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Full text of "The chronicles of Greenford Parva; or, Perivale, past and present. With divers historical, archæological, and other notes, traditions, etc., relating to the church and manor, and the Brent Valley"

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JNO. ALLEN BROWN, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., &c, 


WLify JpuII=page arrtr otfjer Illustrations antf ©Itf jfttap. 

" Out of monuments, names, words, proverbs, traditions, private records, and evidences ; 
fragments of stories, passages of books, and the like, we do save and recover somewhat 
from the deluge of time." 

(Bacon on the Advancement of Learning.) 

Printed and Published for the Author by 

J. S. VIRTUE & CO., Limited, 

[All rights reserved.'] 




Is BrtricatrtJ 











Church, Farmhouses, etc., Peri vale .... Frontispiece 

Perivale Church and Rectory To face 56 

The old Chancel Window, etc., Perivale Church, a.d. 1803 ,, 60 

Perivale Church and part of the Old Manor House about a.d. 1790 64 

Early English Doorway and Stoup in Perivale Church . . 65 
Stained Glass Window, lately in Perivale Church . . .67 

The Lepers' Window, Perivale Church 71 

The Arms of Millet 73 

A Flood at Perivale » To face 75 

Brasses of Henry Myllet and his Family, a.d. 1500 . „ 78 

Brass of George Millet, a.d. 1600 81 

" The Maiden's Tomb," Perivale Churchyard . . . To face 82 

Portion of Rocque's Map, showing Perivale, 1741 . . ,, 91 

The Old Manor House, Perivale . . . . . ,, 94 

Grange Farm 98 


A certain philosopher, more sensitive than a philosopher should 
be, was accustomed when he came in contact with phases and 
experiences of human life which caused him pain, to take refuge in 
his library — like the wise snail which, when rudely touched, retreats 
into its shell ; and from his books, his silent friends, he learnt to 
appreciate the better part of humanity, and became more disposed to 
regard with indifference, if not with satisfaction, the parts sometimes 
played by the poor player — 

' ' That struts and frets his hour upon the stage, 
And then is heard no more." 

In following his example, after a similar experience, I have enjoyed 
the same advantages, and at intervals of harder study have found time 
to write, not unmixed with pleasure withal, this little book, chiefly, 
though not exclusively, for the information of my friends at Ealing 
and in the neighbouring towns. 

This account of the church and hamlet of Perivale affords an 
example of what may be done, though by abler hands than mine, in 
the case of many old villages, in Middlesex and elsewhere, which have 
an interesting history buried beneath piles of old books and records. 

If I have rescued Perivale from comparative oblivion, and if this 
little book should prove interesting to the general reader, my object 
will have been achieved. 


I have to acknowledge, and I do so most thankfully, my obligations 
to the Rector of Perivale, the Rev. Dr. C. J. Hughes, for allowing me 
to examine the records of his church, and for much information 
relating thereto. 

I have to thank also Mrs. Farthing for kindly placing in my hands 
her late husband's MSS. notes and sketches, entitled, " Pictures of 
Perivale." I have availed myself of this source of valuable informa- 
tion, and largely quoted from them in some of the last chapters of 
this book. 

An acknowledgment is due to my friend, Mr. Peter Crooke, of 
Brentford, for furnishing me with some interesting notes on the birds 
which frequent the Brent valley ; in connection with which I may also 
mention the use I have made of the list of birds published in the 
"Proceedings of the Ealing Natural History and Microscopical Society," 
compiled by Mr. Anthony Belt, its honorary secretary. And now — 

" Go, little book, from this my solitude : 
I cast thee on the waters — go thy ways ; 
And if thou art, as some may deem thee, g*ood, 
The world shall find thee after many days." 

Jno. Allen Brown. 

7, Kent Gardens, Ealing. 





' ' The stream, slow winding through a level plain 
Of spacious meads, with cattle sprinkled o'er, 
Conducts the eye along its sinuous course 
Delighted." — Cowper. 

The geology of a country determines its physical geography, and its 
physical geography has often been the most important factor in 
settling the character and influence, and even the very existence, of 
a nation ; the possession of a rugged seaboard and of rivers, the 
environment of mountains, have not only powerfully affected the pro- 
gress of peoples, but have actually preserved to us the past history 
of races. 

Would the Greeks have so strongly infused their heroic history into 
the modern thought of the world if Attica and Sparta had formed 
part of a great inland plain ? would they have had a heroic history 
at all, in which Art and Scientific culture are so singularly embedded, 
for but the physiography of the Peloponessus ? 

' Sparta boasted that she needed no walls, for the chain of eminences 
which surrounded her were then impregnable ; the Swiss preserved 
their independence, and, to a large extent, the peace of their valleys, 
by the aid of the mountains which environ them ; the Basques, a race 
more ancient than the Aryan conqueror who drove their ancestors 
from other parts of Europe many thousand years ago, have preserved 
their racial characteristics, their language and folk-lore, in the valleys 
of the Pyrenees, protected and isolated by the rugged mountains 
which encompass them, while their congeners became absorbed by the 



Kelt, Roman, and Teuton : a survival which, with others of the like 
kind, is of great interest and importance to the student of Prehistoric 

Let us recognise, too, when we contemplate the supremacy of the 
mixed Anglo-Saxon and Keltic races, which have been long welded 
together in Britain, that the energy and enterprise on which we justi- 
fiably pride ourselves, is in no small degree due to the later geological 
effects, which have, conjointly with still older changes, produced the 
present mountains, valleys, and rivers, and let us be grateful for " the 
last period of partial submergence" in Western Europe, by which we 
" were encompassed by the inviolable sea." 

The same causes which have operated in producing great results 
are also potent in producing lesser ones. It is a great leap in thought 
from a sun to an asteroid, from an elephant to a grasshopper, yet it 
is to the like interweaving of causes and effects that the existence of 
both is due. 

We owe the preservation of Peri vale, an old almost forgotten hamlet, 
to its geographical position. Situated just outside the valley of the 
Thames proper, it is cut off, and in a measure isolated, by the River 
Brent and the ridge of low hills which divide it from its ambitious 
neighbour, Ealing ; and it is largely due to these natural barriers that 
it still remains a rustic, deeply-secluded hamlet, with a quaint old 
church, an old rectory, and a few red-tiled farmhouses, toned down 
into unison with the hedgerows and trees, the survival of a mediaeval 
village but eleven miles from St. Paul's. 

Districts within the same distance of London have yielded in suc- 
cession to the great army of the builder ; he has conquered and 
annexed that which was open country in the boyhood of the man of 
fifty summers. Where are the country roads he knew, the smiling 
expanses of green interspersed with trees ? the hedgerows redolent 
with the perfume of the wild honeysuckle, and decked with prim- 
roses, violets, and wild roses ? What has become of the brooks, 

. . . . " The complaining brooks, 
That make the meadows green " ? 

They have been converted into sewers. The beautiful old trees, that took 
so long to grow their outstretched leafy arms and wide trunks, have 
been cut down and uprooted to subserve his fell purpose ; all that is 


rural has disappeared before the ubiquitous builder of the trowel, 
hammer, and saw, and the great city, or congeries of cities, now 
stretches itself forth in new local board districts with bewildering 
lines of houses and rows of " eligible villas," and other examples of 
"original" suburban architecture. 

In almost every direction in which he may wander in his desire to 
revisit the scenes of his youthful walks and rambles, he will find all 
changed ; even the haunts of his early manhood in the neighbourhood 
of London, in spring and summer, are so altered that he knows them 
no more ; they bring, like the memory of dear vanished faces, but the 
saddened thought that " such things were but are not." 

It is the Brent valley which has preserved Perivale to us, and long 
may it guard the northern environs of Ealing from the ruthless 
destroyer of the rural aspect of the environs of London. 

The River Brent, like a long, thin, shining snake, flows in many 
bends and curves through the rich flowery pastures of the wide flat 
valley. Such a little stream, gliding generally so smoothly among the 
trees, flowers, and grass, seems at first sight, even with the hills it has 
helped to form, hardly sufficient to make a barrier between the hamlet 
and the latest acquisition of the land speculator, Ealing. But those 
who see the little Brent peacefully meandering through the meadows 
from Kingsbury to Greenford, would never dream of what it becomes 
when in a state of flood. A few days' steady rain is often enough to 
rouse the potential energy of "our river," and to transform it from a 
rivulet with a murmuring ripple to a wide roaring river, flowing with 
a torrent sufficient to carry down trees and occasionally sweep away 
the smaller bridges, besides inundating the fields and rendering them 
quite impassable for a long distance on each side of the old banks ; 
then men and horses have been drowned in it, and the waters are 
expanded for miles along the valley. 

The church and hamlet have a most picturesque old-world appear- 
ance, whether they be approached from the Greenford Road or as 
seen across the fields from Ealing. 

Embosomed in trees, the former, with its wooden tower, tiny porch, 
and red-tiled roof, probably presents much the same rustic mediaeval 
aspect it has exhibited during the past three hundred years, while a 
,J b 2 


roof or gable of one or two of the farm houses and the old rectory 
may be seen peeping out from the trees and seem quite in harmony 
with it. 

The whole landscape, with Horsington, or more correctly Horsendon, 
in the background, and Harrow Hill with its spire still further in the 
distance, reminds one of some out-of-the-way hamlet in one of the 
more distant counties, which, for lack of a means of communication, 
has remained as it was in the old days until it is well-nigh forgotten. 

As the church with " God's acre " attached to it is more nearly 
approached, it seems the very ideal and embodiment of peace and 
tranquillity. In summer the sound of the wind among the old yews 
and other trees in the churchyard and around the church and rectory 
reaches the ear subdued and softened, as if in unison with the peace 
of the landscape and the calm rest of those who lie within the 
church's shade. 

In summer the yellowhammer repeats his plaintive cry, the tits 
and others of the feathered tribe their tiny notes, the thrushes are in 
full song, the swallows are flying about the eaves of the roof, and the 
general chorus of songsters and warblers, accompanied by the mur- 
murous melody of the river hard by, is borne on the ear mingled with 
the busy hum of insect life — telling, it is true, of activity, but it is 
an activity in repose, if the expression be allowed, like the healthful 
balmy repose of the wearied after labour, in which happy thoughts 
unwittingly find expression in pleasing dreams, not the " cold abstrac- 
tion " which is not sleep, though for a short while it is its counterfeit. 

A sense of calm content and reliance on the mysterious future 
steals over us amid such surroundings as these, like a beam of light 
from behind the dark curtain, comforting and reassuring, and stirring 
an inner sense within ourselves — for " all of us have an inner sense of 
some existence apart from the one that wears away our days." 

Byron says — 

" Between two worlds life hovers like a star 
Twixt night and morn npon the horizon's verge ; 
How little do we know, that which we are ! 
How less what we may be ! the eternal surge 
Of Time and Tide rolls on, and bears afar 
Our bubbles." 


' ' Norman saw on English oak. 
On English neck a Norman yoke ; 
Norman spoon in English dish, 
And England ruled as Normans wish." — Scott. 

The hamlet of Perivale is mentioned in the Domesday Survey under 
the name of " Greneforde," and there is sufficient in the old record 
to distinguish it from the greater Greenford ; it is also called " Grene- 
forde" in Edward the Confessor's Charter of Confirmation, and from 
these early times it has been known as Greneforde Parva, to 
distinguish it from the adjoining parish of " Greneford Magna." 

The names of " Grenefeld," '' Gernford," " Cornhull," or "Corn- 
hill," have also been applied to it in old records, but in later times it 
has been known as Peryvale or Pure vale. 

Norden, who wrote in the reign of Elizabeth, calls it " Peryvale," 
but is of opinion that it is more correctly written " Purevale" on account 
of the fertility of the valley, for he says the whole district, including 
" Northold," " Southhold," " Norcote," " Gerneford," &c, " yieldeth 
not only an abundance but most excellente good wheate." He 
quaintly says, "It may be noted also how nature hath exalted Harrow 
on the Hill, which seemeth to make ostentation of its situation in the 
Purevale, from whence, towards the time of harvest, a man may beholde 
the fields round about, so sweetely to address themselves to the siccle 
and sith, with such comfortable aboundaunce of all kinde of graine that 
the husbandman who waiteth for the fruits of his labours cannot but 
clap his hands for joy to see this vale so to Laugh and Sing." * 

Newcourt says,f " I am apt to believe that this parish has not gone 

* " Speculum Britannise " (John Norden), a historical, &c, description of Middlesex and 
other counties, illustrated with maps and the arms of persons. This work, which is of small 
extent, contains much curious matter. It was written in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and 
reprinted in 1637, and again in 1723. 

t " Repertorium Ecclesiasticum Parochiale Londinense," Richard Newcourt, 2 vols., 
fol., 1708. 


by the name of Peri vale for many ages past, for the first time I find 
it so written in the London Registry, is December, 1540." 

Drayton in his " Polyolbion " (see p. 107), calls it Peryvale, and 
Lysons considers that this name has arisen from the gradual corrup- 
tion of Parva.* 

It is worthy of observation that a road called Perryfield Lane is 
shown in Rocque's Map (1741) : it led in a direct line to Perivale from 
" Castle Bear Hill," through " Castle Bear Common," on part of which 
Kent Gardens now stands, and was a continuation of the old road from 
Ealing's or Eling's Haven. It is very difficult to believe that the 
name arose from either the corruption of " Pure " or " Parva." 

The parish is also distinguished in old records, which will be 
referred to later, as Cornhull or Cornhill ; this was probably the name 
applied to a part of the parish, as will be noticed subsequently. 

Greenford Parva, or Perivale, is in the Hundred of Elthorne ; it is 
bounded by Greenford (Magna), Ealing and Harrow, and is now inter- 
sected by the Grand Junction Canal. The hamlet is about a mile and 
a half from the Uxbridge Road and barely eight miles from the 
Marble Arch. 

It is probable that the stone which now marks the boundary be- 
tween Perivale and Ealing near the churchyard of the former, was not 
always necessary to define the limits of the parishes in that direction 
and that the river itself here formed the boundary. Subsequently, 
as shown by Rocque's Survey in 1741-5, the bend of the river was to 
the south more than 500 feet away. The boundaries of most 
of the parishes near London are so old that the curve of the stream 
may have been again in the same direction as at present, but rather 
further to the north, when the limits were fixed. Camden says Eng- 
land was first divided into parishes by Honorius, Archbishop of 
Canterbury in the year 636. 

According to the Domesday Survey, "f which was made about twenty 

* "The Environs of London," Rev. Daniel Lysons, 1796 ; supplement 1811. Parishes 
not described in the Environs, 1800. 

t Plantagenet Harrison says that the Norman Conqueror, "knowing that there were 
many lands in the country subject to special tax, which constituted an important part of the 
revenue of the Anglo-Saxon king, and in order that he might not be defrauded by the 
collectors of this tax, caused a survey to be made of these lands, then known as ' the 
Lands of the King's Geld,' by commission appointed to each county, and the result was 
the Domesday Book, which is simply a schedule of those lands of ' the King's Geld,' and 


years after the Battle of Hastings, Ernulf held of Geoffrey de Maune- 
ville or Mandeville, and sometimes written Magnaville, three hides of 
land, " which land is one carucate and half in Greneforde " Parva ; 
" there is one plough there and another half a plough might be made " 
— meaning that land for one plough only was under cultivation, but 
there was sufficient arable land for half as much again or the half of 
what a plough could do. 

At this time, also, two villeins held half a hide of the said 
Geoffrey de Mandeville, and there were also two cottars and a slave, 
as well as wood or pannage for forty hogs — pannage being money 
paid to the King's " Agisters " for the mast of the King's forests, 
i.e., acorns and beech mast eaten by the swine, or profit arising to 
the landowner from a grant of liberty to pasture hogs ; the time of 
pannage began on Holyrood day, and ended forty days after Michael- 
mas. * We have here an indication that oaks and beeches were then 
fairly abundant in the woods about Greenford Parva. 

The land is described in the record as having been worth twenty 
shillings, though it was then only considered of the value of ten 
shillings. In the time of Edward the Confessor its value was forty 

This estate had been held by two Sokemen ; one of them being a 
canon of St. Paul's,! who had two hides, and who had the power of 
parting with them at his pleasure ; the other was a vassal of Ansgar, 

does not mention any of the freeholders in their own right." — (Facsimile of the original 
Domesday Book and Translation, 1876.) 

* Nelson's "Laws of England." 

t Several canons of St. Paul's held land in like manner in Middlesex at this time. Among 
others, Gueri had two hides at Twyf ord. ' • From their foundation the members of the 
Chapter of St. Paul's were secular priests, and constantly bore the name of canons, or im- 
properly, prebendaries, from the prebends or portions attached to each stall." As Dean 
Milman says, St. Paul's was never a monastery like that of St. Peter's (Westminster Abbey) 
although it was surrounded with great monastic establishments. " To the Dean and Canons 
belonged in theory and in form the election of the Bishop. As the Pope or the King were 
in the ascendant, came the irresistible nomination which it would have been perilous for the 
Chapter to refuse — impossible to elude." — (Milman, " Annals of St. Paul's Cathedral.") 
The site of St. Paul's appears to have been occupied by the Romans as the great Praetorian 
camp, and a small temple to Diana once existed at or near it as shown by the small altar 
with a figure of Diana in bas relief, with bow and quiver and hound at her feet, discovered 
in Foster Lane. It is now preserved in Goldsmith's Hall. Probably " a Saxon fortress 
afterwards occupied the site of the Roman camp and a rude Saxon temple may have 
frowned down from the height above the Thames." . . "Ethelbert himself , King of 
Kent, with the sanction of Sebert, King of the East Angles, founded and endowed a 
magnificent cathedral, dedicated to St. Paul." — Circa, a.d. 597. 


the Master of the Horse to the Saxon King, Edward, who could not 
alienate it without the licence of his liege lord. 

It is also stated in Domesday that iElveve, who is described as the 
wife of Wateman of London, held half a hide of the King, being a 
portion of the lands set apart by him to be given in alms (see list of 
the principal landowners in Middlesex after the Conquest). This land 
is described as for half a plough, " but it is not there now."* This 
land, which had belonged to Leuric, a vassal of Earl Lewin, who had 
power to sell it to whomsoever he pleased, was then of the value of 
ten shillings, but had been worth twenty shillings in the reign of the 

(Earl Lewin was a powerful Saxon lord in the reign of Edward the 
Confessor ; he held at that time among his possessions the manor of 

At this time Ansgot held at Greenford Parva, of Geoffrey de Man- 
deville, half a hide, which is further described as " two oxgangs," or 
land for two oxen ; it is said to have been worth three shillings, 
which was its value in King Edward's time. This land had been in 
the tenure of Azor, a vassal of Ansgar, the Master of the Horse before 
mentioned, and the former could not sell it without his consent. 
Azor appears to have held as much as eight and a half hides of land 
at Bedfont Manor, the Manor of Stan well, &c, and though a vassal 
himself, had others under him at West Bedfont, Hatton, Enfield, 
&c, who could not dispose of their holdings without his leave, 
and among them were Sokemen. Azor is described in another place 
as house servant to King Edward the Confessor. 

iElveve appears in the record as holding other land in Middlesex 
direct from the Norman king, as above mentioned. 

Ansgar, the Haller, or Master of the Horse of the Saxon Edward, 
must have espoused the cause of Harold, and suffered accordingly 
after his defeat. He was a Saxon thane, or noble, whose name 
frequently occurs in Domesday. Besides his possessions at Greenford 

* The principal landowners in Middlesex at the making- of the Domesday Survey were 
the King, the Bishop and Canons of London, the Abbeys of Westminster and Holy Trinity 
at Caen, the Nunnery of Berking, Earls Roger and Morton, Geof rey de Mannerville (Geoffrey 
de Mandeville), Ernulf de Hesding, "Walter Fitz Other, Walter de St. Walery, Richard 
Fitz Gilbert. Robert Gernon, Robert Fasiton, Robert Fitz Roselin, Robert Blund, Roger 
de Rames, William Fitz Ansculf, Edmund de Salisbury, Aubrey de Vere, Ranulf Fitz 
Ilger, Derman, Countess Judith, and the Bang's Almoner. 


Parva, lie held land at Ichenham, and the Manors of Northolt, Enfield, 
&c., all of which appear to have fallen into the hands of the Norman 
noble, Geoffrey de Mandeville. 

The domains of the Saxon thanes who opposed the Conqueror 
rapidly changed hands after the battle of Hastings, and a little 
later there were many of whom it might be said in the words of an 
old ballad — 

" His sire was a Saxon and lord of the vale ; 
But the Normans came down with their proud chivalry, 
And they robbed him and slew him, and burnt his roof tree." 

It has been said that the Conqueror " only confiscated the great 
fiefs of the most rebellious of the Saxon nobility, and did not touch 
the land belonging to the tenants of the soil." Much of the land in 
Middlesex must have belonged to Harold's adherents however, looking 
at the changes which occurred in this county after the Conquest, as 
shown in Domesday. On the other hand, Scott has presented us 
probably with a true picture of the thanes who retained their posses- 
sions in Cedric of Rotherwood and Athelstane of Coningsburgh. 
The Saxon account of the compilation of Domesday Book is written 
in " The Saxon Chronicle," a work compiled by a series of authors 
from the registers made in the monasteries, and recording events from 
the date of Alfred to Henry II. The disgust of the Saxon monks 
at the new order of things is very discernible in it. The "Chronicle" 
is written in Anglo Saxon, and the reference to Domesday has been 
thus translated : — 

" Then in the winter was the King in Gloucester with his council, 
and held there his court for five days, and afterwards the Archbishop 
and Clergy had a synod three days. Then was Mauricius chosen Bishop 
of London, William of Norfolk, and Robert of Chester ; these were 
all the King's clerks. After this had the King a large meeting, and 
very deep speech held he with his witan (council) about this land, 
how it was occupied, and by what sort of men. Then he sent his men 
over all England, commissioning them to find out 'how many hundreds 
of hides were in the shires, what land the King himself had, and what 
stock upon the land, or what dues he ought to have by the year from 
the shires ' ; also he commissioned them to record in writing ' how 
much land his Archbishops had, and his diocesan Bishops, and his 


Abbots, and his Earls,' and though I may be prolix and tedious (says 
the Monk who writes) what or how much each man had, who was 
an occupier of land in England either in land or in stock, and how 
much money it was Avorth ; so very narrowly, indeed, did he com- 
mission them to trace it out, that there was not one single hide nor 
a yard of land (a quarter of an acre), nay, moreover (it is shameful 
to tell, though he thought it no shame to do it, says the Saxon 
writer), not even an ox, nor a cow, nor a swine, was there left that 
was not set down in his writ. And all the recorded particulars were 
afterwards brought to him. Afterwards he moved about and came 
by Lammas to Sarum, where he was met by his councillors, and all 
the landsmen that were of any account over all England became this 
man's vassals, as they were, and they all bowed before him and became 
his men, and swore him oaths of allegiance that they would against 
all other men be faithful to him." * Thus was the feudal system 
formally established. 

Geoffrey de Mandeville is one of the great historical figures at this 
period, and with him as Lord of the Manor of Greenford Parva the 
destinies of our little hamlet are associated. 

This powerful Norman baron, sometimes styled the Sire de Magna- 
ville, accompanied the Conqueror to England and rendered him great 
aid at the famous battle which decided the fate of the Saxon supremacy. 
He was one of the chief grantees after the Conquest, and the king 
rewarded him with a large number of knights' fees,t castles, and 
manors ; it is said he held land in ten different counties. He held 
many manors in Middlesex ; among them were those of Ebury, which 
constitutes now a large part of the west of London, besides such 
manors as Northolt, Greenford Parva, Edmonton, Stanwell, Enfield, 
&c, and lands at Islington (written Isendon and Isledon, &c), Ichen- 

* See the translation of " The Saxon Chronicle," hy the Rev. J. Ingram, 1823. 

t Much of the land of the country was divided into portions called knights' fees under 
the feudal system, the portion being considered sufficient to maintain an armed knight when 
engaged in war. The feudal Barons, who were directly amenable to the King, held, as in this 
case, a large number of knights' fees, and thus could bring into the field, at his pleasure, the 
armed knights over whom they were chief tenants or liege lords, while the knights could 
gather together to their aid the retainers or vassals who held land under them. A knight's 
fee, or feodum militare, was twelve plough-lands, or carucata terra, each of which was as 
much as one plough coidd plough in a year. The value of a knight's fee is stated, in the 
first year of Edward II., to be £20 per annum. — (Blackstone) . 


ham, &c., in fact, most of the land in the hundreds of Elthorne and 

It is interesting to note that the Manor of Greenford Magna, con- 
taining twelve hides, had before this time, i.e., in the reign of King 
Ethelred, probably the second, surnamed the Unready (a.d. 979), been 
given by that king to Westminster Abbey. Domesday says it is held 
by the Abbot of St. Peter for eleven and a half hides.* But there is 
evidence in the vicinity of Greenford Parva of the Saxon occupation of 
the country at an earlier period, when the Saxons of this part of Mid- 
dlesex then formed a part of East Seaxe, and were always more or less 
at war with their powerful southern neighbours, the tribes of West 
Seaxe, until they were crushed under Egbert, who, under the title of 
Bretwalda, became supreme ruler ( a.d. 827). A few years ago when 
some labourers were digging gravel at the neighbouring district of 
Hanwell, they discovered the remains of skeletons, evidently those of 
three or more warriors, as their iron spears were found with them ; 
they had been buried " with their martial cloaks around them," i.e., 
with coarsely-woven hemp garments, fastened over the breast with 
round bronze fibulse or brooches. These fibuke were of the saucer 
pattern 'peculiar to the West Saxons.f They were thickly plated with 
gold, carved into very pretty characteristic designs. The richness of 
these ornaments indicates that the wearers had been persons of some 
note, probably leaders of a number of West Saxons who fell in some 
battle or skirmish while invading the country of East Seaxe, which 
then included not only Middlesex but part of Hertfordshire, as well as 
Essex. Before leaving the historical references to the Saxons, as 
associated with Greenford Parva, it would be well to digress slightly 
in order to explain the nature and origin of the ancient measures of 
land which have been mentioned, and the curious tenures with which 
the terms are connected. 

First as to hide. This is the oldest term applied to the measure- 
ment of land in England, if we except the Roman " ager " (field) from 
which is probably derived our word "acre," but which does not appear 
to have denoted any particular dimensions. At a later period, i.e., in 

* Dart' 8 "History of "Westminster Abbey," vol. i., p. 12. 

t The interesting relics are now in the collection of Mr. Peter Crooke, of Brentford. 


Edward I.'s reign, the word acre began to be used to describe an ob- 
long piece of ground, forty perches long, with a width of four perches. 

Hide is derived from the Anglo-Saxon " higid," otherwise "hi wise," 
and became abbreviated into " hid." It still survives as the name of 
villages, as "The Hyde," North Hyde, &c, in Middlesex. The word 
is used in the laws of Ina, one of the early kings of Wessex (about a.d. 
620). According to the "Venerable Bede," a hide represented the 
amount of land which would support a family or household, and Alfred is 
said to have adopted "Hydeland" as associated with the Latin "familia " 
(a whole company of slaves in one house, &c), but the connection is not 
very apparent, though there may be something in the definition he 
appears to have attached to it, i.e., as a measure of the quantity of 
land which one plough, which was used in common by a group of 
tenants, could accomplish in a year. 

Then there is the oft-told tale, about the town or towns, for it has 
been applied to several places, having been granted as much land only 
as could be enclosed in a bull's hide ; the hide being extended into a 
considerable area by the crafty hero of the story cutting it into long 
thin strips and using them as cords. The Tyrian Queen Dido is 
credited with having resorted to this very questionable artifice to obtain 
land for the founding of Carthage. There seems, however, little doubt 
that a hide in Saxon times meant as much land as could be ploughed 
by a large team of oxen with one plough in a year, and would there- 
fore support a family or group of families. It varied from 100 (though 
some say from CO) to 120 acres; it probably included meadow and 
pasture for the teams and houses for the men. Kelham, in his Domes- 
day Book, says, " The hide was the measure of land in Edward the 
Confessor's reign, and the carucate that to which it was reduced by 
the Conqueror's new standard.* Twelve carucates then made one 
hide, but as a carucate indicated as much land as could be ploughed 
with a single team in a year, it necessarily varied according to the 
Dature of the soil, and the custom of husbandry in the particular 

* Bovate, virgate, borders, are also terms used in Domesday, and as they occur either in 
the body or notes to this book, it may be useful to the reader to here explain their meaning. 
Bovate, as the word implies, described the amount of land one ox could till in a year. 
Virgate was a small parcel of land from eight to sixteen acres. Borders were " boors " who 
held a small house, but bigger than a cottage, with a little land for husbandry. 


The designation Socman or Sokeman is equally ancient. It apper- 
tained to persons who held land in the Soc, or by Socage,* i.e., by a 
tenure granted for a certain and determinate service as distinguished 
from knight service, where the rendering was precarious and uncertain, 
and also as opposed to villeinage, where the service was of the very 
meanest kind ; in fact, a villein was but a serf attached to the soil and 
sold with it. There were, however, two kinds of socage, distinguished 
as Free and Villein. Free socage was consequent on fealty and the 
payment of a small sum yearly. In villein socage, though the service 
was certain and defined, it was of a baser nature. From these tenures 
originated our copyhold tenure, and, as Hallam says, " The free socage 
tenants were the root of a noble plant, our English yeomanry, whose 
independence stamped with peculiar features our constitution and our 
national character." t These tenures are generally considered to be 
relics of Saxon liberty retained by such persons as had neither for- 
feited their estate to the Crown nor been obliged to exchange their 
tenure for the more honourable but more burthensome one of knight 

Amidst the confusion which must have arisen at the time of the 
Conquest, when the Saxon landowners were in great part, though 
not in all cases, deprived of their possessions, it is not surprising that 
the value of the soil should have decreased. As already stated, land 
in Greenford Parva which was only considered to be worth ten shillings 
when granted to Geoffrey de Mandeville, had been of the value of 
twenty shillings, and in the peaceful days of the Confessor of double 
the latter value. In fact, there had been so great a falling off of the 
land under tillage since the days of the Saxon Edward, that some 
lands were unoccupied arid had become desolate at the time of taking 
the Survey (about 1086). 

There can hardly be a doubt that in the fields now called " The 
Common," on the northern boundary of Perivale, we have the last 
traces of the Common or Folkland of the Saxon period and afterwards. 

* This tenure is alluded to in Magna Carta (1215). "Si aliquis teneat de nobis per 
feodifirman vel per sokagium vel per burgagium et de alio terrain teneat per servicium 
militare," &c. 

f " Middle Ages." This historian says also : " I presume the soc men were ceorls more 
fortunate than the rest, who by purchase had acquired freehold, or by prescription or the 
indulgence of their lords had obtained such a property in the outland allotted to them, that 
they could not be removed, and in many instances might dispose of it at pleasure." 


Such land was the property of the village or community, whereon the 
poorer folk could graze their cattle, or if tilled it was cultivated in 
strips for their common wants. Common or people's land also existed 
at that time in Greenford Magna, and in all the neighbouring villages. 
The equivalent of our rent was often paid in kind, or in feorm, as 
well as in services rendered ; sometimes in Schar or Scat Pennies — the 
farmer or "feormer" supplying "feorm" to those above him, and the 
scat penny was paid by small tenants in lieu of the right of their 
immediate superiors to have the cattle driven at night into their 
enclosures or pens for the sake of the manure, and is said to have 
varied from one penny to fourpence an acre. 

It should be mentioned that during the Saxon occupation of the 
country, and for a very considerable period after the Norman inva- 
sion, a great weald or forest extended across Middlesex north of London. 
To the ordinary reader this is now hard to realize, but we have it, 
among others, on the authority of the monkish chronicler William 
Stephanides, or Fitzstephen, who wrote in the time of Henry II. In 
speaking of the City of London, much of which was then meadow- 
land, he says : — " Close by lies an immense forest, in which are 
densely-wooded thickets, with coverts of game, stags, fallow deer, 
boars, and wild bulls." 


" The bay-trees in our country are all withered, 
And meteors fright the fixed stars of heaven : 
The pale-faced moon looks bloody on the earth, 
And lean look'd prophets whisper fearful change ; 
Rich men look sad, and ruffians dance and leap." — Richard II. 

To return to the history of Greenford Parva, otherwise Cornhull 
or Cornhill, and to Geoffrey de Mandeville, the first Lord of the 

This " famous souldier " was one of the great potentates of the 
day : some of his possessions have already been noticed ; to add to 
his honours and titles the Conqueror appointed him Constable of the 
Tower of London, and he held the shrievalties of London, Middlesex, 
and Hertford. He founded a Benedictine monastery at Hurley, in 
Berkshire, as a cell of Westminster Abbey, and desired to be laid in 
the Abbey, giving (as Dean Stanley tells us) " in return for his burial 
the Manor of Eye, then a waste morass, which gave its name to the 
Eye Brook, and under the names of Hyde, Eyebury (Ebury), and 
Neate contained Hyde Park, Belgravia, and Chelsea." Geoffrey de 
Magna ville (Mandeville) signed as a witness in conjunction with 
Archbishop Lanfranc and other prelates and nobles, the memorable 
charter of William the Conqueror, confirming the grant of Stortford 
Castle, lands, &c, to the church "St. Paule," and to Mauricus, then 
Bishop of London, and his successors, which ends with the following 
pious words, Anglicised : — " For I would that the church in all things 
be as free as I would my soul to be in the day of judgment " (Stow). 

William de Mandeville, who succeeded to the estates and titles of 
his father, Geoffrey, appears also to have inherited the Manor of 
Greenford Parva : " he married Margaret de Rie, heiress of the great 
Eudo Dapifer, and their son Geoffrey was in her right Hereditary 
Steward of Normandy." This second Geoffrey was Lord of the Manor 


of Greenford Parva in the reign of Stephen. Although, as will be 
seen, he became an outlaw, and it is probable his lands were for a 
while confiscated to the Crown, it would appear that this little manor, 
with his other great possessions, were restored to his family after his 
death, and remained in the hands of his descendants. This is shown 
by the fact that the Manor of Greenford Parva came into the posses- 
sion of the De Bohuns, who in default of male issue succeeded to the 
estates of the De Mandevilles. 

The remarkable career of the second Geoffrey de Mandeville is so 
singularly eventful, and moreover it so far illustrates the condition of 
society in England at that time, that it should be given here ; in 
fact, a history of Greenford Parva would hardly be complete without 
a full reference to it. Geoffrey de Mandeville the Second was at first 
a strong adherent of the King (Stephen), who created him Earl of 
Essex, and committed the custody of the Tower of London to him, 
which he kept for the King after the submission of the citizens of 
London to the Empress Maude. He even made a raid on the 
Empress's Bishop of London, Robert de Sigillo, and seized him at his 
palace at Fulham.'* The Bishop was carried off to the Tower, and 
was only able to obtain his release on payment of a heavy fine. 

Geoffrey II. afterwards seceded from the party of the King for 
that of the Empress, and was besieged in the Tower, but without 
success, by the citizens of London, who were true to Stephen. It is 
said "he was bribed to desert his service by two other more ample 
charters from the Empress Maude, of which the second dated from 
Westminster, and reconferring the Earldom, is (says Dugdale) ' the 
most antient creation charter which hath ever been known.' " Both 
are remarkable for the privileges and concessions they contain. She 
granted him all the land, forts, and castles that his father and 
grandfather held ; " the Tower of London, with the little castle 
under it, to strengthen and fortify at his pleasure ; " t also the 
hereditary shrievalties of London, Middlesex, and Hertfordshire, 
with the trial of all causes in those counties ; all the lands granted 
to him by Stephen, with twenty additional knights' fees ; the 
whole of Eudo Dapifer's Norman estates, with his office of Steward ; 

* " Annals of St. Paul's Cathedral." Dean Milman. 
t Matthew Paris. " His. Aug]." 


and covenanted that "neither the Earl of Anjou (her husband), nor 
herself, nor her children would ever make peace with the burgesses 
of London, but with the consent of the said Geoffry, because they 
were his mortal enemies." She constituted him Earl of Essex, with 
the third penny of the pleas of the shrievalty, " as an Earl ought to 
enjoy in his earldom ;" gave him the hereditary shrievalty of the 
county, and made him and his heirs Chief Justices of Essex for ever. 
His adherence had been valued at no contemptible price ; but, great 
as were the powers and dignities conferred upon him, he did not long 
enjoy them. No sooner was Stephen firmly established on the throne 
than he had his recreant liegeman seized at the Court of St. Alban's. 
The Earl, a violent and headstrong man, did not submit without a 
sharp struggle : " they had a bloody fight, in which the Earl of 
Arundel (though a stout soldier) being thrown into the Water with 
his Horse, escaped drowning very narrowly." He was securely 
lodged in prison, and only set free after surrendering the Tower of 
London, with his own castles of Walden and Pleshy (in Essex). Thus 
bereft of his strongholds, and maddened by rage and disappoint- 
ment, he betook himself to the savage life of an outlaw. 

" He was to weete a stoute and sturdie thief e, 
Wont to robbe churches of their ornaments." 

" He collected a band of determined followers, and foraged the 
country in every direction for spoil, first invading the King's own 
demesne lands and wasting them miserably." 

Likewise, having married his sister Beatrix to Hugh Talbot, of 
Normandy, he caused her to be divorced and wedded to William de 
Say, " a stoute and warlike man." " With his aid he went on in 
plunder and rapine everywhere without mercy ; making use of divers 
cunning spies, whom he sent from door to door as beggars, to dis- 
cover where any rich men dwelt, to the end he might surprise them 
in their beds, and then keep them in hold till they had, with large 
sums of money, purchased their liberty." 

" Being highly transported with wrath, he at length grew so savage 
that by the help of William de Say and one Daniel a counterfeit 
monk, he got by Water to Ramsey (in 1143). and entering the 
Abbey very early in the morning, surprised the monks (then asleep 


after their nocturnal offices), and expelling them thence made a Fort 
of the Church." 

He took away their plate, copes, and other ornaments, "selling 
them for money to reward his soldiers." 

For this last outrage he was publicly excommunicated in 1144, 
and not long after, while besieging the Castle of Burwell, he put off 
his helmet (it being summer) on account of the heat, and going bare- 
headed, with a shield and lance, he was shot in the head by one of 
the meanest soldiers, and thus mortally wounded.* 

" Whereupon, lying at the point of death and ready to give up his 
last gasp," he showed " great contrition for his sins, and making what 
satisfaction he could, there came at last some of the Knights Templars 
to him," who put " on him the habit of their Order, signed with a Red 
Cross." " Afterwards, when he was full dead, they carried his Dead 
Corps into their Orchard at the Old Temple in London ; and coffining 
it in Lead hanged it on a Crooked Tree ; " " for in reverend Awe of 
the Church they durst not bury him because he died excommunicated, 
so fearful in those days was the sentence of excommunication." 

Matthew Paris, t who records the facts relating to the excommunicated 
Geoffrey de Mandeville, says that " the Earl was the only person who 
fell, and that a manifest proof of the Divine wrath was displayed by the 
walls of the church streaming plenteously with blood whilst it was held 
as a castle." 

" Likewise that after some time, by the industry and expenses of the 
Prior of Walden, his absolution was obtained from the Pope Alexander 
the Third, so that his Body was received among Christians, and 
Divine Offices celebrated for him. But when the Prior endeavoured 
to take down the Coffin and carry it to Walden, the Templars, being 
aware of the design, buried it privately in the Porch before the West 
door of the New Temple." This, as the noble authoress of the 
" Battle Abbey Roll " says, " is a striking story," all the more striking 
perhaps because it reminds us that this spoliator and outcast had been 
in his younger days a benefactor of the Church. The Prior who inter- 
ceded for his absolution was the Superior of the Abbey that he had 

* "Register Book of "Walden," quoted by Camden and Weever, and the "Battle 
Abbey Roll," the Duchess of Cleveland. 

t Matt. Paris, "His. Angl." p. 80. See also Henry of Huntingdon, "Script Post. 
Bedam," Ed. 1596, and Dugdale's " Monasticon Anglicanum." 


founded near his Essex castle, " placing it upon a meeting of four 
roadways, and in an angle of two waters, that the Monks should of 
necessity be charitable to poor people and hospitable to passengers." 
It had been consecrated in 1136, but apparently not over richly en- 
dowed, for his successor, Geoffrey III., evidently unwilling to increase 
its income, " advised the Prior to be content with a small Church and 
little buildings." 

Such is an outline of the remarkable career of Geoffrey de Mande- 
ville II., the third lord of the manor of Greenford Parva. The 
eGigy of Geoffrey de Mandeville, Earl of Essex, with his arms upon 
his shield, may be seen in the Temple Church. 

How the little manor of Greenford Parva fared under these remark- 
able and untoward circumstances it is impossible to say with certainty ; 
the probability is that with many of the other possessions of the out- 
lawed Geoffrey it was confiscated and fell into the hands of King 
Stephen, but was afterwards returned to his successor Geoffrey de 
Mandeville, the third of that name, who, the records say, " received 
back his father's forfeited lands." As the manor is known, too, to 
have been in the possession of the succeeding De Mandevilles, there 
can hardly be a doubt that the third Geoffrey became lord of the manor 
of Greenford Parva. He was the second of the three sons of the out- 
law, and was again created Earl of Essex by Henry II. — the King who 
did penance and allowed himself to be scourged by the clergy of 
Westminster Abbey for his rash words which had brought about the 
assassination of Thomas a Becket. The father's forfeited lands restored 
to him were certified to one hundred and three knights' fees. " He 
was an elegant man of speech, much noted for his abilities in secular 
affairs," and " was sent with the Justiciary against the Welch in 
1167"; but falling sick at Chester, " it hnpned that, his servants 
being all gone to dinner and nobody left with him, he died." " He 
left no children, having been early divorced from his wife, Eustachia, 
a kinswoman of the Kinof" ; and his brother Wiliiam, who succeeded 
him, proved the last of his race. William de Mandeville, the third 
Earl, is described as " of sharp wit, prudent in council and a stoute 
soldier, did not much verse himself amongst his own relations, but spent 
his youthful time for the most part with Philip Earl of Flanders," and 
Avas much employed in military service. On his return he was ap- 



pointed with Hugh Pudsey, Bishop of Durham, as Justiciary of Eng- 
land during the absence of Richard Coeur de Lion in the Holy Land. 

He died in 1190 at Rouen, and it is stated of him that when 
" drawing near his end he called together his Kindred and Servants, 
and gave them charge (with his hands lifted on high) to convey his 
Body to Walden, in England, there to be buried. But Henry de 
Vere, his Kinsman, standing by, told him That the difficulty of the 
passage was such, that it could not be done. To whom he replied, 
'If you cannot, it is because you have no mind to effect what I, a 
dying man, desire. Then take my Heart and carry it thither.' " Ac- 
cording to Camden his heart and also that of the second son of the 
founder of the Abbey, were buried with the body of Beatrix de Say, 
the founder's sister, in the Chapter House at Walden. 

This curious and interesting history of the De Mandevilles* has 
been given at much length, not only because they were in succession 
lords of the manor of Greenford Parva, but because we obtain from it 
an insight into the conditions of social life which then prevailed, and 
the manners and influence of the higher Norman barons, over whom the 
power of the Church appears to have been generally more effective 
than that of the sovereign. 

It is highly probable, too, that during the period .when one of 
these great feudal barons possessed the manor of Greenford Parva the 
little church there w r as built and consecrated. This suggestion is 
supported by the fact mentioned later, that the edifice is in the Early 
Pointed or Early English style as shown by the pointed arch still pre- 
served in the vestry — a style which is generally believed to have 
originated in Stephen's reign (a.d. 1135), and remained in vogue until 
it was perfected in that of Henry III. (1216 to 1272 ).t 

In default of male descent the great Mandeville inheritance 
reverted on the death of William de Mandeville to his father's sister, 
Beatrix, the wife of the William de Say who had helped the outlawed 
Earl to surprise Ramsey Abbey, one of whose daughters married 
Geoffrey Fitz Piers, a "man rich in money and everything else," and 
he insisted that it belonged to his wife. Although the King had pro- 
mised the barony to the elder Beatrix, whose right seemed beyond 

* Camden's " Brit." (Gough's), vol. ii., p. 62, &c. 

t "Dictionary of Architecture of the Middle Ages." — John Britton. 


dispute ; and her son, Geoffrey de Say, had actually obtained an 
instrument under the King's seal for the whole barony on promising 
to pay 7,000 marks into the Treasury, it happened that he neglected 
to pay the money at the time appointed. Fitz Piers seized the oppor- 
tunity, and offered the sum demanded by the King in his stead, and 
thus procured the roysl confirmation of his title. He was a man 
" skillful in Laws." " At the coronation of John he was girt by the 
King with the sword of the Earl of Essex. His father had been 
appointed by Cueur de Lion Justiciary of England in 1197, and " ruled 
the reins of government (says Matthew Paris) so that upon his death 
the Realm was like a Ship in a Tempest without a Pilot." 

" His children by Beatrix de Say all took the name of Mandeville, 
which ended with them, two of whom became in succession Earls of 
Essex and men of mark amongst the Barons who wrested Magna 
Charta from King John." "In the 17th of King John, the barons 
of the realm being in arms against the King, entered the city (London) 
and spoiled the Jews' houses ; which being done, Robert Fitzwater and 
Geoffrey de Magnaville (Mandeville), Earl of Essex, and the Earl of 
Gloucester, chief leaders of the army, applied all diligence to repair the 
gates and walls of this city with stones of the Jews' broken houses." 
This passage, quoted by Stow from Roger Wendover and Matthew Paris, 
throws light upon the state of the country in the concluding year of 
King John's reign, in which a lord of the manor of Greenford Parva 
figures conspicuously, though not altogether to advantage.*"" 

Both Earls of Essex descended from Beatrix de Say died without 
issue, and the earldom and probably most of the estate, but at any rate 
the manor of Greenford Parva, devolved on the daughter Maud, wife 
of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford,! in whose family it appears 
to have remained for a considerable time. 

We come now to the reign of Edward II., when the powerful head 
of the De Bohuns had succeeded as heirs to the possessions of the De 
Mandevilles, and in them as superior lords of the Fee were included, 

* In 1214, Matthew Paris says, King John wrote to Geoffrey de Mandeville to deliver 
the Tower of London, with the prisoners, armour, &c., to William, Archdeacon of 

t For much of the information regarding the De Mandevilles and the De Bohuns, the 
author is largely indebted to the Duchess of Cleveland's elaborate work, the " Battle Abbey 
Roll," recently published. 


as shown by existing records, lands in Greenford Parva as well as in 
greater Greenford. 

Lysons says that estates called the Manor of Stickleton Greenford 
in Greater Greenford and in this parish, were given by Nicholas de 
Farnham to the Priory of Ankerwyke, previous to Henry III.'s charter 
of confirmation to that monastery.* He says, " Some of these estates, 
but what part cannot be easily ascertained, lay in the parish of Great 
Greenford, were afterwards granted to the Priory of Ankerwyke, and 
formed the Manor of Stickleton, which was held under the Bohuns, 
heirs of the Mandevilles, as superior lords of the Fee. The manor of 
Greenford Parva or Cornhull, was held in like manner by the Beau- 
monts."f The estates of the Priory here alluded to were probably 
situated at Greenford, near Staines, and Greenford Common, between 
Ashford and Lalam, Middlesex, in the vicinity of which this ancient 
Priory existed. The learned author of the " Environs " has probably 
overlooked the fact that there was another Greenford in Middlesex. 

There would appear to be no doubt that the manor of Greenford 
Parva, alias Cornhull, was at this period possessed by the De Bohun 
who succeeded to the other estates of the De Mandevilles, and probably 
the De Beaumonts or Bellomonts who afterwards acquired the manor 
in their own right, at this time held it under De Bohun as liege lord. 

Thus the lands and honours of the De Mandevilles passed to 
Humphrey de Bohun, son of Henry de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, and 
as among his estates he held the manor of Greenford Parva, some notes 
relating to him and his descendants are of interest, 

Humphrey de Bohun was descended from " de Bohun le Viel On- 
frei," known as " Humphry with the Beard," who, according to Wace, 
fought among the foremost at Hastings, but, unlike De Mandeville, 
was but scantily rewarded for his prowess by the Conqueror, as he 
received only the Norfolk manor of Talesford. As the authoress of 

Th® gift, as recited in Dugdale's " Monasticon," is very curious. "De dono magistri 
Nicholai de Farnham unum mesuagium oeties viginti acres terras, unam acram prati et 
dimidiam, vigniti solidos redditus et servitium sextee partis feodi unus nnlitis cum pertin- 
entiis Grenefeud (carta Regis Henry III. donationes quamplurimas recitans et confirmans) . 
In the " Valor Ecclesiasticus," temp. Henry VIII., the lands of the Priory are described 
as in Hunsloo, Greneford, Stanwell, Staines, &c. The lands of this religious establishment 
were granted by Henry VIII. to Bisham Abbey, and on the suppression of the monasteries 
to Lord Windsor. Dugdale, '* Monasticon," vol iii., p. 27. 
t Escheat, 16 Edward III , No. 35. 


the " Battle Roll " says, " It was the extraordinary succession of great 
alliances made by his descendants that gave the name its lustre and 
wealth of accumulated dignities." 

Henry de Bohun. the father of Humphrey, was created an Earl by 
" King John's charter of 1199, and as Earl of Hereford was one of the 
twenty-five great Barons appointed at Runnimede to be the guardians 
of Magna Charta," and " the next ensueing year the barons (according 
to Dugdale) raising fresh troubles, was, by the procurement of the 
King, excommunicated by the Pope "; "he was one of the leaders of 
the rebellion against Henry III., and fell into the King's hands at 
Lincoln." He died in 1220, on his voyage to the Holy Land, having, 
as we have mentioned, married Maud, only daughter of Geoffrey Fitz 
Piers, Earl of Essex, with whom came not only the manifold posses- 
sions of the Mandevilles but the famous badge of the " White Swan," 
betokening her descent from the mystic Knight of the Swan, and ever 
after borne by her posterity. 

The legend of the White Swan is such a picturesque piece of 
mediaeval romance that the reader will peruse it with interest. This 
version is from " Curious Myths of the Middle Ages." " Wlien Otho, 
Emperor of Germany, held court at Neumagen to decide between 
Clarissa, Duchess of Bouillon, and the Count of Frankfort, who claimed 
her duchy, the Count was to appear in person in the lists, whilst the 
Duchess was to provide some doughty warrior who would do battle for 
her." But the poor lady, " as all abashed " looked round in vain for 
a champion, no one present would meddle in her quarrel ; " whereupon 
she committed her (self) to God, praying him humbly to succour her." 
The council broke up, and lords and ladies were scattered along the 
banks of the Meuse, when lo ! a stately swan with a silver chain round 
its neck came sailing down the river, drawing a small skiff in which lay 
a knight in resplendent armour, resting on an argent shield blazoned 
with a double cross of gold. He leaped ashore, offered his sword to 
the forlorn princess, carried her colours in the lists, and triumphantly 
overthrew her adversary. 

She rewarded him with the hand of her fair daughter, and thus 
Helias, the Knight of the Swan, became Duke of Bouillon, and in due 
time the father of a little girl, who received at the font the name of 
Ydain, married Eustace Count of Boulogne, and was the mother 


of Godfrey de Bouillon, King of Jerusalem, and of his brothers Bald- 
win and Eustace. 

Before his marriage, Helias had solemnly warned his bride that if 
she ever inquired who he was, he would have to leave her for ever. 
" One night the wife forgot the injunction of her husband, and began 
to ask him his name and kindred. Then he rebuked her sorrowfully, 
and leaving his bed bade her farewell. Instantly the swan reappeared 
on the river, drawing the little shallop after it, and uttering loud cries 
to call its brother. So Helias stepped into the boat and the swan 
swam with it from the sight of the sorrowing lady." * 

* See "The Battle Abbey Roll." The Duchess of Cleveland says that the "White 
Swan ' ' was a favourite emblem in the days of chivalry. When the eldest son of Edward I. 
and a whole bevy of young nobles were knighted with great ceremony in Westminster 
Abbey, two swans, covered with gold net- work and trappings, were brought to the altar, 
and the King, fixing his eyes upon them, solemnly swore ' ' by the God of Heaven and the 
Swans " that he would revenge himself on the Scots. Then turning to his sons and barons, 
he abjured them, should he die before he had fulfilled his vow, to carry his dead bones 
before them to Scotland, and never let them rest in the grave till his enemies were humbled 
in the dust. At the Canterbury Tournament, in 1349, Edward III. bore a white swan 
embroidered on his surcoat, and displayed on his shield with the legend — 

' ' Hay, hay, the Whyte Swan, 
By Gode's soul I am thy man." 


" Then mounte ! then mounte, brave gallants all, 
And don your helmes amaine ; 
Death's couriers, Fame and Honour, call 
Us to the field againe." — Motherwell. 

It is probable that the manor of Greenford Parva remained in the 
possession of Humphrey de Bohun, the son of Henry, who became Earl 
of Essex, and of his descendants, until the reign of Edward II. (a.d. 
1307-27), when the manor of Greenford Parva, then called also 
Cornhull, or Cornhill, with the advowson to the rectory, appears to 
have fallen into the hands of the King, who granted it to Walter de 
Langton, Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry.* 

This Walter de Langton was appointed by the King, Edward I., 
Lord High Treasurer of England in 1295, and elected Bishop of 
Lichfield and Coventry in 1295-6. He was a great favourite of 
Edward L, for whose cause he suffered excommunication, and whose 
corpse he had the honour of bringing from the borders of Scotland to 
Westminster. Immediately, however, on his arrival in London, he was 
arrested and imprisoned in the Tower, and though the clergy repeatedly 
petitioned Edward II. to grant his release, yet he was shifted from 
the Tower to Wallingford, then to York, and detained for two years 
before he obtained his freedom ; "he then retired to his see at Lich- 
field, which was but mean when he came but he left it magnificent." 
He continued in it twenty-five years, until he died in 1321. He built 
not only a new palace at Litchfield but repaired his castle at Eccles- 
hall and his palace by the Strand in London, besides his manor house 
at Shutborough in Staffordshire, t 

In lowering the ground around the church, which had become con- 
siderably raised since it was built, a silver penny of Edward I. was 

* Bishop Langton had a charter of Free Warren in Greenford in the preceding reign 
(3o Edward I., Cart. Rot. No. 48). 
t *' Beauties of England and Wales, 1818." 


found, in excellent preservation, with other coins ; the original pave- 
ment was discovered two feet below the surface. 

Walter de Langton subsequently surrendered the manor and advow- 
son of Greenford Parva to the King (Edward II.) in exchange for the 
church of Cestreton and Worsfold, in Warwickshire.* 

In the grant by the King to Bishop Langton we find the first 
mention of the advowson attached to the manor, though, for the 
reasons previously cited, it is highly probable that the church had 
been built some time before the date of that grant. 

It would appear that either the manor of Greenford Parva changed 
its lord rather frequently at this time, or else that there is some 
confusion in the dates mentioned in the records, as the grant of 
Edward II. to the Bishop bears date Anno Reg. 7, whereas, as cited 
by Lysons (from the "Nomina Villearum," No. 2195, Harl. MSS.), 
Petrus le Botteler is said to have been lord of the manor of Greenford 
Parva in the first year of Edward II. t 

Although, as already mentioned, the advowson and manor of Green- 
ford Parva were held by Walter de Langton very early in the reign of 
Edward II., who ascended the throne in 1307, which shows that the 
little church was then existing, there is every probability that it had 
been erected at a much earlier date. The Normans introduced a higher 
civilisation into Britain ; their love of war and chivalry was associated 
with art, learning, and a rude form of piety. Edward the Confessor 
was religious if not very monkish, and the people were no doubt, to 
some extent, prepared for the very many churches which the Norman 
nobles and bishops erected as soon as they took possession of their 
manors. The church at Perivale may not improbably have been 

* See Pat. II., Edward II., Pt. 2, m. 14. 

t In 1339 a Peter (or Petrus) le Botiller got himself into trouble in regard to two 
manors which he administered as bailiff. ' ' The Abbot of Westminster brought his writ of debt 
against John Atte Watere, and demanded against him twenty-five pounds, and said that Peter 
le Botiller was his bailiff in respect of two manors from such a time to such a time, having 
the care and administration of all the goods that were in the said manors, and he said that 
certain auditors were assigned to the bailiff, before which the bailiff rendered his account, 
and that all things had been reckoned which should be reckoned, and all things allowed 
which should be allowed. The said Peter remained in arrear £25 when the said Peter 
was, on testimony of the auditors, sent to the gaol at Westminster, which was the nearest 
gaol — the said John Atte Watere was keeper — there to remain until he made satisfaction to 
the said Abbot for same debt. The said John receiving the said Peter in custody. The 
said John Atte Watere afterwards let him go at large, wherefore the Abbot brings this 
action against him." (" Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain, & the Middle 
Ages— Year Book, 13 and 14 Edward III."). 


erected in the time of Stephen or his successor — an opinion which 
appears to be confirmed by the style of architecture of the building, 
alluded to later. 

Walter de Langton seems to have surrendered the manor and 
benefice to the King in the same year as he received it, as in the 
seventh year of Edward II. Sir Henry de Beaumont, or Bellomont, 
" obtained a grant in fee of the manors of Cornhull, Harrevve, and 
Little Grenestede, with the advowson of the church of Grenefourd, in 
the county of Middlesex" (a.d. 1314).* He was called also Lord 
Henry de Beaumont. 

Although Dugdale mentions that "he was described as consanguineus 
Regis," he says his descent is involved in doubt, some tracing it from 
Lewes, son of Charles, Earl of Anjou, a younger son of Lewes VIII., 
king of France ; others " from Lewes de Brenne, second son of John 
de Brenne, the last king of Jerusalem. "t However this may be, he 
seems to have been another very " stoute souldier," and to have been 
of great service to the king in the early part of his reign, and he was 
enriched with many manors in Lincolnshire, as well as in Liecester- 
shire, Northumberland, &c, besides the little Middlesex manor of 
Greenford Parva. The story of his life as given by Dugdale reads 
almost like a romance.? 

Being soon appointed Constable of Roxburgh Castle in Scotland, he 
was sent by Edward II. with Humphrey de Bohun and Robert de 
Clifford to "guard the marches." Upon the death of the Bishop of 
Lincoln the custody of the Castle of Somerton in that county was 
bestowed upon him for life, he being at the same time Constable of 
the Castle of Dumfries. " In the same year he had a grant of the 
Isle of Man to hold for life by the services which the Lords thereof 
had usually performed to the Kings of Scotland." 

* Cart., 7 Edward II., No. 30. 

t It is probable tbat the De Beaumonts here mentioned are of the same family as old 
Roger de Beaumont, "whose young son Robert was sent by him to win his spurs at Senlac," 
and who, " though a novice in arms," greatly distinguished himself in the battle, and was 
one of the first to break through the English stockade. He became a great noble, and 
was rewarded by many manor-. He was enormously powerful, and it is said of him " that 
if he was displeased with any man he forced him to submissive humiliation ; if pleased, he 
advanced him as he chose, by which means he got an incredible proportion of money and 
jewels," says Henry of Huntingdon. Being urged by his confessor to make restitution of 
whatsoever he had got by force or fraud from any man, he answered, " If I do so, what shall 
I leave my sons." (For more detail see " The Battle Abbey Roll," the Duchess of Cleveland.) 

% Dugdale' s " Baronetage." 


" About this time he took to wife Alice, one of the cosins, and heires 
to John, Earl of Boghan, Constable of Scotland (whose title he after- 
wards assumed), and in the sixth year of Edward's reign " doing his 
homage had livery of the lands of her inheritance." A little later and 
he is again employed in Scotland where war was raging, and he was 
"at that fatal Battel of Bannocksbourne, where the English army 
suffered great loss." 

In the 10th Edward II., says Dugdale, he was the King's lieutenant 
for the north country between the rivers " Tine and Tese," at which 
time a remarkable mishap occurred to him. He was then " accom- 
panying two Cardinals sent from Home ; partly with the purpose to 
reconcile the King to the Earl of Lancaster, and partly to inthronize 
Lewes de Beaumont, his brother, in the Bishoprick of Durham ; he 
was set upon near Derlington by divers stoute robbers, whereof Gilbert 
de Middleton was the chief (in revenge of his kinsman Edmund de 
Swinburne, whom the King had caused to be arrested for his clamor 
against the Marches), and despoiled of all his treasure (as were also 
those Cardinals and the Bishop), and not only so, but carried to the 
Castle of Mitford (as his brother the Bishop was to Morpeth), there 
to be secured until they had ransomed themselves." 

In the fourteenth year of Edward II. he procured a licence to make 
a Castle of his manor house of Whytwyck (Leicestershire). The next 
year we find " this Henry," as Dugdale calls him, joined in commission 
" with Andrew de Harcla for restraining the incursions of the Scots, 
for which people he had so little kindness that (though he was a Baron 
of the realm and sworn both of the great and privy council as the 
record expresseth) being required to yield his advice concerning a 
truce with them ; he unreverently answered ' that he would give none 
therein ; ' whereat the King being much moved and commanding him 
to depart the council, he went out and said ' he had rather be gone than 
stay,' which expression gave such ' distast ' that by the consent of 
the lords there he was committed to prison." " Whereupon Henry de 
Perci and Ralph de Nevill became his sureties, body for body, that he 
would appear upon summons." " But this heat lasted not long," for 
two years later "he was constituted one of the ambasadors to treat of 
peace with Charles, King of France." 

We come now to his action at that critical time when the barons, 


dissatisfied with the weak fickle King who, after the execution of 
Gaveston by the Earl of Lancaster (who afterwards met with the same 
fate at the hands of the King), had chosen Hugh le Spenser as his 
favourite, and he and his father were accused of usurping the royal 
authority. " The defection of the nobles in adhering to the Prince 
and Queen Isabell against the King increasing, as a partaker with 
them, Henry de Beaumont was laid hold on and sent prisoner, first to 
Warwick Castle and afterwards to that of Wallingford." Whereupon 
the scene shortly after changing, one of the articles against Hugh le 
Spenser in the Parliament " was his causing this Henry de Beaumont " 
(our lord of the manor) to be imprisoned. 

" Being therefore obsequious to the Queen and Prince," he followed 
them to the continent. " And after her return," with Roger Mortimer, 
" when the King being deserted endeavoured to reach Ireland " had got 
away " betimes in the morning," " but was driven back by contrary 
winds and brought to this Henry ; he delivered him as prisoner to the 
Queen, who soon after sent him to Berkley Castle." The horrible fate 
of the King and the execution of the Le Spencers is well-known history. 

As remuneration for these services, he obtained a grant of the 
Manor of Loughborough, part of the possessions of Hugh le Spencer. 
Afterwards under Edward III., as chief of the English lords who had 
been disinherited of their lands in Scotland, he led an expedition made 
by ship to that country (the king having forbidden them entering that 
realm by land) and gained a victory over the Scots near Gledismore. 
The authority of the King was not to be thus dealt with ; he caused 
all the castles, manors, and lands belonging to " this Henry " de Beau- 
mont to be seized on. " Nevertheless, soon afterwards upon further 
examination of what was laid to his charge" in the Parliament then 
sitting at Westminster, an Act was passed by which they were again 
restored to him. 

Later he is found engaged again in the Scotch war, and besides other 
grants he is acquitted of debts due by him to the Exchequer, and espe- 
cially 400 marks lent to him at York towards the payment of his ransom 
when he was imprisoned in Scotland. Afterwards he obtained one 
hundred and forty pounds nine shillings, " for wages of himself and his 
men-at-arms, and a precept to the Sheriff of Yorkshire to permit his wife 
and children to reside in the Tower of York," during his absence in 


Flanders. He died in the fourteenth year of Edward Ill's reign (1341), 
possessed of " the Castle and Manor of Folkyngham, and many other 
manors, sixty-three knights' fees, &c., leaving a son John, twenty-two 
years old." Why he should have been so anxious, having his own castle 
and manor houses, to place his wife and children in the Tower of York, 
we have no record. It was no doubt this Henry de Beaumont, lord of 
the manor of Greenford Parva, who presented John de Gravale in 1336. 
The patron at that time is not mentioned by Newcourt, but Dugdale 
helps to supply the blank, according to whom he had a younger son, 
Thomas,'"" and Stow says there was formerly a monument in Our Lady's 
Chapel in the old church at Greyfriars, Farringdon Within, to the 
memory of Thomas Beaumont, son and heir of Henry, Lord Beaumont 
(a.d. 1417).f It would appear that the manor of Greenford with the 
advowson were inherited by his son John, as his grandson is found to 
be in possession of land, &c, , there. 

Of this John de Beaumont we have little information, but in the 
fifteenth year of the reign of Edward III. " he was reteined to serve 
the King at sea with 61 men at armes, whereof one (was) Baneret, 
24 knights, 40 men at arms, and 40 archers for 40 days ;" in which 
year he was also in the war with Scotland, when he died, leaving 
Henry, his son; two years of age. The following curious passage 
occurs in Dugdale : — " Whereupon, in order to his funeral, the King 
sent his precept to William Shirebourne, a burgess of York, to make 
payment of two hundred pounds of those moneys which he did then 
owe for 130 sacks and twenty clays of wooll by him received out of 
the North and East Riding of that county, unto Sir William de 
Burton, Knight, to the use of Aliamore, the widow of the defunct, 
towards the charge of that great solemnity." 

He was succeeded in his honours and property, at any rate as to 
land, &c, in Greenford Parva, by his son, Henry de Beaumont the 
second, and according to Newcourt, Lord Arundel acted as his guar- 
dian (in minori sestate existent), who presented to the benefice Ric 
Hauberks (no date given), and Will. Alborowes in 1363. About this 
time Radulphus de Baldock, or Baudake, and Simon de Sudbury 
were in succession Bishops of London. The latter as Chancellor 
incurred the odium of an insurgent rabble, who beheaded him on 

* Dugdale's " Baronetage." f Stow (Thorns, 1876) p. 210. 


Tower Hill : the execution or murder of a Bishop in this manner is 
significant of the times The germs of the Reformation had already 
been sown, and " it is said that in the midst of a vast multitude of 
pilgrims wending their way, in profound devotion, to the shrine of 
St. Thomas of Canterbury, Bishop Sudbury reproved them for their 
superstitious folly, and said that their hopes of a promised plenary 
indulgence were vain and idle." Dugdale says the second Henry de 
Beaumont, becoming of " full age," in the thirty-fourth year of King 
Edward the Third's reign, "did his homage and had livery of his 
lands," and obtained " a precept to the Lord Treasurer and Baron of 
the Exchequer for the acquiting him of 100 pounds due for the ferm 
of his lands whilst he was in his minority, towards the charges he had 
been at in attending the King in his last expedition beyond the sea." 
He died in 1370, leaving John de Beaumont, his son and heir, a 
minor, the wardship of whom was committed to Lord Latimer, " who 
had custody of his lands during his minority" (Dugdale). In the 
tenth year of Richard II. he made proof of his age, and " doing 
homage he had livery of his lands," amongst which we know was the 
property in Greenford Parva. Like his ancestors he seems to have 
been of a warlike, adventurous disposition. We find him " accom- 
panying John of Gaunt into Spain, but afterwards expelled the Court 
as an evil councellor to the King ; but this discontent somewhat 
abating, he obtained licence to pass into Calais, there to exercise 
himself with feats of arms with the French ; four knights of that 
country having challenged as many English to just (joust) with them 
there : at which time he tilted with the Lord Chamberlain to the 
King of France, and in the 12 year of Richard II.'s reign he was 
made Admiral of the King's Fleet to the northwards, also one of the 
Wardens of the Marches unto Scotland, whereupon he entered into 
that country 40 miles — spoyled the Market of Fowyke and brought 
many prisoners back." In fact, he appears to have been so valiant 
that it was necessary to curb him, as in the thirteenth year of the 
King's reign "he received special prohibition that he should not 
exercise any feats of arms with the French without the licence of 
Henry de Perci, Earl of Northumberland." 

After having been made Constable of Dover Castle and Warden of 
the Cinque Ports, he subsequently became one of the " King's Com- 


missioners to contract marriage for him with the Lady Isabel, eldest 
daughter of the King of France." He died in 1397, having presented 
to the benefice at Greenford Parva, first Edmundus, and subsequently 
John Mussendon in 1384, who resigned in 1388. Besides his Manor 
of Greenford Parva, he possessed also that of Edmonton, Middlesex, 
and many others in Lincolnshire. This John de Beaumont is 
described as being "seized of 100 acres of land; the Church of 
Greenford Parva, taxed at 100 shillings; a ruinous messuage, 15 
acres of meadow land held under the priory of St. Helen's; the 
reversion to a carucate of land ; 5 acres of meadow ; 6 of pasture, 
and 25s. rents held for life by Lawrence de Avres under the Earl of 
Hereford " (De Bohun).* 

The above reference to the Priory of St. Helen's may suggest to the 
reader that the Church of Greenford Parva may have originated from 
a monastery which once existed there, but there is no evidence what- 
ever upon which such a supposition can be based. The church and 
benefice are always alluded to as " an advowson" in the gift of the 
Lord of the Manor. 

It is pleasant to turn for a moment to the reign of Edward III., 
during which lived Chaucer, " the father of English poetry," and 
John Wickliffe, the pioneer of the Reformation. The former has left 
us a pleasing picture in the " Canterbury Tales" of a good "Parsone" 
in his day, which may have been applicable to the worthiest of the 
rectors of Greenford Parva at that time — 

' ' A gode man was there of religion, 
And he was a poor parsone of a toun, 
But riche he was of holy thought and werke, 
He was also a lernid man — a clerke 
That Cristis' Gospel trowely wolde preche ; 
His Parischens devoutly wolde he teche, 
Benygne he was and wondyr dely-gent, 
And in adversitie full patient. 

He waytede after no pomp ne reverence 
Ne makyd hym no spisede (spiced) concience, 
But Crysty's lore and his Apostels twelve 
He taught, but ferst he folwede it hymselve. 

We had at least five rectors at Greenford Parva during the time 
Wickliffe lived (1324 to 1384) : did either of them have the courage 

* See Esch. No. 35. Henry de Bohun died seized of the Fee of Southall in 1372. (Esch. 
46, Edward III., No. 10.) 


he had to challenge some of the doctrines and practices of the Romish 
Church ? For such a role mental capacity and vigour, as well as great 
courage, were absolutely necessary, and neither of the Rectors of 
Perivale have left enough of their imprint " on the sands of time" to 
say. It is sufficient here to record that the little church, the name 
of whose patron saint the same cause has obliterated, was then existing 
and apparently flourishing, judging by the regularity with which the 
rectors were appointed, and had been established many years 

There is an interesting note that the rectory was rated in 1327 at 
rx marks.* The reign of Edward III. is much associated with the 
the battles of Crecy and Poictiers and other like contests, which have 
redounded to the military glory of this country, and these successful 
battles have been attributed so much to the skill of the English 
archers, conjoined to the strategy and courage of the Black Prince, 
that in this retrospect in the history of an old country village, it is 
well to remember how important an ingredient in the e very-day life 
of the countryside at this time must have been the English bowman. 
Archery was constantly practised, and the use of the longbow, and, 
to a more limited extent, that of the crossbow, as a means of training 
for warfare, was greatly encouraged by the sovereign. " The warrior 
King Edward III. in 1365 enjoined on the sheriffs of London the 
general proclamation of his will that every citizen of robust strength, 
laying aside all idle and profitless games, should in his leisure hours 
and on all holidays learn and practise the art of shooting with bows 
and arrows." t Afterwards, in the reign of Richard II., an Act was 
passed commanding all servants to exercise themselves at all times, 
and on all holidays, with the same weapons. 

Even in Henry VI. 's reign, so important was skill in archery con- 
sidered, that Sir John Fortescue, an eminent lawyer at that time, 
declared " that the mighte of the realme of Englande standyth upon 

The butts or practising-ground was not far away from Greenford 
Parva. At Brentford Butts there were, no doubt, frequent contests 
between the skilled archers of the day. The butts in various places, 

* Harl. MSB., No. 60. 

t Rot. Claus., 39 Edward III. For a full article on this subject see Pinks' " History of 


such as those at Newington, Brentford, &c., still retain their names, 
and recall the keen interest which was then taken in such exercises, 
though their glories have passed away, and the ground over which sped 
many an arrow in peaceful rivalry is now covered with "genteel villas." 

Over the fields and woods about Greenford Parva was also shot 
many an arrow and bolt which, no doubt, furnished the bowman with 
a substantial result of his skill ; and though the laws enacted both 
by the Saxon and Norman enabled the thanes and Norman nobles 
to keep a tight hold of their game, still as the country about Green- 
ford Parva then abounded in woodland, and was but sparsely popu- 
lated in the old days, we may be sure that many a bird, as well as 
larger game, has fallen to the grey goose shaft of the bowman, 
unknown to the Lord of the Manor or his vassals, in the woods and 
meadows where the rifleman now practises at the Butts in the Brent 

The names of the neighbouring villages still testify to the woods 
which once flourished in this part of Middlesex. We have Southall 
(a corruption of South holt) and Northolt, the holt being Anglo- 
Saxon for wood ; as well as Harrow Weald, the last syllable of which 
is the Anglo-Saxon for a wooded region, and is cognate with the 
German " wald." Houndslow, in old records spelt Huneslawe, Hun- 
deslawe, and Hunsloo, is another name which indicates the existence 
in Saxon times of large forests north of the Thames. It is highly 
probable that a forest ranger dwelt there whose duty it was to put in 
force the oppressive Norman laws made for the preservation of the 
game in the King's forests, whereby it was enacted that all dogs used 
for collecting herds of oxen, swine, &c, should be laived — i.e, dis- 
abled from hunting deer by cutting off the balls and claws of the 
forefeet. Periodically an inquisition was held for this purpose, and 
" he whose dogge is not lawed and so founde shall be amerced, and 
shall pay for the same three shillings for mercy." The Saxon laws 
were less severe. In the opening chapter of " Ivanhoe," Gurth, the 
swineherd, says to Wamba, " A devil draw the teeth of him and the 
mother of mischief confound the ranger of the forest that cuts the 
foreclaws of our dogs and makes them unfit for their trade." 

Acton was no doubt Oak-town, and derived from the Anglo-Saxon 
ac, an oak, and ton, an enclosure or settlement. 


" Its lords have been great in the olden day, 
But the pride of their strength has been taken away ; 
They moulder unknown in their native land, 
And their home has long past to a stranger hand." — Ernest Jones. 

Resuming the history of the Manor and Rectorate of Greenford Parva, 
otherwise Perivale : hitherto, and dating from the Norman Conquest, 
the entire control of the parish would appear to have been in the 
hands of the feudal barons — great lords of the soil, who sometimes 
occupied high positions about the person of the sovereign in whose 
reign they lived — attending the king in his wars or employed by him 
in other ways, but occasionally engaged in rebellion against him. 
Whether Greenford Parva served the purpose of a knight's fee or fees 
there is no actual evidence, but the probability is that the land there- 
abouts was, for two or three hundred years after the defeat of Harold, 
divided into portions and held by knights and retainers on condition 
of their accompanying their feudal chief in whatever military 
service he was engaged in. In many old manor houses and castles in 
England, the breast-plates and other parts of the simple armour of 
the men-at-arms is still preserved. There is a tradition that the 
manor place of Perivale formerly contained two such sets of warlike 

To the feudal lords seem to have succeeded, as owners of the manor, 
some important persons, but of another kind altogether. 

Sir John de Beaumont or Bellomont alienated the manor and bene- 
fice to Thomas Charlton in 1387.* A curious confirmation of the 
conveyance of the property of the former in Parva Greenford, Harrow 
and Ealing to the respective purchasers or grantees (among whom is 
Charlton) is contained in the Close Roll referred to. The deed runs 
(translated) as follows : — " I, William Wyslepp of Northall in Middle- 
sex have released and quit claimed for ever to Thomas Charlton, John 

* Cl. R., 10 Richard II.. M. 21, d. 
D 2 


Hervy, John Newman (vicar of the church, Hillyndon), John At 
Boure, John Baddcok, and John Lass (chaplains), all his right and 
claim to the manor of Parva Grenford, otherwise called Cornhull, and 
the advowson of the same vill with the appurtenances and also all 
lands and tenements called Esthalle with the appurtenances and in 
all lands and tenements which the aforesaid Thomas Charlton, John 
Hervy, John Newman, &c, &c, hold in the Vills of Harwe, Yillynge 
and Parva Greneford which the said Thomas (Charlton) acquired from 
John Bell-Monte (Beaumont), Lord of Folkyngham. Dated 4 Feb- 
ruary 10th year Richard II. — acknowledged in the court of Chancery 
7 February of the same year." 

Thomas Charlton owned the manor and benefice for many years, 
and presented John Chinchgate to the living in 1388, on the resig- 
nation of Mussendon ; afterwards the former also resigned, and Richard 
Lambard was appointed, 1395. On the death of the latter, John 
Segrave was presented, and Pet. Ward and W. Hind succeeded him on 
his decease, but the record does not state whether this last change was 
the resul t of death or the resignation of the previous rector. 

About this time (1367 — 1399) the clergy generally were so fond 
of hunting and hawking — sports which, with the tournament, were the 
favourite amusements of the nobility and gentrj', and in which ladies 
played a prominent part — that an enactment came into operation that 
every parson who had not a benefice of the yearly value of ten pounds 
was forbidden to keep a dog for hunting. There is a tradition still 
in the hamlet, that one of the rectors in the early part of this century 
had the same partiality for the hunting field. 

Religious persecution began to show itself also about this period — 
the leaven of the Reformation was commencing to operate in the 
minds of men ; to the clergy generally, particularly to those who were 
most conscientious and earnest, the signs of the times were fraught 
with anxiety. They were momentous to the rectors of Greenford 
Parva as to others. The Lollards were persecuted, and many of them 
were executed. In 1401 Henry IV. enacted that persons accused of 
heretical opinions could be tried by the Bishop and burned by the 
Sheriff ; yet Lollardism increased in proportion as it was persecuted. 
John Sawtre, a London clergyman, was the first who died for his 
religious opinions ; he was burned in Smithfield in 1401. 


In 1435 the manor and advowson, described as late the property 
of Sir Thomas Charlton, seem to have been held by Thomas Hall or 
Halle, but he conveyed them the same year to William Eastfield, 
citizen and alderman of London* when Henry VI. was reigning : he 
presented Hugo Nobull to the rectory in 1435, and afterwards William 
Come, without any cause being assigned as far as Newcourt's record is 

William Eastfield here mentioned was, no doubt, the worthy citizen 
mentioned by Stow as one of the sheriffs in 1422, a year in which the 
old chronicler says " the West Gate of London was begun to be built 
by Sir Richard Whittington's executors." William Eastfield became 
Lord Mayor of London in 1429 (the title of Lord Mayor was adopted 
in 1381) and was created a Knight of the Bath. As Sir William 
Eastfield, mercer, he became again Mayor in 1437. He was, to use 
Stow's words, " a great benefactor of conduits," and followed close on 
the steps of Sir Richard Whittington, " the thrice Lord Mayor of 
London," in his efforts with others to get a supply of " sweet water " 
for London. Thus, a.d. 1423, Sir Richard Whittington built a 
reservoir at Billingsgate for the use of the market people,t and in the 
same year, that worthy knight made " a Boss of clear water in the walls 
of St. Giles' Churchyard, called Cripplegate Conduit" In 1438 Sir 
William Eastfield brought water here from "HighBerie." In the 
same year Sir William Eastfield, then Mayor, built the Fleet Street 
Conduit, opposite Shoe Lane. This conduit was supplied from Pad- 
dington, and Stow says that this had a fair tower of stone, and was 
garnished with images of St. Christopher, &c, " with sweet sounding 
bells before them, whereupon by an engine placed in the tower, they 
divers hours of the day chimed such a hymn as was appointed." 

" Aldermanbury Conduit, opposite the south side of St. Mary's 
Church," subsequently destroyed by the Great Fire, and afterwards 
rebuilt, was erected under the will of Sir William Eastfield, the worthy 

* Close R., 13 Henry VI., m. 14. An abstract from this roll is interesting : — "Dec. 4. 
Thomas Hale of Yillynge (Ealing), Middlesex, husbandman (probably his name is only 
used as a form of law), conveys to William Eastfield, Henry Frowyk (citizens and aldermen 
of London), John Carpenter, Robert Burton, Alexander Aune, John Wylton, Thomas 
Dale (clerk), John Leget (clerk), Roger Byrkes, property in Greenford and Yillynge, 
which were of Thomas Charlton (Knight), Henry Erowyk, William Brag, Thomas Warner, 
and others." 

t "History of Clerkenwell," by W. J. Pinks, with additions by E. J. Wood, 1881. 


Lord of the Manor of Greenford Parva, the successor of the fortunate 
apprentice, Sir Richard Whittington, who, whether he owed his great 
fortune to his " cat," in the form of our domestic pussy, or to a ship 
of that name, laden with a particularly suitable cargo for the port to 
which it was destined, must have been a man of great enterprise and 
energy ; and whether he ever rested on Highgate Hill on leaving the 
city as a boy in despair at his prospects, to be recalled by the distant 
sound of Bow bells to fame and fortune, and ultimately to marriage 
with his rich master's daughter (as the story is told), or not, it is 
evident he was a citizen of whom even this generation may feel 
proud ; and that our Lord of the Manor and owner of the advowson 
of Perivale was a man imbued with the same spirit of doing good to 
the people who lived with him and after him. 

Stow, who wrote in Elizabeth's reign, says he had a dwelling-house 
at Aldermanbury in the City : — " In this Aldermanburie Street be 
divers fair houses on both sides, meet for merchants or men of 
worship, and in the midst thereof is a fair conduit, made at the 
charges of William Eastfield, some time Mayor, who took order as well 
as water to be conveyed from Teyborne and for the building of this 
conduit not far distant from his dwelling-house, as also for a standard 
of sweet water to be erected in Fleet Street, all of which was done 
by his executors." * 

Sir William Eastfield died in 1438, and was buried in St. Mary's, 
Aldermanbury, " under a fair monument," " having been a great 
benefactor to that church ; he also built its steeple, changed their 
bells into five tuneable bells, and gave one hundred pounds to other 
works of the church." 

From William Eastfield the manor and advowson passed (they 
appear always to have been held together) to John Middleton and 
others in 1453. It may be that they presented John Ely in 1453 
as trustees, but in 1464 Jac. Gyfiford appears to have been appointed 
by the Bishop of London seemingly in default of the owner of the 
advowson exercising his right. Stow says, a J. Middleton was 
Sheriff in 1450. The next owner of the manor and benefice was 
John Bohun, Armiger (a title now very nearly extinct, which was 
then equivalent to Esquire in the days of chivalry). He presented 

* "Stow's Survey," W. J. Thorns, 1876. 


Robert Hooper in 1472 and Henry Bartelot in 1473, both of whom 

It helps the reader to realize the condition of the country during 
which these changes were taking place if it is remembered that 
during thirty years included in these dates (1455 to 1485) occurred 
the Wars of the Roses, in which twelve pitched battles were fought 
and eighty princes of the blood slain, not to mention the large portion 
of the old nobility who were destroyed. Though severe battles were 
fought at St. Alban's and Barnet, not so very distant from Greenford 
Parva, it does not appear that its fortunes were directly affected by 
the struggle. 

Henry Collet, who succeeded John Bohun as lord of the manor, 
and who presented John Taylor to the benefice in 1490, was in all 
probability the Henry Collet, mercer, who was twice Lord Mayor of 
London and knighted, as mentioned by Stow, and the father of Dr. 
John Collet, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's, the founder of St. Paul's School 
in 1512.* 

It is said " that he chose John Percival (Merchant Taylor), his 
carver, as Sheriff by drinking to him in a cup of wine, according to 
custom," when he became Lord Mayor in 1495. " Percival forthwith 
sat down at the mayor's table " and his Sheriff, so chosen, became 
mayor in 1498.t Henry Collet was a benefactor to the Church of St. 
Anthony in Budge Row, where, according to Stow, there were formerly 
representations of him, his wife, her sons and her daughters, in a 
painted glass window on the north side of the church. 

The worthy mercer resided for many years at Stebunhith 
(Stepney), then quite in the country, and a place where the Alder- 
men, Sheriffs, and citizens of London used to go maying in the 
Bishop of London's woods there. % Henry Collet had twenty-two 
children, of whom Dean Collet was the sole survivor. The premature 
death of so large a family — in many cases caused by the great scourge 
of this period, the sweating sickness — must have had a deeply 
saddening effect on him, as well as on the character of his son, who, 
after several attacks of the malady, fell a victim to it at the age of 

* "Stow's Survey," Thorn's ed. Newcourt spells it Collet. Lysons appears to have 
copied the name incorrectly as Colet. 

t " Old and New London," Thornbury (Cassell's). X Stow. 


Henry Collet was buried at Stebunhith, of which parish his son 
held the living until he was made Dean of St. Paul's, and it was not 
long after that the revenue therefrom became augmented by his 
succession to the great wealth of his father, which, Dean Milman says, 
he entirely devoted to public advantage and charity. 

Henry Collet presented John Taylor to the living in 1490, on the 
resignation of Henry Bartelot, after the latter had held the rectorate 
for seventeen years. 

The son of the Lord of the Manor of Greenford Parva, the founder of 
St. Paul's School, was the friend of Erasmus, and a man of great 
learning and high character, and a reformer when it was dangerous to 
show sympathy for reform. Stow tells us he committed the oversight 
of the school " to the mercers in London, because himself was son to 
Henry Collet, mercer, Mayor of London, and endowed the mercers with 
lands to the yearly value of £120 or better," which has now happily 
grown into a large revenue. Being asked why he had left his 
foundation in trust to laymen, as tenants of his father, rather than to 
an ecclesiastical foundation, he replied, " that there was no absolute 
certainty in human affairs, but for his part he found less corruption 
in such a body of citizens, than in any other order or degree of 

Latimer tells us the Dean narrowly escaped burning for his 
opposition to image worship. Foxe says, in his " Acts and Monuments," 
" that William Tyndale in his book, answering Master Moore, added 
moreover that the Bishop of London would have made the said 
Collet, Dean of St. Paul's, a heretic for translating the ' Pater Noster 
into English, had not the Bishop of Canterbury holpen the Dean." 
It is not easy to realize now that a man should run the risk of an 
ecclesiastical prosecution and the probability of being burnt for 
translating " the Lord's Prayer " into English. The Dean must, 
however, have been in considerable danger when preaching a sermon 
before the king (Henry VIII.) in 1521, on the victory of Christ, which 
it was considered might have the effect of turning the hearts of the 
soldiers and they might be withdrawn from his wars then in hand. 
" The king took him aside and talked with him in secret confidence, 
walking in his garden." The Bishops then about the person of the 
king fully expected (some would have rejoiced) that he would be sent 


to the Tower. Foxe says the king, however, dismissed Collet in these 
words : " Let every man have his doctor as him liketh ; this shall be 
my doctor."* 

The eighth Henry had faults enough : it is well to record his 
protection of Dr. Collet, the son of the Lord of the Manor of Perivale, 
at this crisis, as on the other side of the account, although it was not 
conveyed in the best king's English. 

Henry VIII.'s assumption of the supreme authority of the 
English Church, and his severance from the Pope, whose champion 
he had previously been, is the most memorable event in the reform 
movement. With no real love for Lutheranism, he commenced by 
persecuting the reformers ; he ended by supporting them w r ith the 
full power of the State. The circulation of the Scriptures which he 
permitted produced a great sensation, and was the cause of great 
bitterness and strife. People frequented the churches to hear the 
Bible read and explained, but it was also the subject of angry dis- 
cussion. It caused unseemly wrangles in ale-houses and common 
tap-rooms ; around the church porches, and even within the sacred 
edifices, it is said, noisy crowds gathered, and contended for their 
several opinions. 

It may be supposed that the little church at Perivale escaped 
these scandals from its position, being comparatively distant from 
London, but this is hardly likely to have been the case. It was in 
the country districts especially that the religious disputes were most 
rife, and as Perivale was a more important village at that time than 
it has been during the past hundred years, it probably suffered from 
the effects of such strifes, and the loss of its oldest records and many 
of its ancient monuments was the result. The following is among 
the contents of a Book of Articles devised by the king, to establish 
Christian quietness and amity among the people,t dated 1538 : — "That 
ye provide — one book of the whole Bible of the largest volume in 
English, and the same set up in some convenient place within the 
said church, that ye have the cure of, where your parishoners may 
most commodiously resort to the same and read it. The charges of 
which book shall be rateably borne between you, the parson and 
parishoners aforesaid, that is to say, the one half by you, the other 

* Foxe's " Acts and Monuments." t Ibid. 


half by them." The articles contain directions that " the Lord's 
Prayer is to be learned in English — Sermons to be read quarterly — 
Priests not to haunt ale-houses — Pilgrimages forbidden — Pra} r ers to 
be in the mother tongue — Images abolished." These extracts enable 
us to realise the state of religious thought and practice at this 

The manor and benefice, according to Lysons, next became vested 
in Sir Robert Southwell ; * but Newcourt says the proprietor at that 
time was Ric. Southwell, and that he presented Jac. Aynsworth 
to the rectory in 1494, who subsequently resigned like his prede- 
cessor, and the same lord of the manor appointed William Maneyard 
in 1503. 

The frequent resignation of the rectors about this time is a notice- 
able fact. Lysons says, Sir Robert Southwell died seized of the 
manor and advowson of Greenford Parva in 1516, and on referring 
to the authority for this statement, he appears to be right, though 
the proprietor could hardly have been the Master of the Rolls and 
Privy Councillor of that name in the reign of Henry VIII. The 
latter had a brother, Sir Richard Southwell, also a man of consider- 
able importance, and the brothers were much at Court and in favour 
with the King. They are both mentioned, as hereafter quoted, in 
Machyn's remarkable book, recording the burning of persons for their 
religious opinions, the funeral ceremonies of persons of distinction, 
and other curious information set forth with much zeal and detail, 
and in words very remarkably spelt.t In the interleaved and 
embellished copy of Lysons' " Environs," now in the Guildhall 
Library, which is said to have been thus further illustrated by Mr. 
Douce, the author and antiquary (to whom it is believed formerly 
to have belonged), there is an engraved portrait of Sir Robert South- 
well, the Master of the Rolls, and presumably a son of the Sir Robert 
Southwell, owner of the manor, &c, of Greenford Parva. The late 
owner appears to have adopted this suggestion by inserting the portrait 
where the name is mentioned, and he is probably correct. 

* Cole's "Escheats." Harl. MSS., 756. This deed refers to Robert Southwell and his 
connection with Greenford Parva. It also mentions his wife Elizabeth and his sister 
Francis (sixth year of Henry VIII.) . 

t "The Diary of Henry Machyn, Citizen and Merchant Taylor of London, a.d. 1650 to 
1663." (Camden Soc. Pub.) 


Machyn refers to the death of Sir Robert Southwell thus : — " 1559 
the VIII day of November was buried in Kent Ser Robartt Sowth- 
well Knight, sum time Master of the Rolls with a harold of armes, a 
target, a elmett and viij dosen skochyons of armes." 

Whatever Sir Robert Southwell, the brother, may have been after- 
wards, it is evident that, in 1555, he was a supporter of the Roman 
Catholic Queen. In this year it was expected by a large number of 
people that Mary would in a few months give birth to a child, as 
Foxe says : — " Of this child there was great talk in every man's mouth, 
especially among such as seemed in England to carry Spanish hearts 
in English bodies. In number of whom is not here to be forgotten, 
nor defrauded of his condyn commendation for his wortlry affection 
towards his prince and her issue. One Sir Richard Southwell, who 
being the same time in the parliament, when the Lords were occupied 
with other affairs and matters of importance, suddenly started up 
from fulness of joy burst out in these words, ' Tush, my masters,' 
quoth he, ' what talk ye of these matters. I would have you take 
some order for our young master that is now coming into the world 
apace lest he find us unprovided," &c. 

Speaking of Sir Richard Southwell, presumably a son of the lord 
of the manor, Machyn informs us that, " Master Sowthwell and divers 
mo(re) received the Kyng and Quen on the 26 April 1555 at Gren- 
wyche," how he attended as a " Mornar" with other notables at the 
obsequies of the King of Denmark ; how he went to Lady W.'s 
funeral, " where her husband and she had a harold and mony mornars 
as Ser Recherd Sowthwell and dyvers odurs and at to that of Ser 
Thomas Pope at darken well " with the Clarence and York " harolds " 
and then to a " grett " dinner afterwards. 

It is significant of the times to find on the same page that he 
" whent" (on the 1st of July in that year) " to Smythfield to borne 
(burn) Master Bradford a grett (great) precher in Kyng Edward's 
dayes, and a talow chandlers prentes (apprentice) dwelling by Nugatt 
by viij of the cloke in the mornyng with a grett compane of 

Newcourt's record shows that from 1521 to 1559,* Humphrey 
Brown and Sir Humphrey Brown and his wife presented to the rec- 

* " Newcourt Repertorium." See copy of his record, later. 


tory, as owners of the manor and advowson : Thomas Marshall in 
1521, Thomas Veysey in 1523, John Rysdale in 1540, and Patricius 
Calyn in 1559, during which period Wareham, Tunstall, and Bonner 
were in succession Bishops of London. With the return of the latter 
to his see and the ascent of the throne by the cruel, bigoted Mary, 
came the dreadful persecutions of the reformers. Heresy was to be 
exterminated with the horrors of the stake. 

The historian tells us that these persecutions and burnings began 
in the early part of 1555, the first victims being Rogers, Prebendary 
of St. Paul's ; Hooper, Bishop of Gloucester ; Saunders, Rector of 
Allhallows, and Taylor, Rector of Hadleigh, in Suffolk ; and that 
they lasted for more than three years, when the Queen died. Such 
atrocities were committed not far from the rectory of Greenford 
Parva, in 1558, as in that year six persons were burnt at Brentford 
for advocating the new opinions. They were not connected in any 
way with Brentford ; these poor martyrs who, it is said, went "joy- 
fully to the stake whereunto they were bound," were " of that company 
that were apprehended in a close by Islington," and it is probable, 
as suggested by Foxe, that they were sent to the county town to 
strike terror into the neighbourhood. 

Would that John Rysdale, who, according to Newcourt's record, 
enjoyed the benefice for nineteen years, until he resigned in 1559, 
had left us a journal or some record of the state of religious feeling 
at Greenford Parva and the neighbouring towns, and of how he felt 
when such terrible events were taking place. Rysdale resigned the 
year following Elizabeth's accession, and the new parson under the 
Protestant Queen was Patricius Calyn, who was rector for fourteen 
years until he died. 

Sir Humfrey Browne, Lord of the Manor, &c, of Greenford Parva, 
and described as of Rooding Abbots, in Essex, was a judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas in the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI., 
Mary, and Elizabeth, and altogether a very distinguished man ; he 
was knighted between 1533 and 1537.* His daughter and coheiress, 

* Son of Thomas Browne, of Longhouse, in Abbotts Rooding, Essex, &c. Arms, Gules 
a chevron between 3 lions gambs, erased and erect, within a bordure argent ; over a chief 
of the 2nd thereon an eagle displayed sable armed and ducally crowned or. Crest, a lion's 
gamb erased and erect argent holding a wing, sable. See "Walter C. Metcalf's " Book of the 
Knights Banneret, Knights of the Bath, &c." (London, 1885), and Foss's " Tabulse 
Curiales" (London, 1865), &c. 


Christiana, married Sir John Tufton, Baronet, of Rainham, Kent, and 
Hothfield. His brother, Sir Wyston Browne, was dubbed knight at 
Bruges in 1511-12. 

Machyn (op. cit.) records his death in 1562, and gives the follow- 
ing curious account of his funeral : — ■ 

"The XV day of Desember 1562 was cared (carried) by the 
Clarkes of London from Seypulkurs unto Sant Martens orgaynes 
(Orgars) in Kanwykstrett (Candlewick Street, now Cannon Street) to 
be bered be (by) on(e) of ys wyffes the lord justes Browne Knyght 
with ij haroldes of armes, master Clarenshux and master Somersett ; 
furst whent a-for xxiiij pore men in mantyll fryse gownes, and after 
a xx clarkes carehyng ther surples on ther armes, and next the 
standard borne by a mornar, and then cam the ij chaplens and dyvers 
mornars and then cam a harold beyryng the helme and crest, and 
next cam master Clarenshux beyrying the cott of armes, and then 
cam the pennone of armes, and then cam the corse with a palle of 
blake velvett with armes on yt, and then the cheyff mornars and my 
lord Mordantt with odur, and then cam the juges and sergant(s) of 
the coyffe, and next all the ynes of the court- in a-ray, a gret nombur 
and thruge (through) Chepesyd (Cheapside) ; and master Renakur 
mad the sermon, and after home to a grett dener." 

Stow records that he bequeathed " divers houses " to the parish 
of St. Martins Orgars, but mentions no other memorial of him. This 
must have been another critical time in the history of the little 
church of Greenford Parva, as of other churches in this country. The 
short reign of Edward VI. is remarkable for the vigorous strides 
made by the Reformation. Even before the appearance of the 
Commissioners in 1547, charged with the edict of the Council which 
commanded the destruction of images, pictures of the saints, forbade 
processions and the continuance of all customs and practices deemed 
to be superstitious, the people had in many places taken the matter 
into their own hands and despoiled the churches of all objects which 
were considered objectionable.* Images and even stained glass were 

* Froude says, in the autumn and winter of 1552 no less than four commissions were 
appointed with this one object, all of which were to go over the oft-trodden ground, and 
glean the last spoils which could be gathered from the churches. In the business of plunder 
the rapacity of the Crown officials had been far distanced by private peculation. The halls 
of country-houses were hung with altar-cloths ; the knights and squires drank their claret 
out of chalices, and watered their horses in marble coffins. Pious clergy, gentlemen or 


removed, and in many cases the walls were whitewashed in order to 
hide the painted illustrations of the lives and legends of saints. The 
" Grey Friars Chronicle" says, briefly but bitterly : — " And so alle 
imagys pullyd down throw all Ynglande at that tyme and alle 
Churches new whytelimed, with the commandements wrytten on the 
walls." * 

Heylyn says : — " Many private men's parlours were hung with altar 
cloths, their tables and beds covered with copes, instead of carpets 
and overlids ; and many carousing cups made of the sacred 
chalices, as once Belshazzar celebrated his drunken feast in the 
sanctified vessels of the Temple. It was a sorry house, and not 
worth naming, which had not somewhat of this furniture in it, though 
it was only a fair large cushion made of a cope or altar cloth, to adorn 
their windows or to make their chairs appear to have somewhat in 
them of a chair of state." 

Tombs were stripped of their monumental brasses. Nor was this 
all, for those sources of revenue to the priests, both secular and 
monastic, the obits and chantries, were abolished, and property left to 
purchase the prayers of the priests for the repose of the souls of the 
dead was diverted to the Royal Treasury. 

It had been enacted, as already mentioned, that a large Bible in 
English should be placed in every church ; it was generally secured 
by a chain to the lectern, and with it was often placed a copy of 
"Erasmus' Paraphrase of the Gospel." The first Book of Common 
Prayer was published in 1549. It is certain that although these 
changes were generally favourably received in the towns, they were 
stoutly objected to in many country places. Insurrections broke 
out, led by men who demanded the restoration of the old faith and 
the destruction of Protestantism, even by fire and sword. Bishops 
Bonner and Gardiner were imprisoned for resisting the commis- 
sioners, and although they were soon liberated, they still opposed 
the Reformation and were deprived of their sees. They were restored 
to them, we know, in the succeeding reign of Mary. With the full 

churchwardens had in many places secreted plate, images, or candlesticks, which force 
might bring to light. Bells, rich in silver, still hung silent in remote church towers, or 
were buried in the vaults, &c. 

* See Dean Milman's "Annals of St. Paul's Cathedral," page 73, quoted by Wharton, 
from William Chartham, a monk of Canterbury. 


force of their minds they henceforth endeavoured to exterminate 
Protestantism, punishing heresy by the stake, as the history of this 
country records. 

The little church at Greenford Parva and its rectors had to pass 
through the trying ordeal of these times. 

In 1573 Henry Millet is found to be in possession of the right 
of presentation to the benefice, and Lord of the Manor of Greenford 
Parva, which about this time began to be known as Perivale. It is 
probably his father's or grandfather's tomb which is still preserved — 
with the brasses representing his wives, Alice and J oan, and fifteen 
children, referred to later — among the monuments in the church, and 
with the year of his death, 1500, and the one now reproduced from 
Mr. Farthing's MSS. (see Plates) is probably the brass effigy of his 
son and successor, George Millet, who, as owner of the manor and 
advowson, presented to the living in 1587. Lysons says there was 
a brass on the floor of the chancel to the memory of George Millet, 
with the date 1600, and no doubt the drawing made by Mr. Farthing 
is of the one referred to by him. 

There is an interesting monument in the chancel recording the 
death of his wife, afterwards Mrs. Shelbury, and describing her late 
husband as " Lord of this Towne," &c, which will be noticed among 
the other memorials in the church. 

It is evident that Perivale or Greenford Parva was a more impor- 
tant place at that time than it has ever been since. The Millets 
appear to have held much land in this neighbourhood about this 
time. Among the records of Greenford Magna is one which states 
that William Millet, of that parish, left, in 1663, £5 per annum to 
buy gowns of frieze for two poor men and two poor women (his 
monument is on the floor of the church of Greater Greenford). * A 
John Millet held the Manor of Hayes, Middlesex, and died in pos- 
session of it in 1628, and another member of the family, William 
Millet, gave in 1631, a close of land for the good of the poor of 
Norwood, Norcott, Heston, and Southall (Lysons). 

Nicholas Osmund, who was appointed rector by George Millet in 
1587, and enjoyed the living until he died in 1621, i.e., during the 

* Robert Millet, yeoman, and Margaret Thornton, spinster, of Greenforde, Middlesex, 
daughter of Jerome Thornton, late of the same, yeoman, deceased, were married by licence 
in 1585(6). — (Colonel Chester's " Marriage Licences.") 


later part of Elizabeth's reign, and in that of James I., must have 
witnessed the agitation of the people, who were divided, on the acces- 
sion of James L, into the three great parties — the Eoman Catholics, 
Episcopalians, and Puritans — each of which was striving for ascen- 
dency and cherishing hopes of favour from the King. 

The people got hold of a saying of the then reigning Pope — " The 
preaching of the Gospel is the destruction of the Church " * — and no 
doubt repeated it in a sense not intended by the Pontiff. How inter- 
esting would be Nicholas Osmond's sermons during the thirty-four 
years of his ministry, if he held decided opinions ! Probably, however, 
like his King's, they were expressed in the words, " No bishop, no 

From the Millets, the manor and advowson descended by female 
heirs to the families of Lane and Harrison, and perhaps Thomas 
Hobman and E. Maplesdon, mentioned in the following record as 
presenting to the living, belonged to these families. 

The period when Thomas Hobman, citizen of London, presented 
Francis Hobman and Edward Kead, and John Lane made Henry 
Wyatt rectors of Perivale — i.e., between 1621 and 1661 — must have 
been another very trying period for the little church of Perivale and 
its rectors. The obscurity of the hamlet could hardly have saved the 
latter from the observation of the " Committee of Tryers," who were 
appointed in 1653 to examine the qualification, character, and fitness 
of ministers. 

The committee is thus satirized in " Hudibras " : — 

"Whose business is, by cunning sleight, 
To cast a figure for men's light, 
To find in lines of beard and face 
The physiognomy of Grace ; 
And by the sound and twang of nose, 
If all be sound -within disclose ; 
Free from a crack or flaw of sinning, 
As men try pipkins by the ringing." 

It is said " these tryers pretended to great skill in this respect ; 
and if they disliked the beard and face of a man, they would for that 
reason alone refuse to admit him, when presented to a living, unless 
he had some friend to support him." This is, no doubt, an exag- 
gerated statement, though the committee exercised very fully the power 

* "Calendar of State Papers," 1613. 


they had of ejecting from the church livings such of the clergy as they 
deemed unfit, by reason of their conduct, practice, or preaching, and 
those who held Episcopalian opinions were of course most frequently 
the sufferers. Among the most ardent of the " Tryers " was the 
famous Philip Nye, a strong adherent of Cromwell, although a 
powerful advocate for Independency in Church government as op- 
posed to Presbyterianism. He was very zealous for the " cause," the 
acceptance of the Solemn League and Covenant, and sat as a member 
of the Assembly of Divines at Westminster. He was appointed to 
officiate, and when the resolution for taking the Covenant passed that 
body, he read the document from the pulpit with a very audible voice, 
article by article, each person standing with his right hand up to 
affirm the solemn declaration. 

For his services generally he was appointed Rector of Acton, and 
drew up, in conjunction with others, the preface to " the Directory " 
which was ordered to be substituted for the Book of Common Prayer 
in 1654, and he was nominated one of the assistants to the Commis- 
sion for ejecting " insufficient ministers and schoolmasters." He is 
alluded to in " Hudibras " in the following sarcastic lines : — 

" With greater art and cunning rear'd 
Than Philip Nye's thanksgiving beard." 

From these observations we are able to understand the character of 
the sturdy, " independent " rector of Acton, and appreciate the effect 
of the close proximity of Nye's watchful eye and " thanksgiving 
beard" on the rector or rectors of Perivale at that time. Francis 
Hobman and Edward Reed either had to conform to the times or 
resign. It is noticeable that there is a break in Newcourt's record 
at this period. The reason for Reed's vacating the living is not 
stated, nor are the dates between which Hobman held it mentioned : 
in fact, there appears to have been a lapse in the appointment of 
the rectors of Perivale, and the church may have been closed, as there 
is no entry in the list of rectors until the Restoration, when Henry 
Wyatt is collated in 1661 by the new Lord of the Manor, John Lane, 
who had married the eldest daughter of George Millet, " sometime 
patron of the church." 

These facts seem to point at any rate to some confusion in regard 
to the church at Perivale between 1621 and 1661. 


The Parliamentary soldiers were located on several occasions not 
many miles away, when the battles were fought at Brentford ; and 
Cromwell's army was entrenched at one time on Hillingdon Hill. 
The earthworks they erected may still be seen. 

The learned author of " Greater London " (Edward Walford) says 
that " on a survey taken about the time of the Restoration, Ealing is 
described as ' ruinated and lying open since the plundering thereof in 
the last troubles,' but the precise date and extent of this ruination is 
not stated." 

This is, however, certain, whatever occurred to the Rectors of Peri- 
vale : there were theological troubles in the adjoining parish of Ealing. 
Robert Cooper, an Episcopalian, was Vicar of Ealing in the reign of 
Charles I. and during the Civil War ; but he was ejected by the 
Puritans when they obtained the upper hand, and Daniel Cawarthen 
appointed in his place. The latter dying in 1652, was succeeded by 
Gilbert, a Scotch divine, who was compelled to leave at the Restora- 
tion, when Robert Cooper was reinstated. Gilbert went to America 
and died at Charleston, Massachusetts ; and on his tomb were inscribed 
these words : — " He was sometime pastor of the Church of Christ at 
Ealing, Old England, and was the proto-martyr, i.e., the first of the 
ministers that suffered deprivation in the cause of Nonconformity in 

In 1662 the Act of Uniformity was passed, and when the Feast of 
St. Bartholomew came round, the last day fixed for clergjonen to take 
the oath, it is a great historical fact that more than 2,000 resigned 
their benefices rather than do so. 

There appears to have been no difficulty in the mind of Henry 
Wyatt in regard to the Act, as he was for twenty-two years Rector of 
Perivale, as recorded on his tomb, which may now be seen in the 
churchyard. Two years later, and the " Conventicle Acts " made it 
punishable for persons to be present at any religious meeting other 
than the Church of England, as poor Richard Baxter, the eminent 
Nonconformist, then living at Acton, found to his cost in 1 669, when he 
was sent to gaol, his offence being that of preaching in his own house 
at Acton, in the intervals between Divine service on Sundays. Baxter 
relates that in 1665, when he was preaching in a private house, a 

* Lysous. 



bullet was fired in at the window, and that the same year a lady 
came in a coach to hear him, of whom he says, " her heart was full of 
malice, and she resolved, if possible, to do me a mischief." It is 
evident that bigotry and intolerance were in the ascendant, and that 
the clergy who subscribed to the Acts of Uniformity, as it seems likely 
the Rector of Perivale did, could make the lives of those of their 
parishioners who openly showed a disposition towards Nonconformity, 
to say the least, very uncomfortable. 

In 1665 Simon Coston, of Great Greenford, gave the cover to the 
font. A tradition connected with him is referred to later. 

Newcourt mentions the tenths or first-fruits* chargeable on the 
Rectory of Perivale as follows (onera hujus ecclesice) : — 

£ s. d. 

Primitiae 6 13 4 

Decimae 13 4 

Proc. Episc 000 

Proc. Archid 6 10 

Synodalia . . . . . . . . .035 

The following table contains the names of the rectors from a.d. 1336 
to 1700, with the names of the Lords of the Manor who presented (or 
patrons), with other information given by Newcourt, who wrote in 
1707. It is of greater interest quoted almost verbatim from the 
" Repertorium." 

Bishops of London 
(Norn. Reg. Libb.). 
Baudake, alias 
Radulphus de 100 



J Joh. de Gravale, 5 Non. Mar. 1336 j The patron not named. 

Simon de Sudbury 

/ Ric. Hauberks 
25 ' 

Com. Arundel, ratione cus- 
todies, Hen. Beaumont, 
Mil. in minori aestate 

Robert de Bray- 

Roger de Walden 

I Will. Alborowes, pr. 5 Kal. Maii 1363 
' per mort. Hauberks 

28 Joh. Mussendon, 29 Aug. 1384, per ) Joh. de Bellomont (Beau- 

mort. Edmundus ) mont), Miles. 

65 Joh. Chinchgate, pr. 6 Mar. 1388, j ^ . charleton . 

per resig. Mussendon ) 

139 J Ric. Lambard, pr. 16 Feb. 1395, per) 1 

resig. Chinchgate \ 

159 Joh. Segrave, pr. Maii 1398, per ) 

mort. Lambard j 

Pet Ward, cap. 7 Aug. 1405, per i 

mort. Segrave ) 

\ Will Hind 

Tho. Charleton et alii. 

* "First-fruits" was an annual charge on the revenues of rectories and some other 
benefices. The payment ceased to be obligatory on the abolition of church rates. 

E 2 

142 [ Hen. Bartelot, pr. 29 Nov. 1473, per ) I 

Richard Hill 



Bishop of London r> » ^ , 

;Xom. Reg. Libb.). Rectors. Patrons. 

37 t HugoNobull, 20 Jul. 1435, permort. ) \ -„,..,, „ ,„ ,, re 
Robt. Fitzhugh Hind Will Eastfield Gives et 

( Will. Come ) ^Hermanns Lond. 

29 / Joh. Ely. 29 Nov. 1453, per resig. Come Job. Middleton et alii. 
88 Jac. G-yfford, pr. 25 Apr. 1464 Episc. Lond. per Laps. 

Tbos. Kemp 137 j Hob. Hooper, pr. 14 Nov. 1472, per } \ 

resig Gyfford h h Arm 

Nov. 1473, per t 
resig. Hooper 
Job. Taylor, cap. 7 Ap. 1490, per resig. i „ ~ ,, , 

Bartel!t! Henr y CoUet - 
Jac. Aynsworth, pr. 27 Jun. 1494, ) y 

Will. Maneyard, cip* lTSb^JoX Ric " S° uthwelL 
per resig. Aynswortb ( J 
R.C.Wareham 2 " j ' Tho. Marshall, cap. 19 J^ b -^per j , 

a / rro. it- „, A J i -no ! > Humfr. Brown, Gent. 

Cutbbert TunstaU 4 Tho - Ye ^^ ^ 23 °? fc - ]f 3 '£% \ 
\ resig. Marshall ) / 

132 / Job. Rysdale, 2 Dec. 1540, permort. ) \ 
Edmund Bonner ! Veysey } I Humfr. Brown, Mil. et 

483 j Patricius Calyn, 17 Nov. 1559, per \ I Eliz. ejus uxor. 

v resig. Rysdale j ) 

172 / Joh. Pyerson, cl. 8 Oct. 1573, permort. ) Henry Millet. 
Edmund Gnndall ^ L^ ^^ d „ Aug ™g { ^ 

\ mort. Pierson j 

Bpuup „., \ Fra - H °bman, A.M., 4 April 1621 j | Tho Hobman, Gives 
R. C. Abbot, Pars 2o4 J per mort. Osmond j > Lond 

( Edw. Read ; 

T u , i Hen. Wyatt, A.M., 27 Jun. 1661, per ) T , „ r „„ a a™ 

J. Henchman | mort . ^. Eectoris (Wyatt died in 1638) | John Lane ' Am - 

Henry Compton { Ric ' Ward > AM > ^^t^Storis J K Ma P lesden > Gent ' 

Ric. Ward is the present Rector (1700). 
Note. — Beard was Rector in 1705. For those presented subsequently, see Chap. VII. 

Little is known of the history of any of these old rectors ; but 
Newcourt says that a Pet. Ward was Vicar of Broxbourne, Herts, 
between 1400 and 1436, and John Ely, Vicar of St. Mary Aldermary, 
London, 29th November, 1404, and Thomas Marshall became Vicar of 
St. Bride's, London, 30th January, 1554. 

Mary Harrison, widow, seems to have presented to the living in 
1720, and the Rev. Philip Fletcher and his wife in 1752, and John 
Schrieber in 1783, as the following entry appears in the "Liber 
Regis" of 1786,* giving " the value of all ecclesiastical Benefices which 
are now charged with the payment of First Fruits and Tenths, or 
were lately so charged " : " Perrivale, alias Little Greenford, R. Prox. 

* "Liber Regis," 1786. By John Bacon. Receiver of First-fruits. 


Archidiac. 6s. 10d., Synods 3s. 5d., clear annual value 50 pounds. 
Patrons — Mary Harrison, widow, 1720 ; Philip Fletcher, clerk, and 
his wife, 1752; John Schrieber, Esquire, 1783." The manor and 
advowson were sold in 1767 to Richard Lateward, to whose memory 
there is a cenotaph in the church recording his death in 1777, and 
his wife Ann in 1779; and one to Temperance, wife of John Lateward, 
patron of the church, 1790. Richard Lateward bequeathed the pro- 
perty to John Schrieber above mentioned, who exercised his right of 
presentation in 1783, and, having afterwards assumed the name of 
Lateward, was the proprietor and Lord of the Manor in 1795.* 

Richard, son of John (Schrieber) Lateward, succeeded as Lord of 
the Manor and owner of the rectorate, who presented his brother, 
the Rev. James Frederick Lateward. Madame Delpierre, the present 
Lady of the Manor, is the only child of the said Richard. 

In the advertisement previous to the sale to Richard Lateward, 
the property sold is described as a manorial estate, consisting of 
farms valued at £485 per annum, being the whole parish except 
a farm of £40 per annum. As hereafter mentioned, a farm, called 
Manor Farm, is still not included in the manorial estate, the latter 
being now the property of Lady Delpierre, the descendant and heiress 
of Richard Lateward, as already mentioned. Prabably this farm may 
be identified with the house called Besse Place, which, with certain 
lands belonging thereto, formed part of the possessions of Henry 
Morgan, in the reign of James I. The said Henry Morgan was, in 161 3, 
attainted for high treason, and Besse Place, with its appurtenances, 
were granted to John Levingston, subject to a fee farm rent of forty 
shillings.! This grant was for sixty years, and is further described ia 

* John (Schrieber) Lateward had three sons — Richard, his heir, Major John Lateward, 
who died unmarried about fourteen years ago, and the Rev. J. F. Lateward, already men- 
tioned. Madame Delpierre was thrice married, i.e., to Sir Thomas Croft, by whom she had 
one daughter, now Mrs. Murray ; secondly, to Colonel Lester (no issue), and thirdly, to 
M. Delpierre, by whom she had also a daughter, now Madame de Cormont. Mrs. Richard 
Lateward, who survived her husband, married Colonel Marsack, of Caversham Park, near 
Reading. The Rev. J. F. Lateward left three sons and three daughters surviving him, i.e., 
Thomas Lateward (who married, in 1849, Miss C. J. Daniel, and had issue, the Rev. Henry 
Edward Lateward, and one daughter, now Mrs. Edward Lock wood, of Kingham, Oxford), 
the Rev. Henry Douglass Lateward, and Major E. Wildman Lateward. The Latewards 
also held at this time a part of the demesne lands of the Manor of Greenford Magna, 
amounting to 447 acres. This property was leased in 1640 to Sir Charles Gerrart, Bart. 
The lease passed afterwards, in succession, to Rupert Browne and John Bridger. The 
latter disposed of it to a Mr. Way, who conveyed it to Richard Lateward. John Lateward 
was the lessee in 1795. t Fee Farm Roll in the Augmentation Office. 


another Roll,* as a messuage called Besse Place, and lands belonging 
to the same in Perryvales, otherwise Parva Grenforde, also lands in 
Harrowe, late the property of Henry Morgan. In November, 1618, 
there is a re-grant of " Besse Place, with other lands and tenements 
in Perrival, alias Parva Grenford, alias Cornhill, and in Harrowe to 
John Levingston," described as " Groom of the Bedchamber," with 
discharge of all arrears of rent due on the former.t 

It is highly probable that John Levingston, Groom of the Bed- 
chamber to James I., ultimately obtained a grant of the property in 
perpetuity, and it may have been sold in the Commonwealth, as it 
does not appear to be noticed among the " Particulars of Fee 
Farm Rents " sold in the reign of Charles II. Whatever act of 
treason Henry Morgan was guilty of, and whatever his fate, which 
the writer has been unable to ascertain, it is evident the Groom of 
the Bedchamber took advantage of circumstances and of his position 
about the person of " Learned Jamie," whose pedantry and favouritism 
is well known, to get hold of Morgan's property ; perhaps he paid the 
king for it, who, often sadly wanting money, sold baronetcies for 
£1,000 each. 

As to Henry Morgan's attainder, the simplest conjecture is that he 
was a " Papist," who might have been mixed up with Robert 
Catesby, Digby and Fawkes in their plot, though it was all exploded 
years before — that plot which the Irishman graphically referred to in 
the verse — 

" This is the day, that was the night, 
That papists did conspire, 
To blow up King and Parliament, 
With G-. U. N. pow-dire." 

The church at Perivale has suffered more than many others from 
the destruction of its records. The register of baptisms does not 
extend further back than 1707, and that of burials commences in 
1720. Mr. Beard, who was rector in 1705, stated J in answer to 
questions relating to the church, that it had all the tithes and two 
acres of glebe, but was dissatisfied with having had the rating raised 
from £36, the highest amount it had ever paid, up to £50. He also 
mentioned a Polyglot Bible and a Castell's lexicon, as then belonging 

• Pat. Roll 9, James I., part 24, No. 14. t " Calendar of State Papers." 

% "Notitia Parochialis," Lambeth MSS., fol. 546. 


to the church, to which they had been presented by an unknown 

Another benefactor mentioned is Robert Cromwell, whose tomb may 
now be seen in the churchyard, and is referred to later. He died 
in 1722, and bequeathed £6 annually (see abstract from his will, page 
114) for an afternoon sermon to be preached on the first Sunday 
in every month, but the Rev. James Mardman, who was rector about 
Lysons' time (1789), said that sum had been several years in arrear, 
and the pious wishes of the donor have been ever since disregarded. 
Robert Cromwell, as the present rector, the Rev. Dr. Charles Hughes, 
informed the writer, also left £5 to be distributed annually in pro- 
viding poor widows with scarlet cloaks — but this bequest has not 
been carried out either during his time or for years before he became 
rector. This seems in our days to be a very remarkable bequest, 
but in the later part of the last century the scarlet cloak was con- 
sidered a fitting, as it was a favorite part of the dress of the peasant 

John Gurnell, to whose memory there is a cenotaph in the church, 
recording his death in 1748, left £5 per annum to repair his 
tomb and the parsonage — John Gurnell, who is described on the 
inscription as " An Honest Worthy Man," was married to Ann, 
daughter of the John Harrison already mentioned, and appears to have 
been contemporary with the John Gurnell who employed the known 
architect Dance to build him a good house on " the Green," Ealing, 
which has since been taken down.* 

* A Jonathan Gurnell, sen., probably a near relative of John Gurnell, left by will, in 
1753, £700 3 per cent, annuities, two -sevenths of the interest thereon being for the use of 
the Ealing boys' school, and the remainder to be laid out in coal or firing for poor people 
of the upper side of the parish of Ealing. 

In 1752 Jonathan Gurnell, jun., left by will £500 in Government security in trust for the 
benefit of the same school, as well as £1,000, the interest of which was to be devoted to the 
use of the poor of Ealing. 

In 1756, Mrs. Sarah Gurnell gave £100 to the boys' school, Ealing. — (Falconer's 
" Ealing.") 

A Jonathan Gurnell appears to have been the proprietor of Pits-hanger, near Perivale, 
about 1740. — (Lysons.) 


' • The place, how well I knew it ! I had passed 
Many a Sabbath morning in its midst, 
And loved the sweet voice of its only bell 
Better than noisy clang and constant change 
Of twenty cathedral chimes." 

E. J. Skinner ("The Lily of the Lyn"). 

The church is now situated close to the bridge over the Brent, but 
little more than a hundred years ago the little river flowed more than 
five hundred feet away from it in a southerly direction, In Roque's 
Survey Map, published 1741-5, the old course of the Brent is shown 
bending to the south, instead of to the north. The former channel 
is still noticeable by the pollard -trees which grew on the old banks, 
as well as by an arm of the river, which extends for a very short 
distance in the same direction, a little south of the rifle range. The 
church was then approached in two ways ; the one, from Apperton 
to Greenford, as at present ; and the other, by a bridge near the 
" Forty Oaks," from which a road led to it across the field. 

The church is the most important relic which remains of the ancient 
hamlet of Greenford Parva, since called Perivale ; it is so old that its 
proper name has passed into oblivion. It is called St. James in the 
last ordnance survey map, published a few years ago, but this name 
has been applied to it without any authority whatever. It is not 
known under that designation by the rector or any one else in the 
parish. The remains of the old stained glass in the chancel, according 
to Lysons, represented St. Matthew and St. John, and not St. James. 
He does not mention the apostle or saint to whom it was dedicated, 
and he is hardly likely to have overlooked it. Newcourt, who wrote 
in 1708, does not give it, nor does it appear in the ecclesiastical or 
church records (" Liber Regis," &c.) that the writer is aware of. 

It rarely occurs that the patron saint of a church is forgotten, even 
though it may date back to early Roman Catholic times, but the 


fact may be here chronicled, as showing the unique character of this 
secluded hamlet — a hamlet which must have been of greater import- 
ance in ancient times than it is at present, or the church would not 
be there at all. 

The small portions of the oldest part of the structure now visible, 
as well as what is known of the Manor, with which the living has 
always been associated, lead to the suggestion that it was dedicated 
about the end of the twelfth century, or early in the thirteenth. It is 
therefore of high antiquarian interest. It is, perhaps, the smallest 
church in Middlesex, except the church or chapel attached to the 
house called Twyford Abbey, near Ealing, which appears to have been 
extra-parochial, and probably was originally intended for the service 
of two or three Benedictine monks and the very few people who lived 
on* the land of the demesne. 

The church at Perivale has a short nave and narrow chancel, with 
red-tiled roof, porch, and very primil ive-looking square wooden tower 
surmounted by a low roof-like pyramidal spire. If it is not the 
smallest church in the county, it is certainly one of the most 

The church was restored in 1875, under the superintendence of 
Mr. R. Willey, architect, Ealing, and very little of the oldest portion 

* Twyford — anciently, Tveverde — had formerly an old manor house -which -was moated. 
The "Abbey," which is now a small mansion, is commonly said to occupy the site of an 
ancient abbey, but there is no record of any such religious establishment having existed there. 
Still, as the Manor was held under the Canons of St. Paul's, and there was from very early 
times a chapel which in 12.51 had two altars outside the choir, it is possible there may 
have been a cell or house for the priest who served at the altar. There was a stipulation 
when Twyford Abbey was let recently, that the owner is bound to supply a clergyman of 
the Church of England for at least six Sundays in the year. Twyford is the smallest 
parish near London. In 1 861 it contained two houses and eighteen inhabitants ; in 187 1 the 
houses had increased to eight and it had forty-seven inhabitants. — (" Handbook to the 
Environs of London," James Thorne.) It is said that there is mention of a resident priest at 
Twyford in the early part of the fifteenth century among the records of St. Paul's. The 
following notice of Twyford occurs in Domesday Book: — "In Tveverde (in Ossulton 
Hundred) Durand a canon of St. Pauls holds of the King two hides of land — the land is 
1 carucahe and half — there are three villans with half a hide and half a virgate — Pasture 
for the cattle of the town— wood (or pannage) for 100 swine. The land was considered 
worth thirty shillings and is now worth the same. In the time of Edward it was of the 
value of twenty shillings. In the same town G-ueri a Canon of St. Pauls holds two hides 
of land, the land is 1 carucahe and half. — In demesne there is a plough [enough land for a 
plough] and another half could be made [half as much more could be so cultivated] . There 
are 2 villans with 1 virgate and 1 border with 6 acres and 3 cottagers. Wood (or pannage) 
for 50 swine. This land has been valued at and is now worth thirty shillings, in the 
time of King Edward it was worth twenty shillings. This Manor lay and lies in the 
Church of S;. Pauls in the Demesne of the Canons." 


is now visible. Lysons says it is built of flint and stones. Much of 
the old structure is now hidden beneath stucco and mortar. Portions 
of the original building, however, may still be seen. 

The Earlj- Pointed arch doorway in the vestry, formerly the entrance 
to the church ; the recess for the holy-water vessel or stoup, which is 
still preserved, though covered with the wainscot ; the leper's win- 
dow, to be referred to later, alike point to the probability of the 
church having been erected about the date assigned, if there was not 
an older edifice on this site. The documentary evidence, as we have 
seen, confirms this opinion. The earliest transfer of the advowson 
which has yet been discovered, is from Edward II. to Walter de 
Langton, Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, in the seventh year of his 
reign, i.e., 1312, but it is not probable that it was built by that king. 
It is far more likely that it was reared by the De Bohuns, whose con- 
nection with the Manor has already been shown, and ultimately for- 
feited to the king before that time. One of their predecessors, the 
de Mandevilles, may even have been its founder, for the Norman lords 
soon after the Conquest were very liberal in their gifts to the Church 
and in the erection of churches on their manors. 

In digging round the foundations some years since a silver penny 
of Edward I. was found, which would carry the evidence into the 
thirteenth century. 

Many churches in England originated in monastic institutions, but 
there is no likelihood of this being the case at Peri vale. From the 
first the living is alluded to as an advowson, which confirms the pro- 
bability of its having been erected by a lord of the manor. Was it 
built in fulfilment of some vow in time of special danger ? or in atone- 
ment for some crime committed by one of the old Norman lords ? 
Either suggestion may offer an explanation for the foundation of a 
church with a leper's window so near London. 

The church appears to have been restored or altered in the fifteenth 
century, as shown by the ornamentation of some of the old windows 
on the north side, which is of that period. 

A remarkable fact connected with the church of Greenford Parva, 
and which is not generally known, is that the chancel is not in a 
right line with the nave; the former is not due east and west like 
the latter. The deviation from the straight line between the two is 


small, and it was only discovered when the inner roof of the chancel 
was renewed in 1875. It was sufficient, however, to cause some 
difficulty to the contractor. It is generally believed that this irregu- 
larity is not the result of accident, as it occurs in some other churches ; 
and it seems improbable that it can have arisen from inaccuracy in 
making the foundation. Among other churches where the same 
deviation has been noticed is the church at Farnham Royal, 

That some churches are not truly oriented is very well known, 
the reason of which has been conjectured in the following extract 
from Hone's " Table Book" (vol. i., p. 393) : — " Captain Silas Taylor 
says that in days of yore when a church was to be built, they watched 
and prayed on the vigil of the dedication, and took that point of the 
horizon where the sun arose for the east, which makes that variation, 
so that few stand true, except those built between the two equinoxes. 
I have experimented some churches, and have found the line to point 
to that part of the horizon where the sun rises on the day of that 
saint to whom the church was dedicated," &c. Others have believed 
that the deviation indicated the side to which the face of the dying 
Jesus turned at the Crucifixion. 

If the first suggestion is right, and there is an association between 
the saint's day, the festival of the apostle, &c, and the line on which 
the chancel of Perivale Church is built, and if we knew fully the 
symbolism attached to it, we might obtain a clue to the unknown 
patron saint or apostle to whom the little church at Greenford Parva 
was dedicated. 

When we consider the changes in the religion and manners of the 
people which this church has survived, and that its registers before 
1707 have entirely disappeared, we may be not much surprised that 
even its name should have been forgotten. It is highly probable 
that it may have fallen into neglect and disuse more than once in the 
course of its history ; and it is, perhaps, remarkable that any part of 
the old structure is still left. 

Two periods of English history at least, as we have seen in course 
of this chronicle, were adverse to the preservation of church relics, 
records, and even the churches themselves. The one in the middle 
of the sixteenth century, when the reformed religion was gaining the 


ascendency and the older faith losing ground, the struggle between 
religious parties was bitter and prolonged, and when the Bible was 
first read and explained in the churches, historians tell us that not 
only was the Book wrangled over in alehouses and other places of 
common resort, but noisy, turbulent people gathered round the 
church porches, and scandalous brawls were frequently the conse- 
quence. The wholesale seizure and frequent destruction of Church 
property at this time has been already alluded to. 

Then taking the second critical period of Church history, when the 
profligacy or indifference of a large section of the Anglican clergy, and 
other causes, brought the reformed ritual and the Church itself into 
discredit ; and by the aid of other circumstances, such as the ignor- 
ance and the loose manners of the time, rendered the Reformed 
Church the victim of puritanical fanaticism, and the subject of violent 
action and reaction of the contending parties. 

Truly in all this there is sufficient almost to account for the church 
of an isolated hamlet like Greenford Parva, or Perivale, having lost 
its oldest records, and even the name of its patron saint, though no 
doubt there were intervals in which earnest men, whether as lords of 
the manor or as rectors, sustained and repaired the building, and did 
what they could to preserve whatever belonged to it. 

It is almost needless to say that under the fostering care of the 
present Rector, the Rev. Dr. C. Hughes, the church has for nearly 
thirty years been kept in excellent order and repair. 

The square wooden tower contains two bells, whose monotonous 
tones remind us of the days before the Reformation. If one of 
them is the bell drawn by Mr. Farthing, which is probably the case, 
it bears the following legend : W.E. FECIT. 1699, and is two feet 
in diameter at the mouth. On the south side of the tower is a sun- 
dial, reminding us of Charles Lamb's curious paradox : — " What a 
dead thing is a clock, with its ponderous embowelments of lead and 
brass, its pert or solemn dullness of communication, compared with 
the simple, altar-like structure and silent heart-language of the old 

The Rev. W. Lisle Bowles, the sonnet- writer whom even Byron, 
in the acrimonious pages of his " English Bards, &c," described as 
"harmonious Bowles," has written the following on a sun-dial, which 


[To face p. 60. 


may well have had much the same surroundings as the one affixed 
to the church with an unknown patron saint at Perivale : — 

" So passes silent o'er the dead thy shade, 
Brief time and hour by hour, and day by day 
The pleasing pictures of the present fade, 
And like a summer's vapour steal away. 
And have not they who here forgotten lie 
(Say hoary chronicler of ages past) 
Once marked thy shadow with delighted eye ? 
Nor thought it fled — how certain and how fast." 

According to tradition the present tower has been erected about 
one hundred and fifty years ; but upon examining the timber at 
the western entrance of the church, and in the loft above, the rough 
heavy beams of an older structure are seen, against which the wood 
of the present tower appears to be fixed. An older belfry tower, 
with a porch or vestibule, perhaps in part used as a sacristy, will 
account for the position of the stoup as alluded to below. 

The roof is covered externally with red tiles ; in the interior it is 
what is called waggon-shaped, the beams being of chestnut rudely 
fashioned by the adze. In altering and restoring the nave some 
years since the workmen were obliged to cut some of the old timber 
of the roof, when the wood was found to be of great hardness, 
although not oak, as previously supposed ; it appeared to have 
become indurated by age. The timber door which now leads into 
the vestry is old ; but the best-preserved relic of the original Norman 
church is the arched doorway now in the vestry, and the leper's 
window, which have before been alluded to. The former is in the 
Early English or early Pointed style, which was introduced in the 
reign of Stephen, a.d. 1135, and lasted until that of Henry III., 
1216 to 1272, a period of about one hundred and forty years, when 
it was supplanted in increased grace and elegance by the true 
" Pointed style," or, as it has been called, " pure Gothic." 

The breadth of the Pointed arch, in proportion to its height, indi- 
cates, it has been suggested, an early departure from the circular 
arch of the Anglo-Norman, while its simplicity also points to the 
probability that the church of which it forms a part was erected in 
the later part of the twelfth century or the beginning of the thir- 
teenth, a supposition which, as already mentioned, seems to be 
confirmed by the history of the manor and advowson. This arched 


doorway formerly formed the entrance to the church. The entrance 
on the south is comparatively recent. 

In the little vestry, and on the right of the old arch entering the 
church from it, is the recess in the wall, in which was placed the 
stone vessel or stoup which contained the holy water. It is now 
hidden by the wainscot, as, no doubt, are some other portions of the 
old structure (see p. 65). 

There must have been originally a sacristy or vestibule to the 
church before the Reformation, where the more modern tower is now 
situated, or, as seems more probable, a more ancient belfry turret 
preceded the erection of the present one. If so, there would have 
been an outer door to the church, and the arched doorway in ques- 
tion would have formed the inner one, after passing the vestibule, 
perhaps with a sacristy attached. 

It always has been and is usual to place holy water in the sacristy 
or robing-room for the use of the priests, and perhaps the stoup or 
" benitier " may have been so placed in the wall as to have served 
both the people on entering or leaving the church itself as well as 
the priests in the sacristy ; but it could not have been placed outside 
the church, which would be the case if there were no tower or vestibule. 

In the old church at Lustleigh, Devon, the stoup is placed exactly 
in the same position as in Perivale Church, and the vestibule or 
sacristy is still preserved there. Above the arching timbers at the 
west end of the church is a carved wooden screen on the wall, 
divided into panels ; on the centre one is a carved crucifix, with a 
painting on each side representing apostles, while half-figures of 
saints are depicted upon the four smaller divisions beneath. The 
font is octagonal and of uncertain age ; but the wooden cover is a 
very interesting relic. It is handsomely designed, and carved with 
bold scrolls and other ornaments ; around the lower part is the 
following legend in curiously cut letters in relief : — 

"This was the Gift of Simon Coston, Gent, March 26, 1665." * 

* There is a monument to the memory of 'Bridget, wife of Simon Coston, in the church 
of Greenford Magna, with date 1637. "She is represented kneeling at a fald-stool and 
her husband is in the dress and attitude of a mourner." A Latin inscription is beneath ; 
the arms are exhibited. " Arg. a Saltier vert on a chief Gules a lion passant Arg. for 
Coston — impaling Gules on a chevron Arg. 3 etoiles Sab. a canton Ermine for Carr." — 


It will be observed from the extracts from the vestry minute-book, 
quoted at p. 129, that this font and cover must have been removed 
and completely lost sight of in 1836 ; most probably they had been 
put aside as useless with other lumber under the wooden tower. 
There was a receptacle there for rubbish before that part of the 
building was cleared out and the place converted into a vestry-room. 

It is curious, and it shows how the church had been neglected, to 
find the then rector pleading to the vestry of Perivale for a new font 
and cover, and his motion negatived, " because there are no christen- 
ings for parishioners of Perivale, nor likely to be any." 

The chancel, which is very highly decorated, is separated from the 
nave by an ornamental screen, but the latter, like many of the decora- 
tions, is modern ; it is designed in the style of the seventeenth 
century. All the stained glass is also modern, except a few remnants 
of the old glass, principally the heads of the Apostles, which have 
been carefully worked into the windows of the chancel. Lysons says 
there were in his time remains of the old painted glass in the win- 
dows, and among the figures those of St. Matthew and St. John. 
Although the windows of the chancel had evidently suffered injury 
when Lysons wrote in 1800 to 1810, a carefully executed drawing 
in watercolours, showing the various tints of the curious old stained 
glass, and bearing the date 1803, has been preserved (see Plate). 
The drawing has been inserted, with several views of Perivale Church 
also in colours, and inscribed with the date 1794, in a copy of 
Lysons' " Environs," which is said to have formerly belonged to Mr. 
Douce, and which can now be seen in the Guildhall Library, London. 
The arms of some of the lords of the manor, and others whose monu- 
ments and memorials are in the church, which will be referred to 
later, are beautifully emblazoned in this copy, and there is also inter- 
leaved in it an engraved portrait of Sir Eobert Southwell, Master of 
the Bolls in the reign of Henry YIIL, who was probably a son of 
the Lord of the Manor, and presented to the living in 1494 and 

The drawings of the church in 1794 do not show many alterations 
in the exterior except the chancel window and that end of the build- 
ing. It is interesting to find that parts of the old manor house and 
rectory may be seen in one of them, but this bears no date, though 





J- r1fc^f2*«&-_ j 




it must be older than when Lysons wrote, as he says it was then 
pulled down (see Plate). The old chancel window was a broad 
pointed arch with trefoil tracery on the outside, without long lights 
and mullions beneath it. The most interesting relic of mediaeval 
antiquity is the stained glass of this window, as shown in the 
coloured drawing ; it represents St. John holding the book upon 
which rests the Lamb — the Agnus Dei — carrying the cross ; St. John 
also bears a long Calvary cross, and a small shield with a cross hangs 
from it. By his side and forming with him the two principal figures, 
is St. Matthew, supporting the book with the left hand and writing 
in it with the other ; at his feet is an ox's head, which is generally 
considered by mediaeval writers to represent St. Luke. Durandus 
says* : " He is compared to the ox as being an animal fitted for sacri- 
fice," and because of the two horns, as containing the two testa- 
ments ; and the four hoofs as having the sentences of the four 
Evangelists. Of this symbol the same writer says : " By this also 
Christ is figured, who was the sacrifice for us ; and therefore the ox 
is painted on the left side," &c, as in this window. There is a disc 
between the figures of the Evangelists containing the sacred mono- 
gram, and above them is a small winged lion, which the same writer 
says is the symbol of St. Mark. There are also two discs and an 
ornamental ribbon or scroll on their extreme right and left, the 
former having in them representations of the human face on the one 
hand and the old English rose ornament in the others. The acces- 
sories to the two central figures are probabty taken either from the 
Apocalypse or from Ezekiel. Beneath the window in the drawing 
are the usual tablets inscribed with the Commandments, the wall 
upon which they are placed being painted green. The communion- 
table below them is of the simplest form and uncovered ; the three 
boards of which the top is composed are apparently very roughly 
put together. In the present stained- glass window of the chancel are 
representations of Christ in the centre, with St. Matthew and St. 
John on either side. Formerly there was painted glass in the win- 
dows of the nave, which, it is said, depicted St. Mary and St. Joseph, 
&c, but as already mentioned, their place has been filled with modern 

* See Durandns, "De Evangelistis," and '•Rationale." 



Mr. Farthing says in his MSS., written in 1845 — 1850, that there 
were then fragments of old stained glass in the side windows, " which 
still remain to attest " the " former glory " of the church ; one figure 
was drawn by him and is now reproduced. It represents a female 
with book, and may be intended either for St. Mary or some Roman 
Catholic saint ; it is evident 
it had then been injured and 
imperfectly repaired. 

The oak reredos is well 
carved ; the carving, except 
the mediaeval group, was gra- 
tuitously executed by Mrs. 
Marianne Powles, assisted by 
Miss Minnie Hughes, one of 
the rector's daughters, from 
the designs of Mr. G. A. 
Rogers, of Maddox Street, 
London. The side panels are 
of floreated design, with 
fruits ; and both the design 
and execution show consider- 
able skill. The group of 
figures carved in oak, fixed 
to the centre panel, is old ; 
it is said to have originally 
belonged to a pre- Reforma- 
tion church in Essex, and was 
probably carved four hundred 
years ago. It represents "The 
Entombment." There are 
seven figures in it besides that 
of Christ. It bears the impress 
of age, and is very well executed. The costumes pf the mourners 
around the central figure appear to be those of the fifteenth 
or sixteenth century. The mediaeval group and the whole cost of 
the reredos and re-table were presented to the church by Harry 
Adrian, " in loving memory of his mother, Sarah Dudley Adrian, who 




died October 16, 1887," as recorded on a small plate of brass. The 
carved group is surmounted by an ornate brass cross, and on the altar 
is a row of high wax tapers. 

There is a beautiful tesselated pavement in the chancel, also pre- 
sented, and dedicated to the memory of Cyril Arthur Reginald Willey. 
The interior of the nave is elaborately embellished with consolatory 
and admonitory texts from the scriptures, and with pictures between 
the stained glass windows. Both the paintings on the walls and the 
windows are memorials to members of the congregation who have in 
recent years passed into the silent land. 

Near the end of the northern side of the nave is a picture of 
" Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane," to the memory of Commander 
Ducat, R.N. Others represent " The Ascension," and " Christ removed 
from the Cross," the latter recording the death of Mrs. Hughes, the 
rector's mother, in 1881. One of the handsome stained glass win- 
dows on this side with Virgin and Child, is to the memory of Henry 
Condell and his wife ; the former was first and second mayor and 
first member of the Legislative Council of Melbourne. Another, 
depicting the Good Shepherd, and Christ at the door, is dedicated to 
the memory of John Farthing, who had been a strong supporter of 
the church. The third is of ornamental design only. 

Here, also, is the most striking monument in the church. It is in 
marble, and by Westmacott, an angel bearing the mortal to the 
throne of God. It bears the following inscription : — 

"To the cherished memory of Ellen Frances Nicholas, daughter of the Rev. George 
Nicholas, of Ealing, Middlesex, and Elizabeth, his wife. Lovely, accomplished, most 
affectionate, and affectionately beloved ; after a severe struggle of twelve weeks with a 
painful illness, she was released from suffering on the 22 October, 1818, in the 21st year of 
her age, leaving to her sorrowing relatives no consolation but the hope of meeting with her 
in a better world, never to part again." 

The figures of the dying girl and the angel are very artistically 
grouped and skilfully executed. 

On the north side of the nave is a well-executed marble cenotaph, 
with urn, to the memory of John Gurnell, and inscribed — 

"An honest and a worthy man, who departed this life the 1st of August, 1748, aged 
36 years. He married Ann, one of the daughters of John Harrison, Esquire. Here lyeth 
also the body of the said Ann, who departed this life 8th April, 1750, aged 38 years." 


In the richly coloured glass windows on the south side are memo- 
rials to the Rev. Frederick Hughes, 1867, and A. A. and H. W. 
Hughes, 1871. Here, also, is one of the most touching monuments 
in the church ; it is in marble, and above it is a weeping child or 
angel. It is inscribed to the memory of — 

" Lane Harrison, Esquire ; a young gentleman whose many good qualities of heart and 
mind rendered him an honour to his family and the delight of his friends, and promised to 
make him an ornament to his country, hut, seized by the smallpox, he died on the 15 
August, 1740, in the 26th year of his age — loved, honoured, and mourned by all who 
knew him. In pious gratitude to his memory, this monument is erected by his sisters, 
Mary, the wife of John Clerke, Esq., Susanna, Ann, and Sarah." 

He was the son of the lord of the manor whose name has been men- 
tioned. The sculptor of this beautiful memorial was Thomas Day. 

On this side there are also several pictures depicting episodes in 
the Gospel narrative, among which is one of the " Virgin and Child," 
which is dedicated to the memory of the present rector's late 
daughter Florence, the wife of Captain Alfred Blaine, of South Africa ; 
she died under particularly sad circumstances, and was greatly 
esteemed and loved by those who knew her. 

On the west wall is a curious little tablet to> Elizabeth Bolas, 1793, 
and a plain Gothic niche surmounted by columns, and enclosing a 
brass scroll to the memory of Charlotte Farthing, who died in Novem- 
ber, 1847. It is inscribed as erected — " By a sister and brother 
— the last of their race." In connection with this there is on the 
floor of the church a stone to the memory of Agnes, wife of John 
Farthing, of this parish, 1845. The monuments in the chancel will 
be noticed later. 

The frescoes are singularly in unison with the general effect of the 
interior of the church ; at first sight they recall the pictorial episodes 
in the lives of the Romish saints, and still more so " the Stations of 
the Cross," the last sad scenes in the life of the Master. Both the 
former and the latter are characteristic of Roman Catholic churches. 

The visitor may still see the window near which it is said " the 
chaunting monk of old used to sit " ; it is on the south side of the 
chancel. He is more likely to have been a secular priest in pre- 
Reformation times, when the hamlet was of more importance than it 
is at present, as we have no evidence that a monastic institution 
existed here at any time. 


In the dim religious light which pervades the interior he may, in 
fact, almost believe that he has entered a church of the older faith 
and fancy that the stillness and hush of the nave will presently be 
broken by the monotonous tones of the priest repeating the Latin 
Mass. His muttered "Pater nosters" and the solemn " Ora pro 
nobis" of the choir had the same accompaniment outside the church 
as the simpler ritual of the newer faith, the introduction of which 
this old church has seen, i.e., the subdued rippling of the river, the 
wind sighing among the old yews in the churchyard, the sound of 
the trembling leaves and the sweet warbling of the birds, for, as 
Thomson wrote — 

' ' To Him they sing when spring renews the plain ; 
To Him they cry in winter's pinching rain ; 
Nor is their music or their plaint in vain." 

Sometimes in the past the birds have ventured inside the building, 
for the Poet of Perivale whose MSS. will be referred to later, has 
recorded that when he first entered the church in 1845 — " It was 
summer-time and the silence of the interior was undisturbed save 
by the singing of a redbreast which, perched on the head of a 
marble cherub in the chancel, poured forth with all the earnestness 
of a genuine worshipper its tribute of grateful praise and adoration to 
that Almighty and Beneficent Being who watches over the lives and 
provides for the necessities of all his creatures." 

But there is a survival in the church at Perivale which certainly 
carries us back to the days before the Reformation. It is the low 
window in the chancel on the south side. This is believed to have 
been a lepers' window. It is an aperture now covered with modern 
stained glass, with slanting sides, and is at a lower level than the 
other windows. It is, in fact, so placed that it looks on the spot where 
the altar stood before the chancel was recently altered. These unfor- 
tunate creatures, forbidden to enter the churches, were thus able to 
obtain a view from the outside of the priest officiating at the altar, 
and could so join in that supreme act of worship to the Roman 
Catholic — the Elevation of the Host. 

This window has been called a hagioscope, and in its literal sense 
the word is not misapplied. A hagioscope is, however, usually 
understood to be an oblique opening in the wall for the purpose of 



enabling persons in the transept or aisles to witness the Elevation of 
the Host at the high altar. There is simply a nave or chancel in this 
small church. The lepers' window at Perivale is perhaps one of the 
best pieces of thir- 

teenth-century work in 
the building. 

Leprosy, which most 
writers say was intro- 
duced into England at 
the time of the Crusade, 
must have been much 
more common when 
this church was built 
than afterwards, as it 
is said almost to have 
disappeared at the end 
of the fifteenth cen- 

In the year 1200, 
the second of King 
John, it was decreed 
at a provincial synod 
held by Hubert, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, 
" that when so many 
leprous people were 
assembled that might 
be able to build a 
church with a church- 
yard for themselves, 

<$£;& Q^&r^rx 



and to have one es- 
pecial priest of their own, that they should be permitted to have 
the same without contradiction, so that they be not injurious to the 
old churches," and " that they be not compelled to give any tithes 
of their gardens or increase of cattle." " Edward III., gave command- 
ment to the mayer and sheriffs of London to make proclamation in 
every ward of the city and suburbs, that all leprous persons should 


avoid [quit] within fifteen days, and that no man suffer any such 
leprous person to abide within his house, upon pain to forfeit his said 
house and to incur the King's further displeasure ; and that they 
should cause the said lepers to be removed into some out places of 
the fields from the haunt or company of sound people." Whereupon 
certain " lazar houses were built without the city some good distance." 
Some of the places mentioned were at the East-end or north-east 
of London, but one such house was at " Knightesbridge, west from 
Charing Cross." There may have been a small settlement of these 
afflicted people in the vicinity of Greenford Parva. 

Perivale is true to its traditions : the services of its little church at 
present approach as closely to the older form of the Christian faith as 
the Rubric permits. Whether those limits are sometimes exceeded in 
order to revive and perpetuate an ancient symbolism, some parts of 
which may be traced back to an origin far older than Christianity 
itself, it is not for the writer of this record to say ; it is better that 
these mysteries should be dealt with by those more qualified to 
express an opinion upon them. Some idea of the services, how- 
ever, may be gathered from the following extracts from a local 
paper : — 

" On Goo'd Friday, ' the ornaments ' of the church were absent, 
except the altar cross, and Eucharistic candlesticks and processional 
cross, which were veiled in black crape, as was also the very hand- 
some carved-oak illuminated altar. On Easter Day all signs of mourn- 
ing had been removed, and the altar was most elaborately decorated 
with flowers and tapers ; the chancel screen was also covered with 
flowers and an immense floral cross hung over the chancel gate, as 
also banners. . . . The services were of the full Ritualistic character, 
the whole of the six points, viz., Eucharistic vestments, incense, wafer 
bread, mixed chalice, eastward position, and altar lights, being (as 
for many years they have) observed. The Sanctus bell was also 
rung at the proper place, and the great bell tolled at the con- 
secration." * 

The sacramental plate is modern ; the old church plate, which 
appears to have been of simple design, but very handsome, was disposed 
of in 1875, and the present chalice and paten were made in lieu of it. 

* Middlesex Coxn/i/ Times. April 12, 1890. 


The former is richly ornamented, with enamelled ornaments in the 
Renaissance style. The paten is, as usual, simple. Happily the 
dedication and armorial bearings of the donor have been preserved, 
as the paten bears the following quaint inscription, with a coat-of-arms 
in a shield, in the upper part of which is a lion passant above a cross 
like that of St. Andrew, which are the arms of Millet : — 

The "Willing Donor Sy j N/X/^A '. - ^> doth this gift intayle- 

To the Great God ^ ' \ l//^0\) J; .*=?• an d Little Pery vale. 

Leo Crucis Dux Salutis. a.d. 1625. 

beneath which is the modern inscription : — 

" The accompanying Arms and Inscription 
was engraved on the old Communion Plate 
of this Church, which A.M.D G. [Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam} 
was exchanged for new, a.d. 1875." 

Mr. Farthing says in his MSS. — "that in lowering the ground around 
the church several coins were dug up, one of which was the silver 
penny of Edward I. in excellent preservation, and some few coins of 
Charles I. The ground had been considerably raised since the build- 
ing of the church, as the original pavement was found full two feet 
below the surface." 

The attendance at the services at Perivale seems to have been at 
the lowest ebb in 1844, when about six or seven persons are said to 
have composed the whole congregation. Afterwards, mainly due to 
Mr. Farthing's alteration in many things beside the music, in all of 
which the rector was his coadjutor, there was a great improvement in 
that respect. The following extracts from the former's notes show 
that the little church had attracted to its services " all sorts and con- 
ditions of men." He says : — " In a congregation of less than forty 
persons he has seen a lieutenant-general, a post captain, an eminent 
authoress, a barrister, a clever pamphleteer, the widow of a celebrated 
theatrical manager, herself once a skilful equestrian performer, a 


proctor of the Ecclesiastical Court, a gentleman connected with the 
Times, a gentleman farmer, a gamekeeper, a policeman, a servant 
in livery, several ladies and agricultural folk, a convicted burglar who 
had been transported to Botany Bay and had returned from there a 
rich man and reformed character, and the family of a man who was 
executed. It would be difficult to find a parallel for such a small and 
so varied an assemblage." 

Churchwardens are rarely found now among the parishioners of 
Peri vale, and they are generally elected from the adjoining parish of 
Ealing. Some idea of the unique character of a vestry meeting in 
Greenford Parva is shown in the following extract from the Middle- 
sex County Times of recent date. It is unnecessary to give the 
names of the churchwardens : — " Perivale Parish Church. Vestry 
Meeting. — On Thursday a vestry was held for the election of church- 
wardens, when A. B. C. and D. F. G. (both of Ealing) were unani- 
mously elected ! The only person present was the Rev. Dr. Hughes 
(in the chair), so all the business had to be transacted by himself; 
the four ratepayers were unable to be present." 

Truly the peace and harmony of the scenery about the church of 
Greenford Parva is reflected in its vestry, whatever religious discord 
may have occurred in the parish in the days which ushered in the 
Reformation, and afterwards when Cromwell spared neither the 
" churches nor their ornaments." There is nothing to disturb it now ; 
no polemical strife ; no religious controversies as to High or Low 
Church doctrine or practice which, in other less favoured parishes, 
have set the " people's warden " against the " rector's warden," so 
often ending in unseemly disturbance and bitterness. Here the 
rector pursues the even tenor of his way, leaves his church open on 
weekdays, like the churches of the older faith, and it is filled on 
Sundays with a congregation from Ealing, at least, in spring and 
summer. But the reader must not imagine this is always the case ; 
there have been many occasions when it has been impossible to reach 
Perivale Church except in a punt, with powerful rowers, which are 
not at hand ; for the innocent-looking Brent rises in times of flood 
to the dimensions of a wide, roaring river, extending over the fields 
for miles, and even inundating the Greenford Road, thus cutting off 
all communication between the church and Ealing, and leaving the 


only approach to it on the north side. When such an incident 
happens on Sunday, Avhich occasionally occurs, the Rector of Perivale 
has been placed in the same position as Dean Swift at his church at 
Laracor, who, Lord Orrery says, once found himself with no congre- 
gation save Roger Cox, the parish clerk. The Dean, undismayed, 
commenced the service with much gravity, saying, " Dearly beloved 
Roger, the Scripture moveth you and I in sundry places," &c. 

An amusing incident is related in reference to the difficulties 
entailed in former times by the flooding of the Brent. 

In the early part of this century the rector at that period under- 
took the duty at Twyford Church in addition to that of Perivale, 
attending the latter in the morning, and the former in the afternoon, 
on alternate Sundays, when Twyford had his ministrations in the 
morning and Perivale in the afternoon. One Sunday afternoon the 
rector started from Twyford to Perivale, accompanied by the parish 
clerk. It had been raining hard, and the waters were out. Arriving 
at the " Fox and Goose," Apperton, to partake of some refreshment, 
they w r aited, hoping to find some means of getting across the flooded 
valley. At length, the time was getting short, and something must 
be done ; there were the waters spread out before them, and no ferry 
or other means of getting across. At length, the clerk, having 
found a spot where the current did not appear so rapid, suggested 
to the rector that he should mount on his back while he forded the 
stream as well as he could. Reluctantly the rector, who was not a 
light weight, consented to the proposal, and the clerk entered the 
water. They had proceeded in this manner about midway across, 
when either the waters were too strong, the clerk too weak, or the 
ale they had partaken of " stouter " than they had reckoned on ; at 
any rate, the result was the same, the parson was precipitated into 
the stream which, after a little floundering, he subsequently traversed 
by wading, remarking pathetically that he might as well have done 
so at first. 

The living is a rectorate of the yearly value of £315, and is 
now, as previously mentioned, in the gift of Madame Delpierre. The 
parish is said to contain 666 acres, and to have a rateable value of 

Perivale affords a remarkable instance of the increased value of 


agricultural land. The rents arising from the manorial estate in 
1767 were £485, being the whole parish but a farm valued at £40 
per annum. In 1836 the gross rental of the parish for assessment 
w 7 as£755, in 1849, £1,152, and in 1882, £1,741. The Rev. Charles 
Hughes, LL.D., St. John's College, Cambridge, is the present rector. 

Was the Norman church of Greenford Parva raised on the site of 
an older temple ? There are numerous examples in England of 
churches having been built on the ruins of the altars of the Latin 
divinities, and on those of the successive worshippers of Woden and 
Freya. The cathedral at Winchester is said to have been reared on 
both/ each built on the relics of the older faith as they followed in 

The only evidence of a still more ancient cult which, as far as 
the writer knows, has been met with in the vicinity of Perivale is of 
remote date, and is presented by the six or seven Roman cineraria, 
or urns for containing the ashes of the dead, and some other objects 
discovered recently on " the Mount " overlooking the Brent Valley.* 
Looking to the probability of Greenford Parva having been peopled 
by Saxons and having been of more importance in mediaeval times 
than it is at present, as indicated by the church having been built 
certainly as early as the thirteenth centur}', and probably earlier, it 
is not unlikely there may have been an older structure still, erected 
of more perishable materials, even in the Saxon period. 

The church at Perivale is like the earliest churches in England 
which, as Britton says, consisted of one pace or room with the eastern 
part divided off by rails, and often by an arch, forming the bema, or 
chancel, the latter term being derived from chancelli, the " curiously 
and artificially-wrought " rails in the form of network, which formed 
the line of separation. 

The primitive Saxon churches are commonly said to have been 
small and badly constructed ; " some of them unquestionably were of 
wood, and were so imperfect, even in the days of Alfred, that the 

* This discovery of a mortuary site of the period of the Roman supremacy is not sur- 
prising as there is no doubt that the Brent Valley and much of the country of north-west 
Middlesex became completely subdued and settled at an early period of the Roman occupation. 
The camp of the Trinobantes was on Kingsbury Hill until it was taken and held for a long 
time, by the Romans, of whom many relics have been found. Afterwards it became a Saxon 
town. Subsequently the old church was built on the site and some Koman bricks used in 
the structure. 


candles used in them were often blown out by the wind." * There 
can be no doubt, however, that some of the early churches " were 
both costly and extensive." 

Churches had become numerous in England at the time Domesday 
Book was completed, a.d. 1086, and there are grounds "for believing 
that the number existing at or soon after the Conquest amounted 
to considerably more " than the 1,700 mentioned in that record 
(Britton). It is very remarkable that among the 1,700 churches so 
mentioned, "222 were returned for Lincolnshire, 243 from Norfolk, 
and 364 from Suffolk ; whilst only 1 is noted from Cambridgeshire, 
and none in Lancashire, Cornwall, or even Middlesex, the seat of the 
metropolis." f 

The parish churches were mostly built by lords of manors. + 

* Britton's " Dictionary of Architecture and Archaeology of the Middle Ages." "The 
first stone church is stated by Bede to have been built on the borders of England and 
Scotland by Bishop Nynias in the sixth century, and he says it was not usual among the 
Britons. They call the place ' Candida Casa,' ' the White House.' " — (Bede, " Eccles. His.," 
edition, 17^3, p. 185, quoted by Britton.) 

t Append, to 2nd Report, Com. Pub. Rec, p. 456. 

+ "Arch. Antiq." vol. v., p. 125. 


" Dust are our frames, and gilded dust our pride — 
Looks for a moment whole and sound, 
Like that long-buried body of the king 
Found lying -with his urns and ornaments, 
"Which, at the touch of light, an air from heaven, 
Slipt into ashes and were found no more." — Tennyson. 

Some of the monuments in the church have already been referred to, 
the most ancient of these being the brasses to the memory of Henry 
Mylett, his two wives and fifteen children ; it bears the date a.d. 1500. 
There are in all five small brasses in good preservation. The centre 
one is the figure of Mylett, with that of his wife, Alice, on one side, 
and Joan on the other ; beneath which are the presentments, on sepa- 
rate brasses, of the three sons and six daughters of the former, and 
the three sons and three daughters of the latter. The engraved detail 
of all the figures is well preserved, and the costumes of the period 
(Henry VII.) are so well shown as to render the monument of great 
interest. A brass plate is inserted between the two groups of figures, 
which contains the following partly obliterated inscription : — 

" Orate pro ambus Henrici Mylett ac Aliciae et Johannse Uxor sua ; qui quidem Henricus 
obiit V die Februar. Anno ddmmillia VC. quorum anibus [(?)] p.picietur Deus — ame." 

The brasses are on the floor near the altar railing. 

On the south side of the chancel is a plain but handsome monu- 
ment, surmounted by armorial bearings, and inscribed as follows : — 


' ' Here lyes interred ye body of Elizabeth Lane, the late wife of John Lane the elder 
Esquire ; * she was the eldest daughter of G-eorge Millet Esquire, deceased, some- time 
Patron of this church, and of Joane his wife, who lye interred in this place. She let her 
last breath at Agmondesham in Buckinghamsheire, where she dwelt with her said Husband, 
ye 20 April 1655 and of her age 62 and aboute six weekes. 

* Arms : Lane impaling Arg. on a fesse Gul. between three dragons' heads, erased Vert, 
for Millet. — (Lysons.) 

frame' obift ij tafttott flsoo ffiTgliolf pr arofopmt Of?" 


[To face p. 78. 


' ' She lived a most religious, godly, virtuous life, 
She was a most faithful, loving and chaste wife. 
She was to the poore charitable 
To her neighbours helpfulle 
Friendly and courteous to all. 
Just in all her affayres 

Honestly and commendably prudent and provident, 
Many daughters have done virtuously 
But she excelled them all. 

" It pleased God to exercise her with much affliction of Body and then through 
many tribulations and patient suffering to bring her to his Kingdome. 

' ' Hanc obiisse putem minime quo tarn bene vixit, 
Non obiit nee obire potest sed vivit in iEvum 
Cum Christo Caelis in Terris, ore Bonorum." 

Beneath this is the unpretentious monument to the memory of 
Richard Lateward,* Lord of the Manor. &c., who died December, 1777, 
and his wife, Anne, obit February, 1779. 

A similar memorial records the death of Mrs. Temperance, wife of 
John Lateward, " Patron of this Church," who died in October, 1790 ; 
with the epitaph — " She lived beloved and died regretted." 

On the same side in the chancel is a slab which records the death, 
in 1823, of Frederick Gray Kirby Lateward, and of the Rev. John 
Douglas Lateward, who died in 1846, the sons of the Rev. James 
Frederick (Rector of Perivale) and Mary Lateward. 

On the south side of the chancel is the oldest memorial in the 
church, with the exception of the Mylett brasses. It is a handsome 
marble monument, with a small shield-of-arms at the top and a very 
curious figure, robed for the grave, in bas-relief, beneath it, and this 
remarkable inscription : — 

' ' Here lyeth the body of Joane Shelbury late ye wife of John Shelbury of Peryvale, 
Gent, who deceased the 21 Novr. 1623 at the age of 57 yeares ; after she had lived with 
him 23 yeares in faithfull "Wedlock and had borne to him 5 children, viz., 2 sons and 3 
daughters; having been formerly married to George Millet, Gent., Lord of this Toune and 
Patron of this Church, by whom she had likewise 5 children, viz., 3 sons and 2 daughters. 
She was to them both a loyall and Lovinge "Wife. To her Children a kinde and tender mother ; 
to her Friends true and faithful ; in the Government of her house and Family wise and 
provident. To the "World just and upright. To God, both in Life and Death, an humble and 

* Arms: Arg. on a fesse, Gul. between three cinque foils Az., a goat between two 
pheons or, quartering or three martlets, Sab. on a chief Az. a lion passant Arg. on an 
escutcheon of pretence, or a lion rampant ducally crowned Gules, — (Lysons.) 


devoute servant, yielding her Soule into his mercif ull Hands most willingly and cheerefully 
as to her only Redeemer and Saviour. 

* ' She was descended, by her Father, from the antient Family of Pites of Hartinge, in the 
County of Sussex, and by her mother from the "Wbrshipf ull Family of Saunders of Flanch- 
ford, in the County of Surrey." 

" Her virtues live and shall doe Still, 
Though Death on Her hath wrought his will." 

This lady, whose monument presents us with an example of mixed 
feminine virtue and family pride, had been the wife of George Millet, 
lord of this " towne," to whose memory, Lysons says, " there was 
lately a brass plate on the floor of the chancel recording his death in 
1600." It is evident the brass had been hidden on Lysons' visit, or 
else it had been since replaced, as Mr. Farthing says, in 1845 : — " The 
different slabs in the chancel show there were formerly many brasses 
in the church but only two now remain ; the one consists of a bearded 
figure in the costume of the period, with hands uplifted in the attitude 
of prayer," which he has carefully drawn, and is now reproduced (see 
next page), and the other the group of figures (Henry Mylett and 
his family). A brass representing a " civilian " is also described by 
Haines,* as being in this church. 

Near Mrs. Shelbery's monument is the handsome memorial in 
marble to Thomas Lane, Lord of the Manor and Patron of the Church 
of Perivale. Three shields containing arms are carved in relief on each 
side of it, and an oval one at the top.f The inscription runs as 
follows : — 

" M.S. — "Within this place lye buried the Bodye of Thomas Lane Esquire, late Patron of 
this Church, an Ancient Bencher of the Inner Temple London and Jane, his second wife, 
eldest daughter of John Duncombe, of East Cleydon, in ye the County of Bucks Esquire, and 
Ursula, a younger daughter of ye said John Duncombe, first wife of John Lane of this 
parish Esquire, and Katherine, daughter of Thomas Gates Esquire, deceased, late one of 
ye Barones of ye Exchequer, second wife of the said John Lane. Thomas Lane died the 
31st Deer., 1652, aged 70 years; Jane, the 23 August 1652, aged 42 ; Ursula, the 31st 
August 1647, aged 31 ; and Katherine, the 28th of August 1652, aged 22." 

* " Manual of Monumental Brasses," Rev. Herbert Haines. 

t Arms : I. — Per. pale Az. and Gules, three saltiers Arg. impaling per. chevron invected 
Gul., and Arg., 3talliots' heads erased and countercharged for Duncombe; Thos. Lane 
having married Jane, daughter of Duncombe, of Berks. II. — Lane impaling Duncombe as 
before. John Lane married Ursula Duncombe, &c. Arms : III. — Lane, impaling per. 
pale Gul. and Az., three lions rampant Or, for Gates. — (Lysons.) 


The annexed carmen lugubre is beneath it : — 

" Horrida lethiferse deportant tela sorores 
Cum nulli parcant sit licet ipse bonus 
Est nihil in vita firmum, monumenta peri- 

Mors etiam saxis nominibus que venit 
Forma bonum fallax nocet empta dolore 

Gloria vana, Decus mobile, vita brevis, 
Eu ! manet ex toto nihilum de pulvere 

Factus, et ex vivo corpore truncus iners 
Tellus, prima Parens, servat deforme ca- 
daver ; 
In que suum recipit, quod deditante suum 
Ad licet in msesto tumulentur membra 

Mens tamen intravit gaudia summa Dei." 

The author of the MSS. already 
alluded to has rendered the above 
into English blank verse, as fol- 
lows : — 

" On all sides the Fates cast their envenom' d 

Dealing Death around and sparing none, 
Not even the Deserving. Life has no cer- 
tainty — 
The monumental records of the Past 

crumble away ; 
The names of the buried Great, and the 

very marble 
On which they are graven, by their decay 
Bears witness to the awful and continued 

Of Destruction ! the appearance of Good 

Is too oft deceitful ; and the pleasures of 

Are purchased dearly by an age of misery — 
Mark, too, the hollowness of Pomp and 

The vanity of Rank ! the transitoriness of 

Behold ! from all these there remains 

to us 


Absolutely nothing ! Dust to its kindred 

Doth return. The Body, which but now 
Bounded with life and animation. 



Is now devoid of Motion — a senseless 

corse ! 
Earth ! the first Parent of our Race, 
Once more accepts the guardianship, 
And to her own cold breast, from whence 

it came, 
Enfolds the foul and loathsome body ! 

But tho' in the dark and mournful sepulchre 
The corruptible remains and earthly forms 
Of the past races of Mankind are collected, 
Yet hath the Soul taken its own lofty flight 
And participates in the unutterable joys 
Of the Eternal ! " 

On the north side of the chancel there is a marble monument with 
shield- of-arms, with the following inscription : — 

" M.S. — Near this place lies the Body of John Harrison Esquire* who departed this life 
the viii day of June a.d. 17*22 aged 48 years, leaving behind him 1 son and 7 daughters, 
a mournful widow, a sorrowful mother, and a good name ; for he was a good husband, a 
kind father, a dutiful son, a good Christian and an honest gentleman ; zealous for ye 
interest of ye Church of England and respectful to her orthodox clergy. — To the pious 
memory of her loving husband this monument is erected by Elizabeth Harrison. 

" Here lyeth also the Body of the above-said Elizabeth Harrison, in whom the register of 
her husband's virtues was preserved, adorned with such sweetness of disposition and gentle- 
ness of manners as rendered lovely every action of her life ; and in death did not forsake 
her. — She departed hence in expectation of a better Life the 29th of October, 1756, aged 70 

Beneath this is a small ornamental slab, surmounted by a shield-of- 
arms, to the memory of Richard Late ward Lateward, eldest son of John 
Late ward, who was born 28th June, 1782, and departed this life 4th 
October, 1815. " This monument of affection and regret was erected 
by his widow." Beneath which is the following verse from the 103rd 
Psalm : — 

" As for man, his days are as the grass ; as a flower of the field, so he flourisheth. For 
the wind passeth over it, and it is gone, and the place thereof shall know it no more." 

Lysons says there were in the chancel in his time memorials to John 
Clerke, Esq., 1792, t and Martha, wife of James Wildman, 1789. 

In the churchyard there is a yew-tree which is probably nearly as 
old as the church ! Three equally old yews are in the rectory garden ; 
there is a tradition that they were planted in the reign of one of the 
Edwards ! It is not improbable that they may date from the time 
when it was customary to preserve the yew for making bows ; in fact, 
it is said there was in early times a royal mandate that yew-trees 
were to be planted in every churchyard, so that every yeoman or 

* Arms : Or on a cross Az. 5 pheons of the field, a chief of the second impaling Sab. a 
fesse, embattled Erm. between 3 crescents Argent. 

t Arms : Arg. on a bend Gul. between 3 pellets, as many swans proper impaling Sab. 
2 bars and in chief a talbot passant Arg.. 


village-man* in the neighbourhood thereof might be able to procure, 
on emergency, the wood of the yew needed for his weapon. The 
author of " Rookwood " says : — 

" From it were fashioned brave English bows, 
The boast of our isle and the dread of its foes. 
For our sturdy sires cut their stoutest staves 
From the branch that hung' o'er their fathers' graves ; 
And though it be dreary and dismal to view, 
Stanch at the heart is the churchyard yew." 

Lysons mentions the following as among the tombs in his day ; and 
most, if not all of them, may be seen now : — Henry Wyatt, twenty- 
two years rector, 1683; Elizabeth Greenhill, 1696; George, son of 
William Greenhill, Esquire, of Abbots Langley, 1706 ; William Brown- 
bill, thirteen years rector, 1719 ; Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Peter Colle- 
ton, Bart., " who died at her house at Eling," 1721. This old, curiously- 
carved monument now presents a very remarkable appearance ; an 
ash, an elm, and a hawthorn — trees of a considerable size — besides 
parasitic plants, are growing within the railings which encompass the 
tomb, disturbing and rending the stonework ; the ash completely 
envelops a part of the iron railing, bending the metal as it has grown 
as though it had been a piece of wire ; the tree has also twisted another 
part of the ironwork in a very curious manner ; the hawthorn seems 
likely to do the same. The ironwork thus contorted, and the tomb 
itself, seemingly in process of being destroyed by the trees, present a 
singularly picturesque appearance. The silent trees have triumphed 
over man ; and taught him how vain are his efforts to make a monu- 
ment that shall long endure. (See Plate.) 

The figures, &c, sculptured on the sides of this table tomb are well 
executed, and the design they embody is remarkable. The stone is 
now nearly covered with an almost impenetrable mass of vegetation on 
two sides, but about forty -five years ago the bas-reliefs were visible. 
On the southern and northern tablets there are angels in each corner 
lifting the curtain of death, at the base of which are skulls. On the 
western side is a curious combination of symbolic objects. Resting on, 
and supported by, some other books with book-markers, is a large one, 
evidently intended for the Bible, with an inkstand and a large pen in 
it. Surmounting the centre volume is a pair of large wings, above 

* Yeoman is derived from ga, a village (Gothic, gawi ; German, gau), and " man." 

G 2 


which is an hour-glass — no doubt, emblematic of the flight of Time — ■ 
and a crown is placed upon the hour-glass. On the eastern side, as 
well as upon the large slab or table of the tomb, is the arms of the 
Colletons, i.e., three stags' heads * with scrolls. 

Even in 1845, says Mr. Farthing in his notes, the funeral of this 
lady was the subject of remark, and aged persons in the parish said 
their grandparents spoke of the funeral procession as being more than 
a mile long, so great was the respect shown for the deceased. The 
monument was then called the " Maiden's Tomb," and besides the ash, 
elm, and whitethorn, an elder and a wild pear-tree, as well as creep- 
ing plants were growing, as it were, from the very stone of the tomb. 
" They have not, it is said, been regularly planted there, but it is con- 
jectured that birds have from time to time dropped the seeds, which 
have vegetated." A weird tradition was extant about the middle of 
this century concerning the " Maiden's Tomb." According to the 
writer of the MSS., it was to the effect that the stones of the monument 
were in the first instance riven by the ghost of the deceased lady as 
she rose from it in obedience to the magic arts and incantations of a 
friend of her brother, a man skilled in necromancy and having, like 
Manfred, " the power of bringing back the spirits of the dead." The 
lady appeared, when, it is said, " the solid stones of the tomb began 
to crack and split with a loud noise " ; but, alas ! only to reproach the 
brother, at whose instigation his friend had called her forth, with being 
the indirect cause of her death, brought on by grief at the infidel opinions 
he held, and to exhort him to repentance for his crimes, &c. 

Nearer the church is the tomb of Robert Cromwell, 1723 ; here are said 
to repose the ashes of a nephew or some other relative of the Protector. 
A reference to the extracts from the register at Perivale shows that 
others of the Cromwell family are also buried in this churchyard. The 
geologist will be interested in examining the large uppermost slab of 
carboniferous limestone of this tomb, as it shows a fine section of 
Orthoceras twelve or fourteen inches in length ; it has been well 
weathered, and exhibits in a very marked manner the chambers or 
septa into which the shell is divided, like its kindred, the ammonite, 
nautilus, and other mollusca of the order Cephalopoda. 

* In 1725, an Elizabeth Colleton left a benefaction of £100 to the Boys' School, Ealing. 
—{Falconer's " Ealing.") She was descended from an old Devonshire family bearing the 
same arms as those on the tomb, i.e., 3 stags' heads, couped, pper., with a similar stag's 
head for the crest. 


The other memorials mentioned by Lysons are to John Arnold, 
of Furnival's Inn, Gent., 1730; Matthew Cockett, "Citizen and Gold- 
smith," 1731 ; Captain John Johnson, 1767, which may still be seen. 
Of the older tombs which are also still preserved are those of Samuel 
Day, Citizen, and Armourer and Brazier, 1756 ; Isaac Stanton, 
Citizen of London, 1724 ; Mary Tuckfield, 1735 ; Richard Badcock 
Shury, rector of the parish, 1789 ; James Maidman, over twenty 
years rector, 1809 ; Dorothy, wife of Richard Ems, citizen, 1753 ; 
Jane, wife of Edward Bedwell, 1806. 

Among the later memorials in the churchyard is the large one 
to Lucy, wife of John Lateward, 1806; and John Lateward, 
1814; and their daughters Lucy, 1817, Frances Mary, 1846, and 
Julia Elizabeth Lateward, 1822 ; also James Wildman Charles, son of 
the Rev. James F. and Mary Lateward, 1823. The Rev. J. F. Late- 
ward was Rector of Perivale for about fifty years, and was the 
immediate predecessor of the present rector. On account of advanced 
age and infirmity, the Rev. Dr. Giles was curate in charge for some 
years previous to 1860. Dr. Giles was the author of several works 
intended for higher education. 

A beautifully carved upright stone, with the inscription, " A 
kindly tribute to departed worth," marks the grave of Charlotte 
Alston Pinkerton, 1817. She was the daughter of J. Wilson, 
Governor of South Carolina, and great-granddaughter of Sir Row- 
land Alston, Baronet. Close to this monument is the tomb of Maria, 
widow of Sir John Nisbett, Baronet, of Dean Castle, Edinburgh, 1856. 
Her father, Colonel Alston, fought in the American War of Inde- 
pendence. Here are also interred the remains of her great-nephew, 
Mark Pinkerton, son of the above-mentioned Mrs. Pinkerton, 1852, 
" the stone placed by Captain Newell, R.N." ; and near it is the tomb 
inscribed '* Rear- Admiral J. J. Newell, 1862 " ; Admiral John Carter, 
R.N., 1863, and his wife, 1868 ; Bridget Hood, wife of Rev. Richard 
Hood, 1822; Ebenezer Ball Brown, 1869; Lieut. -Colonel W T . G. 
Sutton, 1884, and his wife, 1882 ; C. Sneyd Edgeworth, of Edge- 
worthstown, Ireland, 1864, and his wife, Henrica. C. S. Edgeworth 
was, it is said, of the same family as Maria Edgeworth, the talented 
authoress of " Castle Rackrent," " Belinda," " Leonora," " The Modern 
Griselda," &c, of whom it has been justly said : " In all her novels 
her pen was devoted not only to make us feel what is good, but to 


make us do what is good." She died at Edgeworthstown, county 
Longford, in 1849. It has also been stated that she occasionally- 
attended Divine service at this church. Near to it is the grave of Mrs. 
M. Wilson, the wife of W, E. G. Wilson, M.D., 1886 ; H. Lang, 1879. 

A handsome monument in marble, surmounted by a Calvary cross, 
with anchor and cable intertwined, marks the tomb of Admiral Sir 
Richard Collinson, K.C.B., Deputy Master of the Trinity House, 
born 1811, died 1883. Like some others, it demands more than a 
passing notice. This distinguished officer belonged to that little 
band of intrepid seamen who sought, 'mid " thick-ribbed ice and 
snow," to succour and bring back to their sorrowing country the ill- 
fated Sir John Franklin, Captain Crozier, and the other gallant officers 
and men composing the crews of the Erebus and Terror, who perished, 
after great hardships and sufferings, in their brave attempt to dis- 
cover a North- West Passage. 

In reading this inscription it is impossible to help recalling the 
share taken by the gallant admiral, whose remains now repose amid 
far different scenes, in the memorable search, carried out by expedi- 
tions organised both by the Government and by Lady Franklin her- 
self, to bring back the missing crews to their friends, who, unhappily, 
like the Danish dames of old — 

" Sitting sadly by the sea-beat shore, 
Shall look for lords who never will return." 

The object of the expedition, composed of the Enterprise and Inves- 
tigator, commanded by Captain Collinson, was to search for the Franklin 
expedition via Behring's Strait along the northern coast of America 
towards King William Land. It was a most adventurous and arduous 
voyage, in which the commander's ship, the Enterprise, narrowly 
escaped the fate of those she was sent to succour. Before reaching 
Behring's Strait the two ships were parted, and the Enterprise was 
absent three and a half years, and her officers and crew were shut 
up in the ice during the greater part of that time without means of 
communication with home. They were thus thrown on their own 
resources, amidst the dangers and severe climatic conditions of the 
polar regions, longer than either of the other searching expeditions. 
Great anxiety, in fact, arose in this country as to whether they would 
ever return. 


The Admiral's ship, after many difficulties, reached as far as Cam- 
bridge Bay, and its exploring parties were almost within sight of the 
spot where a boat of the unfortunate Franklin expedition was found 
three years later by Captain (now Sir Leopold) McClintock. Sir 
Richard thus missed the honour of that discovery as well as that of 
the North- West Passage, though he had the satisfaction of knowing 
that he virtually " made the passage " by overlapping the longitude 
already traversed by previous explorers from the east.* 

With better fortune, in one respect, than Captain Maclure in the 
Investigator, he brought his ship safely home, while the former, 
though he had the honour of being the discoverer of the North- West 
Passage, had to leave his ship in the ice, a monument of his discovery. 

There is also an inscription recording the death of his sister, Julia 
Cecilia, wife of Walter de Winton ; and secondly, of R. W. Streeton, 
who died 1878. 

Immediately adjoining it is a granite tomb inscribed to the memory 
of Amelia, widow of the Rev. J. Collinson, Rector of Boldon, Gates- 
head, who died at Ealing in 1871. 

The Arctic explorer's sisters and his brother, Major- General T. B. 
Collinson, R.E., reside at Ealing, the latter, like the late admiral, 
taking a warm interest in the progress of the town. 

Near it is the plain tomb, surmounted by a simple Calvary cross, 
of George Frere, 1878, who served the Government with credit in a 
civil capacity in South Africa, as did his relative, Sir Bartle Frere ; 
and to the west of it is a similar memorial to his grandson, George 
Frere— son of George Edgar and Adelaide M. Frere — born 1874, died 
1887. A handsome monument marks the resting-place of Major- 
General Fitzmaurice, who served with distinction in the Peninsular 
War and at Waterloo. He died at Drayton Green in 1865, the same 
year as his eldest son, Maurice Henry Fitzmaurice, Captain and 
Adjutant R.A., who is interred in the same tomb. 

Near, too, is the grave of Rear-Admiral Frederick Augustus 
Wetherall, 1856, and his wife, 1848 (the former was a brother of Sir 
George Wetherall, who lived at Ealing) ; Alfredo Duprat, 1881, and 

* For a full account of the expeditions sent in search of Sir John Franklin, see " The 
North-West Passage and Search for Sir John Franklin," by John Brown, F.R.G.S., 
F.S.N. A., &c, second edition with sequel, 1860. 


Albert Mainwaring Ducat, Commander R.N., 1884; the latter died 
from the effects of an accident while in the performance of his duty 
on board of his ship. The tomb is here of Edward Webster, 1875, a 
barrister of repute ; he was one of the leaders in Parliamentary elec- 
tions in this county, and he earned the respect of both political 
parties; also that of George Masters, of Drayton Green, 1866; 
G. A. F. Saulez, Rector of Exton, 1884 ; Sophia Anne, wife of George 
John Haffenden, of Hanwell, 1864 ; Sophia Anne, widow of Charles 
Patten, of Uxbridge, 1868 ; G. C. Selwyn Durant, 1872 ; Adam, son 
of Alexander and Alice Forbes, 1881 ; George Penn, 1884; Sarah 
Winter, 1864; W. Coomes, 1849; Walter Keyte, 1880; Marianne 
Porter, 1888; Jane M. Northey, 1887; Mary Bowler, wife of 
Thomas Chaloner, of Guisborough, 1858 ; C. Collet, 1882 ; T. P. 
Rigby, 1889. 

There is also a cross to the memory of W. V. Condell, 1887 ; it is 
inscribed with the simple but significant words " Thou knowest," and 
memorials to R. Sankey Gowlland, 1886 ; L. H. Edmeston Hodges, 
1869; Anthony Todd Thomson, M.D., 1819, an eminent physician 
and author of medical works ; Septimus C. M. Slade, 1886, a nephew 
of Sir John Slade, Bart., who was for many years in her Majesty's 
Paymaster-General's office ; Middleton Rayne, late chief engineer of 
the Indus Valley Railway, 1882, and J. R. Randall, 1881 ; John 
Eddy, 1875 ; Elizabeth Alder, 1884; Elizabeth C. Roberts, county 
Kildare, 1884; T. E. J. Henry, Castleblaney, 1883; and Thomas 
Street, 1855, and his sister Angelina Sweitzer, 1857. This monu- 
ment bears the following pretty inscription : — 

" Blessed are ye both, your ashes rest, 
Beside the spot you loved the best, 
And that dear home, which saw your birth, 
O'er looks you in your bed of earth." 

There are also the family graves of John Hopkinson, 1862-4 ; the 
Chapmans, of Greenford ; Smiths, of Hanwell ; of Charles Bartho- 
lomew, of Castlebar, Ealing ; and monuments to the wife of C. F. 
Smart, of London, 1858 (he was a brother of Sir George Smart, the 
eminent music composer); Henry Scott Turner, 1868, inscribed also 
to his wife, 1875, and son, Major Scott Turner, 1871 ; Mrs. Butlin, 


1868, and children; Caroline, wife of Rev. W. Gambier, Hawtayne, 
1867 ; Mrs. M. F. Josling, 1884, and others of that family. Among 
many others, there are very costly monuments to G. A. R. Willey, and 
a very imposing one, to Grace Caroline Hicks, 1886, &c. ; the latter is 
surmounted by a beautiful marble sculptured figure of an angel, &c. 
There are simpler monuments to the rector's daughter, Florence, wife 
of Captain Blaine, who died in South Africa ; Charles Cracknell, of 
Ealing, 1880 ; Charles Edward Collier, 1883 ; and among the more 
recent interments is that to the Rev. S. J. Jerram, late Rector of Chob- 
ham, 1887, and near it the grave of his daughter, Eva, 1885. A 
large table tomb marks the place of interment of the Rev. Dr. 
Nicholas, the learned proprietor of the celebrated Ealing High School, 
where many eminent persons have been educated ; some of whom are 
alluded to in the concluding chapter. He died in 1829. 

There are also examples in this churchyard of the old-fashioned, 
quaint wooden memorials, which formerly served the purpose when 
stone was more difficult to procure before the railway system was 
developed. In most of them the timber is fast decaying, and the 
inscriptions have become obliterated. One of these old memorials 
has lately been restored, and is to the memory of Martha Filby, 1826 ; 
Thomas Filby, 1833; Mary, his wife, 1840; Fanny Filby, 1868; 
and Thomas Filby, 1876. There is another to the memory of 
George Dos well, 1848. 

An addition has been made to the churchyard within very recent 
years, for the peaceful seclusion of Perivale has made it not only a 
favourite resort of the living, but a spot preferred for the interment 
of those who have left these earthly scenes. This has been specially 
the case of late years, and it contains, for its size, an unusual number 
of rich and costly monuments. Some of the least imposing memorials 
and those inscribed with the simplest words are often the most touch- 
ing. Among such is one to an infant, Annie Page, 1866, with the 
epitaph, "One of these little ones." 

There are fewer epitaphs in doggerel in Perivale than in most 
village churchyards ; they are not entirely wanting, however, as 
shown by the following. On an old headstone, inscribed to the memory 
of the two infant children of William and Sarah Evans, are these 
lines : — 


" When children die in infancy 
Like flowers newly born ; 
The Lord that sent hath only lent 
And takes but what's his own." 

Sarah Evans died 1779 ; William Evans, Citizen and Skinner, 1780. 

There is a headstone which should also be mentioned ; it is near 
the old elm which spreads its leafy branches over the entrance to the 
churchyard, and is inscribed to the memory of a certain unfortunate 
person and his daughter. Tradition says that the former suffered the 
extreme penalty of the law in the early part of this century for firing 
a pistol at a man at Apperton, with intent to kill, in a dispute of 
some kind. The report runs that there is here an exceptional instance 
of the body of an executed person being taken out of Newgate and 
here interred ; while it is said by others that the remains are repre- 
sented by broken bricks and stones which now fill the coffin. The 
story, which is rather a melancholy one, has a foundation in fact, and 
will be referred to later. 

Such traditions dwell long in the memory of the simple rustics of 
Perivale, some of whom still believe in the statement that there is in 
this graveyard a tomb without an occupant. It is said the grave 
was made, but that the person whose death is recorded was never 
buried in it. 


" "Tis beauty all and grateful song around, 
Joined to the low of Mne and numerous bleat 
Of flocks thick-nibbbng thro' the clover'd rale." — Thomson. 

Something should now be said about the parish of Perivale as it is, 
and of what is known of the hamlet during the past century, when it 
had ceased to be called " a town," as it is designated on Mrs. 
Shelbury's monument in the church, already described. 

The rectory, which adjoins the churchyard, is a half-timbered 
building in the style of the fifteenth century ; it is very picturesque, 
and quite in harmony with the church and farmhouses and out- 
buildings in its vicinity. The most ancient portions of the structure, 
Avhich are very old, may be seen at the back ; the front was added 
about the middle of the present century. Before this addition was 
made, the old rectory was visible as a very unpretentious building, 
and adjoining it was a smaller house, both of which have been 
absorbed behind the present facade and converted into one house. 
Mr. Farthing, who lived there in 1845, and made most of the altera- 
tions, has described it : — "It is an irregular old building, standing in 
its own grounds, isolated on all sides. There are three fronts ; the 
principal one looks towards the west over a large meadow orna- 
mented with stately trees [probably the grounds of the old manor 
house] ; it consists of three projections surmounted by pointed 
gables of ornamental woodwork. The centre one contains the 
antique entrance porch, with its quaintly-carved columns and twisted 
balusters leading to the hall and spiral staircase, from whence diverge 
long passages leading to the living-rooms and offices. The rooms 
are lighted by projecting bay windows, in which is some stained 
glass ; the ceilings are very low, and these are crossed by huge 
beams of timber, giving one the idea of a ship's cabin." The old 

9 2 


houses forming the back are probably at least three hundred years 
old, yet are " not haunted by either ghost or goblin, but as this is 
contrary to all rule," he says, " I have converted a laughable occur- 
rence which once happened into the following very tolerable ghost 
story." It is almost worthy of a place in the " Ingoldsby Legends." 

A Legende of the Rectobie at Pebi-vale. 

Loud roared the wind at Perivale, 
The rain fell thick and fast, 

The Rectory shook in that fierce gale, 
The trees bent to the blast. 

•'Sir Knighte ! SirKnighte," the pasto* said, 

" Go not to that dread room : 
The fiend within will strike thee dead ; 

Tempt not thy certain doom.'' 

" I fear no fiend," the knight replied ; 

" But soon I'll crop his ears. 
Bring me a fight, Sir Priest," he cried ; 

" And have for me no fears." 

"Boast not thy strength, ' ' his reverence said, 
" For know, my son, this nighte 

Thou need'st must goe unto thy bedde 
"Without a taper's light." 

" Then quickly guide me up the stair, 

And give me the Boor-key. 
I'll make this demon quit his lair, 

And yield the room to me." 

The knight has reached the chamber door, 

And entered it so bold ! 
When from within a dreadful snore 

Made his heart's blood run cold ! 

His head he ran against a post 

(The bedpost of the bed), 
Which made him think the demon ghost 

Had knocked him on the head. 

" Ho ! ho," thought he, " is this the way 

You treat your company ? 
Such deadly blows, I needs must say, 

Prove lack of courtesy ! " 

Then to the bed he groped his way, 

And felt for the bed-clothes, 
When from that bed, to his dismay, 

A fiendish snort arose. 

The knight cried boldly, " Who are you ? 

Pray, what would you be at ? 
Speak quickly, fiend, and tell me true, 

Or I'll deal thee a pat ! " 

A thought occurred to this brave knight — 

A shrewd idea, d'ye see ? — 
Both nends and ghosts do all take fright 

At cock-crowing, they say. — 

" Cock-a-doodle-doo-o-oo," 
He crew ; then cried, ' ' My wig ! " 

As from the bed with much ado 
Up jumpt the Parson's pig. 

To the stair-head both pig and knight 

Ran, as if you'd shot 'em, 
Over each other in their flight, 

Rolling from top to bottom ! 

A score of priests since then, we're told, 

The rectory have taken, 
To dust has turned that knight so bold, 

The phantom pig to — bacon. 

Unearthly sounds do still prevail, 

But from no ghosts — alas ! 
They come from the Great Western rail, 

When the express trains pass ! 

In the field west of the church and rectory may be seen the 
depressions in the land which mark the site of the old Manor House 
of Greenford Parva. 

It was not standing in Lysons' time, and the building has been 


taken down about one hundred years ; not a stone or brick now 
remains of the structure, which was, no doubt, the residence of many 
of the Lords of the Manor. The ground plan of the building, and of 
other houses in the hamlet, is shown in the map of John Rocques' 
Survey of 1741-5 ; the rotting wooden gate-posts showing the 
entrance to the grounds may, however, still be noticed in .the hedge 
in the Greenford Road ; and the place may be seen — 

" Where once the garden smiled, 
And still where many a garden flower grows wild " — 

for every year at this spot may be noticed daffodils, and occasionally 
other cultivated flowers, among the grass, striving in vain to over- 
come the fate to which they must yield sooner or later. 

The old Manor Place at Perivale appears to have been protected 
in ancient times by a moat, the remains of which may still be observed 
on three sides ; its dry bed on the south, near the Brent, as well as 
its western side, is clearly discernible. 

The writer was informed by an old inhabitant, who had lived in 
the locality forty-three years, that the northern portion had been 
partly filled up during his time, and now was diminished to the ditch 
in that direction. 

The probability of the Manor House having been moated is itself 
evidence of antiquity, and recalls the period when such buildings 
were subject to the attacks of armed bands and marauders in 
troublous times. 

A side view of a part of the Manor House may be seen in a water- 
colour drawing of the church inserted in the copy of Lysons' 
"Environs," now in Guildhall Library, to which allusion has been 
made ; it is evidently of older date than the others, which are 
inscribed 1794. 

In the MS. book, entitled " Pictures of Ferivale," by Mr. John 
Farthing, a gentleman who occupied the old Rectory, and afterwards 
Perivale Grange (now called the Grange Farm) for some years, there 
is a pen-and-ink sketch of it, which is here reproduced, his widow 
having kindly placed these interesting notes in the writer's hands. 
The description of the Manor House is best given in that writer's 
own words. It is probable that both the latter and the sketch were 


obtained from the Rev. James F. Lateward, Rector when Mr. 
Farthing resided in the parish, and was on terms of friendship with 
him (1845). 

" Opposite the Rectory is a large meadow ornamented with fine 
trees, among which is a magnificent walnut and a venerable mulberry ; 
this was formerly the garden of the old Manor House which stood 
here and reared its aristocratic head, looking down on the humble 
parsonage beneath, to which it offered both a shelter and protection. 
The present incumbent (Rev. J. F. Lateward) first saw the light within 
its walls, soon after which event the building was taken down, it 
being greatly dilapidated from age and the want of proper reparation. 

" When the mansion was first erected, Perivale was in its palmy and 
prosperous state, and far more populous than it has ever since been. 
The proud owner and occupier of the house styled himself " Lord of 
this towne," and is so designated on an old mural monument in the 
church. The erection was of red brick, and had three principal 
fronts, the fourth looking only towards the stables and offices. It 
was separated from the road by a lofty brick wall, and the entrance 
was through a pair of curiously-wrought iron gates supported by 
pillars, also of red brick, crowned by lions carved in stone. A broad 
gravel walk, with a grass plot on each side, led to the door of the 
mansion. On ascending a double flight of stone steps you entered 
the large hall, paved with black and white marble in alternate 
squares ; stags' heads with the antlers adorned the walls, with here 
and there demi-suits of armour and warlike weapons. A broad stair- 
case of oak with carved balusters led to the upper apartments, and 
there was another story over these containing the dormitories. We 

will enter this lower room It is of goodly proportions, and 

lighted by a large bay window glazed with small squares of a coarse 
green glass. The walls are wainscoted with dark ' oak in small 
panels. The fireplace is large and roomy, and there are hand-dogs 
laden with large burning logs of wood. On the keystone of the arch 
of the fireplace is a shield bearing the arms of Myllett, viz., Argent, a 
cross gules with a lion passant or in the upper compartment, and the 
motto on a ribband, ' Diligo Crucis Leonem.' Over the fireplace is 
suspended in a carved oak frame, a portrait of a gentleman in the 
prime of life, by a pupil of Vandyke " 


An old person, aged eighty-four, a daughter of one of the larger 
farmers in the parish, told the writer she remembers hearing in her 
girlhood old persons (who lived at the time when " Squire Harrison " 
and his successor, Richard Late ward, resided in their Manor House) 
speak of the importance of the old mansion and the establishment 
its possessors maintained there. Another worthy old dame of about 
the same age, living at Greenford, had heard similar stories of the 
grandeur of the old place and its " many windows," and of the 
decay and neglect which had necessitated its removal. " Time, the 
destroyer, has now swept away every vestige of that fair mansion, 
the venerable mulberry and huge walnut trees alone remaining as 
mute witnesses of its former grandeur." 

There can be no doubt that this Manor Place was very old when it 
was removed. Mr. Farthing appears to suggest that it was at least 
as old as the period when Henry Myllett lived, a brass to whose 
memory is still in the church with the date 1500 ; perhaps it may 
have been even older. What changes in manners, customs, and reli- 
gion must its inmates successively have witnessed ? and then the old 
Norman lords before ! 

No doubt many of these old feudal barons, and other Lords of the 
Manor, the De Mandevilles, De Bohuns, De Beaumonts, and those who 
followed them, whose lives we have chronicled, were proud of their 
possessions and titles, and like many existing people, were not very 
particular how they obtained either the one or the other. Many of 
them have left us little more than a record of their names — as Sir 
Walter Scott has said : — " Their escutcheons have long mouldered from 
the walls of their castles ; their castles themselves are but green 
mounds and shattered ruins — the place that once knew them knows 
them no more ; nay, many a race since then has died out and been 
forgotten in the very land which they occupied with all the autho- 
rity of feudal proprietors and feudal lords." In Coleridge's words — 

' ' The knights are dust, 
And their good swords are rust, 
Their souls are with the saints' we trust." 

There are now five farm-houses in Perivale, all hay farms. It is 
said there are no labourers' cottages, which appears to be the fact. 


The farms are known as Horsendon, Apperton (sometimes, but im- 
properly, called Alperton), Manor, Church, and Grange farms. Horsen- 
don and Apperton farms became so dilapidated that they have been 
rebuilt in quite recent years, but the others, particularly Manor 
and Grange Farms, are in part very old ; portions of Church Farm 
are also old, though a new building was added to it some years 

Manor Farm, situated on the road from Perivale to Apperton, has 
about 120 acres attached to it. It is not included in the Manor 
of Perivale, but is the property of the trustees of Lady Penfold. 

There is no evidence to show that it originally formed part of the 
manorial estate, though it is subject to the same collection of tithe as 
the rest of the parish. It has already been mentioned that Richard 
Late ward, who, in 1767, purchased the manorial estate, valued at 
£485 per annum, bought the whole parish, except a farm of £40 
per annum, and no doubt Manor Farm was the exception referred to. 
Lady Delpierre, who is Lady of the Manor, is a descendant of John 
Schrieber, who took the name of Lateward, and became possessed of 
the manorial property under the will of Richard Lateward. 

This farm may also, in all probability, be identified with the "Besse 
Place," a house with certain lands attached to it, which formed part 
of the possessions of Henry Morgan, who was attainted for high 
treason in 1613, and which was afterwards granted to John Leving- 
ston, to which reference has also been made. There is an old room 
in this farm-house panelled in oak with carved door. 

Manor Farm was, in 1812, let to Thomas Bowler, who suffered the 
severest penalty of the law for shooting with intent to kill one 
Borroughes (also a farmer) at Apperton. It would seem from the 
tradition still believed that the latter, besides showing great ingrati- 
tude in money matters to the man who had befriended him, had 
seduced the daughter of the former. Although the attempt to murder 
was premeditated, it seems hard to believe that a man who had been pro- 
bably led into evil by such a wrong culminating in a fruitless attempt 
to avenge the injury done, to him should have been executed. Great 
sympathy was shown to him, and even Borroughes joined in the effort 
to avert the carrying out of the sentence. Bowler was arrested after 
he had been in hiding twelve months, and when, as Borroughes had 


got well, his family thought there was no fear of his being punished 
severely. He was taken at a farm-house at Apperton, also in his 
occupation, and executed. It is said his body was obtained from the 
dissecting-room to which it had been taken and buried in Perivale 
Churchyard, near the elm at the entrance. It is supposed that the 
assassination of Percival by Bellingham the same year hardened the 
heart of the Government and prevented any mercy being shown to 

The strangest stories are still told about the farm where he was 
taken, and the unnatural noises and rattling sounds heard there at 
night for years afterwards are said to be associated with his unquiet 
spirit ; of which uncanny sounds, &c, an old man, who was then a 
boy, gave the writer a very graphic account, but the ghost has long 
since been exorcised or has taken his departure "sans ceremonie." 
It is also averred that Bowler's money, a large part of which was 
deposited by him in an iron box and buried secretly, has never been 

Grange Farm, called at one time Perivale Grange, though modified 
somewhat during the last half-century, has much of the old structure 
still left in it. It is situated on the Greenford Road, near the rotting 
gate posts, walnut and other trees, which still mark the entrance to 
the grounds of the old manor-house before it was taken down. Ex- 
ternally it still, like most of the other farm-houses and out-buildings, 
retains its old world appearance, and adds to the beauty of this 
secluded hamlet. The oldest portion is internally heavily timbered, 
and there is some curious old oak carved work, now painted, near 
the door, but whether it originally belonged to the structure it is 
impossible to say. 

Very primitive-looking is the wooden building, called the Church 
Farm, with the thatched outbuildings and red-tiled barns connected 
with it, which are situated near the northern entrance to the church- 
yard. Time has tinted and mellowed them into harmony with the 
trees and the general landscape, and even the newer portion of the 
farm buildings is yielding to the same influence. 

It is said some person many years ago attempted to renovate 
and rebuild some of the farm-houses in Perivale, but the contract or 
speculation proved unlucky, and, as the old rustic who informed the 



writer of the tradition added, he "had to run for it, feathers or no 
feathers." No doubt the genius of the hamlet pursued him for 
daring to endeavour to remodel a place so destined by nature to 
preserve its old character and appearance ! 

Near the Church Farm, in the early part of this century, was the 
enclosure where strayed animals were confined until they were taken 
out at the owner's cost, i.e., " the pound " ; but such an institution 


does not exist now. Probably Perivale at one time had its stocks, 
and other punitive or corrective arrangements, but no record remains 
of them. 

The most remarkable and characteristic fact connected with Peri- 
vale is that there is no public-house there ! Nor has there ever been 
one, as far as the writer has been able to learn. No brewer has ever 
had the courage to establish one. The thirsty traveller must pass 
through the parish and walk nearly to the top of Horsendon Hill 
before he can refresh himself with that " stouter English ale," or 
stronger English beer, for the production of which the barley of 


Perivale was so famous in Queen Elizabeth's time, as recorded by- 
Dray ton. — (See page 107.) 

The history of Perivale would not be complete without an allusion 
to its rural sports, which have been held there annually for years, 
in connection with the Dedication Festival of its little church. The 
Pythian games held near the Temple of Delphi are said to have been 
instituted in honour of Apollo, and the Olympic games were dedicated 
to Jupiter, who is supposed to have originated them after his victory 
over the Titans ; but, alas ! as we do not know to whom the church 
was dedicated, it is impossible to associate any name with the Dedi- 
cation Festival of Greenford Parva. 

The sports are celebrated in one of the meadows of the hamlet, 
and are very popular. The youths, generally from the neighbouring 
town of Ealing, contend in running and other manly exercises, while 
the maidens vie with each other in the performance of feats requiring 
skill and dexterity suitable to their sex. Prizes are awarded to the 
successful competitors, and they are generally distributed by a lady of 
more than ordinary importance. 



" By the pricking of my thumbs, 

Something wioked this way comes : — 


Some of all professions that go 

The primrose way to the eternal bonfire." — Macbeth. 

There was one building of which Perivale once could boast, which 
must have added to the beauty of its scenery, i e., a windmill. A tradi- 
tion of its former existence is still preserved in the mind of an aged 
woman {cetat eighty-four) who " was born and bred in the parish," 
a daughter of one of the old farmers whose names will be men- 
tioned. She remembered hearing in her childhood very old people 
say there had been a windmill there, but, except that it was near an old 
oak, she had not a very clear idea as to where it stood, but had heard 
that old Squire Harrison, Lord of the Manor before the Latewards 
possessed it, used to have corn ground there more than a hundred 
and twenty years ago. Mr. Farthing, in his MSS. written nearly fifty 
years since, not only mentions the tradition of its former existence, 
but has given us a sketch of the windmill at Perivale, " from an old 
drawing in the British Museum of about the year 1470." The MS. 
also contains the following curious legend connected with it, which it 
is presumed he obtained from some of the old people to whom he 
refers, as his source of information ; the account is best given in that 
writer's own words. 

The Legend of Perivale Mill. 

" Wandering along the banks of the Brent one fine afternoon, 
accompanied by my two dogs and Master Cain (the old sexton and 
clerk), the latter in search of large stones for rock- work, we came to 
a charmingly secluded spot formed by an abrupt curve of the river 
and a thicket of whitethorn and guelder-rose bushes, matted together 
by the tendrils of the briony and woodbine. The turf was like velvet 


and beautifully verdant, being sheltered from the scorching rays of 
the sun by the tall trees which grew around ; . . . thousands of blue- 
bells and white violets adorned the banks, and the clear waters of 
the stream were almost hidden from the eye by the overhanging 
shrubs and trees, as it meandered over its pebbly bed. . . . The 
dogs barked with delight as they roused some wood-pigeons from 
their perch or startled the shy kingfisher from its nest of fish-bones 
and sent it skimming — 

' Along the vista of the brook, 
Where antique roots its bustling course o'ertook, 
And tangled shrubs and moss of emerald green 
Cling from the banks, with wildflowers sweet between.' 

The melody of the birds alone broke the silence of the place ; the 
blackbird's joyous whistle and the softer song of the thrush, with the 
heavenly notes of the lark as she hovered over her nest in the 
adjoining field, riveted me to the spot. ... I could not help ex- 
claiming, as I threw myself down on the soft turf, ' What a charming 
spot for a picnic ! ' ' What's that ? ' said my companion. I told 
him, and he then laughed and said, ' Ay, and a nice, pretty name 
the place has got for gentlefolks to come junketing to.' ' Why, how 
is it called ? ' said I. ' Names are of little consequence — 

' ' The rose 
By any other name would smell as sweet." 

1 That may be,' quoth he ; ' but it wouldn't sound well to ask ladies 
to visit such a place as this, for, let me tell ye, no one about these 
parts would come here after dark. 'Tis called, and with good reason, 
too, "The Devil's Plat."'" 

The following "authentic" legend is associated with it, and though 
the story has probably been embellished by the writer, it is not un- 
likely that it contains the germs of truth, as far as the tradition is 

" About two hundred and fifty years ago Perivale was not only 
more populous than it now is, but was a comparatively thriving 
place, as the legend on an old monument in the church shows, for 
the husband of the lady to whose memory it was erected (Mrs. Shel- 
bury) is thereon described as ' Lord of this Toune.' A windmill 
then stood upon the spot where I was lying, at which the inhabitants 


had their wheat ground. This mill was owned by an unsociable sort 
of man, whose name was Abel Reed, who resided alone within its 
precincts. Near the mill stood the cottage of a poor old widow 
woman, who was looked upon by her neighbours as a witch, and 
dreaded accordingly. All the villagers believed in her powers, except 
the miller, who considered her no better than a cheat and an im- 
postor ; he, moreover, took a malicious delight in telling her so when- 
ever she crossed his path ; therefore no great love existed between 
Abel Reed and old Dame Gigs. 

" One day she met the miller as he was returning from the ale- 
house, and being then somewhat quarrelsome, he began abusing the 
old woman, and threatening her with the stocks, &c. This so roused 
the old woman's ire, that, raising her withered arms above her grey 
head, she declared Abel Reed to be a lost man, a child of the devil, 
and prognosticated that ere twelve months expired he would either 
be drowned in the Brent or crushed by his own millstones. 

" From that hour the miller was looked upon distrustfully by 
his neighbours, and his business fell off. About a year after this 
prophecy the miller was missing, and as several days had elapsed 
without any tidings of him, an inquiry w r as thought necessary. This 
was all very well, but who was to make it ? No one dared to enter 
the mill until old Dame Gigs, after sneering at their cowardice, 
volunteered to go in and see what was the matter. 

" Some of the villagers assembled to see the result, and the old 
woman began to mount the ladder leading to the room in the mill. 
This being of considerable height, and the dame's agility not having 
increased with her years, she trembled, made a false step, and then 
fell to the ground. This added to the excitement of the bystanders, 
and some of them having conveyed the old woman to her cottage, the 
others prepared to make another essay, . . . and having done so, a dis- 
covery was soon made. Between the mill-stones were lound pieces of 
rag and broadcloth, whilst pulverized bones, hair, and blood told too 
plainly the end of the unfortunate miller, and Dame Gigs, in spite 
of her imputed skill, could not save her own life, but died shortly 
after from the effects of her fall. After these tragical events not one 
would take the mill, and it became a ruin. No villager would pass 
the spot at night, unless compelled to so, and when they did they 


related to their friends all sorts of stories about it : how they had 
heard the moaning of Abel's spirit and the shrieks of Dame Gig's 
ghost amid the howling of the wind, and some even averred that 
they had seen the forms of Abel Reed and the old dame who had 
cursed him, pursuing each other round the gallery of the haunted 
mill, and heard noises as of persons struggling together. 

" Matters remained in this state for a long time, when at last an 
old miser declared his intention of occupying the ruined mill, to the 
great surprise of the villagers, and, notwithstanding their entreaties 
and warnings, he eventually did so. Many of the simple folk, how- 
ever, shook their heads and said no good would come of it. 

" Shortly afterwards the old man was missing, and this, circum- 
stance revived afresh all the stories about the haunted mill ; though 
many of the villagers believed he had forfeited his life by his temerity, 
yet a few of the more sensible portion thought the old man might 
still be living, though too ill to leave his abode in search of assist- 
ance. Acting on this conjecture they went in a body to the spot, and 
called loudly to the old man by his name ; no answer was, however, 
returned, and it was then suggested that some one should enter the 
building. The constable was called upon virtute officii ; but he flatly 
refused, as did all the others. At last a young man who had no 
friends or relatives (being a foundling) was induced to undertake the 
task, and Simon Coston, amid the breathless expectation of the rest 
below, ascended the ladder, Having reached the gallery he pushed 
open the door, and, after a pause of a few seconds, entered. A few 
moments of painful silence and anxious suspense ensued, when a 
groan, followed by a loud shriek, startled the assembly, and Simon 
Coston rushed out upon the gallery, exclaiming, ' The ghost ! the 
ghost ! Fly, fly for your lives ! ' No further intimation was neces- 
sary. Away scampered the villagers, without daring to look behind 
them or offering to assist poor Simon in his perilous position. 

" Some hours afterwards a consultation was held, and it being 
found that poor Simon Coston was also missing, it was determined 
that another attempt to discover the dreadful mystery should at once 
be made. Accordingly several stout men, having fortified their 
courage by drink and armed themselves with guns, pitchforks, &c, 
they proceeded towards the place in a body. Having arrived at the 


fence which divided the mill from the lane, they once more shouted 
out the names of the missing men. A pause ensued, and then was 
heard a hollow sepulchral voice, ' Bury me, bury me, ere you sleep, 
In Peri vale Churchyard ten feet deep.' The men, trembling in every 
limb, rushed through the opening and discovered the dead body of 
the old man on the other side of the palings ! The mill itself was 
empty, and Simon Coston was never more heard of." 

Some thirty years after these occurrences, and when the recollec- 
tion of them was becoming obliterated, a gentleman purchased an 
estate at Greenford (Magna), and built himself a fine house there. 
There he resided with his lady and family, and curiously enough the 
name of the new proprietor was Simon Coston. Some few old people 
thought he bore some resemblance to the poor youth who had been 
so strangely missing, but this was mere surmise, and no one could 
suppose for a moment that the wealthy Squire Coston and the poor 
Greenford foundling could have aught in common. Squire Coston's 
family died before him, as may be seen by the very handsome and 
quaint old monument in Greenford Church (Magna). The old gentle- 
man was, however, alive in 1665, for he then gave the cover for 
the font, which is now in Perivale Church, but he must have died 
soon after. On looking over his papers his executors found a key to 
the mystery of the mill, and they discovered also that the deceased 
and the foundling were one and the same. 

It appeared that when Simon entered the mill he saw at a glance 
how things stood : the old miser had been arrested by the hand of 
death in the very act of counting his money, and being a quick- 
witted fellow, Simon hit on the plan of frightening the folks away 
from the place and then securing the treasure to himself. 

As we have seen, this he did most successfully, and having trans- 
ported the dead body to the place where it was found, he removed the 
money from the mill and concealed himself until the second search 
was over, which he knew would very soon be made ; accordingly, when 
the neighbours came again, he uttered the doggrel before quoted, 
and having seen the persons safe off with the old miser's body, he 
decamped in the opposite direction with the money. Arrived in Lon- 
don, he soon after took ship for Flanders, and, being a prudent 
youth, he got employment in a merchant's house, and by his dili- 
gence and attention eventually became a partner. " He married, 


and, having realised a handsome fortune (no doubt by the aid of 
the miser's savings), he determined to return and enjoy it in his 
native place." " The mansion he built no longer exists, as it was 
destroyed by fire, but the fishpond that adorned the garden and the 
avenue which led to the house may still be seen, the latter being 
called ' Cost on' s Lane ' to this day. Thus ends the legend of the 
haunted mill, which stood on what was ever after called the ' Devil's 
Plat.' " 

How much truth there is in this story it is impossible to say, but 
probably it may have some foundation in fact, however small may be 
the base on which this romantic superstructure is reared. This, how- 
ever, is certain, as shown after inquiries made at Greenford by the 
writer, that there are among the poorer people of that village, persons 
who have a strong objection to pass through Coston's Lane on a dark 
night, for fear of meeting Coston's ghost, which is said to haunt the 
grounds of the old house which has long since been levelled to the 
ground, and that the same unearthly visitor is supposed more fre- 
quently to hover about the old pond which once was included in the 
demesne, and which is associated in some mysterious way with the 
later destinies of Coston and his family. 

One old man declared that on going to the field where the pond is 
situated to collect his horses, he found them all scared and trembling, 
showing signs of great terror, and while he was getting them to- 
gether he saw " something white " hovering over the miniature lake, 
which " something " appears to have been terrified too, for he heard 
a great splash as it jumped into the water, as Coston is said to have 
done over two hundred and thirty years ago. The piece of water, now 
almost covered with aquatic j)Jants, has certainly an uncanny appear- 
ance at eventide, when a mist floats above it and bats are flying in its 
vicinity. There are some large trees about it which cast gloomy 
shadows, but what adds most to its weird aspect is several very old 
pollard-trees, which are bent and contorted in different directions ; 
most of them are either so decayed that a half of the interior of the 
trunks is laid open, and others appear to have been struck by light- 
ning, and now hang in a curiously fantastic way over the pool. 
Whether it is that the lakelet is in a sequestered spot away from 
Coston's Lane, or that the dismal-looking trees which threaten to fall 
into it afford a suitable home for the "moping owl," it would be hard 


to say ; perhaps both causes may conduce to its being frequented by 
the bird of the night, and that it often startles the superstitious 
peasant by its hoot when he — 

" Molests his ancient solitary reign." 

The place has certainly a weird look at nightfall, and recalls Poe's 
remarkable verses in " Ulalume " : — 

' ' It was hard by the dim lake of Auber, 
In the misty mid-region of Weir — 
It was down by dank tarn of Auber. 
In the ghoul-haunted woodland of "Weir." 

An old waggoner who had lived in Green ford nearly forty years said 
he knew many people who " dursen't go near it after nightfall, but for 
his part he had been by there at night hundreds of times, and never 
saw anything worse than hisself," which still leaves the character of 
the ghost shrouded in mystery. 

Coston's house appears to have been burnt down, and his box of 
plate is said to have been thrown into the pond, which one " intelli- 
gent " man informed the writer is said to have no bottom. He is said 
to have lost his wife by the plague, and suffered other misfortunes, 
though originally so rich that it is now averred his riding horses " were 
shod with silver." 

It is strange that such traditions and superstitions should linger so 
long in a country village. Simon Coston has been dead about two cen- 
turies and a quarter, and yet it is supposed his shade still — 

" Revisits the glimpses of the moon." 

Among the changes which have taken place in the ground about 
Perivale Church is the disappearance of an old wood or plantation, 
which is shown to the south of it in Kocque's Survey of Middlesex, 
made in 1741-5. 

It is said that the best wheat in England was grown in the vale 
south of Harrow-on-the-Hill, and "that Queen Elizabeth and Henry 
YIII. had their farm produce froma farm, or farms, at Perivale." Others 
say that the former " took no composition from the villagers there, but 
received it in kind " ; and that the place is called Purevale from the 
" clearness " of the corn which was grown there. Perivale was sometimes 
called Cornhill or Cornhull in the reign of Edward III. and later, and 
its reputation for producing good corn had apparently then been 


established. Cornhill, or Cornhull, was probably the slope of Horsen- 
don Hill. The reputation of Perivale for producing the finest wheat 
in his day (1563 to 1631) has been preserved in the poetical descrip- 
tion of England entitled the " Polyolbion," by Drayton. It is divided 
into thirty songs, or books, of which the one in which allusion is made 
to " Perryvale," " Perivale," or " Purevale " — which, he says in a note, 
" yieldeth the finest meal of England" — is the sixteenth. It is very 

' ' As Coin come on along, and chanced to cast her eye 
Upon that neighbouring hill where Harrow stands so high,* 
She Peryvale perceived prank' d up with wreaths of wheat 
And with exulting terms thus glorying in her seat ; 
' Why should not I be coy and of my beauties nice, 
Since this my goodly grain is held of greatest price ? 
No manchet can so well the courtly palate please 
As that made of the meal fetch'd from my fertile leaze. 
Their finest of that kind, compared with my wheat, 
For whiteness of the bread, doth look like common cheat, 
"What barley is there found, whose fair and bearded ear, 
Makes stouter English ale or stronger English beer? 
The oat, the bean, the pease, with me but pulses are ; 
The coarser and browner rye, no more than fetch and tare, 
What seed doth any soil in England bring, that I 
Beyond her most increase, yet cannot multiply ? 
Besides, my sure abode next goodly London is, 
To vend my fruitful store, that we doth never miss 
And those poor baser things, they cannot put away, 
How'er I set my price, ne'er on my chapmen stay.' 
When presently the hill that maketh her a vale 
With things he had in hand did interrupt her tale, 
With Hampstead being fallen and High-gate at debate ; 
As one before them both that would advance his state, 
From either for his height to bear away the praise, 
Besides that he alone rich Peryvale surveys. 
But Hampstead pleads, himself in simples to have skill, 
And therefore by desert to be the noblest hill ; 
As one that on his worth and knowledge doth rely 
In learned physic's use. and skilful surgery ; 
And challengeth, from them, the worthiest place her own 
Since that old Watling once o'er him to pass was known." 

* It is stated that when some divines were disputing before Charles II. about the visible 
Church, he turned their attention to that of Harrow-on-the-Hill, which has ever since 
been proverbially called the visible church. — (Lysons' "Environs.") Harrow Hill "was 
chosen by William Bolton, the last Prior of Great Bartholomew, in Smithfield, on which 
to build him a house to preserve him from a deluge that was prognosticated from certain 
eclipses in watery signs and was to happen in the year 1524. With this not only the 
vulgar but also learned men were so unreasonablv infatuated that they victualled them- 
selves (as both Hall and Speed confidently report) and went to high ground in fear of bein°- 
drowned ! Amongst these was the Prior, who not only provided himself with a house there 
at Harrow, but carried all sorts of provisions which were thither to serve for the space of 
two months." — (Camden's "Britannia," translated by Edmund Gibson, p. 328.) Stow, 
however, contradicts this report and Lysons says he was also Rector of Harrow. 


Some idea of the population of Perivale in the last century may be 
gathered from the following table. The earliest baptism recorded is 
in 1707, and burial in 1720. It is not possible to continue the 
full list of the former for the next decade from the register, on 
account of the pages having been abstracted between 1789 and 1807, 
as already mentioned. 

The total baptisms from 1707 to 1786 were as follows : — 

From 1707 to 1726 inclusive . . . 28 

,, 1727 „ 1746 „ ... 39 

„ 1747 „ 1766 „ ... 32 

„ 1767 „ 1786 „ ... 22 

The total burials from 1720 to 1799 were : — 

From 1720 to 1739 inclusive . . .53 

„ 1740 ,, 1769 „ ... 63 

„ 1760 „ 1779 ,, ... 38 

,, 1780 ,,1799 ,, ... 58 

There are no burials registered between 1799 and 1802. 

Many of those entered here were not parishioners ; some, as already 
stated, were of persons who lived in London. The diminished number 
of baptisms shows the hamlet decreased in population during the last 
fifty years of the above record. In 1795, however, there were five 
houses in Perivale, and in 1871 seven habitations with thirty- three 
inhabitants. In 1881 the total number of houses was seven, also, 
with a population of thirty-four people. It seems that the population 
has since been decreased by the migration of a man and his wife and 
eight children ; such a withdrawal would have caused a serious reduc- 
tion in the amount of the Poll Tax if such a source of revenue had 
still existed. Happily there is no fear of any financial difficulty arising 
in Perivale on that account. 

About three-quarters of a mile north-east of the church, in the 
parish of Perivale, and north of the canal, there is an ancient earth- 
work and moat, the age of which is not known though it appears to 
be of considerable antiquity. 

The earthwork is of irregular quadrilateral form ; the fosse now 
only contains water on the south side, about which is a belt of trees ; 
on the western side there is a depression leading to a circular hollow 
in the ground, in which at some period some kind of structure was 
placed. About a foot beneath the turf a bed of sandy concrete occurs, 


which is, no doubt, artificial, and suggests that the spot may afterwards 
have formed the site of a windmill at Peri vale, perhaps the one to 
which allusion has been made, though it is not near the Brent. 

It seems too hazardous to claim for this moated earthwork the high 
antiquity which appears to be indicated by the few flakes of porce- 
lainized flint artificially produced, which have been found among the 
roots of the trees and in molehills at this spot, though enough has 
been discovered to make it desirable that a cutting through the 
mound should be made. 

Horsendon Hill, the lower slopes of which are in the parish of 
Perivale, is a naturally-formed hill of London clay surmounted by a 
deposit of gravel of glacial, or possibly of pre-glacial, age (Westleton 
beds). The ascent is gradual until near the summit, where it is steep. 
A magnificent view may be obtained from the top, extending to a 
distance of twenty-five miles to the south-south-east and south-west. 
There are traces still left of the hill having been rudely fortified at a 
very remote period, probably at a time before written history began : 
a few pieces of coarse pottery, hand-made and not turned in a lathe, 
as well as some flint flakes of the neolithic age have been found near 
the top. The name of the hill, " Horsendon," or " Horsingdon," 
appears to indicate that it was occupied in very remote times as a hill 
or tribal fort : most of the higher hills were used as places of retreat 
in the inter-tribal warfare which was always more or less going on in 
the newer stone age and long afterwards, as shown by General Pitt- 
Rivers and others. At such times the families of the tribe were safer 
on the hills than in the valleys, while the higher ground, made more 
secure by earthworks, formed good positions from which an advancing 
hostile tribe could be seen, or from which a successful raid could be 
made. There are two terraces, one above the other, facing the south, 
besides the broken ground at the top, which are probably artificially 
formed. No doubt such " points of vantage " continued in use after 
the Roman invasion, even into the Saxon period. 

It is probable that Horsingdon owes its name to the conjunction of 
two words, the one much older than the other, the concluding 
syllable "don," being the Keltic dun, " a hill fortress," as in Dunmore, 
Dunkeld, &c, and Horsing is probably Anglo-Saxon, meaning the tribe 
(ing) of the Hors. In numerous places in England we have evidence 
of the early Saxon occupation of the country in the names of towns 


and villages containing ing, signifying clan or tribe, such as Bickling- 
ton, Lullington, Henington, Hardington, &c. These places are situated 
near Cadbury, Somerset, said to be the last stronghold of the British 
Kelts. It is suggested that the Hardings, Sofings, Babbings, &c, were 
early Saxon tribes, and that when they settled in a place permanently 
the suffix " ton," signifying " enclosure or town " (the commonest of 
our English names), was added ; but Horsendon, or Horsingdon, was 
more probably the hill fort of the Horsings or Horsen. Ing is 
said, however, by Worsaae to be derived from the Danish enge, a 
meadow.* Canute is believed to have encamped his forces near this part 
of Middlesex previously to his engagement with Edmund Ironside, by 
whom he was afterwards defeated at Brentford. 

A Legend of Horsendon Hill. 

Mr. John Farthing's MSS., referred to in other places, contains a 
tradition about this hill in which the mythical hero Horsa is intro- 
duced. He says tradition assigns this mound (perhaps he means the 
broken ground at the top) as the burial-place of Horsa, a bold Saxon 
chief, the son of the king of this part of Britain, who, from his resi- 
dence on the top of the neighbouring hill,f was called " Harro of the 
Hill." " The wife of Horsa was supposed to be gifted with supernatural 
powers, and from her performing her magic ceremonies and revels 
with her elfin companions in the vale below, it took the name cf 
• Fairy Vale,' or Peri-vale. Horsa and his spouse had but one child, 
a most beautiful and highly-gifted daughter, who was called Ealine (Yil- 
linge). Her mother taught her so admirably that she was in those 
days esteemed a prodigy of learning. The fame of her beauty and 
talents brought many suitors for her hand, but no one was so fortunate 
in obtaining her love as a neighbouring chief called Bren, who com- 
manded a powerful tribe on the banks of the Thames. He sent 
ambassadors to demand her in marriage, and after due negotiation he 
was accepted by her parents. The joining of hands over the holy 

* " Danes and Norwegians," T. T. A. Worsaae, 1852. 

t "In some old English records Harrow is called ' Hare we atte Hull ' (or Hill), but in 
the most ancient documents it is called Herges, a name probably derived from the Saxon 
word Hearge, Hergh or Herige, which is sometimes translated, a troop of soldiers and some- 
times, a church." Lysons, who is here quoted, thinks the latter derivation the more prob- 
able, and that there may have been a church on the hill before the Norman Conquest 
which would have been a prominent feature in this part of the county. He says Herga 
super montem was the ancient Latin name of the place. 


stone within the magic circle was performed with great pomp and 
ceremony according to the rites of Odin, the Saxon Deity, and after a 
festival of many days' duration, Bren carried home his beauteous prize 
to his own castle. 

" This union proved unfortunate, for the lady was too learned for 
her ignorant husband, who slighted her for those less refined com- 
panions whose tastes and sentiments were more in accordance with 
his own sensual disposition. Ealine (Yillinge), finding herself thus 
deserted and dishonoured, vowed revenge on her faithless husband, 
and having a favourite starling which she had herself reared and 
taught to speak when a child, she completed its tuition and then set 
the bird at liberty, well knowing it would seek its native vale. The 
winged messenger flew back as conjectured, and having discovered 
Horsa, alighted on his shoulder and told the tale taught him by its 
mistress. The fiery chieftain immediately assembled his warriors and 
prepared to avenge his child by the signal chastisement of his brutal 
son-in-law. Bren, however, got intelligence of Horsa's intention, and 
having summoned his vassals, crossed the river with all his forces. 
The two armies met and crossed at the ford which has ever since borne 
his name. Here Bren was slain and Horsa mortally wounded ; but 
notwithstanding his condition, he ordered his men to carry him over 
the river, and having ravaged Bren's country with fire and sword, he 
brought away his daughter in triumph, and great spoil besides. Horsa 
died of his wounds soon afterwards and was buried with great pomp, 
along with his arms and favourite war-horse, by his people on this 
spot, who, in commemoration of his valour, raised over his remains 
the tumulus or mound in question, which has ever since borne his 
name, although corrupted to the words ' Horsendon ' or 'Horsington.' 

" Ealine (or Yillinge) and her mother, both being widows, retired to 
the recesses of the adjoining forest, where they bewailed their sad loss 
and devoted themselves to study. They lived, it is said, to a great 
age, and Avere almost worshipped by the rude people about them for 
their sanctity and learning. Ealine (or Yillinge) survived her mother, 
and, at her decease, was buried on the spot where she had so long 
lived and at length found a final resting-place. This, in remembrance 
of her virtues, was called ' Ealine's (or Yillinge's) Haven,' by which 
name it is to this day known. Great cures have been performed by 
the waters in the vicinity. She was, after the introduction of 


Christianity, canonized by the name of Helena, and her portrait may 
still be seen in stained glass in one of the windows in Perivale Church ; 
she is represented with a book in her hand, in allusion, no doubt, to 
her wisdom and learning." 

" Even now," says the narrator, " the affrighted peasant, as he 
hastily passes round the brow of the hill at the witching hour of night, 
fancies he hears the solemn tread of Horsa's giant steed as he paces 
round the place of his sepulture ; and some go so far as to affirm they 
have seen the shadowy form of the dead warrior when the pale moon 
illumines the hill, and the white mists curl upwards from the vale at 
its foot. For the satisfaction of my readers," he says, " I can boldly 
aver that, although I have been on its summit both late and early, I 
have never seen aught there worse than myself." 

Such is the legend of Horsendon Hill. Whether it is "one of the 
traditions which" Mr. Farthing says he "gleaned from the memories of 
aged persons," and whether it was ever extant in the locality to the full 
extent he has narrated, or drawn more or less from the depths of his 
powerful imagination, must for ever remain an open question. 

It is a fact, however, that there were, early in this century, remains 
of old painted glass in the side windows of the church, which had 
suffered even more injury than those in the chancel, and among them, 
about the period at which the legend was written (1845), was one 
representing the figure drawn so carefully by Mr. Farthing, and which 
probably represented a saint of the Romish Church. — (See page 67.) 
It is true, too, that Haven Green is called Ealing's or Eling's Haven in 
the old maps. Nothing, as far as the writer knows, has been seen of 
late years of " the shadowy form of the dead warrior," but he was 
gravely informed that on Greenford Marsh, on the north of the Green - 
ford Road, a very remarkable phenomenon was noticed a few years 
ago by several people and commented on : i.e., on a winter's morning, 
when the ground was covered with hoar frost, the footprints of a large 
animal, apparently going in the direction of Horsendon Hill, were 
observed, and though the field was of the usual frosty hue, the grass 
in the impressions of the hoofs " was scorched of a bluish tint." 
The question is not yet settled whether the difference of colour was 
due to the fiery feet of Horsa's steed or to unequal condensation due 
to causes which may be easily explained. 


" All things must change 
To something new, to something strange ; 
For nothing that is can pause or stay ; 
The moon will wax, the moon will wane ; 
The mist and cloud will turn to rain, 
The rain to mist and cloud again, 
To-morrow be to-day." — Longfellow. 

The registers of the births, deaths, and marriages, and the records of 
the meetings of vestries are not exciting compilations, though the 
three first have their attractions to Dryasdust, the genealogist, in 
filling up pedigrees, and may be even fascinating to the claimant to 
the traditional " lost estate " when he fancies among the names and 
dates he may find the connecting links of the chain which is to 
bring him fortune. 

But old parish records are often interesting to the ordinary reader, 
on account of the incidents which are occasionally alluded to beyond 
the mention of names of persons who are chronicled in each division 
in succession as babies ushered into the world, as married, and, finally, 
as buried " in woollen " according to the Act, or otherwise, and, then, 
how quickly they are followed in the same course by their children 
and grandchildren, until the procession of human life and the con- 
tinuity of its story becomes saddening. 

Truly there is much matter for contemplation in a parish register. 
Who can read the old records of weddings, births, and deaths without 
for a moment pausing "to cast a look behind"? If we could bring 
before our mental vision some of the varied groups of people who, 
in succession, for some hundreds of years have stood before the altar 
of our little church, how strange would they appear to us now ; how 
pictureque and quaint would be the dress of the bride and bridegroom 
if we could clothe them in the fashion of the times when some of 
these entries were made. 


The roll is inscribed by people of many degrees of importance. 
What a varied pageant would that long list give us ! Yet it matters 
not whether the picture we conjure up is of knights, esquires, farmers, 
or peasants, titled gentlewomen, the lady of the village, or the little 
village maiden of low degree : my lady or the simple daughter of the 
soil plighted her troth at the altar with the same love in her heart as 
that which fills the breast and blushes on the veiled cheeks of the 
bride of to-day. But a little while and the group is altered, and a 
new life is added to it, associated with all the pride, tenderness, and 
maternal self-denial which follows the incoming into this mysterious 
world of one of the most helpless of beings. The present is but the 
echo of the past with a very slight difference. Love and sorrow are 
the contemporaries of all times ; they are, in a sense, ever young. A 
brief period elapses and the chronicle tells us of another event, which 
affects the little group that filled up the picture, and the same bitter 
tears as are shed to-day, mark the entrance into the little church of 
the father, mother, or child. Then there is the blank which is such 
a mystery ! and the green mound of the village burial-place, where — 

" All human love and hate 
Find one gad level ; where soon or late 
Wronged and wrong- doer, each with meekened face, 
And cold hands folded over a still heart, 
Pass the green threshold of our common grave, 
Whither all footsteps tend, whence none depart." 

How much of love, sorrow, joy, hope, virtue, and sin is covertly 
hidden in the pages of the parish register ! 

The rector has kindly allowed the writer to examine the two 
books which contain the earliest records, as already mentioned. The 
later register has not been examined. The oldest register, an oblong 
book with vellum leaves, shows the record of deaths to have com- 
menced in 1707, and that of the births and marriages in 1720. 
Inside the cover is a copy of the words of the bequest of Robert 
Cromwell, of the parish of Paddington (contained in his will, dated 
September 10, 1722), as follows : — "And also upon further trust that 
the said John Cromwell, my Brother, and his heirs shall pay out of 
the said estate (lands in Heys in Middlesex) yearly and every year, 
on every Christmas Day, to the Minister or Parson of the said parish 
of Perivale and his successors, Vicars or Parsons of the said Parish, 
for ever Six Pounds in consideration that he and they preach a Ser- 


mon in the Parish Church of Perivale in the afternoon of the first 
Sunday in every month, and not otherwise. The first Sermon to 
begin and to be made as soon as the Vicar or Parson shall have 
notice or knowledge thereof after the decease of my said Wife, and 
the first payment to be made him on the first Christmas Day that 
shall happen next after her decease." How long the payment and 
the sermon have been in abeyance it is impossible to know, but 
probably before the commencement of the present century. 

It has already been mentioned that the Cromwells here alluded to 
were probably of the same family as the Protector, and it may be 
useful to those who should attempt to determine the matter to know 
that the following are the entries referring to the Cromwells in the 
register. Between 1720 and 1812 they appear, like the baptisms, to 
have been transcribed by the rector, Richard Mills, from an older 
record " taken by Mr. William Brownbill, Rector of the said Parish," 
in 1719, giving the date of burial.* 

" 1720, June. Elizabeth Cromwell, of the parish of Micham, Surrey. 
1723, Dec. 30. Robert Cromwell, and Margaret, his wife. 

1727, Sept. 27. Sarah Cromwell, the wife of John Cromwell, of Micham in Surrey. 

1728, May 7. E. Cromwell, the daughter of John Cromwell, of Hayes." 

* With reference to the Cromwells of Perivale, and their possible connection with a 
family of the same name settled at Ealing, though at an earlier date, a letter appeared in 
the West Middlesex Standard, of February 15, 1890, signed "A Genealogist," which fur- 
nishes some interesting information, as follows : — " In the suit Cromwell v. Cromwell (see 
Chancery proceedings, Mitford, 335, 51), the bill recites the will of Walter Cromwell, 
senior, of Ealing, yeoman, who was father of the parties. By this, which was dated 
16th July, 1668, he devises 'Hangers' to his son, John Cromwell; an annuity of £40 
to his wife Margaret ; and to his son Walter an annuity of £7, and 5s. a week ; this 
Walter, the son, had a daughter, Margaret ; the elder Walter had a daughter, Jane, who 
married William Godwin, and a grandchild, Henry Godwin : he bequeathed to the poor of 
Ealing £10, to be paid within six months of his death, and gave his residence to his son, 
John Cromwell. The executors were Edward Millet, of Hanwell, yeoman, and Joseph 
Wade, of Ealing, scrivener. The legacy to Walter Cromwell was directed to be paid to 
Edward Millet at his own house, and to be applied by bim for the use of Walter Cromwell. 
Walter, who was the eldest son, disputes his father's will, alleging he was not sane at the 
date of making it." The result of this Chancery suit, brought in 1680, is not stated. It is 
well to mention also, for the information of those interested in the Cromwell pedigree, that 
George Cromwell (signed Crumwell) , of Eling, Middlesex, bachelor, 30, and Elizabeth Bolles, 
spinster, 21, daughter of Thomas Bolles, of Wallington, Herts, Esquire, " who consents," 
were married at St. Sepulchre's (St. Bartholomew the Great or Less), London, on 6th Aug., 
1663. — Vide Colonel Chester's "London Marriage Licences," 1521-1869 (Quaritch). 

William Granger, editor of "The Museum and Extraordinary Magazine," published in 
1804, a very curious old book, after giving an account of Mrs. Bridget Bendish, grand- 
daughter of the Protector, says Richard Cromwell, the Protector's son, died at Cheshunt, 
Herts, July 13, 1712, aged 86, and "that the son of bis son Oliver, named William 
Cromwell, the great-grandson of the Protector, died in Kirby Street, Hatton Garden, 
unmarried, July, 1772, aged 85"; and writing in 1804, he states that "Mr. Oliver 

i 2 


They are, with one exception, described, like others, up to a certain 
date as buried in woollen. This was in consequence of an Act 
passed in the reign of Charles II. , an enactment which remained in 
the statute-book for one hundred and twenty years, and by it no 
body could be buried in "anything made or mingled with flax, hemp, 
silk, hair, gold or silver, or any stuff or thing other than what is 
made of sheep's wool only," on pain of £5 fine, and an affidavit 
had to be made for this purpose either to the magistrate or the officia- 
ting minister. Nevertheless, in several cases at Perivale the enactment 
was disobeyed, and the rector had to record that he had not received 
an affidavit ; it was so in the case of Robert Cromwell and Margaret, 
his wife, mentioned above. In the case of Ann Lateward, of Ealing, 
who died in 1779, a penalty seems to have been paid, as it is written — 
"she was buried in Linen, for which the undertaker paid 50/, which 
was distributed among the poor." 

The exportation of English wool had been the subject of various 
Acts since Edward III. In 1660 the export of wool was, after many 
oscillations between permission to export, partial prohibition, and 
actual prohibition, finally made penal ; and as the production of 
wool exceeded the consumption the price felL The Act referring to 
burials was one of the very remarkable expedients resorted to for 
stimulating the demand for English woollen manufactures. 

Of course, like every other parish register, the one at Perivale con- 
tained entries such as a " wayfaring man " or " a pauper " was " buried 
in woollen " — poor outcasts, who died without friends in some barn or 
outhouse. The brevity of the entries reminds us of Hood's well- 
known lines : — 

" Rattle his bones over the stones : 
He's only a pauper who nobody owns." 

The following entry shows that at that time robberies by highway- 
men occurred in the vicinity of Perivale and Ealing. From the 
register it appears there were several families of Verreys in Perivale, 
and that they had been settled there for some generations. 

" 174f. Samuel Verrey, Farmer : He was set upon by two foot 
pads on Saturday night last abount 7 of ye clock near Castle-bear 

Cromwell, an attorney in the Million Bank office, and Mr. Thomas Cromwell, now in the 
East Indies, sons of Thomas Cromwell, of Snow Hill, and the Protector's great-grandsons, 
are the only survivors of his male line." 


Hill, & on making some resistence was shot by one of y m thro' ye 
body : of which wound he languish'd till Monday morning and then 
expired. B d in Woolen, as per affidavit received." 

A small " broadsheet " is in the possession of one of the unfor- 
tunate man's descendants, dated January 24, 1747, which gives — 

" A full and particular account of the Apprehending and Taking 
of William Groves & Noah Groves for the barbarous Murder of 
Samuel Yerrey, a Substantial Farmer of Oxendon Hill [sic] in the 
Parish of Perrivale, who going home last Saturday night about 
7 o'clock, was attacked close by the empty house by Castle-bear, late 
in the possession of D r Hollings, near the Uxbridge Road, with the 
whole examination before the Right Hon. the Worshipful Justice 
Clithero, and their commitment last night, the one to Newgate, the 
other to New Prison." 

It appears from the evidence that Verrey and his son were riding 
" near the sign of ' Ye Feathers,' " and the farmer had passed the 
robbers, but seeing his son stopped by them, he rode back and struck 
one of them a violent blow," when the other villain shot him in the 
breast, and robbed him of part of his money. The dangerous condi- 
tion of the highroads about Ealing and Perivale at that time, and 
the dread which accompanied a journey of a few miles, even when 
the traveller was mounted, is manifest from the sequel : Verrey 
" settled his affairs and earnestly desired all people to be cautious of 
travelling late or making any defence if attacked by such villains." 

The following is a list of the Rectors, from 1706 to the present 
time, with the year of the death of such as were buried in Perivale 
Churchyard, as shown in the register. 

It may be mentioned that the last rector noticed in Newcourt's 
list (see p. 51), is Richard Ward, who was rector in 1700. No doubt 
he was succeeded by Beard, who was rector in 1705. The following 
names appear to make the list consecutive : — 

" William Brownbill rector, presented, 1706 ; died, 1719. 

Richard Mills „ „ 1719; „ 1746. 

Richard Badcock Shury rector in 1783 ; ,, 1789. 

James Maidman „ 1790; ,, 1809. 

William Pearson „ 1810; resigned. 1812. 

Frederick James Lateward (son of the patron) . ,, 1812 ; died, 1861 (?) 

(The Rev. Dr. Giles was curate in charge during the latter part of this period.) 
Charles J. Hughes, LL.D., rector, presented in 1861, present incumbent." 


Doubtless, if an older register had been extant, it would be found 
that many of the old rectors, besides those mentioned, were buried 
in the little churchyard, and that there was many a one before — 

" Who in yonder pile his voice was heard to sound, 
But now his body rests beneath its hallowed ground." 

Between 1750 and 1783 the following clergymen officiated at the 
church, but the larger part of the duty was taken by the Rev. A. 
Cookson ; Philip Fletcher, Dean of Kildare ; Charles Cuthbert, 
" clerk" ; A. Cookson, Rector of Newton, Lincolnshire ; C. Ayleway, 
Curate of Ealing ; John Dodson ; Charles Campbell, curate ; J. Hig- 
gate ; R. Shury, curate ; J. Willis, clerk : J. Robinson, curate, and 
Robert Winkle, " minister." 

It is noticeable that in the last century, as in this, many 
persons who resided in London, or at a distance elsewhere, were 
brought to Perivale for interment in the graveyard of the little 
church ; among such are John Arnold, of St. John's, Clerkenwell, in 
1730 ; John Roy Arnold, of St. Bridget's, London, 1742 ; Augustus 
Arnold, of St. Sepulchre's, London, 1743 ; Mathew Cockett, of St. An- 
drew's, Holborn, 1732, and others from Stepney, Westminster, &c. ; also 
Philip Fletcher, Dean of Kildare. He appears to have had the right 
of presentation to the living, and to have occasionally officiated in 
the church. Dean Fletcher was the brother of the Bishop of Kildare, 
and the author of a poem entitled " Truth at Court," which was 
much read at the time, but which has now passed into oblivion. He 
also wrote another poem called " Nature and Fortune," which, though 
quoted in Dodsley's "Collection" (ed. 1782), has not escaped the 
same fate. Of the other Fletchers, Mrs. Frances Fletcher was interred 
here in 1768, and Frances Fletcher, of Crowold, in 1776. There are 
also other entries than those whose monuments have been mentioned, 
referring in like manner to the Harrisons and Latewards, and those 
families with whom they intermarried, as the Clerkes, Fullers, &c. 

Among those whose names are in the register of burials is that of 
George Augustus Elliott, of Ealing, eldest son of Lord Heathfield, the 
gallant defender of Gibraltar (died in 1753). Lord Heathfield lived 
for years on Castlebar HilL 

It is curious to note among the marriages in the church at Peri- 
vale, the number of instances in which both parties came from a 
distance, and were married by licence. Some of those who sought the 


seclusion of the '* church with no name," to take the new vows were 
widowers. Thus, in 1740, Richard Weedon, of St. John's, Wapping, 
widower, married Mary Styles, of Hillingdon, spinster, by licence. 
Some of the names conjoined in the entries are of persons bearing cog- 
nomens identified with the previous history of the parish and advow- 
son. Thus, in 1727 John Howard, of Harrow, married Sarah Millet, 
of this parish. In 1737 Edward Clerke, of New Inn, Middlesex, 
married Mrs. Jane Harrison, by licence. In 1740 Harry Johnson, 
of St. Augustine's, London, married Betty Atlee, of Hillingdon, by 
licence; and in 1750 Simon Fuller Wykes, of St. Sepulchre's, Lon- 
don, married Mrs. Susanna Harrison, by licence. 1757, John Fuller, 
widower, and Elizabeth Knight, spinster, both of this parish, married 
by licence, by Philip Fletcher, Dean of Kildare. In 1758 William 
Wroughton, of Halton, Bucks, bachelor, and Dorothy Musgrove, of 
St. Mary, Oxon, were married. The last entry is like some others, 
which look very like " runaway matches." 

It is not pleasing to record that the register of Perivale Church, 
like that of so many other churches, has been sadly mutilated, and 
obviously for the purpose of destroying the evidence it would have 
afforded. The parchment leaves have been abstracted, containing the 
baptisms between May, 1789, and August, 1807; and a portion of 
the leaf, containing a marriage on each page, between 1793 and 1798, 
has been taken off. The pages have been cut out neatly with scissors. 
How could such an act be committed without the knowledge or 
negligence of the rector who had charge of the book at the early 
part of this century ? 

Such excisions to destroy the evidence of a marriage were not 
uncommon among the chaplains to the Fleet Prison, as the following 
extract shows, but are quite unexpected at Perivale : — 

" ' Would you readily marry me if I had a partner at hand, or get 
me married just now?' inquires a citizen of Farringdon Within to 
the clerk and registrar of the Fleet. ' Of course we could, sir,' says 
the Rev. Mr. Symson ; ' and if you are at a loss for a partner, we can 
find you one directly — a widow with a handsome jointure — a bloom- 
ing virgin of 19;' and here he comes close and whispers, '■ If you 
don't like her, there is no harm done — tear out the entry — you 
understand.' " * 

* Knight's ''London." 


" I hold the world but as the world — 
A stage, where every man must play a part." 

Merchant of Venice. 

Unpretending as is the church and hamlet of Perivale, it could 
boast of a parish clerk in 1861, when the present rector entered 
upon his duties. His name was Cain, and he was sexton as well as 
clerk, and he held these offices even longer than the gravedigger in 
Hamlet, who had " been sexton here, man and boy, thirty year," 
for, in fact, Cain had been sexton and parish clerk for fifty years. 
His long service is recorded, with his death at the age of eighty-three, 
upon a small wooden cross in that part of the churchyard which 
appears to have been set aside for the parishioners, as shown by the 
inscriptions on the headstones, or where " no frail memorial " meets 
the eye but — 

" Heaves the turf in many a mouldering heap. 
Each in his narrow cell for ever laid, 
The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep " — 

the honest farmers — the Westmores, Barnjums, Trustrums, Smiths, 
Gibsons, &c. — who paid the tithe and governed the parish to the 
best of their ability. 

" Oft did the harvest to their sickle yield, 

Their furrow oft the stubborn glebe has broke. 
How jocund did they drive their team afield ; 

How bowed the woods beneath their sturdy stroke ! " 

" Old Cain," as he was called, was considered very eccentric, but 
eccentricity is often but another name for simplicity, and simplicity 
is becoming a rare virtue in these days. Divine service had been 
conducted in most of Cain's time in a very primitive manner, 
though probably not the less sincere on the part of the few who 
" were gathered together " ; albeit, it is not surprising that the 
worthy old clerk found it difficult to fall into new-fangled altera- 


tions, which he could not understand, and some very curious anec- 
dotes are related of him. It was no uncommon thing for the old 
man to be seen in such a position as to command a view of the path 
from Ealing while the rector was preparing for the morning service, 
and hear the former shout out : " Can't see no congregations 
a-coming along, sir. May I put the books up ? " 

Among the old servants in the church was the hand barrel-organ, 
which for many years had done duty and done its best to keep the 
" congregations " in time when they sang ; but alas ! the same fate 
which is the lot of mankind in their old age, at last overtook that 
venerable musical instrument — it lost many of the teeth which 
enabled it to pour forth its volume of sound ; it had never been of 
the sweetest, and the harsh, grating roll of the toothless notes did 
not conduce to the harmony of the singing. With the advent of 
the Rev. Dr. Hughes came improvements in many directions, includ- 
ing the music — among them the institution of matins and evensong. 
The simple rustic had never heard of such services, and, though it 
may seem to the reader to be an invention on the writer's part, he 
can give the best authority for saying that the clerk and sexton 
asked the new rector whether it was not Mr. Matins who wrote the 
music in use in the services. After this it is easy to believe that 
the old man became the victim of a joke played by some boys in a 
school kept by the curate in charge, the Rev. Dr. Giles, the imme- 
diate predecessor of the present rector, who, when he had to give out 
the hymn (selected from the collection at the end of the book of 
Common Prayer, which was then in use) : — "Let us sing to the praise 
and glory of God No. 5, together with the ' Gloria patri,' " persuaded 
the clerk to alter it into — " Let us sing to the praise and glory of 
God No. 5, together with the glorious patriarch." 

It is also on record that Cain, noticing that the performer on the 
barrel-organ had made a mistake and was playing the evening hymn 
instead of the one given out, interrupted the music with the reminder, 
'*. You be a-playin' the evening hymn instead of the mornin' hymn." 
Perhaps, after all, it was the only Avay of getting over the difficulty, 
and the old sexton intended to be decorous, if it does not appear so 
in our eyes now, when nearly thirty-five years have passed away. 
Such incidents were then not uncommon in this as in other churches 


in the country ; nor is it improbable, as it has been averred, that the old 
curate-in-charge at that time, seeing two well-known ladies enter the 
church and join the few rustics who composed the congregation, requested 
his wife in an audible voice to " go and bring the offertory plate " : 
he had abandoned all hope of the offertory producing anything except 
from such attendants. It is not surprising that under such circum- 
stances he should have sometimes paused in the service and indicated 
himself the pew into which the better class of worshippers should go. 

These were the good old days of high pews, when the expression, 
attitude, and dress of the worshipper were not open to the idle gaze 
and criticism of the more undevout and indifferent members of the 
congregation. The pews were replaced by open sittings in 1868, and 
before that time a proper means had been found for warming the 
church : until then it had been customary to send an iron pierced 
vessel filled with lighted coke from the rectory. 

The " roomy pew " which belonged to the Lateward family, " lined 
and cushioned with faded and worm-eaten scarlet cloth," was imme- 
diately opposite the reading-desk ; doubtless it had been used by many 
of the territorial lords of Perivale before them. The old barrel-organ 
was placed on the north-west side of the building close to the vestry, 
and in front of it was the seat of the worthy old clerk and sexton, 
Richard Cain. The church was then supposed to contain a maximum 
of sixty persons. 

"Nothing," says Mr. Farthing, in his notes in 1845, "comes amiss 
to Cain, the old sexton — farming, cattle doctoring, rick-making, thatch- 
ing, gardening, making rustic ornaments, carpentering, building, grave- 
digging, brewing (and drinking the beer afterwards), and a hundred 
other occupations he was equally clever at ; " but there is one thing 
he could not do, i.e., sing psalms, although he could, " over a Christ- 
mas fire, with the yule log burning cheerily, strike up many a song 
and roundelay. He would have made a capital settler in the back- 
woods, and in time would doubtless have become rich ; but fate fixed 
his abode at Perivale : here was he born, and many generations of 
Cains before him, and here in all probability he will be buried when 
old ' Edax rerum ' thinks proper to mow him down with his scythe, 
and then another sexton shall do that for poor Richard which he, in 
his day, hath done for so many who have gone before him." 


" There is nothing of the sycophant about him : he looks you boldly 
and steadily in the face when he speaks, and there is a sly twinkle in 
his clear blue eye which clearly indicates that he considers himself as 
good as you, although not so well off in the world." He cracked his 
little jokes with the Bishop when the latter on one occasion visited the 
church. Nor was the good Bishop at all displeased with him, " for 
there was never the appearance of impertinence, much less incivility, 
about him, but on the contrary he rewarded him with a gratuity which 
made the old man very proud, as other parish clerks were not treated 
in the same manner." There is " simply a downright honest John 
Bullism about old Cain " ; and when, "after a hard day's toil, he bids 
you a cheerful ' Good night,' and seeks his tumbledown cot, you feel 
assured there is one happy and contented man" at any rate in the world. 

But, with all his good qualities, Cain could not sing the Church 
music, and as the difficulties created thereby were partly the cause 
of the introduction of the old barrel-organ, it is as well to give an 
account of the way the obstacles arose and were overcome in the 
writer's own words. " I was much shocked and scandalised by the 
miserable manner in which the Psalmody was burlesqued ; without 
taste, voice, or ear, poor Cain, the clerk, grunted forth the most dolorous 
and unearthly sounds. It was really a penance to the serious portion 
of the congregation, and a matter of unseemly mirth to the more 
thoughtless when he ruthlessly murdered the poetry of the sweet 
Psalmist of Israel, who had been previously martyred by Dr. Brady 
and his laureated coadjutor. 

' Tate and the doctor had great qualms 
When they translated David's psalms. 
But had it been poor David's fate 
To hear Cain sing and them translate, 
I am sure it would have driven him mad ' — 

Cain's cacophony " proving intolerable," " I at first thought of pro- 
curing a similar instrument to the one at the church at Twyford " (an 
Eolina), but as there might be difficulty in getting any one to play it, 
it was determined, if possible, " to procure a barrel-organ, which any 
one could play upon." Ultimately " one was procured which contained 
twenty psalm tunes, and, with this to help, we reopened the church 
in fine style," the writer of the " Pictures of Perivale " acting as 
leader ; but, alas ! to his dismay, no one but old Cain attempted to 


sing, and the latter and the former together made such a discord, 
as, he says, made him heartily wish Cain, " the instrument, and my- 
self anywhere but in Perivale Church." Having ultimately got a little 
choir together, things promised to go well, but the old clerk was not 
to be disposed of so easily ; for he " was determined to lead, or, rather, 
mislead, and the obstinate fellow, who croaked like a frog in a marsh, 
persisted in singing, as he called it." The two or three ladies who 
helped gave up their self-imposed task in disgust. There would have 
probably been a reversion to the old style of music but for the inde- 
fatigable exertions of Mr. Farthing, who subsequently added ten new 
tunes to the instrument, prevailing on old Cain at the same time " to 
give up his unconscionable howling " on his being duly installed as 
" organist," or grinder to the barrel-organ. 

The person who had for many years about this period officiated at 
the organ in this manner, and whose services it was considered 
desirable to replace by those of Cain, in the hope that he would be 
content therewith, and not again join in the vocal music, was one 
Thomas Hope, a curious character. He was an old man and very 
poor, but still the owner of three or four hovels he had built just out- 
side the parish on the western side of Horsendon Hill. They were 
let for the modest rent of Is. or Is. 6d. a week to people as poor as 
himself. Hope was a " good landlord " in one sense : he received 
very little rent, and never enforced his claims, and even ground the 
organ gratuitously. Although not a parishioner, his name is identified 
with Perivale as one of its institutions in the early part of this cen- 
tury. The old man was, in fact, the means of communication to 
some extent between the hamlet and the outer world ; he was 
entrusted with commissions to execute in the adjacent towns. Ealing 
beiDg then but a small village, and the commodities required not 
being generally obtainable there, he was often dispatched to Brent- 
ford to purchase such articles as were needed. 

The peculiar feature in Hope's character was his passion for stand- 
ing sponsor to the children born in the neighbourhood of Perivale. 
It is said " he stood " for more than five hundred children, and was 
present as a spectator at twice that number of baptismal ceremonies. 
It is not surprising that " his memory is still green around Perivale," 
and it is likely to remain so. 



The old man's attention was not, however, only devoted to the occa- 
sions of responsibility associated with the entrance into this mysterious 
world : he had an equal enthusiasm for attending funerals. For this 
purpose he would walk many miles, and it is said he always stayed 
until the graves were filled up ; in fact, he rivalled old Machyn, in 
Henry VIII.'s reign (who left us his diary), in his desire to be present 
on such occasions, with this difference : the latter bestowed his atten- 
tion on the " exit " of important people, whereas old Hope was pre- 
sent at the obsequies of the rich and poor alike, and left no record. 

As for Cain, the worthy old sexton and clerk, more fortunate than 
Hope, has he not been immortalized in verse by the poet of Perivale 
before mentioned ? The following stanzas are from the — 


Near Perivale : hard by the worn high- 
Close to the winding Brent his hovel 
The roof and walls are crumbling to decay, 
Save where repaired by his own toil- 
worn hands ; 
Observe the crazy hut, ye passers by ! 
And pity the poor man who lives so 
The various phases of the moon he knows, 
And whence her orb derives her silver 
From what strange cause the winding 
Brent o'erflows, 
By which the meads so oft have flooded 
Recounts what comets have appear'd of 

Portending want and woe and miseries 

A goodly sight I wot it is to view, 

Cain as the Parish Clerk on Sabbath 
Seated beneath the organ in his pew, 
Or kneeling down with lifted hands to 
As ever and anon, at close of prayer, 
He shouteth out a — men with solemn air. 

" Such times an ancient suit of black he 
Which from the Rector's wardrobe did 
descend ; 
Love to his clerk the worthy Parson 
Pities his griefs and wishes to befriend : 
But what, alas, can our incumbent do, 
Blest with a wife and sons and daughters 

" His youthful feats with honest pride he 
In rural sports what honours he had 
How on the green he threw the wrestler 
How far he leapt ; and oh, how swift 
he ran ; 
Then with a sigh he fondly gave due 

To rivals now no more and friends of 
former days ; 

' ' At length concluding with reflection deep : 
Alas ! of life few comforts now remain, 
Of what I was, I but the shadow keep, 

Worn down by labour, penury and pain. 
Yet let me not arraign just Heaven's 

The lot of Human -kind, as man belongs 
to me." 

The minute-book of the vestry from 1812 to 1851 was evidently 
commenced under the direction of the rector, the Rev. James F. Late- 
ward, and, like the register, begun with such care by the Rev. R. 


Mills, the rector in 1719, was apparently a new departure, an attempt 
to proceed in a legal and proper manner in recording the events of 
the church and parish. 

The first resolution of the vestry in 1812 referred to the purchase 
of a new Prayer Book, the one in use " being so torn as to be 
incapable of being repaired ; " the second was to bring the Grand 
Junction Canal Company, which had " not been regularly rated to 
the parish rates" within the area of assessment, and forthwith to 
levy rates upon it, and then to resolve " that, as William Trustrum, 
junr., will have performed the office of Parish Clerk for nine years at 
Easter next, and has received no salary for such office, it is ordered 
that he be paid out of the parish rates at the rate of £2 12s. 6d. per 
annum for the said nine years." It is probable that Trustrum would 
not have been so patient in regard to his increasing claim if "the 
principal inhabitants" (an expression often used) had met oftener in 
vestry and proceeded to levy rates. When they did meet, however, 
they acted vigorously, and ordered that a rate be made at 2s. 8d. in 
the pound on the Grand Junction Canal Company from 1810 to 1811, 
and another rate on the " inhabitants " for overseers' expenses between 
1811 and 1812 at Is. 7d. in the pound. They purchased an iron 
chest to contain the new register books, and ordered "that the roof of 
Perrivale Church be forthwith repaired at the expense of the parish, 
and that Joseph Hopgood, pauper, be allowed seven shillings a week 
at the expense of the parish." In 1814 there is a curious entry — " that 
Mr. Westmore, senior, having consented to do and finish at his own 
expense the repairing and mending of the road leading from Apperton 
to Perrivale in Marbone Hills, the said proposal and offer be accepted 
and agreed to by Mr. Barnjum and Mr. Amer." 

In 1817 it was resolved to allow Mr. Barnjum out of the poor rate 
made in 1814, and out of and from "the two following rates made 
and assessed in 1817, one pound each." What service he rendered 
for this munificent payment is not stated, but there are reasons for 
believing that he was then' the representative of law and order, and 
had performed the duties of parish constable. 

Emboldened by the satisfaction which these Acts appear to have 
given to " the inhabitants," a vestry was held in 1817 for the purpose 
of nominating and making a list of substantial householders, or "such 


persons as shall be resident in tins parish, for the purpose and choice 
of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the serving the office of 
Surveyor of the High Ways of this parish for the year ensuing." 

The minute is signed by the churchwarden, the overseer, and two 
inhabitants — two signatures, the others by their marks. There is no 
evidence that the " surveyor of highways" was then elected, though 
that officer was appointed two or three years subsequently. 

It must not be supposed, however, that the Yestry of Perivale in 
1818 was without power (unless, indeed, it was illegally assumed). 
At a meeting held in that year, at which the two overseers, the 
churchwarden, and one " inhabitant" were present, they resolved and 
agreed " that James Curtis do pay into the hands of the church- 
wardens and overseers fifteen pounds for and towards the relief and 
support of his illegitimate child." 

In 1820 William Rolph was appointed constable, at £2 2s. per 
annum ; and at a subsequent meeting a proposal from the rector 
that " Hazard's salary (parish clerk) was or further should be 
increased was negatived by the undermentioned meeting." All the 
farmers, which is nearly synonymous with the ratepayers, number- 
ing five, attended this meeting with the rector. Hazard was then 
being paid at the rate of £2 12s. 6d. per annum. 

For a considerable time one churchwarden sufficed, but in 1824, 
and for some years afterwards, two were appointed. The overseer or 
overseers appear to have been chosen, and rates levied for the neces- 
sary relief of the poor, varying from Is. to 3s. in the pound, and 
a church rate irregularly, up to 1832, when a blank occurs, and 
there is no recorded meeting until 1836, when the churchwarden, 
William Hierons, and two inhabitants attended, and appointed a 
churchwarden and a constable. 

In 1826 there appears to have been a serious dispute in Perivale 
about money matters. Barnjum, one of the principal inhabitants, 
had called in the good offices of the rector, who, as he says, " was 
always anxious to promote at all times good will and friendship 
among his parishioners." Mr. Barnjum " expressed his desire to 
settle his accounts of money with those parishioners of Perivale who 
had claims on him, provided a certain sum which was due to him 
was paid ;" but the vestry seems to have had no effect, Mr. Barnjum 


" being altogether at variance with that desire for reconciliation, this 
disposition being manifested in perverse and most unfounded objec- 
tion to the accounts of rates, &c, delivered to him as due by the 
overseers;" and "by an evident determination on his part to avoid 
payment of the said rates." He had also omitted to pay his tithe 
when called on to do so by the churchwardens. How this serious 
business was settled the record sayeth not, but it is evident it was 
settled in some way. It appears that at this time " the services of 
Mr. Hawkins as 'vestry clerk' had for a considerable time been de- 
voted with great fidelity to the parish without remuneration, so the 
sum of five pounds was named by Mr. Barnjum, and agreed to be 
given to him out of the next poor rate," as a gratuity. 

As in the great world so in the small world of Perivale, the inhabi- 
tants had their rise and fall in fortune. Mr. John Westmore, 
farmer, who had served the office of overseer and churchwarden, and 
who, in other ways, appears to have been " a prominent citizen," must 
have suffered a reverse in his career, as, in 1831, a vestry is called 
to consider ° what it was competent to be allowed him ; it was 
agreed that the sum of 8 s. per week was sufficient for the main- 
tenance of Mr. and Mrs. Westmore ; and it was also the wish of the 
said inhabitants that the daughters of Mrs. Westmore should not 
reside with them." What will strike the ordinary reader in perusing 
these proceedings, is the independent action of the Perivale vestry. 
There is no suggestion of any reference to any central authority, such 
as the Board of Guardians, up to this date. Presumedly that body 
did not exist, and the social amenities of the Board at Brentford had 
not come into action. 

It is evident from the minutes of the vestry that the rector had 
some difficulty in getting a church rate voted for " the repairs and 
other expenses of the church." One was passed of 3d. in the 
pound in 1830, "to defray church fees and expenses," as well as 
Is. in the pound in 1830 and 1831, "for the immediate and neces- 
sary relief of the poor and other purposes mentioned by the several 
Acts ;" but though there was the average attendance of three or 
four people in the latter meetings when the poor rates were voted, 
there seems to have been no enthusiasm displayed in favour of the 
church, to say the least, when the rate for defraying the church fees 


and expenses were considered, as it appears, the meeting was attended 
only by a gentleman who united in his own person the offices of 
churchwarden and overseer, and by another person who describes 
himself as " an inhabitant," and who subsequently was appointed 
" constable," perhaps for his meritorious attendances at the vestry 
meetings. A few years later, and the said churchwarden and overseer 
offered to fulfil the office of constable, and "as a constable was 
required," his offer was agreed to. 

It is evident from the minutes that in 1836, after the lapse of 
four years, during which no vestry meetings are recorded, the church 
had been neglected, and that the Rural Dean had found it necessary 
to interfere. In August a meeting was held, " when, after much 
conversation and friendly advice given to his parishioners by the 
incumbent, in urging them to comply with the orders of the Rural 
Dean respecting the repairs and fittings of the church, as settled 
between the Rural Dean and the churchwarden, it was resolved by 
vote, in addition to the said repairs and fittings ordered at the last 
meeting," held three weeks earlier — " That the tower of the church, 
which had been painted once over, should be painted once apain, the 
rector not having been able to carry into effect the order of the 
Rural Dean that the whole of it should be painted three times, and 
even a minority of the vestry having dissented to its being re- 
painted." The other resolutions refer to other reparations ; but 
they are modified in an economical sense, and not in accordance 
with the orders of the Dean. Among the resolutions there is one 
" that a new surplice be ordered, that the old Prayer Book be re- 
paired for the clerk, and that, instead of a new Bible and Prayer 
Book for the reading-desk, the churchwarden be directed to procure 
a second-hand Bible and Prayer Book (if he should be able to do so) 
suitable for the purpose." 

The sixth resolution put at this meeting is a remarkable one : 
" That a font with a lid for christenings be not ordered, on the score 
that, in point of fact, there are no christenings for 'parishioners of 
Perivale, nor likely to be any. On this consideration the rector [as 
he writes pathetically] was unable to procure the assent of any one 
of his parishioners to the order for the font." 

The old font which is now in the church, and which bears on the 



cover the inscription, " The Gift of Simon Coston, Gent, 1665," was 
subsequently found hidden away among rubbish which had accumu- 
lated. In 1861 there was such a collection, filling the little vestry 
under the tower. It is evident that at this time there was no 
proper font in use in the church. 

The 8d. in the pound for church repairs then levied appears to have 
been calculated to produce £24 10s., arising from a gross rental of 
£755. This was not obtained without great difficulty, as the farmer 
(Mr. Hierons) assessed at the highest amount (£200 per annum) 
repeatedly refused to bear his portion of the rate, and left the vestry 
(held in December, 1836). Under these circumstances the rector 
found it impracticable to give effect to the assent of the parishioners 
for a Prayer Book for the clerk, new surplice, &c. " It was, however, 
determined that the churchwarden should give immediate orders for 
the repair of the tower, shattered by the late winds," and the order 
for the collection of the rate was confirmed. 

In March, 1837, the largest ratepayer referred to still persisting in 
his determination not to pay the £6 13s. 4d. due from him, a con- 
siderable deficit arose, and the churchwarden was threatened with 
legal proceedings to enforce the payment of certain bills ; but at the 
vestry, called in consequence, only the rector, the churchwarden, 
and John Hobbs, "an inhabitant rated at £10," attended. At this 
meeting, on the proposal of the rector, seconded by the aforesaid 
Hobbs, Mr. Smith was appointed " churchwarden of the parish, 
overseer, and guardian of the poor for the year ensuing." 

In 1839, when another church rate of 5d. in the pound was 
made, to cover the deficit which still continued, and other expenses, 
the rental of the lands in Perivale had increased collectively to 
£1,136 10s.; and in 1849 to £1,152. The disbursements from the 
church rate are henceforth carefully set forth, and a rate of two or 
threepence annually seems generally to have sufficed. The minute- 
book, and, in fact, the whole management of the church, &c, bears 
distinct evidence of great improvement since Mr. John Farthing 
became churchwarden in 1846. 


" A lonely stream that sobs along, 
Like a child that has lost his way, 
Making its moan in the heartless hills 
That imprison it night and day." 

The river Brent, which forms such a picturesque feature in the 
country around Peri vale, is the result of streams rising in the districts 
of Hendon, Finchley, and Hampstead. After passing through Kings- 
bury, where, by artificial means, it has been converted into a lake or 
reservoir, and past Willesden and Twyford to Perivale, it turns south 
and enters the Thames at Brentford. 

The subsoil of the whole of this part of Middlesex is London clay, 
except the tops of the higher hills, where, as on Harrow Hill, a capping 
of Bagshot sand and gravel occurs, as part of the continuous Tertiary 
strata beneath, and a remnant of the vast thickness of the same beds 
which in Tertiary times covered the whole of Middlesex, long before 
there was even a beginning to the present sculpture of the surface into 
hill and dale. On the lesser hills, rising from 150 to over 200 feet, 
Avhich border the valley, another formation occurs —it is of Quatern- 
ary Age, which succeeded the Tertiary, and on the summits, as well as 
clothing some of the higher slopes of "the Mount," Hanger Hill, &c, 
are deposits, the relics of that period of great cold when much of the 
British Isles was covered deep in ice or frozen snow called neve, the 
result in great part of the vast outpouring of the glaciers, which, ema- 
nating from the mountains of Scotland, Cumberland, and Wales in 
confluent flow, overspread the land. 

They are of the highest interest to the geologist, since the incom- 
ing of man into this country is associated with this epoch, which has 
been fitly called the Glacial Period. 

Upon the summit of '* the Mount," which, with Hanger Hill, &c, 
forms a ridge dividing the Brent Valley from that of the Thames, there 
was found, when the reservoirs there were made, deposits which appear 
to have been formed in a lake at that hisdi level before the Brent 
Valley had been eroded. The silty laminated beds of the lacustrine 

k 2 


deposits contained deep furrows filled with gravel and clayey matter. 
Under these furrows the stratified beds were twisted and contorted, 
as if from the pressure of masses of ice which in melting deposited 
the stones. Some very large masses of sarsen stone or greywether, 
one of which has been preserved there, were found in the excavations, 
while all over the surface of the land small boulders of rock were dis- 
covered, which had been transported by ice from the north of England, 
Wales, and even probably from Scotland, all pointing to the severe 
•climatic conditions which prevailed ere the present valleys were formed. 
Similar deposits occur at Finchley and other places north of Pf rivale, 
and such lakes are often formed in the morainic matter or bounded 
by the ice itself, as the neve, or icecap, recedes in countries where an 
arctic climate now prevails. 

The gravel which the Brent deposits along its course is composed 
of much-rolled and other pebbles, derived from the hills to the north 
of the county, and they are found at all levels up to fifty feet in the 
valley ; they mark the depth to which the valley had been eroded at 
different times in the past. There is also evidence all along the valley 
of the river having changed its channel many times in the course of 
its history, for our little river behaves exactly as great rivers are found 
to do when they flow through a flat valley. In time of flood it has 
often made short cuts across instead of following its old bends and 
curves, besides continually cutting back its old banks in some places. 
The ancient channels are now T often marked by old pollard oaks, some 
of w r hich date back to the time when the poor were allowed to cut 
them for fuel when coal was very scarce, while an absence of trees on 
the margin in other places where the river now flows, shows the course 
of its later vagaries. Such is a brief outline of the geology and 
physiography of the Brent Valley. 

A few words about the humbler denizens and temporary sojourners 
in Peri vale and the Brent Valley and our story is told. What history 
of a rural hamlet is complete which does not tell us something about 
the birds which frequent it ? 

Have they not their favourite home on the banks of our pretty 
Brent ? their haunts among the trees, hedgerows, and meadows about 
Perivale ? Let the jaded and anxious City man accompany a friend who 
is familiar with the notes, habits, and haunts of birds in a few 
rambles in that secluded country in spring and summer, and the 


revelation of a new world will be made to him. He will find, as White 
of Selborne says, " that the winged tribes have various sounds and 
voices adapted to express their various passions, wants, and feelings, 
such as anger, fear, love, hatred, hunger, and the like. All species 
are not equally eloquent ; some are copious and fluent, as it were, in 
their utterances, while others are confined to a few important sounds. 
No bird, like fish-kind, is quite mute, though some are rather silent." 
It requires a keen eye, a quick ear, and a habit of observation to 
really obtain an insight into the bird world, but, like every other part 
of Nature's stupendous whole, wherein a connection and continuity 
exists between the infinitely great and the infinitely small, the subject 
is of the highest interest. 

"Our River" is the favourite home of the yellow-and-pied wagtail, 
and the grey or winter wagtail may occasionally be seen there too ; 
so also the sedge-warbler. 

The gem-like kingfisher, who makes amends for his lack of song 
by his brilliant plumage, may sometimes be observed to dart across 
its rippling waters, perhaps guided by hereditary instinct to visit the 
resort of its ancestors, when fish were more abundant in the Brent 
than they now are. As to fish, it must be admitted that there is not 
much to tempt the angler there at present. Still perch, roach, and 
chub are not altogether absent from it, nor the pike either : all have 
been caught here within recent years. There is even a tradition that 
within the last fifty summers a trout has been seen in the little river. 

At any rate the followers of old Isaac Walton may still be found 
on the banks, credulous and hopeful to the last ! 

Among the migratory birds the high-wheeling swifts and the lower- 
flying swallows can be found hovering over the water in search of the 
beautiful dragon-flies and other insects which abound there. 

The hard- billed seed- feeding black-headed bunting breeds on its 
banks, and its close relative, the yellowhammer, plaintively makes 
its demand seemingly for " a little piece of bread and no cheese," with 
that delightful cadence at the end which caused us as schoolboys 
to give this interpretation to its song. The common bunting, the 
largest of its kind, is often seen. The linnet, with its beautiful rose 
tints, which are not given to it all at once, but require at least two 
years to come to perfection, may be occasionally heard, while black- 
birds and thrushes are common and add to the melody which, in due 


season, pervades the air. The lovely goldfinch, too, though now be- 
coming rare, is heard, and also the bullfinch, decked in brilliant 
colours of red, lavender, and black, accompanied by his sober mate 
dressed in black and brown tints, are amongst the songsters which 
frequent the vale. But the chaffinch is at present the special prize 
of the Whitechapel birdcatcher, who unhappily may be seen on 
almost any day in spring and summer (more especially on Sunday) 
with his covered cage and lure birds — their eyes sometimes burnt out, 
poor wretches — a sight which causes a shudder to anyone who is not 
destitute of feeling. 

The migratory pipits or pipit larks, both the tree and meadow 
species, are more or less common ; the former arrives and commences 
his pretty song about the end of April ; the rock pipit has been 
caught at Harrow. The whin chat and stone chat are abundant. 
The reed-warbler breeds at Perivale, and the sedge-warbler, as already 
mentioned, may occasionally be observed near the Brent ; a nest of 
the grasshopper warbler has been recorded as found at Harrow, 
though some years ago. 

The greater and lesser white-throats are abundant, and the garden 
warblers moderately so, in the neighbourhood. A common summer 
visitor is the willow wren> and the golden-crested wren. The latter, 
the smallest of our English birds, whose note is as minute as its body, 
is not unfrequently met with, as he is a hardy little bird and braves 
our severest winter. The bottle-shaped nest of the long-tailed tit 
has been found in the Brent Valley, and the grey, blue, and coal tits 
are frequently seen. 

The nightjar is said to be not uncommon between Perivale and 
Harrow, and the plover or peewit, sometimes called the lapwing, has 
been observed on Greenford Marsh, as usual feigning to be wounded 
when near its nest to distract attention from its home ; while in 
winter its congener, the golden plover, driven by the snow from its 
usual haunts, has found a temporary abode in the Brent valley. 
Common as he is, the robin should not be forgotten, for he is faithful 
and abides with us all the year round, and finds some old outbuilding 
in which to make himself a home — 

" And when rude winter comes and shows 
His icicles and shivering snows, 
Hop o'er my cheerful hearth and be 
One of my peaceful family." 


The nutthatch has been seen, so too the redstart, and it is pleasant 
to hear in the vale the melodious warble of the blackcap. The most 
mute and the latest of our summer visitors, the flycatcher, may be 
observed darting from some branch upon its prey — catching the fly 
in the air, and then returning to its post of observation to await the 
approach of another victim. The teal has been noticed at Apperton, 
in the Brent Valley, as well as at Harrow ; and large flocks of star- 
lings may be often seen feeding in the meadows, not too greedy and 
perhaps too politic to attempt to interfere with the rooks and jack- 
daws who share their repast, thus preserving the grass from the 
injury which would follow the too great abundance of insect life. 

The lark is always singing in the valley. 

" Higher still and higher 

From the earth thou springest 
Like a cloud of fire ; 

The blue deep thou wingest 
And singing still does soar, and soaring ever singest." 

The green woodpecker, or yaffle, as it is commonly called, may 
startle the pedestrian with its loud laugh ; and the cuckoo, " herald 
of springtime," preceded by the wryneck, • lingers through all the 
changes in his cry in the Valley : that ungrateful bird of whom the 
Fool in "Lear" bitterly saj^s: — • 

' ' The hedgesparrow fed the cuckoo so long, 
That it had its head bit off by its young." 

The heron may be sometimes seen, with languid flight, compelled 
like the kingfisher to visit its old fishing haunts. The kestrel 
appears at times hovering in the air, seemingly almost without 
motion. As for the other hawks, the sparrow-hawk is rare, and a 
merlin was shot near the Stone Bridge on the Greenford Road 
in 1861. 

In the evening, and all night long in early summer, the landrail's 
harsh note may be heard amidst the long grass, now sounding so 
near and then so far ; and a spotted crake was shot near Perivale 
some years since. Fair Philomel has not forsaken the vale yet, and 
still softens the heart with her tender, mellow notes. 

' ' Sweet bird, that shunnest the noise of folly — 
Most musical, most melancholy " — 

as Milton wrote in "II Penseroso," a poem perhaps composed when 


he lived not very far away in a village in the adjoining county (Chal- 
font). The snipe has been shot in the neighbourhood, and the wood- 
cock has fallen in recent years to the gun of the sportsman ; so also 
the moorhen with its dusky brood. 

The barn owl may occasionally be noticed in noiseless flight over 
the meadows, and the tawny owl heard hooting from some old tree. 
Scott says : — 

" The lark is but a bumpkin fowl, 
i He sleeps in his nest till morn, 
But my blessing upon the Jolly Owl, 
That all night blows his horn." 

The ornithologist may once in a way come across the larder of the 
shrike or butcher-bird, containing his impaled victims, and the bittern 
has been known to startle the Cockney sportsman with its great size 
amidst the smaller game of which he is in search. 

The snipe (the jack snipe, it is said), as well as the larger species, 
makes its appearance every year from October to March, and is occa- 
sionally shot by the farmers. Stuffed specimens of the former are 
preserved at Manor Farm. The low bleat of the partridge was 
unexpectedly heard lately, but at the early part of this century there 
was a considerable amount of game in Perivale, and a gamekeeper 
was in the service of the Lord of the Manor to look after it. 

There are delightful little nooks along the Brent in the vicinity of 
Perivale — places where the white scented water-lily grows luxuriously 
and the banks are decked with " long purples " (Losestrife) and a pro- 
fusion of other wild flowers, secluded amongst the scented hawthorns, 
blackthorns, wild roses, and other low-growing trees, with bryony 
intertwined ; here and there the gnarled trunk of a venerable pollard 
oak is in the view as the stream flows against its root or a larger tree 
has fallen from the same cause across it. In many parts an artist may 
find " bits " which it w r ould be difficult to match for quiet beauty ; 
hours may be passed there in summer time — if the riflemen are not 
practising at the butts and destroying the harmony and repose of the 
scene — listening to the low hum of Nature purring over her endless 
work of transmutation, when the silence is only broken by the lowing 
of the kine and the confused melody of birds and the buzz of insects 
combined with the- gentle ripple of the river, or suddenly by the low 
splash of the so-called w T ater rat, which is, however, not a rat at all, 
but the water-vole, a little creature allied to the beaver family. 


The meadows, particularly those north of the canal, are generally- 
rich in cowslips, but primroses are getting scarce, while the little 
adder' s-tongue fern, which formerly was found near the hamlet of 
Peri vale, has fallen a prey to the itinerant fern- vendor and has become 
extinct in recent years. 

The woods on the canal and on Horsendon Hill — diminished as the 
latter has been during the past ten years, until but a poor remnant of 
them is left — still remind us of the spring as the season comes round 
by the tender blue wild hyacinths and the anemones, or "wind 
flowers," which grow there and in other places. 

There are in the valley many plants which are not common near 
London, including the sweet-scented rush, with which our less luxu- 
rious forefathers did not disdain to cover their floors in lieu of carpets 
and often slept upon. A manuscript in the British Museum enu- 
merates certain festival days on which the choir of a church Avas 
strewn with rushes, hay, sand, and ivy leaves. It was also formerly 
the practice to celebrate the consecration of a church or the anniver- 
sary of the saint to whom it was dedicated by carrying garlands of 
rushes and flowers in procession to the church door.* The little 
church at Perivale, whose dedicatory saint is unknown now, was 
probably the scene of many occurrences of the same custom. 

Shakespeare says : — 

" Upon the wanton rushes lay you down." 

The custom of annually strewing rushes in churches was in vogue 
as late as 1827 at Grasmere, Westmoreland. Hone gives an 
interesting description of it as related by a tourist, and says Words- 
worth took great interest in the ceremony, f 

The rush-bearing procession took place in the evening, the children 
having been occupied some time before in gathering them and in 
preparing garlands of wild flowers. " The procession over, the partv 
adjourned to the ballroom — a hayloft — where the country lads and 
lasses tripped it merrily and heavily, he who could make the most 
noise being considered the best dancer." 

The scented rush is found abundantly on the banks of the canal, 
with its neighbour, the flowering rush — high above the forget-me-nots, 
"skull cap," and other luxuriant growing plants, the white masses of 

* Britton's "Dictionary of Architecture and Archaeology of the Middle Ages." 
t " Table Book," vol. ii., p. 678. 


the " water bedstraw " being often conspicuous. The pretty " arrow- 
head " grows well on the banks of the Brent, and so also does the 
common water-lily. The " weasel- snout " is found more rarely, 
but the "dog mercury," not met with in many places so near London, 
may be gathered here, and so too the yellow nettle, though it is fast 

In springtime the fields are decked with the cuckoo-flower, the 
lady-smocks, which Shakespeare has immortalised in the lines : — 

" When daisies pied, and violets blue, 
And lady- smocks all silver white, 
And cuckoo -buds of yellow hue, 

Do paint the meadows with delight." 

This chapter is best concluded with the beautiful picture of a 
sunset at Perivale, extracted from Mr. Farthing's MSS. : — 

" Observe the flowers are silently folding up their leaves ; and the bees, laden with the 
luscious spoils of many a far-off meadow, are wending homewards with a drowsy hum. 
Above the tall old elms wheel flights of dusky rooks— the feathered clergy of our childhood's 
fancy. Masses of shadow sleep upon the sward beneath, checkered at intervals with 
patches of green and yellow light — Nature's rich fresco, over which the sheep roam to and 
fro with almost noiseless footfalls. Daylight is wavering, and a pale thin haze creeps 
stealthily along the vale, covering the little river with a delicate filmy curtain ; but a 
glowing light is still poured out upon the uplands towards the east and on the iron cross of 
the church's tower. 

" Now look to the west ! See how gloriously the sun goes down, with all his magnificent 
retinue of gorgeous clouds — purple and gold, ruby and amethyst, turquoise and pearl ! 
The dark dank veins of Mother Earth can veil no colours half so radiant as those the face of 
heaven puts on at sunrise and sunset ; and now the Day-god dips lower and lower ; then, 
hovering like a glory above the crest of one dark tree, lingers, and sinking disappears. 

"How deep is now the solemn, intense and unbroken silence ! The breeze has sunk, 
not a leaf stirs, not a songbird's note comes floating through the air ! There is a suspen- 
sion, as it were, of Nature's pulse, as though the loss of fight had awed each woodland 
warbler and made even inanimate things acknowledge its solemnizing power ! 

" But hark ! listen to that low prelusive song from yonder thicket. It grows and 
strengthens until it mounts and swells into a full rich liquid strain, sinking and soaring 
and quivering until the air is literally impregnated with melody, bird answering bird, 
nightingale uttering sweet music to nightingale, a perfect choral evening hymn of praise 
when the day is departing and the earth is still ! But even now, just where the sun went down, 
the sky still wears some reliquary glory, some traces of its yet scarcely departed grandeur. 
There are gleams of vivid, silent, innocuous fightning, and sudden openings in the rifted 
clouds, which one might well believe to be glimpses of the heaven beyond, caught moment- 
arily while its refulgent gates unclosed to welcome in some wandering angel or bright 
intelligence. This, too, departs, and one by one, trembling and glittering, the sparkling 
stars appear. The hills deepen in their colour ; the misty haze expands and thickens as it 
spreads. Objects remote mingle and blend confusedly and the sky grows pale. The eye 
can scarcely distinguish between the solid hills of earth and those other piled-up heights 
whose broken summits vary in form with every varying current of the atmosphere. Lights 
twinkle in the windows of yonder house, and night, with its solemn silence and its shadows, 
settles down upon the darkened world." 


" My childhood scarce had glided into youth 
When my soul felt its secret depths, and drew 
The forms of fancy into light and truth." 

Lord Lytton (" The Tale of a Dreamer "). 

The attraction which the winding Brent had for Lord Lytton, and the 
allusions made to it in some of the most touching episodes in his works, 
were explained when the " Life, Letters, and Literary Remains " of the 
great novelist, edited by his son, the present Lord Lytton, appeared in 
1883. The cause of these references is there found in autobiogra- 
phical notes found among his papers, revealing, though only in frag- 
ments, a " brief tale of true passion and great sorrow," the effect of 
which seems not only to have influenced his life but to be reflected 
in his writings. 

After leaving Dr. Hooker's school at Rottingdean, Lord Lytton, 
then Lytton Bulwer, was placed in 1819, when he was sixteen years 
of age, in the small but very select school at Ealing kept by the 
Rev. Charles Wallington. The house " was a large, ancient, time- 
worn edifice, in which the lord of the manor, or other great man 
of the parish, might be supposed to have lived in the reign of William 
and Mary or Queen Anne." 

The autobiographical record of 1820 says : — " The country around 
the village in which my good preceptor resided was rural enough for 
a place so near the metropolis. A walk of somewhat less than a 
mile, through lanes that were themselves retired and lonely, led to 
green sequestered meadows, through which the humble Brent crept 
along its snake-like way. O God, how palpably, even in hours the 
least friendly to remembrance, there rises before my eyes, when I 
close them, that singular dwarfed tree which overshadowed the little 
stream, throwing its boughs half-way to the opposite margin ! I 
wonder if it still survives. I dare not revisit that spot. And there 


Ave were wont to meet (poor children that we were !) thinking not of 
the world we had scarcely entered ; dreaming not of fate and chance ; 
reasoning not on what was to come ; full only of our first-born, our 
ineffable, love. Along the quiet road between Ealing and Castlebar, 
the lodge gates stood (perhaps they are still standing) which led to 
the grounds of a villa once occupied by the Duke of Kent. To the 
right of those gates, as you approached them from the Common, was 
a path. Through two or three fields as undisturbed and lonely as if 
they lay in the heart of some solitary land far from any human 
neighbourhood, this path conducted to the banks of the little rivulet, 
overshadowed here and there by blossoming shrubs and crooked 
pollards of fantastic shape. Along that path once sped the happiest 
steps that ever bore a boy's heart to the object of its first innocent 

" She was one or two years older than I. She had the sweetest 
face, the gentlest temper ever given to girlhood. The sort of love 
we felt for each other I cannot describe. It was so unlike the love 
of grown-up people ; so pure that not one wrong thought ever crossed 
it, and yet so passionate that never again have I felt, nor ever again 
can I feel, any emotion comparable to the intensity of its tumultuous 

" It was then summer. She did not live in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of those pleasant fields which were our place of daily 
meeting ; but though she was w r ell born, very peculiar circumstances 
had created for her a liberty almost equal to my own. We were too 
much children, both of us, to talk in set phrase of marriage ; but we 
believed, with our whole hearts and souls, that we w r ere born for each 
other, and that nothing could ever separate us. And so w r e had no 
care for the future. That was the warmest and the brightest summer 
I ever knew in this country ; I can remember nothing like it. The 
sky smiled and glowed on us as if it also were full of love. At the 
Duke's lodge the gardener used to sell fruit, so there, as I passed it, 
I made my purchases for our little feasts, and as I was always first 
upon the spot I spread them out on the grass, where the stream grew 
darker, under the boughs of that old dwarf tree. When I saw her 
at a distance, my heart beat so violently that I could not breathe 
without a painful effort ; but the moment I heard her voice I was 
calm. That voice produced, throughout my whole frame, a strange 


sensation of delicious repose ; the whole universe seemed hushed by 
it into a holy stillness. Comparing what I felt then with all I have 
felt since, I cannot say it was real love. Perhaps not. I think it was 
something infinitely happier and less earthly. Till that time my 
spirits had been high and my constitutional gaiety almost turbulent, 
but when I sat beside her, or looked into her soft melancholy face, or 
when I thought of it in absence, the tears stood in my eyes, I knew not 
why. I am not sure that she was what others would call handsome. 
Often now I see faces that seem to me beautiful, and people smile at 
me when I say so. But looking close into my impression of them, I 
perceive it was a trait, a look, an air like hers that charmed me with 
them, and my only notion of beauty is something that resembles her. 
No one ever suspected our meetings, nor even, I believe, our acquaint- 
anceship. I had no confidant in either of my companions ; I was well 
with all but intimate with none. And the poor girl had no sister, 
no mother, no friend, I believe, but me. I think it was her desolate 
state, in its contrast to my own happy home, and ardent hopes and 
bright prospects, that first drew me to her. I never breathed her 
name to a human being. How thankful I am for my silence ! Sweet 
saint ! your name at least shall never be exposed to the deliberate 
malignity, the low ribaldry, that have so relentlessly assailed my own. 
If ever I fulfil the hopes I once cherished ; if ever I outlive my foes 
and silence their atrocious slanders ; if ever the time should come, when 
your memory will not be reviled because it is dear to me and sacred ; 
when none are left to hate you for the love you gave me, and from 
those who will only have known you as its most sinless martyr, the 
tale of your long unrecorded sufferings may win, perhaps, tears softer 
and less bitter than my own ! Never, if ever, but never till then, 
shall that tale be told. 

"The last time we met was at evening, a little before sunset. I 
had walked to London in the morning to buy her a book which 
she had wished to read. I had not written my name on the title- 
page, but I said, half jealously, as I gave it to her, ' You will never 
lend it to any one — never give it away ? ' 

" She shook her head and smiled sadly ; and then after a little 
pause, she said, without answering my question, ' It will talk to me 
when you are gone.' So then for the first time we began to speak 
gravely of the future. But the more we discussed it the more dis- 


quieted we became, and it ended with the old phrase, ' We shall 
meet to-morrow.' 

" The sun had set and it was already dark. I could scarcely dis- 
tinguish her features as I turned to depart. But when I had left the 
spot some little way behind me, looking back to it I could see that 
she was still standing there, so I turned and rejoined her. She was 
weeping. Yet she had then no knowledge of what was to happen, 
and she could not say why she wept. I was unable to comfort her, 
for I shared (though in a less degree) her own forebodings. But I 
covered her hands with my tears and kisses, till at last she drew 
them away from my grasp, placed them on my head as I half knelt 
before her, said in half-choked accents, ' God bless you ! ' and 
hurried away. 

" It was my turn then to linger on the spot. I cried out, ' To- 
morrow, to-morrow, we shall meet as before ! ' My voice came back 
to me without an answer, and we never met again. Never, never ! 
The next day she came not, nor the next ; then I learned that she 
was gone. What had happened I cannot relate. Some months 
afterwards there came a letter — not from her. She was married. 
She whose heart, whose soul, whose every thought and feeling, all 
were mine to the last — she who never spared even a dream to 
another — lost, lost to me for ever ! " 

" It does not seem to have occurred to my father," says the bio- 
grapher, " either at the time or afterwards, that the poor girl's dejection 
throughout the final meeting was caused by something much stronger 
than presentiment. The evasive reply to the request that she would 
never lend the book he gave her (a request which in her altered 
circumstances she might have no power to fulfil), her lingering to 
weep on the spot where they had parted, and the sudden spasmodic 
effort with which she tore herself away from her lover's ebullitions of 
feeling — all indicate plainly that she was consciously bidding him a 
last farewell. Their interviews had probably become known to the 
father, and he must have peremptorily interfered to put an end to 
an apparently hopeless attachment. The sequel is told in outline. 
She was forced into a marriage against which her heart protested. 
For three years she strove to smother the love which consumed her ; 
and when she sank under the conflict, and death was about to release 
her from the obligations of marriage and life itself, she wrote a letter 


to my father with her dying hand informing him of the suffering 
through which she had passed, and of her unconquerable devotion to 
him, intimating a wish that he should visit her grave." Of his 
pilgrimage to that spot (somewhere in the neighbourhood of Ulls- 
water) in the summer of 1824, the great idealist has left an autobio- 
graphical note, from which the following is abstracted : — ■ 

" I had one object in this tour far beyond any thought of pleasure 
and adventure. There was a spot amidst these districts which I had 
long yearned to visit, with such devout and holy passion as may 
draw the Arab to the tomb of the Prophet ; a spot in which that 
wild and sorrowful romance of my boyhood which had so influenced 
my youth lay buried for evermore. And until I had knelt alone 
and at night, beneath the stars at that shrine, I felt that my life could 
never be exorcised from the ghost that haunted it — that my heart 
could never again admit the love of woman, nor my mind calmly 
participate in the active objects of men. I performed that pilgrim- 
age : what I suffered in one long solitary night I will not say. At 
dawn I turned from the place as if rebaptised or reborn. I recovered 
the healthful tone of my mind ; and the . stage of experience and 
feeling through which my young life had passed contributed largely 
to render me whatever I have since become." 

There is a fervid Byronic tone and feeling about this story which 
finds expression also in his poem of " The Tale of a Dreamer." It 
may seem to some minds, who lack the poetic instinct, unreal or 
at least exaggerated ; they can only realise in thought their own 
experience, and as such an episode of simple innocent love may never 
have occurred to them, they may be disposed to doubt its ever having 
happened to any one else. There are others who may read these 
pages who will not only believe this charming narration, but can, 
looking back through the vista of years, find in their own lives a 
similar, though not perhaps so striking, an incident of pure unalloyed 
love which has left its effect, and for good, in after years when the 
tempters to sensuality and evil encompassed them more closely. 

At any rate, as the author of the " Life and Letters of Lord Lyt- 
ton " has said, " out of that grave of buried hopes sprang a second 
life, partaking to the last of the source to which it owed its being, so 
when we turn from the love story in the early poem to the last of its 
author's finished works, we find in ' Kenelm Chillingly ' the same 


incidents and emotions, producing the same effects and culminating 
in the same elevating aims. The poem was composed within the 
opening gates of life ; the prose romance under the hovering shadow 
of death." "Viola is the protoype of Lity. Her epitaph was written 
not in the summer of 1824, but in the winter of 1873." That 
epitaph may be epitomized into : — 

l< I have known love, I have known sorrow. 
The dawn of that love was when standing 
On the green banks that shade Brent's humble flood, 
Musing o'er pleasures past and scenes to be." 

The biographer describes the effect upon his father of his reading 
the manuscript of " Kenelm " to his wife and himself. It was New 
Year's Eve — the eve of the year of his father's death — " on which 
he finished the chapter describing Kenelm's sufferings above the 
grave of ' Lily.' He was profoundly dejected, listless, broken, and in 
his face there was the worn look of a man who had just passed through 
the last paroxysm of a passionate grief. We did not then know to 
what the incidents referred, and we wondered that the creations of 
his fancy should exercise such power over him. They were not crea- 
tions of fancy, but the memories of fifty years past." 

The banks of the Brent, near Perivale, forms the scene of one of 
the prettiest pictures in " My Novel," wherein frequent reference is 
made to it. It is when " Leonard and Helen, strolling forth from 
Ealing, towards the cool of the sunset, passed the grounds that once 
belonged to the Duke of Kent, on Castlebar Hill, as they wandered 
down to the Brent ; there they sit, under the shade of a pollard tree 
that overhung the winding brook. He flung off his hat, tossed back 
his rich curls, and sprinkled his brow from the stream that eddied 
round the roots of the tree that bulged out bold and gnarled from 
the bank, and delved into the depths below. Helen quietly obeyed 
him, and nestled close to his side." 

Amidst the lights and shadows of this mysterious life, such peace- 
ful surroundings as the valley of the Brent are necessary at times to 
renew our conceptions of peace, absolute innocence and purity, " To 
walk with the breeze upon one's brow (as Gasparin has said), to 
trample the level grass exuberant with freshness, to climb upon the 
mountains ; to follow through the meadows some thread of water 
gliding under rushes and water plants — I give you my word for it 


there is happiness in this. At this contact with healthy and natural 
things, the follies of the world drop off as drop the dead leaves when 
the spring sap rises and the young leaves put forth. The pangs of 
the heart lose their vehemence ; the great blue sky which reflects 
itself in the soul, gives it its own peace ; the Divine goodness, pity 
and power wrap us round ; it is a halt, as it were, upon the threshold 
of Paradise." 

Such thoughts as these must have animated and freshened the 
fallen soul of John Burley, the wild literary Bohemian whom the 
author of " My Novel " has described as returning periodically to the 
banks of the Brent. There he fished for " the one-eyed perch," an 
allegory, in which is covertly contained the story of his wasted life 
and its cause. 

" But it is that perch ; for, harkye, sir, there is only one perch in 
the old brook. All the years I have fished here I have never caught 
another perch, and this solitary inmate of the watery element I know 
by sight better than I knew my lost father. For each time that I 
have raised it out of the water its profile has been turned towards me, 
and I have seen with a shudder that it had. only one eye. It is a 
mysterious and most diabolical phenomenon, that perch. It has been 
the ruin of my prospects in life." 

Who does not feel some pity for John Burley when he retired from 
the " moil and strife " of his ordinary life to Pittshanger Farm, which 
is just outside the boundary of the parish of Perivale, to recruit his 
moral strength and health in the peace and seclusion of the Brent 
valley ? The character is painted by the idealist, but it is drawn 
from life, and we may well believe that the author intended to show 
that the good that was in John Burley was in part preserved by his 
wanderings there. 

Was it not in the same neighbourhood, too, that Thomas Edwards, 
the " ingenious author " of the " Canons of Criticism," dwelt ? The 
author of that work, famous in its day, spent much of his early life 
at Pittshanger Farm ere he removed to an estate he purchased in 
Buckinghamshire. Charles Dibden wrote some of his best songs at 
his house in Hanger Lane overlooking Perivale. Could they live so 
near and not enjoy the walks along the Brent valley ? 

Among the men of note who received part of their education at 



the famous school kept by the Rev. Dr. Nicholas, called " Ealing 

Great School," now carried on by the Rev. John Chapman, were Sir 

Henry Rawlinson, Bishop Selwyn, Sir Henry Lawrence, and his brother 

Lord Lawrence, Charles Knight, W. M. Thackeray, Cardinal Newman, 

and his brother, Professor Francis William Newman, Richard West- 

macott, the eminent sculptor, and Frederick Thesiger, afterwards Lord 

Chancellor (Chelmsford). We may be very sure they knew well the 

little church, hamlet, and fields along the river at Perivale in the 

course of their rambles when out of school ; the face of that country 

is nearly unaltered, the old trees are still there, and the little stream 

flows on with the same murmurous melody " to join the brimming 

river" ; there are the same sounds and scenes as when these eminent 

men, so distinguished afterwards in their several careers, wandered there 

in the freshness of youth. Fancy part of the boyhood of the Oriental 

scholar [the translator of the until then unread cuneiform inscriptions 

of ancient Nineveh], the pious bishop, the great soldier, and eminent 

statesman, the amiable and learned advocate of the old idea of a "via 

media " in the Church, the great humourist and author of " Vanity 

Fair," and the publisher who earned the title of "Good Knight" — 

passed amid these scenes ! One wonders what the two brothers 

Newman, so antagonistic in their conclusions in after-life, were like 

when they rambled about the north of Ealing and the Brent valley, 

and particularly the boy who was to become one of the leaders in the 

great " Oxford Movement," as it was called, in conjunction with Keble 

and Pusey, a movement which gave birth to the memorable " Tracts 

for the Times," and resulted in the publication of the " Apologia," a 

book as much renowned for its logical power as is its author for his 

consistent action in view of his convictions. It was he who wrote the 

hymn, " Lead, Kindly Light," which has united in one common prayer 

the followers of the high church, low church, and no church doctrines. 

Newman mentions his old school at Ealing in the " Apologia," and 

Charles Knight has said, in "Passages of a Working Life" — "My school 

life was real happiness." 

There was another boy who went to school at Ealing who is equally 
well known for his honesty as for his ability. Happily his path has 
net led him into the domain of theology, but into the laborious but 
surer region of science. Professor Thomas Henry Huxley,* the eminent 

. * Beeton's "Modern Men and Women." 


physiologist, formerly Hunterian Professor of Comparative Anatomy, 
&c, in the Royal College of Surgeons, President of the Royal Society, 
and the author of several important works which have added much 
to the sum of human knowledge, was born at Ealing, and went to 
school there, and we may be certain that Peri vale and the Brent 
valley were the scenes of many of his boyish rambles. 

The boy contains within him that which makes the man, and 
though it is but rarely that we know anything reliable of the early 
life of great men, still the scenes of their school days, the places they 
frequented, become classic ground. The recollection of the scenes 
and events of our school days are never quite forgotten. The river 
where we fished — whether successfully or otherwise/the nests we took, 
the birds we saw or caught, the meadows and country lanes we fre- 
quented, seem often so indelibly fixed in the memory that a sound, 
the sight of something seemingly unassociated with them, an odour 
even, is sufficient to bring the pictures back vividly to the mind. 
They are an essential part of the long gallery of the past, which, as 
0. Wendell Holmes says, " seems to need but one short process and 
the pictures are fixed for ever." This reverting to the surroundings 
of early life is especially the case in old age. One of the truest 
touches of Shakespeare is that of the roystering hero of many unseemly 
bouts — the poor dying Falstaff — "babbling of green fields " and play- 
ing with the flowers. 

Not far away, for it is little more than half an hour's walk, is 
Fordhook, Ealing, the house where the great novelist and accomplished 
author, Henry Fielding, lived, and from which he departed for Lisbon, 
broken in health and vainly hoping to restore it in a warmer climate. 
On the 26th June, 1754, he says : — " On this the most melancholy 
sun I had ever beheld arose, and found me awake at my house at Ford- 
hook. By the light of this sun I was to take leave of some of those 
creatures on whom I doted," &c. As we know, he never returned 
to those he loved so well, and the walks around Fordhook, and among 
which Perivale would surely have been one, knew him no more. 

Fordhook was for a while the residence of Lady Byron and the 
poet's daughter. " Ada, sole daughter of my house and heart," was 
married there to Lord King, afterwards the Earl of Lovelace. 

The Rev. Dr. Staughton, the eminent Nonconformist divine, the 
author of many works of great historical interest, &c, lived for some 


years in Kent Gardens, overlooking the valley, and has confessed his 
fondness for rambles in Perivale. 

These references to memorable persons who have lived on the 
borders of the Brent valley, and to whom its attractions must have 
been familiar, could be much amplified, but the laws regulating 
" space" forbid. 

There is one allusion, however, which ought not to be omitted, 
though it relates to a person well known in his time in quite another 
way from any of those mentioned. Could it be otherwise than that 
Perivale and the Brent valley must have been " household words " on 
the lips of the famous old sportsman, Squire Osbaldiston, who lived 
in his later years on Castlebar Hill, and kept his hunters there ? His 
name is not forgotten now among old sporting men, but in the first 
half of this century W. Harrison Ainsworth described him as the 
" Hercules of the sporting world," the " copper-bottomed squire," 
who in horsemanship and endurance he compares to Dick Turpin.* 

In those days the stag-hounds often met in or near the parish of 
Perivale (they may be seen there, but more rarely, now), and there 
was some good sport to be had in the valley and its vicinity. 

It is about forty years since the grand old sporting squire lived, 
whose well-mounted, handsome form, even in his declining years, 
might have been seen galloping across the fields ; but his old residence 
remains. It was afterwards occupied, with the grounds around it, by 
Thomas Sparke Parry for thirty years, and known as Castlebar Lodge. 

Since that tenancy expired, however, has come what Swinburne 
has called, " the fiery feet of change," and the premises have become 
the prey of the builder, and " genteel villas " have partly enclosed 
the quaint, old, gabled country-house which old Squire Osbaldiston 
called his own. 

Lastly, but the most exalted in rank, and associated with our loyal 
sympathy, for he was the father of our Queen, his Royal Highness 
the Duke of Kent lived for some years on Castlebar Hill in a mansion 
which overlooked the Brent valley. His residence occupied the site 
on which Kent House now stands, and some of the windows com- 
manded beautiful views of Perivale, Harrow, &c. 

This chapter will not, however, be complete without a reference to 

* "Rookwood." 


Mr. John Farthing, the author of the manuscript notes, poems, and 
sketches entitled " Pictures of Perivale," which have been placed in 
the writer's hands by his widow, a niece of the late Sir Henry Smart, 
the well-known composer of music. He was a gentleman of good 
family, settled at Milverton, Somersetshire, and at one time a man of 
comfortable means. He came to reside at Perivale in 1845, occupy- 
ing the old Rectory, which he partly restored, and afterwards Perivale 
Grange, now called Grange Farm. At that time the church was, as 
he says, the meanest abode in the parish, with a congregation of six 
or seven persons ; in fact, it was the general opinion among the 
inhabitants that the sooner it fell down the better. The Rector does 
not appear at this period to have done much to improve it, nor his 
relative, the Lord of the Manor. Mr. Farthing, however, did all he 
could to make the little church worthy of its object. The complete 
seclusion of the place charmed him. Imbued with a strong love of 
nature and deep reverence for its Almighty Author, he and his 
sisters, who resided with him before his second marriage, appear to 
have found amid its peaceful scenes a welcome retreat from the 
turmoil and anxieties of life. 

"Having," as he says, "plenty of leisure, I amused myself from 
time to time in gleaning from old authors and the memories of aged 
persons residing in the vicinity all the particulars I could collect 
relating to the j)iace." 

It is evident, however, he had not access to many old books and 
documents, and the chief merit of his MSS. relates to the information 
current at his time and then passing into oblivion. 

If his knowledge of the early history of Perivale, derived from old 
records, was small as compared with the information since obtained, 
the reader of his notes is compensated by the information he has 
given us in other respects, and also by the vivid and beautiful pic- 
tures he has drawn showing the aspects of nature about Perivale. 
The legends have no doubt been amplified from some ideas or tradi- 
tions then extant, but they are expressed in a pleasing style. His 
descriptions of Perivale, and of the natural beauties of the country 
about, are written in poetic prose, and in verse parts of which are 
on a level with our minor poets, although (particularly the religious 
poetry) the lyre is sometimes touched with too saddened a hand. 



We may fitly conclude these " Chronicles of Greenford Parva " 
with some of his verses. 

Quatrains to Peei-Vale. 

Sweet Vale, embosomed in these gentle hills ! 
Ye meads, just seen thro' yonder opening 
glade ! 
Ye darksome woods ! ye softly murmuring 
Thou church, half hid beneath yon yew- 
trees' shade ! — 

From the high top of Horsington, blest 
With transport do I hail thy peaceful 
charms ! 
'Mid Nature's beauties, tranquil and serene, 
I seek a refuge from the world's alarms. 

Oh, bid me welcome, then, ye verdant 
steeps ! 
Oh, bid me welcome to your flowery 
brakes ! 
Lull'd in your bosom, every sorrow sleeps, 
And only mild and calm reflection wakes. 

Ambition's vessel on this peaceful shore 
Here rests at last, her anchor calm con- 
tent ; 

Here Curiosity is seen no more, 

With prying eye exploring each event. 

But o'er the grassy meads the Muses rove, 
Or by yon stream that thro' the valley 
strays ; 

While Inspiration whispers thro' the grove, 
And sportive Fancy in the foliage plays. 

From yonder little church among the trees, 
Ne'er does the piteous noise of terror 

Nor o'er this Tempe does the balmy breeze 
E'er waft discordant notes of woe around. 

On the tall trees the thrush her wild note 
While the brisk grasshopper still chirps 
The mower's scythe thro' all the valley 
And the bees hum as laden home they go. 

In the soft meads the lowing herds repose, 
The gentle sheep browse calmly in the 

While in the copsy dell at evening's close 
The loiterer seeks the cool delightful 

Oh blest is he who from his heart can hail 
This tranquil scene, here study Nature's 

As Petrarch, in his rock-encompass'd vale, 
And in Scillontes' shades the Grecian sage. 

My wants are few : a garden, friend and 
An arbour with sweet honeysuckles drest, 
A low-roof d cot from worldly eyes con- 
cealed — 
A spot where two united hearts may rest. 

{Adapted from the German of Von Salis). 


Adeian, 67 

Advowson of Perivale, earliest mention of, 26 

Value of, 75 
JEveve, 8 

Alborowes, W., Rector, 30, 51 
Alder, 88 

Aldermanbury Conduit, 37 
Alston, 85 
Ansgot, 8 

Ansgar, the Haller, 7 
Ankerwyke, the Priory of, 22 
Archery, 33, 82 
Arnold, John, 85 
Arundel, Lord, 30, 51 
Atlee, 119 

Avres, Lawrence de, 32 
Aynsworth, Rector, 42, 52 
Azar, 8 

Baptisms at Perivale, 108 

Barrel organ and music at Perivale, 120, 123 

Bartelot, H., Rector, 39, 52 

Bartholomew, 88 

Bixter, Richard, 50 

Beard, Rector, 52, 54 

Beaumout (note), 27, 30, 31, 35, 51 

Bede, 12 

Bedwell, 85 

Bell-Monte, see Beaumont 

Bellomont, see Beaumont 

Bell of Perivale Church, 60 

Besse Place, 53, 96 

Bible first placed in churches, 46 

Birds of the Brent Valley, 133-6 

Blaine, 69, 88 

Bohun, 16, 22, 23, 25, 38, 52, 58 

Bolas, 69 

Boteler, Petrus de, 26 (and note) 

Borders (note), 12 

Bovate (note), 12 

Bowler, Thos., 96 

Bowles, Rev. W. L., 61 

Bradford, burnt, 43 

Brent, changes in the channel of the, 56 

Brentford, martyrs at, 43 

Brentford, battles at, 50 

Bridger, 53 

Britton quoted, 77 

Brown, 43, 45, 52, 85 

Browne, 44, 45, 53 

Brown's, John," North-West Passage,&c, "87 

Brownbill, Rector, 83, 147 

Burials at Perivale, 108 

In woollen, enactments concerning, 116 
Butlin, 88 
Butler's "Hudibras," 48, 49 

Cain, Richard, 120, 123, 125 
Calyn, Patricius, Rector, 44, 52 
Camden's "Britannia," 20, 107 
Canons of St. Paul's, 7, 57 
Carter, J., Admiral, 85 
Carwarthen, D., 50 
Castle-bear Common, 6 
Chancel window, old, 56 
Chaloner,' 88 
Chapman, 88 
Charlton, 35, 51 
Chaucer, 32 

Chinchgate, J , Rector, 36, 51 
" Chronicles, &c, of Middle Ages," 26 
Churchwardens, 74, 127, 128 
Churches, number of, mentioned in Domes- 
day, 77 
Church rates at Perivale, 127, 130 
Clerke, 82, 119 

" Clerkenwell, History of " (note), 33, 37 
Cleveland, Duchess of, quoted, 18, 23, 24, 27 
Cockett, 85 
Collet, 39, 40, 52, 88 
Collier, 88 
Colleton. 83, 84 
Collinson, 86 

Commissions to suppress Popery, 45 
Common or Folksland, 13 
Condell, 68, 88 
Conduits, benefactors of, 37 
Congregations at Perivale, 73 
Coome, W., Rector, 37, 52 
Coomes, 88 

Cooper, Vicar of Ealing, 50 
Cornhill or Cornhull, see Perivale 
Corn of Perivale highly esteemed, 106 
Coston, Simon, 51, 62, 101, 103, 105 



Cracknell, 88 

Croft, 53 

Cromwell. 55, 84, 114, 115 

Curates at Perivale, 118 

Daniel, 53 

Day, 69, 85 

Delpierre, 53 

Derivation of local names, 34, 109 

Diana's Temple near St. Paul's, 7 

Dibdin, 145 

Dido, 12 

Domesdav Book, 6, 8, 9, 12, 57, 77 

Doswell, 89 

Drayton's " Polyolbion," 6, 107 

Ducat, 68, 88 

Dugdale quoted, 22, 27, 30, 31 

Duncombe, 80 

Duprat, 87 

Durant, 88 

Durandus, 66 

Ealine's, Eling's or Yillinge's Haven, 111, 112 

Ealing "ruinated," 50 

Eastfield, Sir "William, 37, 52 

Eddy, 88 

Edgeworth, 85 

Edmundus, Rector, 32, 51 

Edward I., oath of, 24 

Coin found at Perivale, 25, 58 
Edwards, Thomas, 145 
Elliott, George Augustus, 118 
Ely, John, Rector, 38, 52 
Ems, R., 85 

Epitaphs, 79, 80, 81, 82, 88, 89 
Erasmus, 40 
Excommunication of a Lord of the Manor, 1 8 

Farmhouses. &c, at Perivale, 96, 112, 120 

Farnham, Nicholas de, 22 

Farnham Royal Church, 59 

Farthing, John, 67, 68, 69, 70, 74, 80, 84, 91, 

93, 100, 122, 138, 149 
Feudal system (note), 10 
Fielding, 147 
Filby, 89 

First-fruits Perivale Church, 51, 52 
Fitzmaurice, 87 
Fitz Piers, 20 
Fitzstephen, 14 
Fleet marriages, 119 
Fletcher, 52,53, 117, 118 
Floods at Perivale, 75 
Folkyngham, Manor of, 30 
Font at Perivale Church, 62, 129 
Forbes, 85 

Fortescue, Sir John, 33 
Forest land in North Middlesex, 14 

Foss's "Tabulae Curiales" (note), 44 
Foxe's "Acts and Monuments," 40, 41, 44 
Frere, 87 
Froude on destruction of Church property, 

Fuller, 119 

Gates, 80 

Geology of the Brent valley, 131 

Gerrart, Sir C, 53 

Gilbert, Vicar of Ealing, 50 

Giles. Rev. Dr., 85, 122, 147 

Gowlland, 88 

Gravale, John de, Rector, 30, 51 

Greenhill, 83 

Greenford, Greneford, Parva, 5 

Magna, 11 

Near Staines, 22 
" Greyfriars Chronicle," 46 
Gurnel (and note), 54, 68 
Gyfford, Jac, Rector, 38, 52 

Haffettden. 88 

Haines' "Monumental Brasses," 80 

Hallam on Socage, 13 

Halle, 37 

Harrison, 48, 52, 68, 69, 82, 118, 119 

Harrow, 36, 107, 110 

Hauberks, Ric, Rector, 30, 51 

Hawtayne, 88 

Helias, " The Knight of the Swan," 23 

Helen's, Saint, Priory of, 32 

Henry VIII., 40 

Henry, 88 

Heylyn, 46 

Higid or Hiwisc, see Hide 

Hide as a measure of land, 12 

Hicks, 88 

Hind, W., Rector, 51 

Hillingdon, 50 

Hobman, Thos., 48 

Hobman. F., Rector, 48, 52 

Hodges, 88 

Hone's "Table Book," 59 

Hood, 85 

Hooper, Robt., Rector, 39, 52 

Hope, Thos., 124 

Hopkinson, 88 

Horsendon, 109, 110 

Horsington, see Horsendon 

Howard, 119 

Houndslow, 34 

Houses in Perivale, 108 

Hughes, 68, 69, 147 

Hunting and hawking, 36 

Huntingdon, Henry of (notes), 18, 27 

Huxley, Prof. T. H., 146 



Idyl of the Brent, an, 139 

Jeeeam, 88 
Johnson, 85, 119 
Josling, 88 

Kelham on measurement of land, 12 
Keyte, 88 

Kingsbury, Roman remains at, 76 
Knight, Charles, 119, 146 
Knights' fees (note), 10, 35 

Lambaed, Bic., Rector, 36, 51 

Lamb, Charles, on a sun-dial, 60 

Lane, 48, 49, 52, 78, 80 

Land, increase in the value of, at Perivale, 76 

Value in Saxon times, 8, 13 

Ancient measures of, 1 1 
Langton, Walter de, 23, 27, 58 
Lateward, 53, 79, 82, 85, 116, 118, 125, 147 
La-wing of Dogs, 34 
Lawrence, Lord, &c, 146 
Legend of " The White Swan," 23 

" The Maiden's Tomb," 84 

Perivale Rectory, 92 

Perivale Mill, 100 

Horsendon Hill, 110 
Lepers' Window, 70, 71 
Leprosy in England, 7 1 
Levingston, John, 53 
Leuric, 8 
Lewin, Earl, 8 
Lockwood, 53 
Lollardism, 36 
Lysons, 6, 22, 26, 56, 58, 65, 80, 83, 85, 107, 

Lytton, Lord, 139—145 

Machyn, Henry, 43, 45 

Magnavilla, see Mandeville 

Magna Charta (note), 13 

Maiden's Tomb, 84 

Maidman, J., Rector, 55, 117 

Mandeville, 6, 8, 10, 15, 18, 19, 21, 58 

Maneyard, W., Rector, 52 

Manor House at Perivale, 93 

Maplesdon, 48, 52 

Marshall, T., Rector, 44, 52 

Marsack, 53 

Masters, 88 

Maude, the Empress, 10 

Marriages at Perivale, 119 

Metcalf, "Knights Banneret," &c. (note), 44 

Middlesex landowners at the Conquest, 8 

Middleton, J., 38, 52 

Mihnan, Dean, 46 

Mills, Richard, Rector, 147 

Millet, 47, 52, 73, 78, 79, 81, 119 

Minute book of Perivale Vestry, 126 

Morgan, Henry, 53, 96 

Murray, 53, 96 

Mussendon, J., Rector, 32, 51 

Mylett brasses,; 78 

" My Novel " quoted, 144-5 

" Myths of the Middle Ages," 23 

Nelson's " Laws of England," 7 

Newcourt, 5, 30, 42, 43, 49, 51, 56 

Newell, Admiral, 85 

Newman, Cardinal, &c, 146 

Nicholas, Rev. Dr., &c, 68, 88, 89, 146 

Nisbett, Sir John, 85 

Nobull, Hugo, 37, 52 

Norden, 5 

Northey, 88 

Nye, Philip, 49 

Ode to Richard Cain, 125 
Orientation of Perivale Church, 69 
Osbaldiston, Squire, 148 
Osmond, Nic, Rector, 47, 52 

Paddington, water tower at, 37 

Pannage, 7 

Parish Churches, foundation of, 77 

Parish constable at Perivale, 126 

Paris, Matthew, 16, 21 

Patten, 88 

Paul's, Saint, Canons of, 7 (note, 57) 

Pearson, W., Rector, 117 

Penn, 88 

Penfold, 96 

Percival, John, Sheriff, 39 

Peri-vale, Quatrains to, 150 

Perivale Church, date of, 20, 57 

Orientation of, 58 

Windows in, 67, 68, 70, 73 

Reredos, &c, 67 

Sacramental plate, 73 

Patron saint, unknown, 56 

Architecture of, 57, 58, 61, 65 

Holy water stoup, 62 

Causes of its neglect and injury, 59, 63 

Value of living, 75 

Register, 119 

Divine service at, 69, 72 
Perivale rural sports, 99 

Parish, population of, 108 
Pinkerton, 85 
Poor law, administration of, at Perivale 

126, 128 
Population of Perivale, 108 
Porter, 88 

Purevale, see Perivale 
Pyerson, J., Rector, 52 





Ramsey Abbey, plundered by a Lord of the 

Manor of Perivale, 17 
Randall, 88 

Rawlinson, Sir Henry, 146 
Rayne, 88 

Read, E., Rector, 48, 52 
Rectors of Perivale, 51, 117 

Buried in Perivale, 117 
Rectory at Perivale, 90 
Reformation, germs of the, 31 
Register, 113, 117 
Rigby, 88 
Roberts, 88 
Rocque's Survey, 6, 93 
Roman remains near Perivale, 76 
Roses, War of, 39 
Rush bearing, 137 
Rysdale, Rector, 44, 52 

Sacramental plate, 73 
Saulez, 88 

Sawtre, John, burnt, 36 
" Saxon Chronicle," 9 

Fibulae, 11 

Churches in England, 76 
Saxons, West, interment of warriors near 

Perivale, 11 
Say, Beatrix de, 20, 21 
Schar or Scat Penny, 14 
Schrieber, John, 53 
Scott, Sir Walter, 9 
Seaxe, East, 11 
Segrave, J., Rector, 36, 51 
Selwyn, Bishop, 146 
Service, Divine, at Perivale, 72, 73 
Shelbury, 47, 79 
Shury, R., Rector, 85, 147 
Slade, 88 
Smart, 88 
Smith, 88 
Socage, 13 

Sokemen or Socmen, 13 
Southwell, 42, 43, 65 
Stanton, J., 85 
Staughton, Rev. Dr., 147 
Stephanides, see Fitzstephen, 14 
Stickleton, Manor of, 26 
Stowe, 21, 30, 37, 38, 45 
Street, 88 

Sudbury, Simon de, 31 
Sunset at Perivale, 138 
Sutton, Colonel, 85 
Sweitzer, 88 
Swift, Dean, 75 

" Table Book," Hone's, 137 

Taylor, J., Roctor, 39, 52 

Temple Church, 17 

Thackeray, 146 

Thesiger, Sir Frederick, 146 

Thornbury, "Old and New London," 39 

Thomson, Anthony Todd, Dr., 85 

Tryers, Committee of, 48' 

Tuckfield, 85 

Tuf ton, Sir John, 45 

Turner, 88 

Twyford, 7, 57, 75 

Vestries at Perivale, 74, 125 
Vere, Henry de, 20 
Verry, S., 116, 117 
Veysey, Thos., Rector, 44, 52 
Virgate (note), 12 

Walden, Register of, 18 

Walford, Edward, " Greater London," 50 

Ward, Pet., Rector, 36, 51 

Webster, E., 88 

Westmacott, 68, 146 

Westminster Abbey, 11, 15 

Wetherall, 87 

White Swan, Legend of the, 23 

Whittington, Sir Richard, 37 

Wickliffe, 32 

Wildman, James, 82 

Willey, 57, 68, 88 

William the Conqueror, saying of, 15 

Wilson, Governor of S. Carolina, 85 

Wilson, Dr., 86 

Windmill at Perivale, 100 

Winter, 88 

Wyatt, H., Rector, 48, 49, 52, 83 

Wykes, 119 

Yeoman, derivation of , 83 
Tews in churchyards, 83 
Yillinge (Ealing), 36, 37 (note) 


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