 
the king commanded every man to be ready 
at the sound of the trumpet to depart. 



CHAPTER CXXVII 

Of the battle of Blanche-taque between the 
I king of England and sir Godemar du Fay. 

The king of England slept not much that 
night, for at midnight he arose and sowned 
his trumpet : then incontinent they made 
ready carriages and all things, and at the 
breaking of the day they departed from the 
town of Oisemont and rode after the guiding 
of Gobin Agace, so that they came by the 
sun-rising to Blanche-taque ; but as then the 
flood was up, so that they might not pass : 
so the king tarried there till it was prime ; 
then the ebb came. 

The French king had his currours in the 
country, who brought him word of the 
demeanour of the Englishmen. Then he 
thought to close the king of England 
between Abbeville and the river of Somme, 
and so to fight with him at his pleasure. 
And when he was at Amiens he had 
ordained a great baron of Normandy, called 
sir Godemar du Fay, to go and keep the 
passage of Blanche-taque, where the English- 
men must pass or else in none other place. 
He had with him a thousand men of arms 
and six thousand afoot, with the Genoways : 
so they went by Saint-Riquier in Ponthieu 
and from thence to Crotoy, whereas the 
passage lay ; and also he had with him a 
great number of men of the country, and 
also a great number of them of Montreuil, 
so that they were a twelve thousand men 
one and other. 

When the English host was come thither, 
sir Godemar du Fay arranged all his company 
to defend the passage. The king of England 
let not for all that ; but when the flood was 
gone, he commanded his marshals to enter 
into the water in the name of God and Saint 
George. Then they that were hardy and 
courageous entered on both parties, and 



many a man reversed. There were some of 
the Frenchmen of Artois and Picardy that 
were as glad to joust in the water as on the 
dry land. 

The Frenchmen defended so well the 
passage at the issuing out of the water, that 
they had much to do. The Genoways did 
them great trouble with their cross-bows : 
on the other side the archers of England 
shot so wholly together, that the French- 
men were fain to give place to the English- 
men. There was a sore battle, and many 
a noble feat of arms done on both sides. 
Finally the Englishmen passed over and 
assembled together in the field. The king 
and the prince passed, and all the lords ; 
then the Frenchmen kept none array, but 
departed, he that might best. When sir 
Godemar saw that discomfiture, he fled and 
saved himself : some fled to Abbeville and 
some to Saint- Riquiers. They that were 
there afoot could not flee, so that there were 
slain a great number of them of Abbeville, 
Montreuil, Rue and of Saint-Riquiers : the 
chase endured more than a great league. 
And as yet all the Englishmen were not 
passed the river, and certain currours of the 
king of Bohemia and of sir John of Plainault 
came on them that were behind and took 
certain horses and carriages and slew divers, 
or they could take the passage. 

The French king the same morning was 
departed from Airaines, trusting to have 
found the Englishmen between him and 
the river of Somme : but when he heard 
how that sir Godemar du Fay and his 
company were discomfited, he tarried in 
the field and demanded of his marshals 
what was best to do. They said, 'Sir, ye 
cannot pass the river but at the bridge of 
Abbeville, for the flood is come in at 
Blanche-taque ' : then he returned and 
lodged at Abbeville. 

The king of England when he was past 
the river, he thanked God and so rode forth 
in like manner as he did before. Then he 
called Gobin Agace and did quit him his 
ransom and all his company, and gave him 
a hundred nobles and a good horse. And 
so the king rode forth fair and easily, and 
thought to have lodged in a great town 
called Noyelles ; but when he knew that 
the town pertained to the countess d'Aumale, 
sister to the lord Robert of Artois,^ the 
1 She was in fact his daughter. 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



king assured the town and country as much 
as pertained to her, and so went forth ; and 
his marshals rode to Crotoy on the sea-side 
and brent the town, and found in the haven 
many ships and barks charged with wines 
of Poitou, pertaining to the merchants of 
Saintonge and of Rochelle : they brought 
the best thereof to the king's host. Then 
one of the marshals rode to the gates of 
Abbeville and from thence to Saint- Riquiers, 
and after to the town of Rue-Saint-Esprit. 
This was on a Friday, and both battles of 
the marshals returned to the king's host 
about noon and so lodged all together near 
to Cressy in Ponthieu. 

The king of England was well informed 
how the French king followed after him to 
fight. Then he said to his company ; * Let 
us take here some plot of ground, for we 
will go no farther till we have seen our 
enemies. I have good cause here to abide 
them, for I am on the right heritage of the 
queen my mother, the which land was given 
at her marriage : I will challenge it of mine 
adversary Philip of Valois.' And because 
that he had not the eighth part in number of 
men as the French king had, therefore he 
commanded his marshals to chose a plot of 
ground somewhat for his advantage : and so 
they did, and thither the king and his host 
went. Then he sent his currours to 
Abbeville, to see if the French king drew 
that day into the field or not. They went 
forth and returned again, and said how they 
could see none appearance of his coming : 
then every man took their lodging for that 
day, and to be ready in the morning at the 
sound of the trumpet in the same place. 
This Friday the French king tarried still in 
Abbeville abiding for his company, and sent 
his two marshals to ride out to see the 
dealing of the Englishmen, and at night 
they returned, and said how the English- 
men were lodged in the fields. That night 
the French king made a supper to all the 
chief lords that were there with him, and 
after supper the king desired them to be 
friends each to other. The king looked for 
the earl of Savoy, who should come to him 
with a thousand spears, for he had received 
wages for a three months of them at Troyes 
in Champagne. 



CHAPTER CXXVIII 

Of the order of the Englishmen at Cressy, 
and how they made three battles afoot. \ 

On the Friday, as I said before, the king of 
England lay in the fields, for the country 
was plentiful of wines and other victual, 
and if need had been, they had provision 
following in carts and other carriages. 
That night the king made a supper to all 
his chief lords of his host and made them 
good cheer ; and when they were all de- 
parted to take their rest, then the king 
entered into his oratory and kneeled down 
before the altar, praying God devoutly, that 
if he fought the next day, that he might 
achieve the journey to his honour : then 
about midnight he laid him down to rest, 
and in the morning he rose betimes and 
heard mass, and the prince his son with 
him, and the most part of his company were 
confessed and houselled ; and after the mass 
said, he commanded every man to be armed 
and to draw to the field to the same place^ 
before appointed. Then the king caused 
park to be made by the wood side behim 
his host, and there was set all carts an< 
carriages, and within the park were all thei 
horses, for every man was afoot ; and int( 
this park there was but one entry. TheJ 
he ordained three battles : in the first wa 
the young prince of Wales, with him th< 
earl of Warwick and Oxford, the lor< 
Godfrey of Harcourt, sir Raynold Cobham^ 
sir Thomas Holland, the lord Stafford, th< 
lord of Mohun, the lord Delaware, sir Johi 
Chandos, sir Bartholomew de Burghersh 
sir Robert Nevill, the lord Thomas Clifford 
the lord Bourchier, the lord de Latimer, an< 
divers other knights and squires that I can 
not name : they were an eight hundred mei 
of arms and two thousand archers, and i 
thousand of -other with the Welshmen 
every lord drew to the field appointee 
under his own banner and pennon. In th< 
second battle was the earl of Northamptoi^ 
the earl of Arundel, the lord Ros, the lore 
Lucy, the lord Willoughby, the lord Bassetj 
the lord of Saint-Aubin, sir Louis TuftoHj 
the lord of Multon, the lord Lascelles anc 
divers other, about an eight hundred me^ 
of arms and twelve hundred archers. The 
third battle had the king: he had seven 



BATTLE OF CRACY {.Aug. 26) 



103 



hundred men of arms and two thousand 
archers. Then the king leapt on a hobby,^ 
with a white rod in his hand, one of his 
marshals on the one hand and the other on 
the other hand : he rode from rank to rank 
desiring every man to take heed that day 
to his right and honour. He spake it so 
sweetly and with so good countenance and 
merry cheer, that all such as were dis- 
comfited took courage in the seeing and 
hearing of him. And when he had thus 
visited all his battles, it was then nine of 
the day : then he caused every man to eat 
and drink a little, and so they did at their 
leisure. And afterward they ordered again 
their battles : then every man lay down on 
the earth and by him his salet and bow, to 
be the more fresher when their enemies 
should come. 



CHAPTER CXXIX 

The order of the Frenchmen at Cressy, and 
how they beheld the demeanour of the 
Englishmen. 

This Saturday the French king rose be- 
times and heard mass in Abbeville in his 
lodging in the abbey of Saint Peter, and 
he departed after the sun-rising. "When he 
was out of the town two leagues, approach- 
ing toward his enemies, some of his lords 
said to him : ' Sir, it were good that ye 
ordered your battles, and let all your foot- 
men pass somewhat on before, that they be 
not troubled with the horsemen.' Then 
the king sent four knights, the Moine [of] 
IJazeilles, the lord of Noyers, the lord of 
Beaujeu and the lord d'Aubigny to ride to 
aview the English host ; and so they rode 
so near that they might well see part of 
their dealing. The Englishmen saw them 
well and knew well how they were come 
thither to aview them : they let them alone 
and made no countenance toward them, 
and let them return as they came. And 
when the French king saw these four 
knights return again, he tarried till they 
came to him and said : ' Sirs, what tidings?' 
These four knights each of them looked on 
other, for there was none would speak 
before his companion ; finally the king 
said to [the] Moine, who pertained to the 
1 ' Un petit palefroi. ' 



king of Bohemia and had done in his days 
so much, that he was reputed for one of 
the valiantest knights of the world : ' Sir, 
speak you.' Then he said: 'Sir, I shall 
speak, sith it pleaseth you, under the 
correction of my fellows. Sir, we have 
ridden and seen the behaving of your 
enemies : know ye for truth they are rested 
in three battles abiding for you. Sir, I 
will counsel you as for my part, saving 
your displeasure, that you and all your 
company rest here and lodge for this night : 
for or they that be behind of your company 
be come hither, and or your battles be set 
in good order, it will be very late, and 
your people be weary and out of array, 
and ye shall find your enemies fresh and 
ready to receive you. Early in the morning 
ye may order your battles at more leisure 
and advise your enemies at more delibera- 
tion, and to regard well what way ye will 
assail them ; for, sir, surely they will abide 
you.' 

Then the king commanded that it should 
be so done. Then his two marshals one 
rode before, another behind, saying to 
every banner : * Tarry and abide here in 
the name of God and Saint Denis.' They 
that were foremost tarried, but they that 
were behind would not tarry, but rode 
forth, and said how they would in no wise 
abide till they were as far forward as the 
foremost : and when they before saw them 
come on behind, then they rode forward 
again, so that the king nor his marshals 
could not rule them. So they rode without 
order or good array, till they came in sight 
of their enemies : and as soon as the fore- 
most saw them, they reculed then aback 
without good array, whereof they behind 
had marvel and were abashed, and thought 
that the foremost company had been fight- 
ing. Then they might have had leisure 
and room to have gone forward, if they 
had list : some went forth and some abode 
still. The commons, of whom all the ways 
between Abbeville and Cressy were full, 
when they saw that they were near to their 
enemies, they took their swords and cried : 
'Down with them ! let us slay them all." 
There is i>o man, though he were present 
at the journey, that could imagine or shew 
the truth of the evil order that was among 
the French party, and yet they were a 
marvellous great number. That I write 



I04 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



in this book I learned it specially of the 
Englishmen, who well beheld their dealing ; 
and also certain knights of sir John of 
Hainault's, who was always about king 
Philip, shewed me as they knew. 



CHAPTER CXXX 

Of the battle of Cressy between the king of 
England and the French king. 

The Englishmen, who were in three battles 
lying on the ground to rest them, as soon 
as they saw the Frenchmen approach, they 
rose upon their feet fair and easily without 
any haste and arranged their battles. The 
first, which was the prince's battle, the 
f archers there stood in manner of a herse 
and the men of arms in the bottom of the 
battle. The earl of Northampton and the 
earl of Arundel with the second battle 
were on a wing in good order, ready to 
comfort the prince's battle, if need were. 

The lords and knights of France came 
not to the assembly together in good order, 
for some came before and some came after 
in such haste and evil order, that one of 
them did trouble another. When the 
French king saw the Englishmen, his blood 
changed, and said to his marshals : ' Make 
the Genoways go on before and begin the 
battle in the name of God and Saint Denis.' 
There were of the Genoways cross-bows 
about a fifteen thousand,^ but they were so 
weary of going afoot that day a six leagues 
armed with their cross-bows, that they said 
to their constables : ' We be not well 
ordered to fight this day, for we be not in 
the case to do any great deed of arms : we 
have more need of rest.' These words 
came to the earl of Alen9on, who said : 
' A man is well at ease to be charged with 
such a sort of rascals, to -be faint and fail 
now at most need.' Also the same season 
there fell a great rain and a clipse ^ with a 
terrible thunder, and before the rain there 
came flying over both battles a great number 
of crows for fear of the tempest coming. 
Then anon the air began to wax clear, and 
the sun to shine fair and bright, the which 

1 Villani, a very good authority on the subject, 
says 6000, brought from the ships at Harfleur. 

^ A mistranslation of 'une esdistre,' 'a flash of 
lightning.' 



was right in the Frenchmen's eyen and on 
the Englishmen's backs. When the Geno- 
ways were assembled together and began 
to approach, they made a great leap ^ and 
cry to abash the Englishmen, but they 
stood still and stirred not for all that : then 
the Genoways again the second time made 
another leap and a fell cry, and stept for- 
ward a little, and the Englishmen removed 
not one foot : thirdly, again they leapt and 
cried, and went forth till they came within 
shot ; then they shot fiercely with their 
cross-bows. Then the English archers 
stept forth one pace and let fly their arrows 
so wholly [together] and so thick, that it 
seemed snow. When the Genoways felt 
the arrows piercing through heads, arms 
and breasts, many of them cast down 
their cross-bows and did cut their strings 
and returned discomfited. When the 
French king saw them fly away, he said : 
' Slay these rascals, for they shall let and 
trouble us without reason.' Then ye 
should have seen the men of arms dash 
in among them and killed a great number 
of them : and ever still the Englishmen 
shot whereas they saw thickest press ; the 
sharp arrows ran into the men of arms and 
into their horses, and many fell, horse and 
men, among the Genoways, and when they 
were down, they could not relieve ^ again, 
the press was so thick that one overthrew 
another. And also among the Englishmen 
there were certain rascals that went afoot 
with great knives, and they went in among 
the men of arms, and slew and murdered 
many as they lay on the ground, both earls, 
barons, knights and squires, whereof the 
king of England was after displeased, for 
he had rather they had been taken prisoners. 
The valiant king of Bohemia called 
Charles of Luxembourg, son to the noble 
emperor Henry of Luxembourg, for all 
that he was nigh blind, when he understood 
the order of the battle, he said to them 
about him : ' Where is the lord Charles 

1 These ' leaps ' of the Genoese are invented by 
the translator, and have passed from him into several 
respectable English text-books, sometimes incom- 
pany with the eclipse above mentioned. Froissart 
says : ' II commencierent a juper moult epouvant- 
ablement' ; that is, 'to utter cries.' Another text 
makes mention of the English cannons at this 
point : ' The English remained still and let off some 
cannons that they had, to frighten the Genoese.' 

2 The translator's word ' relieve ' (relyuue) repre- 
I sents ' relever,' for ' se relever.' 



BATTLE OF CRECY 



105 



my son ? ' His men said : ' Sir, we cannot 
tell ; we think he be fighting.' Then he 
said : ' Sirs, ye are my men, my com- 
panions and friends in this journey : I 
require you bring me so far forward, that 
I may strike one stroke with my sword.' 
They said they would do his commandment, 
and to the intent that they should not lose 
him in the press, they tied all their reins 
of their bridles each to other and set the 
king before to accomplish his desire, and 
so they went on their enemies. The lord 
Charles of Bohemia his son, who wrote 
himself king of Almaine and bare the arms, 
he came in good order to the battle ; but 
when he saw that the matter went awry on 
their party, he departed, I cannot tell you 
which way. The king his father was so 
far forward that he strake a stroke with his 
sword, yea and more than four, and fought 
valiantly and so did his company ; and 
they adventured themselves so forward, 
that they were there all slain, and the next 
day they were found in the place about 
the king, and all their horses tied each 
to other. 

The earl of Alen9on came to the battle 
right ordinately and fought with the Eng- 
lishmen, and the earl of Flanders also on his 
part. These two lords with their companies 
coasted the English archers and came to the 
prince's battle, and there fought valiantly 
long. The French king would fain have 
come thither, when he saw their banners, 
but there was a great hedge of archers 
before him. The same day the French 
king had given a great black courser to sir 
John of Hainault, and he made the lord 
Thierry of Senzeille to ride on him and to 
bear his banner. The same horse took the 
bridle in the teeth and brought him through 
all the currours of the Englishmen, and as 
he would have returned again, he fell in a 
great dike and was sore hurt, and had 
been there dead, an his page had not been, 
who followed him through all the battles 
and saw where his master lay in the dike, 
and had none other let but for his horse, 
for the Englishmen would not issue out 
of their battle for taking of any prisoner. 
Then the page alighted and relieved his 
master : then he went not back again the 
same way that they came, there was too 
many in his way. 

This battle between Broye and Cressy 



this Saturday was right cruel and fell, and 
many a feat of arms done that came not 
to my knowledge. In the night -^ divers 
knights and squires lost their masters, and 
sometime came on the Englishmen, who 
received them in such wise that they were 
ever nigh slain ; for there was none taken 
to mercy nor to ransom, for so the English- 
men were determined. 

In the morning^ the day of the battle 
certain Frenchmen and Almains perforce 
opened the archers of the prince's battle 
and came and fought with the men of 
arms hand to hand. Then the second 
battle of the Englishmen came to succour 
the prince's battle, the which was time, for 
they had as then much ado ; and they with 
the prince sent a messenger to the king, 
who was on a little windmill hill. Then 
the knight said to the king : * Sir, the earl 
of Warwick and the earl of Oxford, sir 
Raynold Cobham and other, such as be 
about the prince your son, are fiercely 
fought withal and are sore handled ; where- 
fore they desire you that you and your 
battle will come and aid them; for if the 
Frenchmen increase, as they doubt they 
will, your son and they shall have much 
ado.' Then the king said: 'Is my son 
dead or hurt or on the earth felled?' 'No, 
sir,' quoth the knight, 'but he is hardly 
matched ; wherefore he hath need of your 
aid.' 'Well,' said the king, 'return to 
him and to them that sent you hither, and 
say to them that they send no more to me 
for any adventure that falleth, as long as 
my son is alive : and also say to them that 
they suffer him this day to win his spurs ;^ 
for if God be pleased, I will this journey 
be his and the honour thereof, and to them 
that be about him. ' Then the knight re- 
turned again to them and shewed the 
king's words, the which greatly encouraged 
them, and repoined^ in that they had sent 
to the king as they did. 

Sir Godfrey of Harcourt would gladly 
that the earl of Harcourt his brother might 

1 'Sus le nuit,' 'towards nightfall.' _ 

2 The text has suffered by omissions. What 
Froissart says is that if the battle had begun in the 
morning, it might have gone better for the French, 
and then he instances the exploits of those who 
broke through the archers. The battle did not 
begin till four o'clock in the afternoon. 

3 ' Que il laissent a I'enfant gaegnier ses esperons.' 

4 i^e. * they repoined ' : Fr. ' se reprisent. ' 



io6 



TH£ CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



have been saved; for he heard say by 
them that saw his banner how that he was 
there in the field on the French party : but 
sir Godfrey could not come to him be- 
times, for he was slain or he could come 
at him, and so was also the earl of Aumale 
his nephew. In another place the earl of 
Alen5on and the earl of Flanders fought 
valiantly, every lord under his own banner ; 
but finally they could not resist against the 
puissance of the Englishmen, and so there 
they were also slain, and divers other 
knights and squires. Also the earl Louis of 
Blois, nephew to the French king, and the 
duke of Lorraine fought under their 
banners, but at last they were closed in 
among a company of Englishmen and 
Welshmen, and there were slain for all 
their prowess. Also there was slain the 
earl of Auxerre, the earl of Saint- Pol and 
many other. 

In the evening the French king, who 
had left about him no more than a three- 
score persons, one and other, whereof sir 
John of Hainault was one, who had re- 
mounted once the king, for his horse was 
slain with an arrow, then he said to the 
king : ' Sir, depart hence, for it is time ; 
lose not yourself wilfully : if ye have loss at 
this time, ye shall recover it again another 
season. ' And so he took the king's horse 
by the bridle and led him away in a 
manner perforce. Then the king rode till 
he came to the castle of Broye. The gate 
was closed, because it was by that time 
dark : then the king called the captain, 
who came to the walls and said : * Who 
is that calleth there this time of night ? ' 
Then the king said : ' Open your gate 
quickly, for this is the fortune of France.'^ 
The captain knew then it was the king, 
and opened the gate and let down the 
bridge. Then the king entered, and he 
had with him but five barons, sir John of 
Hainault, sir Charles of Montmorency, the 
lord of Beaujeu, the lord d'Aubigny and 
the lord of Montsault. The king would not 
tarry there, but drank and departed thence 
about midnight, and so rode by such guides 
as knew the country till he came in the 
morning to Amiens, and there he rested. 

This Saturday the Englishmen never de- 
parted from their battles for chasing of any 

1 ' C'est la fortune de France ' : but the better 
MSS. have ' c'est li infortunes rois de France.* 



man, but kept still their field, and ever 
defended themselves against all such as 
came to assail them. This battle ended 
about evensong time. 



CHAPTER CXXXI 

How the next day after the battle the English- 
men discomfited divers Frenchmen. 

On this Saturday, when the night was 
come and that the Englishmen heard no 
more noise of the Frenchmen, then they 
reputed themselves to have the victory, 
and the Frenchmen to be discomfited, 
slain and fled away. Then they made 
great fires and lighted up torches and 
candles, because it was very dark. Then 
the king avaled down froni the little hill 
whereas, he stood; and of all that day till 
then his helm came never on his head. 
Then he went with all his battle to his son 
the prince and embraced him in his arms 
and kissed him, and said : ' Fair son, God 
give you good perseverance ; ye are my 
good son, thus ye have acquitted you 
nobly: ye are worthy to keep a realm.' 
The prince inclined himself to the earth, 
honouring the king his father. 

This night they thanked God for their 
good adventure and made no boast thereof, 
for the king would that no man should 
be proud or make boast, but every man 
humbly to thank God. On the Sunday in 
the morning there was such a mist, that a 
man might not see the breadth of an acre 
of land from him. Then there departed 
from the host by the commandment of the 
king and marshals five hundred spears and 
two thousand archers, to see if they might 
see any Frenchmen gathered again to- 
gether in any place. The same morning 
out of Abbeville and Saint -Riquiers in 
Ponthieu the commons of Rouen and of 
Beauvais issued out of their towns,- not 
knowing of the discomfiture the day before. 
They met with the Englishmen weening 
they had been Frenchmen, and when the 
Englishmen saw them, they set on them 
freshly, and there was a sore battle ; but at 
last the Frenchmen fled and kept none 
array. There were slain in the ways and 
in hedges and bushes more than seven 
thousand, and if the day had been clear 



SIEGE OF CALAIS, 1346 {Sept. 3) 



io7 



there had never a one scaped. Anon after, 
another company of Frenchmen were met 
by the Englishmen, the archbishop of 
Rouen and the great prior of France, who 
also knew nothing of the discomfiture the 
day before ; for they heard that the French 
king should have fought the same Sunday, 
and they were going thitherward. "When 
they met with the Englishmen, there was 
a great battle, for they were a great 
number, but they could not endure against 
the Englishmen ; for they were nigh all 
slain, few scaped ; the two lords were slain. 
This morning the Englishmen met with 
divers Frenchmen that had lost their way 
on the Saturday and had lain all night 
in the fields, and wist not where the king 
was nor the captains. They were all 
slain, as many as were met with ; and it 
was shewed me that of the commons and 
men afoot of the cities and good towns of 
France there was slain four times as many 
as were slain the Saturday in the great 
battle. 



CHAPTER CXXXII 

How the next day after the battle of Cressy 
they that were dead were numbered by the 
Englishmen. 

The same Sunday, as the king of England 
came from mass, such as had been sent forth 
returned and shewed the king what they 
had seen and done, and said : ' Sir, we 
think surely there is now no more appear- 
ance of any of our enemies.' Then 
the king sent to search how many were 
slain and what they were. Sir Raynold 
Cobham and sir Richard Stafford with three 
heralds went to search the field and country : 
they visited all them that were slain and 
rode all day in the fields, and returned 
again to the host as the king was going to 
supper. They made just report of that 
they had seen, and said how there were 
eleven great princes dead, fourscore ban- 
ners, twelve hundred knights, and more 
than thirty thousanc^ther.^ The English- 

1 Another text makes the loss of persons below the 
rank of knight 15,000 or 16,000, including the men 
of the towns. Both estimates must be greatly, ex- 
aggerated. Michael of Northburgh says that 1542 
were killed in the battle and about 2000 on the next 



men kept still their field all that night : on 
the Monday in the morning the king pre- 
pared to depart : the king caused the dead 
bodies of the great lords to be taken up and 
conveyed to Montreuil, and there buried in 
holy ground, and made a cry in the country 
to grant truce for three days, to the intent 
that they of the country might search the 
field of Cressy to bury the dead bodies. 

Then the king went forth and came before 
the town of Montreuil-by-the-sea, and his 
marshals ran toward Hesdin and brent 
Waben and Serain, but they did nothing to 
the castle, it was so strong and so well kept. 
They lodged that night on the river of 
Hesdin towards Blangy. The next day 
they rode toward Boulogne and came to the 
town of Wissant : there the king and the 
prince lodged, and tarried there a day to 
refresh his men, and on the Wednesday the 
king came before the strong town of Calais. 



CHAPTER CXXXHI 

How the king of England laid siege to Calais, 
and how all the poor people were put out 
of the town. 

In the town of Calais there was captain a 
knight of Burgoyne called sir John de 
Vienne, and with him was sir Arnold 
d'Audrehem, sir John de Surie, sir Baldwin 
de Bellebrune, sir Geoffrey de la Motte, sir 
Pepin de Wierre and divers other knights 
and squires. When the king of England 
was come before Calais, he laid his siege 
and ordained bastides between the town and 
the river : he made carpenters to make 
houses and lodgings of great timber, and set 
the houses like streets and covered them 
with reed and broom, so that it was like a 
little town ; and there was everything to 
sell, and a market-place to be kept every 
Tuesday and Saturday for flesh and fish, 
mercery ware, houses for cloth, for bread, 
wine and all other things necessary, such 
as came out of England or out of Flanders ; 
there they might buy what they list. The 
Englishmen ran oftentimes into the country 

day. The great princes killed were the king of 
Bohemia, the duke of Lorraine, the earls of Alengon, 
Flanders, Blois, Auxerre, Harcourt, Saint-Pol, 
Aumale, the grand prior of France and the arch- 
bishop of Rouen. 



io8 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



of Guines, and into Ternois, and to the 
gates of Saint -Omer's, and sometime to 
Boulogne ; they brought into their host 
great preys. The king would not assail the 
town of Calais, for he thought it but a lost 
labour : he spared his people and his artil- 
lery, and said how he would famish them in 
the town with long siege, without the French 
king come and raise his siege perforce. 

When the captain of Calais saw the man- 
ner and the order of the Englishmen, then 
he constrained all poor and mean people to 
issue out of the town, and on a Wednesday 
there issued out of men, women and chil- 
dren more than seventeen hundred ; and as 
they passed through the host, they were de- 
manded why they departed, and they an- 
swered and said, because they had nothing 
to live on : then the king did them that 
grace that he suffered them to pass through 
his host without danger, and gave them 
meat and drink to dinner, and every person 
two pence sterling in alms, for the which 
divers many of them prayed for the king's 
prosperity. 



CHAPTER CXXXIV 

How the duke of Normandy brake up his 
siege before Aiguillon. 

SUMMARY. — The French king sent 
for the duke of Normandy to return and 
defend France, so the French departed from 
that siege. As they departed, those within 
made a sally and took several prisoners, 
from whofn sir Walter Manny heard of the 
king of England's campaign in France. 

The king of France was displeased with 
sir Godemar du Fay, because he had not well 
kept the passage of Blanche-taque, and he 
would have lost his life, but sir John of 
Hainault excused him. 



CHAPTER CXXXV 

How sir Gaultier of Manny rode through all 
France by safe-conduct to Calais. 

It was not long after, but that sir Gaultier 
of Manny fell in communication with a 
knight of Normandy, who was his prisoner, 
and demanded of him what money he would 



pay for his ransom. The knight answered 
and said he would gladly pay three thousand 
crowns. 'Well,' quoth the lord Gaultier, 
' I know well ye be kin to the duke of 
Normandy and well beloved with him, [so] 
that I am sure, an if I would sore oppress 
you, I am sure ye would gladly pay ten 
thousand crowns ; but I shall deal otherwise 
with you. I will trust you on your faith 
and promise : ye shall go to the duke 
your lord, and by your means get a safe- 
conduct for me and twenty other of my 
company to ride through France to Calais, 
paying courteously for all our expenses. 
And if ye can get this of the duke or of the 
king, I shall clearly quit you your ransom 
with much thank, for I greatly desire to see 
the king my master ; nor I will lie but one 
night in a place till I come there. And if 
ye cannot do this, return again hither within 
a month, and yield yourself still as my 
prisoner.' The knight was content and so 
went to Paris to the duke his lord, and he 
obtained this passport for sir Gaultier of 
Manny and twenty horse with him all only. 
This knight returned to Aiguillon and 
brought it to sir Gaultier, and there he 
quitted the knight Norman of his ransom. 
Then anon after, sir Gaultier took his way 
and twenty horse with him, and so rode 
through Auvergne; and when he tarried in 
any place, he shewed his letter and so was 
let pass : but when he came to Orleans, for 
all his letter he was arrested and brought 
to Paris and there put in prison in the 
Chatelet. 

When the duke of Normandy knew 
thereof, he went to the king his father and 
shewed him how sir Gaultier of Manny had 
his safe-conduct, wherefore he required the 
king as much as he might to deliver him, 
or else it should be said how he had be- 
trayed him. The king answered and 
said how he should be put to death, for he 
reputed him for his great enemy. Then 
said the duke ; ' Sir, if ye do so, surely I 
shall never bear armour against the king of 
England, nor all such as I may let.' And 
at his departing he said that he would never 
enter again into the king's host. Thus the 
matter stood a certain time. 

There was a knight of Hainault called 
sir Mansart d'Esne : he purchased all that 
he might to help sir Walter of Manny, and 
went often in and out to the duke of Nor- 



INVASION OF ENGLAND BY THE SCOTS 



109 



mandy. Finally the king was so counselled, 
that he was delivered out of prison and all 
his costs paid ; and the king sent for him to 
his lodging of Nesle in Paris, and there he 
dined with the king, and the king presented 
him great gifts and jewels to the value of a 
thousand florins. Sir Gaultier of Manny 
received them on a condition, that when he 
came to Calais, that if the king of England 
his master were pleased that he should take 
them, then he was content to keep them, 
or else to send them again to the French 
king, who said he spake like a noble man. 
Then he took his leave and departed, and 
rode so long by his journeys that he came 
into Hainault, arid tarried at Valenciennes 
three days ; and so from thence he went to 
Calais and was welcome to the king. But 
when the king heard that sir Gaultier of 
Manny had received gifts of the French 
king, he said to him : * Sir Gaultier, ye 
have hitherto truly served us, and shall do, 
as we trust. Send again to king Philip the 
gifts that he gave you ; ye have no cause 
to keep them. We thank God we have 
enough for us and for you : we be in good 
purpose to do much good for you according 
to the good service that ye have done.' 
Then sir Gaultier took all those jewels and 
delivered them to a cousin of his called 
Mansart,^ and said : ' Ride into France to 
the king there and recommend me unto him, 
and say how I thank him a thousand times 
for the gift that he gave me ; but shew him 
how it is not the pleasure of the king my 
master that I should keep them ; therefore 
I send them again to him.' This knight 
rode to Paris and shewed all this to the 
king, who would not receive again the 
jewels, but did give them to the same 
knight sir Mansart, who thanked the king 
and was not in will to say nay. 



CHAPTER CXXXVI 

How the earl of Derby the same season took 
in Poitou divers towns and castles, and 
also the city of Poitiers. 

1 This is the same sir Mansart d'Esne who has 
been mentioned above, but the translator, finding 
the name here written ' Mansac,' introduces him as 
a new person. 



CHAPTER CXXXVH 

How the king of Scots during the siege before 
Calais came into England with a great host. 

It is long now sith we spake of king David 
of Scotland : howbeit till now there was 
none occasion why, for the truce that was 
taken was well and truly kept : so that 
when the king of England had besieged 
Calais and lay there, then the Scots deter- 
mined to make war into England and to be 
revenged of such hurts as they had taken 
before. For they said then how that the 
realm of England was void of men of war ; 
for they were, as they said, with the king of 
England before Calais, and some in Bretayne, 
Poitou and Gascoyne. The French king 
did what he could to stir the Scots to that 
war, to the intent that the king of England 
should break up his siege and return to 
defend his own realm. 

The king of Scots made his summons to 
be at Saint-John's town on the river of Tay 
in Scotland : thither came earls, barons 
and prelates of Scotland, and there agreed 
that in all haste possible they should enter 
into England. To come in that journey 
was desired John of the out Isles, who 
governed the wild Scots, for to him they 
obeyed and to no man else. He came with 
a three thousand of the most outrageoust 
people in all the country. When all the 
Scots were assembled, they were of one and 
other a fifty thousand fighting men. They 
could not make their assembly so secret 
but that the queen of England, who was as 
then in the marches of the North about 
York, knew all their dealing. Then she 
sent all about for men and lay herself at 
York : then all men of war and archers 
came to Newcastle with the queen. In the 
mean season the king of Scots departed 
firom Saint-John's town and went to Dun- 
fermline the first day. The next day they 
passed a little arm of the sea and so came 
to Stirling, and then to Edinburgh. Then 
they numbered their company, and they 
were a three thousand men of arms, knights 
and squires, and a thirty thousand of other 
on hackneys. Then they came to Roxburgh, 
the first fortress English on that part : 
captain there was sir William Montague. 
The Scots passed by without any assault 



no 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



making, and so went forth brenning and 
destroying the country of Northumberland ; 
and their currours ran to York and brent as 
much as was without the walls, and returned 
again to their host within a day's journey of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



CHAPTER CXXXVIII 

Of the battle of Newcastle - upon - Tyne 
between the queen of England and the 
king of Scots. 

The queen of England, who desired to 
defend her country, came to Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne and there tarried for her men, 
who came daily from all parts. When the 
Scots knew that the Englishmen assembled 
at Newcastle, they drew thitherward and 
their currours came running before the 
town ; and at their returning they brent 
certain small hamlets thereabout, so that 
the smoke thereof came into the town of 
Newcastle. Some of the Englishmen would 
a issued out to have fought with them that 
made the fires, but the captains would not 
suffer them to issue out. 

The next day the king of Scots with a 
forty thousand men one and other came 
and lodged within three little English mile 
of Newcastle in the land of the lord Nevill ; 
and the king sent to them within the town, 
that if they would issue out into the field, 
he would fight with them gladly. The 
lords and prelates of England said they were 
content to adventure their lives with the 
right and heritage of the king of England 
their master. Then they all issued out of 
the town, and were in number a twelve 
hundred men of arms, three thousand 
archers, and seven thousand of other with 
the Welshmen. Then the Scots came and 
lodged against them near together : then 
every man was set in order of battle : then 
the queen came among her men ^ and there 
was ordained four battles, one to aid 
another. The first had in governance the 
bishop of Durham and the lord Percy ; the 
second the archbishop of York and the lord 
Nevill ; the third the bishop of Lincoln 
and the lord Mowbray ; the fourth the 
lord Edward de Balliol, captain of Berwick, 

1 The queen was not present at Nevill's Cross, 
but had already passed over to the Continent 
(Kervyn de Lettenhove, v. 487). 



the archbishop of Canterbury and the lord 
Ros : every battle had like number after 
their quantity. The queen went from 
battle to battle desiring them to do their 
devoir to defend the honour of her lord the 
king of England, and in the name of God 
every man to be of good heart and courage, 
promising them that to her power she would 
remember them as well or better as though 
her lord the king were there personally. 
Then the queen departed from them, recom- 
mending them to God and to Saint George. 
Then anon after, the battles of the Scots 
began to set forward, and in like wise so did 
the Englishmen. Then the archers began 
to shoot on both parties, I3ut the shot of the 
Scots endured but a short space, but the 
archers of England shot so fiercely, so that 
when the battles approached, there was a 
hard battle. They began at nine and 
endured till noon : the Scots had great 
axes sharp and hard, and gave with them 
many great strokes. Howbeit finally the 
Englishmen obtained the place and victory, 
but they lost many of their men. There 
were slain of the Scots the earl of Fife, the 
earl of Buchan, the earl Patrick, the earl 
of Sutherland, the earl of Strathern, the 
earl of Mar, the earl John Douglas, and 
the lord Alexander Ramsay, who bare the 
king's banner, and divers other knights and 
squires. And there the king was taken, 
who fought valiantly and was sore hurt. 
A squire of Northumberland took him, 
called John Copeland ; and as soon as he 
had taken the king, he went with him out 
of the field with eight of his servants with 
him, and so rode all that day, till he was a 
fifteen leagues from the place of the battle, 
and at night he came to a castle called 
Orgulus ; ^ and then he said he would not 
deliver the king of Scots to no man nor 
woman living, but all only to the king of 
England his lord. The same day there was 
also taken in the field the earl Moray, the 
earl of March, the lord William Douglas, 
the lord Robert Versy; the bishop of Aber- 
deen, the bishop of Saint Andrews, and 
divers other knights and barons. And 
there were slain of one and other a fifteen 
thousand, and the other saved themselves 
as well as they might. This battle was 

1 Froissart's Chateau-Orgueilleux is the castle of 
Ogle in Northumberland (Kervyn de Lettenhove, 

V. 493). 



BATTLE OF NEVILUS CROSS, 1346 {.Oct. 17) 



III 



I 



beside Newcastle, the year of our Lord 
MCCCXLVi., the Saturday next after Saint 
Michael. 

CHAPTER CXXXIX 

How John Copeland had the king of Scots 
prisoner, and what profit he got thereby. 

When the queen of England being at New- 
castle understood how the journey was for 
her and her men, she then rode to the place 
where the battle had been. Then it was 
shewed her how the king of Scots was 
taken by a squire called John Copeland, 
and he had carried away the king no man 
knew whither. Then the queen wrote to 
the squire commanding him to bring his 
prisoner the king of Scots, and how he had 
not well done to depart with him without 
leave. All that day the Englishmen tarried 
still in the same place and the queen with 
them, and the next day they returned to 
Newcastle. When the queen's letter was 
brought to John Copeland, he answered 
and said, that as for the king of Scots his 
prisoner, he would not deliver him to no 
man nor woman living, but all only to the 
king of England his sovereign lord : as for 
the king of Scots, he said he should be safely 
kept, so that he would give account for him. 
Then the queen sent letters to the king 
to Calais, whereby the king was informed 
of the state of his realm : then the king 
sent incontinent to John Copeland, that he 
should come over the sea to him to the 
siege before Calais. Then the same John 
did put his prisoner in safe keeping in a 
strong castle, and so rode through England 
till he came to Dover, and there took the 
sea and arrived before Calais. When the 
king of England saw the squire, he took 
him by the hand and said : * Ah ! welcome, 
my squire, that by your valiantness hath 
taken mine adversary the king of Scots.' 
The squire kneeled down and said : ' Sir, 
if God by his grace have suffered me to 
take the king of Scots by true conquest of 
arms, sir, I think no man ought to have any 
envy thereat ; for as well God may send by 
his grace such a fortune to fall to a poor 
squire as to a great lord : and, sir, I require 
your grace, be not miscontent with me, 
though I did not deliver the king of Scots 
at the commandment of the queen. Sir, 



I hold of you, as mine oath is to you, and 
not to her but in all good manner. ' The 
king said : 'John, the good service that ye 
have done and your valiantness is so much 
worth, that it must countervail your trespass 
and be taken for your excuse, and shame 
have they that bear you any evil will there- 
for. Ye shall return again horne to your 
house, and then my pleasure is that ye 
deliver your prisoner to the queen my wife ; 
and in a reward I assign you near to your 
house, whereas ye think best yourself, five 
hundred pound sterling of yearly rent to you 
and to your heirs for ever, and here I 
make you squire for my body. ' Then the 
third day he departed and returned again 
into England ; and when he came home to 
his own house, he assembled together his 
friends and kin, and so they took the king 
of Scots and rode with him to the city of 
York, and there from the king his lord he 
presented the king of Scots to the queen, 
and excused him so largely, that the queen 
and her council were content. 

Then the queen made good provision for 
the city of York, the castle of Roxburgh, 
the city of Durham, the town of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, and in all other garrisons on the 
marches of Scotland, and left in those 
marches the lord Percy and the lord Nevill 
as governour there : then the queen de- 
parted from York toward London. Then 
she set the king of Scots in the strong 
tower of London, and the earl Moray and 
all other prisoners, and set good keeping 
over them. Then she went to Dover and 
there took the sea, and had so good wind, 
that in a short space she arrived before 
Calais, three days before the feast of All 
Saints ; for whose coming the king made a 
great feast and dinner to all the lords and 
ladies that were there. The queen brought 
many ladies and damosels with her, as well 
to accompany her as to see their husbands, 
fathers, brethren and other friends, that lay 
at siege there before Calais and had done a 
long space. 

CHAPTER CXL 

How the young earl of Flanders ensured the 
king's daughter of England. 

The siege before Calais endured long, and 
many things fell in the mean season, the 



112 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



which I cannot write the fourth part. The 
French king had set men of war in every 
fortress in those marches, in the county of 
Guines, of Artois, of Boulogne, and about 
Calais, and had a great number of Geno- 
ways, Normans and other on the sea, so 
that when any of the Englishmen would go 
a-foraging, other afoot or horseback, they 
found many times hard adventures, and 
often there was skirmishing about the gates 
and dikes of the town, and oftentimes 
some slain and hurt on both parties ; some 
day the one part lost and some day the 
other. The king of England caused engines 
to be made to oppress them within the 
town, but they within made other again to 
resist them, so that they took little hurt by 
them ; but nothing could come into the 
town but by stealth, and that was by the 
means of two mariners, one called Marant 
and the other Mestriel, and they dwelt in 
Abbeville. By them two they of Calais 
were oftentimes recomforted and freshed 
by stealth ; and oftentimes they were in 
great peril, chased and near taken, but 
always they scaped, and made many 
Englishmen to be drowned. 

All that winter the king lay still at the 
siege, and thought and imagined ever to 
keep the commonty of Flanders in friend- 
ship ; for he thought by their means the 
sooner to come to his intent. He sent 
oftentimes to them with fair promises, say- 
ing that if he might get Calais, he would 
help them to recover Lille and Douay with 
all their appurtenances ; so by occasion of 
such promises, while the king was in Nor- 
mandy towards Cressy and Calais, they 
went and laid siege to Bethune, and their 
captain was sir Oudart de Renty, who was 
banished out of France. They held a 
great siege before that town and sore con- 
strained them by assault ; but within were 
four knights captains set there by the 
French king to keep the town, that is to 
say, sir Geoffrey of Charny, sir Eustace of 
Ribemont, sir Baudwin d'Annequin and 
sir John of Landas: they defended the 
town in such wise, that the Flemings won 
nothing there, but so departed and re- 
turned again into Flanders. But while 
the king of England lay at siege before 
Calais, he sent still messengers to them of 
Flanders, and made them great promises 
to keep their amity with him and to oppress 



the drift of the French king, who did all 
that he could to draw them to his opinion. 

The king of England would gladly that 
the earl Louis of Flanders, who was as 
then but fifteen year of age, should have 
in marriage his daughter Isabel. So much 
did the king that the Flemings agreed 
thereto ; whereof the king was glad, for he 
thought by that marriage the Flemings 
would the gladlier help him ; and the 
Flemings thought, by having of the king 
of England on their party, they might well 
resist the Frenchmen ; they thought it 
more necessary and profitable for them, 
the love of the king of England, rather 
than the French king. But the young earl, 
who had been ever nourished among the 
noblemen of France, would not agree, and 
said plainly, he would not have to his wife 
the daughter of him that slew his father : 
also duke John of Brabant purchased 
greatly that the earl of Flanders should 
have his daughter in marriage, promising 
him that if he would take her to his wife, 
that he would cause him to enjoy the whole 
earldom of Flanders, other by fair means 
or otherwise : also the duke said to the 
French king, * Sir, if the earl of Flanders 
will take my daughter, I shall find the 
means that all the Flemings shall take your 
part and forsake the king of England ' : by 
the which promise the French king agreed 
to that marriage. When the duke of Bra- 
bant had the king's good-will, then he sent 
certain messengers into Flanders to the 
burgesses of the good towns, and shewed 
them so fair reasons, that the counsels of 
the good towns sent to the earl their 
natural lord, certifying him that if he 
would come into Flanders and use their 
counsel, they would be to him true and 
good friends and deliver to him all the 
rights and jurisdictions of Flanders, as 
much as ever any earl had. The earl took 
counsel and went into Flanders, where he 
was received with great joy and given to 
him many great presents. 

As soon as the king of England heard 
of this, he sent into Flanders the earl of 
Northampton, the earl of Arundel and the 
lord Cobham. They did so much with the 
officers and commons of Flanders, that 
they had rather that their lord the earl 
should take to his wife the king of Eng- 
land's daughter than the daughter of the 



BETROTHAL OF THE EARL OF FLANDERS 



113 



duke of Brabant; and so to do they affectu- 
ously desired their lord, and shewed him 
many fair reasons to draw him to that way, 
so that the burgesses that were on the duke 
of Brabant's party durst not say the con- 
trary. But then the earl in no wise would 
consent thereto, but ever he said he would 
not wed her, whose father had slain his, 
though he might have half of the whole 
realm of England. When the Flemings 
saw that, they said how their lord was too 
much French and evil counselled, and also 
said how they would do no good to him, 
sith he would not believe their counsels. 
Then they took and put him in courteous 
prison, and said how he should never de- 
part without he would follow and believe 
their counsels. Also they said that the 
earl his father believed and loved too 
much the Frenchmen ; for if he would a 
believed them, he should have been the 
greatest lord in all Christendom, and re- 
covered again Lille, Douay and Bethune, 
and yet alive. Thus the matter abode a 
certain space : the king of England lay still 
at the siege before Calais and kept a great 
court that Christmas ; and about the be- 
ginning of Lent after, came thither out of 
Gascoyne the earl of Derby, the earl of 
Pembroke, the earl of Oxford and divers 
other knights and squires, that had passed 
the sea with the earl. 

Thus the earl of Flanders was long in 
danger among the Flemings in courteous 
prison, and it greatly annoyed him. Then 
at last he said he would believe their 
counsel ; for he knew well, he said, that 
he should have more profit there than in 
any other country. These words rejoiced 
greatly the Flemings: then they took him 
out of prison and suffered him to go a-hawk- 
ing to the river, the which sport the earl 
loved well ; but ever there was good watch 
laid on him, that he should not steal away 
from them, and they were charged on 
their lives to take good heed to him, and 
also they were such as were favourable to 
the king of England. They watched him 
so near, that he could do nothing without 
their knowledge. This endured so long 
that at last the earl said that he would 
gladly have to his wife the king of Eng- 
land's daughter. Then the Flemings sent 
word thereof to the king and to the queen, 
and pointed a day that they should come 
I 



to Bergues, in the abbey, and to bring 
their daughter with them, and they would 
bring thither their lord the earl of Flan- 
ders; and there to conclude up the mar- 
riage. The king and the queen were glad 
thereof, and said that the Flemings were 
good men : so to Bergues between Newport 
and Gravelines came the most saddest men 
of the good towns in Flanders, and 
brought with them the earl their lord in 
great estate. The king of England and the 
queen were there ready: the earl courte- 
ously inclined to the king and to the queen : 
the king took the earl by the right hand right 
sweetly, and led him forth, saying: 'As for 
the death of the earl your father, as God 
help me, the day of the battle of Cressy 
nor the next day after I never heard word 
of him that he should be there.' The 
young earl by semblant made as though he 
had been content with the king's excuse. 
Then they fell in communication of the 
marriage : there were certain articles agreed 
unto by the king of England and the 
earl Louis of Flanders, and great amities 
there was sworn between them to be 
holden ; and there the earl fianced Isabel 
the king of England's daughter, and pro- 
mised to wed her. So that journey brake 
off, and a new day to be appointed at more 
leisure : the Flemings returned into Flanders 
with their lord, and the king of England 
with the queen went again to the siege of 
Calais. 

Thus the matter stood a certain time, 
and the king and the queen prepared 
greatly again the marriage for jewels and 
other things to give away, according to 
their behaviours. The earl of Inlanders 
daily passed the time at the river, and 
made semblant that this marriage pleased 
him greatly ; so the Flemings thought that 
they were then sure enough of him, so that 
there was not so great watch made on him 
as was before. But they knew not well 
the condition of their lord, for whatsoever 
countenance he made outward, his inward 
courage was all French. So on a day he 
went forth with his hawks, the same week 
that the marriage should have been 
finished : his falconer cast off a falcon to 
an heron and the earl cast off another. So 
these two falcons chased the heron, and 
the earl rode after, as to follow his falcon. 
And when he was a good way off and had 



H 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



the advantage of the fields, he dashed 
his spurs to his horse and galloped forth 
in such wise, that his keepers lost him. 
Still he galloped forthright, till he came 
into Artois, and there he was in surety ; 
and so then he rode into France to king 
Philip and shewed him all his adventure. 
The king and the Frenchmen said how he 
had dealt wisely ; the Englishmen on the 
'other side said how he had betrayed and 
deceived them : but for all that, the king 
left not to keep the Flemings in amity, for he 
knew well the earl had done this deed not by 
their counsel, for they were sore displeased 
therewith ; and the excuse that they made 
the king soon believed it in that behalf. 



CHAPTER CXLI 

How sir Robert of Namur did homage to the 
king of England before Calais. 



CHAPTERS CXLH, CXLIH 

SUMMARY. — The war began again in 
Brittany. The English took Rochedarien, 
and Charles of Blois laid siege to it. An 
ar?ny sent by the countess of Montfort to 
raise the siege surprised the French, who 
were defeated, and Charles of Blois was 
taken prisotier. 



CHAPTERS CXLIV, CXLV 

SUMMA RY. — The French king raised an 
army to relieve Calais, but the passages 
wei-e so well kept, that he could not approach. 
Negotiatiotis for peace were without effect. 



CHAPTER CXLVI 

How the town of Calais was given up to the 
king of England. 

After that the French king was thus de- 
parted from Sangate, they within Calais saw 
well how their succour failed them, for the 
which they were in great sorrow. Then 
they desired so much their captain, sir John 
of Vienne, that he went to the walls of the 



town and made a sign to speak with some 
person of the host. When the king heard 
thereof, he sent thither sir Gaultier of 
Manny and sir Basset. Then sir John of 
Vienne said to them : ' Sirs, ye be right 
valiant knights in deeds of arms, and ye 
know well how the king my master hath 
sent me and other to this town and com- 
manded us to keep it to his behoof in such 
wise that we take no blame, nor to him no 
damage ; and we have done all that lieth 
in our power. Now our succours hath 
failed us, and we be so sore strained, that 
we have not to live withal, but that we 
must all die or else enrage for famine, 
without the noble and gentle king of yours 
will take mercy on us : the which to do 
we require you to desire him, to have pity 
on us and to let us go and depart as we 
be, and let him take the town and castle 
and all the goods that be therein, the 
which is great abundance.' Then sir 
Gaultier of Manny said : * Sir, we know 
somewhat of the intention of the king our 
master, for he hath shewed it unto us : 
surely know for truth it is not his mind 
that ye nor they within the town should 
depart so, for it is his will that ye all 
should put yourselves into his pure will, to 
ransom all such as pleaseth him and to 
put to death such as he list ; for they of 
Calais hath done him such contraries and 
despites, and hath caused him to dispend 
so much good, and lost many of his men, 
that he is sore grieved against them.' 
Then the captain said : ' Sir, this is too 
hard a matter to us. We are here within, 
a small sort of knights and squires, who 
hath truly served the king our master as 
well as ye serve yours in like case. And 
we have endured much pain and unease ; 
but we shall yet endure as much pain as 
ever knights did, rather than to consent that 
the worst lad in the town should have any 
more evil than the greatest of us all : 
therefore, sir, we pray you that of your 
humility, yet that ye will go and speak to 
the king of England and desire him to 
have pity of us ; for we trust in him so 
much gentleness, that by the grace of God 
his purpose shall change. ' 

Sir Gaultier of Manny and sir Basset 
returned to the king and declared to him 
all that had been said. The king said 
he would none otherwise but that they 






SURRENDER OF CALAIS, 1347 {Aug. 4) 



"5 



should yield them up shnply to his plea- 
sure. Then sir Gaultier said : ' Sir, saving 
your displeasure, in this ye may be in the 
wrong, for ye shall give by this an evil 
ensample : if ye send any of us your ser- 
vants into any fortress, we will not be very 
glad to go, if ye put any of them in the 
town to death after they be yielded ; for 
in like wise they will deal with us, if the 
case fell like.' The which words divers 
other lords that were there present sus- 
tained and maintained. Then the king 
said : ' Sirs, I will not be alone against 
you all ; therefore, sir Gaultier of Manny, 
ye shall go and say to the captain that all 
the grace that he shall find now in me is 
that they let six of the chief burgesses of 
the town come out bare-headed, bare- 
footed, and bare-legged, and in their shirts, 
with halters about their necks, with the keys 
of the town and castle in their hands, and 
let them six yield themselves purely to my 
will, and the residue I will take to mercy. ' 
Then sir Gaultier returned and found 
sir John of Vienne still on the wall, abid- 
ing for an answer. Then sir Gaultier 
shewed him all the grace that he could get 
of the king. 'Well,' quoth sir John, 'sir, 
I require you tarry here a certain space, 
till I go into the town and shew this to 
the commons of the town, who sent me 
hither. Then sir John went unto the 
market-place and sowned the common 
bell : then incontinent men and women 
assembled there : then the captain made 
report of all that he had done, and said, 
* Sirs, it will be none otherwise ; therefore 
now take advice and make a short answer.' 
Then all the people began to weep and 
to make such sorrow, that there was not 
so hard a heart, if they had seen them, 
but that would have had great pity of 
them : the captain himself wept piteously. 
At last the most rich burgess of all the 
town, called Eustace of Saint- Pierre, rose 
up and said openly : * Sirs, great and 
small, great mischief it should be to suffer 
to die such people as be in this town, 
other by famine or otherwise, when there 
is a mean to save them. I think he or 
they should have great merit of our Lord 
God that might keep them from such mis- 
chief. As for my part, I have so good 
trust in our Lord God, that if I die in the 
quarrel to save the residue, that God would 



pardon me : wherefore to save them I will 
be the first to put my life in jeopardy.' 
When he had thus said, every man wor- 
shipped him and divers kneeled down at 
his feet with sore weeping and sore sighs. 
Then another honest burgess rose and 
said : * I will keep company with my 
gossip Eustace.' He was called John 
d'Aire. Then rose up Jaques of Wissant, 
who was rich in goods and heritage ; he 
said also that he would hold company with 
his two cousins. In like wise so did 
Peter of Wissant his brother : and then 
rose two other ;^ they said they would do 
the same. Then they went ancl apparelled 
them as the king desired. 

Then the captain went with them to the 
gate : there was great lamentation made of 
men, women and children at their depart- 
ing : then the gate was opened and he 
issued out with the six burgesses and closed 
the gate again, so that they were between 
the gate and the barriers. Then he said 
to sir Gaultier of Manny : * Sir, I deliver 
here to you as captain of Calais by the 
whole consent of all the people of the town 
these six burgesses, and I swear to you 
truly that they be and were to-day most 
honourable, rich and most notable burgesses 
of all the town of Calais. Wherefore, 
gentle knight, I require you pray the king 
to have mercy on them, that they die not.' 
Quoth sir Gaultier : ' I cannot say what 
the king will do, but I shall do for them 
the best I can.' Then the barriers were 
opened, the six burgesses went towards 
the king, and the captain entered again 
into the town. 

When sir Gaultier presented these 
burgesses to the king, they kneeled down 
and held up their hands and said : * Gentle 
king, behold here we six, who were 
burgesses of Calais and great merchants ; 
we have brought to you the keys of the 
town and of the castle and we submit 
ourselves clearly into your will and pleasure, 
to save the residue of the people of Calais, 
who have suffered great pain. Sir, we 
beseech your grace to have mercy and pity 
on us through your high nobless.' Then 
all the earls and barons and other that 
were there wept for pity. The king looked 
felly on them, for greatly he hated the 

I In Froissart's last revision the names are given, 
Jean de Fiennes and Andrieu d'Andre. 



i6 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



people of Calais for the great damages 
and displeasures they had done him on 
the sea before. Then he commanded their 
heads to be stricken off: then every man 
required the king for mercy, but he would 
hear no man in that behalf: then sir Gaultier 
of Manny said : 'Ah, noble king, for God's 
sake refrain your courage : ye have the 
name of sovereign nobless ; therefore now 
do not a thing that should blemish your 
renown, nor to give cause to some to speak 
of you villainy. Every man will say it is a 
great cruelty to put to death such honest 
persons, who by their own wills put them- 
selves into your grace to save their company. ' 
Then the king wryed away from him ^ and 
commanded to send for the hangman, and 
said : ' They of Calais have caused many 
of my men to be slain, wherefore these 
shall die in like wise.' Then the queen, 
being great with child, kneeled down and 
sore weeping said : ' Ah, gentle sir, sith I 
passed the sea in great peril, I have desired 
nothing of you ; therefore now I humbly 
require you in the honour of the Son of the 
Virgin Mary and for the love of me that ye 
will take mercy of these six burgesses.' 
The king beheld the queen and stood still 
in a study a space, and then said : ' Ah, 
dame, I would ye had been as now in 
some other place ; ye make such request 
to me that I cannot deny you. Wherefore 
I give them to you, to do your pleasure 
with them.' Then the queen caused them 
to be brought into her chamber, and made 
the halters to be taken from their necks, 
and caused them to be new clothed, and 
gave them their dinner at their leisure : 
and then she gave each of them six nobles 
and made them to be brought out of the 
host in safe-guard and set at their liberty. 



CHAPTER CXLVII 

How the king of England repeopled the 
town of Calais with Englishmen. 

Thus the strong town of Calais was given 
up ^ to king Edward of England the year 

1 The original is 'se guigna,' either 'made a 
sign ' or * scowled.' The true reading is perhaps 
* se grigna,' or ' grigna les dens.' 

2 The original says : ' Thus was the strong town 
of Calais besieged by king Edward of England in 
the year mcccxlvi. in the month of August ' ; and 



of our Lord God mcccxlvi. in the month 
of August. The king of England called 
to him sir Gaultier of Manny and his two 
marshals, the earl of Warwick and the earl 
of Stafford, and said to them : ' Sirs, take 
here the keys of the town and castle of 
Calais : go and take possession there and 
put in prison all the knights that be there ; 
and all other soldiers that came thither 
simply to win their living cause them to 
avoid the town, and also all other men, 
women and children, for I would repeople 
again the town with pure Englishmen. So 
these three lords with a hundred with them 
went and took possession of Calais, and did 
put in prison sir John de Vienne, sir John of 
Surie, sir Baldwin of Bellebrune and other. 
Then they made all the soldiers to bring 
all their harness into a place appointed 
and laid it all on a Keap in the hall of 
Calais.^ Then they made all manner of 
people to void, and kept there no more 
persons but a priest and two other ancient 
personages, such as knew the customs, 
laws and ordinances of the town, and to 
sign out the heritages how they were divided. 
Then they prepared the castle to lodge the 
king and queen, and prepared other houses 
for the king's company. Then the king 
mounted on his horse and entered into the 
town with trumpets, tabours, nacaires and 
hormyes, and there the king lay till the 
queen was brought a-bed of a fair lady 
named Margaret. 

The king gave to sir Gaultier of Manny 
divers fair houses within the town, and to 
the earl Stafford, to the lord of Cobham, 
to sir Bartholomew of Burghersh and to 
other lords, to repeople again the town. 
The king's mind was, when he came into 
England to send out of London a thirty-six 
good burgesses to Calais to dwell there, 
and to do so much that the town might be 
peopled with pure Englishmen ; the which' 
intent the king fulfilled. Then the new 
town and bastide that was made without the 
town was pulled down, and the castle that 
stood on the haven rashed down, and the 
great timber and stones brought into the 
town. Then the king ordained men to 
keep the gates, walls and barriers, and 
amended all things within the town ; and 

the fuller text adds, ' and conquered in the year of 
grace mcccxlvii. in the same month." 
1 'AlahalledeCalais,' 



THE CHAPLET OF PEARLS, 1350 



17 



sir John de Vienna and his company were 
sent into England and were half a year at 
London, then they were put to ransom. 
Methink it was great pity of the burgesses 
and other men of the town of Calais, and 
women and children, when they were fain 
to forsake their houses, heritages and goods, 
and to bear away nothing, and they had no 
restorement of the French king, for whose 
sake they lost all. The most part of them 
went to Saint-Omer's. 

The cardinal Guy de Boulogne, who was 
come into France in legation and was with 
the French king his cousin in the city of 
Amiens, he purchased so much that a truce 
was taken between the kings of England 
and of France, their countries and heritages,-^ 
to endure two years. To this truce all 
parties were agreed, but Bretayne was 
clearly except, for the two ladies made 
still war one against the other. Then the 
king of England and the queen returned 
into England, and the king made captain 
of Calais sir Amery of Pavy, a Lombard 
born, whom the king had greatly advanced. 
Then the king sent from London thirty-six 
burgesses to Calais, who were rich and 
sage, and their wives and children, and 
daily increased the number,^ for the king 
granted there such liberties and franchises, 
that men were glad to go and dwell there. 
The same time was brought to London sir 
Charles de Blois, who called himself duke 
of Bretayne : he was put in courteous 
prison in the Tower of London with the 
king of Scots and the earl of Moray ; but 
he had not been there long but at the 
request of the queen of England sir Charles 
her cousin -german was received^ on his 
faith and troth, and rode all about London 
at his pleasure, but he might not lie past 
one night out of London, without it were 
with the king or with the queen. Also 
the same time there was prisoner in Eng- 
land the earl of Eu and Guines, a right 
gentle knight ; and his dealing was such, 
that he was welcome wheresoever he came, 
and with the king and queen, lords, ladies 
and damosels.^ 

1 'Adherens' ; that is, 'followers,' or 'allies.' 

2 i.e. ' the number daily increased.' 

3 'At the request of the queen of England, his 
cousin-german, he was received,' etc. 

* The events of the years between 1347 and 1355 
are very summarily related by Froissart, and the 
text followed by this translator does not include 



CHAPTERS CXLVIII, CXLIX 

SUMMARY. — The trtice was broken in 
various parts by brigands, who won and 
plundered towns and castles for their own 
profit ; and especially one named Bacon in 
Langiiedoc and another named Croquart 
in Brittany. 



CHAPTERS CL, CLI 

SUMMAR Y.— The king of England, hav- 
ing discovered a secret treaty between sir 
Amery of Pavia and the French party, 
whereby Calais should have been given up 
to them, passed over privately to Calais, and 
fighting under sir Walter de Manny's 
banner defeated those who came to receive 
the surrender. The king himself fought 
long with sir Eustace de Ribemont and 
took him prisoner. 



CHAPTER CLI I 

Of a chaplet of pearls that the king of 
England gave to sir Eustace of Ribemont. 

When this battle was done, the king 
returned again to the castle of Calais and 
caused all the prisoners to be brought 
thither. Then the Frenchmen knew well that 
the king had been there personally himself 
under the banner of sir Gaultier of Manny. 
The king said he would give them all that 
night a supper in the castle of Calais : the 
hour of supper came and tables covered, 
and the king and his knights were there 
ready, every man in new apparel, and the 
Frenchmen also were there and made good 
cheer, though they were prisoners. The 
king sat down, and the lords and knights 
about him right honourably : the prince, 
lords and knights of England served the 
king at the first mess, and at the second 
they sat down at another table : they were 
all well served and at great leisure. Then 
when supper was done and the tables taken 
away, the king tarried still in the hall with 

even the short notices which were given in later 
revisions, of the Black Death, the Flagellants, and 
the persecution of the Jews, or the narrative of the 
combat of the thirties. 



ii8 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



his knights and with the P'renchmen, and 
he was bare-headed saving a chaplet of fine 
pearls that he ware on his head. Then 
the king went from one to another of the 
Frenchmen, and when he came to sir 
Geoffrey of Charny, a little he changed 
his countenance and looked on him and 
said : ' Sir Geoffrey, by reason I should 
love you but a little, when ye would steal 
by night from me that thing which I have 
so dearly bought and hath cost me so 
much good. I am right joyous and glad 
that I have taken you with the proof. ^ 
Ye would have a better market than I 
have had, when ye thought to have Calais 
for twenty thousand crowns ; but God hath 
holpen me and ye have failed of your 
purpose.' And therewith the king went 
from him, and he gave never a word to 
answer. Then the king came to sir Eustace 
of Ribemont, and joyously to him he 
said : ' Sir Eustace, ye are the knight in 
the world that I have seen most valiant 
assail his enemies and defend himself; nor 
I never found knight that ever gave me so 
much ado, body to body, as ye have done 
this day : wherefore I give you the prize 
above all the knights of my court by right 
sentence.' Then the king took the chaplet 
that was upon his head, being both fair, 
goodly and rich, and said : ' Sir Eustace, I 
give you this chaplet for the best doer in 
arms in this journey past of either party, 
and I desire you to bear it this year for 
the love of me. I know well ye be fresh 
and amorous, and oftentimes be among 
ladies and damosels. Say wheresoever ye 
come that I did give it you, and I quit you 
your prison and ransom and ye shall depart 
to-morrow, if it please you. ' ^ 

The same year a thousand three hundred 
XLix, king Philip of France wedded his 
second wife, the Wednesday the twenty- 
ninth day of Januaiy, dame Blanche, 
daughter to king Philip of Navarre, who 
died in Spain : she was of the age of eighteen 
year or thereabout. Also the nineteenth 
day of February next after, in the beginning 
of Lent,^ the duke of Normandy the king's 
eldest son wedded his second wife at Saint- 
■ 1 ' A I'epreuve,' 

2 The printed text followed by the translator is 
here incomplete. The reply of Eustace de Ribe- 
mont and other matters are omitted, 

3 'Qui fut le jour de Karesme prenant,' i.e. 
Ash-Wednesday. 



Genevieve near to Saint- Germain in Laye, 
Jane countess of Boulogne, sometime wife 
to the lord Philip, son to the duke Eudes 
of Burgoyne, the which lord Philip died 
before Aiguillon a three year before that : 
she was daughter of the earl William of 
Boulogne and of the daughter of Louis earl 
of Evreux. This lady held in her hands 
the duchy of Burgoyne and the counties of 
Artois, Boulogne, Auvergne and divers 
other lands. 



CHAPTER CLIII 

Of the death of king Philip of France, and 
of the coronation of his son John. -; 

SUMMARY.— King Philip died 2.2nd \ 
August 1350, and his son John was crowned 
26th September. The earl of Eu and Guines 
was beheaded, and Charles of Spain ?nade 
constable of France. In the next year was 
founded the fraternity of the Star, ajid there 
was also a great dearth throughout all 
France. ^ 



CHAPTER CLIV 

How the king of Navarre made sir Charles of 
Spain, constable of France, to be slain. 

SUMMARY. —In the year 1352 the duke 
of Lancaster should have fought with the 
duke of Brunswick at Paris on the ^h of 
September, but the king of France made peace 
between them in the lists. Pope Clement 
VI. died 6th December and was succeeded 
by Stepheii Aubert, called Innocent VI. In 
the year 1353 the king Charles of Navarre, 
earl of Evreux, caused to be slain at Aigle 
in Normandy the lord Charles of Spain, 
constable of France. For this deed he ex- 
cused himself to the king of France, and at 
length they were reconciled. 



CHAPTER CLV 

Of an imposition and gabelle ordained in 
France by the three estates for the feats of 
the wars. 



SUMMAR Y.—In the year 1355, the prince 
of Wales made an expedition to Carcassonne 






EVENTS BEFORE THE BATTLE OF POITIERS 



19 



and Narbonne, none opposing him. The 
same year the three estates assembled at Paris 
i^ave the king thirty thmisand men for one 
year at their charges, and ordered to be levied 
Sd. on every pound value of estates through- 
out the reah?i, and that the gabelle of salt 
should run through the realm. Then, this 
not being suffi,cient, they ordered a graduated 
tax upon incomes. 



CHAPTER CLVI 

How the French king took the king of 
Navarre and beheaded the earl of Harcourt 
and other at Rouen. 

SUMMAR Y.—In the year 1356 the French 
king came to Rouen and caused to be taken 
the king gf Navarre, the earl of Harcourt 
and others. The earl of Harcourt and 
others werd beheaded, and the king of 
Navarre put in prison in the Louvre. The 
king of France made war in Normandy to 
win the castles there belonging to the king of 
Navarre, and the duke of Lancaster came 
over to help the king of Navarre" s men. 



CHAPTER CLVn 

Of the assembly that the French king made 
to fight with the prince of Wales, who 
rode in Berry. 

SUMMARY.— The prince of Wales rode 
in Auvergne, Berry, Touraine, etc., with 
two thousand men of arrtis and six thousand 
archers. The king of France made a great 
assembly to fight with him, and meamvhile 
a body of Frenchmen, zvho had laid an a/n- 
bush, were defeated by the English and fled 
to Romorantin. 



CHAPTER CLVni 

How the prince of Wales took the castle of 
Romorantin. 

SUMMARY. — The town of Romorantin 
being taken, the prince came and assailed the 
castle, which at length was c apt tired by 
means of Greek fire. 



CHAPTER CLIX 

Of the great host that the French king brought 
to the battle of Poitiers. 

After the taking of the castle of Romo- 
rantin and of them that were therein, the 
prince then and his company rode as they 
did before, destroying the country, ap- 
proaching to Anjou and to Touraine. The 
French king, who was at Cliartres, de- 
parted and came to Blois and there tarried 
two days, and then to Amboise and the 
next day to Loches : and then he heard 
how that the prince was at Touraine"^ and 
how that he was returning by Poitou : ever 
the Englishmen were coasted by certain 
expert knights of France, who alway made 
report to the king what the Englishmen did. 
Then the king came to the Haye in Touraine 
and his men had passed the river of Loire, 
some at the bridge of Orleans and some at 
Meung, at Saumur, at Blois, and at Tours 
and whereas they might : they were in 
number a twenty thousand men of arms 
beside other ; there were a twenty-six dukes 
and earls and more than sixscore banners, 
and the four sons of the king, who were but 
young, the duke Charles of Normandy, the 
lord Louis, that was from thenceforth duke 
of Anjou, and the lord John duke of Berry, 
and the lord Philip, who was after duke of 
Burgoyne. The same season, pope Inno- 
cent the sixth sent the lord Bertrand, cardinal 
of Perigord, and the lord Nicholas, cardinal 
of Urgel, into France, to treat for a peace 
between the French king and all his enemies, 
first between him and the king of Navarre, 
who was in prison : and these cardinals 
oftentimes spake to the king for his deliver- 
ance during the siege at Bretuel, but they 
could do nothing in that behalf. Then the 
cardinal of Perigord went to Tours, and 
there he heard how the French king hasted 
sore to find the Englishmen : then he rode 
to Poitiers, for he heard how both the hosts 
drew thitherward. 

The French king heard how the prince 
hasted greatly to return, and the king feared 
that he should scape him and so departed 
from Haye in Touraine, and all his com- 
pany, and rode to Chauvigny, where he 
tarried that Thursday in the town and with- 
1 ' En Touraine 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



out along by the river of Creuse, and the 
next day the king passed the river at the 
bridge there, weening that the EngHshmen 
had been before him, but they were not. 
Howbeit they pursued after and passed the 
bridge that day more than threescore 
thousand horses, and divers other passed 
at Chatelleraut, and ever as they passed 
they took the way to Poitiers. 

On the other side the prince wist not 
truly where the Frenchmen were ; but they 
supposed that they were not far off, for they 
could not find no more forage, whereby 
they had great fault in their host of victual, 
and some of them repented that they had 
destroyed so much as they had done before 
when they were in Berry, Anjou and Tou- 
raine, and in that they had made no better 
provision. The same Friday three great 
lords of France, the lord of Craon, the lord 
Raoul of Coucy and the earl of Joigny, 
tarried all day in the town of Chauvigny, 
and part of their companies. The Saturday 
they passed the bridge and followed the 
king, who was then a three leagues before, 
and took the way among bushes without a 
wood side to go to Poitiers. 

The same Saturday the prince and his 
company dislodged from a little village 
thereby, and sent before him certain currours 
to see if they might find any adventure and 
to hear where the Frenchmen were. They 
were in number a threescore men of arms 
well horsed, and with them was the lord 
Eustace d'Aubrecicourt and the lord John 
of Ghistelles, and by adventure the Eng- 
lishmen and Frenchmen met together by 
the foresaid wood side. The Frenchmen 
knew anon how they were their enemies ; 
then in haste they did on their helmets and 
displayed their banners and came a great 
pace towards the Englishmen : they were 
in number a two hundred men of arms. 
When the Englishmen saw them, and that 
they were so great a number, then they de- 
termined to fly and let the Frenchmen 
chase them, for they knew well the prince 
with his host was not far behind. Then 
they turned their horses and took the corner 
Of the wood, and the Frenchmen after them 
crying their cries and made great noise. 
And as they chased, they came on the 
prince's battle or they were ware thereof 
themselves ; the prince tarried there to have 
word again from them that he sent forth. 



The lord Raoul de Coucy with his banner 
went so far forward that he was under the 
prince's banner : there was a sore battle 
and the knight fought valiantly ; howbeit 
he was there taken, and the earl of Joigny, 
the viscount of Brosse, the lord of Chau- 
vigny and all the other taken or slain, but 
a few that scaped. And by the prisoners 
the prince knew how the French king fol- 
lowed him in such wise that he could not 
eschew the battle : ^ then he assembled to- 
gether all his men and commanded that no 
man should go before the marshals' banners. 
Thus the prince rode that Saturday from 
the morning till it was against night, so that 
he came within two little leagues of Poitiers. 
Then the captal de Buch, sir Aymenion 
of Pommiers, the lord Bartholomew of 
Burghersh and the lord Eustace d'Aubreci- 
court, all these the prince sent forth to see if 
they might know what the Frenchmen did. 
These knights departed with two hundred 
men of arms well horsed : they rode so far 
that they saw the great battle of the king's, 
they saw all the fields covered with men of 
arms. These Englishmen could not forbear, 
but set on the tail of the French host and 
cast down many to the earth and took 
divers prisoners, so that the host began to 
stir, and tidings thereof came to the French 
king as he was entering into the city of 
Poitiers. Then he returned again and 
made all his host do the same, so that Satur- 
day it was very late or he was lodged in the 
field. The English currours returned again 
to the prince and shewed him all that they 
saw and knew, and said how the French 
host was a great number of people. ' Well,' 
said the prince, ' in the name of God let us 
now study how we shall fight with them at 
our advantage. ' That night the Englishmen 
lodged in a strong place among hedges, 
vines and bushes, and their host well 
watched, and so was the French host. 



CHAPTER CLX 

Of the order of the Frenchmen before the 
battle of Poitiers. 

On the Sunday in the morning the French 
king, who had great desire to fight with the 

1 Or rather, ' that the French king had gone In 
front of them (les avoit advancez) and that he could 
in no way depart without being fought with.' 



ORDER OF THE TWO HOSTS 



121 



Englishmen, heard his mass in his pavilion 
and was houselled, and his four sons with 
him. After mass there came to him the 
duke o^ Orleans, the duke of Bourbon, the 
earl of Ponthieu, the lord Jaques of Bour- 
bon,^ the duke of Athens, constable of 
France, the earl of Tancarville, the earl of 
Sarrebruck, the earl of Dammartin, the earl 
of Ventadour, and divers other great barons 
of France and of other neighbours holding 
of France, as the lord Clermont, the lord 
Arnold d'Audrehem, marshal of France, the 
lord of Saint -Venant, the lord John of 
Landas, the lord Eustace Ribemont, the 
lord Fiennes, the lord Geoffrey of Charny, 
the lord Chatillon, the lord of Sully, the 
lord of Nesle, sir Robert Duras and divers 
other ; all these with the king went to coun- 
sel. Then finally it was ordained that all 
manner of men should draw into the field, and 
every lord to display his banner and to set 
forth in the name of God and Saint Denis : 
then trumpets blew up through the host and 
every man mounted on horseback and went 
into the field, where they saw the king's 
banner wave with the wind. There might 
a been seen great nobless of fair harness 
and rich armoury of banners and pennons ; 
for there was all the flower of France, 
there was none durst abide at home with- 
out he would be shamed for ever. Then 
it was ordained by the advice of the con- 
stable and marshals to be made three battles, 
and in each ward sixteen thousand men of 
arms all mustered and passed for men of 
arms. The first battle the duke of Orleans 
to govern, with thirty-six banners and twice 
as many pennons, the second the duke of 
Normandy and his two brethren the lord 
Louis and the lord John, the third the king 
himself : and while that these battles were 
setting in array, the king called to him the 
lord Eustace Ribemont, the lord John of 
Landas and the lord Richard of Beaujeu, 
and said to them : * Sirs, ride on before to 
see the dealing of the Englishmen and ad- 
vise well what number they be and by what 
means we may fight with them, other afoot 
or a-horseback. ' These three knights rode 
forth and the king was on a white courser 
and said a-high to his men : ' Sirs, among 
you, when ye be at Paris, at Chartres, at 
Rouen or at Orleans, then ye do threat the 

1 That is, Jaques de Bourbon, earl of la Marche 
and Ponthieu. 



Englishmen and desire to be in arms out 
against them. Now ye be come thereto : 
I shall now shew you them : now shew forth 
your evil will that ye bear them and revenge 
your displeasures and damages that they 
have done you, for without doubt we shall 
fight with them.' Such as heard him said : 
' Sir, in God's name so be it ; that would 
we see ^ gladly. ' 

Therewith the three knights returned 
again to the king, who demanded of them 
tidings. Then sir Eustace of Ribemont 
answered for all and said : ' Sir, we have 
seen the Englishmen : by estimation they 
be two thousand men of arms and four 
thousand archers and a fifteen hundred of 
other. Howbeit they be in a strong place, 
and as far as we can imagine they are in one 
battle ; howbeit they be wisely ordered, and 
along the way they have fortified strongly the 
hedges and bushes : one part of their archers 
are along by the hedge, so that none can 
go nor ride that way, but must pass by 
them, and that way must ye go an ye pur- 
pose to fight with them. In this hedge 
there is but one entry and one issue by 
likelihood that four horsemen may ride a- 
front. At the end of this hedge, whereas 
no man can go nor ride, there be men of 
arms afoot and archers afore them in 
manner of a herse, so that they will not be 
lightly discomfited.'^ 'Well,' said the king, 
' what will ye then counsel us to do ? ' Sir 
Eustace said : ' Sir, let us all be afoot, except 
three hundred men of arms, well horsed, 
of the best in your host and most hardiest, 
to the intent they somewhat to break and 
to open the archers, and then your battles 
to follow on quickly afoot and so to fight 
with their men of arms hand to hand. This 

1 'Verrons': but a better reading is 'ferons,' 
' that will we do gladly.' 

2 The translation of this passage is unsatisfac- 
tory. It should be : ' Howbeit they have ordered 
it wisely, and have taken post along the road, 
which is fortified strongly with hedges and thickets, 
and they have beset this hedge on one side <^or 
according to anothe?' text, on one side and on the 
other) with their archers, so that one cannot enter 
noc ride along their road except by them, and that 
way must he go who purposes to fight with them. 
In this hedge there is but one entry and one issue, 
where by likelihood four men of arms, as on the road, 
might ride a-front. At the end of this hedge among 
vines and thorn-bushes, where no man can go nor 
ride, are their men of arms all afoot, and they have 
set in front of them their archers in manner of a 
harrow, whom it would not be easy to discomfit.' 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



is "the best advice that I can give you : if 
any other think any other way better, let 
him speak.' 

The king said : ' Thus shall it be done ' : 
then the two marshals rode from battle to 
battle and chose out a three hundred knights 
and squires of the most expert men of arms 
of all the host, every man well armed and 
horsed. Also it was ordained that the 
battles of Almains should abide still on 
horseback to comfort the marshals, if need 
were, whereof the earl of Sarrebruck, the 
earl of Nidau anjd the earl of Nassau were 
captains. King John of France was there 
armed, and twenty other in his apparel ; 
and he did put the guiding of his eldest son 
to the lord of Saint-Venant, the lord of 
Landas and the lord Thibault of Vaudenay ; 
and the lord Arnold of Cervolles, called 
the archpriest,^ was armed in the armour of 
the young earl of Alen^on. 



CHAPTER CLXI 

How the cardinal of Perigord treated to make 
agreement between the French king and 
the prince before the battle of Poitiers. 

When the French king's battles was or- 
dered and every lord under his banner among 
their own men, then it was commanded 
that every man should cut their spears to 
a five foot long and every man to put off 
their spurs. Thus as they were ready 
to approach, the cardinal of Perigord ^ 
came in great haste to the king. He came 
the same morning from Poitiers ; he kneeled 
down to the king and held up his hands 
and desired him for God's sake a little to 
abstain setting forward till he had spoken 
with him : then he said : ' Sir, ye have here 
all the flower of your realm against a handful 
of Englishmen as to regard your company,^ 
and, sir, if ye may have them accorded to 
you without battle, it shall be more profitable 
and honourable to have them by that manner 
rather than to adventure so noble chivalry 
as ye have here present. Sir, I require you 

1 Arnaud de Cervolles, one of the most cele- 
bratedadventurers of the 14th century, called the 
archpriest because though a layman he possessed 
the ecclesiastical fief of Vdines. 

2 Talleyrand de Perigord. 

3 The meaning is, ' Ye have here all the flower 
of your realm against a handful of people, for so the 
Englishmen are as compared with your company.' 



in the name of God and humiUty that I may 
ride to the prince and shew him what 
danger ye have him in.' The king said : 'It 
pleaseth me well, but return again shortly.' 
The cardinal departed and diligently he 
rode to the prince, who was among his men 
afoot : then the cardinal alighted and came 
to the prince, who received him courteously. 
Then the cardinal after his salutation made 
he said : ' Certainly, fair son, if you and 
your council advise justly the puissance of 
the French king, ye will suffer me to treat 
to make a peace between you, an I may.' 
The prince, who was young and lusty, said : 
' Sir, the honour of me and of my people 
saved, I would gladly fall to any reasonable 
way. ' Then the cardinal said : ' Sir, ye say 
well, and I shall accord you, an I can ; for 
it should be great pity if so many noble- 
men and other as be here on both parties 
should come together by battle.' Then the 
cardinal rode again to the king and said : 
' Sir, ye need not to make any great haste 
to fight with your enemies, for they cannot 
fly fi-om you though they would, they be in 
such a ground: wherefore, sir, I require you 
forbear for this day till to-morrow the sun- 
rising. ' The king was loath to agree thereto, 
for some of his council would not consent to 
it ; but finally the cardinal shewed such 
reasons, that the king accorded that respite : 
and in the same place there was pight up a 
pavilion of red silk fresh and rich, and gave 
leave for that day every man to draw to 
their lodgings except the constable's and 
marshals" battles. 

That Sunday all the day the cardinal 
travailed in riding from the one host to the 
other gladly to agree them : but the French 
king would not agree without he might 
have four of the principallest of the English- 
men at his pleasure, and the prince and all 
the other to yield themselves simply : how- 
beit there were many great offers made. 
The prince offered to render into the king's 
hands all that ever he had won in that 
voyage, towns and castles, and to quit all 
prisoners that he or any of his men had 
taken in that season, and also to swear not 
to be armed against the French king in 
seven year after ; but the king and his 
council would none thereof: the uttermost 
that he would do was, that the prince and 
a hundred of his knights should yield them- 
selves into the king's prison ; otherwise he 



MEDIATION ATTEMPTED 



123 



would not : the which the prince would in 
no wise agree unto. 

In the mean season that the cardinal rode 
thus between the hosts in trust to do some 
good, certain knights of France and of 
England both rode forth the same Sunday, 
because it was truce for that day, to coast 
the hosts and to behold the dealing of their 
enemies. So it fortuned that the lord John 
Chandos rode the same day coasting the 
French host, and in like manner the lord 
of Clermont, one of the French marshals, 
had ridden forth and aviewed the state of 
the English host ; and as these two knights 
returned towards their hosts, they met 
together : each of them bare one manner of 
device, a blue lady embroidered in a sun- 
beam above on their apparel. Then the 
lord Clermont said : ' Chandos, how long 
have ye taken on you to bear my device ? ' 
' Nay, ye bear mine, ' said Chandos, * for it is 
as well mine as yours.' ' I deny that,' said 
Clermont, * but an it were not for the truce 
this day between us, I should make it good 
on you incontinent that ye have no right to 
bear my device.' * Ah, sir,' said Chandos, 

* ye shall find me to-morrow ready to defend 
you and to prove by feat of arms that it is 
as well mine as yours. ' Then Clermont said : 

* Chandos, these be well the words of you 
Englishmen, for ye can devise nothing of 
new, but all that ye see is good and fair.' 
So they departed without any more doing, 
and each of them returned to their host. 

The cardinal of Perigord could in no wise 
that Sunday make any agreement between 
the parties, and when it was near night he 
returned to Poitiers. That night the 
Frenchmen took their ease ; they had pro- 
vision enough, and the Englishmen had 
great default ; they could get no forage, 
nor they could not depart thence without 
danger of their enemies. That Sunday the 
Englishmen made great dikes and hedges 
about their archers, to be the more stronger ; 
and on the Monday in the morning the 
prince and his company were ready ap- 
parelled as they were before, and about the 
sun-rising in like manner were the French- 
men. The same morning betimes the 
cardinal came again to the French host and 
thought by his preaching to pacify the 
parties ; but then the Frenchmen said to 
him : ' Return whither ye will : bring 
hither no more words of treaty nor peace : 



an ye love yourself depart shortly. ' When 
the cardinal saw that he travailed in vain, 
he took leave of the king and then he went 
to the prince and said : ' Sir, do what ye 
can : there is no remedy but to abide the 
battle, for I can find none accord in the 
French king.' Then the prince said : 'The 
same is our intent and all our people : God 
help the right ! ' So the cardinal returned 
to Poitiers. In his company there were 
certain knights and squires, men of arms, 
who were more favourable to the French 
king than to the prince : and when they 
saw that the parties should fight, they stale 
from their masters and went to the French 
host ; and they made their captain the 
chatelain of Amposte,^ who was as then 
there with the cardinal, who knew nothing 
thereof till he was come to Poitiers. 

The certainty of the order of the English- 
men was shewed to the French king, except 
they had ordained three hundred men a- 
horseback and as many archers a-horseback 
to coast under covert of the mountain and 
to strike into the battle of the duke of 
Normandy, who was under the mountain 
afoot. This ordinance they had made of 
new, that the Frenchmen knew not of. 
The prince was with his battle down among 
the vines and had closed in the weakest 
part with their carriages. 

Now will I name some of the principal 
lords and knights that were there with the 
prince : the earl of Warwick, the earl of 
Suffolk, the earl of Salisbury, the earl of 
Oxford, the lord Raynold Cob ham, the lord 
Spencer, the lord James Audley, the lord 
Peter his brother, the lord Berkeley, the lord 
Basset, the lord Warin, the lord Delaware, 
the lord Manne, the lord Willoughby, the 
lord Bartholomew de Burghersh, the lord of 
Felton, the lord Richard of Pembroke, the 
lord Stephen of Cosington, the lord Brade- 
tane and other Englishmen ; and of Gas- 
con there was the lord of Pommiers, the 
lord of Languiran, the captal of Buch, the 
lordjohnof Caumont, the lord de Lesparre, 
the lord of Rauzan, the lord of Condon, the 
lord of Montferrand, the lord of Landiras, 
the lord soudic of Latrau and other that I 
cannot name ; and of Hainowes the lord 
Eustace d'Aubrecicourt, the lord John of 
Ghistelles, and two other strangers, the 
lord Daniel Pasele and the lord Denis of 
1 Amposta, a fortress in Catalonia. 



124 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



Morbeke : all the prince's company passed 
not an eight thousand men one and other, 
and the Frenchmen were a sixty thousand 
fighting men, whereof there were more than 
three thousand knights. 



CHAPTER CLXII 

Of the battle of Poitiers between the prince of 
Wales and the French king. 

When the prince saw that he should have 
battle and that the cardinal was gone with- 
out any peace or truce making, and saw 
that the French king did set but little store 
_by him, he said then to his men : ' Now, 
sirs, though we be but a small company as 
in regard to the puissance of our enemies, 
let us not be abashed therefor ; for the 
victory lieth not in the multitude of people, 
but whereas God will send it. If it fortune 
that the journey be ours, we shall be the 
most honoured people of all the world ; and 
if we die in our right quarrel, I have the 
king my father and brethren, and also ye 
have good friends and kinsmen ; these shall 
revenge us. Therefore, sirs, for God's 
sake I require you do your devoirs this day ; 
for if God be pleased and Saint George, 
this day ye shall see me a good knight.' 
These words and such other that the prince 
spake comforted all his people. The lord 
sir John Chandos that day never went from 
the prince, nor also the lord James Audley 
of a great season ; but when he saw that 
they should needs fight, he said to the 
prince : ' Sir, I have served always truly my 
lord your father and you also, and shall do 
as long as I live. I say this because I made 
once a vow that the first battle that other 
the king your father or any of his children 
should be at, how that I would be one of 
the first setters on,^ or else to die in the 
pain : therefore I require your grace, as in 
reward for any service that ever I did to 
the king your father or to you, that you will 
give me licence to depart from you and to 
set myself thereas I may accomplish my 
vow.' The prince accorded to his desire 
and said, ' Sir James, God give you this 
day that grace to be the best knight of all 
other,' and so took him by the hand. Then 
the knight departed from the prince and 
went to the foremost front of all the battles, 
1 'The first setter-on and the best combatant.' 



all only accompanied with four squires, who 
promised not to fail him. This lord James 
was a right sage and a valiant knight, and by 
him was much of the host ordained and 
governed the day before. Thus sir James 
was in the front of the battle ready to fight 
with the battle of the marshals of France. 
In like wise the lord Eustace d'Aubrecicourt 
did his pain to be one of the foremost to 
set on. When sir James Audley began to 
set forward to his enemies, it fortuned to 
sir Eustace d'Aubrecicourt as ye shall hear 
after. Ye have heard before how the 
Almains in the French host were appointed 
to be still a-horseback. Sir Eustace being 
a-horseback laid his spear in the rest and 
ran into the French battle, and then a 
knight of Almaine, called the lord Louis of 
Recombes, who bare a shield silver, five 
roses gules, and sir Eustace bare ermines, 
two hamedes of gules, -^ — when this Almain 
saw the lord Eustace come from his com- 
pany, he rode against him and they met so 
rudely, that both knights fell to the earth. 
The Almain was hurt in the shoulder, 
therefore he rose not so quickly as did sir 
Eustace, who when he was up and had 
taken his breath, he came to the other 
knight as he lay on the ground ; but then 
five other knights of Almaine came on him 
all at once and bare him to the earth, and 
so perforce there he was taken prisoner and 
brought to the earl of Nassau, who as then 
took no heed of him ; and I cannot say 
whether they sware him prisoner or no, but 
they tied him to a chare and there let him 
stand. ^ 

Then the battle began on all parts, and 
the battles of the marshals of France ap- 
proached, and they set forth that were 
appointed to break the array of the archers. 
They entered a-horseback into the way where 
the great hedges were on both sides set full of 
archers. As soon as the men of arms entered, 
the archers began to shoot on both sides 
and did slay and hurt horses and knights, 
so that the horses when they felt the sharp 
arrows they would in no wise go forward, 
but drew aback and flang and took on so 
fiercely, that many of them fell on their 
masters, so that for press they could not 
rise again ; insomuch that the marshals' 
battle could never come at the prince. 

1 That is, two hamedes gules on a field ermine. 

2 ' They tied him on to a cart with their harness.' 



I 



BATTLE OF POITIERS, 1356 {Sept. 19) 



125 



Certain knights and squires that were well 
horsed passed through the archers and 
thought to approach to the prince, but they 
could not. The lord James Audley with 
his four squires was in the front of that 
battle and there did marvels in arms, and 
by great prowess he came and fought with 
sir Arnold d'Audrehem under his own 
banner, and there they fought long together 
and sir Arnold was there sore handled. 
The battle of the marshals began to disorder 
by reason of the shot of the archers with the 
aid of the men of arms, who came in among 
them and slew of them and did what they 
list, and there was the lord Arnold 
d'Audrehem taken prisoner by other men 
than by sir James Audley or by his four 
squires ; for that day he never took prisoner, 
but always fought and went on his enemies. 

Also on the French party the lord John 
Clermont fought under his own banner as 
long as he could endure : but there he was 
beaten down and could not be relieved nor 
ransomed, but was slain without mercy : 
some said it was because of the words that 
he had the day before to sir John Chandos. 
So within a short space the marshals' battles 
were discomfited, for they fell one upon 
another and could not go forth ; ^ and the 
Frenchmen that were behind and could not 
get forward reculed back and came on the 
battle of the duke of Normandy, the which 
was great and thick and were afoot, but 
anon they began to open behind ; ^ for 
when they knew that the marshals' battle 
was discomfited, they took their horses and 
departed, he that might best. Also they 
saw a rout of Englishmen coming down a 
little mountain a -horseback, and many 
archers with them, who brake in on the 
side of the duke's battle. True to say, the 
archers did their company that day great 
advantage ; for they shot so thick that the 
Frenchmen wist not on what side to take 
heed, and little and little the Englishmen 
won ground on them. 

And when the men of arms of England 
saw that the marshals' battle was dis- 
comfited and that the duke's battle began 
to disorder and open, they leapt then 
on their horses, the which they had ready 
by them : then they assembled together 

1 ' Ne pooient aler avant.' 

2 ' Which was great and thick in front (par- 
devant), but anon it becanve open and thin behind.' 



and cried, * Saint George ! Guyenne ! ' and 
the lord Chandos said to the prince : 
' Sir, take your horse and ride forth ; this 
journey is yours : God is this day in your 
hands : get us to the French king's battle, 
for their lieth all the sore of the matter. I 
think verily by his valiantness he will not 
fly : I trust we shall have him by the grace 
of God and Saint George, so he be well 
fought withal : and, sir, I heard you say 
that this day I should see you a good 
knight.' The prince said, ' Let us go forth ; 
ye shall not see me this day return back,' 
and said, 'Advance, banner, in the name 
of God and of Saint George.' The knight 
that bare it did his commandment : there 
was then a sore battle and a perilous, and 
many a man overthrown, and he that was 
once down could not Idc relieved again 
without great succour and aid. As the 
prince rode and entered in among his 
enemies, he saw on his right hand in a 
little bush lying dead the lord Robert of 
Duras and his banner by him,^ and a ten or 
twelve of his men about him. Then the 
prince said to two of his squires and to 
three archers : * Sirs, take the body of this 
knight on a targe and bear him to Poitiers, 
and present him from me to the cardinal of 
Perigord, and say how I salute him by that 
token.' And this was done. The prince 
was informed that the cardinal's men were 
on the field against him, the which was not 
pertaining to the right order of arms, for 
men of the church that cometh and goeth 
for treaty of peace ought not by reason to 
bear harness nor to fight for neither of the 
parties ; they ought to be indifferent : and 
because these men had done so, the prince 
was displeased with the cardinal, and there- 
fore he sent unto him his nephew the lord 
Robert of Duras dead : and the chatelain of 
Amposte was taken, and the prince would 
have had his head stricken off, because he 
was pertaining to the cardinal, but then the 
lord Chandos said : ' Sir, suffer for a season : 
intend to a greater matter : and peradventure 
the cardinal will make such excuse that ye 
shall be content.' 

Then the prince and his company dressed 
them on the battle of the duke of Athens, 
constable of France. There was many a 
man slain and cast to the earth. As the 

1 The original adds, 'qui estoit de France au 
sentoir (sautoir) de gueulles.' 



126 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



Frenchmen fought in companies, they cried, 
* Mountjoy ! Saint Denis ! ' and the English- 
men, ' Saint George ! Guyenne ! ' Anon 
the prince with his company met with the 
battle of Almains, whereof the earl of 
Sarrebruck, the earl Nassau and the earl 
Nidau were captains, but in a short space 
they were put to flight : the archers shot so 
wholly together that none durst come in 
their dangers : they slew many a man that 
could not come to no ransom : these three 
earls was there slain, and divers other 
knights and squires of their company, and 
there was the lord d'Aubrecicourt rescued 
by his own men and set on horseback, and 
after he did that day many feats of arms and 
took good prisoners. When the duke of 
Normandy's battle saw the prince approach, 
they thought to save themselves, and so the 
duke and the king's children, the earl of 
Poitiers and the earl of Touraine, who 
were right young, believed their governours 
and so departed from the field, and with 
them more than eight hundred spears, that 
strake no stroke that day. Howbeit the 
lord Guichard d'Angle and the lord John of 
Saintre, who were with the earl of Poitiers, 
would not fly, but entered into the thickest 
press of the battle. The king's three sons 
took the way to Chauvigny, and the lord 
John of Landas and the lord Thibauld of 
Vaudenay, who were set to await on the 
duke of Normandy, when they had brought 
the duke a long league from the battle, then 
they took leave of the duke and desired the 
lord of Saint-Venant that he should not 
leave the duke, but to bring him in safe- 
guard, whereby he should win more thank 
of the king than to abide still in the field. 
Then they met also the duke of Orleans and 
a great company with him, who were also 
departed from the field with clear hands : 
there were many good knights and squires, 
though that their masters departed from the 
field, yet they had rather a died than to 
have had any reproach. 

Then the king's battle came on the 
Englishmen : there was a sore fight and 
many a great stroke given and received. 
The king and his youngest son met with the 
battle of the English marshals, the earl of 
Warwick and the earl of Suflblk, and with 
them of Gascons the captal of Buch, the 
lord of Pommiers, the lord Amery of Tastes, 
the lord of Mussidan, the lord of Languiran 



and the lord de Latrau. To the French 
party there came time enough the lord John 
of Landas and the lord of Vaudenay ; they 
alighted afoot and went into the king's 
battle, and a little beside fought the duke 
of Athens, constable of France, and a little 
above him the duke of Bourbon and many 
good knights of Bourbonnais and of Picardy 
with him, and a little on the one side there 
were the Poitevins, the lord de Pons, the 
lord of Partenay, the lord of Dammartin, 
the lord of Tannay-Bouton, the lord of 
Surgieres, the lord John Saintre, the lord 
Guichard d'Angle, the lord Argenton, the 
lord of Linieres, the lord of Montendre and 
divers other, also the viscount of Roche- 
chouart and the earl of Aunay ; ^ and of Bur- 
goyne the lord James of Beaujeu, the lord de 
Chateau -Vilain and other : in another part 
there was the earl of Ventadour and of 
Montpensier, the lord James of Bourbon, 
the lord John d'Artois and also the lord 
James his brother, the lord Arnold of 
Cervolles, called the archpriest, armed for 
the young earl of Alen9on ; and of Auvergne 
there was the lord of Mercoeur, the lord de 
la Tour, the lord of Chalen9on, the lord of 
Montaigu, the lord of Rochfort, the lord 
d'Acier, the lord d'Acon ; and of Limousin 
there was the lord de Melval, the lord of 
Mareuil, the lord of Pierrebuffiere ; and of 
Picardy there was the lord William of 
Nesle, the lord Arnold of Rayneval, the 
lord Geoffrey of Saint-Dizier, the lord of 
Chauny, the lord of Helly, the lord of 
Montsault, the lord of Hangest and divers 
other : and also in the king's battle there 
was the earl Douglas of Scotland, who 
fought a season right valiantly, but when 
he saw the discomfiture, he departed and 
saved himself ; for in no wise he would be 
taken of the Englishmen, he had rather 
been there slain. On the English part the 
lord James Audley with the aid of his four 
squires fought always in the chief of the 
battle : he was sore hurt in the body and 
in the visage : as long as his breath served 
him he fought ; at last at the end of the 
battle his four squires took and brought 
him out of the field and laid him under a 
hedge side for to refresh him ; and they 
unarmed him and bound up his wounds as 
well as they could. On the French party 
king John was that day a full right good 
1 * Le conte d'Aulnoy,' but it should be * visconte. 



BATTLE OF POITIERS 



[27 



knight : if the fourth part of his men had 
done their devoirs as well as he did, the 
journey had been his by all likelihood. 
Howbeit they were all slain and taken that 
were there, except a few that saved them- 
selves, that were with the king.^ There 
was slain the duke Peter of Bourbon, the 
lord Guichard of Beaujeu, the lord of 
Landas, and the duke of Athens, constable 
of France, the bishop of Chalons in Cham- 
pagne, the lord William of Nesle, the lord 
Eustace of Ribemont, the lord de la Tour, 
the lord William of Montaigu, sir Grismouton 
of Chambly, sir Baudrin de la Heuse, and 
many other, as they fought by companies ; 
and there were taken prisoners the lord of 
Vaudenay, the lord of Pompadour, and the 
archpriest, sore hurt, the earl of Vaudimont, 
the earl of Mons, the earl of Joinville, the 
earl of Vendome, sir Louis of Melval, the 
lord Pierrebuffiere and the lord of Serignac : 
there were at that brunt slain and taken 
more than two hundred knights.^ 



CHAPTER CLXIII 

Of two Frenchmen that fled from the battle of 
Poitiers, and two Englishmen that followed 
them. 

Among the battles, recounterings, chases 
and pursuits that were made that day in 
the field, it fortuned so to sir Oudart of 
Renty that when he departed from the field 
because he saw the field was lost without 
recovery, he thought not to abide the 
danger of the Englishmen ; wherefore he 
fled all alone and was gone out of the field 

1 ' Howbeit they that stayed acquitted them as 
well as they might, so that they were all slain or 
taken. Few escaped of those that set themselves 
with the king ' : or according to the fuller text : 
' Few escaped of those that alighted down on the 
sand by the side of the king their lord.' 

2 The translator has chosen to rearrange the 
above list of killed, wounded or taken, which the 
French text gives in order as they fought, saying 
that in one part there fell the duke of Bourbon, sir 
Guichard of Beaujeu and sir John of Landas, and 
there were severely wounded or taken the arch- 
priest, sir Thibaud of Vodenay and sir Baudouin 
d'Annequin ; in another there were slain the duke 
of Athens and the bishop of Chalons, and taken the 
earl of Vaudemont and Joinville and the earl of 
Vendome : a little above this there were slain sir 
William de Nesle, sir Eustace de Ribemont and 
others, and taken sir Louis de Melval, the lord of 
Pierrebufiere and the lord of Seregnach. 



a league, and an English knight pursued 
him and ever cried to him and said, 
' Return again, sir knight, it is a shame to 
fly away thus.' Then the knight turned, 
and the English knight thought to have 
stricken him with his spear in the targe, 
but he failed, for sir Oudart swerved aside 
from the stroke, but he failed not the 
English knight, for he strake him such a 
stroke on the helm with his sword, that he 
was astonied and fell from his horse to the 
earth and lay still. Then sir Oudart 
alighted and came to him or he could rise, 
and said, ' Yield you, rescue or no rescue, 
or else I shall slay you.' The Englishman 
yielded and went with him, and afterward 
was ransomed. Also it fortuned that another 
squireofPicardy called John de Hellenes was 
fled from the battle and met with his page, 
who delivered him a new fresh horse, 
whereon he rode away alone. The same 
season there was in the field the lord 
Berkeley of England, a young lusty knight, 
who the same day had reared his banner, 
and he all alone pursued the said John of 
Hellenes. And when he had followed the 
space of a league, the said John turned 
again and laid his sword in the rest instead 
of a spear, and so came running toward the 
lord Berkeley, who lift up his sword to have 
stricken the squire ; but when he saw the 
stroke come, he turned from it, so that the 
Englishman lost his stroke and John strake 
him as he passed on the arm, that the lord 
Berkeley's sword fell into the field. When 
he saw his sword down, he lighted suddenly 
off his horse and came to the place where 
his sword lay, and as he stooped down to 
take up his sword, the French squire did 
pike his sword at him, and by hap strake 
him through both the thighs, so that the 
knight fell to the earth and could not help 
himself. And John alighted off his horse 
and took the knight's sword that lay on the 
ground, and came to him and demanded if 
he would yield him or not. The knight 
then demanded his name. *Sir,' said he, 
' I hight John of Hellenes ; but what is 
your name ? ' * Certainly,' said the knight, 
' my name is Thomas and am lord of 
Berkeley, a fair castle on the river of Severn 
in the marches of Wales.' 'Well, sir,' 
quoth the squire, 'then ye shall be my 
prisoner, and I shall bring you in safe-guard 
and I shall see that you shall be healed of 



128 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



your hurt.' 'Well,' said the knight, 'I 
am content to be your prisoner, for ye have 
by law of arms won me.' There he sware 
to be his prisoner, rescue or no rescue. 
Then the squire drew forth the sword out 
of the knight's thighs and the wound was 
open : then he wrapped and bound the 
wound and set him on his horse and so 
brought him fair and easily to Chatelleraut, 
and there tarried more than fifteen days for 
his sake and did get him remedy for his hurt : 
and when he was somewhat amended, then 
he gat him a litter and so brought him at 
his ease to his house in Picardy. There he 
was more than a year till he was perfectly 
whole ; and when he departed he paid for 
his ransom six thousand nobles, and so this 
squire was made a knight by reason of the 
profit that he had of the lord Berkeley. 



CHAPTER CLXIV 

How king John was taken prisoner at the 
battle of Poitiers. 

Oftentimes the adventures of amours 
and of war are more fortunate and marvel- 
lous than any man can think or wish. 
Truly this battle, the which was near to 
Poitiers in the fields of Beauvoir and 
Maupertuis, was right great and perilous, 
and many deeds of arms there was done 
the which all came not to knowledge. 
The fighters on both sides endured much 
pain : king John with his own hands did that 
day marvels in arms : he had an axe in his 
hands wherewith he defended himself and 
fought in the breaking of the press. Near 
to the king there was taken the earl of 
Tancarville, sir Jaques of Bourbon earl of 
Ponthieu, and the lord John of Artois earl 
of Eu, and a little above that under the 
banner of the captal of Buch was taken sir 
Charles of Artois and divers other knights 
and squires. The chase endured to the 
gates of Poitiers : there were many slain 
and beaten down, horse and man, for they 
of Poitiers closed their gates and would 
suffer none to enter ; wherefore in the street 
before the gate was horrible murder, men 
hurt and beaten down. The Frenchmen 
yielded themselves as far off as they might 
know an Englishman : there were divers 



English archers that had four, five or six 
prisoners : the lord of Pons, a great baron 
of Poitou, was there slain, and many other 
knights and squires ; and there was taken 
the earl of Rochechouart, the lord of Dam- 
martin, the lord of Partenay, and of Sain- 
tonge the lord of Montendre and the lord 
John of Saintre, but he was so sore hurt 
that he had never health after : he was 
reputed for one of the best knights in 
France. And there was left for dead 
among other dead men the lord Guichard 
d'Angle, who fought that day by the king 
right valiantly, and so did the lord of 
Charny, on whom was great press, because 
he bare the sovereign banner of the king's : 
his own banner was also in the field, the 
which was of gules, three scutcheons silver. 
So many Englishmen and Gascons came to 
that part, that perforce they opened the 
king's battle, so that the Frenchmen were 
so mingled among their enemies that some- 
time there was five men upon one gentleman. 
There was taken the lord of Pompadour 
and ^ the lord Bartholomew de Burghersh, 
and there was slain sir Geoffrey of Charny 
with the king's banner in his hands : also 
the lord Raynold Cobham slew the earl 
of Dammartin. Then there was a great 
press to take the king, and such as knew 
him cried, ' Sir, yield you, or else ye are 
but dead.' There was a knight of Saint- 
Omer's, retained in wages with the king ot 
England, called sir Denis Morbeke, who 
had served the Englishmen five year before, 
because in his youth he had forfeited the 
realm of France for a murder that he did 
at Saint-Omer's. It happened so well for 
him, that he was next to the king when 
they were about to take him : he stept 
forth into the press, and by strength of 
his body and arms he came to the French 
king and said in good F'rench, ' Sir, yield 
you.' The king beheld the knight and 
said : ' To whom shall I yield me ? Where 
is my cousin the prince of Wales ? If I might 
see him, I would speak with him.' Denis 
answered and said : ' Sir, he is not here ; 
but yield you to me and I shall bring you 
to him. ' ' Who be you ? ' quoth the king. 
' Sir,' quoth he, ' I am Denis of Morbeke, 
a knight of Artois ; but I serve the king of 
England because I am banished the realm 

1 This 'and' should be 'by,' but the French 
text is responsible for the mistake. 



BATTLE OF POITIERS 



129 



of France and I have forfeited all that I 
had there.' Then the king gave him his 
right gauntlet, saying, ' I yield me to 
you.' There was a great press about the 
king, for every man enforced him to 
say,^ ' I have taken him,' so that the king 
could not go forward with his young son 
the lord Philip with him because of the 
press. 

The prince of Wales, who was courageous 
and cruel as a lion, took that day great 
pleasure to fight and to chase his enemies. 
The lord John Chandos, who was with 
him, of all that day never left him nor 
never took heed of taking of any prisoner : 
then at the end of the battle he said to the 
prince : ' Sir, it were good that you rested 
here and set your banner a-high in this 
bush, that your people may draw hither, 
for they be sore spread abroad, nor I can 
see no more banners nor pennons of the 
French party ; wherefore, sir, rest and 
refresh you, for ye be sore chafed.' Then 
the prince's banner was set up a-high on a 
bush, and trumpets and clarions began to 
sown. Then the prince did off his bassenet, 
and the knights for his body and they of his 
chamber were ready about him, and a red 
paviHon pight up, and then drink was 
brought forth to the prince and for such 
lords as were about him, the which still in- 
creased as they came from the chase : there 
they tarried and their prisoners with them. 
And when the two marshals were come to 
the prince, he demanded of them if they 
knew any tidings of the French king. They 
answered and said : 'Sir, we hear none of 
certainty, but we think verily he is other 
dead or taken, for he is not gone out of 
the battles.' Then the prince said to the 
earl of Warwick and to sir Raynold Cob- 
ham : ' Sirs, I require you go forth and see 
what ye can know, that at your return ye 
may shew me the truth.' These two lords 
took their horses and departed from the 
prince and rode up a little hill to look 
about them : then they perceived a flock 
of men of arms coming together right 
wearily : ^ there was the French king afoot 
in great peril, for Englishmen and Gascons 
were his masters ; they had taken him from 
sir Denis Morbeke perforce, and such as 
were most of force said, ' I have taken 
him ' ; * Nay,' quoth another, * I have taken 
1 'S'eflForgoit de dire.' 2 ' Lentement.' 

K 



him ' : so they strave which should have 
him. Then the French king, to eschew 
that peril, said : ' Sirs, strive not : lead 
me courteously, and my son, to my cousin 
the prince, and strive not for my taking, 
for I am so great a lord to make you all 
rich.' The king's words somewhat appeased 
them ; howbeit ever as they went they 
made riot and brawled for the taking of 
the king. When the two foresaid lords 
saw and heard that noise and strife among 
them, they came to them and said : ' Sirs, 
what is the matter that ye strive for?' 
'Sirs,' said one of them, ' it is for the French 
king, who is here taken prisoner, and 
there be more than ten knights and squires 
that challengeth the taking of him and of his 
son. ' Then the two lords entered into the 
press and caused every man to draw aback, 
and commanded them in the prince's name 
on pain of their heads to make no more 
noise nor to approach the king no nearer, 
without they were commanded. Then 
every man gave room to the lords, and 
they alighted and did their reverence to 
the king, and so brought him and his son 
in peace and rest to the prince of Wales. 



CHAPTER CLXV 

Of the gift that the prince gave to the lord 
Audley after the battle of Poitiers. 

As soon as the earl of Warwick and the 
lord Cobham were departed from the prince, 
as ye have heard before, then the prince 
demanded of the knights that were about 
him for the lord Audley, if any knew any- 
thing of him. Some knights that were 
there answered and said : ' Sir, he is sore 
hurt and lieth in a litter here beside.' 
' By my faith,' said the prince, ' of his hurts 
I am right sorry : go and know if he may 
be brought hither, or else I will go and see 
him thereas he is. ' Then two knights came 
to the lord Audley and said : 'Sir, the 
prince desireth greatly to see you, other 
ye must go to him or else he will come to 
you.' 'Ah, sir,' said the knight, 'I thank 
the prince when he thinketh on so poor 
a knight as I am.' Then he called eight 
of his servants and caused them to bear 
him in his litter to the place whereas the 
prince was. Then the prince took him in 



I30 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



his arms and kissed him and made him 
great cheer and said : ' Sir James, I ought 
greatly to honour you, for by your vaUance 
ye have this day achieved the grace and 
renown of us all, and ye are reputed for 
the most valiant of all other.' 'Ah, sir,' 
said the knight, 'ye say as it pleaseth 
you : I would it were so : and if I have 
this day anything advanced myself to serve 
you and to accomplish the vow that I 
made, it ought not to be reputed to me 
any prowess. ' ' Sir James,' said the prince, 
* I and all ours take you in this journey for 
the best doer in arms, and to the intent to 
furnish you the better to pursue the wars, 
I retain you for ever to be my knight with 
five hundred marks of yearly revenues, the 
which I shall assign you on mine heritage 
in England.' ' Sir,' said the knight, ' God 
grant me to deserve the great goodness 
that ye shew me ' : and so he took his 
leave of the prince, for he was right feeble, 
and so his servants brought him to his 
lodging. And as soon as he was gone, 
the earl of Warwick and the lord Cobham 
returned to the prince and presented to 
him the French king. The prince made 
lowly reverence to the king and caused 
wine and spices to be brought forth, and 
himself served the king in sign of great 
love. 



CHAPTER CLXVI 

How the Englishmen won greatly at the 
battle of Poitiers. 

Thus this battle was discomfited, as ye 
have heard, the which was in the fields of 
Maupertuis a two leagues from Poitiers the 
twenty-second day of September the year 
of our Lord MCCCLVI. It begun in the 
morning i and ended at noon, but as then 
all the Englishmen were not returned from 
the chase ; therefore the prince's banner 
stood on a bush to draw all his men to- 
gether, but it was nigh night or all came 
from the chase. And as it was reported, 
there was slain all the flower of France, 
and there was taken with the king and the 
lord Philip his son a seventeen earls, beside 
barons, knights and squires, and slain a 
five or six thousand of one and other. 
1 ' Environ heure de prime.' 



When every man was come from the chase, 
they had twice as many prisoners as they 
were in number in all. Then it was coun- 
selled among them because of the great 
charge and doubt to keep so many, that 
they should put many of them to ransom 
incontinent in the field, and so they did : 
and the prisoners found the Englishmen 
and Gascons right courteous ; there were 
many that day put to ransom and let go 
all only on their promise of faith and truth 
to return again between that and Christmas 
to Bordeaux with their ransoms. Then 
that night they lay in the field beside 
whereas the battle had been : some un- 
armed them, but not all, and unarmed all 
their prisoners, and every man made good 
cheer to his prisoner ; for that day whoso- 
ever took any prisoner, he was clear his 
and might quit or ransom him at his 
pleasure. All such as were there with the 
prince were all made rich with honour and 
goods, as well by ransoming of prisoners as 
by winning of gold, silver, plate, jewels, 
that was there found : there was no man 
that did set anything by rich harness, 
whereof there was great plenty, for the 
Frenchmen came thither richly beseen, 
weening to have had the journey for them. 



CHAPTER CLXVn 

How the lord James Audley gave to his four 
squires the five hundred marks of revenues 
that the prince had given him. 

When sir James Audley was brought to 
his lodging, then he sent for sir Peter 
Audley his brother and for the lord Bar- 
tholomew of Burghersh, the lord Stephen 
of Cosington, the lord of Willoughby and 
the lord Ralph Ferrers, all these were of 
his lineage, and then he called before him 
his four squires, that had served him that 
day well and truly. Then he said to the 
said lords : ' Sirs, it hath pleased my lord 
the prince to give me five hundred marks 
of revenues by year in heritage, for the 
which gift I have done him but small 
service with my body. Sirs, behold here 
these four squires, who hath always served 
me truly and specially this day : that 
honour that I have is by their valiantness. 
Wherefore I will reward them : I give and 



BATTLE OF POITIERS 



131 



resign into their hands the gift that my 
lord the prince hath given me of five 
hundred marks of yearly revenues, to them 
and to their heirs for ever, in like manner 
as it was given me. I clearly disherit me 
thereof and inherit them without any 
repeal ^ or condition.' The lords and other 
that were there, every man beheld other 
and said among themselves : ' It cometh 
of a great nobleness to give this gift.' 
They answered him with one voice : ' Sir, 
be it as God will ; we shall bear witness in 
this behalf wheresoever we be come. ' Then 
they departed from him, and some of them 
went to the prince, who the same night 
would make a supper to the French king 
and to the other prisoners, for they had 
then enough to do withal, of that the 
Frenchmen brought with them,^ for the 
Englishmen wanted victual before, for some 
in three days had no bread before. 



CHAPTER CLXVIII 

How the prince made a supper to the French 
king the same day of the battle. 

The same day of the battle at night the 
prince made a supper in his lodging to the 
French king and to the most part of the 
great lords that were prisoners. The prince 
made the king and his son, the lord James 
of Bourbon, the lord John d'Artois, the 
earl of Tancarville, the earl of Estampes, 
the earl Dammartin, the earl of Joinville 
and the lord of Partenay to sit all at one 
board, and other lords, knights and squires 
at other tables ; and always the prince 
served before the king as humbly as he 
could, and would not sit at the king's board 
for any desire that the king could make, 
but he said he was not sufficient to sit at 
the table with so great a prince as the king 
was. But then he said to the king : * Sir, 
for God's sake make none evil nor heavy 
cheer, though God this day did not consent 
to follow your will ; for, sir, surely the king 
my father shall bear you as much honour 
and amity as he may do, and shall accord 

1 'Rappel,' i.e. power of recalling the gift. The 
word ' repeal ' is a correction of ' rebell.' 

2 ' Who was to give the king of France a supper 
of his own provisions ; for the French had brought 
great abundance with them, and provisions had 
failed among the English,' etc. 



with you so reasonably that ye shall ever 
be friends together after. And, sir, methink 
ye ought to rejoice, though the journey be 
not as ye would have had it, for this day 
ye have won the high renown of prowess 
and have passed this day in valiantness all 
other of your party. Sir, I say not this to 
mock you, for all that be on our party, that 
saw every man's deeds, are plainly accorded 
by true sentence to give you the prize 
and chaplet.' Therewith the Frenchmen 
began to murmur and said among them- 
selves how the prince had spoken nobly, 
and that by all estimation he should prove 
a noble man, if God send him life and to 
persevere in such good fortune. 



CHAPTER CLXIX 

How the prince returned to Bordeaux 
after the battle of Poitiers, 

When supper was done, every man went 
to his lodging with their prisoners. The 
same night they put many to ransom and 
believed them on their faiths and troths, 
and ransomed them but easily, for they said 
they would set no knight's ransom so high, 
but that he might pay at his ease and main- 
tain still his degree. The next day, when 
they had heard mass and taken some repast 
and that everything was trussed and ready, 
then they took their horses and rode towards 
Poitiers. The same night there was come 
to Poitiers the lord of Roye with a hundred 
spears : he was not at the battle, but he met 
the duke of Normandy near to Chauvigny, 
and the duke sent him to Poitiers to keep 
the town till they heard other tidings. 
When the lord of Roye knew that the English- 
men were so near coming to the city, he 
caused every man to be armed and every 
man to go to his defence to the walls, 
towers and gates ; and the Englishmen 
passed by without any approaching, for 
they were so laded with gold, silver and 
prisoners, that in their returning they 
assaulted no fortress ; they thought it a 
great deed if they might bring the French 
king, with their other prisoners and riches 
that they had won, in safeguard to Bordeaux. 
They rode but small journeys because of 
their prisoners and great carriages that they 
had : they rode in a day no more but four 



132 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



or five leagues and lodged ever betimes, 
and rode close together in good array saving 
the marshals' battles, w^ho rode ever before 
with five hundred men of arms to open the 
passages as the prince should pass ; but they 
found no encounterers, for all the country 
was so frayed that every man drew to the 
fortresses. 

As the prince rode, it was shewed him 
how the lord Audley had given to his four 
squires the gift of the five hundred marks 
that he had given unto him : then the 
prince sent for him and he was brought in 
his litter to the prince, who received him 
courteously and said : ' Sir James, we have 
knowledge that the revenues that we gave 
you, as soon as ye came to your lodging, 
you gave the same to four squires : we 
would know why ye did so, and whether 
the gift was agreeable to you or not.' ' Sir,' 
said the knight, * it is of truth I have given 
it to them, and I shall shew you why I did 
so. These four squires that be here present 
have a long season served me well and truly 
in many great businesses, and, sir, in this 
last battle they served me in such wise that 
an they had never done nothing else, I was 
bound to reward them, and before the same 
day they had never nothing of me in reward. 
Sir, I am but a man alone ; but by the aid 
and comfort of them I took on me to ac- 
complish my vow long before made. I had 
been dead in the battle an they had not 
been : wherefore, sir, when I considered 
the love that they bare unto me, I had not 
been courteous if I would not a rewarded 
them. I thank God I have had and shall 
have enough as long as I live : I will never 
be abashed for lack of good. Sir, if I have 
done this without your pleasure, I require 
you to pardon me, for, sir, both I and my 
squires shall serve you as well as ever we 
did. ' Then the prince said : ' Sir James, 
for anything that ye have done I cannot 
blame you, but can you good thank there- 
for ; and for the valiantness of these 
squires, whom ye praise so much, I accord 
to them your gift, and I will render again 
to you six hundred marks in like manner 
as ye had the other.' 

Thus the prince and his company did so 
much that they passed through Poitou and 
Saintonge without damage and came to 
Blaye, and there passed the river of Gironde 
and arrived in the good city of Bordeaux. 



It cannot be recorded the great feast and 
cheer that they of the city with the clergy 
made to the prince, and how honourably 
they were there received. The prince 
brought the French king into the abbey of 
Saint Andrew's, and there they lodged both, 
the king in one part and the prince in the 
other. The prince bought of the lords, 
knights and squires of Gascoyne the most 
part of the earls of the realm of France, 
such as were prisoners, and paid ready 
money for them. There was divers 
questions and challenges made between the 
knights and squires of Gascoyne for taking 
of the French king ; howbeit Denis Mor- 
beke by right of arms and by true tokens 
that he shewed challenged him for his 
prisoner. Another squire of Gascoyne 
called Bernard of Truttes said how he had 
right to him : there was much ado and 
many words before the prince and other 
lords that were there, and because these 
two challenged each other to fight in that 
quarrel, the prince caused the matter to 
rest till they came in England and that no 
declaration should be made but afore the 
king of England his father ; but because 
the French king himself aided to sustain 
the challenge of Denis Morbeke, for he 
inclined more to him than to any other, 
the prince therefore privily caused to be 
delivered to the said sir Denis two thousand 
nobles to maintain withal his estate. 

Anon after the prince came to Bordeaux, the 
cardinal of Perigord came thither, who was 
sent from the pope in legation, as it was said. 
He was there more than fifteen days or the 
prince would speak with him because of the 
chatelain of Amposte and his men, who 
were against him in the battle of Poitiers. 
The prince believed that the cardinal sent 
them thither, but the cardinal did so much by 
the means of the lord of Caumont, the lord of 
Montferrand and the captal of Buch, who 
were his cousins, they shewed so good 
reasons to the prince, that he was content 
to hear him speak. And when he was 
before the prince, he excused himself so 
sagely that the prince and his council held 
him excused, and so he fell again into the 
prince's love and redeemed out his men by 
reasonable ransoms ; and the chatelain was 
set to his ransom of ten thousand franks, 
the which he paid after. Then the cardinal 
began to treat on the deliverance of the 



GOVERNMENT BY THE THREE ESTATES 



133 



French king, but I pass it briefly because 
nothing was done. Thus the prince, the 
Gascons and EngHshmen tarried still at 
Bordeaux till it was Lent in great mirth 
and revel, and spent foolishly the gold and 
silver that they had won. In England also 
there was great joy when they heard tidings 
of the battle of Poitiers, of the discomfiting 
of the Frenchmen and taking of the king : 
great solemnities were made in all churches 
and great fires and wakes throughout all 
England. The knights and squires, such 
as were come home from that journey, 
were much made of and praised more than 
other. 



CHAPTER CLXX 

How the three estates of France assembled 
together at Paris after the battle of Poitiers. 

The same season that the battle of Poitiers 
was, the duke of Lancaster was in the 
county of Evreux and on the marches of 
Cotentin, and with him the lord Philip of 
Navarre and the lord Godfrey of Harcourt. 
They made war in Normandy and had done 
all that season in the title of the king of 
Navarre, whom the French king held in 
prison. These lords did all that they might 
to have been at the journey of Poitiers with 
the prince, but they could not, for all the 
passages on the river of Loire were so well 
kept that they might not pass : but when 
they heard how the prince had taken the 
French king at the battle of Poitiers, they 
were glad and brake up their journey, 
because the duke of Lancaster and sir 
Philip of Navarre would go into England, 
and so they did ; and they sent sir Godfrey 
of Harcourt to Saint-Saviour's-le-Viconte 
to keep there frontier war. ^ 

Now let us speak of the French king's 
three sons, Charles, Louis and John, who 
were returned from the besynes at Poitiers. 
They were right young of age and of 
counsel ; in them was but small recovery, 
nor there was none of them that would take 
on him the governance of the realm of 

1 ' Tenir frontiere.' The word * frontiere ' means 
' line of battle ' or ' fortress \ (in the face of the 
enemy), and hence the meaning 'boundary.' The 
expressions ' faire frontiere ' or ' tenir frontiere ' are 
used of opposing or making war against an enemy. 



France. Also the lords, knights and squires, 
such as fled from the battle, were so hated 
and blamed of the commons of the realm, 
that scant they durst abide in any good 
town. Then all the prelates of holy Church 
being in France, bishops, abbots, and all 
other noble lords and knights, and the 
provost of the merchants, the burgesses of 
Paris, and the counsels of other good towns, 
they all assembled at Paris, and there they 
would ordain how the realm should be 
governed till the king were delivered out of 
prison. Also they would know furthermore 
what was become of the great treasure that 
had been levied in the realm by dimes, 
maltotes, subsidies, forging of moneys, and 
in all other extortions, whereby the people 
hath been overlaid and troubled, and the 
soldiers evil paid, and the realm evil kept 
and defended : but of all this there were none 
that could give account. Then they agreed 
that the prelates should choose out twelve 
persons among them, who should have 
power by them and by all the clergy to 
ordain and to advise all things convenable 
to be done ; and the lords and knights to 
choose other twelve among them of their 
most sagest and discreet persons, to de- 
termine all causes ; and the burgesses to 
choose other twelve for the commons : the 
which six and thirty persons should often- 
times meet at Paris and there to commune 
and ordain for all causes of the realm, and 
every matter to be brought to them : and 
to these three estates all other prelates, 
lords and commons should obey. 

So these persons were chosen out, but 
in the beginning there were divers in 
this election that the duke of Normandy 
was not content withal, nor his council. 
First these three estates defended evermore 
forging of money : also they required the 
duke of Normandy that he would arrest the 
chancellor of the king his father, the lord 
Robert of Lorris, and the lord Simon of 
Bucy, and divers other masters of the counts 
and other councillors of the king's, to the 
intent that they might make a true account 
of that they had taken and levied in the 
realm and by their counsels. When these 
masters and councillors heard of this matter, 
they departed out of the realm into other 
countries, to abide there till they heard 
other tidings. 



134 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



CHAPTERS CLXXI, CLXXII 

SUMMARY.— The three estates received 
all taxes and coined new gold money called 
* moutons, ' They desired the duke of Nor- 
mandy to set free the king of Navarre, hut 
he would not. Then, seeing that Godfrey de 
Harcourt made war in Normandy, they sent 
a body of men to Coutances, where he was 
defeated and slain. 



CHAPTER CLXXni 

How the prince conveyed the French king 
from Bordeaux into England. 

After the death of this knight sir Godfrey 
of Harcourt, the Frenchmen returned to 
Coutances with their prisoners and pillage, 
and anon after they went into France to 
the duke of Normandy, who as then was 
called regent of France, and to the three 
estates, who received them right honour- 
ably. So from thenceforth Saint- Saviour- 
le-Viconte was English and all the lands 
pertaining to sir Godfrey of Harcourt, for 
he had sold it to the king of England after 
his decease and disherited the lord Louis 
of Harcourt his nephew, because he would 
not take his part. As soon as the king of 
England heard tidings of the death of the 
lord Godfrey of Harcourt, he was sorry 
thereof: then he sent incontinent men of 
arms, knights, squires and archers more 
than three hundred by sea to go and take 
possession for him of Saint - Saviour - le - 
Viconte, the which was worth thirty 
thousand franks by year, and made captain 
of those lands the lord John Lisle. The 
three estates all that season studied on the 
ordinance of the realm of France, and it 
was all governed by them. 

The same winter the prince of Wales 
and such of England as were with him at 
Bordeaux ordained for ships to convey the 
French king and his son and all other 
prisoners into England. And when the 
time of his departure approached, then he 
commanded tJie lord d'Albret, the lord of 
Mussidan, the lord de Lesparre, the lord of 
Pommiers and the lord of Rauzan to keep 
the country there till his return again. 
Then he took the sea, and certain lords of 



Gascoyne with him. The French king was 
in a vessel by himself, to be the more at his 
ease, accompanied with two hundred men 
of arms and two thousand archers ; for it 
was shewed the prince that the three estates 
by whom the realm of France was governed 
had laid in Normandy and Crotoy two 
great armies, to the intent to meet with him 
and to get the French king out of his hands, 
if they might ; but there were no such that 
appeared, and yet they were on the sea 
eleven days, and on the twelfth day they 
arrived at Sandwich. Then they issued out 
of their ship and lay there all that night 
and tarried there two days to refresh them, 
and on the third day they rode to Canter- 
bury. When the king of England knew of 
their coming, he commanded them of 
London to prepare them and their city to 
receive such a man as the French king was. 
Then they of London arrayed themselves 
by companies and the chief mesters [with] 
clothing different [each] from the other. 
At Saint Thomas of Canterbury the French 
king and the prince made their offerings 
and there tarried a day, and then rode to 
Rochester and tarried there that day, and 
the next day to Dartford and the fourth 
day to London, where they were honour- 
ably received, and so they were in every 
good town as they passed. The French 
king rode through London on a white 
courser well apparelled, and the prince on 
a little black hobby by him. Thus he was 
conveyed along the city, till he came to. the 
Savoy, the which house pertained to the 
heritage of the duke of Lancaster. There 
the French king kept his house a long 
season, and thither came to see him the 
king and the queen oftentimes and made 
him great feast and cheer. Anon after by 
the commandment of pope Innocent the 
sixth there came into England the lord 
Talleyrand, cardinal of Perigord, and the lord 
Nicholas, cardinal of Urgel : they treated for 
a peace between the two kings, but they 
could bring nothing to effect, but at last by 
good means they procured a truce between 
the two kings and all their assisters, to 
endure till the feast of Saint John the 
Baptist in the year of our Lord God 
MCCCLix. ; and out of this truce was 
excepted the lord Philip of Navarre and his 
allies, the countess of Montfort and the 
duchy of Bretayne. Anon after the French 



DISTURBANCES IN PARIS, 1357 



135 



king was removed from the Savoy to the 
castle of Windsor, and all his household, 
and went a-hunting and a-hawking there- 
about at his pleasure, and the lord Philip 
his son with him : and all the other prisoners 
abode still at London and went to see the 
king at their pleasure and were received all 
only on their faiths. 



CHAPTERS CLXXIV-CLXXVIII 

SUMMARY.— The king of Scotland, who 
had been a prisoner in England more than 
nine years, was delivered by treaty. 

The duke of Lancaster raised an army to 
aid the conntess of Montfort in May 1357, 
and laid siege to Rennes. During this 
siege a young bachelor named Bertrand du 
Guesclin fought with sir Nicholas Dag- 
xvorth an Englishman. 

Sir William de Gauville won back the 
castle of Evreux for the king of Navan-e. 

At this time there was a company of 
armed men in Provence led by A retold de 
Cervolles, called the archpriest, with whom 
the pope and cardinals fell in treaty for 
fear that Avignon should be plundered ; 
another between the Loire and Seine had 
one Ruffi,n {Griffith) for their captain ; and 
in A^ormandy there was a company of Eng- 
lish and Navarrois under sir Robert 
Knolles. 



CHAPTER CLXXIX 

How the provost of the merchants of Paris 
slew three knights in the regent's chamber. 

In this season that the three estates thus 
ruled, there rose in divers countries certain 
manner of people calling themselves com- 
panions, and they made war to every man. 
The noblemen of the realm of France and 
the prelates of holy Church began to wax 
weary of the rule and ordinance of the 
three estates, and so gave up their rule and 
suffered the provost of the merchants to 
meddle with some of the burgesses of Paris, 
because they meddled farther than they 
were pleased withal.^ So on a day the 

^ ' So they suffered the provost of the merchants 
and some of the burgesses of Paris to deal as they 
would, because they (the three estates) meddled 
with affairs farther than they were pleased.' 



regent of France was in the palace of Paris 
with many noblemen and prelates with 
him. The provost then assembled a great 
number of the commons of Paris, such as 
were of his opinion, and all they ware hats 
of one colour, to the intent to be known. 
The provost came to the palace with his 
men about him and entered into the duke's 
chamber, and there eagerly he desired him 
that he would take on him the meddling of 
the business of the realm of France, that 
the realm, the which pertained to him by 
inheritance, might be better kept, and that 
such companions as goeth about the realm 
wasting, robbing and pilling the same 
might be subdued. The duke answered 
how he would gladly intend thereto, if he 
had wherewith, and said they that receive 
the profit and the rights pertaining to the 
realm ought to do it, if it be done or not I 
report me.^ So they multiplied such words 
between them that three of the greatest of 
the duke's council were there slain so near 
him, that his clothes were all bloody with 
their blood and he himself in great peril : 
but there was set one of their hats on his head 
and he was fain there to pardon the death 
of his three knights, two of arms and the 
third of the law, the one called the lord 
Robert of Clermont, a right noble man, 
another the lord of Conflans, and the 
knight of the law the lord Simon of Bucy. 

CHAPTER CLXXX 

How the king of Navarre came out of prison. 

After this foresaid adventure certain 
knights, as the lord John of Picquigny and 
other, under the comfort of the provost of 
Paris and of other councillors of the good 
towns, came to the strong castle of Arleux 
in Palluel, in Picardy, where the king of 
Navarre was in prison under the keeping of 

1 ' Mais celui qui faisoit lever les profits et les 
droitures appartenans au royaulme le devoit faire, 
s'il le fist, je ne S9ay pourquoi ne comment ce fut, 
mais les paroles moultiplyerent tant,' etc. The 
punctuation and reading are doubtful, but probably 
it should be, 'he that levied the profits and rights 
belonging to the realm ought to do it ; so let 
him do it.' The translator's expression, 'If it 
be done or not, I report me,' is quite unintelligible. 
We may observe, however, that the same expres- 
sion occurs again (ii. 91) : 'I report me if I have not 
good cause to say,' where it is a translation of 
' Regardez et imaginez,' etc. 



36 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



the lord Tristram du Bos. They brought to 
them that kept the castle such tokens that 
they had the king of Navarre delivered into 
their hands, for the captain was not as then 
there ; and they brought him with great joy 
into the city of Amiens, where he was well 
received, and lighted at a canon's house, 
who loved him entirely, called Guy Quieret : 
and the king tarried there a fifteen days 
till he had so provided for himself that he 
was assured of the duke of Normandy, then 
regent of France : for the provost of the 
merchants of Paris had gotten him his 
peace of the duke and of them of Paris. 
And then the king of Navarre was brought 
to Paris by the lord John of Picquigny and 
by other burgesses of Amiens, whereas 
every man was glad to see him and the 
duke made him great feast and cheer ; for 
it behoved him so to do, for the provost 
and his sect exhorted him thereto : there- 
fore the duke dissembled for the pleasure 
of the provost and other of Paris. 



CHAPTER CLXXXI 

How the king of Navarre preached solemnly 
in Paris. 

When the king of Navarre had been a 
certain time in Paris, on a day he assembled 
together prelates, knights and clerks of the 
university and there he shewed openly 
among them in Latin in the presence of the 
duke of Normandy his complaint and griefs, 
and violence done to him wrongfully with- 
out right or reason, and said how there was 
none that ought to doubt in him, but that 
he would live and die in the defence of the 
realm of France and the crown thereof, as 
he was bound to do : for he was extraught 
of father and mother of the right line of 
France, and said, if he would challenge the 
realm and crown of France, he could shew 
by right how he was more nearer thereto 
than the king of England. His sermon 
and language was so pleasant that he was 
greatly praised, and so little and little he 
entered into the favour of them of Paris, so 
that he was better beloved there than the 
regent the duke of Normandy, and also 
with divers other cities in the realm of 
France. But whatsoever semblant the 
provost and they of Paris made to the king 



of Navarre, for all that the lord Philip of 
Navarre would never trust them, nor would 
not come to Paris, for he always said that in 
a commonalty there was never no certainty, 
but finally shame, rebuke and dishonour. 



CHAPTER CLXXXII ^ 

Of the beginning of the rising of 
the commons called Jaquery, in Beauvoisin. 

Anon after the deliverance of the king of 
Navarre there began a marvellous tribula- 
tion in the realm of France, as in Beau- 
voisin, in Brie, on the river of Marne, 
in Laonnois, and about Soissons. For 
certain people of the common villages, 
without any head or ruler, assembled to- 
gether in Beauvoisin. In the beginning 
they passed not a hundred in number : 
they said how the noblemen of the realm 
of France, knights and squires, shamed the 
realm, and that it should be a great wealth 
to destroy them all ; and each of them said 
it was true, and said all with one voice : 
' Shame have he that doth not his power to 
destroy all the gentlemen of the realm ! ' 

Thus they gathered together without any 
other counsel, and without any armour 
saving with staves and knives, and so went to 
the house of a knight dwelling thereby, and 
brake up his house and slew the knight and 
the lady and all his children great and 
small and brent his house. And then they 
went to another castle, and took the knight 
thereof and bound him fast to a stake, and 
then violated his wife and his daughter before 
his face and then slew the lady and his 
daughter and all his other children, and 
then slew the knight by great torment and 
brent and beat down the castle. And so 
they did to divers other castles and good 
houses ; and they multiplied so that they 
were a six thousand, and ever as they went 
forward they increased, for such like as 
they were fell ever to them, so that every 
gentleman fled from them and took their 
wives and children with them, and fled ten 
or twenty leagues off" to be in surety, and 
left their houses void and their goods 
therein. 

These mischievous people thus assembled 
without captain or armour robbed, brent 
and slew all gentlemen that they could lay 



THE JACQUERIE, 1357 



137 



hands on, and forced and ravished ladies 
and damosels, and did such shameful deeds 
that no human creature ought to think on 
any such, and he that did most mischief 
was most praised with them and greatest 
master. I dare not write the horrible 
deeds that they did to ladies and damosels : 
among other they slew a knight and after 
did put him on a broach and roasted him at 
the fire in the sight of the lady his wife and 
his children ; and after the lady had been 
enforced and ravished with a ten or twelve, 
they made her perforce to eat of her husband 
and after made her to die an evil death and 
all her children. They made among them 
a king, one of Clermont in Beauvoisin : 
they chose him that was the most un- 
graciousest of all other and they called him 
king Jaques Goodman, and so thereby they 
were called companions of the Jaquery. 
They destroyed and brent in the country of 
Beauvoisin about Corbie, Amiens and Mont- 
didier more than threescore good houses 
and strong castles. In like manner these 
unhappy people were in Brie and Artois, 
so that all the ladies, knights and squires of 
that country were fain to fly away to Meaux 
in Brie, as well the duchess of Normandy 
and the duchess of Orleans as divers other 
ladies and damosels, or else they had been 
violated and after murdered. Also there 
were a certain of the same ungracious people 
between Paris and Noyon and between Paris 
and Soissons, and all about in the land of 
Coucy, in the county of Valois, in the 
bishopric of Laon,^ Noyon and Soissons. 
There were brent and destroyed more than 
a hundred castles and good houses of 
knights and squires in that country. 



CHAPTER CLXXXIII 

How the provost of the merchants of Paris 
caused walls to be made about the city of 
Paris. 

When the gentlemen of Beauvoisin, of 
Corbiois, of Vermandois and of other lands, 
whereas these mischievous people were 
conversant, saw the woodness among them, 
they sent for succours to their friends into 

1 The translator, partly following a corrupt text, 
says, ' bytwene Brieche and Loan.' The true 
reading is ' en I'dveschiet de Laon.' 



Flanders, to Brabant, to Hainault and to 
Hesbaye. vSo there came from all parts ; 
and so all these gentlemen strangers with 
them of the country assembled together and 
did set on these people where they might 
find them, and slew and hanged them upon 
trees by heaps. The king of Navarre on a 
day slew of them more than three thousand 
beside Clermont in Beauvoisin. It was 
time to take them up, for an they had been 
all together assembled, they were more than 
a hundred thousand ; and when they were 
demanded why they did so evil deeds, they 
would answer and say they could not tell, 
but that they did as they saw other do, 
thinking thereby to have destroyed all the 
nobles and gentlemen of the world. 

In the same season the duke of Normandy 
departed from Paris and was in doubt of the 
king of Navarre and of the provost of the 
merchants and of his sect, for they were 
all of one accord. He rode to the bridge 
of Charenton on the river of Marne, and 
there he made a great summons of gentle- 
men and then defied the provost of the 
merchants . and all his aiders. Then the 
provost was in doubt of him, that he would 
in the night-time come and overrun the 
city of Paris, the which as then was not 
closed. Then he set workmen a- work as 
many as he could get, and made great dikes 
all about Paris and began walls and gates : 
he had the space of one whole year a three 
hundred workmen continually working. 
It was a great deed to furnish an arm and 
to close with defence such a city as Paris : 
surely it was the best deed that ever any 
provost did there, for else it had been after 
divers times overrun and robbed by divers 
occasions. 



CHAPTER CLXXXIV 

Of the battle at Meaux in Brie, where the 
companions of the Jaquery were discom- 
fited by the earl of Foix and the captal of 
Buch. 

In the season while these ungracious people 
reigned, there came out of Pruce the earl 
of Foix and the captal of Buch his cousin, 
and in their way they heard, as they should 
have entered into France, of the great mis- 
chief that fell among the noblemen by these 



138 



THE CHRONICLES OF FRO I SS ART 



unhappy people ; and in the city of Meaux 
was the duchess of Normandy and the 
duchess of Orleans and a three hundred 
other ladies and damosels and the duke of 
Orleans also. Then the two said knights 
agreed to go and see these ladies and to 
comfort them to their powers : howbeit the 
captal was English, but as then it was 
truce between the two kings : they had in 
their company a threescore spears. And 
when they were come to Meaux in Brie, 
they were welcome to the ladies and 
damosels there : and when those of the 
Jaquery understood that there was at 
Meaux such a number of ladies, young 
damosels and noble children, then they 
assembled together and with them they of 
Valois, and so came to Meaux. And also 
certain of Paris that heard thereof went to 
them, so that they were in all a nine thou- 
sand and daily more resorted to them : so 
they came to the gates of the town of 
Meaux and the people of the town opened 
the gates and suffered them to enter, so 
that all the streets were full of them to the 
market-place, whereas these noble ladies 
were lodged in a strong place closed about 
with the river of Marne : there came such 
a number against them that the ladies were 
sore affrayed. Then these two knights and 
their company came to the gate of the 
market-place and issued out and set on 
those villains, who were but evil armed, 
the earl of Foix's banner and the duke of 
Orleans', and the captal's pennon. And 
when these villains saw these men of war 
well apparelled issued out to defend the 
place, the foremost of them began to recule 
back, and the gentlemen pursued them 
with their spears and swords : and when 
they felt the great strokes, they reculed all 
at once and fell for haste each on other. 
Then all the noblemen issued out of the 
barriers and anon won the place, and 
entered in among their enemies and beat 
them down by heaps and slew them like 
beasts and chased them all out of the town, 
and slew so many that they were weary, 
and made many of them by heaps to fly 
into the river. Briefly, that day they 
slew of them more than seven thousand, 
and none had scaped, if they would a 
followed the chase any farther. And when 
these men of arms returned again to the 
town, they set fire thereon and brent it 



clean and all the villains of the town that 
they could close therein, because they took 
part with the Jaquery. After this dis- 
comfiture thus done at Meaux they never 
assembled again together after ; for the 
young Enguerrand lord of Coucy had 
about him certain men of war, and they 
ever slew them as they might meet with 
them without any mercy. 



CHAPTERS CLXXXV, CLXXXVI 

SUMMARY.— Paris, which held to the 
party of the king of Navarre, was besieged 
by the duke of Normandy, who made a 
private treaty with the king of Navarre by 
which Etienne Marcel, provost of the 
merchants, ajid twelve other burgesses should 
be given up to the duke of Normandy. A 
body of citizens was surprised and defeated 
by a company of English and Navarrois, 
and the provost and his party were much 
blamed for it. 



CHAPTER CLXXXVn 

Of the death of the provost of the merchants 
of Paris. 

The provost and his sect had among them- 
selves divers counsels secretly, to know 
how they should maintain themselves ; for 
they could find by no means any mercy in 
the duke of Normandy, for he sent word 
generally to all the commons of Paris that 
he would keep with them no longer peace, 
without he had delivered into his hands 
twelve of Paris, such as he would choose, 
to do with them his pleasure : the which 
thing greatly abashed the provost and his 
company. Finally, they saw well that it 
were better for them to save their lives, 
goods and friends, rather than to be 
destroyed, and that it were better for them 
to slay than to be slain. Then secretly 
they treated with the Englishmen, such as 
made war against Paris ; and they agreed 
between them that the provost and his sect 
should be at the gate Saint-Honore and at 
the gate Saint-Antoine at the hour of mid- 
night and to let in the Englishmen and 
Navarrois provided ready to overrua the 
city and to destroy and rob it clean, except 
such houses as had certain signs limited 



I 



DEATH OF ^TIENNE MARCEL, 1357 



139 



among them, and in all other houses with- 
out such tokens to slay men, women and 
children. The same night that this should 
have been done God inspired certain 
burgesses of the city, such as always were 
of the duke's party, as John Maillart and 
Simon his brother and divers other, who 
by divine inspiration, as it ought to be 
supposed, were informed that Paris should 
be that night destroyed. They incontinent 
armed them and shewed the matter in 
other places to have more aid, and a little 
before midnight they came to the gate 
Saint - Antoine and there they found the 
provost of the merchants with the keys of 
the gates in his hands. Then John 
Maillart said to the provost, calling him 
by his name : ' Stephen, what do you here 
at this hour ? ' The provost answered and 
said: 'John, what would ye? I am here 
to take heed to the town, whereof I have 
the governing.' ' By God,' said John, *ye 
shall not go so : ye are not here at this 
hour for any good, and that may be seen 
by the keys of the gates that ye have in 
your hands. I think it be to betray the 
town.' Quoth the provost: 'John, ye lie 
falsely.' 'Nay,' said John, 'Stephen, 
thou liest falsely like a traitor ' : and there- 
with strake at him and said to his com- 
pany : * Slay the traitors ! ' Then , every 
man strake at them. The provost would 
a fled, but John Maillart gave him with an 
axe on the head, that he fell down to 
the earth, and yet he was his gossip, and 
left not till he was slain and six of them 
that were there with him, and the other 
taken and put in prison. Then people 
began to stir in the streets, and John 
Maillart and they of his accord went to the 
gate Saint- Honore and there they found 
certain of the provost's sect, and there they 
laid treason to them, but ^ their excuses 
availed nothing. There were divers taken 
and sent into divers places to prison, and 
such as would not be taken were slain 
without mercy. The same night they 
went and took divers in their beds, such as 
were culpable of the treason by the con- 
fession of such as were taken. The next 
day John Maillart assembled the most part 
of the commons in the market hall, and 
there he mounted on a stage and shewed 
generally the cause why he had slain the 
1 Or rather, ' and.' 



provost of the merchants ; and there by the 
counsel of all the wise men all such as were 
of the sect of the provost were judged to 
the death, and so they were executed by 
divers torments of death. 

Thus done, John Maillart, who was then 
greatly in the grace of the commons of 
Paris, and other of his adherents sent 
Simon Maillart and two masters of the 
parliament, sir Stephen Alphonse and 
master John Pastourel, to the duke of 
Normandy being at Charenton, They 
shewed the duke all the matter and desired 
him to come to Paris to aid and to counsel 
them of the city from thenceforth, saying 
that all his adversaries were dead. The 
duke said : ' With right a good will ' ; and 
so he came to Paris, and with him sir 
Arnold d'Audrehem, the lord of Roye and 
other knights, and he lodged at Louvre.^ 



CHAPTERS CLXXXVIII-CXCVII 

SUMMARY.— The king of Navarre de- 
clared war on the realm of France and the 
Navarrois won 7nany towns on the Seine, 
Marne and Oise, and defeated the French 
host at Mauconseil, iSth August 1 358. 

Amiens zuould have been delivered up to 
the Navarrois, hut for the constable de 
Fiennes and the earl of Saint- Pol, who 
came in haste from Corbie and then laid 
siege to Saint- Valhy, which was at length 
surrendered. The French pursued the lord 
Philip of Navarre, who with difficulty 
recrossed the Somme and escaped. Mean- 
while there was a great dearth in France, 
and the realm was full of Navarrois, who 
under the captal de Btuh and others took 
many strong places. 

Sir Peter Audley with some Navarrois 
made an attempt on Chdlons, which failed. 

At length a peace was made between the 
duke of Normandy and the king of Navarre, 
which, however, the lord Philip did not 
accept. 

CHAPTERS CXCVni-CCIV 

SUMMARY.— For all this peace, there 
was as much war as before, because the 
truce betzveen France and England had 
1 ' Au Louvre.' 



140 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



expired. War was carried on in Cham- 
pagne by sir Eustace d' Aubrecicourt for the 
English, who was defeated and taken 
prisoner, 2-^rd June, at Nogent-siir-Seine. 
He -was afterwards ransomed by the English 
garrisons of Champagne and became their 
captain. 

The brigands that held fortresses i7t France 
began marvellously to decline. 

A treaty of peace agreed to in London by 
the kings of France and England was 
rejected by the duke of Normandy and the 
estates. The king of England prepared to 
invade France. 

Sir Robert Knolles rode through Berry 
and Auvergne towards Avignon, pursued 
by the earl of Forez zvith a large force, but 
he escaped them and went into Limousin. 



CHAPTERS CCV-CCXIV 

SUMMARY. —Certain knights of the 
Empire came to join the king of England 
at Calais and rode into France zuith the 
duke of Lancaster, who came before the 
king. At All Saints they returned and 
met the English host marching in Jitie 
array, with the king and the prince of 
Wales. The king rode through Artois and 
Picardy, and so to Rheims, where he laid a 
siege. The king of Navarre quarrelled 
with the duke of Normandy and made ivar 
upoit him. At length the king of England 
left the siege of Rheims, and going into 
Burgundy lay at Guillon till after mid- 
Lent. He then made a composition with 
the duke of Burgundy and retired towards 
Paris, encamping at Bourg-la-Reine. 

The duke of Normandy refused battle, 
and the king I'e tired towards Chartres. 
On the way negotiations were carried on for 
peace, and at length terms were arranged 
at Bretigny near Chartres.^ On payment 
of 600,000 frajtks and delivery of hostages the 
French king was released, and then went on 
foot in pilgrimage from Calais to Boulogne 
in co77ipany zvith the prince of Wales and 
his tzvo brothers, Liojiel and Edmund. De- 
livery tvas made of the ceded provinces and 
the king of England orde7'ed his garrisons 
to leave their holds. These garrisons 

1 The documents connected with the peace of 
Bretigny are given very incompletely and con- 
fusedly in the text which the translator followed. 



formed companies to plunder the country 
and the lord Jacques of Bourbon was sent 
against them. The cofupanies drezv to- 
gether and marched towards Lyons. 



CHAPTER CCXV 

How the lord James of Bourbon and his 
company were discomfited by the com- 
panions, and how the pope made to be 
cried a croisey, after these companions had 
taken the Bridge Saint-Esprit, and of the 
answer that they made. 

The men of war thus assembled with the 
lord of Bourbon being at Lyons under- 
stood that the rout of the companions 
approached fast towards them, and had 
won the town and castle of Brignais and 
divers other holds, and how they sore 
wasted and exiled the country. These 
tidings greatly displeased the lord of Bour- 
bon, because he had the governing of the 
earl of Forez' land and of his son's his 
nephew's.-^ Then they went into the field 
and saw well how they were a great 
number of men of arms, knights and 
squires, and so they sent out their currours 
to know what their enemies did and. where 
they were and where they should be found. 
Now shall I shew you the great malice of 
these- companions, who were lodged on a 
mountain, and there they had such a place 
that they could not be descried nor 
aviewed, and specially the chief of them, 
who were best harnessed, for the residue, 
who were worst harnessed, arranged along 
on the hill-side and suffered the French 
currours to approach near to them and to 
return again without any damage to the 
lord James of Bourbon, the earl d'Uzes, 
sir Raynold of Forez and to the other 
French company, to whom they reported 
as they had seen and said : * Sirs, we have 
seen yonder company your enemies and to 
our powers well advised them, and all 
things seen and considered, to our estima- 
tion they pass not a five or six thousand 
persons and marvellously evil harnessed. 
And when the lord of Bourbon heard that 
report, he said to the archpriest : ' Sir, ye 
have told me or this that they were to the 

1 Froissart says, 'because he had the governance 
of the county of Forez, his nephews' land.' 



BATTLE OF BRIGNAIS, 1361 



[41 



number of sixteen thousand fighting men, 
and now ye hear all contrary.' * Sir,' 
quoth he, * I thought them never under 
the said sum, and if they be not, God be 
thanked ; it is the better for us. There- 
fore now take heed what ye will do. ' ' In 
the name of God,' quoth the lord of Bour- 
bon, ' we will go and fight with them ' : and 
there he ordered his battles and set them 
in good array ready to fight, for he might 
see his enemies before him ; and there he 
made certain new knights, first his own 
eldest son Peter, and he raised his banner, 
and also his nephew the young earl of 
Forez, the lord of Tournon, the lord of 
Montelimar and the lord Groslee of 
Dauphine ; and there were also the lord 
Louis [and] sir Robert of Beaujeu, sir 
Louis of Chalon, sir Hugh of Vienne, the 
earl d'Uzes and divers other good knights 
and squires, all desiring to advance their 
honours and to overthrow these com- 
panions that thus pilled the country with- 
out any title of reason : and there it was 
ordained that the archpriest, sir Arnold of 
Cervolles, should govern the first battle, for 
he was a good and expert knight, and he 
had in that battle sixteen hundred fighting 
men. These routs of companions that were 
on the mountain saw right well the order- 
ing of the Frenchmen, but they could not 
so well see them nor their guiding, . nor 
approach well to them but to their great 
danger or damage ; for these companions 
had in this mountain a thousand cartload 
of great stones, which was greatly to their 
advantage and profit. These Frenchmen 
that so sore desired to fight with their 
enemies, howsoever they did, they could 
not come to them the next way ; therefore 
they were driven of necessity to coast 
about the mountain, where their enemies 
were : and when they came on that side, 
then they, who had great provision of stones, 
began to cast so sore down the hill on them 
that did approach, that they beat down, 
hurt and maimed a great number, in such 
wise that they might nor durst not pass nor 
approach any nearer to them : and so that 
first battle was so sore beaten and defoiled, 
that of all day after they did but little aid. 
Then to their succour approached the 
other battles with sir James of Bourbon, 
his son and his nephews, with their banners 
and a great number of good men of war. 



and all went to be lost ; the which was 
great damage and pity, that they had not 
wrought by better advice and counsel than 
they did. The archpriest and divers other 
knights that were there had said before 
that it had been best to have suffered their 
enemies to have dislodged out of the hold 
that they were in, and then to have fought 
with them at more ease ; but they could 
not be heard. 

Thus, as the lord James of Bourbon and 
the other lords with their banners and 
pennons before them approached and 
coasted the said mountain, the worst 
armed of the companions cast still con- 
tinually stones at them in such wise that 
the hardiest of them was driven aback ; 
and thus, as they held them in that estate 
a great space, the great fresh battle of 
these companions found a way and came 
about the mountain well ranged and had 
cut their spears of six foot of length, and 
so came crying with one voice and brake 
in among the Frenchmen. So at the first 
meeting they overthrew many to the earth : 
there were sore strokes on both parts, and 
these companions fought so ardently that 
it was marvel, and caused the Frenchmen 
to recule back : and there the archpriest 
like a good knight fought valiantly, but he 
was taken prisoner by force of arms and 
sore hurt, and divers other knights and 
squires of his company. Whereto should 
I make longer rehearsal of this matter? 
In effect the Frenchmen had the worse ; 
and the lord James of Bourbon was sore 
hurt, and sir Peter his son, and there was 
slain the young earl of Forez, and taken 
sir Raynold of Forez his uncle, the earl 
d'Uzes, sir Robert of Beaujeu, sir Louis of 
Chalon, and more than a hundred knights, 
and with much pain the lord of Bourbon 
and his son Peter were borne into the city 
of Lyons. This battle was about the year 
of our Lord God a thousand three hundred 
threescore and one, the Friday after Easter- 
day. 

Greatly were they of the country 
abashed, when they heard that their 
people were discomfited, and there was 
none so hardy, nor so strong a castle, but 
trembled for fear ; for the wise and dis- 
creet men supposed and imagined that 
great mischief should multiply thereby, 
without God put to some remedy. And 



142 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 






they of Lyons were greatly abashed when 
they knew that the companions had the 
victory ; howbeit they received sweetly all 
them that returned and scaped from the 
battle, and were sore displeased for the 
hurts of the lord of Bourbon and of sir 
Peter his son, and they of the town, ladies 
and damosels, right goodly did visit him ; 
but this lord James of Bourbon died a 
three days after the field and sir Peter his 
son lived not long after, and they were 
sore bewailed of every creature; and for 
the death of this lord of Bourbon the 
French king was right sore displeased, but 
he could not amend it, so it behoved him 
to pass over his sorrow as well as he might. 
Now let us speak of these companions, 
who persevered still in their evil deeds as 
people rejoiced and comforted of their 
deeds, as well for winning of that journey 
as for the ransoming of many good 
prisoners : so thus these companions led 
their time at their pleasure in that country, 
for there were none that came against 
them ; for incontinent after the discom- 
fiture of Brignais they entered and spread 
abroad in the county of Forez and pilled 
and wasted all the country except the fort- 
resses, and because they were so great a 
company, almost nothing held against 
them : and so they divided them into two 
parts, and sir Seguin of Badefol had the 
less part ; howbeit he had in his company 
a three thousand fighting men, and he 
went and lay at Anse, a mile from Lyons,^ 
and fortified the place marvellously, and 
so his company were thereabout in the 
marches, the which was one of the plentiful 
countries of the world, the which they 
overran, and ransomed the people at their 
pleasure, that is to say, all the countries on 
this side and beyond the river of Saone, 
the county of Macon, the archbishopric of 
Lyons and the land of the lord of Beaujeu 
and all the country to Marcigny-les- 
Nonnains and to the county of Nevers. 
The other part of the same company, as 
Naudan de Bageran, Espiote, Creswey,^ 
Robert Briquet, Ortingo [and] Bernardet 
de la Salle, I'Amit, the bourg Camus, the 
bourg of Breteuil, the bourg of Lesparre, 
and divers other of one sort and affinity, 

1 ' A une lieue de Lyon,' but the distance is really 
about six leagues. 

2 The Englishman John Creswey (or Creswell). 



drew them toward Avignon, and said how 
they would see the pope and cardinals and 
to have some of their money, or else to 
harry and to pill the country, and so they 
tarried here and there abiding for the 
ransom of such prisoners as they had 
taken, and also to see if the truce held 
between France and England ; and as 
they went toward Avignon, they took by 
the way towns and fortresses, so that none 
held against them, for all the country was 
afraid ; and also in that country they had used 
no war, so that such as were in these small 
holds wist not how to defend themselves 
from such men of war. And these com- 
panions heard how there was at the Bridge 
Saint-Esprit,^ a seven leagues from Avig- 
non, great treasure and riches of the 
country assembled there together on trust 
of the strong fortress ; and so the com- 
panions advised among them that if they 
might win that hold, it should be greatly 
to their advantage and profit, for then they 
thought to be masters of Rhone and of 
them in Avignon. And on this purpose 
they studied, till at last they had cast their 
advice, as I have heard reported, in this 
manner. Guyot du Pin and the little 
Meschin rode with their company in one 
night a fifteen leagues, and in the morning 
at the breaking of the day they came to 
the town of the Bridge Saint -Spirit and 
suddenly took it and all that were within, 
the which was great pity, for there they 
slew many an honest person and defoiled 
many a damosels and won such riches that 
it could not be numbered and great pur- 
veyances to live thereby a whole year : and 
so by that means they might run at their 
ease without danger, one season into the 
realm of France and another time into the 
Empire. So there assembled together all 
the companions and every day ran to the 
gates of Avignon, whereby the pope and 
cardinals were in great affray and dread. 
And so those companions made there a 
sovereign captain among them, who was 
ever most commonly enemy to God and to 
the world.^ 

Beside these there were in France great 

1 Pont-Saint-Esprit, a town on the right bank of 
the Rhone. 

2 Froissart says, ' who caused himself to be 
commonly called : Friend to God and enemy to all 
the world.' 



THE COMPANIES, 1361, 1362 



M3 



number of pillers and robbers, what of 
Englishmen, Gascons and Almains, who 
said they must needs live ; and they held 
still certain garrisons and fortresses, for 
all that the king of England's deputies had 
commanded them to avoid and depart ; 
howbeit they would not all obey, where- 
with the French king was sore displeased, 
and all his council. But when these com- 
panions in divers places heard how these 
other companions had overthrown the lord 
of Bourbon and a two thousand knights 
and squires, and taken many a good 
prisQner, and also had taken in the town 
Saint - Esprit so great riches that it was 
a thing incomparable, and thinking how 
they were likely to win Avignon or else 
to put to mercy the pope and cardinals 
and all the country of Provence, then they 
thought all to depart and go thither for 
covetise to win more and to do more evil 
deeds ; so that was the cause that divers of 
them left up their fortresses and went to their 
companions, in hope to get more pillage. 
And when that pope Innocent the sixth 
and the college of Rome saw how they 
were vexed by these cursed people, they 
were greatly abashed and then ordained a 
croisey against these evil Christian people, 
who did their pain to destroy Christen- 
dom, as other bands had done before,^ 
without title of any reason : for they 
wasted all the country without any cause, 
and robbed without sparing all that ever 
they could get, and violated and defoiled 
women, old and young, without pity, and 
slew men, women and children without 
mercy, doing to them no trespass ; ^ and 
such as did most shamefullest deeds were 
reputed with them most valiant. So then 
the pope and the cardinals preached 
openly this croisey and assoiled a pena et 
culpa all those that would take on them 
this croisey and that would abandon their 
bodies willingly to destroy these evil 
people and their companions; and there 
was chosen among the cardinals sir Peter of 
Moustier, cardinal of Arras, called Ostia,' 
to be chief captain of the croisey, and 
incontinent he departed out of Avignon, 
and went and tarried at Carpentras, a 
seven mile from Avignon, and there he 
retained all manner of soldiers, such as 

1 ' Ensi comme les Wandeles fisent jadis.' 

2 'Who had done them no ill." 3 ' Dit d'Ostie.' 



would save their souls in attaining to these 
said pardons, but they should have none 
other wages; wherefore that journey brake, 
for every man departed, some into Lom- 
bardy, some to their own countries, and 
some went to the said evil company, so that 
daily they increased. So thus they har- 
ried the pope, the cardinals and the mer- 
chants about Avignon and did much evil, 
till it was far into the summer season in 
the year of our Lord God a thousand three 
hundred threescore and one. 

Then the pope and the cardinals advised 
them of a noble gentle knight and a good 
warrior, the marquis of Montferrat, who 
kept war and had done a long space 
against the lords of Milan. The pope sent 
for him, and so he came to Avignon and 
was honourably received of the pope and 
cardinals, and so a treaty was made with 
him by reason of a sum of money that he 
should have, to the intent that he should 
get out of that country the said evil com- 
panions, and to retain them with him in 
his wars of Lombardy. So then the 
marquis treated with the captains of the 
companions, and by reason of threescore 
thousand florins that they should have 
among them and great wages that the 
marquis should give them, they agreed to 
depart and go with him into Lombardy, 
so they might be assoiled a pena et culpa. 
All this was agreed, accomplished, and the 
florins paid : and then they rendered up 
the town Saint -Esprit and left the march 
of Avignon and passed forth with the 
marquis, whereof king John of France and 
all the realm were right joyous, when they 
saw how they were delivered of these evil 
people. Howbeit there were many that 
returned to Burgoyne, and sir Seguin of 
Badefol departed not out of the garrison 
of Anse, for he would not leave it for no 
manner of entreaty nor promise ; but the 
realm of France was in far better rest and 
peace than it was before. So when the 
most part of the companions were thus 
passed forth with the marquis into the land 
of Piedmont, there the marquis did well 
his devoir against the lords of Milan and 
conquered divers towns, castles, fortresses 
and countries against them, and had divers 
encounterings and skirmishes with them 
to his honour and profit, so that within a 
year by the help of these companions he 



144 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



had the better hand, and in part had all 
his intent against the two lords of Milan, 
of sir Galeas and sir Bernabo, who after 
reigned in great prosperity. 

So it fortuned that sir Seguin of Badefol, 
who was all that season in the garrison 
of Anse on the river of Saone, took by 
scaling a good city in Auvergne called 
Brioude, and therein he tarried more than 
a year and fortified it in such wise that 
he doubted nothing, and overran the 
country to Clermont, to Chilhac, to Puy, 
to Chaise-Dieu, to Montferrant, to Riom, 
to Nonnette, to Issoire, and to Vodables 
and the land of the count Dolphin,^ the 
lord whereof was the same time in hostage 
in England, and in these countries he and 
his company did much evil ; and when he 
had sore impoverished the country there- 
about, then by treaty he departed and 
took with him great pillage and treasure 
and so went to Gascoyne, from whence 
he came first. Of this sir Seguin I can 
write no more, but that, as I heard re- 
counted, he died marvellously : God for- 
give him all his trespasses. Amen. 



CHAPTERS CCXVI-CCXIX 

SUMMARY. — Henry duke of Lancaster 
died, and the lord John, son of the king of 
England, became duke in right of his wife. 
The pope Innocent VI. died and was suc- 
ceeded by Urban V. The prince of Wales 
took the government of Acquitaine. The 
king of Cyprus went through the Empire 
and then to England to get help for a crusade 
against the infidels. lie returtied through 
France and so to Acquitaine. 

King John of France came to London, 
where he fell sick and died. 

The duke of Nor?nandy sent the marshal 
Bouciquaut to join sir Bertrand du Guesclin 
against the king of Navarre. They took 
Nantes and Meulan by stratagem. The 
captal of Buck became commander of the 
Navarrois. 

1 The comte dauphin d'Auvergne. 



CHAPTER CCXX 

Here beginneth the feats of war done in the 
time of king Charles the V. , whereof the 
beginning speaketh of the obsequy of king 
John and how the young king Charles was 
honourably crowned at Rheims, and of the 
great expenses that was done there ; and 
of the beginning of the battle of Cocherel. 

Thus, as ye have heard before, the king of 
Cypre returned into France and came to 
Paris to the duke of Normandy, and there 
was the duke's brethren, the duke of Anjou 
and the lord Philip, who was after duke of 
Burgoyne, and all they tarried for the body 
of the king their father, the which was 
coming out of England ; and the king of 
Cypre holp them to complain the death of 
the king and was marvellously displeased 
therewith, because of the hindering of his 
viage of the croisey, and so he clothed him- 
self with the vesture of dolour. 

So the day came that the body of the 
French king approached to Paris, the which 
body was brought thither by the earl of 
Artois, the earl Dammartin and the great 
prior of France. The duke of Normandy 
and his brethren, the king of Cypre, and 
the most part of all the clergy of Paris went 
afoot and met with the body beyond Saint- 
Denis in France, and there he was solemnly 
buried and the archbishop of Sens sang the 
mass : and after the service done and the 
dinner, the which was right noble, the lords 
and prelates returned to Paris and there 
they held a parliament and general council 
to determine how the realm should be 
ordered, for the realm might not long be 
without a king : and then it was counselled 
by the advice of the prelates and nobles of 
the realm that they should draw to the city 
of Rheims and there to crown the duke of 
Normandy, who as yet was called none 
otherwise ; and he wrote to his uncle 
Wenceslas duke of Brabant and of Luxem- 
bourg and also to the earl of Flanders, 
desiring them to be at his coronation on 
Trinity Sunday next coming. 

In the same season, while the lords made 
their purveyance for the king's coronation, 
the Frenchmen and Navarrois approached 
near together in Normandy ; for into the 
city of Evreux was come the captal of Buch, 



BATTLE OF COCHEREL, 1364 



145 



who made there his assembly of men of 
war and of companions such as he could 
get. Now let us speak of him and of sir 
Bertram of Guesclin^ and of a journey of 
battle between them the Tuesday before 
Trinity Sunday, that the duke of Normandy 
should be crowned king, as he was in the 
cathedral church of Rheims. When the 
captal of Buch had made his assembly in 
the city of Evreux of archers and brigands, 
and left in the city a captain called sir 
Leger d'Orgessin, and sent to Conches the 
lord Guy of Gauville to keep frontier war,^ 
then he departed from Evreux with all his 
men of arms and archers ; for he heard say 
how the Frenchmen were abroad, but he 
wist not where they were. Then he took 
the fields and had great desire to find them, 
and numbered his company and found that 
he was to the sum of seven hundred spears, 
three hundred archers and five hundred of 
other men of war, and with him were 
divers good knights and squires, and 
specially a banneret of the realm of Navarre 
called the lord of Sault, an expert man of 
arms ; but he that held the greatest sum of 
men of arms and archers in all the company 
was a knight of England called sir John 
Jouel : there was also the lord Peter of 
Saquainville, sir "William of Gauville, the 
lord Bertrand du Franc, the bascle of 
Mareuil and divers other, all in will to 
encounter sir Bertram of Guesclin and to 
fight with him. Then they drew to Passy 
and to the Bridge of the Arch,^ for they 
thought that the Frenchmen should pass 
the river of Seine there, if they were not 
passed already. 

So it happened that the Friday in the 
Whitsun week the captal and his company 
rode out of a wood and by aventure they 
met a herald of arms called king Faucon, 
and the same morning he was departed from 
the French host. As soon as the captal 
saw him, he knew him well and made him 
great cheer, for he was pertaining to the 
king of England : then he demanded of 

1 This name, which in the last chapter is written 
by the translator ' Guesclyn,' appears here and 
generally elsewhere as ' Clesquy.' The form in the 
French text is usually Clesquin. Froissart, who 
reports a conversation on the form of the name, 
probably wrote ' Claiequin.' 

2 ' Pour faire frontiere sus le pays,* ' to hold the 
country against the enemy.' 

3 Pont-de-l'Arche. 

L 



him from whence he came and if he knew 
any tidings of the Frenchmen. ' Sir,* quoth 
he, * in the name of God I know well where 
they be : I departed from them to-day : 
they seek you as well as ye do them.' 
' Where be they, ' quoth the captal, 
' beyond the Bridge of the Arch or a this 
side?' ' Sir,' quoth Faucon, ' they be passed 
the bridge at Vernon, and, as I believe, 
they are now about Passy. ' * What number 
be they,' quoth the capital, * and what 
captains have they ? I pray you shew me. ' 
' Sir,' quoth Faucon, * they are well a fifteen 
hundred fighting men, and there is sir, 
Bertram of Guesclin, who hath the greatest 
company of Bretons, also there is the earl 
of Auxerre, the viscount of Beaumont, the 
lord Louis of Chalon, the lord of Beaujeu, 
the master of the cross-bows,^ the archpriest, 
the lord Oudart of Renty ; and of Gascoyne 
there is the company of the lord d'Albret, 
and the lord Aymenion of Pommiers, the 
lord soudic of Latrau.''^ And when the 
captal heard those Gascons named, he 
marvelled greatly and blushed for dis- 
pleasure, and said : ' Faucon, is this true ye 
say, that these lords of Gascoyne are there, 
and the lord d'Albret's company?' * Sir,' 
quoth the herald, ' yea, without fail.' ' And 
where is the lord d'Albret himself?' quoth 
the captal. 'Sir,' quoth Faucon, *he is 
at Paris with the regent duke of Normandy, 
who apparelleth himself to go to Rheims, 
for it is said that on Sunday next com- 
ing he should be crowned king.' Then 
the captal laid his hand on his own head 
and said in great displeasure, ' By Saint 
Antony's cap,^ Gascon against Gascon.' 
'Sir,' quoth Faucon, 'hereby tarrieth for 
me a herald of the archpriest sent to speak 
with you from him ; and as I understand by 
the herald, the archpriest would speak with 
you.' Then the captal said : ' Ah, Faucon, 
say to the French herald he need not to go 
any farther : let him shew to the archpriest 
that I will not speak with him.' Then sir 
John Jouel stept forth and said : ' Sir, why 
will ye not speak with him ? Peradventure 
it is for our profit.' Then the captal said : 

1 The master of the cross-bows was sir Baudouin 
d'Annequin. 

2 The soudic (or soudan) de Latrau was lord of 
Prechac and of Didonne. ' Latrau ' is a correction 
of ' Lestrade.' 

3 ' Par le cap saint Antoine,' ' by the head of 
Saint Antony.' 



146 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



* Nay, I warrant you it is not for our profit, 
for the archpriest is so great a brawler that 
if he come to us he will but jangle, and in 
the mean time imagine our strength and 
aview our number,^ the which peradventure 
shall turn more to our prejudice than ad- 
vantage : therefore I have no haste to speak 
with him.' Then Faucon the herald went 
to the other herald, whereas he tarried under 
a hedge, and excused the captal so wisely 
that he was well content, and then he went 
to the archpriest and shewed him all, as 
Faucon had said. 

Thus the Frenchmen and Nav'arrois had 
'knowledge each of other by the report of 
the two heralds, and apparelled themselves 
each to meet other. And when the captal 
had heard by Faucon what number the 
Frenchmen were, then incontinent he sent 
certain messengers to the city of Evreux to 
the captain there, desiring him to send out 
of the city all manner of companions and 
other that were able for the war, and that 
they should meet with him about Cocherel, 
for there he thought to find the Frenchmen, 
for surely, he said, wheresoever they met 
he would fight with them. And when 
these tidings came to the captain of Evreux, 
named sir Leger d'Orgessin, then he com- 
manded every man that was able to ride a 
horse should go out of the city and draw to 
the captal ; and so there departed out of 
the town more than sixscore, all young 
men of the nation of the town. So that 
Wednesday the captal lodged by noon on a 
mountain and his company about him ; and 
the Frenchmen rode forward to find them, 
till they came to a river called in that 
country Iton, the which ran toward Evreux, 
and it springeth near to Conches, and there 
they lodged that Wednesday in a fair 
meadow along by the river -side; and so 
the next morning both parties sent out their 
Gurrours to see if they could hear any tidings 
each of other, and so each of them made 
report that they were within two leagues 
together. Then the Navarrois rode as 
Faucon led them, the same way he came 
from them, and so about noon they came 

1 This is a mistranslation. The original is : 
' Mais I'archeprestre est si grant barateur, que s'il 
venoit jusques a nous, [en nous] comptant jangles 
et hordes il adviseroit,' etc., ' but the archpriest is so 
great a deceiver, that if he came to us, while telling 
us jests and pleasantries he would observe our 
strength,' etc. 



into the way to Cocherel, and there they 
saw the Frenchmen before them in ordering 
of their battles ; and there was great num- 
ber of banners and pennons, so that they 
seemed to be double the number that they 
were indeed. Then the Navarrois rested 
them without a little wood that was there : 
then the captains drew together and ordered 
their battles. First they made three battles 
well and properly all afoot and sent all their 
carriages and pages into the little wood, 
and they set sir John Jouel in the first battle 
with all the men of arms and archers of 
England ; the second battle led the captal of 
Buch, and in his battle were a four hundred 
fighting men one and other, and with him 
was the lord of Sault of Navarre, a young 
lusty knight, the lord William of Gauville 
and sir Peter of Saquainville ; the third 
battle was led by three knights, that is to 
say, the lord bascle of Mareuil, the lord 
Bertram of [the] Franc and the lord Sanse 
Lopins, they were a four hundred : and 
when they had ordered their battles, then 
they took the vantage of a little hill there 
beside on their right hand, between them 
and the wood, and so on the front of that 
hill they arranged themselves before their 
enemies ; and they set the captal's banner 
on a bush of thorns and set a sixty men of 
arms about it to defend it from their 
enemies, and that they did to the intent 
that, if they were sparkled abroad, they 
should draw to the standard, and so deter- 
mined not to descend down from the moun- 
tain for no manner of cause, but to let 
their enemies come to them, if they would 
fight with them. 



CHAPTER CCXXI 



I 



How by the policy and counsel of sir Bertram 
of Guesclin the Navarrois descended down 
from the mountain to fight with the French- 
men, and how the captal was taken. 

Thus, as ye have heard, the Navarrois and 
Englishmen were arranged on the mountain 
while the Frenchmen ordered their battles, 
whereof they made three and a rear-gimrd. 
The first had sir Bertram of Guesclin with 
all his Bretons, and he was ordained to ren- 
counter the captal's battle : the second had 
the earl of Auxerre, and with him there 



BATTLE OF COCHEREL 



H7 



was the viscount Beaumont and the lord 
Baudwyn d'Annequin, master of the cross- 
bows, and with them were Frenchmen, 
Picards and Normans, as sir Oudart of 
Renty, sir Enguerrand of Eudin, sir Louis 
of Haveskerke and divers other good knights 
and squires : the third battle had the arch- 
priest and the Burgoynians, and with him 
the lord of Chalon, the lord Beaujeu, the 
lord John of Vienne and divers other, and 
this battle was assigned to assemble against 
the bascle of Mareuil and his rout : and the 
battle which was the rear-guard were all 
Gascons, whereof sir Aymenion of Pom- 
miers, the lord soudic of Latrau, the lord 
Perducas d'Albret and the lord Petiton of 
Curton were sovereign captains. Then 
these Gascon knights advised well the be- 
having of the captal and how his standard 
was set on a bush and kept with a certain 
number : then they said that it behoved 
them, when their battles were assembled 
together, that they should endeavour them- 
selves to conquer the captal's standard, 
saying how if they might get it their enemies 
should be soon discomfited. Also these 
Gascons avised them on another ordinance, 
the which was to them that day right pro- 
fitable. The lords of France were a long 
space together in council how they should 
maintain themselves, for they saw well that 
their enemies had a great advantage : then 
the Gascons spake a word, the which was 
well hoard ; they said : * Sirs, we know well 
that the captal is as worthy a knight as can 
be found in any land, for as long as he is 
able to fight, he shall do us great damage. 
Let us ordain thirty a-horseback of the best 
men of arms that be in our company, and 
let the thirty take heed to nothing but to 
address themselves to the captal, while we 
intend to conquer his standard, and by the 
might of their horses let them break the 
press, so that they may come to the captal, 
and then take him and carry him out of the 
field, for without that be done we shall 
have no end of our battle : ^ for if he may 
be taken by this means, the journey shall 
be ours, his people will be so sore abashed 
of his taking.' Then the knights of France 
and of Bretayne accorded lightly to that 
device, and said it was good counsel and so 
they would do. Then among them they 

1 Or rather, ' carry him out of the field and not 
wait for the end of the battle,' 



chose out thirty of the best men of arms 
among them, and mounted on thirty of the 
best horses in all the company, and they 
drew them aside in the field well determined 
of that they should do, and all the residue 
tarried in the field afoot in good array. 

When they of France had well ordered 
their battles and that every man knew what 
he should do, then there was a communing 
among them what should be their cry that 
day and to what banner they should draw 
to ; and so they were determined to cry 
' Our Lady of Auxerre ! ' and to make their 
captain that day the earl of Auxerre. But 
the earl would in no wise agree thereto, 
to take that charge on him, but excused 
himself right graciously, saying, ' Lords, I 
thank you of the honour that ye would put 
me to, but surely as for me I will not 
thereof, for I am over young to have 
such a charge or honour, for this is the first 
journey that ever I was at, therefore ye 
shall take another. Here be many good 
knights, as sir Bertram of Guesclin, the 
archpriest, the master of the cross-bows, the 
lord Louis of Chalon, the lojd Aymenion of 
Pommiers and sir Oudart of Renty ; these 
have been in many great journeys and they 
know how to order such a matter better 
than I can, therefore I pray you hold me 
excused.' Then the knights regarded each 
other and said to him : ' Ah, noble earl of 
Auxerre, ye are the greatest among us both 
of land and lineage, therefore of right ye 
ought to be our head.' 'Certainly, sirs,' 
quoth he, 'ye say as it pleaseth you,^ but 
this day I shall be as one of your com- 
panions, and shall live and die and bide 
mine aventure with you, but as for the 
sovereignty, surely I will none thereof.' 
Then they beheld each other and advised 
whom they might make chief captain. Then 
they were avised that the best knight in all 
their company and he that had been best 
proved was sir Bertrain of Guesclin : then 
it was ordained by their common accord 
that their cry should be that day, * Our 
Lady, Guesclin ! ' and that they should all 
obey that day to sir Bertram. 

All things ordained and stablished and 
every lord and knight under his own stan- 
dard or pennon, then they regarded their 
enemies, who were a-high on the hill and 
would not depart from their strength, 
1 ' Ye say it of your courtesy.*^ 



148 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



for they thought it not ; ^ the which greatly 
annoyed the Frenchmen, because it was 
evil mounting of that hill and also the sun 
was very hot : the biggest of them were 
faint,^ for they were fasting, and they had 
neither wine nor victual with them that did 
them any good, without it were certain lords 
that had little flagons of wine, the which 
were anon empty ; nor they made that 
morning no provision for victual, for they 
had thought to have fought with their 
enemies the same morning, but they did 
not ; but they escried as near as they might 
the Navarrois and Englishmen,^ and so the 
day was far gone or they could be assembled 
together. And when the lords of France 
saw the behaving of the Navarrois, then 
they drew them together in manner of 
council, to determine whether they should 
go and fight with their enemies or not : so 
they were of divers opinions : some would 
go fight with them, saying it should be 
great blame to them to do otherwise, some 
that were sad and well avised argued to the 
contrary and said : ' If we go and fight with 
them whereas they be in the avantage, it shall 
be to our great peril, for of five of us they 
will have three.' So finally they would not 
agree to go to them, for dangers that might 
fall. And the Navarrois advised well their 
manner and said among themselves : * Be- 
hold yonder our enemies : they will come 
anon to fight with us, by seeming they make 
them ready thereto.' There were certain 
knights and squires, Normans, prisoners 
with the Navarrois, and they were let go on 
their faiths, and they went privily into the 
French host and said to the lords there: 
'Sirs, avise you well, for an ye let this day 
pass without ])attle, your enemies will be to- 
morrow greatly recomforted, for it is said 
among them that the lord Louis of Navarre 
should come to them with a four hundred 
spears.' So these words inclined them greatly 
to fight with their enemies, howsoever they 
did ; and so made them ready to have set 
forward : and at that point they were a 
three or four times, but ever the wise men 
held them back and said : * Sirs, let us 
abide a little space and see what they will 

1 ' For they had no design or will to do so.' 

2 ' Therefore the strongest of them feared it ' 
(le ressongnoient). 

3 ' For the N. and E. put it off as lor^g as they 
could,' 



do, for their hearts are so great and pre- 
sumptuous that they would as gladly fight 
with us as we with them.' There were 
many overcome with heat of the sun, for it 
was then about noon and they had fasted all 
the day and were armed and sore chafed, 
and said among them, ' If we go up this 
hill to fight with them, we are all likely to 
be lost ; therefore let us draw as for this 
day to our lodging, and to-morrow let us 
take other counsel.' Thus they were in 
divers opinions. 

When the lords and knights of France 
saw the governing of the Englishmen and 
of the Navarrois, and how that they would 
not depart out of the hold that they were in 
and that it was high noon of the day, 
and also had heard the words that the 
prisoners that came from them had said, 
and also saw the most part of their people 
sore travailed with the heat of the sun, the 
which was to them right displeasant, then 
by the advice of sir Bertram of Guesclin 
they took other counsel : for he said : ' Sirs, 
we see well that our enemies desireth sore 
to fight with us ; howbeit they will not 
descend out of their hold, without it be by 
the means that I shall shew you. Let us 
make semblant to withdraw back and not to 
fight as this day, and also our people are 
sore travailed with heat, and let us send our 
varlets, our carriage and our spare horses 
over the bridge and water, and let us with- 
draw back to our lodging, and in our going 
back let us be ready to turn again, if need 
be, and let us see what they will do. If 
they be willing to fight with us, they will 
descend down the hill to chase us, and if 
we see that they do so, then let us be ready 
to turn again on them, and then we shall 
deal with them the more easily.' This coun- 
sel was accepted of all the company : then 
every lord drew him under his own standard, 
and then they caused their trumpets to 
sound the retreat and commanded all 
knights, squires and varlets to pass the 
bridge and to carry over all their carriages.^ 
So thus they passed over, and some men of 
arms passed after feintly.^ 

When sir John Jouel, who was an expert 
knight and had great desire to fight with 
the Frenchmen, saw the manner of them, 
how they drew back, then he said to the 



1 ' Leur harnois.' 
' Faintement,' ' by way of a feint.' 



I 



BATTLE OF COCHEREL 



149 



captal : * Sir, let us go quickly after them : 
see you not how they do fly away ? ' * Ah, ' 
said the captal, * trust not thereto : they do 
it but for an evil intent and to beguile us. ' 
Then sir John Jouel avanced himself, for 
he had great desire to fight with his enemies, 
saying to his company, * Saint George ! 
whosoever loveth me let them follow, for I 
will go and fight with our enemies ' : and 
so took his spear in his hand and went 
forth before all the battles and descended 
down the hill, and some of his company, or 
the captal knew thereof. But when he saw 
that sir John Jouel was gone to fight without 
him, he took it of great presumption and 
said to them about him : ' vSirs, let us go 
down the hill quickly, for sir John Jouel shall 
not fight without me.' Then the captal 
and his company advanced them down the 
hill, and when the Frenchmen saw them 
descend from the hill and come into the 
plain fields, they were right joyous, and 
said, ' Lo, now we may see that we have 
desired all this day ' ; and so suddenly 
turned and cried * Our Lady, Guesclin ! ' and 
dressed their banners against the Navarrois, 
and so assembled together all ^foot ; and 
sir John Jouel, who courageously assembled 
his banners against the battle of the Bretons, 
of whom sir Bertram was chief captain, did 
many a feat of arms, for he was a hardy 
knight. Thus the knights and squires 
sparkled abroad in the plain and fought 
together with such weapons as they had, 
and each of them entered into other's battle 
and so fought with great courage and will ; 
the Englishmen and Navarrois cried ' Saint 
George ! ' and the Frenchmen ' Our Lady, 
Guesclin ! ' There were many good knights 
on the French part, as sir Bertram of 
Guesclin, the young earl of Auxerre, the vis- 
count Beaumont, sir Baudwyn d'Annequin, 
sir Louis of Chalon, the young lord of 
Beaujeu, sir Antony, who that day reared 
his banner, sir Louis of Haveskerke, sir 
Oudart of Renty, sir Enguerrand of Eudin ; 
and also of Gascons, first sir Aymenion of 
Pommiers, sir Perducas d'Albret, sir soudic 
de Latrau, sir Petiton of Curton, and divers 
other of that sort : and the Gascons dressed 
them against the captal and his company, 
and they against them ; they had great 
desire to meet each other : there was a sore 
battle and many a noble feat of arms done 
and achieved. A man ought not to lie 



willingly : ^ it might be demanded where 
was the archpriest all this season, who was 
a great captain and had a great company 
under his rule, because I make no mention 
of him. I shall shew you the truth. As 
soon as the archpriest saw the battle begin, 
he gat himself out of the press, but he said 
to his company and to him that bare his 
standard : ' I charge you all, as ye love me 
or fear my displeasure, that ye abide the 
end of the battle and do your devoirs as 
well as ye can ; but as for me, I will depart 
and not return again, for I may not as this 
day fight nor be armed against some knight 
that is in the field against us. And if any 
demand for me, answer them as I have 
shewed you before.' So thus he departed, 
and but one squire all only with him, and 
so he repassed the river and let the remnant 
deal ; and so the residue of the field missed 
him not, for they saw his banner and com- 
pany to the end of the battle, wherefore 
they believed surely that he had been there 
personally. Now shall I shew you of the 
battle and how it was ended. 

At the beginning of the battle, when sir 
John Jouel was come down the hill and his 
company with him, and the captal also and 
his company, trusting to have had the 
victory (howbeit the case turned other- 
wise), and saw that the Frenchmen turned 
them in good array and order, then they 
perceived well how they had been too 
hasty to come from their advantage. How- 
beit, like valiant knights, they bashed 
nothing, but thought to win the victory 
with their hands in plain field. And so a 
little they reculed back and assembled 
together all their people, and then they 
made way for their archers to come 
forth on before, who as then were behind 
them. And when the archers were forward, 
then they shot fiercely together, but the 
Frenchmen were so well armed and so 
strongly pavised that they took but little 
hurt, nor letted not for all that to fight, 
and so entered in among the Englishmen 
and Navarrois, and they in like wise among 
them, so that there was between them a 
cruel battle : they took by strength of 
arms and wrestling spears, axes and other 

1 * On ne doit point mentir a son pouvoir.' This 
refers to what follows, as is clear in the fuller text : 
' In matters of arms the truth should be spoken, 
therefore it must be confessed that,' etc. 



ISO 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



1 

:le of ^I 



weapons, each from other, and took 
prisoners on both parts. Thus they fought 
hand to hand so valiantly that it was marvel 
to behold ; so ye may well believe that in 
this great press and peril there were many 
overthrown and slain, for there were none 
that spared other. I say to you plainly, 
the Frenchmen had no need as then to 
sleep, for they had in hand people hardy 
and full of courage, wherefore it behoved 
every man to acquit themselves valiantly 
and to defend their bodies and keep their 
country and to take their advantage when 
it came at the point, or else they had been 
all discomfited : surely the Bretons and 
Gascons did acquit themselves right well 
that day and did many a noble feat of arms. 
Now shall I shew you of the thirty that 
were appointed to set on the captal, who 
were right well horsed. They took heed 
to nothing else but to the executing of their 
enterprise that they had in charge, so all 
together came on the captal, whereas he 
was fighting with a great axe in his hand 
and gave therewith so great strokes that 
none durst approach near him, but these 
thirty by force of their horses brake the 
press and came on the captal and by clean 
force they took him. Then began the 
battles sore in every place, for the captal's 
men cried to the rescue ; howbeit all their 
pain availed them nothing, for the captal 
was carried out of the field ; at which time 
it was hard to tell who had the better. 



CHAPTER CCXXII 

How the Englishmen and Navarrois were 
discomfited at the battle of Cocherel, and 
how the young king of France made his 
brother duke of Burgoyne, and of the castles 
and fortresses that were after won. 

In this great battle, where that the English- 
men and Navarrois intended to follow to 
rescue the captal, whom they saw carried 
away before them, and of the French part 
sir Aymenion of Pommiers, sir Petiton of 
Curton, sir soudic de Latrau and the lord 
d'Albret's company, they intended with a 
courageous will to dress them toward the 
captal's standard that stood on a bush, 
there was then a sore battle ; for the 
standard was well defended with good men 



of war, and specially with sir bascle of 
Mareuil and sir Geoffrey of Roussillon : 
there was many rescues, and many one 
hurt and cast to the earth : howbeit the 
Navarrois that were about the standard 
were overthrown, and the bascle of Mareuil 
slain, and sir Geoffrey of Roussillon taken 
prisoner, and sir Aymenion of Pommiers 
no man could tell what became of him, 
whether he were slain or taken. ^ And 
when the captal's standard was taken and 
torn all to pieces, in the mean season the 
Bretons, Frenchmen, Picards, Normans 
and the Burgoynians fought valiantly, the 
which stood them well in hand to do, for 
the Navarrois had caused them somewhat to 
recule, and there was dead of the French 
party the viscount Beaumont, the which was 
great damage, for he was a lusty young 
knight and was likely to have proved a 
noble man ; and his company with great 
pain carried him out of the field, as I heard 
recounted of them of both parties. It had 
not been seen afore in such a battle with such 
a number to be so well fought as this battle 
was, for they were all afoot hand to hand 
and were meddled together each party with 
other and fought with such weapons as they 
had, and there was many a great stroke 
given with axes of steel, and there was sore 
hurt sir Petiton of Curton and sir soudic de 
Latrau in such wise that they could do no 
more good that day. Sir John Jouel, by 
whom the battle began, did that day many 
a feat of arms and was hurt in divers places 
of his body, and finally he was taken 
prisoner by a squire of Bretayne of the 
company of sir Bertram of Guesclin, and 
was carried out of the press. But there 
was slain of the French party the master of 
the cross-bows, and sir Louis of Haveskerke 
and divers other, and of the Navarrois the 
lord of Sault and many of his men, and the 
same day died prisoner sir John Jouel ; and 
there was taken sir William of Gauville, 
sir Peter of Saquainville, sir Geoffrey of 
Roussillon, sir Bertram of [the] Franc 
and divers other ; but a few of the Navarrois 
saved, they were near all taken or slain in 

1 This should be : ' Sir Geoffrey of Roussillon was 
taken prisoner by sir Aymenion of Pommiers, and 
all the others who were there either slain or driven 
on so far that none could tell what became of them.' 
However, the French text which the translator had 
before him is made unintelligible by the omission of 
the words ' et tout li aultre. ' 



I 



CORONATION OF CHARLES V., 1364 



51 



the place. This battle was in Normandy 
near to Cocherel on a Tuesday^ the twenty- 
fourth day of May2 the year of our Lord 

MCCCLXIV. 

After this discomfiture and that all the 
dead were despoiled, and every man taking 
heed to his prisoners and dressing of them 
that were hurt, and that the most part of 
the Frenchmen were repassed the bridge 
and drawing to their lodging right sore 
travailed and weary, the same season sir 
Guy of Gauville, son to sir William of 
Gauville, was departed the same morning 
from the garrison of Conches with a fifty 
spears, to the intent to have come to the 
captal or the battle began, wherefore they 
made great haste and came to the place 
whereas the battle had been. Then the 
Frenchmen that were behind cried to their 
company saying, ' Turn again, sirs, behold 
here cometh more of our enemies ' : and sir 
Aymenion and his company were there 
ready, and when he saw the Navarrois, he 
set his standard a-high on a bush to cause 
the Frenchmen to draw thither. And when 
sir Guy heard them cry, ' Our Lady, 
Guesclin ! ' and saw not the captal nor 
none of his company, but saw much people 
lie dead on the ground, then he perceived 
well that the Navarrois had been dis- 
comfited, and then he returned the same 
way he came. And that evening the 
Frenchmen took heed to their prisoners. 
Then there was much speaking and en- 
quiring for the archpriest, when it was 
known that he was not at the battle, and 
his men excused him as well as they could. 
And the thirty that took the captal never 
ceased till they had brought him to the 
castle of Vernon. And the next day the 
Frenchmen dislodged and went to Rouen 
and there left part of their prisoners. 



CHAPTER CCXXIII 

Of the coronation of king Charles the fifth. 

On Trinity Sunday the year of our Lord a 
MCCCLXIV. king Charles, son and heir to 
king John, was crowned and sacred king 

1 The original has ' jeudy.' The translator more 
than once gives us 'Tuesday' for 'jeudi' and ' Wed- 
nesday' for ' mardi,' as in i. 189. 

- A better text gives xvi. here for xxiiii. 



in the great church of our Lady in Rheims, 
and also the queen his wife, daughter to 
duke Peter of Bourbon, by the archbishop 
of the same place. And there was present 
king Peter of Cypre, the duke of Anjou, 
the duke of Burgoyne, sir Wenceslas of 
Bohemia, duke of Luxembourg and of 
Brabant, the earls of Eu and of Dammartin, 
of Tancarville and of Vaudemont, with 
many prelates and other lords, and in the 
city was great feasts and solemnities five 
days : then the king departed and went to 
Paris. It cannot be recounted in a whole 
day the solemnities and great feasts that 
they of Paris made them. The lords re- 
turned into their own countries, such as 
had been there at the king's coronation. 

At the king's coming to Paris his youngest 
brother was put in possession of the duchy 
of Burgoyne, and so departed from Paris 
with a great number of men and went and 
took livery, seisin and homage of the 
barons, knights, cities, castles and good 
towns of the duchy of Burgoyne : and 
when he had visited his country, he re- 
turned to Paris. And the same season the 
archpriest appeased the king's displeasure 
by such excusations as he laid for himself, 
in that he was not at the journey of 
Cocherel, shewing how he might not be 
armed against the captal ; the which 
captal at the request of the lord d'Albret 
was let out of prison on his faith and troth, 
the which captal aided greatly to excuse 
the archpriest to the king and to other 
knights of France, such as spake evil of 
him : also he had as then newly overthrown 
in Burgoyne beside Dijon a four hundred 
companions and pillers of the country, 
whereof Guyot du Pin, Tallebart, Talle- 
bardon and John of Chauffour were captains. 
The same season the king caused to be 
beheaded sir Peter Saquainville in the city 
of Rouen, because he was become Navarrois, 
and sir Gauville had been in the same case, 
an sir Guy his son had not been, who sent 
word to the king, that if he put to death 
his father, he would in like wise serve sir 
Braimon de Laval, a great lord of Bretayne, 
whom he had as prisoner ; wherefore his 
lineage and kindred did so much by their 
suit to the king, that there was an exchange 
made between sir Braimon and sir Gauville, 
and each delivered for other. In this 
season sir Bertram of Guesclin gat again 



152 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



The \ 



the castle of Rolleboise for six thousand 
franks that he paid to the captain thereof, 
named Wauter, who returned again to 
Brabant from whence he came. Yet there 
were divers companions that held still 
sundry fortresses in Caux, Normandy, 
Perche, Beauce and in other places, the 
which did much hurt and trouble in the 
realm of France, some in the title of the 
king of Navarre and some in their own 
quarrel, to rob the country without reason 
or true title. The French king sent his 
brother the duke of Burgundy against these 
pillers, and so the duke made his summons 
in the city of Chartres. Then he drew 
into the field, and with him sir Bertram 
of Guesclin, sir Bouciquaut, the earl of 
Auxerre, sir Louis of Chalon, the lord of 
Beaujeu, sir Aymenion of Pommiers, sir 
Rayneval, the Begue of Villaines, sir 
Nicholas of Ligne, master of the cross-bows, 
sir Oudart of Renty, sir Enguerrand of 
Eudin, and to the number of five thousand 
fighting men. And when they saw they 
were so great a number, they divided in 
three parts, whereof sir Bertram of Guesclin 
with a thousand went toward Cotentin 
through the marches of Cherbourg to keep 
the frontiers there, that the Navarrois 
should do no hurt nor damage to the 
country of Normandy ; and with him was 
the lord of Auxerre, the earl of Joigny, sir 
Arnold d'Audrehem, and many knights 
and squires of Bretayne and of Normandy. 
The second battle had the lord de la Riviere, 
and in his company divers knights and 
squires of France and of Picardy, and they 
were sent into the earldom of Evreux ; and 
the duke himself with the greatest company 
went and laid siege to Marchelainville, a 
strong castle Navarrois, and brought thither 
many engines from the city of Chartres, 
the which did cast day and night and did 
them within much trouble. 



CHAPTER CCXXIV 

Of the journey that the duke of Burgoyne 
made against the garrisons Navarrois, 
and of the succour that the French king 
sent to sir Charles of Blois. 

SUMMAR Y. — The lord Louis of Navarre 
had overrun the Bourbonnais and Auvergne 



and taken La Charite on the Loire. The 
duke of Burgundy and those with him took 
many towns and castles in Normandy, and 
at length besieged and took La Charite. 

In the mean time the earl of Montfort lay 
at siege before Auray in Brittany, and the 
king of France sent Bertrand du Guesclin 
and others to aid sir Charles of Blois 
against him. Also to the earl of Montfort 
came sir John Chandos and other knights 
and sqtiires of England. 



CHAPTER CCXXV 

How sir Charles of Blois came against the 
earl Montfort in ordinance of battle, and 
how sir John Chandos came against him, 
and how many were in each battle. 

SUMMARY.— Sir Charles of Blois came 
to Auray with sir Bertrand du Gtiesclin 
and many others. Sir John Chandos was 
commander of the earl of Montforfs army, 
and by his means all attempts to make peace 
were frustrated. The battle was fought in 
a plain near to Auray on a Sunday morn- 
ing {2gth September 1364). 



CHAPTER CCXXVI 

How sir John Chandos discomfited the battle 
of the earl of Auxerre, and how sir Bertram 
of Guesclin was discomfited and taken, and 
the lord Charles of Blois slain in the battle, 
and of the pitiful complaint that the earl 
Montfort made for his death. 

SUMMARY — The battle of Auray was 
won by the party of the earl of Montfort 
tinder sir John Chandos, and sir Charles 
of Blois was slain. 



I 



CHAPTER CCXXVH 



Of the truce that was given to bury the dead 
after the battle of Auray, and how divers 
castles yielded up to the earl Montfort, and 
how he besieged Quimper-Corentin. 

SUMMARY.— The French party were 
greatly discouraged by this defeat, and th^ 
king of England was rejoiced, and so like- 



I 



END OF THE WARS IN BRITTANY, 1364 



153 



7vise was the earl of Flanders^ who was at 
that time with him at Dover. 



CHAPTER CCXXVIII 

Now let us speak of the earl Montfort, how 
he did in Bretayne. 

SUMMARY.— The earl of Montfort took 
Auray,Jugon and Dinant, and laid siege 
to Quimper- Corentin. 



CHAPTER CCXXIX 

How the peace was made that the earl of 
Montfort should abide duke of Bretayne, 
and how the French king rendered to 
Clisson his land, and of the marriage of 
the duke of Normandy, and how the 
captal of Buch became liege man to the 
French king and afterward renounced 
him again. 

SUMMAR K — A treaty was made by which 
the earl of Alontfort should remain duke of 
Brittany, doittg homage for the duchy to the 
king of France. Also peace was made between 
the king of France and the king of Navarre, 
chiefly by the means of the captal de Buch, 

The chapter then continues thus : — 

In this season yet was there still in 
France great number of the companions, 
the which as then wist not what to do, 
seeing the wars of Bretayne were ended. 
These companions pursued ever after deeds 
of arms and taking of pillages at their 
advantages, from the which they could not 
nor would abstain, and all their chief re- 
course was in France, for they called the 
realm of P^rance their chamber. They 
durst do no hurt in Acquitaine, for the 
land would not suffer them, and also, to 
say truth, most part of the captains were 
Gascons and Englishmen under the obei- 
sance of the king of England and of the 
prince ; some there were of Bretayne, but 
not many : wherefore divers of the realm 
of France murmured against the king of 
England and the prince, and said covertly 
how that they acquitted not themselves 
well against the French king, seeing they 
do not their good wills to put out of the 



realm those evil-disposed people. So the 
wise and sage men of France considered 
that, without they did put some remedy to 
drive them out of the realm either by battle 
or by means of some money, else at length 
they were likely to destroy the noble realm 
of France and holy Christendom. 

The same season there was in Hungary 
a king that would gladly have had them 
with him; for he had great war against 
the Turk, who did him great damage. 
Then he wrote to pope Urban the fifth, 
who was as then at Avignon, certifying 
him how he would gladly that the realm of 
France were delivered of the number of 
companions and that they were all with 
him in his wars against the Turk : and in 
like wise he wrote letters to the French 
king and to the prince of Wales. And so 
they entreated the said companions and 
offered them gold and silver and passage ; 
but they answered that they would not that 
way, saying they would not go so far to 
make war ; for it was shewed among them- 
selves by some of their own company that 
had been before in Hungary, how that 
there were such straits, that if they were 
fought with there, they could never escape, 
but to die shamefully ; the which so affrayed 
them that they had no lust to go thither. 
And when the pope and the French king 
saw that they would not agree according 
to their desires, and also that they would 
not avoid out of the realm of France, but 
daily multiplied, then they bethought them 
of another way and means to cause them 
to avoid. 

The same season there was a king in 
Castile called don Peter, ^ who was full of 
marvellous opinions, and .he was rude and 
rebel against the commandments of holy 
Church, and in mind to subdue all his 
Christian neighbours, kings and princes, 
and specially the king of Aragon called 
Peter, who was a good true Christian 
prince, and had as then taken from him 
part of his realm, thinking to have all the 
remnant. 'Also this king don Peter of 
Castile had three bastard brethren, the 
which king Alphonso his father had by 
a lady called the Riche Done : ^ the eldest 
was called Henry, the second don Tello, 

1 ' Dame Pietre,' which is written by the trans- 
lator either ' Dame Peter' or ' Dampeter.' 

2 Eleanor de Guzman, called ' la Richa Dona.' 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



and the third Sancho. This king don 
Peter hated them so, that he would not 
suffer them to come in his sight, and 
oftentimes, if he might have gotten them, 
he would have stricken off their heads : 
howbeit they were well beloved with the 
king their father, and in his life he gave to 
Henry the eldest the county of Asturge, 
but this king don Peter his brother had 
taken it from him, and therefore they kept 
daily war together. This bastard Henry 
was a right hardy and a valiant knight, 
and had been long in France and pursued 
the war there and served the French king, 
who loved him right entirely. King don 
Peter, as the common bruit ran, had put 
to death the mother of the children, where- 
with they were right sore displeased, and 
good cause why. Also beside that, he 
had put to death and exiled divers great 
lords of the realm of Castile : he was so 
cruel and so without shame that all his 
men feared, doubted and hated him as far 
as they durst. Also he caused to die a 
right good and holy lady, the which he had 
to wife, called the lady Blanche, daughter 
to duke Peter of Bourbon, sister-german to 
the French queen and to the countess of 
Savoy, whose death was right displeasant 
to all her lineage, the which was one of the 
noblest lineages of the world. And beside 
all this there ran a bruit of him among his 
own men how that he was amiably allied 
with the king of Granade and with the king 
of Bellemarine and the king of Tremesen,^ 
who were all God's enemies and infidels : 
wherefore some of his own men feared that 
he would do some hurt to his own country, 
as in violating of God's churches, for he 
began already to take from them their 
rents and revenues and held some of the 
prelates in prison and constrained them by 
tyranny, whereof great complaints came 
daily to our holy father the pope, requiring 
him to find some remedy : to whose com- 
plaints the pope condescended, and sent 
incontinent messengers into Castile to the 
king don Peter, commanding him that 
incontinent without any delay personally 
to come to the court of Rome, to wash, 
cleanse and purge him of such villain deeds 
as he was guilty in. Howbeit this king 
don Peter, full of pride and presumptuous- 
ness, would not obey nor come there, but 
1 Tlemcen. 



dealt shamefully with the pope's messenger^ 
whereby he ran greatly in the indignation 
of the Church and specially of the head of 
the Church, as of our holy father the pope. 
Thus this evil king don Peter persevered 
still in his obstinate sin. 

Then advice and counsel was taken by 
the pope and by the college, what way they 
might correct him, and there it was deter- 
mined that he was not worthy to bear the 
name of a king, nor to hold any realm, and 
there in plain consistory in Avignon, in the 
chamber of excommunication, he was openly 
declared to be reputed as an infidel. Then 
it was thought that he should be constrained 
and corrected by help of the companions 
that were as then in the realm of France. 
Then the king of Aragon, who hated the 
king of Castile, was sent for, and also 
Henry the bastard of Spain, to come to 
Avignon to the pope ; and when they were 
come, the pope made FTenry the bastard 
legitive and lawful to obtain the realm of 
Castile, and don Peter cursed and con- 
demned by sentence of the pope, and there 
the king of Aragon said how he would open 
the passage through his country and pro- 
vide victuals and purveyances for all 
manner of people and men of war that 
would pursue to go into Castile to confound 
king don Peter and to put him out of his 
realm. Of this ordinance was the French 
king right joyous, and did his pain to help 
to get out of prison sir Bertram of Guesclin, 
who was prisoner with sir John Chandos, 
and paid for his ransom a hundred thousand 
franks, part thereof paid the French king 
and the pope, and Henry the bastard paid 
the residue ; and after his deliverance they 
fell in treaty with the companions and 
promised them great profit, if they would 
go into the realm of Castile ; whereto they 
lightly agreed for a certain sum of money 
that they had to depart among them : and 
so this journey was shewed to the prince of 
Wales and to the knights and squires about 
him, and specially to sir John Chandos, 
who was desired to be one of the chief 
captains with sir Bertram of Guesclin ; 
howbeit he excused him and said he might 
not go thither. Yet the journey was not 
let for all that, and divers knights of 
the prince's went thither, as sir Eustace 
d'Aubrecicourt, sir Hugh Calverley, sir 
Gaultier Hewet, sir Matthew Gournay, sir 



DON PETER OF CASTILE 



:55 



Perducas d'Albiet and divers other ; and 
the chief captain of this enterprise was 
made the lord John of Bourbon earl of 
Marche, to countervenge ^ the death of his 
cousin the queen of Spain, and was in all 
things ruled and counselled by the advice 
of sir Bertram of Guesclin, for the earl of 
Marche was as then a jolly young lusty 
knight ; and also the lord Antony of Beaujeu 
went forth in that viage, and divers other 
good knights, as sir Arnold d'Audrehem, 
marshal of France, the Begue of Villaines, 
the lord d'Antoing in Hainault, the lord of 
Briffeuil, sir John Neuville, sir Gauvain of 
Bailleul, sir Johnof Berguettes, the Allemant 
of Saint-Venant and divers other, the which 
I cannot name. And so all these lords and 
other advanced forth in the viage and made 
their assembly in Languedoc and at Mont- 
pellier and thereabout, and so passed all to 
Narbonne, to go toward Perpignan and so 
to enter on that side into the realm of 
Aragon. These men of war were to the 
number of thirty thousand, and there were 
the chief captains of the companions, as sir 
Robert Briquet, sir John Creswey, Naudan 
of Bageran, I'Amit, the little Meschin, the 
bourg Camus, the bourg de Lesparre, 
Batillier, Espiote, Aymenion d'Artigue, 
Perrot of Savoy and divers other, all of 
accord and of one alliance, having great 
desire to put king don Peter out of the 
realm of Castile and to make king the earl 
of Asturge, his brother Henry the bastard. 
And when these men of arms should 
enter into the realm of Aragon, to do their 
enterprise the more privily they sent to 
king don Peter to blind him by their 
message : but he was already well informed 
of their intents and how they were coming 
on him into the realm of Castile ; but he 
set nothing thereby, but assembled his 
people to resist against them and to fight 
with them at the entry of his realm. Their 
message was desiring him to open the straits 
of his country and to give free passage to 
the pilgrims of God, who had enterprised 
by great devotion to go into the realm of 
Granade, to revenge the death and passion 
of our Lord Jesu Christ and to destroy the 
infidels and to exalt the Christian faith. 
The king don Peter at these tidings did 
nothing but laugh, and said he would do 
nothing at their desire, nor obey in any 
1 A correction of counterwyne.' 



point to such a rascal company. And 
when these knights and other men of arms 
knew the will and answer of king don Peter, 
whereby they reputed him right orgulous 
and presumptuous, and made all the haste 
they might to advance, to do him all the 
hurt they could. So they all passed through 
the realm of Aragon, where they found the 
passages ready open for them, and victual 
and everything ready apparelled and at a 
meetly price ; for the king of Aragon had 
great joy of their coming, trusting then by 
their means to conquer again from the king 
of Castile all his lands, that king don Peter 
had before taken from him by force : and 
then these men of war passed the great 
river that departeth Castile and Aragon, 
and so they entered into the realm of 
Spain : and when they had conquered 
towns, cities and castles, straits, ports and 
passages, the which the king don Peter had 
taken from the king of Aragon, then sir 
Bertram and his company delivered them to 
the king of Aragon on the condition that 
always from thenceforth he should aid and 
comfort Henry the bastard against don 
Peter. 

Tidings came to the king of Castile how 
that the Frenchmen, Bretons, Englishmen, 
Normans, Picards and Burgoynians were 
entered into his realm and were as then 
passed the great river departing Castile and 
Aragon, and how they had won again all 
on that side the river, the which cost him 
much pain and trouble or he won it first. 
Then he was right sore displeased and 
said : * Well, all shall not go so as they 
ween it shall.' Then he made a special 
commandment throughout all his realm, in 
giving knowledge to them that his letters 
and messengers were sent unto, that they 
should without delay come to him, to the 
intent to fight with the men of war that 
were entered into his realm of Castile. 
There were but a few that obeyed his 
commandment, and when he had thought 
to have had a great assembly of men of 
war, he was deceived, for few or none came 
to him ; for his lords and knights of Spain 
forsook and refused him and turned to his 
brother the bastard : wherefore he was fain 
to fly, or else he had been taken, he was so 
sore behated with his enemies and also with 
his own men, so that none abode about 
him except one true knight called Ferrant 



156 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



I 



of Castro ; ^ he would never forsake him 
for none adventure. And so then don 
Peter went to Seville, the best city of 
Spain, and when he was come thither, he 
was in no great surety ; wherefore he 
trussed and put into coffers his treasure, and 
took a ship with his wife and children, and 
so departed from Seville, and Ferrant of 
Castro his knight with him, and he arrived 
like a knight discomfited in Galice [at a 
port] called the Corogne,^ where there was 
a strong castle, and therein he, his wife 
and children entered, that is to say, two 
young daughters, Constance and Isabel, 
and of all his men and council he had none 
but Ferrant of Castro. 



CHAPTER CCXXX 

Now let us shew of Henry the bastard, how 
he persevered in his enterprise. 

Thus, as I have shewed before, this king 
don Peter was sore behated with his own 
men throughout all the realm of Castile 
because of the marvellous cruel justice that 
he had done and by the occasion of the 
destruction of the noblemen of his realm, 
the which he had put to death and slain 
with his hands. Wherefore as soon as they 
saw his bastard brother enter into the realm 
with so great puissance, then they drew all 
to him and received him to their lord, and 
so rode forth with him ; and they caused 
cities, towns, boroughs and castles to be 
opened to him and every man to do him 
homage : and so the Spaniards all with one 
voice cried, ' Live Henry, and die don 
Peter, who hath been to us so cruel and so 
evil.' Thus the lords led forth Henry 
throughout all the realm of Castile, as the 
lord Gomez Carillo, the great master of 
Calatrava,^ and the master of Saint James. 
So thus all manner of people obeyed to him 
and crowned him king in the city of 
Asturge ; and all prelates, earls, barons and 
knights made him reverence as to their 
king, and sware always to maintain him as 
their king, or else, if need required, to die 
in the quarrel. So thus this king rode 
from city to city and from town to town, 

1 Fernando Perez de Castro. 2 Corunna. 

3 ' The grand master of the order of Calatrava.' 



and always and in every place he had 
reverence done to him like a king : and 
then he gave to the knights strangers, such 
as came with him into the realm of Castile, 
great gifts and rich jewels so largely, that 
every man reputed him for a liberal and 
an honourable lord. And commonly the 
Normans, Frenchmen and Bretons said that 
in him was all liberality, and how he was 
well worthy to live and to reign over a 
great realm ; and so he did a season right 
puissantly and in great prosperity. Thus 
the bastard of Spain came to the seignory of 
the realm of Castile, and he made his two 
brethren, don Tello and Sancho, each of 
them an earl with great revenues and profit. 
Thus this Henry was king of Castile, of 
Galice, of Seville, of Toledo and of Lisbon, 
unto such season as the puissance of Wales 
and Acquitaine put him out thereof and set 
again king don Peter into the possession 
and seignory of the foresaid realms, as ye 
shall hear after in this history. 

When that this king Henry saw himself 
in this estate and that every man obeyed 
him and reputed him for their king and 
lord, and saw nothing likely to the contrary 
of his desire, then he imagined and cast his 
advice to exalt his name and to employ the 
number of such companions as were come 
to serve him out of the realm of France, to 
make a voyage on the king of Granade ; 
whereof he spake to divers knights, who 
were well agreed thereto. And always this 
king Henry held still about him the prince's 
knights, as sir Eustace d'Aubrecicourt, sir 
Hugh Calverley and other, and shewed 
them great token and sign of love in trust 
that they should aid and serve him in his 
voyage to Granade, whither he hoped to go. 
And anon after his coronation there de- 
parted from him the most part of the 
knights of France, and he gave them great 
gifts at their departing ; and so then re- 
turned the earl of Marche, sir Arnold 
d'Audrehem, the lord Beaujeu and divers 
other, but sir Bertram of Guesclin tarried 
still in Castile with the king, and sir Oliver 
of Manny and the Bretons with certain 
number of the companions : and so then 
sir Bertram of Guesclin was made constable 
of all the realm of Castile by the accord of 
king Henry and all the lords of the country. 
Now let us speak of king don Peter, how 
he maintained himself. 



FLIGHT OF DON PETFR, 1366 



tS7 



CHAPTER CCXXXI 

How king don Peter required the prince of 
Wales to aid him against his brother. 

Ye have well heard how king don Peter 
was driven into the castle of Corogne' on 
the sea, and with him his wife, his two 
daughters, and don Ferrant of Castro with 
him all only, so that in the mean season 
that his brother the bastard, by puissance 
of the men of war that he had got out of 
France, conquered Castile, and that all the 
country yielded them to him, as ye have 
heard before. He was right sore afraid, 
and not well assured in the castle of Corogne, 
for he doubted greatly his brother the 
bastard, for he knew well that if he had 
knowledge of his being there, he would 
come with puissance and besiege him. 
"Wherefore he thought he would not abide 
that peril ; therefore he departed in a night 
and took a ship, and his wife, his two 
daughters and don Ferrant of Castro, and 
all the gold, silver, and jewels that they 
had : but the wind was to him so contrary 
that he could not draw from the coast, and 
so was fain again to enter into the fortress 
of Corogne. Then the king don Peter de- 
manded of don Ferrant his knight how he 
should maintain himself, complaining of 
fortune, that was to him so contrary. ' Sir,' 
quoth the knight, ' or ye depart from hence, 
it were good that ye did send to your cousin 
the prince of Wales, to know if he would 
receive you or not, and for pity somewhat 
to tender your need and necessity ; for 
divers ways he is bound thereto by reason 
of the great alliances that the king his father 
and yours had together. The prince of 
Wales is so noble and so gentle of blood 
and of courage, that when he knoweth your 
tribulation, I think verily he will take 
thereof great compassion. And if he will 
aid to set you again in your realm, there is 
none that can do it so well in all the world, 
he is so feared, redoubted and beloved with 
all men of war. And, sir, ye are here in a 
good strong fortress, to keep a season till 
yehearother tidings out of Acquitaine.' To 
this counsel accorded lightly the king don 
Peter. Then he wrote letters right piteous 
and amiable, and a knight with two squires 
were desired to do this message ; and so 



they took on them that journey and entered 
into the sea, and sailed so long that they 
arrived at Bayonne, the which city held of 
the king of England. Then they demanded 
tidings of the prince, and it was shewed 
them how that he was at Bordeaux. Then 
they took their horses and rode so long that 
they came to Bordeaux, and there took 
their lodging, and anon after they went to 
the abbey of Saint Andrew's, where the 
prince was. And there these messengers 
shewed how they were come out of Castile 
and were Spaniards and messengers from 
king don Peter of Castile : and when the 
prince knew thereof, he said he would see 
them and know what they would have. 
And so they came and kneeled down and 
saluted him according to their usage, and 
recommended the king their master to him 
and delivered their letters. The prince took 
up the messengers and received their letters, 
and opened and read them at good leisure, 
wherein he found how piteously king don 
Peter wrote,'signifying to him all his poverty 
and mischief, and how that his brother the 
bastard, by puissance and by the great 
amities that he had purchased, first of the 
pope, of the French king and of the king 
of Aragon, and by the help of the com- 
panions, had put him out from the heritage 
of the realm of Castile : wherefore he de- 
sired the prince for God's sake and by the 
way of pity that he would intend to provide 
for him some counsel and remedy, wherein 
he should achieve grace of God and of all 
the world ; for it is not the right way of a 
true Christian king to disinherit a rightful 
heir and to enherit by puissance of tyranny 
a bastard. And the prince, who was a 
valiant knight and a sage, closed the letters 
in his hands and said to the messengers : 
' Sirs, ye be right welcome to me from my 
cousin the king of Castile : ye shall tarry a 
space here with us, and ere ye depart, ye 
shall have an answer,' 

Then the prince's knights, who knew 
right well what they had to do, led to their 
lodgings the Spanish knight and the two 
squires ; and the prince, who tarried still in 
his chamber, mused greatly on those tidings, 
and then sent for sir John Chandos and for 
sir Thomas Felton, two of the chief of his 
council, for the one was the seneschal of 
Acquitaine and the other constable. And 
when they were come to him, then he said 



[58 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



to them all smiling : * Sirs, ye shall hear 
new tidings out of Spain. The king don 
Peter our cousin complaineth him greatly of 
the bastard Henry his brother, who hath 
taken from him his inheritance and hath put 
him out of his realm, as ye have heard re- 
ported by them that hath come from thence : 
and he requireth us instantly of our comfort 
and aid, as it appeareth here l)y his letters. ' 
And so then the prince read the letters 
word by word a two times, and these two 
knights heard well all the matter. And 
when he had read the letters, then he said 
to them : ' Sirs, ye two, sir John and sir 
Thomas, ye are the most special of my 
council, and in whom I 'have most trust and 
affiance. Wherefore I desire you counsel 
me what ye think were best to do. ' Then 
these two knights beheld each other without 
any word speaking. Then the prince again 
said, ' Sirs, speak hardily what ye think in 
this matter ' : and there the prince was 
counselled by those two knights, as I was 
informed, that he should send to the king 
don Peter men of war to Corogne, where 
he was according to the tenour of the letters 
and also by the report of the messengers, 
and that the men of war should bring him 
to the city of Bordeaux, and there more 
plainly to know what he would say, and 
then, according as they should hear his 
words, to take advice and to give him such 
counsel as of reason should suffice him. 

This answer pleased right well the prince. 
Then he desired to go to Corogne in that 
viage, to bring in safe -guard to him the 
king don Peter, first sir Thomas Felton as 
sovereign and chief of that army, sir Richard 
of Pontchardon, sir Niel Loring, sir Simon 
de Burley, sir William Trussell ; and in 
that army there should be twelve ships fur- 
nished with archers and men of war. So 
these knights made their provision to go 
into Galice ; and then the messengers de- 
parted from Bordeaux and rode with them 
to Bayonne and there tarried a three or 
four days, abiding for wind and weather. 
And the fifth day, as they were departing, 
the king don Peter of Castile arrived at 
Bayonne himself, for he was departed from 
Corogne in great haste and doubt, for he 
durst not abide there any longer, and 
brought but a few of his men with him and 
such treasure as he had. So the tidings of 
his coming was great joy to the Englishmen. 



Then sir Thomas Felton and his company 
came to him and received him right sweetly, 
and shewed him how they were there ready 
by the commandment of the prince their 
lord to have come to him to Corogne and 
to any other place, to have brought him to 
the prince ; of the which tidings the king 
don Peter was right joyous, and thanked 
greatly the prince and the knights that were 
there. 

The coming of the king don Peter thus 
to Bayonne sir Thomas Felton and the 
other knights certified the prince thereof, of 
the which he was right joyous : and within 
a short space after these knights brought 
the king don Peter to that city of Bordeaux. 
And the prince, who greatly desired to see 
his cousin the king don Peter and to do him 
the more honour and feast, issued out of 
Bordeaux accompanied with divers knights 
and squires, and went and met the king 
and did to him great reverence both in word 
and deed ; the which he could do right well, 
for there was no prince in his time that 
could sheAv more honour than he. And 
when the prince had well feasted him, then 
they rode to Bordeaux, and the prince took 
the king above him, in no wise he would do 
otherwise : and as they rode together the 
king don Peter shewed to the prince how 
his bastard brother had chased him out of 
his realm of Castile, and also he piteously 
complained him of the untruth of his men, 
shewing how they had all forsaken him ex- 
cept one knight, the which was there with 
him, called don Ferrant of Castro. The 
prince right courteously and sagely recom- 
forted him, desiring him not to be abashed 
nor discomforted, for though he had as then 
lost all, he trusted it should be in the puis- 
sance of God to restore him again all his 
loss, and moreover to take vengeance of all 
his enemies. Thus as they talked together, 
they rode so long that they came to Bor- 
deaux, and alighted at the abbey of Saint 
Andrew's, whereas the prince and princess 
kept their house ; and then the king was 
brought to a fair chamber ready apparelled 
for him, and when he was changed, he 
went to the princess and to the ladies, who 
received him right courteously, as they 
could right well do. I might over long 
make report to you of this matter, what of 
their cheer, feasts and sports ; wherefore I 
pass it over briefly and shall shew you how 



DON PETER OF CASTILE AT BORDEAUX 



159 



king don Peter sped with the prince his 
cousin, whom he found right amiable and 
courteous, and well condescended to his de- 
sires : howbeit, there were some of his 
council said unto him as ye shall hear after. 
Or that don Peter came to Bordeaux, 
some wise and sage imaginative lords, as 
well of Gascoyne as of England, who were 
of the prince's council and had ever truly 
served him and given him good counsel and 
so thought ever to do, they said to the 
prince : ' Sir, ye have heard say divers 
times, he that too much embraceth holdeth 
the weaklier. It is for a truth that ye are 
one of the princes of the world most praised, 
honoured and redoubted, and holdeth on 
this side the sea great lands and seignories, 
thanked be God, in good rest and peace. 
There is no king, near nor far off, as at this 
present time, that dare displease you, ye 
are so renowned of good chivalry, grace and 
good fortune : ye ought therefore by reason 
to be content with that ye have and seek 
not to get you any enemies. Sir, we say 
not this for none evil : we know well the 
king don Peter of Castile, who is now driven 
out of his realm, is a man of high mind, 
right cruel and full of evil conditions ; for 
by him hath been done many evil deeds in 
the realm of Castile, and hath caused many 
a valiant man to lose his head and brought 
cruelly to an end without any manner of 
reason : and so by his villain deeds and 
consent he is now deceived ^ and put out of 
his realm, and also beside all this he is 
enemy to the Church and cursed by our 
holy father the pope. He is reputed, and 
hath been a great season, like a tyrant, and 
without title of reason hath always grieved 
and made war with his neighl)Ours, the 
king of Aragon and the king of Navarre, 
and would have disherited them by puis- 
sance ; and also, as the bruit runneth 
throughout his realm and by his own men, 
how he caused to die his wife your cousin, 
daughter to the duke of Bourbon. Where- 
fore, sir, ye ought to think and consider 
that all this that he now suffereth are rods 
and strokes of God sent to chastise him and 
to give ensample to all other Christian kings 
and princes to beware that they do not as 
he hath done.' With such words or 

1 The French is 'deceu' (for 'decheu'), 'fallen,' 
which the translator has confused with ' deceii ' from 
*decevoir.' 



semblable the prince was counselled, or 
king don Peter arrived at Bayonne ; but 
to these words the prince answered thus, 
saying : ' Lords, I think and believe 
certainly that ye counsel me truly to the 
best of your powers. I know well and am 
well informed of the life and state of this 
king don Peter, and know well that without 
number he hath done many evil deeds, 
whereby now he is deceived.^ But the 
cause present that moveth and giveth us 
courage to be willing to aid him,*is as I 
shall shew you. It is not convenable that 
a bastard should hold a realm in heritage, 
and put out of his own realm his brother, 
rightful inheritor to the land ; the which 
thing all kings and kings' sons should in no 
wise suffer nor consent to, for it is a great 
prejudice against the state royal : and also 
beside that, the king my father and this king 
don Peter hath a great season been allied 
together by great confederations, wherefore 
we are bound to aid him in cause that he 
require and desire us so to do.' Thus the 
prince was moved in his courage to aid and 
comfort this king don Peter in his trouble 
and besynes. Thus he answered to his 
council, and they could not remove him 
out of that purpose, for his mind was ever 
more and more firmly set on that matter. 

And when king don Peter of Castile was 
come to the prince, to the city of Bordeaux, 
he humbled himself right sweetly to the 
prince, and offered to him great gifts and 
profit, in saying that he would make 
Edward his eldest son king of Galice, and 
that he would depart to him and to his men 
great good and riches, the which he had 
left behind him in the realm of Castile, 
because he durst not bring it with him ; but 
this riches was in so sure keeping that none 
knew where it was but himself: to the 
which words the knights gave good intent, 
for Englishmen and Gascons naturally are 
covetous. Then the prince was counselled 
to assemble all the barons of the duchy of 
Acquitaine, and his special council : and 
so there was at Bordeaux a great council, 
and there the king don Peter shewed openly 
how he would maintain himself and how he 
would satisfy every man, if the prince would 
take on him to bring him again into his 
country. Then there were letters written 
and messengers sent forth, and lords and 
knights sent for all about, as the ear/ 



i6o 



THE CHRONICLES OF FRO I SS ART 



of Armagnac, the earl of Comminges, the 
lord d'Albret, the earl of Caraman/ the 
captal of Buch, the lord of Terride, the 
viscount of Castelbon, the lord of Lescun, 
the lord of Rauzan, the lord of Lesparre, 
the lord of Caumont, the lord of Mussidan, 
the lord of Curton, the lord of Puycornet 
and all the other barons and knights of 
Gascoyne and of Beam ; and also the earl 
of Foix was desired to come thither, but he 
would not, but excused himself because he 
had a disease in his leg and might not ride, 
but he sent thither his counsel. 

To this parliament thus holden in the 
city of Bordeaux came all the earls, vis- 
counts, barons and wise men of Acquitaine, 
of Saintonge, Poitou, Quercy, Limousin 
and of Gascoyne : and when they were all 
come, they went to council three days on 
the state and ordinance for this king don 
Peter of Spain, who was always there 
present in the council with the prince his 
cousin, reasoning always to fortify his 
quarrel and business. Finally the prince 
was counselled that he should send sufficient 
messengers to the king his father into Eng- 
land, to know his counsel what he should 
do in that case ; and his pleasure and 
answer once known, then all the lords said 
they would take counsel together, and so 
make the prince such an answer that of 
reason he should be well content. Then 
there were chosen and named four knights 
of the prince's, that should go into England 
to the king, that is to say, sir Delaware, 
sir Niel Loring, sir John and sir Elie of 
Pommiers. 

Thus then departed and brake up this 
council, and every man went home to their 
own houses ; and king don Peter tarried 
still at Bordeaux with the prince and 
princess, who did him much honour and 
made him great feast and cheer. And then 
the foresaid four knights departed, who 
were appointed to go into England, and 
they took shipping and sped so well in 
their journey by the help of God and the 
wind, that they arrived at Hampton, and 
there rested one day to refresh them and to 
unship their horses and carriages, and the 
second day took their horses and rode so 
long that they came to the city of London. 
And there they demanded where the king 

1 This the viscount of Caraman, and so he is called 
in chap. 234. 



was, and it was shewed them how he was" 
at Windsor : and thither they went, and 
were right welcome and well received both 
with the king and with the queen, as well 
because they were pertaining to the prince 
their son, as also because they were lords 
and knights of great recommendation. 
Then they delivered their letters to the 
king, and the king opened and read them ; 
and when he had a little studied, then he 
said : * Sirs, ye shall go to your lodgings, 
and I shall send to you certain lords and 
wise men of my council, and they shall 
answer you with short expedition.' This 
answer pleased well these knights, and the 
next day they returned to London, and 
within a short space after the king came to 
Westminster, and with him the most greatest 
of his council, as his son the duke of 
Lancaster, the earl of Arundel, the earl of 
Salisbury, the earl of Manny,^ sir Raynold 
Cobham, the earl Percy, the lord Nevill 
and divers other ; and prelates there were 
the bishop of Winchester, of Lincoln and 
of London. And so they kept a great 
council and a long upon the prince's letters, 
and on his request that he had made to the 
king his father. Finally it seemed to the 
king and his council a thing due and 
reasonable for the prince to take on him, to 
bring again the king of Spain into his own 
heritage, and to this they all openly agreed. 
And thereupon they wrote notable letters 
directed from the king and from the council 
of England to the prince and to all the 
barons of Acquitaine, and so with these 
letters the said messengers departed again 
to the city of Bordeaux, whereas they found 
the prince and the king don Peter, to whom 
they delivered letters from the king of 
England. 

Then was there a new day of council se 
to be had in the city of Bordeaux, a 
thither came all such as were sent fo: 
Then there was read openly in the council 
the king of England's letters, the which 
devised plainly how he would that the 
prince his son in the name of God and 
Saint George should take on him to set 
again king don Peter into his heritage, 
the which his bastard brother wrongfully 
had taken from him without reason, and 
falsely, as it appeareth, hath put him 
out thereof. Also the king's letters made 
1 ' Le sire de Mauny.' 



1 



COUNCIL AT BAYONNE, 1366 



161 



mention how he was much bound thereto 
because of certain alliances of old time 
made between him and the king of Castile 
his cousin, as to aid him, if case required, 
if he were thereto desired. "Wherefore 
he desired by his letters all his friends 
and subjects that the prince his son might 
be aided and counselled by them as well 
as though he were there present himself. 
And when the barons of Acquitaine heard 
read these letters and commandments of 
the king, and perceived the king's plea- 
sure and the prince's their lord, then they 
joyously answered and said : ' Sir, we shall 
gladly obey the king our sovereign lord's 
commandment : it is reason that we obey 
you and him, and so we will do and serve 
you in this viage, and king don Peter 
in like wise. But, sir, we would know 
who should pay us our wages, for it will 
be hard to get out men of war into a 
strange country?'^ Then the prince be- 
held king don Peter and said : ' Sir king, 
ye hear what our people say : answer you 
them, for it behoveth you to answer, seeing 
the matters be yours.' Then the king 
don Peter answered the prince and said : 
* Right dear cousin, as far as the gold, 
silver and treasure that I have brought 
hither, which is not the thirtieth part so 
much as I have left behind me, as long as 
that will endure, I shall give and part 
therewith to your people.' Then the prince 
said : * Sir, ye say well ; and as for the 
remnant, I shall become debtor to them 
and pay them as the case requireth, the 
which I shall lend you, and all that we 
need till we come into Castile.' 'Sir,' 
quoth the king don Peter, * ye do me great 
courtesy and grace.' 

And in this council there were divers 
sage men, as the earl of Armagnac, the 
lord of Pommiers, sir John Chandos, the 
captal of Buch and divers other, who con- 
sidered that the prince could not well 
make this viage without the accord and 
consent of the king of Navarre : for they 
could not enter into Spain but through his 
country and through the straits of Ronces- 
vaulx, the which passage they were not in 

1 The original gives it thus, but the sense is 
spoilt by the omission of the words ' sans estre 
payez,' which are found in the true text: 'for it will 
be hard to take men of war into a strange country 
without they be paid.' 
M 



surety to have, because the king of 
Navarre and Henry the bastard had newly 
made alliance together. So thus there was 
much communing how they might do to 
achieve their purpose : then was it deter- 
mined that there should be another day 
assigned of a council to be kept at the city 
of Bayonne, and that the prince should send 
sufficient ambassadors to the king of Na- 
varre, desiring him to be at that council in 
Bayonne. And so on this determination 
every man departed, fully concluded to be 
at Bayonne the day limited and prefixed. 
In the mean season the prince sent sir 
John Chandos and sir Thomas Felton to 
the king of Navarre, who was as then in 
the city of Pampelone. These two sage 
and well - languaged knights did so much 
that they came to the king of Navarre, 
who made faithful covenant by word and 
by writing sealed to be at the said parlia- 
ment at Bayonne, and thereon the messen- 
gers returned again to the prince and 
shewed him these tidings. 

The day assigned of this parliament there 
came to the city of Bayonne the king of 
Spain don Peter, the prince, the earl of 
Armagnac, the lord d'Albret, and all the 
barons of Gascoyne, Poitou, Quercy, Rouer- 
gue, Saintonge and Limousin. And thither 
came personally the king of Navarre, 
and the prince and king don Peter did 
him great honour, because they thought 
the better to speed with him. So thus in 
the city of Bayonne there was a great 
council, the which endured five days, and 
the prince and his council had much to do 
or they could bring the king of Navarre to 
their desire ; for he was a man not easy to 
be won, if he saw that men had any need 
of him. Howbeit, the great power of the 
prince brought him into that case, that 
finally he sware, promised and sealed to 
king cion Peter peace, love and firm alli- 
ance and confederation. And in like 
manner king don Peter did to him upon 
certain compositions that were there or- 
dained ; of the which the prince of Wales 
was a mean between them and chief de- 
viser thereof : the which was, that the king 
don Peter, as king of all Castile, gave, 
sealed and accorded to the king of Navarre 
and to his heirs for ever all the land of 
Logrono, as it lieth on both sides the 
river, and also all the land and country of 



l62 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



Sauveterre,^ with the town, castle and all 
the appurtenances, also the town of Saint 
John de Pied -de -Port and the marches 
thereabout, the which lands, towns, castles 
and seignories he had taken from him by 
force ; and also that the king of Navarre 
should have twenty thousand franks for the 
opening of his country, and to suffer pass 
peaceably all manner of men of war, and 
to minister to them victuals and purvey- 
ances for their money, of the which sum of 
florins the king don Peter became debtor 
to the king of Navarre. And when the 
barons of Acquitaine knew that this treaty 
was made and confirmed, then they de- 
sired to know who should pay them their 
wages ; and the prince, who had great affec- 
tion toward this viage, became debtor 
to them for their wages, and the king 
don Peter became debtor to the prince. 
And when all these things were ordained 
and fully confirmed, and that every man 
knew what he ought to do and what he 
should have, and that they had sojourned 
there the space of twelve days, then the 
king of Navarre departed home into his 
own country, and all other lords departed 
every man to his own, and the prince went 
to Bordeaux and the king don Peter tarried 
still at Bayonne. 

Then the prince sent his heralds into 
Spain to certain knights and captains, 
Englishmen and Gascons, favourable and 
obeisant to him, signifying them how that 
it was his pleasure that they should take 
their leaves of Henry the bastard and come 
to him, saying how he had need of them 
and was of the intent to employ and occupy 
them otherwise. And when these heralds 
had brought these letters into Castile to 
these knights from the prince, and that 
they perceived the prince's pleasure, then 
they took their leave of king Henry as 
soon as they could in courteous manner 
without discovering of the prince's inten- 
tion. Then this bastard king Henry, who 
was right liberal, courteous and honour- 
able, gave them licence with many great 
gifts, and thanked them greatly of their 
service. So then departed from Spain sir 
Eustace d'Aubrecicourt, sir Hugh Cal- 
verley, sir Walter Hewet, sir Matthew 
Gournay, sir John Devereux and their com- 
pany, and divers other knights and squires, 
1 Salvatierra, 



the which I cannot all name, of the prince's 
house, and they departed as shortly as they 
might. The same season the companions 
were spread abroad in the country and 
knew nothing what these said knights did : 
howbeit, when they knew it, they gathered 
together, as sir Robert Briquet, John 
Creswey, sir Robert Cheyne, sir Perducas 
d'Albret, sir Garsis du Chastel, Naudan of 
Bageran, the bourg of Lesparre, the bourg 
Camus and the bourg Breteuil. And this 
bastard king Henry knew not that the 
prince was in a mind to bring again his 
brother don Peter into Castile, so soon as 
these knights did : for if he had known it, 
they should not have departed so soon as 
they did ; for he might well have letted 
them, if he had known it. So these 
knights departed, and as soon as king 
Henry knew thereof, he made no great 
semblant of it, but said to sir Bertram of 
GuescHn, who was still about him : * Sir 
Bertram, behold the prince of Wales ; it is 
shewed us that he will make us war and 
bring again that Jew who calleth himself 
king of Spain by force into this our realm. 
Sir, what say you thereto?' Sir Bertram 
answered and said : ' Sir, he is so valiant 
a knight, that if he take on him the enter- 
prise, he will do his power to achieve it, if 
he may. Therefore, sir, I say to you, 
cause your passages and straits on all sides 
to be well kept, so that none may pass nor 
enter into your realm but by your licence : 
and, sir, keep your people in love : I know 
certainly ye shall have in France many 
knights and great aid, the which gladly will 
serve you. Sir, by your licence I will return 
thither ; and in the mean time keep your 
people in love, and I know well I shall 
find in France many friends, and, sir, I 
shall get you as many as I can. ' ' By my 
faith,' quoth king Henry, *ye say well, 
and I shall order all the remnant according 
to your will.' And so within a little space 
after sir Bertram departed and went into 
Aragon, where the king received him joy- 
ously ; and there he tarried a fifteen days 
and then departed and went to Mont- 
pellier, and there found the duke of Anjou, 
who also received him joyously, as he 
whom he loved right entirely: and when 
he had been there a season, he departed 
and went into France to the king, who 
received him with great joy. 



THE COMPANIES QUIT SPAIN 



163 



CHAPTER CCXXXII 

How that king Henry allied him to the king 
of Aragon, and of the men that the prince 
sent for, and how the prince was coun- 
selled to pursue his war, and of the lord 
dAlbret, who discomfited the seneschal of 
Toulouse. 

SUMMARY. — The men of the companies, 
who wished to leave Castile and come into 
Acquitaine, zvere barred from the passes by 
the king of Aragon. Finally sir John 
Chandos obtained them a passage from the 
earl of Foix. The prince of Wales collected 
great sums of money frojn England and 
elsewhere to maintain men of tvar, and the 
lord d'Albret promised to serve him with a 
thousand spears. Meanwhile one division 
of the companies passed by Toulouse to 
Montauban, and the seneschal of Toulouse 
xvith the earl of Narbonne endeavoured to 
stop them. A battle was fought at Mont- 
auban, in which finally the French were 
defeated, and the seneschal of Toulouse, the 
earl of Narbonne, the seneschal of Carcas- 
sonne and many other knights were taken 
prisoners. 



CHAPTER CCXXXni 

How these companions let their prisoners 
depart on their faiths, but the pope de- 
fended them to pay any ransom ; and of 
the words that the king of Mallorca had 
to the prince, and of the departing of the 
prince to go into Spain. 

After the discomfiture and taking of 
the said prisoners, the said sir Perducas 
d'Albret, sir Robert Cheyne, sir John Trivet, 
the bourg of Breteuil, Naudan of Bageran 
and their company parted their booty and 
all their winning, whereof they had great 
plenty, and all such as had any prisoners 
kept them still to their own profit, other to 
ransom or to quit them at their pleasure. 
And they ransomed their prisoners right 
courteously, every man after his degree, 
the more courteously because this adven- 
ture came to them so fortunately by valiant- 
ness of deeds of arms ; and such as were 
let go on their faith and promise had days 



limited to them to bring their ransoms to 
Bordeaux or to other places, whereas they 
were appointed. So the prisoners departed 
and went home into their own countries, 
and these companions went to the prince, 
who received them right joyously and sent 
them to lodge and to abide in the marches 
of Basque among the mountains. 

I shall shew you what befell of this 
matter and of the earl of Narbonne, the 
seneschal of Toulouse and other, who were 
put to ransom and had promised on their 
faiths to pay it. In the same season there 
was at Rome pope Urban the fifth, who 
entirely hated these manner of people of 
companions and had long time before 
cursed them because of the villain deeds 
that they had done. So that when he was 
informed of this said journey, and how the 
earl of Narbonne and other were over- 
thrown, he was sore displeased therewith, 
and suffered till he heard how they were 
put to their ransom and come home into 
their own countries and out of their 
enemies' hands. Then he sent to each of 
them and by express words defended them 
in any wise to pay any ransom, and assoiled 
them of their promise. Thus these knightis 
and lords were quitted of their ransom, 
such as had been taken at Montauban, for 
they durst not trespass the pope's com- 
mandment : the which happed well for these 
lords, knights and squires, but it fortuned 
evil for the companions, who abode and 
looked ever for their money, trusting to 
have had it to [have] arrayed and apr 
parelled them like men of war, and so they 
made great preparation on trust thereof, 
whereof they were deceived. So this 
ordinance of the pope was right contagious 
to them, and they complained oftentimes 
thereof to sir John Chandos, who was con- 
stable of Acquitaine and had the oversight 
by right of arms in such matters : howbeit, 
he dissimuled with them as well as he 
might, because he knew well the pope 
had cursed them and how that all their 
deeds turned to pilling and robbery ; and 
as far as ever I could hear, they had never 
other remedy in that matter. 

Now let us speak of the prince of Wales 
and approach to his viage and shew how he 
persevered. First, as it hath been shewed 
here before, he did so much that he had 
all the companions of his accord, who were 



164 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 




to the number of twelve thousand fighting 
men, and greatly it was to his cost to 
retain them. And after he had them, he 
sustained and bare their charges, or they 
departed out of the principality, from the 
beginning of Augus't to the beginning of 
February ; and beside that the prince re- 
ceived and retained all manner of men of 
war, wheresoever he could get them. And 
also the foresaid king Henry retained men 
of war in every part out of the realm of 
France and other places, and they came to 
serve him because of the alliances that 
were between the French king and him ; 
and also he had with him retained some 
of the companions Bretons, such as were 
favourable to sir Bertram of Guesclin, as 
sir Silvester Bude, Alain of Saint-Pol, Wil- 
liam of Breuil, and Alain of Laconet, all 
these were captains of those companions. 
And the prince might have had also with him 
many strangers men of war, as Flemings, 
Almains and Brabances, if he had list ; 
but he sent home again many of them, 
for he had rather have had of his own 
subjects of the principality than strangers. 
Also there came to him a great aid out of 
England ; for when the king of England 
his father knew that this viage went for- 
ward, then he gave licence to one of his 
sons, duke John of Lancaster, to go to the 
prince of Wales his brother with a great 
number of men of war, as four hundred 
men of arms and four hundred archers. 
And when the prince knew of his brother's 
coming, he was thereof right joyous. 

In the same season came to the prince to 
Bordeaux James king of Mallorca, so he 
called himself, but he had in possession 
nothing of the realm, for the king of Aragon 
kept it from him by force and had slain in 
prison the king of Mallorca in a city called 
Barcelone. Therefore this young king 
James, to revenge the death of his father 
and to recover his heritage, was fled out of 
his own realm to the prince ; and he had 
married the queen of Naples. The prince 
made him great cheer and greatly comforted 
him ; and when the king had shewed the 
prince all the reasons and occasions of his 
coming, and perceived the wrong that the 
king of Aragon had done to him, as in 
keeping from him his inheritance, and also 
slain his father, then the prince said : ' Sir 
king, I promise you faithfully that after my 



return out of Spain I shall intend to set 
you again into your heritage other by 
treaty or, by force.' This promise pleased 
greatly the king, and so he tarried still with 
the prince in Bordeaux abiding his depart- 
ing as other did. And the prince, to do 
him more honour, caused to be delivered to 
him all that was for him necessary, because 
he was a stranger and of a far country, and 
had not there of his own after his appetite. 
And daily there came great complaints to 
the prince of the companions, how they 
did nmch hurt to men and women of the 
country where they lay, so that the people 
of that marches would gladly that the prince 
should advance forth in his viage, to the 
which the prince was right desirous. How- 
beit, he was counselled that he should suffer 
the feast of Christmas first to pass, to the 
intent that they might have winter at their 
backs ; to the which counsel the prince 
inclined, and somewhat because the princess 
his wife was great with child, who took much 
thought for his departing ; wherefore the 
prince would gladly see her delivered or he 
departed, and she on her part was gladder 
to have him abide. 

All this mean season there was great 
provision made for this viage, because they 
should enter into a realm where they should 
find but small provision ; and while they 
thus sojourned at Bordeaux, and that all the 
country was full of men of war, the prince 
kept oftentimes great council 4 and among 
other things, as I was informed, the lord 
d'Albret was countermanded with his thou- 
sand spears, and a letter was sent to him 
from the prince containing thus : ' Sir 
d'Albret, sith it is so that we have taken 
on us by our voluntary will this viage, the 
which we intend shortly to proceed, con- 
sidering our great business, charges and 
diseases that we have, as well by strangers, 
such as entered into our service, as by great 
number of the companions, the which 
number is so great that we will not leave 
them behind us for perils that may ensue, 
and also to see how the land may be kept 
in mine absence, for all may not go nor yet 
all abide behind ; therefore it is ordained 
by us and by our council that in this viage 
ye shall serve us but with two hundred 
spears, and discharge you of the residue 
and let them do what them list : and thus 
God keep you. From Bordeaux the seventh 



PREPARATIONS FOR THE EXPEDITION 



165 



day of December.' These letters, sealed 
with the prince's great seal, were sent to 
the lord d'Albret, who was in his own 
country right busy to prepare him toward 
this viage, for it was said that the prince 
should depart shortly. When he saw the 
prince's letters, he opened them and read 
them two times over, the better to under- 
stand them, for he had great marvel of that 
he had found written in them, and was in 
his mind marvellously displeased, and said : 

* How is it that my lord the prince japeth 
and mockeththus with me, sith he would that 
I should give leave to depart eight hundred 
spears, knights and squires, whom by his 
commandment I have retained and have let 
them of their profit divers other ways.' 
And incontinent in that displeasure he 
called for his clerk and caused him to write 
a letter to the prince in this manner : 'Dear 
sir, I am greatly marvelled of the letters ye 
have sent me ; and, sir, I cannot well find 
nor take counsel how I ought or can answer 
you in that behalf, for it turneth to my great 
prejudice and blame, and to all my company, 
whom I have by your own ordinance and 
commandment retained, and they are all 
ready apparelled to do you service, and I 
have letted them of taking their profit 
in other places, whereas they might have 
had it ; for some of them were determined 
to have gone over the sea into Pruce, to 
Constantine, and to Jerusalem, as all knights 
and squires doth, to advance themselves. 
Sir, they have great marvel and are sore 
displeased that they should thus be put out, 
and in like wise I have great marvel thereof 
and in what manner I have deserved it. 
Dear sir, please it you to know, I cannot 
assure you of any of them divided from 
their company. I am the least and worst 
of them all : if any depart, I am in surety 
they will all depart. God keep you in his 
safe-guard. Written, ' etc. When the prince 
heard this answer, he took it of great 
presumption, and so did divers knights of 
England that were there of his council. 
Then the prince shook his head and said 
in English, as I was informed, for I was 
then in Bordeaux : ' Ah,' said the prince, 

* the lord d'Albret is a great master in my 
country, when he will break the ordinance 
that is devised by my council. By God it 
shall not go as he weeneth. Let him abide, 
an he will, for without his thousand spears 



I trust to God I shall furnish my viage.' 
Then certain knights of England that were 
there said : * Sir, ye know full little the 
minds of these Gascons, nor how proud 
they be, nor they love us but little nor never 
did. Sir, remember ye not how highly and 
greatly they bare themselves against you in 
the city of Bordeaux, when that king John 
of France was first brought thither ? They 
said then and maintained plainly that by 
them all only ye attained to achieve that 
viage in taking of the king. And that 
right well appeared ; for ye were in great 
treaty with them the space of four months, 
or they would consent that the French king 
should be carried into England. First it 
behoved you to satisfy their minds, to keep 
them in love.' And at those words the 
prince held his peace, howbeit his thought 
was never the less. This was the first 
occasion of the hatred that was after be- 
tween the prince and the lord d'Albret. 
Thus the lord d'Albret was in great peril ; 
for the prince was high and of great courage 
and cruel in his heart, for he would other 
by right or wrong that every lord under his 
commandment should hold of him. But 
the earl of Armagnac, uncle to the said lord 
d'Albret, when he heard of this displeasure 
between the prince and the lord d'Albret 
his nephew, then he came to Bordeaux to 
the prince, and sir John Chandos and sir 
Thomas Felton with him, by whose counsel 
the prince was much ordered : and so by 
their good means the prince's displeasure 
was appeased, so that the lord d'Albret 
should bring no more but two hundred 
spears ; with the which he was nothing 
joyous, nor yet his people, nor never after 
he loved so entirely the prince as he did 
before. Howbeit there was no remedy but 
to bear and pass over his trouble as well as 
he might. 

Thus, while the prince was making of his 
provision and abiding the coming of his 
brother the duke of Lancaster, the princess 
travailed, and through the grace of God she 
was delivered of a fair son on the day of 
the three kings of Cologne, the which was, 
as that year went, on a Wednesday, at the 
hour of three or thereabout. Whereof the 
prince and all his people were right joyous ; 
and the Friday after he was christened at 
noon in the church of Saint Andrew in the 
city of Bordeaux. The archbishop of the 



i66 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



same place christened him, and the bishop 
of Agen in Agenois and the king of 
Mallorca were his godfathers. And this 
child had to name Richard, who was after- 
ward king of England, as ye shall hear in 
this history. 

The Sunday after, the hour of prime, 
departed from Bordeaux the prince with 
great triumph, and all other men of war. 
Howbeit the most part of his host were 
passed on before and lay about the city of 
Ast in Gascoyne, and the prince the same 
Sunday at night came to the same city and 
there tarried a three days ; for then it was 
shewed him that the duke of Lancaster his 
brother was coming and had passed the sea 
a five days before and was arrived in 
Bretayne at Saint Matthew's of Fine-Pos- 
terne,^ and so was come to Nantes, where 
the duke of Bretayne greatly feasted him. 
Then the duke of Lancaster passed through 
Poitou and Saintonge and came to Blaye, 
and there passed the river of Gironde and 
so came to Bordeaux and went to the abbey 
of Saint Andrew, where the princess lay, 
who joyously received him, and so did all 
other ladies and damosels that were there. 
Then the duke thought to tarry there no 
longer, but took his leave of his sister the 
princess and departed with all his company, 
and rode so long that he came to the city 
of Ast, where he found the prince his 
brother. They made great joy each of 
other, for they loved together entirely : 
there was great tokens of love shewed 
between them and their company. And 
anon after the duke of Lancaster's coming 
thither came the earl of Foix and made 
great reverence and cheer to the prince and 
to his brother, and offered himself in all 
points to be at their commandment. The 
prince, who could well honour all lords 
according to their estates, honoured him 
greatly and thanked him of his coming 
thither ; and after the prince gave him the 
charge of his country in his absence, de- 
siring him to keep it well till his return. 
The earl joyously accorded to his desire, 
and then took leave and departed home into 
his country ; and the prince and the duke 

1 Saint -Matthieu -de- Fine -terre, a Benedictine 
abbey at the extremity of Brittany. From the 
Latin name, Sanctus Matthceus de Fine postremo, 
Froissart has made ' Saint-Mathieu-de-Fine-Pos- 
terne.' 



of Lancaster his brother sported them in the 
city of Ast, and all their people spread 
abroad in the country about the entry of 
the passages of Navarre ; for as then they 
were not in certain if they should pass that 
way or not, yet the king of Navarre had 
promised to open his passages : for words 
ran through the host that newly he was 
agreed with the king Henry, whereof the 
prince and his council had great marvel and 
the king don Peter was right sore displeased. 
And in this mean season, while these 
words thus ran, sir Hugh Calverley and his 
people approached to Navarre and took the 
city of Miranda and the town of the Queen's 
Bridge,^ whereof all the country was sore 
affrayed, the which tidings came to the king 
of Navarre. And when he perceived that 
these companions would enter into his land 
by force, he was sore displeased and wrote 
word thereof to the prince : and the prince 
let the matter pass briefly, because the king 
of Navarre, as he thought, kept not true 
promise with king don Peter. Then the 
prince wrote to him that he should excuse 
himself of the words that was laid on him ; 
for it was there openly said that he was 
clean turned to king Henry. And when 
the king of Navarre understood that treason 
was laid on him, then he was more angry 
than he was before. Then he sent a knight 
to the prince, called sir Martin Carra ; he 
came to the city of Ast to excuse the king 
of Navarre, and he demeaned himself so 
wisely that the prince was appeased of his 
displeasure, so that the same knight should 
return into Navarre to the king his master, 
causing him to come to Saint -John's de 
Pied-de-Port,2 and the prince to take coun- 
sel if he should go and speak with him, or 
else to send sufficient messengers to him. 
Thus this sir Martin Carra departed from 
the prince and returned into Navarre to the 
king, and shewed him how he had sped 
and in what condition he had found the 
prince and his council, and also on what 
condition he was departed from them. 
This knight did so much that he brought 
the king of Navarre to Saint-John's, and 
then he went to the city of Ast to the 
prince. And when the prince knew that 
the king of Navarre was at Saint-John's de 
Pied-de-Port, then he determined to send 



1 Puente-la-reyna. 
2 Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port. 



I 



THE PASSAGE OF THE MOUNTAINS, 1367 



167 



to him the duke of Lancaster his brother 
and sir John Chandos ; and so these two 
lords with a small company rode to the town 
of Saint-John's with this said knight, and 
there the king of Navarre received them 
right joyously, and there had long counsel 
together. Finally it was accorded that the 
king of Navarre should approach nearer to 
the prince to a certain place called Peyre- 
horade, and thither the prince and king don 
Peter should come to speak with him and 
there to renew all their covenants and there 
each of them to know what they should 
have. All that the king of Navarre did 
before was to the intent to be the better 
assured of their promises than he thought 
himself he was : for he doubted that if the 
companions were entered into his country, 
and this treaty and accord between them 
not sealed, then he feared he should not 
have that he desired, when he would. 

On this treaty returned the duke of 
Lancaster and sir John Chandos, and re- 
counted to the prince and to king don 
Peter how they had sped ; the which pleased 
them right well, and so kept their day and 
came to the place assigned, and also the 
king of Navarre and the most special of his 
council. And there were these three lords, 
the king don Peter, the prince of Wales and 
the duke of Lancaster on the one party, and 
the king of Navarre on the other party, 
long communing together ; and there it was 
devised and accorded what every man should 
have, and there was renewed the treaty among 
them. And there the king of Navarre 
knew the certainty what he should have of 
the realm of Castile, and king don Peter 
and he sware good love, peace and con- 
federation between them and departed 
amiably asunder ; and then their host 
might pass when it pleased them, for the 
passages and straits were opened and 
victuals apparelled through all the realm of 
Navarre for their money. 

Then the king of Navarre went to the 
city of Pampelone, and the prince and his 
brother and king don Peter went to the city 
of Ast. And as then there were divers 
knights and lords of Poitou, of Bretayne 
and of Gascoyne not come to the prince's 
host, but tarried behind ; for as it hath been 
said before it was not fully known whether 
the prince should have passage or not, till 
the end of this treaty was concluded ; and 



specially in France it was supposed that he 
should not pass that way, but rather that 
the king of Navarre should have broken 
his viage, the which fell contrary. And 
when these knights and squires knew the 
certainty thereof and perceived that the 
passages were opened, then they advanced 
themselves as fast as they might, for they 
knew well that the prince would pass shortly 
and not return again without battle. 
Thither came the lord Clisson with a fair 
company of men of arms, and at last came 
with an evil will the lord d'Albret with two 
hundred spears, and all that viage he kept 
company with the captal of Buch. And all 
this matter and confederations knowledge 
thereof was had in France, for always there 
were messengers coming and going, report- 
ing alway that they knew or heard. And 
when sir Bertram of Guesclin, who was 
with the duke of Anjou, knew how the 
prince was passed and how the passages of 
Navarre were opened to them, then he en- 
forced his summons and thought surely the 
matter should not be ended without battle. 
Then he took his way toward Aragon to 
come to king Henry as fast as he might, 
and all manner of people followed him, 
such as were commanded, and divers other 
of the realm of France and other places, 
such as thought to advance themselves to 
get honour. 



CHAPTER CCXXXIV 

Of the passage of the prince, and how he 
passed, and all his company. 

Between Saint-John's de Pied-de-Port and 
the city of Pampelone under the mountains 
there are straits and perilous passages, for 
there is a hundred places on the same pas- 
sages that a hundred men may keep a 
passage against all the world. Also it was 
at the same season very cold, for it was 
about the month of February when they 
passed. But or they passed, they took 
wise counsel how and by what means they 
should pass ; for it was shewed them plainly 
that they could not pass all at once, and 
therefore they ordained that they should 
pass in three battles three sundry days, as 
the Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday ; the 
Monday the vaward, whereof was captain 
the duke of Lancaster, and in his company 



1 68 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 




the constable of Acquitaine sir John Chan- 
dos, who had twelve hundred pennons of 
his arms, the field silver, a sharp pile gules, 
and with him was the two marshals of 
Acquitaine, as sir Guichard d'Angle and sir 
Stephen Cosington, and with them was the 
pennon of Saint George. There was also sir 
William Beauchamp, son to the earl of 
Warwick, sir Hugh Hastings, and the lord 
Nevill, who served sir John Chandos with 
thirty spears in that viage at his own charge 
because of the taking of the battle of 
Auray ; ^ and also there was the lord 
d'Aubeterre, sir Garsis of the Castle, sir 
Richard of Tanton, sir Robert Cheyne, sir 
Robert Briquet, John Creswey, Amery of 
the Rochechouart, Gaillard of la Motte, 
William of Clifton, Willekos the Butler and 
Penneriel. All these were there with their 
pennons under sir John Chandos' rule : 
they were to the number of ten thousand 
horses, and all these passed the Monday, 
as is before said. 

The Tuesday passed the prince of Wales 
and king don Peter, and also the king of 
Navarre, who was come again to the prince 
to bear him company and to ensign him the 
ready passage. And with the prince there 
was sir Louis of Harcourt, the viscount of 
Chatelleraut, the viscount of Rochechouart, 
the lord of Partenay, the lord of Poyane, 
the lord of Tannay - Bouton, and all the 
Poitevins, sir Thomas Felton, great seneschal 
of Acquitaine, sir William his brother, sir 
Eustace d'Aubrecicourt, the seneschal of 
Saintonge, the seneschal of Rochelle, the 
seneschal of Quercy, the seneschal of 
Limousin, the seneschal of Agenois, the 
seneschal of Bigorre, sir Richard of Pont- 
chardon, sir Niel Loring, sir d'Aghorisses, 
sir Thomas Banaster, sir Louis of Melval, 
sir Raymond of Mareuil, the lord of Pierre- 
bufifiere, and to the number of four thousand 
men of arms, and they were a ten thousand 
horses. The same Tuesday they had evil 
passage because of wind and snow : how- 
beit they passed forth and lodged in the 
county of Pampelone, and the king of 
Navarre brought the prince and the king 
don Peter into the city of Pampelone to 
supper and made them great cheer. 

1 That is, in quittance of his ransom, because 
made prisoner at Auray ; but it was not the lord de 
Neufville of whom this should be said, but the lord 
de Retz, whose name has dropped out. 



The Wednesday passed the king James ^^ 
of Mallorca and the earl of Armagnac, the^f 
earl d'Albret his nephew, sir Bernard^H 
d'Albret, lord of Geronde, the earl of ' 
Perigord, the viscount of Caraman, the 
earl of Comminges, the captal of Buch, the 
lord of Clisson, the three brethren of 
Pommiers, sir John, sir Elie and sir 
Aymenion, the lord of Caumont, the lord 
of Mussidan, sir Robert Knolles, the lord 
Lesparre, the lord of Condom, the lord of 
Rauzan, sir Petiton of Curton, sir Aymery 
of Tastes, the lord de la Barthe, sir Bertram 
of Tastes, the lord of Puycornet, sir Thomas 
of Winstanley, sir Perducas d'Albret, the 
bourg of Breteuil, Naudan of Bageran, 
Bernard de la Salle, Ortingo, I'Amit and 
all the other of the companions, and they 
were a ten thousand horse. They had more 
easy passage than those that passed the 
day before ; and so all the whole host 
lodged in the county of Pampelone, abiding 
each other, refreshing them and their 
horses. 

They lay still thus about Pampelone the 
space of three days, because they found the 
country plentiful both in flesh, bread, wine 
and all other purveyances for them and for 
their horses. Howbeit these companions 
paid not for everything, as was demanded 
of them, nor they could not abstain from 
robbing and pilling that they could get ; so 
that about Pampelone and in the way they 
did much trouble and hurt, wherewith the 
king of Navarre was right sore displeased, 
but he could not as then amend it : but he 
repented him oftentimes that he had opened 
his passages to the prince and to his com- 
pany, for he perceived well how he had 
thereby more hurt than profit. Howbeit the 
season was not then for him to say all that 
he thought, for he saw well and considered 
that he was not as then master of his own 
country. So he had daily great complaints 
made to him of one and other of his country, 
wherewith his heart was sore constrained 
for displeasure, but he could not remedy 
it. Howbeit he caused some of his council, 
such as knew well these companions and 
had been in their company in France, in 
Normandy and in divers other places, to 
desire them to abstain themselves from 
robbing and pilling the country as they did ; 
to whom they promised so to do. 



I 



PREPARATIONS OF KING HENRY 



169 



I 



CHAPTER CCXXXV 

Of the great summons that king Henry 
made, and how he sent to the prince to 
summon him to fight, and how sir Oliver 
of Manny took the king of Navarre 
prisoner. 

King Henry of Spain was well informed 
of the prince's passage, for he had his 
messengers and spies daily coming and 
going : therefore he provided for men of 
arms and commons of the realm of Castile 
to the intent to resist the prince and his 
brother don Peter, and daily he tarried for 
the coming of sir Bertram of Guesclin with 
great succours out of France. And he had 
sent a special commandment throughout 
all his realm to all his subjects on pain of 
their lives, goods and lands, that every 
man according to his estate other afoot or 
a-horseback to come to him to aid and 
defend his realm ; and this king Henry 
was well beloved, and also they of Castile 
had before much pain and trouble to aid 
to make him king, therefore they obeyed 
to him the rather ; and so daily they resorted 
to him to Saint Dominic ^ to the number of 
threescore thousand men afoot and a-horse- 
back, all ready to do his commandment 
and pleasure, and to live and die with him, 
if need require. 

And when this king Henry heard certain 
word how the prince with all his host was 
in the realm of Navarre and had passed 
the straits of Roncesvaulx, then he knew 
well there was remedy but to fight with 
the prince, of the which he made semblant 
to be right joyous, and said openly on high : 
' Ah, the prince of Wales is a valiant knight, 
and because he shall know that this is my 
right and that I abide and look to fight 
with him, I will write to him part of mine 
intent. ' Then he sent for a clerk and he 
wrote a letter thus : ' To the right puissant 
and honourable lord prince of Wales and 
Acquitaine. It is given us to knowledge 
that you and your people are passed the 
ports and are drawing hitherward, and how 
that ye have made accord and alliance 
with our enemy, and that your intent is to 
make war against us. We have thereof 
great marvel, for we never forfeited to you, 
1 San Domingo de la Calzada. 



nor would not do. Wherefore then are ye 
come with such a great army thus on us, 
to take from us so little an heritage as God 
hath given us? Ye have the grace and 
fortune in arms more than any prince 
now living ; wherefore we think ye glorify 
yourself in your puissance : and because 
we knew the certainty that ye seek to give 
us battle, we will that ye know that where- 
soever ye enter into Castile ye shall find us 
before you to keep and defend this our 
seignory. Written,' etc. And when this 
letter was sealed, he called to him an herald 
and said : ' Go thy way as fast as thou 
mayst to the prince of Wales, and bear 
him this letter from me.' So the herald 
departed and took the way through Navan-e 
till he found the prince. Then he kneeled 
down and delivered him the letter from 
king Henry. The prince read the letter 
a two times, the better to understand it, 
and then he sent for certain of his council 
and made the herald to depart a little 
aside. Then the prince read the letter to 
his council, demanding them advice in that 
matter ; and in the mean season the prince 
said to his council : ' Ah, I see well this 
bastard is a stout knight and full of great 
prowess, and sheweth great hardiness thus 
to write to us.' Thus the prince and his 
council were long together ; howbeit finally 
they agreed not to write again by the herald. 
Then it was shewed to him how he must 
abide a season, for the prince at his pleasure 
would write again by him and by none 
other : therefore he was commanded to 
tarry till he had his answer. Thus the 
herald tarried there still at his ease and 
pleasure. 

The same day that the herald brought 
these letters, sir Thomas Felton advanced 
himself forth and demanded of the prince a 
gift. Then the prince enquired of him 
what it was that he would desire. ' Sir,' 
quoth he, * I require you to give me licence 
to depart out of your host and to ride on 
before. There be divers knights and squires 
of my company desiring to advance them- 
selves ; and, sir, I promise you we shall 
ride so forward, that we shall know the 
behaving of our enemies and what way 
they draw and where they lodge.' The 
prince granted him with right a good will 
his request, whereof he thanked the prince 
and so departed out of the host as chief 



[70 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



captain of that enterprise ; and in his com- 
pany was sir William Felton his brother, 
sir Thomas du Fort, sir Robert KnoUes, 
sir Gaillard Vigier, sir Ralph Hastings, sir 
d'Aghorisses and divers other knights and 
squires ; and they were a seven score, and 
three hundred archers, all well horsed and 
good men of arms. And also there was sir 
Hugh Stafford, sir Richard Tanton and sir 
Simon Burley, who ought not to be for- 
gotten. These men of arms rode through 
Navarre by such guides as they had and 
came to the river of Ebro, the which is 
rude and deep ; and so they passed and 
lodged in a village called Navaret : there 
they held themselves, the better to know 
and hear where king Henry was. 

In the mean season, while these knights 
thus lodged at Navaret and the prince in 
the marches of Pampelone, the same time 
the king of Navarre was taken prisoner, as 
he rode from one town to another, by 
the French party by sir Oliver of Mauny, 
whereof the prince and all his part had 
great marvel. And some in the prince's 
host supposed it was done by a cautel by 
his own means, because he would convey 
the prince no further nor go in his company, 
because he knew not how the matter should 
go between king Henry and king don 
Peter. Howbeit, the queen his wife was 
thereof sore dismayed and discomforted, 
and came and kneeled on her knees before 
the prince and said : ' Dear sir, for God's 
sake have mercy and intend on the deliver- 
ance of the king my husband, who is taken 
fraudulently and as yet cannot be known 
how. Therefore, sir, we desire you for 
the love of God that we may have him 
again. ' Then the prince answered : ' Cer- 
tainly, fair lady and cousin, his taking to 
us is right displeasant, and we trust to 
provide remedy for him shortly. Where- 
fore we desire you to comfort yourself; for 
this our viage once achieved, we shall 
intend to no other thing but for his deliver- 
ance.' Then the queen of Navarre re- 
turned. And there was a noble knight, 
sir Martin Carra, who undertook to guide 
the prince through the realm of Navarre, 
and did get him guides for his people : for 
otherwise they could not have kept the 
right way through the straits and perilous 
passage. So thus the prince departed from 
thence, thereas he was lodged, and he and 



his company passed through a place named 
Sarris,^ the which was right perilous to 
pass, for it was narrow and an evil way. 
There were many sore troubled for lack of 
victual, for they found but little in that 
passage till they came to Sauveterre. 

Sauveterre is a good town and is in a 
good country and a plentiful, as to the 
marches thereabout. ^ This town is at the 
utter bounds of Navarre and on the entering 
into Spain, This town held with king 
Henry. So then the prince's host spread 
abroad that country, and the companions 
advanced themselves to assail the town of 
Sauveterre and to take it by force and to 
rob and pill it, whereunto they had great 
desire because of the great riches that they 
knew was within the town, the which they 
of the country had brought thither on trust 
of the strength of the town. But they of 
the town thought not to abide that peril, 
for they knew well they could not long 
endure nor resist against so great an host. 
Therefore they came out and rendered 
themselves to king don Peter, and cried 
him mercy and presented to him the keys 
of the town. The king don Peter by 
counsel of the prince took them to mercy ; 
or else he would not have done it, for by 
his will he would have destroyed them all : 
howbeit, they were all received to mercy, 
and the prince, king don Peter and the 
king of Mallorca with the duke of Lan- 
caster entered into the town, and the earl of 
Armagnac and all other lodged thereabout 
in villages. Now let us leave the prince 
there, and somewhat speak of his men that 
were at the town of Navaret. 

The foresaid knights that were there 
greatly desired to advance their bodies ; 
for they were a five days' journey from 
their own host, whereas they departed 
from them first. And oftentimes they, 
issued out of Navaret and rode to th 
marches of their enemies, to learn what 
their enemies intended. And this kini 
Henry was lodged in the field, and at 
his host, desiring greatly to hear tidings 
of the prince, marvelling greatly that his 
herald returned not. And oftentimes his 
men rode near to Navaret to learn and to 
hear some tidings of the Englishmen, and 



d ., 

i 



1 Echarri. 

2 ' Selonch les marces voisines,' ' in comparison 
with the neighbouring regions.' 



\ 



THE PRINCE OF WALES AT NAVARETTA 



171 



the earl don Tello brother to the king don 
Henry was certainly informed that there 
were men of war in garrison in the town 
of Navaret, wherefore he thought to go 
and see them more nearer. But first on 
a day the knights of England rode out of 
Navaret in an evening so far forth, that 
they came to king Henry's lodging and 
made there a great skirmish and marvel- 
lously awoke the host and slew and took 
divers, and specially the knight that kept 
the watch was taken without recovery, and 
so returned again to Navaret without any 
damage. And the next day they sent to 
the prince an herald, who was as then at 
Sauveterre, signifying him what they had 
done and seen, and what puissance his 
enemies were of, and where they were 
lodged ; for they knew all this well by the 
information of such prisoners as they had 
taken. Of these tidings the prince was 
right joyous, in that his knights had so 
well borne themselves on the frontier of 
his enemies. 

King Henry, who was right sore dis- 
pleased that the Englishmen that lay at 
Navaret had thus escried his host, said 
how he would approach nearer to his 
enemies, and so advanced forward. And 
when sir Thomas Felton and his company 
at Navaret knew that king Henry was 
passed the water and drew forward to find 
the prince, then they determined to depart 
from Navaret and to take the fields and to 
know more certainty of the Spaniards. 
And so they did, and sent word to the 
prince how that king Henry approached 
fast, and by seeming desiring greatly to 
find him and his men. And the prince, who 
was as then at Sauveterre, when he under- 
stood that king Henry was passed the 
water and took his way to come to fight 
with him, he was right joyous, and said 
a-high that every man heard him : ' By 
my faith this bastard Henry is a valiant 
knight and a hardy, for it is sign of great 
prowess that he seeketh thus for us ; 
and sith he doth so and we in like wise 
him, by all reason we ought to meet and 
fight together. Therefore it were good 
that we departed from hence, and go for- 
ward, and to get Vittoria, or our enemies 
come there.' And so the next morning 
they departed from Sauveterre, first the 
prince and all his battle, and he did so 



much that he came before Vittoria, and 
there he found sir Thomas Felton and the 
foresaid knights, to whom he made great 
cheer and demanded them of divers things. 
And as they were devising together, their 
currours came and reported that they had 
seen the currours of their enemies, wherefore 
they knew for certain that king Henry and 
his host was not far off by reason of the 
demeaning that they had seen among the 
Spaniards. "When the prince understood 
these tidings, he caused his trumpets to 
sown and cried alarum throughout all the 
host. And when every man heard that, 
then they drew to their order and array 
and ranged them in battle ready to fight ; 
for every man knew, or he departed from 
Sauveterre, what he should do and what 
order to take, the which they did incon- 
tinent. 

There might have been seen great noble- 
ness, and banners and pennons beaten with 
arms waving in the wind. What should 
I say more? It was great nobleness to 
behold. The vaward was so well ranged 
that it was marvel to behold, whereof the 
duke of Lancaster was chief and with him 
sir John Chandos constable of Acquitaine 
with a great company, and in those battles 
there were made divers new knights. The 
duke of Lancaster in the vaward made 
new knights, as sir Ralph Camoys, sir 
Walter Urswick, sir Thomas Dammery, 
sir John Grandison and other to the 
number of twelve ; and sir John Chandos 
made divers English squires knights, as 
Gorton, Glinton, Prior, William of Faring- 
don, Amery of Rochechouart, Gaillard de 
la Motte and Robert Briquet. The prince 
made first knight don Peter king of Spain, 
sir Thomas Holland, son to his wife the 
princess, sir Hugh, sir Philip and sir Peter 
Courtenay, sir John Trivet and Nicholas 
Bond and divers other : and in like wise 
so did divers other lords in their battles. 
There were made that day three hundred 
new knights or more, and all that day they 
were still ready ranged in the battle to 
abide for their enemies, but they came no 
farther forward that day but thereas the 
currours had seen them ; for king Henry 
tarried for succours that should come to 
him out of Aragon, and specially for sir 
Bertram of Guesclin, who was coming to 
him with a four thousand fighting men, for 



172 



THE CHRONICLES OE FROISSART 



without them he thought he would not 
fight ; whereof the prince was right joyous, 
for his arearguard, wherein were six thousand 
men, was behind him a seven leagues of 
that country, whereof the prince was sore 
displeased in his heart that they tarried so 
long. Howbeit, if his enemies had come 
on forward the same day, he was fully 
determined to have received and fought 
with them. 

And in the same evening the two 
marshals, sir d'Angle and sir Stephen 
Cosington, commanded every man to draw 
to their lodging, and in the next morning 
to be ready at sowning of the trumpets, 
every man in the same order as they had 
been all that day : and so every man obeyed 
saving sir Thomas Felton and such com- 
pany as he had before. The same evening 
they departed from the prince and rode 
forward a two leagues nearer to their 
enemies, to know what they did. And 
that evening the earl don Tello, brother to 
king Henry, was with him in his lodging 
and talked together of divers deeds of arms 
and adventures : and at last he said to his 
brother : ' Sir, ye know well our enemies 
are lodged not far from us, and yet there 
is none that hath aviewed them. Sir, I 
require you give me leave that in the 
morning I may ride toward them with a 
certain number, such as hath great desire 
so to do ; and, sir, I promise you I shall 
ride so near them that we will bring you 
certain knowledge what they do.' And 
this king Henry, when he saw the desire 
of his brother, agreed thereto lightly. The 
same proper hour sir Bertram of Guesclin 
came to their host with a three thousand 
fighting men of France and of Aragon ; 
whereof the king and all his company were 
right joyous, and honourably received him 
and his company. The earl don Tello 
forgat not his purpose, but desired such to 
go as pleased him, and would gladly have 
desired sir Bertram of Guesclin and sir 
Arnold d'Audrehem, the Begue of Villaines 
and the viscount of Roquebertin of Aragon, 
but because they were so lately come to 
the host, he let them alone, and also the 
king Henry charged him in no wise to 
speak thereof. So the earl don Tello let 
it pass and took with him other of France 
and of Aragon, so that he was to the 
number of six thousand horses well appar- 



elled, and with him his brother Sancho in 
his company. 



CHAPTER CCXXXVI 

How certain of the company of the duke of 
Lancaster's were discomfited, and of the 
counsel that king Henry would not believe ; 
and of the letters that the prince wrote to 
king Henry, and of the counsel that sir 
Bertram of Guesclin gave to the answer of 
the same letters. 

SUMMARY. — In the eticounters of ad- 
vanced parties king Henry had the better 
and sir Thomas Felton and his company 
were all slain or taken. The English host set 
themselves in array on a certain hill. Sir 
Arnold d'Audrehem counselled king Henry 
to stop the passes and starve his enemies, 
but he would not take that counsel, being 
desirous to fight. 

The chapter thus continues : — 

The prince of Wales and the duke of 
Lancaster were all the said day on the 
mountain, and at night they were informed 
of their men that were thus taken and 
slain, wherewith they were sore displeased, 
but they could not amend it. Then they 
drew to their lodging, and the next morning 
the prince took counsel and determined to 
depart from thence, and so he did and 
went and lodged before Vittoria, and there 
stood in battle ready to fight, for it was 
informed the prince how that king Henry 
and his brother and their company were 
not far thence ; but they came not forward. 
The prince and his company had great lack 
of victuals and provision for themselves and 
for their horses, for they were lodged but 
in an evil country and a hard, and king 
Henry and his company lay in a good 
fruitful country. In the prince's host a loaf 
of bread was sold for a florin, every man 
glad so to give, and more an they could 
have got it ; also the time was foul and 
troublous of wind, rain and snow ; and in 
this danger and disease they w^ere six days. 
And when the prince saw that the Spaniards 
came not forward to fight, and that they 
were there in great distress, then they 
determined to go and seek for passage at 
some other place. Then they dislodged 






LETTER OF THE PRINCE OF WALES 



173 



and took the way to Navaret, and passed 
through a country called the country of the 
Gard,^ and when they were passed, then 
they came to a town called Viane. There 
the prince and the duke of Lancaster re- 
freshed them, and the earl of Armagnac 
and the other lords, a two days. Then they 
went and passed the river that departeth 
Castile and Navarre at the bridge of Log- 
rono among the gardens under the olives, 
and there they found a better country than 
they were in before ; howbeit, they had 
great default of victual. And when that 
king Henry knew that the prince and his 
people were passed the river at Logrono, 
then he departed from Saint- Vincent, where 
he had long lain, and went and lodged 
before Nazres ^ on the same river. When 
the prince heard that king Henry was 
approached, he was right joyous and said 
openly : ' By Saint George this bastard 
seemeth to be a valiant knight, sith he 
desireth so sore to find us. I trust we shall 
find each other shortly.' Then the prince 
called to him the duke of Lancaster his 
brother and divers other of his council, and 
then he wrote an answer to king Henry of 
the letter that he had sent him before, the 
tenour whereof followeth : ' Edward, by the 
grace of God prince of Wales and Acqui- 
taine, to the right honourable and renowned 
Henry earl of Trastemar, who at this 
present time calleth himself king of Castile. 
Sith it is so that ye have sent to us your 
letters by your herald, wherein were con- 
tained divers articles, making mention how 
ye would gladly know why we take to our 
friend and lover your enemy our cousin the 
king don Peter, and by what title we make 
you war and are entered with an army royal 
into Castile, we answer thereto : know ye 
for truth it is to sustain the right and to 
maintain reason, as it appertaineth to all 
kings and princes so to do, and also to 
entertain the great alliances that the king 
of England my dear father and king don 

1 La Guardia. 

2 Najara. The French text followed by the 
translator gives ' Navaret ' indiscriminately for 
Navaretta and Najara, which last is in the better 
MSS. given as Nazres. This causes great confusion 
in the narrative, for which of course the translator 
is not responsible. Where a distinction of some 
kind is necessary, as in the passage which says 
that the battle was fought between Najara and 
Navaretta, the text says ' between Navarre and 
Navaret.' 



Peter have had long together. And be- 
cause ye are renowned a right valiant 
knight, we would gladly, an we could, 
accord you and him together ; and we 
shall do so much to our cousin don Peter 
that ye shall have a great part of the realm 
of Castile, but as for the crown and heritage, 
ye must renounce. Sir, take counsel in 
this case ; and as for our entering into 
Castile we will enter thereas we think best 
at our own pleasure. Written at Logrono 
the thirtieth day of March.' 

When this letter was written, it was 
closed and sealed, and delivered to the 
same herald that brought the other and had 
tarried for an answer more than three 
weeks. Then he departed from the 
presence of the prince, and rode so long 
that he came to Nazres, among the bushes^ 
where king Henry was lodged, and drew to 
the king's lodging. And the most part of 
the great lords of the host came thither to 
hear what tidings their herald had brought. 
Then the herald kneeled down and delivered 
the king the letter from the prince. The 
king took and opened it and called to him 
sir Bertram of Guesclin and divers other 
knights of his council. There the letter 
was read and well considered. Then sir 
Bertram said to the king, ' Sir, know for 
truth ye shall have battle shortly ; I know 
so well the prince. Therefore, sir, look 
well on the matter : it is necessary that ye 
take good heed to all your business, and 
order your people and your battles. ' ' Sir 
Bertram,' quoth the king, 'be it in the 
name of <}od. The puissance of the prince 
I doubt nothing, for I have three thousand 
barded horses, the which shall be two 
wings to our battle, and I have also seven 
thousand genetours, and well twenty 
thousand men of arms of the best that can 
be found in all Castile, Galice, Portugal, 
Cordowan and Seville, and ten thousand 
good cross-bows, and threescore thousand of 
other men afoot with darts, spears, lances 
and other habiliments for the war : and all 
these have sworn not to fail me to die in 
the pain. Therefore, sir Bertram, I trust 
to have victory by the grace of God, on 
whom is my trust, and my right that I have 
in the quarrel. Therefore, lords, I desire 
you all to be of good courage.' 
1 Or, ' upon the heath- * 



174 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



CHAPTER CCXXXVII 

How the prince commanded his people to be 
ready to fight, and how king Henry 
ordained his battles ; and how they fought 
fiercely together, and of the comfort that 
king Henry did to his people. 

Thus, as ye have heard, king Henry and 
sir Bertram of Guesclin devised together of 
divers matters and left talking of the prince's 
letter : for it was king Henry's intention to 
have battle, and so intended to order his 
field and people. The earl don Tello and 
his brother sir Sancho were greatly re- 
nowned in their host for the journey that 
they had made before, as ye have heard. 
The prince the Friday the second day of 
April dislodged from Logrono and ad- 
vanced forward arranged in battle ready to 
fight, for he knew well that king Henry 
was not far thence. And so that day he 
advanced two leagues, and at three of the 
day he came before Navaret and there took 
his lodging. Then the prince sent forth 
his currours to aview his enemies and to 
know where they were lodged, and then 
they departed from the host and rode so 
forward that they saw all their enemies' 
host, who were lodged before Nazres.^ So 
they brought report thereof to the prince, 
and in the evening the prince caused secretly 
to be shewed through all the host that at 
the first sowning of the trumpets every man 
to apparel himself, and at the second to be 
armed, and at the third to leap a-horseback 
and to follow the marshals' banners with 
the pennon of Saint George, and that none 
on pain of death advance before them with- 
out he be commanded so to do. 

In like manner as the prince had done 
the same Friday in sending out his currours, 
so did king Henry on his part, to know 
where the prince was lodged. And when 
he had true report thereof, then the king 
called sir Bertram of Guesclin and took 
counsel and advice how to persevere. Then 
they caused their people to sup and after to 
go to rest, to be the more fresher, and at 
the hour of midnight to be ready apparelled 
and to draw to the field and to ordain their 

1 The translator says, 'who were also lodged 
before Navaret,' but this is part of the same con- 
fusion as was noted before. 



battles, for he knew well the next day he 
should have battle. So that night the 
Spaniards took their ease and rest, for they 
had well wherewith so to do, as plenty of 
victuals and other things ; and the English- 
men had great default, therefore they had 
great desire to fight, other to win or to 
lose all. 

After midnight the trumpets sounded in 
king Henry's host. Then every man made 
him ready. At the second blast they drew 
out of their lodgings and ordered three 
battles. The first had sir Bertram of 
Guesclin, lord Robert of Roquebertin and 
the earl Dune of Aragon ; and there were 
all the strangers, as well of France as of 
other countries, and there were two barons 
of Hainault, the lord d'Antoing and sir 
Alard lord of Briffeuil : there was also the 
Begue of Villaines, the Begue of Villiers, 
sir John of Berguettes, sir Gawain of Bail- 
leul, the Alemant of Saint-Venant, who 
was there made knight, and divers other of 
France, Aragon and Provence and of the 
marches thereabout. There was well in 
that battle four thousand knights and 
squires well armed and dressed after the 
usage of France. The second battle had 
the earl don Tello and his brother the earl 
Sancho, and in that battle with the gene- 
tours there were fifteen thousand afoot and 
a-horseback, and they drew them a little 
aback on the left hand of the first, battle. 
The third battle and the greatest of all 
governed king Henry himself; and in his 
company there were a seven thousand 
horsemen and threescore thousand afoot, 
with the cross-bows : so in all three battles 
he was a fourscore and six thousand a-horse- 
back and afoot. Then king Henry leapt 
on a strong mule after the usage of the 
country and rode from battle to battle, 
right sweetly praying every man that day 
to employ himself to defend and keep their 
honour, and so he shewed himself so cheer- 
fully that every man was joyful to behold 
him. Then he went again to his own 
battle, and by that time it was daylight, 
and then about the sun -rising he ad- 
vanced forth toward Navaret to find his 
enemies, in good order of battle ready to 
fight. 

The prince of Wales at the breaking of 
the day was ready in the field arranged in 
battle, and advanced forward in good order, 



I 



I 



I 



BATTLE OF N AJAR A, 1367 {Aprils) 



175 



for he knew well he should encounter his 
enemies. So there were none that went 
before the marshals' battles but such 
currours as were appointed : so thus the 
lords of both hosts knew by the report of 
their currours that they should shortly meet. 
So they went forward an hosting pace each 
toward other, and when the sun was rising 
up, it was a great beauty to behold the 
battles and the armours shining against the 
sun. So thus they went forward till they 
approached near together : then the prince 
and his company went over a little hill, and 
in the descending thereof they perceived 
clearly their enemies coming toward them. 
And when they were all descended down 
this mountain, then every man drew to 
their battles and kept them still and so 
rested them, and every man dressed and 
apparelled himself ready to fight. Then 
sir John Chandos brought his banner rolled 
up together to the prince, and said : * Sir, 
behold here is my banner : I require you 
display it abroad and give me leave this 
day to raise it ; for, sir, I thank God and 
you, I have land and heritage sufficient to 
maintain it withal.' Then the prince and 
king don Peter took the banner between 
their hands and spread it abroad, the which 
was of silver, a sharp pile gules, and de- 
livered it to him and said : * Sir John, 
behold here your banner. God send you 
joy and honour thereof.' Then sir John 
Chandos bare his banner to his own com- 
pany and said : ' Sirs, behold here my 
banner and yours : keep it as your own.' 
And they took it and were right joyful 
thereof, and said that by the pleasure of 
God and Saint George they would keep 
and defend it to the best of their powers ; 
and so the banner abode in the hands of a 
good English squire called William Alery, 
who bare it that day and acquitted himself 
right nobly. Then anon after, the English- 
men and Gascons alighted off their horses 
and every man drew under their own 
banner and standard in array of battle 
ready to fight. It was great joy to see and 
consider the banners and pennons and the 
noble armoury ^ that was there. 

Then the battles began a little to 
advance, and then the prince of Wales 
opened his eyen and regarded toward 
heaven, and joined his hands together and 

1 i.e. Display of arms on banners and pennons. 



said : ' Very God, Jesu Christ,^ who hath 
formed and created me, consent by your 
benign grace that I may have this day 
victory of mine enemies, as that I do is in 
a rightful quarrel, to sustain and to aid this 
king chased out of his own heritage, the 
which giveth me courage to advance my- 
self to re-establish him again into his realm.' 
And then he laid his right hand on king 
don Peter, who was by him, and said : 
' Sir king, ye shall know this day if ever 
ye shall have any part of the realm of 
Castile or not. Therefore advance banners, 
in the name of God and Saint George.' 
With those words the duke of Lancaster 
and sir John Chandos approached, and the 
duke said to sir William Beauchamp : ' Sir 
William, behold yonder our enemies. This 
day ye shall see me a good knight, or else 
to die in the quarrel.' And therewith they 
approached their enemies. 

And first the duke of Lancaster and sir 
John Chandos' battle assembled with the 
battle of sir Bertram of Guesclin and of the 
marshal sir Arnold d'Audrehem, who were 
a four thousand men of arms. So at the 
first brunt there was a sore encounter with 
spears and shields, and they were a certain 
space or any of them could get within 
other. There was many a deed of arms 
done and many a man reversed and cast to 
the earth, that never after was relieved. 
And when these two first battles were thus 
assembled, the other battles would not 
long tarry behind, but approached and 
assembled together quickly. And so the 
prince and his battle came on the earl 
Sancho's battle, and with the prince was 
king don Peter of Castile and sir Martin 
de la Carra, who represented the king of 
Navarre. And at the first meeting that 
the prince met with the earl Sancho's 
battle, the earl and his brother fled away 
without order or good array, and wist not 
why, and a two thousand spears with him. 
So this second battle was opened and anon 
discomfited, for the captal of Buch and the 
lord Clisson and their company came on 
them afoot and slew and hurt many of 
them. Then the prince's battle with king 
don Peter came and joined with the battle 
of king Henry, whereas there were three- 
score thousand men afoot and a-horseback. 

1 'Vray dieu, pere Jesu Christ,' 'Very God, 
father of Jesu Christ.' 



L 



176 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 






There the battle began to be fierce and 
cruel on all parts, for the Spaniards and 
Castilians had slings, wherewith they cast 
stones in such wise, that therewith they 
clave and brake many a bassenet and helm 
and hurt many a man and overthrew them 
to the earth ; and the archers of England 
shot fiercely and hurt [the] Spaniards 
grievously and brought them to great mis- 
chief. The one part cried, ' Castile for 
king Henry ! ' and the other part, ' Saint 
George, Guyenne ! ' And the first battle, 
as the duke of Lancaster and sir John 
Chandos and the two marshals sir Guichard 
d'Angle and sir Stephen Cosington, fought 
with sir Bertram of Guesclin and with the 
other knights of France and of Aragon. 
There was done many a deed of arms, so 
it was hard for any of them to open other's 
battle. Divers of them held their spears 
in both their hands, foining and pressing 
each at other, and some fought with short 
swords and daggers. Thus at the begin- 
ning the Frenchmen and they of Aragon 
fought valiantly, so that the good knights 
of England endured much pain. That day 
sir John Chandos was a good knight and 
did under his banner many a noble feat of 
arms. He adventured himself so far, that 
he was closed in among his enemies and so 
sore overpressed that he was felled down 
to the earth ; and on him there fell a great 
and big man of Castile called Martin Fer- 
rant, who was greatly renowned of hardi- 
ness among the Spaniards, and he did his 
intent to have slain sir John Chandos, who 
lay under him in great danger. Then sir 
John Chandos remembered of a knife that 
he had in his bosom and drew it out and 
strake this Martin so in the back and in 
the sides that he wounded him to death, 
as he lay on him. Then sir John Chandos 
turned him over and rose quickly on his 
feet, and his men were there about him, 
who had with much pain broken the press 
to come to him, whereas they saw him 
felled. 

The Saturday in the morning between 
Nazres and Navaret was the battle right 
fell and cruel, and many a man brought to 
great mischief. There was done many a 
noble deed of arms by the prince and by 
the duke of Lancaster his brother and by 
sirjohn Chandos, sir Guichard d'Angle, the 
captal of Buch, the lord of Clisson, the 



lord of Retz, sir Hugh Calverley, sir 
Matthew Gournay, sir Louis Harcourt, the 
lord of Pons, the lord of Partenay ; and of 
Gascons fought valiantly the earl of Armag- 
nac, the lord d'Albret, the lord of Pommiers 
and his brethren, the lord of Mussidan, the 
lord of Rauzan, the earl of Perigord, the 
earl of Comminges, the earl of Caraman, 
the lord of Condom, the lord Lesparre, the 
lord of Caumont, sir Bertram of Terride, 
the lord of Puy cornet, sir Bernard d'Albret, 
the lord of Geronde, sir Aymery of Tastes, 
the soudic of Latrau, sir Petiton of Curton, 
and divers other knights and squires ac- 
quitted themselves right nobly in arms to 
their powers : and under the pennon of 
Saint George and the banner of sir John 
Chandos were all the companions, to the 
number of twelve hundred pensels,^ and 
they were right hardy and valiant knights, 
as sir Robert Cheyne, sir Perducas d'Albret, 
Robert Briquet, sir Garsis of the Castle, sir 
Gaillard Vigier, sir John Creswey, Naudan 
of Bageran, Aymenion d'Artigue, Perrot of 
Savoy, the bourg Camus, the bourg Les- 
parre, the bourg Breteuil, Espiote and 
divers other. On the Prench party sir 
Bertram of Guesclin, sir Arnold d'Audre- 
hem, Sancho, sir Gomez Carillo and other 
knights of France and of Aragon fought 
right nobly to their powers. Howbeit 
they had none advantage, for these com 
panions were hardy and strong knights and 
well used and expert in arms, and 
there were great plenty of knights an 
squires of England under the banner of tb 
duke of Lancaster and of sir John Chandos. 
There was the lord William Beauchamp, 
son to the earl of Warwick, sir Ralph 
Camoys, sir Walter Urswick, sir Thomas 
Dammery, sir John Grandison, sir John 
d'Ypres,^ sir Amery of Rochechouart, sir 
Gaillard de la Motte, and more than two 
hundred knights, the which I cannot name. 
And to speak truly, the said sir Bertram 
du Guesclin and the marshal d'Audrehem, 
the Begue of Villaines, the lord d'Antoing, 
the lord of Brififeuil, sir Gawain of Bailleul, 
sir JohnofBerguettes, the Begue of Villiers, 
the Alemant of Saint-Venant, and the good 
knights and squires of France that were 

1 Pennonchiaus. 

2 The translator, following his text, says, 'sir John 
Dyper, sir Johan du Pre,' but this is two attempts 
at the same name, ' messire Jehans d'Yppre " 



d 

i 



I 






r 



BATTLE OF N AJAR A, 1367 



177 



there acquitted themselves nobly : for of 
truth, if the Spaniards had done their part 
as well as the Frenchmen did, the English- 
men and Gascons should have had much 
more to do and have suffered more pain 
than they did. The fault was not in king 
Henry that they did no better, for he had 
well admonished and desired them to have 
done their devoir valiantly, and so they had 
promised him to have done. The king bare 
himself right valiantly, and did marvels in 
arms, and with good courage comforted his 
people, as, when they were flying and 
opening, he came in among them and said : 
' Lords, I am your king : ye have made 
me king of Castile, and have sworn and 
promised that to die ye will not fail me. 
For God's sake keep your promise that ye 
have sworn, and acquit you against me, 
and I shall acquit me against you ; for I 
shall not fly one foot as long as I may see 
you do your devoir.' By these words and 
such other full of comfort king Henry 
brought his men together again three times 
the same day, and with his own hands he 
fought valiantly, so that he ought greatly 
to be honoured and renowned. 

This was a marvellous dangerous battle, 
and many a man slain and sore hurt. The 
commons of Spain according to the usage 
of their country with their slings they did 
cast stones with great violence and did 
much hurt, the which at the beginning 
troubled greatly the Englishmen : but 
when their cast was past and that they felt 
the sharp arrows hght among them, they 
could no longer keep their array. With 
king Henry in his battle were many noble 
men of arms, as well of Spain as of Lisbon, 
of Aragon and of Portugal, who acquitted 
them right nobly and gave it not up so 
lightly, for valiantly they fought with 
spears, javelins, archegayes and swords ; 
and on the wing of king Henry's battle 
there were certain well mounted, who 
always kept the battle in good order, for if 
the battle opened or brake array in any 
side, then they were ever ready to help to 
bring them again into good order. So 
these Englishmen and Gascons, or they 
had the advantage, they bought it dearly, 
and won it by noble chivalry and great 
prowess of arms : and for to say truth, 
the prince himself was the chief flower of 
chivalry of all the world, and had with him 

N 



as then right noble and valiant knights 
and squires : and a little beside the 
prince's battle was the king of Mallorca 
and his company, fighting and acquitting 
themselves right valiantly, and also there 
was the lord Martin de la Carra represent- 
ing the king of Navarre, who did right 
well his devoir. I cannot speak of all 
them that did that day right nobly ; but 
about the prince in his battle there were 
divers good knights, as well of England as 
of Gascoyne, as sir Richard Pontchardon, 
sir Thomas Spenser, sir Thomas Holland, 
sir Niel Loring, sir Hugh and sir Philip 
Courtenay, sir John Trivet, sir Nicholas 
Bond, sir Thomas Trivet, and divers other, 
as the seneschal of Saintonge, sir Baldwin 
of Freville, the seneschal of Bordeaux, of 
Rochelle, of Poitou, of Angouleme, of 
Rouergue, of Limousin and of Perigord, 
and sir Louis Melval, sir Raimond Mareuil 
and divers other. There was none that 
fained to fight valiantly, and also they had 
good cause why ; for there were of Spaniards 
and of Castile more than a hundred thou- 
sand men in harness, so that by reason of 
their great number it was long or they could 
be overcome. King don Peter was greatly 
chafed, and much desired to meet with the 
bastard his brother, and said : ' Where is 
that whoreson that calleth himself king of 
Castile?' And the same king Henry 
fought right valiantly whereas he was, and 
held his people together right marvellously, 
and said : * Ah ! ye good people, ye have 
crowned me king, therefore help and aid 
me to keep the heritage that you have 
given me.' So that by these words and 
such other as he spake that day he caused 
many to be right hardy and valiant, where- 
by they abode on the field, so that because 
of their honour they would not fly from the 
place. 

CHAPTER CCXXXVHI 

How sir Bertram of Guesclin was discomfited, 
he taken and king Henry saved himself, 
and of the Spaniards that fled, and of the 
number of the dead, and of the cities that 
yielded them up to king don Peter, and of 
the answer that he made to the prince. 

The battle that was best fought and 
longest held together was the company of 
sir Bertram of Guesclin, for there were 



178 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



many noble men of arms who fought and 
held together to their powers, and there 
was done many a noble feat of arms. 
And on the English part specially there 
was sir John Chandos, who that day did 
like a noble knight and governed and 
counselled that day the duke of Lancaster 
in like manner as he did before the prince 
at the battle of Poitiers, wherein he was 
greatly renowned and praised, the which 
was good reason ; for a valiant man and a 
good knight, acquitting himself nobly among 
lords and princes, ought greatly to be re- 
commended : for that day he took no heed 
for taking of any prisoner with his own 
hands, but always fought and went forward ; 
but there was taken by his company under 
his banner divers good knights and squires 
of Aragon and of France, and specially sir 
Bertram of Guesclin, sir Arnold d'Audre- 
hem, sir Begue of Villaines and more 
than threescore prisoners. So thus finally 
the battle of sir Bertram of Guesclin was 
discomfited, and all that were therein taken 
and slain, as well they of France as of 
Aragon. There was slain the Begue of 
Villiers, and taken the lord Antoing of 
Hainault, the lord Briff'euil, sir Gawain of 
Bailleul, sir John of Berguettes, sir Ale- 
mant of Saint -Venant and divers other. 
Then drew together these banners, the 
banner of the duke of Lancaster, of sir 
John Chandos and of the two marshals, 
and the pennon of Saint George, and went 
all together on the battle of king Henry 
and cried with a high voice, * St. George, 
Guyenne ! ' Then the Spaniards and their 
company were sore put aback. The captal 
of Buch and the lord Clisson fought vali- 
antly, and also sir Eustace d'Aubrecicourt, 
sir Hugh Calverley, sir soudic, sir John 
Devereux and other acquitted themselves 
that day right nobly. The prince shewed 
himself like a noble knight and fought 
valiantly with his enemies. On the other 
side king Henry acquitted himself right 
valiantly, and recovered and turned again 
his people that day three times. For after 
that the earl don Tello and a three thou- 
sand horsemen with him were departed 
from the field, the other began then greatly 
to be discomfited and were ever ready to 
fly after their company ; but then ever 
king Henry was before them and said, 
'Fair lords, what do you? Wherefore will 



ye thus forsake and betray me? Sith ye 
have made me king and set the crown on 
my head and put the heritage of Castile 
into my hands, return and help to keep 
and defend me, and abide with me ; for by 
the grace of God, or it be night, all shall 
be ours ' : so that these words or such-like 
encouraged his people in such wise, that it 
made them to abide longer in the field, for 
they durst not fly for shame when they saw 
their king and their lord so valiantly fight 
and speak so amiably : so that there died 
more than a thousand and five hundred 
persons, that might well have saved them- 
selves and have taken the time to their 
advantage, an the love that they had to 
their lord and king had not been. 

When the battle of the marshals were 
passed through their enemies and had dis- 
comfited the greatest number of them,^ so 
that the Spaniards could not sustain nor 
defend them any longer, but began to fly 
away in great fear without any good array 
or order toward the city of Nazres, and so 
passed by the great river,^ so that for any 
words that king Henry could say they 
would not return, and when the king saw 
the mischief and discomfiture of his people 
and that he saw no recovery, then he 
called for his horse and mounted thereon 
and put himself among them that fled ; bm 
he took not the way to Nazres, for fe 
of enclosing, but then took another 
eschewing all perils, for he knew well tba' 
if he were taken, he should die without 
mercy. Then the Englishmen and GaS' 
cons leapt a-horseback and began to ch 
the Spaniards, who fled away sore discom 
fited to the great river. And at the entr 
of the bridge of Nazres there was a hideous 
shedding of blood, and many a man slain 
and drowned ; for divers leapt into the 
water, the which was deep and hideous ; 
they thought they had as lief to be drowned 
as slain. And in this chase among other 
there were two valiant knights of Spain 
bearing on them the habit of religion, the 

1 The original is : 'When the battle of the mar- 
shals was brought to extremity (oultr^e) and dis- 
comfited, and all the great battles had been joined 
together, the Spaniards could not,' etc. The pas- 
sage is made obscure by omissions : according to 
the full text it is : ' When the battle of the marshals 
of France was brought to extremity, etc., and the 
three great battles of the English had been joined 
together, the Spaniards could not,' etc. 

2 The ' grosse riviere ' in question is the Najarilla., 






BATTLE OF N AJAR A, 1367 



179 



one called the great prior of Saint James 
and the other the great master of Cala- 
trava ; they and their company to save 
themselves entered into Nazres, and they 
were so near chased at their back by Eng- 
lishmen and Gascons, that they ^ won the 
bridge, so that there was a great slaughter ; 
and the Englishmen entered into the city 
after their enemies, who were entered into 
a strong house of stone. Howbeit, incon- 
tinent it was won by force, and the knights 
taken and many of their men slain and all 
the city overrun and pilled, the which was 
greatly to the Englishmen's profit. Also 
they won king Henry's lodging, wherein 
they found great riches of vessel and jewels 
of gold and silver ; for the king was come 
thither with great nobleness, so that when 
they were discomfited, they had no leisure 
for to return thither again to save that 
they had left there. So this was a hideous 
and a terrible discomfiture, and specially 
on the river side there was many a man 
slain ; and it was said, as I heard after re- 
ported of some of them that were there 
present, that one might have seen the 
water that ran by Nazres to be of the 
colour of red with the blood of men and 
horse that were there slain. This battle 
was between Nazres and Navaret in Spain 
the year of the incarnation of our Lord 
Jesu Christ a thousand three hundred 
threescore and six, the third day of April, 
the which was on a Saturday. 

After the discomfiture of the battle of 
Nazres, which was done by noon, the 
prince caused his banner to be raised up a- 
high upon a bush on a little hill, to the 
intent to draw his people thither. And so 
thither drew all those that came from the 
chase ; thither came the duke of Lan- 
caster, sir John Chandos, the lord Clisson, 
the captal of Buch, the earl of Armagnac, 
the lord d'Albret and divers other barons, 
and had raised up on high their banners to 
draw their people thither ; and ever as 
they came, they ranged them in the field. 
Also there was James king of Mallorca, 
his banner before him, whereunto his com- 
pany drew ; and a little there beside was 
sir Martin de la Carra with the banner of 
his lord the king of Navarre, with divers 
other earls and barons ; the which was a 
goodly thing to regard and behold. Then 
1 That is, the Englishmen and Gascons. 



came thither king don Peter right sore 
chafed, coming from the chase on a great 
black courser, his banner beaten with the 
arms of Castile before him ; and as soon as 
he saw the prince's banner, he alighted and 
went thither, and when the prince saw him 
coming, he went and met him and did 
him great honour. There the king don 
Peter would have kneeled down to have 
thanked the prince, but the prince made 
great haste to take him by the hand, and 
would not suffer him to kneel. Then the 
king said : * Dear and fair cousin, I ought 
to give you many thanks and praises for 
this fair journey that I have attained this 
day by your means.' Then the prince 
said : * Sir, yield thanks to God and give 
him all the praise, for the victory hath 
come by him all only and not by me.* 
Then the lords of the prince's council drew 
together and communed of divers matters, 
and so long the prince was still there, till 
all his people were returned from the 
chase. Then he ordained four knights and 
four heralds to go search the fields to know 
what people were taken and the number 
of them that were slain, and also to know 
the truth of king Henry, whom they called 
bastard, whether he were alive or dead. 
And then the prince and his lords went to 
the lodging of king Henry and of the 
Spaniards, where they were well and 
easily lodged, for it was great and large 
and well replenished of all things neces- 
sary. So then they supped that night 
in great joy, and after supper the knights 
and heralds that went to visit the field re- 
turned, and there they reported that there 
were slain of their enemies, of men of arms 
a five hundred and threescore, and of com- 
mons about a seven thousand and five 
hundred, beside them that were drowned, 
whereof the number was unknown ; and of 
their own company there was no more 
slain but four knights, whereof two were 
Gascons, the third an Almain and the 
fourth an Englishman, and of other com- 
mons not past a forty : but they shewed how 
they could not find king Henry, whereof king 
don Peter was right sorry. So this Satur- 
day at night they rested themselves and made 
good cheer, for they had well wherewith ; 
for there they found plenty of wine and 
other victuals, and so refreshed them there 
all the Sunday, the which was Palm Sunday. 



[8o 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



The Sunday in the morning, when the 
prince was up and ready apparelled, then 
he issued out of his pavilion and then came 
to him the duke of Lancaster his brother, 
the earl of Armagnac, the lord d'Albret, sir 
John Chandos, the captal of Buch, the lord 
of Pommiers, sir Guichard d'Angle, the 
king of Mallorca and a great number of other 
knights and squires ; and then anon after 
came to the prince the king don Peter, to 
whom the prince made great honour and 
reverence. Then the king don Peter said : 
' Dear and fair cousin, I pray and require 
you that ye will deliver to me the false 
traitors of this country, as my bastard brother 
Sancho and such other, and I shall cause 
them to lose their heads, for they have well 
deserved it.' 

Then the prince advised him well and 
said : * Sir king, I require you in the name 
of love and lineage that ye will grant me a 
gift and a request.' The king, who in no 
wise would deny his request, said : ' Good 
cousin, all that I have is yours : therefore 
I am content, whatsoever ye desire, to 
grant it.' Then the prince said: 'Sir, I 
require you to give pardon to all your 
people in your realm, such as hath rebelled 
against you, by the which courtesy ye shall 
abide in the better rest and peace in your 
realm, except Gomez Carillo, for of him I 
am content ye take your pleasure.' The 
king don Peter accorded to his desire, 
though it were against his will ; but he 
durst not deny the prince, he was so much 
bounden to him, and said : ' Fair cousin, I 
grant your request with a good heart.' 
Then the prisoners were sent for and the 
prince accorded them with the king their 
lord and caused him to forgive all his evil 
will to his brother the earl Sancho and to 
all other, so that they should make covenant 
and swear fealty, homage and service, to 
hold of him truly for ever and to become 
his men and to knowledge him for their 
lord and king for ever. This courtesy with 
divers other did the prince to the king, the 
which after was but smally rewarded, as ye 
shall hear after in this history. And also 
the prince shewed great courtesy to the 
barons of Spain, suchas were prisoners ; for 
if king don Peter had "taken them in his dis- 
pleasure, they had all died without mercy. 
And then sir Gomez Carillo was delivered to 
the king, whom he hated so sore, that he 



would take no ransom for him but made his 
head to be stricken off before his lodging. 

Then king don Peter mounted on his 
horse, and the earl Sancho his brother 
and all those that were become his men, 
and his marshals sir Guichard d'Angle 
and sir Stephen Cosington ■ and a five 
hundred men of arms, and they departed 
from the prince's host and rode to Burgos 
and so came thither the Monday in 
the morning. And they of Burgos, who 
were well informed how the journey of 
Nazres was achieved and how that king 
Henry was discomfited, they thought not 
to keep the town against don Peter, but 
divers of the richest of the town and of the 
most notablest issued out of the town and 
presented the keys of the city to him and 
received him to their lord, and so brought 
him and all his men into the city of Burgos 
with great joy and solemnity. And all the 
Sunday the prince abode still in the lodgings 
that they had won, and on the Monday 
after evensong he dislodged and went and 
lodged at Barbesque,^ and there tarried till 
it was Wednesday, and then they went all 
to the city of Burgos. And there the prince 
entered into the town with great reverence^ 
and with him the duke of Lancaster, the 
earl of Armagnac and divers other great 
lords, and their people made their lodgings 
without the town, for they could not all 
have been lodged within at their ease. 
And when the prince was at his lodging 
there, he gave and rendered judgments of 
arms and of all things thereto appertaining, 
and there kept field and wage of battle \ 
wherefore it might well be said that al* 
Spain was come that day in his hands an( 
under his obeisance. 

The prince of Wales and king don Pet 
held their Easter in the town of Burgos an 
there tarried a three weeks and more : and 
on Easter-day they of Asturge, of Toledo, 
of Lisbon, of Cordowan, of Galice, of 
Seville and of all the other marches and 
limitations of the realm of Castile came 
thither and made homage to king don Peter, 
and were glad to see the prince and don 
Ferrant of Castro, and so there was great 
cheer made between them. And when 
king don Peter had tarried there the term 
that I have shewed you and more, and 
saw that there were no more that rebelled 
1 Bribiesca. 



&» 

e : ' 

J 



AFTER THE BATTLE OF N AJAR A 



i8i 



against him, but every man to him obeisant, 
then the prince said to him : ' Sir king, ye 
are now, thanked be God, peaceably king of 
this your own realm without any rebellion 
or let : and, sir, I and my company tarry 
here at a great charge and expense. There- 
fore we require you to provide for money to 
pay the wages to them that hath holpen to 
bring you again into your realm and in ful- 
filling of your promise, whereunto ye have 
sworn and sealed. And, sir, the shortlier 
that ye do it, the greater thank we shall 
give you and the more shall be your profit ; 
for ye know well men of war must be paid 
to live withal, or else they will take it 
whereas they may get it. ' Then the king 
answered and said : * Cousin, we will hold, 
keep and accomplish to our power that we 
have sworn and sealed unto. But, sir, as 
for this present time we have no money ; 
wherefore we will draw us to the marches 
of Seville, and there we will so procure for 
money that we will satisfy every party. 
And, sir, ye shall abide still here in the 
Vale of Olives,^ the which is a plentiful 
country ; and, sir, we shall return again to 
you in as short time as we conveniently can 
or may, and at the farthest by Whitsuntide.' 
This answer was right pleasant to the 
prince and to his council ; and shortly after 
the king don Peter departed from the prince 
and rode toward Seville to the intent to 
get money to pay his men of war, as he had 
promised. And the prince went and lodged 
in the Vale of Olives, and all his lords and 
people spread abroad in the country, to get 
victuals more plentiful for them and for their 
horses. There thus they sojourned to a small 
profit to the country, for the companions 
could not abstain themselves from robbing 
and pilling of the country. 



CHAPTER CCXXXIX 

Of the honour that was given to the prince 
for the victory of Spain, and how king 
Henry came into France to make war on 
the prince's land, and of the answer that 
king don Peter sent to the prince, and how 
the prince departed out of Spain and came 
into France. 

Tidings spread abroad through France, 
England, Almaine and other countries how 
c 1 Valladolid, which Froissart calls Val-d'Olif. 



the prince of Wales and his puissance had 
in battle discomfited king Henry, and taken, 
slain and drowned of his men the day of the 
battle more than a hundred thousand men, 
whereby the prince was greatly renowned 
and his chivalry and high enterprise much 
praised in all places that heard thereof, and 
specially in the Empire of Almaine and in 
the realm of England ; for the Almains, 
Flemings and Englishmen said that the 
prince of Wales- was chief flower of all 
chivalry, and how that such a prince was 
well worthy to govern all the world, sith by 
his prowess he had achieved such three high 
enterprises as he had done ; first, the battle 
of Crecy in Ponthieu, the second ten year 
after at Poitiers, and the third now in Spain 
before Nazres : so in England in the city of 
London the burgesses there made great 
solemnity and triumph for that victory, as 
they anciently were wont to do for kings, 
when they had overcome their enemies. 
And in the realm of France there were 
made lamentable sorrows for the loss of the 
good knights of the realm of France, the 
which were slain at that journey, and specially 
there was made sorrow for sir Bertram of 
Guesclin and for sir Arnold d'Audrehem, 
who were taken prisoners, and divers other, 
who were kept right courteously, and some 
of them put to finance and ransom, but not 
sir Bertram of Guesclin so soon ; for sir 
John Chandos, who had the rule of him, 
would not deliver him, and also sir Bertram 
made no great suit therefor. 

Now let us somewhat speak of king 
Henry, what he did when he departed from 
the battle ; and then let us return again 
to the prince and to king don Peter of 
Castile. 

King Henry, as it is said hereafter, saved 
himself as well as he might and withdrew 
from his enemies, and led his wife and his 
children as soon as he might into the city 
of Valence in Aragon, whereas the king of 
Aragon was, who was his godfather and 
friend, and to him recounted all his adven- 
ture. And anon after, the said king Henry 
was counselled to pass further and to go to 
the duke of Anjou, who as then was at 
Montpellier, and to shew unto him all his 
adventure. This advice was pleasant to 
the king of Aragon, and consented well 
that he should go thither, because he was 
enemy to the prince, who was his near 



[82 



THE CHRONICLES OF FRO IS S ART 



ould ^1 



neighbour. So thus king Henry departed 
from the king of Aragon, and left in the 
city of Valence his wife and his children, 
and rode so long that he passed Narbonne, 
the which was the first city of the realm of 
France on that side, and after that Beziers 
and all that country, and so came to Mont- 
pellier and there found the duke of Anjou, 
who loved him entirely and greatly hated 
the Englishmen, though he made them as 
then no war. And the duke, when he was 
well informed of king Henry's business, 
received him right joyously and recomforted 
him as well as he might. And so the king 
tarried there with him a certain space, and 
then went to Avignon to see pope Urban, 
who was as then departing to go to Rome. 
And then king Henry returned again to 
Montpellier to the duke of Anjou, and had 
long treaty together. And it was shewed 
me by them that thought themselves to 
know many things, and after it was right 
well seen apparent, how that this king 
Henry did get of the duke of Anjou a castle 
near to Toulouse on the marches of the 
principality, called Roquemaure, and there 
he assembled together companions and men 
of war, as Bretons and such other as were 
not passed over into Spain with the prince, 
so that in the beginning there was a three 
hundred men of war. These tidings were 
anon brought to my lady princess, who as 
then was at Bordeaux, how that king Henry 
purchased him aid and succour on all sides 
to the intent to make war to the principality 
and to the duchy of Guyenne, wherewith she 
was greatly abashed. And because that he 
held himself in the realm of France, she 
wrote letters and sent messengers to the 
French king desiring him not to consent 
that the bastard of Spain should make her 
any manner of war, saying that her resort 
was to the court of France, certifying him 
that much evil might ensue and many 
inconvenients fall thereby. Then the king 
condescended lightly to the princess' request 
and hastily sent messengers to the bastard 
Henry, who was in the castle of Roque- 
maure on the frontiers of Montauban and 
was beginning to make war to the country 
of Acquitaine and to the prince's land, 
commanding him incontinent to avoid out 
of his realm and to make no war in the 
land of his dear nephew the prince of Wales 
and of Acquitaine ; and by cause to give 



ensample to his subjects that they should 
not be so hardy to take any part with the 
bastard Henry, he caused the young earl of 
Auxerre to be put in prison in the castle of 
Louvre in Paris, because he was too great 
and conversant with this king Henry the 
bastard, and, as it was said, he had pro- 
mised him to aid him with a great number 
of men of arms : but thus the French king 
caused him to break his voyage and purpose. 
So thus at the commandment of the French 
king king Henry obeyed, the which was 
good reason, but for all that yet he left not his 
enterprise, but so he departed from Roque- 
maure with a four hundred Bretons. And 
to him was allied such Breton knights and 
squires as folio weth : first, sir Arnold of 
Limousin, sir Geoffrey Richon, sir Yon of 
Laconet, Silvester Bude, Alyot de Tallay, 
Alain de Saint- Pol : and these men of arms 
and Bretons rode over the mountains and 
entered into Bigorre in the principality 
and there took by scaling a town called 
Bagneres, and then they fortified and re- 
paired it well and strongly, and then over- 
rode the prince's land and did great hurt 
and damage therein. Then the princess 
did send for sir James Audley, who was 
abiding behind the prince in Acquitaine 
as chief sovereign governour to keep the 
country. Howbeit, this said king Henry 
the bastard and the Bretons did great hurt 
and damage in the country, for daily their 
power increased more and more. 

Now let us return to the prince of Wales 
and to his company who was in the Vale of 
Olives thereabout abiding the coming of 
king don Peter of Castile. 

Thus when the prince had sojourned in the 
Vale of the Olives until the feast of Saint 
John the Baptist in summer, abiding for 
the coming of king don Peter, who came 
not, nor could not hear no certain tidings 
of him, wherewith the prince was right 
sore troubled and called all his council 
together to know what was best to do in 
that behalf ; then the prince was counselled 
to send two or three knights to the king, 
to demand of him why he kept not his 
day, as he had assigned. And on this 
message was sent sir Niel Loring, sir 
Richard of Pontchardon and sir Thomas 
Banaster ; and they rode so long by their 
journeys that they came to the city of 
Seville, whereas they found king don Peter, 



I 



RETURN OF THE PRINCE FROM SPAIN, 1367 



183 



and by semblant he right joyously received 
them. These knights did their message as 
they had in charge by their lord the prince. 
Then the king answered them in excusing 
of himself and said : ' Sirs, certainly it 
greatly displeaseth us that we cannot keep 
the promise that we have made with our 
cousin the prince, the which we have often- 
times shewed unto our people here in these 
parts ; but our people excuseth themselves 
and saith how they can make no sum of 
money as long as the companions be in the 
country, for they have three or four times 
robbed our treasurers, who were coming to 
our cousin the prince with our money. 
Therefore we require you to shew our cousin 
from us, that we require him that he will 
withdraw and put out of this our realm 
these evil people of the companions, and 
that he do leave there some of his own 
knights, to whom in the name of him we 
will pay and deliver such sums of money 
as he desireth of us and as we are bound 
to pay him.' 

This was all the answer that these knights 
could have of him at that time, and so they 
departed and went again to the prince their 
lord, and then recounted to him and to his 
council all that they had heard and seen ; 
with the which answer the prince was 
much more displeased than he was before, 
for he saw well how that king don Peter 
failed of his promise and varied from reason. 

The same season that the prince thus 
abode in the Vale of Olives, whereas he 
had been more than the space of four 
months, nigh all the summer, the king of 
Mallorca fell sick sore diseased and lay sick 
in his bed. Then there was put to ransom 
sir Arnold d'Audrehem, the Begue of 
Villaines, and divers other knights and 
squires of France and of Bretayne, who 
were taken at Nazres and exchanged for 
sir Thomas Felton and for sir Richard 
Tanton and for sir Hugh Hastings and 
divers other. But sir Bertram of Guesclin 
abode still as prisoner with the prince, for 
the Englishmen counselled the prince and 
said that if he delivered sir Bertram of 
Guesclin, he would make him greater war 
than ever he had done before with the 
helping of the bastard Henry, who as 
then was in Bigorre and had taken the 
town of Bagneres, and made great war 
in that quarter. Therefore sir Bertram 



of Guesclin was not delivered at that 
time. 

When that the prince of Wales heard 
the excusations of king don Peter, then he 
was much more displeased than he was 
before, and demanded counsel in that behalf 
of his people, who desired to return home, 
for they bare with full great trouble the 
heat and the infective air of the country of 
Spain, and also the prince himself was not 
very well at ease, and therefore his people 
counselled him to return again, saying how 
king don Peter had greatly failed him to 
his blame and great dishonour. Then it 
was shewed openly that every man should 
return. And when the prince should re- 
move, he sent to the king of Mallorca sir 
Hugh Courtenay and sir John Chandos, 
shewing him how the prince would depart 
out of Spain, desiring him to take advice 
if he would depart or not, for the prince 
would be loath to leave him behind. Then 
the king of Mallorca said : * Sirs, I thank 
greatly the prince, but at this present time 
I cannot ride nor remove till it please God.' 
Then the knights said : ' Sir, will you that 
my lord the prince shall leave with you a 
certain number of men, to wait and con- 
duct you when ye be able to ride ? ' ' Nay 
surely, sir,' quoth the king, 'it shall not 
need, for I know not how long it will be 
or I be able to ride. ' And so they departed 
and returned to the prince, shewing him 
what they had done. *Well,' said the 
prince, * as it please God and him, so be it.' 

Then the prince departed and all his 
company, and went to a city called Madri- 
gal, and there he rested in the vale called 
Soria between Aragon and Spain. And 
there he tarried a month, for there were 
certain passages closed against him in the 
marches of Aragon. And it was said in 
the host that the king of Navarre, who was 
newly returned out of prison, was agreed 
with the bastard of Spain and with the 
king of Aragon to let the prince's passage ; 
but yet he did nothing, as it appeared 
after. Howbeit the prince was in doubt 
of him, because he was in his own country 
and came not to him. In this mean season 
there were sent to a certain place between 
Aragon and Spain certain persons of both 
parties and so had great communing to- 
gether divers days. Finally they so agreed ^ 
that the king of Aragon should open his 



1 84 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 




country and suffer the prince's people to 
return and pass peaceably without any let 
of any of the country, paying courteously 
for that they took. 

Then came to the prince the king of 
Navarre and sir Martin de la Carra, when 
they saw the matter go in such wise be- 
tween the king of Aragon and the prince ; 
and they made to the prince all the honour 
that they could devise and offered passage 
for him and for his dear brother the duke 
of Lancaster and for divers other knights 
of England and of Gascoyne ; but in any 
wise he would that the companions should 
take their way by some other passage and 
not through Navarre. Then the prince 
and his lords, when they saw that the way 
through Navarre was more meet and neces- 
sary for them than through Aragon, thought 
not to refuse the king of Navarre's offer, 
but so thanked him greatly. Thus the 
prince passed through the realm of Navarre, 
and the king and sir Martin de la Carra 
conveyed him till they came to the passage 
of Roncesvaulx, and so from thence they 
passed by their journeys till they came to 
the city of Bayonne, where he was received 
with great joy. And there the prince 
refreshed him four days, and then departed 
and rode to Bordeaux, where he was also 
received with great solemnity ; and my 
lady the princess met him with her young 
son Edward, who as then was of the age of 
three years. Then departed the lords and 
men of war one from another, and the lords 
of Gascoyne went home to their own houses, 
and the companions came also into the 
principality, abiding for their wages. The 
prince was much bound to them and pro- 
mised to pay them to his power, as soon as 
he had money : though king don Peter 
kept not his promise with him, yet he said 
tliey should not bear the loss thereof, sith 
they had so well served him. And king 
Henry the bastard, who was in the garrison 
of Bagneres in Bigorre, then he departed 
thence with such men of war as he had and 
went into Aragon to the king there, who 
loved him entirely and joyously received 
Kim, and there tarried all the winter and 
there made a new alliance between him 
and the king of Aragon and promised to 
iliake war against king don Peter. And 
the Bretons that were in their company, as 
sir Arnold Limousin, sir Geoffrey Richon 



and sir Yon de Laconet, rode to the passages 
of Spain and made war for king Henry. 

Now let us speak of the deliverance of 
sir Bertram of Guesclin. 

After that the prince of Wales was re- 
turned into Acquitaine and his brother the 
duke of Lancaster into England and every 
lord into his own, sir Bertram of Guesclin 
was still prisoner with the prince and with 
sir John Chandos and could not come to 
his ransom nor finance, the which was sore 
displeasant to king Henry, if he might 
have mended it : and so it fortuned after, 
as I was informed, that on a day the prince 
called to him sir Bertram of Guesclin and 
demanded of him how he did. He answered 
and said : ' Sir, it was never better with me. 
It is reason that it should so be, for I am 
in prison with the most renowned knight 
of the world. ' ' With whom is that ? ' said 
the prince. ' Sir,' quoth he, 'that is with 
sir John Chandos ; and, sir, it is said in 
the realm of France and in other places 
that ye fear me so much, that ye dare not 
let me out of prison ; the which to me is 
full great honour. ' The prince, who under- 
stood well the words of sir Bertram of 
Guesclin and perceived well how his own 
council would in no wise that he should 
deliver him unto the time that king don 
Peter had paid him all such sums as he 
was bound to do, then he said to sir 
Bertram : ' Sir, then ye think that we keep 
you for fear of your chivalry. Nay, think 
it not, for I swear by Saint George it is 
not so. Therefore pay for your ransom a . 
hundred thousand franks and ye shall be 
delivered.' Sir Bertram, who desired 
greatly to be delivered and heard on what 
point he might depart, took the prince 
with that word and said : ' Sir, in the 
name of God so be it : I will pay no less.' 
And when the prince heard him say so, he 
would then gladly have repented himself, 
and also some of his council came to him 
and said, ' Sir, ye have not done well, so 
lightly to put him to his ransom ' : and so 
they would gladly have caused the prince 
to have revoked that covenant. But the 
prince, who was a true and a noble knight, 
said : ' Sith that we have agreed thereto, 
we will not break our promise. It should 
be to us a great rebuke, shame and re- 
proach, if we should not put him to ransom, 
seeing that he is content to pay such a great 



\ 



DISCONTENT IN GASCON Y, 1368 



185' 



sum as a hundred thousand franks.' So 
after this accord sir Bertram of Guesclm 
was right busy, and studied daily how to 
get this sum for his ransom ; and did so 
much with the aid of the French king and 
of his friends and of the duke of Anjou, 
who loved him entirely, that he paid in 
less than a month a hundred thousand 
franks. And so he departed and went to 
serve the duke of Anjou with two thousand 
fighting men in Provence, whereas the duke 
lay at siege before the town of Tarascon, 
the which held of the king of Naples. 

In the same season there was a marriage 
concluded between the lord Lyon duke of 
Clarence and earl of Ulster, son to the 
king of England, and the daughter to the 
lord Galeas lord of Milan, the which young 
lady was niece to the earl of Savoy and 
daughter to the lady Blanche his sister. 
And thus the duke of Clarence accompanied 
with noble knights and squires of England 
came into France, whereas the king, the 
duke of Burgoyne, the duke of Bourbon 
and the lord of Coucy received him with 
great joy in Paris. And so he passed 
through the realm of France and came 
into Savoy, whereas the gentle earl received 
him right honourably at Chambery, and 
there he was three days, greatly feasted 
with ladies and damosels : and then he 
departed, and the earl of Savoy brought 
him to Milan. And there the duke wedded 
his niece, daughter to the lord of Milan, 
the Monday next after the feast of the Holy 
Trinity, the year of our Lord a thousand 
CCCLXVIII. 



CHAPTER CCXL 

Now let us return to the business of France. 

SUMMARY. — The companies being dis- 
missed from Acquitaine went into France, 
and did much evil. A marriage was made 
between the lady Isabel of Bourbon and the 
lord dAlbret, which greatly displeased the 
prince of Wales. 



CHAPTER CCXLI 

How the barons of Gascoyne complained to 
the French king of the prince of Wales ; 
and how king Henry returned into Spain, 



and of the alliances that king don Peter 
made, and of the counsel that sir Bertram 
of Guesclin gave to king Henry, and how 
king don Peter was discomfited. 

In the same season that these companions 
tormented thus the realm of France, the 
prince was counselled by some of his 
council to raise a fouage throughout all 
Acquitaine, and specially the bishop of 
Bade ; for the- state of the prince and 
princess was so great, that in all Christen- 
dom was none like. So to this council 
for raising of this fouage were called all 
the noble barons of Gascoyne, of Poitou, 
of Saintonge and of divers other cities and 
good towns in Acquitaine ; and at Niort, 
where this parliament was holden, there it 
was shewed specially and generally by the 
bishop of Bade, chancellor of Acquitaine, 
in the presence of the prince, how and in 
what manner this fouage should be raised, 
declaring how the prince was not in mind 
that it should endure any longer than five 
years, to run throughout his country, and 
that the raising thereof was for the intent 
to pay such money as he ought by reason 
of his journey into Spain. To the which 
ordinance were well agreed the Poitous and 
they of Saintonge, Limousin, Rouergue and 
of Rochelle, on the condition that the 
prince would keep the course of his coin 
stable seven year ; but divers of other ' 
marches of Gascoyne refused this purpose, 
as the earl of Armagnac, the lord d'Albret 
his nephew, the earl of Comminges, the 
viscount of Caraman, the lord de la Barthe, 
the lord of Terride, the lord of Puycornet 
and divers other great barons, saying how 
that in time past, when they obeyed to the 
French king, they were not then grieved 
nor oppressed with any subsidies or im- 
positions, and no more they said they 
would as then, as long as they could 
defend it, saying how their lands and 
seignories were free and except from all 
debts, and that the prince had sworn so to 
keep and maintain them. Howbeit, to 
depart peaceably from this parliament, they 
answered that they would take better advice 
and so return again, both prelates, bishops, 
abbots, barons and knights : and the prince 
nor his council could have as then none 
other answer. Thus they departed from 
the town of Niort, but it was commanded 



i86 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



them by the prince that they should return 
again thither at a day assigned. 

Thus the barons and lords of Gascoyne 
returned into their countries and agreed 
firmly together that they would not return 
again to the prince, nor suffer the fouage 
to run in the lands : then they made war 
against the prince therefor. Thus the 
country began to rebel against the prince, 
and the lord of Armagnac, the lord d' Albret, 
the lord of Comminges, the earl of Puy- 
cornet, and divers other prelates, barons, 
knights and squires of Gascoyne went into 
France and made great complaints in the 
French king's chamber, the king and his 
peers being present, of the griefs that the 
prince of Wales would do to them, saying 
how their resort ought to be to the French 
king and to draw to him as to their sove- 
reign lord. And the king, who would not 
break the peace between him and the king 
of England, began to dissemble and said : 
' Sirs, surely the jurisdiction of our heritage 
and of the crown of France we will always 
keep and augment ; but we have sworn to 
divers articles in the peace, of the which I 
remember not all. Therefore we shall 
visit and behold the tenour of the letters, 
and inasmuch as we may do we shall aid 
you, and shall be glad to agree you with 
the prince our dear nephew : for perad- 
venture he is not well counselled to put you 
or your subjects from their freedoms and 
franchises.' So with the answer that the 
king made them at that time they were 
content, and so abode still at Paris with 
the king, in purpose not to return again 
into their own countries, with the which 
the prince was nothing well content, but 
always he still persevered in the purpose of 
raising of this fouage. Sir John Chandos, 
who was one of the greatest of his council, 
was contrary to this opinion and would 
gladly that the prince would have left it : 
but when he saw that the prince would not 
leave his purpose, to the intent that he 
would bear no blame nor reproach in the 
matter, he took his leave of the prince and 
made his excuse to go into Normandy to 
visit the land of Saint-Saviour the Viscount, 
whereof he was lord, for he had not been 
there in three years before. The prince 
gave him leave, and so he departed out of 
Poitou and went to Cotentin, and tarried in 
the town of Saint - Saviour more than half 



a year. And always the prince proceeded 
on the raising of this fouage, the which if 
he had brought about should have been well 
worth every year a twelve hundred thou- 
sand franks, every fire to have paid yearly a 
frank, the rich to have borne out the poor. 

Now let us return to king Henry, who 
was all this season in the realm of Aragon, 
and let us shew how he persevered after. 

The most part of the state of the prince 
and of his business was well known with 
the kings thereabout, as with king Peter of 
Aragon and with king Henry, for they laid 
great wait to know it. They understood well 
how the barons of Gascoyne were gone to 
Paris to the French king and in a manner 
began to rebel against the prince, with the 
which they were nothing displeased, and 
specially king Henry, for then he thought 
to attain again to conquer the realm of 
Castile, the which he had lost by the means 
of the prince. And so then king Henry 
took leave of the king of Aragon and de- 
parted from the town of Valence the great ; 
and out of Aragon with him there went the 
viscount of Roquebertin and the viscount of 
Roda, and they were three thousand horse- 
men and six thousand afoot, with a certain 
Genoways that they had in wages. And 
so they rode toward Spain till they came 
to the city of Burgos, the which incontinent 
was opened and rendered up to king 
Henry, and they received him as their 
lord ; and from thence he went to the Valej 
Olive, for king Henry understood that the 
king of Mallorca was still there. Anc 
when they of the town of Vale Olive under- 
stood that they of Burgos had yielded uj 
their town to king Henry, then thej 
thought not to keep their town againstl 
him, and so yielded them to him and re- 
ceived him as their lord. As soon as the 
king was entered into the town, he de- 
manded where the king of Mallorca was, 
the which was shewed him. Then theai 
king entered into the chamber where hejl 
lay, not fully whole of his disease. Then" 
the king went to him and said : * Sir king 
of Mallorca, ye have been our enemy, and 
with a great army ye have invaded this our 
realm of Castile. Wherefore we set our 
hands on you ; therefore yield yourself as 
our prisoner, or else ye are but dead.' 
And when the king of Mallorca saw him- 
self in that case and that no defence 



r 



H^AR RENEWED IN SPAIN 



187 



would help him, he said : * Sir king, 
truly I am but dead, if that it please you ; 
and, sir, gladly I yield me unto you, but to 
none other. Therefore, sir, if your mind 
be to put me into any other man's hands, 
shew it me ; for I had rather die than to 
be put into the hands of my bitter enemy 
the king of Aragon.' * Sir,' said the king, 
' fear you not I will do you but right. If 
I did otherwise, I were to blame. Ye 
shall be my prisoner, other to acquit you 
or to ransom you at my pleasure.' Thus 
was the king of Mallorca taken by king 
Henry, and caused him to be well kept 
there ; and then he rode further to the city 
of Leon in Spain, the which incontinent 
was opened against him. 

When the town and city of Leon in 
Spain was thus rendered to king Henry, all 
the country and marches of Galice turned 
and yielded them to king Henry, and to him 
came many great lords and barons, who 
before had done homage to king don Peter ; 
for whatsoever semblant they had made to 
him before the prince, yet they loved him 
not, because of old time he had been to 
them so cruel and they were ever in fear 
that he would turn to his cruelty again, and 
king Henry was ever amiable and meek to 
them, promising to do much for them, 
therefore they all drew to him. Sir 
Bertram of Guesclin was not as then in his 
company, but he was coming with a two 
thousand fighting men, and was departed 
from the duke of Anjou, who had achieved 
his war in Provence and broken up his 
siege before Tarascon by composition, I 
cannot shew how. And with sir Bertram 
of Guesclin there were divers knights and 
squires of France, desiring to exercise the 
feat of arms ; and so they came towards 
king Henry, who as then had laid siege 
before Toledo. 

Tidings came to king don Peter how the 
country turned to his bastard brother, 
thereas he lay in the marches of Seville 
and Portugal, where he was but smally 
beloved. And when he heard thereof, he 
was sore displeased against his brother and 
against them of Castile, because they for- 
sook him, and sware a great oath that he 
would take on them so cruel a vengeance, 
that it should be ensample to all other. 
Then he sent out his commandment to such 
as he trusted would aid and serve him, but 



he sent to some such as came not to him, 
but turned to king Henry and sent their 
homages to him. And when this king don 
Peter saw that his men began to fail him, 
then he began to doubt, and took counsel 
of don Ferrant of Castro, who never failed 
him ; and he gave him counsel that he 
should get as much people together as he 
might, as well out of Granade as out of 
other places, and so in all haste to ride 
against his brother the bastard, or he did 
conquer any further in the countr}'. Then 
king don Peter sent incontinent to the king 
of Portugal, who was his cousin-german : 
also he sent to the king of Granade and of 
Bellemarine and to the king of Tremesen 
and made alliances with them three, and 
they sent him more than twenty thousand 
Saracens to help him in his war. So thus 
king don Peter did so much that, what of 
christen men and of Saracens, he had to 
the number of forty thousand men in the 
marches of Seville. And in the mean 
season, while that king Henry lay at siege, 
sir Bertram of Guesclin came to him with 
two thousand fighting men and he was 
received with great joy, for all the host was 
greatly rejoiced of his coming. 

King don Peter, who had made his 
assembly in the marches of Seville and 
thereabout, desiring greatly to fight with the 
bastard his brother, departed from Seville 
and took his journey towards Toledo to 
raise the siege there, the which was from 
him a seven days' journey. Tidings came 
to king Henry how that his brother don 
Peter approached, and in his company 
more than forty thousand men of one and 
other. - And thereupon he took counsel, to 
the which council was called the knights of 
France and of Aragon, and specially sir 
Bertram of Guesclin, by whopi the king 
was most ruled ; and his counsel was that 
king Henry should advance forth to en- 
counter his brother don Peter, and in what 
condition soever that he found him in, in- 
continent to set on and fight with him, 
saying to the king : * Sir, I hear say he 
Cometh with a great puissance, and, sir, if 
he have great leisure in his coming, it may 
turn you and us all to great displeasure ; 
and therefore, sir, if we go hastily on him, 
or he be ware, peradventure we shall find 
him and his company in that case and so 
dispurveyed, that we shall have him at 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



advantage, and so we shall discomfit him, 
I doubt not.' The counsel of sir Bertram 
of Guesclin was well heard and taken, and 
so king Henry in an evening departed from 
the host with a certain of the best knights 
and fighting men that he could choose out 
in all his host, and left the residue of his 
company in the keeping and governing of 
his brother the earl don Tello, and so rode 
forth. And he had seven spies ever coming 
and going, who ever brought him word 
what his brother don Peter did and all his 
host. And king don Peter knew nothing 
how his brother came so hastily toward him, 
wherefore he and his company rode the 
more at large without any good order ; and 
so in a morning king Henry and his people 
met and encountered his brother king don 
Peter, who had lien that night in a castle 
thereby called Montiel, and was there well 
received and had good cheer, and was 
departed thence the same morning, weening 
full little to have been fought withal as that 
day. And so suddenly on him with banners 
displayed there came his brother king Henry 
and his brother Sancho and sir Bertram of 
Guesclin, by whom the king and all his 
host was greatly ruled. And also with 
them there was the Begue of Villaines, the 
lord of Roquebertin, the viscount of Roda 
and their companies. They were a six 
thousand fighting men and they rode all 
close together and so ran and encountered 
their enemies crying, ' Castile for king 
Henry ! ' and ' Our Lady of Guesclin ! ' and 
so they discomfited and put aback the first 
brunt. There were many slain and cast to 
the earth, there were none taken to ransom, 
the which was appointed so to be by sir 
Bertram of Guesclin because of the great 
number of Saracens that was there. And 
when king don Peter, who was in the midst 
of the press among his own people, heard 
how his men were assailed and put aback 
by his brother the bastard Henry and by 
the Frenchmen, he had great marvel there- 
of and saw well how he was betrayed and 
deceived, and in adventure to lose all, for 
his men were sore sparkled abroad. How- 
beit, like a good hardy knight and of good 
comfort, rested on the field and caused his 
banner to be unrolled to draw together his 
people, and sent word to them that were 
behind to haste them forward, because he 
was fighting with his enemies ; whereby 



every man advanced forward to the banner. 
So there was a marvellous great and a fierce 
battle, and many a man slain of king don 
Peter's part ; for king Henry and sir 
Bertram of Guesclin sought their enemies 
with so courageous and fierce will, that 
none could endure against them. Howbeit, 
that was not lightly done, for king don 
Peter and his company were six against 
one, but they Were taken so suddenly, that 
they were discomfited in such wise that it 
was marvel to behold. 

This battle of the Spaniards one against 
another, and of these two kings a,nd their 
allies, was near to Montiel, the which was that 
day right fierce and cruel. There were many 
good knights of king Henry's part, as sir 
Bertram of Guesclin, sir Geoffrey Richon, 
sir Arnold Limousin, sir Gawain of Bailleul, 
the Begue of Villaines, Alain of Saint-Pol, 
Alyot of Tallay and divers other ; and 
also of the realm of Aragon there was the 
viscount of Roquebertin, the viscount of 
Roda, and divers other good knights and 
squires, whom I cannot all name. And 
there they did many noble deeds of arms, 
the which was needful to them so to do, 
for they found fierce and strong people 
against them, as Saracens, Jews and 
Portugals. The Jews fled and turned their 
backs and fought no stroke, but they of 
Granade and of Bellemarine fought fiercely 
with their bows and archegays and did that 
day many a noble deed of arms. And king 
don Peter was a hardy knight and fought 
valiantly with a great axe and gave there- 
with many a great stroke, so that none 
durst approach near to him ; and the 
banner of king Henry his brother met and 
rencountered against his, each of them crying 
their cries. Then the battle of king don 
Peter began to open : then don Ferrant of 
Castro, who was chief counsellor about 
king don Peter, saw and perceived well 
how his people began to lose and to be 
discomfited, said to the king : ' Sir, save 
yourself and withdraw you into the castle of 
Montiel. Sir, if ye be there, ye be in safe- 
guard ; for if ye be taken with your 
enemies, ye are but dead without mercy.' 
The king don Peter believed his counsel 
and departed as soon as he might and went 
toward Montiel, and so came thither in 
such time that he found the gates open, and 
so he entered all only with twelve persons ; 



CAPTURE OF DON PETER, 1369 



and in the mean season the other of his 
company fought still in the fields, as they 
were sparkled abroad here and there. The 
Saracens defended themselves as well as 
they might, for they knew not the country, 
therefore to fly they thought was for them 
none avail. Then tidings came to king 
Henry and to sir Bertram of Guesclin how 
that king don Peter was fled and withdrawn 
into the castle of Montiel, and how that 
the Begue of Villaines had pursued him 
thither ; and into this castle there was but 
one passage, before which passage the 
Begue of Villaines had pight his standard. 
Of the which tidings king Henry and sir 
Bertram of Guesclin was right joyous, and 
so drew to that part in slaying and beating 
down their enemies like beasts, so that they 
were weary of killing. This chase endured 
more than three hours, so that day there 
was more than fourteen thousand slain and 
sore hurt : there were but few that were 
saved, except such as knew the passages of 
the country. This battle was beside 
Montiel in Spain the thirteenth day of the 
month of August the year of our Lord God 
a thousand three hundred threescore and 
eight. 

CHAPTER CCXLH 

How king don Peter was taken and put to 
death, and so king Henry was again king 
of Castile : and of the tenour of certain 
letters touching the French king and the 
king of England, and of the counsel that 
was given to king Charles of France to 
make war to the king of England. 

After this discomfiture and that king 
Henry had obtained the victory, then they 
laid siege round about the castle of Montiel, 
wherein was king don Peter. Then king 
Henry sent for the residue of his company 
to Toledo, whereas they lay at siege, of the 
which tidings the earl don Tello and the 
earl Sancho were right joyful. This castle 
of Montiel was right strong and able to 
have held against them all a long space, if 
it had been purveyed of victual and other 
things necessary ; but there was not in the 
castle scant to serve four days, whereof 
king don Peter and his company were sore 
abashed, for they were so straitly watched 
day and night, that a bird could not come 



out of the castle without spying. Then 
king don Peter, seeing himself thus beset 
round about with his enemies, and knew 
no way of peace or concord, was in great 
imagination. So all perils considered and 
for default of victual, he was counselled to 
depart privily at the hour of midnight and 
twelve persons with him, and so to ad- 
venture on the grace of God, and guides 
were appointed to bring him in safe-guard. 
And so about the time of midnight next 
after the king don Peter and don Ferrant of 
Castro and twelve other persons with them 
departed out of the castle. The night was 
very dark and the Begue of Villaines kept 
watch without the same night, and a three 
hundred with him. And as king don Peter 
and his company issued out of the castle, 
and went down a high way as privily as they 
could devise, the Begue of Villaines, who 
was ever in doubt lest they should scape, the 
which caused him to make the surer watch, 
he thought he heard men pass down the 
high way, and said to them that were about 
him : ' Sirs, keep you still all privy, for 
methink I hear folks come in the way. We 
will go know what they be, and what they 
seek here at this time of night : peradventure 
there be some that are coming to revictual 
the castle.' Then the Begue stept forth 
with his dagger in his hand and came to a 
man that was near to king don Peter and 
said, 'What art thou ?' and he rushed forth 
with his horse from him and passed by 
them. The Begue stept to king don Peter, 
who was next, and said, * What art thou ? 
Shew me thy name, or thou art but dead ' ; 
and took him by the bridle, for he thought 
he should not pass from him as the other 
did. And when king don Peter saw such 
a rout of men of war before him and that 
he could not scape, said : ' Sir Begue of 
Villaines, I am king don Peter of Castile. 
I yield me to you as a prisoner and put me 
and my company, the which are but twelve 
persons, into your hands and pleasure : 
and, sir, I require you by the way of 
gentleness to bring me into some safe-guard, 
and I shall pay to you such ransom as ye 
will desire, for I thank God I have enough 
wherewith, so that I may scape from the 
hands of the bastard my brother.' Then 
the Begue, as I was informed, answered 
and said : ' Sir, I shall bring you and your 
company into safe-guard, and your brother 



I90 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



shall know nothing of you by me. ' So thus 
king don Peter was brought to the Begue's 
lodging, into the proper lodging of sir Yon 
of Laconet ; and he had not been there 
the space of an hour, when that king Henry 
and the earl of Roquebertin and a certain 
with them came to the same lodging. And 
as soon as king Henry was entered into the 
chamber, he said : ' Where is that whoreson 
and Jew that calleth himself king of Castile?' 
Then king don Peter, who was a right 
hardy and a cruel knight, advanced himself 
and said : * Nay, thou art a whoreson and 
I am son to king Alphonso.' And there- 
with he took king Henry his brother in his 
arms and wrestled so with him that he 
overthrew him on a bench, and set his 
hand on his knife and had slain him with- 
out remedy, an the viscount of Roquebertin 
had not been. He took king don Peter by 
the leg and turned him up-se-down, so that 
king Henry was then above, who drew out 
a long knife and strake king don Peter into 
the body. Therewith his men came in to 
help him, and there was slain also by him a 
knight of England called sir Ralph Helme, 
who was sometime called the green squire, 
and another squire called James Rolland, 
because they made defence ; but as for don 
Ferrant of Castro and the other, had none 
evil, but remained prisoners to the Begue 
of Villaines and to sir Yon of Laconet. 

Thus ended king don Peter of Castile, 
who sometime reigned in great prosperity. 
And after he was slain, he was left three 
days above the earth,^ the which methink 
was great pity. Then the next day the 
lord of Montiel yielded him to king Henry, 
and he took him to mercy and all those that 
would turn to him. Then tidings ran over 
all Castile how king don Peter was slain, 
whereof his friends were sorry and his 
enemies joyful. But when the king of 
Portugal heard how his cousin king don 
Peter was dead, he was right sorrowful, 
and sware and said that his death should 
be revenged. And so he sent incontinent 
his defiance to king Henry and made him 
war and kept the marches of Seville against 
him a certain season ; but for all that king 
Henry left not his purpose in pursuing of 
his enterprise, but returned to Toledo, the 
which yielded up straight to him and all 
the country thereabout. And at last the 

1 That is, ' on the ground ' where he was slain. 



king of Portugal thought not to keep any 
longer war against king Henry, so there 
was a peace made between them by the 
means of the prelates and lords of Spain. 
Thus king Henry abode in peace king of 
Castile, and with him sir Bertram of 
Guesclin, sir Oliver of Mauny and other 
knights and squires of France and of 
Bretayne. And king Henry did much for 
them, as he was bound to do, for without 
their help he had not obtained his purpose : 
and so he made sir Bertram constable of 
Spain and gave him the land of Soria, the 
which was yearly worth twenty thousand 
franks, and to sir Oliver his nephew he 
gave the land of Ecrette,^ the which was 
yearly worth ten thousand franks, and also 
he gave fair lands to divers other knights 
and squires. Then the king went and lay 
at Burgos with his wife and children. Of 
his prosperity and good adventure greatly 
rejoiced the French king, the duke of Jl 
Anjou, and also the king of Aragon. f | 

About the same time died sir Lyon of 
England duke of Clarence, who had passed 
the sea, as ye have heard before, and had 
married the daughter of Galeas lord of 
Milan. But because he died strangely, the 
lord Edward Spenser his companion kept 
war against him a certain space, but finally 
he was informed of the truth. Now let us 
return to the adventures of the duchy of 
Acquitaine. 



SUMMARY.— The lords of Gascony per- 
severed in their appeal to the French king, 
although it was shewn them that they had 
no right of appeal but to the king of Eng- 
land. The French king was unwilling to 
make war tvith the English, but on examina- 
tion of the treaty of Bretigny he was 
counselled that he had just cause. 



CHAPTER CCXLHI 

How the French king sent to summon the 
prince of Wales by appeal to appear 
personally in the chamber of the peers of 
France at Paris, to answer there against 
the barons of Gascoyne. 

So much the French king was exhorted by 

them of his council, and so oft required by 

them of Gascoyne, that there was appeal 

1 Agreda. 



I 
I 



I 



THE PRINCE OF WALES SUMMONED TO PARIS 



191 



made and formed to be sent into Acquitaine 
to appeal the prince of Wales to the parlia- 
ment of Paris, and it was devised by the 
earl of Armagnac, the lord d'Albret, the 
earl of Perigord, the earl of Comminges, 
the viscount of Caraman, the lord de la 
Barthe, the lord of Puycornet and divers 
other, who were chief causers of this matter. 
And this appeal contained how for the great 
griefs that these Gascons complained that 
the prince of Wales and Acquitaine would 
do to them and to their people, therefore 
they made their resort to the French king, 
requiring that the prince might be appealed 
sith they had made the French king their 
judge. And when this appeal was made 
and duly corrected by all the wise council 
of France, then it was concluded by the 
said council that it should be signified to 
the prince and that he should be appealed, 
to appear in proper person at Paris in the 
chamber of the peers of France, to answer 
to the complaints made there against him. 
And to bear this appeal was commanded a 
clerk well languaged to do such a business, 
and a knight with him called Chaponnet of 
Chaponval ; and so they and their company 
departed from Paris and took their way 
toward Poitou, nnd so passed through 
Berry, Touraine, Poitou and Saintonge and 
came to Blaye, and there passed the river 
and so came to Bordeaux, whereas the 
prince and princess was : and always in 
every place they said how they were mes- 
sengers from the French king, wherefore 
they were the better welcome into every 
place. Then they took up their lodging 
and tarried there all that night, and in the 
next morning at a convenient hour they 
went to the abbey of Saint Andrew's where 
the prince was lodged, and there they were 
well received. And when the prince knew 
of their coming, he caused them to come 
before him ; and when they came into his 
presence, they kneeled down and made 
their reverence and delivered the prince 
letters of credence. The prince took and 
read them and said : * Sirs, ye be welcome : 
declare your message that ye have in 
charge to shew us.' Then the clerk said : 
' Right dear sir, here is a letter that was 
delivered to us at Paris by our lord the 
French king, the which letter we promised 
by our faiths to publish openly in your 
presence ; for, sir, they touch you. ' The 



prince then began to change colour and 
had great marvel what it might be, and so 
had other knights that were about him ; 
howbeit, he refrained himself and said : 
' Say on, sirs, what ye will : good tidings 
we will be glad to hear.' Then the clerk 
took the writing and read it word by 
word, the tenour of the which hereafter 
followeth : — 

' Charles, by the grace of God French 
king, to our nephew the prince of Wales 
and Acquitaine send greeting. So it is 
that divers prelates, barons, knights, uni- 
versities, commonalties and colleges of the 
marches and limitations of the country of 
Gascoyne, and the dwellers and habitants 
in the bounds of our realm, ^ beside divers 
other of the duchy of Acquitaine, are 
drawn and are come to our court to have 
right of certain griefs and troubles un- 
lawful, that you by feeble counsel and 
simple information have been in purpose 
to do to them, of the which we have 
marvel. Therefore to withstand and to 
remedy the same matters we are so con- 
joined to them, that by our royal majesty 
and seignory we command you to come 
into our city of Paris in proper person, 
and there you to shew and present [your- 
self] before us in our chamber of our peers 
and there to do right on the foresaid com- 
plaints and griefs, moved by you to do on 
your people, who claimeth to have their 
resort into our court, and that this be not 
failed in as hasty wise as ye can after the 
sight or hearing of these letters. In 
witness whereof to these presents we have 
set our seal. Given at Paris the twenty- 
fifth ^ day of January. ' 

When the prince of Wales had read this 
letter, he had great marvel and shook his 
head and beheld fiercely the Frenchmen. 
And when he had a little studied, he 
answered in this manner : ' Sirs, we will 
gladly go to Paris to our uncle, sith he hath 
sent thus for us : but I assure you that 
shall be with bassenet on our head and 
sixty thousand men in our company.' 
Then the two Frenchmen kneeled down 
and said : * Dear sir, for God's sake take 
patience, and take not this appeal in so 
great despite nor be not displeased with us. 

1 ' Dwelling and inhabiting within the bounds of 
our realm.' 

2 The better reading is xv. 



192 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



% 



Sir, we be messengers sent by our lord the 
French king, to whom we must needs 
obey, as your subjects ought to obey you : 
wherefore, sir, it behoveth us to do his 
commandment ; and, sir, whatsoever ye 
will give us in charge to say, we shall shew 
it to the king our prince and lord.' * Nay,' 
quoth the prince, ' sirs, I am not displeased 
with you, but with them that sent you 
hither ; and the king your master is not 
well counselled to compoin himself with 
our subjects, or to make himself judge 
where he hath nothing to do nor no manner 
of right. For it shall be well shewed that 
at the rendering and putting in possession 
of the king my father into the duchy of 
Acquitaine, he quitted all manner of resorts : 
for all they that hath caused this appeal to 
be had against me hath none other resort of 
right but into the court of England, before 
the king my dear father ; and or it shall 
be otherwise, I ensure you it shall cost a 
hundred thousand men's lives.' 

And therewith the prince departed and 
went to another chamber and left them 
still there. Then knights of England came 
to them and said : ' Sirs, ye may depart 
when ye list to your lodging ; ye have right 
well accomplished your message, but look 
for none other answer than ye have had.' 
Then the knight and the clerk departed 
and went to their lodging and so dined ; 
and after dinner they trussed and mounted 
a-horseback and departed from Bordeaux 
and took the way to Toulouse-ward, to the 
intent to shew the duke of Anjou how they 
had sped. The prince was sore displeased 
with this appeal and so were all the knights 
about him, and they counselled the prince 
that the two French messengers should have 
been slain for their labour ; but the prince 
charged them the contrary : howbeit, he had 
against them many a sore imagination, and 
when it was shewed him how they were de- 
parted without any other licence and that 
they were ridden toward Toulouse, then he 
called to him sir Thomas Felton and the 
seneschal of Rouergue, sir Richard of 
Pontchardon, sir Thomas Percy and his 
chancellor the bishop of Bade : then the 
prince demanded of them if the French 
messengers had any safe-conduct of him or 
not, and they answered they knew of none 
that they had. ' No,' said the prince and 
shook his head and said, 'It is not con- 



venient that they should thus lightly depart 
out of our country and to make their 
j anglings to the duke of Anjou, who loveth 
us but a little. He will be glad that they 
have thus summoned us in our own house. 
I trow, all things considered, they be rather 
messengers of mine own subjects, as the 
earl of Armagnac, the lord d'Albret, the 
earl of Perigord and the earls of Comminges 
and Caraman, than of the French king's. 
Therefore because of the great despite that 
they have done to us, we would they were 
overtaken and put in prison. ' Of the which 
all the prince's council was right joyous and 
said : ' Sir, we fear ye have tarried too 
long from this purpose.' Incontinent the 
seneschal of Agenois was commanded to 
take with him sir William the monk,^ a 
right good knight of England, and that they 
should ride after to stop the messengers. 
And so they departed, and followed so long 
after them, that at last they overtook them in 
the land of Agenois, and they arrested them 
and made another occasion than the prince's 
commandment ; for in their arresting they 
spake no word of the prince, but said how 
their host, whereas they lay last, complained 
on them for a horse that he said they had 
changed. The knight and the clerk had 
great marvel of that tidings and excused 
themselves, but their excuse could not avail, 
but so they were brought into the city of 
Agen and put in prison. And they let some^ 
of their pages depart, and they went by th( 
city of Toulouse and recorded to the dukej 
of Anjou all the whole matter, whereof h< 
was nothing displeased, for he thought well| 
that thereby should begin war and hatred, 
and so he prepared covertly therefor. These 
tidings came to the French king, for the^ 
pages went and recounted all the whole 
matter to him, as they had heard and seen : 
of the which the king was sore displeased 
and took it in great despite and took counsel 
and advice thereon, and specially of the«| 
words it was shewed him that the prince ■I 
should say, when he said that he would come ™ 
personally to his uncle to answer to the 
appeal made against him, with his bassenet 
on his head and sixty thousand men of war 
in his company. Against the which the 
French king made provision right subtly 
and wisely ; for he thought well it was a 

1 ' The seneschal of Agenois, who was named sir 
William le Moine, was charged with the business.' 



of 

i 

.111 

i 



RENEWAL OF WAR, 1369 



193 



weighty matter to make war against the 
king of England and his puissance, seeing 
how they had put his predecessors in time 
past to so much labour and travail : where- 
fore he thought it a hard matter to begin 
war, but he was so sore required of the great 
lords of Gascoyne and Guyenne, and also it 
was shewed him what great extortions and 
damages the Englishmen did daily and 
were likely to do in time to come : he 
granted to the war with an evil will, con- 
sidering the destruction of the poor people 
that he thought should ensue thereby. 



CHAPTERS CCXLIV-CCXLVII 

SUMMARY.— Several of the French host- 
ages in England procured their liberation, 
and among others the duke of Berry a?td the 
duke of Bourbon. This last ^obtained his 
acquittance by procuring the bishopric of 
Winchester for William of Wick ham, the 
kijtg's chaplain. 

The prince of Wales had taken a sickness 
in Spain, of which daily he grew xvorse. 
The earl of Perigord and others attacked 
and routed Thomas Walkefare, seneschal of 
Rouergue, in revenge for the capture of 
the envoys. The prince of Wales sent for 
sir John Chandos. 

The Fi-ench king sent envoys to England, 
and meanwhile made secret preparations for 
seizing Abbeville and the county of Potithieu. 
When all was ready, the envoys returned, 
and letters of defiance were sent to the king 
of England by a Breton varlet. The king 
was ifulignant at receiving them from stick 
a person, and at once prepared to defend 
PontJiieu ; but before his force could arrive, 
it ivas lost. 

Sir Guichard d"* Angle, returning from 
Rome, passed through France and joined 
the prince of Wales. 



CHAPTERS CCXLVHI-CCLHI 

SUMMARY.— The king of England sent 
men of war to the frontiers of Scotland, and 
also prepared to defend the coast of England. 
The dukes of Anjou and Berry made their 
summons to go against the prince of Wales. 
The king of England sent the ea*-ls of 
Cambridge and Pembroke to the prince of 
o 



Wales, and they passed by Brittany to An- 
gotdime, where the prince was. 

War was carried on with various success 
in Perigord, Quercy and Languedoc. 

Several towns, including Cahors, turned 
French. 

The dukes of Gueldres and Juliers sent 
defiance to the French king. 

The duke of Burgundy was married to 
the datighter of the earl of Flanders. 



CHAPTERS CCLIV-CCLXV 

SUMMARY. — War continued in Quercy, 
Poitou and elsewhere, and sir Robert 
Knolles, who came from Brittany, was 
sent into the Agenois and then laid siege 
to Duravel, whither also came sir John 
Chandos, the captal de Buch and others, but 
they could not take either that town or 
Domme. They took Grafnat, Rocamadour 
arui Villefranche and so returned. 

Meanwhile the earls of Cambridge and 
Pembroke took Bourdeilles in Perigord. An 
English company took Belleperche in Bour- 
bonnais, and in it the mother of the duke of 
Bourbon and of the queen of France. 

The English captured la Roche-sur- Yon; 
and sir John Chandos laid 7vaste the lands 
of Anjou, ami then returned to Poitiers. 

At this time the duke of Lancaster had 
been sent to Calais, and the duke of Bur- 
gundy lay opposite to him at Tornehem. 

The earl of Pembroke, who had disdained 
to go with sir John Chandos, rode into 
Anjou. When returning he was surprised 
at the village of Purnon by sir Louis de 
Sancerre, and being besieged there in a 
building belonging to the Templars, he sent 
for help to sir John Chandos. 



CHAPTER CCLXVI 

How sir John Chandos came to the succour 
of the earl of Pembroke. 

Between the morning and nine of the day, 
when the assault was most fiercest and that 
the Frenchmen were sore displeased that 
the Englishmen endured so long, wherefore 
they sent to he villages thereabout for 
pikes and mattocks to break down and 
undermine the wall, which thing the 



194 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



Englishmen doubted most, then the earl of 
Pembroke called a squire to him and said : 
* Friend, take my courser and issue out at 
the back postern and we shall make you way, 
and ride straight to Poitiers and shew sir 
John Ghandos the state and danger that we 
be in, and recommend me to him by this 
token,' and took a ring from his finger and 
delivered to him and said, ' Take sir John 
Chandos this ring ; he knoweth it right well.' 
The squire who took that enterprise thought 
it should be a great honour to him, if he 
might achieve to scape and speak with him ; 
took the ring, and mounted incontinent on 
his courser and departed by a privy way, 
while the assault endured, and took the 
way to Poitiers. In the mean season the 
assault was terrible and fierce by the French- 
men, and the Englishmen defended them- 
selves right valiantly with good courage, as 
it stood them well in hand so to do. 

Now let us speak of the first squire, that 
departed from Puirenon at the hour of 
midnight and all the night he rode out of 
his way, and when it was morning and fair 
day, then he knew his way and so rode 
toward Poitiers, and by that time his horse 
was weary. Howbeit, he came thither by 
nine of the clock and there alighted before 
sir John Chandos' lodging and entered and 
found him at mass, and so came and kneeled 
down before him and did his message as he 
was commanded. And^sir John Chandos, 
who was not content for the other day 
before, in that the earl of Pembroke would 
not ride with him, as ye have heard before, 
wherefore he was not lightly inclined to 
make any great haste, but said : * It will be 
hard for us to come thither time enough and 
to hear out this mass.' And anon after 
mass the tables were covered ready to 
dinner, and the servants demanded of him if 
he would go to dinner, and he said, ' Yes, 
sith it is ready.' Then he went into his 
hall, and knights and squires brought him 
water, and as he was a washing, there came 
into the hall the second squire from the 
earl of Pembroke and kneeled down and 
took the ring out of his purse and said : 
* Right dear sir, the earl of Pembroke re- 
commendeth him to you by this token and 
desireth you heartily to come and comfort 
him and bring him out of the danger that 
he and his be in at Puirenon.' Then sir 
John Chandos took the ring and knew it 



well and said : ' To come thither betimes 
it were hard, if they be in that case as ye 
shew me. Let us go to dinner ' : and so 
sat down, and all his company, and ate the 
first course. And as he was served of the 
second course and was eating thereof, 
suddenly sir John Chandos, who greatly had 
imagined of that matter, and at last cast up 
his head and said to his company : ' Sirs, 
the earl of Pembroke is a noble man and of 
great lineage : he is son to my natural lord 
the king of England, for he hath wedded his 
daughter, and in everything he is companion 
to the earl of Cambridge. He hath required 
me to come to him in his business, and I 
ought to consent to his desire and to succour 
and comfort him, if we may come betimes.' 
Therewith he put the table from him and 
said : ' Sirs, I will ride toward Puirenon ' : 
whereof his people had great joy and in- 
continent apparelled, and the trumpets 
sowned and every man mounted on their 
horses they that best might, as soon as they 
heard that sir John Chandos would ride to 
Puirenon to comfort the earl of Pembroke 
and his company, who were besieged there. 
Then every knight, squire and man of arms 
went out into the field, so they were more 
than two hundred spears and alway they in- 
creased. Thus as they rode forth together, 
tidings came to the Frenchmen, who had 
continually assaulted the fortress from the 
morning till it was high noon, by their 
spies, who said to them : * Sirs, advise you 
well, for sir John Chandos is departed from_^ 
Poitiers with more than two hundred speai 
and is coming hitherward in great haste, an<i 
hath great desire to find you here.' And 
when sir Louis of Sancerre and sir John 
Vienne, sir John of Bueil and the other 
captains heard those tidings, the wisest 
among them said : ' Sirs, our people are 
sore weary and travailed with assaulting of 
the Englishmen both yesterday and this 
day : therefore I think it were better thatJJj 
fair and easily we returned in safeguard withll 
such winnings and prisoners as we have got,"' 
rather than to abide the adventure of the 
coming of sir John Chandos and his com- 
pany, who are all fresh and lusty, for I 
fear we may lose more than we shall win.' 
The which counsel was well believed, for 
it behoved not them long to tarry. Then 
their trumpets sowned the retreat : then all 
their company drew from the assault and 



i 



SIR JOHN CHANDOS AND THE EARL OF PEMBROKE 195 



assembled together and trussed up their har- 
ness and carriage, and so returned and took 
the way to Posay.^ The earl of Pembroke 
and his company knew anon thereby how 
the Frenchmen had knowledge of the 
coming of sir John Chandos. Then the 
earl said : ' Sirs, let us all issue out and ride 
toward Poitiers to meet with my dear friend 
sir John Chandos. ' Then they leapt a-horse- 
back, such as had any horses, and some 
afoot and two and two on a horse, and so 
they issued out of the castle and rode 
toward Poitiers. And they had not ridden 
a league, but that they encountered sir John 
Chandos and his company, arid there was 
a joyful meeting ; and sir John Chandos 
said that he was sore displeased that he 
came not or the Frenchmen were departed : 
and so they rode together talking the space 
of three leagues, and then they took leave 
each of other. Sir John Chandos returned 
to Poitiers and the earl of Pembroke to 
Mortagne, from whence he first departed. 
And the marshals of France and their com- 
pany returned to Posay and there departed 
their booty ; and then every man went to 
their own garrison and led with them their 
prisoners, and ransomed them courteously 
in like manner as was accustomed between 
the Englishmen and Frenchmen. 

Now let us return to the assembly before 
Tornehem, and speak of the death of the 
most gentle queen, most liberal and most 
courteous that ever was queen in her days, 
the which was the fair lady Philippa of 
Hainault, queen of England and Ireland. 



CHAPTERS CCLXVII-CCLXIX 

SUMMAR Y.— Queen Philippa of England 
died, 14M August 1369. 

The duke of Bitr gundy departed from the 
duke of Lancaster ivithout battle, and the 
duke of Lancaster returned to Calais. 

The earl of Pembroke rode again into 
Anjou. The abbey of Saint- Savin in 
Poitou was delivered up to the French, 
who put a garrison there. 

The duke of Lancaster rode through 
Picardy and Normandy as far as Harfleur 
and then returned. Sir Hugh de Chatillon, 
captain of Abbeville, was taken prisoner by 
the English. 

1 La Roche- Posay. 



CHAPTER CCLXX 

How sir John Chandos was slain in a battle, 
and how finally the Frenchmen were dis- 
comfited and taken in the same battle. 

Greatly it grieved sir John Chandos the 
taking of Saint - Salvin, because it was 
under his rule, for he was seneschal of 
Poitou. He set all his mind how he might 
recover it again, other by force or by 
stealth he cared not, so he might have it, 
and for that intent divers nights he made 
sundry bushments, but it availed not ; for 
sir Louis, who kept it, took ever so good 
heed thereto, that he defended it from all 
dangers, for he knew well the taking thereof 
grieved sore sir John Chandos at the heart. 
So it fell that the night before the first day 
of January sir John Chandos being in 
Poitiers sent to assemble together divers 
barons, knights and squires of Poitou, 
desiring them to come to him as privily as 
they could, for he certained them how he 
would ride forth : and they refused not his 
desire, for they loved him entirely, but 
shortly assembled together in the city of 
Poitiers. 

Thither came sir Guichard d'Angle, sir 
Louis Harcourt, the lord of Pons, the lord 
of Partenay, the lord of Poyanne, the lord 
Tannay-Bouton, sir Geoffrey d'Argenton, 
sir Mauburny of Linieres, sir Thomas Percy, 
sir Baudwin of Freville, sir Richard of 
Pontchardon and divers other. And when 
they were all together assembled, they were 
three hundred spears, and departed by 
night from Poitiers. None knew whither 
they should go except certain of the lords, 
and they had ready with them scaling 
ladders and so came to Saint -Salvin and 
there alighted and delivered their horses to 
their varlets, which was about midnight, 
and so entered into the dike. Yet they 
had not their intent so shortly ; for suddenly 
they heard the watch-horn blow : I shall 
tell you wherefore it blew. The same 
night Charuel ^ was departed from the 
Roche of Posay with a forty spears with 
him and was come the same time to Saint- 
Salvin to speak with the captain, sir Louis 
of Saint-Julian, to the intent to have ridden 

1 Jean Charuel, a Breton captain in garrison at 
la Roche-Posay, 



196 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 






together to Poitou, to see if they could get 
any prey : and so he called up the watch- 
man, the which made him to sound his 
horn. And so the Englishmen, who were 
on the other side of the fortress, hearing 
the watch blow and great noise in the 
place, feared lest they had been spied by 
some spies, for they knew nothing that the 
said Frenchmen were on the other side to 
have entered into the place. Therefore 
they withdrew back again out of the dikes 
and said : ' Let us go hence for this night, 
for we have failed of our purpose.' And 
so they remounted on their horses and 
returned whole together to Chauvigny on 
the river of Creuse, a two leagues thence. 
Then the Poitevins demanded of sir John 
Chandos if he would command them any 
further service. He answered and said : 
' Sirs, return home again when it please 
you in the name of God, and as for this 
day I will abide still here in this town.' 
So there departed the knights of Poitou 
and some of England to the number of two 
hundred spears. 

Then sir John Chandos went into a 
house and caused to be made a good fire : 
and there was still with him sir Thomas 
Percy and his company, seneschal of 
Rochelle, who said to sir John Chandos : 
' Sir, is it your intent to tarry here all this 
day?' 'Yea truly, sir,' quoth he; 'why 
demand you ? ' ' Sir, the cause I desire you 
is, sith ye will not stir this day, to give me 
leave and I will ride some way with my 
company, to see if I can find any adventure.' 
'Go your way, sir, in the name of God,' 
quoth sir John Chandos. And so departed 
sir Thomas Percy with a thirty spears in 
his company, and so passed the bridge at 
Chauvigny and took the long way that 
led to Poitiers : and sir John Chandos 
abode still behind, full of displeasure in 
that he had failed of his purpose ; and so 
stood in a kitchen warming him by the fire, 
and his servants jangled with him to the 
intent to bring him out of his melancholy. 
His servants had prepared for him a place to 
rest him : then he demanded if it were near 
day, and therewith there came a man into 
the house and came before him and said : 
' Sir, I have brought you tidings. ' ' What 
be they ? tell me.' ' Sir, surely thfe French- 
men be riding abroad. ' * How knowest 
thou that ? ' ' Sir, ' said he, * I departed 



from Saint -Salvin with them.' 'What 
way be they ridden ? ' ' Sir, I cannot tell 
you the certainty, but surely they took the 
highway to Poitiers.' 'What Frenchmen 
be they, canst thou tell me ? ' ' Sir, it is 
sir Louis of Saint-Julian and Charuel the 
Breton.' 'Well,' quoth sir John Chandos, 
' I care not. I have no list this night to 
ride forth. They may hap to be encoun- 
tered, though I be not there. ' And so he 
tarried there still a certain space in a great 
study ; and at last, when he had well 
advised himself, he said : ' Whatsoever I 
have said hereliefore, I trow it be good 
that I ride forth. I must return to Poitiers, 
and anon it will be day,' 'That is true, 
sir,' quoth the knights about him. Then 
he said : ' Make ready, for I will ride 
forth ' : and so they did, and mounted on 
their horses and departed and took the 
right way to Poitiers coasting the river, 
and the Frenchmen the same time were 
not past a league before him in the same 
way, thinking to pass the river at the 
bridge of Lussac. There the Englishmen 
had knowledge how they were in the track 
of the Frenchmen, for the Frenchmen's 
horses cried and brayed because of the 
English horses that were before them with 
sir Thomas Percy. ^ And anon it was fair 
light day, for in the beginning of January hi 
the mornings be soon light, and when the fl 
Frenchmen and Bretons were within a ■' 
league of the bridge, they perceived on the 
other side of the bridge sir Thomas Percy 
and his company, and he likewise per- 
ceived the Frenchmen and rode as fast as 
he might to get the advantage of the bridge, 
and said : * Behold yonder Frenchmen be 
a great number against us : therefore let us 
take the advantage of the bridge.' And 
when sir Louis and Charuel saw the Eng- 
lishmen make such haste to get the bridge, 
they did in like wise ; howbeit, the Eng- 
1 This is quite wrong, but the French text is 
largely responsible for the errors. According to 
the true reading it should be : 'And the English- 
men had knowledge of it by their horses, which 
followed the course of the Frenchmen's horses and 
entered into the track of the Frenchmen's horses : 
so they said: "Either sir Thomas Percy or the 
Frenchmen are riding before us."' The trans- 
lator's text had ' fray ' for * froais ' (track), which he 
did not understand, and was quite corrupt in the 
latter part, omitting 'si disent ' and giving, 'ou 
messire Thomas de Persy chevauchoit devant eulx 
He found it unintelligible and altered it to make 
some sense. 



I 



DEATH OF SIR JOHN CHAN DOS, 1369 



197 



lishmen gat it first, and lighted all afoot 
and so ranged themselves in good order to 
defend the bridge. The Frenchmen like- 
wise lighted afoot and delivered their horses 
to their pages, commanding them to draw 
aback, and so did put themselves in good 
order to go and assail the Englishmen, 
who kept themselves close together and 
were nothing affrayed, though they were but 
a handful of men as to the regard of the 
Frenchmen. And thus, as the Frenchmen 
and Bretons studied and imagined how and 
by what means to their advantage they 
might assail the Englishmen, therewith 
there came behind them sir John Chandos, 
his banner displayed, bearing therein silver, 
a sharp pile gules, and Jakes of Alery, a 
valiant man of arms, did bear it, and he 
had with him a forty spears. He approached 
fiercely the Frenchmen, and when he was 
a three furlongs from the bridge, the French 
pages who saw them coming were affrayed, 
and' so ran away with the horses and left 
their masters there afoot. And when sir 
John Chandos was come near to them, he 
said : ' Hark ye, Frenchmen, ye are but 
evil men of war : ye ride at your pleasure 
and ease day and night : ye take and win 
towns and fortresses in Poitou, whereof I 
am seneschal : ye ransom poor folk without 
my leave : ye ride all about clean armed. 
It should seem the country is all yours, but 
I ensure you it is not so. Ye, sir Louis 
and Charuel, ye are too great masters. It 
is more than a year and a half that I have 
set all mine intent to find or encounter 
with you, and now, I thank God, I see 
you and speak to you. Now shall it be 
seen who is stronger, other you or I. 
It hath been shewed me oftentimes that ye 
have greatly desired to find me : now ye 
may see me here : I am John Chandos, 
advise me well. Your great feats of arms 
wherewith ye be renowned, by God's leave 
now shall we prove it.' While such lan- 
guage was spoken, sir John Chandos' com- 
pany drew together, and sir Louis and 
Charuel kept themselves close together, 
making semblant to be glad to be fought 
withal ; and of all this matter sir Thomas 
Percy, who was on the other side of the 
bridge, knew nothing, for the bridge was 
high in the midst, so that none could see 
other. 

While sir John Chandos reasoned thus 



with the Frenchmen, there was a Breton 
look his glaive and could forbear no longer, 
but came to an English squire called Sim- 
kin Dodale, and strake him so in the breast, 
that he cast him down from his horse. Sir 
John Chandos, when he heard that noise 
beside him, he turned that way and saw 
his squire lie on the earth and the French- 
men laying on him.^ Then he was more 
chafed than he was before, and said to his 
company : ' Sirs, how suffer you this squire 
thus to be slain ? Afoot, afoot ! ' and so 
he leapt afoot and all his company, and so 
Simkin was rescued and the battle begun. 

Sir John Chandos, who was a right hardy 
and a courageous knight, with his banner 
before him and his company about him, 
with his coat of arms on him great and 
large, beaten with his arms of white sarcenet 
with two piles gules one before and another 
behind, so that he seemed to be a sufficient 
knight to do a great feat of arms, and as 
one of the foremost with his glaive in his 
hand marched to his enemies. The same 
morning there had fallen a great dew, so 
that the ground was somewhat moist, and 
so in his going forward he slode and fell 
down at the joining with his enemies ; and 
as he was arising there lit a stroke on him 
given by a squire called Jaques of Saint- 
Martin with his glaive, the which stroke 
entered into the flesh under his eye between 
the nose and the forehead. Sir John 
Chandos saw not the stroke coming on 
that side, for he was blind on the one eye. 
He lost the sight thereof a five year before, 
as he hunted after an hart in the launds of 
Bordeaux, and also he had on no visor. 
The stroke was rude and entered into 
his brain, the which stroke grieved him so 
sore, that he overthrew to the earth and 
turned for pain two times up-se-down, as 
he that was wounded to death ; for after 
the stroke he never spake word. And 
when his men saw that misfortune, they 
were right dolorous : then his uncle Edward 
Clifford stept and bestrode him, for the 
Frenchmen would fain have had him, and 
defended him so valiantly and gave round 
about him such strokes, that none durst 
approach near to him : also sir John Clan- 
vowe and sir Bertram of Casselis seemed 
like men out of their minds, when they saw 
their master lie on the earth. The Bretons 
1 i.e. * striking him. ' 



t98 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



and Frenchmen were greatly comforted, 
when they saw the captain of their enemies 
on the earth, thinking verily that he had 
his death's wound. Then they advanced 
themselves and said : * Ye Englishmen, 
yield you, for ye are all ours, ye cannot 
scape us.' There the Englishmen did 
marvels in arms, as well to defend them- 
selves as to revenge their master sir John 
Chandos, whom they saw lie in a hard case. 
And a squire of sir John Chandos spied 
Jaques of Saint-Martin, who had given his 
master his mortal stroke, and ran to him 
fiercely and struck him with such violence, 
that his glaive pierced through both his 
thighs. Howbeit, for all that stroke, he 
left not still to fight. 

If sir Thomas Percy and his company 
had known of this adventure, who were on 
the other side of the bridge, they should 
well have succoured him ; but because they 
knew nothing thereof, nor heard no more 
of the Frenchmen, weening to them they 
had been gone back, therefore he and his 
company departed and took the way to 
Poitiers, as they that knew nothing of that 
business. Thus the Englishmen fought still 
before the bridge of Lussac, and there was 
done many a feat of arms. Briefly, the 
Englishmen could endure no longer against 
the Frenchmen, so that the most part of 
them were discomfited and taken, but 
always Edward Clifford would not depart 
from his nephew, thereas he lay. So thus, 
if the Frenchmen had been so happy as to 
have had their horses there ready, as they 
had not, for their pages were run away from 
them before, or else they might have de- 
parted with much honour and profit with 
many a good prisoner, and for lack of them 
they lost all : wherefore they were sore dis- 
pleased and said among themselves : ' Ah, 
this is an evil order ; for the journey is ours, 
and yet through fault of our pages we can- 
not depart, seeing we be heavy armed and 
sore travailed, so that we cannot go afoot 
through this country, the which is full of 
our enemies and contrary to us, and we are 
a six leagues from the next fortress that we 
have, and also divers of our company be 
sore hurt and we may not leave them be- 
hind us.' Thus as they were in this case 
and wist not what to do, and had sent two 
Bretons unarmed into the fields to see if 
they might find any of their pages with their 



horses, there came on them sir Guichard 
d'Angle, sir Louis Harcourt, the lord 
Partenay, the lord Tannay-Bouton, the 
lord d'Argenton, the lord of Poyanne, sir 
Jaques of vSurgeres, and divers other 
Englishmen to the number of two hundred 
spears, who rode about to seek for the 
Frenchmen, for it was shewed them how 
they were abroad : and so they fell in the 
track of the horses and came in great haste 
with banners and pennons waving in the 
wind. And as soon as the Bretons and 
Frenchmen saw them coming, they knew 
well they were their enemies : then they 
said to the Englishmen whom they had 
taken as prisoners before : ' Sirs, behold 
yonder cometh a band of your company 
to succour you, and we perceive well that 
we cannot endure against them, and ye be 
our prisoners. We will quit you, so that 
ye will keep us, and will become your 
prisoners ; for we had rather yield us to 
you than to them that cometh yonder.' 
And they answered : ' As ye will, so are 
we content.' Thus the Englishmen were 
loosed out of their prisons. Then the 
Poitevins, Gascons and Englishmen came 
on them, their spears in their rests, crying 
their cries. Then the Frenchmen and 
Bretons drew aside and said to them : ' Sirs, 
leave : do us no hurt : we be all prisoners hi 
already.'^ The Englishmen affirmed theBj 
same and said : ' They be our prisoners. ' ■ > 
Charuel was prisoner with sir Bertram of 
Cassehs and sir Louis of Saint-Julian with 
sir John Clanvowe, so that there was none 
but that he had a master. 

The barons and knights of Poitou were 
sore discomforted, when they saw their 
seneschal sir John Chandos lie on the earth 
and could not speak. Then they lament- 
ably complained and said, * Ah, sir John 
Chandos, the flower of all chivalry, un- Jj 
happily was that glaive forged that thusW 
hath wounded you and brought you in 
peril of death.' They wept piteously that 
were about him, and he heard and under- 
stood them well, but he could speak no 
word. They wrung their hands and tare 
their hairs and made many a pitiful com- 
plaint, and specially such as were of his 
own house. Then his servants unarmed 
him and laid him on pavises and so bare 

1 ' Ho, seigneurs, cessez, cessez : nous sommes 
prisonniers.' 






LIMOGES WON BY THE FRENCH, 1370 



199 



him softly to Mortimer, the next fortress to 
them. And the other barons and knights 
returned to Poitiers and led with them 
their prisoners : and as I understood, the 
same Jaques Martin that thus hurt sir John 
Chandos was so little taken heed to of his 
hurts, that he died at Poitiers. And this 
noble knight sir John Chandos lived not 
after his hurt past a day and a night, but 
so died. God have mercy on his soul : for 
in a hundred year after there was not^ a 
more courteous nor more fuller of noble 
virtues and good conditions among the 
Englishmen than he was. And when the 
prince and princess, the earl of Cambridge, 
the earl of Pembroke and other barons 
and knights of England, such as were in 
Guyenne, heard of his death, they were all 
discomforted, and said they had lost all 
on that side of the sea. For his death his 
friends and also some of his enemies were 
right sorrowful. The Englishmen loved him, 
because all nobleness was found in him : 
the Frenchmen hated him because they 
doubted him : yet I heard his death greatly 
complained among right noble and valiant 
knights of France, saying that it was a 
great damage of his death, for they said : 
' Better it had been that he had been taken 
alive ; for if he had been taken alive,' they 
said, *he was so sage and so imaginative, 
that he would have found some manner of 
good means whereby the peace might have 
ensued between the realms of England and 
France : for he was so well beloved with 
the king of England, that the king would 
believe him rather than any other in the 
world.' Thus both French and English 
spake of his death, and specially the Eng- 
lishmen, for by him Guyenne was kept and 
recovered. 



CHAPTERS CCLXXI-CCLXXIX 

SUMMAR V. — The lord of Coney, being 
son-in-law to the king of England, would 
take no part in the war and went into 
Lombard}'. 

The king of England sent letters into 
Acqtiitaine giving up the fouage, but this 
had little effect. 

The duke of Bourbon laid siege to Belle- 

1 ' Oncques depuis cent ans ne fut,' etc. ; that is, 
' for a hundred year past there had not been,' etc. 



perche, but the earls of Cambridge and 
Pembroke marched thither with a large 
force and removed thence the lady of Bour- 
bon and the garrison. 

It was purposed that in the following 
summer the duke of Anjou should enter 
Acquitaine by Bergerac and the duke of 
Berry by Limoges and Quercy, and so meet 
before Angouleme. It was resolved also to 
send for Bertrand du Guesclin from Spain. 
The French king made a treaty ivith the 
king of Navarre. 

Bertrand du Guesclin came to the duke 
of Anjou at Toulouse. 

The duke of Anjou took Moisac ^and 
Montpezat, while the duke of Berry lay at 
siege before Lifuoges. The prince of Wales 
sunnnoned his host to meet at Cognac. 

Peace was made between England and 
Scotland for nine years and sir Robert 
Knolles came over to Calais with a hundred 
spears of Scotland in his company. With 
fifteen hundred spears and four thousand 
archers he laid waste the lands of Picardy 
and Vermandois. 

The duke of Anjou dismissed his army 
and went to Cahors. 

Bertrand du Guesclin came to the siege of 
Limoges, which zvas on the point of sur- 
rendering. 



CHAPTER CCLXXX 

How they of Limoges yielded them to the 
duke of Berry, and how the same duke 
brake up his army. 

When sir Bertram was come again to the 
siege,^ the Frenchmen were greatly rejoiced 
of his coming. Then anon they pursued 
the treaty that was begun between the 
bishop of Limoges and them of the city 
and the duke of Berry. And so finally the 
bishop and they of the city turned them 
and became French, and the duke of Berry 
and the duke of Bourbon entered into the 
city, and sir Guy of Blois and other lords 
of France, with great joy, and took faith 
and homage of them of the city, and so 
refreshed and rested them there a three 
days : and so determined there in council 

1 The translator by misunderstanding of a former 
passage has been led to suppose that du Guesclin 
had been at the siege of Limoges once before this, 
and therefore he inserts the word 'again.' 



200 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



to break up their army for that time, as the 
duke of Anjou had done, and to return into 
their own countries to keep and defend 
their towns and fortresses because of sir 
Robert Knolles, who was still abroad in the 
field in France ; also they said how they 
had right well sped in winning of such 
a city as Limoges. So this counsel and 
advice was not broken, but thus these lords 
departed each from other, and sir Bertram 
abode still in the parts of Limousin with 
two hundred spears and kept the castles of 
the lord of Melval, the which were turned 
French. When the duke of Berry departed 
from Limoges, he ordained and set in the 
same city at the request of the bishop sir 
John of Villemur, sir Hugh de la Roche 
and Roger Beaufort, with a hundred men 
of arms, and then he went into Berry and 
the duke of Bourbon into Bourbonnois, and 
other lords of farther marches went home 
into their own countries. Now let us 
speak of the prince, how he sped. 

When tidings was come to the prince 
that the city of Limoges was turned French, 
and how that the bishop, who was his 
gossip and in whom he had before great 
trust and confidence, was chief aider to 
yield up the city and to become French, 
with the which the prince was sore dis- 
pleased and set less force in ^ the men of 
the Church, in whom before he had great 
trust. Then he sware by his father's soul, 
whereby he was never forsworn, that he 
would get it again and that he would make 
the traitors dearly abye their falseness. 
When the most part of his people were 
come, they were numbered to twelve hun- 
dred spears, knights and squires, a thou- 
sand archers and a thousand ^ men afoot ; 
and so he departed from the town of 
Cognac, and with him his two brethren, the 
duke of Lancaster and the earl of Cam- 
bridge. Sir Thomas Felton and the captal 
of Buch abode still at Bergerac, to keep the 
frontier against the Frenchmen and com- 
panions that were in the country. And 
with the prince also was sir Guichard 
d'Angle, sir Louis Harcourt, the lord of 
Pons, the lord of Partenay, the lord of 
Poyanne, the lord of Tannay-Bouton, sir 
Perceval of Couloyne, sir Godfrey d'Argen- 
ton, Poitevins ; and Gascons, the lord of 

1 ' Esteemed less.' 
2 'Three thousand,' according to the true text. 



Montferrant, the lord of Caumont, the lord 
Langoiran, sir Aymery of Tastes, the lord 
of Pommiers, the lord of Mussidan, the lord 
of Lesparre, the lord of Geronde and 
divers other ; Englishmen, as sir Thomas 
Percy, the lord Ros, the lord William 
Beauchamp, sir Michael de la Pole, the 
lord Stephen Cosington, sir Richard of 
Pontchardon, sir Baudwin of Freville, sir 
Simon Burley, sir d'Aghorisses, sir John 
Devereux, sir William of Nevill and divers 
other, the which I cannot all name ; and of 
Hainowes there was sir Eustace d'Aubreci- 
court ; and of the companions sir Perducas 
d'Albret, Naudan of Bageran, and thither 
came le bourg de Lesparre, le bourg de 
Breteuil, Espiote, Bernard de Wist and 
divers other. So all these men of war 
went forth in good ordinance and took the 
fields, and all the country trembled before 
them. The prince was so diseased that 
he could not ride, but so was carried in 
a horse litter ; and he took the way of 
Limousin to the intent to come to Limoges, 
and at last thither they came, and so lodged 
round about the city ; and there the prince 
sware that he would never depart thence 
till he had the city at his pleasure. 

The bishop within and the burgesses 
considered well how they had greatly tres- 
passed the prince, whereof then they repented 
them, but then they could not remedy it, 
for they were not as then lords nor masters 
of their own city. Sir John Villemur, sir 
Hugh de la Roche and Roger Beaufort, 
who were captains within the city, com- 
forted greatly their people and said : ' Sirs, 
be not afraid, we are strong enough to 
resist against the prince's power ; for by 
assault he cannot hurt nor grieve us, we 
are all well furnished with artillery.' 
When the prince and his marshals had 
well imagined and considered the puissance 
and strength of the city and had knowledge 
of the number of men of war within, then 
they said how by assault they could never 
win it. Then the prince thought to assay 
another way. He had always in his com- 
pany a great number of miners, and so he 
set them a -work to undermine. The 
knights within perceived well how they 
were undermined and began to make dikes 
and to countermine, to the intent to break 
their mine. 



II 



II 



I 



SACK OF LIMOGES, 1370 {Sept. 19) 



201 



CHAPTERS CCLXXXI, CCLXXXII 

SUMMARY.— Sir Rohej-t Knolles devas- 
tated France as far as the gates of Paris. 

Bertrand du Guesclin made war in 
Limousin and took Saint- Yrieix. 



CHAPTER CCLXXXHI 

How the prince took the city of Limoges, 
and how four companions did marvels in 



About the space of a month or more was 
the prince of Wales before the city of 
Limoges, and there was neither assault nor 
scrimmish, but daily they mined. And they 
within knew well how they were mined, 
and made a countermine thereagainst to 
have destroyed the English miners ; but 
they failed of their mine. And when the 
prince's miners saw how the countermine 
against them failed, they said to the prince : 
* Sir, whensoever it shall please you we 
shall cause a part of the wall to fall into 
the dikes, whereby ye shall enter into the 
city at your ease without any danger.' 
Which words pleased greatly the prince, 
and said : * I will that to-morrow betimes 
ye shew forth and execute your work.' 
Then the miners set Hre into their mine, 
and so the next morning, as the prince had 
ordained, there fell down a great pane of 
the wall and filled the dikes, whereof the 
Englishmen were glad and were ready 
armed in the field to enter into the town. 
The foot-men might well enter at their 
ease, and so they did and ran to the gate 
and beat down the fortifying and barriers, 
for there was no defence against them : it 
was done so suddenly that they of the town 
were not ware thereof. 

Then the prince, the duke of Lancaster, 
the earl of Cambridge, the earl of Pem- 
broke, sir Guichard d'Angle and all the 
other with their companies entered into the 
city, and all other foot -men, ready ap- 
parelled to do evil, and to pill and rob the 



for so it was commanded them to do. It 
was great pity to see the men, women and 
children that kneeled down on their knees 



before the prince for mercy ; but he was so 
inflamed with ire, that he took no heed to 
them, so that none was heard, but all put to 
death, as they were met withal, and such 
as were nothing culpable. There was no 
pity taken of the poor people, who wrought 
never no manner of treason, yet they 
bought it dearer than the great personages, 
such as had done the evil and trespass. 
There was not so hard a heart within the 
city of Limoges, an if he had any remem- 
brance of God, but that wept piteously for 
the great mischief that they saw before 
their eyen : for more than three thousand 
men, women and children were slain and 
beheaded that day. God have mercy on 
their souls, for I trow they were martyrs^ 
And thus entering into the city a certain 
company of Englishmen entered into the 
bishop's palace and there they found the 
bishop : and so they brought him to the 
prince's presence, who beheld him right 
fiercely and felly, and the best word that 
he could have of him was, how he would 
have his head stricken off, and so he was 
had out of his sight. 

Now let us speak of the knights that 
were within the city, as sir John of Ville- 
mur, sir Hugh de la Roche, Roger Beau- 
fort, son to the earl of Beaufort, captains 
of the city. When they saw the tribula- 
tion and pestilence that ran over them and 
their company, they said one to another : 
* We are all dead, without we defend our- 
selves : therefore let us sell our lives dearly, 
as good knights ought to do.' Then sir 
John of Villemur said to Roger Beaufort : 
' Roger, it behoveth that ye be made a 
knight.' Then Roger answered and said : 
' Sir, I am not as yet worthy to be a knight : 
I thank you, sir, "of your good-will.' So 
there was no more said : they had not the 
leisure to speak long together. Howbeit, 
they assembled them together in a place 
against an old wall and there displayed 
their banners. So they were to the number 
of eighty persons. Thither came the duke 
of Lancaster, the earl of Cambridge and 
their companies and so lighted afoot, so 
that the Frenchmen could not long endure 
against the Englishmen, for anon they were 



city, and to slay men, women and childreri^_slain and taken. Howbeit, the duke of 



Lancaster himself fought long hand to hand 
against sir John Villemur, who was a strong 
knight and a hardy, and the earl of Cam- 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



bridge fought against sir Hugh de la Roche, 
and the earl of Pembroke against Roger 
Beaufort, who was as then but a squire. 
These three Frenchmen did many feats of 
arms : their men were occupied otherwise. 
The prince in his chariot came by them 
and beheld them gladly and appeased him- 
self in beholding of them. So long they 
fought together that the three Frenchmen, 
by one accord beholding ^ their swords, 
said : * Sirs, we be yours, ye have con- 
quered us : do with us according to right 
of arms.' 'Sir,' quoth the duke of Lan- 
caster, ' we look for nothing else : therefore 
we receive you as our prisoners.' And thus 
the foresaid three Frenchmen were taken, 
as it was informed me. 



CHAPTER CCLXXXIV 

How the city of Limoges was brent and 
destroyed, and the bishop delivered from 
death ; and how sir Bertram of Guesclin 
was chosen constable. 

Thus the city of Limoges was pilled, 
robbed and clean brent and brought to 
destruction. Then the Englishmen de- 
parted with their conquest and prisoners 
and drew to Cognac, where my lady the 
princess was. Then the prince gave leave 
to all his men of war to depart and did no 
more that season ; for he felt himself not 
well at ease, for always his sickness in- 
creased, whereof his brethren and people 
were sore dismayed. 

Now shall I shew you of the bishop of 
Limoges, who was in great peril of losing 
of his head. The duke of Lancaster desired 
of the prince to give him the bishop, to do 
with him at his pleasure. The prince was 
content and caused him to be delivered to 
the duke. The bishop had friends, and 
they had newly informed the pope, who 
was as then at Avignon, of the bishop's tak- 
ing, the which fortuned well for the bishop, 
for else he had been dead. Then the pope 
by sweet words entreated the duke of Lan- 
caster to deliver to him the said bishop. The 
duke would not deny the pope, but granted 

1 ' En regardant ' in the French text, but the true 
reading: is ' en rendant,' ' rendering.' The mistake 
arose by a repetition of ' regardant ' just above. 



him and sent him to Avignon, whereof the 
pope was right glad. 

Now let us speak of the adventures ot 
France. 

The French king was informed of the 
destruction and conquest of the city of 
Limoges, and how it was left clean void as 
a town of desert, wherewith he was sore 
displeased and took it in great passion, the 
damage and annoy of the inhabitants of the 
same. Then was it advised in France by 
counsel of the nobles, prelates and commons 
of all the realm, that it was of necessity 
that the Frenchmen should have a chief 
and a governour called the constable ; for 
sir Moreau of Fiennes would leave and 
give up his office, who was a right valiant 
man of his hands and a great enterpriser of 
deeds of arms. So that, all things con- 
sidered and imagined, by a common accord 
they chose sir Bertram of Guesclin, so that 
he would take it on him, as the most 
valiant knight, most virtuous and most able 
to execute that office and most fortunate 
that they knew as then, that bare arms for 
the crown of France. Then the king wrote 
and sent certain messengers to him, that he 
should come and speak with him at Paris. 
The messengers found him in the county of 
Limoges, whereas he took fortresses and 
castles and made them to yield to the lady 
of Bretayne, wife to sir Charles of Blois, 
and as then he had newly taken a town 
called Brantome and was riding towards 
another. And when the king's messengers 
were come to him, he received them joy- 
ously and right sagely, as he that could do 
it right well. Then the messengers de- 
livered to him the king's letter and did his 
message, and when sir Bertram saw the 
commandment of the king, he would make 
none excuse, but concluded to go and know - 
the king's pleasure ; and so departed, as ^1 
soon as he might, and sent the most part of fll 
his men into garrisons such as he had con- 
quered, and he made sovereign and keeper 
of them sir Olivier of Mauny his nephew. 
Then he rode forth so long by his journeys 
that he came to Paris, where he found the 
king and great number of lords of his coun- 
cil, who received him right joyously and 
did him great reverence ; and there the 
king shewed him how he and his council 
had chosen him to be constable of France. 
Then he excused himself right sagely and 



1 



BERTRAND DU GUESCLIN CONSTABLE 



203 



said : ' Sir, I am not worthy : I am but 
a poor knight as in regard of your other 
great lords and valiant men in France, 
though it be so that fortune hath a little 
advanced me.' Then the king said : ' Sir, 
it is for nothing that ye excuse you ; it 
behoveth you to take it ; for it is so or- 
dained and determined by all the council 
of France, the which in no wise I will 
break.' Then sir Bertram excused himself 
again by another way and said : ' Right 
dear sir and noble king, I may not nor 
dare not withsay your noble pleasure : how- 
beit, sir, it is of truth that I am but a poor 
man and too low of blood to come to the 
office of constable of France, the which is 
so great and so noble an office. For it is 
convenient that he that will exercise and 
acquit himself well in that office must com- 
mand as well and rather the great men 
than the small personages. And, sir, be- 
hold here my lords your brethren, your 
nephews and your cousins, who hath charge 
of many men of war in your host and jour- 
neys. Sir, how durst I then be so bold as 
to command them ? Certainly, sir, envy 
is so great that I ought to fear it. There- 
fore, sir, I require your grace, pardon me, 
and give this office to some other that 
would gladlier have it than I, and that may 
better execute the office.' Then the king 
answered and said : * Sir Bertram, excuse 
you not by that way, for I have neither 
brother, cousin nor nephew, earl nor baron 
in my realm, but that shall obey you. 
And if any do the contrary, I shall so anger 
him that he shall perceive well my displea- 
sure. Therefore, sir, take joyously the 
office I require you.' Sir Bertram saw 
well that any excusations that he could 
make should not avail : then finally he 
accorded to the opinion of the king right 
sore against his will. So then with great 
joy sir Bertram of Guesclin was made con- 
stable of P>ance, and farther to his advance- 
ment the king caused him to sit at his table 
and shewed all the tokens of love that he 
could devise, and gave him with the office 
divers gifts and great lands and heritage to 
him and to his heirs for ever. To this 
promotion did help greatly the duke of 
Anjou. 



CHAPTERS CCLXXXV-CCXCIII 

SUMMARY.— Berirand du Guesclin de- 
feated some of sir Robert Knolles' company 
at Pont - Vallain and sir Robert Knolles 
withdrew to BHttany. 

Urban V. died^ and Gregory XL became 
pope. 

The eldest son of the prince of Wales died^ 
and the prince himself by the advice of his 
physicians returned into England. He left 
the duke of Lancaster to govern the duchy 
of Acquitaijie. 

The duke of Lancaster took Mont- Paon. 

Bertrand du Guesclin took several places 
in Rouergue and elsewhere. 

The earl of Hereford defeated the Flem- 
ings by sea at la Bale in Brittany, and 
the king of England made war by sea on 
the Flemings ; but they of Bruges, Ypres 
and Gaunt sent into England to treat for a 
peace, which was made on certain con- 
ditions. 



CHAPTERS CCXCIV-CCCI 

SUMMARY. — The king of Mallorca was 
set free and mcule war on the king of 
Aragon. 

The duke of Lancaster married the eldest 
daughter of the king don Pedro of Castile, 
and king Henry of Castile made alliance 
with the king of France. 

The duke of I^ancaster returned to Eng- 
land, leaving govemours in Acquitaine. 
After the winter the king of England sent 
the earl of Pembroke into Poitou. The 
king of France ordained a fleet of Spaniards 
to lie in wait for him at La Rochelle. The 
English were totally defeated in a sea fight 
{June 2"^, 1372) and the earl of Pemb?-oke and 
sir Guichard d^ Angle were made prisoners. 

In the same season Owen of Wales landed 
in Guernsey and defeated the English there. 

The earl of Pembroke and the other 
prisoners were brought to king Henry in 
Spain. 



CHAPTERS CCCn-CCCVI 

S UMMAR Y. —Bertrand du Guesclin took 
Montcontour and Sainte - Severe : I^oitiers 



204 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



m 



and La Rochelh turned French, and the 
whole of I^oitou, Saintonge and Rochelle 
was conquered from the English. 



CHAPTERS CCCVII-CCCXIII 

SUMMAR Y. — War was carried on against 
the English in Brittany, atid siege was laid 
to Becherel. 

King David of Scotland died and 7vas 
succeeded by Robert Stuart his nephew. 

The constable du Guesclin came to j^rit- 
tany, and the duke of Brittany reti^-ed to 
England. Nea7'ly all Brittany was con- 
quered by the French in spite of the efforts 
of the English to strengthen their forces. 

The duke of Anjoti conquered towns in 
upper Gascony. 

Negotiations for a peace were carried on 
at Bruges, and a truce was made, to last for 
one year. 



CHAPTER CCCXIV 

Of the journey that the lord of Coucy made 
in Austrich, and of the death of the prince 
of Wales, and how there could be found 
no manner of treaty of peace between the 
two kings : and also of the death of the 
king of England, Edward the third. 

The same season there was come into 
France the lord of Coucy, who had been 
long in Lombardy with the earl of Vertus, 
son to sir Galeas, making war against sir 
Bernabo and his allies, because of pope 
Gregory the eleventh, and for the holy 
college of Rome. The lord of Coucy by 
succession of his mother, who was sister to 
the duke of Austrich last deceased, where- 
by he ought to be inheritor to the duchy, 
for the duke was dead without issue by way 
of marriage : and they of Austrich had 
given the duchy and lands to another 
farther off by lineage than the lord Coucy, 
whereof the lord Coucy had oftentimes 
complained to the emperor, the lord Charles 
of Bohemia. The emperor knew well that 
the lord Coucy had right thereto : howbeit, 
he might not with his ease constrain them 
of Austrich, for they were strong in his 
country and many good men of war. The 
lord of Coucy had made war there before by 



the comfort of his aunt, sister to the duke, 
but little it availed him. And when he 
was thus come into France, the king made 
him great cheer. Then he advised and saw 
well how there was in France as then many 
men of war sat as idle : wherefore he 
thought they could not be better occupied 
than to help him to his right during the 
truce between France and England. Then 
the lord of Coucy desired the king to let 
him have of the Bretons such as overran the 
realm, to make war with him in Austrich. 
The king, who would gladly that the com- 
panions were out of his realm, accorded to 
his desire : so the king lent or gave him, I 
cannot tell whether, a sixty thousand franks 
to depart among the said companions. So 
they rode forth toward Austrich about the 
feast of Saint Michael : they did much evil 
all the ways as they went : also there were 
divers barons, knights and squires of France, 
of Artois, of Vermandois, of Hainault and 
of Picardy, as the viscounts of Meaux and 
d'Aunay, sir Ralph of Coucy, the baron of 
Roye, Peter of Bar and divers other, desir- 
ing to advance their bodies to get them ^^ 
honour. fli 

When the feast of All Saints began to f 
approach, then there came again to Bruges 
to entreat for peace from the French king, 
the duke of Burgoyne, the earl of Sarre- 
bruck, the bishop of Amiens and the duke 
of Anjou, but he lay still at Saint-Omer's ; 
and from the king of England thither came 
the duke of Lancaster, the duke of Bre- 
tayne, the earl of Salisbury, the bishop of 
London. The town of Bruges was well 
garnished with divers estates, and specially 
the duke of Burgoyne kept there a noble 
estate ; and with the duke of Lancaster 
there was sir Robert of Namur and kept 
him good company as long as the duke 
was in Flanders ; and there were the am- 
bassadors, the archbishop of Rouen and 
the bishop of Carpentras, who went still 
and laboured between both parties and laid 
forth many good reasons, but none came to 
any effect. These lords were far asunder 
in their treaties ; for the French king de- 
manded to have again fourteen hundred 
thousand franks, the which were paid for 
the redemption of king John, and to have 
Calais rased and beaten down, to the which 
the king of England would never consent : 
so the truce was continued to the feast of 



I 



DEATH OF THE PRINCE OF WALES, 1376 



205 



Saint John Baptist next after, the year 
of our Lord a thousand three hundred and 
seventy -six. And so these lords tarried 
still at Bruges all that winter, and in sum- 
mer they returned every part to their own 
countries, except the duke of Bretayne, 
who tarried still in Flanders with the earl 
Louis his cousin, who made him good 
cheer. 

The same season on Trinity Sunday 
there passed out of this world the flower of 
chivalry of England, Edward prince of 
Wales and of Acquitaine, at the king's 
palace of Westminster beside London. 
And so he was embalmed and put in lead 
and kept till the feast of Saint Michael next 
after, to be interred with the greater 
solemnity when the parliament should be 
there. King Charles of France because of 
lineage did his obsequy reverently in the 
Holy Chapel of the palace in Paris, and 
there were many of the prelates and nobles 
of the realm of France : and so then the 
truce was prolonged to the first day of 
April next after. 

Now let us somewhat speak of the lord 
Coucy and of the Almains. When they of 
Austrich and the Almains understood that 
the lord of Coucy was come with such a 
strength to make war, they caused to be brent 
and destroyed three days' journey into the 
country alongby the river, and then they went 
into the mountains and places inhabitable. 
And so when the lord of Coucy had weened 
to have found victual for his host, he could 
get none ; whereby he suffered that winter 
much trouble and disease, for they wist 
not whither to go to forage nor to get 
victual for them nor their horses, so that 
some died for hunger, cold and sickness : 
and therefore when the springing time 
began, they returned again into France, 
and went into divers places to refresh them- 
selves. And the French king sent the 
most part of the companions into Bretayne 
and into base Normandy to abide and rest 
there, for he thought well he should have 
somewhat to do in short time after. And 
at the returning of the lord Coucy into 
France, he began to be good French, be- 
cause he found the king so amiable to con- 
descend to his desire, and also his council 
said he need not to avoid out of his heritage 
under the shadow of the king of England's 
war, for they said he was French of name. 



of blood, of arms and extraction. He sent 
his wife into England and kept still with 
him his eldest daughter, and left the 
younger still in England, whereas she had 
been brought up and nourished. Then the 
French king sent the lord Coucy to Bruges 
to them that were there to entreat for the 
peace. Howbeit, as then the great lords 
were not there, but all only the duke of 
Bretayne, who was still with his cousin the 
earl of Flanders ; but he busied himself 
but little in the treaty for the peace. 

And after the feast of Saint Michael, 
when the obsequy of the prince was done 
and finished, then the king of England 
made to be known to his sons, the duke of 
Lancaster, the earl of Cambridge, and to 
the lord Thomas the youngest, and to all 
the barons, earls, prelates and knights of 
England, how that the young Richard 
should be king after his decease, and so 
caused them all to swear solemnly to main- 
tain him. And on Christmas day the king 
made him to sit at his table above all his 
own children in great estate, representing 
that he should be king after his decease. 
And there was sent to Bruges for the king 
of England's part John lord Cobham, the 
bishop of Hereford and the dean of London; 
and for the French part thither came the 
earl of Sarrebruck, the lord of Chatillon 
and master Philbert I'Espinasse ; and the 
two bishops ambassadors always went be- 
tween the parties treating for peace and 
spake of a marriage to be had between the 
young prince of England and my lady Mary, 
daughter to the French king. And so they 
departed, as well they of France as of Eng- 
land, and so made report to both kings. 
And then about Lent there was a secret 
treaty devised to be between the two kings 
at Montreuil-by-the-sea, and so were sent 
by the king of England to Calais sir 
Guichard d'Angle, Richard Stury, Geoffrey 
Chaucer, and from the French king was 
sent the lord of Coucy and of Riviere, sir 
Nicholas Braque and Nicholas Mercier. 
And they a long season treated on the said 
marriage, and the Frenchmen offered, as I 
was informed, divers things, and they 
would have again other things such as 
they named, or else nothing. Then these 
entreators went and made report to their 
lords, and so the truce was again relonged 
to the first day of May. And so came 



206 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROTSSART 



again to Calais the earl of Salisbury, the 
bishop of Saint David's, chancellor of Eng- 
land, and the bishop of Hereford : and for 
the French king at Montreuil there was the 
lord of Coucy, sir Willam of Dormans, 
chancellor of France. But they durst 
never trust to meet together in any place 
between Montreuil and Calais, nor be- 
tween Montreuil and Boulogne, nor in the 
frontiers, for anything that the two bishops 
ambassadors could do or shew. Thus these 
entreators abode in this estate, till the truce 
was expired. 

And when the war was open, then sir 
Hugh Calverley was sent to be keeper of 
Calais. When pope Gregory being at 
Avignon understood that no peace could be 
had between France and England, he was 
right sorrowful and ordered his business 
shortly and went to Rome. And when the 
duke of Bretayne, who had been more than 
a year with the earl of Flanders his cousin, 
saw that the war was open, he took leave 
of the earl and went to Gravelines, and 
thither he came to the earl of Salisbury and 
sir Guichard d'Angle, and so went with 
them to Calais and there tarried the space 
of a month, and so went into England and 
came to Sheen, a four leagues from London 
along by the Thames side, where the king 
of England lay sore sick and passed out of 
this world the vigil of Saint John Baptist 
the year of our Lord a thousand three 
hundred and seventy-seven. 

Then was there great sorrow made in 
England, and incontinent all the passages 
of the realm were stopped, that none should 
issue out of the realm ; for they would not 
that the death of the king should be so 
soon known in France, till they had set the 
realm in some order. The same time there 
came into England the earl of Salisbury 
and sir Guichard d'Angle. So the body 
of king Edward the third with great pro- 
cessions, weepings and lamentations, his 
sons behind him with all the nobles and 
prelates of England, was brought along the 
city of London with open visage to West- 
minster, and there he was buried beside the 
queen his wife. And anon after, the young 
king Richard was crowned at the palace of 
Westminster with great solenmity, and by 
him stood the dukes of Lancaster and of 
Bretayne, the eleventh year of his age, in 
the month of July : the which day there 



was made four earls and nine knights ; first 
the lord Thomas his uncle was made earl 
of Buckingham, the lord Percy earl of 
Northumberland, sir Guichard d'Angle 
earl of Huntingdon, the lord Mowbray 
earl of Nottingham : and the young king 
was put unto the rule of the gentle knight 
sir Guichard d'Angle by the accord of all 
the land, to be instructed in noble virtues, 
and the realm of England to be governed 
by the duke of Lancaster. And as soon 
as the French king knew of the death of 
king Edward, he said how right nobly and 
valiantly he had reigned, and well he ought 
to be put newly in remembrance among 
the number of the worthies. Then he 
assembled a great number of the nobles 
and prelates of his realm and did his ob- 
sequy in the Holy Chapel in his palace at 
Paris. And anon after died the eldest 
daughter of the French king, who was en- 
sured to have been married to William of 
Hainault, eldest son of duke Aubert. 



CHAPTERS CCCXV-CCCXVH 

SUMMARY. — The French king sent a 
great navy to sea and ravaged the coasts of 
Eftgland. 

The captalde Buch^ after being a prisoner 
in France for five years ^ died in the Temple 
at Paris. 

The duke of Burgundy took Ardres and 
other fortresses near Calais. 

War was renewed between the French 
king and the king of Navarre, and the 
king of Navarre lost the county of Evreux, 
except Cherbourg, which was fruitlessly be- 
sieged by the French. 

The French gained Auray and other 
towns in Brittany, and laid a garrison 
against Cherbourg under sir William- des 
Bordes, who was defeated and made prisoner 
by the English on Saint Martin s day in 
July 1379.1 

1 Here ends the first book of the Chronicles, 
which coincides with the first vokime of the trans- 
lator's French text. Some of the events which 
have been shortly mentioned before this are related 
with more detail in the second book. Each book 
was originally a separate work, and that edition 
of the first book which was dedicated to Robert 
of Namur contained a summary of the events 
down to 1379, a part of which the author omitted 
afterwards when putting together the first and 
second books. The copyists, however, usually com- 
bined the second redaction of the first book with 



1 



AFFAIRS OF THE CHURCH, 1377 



207 



CHAPTERS CCCXVIII-CCCXXV 

SUMMARY. — The duke of Anjou and 
the constable of France made a great 
assembly and laid siege to Bergerac. A 
body of English were surprised and defeated 
at Eytnet : sir Thomas Felton, seneschal of 
Bordeaux, and several Gasco?i lords were 
taken prisoners. Bergerac was surrendered 
to the French, afid the duke of Anjou took 
other towns and castles in Gascony. 

The Scots by stealth took the castle of 
Berwick, which was won again by the earl 
of Northumberland, who then invaded 
Scotland. Sir Thomas Musgrave was de- 
feated by the Scots in the field of Saint Giles 
and the English retired from Scotland. 

The author thus continues : — 

Now let us leave to speak of Scotland for 
this present time and let us speak of other 
incidents that fell in France. 

The same time, in the month of February, 
the French queen died, and, as the physi- 
cians said, through her own fault. For she 
lay in childbed of a fair lady named 
Katherine, who was after duchess of Berry : 
the queen being in childbed was not well at 
ease, and her physicians had defended her 
in any wise that she should not enter into 
no bain ; for they said it was contrary to her 
disease and right perilous for her. All that 
notwithstanding, she would needs be bained, 
and so she was, and so fell sicker and died : 
and so king Charles of France was a 
widower, for he never married after. 



CHAPTER CCCXXVI 

How the war began again between the 
Navarrois and the Frenchmen ; and of the 
beginning of the schism of holy Church. 

After the death of the French queen died 
also the queen of Navarre, sister-german 

the first of the second book. It is important to 
notice that the text of each separate book is an in- 
dependent one, and that what has been said in the 
introduction about abridgment and omission in the 
French text hardly applies except to that of the first 
book, in which also the variations of the different 
redactions are far more important than in the other 
books : indeed a large part of the first book was 
completely rewritten twice after its first production. 



to the French king, and after the death of 
this queen of Navarre great murmuring 
rose between the sage men and customiers 
of the county of Evreux, which is in 
Normandy, the which by right succession 
of their mother should fall to the king of 
Navarre's children, who were as then with- 
in age and under the rule and keeping of 
their uncle king Charles of France. And 
king Charles of Navarre was had in such 
suspect beforetime, in that he had made 
and consented and raised so many evils and 
inconveniences in the realm of France, that 
he was not worthy to hold any heritage in 
the realm of France under the shadow of 
his children. The same season there came 
out of Acquitaine the constable of France, 
who had been all that season with the duke 
of Anjou, and brought with him in his 
company the lord Mussidan of Gascoyne 
to see the king and to be acquainted with 
him, and so he did. Between the king 
and the constable there was many secret 
counsels of the state of the realm of 
France and of Navarre, which was not 
suddenly known. We shall shortly speak 
of that matter : but justly to chronicle all 
matters that fell in the same season in 
the world, I shall shew you of the be- 
ginning of the pestilence and inconvenience 
that began in the Church of God, whereby 
all Christendom was in great trouble and 
variance, and thereby many great mischiefs 
grew and followed. 

Ye have heard herebefore how pope 
Gregory, the eleventh of that name, was in 
the city of Avignon. And when he saw 
that he could find no manner of peace to 
be had between the kings of England and 
France, wherewith he was in great dis- 
pleasure, for he had greatly travailed there- 
about and had made his cardinals to do the 
same, then he advised himself and had a 
devotion to go and revisit Rome and the 
see apostolic, the which Saint Peter and 
Saint Paul had edified. He had made 
before promise that, if ever he came to the 
degree to be pope, he would never keep 
his see but thereas Saint Peter kept his and 
ordained it. This pope was a man of 
feeble complexion and sickly, and endured 
much pain more than any other. And he 
thus being in Avignon was so sore let with 
the businesses of France and so sore tra- 
vailed with the king and his brethren, that 



208 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



with much pain he had any leisure to take 
heed anything to himself or to his Church. 
Then he said to himself he would go farther 
off from them to be more at rest ; and so he 
caused provision to be made on the river of 
Genes ^ and all the ways as he should pass, 
as it appertained to such an high estate as he 
was ; and then he said to his cardinals : 
' Sirs, make you ready, for I will to Rome. ' 
Of that motion his cardinals were sore 
abashed and displeased, for they loved not 
the Romans, and so they would fain have 
turned his purpose, but they could not. 
And when the French king knew thereof, 
he was sore displeased, for he thought he 
had the pope nearer at hand there than in 
any other place. Then the king wrote 
incontinent to his brother the duke of 
Anjou, who was at Toulouse, signifying 
him that after the sight of his letters he 
should go to Avignon to the pope and 
break his voyage to Rome, if it were possible. 
The duke did as the king commanded him, 
and so came to Avignon, where the 
cardinals received him with great joy, and 
so was lodged in the pope's palace, the 
ofter thereby to speak with the pope. Ye 
may well know he spake with the pope 
and shewed him divers reasons to have 
broken his purpose : but the pope would 
in no wise consent thereto nor take any heed 
of any businesses on this side the moun- 
tains ; but the pope gave the duke full 
puissance to do what he might, reserving 
certain cases papal, the which he might not 
give to no man, nor put them out of his 
own hands. When the duke saw he could 
not come to his intent for no reason nor 
fair words that he could shew, he took 
leave of the pope and said at his departing : 
' Holy father, ye go into a good country 
among such people whereas ye be but little 
beloved, and ye will leave the fountain of 
faith and the realm whereas holy Church 
hath most faith and excellence of all the 
world. And, sir, by your deed the Church 
may fall in great tribulation ; for if ye die 
there, the which is right likely, and so say 
the physicians, then the Romans, who be 
malicious and traitors, shall be lords and 
masters of all the cardinals and shall make 
a pope at their own will.' Howbeit, for 
all these words and many other, the pope 
never rested till he was on his way, and so 
1 That is, the Riviera of Genoa. 



came to Marseille, whereas the galleys of 
Genes were ready to receive him, and the 
duke returned again to Toulouse. Pope 
Gregory entered into the sea at Marseille 
with a great company, and had good wind 
and so took land at Genes, and there new 
refreshed his galleys and so took the sea 
again and sailed till he came to Rome. 
The Romans were right joyful of his 
coming, and all the chief of Rome mounted 
on their horses and so brought him into 
Rome with great triumph, and lodged in 
Saint Peter's palace. And oftentimes he 
visited a church called our Lady the 
Great ^ within Rome, wherein he had 
great pleasure and did make therein many 
costly works. And within a while after 
his coming to Rome he died, and was 
buried in the said church, and there 
his obsequy was made, as to a pope 
appertained. 

Anon after the death of the pope Gregory, 
the cardinals drew them into the conclave 
in the palace of Saint Peter. Anon after, 
as they were entered to choose a pope, 
according to their usage, such one as should 
be good and profitable for holy Church, 
the Romans assembled them together in a 
great number and came into the bourage of 
Saint Peter. 2 They were to the number of 
thirty thousand, what one and other, in the 
intent to do evil, if the matter went not 
according to their appetites. And they 
came oftentimes before the conclave and 
said : ' Hark ye, sir cardinals, deliver you 
at once and make a pope : ye tarry too 
long. If ye make a Roman, we will not 
change him ; but if ye make any other, the 
Roman people and counsels will not take 
him for pope, and ye put yourselves all in 
adventure to be slain.' The cardinals, who 
were as then in the danger of the Romans 
and heard well those words, they were not at 
their ease nor assured of their lives, and so 
appeased them of their ire as well as they 
might with fair words ; but so much rose 
the felony of the Romans, that such as were 
next to the conclave, to the intent to make 
the cardinals afraid and to cause them to 
condescend the rather to their opinions, 
brake up the door of the conclave, whereas 
the cardinals were. Then the cardinals 

1 Sta. Maria Maf^^giore, on the Esquiline. 

2 That is, the buurg of Saint Peter, the Leonine 
city. 



I 



ELECTION OF URBAN VI., 1378 



209 



weened surely to have been slain and so 
fled away to save their lives, some one way 
and some another : but the Romans were 
not so content, but took them and put them 
together again, whether they would or not. 
The cardinals then, seeing themselves in the 
danger of the Romans and in great peril of 
their lives, agreed among themselves, more 
for to please the people than for any devo- 
tion : howbeit, by good election they chose 
an holy man, a cardinal of the Roman 
nation, whom pope Urban the fifth had 
I made cardinal, and he was called before 
! the cardinal of Saint Peter. ^ This election 
pleased greatly the Romans, and so this 
good man had all the rights that belonged 
to the papality ; howbeit, he lived not 
but three days after, and I shall shew 
you why. The Romans, who desired to 
have a pope of their own nation, were so 
joyful of this new pope, that they took 
him, who was a hundred year of age, 
and set him on a white mule, and so led 
him up and down through the city of 
Rome, exalting him and shewing how they 
had vanquished the cardinals, seeing they 
had a pope Roman according to their 
own intents, insomuch that the good holy 
man was so sore travailed that he fell 
sick, and so died the third day, and was 
buried in the church of Saint Peter, and 
there he lieth. 



CHAPTER CCCXXVII 

Of the orgulous words that the Romans said 
at the election of the new pope again : 
and how the war renewed between the 
French king and the king of Navarre. 

Of the death of this pope the cardinals 
were right sorrowful, for they saw well 
how the matter should not go well to pass. 
For they had thought, if that pope had 
lived, to have dissimuled among the Romans 
for two or three years and at the last to have 
brought the see apostolic into some other 
place than at Rome, at Naples or at Genes, 
out of the danger of the Romans ; but the 
death of the pope brake their purpose. 

1 The cardinal de Saint-Pierre was not actuallj'^ 
elected, but it was thought for a time that he was 
so (Kervyn de Lettenhove, ix. 501). 

' P 



Then the cardinals went again into the 
conclave in greater danger than they were 
in before, for the Romans assembled them 
together again before the conclave and 
made semblant to break it up and to slay 
them all, if they did not choose a pope 
according to their minds, and cried to the 
cardinals and said : ' Sirs, advise you well. 
If ye deliver us a pope Roman, we be con- 
tent ; or else we will make your heads 
redder than your hats be.' Such words 
and menaces abashed greatly the cardinals, 
for they had rather a died confessors 
than martyrs. Then to bring themselves 
out of that danger and peril, they made a 
pope ; but he was none of the college of 
cardinals, he was archbishop of Bari, a 
great clerk who greatly had travailed for 
the wealth of holy Church. With his pro- 
motion of papality the Romans were ap- 
peased, for the cardinal of Genes put out his 
head out at a window of the conclave and 
said on high to the people of Rome : * Sirs, 
appease you, for you have a pope Roman, 
and that is Bartholomew des Aigles, arch- 
bishop of Bari. ' The people answered all 
with one voice: 'Then we be content.' 
The same archbishop was not as then at 
Rome ; I think he was in Naples. Then 
he was incontinent sent for, of the which 
tidings he was right glad, and so came to 
Rome, and at his coming there was great 
feast made to him, and so he had all the 
rights that pertained to the papality and 
was called Urban, the sixth of that name. 
The Romans had great joy : his creation 
was signified to all the churches of Chris- 
tenty and also to emperors, kings, dukes 
and earls, and the cardinals sent word to 
all their friends that he was chosen by 
good and true election : howbeit, some of 
them repented them after, that they had 
spoken so largely in the matter. This 
pope renounced all graces given before, 
and so divers departed from their coun- 
tries and places and went to Rome to have 
grace. 

Now let us leave somewhat to speak 
of this matter, and let us return to our 
principal history of the businesses of 
France. 

Ye have heard right well herebefore how 
the king of Navarre, who had to his wife 
the French king's sister, for the love of the 
one and of the other it was said and pur- 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



posed ^ thai the heritage of the children of 
the king of Navarre, the which was fallen 
to them by the right of their mother, that 
the French king their uncle by the succes- 
sion of his sister ought to have power thereof 
in name of the children, seeing the children 
were in his keeping ; whereby all the land 
that the king of Navarre held in Normandy 
should be in the French king's hand, as 
long as his nephews were within age. Of 
all these matters the king of Navarre 
doubted greatly, for he knew well the usage 
and custom of France. Then he advised 
him of two things : the one was to send the 
bishop of Pampelone and sir Martin Carra 
into France to the king, desiring him 
heartily that for good love and favour to 
send him his two sons Charles and Peter, 
and if it pleased him not to send him both 
two, then at least to send him his son 
Charles, because he was towards a treaty for 
a marriage for him with the daughter of the 
king of Castile. The second thing was, 
notwithstanding that he sent thus into 
France, yet secretly he sent also into Nor- 
mandy, to visit and to refresh the castles 
there pertaining to him, to the intent that 
the Frenchmen should not take them into 
their hands : for he feared, if they had 
them once in their possessions, he should 
not have them again when he would. And 
so he sent two valiant men of arms Navar- 
rois, in whom he had great trust, the one 
called Peter Basele and the other Ferrando, 
into Normandy for the said intent. The 
first messengers went into France, as the 
bishop of Pampelone and sir Martin Carra, 
who spake with the king at great leisure, 
right humbly recommending the king of 
Navarre to him, desiring in his name that 
he would send to him his two sons. The 
king answered and said, he would take 
advice and counsel in the matter : and so 
after they were answered in the king's 
name, the king being present and the two 
children also his nephews, how that the 

1 The true text runs thus : ' Ye have heard 
right well before how the l<ing of Navarre was left 
a widower, who had had to wife the sister of the 
king of France, and how the wise men of the 
realm of France, taking advice one with another, 
said and proposed,' etc. The translator gives us a 
pretty literal rendering of his text, which was hope- 
less. The words ' was left a widower ' and ' realm 
of France ' were there omitted, and 'par I'avis I'un 
de I'autre ' was corrupted into ' par I'amour I'un de 
I'autre,' 



king loved them right entirely, wherefore 
they could not be better in no place, and 
that the king of Navarre ought to be con- 
tent rather to suffer them to be in France 
with the king their uncle than in any other 
place ; and also the king will in no wise 
depart from them, but keep them about 
him in their estate as the children of a 
king and like his nephews. Other answer 
the messengers could not have. And in 
the mean season that these messengers were 
in France, Peter of Basele and Ferrando 
arrived at Cherbourg with great provision, 
the which they put in divers places, in 
towns and castles of the king of Navarre's 
in Normandy, and so they visited in the 
king of Navarre's name all the county of 
Evreux, and made new officers and set in 
people at their pleasures. And so returned 
again into Navarre the bishop of Pampelone 
and sir Martin Carra and shewed the king 
how they had sped in France. The king 
of Navarre was not very glad of that 
tidings, when he could not have his own 
sons, and so began a great hatred in his 
heart toward the French king, the which 
he would gladly have shewed, if he had 
might, but the puissance of himself was not 
so great to grieve the realm of France with- 
out help and aid of some other realm : so 
he suffered all these matters, till he had. 
better cause to speak and more displeasure 
done to him than he had as then. 

The French king and his council were^ 
well informed that the king of Navarre had ' 
new revictualled his castles and towns in 
Normandy, but they knew not for what 
intent. The same season the Englishmen 
made a secret army on the sea of two 
thousand men of arms, but they had no 
horse with them, of the which army the^J 
duke of Lancaster and the earl of Cam-BJ 
bridge were chief captains. This the Nor- 
mans reported surely to the French king ; 
and this army came on the coasts of Nor- 
mandy, but they could not tell . to what 
part they would draw unto. Some in 
France thought that the king of Navarre i 
had caused them to come into Normandy, 
to deliver to them such castles as he had ' 
there : wherefore it was said to the king : 
' Sir, go hastily and be lord of those castles 
before, for ye may hap to tarry too long : 
for if the Englishmen have them, they may 
do much hurt to the realm of France, forj 



id 

t 

in ^ 



IVAJ? WITH THE KING OF NAVARRE 



211 



it shall be one of the best entries that they 
can have, if they were lords in Normandy, 
of the cities, towns and castles belonging 
to the king of Navarre.' The same season 
there was taken in France two secretaries 
of the king of Navarre, a clerk and a 
squire ; the clerk was called Peter of Tertre 
and the squire James of Rue, and they were 
brought to Paris to be examined ; and so 
much it was known by them of the secrets 
of the realm of Navarre, how they were 
determined to have done damage to the 
king, or else to have poisoned him : so 
they were condemned to die, and execution 
was done at Paris, beheaded and quartered. 
These tidings multiplied so on the king of 
Navarre, that the French king sware that 
he would never attend to none other thing, 
till he had rid Normandy, and taken into 
his possession for the behoof of his nephews 
all the towns and castles that the king of 
Navarre held there. So daily there came 
sore informations to the French king 
against the king of Navarre : also it was 
said openly that the duke of Lancaster 
should give his daughter Katherine to the 
king of Navarre, and so by that means the 
king should give to the duke of Lancaster 
all the whole county of Evreux. These 
words were lightly believed in France, for 
the king of Navarre was but little trusted 
among them. So then the same time the 
French king came to Rouen, and there 
assembled a great army of men of war, 
whereof the lord Coucy and the lord de la 
Riviere were chief captains, and they all 
met together before a town called Evreux, 
a city in Normandy pertaining to the king 
of Navarre. And these two lords had the 
two sons of the king of Navarre, Charles 
and Peter, to shew to them of the country 
that the war that they made was in the 
name of the two children for their heritage, 
that was fallen to them by the right of their 
mother, and how that the king of Navarre 
had no right to keep them. But the most 
part of the men of arms were so joined in 
love with the king of Navarre, that they 
could not depart out of his service, and 
also the Navarrois that were there as- 
sembled, such as the king of Navarre had 
sent thither, caused his war to be the more 
easier and fair. 



CHAPS. CCCXXVIII-CCCXXXVII 

SUMMARY. — The French king seized 
the county of Montpeliier, which belonged 
to the king of Navarre, and the lords de 
Coucy and de la Rivihre laid siege to 
Evreux. 

The king of Navarre sent for help to 
England and then went thither himself to 
make an alliance. It was agreed that the 
Eyiglish should set garrisons in the king of 
A^avarre's toivns and castles in Normandy 
and send a force to help him against the 
king of Castile. The French took Caren- 
tan, MoulineauXf Conches and Pacy, so 
that the king of Navarre held nothing in 
Normandy but Evreux and Cherbourg. 
Meanwhile the English with the duke of 
Lancaster laid siege to Saint-Malo. 

Evan of Wales was killed by his own 
squire before Mortagne. 

Evreux surrendered to the French, 

The English sent a large fleet to Bor- 
deaux to help the king of Navarre, and the 
siege of Mortagne was raised. The Etig- 
lish recovered some castles about Bordeaux. 

The English failed in their assaults on 
Saint-Malo and so returned to England : 
at Cherbourg sir Oliver du Gttesclin was 
made prisoner. 



CHAPTERS CCCXXXVin-CCCXLII 

SUMMARY. — The king of Navarre 
asked for help from the English at Bor- 
deaux, who entered Navarre, compelling 
the Spaniards to raise the siege of Pam- 
plona, and invaded Castile. Peace was 
made between the kings of Navarre and of 
Castile. King Henry died and was suc- 
ceeded by John his son. 



CHAPTER CCCXLin 

How the French king's messenger was let of 
his viage into Scotland, and of the debate 
that began between the French king and 
the earl of Flanders. 

In the same season returned into England 
sir Thomas Trivet and sir William Helman, 
with divers other knights and squires, such 



212 



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



as had been in Spain to aid the king of 
Navarre's war : and so they came to the 
king of England, who as then was at 
Chertsey with his two uncles the duke of 
Lancaster and the earl of Cambridge with 
him ; and these knights were joyfully re- 
ceived of the king and these lords, and 
there they were desired to shew some tid- 
ings from those parts. And so they shewed 
all that they knew both of Spain and of 
Navarre and of the peace made between 
the two kings of Spain and Navarre, and 
how the king of Navarre had married 
Charles his eldest son to king Henry's 
daughter, and so from point to point as the 
treaty was between them. The duke of 
Lancaster and the earl of Cambridge were 
right pensive of these words, for they 
thought and named themselves to be heirs 
of Spain by right of their wives. Then 
they demanded how long it was sith king 
Henry the bastard died, and whether the 
Spaniards had crowned John his son or no. 
The knights answered and said : * Sirs, at 
the death of king Henry nor at the corona- 
tion of John his son we were not present, 
for by that time we were come back into 
Navarre. But, sir, here is an herald was 
there present : ye may know everything by 
him, an it please you.' 

Then the herald was called forth and de- 
manded by the duke of Lancaster how the 
matter was. He answered and said : * Sir, 
at your request I shall shew you. In the 
mean season, while these noblemen were at 
Pampelone, abiding the accomplishment of 
the treaty, the which was made by their 
good wills and leaves, I tarried behind still 
with the king of Navarre, whereas I had 
good cheer both of him and of his men : 
and so I went with him from Pampelone 
to Saint Dominic's, against whose coming 
king Henry issued out of the town with a 
goodly company and met us with great sign 
of love and peace. And there the king of 
Navarre was greatly honoured by him and 
all his, and gave him the same night an 
honest supper. And after supper tidings 
was brought to them how that a great wild 
boar was lodged in the launds thereby, and 
so it was ordained that the next morning 
they should go and hunt the same boar : 
and so they did, at which hunting there was 
both kings and a great company, and the 
boar taken, and against night they returned I 



again with great love to Saint Dominic's. 
And the next day king Henry departed and 
went to Belorade for a day that he had 
there against his men, and there he fell 
sick and so died. And the king of Navarre 
was coming toward him to see him there, 
and by the way he heard word of his death, 
whereof he was right sorry, and so returned 
again ; and then I took leave of him and 
went into Castile to know some tidings 
there. This king Henry died on Whitsun- 
day, and anon after, the twenty-fifth day of 
July, the day of Saint James and Saint 
Christopher, John of Castile his eldest son 
was crowned king in the cathedral church 
in the city of Burgos, at the which corona- 
tion were all the barons and prelates of 
Spain, of Galice, of Cordowan and of 
Seville, and all they sware there on the 
holy Evangelists to take and maintain him 
for their king, and there was made the 
same day two hundred and ten new knights 
and many a great gift given. The next 
morning with a great company of noble- 
men he went to an abbey of ladies without 
Burgos called Horghes,^ and there he heard 
mass and dined. And after dinner there 
was great jousting, and the viscount of 
Roquebertin of Aragon had the prize ; and 
then he returned again to Burgos : and this 
feast endured fifteen days.' 

Then the duke of Lancaster enquired if 
the king of Portugal was desired to be there 
or not. 'Sir,' quoth the herald, 'he was 
desired ; but for all that he was not there, 
nor would not come thither. And, as it 
was said, he answered the messenger that 
came to him, how he would not go to the 
coronation of the son of a bastard.* ' By 
my faith,' quoth the duke of Lancaster, 'he 
was right well counselled to say these words : 
I can him great thank therefor. I trust 
the matter shall not long abide in that case, 
for my brother and I will demand that 
heritage, whereof he calleth himself king as 
now. ' And so they left talking and called 
for drink. 

Now let us leave to speak of this matter 
and return to the business of France. 

King Charles of France, who as then 
reigned, was right sage and subtle, and that 
was well shewed as long as he lived. For 
though that he kept himself privy in his 
chamber taking his pleasure and sport, yet 
1 Huelgas. 



PETER DE BOURN AZEL AT SLUYS 



213 



he conquered again that his predecessors had 
lost in the field armed with their swords in 
their hands ; wherefore he was greatly to be 
commended. And because he knew well 
that king Robert of Scotland and all the 
realm there had made war and had mortal 
hate to the Englishmen, for those two 
realms could never love together, therefore 
to the intent to nourish more love between 
France and Scotland, the French king 
thought to send a knight and a secretary of 
his council to king Robert of Scotland and 
to the Scots, to speak with them and to 
advise the country and to know if he might 
make any good war to England by Scot- 
land. For Evan of Wales in his lifetime 
had informed him that Scotland was the 
place in the world whereby England might 
be most annoyed. And of this purpose the 
French king had many imaginations, so 
that at last he ordained a knight, a sage 
man called sir Peter lord of Bournazel, and 
said to him : ' Sir, ye shall go and do this 
message into Scotland and recommend me 
to the king there and to his barons, and 
shew him how that we and our realm are 
ready to do them pleasure and to have a 
treaty with them as our friends, so that 
thereby in the season to come we may send 
people thither, whereby we may have entry 
into England that way in like manner as 
our predecessors have had in time past ; 
and in your going thither and coming home- 
ward I will ye keep such estate as a mes- 
senger and commissary of a king should 
do, on our cost and charge.' 'Sir,' quoth 
the knight, ' all shall be as it pleaseth you.' 
And so he tarried not long after, but 
when he was ready, departed from Paris 
and did so much by his journeys that he 
came to Sluys in Flanders, and there tar- 
ried and abode for wind and passage a 
fifteen days, for the wind was contrary for 
him. And in the mean season he held a 
great estate, and well stuffed with vessel of 
gold and silver throughout his hall as 
largely as though he had been a little duke 
or better. His minstrels played before his 
service daily, and bare a sword ^ garnished 
with gold and silver, and his men paid well 
for everything. Of the great estate that 
this knight kept in his house and in the 
streets divers of the town had great marvel. 
The baily of the town beheld it well, who 
1 * [II] faisoit porter devant luy une esp^e,' etc. 



was officer there under the earl of Flanders, 
and could keep it no longer secret, wherein 
he did evil ; for he sent word thereof to 
the earl, who lay at Bruges, and the duke 
of Bretayne his cousin with him. And 
when the earl of Flanders had studied a 
little on the matter and by the help of the 
duke of Bretayne, ordained that the knight 
should be brought to him. The baily re- 
turned again to Sluys and came uncour- 
teously to the French knight, for he set his 
hand on him and rested him in the earl of 
Flanders' name, whereof the knight had 
great marvel and said to the baily : ' What 
meaneth this ? I am a messenger and com- 
missary of the French king.' ' Sir,' quoth 
the baily, * I believe well. Howbeit ye 
must needs go and speak with the earl of 
Flanders, for he hath commanded me to 
bring you to him.' So the knight could 
make no scuse, but that he and his com- 
pany were brought to Bruges to the earl. 
And when he was in the earl's chamber, 
the earl and the duke stood together lean- 
ing out of a window into the garden- ward. 
Then the knight kneeled down and said : 
' Sir, behold here is your prisoner ' : of the 
which word the earl was sore displeased, 
and said in despite and ire : * What sayest 
thou, ribbald ? that thou art my prisoner, 
because I have sent to speak with thee? 
Thy master's servants may right well come 
and speak with me : but thou hast not well 
acquitted thyself, sith thou hast been so 
long at Sluys and knowing me here so 
near to thee, and yet not come once to see 
or to speak with me. Thou haddest dis- 
dain so to do.' * Sir,' quoth the knight, 
' saving your displeasure ' — then the duke 
of Bretayne took the words and said : 
* Among you bourders and janglers in the 
palace of Paris and in the king's chamber 
ye set by the realm as ye list and play with 
the king at your pleasure, and do well or 
evil as ye will yourselves : for there is no 
prince of the blood royal, if ye among you 
have once brought him into any hate or 
displeasure with the king, that can be heard 
after. But once I trust there will be so 
many of such people taken, that the gibbets 
will be full of them.' 

The knight, who sat still on his knees, 
was right sore abashed of those words, for 
the hearing of such words was right hard 
to him. Howbeit, he saw well it was 



214 



TE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART 



better for him to keep his tongue than to 
speak, and so gave no answer to those 
words : and when he saw his time, he 
took his leave of the earl and of the lords 
and departed out of their presence, and 
some noblemen that were about the earl 
made him way and made him to drink, and 
then he returned again to Sluys to his 
lodging. And I shall shew you what fell 
after. Though all his purveyance were 
ready appax*elled and that he had wind at 
will to have sailed into Scotland, yet he 
durst not put himself into the dangers of 
the sea : for it was shewed him how he was 
spied by the Englishmen that he lay at 
Sluys, and how that if he kept on his 
voyage he was likely to be taken and 
carried into England ; and because of those 
doubts he brake his viage and returned to 
Paris to the king. 

Ye may well know that the lord of 
Bournazel told no less to the French king 
than was done to him by the earl of 
Flanders, and also it was needful for him 
to tell all for his excuse, for the king had 
marvel of his returning. The same season 
there were divers knights in the king's 
chamber, and specially sir John of Ghis- 
telles of Hainault, cousin to the earl of 
Flanders, who had great displeasur